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Full text of "Papers read before the Society and other historical papers"

UNIVERSITY 

OF PITTSBURGH 

LIBRARY 



,j: of <fi,^ 

>.-'/«-■■■■» 






THIS BOOK PRESENTED BY 

ALumni (riving Plan 



THE BUCKS COUNTY 

HISTORICAL SOCIETY 

PAPERS READ BEFORE THE SOCIETY 
AND OTHER HISTORICAL PAPERS 




FACKENTHAL PUBLICATION FUND 

[Established in 1909] 



VOLUME VIII 



DOYLESTOWN. PA. 

THE BUCKS COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY 

19 40 



VI LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



Hon. Calvin S. Boyer Frontisi)iece 

THE MAIN LINE OF THE NORTH PENNSYL- 
VANIA RAILROAD: 

Page 

Handbill of Mass fleeting, 1852 2 

Time Table, Ma\- 6, 1857 4 

Sellersville Tunnel 5 

Hellertown Station 7 



JOHN BARCLAY — BIOGRAPHICAL: 

I'ortrait 9 

St(jne Bridge, Edison 13 

Barclay House, before 1915 14,18 



E.H>^LY PUBLIC SCHOOL EDl'CATION IN 
BUCKS COUNTY: 

Eight Scjuare School house 84 



SNAPSHOTS nv REX'OLUTIONAKY N EWT' )\\ \ : 

\\'ashington's I le:id(|uarters P2''). 1:^2 

Sign of the llirdinlland : 135 

Brick 1 lotel 138 



.LUSTRATIONS VII 



1 LLTSTR ATION S 

I\ TFIR l-OOTSTI'J'S OF JOSEPH HAMPTON: 

Page 

Wrightstown Meeting House 190 

Hampton P.ible Records 212,213 

Martha Hampton School 228 

Catherine I !am]iton Marriage Certificate 240 

\\'oo(how Wilson's Letter 256 

Crou]) at Ivlwin Markham's r.irthday 266 

MEMOIRS Ol'" .MAR\' ISRAEL ELLET : 

Mary Israel Ellet 271 

Israel J srael 288 

Charles Ellet. Jr _ 303 

Charles Rivers Ellet 326 

^lary \irginia Ellet Cabell 329.330 

LAST PCRCIl ASI'". ol- LAND EROM INDIANS. 

r.CCKS COCX'IA": 

Maj) of the Purchases 350 

ACRICCLTCR \L SOCIETIES OE BIXKS COUNTY: 

Samuel Dulcenna Ingham 357 

Advertisement. Pucks County Agricultural Society 376 

Diploma. Bucks County Agricultural S<iciety facing 385 



PERSONNEL OF OFFICERS 



PRESIDKNTS 

Gen. W. W. PI. Davis Jan. 20, 1880, to ]:>ec. 26, 1910 

Dr. Henry C. Mercer Tan. 17, 1911. to Mar. 9, 1930 

Dr. B. F. Fackenthal, Jr Since May 3, 1930 

VICE-PRESIDENTS 

John S. Williams Jan. 15, 1901. to Ang. 21. 1920 

Dr. Henry C. Alercer Jan. 21, 1908, to Jan. 17, 1911 

Joseph B. Walter, M. D Jan. 17, 1911, to Ang. 18. 1917 

Dr. B. F. Fackenthal, Jr Jan. 18. 1920. to May 3. 1980 

Col. Henry D. Paxson Jan. 15, 1921. to Jan. 30, 1933 

J. Herman Barnsley May 2. 1931, to May 25. 1932 

Judge Calvin S. Boyer Mar. 11. 1993. to date 

John H. Ruckman Mar. 11, 1933, to date 

CHARTER, BY-LAWS AND CALENDAR 

Annual meetings First Saturday in May 

Admission fee $2, which includes annual dues for the year 
of election 

Annual dues thereafter $1 per year. Life Membership 5^25 

For Charter, Constitution and By-Laws, see \'olume 1 
For Amendments see Volume VI 



STATUS OF MEMBERSHIP, JANUARY 1. 1940 

On November i, 1937, as listed in Volume VII. there were 446 mem- 
bers, including four life members ;md seven honorary members. Since then 
2-/ have been dropped from the roll, 30 have died, and 42 new members have 
qualified, leaving a membership of 431 as of January i, 1940, a net loss of 
15 members. 

NEW :\IEA[I^,ERS SINCE NOVEMBER 1. T937. 

Names .Iddrcss Elected 



Bingham, Wheelock H. 


Xewtown, Pa. 


Oct. 


22, 


1938 


Carnwath, James, Jr. 
Carnwath. Mrs. James, Jr. 
Cassard, Mrs. Jeannette K. 
Chamberlin, Jolm .\. 
Cocks, Edmund 
Cornell, Mrs. Helen W. 


Newtown, Pa. 
Newtown, Pa. 
Bala Cynwyd Pa. 
Churchville, Pa. 
George School, Pa. 
P^'easterville, Pa. 


Oct. 
Oct. 
May 
Oct. 
Oct. 
May 


22, 
22, 

7, 

22, 
9, 


1938 
1938 
1938 
1938 
1937 
1938 


Davis, Joseph A. 
Davis, Mrs. Bertha M. 


Philadelphia, Pa. 
Philadelphia, Pa. 


Oct. 
Oct. 


22, 
22, 


1938 
1938 


Ellis, William G. 


Philadelphia, Pa. 


Sept. 


30, 


1939 


Fox. Mrs. Ralph M. 
Fuguet, Geisse 
I'^uguet, Mrs. Katharine L. 
Funk, H. H. 


Alorrisville, Pa. 
Pineville, Pa. 
Pineville, Pa. 
Springtown, Pa. 


May 
May 
May 
Sept. 


6, 


1939 
1938 
1938 
1939 


Hampton, Dr. Vernon B. 
Harrar, Dr. James A. 
HiJson, Cleaveland 


Staten Island, N. Y. 
New York, N. Y. 
Doylestown, Pa. 


.May 
May 
Sept. 


7< 


1938 
1938 
1939 


Jussen, Frederic C. 
Jussen, Mrs. Edna A. 


Haddonfield, N. J. 
Haddonfield, N. J. 


Oct. 
Oct. 


22, 

22, 


1938 
1938 


Kane, Harry J. 


Doylestown, Pa. 


May 


7, 


1938 


Lathrop, Joseph B. 
Lathrop, Mrs Catharine W. 
Lintleman. 1*.. Helaine 
Longstretli, Mrs. Ivlward T. 
Loughery, Mrs. William \'. 


Rye, N. Y. 
Rye, N. Y. 
Doylestown, Pa. 
Philadelphia, Pa. 
Newtnwn, Pa. 


Sept. 
Sept. 
May 
Oct. 
Oct. 


30. 
30. 

22, 
22, 


1939 
1939 
1938 
1938 
1938 


McCullough, Col. Charks R. 
Mohr, Dr. Walter H. 
MoIIoy, T. Carroll, Jr. 
Molloy, "Mrs. J. Carroll, Jr. 


Hamilton, Out., Canada 
George School, Pa. 
Newtown, Pa. 
Newtown, Pa. 


Oct. 
Oct. 
Oct. 
Oct. 


22, 
22, 

9. 
0. 


1938 
1938 
1937 
1937 


Pidcock. J. Cooper 
Poore. Mrs. Jolin P.. 


New Hope, Pa. 
Riegelsville. Pa. 


May 
May 


6, 
6, 


1939 
1939 


Scarborough. Edward 
Scarborough, Mrs. Mary M. 
Scarborough. Howard 
Shoultes, Maurice D. 
Sigafoos, Evelyn E 
Smith, Clarence H. 
Summers, George i'.yron 


Wycombe, Pa. 
Wycombe, Pa. 
Pliiladelphia. Pa. 
Telford, Pa. 
Doylestown, Pa. 
W' vcombe. Pa. 
Shelly, Pa. 


Oct. 
Oct. 
May 
May 
May 
May 
May 


22, 

'6. 

6. 
6, 


1938 
1938 
1939 
1938 
1939 
1939 
1938 


'["wining, 1'. Cyrus 
Twining, Mrs. Mary ( ). 


Dovlestown, Pa. 
Doylestown, Pa. 


Oct. 
Oct. 


22. 


1938 
1938 


Wismer, Harvey M. 


Perkasie, Pa. 


Oct. 


22, 


1938 


Vardley, Mrs. Esther B. 
Vardley, Mrs. .Mary S. 


Yardley, Pa. 
Yardley, Pa. 


Oct. 
Oct. 


22, 
22, 


1938 
1938 




The Main Line of North Pennsylvania Railroad — 1852-1879 

By geoi^.ge m. hart, doylestown, pa. 

(Doylestown Meetins, May 7, 19?.8) 

r tmrm^/^ HE North I'ennsylvania sixty years ago was beyond 
I doubt the most familiar railroad to the people 
^ of Ijiicks County, and it was the second railroad 
to construct a track within the county. The 
company, for the most part, was financially sup- 
ported by individuals residing in Philadelphia ; 
however, there v.-ere a number local subscribers, but hardly enough 
to call the undertaking a local enterprise. 

The North Pennsylvania Railroad was originally the Phila- 
delphia, Easton and Water-Gap Railroad that was chartered on 
April 8, 1852. The granting of the charter was the result of a 
petition to the Pennsylvania Legislature, for authority to con.struct 
a railroad from Philadelphia northward, to an undetermined loca- 
tion in either Monroe or Pike County. 

The first meeting of the Philadelphia. Easton and Water-Gap 
Railroad \\as held in the Eagle Hotel, Philadelphia, on June 8, 
1852, and the initial business was the formation of a committee 
"to submit to the [wishes of] capitalists and business men. . .'' 
The chief topics of discussion were the resources of the Lehigh 
\^alley, and the need for a trunk line between the Lehigh River 
and Philadelphia, to compete with the PJelvidere Delaware Rail- 
road and the Delaware Division of Pennsylvania State Canal. 

1 he first otTicers of the railroad were as follows: Thomas S. 
Ecrnon, President: Edward Armstrong, Secretary; William Wis- 
ter. Treasurer: John !'. Prock. Solicitor: and Edward Miller, 
Chief Engineer. In addition to the presiding oft'icers. there were 
ten directors. 

On April 18, IS-").'! the Philadelphia. Easton and Witer-Gap 
Railroad was permitted b)- act of Assembly to ado])! in lieu of 
their title the name of Xorth Penns\lvania h'ailroad. The jxiwers 
and ])rivileges of the conipan\- were, in addition, enlarged. 

The Xorlh rennsyhania like many other railroad^ of the 
]>eriod, surveyed routes too ambitious for it> cai^ita!. In the fall 
of 18.").'*. the ])ro])osed line ran from Philadeli)hi,-i. through Heth- 
lehem, .\llentown. Mauch Chunk, White Haven, to Wilkes- P.arre, 




RAIL ROAD 
ASS 

MEETHfi! 

AT THE 

IliSf 1 St. MItl I 

VHi rtra-io ,' k...tm» . Jlr... THIS CAH BB ItUiVtUTTBS art A DIS£OT BAIZi HOAS TO MB! 

LEHIGH RIVEIt 



WERfHANT. Tlif { \PIT\yS'l\ The owwr of Rral Eslalf. Tlir >I\.MI \(TIRKR 
>IE(ll\Ml and WORMNCiM AN. 

Joii^^rSAOrE^sir IVlALLERr AATS 

Isiiaf Haxlflnrst, Esq., of this ( It}, and Hob. Jamrs M. Porter. M. H. Jane. K*^ 

OF EASTON, ANB OTHERS 

THE PBtUADEWHlA. EASTON AITO WATER GAP HAH. BOAS •>— M >- "-^ rcrt,.„k .~. .^i 6, i 

Saturda-y ev'g, Oct. Stli, X8S2= 



Tliis no! ice of ineeting, w1m)sl' Drimary purpose was to boost stock-sub- 
sciiption.s foi tlK- Philadelphia, Easton & Water Gap Railrofid, appeared before 
any construction had been undertaken. A railroad "to another city", refers to 
New York. 



NORTH PENN RAILROAD 6 

and then parallel to the North branch of the Susqitehanna Ri'i/er to 
Waverly, New York. In addition, surveys were made to Doyles- 
town and Easton for branch lines. 

The ]\fain Line was comprised of tliree divisions: 

Southern — Philadelphia to Shimersville, opposite Freemans- 
burg (Later replaced to South Bethlehem) 

Lehigh — Bethlehem (later South Bethlehem) to Pittston 

Susquehanna — Pittston to Waverly 

On June 16, 1853. ground was first broken on the Southern 
Division at Landis Ridge/ (now Perkasie Ridge) and at the close 
of the same year, 2,000 men and 500 horses were employed in con- 
struction. The entire route, from Philadelphia to Shimersville, 
(on the Lehigh River ) fifty-four and one-quarter miles, had been 
let to contractors, and work commenced almost simultaneously 
on all parts of the division. 

Scarcely a year had passed when $1,518,000 had been spent 
for construction, and the Southern Division was only seventy-five 
per cent completed. The railroad barely escaped a breakdown on 
its floating debt in 1855, because a few individuals demanded im- 
mediate interest return, and it was E. L. Moss who loaned the 
North T'ennsylvania money to pay the notes on which the test 
was made. 

The tunnel at ( Avynedd was the subject of a controversy that 
involved Edward Miller, the Chief Engineer. There was consi- 
derable question if the line should be run around or directly 
through the hill. Miller contended, "the rock is of soft texture", 
and the piercing of the hill with a tunnel would not delay in open- 
ing the road to Bethlehem. Actually, the rock was extremely 
hard and time and expense mounted. The stockholders con- 
demned yir. Miller for his suggestion, although they had accepted 
it: stating he was the sole cause of the low price of stock, and 
held him responsible for not completing the railroad to Waverly. 
New York, by 1857. ( Iwynedd Tunnel and cut were thereafter 
commonly referred to as "Miller's Ciash".- 

' 1 lere tlio luniu'l tlirnu.Li'i tlic 'I'riassic (.f South Moumain. _',I30 foct lontr. 
was known ns .Sellers\ ilk- 'I'unncl until iS^j. wlu'U tlir nanu' nt' IV'fkasie 
Tunnel was first applied tn it. 

-The Gwyncdd Tunnel was i>riginally lucaled aluait lhrcc-i|uarters of a 
mile north of Gwynedd Valley Station. In 1931, the rock roof was entirely 
removed, and the Tunnel converted into an open cut. 



NOETH PENNSYLVANIA RAIL ROAD. 



TIME TABLE No. 4, 

CoiiimeiKiiijs (mi Wki>nk«i>av May «*lli, 1H57, 

ANO SUPKWS SPIWC FOWMER HOURS. 

"" TRAINS - SOUTH -AURIVE. 



TEAINS-lfOETH -LEAVE. 



Tioga Street, • 

Utivn La lie. - 
0»k Uw, 
City l.iDo, ■ 
OM York Roa.; 
Choltct) IW.\ 
Abington, - 
Rigf WxW, - 



WLii 



\V,..,L.i 



WUssbickon, - 
Pennllyn, 

Norlh Wa!«s, 

Lin,' Irfxingtoc, 
WUiloUaU, 
New Briuiu. 
Poykitowii, 

iJclUrtvillc, 
Tunnel Billing, 
QuaVirtowii, 
Coopenbiirg, 
H<''>l<-nn»n, ^ 
' FrMinaiudirv, 



Hi 


T05 


16 




17} 




IS 


7 ir. 


21 




:'K 


7 -^7 



26j 

83 

S2J 
85 



9 67 

10 0! 
10 117 
10 1 ! 
10 U> 
10 2*1 
10 24 

10 :'>•: 
1(1 4(1 

10 .)0 

11 00 

!io: 
11 If. 



3 57 

4 01 
4 07 
4 11 

4 15 
i 20 

4 -24 
4 22 

I 4a 

■1 45 



7 42 
7 48 
7 52 
756 



i; ..: 7 40 y uo 

7 37 « 50 

7 34 8 53 

7 31 8 50 

• T 27 '7 27 .'■ 4t; 



7 0>5 t> 2;> 

♦705 S 2 J 

7 i.»0 S 16 

G 55 * IJ 



I'.' 0:i 5 23 5 4'J 

:> 40 



5 26 



-> 12 
5 08 



4 &! 
11 20 4 40 4 45 



3 88 

a 50 

'4l)0 



5 0!. 



M.-,l 


4 1-J 




/bo 


10 27 


r, 4.'. 


10 07 


.•! -M 



11 10 
10 07 



Xj&i.A.'xrx] 



'mc nilr for liif. 



-Till- luiMiOK ilii^ «!» iiiili«i«<i hj lh« lit«vjr iji- 

l'..««n)[rl» >t Milium lurilud U>u. -. 
-Train. IrmiBB lliH»r»..». of Ibc rMil. •I.rn ..Ihir ti ,. 

.Ir.inMI^ n>«lli.i[ |«.inf. At lIlll.'Ml.l.;*, Mi..;.. . .. - .. 

i.iiir. «n'l Ihr <l»l«Yrd IrniBii piBrt kr»|i "«ii of <'•<■»•'.'"" Oir rlij lr»'« _ 

-Til. Ilr-I »•<!• <-l T«r»^i, N- 1. •! ljioi»d»l». larBwl lo ihr Nortfc isainlrs tiMl Acc«<ni<«l*lioa Tr»in 

Tkr Wliilc F«c» tuniMl I., itit Nortl., lliH ll i> oB th» llrBBrli. „ . . 

-Tb^ llc-l »«r^ of Tarj^l, N" -. »< Ubb-I"!'. tamr4 In llif NDrtb, iBilicK-w lliBl AccouiMi-liHioB Tmii. •> 

Tl.- While K.cr liitBfJ I.. II... Nonb, lUl 11 i...ntkr llTBlKk. 
1 .. iKi Tr.ion i-uM »..< fUllo.-i r.^.rB|!« Tr.iu-, b«l B:..-> U on O.r |J.|^ l,..A Icb B.i"'..'..- l-r( ro I'.". Bptt Tr.n.s . .>• doi-. 

l.rav« U*)lr«lawB at «.M». A. M. aad 3.IIV. ■•. M. 
l.r«w Phllndrlphlu nt tcao, A. n. iinrt Vl.-k, P. "W. 

A. H. FRACBLEK, >«»sl»r «f Tr.i>i.cri»iioD. 



An early timet; 
eight loeomotlvfs \\\ 



or the 
)\vnf(l ; 



•Nortl 

1(1 tlie 



Wm. F. Miller, .Jr. 
, Issued in May 1857, wlien only 
South Bethlehem unfir:ished. 



NORTTI PENN RAILROAD D 

Oil July 2, 1855, there was opened to public use a nineteen 
mile portion of the Southern Division extending from Willow 
Street, Philadelphia, to Gwynedd. The North I Pennsylvania's 
third locomotive, the Araniingo. built by Matthias W. IJaldwin 
in 1855, participated by drawing two passenger cars from Phila- 
delphia to Gwynedd and return. In expressive style a contem- 
porary newspaper account describes the excitement : "The hay- 
makers ceased their work and looked wonderingly at the unac- 
customed object. . . The horse, generally the most frightened of 
all at the sight of the great iron rival, would snort and tremble as 
the mass rushed swiftly by." Gwynedd remained the northern 
terminus for eighteen months. 




•;ki.lkrsville tunnel 



This tunnel, 2,150 feet in lengthi, the only railroad tunnel in Bucks County, 
was the most expensive piece of construction on the main line of the "North 
Penn" Railroad. After 1872 it was known as Perkasie Tunnel, and the en- 
trance is shown here with a single track just before the "North Penn" was 
leased by the Philadelphia and Reading in 1S79. 

(jwynedd Tunnel was the {principal cause of delay in opening 
the road to Shimerville, and shortly before its completion, a tem- 
porary track was laid west of the tunnel in order that materials 
could be transported to northern sections. The tunnel was 500 feet 
long and twenty-six feet wide. The entire .Main Line or Southern 
Division, was opened on December 23, 1850; however, regular 
trains were not installed until lanuarv 1, 1S57. 



b NORTH PENN RAILROAD 

The second northern terminus was at Shimersville. fift^z-four 
and a quarter miles from Philadelphia, where the North Pennsyl- 
vania Railroad tracks connected with the L>ehigh Valley Railroad, 
and afforded a through route between Philadelphia and Wilkes- 
Barre. The Lehigh Valley Railroad was considered a connection 
until the North Pennsylvania should complete its own road to 
Wilkes-Barre, and Shimersville was to remain the northern terminus 
until a more direct connection was completed to Bethlehem. This 
link was opened July 7, ]857, and on the following day, passenger 
trains were removed from the Shimersville Branch anrl run to 
South Bethlehem for all time. The first station was held in common 
with the Lehigh Valley Railroad, and stood near the old Ferry 
House in Bethlehem. 

The North Pennsylvania Railroad management had changed 
its policy by 1862, chiefly because the Lehigh Valley Railroad 
had gained control of the most feasible railroad route to Wilkes- 
Barre, and was backed by powerful financial interests from New 
York. Accordingly, North Pennsylvania property along their 
proposed Lehigh and Susquehanna Divisions was placed on sale, 
and a construction program from Bethlehem northward along 
the Lehigh and Susquehanna Rivers was forever dead. 

The Main Line was double tracked at various intervals be- 
ginning in 1868. This improvement was a necessity by reason 
of increased business, and it may be illustrated with the following 
facts : Revenues amounted to over a million dollars annually 
after 1868; over two and one-half million gallons of milk were 
annually shipped into Philadelphia during the late '70's ; fifty- 
eight locomotives were operated in 1876, and 1,310,000 passengers 
were carried in 1878. 

The North Pennsylvania Railroad did not e.scape the effects 
of the great railroad strikes in 1877. However, the road suffered 
only a sharp decline in revenue, as connecting railroads had prac- 
tically suspended operations, a fortunate condition in view of the 
great loss of life and proj^erty on other railroads. 

The .X'orth Pennsylvania was on the whole a very successful 
enter])rise after the problems of construction had been solved just 
prior U) the o])ening of the Civil War. It maintained itself chiefly 
because of satis factorv business conditions and efficient manage- 



■i:X.\ RAI 



meat. A status of independence remained until as a sur])rise to 
the public. President Franklin B, (iowen. of the I 'hi!adel])liia and 
Reading Railroad, announced control of the Xortli Pennsylvania 
on .Ma\- 15, ]87!). There was no change in operation or ])erson- 
nel, however, until the lease extending for :)*){) vears, was ratified 
by the stockholders on June 14, 187!). Thus the Xorth iVnnsyl- 
\'ania. more commonp- known as the "Xorth I'enn", no l-mger 
issued ])ul)lic time-tahles or stenciled its locomotive^ and cars 
-X. P. R. R." 

A history of the .Main Line of Xorth Peimsylvania Railroad 
would not be complete without giving credit to So'omon \\". Rob- 
erts. Engineer and Superintendent. 




ATIDX SCKNE 



A iioitli bound three-car passenger train at Hellertuwn cliuins the middle 
seventies. Scenes like this were t\i>ical. 

R(jberts was a]i]X)inted Chief Engineer on Jnne !•. 185(J, and 
to that time had. been associated with man\- e])och making enter- 
])rises. .\t the age of sixteen, he was a rodman on the Lehigh 
Canal, and in L-i27, witnessed the o])ening of the Maucli L'hunk 
Switchback Railroad. In L8,SL lie was a-ppointed \ssistam Chief 
l^ngineer of the Allegheny Portage Railroad, a ])art of the \ast 
undertaking of Public Works by the State of I 'ciuisylvania. On 
this line he located the Western ! )i\isioii from Summit to 
Joh:istr)\vn, I 'euns\l\-ania, a work that inchideil the making of 
tlie first railroad tunnel in the Cnited .States. ( ( ompleted Xo\-- 



S NORTH PENN RAILROAD 

ember, 1833.) From 1848 to 1856, Roberts was Chief Engineer 
of the Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne and Chicago Railroad, later a part 
of the Pennsylvania Railroad System. It may thus be seen the 
"North Penn" from the outset, employed a man of wide exper- 
ience, and we find his name associated with that company until 
the assumption of control by the Philadelphia & Reading. Cer- 
tainly no other person was such an important force in building 
and maintaining the "North Penn" as a successful enterprise. 




John Barclay — Biographical 

Soldier, Innkeeper, Farmer, Judge, Mayor, Merchant and Banker 
By Dr. B. F. FACKENTHAL, Jr., RIEGELSVIL.LE, PA. 

(Doylestown Meeting, May 7, 1938) 

V thought in presenting this paper on John Barclay 
was suggested by the fact that his name appears 
on the books of the Durham Iron Company, and 
that his home in Springfield township. Bucks county, where his 
name first appears, was but seven miles from my home at Riegels- 
ville, and was further suggested by the reference made to him 
by Judge Calvin S. 
pjoyer, in a papftv on 
"The County Court at 
Newtown," read Sep- 
tember 22. 1934, before 
a meeting of this so- 
ciety. ( Rucks County 
Historical Society, \ ol. 
VII, page 256.) 

John Barclay must 
have been a man of 
parts, advancing from 
a country squire to 
President Judge of the 
Bucks County courts ; 
member of the Consti- 
tutional Convention in 
1790; Mayor of Phila- 
delphia in 1791, and at 
the time of his death. 
President of the Bank 
of Northern Liberties 
at Philadelphia. 

Richard P)ackhouse, 
one of the i)roprietors 
of the Durham Iron 
Works, records that in 





'/Z^ ^^^^^^^, 




10 JOHN BARCLAY 

May 1779, he stopped at r'.arclay's, and again stopped there when 
enroute to Newtown on August 8, 1779, and on his return trip 
August 21, he stopped at Brackenridges. These doubtless refer 
to the same hostelerv, known as Three Tuns Inn, at GaUows Hill 
in Springfield township, which John P'arclay bought June 7, 1787, 
of Philip Jacoby, and evidently leased to Samuel Brackenridge, 
who obtained a license to keep a hotel in 1779, saying in his appli- 
cation that — "He had married the widow of Jacob Kookert, wdio 
in his lifetime had kept a noted hotel at that place.""' 

At the June sessions 1781. John Uarclay, Rsquire. presented 
his petition for a license, setting forth, that "he lives on the plant- 
ation belonging to Samuel lirackenridge in Springfield Township, 
known by the name of Cooker's (Kookert) tavern, and lying on 
the forks of the great road leading from Easton and Bethlehem 
to Philadelphia." On March 24, 1790, John Barclay conveyed 
the Three Tuns Inn proi^erty to Samuel Brackenridge. 

John Barclay was bstrn January 22. 1749, ijut the place of 
his birtli is not at hand. He was the son of James Barclay who 
had married Margaret, daughter of Thomas Craig of Warrington. 
Bucks county, which tends to show wh} lie later made Warring- 
ton his home.- 

General Davis, in his History of P)Ucks County, says the 
Barclays were in Springfield township, Bucks county, at an early 
da\', but does not know wlien they settled there. I can find no 
confirmation of this statement. It is more likely that John Bar- 
clay was a native of Warrington townshi]), that he entered the 
army from there and after or diu-ing the war settled in .Springfield 
township. 

in 1775, on the outbreak of the Revolutionary War, he en- 
listed in the Continental army, and on January 8. 1776, was com- 
missioned an ensign in Captain John Lacey's company of which 
Anthonv Wayne was colonel, and on October 1, 1776, was pro- 
moted to the rank of Second Lieutenant. He retired from the 

' In \X^^, till- name of Gallows Hill was changed to that of Stony Point. 
Imt later clianged hark again to Gallows Hill. 

- lames P.arclay, Sr., father of John Barclay, was born in 1722, died 
February 14, 1792, aged 70 years. His body lies buried in the Barclay plot 
in the Nesliaminy Church Cemetery. What is now Warrington was origin- 
ally called Craig's Tavern, then Ncwville. A jiost ofifice was established 
there as Warrington, December 30, iS.^f), wiili ISenjamin Hougli, Jr., as 
postmaster. 



JOHN P.ARCL.W 11 

army January 1, 1781. with the rank of ca])tain. (Pennsylvania 
Archives, Fifth Series, \'ol. 2, pp. 52 and 148. ) 

John Barclay was commissioned a Ju.stice of the Peace from 
Bucks County December 13. 1782. (Colonial Records Vol. XITI, 
page 454.) At that time he was living in .Springfield township, 
where in 1781 and 1782, he was assessed as an innkeeper, with 
150 acres of land. In 1783 he was assessed as a justice of the 
peace. Tn 1785 he was assessed for 110 acres in Springfield and 
98 acres in Durhan township. We have been unable to locate 
either of these two tracts. On his return from tlie army he may 
have devoted his life to farming, and ma>' have been operating 
these farms under lease, and therefore the\- were assessed against 
him. ( I'ennsylvania Archives. Third Series, Vol. XIII, pp. 168, 
268, 396, 427. 567, 698 and 806. ) 

On June 7, 1787, he bought from Philip Jacoby, 174 Acres 
67 Perches of land at Gallows Hill in Springfield township, on 
which the Three Tuns Inn was located. On March 24, 1790, he 
conveyed the eastern part, 53 acres 100 perches, the hotel part, 
to Sanmel Brackenridge, and three years later, on March 20, 1793, 
after he had removed from Springfield, he conveyed the remainder 
of his Springfield real estate, 130 acres 68 perches to John Smith. 

There are a large number of original documents in the library 
of the l-ucks County Historical Society, in connection with his 
ofi'ice as a justice of the peace, in Springfield township, 36 of 
these contain his signature. The books of the Durham Iron Com- 
pany show transactions with him from December 17, 1781. to 
January 1. 1789, as does also the docket book of Esquire Richard 
Backhouse of Durham township. 

On June 27, 1789, he was appointed President Judge of the 
Bucks County Courts, succeeding Judge Henry Wynkoop. who 
had been elected a member of congress. John Barclay was the 
last Lay President Judge, retiring from the bench in 1790, when 
under the newly adopted constitution, men learned in the law 
were thereafter appointed. Judge Barclay was succeeded in order 
by Judge James Biddle 1790 to 1797 ; Judge John D. Coxe 1797 
to 1805; Judge William Tilghman 3805 to 1806, and Judge Bird 
Wilson 1806 to 1818. (See paper by Judge Harman ^'erkes, 
Bucks County Historical Society, Vol. 2, page 82, et seq. > 

Although not having been admitted to the bar as a trained 
lawyer, he, like many other country squires, at that time, prac- 



12 JOHN BARCLAY 

tised law as a layman, and in that capacity his name appears as an 
attorney of record in the courts at Newtown, then the county- 
seat of Bucks county, lie was the attorney of record for one of 
the Richard Backhouse children in the settlement of that estate. 

In 1790 he was a delegate to the Constitutional Convention 
which met at Philadelphia. The Constitution was finally adopted 
on September second of that year. (Pennsylvania Archives, 
Fourth Series, Vol. IV, page 136.) 

After the expiration of his term as judge, he removed to 
Philadelphia, where he entered business as a shipping merchant. 
In 1701 he served as Mayor of Philadelphia. His portrait in oil, 
copy of which is shown herewith, is hanging in the Gilinn room 
of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. 

On March 30, 1793, the State Bank of Pennsylvania was 
incorporated with a capital of $3,000,000. John Barclay was 
elected its first president. The bank was first opened in the Free- 
mason's Lodge, on Lodge street, above Second and Walnut streets, 
south side. In his account of the Yellow Fever previlent in Phila- 
delphia in 1793, Matthew Cary records that "John Barclay, late 
mayor of Philadelphia, acted in the double capacity of Alderman 
and President of the Bank of Pennsylvania, to the duties of which 
ofifices he devoted himself unremittingly, except during an illness 
which threatened to add him to the number of valuable men of 
whom we have been dereft." There were 5.000 deaths due to 
Yellow Fever, the first occuring on August 22, 1793. 

John Barclay was one of the founders of the Insurance Com- 
pany of North America on its organization December 10, 1792, 
having been appointed on a committee with John Ross and Charles 
Pettit to present the petition of the company to the legislature for 
a charter. He served as a director through 1793. the year he 
moved back to Bucks County. At that time the office of the Insur- 
ance Company was located at the southeast corner of First and 
Walnut streets. Philadeli)hia. 

When the Bank of Xorthern Liberties was chartered March 
21, 1814, John r.arclay was made its first president, in which ofifice 
he conti'uied down to the date of his death. The bank was located 
on \inc direct, between Second and 'iiiird streets. It was taken 
over and Ixcame i)art of the I'ank of Xorth America in l-'ebruary, 
191(). 



.JOHN BARC1..\^' 



13 



In 1793. John Barclay removed to Warwick township, where 
he had purchased the Hoover homestead, located at the intersec- 
tion of the Limekiln turnpike and the County line roads, where 
he resided until 1799, when he built a large and substantial Colo- 
nial stone house in the village of Warrington, four miles south 
of Doylestown. locatetl on the northeast corner of the road leading 
from Doylestown to Philadelphia. (Route No. Gil ) and the 
!h-isto] road leading to Hartsville. This house, of which half- 
tone engravings are shown herewith, is still standing and ap])ar- 
entl\ in a'^ good condition as when built 139 years ago. 

The stone arch Ijridge on automobile route No. fill, whicli 
crosses the Neshaminy creek at what then was Bridge Point, 
but later called Edison, was built In- ]ohn liarclav and John 




STONE AllCH BHIUGK AT BRIDGE POINT. NOW EDISON 

Crossing tlie Nesliaminy Creek — Two niile.s south of Doylestown 

Iror.i photosiapli taken in 19:lcS — View looking Nortli 

•*Thi^ >lr.ne arch liridge consisted of seven arrhes and twc abutments. 
Two of the arches were 20 feet wide, two were -'.^ feet wide, tw'. were 27 
feet wide and the other one 30 feet wide. Owing to the short curves at both 
ends nf this bridge, it proved dangerous for automobile travel, and it was 
therefore abandoned late in 1037, and a new concrete road laid down fartlier 
east thereof. 

Hough. The bridge was authorize<l by the Countv < ommis- 
sioners Xovember 23. 1799. John IWclay was then living at 
Warrington and serving as a Justice of the Peace. The bridge was 
completed late in 1801. Its cost was $13,476 16.'' It replaced an 
earlier bridge which had been built in 1764 by Henry Crossley at 
a cost of £210, paid tor by popular subscrii)tion. 




BAP.OI.AY-HOUGH-RADCmFFE HOUSE 
WaiiiiiKton, Bucks County, Pa. 



It by John Barclay in 1709 



1 1 ee was a not 
It was rlamaRf 



1 monument 
by liKlitnin 



and an obj'-ct of interest for ma 
; in 1910 and cut down in 1915. 



JOHN BARCLAV 15 

Jane Crawford, wife of John Barclay, having passed away 
October 23, 1808, he sold his Warrington home and moved back 
to Philadelphia. The house was purchased, together with 28 
acres 99 perches of land on August 10. 1804, by Pjenjamin Hough.'* 
ft remained in the Hough family for 51 years until 1856. when it 
was sold to the Radcliffe family. The Houghs were kinsmen of 
the Sim])son and the (irant families, and the family tradition is 
that there in Warrington. Cadet Ldysses Simpson Grant, later 
Cieneral Crant, spent part of his vacations when a student at the 
West Point Military Academy. 

The only evidence to support his family tradition is based 
on the fact of Pieut. (irant having twice visited the region from 
which his maternal ancestors had moved to Ohio: the first visit 
was made st^on after his graduation from \\'est Point in 1843, 
wh.en he stopjjed at the home of his great uncle, Benjamin Hough, 
Sr.. and was taken to see the old homestead of his grandfather in 
Horsham. Ten years later in 1853. he revisited the place and 
^topped at the home of his relative. Robert McKinstry of War- 
rington, on the countv line. 

In his memoirs (pages 22 and 24) ( ieneral Grant says, "His 
mother's family lived in IMontgoniery County. Pa., for several 
generations." lie adds. "I have h'ttle information about her an- 
cestors. Her family took no interest in genealogy, so that my 
grandfather, who died in 1389. when I was sixteen years old, 
knew back only to his grandfather." He furthvifr says that his 
mother's father, John Simpson, moved from Montgomery County, 
Pa., to Clermont County, Ohio, about the sear 1819, taking with 
him h.is four cliildren, three (laughters anrl one son. He says, 
"My mother, Hannah Simpson, was the third of these children, 
and wrs then over twent\- years of age. She still lives in Qer- 
mont Count\- at this writing. Octolier 5, 1884. and is over ninety 
years of age." He further says, "Tn June 1821, my father, Jesse 
R. Grant, married Hannah Sim])son. I was horn on the 27th of 

■•Mary, tlie dausliter of Henjaniin lliiutili, married John Rarnslcy. the 
grandfather of luhvard R. I'.arnsley, <:ne of the (Hrertors of the I'.ucks 
County Historical Society. 

I'ornier President Theodore Roosevelt is also descended from Bucks 
County ancestry. Robert Barnhill, his gTeat-g'\andfather, who was horn in 
\\^^rwick township in 1754, was a son of John Barnhill who married Sarah 
Craig of Warrington. The wife of Robert Barnhill was F.lizabeth Potts of 
Germantown, and their daugiiter, Margaret, born in 1797, married Cornelius 
Van .Schaick Roosevelt, grandfather of Theodore Roosevelt. (History of 
Bucks County by General Davis, Vol. I, page 416.) 



16 JOHN BARCLAY 

May, 1822. at Point Pleasant, Clermont County, Ohio, and in the 
fall of 1S23 we moved to Georgetown, the county seat of Brown 
County, Ohio. This remained my home until at the age of seven- 
teen in 1839 I went to West Point." (Memoirs, page 24.) 

Hanging between two tombstones in the Xe-^haminy Cliurch 
Cemetery, there is a board marker, setting forth that the graves 
mark the resting place of John and Hannah Simpson, who were 
the grandparents of General Grant. This is obviously an error, 
as their ages indicate that they were his great-grandparents, viz., 
John Simpson (Sr.). born in 1738, died August 16, 1804, and his 
wife, Hannah Simpson, jiorn in 1742. died January 22, 1821, when 
General (jrant was but one year old. General Grant says that 
his grandmother was living in 1884 at the age of 90 years. It is 
therefore evident that the burials in the Nashaminy Church 
Cemetery could not be his grandparents. The similarity of names 
is confusing, for his grandparents' names were also John and 
Hannah Simpson, and his mother's name was also Hannah. It 
was at his home in Ohio where he spent his vacations, as recorded 
in his memoirs (pages 40-41 and 42 ). 

John Barclay, who is described by Sharp & Wescott as an 
ex-judge, a bank president and a Federalist, was an active local 
spirit in the War of 1812-14. He was one of the citizens of 
Northern Liberties, who in 1814 formed themselves into "The 
INlilitary Association of Northern Liberties," which organized a 
regiment of artillery. On August 25, 1814, following the fall of 
Washington, citizens met at the State House yard in a great town 
meeting. Among other things the meeting appointed a committee, 
of which John Barclay was one, for the purpose of organizing 
the citizens of Philadelphia, Northern Liberties and Southwark 
for defence.'' 

John Ijarclay was twice married, first to Jane Crawford, 
daughter of John and Jane Crawford. She died October 23, 
1803, leaving one scjn, James Barclay, a storekeeper living in 
Warwick township.'' ( )n May 7, 1805, John Barclav conx^eyed 
three tracts of land in Warwick township, to liis son James Bar- 

■""'See SchartM'WestCDtt, History of Philadelphia, Vol. I, panes 571 aiul S7-3. 

•' In Ills will, dated July i, 1806, (Will Book, Vol. VII, page 296), John 
^Crawford of Warrinoton township, Piucks county, appoint.s, "John Barclay 
'Esquire, late husliand of my daughter Jane, deceased," one of his executors. 

John Crawford. Sr., was l)orn in i;i8, died September 6 ,iSo6. aged 88 
years. His wife, Jane Crawford, was horn in 1724, died in 1821, aged 96 years. 



JOHN B\RCLAY 17 

clay for the nominal consideration of one dollar. ( Deed Book 
No. 36, page 224, &c. ) 

James Barclay, son of John Barclay, was Ixjrn in 1778, died 
June 9, 1806, leaving- a widow, Racliel, to survive him. Her fam- 
ily name is not given ; she married a second hushand by the name 
of Bache. 

John Barclay died September 15. 1824, leaving to survive 
his second wife, Esther, whose family name is not at hand, and 
two sons, John L. Barclay, born November 25. 1810, and there- 
fore in his fourteenth year, and James M. Barclay, born May 22, 
1813, and therefore in his twelfth year, when their father died. 
Another son, Washington Curtis Barclay, died at the age of 2 
years and 8 months. 

By his last will and testament bearing dale August 10, 1824, 
and a codicil dated August 21, 1824. John 1 Barclay nominated 
Abraham Chapman of lUicks County. Attorney at Law, and Isaac 
W. Norris, Esquire, of Northern Liberties, Pliiladel])hia, Ship 
Chandler, his executors and trustees, also guardians for his two 
sons. The sons w^ere to come into one-half of their inheritance 
on arriving at the age of 21 years, and the remaining half when 
25 years of age. 

To his widow he gave the house and lot whereon they re- 
sided, at No. 227 North Third Street, Philadelphia, together with 
the household goods contained therein, and $1,000 in money: "for 
the purpose of supporting herself and family for one year after 
my decease." Her dower of one-third of his estate was made 
payable in one year after his decease, on condition that she did 
not marry again within that time, and if she did marry, he limited 
her inheritance to the payment of $500 per annum for life. The 
remainder of his estate to go to his two sons. 

Within one year after his death his widow, Esther, became 
mentally deranged, and her dower remained in the hands of 
trustees. When the trustees filed their account on March 16, 1841, 
she was living, and the court appointed a committee to care for 
her, who declined to act, and the court then ajij^ointed her two 

I'hcir dauglitcr, Jane, tir.st wife of John I'.arcla}'. was born in 1755. and died 
October 23. 1803, aged 4cS years. Estlier, second wife of John Barclay, was 
born in 1787. died December i, 1864, aged 77 years. The bodies of the 
at)ove all lie buried in the Neshaminy Church Cemetery, as do also that of 
James Barclay, father of John, and another James Barclay, probably a 
brother of John, Ixirn in 1755, died October _M, 180.?, in the 48111 year of 
his age. 



18 



JOHN BARCL Ar- 



sons such committee to care for her and her finances. The amount 
of money in their hands at that time belonging to her, seems to 
have been $16,566.38. She Hved until 1864, dying at the age of 
77 years. 

1 he appraisement of John Barclay's estate amounted to 
$61,521.41. and consisted of real estate, ground rents, mortgages, 
personal loans, bank stock and $1,628.38 on deposit in the Bank 
of Northern Liberties. There were 62 shares of stock of the 
Bank of Northern Liberties, then appraised at $1,550, but on 
Marcli 7, 1836, disposed of at $58 per share, amounting to $3,596. 




P.AKCLAY-Hnrail IK H'SE 

WaiiinL;lon, Bucks Ccunty, Pa. 

From v>liotogiaiJli taken after Pine Tree was removed 

The correspondence between the executors shows the great 
care with which they administered the estate, the value of which 
largely increased in their hands, and the care and oversight they 
exercised over their wards, ])lacing them in good school- and 
otlierwise caring for and guiding tlicm. 

Sucli. in brief, is tlic iiistor\- of an industrious man. with a 
well-'lirccted ambition, who advanced from one position of tru.st 
to anotlier, one of llu- kind of men that go to make u]) our l>est 
American citi'/enshii). and of wliom wc should be just'v proud. 



Early History of the Public School System in Bucks County, 

and the 
Passing of the One- Room School in Middletown Township 

By EDMUND COCKS, GEORGE SCHOOL, PA. 
(Doylestown Meetintr, May 7, 193S) 

'mmjwm p relate in detail all the minutiae concerning the 
I inception of the system of education in Pennsyl- 
^ vania would require more time for reading than 
the allotment period would permit. To conform 
to program requirements it is necessary, therefore, 
to omit broad topics and to unite intimately in- 
formation of a more restricted nature. 

Homogeneous ancestral stock did not characterize the settlers 
of Bucks County. Division of interests among the early inhabi- 
tants caused by a mixture of races and the lingering effects of 
harsh political regulations from sources abroad tended to retard 
unity among the newcomers in their land of adoption. These un- 
assimilated portions of old world persecution and restrictive in- 
Huences wanted to be left to their own devices, each group to 
work out its development according to its own ideas and capabili- 
ties. When viewed from this background wonder becomes mini- 
mized concerning the lack, or apparent lack, of interest in educa- 
tional matters during the first hundred years of colonial venture. 
The establishment of Presb3'terian Parish Schools in Scotland 
well toward the close of the seventeenth century signified the 
timorous beginnings of a system of public education. 

Patience, tolerance and lenienc}- must find excuses for the 
rather narrow attitude of our early pioneers. Laxity in educa- 
tional advancement may be partially condoned in the period of 
adaptation and readjustment. Surely, their fine zeal in religion 
and industry tended to make amends for the lack of pedagogical 
procedure, and they were not far behind the rest of the country 
in culture. 

The first account of a schoolmaster in Pennsylvania appears 
in the records of the Upland Court, March 22, 1679. Edmund 
I>aughton brought suit against Duncan (Dunk) Williams for 
two hundred guilders for wages after he had completed his part 
of a contract to teach Williams' children to read the Hible. 
Draui^hton. the teacher, won the suit and received his wages. 



20 COUNTY PURLIC SCHOOLS 

I'^nder Penn's "Frame of Governient" education was recog- 
nized and measures provided for the encouragement of public 
schools and the Friends (Quakers) were undoubtedly early advo- 
cates for education in Bucks County. 

By the laws passed before Penn left England in 1682 it was 
provided "That all children within the province of the age of 
twelve years, shall be taught some useful trade or skill, to the 
end none may be idle, but the poor may work to live, and the rich, 
if they become poor, may not want." 

That Penn realized that the success of his "holy experiment" 
would be determined by the intelligence of those dwelling within 
the colon}- is made clear by legislative enactment. In Chester, 
December 10, 1682, he caused it to become a binding custom that 
the laws of the province be one of the books taught in the schools 
of said province and territory thereof. 

Provincial legislation entrusted the education of youth to 
various religious denominations and private agencies. Friends 
Public School and the Philadelphia Academy were the only two 
educational institutions that had received public recognition in the 
form of charters prior to the revolution. It is quite likely that 
governmental interest in education did not extend beyond the ex- 
pressed desire to protect the property of incorporated educational 
bodies. Reading from Smith : Laws of Pennsylvania, I, 382, and 
act of March 12. 1772, states: "Be it enacted. That if any person, 
or persons . . . shall maliciously and voluntarily burn the State 
House of this province ... or any church ... or any academy 
or school house or librar}', belonging to any body politic or incor- 
porate, and shall be thereof legally convicted, every such person, 
or persons, shall suffer death without benefit of clerg\'." 

Section 44 of The Constitution of 1776 provided that "A 
school or schools shall be established in each county by the Legis- 
lature for the convenient instruction of youth, with such salaries 
to the masters ])aid by the public as may enable them to instruct 
youth at low i)rices, and all useful learning shall be encouraged 
and promoted in one or more universities." 

In the Constitution of 1790 there appeared a clause provid- 
ing for the education of the ])Oor without charge. Upon this not- 
able measure was laid the foundation for the creation in later 
years of the whole public school structure. 



COUNTY FUBLIC SCHOOLS 21 

The early schools in Pennsylvania, including those of Bucks 
County, were, for the most part, of the parish type. With an 
arrangement of this nature the inference immediately follows 
that under church control and management there would be asso- 
ciated a decidedly religious pervading influence. The Quakers, 
Presbyterians, Mennonites, Lutherans, and Catholics, all sup- 
ported schools as an adjunct to their church. It was the desire 
of each sect and nationality to preserve the language, customs, 
and creeds of the lands from which they had emigrated. The 
parish system yielded slowly to the coming of the first secular 
or publicly sponsored schools. These institutions, sometimes re- 
ferred to as "neighborhood schools", were established to provide 
educational facilities for those who wished to avoid sectarian in- 
fluences, or who lacked funds to pay for their tuition. 

The opening years of the nineteenth century revealed a 
change in sentiment toward both schools and teachers. Recovery 
following the devastating ravages incident to the War of Inde- 
pendence may have proved conducive to a changed feeling. Much 
of the indifl'erence and antipathy exhibited toward educational 
advancement among the poorer classes had disappeared. Hitherto, 
many of the poorer people had scorned education and schools 
because of cruel pauper laws. Some religious sects looked upon 
the acquisition of knowledge as a distinct evil. They felt that 
education was a form of w^orldliness. and "to turn worldly" was 
a procedure to be avoided. The teacher who worked and lived 
among these people was often a social outcast. The instruction 
of youth at that time did not compare with the attainments of 
those who ridicule and endure being designated as "shiftless", or 
a man with "notions". Especially true were these accusations in 
remote areas. Now the teaching profession took on a new dignity. 
Individuals better qualified began looking to this new vocation as 
a means of livelihood. Thus, was the tone of instruction elevated, 
and similarly were cultural attitudes improved. 

THE L'UP.LIC SCI loop SYSTEM IX PUCKS COUNTY 

Early in the nineteenth century sentiment began to form and 
crystallize toward the enactment of measures leading to a system 
of popular public school education. During this time leading citi- 
zens of Bucks County, co-operating with other public spirited 



22 COUNTY PUBLIC SCHOOLS 

individuals all over the state, had been discussing with great 
earnestness some sort of legislative action to outline a compulsory 
system of public education. In 1831 it was found that only a 
trifle more than fifty per cent of Pennsylvania's 400,000 children 
were attending school. Neighboring states already had initiated 
steps for free education, and civic pride had become an impelling 
force to lift the stigma placed upon the sluggish inertia of Penn- 
sylvanians. 

In 1834:, during the administration of Ciovernor George Wolf, 
a legislative act was passed making provision along general lines 
for a system of public schools. The acceptance of the provisions 
in this act was not of an obligatory nature upon any township. 
It was left to the pleasure of each school district to act with dis- 
cretionary power. In the beginning more than a little opposition 
developed to any system of education that required for its support 
the payment of taxes by the general public. It is quite likely that 
this adverse attitude developed among those who had no children. 
and were forced to contribute to those who had. 

The new law provided for a state-wide election to select the 
first school directors. Each district had the privilege of declining 
to assume responsibilties the law imposed. In T.ebanon County 
not one district accepted the new law. In Bucks County there 
were thirty districts. Eight accepted and seventeen rejected the 
progressive venture. The remaining districts failed to vote. With 
this unconvincing expression of Bucks County sentiment little 
advancement could be expected. 

UNINCORPORATED SECONDARY SCHOOLS 

After 1800 schools of this type gradually spread throuohout 
the State, and became very numerous after 1850 As evidence 
of this widespread development, a long list of advertised schools 
has been assembled, almost entirely from newspapers in various 
])arts of the State. 
Mulhcrn— "A Hist, of Sec. in Pa.", p. 264. 

THE ADVENT OF THE HIGH SCHOOL 

1 he ])eriod in which the high school made its app,earance in 
Pennsylvania was one of great economic expansion and achieve- 
ments. It was a period when the interest in the economic re- 



COUNTS" PUBLIC SCHOOLS 23 

sources of the State, which liad been increasing for fifty years, 
had blossomed into an unbounded popular confidence in the untold 
possibilities of the new land. America suddenly Ijecame the land 
of opportunity.* 

Everywhere, machinery and improved methods of transport- 
ation were changing the whole face of society and the old modes 
of life.-* 

The industrialization t.f the State created on the one hand 
a relatively few ultra-rich and a numerical preponderance of 
manual representatives. Between the impoverished existed many 
degrees of wealth, and many distinctions based upon earthly pos- 
sessions. 

The factory system oi production, which increased so tre- 
mendously the population of urban centres, brought with it new 
social problems. 

Child labor in factories brought its attendant evils and vag- 
rant children of the poor became a problem of huge social propor- 
tions. From an educational standpoint, the most significant 
development, however, was the rise of an organized workingman's 
party for the attainment of the political rights of labor in a 
democratic society.*** 

As a means to the securing of their purposes the l^iion re- 
sorted to political measures, resolving only to su]iport those candi- 
dates for public offices who would uphold the interests of the 
working classes. Prominent among the demands of the labor 
partv was that of a demand for a State system of public 
schools.""*** 

By 1830, organized labor had cast aside the old political al- 
legiances and, as a new political party, demanded those rights 
which to them seemed to be essentially implied in the principles 
of democratic government. In 1880, the representatives of labor, 
in an address to the working-men of the State, remarked : 

The main ])illar of our system is general education: for it is 
an axiom no longer controverted, that the stability of a re]nil)lic 

* MLilhorn — .\ Hist, nf Sec. lul. in Pa., p. a^g. 

** I l,id., p. 443 

*** I l)id., p. 446 

**** I bid., p. 448 



24 COUNTY PUBLIC SCFTOOLS 

depends mainly upon the intelligence of its citizens . . . that an 
early and suitable education for each child is of primary import- 
ance in maintaining the public weal. 

It is now fort}' years since the adoption of the constitution 
of Pennsylvania, and although that instrument strongly recom- 
mends that provision be made for the education of our youth at 
public expense, yet during that long period has the salutary and 
]:)atriotic obligation been disregarded by our legislative author- 
ity. . . 

It is true, that some attempts have been made to remedy the 
omission in two or three districts of the State, but they have 
proved ineffectual. The very spirit in which these provisions 
have been made not only defeats the object intended, but tends 
also to draw still broader the line of distinction between the rich 
and the poor. All who receive the limited knowledge imparted 
bv tlie present system of public education are looked upon as 
paupers. . . . The spirt of independence and of feeling in which 
all participate, cause the honest and industrious poor to reject a 
proffered bounty that connects with its reception a seeming dis- 
grace. .... 

All must be aware of the necessity of the prompt interfer- 
ence of the people in behalf of those cardinal principles of repub- 
lican lil;erty which were declared in '76, and whic]-; can only be 
sustained by the adoj^t-on of an ample system of public instruc- 
tion, calculated to impart equality as well as mental culture — the 
establishment of institutions where the cliildren of the poor and 
the rich may meet at that period of life, when the pomp and cir- 
cumstance of wealth have not engendered pride; when the only 
distinction known will be the celebrity each may acquire by their 
acts of good fellowship. . . The objection that the children of 
the wealthy will not be sent to these school'^, is one of minor im- 
pcjrtancc. f )ur main object is to secure the benefits of education 
for tho.se who would otherwise be destitute, and to place them 
mentally on a level with proverty is not a crinie, neither is wealth 
a virtue. Mcrluuiic's Free Press, July 10, 18;}0, 1-2. 

(Mulhern's "A History of Secondary Education in Pennsyl- 
vania", pp. 449-450.) 



COUXTV PUBLIC SCHOOLS 25 

OPPOSITION TO TflE SCHOOL LAW 

In j^revious references have been enumerated power tul fact- 
ors that (H(l much to hinder consohdation of communal educational 
interests, prior to the adoption of the free school law of 1834. 
The parish type of school had come into existence centuries before 
out of the intolerance and bigotry of the middle ages. Centuries 
of reform, however, had modified and softened many of the 
antagonisnis caused by conflicting civic and religious viewpoints. 
Still such a system had several weaknesses or faults not compat- 
ible with the ideals and best interests of the new democracy. 
Where beneficent church influence was lacking, there were the 
advantages of educational acquisition to a large degree denied. 

Another element of the population that hesitated in giving 
encouragement and support to the new movement was an aggre- 
gation of all creeds and nationalities who objected to additional 
taxation. Several factors were involved in this non-cooperative 
attitude. They may briefly be summarized as folkAvs : 

1. The right of government to levy taxes had not yet been 
conceded. 

2. equanimity of opinion was lacking concern.ing the tax levy 
itself. Some deplored what was termerl inequality in proposed 
tax assessments. 

3. Complete altruism was kicking. Families with no children 
contended that injustice j^revailed when they were compelled to 
pav a school tax. while others, with onlv one or two children, 
insisted that disproportion dominated when tliey had to pay as 
much, or more, than families with several children, and perhaps 
no taxaljlc real estate 

4. invoked in moral darkness were individuals who argued 
that education of the masses would invite discontent and perhaps 
incite to revolution. 0])ponents maintained that a broadening 
scope of intellectual achievement would cause men to develop 
exalted estimates of personal worth, and the class of common 
laborers, so neccssarv for the menial tasks about the farm, would 
ultimately disai)pear. 

I'v this time the oi)i)osition to the Act of 1834 had assumed 
the character of open hostility. The controversy waxed hot in 
a frenzy of excitement and open defiance to authority. Finally, a 



26 COUNTY PUBLIC SCHOOLS 

crisis was reached. A move was launched to have the act re- 
pealed. 

Now came family cjuarrels and commvmity feuds. Citizens 
took sides. Some favored the retention of the act, but many 
were outspoken against the new law. Into politics drifted the 
issue, ^ilen were elected or defeated for the State Legislature on 
the stand they took concerning the free school dispute. 

Those who favored the Act of 1884 were not submissive 
under the sting of opposition. Societies were organized all over 
the state for the purpose of enlisting adherents for a sound, com- 
pulsory, free public school law. By these advocates pamphlets 
were sent into the homes, and local meetings were addressed by 
proponents of the law. Thaddeus Stevens of Adams Coimty and 
Samuel Breck of Philadelphia, with the aid and encouragement 
of George Wolf, led the crusade for the schools. In Bucks County 
the Reverend G. W. Ridgeley assisted by many leading citizens 
espoused the movement in favor of the new law. A reply ac- 
knowledging the receipt of one of the pamphlets descriptive of 
the work being done in Bucks County was received from ex- 
President Madison. Its content is revealed among other com- 
munications herein listed. 

As the time arrived for a hearing on the School Bill during 
the 1835-36 session of the Legislature, both the House and the 
Senate were in violent commotion due to heated debate and excite- 
ment. The Senate promptly took action leading to the repeal of 
the Act of 1834. The House was expected to concur in the 
precedent set by the superior body. Dbubtless, this would have 
occurred had it not been for Thaddeus Stevens. Near the close 
of the debate he arose to face his colleagues and an unfriendly 
crowd in the galleries. His address was an admirable plea for 
the cause of democracy and free education. His audience was 
thrilled and impressed by the soundness of his reasoning and the 
pathos of his appeal for the educational rights of the poor. The 
tide of sentiment against the law was turned and the House re- 
fuccd to repeal the School .\ct. The Senate in due time reversed 
its position. Thaddeus Stevens had saved the Public School Act 
of 1834. 

The remarkable feature about the speech of Thaddeus Ste- 
vens is the impression it produced when delivered. In 1835 there 



COl'NTV PUBLIC SCHOOLS 27 

was no stenographer in either house of the Legislature Some 
hours after the deHvery of the speecli an atten;pt was made to 
report it from memory, hut the written speech is said to convey 
very httle of the power of the words as they fell from the orator's 
lips. The speech, heauti fully printed on silk, was presented to 
Stevens by some school men of Reading, and was probably kept 
by him as a relic to the day of his death. He considered it the 
most efifective speech he had ever made, and styled it the 'crown- 
ing utility" of his life. At another time he remarked that he 
should feel himself abundantly rewarded for all his efforts in 
behalf of universal education if a single child educated by the 
Commonwealth should drop a tear of gratitude on his grave. 
(Pennsylvania — A History — X'olume HI, 1346. Editor-in- 
Chief, George P. Donehoo, Former Secretary of the Pennsylvania 
Historical Commission and State Librarian.) 

In order that this outstanding address may enjoy additional 
publicity it is herewith copied and submitted for analysis and 
review. 

.... At a critical point in the proceedings the member from 
Adams County, Thaddeus Stevens, spoke with a cogency that pro- 
duced an immediate efifect and that permanently linked his name 
with the public school system in the Commonwealth. He said : 

"Air. Speaker: I will briefly give you the reasons why I shall 
oppose the repeal of the school law. This law was passed at the 
last session of the Legislature with unexampled unanimity : but 
one member of the House voting against it. It has not yet come 
into operation, and none of its effects have yet been tested by 
experience in Pennsylvania. The passage of such a law is en- 
joined by the Constitution and has been recommended by every 
Governor since its adoption. Much to his credit, it has been 
warmly urged by the present Executive in all his annual mes- 
sages delivered at the opening of the Legislature. To repeal it 
now, before its practical effects have been discovered, would argue 
that it contained some glaring and pernicious defect : and that the 
last legislature acted under some strong and fatal delusion, which 
blinded every man of them to the interests of the Commonwealth. 
1 will attemjit to show that tlie law is salutary, useful and inijxir- 
tant and that consequently the last Legislature acted v.isely in 
passing, and the present would act unwisely in repealing it; that. 



28 COUNTY PUBLIC SCHOOLS 

instead of being oppressive to the people it will lighten their bur- 
den, while it elevates them in the scale of human intellect. . . If 
an elective republic is to endure for any great length of time, 
every elector must have sufficient information, not only to accu- 
mulate wealth and take care of his pecuniary concerns, but to 
direct wisely the Legislature, the Ambassadors, and the Executive 
of the nation; for some part of all these things, some agency in 
approving or disapproving them, falls to every freeman. If then 
the permanency of our government depends upon some knowledge, 
it is the duty of the government to see that the means of inform- 
ation be diffused to every citizen. This is a sufficient answer 
to those who deem education a private and not a public duty ; who 
argue that they are willing to educate their own children, but not 
their neighbor's children. 

"Many complain of the school tax, not so much on account 
of its amount as because it is for the benefit of others and not 
themselves. This is a mistake. It is for their own benefit, inas- 
much as it perpetuates the government and insures the due admin- 
istration of the laws under which they live, and by which their 
lives and property are protected. Why do they not argue the 
same objection against all other taxes? The industrious, thrifty, 
rich farmer pays a heavy county tax to support criminal courts, 
build jails, and pay sheriffs and jail keepers, and yet probably he 
never has had and never will have any direct personal use for 
either. He never gets the worth of his money by being tried for 
a crime before the court, allowed the privilege of the jail on con- 
viction, or receiving an equivalent from the Sheriff and his hang- 
men officers. He cheerfully pays the tax which is necessary to 
support and punish convicts, but loudly complains of that which 
goes to prevent his fellow-being from becoming a criminal and to 
obviate the necessity of these humiliating institutions. . . . Why 
shall Pennsylvania now repudiate a system which is calculated to 
elevate her to that rank in the intellectual which, by the blessing 
of Providence, slie holds in the natural world to be the keystone 
of tin- arch, tlic very first among her ecjuals? I am aware, sir, how 
difficult it is for the great mass of ])eoiile wlio have never seen 
this system in operation to understand its advantages. lUit is it 
not wise lo let it go into full operation, to learn its results from 
cxi)erience? 'I^hen, if it proves useless and burdensome, how easy 



COUNTY PUBLIC SCHOOLS 29 

to repeal it. I know how large a portion of the community can 
scarcely feel any sympathy with or understand the necessities 
of the poor; or appreciate the exquisite feelings which they enjoy, 
when they see their children receiving the boon of education and 
arising in intellectual superiority above the clogs which hereditary 
poverty had cast upon them. It is not wonderful that he whose 
fat acres have descended upon him from father to son in unbroken 
succession should never have sought for the surest means of allev- 
iating it. Sir, when I reflect how apt hereditary wealth, heredi- 
tary influence, and perhaps, as a consequence, hereditary pride. 
are to close the avenues and to steel the heart against the wants 
and rights of the poor, I am induced to thank my creator for 
having, from early life, bestowed on me the blessing of proverty. 
Sir, it is a blessing, for if there be any human sensation more 
ethereal and divine than all others, it is that which feelingly sym- 
pathizes with misfortune. 

"But we are told that his law is unpopular, and that the 
people of the State desire its repeal. Has it not always been so 
with every new reform in the condition of man? Old habits and 
old prejudices are hard to be removed from the mind. Every new 
improvement which has gradually been leading man from the 
savage through the civilized up to the highly cultivated state, has 
required the most strenuous and often perilous exertions of the 
wise and good. But. sir, much of this unpopularity is chargeable 
upon the vile arts of unprincipled demagogues. Instead of at- 
tempting to remove the honest misapprehensions of the people, 
they cater to their prejudices and take advantage of them to gain 
low, dirty, temporary, local triumphs. Unfortunately, almost the 
only spot on which all parties meet in union is the ground of com- 
mon infancy. I have seen the chief magistrate of this Common- 
wealth violently assailed as the projector and father of this law. 
I am not a eulogist of that gentleman ; he has been guilty of many 
deep, political sins. But he deserves the undying gratitude of the 
people for the steady untiring zeal which he has manifested m 
favor of the common schools. I will not say that his exertions in 
that cause have covered all, but thev have atoned for man}- of 
his errors. I trust that the people of this State will never be called 
upon to choose l)etween a supporter and an opposcr of free 
schools. P)Ut if it should come to thai, if that should be made 



30 COUNTY PUBLIC SCHOOLS 

the turning- point on which we are to cast our suffrages, if the 
opponent of education were my most mtimate personal and poli- 
tical friend, and the free school candidate my most obnoxious 
enemy, I should deem it my duty as a patriot at this moment of 
our intellectual crisis to forget all other considerations, and T 
should place myself unhesitatingly and cordially in the ranks of 
him whose banner streams in light." 

Due to the lack of compulsory measures in the Bill, the Act 
of 1834 did little to improve education in Pennsylvania. Many 
of the districts were cool to its inherent benefits, and where active 
agreement did not exist, sometimes indifference prevailed. These 
districts failed utterly to take advantage of an unfolding oppor- 
tunity to improve their public schools. 

For a number of years education lagged. Backward com- 
munities lacked the facilities to educate their youth. In other sec- 
tions where initial steps had been taken toward an improved gen- 
eral instruction the efforts were characterized by ineft'iciency and 
uncoordinated objectives. Finally, the apparent evil of this lack 
of educational advantages in Pennsylvania brought unpleasant 
notoriety and ridicule from outside. 

AgaiiL Thaddeus Stevens and others came to the rescue. In 
1849 they succeeded in having the State legislature pass a mea- 
sure compelling the adoption of the school law by every commun- 
ity in the State. In 1854 and 1857 supplemental legislation 
strengthened previous acts and caused the compulsory phases of 
school attendance to have enforceable merit. 

As may be expected, it required a number of years to perfect 
even a moderately efficient system. The lack of efficient teachers 
was all too noticeable, the buildings were poor, the books anti- 
quated, and the equipment obsolete. Inadequate funds had a deter- 
ring influence. There was no method of organization and man- 
agement and animosity to a large degree was aroused. All of 
these adverse situatif)ns had to be overcome. 

I. II. I foffman. i)resent Superintendent of Schools of Bucks 
County, lias kindly aided the writer in having done for him cer- 
tain rcsearrh work covering the period of educational unrest, 1834- 
3(). I'or lliis valual)le assistance, due recognition and thanks are 
herewith accorded. 



covsry vvimac schools 31 

Old copies of the Rucks County Intelligencer reveal that its 
columns were open avenues of expression for both hostile groups. 
Occasionally the Editor felt constrained to admonish contributors 
to observe an attitude of fitness in their remarks and appeals, and 
not to advance inimical phrases under cover of unauthorized 
print. 

^luch of this material coming from a century or more of 
past shows the intensity of thought prevailing at the time. In 
order tliat the reader of today may share in this ancient pervading 
influence without too much personal effort, the writer has com- 
bined herewith material copied from the papers of an earlier day. 
Time of publication would seem to be the logical determining 
factor in arrangement. 

BUCKS COUNTY INTELLIGENCFJ^, Jan. 27, 1834. 

Mr. Editor: — There is a subject in which I think it of great 
importance that those who control the American Press should 
take a much greater interest than they 'lo. I mean that of "Popu- 
lar Education". 

You gentlemen of the Editorial fraternity, tell us, that public 
intelligence and virtue constitute the two main pillars of Repub- 
licanism, and when we inquire into your political creeds, we find 
that you are Republicans, to a man. Now if any class of our 
citizens can exert a controlling influence over the rest, you are 
that class. Your hands are upon the lever of Archimedes. You 
occasionally give an abundant proof, that upon any subject on 
which, you combine your strength. )-ou can "move the world". 
And yet, it does not appear to me, that with all this power in your 
possession, perfectly susceptible of being wielded against the worse 
of social evils. Ignorance, very little is done by the American Edi- 
torial cor])s, for the cause of educatitMi. I have not a doubt, that 
if half a dozen of the leading newspapers of the Ignited States 
would give themselves to this noble foundation deep in the affec- 
tions of the American people, and extend its blessings to the most 
destitute sections of our country, tlicy would product^ tin- most 
salutar\- results upon that de])artm('nt of our social interests, the 
reformation of which would reform all the rest. 

If \iiu ask mc what can be done under such circumstances. 
niv an-^wcT would l:c. that I rfallv cannot tell. I'.ut 1 would ask 



32 COUNTY PUBLIC SCHOOLS 

whether a meeting of the friends of education in this County (all 
sects and parties) might not be called. They could at least take 
into consideration the state of education in Bucks, and if it were 
deemed expedient, they could call a State Convention of the 
friends of education in this Commonwealth, at Harrisburg, whose 
influence would be felt throughout all our borders, and be a bless- 
ing to generations unborn. 

There was an attempt made to procure such ? meeting in this 
county some two years ago. It failed from very peculiar circum- 
stances. It is hoped that those who were then interested in it 
would be glad to see the elTort revived. 

Signed : G. W. R. 



DOYLESTOWX DE.MOCRAT. March 4. 188T 

Fellow Citizens: — 1 am friendly to universal education and 
cannot be other than gratified that the Penns\'lvania Legislature 
have at last awakened to the subjc't. 

The first glance at the contemplated system exhibits a promi- 
nent feature, leading to the deve.ojDment of those less conspicu- 
ous, and among them we cannot but ])erceive a sweeping denunci- 
ation of those who have borne the liurdcn of the day in teaching 
the youth. 

1 am aware we are constitutionally obligated to educate all 
the people and that exce]it this obligation is honestly complied 
with free representative government cannot be permanent. 

Adopt this bill and you exclude from the profession of teach- 
ing, humble as it is, the graduates of colleges of other states and 
from a partici])ation in the scanty pittance of a school teacher's 
emolument : }-ou also exclude the taleiited from the states, who 
occasionally use the "stepping stone" to qualify themselves for 
what the world calls higher employment. 

Can such selfish policy be called "Rejniblicanism" ? Now we 
are on the "stepping stone", permit me to remark upon a few of 
the elements who have been similarh- orcu]Med. 

I 'resident .\dams, Sanniel Crawford. Daniel Webster and 
Samuel Southard. Let them not despise the "stepping stone" as 
the teacher's profession is humorously styled. 



COVSTY ri'BLU' SCIKXH.S 33 

T would advise those college gentry who have once used the 
"ste])ping stone" to divest themselves of false shame, and instead 
of attempting to dishonor that whicli caused and aided their eleva- 
tion. I would have them admit the fact, that a great proportion 
of the present teachers of common schools are as competent to 
teach as an e(|ual numher of graduates ;md that tlie circumstance 
an 1 vv-ants of peoi)le considered, they will ]ierform their duties as 
efficaciously The teachers will he whatever the peoi)le wish them 
to he, and as money in this free county is the criterion of respect- 
ahility and the i)assi)ort to fame, men of true honor ma\ he re- 
tained as Aveil without the ]M-e])arator\- course recommended by 
the Committee, and rather because time must elapse before this 
can g(f into operation, whereas, now talented men will engage in 
?inv honorable pursuit, ])rovidel ample remmierrition is afforded. 

The bill provided that the teachers who a^'e to be. shall teach 
two entire vears in their own neighliorhood. W'Jiy tliis? If those 
gentlemen are men of "true honor"" will the\ not make teaching 
a j^ermane'it profess'on. withoin b(Mng C(.nii)e'led hv law. 

The bill presents another as]ject :— the ajiiiointment of school 
inspectors to give a friendly call and rejjort the progress of in- 
struction and for the examination of ieachers. 

1 have remarked elsewdiere that the teacher is whatever the 
peo])le wish him to be in regards to morals and science. Idiough 
this >tate is not so ])rolific as some others in gentlemen of scien- 
tific iri formation. \ et doubtless it jjossesses a sufficiency of highly 
talented and i)rofessional gentlemen wdio wotd 1 undertake the su- 
perintendence of school districts. 

Al_\- maxim is. induce the ])eople to be!ie\-e that "good instruc- 
tion is better than riches"" and then, an "old sclioohnaster"' will 
riot l>e re])roached. It is to be api)rehended that the sublimit}- of 
])olitics has too much engrossed the popular attention to engage 
them energetically in defence of a project of their amehdration. 

Signed : " liensalem"". 



r.LTKS L()L'.\T\' lXTFdJJ(;b:.\'("bl^. .May 2(\. ls:M. 

liducation : At a meeting of t!ic friends ot' eihv.-aiiou hc-b 
at the Academy in Xewtown. on the Kith insi.. lames W'ortli 
Esq.. was called to the L'hair. and Dr. lohn 11. ( iordon was aji 



34 COUXTV Pl'BLlC SCHOOLS 

])oiiited Secretary; after a free discussion, the following resolu- 
tions were unanimously adopted : — 

Whereas the suhject of popular instruction is one in which 
America has a deep interest, and every year furnishes new evi- 
dence of its im]:)ortance to this countr) , and, wdiereas, it is in 
the power of every citizen to aid in the promotion : 

Therefore: Resolved, that the friends of this cause, in 
Rucks County, he invited to meet at this place on Saturday, the 
7th of June, at one o'clock P. M., for the puroose of concerting 
measures t»^ interest the community more deeply in its hehalf. 

Resolved : that a Committee he appointed to prej^are and 
report to that Meeting a plan in wduch persons of all parties and 
denominations may unite for the accomplishment of this important 
r)bject. 

Resolved: That Phineas Jenks Josliua Mitchell, John Stew- 
art. G. W. Ridgely, John Vardley, Aaron Feaster aufl John H. 
Gordon, be that (A)mmittee — the Committee to meet in this place 
on the 30th inst. (Sat.) at 2:00 o'clock P. ^\ 

Resolved : That the ]>roceedings of this meeting lie signed by 
the Chairman and Secretary and published in the ])a])ers of the 
County. 

J. TT. (lordon. Secretary James Worth. L'hairman. 



P.UCKS COrXTY IXTELLIGENCF:R. May 26, 1834. 

To the Societ}' of Friends ; also, to the Inhabitants of Buck- 
ingham, generally: It is scarel\- possible that laws should be 
made with complete adaption to the wants, or situation of all, 
who thev are intended to benefit; and my eye rests upon one class 
of tlie community, differing in some of their views frotu others. 
! mean the .Society of h^riends, who would do well to enrjuire. 
now tlie law for general education will operate on the interests 
of the .Societ}- within the limits of the State of Pennsylvania. 

It i<. well known that in divers situations, both in towns and 
count)-, that this ])eo])Ie ha\e set a])art a i)()rtion of tlieir sub.-.tance 
for a fund for the ^up])ort of schools and the education of their 
children, tlie interest of which is to be ai)i>bed to those purposes, 
and also thev contribute their portion to the education of those 
whom tlie law makes it a duty to i)rovide an education for. as 



COUNTY PUBLIC SCHOOLS 35 

also those who are in want, the indigent of their own Society, are 
not allowed to be a burden to those who are not in commission 
with them. Those matters present a claim for consideration, 
which it is hoped will have due weight, when the plan is ripening 
for tl'.e accommodation of the general public — and the justice 
of the Legislature will keep an ear open if anytliing like oppres- 
sion shcudd approach the borders of the Society. These are im- 
portant items in contemplating jjublic expenditure, if any mode 
can be devised so that their own funds can be availa1)!e to exoner- 
ate them from a double portion of the burden of education, it 
might place them on equitable ground. At least it is worthy of 
respectful consideration by those who are situated, the law should 
l>e carefully investigated, and be well understood before it comes 
into o]:)eration. 

The inhabitants of the townshiij of Buckingham generally, 
are also perhaps, peculiarly situated. They have an act of incor- 
])oration for the purpose of a school under the title of "The 
Hughesian Free School", for the education of the indigent of 
the townshi]) and have certain valuable property, the bequest of 
a respectable individual, of liberal views, for the establishment 
of a free school on the most disinterested plan, consisting of a 
good farm of about ninety acres, and from six to nine thousand 
dollars in money; when, the whole shall become available can be 
applied to the purpose of etlucation, and comes to be wholly imder 
the control of the trustees, will be considered a valuable bequest 
to aid the education of those it was intended for. These things 
are thought to be proj^er objects tor consideration of the inhabit- 
ants of the township generally, and also of the Society of Friends 
as the interests of each may be involved, as to require some care 
to extricate them from the general interest of the commnnit}'. 

Idle time is a])proaching when the inhabitants wdl be called 
upon to act: and it would be right to b,e ])rei>arc(l to act under- 
standingl\- u])on the subject; it ma\- be a good law in the general, 
and for the common purjtose it was intended to conclude: but 
ma_\- not be adapted to our situation. And we as a ])ortion of that 
comminiit\- intended to be benefited are entitled to some consider- 
ation, in tlie general plan to be adojtted under the Law for the 
education of tlu' children of the ."^tate of I 'einisylvania. 

Signed : "A (."itizen". 



36 COUNTY PUBLIC SCHOOLS 

BUCKS COUNTY INTELLICxEXCER. June 2. 1834. 

INir. Editor : — Your last paper contains an article signed "A 
Citizen", in which the writer intimates that the Education Law, 
which has occupied so many of your columns, is not, in all re- 
spects, suited to the circumstances of some of the people of 
Pennsylvania, because they have been accustomed to make some 
provision for the instruction of their own juvenile population. He 
particularly mentions the Society of Friends, and the township of 
Buckingham. He states that there are many schools and literary 
institutions supported by members of that society in different 
parts of Pennsylvania ; and thinks that unless the Legislature will 
make allowance for the money thus voluntarily given to tlie cause 
of education, the law will operate unec[ually. Xo one would be 
more read)' to award to the Society of Friends that credit which 
is their due. on this score, than the writer of the i)resent communi- 
cation. 1 very much question., however, whether on examination. 
Friends will be found to have done more for their own people 
(so far as giving the instruction is concerned) than most of our 
other Christian denominations. Besides many schools of an in- 
ferior grade, almost all of them have one or more colleges, sup- 
])orted jirincipally, if not exclusively, b}- thenLselves. 

Xow these institutions are su|>prted n.iainly. if not entirely, 
by the denominations, under whose go\'ernment the}- are; and 
while the\- are not sectarian at all in character of the instruction 
which the\- offer, are open to all persons of anv name who choose 
to avail themselves of the advantages they oft'er. This is not the 
case (unless I am misinformed^ with the Friends' institution at 
Westtown, and near Philadelphia. 

The truth is, Sir, that any claim of allowance from public 
treasury, on the ])art of any set of citizens, for what they may do, 
of have done, for their own young ])eople, would, I should think, 
if established, entitle every parent to claim indemnity, for what 
he mav have ex])ended. or ma\' design to expend for the educa- 
tion of his own children. 

Most of oin- denominations ha\e done more or less for the 
support and instruction of their own paupers. Any claims arising 
frf>m tin- .sort of a])])ro])riation, would (if recognized at all) con- 
llict witli the Act, which has been in existence for some years, to 
])ro\'idc for the education of "poor children". lUit it would not 



COUNTY PUBLIC SCHOOLS 37 

touch at all tlie provisions of the law, which established a g'eneral 
system of education: and expressly repudiates the indivious dis- 
tinction between rich and poor, which constitutes the princi])le of 
the former. 

Sismed : ""A Fellow CitizeiL" 



P.UCKS COl'XTY TXTELLIGENCF.R. August 25, 1834. 

^.Ir. Kelly: — T have lately read with attention the law to 
establish a general system of education by common schools 
throughout this Commonwealth, and some of its features, J do 
not like, but taking it altogether, I do not know that 1 can 
amend it for the better : I therefore have come to the conclusion 
for one, to try the experiment, hoping it may succeed. — and as 
1 have been making a few calculations relative to the probable 
expense it will be to our county to carrv the same into effect, I am 
disposed, through the medium of your pa])er, to make them pub- 
lic, in order that the tax payers may not be taken by surprise 
w hen they are called upon to contribute tlieir respective propor- 
tions. 

For the last three }ears there has been a County Tax levied 
to meet the cm"rent expen-;es of the count\ amounting to some- 
thing more than $28,000. Of this sum there has been annually 
appropriated f(jr the schooling of poor children an average sum 
of $3,000. 

]\y the new law it is contemplated that each townslii]) and 
l)orough comi)ose a school district and that each district shall con- 
tain a sutl'icient number of schools for the education of every 
child within its limits — those schools are to be taught b\- competent 
teachers, employed b_\- the school directors upon liberal salaries. 

Xow there are thirt\- townships and boroughs in the county, 
and u])on a fair calculation it will re(|uire the average of four 
-^ch(Jols to each, which will amount to 120 schools These schools 
will recjuire as man_\- teachers : who are employed by the year 
upon liberal .salaries, which I will say $27;") each. 

Then 23 sa\- 120 schools emi)loying as many teachers, at 
$275 each, amounts to the sum of $33,000. Stationery, fuel, etc., 
at the sum of $20 to each school, a sum much too low $2,400. 
Estimate expense of 30 delegates at the annual meeting, — say 



38 COI'XTV Pl^BLIC SCHOOLS 

$100. Then without saying one doUar for the erection of new 
school-houses ( and tliere will he many wanted ) we liave the 
sum of $35,500. From which sum deduct our county propo^'tion, 
which will be about $1,500*. Also the amount heretofore expend- 
ed annuall}- for the schooling of poor children $3,000. And we 
have left to raise with the countv rates anr] levies the sum of 
$31,000. In addition to our former taxes wliich is rather more 
than double them. 

These are facts 1 wisli the public to Ijc made acquainted with; 
and then if satisfied there\\.'ith, no grumi>lin_g thereafter. Let us 
give the law a fair trial; but if we adopt the law, let us do it 
generally, and not let two or three townshi])s take the whole of 
the county dividend. 

Signed : "Middleiow n". 

*This item is underrated. An abstract from the (Jfficial 
Notice of the Secretary of State, states that tlie numlier of tax- 
ables in the County of Bucks was 9,076. and that the said County, 
if it shall lie organized as a school division agreeablv to the ])rovi- 
sions of the Act aforesaid, will be entitled to tlie sum of $10,675.40, 
as its portion of the sum apj^ropriated. 

Signed : James F"indlay, 

Sccrcfarx of the Coiiunou'iccalfh. 



la'CKS COUXTY IXTELLTGEXXER, Sept. 1, 1834. 

Mr. Kelly: — I have heard of a distinguislied member of the 
Legislature of our State, who when lie wished to defeat a ImII, 
assumed to be its friend and advocated it so strenuously, and with 
such apparent sincerity, that he generally succeeded in getting it 
aiuended witli extravagant provisions, until it liecame so objec- 
tional)lc to its true friends, that not infre(|uentl\-, the original sup- 
]K)rters would aliandon it and finalh' vote ;!gainst it. This mav, 
or may not be the design of the communication of "Middletown", 
in your last ])a])er; who ])rofesses to lie willing to give the School 
P.ill a trial, but does not deter, if not to frighten the people from 
ado])ting it. 

lie says that the cpiota of the school fund a])proi)riation for 
Bucks County will be about $1,500, and that the people will have 
to raise, by tax, $31,000; which will more than double the county 



COUXTN' ITBLIC SCIIOC^KS 39 

rales. This, no doubt, is done tor effect, for 1 am sure that tlie 
writer must know l)etter. 

Xow the ])lain and honest statement of the case is this; — 
Uy the Official Notice of the Secretary of State, appended with 
the communication in your ])aper, ilie quota is $2,675.40, and all 
that the law re(|uires that the ])eople shall raise, by tax, is $5,350.80. 
This is evidently different from $31,000. Xow let us i)Ut it 
together, and see how it stands : — 

The inhabitants of Hacks Count\- will be re(iuired 
to raise $5,350.80 

They now ]ja}- out of the County Treasury, \early. 
according to "Middletown's" own statement, w liich is 
raised bv tax 3.000.00 



r.alance to be raised $2,350.80 

The $3,000 now ])aid out of the County Treasury will Ije 
saved to the people, and thus it aj^pears that they have only to 
raise $2,350.80. over what they now do. to .get an annuity froiu 
the .state of $2,675.-1:0 to helj) them along. This is all they are 
obliged to raise — they may raise as much more as the}- see 
proper — which is left entirel}- to themselves. 

P)Ut let us supijose that they raise the sum of $29,825. which 
is his own sum, minus his error, made evident by the note you 
appended, and then see if the people increase the burden inijiosed 
on them by tlie new arrangement. Oue thing is wish kept in 
view — that is, now great number of children are left destitute 
of the means of education, — the Covernor of the State sa}S, 
more tlian one half. 

\',y the last census there are 16,744 white children, in P.ucks 
(_"ount\-, between 5 and 20 years of age. which is the ])roper A'ears 
for schooling — now take l)Ut the half, for it ha- been estimated 
b\- tlie ( io\ernor, that one half of the ]iopulation are destitute of 
the means of education, and the minimum price, $2.00 per (|uarler ; 

One half of 16,744, equals 8,372 

Schooling per year, at $2.00 per ([uarter, equals 8 

$66,976 



40 COUNTY Pl'BLK' SCHOOLS 

"Middletovvn's" estimate of the whole expenses for 
educating- all the children in the county 20,825 



( iain h\- the proposed arrangement $37,151 

The calculation might have been made for children between 
5 r-ind 15 \ears, as the greater portion leave school after coming 
to th.at age. That, however, would just reduce the expenses in 
a direct ratio, to the diminished number of scholars, and now take 
the w liole at the same rate, for every child ought to have an 
education, let the able ])ay for their own, and the county for those 
who are destitute oi means, and see what it amounts to. To 
come within all proper bounds, T restrict the number of the poor, 
made ])aupers, b\' the present s\'stem, to them l^^-tween 5 and 15 
years. 

Half of the juvenile population to be !)aid bv the able $HH.976 
The 5.707 ])oor children, between 5 and 15 vears, to 
be educatec! bv the county : 45.656 



ai2,68: 



Thus the sum of $112,632 would be reijuired, under the 
present law. to do the poor equal justice: whicdi the Constitution 
of our State declares, shall be provided for "gratis", and if we 
w ere to restrict the whole number to 15 years, which some ma}' 
think is a sutticient term, it would be attended with similar average 
results, in regard to numbers and expenses. 

Si.\t\-six thousand, nine hundred and sevenly-six dollars are 
now paid, and the lowest calculation for the education of one half 
the children of the county — leaving out any portion of the 
cliildren under five \ ears of age, for many under that age go to 
school. 

'["Inis, it will l)e seen, that under the jtresen* system, the 
citizen^ of the county ])ay, at the lowest calculation. $66,976, for 
the educatiou of one half of the children. — a jilain. good educa- 
lio.i. would amount, annually to ,S100,000. — And yet from 
"Middletown's" own statement, wdiich I believe pretty fair, and 
luade large enough to serve his pur])ose, the people pay more than 
double, for the education of one half of the childrcMi in the county, 
than would be sufficient, according to "Middletown's" estimate, 



C'UCNTN' Pl'Bl.lC snioo'.s 41 

U) give the wlio'e juvenile populatior. a good education -- the 
most de-^irahle boon and tlie greatest I)lessing, that can l)e con- 
ferred upon the human family. 

Mere, then, it ajjpears, the people i)ay, already, enough to 
'-ustain, nay, to d(iul)le, and perhaps, to treMe the school establish- 
ments estimated b}' "Middlctown", if necessary; which would ac- 
commodate all, if they attended at the same time, wdiich i> far 
from being common. 

The School I.aw is not such a monster as some persons wish 
to make it appear. It virtually does not tax the people, but reduces 
it. their actual taxes: — gives their own famil\' an education for 
one half what they now pay. and gets schooling for the more un- 
fortunate, in the bargain. ( "ome friends, let u> economize, and we 
shall alwa\s have sufficient for ourselves, and enough to helj) our 
neighbors along, from what conimonh' is wasted. T>et us remove 
the load from the unfortunate man., and relieve liim the hard 
ueces>it\- of going to the commissioner^ and begging to grant his 
children a few months' education, or see then-, degraded in ignor- 
ance, l.et us open the most efficient source of education and let 
its benign streams llow over our countr\- as freel\- as the balmy 
breezes of life. Education is the life of the intellect, as religion 
i^ of the soul. W h\- seal u]) either, or make it a matter of price, 
when with less eft'ort we can ha\e it as free as the winds of 
i kaven. 

Signed: "Hilltown". 



r.L'CKS a)L-.\TV l.\TRLl.I(;bA'( l':i<, Sept. 6, 183-1. 

Air. hjlitor:- I saw in the la>t number of the Tntelligencer. 
a write-u]) uncjer the signature of "Miildletown", wdio professes 
to be favorable to the Educational Law-, recently enacted: wdio en- 
deavors to make the imiression uyou the public, that the amount 
of tax which it re(|U.ire> of this county, will be found to be, the 
enormous sum of S-")l,()()(). Mow an intelligent reader of tlu' law- 
could ha\e made aiu such mistake, 1 cannot imagine The countx 
will be re(|uired to raise, by tax, only twice the amount which it 
receives from the Legislature: and a note appended to the very 
article of "Middletown's" states the amount, awarded to Lucks 
County to be $2675.40. This statement is sui)i)t)rted by the official 
signature of the Secretary of the Commonwealth. I hope you 



42 COl'XTV l-URLTC SCHOOLS 

will not silkier so false an idea to be circulated through the medium 
of }()ur paper, just on the eve of election ; hv which your fellow 
citizens are to decide, whether the benefits of this important enact- 
ment are to be secured to this county, or whether we are forever 
to remain in the deplorable state in which we now are, in these 
respects. It is true the law is not all that we could w^ish, perhaps. 
It would be strange if the very first attemjjt at legislation, on the 
subject, should be perfect. But let us adopt it. — ^^'e can modify 
the system, as exj^erience shall throw light upon it, hereafter. Xo 
individual or denomination should suffer private conveniences to 
interfere with the best interests of the country. — It is a mistake, 
to supjKjse that the welfare of the State is not of every class of 
its citizens. T am afraid that there are some of our fellow citizens 
who are in danger of being dehuled on this sultject. 

Signed: "Honestv, The r)est Policv." 



RUCKS COUXTY IXTELLIGEXCER, Sept. 8, 1834. 

Letter to Editor : — People attend : — The day is rapidly ap- 
proaching when one of the greatest boons — the greatest blessing 
that government can bestow upon a ])eople, will be offered for 
their acce])tance. Look to it ye who are ambitious of giving your 
children a good education. The object of the law is to give the 
])oor a chance for an education, — of letting the humble have an 
opportunity of rising out of their obscurit}'. Its object is to 
abolish all arbitrary dift'erences of rank and station — to bring the 
rich and ]U)or into c!ose communion with each other — and to 
nurture them u]) to s_\-mpathiy in their feelings and tastes, to regard 
the government as only common to Iioth. and one in which they 
have ari equal stake, and finally to unite them in a broad union of 
affectior, and interest as one ]ieoi)le. 

Is this n.ot wortliy of your attention? We true to yourselves 
and vote for the sch.ool law. 

Sis'ned : "A b'armer." 



BUCKS COCXTY IXTb:LLIGEXCER, Sept. 8, 1834. 

Mr. Kelly: — The oi>ject of my communication on the subject 
of the School Law, two weeks since, was to awaken the minds 
of the people and set them to thinking upon the imi)ortanl subject; 
and believe it has had that efi'ect. ijut, my friend, for 1 ho])e he 



COrXTV ITBLIC SC'IIOOI.S 43 

is such, who styles liimselt "ITilltown" has left in an idea that I 
wish to "frighten" the ])eo])le from a(loi)ting the T/aw. I'ut, if T 
have frightened them with m\' $31,000. for educating all the 
children in the county, for one year, his calculation v of $112,632, 
will strike them like a claj) of thunder. 

Vet it would seem, from reading the tirst i)art of "Hill- 
town's" communication, that all we have to do, is to raise a sum 
double the county's (juota from the State, viz: $5,350.80 

( ounty quota 2,675.40 

Together with the amount now expended for school- 
ing ]H. or children: 3.000.00 



Making the sum of .$11,026.20 

And the law goes into complete operation, and our schools are all 
open an.d free, to rich and poor. — 

Now as "Ililltown" said by me, this must be done for elTect 
— for I am sure he knows better — 1 admit, that by raising 
double the sum of our county (|UOta from the state, we receive 
that quota and th.e law goes into operation — but what kind 
of operation? It will su])i)ort our schools about one-third of the 
year and d.uring this period we must send our children, let it be 
ever so inconvenient, or we derive no benefit from the law. — 
And the fair presumption is, that in a majority of cases, except 
in villages, our school houses will remain closed during the re- 
mainder of the year. 

Now this 1/3 or 1/2 way kind of business. 1 have no unit}' 
with — and I. nnhesitantly say. unless we are to have our schools 
open at all times, th.at we ma\ send our children when we ])lease, 
and most of us will send them a> much as possible, when we pay 
no more for so doing, than for keeping them at home. 1 am de- 
cidedly o])pose(l to the Law : and, in mv ojMnion. it will liav'e no 
general good effect, setting aside places of dense ])oi)ulation : where 
schools are made up at all times during the year, without diffi- 
cultw In other situations it will be very difl'icult to obtain schools 
after the ])ublic funds are exhausted, as there will be many indi- 
viduals, who. after having sent their children during the free 
term, will keep them at home until the next free term arrives, and 
those who may be desirous of having their schools open during 



44 COUNTY PUBLIC SCHOOLS 

the remainder of the year, can only accomphsh it by a heavy ex- 
pense, far exceeding- the benefit derived by them from the free 
term. 

There is another ol:)ject to this half way kind of business. 
The schoolmen will have great difficulty in obtaining qualified 
teachers, for a fractional part of a year and when they obtain 
them in this way. it will onlv be bv heav\- salaries. 

Then, as I said in my former communication. I am for going 
the "Whole Hog". — Let us give the law a fair trial, and let it 
live or die upon its own merits — and. as I do not expect to say 
anv more u])on the subject. I will just observe to my "Hilltown" 
friend, that he made a much greater mistake, and missed advocat- 
ing the cause, farther, when he asserted, that under the "'present 
Law", it would require the sum of $112,682 to do the poor equal 
justice, in Bucks County, than I did, when I supposed we would 
receive about $1,500 from the State instead of $2675.40. — But 
T do not wish to dissuade nor encourage — I-et all sec and think 
for themselves, on this important subject. 

Signed : "Middletown". 



15UCKS COUNTY INTFJTJGENCER. Sept. 15. 1834. 

Air. Kelly: — "Middletown" represeiUs me in endeavoring to 
make the impression upon readers of your newspaper, that 1 con- 
sider that the new School Law will require a tax to be raised of 
$112,632. to support the school establishments that will be neces- 
sary to educate the children of the county. 

The estimate was made to show what would be required 
under the ])resent law. not the school law, to educate the juvenile 
population at the lowest price. Come. Mr. "Middletown". do not 
disengenuous — meet the thing fairly. I stated expressly that 
the sum would be required, under the "jiresent law", 
would be S112,632 

Deduct ".Middletown's" estimate of the whole expenses 
for educating all the children in the county: 31,000 



$ 81,632 

nilTerence of cost for educating the children of the county 
under the present arrangement, and the new law, which is oflfered 



COIWTV riiBLlC SCHOOLS 45 

for our acceptance, is $81,632 — more than two-thirds saved by 
the new law. Now do you understand ? 1 think that 1 have 
made it evident, in mv former communication, that there is, al- 
ready, double "Middletown's" estimate expended for the education 
of one half of tlie children of the count\ . and that if the jjoor 
be educated, which is our duty to do, will require under the 
present arrangement, three, nay four times the sum that "Middle- 
town"" says will sup])ort school establishments under the new 
law. 

I do not say that it will require over the $31,000. 1 merely 
take "'Middletown" at his own estimate and compare it with what 
would be the cost under the present system, at the lowest price — 
and show conclusively — that there would lie a saving of $81,632. 
The New Law, I re])eat. will reduce individual school tax; enable 
us to discharge our duty to our fellow creatures — our obligation 
to the Constitution, and in the end, be a great saving to the people 
of the county. 

Signed : "Hilltown". 



BUCKS COUNTY TXTFXLTGEXCER, Sept. In. 1834. 

Mr. Kelly: — It is gratifying to every reflecting mind, to ob- 
serve the excitement for the advancement of Education and the 
blessings of equality — the true source of pro]ieritv and hap])i- 
ness. 

Hut while we are giving ourselves up to all the visionarv 
ideas which fancy can suggest, or the most fertile imaginatir)n 
paint, let us pause and examine, with impartiality and candor, 
whether this philanthropic school law, which is calculated to 
bring harmony and equality, will accompli'^h so desirable an ol)- 
ject. 

^^'e are told the great ostensible object is, to bring e(|ualit\ . 
Certainly this is a desirable object, and well worthy the wisdom 
of an enlightened Legislature. ITap])y would it be, had the Legis- 
lature so directed that each taxable should jiay as much in projior- 
tion. for the monev at interest, bank stock, rents, etc.. as for real 
estate. I'.ut un<U-r the ])resent tax gathering system, the capitalist 
who ha.s $5000 in hank stock, or at interc-t. jiays $r).00. the farmer 
(»r a mechanic for a i)ropcrt\ valued at .$5000 (and ijrobahly in 



4H COUNTY PI'BLIC SCHOOLS 

.!cbt for $3000 of this) pays $15.00 direct and $5.00 state tax, 
besides being at the whole expense of keeping the roads in perfect 
trim for the gig and carriage of the capitahst — and is now called 
upon to pay for his children's schooling. This we are told is to 
bring on a system of equality — for the law says that "the ap- 
propriations made for the common schools, by the joint com- 
mittee, shall be considered part of the authorized estimates of 
county ex])enditures, and shall b.e levied and collected in the 
usual manner." 

Thus, is this glorious system of ec|uality to be fostered by 
the industry of the working class. The farmer or mechanic, stag- 
gering under the heavy load of interest, must, to keep himself 
from falling, keep his children at home to furnish the indolent 
and rich, who are l)asking in the sunshine of legislative patron- 
age, with the means of education. IJring this law into successful 
operation, an.d the citizen who owns pro])erty, for which he is 
in debt one half, will stand as fair a chance of being picked, 
i)etween interest and taxes, as the head of the husband of two 
wives — the younger of whom industriousl}- employed herself 
in picking all the grey hairs out of his head : the elder in picking 
all the black, b^xtravagant hypothesis. 

Though- the pecuniary inequalitv be great, vet ha]ip\' \\'ould 
it be. were it the only evil. But evil of a higher nature is feared 
in districts where boards of schoolmen will be selected. bA* the 
unsuspecting, whose great zeal for humanity will lead them to 
blend religious duty with moral and intellectual improvement; 
;'nd whose extensive views and infallible judgment will determine 
the only true source of eternal felicity. In such districts, should 
there an\- .'-o unfortunate be. as to have the audacity to assert the 
rights of human nature: the right of thing for themselves in mat- 
ters of religion, they must either suffer the children to all evils 
of religious fanaticism, or instruct them themselves — while they 
are comiielled to pa\- for the general s\-stem of Education. 

Thus, ft'llow citizens, will the seeds of State and Church 
be >o\vn in the infant minds. Thus will the canker worm be lain 
at the yer\ root of the tree of liberty, under whose branches all 
recline, and whose refreshing shade all enjoy. I'an you fellow 
citizens suiTer a s\stem so unjust, so dangerous? 



47 



Think not, sir, that 1 am at war with echication. [-"ar he it 
from nic. The indispensible necessity of a general S}steni of 
education, so essential to the purity and prosi)erity of a repub- 
lican government, that, without it little else than an emptv name 
can exist. Hut I am at variance with the ine([nalit\ . b\- which 
taxes are gathered: and with the dangerous tendency to the suf>- 
version of religious libert\. Till the Legislature shall bring the 
tax gathering on an e(|uality and until such provisions le inade. 
as to prevent it from becoming sectarian, I shall oppose it — 
then vice-versa. 

Signed: "Plumstead Plough- I^)Ov". 



RITKS CorXTV IXTEIJ.KIEXCPR, Sept. 15, 1834. 

Editorial Column: — On h'riday next the election for directors 
of the schools takes |)lace under the new law. Much excitement 
l^revads in some townshii)s res])ecting it and we are inc'ined to 
believe several of the townships will choose school directors ad- 
verse to its adoption. 

In order to furnish our readers with various opinion- on the 
subject, we have given an indiscriminate admissiciii into our col- 
umns of several communications for and against it. 



BL'CKS C()rXT\' IXTl'd.rjCEXCER. Sept. 15. 18:U. 

Letter written to the Rev. G. W. Ridgley of P.ucks County, 
by ex-l'resident Madison: — 

"1 feel the subject of \our ])ami)hlet to be among the most 
attractive. es])eciall\- with the elo(|uent and persuasive dress given 
to it — Poi)ular lulucation in it.^ fullest extent, being the only 
sme basis of a government truly and jifrmanently free. 

If knowledge is ])ower, it is not le>s identified with Liberty 
itself, fov without it no ])eo])le can long be free. nor. with it other- 
wise. 

It gixe-- me pleasure to find that Pennsylvania from your 
printed rejjort i> following the exam])le of diffusing knowledge, 
tile more >o, a> her own t'xample will ;dway> be among the most 
influential on all important subjects. "" 



48 COUNTY PUBLIC SCHOOLS 

Note: — Air. Ridgeley had sent ex- President Madison one of 
his pamphlets wherein was descrihed the work of educational 
propaganda conducted in Bucks County. K. C. 



Rl^CKS COUNTY INTELLIGENCER. Sept. 3 5. 1884. 

An A])peal to the Poor: — This an era in the annals of I'enn- 
syjvania before unknown. r)he\'ing the injunction of our Con- 
stitution, our Legislatin-e has wisel\' done it^ duty, in the best 
manner ])ossible, tC) "provide for the education of the poor gratis" 
and liave framed a law admitting your children into school on 
equal terms with }our rich neighbors. Now we call to von united- 
ly to support the law. To vote for school directions who will vote 
for the adoption of the law. Remember th.at on b'riday next, we 
say whether your children shall ha\e learning or not. Remember 
the law is not ])ositive, I'ut may be voted down, and to induce you 
to vote against it, every means will Ijc tried, ^'ou \\\^.] be told 
the law is inconsistent. It is inconsistent with the grovelling 
interest of the miser, w b.o would rather see your children in rags 
and ignorance than >])are one cent to school them — it is incon- 
sistent with the designs of ambitious men v. ho would rather kee]) 
}"Ou as slaves than see \ou rise one ste]> from ])overt}'. You will 
be told that it is arbitrary, and will oj^erate liard on the jioor. 
If it be arbitrary to school your cbil,b'e:i at much less cost than 
heretofore, it will be so. If it be arbitrary lo ])!ace your children 
in sucli condition that their industr\- ma\- raise them to honorable 
station, then so is the law. "Knowledge is ])ower"', and, I may 
■d(\(\ over wealtli. Ignorance is ]uiverty and degradation. 

^'ou will be told that it is an effort t<i bring \ou under jiriest- 
craft — weigli this argument and you will soon see its fallacy, 
f^riotcraft can have no influence where ])eople arc well informed: 
and he that read the history of those countries wd^re it has reigned, 
will fmd that in them ])o])ular instruction, the education of the 
poor, has ever been neglected. If \-ou want to kee]) this rejniblic 
free and independent, vote for the law. If you would o\ertIu"ow 
the desires of the ambitious aristocrat, if you would i)ut down all 
])robabi!ity of an ox-erthrow of our free go\ernment, xote for 
ihe law. 

If tile i)oor unite, they can carr\ the law into effect, but \du 
ma\- lie as'-ured lliat man\ ricli men, who have no children to 



COUNTY I'UBLir SCIIOOIS 49 

send to scIkjoI. will helj) yon to \ote for school Directors who are 
not in favor of the new Law. 

Signed : "Mniulns". 



DOYLESTOWN INTELLIGENCER. Nov. 5, 1834. 

A Philadelphia paper contains the following statement re- 
speirting tht ahoxc important exactment :- - 

"' M\ the Kitli ult. the election for school <lirectors took place 
throughout the state, and from all we learn it is highly probable 
a majority of the counties have elected directors favorable to the 
llill. In one County (Lebanon) opposition directors were elected 
in tverv township. In ilerks but two townshi]:)s accepted the law. 
.About one-half of the districts in Chester, four in Daujihin, tive 
in Ihicks, (there were 8 or 9 with us. I believe) and nearly all in 
Delaware, a large number in Cumberland, a majority in Juniata, 
nine in Adams, and all in Alifnin."" 

This was better, Mr. Editor, than the friends of the law e.x- 
pected. considering the misconcei)tions and misrei)resentations 
that ha\e been circulated respecting it. It is the best. Sir. that 
C(»uld be procured — it will doubtless be modified. It is the sheet 
anchor of the State, let us sustain it. 

Signed: "b^riend of the Educational Law.'" 

RUCKS COUNTY INTELLKiENCER. Dec. 8, L^84. 

The School Law: Wdiile the law was alnmdantly popular 
with the great mass of the intelligence of the State, yet. in some 
of the more strictly (German counties, it proved especially obnox- 
iou-. either through an adversion to its objects, a dissatisfaction 
with its provisions, or the misrepresentations of demagogues. 

We are happ\ to observe, however, that all the clamor, 
genuine and hctitiou-^. which was raised against the law has not 
sufficed to defeat it. ])Ut in a great majority of the districts and 
the counties, it has been approved by the |)eople. and its provisions 
complied with. We have comi)iled the following tahular .state- 
ment of ihe counties which have acce])ted or rejected it. The 
figures annexed indicate the number of districts that cnucurred 
in the decision : — 



50 



COUNTY PUKLir SCHOOLS 



ACCEPTED 


REJECTED 




Alle^hen}' 


Unanimously 


Adams 


U 


to 8 


Armstrong 




Bucks 


17 


to 8 


Bedford 


12 to 4 


Berks 


30 


to 3 


Beaver 


16 to 1 


Chester 


27 


to 17 


Cumberland 




Columbia 


9 


to 3 


Clearfield 


7 to 2 


Dauphin 


12 


to 2 


Cambria 


7 to 1 


Lancaster 


18 


to 14 


Crawford 


Unanimously 


Xorthumberland 


8 


to 6 


Delaware 


13 to 9 


L'nion 






Erie 




A/ork 






Franklin 


12 to 4 


Westmoreland 


11 


to 11 


Huntingdon 










Lycoming 


23 to 6 








Mifflin 


Unanimously 








Northumberland 


12 to 10 








Susquehanna 


I^nanimously 








Tioga 


" 








Washington 


1 to 5 









DEMOCRAT &: FARRIERS &• MECHANICS GAZETTE. 

Apr. 1, 1835. 

The School Law and the Public Department : Last fall and 
more particularly at the commencement of the present session of 
the Legislature a certain set of politicians put on foot a system 
of operations to make an impression on the public mind, that Gov- 
ernor Wolfe had become unpopular. 

They, however, s])oke in the highest terms of his talents and 
qualifications for the station "he so ably filled", but regretted that 
the School Law and the debt incurred on account of public im- 
l)rovements would break him down if renominated. Now the fact 
is the School T^w was ])assed unanimoush- by the Legislature and 
if Governor Wolfe had thought projier to put his veto upon it. 
such interference would not have it going into operation, because 
it would have been passed in defiance of his veto. 

Many of the men who find mo^t fault with Governor Wolfe, 
voted themselves for the ver\' School Law — and yet you hear 
tin- cry that the School Law has made Governor W^olfe unpopular. 



COUNTY IT-RLIC SCHOOLS 51 

BUCKS COUNTY INTELLIGENCER, May 13, 1835. 

Messrs. Kelly and Large : — As it is the interest as well as 
the pleasure and ambition of Educators to advocate general educa- 
tion, I think you have manifested a very indulgent disposition in 
admitting to your paper so many communications against the new 
School Law, and I think it would l^e justice to give the intentions 
of the law and its advocates an equal jirivilege. 

.\s I do not feel disposed to write now, I send you the speech 
of Mr. Stevens, of our Legislature, in answer to opposition to the 
repeal of the law of 1834. 

You w ill see that Mr. Stevens takes the same ground in one 
of his arguments that I advanced last summer in replying to the 
calculations to "Middletown", that it will cost less than half the 
sum than is now paid for education — that it will educate all the 
children at half the sum now paid by individuals for tlieir im- 
mediate families. 

Signed: "Hilltown". 

'TIere follows the very interesting speech of Thaddeus Ste- 
vens." 



L.UCKS COl'NTY INTELLIGENCER, July 1, 1835. 

The New School Law Again: — ***** Common sense may 
lead us into the path of truth, but it is only well attested exper- 
ience that can terminate controversy and satisfactorily solve 
mooted questions. And it was on the result of the experiment — 
that the warmest advocate of the new School Law were willing to 
test their professional opinion in its favor. 

***** facts are stubborn things and figures do not lie — I intro- 
duce the experience of the good people of Gettvsburg witli the 
new School Law. 

l-'rom the rejjort of the flirector of tlie free schools of the 
borough of Ciettysburg we learn that the\- have six schools in 
operation witli 305 ])upils. which are sup])orted at the ex])ense of 
$1,298. The ex])ense of educating the same number under the 
old i)lan would be $3,050. lie fore the free scliool system was 
introduced there, the Directors have ascertained that the numl>er 
of children taught was onl\- 135. 



52 COUNTY PUBLIC SCHOOLS 

Here we see demonstrated by fair experience that education 
does not cost one half on the free school system that it did on 
the old system. Where is the taxation? If the whole were sent 
to school, which the Constitution says shall be provided for, the 
amount of tuition for the same children would amount to $3,050. 
Where is the taxation, w-e again ask? l/ndcr the free school plan, 
the whole of the juvenile population are educated and the unfor- 
tunate raised above pauperism. 

Will the people of Fmcks County remain wilfully and obstin- 
ately blinded upon this important subject, and deprive themselves 
of the great benefits of the new school s>stem. Will they still 
be unjust to the indigent, without thereby benefiting themselves. 

It comports not with their principles of philanthropy and 
their reputation of benevolence and of doing as they would be 
done by. *=i*** The law has been adopted in nearly all the western 
counties, even in the mountainous districts. Go Bucks and do 

Signed: "Hilltown". 



BUCKS COUNTY INTELLIGENCER, July 29, 1885. 

^Messrs. Editors: — I am glad to see your correspondent "Hill- 
town" has the sagacity to put the merits of the new School Law 
on its proper basis — Money — Money. This is the all potent 
argument. Nothing is so moving as an appeal to the pocket and 
every objection to the law will vanish as if by magic, the moment 
it is discovered that by it money may be saved. There are men. 
and not a few in numbers, to wdiom you may talk loud and long 
of patriotism and philanthropy, but they cannot hear, change but 
the sul)ject, speak but of money, and in an instant, they are all 
ears. Hence the propriety of calling up the question at this time, 
since the friends of the new law have it already in their iiower 
to use their strong argument in its favor — one alone which 
promises to insure its success. 

The responsibility of again touching this vexed question 
seems now to devolve on the friends of b"^ducation. inasnmch as 
there seem^ an unwilHngness so to do. by those of the opposition. 
who lately took so valiantly in hand. Where now I nnght ask is 
the "Plumstead Plough Boy" with his vice-versa (by the way he 



COUNTY PUBLIC SCHOOLS 53 

wrote as sensibly as any of them) ? Is not the condition fulfilled? 
Has lie forgotten his promise? or has his intellectuality evaporated 
through the "soft cap" covering v^diich J am told lie afterwards 
assumed. The "Farmer" too, (Though I almost fear to "beard 
the lion in his den"). — his fears of religious depotism are, T hope, 
allayed since the "obnoxious feature", as it has so often been 
termed, the "cloven foot of priestcraft" has been so handsomely 
amputated by the Legislature that not even the stump remains. 
How it will progress on its remaining members, remains yet to 
be seen, though to it, named as it is, its friends will not object — 
they will even rejoice, if this one honest fear has been allayed or 
its adoption hastened by its mutilation. The\' may. it is true, have 
some misgivings, some ideas bordering on the ridiculous ; may 
unbidden obtrude themselves when they see teachers undergoing 
an examination touching their ability to teach certain branches of 
education of which the sapient examiners are themselves most 
profoundly ignorant. They will never-the-less as in dut\- bound, 
repress these wandering thoughts and with a'l l>ecoming gravity 
respond. Amen. 

Sir.ce then this irresponsible agency is thus removed, the 
"Sectarian domination" escaj^ed, and the wdiole "moral machine" 
thrown "forever out of gear", personal property, money at inter- 
est, stocks, etc.. taxed for its support, it would seem but fair, that 
those who have asked for all this, should by way of acknowledg- 
ment give in their allegiance, and lend their aid in the cause of 
education, in accordance with their original professions. Last, 
thought not least, let me inquire after our friend P. P. P).. who so 
long hung in doubt on which side to declare himself. Let me im- 
press a hope that his ""convex" and "concave", his diverging and 
converging glasses, through which mole hills appeared as moun- 
tains in their turn were lost in vacuity. Let me in charity, hope 
that these may have given place to plain glasses ( for it would be 
a downright insiiuiation to suppose his eyes so young as to be 
injured by these ) and that now, di>abused by his spectral illusions, 
his eyes are permitted to see many realities, from without the 
region of hi^ own ""-.clh^li atmosphere", among the most rons])icu- 
ous of which will be found, instead of ;i Law compelling (by a 
process at present discovered), the poor who have not the where- 
withal, to pay for the education of the rich — he <ees a law for the 



54 COUNTY PUBLIC SCHOOLS 

united benefit of all, supported by everyone according to his 
ability. 

That he now sees the hereditary chain of "injustice and par- 
tiality" broken and "republican simplicity", his darling theme, in- 
sured without the severity of the ties of consanguinity. Nay, that 
he not only sees "prospects" but actually sees himself "sailing" 
(triumphantly) into the desired, the delightful haven of "Repub- 
lican Simplicity", his step "stimulated", and his brow enlivened, 
— not by "selfishness", but by the more ennobling consciousness ; 
that posterity has blessings in reserve, and that peradventure his 
own children may even yet be as wise as their fathers. 

Signed: "Buckingham". 



BUCKS COUNTY INTELLTGENCER. August 12. 1835. 

Dear Editor : — On looking over vour paper of the 2nth, I 
had to give full vent to my risible powers on seeing the spirited 
manner in which "Buckingham" has been cutting and slashing — 
sometimes at the new and sometimes at the different correspond- 
ents. Really one might suppose that he was as great a phlegmon 
as Don Quixote, when he dealt such tremendous fore strokes, 
back strokes, and round and side strokes upon the wine bags, 
instead of the giant. 

Had he not been a man of real grit, he would have come out 
while the old school law was in full force and virtue, and his 
opponents warm. Then might he have had an opportunity of 
knowing wheher they had "evaporated". Tint he chose rather to 
stand tacit and see his favorite system "mutilated"" — and then 
like a man of real courage comes out while his o])]X)nents are 
busily engaged in their harvest. 1 once knew a man of this spirit 
who could stand bv without daring to speak above his own breath 
and see his friend kicked and pounded blind. — and the moment 
he finds himself out of danger becomes courageous; when his 
friends gather round him and say — '\\r. Hasty, for TIeaven's 
sake be (|uiet, you'll kill tlie man. he becomes insupportable — 
tears loose from their friendly grasp, till at length his spirits 
evaporate. 

Having got over the first agreeal)]e emotions in which I freely 
indulged, on reading " Ikickingham's"' communication. 1 clap])ed 



coL'^■T^• I'UHLic SCHOOLS .).) 

on mv l:)eaver. and o\er I ])ostecl to see how mv neighbor I'. P. I>. 
was "sailing" into the desireil, the dehghtful haxeii of re|)n1')hcan 
sini]iHcity. He was sitting under the shade of the old harvester, 
and with the assistance of the glasses, which " lUickingham" has 
so highly recommended, poring over the communication — occa- 
sionally taking ofif the specks to wipe them — first looking over 
then under them — reading it U]) and tlien down and sometimes 
crosswavs til! he was entireh- out of lireuth. "rurning to me with 
all the gravity of sixty, he says "friend Plowboy. here is a prong 
or two in this knotty communication of 'Buckingham's t!iat I 
am entireh- unable to define". Then reads thus "The Farmer too 
(though I almost fear to beard the I.ion in his den) hi^ fear of 
religious despotism are. T hope allayed, since the 'o1)noxious 
feature" as it has so often been termed tlie 'c'oveii fof)t of priest- 
craft" has been so handsomely ami)utated 1)\- the Legislature that 
not even the stumj) remains."" "Xow,"' sa\s 1'. P. P., raising his 
specks to his forehead, "the first instead of being a sentence is a 
bunch of mixed up ideas, and if jiroperl} dige-ted form three 
distinct sentences." 'The Farmer too", is a fuil ])ro])osition or 
sentence, if we supply the ellipsis which ought to be done. It is 
an interrogative sentence, the meaning of which is to enquire 
where the farmer is. The parenthesis which i< placed between 
the two sentences ought to form a distinct sentence. Idle remain- 
ing sentence which commences with — "his fears" is an exi:)!ica- 
tive sentence and cannot l^e joined to an interrogative .-entence. 
thought it be connected by a parenthesis, and by arbitrary punc- 
tuation." =;•**--- (The object of the writer for several ])arag'-aphs. 
here, seems to be mainly to dissect the grammatical construction 
of "liuckingham's"" letter.) 

It is hoi)ed that the new system which makes its appearance 
before the peo]ile. as soon as it can gather -trength enough to 
stand on one foot. Should it. feel)le and "nnuilated" as it is. be 
deemed worthy of the great state of I 'emisylvania. and friendly 
to education, the [ 'lowbo_\- will lend a jiro]). **" Wil! "I'.ucking- 
ham" assist in getting it before the ]ieople. 

r.ut liefore we get to i)reaching u]> the sysion. will he 
( I'.uckingliam ) be so l)enevolent as tn analy/e so much of his 
marred sentence as to show its meaning. -='•*-=•■==:* 



COUNTY PUBLIC SCHOOLS 



Till tb.is is clearly done we will believe, witli all his boasted 
friendship to Education, that education has been less friendly to 
him than he t<> education. 

Signed : Plunistead Plow-Boy. 



BUCKS COl'NTV INTELLIGEXCER, Apr. 20. 1836. 

Cieneral Education #1: — It is a happy circumstance in the 
hitherto prosperous land of liberty, and particularly Pennsylvania, 
that "the free communication of thoughts and opinions is one of 
the \aluable rights of man." .\greeable to this important trutli 
I have taken up my pen in order, as a freeman, to solicit the privi- 
lege of addressing a few numbers, to my fellow citizens, on the 
subject oi general education. 

Conscious as I am that my remarks may be somewhat un- 
palatable to some readers, whose sight may have been dazzled by 
the allurement of gold, yet to such as take offence at the humble 
trutli, thev cannot fail ti) be agreeable. Should I be so unfor- 
tunate as to differ from some of my fellow citizens, in the manner 
of advancing general education, be so kind as not to denounce 
me as an eneni}- to education, without first showing why I am 
so. for em]»tv assertion will be taken only as the frotli\- effusions 
of a crazed brain. With the same propriety and arch, equal justice 
might the Presbyterian denounce the Quaker, or \ice versa, as 
being enemies to religion. 

Some may e.xclaim, of what use is there of rcvi\ ing the 
'"disagreeable sul)ject" after the election? To this I would answer 
tliat it may be disagreeable to the friends of a partial, hx'al or 
imperfect citizen, but cannot be displeasing to the friends of edu- 
cation. It can scarcel\- be amiss to distinguish the bad ([ualities 
from the good. The Superintendent, not content with using the 
pruning knife, walk> straight into the idolized system. He says, 
(and who can tlis])ute it ) "The details as at ])resent organized are 
certainh- defective. I'ut the mere ])runing of some or even all of 
its mincjr evils will ])roduce little permanent good. The whiting 
(»f tlie outside of the ,se])ulc]n-e a\'ail nothing while there is corrup- 
tion within. < )ur common school -ystcm. e\en with tlie large 
accession of i)ecuniary aid, which is iu no prospect, contained it 
is feared within itself, the .seeds of its own destruction." 



CorXTN I'l'BLlC SCHOOLS 0< 

C'ertaiiil)- it cannot be prejudicial to education, or tC) a i^en- 
eral s\steni of education to kee|) the subject alive — to arouse the 
pul)lic mind, and awaken tlKuight ; for thoutjht is tlie first si)ring 
of human action. Then would the useful parts be pro])erly ap- 
preciated: tlien would it l)e discovered what was wanting, to adapt 
it as nearh- a> possible to the want> as well as the wishes of the 
people. "For," contin.ues the Superintendent, "an\' system per- 
fectly fitted to the wan.ts of society cannot remain unpopular." 

In order, therefore, to discover what will be agreeable to the 
wishes as well a- the wants of the sovereign people, have, with 
the utmost deferen.ce. entered upon the >ubiect. and deem thi> a 
sufficient apology. 
March 26. 3 836. "CincinnatuV. 



RL'CKS CorXTV IXTF.Lf.lGEXCRR. May 4. 183*;. 

General Rducation ^2: — In the session of the 33rd and 
3-ith the Legislature resolvedi itself into a Committee of the whole. 
Tt directed Samuel Breck. Chairman of the Joint Comniittee. to 
send letters to the several states which had adojjted General F.du- 
cation, and also to a number of individuals famed for their zeal 
in the cause of educati(jn. But of this rich collecton of knowledge 
the materials of the i>resent system were collected. 

John \. l)ix. Superintendent of Conunon .Schools ni Xew 
York, writes thus: "The system of common school instruction in 
this state has been organized and brought to its |:)resent state of 
perfection by the stimuhis of a ver\- small ]~)ecuniary interest. If 
a sum of monev should be annually distributed among the towns 
in \our state and if it were left for them to decide whether they 
would i)articif)ate in the distribuiion, consideration of interest 
would so(jn determine them in favor of >uch a course. Xo town 
would be likely to resist such consideration, while adjacent towns 
were availing themselves of the public liounty. Such sentiments, 
although coming from so respectable a s«)urce, it is thouglit would 
liavc been rejected with di-,dain. But >uch was not the case ***=*= 
It was actuall}- incorporaleil within the 1 -aw itself. 

Tile (ith .Nection of the l:iw sa\ ^ : — "If on either tlie hi->t or 
>econd meeting, a nuijorit\ of the Commissioners and 'ielegates 
from all the districts of an\- division shall atten<l, then those 



58 COUNTY PUBLIC SCHOOLS 

l)i-esent shall proceefl in the same manner as if a majority had 
attended and their proceedings shall be just as valid. "" How. 
Re[)nblican I The minorit}' is to govern ! 

Thus, fellow citizens, a small pecuniary stimulus is presented 
to the people baring the name "public bounty", as though it were 
not the i)eo])le"s money. This public bounty, taken froni the 
pockets of the people, or what is e(|uivalent, their rights bartered 
for the same, is hande<l back with the utmost gravity imaginab^.e 
If the majority reject receiving it. then the minority has the power 
to use it. yes. the minoritv has the i)ower to use the monev of the 
majority without their consent. \\ as the statutes of Pennsylvania 
ever ]iolluted with so gr(».s.s a stigma u])on her re]niblican virtue? 

In the writer's o])inion such a detestable feature ought to be 
eradicated from the s\stem. It is unworthv of a benevolent svs- 
tem — unworthv of Penns\'lvania. 

Alan}- \vhose bosoms warm for the advancement of general 
education, become disgusted at such a mean feature in the system 
— and if it be not s])eedily removed. the\' will contract it with 
that cordialit}- which a system worthy of the great state of Penn- 
sylvania ought to be embraced. 

Pet us then, as friends of general education, as we hold dear 
the ]:)urity of our ])oi)ular institutions, unite hand and hand in 
di.^tinguishing the ])lemishes of our s}-stem. and in desiring our 
re])resentatives to remove them. 

F.ducation that can be derived by agitating the passions, in 
denouncing all as enemies to education who are found guilty of 
tlie un])ardonable crime of ha\-ing discovered defects in it and in 
])ointing them out in hoi)es of rendering the system nn^-e 
])ure. --="--**•'■ 

.Signed : "Cincinnatus". 



r.PCK.S eOP.VTV PXTFJJJGPXXER. June P 1880. 

(ieneral Education i^3: — The alteration made in the .Sujjple- 
ment P'^IU-.^.') ])y placing the tax more u]'on an eciualit}'. is merit- 
orious, and reflects much credit ujjon the Pegislature. The land 
liolder, the tenant and the laborer have e\er been cjp])ressed with 
the burden of ta.xation. It is high time the\ were relieved. ( Hight 



COUNTY priu.ic Sf'iiooi.s 59 

not all taxes be placed more upon an e(|nalit\". in a ctjuntry thai 
boasts of its equality, which declares that all men are created 
ec|ual. to tax landed property, which, brings an income of not more 
than three or four per cent, while the wealthy exempt, receiving 
from six to eight per cent for money at interest, bank stocks, etc. 
As light and knowledge advances, so should justice and ec|uality. 
**** Should we not unite in imploring our Legislature to grant 
us the justice and relieve us from that oppression which we have 
so long born without mtirmur. ( )ught not this European stain be 
washed from our po])ular institutions. *=!=*** 

rUit in this enlightened age we see the minority, patriots of 
Bucks, making no other inquiry, than is it advantageous . — can 
money be sa\e(l ? This is sufficient to make them exercise the 
power of seizing upon monev of the majority. ?^Ione^' ! ^loney! 
say they, is the all important argument. *''' Happy it is that the 
majority of citizens of Bucks are not governed by one selfish 
passion. The}- look to higher motives. 

.\s the cheapness of the system has been used as one of the 
powerful arguments to induce the people to accept it, and as Xew 
York has been spoken of as the most perfect model for imitation, 
it may not be improper to refer to the Superintendent's report for 
that state. By this we may learn the cheapness of that system — - 
and also why it is so. This will enable us to discover whether 
the cheapness of a system will act friendh- or unfriendly to 
education. ********* 

Signed : ■"Cincinnatus". 



BUCKS COl'XTV IXTELLIGKXCER, July •_>(). is;-!(i. 

To the h^-iends of Education in lUicks C^ounty :— -.\n op])()r- 
tunity is now oti'ered the citizens of lUicks Lounty for advancing 
the cause of Ivlucation in lUicks L'ounty, which if i)ropcrly em- 
braced will Commence an era that will long be distinguished in 
the annals of our .^tate. — and without wishing to dictate the 
course which teachers and friends of education general!} should 
]n-irsue, 1 have thought jiroper to state the fact lor their inform- 
ation throughout the count}. 

When we reflect on the eminent ser\ices of Tose])h 1 lolhrook 
in the cause of ])opular education and re\ert to the consider. ition 



60 COUNTY PUBLIC SCHOOLS 

that no individual living has done more to advance the facilities 
for common school iiustruction than this distinguish philanthro- 
pist, I am confident all teachers throughout the county will feel 
the importance of taking early measures for securing his aid in 
their respective neighborhoods and schools. 

And would it not be highly advantageous to their interests 
that a convention of persons of the profession should be called 
to take this subject into consideration. The most enlightened 
teachers of Philadelphia have shown in the most flattering manner 
their estimation of the services of this gentleman: and it is not 
uncommon for parties of pupils, above TOO in numbers, selected 
from the best schools in the city, to accompany him in the various 
pursuits of natural science. As several of the teachers have frank- 
ly declared that their pupils have acquired more useful know'edge 
in one of those rambles than they have gained by several months 
apiilication to their books in the school roonu The country offers 
abundant facilities for such instructive recreations — will the in- 
telligent citizens of Bucks County :^how by their reception of 
Joseph Holbrook that thev know how to appreciate his services? 

Signed: "F.. H. D." 



BUCKS COCXTV IXTKLLIGEXCER, July 25. 18R6. 

Kxerpt taken from the report of the Buckingham Lyceimi to 
the Bucks County LyceuuL 

(ien.eral education being so internall\- connected with the 
r^vceuni sNSteuL and its improvement one of its professed ob- 
jects, the Society have taken some panes to inform themsehes of 
its condition within the bounds of the township (Buckingham). 

The provisions of the latel\- introduced system of general 
education have not been accepted by the citizens of Buckingham, 
capacity, hold the jjrominent place and are one of the effects of 
do not deem it re(|uisite to dwell upon, not doubting, that should 
the experience of hi> sister districts prove the superiority of the 
^\stcm, lier sense of justice will lead her to embrace the course. 
Most fraught with the most intellectual advancement. 

The number of schools in o])eration in the township is seven 
dav school-, nnd one for boarders. Ti > the last, most of the others 
owe an impulse of improvement, being mostly conducted, by 



t-orXTV ITBIJC SCHOOLS 61 

feina'es who have ix-ceivt-d a considerable ponior, oi ilieir educa- 
tion tliere. Among tlie improvements in the schools, wliich have 
come under our notice, that of the inductive i)rinci])le, and of 
hooks adapted to assist the infantile inte'lect lo advance; in the 
departments of knowledge, considered. heret(»fore. luuch above it^ 
capacitw hold the prominent ])lace and are one of the efforts of 
the spirit wliich throws its influence over every departme'.it of 
science, and is one of the characteristics of the juesent age: 
emanating from the genius of Bacon. It has revolutionized Phil- 
oso])hy — and found a retreat in the tem]^le of elementary knowl- 
edge, imparting delegates to the infant mind. 

Signed: Samuel J. I'axon. 

BUCKS COUNTY INTELLIGF.XCER, May 10, 1837. 

Mr. Editor : — Allow me to put a few plain questions to these 
districts who have not yet accepted the Xew School I^aw, and to 
answer the objections of those opposed to the Common School 
System. 

Let us examine their objections first, ^'ou say you are 
opposed to the common schools in the first place, because, in order 
to support them, we will be laid under too heav\- tax. But now 
let us "calculate" a little, as they say down east, according to 
Vvliat other townships get out of the state appropriation of 
$200,000. our townships would receive. I see, about $150. Now 
suppo.se we raise in tax three times that sum or $450, we shall 
then have S600. We would not need more tlran six schools in our 
township. conse(|uently we could give each teacher $100. for which 
he could afford to teach five or six months, as long a period as 
peojile in general send. Eet us see, further, how heavih- this tax 
of $450 will fall upon each: I'll show you how it will he with 
myself. ihe whole amount of tax we raise m our countv is 
$900: of this 1 am obliged lo pay $6.00. "^'ou see that my share 
of the >cliool tax will be $3.00. Why one child al(»ne cost me 
that much under th.e old system. .So much for \-our first objec- 
tion. 

lint in the second ])lace vou ask me liow we shall jirovide 
sclu)ol houses. I answer that, besides the annual ai)propr;;ition of 
$200,000. the I^egislalure has recen.tly granted $500,000 for the 
express purpose of building and preparing more school houses. 



62 COUXTV PUBLIC SCHOOLS 

Now if we receive $150 of this $200,000. at the same rate we 
will get $375 of the $500,000 and this, with a little exertion on 
our part, will be sufficient to provide school houses. 

You object, in the third ]5lace, that tlie directors are not paid. 
To this part of the law, I know many are opposed, even where 
they have acce]3ted it. Men v\ill not perform their duties unless 
they are paid for their services and the school directors will have 
much, especially at first, to attend to. Here, no doubt, the law 
can be altered for the better. We do not say that it is perfect yet, 
or as good as it can be. Time and trial are continually pointing 
out its defects and the Legislature is constanth- amending it to 
suit the requirements of the people. 

You mav object in the next place, that, in case we accept the 
law, we will then be saddled with the schools and be obliged to 
support them, six months or more, out of each year, but I reply, 
there is no obligation of this sort in the law. Each district can con- 
tinue the school as long as it pleases or as long as the money lasts 
and its inhabitants can go to the polls and decide just how long 
the\- will have the school continue, and what can be fairer than 
this? 

But 1 knew one man to say (shame on him for it) that too 
much education would make rogiies of our childreiL Now 1 ask 
this man whether schools conducted as ours are to be, have not a 
universal tendency to make children morally better. I ask him 
to look at the New England States, where the children are well 
eflucated, and say whether the people are not the most industrious, 
intelligent, enter])rising, moral and virtuous citizens in the United 
States. 

True this person mav sav there are many sharpers and rogues 
among them, because some who come ])ed<lling out here with 
their wooden nutmags. etc., are such, l)Ut these, 1 say, are excep- 
tions, who I \enture to affirm are far less i)i number to the whole 
popnl.-ition than those who turn out nuisances among ourselves. 
In Trnssia, loo, we lind, since the establishment of their school 
system, a dcx'rease of juvenile offenders. aIthons.;]i tlie i)oi)ulation 
has increased. \Vc want no better ])roof than this of the salutary 
effects of educating children by C'ommon Schools. 



coL'XTN' prni.ic schdois 63 

Tliere are niaiu- honest r.ennaiis in the County, who think 
a common school s\steni will hrint;" us into slavery. I k'now for a 
fact of one who assigned as reason of his opposition to the law, 
that he had heen told, hy an emigrant from ( iermany, that as soon 
as they got Coiumon Schols in that country, so soon they hecame 
ensla\ed. Xow this is not onl\- false, but it is a fact that the 
more enlightened, the better educated part were those who arose 
to fight for more lihertv than thev had before. \W such asser- 
tions, as the one T have mentioned, does one man o])pose u])on 
another, h'ducation, indeed, instead of having a tendenc\- to en- 
slave, will, as tliat great statesman. lUu-ke, said, prove our "cheap 
defense."" 

Xow Messrs. 0])posers, you must l;e aware that the expense 
of tuition of each scholar ujjon an average, under the new system. 
is onl\- alH)Ut .SI .00 ])er quarter, and sui:)pose the state pay one- 
third of this, do \()U not perceive for what a trifle you can educate 
your children. Is it not a fact, you farmers of the non-accepting 
ilistricts. that Nour tax for the education of the ])oor gratis, has 
been much increased of late, from the circumstances that many 
in voiu' districts, being defeated in getting common schools, have 
indignantly thrown their children u])on the county for support. 
Does not the old law bear ver\ une([uallv upon the townships. 
whilst others scarcely raise enough for the schc^oling of their owt 
poor ? 

\\h\- do \-ou oi)i)o>e it? \nu that ha\"e alread>- educated 
your children. Should yon not sujiport it for the sake of your 
children's children " 

Lastly let me ask the rich man who has no children at all, 
whv he is so bitter against ( "ommon Schoo's? Do \()n think that 
_\-onr money can ever he applied to a hetter i)uriiose than the edu- 
cation of the rising generation? Would \-ou see the peojile of this 
re]ublican go\-erinnent uj'on an e(|ual footing with another? Lend 
\-our aid to the ditTusion of knowledge among them and it will he 
so. Would \(iu have our liberties i)eri)etrated " drudge not them 
a little of \our suh-^tance for this (dieap defense of nations. 

I'nsigned. 

i);)\"Lh:sT()W\ i\'ri-:r.LiGENCER. Xov. :^. i^r>7. 

I'?ditorial Column: — To Correspondents :— We ha\e on hand 
several comnuuiications from scliool teachers in reitK' to criticism 



64 COUXTV PUBLIC SCHOOLS 

of the County Superintendent of Schools on their manner of 
teaching and mode of conducting exercises in their respective 
scliools. These communications are not very compHmentary to 
the County Superintendent and we are asked to pubhsh them 
over ficticious names. This we decline to do. If the writers will 
authorize us to attach their names to them they shall a|)pear in 
our columns at once and we take occasion to say that all others 
who feel aggrieved at the County Superintendent can have a hear- 
ing in our columns <i\er their own names. 



BUCKS COUNTY INTELLIGENCER. July 1. 1840. 

Messrs. Editors : — I would say to the townships which voted 
down the School Law, are you aware that the school system must 
continue in those townships one year longer ? The reason for the 
supplement to the act is obvious. Inasmuch as the poor children 
were not classed last Spring, unless the free schools continue this 
year, the poor cannot be schooled for one year to come. Some 
of the men opposed to the system, boast their willingness to con- 
tribute to their instruction, provided the free schools are discon- 
tinuefl. This is mere pretense. Put 'lown this law and you will 
find such boasters not more charitable tlian their neighbors and 
if tliey were, what Pennsylvanian would accept their bounty? 
^^'hi]e our Constitution binds us to niake legal provision for the 
education of all. Had Pennsylvania adopted the Public School 
System one hundred years ago, she would not now be burdened 
with a heavy i)u])lic 'lelit. and a mass of intellect would have been 
in oj.'eration jjromotive nf his honor and ha])piness. As it is she 
cannot evade her laws, though she may be retarded in their 
execution I)\- rogues and swindlers. 

ddie dut}- of tile townshi]) is ])lain : let the sch.ool directors 
fearlessly discharge iliat dut\-, and the i^eople will vindicate their 
rigiits in the trium])li of the school huv. Make \dur assessments, 
ami allhout.;h a direct stale tax is now l;nd by improvident legis- 
lation, the i)eo])le will not refuse to discharge their duty, if the tax 
is ])aid in ;( eiu'rencv which ever\l)ody uses. I .et the i)eo]iie rellect 
that the want of free school education has brouglit upon them 
many evils. 

Signed : ■"lUicks" 



COUXTV ITBIJC SfllOOLS 65 

BUCKS COl'NTY INTELLlCiF.NCER. May 4. 1852. 

]*ul)lic Schools: — It is the opinion of man\' ])n1)Hr spirited 
men that tlic jjresent piihlic sclioo] system has tlnis far. in a 
great measure, heen a faiUire. That there is consiilerati(jn ground 
for such an opinion must le admitted hy every reasonahle and 
candid man. 

Let us make a slK»rt investigation of the puhlic school system 
and try. if we can discover what clog:^ the progress it so much 
deserves. 

'Idle inherent ])ower of our ])resenT -chool system contains the 
elements of certain success were they brought out and ])ut into 
active operation. 

The major pan of those ])ersons who liave the management 
of our schools seem to be well satisfied with a mere embryo of 
the system that they do not put forth one single effort to insure 
its success. 

Vv'e should be dee])ly impressed with the important fact that 
our public schools can never prosper while the course of instruc- 
tion continues so ilificient. This is the source of their imbecility 
and degenerac}-. 

Xot only employee^ but school directors are sometimes heard 
to say. "It matters very little what kind of books are used in 
school-, one is about as good as another."" .And others, "if reading, 
writing, spelling and arithmetic are taught v.\ common school^, it 
is suti'icient." and "should an\- person desire his children to ad- 
vance further, let him send them to lujarding >chool."" 

Vou might almost as well attempt to guide a ship across the 
pathless ocean without system, as to advance a .-^chool without a 
systematic course of instruction. 

If ,-uch be the true state of things, something shouhl be done 
immediately. If our schools are so deficient in their course of 
instructioii and systematic training, this deficiency ought with(iut 
delay, be remedied. The fir>t stc]) to tie taken i- to elevate the 
standard of education, by intro(lucing into the ])ublii.- -chools. 
several branches of study which are r.ot now taught in tluni. such 
a> Mensuration. ( ieometry. rhiloso]»h\. Rhrtoric. Logic, (."hcmis- 
tr\-. etc. 



66 COUNTY PUBLIC SCHOOLS 

It will be necessary after such an enlargement of the course 
of study, to obtain the services of more competent teachers. Their 
present compensation will also have to be increased so that talented 
and well qualified persons may be induced to engage in the busi- 
ness of teaching. 

Certainl}' the time has come when it is necessary to make a 
thorough change. 

We now leave the above suggestions with the people of Bucks 
County. It is for them to say whether they will heed them or not ; 
it is fo' them to decide whether the schools are to be conducted 
in the same manner they have been heretofore or whether they 
will endeavor to reform them and make them a blessing, not only 
to their immediate descendants, but to all coming generations. 

\A^e trust they will be so impressed with the magnitude and 
importance of the public school system that they may see in it the 
repository of the prosperity, greatness and perpetuity of our 
Republican institutions. 
YardleyviUe. April, 1852. Signed: S. T. V. 



EARLY EVENTS IX THE FORMATIVE PERIO]> 
OF BUCKS COUNTY PUBLIC SCHOOLS 

Falls 

In 1885 Falls sustained ten schools at a total expenditure of 
nearly five thousand dollars. The length of the amiual term is 
nine months. Schools were established by the Friends shortly 
after their settlement and were conducted under denominational 
auspices until the introduction of the public school systenu "His- 
tory of Bucks County", J. H. Battle, p. o83. (For aid in brevity 
inciting source of authority. J. II. Battle will appear hereafter as 
J. H. r>. in History of Bucks Coimty. ) 
BmsTor. Township 

The public school system as promulgated in the Act of April 
1, 1834, was adopted l;y the peojde of Bristol townshi]) at the 
following election. The directors chosen. Moses Larne. Henry 
M. Wright. Lardner \ anUxem, Haniel !>ailev, Samuul L. llooz, 
and Joshua W right, held their first meeting on Saturdav, Septem- 
ber 27. IH:U, at the house of Willis M. P.aldwin and organized 
with .Moses Larue president. It doe^ not apjtear that tip. schools 



COUNTY PUBLIC SCHOOLS 67 

received much attention ; in March, 1837, the question ot "school 
or p.o school" was again voted upon and decided in tlie affirmative, 
which ])lace(l the system on a permanent footing. Five scliools, 
known respectively as Xewportville, C'enterville, Laurel Bend, 
Smith's Corner and Badger's, were opened November 1, 1837, 
with Daniel B. Hibbs, Tames C. King. Andrew J. Gilkeson, Wil- 
liam Paxton, and E. O. Pool, teachers. The following entry in 
the minutes of the board for 1840 may interest the pedagogue of 
the present day: "Horace Estes agrees to teach the Centerville 
school ten months; to commence on the first day of June, at the 
sum of twenty-three dollars per month. He agrees to teach read- 
ing, sj^elling, writing, geography, astronomy, arithmetic, English 
grammar, natural philosophy, intellectual philoso[)hy, rhetoric, 
book-keeping, algebra, geometry, history, and the Erench 
language," from which it would seem that the curriculum has 
been contracted since 1840, notwithstanding the boasted progress 
of the school system. (J. H. B. pp. 423-24). 

The Makefields 

The interests of education receive fair attention from the 
residents of this section. Lower Makefield sustains nine schools 
an annual term of nine months, at a total expenditure of five 
thousand six hundred and forty-seven dollars and sixty-three 
cents ( 1885 ). The showing for Upper Makefield is not so credit- 
able. The annual school term is nine months, seven schools are 
maintained, and the sums expended aggregate two thousand eight 
hundred and seventy-two dollars and fifty-seven cents. Graded 
schools have been established at points, and the standard for teach- 
ers is becoming more elevated year by year. Among the curious 
features of the school system generations ago was the shaj'e of 
some of the schoolhouses. ( ;ne of this character was eight-sided, 

built near Yardley by lirelsford on land given for the 

purpose by Thomas Yardley. (J. II. B. p. 444 t 

Bex SALEM 

The educational interests of this section of the country are 
fully abreast of its material wealth and religious advantages. The 
construction of the schoolhouses indicates a rare ada])tability to 
the purpose for which the\- are intended. In 1885 eight imblic 
schools were in operation tor a term of ten months, employing 
eight teachers at the uniform salary of four hundred and twenty- 



68 COUNTY PUBLIC SCHOOLS 

five dollars. The total amount expended was about six thousand 
dollars, more than other townships in the county, with a single 
exception. It has also numbered among its educational advan- 
tages Antlalusia College, at Andalusia, and Potter Hall, a board- 
ing-school for boys, at the same place. ( When completed, St. 
John's Industrial School for Boys. Eddington, will rank with the 
leading eleemosynary- institutions of this country.) (]. H. B. 
p. 476.) 
Buckingham 

Much interest is manifested in education, and the history of 
the schools of the township presents many interesting passages. 
It is said that Thomas Watson attempted to establish an Indian 
school as early as 1730-40. but without success, owing to the 
ravages of smallpox among his pupils. In 1754 Adam Harker 
left a legacy of thirty-five pounds to Wrighstown and forty pounds 
to Buckingham monthly meeting for educational purposes. In 
1768 certain residents of Buckingham united with others in 
Wrightstown and I'pper Makefield in leasing for school purposes 
a tract of land "for and during the time the walk of a certain 
house now building on said land shall by them, their heirs or 
assigns, be thought sufl^icient to bear a roof." at a yearly rent of 
one peppercorn. The house was finished ancl used for a school 
many years. i J. H. B. pp. 521-22. ) Tyro Hall. In 1789 
thirty-two citizens of Buckingham subscribed a trifle less than one 
hundred poimds. with which Tyro Hall was built. This is one 
of the most famous schools of the township. (J. H. B. p. 522.") 
Hi'ciiiESi.AN School. In 1811 Amos Austin Hughes bequeathed 
a farm of ninety-one acres and eight thousand dollars in money 
to establish a charity for the education and maintenance (when 
necessary) of poor children. In 1841 a schoolhouse was built, 
and within a few years thereaftei" the trustees employe 1 Joseph 
Fell as teacher. (J. H. B. p. 522.) 

PUBLIC SCFIOOL SYSTEM 
The public-school system was adopted in 1834, the first board 
of directors being Pryn Kirk. Joel W'orthington. James Jamison, 
AVilliam l.eiins. Jesse Reeder, and l\(il)ert Smith. 

< )f the ])ublic .schools that known as Union claims to have 
graduated a ir.dge. a general,, and a millionaire; while Buckingham 



COUNTV PUBLIC SCHOOLS 69 

Still numbers among its former pupils the first two county super- 
intendents, Joseph Fell and William H. Johnson ; five judges, 
Ilonorables Edward M. Paxson, of the Supreme Court of Penn- 
sylvania : Richard Watson, of Bucks County ; Hampton Watson, 
of Kansas : Alfred Shaw, of New Orleans, and D. Newlin Fell, of 
Philadelphia : two generals, Andrew J. Smith and John Fly : and 
three memliers of Doctor Kane's exploring expedition. 

The old Union schoolhouse was built in 1823 ; Church's is so 
named from Joseph Church, upon whose land it was built ; Hick- 
ory Grave was formerly known as the octagon, or eight square; 
Independent was built in 1844, Friendship in 1845, and Greenville 
in 1863. At the present time ( 1887 ) eleven public schools are sus- 
tained an annual term of nine months. (J. H. P.. p. 522.) 
DuRLiA^r 

Durham schools com])are favorably with those in other sec- 
tions of the county. The first schoolhouse in this section of the 
county was the "Old Durham Furnace School", built in 1727. It 
was a small log-house on the east side of the road leading from 
Easton to Philadelphia about one hundred yards north from Ehir- 
ham creek. The only teachers of whom any record exists were 
James Backhouse, whose proficiency in mathematics was extra- 
ordinary; John Ross, subsequently a judge of the supreme court 
of J'eimsylvania ; Thomas McKeen, afterward ])resident of the 
Easton National P>ank : and Richard H. Horner, who taught in 
1784 at a salary of seven shillings six pence per day. The singing 
school was an important adjunct under his administration. This 
schoolhouse, the educational pioneer of northeastern Bucks Coun- 
ty, was demolished in 1792. (J. H. B. p. 666.) The Laubacii 
SriTOOL. The Lauljach School has probably influenced the farm- 
ing communitv more than others in the township. Among the 
tcacliers here were Jacob Fewis in FS13 ; Dr. Drake, a man of 
great scientific acquirements, in 1815; Michael Fackenthall, a pro- 
ficient surveyor, in 1817: James Rittenhouse. a relative of the 
great mathematician, in 1822: and Mr. Stryker, a rigid disciplin- 
arian, in 1833. RuFK DisTKrcT. The first schoolhouse in the Rufe 
district was of logs, built in 1802. The ground necessary for its 
erection was donated b\- Sanuiel Fichline. In 1861 the old house 
was burned and the jM-esent stone building erected. Among those 



70 COUNTY PUBLIC SCHOOLS 

who taught here were Dr. Joseph Thomas and Hon. C. E. Hind- 
enach. (J. H. B. p. 666. ) 

The new Furnace schoolhouse was built abc>ut 1855, and de- 
stro3'ed b}' fire in 1876. A graded school built on land donated 
by Cooper & Hewitt was opened in February, 1877, with N. S. 
Rice principal, and C. W. Faucher assistant, fj. H. V>. p. 666.) 

The McKean Long schoolhouse. a typical structure of the 
olden time, was built in 1802 to accommodate those families who 
were not convenient to Rufe's or Laubach's. It is a long. low. 
stone building and many of the older residents of the township 
point to it with just pride as the place where the foundation of 
their future usefulness was laid. ( J. H. B. p. 666. ) 

The first schoolhouse in the Monroe district, a small frame 
building, was erected in 1836 upon ground donated by George 
Trauger. The more pretentious structure in use at the present 
was built in 1865. Among those who have taught here were Dr. 
S. S. Bachman, John Black. Reverends L. C. Sheip and C. Ft. 
Melchor. Dr. B. N. Bethel. Dr. C. D. Fretz. and D. R. Williamson, 
(J. H. B. p. 666.) 

l^he Durham Church schoolhouse was built in 1884 upon 
ground donated by John Knecht, Sr. Jacob Nickum was the first 
teacher : Aaron S. Christine and Carrie Fackenthall were among 
his successors. The present schoolhouse is a commodious build- 
ing, and compares favorably with any other in the county. (J. H. 
B. p. 666. ) 

The first schoolhouse in Riegelsville was built in 1846 and 
o])ened with Dr. R. Kressler as teacher. G. F. Hess, H. IF Hough. 
Rebecca Smith and David W. FTess was among its teachers. ( J. H. 
B. p. 666.) 

August 3, 1857. C. W. Faucher ()])ened an academy in the 
Presbyterian church. D. 11. Williamson took charge September 
1. 1869: Dr. George N. Best. September 13. 1871; John Frace. 
September 30. 1872; but for want of support the project was 
abandoned. 

After a susjjension of ten years the effort to establish a school 
of advanced standing was renewed. Through the eft'orts of John 
W. Riegel, Esq., Professor B. F. Sandt, a former student of 



COUNTN ITBLIC SCIKKH.S 11 

Lafayette College, was indviced to ojjen an academy. It ha> out- 
grown the accommodations at first provided, and since Se])tcmber 
8, 1886, ha.s been condticted in a large stone building erected main- 
ly through the munificence of Mr. John L. Riegel and deecicd in 
trust for educational purposes to the trustees of St. John's Re- 
formed clnircli in the I'nited States. .\ circulating library is one 
of its mo>t valuable features. The institution reflects credit upon 
its projectors and cannot fail to exert a favorable influence upon 
the social and intellecttial life of the communitw ( j. II 1!. ]). 669.) 
IT 10 1 1 Schools 

Under Superintendent W'illiam ?1. Slotter. the Ouakertown 
High School was instituted and a three academic course provided 
in 1881. The first class of three students was graduated in 1884. 
The average graduating class was three until 1891 when the aver- 
age jumped to ten. This High School was elevated to first class 
and a four year course provided in 1916. Ouakertown now has 
a junior and senior high school. The largest graduating cla>s was 
in 19'Xi when seventy-one graduated. The smallest class of a 
single student graduated in 1885. 

.\ High School was established in Sellersville in ISSH and in 
Perkasie in 1895. Thev joined fcjrces and in September. 1930, 
th.e fine new Sellersville- 1 'erkasie High School was o])ened. 

Newtown and I Bristol have the oldest secondary scliools in 
the County. 

During the year 1887 the Wood Street School which is still 
standing was built and this is in-obablv the first public school Iniild- 
ing erected in Ijucks County. This school opened with an enroll- 
ment of 246 pupils. 

Sixteen years later the second school building was erected, 
and, in 1873. the school s\stem was organized into a High School. 
Grammar, ( ?) Secondary, and Primary School. The High School 
building was not erected until 1894. The magnificent building at 
Jefferson and I'ond Streets was bm'lt in 1909. The present en- 
rollment is about 1100 ])U]m1s. 

Morrisville pu])ils. ])rior to 18f)ll. who wished to continue their 
education beyond the eighth grade were required to attend the 
Trenton High School. The two story brick building on the south 



il COUNTV P LB Lie SCHOOLS 

side of Chambers Street was completed Deceinber 5, 1892. and 
the opening enroHment numbered twenty pupils. 

Two }'ears later the original six room William Case building 
was opened at West Bridge and Morris Streets ; a four room 
brick annex was added in 1912. Until 1915 only a three year 
academic course was olTered. A four year term including other 
courses was instituted the following years. 

In 1924 the first unit of the three story new Rol)ert Morris 
building with five rooms on each floor was completed. Two an- 
nexes have since been added making the Morrisville Tligh School 
one of the finest in the ccjunty. 

The historic Summerseat Mansicjn adjoining the school build- 
ing has been restored and houses th.e Home Economics Course 
and e(iui])ment of the High School curriculum. 

The brails Township High School in Fallsington was estab- 
lished in LS95 with a three year course including only academic 
subjects. In 1932 a regular four vear course was adopted. 

The first New Hope High School graduating class of two 
]x"rsons was that of 1898. In 1923 the three year course was 
changed to a four year course. 

The first High School course in Northampton Township was 
taught in the old fire house in Northampton in 1896. This was a 
two year course and C(intinued so mitil 1913 when another year 
was added. In 1927 the f(jnr year course was adopted and an 
increased faculty engaged. 

L'pper Southam]3ton, the first High School in Southampton 
Township, was established in 1898 with a two year coiu'se and 
])rovisions f(^r post-graduate work. 

After the flivision of the Township in 1930. a new Fdigh 
School course instituted and its curriculum adopted to the six year 
junior--etnor High School plan. 

S])r!i'gfiel(l High School was opened in 1903 at Pleasant \'a!- 
ley with one teacher in charge and the first class of two members 
was graduated in 1905. The present modern High School was 
erected in 1!»13. 

Yardley High School in June 1922 graduateil its first four 
year class, at which time there were but two courses, general and 
academic. In 1913 a commercial course was added. 



L'nVSTY PL'P.r.R' S<'H()()I,S 73 

lUickinghani Higli School was organized in 1915 and was 
lirst housed in the huilchng uf the Hnghesian Free School. The 
first enrolment consisted of twenty-five i)Ui>ils. The course of 
>tudv was a three }ear academic one, which continued to 1935, 
wdien the junior-senior plan was adopted. 

llidtown llio-h Scho(jl was begun in 1009, ottering a two 
vear course. Ten pupils enrolled the first year under one teacher. 
The three \ear plan was later adopted for a period of several 
\ears until 19"2(i, when the four \ear plan was tried until 1932, 
after which the three \ear plan was again adopted. 

Bensaleni Township High School wa^ established in 1922. 
1 Towever. secondary school work was done at Kddington as early 
as 1910. Some High School subjects were taught at Penn Valley 
School about 1912. The present t^ne High School building was 
lirst used in 1930. 

Xockami.xon Townshi]) sch(»ol authorities voted to establish 
a High School in 1904 and in A!a\- 1906 the first commencement 
was held for a graduating class of seven pupils. The course was 
a two \ear academic inie and continued so until 1911, when an- 
other vear was added. In 191 (i the regular four year period was 
introduced. 

RLT.KS FOR THF RE( il'L.XTF )X (W A SCHOOLROOM 
i.\ 1S40. 

Rule 1. Scholar.-, must he at school ai the appointed time and 
take their seats cjuietly and not run about the room 
from ])lace to place without occasion. 

Rule 2. .\o scholar .^liall he al'owcd to attend school who is 
not decent and clean anrl free M'om infectious disor- 
ders. 

Rule 3. All umiece>sary di>course between the scholars must 
he avoided and no words may be spoken above a 
whisiier. except when attending class or by special 
consent of the teacher. 

Rule 4. Scholars nnist not >tare at strangers who come into the 
room, nor at those who pass by the building, nor neglect 
their studies to look out the windows at persons pass- 
ing by. 



74 COUNTY PUBLIC SCHOOLS 

Rule 5. Scholars must not ramble about in any enclosure, tield 
or orchard, about the school building. 

Rule 6. The larger scholars must not tease nor deride the 
smaller or weaker ones, but must on all occasions 
behave with civilit}-, kindness and respect toward each 
other. 

Rule 7. No wrestling, fighting, swearing, lying, gaming, trad- 
ing, or an\- indecent behavior shall be allowed under 
pain of dismissal, as the nature of the cnse may he. 

Rule 8. At noontime, scholars must not be noisy at play, nor 

stare or point at passersby. 
Rule 9. In coming or returning home from school, scholars 

must pass along quietly without abusing any person or 

thing. 
Rule 10. Scholars must not mark nor deface desks, nor abuse 

anv of the school pro]:)erty. 
Rule 11. Scholars must not play tag. nor throw snowballs dur- 
ing noontime, nor ingoing to and from school. 
Rule 12. Scholars must be considered under the care of the 

teacher from the time they leave home in the morning 

till they return in the evening. 
Rule 13. Every scholar shall be accountable for the windows 

they break. 

These rules are binding in every way upon the scholars of 
every age and degree and if any should think themselves above 
them and prove incorrigible, he may be expelled by the consent 
of the trustees. He shall pay the teacher for the time he attended 
school. 

It is hereby enjoined and required of the teacher that she 
read these rules to the school once a week and that every scholar 
])ay strict attention to the observance of them in every way. 

AD^IIXISTRATIOX OF PUBLIC SCHOOL AFFAIRS 
IN BUCKS COUNTY 
School Districts. Each county and borough in lUicks 
County is a se])arate school dictrict. There are thirty-one town- 
ships and twenty-two boroughs, making a total of fifty-three 
school districts in the county. 



COl'XTV Pl'BLIC SCHOdLS /D 

In Pennsylvania the school districts are divided into four 
classifications according to population. I^^irst class scliool districts 
must have a population of five hundred thousand or more; second 
class districts range from thirty thousand to five hundred thous- 
and : third class districts must have five thousand or more, and 
ail under five thousand come in the fourth class. 

In Bucks County all school districts are fourth class excei)t 
Bristol, Bensalem and Morrisville. which are third class. 

The Township School Directors. In general, in charge 
of each school district is a board of school directors. In first 
class districts, like Philadelphia, there are fifteen directors, ap- 
pointed by the Court of Common FMeas. In the others, there are 
nine, seven and five directors respectively, elected for terms of 
six years by the people at the general elections. 

Each school board may select from its members a President. 
Vice-President, a Treasurer who receives and disburses the school 
monies, and a Secretary who transacts the routine business as 
directed bv the Board. 

The Township school directors hire teachers, look after the 
buildings and school equipment, fix the tax rate, which is based 
on the budget reciuirements and the real estate assessed valuation. 

The Couxtv Board of School Directors. The County 
Board of School Directors takes the place of the recently abol- 
i.shed executive committee. ^Members of this board are elected by 
the entire body of the township directors assembled in convention 
once each year. The county board consists of five members chosen 
for terms of six years. Xo one may serve on the county lx)ard 
who is not at the time of his election a member of one of the 
township boards. The terms of office are so arranged that some 
expire every two years, thus, preventing the situation of having 
an entire new lx)ard. unfamiliar with its duties, take otYice at one 
time. 

The countv school Ijoard is imder the supervision of the 
Count\- Superintendent, and its duties are the inspection of all 
townshi]) Inidgets and financial re])orts. They assist the local 
boards in matters relating to school buildings and sites, trans- 
portation, etc., and act in the capacity of general advisors. 



76 COUNTY PUBLIC SCHOOLS 

The County Superintendent is chief executive officer of the 
county board and furnishes them with advice and reports on the 
various phases of tiie school work with which they have to do. 

The Couxtv Superintendent of Schools. The County 
Superintendent of Schools is elected every four years by the 
township school directors at the time of their annual convention. 

Roughly his duties are the general supervision of the county 
school affairs. He is charged with the maintenance of standards 
set by the school code or the school laws of the state. He is a 
unit of the public school supervisory system of the state and 
reports the progress of his county to the Department of Public 
Instruction at Plarrisburg, once a year. 

Tlie County Superintendent in Bucks County has two assist- 
ants who help with the detail of supervisory and local administra- 
tive affairs in the townships. They see that the standard for the 
different townships is maintained in the separate schools, give the 
linal examinations and, otherwise, supervise local school manage- 
ment. 

The Principals Association. The Principals Association 
of Bucks County has been in existence for about ten years. Mem- 
bership in the association consists of more than thirty-five mem- 
bers, including the County Superintendents, Supervising Princi- 
pals, and Principals of High and Elementary Schools. 

During the past few years the meetings have been held regu- 
larly each month, except during the summer months. These meet- 
ings are held at various schools and usually in the evening, with 
a dinner followed by a business meeting and program. Recreation 
is often provided in the gymnasiums with basketball and volley- 
ball games. This recreation is usuallv held in the afternoon 
!)efore the meeting is called to order. 

Problems relating to the county schools, legislation, attend- 
ance, teaching and supervision, etc., are regularly discussed. The 
Bucks Countv Teachers .Association and Institute programs with 
the Bucks County Tnterscholastic Association take up much con- 
sideration. 

i luest speakers, in the form of College Professors, Legis- 
lators and School Directors, often appear on the program. 



COUNTY PUBLIC SCHOOLS 7/ 

Medical Inspection and Sanitation. Each school district 
is required to provide a mecHcal inspection for the pupils iu its 
public schools. The service is under the direction of a countv 
officer, known as Chief Medical Inspector, who is responsible to 
the Commissioners of Health, at Harrisburg. He may select sev- 
eral assistants whose duties are the examination of each pupil in 
the schools of the territory of which he is in charge. Pupils are 
examined for defective hearing and eyesight, bad teeth, or other 
disabilities. He recommends any especial medical or surgical 
attention the child may recjuire. 

Once each year the County Medical Examiner is required to 
make the rounds of the schools, to make careful examination of 
all toilets, cellars, water supply and drinking vessels, to insure 
against sickness or epidemics, due to uu'^anitarv conditions. 

Any Board of School Directors may employ one or more 
school nurses to cooperate and assist with the health and care of 
the pupils. 

The Modern Trend in Classroom Technique. The mod- 
ern ideas of classroom mechanics and training represent a marked 
change over the methods in use only a few years back. 

Formerly the chief concern and objective of the classroom 
instructor was the tiresome task of cramming the fundamentals 
of mathematics, science and language into the unreceptive mind^ 
of his pupils, by way of the memory route. Reasoning and 
deduction was left to later life and more mature years. Conse- 
quently, the student often found himself suddenly confronted witli 
the fact of discovery of tlie why and wlierefor for some theory 
he had memorized, but only partial)} absorbed in the lower grades. 
Due to the lack of early mental exercise and training of the 
mental processes, many failed fully to develr)p their faculties 
before a great deal of harm was done and much time lost. 

Much of this is now changed. From his earliest ^ears of 
school life the pu])il is taught to develop his individualities: to 
cultivate his powers of observation and deduction, and to exert 
his full mental i)rocesses to plan, reason and think for liimself. 
The studant of today is tauglit the e->entials of clean democratic 
government, in order that when his place is taken in society, he 
will have an intelligent understanding of his responsibilities. 



78 COUNTY PUBLIC SCHOOLS 

He unconsciously absorbs a new sense of the relation of 
erlucation to character building. The present day high school 
graduate, whether he continues his education in broader fields or 
enters the commercial life of his community, has a well balanced 
concept of the duties and obligations of citizenship. 

The Teachers Institute. For the purpose of promoting 
professional pride and interest in school work, and to acquaint 
the public with what was being accomplished in the public schools, 
the idea of a Teachers Institute was advanced. 

Owing to the poor roarls and worse traveling facilities of 
the early days, district institutes were held often and in more 
narrowly restricted areas than now. Prior to 1860, so-called dis- 
trict institutes were held as often as twice a month. The teachers 
met to exchange views and discuss their problems. The parents 
of children were invited and entertainment was provided, helping 
to bring the general public to a better understanding of the school 
work. 

The first regular County Teachers Institute was held at New- 
town in 1858, and the year following at Ouakertown. 

The District Institutes were eventually discontinued and the 
present-day P^arent Teachers Association took its place. 

The Teachers Institute has been changed from time to time, 
and continues, a source of great inspiration for all who are en- 
gaged in our county educational work. 

XoRM.\L Schools. One of the crying needs of the early 
schools was properly trained teachers. The fir.st county superin- 
tendants were greatly handicapped in their efiforts to improve the 
standard of the schools, due to the absence of qualified teachers. 
It was one of the duties of the Superintendent to hold examin- 
ations from time to time in dififerent pa^ts of the county, to ascer- 
tain the fitness of applicants for positions as teachers. Mr. Fell, 
in one of iiis rei^orts to the State Superintendent of Schools, com- 
plains at length about this and suggests a remedy must be found 
for this deplorable state of afifairs, l^efore any very substantial 
progress can be made. 

He hadn't long to wait, for the State Legislature passed an 
Act in IS.')?, providing for the division of the state into twelve 
Normal School Districts. There was to be an authorized school 
in each district under private management, Imt subject to state 



COrXTV PUBLIC SCHOOLS 79 

supervision, so that a fairly high standard he maintained to turn 
out (|uaHfied teachers. 

The tirst normal school in Pennsylvania was instituted at 
Millersville, in Lancaster County, and man\ of our early teachers 
and educators matriculated at "Millersville Normal". \t ahout 
the same time, several other i)rivate sidiools. in other parts of the 
state, attempted to maintain the hig'h standard required bv the 
state and operate at a ])rofit, but they were generally unsuccessful. 
State aid was given them in increasing amoiuits and the private 
Normal School struggled along until 1911, when an addition to 
the school code, provided for the purchase by the State of all 
normal schools. This was done at a cost of $1,600,000. .Since 
that time wonderful progress has been made. Many of our I'.ucks 
County teachers come to us from West Chester Normal, at West 
Chester, and from siiuilar schools at Kutztown and Stroudsburg. 
.\t present there are fourteen of them throughout the state. 

In 1926. the Normal Schools were reorganized under the 
name of State Teachers Colleges. The standard was raised and 
the courses enlarged, leading to the degree of Bachelor of Science. 
( )ur teachers have seized this opportunity to improve themselves, 
and many of theiu already in the service as teachers, have gone 
hack to com])lete the work necessary to receive a liachelor's 
degree. 

The Teachers Colleges also provide training in specific tields, 
as art, music, home economics, health and kindergarten, library, 
and industrial arts. 

The professional standard for teachers is raj^idly rising, and 
in the course of a few years, there is every probability that all <nir 
teachers will have not less than the equivalent of a four year 
college course, in preparation for the noble j:)rofession that is 
theirs. 

Speci.al School D.ws. Article 40 of the School Code sets 
aside several days of the school year to observe important events 
in the history of Pennsylvania. 

Bird Day. The (iovernor ma\ designate or set apart certain 
days each \ear, to be known as "Arbor Day" or "Bird Day". ( )n 
these occasions it is the dut\- of the teacher to devote at least two 
hours of the school da\- to the ^tudv of birds ;uid wild life, to 
understand better the value of Inrds to our national welfare. 



80 COUXTY 1-UBLIC SCHOOLS 

JViUiain Pcnn Day. The Governor, by proclamation, calls 
upon the people to observe William Penn"s birthday on October 
24th each year. Appropriate exercises, with reference to the life 
and teaching? of the great Founder of Pennsylvania, are sug- 
gested for the school celebration of this day. 

General Pulaski Day. October the eleventh is set aside by 
official proclamation each year to be celebrated by suitable exer- 
cises, and display of the flag in all schools and public buildings. 
to commemorate the death of General Casimir Pulaski. 

Free SeJwoI Day. Free School Day is to cnmniemorate the 
adoption of the free school law in April 1834. The days of ob- 
servance mav be between April the first and eleventh, inclusive. 
Appropriate exercises and special study of the lives and achieve- 
ments of George Wolf, Governor of F^ennsylvania at the time of 
the passage of the law. and Senators Samuel Breck and Thaddeus 
Stevens, who were largelv responsible for its adoption. 

First County Superintendents. A most important feature 
of the Act of 1854 was the ])rovision which called for the election 
of a Coimtv Superintendent whose duties were the selection of 
good teachers and the general guidance of his district. He was 
to be a person of "scientiflc and literar}- acquirement and of skill 
and experience in the art of teaching." (J)bviously, a person with 
these attainments would value his services above tlie small salaries 
(as low as two or three hundred dollar^ a year) that were being 
offered to county superintendents at this lime. It was feared that 
some difficult\- might he experienced in >ecuring competent men 
for this work. 

On June 5, 1854, a meeting was held in the old Court Flouse 
at Doylestown, presided over by George Lear, then a member of 
the Doylestown Borough School Board. In tliis meeting the 
salarv was set and Joseph Fell of Buckingham was chosen as the 
first County Superintendent of Schools of Bucks. Air. Fell was 
an able man and was very instruni'^ntal in establishing a high 
standard- in the first schools. 

In hi> first re])ort, in 1854. lo the State Superintendent. ]\lr. 
Fell write- in s(»me detail concerning the condition of schools 
under his supervision. Beyond the usual comments about struc- 
tures and equipment descriptive of Bristol. Doylestown. New 
lIo])e. and Morrisville, he notes that "as a general thing the bor- 



COUXTN' I'UBI.IC SCHOOLS 81 

ough schools were better than the country schools." "in New- 
town RoroLigh the co-edncatin of the sexes is re])Ufliate(l. There 
are two schools here, one for the boys, the other for the girls 
exclnsivel}-." 

In closing his report. Mr. Fell stated he was anxious to estal)- 
lish a normal school where teachers may be ]n-e])are(l for their 
"high and holy calling". Tlie salaries ranged from $10.00 to 
$.S0.00 per month for the teachers in 1854. 

Mr. Fell's report for the following year was also very inter- 
esting and comprehensive. During the year the first County 
Teacher's Institute was held and the public invited. It was a fine 
success and helped much in interesting the general public as de- 
tailed newspaper reports were well circulated. The school equip- 
ment was being added to. although there was still a shortage of 
books. Some of the schools were attempting to teach both 
English and ( ierman which resulted in much confusion. 

And so from a very crude beginning the public school system 
slowly, but quite surely, pulled itself out of nearly hopeless situa- 
tion to a position of encouraging iirogress during the three years 
of Mr. Fell's incumbency as County Superintendent of Schools. 

In 1857, ^^'illiam H. Johnson was elected County Superin- 
tendent, lie was a man of ability and accomplishment, Init relin- 
quished the task after one term of three years. 

Simeon S. Uverholt was elected in 1860, and served three 
terms to 1869. 

^\'illiam P. Sharkex- of Xew Flope served three months from 
March to June in 1869. 

Hugh B. Eastburn of Solebury was appointed to fill out the 
imexpired term of Stephen T. Kirk, wlio was elected in 1869. Mr. 
Eastburn. although a young man, entered into the performance of 
his duties with such earnestness and zest that he was re-elected 
for two successive terms, but resigned in 1876 to i)racticc law. 

W. W. Woodrufi' of Xewtown was ai)pointed to fill out the 
unexpired term and -erved until June 18S7. lie was followed 
by William 11. Slotter of \'ardley. who served until 190L'. 

Allen S. Martin of Uoyleslown succeeded Mr. Slotter to Jan- 
uary 1906. 



82 COUNTY PUBLIC SCHOOLS 

James H. Shelley acted to June 1908, when J. H. Hoffman 
of Xewtown was elected. Mr. Hoffman has held the office con- 
tinuously and very ably since. 

At the last Directors" Convention held April 12, 1938. at 
Doylestown, 2^Ir. Hoffman succeeded himself for another term. 
Albert C. Rutter, Perkasie, and Charles H. Boehm, Morrisville. 
are the Assistant Superintendents of the Public Schools of Bucks 
County. 

ScTiot>L Directory Association. The School Directory of 
Buck'; County organized into an association in A'lay 1889, and 
held semi-annual meetings, thus better acquainting themselves with 
the school work. This association has been a valuable aid to the 
directory in maintaining a high standard for the schools of the 
county. 

T?]E Teachers' Institute. By 1858 the Institute became 
quite popular and was a means of creatihg new public interest 
in the schools and education. Xot only were the teachers brought 
into a closer relationship for better service but the general public 
was invited and the social contact was of mutual benefit, adding 
an immerliate new im])etus to the cause of the public schools. 

Owing to the poor traveling facilities prevalent during this 
earlv period, there were many district institutes of a local and 
social nature that met once or twice a month, with a county insti- 
tute held semi-annually at first, but later to once a year. The first 
regular County Institute was held in Newtown in 1858. and the 
following year at Quakertown. 

The County Su])erinten(lent, William P. .Sharkey, in 1879 
reported that in the county were thirty-seven school districts, two 
hundred eighty-six schools, and three hundred si.x teachers. There 
were 15,221 pupils. 

THE EIGHT SOCARE SCHO(^L HOUSE 
To the casual passerb^• the Octagonal ( height Square ) School- 
house is a structure of immediate interest and possible conjecture 
concerning its utilitarian purpose. 

Earlv in the nineteenth century a number of "eight-square" 
school-houses were built throughout the couuty. Their architec- 
tural design caused them to become objects of oddity, but their 



COUNTY PUBLIC SCHOOLS 83 

unique appearance is enhanced by the turning years, rather than 
becoming commonplace through the advent of time. 

This type of buiUHng construction is beheverl to have had its 
origin in Holland, where it had been in use years before. Some 
assert that it is likely the first octagon shaped building in America 
was an old Dutch trading post, built by the Dutch West India 
Company in 1630 on the site of Trenton. The foundation of 
this small building was brought to light through excavation oper- 
ations in 1881. 

In addition to schoolhouses. there were a few churches and 
barns built here along similar lines early in the nineteenth cen- 
tury. 

The multiplicity of sides immediately determined the manner 
of natural illumination, for there were seven windows, one to a 
side, with a door in the eighth space. The desks were arranged 
around the walls in two rows with the pupils facing the light, and 
o])posite the door was the teacher's desk. The pupils' desks were 
pine boards with an original smoothly planed surface, but attempts 
to perpetuate the learner's identity through carving of initials, left 
a tendency to impair the legibility of penmanship and exactness in 
drawing. Xear the door on a stool was placed a water bucket and 
a dipper. A large sheet tin stove occupied the center of the room. 

Alodern methods of living, of course, do not sanction direct 
illumination from without. Here the pupil was compelled to face 
the window and subject himself to the undiminished glare. Later 
schocjls were designed to remedy this fault, the windows l)eing 
placed to admit the passage of light in two directions. 

Following is a list of the Eight Scjuare schoolhouses, that are, 
or have been, in Ilucks County: — Oxford \'alley Eight Square, 
near (Jxford N'alley in Lower Makefield, the date stone being 
marked 1775. This ma}- be an error. Authoritative opinion places 
the date of its construction much later, probably 1830. 

Penn's Lark. al)out one mile southwest of the town of Lenn's 
Lark ^'ownshij), erected in 1802. This building is still standing. 

I'Vankford School, near I'.ursonville in Springfield Townshi]) ; 
buik 1807-09. 

Leidytown. in llilltown Townshiii, at the intersection of the 
Bethlehem Like and Chalfont Road; built in 1816. 



84 



COUNTY Pl'BLIC SCHOOLS 



Stewart's Schoo], on the Ferry Road in New Britain Town- 
ship, near Fountainville ; built in 1816. and torn down about 1890. 

Hickory Grove, on the Durham Road in Buckingham, near 
Pkmistead Township hne, built in 1818. 

Groveland School, near Hinkletown in Plumstead Township : 
built in 1833. 

Mine Spring School, near Rupletown in Bridgetown Town- 
ship, built sometime before 1876. 



- -# 



r\ 









^S. 



.*¥ 




EIGHT-SQUAJRE SCHOOL HOUSE, 182.", to 1868. 
(Fiom "An Autobiography", p. 114. By Thaddeus S. KenderHne, Newtowi 



Lumberville School, at the intersection of the State Road and 
the Lumberville to Carversville Road ; built in 1824. 

From History of Bucks County, Pennsylvania. 1887. by J. H. 
LJatlle. i)age 444, a])pears this notation : 

"Among the curious features of the school system of several 
generations ago was the shape of some of the schoolhouscs. One 

of this character was eight-sided, built near Yardley by 

Brelsford on land given for the purpose by Thomas Yardley." 



COUNTY PUBLIC SCHOOLS 85 

In addition to the list of Eight Squares as herewith submitted 
is the one mentioned in the history of Maple Point School. The 
present discontinued school structure at that spot was preceded 
by an "eight square" placed nearer the junction on the intersect- 
ing highways, as described in interview with George Row on 
September 25, 1937. 

This picture has been kindly furnished by Anna W. Smith, 
Wash.ington Avenue, Newtown, Pa. 

The notation found in pencil l)elo\^- the picture, is in the hand- 
writing of flannah M. Smith, mother of Anna V/. Smith. The 
former, whose maiden name was Large, was one of the assistant 
teachers at the Lumberville Eight Square". 3/23/1938. 

THE OCTAGONAL (EIGHT SQUARE) SCHOOLHOUSE 
■'Of all the works of the architect within this noble -tate, 
The Octagon Athenium is noted and most great : 
'Tis built of yellow free-stone; of corners it has eight, 
Its roof is neither made of tin, nor is it made of slate. 
'Twas built in eighteen 23 — If you can't think that true, 
Go to tlie rear and you will see it present to your view." 

— Kendcrdine. 

Through the kindness of Aima Smith, Newtown, Pa., I have 
been privileged to read from ""Personal Recollections and Travels, 
at Home and Abroad", X'olume I, in Two Parts, by Thaddeus S. 
Kenderdine, printed at the Newtown Enterprise Office, Newtown, 
Pa., 1913. 

Thaddeus S. Kenderdine was born 1836. and died in 1922. 
This venerable Friend devoted several pages of his recollections 
to the "Old Eight Square" near Lumberville. Gatchel c^ Man- 
ning, Phila., appear to be responsible for the pen and ink sketch 
which portrays the structure in a sylvan setting. Youth and maid 
with lunch baskets and 1x)oks approach the house, which compan- 
ions, already arrived, are ])icture(l in tlie plot, nr triangle of 
ground, at the junction of roads. The ""snake" or ""wornr" fencing 
is indicative of the method of enclosure at the time. l)ut it is the 
adjoining property along tlie two lanes that is placed as a restricted 
area. The school ground admit'- no 1)arrier between itself and 
neighboring highways. The dates announce its building in 1823, 
and its surrenrler as an educational center in 1855. 



86 COUNTY PUBLIC SCHOOLS 

The author's facts and those hitherto stated are at some sHght 
variance. The date of building under general information is re- 
corded as 1824, and the "Eight Square" at the Chain Bridge, in 
Wrightstown. as 1804 instead of 1802. 

The following additional comments by Thaddeus Kenderdine 
may well be incorporated into the story of the "Eight Square". 
Wrote he in reference to "The Old Eight-Square near Lumber- 
ville" : 

"There were usually two extra movable rows of desks facing 
the center of the room, and those occupying them, the smaller 
scholars, had their backs to the light, and sat sideways to the 
'master's' desk. 

"I suppose the octagonal hall of learning which I attended 
for twelve years, situated on the State road leading from the lower 
end of Lumbervdlle to Lahaska about half a mile from the river, 
was thirty feet across with twenty-four walled in 'lesks. and twelve 
tacing the stove, and back of these were benches where the A,B,C, 
and primer scholars sat. I have known between eighty and ninety 
pupils on the rolls, but their attendance was irregular, for there 
were no truant officers in those times and pupils could go when 
and where they pleased, or stay at home at their parents' will, but 
I have known from fifty to si.xtv crowded at one :ime in this little 
building. At such times there would be an assistant taken from 
among the larger girl pupils: one who ])erhaps. wa^ intending to 
be a teacher, herself. Possibly they were paid something, but I am 
not positive, as their apprentice experience might be worth enough 
to ])ay theuL 

"Tuder the eaves of the rear of the schoolhou>e was a date 
board sliowing it was built in 1S23. Its carpenter was .Amos 
Armitage. and 1 snjjpose the mason work was done by 'Danny" 
Helwig. wlio lived near as a thrift\- I'armer, and who had laid for 
])astime in liis younger da\■,•^. It was built on a triangular jiiece of 
ground, on top of a hill, less than a (juarter acre in area, and 
bounded h\ two converging roads and a woods, donated by an old 
resident, Koliert Liveze\. l-"roni this a threr acre lot (was) after- 
wards bought for a playground Xear the center of the lot 

was a large oak, so much like the one in Comix's spelling book, 
that I thor.ght the artist drew it thence and with a conscientious 



COUNTY I'URLIC SCHOOLS 87 

j)C'iici!. riuler the shade of this wide si)rea(hng tree the ■J:\v\> had 
their playhouses, withi wahs made of sniah stones and stieks of 
wood aeross oiienin^s in them tor doors. 'I he erocker\- ware was 
of hrokeu dishes from home for i)hues. while the cu])> were from 
tile bases of acorn.-, (h-oppint,^ from the hmhs aho\-c as freely as 
tile manna of the Israelites of the I'ihle. 

"I have a list of the teachers from the time the I*".iL;ht S(juare 
\va.s Ijuilt to the time it was dismantled after twer.t\'-four years of 
service as a hail of learning, when it was bought b\- one Jerry 
I-lynn for a home. 1 never saw the rooms after they were ])arti- 
tioned olf. but from the fashion of the schoolhouse, they must 
have been shaped like ])ieces of i)ie. 

■'The teachers" names follow : 

Solomon Wright ( ieorge W lietts 

David McCready \\ illam K. Case 

William C. Ely ( )liver Wilson 

Isaiah Large ^ )bid M. I'ass 

John Gillingham W illiam S. Janne\ 

Amos Winder Julia M. Tliompson 

Elias Duer b'rank Stai>ler 

Hiram Jones lurima .\tkinson 

Sarah Lee Mar\ Hampton 

Susan Parrv b^weretta lUidd 

Susan Fell Rose liudd 

Helena I'arr}- lulgar Mellin 

1). Wilson Small Margaret Snnth 

Susanna I'Ax ' ieorgc I'.astburn 

John W. Cilbert Sarah I',. WiLon 

I lanna M. Smith 
■"0. Wilson Small studied law, mo\-ed to Wisconsin, and after- 
wards married another of the F-ight S<|nare teachers, Susanna 
El}-, lie became a law Judge in hi-- new location. 

"The cult of 'Singing ( ieogra])h\' came in about IS.')!!, but 
was by no means confined to our school di-^lrict, township, couniy. 
or state, for it prevailed across the ri\er in Jer-iy. ( )ne Samuel 
Xaylor introduced the system in both --tale'-. Teacher Small 
studied under him. .... With the aid of 'I'elton's ( )utline Maps', 
large hanging charts on w liicli were marked all the iprincipa! fea- 



88 COUNT V PUBLIC SCHOOLS 

tures on the world's surface, rivers, lakes, bays, seas, mountains, 
capes, grand and political divisions, with their principal cities, and 
I don't remember what else, he had his pupils chanting to a modi- 
fied tune from the (jpera of "Old Dan Tucker' the titles of the long 
list named. Sometimes "( )ld Dan' had not compass enough, such 
as in giving a description of the destruction of Herculaneum and 
Pompeii, or some other noted event. . . . Before this lesson-sugar- 
ing fad died out the pr(jsaic multiplication tables were assailed, and 
then- 'Twice one are two' on up to "twelve times twelve are one 
hundred forty- four' were set to the 'C)ld Dan Tucker' tune." 

MANUAL LABOR SCHOOLS 
The manual lab<;)r idea in its significant social and educational 
aspects, was institutionalized and popularized by Emanuel Fellen- 
berg, at Hofwyl, in the first quarter of the century. 

The private masters, with ])ossibly one exception, did r,ot do 
nuich to promote manual labor schooL. In 1931, a Mr. Ismar, 
who studied under Fellenberg, was conducting such a school near 
Bristol. It was known as the Fellenberg School. Anthony Mor- 
ris, who apparently contributed generously toward the establish- 
ment and support of this school,* said of Ismar- 

His character is unique, enthusiastic on the subject of the 
system; thoroughly instructed first at Hofwyl: and finally by a 
seven years course of study at Gottingen. He is a first rate Mathe- 
matician and a practical Engineer. . . He applies all his theories 
immediatelv to practice, such as transferring the principles of 
Geometry, as taught on the blacklioard, instantly to the survey of 
gardens, etc. As to the physical branches of education, he labors 
himself with his scholars, walks with them, talks with thenL pene- 
trates with a kind of intuition, (the result of his education) im- 
mediately the ])eculiar j)ropensities and talents of each, and ap- 
plies his instruction according!}-. (Ibid, 334) 

To what extent this institution was a private undertaking is 
not clear, but in a lectiu'c delivered in (reorgetown. in 1831, Ismar 
outlined his "Plan for a ])reiiaratory school, after the Fellenberg 
System." and remarked in i)resenting it ; 

I haye therefore stated, that I was willing to establish a pre- 
parat(jry school in this district, in order to introduce Mr. b'ellen- 
berg's systenL uiuil 1 can determine in which part of this county 



COl^NTN' PUBLIC S('HOOI,S 89 

I shall found an entire llofvvyl institution. ... It is my desire to 
begin by acting, and not by applying for the j^atronage of others. 
I have stated that I have not requested, and never will ask pecun- 
iary aid. 1 have learned, that such aid has uniformly proved in- 
jurious to the welfare of the institution, as every contributor 
claims a right to interfere in the internal policy; and, while they 
pretend to support it, they substitute for its established system, 
their individual views and opinions, which are oftentimes capri- 
cious. (Hazard: Register of Pa., VIT, 404-5.) 

He went on to explain his [ilan for instruction in agriculture. 
In the beginning he could admit no poor student, because he would 
have to accept gifts to do ^o, and thus lose his independence. He 
remarked : 

I must try another mode. 1 find it in a pre])arator\- school for 
teachers, and for that class of society vvdiij are ahle, and are will- 
ing, to pay an amuial remuneration., and to pa\- the same half 
yearly in advance. . . This remuneration being fixed, ten ])upils 
would be required to open a preparatory school, the i)arents of 
whom should select from among themselves one, and mvself an- 
other meniber, to form a committee, whose duty it should he to 
decide, whether the son of this or that mechanic, or farmer, may 
be admitted to the school, at a lower rate than tlie established 
price; and who ought to pay quarterly in advance, one half in 
money, and, if he so desire it, the other half in produce, labor, etc.. 
at the current rates of the day. 

The pupils must not I>e less than ten years of age, able to read 
and write tolerably — the young teachers should be seventeen 
years of age, able to read and write correctly. (Ibid. 405) (Mul- 
hern "A Hist, of Sec. Ed. in Pa.— pp 284-286.) 

The curriculum as he outlined it was almost entirely modern 
and scientific. Ismar was evidently one of the popularizers of the 
h'ellenberg idea, and soon the legislature found petitions arriving 
from several counties asking for public ;'iid for manual labor 
schools. He was not, however, a i)ioneer, for a manual labor 
school hafl been attemi^ted at i iermantown before he came to Pcnn- 
.-ylvania. ( Mulhern ".X Mist, of Sec. V.i\. in Pa., p. 286. i I'.ucks 
County Intelligencer. Oct. -U. 1881. 
* Hazard: Register ot Pa., VII. 4 "i. 



90 COUXTV PUBLIC SCHOOLS 

Bristol College, an Episcopal institution, adopted the plan (i.e., 
manual labor) in 1834. (The T^ws of Tlristol College, p. 18. 
[Rucks Co. Hist. Soc] ) 

In the thirties the manual labor ])lan of education was finding 
advocates in the legislature, where it was enthusiastically recom- 
mended by a Committee on Education in 1838. The committee 
found by investigation : 

l^irst — That the expense of education, wlien connected with 
manual labor judiciously directed, mav be reduced at least one 
half. 

Second — That the exercise of about three liours manual labor, 
daily, contributes to the healtl: and cheerfulness of the ])upil, by 
strengthening and improving liis ])hvs'cal i)()wers. and hx engaging 
his mind in useful pursuits. 

Third — That so far from manual labor being an im]iediment 
in the progress of the ]iupil, in intellecturd studies, it has been 
found that in ])roportion as one ])U])il has excelled another in the 
amount of labor ])er formed, the same pu]n\ has excelled the other, 
in etfual ratio, in his intellectual studies. 

b^ourth — That manual labor institutions tend to break down 
the distinctions between rich and poor which exist in society, in- 
asmuch as they give an almost equal opportunity of education to 
the jioor by labor, as is afforded to the rich by the i)ossession of 
wealth ; and 

Eifth — That pupils trained in this wa\-, are much better fitted 
for active life, and better (lualified to act as useful citizens, than 
when educated in any other mode — that they are better as re- 
gards ])hysical energy, and better intebectually. and morally. (Re- 
jiort on Manual Labor Academies — Hazard : Register of Pa., xi, 
^8f)-29].) 

Petitions came from man\- ])arts of the .State to the legislature 
advocating the establishment of such schools. 

The writer has been able to ol)tain from the State .\rcliives 
at llarrisburg a photo-static coi)y of the original petition, or 
memorial signed by citizens of lUicks County, June ( ?) 30, 1834. 
and addres-ed to the Pennsyhania Eegislature. "Praying for .State 
Aid for -Manual Labor Schools." 



COUNTY PUBLIC SCHOOLS 91 

As a part of this pa]ier said photo-static co]))- is herewith 
incliuled. 

MAPLE POINT SCIfOOL 
A sale of the schoolhonse at Maple Point on June 5, 19;57, to 
Mr. E. Stocker of Earnkford hy the directors of the Middletown 
Township School Board has ])r(inipted the undersigned to attenijjt 
a brief history of the school, and thus preserve for posterity a 
record of local interest. 

A visit to George Row. father of Mrs. Amos Satterthwaite, 
September 25. 1937, proved a rich source f(»r many a hint of per- 
sonal recollection. Here in an attractive house dating previous to 
1837, (the ix)int of time appears carved in a stone gate post at 
the homestead entrance). Mr. Row narrated from carefully pre- 
pared notes exact details of the school's past. Eavored. indeed, is 
one to listen to such an able commentator. Hi"? own st()ry told 
in the first ]:)erson lends additional charm to a tale that now borders 
on memory. 

^'To whom may be ascribed first the designation of the school, 
I do not know. Its location at a junction of roads, ( formerly 
Wildman's Corners), and the presence of mai:)!e trees on the 
grounds form an easy basis of conjecture for dwellers of the 
neighborhood to name the spot where children gathered to learn. 

"My first term was in the 'h^^ight .S([uare'. This octagonal 
shaped structure was placed on a small point of land taken from 
the Wildman farm. There was not enough space about the build- 
ing for children to pursue their games, and boys found it neces- 
sary to play 'corner ball' in the adjacent highway. Strange that 
people gave land so sparingly in those days. 

"My father Washington Row was a school director and super- 
vised the building of the present liouse in 1862 or "63. In this 
office he gave service to the public for twenty-seven years. The 
stone used in the octagonal structure was carried, back from the 
}K)int and used in making the house now found u]m\] the spot."" 

As already intimated the original land came from the Wild- 
man farm. .\ parenthetical reference in tlie deeil m.ide I'ourth 
month first. 1853. states l It being tlie ^aine lot w hicli James Wild- 
man and wife conveved to John Watso:;, Thomas lenks. loshua 



92 COUNTY PUBLIC SCHU()LS 

Rlakey. Jr.. Joseph Suber, (all deceased), and the above men- 
tioned James Moon in fee for the use of a school by Deed bearing 
date the 1th of 9th mo.. A. D.. 1804, recorded at Rucks in Deed 
Rook No. 34. page 560 &c. . . .\ 

Concerning the date just mentioned a word of comment is 
appropriate. There is an erasure in the original deed which, with 
subsequent insertion, would indicate that 1822 had been made over 
into 1804, and the "'th" for the month had not been changed to 
•'st". 

Wiien the transfer was made in 1852 James Moon, surviving 
trustee, is mentioned as conveying the land for fifty cents to an- 
other board of directors. Upon this land a School House had 
been erected. Tt is quite likely, therefore, that the original Maple 
Point school building had been placed previous to the Public School 
Act of 1834. 

The later contracting School Roard embraced the names of 
Joseph Rich, James W'ildman. Joseph Watson. Thomas Jenks, 
Isaac Eyre, and Jame^ H. Moon. 

Additional space was purchased from Mary Newbold Sept- 
ember 27. 1862. In this later deed the "Directors of Common 
Schools of Middletown Township" are listed as Paxson Rlakey, 
David L. Watson, Jesse Cabe, W^ashington Row. Samuel M. 
Gillam and Pierson Mitchell. The tract described as the New- 
bold farm is now owned by William D. Rowe. 

Roth the original deed and the one for later purchase are 
herewith tendered ti) the keeping of the Rucks County Historical 
Society. 

Mr. George Row's remarks continue as follows : 
"Of the teachers the Rlakely sisters, Marianna and Sarah, 
were the first remembered. I think they taught in both the old 
and present buildings. Mary Roberts of Dolington taught one 
term. Sarah (lillam whose farm home was at Glen Lake was an 
early teaclier. Her l)rothers, Jonathan and William, came with 
her by horse and wagon. Idie school was very large that winter, 
o\cr sixt^■ pu])ils being enrolled. Susanna Rich was another 
teacher, but bow long she served I do not know. (The inform- 
ation concerning this teacher has been supplemented through a 



COl'NTY Pl'BLIC SCHOOLS 93 

communication received from Elizabeth R. Kirk. West Chester. 
Pa. Tt reads: "My .\nnt Susanna Rich taught at Maple Point 
for a number of years. I do not know the dates exactly, but a'- 
near as I can remember, I think the period of service was about 
1872 to 1892. My cousin Mrs. Xathan U'orrall, also a niece of 
Susanna Rich, was a pupil at Maple Point." ) 

"Cassie Rice, an outstanding person in some wa}s, also gave 
of her time. She and her sister Maggie later taught m the Friends' 
School, at Langhorne. The plain language, or the 'thee and thou 
of the Quakers' was used at the time, probably influenced b}- the 
Friendly expression of the neighborhood at that time. 

"Flo (Linton) Ivins and Maggie (Wright) Pidcock were 
later teachers. Agnes Cunningham followed, and Eftie W'atson, 
too, was there for a longer time than some of the others. 

"In the days to which reference has been made the matter 
of boarding the teacher was a problem that confronted the director 
then in office. No one cared to share the requisites of a home 
with the temporary resident of the district. Father being a direc- 
tor, the teacher found the necessary food and shelter under his 
roof. He lived then in the house about a mile from the school 
on the road to Yardley. This property until recently was owned 
by the Heacock Nurseries. 

"The jmrchase of the Wildman home by W^illiam and Mary 
Watson furnished the needed relief to Mother who had a large 
family for which provision must be made. The Watsons saw 
their wa\' clear to entertain the teachers as thev came along and 
thus help in the solution of a community obligation." 

(George Row assigns credit for a part of the foregoing to 
.Anna Watson, who died recentlv in the Friends' Home at Trenton, 
New Jersey. ) 

Through the kindness of j\Irs. Peter Leichliter whose home 
is at Mai)le Point, supplemented by a search of tlie minutes of 
the Middletown Townsliip School r>oar(l. the writer ha- learned 
of othtr> who taught in this school. The list of names has been 
arranged in chronological order as closely as memory serves. 

Edith Darlington 

Eva M. FVankenfield, 1904 



94 COUNTY PUBLIC SCHOOLS 

Violet S. Evans ( ? ) 

Mary Grace Reber, resigned Dec. 1906, later became the 

wife of Judge Calvin Boyer. 
Jennie S. Wildman (transferred from Frosty Hollow) 
Edna Subcr. 1907 
Helen T. Yerkes Row, 1908 
Hazel E. Reburn 
Edith Rich Cutler 
Florence AT. Reeder 

Edith H. Black ( Substitute, Dec. 17-24. 1918) 
Helen Hays, 1919 
Sarah C. \'anArtsdalen 
Anna Scarborough 
Mrs. M. P. Plammond 
Josie Kimble (last to serve). 

It is recorded in the minutes of the Board that on April 7, 
1927, it was unanimously resolved to close the Maple Point School 
at the end of the school year. It w as further decided to send all 
the ]mpils of grades 1, 2, and 3 to Edge Hill, and all grades above 
the third from both Maple Point and Edge Flill are to be sent to 
Langhorne. 

The closing of Ma])le Point School was not accomplished 
without protest. A petition of 190 names including those of tax- 
jiavers. parents, and voters of Middletown Township expressed an 
unwillingness for the discontinuance of a school in this section. 
To such a formal objection must be accorded respect and consider- 
ation, for both sentiment and neighborhood pride factor in com- 
munal projects. 

The Board on July 2. 1927. gave consideration to this peti- 
tion, but felt that since the closing of W'ildman's Corner School 
fso designated in the petition) had been carefully weighed in all 
its details, no action should be taken rescinding the decision 
reached at a ])revious meeting to close the school. 

In the meantime, on June 2. 1927. the Board already had 
resolved that immerliate .steps should be initiated for disposal by 
sale of the building and property. To that end the President and 
Secretary were authorized to execute and deliver a jiroper deed 
for said premises to the purchaser thereof. 



COfXTN- Pl-BLir SCHOOLS 95 

Scliool sessions were ended at Maple Point fune, 1927. Xow 
modern busses carry the primary children to the one-room school 
at Edge Hill, and those of the higher grades find their place of 
learning in the Langhorne-Middletown Township combined sys- 
tem of schools. 

.V waiting system not far from the building, innv used as a 
dwelling, affords protection in inclement weather to pu])ils await- 
ing the arrival of the bus. 

The ])resent Board of Directors of Middletown Township 
is composed of Airs. Hannah G. C. Pickering, President, Wood- 
bourne ; EcUnund Cocks, X'ice-president, ( ieorge School ; Walter 
S. Miller, Secretary, Parkland ; Samuel H. Everitt, Treasurer, 
llristol R. n. : and Christian \'. Tomlinson, Langhorne. 

( )ther directors are noted as follows, sources of information 
l)eing the deeds to which reference already has been made and 
minute books of the Hoard. 

Several a])pointments were dv.e to death or resignation of 
predecessors. Some of the directors resumed office after an in- 
terim from another term. In general, the time element is the 
determining factor in the arrangement of names. 

John Watson 

Idiomas Jenks Maple Point 

Joshua Plakey Original Purchase 

Jose])h Suber ( 9/1/1804, or 1822) 

James Moon 

Joseph Rich 

James Wildman 

Josei)h Watson Majik Point 

Thomas Jenks Transfer 

Lsaac Eyre (4/1 '1852) 

James 11. Moon 

Paxson I'.Iakey 

David P. Watson 

Jesse Cabe M;q)le Point 

Washington Row Second I'urcluLse 

Samuel M. Gillam (9/27/1862) 

Pierson Mitchell 



96 COUNTY PUBLIC SCHOOLS 

Stacy Watson 

Joseph C. Liew 

Aaron Tomlinson Frosty Hollow 

John W. Stackhonse Purchase 

James Linton ( 11/1 /1 838) 

Nathan Hellings 

William Harmon Richardson 

Samuel A]>nor Richardson 

Aaron Knight 

David Harrison 

Joseph Mather 

Edward Briggs 

Benjamin S. Woodman 

Edward Pickering (resigned 10/12/1907) 

George Douglas 

Charles McCorkle (replaced Mr. Douglas, due to illness 

of latter.) 
George Wisner 

Samuel H. Longshore ( resigned due to removal from 
district — place taken by Benja- 
min S. Woodman. ) 
Joseph S. Walton (appointed 10/9/1909 to fill vacancy 

caused by death of Benjamin S. 

Woodman.) 

Andrew J. Hibbs (vice David Harrison, resigned.) 

Wilmer McFayden 

Joseph Linden felser 

George Wislar 

George Weeks 

Howard Thompson 

Airs. Hannah G. C. Pickering, who, according to the 
minutes of March 7, 1925. was appointed to 
fill the vacancy caused by the death of George 
Wislar. 

Minute, /\ugust 6. 1926. — "Our esteemed president, Mr. 
Joseph Mather, having moved from the Township into the Bor- 
ough of Langhorne, has had to resign by reason of non-residence. 
To fill this vacancy an invitation was tendered to Mr. Samuel H. 
Everitt. His acceptance followed," 



COUNTY PUBLIC SCHOOLS 97 

In the minutes of Xovember 10, 1928, the following- is re- 
corded: "Tlie Board lias been stnnned to learn of the death of 
onr fellow member Howard Thompson on Nov. 7, 1928. His 
funeral was held on Xovember 10th. and was attended by all of 
the surviving Board members." 

Some difificulty was exjjerienced in finding one to take the 
place caused by the death of ^Ir. Thompson. Finally Franklin 
Briggs was elected to fill the vacancy on the Board. 
Other names follow: 

Mrs. Julia bVances .Sealv 
Mrs. Harriet \\'. Tomb 
?^lyron W. Harris 
^Ir. Walter S. Miller, the present •secretary tn the Board, has 
ser\-ed in that capacity- since February 11. 1922. His total number 
of years as a Board member date from his election in Xovember 
1921. The preceding incumbent, Mr. Fdward Briggs. served 
faithfully over an extended ])eriod of \ears. The earlier book 
of records finds minutes written bv him as far back as 6/11/1904. 

In addition to his secretarial dutie-^, Mr. Miller is now ''resi- 
dent of the Bucks Countv School Director'^' Xssociation. Bv 
virtue of this office he holds a place on the recently organized 
Board of Directors under the Count}- I'nit Flan. 

( hie or two incidental notes nm\ ])os>ess sutYicient historical 
interest to warrant their embodiment in thi- i)a])er. The di.scon- 
tinuance of local trolley service, between Doylestown and Bristol, 
October 31, 1923, helps to make clear the necessity of transporta- 
tion facilities in modern times. 

Some ])U])ils in the Maple Foint area, in order to gain instruc- 
tion in grades suital)lc for their educational advancement, jour- 
neyed from W'oodbourne to Langhorne on the Fhiladel])hia and 
Reading Kailrdad, and from there to Hulme\'ille by trolley. 

Miss Anna Scarborough informed the writer it was an ordi- 
nary procedure for her on ^Monday morning to go from Xewtown 
to Bridgetown b\- trolle} ai-id walk the remaining distance to the 
school at Ma])le Foint. 

FROSTY HOLFOW SCHOOL 
Local designations often are suggestive of intimate associa- 
tions and linkage. They tend to give character to the object named 



9S COUNTY PUBLIC SCHOOLS 

and ultimately come to be invested with neighborhood life and con- 
nections. Sometimes they seem to be steeped in tradition so that 
the resulting infusion is an inseparable combination of the real 
and legendary. How Frosty Hollow came to be is not known to 
tlie writer but its significance holds a charm that such appellations 
alone can convey 

To introduce the story of the Frosty Hollow School, the 
comment of Cieorge Row who was mentioned in the story of 
Maple Foin.t may not be inappropriate. Said he. "My first recol- 
lection of tlie Frosty Hollow School is associated with the name 
of Harmon Richardson. He came from 'u]) county' as a teacher, 
married a woman in that community, turned to farming as a 
means of livelihood, and later became a director in the school in 
which he originally taught. This was sixt}- years ago." 

Mr. Samuel H. Everitt, a present member of the Middletown 
Township School ll(jard. and Mrs. \'iola R. Hibbs of Hulmeville, 
have kindly contributed pertinent information which agrees in 
general with the foregoing, and from their observations the fol- 
lowing supplementary material is adducefl. 

Frosty Hollow Schoolhouse was built in 1838. The structure 
was built of stone, being of the one-room type and provided with 
a porch. The extent of grounds is given as nine-sixteenths (9/16) 
of an acre. 

An old histor}- of Uucks Count}' records that William Har- 
mon Richardson served as school director for twenty-one years. 
His son Samuel Abnor Richardson afterward acted in the same 
capacity for a number of years with Aaron Knight serving as a 
co-flirector. followed l)v David Harrison. 

A copy of the deed of sale (herewith ofl^ered > with date of 
record. June 4th. 1862. reveals that Stacy Watson. Joseph C. 
Liew, Aaron Tomlinson, John \\'. Stackhouse. James Linton and 
Nathan Hellings were the Directors of Common Schools of 
Middletown Townshi]) District in the County of Rucks at the 
time of ])urchase. 

It is interesting to note that the names of six directors were 
mentioned in this legal transaction. Likewise, a similar number 
of name^, all <lift"crent, ap])ear in the deed of transfer for addi- 
tional i)roperty at ^Llple Point. September 27, 1862. 



COUNTY PUBLIC SCHOOLS 99 

Reference to the history of Ma|)le Point School will reveal 
the Hpt of names of all directors that research has determined. 
Many of these individuals had a share in formulating and directing 
educational procedure and management of the Frosty Hollow- 
School until its close in 1925. 

A list of teachers' names that appear in the minutes of the 
School Board or have been furnished by former Frosty Hollow 
pupils are, 

William Harmon Richard'^on 

James G. Hibbs 

S. Willet Bardine 

Mrs. Stephen Woolston f Fallsington) 

Ida ( Marple ) Heritage 

Miss Lillie Rich 

James Edoms 

John Stroud 

Miss Dixon 

Miss May Flowers 

Abdil Ramsey 

Mrs. Permelia (Thompson) Conrad (1882-83) 

Miss Olive M. Hibbs (grand-daughter of James G. Hibbs, 

already mentioned.) 
Mrs. Ellen B. (Duerr) Norton (1892) 
Mrs. Susie (Good-Lovett) Walters 
Miss Esther Wildman (1894-96') 
Mrs. Anna (Pa.xson) Reeder 
Miss Anna E. Horn (1904) 
Miss Helen J. Baily (1906) 
Miss Jennie E. Wildman (1906) 
Miss Florence Yardley (1907) 
Miss Florence M. Reeder (1907^ 
Miss Alabel E. Hawk- 
Miss Catherine R. Neary (1912) 
Miss Gretchen Magill (1918) 
Miss Edna Paxson (1919) 
Mrs. Marie D. Greenlee (1920-21) 
Miss ]\Iaude Sealey (last to serve. 1925) 

The average attendance when the school closed was sixteen 
(16), but earlier enrolment was placed at thirty (30). 



100 COUNTY PUBLIC SCHOOLS 

Mrs. Viola R. Hibbs (Hulmeville) contributed the following 
interesting items : 

1. I found a reward of merit to Samuel Abnor Richardson 
from S. Willet Bardine, dated December 6th, 1860. Bardine evi- 
dently was teaching there at that time. 

2. I recall a flag raising, flag and pole having been donated 
by the Order of American Mechanics of Bristol, Pa. The pre- 
sentation was made by Doran Green of Bristol, but T do not 
remember the year. 

Mrs. Clarence Randall of Xewtown, Pa., related many inter- 
esting events and anecdotes, when a call was made (4/15/1938). 

1. About 1872, Abdil Ramsey was a teacher at Frosty Hol- 
low. While teaching he was studying to become a minister. Later 
years found him preaching the Episcopal faith in Newtown. He 
married Ellen White, whose father, Ebenezer White, was second 
cousin to Mrs. Randall's father. 

2. Wesley White (h. 1828, d. 1887) and Annie E. (Hibbs) 
White, parents of Mrs. Hannah (\\diite) Randall and Wilson 
Randall, father of Mr. Clarence Randall, were pupils at Frosty 
Hollow. 

Memory on the part of Mrs. Randall recalled that an elderly 
gentleman dwelt near the School. Entrance to the highway neces- 
sitated the o]iening of a gate. The re-lived picture is so vivid that 
she remarked she still could see the children run to open the gate 
for the passing of horse and wagon of the Jenny IJnd type, in 
order to get the penny of compensation for the courteous service 
rendered. 

8. Entertainments formed a part of school life in those days 
in a manner similar to jn'esent day custc>m. T remember on one 
occasion ni}- sister antl I had a part to smg in which a reference 
to "buttercups" formed a portion of the theme. 

Mrs. Permelia (Thompson) Conrad, Newtown, Pa., said that 
as a teacher she could recall that the stream near the school often 
would rise (|uickly, due to sudden rainfall. The larger boys would 
hurry to the bridge and remove the planks to prevent their being 
washed away. For this service the remimeration was usually 
$1.00. 



COUNTY PITBLIC SCHOOLS 101 

Mr. Frank Ellis of East Washington Avenue, Newtown, 
kindly gave of his lime to inform the writer of his experiences. 
Mr. Ellis spoke of the eft'icient services of Miss Mav Flowers 
who apparently merited in unl)ounded degree tlie affection and 
esteem of her pupils. 

Concerning James Edoms, Mr. Ellis remarked, "He was a 
strict, but hne teacher. He gained the respect of the larger boys 
who, in due time, learned not alone the subject matter from books, 
but profited through associations with tlieir teacher in course of 
daily routin.e." 

One of the Carlisle Indian boys who attended Frosty Hollow 
school lacked the colorful name the native language usually em- 
ploys. It was the Anglicized designation of Bruce Havnian that 
identified this protector of Mr. Ellis in his tender years of instruc- 
tion. 

]5ruce FTayman worked for Mr. James Rvles. For some rea- 
son, perhaps a kindly service performed by the Ellis family, this 
Indian boy took a keen interest in the welfare of the little son. 
The latter was guarded in the rough play and teasing of the school 
yard. For the pleasure of the boy wdiose parents made the so- 
journer a welcome guest at their home on Sundays, he fashioned 
a bow and arrow for the child's amusement. 

Mr. F'Uis mentioned the names of Samuel Evcritt, Joseph 
Everitt, Louis Brunner, John EaRue. Howard Buckman, and his 
sisters Annie, Josephine, and Elizabeth Ellis as Frosty Hollow 
pupils. 

Ofl^icial action began in 1920 for the closing of Frosty FTol- 
low School. Minutes state that a meeting was held to consider 
the question. It was apparently decided to send the pupils to 
the flulmeville School and to transfer the teacher, Miss Edna 
Paxson, to Parkland. 

The minutes of Jidy 8, 1920, record that such action was 
rescinded, for tliis quotation appears under the date mentioned, 
"On account of the strc^ig opposition from the patrons of the 
Frosty FTollow School against the closing of it. the P>oard reversed 
its decision of a former meeting to close said school and decided 
to open it. Mrs. Marie D. Greenlee of that neighborhood was 



102 COUNTY Pl^BLIC SCHOOLS 

engaged to teach the present term of 1920-21, she having been a 
teacher and well qualified." 

After a lapse of five years (May 9, 1925) the Board held a 
general discussion concerning the advisability of closing Frosty 
Hollow School and transporting the pupils to Hulmeville. It was 
decided that the entire board should visit the district, and go over 
the proposed route, interview the parents and other interested per- 
sons in order to determine if any pronounced objection exists. 
The trip of inspection was set for May 10, 1925. 

Within a month a report of the visit to the Frosty Hollow 
section was ready for submission, for on June 13, 1925, appears 
this motion in the minutes: "It was decided to close permanently 
the Union (Frosty Hollow) school and to transport the pupils by 
auto-bus." The matter of providing transportation, and also 
waiting stations, or shelters, received attention. It was concluded 
that possible drivers be interviewed. 

On July 3, 1925, the minutes state the plans had been made 
to convey children from the recently closer! L^nion (Frosty Hol- 
low) School to Hulmeville over a line of travel to be known as 
Route 3. 

At the meeting of the Board held October 6, 1925, a petition 
was presented praying for the restoration of the Frosty Hollow 
School. Upon motion said petition was laid on the table. 

One year after the closing of the school the question of its 
sale was discussed. June 11. 1926, minutes find this notation: 
".^s we will never be allowed to re-open it (the school) without 
extensive re-building, if then, and since it is rapidlv deteriorating 
it was unanimously resolved, upon motion, to sell the propertv at 
public auction." 

This resolution, newspaper notice of sale, and poster an- 
nouncement are herewith appended. 

FROSTY HOLFOW 
Resolution passed, at meeting of June 11, 1926, and ntlified 
and rei)assed at meeting of July 3, 192(i. 

WHEREAS, the Frosty Hollow School i'roperty consisting 
of School House and about one acre of land is not in use as a 
public school of the School District of the Township of Middle- 



(■()l-\TV PUBr.TC SCIIOOIS 103 

town, and the condition of the buihhnii is such as to ])e (hsap- 
proved by the State Department of fubiic Instruction and could 
not be re-opened without the expenthture of large sums of money 
thereon, and it is not feasible or necessary to re-o]ien said school, 
as satisfactory arrangements have been made for the education of 
all children from that community; and. it is the desire of the 
School Board of the said Township of ?\[iddleto\vn that the said 
property be sold. 

THEREFORE BE IT RESOL\ED l)y the Schc.ol Board 
of the Townshi]) of Middletown, Bucks Count}', Pennsylvania, 
that the School District of Middletown Townsliip sell the said 
Erosty Hollow School Pro])erty consisting of Iniilding and about 
one acre of land in Middletown Townshi]), the same no longer 
being needed or adapted for schr)oi purposes, and that for the 
purpose of acquiring the best price obtainable therefor, Jesse C. 
Everitt, a Real Estate Agent located at Hulmeville. Pennsylvania, 
be, and is hereby, authorized to make sale thereof at ])ui)lic sale, 
after advertisement in two or more newspapers in lUicks County, 
once a week for three weeks, and by a proper number of hand- 
bills, and sell the same to the highest bidder. Said agent to be 
paid the cost of advertising and a commission of .S for 

his services in making said sale, and the President and Secretary 
of our said School P)oard be authorized to execute and deli\er a 
proper deed in fee simple for said premises to the jnnxliaser 
thereof. 

With all members present and voting, all voted aye upon the 
above resolution on both occasions. 

Signed: Walter S. ^ Filler. 

Secretary. 
(Notice of Sale) — Xewspai)cr. 

The pro]:)erty was sold to Frederick and Elizabeth lloehle of 
i'hiladel])hia, on date as advertised, i.e., August 7th. l!)'2(i. 

DEED 

Deed Book, Ml: i'age 4S1 : Grantee. School Directors of 
Middletown Townshi]): ( irantor. William (\: Isaiah \ anhorn : Date 
of Record, June 4, 1852; Location, Middletown Townshi]), De- 
scri])tion, 

KXOir .ILL MI'X nV rilLSL PRESENTS th-dt we, Wil- 
liam X'anhorn (S: I'^lizabeth his wife & Tsaiah X'anhorn & Elizabeth 



PUBLIC SALE 



OF- 



SiSaiQIIlH 

and ^^^J I on 

Satueday, AUG. 7/26 

on the premises, 
at 3 P. M., Daylight Saving Time. 

By direction of the Board of Directors of the Middletown School 
District, I will sell at public sale the property known as the Frosty 
Hollow school, consisting of a 

ONE- STORY STONE BUILDING and 
about 9-16 OF AN ACRE of LAND, 

more or less, 

situate on the cross road leading from the Dur- 
ham road to the Bristol and Oxford Valley road, 

in said township. 
Terms day of sale. 

J. C. EVERITT, Agent 

Joseph Lenike. Auct for MIDDLETOWN SCHOOL DISTRICT. 



C()l^\T^■ PTBLTr scitools 105 

his wife, all of Middletown township in the County of Rucks in 
the State of Pennsylvania for & in consideration of the sum of 
forty five dollars to us paid at the ensealing hereof by Stacy Wat- 
son. Joseph C. Liew. Aaron Tomlinson. John W. Stackhouse, 
James Linton & Nathan llellings. Directors of Common Schools 
of Middletown Townshi]) District in the County of Bucks afore- 
said, the receipt of which is hereby acknowledged, do grant, bar- 
gain, sell, assure & convey to the said Directors aforesaid, their 
successors & assigns, the following described piece of ground 
situate in the said Middletown township. Beginning in the middle 
of a public road at a corner of Aaron Everitt's land, thence by 
the said Aaron Everitt's land north eighteen degrees west nine 
perches &: two tenths of a perch, thence by other land of the said 
W'm. A^anhorn and Isaiah X'anhorn north eightv three degrees 
east ten jierches & two tenth of a perch to a stone & south eighteen 
degrees east nine perches vS: two tenths of a perch to the middle 
of tlie said public road, thence along the middle of the said public 
road by the said A.aron Everitt's land south eighty three degrees 
West ten ])erches & two tenths of a perch to the place of begin- 
ning, containing ninety & two tenths square perches, be the same 
more or less : II It being part of the same land of which Jacob 
A'anhorn by \irtue of divers good conveyances & assurances in 
the law duly had & executed l)ecame lawfully seizerl in fee, & 
being so thereof seized died intestate leaving issue the said Wil- 
liam A'anJTorn &- Isaiah A'anhorn to whom the same by the laws 
of Pennsylvania relating to intestates estates did descend & come, 
Together with all its rights, members »!<- appurtenances. To have 
& to hold the said described piece of ninety & two tenths perches 
of ground i.K: ap])urtenances to the said Stacey Watson, Joseph C. 
Liew, .\aron Tomlinson. John W. Stackhouse. James Linton &: 
Xathan Hellings. Directors aforesaid, their successors &: assigns 
forever, for the establishment &• support of Common Schools in 
said District according to law and the said William \^anhorn & 
Isaiah \ anhorn do covenant with the said Directors, their suc- 
cessors &: assigns, that they are lawfully seized in fee of the 
afore granted premises, that the\' are free of all incumbrances, 
that they have a good right to sell & convey the same to the 
said Directors & will warrant & defend the same premises to the 
said Directors, their successors & assigns forever, against the law- 
ful claims & demands of all persons. In witness whereof we have 



106 COUNTY Pl^BLTC SCHOOLS 

hereunto set our hands & seals, the twenty seventh day of October 
in the year of our Lord, One thousand eight hundred & thirty 
eight. 

her 
Wm. A'anhorn (Seal) Elizabeth X A'anhorn (Seal) 

mark 
her 
Isaiah A'anhorn (Seal) Elizabeth X A^anhorn (Seal) 

mark 
Sealed & delivered in our ]jresence 
Isaac A'ornhorn — Aaron Tomlinson 

Received on the day of the date of the within written Inden- 
ture of & from the Directors within named the sum of forty-five 
dollars lawful monev of the I'nited States, it being the consider- 
ation money within mentioned in full. 

William \^anhorn 
Isaiah \ anhorn 
Witnesses present at Signing 
Aaron Tomlinson 

Bucks Co. SS. Be it known tbat on the twentieth day of 
Xovember, Anno Domini 1838. before me esquire, one of the 
Justices of the Peace in & for the said County of Bucks, came 
the within named William \'anhorn & Elizabeth his wife & Isaiah 
X'anhorn & Elizabeth his wife & acknowledged the within written 
Deed of Conveyance to be their act & Deed & desired that the 
same might be recorded as such according to law. The said wives 
being of full age both & bv me separate &: part from their hus- 
bands duly examined & the contents thereof first made known to 
them declared that they did voluntarily & of their own free will & 
accord seal & as their act (S: deed deliver the said deed of conve\- 
ance. without any coercion or compulsion of their said husbands. 
In testimony whereof i have hereunto set my hand & seal the day 
X- year ab(jve written. 

Aaron Tomlinson ( Seal ) 
— Recorded lune 4th, 1852 — 



Deed liook 540; Page 593: C.rantee. Fred Iloehle — Eliz. 
Moehle ; Grantor, The School Dist. of the Township of Middle- 
town, Bucks Co., Pa. ; Date of Indenture, Sept. 7th, 1926 ; Date 



COl'.\T\- Pl'BLlC SCHOOLS 107 

of Record. Sept. 21. lO'iG: Location. Middletown Tw]). : Recital. 
Same, Book 81. Page 481 ; Description, 

THIS INDENTURE, made the seventli day of September in 
the year of our Lord one Thousand nine hundrev and twenty Six 
(1926). 

lietween the School District of the Township of Aliddletown, 
I'ucks County. Penna. (!v Jtdia Sealey. Hannali Pickering, lioward 
'idiompson, Joseph Mather eK' Walter S. Miller. Directors of the 
Common Schools of said Middletown Townshi]) School District. 
&' Fred Hoehle & Elizabeth Hoehle. his wife, oi the Citv of Phila- 
delphia. State of Pennsylvania. 

Whereas William \'anHorn & Elizabeth his wife 8: Isaiah 
\'anI-Torn & Elizabeth his wife, by their indenture bearing Date 
the 27th Day of October A. D. 1838 and recorded in Deed Book 
:^81, Page 481. etc. granted &: conveyed unto Stacy Watson. Joseph 
C. Liew. Aaron Tomlinson. John W. Stackhouse, James Linton 
& Nathan Hellings. Directors of Common Schools of Middletown 
Township. Bucks County, Penna. & to their successors & assigns 
the tract of land hereinafetr particularly described by metes & 
bounds & intended to be conveyed, situate in Middletown Town- 
ship, containing ninety & Two Tenths square Perches more or 
less, which said lot together with the messuage thereon was used 
for Public School purposes for many years but has recently been 
tliscontinued as a Public School & become unfitted & unadapted 
for said purpose & the present Directors of the Common Schools 
of said Township, consisting of Julia Sealey. Hannah Pickering, 
Howard Thompson, Joseph Mather & Walter S. Miller, have 
decided to sell the same & at a meeting of the said School Board 
held on the 11th Day of June 1926. it was resolved to sell the said 
property & after due & legal advertising the same was offered for 
public sale (.\: sold on the 7th Da\- oi Aug. 1926 to Fred Hoehle 
& Elizabeth, his wife, for the sum of Eight Hundred iJt Five Dol- 
lars, all of which said action was duly confirmed by resolution 
ad.opted by the school board on the 23rd Day of August 1926, said 
I'iesolution being as follows: Having been dul} ado])ted & appear- 
ing of record on the minutes of said School Board. 

Whereas, By resolution adopted by the School Directors of 
the School District of Middletown Townshij) on the 11th Day of 



108 COUNTY PUBLIC SCHOOLS 

June 1926, It was resolved that the said School District sell the 
Frosty Hollow School Property consisting of a School Building 
»Sc about one acre of land in ATiddletown Township, which is no 
longer needed or adapted for school purposes, & directed the man- 
ner of sale etc. 

And \\'hereas, after due & I.awful advertisement once a week 
for Three weeks in two or more newspapers of Bucks Co. & by 
hand bills the said property was exposed for sale at public auction 
or vendue on Saturday, the 7th Day of August 192G & sold to 
Fred Hoehle & Elizabeth Hoehle, his wife, of the city of Philadel- 
phia, for the sum of Eight Hundred & Five Dollars ($805.00) 
of which Two Hundred Dollars ($200.00 ) was paid in cash to 
the Agent of said School District. The balance to be paid in cash 
on or before September 15th upon execution & delivery of a 
proper Deed on fee simple for said prem.ises freed & discharged of 
encumbrances & easements, the said purchasers being the highest 
bidders & the said sum of Eight Hundred & Five Dollars the 
highest price bidden for the same, the said sale having been by 
competitive bidding & a lunuber of bidders having been present 
& bid on said premises. 

Therefore be it resolved by the School Board on the School 
District of the Township of Middletown. Bucks Co., Penna. that 
the said sale of said Frosty Hollow School Property to Fred 
Hoehle & Elizabeth Hoehle, his wife, for the sum of Eight Hun- 
dred & Five Dollars & the Contract executed by the agent of said 
School District with the said Fred Hoehle be confirmed & that 
the said premises be conveyed in fee simple free of all encum- 
brances & easements of record or otherwise to the said purchasers 
on or before the 15th Day of September 1926 on receipt of the 
balance of said purchase price, making the total price thereof Eight 
Hundred & Five Dollars, the price bid therefor & that the Presi- 
dent & Secretary of our said School District be authorized to 
execute under the seal of our said School District acknowledge 
& deliver in the name & on behalf of said School District of 
Middletown Township a proper & sufficient deed in Fee Simple 
for said Premises. 

Now this indenture witnesseseth that tlie said parties of the 
first part, for & in consideration of the sum of Eight Hundred & 
Five Dollars, Lawful money of the United States of America, 



COUNTY PUBLIC SCHOOLS 109 

unto the parties of the first part well &' truly paid by the said 
parties of the second part, at & before the sealing & Delivery of 
these presents, the receipt whereof is hereby acknowledged, have 
granted, bargained, sold, aliened, enfeofted, released & confirmed, 
& by these presents do grant, bargain, sell, alien, enfeott, release & 
confirm unto the said parties of the second part, their heirs & as- 
signs. 

All the certain lot or piece of ground, situate in the Township 
of Middletown, County of P.ucks & State of Pennsylvania, bound- 
ed & described as folk)Ws : 

Beginning in the middle of a Public Road at a corner of 
Aaron Everitt's land, thence by the said Aaron Everitt's lands 
North Eighteen Degrees ^^'est Nine Perches &: two tenths of a 
perch, thence by other lands of the said \\'illiam A'an Horn (!t 
Isaiah A'anHorn, North Eighty Three Degrees East Ten Perches 
& two tenths of a perch to a stone &■ South Eighteen Degrees East 
Nine Perches & two tenths of a perch to the middle of the said 
Public Road, thence along the middle of said public Road by the 
said Aaron Everitt's land South Eighty Three Degrees West Ten 
Perches & Two tenths of a perch to the place of beginning. Con- 
taining ninety & Two Tenths square perches be the same more 
or less. 

All the present School Directors of the said School District 
have joined in this conveyance with the corporate .school district 
for the purpose of conve}-ing to & vesting an absolute title in the 
said grantees, the said Directors being the successors of the said 
grantees in said deed. 

Together with all &• singular the buildings, streets, alleys. 
]:»assages, ways, waters, water-courses, rights, liberties, privileges, 
hereditaments & appurtenances, whatsoever thereunto belonging 
or in anx-Avise appertaining, i.^ the reversions .S: remainders, rents, 
issues (S; profits thereof & all the estate, right, title, interest, prop- 
ert}', claim <!s; demand whatsoever, which were of the ]:)arties of 
the first part, in law. equity, or otherwise howsoever of in. iS: to 
the same & ever\- part thereof. 

To ha\e (!\: to hold the said lot or ])icce of land. iK-reditaments 
tv ])remises liereby gran.ted or mentioned X- intended so to be. with 
tile api)urtenance.s. unt(» tlie said parties of the second ])art. their 



110 COUNTY PUBLIC SCHOOLS 

heirs & assigns, to & for the only proper use & behoof of the 
said parties of the second part, their heirs & assigns forever. 

And the said School District of the Township of Middletown 
& the said Julia Sealey, Hannah Pickering, Howard Thompson. 
Joseph Mather & Waher S. Miller, as Directors of the Common 
Schools of said Middletown Towship but not individually or per- 
sonally do by these presents covenant, grant & agree, to & with the 
said parties of the second part, their heirs & assigns, that they, the 
parties of the first part, all & singular the hereditaments & prem- 
ises herein above described & granted or mentioned & intended so 
to be. with the appurtenances unto the said parties of the second 
part, their heirs & assigns, against them the said parties of the 
first part, & against all & every other person or persons whosoever 
lawfully claiming or to claim the same or any part thereof by, 
from or under them or any of them, shall iS: will warrant & for- 
ever defend. 

Tn witness whereof, the said School District of the Township 
of Middletown has hereunto afifixed its corporate seal & the said 
Julia Sealy, Hannah Pickering. Howard Thompson, Joseph 
Mather & Walter S. Miller, have hereunto set their hands & seals 
of Directors of said School District, the day and year above 
written. 

The School District of the 
Township of Middletown, Bucks 
County. Penna. 
By : Walter S. Miller. Secretary 

Julia F. Sealey (Seal) 

Hannah G. C. Pickering (Seal) 

Howard Thompson (Seal) 

Joseph Mather as President 

& individually (Seal) 

Walter S. Miller (Seal) 

( Corporate Seal ) 

Sealed & Delivered 
in the Presence of Us: 

Albert M. Morris 

Margaretta A. Mather 



COI'XTN' PUBLIC SCTTOOLS 111 

Received the day of the date of the above indenture of the 
above named Fred Hoehle & EHzabeth Hoehle. his wife, the with- 
in named consideration in full. 

The School District of the 
Township of Middletown, Bucks 
County. rVnna. 
r.y: Walter's. Miller 
Secretary 

f C!orporate Seal ) 
Witnesses : 

Harry W. Spencer 
State of Penna. 
County of Bucks, .ss: 

On the 7th Day of September. .\nno Domini 1926. before 
me. the subscriber, a Justice of the Peace, duh' commissioned and 
qualified ir. <S: for the said County tSr .State, per^onallv appeared 
the above mentioned Julia Sealey. Hannah Pickering, Howard 
Thompson. Joseph Mather & Walter S. Miller, as Directors of 
the Common Schools of the said Middletown Township & in due 
form of law acknowledged the above indenture to be tb.eir & each 
of their act & deed & described the same mieht be recorded as 
such. 

W^itness my Hand c<: Seal the Day & Year aforesairl. 
(Official Seal) Harry W. S])encer 

My commission expires first Monday 
in Tan. 1932. 
State of Penna. 
County of Bucks, ."^s : 

On the 7th Day of September. Anno Domini 1926, before me. 
the subscriber, a Justice of the Peace dul}' commissioned & rjuali- 
fied in &: for the said county & state. ]Dersonally appeared W'alter 
S. Miller. Secretary of the said the School District of the Town- 
ship of Middletown, Bucks Co.. Penna.. who being duly affirmed 
according to law says that he was personally present at the execu- 
tion of the foregoing indenture & saw the common or corporate 
seal of the said corporation duly aff'ixed thereof, that the Seal so 
affixed thereof is the common or corporate seal of the said corpo- 
ration that the foregoing indenture was duly sealed i.^ delivered 
1)\- Walter S. Miller. Secretary of the said cor]-)oration. as >.K: for 



112 COUNTY PUBLIC SCHOOLS 

the act & deed of the said corporation, for the uses & purposes 
therein mentioned & that the names of this affiant as secretary 
& of Julia Sealey as President of the said Corporation, subscribed 
to the said indenture in attestation of its due execution & delivery 
are of their (!v each of their respective Handwritings. 

Walter S. Miller — Secretary 
Affirmed i^- subscribed before me ( Corporate Seal ) 

the da^' & year aforesaid. 

Witness my hand «S: seal. 

Harry W. Spencer 
My Commission expires First Monday 
of Jan. 1982. 
Recorded: Sept. 21 — 1926. 



SrXW HIT.L SCHOOL 
The casual motorist, or the fre(juent traveller, as he journeys 
on his erranrl of business or pleasure, finds no occasion to reflect 
on the school that once had its site on the Bridgetown pike about 
two miles south of Newtown. The building is gone and the con- 
cealing hand of nature has covered the ruins so we 1 that one to 
recall its previous existence must emplov mem<)r\- to re-establish 
the scene. 

H one possesses a Centennial Atlas of Bucks C otmty pub- 
lished in 1876 by J. I). Scott. Philadelphia, let him turn its pages 
until the region mentioned comes to his attention. Here, outlined 
with the care and accuracy that characterizes the detail of the map 
portrayal, in a local atlas, is found the sj^ot where once was the 
Sunny Hill School. 

On the northwest corner of t!ie Samuel I'^ite farm of fifty 
acres, there ai)pears a single dot and a tiny square to indicate the 
location of the schoolhouse and grounds. To the north on the 
same side of the road, i.e., east, was the farm of Joseph Watson, 
while to the south the atlas repeals the name of H. L\ Parry. Be- 
tween the Samuel Kite and H. C. Parr\- farms a lane extends. 
Across the pike, i.e., to the west, is featured the farm of Samuel 
Story embracing 162 acres. 

In addition to the directors listed on the Middletown Tow^n- 
shij) School P.oard under Mai)le I'oint School are the names of 



COUNTY PUBLIC SCflOOLS 113 

the following which hold associations with Sunny Hill. David 
A\'atson (grandfather of the one of that name now intimately 
associated in the hnsiness of A. W. and W. M. Watson Company, 
Xewtown, Pa. ). and John lUickman. Closely connected with these 
two is the name of P.enjamin Woofjman of the immediate neigh- 
borhood. 

]\Irs. ]^>ank Rook, nee Miss A. Anna Moore, now residing in 
Xewtown was a former teacher at Sunn\- Mill. Slie taught there 
two _\ears (1890-1892 ). As memory serves she believes the direc- 
tors at the time to have been Messrs. Joseph IMilner, George Reed, 
and Edward r>riggs. 

Mrs. Rook stated that while teaching at Sunny Hill her father 
took her bx carriage to and from the school a great deal of the 
time. In other occasions the distance was traversed by walking. 
There were no trolleys. 

Mrs. Rook recalls that Edith, ^Margaret, and Herbert Bunting, 
grandchildren of Samuel Story, were pupils at the time, and in 
addition three Tomlinson children (one boy and two girls\ and 
Myra i Mitchell ) lUoom attended. The enrolment was given as 
16-18. 

In an interview on March 29. 1938, with Mr. Samuel Rich- 
ardson of Xewtown. many personal references developed. Mr. 
Richardson stated that his appearance at Sunny Hill before be- 
coming a pupil was that of a visitor under the care of his sisters 
Margaret and Mary. Mrs. Sally Cothem, a widow, was his first 
teacher. Joshua Richardson, another member of the family, i.e., 
a brother, also had his name recorded on the school register. 
Carrie Dernmick was Joshua's teacher. 

Other teachers were Miss Sally Twining, daughter of Stejihen 
Twining, of Langhorne. She taught there several years. Aliss 
\\'ilhelmina (Linton) Ivins, another teacher, boarded one winter 
with the Joseph Richardson family. Also employed, were Miss 
Elora Sickel, sister of Morris Sickel, Xewtown: and Miss Bella 
Gill of Hulmeville. ^Miss Kate Ilogan, now living at Dolington, 
preceded Mrs. h'rank Rook, and Mi^s Sarah Fite followed in serv- 
ice the latter. Anna ( I'axson ) Reeder was among the last to teach 
at Sunny llill, if not the last. .\lso. there was a Miss Carrie 
Lukens. 



114 rOUNTV PURLIC SCHOOLS 

Air. Richardson, speaking of the bHzzard of 1888, told of 
the immense size of the drifts. Individuals were able to reach the 
suspended telephone wires from the summits of the piles of wind 
driven snow. Tops of market w^agons were ju.st visible above the 
cuts made to restore avenues of travel. The writer can well 
imagine the situation, for since being at George School he has 
walked through a cut between the School and Bridgetown, where 
the snow on either side was sufficiently high to hide the passage 
of the main portion of the trolley cars after resumption of service. 

Among pupils whom Samuel Richardson mentions as being 
in attendance at Sunny Hill at various times are Martha (Buck- 
man) Hills. George Doan, and sister Mrs. Annie (Doan") Balder- 
ston, wife of Mr. Alonzo Balderston of Dolington. Frank Mitchell, 
and Harr}^ Mitchell who lived back of the Samuel Fite place. 
John Schlitz, one of the outside men now at George School, re- 
calls his school days at Sunny Hill. 

Mr. John Buckman who lived on the Fulling Mill road, had 
two Indian boys from the Carlisle School during different winters. 
The first gave his name as Joe Buckman and the second as Sammy 
Noble. Both wore to school regulation suits of blue with brass 
buttons, and a hat of felt. They, according to Air. Richardson, 
were well mannererl, good-natured, and gifted in no small degree 
witli athletic skill. 

The third boy mentioned gave his name as Call Him Thunder. 
Legend or fact has it that at the time of his birth a thimder storm 
was in progress, and according to Indian custom some happening 
of immediate consideration determined the name the newcomer 
was to assume. This boy lived at Henry Johnson's, now the 
Margeson place on tb.e Bridgetown pike. 

Mr. George Buckman, a Director, and son of John Buckman 
previously mentioned, had an Indian girl to help with the family 
chores. Matilda Hoteney was the name, and she is said to have 
been the only Indian girl that came into the neighborhood from 
the Carlisle School. 

The Sunny Hill school building was one of stone. Three 
windows were on each side, and a porch was at the front. 

One summer day while at work in a field across the way Mr. 
Ricliardson observed that the building was on fire. Nothing could 



COUNTY PUBLIC SCHOOI,S 115 

be done to halt the conflagration, and as already intimated in this 
article the Sunny "Flill school lives only in memory. The pupils 
were transferred to Hnlmeville for the continuance of their edu- 
cation. 

Concerning the manner in which the grounds of the former 
school were disposed, an extract from the minutes herewith ap- 
pended will describe. 

Copy of portion of the Minutes of Middletown Township 
School District. Dated, Edge Hill, November 11th, 1911. 

'■'School Board met at the Edge Hill school house, with all 
members present except Andrew Hibbs, 

"Upon there being a recall of the decision of the Board at 
a former meeting in relation to the Sunny Hill school property 
reverting back to the property it originally came from, (the vote 
then having been a tie), under the recall, the Board was unanimous 
in their decision that it revert back to the property it came from, 
it being in accordance with the Deed of Transfer, which say 

"when no longer used for school purposes etc.", And the 

previous decision of the Board in the matter is herein and hereby 
annulled." 

(Signed) E. Briggs. Secretary 

I certify the above excerpt is a true copy of the official 
minutes of the Aliddletown School Board, pages 143, 144. 145, of 
the date and place as given, and no subsequent entries upon this 
subject appear in the records. 

Walter S. Miller, Secretary. 

Through the kindness of Mr. Frank Mitchell, Sr., of Lang- 
horne, we are able to list the names of many pupils who are known 
by Mr. Mitchell to have attended Sunny Hill School. They are, 
(1873-78) 

Agnes Satterthwaite 
Mary Satterthwaite 
William Satterthwaite 
Pierson Satterthwaite 
Horace Woodman 
Clayton Woodman 
Mary Woodman 



116 COUNTY PUBLIC SCHOOLS 

Harry Woodman 
Joshua Richardson 
Samuel Richardson 
Margaret Richardson 
: - Mary Richardson 

Emmor Watson 
Lenora Watson 
. . Sara Fite 

Elizabeth Fite 

Matilda Buckman 

Luther Ridge 

John Ridge Brothers and 

May Ridge Sisters 

Adaline Ridge 

Frank B. Mitchell, Sr. 

Harry Mitchell Brother and 

Carrie Mitchell Sisters 

Anna Mitchell 

EDGE HILL SCHOOL 

The only remaining one-room school in Middletown Town- 
ship is on the old Lincoln Highway near its junction with the 
newer thoroughfare of that name. This means that Edge Hill is 
not far from Oxford Valley. 

The building is of stone, neat and attractive in appearance. 
Added description would lend little to the picture for outward 
aspect and details of interior conform to the conventional require- 
ments of this type of structure. 

The advent of this particular school is comparatively recent. 
Starting with the usual eight grades the pupil enrolment has been 
reduced through stages, so the lower forms only, that is. the first 
three grades, find instruction there at the present time. The aver- 
age attendance is thirty-five ( 35 ). 

The members comprosing the Board of School Directors 
would parallel the list already given under Maple Point, Frosty 
Hollow and Sunny Hill schools. All of these centers are, or have 
been under the jurisdiction of the Middletown Township of Bucks 
County. 



COUNTY PUBLIC SCHOOLS 117 

For future reference, however, it may be well to list the 
teachers as far as memory recalls and available records reveal. 
They are — 

1904 — Miss Tacy E. Williams 

1909 — Miss Elsie Husted (Aug. 30 - Sept. 24) 

1911 — Miss Hilda Yerkes 

1913 — Miss Mary K. Donovan (Minutes of 4/11/1914, 

record the death of 
Miss Donovan.) 

1915 __ Miss Eva Blinn 

Miss Maude C. Worstell 

Miss Elizabeth M. Shaneley 

1917 — Miss Emma Holzworth 

Mrs. Emma Browning 

1923-24 — Miss Ruth Clark ^ 
1924-26 — Miss Madeline Bowers 
1926-27 — Mrs. M. P. Hammond 
1927-29 — Miss Anna Vaughan 
1929-31 — Miss Elizabeth A. Sherman 
1931-34 — Miss Marion Lloyd 
1934-37 — Miss Madeline Griftin 
1937-38 — Miss Ethel Eederkeil 

POETRY IX NAMES OF BUCKS COUNTY 
SCHOOL HOUSES 
Bedminster Township Deep Run 

Bridgeton Township Chestnut Ridge 

Bristol Township Maple Shade 

Laurel Bend 
Buckingham Township Forest Grove 

Friendship 
Hickory Grove 
Independent 
Do\iestown Township Sandy Ridoe 

Sunnyside 
Castle Valley 
Pebble Hill ' 
East Rockhill Township Sunnyside 

Rock Hill 
I'hree Mile Run 



118 



COUNTY PUBLIC SCHOOLS 



Haycock Township 
Hilltown Township 



Ivyland Borough 

Lower Makefield Township 

Middletown Township 



New Britain Township 



Newtown Township 



Pkimstead Township 



Richland Township 
Solebury Township 



Springfield Township 
Tinicum Township 



Upper IMakefield Township 
Warrington Township 
Wrightstown Township 



Mt. Airy 
Hickory Grove 
Blooming Glen 
Fairhill 

Chestnut Ridge 
Ivyland 
Edgewood 
Edge Hill 
^laple Point* 
Frosty Hollow* 
Sunny Hill* 
North Branch 
Green Hill 
Iron Hill 
Fairview 
Silver Lake 
Good Intent 
Prospect Hill 
Groveland 
Prospect Comer 
Rocky Ridge 
Rocky Ridge 
Highland 
Chestnut Grove 
Green Hill 
Stony Hill 
Pleasant Valley 
Clay Ridge 
Red Hill 
Ridge Valley 
Fairfield 
Mill Creek 
Pineville 
Rushland 



Discontinued. 




Snapshots of Revolutionary Newtown 

By ED^^'AKL) U. HAIiN.SL.h^Y, NEV\T( »\VX. PA. 
( Bird in Hanc:, Newtown Meeting, October 22. 1938) 

Mr. President aiul Fellow ^Members of Tlncks County 
Historical Society: 

am not sure to what ( )liver Wendell Holmes was 
referring when he said: "Sonie things are good 
for nothing until they have been long ke]it and 
used." So when I discovered the Bird in Hand 
had been long kept and used. — 215 years to be 
exact. — I too concluded it must, therefore, be 
good for something. But of just what that something is. T really 
am not sure. 

However, if one of the "somethings'" it is good for is to 
create greater local interest in Newtown's rich historical heritage, 
all the efifort involved in the restoration will be am]dy repaid. I 
believe it v^^as Lincoln who said: "With public sentiment nothing 
can fail. Without it, nothing can succeed." 

Having this idea in mind. 1 purchased the liird in Hand a 
year and a half ago to save it from an immediate destruction, and 
since then have been attempting to restore it to its Eighteenth Cen- 
tury cliarm. I am terribly sorry that the building is not tinished 
and the grounds are n(jt completely landsc;q)ed for our meeting 
this afternoon, but these things could simply not be done in time, 
and they won't be finished either until they can be finished right. 

Construction details of the Bird in Hand quickly showed us 
that the irritating question "How soon can you do it?" was not 
asked the builder in the reign of George I. Instead, he was more 
apt to have been asked "How well can you build it?" That the 
substantial framing and massive masonry of this d.ear old building 
remain to-<la}' almost untouched is am]ile testipton\ of the pro- 
ficienc}- of the early builders' skill. Thev have j^assed away and 
been laid to their account, — both nanii s and graves tt>-dav tm- 
kn(,wn, — leaving only their materials, self-hewed and self-(|uar- 
ried. assembled int(j a graceful balanced .structure, called the Bird 
in Hand. 



120 REV()L^TIONAR^' NEWTOWN 

Because of the lack of records it is very dift'icult to determine 
the exact year in which this building was finislied, but it must 
have been by 1723, for in that year Agnes Welsh received her 
first license from the Court to keep her tavern or ordinary.* As 
late as 1785. it was still called "The Old Frame Tavern". The 
word Bird in Hand was applied to it in the early Nineteenth Cen- 
tury, when the fannous Edward Hicks, a neighbor, painted a new 
swinging sign, \\diether or not he copied an older sign of the 
same name has not yet been ascertained. 

( )n March 18, 1728. George Welsh, "inholder". gave a mort- 
gage on the place to Henry Nelson and William Brelsford and 
just three years later conveyed it back to John Walle3\ son of 
Shadrach Walley, first purchaser in 1681. This deed, which for 
some reason was never recorded, is on exhibition today .t 

Concerning the inside furnishings of the building little is 
known. The best description, although it does contain several 
errors of fact, is that from the pen of the late Thaddeus S. Ken- 



*[i-l To his ^Majesty's Justices of the Peace for the Court of Quarter 
Sessions Held at Bristol! this day the 13th of June 1723: 

The Humble Petition of Agnis Welsh Shewing her deplorable Condi- 
tion her husband b,eing a prisoner and haveing a great family of Children 
that is Maintain'd by her keeping a house of Entertainment therefore Pray 
the Honourable Justices to grant her a Recommendation for the Ensueing 
Year, that she may be in a Capacity to maintain her Children and your 
Petitioner as in Duty Bound shall Ever pray & ct 

The Mark of 
Agnis X Welch 

[2.] To The Court of Quarter Sessions held at Newtown for the 
County of Bucks tlie i6th : 4 mo: 1726. To Tlie Honourable Bench of his 
Majesties Justices of the Peace Yo'r Petitioner Scndeth Greeting: 

Whereas Your Petitioner the Subscriber hereof having had encourage- 
ment from Divers Persons of note in this County to keep a Public House 
in Xewtown for the entertainment of Travelers and to accommodate people 
at Court times and other Publick Business that may accrue, And Yo'r 
Humble Petitioner haveing rented a House and made provision for accom- 
mi (lations as afore Said I do humbly crave that ^'ou would be pleased to 
take it into Your Serious Consideration, And Grant me a Recommodations 
to the Governer in Order for a License Yo'r Complyance with my Humble 
request afore Said, will very much Oblige Ymir humble Servant. 

George Welsh. 

tDescription of the iin perty in this indenture dated March 17, 1731 
reads : "All that Messuage or Tenement and Lott or peice of Ground 
Scituate Lying and being in Newtown afsd. Begining at the west End of 
the Second Street from ye Court House at a Stake Thence North by East 
Ninety foot to another Stake, Thence East by South Ninety three foot to a 
Staked Thence South by west fourty four foot to another Stake, Thence 
East 1;y South fifty one foot to another Stake, Thence South by west forty 
Six font to the llrst mentioned Street, Tlience l)y the Same west by north 
One Hundred and fourty four foot to ye place of Beginning." 



REVOLlTroXARV NEWTOWN 121 

derdiiie, written about 25 years ago. ""I'here wa'=; no trusting the 
bottle to him who crooked tlie elbow as in after days, when a 
generous-sized hand could hide a drink which netted no profit 
to the landlord. The 'Rird in Hand' had an English l)ar such 
as Dickens s])eaks of, and wdiich was known in at least two other 
Rucks County hoteN, 'The Lamel'. at I^umberton. anrl "Kach- 
line's', in liedminster The peculiarities of this bar was a long 
mantel, from whicli slats ran to the ceiling, through which was a 
small opening where the liquor was passed out, while at one end 
was a door of full height so that the barkeeper was well protected 
in case of trouble from the effects of his goods. While Asa Cary 
knew how to run a hotel, his wife. Tamar was the boss ginger- 
cake baker of the town, her wares having a wide fame. Then 
there were drinking stands in the neighborhood of the big meeting 
where homemade beer, as well as the stronger variety, and mead 
were sold, put uj) in bottles Hanker! by cakes and pies. Oh, but 
tlie material wants of man wi're well jirovided for in the interval 
before the orating began! 

"Speaking of the cage-like protection of the Tlird in Fland' 
style of bar, it sometimes failed in its mission. In the "good old 
days' we hear about and which there are many of us who would 
not care to trade the present for, Newtown was no symposium of 
moral and ethical culture as it is now. and the W'.C.T.U. and 
Centur}- Club and other institutions for the betterment of man- 
kind were in the future and the bar room of the present, and the 
gathering center. The to\\n had not got (jver the effects of its 
big election days when the lower end of the county voted there, 
its training-. r|uarter races and court scenes, and the Tiird in Hand 
saw its share of stimulated hilarity on each and every day of the 
week. Once, on First-da}-, when some of the sports of the neigh- 
borhood were collected there, and while Uncle Asa and .\unt 
Tamar. now old people, were taking some needed rest froin the 
strenuous Mork of the night before, these carousers. not wishing 
to disturb their re])ose. or probablv needing free drinks, with a 
pair of long tongs circumvented the necessity of crawling through 
the over-small o])ening for dispensing liquid joy. and drew from 
the shelf bottle after bottle of their needs and jiassed a drnnken 
night, hciving got bevond the control of the pri)prietors of the 
ho.telrv. 



122 REVOLUTIONARY NEWTOWN 

"While Asa and Tamar Cary were at their best, it was an 
enjoyable stopping place. Everything was neat and clean, from 
the barroom through the dining room to the brick-floored kitchen 
with its oven, where Tamar baked her noted ginger cakes, her 
bread, biscuit and pies. Swinging in front was a sign on which 
was the usual picture pertaining to the several taverns of that 
name over the land, depicting a man with a fluttering bird in his 
hand and a suggestive bush in the near distance. But as the pro- 
prietors aged the hotel went down, and nnally out.''' 

"In the town during the latter days of the 'IHrd in Hand' there 
lived nearby a man named Peter, who was so doless that his wife 
bad to teach school to eke out their living. Once a neighbor 
called to see Peter, and, he not being in, his housekee]iing niece 
gave the following impromptu paraphrase : 

Peter, Peter, punkin eater. 

Had a wife and couldn't keep her. 

So he sets her keeping school, 

\\diile he sits at Gary's and talks like a fool. 

The meter is tolerable till the last line is reached, but it was the 
best the young woman couid do on a liurry call." 

On April 18, 1818, Proprietor Asa Cary was appointed hbrar- 
ian of Newtown Library Company and the books and effects of 



*Asa died on September i, 1841. in the 85tli year of his age. His widow, 
ten years his junior, kept the tavern for only a year and a half, then em- 
ployed John Barnsley as agent to sell her personal effects. He advertised : 
"Will be sold at public sale on Wednesday the 2gth of this month, [1843], at 
the house of Tamar Cary in the Boro' of Newtown, all her Household 
goods, Chamber and Kitchen furniture — beds, bedding, l)edsteads, sacking 
bottoms, tables, chairs, looking glasses, carpets, desk, case of drawers: Tin 
Crockery and Earthen ware, stoves, shovels and tongs, baking implements, 
bar furniture, tubs, buckets, meat tubs, wheelbarrow &c. Three First Rate 
Shoats Of The Real Aunt Tamar Stock — and articles without number, such 
as will always accumulate about a housekeeping of forty years standing." 

Tamar died September 26, 1846, aged 80, and was buried in the Presby- 
terian Grave Yard. Squire Barnsley, her administrator, sold her old Bird in 
Hand tavern to T. Wilson Milnor on the following March. 4th to satisfy the 
claims of the miner children, (one of whom was a lunatic), of her brother, 
John Worstall, of Ohio, who had predeceased her. In her will, she provided 
for two nieces ; namely, Tamar Worstall, daughter of Ijrother, John Wor- 
stall, and Hannah Welsh, daughter of sister, Hannah Welsh. We know 
neither the name of the husband of Hannali (Worstall) Welsh, nor the 
relationship, if any, with Agnes and George Welsh, the first proprietors of 
the Bird in Hand. 

Miss Margaret J. Smyth, daughter of the wife of tlie al)Ove mentioned 
T. Wilson Milnor, conveyed the old tavern t:i the writer on January 13, 
1937- 



REA^OLUTIOXARY NEWTOWN 123 

Bucks County's oldest learned society were removed to the Bird 
in Hand. Gary accepted with thanks his new position paying an 
annual salary of $1.00 with the privilege of reading the books 
free. The post office had been established in the building in 1800, 
and it remained here for many years '■' About 75 years ago the 
license was given up, and negro families began to occupy the 
building. Since that time the decay of the house continued very 
rapidly. 

During the temperance epidemic which swept over Bucks 
County in the 1840's, the Bird in Hand became one of three tem- 
perance hotels established in Newtown. The following article 
about the conversion of the Bird in Hand was signed by "The 
Man About Town," and is taken from the Nezvtown Jouiiial and 
Workingmen's Advocate of August 8, 1843: 

THE "OLD BIRD IX HAND TAVERN" 
"No Citizen of the Borough, was more pleased some five 
months ago, than I, when it was announced that the 'Old Bird in 
hand tavern' which had so long, been the Kennel and Sty, for 
Three cent Topers, was about to be changed into a 'Temperance 
Hotel' upon the tee total principle.! And I was delighted that my 
brethren in the temperance cause were about to take the matter 
in hand, and give their aid in establishing a public house upon 
the 'cold water' plan, to be kept by a Reformed man and Worthy 
Citizen. 



*Jacob Kessler, innkeeper, was appointed postmaster July i. i8oo. On 
April I, i8o6 the post office was removed to the "Middle Store" of James 
Raguet, but on April 3, 1820 it returned to Bird in Hand with the appoint- 
ment of proprietor Asa Gary, (1756-1841), as postmaster. On April 25, 
1835, the office was permanently removed from the building w^hen Joseph 0. 
V. S. Archambault, of the Brick Hotel, succeeded the aged Asa. The old 
letter slot, now filled in, can still he seen in a weather board near the front 
door of the sign of the Bird in Hand. 

tVVe do not know how long the Bird in Hand continued to be a temper- 
ance tavern, but we doubt that it was of much duration. On May 8, i860. 
Jonathan Hibbs advertised in the Bucks Comity Intcllincnccr : "At the new 
and popular Estalilishment, corner of State and Mercer Streets, where 
the subscriber will keep constantly on hand, all the Refreshments in 
the way of Eating and Drinking that are usually to be found in well con- 
ducted houses of this kind. Oysters and Clams served up in every style in 
their season, and Meals to Strangers at all reasonable hours. Connected 
with the above business, will be kept a choice lot of Wines and Liquors 
of all descriptions, at wliolesale and retail, at reduced prices. Physicians 
and families purchasing for medical purposes, will find it tn their advantage 
to buy at this Wine and Liquor Store, where they can procure l)ettcr articles 
and upon more reasonable terms than elsewhere." 



124 REVOLUTIONARY NEWTOWN 

"It has now been some months since the house was opened, 
and has been suppHed, I hrmly beheve. by no other than strictly 
temperance drinks — and I will now ask of my temperance breth- 
ren. How and bv Whom has it been patronised? When it was 
the miserable 'Kennel' above alluded to. you could see the poor 
wretches Go To and Depart From, it, and in a praiseworthy manner 
rejoice that it was soon to be a nuisance No Longer. It has now 
ceased to be a Nuisance: but many of you within its reach to ac- 
commodate, have not thought as yet. to patronise it by expending 
One cent therein. Now my fellow laborers in the great and good 
cause of moral reform. One Word if you please, and may it have 
a tendencv to let vou 'see yourselves, as others see you.' We (the 
temperance men ) are much in the habit of calling Tavern Keepers 
'Beggar and Pauper ^lakers', (and with, much truth.) who will 
take from the poor intemjierate wretcli. his last penny. We liave 
said we will not slacken our efiforts, while there yet remains a 
licensed tavern within the limits of our State — and that we will 
give our whole undivided influence to establish houses in which 
ardent spirits shall not be tasted, nor sought after. But brethren 
to do this, we must each of us be willing to put our 'shoulder to 
the wheel." and Call and Spend a trifle at the houses we claim as 
Ours or they cannot succeed, and we may perchance be the means 
of making 'beggars and paupers' of those we have induced to be- 
come Public I^en^ants. 

".And I do most sincerely wish that such of my temperance 
brethren, a^ are in the habit of visiting Our Borough For Hours 
Together to think of This Matter, wdien they are in the Act Of 
Hitching Their Plorses To The Posts Of Private Dwellings, lest 
thev n:ake our worthy friend Chileon, what we accuse the Rum 
Seller Of making His X'ictim A Poor Pennyles'; 'Pauper' 
'Some Love to Ro.\m' 
Some love to tell 
Ho-w the Drunkard fell — 
Yet the Tee Total Pledge set him Free, 
But I tell you zvhat 
That a Reformed sot 
Is a "erittu.r" I seldom see." 

So much for a brief resume of certain, but not necessarily 
the most important, things which have come to mind alx)Ut the 



REVOLUTIONARY NEWTOWN 125 

Bird in Hand. It is to he hoped that other facts remain undis- 
covered. Since Bucks County had no newspaper during the 18th 
Century, items concerning local social life of the colonial period 
are practically unknown. 

In by-gone years many associations, companies,''' and various 
social gatherings were welcomed by the proprietors of this small 
country tavern to "Come sit ye down and rest awhile." To the 
members of our county's Historical Society and particularl^' to those 
many friends who by many ways have contributed many objects 
and inspirations, the present owner is deeply indebted, and he 
extends to al] a most ccjrdial invitation to return to the Bird in 
Hand v^dien it is finally completed, and join the proprietor at his 
fireside. 

(Carved in the fire-log of an ancient Elizabethan inn is the 
inscription "Should I not take Mine Ease in Mine Inn?" But of 
what benefit is "]\Iine Ease" if "Mine Friends" are not present 
to share it? 

But to concentrate now upon the subject of my paper to-day. 
Snapshots of Rcvohitionary Nezutozcn, is difificult, because so 
many events of Revolutionary interest liappened in or near the 
Bird in Hand. To review this entire Revolutionary history would 
make a tremendously thick album of pictures, and as the subject 
is Snapshpts. not Time Exposures, I will try to be as brief as 
possible and present only certain major Revolutionary events, par- 
ticularl)- those during the stirring days of 1776 and 1778. 

When war with Great Britain became inevitable, Bucks Coun- 
ty was one of the first to prejiare for the confiict. and the center 
of that preparation was naturally at Newtown, the County Seat. 
The Committee of Safety first met here on July 9, 177-4: and 
in onl\' four months after Lexington, Newtown had organized 
and e(|uipped for action its first company of Associators. We 
must skip over these preliminary activities, however, and turn at 
once to the most important happenings in Newtown during the 
Revolution. 

Concerning the various locations of Washington's headquar- 
ters throughout the war, volumes and vokmies hcive been written. 

*Xewto\vn Reliance Company for Detecting and Apprehending of Horse 
Thieves and Other Villains was instituted here on February 27, 1819, and 
continued to hold its meetings at Bird in Hand until 1835. 



126 



BEVOLUTIONARY NEWTOWN 



yet a great deal still remains to be found out about some of ihem. 
One of these locations, in a sense the most important of all, has 
never before been definitely established, so it is about this one 
which I speak. The question is, where was Washington immedi- 
ately before the Battle of Trenton; and by "immediately", I mean 
the day before, not the week before. 

That George Washington was at Newtown just prior to his 
memorable crossing of the Delaware was first suggested to your 
speaker upon reading Benjamin Rush's Memorial. Dr. Rush, 
a man of unquestioned veracity, was at that time stationed with 
Cadwallader's command at Bristol, and he recorded: "In Decem- 
ber I visited General Washington in company with Col. Jos. Reed 




W \sHI\(n()N'S Hi:\DQU\RTBnS 

!s iVusiKttid in iso', \n Clev evt E Lloyds,. 
\ititoiin Past and r>}esent 

at the General's quarters about 10 miles above Bristol, and four 
from the Delaware." Later narration shows that the date Rush 
made his visit was Tuesday, December 24, 1776. Since Newtown 
is approximately ten miles above Bristol and four from the River, 
it is most unlikely that Rush could have visited the Jericlio head- 
quarters and been mistaken as to the mileage from Bristol, because 
the Kieth House is nearly eight miles by road further beyond 
Newtown. 

As if to substantiate Dr. Rush's statement by definitely nam- 
ing the headquarters as being at Newtown, General John Borrows 
recorded autobiographically : "Gen. Washington lay about two 



REVOLl'TfOXARV XEWTOWN 127 

weeks at m\- father's, opposite Trenton ; then removed to New- 
town, the county seat of 1 hicks, from which place he marched 
with his httle army on Christmas morning. 1776, and crossed the 
Delaware that night, nine miles above Trenton. I crossed w^ith 
him and assisted in taking the Hessians next morning." Borrows, 
wlio -served in the army from 1776 to 1781 and spent fourteen 
months of liis }-outh living as a part of Washington's household 
carrying his dispatches and so on. could hardly have been in error 
as to wdiere his Commander-in-Chief was quartered at this time, 
especially since Borrows' home was in Alorrisville and later in 
Xewtown township itself. 

Additional evidence that Washington marched to McKonkey's 
Ferry from Xew'town instead of from the Kieth TTouse is verified 
by the following account written by Newtown's own Eh*. Phineas 
Jen.ks : "In the month of September, in the year 1812, walking 
through the streets of our village, my eye caught sight of an aged 
man of most interesting and res])ectable appearance. His hoary 
locks and bent frame told of by-gone years. He was leaning on 
his cane and appeared to be making a verv attentive survey of 
the village. As 1 approached him. he turned his head tow^ards 
nic au'l said. 'Can \-ou tell me. s'r. who was the former ow^ner of 
that house?'. ])ointing to a large, o'd house, over the stream, and 
fronting the village. I said to him that the house, to which he 
alluded, has had within my recollection several owners. But, said 
he. 'Can you tell me who resided there during the Revolutionary 
war?" I reiilied that 1 had heard my father say that Mr. Harris 
was tile ].)roprietor of the house, and resided there at the time to 
which he alluded. "Then.' said the old man, his countenance 
brightening and his aged frame assuming a more youthful atti- 
tude, 'then I am not mistaken, but your village has so improved 
and changed in a])])earance sim-e 1 was here, that 1 had doubts 
of that being the house for which I was looking, but I am now 
satisfied it is the same. The house was the headquarters of 
(General Washington before and after the battle of Trenton. At- 
tached to his suite were Colonels Hamilton and Burr. The greater 
part of the army lay two miles from here on the road to the 
Delaware. .\ single regiment to wdiich I was attached lay in the 
town and ])erformed duty at headquarters. I stood sentinel at 
that house the evening before the battle, and became convinced 
from the great resort of tield officers that some important blow 



128 BEVOLUTK)XARY XEWTOWN 

was to be struck that night. At eight o'clock, on the evening of 
the 24th of December, 1776, the sentinels were withdrawn from 
the house and joined the regiment, which was already formed in 
marching order. Immediately after the guard had fallen into line. 
Washington and suite passed to the head of the regiment, and 
the order. "Forward, march!" was given. ]\Iany of the men 
were without shoes and stockings, and the groimd being hard 
frozen, our footsteps were marked with blood. Soon after we 
commenced our march it began to rain, which froze as it fell, and 
added much to our sufferings. At Beattie's ferry* we joined the 
other detachments of tlie army who had arrived there by different 
roads. Here our suft'erings became intense. There were but few- 
boats prepared to carry us across the river. The rain and sleet 
increased, and we, standing inactive on the bank, were exposed 
to the pitiless peltings of the storm. The ice was running so 
thick that the boats were constantly obstructed and endangered 
by it. All eyes were turned on our beloved general. His orders 
were given with calmness and firmness of purpose, which won the 
confidence of the soldiers, and inspired them with courage. Knox, 
the heroic Knox, was there and commanded the artillery. His 
stentorian voice was heard amid the storm encouraging the men 
to exertion. Morgan, too, the gallant Morgan, was there at the 
head of his well-trained rifle corps. By great exertion the army 
was all landed on the Jersey shore by three o'clock in the morn- 
ing.' " 

The old man then continued his account of the march to 
Trenton and the battle which ensued, — an excellent account 
which should be preserved in our annals in a more permanent 
form than its original publication in a local newspaper column 
over a half century ago. 

We have thus heard the testimony of two war veterans, eye- 
witnesses and participators in the dangers and glories of that bril- 
liant day at Trenton, both of whom confirm Dr. Rush's declar- 
ation that on December 24. .1776, Washington was at his head- 
quarters ten miles above Bristol ; namely, Newtown. So, there- 
fore, we are not astonished to read that when General ^^'ilkinson 



*Beatty's Ferry was the Upper Trenton Ferry, nnrtli of tlie present 
Calhoun Street Bridge, opposite where Ferry Road intersects River Road. 
Obviously this statement was an error of memory either by the "old man" 
or Dr. Jenks, for McKonkey's Ferry was certainly meant. 



REVOLUTIONARY XEWTOWX 129 

came to Newtown from Phila(lel])hia on the afternoon of the 
25th, he said he was sin-prised to learn that Washington had trans- 
ferred his (|narters from the Kieth 1 lonse in L'oper Makefield 
tow nsliip to the Harris Honse in Xewtown townshh). 

Jt is interesting to note, also, that in 1848 Sherman Day in 
his Historical L\)l!ccfions of flic State of I'ciinsyk'aiiia reported 
that I'dward llicks, Xewtown's famons Onaker ])reacher and 
amateur painter, l)orn in 1780, related to him that "Gen. Washing- 
ton left Newtown the same night that he crossed the Delaware." 

On Christmas Day. 1776, Washington left Newtown and 
made that memorable crossing of Delaware River which was so 
successfully carried out and gave birth to a nation of freemen. 
As yon all know, prior to the battle of Trenton, general gloom and 
despondency pervaded the country. No decided victory had yet 
been achieved. An unfortunate impression had gon.e abroad that 
the number and discipline of the enemy were t(o power fid for 
successful resistance. The battle of Trenton disiKdled this erron- 
eous impression, dissipated the fearful antici])aticns of the timid, 
and gave birth to acts of heroism and devotion that astonished 
the world. "The Battle of Trenton sealed the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence. It is in truth and in fact the biriliday of freedom, but 
the Declaration was a dead-letter imtil the triumph of our arms 
brought it into active operation. Jt gave an energy of action, and 
a contidence in our ability to meet the enemy successfully which 
turned the tide of victory in our favor." 

It has never been determined, as far as your speaker knows, 
just where Washington spent the night of his victory, but it was 
probablv at or near McKonkey's Ferry. The ])rivate soldiers cap- 
ture! at the Battle were marched off immediatch- to Newtown, 
wliere there were plenty of facilities for tlieir detention, but the 
twenty-three Hessian officers, however, remained in a chaml>er 
in the f errv House, where, according to their own account, they 
passed a miserable night. Next morning they were escorted to 
Newtown by Col. A\'heedon. .\t Newtown, the officers were quar- 
tered at the various public inns, ])robabl\- including the llird in 
Hand, and in certain jndvate houses, the soldiers in the Bresl)\- 
terian Meeting House and in the County Jail. 

(Ml the 27th, Newtown again became intimately coimected 
with the triumj)hant results at Trenton when \\ a>hinglo:i wrote 



130 REVOLURIONARV NEWTOWN 

from this place his heartening letter to Congress informing the 
members of tlie most important event that led toward winning the 
War of American Independence. 

On Saturday, the 28th. Washington entertained at dinner, 
but. unf(jrtunately, little is known about the details thereof except 
what one of the staff officers wrote in his diary: "Here we are 
back in our camp with the prisoners and trophies. Washington 
is keeping his promise: the soldiers (Hessians) are in the New- 
town meeting-house and otiier bu.ildings. He has just given direc- 
tions for tomorrow's dinner. All the captured Hessian officers 
are to dine with him. He bears the Hessians no malice, but says 
they have been sold by th.eir Grand Duke to King George and 
sent to America, when if they could have their own way they 
would be peaceably living in their ov.m comitry." 

Apparently, however, only four of the Hessian oft'icers ac- 
tually had the ]>leasure of dining with Washington, the remainder 
being entertained by Lord Stirling at the public house of Amos 
Strickland, Sr., now called the Brick Hotel.* Concerning this event 
Lieut. Piel. one of the Hessians, wrote : "'We had scarce seated 
ourselves, when a long dark meager looking man. \\ hom we took 
for the parson of the place, stepped forth and held a discourse 
in German, setting forth the justice of the Ainerican side of the 
war. He told us he was born in Hanover, and said the King of 
England was nothing but the elector of Hanover. Lord Stirling 
seeing we were not much edified 1a- the preacher, took us with 
him to visit General Washington. The latter receivetl us very 
coiu"teouslv, but as he could only speak Englisli. we could not 
understand much of what he said. He invited four of oiu- officers 
to dine with him, the rest dined with Lord Stirling." 



*Amos Stricklaiul, Sr., one of tlie founders and original directors of 
NewtOAvn Library Company, sometime high sheriff and later county com- 
missioner of Bucks County, had acquired this property in 1760 from Joseph 
\¥alley, grandson of Shadrach Walley, the first purchaser of land in New- 
town. Tt was then known as the Sign of the Red Lion, one of three taverns 
of that name flourishing in the coimty. The sale advertisement for the same, 
dated December 22, 1760, reads, "By Virtue of a Writ to me directed, will 
be exijosed to Sale, by Way of publick Vendue, on the loth Day of January 
next, on tlie Premises, four Fifths of a Messuage or Tenement, and Lot 
of Lanrj, containing about Half an Acre, situate, lying and being in Xew- 
town, known liy tlie Name of the Red Lion Inn : late of the Estate of Joseph 
Walley, deceased, and taken in Execution by Joseph Thornton, Sheriff." 



RF.VOLUTIOXARV NEWTOWN 131 

Lieut. W'iderholfl. another of the captured Hessians, recorded 
in his (Hary. "On the 28th we dined with General Washins^ton. 
He (hd me the honor of talking with me ahout the battle at Tren- 
ton, and when I said frankly that we had managed things badly, 
and that we ought not to have been captured there, he asked what 
I would have done. I pointed out the mistakes on our side, and 
how we could have escaped, and he praised me for this and for 
my watchfulness, and for my stout resistance with my handful 
of men. He also gave me leave to go on parole to Trenton to 
collect my efi'ects left there in the retreat." 

On the 29th, General Washington wrote another letter to 
Congress from Newtown telling of his plan to cross into New 
Jersey the second time, but, said he, "I know that it will be at- 
tended with much difficulty and fatigue on account of the ice. 
which will neither allow us to cross on foot, nor give an easy 
passage with boats." 

When the Hessians were brought to Xewtown they were 
greatly alarmed by a report, that was in some way raised among 
them, that the Americans killed and ate their prisoners. The panic 
would have become serious if it had not fortunately happened 
that a German was found in Northampton township who could 
talk to them and obtain their confidence. Perhaps he was the 
same "long dark meager looking man" who they assumed was 
"the parson of the place". 

The thousand Hessian privates were only in Newtown on 
the nights of the 26th and the 27th. They were then sent to 
Philadelphia on the 28th, under the conduct of Newtown's Capt. 
Francis Murray, at which place they arrived two days later and 
were paraded through the streets to impress those of the popula- 
tion having loyalistic tendencies. In and nearby Newtown was 
stored their captured equipment. This was listed by Clement 
Biddle, Deputy Quarter Master General, as consisting of, "arms, 
six brass field pieces, eight standards of colors, a number of 
swords, a!id cartouch boxes taken by the happy expedition." 

The cai)tive Hessian officers, however, were detained in New- 
town until the 30th, when A\'ashington left. On this date twenty 
of them were released on their own Parole of Honor. Thev pro- 
mised, in return for restricted liberty, to peaceably liehave them- 



132 



REVOLl'TTONARY NEWTOWN 



selves and, "by no way Send or give Intelligence to the British or 
Hessian A-rmy or speak or do any thing disrespectful or IngLirous 
to the American States while we remain Prisoners of war. We 
will also restrain our Servants and Attendants Who are allowed 
to remain with us as far as in Our power to the same Conditions." 

It has been claimed by some that John Harris was the host 
of Washington during these trying days of 1776, but this is not 
correct, for the records of Xewtown Presbyterian Church show 
clearly that John Harris, the prominent merchant and justice of 
the peace of Newtown, died August 13, 1773, aged 56. Washing- 
ton was, therefore, the guest of his widow, Mrs. Hannah (Stewart) 
Harris, at her house on the west side of the Common, at the south- 
ern corner of Swamp Road. 




WASHINGTON'S HEADQUARTERS 

As illustrated in JSrt^ in W. W. H. Doris', 

Historu of Bucks Covvty. 

The headquarters house, the second on the site, was erected 
some time prior to 1757 by Benjamin Twining, who conveyed it 
in that year to Harris. The Harris family was one of means and 
position in the community, and no doubt the furnishings and 
equipment of their home were suitable for entertaining the Father 
of his Country. No early writer, however, had the foresight to 
record any details about this grand old building, except one, who 
briefly stated, "On a pane of glass in a window in the lo\A'er story 
was to be seen the name of Israel Putnam cut with a diamond, 
until the glass was broken in washing." It would be extremely 
interesting now to determine when Putnam was at Newtown, for 
he, when in Bucks County, was regularly stationed at Bristol with 
Cadwallader, who was reprimanded for not being able to get his 



REVOLUTIONARY NEWTOWN 133 

cannon across the River on account of the inclemency of the night. 
Perliaps, Col. Putnam, like Dr. Rush and Col. Reed, visited Gen- 
eral Washington before the battle of Trenton, and while waiting 
in a down-stairs parlor to see the General, scratched his name on 
a window pane. 

The accurateness of the only known illustration of the Head- 
quarters House, the one used in Davis' History, cannot be guaran- 
teed, because this old cut was probably not made before 1862, the 
year one Alexander German tore the ancient building down and 
then erected on the same foundations the present stone house. 

Such is a condensed history of Washington's headquarters 
in Newtown. 

After the removal of the Continental troops from the New- 
town vicinity, anti-American tendencies suddenly began to in- 
crease. But let us hear the story direct from the Memoirs of 
Brigadier-General John Lacey, I'ucks County's own fighting 
Quaker: "On his (Washington's) leaving our Neighbourhood the 
tranquility and fearfull apprehensions of the People were allayed ; 
but T soon discovered a radical change had taken place in the 
Political sentiments of my Neighbours and acquaintances, during 
my Absence. A sullen vindictive and malignant spirit seems to 
liave taken hold of a large portion of the People in this County, 
whose Hostilitv to the Revolution was too apparent not to be 
noticed, and seemed only waiting a good opertunity to brake forth 
openl} in favour of England, and against their own Country — 
Threats and meanances were used by them, when the Company 
of those they dare to use them. Happy for the Whigs, however, 
the Tories were a set of Paltroons and Cowards, afraid Openly 
to espouse their Cause, and declare themselves. While the Whigs 
on the otlier hand acted Openly, avowed their intentions, and 
determination to live free and Independent or die gloriously in 
the struggle fighting for their Country. The Tories sneekingly 
contin.ued to Act under Cover, giving secret information, when 
ever they could to the British, rediculing the American Officers, 
and using every means they could invent to discourage the Whigs 
— and disswaid them from joining the .American army — or Mili- 
tia." 

During the occupancy of Philadelphia !)}• the Ih'itish in 1778, 
while the Continental Army lay encamped at Valley Forge, the 



lo4 REVtiLLTlOXARY XEWTOWN 

country surrounding Newtown suffered severel}- from the con- 
tinned depredations of the enemy's raiding parties, all of which 
are now most interesting from the historical point of view. My 
limited time, however, permits the review of only one oi them. — 
the one that occurred in middle FelDruary of that year, near or 
actually in the back-yard of the Bird in Hand. The result of 
this raid by a much superior force was the death of live Conti- 
nentals and the wounding of four others gloriously defending the 
cause of American Liberty. At the same time, the enemy captured 
as prisoners eight important officers and twentyfour privates of 
the Pennsylvania Line. The rough stone monument at present 
erected in front of the Bird in Hand is intended to commemorate 
the magnificent but hopeless stand made by these patriots, and it 
is to be hoped that before long some patriotic society will dedicate 
on this boulder a suitable bronze tablet to mark the spot near 
which the American Cause suffered more than twice as many 
casualties than it did at the battle of Trenton.* 

In 1871, a brief account of the said affair was published, 
which today proves very interesting because it definitely connects 
it with tlie Bird in Hand. The article written by George A. Jenks 
and E. F. Church declared : "During the war there was a depot 
for making clothing for the army in the old Penn house [as the 
Bird in Hand was often called because tradition claims it to have 
been built by William Penn.] The tailors ^vere guarded by mili- 
tia; with them was a continental soldier, who had been left sick 
at Newtown. The Tories attacked the depot. The guard and 
tailors retreated without firing a shot. The continental, (a boy 
of 19), alone stood his ground, and stationing himself at a garret 
window, killed several of the Tories before he received his death 
wound. He was buried on the lot now owned by J. V. Randall, 
at the north end of town. But no tombstone marks his grave, and 
the exact spot is not known." 

The shooting must have occurred from the south garret win- 
dow, because the stone building to the north, called Justice's 
House, had been erected in 1768. Here was the headquarters of 
William Alexander, Lord Stirlins;. 



^Following the reading of this paper, the members of trucks Comity 
Historical Society resolved mianimously to place a bronze marker on the 
boulder. As soon as the proper inscription can be agreed upon, the work 
will be done as authorized and notice thereof reported at the next annual 
meeting of the Society. 



'^i:^' 




I 



1 \f' iiir , 



SKJX OF THE BIRD IN HAND 

,4.s sketchFil h\i WiUiaiii V VitcnelU, after the, reatorution , 19:17- in.SH. of Eilirard 

R. Rarn/'lev. It tra.i at flip Kinall irinfloiv next to thift chiuiiiru toheir the 

Continental Soldier icas shot dicnna the Tory raid of 177S. 



136 REVOLI^TIONARY NEWTOWN 

Regarding further details of this engagement, there are, for- 
tunately, two excellent contemporaneous accounts preserved, — 
one written by each side. The American account, contained in a 
letter addressed to Thomas Wharton, Jr., President of the Su- 
preme Executive Council, by Walter Stewart, Co'.onel of the Thir- 
teenth Pennsylvania Regiment, reads: "Februarv 21, 1778. I am 
nnich concern'd to Inform your Excellencv that an Express ar- 
rived in Camp yesterday afternoon, with the disagreeable news 
of a party of Light Horse belonging to the Enemy, consisting of 
about Forty, pushed up to Newtown, Bucks County, and took my 
Major, with a small party of men. Prisoners, and all the cloathing 
I had laid up there for m}' Regiment. My hopes of getting my 
Regiment genteelly and well cloathed this campaigne are vanish'd, 
unless your Excellency & the Council will as'^ist me in ii, which 
I must Intreat in the strongest manner. I really hop'd sir. my 
own activiU' would have saved you this troul^le, but 'tis my mis- 
fortune to find all my good intentions frustrated by this most 
unlucky blow. My poor fellows are in a most deplorable situation 
at present, scarcely a shirt to one of their Backs. & equally dis- 
tress'd for the other necessarys ; but they bear it patientl>'. and 
however they may suiter for the want, I must say, T would rather 
wait a few weeks untill I could get all their cloathing together." 

The British account of the above skirmish, contained in the 
journal of Capt. John Montresor, Chief Engineer of the British 
Armv, gives more details as follows: "Immediately after they 
proceeded to Newtown, surprised & took the first centry without 
alariii. On approaching near the quarters of Major Murray they 
were fired upon by the centry at his door. This alarmed the guard 
about 40 yards distance who, being 16 in number. & imd.er cover 
of the guard house, immediately took to their arms and discharged 
their ])ieces on the troops surrounding them. Inr. such was their 
activit)- & alertness, that, after returning the fire & before the 
enemy could load a 2nd time, they stormed the house, killed 5, 
wounded 4 & took the rest of the guard prisoners & with them 
a considerable quantity of cloth then making up by a number 
of workmen for the rebel army. All this was done with so much 
secrecv conduct & bravery, that none of either of the parties 
received the least injury. About 6 o'clock the next evening they 
returned, bringing with them the wounded & the following prison- 



KEVOHTIDXARV NEWTOVVX 137 

ers : b'raiicis Murray, Major of tlieir standing armv — Fienry 
Martit, Lieut, of militia — John Cox, Ensign of their standing 
army — Carnis (Irace, Ensign of (Htto — Andrew McMinn, 
En>ign of ]\IiHtia — Charles Charlton. Quarter master of Stand- 
ing army -- Eriel Welhurn, Sergeant of ditto — James Moor, 
ditto of ditto. 24 Privates of ditto except one, Andionv Tate, a 
Grand juror." 

General Washington himself was very much alamied over 
this affair and wrote the following from \ alley Eorge on Februarv 
23, ]77S: "The insolence of the disaffected in Philadelphia and 
Bucks Counties has arisen to a very alarming Height. They have 
seized and carried off' a number of respectable inhabitants in those 
Counties, and such officers of the Armv as fell in their way, 
among others, Alajor [Murray, of the 13th Petmsylvania Regi- 
ment, who was at Xewtown with his family. What adds to the 
misfortune is, that they carried oft" near 2000 yds. of Cloth which 
had been collected in the County, and was making up for the 
Regiment." 

Tlie reason Washington spoke of the "insolence of the disaf- 
fected" is that this raid (as well as several of the others) was 
conducted JDy two Bucks County tories, — Richard Hovenden, of 
Xewtown township, to whom Lord Howe had given a captain's 
comnnssion in the TMiiladelphia Light Dragoons, and Evan Thomas, 
of Hilltown townshi]), who heM the captaincy of the Bucks County 
\'olunteers, associated with Lieut. -(^'ol. Simcoe's Queen's Rangers. 
These men were, of course, picked h\' Howe because of their 
famiharitx' with their native sections. 

T\\-() of the oft'icers they captured, Murrav and McMinn, 
were very ijrominent whig citizens and >oldiers in Newtown. 
bVancis Murray was the same who escorted for Washington the 
Hessian soldiers to 1 'hiladelphia after the I;attle of Trenton: and 
Andrew .McMinn, schoolmaster, was the builder of the tavern on 
the main street now called the Temperance House. This capture 
was the second experience for ]\Iajor Murray, the fir.st time being 
at Long Island. He was exchanged on December 9, 177(5. When 
taken the second time, as related above, he was not exchanged 
until ( )ctol'.er 2."). 1780. While he was a prisoner of war. his wife, 
to sup])ort herself and six small children, kept a retail shop two 



138 



REVOLUTK »\' ARV XEWTOWX 



doors above the Bird in Hand. It was in an eniptv NUgar hogs- 
l^ead in the cellar of this shop that the Major is reported to have 
secreted himself when the raid of 1778 occurred. 

Such is a brief report of tlie disastrous skirmisli occurring 
at Xewtovrn over a year after \A'ashington had made it his bead- 
quarters. The next snapshot of Revolutionary interest in the vil- 
lage was the very important conference between the O])posing 
forces held there for the exchange of ])risoners of war. General 
Washington and Sir William Howe each aii])ointed a commission 
for the purpose. The American Commissioners were: Col. Wil- 
liam Gravson, Lieut. Col. Alexander Hamilton. Lieut. Col. Robert 




BKIC'K HOTKL 

A.I fiifiravpt) iv 1H7H hv WiUidin T. Hmedlev. This shows the presevt building 

enlarcjed by Joseph Archambanlt in 1830. The original Red Lion Tavern, where 

the Commission for Exrhiinge of Prisoners met in 177S, was the two story 

portion of the ganibrel-ronfed bvilding. 

H. Harri^(jn of Washington's staff, antl I'dias Boudinot. Esq. The 
British Commissioners were: Col. Charles O'Hara of the Cold 
Stream Guards, Col. Humphrey Stevens of the h^irst Regiment 
of Foot, and Capt. Richard Fitzpatrick of the Third Regiment of 
Foot. Each C'ommission was attended by an escort of twelve 
Light Dragoons, the American troop being under command of 
Capt. Robert Smith of liaylor's Regiment. 



REVt)l.L■TI().^■AR^' NEWTOWN 189 

The Commissioners met first at Geniiantown on March 31, 
1778. Imt adjourned to Xewtovvn on Aj^ril 6th, and assembled at 
what is now called the iJrick Hotel. They remained at Newtown 
until the 12th, but failed to come to an agreement. In a letter 
written after the conference was over, Col. Roudinot said: "We 
were very sociable, but had previously obtained the character of 
our opponents, and were convinced they depended much on out- 
drinking us. \\'e knew that Col. Grayson was a match for them 
and therefore left all that part of the business to him. They sat 
down often while we were preparing to go. till they could scarcely 
sit u]iright. Just before sundown they were put on their horses 
and went for the city." 

There is not enough time remaining to even mention by name 
those many things of more or less countv interest which occurred 
at Newtown during the Revolution, such as the military hospital, 
the (juartermaster depot, the militia encampments, and so on, none 
of which had any particular national importance, but are, never- 
theless, of the greatest value to the students of local history. It 
is hoped, however, that enough material has been presented to 
make us all realize that Newtown, the seat of justice of colonial 
Bucks County, played a very important role in the establishment 
of our nation's freedom. Although in no sense of the word should 
Newtown be thought of in connection with such great names as 
Lexington. Washington Crossing, \'alley Forge, or Yorktown, the 
point I wish to stress, with an undisguised feeling of pride, is that 
the history of this small community throughout the years has 
proven to be a recapitulation of the history of our country. Every 
social, political, and economic development of our nation occurred 
to a lesser degree in this little country town. 



Why Study Local History 

By WALTER H. MOHR, GEORGE SCHOOL, PA. 

(Newtown Meeting, October 22, 1938) 

HE local historian makes a vital contribution to histori- 
ography because his painstaking efforts to clarify prob- 
lems which interest him result in valuable contributions 
to the understanding of state and national issues. Aluch still 
needs to be done before the story of American Civilization can 
be written. To complete this story the student of local history 
can make very real additions to our information on such impor- 
tant problems as land tenure, reform movements, and the rise and 
fall of such ventures as the production of silk which created so 
much interest about a centurv ago. 

One should note that no study of community history can be 
carried on as an isolated event. Some years ago a young Detroit 
lawyer resolved to collect documents pertaining to his home city. 
He soon saw that this involved material pertaining to the state 
of Michigan, to the Ignited States, to Indian affairs, and to 
Anglo-French and Anglo-American relations. The collection grew 
imtil it became the famous Burton collection, which is now in the 
Detroit Public Library and which is consulted by scholars from 
all parts of the United States and Canada. 

The history of a community such as Bucks County makes 
an excellent quarry because of its importance in local, state, and 
national affairs. To give examples of a few occasions when 
Bucks County was in contact with the larger affairs of state and 
nation might be of interest. Further researches will bring out 
many of these contacts. The number of instances is already so 
large that one can suggest merely a few such occasions. The 
selections are made because of my contact with some of the ma- 
terial rather than because the events are more important than 
others which might have been chosen. 

We all know that Joseph Galloway, who was prominent in 
provincial councils, was a resident and land owner of Bucks 
County. The plan of union which he presented at the first Conti- 
nental Congress was of more than ordinary importance. Addi- 
tional researches on the life and activities of this man will throw 
further light on the events of this important period of American 
history. 



WHY STl'DV LOCAL HISTORY 141 

Newtown was an important center of activities during the 
Revolution, which fact has been treated by several interesting and 
vahiable papers read before this Societ>-. The fact that Wash- 
ington's letters to Congress describing the battle of Trenton were 
written here will always make this village a landmark in the 
history of the struggle for freedom. The splendid \\ork which 
is now being done by l\Ir. Edward R. Harnslev will serve to im- 
earth much significant information regarding the town and the 
community. 

Much still needs to lie done in studying that group of people 
who chose to support tlie king during the Revolution. Many of 
them held positions of leadership and responsibility in their re- 
spective communities. At the end of the war large numbers of 
these people had to give up these positions, forfeit their estates, 
and flee to the protection of the British army. . . Although valu- 
able studies have been made of this problem, much still remains 
to be done before all the facts are in. A brief survey of the 
Report oil .Inierican MSS in the Koyal Institutions in Great 
Britain, a four volume calendar of the papers of the successive 
British Commanders-in-chief by the Royal Historical AISS Com- 
mission, indicates that there i> some interesting inaterial availalile 
for the study of this phase of Buck? County history. Many of 
these jiajiers are now accessible in the W^illiam L. Clements Col- 
lection, Ann Arbor, Michigan, where they can be consulted by 
interested persons. In volume II, page 408 of this collection we 
find a "Memorial from John Striclan [sic] late of Bucks County, 
in Pennsylvania, to Lieutenant General James Robertson," dated 
February. 1782, stating that he was ])ersecuted for his loyalty, 
that sickness had deprived him of most of his eyesight, .and that 
lie now begs rations or other relief. This memorial had witb it a 
certificate which was signed by Gilbert Hicks and five otbers. In 
\'olume 111, p. 149, we find several petitions dated May 29, 1783. 
All of them were countersigned. "AMlliam Thomas, lUicks County 
Volunteers", and they are all ver}- similar. They state that the 
petitioners entered the Bucks County Volunteers under Captain 
Thomas, that they were some of those who became prisoners at 
the surrender of \'orkto\vn. tbat the\- are now in great want and 
beg ])as^age to Xova Scotia. The petitioners' names were I'disha 
l>avis, Malhias Keyeser, I 'eter \\'aldm:ui. |o<e|di l"am1>\, Teter 



1-1:2 WHY STUDY LOCAL HISTORY 

Toner, and Isaac Taylor. On page 263 of Volume Til we find a 
memorial of Jacob Holder to Sir (jiiy Carleton. dated June 13. 
1783. It stated that he had served in the Bucks County Volun- 
teers and had been taken prisoner at Yorktovvn, that he was going 
to Nova Scotia with the rest of the "bretherin" and that he begs 
the same indulgence because his "necessitys" [sic] are as great. 
His certificate was signed by William Thomas of the Bucks Coun- 
ty Volunteers. This is all interesting and valuable material and 
if it is supiViemented by studies of land confiscations in the com- 
munity, will hel]) to clarify an important part of our Revolution- 
ary story. 

We nfight take as another example of the relationship of 
local with state and national history the story of Samuel D. Ing- 
ham. Air. Ingham was a prominent member of President Jack- 
son's first cabinet. He was more than that because he was asso- 
ciated with many political and economic affairs of the state of 
Pennsylvania. An}- study of Ingham will give significant inform- 
ation concerning some of the vital developments of this great in- 
dustrial state. Certain questions need further clarification. Thus 
for instance it will be interesting to know more about Ingham's 
relations with Simon Cameron. It may also be a real contribu- 
tion to get some insight into Ingham's part in the early railroad 
history of the state. 

Lew is T. Coryell of New Hope w^as known to several Presi- 
dents of the Ignited States. Six vohmies of his papers in the 
Historical Society of Pennsylvania give some evidence of his 
manifold interests and connections. His relation to state and 
national politics needs further study and explanation. It is prob- 
ably true that much Pennsylvania historv will have to be revised 
when the story of such men as Ingham and Coryell is finally told. 

It is useless to burden you further with examples. The op- 
portunties are luilimited. Each year we shall approach nearer to 
the time wdien we really can write a definite history of the nation. 
When this history is finally written, it will be the result, in part, 
of a great many painstaking researches by large numbers of local 
historians who have envisaged their job as one of showdng how 
the events of the community were a part of the larger movements 
in state and nation. 




Symbolism of Trade Signs 

!y klmkr g. an!>1':uson, hate^.op.o, pa. 

■d in Hand, Xewtown Meetin.c:, October 22, 1938) 



HE majority of our peojtle to-day will most likely 
tell you that the\- do not believe in signs, \et a 
short (hive in an\- direction shonid convince any- 
one that our merchants, at least, do place a great 
deal of confidence in them. It might also be 
said that considerable confidence is disi)'ayed b_v 
those using the sign of "The Jerking Thumb". There are natural- 
ly a wide variet\- of signs, some large, some small, good signs and 
had ones. 

\\ bile the origin of signs, as we know them, miglit 1 e some- 
what obscure, it api)ears fairly conclusive that the ancient Egypt- 
ians were the first to make use of them. In their cities, as in 
those of the luist in genera', all trades were confined to certain 
streets or rows in the various bazars. Jewellers, silk-embroiderers, 
rug dealers, pipe dealers, and traders in drugs — each class had 
its own ((uarters, where the merchants sat upon a kind of low 
counter enjoying their pipes and their coftee. ( lenerally there was 
no need for anv descriptive signs, for the customers knew well 
where to find anything and everything they were seeking. Occa- 
sionally, however, there were instances of inscri])tions. denoting 
the trade with some device or symbol, from which it seems safe 
to assume the Egyptians were the first users of ^-igns. However, 
the Romans furnished more authentic evidence. Their streets, 
as in those of Eurojiean ^Tedieval towns, derived their names 
from signs. Some of their signs were jminted, but the Roman 
fondness or preference for sculpture and carving e.xtemled to 
this field as well, and many fine examples are still in existence. 
There have, for instance, been found, ( in stone or terra-cotta re- 
lief ), the figtu-e of a goat, the sign of a dair\- ; a mule driving a 
mill, the signs of a baker. Later the many artificers of Rome 
employed their tools as the >ign of their house as an indication of 
their profession. 

So it would '-ecm that our Engli.^h fort'fathers adopted the 
sign-lioard from the Romans, and (|uite ob\iourdy, the colonists 
iirought their -^ign tradition-- along when the\- settled in .\merica : 



1-14 SYMBOLISM OF TRADE SIGNS 

especially the Inn, Tavern and T'ublic House signs, which showed 
a numerical superiority. Thus we find various devices used to 
appeal to the kind of wavfarer trade desired, as the Cross, for the 
Christian customer, and the Sun or Aloon for the pagan. Then 
we find em.blems used to solicit the trade of the Saxon, the Dane, 
or the Briton. The tradesman desiring the patronage of the mili- 
tary displayed a weapon of some sort; or, if he sought for his 
customers among the "more quiet artificers, there were the multiple 
implements of trade used as an appeal to the merchants frecfuent- 
ing his neighborhood. 

In signdom, almost every conceival)le object has been used, — 
trees, fruits, vegetables, animals, fish., Ijirds, tools, etc. The use 
of heraldic motifs for signs began making their appearance during 
the Middle Ages, the ]:)rincii^al reason for their use being this : 
At that time, the houses of nobility, lioth in town and country when 
the familv was aljsent, were used as hostehdes for travellers. The 
family arms always hung in front of tlie house, and the most 
conspicuous object in those arms gave a name to the establishment 
amongst travellers. These coats of arms gradiuall\- became an ac- 
cepted intimation that "good entertainment was to be Iiad for all 
who passed", (a possible forerunner of our ]^resent-day night 
club) ; the result being that innkeepers began to adopt them, hang- 
ing out lions of red, blue, white, and .gold, green dragon, golden 
bull, white horse, black horse and sorrel horse. Here then is un- 
doubtedly to be found the source of the names of our own colonial 
inns. 

Tho the majority of signs in England were painted — a great 
number of shops and tradespeople displayed some associated and 
easily recognized article of their merchandise or trade — wdiich 
in later years were displaced by reproductions carved in wood. 
And there have been some very excellent examples of these carved 
signs, some having been used until quite recently, for instance, the 
carved boot as the sign of the slioemaker. .Also we have the gold- 
beater's sign, a good brawnv arm gold-leafed, swinging a gold- 
beater's mallet. This latter sign seems to have been in use for 
many centuries, evidence showing it in existence during the Middle 
Ages. Minerva, usually depicted as the goddess of wisdom, was 
also regarded as th.e patroness of the shoemakers and often used 



S^•.^IB()I.IS.M OV TR \UE SICNS 145 

as their sign. Saint Hugh's ISones, another shoemaker's sign, had 
its origin from the story that St. Hugh, the ^on of a prince, fell 
deeply in love with a saintl\- coquette named Winifred. Having 
been jilted by the lady, he went travelling, resisted temptations. 
passed through numl)erless adventures that would put those of 
Baron Munchausen to shame, and finally was made to drink a cup 
of the blood of his lady-love mixed with p(jison, after which his 
body was hung on the gallows. But among his misfortunes in his 
travels he had lost all his wealth, necessitating the choosing of a 
profession, lie liecame a shoemaker and liked his fellow workers 
so well that w hen he died, having nothing else to give. be':iueathed 
his bones to them, and after thev had been well picked bv the 
birds, the shoemakers took the bones from the gallows and 
fashioned them into tools. Hence their tools were called St. 
Hugh's Bones. 

The significance of the pole as a barber's sign dates back to 
the time when barbers were also surgeons and practiced blood- 
letting. The patient undergoing this operation had to grasp a pole 
in order to make the blood flow more freely. As the pole was of 
course liable to be stained with blood, it was painted red ; but when 
not in use the barbers were in the habit of suspending the pole 
outside the door with white linen swathing bands twistefl round it, 
fin.ally resulting in the red and white stripes as we know it to-day. 
It is perhaps interesting to note that in those days, as in our time, 
world problems could be quite readily and definitely settled in the 
barber sho]). Likewise, the barber at that time, as to-day, also had 
the reputation for voluliilit}-. and to such a general extent that a 
barber in I'aris. desiring to be different, placed a sign with the 
inscription: "T shear (|uickly and am silent". The barbers must 
have Iieen a rather witt}- bunch in tliose days, for there are numer- 
ous amusing anecdotes and circinnstances recorded concerning 
them. 1 might mention one occurrence that is finite amu.sing. A 
barber in London, opening a shop in a building whose windows 
were broken, repaired them with ])aper, on wh'ch appeared the 
words, "Shave for a penn\", with the usual invitation to custom- 
ers, while on the door he lettered the following \erse : — 

"Here lives jimmie Wright. 
Shaves almost as well as an\' man in b^ngland, 
Almost — not quite". 



146 SYMBOLTSM OF TRADE STGXS 

A passerby noting the verse and hoping to extract more wit from 
its author, ]ni]le(l off his hat and thrusting his head thru one of 
the pai:ier ])anes. into the shop, called out -- "Is Jimmie Wright 
at home?'". The barber immediately pushed his own head thru 
another paper ]iane. into the street and re]ilied — "No sir, he just 
popped out". 

The eagle has been extensively and consistently used as a sym- 
bol. Here again we find the inns and taverns adapting tb.e eagles 
taken from the many heraldic forms, thus accounting for such 
familiar names as "The Spread Eagle" and ''The Black Spread 
Eagle". r)ur own early volunteer fire companies used the form 
of the eagle very frequently ; Init T believe in this connection it 
concerned the PlKenix, a fabulous bird of antiquity, said to be 
like the eagle in form and size, and becau.se of its association with 
fire was used in ornamenting the fire fighting apparatus. This bird 
also furnished the name for many of the companies. The Phrenix 
as a church emblem symbolizes Immortality and Resurrection. 
Amongst the Egyptians it was the emblem of the soul, and was 
said to live about six hundred years, then to make a pyre of arom- 
atic gums and spices, light the pile with the fanning of its wdngs, 
then to be consumed : and from its ashes it arose, reinvigorated 
and its youth restored. 

True constant and enduring symbolisni of signs has perhaps 
been found nowhere to be more consistent than in the various 
forms of sacred art. particularly in the stained giass windows of 
the cathedrals. To at least partially account for this, we have the 
facts of the general acceptance of the Divistian Faith; of the very 
limited or total absence of reading ability of the average medieval 
man or woman, making it necessary to use pictorial representation 
to make the story of the Rible more forceful and understandable. 
Symbolism has here been employed so thoroughly, and with such 
few instances of variance, that it becomes a comparatively easy 
matter to read the various episodes of the Bible illustrated in the 
marvelous windows of the Medieval Cathedral. 

To mention a few examples : The symbols used to represent 
the four Evangelists were more than likely derived from, the re- 
corded visions of Ezekiel and St. John, who wrote • "As for the 
likeness of their faces, they four had the face of a man, and the 
face of a lion, on the right side ; and they four had the face of 



SVMIiOLlSM OF TRADE SKiXS 147 

an ox on the left side: they four also had the face of an eagle". 
Consequentl}- the angel or human form was assigned to St. 
Matthew because his Gospel dwells most particularly U])on the 
human nature of Christ : the lion to St. Mark, for the reason he 
is termed the historian of the resurrection, of wdiich doctrine the 
lion was considered the emblem, from the legend that it was always 
born dead, but after some days licked into life by its parents; the 
ox or calf to St. T.uke, being the emblem of sacrifice, it is the sign 
of a priest or victim: and St. Luke especially dwells upon the 
priestly character of Christ. And, the eagle to St. John, for as 
the eagle soars highest among birds, so St. John soared upwards 
beyond all other inspired writers, in setting forth the divine nature 
of the TjDvd. 

The initials T. H. S., being the first three letters of the Creek 
word for the name Jesus, are used as the monogram of Christ. 
Another means of identifying Christ is to be found in the nimbus 
or halo, for, with practically no exception, his halo is illustrated 
with a cross. Still another symbol of Christ and the baptism is the 
fish, and quite often we find the figure of Christ standing or seated 
within the fish form, which is nothing more nor less than an oval 
shape coming to a point at both ends, 

Xaturally, a great deal more could be said concerning the 
subject of signs, which time does not permit. However, it would 
perhaps be fitting to attempt some comparison of present day signs 
with those of earlier days. Our signs of to-day show a vast im- 
provement in pictorial and painting quality : but what the earlier 
ones lacked in this respect was compensated for by the more elab- 
orate ornamentation, carved or painted, or both, plus very well 
wrought iron work. Along about the fifteenth century competi- 
tion became keen in the matter of sign display, signs becoming so 
large, that in many cases they reached across the narrow, quaint 
streets and actually made walking through the streets a hazardous 
adventure, what with the possibility of one of these huge signs 
dropping on one's head or bumping head on into one of the many 
signs hung on posts and individually provided arch structures. 
This condition was remedied in mucli the same manner as has l>een 
done to-day, by fining the owner of any sign not conforming to 
regulations formulated for the protection of the public. As to 
symbolic quality, I feel the old signs were more consistent than 



]48 



;yx\ibolism of trade signs 



our present ones. Then, one could be quite certain that a repre- 
sentation of a hon indicated an inn, or a boot, a shoemaking shop. 
To-day, what do we find — a gorgeous, beautiful and glamorous 
young w'oman, either in full regalia or wearing only a bubble — 
seems to advertise pretty nearly everything from a needle to a 
Boulder Dam. Then, signs were confined to the immediate place 
of business and not spread all over the country ; and i f I were 
making lavrs. the first one would be to make it a criminal offense 
for anyone to line our beautiful countryside with any sign measur- 
ing more than six by twelve inches. 





Remarks of B. F. Fackenthai, jr. 

On announcing the paper to be read before the Bucks County Historical Society 

Early Schoolhouses in Four Bucks County Townships 

By C. AliTHUR SMITH of WYCOMBE, PA. 
(Doylestown Meeting, May 6, T939) 

Smitli who contributes this paper is a deaf 
mute, lie is greatly interested in local history 
and a frequent visitor to the Library of The 
lUicks County Historical Society. Some of the 
■esearch work he has accomplished is of such 
\alue that we have gladly paid him for type- 
written copies, which have been bound and are now lying on this 
desk and open for inspection. Four volumes are devoted to the 
marriage and death notices that appeared in the Bucks County 
Intelligencer for 25 years from 1836 to 1860; one volume contains 
tombstone inscriptions and one records of the Wrightstown Meet- 
ing House. 

Deaf Mutes i\ Durham and Vicinity 
There was formerly a colony of nine deaf mutes living in 
Durham and vicinity, of whom five men were employed at the 
Durham Furnace at a time when I was the General ^Manager. 
These men were good workmen, always faithful, and greatly 
beloved by their associates, many of whom soon learned the deaf 
and dumb alpliabet, and conversed with them quite freely. There 
were three brothers by name of Heller, of whom the younger, 
Robert C, called "Bob", was taught to speak simple sentences. 
The first words they taught him to say was "Poor Bob". They 
were a happy lot of men. all of whom could write intelligently. 

Services in Riegelsville Church for Deaf Mutes 
(^n January 24, 1886, services were held in the Reformed 
Church of Riegelsville for the benefit of deaf mutes. Henry 
Heller and his wife. Mary Francis, were confirmed ; ]Mrs. Edward 
D. Heller. Robert C. Heller and Joseph Henry Penrose were bap- 
tised and confirmed ; ]Mr. and Mrs. Henry D. Riegel and Edward 
D. Heller, members of other churches, partook of the communion ; 
Miss Sally Heller, a ^Indent, recited in the sign language, the 
hymn, "Nearer, my (J(nl, to Thee." The services were in charge 



150 EARLY SCHOOL HOUSES 

of Rev. Jacob j\J. Koehler, a deaf mute, of Scranton, Pa., assisted 
by the Rev. Dr. Thomas Gallaudet, of New York City, both of 
the Episcopal Church. 

Rev. Dr. Thomas Gallaudet v^'as the son of Thomas Hopkins 
Gallaudet, founder of the first institution in America for instruc- 
tion of the deaf and dumb. Dr. Thomas, w^ho had married a deaf 
mute, was a professor in the New York Institute for Deaf Mutes, 
who in 1852 founded St. Ann's Episcopal Church in New York 
City for the benefit of deaf mutes, for which a church and rectory 
were purchased. Through his efforts deaf mute churches were 
established in Philadelphia, Baltimore, Albany, Boston and other 
places. 

Mrs. Fackenthal and I had the pleasure of entertaining Dr. 
Gallaudet and Rev. Koehler, and I well remember the happy 
hours we spent, extending late into the night, sitting around an 
open hearth fire, listening to Dr. Gallaudet tell of his interesting 
work among these people. He explained the great value of the 
sign language, which he said was the same all over the world, of 
which he gave us many examples, including the driving of horses 
in Spain. He told us that when he was a boy he had long curls, 
and the deaf mutes indicated him by imitating the twisting of a 
curl. J-Ie was known by that sign throughout the world, and im- 
itating the twisting of a curl was his deaf mute name. In like 
manner other people were known by special motions and signs. 
He spoke of the sign language as being the most universal language 
in the world. Their name for me at the Durham Iron Works 
was indicated bv placing their thumbs in the sockets of their 
waistcoats, to indicate that 1 was the boss. 

All the children of the Heller family, five in number, includ- 
ing a son who died in infancy, were deaf mutes. None of the 
paenits of the Durham colony or of their descendants were deaf 
mutes. 

Early Schoolhouses in Four Bucks County Townships 

By (\ ARTHUR SMITH ol WYCOMBE, PA. 
(Doylestown Meeting, May 6, 19.3ft ) 

There appears in Davis" History of liucks County, Chapter 
XX\T, on "School and Education", on page 366, one short item: 
"In 1789 Thomas Smith gave a lot on the Street Road whereon 



EARLY SCHOOL HOUSES 151 

the 'Red School House' was built, but subsequently tunu-il into a 
dwelling." This incomplete sentence aroused my attention, and 
since reading it I have found several interesting old ])apers con- 
cerning the above school, in which some of my ancestors received 
their early education. 

Before I proceed to give a fuller account of this school, I 
would like to state that during my research I found there were 
at least a score of small one-room -^choolhouses, independent of 
each other, scattered over the townshi])s of liuckin.ghani, Solebury, 
l^jiper Makefield and Wrightstown. around the year 1800. 

This paper 1 am preparing deals onl\' with the rise and de- 
cline of our earlv schools, giving sucli facts as have come to my 
knowledge during an extensive research. 

!\luch of the information regarding the early schools can be 
found in the publications of the l>ucks ( ount\- Historical Society, 
and I wish to quote from the writings of Warren S. Ely on the 
"Octagonal or So-Called 'Eight-Square' Sclioolhouses" which he 
read to this Society about 20 years ago: this 's as follows: 

"About the middle of the eighteenth century a number of 
schoolhouses were erected in our county on the i^lan of subscrip- 
tions, by families residing in the neighborhood where the schools 
were located, the funds to pay for them and their sites being raised 
b}- popular subscriptions, the titles in each instance being held by 
three or five trustees selected by the proprietors, i~; the subscribers 
were generally called. Teachers were employed bv the trustees 
or an auxiliary committee and were paid. u>uall\-. ]iro-rata for the 
number of scholars taught. Some few schools were established 
as early as 1735-40, but they did not become numerous or popular 
in our county until about 1760. The first schoolliouses were con- 
structed of logs, or of frame or stone, the matter of material 
being governed by their location and the amount of monev that 
could be collected for their construction." 

Xo attempt has been made on m}- ])art to prove which was 
the first schoolhouse ever established in any of the fotir town- 
ships, owing to the fact that information is scam and diTficult to 
obtain, as few records regarding the earl\- schools were preserved. 

One of earliest schoolliouses in the \icinitv. so far as known, 
was a rude log cabin on the "\\'ind\- Hush " farm, in l'])pcr .Make- 
field Township, which was probably 1)ui!t about 1730. It was 



152 EARLY SCHOOL HOUSES 

located about 200 yards southwest of the mineral spring, ni the 
woods, near the line of the Smith-Trego farms, and near the old 
Indian-path, along the end of the mountain called Jericho Hill. 
The location was selected for the convenience of settlers on both 
sides of the hill, which in the boyhood days of Josiah R. Smith, 
the historian, was known as the "Great Hill". The schoolhouse 
was on the premises of Thomas Smitli (born about 1705; died in 
1750), who owned the land called "Windy Bush", which was 
devised to him by his father, William .Smith, by two deeds, dated 
1721 and 1739 respectively. William Smith, tlie ])rogenitor of 
the Smith family of Wrightstown, purchased 200 acre.> of the 
above tract from the I'enn Commissioners. 170P. 

How long the school served its community i= not known, but 
it is presumed it was userl until near the close of the Revolutionary 
War. In 1768 a new schoolhouse was built, at what is now Pine- 
ville, and another one in 1789, on Street Road, near Curl's Run, 
each about tw^o miles distant from the Windy Bush School. Dur- 
ing that period the patronage of that school was not sufficient to 
support a teacher and it was discontinued. 

Samuel Smith, son of Thomas, mentioned above, left the 
house standing in the woods several years and rented it to laborers 
to work on his fann. In 1790 he tore the old log schoolhouse 
down and rebuilt it as a dwelling house, just south of the barn on 
his premises, using the best of the materials. He and his wife. 
Jane, lived in it the rest of their lives. They were the great-grand- 
parents of Josiah B. Smith, the historiari. 

The house was constructed of hewn logs, filled with stones 
and mortar, had two rooms, a small attic over head, and a cellar 
underneath. It stood there as late as 1895 before it was tore 
down. Two pictures of the above old house are preserved in the 
photograph album belonging to the Bucks County Historical So- 
ciety. 

In 1936 William K. Smith, who owns the adjoining farm, 
which is also part of the original Windy Bush tract, pointed out to 
me the site of what was the remains of the foundations of this 
old log house, now covered up by a new lane, connecting the house 
of the present owner, Thornton Lewis, with the State Plighway, 
called Windv Hush Road. 



153 



Albert Heston, an old bachelor, (born in 1815; died in 1886 ) 
son of Jacob, anfl grandson of Jesse, was the lone tenant of the 
old Iion>e. He was somewhat eccentric and far better satisfied in 
the old house than he would have been in a comfortable boarding 
house. William K. Smith said, when he was a small boy, he went 
to see Albert and observed his nimsual customs. He repaired the 
clocks for the neighbors and played the fiddle. He s'ept in a 
bed made of canvas and supported by a pair of crosscl sticks of 
woorl with a feather mattress over it. 

At the southern liase of llowman's hill, is a small hamlet 
called I-urgan, after the Irish birth-place of James Logan, a close 
friend of William Penn. A hundred years ago there were about 
fifteen buildings, grouped t(jgether, which can be seen on the old 
Bucks County maps. The 1850 map marked one of the buildings 
a "S. H." These abbreviated letters have a great significance. In 
this small, humble one-story schoolhonse were educated several 
prominent men. Davis' History of Rucks County says: "Among 
the scholars were the late Judge John Ross. ( )liver H. Smith, 
Senator in Congress from Indiana : Doctor John Chapman. Ed- 
ward Smith., a learned man: Seth Chapman, son of Doctor John 
Chapman, lawyer and judge; Doctor Seth Cattell. a student of 
and who succeeded Doctor John W^ilson. who died early, and 
others of note." (AOl. I. page 464.) 

In the minutes of the Wrightstown Monthlv Meeting under 
the date of the 4th day of the 2nd month. 1755, there is recorded 
that "The Friends near the river requested leave to hold a meeting 
of wf)rship at the School house near John Beaumont's for this 
winter Season to begin the first day after next and to Continue 
untill the middle of the fourth month next" ; similar minutes are 
repeated, with some intermissions, until 12th month 1st, 176". It 
is quite probable that this was the schoolhonse at Lurgan. But 
the first actual mention of the name "Lurgan" we come across in 
the ".Xi^pearance Docket". \"ol. 9. i)age 653. ( Prothonotarv Of- 
fice) : 

"He it remembered that on the L^th day of September. .\. D. 
1832, I'er'-unall) . in the oj.en Court of Common Pleas held at 
Doylestown in and for said L'onnt\' of iUicks. Benjamin Morris. 
Jr.. Lsq., high Sb.eriff of the ("onnt_\ of I'.ucks. and acknowledged 
a Deed of L"onve\ance b\- him made to Cornelius b"lv for a cer- 



154 EARLY SCHOOL HOUSES 

tain Stone School House in Upper Maketield Township, known 
by the name of Lnrgan School House, on Lands adjoining Wil- 
liam Groom, Thomas Randall & others near the Road Leading 
from Neely's Mill to Wrightstown. Taken in execution & sold 
as the Property of the Trustees or Proprietors or Possessors there- 
of at the suit of said Cornelius Ely. Sold for $44.00." 

I h.ave not ascertained whether the Lurgan school was con- 
tinued after it was seized by the sheriff of Bucks County from the 
trustee'^ on the complaint of Cornelius Ely. On April Est, 1834. 
a new school was started at Brownsburg, and on April 1st, 1850, 
anotlier one at Buckmanville. botli in L'jjper ]\Iakefield township. 
After several cliange of hands of the Lurgan school lot until 
1859, the schoolhouse appeared to have remainerl the same as it 
was wlien it was seized in 1832 and so far had not been converted 
into a dwelling house. On July 26th, 1859, a deed was made out 
to Benjamin G. Walton for the part of the old schoolhouse lot. 
"in tru.st for the use of the Methodist Episcopal Church in the 
L^nited States of America." ( D. P.. 108, p. 559.) 

Davis" History of Bucks Cf)unty says, "Amongst those who 
taught at this primitive seminary, were Moses Smith, afterward 
a distinguished physician of Philadelphia; Mr. McLean, a noted 
teacher, fine Latin scholar and mathematician ; Enos Scarborough, 
celebrated for his penmanship, and Joseph Fell, Fkickingham." 
(\^ol. L p. 464. ) Edward O. Pool was the last teacher at Lurgan 
and the first one at Ikickmanville. 

Today one will find this humble hamlet contain.ing a few 
buildings still standing and some ruins. The glory of Lurgan is 
departed, and her scholars, statesman, and jurists have gone to 
the "undiscovered country". The old foundation of the school- 
house is still there, covered up with weeds and briars. It is easily 
located, being opposite the entrance of the road leading to the 
tower on Bowman's PTill. 

A school was established in 1767 by Thomas Ross near his 
I)remises in Solebury township. Reference was mentioned in the 
minutes of Wrightstown Monthly ^Meeting, granting its members 
the privilege of having a meeting of worship at the schoolhouse 
near Thomas Ross's. Thomas Ross, who was a recommended 
minister and traveled considerably in the ministry, taught school 
In his last will, dated 4th month 12th, 1784, just before his em- 



EARLY SfMIOd 



155 



barkation to Europe, he "give and bequeath five Pounds to be 
applied towards Building a School House in such place in my 
Neighbourhood as Friends may approve." No definite inform- 
ation has been brought to light regarding the above subject. 

Next in order of time comes a curious old lease bearing the 
date 17G8, and written in a hand that puts to shame the illegibility 
of many of our modern penmen. This was the lease of a tract 
of land for school purposes, situated in \\ rightstown township. 
for the mutual accommodation of children of the three townships 
(Wrightstown, Buckingham and Tpper ]\Takefield). This land 
was leased by George Newburn "for and during the full time the 
Walls of a certain House now building on said Land shall by 
them, their Heirs or Assigns be thought sufi'icient to bear a Roof," 
the yearly rent thereof to be one pepper-corn. 

This was the school at Pineville. The lot of land mentioned 
in the lease contained eight perches and was of a triangular shape. 
It was located at the intersection of the Durham Road and the 
A'lill Road leading from Pineville to the grist mili at what is now 
Wycombe, and adjoined the present store building. It was dis- 
continued about 1816, when another school was started at what 
was known as Warner's Point, a mile away. The late Heston J. 
Smith said that there were four pine trees standing on the said 
lot, one tree on each side of the schoolhouse. One of the trees is 
still standing near the present dwelling house, a lonely sentinel of 
the thrifty pine trees that stood there a hundred and fifty years 
ago. Pineville derived its name from these trees, first "The 
Pines," and later "Pinetown." V\'hen tlie post-office was estab- 
lished in 1830, with Samuel Tomlinson as postmaster. Pinetown 
became Pineville. 

There was a schoolhouse on the abandoned road over Jericho 
Hill, near C. E. Morgan's back lane. It was a very neutral loca- 
tion, everyone that went to school had to go up hill, a real test for 
an eagerness for knowledge. A path, said to be an Indian-path, 
which almost comiected with the one that led to Bowman's Hill, 
led west along the south side of Jericho Fiill. \\ bite chiklren tra- 
veled this path to the schoolliousc that used to stand on the farm 
of m\- ancester, John Eastburn, in L'p])er jMakeficld. 

.\. story may be told in connection with this old schoolhouse 
A bov who attended the school had tlu misfortune to lose his 



156 EARLY Sr'HOOL HOUSES 

mother, and his father took it upon himself to marry again. The 
lady's name was Hannah. This boy did not take kindly to his step- 
mother, Hannah, and wrote on the schoolhouse door: "When the 
children of Israel wanted bread the Lord sent them manna, but 

when old (giving his father's name) wanted a wife, the 

devil sent him Haimah." 

The proper education of the children was a weighty concern 
of Friends in the olden time. The pious education of our youth 
was frec|uentl\- urged by the yearly meeting as a necessity. It was 
advised that schools be established and exaiiplary teachers be em- 
ployed and committees of solid Friends be chosen to diligently at- 
tend to the schools and see that the requirements of Friends be 
carried one. Several Friends, feeling the importance of this mat- 
ter, left money by will, in sums varying from five to fifty pounds, 
to be placed at interest until a fund could be raised sufiL'icient to 
maintain free schools in the neighborhood for the education of 
Friends' children and others whose parents could not afford to 
educate them. 

The first mention of a school conducted by the Friends of 
Wrightstov\-n Monthly Meeting was a minute dated 4th month 
3rd, 1764, that "as the Deed for that Lott at Logtown The 
Trustee? are all Dead now And we are of the mind that Friends 
have the Sole right of Appointing New Trustees and that the 
other Inhabitance of W'rightstown have no right in the said Lott 
Except for a School." This Logtown lot was leased to the in- 
habitants of Wrightstown township for the use of a school only, 
and so continued until toward the close of the ISth century. In 
another minute dated 9th month 6th, 1803, it is stated that "This 
meeting being informed that the owners of the Building now 
erected on the Lot of land near Logtown Belonging to this meeting 

Propose to sell the same " After several months of debate 

over the price demanded, the Monthly Meeting finally purchased 
the building for forty-six dollars from the Committee of Wrights- 
town township. Tn connection with the above purchase, the 
Monthly Meeting also purchased a lot of land lying between the 
meeting's lot and the public highway, made repairs to the building 
and converted it into tenantable use. 

Among the old documents belonging to Wrightstown Month- 
ly Meeting is a deed dated Januar\ 14th. 1760, for a lot of land 



contciinint( twenty-seven i)erclies, convcvecl by Doctor John Cha])- 
man to the trustees appointed bv the monthly meeting "for the 
only L'se, Benefit and Behoof of the Members or People belonging 
to the [Monthly Meeting of the People called Quakers at Wrights- 
town for ever to Erect and Continue a Schoolhouse thereon And 
that the School there to be kept shall be free to and be under and 
subject to the Direction of the said Monthly Meeting forever. . . ." 
At the time some of the bequests \\ere made, there was a large 
•^tone schoolhou.se standing near the meeting house, which was 
alluded to b}- some of the donors in their wills. This schoolhouse 
was on the above mentioned Chapman lot. on the northeast corner 
of the meeting grounds, across the Durham Road from the meet- 
ing house, and under the care of the Educational Committee ap- 
pointed by the Monthly Meeting. From the minutes of 1815 and 
1816 it appears the old schoolhouse was taken down by direction 
of the meeting and the materials divided between two others wdiich 
were then proposed and agreed to be built. One of these was two 
miles above ^^'rightstown, on the Philadelphia and Xew Ho])e 
Roads ( at what was known as Warner's Point above the Anchor 
Hotel on tlie Windy Bush Road \ and the other tliree-finuths of a 
mile below, at the junction of the Xewtown and Makefield Roads 
(at the point now called Ryan's Corner), both in the township of 
Wrightstown and under the care of Committees of Friends. These 
w^ere not free schools, but the cost was very moderate, and Friends 
paid for the tuition of such of their members as could not con- 
venientl}- do so. Several Friends' children were being educated 
in this w ay in those schools most of the time. In 1850 the Prop- 
erty Committee appointed by the monthly meeting reported that 
the two schoolhouses were .being neglected, and purposed to sell 
the j^roperties, which was done. 

In 1845, after much controversy in the Monthly Meeting, ex- 
tending over a period of several months, it was finally decided to 
build a schoolhouse on the meeting-house grounds. This was done 
at a cost of $1,360, and the school was opened in the winter of 
1847. .\s stated before regarding the donors who left the money 
for the free schools, the fund, left by the wills of Adam Marker, 
Joseph Smith, David Ikickman, David Twining, Jonathan Ingham. 
William Twining and others, had accumulated to the sum of more 
than ten thousand dollars. With the expenses of building the 



158 EARLY SCHOOL HOUSES 

Stone schoolhoLises. some money not recoverable and the part of 
the donation an Orthodox Friend refused to turn over to the 
Hicksite Friends, the sum of $7,782.86 remained for the mainte- 
nance of the school. By this time the free school system of Penn- 
sylvania was in force and the necessity for Friends' schools was 
not so great as when the bequests were first made. 

The school at first was kept open the entire year, 46 Friends' 
children attending and 35 not members, those of the latter number 
not in need paying for tuition. The first teacher was paid $18 
per month and the second $20, the salary steadily creeping up as 
the membership and attendance of Friends' children fell short. 
These were in days when teachers were strong enough to work 
like other people every day and all the year, and we hear little 
complaint of too hard work and not enough pay. 

Toward the close of the nineteenth century, there were only 
three Friends' children enrolled. Much of the money had been 
lost, and the fund was so reduced that the school could not be kept 
up to the requirements of a first-class school of that day. In 
]903 the Friends' School was discontinued. The building was 
leased to the township of Wrightstown and continued until 1922 
or later, when the State Commissioners from Harrisburg con- 
demned the building as deficient in light and air space. 

When the school was started in 1847 the first teacher was 
Margaret Smith, then Ruth D. Beans, Eugene Smith, Thomas 
Smith, Carline Stradling, Deborah B. Smith, Mary B. Heston 
Mattie B. Simpson, Anna C. Wollaston, Sarah Roberts. Elizabeth 
Lloyd, Elizabeth Ball, Elizabeth Hart, A.nniel Ely, Annie Scarbor- 
ough, and others. Grace Woodman was the last teacher of the 
Friends' School. 

On the Swamp road at its intersection with the Second Street 
Pike, about one mile southwest of the village of Penn's Park, 
stands an interesting building of by-gone days, an old octagonal 
or "eight-square" schoolhouse. By a lease dated April 1st, 1802 
(D. B. 33, p. 403 ) it was leased for a term of ninety-nine years to 
the inhabitants of W^rightstown Township by Joseph Burson. 
School was conducted there for about fifty years and was probably 
replaced by a new school at Rush Valley in 1851. 



EARLY SCHOOL MOISES 159 

Below Wycombe, uii the farm now occupied by Walter Er- 
win. stood a schoolhouse which was known by the unusnal name 
of the "Cider Press School". It was located where the railroad 
crosses an old road which was abandoned when the railroad was 
built. An old stone arch bridge and part of the old road which 
led to the grist mill at A\"ycombe are still visible. Tins school was 
discontinued in 1871. A few of the older inliabitants in this vicin- 
ity remember this school, and the cloudburst, which is described 
in the Bucks Coniit\ JiitclUf/cnccr unrler the date of May 15th. 
1860, as follows: 

"A small, nameless stream, flowing by Benjamin .Vtkinson's. 
in Wrightstown township, cut the vvildest capers of any. Near 
its confluen.ce with the Lahaska or Mill Creek is situated a school- 
house, and by it a bridge over a stream. Drift stuff made a lodge- 
ment above the bridge and caused a large dam of water, which 
overflowed parts adjacent and flooded the schoolhouse floor whilst 
the school was in session, causing great terror to the pupils, who 
at last escaped by leaping out at the winrlows. In the midst of 
the storm they ran across a plowed field to a neighbor's house. 
The lodgment above the bridge at last gave way, just as an emptv^ 
lime wagoiL with four mules attached, drove upon the bridge. 
The wagon, teaiu and all, were washed down stream, and lodged 
against trees, just by the channel of the large creek. They all 
escaped, but it was a very narrow chance " 

I have not made an extensive study of the early schools estab- 
lished by the Friends of fUickingham Monthly Meeting. From 
their minutes I found the following: 

1st of the 8rd month 1781: "Committee on Schools make 
written rc]K)rt recommending tliat a committee be appointed to 
ins])ect into school houses already I)uilt and ascertain where others 
should l^e built on land of which title is vested in trustees of the 
Meeting." 

3rd of tlie 1st month 1785: "Committee on Schools report — 
That there are a numl:ier of schoolhouses within the bounds of 
the Meeting which from the nature of their titles are not likely 
to admit of schools in them subject to the direction of this Meeting 
anrl that they are in too irregular positions to answer the general 
purpose of schools, except two. — one on land granted by Samuel 
Eastburn, the title of which is vested in Trustees of this Monthlv 



160 EARLY SCHOOL HOL'SES 

A/[eeting", — the other on land granted by Thomas Good, title 
vested in members of this meeting- but not in trust for the Meet- 
ing." 

They recommend schools to be established as follows: 

1. at the Schoolhouse near Samuel Eastburn's (known as 
Centre Hill). 

2. on York Road between William Kitchen's and Thomas 
Rose's. 

3. on road from Newtown to Coryell's Ferry, near the line 
of Crispin and William Blackfan. 

4. at intersection of Lower York Road and Street Road. 

5. near the end of Thomas Carey's lane whicli leads to his 
house (at Carver's Corner near CarversvilleV 

6. near the southeast side of A'^/atson Wekhng's land (now 
known as Forest Grove). 

7. on Durham Road near Thomas Gilbert's (between Centre- 
ville and Mechanicsville). 

8. on Plumstead Meeting House land. 

9. at the School House near Thomas Good's (known as Sandy 
Ridge). 

Some of their locations are obscure, but a closer examination 
of minutes and other sources would probably show their exact 
locations and whether the schools were already established or not. 

The meeting established schools at Carversville, Forestville, 
and Centre Hill. When the common school system was adopted, 
the school buildings belonging to the ^Monthly Meeting were handed 
over to the school directors of Buckingham and Solebury. on con- 
dition that they be kept in repair and "be not used for purposes 
and in a manner contrary to the testimonies and discipline of the 
Society of Friends." 

The first action taken towards establishing the Bucking- 
ham Friends' School was 2d month 6th, 1792, when a committee 
was appointed by the ^Monthly Meeting to circulate a subscription 
paper among the members ; in this way £759 were raised for a 
school fund. The school building was erected about 1794. and as 
it was well built, it still stands as good as new, and has been used 
for school purposes ever since. 



EARIA S(;H0()L Hdl'SES 161 

Buckingham township has been known for its famous schools, 
such as old Tyro Hall, Martha Hampton's boarding school for 
girls, Hughesian Free School. As they are frequently mentioned 
in the historical papers of this Society and Davis' History, I will 
not give any cletails. 

When the Solebury Friends separated from Buckingham, in 
1808, and built a meeting-house, the school fund was divided, the 
former getting $4,500 as their share. Since the establishment of 
public schools this fund has lain idle. The schoolhouse on the 
meeting grounds was converted into a dwelling and is occupied 
by the caretaker. 

Centre Hill (at Solebury* is considered to be the oldest school 
in the four townships, if not in the county, it having been in use 
as a school since 1756. All the Solebury Township schoolhouses 
(New Hope not included, it being a borf)Ugh i were discmtinued 
(except Centre Hill) when the school con-olidation law went into 
effect. 

1 have jjrepared an almcjsl complete list of the jnist and i)vesent 
schoolhouses, with their names, when they \vere established and 
discontinued, by and to whom the lots of land were granted, how 
replaced, and so on. Owing to the leuijth of the list (there are at 
least thirt}-five schoolhouses marked <)n the 1850 P)ucks County 
map). 1 am not including them in this iia])er. but wi'd include 
them in the ]jublications of this Society. 

-Vow, coming back to the Red .'^chotilhouse, hr.st referred to. 
.Among the old ])apers is an agreement between Thomas ."^mith 
of the township of liuckingbam and his ne'ghbor-;. called "Sub- 
scribers", for a lot of land, on which a school'^'ouse was to be 
erected. The house was of frame construction, one story high, 
twenty-two feet long and twenty feet wide, situated on the north- 
west side of Kyrl's Run, to extend from the southwest side of 
the old saw-mill log-yard to the .Street Road, eight perches in 
width, containing eighty-seven perches. The agreement was to 
run for a j^eriod of thirty years and I'homas Smith was To be 
paid a yearly rent of one pe])i:)er-corn (if demanded i. The build- 
ing was to be completed by 1789. On the first da\ of tlic h'irst 
month. 17!)(). a deed of trust was made out 1)\- Thomas Smith to 
Thomas Smith. Jr.. Joseph Smith. Isaac \ anhorn and l^dward 
Black fan. 



162 E.\RL^' SCHOOL HOUSES 

Curl's Run, variously spelled as Kirl. Kyrl, Carl, was named 
for Thomas Kirl, who owned land in l^juckingliam, which was 
later bought by Robert Smith. 1723. The source of the creek is 
at ihe farms of Harry Trego and Earl Daniels hi the vicinity of 
the village of Pineville. flows east through the lands of John 
Hogan, Harvey R. Smith. William E. Smith, Charles R. Wentz, 
Charles \\'. Liveze}' and Lettie A. Betts, and empties into Pidcock 
Creek. The three latter farms composed the original Robert 
Smith homestead. The schoolhouse lot stood across the creek 
from the property on wdiich George Rounsaville now lives. 

Each subscriber, wdio contributed a certain sum ov money 
toward the construction of the house, automatically became a 
"Proprietor". Xo I'roprietor could have more than one vote, and 
his right was to descend to his jwsterity. A committee of four 
of the I'roprietors was to have charge of the school and no tutor 
was be employed except by a majority vote. 

This frame "Red Schoolhouse" stood for many years. An- 
other agreement was made in 1830. The subscribers, believing it 
impracticable to repair the old house, decided to build a new one 
on the same premises. It v.as constructed of stone, a little larger 
than the frame one, at the cost of about three himdred dollars. 
This schoolhouse was a plain, low stone building, a shed along 
the front for wood and coal, a wide old j^aneled door, and a huge 
stone door step, facing the south. The desks were ranged around 
the three walls, pupils facing the wall, benches for seats, and a 
large "ten-plate" stove for warmth, th.e stove pipe running up to 
the chimney in the center of the house: platform on north end for 
teacher's desk, and blackboard on that wall. 

Among the famil\- names found in the agreement to build 
the second house, known as the "New Prospect School", 1 find 
the following: Ely, Palderston, Corson, Stradling, Atkinson, Kelly, 
Gray, Schofield, Carver, Morris, Everett, Heston, Warner, Hamp- 
ton, Eastburn. Doan, Perry, Scarborough, Sands. Betts, Simpson. 
Dudbridge, Bruce and Smith. The house was built by the signers 
spuoq luaa; .§uoi oj\^ MoqEi io ^uo;s "aaqiuni 'Xauoiu .ouiSp3[d 
were required and no building requirements to be met. It should 
be noted that the signers lived in three townships, Buckingham, 
Solebury and Upper Makefield. 



EARLY SCHOOL HOUSES 163 

A most interesting j^aper recently found is an old school 
report of pupil attendance, dated 1790. the first time the school 
opened. This is the only report available, as there are no later 
reports in existence. The report began on January 18th with 19 
pupils present and continued for 47 days, ending on March 13th 
with 32 pupils present. There were 43 male pupils on the roll, 
no female pupils that winter ; they went to school in the summer 
time. School was held six days a week. The largest day's attend- 
ance was on the 26th of February, when 38 pupils were present. 
(What a crowd in the small schoolhouse !) Three of the pupils 
attended every day: they were Hugh Smith, Thomas Smith and 
Joshua Smith. 

The first teacher of the Red Schoolhouse was Robert Smith 
(born in 1749; died in 1827). who kept the 1790 report of pupil 
attendance. He also taught school (1783-89) probably at the 
Eastburn's (Centre Hill), of which I have his copies of the 
report of pupil attendance. Later teachers of the New Prospect 
School were James B. Simpson, E. E. Smith, Mary P.. Heston, 
Aimie Hibbs. Hetty Williams, Nellie Linton and others. The lat- 
ter was transferred to the new school in 1868. 

In 1867 John S. Williams gave a part of his land to the 
School Directors of Solebury township, whereon was erected a 
schoolhouse called "Hillside". In the following year the New 
Porspect School property was turned over to the School Direc- 
tors, who sold the two tracts on each side of the Street Road to 
Mahlon Atkinson and Samuel H. Hibbs, "and the proceeds of 
said sale be appropriated to the payment of the cost of erecting 
-said new School House." (D. B. 141, p. 66.) 

In the minute book of the School Board of Buckingham 
township under the date of January 4th, 1868. there is recorded 
"that New Prospect School in Solebury District having been dis- 
continued, leaving the East corner of this district without suffi- 
cient School facilities. We will establish a School for their ac- 
commodation in Newlin E. Smith's wagon house to be called 
Highlon School. Said School to be kept open three months, they 
being willing to send elsewhere the remaining part of the year; 
and that Patience Smith be appointed Teacher of said school at 
ThirtA' dollars per month. The house to be fitted up at the expense 
of the patrons of the school and without any charge for rent." 



164 



EARLY SCHOOL H'R'SES 



Ihe house at Xewiin E. Smith's, above mentioned, is still 
standing, on the farm of the present owner, Charles W. Livezey. 
From another minute of the above School Board it appears that 
Patience Smith did not teach that school and Annie S. VAy took 
her place. 

Mahlou Atkinson, having acquired the lot with the house on 
it, converted it into a dwelling and rented it. In 1892 he made 
extensive repairs, remodeling it into a verv nice little house, with 
better partitions, they having been made of boards. After several 
years undesirable tenants had so wrecked the place that it became 
only a harbor for tramps, and when Heston J. Smith wanted stone 
for building ])urposes, he had permission from Charles Atkinson 
to demolish the old house and haul the stones away. The last 
tenant of this house was Annie Wilson, from Philadelphia, who 
worked for the people in the neighborhood. 

In 1905 Heston J Smith, with the help of his sons, James 
Tden and Philip W.. tore the old walls down, hauled the stones 
to his farm ( now James Iden Smith ) and built the stone walls 
where the present wagon house stands The large stone door step 
on which Heston played marbles as a school bov is now used as 
a kitchen door step at James Iden Smith's. 



Appendix 



Following is the list of the school properties, referred to in 
the "Early Schoolhouses in f-'our Thicks County Townships." 

WRIGHTSTOWX TOWXSITIP SCHOOL PROPERTIES 

Near Pineville. known as Xl'^TIiER ONE. from fk-orge 
Warner t(^ the Trustees of Wrightstown Township School, about 
tht time when the school at Warner's Point was discontinued. 
Transferred to the School Directors. May 25th. 1852 (Deed Book 
168, p. 359) and by release from George Warner to the School 
Directors. April 29t'h. 1873 (Deed Book 168, p. 360). Additional 
lot of land to the above, from Jesse P. Car\^er. March Otli, 1872 
(Deed Book 168. p. 367). Schoolhouse rebuih in 1871. anrl the 
original foundation of the first house stil; visible. 

Near Penn's Park, known as XCMIJER TWO. from Aaron 
Pitniian to the School Directors. October 11 th. 1872 (Deed Book 
168. p. 375). Date-stone "1872". Replaced the old frame school- 
liouse a few hundred yards below at a point which was occupied 
many years by bachelor Joel Carver. 

Xcar Rushland. known as XCMBER THREE, from Giles 
Gordon to the School Directors. Xovember 17th. 1851 ( Deed Book 
121. p. -467). Additional lot of land to the above, from Benjamin 
Worthington. October 16th. J874 (Deed I'.ook 176. p. 142). The 
original Rush \'alley school building was of a frame construction 
and is now a carriage house on James Work's upper farm. It was 
moved there bv Edward Thompson from the school lot now occu- 
pied b\- the present stone building, built in 1874. 

I'l'PER AIAKEIHELD TOWXStlll' SCH(X)E 
!>R() PERTHES 

r.rCKXMAXAIPPE. from Joshua Smith to the School Direc- 
tors, 4th month 1st. 1850 (Deed I'.ook 78. p. 481). Additional 
lot of land to the above, from Kin.sey Smith. May 20th, 1861 
(Deed Book 117, p. 149). Present school house rebuilt by I-'rank 
Heston in 1892. ( )riginal foundations of tlic 1850 schoolhouse 
still visible, built by William Starkey. the date-stone bears his 
initials 'A\'. S." and the year 1850. 



166 EARLY SCHOOL HOUSES 

BROOKSIDE, from Stephen Betts, Jr. to the School Direc- 
tors, in or about 1869, which deed was lost and never recorded, 
another one had to be made, July 22nd, 1898 (Deed Book 287, p. 
274). Date Stone "1869". School discontinued in 1929 and 
property purchased by Howard Walker, July 1st, 1930 (Deed 
Book 590. p. 509), now C. E. Morgan's property. Schoolhouse 
is not occupied. 

FAIRFIELD, from William Burroughs Heston to the School 
Directors, no date given. (Deed Book 168, p. 661 ). Date stone 
"1872". Replaced the old house, known as "Hayhurst", then 
"Eagle", a few hundred yards up the road, which is still standing, 
now used as a slied by its present owner Edward T. Buckman. 
The first schoolhouse was built in 1804 on the farm of my an- 
cestor. John Hayhurst, who was a minister of Wrightstown 
Monthly Meeting. It was leased to the trustees of his neighbor- 
hood by Benajah Hayhurst, November 12th, 1805, for a school 
only (Deed Book 62, p. 19). An interesting little anecdote is told 
in my family. My great-great-grandmother Rachel Hayhurst was 
born in 1801. When the above first schoolhouse was built, it was 
the three-year old Rachel's chore to lead her blind grandfather, 
John Hayhurst, out the lane to "see" the masons working on the 
schoolhouse. The three-year old child could not understand the 
meaning of "see" in this instance. 

HIGHLAND, from Kinsey Harvey to the School Directors, 
March 21st, 1856 (Deed Book 94, p. 100). No date stone. Re- 
placed the one about a mile away which was conveyed to the 
School Directors by John Reeder. June 7th, 1851 (Deed Book 81, 
p. 581). Discontinued in 1920 and property purchased by J. 
Elmer Transue, June 30th, 1927 (Deed Book 529, p. 568). School- 
house remodeled and occupied as a dwelling. 

DOLINGTON, from Cornehus Slack to the School Direc- 
tors, January 6th, 1860 (Deed Book 114, p. 248). No date stone. 
Two-story high, the second floor not in use now. Prior to ]860 
there was a schoolhouse on the Makefield Friends' meeting house 
grounds, a short distance up the road. 

TAYLORSVILLE, from Mahlon K. Taylor to the School 
Directors, November 1st, 1854 (Deed Book 89, p. 330). Date 
stone "1854". Replaced the old school, about a mile away, which 



EARLY SCHOOL HOUSES 167 

William Lownes conveyed to the trustees of his neighborhood, 
February 21st, 1798 (Deed Rook 49, p. 454), known as the'T.etts 
Schoolhouse". This house, built in 1827, is still standing, was 
used as a (hvelling but is not occupied now. The Taylorsville 
school was discontinued Decemiber 1st, 1926 and the property was 
purchased by Charles W. Mather, June 30th, 1927 (Deed Rook 
549, p. 473), who sold it to Emory Ruckman, it is now used as a 
general store. The present schoolhouse is known as the Washing- 
ton Crossing Schoolhouse and was built in 1926. 

RROWNSRURG. (by subscription), from Joseph Thornton 
to the trustees, April 1st. 1834 (Dfeed Rook 61, p. 299 ). No date 
stone. There is no record of the transfer of this school from 
the trustees to the School Directors. Additional lot of land to 
the above, from Levi R. Raylman, March 28. 1857 (Deed Rook 
100, p. 259). 

RUCKINGHAM TOWNSHIP SCHOOL PROPERTIES 
CONCORD (now MOZART), from Wilham Titus to the 
"Trustees of a School Company Inhabitants in the Townships of 
Ruckingham, Wrightstown and V\'ar\vick." November 6th. 1817 
(Deed Rook 46, p. 206). No date stone. It was known as the 
"Concord School Company." Oldest schoolhouse in the township 
and still in use as a school. 

RUSHINGTOX (now FURLONG, known as Xo. 1), from 
Israel Pemberton to the trustees for the use of a school in the 
neighborhood, June 6th, 1772 No transfer has been made and 
recorded during the period from 1772 to 1938, it became the 
rightful pro])erty of Ruckingham Township School District for its 
care and maintenance of this school. Ruilding rebuilt in 1867. 
Discontinued in 1937 and the propert\- purchased by Daisy R, 
Herr, June 13th, 1938 (Deed Rook 666, p. ) ' 

FORESTVILLE (now FOREST GROVE), from Aaron 
Phillips to the Trustees appointed by Ruckingham Monthly Meet- 
ing, 7th month 1st, 1794 (Deed Rook 49, p. 512). Ruilding re- 
built in 1855. This school was discontinued in 1937 and the prop- 
erty will be sold. 

INDEPENDENT (known as No. 7, on Durham Road be- 
tween Pineville and Ruckingham A'alley). I am unable to find 
any record of when it was started and by whom. Reference was 



168 EARLY SCHOOL TlOl'SES 

mentioneil in the '"Schools of Buckingham" by Elizabeth Lloyd, 
that the land on which it stands was deeded to the township in 
1843. Present house rebuilt in 1871. 

UXir)X (near Five Points), from Thomas M. Thompson to 
the trustees of his neighborhood, October 18th. 1825 ( Deed Rook 
51, p. 454 ). Present house rebuilt in 1868. Discontinued in 1987 
and the property purchased by Lewis F. Claxton, June 13th, 1938 
(Deed Book 666, p. 279). 

GREEWILLE (now HOLICOXG, known as Xo. 4) from 
Edmund M. Price to the School Directors, no date given. ( Deefl 
Book 171. p. 137). Built in 1863. In the minute book of the 
School Directors the reason given for building a new schoolhouse 
at Greenville was that the Orthodox Friends Meeting refused to 
open their schoolhouse near Lahaska called "r)ak Grove Hall" or 
"Orthodox School". 

GITrRCirS (near Spring \^alley), from John Cox to the 
School Directors, June 27th, 1851 (Deed Book 101, p. 309). Dis- 
continued in 1932 and property purchased by David X. Fell. Jr.. 
October 24th, 1932 (Deed Book 608, p. 505). 

T'S'RO HALL (near Mechanicsville, on Holicong road), 
from David F. White to the School Directors. June 18th, 1860 
(Deed P)Ook 148, p. 125). Additional lot to the above, from 
David F. White, ^lay 1st. 1869 (Deed Book 148. p. 120). This 
school should not be confused with the old Tyro Hall, about 2 
miles down the Holicong road. 

FRIEXDSTHP (near the west corner of Buckingham town- 
sliip). '2 of a lot from Cornelius Shepherd by a deed granted to 
the trustees for school i:)uri)oses and when done with for school 
]mrposes to revert back to the owner ; and ^A of a lot from Wil- 
liam K. Large by a deed granted to the trustees for school jnir- 
poses and when done for school pur|)oses to revert back to the 
owner. Xo deeds recorded. (See Deed ?>ook 141. p. 432 and 
D. B. 184. p. 372. for late owners.) 

HICKORY GRO\ E (on Durham Road near the township 
line of Buckingham and Plumstead), from Jonathan Kimble to 
the inhabitants (forty names in a deed) residing in Buckingham 
and Plumstead townships, May 21st, 1818 (Deed Book 46, p. 500). 
Original minute book of this school is preserved and is the prop- 



EARLY SCHOOL HOl'SES 169 

erty of tliis Society. The present building was erected in 1873, 
replaced one known to the school-board as the "Octagon", bnt to 
the common peo])le as the eight-square schoolhouse. There was 
also an older school called Union Schoolhouse which was men- 
tioned in the above minute book, erected on the land of Benjamin 
Scott in Buckingham township who leased it to the trustees of 
his neighborhood, 9th month 16th. 1797, and Isaac B. Childs was 
its first teacher. 

SOLEBL'RV TOWXSlllP SCHOOB PROPERTTES 
CENTRE HILB (at Solebury). from Samuel Eastburn to 
the trustees of Buckingham Monthly Meeting, 10th month 30th, 
1756 (Deed Book 26, p. 101). Became the property of Solebury 
Monthl}- Meeting, when it was sei)arated from P.uckingham in 
1808. It was called "Stone Schoolhouse" in 1810. Transferred 
to the School Directors, 12th month 1st. 1870 ( D. P.. 160, p. 205 ). 

CAR\'ERS\TLLE. from Thomas Carey to the trustees of 
P.uckingham Monthly IMeeting. 12th month 1st. 1794 (D. B. 49, 
p. 512 ). Transferred to the School Directors in 1861 ( D. B. 118, 
p. 395). Additional lot of land to the above, from Stedman Cow- 
drick to the Scliool Directors. June llth. 1860 ( D. B. 118, p. 
398). 

HKtIIPAXD (on a road about one mile above the Thomp- 
son Memorial Presbyterian Church), from Thomas Cooper to the 
trustees of his neighborhood. March 21st. 1821 ( D. P.. 49. p. 231). 
Known as the "Cooper's School". Transferred to the School 
Directors. July 25th. 1857 ( D. P.. 103. p. 452 ). Additional lot of 
land to the abo\e, from Watson P. Magill to the School Directors. 
December 31st. 1857 ( D. P.. 103. i). 453). 

LCMP.ERX'IPPl^. from Abraham Paxson to the trustees of 
his neighborhood. I->bruary 21st, 1824 ( D. P. 70, p. 575). The 
building was octagonal, known as "Lumberville Athenian School". 
School was maintained there until 1858, then replaced by a new 
.school called "( ireen Hill". 

(IKl'^l^X IIIPL (at Lumberville), from Cyrus Livezey to 
the School Directors, Xovemler 8th, 1858 ( D. B. 105. ]). 364). 

COTTA(;E\irJT{, from Eli Carver to the trustees of his 
neighborhood, September 2nd, 1846 ( D. P>. 72, p. 726). .\ddi- 



170 EARLY SCHOOL HOi:SES 

tional lot of land to the above, from Alfred Knight to the School 
Directors, April 1st, 1871 (D. P.. 160, p. 206). 

CENTRE BRIDGE, from John L. Johnson to the trustees 
of Solebury Township "for the school purpose in use and benefit 
of the persons residing in the vicinity of Centre Bridge, under 
the name of 'Centre Bridge School Association'," 8th month 13th, 
1849 (D. B. 94, p. 287). Transferred to the School Directors, 
3rd month 27th, 1856 ( D. B. 94. p. 289). 

CHESTXl'T GROA'E, from Benjamin Paste to the trustees 
"appointed by the contribution and employers of the Chestnut 
Grove School establishment." December 1st, 1847 CD. B. 75, p. 
806). It was located on the north side of the Solebury Mountain, 
near the road leading from Street Road to New Hope. It is 
marked on the 1850 Bucks County map and school was probably 
discontinued after that year. 

HILLSIDE, from John S. Williams to the School Directors, 
December 24th, 1867 (D. B. 139, p. 411). It replaced the New 
Prospect School which I described at length before. 

CLIESTNUT GROVE (on a road from Lahaska to Lumber- 
ville, about one and a half miles from the former), from Wilson 
Pearson to the School Directors, May 28th. 1859 (D. B. 118, p. 
396). 

PHILLIPS'S (on River road, at its intersection leading to 
Solebury Friends' ^Meeting house), from Charles Phillips to the 
School Directors. 11th month 19th, 1864 (D. B. 126, p. 519). 
School maintained there for many years before trans fering to the 
township. 

LEASE FOR SCHOOL-GROUND AT PINE\TLLE 
Following is a quaint 1768 lease of the school at Pineville, 

referred to in the "Early Schoolhouses of Four Bucks County 

Townships". 

THIS INDENTURE made the Thirteenth day of December 
in the year of our Lord one thousand seven liundred and sixty- 
eight by and BETWEEN George Newbourn of Buckingham in 
the County of Bucks in the Province of Pennsylvania yeoman 
of the one Part, And Benjamin Smith, John Lacey, Christopher 
Mutchler, James Spicer, William Newbourn, Jesse Heston, Tim- 



EARLY SCH(X:)L IlorsES 171 

othy Smith, John Wilson, James Sample, John Sample, William 
Simson, Richard Parsons the younger. Richard Worthington. 
Thomas Betts, John rxourle\-. Joseph Smith, Joseph Wiggans, 
Thomas Smith. :\Toses Pidcock. James Wood. George Kelly! 
Joseph Kirk, 

Freemen of the Township of Buckingham, V.'rightstown and 
I>per Makefield in the County of Bucks afore'=aid of the other 
part \\MTNESSETH that the said George Newbourn as well for 
and in Consideration of a good School being set up and kept in 
the Xeighbourhood as for tlie Yearly Rents and Covenants herein 
after mentioned on the behalf of them the said Benjamin Smith, 
John Lacey, Christopher Alutchler, James Spicer. ^^'illiam New- 
bourn. Jesse Heston. Timothy Smith. Joiin Wilson, James Sample. 
John Sample, William Simson. Richard Parsons, Richard Worth- 
ington, Thomas Betts, John Gourley, Joseph Smith, Joseph Wig- 
gans, Thomas Smith, Moses Pidcock, James Wood, George Kelly, 
Joseph Kirk Their Heirs Executors Administrators and Assigns 
HATH Demised granted and for the L'se of a School doth Lett 
a Lot or piece of Land Situate in the Township of Wrightstown 
aforesaid. BEGINNING at a Corner of said Newbourn's Land 
and from thence extending by the line divideing the Townships 
of Buckingham and Wrightstown South forty two Degrees and 
Twenty ^linutes West five Perches, Thence South seventy Degrees 
East three Perches and five tenth parts of a Perch to Land belong- 
ing to William Clark, Thence by the same north two degrees and 
fifteen Minutes A\'est five Perches to the Place of Beginning 
Containing eight Perches. TO HA\'E AND TO HOT.D unto 
them the said Benjamin Smith. John Lacey, Christopher Mutchler. 
James Spicer, Williani Newbourn, Jesse Heston. Timothy Smith. 
John Wilson, James Sample, John Sample, \\'illiam Simson. Rich- 
ard Parsons, Richard \\'orthington. Thomas Betts, John Gourley, 
Joseph Smith, Joseph Wiggans, Thomas Smith. Moses Pidcock, 
James Wood, George Kell}', Joseph Kirk 

Their Heirs and Assigns from 
the da}- of the date hereof for and during the full time the Wall 
of a Certain House now building on said land shall bv them their 
Heirs or Assigns be thought Sufficient to bear a root \\'liich Roof 
& ^^'all Shall be renewed and Repaired as Occation may require 
they Veilding and Paying for the same to the said George New- 



172 EARLY SCHOOL HOUSES 

bourn ever}- "^^ar the Yearly Rent of one Pepper-Corn if Demand- 
ed, onl}- reserving to himself the said George Newbourn thereout 
the full and equal F'riviled with any of the above named Parties 
hereto of in and out of the said House and School that shall be 
therein kept. AND it is Covenanted and agreed by and between 
the said Parties hereto that the said Penjamin Smith, John Lacey. 
Christopher Mutchler, James S])icer, William Newbourn, Jesse 
Heston, Timothy Smith, John Wilson. James Sample, John 
Sample, William Simson. Richard Parsons, Richard Worthington, 
Thomas Betts, John Gourley, Joseph Smith, Thomas Smith, Moses 
Pidcock, James Wood, George Kelly. Joseph Kirk Shall within 
the Space of three Years next after the Date thereof Complete 
and finish the Said House in a Good and Workman like manner 
and every way Convenient and Suitable for a School to be kept 
therein. AND it is further Covenanted and agreed to, by and 
between the said Parties that if at any time During the Time 
aforesaid, through the want of a Proper Teacher or any other 
Cause the said House Shall at any time be Vacant it shall not 
be in the Power nor shall any Person in or either of the said 
Parties have Liberty or Authority to Appropriate it to any other 
Cse wdiatsoever, nor at anv time take in such Subscribers towards 
Hireing a Master as have not a proper right in the said House, 
unless Such Persons shall agree to pay a Yearly Rent of three 
Shillings for Each Scholar while they shall send, which Money 
shall be Aplyed to the Repairing of said House, AND the said 
George Newbourn for himself his Heirs Executors and Adminis- 
trators and every of them doth Covenant Promise grant and agree 
to and with the said Benjamin Smith, John Lacey, Christ'r Mutch- 
ler, James Spicer, William Newbourn, Jesse Heston, Timothy 
Smith, John Wilson, James Sample. John Sample, William Sinn- 
son, Richard Parsons. Richard W^orthington, Thomas Betts, John 
Gourley, Joseph Smith. Joseph Wiggans, Thomas Smith, Moses 
Pidcock, James Wood, George Kelly, Joseph Kirk 

their Heirs and Assigns under 
the J^ents, Covenants Conditions and Agreements herein before 
expressed on the part and behalf of them the said Benjamin .Smith, 
John Lacey, Christ'r Mutchler, James Spicer, William Newbourn, 
Jesse Heston, Timothy Smith, John Wilson, James Sample, John 
Sample, William Simson, Richard Parsons, Thomas Betts, John 



EARLY SCPIOOL FIOUSES 173 

Gourley, Joseph Smith, Joseph Wiggans, Thomas Smith, Aloses 
Pidcock, James Wood, George Kelly, Joseph Kirk 

to be Performed as aforesaid 
shall and may Reasably have hold use and enjoy all and Singular 
the hereby granted and Demised Premises and every Part thereof 
during the Term aforesaid AND as a further Confirmation of 
all and every the Articles Covenants Clauses and Agreements 
herein before Contained the said Parties do bind themselves, their 
Heirs Executors Administrators and Assigns each Party for him 
and themselves firmly by these Present each unto the other in 
the Pennal Sum of two Hundred Pounds current Law full money 
of Pennsylvania. IX WITNESS whereof the said Parties, to 
these Presents have Interchangeably put their Hands and Seals 
the Day & Year first above written 

Sealed and dehvered GEORG NEWBURN (Seal) 

in the presence of Benjamin Lacey 
Samuel flack 
John Johnson 

PERSONALLY appeared before me the Subscril>er One of the 
Justices of the Peace for the County of Bucks, Samuel Flack and 
being duly Sworn according to Law doth say. he saw George 
Newburn the with grantor of the within Lease. Sign Seal and 
deliver the same as his act and IDeed. and he did with John John, 
and Benjamin Lacey Sign their names as Witness thereto. In 
Witness his hand this 29th day of August 1803 

Subscribed and Sworn to the day SAMCEL FLACK 

and year above Written Rob. Shewell 

BUCKS COUNTY ss Entered and recorded in the Recorder's 
office of said Count\- in Deed P.ook No. 
(Seal) 46 Page 523 W'itness my hand (S: seal of 

Office June 3, 1818 

John Pugh Rec'dr 



h'ollowing are the three articles concerning the Ked School- 
house, referred to in the "l^arly Schoolhouses in I'^)ur lUick^^ 
Count}' Townshi])s'". 

A(;Rh^I{.M FXT. Thomas Smith and Sihsckimkhs. 17!!() 



174 EARLY SCHOOL HOIT.SES 

Whereas it is agreed on the Part of Thomas Smith of the 
Townsliip of Buckingham in the County of Rucks that he will 
grant &: Confirm to us the Suhscribers or our proper Trustees a 
Lot of Land on the X. W. Side of Kyrl's Run, to entend from the 
S. W. Side of the Old Saw-mill Log-yard to tlie Street Road, 
eight Perches in \\'idth. for and during the Term of thirty Years, 
under the Yearly rent of one Pepper-Corn (if demanded) : Sub- 
ject to the Following Limitations, That is to say. 

That before the expiration of the Year 1789 we the Subscrib- 
ers will cause to be builded and well finished, on the said Lot a 
One Story Framed House 22 Feet Long & twenty feet wide 

That the said House & Lot shall remain an equal undivided 
Estate for the l^se of a Sch.ool, for the Benefit of the Proprietors 
lierein after described 

That the said School shall be under the Government of a 
Comnu'ttee, four of the Proprietors Annually Chosen by such of 
the said Proprietors as from Time to Time shall meet at the said 
House on the Day of in each year during the said 

Term between tlie Hours of one & five in the Afternoon, for that 
purpose: who shall be capable to make and revoke, By-Laws for 
the Government of the School : fand necessary Provisions & 
repairs for) But not such as shall extend to the removal or the 
admission of a Master, unless for neglect of Duty or immorality; 
nor to expel a Scholar but for Disobedience to School Laws 

Tliat each Person, having a Real Estate in the Neighbour- 
hood, who shall pay for the L^se of Building the said House the 
Sum of £1:10 shall thereby become a Proprietor himself: and 
make all his Posterity who may have Interests, separate from him- 
self in a Schools being kept in the said House, and also such 
Person or Persons as may become by Purchase or otherwise pos- 
sessed of any Part or the whole of such Estates : and their Poster- 
ity who mav have separate Interests as aforesaid full Proprietors: 
And every Person paying for the said Use the Sum of 15s. Shall 
thereby Become a Proprietor himself, and also make all his Pos- 
terity, under the Limitations aforesaid Proprietors. 

That no one Person shall at any Time be capable of exercising 
or holding more than one Single Proprietary Pour (Power) or 
Right 



EARLY SCHOOL HOrSES 



175 



That no Tutor shall be admitted into the said School house 
until approved of by a Majority of the said Committee and with 
the Consent of a Majority of the said Proprietors 

AGREEMENT OF CONTRIBUTORS. 3830 
We the undersigned Empl.ners to the Red Schoolhouse be- 
lieving it impracticable t.. repair sai.l house so as to make it 
comfortable e^ convenient for a School to be kept therein, and 
believing it expedient that a new house be built on the Premises 
belonging to the employers to said School— do agree and obligate 
ourselves to contribute and pay for that purpose such sums'' of 
money as we have hereunto severally subscribed— 1830 



Elias Ely $5.00 
Joshua Jialderson $6.00 
Joshua Corson $5.00 
Joshua Smith $10.00 
Henry Smith 30 Bushels of 
Lime delivered on the ground 
$3.75 
Joseph Smith Jr. $5.00 
John Stradling $1.00 
Thomas Atkinson $5.00 
Thomas Atkinson Sho. $2.00 
Robert B. Smith $1.00 



Jacob Eleston, Jr. $5.00 
John Warner $2.00 
Jonathan Atkinson $1.00 
Robert Smith $10.00 
Crispin Blackfan $10.00 
Joseph Hampton $10.00 
Benjamin Smith $10.00 
Samuel Blackfan $10.00 
Bezaleel Eastburn $10.00 
George Ely $5.00 
Joseph Doan $10.00 
Samuel Atkinson $10.00 
Jesse Doan, Jr. $5.00 



Phineas Kelly 12 Bushels lime 

$1.50 Jonathan Smith $10.00 
Cornelius Ely. Lumber $5.00 John Smith $10.00 



Dean Gray $2.50 
John Scholfield $10.00 
Edward Blackfan $5.00 
Joseph E. Carver $5.00 
Isaac Morris $2.00 
Samuel E. Smith $5.00 
Ezekiel Everitte $2.00 



John C. Parry $5.00 
Joseph Scarbrough $1.00 
Thomas Sands $1.00 
Cyrus Betts $5.00 
Robert Simpson $10.00 
L. S. Coryell, in Lumber $5.00 
John Simpson $5.00 
Wc the Emi)Ioyers &• Proprietors to the Red school house 
agree to Contribute in hailing (hauling ) &- material, for the pur- 
pose of builrling a new house the sum annexed i.. our names in 
addition to our former Subscription 



176 



EARLY SCHOOL HOUSES 



Robert Smith 3 days hailing 

Joseph Hamton 3 days do 

John Smith 3 days do 

Jonathan Smith 3 days do 

John Simpson 3 do 

Cris]Mn Black fan 3 do 

Benjamin Smith, Jr. 3 do 
\\'illiam Dndbridge $2.00 

Henry Bruce .50 

Hannah Smith 1.00 

Henry Smith 2.50 

John -Vtkinson .67 

Thomas Atkinson .37 



Rec'd of Jesse Doane. Jr. $2.50 
Rec'd of Joseph Doan $5.00 
Rec'd of Benia : Smith $5.00 



The Amount of Jose])h Smith's 
Subscription was Rec -d by Sam :1 
Atkinson and remains in his hands 
on account of Stone Quarrying 

Rt. Smitli 
12 mo 27th 1830 

For \'alue rec'd 1 promise to pa}' Robert Smith Treasurer of 
Newprospect school Compan\- Twelve Dol!s. 9c. as on as before 
the first day of March next without Defalcation 

Jesse Doan, ]r. 



PUPIL AT 


TRXDAXCE 


1' 


190 




John X'anhorn 


Jan. 


18-Feb. 


10 


18 


days 


John ]\Iarple 


Jan. 


18-Mar. 


13 


44 


days 


David Marple 


Jan. 


19-AIar. 


13 


42 


days 


Jesse Blackfan 


Ian. 


18-^rar. 


10 


32 


days 


Thomas illackfan 


Jan. 


19-Mar. 


13 


37 


days 


John Smith 


Ian. 


18-Mar. 


13 


41 


days 


Hugh Smith 


Jan. 


18-Mar. 


13 


47 


days 


Thomas Smith 


Jan. 


18-Mar. 


13 


47 


days 


Samuel Smith 


Jan. 


18-Mar. 


13 


40 


days 


Edmund Smith 


Jan. 


18-Mar. 


13 


24 


days 


Benjamin Smith 


Jan. 


25-^Iar. 


12 


20 


tlays 


Jonathan Smith 


Jan. 


19-Mar. 


13 


39 


days 


Joseph Smith 


Jan. 


18-^Iar. 


13 


43 


days 


William Smith 


Jan. 


18-Mar. 


12 


26 


days 


George Smith 


Jan. 


25-Mar. 


13 


20 


days 



177 



Edward Wilson 
Crispin Illackfan 
Phineas Mihbs 
John Ralderston 
David Balderston 
James Simpson 
Mahlon Simpson 
Dennis < lilmor 
Benjamin Smith 
Robert Smith 
Handle Smith 
WiUiam fimmons 
David McCray 
George Wiley 
John Wiley 
Andrew Wiley 
Joslma Smith 
George Kinsey 
Samuel Rainey 
]\Iahlon Trego 
George Grubing 
Joseph Trego 
John Trego 
Timy Smith 
Jacob Heston 
Isaac Heston 
Jesse Smith 
Samuel Richardsor 



Ian. 


18-Mar. 


13 


41 


days 


Jan. 


18-.Mar. 


8 


39 


days 


Ian. 


18-Mar. 


18 


40 


days 


Jan. 


18-Alar. 


18 


46 


days 


Jan. 


18-Mar. 


13 


40 


days 


Jan. 


18-AIar. 


13 


41 


days 


Jan. 


18-Mar. 


13 


44 


days 


Jan. 


lf)-Mar. 


13 


41 


days 


Jan. 


1!)-Mar. 


13 


34 


days 


Jan. 


19-Mar. 


13 


46 


days 


Jan. 


18-Mar. 


13 


37 


days 


Jan. 


19-Mar. 


6 


37 


days 


Jan. 


19-Mar. 


13 


38 


days 


Jan. 


20-Mar. 


13 


41 


da\'S 


Jan. 


20-Mar. 


13 


42 


days 


Jan. 


20-AIar. 


13 


41 


days 


Jan. 


18-Mar. 


13 


47 


days 


Jan. 


25-Mar. 


6 


31 


days 


Jan. 


27-Mar. 


3 


24 


days 


Feb. 


10-Mar. 


13 


24 


days 


I<eb. 


15-Mar. 


13 


23 


days 


h>b. 


16-Mar. 


13 


17 


days 


Feb. 


16-Mar. 


13 


19 


days 


Feb. 


18-Feb. 


27 


7 


days 


Feb. 


21-Mar. 


9 


11 


days 


Feb. 


21-Mar. 


9 


9 


days 


Feb. 


22-Mar. 


13 


16 


days 


Feb. 


22-^Iar. 


13 


13 


davs 



In the Footsteps of Joseph Hampton and the Pennsylvania Quakers 

1!Y VIOliNON BOYCE HAMPTON, Ph. D., l.itt. D. 

"SuMset Hill"', West New Brighton, Staten Island, New York. 

(Doylestown Meeting, May 6, 1939) 




rt^^YiW 



wfwwmmRE name HAMPTON is found in ancient records 
J in numerous localities in England, as early as 
I 1273, indicating its antiquity. With variations in 
s])elling. the name is recorded as Hamptone, 
llamton, Hampten, Hampton. The general spell- 
ing in America today is Hampton, and in the 
oldest Hampton Family Bible of which 1 have any record, and 
which is on display here today, the spelling changes in the written 
record from H A AI T O N of the early entries, to H AMP- 
TON in the records after 1867. The earliest date recorded in 
this Bible is 1726, the date of birth of Ann (Wildman) Hampton. 
I had alwa}s supposed that the name Hampton was distinctly 
English. It was therefore with some surprise that I first read in 
a Bucks County History, some years ago, that Joseph Hampton, 
a Scotchman, had settled in Bucks County. 

I was immediately driven to some research in the matter, and 
discovered that in the extreme northern part of Scotland, the 
name Hampton is very common, that it dates from the earliest 
history of that country, that the first Earls of Hampton came 
from there. It was the Hampton clan which helped to crush the 
Campbells during a supposedly dark period in Scottish clan history. 
The locality of the town of Hampton, in Scotland, is in the north, 
between Oban and r>rora. and here the Hamptons were in num- 
bers and here was the seat of the Earl of Hampton. 

It is from Scotland, therefore, that John Hampton, father 
of Josepli Hampton, came to America in 1682. He is the com- 
mon ancestor of this line. 

I. JOHN HAMPTON IN NEW JERSEY, 1682/3. 

John Hampton is recorded as from Ephingstown, East Loth- 
ian. Scotland. He arrived here in 1682/3, and on November 23rd 
of that year purchased land at Amboy Point from the Scottish 
proprietors of East Jersey. 

Many adventurous colonists were redemptioners, who had 
constituted the solid citizenry of the Old World, artisans, farmers, 



JOSEPH HAMPTON 179 

and even younger members of the gentry seeking fortune and 
freedom from the persecutions and religious and poHtical warfare 
of Europe. These redemptioners paid their passage in the form 
of services to proprietors and landholders of the colonies. The 
"patrooneries" of New Netherlands were so settled. William 
Penn's colony received the benefit of such assistance. 

John Hamton and his daughter. Janett Hamton, braved the 
wild Atlantic and the wilderness of East Jersey and here he mar- 
ried again and founded a new dynasty to bear the name in honor 
in the New World. 

In Liber A of Deeds recorded in Trenton, N. J., pp. 155-156, 
are listed the "Redemptioners" as they were registered in the 
public records at Trenton. 

The title reads : 

The names of such persons as T.rre imported into this 
Province and brought to he registered in the Secretary's 
Books of Records are as follozcs: dated 1th decemb, Anno 
Dm. 1684. 

"T^pon the Accompt of such of the proprietors of this 

province as belongs to Scotland." 

"Janett Hamton (Indenture for four years)." 

"John Hamton and John Reid, Overseers (Ind. for 

four years)." 

Both Hamton and Reid. as overseers, were in charge of the 
Scottish colonists, and for this service, were subsequently granted 
extensive lands. Overseer Reid has left us this memorandum of 
their departure from Scotland, and the voyage to America (quoted 
by Stillwell in \^ol. V. p. 493. Stillwell's Miscellany) : 

"We went to Leith for our voyage to America the 2d of 
August, 1683. Came aboard the ship the 10th day and next day 
at Aberdeen, where we stayed to the 28th. Made sight of Long 
Island the 30th 9 br. but off again and discovered Cape May 13th 
Xbr. Came within Sandy Hook the 16th and ashore on Staten 
Island the 19th. To Elizabethtown the 23rd and to Woodbridge 
the 10th January. 1683/4." 

Eight generations ago, the first soil which my paternal an- 
cestor, John Hamton, trod in the New World in 1682/3, was 



180 JOSEPH IIAMPTOX 

Staten Island in New York flarbor, my present home. This is a 
coincidence of history to which snccessive generations contri- 
buted, from Joseph Hampton to Benjamin, and so on down to my 
father, the Reverend \Mlliam Jndson Hampton, D.D., who was 
born in Hunterdon County, New Terse>', and eventuall\^ moved 
to Staten Tslantl, New York. 

The Staten Island over vvhich John and Janett tlamton and 
their companions travelled in 1682/3 was a wilderness. Today 
it is a great borough of the greatest American Metropolis. 

Two Dutch travellers, Jasper Bankers and Peter Sluyter, 
have given us a description of the Island as they journeyed across 
it in 1679, three years before John Hamton set foot on the Island 
at the "Watering Place," now Tompkinsville. 

"This Island is about 32 miles long and four broad," wrote 
Dankers and Sluyter. In such words, John Hamton might also 
have introduced his own description of Staten Island. "Its sides 
are very irregular with projecting points and indenting bays and 
creeks nmning into the country. It lies for the most part east 
and west, and is somewhat triangular; the most prominent part 
is to the west 

"The west point is flat, and on or around it is a large creek 
with much marsh, but to the north of this creek it is high and hilly, 
and beyond that it begins to be more level, but not so low as on 
the other side, and is well populated 

"There are now about 100 families on the Island, of which 
the English constitute the least portion, and the Dutch and French 
divide between them about equally the greater portion. Tliey have 
neither church nor minister, and live rather far from each other 
and inconveniently to meet together. .... 

"About one third, of the distance from the south side to the 
west end is still all woods, and is very little visited. We had to 
go along the shore, finding sometimes fine creeks well provided 

Avith wild turkeys, geese, snipe and woodhens After we had 

gone a ]~iiece of the way through the woods, we came to a valley 
with a brook running through it 

"We pursued our journey this morning from ]:)!antation to 
plantation, the same as yesterday. . . . After we had breakfasted 
here, they told us that we had another large creek to pass, called 



JOSEPH IIAMPTOX 181 

the Fresh Kill, and then we could perhaps be set across the Kill 
Van Knll to the point of the Mill Creek, where we might wait 
for a boat to convey us to the Manhattans. The road was long 

and difficult \t last (our host) determined to go himself, and 

accordingly carried us in his canoe over to the point of Mill Creek 
in New Jersey, behind Kull. We learned immediately that there 
was a boat upon this creek loading with brick, and would leave 
that night for the city. After we had thanked and parted with 
J'ierre le dardinier. we determined to walk to Eli7abethtown, a 
gO')tl half-liour's distance inland, where the boat was." 

It took these travellers three days to cross Staten Island, but 
it was four days before John Ilamton and his shipmates reached 
Elizahethtown after going ashore on Staten Island at its eastern 
end. With the Quakers in and around Elizabethtown, they stayed 
during Christmas and the early part of January succeeding, and 
it was not until January 10th that they arrived at Woodbridge 
near Amboy, after an arduous journey overland through fersey 
lowlands and wilderness. 

Hampton Ixad come to America in the Quaker migration en- 
couraged by the proprietors of East Jersey. ,\rriving in 1682/3, 
he was among the earliest of the Friends seeking a New World 
refuge. 

It is easy to discern the reason for Hampton's selection of 
New Jersey as the place of his pioneering venture in seeking a 
Quaker haven. The British Crown and Government had united 
in persecuting the Quakers over a period of years. As early as 
1659, George Fox, the Quaker leader, had made inquiries into the 
suitability of sections of America for a refuge for the Society of 
Friends. In 1673, West Jersey was sold by Lord Berkeley to 
John Fenwick and Edward r.yllinge. two old Cromwellian sol- 
diers turned Quakers. It was not indicated as a refuge for Quak- 
ers, but soon became such, for these two Quakers turned it into 
the first Quaker colonial experiment, in which Penn also became 
interested even before he acquired Pennsvlvania. 

Byllinge and Fenwick soon quarreled o\er their respective 
interests in the ownership of West Jersey, and. to prevent a 
lawsuit, so objecti()nal)]e to Quakers, deferred the decision to 
William Penn. a rising young Quaker thirtv vear< old, who had 



182 JOSEPH HAMPTON 

dreams of an ideal Quaker refuge in America. Fenwick was 
awarded a one-tenth interest and four hundred pounds. BylHnge, 
who soon became insolvent, turned his nine-tenths interest over to 
his creditors, appointing Penn and two other Quakers. Gawen 
Lawrie, a merchant of London, and Nicholas Lucas, a maltster 
of Hartford, to hold it in trust for them. Gawen Lawrie after- 
wards became deputy governor of East Jersey. Lucas was one 
of those thorough-going Quakers just released from eight years 
in prison for his religion. 

After the death of Sir George Carteret in 1680, his province 
of East Jersey was sold to William Penn and eleven other Quak- 
ers for the sum of £3400. Penn and his fellow proprietors to East 
Jersey each chose a partner, most of them Scotchmen. To this 
mixed body of Quakers and other dissenters, twenty-four pro- 
prietors in all, the Duke of York reconfirmed by special patent 
their right to East Jersey. They sought to establish East Jersey 
as a refuge for Scotch Covenanters, Presbyterians, who were 
much persecuted at that time by Charles IL Tliese Covenanters 
began to arrive and seem to have first established themselves at 
Perth Amboy, which they named in honor of the Scottish Earl 
of Perth, the term Amboy being an Indian name meaning "point". 
The first governor of East Jersey under the new regime, Barclay, 
was not only a Scotchman, but also a Quaker. 

We can trace John Hampton's activities in New Jersey up 
to the time of his death, and Jane Hampton's activities through 
her successive marriages up to the time of her removal to Penn- 
sylvania with her son, Joseph Hampton, and subsequently to the 
time of her death. 

John Hampton paid quit-rents for his estate to the proprie- 
tors of East Jersey, the records of Gawen Lawrie showing Hamp- 
ton's name shortly after his arrival. 

In Stillwell's Historical and Genealogical Miscellany, Vol. II, 
p. 416, we read the record of these early accounts : 

"From Gawen Lawrie's Accounts East Jersey Quit Rents. 
East - New Jersey. All these accounts drawn out and dated 
15 Oct. 1686 yrs. 
"The Quit Rents of Middle-town 
John Wilson A : 276 at lis 6d pr. and from 1678 to 1686 -- 



JOSEPH IIAMI'TOX 



183 



York I 'ay - 
4 By Beef to John Haniton 
m Bv cash 



-4:15:00 ) 

-1:03:00 ) 5:15:00 

-207:00 ,) 

-3:08:00 ) 5:15:00" 

John Hampton removed from Amhov to Freehold, which be- 
came estabHshed as a Onaker settlement. As early at 1672, George 
Fox recorded in his Journal, that there was a Friends' ^Meeting at 
Middletown Harbor, "which was in a new country now called 
Jersey." A new meeting house was als(^ being built at Shrews- 
bury. 

In 1686/7, John Hampton married Martha Brown of Shrews- 
bury, his second wife. Cited in Stillwell's Miscellany, A ol. I, p. 
242, we read the f'^riends' Records of Shrewsbury, entitled "The 
Record oft" the Marriages off the Peoj^le of ( iod in Scorn called 
"Quakers" 

1686-7, 3d of 1st mo. John Hamion. df Middletown Mtg , 
to Martha Brown, of Shrewsbury, "at tlie publicke meeting 
hours of ft'riends," the first da\- of the week: 
signed by John llaniton 

Martlia 1 lamton 



witnesses : 
Abraham Brown 
Peter Tilton 
George Keith 
Jedidiah Allen 
John Toocher 
Samuel Spicer 
John Chambers 
Judah Allen 
FT)hraim Allen 
Caleb Shreeve 
Henry Chamberlain 
John Cheshire 
Thomas \'icker 
John Lip]Mncott 
Thomas Eaton 



John Hamton 
^Martha Hamton 
Remembrance Lippincott 
Nathaniel Cammact 
John Harvey 
Cattron Brown 
Sarah Slireeve 
Audrey West 
Abigail fJppincott 
Jane Porden 
Jerusha Eaton 
Elizabeth Hance 
Hester \ icars 
Mary Thorpp 



Two years later, in 1689. Janet Hampton, daughter of John 
his first wife, lanet. was married to Robert Rav at the home 



184 JOSEPH HAMPTON 

of John Hampton in Shrewsbury. He was livings in Shrewsbury 
at this time, and apparently had not yet purchased land in Free- 
hold, Monmouth County, N. J. Stillwell cites this marriage record 
in Vohnne T, of the Miscellany, p. 244 : 

1689. 9th of nth mo. (in margin 10th of 2d mo. 1690) 
Robert Ray md. to Jenett TIamton. both of Shrewsbury, 
at the house of John Hamton. 
witnesses signatures include 

Jolm Hamton Robert Ray 

]\Iartha Hamton Janet I : R : Ray 

In 1692. 10th of 1st mo. (in margin 22d of 3d mo. 1692). 
John Ham])t()n was a witness at the marriage of William Ashin 
of Shrewsbur} . and Jenett Mill, "on a fifth day of the weake, at 
the publick meeting house of ffriends." 

The same year 1692, 29th of 7th !uo., he was witness at the 
marriage of Abraham Brown and Leah Clayton, the former of 
Shrewsbury and she of Middletown. at the home of John Clayton. 

William Penn attended the annual meeting of Friends at Bur- 
lington, and John Hamj^ton is listed among the elders and minis- 
ters present. George Fox also visited the Buriington Meeting, 
according to his Journal. 

An important event in the h.istor\' of the Society of Friends 
ij the Keithian schism. George Keith was one of the prominent 
Quakers of the period, and his learning and eloqu.ence brought 
him many followers. He was one to witness the marriage of 
John Hampton and Alartha llrown in 1686/7. 

George Keith, the redoubtable Scottish Quaker, began his 
religious experience as a Presb\terian. but was converted to the 
Society of bViends and became one of its ablest preachers and 
defenders, For a time he was master of the Friends' school in 
Philadelphia and an influential leader in the American meetings. 
He had many friends and considerable property and prestige in 
both East and West Jersey; his following was particularly numer- 
ous around Freehold and Topanemus in Monmouth County. 

Prior to 1691, Keith began to question some of the Quaker 
doctrines, particularly that of the sufficiency of the "inner light." 
as an interpreter of the FToly Scriptures and a religious and moral 
guide. 



JOS i: I'll iiAMPTox 185 

Later, in the nionuniental C()^ltl■;)ver^v whicli shook the So- 
ciety, Hatnpton was one of Keith's sii|)])orters, who is described 
as "one of the prominent preachers and controversiaHsts of the 
Otiakers." Tlie (hsi)uted doctrine was laid b^-fore the vearly 
meeting in Phila(lel])hia in IfiOl. anrl Keith was denied (Jnakerism. 
Followers of his preaching were called Separatists or Keithians, 
instead of Christian (Jnaker>. llimdreds flocked to hear ( leorge 
Keith, and outside of Philadelphia, it was the sense of many of 
the regular meeting, that Keith was correct. He had an ascend- 
ency in 16 oiit of 32 meetings. At the Yearlv Meeting of 1692, 
held the 4th to the 7th days of the 7th month, at Burlington, a 
large gathering of ministers and elders heard him. and declared 
in His favor in a signed statement. Among the elders who signed 
was John [fampton. Other signers were Xathaniel Fitzrandel 
( Fitz-Randolph ), and ITarmon L'pdengrave.-, who later are related 
to the Hampton family line. The long list of mmister.s and elders 
signed as from the yearly meeting on behalf of themselves, and 
"many more Friends who are one with ns herein." The statement 
was a declaration that Keith and his friends were not guilty of 
the division leading t(^ the setting up of separate meetings. (See 
Chronicles of Pennsvlvania, 1688-1748, Keith. \ ol. [, pp 212- 
23]). 

John Hampton removed to Freehold about 1695. in which 
year he is recorded as grantee in the Warrant Record for Quit- 
Rents for Alonmouth Countw 

"The Warrants for Surveys, Monmouth County. X. [." are 
recorded a> follows : 

A.MorXT D.\TE KEC. LIB. PLACE 

"JOHX IFAXTOX.... 700 2 Dec. 1695 136 Monmouth" 
He is li.sted among the early patentees as paying Quit Rent 
on 544 acres (See "First Settlers of I'iscatawav & Woodbridge. 
X. J.", \V,1. 1. pp. 57-61 ). 

He had several children by his second wife, Martha Rrown. 
She died about 16!;7. and the next year John Hampton married, 
for the third time, the sweet and attractive widow of Samuel 
Oglx^rne of lUirlington, namely Jane Curtis C)gborne. They had 
one .son, JOSFITF HAMI'ToX, born 1702. who later removed 
with his mother to r.uck> County, renn.vyhania, and became the 



186 POSEPH HAMPTON 

progenitor thru his wife, ]\Iary Canby. of the numerous clescend- 
ants of Bucks County Hamptons. 

Jane Ogborne. the third wife of John Hamton. was born in 
Northamptonshire, England, the 2d mo. 11, 1661. She was the 
daughter of Thomas Curtis and Jane, his wife, wdio later married 
successiveh' John Chapman and John Pancoast. (See Burlington 
Monthly ^Meeting Records). 

Thomas Curtis lived in Xorthamptonshire, England, prior 
to his emigration. He may have been a redemptioner, but his 
name is not on the imperfect lists. He named his new^ home in 
New Jersey, Bug Brook, after his residence in C)lfl England. In 
1685 he is shown owning land in B.urlington County, N. J. In 
1686, Oct. 10, Peter Harve\- and his wife, Sarah, conveyed lands 
to Thomas Curtis of Bug Brook, \\>st Jersey. The records indi- 
cate that in 1688 Thomas Curtis was deceased. 

The children of Thomas Curtis and Jane Curtis are recorded 
in Stillwell, :\liscellany. \ol. Ill, p. 200. as follows: 

1. Jane Curtis, daughter of Thomas Curtis, of Bug Brook, 
born 2d mo., 11, 1661. 

2. Dorothy Curtis, born 7 mo.. 29, 1662. 

3. Sarah Curtis, born 12 mo.. 21, 1663 : md. Farr ( ?) 

4. EHzabeth Curtis, born 1st mo. 21. 1666 

( Records of Northampton, Eng.. Monthly ?^Ieeting, in 
Devonshire House, London. ) 

5. Mary Curtis, born 19, 1682-3 ( Rec. Burlington Mt.) 

6. Abigail Curtis. 

7. Thomas Curtis ; supposed. 

The date of Jane Curtis's marriage to Samuel Ogborne is 
not given, but he was living in Burlington in 1685, and her name 
is given as Jane Ogborne, in the list of those present at the birth 
of Ann, daughter of Thomas and Hester Butcher, 3 mo. 29th, 
1685. 

Samuel Ogborne, Jane's first husband, died 1694. His will, 
dated Nov. 7. 1694, was proved Dec. 8, 1694. Will of Samuel 
Ogborne, sick, of Burlington, etc., mentioned: "dearly beloved 
wife, Jane." He gave £5 to each of his children at the discretion 
of his executrix, if so much remains when they are brought up. 



JOSEPH HAMPTON 187 

Executor: wife Jane. His brother-in-law. Peter Harvey, trustee 
and assistant. The will was written and signed by the testator. 
and was a fine speciiuen of caligraphy. Daniel Leeds, of Burling- 
ton. Gent., and Wm. Atkinson, of Burlington, yeoman, went her 
bond. She made her mark. 

1694, 21. 9 br. The inventory of his personal estate amounted 
to £127-11-7. 

Jane Curtis Ogborne and Samuel Ogborne had three children, 
1. Samuel Ogborne, Jr. : 2. Alary Ogborne, m. 1707 in Evesham 
Meeting. John Engle ; m. in 1732. Thomas French ; 3. Sarah Og- 
borne, of whom we read that permission granted Edmund Kinsey 
and Sarah Ogborne to marry, Friends Records, Plainfield, N. J. 

According to records, John FTarwood, of Springfiekl, Bur- 
lington Co., Yeoman, sold 1695, Alarch 26, to Jane Ogborne, 
widow, of the town of Burlington, for £80, a house and 90 acres, 
which was previously sold by her husband, Samuel Ogborne. to 
said Harwood, the property lying near Matoripan Bridge, south 
of Maple Creek and north of the Great Swamp. 

John Hampton and Jane Ogborne were married in 1698^ and 
on IMay 12, 1698, John Hampton, listed as living in Freehold, and 
wife Jane, sold a house in Burlington, late in the tenure of Samuel 
Ogborne, former husband of Jane Hampton, to John Borradaill, 
of Burlington. 

John, the pioneer of the Hampton family, was an elder of 
the Friends' meeting, and was often appointed to attend the (|uar- 
terly and annual meeting with the ministers and elders. Jane 
Hampton was also full of good works, and early came to be known 
for her kindly and sympathetic ministrations. She visited ?vleet- 
ings at Burlington, Plainfield, W'oodbridge, Had.donfield, all in 
New Jersey, and Falls Monthly Meeting, Pennsylvania. 

Jn the New Jersey Archives, Colonial Documents, First 
Series, record shows that on Aug. 5, 1698, Sarah Farr of Bur- 
lington, widow, bequeathed her personal property to Jane Hamp- 
ton and others in her will, which was proved Feb. 3, 1698-9. 

rSee .\bstracts of Wills, \ ol. 1. 1670-1730.) 

The children of John (1) Hampton by his first two wives, 
Tanet & Martha Brown were : 



188 JOSEPH HAMPTON 

(1) Janet (2) Hampton, married Robert Ray. 

(2) John (2) Hampton, whose wife is unknown, but who 
had children. Tsabell Hampton and Geo. Hampton. 

(S) David Hampton, who married Mary ■ — • and died 

in 1710. and whose children were David Jr. and George, 
under age in 1715. 

(4) Andrew (2) Hampton 

(5) Jonathan (2) Hampton. 

(6 ) Xoah Hampton, who was living in 1714, but who died 
before 1715. 

(7) Elizabeth (2) Hampton, and 

(8) Lydia (2) Hampton. 

The 9th child of John (1) Hampton was Joseph (2) Hampton, 
b}- his Srd wife. Jane Curtis Ogborne. 

Andrew (2) Hampton, son of John (1) Hampton, was living 
in 1712, for he is cited in the will of Peter Watson, Freehold, 
merchant, and also in 1716, cited in the will of Edward Highbee 
of Aliddletown, Monmouth County, being indebted to both de- 
cedents. ( An Andrew Hampton, Jr., of Elizabethtown, as early 
as 1698, and later dates, was not of this family, but hailed from 
a Xew England family of that name which had moved to Long 
Island and thence to Elizabethtown. N. j. ) 

David (2) Hampton, son of John (1) Hampton, Sr., is men- 
tioned in 1709 in the will of Wm. Laing of Freehold, Monmouth 
County, planter. The will cites debts due by David Hampton. 

In 1710. David (2) Hampton died, according to recorded 
will proved Feb. 27, 1710. The will indicates David as of Free- 
hold, Monmouth County, and mentions his wife, Mary, and son 
George Hampton, under age. The home, farm and personal prop- 
erty are bequeathed in the will. The executors were his wife. 
Mary Hampton, and George Commins. and John (2) Hampton, 
David's brother. The witnesses listed include John Obeson, John 
Lawrence, and Sarah Farr. (The last named was the daughter 
of Sarah Farr of Burlington, who had died in 1698, sister of 
Jane Curtis Ogborne Hampton (John Hampton Sr.'s wife.) 

In 1714, Sept. 14, the will of John Bowne, of Mattawan, 
Middletown, Monmouth Countv, merchant, mentions his estate. 



189 



inchi(lin<^^ mortgages, lionds and book debts, among the book- 
debtors being listed John (2) Hampton, Thomas i3) Hampton, 
Mary Hampton, and Xoah ( 2 ) I lampton. 

An a(kHtional accounting of the estate of Peter Watson in 
1716, Nov. 4, cites receipts for payments bv Marev Hampton. 

The ("ommins famih' must have been rekited to the Hamp- 
to;is, although 1 have been unable to ascertain how. ( leorge Com- 
min- was one of the executors of I^avid Hampton's will in 1710 
( ])reviously cited V The will of David Commins ( Conimin ) in 
1715, lists several Hamptons, to whom bequests are made. This 
will was made Feb. 7, 1715/6, and indicates David Commin of 
Piscataway, Xew Jersey, cordwinder. It divides personal estate, 
including P)ible and books, among Margaret Frazer, David (3) 
Flarnpton, son of David (2) Hampton, deceased, Isabell (3) and 
George (3), children of John (2) Hampton, Mary Barnet, Hugh 
Frazer and John (2) Hampton. The last two are executors. 

\\'illiam Radford (Redford) of Freehold, yeoman, made his 
will February 27, 1720/21. The will mentions, among others, 
Isabell ( 3 ) Hampton, deceased. It also left legacies to the Month- 
ly Meeting of "Quakers" at Shrewsbury, and to overseers of 
Poor at Shrewsbury. 

In 1723. Thomas Combs of Freehold, carpenter, makes his 
wife, and "Jonathan (2) Hampton, of Preehold. cordwainer". 
executors of his estate, and shows as a witness one John Fenton. 

The will of Cornelius Tomson, of Freehold, yeoman, made 
August 14. 1727. mentions real and personal estate, and indicates 
home farm with a meadow "bought of John (2) Hampton". 

Thus we follow the fortunes of the various children of John 
(1 ) Hampton, who were Joseph Hampton's half-brothers and sis- 
ters, and who resided in New Jersey, in the vicinity of Freeliold. 

It is not possible, nor desirable, within the limits of this ])aper, 
to trace the later generations of Central and Souih Jerse\- Hamp- 
tons who have descended from John (1) Hamilton. A monu- 
mental work, indeed, would l)e a genealogical record of his de- 
scendants in whicli all l)ranches of the family could be accorded 
their proper i)lace. 



190 JOSEPH HAMPTON 

II. BIRTH OF JOSEPH HAMPTON IN FREEHOLD, N.J. 

The only child of Jane Ogborne and John (1) Hampton was 
Joseph (2) Hampton, born in Freehold, New Jersey, in 1702. 
The father died in Freehold in 1702, but this son was destined to 
accompany his mother into Bucks County, Pennsylvania, and to 
become a leading elder of the Wriglitstown Monthly Meeting, and 
a prominent colonial legislator, a progressive landholder and busi- 
ness man of Pennsylvania. 

Thus by the single slender thread of one stalwart migrant 
from New Jersey, the Pennsylvania Hamptons had their origin, 
but this Joseph gave his blessing to the numerous progeny who 
today claim Pennsylvania Hampton descent and who happily 
honor his name and memory. 

John (1) Hampton died at Freehold, Monmouth County, 
1702, January 23. His will notes that he was a planter. In the 
will which was proved February 26, 1702/3. he mentions his wife 
Jean, and children John, Joseph, Andrew, David, Jonathan, and 
Noah, the last four under age, Elizabeth and Lydia. Testator 
speaks of his wife Jean and "her" son Joseph and "my" son 
Joseph. He also refers to her children "before our marriage", 
Sarah and Mary Ogborne, to whom he left a legacy. He be- 
queaths his land on Dutchman's Brook, and other land next to 
James Reed, and land bought of John Butler ; also personal prop- 
erty. He mentions his daughter Jannet Reed ( ?) Ray, and chil- 
dren, and also his four grandchildren, names not given and pre- 
sumably children of his married sons. Executors were his wife 
and Robert Ray of Freehold. Witnesses, Andrew Burnett, John 
Trott, and Wm. Laing. (Ref. Monmouth, New Jersey, Wills; 
also Stillwell's Miscellany, Vol. IV, p. 157.^ 

Inventory of John Hamton, Sr., Estate. 

1702-3, February 12. Inventory of personal estate, £202. 
19. 10 1/2, including a large and a small Bible, £2. The 
inventory of John Ilamton's estate was made by Walter 
Ker, Andrew Burnett, and Wm.. Laing. 

A good woman was not long unmarried in those primitive 
settlements where attractive women were an asset and an orna- 
ment to tlie house. Hence we are not surprised to find Jane 
Hampton marrying for the third time, four years after John 



JOSEPH HA.MI'TfiX 



191 



Hampton's death. Her third husband was a distinguished colonial 
legislator, resident of Woodbridge. Nathaniel Fitz-Randolph. He 
was a member of the colonial assembly of New Jersey 1693/4, 
and was High Sheriff of Middlesex County in 1699. He was 
also an elder of the h^dends" Meeting of Woodbridge. and attended 
the quarterly and annual meeting at TSurlington, where John at- 
tended before his death. 

Nathaniel Fitz-Randol]ih, of Woodbridge, and Jane Hamp- 
ton, of Freehold, were married 4 mo., 12, 1706, according to the 
records of the Shrewsbury, N. J., ^Monthly fleeting. He had 
been married previously, his first wife having been a Kinsey. 

At the marriage of Nathaniel Fitz-Randolph. of Woodbridge, 
and Jane Hampton, "of the county of Freehold", as the record 
has it, tliere were many who had witnessed her marriage to John 
Hampton. This, her third marriage, was "at the house of Jane 
Hamton", and occurred 1706, 12th of 4th month. (Margin, 
1706/7, 8th of 12 mo. ) 

Those who witnessed the marriage of Jane Hamton. w^idow, 
and Nathaniel Fitz-Randolph were : 



John Hamton (Jr.) 
David Hamton 
Phillip Edington 
Charles Cordon 
Robert Ray 
George Allen 
Edmund Wolley 
Trustrom Allen 
llenid (^iriffith 
John Laing ( ? ) 
Wilt Red ford 
Jolin Hebron 
Remembrance Eippincott 
Tzibell Hamton 
May Layton 
Hannah Woodhouse 
Mary Foreman 
Sarah Potter 
Margaret Lippincott 



Nathaniel Fitzrandolph 
Jane Mtzrandolph 
John Fitzrandolph 
Samuel Fitzrandolph 
Joseph Fitzrandolph 
Desire Fitzrandolph 
John F^ensey (Kinsey) 
Grace Rensey (Kinsey) 
Samuell Ogborne 
Mary Ogborne 
Sarah C)gborne 

her 
Abigael mark Eddington 

Lvdia Gortlon 



102 JOSEPH hamtton: 

It will be noted that two stei)-sons of Jane Hampton, John. 
Jr.. and David, were present at this ceremony. And that Isobell 
Ham])ton, daughter of John. Jr., was al.so a witness. The tliree 
children by Jane's iirst marriage were also prcbcnt, — Samuel, 
Mary and Sarah Ogborne. John Hampton's daughter. Janet Ray 
(Jane's step-daughter ) was not ])resent, but her Imsband, Robert 
Ray, attended. 

Fitz-Randolph died in T714, and in liis will mentions Joseph 
Hamton, whom he calls his son-in-law. evidently meaning step- 
son. Joseph a])i)arently was a favorite son of Jane Hampton, his 
wife, and was very likeable. Jane Hampton refers to him re- 
peatedly in her own will several years later, and remembers him 
handsomely. 

Nathaniel Fitz-Randolph and Jane had for their first child 
Benjamin Fitz-Randolph. born in 1707. There may have been 
other children. 

Nathaniel's will, dated 3 mo. 5, 1713, indicates that he was 
a resident of W'oodbridge, Countv of Middlesex, planter. He 
says : "am att the writing hereof of sound perfect disposing 
Minde". He mentions: 'T giue .... the sheep that is att John 
Nokes to be Equaly Diuided Between my said son Benjamin and 
my son In law Joseph Hamton and Thomas Nessmith share .... 
alike . . . ." The will was proved by John Kinsey. a witness, May 
12. 1714. 

For the third tiiue the poor widow goes before tlie court 
officials and makes declaration of her widowhood. The harsh 
frontier life was hard on the men-folk of the time. However, 
from the large number of men who lost their wives in those primi- 
tive times, it was equally hard on the courageous women who 
braved the American wildnerness. 

On May 12, 1714, is the declaration of "Jean, the widdow and 
Executrix of . . . Nathaniel Fitz-Randolpli". before Thomas Gor- 
tlon. Surrogate. This is recorded in Lib. I, continued: p. 483, 
Trenton, N. J. 

The quiet Quaker countryside of Bucks County, Pennsyl- 
vania, now beckoned Mrs. Fitz-Randoli)h and a part of her family, 
including doubtless her son Joseph Hampton, a boy of about fif- 
teen. On the 2 mo. 15, 1715, at a monthly meeting at Woodbridge. 



JOSEPH HAMPTON 193 

Jane Fitz-Randolph requested a certificate of removal for herself, 
her son-in-law, Edmund Kinsey, and her daughter, his wife, to 
Falls Monthly Meeting, Bucks County. 

( Ref. ^Minutes of Woodbridge Monthly Meeting) 

1715, 8 mo. 2. At a monthly meeting at Falls, of this date 
Edmond Kinsey. wife and mother-in-law, ]iroduced a certificate 
of removal from Woodbridge Monthly Meeting. 

(Ref. Minutes of Falls Monthh' Meeting. Rucks County, 
Pa.) 

Widow Fitz-Randolph. the mother of Joseph Ilamton, re- 
sided for three years in Bucks County, and then returned to New 
Jersey to marry in her fifty-eighth year, John Sharp, of South 
Jersey. It is eas}- to trace how this came to be. Jane apparently 
visited among her children and other relatives, staying for ex- 
tended periods because of the inconvenience of travel. Her -ister. 
Sarah Curtis Farr, had resided in South Jersev. in lUirlington 
C'ounty, and at her death bequeathed personal belongings to Jane 
Hamton, a^ she then was, in 1698. The people of the clan, bound 
by ties of Ioa'c and marriage, kept close to one another. In 1710, 
when David Hamton, son of John Hamton, and ste])-son of Jane 
Hamton. died in Freehold, in Monmouth County, Sarah Farr was 
a witness to the will, and must have been a visitor or a member 
of the David Hamton household. This Sarah Farr was the daugh- 
ter of Sarah Curtis h""arr, and niece of Jane Hamton. The Bur- 
lington ties were strong through this family union, and there un- 
doubtedly Jane met John Sharp, and probal^ly had known him 
for some years, since neither of them was young any more. 

1719, 8 mo. 7th. at a monthly meeting at Fall>. Bucks County. 
Pa., Jane Fitz-Randolph was granted a certificate of removal, 
according to the Falls ?\Ionthly Meeting ?^linutes. John Sharp 
of Evesham, Burlington County, X. J., and Jane Fitz-Randolph, 
widow, were married. 19 mo. 20, 171f>. This is recorded in the 
Records of the Haddonfield Monthly ^^leeting, X. J. 

Jane .Sliar]) resided with her husband in Evesham for about 
seven years, when he passed away. Life had indeed brought Jane 
Hamton much sorrow. She had, h(nvever. a large and devoted 
family and soon >lie returned to live in Bucks Countv, wliere her 



194 JOSEPH HAMPTON 

(laughter, Sarah Kinsey, her son-in-law, Edmund Kinsey, and her 
favorite son, Joseph Hampton, were living. 

John Sharp made his will 3 mo. 17, 1725 : he died Oct. 23, 
1726, and his will was proved ^larch 29. 1727. In the will he 
mentions his wife, Jane. 

Jane Sliarp returnerl to Buckingham to spend her remaining 
days. She had not many years to live, for she died in 1731, at 
seventv vears of age. Whether she lived with her daughter Sara, 
or with her son Joseph Hami)ton and Mary Canh} . I do not know. 
I hope the sainted mother had her dwelling place for at least part 
of the time with Jose])h, for 1 like ^o think of this sturdy, brave 
pioneer, so manv times removed my great-grandparent, living for 
a time with the Mam])tons in her calm closing }'ears among these 
beautiful liills and woodlands of Rucks County. 

Her will is a remarkable document. It is cited by Stiilwell, 
in the Historical and ( ienealogical Miscellany, \'ol. I\'. p. 159. 
J will cite it in full : 

1729, "Sth day of ve 6th month called .August." 
Will of Jane Sharj), of Buckingham, in ye County of 
Bucks and ])rovince of Pensilvania, wid(>w ; proved Dec. 
13. 1731. The will mentions: 

"to nu' sou Samuel ( )gburn the sum of 8 ])ounds proclama- 
tion money," 
"to m\- son Joseph Hampton 12 pounds." 
"to mv son-in-law Edmund Kinsey 5 ])oimds." 
"to my son lienjamin h'it2-Rand(jlpii twenty fiounds and 
also one bed and 2 pair of sheets, 2 pillows and 2 pairs 
of pillow cases, 1 diper table cloth, 3 blankets, one 
bird eyed ccnerlidd, one silver spoon, one great Bible, 
one great looking glass, one ])air iron doggs." 
"to m}- Crand daughter Jane Engle a great pewter tlish." 
"to my daughter Mary Ketle 25 jiounds." 
"to my daughter Sarali Kinsey 25 pounds." 
"after my legacies is payed if an}' money remains let it he 

given to my two daughters and Jo Hamton." 
"to m_\- daughter Alary's three daughters and to ni}' daugh- 
ter Sarah's three daughters and to my sou Joseph 
Hamton's one daughter (who are all now living) 7 



JOSEPH HAMPTON' 195 

pounds in Silver and Gold, twenty shillings apeace 
each." 
"to Mary Kinsey and Fdizabcth Kinsey each of them one 

trunck." 
"all my house and wares be sold or valued and the value 
of them to pay all charges to my executors that may 
accrue to them 1)\- funeral expenses or any otherwise 
wdiatsoever upon my account and . . . after legacys 
and other charges are all payed if any thing remains 
of value 1 hereby give ... it to Edmund Kinsey, but 
if it should so happen that my estate shall fall short 
of paying my legacyes and all charges then ... all 
Legtees shall abate their proportion according to their 
shares." 
"I give . . . my executors . . . forty shillings a]iiece." 

Executors: — "mv son-in-law Echuund Kinsev and Joseph 

Fell." 
Witnesses : John [ fill and Elizabetli Fell. 
The testator made her mark to the wiH. 
1731, 28 of Xber : The inventory of Jane Sharp's per- 
sonal estate was exhibited, which was made the 18th 
day of the ninth month, 1731, by John Hill and 
John Walton and amounted to £118.10.9. 

TIT. PROMINENCE OF JOSEPH HAMPTON 
IN BUCKS COUNTY. PA. 
T ha\e traced the activities of Jolm d) Hamton, and of his 
wife, Jane, who twice re-married after his fleath. The scene now 
turns definitely to Rucks County and the prominent part which 
JOSEPH (2) HAMPTON, son of the above princii)al^. played 
in early colonial histor}-. 

At the outset we need to note that Josej)!! (2) Hampton ap- 
pears 1o ]ia\c l;een very early a man of means. He Iniilt the An- 
chor Tavern, in Wrightstown. about 1724. and operated it for 
several years as a pul)lic house; he was one of the Founders of 
Wrightstown Meeting; he married into the faiui!\- of Thomas 
Canby, one of the ])rominent figures of colonial I'ennsyKania ; his 
large landholdings in Wrightstown. and in adjacent townships, 
included extensive plantings of fruit trees, and !ie early became 
an agricultural experimenter, l)eing noted as having planted the 



196 JOSEPH HAMPTON 

first grafted orchard of apple trees in the county. He was elected 
a representative to the Provincial Assembly from Rucks County, 
successively from 1746 to 1757, and again in 1760 and 1766. He 
was also a Bucks County Provincial Official for ten years m an- 
other capacity, being Collector of Excise from 1757 to 1767. In 
the V/rightstown Meeting we find him very active, as an elder, 
overseer, and for a time in charge of the care of the building or 
meeting house. He was delegated to attend the quarterly and 
annual meetings at Philadelphia and elsewhere, repeatedly, and 
was clerk of the Quarterly Meeting. 

On the farm of Joseph (2) Hampton was located the famous 
"corner wdiite oak" which was an identifying mark in the historic 
Indian purchase of land The Indian i^ath or lanrl to the Indian 
village of Playwicky also crossed the Hampton farm, making a 
continuous path from the corner white oak. on the Hampton 
farm, to Playwicky. 

T believe Joseph (2) Ham})ton first came to P)ucks County 
with his mother in 1715. He may have remained with his half- 
sister, Sarah Ogborne Kinsey. and Edmund Kinsey, when his 
mother returned to New Jersey to be married in 1719. for she did 
not again come to Bucks County to live until after the death of 
John Sharp, Oct. 23. 1726. In the meantime Joseph i 2) Hampton 
married Alary Canbv 8 mo.. 8 da.. 1722. at Buckingham Monthly 
Meeting, indicating that he was living in Buck? County and 
thoroughly acquainted with the leacHng Bucks County families. 

Mary Canby. wife of Josepli (2) Hampton, was the daughter 
of Thomas Canby. born in Thorn. Yorkshire, England, in 1667, 
died at Wrightstown. 20 of 9 mo. 1742. and Sarah Jervis, born 

. died at Abington 1708 (?), married in Philadelphia. 

2d of ye 9 mo. 1693. Thomas was the .son of Benjamin Canby, 
of Thorn. Eng., youngest son of Thomas Canby, Gent., of Pinfold 
House, Thorn. The family arms are of ancient vintage. Mary 
was born 10 mo., 14 da., 1697, at Abington, Pa., and died at 
Wrightstown, Pa., 8 mo. 4 da. 1794. 

In the History of Bucks County, by Battle, the author says 
Thomas Canbv found his first acquaintance with provincial life 
as the indentured apprentice of Henry Baker, with whom he emi- 
grated in 1683/4. It is supposed that he lived in Buckingham as 



JOSEPH HAMPTON 197 

early as 1690. His activities are chronicled in \'ol. V\ Bucks 
County Flistorical Society Proceedings, P. 521 ff. 

Thomas Canby, Joseph (2) Hampton's father-in-law, was 
a large landholder, and a member of the Provincial Assembly, 
representing Bucks Count}', along with his son-in-law. He was 
not. however, as continuous a legislator as Joseph Hampton. 

The first list of children of Joseph Hampton and Mary 
Canby was published by Rev. John Hampton Doan, in the Hamp- 
ton History, published 1911. at Milton. K> .. (copies may be ob 
tained from Miss Ella K. Hampton, Milton, Ky. ) as follows: 

(1) Benjamin 

(2) John. b. 12 of 1st mo.. 1724. 

(3) Sarah, married a Wilson. 

(4) Mary, married James Stokes. 

Stillwell (1916') gives a longer list of children of Joseph 
Hampton and Mary Canby : 

(1) Sarah Hampton, born 9. 30. 1723, m. 1, 12, 1744, 
Isaac Wilson. 

(2) John Hampton, born 1. 12. 1724-5. d. 9. 10. 1775. 

(3) Benjamin Hampton, born 7, 15. 1728, m. 9, 28, 1750, 
Ann ^^'ildnlan. 

(4) Jane Hampton, born 1. 26. 1731, died 1, 31. 1809. 

(5) Joseph Hampton, born 1, 29. 1735-6. 

(6) David Hampton, born 8. 22. 1737; d. 1. 3. 1757. 

(7) Mary Hampton, born 2. 12. 1739; d. 11. 13. 1804: m. 
James Stokes. 

C. Arthur Smith, of Wycombe. Pa., (1939) has conducted 
more extensive search into the children of Joseph Hampton for 
me and furnishes the following, except for additional Benj. Hamp- 
ton dates which I have added from other .sources: 

(1) Sarah Hampton, b. 9-30-1723: d. : m. 10-19- 

1744 at Wrightstown ^Mtg., Isaac Wilson, b. 7-2-1723; 
d. ; son of Stephen Wilson and Rel>ecca 



198 J()SEP[J HAMPTON 

(2) John Hampton, b. 1-12-1724/5; d. 9-10-1775; m. 1748. 
at Middletown Mtg-.. Ann Croasdale, b. 11. 15, 1730: 

d. : dan. of Jeremiah Cro.isdale and Grace 

Heaton. 

(3) Benjamin Hampton, b. 7-15-1728: d. 5. 7. 1811; m. 
9-28-1750. at Wrightstown Meeting. Ann Wilchiian. 
b. 12-16-1726; d. 9-3-1806. dan. of Josepli and Sarah 
^^'i]dman of Aliddletovvn. 

C4) Jane Hampton, b. 1-26-1731 ; living in 1768. Shepro- 
dnced a certificate of removal from Ihickingham 
Alonthlv Meeting which was accepted bv ^^''rig]ltstown 
fleeting 4-5-1768. The Women Friends of Wrights- 
town ])roduced this certificate for Jane Hampton on the 
above date. 

(5) Joseph Hampton, b. 1-29-1735/6: <1. 17-10. 

(6) David Hampton, b. 8-22-1737; d. 1-3-1757. 

(7) Mary Hampton, b, 2-12-1739; d. 11-15-1804: m. 10- 
12-1768. at Wrightstown Meeting, James Stokes, b. 
3-27-1738: d. 10-27-1811; son of John Stokes and 
Snsanna Olden. 

Joseph (2) Hampton pnrchased 224 acres of land in Wrights- 
town townshi]) from Thomas and Jane Canby in 1724. He se- 
cnred from Zebnlon Heston the remaining portion of the Rich- 
ardson tract, abont 250 acres, and also purchased a large tract of 
land out of the township. In "The History of the Township of 
Wrightstown", by Dr. Charles \A\ Smith, (1855 V we read of 
Josepli Hampton: "He was an active man, of good business cap- 
acity, and was a useful member of society. His land in W'riglits- 
town is still owned bv his descendant, ^^loses Hampton, and has 
become noted in history as the land upon which stood a corner 
white oak. marked with the letter P standing by an Indian path, 
that leadeth to an Indian town called Playwicky. and near the head 
of a creek called Towsisnick.^ which is the angle in the line of the 
Indian purchase in 1682, as it passes through the township." The 
boundar\- line referred to jiasses on in a straight line, observes 
Smith, until it comes to a white oak. near the head of a creek, on 
Moses Hampton's land, about three-fourths of a mile northeast 
from W^rightstown meeting-house. 



KAMPTOX 



199 



Joseph ( 2 ) Hampton was an active and conscientious mem- 
ber of the Society of Friends, identified with t!ie W'rightstown 
JMonthly Meeting. A few quotations from the Minutes of the 
Wrightstown Meeting (a copy of which is on file in the Itistorical 
Society Library) show the conscientious service which Joseph 
Hampton rendered in thr)se early years : 




WRIGHTSTOWN FRIENDS' MEETING HOUSE. BUCKS COUNTY. PA. 
(Photograph, 19:! 9.) 



Minutes of JVriijJitstowji Monthly Meeting of friends 

From Establislinient of Meefiucj, Vol. I, 

^734 io IJQO 

(Rucks County Historical Society! 

Joseph Hampton one of committee appointed to examine into 
tlifference between \\'m. Croasdale and Jeremiah Bowman over 
land ])urc]iase. App't by Mo. Meeting. 1st da. of 2fl mo. 1735. 

.\t ^Meeting 3d da. of 4 mo. 1735: W'm. Smith. Jr.. gives 
over being overseer, "this meeting therefore chooseth and apj'joints 
Joseph Hamton be an overseer in liis stead." 

3d da. of 5 mo. 1735. Joseph •/bapman and Jose]di 1 lamton 
ap])ointed to see that the maj'riage of Henry Tyson and .\nn 
Harker "is duly accomplished and report next Monthly ^Meeting." 



200 JOSEPH HAMPTON 

3 da. 12 nio. 1735. John LaNcock and Josej^h Haniton a])- 
pointed to attend services of the Ouarterly Meeting. 

4 da. 3 mo. 1736. Joseph Fdamton and \Vm Smith. Jr., and 
Zebu^.on Heston are appointed to attend service of the Quarterly 
Meeting". 

1 da. 4 mo. 1736. Joseph ITamton and John Linton are ap- 
pointed to investigate John Trego's clearness from all other 
women in relation to marriage and what else is needful and report 
to next monthly meeting. Declaration of intent of marriage with 
Hannah Lester having been previously n.iade. 

/f da. 6 mo. 1736. Amos Strickland and Agnes Buchanan ap- 
peared and the friends appointed to assist her in settling lier about 
her children report that it is no further settled than at last meet- 
ing, and after a long discourse, and much tender and loving ad- 
vice, the matter came to this issue that the aforesaid friends be 
continued and that the said Agnes choose Joseph Fell and Richard 
ATitcheH and Abraham Chapman, the other executor chose Thomas 
Canbv and Joseph Hamton to be added thereto, and they are to 
make one other essav towards settling the affair, and report to 
next meeting. 

5 da. 7 mo. 1737. Joseph ?Iampton and Abraham Chapman 
having care of building the new meeting house, they re|>ort that 
divers debts is due for material to build the said house and ought 
to have been paid before this time and that there i^ sundry persons 
who has subscribed towards building the said house that has not 
fully paid their respective subscriptions. 

5 da. r» mo. 1737. To this meeting was brought the extracts 
of the Yearh- Meeting at I'urlington in which is recommended 
a half collection as usual. 

At this meeting Joseph Hamton, one of the overseers, re- 
ported that Jacob Heston requested a certificate. 

5 da. 12 mo. 1739. Joseph Hamton requested to be released 
from the service of an overseer, and John Chapman was nomi- 
nated and appointed to be overseer instead of Joseph Hamton. 

6 da. 3 mo. 1740. Joseph Hamton was appointed to attend 
Ouarterly Meeting. 

3 da. 12 mo. 1740. same 



JOSEPH !i.\MPT()\ 201 

2 (la. 2 mo. 1741. Rebecca Wilflinan of Aliddletown Monthly 
Meeting, and Jeremiah Cooper requested a certificate of mar- 
riage 

7 da. 12 mo. 1748-4. Joseph Hamton appointerl one to assist 
C'ark in reviewing minutes. 

Family visitation. Joseph Hamton appointed as member of 
visiting comnn'ttee to visit families of the community- parish. 

2 da. 7 mo. 1746. Joseph I damton and David Daws ap- 
pointed to speak with Richard Parson "who hath of late been 
sundry times overtaken with strong Drink." 

3 da. 1 mo. 1746-7. Joseph Hamton appointed to take care 
of meeting house for one year from last monthlv meeting. 

In the records of the Quarterly Meeting of Minutes and 
Elders for Buckingham we note that Joseph Hampton was dele- 
gated to attend the quarterly meetings at Falls and the annual 
;md spring general meetings in I'hiladelphia and Burlington every 
year from 1752 to 1762. He was clerk of the quarterly meeting 
at Buckingham for many years, according to the records. 

Jostph Hampton was a member of the Penn-^ylvania Colonial 
.Assembly with lienjamin Franklin. During the French and In- 
flian Wars, he pursued a consistent Quaker attitude, voting with 
other Quakers in the Assembly to desist from furthering the 
fighting. However, he with others voted the expenditure of large 
sums needed to carry out the activities to prevent invasion. Against 
the 0])pres^ive measures of the Governor and Council, this bodv 
of earnest Pennsylvania representatives, which included Joseph 
Hampton of I'ucks County, advanced doctrines of the Independ- 
ence of tlie peoi)le's .Assembly which were far in advance of 1776. 
Their i]idcpcndcut action in ij-pf, acfiially sounded a keynofr 
■:,-/i!ch. sluncs that rennsylrnnia. as well as Xe-r:' Enqland. nntv 
he eonsidered the forerunner of the deinoeraey of whicli we hold 
the heritage today. 

The Governor in a Message to the Asseiubly in Mav 16, 
1755. said in part : 

". . . . by the whole of your Conduct since you have been 
made acquainted with the designs of the French, will be convinced 
that your Resolutions are and have been to take advantage of 



202 .JOSEIMI HAMPTON 

your Country's Danger, to aggrandize and render i)ermanent 
^'our own Power and Authority, and t() destro\- tb.at of the Crown. 
That it is for this Purpose and to promote )oiU" Scheme of future 
Independency \'ou are grasping at the Disposition of all Puhlick 
Alone\- and at the Power of fdling all the offices of Government 
especiall\- those of the Revenue. . . . ." 

This was a startling and far-reaching pronouncement, and 
shows indeed the tenor of the colonial American mind. Actual 
inde])endeiice was hut twentv-one years a\vaw 

Jt is not surprising that the peace ])rinciples (jf the Friends 
led them to strenuously oi)])ose the extensive e(|ui])ment of troops 
for aggressive war against the b'rench and Indians other than the 
approjjriations alreadv voted. The fee'nig against the Quakers 
became pronounced. In fact, the Crov.n re(juested the Friends 
to refrain from seeking a place in the lolonial As'-embly. 

The session of 1760, however, was dominated hv the Whig- 
Peace Party, and in that year the request of the Colonial ^^linistry 
for an increase of the Provincial .\rmv was refused by a majority 
of three votes, among those who voted with the majority being 
the six lUicks County representatives. Abraham Cha]iman. Jose])h 
TIam])ton. George Ely. (hies Knight. William Smith and Amos 
Strickdand, all Quakers. 

Joseph Hampton attended the request by the Crown, how- 
ever, and did not again seek election to the Assembl\' until 1766. 
in which vear he was again chosen for Pucks County. It was 
the last \ear of his long period of service as a colonial legislator, 
for the next \ear he passed away. 

The operation of the Anchor Inn in 1724 as a "House of 
Entertainment" by Josei:)h IIam])ton may be judged in the light 
of the lOtli century Quaker attitude toward such hostelries. As 
was usual in such cases, it was indicated that the ap])licant "is 
com]Kdle(l to entertain numerous travellers from Xew England, 
\ ermont, Xew York, and the Jersie Province." and sojcnu'ners 
from the South out from Philadelphia. Among the Quakers of 
early years, a tavern ])artook of the general hospitality of the 
comnumit}'. Warren S. Ely has ably pointed out in one of the 
Papers of this Society ( \'ol. 3) that the members of the Society 
of bTiends evidently realized the necessity of the inn. "since it 
relieved them of the burden of entertaining numerous travellers 



jusEiMi n\>rpT()\ 203 

wending their tedious way across our country from the Jerseys 
and elsewhere: and we find the names of the most i)rominent 
Quakers a]:)])ended to ])etitions f«ir license to keep liouses (jf enter- 
tainment." Tlie names of many good Quakers are noted in the 
lists (if inn-keepers in various parts of the country. 

If we mav judge from the character of some of the estimal)le 
Colonial gentlemen who maintained taverns in those davs — men 
such as Joseph Ham]:)ton, of Wrightstow n, Thomas C'cUihy at the 
}'"err\- (now \ew Hope). T<»hn liogart and ( leorge I lughes, of 
r.uckingham. and others, it is e\'ident that the average inn-keeper 
was a leading man in his communit_\- and exercised a wide influ- 
ence. }\Jan\- of these colonial inn-keepers achieved distinction and 
left a remarkahle record of civil, religious and in some cases 
military service to colonv and tieoiile. 

Over in liuckingham. Renjamin Kinsey. a nei)he\v of Josej)!: 
Hampton, in 174S |)etitione(l for "a recommendation to his Exce^ 
lenc}-. the ("lovernor." to keep a house of entertainment at the 
])resent vil'age of Holicong, "where one i>art of Durham Rode 
crosses \'ork Rd. that leads from Canbys Ferrv to Philadelphia, 
and near the Road that leads for said York Road to Butler's ^lill 
and North Wales." Among Benjamin Kinsey's Quaker neighbors 
and friends who signed this petition for a Buckingham tavern 
were the Byes, Pearsons. Scarboroughs. Shav-.'S, Browns and 
others. 

Joseph Hampton's Anchor inn in W'rightstown wa-- located 
on his |iro])ert\- at the intersection of Xewtow n-Doylestown Road 
and Second Street FMke which leads at right angles from I3ovles- 
town Road. The ta\-ern today is located on a triangle formed by 
Newtown Road, the new highway junction and the route of the 
old Second Street l^ike. 

The toll gate at the end of the ])ike was located in earlier days 
at the end of the road in front of the tavern, and the ancient 
gate-hou-e still stands on the Newtown Road op])osite the Anchor 
Inn. 

The Anchor changed hands frequently after J<Ke])h llam])ton 
built and o])erated it. Xearb)' were his extensi\-e lields and or- 
chards, stretching toward i'ineville in the one direction and over- 
sprL-ading W'rightstown d^iwnshi]) in a wide acreage During his 
tenanc}- the hostelr}' enjoxed high reiiutation and great improve- 



204 JOSEPH HAMPTON 

ments were made in the community through Joseph Hampton's 
management. Whether he used the Anchor sign or not I do not 
know, and there appears to be no record of the first appearance 
of the Anchor Sign Board and no evidence of when it was first 
hung out. Who operated the tavern between the date that Joseph 
Hampton gave it up and the Revolution. I do not know. There is 
no mention of the tavern in the will of Joseph Hampton, cited 
subsequently. I am of the opinion that Hampton operated the 
tavern for 10 or 20 years. He might have terminated his activities 
in 1735, when he became active in Wrightstown Meetings, but I 
am more inclined to think that he maintained operation until 1746, 
when he was first elected to the Provincial Assembly for Bucks 
County. He was continually a member for nearly 20 years. 

Located at the strategic junction of Newtown Road and Sec- 
ond Street Pike, it is said to have been a rendezvous of the Doan 
boys during their "cowboy" escapades. Of course, the tavern 
had long since changed liands, and who the owner was at that 
time I do not know. In 1800 it was kept by John Parker, and 
then was known as I'arker's. Battle's History of Bucks County, 
published in 1887, says "midway between Pineviile and Wrights- 
town in the rhichor, one of the most famous of the old time tav- 
erns in central Bucks County." 

Tlie tavern today is called "The Old Anchor Inn", being 
under the management of Mrs. Pouisa Kohlhaas. A great anchor 
is painted on two sides of the sloping roof and the anchor sign 
hangs before the house. The ancient landmark, more than 200 
years old, retains the architectural features of the colonial period ; 
four antique fire places are seen in the Inn, and the rooms reveal 
the heavy beams and well-built walls of an earlier day. The 
dining room is on the main floor, bedrooms and living rooms above. 
The changes necessitated by modern improvements have not been 
permitted to alter the colonial character of the tavern, and save 
for the attractions of a modern orchestra and dining and dancing 
in the 20th century manner the atmosphere of pioneer days is 
preserved. The tavern built by Joseph Hampton in 1724, has the 
distinction of being the oldest inn in continuous operation in Bucks 
County today. 

Edmund Kinsey and Sarah Ogborne, Joseph Hampton's step- 
sister, lived in Buckingham. There David Kinsey was born in 



JOSEPH HAMPTON 205 

]7]2. (See Book of Rirtlis and linrials and Marriage Certificates 
of Bucking'ham Monthly ^Meetings. ) 

David married Tamor I^'oll at Buckingliam 'M) (k, 11 mo. 

1734. among the witnesses being jane ( "anby. E(hnund Kinsey. 

Sarah Kinsey. Samuel Kinsey. Mary Kinsey. Elizabeth Kinsey, 
Joseph Hampton. Thomas Canby and Oliver Canby. 

When Edmund Kinsey died in 1758. his will mentioned hi'; 
wife Sarah, (who died subsequently in her O^th. year), and ap- 
pointed his son Benjamin Kinsev and his brother-in-law, Joseph 
Hamf)ton, Wrightstown. as his executors. 

Joseph (2) Hampton (John 1| died 10 mo., 2. 1767. accord- 
ing to a record given in the religious and literary journal. The 
Friend, \'ol. XXXHI. This record mentions ''noted ministers 
and Elders and other concerned meml)ers of tlie Yearly Aleeting 
of Philadelphia." and on page 340 contains this item : 

"Joseph Hampton was ior a number of years, an elder in 
esteem in Bucks County Quarterly Meeting. His death took 
place Tenth mo. 2d. 1767." High praise indeed from a people 
who use praise in moderation — Joseph Hampton, "an elder in 
esteem." 

The will ot Joseph (2 ) Hampton is recorded in Bucks Coun- 
ty. I'a., Will Book #3. It was made 9/5/1767 : and the will was 
proved Xov. 19. 1767. Jose]ih mentioned his wife Mary, to wdiom 
part of the home ])lantation was bequeathed; "Son John (after 
decease or marriage of wife) to receive that part Plantation I 
live on, on Road leading from Zebulon Heston's and Wrightstown 
meeting House adjacent Isaiah Einton. Joseph Tomlinson and 
London County." Son Benjamin received the Residue of said 
Plantation. His daughters received money bequeaths — ^Daughter, 
.Sarah Wilson, £25 ; Jane Hampton, £100, and Mary Hampton, 
£100; his grandchildren each 30s; residue equally divided among 
children. He named his sons, John and Benjamin, executors, and 
witnesses were John Long, James Stokes and .Vndrew Homer. 

C)nly two of l()sei)h Hampton's four sons survived him, and 
are mentioned in his will. lli> three daughters are mentionetl, 
however. Sarah Wilson, and jane and Mary Hamilton, jane may 
not ha\e married, but Mary became the wife of James Stokes in 
176S I see pg. 17. w liere the children of josepli arc li^tcii). 



2(Hi JOSEPH TTAMPTOX 

I\'. LATER HAMPTOX MINISTRIES AT 
WRIGHTSTOWN. 

John (3) Hampton, [Joseph (2 ), John (T ) ] was the eldest son 
of Joseph (2) Hampton. Born 1-12-1724/5, he was married in 
1748, at Middletown Monthly Meeting, to Ann Croasdale, daugh- 
ter of Jeremiah Croasdale and Grace Heaton. They declared 
intention of marriage at meeting 4 d. S mo. 1748, and again 1 d. 9 
mo., 1748, the marriage being consummated before 6 da. of 10 
mo., 1748, when the ceremony was reported duly accomplished 
at the Monthly Meeting. Ann was born 11th mo.. 16, 1730. Her 
mother, Grace Croasdale, was an approved minister of the Society 
of Friends, and Ann Hampton likewise became noted as one 
of the Friends Ministers of that day. 

The children of John (3) Hampton, [Joseph (2). John (1)] 
and Ann Croasdale Hampton were : 

1. Asenath (4) Hampton, born 15 of 11 mo., 1749. 

2. Sarah (4) Hampton, born 3 d., 10 mo., 1751. 

3. Joseph (4) Hampton, born 17 of 8 m., 1753. 

4. Hannah (4) Hampton, born 6 of 7 mo., 1756, d. same 
\'ear, 12 mo., 25th. 

5 David (4) Hamjiton, I;orn 24 of 10 mo., 1757. 

6. Jonathan (4) [lampton, born 2d of 9 mo., 1760. 

7. John (4) Hampton, liorn 16 of 10 mo.. 1763. 

8. Ann (4) Ham])ton, born 3 of 4 mo., 1767. 

John (3) Hampton and his brother, llenjamin (3), became 
active in Wrightstown Monthly ATeeting while their father, Joseph 
(2), was still alive. The long ]ieriod of service of Joseph (2) 
Hampton was a worthy example for them to follow, and by the 
time of Jose]ih's death, in 1767, the two sons were taking up his 
mantle. The records of \^'rightstown meetings indicate great ac- 
tivity on the part of John during the year 1768, the period im- 
mediately following the death of his father. The Clerk's records, 
so ably kept by Joseph Hampton for many years, were collected 
bv a Committee of the Wrightstown ^leetmg, revised and deli- 
vered to the newl\' ap])()inted clerk. An entry for 11 mo. 3 da., 
1767, reads: "'Joseph Ilampton, who was many years Clerk of the 
meeting, being lately deceased," anotlier Clerk appointed. 



j()S!:p!i ri\.\[PTr)X 207 

-Vcconliiig to the minutes. ;} hk).. 1, 1768, we note that John 
iram])t()n, Ueiijaniin Ilanipton, and Abraham Chapman were ap- 
pointed to collect the Writings belonging to this Meeting and 
deliver them into the hands of the clerk. Minutes revised, and to 
be handed over. Josej)!! Chai)man recorded this minute. 

Jolm (8) 1 Iam])ton was a])])ointed overseer in 1770. and in 
1773 was a])])ointed by W'rightstown Meeting to receive subscrip- 
tions tor r.ooks recorded b\' the meeting of Sufferings in I'hiladel- 
])hia. rienjamin ( o ) Hampton was appointed to settle the 
Wrightstown Meetings accounts, 1770. 

Thus we see the activities of Jose]')h ( 2 ) Hampton's sons 
carrying on tlirough the >ears. 

W'c will follow the family of John (3) Hampton for two 
more generations l.efore taking up the I'enjamin (3) Hampton 
line. 

Ann Hampton, wife of John, became a noted minister of the 
Friends. In the Wrightstown Meetings, 10, 1 mo.. 1781. we read 
"Our I^-iend, Ann TIamton, acquainted this meeting that she has 
had for some time Drawing in her mind to vi^'t the families of 
I'^iends belonging to Tdtnustead Meeting, with which this meeting 
concurrs, and the Clerk is desired to give her a copv of this 
Minute." She spoke at meetings far and near, and attended the 
quarterly and annual meetings for Wrightstown. 

Davis, in History of 1 lucks County, states that the women 
(ministers) were good riders and generally went to these meet- 
ings on horseback, although some of the Women Friends Minis- 
ters walked several miles to meetings. These ''Quaker IVeach- 
er>'" were deepl\- consecrated. 

Of the children of John (3 ) and Ann Hamilton T am able 
to record the following further data: — 

1. Asenath (4i Ham]')ton ( b. 1740) | John 3, Joseph 2, John 
1| m. Isaac Comly ; issue — 

1. Martha. 2. John, 3. Isaac, A. Joseph, 5. F.zra. 6. Ftham, 
7. Jason. 

John ("onily, second child and obkst son, abo\e, was the most 
noted descendant of the original Josejih Hampton, that had ap- 
jTeared in his da\. Rev. |ohn Hampton Doan, author (U' 'lar.il^ton 
nisUvy. (op. cit.), says of John (/om!y : 



208 JOSEPH HAMPTON 

"He was an approved minister and teacher among the Friends 
and eminent in both positions. His name is in the list of teachers 
in tlie W'estown school, the oldest and most noted of the l^'riends' 
schools in .\merica, having entered as teacher (or iirincipal ) 1800- 
6-11, and retired in 2d mo. 1822." He was the author of several 
well-known school books, including an elementary English (iram- 
mar. much used in those days and noticed by Gould Brown in his 
"Grammar of English Grammars." A large book has been pub- 
lished, entitled "Life and Religious Work of John Comly." John 
Coml\'s distinguished residence at Byberry was on Lazy Lane 
(Husband House), and here was located his noted Mount Pleas- 
ant School. T should like to note rather fully an article published 
in July, 1852, in the Knickerbocker Magazine, giving Byberry 
Reminiscences by a former ])upil of Joim Comly's. The article is 
dated from San Francisco by an anonymous writer, who signed 
his name Vadessac ( Casseday ? ) . The writer tells of his boyhood 
in Byberry, scenes of rural delight. 

"Th.e school-house was a plain, dralj-colored building, over- 
looking a verdant lawn, garden in I)ack. Mow I feasted on stolen 
readings in school hours, of hot drowsy summer afternooiis! The 
store was a place of Saturday afternoon resort. Its contents, 
printed calicoes, crowded cake-tobacco, shoe-blacking, whet-stones, 
and Epsom salts stared at you from the same shelf. The store- 
keeper was important in the village life. 

"Meeting house. Interior divided into 2 compartments, se})a- 
rated at pleasure by sliding shutters, and furnished with plain 
wooden benches, facing long wooden galleries slightly elevated, 
occupied by the ministers and elders. What scores of silent 
'meetings' have 1 sat through within its walls, watching without 
the open door, bird or butterfly disporting in the summer air, 
hushe<l, save when broke upon it the clatter of some restless horse, 
and the occasional tinkle of a sheep bell: or contemplating the 
motionless forms, and settled, solemn features of the venerable 
Friends. Sometimes a few impressive words would be pro- 
nounced ; sometimes a longer sermon preached. There was the 

tall, spare figure, there fell the feeble accents of J H ; 

there beamed the calm, benevolent countenance, and was raised 
the [lersuasive voice of John Comly ; there in solemn supi~»lication, 
M P poured forth a fervent spirit. 



JOSEPH HAMPTON 209 

"The meeting over, you mingle witli. the congregation upon 
the green, are accosted in a friendly manner, and hospitality ex- 
tended to von if a stranger. Before leaving, lean upon the low 
stone wall, and regard the thickly-sown, undistinguishable grass. 
There the relentless reaper has gathered in the generations. The 
accidental conditions of life are no longer recognized; the sleep 
of death is a sleep of equality, witli no perpetuating marble, no 
tonibstone laudation. No scul])ture flatters the living ; no graven 
line unduly exalts the dead. There is a stern and solemn sim- 
plicity about a Quaker burial. The gentle lowering of the coffin, 
the unbroken stillness that for a space pre^■ails, the downward gaze 
of the surrounding mourners, it may be a few earnest, slowlv 
uttered words : then the last fond look, and the gradual and decor- 
ous departure. . . 

"The Saturday half-holidays at that (Alt. IMeasant School't 
"San Francisco, July, 1852." "Yadessac." 

"San Francisco, July, 1852." 

II. Sarah Hampton (4) ( b. 1751) [John 8. Joseph 2, John 
1] married Isaac Smith; issue — 1. Eber, 2. Hannah, 3. 
Sarah. 4. David, 5. Isaac, 6. Asenath. 7. Jonathan, 8. 
Rachel. 

III. Joseph Hampton (4) ( b. 1753) [John 3, Joseph 2. John 
1] married Mary Blaker, 12, 20, 1775; issue— 1. Alary, 
2. David. 3. John, 4. Joseph, 5. \bner. 6. Samuel. 7. 
Hannah, 8. Amos. 9. Jonathan. 10. Ann. 11. Noah. 

This Josejdi Hampton, grandson of the original Joseph, was 
also active in the Wrightstown Meeting. Beginning in 1780 we 
find his name in the minutes of Wrightstown Meetings. r)n 15, 
11 mo., 1780, he was one of a committee to confer with Tsacher 
Morris, William Heaton, Zachariah Betts and others regarding 
the paying of fines in lieu of their military service during the 
Revolution. Quakers were not to serve in war or to pay fines for 
failure to serve. On 7. 8 mo., 1781, he was a]>iiointed to give 
copies of reports read against Benjamin Buchanan. William Mar- 
tindale and David Lee, Friends who were in difficulties with the 
Meeting for paying fines for military service during the Revolu- 
tion. Joseph was 31 years of age at this time. He subsequently 
removed to Catawissa, where he settled with his family. 



2]0 JOSEPH IIAMPTOX 

I\'. David (4) Hampton ( h. 1757) |john 3, Joseph 2. John 

1], of Soleburv, married 6, 16, 1779, at Buckingham 

Monthly Meeting, Rebecca Philhps, daughter of Aaron 

Philhps. Issue:— 1. Joseph (5). b. 1778(?), 2. Aaron 

(5) b. 1780, 28, 5: 3. rslary (5), 4. Mercy (5). 

The two sons of David (4) H^ampton, Joseph (5) and Aaron 
( 5 ) both removed to Hunterdon County. Xew Jersey. Joseph 
vverit to Flemington in Hunterdon (^ounty, about 1804 where he 
purchased a farm, according to deeds recorded in the County 
Clerk's records at Flemington. He was married in Flemington 
September 16. 1804, to Elizabetli Dator, the ceremony performed 
by Justice of the Peace Opdyke, apparently marrying "out of 
meeting". He must have made satisfaction with the Friends' So- 
ciety, however, for he became identified with the Kingwood 
Monthly Meeting, ( formerl\- Dethlehem Monthly Meeting), at 
Quakertown. N. J., upon presentation to that meeting of a certifi- 
cate dated 12. 1. 1804, from I'uckingham. 

( See Record of Kingwood Monthly Meeting of Friends) 

Aaron (5) Hampton, second son of David (4) above, also 
married "out of meeting", being wedded to Jane Slater, Nov. 1, 
1801, the ceremony also being performed by Justice of the P^eace 
Opdyke. of Flemington. ( See Marriage Records of Hunterdon 
County, \. J., 1795-1875. \'ol. 1. 1918. published by H. E. Deats.) 

He also became identified with Kingwood Monthly Meeting, 
bringing a certificate from Huckingham, 8-6-1809. 

He was present at the marriage of David L.aing anrl Rachel 
Twining, at Kingwood. 24, 9. 1807. Tlie record presents the 
certification of this marriage: "David Laing of P>uckingham, 
Middlesex, son of Thomas and Martha Faing. dec. and Rachel 
Twining, daughter of Thomas and Sarah Twining of Kingwood." 

The names of witnesses are of interest because of the indica- 
tion of many Pucks County names : David Laing. Rachel Laing. 
Henrv Cliffton, William Parson. William Clilifton, John Steven- 
son, Emle\- Olden, Aaron Hampton, Joseph Stevenson, Samuel 
Large, William \\'ebster, Stephen Kester, Harmen Kester, John 
Large, Thomas Craven, John Stine, Alex. Shotwell, John Web- 
ster, Samuel Webster, Jr., Joseph Willson, Patrick McCarty, 
Peter Stout, Eliza. Olden, Elizabeth Davis, Eliz. Vail, Mary 



JOSEPH HAMPTON 211 

Dawes, Martha William, Rebecca Stevenson, Sarah Cliffton, Cath- 
erine Jacobs, L'zariah Titus, Margret Suydam, Thomas Laing, 
Thomas Twining, Sarah Twining, Mary Laing, John Twining, 
Jr., Hugh Laing, Mary Twining, SeHnda Twining, Charles Twin- 
ing, Samuel Webster, Rachel Webster, Elizabeth Large. Mary 
Webster. 

Aaron (5) was present at other marriages; 15, 8, 1807, — 
20. 12, 1810, — 25, 10, 1810: he was also signer of numerous 
certificates of removal granted to various Friends. 

The record of births in the Kingwood Monthly Meeting 
minutes offers the following concerning Aaron Hampton and 
family : 

Aaron (5) Hamton, son of David (4) and Rebecca Hampton, 
Solebury, Pa., b. 27, 5, 1780, and Jane Hampton, daughter of 
Peter Slater and Sarah, his wife, of Kingwood, b. 31, 1, 1780. 
Children of Aaron and Jane : 

1. David, b. 9. 8. 1802. 

2. Rebecca, b. 21. 4. 1804. 

3. John. b. 3. 6. 1806. 

4. Sarah, b. 4. 8. 1807. 

5. Ann, b 3. 11. 1808. 

6. Oliver, b. 7. 12, 1809. 

7. .Slater, b. 6. 2. 1812. 

According to Kingwood records, 9 mo.. 8th. 1814, Aaron 
Hampton returned a certificate of removal which had been granted 
him directed to Eden and requested another to Earmington. N. Y., 
"where he has settled". 

A certificate of removal to Earmington. N Y.. was granted 
as requested. 13, 9, 1814, to Aaron Hampton and family, includ- 
ing his wife Jane, children, David, Rebecca, John, Sarah. Oliver, 
Slater and Mercy Ann. 

Y. J(jnathan (4) Hampton. [John 3. Joseph 2, John 1], b. 
1760, 9, 2: d. 1832, 10, 10; married 1783. 4, 16, to Elizabeth Phil- 
lips, at Buckingham Monthly Meeting, born 1762. 7. 25: died 
1843, 5, 30. Issue:— 

1. Thomas, b. 1784, 2, 7. 



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PAGE 1, HAMPTON PWMIIA' BIBLE RECOUI>. 
Fiist Entries were made by James Hampton, 1791. 



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PAGE 2, HAMPTON FAMILY P.IULE KE 
Maile by Bonjaiiiiii Hainpton. 



214 JOSEPH HAMPTON 

2. Eli, b. 1787, 7, 13; d. 1855, 7, 12. 

3. Rebecca, b. 1790, 5, 12. 

4. Mary, b. 1792, 9, 24. 

5. Elizabeth, b. 1797, 9, 1 ; married Alendenhall. 

6. Jonathan, b. 1797, 10, 15. 

7. Aaron, b. 1804, 2, 23. 

This Family, or most of them, removed from Pennsylvania 
to Ohio. 

(For further record see Hampton History by 
John H. Doan. ) 

A'T. John (4) Hampton. [John 3, Joseph 2, John 1 ] . b. L763, 
10, 16: d. 3, 12 mo.. 1842. buried at Pennsville, Ohio; married 20, 
6 mo., 1787, Mary Betts. daughter of Zachariah Betts and Beth- 
ula C.-."" 1^'^rn Upper Makefield. Bucks County. Pa.. 26, 7 mo., 
1771. She was in her 16th year when married. John Hampton 
was a young school teacher. When they began housekeeping. 
Zachariah Betts gave his daughter, Mary Hampton, a large family 
Bible. This Bible was of the first edition of family Bibles pub- 
lished in America, which was widely subscribed throughout the 
States, between 1788 and 1791, the date of its publication. Zacha- 
riah Betts subscribed for one dozen, giving one to each of his 
eleven children. Another belonged to James Hampton, son of 
Benjamin Hampton, which descended to Catharine Hampton and 
Hiram Burgess, anrl to their grandchildren, Esther, Elma, and 
Mary Wildman, who in turn presented it to me in 1938. It is now 
preserved in a fireproof safe, containing written Hampton family 
records dating back to 1726, in James Hampton's handwriting. 
He was a school teacher and wrote a book. "Memories of James 
Hampton". 

The Minutes of Wrightstown Monthly Meeting show that 
John Hampton, above, in his youth, requested of Wrightstown 
Monthly Meeting, a certificate to Middletown Monthly Meeting, 
he being placed as an apprentice with Ezra Croasdale of that 
Meeting. He was 19 years old at that time, the request being 
posted at meeting. 5, 3, 1782. 

John ( 4 ) and ^lary Betts Hampton began housekeeping in 
\\'rightsto\vn, l)ut later removerl to Middletown, where many of 



JOSEITI ITAMPTOX 215 

their children were born. They sul).se(|uently removed to Mont- 
gomery. Maryland, and finally to ( )hio. Issue: — 

1. Gary. b. 4. 5 mo.. 1788: d. 21. 8. 181]. 

2. Jesse P>.. b. 21. 7. 1789. 

3. Betluila, b. 1, 8 mo.. 1791. 

4. James, b. 26. 6. 1794. 

5. .\senatli. b. 3. 3. 1796. (married Win. Doan). 

(see ]). 31. Ham]jton History by J. H. Doan) 

6. Zachariah, b. 25, ], 1798. 

7. Asa C. b. 7. 5 mo.. 1800. 

8. Sarah G.. b. 26. 3 mo.. 1802: d. 24. 7. 1808. 

9. John. b. 26. 2. 1806. 

10. Samuel 1!.. b. 9. 4 mo.. 180<). 

11. Mary Ann. b. 1. 2. 1811. 

12. Gary. b. 17. 7. 1814. 

\'. I5EXJAMIX IIAMPTOX TAKKS I'l' TflK M.WTLE. 
Having carried the history of the John ( 3 ) Hampton line 
f(jr\vard through 2 additional generations, we turn now to the 
Benjamin ( 3 ) Hampton line. P>enjamin ( 3 ) was the second son 
of Joseph (2). Pennsylvania founder of the W'rightstown line of 
Hamptons, whose father. John (1). originallv settled in Freehold, 
X. J. 

P.enjamin (3) PTampton | Joseph 2. John 1|. b. 7 mo.. 15, 
172S. was the second son of Joseidi and Mary Ganby Hampton 
and is so recorded in Hampton Family P)ible in the handwriting 
of P.enjamin's son. James Hampton, school teaclier. 1792. (See 
Bible record, p. 45 ). It is interesting to note that this young man 
was teaching school during George Washington's administration 
and wrote the family record at this time. 

P.enjamin inherited the residue of tlie estate of his father, 
Josepli (2) Hampton, at W'rightstown. He and his brother. 
John (3) llam])ton. already mentioned, early took u]) the ])romo- 
tion of the h'riends" Meeting-- in Wrightstown. 

At the I'riends' Meeting. 1. 3 mo.. 1768. Benjamin ( 3 ■ Hamp- 
ton was api)ointed witli Jolm (3) Ham])t()n and Abraham Ghap- 
man to collect and revise the Wrightstown Minutes. During 1770. 



216 JOSEPH HAMPTON 

in the post of treasurer or auditor, he was appointed to settle the 
Meeting's accounts. Benjamin's activities continued throug-hout 
the years as an elder of Wrightstown Meeting and in various 
capacities; for instance, the minutes declare that 6, 3 mo., 1781. 
he was appointed to draw up testimony against one Friend Richard 
Leedom and report back to the Meeting. 6, 11 mo., 1781, he was 
appointed to attend the Quarterly and Youths' Meeting at Middle- 
town. In 5, 2 mo., 1782, he was one of the committee which 
made a report finally, which ofi^ered testimony concerning the 
failure of Isacher Morris to make satisfaction to the Meeting for 
fines paid the Military Authorities during the Revolution. It was 
stated that Morris "was not convinced of acting wrong" in paying 
such fines, although contrary to Friends teaching. The committee, 
comprised of William Linton and Benjamin Hampton, prepared 
and submitted the report between 2d and 4th months, 1782, on 
which latter date the committee, being discharged, announced that 
the testimony and report against Morris had been delivered to 
the latter. The relationship between the Morris and Hampton 
families was close and became more so later on. 

Isacher must have made satisfaction subsequently, for he and 
his family were continued in the Society, his chilch-cn marrying 
into established Quaker families. His daughter, Hannah Morris, 
married the grandson of Benjamin Hampton, Benjamin Hampton, 
3d, in 1815, at Wrightstown. The last named Benjamin (and 
Hannah) removed to Ouakertown, X. J., and after Hannah's 
death he had his home over twenty years with his son, William 
Wharton Hampton, grandfather of the writer of these pages. 

Isacher was a witness to the will of Benjamin (3) Hampton 
in 1807, and in Isacher's own will, dated 1810, he mentions that 
the farm he lives on was bought from Joseph (2) Hampton. 

Benjamin (3 ) married Ann Wildman in 1750. The Wrights- 
Ljwn Minutes give us the developing romance in successive en- 
tries, the 1st and 2d declarations, the marriage, and the subsequent 
report of the ceremony made to the meetirig. 

bVom the Wrightstown Minutes : 

p 63 — James Wildman appeared with Mary Warner and 
declared intention of marriage, 4, 7 mo., 1750. Same "sleeting, 
Benjamin Hamton and Ann Wildmau appeared and declared in- 



JOSKPII HAMPTON' 217 

tention of marriage, and this being the first time, Elieazer Doan 
and Zehulon Heston are appointed to enquire into his clearness in 
relation to marriage and conversation and report to next meeting. 
6. 9, 1750. Second declaration made by James Wildman and 
Mary Warner, and by Benjamin Hamton and Ann Wildman, certi- 
ficates issued, and left at liberty to consummate marriage, and 
William Smith and Eliezer Doan appointed to see it orderly ac- 
complished for llenjamin and Ann; while Zebulon Heston and 
Joseph Hamton api^ointed to see that James Wildman's marriage 
is consummated, and report to next meeting. James Spice'- and 
Rachel Wildman appeared and declared intention of marriage 
same day. 

p. f)4 — 4. 10 mo., 1750. Reports from committees .-.aid that 
Benjamin Hamton and Ann Wildman were married 28 of 9th 
mo.. 1750. Racliel Wildman and Jame-. S])icer :^ame date, and 
James Wildman and Mary Warner married 21 da. of 9th mo 
1750. 

The marriage record is preserved in the Pennsylvania His- 
torical Society Library. Philadelphia, in the "Records of Births, 
Marriages and Deaths — Friends' .Month! v Meeting> — B.ucks 
County. ] 'a. 1680.-1870." ( p. 455 ) : 

"Married 9-28-1750 — Benjamin Hampton of Wrightstown 
t.p., B.ucks County, ( Son of Josei)h and Mary i ar.d Ann Wildman 

of said t.p. (daughter of Joseph and — ) at Wrightstown 

M." 

Both of Benjamin's parents, Joseph (2) Hampton and Alary 
I Canhy ) Hampton were present at this marriage of Benjamin 
Hampton :ind .Ann Wildman. 

There were also present James Wildman (the bride's cousin I, 
John Lmton, William Smith, Zebulon Heston and 35 other. 

.\nn W ildnian was the daughter of Joseph Wildman and 
Sarah Wilson, and the granddaughter of Martin Wildman and 
Ann Ward, pioneer settlers of Penns_\ Ivania in 1692/3. The wife 
of lienjannn Hampton was horn in .Miildletown Township, T'.ucks 
County. B2, Ki. 1726, and died t) nio.. 3. 1S06, according to the 
Ham])ton Family i'.ible record, left by her son James Hampton, 
the school teacher, who died in 1792. ( See complete records of 



218 J(1SEPH H.\MPT()X 

the Hampton Family Bible, the earliest known 'ist of Hampton 
Family names and birth and death records, p. 101.) 

The earliest Wildman progenitor of whom 1 have record was 
Matthew \\'ildman. of Celside. parish of llorton. in Craven. York- 
shire. England. Tlie son of Matthew W'ilihnan was Martin Wild- 
man of Crosdalegrains, Lincolnshire, who was married 2-9-1678. 
to Ann \\'ard at Settle Meeting, Yorkshire. England. 

Tlie}' Ijrought with them to America a mo^-t insi)iring and 
interesting letter or recommendation from the Afeeting at Settle. 
Yorkshire. England, to Xeshaminah or Middletown Meeting. 
Pennsylvania. The letter is dated 1691. and reads in modernized 
English as follows : 

To Friends in I'enn.sylvania : 

Dear Friends and breth.ren : In the nn'ty of the blessed spirit 
which distance of place cannot l)reak and in the love which many 
waters cannot ((nench. do we at this time ver\ dearlv "^alute you. 
heartily desiring that the (iod of ad our n^.erc'es may p'entifully 
shower down of His blessing u]:)<)n \ou 1)oth spiritual and temporal 
to your abundant satisfaction whereb\- your hearts may be en- 
gaged forever to walk faithfully before him and to return him 
the praise and glory over all wdio is forever worthy ! 

Xow, dear friends, the chief occasion of our w'riting to you 
at present is to signify that our friend and brother in the truth. 
Martin Wildman, having laid before us his intentions of removing 
himself and family, (if the Lord jiermit). into Pennsylvania in 
America, we found a concern u])on us to signify (so far as we 
iudge needful on this account ) w hat we know and believe con- 
cerning him. and in the first jilace as to his life anrl conversation 
we do believe that he is an honest man and faitnful to the truth 
according to his measure, having borne a faithful testimony here- 
to both in sufferings and in other ways as occasion was offered 
and through his innocent behavior among his neighbors and those 
he conversed with he so gained their love and respect toward him 
that diver.-e of them though, unbelievers profered him several 
kindness if he would stay among them and used diverse arguments 
to i)ersuade him from going his intended iourne\'. 

And in the second place as to his outward substance or estate 
he is but a poor man though through his care and industry (with 



JOSEPH HAMPTOX 219 

God's blessing upon it ) he so provided for himself and family that 
he has not hitherto been burdensome to any but has lived of his 
own after a decent and orderly manner according to his station 
and degree, but when at any time there was occasion for contri- 
buting to any who were in necessity eitlier friends or others he 
was always willing to contribute and lend a helping hand accord- 
ing to his small ability nay sometimes beyond what could in reason 
have been expected from him. And as to his wife and children 
we do believe they are honestly minded and faithful to the truth 
according to their measures so that these things above said being 
considered with more that might be mentioned, we desire all 
friends where he mav come or among whom his lot or concern 
may fall that they be kind and affectionate towards him and 
assisting to him whether in advice or other ways as occasion may 
require which for our i^arts we could freely and willingly liave 
done if he had staid among us and stood in need and which we 
hope in the fellowshi]) of the same spirit with us you will be 
engaged to do, which is all we think needful to signify at present, 
so rests your friends and brethren in the unchangeable truth. 

From our monthly meeting at Settle the 2nd day of the 2nd 
month 1691. 

Signed on behalf of said meeting by — 

Samuel Watson John Hall 

John Moore. Sr. John Frankland 

John Ridd, Sr. Thomas Robison 

John Robison Thomas Rudd 

Robert Batteesbie John Wildman 

John Dodshion George Bland 
James Congress or Congers Robert Baily 

Matthew Wildman Thomas Wilson 

James Wildman Matthew Frankland 

Wm. Cumberland Thomas Waite 

Thomas \\\\(\ John Moore, Jr. 

Ralph Clark James Wildman. Jr. 

Wm. Anderson Thomas Skirron of Xook 

John Kendall Thomas Skirrun of ye Crosh 

Wm. Fllis Thomas Skirron. Jr. 

Richard Wilkinson Wm. Skirron of ye Cross 

John Ridd, Jr. John TiMulinson 



220 JOSEPH HAMPTON 

The coming to America of Martin and Ann Wildman was 
one of those brave ventures undertaken by entire families in the 
colonial period, for they were accompanied by their six children, 
all minors, several being mere infants. The children of Martin 
and Ann, all of whom reached maturity and married in the Penn- 
sylvania Quaker frontier settlement, were: 

L Matthew Wildman, b. Nov. 12, 1678, m. Mary Hayhurst. 
Issue : — 

1. Martin, (see colonial service note for John, son of 
Joseph, below ). 

2. James, m. Mar\- Warner. 

3. Ann. 

4. Elizabeth. 

5. Rachel ) 

6. Mary ) twins; Rachel married James S])icer. 

II. John Wildman, Elder of Middletown Aleeting. b. Eeb. 2, 
16.«1 ; d. 3 mo. 27, 1739; m. Alarah Croasdale. Issue: — 

1 . Agnes. 

2. Mercy, m Thomas Jenks. 

3. Elizabeth. 

III. Joseph Wildman. b. Jan. 23, 1683; d. 1740. Married (1) 
Rebecca F)unting, d. 1715. Issue: — 

1. Jacob (died before Oct. 1739). 

2. Rebecca. 

Married (2) al)out 1717-18 Sarah Wilson at Middletown 
Meeting. Issue : — 

1. Mary, b. 1720, 8 mo., 8; d. 7 mo. 13, 1766. according 
to The Friend, V^ol. 33, Pa. Gen. Soc, she married 

(1) Thomas Atkinson. 

( 2 ) James Moore. 

She was a prominent minister of Friends. 

2. Joseph. Jr., listed as under 21 in Joseph's will, written 
in 1739; m. (1) Ann Parson, (2) Elizabeth; son, Clar- 
ence Wildman, born in Newtown. Pa. 

3. Ann, b. 12, 16, 1726; d. 9 mo., 3, 1806; m. Benjamin 
Hampton. (See later record for their children, tracing 



JOSEPH IIAMPTOX 221 

descendants of Ilenjamin Hampton and Ann Wildman. 
p. 56). 

John, b. Middletown. July 8, 1732; married Mary Wal- 
ton. He and cousin Martin Wildman \\ere in Company 
of Foot. Newtown. Bucks County, in colonial service 
during French and Indian \\-dv for Province of Penn- 
sylvania, commissions issued 7 March 1756. Pa. Arch- 
ives, \'ol. 1. Ser. 5. p. 40). Issue: — 

1. Sarah. 

2. Enos. 

3. Amos. 

4. Betsy. 

5. Rachel. 

6. Joseph. 

7. John, b. ]\Iarch 28, 1771, married Mary Knight 1801, 
Middletown. The children of John \\'ildman and 
Mary Knight were : 

1. Charles Wildn.ian, m. 1803 Susanna Albertson. 

2. Martha Wildman, m. Joel Smedley. 

3. Ann \Mldiuan, died single. 

4. EUwood Wildman, m. Alar} Thomas. 

5. John Wildman, m. Abigail Thompson. 

6. Mary ^^'ildman, m. Thos. Smedley. 

7. Edward W'ildman, m. Abs. Gilbert. 

8. Joshua Wildman, m Hannah Johnson. 

9. Jane Wildman, died single. 

10. Rachel Wildman, m. Hughes \\'arner. 
Of the above, Charles Wildman and Susanna Albertson 
had: 

1. Chackding Wildman. m. Emeline - — . 

2. John Knight Wildman. m. ( 1 i Hannah Pierce. 

(2) Sarah A\'illis. 

3. Benjamin Wildman, m. Esther L. Thomas. 

4. Charles ^\"ildman, m. Caroline "W-rkes. 

5. Ellwood Wildman. m. Mary Ann Burgess, who 
was the daughter of Hiram ikirgess and Catherine 



222 JOSEPH HAMPTOX 

Hampton. ( Catherine Hampton was in turn the 
daughter of Benjamin Hampton. Jr., and Mar- 
garet Pownall. see later record, p. 71). 
Issue : — 

1. Anna. 

2. Catherine. 

3. Esther L. Wildman. of Langhorne, Pa. 

4. Ehna C. Wikhnan. of Langhorne, Pa. 

6. Jane Wikhnan. 

7. AFary Ann Wikhnan. 

5. Rachel. 

6. Abigail. 

7. Isaac. 

I\'. James \\'il(lman, b. Jan. 20, 1685, m. . 

V. Alice Wikhnan. b. Veb. 6, 1687, m. Fienry Xelson. 

VI. Elizabeth Wikhnan. b. Sept. 9. 1689. 

Benjamin (3) Hampton lived in Wrightstown throughout his 
entire lifetime, occupying extensive farmlands, which subsequent- 
ly passed on into the hands of his sons and grandsons. The last 
record shows Moses Hampton living thereon in 1872. 

He continued his activity in connection with the Wrightstown 
Meeting. His father, Joseph (2) Hampton, had been one of the 
founders of Wrightstown Meeting and, with Abraham Chapman, 
had the care of the building. xA.s Joseph had had direction over 
the Meeting's finances, so Benjamin came into the same obliga- 
tion. 

During a great j^eriod of growth and development of Wrights- 
town Aleeting, Benjamin Hampton was active in the work. In 
1774 a wall was built around the graveyard at Wrightstown and 
in 1787 a new meeting house was built. Abraham Chapman, 
Benjamin Hampton and eight others were appointed to have the 
oversight of the l)uilding. This new meeting house, still in use 
today, was constructed 40 feet wide. 70 feet long, and 2 stories 
high. A number of architectural features indicate the use in the 
new edifice of some of the original materials, whose Revolutionary 
antiquity may be readily discerned. 



JOSEPH HAMPTON' 228 

Benjamin was a witness to the will of Thomas Stradling. Jr.. 
of Newtown, Apr. 9. 1757. 

The tax lists for P.ucks Count\ . 1783, show the following: 

Amount of tax. 
Benjamin I [ampton 2.12.6. 

Issacher Morris 2. 5. 

Benjamin Hampton. Jr. .10.0. 

The oldest public building in Bucks County is that at New- 
town. Benjamin Hampton's name appears in the list of the orig- 
inal members of the T.ibrary Company. Nov. 9, 1760. each of 
whom subscribed £l. The list of subscribers is an able comment- 
ary on the literary foresight of our ancestors. (Bucks Countv 
History Society Papers. \'ol. HI, p. 318.) 

Beujamin (3) Hampton died 5th, 17, 1811, surviving all 
but three of his chiblren. He was in his eighty- fourth vear and 
outlived his wife, Ann. five years. She died in 1806. 

Rev. John Hampton Doan, author of the Hampton History 
(pub. 1911 ), relates that Benjamin died sitting in his chair in the 
old homestead at Wrightstown. The venerable gentleman was ac- 
customed to taking a nap after dinner, sitting in his favorite chair, 
and his passing was peaceful and quiet, and unnoticed until he 
failed to waken at his usual time. 

The will of Benjamin ( 3 ) Hampton was made 9, 6, 1807, 
and proved May 25. 1811. His sons Benjamin and Oliver, were 
executors. The will mentions his daugliter Elizabeth Coleman: 
his grandson. John Watson, to whom lie left surveying instru- 
ments in his possession; his grandson, Les. Hampton, and grand- 
daughter, Sarah Watson. Witnesses were Isacher Morris, John 
Lacey and Jesse Burroughs. 

Benjamin (3) and Ann 1 fampton had nme childroi : 

]. -^^ary (4) Hampton, 1). 10 mo. 30, 1752: d. 12 mo. 29, 
1788: married Dr. John Watson. 1, 1, 1772, Wrights- 
town Monthly Meeting. 

2 Esther (4) Hampton, b. 1, 19, 1755: d. 2. 25. 1755. 

3. Rachel (4) Hampton, b. 4. 22, 1756: d. 12, 26, 1756. 

4. Benjamin (4) Flampton, b. 11, 24, 1758: d. 8, 2. 1828; 
married Margaret Pownall (see later record ) (p. G7). 



224 J()SEP1I HAMPTON' 

5. Oliver (4) Hampton, b. 7, 25. 1761; d. 10, 14, 1826; 
m. (1)5, 11, 1791, Hannah Dennis at Buckingham 
Monthly Meeting. (2) 11, 11, 1795, Hannah Kitchen 
at Buckingham Monthly Meeting. 

6. James (4) Hampton, b. 2, 29, 1764; d 8, 2, 1792. 

7. Ann Hampton, b. 2, 29, 1767; d. 11, 1, 1799; m. 6, 15. 
1791, Joseph Oner at Buckingliam Monthly [Meeting. 

8. Sarah Hampton, b. 6, 13, 1769; d. 3 -no. 15, 1792. 

9. Ehzabeth Hampton, b. 5, 22. 1772: d. 8 mo., 25, 1836; 
married Samuel Coleman, 6, 10, 1807, at Wrightstown 
Monthly Meeting. 

Of the nine children of Benjamin (3) Hami)ton six were 
girls and of the three boys who bore the Hampton name, one, 
James, never married, leaving but two to carry the name down to 
future generations. 

VI. THE MARTHA HAMPTON SCHOOL. 
Because the line survives to the present day principally 
through the descendants of Benjamin (4). I shall relate briefly 
tirst what I know about Oliver (4) and James (4), although they 
were younger than Benjamin (4). Greater space will be given 
lo Benjamin subsequently. 

Oliver (4) married twice, as indicated above. ( T) to Hannah 
Dennis, and (2) to Hannah Kitchen, widow of John Kitchen. T 
have record of but four of his children, Oliver (5), Hannah (5), 
Martha (5) and Cliarles (5). 

CMiver (4) Hampton lived in Buckingham, and was a mem- 
ber of that Meeting. He was named for Oliver Canby. the tie 
between the two families being indicated in several other C hristian 
names. 

His son, Oliver (5 ) Jr., came into possession of a most valu- 
able part of the original Strator (Streater) land in Buckingham 
Twp.. which Oliver, Jr., in turn deeded to his sister Martha Hamp- 
ton in 1831. This property, including a fine old stone house which 
was situated on the northwest corner of the crossroads at Green- 
ville, now Holicong, was most advantageously located, and the 
Martha Hampton School which was opened there, added to the 
lustre of the Hampton name. 



JOSEPH HAMPTOX 225 

Oliver (5) Hampton was a member in 1836 of the Eastern 
Division of the Brownsville Persistence Company of Bucks Coun- 
ty, which w^as organized for the detection of thieves. The roster 
of this Company is preserved in a certificate in the Mercer Mu- 
seum. 

The history of this Hampton ( Strator) property dates back to 
the Patent granted by \\'illiam Penn to James Streator March 5, 
1700. This proprietory grant of 500 acres was held by Streator 
until Dec. 10 and 11. 1714, wdien a deed of lease and release from 
Joseph Streator conveyed the property to Edmund Kinsey. Jane 
Hampton's son-in-law. Edmund Kinsey was of the knighted 
Kinsey family of England. The grant is thus related to the Hamp- 
ton family from the original purchase. On this verv ])ro;;erty, 
Joseph (2) Hanii)t(in's mother. Jane Hampton, lived witii her 
daughter and son-in-law. Sarah and Edmund Kinsev. The Friends" 
fleeting House stands upon the 500 acre tract of the original land, 
for Streator had given ten acres for a meeting house burving 
ground in 3705. 

Edmund Kinsey held the Strator property in its entirety for 
29 years, until 17-1:8. when part of it was sold to Samuel Kinsev. 
who owned it until 1760. However. Edmund Kinsey retained 
part of the farm, including the homestead, which was bequeathed 
"as the residue of the same land", in his last will and testament, 
June 22. 1758. to Joseph Kinse\-. ( Recorded in Rook C Deeds 
pp. 2 & 3. ) 

The long white stone house, still standing at the corner of 
York Road and Bycot Road, which later became the "Martha 
Hamilton School", is thus one of the ancient landmarks of Bucks 
County, and through successive changes from colonial days, has 
descended to the Hampton family today, being owned by Leonard 
A. Hampton, whose adjacent store of the Unity Frankford chain 
IS widely known in Holicong and throughout Buckingham Town- 
ship. 

Edmund Kinsey died 21 of 12 mo.. 1759. One part of the 
land, sold to Samuel Kinsey in 1743. came into possession of 
Samuel, Jr.. in 1760. who in turn sold a house and 105 acres in 
1769 to Joiiathan and A\'illiam Meredith The Meredith^ owned 
this part throughout the Revolution, but in 1783 it came again in 



226 JOSEPH IlAMPTOiV 

the pos'^ession of the Kinse}s. Ultimately the Paxson family be- 
came owners of that part of the land above noted. 

In the brief of title to the homestead and land at Flolicong, 
it is noted that this original property, which had been retained by 
Edmund Kinsey until his death in 1759, Ijeing willed by Edmund 
to Joseph Kinsey on June 22. 185S, wa^ mentioned by the latter 
when his own will was made Sept. 14, 1764. Thomas Smith and 
Joseph Watson were the executors. 

On Xov. 16, 1764, Thomas Smith and Josej^h. Watson deeded 
the property to Benjamin Kinsey. According to Bk. G, Vol. 2, 
p. 517, Bucks County Deeds, Benjamin Kinsey and wife on Apr. 
1, 1783, conveyed the se\eral pieces of land of the estate to 
George Kinsey. And on Sept. 9, 1789, George Kinsey, joiner, and 
Mary, his wife, conveyed this property to Samuel Johnson, h.atter. 

The land in subdivisions continued to change ownership, the 
particular projjerty in (|uestion, rejiresenting 48 perches, being 
conveyed in a deed ]\Iarch 14, 1803, from Jonathan Tyson to 
Joseph Shaw, and additional property of this section in a deed 
of conveyance Apr. 1, 1813, from Isaiah Jones to Joseph Shaw. 
On June 7. 1817, there is recorded a deed, dated Apr. 2, 1816, for 
the above pro])erties, described as a "lot situated in the township 
of Buckingham beginning at a stone marked B. K. ( Benjamin 
Kinsey ) in the line of John Watson, Jr.'s, land, thence to Isaiah 
Jones, then by John Ely's 'and." conveyed for $3200 by Joseph 
Shaw and wife to Joseph Taylor. On the same day a deed for 
the same land conveyed it from Joseph Taylor to Issachar Mor- 
ris, (Jr. ). The ])roi)erty is indicated "at the corner of York Road 
or Turnpike and Bycot Road." 

Issachar Morris, whose sister, Hannah Morris, married Ben- 
jamin (5) Hampton, (the third of that name), deeded the above 
property in 1831 to Oliver ^5) Hampton and Martha (5; Hamp- 
ton. It is op.e of the deeds in the Ijrief of titles, wdiich I have 
here outlined, for the property owned by Alartha Hampton in 1831, 
which is now in the I'ossession of Leonard A. Hampton, who has 
retained the brief, showing the succession back to Wm. Penn. 

The identity of the lot in the deed of transference from 
Issachar Morris to Oliver and Martha Plampton is seen in the 
following transcript : 



JOSEPH HAMPTON 227 

Deed 
Dated September 26, 1831. Acknowledged before Win. 

Fenton, T. P. 
Issachar Morris and wife ) Recorded March 15. 1832 
) 55/802 \'ol. 2 

to ) Consideration $1,000 

Oliver Hampton and ^lartha ) 
Hampton ) 

A Certain Messuage or lot of land situated in the X'illage 
of Greenville and township of Buckingham. Containing 
91 perches, more or less, and is the same land which 
Joseph Taylor, April 1, 1817, 46, granted and confirmed 
unto the above named Issachar (2) Morris in fee and 
which Joseph Shaw and wife April 14, 1816. conveyed 
to the said Joseph Taylor in fee. 

Oliver (5) Hampton, in consideration of $500, deeded "all 
one equal half part or moiety and interest of and in one certain 
house and lot of land" situated in A'illage of Greenville, township 
of P.uckingham, etc., etc., in consideration of ?!500. to Martha 
Hampton. 

One authority states that the ^lartha Hampton School was 
opened in 1824. \\'e know that Issachar Morris had removed 
to Greenwood Township, Columbia County, prior to 1829, the 
date of the marriage of his daughter Elizabeth to John C. Blaker, 
of Northampton, for it is so recorded in the Bucks County Mar- 
riages in the Docket of Isaac Hicks (Pa. Gen. Soc. Pub. Vol. 12, 
p. 166). It is possible therefore that Oliver (5) Hampton was 
an occupant of the property prior to the date of the deed from 
Issachar Morris (Jr. ) in 1831. This would make the earlier date 
of the school very probable, its successful operation determining 
Martha Hampton to assume the financial obligations of full owner- 
ship, although the management of the School was a joint enter- 
prise of herself and her sister Hannah (Hampton") Lloyd, daugh- 
ters of Oliver (4) Hampton, Sr. This institution, which was con- 
ducted for nearly two decades, if the earlier date is correct, is 
described by Davis, in the History of Pucks County, 2d Edition, 
\(A. 1. p. 261 : 

"A noted school in Buckingham in the {last was the boarding 
school for girls at Greenville, now Holicong, established in 1830 



228 



JOSEPH HAMPTON 



by Martha Hampton and Hannah Lloyd, sisters. Boarding schools 
were then rare in the county, and this venture by two women 
comparatively little known, one a widow with four children and 
slender means, was an enterprise of great risk. They bought the 
long white house still standing on the northwest crossroads, opened 
school, and went to work, one taking charge of the household, the 
other the school, each eminently fitted for her task. The school 
soon became a success and the house was soon filled with pupils 
from Bucks, Montgomery, Philadelphia and New Jersey. A day 
school was subsequently opened in connection with the boarding 
school and Elizabeth and Sarah Ely, sisters of the late State 




MARTHA. HAMPTON .SCHOOL, HOLICONG, PA. 
( Pliotograph by Hampton Hayes, New Hope, Pa.) 



Senator Jonathan Ely, Solebury, were given charge. A few boys 
were admitted to the day school, among them the late Judge 
Richard Watson, ex-Chief Justice Edward M. Paxson, Samuel E, 
Broadhurst, John Ruckman and Albert S. Paxson, presumably 
the 'gilt-edge' boys of the neighborhood. The school was discon- 
tinued upon the death of Hannah Lloyd at the end of several 
years." 

The closing of the "Martha Hampton School" coincided with 
the sale of the property to Benjamin Good in 1842. This trans- 
action is indicated in a deed from Martha Hampton to Benjamin 
Good, dated 4 mo. 25, 1842, acknowledged before Matthias Shaw, 



JOSEPH HAMPTON 229 

J. P., and recorded May 28, 1842. The conveyance was made 
in consideration of $1500, "Being the same land which Issachar 
Morris and wife, Sept. 26, 1831, granted and confirmed unto 
Oliver Hampton and the above-named Martha Hampton in fee, 
and which the said Oliver Hampton in deed of release, March 11, 
1831, granted and confirmed unto the said Martha Hampton in 
fee." 

VH. GENERATIONS OF PREACHERS AND TEACHERS. 
There are many teachers among the Hamptons. Sixty-eight 
members of the profession are named in the family history. Mar- 
tha Hampton and Hannah Lloyd made a splendid contribution to 
educational progress in the establishment of a meritorious school 
in Buckingham. John Hampton Comly has already been noted 
as one of the earliest educators and authors. His name is fore- 
most among the teachers and principals of the Westtown School, 
the oldest and most noted Friends' School in the United States. 
James (4) Hampton, third son of Benjamin (3) Hampton was 
also an able and accomplished teacher in Bucks County. James 
(4) and Oliver (4) had the reputation of being the best penmen 
and scholars in Wrightstown. James wrote a "Book of Memo- 
ries," which is preserved in the archives of the Bucks County 
Historical Society. 

Although James (4) Hampton never married, he has done 
us one of the greatest services which any in the family performed, 
in preserving in his Family Bible, a complete record of his parents, 
Benjamin and Ann Wildman Hampton, and all their children. 
His Bible is the 1792 edition of the first family Bibles published in 
America. This Bible record is the only source we have for many 
of these birth and death records; the record was kept for several 
generations by Benjamin (5) Hampton, Jr., Mary (6 ) Hampton, 
daughter of Benjamin, Catherine (6) Hampton, another daughter 
of Benjamin, and others to the seventh generation. It has come 
down to us in an excellent state of preservation, thanks to the 
solicitude of Esther L. \\ildman and her sisters, grand-daughters 
of Catherine Hampton, above, of Langhorne, Pa. The Bible is 
now in my possession (see later record, p. 100.) None of these 
records was available when Doan's Hamplon History was pub- 
lished in 1911. 



230 JOSEPH IIA>TPT()N 

John (4) Hampton was a school teacher in Wrightstovvn and 
also in Newtown at the time of his marriage to Mary P>etts. 

Asenatli (5) Hampton tanght school in London Co., Va., 
assisting her hrother Zachariah, also a teacher. She renioved to 
Ohio also with her family, and there assisted her brother, James, 
in teaching in Helmont Connty, at or near Flnshing. and also 
tanght in lUne Rock township, Mnskingnm Connty. She married 
William Doan, who was in the seventh generation of American 
Doanes. descended from Deacon John Doane, of Plymouth Colony. 
Her son was Rev. John (6) Ham])ton Doan, of (jhio, who com- 
piled the hrst "Hampton History", published in book form in 
1911. He was also a teacher, principal of the ( )hio Conference 
Seminary, superintendent of Athens L'nion Schools, principal of 
Amesville Academy and of Beverly College. He was a minister 
of the JMethodist Episcopal Church, a member of the Pittsburgh 
Conference and subsequently of the East Ohio Conference. Mary 
R. Hampton taught at the noted Excelsior Normal Institute of 
Carversville, Pa., being a member of the faculty from the date 
of the founding of the school in 1859. 

James (5) Hampton, son of John (4), was a teacher both 
in Pennsylvania and in Ohio, to which state he removed. 

Successive generations of teachers have continued in the 
Hampton family to the present day. Esther L. Wildman has been 
for many years in charge of music instruction in the Langhorne, 
Pa., schools. Elizabeth B. Scarborough is Director of the Com- 
mercial Education Department of the Cheltenham Township High 
School, Elkins Park, Pa. The author of this article is History 
Department Chairman in the New York City schools, former 
Hunter College and New York University lecturer in history. 
Teachers' Institute Director, and author of numerous books on 
history, biography and teaching principles and practice. My 
brother, Jcimes Hampton, occupies a prominent position in the 
Newark Academy, Newark, X. j. My sister, Edith Ffampton. is 
a teacher in the Franklin School, lUoomfield, N. J. Aly brother's 
w'lie, Mrs. William J. Hampton, Jr.. is a teacher in Belvidere, N. 
J., schools, and my wife, h^lorence Hampton, teaches at Public 
School 45, Richmond Borough. New York City. Thus there are 
five teachers in our immediate family. This profession has been 



JOSEPH HAMPTON 231 

prominently represented in the family history from the earliest 
times. 

It has long been said that the Hampton family is good to 
make teachers and preachers of. The prond title "Qnaker Minis- 
ter", an approved minister of the Friends, is found beside the 
names of numerous members of this God-fearing race. 

Ann Hampton, wife uf John (3), was a minister of the 
Friends of Wrightstown, and she travelled far and wide to bear 
witness to the Spirit. John Flampton Comly was one of the minis- 
ters whose exhortations were widely heard. Phebe Canby, Marv 
(Canby) Hampton's sister and Joseph Hampton's sister-in-law, 
was a recorded minister. 

Abigail Pownall, daughter of George and Eleanor Pownall, 
was a minister of the Friends. She married William Paxson and 
died 1747. Mary Wildman. who married Thomas Atkinson and 
James Moore, was one of the most eloquent of ministers of 
Wrightstown. She died 1766. 

Amos Hampton, born in Pennsylvania, 11 mo. 12, 1822, 
moved with his j^arents to Pelmont Count}'. Ohio, and thence to 
Salem, Iowa. Pie was approved as a minister among the Friends, 
and later left Salem, finally leading the Quaker migration of 1854, 
with Herbert Hoover's great-grandfather, Jesse Hoover, and to- 
gether they helped to settle West P.ranch, Cedar County, Iowa, 
where Herbert Hoover, fnture President of the United States, 
was born. 

From my book on the life of Herbert Hoover, "Breasting 
World Frontiers", I quote the following description of the dram- 
atic settling of the Middle We>t bv these Hampton and Hoover 
leaders : 

"Entering the rolling prairies of Iowa, the laboring train 
mcjved on. Several wagons formed the Quaker group which 
])aused finally on the Ixmks of the Wapsononoc Creek, as the 
rugged, dust-stained leaders, Jesse Hoover and Amos Hampton, 
called attention to the ])eaceful scene before them. The occupants 
of the several wagons gazed from the green plains to the neighbor- 
ing fringe of trees with their fresh mantle of spring-time green. 
The rich undergrowth was in full bloom. Red-bud, dog-wood, 
crab-apple, wild-plum, cherry and rose made the land enchanting; 



232 JOSEPH HAMPTOX 

the grape-vines everywhere fihed the air with fragrance. It was 
a new country. 

"As the days passed, other Quaker migrants joined them on 
this rough frontier. low^a's broad plains w-elcomed the friendly 
sect. With ax and ox and plow, they had come to cultivate the 
soil and establish homes, many of them from Miami. Ohio, and 
other Ohio sectors. In the little W^est branch colony, a meeting 
house of the Society of Friends was soon building close beside the 
cabin homes." 

(Reference to the Hoover and Flampton settlement of West 
Branch, Iowa, is contained in \'ernon B. Hampton's 
"Breasting World Frontiers." p. 15; and John Hamp- 
ton Doan's "Hampton History," p. 48.) 

Amos Hampton and his family remained in West Branch, 
low^a. where he was a minister of the Friends, until after the 
Civil War. He then moved into Missouri to help teach the freed- 
men. One of the Hamptons organized a "Phylosophy School" in 
Ohio, and another served as a "Quaker among the Indians," which 
title he gave to a book he wrote about his experiences. .Sarah Wil- 
liams Hampton, born at Pennsville, Ohio, in 1832, was a minister 
of the Society of Friends ; she married Richard Mott, who was 
also a Quaker minister among the Ohio Friends. Charles Sumner 
Embree, born in Iowa, the son of Mary Elma f Flampton) Embree 
and Pearson Embree. was ordained as a Congregational minister 
in 1891 in Florida, but later affiliated w^ith the Methodist Epis- 
copal Church, South, at ^Meridian, Mississippi, and served as a 
minister of that church. Many Hamptons have served as elders 
and other church officials, when not called to preach. 

Thus the family have continued to minister to the spiritual 
needs of the people. My owni father, Rev. William Judson Hamp- 
ton, Ph.D., D.D., was ordained in the Methodist Church at Mor- 
ristown, N. J., in 1892. and served over 40 years as a minister of 
that denomination in the Newark (N. J.) Conference. He was 
14 years a member of the Board of Examiners of the Conference, 
and 7 years Registrar, thus directing the studies and guiding the 
destinies of many young clergymen as they entered the ministry. 
Dr. Hampton was an eloquent preacher, who during a long and 
inspiring life aided and comforted countless thousands along the 



JOSEPH HAMPTON 238 

way. He was an intimate friend of Rev. S. Parkes Cadman, and 
was the author of numerous rehgious and historical works, and 
hundreds of articles which appeared in the religious press of the 
Methodist Church and other denominations. He died in 1934. 

The dividing line between vocations was not as clear-cut in 
early days as today. At that time, they practiced medicine along 
with husbandry, and made a good job of both. The family has 
achieved leadership in many lines of business and the professions. 
Pioneer Hampton ancestors and descendants have left their names 
in the history of religion, authorship, farming, education, the pro- 
fessions, statesmanship, and the arts in America. 

As we have seen, Joseph ( 5 ) Hampton and Aaron (5) Plampton 
and later Benjamin (5) Hampton moved into Hunterdon County, 
N. T-, from Bucks County, which was merely a step across the 
Delaware River, the boundary line. While some of the family 
turned eastward, settling in New Jersey at Ouakertown (Hunter- 
don Co.), others, as we have noted, journeyed to the South and 
West from Pennsylvania. They traveled by horseback and co- 
vered wagon in their westward trek. 

The Quakers as a sect were opposed to slavery. The Hamp- 
tons feared not the wrath of the slave-holder, and their homes 
were stations of the "underground railway", aiding runaway 
slaves to escape into Canada. John (6) Hampton, born in Sandy 
Spring, Montgomery County, ^Maryland, son of John (5) and 
Mary Eetts Hampton, removed to Ohio, and there became a mem- 
ber of the first anti-slavery society in the county. Samuel (6), 
his brother, lived in Ohio and later near Cedar Rapids, la., and 
was actually engaged in the freeing of runaway slaves. The 
Hajuhtcii History says concerning him : 

"Having lived in a slave state and witnessed much cruelty in 
the treatment of the slaves, he became greatly interested in their 
behalf and early espoused their cause. He was ever ready to 
assist them in obtaining their freedom. At one time he, with a 
few of his friends, secretly, fed a company of 16 in a cave four 
miles from Chesterfield, Ohio. The slave owners were on their 
track and the usually quiet village was in a great state of excite- 
ment, which, however, soon passed off as the hunters grew weary 
and left the place. It was now considered safe to proceed, and 



234 JOSFPH HAMPTON 

the little band who were loyal to the slaves, sixteen in number, 
under cover of the night, escorted the fugitives to the next under- 
ground station. There was $1600 offered for the capture of the 
slaves. 

"Later, while living in Iowa, when the poor unfortunates 
found their ^^•ay to his door, they were taken in a covered wagon, 
as though going to market, to Dubuque, and from there forwarded 
to Canada."" Doan's Hampton History, pp. 41, 42. (My mother, 
Mrs. Amelia IJoyce Hami)ton, of Belvidere. N. J., has presented 
mv father's copy of the above history to the Bucks County His- 
torical Society. J 

\III. HAMPTOX-POWNALL UNION. 

Having traced the activities of various members of the Plamp- 
ton family who left Pennsylvania, we return now to Bucks County, 
where Benjamin (4) Hampton, n.oted in the Wrightstown records 
as Benjamin, Jr., carried on the family tradition in the Wrights- 
town Meeting, so ably established by his father^ Benjamin (3), 
Sr., and his grandfather, Joseph {2) Hampton. Born in 1758, 
he was seventeen years old when the Revolutionary War broke 
out. The year of the i^eace Treaty closing the War shows him 
paying a tax of ten shillings, according to the tax lists of Bucks 
County for 1783. In 1786 he took unto himself a bride, undeterred 
in this step by the erratic post-war period ot the Articles of Con- 
federation. In the minutes of Wrightstown Meeting, we read that 
on "7, 3 mo., 1786, Benjamin Hamton, Jr.. by one of the over- 
seers requesting a certificate to Buckingham Monthly Meeting in 
order to proceed in marriage with Margaret Pownall, a member 
of that meeting, therefore Joseph and Charles Chapman appointed 
to make inquir_\'."' The certificate was given to Benjamin Ham- 
ton, 4, 4 mo., 1786, to consummate this marriage, which was duly 
accomplished, 5 mo.. 10th, 1786, according to the James Hampton 
Familv I'ible Record, and also the Record of Births, Marriages 
and Deaths, Friends }i[onthly Meetings. Bucks County, in the 
Penn. Hist. Soc. Library, Lhiladelphia, p. J 04. 

We note in detail : 

Married 5-10-1786, Henjamin Hampton of Wrightstown, 
Bucks County, son of Benjamin and , yeoman ; and Mar- 
garet Pownall, daughter of Simeon Pownall and Katharine Housel, 



JOSEPH HAMPTDX 



235 



of Solehury township, said County, at JUickingham Meeting. Wit- 
nesses included John P.alderson, Joseph f^axson, Joseph Pickering, 
Robert Easthani and 40 others. 

Margaret Hampton was ;iearly seven years younger than her 
husband, Benjamin. Like liim, she was descended from pioneers 
who arrived in America in 1682, the first of the family being 
Oorge Pownall and his wife Eleanor, who are recorded in the 
P.ook of Arrivals in the Province during 1682. (^eorge Pownall 
belonged to an English armourial family. Vne children and 
three servants accompanied them, the children including Reuben, 
Elizabeth, Sarah, Rachel, and Abigail, and a sixth child, George. 
Jr., was born in Pennsylvania soon after their arrival. George, 
Jr.. was father of Simeon Pownall, who in turn was the father 
of Margaret Pownall Hampton. 

The page of entries relating to the coming of George and 
Eleanor Pownall has the following information, the original of 
which is in the Library of The Bucks County Historical Society : 

THE BOOK OF ARRRALS . . . was a record kept to show 
who came into the province: "A Registry of all the people in the 
County of Bucks within the Province of Pennsvlvania that have 
come to settle the said count\'." 



Arrivals 
George Pownall and Ellenoi-, his 
wife, of Leycock, in the county 
of Chester, in old England, veo- 



man. came in the ship Called 
Friends Adventure, the 
Thomas W all arrived the 28tl 
the 7 mo. 1682. 

'J^ime of Service 

cK: for when 
To serve 7 }rs. 
Loose the 29 of 
the 7 mo. 1686 



the 
Mr. 
1 of 



681 



Children 
Reuben 

Elizabeth 

Sarah 

Rachel 

Abigail 



Servants 
Thos. Leister 
Tohn Brearlv 



\\'ages & Land 
50 s. at the end of iheir 
time, and 50 acres of land 
apiece. 



nn tiie 



kegistry of all the llirlhs .\: Deaths of all 
county ol Pucks in the Province of Pennsylvania. 

^''ii't'i-^ Days of the month The N'ear 



236 JOSEPH HAMPTON 

Their Name & Whose Child. Born the 11 of 9 month 1682 

George Pownall, son of 
George and Elh'nor Pownall, 

in the county of Bucks in 
the Province of Pennsylvania 

The pioneer father, George Pownall, was killed by a falling 
tree on land he was clearing a few weeks after his arrival in Penn's 
Province. The date recorded for his untimely death is 31th of 
8th mo., 1682. Eleanor, his wife, thus became the possessor of 
the wilderness estate, and the guide and protector of her large 
family of five children. A month after her husband's death, the 
sixth of the Pownall children made his lusty arrival as George, Jr., 
the grief-stricken mother giving this man-child her husband's name 
and dedicating him to a special service in this new land as the only 
child of George Pownall and herself born in the New World. I 
am proud indeed of my lineal descent from this babe of the woods 
born to the brave mother in a rainbow of tears. 

As recorded in Quarterly Meeting Record of Births and 
Deaths from Bucks County for Middletown Monthly Meeting (p. 
172) "George Pownall, son of George and EUenor Pownall, born 
11, of 9 mo., 1682." 

According to Holme's map of 1684, in Lower Makefield, 
Bucks County, Eleanor Pownall is named among those persons 
owning land adjoining the Delaware River, north of W^ood. Here 
the Ealls Monthly Meeting met frequently. 

Eleven years later Eleanor Pownall married again, selecting a 
leader in the community as the object of her affections. Joshua 
Hoopes was a member of the Colonial Pennsylvania Assembly, 
living in Makefield, Bucks County. He and Eleanor were married 
10, 20, 1693. Among the witnesses were Daniel Hoops, Rubin 
Pownall, Joseph Kirkbride, Margaret Hoops, Abigail Pownall and 
Mary Chapman. 

Joshua Hoops, although a step- father in fact, proved a real 
father to George Pownall, Jr., and the rest of Eleanor's children. 
He had come from Skelton, in Cleveland, Yorkshire, in 1683, with 
Isabel, his first wife, and 3 children, Daniel, Margret and Christ- 
ian (Christine). They arrived in the ship Province of Scarbor- 
ough, Robert Hopper master, and arrived in the Delaware 10 day 



JOSEPH HAMPTON 237 

of 9 mo. 1683. It was at the home of Joshua and Eleanor Pownall 
Hoopes in Makefield that the Falls Monthly IMeeting was fre- 
quently held. (See Smedley Gen., p. 118.) Joshua Hoopes, step- 
father to the Pownall children, was a member of the Provincial 
Assembly, 1686, 1688, 1692, 1695, 1696, 1697. 1700, 1701, 1703, 
1705, 1708, 1709, 1711. 

George Pownall, Jr.. died in 1748, his will being proved Oct. 
18, 1748. He left to sons Reuben and Simeon his plantation in 
Solebury. Son John is also mentioned, as is one daughter, Rachel 
Pownall. His wife is not mentioned, and must have died pre- 
viously. The will was witnessed by William Kitchen and Sarah 
Kitchen. 

Of the above four children, Simeon was progenitor of the 
Margaret Pownall line. He married Katharine Housel, and they 
had eight children : 

1. Simeon, a soldier in Revolutionary War. (See Cluster 
Rolls of Revolution, Pa. Archives, 5 Ser., Vol. 5, p. 
383.) 

2. Levi, who became a soldier in Revolutionary War. (See 
above reference.) 

3. Moses, executor of the will of Catherine Pownall, his 
sister. 

4. Ann, m. Balance. 

5. Mary, m. Paxson. 

6. Hannah. 

7. Margaret, b. 5 mo. 6, 1765; d. 2 mo. 15. 1841; m. Ben- 
jamin Hampton. Jr., at Wrigbtstown, 5 mo. 10th. 1786. 

8. Catherine, d. unmarried. 

Simeon, husband of Katharine Housel, and the father of 
Margaret Pownall Hampton, left a will dated 2, 14. 1772, which 
was proved July 29, 1772. At that time he lived at Solebury, 
yeoman. The will mentions his wife Katherine; three sons, 
Simeon, Levi and Moses, and five daughters, xA.nn, Mary, Hannah, 
Margaret and Catherine. His wife and Joseph Eastham were 
executors, the witnesses being Aaron Phillips, ^lary Phillips and 
Paul Preston. 

In the will of Catherine Pownall, sister of Simeon, which was 
proved Nov. 8, 1813, Moses, her brother, is named executor, and 



238 JOSEPH HAMPTON 

to each of three sisters, Ann Balance. Mary Paxson. and Margaret 
Hampton, she left $300: her nieces, Catherine Balance and Han- 
nah Hampton, "now living with me," each $400. Brothers Simeon 
and Piloses are also mentioned. The witnesses were Jonathan Ely 
and Joseph Doan. 

Benjamin (4) Hampton and Margaret Pownall had the fol- 
lowing children, all horn in Wrightstown : 

1. Aloses (5) Hampton, h. 7 mo.. 25, 1787 

2. Benjamin (5) Ham])ton, b. 9 mo. 20. 1790. 

3. Sarah (5) Hampton, b. 10 mo. 26. 1792. 

4. Joseph (5) Hampton, b. 9 mo. 8, 1794. 

5. Margaret (5) Hampton, b. 12 mo. 2'^. 1796. 

6. Hannah (5) Hampton, b. 10 mo. 17, 1798. 

7. :\rary (5) Hampton, b. 9 mo. 9. 1800. 

8. Ann (5) f'ampton. b. 9 mo. 9, 1800. 

9. Catharine (5) Hamjiton, b. 6 mo. 19. JSOo. 

Moses (5) Hampton remained on the original farm, which 
he was occupying in 1873. He died 5 mo. 24, 1873, (85 years, 9 
mo.. 32 da. ). according to the James Hampton Bible Record, pre- 
viousl}- referred to. 

]\[oses Hampton, born 1787, was a resident of Wrightstown 
until his death 5th month. 24, 1873. There are many descendants 
of Moses Hampton living in Bucks County today. His wqll, filed 
in the office of the Register of Wills, Doylestown, Pa., was not 
admitted to probate, because of a contest over the will. The will 
mentions : 

Son Isaac Hampton, who received the farm in Warwdck 
Township "on which he now resides ;" also a lot of 
woodland in Wrightstown," being part of the farm on 
which I now living on public road leading from Wrights- 
town to Taylorsville. adjoining lands of Ralph Twining." 

Son Abraham Hampton, all part of laud on which I now 
reside. 

Daughter Margaret Wiggins 
(irand-daughter. Margery Ann Hall. 



Pi)si:i'ii ii.wiPTox 239 

(jrand-son Howard Hampton. 

(irand-daughter ^^laria ITampton. 

(Granddaughter Klizabeth Hampton. 

Aloses Hampton made his son Isaac Hampton, and his son- 
in-law, Jesse Wiggins, e.xecutors of the will, which was dated 
1869, 14th, 11th month. The will was filed July 23, 1873. The 
names of George Hani])ton and Howard Hampton are carried 
down in this line today. 

lienjamin (5) Hampton, of later record. (See page 75) : m. 
Hannah Morris. 

Sarah ('5) Hampton died unmarried, 5 mo. J8. 1867. (74 
years, fi mo., 22 da. ). 

Joseph (5 ) Hampton, of later record. ( See p. 94 ) ; m. Re- 
Ijecca Quinby. 

Margaret ( o ) Hampton married Thompson. She died 

2 mo. 9, 1876, (79 years, 1 mo., 17 da.) 

Hannah (5) Hampton lived in Ruckingham with her aunt 
Catharine Pownall, who left her $400 in a will dated 1813. Han- 
nah Hampton married Mahlon Hall, 3. 11, 1817 : he was a soldier 
in the War of 1812, and was descended from Matthew TLtH from 
England in 1725. Mahlon Hall was a blacksmith of Solebury. 
His wife, Hannah Pownall Hampton, above, liore him 5 children. 
Thomas, John, William, Moses and P>enjamin Hall. 

Hannah Hampton Hall died 10 mo. 30, 1827 (29 years, 13 
<la. ). Hall purchased a farm in Doylestown township in 1836, 
for $2,200. He married, secondly, Isabella Robinson, by whom 
he had 12 children. 

Mary (5)1 lam])t()n died unmarried, 8 mo. 15, 1888 (87 years, 
11 mo.. 1 da. > She was one of the owner': of the Haniijton Family 
P)ible of 1791, having received it in 1867 from Benjamin Hamp- 
ton, her brother: he died in 1869. She preserved the P^ible and 
handed it on to her sister, Catherine Hampton F)Urgess, with 
whom she li\ed until her death in 1888. The Hampton Family 
P)ible was faithfully i)reserved by descendants of Catharine }>ur- 
gess, and ])resented as a precious keepsake to the writer of this 
history of jose])h Hampton's Descendants. 



240 JOSEPH HAMPTON 

Ann (5) Hampton died unmarried 8 mo. 21st, 1834, (33 
years, 11 mo., 12 da.) 

Catharine (5) Hampton, of Wrightstown, m. Hiram Ijurgess, 
of iMumstead, at Wrightstown, 10, 1 mo., 1827. Their marriage 
certificate is reproduced herewith through the kinchiess of their 
granddaughters. Misses Esther L. Wildman and Ehna C. Wilchnan 
of Langhorne, Pa. This certificate contains a notable hst of signa- 
tures of Hampton.s and other Ikicks county famihes of that 
period. The signatures on this certificate are as follows: Hiram 



'/- 



J 



CATHEMXi; I1.\M1"|M.\ ^ llli;.\.\l MURGESS QUAKER MARRIAGE 
CERTIFICATE, 182 7. 

Burges, Catharine Burges, John Burges. Aaron Burges. Benjamin 
Hampton, Margaret Hampton, Moses Hampton, Benjamin Hamp- 
ton, Jr., Hannah Hampton, Joseph Hampton, Rebecca Hampton, 
Margaret Hampton, Mary Hampton, .\nn Hampton, Elleanor 
Hampton, Sarah Hampton, Benjamin Lacey. John Eastburn. Jr., 
Edward Chapman, Rachel Chapman, Rachel Lacey, Isaac Chap- 
man, Mahlon Hall, Hannah P. Hall, Elizabeth Hampton. Joseph 
Taylor, Margaret Smith. Jacob Twining, Phebe Twining, Mary 
Ann Chapman, Susanna Chapman, Susana B. Cotton, George 



JOSEPH HAMPTON 241 

Maris \\'ilson, Isaac Reeder, Ralph L. Smith, Mary I. Smith, John 
Twining, Jesse Buchman, John Bnchman, R. Smith, Timothy At- 
kinson, Deborah Atkinson, Susanna Smith, Jane S. Ely, Ruth 
Worthington, Sarah H. Smith. 

With the marriage of Catharine Hampton (5) and Iliram 
Burgess, another distinguished colonial family entered the Hamp- 
ton Line. Hiram Burgess, son of Joseph Burgess, of Plumstead, 
was a lineal descendant of Samuel and Eleanor Burgess, w^ho came 
from England to America in 1685 and settled in Falls township. 

The children of Catharine (5) Hami:)ton and Hiram Burgess 
were Benjamin Hampton (6) Burgess, Jane (6) Burgess, Sarah 
Hampton (6) Burgess, Hiram (6) Burgess, Oliver (6) Burgess, 
Mary Ann (6) Burgess, who m. Ellwood Wildman ; issue: Anna 
(7) Wildman, Catherine (7) Wildman, Esther (7) Wildman and 
Elma C. (7) Wildman. 

Catharine married, 2d, William Satterthwaite, 12 - 15, 1870. 
There was no issue by second marriage. 

IX. HAMPTON-MORRIS MARRIAGE AND RETURN 
TO NEW JERSEY. 

Of the three sons of Benjamin (4) Hampton and ]^Iargaret 
Pownall, Moses (5) Hampton, Benjamin (5) and Joseph (5), 
were destined to carry the Hampton name forward through their 
descendants. Benjamin (5) subsequently removed to Hunterdon 
County, New Jersey, with his entire family, whence my own line 
comes through my grandfather, William Wharton Hampton, son 
of Benjamin (5). Joseph (5) Hampton above, and Moses (5) 
remained in Bucks County, where most of their descendants reside 
today. 

Benjamin (5 ) Hampton (Benj. 4, Benj. 3, Joseph 2, John 1), 
was born 9 mo. 20, 1790, at Wrightstown. He was married 5, 10, 
1815, at \A^rightstown to Hannah Morris, daughter of Isachar 
Morris and Hannah Kester. The record of marriage abstracted 
from the men's minutes of Wrightstown Monthly Meeting, now 
in possession of C. Arthur Smith, of Wycombe, Pa., reads as fol- 
lows : — 

"Benjamin Hampton, Jr.. of the Township of Wrightstown 
in the County of Bucks and State of Pennsylvania, son of Benj. 



242 JOSEPH HAMPTOX 

Hampton of the same ])lace and Margaret liis wife; and Hannah 
Morris, daughter of Isachar Morris late of the same place, and 
Hannah his wife. Deceased, married 5-10-1815 at Wrightstown. 
44 Witnesses." 

Hannah Morris, daugh.ter of Isachar Morris and Hannah 
Kester, was born in Wrightstown 4 mo.. 30, 1791 (Records of 
Wrightstown Monthly Aleeting. ) With her marriage to my great- 
grandfather, Benjamin Hampton, one of the most distinguished 
family names in Pennsylvania, enters our line, to be handed down 
in succeeding generations with several descendants bearing the dis- 
tinctive name Morris Hampton. 

FTannah's father. Tsacher Morris, was the son of Mor- 
ris, and Lydia . His mother married again, and as "Lydia 

Roberts'", signed the marriage certificate of Isachar and Hannah 
Kester. in 1773, at Wrightstown Meeting. 

Isachar was apparently not long identified with the Friends 
of M'rightstown. The Minutes of the meeting disclose (pg. 208). 
that on 1. 9 mo.. 1772. "Tsacher Morris by one of the Overseers 
requested to be joined in membership with Friends," which is re- 
ferred to further consideration of a Committee. On 6, 10 mo., 
1772, a committee consisting of Samuel Smith and Thomas Whit- 
son was appointed to pay him a visit and make report of their 
service at next monthly meeting. This report was satisfactory, and 
1, 12 mo., 1772, he is accepted "to continue Friend so far as his 
future conduct may correspond with the Truth." 

Perhaps Isachar had marriage motives when he thus sought 
to become one of the Friends, for the 2d of the 3d mo., 1773, he 
requested a certificate to Buckingham Monthly Meeting, in order 
to proceed in marriage with Hannah Kester, a member of that 
meeting: therefore John Terry. Junior, and John Lacey were ap- 
pointed to inquire concerning him. The certificate was granted 6. 
4 mo.. 1773, and the marriage was subsequently consummated. 

7 da. 9 mo. 1773 the Women Friends of Wrightstown pro- 
duced a certificate from Buckingham Monthly Meeting, recom- 
mending Hannah Morris (wife of Isachar Morris) to the Wrights- 
town Meeting. Hannah Kester was the daugh4:er of Paul and 
Hannah Kester and a direct descendant of Paulus Kester, who 
came from the Upper Rhine to Germantown, Philadelphia, in 1687. 



JOSEPH HAMPTON 243 

On the marriage record of Isachar Morris and Hannah Kester in 
the Wrig-htstown records, 1773, are the names of Lydia Roberts, 
his mother ; Paul Kester and Hannah Kester, the bride's parents ; 
Catharine Morris, and Ann ^lorris, sister of Isachar Morris; and 
28 witnesses. The children of Isachar Morris and Hannah Mor- 
ris, Wrightstown Township : 

1. Lydia Morris, b. 2d mo., 7, 1774. 

2. Elizabeth Morris, b. 2 mo., 28. 1776. 

3. Isachar Morris, b. 8 mo., 10. 1778 

4. Mary Morris, b. 5 mo., 28, 1781 ; m. John Trego ; d. 1 
mo.. 1830. 

5. Joseph Morris, b. 9 mo., 15, 1784. 

6. Sarah Morris, b. 7 mo., 13, 1788. 

7. Hannah Morris, b. 4 mo.. 30. 1791. 

(Taken from records of Wrightstown Monthly Meeting.) 

Samuel Davis, son of Samuel Davis, of Solebury, in County 
of Bucks, and Lydia Morris, daughter of Isachar Morris, m. 5, 
20. 1795, at Wrightstown Meeting. 57 witnesses. 

William Wharton, son of William and Mary Wharton, of 
Lower Makefield. in county of Bucks, and Elizabeth Morris, 
daughter of Isachar and Hannah Morris of Wrightstown Town- 
ship, in Bucks County, m. 5, 16, 1798. at Wrightstown. 38 wit- 
nesses. 

(Abstracts of Marriages in book of Men's Minutes of 
Wrightstown Meeting.) 

During the .\merican Revolution. Isachar Morris was taken 
to task by the Friends of Wrightstown by reason of his paying 
fines on account of military service. This matter first came up 
in the meeting on 3. 10 mo.. 1780, and others similarly charged at 
the same time included Zachariah Betts, Abraham Hibbs. William 
Heston. Thomas Story, \Villiam Martindale, Benjamin Buchman 
and Daniel Lee. A committee was appointed to "treat with them 
concerning what they are charged with and report to the next 
meeting.' This committee included Joseph Hampton. Jr.. Thomas 
Whitson, John Hayhurst, Samuel Smith, Benjamin Wiggins and 
others. Joseph Hampton was appointed 7. 8 mo., 1781, to give 
copies of reports read against Buchman, Martindale and Lee. 



244 JOSEPH HAMPTON 

Morris refused to confess any fault, his case dragged out 
through nearly two years, being referred and deferred from meet- 
ing to meeting during that time. On 5, 2 mo., 1782, "Morris was 
not convinced of acting wrong, nor desirous of longer time,"' and 
testimony and report against him was prepared at the re(|uest of 
the meeting. The committee for this purpose was William Linton 
and Benjamin PTampton. The report was indicated as given to 
Morris 2, 4 mo., 1782, and the case was closed. 

The will of Issachar Morris was made Aug. 24. 1810. and 
proved March 24, 1812. In the \v\\\ he mentions his wife, Han- 
nah ; and names his son. Issachar, and Isaac Chapman, executors. 
To his son Issachar he bequeathed "125 acres whereon I live, 
bought of Joseph Hamton" ; to son Joseph 38 acres purchased of 
Benjamin and Joseph Chapman ; plantation on which son-in-law 
John Trego lives to be sold. Alention is also made of "Daughters 
Elizabeth Wharton, Alary Trego, and Hannah Morris" and grand- 
sons Seth Davis and Morris Davis. Witnesses were Thomas 
Warner and Letitia Briggs. 

Hannah Morris was not yet married to the third Benjamin 
Hampton when her father died in 1812. Isacher, Sr., was a wit- 
ness to the will of Benjamin Hampton, Sr., written in 1807 and 
proved in 1811. The tie between the two families was a close 
one, even before they were united by the marriage of Hannah 
]\Iorris to Benjamin Hampton in the fifth generation from John 
Hampton, who settled at Amboy and Freehold in 1683. 

Tsachar, Jr., Hannah Morris's brother, removed from Wrights- 
town to Greentown township, Columbia County, Pa., for in 31 
Dec, 1829. the Marriage Docket of Isaac Hicks has this record: 
"Joseph C. Blaker of Northampton, son of Paul Blaker, Jr., and 
Elizabeth Morris, daughter of Isachar ^^lorris, late of Wrights- 
town but now of Greenw^ood township, Columbia County." (Green- 
wood is later written Greentown.) 

Ill the Hampton History, by Dr. Doan, it is written of Ben- 
jamin (5) Hampton and Hannah ]\Iorris. his wife, "they lived 
at Wrightstown till their five sons were nearly grown and then 
moved to Quakertown, New Jersey. He was a farmer and also 
a cabinet- and chair-maker, in religion a strict Friend." 



JOSEPH HAMPTON 245 

Benjamin and Hannah Hampton were affiliated with the 
Kingwood Aleeting from the date of their arrival about 1840 until 
their rleaths, and both lie buried in the Kingwood Friends' Ceme- 
ter>^ at Ouakertown. N. J. Their son, Morris Hampton, was an 
Elder of Kingwood Monthly Meeting. Hannah (Al orris) Hamp- 
ton died 1 mo., 16, 1844. Benjamin (5) outlived his wife 25 
years: he made his home for more than 20 years with his son, 
William Wharton (6) Hampton on the latter's farm at Quaker- 
town, N. y. 

The children of Benjamin (5) and Hannah Morris were: 

1. Morris (6) Hampton, b. 1817: d. 1903-8-7, 86-2-3. 

2. John T. (6) Hampton, b. 1823-4-2: d. 3898-1-2, 74-3-4. 

3. William Wharton (6) Hampton, b. 1826. 2-1- : d. 1885, 
2-11. 

4. James (6) Hampton, b. 1819, 5-11: d. 1889. 

5. Joseph (6) Hampton, b. 1829, 1-7: d. March. 1900. 
Morris (6) Hampton followed his father Benjamin (5) as 

a leader in the Quaker Society of Quakertown, N. J. He was a 
man of sterling qualities and respected by all who knew him and 
had considerable property. He married 1842, 11, 12, Amy Hamp- 
ton Clifton, daughter of William Clifton and Amy Hampton. 
After her marriage to Morris Hampton, she called herself Amy 
Clifton Hampton, dropping her middle name Hampton as need- 
less and confusing duplication. 

The Clifton family, which hailed from Philadelphia origin- 
ally, was active in the affairs of Kingwood Meeting, the records 
of the meeting being kept for many years by members of the fam- 
ily who served as Clerks. Among the Cliftons who served in this 
capacity were Henry Clifton, Amy Clifton, Amy Clifton, Jr., Wil- 
liam Clifton, Elizabeth Clifton, Sarah Clifton, Joseph Clifton and 
Sarah L. Clifton. The Kingwood Minutes of the Friends' Meet- 
ings are preserved in the Newtown Bank, Newtown. Bucks Coun- 
ty, Pa., also the repository of other Quaker records of Bucks 
County. 

Morris Hampton was an elder of the Kingwood Friends' 
Meeting at Quakertown. His nephew wrote many years after- 
ward : "His ( Morris Hampton's) place during service was on the 
bench back of the speaker's platform. This mav he assumed to 



246 JOSEPH HAMPTOiNT 

mean, in Quaker parlance, that he was an elder in the church and 
sat in the elder's gallery." ]\Iorris Hampton was in charge of the 
Meeting house, which adjoined his farm. Although the number 
of Friends in Ouakertown, X. J., grew smaller, the few faithful 
ones continued to seek the trutli and light in their quiet manner. 
Morris Hampton was among the last members of the old Quaker 
Meeting, and upon his ])assing, he was buried adjacent to the 
Meeting House he had watched over with such tender care. 

Shortly after my mother's marriage to my father, Rev. Wil- 
liam Judson Hampton, of the ^Tethodist Church, she recalls that 
in 1898 they visited Uncle Morris Hampton, brother of my father's 
father, at Ouakertown. She describes Morris Hampton as a tall, 
fine-looking man, quiet and dignified. At dinner silent blessing 
was said, and during the day they all attended the Quaker Meeting 
in the meeting hou.se hard by. My father's younger sister, lovely 
Lulu Hampton, took an interest in the family history, and she 
wrote her Uncle Morris Hampton, asking about the Bucks County 
origin of her grandparents, Benjamin and Hannah Morris Hamp- 
ton. My Great Uncle Morris wrote her the following letter, which 
proved a link for later generations in forging the chain of Hamp- 
ton family history. 

Letter of Morris Hampton to Lulu Alice Hampton 

"Quakertown, N. J. 
.Srd mo. 6th, 1888. 
Dear Xiece : 

I received thy letter in due time. And was right glad to hear 
from thee. And that thee likes it so well where tliee is. Hope 
thy health is good. Now for thy questions, \^"ell, 1 have often 
heard my father and mother say that their ancestors on the Hamp- 
ton sid.e were English. I think I heard them say there were three 
brothers of them that came to this country. One settled in Penn- 
sylvania. One in New Jersey, and one in South Carolina. We 
were descendants of the one that settled in Pennsylvania. I have 
no old records to refer to, so I cannot say why they came to this 
country. But suppose in pursuit of homes. Our Grandfather's 
name was Benjamin, and a member of the society of Friends, and 
all of his family 3 sons and 6 girls. Tliis family were all mem- 
bers of Wrightstown Monthly Meeting — at one time in Bucks 
County. I have no dates to tell what year our ancestors came to 



JOSEPH HAMPTON 247 

this country in. I presume it must have been near the time of 
W'm. Penn's treaty with the IncHans. 1682 or 1083. T iiave not 
heard from my brother James in a long time. Don't know how 
he is, or what he is doing. T have been quite unwell for two or 
three weeks, much better now. The rest of our family nearly as 
well as common. Please write again if thee gets time. We have 
had a very severe and cold winter here. 4 below zero some morn- 
ings. I now close with love to thee. 

Thy Uncle, 

Morris H.xmpton 
Lulu Hampton 

A debt of gratitude is due Lu'u Hampton, a favorite of the 
family, for this service to posterity. She was preparing to become 
a missionary as my father was preparing for the ^lethodist min- 
istry, when her untimely death cut short her career. Her early 
interest gave compilers of the Hampton History in 1911, who had 
access to the letter of Morris Hampton which she left, a definite 
"lead" that proved to be an unfailing signj^ost guiding the writers 
in their further researches. 

The Misses E.sther and Elma \\'ildman. of Langhorne, Pa., 
recall ?\Iorris Hampton of Ouakertown, Hunterdon County. X. J., 
visiting their grandparents, Hiram Burgess and Catharine Hamp- 
ton, in Bucks County. .And my own boyhood memory recalls my 
father and other relatives, speaking of Hiram Burgess, whose 
name became fixed as another link with P)ucks County. W hat 
Providence was it that led me to these good \\'ildman sisters in 
the summer of 1938. and the unknown treasure of the 18th century 
?Iampton Family Bible which they had preserved and cherished ? 
History is written by such unsuspected links as these. 

Children of Morris Hamp4:on and \my H. Clifton: 

1. Rebecca Clifton (7) Hampton, born 1844-1-14; died 
1857-8-29. 

2. \\'illiani Clifton (7) Hampton, born 1845-8-25: died 
1876-2-4. 

3. Sarah Elizabeth (1) Hampton, born 1847-9-11; died 
1897-5-22. 

John T. (6) Hampton, (Benjamin 5. Benjamin 4, Benjamin 
3, Joseph 2, John 1), bom 1823-4-2 in \\'rightstown ; died 1898- 



248 JOSEPH HAMPTON 

1-2, age 74. 3. 4, in Cherryville, Hunterdon County, N. J. ; married 
Lucy Bray, to whom his property was left and who lived a few 
years after her husband's death; no children, Republican, farmer, 
Friend. 

Wihiam Wharton (6) Hampton, ( Ijenjamin 5. Benjamin 4, 
Benjamin 3. Joseph 2, John 1), born 1826-2-1, in Bucks County, 
Pa.; dierl 1885-2-11, at Ouakertown, N. J- : educated in public 
schools: married Susanna Baldwin, 1847-3-20, born 1827-11-1, and 
educated in common schools. Died 1884-9-1. Both Methodists. 

X. THE BALDWTN-MARSHALL-TRIMMER LINES. 

Susannah I^.aldwin was the daughter of Samuel Baldwin and 
Mariah Marshall, both of Hunterdon County. Samuel Baldwin 
was a member of the New Jersey Militia in 1792. 

As in each successive marriage, the new line adds to the lustre 
of the family name, so Susannah Baldwin brought to William 
Wharton Hampton the honor and integrity of the Baldwin line 
traced to Old England. 

The estates of St. Leonard's (?), parish of Ashton Clinton, 
County of Bucks, England, had been indentured to Richard Bald- 
win for over 1000 years. Sir John Baldwin, Chief Justice of 
England under Edward A 1 received his lands from his brother 
Richard, who died Sept. 21, 1485. Sir John married Agnes 
Donner. Their son, Richard, was born 1500 (?) in Donrigges 
Parish.. Richard married . 

In the tliird generation from Sir John Baldwin, we note that 
Jolm Baldwiri, son of Richard, above, paid subsidies on his manor 
of Otersie in 1542. He received it from his brother Richard, who 
died in 1485 when John was but 16 years old. Manor in Ogles- 
bury. Richard Baldwin, son of John (3), is of "Dunridge Parish 
of Ashton Clinton, County Bucks, England." He married Ellen 
Apooke in 1546. His will is dated Jan. 16, 1552. He is indicated 
"yeoman". His brother John was a]:)pointetl overseer of his will. 

John (5) Baldwin of the "Hayle", County Bucks, England, 
was named overseer as above noted. His own will was made 12 
March, 1564/5, describing himself as of the Hayle, Parish of 
Wandover, County Bucks, yeoman. Married . 



JOSEPH H.\MPTO\ 249 

Children : 

1. George (6) m. Avelyn (Aystell) 

2. Nicholas f 6 ) m. Agnes Fisher, widow of William. 
He lived at Eddlesborongh, County T'.ucks. Made 
will 2 Jul\- 1577. proved 24 Apr. 1581, by his brother 
Sylvester, but the ]jart is torn away in which he 
enumerates his cliildren, except Triamor and John 
Baldwin. 

Issue: 

1. John (7) 

2. Francis (7) 

3. Bartholomew (7) 

4. Thomas (7) 

5. Triamor ('7) 

6. Winifred (7) 

Triamor ( 7 ) Baldwin was also of County Bucks. England. 
In the Chancerv proceedings in Jan. 1500/1 he is called the voung- 
cst son. He was executor of the wills oi his brothers Francis and 
Bartholomew in 1639 and 1655, and then disappears alto2;ether. 

He marriefl His son. Triamor (8) Baldwin, was 

born about 1635. There are two sons of Triamor (8) noted, — 
William (9) Baldwin born 1667 (?), who sailed to xAmerica, and 
Triamor (9) Baldwin, living in London. The will of Triamor 

(9) Baldwin was dated and proved in 1729. He styles himself. 
Gentleman, and left but one son to whom he bequeathed consider- 
able property in London. He also left £100 to his brother Wil- 
liam Baldwin, then living in or near New York ^Conn.) : and 
£100 to each of his nephews Triamor TIO) Baldwin and \\'illiam 

(10) Baldwin, sons of his 1)rother William i9), and he placed 
the nephew Triamor last in the line of inheritance to certain prop- 
erty (one-fourth of the old Marshalsea Prison, immortalized by 
Dickens). 

W^illiam (9) Baldwin apparently lived in Stratford, Conn., 
and married Ruth lirooks in 1688. His son Williaiu (10) ap- 
pears there in later records. Triamor ( 10 ) A\-as kidnapped by the 
Indians during the Indian Wars, and carried ofif to the "Big Lake 
Countr\"'. He ne\er regained his family, but grew up on the 
frontier, and made his wav into LIunterdon Countv. New lersev. 



250 JOSEPH HAMPTON 

Triamor (10) PJalchvin married Mary GrofF. Children: William 
(11) Baldwiii, John (11) Baldwin, James (11) Baldwin, Lena 
(11) Baldwin, and Samuel (11) Baldwin. Records are found in 
Hunterdon and Warren Counties. New Jersey. 

The story of the kidnapping of Triamor B.aldwin has been 
handed, down from generation to generation. Tt a])pears in written 
records of the family and is preserved among tlie family docu- 
ments of Annetta ('Baldwin) Hoffman, widow of Toyman Hoff- 
man, of Sidney, Hunterdon County, X. J. The venerable woman, 
grand-daughter of Samuel I'aldwin. above, was nearh' ninety 
years of age. when T co]jie(l the records of the familv in 1938. 
Her intellect was clear and her interest alert in the home vvhere 
she kept house. ne>tled cozil\- in a ravine by a ^i'ver i;rook. T have 
also been aided in the collection of lialdv.in family records by 
Mrs. Alary Ham])ton, of bTenchtown, X. J. ( R. F. D. i, widow of 
Jo-seph Elrod Hampton, my father's brother: by Jacob W. !\[ason, 
of X>wark, X. J., son of .\nianda Baldwin and Edward ]\Tason ; 
and by Lamar J. Harbout of South Bound Brook. X.J., whose 
wife was Ella, daughter of Anson \\'ashington Baldwin and Re- 
becca Ann Mason. 

Of the children of Triamor (10) I'.aldwin and Mary droff", 
I have record of the marriage of Susan I'.aldwin, who married 

Conkling, and Samuel Baldwin, who married !Maria 

Marshall. 

Samuel (11) Baldwin and [Maria ^Marshall had issue- 

1. Elizabeth (12) Baldwin, m. Samuel Groff. 

2. Mary (12) Baldwin, m. Jonathan Eick. 

3. Stewart Clark ( 12 ) Baldwin, m. 1st Rachel Hartpence. 

2d Susan Bodine. 

4. Susanna (12) Baldwin, m. William Wharton Hampton. 

5. John [Marshall ( 12 ) Baldwin, m. Susan S. Rea. 

6. Charles Furman (12) Baldwin, m. Sarah Snyder. 

7. Anson ^^"ashington (12) Baldwin, m. Rebecca Ann 
Mason. 

8. Amanda (12) Baldwin, m. Edward Mason. 

9. Rebecca (12) Baldwin, m. Robert L. .Abbott. 

10. Ambrose Schenk (12) Baldwin, m. Sarah Jane Bar- 
tholomew. 



JOSEPH HAMPTON 251 

11. Joseph (12) Baldwin. 

12. Samuel ('12) Baldwin, twin of Ambrose (12l 

Samuel (11) Baldwin and his brother. James (11) Baldwin 
are listed in the New Jersey ^lilitia in 1792, from Hunterdon 
County. Samuel fll ) left a will, in which he provided a lifetime 
interest in a Hunterdon County farm to his daughter, Susannah 
(12) Baldwin Hampton, mv grandmother. This will was not 
finally settled until the 1890's. 

Maria (Marshall) Baldwin, wife of Samuel Ql) Baldwin. 
was the daughter of \\'illiam Furman Marshall and Susannah 
Trimmer, and the grand-daughter of Charles Marshall. They 
resided in Hunterdon County. Furman Marshall and Susannah 
Trimmer were married April 19, 1798. 

The children of \\'illiam Furman ^^larsliall and Susannah 
Trimmer, above, were : 

1. Amy, b. Mar. 24. 1799. 

2. Mariah. b. Sept. 15. 1800. m. Samuel (11) Baldwin. 

3. Susan, m. Jacob Thomas. 

4. Rebecca, b. Mar. 24. 1805. d. Jan. 23. 1880. 

m. Jonathan Case, June 12. 1830. 

5. John T., b. Apr. 12. 1807. d. Apr. 20. 1874. 

m. Charity McPherson. 

6. Charles, b. Aug. 15, 1809. d. Aug. 17. 1876. 

m. Fanny Snyder. 

7. Anson, b. May 24. 1812. m. Hannah Griffith. 

8. Joseph F., b. Aug. 21. 1814. m. Elizabeth Moore. 

9. Amanda, b. June 9. 1817. m. Dec. 10. 1836. David Bird. 
(The above data furnished by Hiram E. Deats. of Fleming- 
ton. X. J., historian and genealogist. ) 

Susannah Trimmer, above, wife of William Furman Mar- 
shall, was the grand-daughter of John or Johannes Trimmer, who 
came to America from Germany in 1739. Johannes Trimmer 
(written Johannes Trenner in the Record of Arrivals — see "Col- 
lection of 30.000 Names of Immigrants in Pennsylvania." Rupp. 
p. 131). arrived in the ship Jamaica Galley, Rotterdam. Felx 7. 
1739. landing at Philadelphia. He was accompanied by his wife 
and family. He and his oldest son, Matthias (Tysj, were natural- 



252 JOSEPH HAMPTON 

ized by the act of the Assembly, in 1744. He had twelve children 
by two wives, nine sons and three daughters. Four of the sons 
settled in German \'alley, X. J.; three of them, however, settled 
in Amwell Township, Hunterdon County, N. J., with their father. 

The sons George, Herbert and John (Hannes) settled in 
Hunterdon County, and accjuired rich farm land in that fertile 
section. Their farms were located in Franklin township (Quaker- 
town), and also embraced valuable woodland on Schooley's Moun- 
tain. The farm of John Trimmer, Sr.. was in Amwell. He died 
in 3749. 

The children of John Trimmer, Sr., were as follows: 
by 1st wife: 

1. Ty? (Matthias) m. Anna M. Neighbor. 

2. Toenis (Tunis) b. Eleasabath . 

3. Andry (Andrew) m. Houshall. 

4. Gorg (George), b. 1725, d. 1807, March 29. 

5. Herbert, d. 1810: m. Catharine Case, 
bv 2d wife, Elsie Engels : 

6. Anna 

7. Christina 

8. William 

9. Hannes (John), b. 1730 

10. Niclas (Nicholas) 

11. Judit 

12. Hendrick 

No children by third wife, Mary Catrina. 

Hannes or John Trimmer, Jr., married and had seven chil- 
dren, according to record. He was a half-brother of Herbert 
Trimmer and George Trimmer, wdio also settled in Hunterdon 
County. Herbert Trimmer's children were Jackson, George, 
l^eter, Tunis, William and Anne. 

John Trimmer, Jr. (Hannes), was a blacksmith in Franklin 
township, and was located about the time of the American Revo- 
lution below the old Boar's Head Tavern, in Franklin (Quaker- 
town). At his forge, iron-work was made for the forces of 
General Washington ; in the Independence Jubilee celebration of 
Hunterdon Countv in 1826, John Trimmer marched with the 



JOSEPH IIA^^PT()N 253 

proud survivors of 1776. having done his share in the Ordnance 
Division for the American forces in the Revohition. 

He had three sons and four daughters, as follows: 

1. Henry, b. 1768. m. Dinah ■ — — . 

2. Amos. m. Susanna Scott. Oct. 1802; she was a daughter 

of George Scott of Franklin Township. 

3. John G.. b. 1763. m. Catharine . b. 1768. d. 

1856. 

4. Mary 

5. Sarah, m. Jacob Bush. 

6. Susanna, m. Apr. 19, 1798. Furman Marshall. 

7. Catharine. 

Susanna (Trimmer) Marshall and Furman ^Tarshall lived in 
Ouakertown. Here also lived Amos Trimmer, father of Joseph 
P. Trimmer. Amos kept the "Frog Tavern" in Ouakertown. 
which was later turned into a general store. 

The Trimmer family were prominent in Ouakertown for 
many years, and as the family branched out. likewise became 
active in Flemington. Raritan Township, Harmony, and else- 
where. Members of the family were active in securing the fran- 
chise for the building of the Delaware and Raritan Canal. They 
were likewise leaders in the promotion of education and schools 
in Hunterdon County, serving on the School Committees, and as 
Tru.stees. John Trimmer, Jr., was early listed as an elder of the 
United First Church of Amwell, serving the church in its earliest 
period when it was known successively as the German Presby- 
terian Church and the Amwell Dutch Reformed Church. His 
name is found on the list of elders as early as 1798. Other Trim- 
mers were found in the Presbyterian church of Flemington, the 
Lutheran Church, and in the German Baptist Church. 

Children of A\'illiam Wharton (6) Hampton and Susannah 
Baldwin : 

1. Hannah Maria (7) Hampton, born 1849-12-31. 

2. Stewart C. (7) Hampton, born 1854-3-22. 

3. Joseph Elrod (7) Hampton, born 1856-3-17. 

4. Anna Rebecca (7 ) Hampton, born 1836-2-7. 

5. William Judson (7j Hampton, born 1866-4-1. 



254 JOSEPH HAMPTON 

6. Lulu Alice (7) Hampton, born 1868-3-3; died 1890-4-1. 

James (6) Hampton (Benjamin 5, Benjamin 4. Benjamin 3, 
Joseph 2, John 1 ), born 1819-5-11 ; educated at Wrightstown, Pa.; 
married Mary Titman. 1840-11-2, at Greenwood, Pa. She was 
born at Greenwood, Pa.. 1823-12-21, and was still living, October 
1910. James died 1889-7-13. He was a contractor and builder; 
in religion, a Friend, a Sunday School teacher and active in church 
work, superintendent of Sunday School at Greenwood; Repub- 
lican. Children : 

1. Daniel Baltis (7) Hampton, born 1841-9-12, at Quaker- 
town, X. J. 

2. Benjamin Morris (7 ) Hampton, born 1843-3-4, at Green- 
wood, Pa. 

3. Hannah Jane (7) Hampton, born 1845-8-28. at Green- 
wood. 

4. Elizabeth Abi (7) Hampton, born 1849-10-2, at Green- 
wood. 

5. Mary Eleanor (7) Hampton, born 1851-6-26, at Green- 
wood. 

6. Laura Ann (7) Hampton, born 1856-4-15. at Green- 
wood. 

7. Carrie Rebecca (7) Hampton, born 1867-5-17, at Ash- 
land, Pa. 

Joseph (6) Hampton, (Benjamin 5, Benjamin 4, Benjamin 3, 
Joseph 2, John 1), born 1829, died March. 1900; married Mary 
■ (2). Susan B. Swallow. 1852 ( ?). He was a wagon- 
maker. They had one child. Mary Hampton, who married Joseph 
L. \V. Bond, October 7, 1876. 

Sarah Elizabeth (7) Hampton. (Morris 6, Benjamin 5, Ben- 
jamin 4, Benjamin 3, Joseph 2, John 1), born 1847-9-11; married 
1870-11-12, George Dillwyn Leaver. 

Children of Sarah Elizabeth (Hampton) Leaver: 

1. Morris Hampton (8) Leaver, born 1872-6-22, M.D., D. 
D.S., is a prominent physician of Ouakertown, N. J. His 
religious bent is toward the Quaker faith ; practicing 
both medicine and dentistry. 

2. William (8) Leaver, born 1880-1-25. 



JOSEPH HAMPTON 'Ji35 

3. Albert Allen (8 ) Leaver, born 1883-4-15. 

4. Amy Lucy (8) Leaver, born 1886-6-5. 

5. Lucy ]\Liy (8) leaver, born 1892-1-21. 

PTannah Maria (7) Hampton, (William Wharton 6. Benja- 
min 5. TSenjamin 4. Benjamin 3, Joseph 2. John 1), born 1849-12. 
at Ouakertown. N. J. Married John S. Robinson. 1876-6-3. Child 
of Hannah Maria: Earl Hampton Robinson, born 1887-1-27. 

Stewart C. (7) Hampton. (William Wharton 6. Benjamin 5. 
Benjamin 4. Benjamin 3. Joseph 2. John 1). born 1854-3-22. at 
Ouakertown. N. J. ; married Phebe R. Shay. 1879-3-26. and died 
1881-4-22 : merchant and a highly respected member of the Metho- 
dist church : lived at Frenchtown. N. J. Child : Nina Stewart 
Hampton, born 1881-2-18 at Frenchtown, N. J. 

Joseph Flrod (7 ) Hampton. (William Wharton 6, Benjamin 
5, Benjamin 4. Benjamin 3. Joseph 2. John 1), born 1856-3-17. at 
Ouakertown, N. J.; educated in public .schools; married Mary C. 
Hofif. 1881-7-20. at Baptisttown. X. J. She was born 1862-12-7. 
Doan Hampton History in 1911 quoted: "Reside about two 
miles from Baptisttown. N. T-. on an excellent farm. He 
has always taken an interest in politics and voted the Repub- 
lican ticket. His party has honored him with the nomina- 
tion for Countv Clerk and for Member of Assembly, but the 
cotmtv being- stronelv Democratic, he was not elected. He polled 
a strong vote in botli instances. Has also been interested in reli- 
gious matters, \^^as connected with the Methodist Episcopal 
Church." United with his wife, who was a Baptist, in the King- 
wood Baptist Church ; for 16 years he served the church as Sun- 
day- School superintendent and for a number of years as Deacon 
and f'hnrcli Clerk. J()se])h Hampton died December. 1935. Child: 
Abijah k:ir()d Hamilton, born 1882-10-27. 

William Judson (7) Hampton. (AVilkam Wharton 6, Ben- 
jamin 5. Benjamin 4, Benjamin 3. Joseph 2. John 1), born 1866- 
4-1, at Ouakertown. N. J. Educated in public schools. Trenton 
Business College. Pennington Seminary ; later pursued studies in 
connection with Columbia. Taylor and New York Universities and 
Cale College; honorary degree of Doctor of Divinity conferred by 
Taylor College in 1908 : converted in and joined the Baptist 
Church. March 1885, but left within six months and joined the 



MAYFLOWER. 



15 Seataottber, 1917. 



THE WHITE HOUSE, 

WASHINGTON. 

Rev. William J. Hamptoa, D. D. , 

Builar, N. J., 
My dear Sir, 

I aa: sure that yoa will not have misuQ- 
cterstood try long delay ia replyiag to your let- 
ter of tb© twenty-third of July last. It cas 
beea due to an extraordinary pressure of public 
business not only, but also to a feeling taat 
I really did not krio* ho* to write an adequate 
aaswer. It is very hard for roe to speak of 
what my mother was without colouring the whole 
estimate with tne deep love that fills my tsart 
wbenevar I think of her; but, while others can- 
not have seon ner as I did, I am sura that every- 
one who knew her at all must haire felt the extra- 
•ordinary quiat force of her character, must have 
felt also the charm of her unusual grace and re- 
fiaomeat, ir.-l ,;j . : i •- ■ i '■ i '- i./are of the clear- 
eyed, peroeivin(5 mind that lay behind her frank 
grey ayes. They /rcra not always ,^rey. They 
were of that strange, changeable colour which so 
often goes with strong character and varied a- 
biiity. 3ne was one cf the most remarkable pey- 
soQB I aavs ever known. She .vas so reserved 
that only those of har own household caa have 
known how lovable she was, though every friend 
knew how loyal and steadfast she was. I seers 
to feel still the touch of her nand and the 
sweet steadying influences of her wonderful 
character. I thaak God to have aad such a mo- 
ther ! 

Verv sincerely Yours, 



WOODROW WILSON'S LETTER TO REV. WILLIAM J. HAMPTON. 
(Original Letter.) 



JOSEPH HAMPTON 257 

MethocHst Episcopal, August 1, 1885, at Ouakertown. X. J., the 
church home of his parents; licensed to preach January 9, 1888. 
Admitted to the Newark Annual Conference, 1892. bv Bishop 
Bowman, and Elder by Bishop Foss, in 1S96. He married Amelia 
r.oyce. 1892-12-21. daughter of John A. and Julia Webb Boyce, 
and born 1864-6-20, at Monroe, X. Y. Slie was educated in public 
schools and in Xewburg Academy, Xcwburg. X. ^\. and at Cen- 
tenary Collegiate Institute, I lackettstown, X. J. 

Amelia IJoyce, of \ ernon, Sussex Countw X I., was the 
daughter of John Albert I>oyce, Jr.. and Julia Webb. The parents 
of Julia Webb, above, were Col. Samuel Webb (War of 1812). 
and Abigail Conkhn (lineal descendant of .Annanias Conklin. first 
manufacturer of window glass in .\merica, in 1635 ). Col. Samuel 
Webb was the son of Charles Webb, .American Rcvolutionarv sol- 
dier from Orange County. X. Y.. and Martha \'an \'achtor (A'an 
\'achten ) ; Charles W>bb was the son of Samuel Wel)b (slain by 
Indians in Alinisink War, 1758), and Sarah Kna])p. The last- 
named Samuel was the son of Sergt. Samuel Webb and .\higail 
Slason, of (loshen. Orange County, X. Y., and Stamford, Conn. 
Sergt. Samuel was a member of the Stamford Train Band ni the 
Colonial Indian Wars. The distinguished Webb line continues 
back through colonial history, the next three generations in direct 
line including: Samuel Webb, member of the Colonial Assembly 
(General Court) of Connecticut in 1701, father of the Sergt.: 
Richard, Jr.. also a member of the General Com-t, and Richard. 
Sr.. the pioneer founder of the line who came to .Kmerica. settled 
at Cambridge, Mass., in 1626. founder of Hartford. Conn., with 
Rey. Thomas Mooker, in 1635. member of the General Court of 
Connecticut, in 1655. Richard Webb was the son oi Alexander 
Webb, of England, and grand.'^on of Sir .Alexander Webb, Mat- 
comb County, England, prominently associated in service to the 
Roval Family, and an officer of rank in the King's Army. Sir 
Alexander was a gentleman at court of the Oueen of England. 
Catharine Parr. The Webb and .Arden marriages of that dav gave 
to the world its greatest name in literature. William Shakespeare. 
Children of William Judson Ilam])ton and .Amelia lioyce: 

1. Deh'on (8) Ham])ton. born at Oxford. X. [.. 1S93-12- 
13: died 1894-8-7. 



258 JOSEPH }IAMPTOX 

2. Wm. Judsoii (8) Hampton, Jr., born at Oxford, N. J., 
1895-1-1 ; m. Minnie L. Searies. 

3. Marie (8) Hampton, born at Dover, N. J., 1896-6-8; 
(lied 1896-7-26. 

4. \'ernon l')Oyce (8 ) Hampton, born at Dover, N. J., 1897- 
6-26 : m. IHorence L. Trnyter, July 4, 1927. 

5. Edith Miriam (8) Hampton, born at Blairstown, \. J., 
1901-7-10. 

6. James Webb (8) Hampton, born at Bayonne, N. J., 
1908-2-5; m. AFargaret L. Wilkins. Issue: Glenn (9) 
Hampton, Beverly (9) Hampton. 

Anna Rebecca (7) Hampton, (William Wharton 6. Benjamin 
5, Benjamin 4, Benjamin 3. Joseph 2, John 1) born 1863-2-7; 
educated in public schools; married Jeremy ^T. Biirroughs, 1881- 
9-28. He is a mechanic. 

Daniel Baltis (7) Hampton, (James 6. Benjamin 5. Benja- 
min 4. Benjamin 3, Josei)h 2, John 1 ), born 1841-9-12, at Quaker- 
town. N. J.; educated at Millville Seminary, Pa.; was a teacher, 
also a soldier in the Civil War and honorably discharged because 
of illness: married Afary Alargaret Drumm. 1863-5-17. at Win- 
field, Pa. She was born at Lewisburg. Pa., 1844-1-31. He was 
a Methodist, a Sunday School teacher and active in church work. 
Lhed at Jamestown. N. J. : Republican. Children : 

1. Benjamin Freeman (8) Hamilton, born 1864-3-15. at 
Ashland, and died there in 1865-4-4. 

2. Emma Eleanor (8) Hampton, born 1867-1-28. at Gir- 
ardville. Pa., and died 1871-3-22, at Ashland. Pa. 

3. Rachel Alverna (8) Hampton, born 1S69-10-1. at Jer- 
seytown. Pa. 

Benjamin Ab)rris (7) Hampton. (James 6, Benjamin 5, Ben- 
jamin 4. Benjamin 3, Jose])h 2, John 1 ). born 1813-3-4, at Green- 
wood, Pa. ; educated in public schools ; married Eliza Ginder Tunis, 
1867-10-13. at Girardville. Pa. She was born 1850-6-13, in Phila- 
delphia, Pa., and educated in Philadelphia public schools. The 
greater part of his life was spent at Ashland, Pa,, where he was 
one of the influential business men of the place, being in the whole- 
sale and retail flour and feed business. He was a Alethodist and 



JOSEPH HAMPTON 259 

a trustee of the church at xA.shland. His home was called the 
"ministers" home", entertaining visiting ministers, including Pre- 
siding Elders, in nearly all their visits. He was considered a very 
charitable man; moved to Brooklyn, N. Y., in May, 1886, where 
he was a lumber merchant and a dealer in real estate and became 
a member of Hanson Place Methodist Church; died 1889-12-9; 
Republican ; no children. His widow married John Perry^ Wil- 
liams. 1896-1-29. a \'estryman in the Episcopal Church and a real 
estate dealer ; Democrat. 

Mary Eleanor (7) Hampton, (James 6, Pjenjamin 5, Benja- 
min 4, Benjamin 3, Joseph 2, John 1), lx)rn 1851-6-26, at Green- 
wood, Pa. ; educated in Pennsylvania public schools ; was teacher 
of the Bible class of the Episcopalian Sunday School and active 
in the work of her own church, the Presbyterian, and a teacher 
in its Sunday School ; married George Sparks Keiper, at .\shland, 
Pa., 1867-10-29. He was born at Akron, Ohio, 1843-12-1 ; edu- 
cated at Allentown, Pa. Academy; was one of the first 530 Penn- 
sylvania Volunteers who answered the first call of Abraham Lin- 
coln for troops; arrived at Washington. April 18. 1861; enlisted 
in "Three Months Service" and was honorably discharged July 
18, 1861; re-enlisted August 25, 1862, for three years and was 
honorably discharged April 13, 1865. He joined the Masons 1868 ; 
was elected Master and went as high as thirtieth degree : Knight 
Templar; appointed postmaster at Ashland, Pa., for four years, 
Feb. 19, 1890; school director si.x years at Ashland; profession, 
dentistry : later opened one of the finest jewelry stores in Ashland ; 
considered an expert jeweler; retired from business 1910; Presby- 
terian and was superintendent of Sunday School : Republican. 
Children of Eleanor (Hampton) Keijier . 

1. George Reuben (8) Keiper. born 18G8-10-3, at Ash- 
land, Pa. 

2. Mary Gertrude (8) Keiper, born 1870, 3-23. 

3. Benjamin Hampton (8) Keiper, born 1872-9-1 at Ash- 
land. 

4. Caroline Eliza (8) Keiper, borr. 1877-12-5 at Ashland. 

5. Ella Lulu (8) Keiper, born 1883-3-20 at Ashland. 

Carrie Rebecca (7) Hampton, (James 6, Benjamin 5, Benja- 
min 4, Benjamin 3, Joseph 2, John 1), born 1867-5-17, at Ashland, 



260 JOSEPH HAMPTON 

Pa. ; educated in Ashland public schools and at Bloomsburg State 
Normal College: also studied art in New York. She was presi- 
dent of the Woman's Auxiliary of 26th Ward (Brooklyn) Branch, 
Y. M. C. A., for two years; treasurer of the Woman's Council of 
the Y. M. C. A. Auxiliary, for the last three years and also secre- 
tary of the Woman's Auxiliary of the 26th Ward Branch Y. M. 
C. A., and a member of the Executive Board of tlie L. I. Council 
of Woman's Clubs; a member of one of the best and the largest 
Woman's clubs of Brooklyn, "The Chiropean" ; for two years 
corresponding secretary of the Arlington Avenue Presbyterian 
Church Ladies' Aid Society; historian for two years of the I'rook- 
lyn Society of Mineral Painters ; president of the Friend in Need 
Day Nursery Association; at Brooklyn. N. Y., 1.887-10-27, mar- 
ried to John Conner Creveling, born 1863-6-30, at Bloomsburg, 
Pa. ; educated in Columbia County, Pa., public schools and at 
Bloomsburg State Normal College. After leaving school he clerked 
in the Produce Exchange for five years ; was then made manager, 
which position he resigned to go to lirooklyn, X. Y., where he was 
in business as a lumber merchant and a manufacturer of doors, 
sash, blinds, mouldings, etc. He was secretary of the local School 
Board of District No. 40 of New York; member of the Knights 
of St. John of Malta and Royal Arcanum ; member of the Penn- 
sylvania Grange, Patrons of Husbandry; chairman of the Finance 
Committee of the 26th Ward. Brooklyn, Y. M. C. A. ; a trustee 
of the \ew York Lumber Trade Association ; a member of the 
Trade Bulletins Committee; member of the Executive Committee 
of the Brooklyn Presbyterian L^nion ; charter memlier, elder and 
president of the P.oard of Trustees of the Arlington Avenue Pres- 
byterian Church; member of the ?^Iusical and Literary Cotorie; 
director of the Homestead Bank of Brooklyn, N. Y. ; Republican. 
Children of Carrie R. (Hampton) CreveHng: 

1. Hampton Benjamin (8) Creveling, born 1889-9-20 in 
Brooklyn, N. Y. 

2. Emerson Del Roy (8) Creveling. born 1893-10-1 in 
Brooklyn, N. Y. 

3. Cleolas Conner ( 8 ) Creveling, born 1899-1-1, in Brook- 
lyn, X. Y. 

Rachel Alverna (8) Hampton. (Daniel Baltis 7, James 6. 
Benjamin 5. Benjamin 4. Benjamin 3, Joseph 2, John 1), born 



JOSEPH TIAMPTOX 261 

1869-10-1. at Jerseytown. Pa. Married to Wm. Edward Klum- 
bach 1891-5-28. Child of Rachel Alverna : 

1. Hampton Roscoe ( 9 ) Klumbach. born 1893-12-20, at 
Shamokin, Pa. 

Nina Stewart (8) Hampton, (Stewart C. 7, William Whar- 
ton 6, Benjamin 5, Pienjamin 4, P.enjamin 3, Joseph 2, John 1), 
born 187] -2-18, at Frenchtown, N. J. Married Electus Shiner 
Cole, 1902-12-24; he is an employee of the postofifice at Xewton, 
Sussex County, X. J. Children of Xina Stewart (Hampton) Cole: 

1. Kenneth Hampton (9) Cole, m. 1936, Jane Dunlap, of 
Andover, N. J. Issue: Stewart Hampton (10) Cole. b. 
July 22, 1938. 

2. Ralph Stewart (9) Cole, m. 1930. Elizabeth Axford, of 
Allamuchy, X'. J. 

3. Mildred (9) Cole, m. 1934. Kenneth H. Bailey, of 
Franklin, X. J. Issue: Robert Linn (10) Bailey, b. 
Sept.. 1935. 

Xina and Electus are Methodists. He was a teacher in public 
schools and is a Democrat. 

Abijah Elrod (8) Hampton. (Joseph Elrod 7. W'm. Wharton 
6. Benjamin 5., Benjamin 4, Benjamin 3. Joseph 2. John 1.) Born 
1882-10-27. Married Myrtle May A^anDorn, 1909-12-1: married 
(2) Jean LaBarre. Children of Abijah Elrod Hampton and first 
wife : 

1. Morris (9) Hampton, m. Rose Hoosick. 

2. Joseph (9) Hamilton, m. Thelma Tucker. Issue: Mary 
(10) Hampton, Howard (10) Ham])ton, Frank (10) 
Hampton. 

XI. JOSEPH HAMPTON OF BCCKS COUXTY. 
FIFTH GEXERATIOX. 

Joseph (5) Hampton, son of Benjamin (4) Hamptou and 
Margaret Pownall. (and a brother of P>enjamin (5) who moved 
to Ouakertown. Hunterdon County. X.J.|. remained in Bucks 
County, along with his brother ]\Ioses Hampton. 

Joseph ( 5 ) was born at Wrightstown. 1794, 9 mo. 1st, died 
1875, 9 mo., 13th. He married 1814, 11 mo., 17th, Rebecca Ouin- 



262 JOSEPH HAMPTON 

by. b. 1793. 8 mo. 4th, died 1882. 4 mo. 5th, daughter of Job 
Oninby and ^lartha Cadwallader. b. 1767. 11 mo. 9th. died 1880. 

A few Quinby records from the fifth generation Joseph 
Hampton Family Bible may be helpful to genealogists. 
Job Quinby was born 1st mo. 29th, 1768. 
Martha Quinby was born 11th mo. 9th, 1767. 

Their offs]iring: 
Rebecca Quinby was born 8th mo. 4th, 1793. 
James Quinby was born 7th mo. 11th, 1795. 
Rachel Quinby was born 8th. mo. 6th. 1797. 
Sarah Quinby was born 8th mo. 20th, 1799. 
Letitia Quinby was born 11th mo. 2d, 1801. 
Deborah" Quinby was born 12th mo. 23d. 1803. 

(This Bible is now in possession of Mrs. Anna J. Smith, 
of New Hope, Pa., who also has a Smith Bible, con- 
taining Kinsey, Brown, and Bleston records. A Bible 
of the Burgess Family belongs to ^V\ss Esther Wild- 
man, Fanghorne, Pa.) 

Joseph (5) and Rebecca Hampton located after their marriage 
at Byberry. in Philadelphia County. A few years later he bought 
a farm in Buckingham township, where he lived until his death. 
Their children were : ' 

1. Simeon (6) P. Hampton, b. 1815, 9 mo., 8th; d. 1855, 
6 mo. 30th. 

2. Fevi (6) Hampton, b. 1816. 11 mo. 7th: d. 1818, 7 mo. 
6th. 

3. Sarah (6 ) Hampton, b. 1818, 10 mo. 30th : d. . 

4. Quinby (6) Hampton, b. 1821, 5 mo.. 13th; m. Fhza- 
beth P. Betts, 1842, 12 mo. 22. He died 1907, 1 mo. 6th. 

5. Fdward H. (6) Hamptonf b. 1823, 7 mo. 4th; d. 1847, 
12 mo. 13th. 

6. Martha (6) Hampton, b. 1825, 8 mo. 9th; m. Frank 
Buchman. Harry Buchman resides at \\'ashington 
Crossing, Pa. 

7. Comly (6) Hampton, b. 1828, 1 mo. 8th. 

8. Flizabetb (6) Hampton, b. 1830, 6 mo. 27th. 

9. Anna (6) Hampton, b. 1832, 7 mo. 5th. 



JOSEPH H.NAI PTON 263 

10. Joseph (6) Hampton, b. 1835, 4 mo. 3d : d. 1835. 11 mo. 
19th. 

11. Mary (6) Hampton, b. 1836, 9 mo. 13th. 

Joseph (5 ) and Rebecca Hampton are buried in the Wrights- 
town Cemetery. He was 81 years of age at the time of his death, 
which occurred 1875, 9 mo.. 13; Rebecca Ouinby Hampton died 
1882. 4 mo., 5, in her 89th year. 

Ouinby C. (6 ) Hampton born in 1821, m. 1842. 12, 22, EHza- 
beth P. Betts. Their children were : 

1. Emma E. (7) Hampton, b. 1849. 4 ipo. 11; m. 1872, 
11 mo. 28, to Isaac P. Scarborough. Ehzabeth B. (8) 
Scarborough, director of the Department of Commer- 
cial Education, Cheltenham Township H. S., Elkins 
Park, Pa., is their daughter. 

2. William (7) Hampton, b. 1844; d. 1915; married; 

1. Anna R. Coon, on Nov. 7, 1866. 

2. Annie T. Case, ou Jan. 5, 1887. 

William Hampton (7) was the father of six children; 
by Anna R. Hampton he had the following: 

1. Ouinby C. ( 8 ) Hampton, b. Xov. 28, 1867. 

2. Lillian (8) Hampton, b. Oct. 11, 1871; m. George 
Morris, and lives in Newtown, Pa. 

3. Eva May (8) Hampton, b. Nov. 29. 1880. 
Three children were also born to William Hampton's 
second wife, Annie Case Hampton, as follows; 

4. Leonard A. (8) Hampton, b. Mar. 27. 1889. 

5. Harold (8) Hampton, b. July 21, 1895. 

6. Cecil Morris (8) Hampton, b. May 9, 1904. 

Mrs. William Hampton resides at Pemi's Park, Bucks 
County, Pa. Leonard A. (8) Hampton lives in Holi- 
cong, Pa. He operates a L^nity Erankford Store. 
Harold (8) Hampton is a painter and decorator, living 
in Penn's Park, Pa. He married Estella M. Price, of 
Penn's Park, ^Far. 25. 1915. 
Children ; 

1. Clarence L., b. Oct. 15, 1917. 



264 



2. Ruth E.. h. Jan. 2, 102:1 

3. Earl \\'., b. July 14. 1927. 

Cecil Morris (8) Ilaiiipton, I)\- a peculiar coincidence, 
returned to Ereehold, X. J., the ancestral location of 
his pion.eer forefather, John (1 ) Hami)ton. He married 
and is a ]>rominent jeweler of the community. 

^^Fartha Haiu])ton. horn 8, 9. 1825. married P'rankdin Buch- 
luan. who was born 10. 6. 1822. They resided near Dolington, 
F.ucks Countv. Pa. ATartha (Hampton) Ihichman and P>anklin 
Buchman had eleven children : 

1. Ed\^•ard H. I'-uchman. 1). 12. 24. 1845. m. Sarah Hcston. 

2. Joseph 11. P.uchman. b. 6, 20, 1847. m. Cynthia Tom- 

linson. 

3. Elizabeth Ann P.uchman. b. 7. 11, 1848, lu. Lemuel 

Hendrix. 

4. bVankliu P.uchman, b. 9. 21. 1849. m. Caroline Trego. 

5. EJihu Smith Puchman. b. 2. 4. 1842. m. Margaret 

Phillips. 

6. Mary Rebecca P.uchman. b. 4. 2. 1854. m. Wilber 

Trego. 

7. rWnjamin C. Puchman, b. 3, 23. 1856, d. 1. 1. 1868. 

8. Waker C. lUichman. b. 6, 4. 1857. m. Ida Ph.illips. 

9. Rchard P.uchman. b. 4. 4. 1859. 

10. Henry P.uchman. b. 8. 4. 1860. 

11. Sarah P.uchman. b. 4. 3. 1865, m. John E. Adams. 

] am informed that Harry Buchman. descended in this line, 
residies at W'ashington Crossing. Pa. The family is numerously 
represented in Bucks County today, in various branches. 

\ aluable assistance along some of the lines traced herein, has 
been given to me by Miss EHzabeth Palmer and her sister, of 
Xewtown. Pa. To them I owe the o])portunity and privilege also 
of meeting the Misses Esther and Elma W'ildman, of Langhorne. 
Pa. It was indeed a heaven-sent ins])iration which guided me to 
the Priends IJoarding House, Newtown. Pa., one Summer's day 
of 1938, for from that visit came the discovery of the rare Hamp- 
ton Eamily Bible with entries and birth-dates as early as 1726. 



JOSEPH HAMPTON 2(i5 

As in the previous case of several of the male line, but two 
sons of Joseph (5) Hampton have carried the name forward in 
Rucks County. Comly (6) Hami)ton, born 1828, Jan. 8, in Buck- 
ingham, in 1849 occupied bis father's farm. Upon the death of 
h's father, Joseph (5) Hampton, Comly hired the farm by paying 
out a certain ]X)rtion to the other heirs. He lived there until 1883. 
when he retired and moved into Johnsville. On November 9, 1848, 
Comly (6) Hampton married Caroline M. Watson, daughter of 
Stacy and Elizabeth Watson, of Middletown township. She was 
born in Falls township, Jan. 30. 1825. Eight children: Maria L. 
(7) Ham])ton, of Warrington township: Rebecca (7) Hampton, 
S. Watson (7) Hampton, married Mary Heaton : he lived on the 
Comly Hampton farm: Elizabeth W. (7) Hampton, married 
Joseph Carrell. of Warrington township: Almida A. (7) Hamp- 
ton, married Levi Stratton. Jr.. of Philadelphia; Anson B. (7) 
Hampton, who died in infanc}': Charles J. (7) Hampton, wdio 
went to California to reside: Anson B. (7) Hampton, wdio resided 
in Philadelphia. 

Comly (6) Hampton was a distinguished member of the 
Society of P>iends, a director of Hatboro National Bank and 
recipient of several honors in public ofifice. 

Elizabeth Hampton, daughter of Joseph (6). married 

Johnson. Her son. J. Livezv Johnson, resides in Hatboro. Pa. 
George and Howard Hamj^ton and others of Bucks County, also 
uphold the family name and traditions today. Hon. J. Hampton 
Moore is well-known as the statesman- Alayor of Philadelphia dur- 
ing some of the most brilliant days of that fair Quaker City. 
Another name traced to Benjamin TIaiupton, is Benjamin Bowles 
Hampton, who was editor of Haiiihf(>)i's Magadnc and prominent 
in the development of the motion picture industr}-. 

The Joseph (5) Hampton Bible Reconl is authority for 
man\- of the dates listed in the foregoing ])aragraphs. This P.ible 
is now in the possession of Mrs. Anna J. Smith, of New Hope, 
Bucks County, Pa. 

An important source, dealing with many western descendants 
of Josejjb (2) Hampton of Wrightstown. through John (3) 
Hampton, is the "Hampton History", frequently referred to in 
these Images. It was edited by Rev. John Hampton Doan, whose 



266 



II HAMPTON" 



son. Dr. E. B. Doan, resides in Miamisburg. Ohio. The pnbhsher 
was Dr. Solomon E. Hampton, whose daughter. Miss Ella K. 
Hampton, lives in Milton. Ky. The book does not contain the first 
generation, (John (1) Hampton, of Freehold) and does not have 
much of the data which has come to light since its publication in 
1911. It stresses the western descendants from John (3). 

An article on the Hampton Family appeared in the Huntcr- 
doii Democrat. Flemington. X. J., April 27. 1939. 




EDVvTN MARKHAM IN FRIENDLY GTiEI-n^ING TO DR. VERNON B. 

HAMPTON AT ROTARY BIRTHDAY DINNER IN HONOR OF 

THE POET'S EIGHTY-FIFTH BIRTHDAY, 1936. 

Descendants of John Hampton, of Freehold, N. J., are num- 
bered by the thousands throughout the United States today. Hav- 
ing traced particularly the male line tlirough one son, Joseph 
Hampton, who settled in F.ucks County, Pa.. I have indicated in 
this paper the strong Quaker influence which permeated successive 
generations and which still is the source of spiritual direction and 
comfort to many of the present generation. Others in the present 
family of Hamptons have found solace in other (olds, but all pay 
homage to the ancestor who gave this great family its name — a 



JOSEPH HAMPTON 267 

name and lineage which we proudly bear. Having limited the 
narrative and record to but one of the numerous sons and daugh- 
ters of John (1) Hampton of Freehold, N. J., T realize the need 
of an all embracing genealogy which would trace all lines with 
equal diligence. This, however, is a task which I am unable to 
essa) , for it would require exhaustive research and would involve 
great expense. 

I leave to another, who must succeed me, this greatei; task. 

XJI. HISTORIC HAMPTON FA^HLY P.ir.LE RECORD. 

In my possession is the rare Hampton Family Piible, of the 
first American Edition, 1791, puldished at Trenton, and printed 
and sold by Isaac Collins. The "price per subscription", written 
in the front of the Bible is "33 shillings, 9 pence". 

On the second fly-leaf are written in ink in varying liand- 
writings, the persons owning the Bible over a succession of years. 

James Hampton, School Teacher, was the one who purchased 
the Bible and recorded the original entries in 1792 concerning his 
parents, Benjamin Hampton and Ann AA'ildman, and their children. 
The dates in this original list begin with the year 1726. the date 
of his motlier's birth. 

James Hampton died 8th mo. 2d. 1792, and the Bible appar- 
ently went ultimately to his brother, Benjamin Hampton, Jr. It 
subsequently came into the possession of Benjamin Hampton, 3d., 
who. two years before his death apparently turned it over to his 
sister, Mary Hampton. It thus came into her possession in 1867. 
She resided for some years with her sister Catharine (Flampton) 
Burgess, who later married William Satterthwaite. Through 
varying turns of the wheel of Time and Good Fortune, the Hamp- 
ton Family Bible came into the possession of the Misses Esther 
and Elma Wildman, of Langhorne, Pa., granddaughters of Cath- 
arine Hampton Burgess and Hiram Burgess. In 1938, they placed 
the Hampton Family Bible in my keeping. The original pages 
of family entries provided the vital information which historians 
of the Flampton Family History had been seeking for nearly forty 
years. Posterity will ever be grateful to the kind Providence 
which safeguarded this Bible through the years. It was displayed 
at the Doylestown ^Meeting of the Bucks Countv Historical So- 
ciety, May 6, 1939. 



268 JOSEPH HAMPTON 

Entries in the Fly-Leaf SliozciiK/ Several Siiecessiir Owners. 
James Hanitoii's — 3 mo. 21, 1792. 
Benjamin Hampton's — 3 mo. 7, 1819. 
Benjamin Hampton's 
Mary Hampton's Bible — 1867 

(Entries are in ditierent inks and ditTerent handwritings; the 
entry of Mary Hampton is in pencil. ) 

HAAIPTOX BIBLE RECORD 
(IN HANDWRITING OF JAMES HAMPTON) 

( E vcept Dates of Decease / 

MY PARENTS 

BENJAMIN HAMTON was born 7 mo. 15, 1728. Deceased 

5th 77, 1811. 
ANN HAMTON was born 12. 16, 1726. Deceased 9 mo. 3, 1806. 
THEIR CHILDREN 
MARY HAMTON was born 10 mo. 30. 1752. Deceased 12 mo. 

29, 1788. 
ESTHER HAMTON was born 1. 19, 1755 ) Died in their 
RACHEL HAMTON was born 4, 22, 1756 ) infancy 

BENJAMIN HAMTON was born 11. 24. 1758. Deceased 8, 2, 

1828. 
OLIVER HAMTON was born 7. 25. 1761. Deceased 10. 14, 

1826. 
JAMES HAMTON was born 2. 29. 1764. Deceased 8, 2, 1792. 
ANN HAMTON was born 4, 11. 1767. Deceased 11, 1, 1799. 
SARAH HAMTON was born 6. 13. 1769. Deceased 3 mo. 15, 

1792. 
ELIZABETH HAMTON was born 5. 22. 1772. Deceased 8 mo 

25. 1836. 

POEM 

Haniton is gone, the pious and the just : 
His earthly part is no:^' consif/ned to dust. 
TJiat vital spark of hcaz'cn's ethereal flame, 
/vS- HOu' return'd to God. from ■K'luviee it eanie. 
His heart no more with sorroze is oppressed; 
His soul is sootli'd to everiasfing rest. 



JOSEPH jiAMPTox 269 

(ENTRIES IN HANDWRITING OF BENJAMIN 

HAMPTON. JR.) 

(E.vcrpt Dates of Decease) 

BENJAMIN HAMTON was born 11 month 24th. 1758. 
MARGARET POWNALE was born 5 month 6th, 1765. 
BENJAMIN HAMTON AND MARGARET POWNALL 

WERE .AIARRIED 5 month 10th, 1786. 
MOSES HAMTON was born 7 month 2r>th. 1787. 
BENJAMIN HAMTON was born 9 month 20th, 1790. 
SARAH HAMTON was born 10, 26th. 1792. 
JOSEPH HAMTON was born 9 montli 1st. 1794. 
MARGARET HAMTON was l)orn 12 montli 23d. 1796. 
HANNAH HAAITON was born 10 month 17th. 1798. 
MARY HAMTON was born 9 month 9th. 1800. 
ANNE tIAMTON was born 9 month 9th. 1800. 
CATHARINE HAMTON was born 6 month 19th, 1805. 
HANNAH HALE died 10 mo. 30, 1827. 29 yr. 13 da. 
ANN HAMTON died 8 month 21st, 1834. 33 yr. 11 mo. 12 da. 
*SARAH HAMPTON died 5 month 18. 1867. 74 yr. 6 mo. 22 da. 
BENJAMIN HAMPTON (bed 10 mo. 31st. 1S69. 79 yrs. 1 

mo. 11 da. 
MOSES HAMPTON died 5 month 24. 1873. 85 yrs. 9 mo. 30 da. 
JOSEPH HAMPTON died 9 month 13. 1875. 81 yrs. and 12 da. 
MARGARET THOMPSON died 2 month 9. 1876. 79 yrs. 1 

mo. 17 da. 
MARY HAMPTON died 8 mo. 15. 1888. 87 yrs. 11 mo. 6 da. 
CATHERINE SATTERTHWAITE (bed 12 mo. 20. 1890. 

85 yrs. 6 mo. 1 da. 
SARAH H. BURGESS died 5 mo. 21. 1813. 80 yrs. 9 mo. 21 da. 

Note: — *This is the beginning of spelHng of name H A M P- 
TON. It is significant that the date of entry is 1867, which is 
date that the I)il)le came into possession of Mary Hampton, ac- 
corcHng to the title jmge date. It was two vears l>efore Benjamin's 
death. \\M\ 



270 JOSEPH HAMPTON 

(ENTRIES IN HANDWRITING OF BENJAMIN, 3d, 
AND MARY HAMPTON) 

BENJAMIN HAMPTON ) was born 11 mo. 24, 1758. 

) Dec'd 5 mo. 2, 1828. 
MARGARET HAMPTON ) was born 5 mo. 6. 1765. 

) Dec'd 2 mo. 15, 1841. 
THEIR CHILDREN 

MOSES HAAH^TON was born 7 mo. 25. 1787. 
BENJAMIN HAMPTON was born 9 mo. 20. 1790. 
SARAH HAMPTON was born 10 mo. 26. 1792. 
JOSEPH HAMPTON was born 9 mo. 9. 1794. 
MARGARET HAMPTON was born 12 mo. 23. 1796. 
HANNAH HAMPTON was born 10 mo. 17. 1798. Deceased 

10, 30. 1827. 
MARY & ANN HA^IPTON were born 9 mo. 9, 1800. 
CATHARINE HAMPTON was born 6 mo. 19, 1805. 



^Entries below in different hand (?) 

ANN HAMPTON deceased 8 mo. 21. 1834. 

BENJAMIN HAMPTON BURGESS deceased 7 mo. 19, 1869. 

aged 41 yrs. 9 mo. 
MARY ANN WILDMAN deceased 5 mo. 3, 1880, in her 34 yr. 





MATiY rSRAEl. E].L 



Memoirs of Mary Israel Ellet 

Editei. by HKHHEKT PICKENS GAMBRELL, Dallas, TeN 
(R.a.l by Title, Doylestown Met'tin.u, September r,0, 1939; 



FOREWORD 

]\Tarv Israel Ellet began the writing of her Memoirs in May, 
1870, and finished them on her ninetieth birthdaw five months 
before her death on November 2 of that year. 

A decade ago. while studying the papers of lier distinguished 
son, Charles Ellet. Jr., (1810-1862 )—tlien with tlic Misses Cabell, 
now in the Transjiortation Library of the I'nixersity of Michigan 
— 1 chanced upon a manuscrii^t cop}- of these Memoirs vvdiich 
evidently had been made, after Mrs. Ellet's death, from her 
original draft. So impressed was 1 witli the historical value of 
this poignant narrative that I made a veriiatim transcript of it, 
which is here reproduced b\ ])ermission of the Misses Cabell, of 
Charlottesville. \'irginia, in whose possessi(>n the manuscript 
copy is. 

A few \ears later, wdiile following the trail of the El'ers in 
Bucks County. Pennsylvania, 1 made the ac(|ua!ntance of Hugh 
B. Eastburn. Escp. of Bristo', and to my delight discovered that 
he, too, had long been interested in this remarkable family. .Sub- 
sequently I i^repared notes on the Me.moirs, and in 1937, when 
Mr. Eastburn wrote me that he was to deliver an address on 
Charles Ellet, Jr., before the Bucks County Historical Society, I 
sent him. among other things, the transcript of the Memoirs and 
my notes. 

He shared my opinion of their historical value and it was 
he who suggested that the Society publish them. To the Misses 
Cabell, Mr. Eastburn, and other friends who have facilitated the 
editorial work, as well as to the officers of the Society, T wish to 
record my gratitude. 

1 Ierbert G.\ mbrell. 
Hall of State, Dallas, 
Mav 5. 1989. 



Memoirs of Mary Israel Ellet 




Philadeijmiia. May, 1870. 
in reviewing a life of ninety years. I fail to 
impart either pleasure or profit to anyone who 
may chance to read my record of that life, filled 
with reminiscences and incidents cf)nnected almost 
exclusively to my personal experience in domestic 
and social duties, I shall regret my inability to 
portray facts, both in precept and example, which might have a 
salutary eti'ect on some thoughtful youthful mind and lead them 
from the pursuit of false ]ileasures to the knowledge of their ac- 
countability both to God and man. by proving to them wherein 
true happiness dwells, which only can be found in practical use- 
fulness to our fellow beings as well as to self. Behold, how im- 
partial, how beneficent the Creator of all things has been to his 
creatures by endowing them with reason, and forming both mind 
and body each capable of enjoying the great blessings showered 
so abundantly upon them, with the grand example of nature, 
wherein all laws for self-government is daily presented. The 
rising of the sun admonishes us no longer to slumber, but like the 
birds be up and doing. 

God is never idle. Then why should nian waste the health, 
strength, energy and vigor with which he is so abundantly gifted 
in fruitless attempts to obtain a ])()sition of unnatural indolence, 
which in the end leads to miserv and finally to death. Whereas in 
following the Laws of ( iod as laid down in the works of Xature. 
we will be instructed in all that is necessary for their happiness 
in life, we shall be led to adore and worship a being from v;hom 
all hap]>iness fiows. and also to imitate his great example, doing 
unto our fellow-beings as he has ever done to his children. If we 
fail with such an example ever before us. the fault must rest upon 
ourselves. 

I was born in Philadelphia, in Almond Street between ITont 
and Second Streets, in the year 1780.^ Aly jmrents were Israel 

^ June 17, 1780. ( fsraol Family P>ihle. Original in possession of 
Arthur G. Ellet, Kansas City: transcript with Mrs. Ray Frazier. Fklorado, 
Kansas. ) 



274 MARY iSRAEF. ELLET 

Israel- and Hannah Erwin,^ she of Delaware, my father of Penn- 
sylvania. They as well as their ancestors'* on both sides were inde- 
pendent, honest, industrious people, whose forefathers can be 
traced back nearly 200 years, without a record of any breaking 
of the Law, either divine or human, but lived and died in their 
own inherited or acquired homestead, leaving no debts unpaid, 
neither errings to defame their harmless, useful lives. Their re- 
mains lie in the Presbyterian burying ground in Wilmington, Dela- 
ware ; my parents in South Laurel Hill. 

I was the fifth child and first daughter given to my parents 
and continued the only female child for a number of years, and 
was much beloved by a numerous family of brothers who pre- 
ceded and succeeded me. My father, never having the advantage 

- Israel Israel, a pruninent citizen and business man of Philadelphia, 
was born (according to his own entry in the family Bib!e) on October 20, 
1746. The Rev. Henry [Melchior] Aluhlenberg, D.D., however, wrote to 
Israel Israel from New Providence on March 20, 1784, that he had "found 
in our Church Records, that by Holy Baptism yo [sic] were adopted and 
made a Child of God and an inheritor of the Kingdom of Heaven, on the 
13th Day of June Anno Domini 1746. . . Your Father professed to be a 
Jew outwardly and your Mother a w^ell meaning Christian and Member of 
the English Church." (Original in Israel Papers, Eldorado, Kansas.) 

^ Hannah Erwin was born June 24, 1756 (Israel Bible), at Wilming- 
ton, Delaware. "Her first meeting with her husband was romantic enough. 
Mr. Israel had sailed on a sloop, or packet, from Philadelphia to visit New 
Castle, where his mother and family resided. He observed on deck an ex- 
tremely pretty girl, hardly seventeen years of age, and very neatly and taste- 
fully dressed, with the finest turned foot and ankle in the world. All who 
went on such voyages were then obliged to furnish themselves with provi- 
sions ; and his attention was drawn by the young girl's kindly distribution 
of her little stock, handing it about from one to another, till but little food 
was left for her own portion. In passing him, she modestly hesitated a 
moment, and then oft'ered him a share. . . Love at first sight was as com- 
mon in those days as now. After seeing his mother, he visited Wilmington; 
became better acquainted, ofifered himself and was accepted." (Mrs. E. F. 
Ellet, TJte Women of the American Revolution [New York, 1848], I, 166- 
167.) The marriage ceremony was read by the rector of the Swedish 
Church in Wilmington, September 7, 1775. (Marriage certificate, signed 
"Lawrence Gvielius, a.m.," in Israel Papers.) 

The experiences of Israel and Hannah Israel during the war of the 
Revolution are treated in E. F. Ellet, op. cit.. I, 153-167. Cf. also E. F, 
Ellet, "Heroic Women of the Revolution, III", in Godev's Lady's Book, 
(1848), 145-148. 

4 "Michael Israel, father of Israel Israel, was a descendant of Mordica 
[sic] Israel, who was a diamond cutter in Holland. The descendant of 
Mordica migrated to Spain, from thence to England, thence to America. 
Mrs. Michael Israel was an Episcopalian." (Notation in the family Bible 
of Charles Ellet [1777-1847] in possession of A. G. Ellet, Kansas City.) 
Among the family papers of the Misses Cabell of Charlottesville, Virginia, 
is a fragment of a Hebrew parchment, on the cover of which is written in 
Mary Israel Ellet's hand : "Brought from Germany by Michael Israel as 
part of his Jewish decent [sic]. He was my father's parent." 



MARY ISRAEL ELLET 275 

of a liberal education, was anxious to bestow that blessing on his 
numerous | family] consisting of 15 children.^ Accordingly he 
placed us all at the best schools that the City afforded at that early 
day.* Some of my brothers became good scholars and bright men. 
Some were merchants, others Sea-Captains, but all have passed 
away, with my last sister, Mrs. Davenport. She was the last called 
and now I alone of all that large family remain to dwell upon the 
past and perhaps the least qualified to make the record of by-gone 
days, filled with both joys and sorrows, but I will make the at- 
tempt even if I fail. The employment may, in recalling past 
events, afford a short respite from too many painful thoughts, 
passing through many sorrowful, lonely hours. 

My childhood and youth was passed under the protecting and 
aft'ectionate care of the best of parents. To them I am indebted 
both from precept and example for any virtue that a long life of 
toil and anxious cares have enabled me to endure to the end. 
They early taught me that the blessings of life depended upon 
love and gratitude to the Author of all good, that the only return 
I could make was perfect obedience to his laws and thereof my 
natural parents who would instruct me in my various duties, 
which combined the Love of Country, of parents and friends, 
that to attain a vigorous old age, depended upon system, order, 
and rule in the various vocations of Life. First, cleanliness of 
person, the free use of cold water externally and internally, that 
no mind could be pure while the body was neglected. The bless- 
ings of health and strength also depended upon action, regular 

5 The children of Israel Israel, with the dates of their birth, were: 
Israel, January 7, 1769; Samuel, February 20, 1773; John, June 10, 1776; 
Nathaniel, July 12, 1778; Alary, June 17, 1780; William, September 17, 
1782; Israel, July 20, 1784; Abigal [sic], June 24, 1786: Latitia, March 22, 
1788; Hannah, December 27, 1789; Michael, December 18, 1791 ; Martha, 
January 30, 1793; James H., January 31, 1795; Margarett [sic], March 10, 
1796; Benj. Franklin, July 4, 1797. (Israel Bible.) 

6 Mary Israel was graduated from the Young Ladies Academy, of 
which John Poor was principal, en December 18, 1794, with "the highest 
Honors of the Institution." (Her diploma, signed by Sam. Magaw, Presi- 
dent; F. H. Ch. Helmuth, Vice-President; Benjamin Fay, Secretary; and 
John Poor, Principal, is in the Israel Papers.) Present on the occasion 
were '"the Lady of the President of the United States, the members c-f the 
House of Representatives of this State, and of the L^nited Stares, and a 
very respectable number of citizens." The principal address was delivered 
by John Swanwick, Esq. (The Philadelphia Gazette and Universal Daily 
Advertiser, December 20, 1794.) Mary Israel was, in 1869, "the oldest liv- 
ing female graduate of any institution in America." (John \V. Forney, in 
The Press, Philadelphia, January 11, 1869.) 



276 M Ain ISRAEL KLLKT 

aiul useful employment. These rules 1 have eu'leavored tu live 
up to as far as my ahility and circumstances would ])ermit. Aly 
normal acti()n^ throut^ii life have been based on counsel of my 
good parents. Would that 1 could impart to all persons the 
benefit that 1 have e-\])erienced in adhering to them, some of 
which J will record : viz : a healthy old age. twenty years beyond 
the period allotted to man; a constitution unimpaired, mind clear, 
teeth and stomach in good order, and ail these rare blessings from 
parental counsel adhered to conscientiousl^• through a long and 
laborious life. 

It is unnecessar\- lo go through the first 20 years of that life. 
Happmess ])redonfinated, surrounded i)\- loving parents, brothers, 
sisters, and friends, plenty of the comforts of life freely flowing 
from the liberal pin-se of my generous father. While the house- 
hold duties were carefully managed by my active, good little 
mother, always ha]:»py in the performance of her domestic duties. 
Home was her element, it was sacred soil to her, and around her 
hovered her large fanfily. . . . 

During the first twenty years of m\- life t)ur family resided 
in the City in the Winter season and at my Father's country seat' 
in the summer. It was at this ■!)lace I was married in the | _\ear j 
1801^ by the consent of my jjarents tcj (Jharles billet, iiardware 
Merchant, of J'hiladeli)hia. He was of a highly worthy family 
of Friends of Salem, Xew Jersey, wiio are regular descendants 
of Samuel Carpenter, contemporary of ^^'illiam I'enn: he was his 
Secretary and afterward Provincial (jovernor of the State of 
Pennsyivania.^ 

" Israel's country place was situated in "the Xeck" (The Press, Phila- 
delphia. January ii, 1869), about "three miles from the city" (Scharf and 
Westcott, History of Philadelphia, I, 47;). Mrs. E. F. Ellet says: "The 
Ci-istlc from which the town of Xew Castle took its name was in very early 
days the property and residence of his [Israel Israel's] ancestors. Subse 
quently he became the purcliaser of the old castle, removed the tile.s that 
covered it, with the vane that graced it, to liis country seat, where part of 
them, several hundred years old, are still to be seen." (Op. cit., I, 167.) 
It was an extensive establishment. In 1794 Israel is said to have entertained 
at dinner there 800 guests representing the German and Republican Societies. 
(Scharf and Westcott, op. cit., I, 477.) 

8 October 8, 1801. (Ellet Bible.) 

9 The Ellet genealogy, according to Charles Perrin Smith. Lineage of 
the Lloyd and Carpenter Family (Camden, 1870), pp. 16-18, 64, 69-70. 78: 

Thomas, third son of Charles Lloyd and Elizabeth (Stanley) was born 
February 17, 1640; died September 10, 1694; married r^Iary, daughter of 



MARY ISRAEL ELLET 277 

The Rev. Mr. Jones, Clergyman of the 1st UniversaUst 
Church"' in I.ombard Street, Phila., performed the ceremony. 
Rev. Air. John Murray of Boston was present on the occasion. 
He was a very noted character, being one of the first men who 
preached the doctrine of Universal Salvation to all men, or dis- 
avowed the cruel belief in Eternal punishment. He was of the 
faith of Risley, who still adhered to the dark dogma of the Ortho- 
dox faith of the Trinity, which has long since been discarded by 
enlightened l'ni\'ersalists. 

Assembled on the occasion of our marriage were between 
eighty and ninety relatives and personal friends of whom not one 
now lives, with the exception of n-:yself and a niece, then an in- 
fant in the arms of her mother, my brother's wife. That child 
is now an old Larly of Seventy years witli a large family of chil- 
dren and grandchildren, residing on the !5anks of the Mississippi. 
Could I have realized the sorrows, trials, heart breakings before 
me, hov/ ardently would T have prayed, for death to terminate my 
married life even before its commencement: but h.appily 1 was 
ignorant of all that was to come. 

The third day after our marriage we left the Parental roof. 
The last words on parting were a repetition of affectionate advice 
in conducting our new relation so as to insure domestic happiness. 
. . . W'c entered our new home on Seventh Street, below Arch 
and Race Streets, a nice, new three-storied building furnished 

Colonel Roger Jones, September 9, 1665 ; married second Patience Gardiner, 
who liad no heir.s. Children: Hannah, Rachel, Mordecai, John, Mary, 
Elizabeth, Margaret, Deborah, Samnel. 

Rachel (Lloyd) came to America with her father; she was born 1667; 
married Samuel Preston, mayor of Philadelphia, 1712. Tier children were 
Margaret, born i68g, married Richard Moore 1709, and 

Hannah (Preston), born 1693; married Samuel, eldest son of Samuel 
Carpenter, Penn's friend and associate; died 1772. fler children were 
Samuel, Rachel, Preston, Hannah, Thomas. 

Preston Carpenter married Hannah Smitli of New Jersey. Their 
children were Hannah, Samuel, Elizabeth, Rachel, John, Marv," Tliomas, 
William, Margaret, Martha. 

Hannah (Carpenter) was born 1743; died 1820; and marrierl Charles 
Ellet of New Jersey in 1768. Her son, Charles Ellet, was born 1777; died 
1847; and married Mary, daughter of Israel and Hannah (Erwin) Israel, 
in 1801. 

10 Israel Israel was an early member of the Universalist congregation 
which met in Lodge Alley, Philadelphia. The cluirch in Lombard Street 
was on the south side, west of 4th Street. (Scharf and Westcott, op. cit., 
II, 1444- "> It was in the yard of this church that the bodies of his wife, 
four of his children, and himself were originally Iniried. (Infra) 



278 MAKV ISRAEL ELLET 

from attic to cellar by the generosity of the best of parents. Every 
article of domestic use or ornament was placed in its proper posi- 
tion, nothing was forgotten or omitted, plentiful supplies for table, 
and beds. My heart swelled with gratitude and my most ardent 
wish from that hour was that I might be able by love, duty and 
obedience to testify my appreciation of their never ending good- 
ness to me. their ever-loved child ; but, Alas ! I have never been 
placed in a situation to testify my intense love and gratitude. . . . 

My husband's sister^^ came to live with us a few weeks after 
we were settled in our new home. She remained with us until 
her marriage with James Wainwright, Esq., ^^ about two years 
afterward, when she removed to his home in Baltimore. He was 
an amiable, good man and member of the Maryland Legislature. 
At the same time my husband's nephew,''^ a Lad of eleven years 
of age. also came to live with us. He was an Orphan from Salem, 
N. J., and was educated by his uncle, and at the age of 24 he 
left us, accepting an advantageous offer from a gentleman in 
New York, who afterwards became his Father-in-law. He joined 
the Presbyterian Church and became an honorable member and 
minister in that Congregation. He has lately died in Illinois, his 
chosen home. For many years he lived beloved and respected by 
a large number of pious friends who recollected him as a pioneer 
in the far West. He was a writer of ability anrl an early abolition- 
ist. Peace to his memory. He was a witness to many of my 
trials and a warm friend of his adopted aunt. 

For six years after our marriage we remained in Philadel- 
phia, my husband pursuing his mercantile business, and I attend- 
ing to a large and fast increasing family. At the end of those 
six years. 1 had become the Mother of four lovely, interesting 
children ■}^ but my first born boy^^ was taken from us at the age 

11 Rachel Ellet, born "i2th of the Qth mo., 1780". (Salem, N. J., Month- 
ly Meeting. Births and Deaths, 1686-1798. [Transcript in Historical Society 
of Pennsylvania], p. ISQ.) 

12 The children of James and Rachel Wainwright were William J. 
Wainwright of Philadelphia (with whose widow Mary Israel Ellet spent 
her last years) and Colonel James E. Wainwright of San Francisco. (The 
Press, Philadelphia, January 11, 1869.'^ 

13 Thomas C. Lippincott. 

1^ Hannah, born October 10, 1802, 4 A. M. ; Israel Carpenter, born July 
II, 1804, 5 A.M.; Martha, born December i, 1805, 9 A.M.; Maiy, born 
May 2, 1807. 4 P.M. (Ellet Bible.) 

15 Israel Carpenter Ellet, born July 11, 1804; died May 10, 1807. (Ellet 
Bible.) 



MARY ISRAEL ELLET 279 

of less than three years. His Httle sister/^ aged two years, pre- 
ceded him. Thus commenced our first real affliction. Then suc- 
ceeded the battle of Life, by my precious ones being torn from 
me, even while in the agonies of child-birth. I looked the last on 
my loved boy, ^' for I could not part with him until his cradle 
was torn from my sight, and I yet see his beseeching eyes resting 
on bis agonized mother, until the door closed and separated us 
forever. A few minutes after this separation, my Mary^^ was 
born and I again became the living mother of a living child, but 
the affliction was too recent to allow me to take pleasure in my 
babe. My heart was in the grave of my Lambs. 

After these great afflictions and bereavements, my husband's 
health was greatly impaired : he sorrowed for his boy, his heart 
was wrapped up in the child. He determined to give up business 
and retire to the country. I rejoiced when 1 heard his intention 
and determined to make myself a competent farmer's wife. He 
purchased a farm in Penn's Alanor^^ of 150 acres, sold out his 
store establishment to a Air. Regen, and took me, the children, 
and household goods by water to this new home, while he was to 
remain in the City to settle his business. I will describe the place 
and its surroundings : situated twenty-five miles from the City^'^ 
and a short distance from the Delaware River, a small island^^ 
intervening, three-quarters of a mile from the main road which 
was turnpiked, the lane led to the house and river. There were 
verv few neighbors and none such as I had been accustomed to 
hold intercourse with, but I made up my mind at once that those 
people's practical experience would be a source of great benefit 
to me, v/hile I might impart to them in return some of the refine- 
ments of Life. 

1^ There is no record in the EUet Bible of a death among the children 
before 1807. 

1'^ Israel Carpenter Ellet. 

18 Mary Ellet, born May 2, 1807. (Ellet Bible.) 

19 The farm was purchased November 5, 1807, from Samuel Church, 
Jr., of Philadelphia, a merchant, for $8,500. (Bucks County Deeds, Book 
Zl, PP- 557-558.) It was not far from TuUytown, on Welcome [Scott's] 
Creek. (See Map of Vicinity of Philadelphia. Surveys by D. J. Lake and 
S. N. Beers. Philadelphia, i860.) 

-'0 Philadelphia. 

^1 Mint Island. (See Atlas of Bucks County [Philadelphia, 1891], 
p. 4.3.) 



280 M Ain' ISKAIll. I'.l.l.K'l' 

Tlie liouse was a I.ot^ Cabin of the rmlest structure, had 
never Iieen plastered, the one room (Hvided Iiy a partition. A 
frame building containing one room Iiad been placed adjoining 
for the accommodation of the owner when he chose to visit the 
farm. Tlie fences were what is called worm fences, the garden 
was eiicl.ise;l in this rude manner. ( )ver this establisliment T 
was placed at the age of twenty-six to bring order out of chaos, 
without a domestic, my only one being intemperate left me the 
third day, ;uid ignorant of the first details of country life, but 
something must he done and that speedily for my time of sickness 
was again neai- at hand, m\- husband could not come to me only 
on Saturdays to remain until Monday; but 1 was young, healthy, 
and resolute to perform m\ ]iart of the labor to the best of my 
ability, and fortunately for mc 1 met with sympathy from the 
various work])eople empl(^}-ed to renovate tlie old dilaj^iflated 
building:, ddiey soon understood my position au'l being not very 
elticient mechanics themselves would come to me for advice on 
knottv f|uestions. This stimulated mv ])ride and caused me to 
search my hitherto iuacti'.e brain. The result was most wonder- 
ful. T soon ])erceived i could be useful e\en to mechanics, and 
supplied thoughts to those men which enabled them to finish the 
work both creditably to themselves and quite .satisfactory to my 
huslxmd on his weeklv visits. During this time, which was to 
me one of intense interest combined with bodily labor such as 
few ladies ever had to perform, 1 received the aid and ailvice of 
a !\Irs. Stockham, a good woman and one who deserved and will 
ever possess my unbounded gratitude. She was perfectly con- 
versant with the labor and duties required of a farn.ier's wife. 
b^roni our first interview she loved and ])itied me and truly and 
faithfully have I returned her kindness. She came to my aid 
in the hour of my greatest need, she taught me all that 1 know 
of the various details of farming domestic work — not only in- 
structed me, but gave material aid w henever she could leave her 
own new home, the farm her husband had purchased on leaving 
the one we now owned. She yet li\es at the age of ninety years 
on that farm, widowetl, blind, but in(le]:)endent, has the attendance 
of faithful domestics, and although childless is loved and re- 
spected by all who had the happiness to know her and partake of 
her unbounded hospitality. . . . 



MARV ISRAEL ETXET 281 

After the various improvements of the house were erifled. 
my husband was able to devote his time to tlie cuhivation ot" his 
farm, and I ini])roved in the knowledge ot domestic (hitie.-, but 
the same (iiffimilty for obtaining female help for country work. 
It drove farmers to the necessit\' of resorting to the emigrant ves- 
sels, from one of which Mr. Fdlet i^nrchased-- two men and a 
woman, but ])reviousl\' U' tli's ])urcha^e lie had bou.ght the tiiue 
of a colored man and woman, both strangers to each o'd^er. He 
proved of service, Ijut she had a child and allliough competent 
to work was a verv bad woman, so that on t'le birth of a second 
illegitimate child we thought it best to give her the bala'ice of her 
time, which she gladly acce])ted. Then came the three Cermans, 
neither able to s]ieak a word of Kng'ish and unacquainted with 
the slicditest details of work. I f(nmd it a Herculean labor to 
teach them, and ir.deed even found it more bJ:or'ous to work with 
her than to go through the wdiole by myself. After keeping her 
three vears without imj^rovement but with an additiou of two 
children we gave her two }ears of h.er time. The two ;nen re- 
mained for the w ho^e of five years. Tho^e were personal troubles, 
but added to these were interminable law suits. ^^ly husband 
being a just man could ill brook or bear with the iiuiovations of 
his unscrupulous n.eighbors' cattle. He prided, himseli on his 
neat farming, and wdien he saw his crops (lestro\ed by hogs and 
cattle, his fences torn down, he resorted to T.aw--'' l)ut never ob- 
tained justice, but great losses of monev and time. 

In the midst of all these troul les mv family was increasing. 
I had borne in those eleven years six | seven] children-^, besides 
[caring for] those of the servants, all o+ wdiich w^ere ni}' charge. 
The dift'icuhies increasing, Mr. Ellet, having a good offer for the 
farm, resolved to sell it. It is inapossible to record the sufferings 
and ]n'ivations I endured for eleven \ears. but 1 was supported 
by knowing 1 was performing a labor of love, ami looked for- 
ward to tb.e time wdien in the affection of my good children I 
should lie amply repaid for this endless struggle. Fifiy years 

-- i.e., purchased the time of two men ;;ntl a woman. 

-3 The .Appearance Docket of Bucks Ccanty, 1811-1832, shows five 
si;its to which Charles Ellet was a party. 

-■* .Adeline, born June 28, iScS. 11 A.M.: Charles, born January i, 1810. 
10 P.M.: John Israel, born August 2S, 1811, 5 P.M.: Israel Thomas, born 
February 19, 1813 ; Eliza, born October 28, iSi;; Mareraretta, born July 8, 
1816; Sahra [sic] Reeve, born August 3. I'^i"- (Ellet Bible. ^ 



282 MARY ISRAEL ELLET 

has passed over my head since that eventful period of my life. 
Few jiersons could in this present day of luxurious indolence 
believe or understand how it was possible for a person born to 
retinement and Jiving twenty years in ease and affluence, could 
accomplish such arduous tasks, without body and mind yielding 
to the heavy load. It was then looked upon as a marvel by all 
who witnessed my labors, and there are those yet living who can 
corroborate the facts if corroboration should be needed. There 
was in the midst of so much suffering, hours of intense satisfac- 
tion in teaching my children the first lessons of morality and use- 
fulness. Tt was there ni} noble son Charles was born in the 
year 1810, and it was in that rude cottage 1 noticed the first open- 
ing of his great mind. Some remarks of liis at the age of five 
years are indelibly impressed on my mind, showing at that early 
period his full sense of justice and virtue. And then the time 
arrived to leave this spot so filled with ])ainful associations and 
to enter into new scener_\- which proved eciually embarrassing. 

Mr. Ellet purchased from Air. ]\Iasse}- a farm on the Dela- 
ware below Bristol and opposite Burlington. He paid a heavy 
price,-^ quite too much for its unimproved and dilapidated condi- 
tion, but eager to better his situation he acted too precipitately 
and had it ever afterward to repent. It contained 225 acres, an 
embanked meadow of 80 acres. The trenches, banks, and ditches 
were all out of order, fences in a very bad state, ihe house old 
and out of repair, everytliing wanting money and labor before it 
could be made habitable for a respectable and growing family. 

Before entering on the subject of the many sorrows and trials 
attending our long residence at Alonkton Park (the name of our 
last purchase),-^ I will return to the unfinished history of Penn's 
Manor omitted from the foregoing pages. During our residence 
there we had frequent visits from our numerous friends and rela- 
tives residing in New York, New Jersey, and Philadelphia, 
amongst whom were included my husband's and my own dear 
parents, who all stopped to enjoy the hospitality we proffered 
them. Surely those were days of happiness and rejoicing to me 
and the dear children. My kind parents always came laden with 

2"i The consideration was $i8,o8o, according to the deed dated April i, 
i8i8. (Rucks County Deeds, Book 46, pp. 358-,S59-) 

26 The name "Monkton Park", which the F.llets gave to the place, 
seems not to have survived their occupancy. 



MARY ISRAEL ELLET 283 

substantial presents. At one visit my father gave my husband 
an order to either purchase or have built a handsome carriage to 
suit his own taste or convenience. At the same time mv mother 
presented me with a magnificent heavy silver coffee pot. with var- 
ious articles of value for household use and for the promotion 
of the children's happiness. It was my peculiar wish to render 
their sojourn so pleasant that when they left me it was with the 
full assurance that their daughter was happy in the performance 
of her various self-imposed duties, and said that they were proud 
and pleased to leave me both healthy and cheerful, \^'ould that 
modern daughters and wives would pursue this rule and refrain 
from complaint when in the performance of necessarv labor. 

During the absence of my husband to the West on a col- 
lecting tour, I was left not only to perform my regular household 
duties, but the entire care of the farm and the many workmen 
employed in its culture, but in that time 1 accomplished a labor 
that I have ever been proud of. My heart was always anxious to 
have the means to educate our children. Knowing that Mr. Ellet's 
limited fortune would not enable him to do as much as we both 
desired. I made up my mind with his consent to leave our eldest 
daughter^-'^ at Mrs. Baiseley['s] boarding school when we left the 
City. To accomplish this without money required brains and labor, 
but I soon found that where there is a will and a good object in 
view there can always be found a way. Accordingly I put my 
shoulder to the wheel and with my own hands was enabled to for- 
ward to Mrs. Baiseley the full amount of my daughter's schooling 
and boarding for six months, and when Mr. Ellet returned I 
placed in his hand the bill and the receipt. In doing this T never 
trespassed on his crops, but the whole load was composed of 
various articles of my own industry. Dried fruit of which there 
was a great abundance on the farm. I made a barrel of cherry 
Bounce, a keg of cherry cordial, a barrel of oil, large quantities 
of butter saved and eggs preserved from my poultry in quantities 
and various other articles which all proved satisfactory to Mrs. 
Baiseley. In doing this I had a double purpose; by my eldest 
child being educated, I could count upon assistance to teach the 
younger ones if we did not get near to good schools. At one 
27 Hannah Ellet. 



2S4 



time we emp'oyed a ])rivate teacher from ^'orkshire. England. 
( )ii onr rein()\'iiig to Monkton I'ark he left us. 

l*"()rtunatel\- there were good schools at liristol. two miles 
and a half from the farm.-'^ Three of onr children were then 
old enough to walk the distance and would take their dinners with 
them. I had no fear of danger from the river, for they had heen 
educated to j^ierfect ohedience and never tresi)assed their orders 
although frequenth' im])ortuned and even ridiculed for not joining 
the scholars in bathing : but the\- invariabl\' declined saying that 
their parents had forbidden them the river and they would not 
go into it. Their reward for olietlience was their father's taking 
them in to bathe when the weather was suitable before our own 
house. ^\y ha])])iness through all the past and future years of 
trial was in m\' children. They were good, obedient, and affec- 
tionate, and for so large a family gave me very little trouble. They 
were early taught to be useful and saving. 

These eleven years of various incidents recorded in the fore- 
going ]:!ages did not jiass without the angel of death claiming his 
victims. Two lovel}- and interesting children were taken from 
us,-^ also n.iy dear mother passed awa}- and yielded to the impera- 
tive decree in her 58th vear,'^" leaving a vactnmi in our large fam- 
il\' never again to be filled. She was in all res])ects a good and 
useful woman, a true helpmate to lier husband, a loving, tender, 
and excellent counsellor to her children, a valuable, true friend 
to the poor as well as an excellent mistress, capable and willing 
to direct her househo'd in the various duties of life. It was my 
privilege to be with her in her last moments, and to see the last 
shovelful of earth that fell on her dear remains. 

W'e had scarcely been settled at Monkton Park when another 
l)ereavement fell upon us under circumstances partictilarly dis- 
tressing. The time for weaning my dear babe had come and it 
was thouglit best that I should avail myself of this opportunity 
to visit my dear father, whom I seldom saw. although the dis- 
tance was short, \et my presence could not readily be spared from 

-^ The reference is still tn Penn's ?(Ianor. 

29 Martha Ellet died December 30, 181 1; Adeline Ellet died April 25, 
1813. (Ellet Bible.) 

■^0 Hannah Erwin Israel died "Xovemlier nth, 1813, at 5 minutes past 
7 o'clock P.M., aged 57 years, 4 months and 10 months [sic]". (Israel Israel's 
entry in his family Bible.) 



MARV ISRAEL ELLET 285 

home. Accordingly I started at four o'clock in the afternoon, 
intending to return on the following day, leaving my intant^^ in 
the care of my eldest daughter then fifteen years of age. The 
child was perfectl} we.l and was brought down to the bank to 
see the boat pass and wave a kiss to her mother. On reaching 
my fatlier's house he was with m_\- sister'"-- making arrange- 
ments to visit my aged grandmother residing in Wilmington, 
Delaware. They insisted u])on my going with them. ! ])lea(l the 
necessity of my return, but they would take no denial and 1 
yielded, as it would only cause a dela}- of a few hours. Soon 
after we readied my grandmother's house a hastv messenger fol- 
lowed us demanding my immediate return, for mv babe was ill 
and feared to be near death. Without delay we took passage in 
the next boat and arrived in ]'hiladel])hia after dark, where we 
found my Iirother in a carriage ready to take me home. 

-\t iui(hiight we reached the Toll Gate. Witli trembling voice 
I asked the man if he had news from mv familv. "Yes." he said, 
"they have been here several times in hopes to meet you." "Rut 
my child: have you heard?" "Yes. She is dead." How 1 lived 
to pass through that dense forest after midnight with no one but 
my \iiung brother near to listen to my groans, God onl\- kriows. 
\Mien I was carried into tlie house I looked for my child, but thev 
had dressed her for the grave and taken her from the cradle wdiere 
she had breathed her last out of my sight. They had kept her 
there as long as they could in hopes of my early return, and to 
]:)revent too great a shock of seeing her as a corpse w hom i had 
so lately left in full health. It ajipeared that in a few hours after 
my (ie])arture she was taken with the Crou]j and '^efore tlie doctor 
arrived all hoj^e was gone. .She died in a few hours. Then I 
thought that luy cup of sorrow wa.v full, but I have lived to find 
that even that cruel stroke was light in comparison with those 
whicli h.ave since followed in my path. . . . And now I will jn-oceed 
witli my weary ])ilgrimage of fifteen years in a new location. 

I have said what a task was before us, even greater than our 
late exjierience. lUiildings were to l)e erected, barn, hogliouse, 
and necessary small tenements such as smoke houses, tool houses, 

•■'' Sahra [sic] Reeve Ellet, born .\iigust 3, 1817; died October 12. 1818. 
(Ellet Bible.) 

3- Hannah Israel, born Deceml)er _>;, 1789. (Israel P.ilile. ) She was 
married December i, 1823, to Major William Davenport. U.S.A. 



286 MARY ISRAEL ELLET 

also a spring house to improve. To accomplish all this required 
a large force of male hands. The banks, trenches, and ditches 
were all out of order. A large stock was required to feed those 
men, such as beeves, sheep, hogs, &c. These we brought with us 
from the Manor. A large garden to be planted to furnish 
vegetables for their table. Many cows to be kept to supply milk 
and butter for this host of workmen, and to w^hose lot fell all this 
labor? It is scarcely to be credited, but to myself alone almost the 
heavy task fell, sometimes with a woman to assist, and sometimes 
with none, when my only assistance would be my young daughter. 
Much labor would have been avoided by feeding this large force 
of men out of our house,^^ but my husband adhered to the ancient 
manner of farming, every article of consumption to be raised and 
fed on our own ground for the double purpose of enriching the 
farm and saving the transportation of its yield to a distant market. 
Many times have I made up seventy pounds of flour into bread 
twice and thrice a week: often fifty lbs. of butter and sometimes 
seventy for sale. I certainly never at that time had heard of 
Woman's Rights or probably I might have rebelled, but I did not 
and worked on, hoping against hope for better times again. I be- 
came the mother of tw^o fine boys^^ within twelve months and two 
weeks of each other. These two last births were my sons Edward 
and Alfred, now men fifty years of age and fathers of families. 
At the same time a woman who I had hired had a babe and a 
child two years old to be cared for. nearly all of the labor falling 
on me. 

In the course of time by active industry and heavy expenses, 
our place became very beautiful. Its situation on the Delaware 
commanded a fine view of the river and the opposite shores of 
New Jersey and the town of Burlington, with its splendid man- 
sions and luxuriant green banks. ^^ Our numerous friends from 
the City often visited us. As our children advanced in years their 
young friends would come to enjoy for a season country life. 
They would rove through the woods and return loaded with 

3'^ i.e., with bought food. 

34 Edward Carpenter Ellet, born September 25, 1819; Alfred Wash- 
ington Ellet, born October 11, 1820. (Ellet Bible.) 

^•'^ The Pennsylvania end of the Burlington-Bristol Bridge rests on the 
old Ellet farm. (Observations by H. P. G. and Hugh B. Eastburn, August, 
1931-) 



MARY ISRAEL ELLKT 287 

flowers, their persons tastefully ornamented and aprons filled. 
Then seating themselves in the little boat always ready for use, 
they would draw the shining fish to shore which when cooked 
would afford a dainty supper. Thus at that time we lived and 
being nearer the city could get female help if only for a short 
period. I wish here to remark that the great trouble caused us 
through those many years did not proceed from want of effort 
on the part of my husband and numerous City friends, but from 
the utter abhorrence females had to enter service in the country 
to perform farming work, hence the necessity of farmers educat- 
ing their own children to be useful and practical colaborers with 
themselves, and early teach them that labor is honorable and leads 
both to health and independence. 

After we had lived on this place several years, I was called 
upon to mourn the death of my beloved father. I will here 
record . . . the words of my dear father when I last met him 
alive, two weeks before his death, though not then thought to be 
so near his end. "Farewell, my daughter," he said, embracing 
me while the tears flowed down his furrowed cheek. "If my 
words will be a source of comfort to you when I am gone, I tell 
you now that you have been ever to me a good, loving, and dutiful 
child, and Oh! if it had pleased Providence to have spared you 
to me it would have been a great comfort now in my old age." 
My mother liad died ten years j^reviously,^® and he departed in 
the year 1822- His death was sudden and peaceful, his faculties 
unimpaired,^" but I did not see him until he was in his coffin. 
I lived then in the country was the cause. In the dead of the 
night a messenger arrived with the sad intelligence and without 
delay I returned with the person who came for me. The kind 
parent with whom I had parted two weeks previously was now 
in his coffin, and I never again could expect to listen to his words 
of love and advice, but he had passed away peaceably at a ripe 

36 November ii, 1813. (Israel Bible.) 

37 "Died on .Sunday, the 17th of iMarcb, 1822, at Quaker Park, 8:00 in 
the evening, my brother Israel Israel, of a mortification on the left leg, 
produced by exposure to the March air. On the Wednesday previous he 
was well and went to market. Much exhausted he returned home. On 
Thursday he was atacked with a chill. On Friday the swelling appeared, 
on Saturday increased and at 12 :oo o'clock on Sunday pronounced beyond 
cure. At 8:00 o'clock on Sunday evening [he] was lifted out of bed and 
in a few minutes breathed his last in his chair. He was about TJ years of 
age." (Note by Joseph Israel preserved in EUet Bible.) 




ISRAEIu ISRAEL 
iting, in possession of Mis. Prescotl Bi 



!o\v. Boston, Mass.) 



MARY ISRAEL ELLET 289 

old age, beloved and respected b}- a large circle of family and 
friends. 

He was buried with Masonic honors/^^ having been for many 
years a member of that institution and filling tb.e high office of 
Grand Alaster for a long i)eriod.'"^^ The services at the church 
were most interesting. The minister who delivered the funeral 
oration gave a history of his past life filled with the most interest- 
ing instances of his social, political, and active career.^'* In all 
the duties of that life the love of country and loyalty to its insti- 
tutions was his rule of action, fhere were few dry eyes in that 
congregation wdiile the recital was delivered. He was buried in 
a lot of ground he had selected in the yard of the Lombard Street 
Church,-*^ in the grave of my mother and brother.^- They were 
afterwards removed to a Lot in South l^aurel Hill belonging to 
my sister, where she and her husband have since been laid. This 
solemn duty was performed under the vohuitarv superintendence 
of our long and most esteemed friend. Rev. Abel C. Thomas. 

My husband came in time to be present at the funeral, bring- 
ing with hun several of our oldest children, that thev should wit- 
ness the interment of one of the best of grandparent.^. Our stay 
had to be brief for our family had to be cared for and could not 
be left alone longer with safety. But before our return my 

•*'^ Philadelphia Daily Ad^rrtiscr, Tuesday, March 19, 1822. 

•^'•' "Israel Israel was admitted as a member in Lodge Xo. 3 in this 
city May 20, 1794. . . He was elected Alaster of the Lodge in December 
1795, serving three successive terms of six months until Tune 24, 1797. He 
was again elected Master in Dec, 1797, for the term ending in June. 1799, 
and again elected in June, 1800, for the term ending Dtcember 27 in that 
year. He was elected Deputy Grand Master of Grand Lodge in December, 
1798, for one year, again elected December, 1799. for another year, and 
agaiii elected December, 1800, for another year. December 28. 1801, lie was 
appointed by the Grand Master a 'recommender of objects to the Dispen- 
sary'. In December. 1802. he was elected Grand Alaster for one year; 
again elected December. 1803, for one year; and again elected December, 
1804, for one year." (Michael Nisbet, Grand Secretary, Grand Lodge of 
Pennsylvania, to M. V. E. Cabell, November 15, 1890. Cabell Papers.) 

•^'^ At a mass meeting called for that purpose, March 2. 1794, the serv- 
ices of Israel Israel. Stephen Girard. and other members of the Board of 
Health during the yellow fever epidemic of 1793 were acknowledged "with 
the most cordial, grateful, and fraternal thanks of the citizens of Philadel- 
phia." (Israel's engros.sed copy in the Cabell Papers.) 

41 The First Cniversalist Church, in Lombard Street. 

•»- According to the Israel Bible, b«sides Mrs. Israel and her .-on B. 
Franklin, wlio died December 20, 1797, her daughters Latitia (who died 
June 16, 1795), Margaretta (who died July 25, 1796), and Martha (who 
died July 25. 1804), were also buried in the Universalist Burying Ground. 



290 MARV ISRAEL EIXKT 

father's will had to be read in the presence of his sorrowing 
children. He left a large estate for the times, divided equally 
between his six children then living.^^ I was to have the first 
choice both of the real and personal, with an entailment to my 
children, adding that under no circumstances should the estate 
be sold or transferred under penalty of losing the whole, both 
principal and interest. This clause was intended for kindness to 
me, to secure a living through life in case of casualties. 1 was 
perfectly satisfied and immediately gave the choice to Mr. Ellet,^'* 
knowing that he would be able to select that share that would be 
of immediate interest to himself. I also at the same time relin- 
quished to him the whole claim that the will gave me the exclusive 
use of the income to myself and for twenty-five years I ne\er in 
any one instance claimed a right to any part of it, neither did I 
change my frugal mode of living or dress in consequence of this 
fortune. 

My views on the rights of women were early established and 
] have never changed my belief that the laws of the country 
should be founded on equal rights to all classes and each one. 
The law of the land should be that every human being should 
clioose his business or calling according to his ability or taste 
wliile he or she interfered not with the privileges or happiness 
of the community, and lived up to the moral law, perfect freedom 
in thought and action while those thoughts or actions interfered 
with no one to their injury, that in marriage the bond and liabili- 
ties should be equal, that while the husband worked to maintain 
his family, the wife should equalize tiie l)urden according to her 
strength and ability, that the property should be common, and but 
one purse should ever be known between them, that both men 
and women should choose whatever profession that they felt 

43 Israel Israel's will was dated October 22, 1817. The estate, ap- 
praised at $59,650., was apportioned among the six heirs in 1824. (Sclicdule, 
Vahiation. nnd Division of the Estate nf Israel Israel. Esquire. Deeeased, 
Made Pursuant to the Dircetioiis contained in his Will [Philadelphia, 1839, 
24 pp.] ") The heirs were Samuel Israel, Mar}' Ellet, William Israel. Michael 
E. Israel, Hannah Israel, and James Hutchinson Israel. 

■t-^ Charles Ellet and lAIary, his wife, on Eebruary 14. 1824, chose allot- 
ment five, "consisting of a livery stable and lot of ground ... on the east 
side of Hudson's Alley continued, and on the north side of Harmony 
Court. . . : also all that carriage house and brick building and lot of ground 
... at the northwest corner of ... Harmony Court and Hudson's Alley . . . ; 
and also a brick coach-house and lot of ground on the south side of . . . 
Harmony Court." (Schedule .. ., p. 16.) 



MARY ISRAEL ELLET 291 

themselves capable of filling with credit and profit to themselves 
and family without the interference of any one. And I believe 
that under this rule of perfect liberty, their natural delicacy and 
love of home and family would in the end prevail over woman's 
rights now so loudly demanded. Under those rules of freedom 
womqn's rights would not need to be demanded. Woman would 
modestly go to the polls with husband or friend. They could 
pursue any business they chose without interference, but T yet be- 
lieve that home and home duties would be their choice. In claim- 
ing rights for women we are too prone to forget those of men. 
I am confident from long observation that the men deserve more 
pity tlian the women. The majority of the latter have but little 
sympath-y for the labors that deck them in silks, satins, diamonds, 
and jewelry, so that their love of dress is fully met. They too 
seldom reflect upon the anxious hours passed by their willing 
tools. I again say: Make the laws equal and all clamor will cease 
and woman return to the station intended by the Almighty, viz : 
to rear good sons and daughters, capable of all duties required of 
them. 

For a long time after our return home we continued to pursue 
our various duties on the farm and in the house, when my hus- 
band determined to rent the place and remove to the City. We 
required rest, the children education, and now our resources were 
ample to accomplish this desire of my heart. Accordingly we 
made all necessary arrangements and in the month of March 
1824 reached Philadelphia with our whole family, consisting of 
eight sons and daughters, one niece of mine, a cripple who had 
lived under our care for many years. Soon after our arrival a 
ninth child, a daughter,^-'' was added to the circle, and all things 
promised a happy future. But again death entered our home and 
a good, intelligent and most amiable son,^^ aged eleven years, was 
suddenly taken from us by an accident wliich resulted in brain 
fever. At the time of his death the whole of my children were 
prostrated by the measles. In rather more than another year my 
last beautiful babe was taken with the croup and died"'^ in a few 

45 Letitia Cordelia Ellet, born Deceml:)er 12, 182,^. (EUet Bible.) 

46 Israel Tbomas Ellet, born February IQ, 1813; died October 19, 1823. 
(Ellet Bible.) 

■*" Letitia Cordelia Ellet died February 7, 1825. (Ellet Bible.) 



292 ^[ARV ISRAEL ELLET 

hours as two other of my httle ones who had preceded her had 
done. At this period my family was again prostrated by sickness, 
my eldest and youngest sons both ill, one dangerously. 

After two vears and six months residence in the City, Mr. 
Ellet determined again to remove to the farm. He was disheart- 
ened by these afflictions combined with various other disappoint- 
ments. For years we resided on the old place with fewer difficul- 
ties it is true in many res])ects but in others far. very far, exceed- 
ing our former ones, which I will pass over with the assurance 
that these trials had not been brought on us by any misconduct 
on the part of our family but from an accuiuulation of unlooked 
for difficulties growing out of the bad faith of others. 

Our children were fast growing u]). The two eldest sons 
became restless. I'hey felt that the time had arrived to enter the 
world to endeavor by their own exertions to become independent 
citizens. The elder one was a great mathematician even at a 
verv early age and showed that he possessed talents and genius 
of a superior order. He would grieve over his loss of time, 
thought ever\- hour sjient on the farm was a heavy loss to him. 
He wished to be an Engineer. I rejoiced and encouraged him 
in his laudable desire for improvement, although his father could 
not view it in that light .'^^ He wished to keep all of his boys 
with him th.at he might instruct them in the art of farming, but 
mv son could not be prevailed upon to remain to follow the plow^ 
and regulate on a farm. He had great views to accomplish and 
accordingly departed without money or assistance from anyone 
but relied on his own manly strength of purpose.-*^ His success 
is recorded in history. T will only say here that he very soon 
obtained a situation whicli enabled him to fulfill his long and 
ardent desire to go to Europe, there to gain a perfect knowledge 

48 Mary Ellet wrote Charles Ellet, Jr., July 26, 1827: "Your father 
thinks there is danger in a too early promotion and in his usual desponding 
style thinks a boy had better not rise too fast." (Ellet papers, Transport- 
ation Library, University of Michigan.) Charles Ellet, Jr., wrote his wife, 
November 26, 1847, that with his father he had "no congeniality of charac- 
ter or sentiment — and there were many things in the relationship that 
have been to me through life sources of trial and trouble." (Ibid.) 

49 Charles Ellet, Jr., became a rodman on the Susquehanna survey in 
1827. The next year "he entered the service of the Chesapeake and Ohio 
Canal, where he remained until March, 1830, when he went to France. 
(H. P. Gambrell, "Three I_xtters on the Revolution of 1830", Journal of 
Modern History, I, 594-606; H. P. Gambrell, "Charles Ellet", Dictionary of 
American Biography, VI, 87-88.) 



MARY ISRAEL ELLET 293 

of the profession he had chosen. He succeeded even beyond 
his anxious mother's most sanguine expectations. She had ob- 
tained for him letters of introduction to some of the first men 
of Paris by the knowledge I had of my father's numerous friends 
who rejoiced to render his grandson any assistance in their power. 
In this way he was admitted into the first schools of the city^° 
and had every opportunity to improve his great mind. Most for- 
tunately I had it in my power to send him sufificient funds to 
enable him to remain. My father had given each of his children 
several shares in a Marine Insurance Stock. This I held in my 
own right, but had never used the interest when due; I always 
handed it over to Mr. Ellet. But now I raised money on it 
and when my boy returned-''^ I signed the certificates of stock 
over to Mr. Ellet, he paying the money I borrowed. Thus J was 
enabled to assist my worthy, most beloved and dutiful son with- 
out injury to anyone. 

My second son^- had previously made up his mind to emigrate 
to the West. His life had been spent on the farm, he liked the 
business, and at the age of seventeen was so efficient in the var- 
ious branches of agriculture his services could not well be spared; 
but although a most obedient and dutiful son, he was determined 
to accomplish his enterprise. We had been in correspondence 
with Mr. Ellet's nephew''-' mentioned in these notes. His account 
of the State of Illinois and its advantages to the young beginner 
fired the imagination of the young enthusiast, but the questions 
were. How could this great enterprise be accomplished against 
the express wish of his father (but who in the end yielded to the 
inevitable) ? We then, that is myself, son and daughter, held 
council and succeeded admirably, for / was from the beginning 
in favor of the experiment. My motto was "Action!" My ad- 
vice, honest industry ; and all that led to that I encouraged in our 

50 Through the good offices of W. C. Rives, United States Minister at 
Paris, and the Marquis de La Fayette, to whom he had letters of introduc- 
tion from Peter S. Duponceau and other friends of Israel Israel, young 
Kllet gained admittance to the Ecolc dcs Pouts cf Chanssccs — "an institu- 
tion where lectures are delivered for Engineers only, and by Engineers. . . 
Here all the French [military] Engineers, after having passed through the 
Polytechnic Scliool, are obliged to spend one year previous to entering upon 
the practice of their profession", he explained to his sister. (Cliarles Ellet, 
Jr., to Mary Ellet, Paris, June 7, 1830. Ellet Papers.) 

51 In 1831. 

53 John Israel Ellet, born August 28, 181 1. (Ellet Bible.) 
^^ Thomas C. Lippincott. 



294 MARY ISRAEL ELLET 

sons, for I ever detested a drone or an idler either male or female. 
We were born for a purpose. Industry leads to happiness. Idle- 
ness to want and misery. 

Our purpose was accomphshed in this wise. I had lost a 
few years previous an old and beloved aunt who had saved a few 
hundred dollars out of her small annuity, which she proposed to 
give to me but I determinedly refused. She then left it to my 
two eldest daughters who prof erred it as a loan to their brother. 
I sold my mother's beautiful present, the silver coffee pot, with 
other articles that I owned, also a horse which my brother had 
given to me. These sales enabled me to raise money suft'icient 
to pay the expenses of both, for my eldest daughter^^ determined 
to go with her brother. They left us provided with all the neces- 
saries for so long and perilous a journey. They arrived safely 
to the hospitable home of their good cousin, who assisted them 
by his advice in selecting a farm which could be bought on credit. 
Fortunately an old settler by the name of Moore had become very 
much dissatisfied with the fast filling up of the country by emigra- 
tion — to use his own expression, he was "too much scrouged" — 
and sought a home where there was no neighbors. The farm 
of 150 acres was near Alton, fast becoming a populous town. 
The improvements, a good brick house, an excellent orchard of 
fine fruit, with many advantages for a newly settled country. It 
was bought for eight hundred dollars on an eight years credit. 
On this spot my noble son went to work like a true man and in a 
few years succeeded in making the place both beautiful and valu- 
able. At the age of 19 he married a Miss Scarrett^^ of Scarrett 
Prairie, by whom he had seven children, but two of them now 
living. She died of consumption, leaving her husband with a 
large family. 

As soon as I heard of the purchase I went to work to send 
him furniture for his new establishment. I was enabled to do 
this from the quantities of furniture over and above the wants 
of our family which my parents had given me, added to which 
I had received various presents at different times from relatives 

54 Hannah Ellet, born October lo, 1802. (Ellet Bible.) 

55 John I. Ellet was married in 1830 to Laura Scarrett. The children 
of this marriage living in 1870 were Colonel John A. Ellet, Charles Ellet, 
and Lieutenant Richard Ellet, who married Bettie CuUen. (C. P. Smith, 
Lineage of the Lloyd and Carpenter Family [Camden, 1870], p. 78.) 



MARY ISRAEL ELLET 295 

and friends, which still remained in the City. With the assistance 
of my youngest daughter^*^ I was enabled with my own hands to 
box and pack up a vessel load of excellent household furniture 
which my good brother shipped for me. All arrived out safely 
and caused great wonder to the natives, expressing utter astonish- 
ment at the amount of "plunder", as they called the goods, and 
could not imagine what possible use could be made of so many 
articles. This happened in the early settlement in Illinois, where 
everything was in the most primitive order; but now they rival 
the Eastern States in luxury and magnificence. Many laughable 
occurrences took place that, had I the time or strength, would be 
worth recording. The united efforts of brother and sister soon put 
the house in complete order, and my son's knowledge of farming 
accomplished wonders on the place. 

On account of an accident Air. Ellet had received, he was 
unable to attend to business and as he wished to visit his son and 
also to make purchases of land in Illinois, he concluded to attempt 
the journey by water, taking with him a son^" and daughter, the 
one to be placed at the Jacksonville College for education, the 
other to return with her father. I was to be left with my two 
youngest children to attend to the coming harvest of grain and 
hay. I then had a strong, healthy colored woman in the kitchen 
and I hoped that with the men under our employ that I should 
be able to have the crops garnered in safety and with little trouble. 
But soon it was apparent that the use of liquor was to destroy 
all my anticipated hopes. At first the men behaved very well, but 
the following Saturday, the time of payment having arrived, ac- 
cording to agreement between them and Mr. Ellet, I gave them 
orders on the store, the proprietor being ordered to sell no liquor 
to them. But the precaution was without effect, for they traded 
the goods they had purchased for their favorite beverage. 

The consequence was most alarming. At night they took 
from the stable our horses and spent all Sunday in a flrunken 
debauchery. When they returned on Monday they were unable 
to work and laid around the fences perfectly prostrated until 

56 Eliza 'Tllet, born October 28, 1814. (Ellet Bible.) 

57 Edward Carpenter Ellet, born September 25, 1819. (Ellet Bible.) He 
attended Illinois College, Jacksonville, during the 1833- 1834 session. (The 
Registrar to H.P.G., October 13, 1932.) 



296 MARY ISRAEL ELLET 

night ; my little soiv'^^ taking charge of the stock with the assistance 
of my woman. When night arrived I thought it more safe to 
remain in the parlor than to retire to rest. While thus situated 
the four men came to the house for their supper and demanded of 
me money. T answered that I had none in the house. They 
threatened to break open the door. I felt that the time had ar- 
rived to prove my authority and save ourselves from brute force. 
I commanded them to leave or 1 would fire on them, although T 
had no gun, and if I had would not have used it, but it had the 
desired effect. They left for the barn and the next day, the 
effects of the liquor having been slept oft', they returned to their 
labor, ashamed of their conduct. But before harvest arrived they 
again became unruly and I was obliged to discharge several of 
them. 

About this time my son Charles had arrived in New York, 
his engagement on a certain road-"'^ being ended. T wrote him to 
come home at once, stating my difficulties. Then, with the fresh 
hands he was able to engage, everything went on prosperously 
and satisfactorily to both myself, Charles, and Mr. Ellet who, on 
his return in the fall found all his heavy crops well saved and 
valuable. But it was a time of great mental trial to me as well 
as most arduous bodily labor, for in those days our harvest con- 
tinued for six weeks. 225 acres of land well managed produced 
abundant crops, and the laborers were fed sumptuously. They 
expected five meals per day. which I always furnished them with 
great pleasure, for they worked hard from dawn until the setting 
of the sun, and I always believed that the laborer was worthy of 
his hire and felt a pitying interest in them, as long experience had 
taught me that work was not play. 

When Mr. Ellet returned he soon made up his mind to sell 
or rent the place. Fortunately our next neighl>or bought eighty 
acres of it at 100 dollars per acre. Then a real estate dealer came 
up with a proposition to exchange City property for the balance 
of the farm consisting of 145 acres. The offer was gladly met 

58 Alfred Washington Ellet. 

59 He had surveyed for the Utica and Schenectady railroad and laid 
out the western line of the New York and Erie, 1832-1833. (See Dictionary 
of American Biography, VI, 87; E. H. Mott, Betzveen the Ocean and the 
Lakes INew York, 1901], pp. 25-30.) 



MARY ISRAEL ELLET 297 

and once more we were preparing for an exit back to our native 
beloved Philadelphia. 

TUit before our final departure, I had made a visit alone to 
my son."" I wished to see how he was situated as well as to take 
out various articles for the comfort of himself and family. On 
my return I brought with me my two daughters and my son^^ 
who had been left at Jacksonville School. 

We continued to reside in the City a number of years during 
which time many great changes had taken place in our family. My 
son Charles had risen to great eminence in his profession, was 
Chief E^ngineer of the James River and Kanawha Canal.*'^ He 
was considered a great and rising man. His salary was sufficient 
to warrant him to settle in life. He married a Miss Daniel,^^ of 
Lynchburg. \'irginia. and removed to Richmond, where he re- 
mained for several years. He had taken his brother Edward 
with him. but he did not like the profession and left to go to 
the West. Soon after followed the marriage of my daughter 
Mary to a Mr. Bailey,""* a merchant residing in St. Louis. In less 
than three months the happy bride was borne to her grave. This 
was another sad, sad affliction, one most painful to realize. I had 
contemplated for years the happy time 1 should enjoy with my 
darling daughters when they [had | a house and home to receive 
their worn out mother. They loved me and appreciated my love 
toward tliem. On parting after the wedding, she clung to me 
crying "Oh! Ma. this is too hard for you after so long looking 
forward to the time that your children could by kindness render 
your latter years more happy than your former ones, to be so 
cruelly disappointed ; it is too, too bad." I saw her depart and 
never after beheld her dear face. She was one of the best, most 

"0 John I. Ellet, then living near Alton, Illinois. 

61 Edward C. Ellet. 

'■- Charles Ellet, Jr., became assistant engineer of the James River and 
Kanawha Company in 1835. From 1836 to 1839 he was chief engineer. 
This canal, one of the ambitious projects of the period, was intended to 
connect the Ohio river with tidewater. Ellet completed it as far as Lynch- 
burg. 

"3 Elvira, daughter of Judge William Daniel, Sr. (1770-1839), by Mar- 
garet Baldwin (1785-1826), his first wife, was born at Lynchburg in 1817. 
She was married to Charles Ellet, Jr., at "Point of Honor", Judge Daniel's 
home in Lynchburg, October 31, 1837. (Alexander Rrown. TheCabcllsand 
their Kin [Boston, 1895], pp. 392-393; C. P. Smith, op. cit., 78.) 

64 James Bailey. (Smith, op. et loc. cit.) Mary Ellet Bailey died Nov- 
ember 8, 1834. 



298 MARY ISR.\EL ELLET 

affectionate of daug-hters, beloved by all who knew her virtues and 
her most amiable disposition. After dear Mary's death another 
daughter^^ was married to a Mr. Hale from the East but residing 
in the City. They resided for a time in West Philadelphia. He 
was in the coal business. The next marriage was my youngest 
daughter, Eliza, to a Mr. Bryan,^*^ a merchant of Philadelphia. 
I began to anticipate a realization of my early dreams, but was 
again doomed to disappointment and grief. In three short years 
she was taken from her most excellent husband, her sorrowing 
parents, and her two babes. 

Thus ended my last fond hopes of daughter's tender care in 
old age ; but God had afflicted me and I dared not repine, for as 
yet I was not wholly bereft. Four good and loving sons re- 
mained and I felt sure that they would be true and affectionate 
during life, although far from me. From choice they had gone 
not wishing to farm. Mr. Ellet had given them*'^ a tract of land 
moderately improved, one of the purchases he had made on his 
former visit to the West. On this farm they worked industrious- 
ly. (The particulars of their wonderful labor will be found in a 
long letter I wrote to Mr. Ellet while I was on a visit to them. 
I will not repeat what I said then in those notes, but they will be 
worth retaining if only for the example to their own children 
whom I here advise to go and do likewise). 

In all these changes that time had made in our family, al- 
though years were increasing over me, I did not rest idle. My 
daughters I wished to do something for as far as I was able, and 
with various presents from friends and relatives, with the fruits 
of my own industry, I was enabled to prove to them my will to 
do if my circumstances could not meet my wishes. But much can 
be accomplished by unselfishness and self-denial. Thus I was 
able to do something for each daughter as they departed from me. 
My dear Alary's clothing her husband returned to me, tlie goods 
and furniture he retained. He soon married again and emigrated 
to Texas. I have never seen him since. Eliza's two children 

60 Hannah Ellet was married to George C. Hale. (Smith, op. ct loc. 
cit.) 

^i6 George S. Bryan. (.Smith, op. et loc. cit.) Eliza Ellet Bryan died 
June 18, 1841. (Ellet Bible.) 

67 The land was given to Edward C. and Alfred W. Ellet. Charles 
Ellet, Jr., and John I. Ellet had previously established homes. 



MARY iSRAEL EI.LF.T 299 

were reared by their father's good sister; the daughter Hved to 
the age of 28 years, was a wife six years,*^** and then was called 
to follow her young mother. ... In the course of a few years 
Death had again entered my father's household. My three remain- 
ing brothers,^^ all that was left of our once numerous family, were 
called to pay the debt of nature. Two had wives and children 
to grieve after them, one was unmarried ; while L their sister, 
had to mourn the loss of three affectionate brothers who had ever 
been kind and sympathizing toward me in my many afflictions, 
but I had the melancholy satisfaction of attending their sick and 
dying beds to receive their last look, and to follow them to their 
last resting place. I also lost during those few }ears many very 
valuable, beloved, old friends. . . . 

>,ow after eleven years of various changes, the time had ar- 
rived to part with my two remaining and youngest sons.'^ Like 
their elder brothers they were seized with the spirit of enterprise 
and with the approval of both parents started for Illinois to locate 
on the farm that their father had given them. It was unimproved, 
but they felt sanguine that they could in time and by industry 
render it both attractive and valuable. Again I was called upon 
to do what was in my power to render their simple home some- 
what comfortable, and forwarded them what yet remained of my 
good parents' abundant gifts to me years previously. 

After a time, hearing of their efforts to accomplish their 
praiseworthy intentions, I could not rest contented idle, ruminat- 
ing on the privations of my sons when I might by a little sacrifice 
of ease render them effective service. I consulted with Mr. EUet 
and proposed to him for me to join the boys, if he would consent 
to forward the amount of my weekly board, so as to furnish 
us with money to carry on the necessary improvements. Mr. 
Ellet would be well cared for during my absence by his son and 
two married daughters who were now residing in the City.'^^ 

68 Alary Ellet Bryan was married to Robert Albree. ( Smitli, op. et loc. 
cit.) 

69 The surviving sons of Israel Israel in 1824 were: Samuel, William, 
Michael E., and James Flutcliinson Israel. (Schedule ... of the Real Estate 
of Israel Israel, p. 18.) James Hutchinson died January i, 1829. (Israel 
Bible.) Samuel Israel "died on the 23 of Oct. 1834 at Cape Haytien where 
he had been stationed as American Consul for eleven years." (Ibid.) The 
deaths of William and Michael Israel are not recorded in the family papers. 

70 Edward C. and Alfred W. Ellet. 

71 Philadelphia. 



300 MARY ISRAEL ETXET 

Accordingly, at the age of sixty-two, I started alone, taking 
only a small black boy with me, whose grandmother wished me 
to bring up and leave with my sons when I should return. I 
parted with my family with a cheerful heart, under the full belief 
that I was performing my duty and in the full hope that with 
my aid they would rise to independence. I arrived safely,'^- was 
greeted with joy by mv sons and soon entered on my self-imposed 
task. Everything was rough and primitive, but we were sanguine 
and buoyant with hope. We saw in prospect as the future vision 
of beauty flitted before us. and every efifort we made towards im- 
provement filled us with joy. There w^as at first only an old log 
cabin, a well of pure water, and some fencing; but very soon a 
nice double log house was built by my sons, with only the assist- 
ance of one carpenter and one laborer. They cut the timber from 
their own woods with their own hands, while I prepared their 
meals and improved the surroundings both indoors and out. T can 
truly say I was proud of my sons, so young, so enterprising, and 
so industrious. Their course foreshadowed the full grown man, 
and I was supremely happy. They planted trees brought from 
the woods, while I planted the wild flowers in the beds I had 
made surrounding the house. Some climbing wild rose reached 
to the roof and entwined in the windows. The rough yard grew 
into a smooth sod by cutting down the high places and filling up 
the hollows, which I would sow with blue grass which soon spread 
over the whole yard. The trees took root and soon afforded 
shade. The worm fence was succeeded by a neat rail fence, and 
excellent garden, yielding an abundance of vegetables, was planted 
in the spot that once was a refuge for cattle and hogs. Our stock 
increased in numbers, affording fine beef and pork. We luxuri- 
ated in cream and butter, poultry increased, affording eggs in 
great abundance. Thus with a great quantity of the good things 
of this earth afforded bv industry we all enjoyed ourselves. I had 
added various articles of domestic use, such as a sofa, rocking 
chair, beds, curtains, and various articles of plain ornament, and 
when harvest came it was my delight to prepare cakes and milk 
for them as they would return to the house weary and dry. I 
would rise before the dawn of day to have fresh milk for their 
breakfa.st. with a hot batchelor loaf with a relish of prairie birds 

72 At Bunker Hill, Illinois. 



INIARY ISRAEL ET.LET 301 

which my sons would shoot, also squirrels, fat rabbit, and nuish- 
rooms picked up in quantities from the road before the house. 
Many friends would visit us and partake of our fare and always 
complimented me on my culinary efforts for their enjoyment. 
Travellers would stop as they passed to admire the neatness of 
and improvements accomplished in so short a time. It mig'ht truly 
be said that we had made "the wilderness to bloom like the rose". 
j\Iy pride was to have everything in and around the house neat. 
One lady in passing observed my efforts and success in culti^'ating 
wild flowers, and although a stranger to me, slie told mv son that 
if he would call at her house that she would send me a load of 
rare plants. She said it afforded her pleasure to give to people 
who appreciated the beauty of flowers. I planted all that she 
sent and they grew luxuriantl}-, and no doubt are at tlie place 
now. Some of them I have growing in my lot at Laurel ilill over 
the graves of my children since buried there. 

Within three months after my arrival at my sons, the sad 
intelligence reached me of the death of my youngest daughter,"^ 
the wife of Mr. Bryan. . . . She died nine days after giving birth 
to a son, her second child, leaving a mourning husband who yet 
remains a widower, now wifeless and childless. . . . The tender 
sympathy of my sons enabled me, with the necessity of action, 
to again return to my avocation. 

At the end of nearly two years of pleasant toil we had accom- 
plished all that we had worked for. About that time v,e !iad a 
visit from the daughter of a former neighbor when we rei'itled 
in the City, a Miss Roberts.'^ She had come out to visit a brother 
in Southern Illinois and hatl extended her travels as far as my 
son John's and our house. After remaining with us during part 
of the summer, much pleased with our ])lain coimtry life which 
my sons made agreeable to her by rides through the country, she 
had to return to her brother's house. Her societ\- had afforded 
me much, pleasure and the sequel proved equally so to my young- 
e.st son, for when she left us it was as the affianced bride of 
Alfred. This unexpected event rendered my presence no longer 
necessary, and 1 availed m\self of the change to return to my 
home and home duties, accordingl\- when m\- son departed to ful- 

"'■i Eliza Ellet Bryan died June i8, 1S41. 1 I'.llct liihle. ) 

'•* Sar.nh Jane Roberts of Philadelphia. ( Smith, .>^. c//.. ■j'^.) 



302 MARY ISR \EL EI.LKT 

fill his engagement, I went with him as far as the place of his 
destination, then pursued my long journey alone. When I first 
joined my children I did not expect to remain over six months 
or a year. Mr. Ellet was to come out for me, but the situation 
of the farm and my sons rendered it impossible to return and con- 
flicting causes prevented my husband from joining us. 

When I parted with my son T retired to my state room and 
after indulging in a hearty cry, I threw myself on my bed but 
not to sleep. I rose refreshed and with my usual efl^orts threw- 
off those morbid feelings and in the anticipated pleasure of again 
meeting my family a reaction ensued, and enabled me to enjoy 
the contemplation of the various characters before me as well 
as the beauties of the country as the boat sailed, the captain often 
affording me much information by describing the localities of 
interest and relating many amusing incidents that he had wit- 
nessed aboard his boat, with its concourse of human beings. 

On arriving at Lancaster I was met by my good son-in-law, 
Mr. Bryan, and soon was welcomed by his large family of mother, 
brothers and sisters. The next day "Mr. Ellet came for me and 
we returned to the City. As the cars came to the depot my dear 
son Charles was there to receive me with open arms and fast 
falling tears of joy. Soon his loved wife and many of my other 
friends v/ho had heard of the old traveller's return joined, us and 
notwithstanding the many changes which had transpired during 
my absence, we were very happy in the reunion, for although 
sixty-four years of age, I had not lost my energy or interest in 
the world, and looked forward for new fields of labor, and they 
did come all too soon. . . . 

At this time my son Charles was engaged in building the 
wire bridge across the SchuylkilF^ and on the survey of the City 

'^•'' His plan for a wire su.spension bridge over the Scliuylkill at Fair- 
mount was accepted by the county commissioners in July, 1839, over four- 
teen com])etitors (Mary Ellet to Charles Ellet. Jr., July 14, 18.39) and the 
work was completed in February, 1842 (Philadelphia Daily Chronicle, Feb- 
ruary 5, 1842). It was "one of the most complete structures of the kind" 
(Eli Eowen, Pictorial Sketch-Book of Pennsylvania [Philadelphia, 1852], 
p. 20) as well as "the first wire bridge of considerable size erected in the 
United States" (J. L. Ringwald, Development of Transportation in the 
United States [New York, 1888], p. ^.,7). In 1874 it was taken down to 
make place for the present Callowhill Street Bridge. (Records in Bureau of 
Engineering and Surveys, City of Philadelphia.) 



304 MARY ISRAEL ET.LET 

and County of Philadelphia. He resided in Girard Street.'*^ My 
husband was boarding but we spent the summer at Cooper's Point, 
Camden, New Jersey. In the winter we returned to the City. 
Shortly I observed that Mr. Ellet's health was not as robust as 
hitherto. He had become a convert to the Hydropathic System 
and entered into its extreme use without due precaution. After a 
trial of over a year his constitution was much impaired and he 
yielded to the wishes of myself and his children to abandon the 
use of water to the excess which had produced his weakness. I 
had taken a house in Camden and he then gave up his water cure 
physician with his room and servant in the bathing establishment, 
and gladly he consented to call in our good family doctor, who 
attended him faithfully for the eleven succeeding months of his 
suffering life, during which period he had the satisfaction to have 
his two sons and last daughter"''' with him, assisting with love and 
tenderness their weary mother in her attendance on tlieir father. 
. . . My Charles was absent ; he had been called to build a bridge 
across the Ohio River at Wheeling, and also one across the 
Niagara River, but my son John had lost at that period his father- 
in-law and wife.'^'^ In his bereavement he came to us hoping to 
get into business near his parents. ^\y younge>t son'" came at 
the same time in consequence of the farm being rented on which 
we had devoted so much time and labor. In consec[uence both 
brothers were out of business. Edward hoped to study medicine 
and immediately to attend a course of lectures. The death of his 
father occurred about this time. His great sufiferings were ended. 
He breathed his last surrounded by his remaining family, and 
\vas borne to the lot already occupied by his youngest daughter 
at Laurel Hill.^'^ 

It being inconvenient for my children to remain with me in 
Camden, it was thought advisable that I should be removed to my 
son Charles' home until my health should improve. Accordingly 
my pleasant little home was broken up. a house rented in the City, 
where in the course of two short weeks from the burial of my 

^^ 33 Girard Street. Mary V. E. Cabell gives a vivid description of 
the place in her reminiscences. (Cabell Papers.) 

77 John I. Ellet, Alfred W. Ellet and Hannah Ellet Hale 
7S Laura Scarrett Ellet. (Smith, nh. cit.. 78.) 

79 Alfred W. Ellet. 

80 Charles Ellet died November 26, 1847. (Ellet Bible; Philadelphia 
Public Ledger, November 29, 1847.) 



MARY ISRAEL EL LET 305 

husband my last and only daughter^! was carried to join her 
father and sister in their last home on earth. Those two bereave- 
ments, coming in such sudden succession, nearly deprived me of 
self control. I questioned myself why it was that God had 
selected me for such great and heart-crushing sorrows. Could 
there be anyone born to repeated calamities? I thought not, and 
for a time could see nothing bright before me worth living for. 
But too soon I had to realize the fact that yet greater afflictions 
had to be met and borne. 

These bereavements caused a breaking up of our family. Mr. 
Hale, with his only child, left for his native home in the East. 
Charles had to attend to his engagements in the West, building 
of the two bridges, one across the Ohio, the other across the 
Niagara.^- ^Ty son Edward commenced the study of medicine 
and attended lectures at the Pennsylvania University.^^ My son 
John remained for a time to attend to his brother Charles" business 
and the sale of his household furniture, as he had taken his wife 
and children with him, as his absence would of necessity be pro- 
tracted in the prosecution of two such great works. 

81 Hannah Ellet Hale died December 19, iB47- ( Ellet Bible.) 

8- Cliarles Ellet, Jr., was elected engineer of the Wheeling and Bel- 
mont Bridge Company, July 14. 1847 (Telegram. James Baker to Charles 
Ellet, Jr., July 14, 1847), and on November 9, 1847, was appointed engineer 
and contractor for the Niagara Falls Bridge Companies (Ellet to his wife, 
November 9, 1847). These were two of the most spectacular engineering 
undertakings of the period before the Civil War. Both structures were 
designed by Ellet and the Wlieeling Bridge, which he completed in Novem- 
ber, 1849, was at that time the longest single span bridge in the world — 
loio feet. Its erection was the basis for the bitterly contested suit of the 
State of Pennsylvania v. The Wheeling and Belmont Bridge Company in 
the Supreme Court of the United States: and although a decree of abate- 
ment was granted by the Court. Ellet saved his bridge by inducing Congress 
to declare it a post route. After the structure was severely damaged by 
storm in ]May, 1854, it was rebuilt by Ellet, and later by John A. Roebling. 
It is still in use. 

After Ellet had constructed a temporary bridge across the Niagara 
gorge, disagreements with the companies resulted in his relinquishing that 
work (December, 1848) but not before he had demonstrated the practicabil- 
ity of bridging the Niagara. Ellet's bridge was between the Whirlpool and 
the Falls, on the site of the present Ldwer Arch Bridge. (Data from Ellet 
Papers.) 

83 Edward C. Ellet did not attend medical lectures at the University of 
Pennsylvania, (Assistant to the Dean to H.P.Ci., October 22, 1932) but was 
a student at the Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia. (Editor, J.'uriwl 
of the American Medical Association tn II. P.O., January 30, 1934-^ 



306 -MAin iSRAKI, Ki,I.P7r 

Now as 1 should l)e left witliout any relative near me, when 
the busines.s was settled that detained my son John, it was thought 
unsafe for me to continue in the house. 1 then rented, and it 
was concluded that I should sell my furniture — now become 
i)ainful for me to look upon — and that I should refurnish with 
purchases from my son Charles' sale. Accordingly all this was 
accomplished with the aid of my son. When everything was 
finished 1 entered my solitary room, spending my lonely hours in 
reflecting on m\- past most eventful life, anticipating the future 
\vith anxious dread. 

My husband had in his last will'"' berjueathed his property 
to his fii'c children, three sons and two daughters, without naming 
his eldest son^^ or myself, but not from unkindness to either but 
according to his ideas of justice. The reason he gave was that 
his exclusive use of my whole estate for the period of 26 years 
had convinced him that it was fully sufficient for my maintenance 
without addition from him. With this will I was then and am 
now after a lapse of 23 }ears perfectly satisfied with, and have 
never wish.ed it to be otherwise. l)Ut not as regarded my most 
dutiful noble son who had ever been the pride of his parents and 
familv from his many virtues and great talents which had placed 
him unaided in a high position before the world. It was now my 
duty to re]iair this unfortunate seeming neglect as far as my 
resources would enable me.''^'^ Therefore, as soon as I began to 
receive my rents I commenced a series of retrenchments as re- 
garded my personal wants. fhis was not dift'icult. for my life 
ever since earl)- youth had been one of self-sacrifice fortunately 
as the sequel of these notes will prove. I accomplished my inten- 

8-t Charles Ellet's will was dated .\pril 25, 1842. (Original in Ellet 
Papers.) Of his fourteen children, these were living at the time of his 
death: Hannah Ellet Hale (who died December 19, 1847), Charles, John 
Israel, Edward Carpenter, and Alfred Washington Ellet. (Ellet Bible.) 

^5 The only reference to Charles Ellet, Jr., in the will is as follows: 
"I request my executors to collect a deljt due me by my son Charles Ellet, 
junior, for money paid to Moss & Son April 3, 1832, of three hundred and 
seventy-three l/iOO dollars with the interest thereon until the same is paid. 
I have not forgotten him: if Mrs. Hannah Israel Davenport, his aunt, 
wishes to make restitution for what she unrighteously obtained of her 
father's estate to the exclusion of her sister [Mary Ellet], she can bequeath 
to my son Charles what will make his portion equal to his brothers and sis- 
ters." 

S6 The letter transmitting her gift to Charles Ellet, Jr., with his en- 
dorsement thereon, is among the Ellet Papers. 



MARY ISRAEL ELLET 307 

tions, not altogether as I wished had my income been greater, but 
satisfactorily to my children. How I have used those resources 
will be seen after m}' death by referring to a few memorandums 
made at various times. .Suffice it now to declare that all has been 
used according to my first intention exclusively on my family, 
with the one exception of a bare maintenance for food and cloth- 
ing and small, very small, sums for charity. 

After my son John had concluded the business which had 
detained him, he returned to the West to again be with his mother- 
less children, and enter into business.^" Shortly after he left, my 
youngest son^^ with his wife and children came to the City for 
the purpose of seeing their relatives, he being anxious to get into 
business now that his farm was rented, returned to the West, leav- 
ing his family in the City. This was about the first great excite- 
ment on the California gold fever. He found the whole State 
deeply interested and full of extravagant hopes of great fortunes 
being made in a very short residence in the newly discovered 
Eldorado. After some deliberation, combined with the disap- 
pointment of not being able to enter into any suitable business, 
and weary of living so long idle, he determined to join the adven- 
turers, wrote to his brother^^ just concluding his medical studies, 
having received from all of the professors flattering assurances 
that he had earned his diploma by close study and attention to 
the lectures.^** As soon as he received his brother's letter he con- 
sented to join him in the expedition. My wish was that he should 
commence the practice of medicine here in the City, near his 
mother, but he was infatuated with the prospect. Accordingly I 
again had the work of preparation to make, succeeded in purchas- 
ing clothing for both, as well as many little necessaries for com- 
fort, and when he left me with the various articles T had selected 
for use, it was on my part with a dread that it was for the last 
time, but as usual I lived on in hope, and yet believed that I should 
not lie entirely liereft. Then judge of my astonishment Avhen on 

8" John I. Ellet operated a furniture business in St. Louis. 

88 Alfred W. Ellet. 

89 Edward C. Ellet. 

90 Edward Carpenter Ellet was graduated, with the degree of Doctor 
of jMedicine, from Jefferson ^Medical College of Philadelphia, on March 28, 
1849. His thesis subject was "Iodine and its Therapeutical Applications." 
(CataliH/uc of Jefferson Medical College of Philadelphia, Session 1S49-50, 
p. 13.) 



308 MARY ISRAEL ELLET 

meeting a friend I was hailed with the strange news that the 
whole undertaking was relinquished, that on the arrival of Ed- 
ward, his brother's wife had preceded him and had succeeded in 
inducing her husband to relinquish the whole scheme. Again I 
was satisfied that it \\ as for the best that they should remain. 

Edward joined the oldest practitioner in the place/-*^ and at 
once entered into the practice of medicine. Alfred purchased out 
an establishment of Dry Goods and commenced store keeping. 
Then they were as they tlicn thought established for life. They 
wrote to me to join them so that they might have the care of me 
in my declining years. I acceeded to their proposal. My son 
Charles as well as many kind friends believing it to be the proper 
course for me to pursue. Although T was very comfortably situ- 
ated, had a large and beautiful room, surrounded with numerous 
old, tried friends, with kind treatment from the ladies of the 
house with whom I boarded, they being also old friends. Yet I 
preferred being with my children. Again visions of peace and 
happiness floated before me. I would order the purchase of a 
cottage which I would adorn w'ith running vines and flowers, my 
garden should yield the best of vegetables, fruit should be plentiful 
and gathered by me for my son. who was to live with me. How 
I enjoyed in anticipation the pleasant time we should have when 
he returned weary from long rides, how I would have provided 
for him the fragrant cofifee, hot rolls, and nice relishes, and after 
the repast he would read to his mother such books as w^e both 
loved. To realize this vision T looked forward to its certain con- 
summation. The cottage was bought in a beautiful situation, two 
acres of ground filled with fine fruit surrounded it, adjoining was 
a beautiful grove of Lumber de poplars afterwards owned by my 
son. Here were held picnics and popular meetings, here \vould 
congregate the children to amuse themselves with swinging and 
other plays. 

The cottage was bought and paid for, my furniture shipped 
and money forwarded to complete all necessary arrangements and 
improvements. The house and grounds needed repair. ]\Iy dear 
son Charles came for me to escort me as far as his home at 
Wheeling, Virginia, then. I parted with my pleasant home, my 
many dearly beloved friends, many of whom remained with me 

91 Bunker Hill, Illinois. 



MARV ISRAEL ELLET 309 

until the carriage came for me late at night, showering on me 
the last tributes of affection, basket filled with dainties, many 
little keepsakes, some of which I yet have, and at last the parting 
embrace with many tears. Charles handed me into the carriage 
that parted us for a very long time, but not as we then thought 
forever. 

When we arrived at the home of my son, T found his wife 
in a delicate condition. It was their wish that T should remain 
with them until her health was restored. She was a great sufferer 
and I am happy to say that I had it in my power to do her great 
service in many ways. I believe that I was the means under Provi- 
dence of saving the life of the infant.^- Deprived by the illness 
of its mother of its natural food, it had to be raised by hand. I 
accomplished this task easily as T had had experience, but not be- 
fore the constant pressure of the babe to my breast to prevent 
its mother from being disturbed by its cries had produced a lump 
which terminated in a tumor destined in the end to carry me to 
my grave, even before great age performed its work of decay. 
When my daughter-in-law had recovered, winter was approach- 
ing, they consented to my leaxing them. 

Charles placed me under the charge of the captain, and again 
I was afloat. Rain commenced and continued during tlie entire 
voyage from Wheeling to St. Louis, where we arrived after a 
weary week. The boat filled to overflowing with immigrants and 
rough passengers from Tennessee. With, as the captain told me. 
eighty-fi.ve children on board, to sleep was impossible, to keep 
dry even more so, and when at 12 o'clock at night we landed,^^ 
I did not know where to find my son'^< who had been telegraphed 
to and had come to the wharf several times. Tt being Sunday his 
store with all others were closed, but the good captain and his 
kind clerk would not suffer me to be disappointed and started 
through the pouring rain and never yielded the search until they 
brought my son to me. The consequence of this great exposure 
settled in a ccjld in my left breast, increasing tlie lump already 
there from the babe's i)ressure. I found on reaching mv son's 

9- Cornelia Daniel, danghter of Charles (Jr.) and Elvira Daniel Ellet, 
born at Wheeling October 2, 1840. (Memorandum dated April 7, i8w. in 
Ellet Papers.) 

93 At St. Louis. 

9-> John I. Ellet. 



310 MARY ISRAEL ELLET 

house his whole family prepared to receive me with a most afifec- 
tionate greeting. He had again married, a Southern lady by the 
name of Skillman,'*'' quite a young woman. After remaining with 
my kind children several days. T left them with my sons Edward 
and Alfred, who had come for me. 

We arrived at Bunker Hill, the name of the place where I 
was to reside. It was situated on the immediate line of the rail- 
road from Terre Haute and Saint Louis, in an undulating prairie, 
and although unimproved and with but few inhabitants or houses, 
presented to me a very pleasing prospect, and now, twenty }'ears 
later, it has become one of the most attractive towns on that line. 
Churches, schools, have increased with the influx of population, 
and it now stands almost imrivalled in the beauty of its buildings, 
the refinement of its inhabitants, or the taste exhibited in the cul- 
ture of rare flowers and trees, so that on entering the town it 
presents the appearance of a very highly cultivated garden.^^ 
Owing to the improvements being unfinished in my cottage, I did 
not remove into it until the 1st of May. 

Then near seventy years of age. but yet buoyant with hope 
and capable of projecting future improvements; but I must ac- 
knowledge that a temporary check was cast upon my dream of 
future bliss wdien I found that my son^*^ was already engaged to 
be married to a lady from New York, Miss Lydia Little, who 
was on a visit to a friend. This event changed my plans and as 
property was and could be purchased very cheap, as in all new 
settlements, I availed myself of the prospect of making good in- 
vestments and bought two good but unfinished buildings, each 
with a quarter of an acre of ground, in an eligible situation, and 
presented them to my sons. They have improved them very hand- 
somely by adding to the original buildings. On one of them ray 

95 Mary Skillman. (C. P. Smith, op. cit., 78.) 

96 "Bunker Hill is one of the most beautiful little villages in the State, 
situated on a prairie in high cultivation ; the houses are neat and arranged 
tastefully, and each is garnished with a pretty garden and plenty of shade 
trees, which give the loveliest rural aspect imaginable to the place. . . The 
population is about three hundred. . . There are Presbyterian, Methodist and 
Baptist churches. . . No lawyers, and none are needed. The only one who 
ever lived there was drowned in Wood River. A monument is being erected 
to his memory. There are two excellent practicing physicians, Dr. H., and 
Dr. E[llet]." (Mrs. [E. R] Ellet, Sumwer Rambles in the West, [New 
York 1853], pp. 176, 178.) 

97 Dr. Edward C. Elkt. 



311 



son, the doctor, yet lives. Alfred has sold his many years 
since. During my residence at the Hill 1 had many grandchildren 
born, some of them were early called home. The places the three 
families occupied were in sight of each other, in speaking distance. 
Daily my sons came to me, and 1 lived surrounded i)y their fami- 
lies and. manv, verv many, kind friends, whose friendship I am 
happy to say yet continues. 

1 was fortunate in obtaining efficient help in my kitchen, who 
had as much pride in assisting me in my imi^rovements as it af- 
forded pleasure to myself. With our united efforts, and also the 
aid from m\ sons, the little cottage with its surroundmgs assumed, 
if not a grand, a most attractive appearance. By tearing down 
partitions (enclosing small useless rooms) I obtained fine, large, 
light apartments, with porticos and ix)rches added outside giving 
shade within and without, paint and paper with tastefully ar- 
ranged furniture suited to its humble pretentions. Added to the 
effect, owing to the richness of the soil, my plants and dowers and 
nuining vines grew as if by magic. The honeysuckles with climb- 
ing rcjses of great variety clustered around the trellises \ had 
erected. The double white and red rose grew each side of my 
door, while beneath in the border grew the sweet violet and Lily 
of the X'al'ey, perfuming both the porch and the parlor. Trees 
planted by the former owner surrounded the whole two acres, to 
which 1 had added the Osage orange for a hedge, fruit trees were 
in abundance, of excellent quality, such as a])ples, peaches, pears, 
and plums. My garden started from the back porch, where I 
often sat contemplating its vigorous growth and watching the 
gambols of the variety of beautiful birds that hovered around the 
Howers. The little humming birds woidd come in i^erfect safety 
up to the very door, sip the dew from the flowers and flit to and 
fro in perfect safety.'-*^. . . 

The years passed, I perfectly hap])v in my moderate posses- 
sions, intending there to end my few remaining days. I'.ut truly 

9^ "Clay Cottage, tlie residence of my venerahle aunt, is a rural para- 
dise. The dwelling house, of substantial brick, painted light gray, peeps in- 
\itingly through a plantation of tall trees of several varieties — its verandah 
and trellised porch wreathed with roses and flowering vines, and a bordering 
of rare shrubs and rose-trees completely embowering it. The smooth lawn 
is sprinkled with shrubbery, and a clustering grape vine covers with its 
luxuriant drapery the whole of the rear L'uildings. . . . This, by confession 
the most elegant 'place' in town, may represent the better order of prairie 
homes." (EUet, cp. cit. 177.) 



312 MARY ISRAEL ELLET 

it is said that while "man appoints, God disappoints". During my 
residence in this place I had occasion twice to visit the East on 
business respecting my propert)'. once in company with my son 
Alfred and his family. I think it was in the year 1855. From 
many circumstances seeming to delay our departure, we did not 
leave until December when, after ])assing Springfield, we were 
overtaken b}- one of the greatest snow storms on record. When 
we reached the great grand Prairie we could neither proceed nor 
recede, but were entirely engulfed in snow banks of huge dimen- 
sions. ( )ur cars were filled with passengers all without food, but 
fortimately we had reached a station and could get both wood 
and water, the former sulTicient to feed the one stove in each car, 
the latter useless as the engines were all embedded out of sight in 
snow drifts. In vain did all the male passengers tiu'n out to 
assist the workmen in their efforts to disinter the buried engines. 
We could only discern a few inches of the pipes, and they soon 
disappeared with the fast falling snow. Our party consisted of 
nine persons, three children (the youngest taken ill with a high 
fever), myself aged seventy-five years: but my son was strong 
and healthy and determined that his faniily should not suffer for 
food. He with a gentleman friend who was the tenth of our 
party, started through the snow almost uj^ to their waists, en- 
deavoring to reach the nearest inhabited house. They succeeded 
in obtaining food for us, which we divided with two lone ladies 
who had no friends near them. Fortunately there was a iihysician 
on the cars who attended the child successfully. Every dav for 
several days did our son and our friend go forth on this mission 
of love, and each da}- assisted the work-men to remove tlie snow 
from the engine. On the 17th day the end was accomplished and 
we left our long imprisonment with iow but not before nature 
vielded to fatigue and privation in my worn frame. I nas per- 
fectlv prostrated, sick at heart. unal)le longer to hold up ni}- head 
when we arrived at Chicago. I wa^ put to bed, a doctor was sent 
for and for several da\s was unalde to leave my bed. As my 
strength returned, 1 I'ecame very anxicjus to resume my journey. 
All of our party under the care of ]\lr. Cundell, our friend, had 
gone on. Alfred remained with me. \\'hen we did leave I was 
in a very feeble state, but full of energy which enabled me to 
bear up under the long journey, deathly sick as I was. 



MAIJV ISRAEL ELLET 313 

When we arrived in Philadelphia we found my brother-in- 
law, Col. Davenport, at the depot waiting for us. He had been 
apprised through our friends of our detention. I was immediate- 
ly taken to my bed where I lay prostrated for several weeks, com- 
pletely worn out. Now, after a period of 15 years, when I refer 
to that disastrous journey, I wonder how we escaperl with our 
lives. The weather was intensely cold, making ice from our 
breath on the glass nearl\- an inch in thickness. No sleep for 
seventeen nights, only as we could catch a moment of weary for- 
get fulness, never changing one garment in all that time, no exer- 
cise, as the floor was an inch thick or deep in tobacco juice, the 
ends of the seats we occupied were used by the now weary gentle- 
men passengers who were glad when night arrived when the floors 
were cleaned of its filth to throw themselves down with only a 
stick of wood for a pillow. Added to all these discomforts at 
the time, we were seriously threatened with riot from the poor 
frozen laborers, who thought they were entitled to one fire as well 
as the passengers. Many of them had their poor feet frozen and 
one I heard had to have his amputated. One gentleman died after 
he left the cars. Our party, being young, healthy, and vigorous, 
soon recovered from the fatigue and was able to come and see me 
on my arrival at my sister's, where T was very pleasantly situated, 
surrounded with every comfort and the kindest attention. As 
soon as our arrival was made known, my many friends flocked to 
see me. Daily I received assurances of sympathy from those 
who had long known me and loved me. 

^Lv son Charles at this time was in Europe on ofl'icial busi- 
ness.'"^ lie had read an account in a foreign newspaper of the 
terrible snow storm on the Prairies of Illinois. TTe knew from 
our letters that we intended to make the journev and had become 
very an.xious on our account. Pie did not return liome until the 
fall, and then immediately removed with his family to Richmond, 
Virginia. But returned again in the spring to Philadelphia to 
take me back to Illinois where he intended to invest in western 
land, wlr'ch design he acc()m])lished to his full satisfaction. After 
his departure I resumed mv ])revious occupation. My house and 

■♦^ Charles Ellet, Jr., went to Europe in October, 1854, to negotiate 
loans for the Virginia Central and the Ilempfield raih-oads, of which lines 
he was principal engineer and fmancial agent. lie returned to America, 
with his family, before June, 1H55. (Data from Ellet Papers.) 



314 M \RV TSRAEI. EI.I.ET 

grounds had been improved during m}- year's absence, by my 
sons. During this, my last, residence in my cottage T had again 
the pleasure of entertaining my dear ^on Charles and his family, 
lie had been appointed 1)y the Government to examine the Delta 
of the Mississip]^i in view of its imjirovement.^"" ( )n his finish- 
ing bvis task he sto])ped to see me and left his family for a time 
with lue. 

In the course of less than two years 1 was again necessitated 
to return to the East, and I then determined that it should be my 
last journey. Consequentl\- 1 rented my ])lace, ])arted with my 
furniture and all my efifects. Imt not until 1 had ])resente(l mv son. 
Charles with a d^^ed to my homestead, which he and his family 
had so much loved and admired. Thus I was enabled lo fulfi'l 
my long cherished wish to do full justice to mv loved son. The 
place had become ver\- valuable and is now in the pcjssession of 
his children. I do hope that their duty U> their parents will cause 
them to com])ly with the often expressed wishes and intentions of 
both, never to i)art with that spot so endeared to them bw manv 
associations .so very dear. 

T was accompanied on this journe\- 1)\- m\ dear son Edward. 
We stopped at Washington, D. C. where Charles then re-^ided.^"^' 
I remained with them until fall, and then came back the City, 
but in the following spring my good son Charles came for nie to 
return with him in hopes that I would make up my mind to reside 
permanently under his care, but there were many objections, how- 
ever desirable the ])roject might be. Ffis business made his ab- 

10" He was appointed by President Filmore, on the nomination of the 
secretary of war, on November 4, 1850, to make surveys looking towards 
"the protection of the borders of the Mississippi from overflow and the 
improvement of the channel at the mouth of the river." His report was 
published by the government printer in 1852. ( Ellet, Report on the Over- 
flows of the Delta of the Mississippi, 96 pp. ) During 1856 and 1857 he 
endeavored, without success, to secure congressional appropriations to en- 
able him to put his plan into operation. It is possible that he made another 
survey in 1856, but it does not appear in the Ellet papers 

1"! Charles Ellet, Jr., moved to Washington in 1856. In September he 
purchased a three-story residence at 288 H Street, where he lived unti' P"eb- 
ruary, 1858, when he moved to "Clifton", his country place on the Heights 
of Georgetown. (Ellet Papers.) Here "the full and genial plenty of a 
Pennsylvania farm-house was gracefully blended with the not less hearty 
kindness of a Southern plantation. . ." ( F., "The Colonels Ellet" in Army 
and Na7'v Journal. I, 212.) 



MARY ISRAEL ELLET 315 

sence from home very frequent and uncertain. His family were 
very delicate and when or where he went his family must come. 
I was now 80 years of age, and must have some secure settlement. 
However, for the present. I consented to comply with their united 
wishes to have me with them. It was in May, 1860, that lie came 
for me. The following summer and winter I remained. He was 
frequently absent in surveying Western Virginia in reference to 
his project for improving the Ohio river, rendering it navigable at 
all times by reservoirs. &c, &c.^"- 

One morning he entered mv chamber witli a telegram in his 
hand and most tenderly communicated the contents. My property 
had been destroyed the night before by an incindiary. The news 
did not excite me for a moment. My first word was that the 
neighbors would rejoice to be rid of such an eye sore as those 
ancient buildings presented, and further I said I would return to 
the city in the spring to improve (without a dollar) the vacant 
lot. For, I said to my son, Building material is very cheap, labor 
plenty, and ofifites wanted, and I believe I can allow all this when 
I return in the spring. He expressed his great surprise at the 
manner in which I had received the news of my loss of income, 
but more at my energy. He agreed entirely with me respecting 
the improvements I desired. Having no one near me to assist in 
counselling me (for he had to be absent, and one son in Califor- 
nia,^'^''' two in lUinois,^*^* ) but T was not discouraged and deter- 
mined to carry out my plans, for I knew I had credit from the 
known character of my father and my son, as well as my husband, 
who lived and died well known as an honorable merchant. But 
again I was doomed to disappointment for the present. 

For the great Rebellion was about to culminate in a Civil 
War, such as history had never recorded. The South combined 
with the treacherous administration, the pitiful president who 
could not believe that a nation had the power to coerce a rebellious 

loii From 1858 until the outbreak of the Civil War he was intermit- 
tently engaged in work connected with his favorite project, the improve- 
ment of the Ohio and Mississippi rivers by means of reservoir lakes. His 
report on the Kanawha improvement, a plan subsidiary to the greater one, 
was published in Philadelphia in 1858 after surveys made for the James 
River and Kanawlia Company. ( Ellet, Report on the I mproTement of the 
Kaiuiu'ha and Incidentally of the Ohio Ri^'cr. 125 pp.) 

!•« John I. Ellet. 

104 Dr. Edward C. Ellet and Alfred W. Ellet. 



316 MARY ISRAEl. ELLET 

State or to punish a dishonorable, treacherous Cabinet, and by 
his false actions submitted to the wicked machinations of a thirty 
years' ccjnspiracy to dismember our blessed L^nion and bring death 
and desolation throughout the Land in order to perpetuate Slavery 
and sustain them in their bloated Aristocracy founded and fed on 
the blood of 400,000 of human beings, and shame to say, these 
vile, plotting rebels, supported, upheld, and encouraged by the 
so-called freemen of the Northern States, our unscrupulous 
Democratic organization. Rut it will not do for me to write 
on this dreadful subject. At ninety years of age. every drop 
of blood in me swells and surges with indignation until it nearly 
prostrates my feeble body. Can it be wondered I thus feel 
when by their wickedness I have lost two of my beloved children ,^^-'' 
while six brave sons and grandsons'^*^*' with their lives in their 
hands went forth vohmtarily to serve their country and its institu- 
tions ?^*^^ 

10"' Charles Ellet. Jr., Colonel commanding Ram Fleet, anrl his son, 
Charles Rivers Ellet. Colonel in the Mississippi Marine Brigade. 

106 Colonel Charles Ellet, Jr., and his son. Colonel Charles Rivers 
Ellet; Brigadier General Alfred W. Ellet and his son. Lieutenant Edward 
C. Ellet; and Lieutenant Colonel John A. Ellet and Lieutenant Richard 
Ellet, sons of John L Ellet. 

1"'^ "T am decidedly ft^ offering or accepting no compromise with 
traitors. I believe that the whole difficulty or scheme has been concocted 
by designing demagogues to break up the Government and construct another 
on their cwn dishonest Democratic platform, which has already brought 
our country to the brink of ruin by their thefts, falsehoods, and treachery, 
together with Buchanan's complicity with the traitors in their base trea- 
son. . . Teach your boys, my son, to love, respect, protect, and if necessary, 
die by their country's flag. For my part, T am determined, if this Govern- 
ment is severed, while there remains one good old Federal State, to live, 
while I live, in that; and when I die, my request and will is that my body 
may be wrapped in the emblem of my country's .glory.'' (Mary Ellet to her 
son, John L Ellet, of California, December, i<S6o.) 

In 1863, after the death of Charles Ellet, Jr., and Charles Rivers Ellet, 
she wrote again to John L Ellet: "I wish to see your sons in the field. I am 
anxious to have as many of the name as possible in this eft'ort to crush 
rebellion, so that in after ages the record will stand in history that not one 
of the family were cowards or disloyal ; but that all were true Americans 
and patriots. . . Then let us with one voice devote all we have — Hfe. for- 
tune, home, and family — for the preservation of the blessed Union. I have 
drained the cup of sorrow, and am yet to suft'er more and greater trials; 
but nothing of self-sacriiice shall make me shrink from the duty I owe my 
country, and may God keep in His protecting power my sons and grandsons 
who are devoting their lives for the cause that T know He approves." 
(Both letters are quoted in The Press, January 11. 1869.) 



MARY ISRAEL ELLF.T 317 

r.ut I must proceed with my narrative while I have strength 
to perform my task, which, when my age and infirmities are con- 
sidered, cannot he called trifling. When spring returned, excite- 
ment and dismay combined with ]>atriotic enthusiasm prevailed 
throughout the whole land, for Fort Sumpter had been assaulted, 
our very capital threatened, our Treasury robbed, forts taken, 
navy and army demoralized. Nothing remained for us but valor, 
truth, ])atriotism. and a firm determination of leaders and men 
to rush forth to do or die. 

At this crisis it was thought best that 1 should leave w^hile 
transportation was unimpeded; therefore, on the 14th day of 
Apripos J i^-^^i ^^jg^^ ^Q j^^^. ^jg^j. daughter-in-law and under the 
protection of my dear son'"^ left \\'ashington. Numerous rumors 
reached us on our journey that troops were on their way to de- 
fend tlie Ca]Mtal, but horrible was the sight that met our eyes as 
the car reached the depot in Baltimore. The streets had been 
torn u]). the stones piled in vast quantities on the road, while 
anchors from vessels had been hauled across the roads to prevent 
a passage. TMany cars were demolished by the crowds of un- 
scrupulous men, the windows of the houses were broken, and 
the doors hanging loose, while the mob shouted and yelled in joy 
that they had with murderous hands slain our brave defenders. 
Some of our wounded heroes were brought to the car that we 
had reached after great struggling through dense crowds of ex- 
cited i)eople, but we were told that many of our brave men had 
been able to proceed to the Capitol, which gave us much joy : for 
we felt that if but few that they were brave and determined to 
save their country, .\fter much difificulty we reached the boat 
that conveyed us across the river. On reaching Wilmington a 
crowd of true Unionists met us and cheered us with ho])e. We 
arrived at 12 o'clock at night in I'hiladelpliia. 

In the morning we heard of the destruction of the bridge 
which caused a detention of a week to my anxious son. who had 
left his family unprotected ; but as soon as the roails were again 
unim])e.led, he returned, and after much difficulty reached home, 
only to make arrangements to devote his life to bis loved country.. 

'"^ They left Washingtcm .\pril 17, 1861. ( C. R. Ellet to .\. W. EUet, 
April 17, 1861. Ellet Papers.) 
K^i* Cliarles Ellet, Jr. 



318 MARV ISRAEL EI.LET 

His career stands recorded in history. He gave his hfe for that 
dear country. He fell by the hands of a Southern rebel at the 
moment of victory, while he and his noble brother Alfred had 
sunk and destroyed the whole rebel fleet before Memphis. T said 
that 1 had six sons and grandsons in the Army. They were 
Charles, Alfred, their sons Edward and Charles, with my two 
grandsons from California, the children of my son John, who 
both distinguished themselves, John bravely defying the rebel 
batteries at \^icksburg. Richard, who had joined the California 
Hundred, was shot down at the battle of Santa Anna Bridge and 
laid for months in a hospital, but as soon as he recovered, again 
went forth to meet the foe and served the country until the close 
of the war. I take great pride in thus recording that I am the 
mother of six patriotic men, which recollection enables me to 
bear the great calamity of the loss of my two loved ones, who 
were my pride and joy in life. But they died for their country: 
that must be my consolation. 

And now I will resume my self-imposed task, fearing that 
my failing strength w^ill prevent me from finishing this weary nar- 
rative. After my son had seen his mother as comfortably situated 
as circumstances permitted, he endeavoured to reach his home 
through every impediment and obstruction that the rebels had 
placed in his way. The telegraph wires had been cut. the mails 
impeded, the main roads impassable and in possession of the 
enemy: yet after great exertion, delay, and fatigue, he reached 
his anxious family, found the city protected by our troops who 
had succeeded in evading the enemy. 

In consequence of the war I had relinquished all idea of 
improving the property or of rebuilding. The fire had led me 
into many extra expenses, such as fencing the lot to prevent acci- 
dents to pedestrians. Twice were the enclosures all carried away 
by midnight marauders, which they used for fuel. House rents 
and provisions increased in price, making boarding [-housekee[)ers] 
almost fabulous in their demands, while my income had de- 
creased one-half, but the taxes increased proportionately. Thus 
situated, all that remained for me to do was to use increased 
economy if possible to meet my outlay. 

It was not long after Charles reached his home before he 
laid before the Executive and Secretary of War his plans, which 



MARY ISRAEL EI.LFT 819 

were favorably received,""' and he had received full power to pro- 
ceed with his patriotic doings under the title of Colonel, and with 
authority to oifer that of second in command to his brother Alfred, 
who was accordingly telegraphed to join him.^^^ After leaving 
his family, he came to me to bid me as he then thought a short 
farewell, but alas ! and alas ! it was a final parting. 1 Te was cheer- 
ful and sangu.ine, never for one moment doubted the final result. 
His tenderness to me during his brief stay was most afi'ecting. 
He left me for a short time to provide all that he thought neces- 
sary for my comfort and h.ealth during his absence. Pens, ink, 
jjaper. and stamps in quantities. He so loved to get his mother's 
letters. The last kiss and embrace was received, and I followed 
him to the stairs, but not satisfied he stopped at ^liss Longstreth's 

11^ From the moment tliat tlie disruption of the Union became a prob- 
ability Charles Ellet, Jr., had turned his tremendous energies, first, to 
demonstrating to Virginians the futility of secession ; second, to writing for 
New York and London periodicals analytical articles on the political and 
military problems involved in the crisis ; third, to laying before President 
Lincoln and cabinet officers a series of plans for crushing the rebellion 
which his intimate knowledge of the topography and resources of Virginia 
and the Mississippi Valley enabled him to suggest ; fourth, oft'ering his 
services in any capacity to the President (Lincoln to Ellet, August 19, 1861J, 
and to the Governors of Pennsylvania and jWest] Virginia (Ellet to Gov- 
ernor Patterson, April 24, 1861 ; Ellet to Governor Pierpont, June 22, 1861) ; 
and, finally, to a series of critical studies of the strategy of Union com- 
manders in the field and the whole conduct of war. He reserved for 
General McClellan his most scathing criticism, devoting two widely circu- 
lated pamphlets {The Army of the Potomac and its Mismanagement, [New 
York, December, 1861], tq pp.; and Military Incat^acity and liluif it Costs 
the Countiy [New York, February, 1862], 15 pp.) to the inefticiency of the 
commander-in-chief. 

He was derisively dubbed "Lieutenant-General Ellet" and subjected to 
widespread ridicule (see cartoon in Harper's H'eckly, December 28, 1861) ; 
and when editors became cautious about publishing his communications, he 
seriously contemplated establishing a journal at Washington, which would 
be independent of official influence. ('E. C. Ellet to Charles Ellet, Jr., 
JMarch 9, 1862.) Indeed, "his excitement over the inaction of our Govern- 
ment made his friends almost dread his presence, for his importunity knew 
no bounds." (J. T. Headley, Farragut and our Xaval Commanders. [New 
York, 1867I, p. 214. ) 

As early as 1855 he had endeavored to induce the Navy Department 
to adopt his "ram boat" scheme of warfare, and had published a brochure 
setting forth its principles ( Coast and Harbor Defences or the Substitut- 
ing of Steam Battering Rams for Shifts of JVar. [Philadelphia, 1855], 
17 pp.) .\s Ellet's professional interests were then largely in the South the 
pamphlet circulated widely there. At the outbreak of the Civil War he 
again endeavored, without success, to have his plan adopted by the Navy 
Department. When he learned of the conversion by Confederates of the 
frigate Mcrrimac into a ram, and further that the enemy was preparing a 
ram fleet to clear the Mississippi river of L^nion vessels, he appealed at 
last to TMwin M. Stanton, the new secretary of war, with whom he had 
been on bad terms for more than a decade. (Stanton had initiated the liti- 



320 MARY ISRAEL ELLET 

parlor to again urge her to attend and comfort me in case of 
sickness. Then the front door opened and I saw the last of that 
beloved, noble son. 

b^requent letters came to me from himself and his wife. All 
the news each received was transported to me. Some of the fleet 
of rams were tinished and in motion, when the glorious news 
reached the country that a complete victory had been obtained 
over the Enemy's fleet lying at Memphis by Col. Charles Ellet. 
and his brother, with the new mode of naval warfare tliat he had 
introduced. I had retired but not to slee]) but to reflect on a satis- 
factory letter I had just received from him, when my door w^as 
flung open and my nephew came to me with the great news of 
my son's success, and that the enemy's fleet was completely de- 
stroyed. But, said he, Charles has been wounded.^ ^- Thus was 
my joy crushed. I knew full well his physical weakness; from 

gation over the Wheeling Bridge and, in Ellet's opinion, had resorted to 
questionable methods to obtain a decree of abatement from the Supreme 
Court of the United States. [13 Howard 624, 1849.]) 

On March 12, 1862, Ellet offered his services to Stanton, and two days 
later was requested to proceed to Fortress Monroe and report upon "the 
most effectual mode of dealing with the JNterrimack, should she make her 
appearance again." (Ellet to Stanton, March 15, 1862.) Upon his return 
to Washington, after a series of staff conferences in Stanton's office, March 
20-26, 1862, Ellet was authorized to construct a ram fleet for service on 
the Ohio and Mississippi rivers, in accordance with his own plans. He was 
commissioned as a colonel (on General Fremont's staff) to command the 
ram fleet, on April 28, with the stipulation that his expedition was to be 
independent of both army and navy commanders, and subject only to the 
orders of tlie secretary of war. 

Ill Alfred W. Ellet was commissioned as a captain in the Sgth Illinois 
Infantry August 20, 1861. At the request of his brother, Charles, he was 
appointed a lieutenant colonel, a.a.d.c. (on the staff of General Fremont) 
and assigned to the Ram Fleet on April 28, 1862. (F. B. Heitman. His- 
torical Register and Dictionary of the United States Army. [Washington, 
1903], I, 401.) 

11- In an engagement before Memphis, June 6, 1862, Colonel Ellet 
demonstrated the effectiveness of his innovation in naval warfare. The 
commander of the Federal naval flotilla, resenting the interloping of this 
"civilian, engineer", had delayed moving down the river against the Con- 
federates until compelled to do so by Ellet's threat to proceed alone. Op- 
posite Memphis the fleets engaged in battle, with most of the population of 
the city watching from the bluffs. In less than an hoin- Charles Ellet, Jr., 
in command of one ram and Alfred W. Ellet in command of another, had 
succeeded in sinking or disabling seven of the eight Confederate vessels 
engaged. It was estimated that 150 Confederates were killed or drowned 
and more than 100 were taken prisoners. Only Colonel Ellet, of the Union 
forces, was injured. Brigadier General M. Jeff Thompson, C.S.A., reported 
the next day to General Beauregard: "I saw a large portion of the engage- 
ment from the river banks. . . many of our boats were handled badly or the 
plan of the battle was faulty. The enemy's rams did most of the execution 



MARY ISRAEL ELLET 321 

long years of intense study his once vigorous frame had been 
debilitated, but his wonderful energy overcame his weakness, 
while his brain increased in vigor and capacity. He was unmind- 
ful of himself; his whole thought was for others, his wife, his 
family, and his lieloved country. They were telegraphed to join 
him. Already had his brother, Edward, and Alfred's wife been 
apprised of the event. It appeared as we received the news, that 
Charles was the only person that was injured. His great desire 
to witness the proceedings and wish to save human life, caused 
him to expose his person, when he was struck by a Southern 
sharpshooter's bullet and immediately fell.^^^ But while in this 
condition gave his orders, wrote his dispatches, and ordered his 
young son to plant our glorious flag on the roof of the Post Office, 
wdiich he did in the face of the whole rebel population, they pelt- 
ing him with stones and other missiles. ^^"^ He was then taken to 
his bed and medical aid called in. For several davs hopes were 
entertained for his recovery, but his sufferings were intense until 
the end. 

He diecP^'' trancjuilly and in the full possession of his mind. 
His loved remains were brought to the City, his native i)lace, ac- 

and were handled more adroitly than onrs. . It is impossible now to report 
casnalties, as we were hurried in our retirement from Memphis." (Official 
Records, Navies, Ser. I, v. 22, pp. 139-140.) Cf. Herbert Gambrell, "Rams 
versus Gunboats", Southivcst Rciicw. XXITI. 46-78 (October, 19.57), sum- 
marized as "After the Merrimac", Readers Diciest. XXXI, no. 186. pp. 39- 
42 (October, 1937). 

^1-'^ "Brother Charles need not have been hurt if he had used the ordi- 
nary precaution to protect himself, but forgetful of everything else save 
the demonstration of his principle of warfare, he never thought of killing 
anybody nor of their killing him, but only of sinking the boats ; and exposed 
himself to witness the effect of his blows." ( .-Mfred W. EUet to Mary 
Ellet, June 7, 1862. ) The Colonel had stepped to the rail of his tiagship to 
watcli the sinking of a vessel he had rammed, when a Confederate soldier 
shot him in the knee. Captain J. E. Montgomery, C.S.N. , reported to his 
secretary of war that the shot was fired by Signal Quartermaster J. Sulli- 
van. (Rebellion Records, Ser. T, v. 52, p. 40.) 

The wound was not a serious one, but Ellet's exhausted and enfeebled 
condition made his recovery improbable. He died as his ship touched shore 
at Cairo, Illinois, June 21, 1862. His body lay in state in Independence Hall 
and was buried in Laurel Hill, Philadelphia. His wife, who died two days 
later, was buried in the same grave. (Data from Ellet Papers.) 

ii'* The incident is vividly described in a pencilled note of Colonel 
Ellet to his daughter, June 6, 1862. (Ellet Papers.) The Confederate flag 
which Charles Rivers Ellet removed from the post office and the Union flag 
from the S"u'it::;erland are in the possession of the Misses Cabell. 

11'"' On the Steam Ram Sixntzerlaud, at Cairo, Illinois. June 21, 1862. 
(James Brooks to E. M. Stanton. Telegram, June 21. 1862.) See Xorth 
American, thiladelphia, June 22, 1862. 



322 MARY ISRAEI, ELLKT 

companied by his broken-hearted wife, daughter, brother, and 
friends. They were all brought to my boarding house and con- 
ducted into my room where I lay prostrated with grief. All that 
dear Ellie said was. "Poor, poor Mother!" Then they led her 
to her bed. which proved the bed of death. I never saw her again 
alive. His dear remains were taken to Laurel Hill, placed in my 
lot where rested his father and sisters. His grateful country con- 
ducted him to the grave with the honors of war, and his body 
laid in state in the Hall of Indei)en(lence, guarded by good and 
true men who loved their country's defenders. Two days after 
his interment, his faithful wife, who had died with a broken 
heart, was taken over the same road and the grave of her loved 
husband was opened to admit her good, noble body. Never was 
there a more lovely character than Elvira Ellet's. never a more 
faithful, loving wife. '■()h!" she said. "1 have lost my heart's 
treasure. Lav me on his dear bosom" and her dying wish was 
filled to the letter. 

The agony of hi.s jjoor daughter"'^ cannot be described. It 
was dreadful to witness her agonies, thus in two short weeks to 
be deprived of both parents, and such i^arents as few were ever 
blessed with. Her health and even her mind at times yielded to 
the great grief which overpowered her. b^-om the heights of 
human happiness to the depths of human misery, to be thus 
launched on the world at an early age to take res])onsibilities few 
had ever been able to fulfill ; but she did in time yield to the will 
of Providence, after a long and fearful struggle, and accepted 
her situation and performed her duties in rearing her little brother 
and sister. ^^"^ 

316 Mary Virginia Ellet, born at Lynchburg, Virginia, January 24, 1839. 
She had been in Virginia, visiting in the homes of her relatives, Alex. H. H. 
Stuart, former Secretary of the Interior, and Wood Bouldin, in April 1861, 
and she left Virginia for Washington on the last train that made that trip. 
It was her custom to sit daily in the gallery of the Senate at Washington 
after her return, and she heard many of the withdrawal addresses of the 
Southern senators. (Cabell Papers.) Notwithstanding her attachment to 
her native state — she named herself Virginia — she was as devoted to 
the Union cause as was her father. 

Secretary Stanton came personally to Clifton on tlie Heights of George- 
town to inform Colonel Ellet's family of his wound, and provided Mrs. 
Ellet and Mary with passes that they might join him without delay. They 
were at Colonel Ellet's side when he died, and accompanied the body to 
Philadelphia. (Ellet Papers.) When Mrs. Ellet died, two days later, 
Mary became the head of the family. 

117 William D. Ellet and Cornelia D. Ellet. 



MARY ISRAEL ELLET 323 

After those dreadful, heart rending trials, and we had begun 
to realize our situation, my dear son Edward in the goodness of 
his heart insisted upon my returning with him to my old home 
at Bunker Hill, so that he could be near me and attend me in 
sickness. I was very old, very sick, and almost broken hearted ; 
then why should I remain, not a relative near me excepting mfy 
aged sister who approved of the change? She was rich and well 
cared for by two faithful domestics. Mary had returned to Wash- 
ington intending to remain there in the home her parents had so 
recently occupied ; but the very sight of the place was too much 
for her, and after we had departed letters and telegrams came 
urging the necessity of her removal. Accordingly her uncle again 
returned to the East and brought Mary and the two young children 
home with him. Alfred, and his son: young ATary's brother; and 
my two other grandsons were yet in service. ^'^ We were all 
under the protection of Edward. 

]\Tary's health gradually recovered by change of scene and 
freedom from care. Then we began to hope for a time we might 
have a respite from domestic affliction, but this could not be while 
the war was in full force, and Vicksburg in the hands of the 
enemy, and all five of my brave sons with their lives in their hands 
in hourly danger. Daily we heard of some of our friends being 
cut down, and at times the remains of some gallant youtli would 
be brought home to their sorrowing, bereft mothers and friends, 
who had joined their companies in high health and high anticipa- 
tion of glorious victory. We all remained under the care of 
Edward nearly a year. Dear Alfred at times coming to see us, 
as well as the boys, when they could obtain a short furlough. 
Those times were times of happiness, although of short duration. 
Now and then the news would come of the capture of \'icksburg, 
but as soon contradicted. Then would come the thrilling news 
of my brave young grandson's' ^^ endeavors to pass the Rebel 
Batteries at \'icksburg,^-° the loss of one vessel and the miraculous 

lis Alfred W. Ellet (then in command of the Ram hTeet), his son, 
Edward C. Ellet: Charles Rivers Ellet, son of Charles Ellet, Jr.; and John 
and Richard Ellet, sons of John I. Ellet of California, were in the service 
in 1862. 

11^ Colonel Qiarles Rivers Elkt, Lieutenant Colonel John A. Ellet and 
Lieutenant Edward C. Ellet were all engaged in the action. 
VM February 26, 1863. 



324 MARY ISRAEL EIXET 

escape of the men while my brave boys would flaunt the Stars 
and Stripes, even as the balls were rolling around them and the 
boat was sinking. They fired the last gun. Charles' young son 
escaped in the Switzerland with his life, but the boat much 
riddled. In this manner our lives passed, hoping and fearing to 
hear the details, and yet more miserable when none reached us. 
At length, while the war was raging a telegram came announcing 
the death of my sister, the last excepting myself of 15 children. 
My son Edward was named her executor. Therefore we had to 
return without delay as she could not be interred until our arrival. 
Mary and the children came with us. We all arrived safely in 
time to follow my dear sister's remains to the grave. She had 
been kept in the receiving vault at Laurel Hill until our arrival. 
I could not see her as she had been dead a week and the weather 
very hot. She was placed alongside of her husband and near the 
remains of our honored parents, — she had had them removed 
from the Church yard to her lot at South Laurel Hill.'-^ 

And now again, at the age of eighty-four years, I was with- 
out a home, only with strangers, and without a relative near me 
when my son again had to leave ; and Mary I knew would return 
to the South as soon as the way was clear, I felt confident but 
yet I would not yield to despondency. I had many kind friends, 
old and tried, who assured me that I should never be neglected while 
they lived, and truly I have found their promises realized. After 
those great family afflictions, my time was mostly occupied in 
reading the papers and watching with anxious heart for the re- 
turn of victorious peace, for T would not for one moment allow 
mt\'self to imagine that we would fail in a cause so just, based 
upon the platform of truth, righteousness, and universal liberty. 
But as time passed, battle succeeded battle and our brave defend- 
ers fell before the cruel enemy, while yet more personal troubles 
awaited me, added to the many preceding ones. I lost by death 
one of my oldest best beloved friends for nearly eighty years. . . . 
Her revered name before her marriage was Alargaretta Fitzgerald, 
her husband was Dr. Dale of Delaware. ... In her death I lost 
the last of all my old and early friends, but God had spared to 

^-1 Israel and Hannah Israel's bodies had been removed in October, 
i860, under the superintendence of the Rev. Abel C. Thomas. (Mary Ellet 
to E. C. and A. W. Ellet, October 15, i860.) 



MARY ISRAEL ELLET 325 

me three good, affectionate sons, but I was separated from them, 
one in California, another in the army defending his country's 
rights, the third for twenty-five years a resident of IlHnois, a prac- 
ticing physician.!" All had families of their own, and I had lost 
all of my eight daughters. . . . 

Not many months before I had lost my beloved friend, a tele- 
gram came announcing the death of my young grandson, Charles 
Rivers Kllet, a youth of great promise and as brave as his dear 
father. His mind was of a superior order. lie was learned be- 
yond his years (only nineteen) and what rendered this stroke so 
peculiarly distressing was the manner of his death by taking an 
overdose of Morphia, to relieve great pain caused by severe colds 
and exposure while in service. ^-^ This great affliction when com- 
municated to his sister again renewed the wounds yet bleeding, 
and again she was prostrated both in body and mind, but as time 
passed and his dear remains were brought to the City of his nativ- 
ity and he was laid beside his beloved father and mother at Laurel 
Hill Cemetery, our feelings of renewed sorrow subsided. Al- 

122 John I. Ellet was living in California, .A.lfred W. Ellet, now a 
Brigadier General, U.S.A., was in command of the Mississippi Marine Bri- 
gade, and Dr. Edward C. Ellet lived at Bunker Hill. Illinois. 

123 Colonel Charles Rivers Ellet, his health broken, applied for leave 
of absence from the Marine Brigade and in August, 1S63, retired to the 
home of Dr. E. C. Ellet at Bunker Hill, Illinois, where he died on October 
16, 1863. 

"He was but twenty years and five months old," wrote John S. C. Ab- 
bott in Haiper's Magazine (XXXII, 312, February, 1866) "and though so 
young had passed through perils and borne responsibilities such as few 
experience in a long lifetime. With remarkable acuteness and activity of 
intellect he read and discussed with avidity the philosophical works of 
Comte, Buckle, Mill and Cousin. His conversation, tone, and manners were 
gentle, almost womanly. His massive brow, large, lustrous eyes, and long, 
straight black hair and expressive features ever attracted the attention of 
the observing. . . In all the records of romance a more truly chivalric 
spirit can nowhere be found." 

He had his early education under tlie direction of his father, and at- 
tended school in Paris. 1854-1855. Later he attended Gessner Harrison's 
school in Virginia and Georgetown College in the District of Columbia. 
In i860 he began the study of medicine, and at the outbreak of the Civil 
War became a medical cadet at a Washington hospital. Secretary Stanton 
gave him permission, without consulting Colonel Ellet, to join the Ram 
Fleet (E. M. Stanton to C. R. Ellet, May 35, r862) and he reported to his 
father for duty on his nineteenth birthday, June 2. After the battle of 
Memphis, he was sent ashore to receive the surrender of the city. He pro- 
ceeded down the Mississippi with the Ram Fleet after his father's injury, 
and was subsequently commissioned as a Colonel of Infantry, attached to 
the Marine Brigade. (Data from Ellet Papers.) 




CHARLES RIVFJTIS ELLET 
Colonel, IT. S. V. 



MARY ISRAEL ELLET 327 

though not blasted, we had to yield to tliese repeated strokes that 
had so often brought misery upon us, but which we were as 
powerless to avert as we were ignorant of God's designs in thus 
afflicting us. If He will only take me ere the few who are left 
may be called. I will never murmur at those dispensations again, 
but submit to His decree and acknowledt^e that all His doings are 
intended for ultimate good. . . . 

And now almost approaching the end of tbis condensed re- 
view of my long life, 1 have yet to record other trials and other 
bereavements. My youngest daughter, Eliza, left one daugbter^^"* 
when she was taken from her good husband, her mother and her 
kindred. . . . Nine months since, while alone in mv chamber 
meditating on the past years so full of man\- sorrows, a telegram 
was handed, to me stating that my dear child was dead at the Astor 
House in New York, where she was taken ill wliile siie and her 
husband were on their way to the sea shore in pursuit of liealth. 
. . . Immediately I dispatched to my son at the seashore and also 
to my other sons far distant. I wrote to the familv letters of m\ 
poor, feeble consolation and to the papers announcing her death. 
When this was done I had time to grieve, for this cbild was ver\- 
dear to me Mthough far distant, her home being in Pitts- 
burgh, she with her husband ol'ten came to see me. . . . 

Although I have paid the penalty prescribed to length of 
years by outliving many loved kindred and friends, I have yet 
living man\- grandchildren. l)ut all are separated from me by long 
distances. Many 1 have never seen and others but seldom, yet I 
have the satisfaction of receiving assurances that thev bid fair to 
be good and virtuous men and women. Those who are grown 
lire in business and honorable men. 

1 think my testimony to the virtues of my beloved .son Charles 
will not l)e inappro])riate at this time, and T will therefore herein 
record some of these which has | sic | made my heart glad, even 
while in gi'ief at his death. II is virtuous character was unrivalled, 
his domestic duties fulfilled in life even to the end. He was the 
best of sons, brothers, busbimd, father, and friend. ... in a 
letter receive<l from my son I^dward of Illinois on the subiect of 
his dear brother's last will, be says. "1 have quoted bis own words 

1-^ .Mary E. IJryan, wlio married Robert Albree. 



328 MARY ISRAEL ELLET 

from his will ( Edward was in possession of the will) now lying 
before nie. He commended to the tender care of his wife and 
children that beloved mother in snch words as deserve to be com- 
memorated." 

Then judge. }e who may read those words, what that mother's 
feelings are in contemplating the dreadful fact that the loved wife 
is now in the grave with her devoted husband, and sorrowful to 
record, their children have all immigrated to Virginia. The eldest 
married on the very spot where secession first raised its hideous 
head/^^ and thus again has my hopeful vision been blasted, for 
a partition has been built between my son's children and myself, 
that time can never pull down. My glorious son's memory is too 
deeply imbedded in the inmost recesses of my heart ever to call 
his murderers my friends. I pray that they may repent all of 
their horrible crimes and crave the forgiveness of the Almighty. 
My son's children have been and are very dear to me. I counted 
much upon their tender care as recommended by their dying 
father, but this marriage has left me helpless/-*' and only for my 
long-tried friends alone in the world. Circumstances have ren- 
dered it out of the question for any of my sons to settle perma- 
nently in the East, for of choice in youth they selected the West 
for their home, have resided there for over thirty years. They 

I-'' Mary Virginia EUet was married in the Church of the Epiphany, 
Philadelphia, to William D. Cabell, of Norwood, Virginia, on July 9, 1867. 
(Alexander Brown, The Cabclls and tlicir Kin, [Boston 1895], p. 392.) 
She died en July 4. 1930. 

i-G Mr. Cabell was a cousin and early playmate of Mary Virginia 
EUet. A Virginian, he opposed secession until President Lincoln's call for 
troops. On April 17, 1861, he recorded in his diary: "I this day change my 
position and am for opposing him to the bitter end. Having been cool and 
conservative up to this date, I now feel thrice armed for the combat. May 
the God of battles be with us." (Cabell Papers, Charlottesville, Virginia.) 
He at once entered the Confederate service. Exempted from military duty 
on account of his dependents, he was made Commissary agent of Nelson 
County with the rank of Captain, buying and shipping supplies to Lee's 
army until the end of the conflict. He organized the Home Guard which 
blocked an advance of Federal cavalry down the James River valley. To 
care for families of soldiers, he advanced from his private funds $25,000 on 
one occasion ; for this as well as for expenditures of larger sums authorized 
by the county court (of which be was bonded agent), he had no return. 
The close of the war left him impoverished. (Account Books of William 
D. Cabell with Nelson County, (Tabell Papers.) 

In spite of the violence of this language and her bitter opposition to 
the marriage of her granddaughter to a Southerner, Mary Ellet expressed 
herself, elsewhere, as liking Mr. Cabell. (Elvira and Margaret Cabell, 
"Notes on Mary Virginia EUet Cabell's Life", Cabell Papers.) 




MARY VIRGINIA ELLET CABELL 
(From a photograph, about 1870) 



MARY ISRAEL ELLET 331 

come to see me as often as it is possible to leave home, business. 
or family, but the distance, danger, and fatigue attending so 
long a journey always causes me great anxiety. . . . 

One month after the death of ni}- dear grandchiUI, Mary 
[Bryan Albree], my husband's nephew, Mr. William Wainwright 
died, after a long and painful illness, iioth himself and amiable 
wife had been for forty years the friends of our family, and in 
the necessary absence of nw children they were to me in every 
respect like unto them. They were childless, but had adopted 
five orphans of their deceased brother who had now been with 
them over twenty years. ... At the time of William's death, she 
was residing in Iicr orrn house, where they had spent twenty 
happy years. She then in the kindness of her heart made me an 
offer of a home under her immefliate care, and 1 most g-ladly 
accepted, thankful that at last a haven of rest was found to end 
my weary pilgrimage. . . . 

I will attempt to describe this house and its surroundings.^-' 
The house is of medium size, say 20 feet wide, in perfect order, 
as it must be under the care of tlie very best of old-fashioned 
housekeepers. The room T occupy is the very perfection of neat- 
ness, my table supplied with all the delicacies of our abundant 
market, served by the hands of ni}- niece, or more pro]^erly my 
granddaughter, for both Sarah and Alice choose to perform all 
ofifices tending to my comfort, by their own kind hands. 

My second story windows overloo!-: what is now Franklin 
Square, but memory recalls the time man\- \ears since when it 
Avas a burving ground, owned T believe by the Moravians. Once 
some fiftv vears ago, I passed it when the gate was opened to 
admit a funeral. Curiosity led me to follow. The coffin was 
borne (as was then the fashion of the day) on the shoulders of 
four men, four more to relieve the liearers when tired. The body 
was dc])()sited somewhere near the center of the ground. T could 
almost i)()int to the spot, for 1 recollect the grief of the mourners 
as the loved one passed into the earth. Again, many years after- 
ward. I was jiassing the same spot, and again curiosity led me 
into the ground, for men were at work disintering the dead. 
Vehicles of various kinds were in attendance taking away the 

1-" 627 Vine Street. 



332 MARY ISRAEL ELLET 

remains who had friends living to claim them. I saw the ground 
opened and a long space cleared to place, far beneath, those bodies 
who had none to recognize them. It was about the same spot 
that years before I witnessed the funeral. I saw the stone laid 
over the body, and the work of filling up commenced. Painful 
thoughts came over me. Can it be possible that one so lamented 
should in such a few years have none to claim relation.ship, or to 
preserve the bones so loved in life! On leaving the ground, near 
the Sixth Street fence, I observed an elegant tomb, and was told 
it was owned by a person of wealth and distinction, who disputed 
the right of the City to remove his dead, I do not know how 
the matter ended, but the rich monument has gone with the 
humbler ones to places unknown. Sitting at my window (No. 627 
Vine St.) overlooking the spot so long remembered, I have been 
led into deep reflection, and can scarcely realize the changes that 
have taken place in half a century. 

This place of my birth has grown from a medium sized village 
to a magnificent City, from a population of a few thousands to a 
million. Seventy-five years ago I heard my parent [sayl that the 
increase of population then was wonderful; that in walking the 
streets he met so many strange faces, whereas but a short time 
ago he knew every person he met. He looked forward to wonder- 
ful improvements, and said were it possible to return after death 
to view the place 50 years hence, not one living could realize the 
change. He had a true prophetic vision of the future magnificence 
of our growing City and Republic. This park now before me is 
a small realization of his great anticipations. From an unadmired 
square of ground, only used for the dead, and part useless, it is 
now a magnificent miniature forest, the grounds laid out in taste- 
ful order into walks and luxuriant grass plots, in the center a 
fountain throwing up many jets of pure crystal water, around it 
the evergreen trees and flowers are planted, while seats are placed 
to rest the admiring crowd who daily assemble there for recre- 
ation or rest from toil. The little children flock there in hundreds 
after school hours, enjoying themselves with their hoops, jumping 
ropes, and marbles. It is indeed a beautiful sight to contemplate 
their innocence and happy ignorance of the future. This park is 
frequented by that class of society on which our future i:)rospects 
for a pure government depend, viz : honest, honorable mechanics 



MARY ISRAEL ELLET 333 

who in rearing their children to industry and pure moraHty will 
form the bulwark of our future grand and great Republican coun- 
try. 

But there is a growing evil, that if not checked, in time will 
lead to great trouble and fearful ruin, both in public and private 
life. T mean the unreasonable passion as exhibited in our female 
population for dress and fashion. It is not only in personal orna- 
ment, but even to the grave this vitiated taste is carried. I have 
witnessed such scenes as have made my heart sick in the house of 
Death, that should be of decent respect if not of real mourning. 
The family under the control of interested and too often unscrup- 
ulous hired [ ?] persons, are in the very presence of the dead con- 
sulted on the subject of the most fashionable mourning, the shade 
and quality of the crepe, the most fashionable patterns of sleeve 
or waist ; the dead equipped as for a party or wedding reception, 
silks, satins, tassels, on the body ball decorations, flowers covering 
the attenuated form who but a few hours before was an object 
of pity if not disgust, and now of rejoicing that death had relieved 
the relatives of so much care. Accident presented this scene a 
few years ago, but 'tis always to be remembered. Many others I 
have witnessed equally to be regretted. 

My idea of death is that, as we came into the world unorna- 
mented, we should return to our natural element and to the pres- 
ence of the Almighty in decent, plain clothing, placed on the body 
by loving hands. My last request is that everything relative to 
my funeral shall be conducted in a plain, quiet, and \mostentatious 
manner. If not mourned for in reality, let there be no show for 
effect. The great devotion to fashion is fast destroying the 
natural impulse of love and veneration for relatives and friends. 
My voice is weak but my interest in the rising generation is strong. 
I would if possible lead them into the only true paths to happiness. 
Flad I the pen of our late lamented good philanthropist, Charles 
Dickens, it should be exerted and used in this holy cause. 

It is not only in the manner that funerals are conducted and 
disgraced that I raise my voice, but also in that of weddings. The 
extravagance in which young people are ushered into domestic 
life is truly appalling and almost inevitably leads to ruin. I am 
glad to see that marriage before a curious crowd in a church is 
going out of fashion. I look upon the union of a young couple 



334 MARY ISRAEL ELLET 

as one of the most solemn, as well as one of the most eventful, 
jieriods of their lives. I cannot understand why a modest, delicate, 
young girl should cast ofif all delicacy and refinement at the very 
moment that these inestimable qualities are required, merely to 
gratify the vulgar curiosity of a crowd of strangers, for the in- 
dulgence of their vanity, by endeavoring to create a sensation in 
the exhibition of fine dress and long trains. The most beautiful 
ornament for a young bride is modesty, and the virgin blushes 
that mantle her cheek are far more beautiful to her lover than 
satin or diamonds. But I am very glad to observe that the old 
way of marriage is now performed, in the house of the bride's 
parents. I hope other reforms will soon follow, if not in the 
present generation, in the future. . . . 

I am now nearly at the end of my life's record, botli in the 
body as well as on paper. Therefore, before concluding, T wish 
to say that the foregoing is a very brief relation of facts, but T 
wished to condense and avoid saying anything that could be con- 
strued as a reproach. I therefore omitted all circumstances of a 
painful character, and avoided bringing in anv person not im- 
mediately connected with the details relative to myself alone. 
These notes are private, only for my immediate family and near 
friends. 1 have been induced to write them because I wish to 
show those who read n\v record how much can be accomplished 
by a person who is willing to resign all devotion to self-interest 
and self indulgence in pursuance of a sacred duty to others. I 
have been suj^ported in my labors b\- dutiful, affectionate children. 
My husband always aided me by a good example of honesty, 
sobriety, and industry in the pursuits of life, which prevented 
him aiding me as he wished in raising a very large family of 
children. I am now at the advanced age of 90 years, comfortably 
situated, although from unavoidable circumstances separated from 
my three sons and my two married granddaughters. Mary Anna 
Crandall and Mary \'irginia Cabell, both a great distance from 
me. But T have b}' arranging my affairs obtained a sure income 
from my pr()]ierty. Although T could not build T have leasefl for 
ten years on ^uch conditions as will leave it to the heirs a clear 
and valuable estate, unencumbered, and will aft'ord me a living. 
My sons have again and again oft'ered me support, which I have 
always refused, as I have my peculiar independent ideas of my 



MAHY ISRAEL ELLET 335 

own. I believe that when men marry, that their duty is to their 
family, and all must know that a rising; family requires means 
to educate, clothe, and rear, but were I in ])overt\' T should accept 
relief unhesitatingly. 

J wish here to observe tliat until Mr. Forney re(|uested me 
to give him some reminiscences of the past century, I had never 
written a line only in letters to my dear children and family. I 
hastily drew up those notes, thinking that he mieht gather some- 
thing new from my simple statement. I wrote then in two morn- 
ings before breakfast, and in two evenings. I had never even 
looked over them when I placed them in his daughter's hands. ?\Iy 
astonishment was great when his beautiful sketch came out.^-^ 
r thought then and I think now that he did me most undeserving 
honor. ... T wish to express my grateful thanks both to Mr. 
Forney and my friend. Rev. Abel C. Thomas, for the beautiful 
true eulogium on the character of my son Charles and his son 
wlio both died for their country. ^-^ I am happy to receive the 
a'^surances of these gentlemen that they believe in the jnirity of 
their noble characters as also in the i)atriotism of nn whole 
family, as they have so beautifully expressed in the Obituary of 
the one and succeeding notes of the other, and at the same time 
I must acknowledge my happiness that these gentlemen have con- 
sidered my humble self deserving of such sons. ATy estimation 
of Mr. Forney's patriotism commenced on reading his editorials 
in the Press, long before I had the pleasure of his acquaintance. 
The tone of the paper was so different to the papers generally, 
that although unknown to me. I became his advocate and defender 
whenever T heard him denounced, for his honest republican prin- 
ciples, based on sure conviction of justice and moralitv. On a 
personal acquaintance and daily reading of his ])owerfr.l pen. I 
am convinced that my first impressions were correct. Mr. 

128 Colonel John W. Forney, editor of The Press, Philadelphia, devoted 
five columns to a signed article, prepared hv himself, on Mary Ellet. whom 
he characterized as "An American Cornelia". The hastily written notes, to 
which Mary Ellet here alludes, fill three columns immediately following 
Colonel Forney's article. The notes, as well as the article itself (which 
consists in part of quotations from Ellet letters), contain information re- 
garding the Lsrael and Ellet families, as well as Mary h:i]et's vivid recollec- 
tions of events and personalities nf early Philadelphia. ( Tin- I'rcss. Phila- 
delphia, January ii, 1869.) 

1-" .\|l)ell C. Tfhomas] : /;/ .l/.-;;;,-;v of Col. Charles F.llet. Jr. ( Phila- 
dcli)hia, iS6j). 



336 MARY ISRAEL ELLET 

Thomas is a friend of many years. Tn his character of Pastor 
of the Church over whicli he presided from youth to middle age. 
he gained the love of his large congregation, assisted as he 
was in his ]iastoral care over his flock by his most faithful, 
highly cultivated companion, whom I am proud to number as 
one of m}- most valued and esteemed friends. 

Since my connection in early youth with the first Universalist 
Church in Lombard Street, I have had the privilege of becoming 
intimately acquainted with many of the ministers who have pre- 
sided over that Society, and have always found them gentlemen 
of cultivated minds, pure morals, and all devoted to the doctrine 
of the future holiness anrl happiness of the whole human family; 
all religious without pedantry or fanaticism, well versed in the 
scriptures, and filled with sympathy for all mankind. Among 
those pastors of a late date, 1 have the ideasure to number Rev. 
Richard Eddy, who succeeded ^Ir. Thomas and has to my great 
satisfaction continued his ( Mr. Thomas' ) attention to the old 
friend and oldest member of their church. My feelings towards 
the congregation as well as the doctrine are most .reverential, and 
even to the very building which my own father was instrumental 
in rearing, both by his counsel and material aid. He loved the 
doctrine, and 1 have witnessed the happv association of the old 
members wdio were the first followers of Winchester, Priestly, 
Murray. The names of this handful of good men who dared to 
defend a faith founded on the purest {)rinciples deserves to be 
recorded. They are as follows : ]\Ir. Francis. ]Mr. Gordon, Mr. 
John Connelly. Mr. Fitzgerald, Mr. Israel Israel, Mr. Cuthbert, 
Old Aunt Amy, and several others whose names, although fami- 
liar. I cannot at this instant recall. I have lately become ac- 
quainted with the present ofificiating minister of the Church, the 
Rev. Mr. Leonard and his [wife] from whom I expect to receive 
much information as well as most pleasant intercourse, should 
my life be spared yet a little longer. 

And now I close these pages and drop my pen, one month 
since I first [took] it for the purpose of stating some of the events 
of my life. . . . 

June 17th, 1870. This day brings to a close my ninetieth 
year. Tomorrow will commence a new year in my life. I know 
not what is before me, whether my years are yet to be lengthened, 



MARY ISRAEL ELLFT 337 

but I am most tliankful that T am yet al)le to lielp myself. I rise 
in the morning I^efore the sun (my Hfe-Iong ])ractioe). T read 
until breakfast, then I take my needle in hand and am able to 
create my little repairs, as in days long \rdst. 1 pass the day in 
various occupations, entertaining ni}- friends, answering letters, 
all my spare time reading. I never sit idle. It is my duty as well 
as pleasure to cultivate the hours in some useful em]:)loyment, and 
I cannot be thankful enough that 1 yet liave my eyesight (some- 
what dim. but able to read, write, and ^ew ). At eight o'clock I 
retire and sleep well, have a moderate appetite, and never over- 
dainty ; my taste has always been very simple, my habits regular, 
my rule of action, swstem and order whicli has enabled me to per- 
form my allotted tasks with comparative ease. I would advise 
all who read these pages to try the experiment. 

And now. I bid you (/// an affectionate farewell. . . . 

MARY ELLET. 



POSTSCRIPT 

\ closing this brief narrative of myself, 1 wisli my 
children or mv friends who ma\' outiive me, to conform 
to this my last request in disposing of my body. Let 
everything pertaining to that event be conducted in the plainest and 
unostentatious style. Let the emptv casket return to the earth from 
whence it came, clean but unadorned, without any expense for 
show.^'^*^ The necessary money 1 leave for that purpose will be 
found and labelled in \u\ desk. ]M\- reason for making this request 
IS the great (Hsiike and even horror that 1 have telt m witnessmg tne 

i--"' Mary EUet died on November 2. 1870, at her residence, 627 Vine 
Street, Philadelphia. Funeral services were conducted at the home "by the 
Rev. Abel C. Thomas, one of the most eminent Universalist clergymen in 
the world, assisted by the Rev. Henry C. Leonard, pastor of the Lombard 
Street Universalist Church. Mrs. Ellet was one of the oldest L^niversalists 
m America, having joined that denomination in 1807. . . The dying wish 
of the noble female patriot [was] that she should be buried with the 
American flag wrapped around her." Dr. Thomas said : "For more than a 
third of a century she was to me as a mother, antl it is my deliberate judg- 
ment that in mental energy, and in all that goes to make up a truly regal 
character few have equalled and none have excelled her." Tiic pall-bearers 
were E. Dallet, Esq., W. II. Wair, John Steward, Edward Simmons, juid 
Colonel John W. Forney. .At the grave in Laurel LI ill, L^r. Thomas read 
"extracts from a memoir written in her own hand, most of it after she had 
passed her ninetieth year. Tliey referred to iier children, grandchildren, 
and friends, and were singularly ckar and cnnnocled." (The Press. Phila- 
delphia, November 8, 1870.) 



338 MARY ISRAEL ELLET 

most unnatural manner that funerals are now conducted, by dis- 
playing the extreme of fashion even in the grave by decorating 
the inanimate body in fashionable apparel only fitted for the ball 
room or bridal, burying in the grave valuables that might, if 
disposed of for money, warm many a desolate house. Could the 
poor inanimate departed only speak, what a lesson it would teach 
to those false, misguided people who show their love and respect 
for the departed by catering to their own depraved taste for 
fashion. Miserable, most miserable, devotees to fashion! Your 
turn is close at hand. Reflect in time, the uncertainty of life and 
how that life should be spent in doing all the good to our fellow 
beings while in the flesh that we are capable of doing. 

I have another request to make before closing these pages. 
It is now twenty years since I have been greatly afflicted with a 
tumor in my left breast, not at all malignant or cancerous in its 
nature, but producing a great flow of blood, frequently amounting 
to severe hemorrhages. My desire is that at my death a compe- 
tent physician shall be called in to examine and extract the tumor, 
in order to define its character, and by that means afford relief 
to many who may be affected in the same way as I have been. 
My mental sufferings for nearly a quarter of a century have been 
more than equalled by the pain arising from the malady. To 
prevent such discomfort to my fellow sufferers. I advise this 
course to be pursued at my death. 

MARY ELLET. 



* 




The Last Purchase of Land from the Indians in Bucks County 

Bt GEORGE WHEELER, Phd. D., PHILADELPHIA, PA. 
(Doylestown Meeting-, September 30, 1939) 

N the "Merchant of Venice", Shylock's servant, 
Launcelot Gohbo, declared that to get away from 
his tyrannical master, he would, if necessary, "run 
as far as God has any ground." Beginning at 
the Delaware River, the three original counties 
of Pennsylvania ran as far inland as Penn had 
any ground. No attempt was made to set tip county government 
except where the land had been purchased from the Indians ; but, 
as each successive tract was thus acquired, it automatically came 
under the jurisdiction of the county or counties in which it was 
situated. 

For seventy years Bucks County extended to the New York 
line. In 1752 all that portion that lay above the Lehigh Hills was 
organized into a new county called Northampton. Three years 
before Bucks was thus drastically reduced in area, a great tract, 
most of which was in Bucks County, was bought from the Six 
Nations. The circumstances surrounding this "Purchase of 1749" 
make it one of the highly dramatic episodes of Pennsylvania his- 
tory, but for some reason the story is unknown except in its barest 
outlines. Few are aware that it was closely related to the "Walk- 
ing Purchase", of which it was the final chapter. To make this 
clear, let me take a few minutes to refresh your memorv on some 
phases of this much discussed earlier purchase. 

In the early days of the Province, the Delaware drainage 
basin, including the valleys of the Schuylkill and the Lehigh, was 
inhabited by Lenape Indians who soon came to be known as Dela- 
wares. The Susquehanna \^alley was in possession of a powerful 
Iroquois confederacy, known at first as the Five Nations and later 
as the Six Nations. Before the arrival of William Penn, the Five 
Nations, either by contract or by strategy, had become the over- 
lords of the Delawares, though they made no claim to the owner- 
ship of Delaware lands until 1736. At a treaty held in I^hiladel- 
phia that year, the Six Nations sold io the Proprietaries a large 
tract in the Susquehanna \"alley below the Blue or Kittatinnv 
Mountain. The deed specified that it extended eastward only as 
far as "the Heads of the Branches or Springs which run into the 



340 LAST INDT.W LAND PURCHASE 

Susquehanna", thus distinctly excluding any land drained hy the 
Schuylkill, the Lehigh or the Delaware itself. 

Usually when a transaction of this kind was completed, the 
Indians started for home. On this occasion, hov/ever. nearly all 
of the signers of the deed remained in Philadelphia several weeks 
longer, during which time they were the recipients of very kind 
treatment and valuable presents. Fourteen days after they signed 
the deed, these Indians signed another document in wdiich they 
declared that "their Intention and Meaning by the former l^eed, 
was to release all their Right, Claim, and Pretensions to all the 
Lands lying within the Bounds and Limits of the Government of 
Pennsylvania beginning eastward on the River Delaware as far 
north as the said Ridge of endless [Blue] Alountains". It could 
scarcely have been a mere coincidence that the Six Nations claimed 
the right to dispose of lands in the Delaware Valley just when the 
Provincial authorities were making their elaborate plans to have 
the Walking Purchase include as much land as possible. Little, if 
any, publicity was given to this second document at the time, and 
it is extremely doubtful whether the Delawares had any knowledge 
of it when the Indian \\'alk took place the next year. 

They were anxious to have the bounds of the Walking Pur- 
chase defined because the whites were settling in the LehighA'alley, 
and particularly in the "Forks", which w^as the name given to the 
section south of the Blue Mountain between the Lehigh and the 
Delaware, which region, they felt confident, would be beyond the 
limit of the Walk. 

Indeed, they cherished the rather flimsy hope that the walk 
of a day and a half might not go beyond the Tohickon. They 
were sure that it would not go past the Lehigh Llills. That it 
might extend beyond the Blue Mountain was unthinkable. 

You know how the afl:*air turned out. Edward Marshall, 
winner of the contest, by a remarkable feat of walking, reached 
a point far above the Blue ^Mountain, from which the northern 
boundary was laid out at a right angle to the line of the \A'alk. 
Thus the Purchase was made to include two tracts which the 
Delawares had no thought of disposing of, — the Forks below the 
Blue Mountain and the Minisink region above that ridge. As the 
Purchase was laid out, the portion above the Lehigh Llills was 
several times as large as that below these Hills. The Delawares 



LAST INDIAN LAND Pl'RCIIASE 341 

would have been something more than human not to have resented 
the outcome of the Walk. They stubbornly refused to give up 
the land above the Lehigh Hills. 

The Delawares could probably have been placated, even 
though they were not satisfied, if the Provincial authorities had 
made some concessions, but they chose to resort to coercion by 
reporting the matter to the Six Nations. On July 12, 1742. Canas- 
satego, spokesman for the Iroquios C(jnfederacy. in a public ad- 
dress at J'hiladelphia said to Governor Thomas: "We see with 
our own eyes that they [the Delawares] have been a very unruly 
People and are altogether in the wrong in their Dealings with 
you." 

Then turning to the Delawares, he made a speech full of 
taunts and ridicule that blasted their hopes that the Forks would 
be restored to them. Said the speaker: "You ought to be taken 
by the Hair of the Head and shak'd severely till you recover your 

Senses How come you to sell Land at all : We conquer'd 

you. we made Women of you; you know you are Women and 
can no more sell Land tlian Women. . . . You act a dishonest part, 
not only in this but in other matters. . . We charge you to remove 
instantly. We don't give you the liberty to think about it. . . . 
We therefore assign you two Places to go — either to Wyomen 
or Shamokin. . . . Then we shall have you more under our Eye 
and we shall see how you behave. . . . Neither you nor any who 
descend from you are ever hereafter to presume to sell any Land." 
Canassatego concluded l)y curtly dismissing the Delawares. say- 
ing: "A\ e have some other I'.usiness tn transact with our Prethren. 
Therefore depart the Council."" Fearing to disobey, the Delawares 
left Philadelphia at once, and shortly thereafter removed from the 
Forks, some to Shamokin, some to Wyoming, and some to the 
Ohio River. 

I!y this j)roce(lure the Proprietaries secured jiossession of the 
h^orks : but they lost their claim to the Miiiisink region; for neither 
the deed of 1736 nor the su])p]ementar)- document, signed two 
weeks later, made mention of any land above the lUue Ah)untain. 
H', as Cana-^satego declared in 1742. the Delawares had no power 
lo sell an\- land, then the Mir.isinlc area >till heloiigetl to the Six 
\atioii'. It was not until 17-l!l. twelve \ears after the Indian 
Walk, that this tract was transferred to the Penns 



342 LAST INDIAN LAND PURCHASE 

Not many years after the Six Nations sold their land below 
the Bine Mountain, they began to be troubled by the encroach- 
ments of adventurous settlers who went through the Susquehanna 
gap, six miles above the present Harrisburg, and located along the 
river and its branches. By 1749 the condition had become such 
as to endanger seriously the friendly relations heretofore existing 
between the Provincial government and the Six Nations. Early 
in the spring of that year the Indians decided to send a delegation 
of chiefs to take up the matter with the newly arrived Governor, 
James Hamilton. 

Accordingly, at the beginning of the summer, forty-six Sen- 
ecas in charge of three chiefs started for Philadelphia. The repre- 
sentatives of the other five nations were expected to follow shortly 
thereafter. The Senecas came as far as Wyoming and there 
waited a month for the other deputies to arrive, but they failed 
to appear. The Senecas, after some hesitation, finally decided to 
go on without further delay. They came down the Susquehanna 
to Shamokin [now SunburyJ at the forks of the river. 

L'sually, travelers, both red and white, between Shamokin and 
Philadelphia followed a historic Indian path that left the Susque- 
hanna at a point fifteen miles down the river and crossed the 
mountains toward Reading. On this occasion, however, the Sen- 
ecas followed the river all the way to the gap in the Blue Mountain 
so that they might see for themselves whether the reports that the 
whites were settling on Indian lands were true. At the gap was 
a mill on a small tributary of the Susquehanna which was owned 
by the Widow Chambers. From this point they headed for the 
home of Conrad Weiser, who lived about thirteen miles west of 
the present city of Reading. Weiser had come from central New 
York twenty years before this. As a boy in the teens, he lived 
for some time with a chief of the Mohawk tribe, one of the Six 
Nations. Thus he became acquainted with their language and 
their customs, and was regarded as an adopted son. The Senecas, 
on their way to Philadelphia to see the Governor, took Weiser with 
them to act as interpreter. 

At a meeting in Philadelphia on July 1, their speaker, Ogash- 
tosh, stated : "One of the most considerable Points which induced 
the Council [of the Six Nations] to send Deputies at this time 
was that they heard the white people had begun to settle on their 



LAST INDIAX LAND PURCHASE 343 

side of the Blue Mountain and we to our surprize found 

the story confirmed with this addition, that even this Spring since 
the Governor's arrival numbers of famihes were beginning to 
make settlements. As our l)oundarics are so well known and so 
remarkably distinguished b\- a range of high mountains, we could 

not suppose this could be done by mistake. Tlie Governor 

will be pleased to tell us whether he has brought any orders from 
the King or the Proprietaries for these people to settle on our 
lands, and, if not, we earnestl}- pray that the}- may be made to 
remove instantly with all their Efl^ects to prevent the sad conse- 
quences that will otherwise ensue." 

In his reply on July 4, the (Governor stated that proclamations 
iiad warned woul<l-be settlers of heavv penalties for encroaching 
on Indian lands and added: "Some who have bren so audacious 
as to go there have been forcii)l\- removed and their plant- 
ations broke up and destroyed." Two weeks later ( ioverncjr Ham- 
ilton issued another proclamation forbidding settlements on hidian 
lands. 

riie Provincial authorities realized that the heav\' immigra- 
tion from Euroj^e to Pennsylvania would soon make it necessary 
to buy additional land from the Indians. ( )n July 7. the (.Tovernor 
instructed W'eiser to "sound the three Seneca chiefs on this im- 
portant ])oint,' cautioning him to so handle the matter as to "make 
the first motion come from them for should the Indians dis- 
cover that ye Prop'tys want to buv and that they are the first 
movers, they would be the more averse and insist on higher Terms. 

The lands to be sold should be of i)roper extent and not an 

insignificant part of ye country." The idea \\'as to ha^•e the Senecas 
take back to the other five nations the suggestion to sell a tract 
above the Plue Mountain. 

Befcjre the Senecas began their return trip, they were i)re- 
sented with a large quantity of desirable goods. In the list was 
one item which injected a gleam of humor into the matter, a very 
rare element in the contacts between the Indians and the Whites. 
The Senecas was given "l'-2 groce of small llrass Juice I lar])s". 
Imagine the serious and dignified Indian deputies strolling through 
the forest or seated b\- their cam]) fires engaged in ])laying these 
instruments. Perhaps the clerk who wrote the list had in mind 
the method of playing when he wrote "juice" instead of "jews" 



344 LAST INDIAN LAND PURCHASE 

and sacrificed correctness in spelling in order to secure vividness 
in description. 

The visit of the Senecas had been expensive. In addition to 
their presents, which cost one hundred pounds, the Province paid 
their traveling expenses from the Widow Chambers' on the frontier 
to Philadelphia and back. I-'ood was cheap, but forty-six Indians, 
who, as W'eiser said, always comi)lained of being nearly starved, 
consunied a prodigioiLs ([uantitv of prc)visions. For example, dur- 
ing their stay of three days at \\ eiser's on their way down, they 
dis]iosed of IS huge loaves of bread worth 9 pence each, 420 
pounds of beef and mutton whicli cost 2jS to 3 pence per pound 
and "2 gallings of rum" at five shillings a gallon. The Province 
refunded to ^^'eiser more than 60 pounds for such expenses. The 
(governor also recommended that he be paid a handsome reward 
for his service, no small part of which was the task of keeping in 
order fort\'-six Indians whose thirst for the white man's firewater 
was almost un([uenchable. 

As the Senecas departed, the Governor strongly urged them 
"if they met the other Deputies to inform them what had been 
done and ])erswade them to return." \\ eiser was also requested 
to (io all in his power to keep the others from coming to Philadel- 
]jhia. ( )ne such visit as that of the Senecas was cjuite as much, 
financially and otherwise, as the Governor and the f)ther Provin- 
cial oiTicers cared to have that summer. Imagine then their dismay 
when a letter came from W'eiser stating that the deputies of the 
other five nations were at Shaniokin on tlieir way to Philadelphia. 
The Senecas had not yet reached Shaniokin on their homeward 
journev, and Weiser expressed the hope that the new delegation 
would turn back when they heard what the Senecas had to say. 

It was a vain hope. Xot only did the newly arrived deputies 
insist on going to see (Governor Hamilton, Init they also persuaded 
the Senecas to go with them, as well as a large number of Dela- 
wares and other In.dians who were not members of the Six Na- 
tions. The total numlier was nearly three hundred. They came 
dov.n the Suscjuehanna to the Widow Chamliers', as the previous 
delegation had done. Their first stop below the Blue Mountain 
was at Justice Galbreath's. whose house was near the Swatara 
Creek at the site of the present town of Hershey, from which 
place they sent four messengers to notify Weiser of their arrival 



LAST iXDIAN LAND PITROIL\SE 345 

and to request him to meet them. The leader of this great body 
of IncHans was none other than Canassatego, who so bitterly re- 
buked the Delawares seven years before. 

Weiser met them the next day, but, instead of greeting them, 
he "stood at a (hstance Hke a stranger for above a quarter of an 
hour to signify to them" his displeasure at their coming. At last 
Weiser sat down wdth Canassatego on the creek side where they 
were encamj^ed, and took him severely to account for ignoring 
the (jovernor's wishes, and also for inviting numerous other In- 
dians to come, who, not being members of the Six Nations, had 
no official business in Philadelphia. After their arrival at Weiser's 
house, he made another attempt to induce Canassatego to turn 
back, but without success. 

He wrt^te to Secretary Peters: "1 belief 1 have oft'endeii him 
Ijy telling him I thouglit it imprudent for them to go to Philadel- 
phia with such a great number of people that had no business 

there at all, only to get drunk, etc. As the Sinicker | Seneca] 

deputies had been down and had cost a great d.eal of money 

- - - they must not expect any presents without they had some- 
thin.g to do that 1 did not know ; that they remembered well when 
they received presents it was for some land." W'eiser's reminder 
of the connection between presents and land sales made an im- 
pression, as was proved by later events. 

C)n August 8 the great delegation left Weiser's house for 
Philadelphia. An unpublished letter by the Interpreter is replete 
with interesting incidents, but is too long to be quoted in full. A 
few items will give some idea of this journey. The arrogant Canas- 
satego, angr}- and humiliated by the reproaches of Weiser and 
some of the Indian chiefs, kept drunk most of the time and sulkily 
followed at the rear of the picturescjue procession. The first day's 
travel brought them to William Hartley's at the site of the jiresent 
Reading. Here, as Weiser wrote, "the poor crearures nearly per- 
ished" in a heavy rain storm which delayed them for a day. The 
Indians stripped the bark from the walnut trees in the neighbor- 
hood to make shelters for themselves, greatly to the tlissatisfaction 
of the settlers there. 

.\ (lav of two later there was a great commotion because a 
drunken Indian had struck a white man witli his hatchet. Weiser 



346 LAST INDIAN LAND PUKCIIASE 

demanded that Canassatego find the guihy ])arty. The wily chief, 
having discovered that the ofifender was not one of the deputies, 
made a great show of sending him back to Shamokin ; but when 
the redskin was apprehended, he had been so badly beaten that he 
could hardly walk, and so the excitement died down. On another 
occasion there was a bitter cjuarrel between Canassatego and Sar- 
ristagus, an Oneida chief, and the latter announced his intention to 
go back home at once ; but Weiser, fearing trouble if the Oneidas 
went back through the settlements unescorted, finally persuaded 
Sarristagus to change his mind and continue with the rest of the 
deputies to Philadelphia. 

At a meeting on August 16. Canassatego ofiferecl to sell a 
narrow strip along the Susquehanna where the whites had settled. 
The Governor told Weiser to inform the Indians that sf) small a 
tract was not worth considering and offered to buy a tract whose 
upper boundar\- began at Shamokin and ran ])aridlel to the Blue 
Mountain from the Susquehanna to the Helaware. The Indians 
rejected this proposal but offered to sell all the land within the 
following boundaries, — beginning at the Susquehanna gap in the 
Blue Mountain, then up the river to a mountain fourteen miles 
below Shamokin, then by a straight line across country to the 
Delaware above the mouth of Lackawaxen Creek, then down said 
river to the Blue Mountain at the Water ( iap, and then along the 
said mountain to the place of beginning. These negotiations were 
privately conducted. 

At a public council on August 21, Governor Hamilton stated : 
"Having received this second offer, tho' neither in this is there 
any considerable cjuantity of good land, yet in regard to your 
poverty more than to the real value of the tract, we sent you 
word that on your signing a deed we wou'd pay the sum of Five 
Hundred Pounds." He also announced that the Indians would 
be given a present practically identical with that which the Senecas 
had received even to the "1^- groce of small brass Jews Harps", 
bvit this time the clerk spelled "Jews" correctly. 

The next day twenty- four Indians signed the deed. Surpris- 
ing to relate, two of the signers were Delawares. though Canas- 
satego had em])hatically declared seven years before that none 
of the Delawares, "nor any who descend from you are ever here- 
after to presume to sell any Land". In view of the fact that the 



LAST INDIAN LAND PURCHASE 347 

boundaries of the purchase of 1749 were drawn to include all that 
portion of the Walking Purchase that lay above the Blue Moun- 
tain, the signatures of the Delawares may have been the linal step 
in removing any lingering vestige of doubt about the title of the 
Proprietaries to the Minisink lands. 

A map of the Purchase was attached to the deed for the 
information of the Indians. Another was sent to England for the 
use of the Proprietaries. They were identical, except in one par- 
ticular. The reason for this difference appears in a letter from 
Secretary Peters to the Proprietaries on September 11, in which 
he says: "The extent of the land purchas'd is laid down on a map 
herewith sent, w'ch is an exact copy of one annexed to the Indian 
Deed, save in this ; — Susquehana is laid down beyond Wyomen. 
but in yt annex'd to the Indian Deed, it is broke off just about 
Shamokin, and the reason was, Susquehana after you come to 
Shamokin tends so much easterly that Mr. Weiser was apprehen- 
sive that on the Indians seeing the course of the river and how 
near the land sold went to Wyomen, they would not have ratify'd 
their contract." 

Three days after the signing of the deed the Indians started 
for home. Because of the vivid picture of the journey from 
Philadelphia to the Widow Chambers' which appears in Weiser's 
expense account it is here quoted in full : 

1/49 the Government of pensilvania debtor for Expences on the return of 

the Indians from Philadelphia to Chambers Mill on 

Susque Hana in paxton 

August left Philadelphia. Came to Whitemasli with some of 
the the Indians the rest being drunk by the way I wa^ 
25 oblidged to lie still till all the Indians came up. 



a. t/i a. 

the 26 paid to Christian Raby 384 lb. of Reaf at 3 pens a lb. 4-16-00 

250 lb. of Meal at i5/i>er cwt. 1-17- 6 

to Bread Milk & other necessarys 2- 9- 6 

the 27 We marched from Christoph Raby's to John Slirocks 
over Berjomen [PerkiomenJ had for refreshment at 

noone 1-7-9 
at John Schracks 328 lb. of Beaf at 2y2 peny a lb. 

amounts to 3-8-4 



348 LAST !.\DI.\N 



AND PURCHASE 



4- 


1 1 - 


- 6 


oo- 


i8- 


-00 


I - 


4- 


- 4 



to 221 lb. of flower at 13/per cwt. l- 9-cx) 

to Horse pasturing & drink o-ii- i 

the 28 we marched to Marcus Huelings fPottstown] 

had for refreshment at noone i _ 3 _ 6 

at James Kiemers Innkeeper for Bread, Sider, Indian 

Corn, Horse pasturing- and other necessarys in the 

whole 2-6-00 

the 29 reached ReacHng had for refresht at noone to the 

value of I _ 8_ 4 

paid to ])aul dust damage done liy the Indian dogs 
killing two sheeps it was done upon my own View 00-10-00 
to 440 11). of Beef of Willm Hartley Esqr. at sVj 
a li). anidunts 
to J 50 Ih. (if flower 
to other necessarys 

thi.- day Tawis tawis a chief of the Cayiuckers 
[CayugasI died hy the way the Indians carried him in 
tlie 7C a litter 

to a coffin, grave, & funeral expence of Tawis tawis 
this Evening the most part arrived at my house Some 
that had Cahins made [of walnut bark on the v.-ay 
diwn] stayd at Willm Hartleys It rained ver\ liard 
all day. 
Sept. We marched the way to Susque Hana They marched 
the 2 thf most part of tliem the way to Susque Hana About 
tlie 4(1 part w(.nt over the mountains toward Sham- 
okin [by way of the trail] they had during their stay 
996 lb. of Beaf, Mutton & Pork at 2l:- pens a lb. 
amounts to 

Item 575 lb. of Meal at 12/per cwt. 
to 63 loaves of Bread at 9 pens a loave 
to the pasturing of Six Horses 3 nigb.ts 
to Milk & Butter 

the 3 at James Galbreaths Esqr. 229 lb. of Beaf 
to flower, Bread, Milk & etc. 

the 4 we reached the Susque Hana and came to Chambers 
Mill this day 
Expense amounts to 2-18- o 

the 5 I Bought a fat Cow for tlie Indians of the widow 

Chambers at 3- o- 

to Sundrys i _ 6 _ o 

the 6 I took my leave of them and gave them in ligquor to 

tlie value of 00- to -00 

the 7 arrived at my house to 11 Indians that were lame and 

could not folow the rest to Philadelphia 21 days 10-00-00 

The Xew I'nrchase did not look very promising- as a farming 
region. In his letter to the Proprietaries Secretary Peters said it 



10- 


7- 


- 6 


3- 


9- 


-00 


2- 


7- 


- 3 


00- 


9- 


-00 


I- 


00- 


-00 


3- 


2- 


- 3 


2- 


7 "■ 


- II 



LAST INDIAN I.ANL PURCHASE 349 

"was not comparatively speaking worth one sixpence, being broken, 
stony, mountainous land and almost impassable, as well on ac- 
count of the Kittochtinny Hills as another range of hills at a little 

distance from them or rather there was one continued broken 

succession of mountains large undrainable marshes taking 

up most of ye valleys." A century later this mountainous land 
not worth a sixpence was producing year after year millions of 
dollars worth of coal from the richest deposits of anthracite in the 
world. 

In 1768 the remaining land along tlie Delaware was sold by 
the Indians, but by this time that region was a part of Northamp- 
ton County. Therefore the Purchase of 1749 was not only the 
closing act in the drama of the Walking Purchase, but also the 
last sale of Indian land in Bucks Countv. 



350 



LAST INDIAN LAND PURCHASE 



MAP OF THE PURCHASE OF 1749 

Showing its relation to the Walking Purchase and indicating 
tlie route between Shamokin and Philadelphia which was followed 
b)' the Indian Deputies who sold the land. 





V 


i 






vJ-^c^^^*^^~>sC^^^7-.^ 


-. 




\ ^^ / / r 










^ ^ 




.r^ 


"TV " V • ^*) /"^ 


/^y^ '/ J-'^'' 






( / J^ ^: 




w >^Z^ 


7 / <^'^ (f^^' 




v^^^^^. 




%. 


t"'-"^4.- ^"^^-^ "'%^ 


^m:£ --^ 


^^Wi ''^.!^^ 


Hirr 


»b.'5>s^ 


Vh\U^,\^\xi. Of 



A B C D — Walking Purchase 



E F G H — Purchase of 1749 



Chambers 
Galbraith 

■ Weiser 

• Hartley 

■ Keimer 

• Schrak 

■ Raby 



AGRICULTURAL SOCIETIES OF BUCKS COUNTY, PA. 

Including an Account of Public Fairs 

and Live Stock Exhibitions 

By EDWARD R. BARNSLEY, NEWTOWN, PA. 
(Doylestown Meeting:, September ;'-0, 1939) 



detailed account of our several agricultural societies 
would form a most readable chapter in the otherwise dry 
social history of l^)Ucks county, provided that such an 
account had been written. TUit so far as we know, local historians 
have heretofore practically neglected this very interesting- and im- 
portant phase of our rural life more than a century ago. It is 
therefore, our puri)ose this afternoon to present before the Bucks 
County Historical Society an abridged hi.story of the events lead- 
ing to the formation of Newtown's far-famed and noble-purposed 
Bucks County Agricultural Society whose famous exhibitions had 
their origin in the Eighteenth Century town fair, and were in turn 
outmoded by the present type of Twentieth Century county fair 
having essentially the same motives. Particularlv do we want to 
show the apjiarent deve1o])meiU of one agricultural society into 
another of different format and later date, as well as to memorialize 
the names of certain pioneer farmers who. in those intellectually 
dark days ]irior to the public school system, had the vision and 
coiu-age to ])ui!(l such institutions for the improvement of hus- 
bandry and general advancement of agricultural education through- 
out the countv. 

The cb.ic'f fmiction of eacli of our agricultural societies was 
to manage a count\- fair. Even the concei:)t of the word "fair" 
seems to have changed through the years like have so many other 
of our words in common use. Today we are apt to think of a 
fair as a mileless potpourri of trylons and flood-lighted futuramas, 
but in the yesterdays of our greatgrandfathers, a fair meant a 
cattle show, or exhibition of ])rize live stock usually followed by 
the sale thereof, with the accessorv entertainment being kept more 



352 AGRICULTURE SSCTETIES 

or less in the background. Rosa Bonhenr painted the old type 
fair: Billy Rose paints the new. 

* * * 

The social center of Bucks county for the first half century 
of its existence was, of course, at Bristol, named originally Buck- 
ingham. So we expected to find that fairs originated in that old 
town where were located the courts of justice and the greatest 
population. In the Great Charter of the Borough of Bristol that 
was granted by Governor William Keith on November 14, 1720^ 
is found ofi'icial authorization for the holding of a semi-annual 
fair, two days in the month of jNIay, and three in October, "In 
such place or places as the burgess from time to time may ap- 
point."- It is a great loss that no contemporaneous records exist 



iBache, William, Historical Sketches of Bristol Bnrongh, 1853, p. 17. 
The first and only extensive publication of the charter of Bristol borough 
was when Samuel Hazard reprinted it in the May, 1829 issue of his Register 
of Pennsylvania. He, no doubt, used for copy the original charter, which 
has long since been lost or destroyed. William Bache, great grandson of 
Benjamin Franklin, stated that he reprinted it in June, 1849, in his newly 
established Bristol Gazette. No copies, however, of this newspaper have 
been preserved. The paragraph from the charter relating to markets and 
fairs reads : "And we do further grant to the said Burgesses and Inhabit- 
ants of the aforesaid town and Borough of Bristol, That they and their 
successors shall and may for ever hereafter, hold and keep within the said 
town in every week of the year one market on the 5th day of the week 
called Thursday ; and also two fairs there in every year : the first of them 
to begin the eighth Day of May, and to continue that day and one day 
after; and the other of said fairs to begin the twenty-ninth Day of October, 
and to continue till the thirty-first day of the same month, in such place and 
places in the said town as the Burgess from time to lime may appoint." 
This type of fair can be traced back to the early English settlement of the 
Delaware Valky, and perhaps even earlier. When Gabriel Thomas pub- 
lished in 1698 his Historical and Geographical Account Of The Province 
and Country Of Pensilvania And Of 'iJ'est Xcw Jersey In America, he stated 
that Philadelphia "hath in it Three Fairs every Year, and Two Markets 
every Week," and that the "Four Great Market-Towns, viz, Chester, the 
German Town, Xew-Castle, and Lewis-Town" also had fairs in them. He 
tlien continues in another place to say that in Burlington, "the chiefest Town 
in that Countrey," i.e., West New Jersey, "There are kept also in this 
Famous Town several Fairs every Year." The Bristol Courier of March 4, 
1940 ctHitains a reprinting of the Great Charter, as recorded in the above 
mentioned editicn of Hazard's Register, vol. HI, p. 312. 

-Da\is, W. W. H., History of Bucks County, 1B76, p. 341- The borough 
of Trenton, X. J., apparently had a similar fair ; witness this advertisement 
from tlie Pennsylvania Journal or Weekly Advertiser, published at Phila- 
delphia on Octniier 3, 1745 : "These are to give Notice, that on VVednesday 
the i6th of this Instant October, at the Burrough Town of Trenton, in the 
County of Flunterdon in the Province of New Jersey, will be held and kept 
a Fair, in the selling and buying of all and all Manner of Horses, Mares, 
Colts, Cows, Calves, Steers, Hogs, Sheep, and all other Cattle, Goods, 



AHr.icn.TrKK sdciftiks 353 

to inform us about the details of tliis early fair, for its adminis- 
tration by the llorou^ii authorities under the direction of the 
buri^ess was a curious and ])erha])s unique >et-uii. 

Ik^cause of the absence of county ne\vsi)a])ers. and the fact 
that few in rural 1 kicks county i^ubscribed to the romsyh'aiiia 
Gazette, this fair does not seem to ha\e been advertised much in the 
newspapers. ( We did not. however, search all the Cit\- pa])ers for 
all the years of the period concerned. ) An\way. the fair was 
always held at a certain time, like l"hristma>. so how could one 
forget such an im])ortant date? A\'e did. though, find one adver- 
tisement in b'ranklin and Mall's pa])er for the fair that was held 
180 years ago. ( )n ( )ctober 4. ITri!), the Cazcttc stated: 

"For the Benefit oi the Public. Xntice is hereby yiven, that th-:- Fair 
of Bristol Borough, in liucks Gmnty. will be held on the qth Day of 
Xovember next, agreeable to Charter; for the buying and selling of all 
Sorts of live Cattle: The ilrst Attempt of this Kind w;is made at the last 
May Fair, and succeeded beyond Expectation, there being a Xumber of 
Horses sold, and several horned Cattle. It is lioped there needs not many 
Arguments to evince the Utility of such a Practice to the Public in general. 
All Persons therefore, who have Cattle of any Kmd, Horses, Oxen, Cows, 
Sheep. &c. to dispose of, and all who want to purchase such, are hereby 
invited to promote their several biterests. l)y meeting and attending said 
Fair, where proper Accommodations for the standing of Cattle will be 
prfividcd." 

It is indeed tui fortunate that we are not able to trace the 
varying fortunes of the first fair to be held in llucks county. All 
we know is that it degenerated pretty rapidly toward the close of 
what is now called the colonial period. Only fourteen years after 
the sanguine announcement that "there needs not many Argtunents 



Wares and Merchandizes whatsoever; Wliich said !-'air will be held and 
kept the same Day above mentioned, and two Days next foil nving, pursuant 
to a Clause in a Charter of Priviledges lately granted to the said Burrough 
Town for that Purpose." In the same paper, issue of April 19, 1750, we 
find the following: "The Charter of the Burrough of Trenton, being sur- 
rendered, and tlie said Surrender accepted liy his Excellency in the follow- 
ing Words. 'By His Excellency Jonathan Belcher, Esq; Captain General 
and Governor in Chief, in and over His Majesty's Prtnince of Xova 
Caesarea or Xcw-Jersey, and Territories tiiereon depending in America, 
Chancellor and Vice Admiral in tl:e Same, &c. Having perus'd and consi- 
der"d the within Instrument of surrender of the Charter for inc irporating 
the Town of Trenton, I do tlierefore in behalf of His most sacred Majesty 
accept the same. Dated at the City of Burlingti n. in -aid Pro\ince, this 
ninth Day of April in the twenty third "S'car of I lis Maieslys Reign. 1750. 
J. Belcher' Pr.l)lick Xotice thereof is Iiereby gi\en to all Persons, to 
prevent their Trouble and \ttend;mce \\\) w the l-"airs. which \\\\\ not be 
held as usual." 



854 VGRH'ULTl'RE SOCIETIES 

to evince tlie Utility of such a Practice to the Public," the fair 
had gone comi)Ietely to pieces. Perhaps more arguments would 
have been in order; but more than likelv shift of poi:)ulation to 
the county seat at Xewtown was the contributmg factor in its 
(lo\\nfal!. Tradition tells us tliat fairs were held at Xewtown 
during the latter ]iart of this pericjcl, and if such was the case, 
the death of the liristol fan- was inevitable. Whatever the cause, 
we know that on Xovember 10, 1773, the burgess and council of 
P)ristol liorough resolved that the fair was useless on accoun.t of 
the large number of stores, and that the "debauchery, idleness and 
drunkenness consequent on. the meeting of the lowest class of 
peo]ile together is a real evil, and calls for redress."'^ No redress 
could be had, however, as the fairs were held by lawful charter. 
The oj-jportunit}- to abolish them came after the Revolution, when 
tliC P.orough was re-incori:)oratefl l)v an act of ( ienera' Assemblv 
I)assefl Sei^tember 16. 178'). lUit the privilege of contimiing the 
long established fair was, for some reason undisclosed, renewed 
in this new charter, and it was not until eleven years later that 
the condition was iiermanenth corrected.^ ()n .V])ril 4, 1796, an- 



•^Green. Dorcn, HisUvy of Bristol, igii, p. 6q. F.y this time the moral 
status of the previously mentioned fair held on the opposite side of the 
River was also had. For an account of some articles stolen at the said 
Burlington fair, we quote this advertisement from the Poiusyli'aiiia Journal 
and IJ'cck'Iy Advertiser of Xovember 8, 1750. It is dated "Burlington, Nov- 
ember -I, 1750", and is signed by Joseph Scattergond. "Xotice is liereby 
given, that this Day vv^as taken up in this City, an old Bag, containing a 
piece of Irish Linen, a few Yards of Kersey, a dressed Deer Skin, a pair 
of Shoemakers Xippers, and 2 Knives, w'lich are supposed to liave been 
stolen from some Person or Persons a Day or two since in the Fair, by a 
certain Samuel Xcrris of Bucks County, who is now here under Confme- 
ment, for a Crime of that Nature. Any Person or Persons who have lost 
the said Goods or any Part thereof, are desired immediately to repair to 
the Subscriber, who hath the same in Possession, that the Person guilty of 
the Theft may lie brought to Justice, and the Person or Persons injured 
may be restored." 

■iBache, William, Histoneal Sketches of Bristol Borough, pp. .33 and 26. 
The original act, as recorded in Statutes at Large, vol. XV, p. 461, reads: 
"Whereas the burgesses and common council [andl other inhabitants of 
the l)orough of Bristol and the adjoining townships, in the county of Bucks, 
have, by their petition, set forth that the fairs originally established by 
charter within the said liorough have become useless and unnecessary, and 
promote licentiousness, vice and immorality, and have prayed that the same 
may l)e abolislied. Therefore: Be it enacted by the Senate and the House 
of Representatives of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, in General As- 
sembly met, and it is hereby enacted liy the authority of the same. That, 
from and after the passing of this act, so much and no more of any law 
or charter of this state as empowers the inhal)itants of the borough of 
Bristol to hold and keep fairs witliin the same, is hereby repealed, annulled 
and made void." 



AGRICULTURE SOCIETIES 355 

other act was passed, "to annul and repeal so much of any charter 
t)r law of tlie State as empowers the inhahitants of the 1 k) rough 
of Bristol in the County of Bucks to hold and keep fairs within 
the same." 

Such, in brief, is what we know about Bucks county's first 
public fair. It was distinctly one of those English products of 
the early Eighteenth Century which soon outlived its usefulness 
in this country, but because of its peculiar legal sanction, it was 
nursed into an unnaturally long life. No agricultural society could 
profitably sponsor a fair in Bucks county while this old Bristol 
fair continued to exist. 

>■< * -M 

The Philadelphia Society for Promoting Agriculture was 
founded as early as 1785, but it was not until twenty-four years 
later that the first definite attempt was made to start a similar 
society in our county. The date was December 30, 1809, the 
name adopted was The Bucks County Society for Promoting 
Agriculture and Domestic Manufactures, and the organizers were 
■'Inhabitants of the Townships of Solebury and l^uickingham." 

Until last year, almost nothing was known about this pioneer 
association of central Bucks county farmers. It is true that their 
group held together for only two and a half years, but it is also 
true that their little group, feeble as it was, started the movement 
in the county which culminated in the great exhibitions of the 
mid-century. As pioneers in their field, these men deserve a place 
of honor today, and chief among them was Samuel D. Ingham^ 

who was chairman of the preliminary meeting held at his house. 
Mr. Ingham, benefitting from his experience in this society, be- 
came an active member of the 1820-society, and the first president 
of the 1843-society, until his removal to New Jersey forced his 
resignation 

About a year ago, the librarian of Bucks County Historical 
Society was able to purchase, for the price of the blank paper it 
included, th.e original minute bf)ok presented to the Agricultural 
Society by Samuel D. Ingham, and containing the minutes of 

•''See Pncccdiiujs of Bucks County Historical Society. Vol. T, o. 450, and 
Vol. IV, p. 10, for articles alxnit Mr. Ingliaiii. We was a meinlier of the 
General Assenil)ly, 1805-1807, and of Congress, 1813-1818 and 1822-1829. On 
July 6, 1819, Mr. Ingham was commissioned Secretary of the Common- 
wealth of the State of Pennsylvania. 



356 AGRicrr.TURE societies 

those meetings held from December 11, 1809 to February 29, 1812, 
inckisive, and the complete constitution of the Society in the 
handwriting of Mr. Ingham, who later became P5ucks county's 
favorite son in the cabinet of President Andrew [ackson. An 
examination of these miinites reveal that there were thirtv-two 
resident members of the society. Their names were : 

1. ^James Beers 17. Jonathan ^^^ Ingham 

2. ''Abraham Chapman, Flsq. 18. Samuel D. Ingham 

3. Aaron Eastburn 19. Samuel Johnson 

4. Amos Eastburn 20. •'John Lefferts 

5. Joseph Eastburn 21 . ^Robert T. Neelv 

6. Moses Eastburn 22. John Parker 

7. John F21y, Jr. 23. John Ruckman 

8. ^William Erwine. Esq. 24. •'Benjamin Smith 

9. Charles D. Fell 25. Jonathan Smith 

10. Jonathan Gillingham 26. ^'Thomas Smith 

11. Samuel Gillingham 27. Joseph Thornton 

12. William Gillingham 28. John Watson. Jr. 

13. C)liver Hamton 29. Joseph Watson 

14. John Hughs 30. Dr. John Wilson 

15. ''Thomas Hutchinson 31. Stejihen Wilson 

16. Hezekiah Ingham 32. '^Jonathan \\'ynkoop 

Following the example of the Philadelphia Society, this so- 
ciety also elected from time to time certain distinguished gentle- 
men, — usually from a distance. — to the roll of honorary mem- 
bers. The names of at least ten men so honored were: 

1. "Henry Clifton, Hunterdon co., N. J. 

2. '^John Comley. By berry. Pa. 

3. George Farmer. Esq., ]\Iid(llesex co., X. J. 

4. ■^Joseph Hart. Philadelphia. Pa. 

5. John Kinsey, Little Brittain twp.. Eancaster co.. Pa. 

6. Levi McKane, ''Pawkepsey," N. Y. 

7. "Dr. James [Nlease. Philadelphia, Pa. 

^These members joined after adoption of the conslitntion, December 
30, 1809. 

'''^These r.anies were proposed, but their election wa.s apparently not con- 
firmed in later minutes. On May 26. 1810, the Society subscribed for two 
numbers of a work about to be published by Dr. James INIcase, entitled 
"Archives of Useful Knowledge.'' Tt will be noted later tliat the 1820 
society also had a library of some sort. See Sec. 11 of their second bye-law. 




SAMUEL DELUCENNA INGHAM 

Born in Xew Hnne, SejJt. 6, J779; Dic'l in Trenton, Jnne 5, i860. 

An active member of all tlie agricultnral societies of Rncks Connty. 
This illustration is from the steel engraving presented I0 Bucks County 
Historical Society in 1907 by his son, the late William A. Ingham, of 
Philadelphia; and the engraving was from the original painting 
hanging in the United States Treasury Department, of which lie was 
the Secretary from 1829 to 1831. 



358 AGRICl'LTURE SOCIETIES 

8. Richard Peters, Esq. 

9. John Skinner, near Edenton, N. C. 

10. Dr. John Watson, Buckingham, Bucks co.. Pa. 

The prehminarv meeting of the Society was held, on Decem- 
ber 11, 1809, and a committee was appointed "to draft an essay 
of a Constitution for the regulation of said Association and pro- 
duce it at the next meeting of the Society." The next meeting 
was held December 30. 1809 at Buckingham Friends schoolhousc, 
where all subsequent meetings, without exception, were held. 
Probably in lieu of paying rent for the schoolroom they contri- 
buted something towards its repair. At least on August 31, 1811, 
"Samuel Johnson produced an Acct for fitting up & repairing 
the room for use of this Society amounting to $3.22 Cents which 
the Treasurer is directed to pay." 

At the organization meeting of the 30th, the constitution was 
adopted^ and the following officers were elected for the ensuing 
year: Samuel Johnson, president; Dr. John Wilson, vice presi- 
dent ; C'liver Hamton, secretary ; and Aaron Eastburn. treasurer. 
A committee of correspondence, consisting of Samuel D. Ingham, 
Samuel Gillingham. Moses Eastburn, John Ruckman, and Jona- 
than Smith, was directed to draft a bill and apply to the General 
Assembly for an Act of Incorporation. The bill was presented 
before the next quarterly meeting, but apparently the move was 
premature, for nothing further is heard of it. Probably the So- 
ciety was deemed too weak in finance and membership to warrant 
such a move by the Legislature. On May 26, 1810, the committee 
was directed to "digest a system of Finance", whatever that meant. 

The first stated meeting of the Society was held on the last 
Seventh Day of February, 1810. Meetings continued quarterly 
thereafter to the end. Election of officers took place at the Nov- 
ember meeting, when the annual dues of $1.00 were payable. The 
initiation fee for new members was $3.00. 

At the meeting of February 24. 1810, "Sundry propositions 
were presented to the Society on agricultural subjects which were 
recommended to the individual attention of the Society & any 



^Besides Inj>;ham"s manuscript copy referred to, tlie corntitntion was 
printed in Asher Miner's Peuiisyk'aiiia Corrcspundciit and Fanners' Adver- 
tiser of March 26, 1810. This was the only newspaper being published then 
in Bucks County. 



ARCilCULTURE SOCIETIES 859 

memlDer or meniliers who may make any experiments thereon are 
requested to communicate tlie result thereof to a future meeting." 
But what these "Sundr) pro])ositions" were, tlie minutes unfor- 
tunately do not state. This was the first mention of any discus- 
sion of agricultural matters. At the same time, the committee of 
correspondence was directed to get 150 certificates of membership 
printed "on a handsome scrip type." I'hey reported at the next 
meeting that this had been done. According to the constitution 
the wording on these certificates was to be. "This may certify 
tnat AB was elected a member (or honorary member) of the 
Bucks County Society for promoting Agriculture and Domestic 

Manufacture on the day of A. D. — ■ ." What 

a pity that not a single one of these certificates has survived to 
the present day ! 

At the second election held November 24, 1810. all the old 
officers and the old members of the committee of correspondence 
were re-elected for another year. Samuel D. Ingham then pro- 
posed tlie following resolution : 

"Resolved, that a Committee be appointed to report to this Society 
on the general state of Agriculture & Manufactures in the County of 
Bucks Sz such other matters relating to the objects of this Institution from 
neighbouring Counties & States as they may think proper & the Correspond- 
ing Committee are directed to attend to the objects of said Resolution & 
report to a future meeting." 

The committee of correspondence was also directed at this 
annual meeting to make arrangements for the holding of a fair 
for the sale of live stock. This was the first fair in Bucks countv 
to be held under the auspices of an agricultural society. 

At the quarterly meeting held May 25, 1811. the committee 
presented the following report, which was adopted and spread on 
the minutes : 

"Tliat in their opinion one of the chief objects cf tliis association viz. 
the improvement of the varinus l)reeds of li\-e Stock will l)e especially 
promoted by the establishnienl jM-oposed. 

"Tile committee would suggest that for the proper regulation of the 
proceeding at a h'air for the sale of Stock it ma\ he expedient to appoint 
some superintending officers & adopt certain rules for their direction. The 
following are suggested for the consideration of the Society, viz. The 
Society shall at their meeting next preceeding the time of holding said 
Fair appoint a Committee of arangement who shall superintend generally 



360 AGRICrLTUHE SOCIETIES 

the husiness of the Fair & make all the necessary arangement?. for the 
ocasion. 

"'I'he Committee of arangement shall employ a Clerk who shall keep 
accounts of .sales & such other matters as may be required of him: also 
a Crier who shall make the publick sales that may be requisite. They 
shall also certify the pedigree of blood cf such stock as may be offered 
at publick sale when the same can be particularly ascertained but if not 
the Crier shall announce the same at the time if sale. All moneys received 
by the Clerk for any animal sold at publick sale, & the pedigree or blood 
thereof certified by the Committee of arangement shall remain in his hands 
ten days if the purchaser shall think such time necessary to assertain the 
pedigree or blood of said animal & if it shmild be made appear to the 
Committee of arangement that any mistake or deceptii n should have been 
practised l)y the owner the jinrchaser en returning the animal shall receive 
his money without delay. The Committee of arangement shall make report 
to the ne.xt succeeding meeting of the Society of the proceedings of the 
Fair & their ( pinion of tlie propriety (if continuing the same & such other 
matters crnected therewith as they may deem useful to communicate. 
Which report was unanimously adopted & John Ruckman, Joseph Eastlnirn 
& Moses Eastburn are appointed a Committee of arangement for the 
purpose of carying into effect the matters contained in the foregoing report 
and they are hereby instructed to make the necessary preparation for hold- 
ing said Fair & show at the house of John R\ickman at such time as they 
may think m. st proper agreeably to the afi resaid rules & regulations." 

The Pcnusyl-iaiiia Corrcspondciit and Fanners' Ad-t'crtiscr of 
Jiih- 20. 1811 carried this advertisement:^ 

BT'CKS COUNTY FAIR. 
"Pursuant to a resolution of the Bucks County Society for the 
prcmotic n iT Agriculture and Domestic Alanufactures. the undersigned 
inform the public, that a b^air will l)e held at the house of John Ruckman, 
in Solebury township, ( rive miles from New-Hope and four from Mit- 
chell's Ferry) on Friday the 23d cf August, where a considerable number 
of the several kinds of live stock will be offered at public and private 
sale — viz. Horses, working Oxen, and Store Cattle; also a few Yearlings of 
the celebrated Bakewell breed, and a number of Sheep, consisting of full 
and mixed blood Merino rams, of highly improved Leicester, and also of 
the common breeds. 

"An establishment of this kind will aft'ord so convenient an opportunity 
to farmers for the sale, purchase, or exchange of Live Stock, that it cannot 
fail to promote their interest, and meet their approbation and encourage- 
ment. 



^A note at the bottom of the advertisement reads: "The Editor of the 
Trenton True American will please re-publish the above, and continue it 
until the Fair." Possibly such haphazard advertising as this resulted in a 
small attendance which caused the committee of arrangements to report 
unfavorably on "the propriety of continuing" the fair in 1812. 



agr:ci'dtuke societies 361 

"All till se who may he flis])iised either to .sell or buy sti:ck of any 
description, are resjiectfully invited to attend. — Proper regulations will 
secure a due regard to the interests of the seller, and the l)uyer may be 
assured that all kinds of impi^ition in the public sales, will be strictly 
guarded against. 

"By order of the Society above mentioned. 

JoHX Ruck jr AX, 
Moses Eastburx, 
Joseph Eastp.urx, 

Coiiniiittcc on Arraiigcincnt. 

"N. B. Any person who may l)e in p >sessirn of an improved breed of 
Stock, of whatever kind, and will exhibit the same at the said fair, or give 
a particular <lescription thereof in writing, to the Committee of Arrange- 
ment, will receive the cordial thanks of the Si ciety." 

A complete report of the first and only fair held by the 
original agricnltural societ}' of P>iicks cotmty in 1811 is not avail- 
able. An extract of the report liowever, appeared in the Pciinsyl- 
7'aiua Correspondent on Septeml:;er IGtli following. Among the 
exhibits mentioned were those. 

"By Dr. Isaac Clark, of Middlesex county, X. J., two Cows and 
Calves, and a yearling Heifer, all rif the celebrated Hulland milk breed; 
they were large and handsome, and sold for 46, 42 and 26 dollars respec- 
tively. 

"r>y John Vanhorn, a Cow r.f the heavy big lioned breed, sold for 
$33.50. 

"By Joseph Eastbuni and others, the celebrated imported Bakewell 
English Bull, together with a numlier of his Calves, which were large and 
handsome, and very mucli resembled their sire in point of symmetry and 
beauty: one r,f them, a Ifeifer a1)i:ut six months and a half old, owned 
by Matthias Hutchin.-rm, Esq. weighed nn fo( t 4Q2 lbs. 

"By Samuel D. Ingham, ]\b;ses Eastluirn, .\aron Eastburn and others, 
a great variety of elegant sheep, rf the famed ^Merino and highly im- 
proved Leicester lireeds, of different grades of blood, from half to full 
blood; some of wliich yet remain in the hands of the owners, who would 
disp: se of them at a fair price. 

"Tlie Eair was attended l)y a numerous concourse of people, among 
whom were many characters of the first respectability. — Harmony and good 
order prevailed throughout the day." 

The minntes of the meeting held Augnst 31, 1811 reveal the 
receipt from different correspondents of five communications on 
interesting subjects, not one of which is preserved. 



362 AGRICfLTUKE S()('FP:TIES 

"Dr. Samuel Moctrc sent a communication in which he informed the 
Society he Iiad a particular breed of Swine lately imported from China 
and described some of the properties. A communication on the preservation 
of Timber was produced by Aaron Eastburn. Also one by Thos. Hutchin- 
son on harrow teeth. A Communication was also presented liy Samuel 
Johnson on the properties of a late imported summer wheat. And one also 
by Dr. John Watson on the subject of preserving manure &c." 

-Vt the third election, Aloses Easthiini was chosen vice presi- 
dent in place of Dr. Jolin Wilson, and John Watson, jr.. was 
elected secretary in place of Oliver ITamton. The other officers 
were re-elected. Three new memhers were elected on the com- 
mittee of correspondence: namely, John Wilson, Joseph Eastbtirn, 
and Aaron Eastburn, in ])lace of JMoses Eastburn. John Rnckman, 
and Jonathan Smith. The last minutes of the Society in the 
minute book alxive referred to are those of Eebruarv 29, 1812. 
The quarterly meeting to be held on the following August 29th 
was advertised in the Pcnnsyk'ania Correspondent, but after this 
no record of any further meeting is known. Apparently after 
two and half years of tr}ing, the attempt to form a permanent 
society was given up. 

The only known description of the Trucks County Society 
for Promoting Agriculture and Domestic AFanufactures was writ- 
ten over a half centun- after its failure, l)y some resident of 
Newtown who remains unidentified under the pseudonym, "Agri- 
cola." In his letter to the editor of the Xez^io-wii Enterprise, 
which was published in the issue of October 1. 1868, the unknown 
author of Reininiseences of the On'ainal Afiricultural Society of 
Bneks County said : 

"It is believed tliat the first impulse given to the Association last named 
was the introduction of Merino sheep into this country. The person who 
took the deepest interest in that movement, in our county, was Samuel D. 
Ingham — the honored president for a number of years of the modern so- 
ciety. T5y his magnetic influence a number of influential persons in the 
townships of Buckingham and Solebury. were convened by public notice, 
at the school house in Buckingham Township, near Buckingham Meeting 
House. The Society was organized, and took the unpretending name of 
the "Bucks County Society, for the Promotion of Agriculture." Its offiicers 
were Samuel Johnson, President; John Watson, Recording Secretary, and 
S. D. Tngham. Corresponding Secretary. Among the members were Dr. 
John Watson, the father of the Secretary — Robert Smith, Jonathan Ely. Sr., 
and a number of others, mostly in the vicinity, whom I do not now recollect. 
The meeting convened annually, and had a very limited attendance. Several 



AGRICULTURE SOCIETIES 368 

topics connected with farm- work, were occasionally discussed, but that 
whicli enlisted most interest, at tlie time, was the proper management, and 
selection of the kind of farm stock, of which the introduction and purchase 
first gave rise to the organization. 

"As might be expected from the narrowness of the range of action, 
whicii the society contemplated, the proceedings were very void of interest, 
except to those concerned in the leading object of the Association. Having 
no Exhibition or premiums to offer,' o and not being able to afford other 
attractions, the Society endured a lingering and premature life, of a few 
years — its rise being coeval with the Merino excitement — and its exit, term- 
inating with the extinction of the said speculating spirit. And neither its 
life nor death would be now noticed, but for the purpose of showing, by 
contrast, the magnificent utility of the present Agricultural Society. 

"I cannot, however, forbear to relate an incident or two, at the early 
period to whicli I liave referred. I do this with the more satisfaction^ as 
they tend to sliow that even in the original movements of our associated 
farmers, the skillful hands of the female sex were brought into requisition. 

"At the only meeting of the Society, which I even attended^ (and 
which was in its declining years), it was proposed by S. D. Ingham, that an 
emblematic device should be published, the hint for which he had observed 
in some late engraving. The prominent idea in the proposed design was 
''Science Shedding Her Rays on a Field," in which a variety of agricultural 
operations were displayed. All that I remember of the reception of this 
thought, was one or two trifling witticisms, to which it gave birth — one of 
which was a substitute in the form and manner of the "Sun darting his 
rays on a potato patch." Rut, on the whole, the proposition first offered, 
met with general favor. 

"One of the officers of the Society, on returning home, mentioned the 
suggestion to his daughter, who possessed considerable talent for drawing 
in water colors ; and long before the next annual meeting of the Society, 
she had completed an original design intended to characterize and properly 
designate the organization. The general outline of the picture comprised 
a delineation of a farm located on the margin of a river. Within a short 



'"Apparently the fair of iSii had lieen forgolten liy Agricola when lie 
wrote this account 57 years later. It was the original intention of the 
Society to offer premiums as soon as the condition of the treasury permitted. 
In fact, section 14 of the constitution declared: "The Secretary shall as soon 
as necessary funds are provided annually propose prizes upon Interesting 
subjects, relative to actual experiments and improvements in agriculture & 
manufactures, & for the best essays written on proposed subjects. The 
Society will from time to time publish extracts from such communications 
as shall be made to them. To promote these views, all experienced agricul- 
turalists and maiuifacturers arc invited to assist the Society with their in- 
formation. The Society will publish from time to time the prize subject, 
and the manner in which the claims shall be examined and determined." As 
far as we know, the last named provision was never carried out. 

iiPart of section 10 of tlie constitution provided, "Strangers who desire 
to be present as auditors may l)e introduced by a resident member." 



364 AGRICTLTURE SOCIETIES 



distance could be seen a flock of sheep grazing — near which, upon a grassy 
hillock, was seated a shepherd, with a dog by his side, and the emblematic 
crook in his hand. Tn the distance could be discerned a loaded wain slowly 
wending its way to the farm-l)uildings, which, with the farm residence and 
other appurtenances, were all appropriately represented. This was duly 
exhibited to the Society at its next annual meeting, and a handsome note 
of thanks was tendered to the lady (including both the design and the 
execution of the piece), as, at that early day there was neither premium 
nor competition. 

"Under the painting was inscribed the motto from Thomson's Seasons 
with the alteration of a single word, and this introduced without altering 
the measure. The inscription reads, 'Hence Columl)ia sees her solid grandeur 
rise.' 

"This painting is still preserved in the family, although the executor 
of it has been deceased some twelve or fourteen years. i- 
Newtown, Sept. 24th. Agricola." 

:|: ^ ^ 

We have thus reviewed aU the known data in connection with 
our county's first agricultural society. Its history has been pre- 
sented as full as ]~)ossible, — in the Hght of all known facts, — 
because it was one of our pioneer organizations. We are not as 
fortunate, however, in having such complete records pertaining 
to the second society, which was founded at Newtown in 1820. 

^-'Vhe artist referred to was Miss Elizabeth Johnson, born in 1790, who 
married in 1814, Jonathan Pickering, of Solebury. Her sister, Ann (John- 
son) Paxson, was the one who "still preserved [the painting] in the family" 
after Eliza's death. Following the death of Mrs. Paxson, the painting prob- 
ably descended to the late Judge Edward M. Paxson or the late Col. Henry 
D. Pa.xson. Eliza and Ann were, of course, the two daughters of Samuel 
Johnson, the first and only president of the Bucks County Society for Pro- 
moting Agriculture. The Bucks County Intelligencer of February 2Ti, 1869, 
contains a shorter article from Buckingham very similar to Agricola's. It 
was probably written by Thomas Paxson, the husband of Ann, who signed 
it simply "T. P." His article, after more or less repeating the information 
in Agricola's communication, continued : "Eliza Johnson, daughter of the 
President, had a decided talent for drawing and undertook the task. The 
design and execution of the work would have done credit to a much more 
experienced artist. The prominent features in the drawing (which is in the 
possession of her only sister), are a farm on the margin of a river, with its 
buildings and ornamental shade trees, a load of grain in the distance, a 
plowman with his oxen, the boy with a team to the harrow, the cattle graz- 
ing, a shepherd's cottage, a flock of sheep and the shepherd with his dog and 
cronk. The drawing was introduced to the society as a present from the 
hand of the self-taught young artist. It elicited a hearty and united response 
with a glad vote of thanks. The society awarded no premiums, neither had 
they a race course for fast horses, as a school to promote in the minds of 
their children a tendency to extravagance and immorality." Note the simi- 
larity between this drawing and the "diploma" depicted on a later page 
which was engraved by William H. EUis for the Bucks County Agricultural 
Society, in the year 1846. 



AGRICULTURE SOCIETIES 363 

Unless additional information is uncovered in the future only an 
incomplete and sketchy history can be written. As far as we 
know, there is not a single contemporaneous document pertaining 
in any way to the history of the Agricultural Society of Bucks 
County, except the advertisements and the occasional re])orts of 
meetings that are found in the Doylestown newspapers." It has 
been stated that the minutes of the Society were lost, "having 
probably been burned with the house of John Linton, two miles 
from Newtown, on the Yardleyville road, in the spring of 1852. "^-^ 
We see no reason w^hy, (in the absence of positive proof to the 
contrary ) , that John Linton should have had the minutes in his 
house twenty years after the affairs of the Society had been 
closed. 

A careful study of the newspaper advertisements of the various 
meetings, — which were always over the signature of the secre- 
tary. — revealed that former sheriff' Thomas G. Kennedy, of 
Newtown, was the organizing secretary, that he held off'ice through 
the meeting of February 12, 1821, and that sometime thereafter he 
resigned. The call for the meeting of October 29, 1821 was issued 
by Stephen Burson, ^I. D., as secretary pro tem., and declared, 
"in addition to the ordinarv business of the Society, a secretary 



i3This statement should be slightly qualified, because two of the four 
extant annual addresses appeared exclusively in sources other than the 
county papers. The address of 1823 by Mr. James P. Morris was printed 
in pamphlet form, of which the only known copy is at Historical Society of 
Pennsylvania. The address of 1825 by Dr. Phineas Jenks, and the address 
of 1826 by Mr. James Cox both appeared in the Bucks County Patriot. The 
address of 1827 by Samuel D. Ingham, Esq., was printed in Samuel Ha7.ard's 
Register of Pennsylvania, Vol. 11, p. 118. 

i4Quotation is from an article appearing in Neiulozvn Enterprise, Sept- 
ember 1=;, 1923 by Mrs. Laura (Feaster^ Gill, who compiled, for the New- 
town New Century Qub, the first histories of the second and third agricul- 
tural societies of Bucks county. We find the following account of the 
Linton fire in the Bucks County Intelligencer of May 25, 1852: "On the 
morning of the 23d inst., about twenty minutes before three o'clock, the 
dwelling of John Linton, on the Yardleyville road, near two miles east of 
Newtown, was discovered to be on fire. The family were aroused and 
made their escape, and succeeded in getting out the goods from the first 
story and the cellar ; those in the upper stories being consumed with the 
house. The fire was seen by Josepli Cunningham, a neighbor, who repaired 
to the spot and assisted in removing the goods. There was an insurance in 
the Mutual Beneficial Insurance Association of Bucks County, on the house, 
for about $1,000; the loss was probably not over $1,500. It is supposed to 
have been the work of incendiaries, as the fire originated in a part of the 
house where no fire has been used for more than a year ; and the thunder 
storm had not yet come up. We saw the light [from Doylestown 1 plainly 
at half past three o'clock in the morning, wlien the fire was probably about 
its height." 



'3(i6 AGRICULTrKE SOCIETIES 

will be elected for the remaining i)art of the year." John Wan- 
shear W ynkoop. grandson of both Judge Henry Wynkoop and 
Cieneral PYancis AFurray, was the secretary chosen to fill the vac- 
ancy created by Kennedy's resignation. -Major Wynkoop held the 
office for four years. The John Linton above referred to was 
secretary in 1826 and 1827, and possibly in 1828. Michael Hut- 
chinson Jenks was secretary in 1829, and perhaps longer. How- 
ever, the call for the adjourned meeting of September 3, 1832 
was issued by Dr. John H. Gordon, secretary. We do not, there- 
fore, see why Air. Linton who was the third from the last secre- 
tary should have received the miiuites at the death of the Societv. 

The ])reHminary meeting to form the Agricultural Society of 
I kicks Count} was held at what is now called the Brick Hotel, 
Xewtown, on January 20, 1820. The names of the men who 
formed the second society of its kind in Rucks county remain 
today unknown, for all the minute books, treasurer's accounts, and 
other papers belonging to the company have been lost or destroyed. 
The call for the meeting in the Pennsylrama Correspondent and 
Farmers' .-idz-ertiser was unsigned, and simply stated, "Persons 
desirous of forming an Agricultural Society, are reciuested to 
meet at Mrs. Hinkle's Tavern, in Xewtown, on Thursday the 
20th inst. at one o'clock, L. AL" .Apparently a constitution was 
adopted at this meeting, for at the next meeting, held February 
12, 1821 "Agreeably to their Constitution," it was announced that 
"considerable alterations and amendments to the Constitution will 
be proposed. "^-"^ The members convened at the old Court House, ^^ 



''■'^Pcn>isylva)iia Correspondent and Farmers' Advertiser, January 23, 1821. 
At a stated meeting of the society to be held Monday, April .30, 1821, i :oo 
P. M., it was advertised that there would lie operated for exhibition purposes. 
"A machine for breaking- Flax, which has been tried and found to perform 
the work better, and with less waste, than the common Break, and on which 
upwards of 300 weight of Flax, may be broken in one day." At the same 
meeting a year later, (April 29, 1822), it was announced that another 
machine, manufactured by Chapman & Rawley, for breaking and dressing 
tlax would 1)e exhibited. 

i*5The exact date when the old Court House was torn down is not known 
with certainty. The vendue of the county buildings was advertised in the 
Bucks County Patriot and Farmers' Advertiser of October 31, 1825; but the 
last sheriff's proclamation mentioning the election polls being at the "House 
formerly occupied as a Court House" was in 1829. We believe, therefore, 
that the demolition probably took place in the winter of 1829-1830. General 
Davis oliviously erred in his date when he wrote, (History of Bucks County, 
Vn\. II, p. 353, note), "The court-house was purchased liy James Phillips, 
who attempted to dig a cellar under it, but the walls began to give way, and 
soon after 1827 it was taken down." Thaddeus Stevens Kenderdine implies 



AGRICULTURE SOCIETIES 367 

where their other meetings were held until 1826, at which time 
the meeting place returned to the Brick Hotel. 

The annual meeting for the election of officers of the Society 
was held at first on the last Monday of January. lUit l)eginning 
in 1825, the time of tliis meeting seems to have heen changed to 
May. Probahly the si>ring was a more convenient time for the 
majority of members to assemble together than midwinter was. 
The announcement for tlie special election to be held on ]\Iav 28. 
1829, "earnestly re(|uested that the members generallv attend, as 
business of the utmost importance to the society will be presented 
for its consideration."^" Davis said, "At the May meeting, 1829, 
Dr. Jenks introduced a strong temperance resolution, which was 
adopted. The minutes are silent as to what was said on the 
subject, l)ut, instead of pre])aring for the Xovember exhibition at 
the next meeting, the society was adjourned until Se|)tember, 
1832." Mrs. Gill wrote that the following oft'icers were elected 
in 1829, "Aaron Feaster, president; John Linton, vice ])resident : 
Dr. John H. Gordon, secretary; Chapman P.uckman, treasurer; 
Michael H. Jenks, orator; and Dr. P. Jenks. librarian. At the 
n.ext meeting Dr. Jenks presented a strong temperance resolution. 
In 1829 the society met in pursuance of adjournment, and dis- 
cussed a proposition for a temporary suspension of the meeting." 

The activities of the Agricultural Societv of Rucks County 
most interesting to us now are undoubtedly the annual exhibitions 
or cattle shows held in the yard of the Brick Hotel in the fall of 
the year, generall}- on the second Monday in November. How- 
ever, the first show, a one-man aft"air and only a forerunner of 
what was to follow, was held February 12, 1821 in connection 
with the annual meeting. At this time Charles Brown showed 
one cow and one bull. An extract from the minutes printed in 
the Pciiiisyliania Correspondent'^^ contains this report by Enos 



ill his pamphlet When Xczcfo:^'ii was tJic Cnnnty Scat, illus. facino; p. 57, 
that the Court House wa.s pulled down before 1822. 

'^''Bucks County Intelligencer and General Advertiser, May 25, 1829. 

i**Issue of February 20, 182U Several technical papers were presented 
before the .Society in the year 182U The Corresf^ondent of May 8, 1821 
contains a letter irom John Linton to Secretary Thomas G. Kennedy about 
an invention of Lambert Torbert's, — "a very respecvable neighbor" of 
Linton, -- to prevent the ravages of the Hessian i\y. James Worth, Esq., 
of Sharon, IMiddleton township, read two papers before the Society on July 
30th of tliat year. Tliey were so successfully received that he repeated 
tliem 1)efore tlie Philadelphia Si.ciety for Promoting Agriculture, on the 



368 AGRfrULTl'RE SOCIETIES 

Morris, Esq., Dr. Phineas jenks. and Thomas \'ar(lley. "api^ointed 
a committee to view the Cattle exhibited" : 

"That they gave the preference to the cattle brought by Charles lirown 
of Poplar Grove in this County, viz. 

"A Cow of more than ordinary size, of the milk l)reetl, in !ine urder, 
and which if fattened would probably weigh looo l])s. She is in the 
opinion of your committee, more perfect in symmetry and beauty than any 
animal of the kind they have ever seen. 

"Also a Bull of the Holland breed four years old, remarkal)ly well 
fatted. He is long, low, and heavy, of apparent perfectinn in all his parts, 
except the horns, which are short and quite loose, he measures 4 feet 3 
inches high, 7 feet 3 inches long, 7 feet 3 inches round the girth, 2 feet 7 
inches diameter through the sin ulder 

""S'our committee have no hesitation in saying tliat they consider him 
far superior to any of tlie celebrated Bakewell breed that ha\e come under 
their notice, and that Mr. P)ri wn is entitled to the thanks of this society 
for his care in selecting and fatting cattle." 

At a stated meeting held April 28, 1823, "a newly invented 
cleaning Mill"' was exhibited to the Society. It was not. then, 
until the last Monday in ( )ctober, 1823, that the first of six regular 
annual exhibitions was instituted. L'n fortunately, no report of 
the first one of these is known to exist. 

The announcement for the second exhibition declared. "It is 
proposed to have a ploughing match on the same day — a suitable 
piece of ground will be provided to test the qualities of the dififer- 
ent kinds of ploughs. The neighboring farmers who have any of 
superior construction, are invited to come forward and join in the 
honorable competition. Any person having new and improved 
implements of husbandry ; fine stock, or any superior productions 
of the earth, will confer a favor on the Societ}-, by exhibiting 
them at the meeting."^'' Fortunately, the complete report of the 
exhibition was extracted from the minutes and published by order 

following October 23d. The first was on the pea fly, (Bruchus pisi), and 
the second was on the diseases of the Morello cherry and the management 
of fruit trees. These scientific papers were printed first in the Saturday 
Magazine, and then reprinted in the local Pennsylvania Correspondent, 
issues of February 12 and April 16, 1822. The first paper is addressed to 
"John Linton, Esq., Chairman of the Committee on Entomology." The 
second paper is addressed to 'Air. James P. ]\Iorris, Chairman of the Com- 
mittee on Fruit and Forest Trees."' 

'^^'^Biicks County Patriot and Farmers' Advertiser, October 25, 1824. This 
was the first of at least five consecutive exhibitions to be held on the second 
Monday of November. The shoAvs were officially opened at 10:00 o'clock in 
the morning. 




PHINEAS JENKS, M.D. 

Born May 3, 1781 — Died August 6, 1851 

FOUXDER OF BUCKS COUNTY AGRICULTURAL SOCIf:TY 

"In liis Iirain," wrote Cliief Justice I'.dward M. Paxson, "tiie idea 
of organizing this Society first fonncl a lodgcnicnt." 



370 AGRICHLTURE SOCIETIES 

of the Society in the Bucks County Patriot and Fanners' Adver- 
tiser of Xovember 22. 1824. hy John W. Wynkoop, secretary. Tt 
follows in full : 

"The committee on Stock, &c. report — 

"That among tlie horses exhibited which were worthy of distinction, 
were Wm. Aspy's, three years old colt Standard, Sired by Badgers Sir 
Solomon, and Iired by Mr. Stephen Hunt, of Xew Jersey — lie bids fair to 
rank among the first rate thorough bred stud horses. 

"Mr. Steele's Diomedc Virginia Mare, half sister to Henry the late 
competitor of Eclipse: she is a mare of superior form. 

"Mr. ]\IcDoweirs draft stud horse, grandson of Tate's imported Corn- 
planter, bred by Mr. David Jones from his blooded mare, he is a horse of 
power and great action for his size. 

"Cattle — Mr. James Cox exhibited Iiis imported Cow. She was pro- 
nounced by the multitude attending to be the handsomest Cow they had 
ever seen, and your committee are of opinion tliat her points and general 
figure are equal to any of the Teesv^^ater or Durham short horn cattle that 
have been imported— bred and exhibited l)y Jolm Hare Powell, the most 
celel)ratcd Ineeder in Pennsylvania. 

"Also, his high bred bull calf Rlytlie. His sire, Powell's Champion, 
by Palm flower, and Palm flower by Patriot, who sold for 500 guineas. 
Blythe's dam was Powell's Shepherdess. He is a calf of fine promise. 
Your committee anticipate great and lasting advantages to result from his 
pr(>geny and recommend the thanks of the society to be voted to Mr. Cox 
for his liberal exertions to improve our breed of cattle. 

"Mr. James Worth, in addition to his Alderly Cow. Sharon cow, native 
short honed l)eauty, and his large Sharon steer, that bids fair to be the 
largest ever bred in the country, also exhibited his three year old bull, 
bred by Nicholas Biddle, esq. from the thorough bred imported bull Denton ; 
his dam the cele])rated Southborough cow, which produced within one year 
480^/' Ills, of butter. (She is better known by the name of the Oakes cow, 
that made 16 lljs. of butter per week, yielding 36 quarts of milk per day.) 
Your ccmmittee are happy in beholding in this noble animal points equal 
to any of the imported Durham shcrt liorned cattle — that they have seen 
few men do as much credit to their surname as James. 

"Dr. A. T. ]\Ioore's cow and yearling heififer are very fine cattle — we 
hope to see them crossed with the improved breed. 

"Enos ^lorris' Bulb cks were wel'. selected cattle, and do credit to their 
feeder. 

"Hogs. — Mr. Erancis Mahan's barrows were the best fed hogs on the 
ground, in addition to which they are well framed, and your committee are 
satisfied that their feeder is not without a Hobby. 

"Mr. John Linton's Boar is a well grown and well formed hog — he 
took the attention of the people, and we anticipate that there will be many 
of his progeny in the neighborhood the ensuing season. His brood sow 



AGRICULTURE SODIETIES 371 

had nothing worthy of distinction. The pedigree of his stock was not fur- 
nished. 

"Mr. Aaron Feaster exhibited a pig eight weeks old, of the Thorp 
breed, crossed with Maris's importation ; it is even very fine, and your com- 
mittee are of opinion the cross will produce a line race of hogs. We are 
sorry Ave did not take its weight. 

''Major John W. Wynkoop exhibited two sucking pigs, 78 days old — 
their dam a half blood of Haines' imported No-ball, and the sire a half 
blood of Cobbets importation crossed with good native hogs on both sides. 
They are fine formed pigs— the sow pig weighed 91K lbs. the boar 36^4 
lbs. They are from a small stock on both sides, but very healthy, and will 
always do credit to the feeder. 

"Mr. James Worth's Cobbet hogs — Although he has taken pains to 
introduce the breed, which is approved of by a majority of those who do 
not feed high; yet, from the appearance of his stock, your committee infer 
that a hog is not his hobby. 

"Sheep — Mr. Chapman Buckman's quarter blooded merinos were the 
best of the kind we have seen. 

"Mr. John Leffert's Bakewell sheep, originally from Capt. Farmer's 
flock of the Bean's importation ; some of them are equal to Capt. Barney's, 
of Delaware. Mr. Lefferts is the only gentleman of the county who has 
taken care to preserve the Bakewell sheep pure in blood. They certainly 
are the most desirable breed to the farmers of our country. His flock is 
an evidence that farmers may breed in and in with safety and advantage. — 
He has lately however, procured a fine buck of the same breed from the 
neighborhood of New Brunswick ; your committee are not without a hope 
that this race of fine animals will yet become more common, and that Mr. 
Lefiferts may be remunerated for his attention is preserving his flock so high 
in the blood. 

"Vegetables were produced in great variety. Those the most worthy 
of distinction were Mr. Thomas Cunningham's mercer potatoes; three of 
which were exhibited in a half peck, and they being clustered filled it, 
making good huckster's measure. Your committee are of opinion they can 
be cultivated to greater advantage to the farmer than any other potatoe 
now in use, as they are generally approved of for the table. 

"James Worth's Mangel Wurtzel. One that was exhibited weighed 13 
lb. 10 oz. without the top. They are known frequently to grow much 
larger. The experiment which Mr. Worth has made the present season in 
raising this vegetable, convinces your committee of the great value of the 
crop. The tops were not taken into the calculation, as they were cut off close 
before weighing. 

"The last, not least, was a straw hat, exhibited by Miss Keyser, of 
Newtown, plaited by herself. It is superior in appearance to many of the 
Leghorn hats of No. 17. Your committee would recommend to the mem- 
bers of the society the cultivation of the Leghorn straw, in order to give 



372 AGRICl'LTURE SOCIETIES 

tht American ladies an opportunity of displaying their skill in this liranch 
of useful industry. 

"The Committee appointed to superintend the ploughing report, that 
Enos Morris's plough drawn by two horses, William .\ustin, ploughman, 
ploughed 3/16 of ;in acre of herd and timothy sward 7 inches deep in 24 
minutes. — James Worth and John Linton's iihmghs, each drawn by two 
horses, with Crirnelius Torbert and Daniel lirass ploughmen, ploughed the 
same quantity in 27 minutes 6 inches deep: and t!iat John Lefferts plough, 
drawn by three horses, liimself ploughman. ))l(iug]ied the same quantity in 
40 minutes 7 inches deep — all of which was dnne in a superior and hand- 
some manner. 

"The Committee on implements of liusl)andry report, that there has 
been submitted to them by Air. Worth, a Corn Shelling Machine, (Moore's 
patent) which, from the simplicity of its construction, clieapness, and com- 
plete operation, tliey l)elieve is well entitled to the attention of farmers 
generally. They also examined an ox cart belonging to Mr. David Jones, 
which contained an improvement in tlie method of discharging its load, 
wliich they consider an important one." 

At the anntial meeting and election held .May IG, 1825, "The 
imported F.ull, Bishoj). with some of his ])rogeny" was sh.own to 
the members. Imt it was not nntil Xovemlier 14tli that the big 
annual exhibition and cattle show was held. "There will also be 
a ploughing match with horses and oxen, when the farmers of 
the county are cordialh' invited to come forward and test the 
qualities of their ])loughs, horses, and oxen and their own skill 
as ploughmen."-" 

The exhibition of 1826. was also a]:)parently a success. Fifty 
dollars in prize money was awarded, and according to General 
Davis, "Jeremiah Bailey exhibited a model of his machine for 
mowing grass and grain, which had been in successful operation, 
in Philadeli^hia county, and was well indorsed by Edward l^uf- 
field and Samuel Xewbold. James \\'orth, Newtown, had also 
used it the last season, and said it did lictter work than anything 
]ie had ever seen."-^ The report of this exhibition, like the one 
of 1825, has not been preserved only the premium list has sur- 
vived. It is quoted below from the Ducks Coiiufy Patriot of 
Septemljer 4, 1826. 



-f^Bucks CoiiiHy Patriot and Farmcis' .Id-cwtiscr. October 31, 1825. 

2iDavis, W. W. H., History of Bucl.\^ County, Vol. II, p. 353. See also 
T. S. Kenderdine's article, "An Old Mowing Machine", in Proceedings of 
Bucks County Historical Society. Vol. Ill, p. 373. 



AGRICULTURE SOCIETIES 373 

BUCKS COUNTY AGRICUI/rURAL EXHIBITION. 
"The inhabitants of Bucks County are respectfully informed, that a 
show or exhibition of cattle, sheep and other animals, domestic manufac- 
tures &c. will be held at the house of Mrs. Ann Hinkle. in the village of 
Newtown, on Monday, the 13th of November, [1826] when the following 
premiums will be offered, for the annexed articles, viz. 
CATTLE. 

For the best Bull above two years old $5 

For tlie best Bull under 2 years 3 

For the best Cow above three years 4 

For tlie best Heifer between i and 3 3 

For tlie best Heifer calf under i year 2 

SHEEP. 

For the best Merino Ram 3 

Ewes not less than 3 in number 2 

Dishley Ram 3 

Ewes 3 in numlier 2 

— 10 

SWINK. 

For the best Boar 3 

For the best Sow 2 

— 5 

WINE. 

Best domestic 3 

CIDER. 

Best 3 

— 6 

CHEESE. 
Best 3 

BUTTER. 
Best not less than tln-ee months old 2 

— 5 

At the same time and place, there will he a ploughing match — Premiums 
as follow — 

PLOUGHING. 
Best, one eiglith of an acre, performed within 35 

mimites 2 

Five next best i dollar each 5 



Total $50 

"Premiums to be confined to inhabitants of the county of Bucks. No 
person will he entitled tn a Premium for any animal which he shall not 
have bred or pr ssessed at least tliree nmnths preceding the exhiliition : and 
he must give satisfactory assurance nf its remaining in the county for 
twelve months thereafter, provided it is of sufficient age to breed from. 
Nor for domestic articles unless manufactured at liis or her residence, and 
the process in manufacturing stated. 



374 AGRIfl'LTURE SOCIETIES 

"The society reserves the right of witliholding premiums in every case, 
when the object presented is deemed unworthy of distinction. 

"The society regrets that the limited state of the funds has necessarily 
confined the premiums to the objects enumerated, and particularly that they 
have been compelled to exclude Horses, Household Fabrics, the produce of 
the soil, implements of Husbandry, and other useful inventions. But it is 
hoped that the proprietors of those important articles will bring them for- 
ward; because it will not only benefit the community at large, to which 
every member of the human family is bound to CDUtribute his part, but it 
will really comport with their own interest; for instance, what is known 
of the value of a horse by the pompous advertisements which appear when 
the meanest is often extolled beyond the most excellent, and therefore the 
owners of fine horses, would establish their true merits more readily at a 
public exhibition, than by all that could be said of them on paper ; and the 
same observations may be applied to household fabrics, implements of hus- 
bandry &c. 

J.\MEs Worth. 
Cliainnau nf fh.c Co}iiv\ittee. 

"Such animals as are intended for competition on the premium list, 
must be on the ground by nine o'clock A. M. By order of the Society, 

John Linto.v, Secretary." 

The exhibition of 1827 was much more successful than the 
prececHng ones. The following is a complete report of the show ;-- 

BUCKS COUNTY AGRICULTURAL EXHIBITION. 
"At the Exhibition Meeting of the Agricultural Society of Bucks County, 
held at the Iiouse of Mrs. Ann Hinkle, in Newtown, November 12, 1827. 

"The Committees, on Stock— on Implements of Husbandry — on House- 
hold Fabrics, and on Ploughing, made the following Reports, to wit : 
ON STOCK. 
"Wc the Committee on Stock make the following Report : 

"Mr. Miles Addis's Young Expedition, a Stallion 4 years old is, in the 
opinion of your Committee, a horse possessing many good points, with a 
handsome figure and action, and is entitled, we consider to the premium. 

[$3.CK>] 

"Mr. James Worth's Brood Mare with a Colt by her side, we consider 
a fine beast, and entitled to the Premium. |$2.oo] 

"Mr. S. Y. Thornton's 2 years old blood Colt, sired by Rattler, is, we 
consider entitled to notice, although there is no premium for Colts of 
his age. 

2-From the Bucks County Intelligencer and General Advertiser of Nov- 
ember 19. 1827. The premium money, inserted in brackets by the present 
writer, was taken from the premium list as published in the same paper on 
the preceding October 8th. 



AGRICULTURE SOCIETIES 375 

"Defiance, owned by ^Messrs. Worth & Feaster, a full blooded Durham 
short horn Bull, over 2 years old (well known in the neighborhood,) is 
entitled to the premium. [$2.00] 

"Mr. James Coxe's yearling, full-blooded Durham short horn bull, sired 
by Blythe, is a l)eautiful Calf, and promises fair to compete with any of 
his predecessors, lie is therefore entitled to the Premium. [$i.oo] Mr. 
Coxe's full-blooded, yearling Heifer Fanny, by Blythe, is a very superior 
Calf, in some parts preferable to her brother. Entitled to the Premium. 
[$I.CX)] 

"Mr. Aaron Feaster's half-lilooded short horn heifer Calf Tiljbs, under 
2 years old, is decidedly, in our opinion, entitled to the Premium. [$8.00] 
We also award to Mr. Feaster the premium for the second best half- 
blooded Heifer Calf, under two years old. [$i.oo] 

"To Air. John Linton we award the premium for the best half -blooded 
Bull under une year old. [Xo premium listed] 

"Mr. James Worth is entitled to the premium for his full-l)looded Dish- 
ley Ram. [$2.00] But your committee had mucli difhcnlty in deciding with 
respect to the full-blooded Dishley Ewes, exhibited 1)y Mr. Worth and Mr. 
Lefiferts — as they certainly were very superior ; but finally concluded that 
three of Mr. Worth's Ewes were rather preferable and therefore awarded 
in his favor. [$2.00] 

Signed, 

JOH.\ KlKKBRIDE. 

JOHX Lf.kferts, 
M. H. Jknks. 

ON IMPLEMENTS OF HUSBANDllY 
AND HOL'SEHOLD FABRICS. 

"The Committee on Implements of Husbandry and Household Fabrics, 
respectfully report: That they have examined the several articles offered 
for their inspection, and recommend the following premiums, viz : 

For Implkmexts of Husbandry. 

To John Deates for his Plough manufactured by Garret Brown $2.00 

To Wm. Bache for his self-sharpening Plough manufactured by 

James Philips i.oo 

To Wm. Bache for his self -sharpening Cultivator i.oo 

To Croasdale & Kirk, for a Sausage Cutter i.oo 

"Buckman & Fasset, exhibited a Washing A.Iachine, which, from the 
high character given to it by a very respectable member of the society, the 
committee recommend it to the notice of the public. 

"The Committee further recommend the following premiums (^n House- 
hold Fabrics. 

To Mrs. Alice M'Xair for her Carpet $2.00 

To Mrs. Ann Morris, for her Carpet i.oo 

To Michael H. Jenks for his excellent Pomona Brandy i.oo 

James Worth. 
Chainmiii of Committee. 



376 AGRicrLTriJK societies 

OK PLOrGHING. 
"Tile Cniniiiittee im Ploughino report. — That two different Ploughs 
only were exhibited, viz : P)aclie's and Brown & Deates. It is the opinion 
of the Committee that P>ache's Plough will remove more earth, with the 
same strength^ (cf Horses') than any Plougli in the County. At the same 
time they think that Brown & Deates's Plough is worthy the attention of 
the puljlic, and performed the work in a much handsomer manner, managed 
by Joseph Buckman, with his own horses. Isaac Vanhorn with Mr. Mor- 
ris's horses and Bache's plough, certainly deserves great credit. The Com- 
mittee award to Mr. Buckman the first premium. [$5.00] 

Signed, 

John Lefp^erts, 
M. H. Jenks. 
\Vm. R. Rirn.xKnso.v. 
"Extracted from the Minutes, 

John Linton, Sec'y." 

(ic.neral Davis mav have seen at one time the original mintttes 
of th.e Society. f(jr he sai'l. "At the exhibition .\ovember 10, 1828, 
preniinins were ottered on horses, cattle, shee]:), hogs, miscellaneous 
articles and plow ing. Some of the fine st'Dck of John Hare Powell 
was brf)ught t(j this la'^t exliibition. AnK)ng other leading men, who 
encouraged the pioneer soi-iet)', were Dr. John 11. Gordon, Thomas 
G. Kennedy, Alichael H. Jenks and James \\'orth."-'^ Mrs. (iill 
wrote : 

"In 1828 the siiciety met at the house of Joseph Archambault (Brick 
Hotel). Tlie exhil)itii>n made a good display: it was Archambault's first 
year at the Brick, and the dinner prepared for the members was a credit 
to the new landlord. The Pomona l)randy, manufactured by Micliael H. 
Jenks was placed on the talile free and plenty, and appears to have acted 
like a charm. The l)randy and tlie maker were warmly toasted. When the 
age of the brandy was given it was taste 1 again, and the more it was tasted, 
the older and lietter it became, while regret was expressed that a larger 
premium c; iild not be given. -■* It was remarked afterward that several of 
the memljers knew more about good brandy than they did alniut good 
ploughing."-'' 

-'3Davis, W. W. II., History of Bucks Comity. Vol. II, p. 353. A com- 
plete report of ihis meeting is to be found in the Sticks County Intellincuccr 
and General .Idz'crtiscr « f December i, 1828, and the Political Examiner 
and Bucks County .-Idici tiscr of December 8, 1828, but no mention, how- 
ever, is made therein of "the fine stock of John Hare Powell." 

--•Vewt' wn's Star of freedom, June 18, 1817, carried tins brief adver- 
tisement 1iy Michael II. Jenks; "Apple Whiskey, Of the first quality, for 
Sale, By the Hogshead < r Barrel." Xcte that he received from the Society 
in 1827 a prenn'uni of $1.00 for "his excellent Pomona Brandy", so he ap- 
parently ran his distillery for many years. This in spite of the fact that the 
bye-laws of 1821 provirled for a standing committee "especially to dis- 
courage that great bane of society, the excessive use of spiritual liquors." 

-^Nei^'toi^n Enterprise, September 15, 1923. 



AGRTCTLTURE SOCIETIES 377 

Two of the most prominent members of the Agricultural 
Society of Uucks County were James Worth. Es(|.. a distinguished 
gentleman whose country seat was Sharon, in Middletown town- 
ship : and Dr. F'hineas Jenks. who lived in the old stone house at 
the southwest corner of State Street and Centre Avenue, in New- 
toAvn. Both of these men were received into the honorarv mem- 
bership of the Philadelphia Society for I'romoting Agriculture,- — 

BUCKS COUNTY AGRICULTtJRAL SOCIETY. 

I^OTICE is hereby given that the society 
Jjl will be dissolved on Thursday, the 4th 
of October next, when aneqnitable dividend 
of the moneys in the hands of the Treasurer 
and those which may arise from the sale of 
the books, &c. will be made among the 
members, in attendance or their represen- 
tatives. The money not claimed on that 
day will be appropriated to some benevo- 
lent purpose. By order of the Society. 
J. H. GORDON, Sec'y, 

September 24th, 1832 

N. B. The Books, 6cc. will be publicly 
sold at 2 o'clocli P. M. on the day of meet- 
ing, at the house of Joseph Archambault, in 
Newtown. Members, who hold books be- 
longing to the Society, will please to return 
them on or before the day of sale. : 

LAST XEV\SPAPER ADY ['RTISKM 1<:XT OF THE SOCIETY. 

the former on I'^bruary l.l, 1820 and the latter on March 21, 
1838. \\'hy sucli men of recognized ability i^ermitted their society, 
formed under tlic most favorable circuiustances, to fall to pieces 
remains a my^terw In speaking of tlie wind-up of this organiza- 
tion Mr-.. ( iill ])ubli.-.hed the following conclusions: 

"A int'cTins; was called in iX^j, cuiiniittees aiipuiiitcil tn onUect tlie 
1)1 Mks and adjust the affairs cf the sncicty. in urdcr tn clnse up the business. 



378 ARG I CULTURE SOCJETIES 

At a later meeting the same year, the books were sold, and it was ordered 
that the proceeds be divided among the members, with the understanding 
that if any shares were not called for within ten days, all nmney then 
remaining in the hands of the committee was to be presented to the cause 
of temperance. The projectors of the society had a liigher oliject in view 
than money for what they exhibited. The institution wa';, in fact, con- 
trolled by a high class of men. 

"Charles B. Trego, of Pliiladelphia, who was spending the summer of 
1874 3' the home of his brother, Edward, remarked on hearing the names 
of members of the society ; T remember many of them very well, and also 
the places at which they lived.' He was asked whether they were all 
farmers. 'Oh I no,' he answered : 'They were all men of solid worth and 
intelligence and in nearly every department of business, — farmers, mechan- 
ics, retired gentlemen, lawyers, and doctors.' He then told of the farms and 
places in which they lived. He was asked : 'How would they compare with 
the persons who now, after fifty years, occupy the same places?' The ques- 
tion was too direct to answer in one word, but the substance of it was that the 
tone and character had not been elevated, and if the present generation 
had not better facilities for business than they had iifty years ago, they would 
loose by comparison. Tt was remarkable that the society which had ap- 
peared to be in such successful operation in 1829 when officers were re- 
elected for tlie ensuing year, with the most favorable prospects for a good 
exhibition in the fall, should break down and crumble to pieces in the 
course of a few months. There were some cause*^ for the cliange and it is 
interesting to know what they were. Among the changes might be noted: 
first, the old court house, in which the meetings had been held, was sold ;2<5 
second, there had been some jealousy created in the society by rival exhibit- 
ors. 

"James Worth, Aaron Feaster, and Jonathan Wynkoop were the fathers 
of the society, and had their farms better stocked than any others, with all 
improved breeds of animals, until James Cox, of Philadelphia, moved up to 
Northampton, and turned his attention to stock raising. He had good taste 
and ample means for making a fine display of the best kind of cattle. 
Public attention was originally all directed to what Worth, Feaster, and 
Wynkoop said. James Cox was likely to become the coming man. 

"Temperance was beginning to be an exciting element in social life 
and a strong disposition was manifested to make the Agricultural Society 
of Bucks County do its share of temperance work. This soon made a bad 
feeling in the society and had probably more influence in breaking up the 

26This had nothing to do with the downfall of the Society. ( E. R. B.) 
Some of the known members of the Agricultural Society of Bucks County 
include : Dr. Stephen Rurson. William Carr, James Cox, John Cox, Aaron 
Feaster, Dr. John H. Gordon, Alichael H. Jenks, Esq., Dr. Phineas Jenks, 
Thomas G. Kennedy, Esq., John Kirkbride, John Lefferts, John Linton, Esq., 
Yardley Linton. Enos Morris, Esq., James P. Morris, William R. Richard- 
son, James Worth, Esq., Major John Wanshear Wynkoop, Jonathan Wyn- 
koop, Esq., and Thomas Yardley. 



AGRICULTURE SOCIETIES 379 

organization than any other one cause. This can be appreciated by a little 
consideration of social life at that time. In that day it would have been 
regarded as cool treatment to visitors not to offer them a glass of wine. 
Mechanics who came at sunshine ready for work expected their bitters 
before breakfast, dinner and supper and it was the same with laborers. 
Rum was indispensable in the harvest field to brace up the exhausted 
systems of the workmen. The theory that rum has more tendency to pros- 
trate the system, than to give it strength, had not been accepted. As this 
was the attitude of social life and public sentiment, there is little wonder 
that the strong resolutions offered at the meeting of 1829, condemning the 
use of liquor made a great sensation. The neighborhood was not prepared 
for it when it was only at the last exhibition that the Pomona brandy of 
Michael H. Jenks was very acceptable and highly praised at the dinner at 
the Brick hotel of Joseph Archambault." 



CONSTITUTION 

of the 
Agricultural Societ7 of Bucks County. 

Amended and Adopted, February 12, 1821, and 
first Printed in the "Pennsylvania Correspondent 
and Farmers' Advertiser" on the April 3d following. 

Article 1. 
The Society shall be styled the "Agricultural Society of Bucks 
County" — and shall consist of such persons as reside within the County, 
and shall comply with the provisions of this Constitution. 
Article II. 
The attention of the Society shall be called to Agriculture, and 
all subjects connected therewith. 

Article III. 
The stated meetings of the Society shall be held on the last second- 
days, or Mondays of January, April, July and October, at such hour 
and place as the Bye-laws may designate, and five members shall con- 
stitute a quorum for ordinary transactions. 

Article IV. 

The officers of the Society shall at present, consist of a President, 
Vice President, Secretary and Treasurer, to be annually elected at the 
stated meeting in January: — but should an election not be so held, 
it may take place at any after stated meeting; and any vacancy by 
death, resignation or otherwise, may be supplied at any time, provided 
that such vacancy shall have been announced at some previous meet- 
ing. The number of Vice-Presidents may hereafter be increased and 
such other officers appointed, as may be found expedient. In all cases, 



880 AORTCULTrRE SOCTF/nES 

the officers chosen shall continue to exercise their functions, until 
others are elected. 

Article V. 

It shall be the duty of the President to preside at all meetings of 
the Society, to preserve order, to state questions, to give the casting 
vote when the Society is equally divided, and to perform all such other 
acts as may appertain to his office. In the absence of the President, 
his duties shall devolve on the Vice-President. 

Article VI. 

The Secretary shall keep a faithful record of the proceedings of 
the Society, and perform such other acts as the Bye-laws may enjoin, 
or the transactions of the Society require. 

Article VII. 

The Treasurer shall give bond with approved security, for the 
faithful performance of his duties; he shall receive and pay all monies 
belonging to the Society, and keep a regular account thereof, and 
exhibit the sr.me at the stated meeting in .lanuary annually, and at 
such other times as may be called for; but he is to pay no monies 
except on the order of the President, attested by the Secretary. 

Article VIII. 

In the absence of any officer at any stated meeting, his place may 
be supplied pro tempore, by a vote of the Society. 

Article IX. 

There shall be held annually at the stated meeting in October, a 
shew or exhibition of Cattle, Sheep and other animals, domestic manu- 
facturers, implements of husbandry, new and improved varieties of 
fruit, grains, grasses, roots, and other productions. 

Article X. 
Every member shall sign the Constitution, and pay at the time 
one dollar, and on the first day of January annually thereafter, such 
furthei- sum as may be required by the Bye-laws. Any member whose 
contributions shall be found to be two years in arrears, and shall omit 
lo pay the same on application by Treasurer, or other person author- 
ized by him, shall be considered as withdrawing from the Society, and 
shall forfeit all interests therein. 

Article XL 

Amendments to this Constittition, may be made at the annual meet- 
ing in .January by two-thirds of the members present. 

BYE-LAWS OR RULES 

For the government of the Agricultural Society of Bucks County. 

1st. All meetings of the society shall be held v.t the Old Court- 
House, in Newtown, at one o'clock, P. IVI., except such as may be other- 
wise directed at a preceding meeting; and business shall be entered 



AGRICULTURE SOCIETIES 381 

upon within one hour after the time appointed, provided a quorum shall 
have assembled. 

2d. At the annual meeting in January, the following standing 
Committees shall be appointed, viz: — 

1. On Farm, Buildings, Fences and Implements of Husbandry — 
To study the improvement of Houses, Bams, Barnyards and Out-build- 
ings, both as it regards the plan and materials. To examine the relative 
cost of the different kinds of fences, and the best methods of construct- 
ing or raising them. To make improvements in the implements of 
husbandry, and to introduce such as may be made in other places. 

2. On Domestic Animals. — To enquire after and introduce the 
bes: kinds, to endeavor to r.scertain the most economical and best 
methods of rearing, managing, and feeding them, together with facts 
on the relative advantages of the employment of horses, mules and 
oxen, for labor. 

3. On the Veterinary Art. — To investigate the nature and origin 
of the diseases of domestic animals, and the best methods of preven- 
tion anci cure. 

4. On Soils and Manures. — To examine the different soils of this 
County, and study their improvement. To endeavor to ascertain the 
relative advantages of barn-yard manure, plaister, lime, burnt clay, 
ashes, salt, and other kinds of manure, with the most proper time and 
manner of applying each; together with the best methods of accumulat- 
ing r.nd preparing them. 

5. On Grasses, Grains, and Roots. — To enquire after and recom- 
mend the best and most profitable kinds, the time and manner of sow- 
ing and planting, and the proper quantity of each per acre; also, the 
previous preparation of the ground and seed, together with the best 
method of culture. 

6. On Fruit and Forest Trees. — To endeavor to ascertain the best 
and most useful fruits of all kinds, with the best methods of making 
wine, cider. &c. To examine the causes of the premature decay of 
fruit-trees, with a view to their preservation; to ascertain the best 
time of cutting forest-trees, as it respects the durability of the wood, 
under ground or exposed to the weather — also, for fuel. 

7. On Horticulture. — To ascertain the best and most approved 
methods of managing kitchen gardens, attend to the introduction of 
useful vegetables, modes of culture, &c. And also, to promote good 
taste in the planning and arrangement of gardens generally. 

8. On Entomology. — To examine the habits of such insects as 
injure the crops of the farmer, \v1th a view to discover the means of 
destroying them, or preventing their ravages; and to study such other 
branches of natural history, as are interesting to the Agriculturalist. 

9. On Domestic Manufactures.— To endeavor to devise the best 
means of encouraging household fabrics, and raising the raw materials 



382 AGRICULTURE SOCIETIES 

for larger establishments, and generally to recommend a preference 
In the use of the manufactures of our country. 

10. On Industry and Economy. — To endeavor to find means for 
the employment of the poor, and to stimulate the idle into industry; 
to introduce habits of economy and good mangement among the labor- 
ing class, and especially to discourage that great bane of society, the 
excessive use of spirituous liquors. 

11. A Library Committee. — To superintend the library, to appoint 
a librarian, and to establish such rules for its government, as are 
consistant with the views of the society. 

Every member of the society shall have the privilege of attaching 
himself to any one, or more, of the standing committees, except the 
library committee; each committee to consist of at least five members, 
besides the officers of the society, who shall be admitted ex-officio; 
and where that number do not voluntarily offer, the president shall 
appoint the deficient part. 

Each committee shall transmit to the society, all papers which 
may be addressed to them, touching the objects of the association. It 
will be expected that every committee will make a report to the society 
at least once in every year. It shall be the duty of the first named on 
each committee, on being furnished with a list of the members, to 
notify his colleagues of their appointment, and call them together, 
whenever he may deem it expedient. 

3d. It shall be the duty of the president to call special meetings 
of the society whenever he may deem it expedient, or on the applica- 
tion of any five members made in writing and stating the object of the 
call. He shall appoint all committees consisting of not more than 
three members; and he shall designate the first or Chairman of all the 
standing committees. It shall further be his duty to maintain all use- 
ful correspondence, not otherwise particularly directed; and he shall 
annually request some member to deliver an address at the stated 
meeting in January. 

4th. It shall be the duty of the Secretary to enter the number 
of members attending each meeting; to notify the Chairman of each 
committee of the object of their appointment, and furnish a list of the 
members. He shall publish the meetings of the society unless other- 
wise directed. 

5th. The business of the society shall commence on the president 
calling the members to order, when all conversation and noise that 
might interrupt the proceedings, must be avoided. The secretary shall 
first read the minutes of the preceding meeting, but no debate shall 
be admitted on such minutes further than to correct inaccuracies. The 
reports of the standing committees shall next be in order, taking pre- 
cedence as they stand recorded. Other committees shall then be called 
upon as they are entered on the minutes, and all unfinished business 
must be disposed of before any new matter can be introduced; except 



AGRICULTURE SOCIETIES 383 

at special meetings, when the business for which the meeting is con- 
vened must first be transacted. 

6th. All motions shall be reduced to writing, if required, by the 
presiding officer, nor shall any debate take place until a motion is 
regularly seconded and stated from the chair. A motion may be with- 
drawn by the member who makes it before amendment or decision, and 
a motion to amend, commit, postpone or adjourn, shall always be in 
order. 

7th. In all debates the members shall address the president. A 
member shall not be interrupted while speaking, except by a call to 
order or for the purpose of explanation, nor shall he speak more than 
twice on the same subject, without leave obtained from the society. 
The president shall be judge of all questions of order, but any member 
declared to be transgressed, may explain himself and appeal from such 
decision and on being seconded the society shall determine. All mat- 
ters touching the objects of our association may be fully discussed 
either orally or written, but personal reflections may be deemed in- 
decorous. 

8th. All claims against the society must be presented at some 
regular meeting thereof, and when adjusted, the president shall draw 
on the treasurer for the amount. The annual contribution of members 
shall be fifty cents till otherwise directed. 

9th. At the stated meeting in July a committee consisting of five 
members shall be appointed whose duty shall be to attend the exhibi- 
tion in October and carefully view and examine all such cattle, sheep 
or other animals, domestic manufactures, implements of husbandry, 
new and improved varieties of fruit, grain, grasses, roots and other 
productions, as may be shewn or exhibited, and having completed 
their examination, they shall report to the society, a statement of their 
transactions generally, and shall particularly notice every person who 
may have distinguished him or herself, by exhibiting the best or most 
approved article of any kind, and also such as may have offered the 
next best, which report shall be entered at large upon the minutes, and 
a certificate signed by the president, and attested by the secretary, 
shall be issued to each individual so distinguished, bearing honorable 
testimony of the facts; or such other evidence of the merits of the 
case be granted, as the society may at any time direct. The president 
is hereby authorized to supply any vacancy that may happen in the 
committee. 

10th. Any alteration or addition to these rules may be made 
at the annual meeting in January, or at any other stated meeting, 
provided notice thereof shall have been given at a previous meeting. 



384 AnRICl'LTrRE SOCIETIES 

We have now reviewed tlie history of our county's second 
agriculture society. The third one was formed in 1843, by several 
of the men who had ])een active in the society that had become 
defunct about a decade earlier. They transposed the name of 
the old Agricultural Society of Rucks County to form the new 
Bucks Count\- Agricultural Society, and with this change in name 
came a change in fortune. Vor forty \ears the P.ucks Counts- 
Agriculture St)ciety w as without doubt one of the most prominent 
of any county societx' in Pennsylvania. 

W'e are most fortunate in having preserved to us a sj^lendid 
history of this Societ}' during the first (|uarter century of its life. 
This histor}-, from the pen of none other than the late Judge 
Edward M. Paxson, a])]^eared in the Bucks Coioify InicUigcncer 
of Xovember 10. 3868. And we (juote it herewith to preserve it 
in a more jiermanent form, because we could not, at this late date 
hoj)e to be able to frame the stor\- in the same colorful way that 
one of the founders could. The following is part of. ".\n Ad- 
dress Delivered before the l^>ucks County Agricultural Society, at 
Newtown. September 23. 1868. by Edward M. P^axson.. Esq." 

'Air. President and Gentlemen of the lUicks County Agricultural So- 
ciety; — On the 9th day of October, 1843, I was sitting in the editorial 
sanctum of the Newtown Journal, when the door opened and in walked 
my fellow townsman, Dr. Phineas Tenks. He laid down his hat and cane, 
and with that solemn air so habitual with him, remarked: "Edward. I have 
been thinking that we ought to have an Agricultural Society in Bucks 
county, and I have come to consult you in regard to it." The matter was 
then and there considered and discussed between us. and the result of our 
deliberations was that I sat down at my tal)le and wrote a notice in these 
words : 

'Bucks County Agricultural Society. 

'The Farmers of Bucks county are requested to meet in the Borough 
of Xewtown on [Monday the 6th of November next, for the purpose of 
forming an Agricultural Society. A general attendance is desirable. 

ATany Farmers.' 

"Tliis notice was published next day. Octolier lotb, in the Newtown 
Journal, and it was the first step in the formation of this Society.-''' From 



-'\n the issue of his A'r:>, /"n'/; Journal und IVorkimiiucu's Advocate for 
October 24. 184.3. Air. Paxson wrote: "By reference to our advertising will 
be seen a call for a meeting of the Farmers and all others interested in the 
importance of Agriculture, to meet in this Borough, in the Free Church on 
Monday, the 6th of November, for the purpose of forming a Society for the 
promotion of agricidture in this county. We deem it unnecessary to speak 
to our friends upon the importance of this subject, believing that they are 
well aware that an institution of this kind can but prove highly beneficial to 



AGRTCULTURE SOCIETIES 885 

which it will be seen that 1 >i . Jonks ami myself were, m a measure, its 
fathers, and as our old friend, the Doctor, is no longer with us, I may 
perhaps, without egotism, lay claims to being the surviving parent. I con- 
fess I feel myself alnmst too young a man t;> have such a strapping 
progeny; and now after an absence of many years when 1 survey him in 
all the pride and strength of his full development, I may well explain in 
the language of the poet: "The very mother that him bare would scarce 
have known her child.' 

■'On the sixth day of November, A. D. 18-13, i" pursuance of the notice 
I have referred to, a few of our farmers assem1)led at Xewtown 'for the 
purpose therein indicated, and though they were few in numbers, they were 
mostly men of weight and influence in the cnmmunity. Samuel D. Ingham, 
Joshua Dungan, Jacob Eastburn, James C. and Adrian Cornell were among 
those who attended the first meeting. After some preliminary discussion, 
the little band organized by calling Dr. Phineas Jenks to the chair, -& and 
the appointment of a Secretary [i.e., Edward M. Paxs-n]. The President 
submitted a constitution to the meeting, which, after divers amendments, 
was adopted. The Society was formed, and it adjourned to meet at Pine- 
ville Hall, on the first Monday of P^lM-uary folh'wing. and tlic President 
was invited to deliver an address. 

"It will thus be seen that the sixth day .if Xuxember next is the tv.-enty- 
fifth anniversary of the formation of this Society— its "silver" anniversary, 
if I may be allowed to borrow the term for the occasion. I submit to the 
worthy Managers wdiether it would be right to allow the day to pass with- 
out some mark of recognition, and witl: this suggestion I leave the subject 
with those to whom it properly belongs. 

"The Pineville meeting met, as was agreed u))on, lHd)ruary 5, 1844. It 
was much larger than the Xewtown meeting, yet the number present was 
quite inconsiderable. Pineville Hall was not near full. Indeed, the business 
of the Society was transacted in the parlor of the hotel then kept by Samuel 
Tomlinson. A series of by-laws were adopted, and a committee, consisting 
of Joshua Dungan, Jacob Eastburn, Josiah B. Smith, James C. Cornell, 
John K. Trego and William Xeely Thompson, were appointed to report the 
names of suitable persons to serve as permanent officers. The conmiittee 
after consultation reported as follows: — President, Hon. Samuel D. Ing- 
ham : Vice Presidents. Dr. Phineas Jenks, James C. Cornell, John K. Trego 
and Jolm Blackf an ; Secretary, Edward M. Paxson ; Treasurer, Jacob East- 



our county. Aside from the benefit to be derived, tlie subject is one wdiich 
is highly interesting to all, whether engaged in that useful and honorable 
avocation or not. In Chester, Delaware, and many other counties, societies 
have been formed, farmers have associated together, and each has had the 
Ijenefit and advantage of the experience of all: to say nothing about the 
exhibitions of Cattle and Stock, Farming implements of all kinds. Ploughing 
matches. Premiums, &c. At the last Plougliing match Bucks County was 
completely victorious, Mahlon ,Smith of Phmistead receiving the premium 
for the best ))lough, and Jonat'ian Smith the ])remium for the best plough- 
ing." 

-■'^Ti^ey actually met on S.iturday, the 4tii instead of Mondav, the 6th, 
as advertised. (E. R. B.) 



386 ARGICULTURE SOCIETIBIS 

l)iirn. The repi^rt of tlie committee was unanimously adopted, and thus the 
Society was now fully and permanently organized, and in complete working 
order. 

"At this meeting the Secretary was directed to procure an engraved 
device, representing some rural occupation, to be engraved and printed as 
an ornament to the certificates to be granted thereafter to those who should 
exhibit the best stock. &c., at the annual exhibitions. For in that day of 
small things no one dreamed of offering large premiums in money, or other 
valuables, to e.xcite competition. We had a Treasurer, it is true, and it 
sounded well. We had a treasury, but it required no strong box to guard 
it. The Hrst few dollars that were thrown therein sounded like falling 
stones in an empty cavern. But the men who had charge of this enterprise 
at tliat time were men of pluck and courage. They put their shoulders to 
the wheel, and though at first it moved slowly, yet it was not long before 
the indonu'table energy and vim of such men as Samuel D. Ingham, Josliua 
Dungan and James C. Cornell made it hum. 

"Addresses were delivered at the Pineville meeting by Dr. Phineas 
Jenks, the President thereof, and by Sanniel D. Tngham, the newly elected 
President of the Society.-^ They were both carefully prepared and interest- 
ing papers, and were published in the newspapers of the county for the 
following weeks. That of Mr. Ingham was marked by the careful thought 
and extensive reading for which he was deservedly celebrated, and con- 
tained many valuable scientific truths in regard to the nature and composi- 
tion of soils. 

"The Pineville meeting adjourned to meet again in three months, and 
Joshua Dungan was invited to deliver an address. Indeed for some time I 
think we had an address at each quarterly meeting. It answered very well 
and added interest to the proceedings. But four addres.ses a year was 
pretty severe drain upon the resources of the Society, so far as home 
orators were concerned ; and this custom came to be honored more in the 
breach than in the oljservaiice. 

"The first exhibition was held in Xewtown, on the 24th of October, 
A. D. 1844. I remember tlie day well. Many of us looked forward to it 
witli anxiety We felt uncertain as to liow the result. There had not been 
any such exliibition in tlie county for many years, and it was a new thing 
to most of our farmers. Besides, it came just on the eve of a Presidential 
election — the famous Clay campaign of 1844, which many of my hearers 
will remember as one of the most exciting as well as hotly contested cam- 
paigns we have ever passed through. We were in the midst of monster 
political meetings — very much like those we have now, excepting that 1844 
was pre-eminently the campaign of big teams — twenty yoke of oxen, I think, 
having been harnessed to one team at the great Newtown meeting. This 
was all very well for politics, Init very bad for Agricultural Exhibitions. 
But we persevered. Dr. Phineas Jenks, Garrett Brown and myself com- 



-i'Printed in pamphlet form at the "Journal" office. Barnsley, E. R., 
Presses and Pi inters of Nei^-town before 186S, 2d ed., p. 51. 



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386 ARG I CULTURE SOCIETIES 

burn. The repi^rt of the committee was unanimously adopted, and thus the 
Society was now fully and permanently organized, and in complete working 
order. 

"At this meeting the Secretary was directed to procure an engraved 
device, representing some rural occupation, to be engraved and printed as 
an ornament to the certificates to be granted thereafter to those who should 
exhibit the best stock. &c., at the annual exhibitions. For in that day of 
small things no one dreamed of offering large premiums in money, or other 
valuables, to excite competition. We had a Treasurer, it is true, and it 
sounded well. We had a treasury, but it required no strong box to guard 
it. Tlie first few dollars that were thrown therein sounded like falling 
stones in an empty cavern. Hut the men who had charge of this enterprise 
at that time were men of pluck and courage. They put their shoulders to 
the wheel, and though at first it moved slowdy, yet it was not long before 
the indomitable energy and vim of such men as Samuel D. Ingham, Joshua 
Dungan and James C. Cornell made it hum. 

"Addresses were delivered at the Pineville meeting by Dr. Phineas 
Jenks, the President thereof, and by Samuel D. Tngham, the newly elected 
President of the Society.-^ They were l)Cth carefully prepared and interest- 
ing papers, and were published in the newspapers of the county for the 
following weeks. That of Mr. Ingham was marked by the careful thought 
and extensive reading for which he was deservedly celebrated, and con- 
tained many valuable scientific truths in regard to the nature and composi- 
tion of soils. 

"The Pineville meeting adjourned to meet again in three months, and 
Joshua Dungan was invited to deliver an address. Indeed for some time I 
think we had an address at each quarterly meeting. It answered very well 
and added interest to the proceedings. But four addresses a year was 
pretty severe drain upon the resources of the Society, so far as home 
orators were concerned ; and this custom came to be honored more in the 
breach than in the ol)servance. 

"The first exhibition was held in .\ewtown, on the 24th of October, 
A. D. 1844. I remember the day well. Many of us looked forward to it 
with anxiety. We felt uncertain as to how the result. There had not been 
any such exhibition in the county for many years, and it was a new thing 
to most of our farmers. Besides, it came just on thr eve of a Presidential 
election — the famous Clay campaign of 1844^ which many of my hearers 
will remember as one of tlie most exciting as well as hotly contested cam- 
paigns we have ever passed through. We were in the midst of monster 
political meetings — very much like those we have now, excepting that 1844 
was pre-eminently the campaign of big teams — twenty yoke of oxen, I think, 
having been harnessed to one team at the great Newtown meeting. This 
was all very well for politics, hut very bad for Agricultural Exhibitions. 
But we persevered. Dr. Piiineas Jenks, Garrett Brown and myself com- 



-"••Printed in pamphlet form at the "Journal" oftice. Barnsley, E. R. 
Presses mid f'l inters of Ner^^town before 1S6S, 2d ed., p. 51. 



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UIl'LOMA l;KAXTL-;U TO .WUREW W.VliaXS AT THF. SIXTH AXXUAL ICXHIBITIOX OF 

BUCKS COUNTY AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY 

Mr. Watkins, a shoemaker by trade, later enlisted in Capt. Ayers' cavalry company, i8th Penn'a 

Cavalry, and die_d a prisoner of war at Richmond, Va., on July 20, 1864. 

His Borne in Newtown was at the "Sandwich House" on the main 

street, next door to the Sign of the Bird-in-lland. 



AGRICULTURE SOCIETIES 387 

posed the Committee of Arrangements. Dr. Jenks did not act, and the 
whole lahor of that Committee devolved upon (iarrett I'mwn and myself. 
We worked like heavers. The other committees were equally industrious. 
Kind friends were not wanting to help us and cheer us in our lahors, but 
we lacked experience, and of course labored to some disadvantage. The 
announcement or advertisement of the Exhibition as published in the county 
papers occupied about three squares, to speak in printers' phraseology. It 
looks meagre now, compared with the extended and flaming announcements 
of modern Exhibitions. There were but six committees, and they were com- 
posed of three members each: 1st On PJougliing. 2nd. On .Xgricultural 
Implements. .^1. On Stock. 4th. On Agricultural Products. 5th. Com- 
mittee to prepare a report for publication, 6th. Committee of Arrange- 
ments. The ground used for the Exhibition was a lot back of what was 
then Hough's hotel, [now called the P.rick Hotel]. The arrangements, hasty 
and imperfect it is true, were all made at last and the eventful day dawned, 
and it brought a great crowd of people, and they brought their stock and 
their produce, their huge apples and mammoth pumpkins, and, best of all, 
our farmers brought their wives and daughters^ with their rosy cheeks and 
bright eyes, to gladden our hearts.30 The Exhibition was a success. The 
Society was a success. A large number of our best farmers enrolled their 
names as members. From that hour the Rucks County Agricultural Society 
became one of the substantial institutions of our county. 

"The venerable President of the Society, Samuel D. Ingham, delivered 
the address, which was published in the county papers along with the official 
report of the Exhibition, prepared by the Committee on Publication. The 
report made a little over a single column of the Newtown Journal. The 
latter paper in its issue of October 29, 1844, says: 

" 'The Exhibition and Cattle Show which came off in this place on last 
Thursday fully equalled our most sanguine expectations. There liave been 
so many large meetings this season, and the public mind is so taken up by 
political matters just now, that we were fearful a matter which strikes 
more deeply tlian all others at the great interests of the country, would 
be comparatively neglected. But in this we were agreeably disappointed. 
The people were then — the bone and sinew, as the politicians say.' 

"So closed the first exhibition, which at that time occupied but a single 
day. The second was held at the same place on the sixteenth day of OctoI)er, 
A. D. 1845. I'he address was delivered by Joshua Dungan. The attendance 
was large and the display better than the year before. The Society had 
made another step forward. The Reports of the Committees were longer 
and more carefully prepared. 

"Tlie third cxhil)ition was held on the fifteenth of October, 184(1. It 
was an advance on botli of its predecessors. The display was very good, 
and the people were tliere Iiy tliousands. .Vo premiums were awarded, but 
diplomas, handsomely engraved, were delivered to the successful com- 
petitors. 



•^•'.Mr. Paxson w;is just twenty years old at tliis time, and unmarried. 



388 



AGRICULTURE SOCIETIES 



"This is as far down as I propose to trace the operations of the 
Society. Its career since that time is perhaps better known to others than 
to myself, and while it has been pleasant to refer thus briefly to some of 
the incidents connected with the foundation and early career of this fiourish-- 
ing institution^ it must not be forgotten that the picture has also its shady side. 
The graves that have opened admonish us that strong as our institution 
now is, some of its firmest pillars, shaken with the storms of time, have 
fallen, and crumbled back to their kindred dust. Our first President, the 
Hon. Samuel D. Ingham, after a life of rare usefulness and purity, like 
a shock of ripe grain ready for the harvest, has been gathered to his fathers. 
Our country has produced few men equal and none superior to Samuel D. 
Ingham. With a calm, clear mind, richly stored and garnished by culture, 
he joined the charm of pleasant manners and a generous heart. He was 
probably the most scientific farmer in our county. His knowledge of agri- 



NOT TU.VNhiKKRABJ.F:. 

NINETEENTH ANNUAL EXHIBITION, 
September *Zi and 35, 1862. 

ADMIT THE BEAEEB DITRING THE EXHIBITION. 

,1. S. BROW.V. S*.r,tarv. U. C IVINS, I'reei.ieut. 



r*ST riiK^«$. 



from the Library of Bucks County Historical Society. 



cultural chemistry, and of the nature and character of soils, was equalled 
by few in this or any other country. And while such men are not always 
the most successful farmers in a pecuniary view, we must remember that 
their knowledge is in a great measure the result of experiments — that ex- 
periments in agriculture are costly, and that while they seldom benefit 
pecuniarily the man who makes them, the knowledge that he thus obtains 
and imparts without money and without price to others, benefits and en- 
riches them. To Samuel D. Ingham this Society owes a debt it can never 
repay. But we can cherish and revere his memory. We can keep alive 
the recollection of those graces of mind and heart that in former days 
charmed us by the very richness of their simplicity. We can imitate, feebly 
indeed, but still imitate, those christian qualities that endeared him to us 
in life, and leave a bright halo around his memory in death. I speak not 
the languge of mere eulogy, rather the earnest utterance of truth. Samuel 
D. Ingham was one of my earliest and best friends. At the very outset 



AGRICULTURE SOCIETIES 389 

of my career, when the future was uncertain before me, and the great 
battles of lite were still unf ought, his voice of kind encouragement and 
approbation was among the first I heard. Coming as it did, from a man 
of his years and position, it cheered me in hours that would otherwise have 
been dark, and has left an impression upon my mind, no time nor circum- 
stances can efface. Tn life, I loved him for his high qualities, and in death, 
I honor and revere his memory. 

"Joshua Dungan, too, is gone. We miss his genial smile and hearty 
support in every useful public enterprise. He was one of the most promi- 
nent, as he was one of the alilest men, connected with the organization of 
this Society. As a farmer, combining the practical with the scientific, he 
had no superior in our county. He was a man, too, of fine literary tastes, 
rtnd an accomplished and elegant writer. — Some of his addresses and 
essays read before this Society were models of their kind — replete with 
fine thoughts clothed in the language of elegant simplicity. After a life 
of usefulness he, too, sleeps with his fathers. 

"Dr. Phineas Jenks, the man in whose brain the idea of organizing 
this Society first found a lodgement, meets with us no more. His venerable 
form, as we used to see it about Newtgwn, with that look of profound 
wisdom, which, like his cane, he always carried with him seems before me 
now. Kind hearted, a good physician, a good farmer, a good neighbor, 
and last, but most important of all, a genial Christian gentleman — he has 
gone, I trust, to that better land, where neither constitutional conventions-^i 
nor agricultural exhibitions are needed. 

"Jacob Eastburn, after filling with entire satisfaction for many years 
the responsible position of Treasurer^ has also departed upon the same 
long journey, after having first, I have no doubt, laid up his treasures in 
that kingdom where the "moth does not corrupt, nor do thieves break 
through and steal." No one connected with the Society was more efficient 
and zealous than Jacob Eastburn. No one more faithfully performed 
whatever was committed to him to do. In his death the community has 
sustained a great loss." 

Tlie first constitution-'- of the lUicks County Agricultural So- 
ciety, adopted November 4, 1848. contained twelve articles as 
follows : 

"Art. I. The Society shall l)e styled the Bucks County Agricultural 
Society,-^'' and shall consist of such persons as comply with the provisions 
of this Constitution. 

"Art. 2. The attention of the Society shall lie called to Agriculture, 
and all subjects connected with it. 

3lThis is an illusion to the fact tliat Dr. Jenks was one of tlie four 
delegates from P)Ucks county to tlie State Constitutional Convention of 1838. 

3- Printed in the Nczi'tozcn Journal and IVorkingmcn's Advocate of 
Nov. 7, 1843. Note tlie similarity to the old constitution of Feb. 12, 1821. 

3:^The name was amended later to Bucks County Agricultural Society 
and Mechanics Institute. The date of incorporation was September 16, 1857. 



390 AGRICULTURE SOCIETIES 

"Art. 3. The stated meetings of the Society shall be held on the first 
Mondays of Xovember, February, May, and August, at such hour and 
places as the By-Laws may designate, and five members shall constitute a 
quorum for the transaction of business. 

"Art. 4. The officers of the Society shall at present consist of a 
President, four Vice Presidents, Secretary, and Treasurer, to he elected 
annually at a stated meeting, but should an election not be held, it may 
take place at any after stated meeting; and any vacancy by death, resig- 
nation, or otherwise, may be supplied at any time, provided such vacancy 
shall have been announced at some previous meeting. The number of Vice 
Presidents may hereafter 1)e increased, and such other officers appointed 
as may be found e.xpedient. In all cases the officers chosen shall continue 
to e.xercise their functions until others are elected. 

"Art. 5. It sJKdl l)e the duty of the President to preside at all meetings 
of the Society, to preserve order, to state questions, to give the casting vote 
when the Society is equally divided, and to perform all such other acts as 
may appertain to his office. In the aljsence of the President, his duties 
shall devolve upon a Vice President. 

".\rt. 6. The Secretary shall keep a faitliful record of the proceedings 
of the Society, and perform such other acts as the By-Laws may enjoin, or 
the transaction of the Society require. 

"Art. 7. The Treasurer shall receive and ])ay all monies belonging 
to the Society, and keep a regular account thereof, and exhibit the same 
at the stated annual meeting, and at any other time when required ; but he 
is to pay no mouies except on the order of the President, attested by the 
Secretary. 

"Art. 8. In tlie absence of an officer at any stated meeting, his place 
may be supplied pro tempore, Ijy a vote of the Society. 

"Art. 9. There shall be held annually a Show or Exhibition of Cattle, 
Sheep, and other animals. Domestic Manufactures. Implements of Hus- 
bandry; new and improved varieties of Fruits, Grain, Grapes, Roots, and 
other productions. 

"Art. 10. Any person may become a member at a stated meeting by 
a vote of the Society, and complying with the requisitions of the Constitu- 
tion. 

"Art. II. Every member shall sign the Constitution, and pay the sum 
of one dollar at the annual stated meeting ; and thereafter such further 
sums as may be required by the By-Laws. And a member may at any time 
withdraw from the Society on paying such sums as may be in arrears. 

"Art. 12. .Amendments to this Constitution may be made at the annual 
meeting by a vote of two-thirds of the members present; and the persons 
attending this meeting, and furnishing their names to the Secretary, shall 
be considered as members." 

The sixteenth annual exhibition was the most successful one 
experienced in the early days of the Society. By noon of the 



AGRICl'LTURE SOCIETIES 



801 



second day about "•ten or twelve thousand peoi)le had entered the 
enclosure." "The fair sex were out in their ^strength, and in the 
jam hoops were demolished or compressed without the least con- 
sideration." The reason for such a large turnout was the dedica- 
tion of the new building and the presence of the famous Horace 
(Ireelv. of New York City, who was scheduled to make the ad- 
dress of the day. The Bucks County I ntclUqcnccr of September 
20, 1851) noted : 

"The time fixed upun for tlie annual exhil)iti;ni uf tlie Rucks County 
Agricultural Society is near at Iiand. To-nKirrnw tlie l-"air will cdmmence. 
and should the weather prove favorable there will undouhtly Ije an immense 
crowd in attendance.''^ Exhibitors of horses will find posted on and aliout 
the exhibition ground, printed regulations giving full and explicit direc- 
tions in regard to tlie manner in which the training track is tn lie used. 
These regulations will be strictly enforced iiy tlie managers, and exhibitors 
will save trouble ;'nd confusion by consulting and observing then:. Regu- 
lations giving the general order of exhiliition will also be posted up, to 
prevent confusion and disorder. .\ few words of caution to visit' >rs will 
not be out of place. Extensive preparations of cour>e will be made m and 
about X'ewtown to furnish amusement for the crowds of visitors at the 
I-'air, in the way of concerts, side shows, and "doings" generally. And dou])t- 
less, pickpockets, gamblers, "patent safe" men. and devil's emissaries nf all 
sorts, will not be scarce, and snares for the feet df the unwary will be 
spread in abundance. One of the l>est preservations aeainst danger from 
such sources will be to keep sober: and another will be to put u" rash 
trust in strangers." 

Tlie reports of this famous exhiliition were, of course, ])rinted 
in all the county newspa])ers. In an article of this nature it is 
(|uite impossible to review all of the forty exhibitions held by this 
society, nor is it necesary to do so, because nearly all of the books 
and records were turned over, at the dissolution, to the Bticks 
Count V Historical Society, where they are now assured of perma- 
nent preservation. .Anyone interested can examine them any time 
that the library is oi)en. 



:<■! The i6th Annual lixhibition Of The Bucks County Agricultur.il So- 
ciety, which was advertised to take place on the 2Tst and 22^\ instant, in 
consequences of the severe storm was postponed to Wednesday & Thursday. 
October i2th & 13th, when the same premiums already published will be 
offered to competitors, and under the same Rules and Regulations. Their 
beautiful new Building will be inauguarated, with an Address by one of the 
most distinguished speakers of the country. The friends of agricultural 
and industrial progress, everywhere, are invited to participate, as exhibitors 
and spectators. {Bucks County Intelligencer, September 2j, 1859.) 



392 .v(;R[C['LTruE societies 

AGRICULTrrjAT. EXHIBITION I^AST AVEEK. 
"The E.vliihition of the Bucks County Agricultural Society at Xew- 
town on Wednesday and Thursday last was in every way successful and 
gratifying — completely restoring the position of the Society from the 
depres'^ion occasioned by the heavy storm on the days originally fixed upon. 
I'lie weather was just right — and the roads good enough to make the 
travelling easy, and the consequence was a very large attendance of the 
citizens of the county — a full propcrtion of them lieing of the fairer sex. 
On Wednesday, the gnntnd was still a little soft and slippery in places not 
readied by the sun, l)ut in general the surface was in very good order 
for pedestrian travel and the display of horses upon the track. 

"The display of articles in the various departments was very creditable 
to the productive abilities of Bucks county. The vegetables of different 
kinds would l)ear comparison with those shown at agricultural fairs in any 
county -- Tliey were all of the production of Bucks county farmers, and 
not of professional gardeners. In the department of fruit, the display was 
ni t very large in quantity, but in quality it appeared to be very superior. 
We could not ask for handsomer or larger apples than most of those on 
exhibition. Of pears there were but a few, the season being nearly over, 
and of peaches none at all. There were several specimens of quinces, 
grapes, pomegranates, &c. 

"The clatter of machinery of different kinds was incessant. Most, if 
ni;t all of the implement makers and machinists of the county were on 
hand, with almost every conceivable variety of straw cutters, mowing and 
reaping machines, plows, harrows and horse-rakes. There was a small 
steam-engine, which was an object of considerable interest, and a number 
of force pumps and water-rams, which supplied the water used on the 
grounds for drinking purposes. The display ni machinery was quite up to 
tlie usual standard. 

"The numlier of neat cattle on exhibition was rather limited on the 
first day, but on the second day a good number of dairy cows were added 
to those already on hand, and the display was exceedingly fine. The horses 
turned out finely, and there was a fair display of pigs^ sheep and poultry 
of different kinds. Tlie reader will see the details of the exhibition in 
the reports of the ciinmittees wiiich we publisli in full in another place. 

"There was quite a large number of persons present on the first day — 
nearly as many as generally attend when the exhibition is held during a 
single day. It had become known that Horace Greeley would speak on 
Thursday, and very many persons accordingly deferred their visit until 
that time. 

"The second day of the exhibition opened favorably in every respect. 
The sky was clear, and a balmy southwest breeze seemed to invite everyone 
into the open air, to enjoy the beautiful Indian Summer day. From eight 
o'clock to noon along every road leading to Newtown there were long 
trains of carriages proceeding towards the exhibition ground. Newtown 
was soon literally jammed vvith crowds of people and horses and carriages 



•m 



««^', ■■.".■i'^ 



392 -V(!R[C(:LTrKE societies 

AGRICULTURAT. EXHIBITION LAST WEEK. 
"The Eyliibition of the Bucks County Agricultural Society at New- 
town on Wednesday and Thursday last was in every way successful and 
gratifying — completely restoring the position of the Society from the 
depression occasioned by the heavy storm on the days originally fixed upon. 
The weather was just right — and tlie roads good enough to make the 
travelling easy, and the consequence was a very large attendance of the 
citizens of the county — a full proportion of them being of the fairer sex. 
On Wednesday, the ground was still a little soft and slippery in places not 
reached by the sun, lint in general the surface was in very good order 
for pedestrian travel and the display of horses upon the track. 

"The display of articles in the various departments was very creditable 
to the productive abilities of Bucks county. The vegetables of different 
kinds would l)ear comparison with those shown at agricultural fairs in any 
county -- They were all of the production of Bucks county farmers, and 
not of professional gardeners. In the department of fruit, the display was 
not very large in quantity, but in quality it appeared to be very superior. 
We could not ask for handsomer or larger apples than most of those on 
exhibition. Of pears there were but a few, the season being nearly over, 
and of peaches none at all. There were several specimens of quinces, 
grapes, pomegranates, &c. 

"The clatter of machinery of different kinds was incessant. Most, if 
not all of the implement makers and machinists of the county were on 
hand, with almost every conceivable variety of straw cutters, mowing and 
reaping machines, plows, harrows and horse- rakes. There was a small 
steam-engine, which was an object of consideraljle interest, and a number 
of force pumps and water-rams, which supplied the water useil on the 
grounds for drinking purposes. The display of machinery was quite up to 
the usual standard. 

"The numl)er of neat cattle on exhibition was rather limited on the 
first day, Init on the second day a good number of dairy cows were added 
to those already on hand, and the display was exceedingly fine. The horses 
turned out finely, and there was a fair display of pigs^ sheep and poultry 
of different kinds. 'l"he reader will see the details of the exhibition in 
the reports of the conmiittees which we publish in full in another place. 

"There was quite a large number of persons present on the first day — 
nearly as many as generally attend when the exhibition is held during a 
single day. It had become known that Horace Greeley would speak on 
Thursday, and very many persons accordingly deferred their visit until 
that time. 

"The second day of the exhibition opened favorably in every respect. 
The sky was clear, and a balmy southwest breeze seemed to invite everyone 
into the open air, to enjoy the beautiful Indian Summer day. From eight 
o'clock to noon along every road leading to Newtown there were long 
trains of carriages proceeding towards the exhibition ground. Newtown 
was soon literally jammed vvith crowds of people and horses and carriages 






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AdRlcri/nUK SOCIETIES 393 

witliMiit niimlifi I hf scene nutside the enclosure was exceedingly grand 
and enlivening. Tiic bontli.s and various shows did a lively business, and 
mammoth stage coaches and public carriages kept constantly rattling up 
to the gates, unloading scores upon scores of passengers. — For hours 
people ])iiured tln^ough th.e se\'eral gates. P'retiuently large crowds of jier- 
sons were kept waiting for their turn of ingress to tlie e.xliibition ground. 
I!y noon at least ten or twelve thousand people had entered the enclosure, 
and in and about the exhibition building and other points of attraction, the 
crowd was intense. The fair sex were out in their strength, and in the 
jam hoops were demolished or compressed without the least consideration. 
The several flags suspended from the building and the tents, waved grace- 
fully in the bree;^e, and the spectacle presented was chequered and grand. 
All felt delighted that the exhibition had proved a complete success. The 
best order prevailed inside, and no accident occurred to mar the pleasure 
of the occasion. Considering the large crowd of people assembled, the 
order outside was also very good, there being but a moderate amount of 
drunkenness. Some pick-jxickets and gamblers were on hand, but we did 
not learn tli;it tliey met witli mucli success. 

"'i"hc exhibition of horses on the track attracted much attention. A 
fawn on exhibition, forwarded to Judge Jenks by Gov. Ramsey, of Min- 
nesota, was the centre of attraction, and appeared to be a great curiosity to 
the ladies. Master Hagy, of Plymouth, Montgomery county, with a small 
dog harnessed to a little coach, produced much merriment. The lad, 
movmted in his miniature carriage, drawn by his canine nag, made several 
journeys around the tract in imitation of a regular Jehu, to the especial 
delight of Young America, who greeted liim witli vociferous cheers. 

"The receipts from the sale of tickets and tiie entrance of carriages 
at the gate, during both days, amounted to $1,825 — far exceeding those 
of any previous exhibition of the Society. .\dd to this, about $300 from 
the rent or sale of refreshment stands, &c., and the wdiole income from 
the cxhibitii n will exceed $_',ioo. 

"At half ])ast one o'clock, the gentlemen present to deliver addresses 

building, and a sea of up- 
nce, bore upon the speakers. 
is the Hon. David Taggart, 
of Xorthumberland. who delivered a l)rief, but eloquent and spirited 
address. Mr. Taggart was frequently applauded. 

■■'i"hc next speaker was the Hon. Horace Greeley, of New York. WMien 
his name was anufumced by tlie C"b;iii-nian, there was a general closing up 
of all ^pace amund tlic speaker's stand, and the large crowd pressed for- 
ward until those in the midst of it were nearly pressed flat. Tliere was a 
great desire to sec and liear .Mr. Greeley. Those who had read the descrip- 
tions given in the California newspapers fif his iiersonal appearance wdiile 
in the Golden State could bear testimony to the truthfulness of their 
reports, if Mr. (irteley was attired while witli lliem as lie was on I'hursday 
last. Mr. Greeley looks considerably older tlien he did wdicn we saw him 



mounted 


a pi 


at for 


111 


at tlie east end 


1 of the ne\ 


turned f 


aces, 


extei 


Klil 


ig far l)eyond 1 


learing dist: 


Tlie fu-s 


t spe; 


iker 


inti 


■oduced to tlie 


audience w 



394 AGRICITLTURE SOCIETIES 

last. He is much more fleshy than he was when he attended Beek's 
Exhibition in this county, four years ago, though he plainly shows the 
effects of age. 

"Mr. Greeley's address was plain and simple, and entirely devoid of 
any attempt at eloquence or beauty of speech. — His remarks were mainly 
addressed to farmers, and he discussed the different modes of tilling tlie 
soil. 

I Omitted here are nine paragraphs descriliing Greeley's speech.] 

"We have hastily run o\-er Mr. Greeley's remarks, n:it pretending to 
give his language. Tliey were well received, and contained many practical 
suggestions and facts. — After he concluded his address he descended 
from the platform, and was at once surrounded l)y a crowd of our farmers, 
who cordially shook hands with him. He reached Xewtown by way of 
Trenton in tlie morning, and returned to New York by the same route, in 
the afternoon. He had with him his old gray coat — identical coat that 
he carried with him on his recent overland journey. It looked much the 
worse for the wear, and was entirely l)Uttonless, the Calif ornians having 
cut every l)Utton oft', for keepsakes of its wearer. It was examined with 
curiosity by hundreds." 

Because the later history of the Society has been treated 
elsewhere.-'"' we will not dwell on it in detail at this time, liut close 
the subject by saying- that tlie business of the corporation was 
ended at the annual meeting in 1888, and the balance of $3.92 
remaining in the treasury was donated to lUicks County Historical 
Socielx-.-^*' 



^^••Harnsley, E. R., Historic Xcwtui^ni. pp. 96-100. 

■''f'Thirteen years later the last physical evidence of the I'ucks County 
Agricultural Society disappeared from the Newtown scene. The Dcylcstoicii 
ncnu'Crat of Deceml)er 17, 181)6, reported: 

"'I lie old frame structure in Xewtown, known as the "Exhibition iUiild- 
ing," was destroyed by fire Saturday night. [December 12, i8g6.1 The lire 
was discovered at about 9 o'clock, and in half an honr's time the building- 
was a mass of ruins. Heroic and persistent work alone saved from destruc- 
tion the double house nearby, on Lincoln avenue, occupied by John I'.ennett 
and Mrs. and Miss Tietjen. b"or a number of years the E^xhibition Building 
has been used as a store-house, and at the time of its destructirm it con- 
tained <':ui>rge B. Brown's steam threshing machinery, a rack wag'm belong- 
ing to Warner & AlcCinwan, m.'inufacturers, and a small wagon of il.irry .V. 
Krusen's. .Mr. Hrown had his machinery insureil in the Insurance Com])any 
of North, .'\mcrica for $i,.^()0, which he says will cover about two thirds of 
his loss. The building was the property of the Pbiladelphi.-i, Xewtown and 
New York Railroad Company, and was i)robably insured. It is thought 
that the fire was of incendiary origin, as Mr. lirown says that his machinery 
had not been in use for a week previous to the conllagration. i'he old exhi- 
bition building held a w.irm place in the hearts of many of .Newtown's 
citizens. It orijjinally stood ( n W'.isliington avenue, and in it were held the 
.Newtown cxhiliitions so well hnown thirty years ago. Within its walls 
were drilled many of the "br;i\e boys ;ind true" from Xewtown preparatory 
to their leaving their homes for the w.ir of iS()i (>5. .\t about iS()5 it was 



A(}R[Cl'LTliRE SOCIETIES 



39^ 



'I'hf next exliiliitioii to l;e held in Mucks L"()U!il\ was con- 
ducted not 1)\- an agricultural society but In- one William I'eek, 
an adventurous citi/:en of the llorough of I)o}lesto\vn. lie had 
fond ho])es for his fair, hut the elements of nature worked against 
him. In 1855, h.e put on a splendid disp'.ax of four days duration, 
including what was prohablx' the first l>ab_\- show ever to be held 
at Doylestown. or elsewhere in Bucks County, "liut that autumn 
a heavx' gale i^f wind blew down the exhibition l)uilding. that was 
never rebuilt, and ruined the enterpn'ising ])ro])rietor."'''' Again we 
must turn to the files of our local newspapers to uncover con- 
temporaneous accounts of wdiat actually transpired at this, the 




lUd'lK'S EXllllU'riOX !;riLI)lX(,. i855- 
I-rrin ilhistrnlioii in Paris' '■ Di'yIcstdJ.ii Old and A'rrc", p. ^SO. 

first of several county-seat fairs. A Doylestown corresjiondent 
to one of the Philadelphia newspapers wrote colorfulh' : 

"The al)^iii-l)in;4 tlieme amnny nur citizens, at tlie present time, is tlie 
Mamniiitii [ndnstri.al .ind .Kgrioultural I'.xliiliitiun, wliich is tn take place 
here in 111 tlie 21st. jjiI. 2,^1 and _'4th of .\ugust. Splendid i^rounds liave 
been pruvided tor it and permanent building.s erected ilierecn, wliich will 
inuliinlitcflly excel in si^leiulor and extent anything of the kind in the I'nited 
States. The main l)uilding covers an area of 20,000 xpi.ire feet, .and is 
one hundred feet liigh to the a])ex of the dome, which is <m feet in di.anieter. 

moved on rollers to the location it occupied at the time of the destruction. 
where the annual exhibitions continued until 1873, since whicli time, .is lias 
been stated, it lias been used for storage iiurposes." 

•■«'\V. \V. H. Davis. History of Buchs County. Vol. 11. p. .^35. 



396 AGRICULTI'RE SOCIETIES 

It is lighted with windows 30 feet in height and 12 feet wide, and richly 
plastered and finished upon the interior. Gas works have also been erected 
in connection with it, and it will be lighted for evening exhibitions during 
the fair. A number of the heaviest manufacturers of Philadelphia have 
already entered goods in this department, and the display will, undoubtedly, 
be rich and beautiful. The grounds, which embrace an area of 30 acres, 
have been carefully graded at heavy expense, and enclosed with a firm and 
substantial fence, with four gates of entrance and exit. — The track for 
the trial of horses has been constructed with great care, and is half a mile 
in length, a feature which will probably induce an excellent exhibition of 
tine stock. Beck's Philadelphia Band has been engaged for the occasion, 
and will, undoubtedly, add greatly to its interest." 

To the above, the editor of the Bucks County Intelligencer 
replied :^^ 

"The correspondent quoted above has omitted the most interesting part 
of the exhibition — the baby show.^^ This must not be lost sight of. 
The dear little creatures are being trained by their mammas to look nice 
in public. We understand that a vast number of babies have been entered 
to compete for premiums — among which are fat ones, lean ones, good, 
bad and indifferent. What a squealing time there will be, and what a 
grand sight for old bachelors! Who's got a baby to exhibit?" 

"The splendid training track on Beek's exhibition ground is a novelty 
in this neighborhood, and frequently it presents the appearance of a minia- 
ture exhibition of 'fast nags' in the process of initiatory training. There 
is a great deal of fun attending these trials of speed, a crowd usually col- 
lects, and at times it would be difificult for a stoic to keep cool. One 
evening last week, a company of spectators 'oecame so much excited on 
witnessing the feats of a couple of fast horses, that they could stand it not 
longer. A foot race around the course was proposed, and instantly put in 
execution, when one of the party made his half a mile in four seconds less 
than two minutes. Here's time for you. This young man ought to hire 
himself out for a locomotive."-*"^ 

"A busy scene was presented in and about the Fair grounds yesterday. 
Throughout the day wagons loaded with every description of goods and 



•^^Issue of August 7, 1855. 

^^"li is a matter of amusement to notice how the approaching baby 
show has disturbed the equilibrium of the old bachelors of Bucks county. 
They can't resist this infantile attraction and hundreds of these peculiar 
people will favor the show with their presence. Many of them afterwards 
no doubt will be willing candidates for matrimony, so ladies watch your 
chance. A bachelor from the lower end, with no soul in family but him- 
self, in the height of his ecstacy, has invested $5 in season tickets, ostensibly 
as a compliment to the indomitable perseverance and genius of the projector 
of this enterprise, but in reahty because of his anticipated pleasure on 
feasting his eyes upon the representations of babydom." {Bucks County In- 
ctlUgcnccr, August 14, 1855.) 

"^^bucks County Intelligencer, August 14, 1855. 




HON. GEORGE G. LEIPER, OF DELAWARE COUNTY 



"his portrait of tlic president of lleek's \'.\\ 

late Samuel F. DuBois, of I)oylesto\vii, ; 

auditorium of Bucks C'ountv Hi- 



ition was painted by the 
1 it n;i\v lianLi> in tlie 
rical Societv. 



398 AGRrCULTT'RE SOCIETIES 

articles for exliihition were entering the grounds and depositing their var- 
ious contents. When we visited the building about noon, but a small portion 
of the space inside was occupied, Init the remainder was rapidly filling up, 
and the display promised to be of much interest. Outside of the building 
but few articles were to l)e seen, and we suppose it is the intention to con- 
fine the mechanical display mostly within doors. We understand that nearly 
all the stalls for live stock, some tliree hundred in number, were engaged 
on Saturday evening, and that workmen are putting up additional ones. 
Refreshment saloons, stationary and on wheels, abound both inside and 
out of the enclosure; and numerous tents, occupied by magicians, showmen, 
&c., are scattered around. Everybody is taking advantage of the oppor- 
tunity to turn a penny — small shows in abundance are clustering around 
the big one, and expect a proportionate share of patronage. Of the clouds 
of dust which envelop every vehicle passing to and fro, we will say nothing 
— they must be seen to lie appreciated."'*! 



TO 

^WlLliIAM BEEK, Esq., 

Thursday Eveaing, September 27th, 1855, 

AT THE t 

eXHIBi-riOfsl BUILDING- 

^^'^KJ^..^.. ■ .„., w^tO^- 



^'S' X.^JVX-K^-^' 



The crigiunl of this illustration i^as presented to Hueks County 
Historieal Society by Miss Helen H. Ely, Xez^ioi^'n. Pa. 

"The "Doylestown I'niversal Industrial and Agricultural Exhibition' 
came off last week according to programme. The Exhibition commenced 
on Tuesday morning and was closed on Friday evening. It is estimated 
that from twenty-five to thirty thousand people visited the Exhibition. — 
We present to our readers the following particulars : 

"The Exhibition Grounds were opened on Tuesday morning for the 
reception of visitors. The weather was auspicious — a clear sky overhead, 
and a cool breeze from the west, which occasionally wafted over those on 
their way to the grounds clouds of dust as it was stirred up by passing 
vehicles. On approaching the exhibition grounds froui any point the visitor 
Iiad ample opportunity of taking a glance at the outside shows, which lined 



^ Bucks C"nntv Intelliucncer, August _>i, 1855. 



\(!Rirr[.TrRK sociktiks 399 

tile road on either side, alinnst fiTmint^ canvass villajics, and tlieir variety 
were e(|ually imposing. At one place a large painting on tlie dUtside nf 
tlie can\ass displayed a huge "living crocodile" just in tlie act of l)iting tlie 
netlier end of an affrighted darkey; furtlier on was the "smallest living 
mrm' or tlie "greatest living curiosity," all represented in paintings true 
as life and twice as natural, and music playing inside to arrest the attention 
of the passer-hy, and enveigle the shillings out of the pockets of the seekers 
after knowledge, while the pressing invitation of 'walk in, gentlemen, only 
a shilling,' could scarcely lie resisted. The appearance of things seemed to 
indicate that these shews were doing but little business, and the counte- 
nances of their ])roi)rietors plainly expressed that unless they had more 
customers, in view of the ruinous rents they were paying, the Doylestown 
Fair would pnve a bad speculation to them. The refreshment stands, 
eating establishments, &c., also were not doing nuich business. It appeared 
as if everybody came to the Fair with their stomachs well tilled. 

"The number of visiters inside was rather slim in the forenoon, per- 
haps not exceeding two thousand, and every one appeared to be more or 
less disappointed at the small attendance. Strangers were generally pleased 
with the fiisplay and arrangements witliin the enclosure, and many were 
quite astonished at the immensity and design of the exhibition building; 
they had no idea that the building was so large and beautiful. 

"The inaugural ceremonies of the Exhibition appear to have been an 
address by the Hon. Horace Greeley, of New York. M three o'clock, the 
visiters were called to order in the area of the building, immediately under 
the dome, by Dr. Charles Huffnagle, presiding officer of the Exhibition. A 
letter was read from George G. Leiper, Esq., of Delaware county, in which 
he stated his inability to be present and preside over the Exhibition, in 
consequence of a sudden and afflicting bereavement in his family. The 
President then introduced to the assemblage Horace Greeley, Esq. Mr. 
Greeley rose and was greeted with applause. The speaker hesitated a 
moment, to have silence established; but this appeared impossible, for the 
place was the worst suited to hear that could have been selected, there 
being no seats for the audience, and the constant moving about of feet on 
the floor, rendered it impossible for any one fifteen feet off the speaker 
to hear what was said. This createil great disappointment, and many per- 
sons who had seen Mr. Greeley for the lirst time, and who had come some 
distance to hear his address, had to content themselves with a sight of the 
distinguished stranger. This w.is exceedingly unpleasant to the audience, 
and disc uraging to the speaker. Mr. G. remarked that the room was not 
tlie be^t suited to hear a sjieaker, ;ind that his \oice was too weak, from 
recent ip(lis|(>sitii.n. to make himself heard any great distance, and hoped 
his hearers wnnjd l)c as quiet as possible. Mr. ( ireeley looked somewhat 
worn lit fr..m hard scrxice or recent sickness, and a;;e, too, which is silver- 
ing what is left of his locks, is ha\in.ii its elTecl upon him. His appearance 
indicates clu.se application, and hard, untiring attention to the columns of 



The cut on the opposite ])age illustrates the first sheet of the 
famous Greely Manuscript in the library of Bucks County His- 
torical Society. It is the address delivered by Horace Greely, 
Esq., 'editor of the Ne7c York Tribune), at Beek's Exhibition, 
Doylestown, August 21 , 1855. The following caption to the same 
was written by General ^^^ W. H. Davi^ : 

"Mr. Greely delivered the address without anj' iDtes, and after he was 
through, Hiram Lukens, then foreman of The IntcUi(jencci\ Doylestown, 
asked Mr. Greely for a coi)y of his paper. Mr. Greely said he had written 
no paper and therefore had no copy to give Mr. Lukens, and asked why it 
was that no stenographer was present to take down the speech if it was 
desired to have it printed in a newspaper afterward. 

"Mr. Lukens explained that Doylestown was out in the country, and 
that Mr. Greely was not in the Tribune office, and it was up to him to 
write the speech out, because the people of Bucks county wanted to know 
what he said. 

"Mr. Greely thought this was a great joke on himself, and sat down 
that night and wrote tlie speech. Although Mr. Greely's manuscript is 
notoriously illegible, Mr. Lukens took it and set the type himself, making 
only a few small typographical mistakes in the whole thing, as the proofs 
herein will show, and deciphering the manusc-ipt in every case, although 
he had never seen any of Mr. Greely's copy l)efore." 



({(^"Cf 2r ^A -^ r-'^ C_/^. 






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402 AORTCULTURE SOCIETIES 

the Tribune. ITe is not an eloquent speaker -- but his earnest^ plain and 
unassuming style of delivery attracts the attention of his audience ; while 
the spirit and sentiment of his addresses are such as every thinking man or 
woman might desire. The address was exceedingly instructive and enter- 
taining." 

"The Exhihition terminated on Friday evening about nine o'clock, the 
gas lights in the building having all gone out and left it in total darkness. 
The large assemblage of people dispersed to their respective homes, and 
Doylestown assumed its accustomed quiet, after four days of unusual excite- 
ment. Here and there during the night, boisterous revelry proceeded from 
fragmentary crowds where liquor had been flowing freely ; but as a general 
thing quiet prevailed. Be it said to the credit of Doylestown, and Bucks 
county, that we have never seen such a large assemblage of people where 
there were less drunkenness and disorder. 

"Of the Exhibition itself we may say more in some future number. 
The enterprise itself was a herculean work, undertaken as it was, principally 
by one enterprising individual ; for there is no use concealing the fact that 
the whole affair was carried on under the auspices of Wm. Beek, Esq., 
a citizen of Doylestown ; the enterprise was an emanation from his own 
brain — ■ he l)ore its burthens and alone shared its responsibilities. It was 
attended with a vast expenditure of money and great labor. It was no hum- 
bug. I\Ir. Btek fulfilled his engagement to the public, and under the cir- 
cumstances, few men could have done better, or even as well. The number 
of visitors was not as great as may been anticipated by Mr. Beek, but yet 
we are glad to announce it was not a losing affair. We believe that the 
attendance from abroad would have been much greater if Mr. Beek had 
imitated Barnum, and paid more respect to the potencey of printers' ink, 
and recognized the power of the press, saying nothing about courtesies. We 
are satisfied that proper notice of the Exhibition was not given in Mont- 
gomery, Chester, Lancaster and Delaware counties^ and the neighboring 
counties '.f Xew Jersey. Where the Bucks county papers circulated, people 
were informed of the nature of the exhibition, and turned out." 

"A balloon ascensirn was advertised to take place from Beek's Exhibi- 
tion gr(.und on Saturday afternoon, at three o'clock, a Mr. King to make 
the aerial voyage : and the entertainment to end with a display of fire-works. 
By some arrangement the ascension and fire-works took place about the 
same time. At the time announced for the balloon to go up, the balloon 
was nut sufficiently inflated, from some difficulty in manufacturing gas — 
nor was it sufficiently inflated to attempt a voyage among the clouds before 
about ten o'clock. The crowd assembled became impatient at the delay, and 
many departed in disgust. Finally, Mr. King, attached the car, entered it, and 
the balloon was let go, but there was not gas enough to lift him up, he 
being a man weighing about 150 pounds. A young man, an assistant of 
Mr. King, of the name of ^Marion, then proposed to go up. The car was 
detached in order to make the load as light as possible, a board was fastened 
to the ropes, and on this frail seat, without hat, coat or boots, the adven- 
turous young man made his flight to the upper regions. The balloon went 



AGRICULTURE SOCIETIES 403 

Up beautifully; and when up a few hundred yards, it apparently stood still. 
The grappling hook and rope were then thrown out to lighten the weight 
attached, and it then ascended rapidly, taking a northwest course, and was 
out of sight in a few minutes. The young man had no command of the 
balloon, having no ballast or grappling hook, and the rope connecting with 
the valve on the top of the balloon had drawn up beyond his reach, and 
he was obliged to await the expansion of the gas before he could descend. 

"Much fear was expressed in regard to his fate. Nothing was heard 
from him until near noon on Monday, when he returned to Doylestown, 
having alighted on the farm of Jacob Eichlein, in Tinicum township, near 
Ottsville, on the Easton road, 12 miles from Doylestown. The whole time 
occupied by his trip was not more than thirty minutes. After rising through 
the first stratum of clouds, he saw above him, and passed through another, 
— soon after which he must have descended, as he heard what he supposed 
was the noise of Katy-dids. After securing his balloon he went to Eich- 
lein's house for assistance, which was refused, and he was compelled to 
remain by it until morning^ when he proceeded to Ottsville. Mr. King in- 
forms us that it is his intention to make another ascension from this place 
shortlv."-*2 



A history of the agricultural societies, public fairs, and exhi- 
bitions of Bucks county would be far from complete if the story 
of the Doylestown Agricultural and Mechanics' Institute was omit- 
ted. This Institute was established at the county seat to sponsor 
exhibitions in direct competition to the then very successful dis- 
plays at Newtown under the leadership of the Bucks County Agri- 
cultural Society. We regret that neither time nor space permit a 
discussion of this interesting organization which flourished in 
central Bucks county for over twenty-five years, toward the end 
of the last century. Much original data pertaining thereto is to 
be found in the library of Bucks County Historical Society. So 
we will leave to another the writing of its history, together with 
that of the jH-esent highly successful Doylestown Fair. 

We close, therefore, by quoting what General Davis had to 
say on the subject in his History of Bucks County: 



■^-Buctis CoiDity Intelligencer, August 28, 1835. The following account 
of Bucks County's lirst balloim ascension, taken from the Penusytrania Cor- 
respondent and Fari'iers' Advertiser of December 26, 1820, was signed by 
Joseph Able and Denry Shrader : "The public are respectfully informed, 
that the subscribers will raise a Balloon from the jail-yard in Doylestown, 
on the first of January, (New Year's day) at 2 o'clock in the afternoon. 
The Balloon is about 16 feet in height and 48 in circumference. The citizens 
are respectfully invited to patronize the above to gratify their curiosity." 



404 AGRICULTURE SOCIETIES 

"111 1865, ^ chartered company, under the name of the 'Doylestown 
Agricultural and Mechanics' Institute,' bought the Beek tract, and that fall 
held a successful exhibition under canvas. The following year a conven- 
ient brick building, in the shape of a cross, each arm ninety-six feet long, 
and other improvements were made, including a half-mile trotting track, 
one of the best in the country. The society grew to be one of the most 
prosperous in the State, and for several years the display was extensive and 
valuable at the exhibition. The stock paid a dividend, and several thousand 
dollars were awarded in premiums. Like its predecessors, it came to an 
end. The society wound up its affairs about 1890 ; the property was sold, 
and, after paying the debts, the remainder was divided among the stock- 
holders." 



1. Semi-annual Fair of Bristol Borough, 1720-1796. 

2. Bucks Cotmtv Society for Promotion of .Agriculture and 
Domestic ^la'nufactures, 1809-1812. 

3. Agricultural Society of Bucks County, 1820-1882. 

4. Bucks County Agricultural Society and Mechanics' Institute, 
1843-1883. 

5. Doylestown Universal In(histrial and Agricultural Exliibition. 
1855 

6. Doylestown Agricultural and Mechanics" Institute, 1885-1890. 



APPENDIX 



THE BUCKS COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY 



A CHECK LIST 

OF 

AMERICAN AND FOREIGN 
PERIODICALS 

IN THE LIBRARY OF THE 

BUCKS COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY 




FACKENTHAL PUBLICATION FUND 
(Established in 1909) 



DOYLESTOWN, PA. 

THE BUCKS COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY 

19 40 




GKNERAI. ZEBULON MONTGOMERY PIKE 



Stipii!e Enslaved Portrait by Gimbrede. published in the Issue of the 
Analectic Magazine for November, 181 4. General Pike, one time a resident 
of Bucks County, Pa., was mortally wounded in the Second War between the 
United States and Great Britain by the Explosion of a Powder Magazine dur- 
ing his Successful Expedition against York, tlie Capital of Upper Canada, 
April 27, 1813, dying at the age of 34 yeais. 

General Pike's birthplace has long been a matter of disijute among his- 
torians and biographers. General W. W. H. Davis, author of the "History of 
Bucks County", believed that he was a native ot this county, but he does not 
offer positive proof. There seems to be little doubt that Captain Zebulon 
Pike, father of General Pike, and his family lived in Lumberton, Solebury 
Township, during General Pike's childhood. Most biographers of C4eneral 
Pike state that he was born in Lamberton, now a pait of Ti-enton, N. .1., and 
this statement was long accepted as a fact. However, William J. Backes, 
Trenton, N. J., puts up in a contribution to the Somerset County Historical 
Quarterly, Somerville, N. J., October, 1919, (A'ol. S, No. 4>. a very good claim 
for Lamberton (now Laniington), Somerset County-, N. J., as the actual birth- 
place. Mr. Baclves says he found his clue leading to this conclusion in a scarce 
small volume of biography published in 1S17 by TlK>mas Wilson, who i.-ouples 
the name "Allamatunk" with Lamberton. The same reference to the name 
"Alamatunk" as the original of the name L&mberton can be found in a 
biographical sketch of General Pike, published in 1814, three years earlier 
than the date of Wilson's book, in Volume IV of the Annlectic Magazine, in 
the Library of The Bucks County Historical Society. This sketch was doubt- 
less the source of Wilson's information. 



CHECK LIST OF MAGAZINES 



PREFACE 

When your magazine comes to you today, you open it on 
your library table and turn back its sleek gorgeously-colored 
calendared cover to read what the editor and publisher have 
diligently provided for your edification or amusement. The 
large, clear-cut type, the attractive general makeup, and what 
the writers have to say, all interest you immensely. You may 
not say it out loud, but still the thought passes through your 
mind: "What a wonderful thing this magazine is!" 

However, you may not know (and even may not care) that 
this prized magazine of yours, product of the keenest brains 
and the very last word in art, artisanship and mechanical 
ingenuity, had a most humble beginning. The first magazine 
was crude, like the processes, types and presses that produced 
it. But it represented something that men and women of the 
time wanted and publishers liked to make, and it persisted. In 
the intervening years between then and now it went through 
all the successes and defeats, the forward movements and re- 
cessions, quite like those that mankind itself encountered. 

Save for recent efforts of the public library, the antiquarian, 
the historian and the bibliophile, we would today know little 
about the periodicals of the past. Magazines were born and 
died, some quickly, some lingerlingly; others took their places, 
only to meet the fate of predecessors, with no one to keep a 
record of their comings and goings. Some, not necessarily the 
small and obscure, but sometimes the more important, were 
forgotten entirely. Others met a kindlier fate when copies were 
stored away in cob-webby garrets and private libraries, to be 
brought forth years later and carefully studied when their great 
value as reflexes of the social, political, economic, industrial 
and agricultural life of their times became recognized. 

A century hence will the periodicals of today become as 
near being forgotten as were many of those of a century ago? 
There is hope that this will not be the case, as the tendency of 
today is to record the "passing show", and thus what is of 
value to future generations may be saved. An instance is the 
"Crypt of Civilization", now in the making at Oglethorpe Uni- 
versity, Georgia, where the microfilmed works of a thousand 
recognized authorities on all the known wisdom of the world 
is being stored in a massive bed-rock and stone depository 
beneath the University building, to be sealed up two years 
hence, with the intent that it is not to be opened until A. D. 8113. 



2 CHECK LIST OF MAGAZINES 

Public libraries have become asylums of old-time period- 
icals that otherwise would have been destroyed or lost, and 
these have been great aids to a number of researchers who 
lately have compiled important lists and histories of magazines. 
A recent publication admirably covering practically the whole 
field of magazine publishing in the past is "A History of 
American Magazines", 1741-1885, 3 vols., by Frank Luther Mott, 
Director of the School of Journalism, State University of Iowa, 
published by Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass. 
Here is a fascinating story that has value for the library and 
student of periodicals and charm for the general reader. Mr. 
Mott's "History" has been of great help in compiling this 
Check List. 

Acknowledgments are also due to other publications, men- 
tioned in the proper place. 

The need for a Check List of magazines in the Library of 
The Bucks County Historical Society has been apparent for a 
long time. The effort here made to supply such a List does not 
pretend to conform entirely to the orthodoxy of library stand- 
ards, formality being sacrificed where necessary to the purpose 
it is intended to serve. It is believed the List will be helpful to 
those patrons of the Society who desire access to such a source 
of information. Its plan has been simplified as much as pos- 
sible, the data being presented by certain groupings. 

First is given the last known name of the journal, its period- 
icity and when established, followed by the location of the 
publshing house and names of publishers. Next are given 
variations of title, if there are any. Third, the editors are named, 
when known. Next appears a list of all the numbers of the 
periodical in the Library of The Bucks County Historical Society. 
This is followed by a line stating whether the periodical is still 
in progress, or, if suspended, the date of discontinuance. The 
final "Note" is either explanatory or contains such information 
as could not be conveniently placed elsewhere. In the matter 
of titles, exception is made in a very few cases, and the period- 
ical is listed by its best-known instead of its last title. In a few 
instances the information presented is brief, either because the 
periodical is unimportant or because more data was wanting. 

It will be observed from this List that the Library lacks 
many numbers to complete its files of important Eighteenth and 
Nineteenth century magazines. If members and friends of the 
Society who happen to have such missing numbers are dis- 
posed to present them to the Society, they will be thankfully 
received by THE LIBRARIAN. 



CHECK LIST OF MAGAZINES 



ABBREVIATIONS 

BCHS — The Bucks County Historical Society. 

est — established. 

V — bound volume or volumes. 

X — unbound number or numbers. 

— — Library has all numbers from, to, and including 

dates between which this character occurs. 
— when not used purely as a punctuation mark, 
indicates missing numbers in Library's hold- 
ings. 

In progress —current, still published. 

—months, except May, June and July, are ab- 
breviated. 



4 CHECK LIST OF MAGAZINES 

THE MERCER COLLECTION 

The 425 volumes comprising the fine collection of works on 
Tnthropology, archaeology and ethnology, presented to The 
Bucks County Historical Society by the late Dr. Henry C. 
Mercer, president of Society (1811-1930), include seventy bgund 
volumes of pamphlets, periodicals and fragments of periodicals. 
Only a small number of periodicals in these seventy volumes 
are complete. In most cases they comprise parts of periodicals, 
dealing with a single subject. Unfortunately covers were re- 
moved prior to binding and no dates or other data of identifica- 
tion are noted. In some instances even the names of the period- 
cals aire not apparent. Under these circumstances it is possible 
to give here only the names of those that can be identified, as 
follows 

The Archaeologist, Waterloo, Ind. 

The American Naturalist. 

The Journal of the Ethnological Society of London. 

The Journal of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain 
and Ireland. 

The American Anthropologist, Washington, D. C. 

The Halifax Naturalist. 

The Natural Science Journal. 

Bulletin of the New York State Museum, Albany. 

Field Columbian Museum Publications, Chicago. 

Ohio Archaeological and Historical Quarterly, Columbus. 

The Nugitna, Zoar, Ohio. 

Bulletin of the Free Museum of Science and Art, University 
of Pennsylvania. 

Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, Phila- 
delphia. 

Bulletin of the Geographical Society of Philadelphia. 
Everybody's Magazine. 

North American Notes and Queries, Quebec. 
Prometheus, Berlin, Germany. 



CHECK rjST OF MAGAZINES 5 

Wide World. 

National Geographic Magazine, Washington, D. C. 

Mittheilungen des K. K. Oesterreich Museums fur Kunst und 
Industrie, Wein. 

The Antiquarian. 

The American Archaeologist, Columbus, Ohio. 

The Philippine Journal of Science. 

Popular Science Monthly. 

The American Geologist, Minneapolis, Minn. 

The Illustrated Archaeologist. 

The Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

The American Antiquarian, Chicago. 

Archaeologia (British). 

L'Homme Journal Illustre' des Sciences Anthropologiques, 
Paris. 

Science, New York. 

L'Anthropologie, Paris. 

Revue des Questions Scientifiques, Louvoin. 

Bulletin de la Societe de Geologique de France, Paris. 

Transactions of the Wagner Free Institute of Science of 
Philadelphia. 

Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquities of Ireland, 
Dublin. 

There are two or more copies of nearly all the above 
named periodicals or fragments. Of many of them there are 
numerous copies. 



CHECK LIST OF AIAtJAZTNES 



AMERICAN MAGAZINES 

In the following Check List of American magazines, the 
first and the last will not be found. In 1741, Andrew Bradford, 
first printer in Pennsylvania, launched his American Magazine, 
the first in America, and the shortest lived. Only three numbers 
were issued. It appeared only ten years after Edward Cave 
had established the first so-called British magazine. The Gentle- 
man's. Although the first issue of Bradford's magazine is dated 
January, 1741, it really did not appear until February 13. 

Between Bradford and young Ben Franklin, who had also 
announced his intention of publishing a magazine, there was 
bitter rivalry. Three days after the American Magazine ap- 
peared, Franklin was ready with his General Magazine. It 
lasted only six months, or twice as long as Bradford's. Frank- 
lin was robbed of the distinction of issuing the first magazine 
in America by the double dealing of John Webbe, his editor. 
Webbe, in the Bradford-Franklin war, went over to Bradford, 
communicated to him Franklin's plans and became Bradford's 
editor. This enabled Bradford to get into the field ahead of 
Franklin and aggravated the feud between the two printers. 
Neither Bradford's nor Franklin's magazine had enough merit 
to warrant a feud, and little would have been lost had no 
copies of either survived. 

Beer's Check List of Eighteenth Century American maga- 
zines (1923) gives 98 titles for the whole country, many of which 
were unimportant. The Columbian Magazine, established in 
Philadelphia, September, 1786, was an exception, rating as one 
of the best. Mathew Carey, one of four men who had estab- 
lisher The Columbian, soon withdrew and in January, 1787, 
established The American Museum, the best-edited and most 
important periodical of that century. With that periodical, the 
oldest American magazine in possession of The Bucks County 
Historical Society, this Check List begins. 

For over a century Philadelphia was the periodical pub- 
lishing centre. The Civil War brought to the front the New York 
pictorials and accentuated a change, already under way, and 
the Manhattan metropolis took the prestige that was once Phila- 



CHECK LIST OF MAGAZINES / 

dephia's. Boston and Baltimore also became important period- 
ical publishing cities and today Chicago, San Francisco and 
other cities of the West and Middle West are forging to the 
front. 

The increase in periodical literature within the last twenty 
years has simply been marvelous. One has only to look at the 
array of such material on the news stands today and recall the 
comparatively meager offerings of a quarter century ago to 
realize this enormous inflation. No one has attempted to make 
a complete list of the magazines of today, or, for that matter, of 
the last fifty years. That will be the big task for some one in 
the future. However, old magazines like old newspapers, hide 
between thier covers a vast deal of historical and genealogical 
information not obtainable elsewhere. This alone is sufficient 
reason for their preservation. 



c::^^ 



S CIIKCK LIST OF MA(iA/.I.\ES 

HISTORY — GENEALOGY 

Hazard's Register of Pennsylvania. ( Devoted to the Preservation 
of Everv Kind of Useful Information), weekly, est Jan. 5, 
1828. 

Philadelphia: Printed by W. P. Geddes, No. 59 Locust 
Street, 1828-1830; Wm. P. Geddes, (Liberty Street), 1830- 
1835. 
Title varies : Jan. 1828- June 1831. The Register of Pennsylvania ; 

July 1831-Dec. 1835, Hazard's Register of Pennsylvania. 
Editor : Samuel Hazard, Xo. 51 Filbert Street ; no street address 

after Oct. 11, 1828. 
BCHS has : V 

1828 Jan. 5-1835 Dec. 26 (complete). 
Publication discontinued December 26, 1835, "in consequence of 

the very limited patronage received." 
Note: Hazard's Register is now regarded by many researchers 
as an important source of material for the eight years 
covered by its publication, and as well for its valuable 
articles on the jirior history of Pennsylvania and the 
United States. 

The Home journal, and Uitizen Soldier, weekly, est Jan. 7, 1843. 
Philadelphia: Published by I. R. and A. H. Diller, No. 57 
South Third Street, below Chestnut, Jan. 7, 1843-Sept. 13, 
1843; Xo. 134 Chestnut Street, above the U. S. Bank, Sept. 
20, 1843-()ct. 25, 1843; No. 3 North Sixth Street, Nov. 
1. 1843-Nov. 16. 1843; A. H. Diller. No. 3 North Sixth 
Street. Nov. 17. 1843-May 8. 1844; No. 85 Dock Street 
(2nd Story), May 15, 1844- 
Title varies : The Citizen Soldier, Jan. 7, 1843-Dec. 27. 1843 ; The 
Home Journal, and Citizen Soldier. Devoted to Literature, 
Science and the Military, Jan. 3, 1844- 
Editor : "We are happy to inform the public that we have secured 
the services of a gentleman of the highest qualifications as 
editor of 'The Citizen Soldier'. He is a man of science, an 
elegant scholar, and one of the most popular writers of the 
day." (Publishers' announcement in the first issue). 
RCHShas: V 

1843 Tan. 7-Dec. 27. 

1844 Jan. 3-May 29. 

Note: The volume in the Library of The Bucks County His- 
torical Society comprises the only known copies of The 
Citizen Soldier and The Home Journal, and Citizen 
Soldier. It is a four-colunm, eight-page periodical, form 
size IOV2 X 14 in., made up almost wholly of original 



CHECK LIST OF MAGAZINES \) 

matter. It came to the Society from the General W. 
W. H. Davis collection. General Davis' inborn love for 
history led him to preserve many things of this kind that 
came to his hand, and he thus saved from oblivion much 
that today has enduring- value. Two of the contribu- 
tors to The Citizen Soldier were George Lippard and 
James Rees. The Battles of Germantown and the Brandy- 
wine are described at length, important "Sketches of the 
American Revolution" have a prominent place, and sten- 
ographic reports of the historical lectures of Captain 
Alden Partridge and others were admitted to its pages. 
All important news of the militia organizations of the 
day is well covered. The date of the last issue is not 






TERMS, 
BtX,ZMM, SJi^^^^^^^^ TWO 0«M,t.SMB FSM ^JnrCM, 




CITIZEN ^PSOLDIER. 



»r pence prrrnra Otr war." — tr>aAijis^<^^ 



PHILADET.PHIA, WEDNESDAY. APRLL i;^. 1843. 






'"jiJ.J «i'i'n*L'.;Sl'- l.''«'°™3°w'""..J ',11 ih«'^ .-».".:-l o( filly "-^ ""I *.i"( iv.il-™ 

. ,„.. j.i. p,,-;i%i.. if,.i.o. ■rtt:*, ™^rtrr ih. ffj- ..__.tr';.,'".'',' ,.--T'f T".:.. 



THE CITIZEN SOLDIER 
First-page Title of a Unique and Valuable Periodical. The only lino-svn 
copies are in the Library of The Bucks County Historical Society. 

known, but it was probably soon after the publication 
office was moved to Dock Street. 

Proceedings of the New Jersey Historical Society, semi-annual, 
then quarterly, est 1845. 

Newark, N. J.: New Jersey Historical Society, 230 Broad- 
way. 
BCHS has : V - • 

1890-1939. 

Note : This official periodical of the New Jersey Historical 

Society contains reprints of Colonial and Revolutionary 

documents, addresses before the Society, original articles 

relating to New Jersey history, genealogical and bio- 



10 CHECK LIST OF MAGAZINES 

graphical notes and reports of the Society meetings. 
Beginning in 1845, fifty-six vokimes of the "Proceed- 
ings" have been issued. An index to the first thirty-six, 
1845-1919. is available. 
In progress. 

The Historical Magazine and Notes and Queries Concerning the 

Antiquities. History and Biography of America, monthly. 

est 1857. 

Boston: Published by C. B. Richardson, 1857; New York: 
C. B. Richardson. 1858-1863; J. D. G. Shea, 1864-1865; 
Morrisania, N. Y. : 1866-1875. 
Editors : John W. Dean, 1857 ; George Folsom. 1858 ; J. D. G. 

Shea, 1859-1865 ; Henry R. Stiles, 1866 ; Henry B. Dawson, 

1866-1875. 
BCHShas: V 

1867 Jan.-June. 

1868 Jan.-June. 

1869 Jan.-Dec. 

1870 Jan.-Sept. 

1871 Jan.-Aug. 

Extra, Feb. 1871. 

1872 Jan.-Mar. 

1873 Apr.-Dec. 
Duplicates : 

1873 July, Aug. (2), Sept. .-Dec. 
Suspended June 1875. 

Note: Henry B. Dawson, last editor of this magazine, was a 
noted historical writer who became involved in several 
celebrated controversies on historical subjects. The 
magazine passed into his bands July 1, 1866, and he con- 
tinued to publish it for a number of years, enlarging it 
to twice its former size. (See Appleton's Cyclopedia of 
.\merican Biography, 1888, Vol. H, pp. 108, 109). "The 
file contains a large amount of historical, biographical 
and archaeological material not elsewhere available." 
(See Mott's History of American Magazines, Vol. HI, 
p. 175). Among the historian-contributors were Ban- 
croft, r.ossing, Schoolcraft and Sparks. 

Now and Then. Devoted to History, Amusement. Instruction, 
Advancement, bi-monthly, then quarterly, est 1868. 
Muncy, Pa. : J. M. M. Gernerd ; The Muncy Luminary, 
Luminary Building. 

Editors : J. M. M. Gernerd, T. Kenneth Wood. 



CHECK LIST OF MAGAZINES 11 

BCHS has : V 

1890-1892 (complete). 

1930 (Apr.-June missing). 

1931 (complete). 

1932 (Oct.-Dec. missing). 
1934 :May-1935 June (reprint). 
1936 Vol. 5 (bound). 

Duplicates : 
1890-1892 X 
Note: Now and Then continued The Magazine of History and 
Biography established at Muncy in 1868 by J. M. M. 
Gernerd, which was revived in 1929 as a quarterly maga- 
zine by Dr. T. Kenneth Wood. 

The New York Genealogical and Biographical Record. Devoted 
toi the Interests of American Genealogy and Biography, 
quarterly, est Jan. 1870. 

New York: Published by the New York Genealogical and 
Biographical Society. 
Editors : Rev. Melatiab Everett Dwight, H. S. Mott, J. R. Tot- 
ten, et al. 
BCHS has : V 

1904 Apr. (430/160). 
In progress. 

Note: This genealogical magazine succeeded the Bulletin, pub- 
lished for only one year (1869) by the Society cited 
above. When it started the Record contained only eight 
pages. Now it is classed with The New England His- 
torical and Genealogical Register as one of the two fore- 
most publications of its class in America. It has con- 
sistently maintained its high character during its career 
of nearly seventy years. 

The American Historical Record. (See Potter's American Month- 
ly), monthly, est Jan. 1872. 

Philadelphia : Published by Chase & Town, No. 142 South 
Fourth Street. 

Editor : Benson J. Lossing. 

BCHS has: X 

1872 Jan.-Dec. 

1873 Jan.-Dec. 

Note : The American 1 listorical Record was acquired January, 
1875, by John E. Potter & Co., 617 Sansom Street, Phila- 
delphia, Pa. This firm changed the character of the 
periodical to that of a general magazine and its title to 
Potter's American Montlily Illustrated Magazine, which 



12 CHECK LIST OF AIACAZINES 

The Chronotype, an American Memorial of Persons and Events, 
monthly, est Jan. 1873. 

New York: Published by the American College of Heraldry 
and Genealogical Registry. No. 67 University Place 
( Societv Library Building). 
BCHS has : V 

1873 Jan.-AIay. (430/160). 
Discontinued 1874. 

The Pennsylvania Magazine of Historv and Biography, quarterly, 
est 1877. 

Philadelphia: Publication Fund of The Historical Society of 
Pennsylvania, No. 820 Spruce Street. 1877-1882; 1300 
Locust Street. 1883-1935 ; The Historical Society of Penn- 
sylvania, 1300 Locust Street, 1936- 
Editors : A committee on publication. 
BCHS has: V 

1877 Jan.-lf)39 Oct. (\^ols. 1 to LXIIT complete). 
DupHcates : 

-. 1877 Vol. I. V 

1878 Vol. n. y 

1880 Vol. IV, No. 2. X 

1883 Vol. VIL V 

1884 Vol. VIII. V 

1885 Vol. IX. V 
; 1886 Vol. X. V 

1887 Vol. XI. V 

1896 July. X 

1898 Jan.-Apr. X 

1907 Apr. X 

1908 Tan.-Oct. X 

1909 Tan.-Oct. X 

1910 Tan.-Oct. X 
. 1911 Tan.-Oct. X 

1912 Tan. -Apr. (2), Tuly (2), Oct. (2). X 

1913 Tan. (2). Apr. (2), Julv-Oct. (2). X 

1914 Tan. (2). Apr. (2). July (2), Oct. (2). X 

1915 Tan. (3). Apr. (2). Tulv (2), Oct. X 

1916 Tan- Apr.. Tulv. X " 

1917 July. X 

1918 Apr. X 
1935 Apr. X 
1938 Apr, X 

Note: The objects of this magazine, as stated in its first number 
(1887), "are to foster and develop the interest that has 
been awakened in historical matters, and to furnish the 
means of intercommunication between those of kindred 



CHECK LIST OF MAGAZINES IH 

tastes."" Since this modest announcement the Pennsyl- 
vania Magazine of History and l>iography has been ful- 
filling an increasingly important historical mission and 
has become essential to every well-ordered historical 
library in the country. 
In progress. 

The Magazine of American History with Notes and Queries, 
monthly, est Jan. 1877. 

New York and Chicago : A. S. Barnes & Company, 1877- 
1882: Xew York: Historical Publication Co.. 30 Lafavette 
Place and 743 Broadway, 1883-1893. 
Editors: John A. Stevens, 1877-1881 : B. F. DeCosta, 1882-1883; 

Mrs. Alartha J. Lamlj (who was also owner ), 1884-1892. 
BCHShas: V 

1877-1892 ( complete ) . 
1893 Jan.-June. 
Discontinued Sept. 1893. 

Note: The twenty-nine beautifully bound volumes of this maga- 
zine in the Library of The Bucks County Historical 
Society have the book-plate of the late Thomas Mac- 
Kellar, Germantown, Pa., senior member of the firm of 
MacKellar. Smiths & Jordan, owners of what was con- 
sidered in its prime the most celebrated and important 
type foundry in the world. "Thomas MacKellar, poet, 
was born in New York August 12, 1812, and in 1833 re- 
moved to Philadelphia, where on the death of Mr. 
Johnson in 1860. he became the senior partner of the 
great type-foundrv of Lawrence Johnson & Co. He 
early wrote for the Journal of the Sunday School Union, 
and published 'Droppings from the Heart,' 1844: 'Tam's- 
Fortnight Rambles," 1847, and 'Lines for the Gentle 
and Loving," 1853: also, 'The American Printer." "" ( See 
Scharf and Westcott's History of Philadelphia, Vol II, 
p. 1167). The Magazine of American History was one 
of the more important historical periodicals of its time, 
reporting the proceedings of the New York Historical 
Society, and publishing valuable historical articles, manu- 
scripts and biographical notices. After the death of Mrs. 
Lamb, Jan. 2, 1893, it passed through several hands, 
degenerated, and expired September of the same year. 
The Biographer, monthlw est Ma\- 1883. 

New York: 23 I 'ark Row. 
BCHShas: \' 

1883 May. (430/160). 



14 CHECK LIST OF MAfJAZINES 

The Biograpliical Mag-azine. An Illiistrated Alonthlv. est. Nov. 

1883. 

New York : The Pictorial Associated Press, Clipper Building. 
BCHS has : X 

1883 Nov. 
Suspended 1885. 

The National Magazine. A Journal Devoted to American History, 
monthlv. est 1884. 

Cleveland, O. : PuhHshed by William W. Williams, 1884- 
1887 ; New York : The New York History Companv. 132 
Nassau St.. 1888-1893. 
Title varies: The Magazine of Western History, 1877-1891; The 

National Magazine, 1891-1893. 
Editors: William W. Williams, 1884-1887; James Harrison 

Kennedv, 1887-1893. 
BCHS has : ' X 
1891 Nov. 
Suspended .\pr. 1893. 

Note: After its removal to New York, this periodical ceased 
devoting its attention exclusively to publishing western 
historical material, its objective when it was founded by 
Williams. After its suspension in 1893, Mott, quoting 
from the Bulletin of Bibliography, says in his History of 
American Magazines (Vol. HI, p. 262) "unscrupulous 
publishers later used the name (The National Magazine) 
for issues of a pretended magazine with contents taken 
from books and advertising improvised in order to get 
would-be notables to pay for steel portraits which were 
inserted in 'ghost magazines' never sold or distributed. 
Such issues of The National Magazine were printed as 
late as 1897." 

Maine Historical and ( ienealogical Recorder, quarterly, except for 
the last year, which was monthly, est Jan. 1884. 
Portland, Maine: S. M. Watson, Publisher. 
Editor: Stephen Marion Watson. 
BCHS has : X 
1889 Apr. 
Suspended 1898. 

Note: According to Mott's History of American Magazines 

(\^ol. HI, p. 259n), this periodical was published with 

several intermissions: suspended during 1890-1892. 1894. 

and 1896-1897. 

The Historical Record. Devoted Principally to the Early History 

of the Wyoming \'alley and Contiguous Territory, monthly. 

est Sept. 1886. 



CHECK LIST OF MAGAZINES 15 

W'ilkes-narre. I'a. : Press of the \\'ilkes-Barre Record. 

Editor: F. C. Johnson, M.D. 

BCHShas: V 

1886-1908 (14 voI>. complete j. 

Note : This extremely interesting and valuable historical publica- 
tion began as a monthly periodical ; then sometimes two 
montlis were combined in one number. Later it was pub- 
lished quarterly, finally "appearing from time to time 
as a complete volume." Its contents comprises "a com- 
pilation of matters of local history from the columns of 
the Wilkes-Barre Record." 

Putnam's Monthly Historical Magazine est 1890. 

Salem, ^Nlass. : Published by Eben Putnam. 
Title varies : Salem Press Historical and Genealogical Record, 
1890-1892: Putnam's Monthly Historical Magazine. 1893- 
Editor : Eben Putnam. 
BCHS has: \' 

1895 Apr. 

1898 Feb. 
Note: Putnam's Monthly Historical Magazine in October, 1893, 
absorlied Tilley's Magazine of Xew England History. 

William and Mary Co'.lege (.)uarter!\ Ilistoiical Magazine, est 
Apr. 1892. ' 
Williamsburg, \'a. : l\iblished by William and Mary Col- 
lege, 
l^rst Series: Apr. 1892-Apr. 1919. 
Second Series: Jan. 1921- 

Editors: Dr. Ev.jn C. Tyler, 1892-1919; Dr. Tuhan Alvin Car- 
roll Chandler, l!)21-Apr. 1934; Dr. K. J." Hoke, July 1934; 
Dr |ohn Stewart Bryan, Oct. 1!);4- ; associate editor. 

Dr. I^. C. Swem, 1921- 
BCllS has: X 

1921 |an.-192^< luh. 
1929 "|an.-193(i ( )ct. 
1937 Apr.-1938 ( )ct. 
In ])r()gress. 

-Vote: "Thi.-. Magazine was estaljlished ai his own expense in 
1892 by Dr. Lyon G. Tyler, i)resident of the college. It 
was published and edited by Dr. Tyler for twenty-seven 
years as a private undertaking, the last number issued 
being number 4 of volume 27, dated April, 1919. Since 
Dr. Tyler's retirement as president, he has established a 
new magazine which is now published at Richmond, \'a., 
entitled Tyler's Historical and Genealogical Quarterly." 



.16 CHECK LIST OF MA(i.\ZTNES 

(See William and Alary College Quarterly Historical 
Magazine, Jan. 1921, p. 72). This college quarterly has 
always been an authority in the field of \ irginia history. 
All of its editors have been the college's presidents and 
its associate editor the librarian of the roUege. 

Annals of Jowa. An Historical Onarterly. est Apr. 18^3=^ 

Des Moines, Iowa: Published by tlie liistorical Dei>artnient 
of Towa. 
BCHS has : X 

1898 Oct. 

1899-1904 (complete). 

1905 Jan. 
*Note: Third series: publication resumed April 1893 after a 

suspension of several years. 
In progress. 

The \'irginia Magazine of History and IJiosjrapliv. quarterly, est 
July 1893!^ 
Richmond, \'a. : Published by The \irginia Historical So- 
ciety, House of the Society. Xo. 707 East Frankdin St. 
Editors: Philip A. Pruce, \\'illiam G. Stanard. 
BCHS has: A' 

1893 lulv-1915 (complete). 
1916 Tan. X 
Xote: "Instead of ]iublishing an annual volume upon some one 
subject, the Executive Committee deemed it expedient 
to publish a magazine which would contain a variety of 
subjects of original historical value, and be more in ac- 
cord with the methods provided by other similar societies. 
.Accordingly the first number of the Virginia Magazine 
of History and Biography, which will be quarterly, was 
published in Julv la-t, the second number in October, 
and the third is now far advanced."' — From the annual 
report of Joseph Bryan, President of the A'irginia His- 
torical Society, December 14, 1893. 
In progress. 

Publications of The Genealogical Society of Pennsylvania, annual, 
est 1895. 
Philadelphia : Printed for the Societ\- bv Edward Stern & 
Co., Inc., 112 and 114 Xorth Twelfth St., 1895-1897: 
printed for the Society by The Wickersham Printing Co., 
Lancaster, Pa., 1898-1914: Philadelphia: 1300 Locust 
Street. 1915-1922: Building of the Flistorical Society of 
Pennsylvania, 1300 Locust' Street, 1923- 

Editor : M. Atherton Leach. 



CHECK LIST OF MAGAZINES 17 

BCHS has: \' 

1895-1938 (complete). 

Special Niiml)er, "The Xewkirk l^'amily" 1934. 

Duplcates : 

1933 Mar. 

3 938 Oct. 
Note : The committee on publication, in the first number of this 
important periodical, said that, in selecting the articles 
for that number, they had "borne in mind that the pri- 
mary object of the Society has always been to collect 
original records and material for genealogical and his- 
torical research rather than to turn their attention to the 

building up of pedigrees After thi? has been done, 

family history, properly speaking, can be compiled with 
certainty and the avoidance of those errors which are 
sure to creep in when the author is not familiar with the 
original sources of genealogical information." — A safe 
platform, on which every similar society can successfully 
work. 
In progress. 

The American Historical Review, quarterly, est Oct. 1895. 

New York : The Macmillan Company : London : Macmillan 
& Co., Ltd. 
Editors: J. Franklin Jameson, Andrew C. McLaughlin. 
BCHS has: X 

1898 Oct. 

1899 Tan. -Oct. 

1900 Oct. 

1901 Tan.-Oct. 
19(^2 tan.-Oct. 
1903 Tan.-Apr. 
1931 Oct. 

1912 Jan.-1919 Oct. 

1920 Ttdy. Oct. 

1921 Jan.-1927 Oct. 

1929 Tulv. 

1930 Ian.. Julv, Oct. 
1!)31 Jan.-July. 

Duplicates : 

1902 Jan.. A])r. 

.\mericana ( lermanica. A Quarterly Devoted to the Com]iarative 
!-^tU(ly (if the Literary, Linguistic and Other Cultural Rela- 
tiDus of Germany and America, est Jan. 1897. 
.\c\v ^'ork: The Macmillan Company. 1897-1901; Publi>hers. 
I'he German American Historical Societv, 1902. 



18 CHECK LIST OF MAGAZINES 

Editors : Marion Dexter Learned, University of Pennsylvania, 

and a corps of contributing editors. 
BCHS has: X 

1897 Vol. I, Nos. 1, 2. 

1898 Vol. II, Nos. 1-3. 

1899 Vol. IT, No. 4; Vol. III. Nos. 1, 2. 
1899-1900 Vol. Ill, Nos. 3 and 4. 

1901 Vol. IV, No. 1. 

1902 Vol. IV, No. 2. 

Note: Americana Germanica carried on its title page for the 
first year only the line: "Publication of the University of 
Pennsylvania." In the last issue, 1902. publication by 
The German American Historical Society was announced, 
the Society having been chartered December 10, 1901. 
The first meeting of the Society was held January 6, 1902. 
In 1903 Americana Germanica ceased as a periodical and 
was succeeded by German American Annals, a monthly 
periodical, which became the official organ of the Society, 
with nearly the same sub-title as that of Americana Ger- 
manica. (See German American Annals in this list). 

Publications of the Southern Historv Association, bi-monthly. 
est 1897. 
Washington, D. C. : Published by the Association. 
Editors : Publication Committee of five. 
BCHS has : X 

1900 Mar. 

The South Carolina Historical and Genealogical Magazine, quar- 
terly, est Jan. 1900. 
Charleston, S. C. : Published by the South Carolina Historical 
Society. 
Editors : A. S. Salley, Jr., Mabel L. Webber. 
BCHS has : X 
1918 Oct. 

1933 Tan.-Oct. 

1934 Ian .-Oct. 

1935 Jan., Apr., July. 

1936 .Apr., julv. Oct. 

1937 Tan.-dct.' 

1938 Jan.-July. 

Note: This is one of the best conducted historical magazines of 
the dav and its articles are always attractively presented. 
In progress. 

The Penn Germania. monthly, est Jan. 1900. 

Lebanon, Pa. ; Lititz, Pa. ; Cleona, Pa, 
Title varies : The Pennsvlvania German, 1900-1911 : The Penn 
Germania, 1912-1914. 



CHECK LIST OF MAGAZINES 19 

Editors : Rev. E. P. Croll. H. A. Schnler. H. W. Kriebel. 
BCHS has: V 

1900 Jan.-1914. Dec. (Complete set). 
Duplicates : 

1907 May (3), Aug. (5). 
Discontinued Dec. 1914. 

The West Mrginia Historical Magazine, quarterly, est Jan. 1900. 

Charleston, West \'a. : Published by the West Virginia His- 
torical Society. 
Editor : W. S. Laidley. 
BCHS has : V 

1904 Apr. 

The Gulf States Historical Magazine, bi-monthly, est Sept. 1902. 

Montgomery, Ala. : Published by Joel C. DuBose. 
Editor: Joel C. DuBose. 
BCHS has : V 

1903 July. 

German American Annals. Continuation of the Quarterly Amer- 
icana Germanica. A Monthly Devoted to the Comparative 
Study of the Historical, Literary. Linguistic, Educational 
and Commercial Relations of Germany and America. (See 
.Americana Germanica) est Jan. 1903. 
Philadelphia: ]\iblished by The German American Historical 
Society, Chas. H. Breitbarth. Business Manager, 1120 
Chestnut Street. Rooms 54 and 56. (with agencies in New 
Vork, Berlin, Leipzig, London and Paris). 

Editors • Marion Dexter Learned. I'niversity of Pennsylvania, 
and a corps of contributing editors. 

BCHS has: X 

1903 Jan., Mar. 

Note : This periodical was the organ of The German .American 
Historical Society, The National German .American Al- 
liance, and The LTnion of Old German Students in America. 

Americana (American Historical Magazine), quarterly, est 1906, 

New York: Published by Publishing Societv of Xew Vork, 

1906-1907: National Americana Society, 1908-1910 ; David 

I. Nelke, President National .\mericana Society. 1911-1916: 

The American Historical Society. Inc.. 1917 to date. 

Editors : Lyman Horace \\>eks. 1908 ; Florence Hull Winterburn, 
1910; John R. Meador. 1912: John Howard Brown. 1913- 
1914: L M. Greene, 1915: L. Greeneway Greene. 1916: 
Fenwick V. Hedley. 1917-1924: Winfield Scott Downs. 
1925-1938; Winfield Scott Downs. Litt.D.. 1939- 



20 CHECK LIST OF MAGAZINES 

BCHS has: \' 

1919 Julv. 

1920 Ian.. lulv. Oct. 
1921-1938 (complete). 

In progress. 

Note : This is one of the most important current American maga- 
zines on genealog}^ and history. The value of its con- 
tents is equalled by the beauty of its typography and 
heraldic plates and genealogical charts in colors, and its 
attractive portraits and other illustrations. 

Maryland Historical Magazine, quarterly, est Jan. 1906. 

Baltimore : Published by the Maryland Historical Society. 
Editor : Louis H. Dielman. 
BCHS has: X 

1912 Dec. 

1913 Sept. 

1914 Mar. 

1915 Sept. 

Genealogv. A Monthlv Magazine of American Ancestry, est May 

1909. 
New York : William L. Clemens, Publisher, 56 and 58 Pine 

Street. 
BCHS has: X 

1916 Jan. 

Chronicles of Oklahoma, quarterly, est Jan. 1911. 

C>klahoma City. Okla. : Published by the Oklahoma Historical 
Society. 
Title varies: Historia, 1911-1920; Chronicles of Oklahoma, 1921 

to date. 
Editors: William P. Campbell, 1911-1920; Board of Publication, 

1921 to date. 
BCHS has: X 
1916 July. 
In progress. 

Note: A recent report of the proceedings of the Oklahoma His- 
torical Society has the following paragraph : "A feature 
of the Society easily available to all its members is its 
quarterly magazine. Mr. William P. Campbell edited 
for some years for the Society a pamphlet called His- 
toria : at a meeting of the board of directors on May 6, 
1920, on motion of Judge R. L. Williams, a committee 
was appointed by the president to make arrangements 
for publishing a quarterly magazine. Judge Williams, 
A. N. Leecraft and Professor J. S. Buchanan constituted 



CHECK LIST OK M.\ri.\/.[XES 21 

the coniniittec and they decided to name the magazine 
the "Chronicles of Oklahoma". With Prof. iJuchanan 
and Dr. E. K. Dale as editors the fir.st issue appeared in 

January. 1921 We are now in volume XV of the 

Chronicles. The magazine is edited by a hoard consist- 
ing of Directors Harry Campbell. John B. Meserve, 
George Evans. Grant Eoreman and the secretary." 

The .Montgomery Ivimily Magazine. (Genealogical. Historical and 
I'.iographical. (|uarterly. est June 1915. 
New York Citv. X. V.; William M. Clemens, Publisher. 56 
& 58 Pine Street. 
Editor: William Montgomery Clemens. 
BCHS has: X 
1916 .\pr. 

Minnesota History, quarterly, est 1918. 

St. Paul : The Minnesota Historical Societv. Central Ave. 
and Cedar Street. 
Editors: Theodore C. P.leden. I'.ertha L. lieilhron 
BCHS has: X 

1933 Sept. 

The Western PennsvK^ania Historical Magazine, ciuarterlv est 
1918. 
Pittsburgh. Pa. : ]*ublished by the Historical Society of West- 
ern Pennsylvania. Bigelow Boulevard and Parkman Avenue. 
1918-1932; 4338 Bigelow Avenue. 1933- 
Editors: h'ranklin F. Holbrook. Elisabeth M. Sellers. 
BCHS has: \" 

1918-1939 (complete). 
Duplicate : 
1926 Jan. 
In progress. 

Xote: The salutatory of this magazine said: "For a number of 
years the Historical Society of Western Pennsylvania 
realized that it would be advantageous to conduct a 
magazine, but did not feel able to undertake the work. It 
is now prepared to answer the call, and the result is its 
entry into the li.st of publishers." This is now the lead- 
ing historical magazine of western Pennsylvania. 

The Quarterly Journal of the Xew Ynrk State Historical Associa- 
tion, est Oct. 1919. 

Albany: Xew ^'ork State Historical Association. 
Editors: James Sullivan, Dixon R. Vox l-'rederick P>. Richards. 
I5CHS has: X 

1920 A])r.. ( )ct. 



22 CHECK LIST OF .AI A(i.\Z[ XKS 

Tyler's Quarterly Historical and Genealo.^ical MaL^jazine. est 1920. 

Richmond, \'a. : 
Editor : Lyon G. Tyler, M.A., LL.D. 
BCHS has: X 

1923 Jan. ( Washington number). 

The P.eehive. monthly, est 1921. 

Germantown. Pa.: Published by Flen & Fetterolf. 5954 Ger- 
mantown Avenue, and 10 to 16 Tiarvey Street. 
Editor: Epentus L. Fetterolf. 
P.CITS has: X 





1922 


Sept. 












1929 


Ma>' 


, Sept. 


-Dec. 








1930 


Jan., 


Nov. 










1931 


Jan. 












1934 


lulv. 


Oct. 










1935 


Feb. 


. Tune. 


lulv, 


Sept.- 


-Dec. 




1936 


Jan., 


Feb., 


Al.r.. 


. June- 


-Dec. 




]937 


Jan.- 


Dec. 










1938 


Jan.- 


Dec. 








I" 


progress. 










Note : This magazine is 


a worker mainl\- 



in the rich field of 



Germantown historv. 



The County Court Xote-Book. A Little P.ulletin of History and 
Genealogy, irregular, mostl}' bi-monthl}'. est Oct. 1921. 
P)ethesda, Montgomery Co., Md. ; Washington., D. C. : Colum- 
bia Printing Co., Inc. 

Editor: Milnor Ljungstedt. 

BCHS has: X 

1921 Oct., Dec. 

1922 Mar.-Xov. 

1923 Feb.-Dec. 

1924 1an.-Nov. 

1925 Feb.-Dec. 

1926 Feb.-Dec. 

1927 Feb.-Dec. 

1928 Feb.-Dec. 

1929 Feb.-Dec. 

1930 Feb.-Dec. 

1931 Feb. 
Discontinued. 

The Perkiomen Region, irregular, est Dec. 1921. 

Pennsburg, Pa. : Published by the Historical and Natural 

Science Societv of the Perkiomen Region. 
Editors: Thomas R.' Brendle. 1921-1927; H. \V. Kriebel, 1927- 

1936. 



CHECK LIST OF MAGAZTXES 23 

BCHS has: \' 

1921 Dec. 1-1936 Apr. (complete set). 

Duplicates : 
1934 Aug. X 
Discoutinued in 1936. 

Note : The Perkiomen Region is a rich scnirce for much historical 
material for the upper parts of Montgomery and Bucks 
Counties, Pennsylvania. 

The Nebraska and Midwest (Genealogical Record. (|uarterly. est 
Jan. 1923. 
Lincoln. Ne1)raska : Published by the .\el>raska (Genealogical 
Society. 
Editors: Editorial staff. Miss Mabel Lindlv. managing editor. 
BCHS has: X 
1923 Apr. 

The Genealogical Magazine of New lersev. quarterly, est Ji^ily 
1925. 
Newark. N. j.: Published by the Genealogical Society of 
New Jersey. 
Editor: Russell Bruce Rankin, with a staff' of hve associate editors. 
BCHS has: V 

1925 july-1939 Oct. 
In progress. 
Note: "The Genealogical Society of New Jersey was organized 

September 17. 1921. and incorporated April 5, 1924 

Our members have compiled or have access to much un- 
puljlished material relating to a great many New Jersey 
families It is our intention to continue these activi- 
ties, and to preserve the results of our labors bv putting 
our data in print whenever and wherever it mav be prac- 
ticable to do so — in this magazine or elsewhere." — From 
editorial in first number, July, 1925. This periodical 
holds a place of much importance in the genealogical 
field. 

The Kansas Historical (Quarterly, est Nov. 1931. 

Topeka, Kansas: The Kansas State Historical Society. 
Editors: Kirke Mechem, James C. Malin. 
P,CHS has: V 

1931-1939. 
Duplicate : 

1931 Nov. 
In progress. 



24 CHECK LIST OK M ACiAZIXES 

ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY 

The Christian Herald, and Seaman's Magazine, semi-monthlv. 

est Afar. 30, 1816. 
Xew ^'ork : PnbHshed by John Oray, Xo. 60 Church, near 

Murray Street. 1820; at the r)ttice of Blackwood's 

Edinburgh Magazine. 1821-1824. 
Title varies: The Christian Herald. 1816-1820: The Christian 

Herald, and Seaman's Magazine. 1820-1824. 
BCHS has: X 

1820 ]une 3. 

1821 June 16. 
Discontinued Mar. 1824 

Xote : This was one of the early religious periodicals, established 
by and for at least four years tuider the supervision of 
John E. Caldwell, a founder of the American Bible So- 
ciety. Its main object was to supply religious literature 
to sailors. 

The Berean. A Religious Publication, seini-montlil}'. est Apr. 
1824. 
\\'ilm';ngton. Del. : Printed by Mendenhall & Walters. Xo. 31, 
Alarket-Street ; later by S.'E. Merrihew, No. 103, Shipley- 
Street. 

BCfIS has: \" 

1825 Ai)r. 19-Dec. 27. 

1826 Jan. 10-June 27. 

Biblical Repertory and I^'inceton Review. ( See The Presbyterian 
Quarterly Review and The Presbyterian Quarterly and 
Princeton Review. ) quarterly, est 182;"). 
Philadelphia: Al. P). Hope, Education Rooms, Xo. 29 Sansom 
Street; R. E. Horner and J. T. Robinson. Printers. Prince- 
ton. 1842- ; Philadelphia: Published bv Peter Walker. 
821 Chestnut Street. 1868; New York: Published by Charles 
Scribner & Co., 654 Broadway. 
Title varies: Biblical Repertory. 1825-182!); r.iblical Repertory 

and Princeton Review, 1830-1871. 
Editors: Charles Hodge. D.D., Lyman H. Atwater, D.D. 
BCHS has: X 
1842 Jan. 
1847 Apr.. July. 

1868 July. 

1869 Apr. 
1871 Apr., Oct. 



CHECK LIST or MAGAZINES 25 

Note: This publication was merged with The Presbyterian Quar- 
terly and Princeton Review Jan. 1872. Mergers of Pres- 
byterian periodicals of closely similar names in the Nine- 
teenth Century were so numerous as to lead to confusion 
unless the records are very closely scanned. "With the 
year 1831 Dr. (Edward) Robinson began the publication 
of the Biblical Repository, of which he was the editor 
and principal contributor for four years." — Cyclopaedia 
of American Literature," Duyckinck. 1856, Vol. II p 
168. "In July, 1833, he TBela Bates Edwards) estab- 
lished the American Quarterly Observer, a journal of the 
order of higher reviews; which, after three volumes, was 
united in 1835 with the Biblical Repository, which had 
been conducted by Professor Robinson. Edwards edited 
the combined work, known as the American Biblical 
Repository, until January, 1838."— Ibid., Vol. II, p. 342. 
'The Biblical Repertory and Princeton Review, such 
being its final title, is the oldest of American theological 
quarterlies, having now (1856) reached the thirty-first 
volume. It was begun by Professor Hodge in 1825, 
and has. with small intervals, remained under his hand 
until the present time. It has been regarded as the ac- 
credited organ of the Westminster Calvinists and Presby- 
terians, and has exercised a formidable influence ; but its 
tone in regard to slavery has made it especially imsavory 
to abolitionists." — Ibid.. Vol. I, p. 615. 

The Presbyterian Quarterly Review, est lune 1852. 

Philadelphia : Printed for the Proprietor, bv Isaac Ashmead 
No. 248 Chestnut Street, June, 1852; Published for the 
Proprietor by Willis P. Hazard, No. 178 Chestnut Street, 
Sept.. 1825-1857; Presbvterian House, No 1334 Chestnut 
Street, 1858-1862. 

Editors :^ Benjamin J. Wallace ; Albert Barnes, Thomas Brainerd, 
E. W. Gilbert, Joel Parker, associate editors, with the as- 
sistance of Professors in the New York ITuion, Auburn and 
I^ne Theological Seminaries. lohn Jenkins succeeded E 
W. Gilbert in 1854. 

BCHS has: X 

1852 lune-Dec. 

1853 Mar.. Sept., Dec. 

1854 Mar., Dec. 

1858 Julv. Oct. 

1859 Jan., Oct. 

1860 Jan. 

1862 Jan., Apr., Oct. 



26 CHECK LIST OF MAGAZINES 

Note: The prospectus of this pubHcation, in the first number, 
contains the following: "This work has grown out of 
the wants of the Presbyterian Church, and is intended 
to maintain a close connection with all its interests and 
plans." The Presbyterian Quarterly Review began a 
successful and lengthy career. It was i)ul'lished by the 
Presbyterian Board of Publication. (See Sharf andWest- 
cott's History of Philadelphia, \^j1. Til, p. 2024). Janu- 
ary 1. 1863, it was merged with The American Theo- 
logical Review under the title of The American Presby- 
terian and Theological Review, which see. 

The Presbyterian Quarterly and Princeton Review. (See The 
Presbyterian Quarterh Review), est Jan. 18(13. 
New York: J. M. Sherwood, No. 5, iJeekman Street; Phila- 
delphia: Presbyterian P>ook Store, 1334 Chestnut Street: 
New York: J. AI. Sherwood, 654 Broadway; 21 Barclay 
Street. 
Title varies : The American Presbyterian and Theological Re- 
view, 1863-1868 ; The American Presbyterian Review, 1869- 
1871 : The Presbyterian (Quarterly and Princeton Review. 
1872- 
Editors: Henry B. Smith, J. M. Sherwood, Lyman H. Atwater : 
associate' editors, Albert Barnes, Thomas Brainerd, John 
lenkins, Roswell D. Hitchcock, Jonathan B. Condit, George 
E. Day. 
BCHS has: X 
1863 Julv. 
1869 Apr. 
1874 Apr., Oct. 

1876 Oct. 

1877 July. 

Journal of The Department of History (The Presbyterian His- 
torial Society) of the Presbyterian Church in the U. S. A. 
semi-annual, est Alay 1901. 
Philadelphia: The Presbyterian Historical Society, W'ither- 
spoon Building, 1901-1929; Published by the Department 
and Society, Witherspoon Building, 1930- 

Title varies : Journal of the Presbyterian Historical Society. May 
1901-June 1930; Journal of The Department of History 
(The Presbyterian Historical Society) of the Presbvterian 
Church in the U. S. A., Sept. 1930- 

Editors : Committee on Publication. 

BCHS has : V 

1901-1939 (complete). 

In progress. 



CHECK LIST OF MAGAZINES 27 

The Presbyterian, weekly, est Feb. 16. 1831. 

Philadelphia : P\iblishe(l by Russell & Martien, No. 9 George 
Street, 1831-1834; Alfred Martien, May 1, 1834-1873; 
Rev. Dr. S. A. Mittchmore, 1873- 

Editors: Rev. John Burtt, Feb. 16, 1831-Nov. 21. 1832: Rev. Dr. 
Tames W. Alexander, Nov. 28, 1832-Tan. 9, 1834; Rev. 
Dr. William M. Engle, 1834-1864; Rev. Dr. E. E. Adams, 
Rev. Dr. M. B. Grier, 1864-1873 ; Rev. Dr. S. A. Mutch- 
more, 1873- 

BCHS has: X 

1833 Mar. 27. 

In progress. 

Note : This is the second oldest Presbyterian journal in the coun- 
try, being antedated only by the Biblical Repertory and 
Princeton Review (1825). It took the form of a news- 
paper, 17 X 22J/ in., adhering to "the fundamental doc- 
trines of evangelical Christianity." In 1931 it celebrated 
its centennial anniversary by publishing in its issue for Feb- 
ruary 12 a sketch of its career, where the history of the 
journal since 1873 may be found. 

The Quaker, monthly, est 1827. 

Philadelphia: Published by Marcus T. C. Gould, No. 6, 
North Eighth Street. 
Editor : Marcus T. C. Gould. 
BCHS has: V 

1827 Feb. (?) (Vol. I). 

1827 luly-Dec. 

1828 Jan.-Dec. 
1828 (Vol. IV). 

Duplicates : 
1828 Feb., Mar., May, June, July, Aug. (2). 
Note : Vol. I and Vol. IV were not published in periodical num- 
bers, but in every other particular were considered by 
the editor as a part of the regular series. 
Discontinued Dec. 1828. 

The Friend. A Religious and Literarv lournal. weekly, est Oct. 
13, 1827. 
Philadeliihia : Published by John Richardson, Corner of Car- 
l)enter and Seventh Streets, 1827-1830 ; printed by Adam 
Waldie, Carpenter Street below Seventh, 'l 831-1841 ; Wil- 
liam and Joseph Kite, Joseph Kite, Joseph Kite & Co., Sev- 
enth and Carpenter Streets, 1842-1847 ; Kite & Walton, No. 
3 Ranstead Place, b^ourth Street above Chestnut, and Lodge 
Street, opposite the Pennsylvania Bank, 1848-1855 ; Robb, 
Pile & ^IcElroy. Pile & McElroy, William H. Pile, Wil- 
liam H. Pile's Sons, Lodge Street, opposite the Pennsyl- 
vania Bank. 1856-1891. 



28 CHECK LIST OF MAGAZINES 

Editors : Robert Smith. 1827-1851 ; subsequently edited by com- 
mittees, tlie duties chiefly devolving upon John Richardson, 
Charles Evans. M.D.. John S. Stokes and Joseph Walton. 
John H. Dillingham, Edwin P. Sellew. Davis H. Forsythe, 
and the present editor. Margaret W. Rhoads. 

BCHS has: 

1827 Oct. 13-1891 July 25 (complete). V 

1900 Nov. 10. Dec." 25. X 

1901 Ttilv 27-Dec. 28. X 

1902 Ian. 4-Dec. 27. X 

1903 Tan. 3-Dec. 26. X 

1904 Jan. 2-Mar. 26. X 
In progress. 

X^ote: This periodical was founded when differences arose be- 
tween the Hicksite and Orthodox branches of the Society 
of Friends, The Friend representing the orthodox or 
parent branch. The publication committee which con- 
trols the periodical is a self-perpetuating body and desig- 
nates the editor. 

The Friend : or. Advocate of Truth, monthly, semi-monthly and 

weeklv. est Ian. 1828. 
Philadelphia: 'Published by M. T. C. Gould. No. 6, North 

Eighth Street ; New York : Isaac T. Hopper, Xo. 420 Pearl 

Street. 
Editor : Marcus T. C. Gould. 
BCHS has: 

1828 lan.-Xov. V 

1829 lan.-Dec. V 

1830 Ian. 2-Feb. 27. Y 
June 19-Dec. 25. 

Duplicates : 

1828 Feb., Mar., May, lune, Tulv. Aug. (fragment), Nov. 

1829 Jan. 1-Dec. 16. " 

Note: Changed to weekly, January 2, 1830, and "joint office" 
opened at 420 Pearl Street, New York. 

Friends' Miscellany, monthly, est Apr. 1831. 

Philadelphia: Printed for the Editors by I. Richards, No. 
13 Church Alley. 
Editors : John and Isaac Comly, Byberry. 
BCHS has: Y 

1831 Dec. 

1832 lan.-Dec. 

1833 lan.-Mar., Dec. 

1834 Jan.-July. 

Last issue, fuly, 1839 ( Yol. XII, No. 7). 



CHECK LIST OF MAGAZINES 20 

Note: "He (Jolin C omly ) \va> >ul)sequentl\ engas^ed with his 
brother Isaac in ])ul)]ishing a periixhcal called 'l^'riends" 
Miscellany', which was continued through a series of 
years, and has been the means of preserving many valu- 
able records, biographical sketches, historical notes, and 
other matters of peculiar interest." ( See A History of 
the Townships of IJyberry and Moreland, by Joseph C. 

Martindale, ]\I.D., page 296 i "There are second 

editions of X'olumes 1. 2 and 3. The date of the second 
edition of \'o!ume I is 1834. The content of both edi- 
tions is the same, however." ( E. X'irginia Walker. As- 
sistant Librarian. Friends" Historical Library. Swarth- 
n":ore College. Swarthmore. I 'a.) 

The Friends' Intelligencer, weekly, est Mar. 30. Ls44, liy josiah 
(„'ha])man. 
I'hiladelphia : Published by The b^riends' Intelligencer Asso- 
ciation. 1215 Chestnut Street. 

Title varies : Friends' Weekly Intelligencer: iM-ieids' Intelligencer; 
sub-lit'.e varies: A Religious and l-^a;nily Journal. The 
Quaker Message, .\ Quaker Me>sage 

Editors: Josiah Chapman. Howard M. jenkin--, Rachel W. Hill- 
burn. Helen G. Longstreth. Lydia 11. Hall. Alice L. Dar- 
lington, R. L.arclay Spicer, Pllizabeth I'ownall I'ond, Eliza- 
beth Lloyd. Henry b>rris. \\alter Halsey .Abel. Anna jack- 
son. Sue C. \'erkes. et a!. 

BCHS has: X 
1846 Mar. 7. 
1855 Mar. 24-1856 Mar. 15. 

1868 Mar. 7-1869 Feb. 20. 

1869 Mar. 6-1870 Feb. 26. 

1870 Mar. 5-1871 Feb. 18. 

■ 1873 Jan. 4. Mar. 1-1874 Feb. 21. 
1874 Feb. 28-1875 Feb. 20. 
1876 Feb. 26-1877 Feb. 19. 

1881 Feb. 19-Dec. 31. 

1882 Ian. 7-1' eb. 11. 
1885 Ian. 24. 

1891 Ian. 3. 10. 
June 13. 
lulv 25. 
.\ug. 15, 22. 
Oct. 17. 
Xov. 7. 

1892 1-eb. 6. 
Aug. 6, 13. 
Oct. 1, 8, 29. 
Xov. 5, 26. 
Dec. 10. 



30 CHECK LIST OF MAfi/VZTNES 

1893 Ian. 7-28. 
Feb. 4-25. 
Mar. 4, 11. 
Aug. 15, 22. 
Oct. 31. 
Nov. 21. 

1894 Feb. 3-24. 
Mar. 3-31. 
Apr. 7, 28. 
Mav 12-2(). 
Tune 2. 23, 30. 
Aug. 8. 

Sept. 1, 15-29. 
Oct. 13-27. 
Nov. 3. 10. 
Dec. 8-29. 

1895 Jan. 12, 19. 
Feb. 2. 
May n-25. 
June ], 8. 
Aug. 29. 

1896 Apr. 18, 25. 
May 2. 16-30. 
June 6. 

July 25. 
Aug. 1, 8. 
Sept. 5, 19, 26. 
Oct. 3. 

1897 Mav 29. 
Tune 12. 

1898 Apr. 2, 16-30. 
May 7-28. 

1899 Mar. 18. 
Apr. 1, 8, 22. 
Mav 13. 

1900 Apr. 28. 
Tune 9-30. 
July 7-21. 
Aug. 4-25. 
Sept. 1. 
Oct. 13, 27. 
Nov. 3, 17. 
Dec. 15. 

1901 Jan. 5, 12, 26. 
Feb. 23. 

Apr. 13-27. 
Mav 11, 25. 
June 1-22. 



CHEOK LIST OF MAGAZINES 31 

July 6-27. 
Aug. 3-31. 

Sept. 28. 
Oct. 5-26. 
Nov. 3. 30. 
Dec. 7. 14. 28. 

1902 Ian 18. 25. 
Feb. 1. 8. 22. 
Mar. 8. 15. 29. 
Apr. 5, 12. 26. 
May 3. 17. 
July 12-26. 
Aug. 9. 

1903 Ian. 3-Dec. 26. 

1904 Ian. 2-Dec. 3. 17-31. 

1905 Jan. 7-Dec. 30. 

1906 Jan. 5-Dec. 29. 

1907 Ian. 5-I)ec. 28. 

1908 Ian. 4-Dec. 5. 19. 26. 

1909 Ian. 2-May 15, 29-Dec. 25. 

1910 Tan. 1-Aug. 20. Sept. 3-Dec. 31. 

1911 "lan. 7-Dec. 30. 

1912 Jan 6-Dec. 28. 

1913 Tan. 4-Dec. 27. 

1914 Tan. 3-Dec. 26. 

1915 Tan 2-Dec. 25. 

1916 Tan. 1-Dec. 30. 

1918 Tan. 5-Mar. 2, 16. 30-.\pr. 6. 13. 27-Dec. 28. 

1919 Ian. 4-Dec. 27. 

1920 Tan. 3-Dec. 25. 

1921 Tan. 1-Apr. 16, 30-Dec. 31. 
1922-1934 (complete). 

Duplicates : 
1874 Oct. 31. 

1903 Tan. 17-Feb. 14. Mar. 28-May 16. Oct. 31. Nov. 21. 

1904 Ian. 23. 30. Mar. 5-A]m-. 2, 30. 
1909 May 15. 

1912 Sept. 28- Dec. 28. 

1913 Tan. 4-Dec. 27. 

1914 Ian. 3-Dec. 26. 

1915 Jan. 2-July 31. 

1927 Tune 11, Nov. 15. 22, Dec. 3, 10. 

1928 Jan. 28, Feb. 4, 18, Apr. 14-July 28, Aug. 18-Nov. 24. 
In progress. 

Note: In some liistories and check lists this periodical is erron- 
eously listed as having been established in 1838. This 
error, no doubt, occurred through confusing two publica- 



32 CHECK LIST OF MAGAZINES 

tions. In a letter, dated June 29. 1939, Anna B. Hewitt. 
Secretary of Friends' Historical Association, Haverford. 
Pa., says: "P>iends' Intelligencer, of Philadelphia, hegan 
publication in 1844 and has continued to the present. 
There was another publication called I^Viends' Intel- 
ligencer, which was published in New York in 1838- 
1839. Only one volume appeared, consisting of 24 num- 
bers. I think that this was an entirely distinct publica- 
tion, and that the Philadelphia periodical was not a con- 
tinuation of it. We have a file of both publications in 
the Haverford College Library." 

Bulletin of the Friends' Historical Association, irregular, 1906- 
1921; semi-monthly, 1822- : est Oct. 1906. 

Philadelphia : Published by Friends' Historical .Association. 
Printers, The Leeds & Biddle Co., 1010 Cherry St.; The 
Biddle Press, same address ; Ferris ^- Leach, 29 S. Seventh 
Street, Lancaster. Pa.; Lancaster Xew Fra : Swarthmore, 
Pa. : Publication ( )ffice. 
Title varies: Bulletin of the Friends' Historical Society of Phila- 
delphia, 1906-1923 : Bulletin of the Friends' Historical As- 
sociation, 1924- 
Editors: Jsaac Sharpless. 1906-1907; Allen C. Thomas. 1907- 
1920: Amelia M. Gummere, 1921; Ravner VV. Kelsev, 
1922-1927; Henry J. Cadburv. 1928-1929; Rayner W. Kel- 
sey. 1922-1932: Thomas K. Brown. Jr.. 1933- 
BCHS has: \' 

1906 Oct.-1939 (complete). 

General Index Vol. I-X. 1906-1921. 

General Index \^ol. XI-XV. 1922-1926. 

General Index Vol. XVI-XX. 1927-1931. 

Special Insert. Logan Story Index. 

In progress. 

The Christian : A Monthly Publication, for .\11 Denominations of 
Christians, est 1847. 

Philadelphia : Printed for George F. Gordon. Proprietor. 
Editor : George F. Gordon. 
BCHS has: V 

1849 Jan.-Dec. 

The Cavalla Messenger. "Good Xews from a Far Country", 
monthly, est July 1847. 
Cavalla. W. Africa: Published by the I'rotestant Episcopal 
Mission. 

BCHS has: X 
1855 Mar. 



CHECK LIST OF MAGAZINES 33 

The Moravian, the Official Organ of the N^orthern Province of 
the Unitas Fratrum or Moravian Church in America, 
weekly, est Jan. 1. 1856. 
Philadelphia, Pa. : Published by authority of the Synod, T856- 
1858; Bethlehem, Pa.: 1859- 

Editors : Rev. Edmund deSchweinitz, Rev. Lewis F. Kampmann, 
Rev. Francis F. Hagen, 1856-1902 ; Rev. Charles D. Krei- 
der, D.B., 1903-1937 ; Rev. Roy Grams, Th.M., 1938- 

BCHS has: V 

1908 Nov. 11-Dec. 23. 

1909 Jan. 6-June 23 (missing, pp. 389-392^. 
In progress. 

Note: While it is distinctly a church paper. The Moravian pub- 
lishes much literary and historical. The file in possession 
of The Bucks County Historical Society contains a serial 
historical novel. "The Sister : or. Romance of the United 
Brethren or Moravians," by Sarah Biddle Cabeen, of 
Philadelphia — a story of the Indians and Moravians 
of early times. 

Sunday Magazine. (A British periodical), monthly, est in U. 

S. A. Oct. 1869. 
Philadelphia: Publishers, T. B. Lippincott & Co.., 715-717 

Market Street. 
Editor : Rev. Thomas Guthrie, D. D. 
BCHS has: X 

1869 Nov.. Dec. 

1870 J an .-Dec. 

1871 jan.-Sept. 
Probably discontinued in 1873. 

Note: Dr. Thomas Guthrie, editor of this periodical, was an 
eloquent Scottish divine, born at Brechin ab<;)Ut 1803. 
He became minister of Free St. John's, Edinburgh, in 
1840. As an associate of Dr. Thomas Chalmers he took 
a prominent part in the institution of the Free Church 

in 1843 He was the chief founder of the Ragged 

or Industrial School of Edinburgh.. He died Feb. 24, 
1873. (See Lippincott's Universal Pronouncing Diction- 
ary of Biography and Mythology, 1887, p. 1194). Sun- 
day Magazine was controlled by a publishing house estab- 
lished in New York by Alexander Strahan, of Edin- 
burgh and London, in 1865. 

Griffin's (I. C. B. \J.) Journal, monthly, except 1883-1912, when 
semi-monthly, est 1873. 
Philadelphia: Published h\ Martin 1. T. Griffin. 711 Sansom 
Street. 



34 CHECK LIST ()F MAGAZINES 

Editor: Martin I. J. Griffin. 

BCHS has: X 
1892 Feb. 29. 

Discontinued in 1900. 

Note: Griffin's Journal, tiiough published under the auspices of 
the Irish Catholic Benevolent Union, was dominated by 
the strong personality of its editor. It was merged in 
1900 with American Catholic historical Researches, 
which had been established in 1884 in Pittsburgh in 
charge of A. A. Lamburg, but in 1886 came under the 
direction of Griffin, wdio removed it to Philadelphia. 
American Catholic Historical Researches in 1912 was 
combined with the Records of the American Catholic 
Historical Society of Philadelphia. 

Records of the American Catholic Historical Society of Philadel- 
phia, wdth which is Combined American Catholic Historical 
]\esearches. quarterly, est May 5, 1887. 
Philadel])hia : Published bv the Society, Philopatrian Hall, 
211 South Twelfth Street, 1887-1889: Athenaeum Build- 
ing. 219 South Sixth Street, 1889-1895; 715 Spruce Street, 
1895- 
Editors : Editorial supervision in charge of a Publication Com- 
mittee. 
BCHS has: V 

1884-1938 (complete. 49 volumes). 

Supplement. 1893 Dec. 

Duplicates : 
1894 Dec. 
In progress. 

Note: Records of the American Catholic ?[istorical Society of 
Philadelphia is a publication of the highest importance. 
It has performed invaluable service in rescuing much 
material from oblivion and bringing it to public atten- 
tion. Each volume contains stores of historical and 
genealogical information either inaccessible or not readily 
accessible anywdiere else. No well-equipped library can 
well do without this ably-edited journal. The first twenty- 
three volumes of Records were issued annually, and it 
was not until March 1913 that they began to be issued in 
regular magazine form. The first volume was announced 
t® be ready for distribution under date of May 5, 1887. 
(See Records, Vol. XXIII. p. 8). But this first volume 
covered the proceedings of the Society back to its incep- 
tion. Tulv 1884. 



CHECK LIST OF MAOAZTNES 35 

Our Church Monthly, est July 1881 . 

Doylestown. Pa. : Devoted to the Interests of the Doylestown 
!\Iethodist Episcopal Cliurch. 
Editor : Rev. L. B. Brown. 
BCPIS has: X 

1881 July, Oct. 

The Asbury Review, monthly, est 1882. 

Wilmington, Del: Published by the Mutual lmi)rovement 
Society of the Asbury M. I{. Churcli. 
Editor: Sallie B. Shaw. 
BCHS has: X 

1883 June. 

People's Pulpit, Bible and Tract Society, monthly, est Feb. 1909. 

Brooklyn, N. Y. : Brooklyn Tabernacle, 13-17 Hicks Street. 
BCHS has': X 

1909 Apr. 

The Mennonite Ouarterlv Review, Devoted to Mennonite History, 
Thought and Current Afifairs. est Jan. 1927. 
Goshen, Indiana : P'ublished by Goshen College. 

Editor : Harold S. Bender ; associate editors, John I'mble, Guy 
F. Hershberger, Edward Yoder. 

BCHS has: X 
1928 Apr. 

In progress. 

Note: "During the year 1926, I published three numbers of 
what was called here the Review Supplement to the 
Goshen College Record. The Goshen College Record 
was a student publication and is still a student publica- 
tion. In a sense The Mennonite Quarterly Review is 
the successor to the Gashen College Record Review Sup- 
plement. The Mennonite Quarterly Review is the only 
scholarly journal published by any branch of the Menno- 
nites in America. It is, however, not an official organ 
of our denomination, since the regular ecclesiastical organ 
of our denomination is the Gospel Herald, which is pub- 
lished by the Mennonite Publishing House at Scottdale, 
Pennsylvania" — Harold S. Bender, Editor of The 
Mennonite Quarterly Review, June 8, 1939. It may also 
be stated that in late years The Review has appointed as 
its publishing agent The Mennonite Historical Society, 
which is at the present time the publishing agent for 
Goshen College. 



36 CHECK LIST OF MAGAZINES 

ARCHAEOLOGY 

Pennsylvania Archaeologist. Bulletin of the Society for Pennsyl- 
vania Archaeolog-y. quarterly, est Apr. 1931. 
Milton, Pa. : Published for the Society of Pennsylvania 
Archaeology. 

Editors : Frederick A. Godcharles ; assistant, Donald A. Cadzow. 

BCHS has: X 

1986 Jan.-Oct. 

The Pennsylvania Archaeologist. Bulletin of the Society for Penn- 
sylvania Archaeology, monthly, est 1931. 
Lancaster, Pa. : Published by the Society. 

BCHS has: X 
1934 Jan. 

American Journal of Archaeology. The Journal of the Archaeo- 
logical Institute of America, quarterly. 
Concord : Published by the Institute. 

Editor : George W. Elderkin. 

BCHS has: X 

1929 Jan., Mar. 



LITERATURE 

The American Museum, or, Universal Magazine, monthlv. est 
by Mathew Carey, Jan. 1787. 
Published by Carey, Stewart, and Co., Front Street, east side, 
at the fifth door south of Spruce Street, and other Front 
Street addresses. 

Title varies: The American Museum, or Repository of Ancient 
and Modern Fugitive Pieces, «&c.. Prose and I'oetical, 1787- 
1789 ; The American Museum, or. Universal Magazine : 
Containing Essays on Agriculture — Commerce — Manu- 
factures — Politics — Morals — and Manners. Sketches 
of National Characters — Natural and Civil History — and 
Biography. Law Information — Public Papers — Pro- 
ceedings of Congress — ■ Intelligence; Moral Tales — An- 
cient and Modern Poetry, &c., &c., 1790-1792. 

Editor : Mathew Carey. 

BCI-IS has: V 

1790 Jan., Feb.. Apr., May, Aug.-Dec. 

Discontinued Dec. 1792. 



CHECK LIST OF MAGAZINES 37 

Xote : The suspension date given above is on the authority of 
Mott's "History of American Magazines", vol. ITI, p. 
100. In "One Hundred and Fifty Years Publishing, 
1785-1935;' Philadelphia, Lea & Febiger (1935), p. 14, 
it is distinctly stated that the Museum was continued for 
thirteen years. Mott explains the discrepancy by stating 
in a footnote (Vol. Ill, p. 103) that "six years after the 
discontinuance of the magazine, Carev published a vol- 
ume called The American Museum : A Repository of 
Valuable Newspaper Essays and Pamphlets. This is 
sometimes mistakenly called Vol. XIII of the magazine." 
Lea & Febiger also state that the firm name during the 
existence of the Museum was simply Mathew Carey, 
whereas the title page of \^ol. VII, 1790, bears as its 
publishers' name Carey. Stew^art and Co. The Museum 
easily headed the American magazine field as long as it 
was published. Among congratulatory letters Carey re- 
ceived was one from (jeneral Washington. The original 
is now in possession of Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia. 

The New-York Magazine: or. Literarv Repositorv. monthly, est 
1790. 
New York : Printed by Thomas and James Swords, At their 
Ofii'ice. No. 43. Crown-Street. 
BCHS has: \' 

1790 Jan -May (pp. 315-382 missing from May issue). 

Aug.-Dec. 
Plates : 

Trinit} Church, New York City (missing j. 

Unfortunate Mistake. Engraved by Tiebout (fragment). 

Federal Edifice, New York City (missing). 

\'iew of the Bastile. Engraved by Tiebout (from original 

French engraving ) . 
\^iew of Columbia College in the City of New York. Drawn 

by Anderson : engraved by Tiebout. 
St. Tamany. An original piece of music. 
\'iew of Light House at Sanrly Hook. Drawn by Ander- 
son ; engraved by Tiebout. 
\'ie\v of Hell-Gate (missing). 
\ie\v of the Town of St. I'eter and St. Paul in the Bay of 

Awatchka. Engraved by Tiebout (half plate missing). 
Mt. Aetna in Eruption (1669). Engraved by Tiebout. 
Map of New Discoveries from Lake Superior to Cook's 
River (missing). 
Discontinued Dec. 1797. 

The Philadelphia Monthly Magazine, or, LTniversal Repository of 
Knowledge and Entertainment: Consisting of Original 
Pieces, and Selections from Performances of Merit Foreign 



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CHECK LIST OF MAGAZINES 39 

and Domestic. Calculated to disseminate useful knowledge 
among all ranks of ])eople, at a small expense. EmI ellished 
with Elegant Engravings, est Jan. 1798. 
Philadelphia : Printed for Thomas Condie, Stationer, No. 20, 
Carter's Alley. 
BCHS has: \' 

1798 July-Se])t. 
Probably discontinued at the end of the }ear 1798. 
Note: In the three numbers of this scarce magazine in the BCHS 
Library, much space is devoted to the yellow fever 
scourge. .Soon after they appeared, the fever articles 
were printed in pamphlet form under the title "History 
of the Pestilence Commonly Called Yellow Fever, which 
almost Desolated Philadelphia in the months of August, 
September and October. 1798. B}- Thomas Condie and 
Richard Folwell." A C(»p\- is bound in with the BCHS 
magazine volume. The fever articles ])rovoked much 
comment and elicited letters from the city's leading phy- 
sicians and others. September number contains a plate, 
"A'iew in Easton upon Delaware", engraved from a draw- 
ing by 1. Hoffman, with descriptive text. This may be 
the earliest picture of Easton extant. 

The Analectic Magazine, monthlv lMt9-l,s2() : weekK 1S21. e.st 
Jan. 1, 1809. 
Philadelphia: Published bv Enos Bronsun and John F. Wat- 
son, 1809-1812; Moses 'Thomas, Xo. r)2 Cliestnut-Street, 
1813-June 1819; James Maxwe'l, July 1819-1821. 

Title varies: Select Reviews and Spirit of Foreign .Magazines, 
1809-July 1811; Select Reviews of Literature, and Spirit 
of b^jreign Magazines, Aug. 1811-Tan. 1813; The Analec- 
tic Magazine. Feb. 1813-1821. 

Editors: Samuel Ewing, 1809-1812; Washington Irving. 1813- 
1815; Thomas L Wharton, subsequently the distinguished 
editor of law books. 

BCHS has: V 

1814 Tulv-Dec. 

1815 Aug. 
1819 July-Dec. 

Discontinued Dec. 29, 1821. 

Note: Strictly speaking. The Analectic Magazine began its career 
in 1813. Moses Thomas. Philadel]ihia bookseller and 
publisher, purchased Select Reviews, a monthly period- 
ical, from John F. Watson in 1812. started a new series 
in January, 1813, and changed the name in February to 
The Analectic ^Magazine, with a long sub-title, which sub- 
title was also changed two or three times. Lnder Thomas" 



40 CHECK LIST OF AIAGAZINKS 

direction The Analectic took front rank among American 
periodicals. Special attention was given to naval and 
arm\ affairs. Among its biographies of military heroes 
(probably written by Washington Irving) is that of 
General Zebnlon M. P'ike, sometime resident, if not a 
native, of Lumberton, Ikicks County, Pa. The biograph- 
ical sketch is illustrated by a well-executed stipple por- 
trait of the General, by Gimbrede. November number, 
1814, contains the first magazine or book printing of 
"The Star Spangled Banner", by Francis Scott Key, un- 
der its original title, "Defence of Fort McHenry." July 
number, 1819, publishes the results of the first experi- 
ments with lithography in America, illustrated with a 
design made by Bass Otis on a stone brought from 
Munich and now in possession of the -Vmerican Philo- 
sophical Society. 

The London Ouarterlv Review. (American Edition). English ed. 
est 18(5?). 
New York; Published by Leonard Scott & Co., 79 Fulton 
Street, corner of Gold. 

BCHS has: \' 

1852 Jan.-Oct. ( W.. NC. Nos. CLXXIX-CLXXXTL) 

Note: This was one of several London and Edinburgh reviews 
republished verbatim in the United States. Leonard 
Scott & Co., of New York, were pioneers in this field. 
It is said that in 1865 as many as eight such periodicals 
were reprinted here. It was profitable business, as the 
reprints were widely read. At first the American pub- 
lishers pirated them, then the British publishers invoked 
the copyright law, forcing the printers here to buy ad- 
vance sheets from them. The number of American edi- 
tions then declined. "As it ( Edinburgh Review, est Oct. 
1802 ) was devoted to the support of Whig politics, the 
Tory or ministerial party of the day soon felt the need 
for a similar organ of opinion on their side, and this led 
to the establishment of the Quarterly Review in 1809. 
The Quarterly has ever since kept abreast with its north- 
ern rival in point of ability, and is said to have out- 
stripped it in circulation." ( Chambers' Cyclopaedia of 
English Literature, Third edition, \'ol. II, p. 412). 

The North American Review, bi-monthly. May 1815-Sept. 1818 ; 
quarterlv, Dec. 1818-Oct. 1876; bi-monthly, Jan. 1877- 
Dec. 1878; monthly, Jan. 1879-Aug. 1896; fortnightly. 
Sept. 7, 1906-.Aug. 16, 1907: monthly, Sept. 1907-June 
1924; quarterlv, Sept. 1924-June 1927; monthly, Sept. 
1927-Mar. 1935 ; quarterly, June 1935- est May 1815. 



CHECK LIST OF MAGAZINES 41 

Boston: Wells & Lillv. 1815-1816: Cummings & HilHard, 
1817-1820; Oliver F:verett. 1821-1824 ; Frederick T. Gray, 
1825-1828: Gray & Bowen, 1828-1831: Charles Bowen, 
1832-1836: Otis'. Broaders cS: Co., 1837-1838; Ferdinand 
Andrews, 1838-1840; James Munroe & Co., 1840-1841; 
David H. Williams, 1842; Otis, Broaders & Co., 1843- 
1847 : Little & Brown, 1848-1852 ; Crosby, Nichols & Co., 
1853-1863; Ticknor & Fields. 1864-1867; Fields, Osgood & 
Co.. 1868-1869; James R. Osgood & Co.. 1870-1877; New 
York: D. Appleton & Company. 1878-1880: A. T. Rice, 
1881-1889; Lloyd Brice, 1889-1894; North American Re- 
view Publishing Company, 1895-1915; North American Re- 
view Corporation. 1915- 
Title varies : The North American Review and Miscellaneous 
Journal, 1815-1821; The North American Review, 1821- 
Editors : William Tudor, May 1815-Apr. 1817 ; Tared Sparks, 
May 1817-Mar. 1818; Edward T. Channing, May 1818- 
C:>ct. 1819 : Edward Everett, Jan. 1820-1823 ; Jared Sparks, 
Ian. 1824-Apr. 1830; Alexander H. Everett. Julv 1830- 
bct. 1835; Tohn G. Palfrev. Ian. 1836-Tan. 1842 :'Francis 
Bowen, 1843-1853 ; Andrew P. Peabodv. 1853-1863 ; James 
Russell Lowell, 1863-1872 ; Henry Adams, 1872-1876 ; Al- 
len Thorndike Rice. 1877-1889; David A. Munro. 1896- 
1899; George B. M. Harvev. 1899-1926; Walter Butler 
Mahony, 1926-1935: John H. G. Pell, 1935- 
BCHS has: N 
1885 Oct. 
In progress. 

Note: In Dec. 1814 William Tudor wrote the prospectus for 
The North American Review, the first number of which 
appeared in May, 1815. under his editorial supervision. 
(See Cyclopaedia of American Literature. Duyckink, 
1856, Vol. II, p. 269). For a century and a quarter this 
periodical has been pre-eminent among American re- 
views. 

The New Monthly and Literary Journal, est Jan. 1821. 

Philadelphia :' Republished by E. Littell ; New ^■ork : R. Nor- 
ris Henry. 
BCHS has: \' ' 

1821 July-Dec 
Note: Not much appears to be known al)()Ut this magazine, nor 
how long it was published. 'J^ie word "Republished", 
preceding the publishers' names, is mystifying. The New 
Monthly and Literary Journal may have been Littell's 
and Henry's first venture in the periodical field. Be- 
neath its first-page title is carrie(l in ornate type the 



42 CHECK LIST OF MAGAZINES 

words "ORIGINAL PAPERS." The published papers 
bear the mark of originahty, no articles are credited to 
other journals, and most of the prose pieces and poetry 
are signed by either initials or a non-de-plume, like 
"Thomas Crotchet" to a dissertation on "Music of Poli- 
tics."' There are also rather clever attempts at humor, 
vide "Specimen of a Prospective Newspaper. The North 
American Luminary, 1st July, 4796." The historians of 
Christmas customs might find much of interest in the 
1821 view of "Christmas Keeping." Few of such orig- 
inal features apjiear in Littell's and Henry's later and 
far-better known periodical effort, the Eclectic Magazine, 
made up almost entirely of scissored foreign reviews. 

The Eclectic Magazine of h^oreisrn Literature, month! v. est July 
1822. 

Philadelphia : Published by E. Littell, No. 88 Chestnut Street, 
1822-1835; E. Littell & Co., 1836-1842; New York and 
r^hiladelphia : E. Littell. 1843 ; Leavitt, Trow & Company, 
1844-1846; New York: W. FL Bidwell. 1846-1868; E. R. 
Pelton, 1869-1898; Boston: The Living .\ge Company, 
1899-1905; Henry D. Noyes & Company, 1905; New York: 
Eclectic Magazine I'rinting and Publishing Company, 1905- 
1907. 
Title varies : Museum of Foreign Literature and Science, 1822- 
1835; Museum of Foreign Literature, Science and Art, 
1835-1842; American Eclectic and Museum of Literature, 
."Science, and Art, 1843 ; The Eclectic Magazine of Foreign 
Literature, Science and Art. 1844-1898 ; The Eclectic Maga- 
zine and Monthly Edition of The Living Age, 1899-1900; 
The Eclectic ?^lagazine of Foreign Literature. 1901-1907. 
Museum series : 

First Series. 1822-1835. 

Second Series, 1835-1842. 

Cnited Series. 1843. 
Alagazine ^eries : 

First Series. 1844-1864. 

New Series, 1865-1898. 

Third Series, 1899-1905. 

Fourth Series. 1906-1907. 
Editors; Robert Walsh. 1822; Eliakim Littell and Squier Littell. 
1823-1842; John Holmes Agnew, 1843-1846; Walter Hil- 
liard Bidwell, 1846-1881; not known, 1882-1907. 
BCHS has: \' 

1824 I'ndatefl number. 

1837 Jan. -Dec. 

1838 'luly-Dec. 

1839 lan.-Dec. 




m 



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m 



- 'tr '. 

I'l IU-1MII.I) IVT 



THK MUSEITM (1S2 1) 
Engraved Title Page by Maverick after a Diawin.u by Faiiman. Tlie Top 
of the Engraved Page is by Maverick after tlie Paintin?: by Sully. 



44 CHECK LIST OF MAGAZINES 

1840 Tan.-Dec. 
1843 jan.-Dec. 

Duplicates : 
1839 Jan.-Apr.. Sept.-Dec. 

Discontinued June 1007. 

Note: "Eliakim Littell, editor, b. in llurlington, N. J-. Jan. 2, 

3798 ; d. in fjrookline,Mass., May 17, 1870 removed 

to Philadelphia in 1819, and established a weekly literary 
paper entitled the 'National Recorder", whose name he 
changed in 1821 to the 'Saturday Magazine'. In July, 
1822, he again changed it to a monthly called the 'Museum 
of Foreign Literature and Science' After conduct- 
ing this with great success for nearly twenty-tw^o years, 
he removed to Boston, Mass., where in April, 1844, he. 
began 'Littell's Living Age', a weekly periodical." — 
Appleton's Cyclopaedia of American Biography (1888), 
Vol. IIJ, p. 737. Littell's Museum, under its various 
titles, printed a vast amount of foreign literature, and 
during its career of eighty-six years was published in 
three different cities. It was probably the most success- 
ful periodical in its own field. 

The New York Mirror, weekly, est Aug. 2, 1823. 

New York: Published by George P. Morris in the New 
Franklin Building, Corner of Nassau and Ann .Streets. 

Title and sub-title vary : The New York Mirror, and Ladies' Lit- 
erary Gazette, 1823-31; The New York Mirror. A Weekly 
Journal Devoted to L>iterature and the Fine Arts. 

Editors: Samuel Woodworth, 1823-1824; George P. Morris, 
Theodore S. Fay, Nathaniel P. Willis, John Inman, Charles 
Fenno Hoffman, Epes Sargent, 1828-1842. 

BCHS has; \' 

1832 Julv 7-Dec. 29. 

1833 Jan. 5-June 29. 

Note; Publication of The New York Mirror continued until the 
completion of the twentieth volume in 1842, when it was 
suspended, due to the financial disasters of that year. 
The last issue is dated December 21, 1842. The New 
Mirror, a weekly journal, was begun by Messrs. Morris 
and Willis April 8, 1843, and continued until September 
28, 1844. It was changed to a daily newspaper then and 
named The Evening Alirror, the first number dated Oct- 
ober 7, 1844. 



^-'/,V Vv. A, 



\l,:>fhi 




WASHINGTON'S PLEUGK TO illS COUNTRY 
Ensraving by C. G. Cliilds after a Drawing by C. W. Clay in Tlie Ann rican 
Monthly Magazine for April, 1824. This engraving lirst appeared in Volume I 
of the Novel, "The Wilderness", published by J. Palmer, 1S24. 



46 CHECK LIST OF MAGAZINES 

The American Monthl)- Magazine, est Jan. T8'24. 

Philaclel])hia : Published by Job Pahner. 
Editor: Dr. James McIIenry. 
BCHS has: 

1824 Apr., Xov. 
Discontinued Dec. 1824. 

Note: Dr. James ]\lcflenry, e(htor of this notable but short-lived 
magazine, author, critic and playwright, was born in 
County Antrim, Ireland. December 20, 1785. After com- 
pleting medical study in Dublin and Glasgow Colleges he 
came to America in 1817, spending a short time in Haiti- 
more and Pittsburgh and then settling in Philadelphia, 
where his home became the centre for men of letters. He 
wrote historical tales, ]ilays anrl poetry. ( )ne of his 
plays, "The l^surper, an Historical Tragedy, in Five 
Acts," had a long run to crowded houses at the Cdiestnut 
Street Theatre, Philadelphia, in 1829. The April num- 
ber of The American Monthly ^Magazine in the liCHS 
collection has an engraving by C. S. Childs. after a draw- 
ing by C. \\\ Clay, showing the famous scene between 
Governor Dinwiddie. when Washington made his oft- 
Cjuoted declaration, "Tomorrow — today — this hour — and 
at all hours — I am at the service of my country." The 
engraving illustrates "The Wilderness, or Braddock's 
Times, a Tale of the West," one of Dr. Henry's historical 
novels. Dr. Henry was a personal friend of Andrew 
Jackson, which fact did not prevent his writing a laud- 
ator\- biographical sketch of Henry Clay, f^ate in life 
he returned to his native County Antrim, where he died, 
July 21, 184."). 

The ( larland, or Xew General Repository of b^igitive Poetry, 
monthly, est |une 1825. 
Auburn, X.Y.: T. M. Skinner. 
Editor : G. A. 'Gamage. 
BCHS has: \' 

1825 June. 

Note: This is jiroliaM}- a forgotten i)eri<td.ical. How long it was 
published is not known. A copy of the first issue in the 
BCHS Library has 16 pp, 4>4 x 8^4 in.; contents, all 
poetry, except a super-flowery prospectus. The p(>ems 
number thirty-nine, and nine are dignified by editorial 
comment. The title page, engraved with many flourishes 
by V. Balch & S. Stiles. ITtica, is shown in the accom- 
panying illustration. 



i>A:EXA:sra^ 









///... y../.u 



K K L K r T K I) 
BIT G.A.GAMAOK. 




^^..,,// y/M.,/,y ,,.,^,,//^ /^ 



TITLE I'AGE OF THE G-XRl.A.XL) 
Publislied by T. M. Skinner at Albany, N. Y., 1825 ; Engraved bv V Balch 
and S. Stiles, Utica, N. Y. Engraved Title Pasres similar to this' one were 
popular with the Earlier Nineteenth Cfntur>- Porindical Ptiblishers. 



48 



CHECK LIST OP MAGAZINES 



The Casket, and Philadelphia Monthly Magazine, monthly. (See 
Graham's Magazine), est Jan. 1826. 
Philadelphia : Pnblished by Atkinson & Alexander, at the 
office of the Saturday Evening Post, 1826-1827 ; Samuel 
C. Atkinson, 1828-Apr. 1839; George R. Graham. 1839- 
1840. 

Title varies : The Casket, or, P'^lowers of Literature. Wit Ct Senti- 
ment. 1826-1838; The Casket, and Philadelphia Monthly 
Magazine, 1839-1840. 

Editors: Samuel C. Atkinson. 1826-1839; (leorge R. Graham and 
Charles T. Peterson. 1839-1840. 

BCHS has; \' " 

1826 Feb., julv. Nov. 

1827 Apr., Oct. 



OR, TisOWniLs or 



^^^ 



LITEHATURE, WIT & SrNTIl«ENT. 



PHILADEU'HI.K-IKRUU.MIY, 1826. 



No. 2. 



THE OrrspHINc OF A PiLGIlTM 



tni'sl liim, to believe all comipt mther than 
;)l:ice confidence in tlu ir virtue, and to be 
. an-ful, above all, ho*- he should admit any 
to tr.s frifndsliin. 



FIRST-PAGE TITLE OP THE CASKET 
Tliis Periodical was the Forerunner of Graham's Mags 
the first American Magazines to print Fasliion Plates. 



ine and one of 



Note: The Casket carried a verse of poetry beneath its first-page 
title, changed each issue, like the following : 
"A moving picture of the ])assing day; 
Look at the tint, then turn improved away." 
Though small and unattractive in appearance. The C"asket 
had by far the best patronage of any magazine of its 
period. Its founders, Samuel C. Atkinson and Charles 
x\lexander, were also founders and proprietors of The 
Saturday Evening Post. In 1839 George R. Graham, 
who had just been admitted to the bar and whose contri- 
butions to the press had attracted favorable notice, ac- 
cepted an invitation to fill the editorial chair of the Post. 
In May, 1840, he purchased The Casket. In November 
following he bought Burton's Gentleman's Magazine. 
After publishing both magazines through 1840, he merged 
them with Graham's ^Magazine, which he established Jan- 
uary, 1841. 



CHECK LIST OF MAGAZINES 49 

Graham's Mag^azine. ( See The Casket), monthly, est Jan. 1841. 
Philadelphia : George R. Graham, southwest corner Third 
and Chestnut Streets, 1841-1848: Samuel D. Patterson & 
Co., 98 Chestnut Street, 1848-1850; George R. Graham, 
1850-1853: R. H. See & Co., 3854-1856; Watson & Com- 
pany, 1856-1858. 

Title varies: Graham's Latly s and (Gentleman's Magazine (The 
Casket and Gentleman's United), 1841-3844; Graham's 
Magazine of Literature and Art. 1844-1848; Graham's 
American Monthly Magazine of Literature and Art. 1848- 
1856 ; Graham's Illustrated Magazine of Literature. Ro- 
mance. Art. and Fashion, 1856-1858. (These are volume 
titles ; first-page and engraved page title was simply Gra- 
ham's ^Magazine ) . 

Editors: George R. Graham, Charles J. Peterson, Edgar Allen 
Poe. Mrs. Emma C. Embury. Mrs. Ann S. Stephens, Rufus 
W. Griswold, Robert T. Conard. J. R. Chandler, J. Bayard 
Taylor. Charles Godfrey Leland. ( Graham was usually one 
of a triumvirate of editors while he was connected with 
the magazine). 

BCHS has: 

1849 lan.-Dec, V 

1853 lan.-Dec. V 

1854 Jan. X 

1856 Jan.. Feb.. Apr.-Aug.. ( )ct., Dec. X 

Discontinued Dec. 1858. 

Note: The founding of Graham's interlocks with The Casket, 
but it was thought best for various reasons to list them 
separately here. George R. Graham at the close of 1840 
owned The Casket and Burton's (ientleman's Aiagazine. 
In January, 1841, he merged them into Graham's. At 
the age of tw^enty-six, with vision, courage and exper- 
ience. Graham, profiting by the mistakes of numerous 
predecessors, started his enterprise with confidence in its 
success. He gave the people the kind of a magazine 
they wanted, less ponderous and more vivacious than its 
forerunners, and he kept it in touch with po])ular taste. 
In its zenith it was reputed the most widely circulated 
of all American periodicals. The colored Paris fashion 
plates were alluring, the cream of American authors 
sought to write its stories, and engraver John Sartain was 
doing his best magazine work for it. ( iraham became 
the publisher sensation of the day, the most noted, the 
wealthiest. Then in 1846 he made his unfortunate blun- 
der of entering the newspaper field. Disaster soon over- 
t(K)k his magazine, he was obHged to sell it in 1-^48. two 
years later regaining control of it, but too late uj revive 



"A XEW YEARS (ilFT 



wall i!ii>fe [lafes ol ih'-itt- .iri;:ai:il ruad:: 
mure rcia- ali<l ••le^'.iiit i. !:;LfuivF:iiRii!s, 'Ji,. 



72 PAOBb AKTD SIX EWIBEULISKMENTS. 







GRAHAM'S 
Cover Title Page for January, 1S42, about the time tlie Magazine 
taking the lead among American periodicals. 



CHECK LIST OF MAGAZIXES 51 

its fortunes, and he drojiped out in 1853. 1 [is life is a 
striking example of the ups and downs of a magazine 
pubHsher of the last centnry. In 1887 he was a hopeless 
and almost friendless invalid in a New York hospital. 
The Philadelphia Times of March 17. that year, thns 
conclndes a story of his career: "Tjeorge R. Graham, 
the man wdio bought the Xorth American, was for many 
years the leading publisher of Philadelphia and who gave 
employment in their early days to men and women, who 
have become shining lights of American literature, is now 
a poor, infirm old man and but for the kindness of a 
philanthropic Philadelphian would be in the poorhouse." 

The Philadelphia Album and Ladies" Piterarv Port I-'olio. weeklv. 
est June 7. 1826. 
Philad'elphia : Published by Thomas C. Clarke, No. 27 Mar- 
ket Street, north side, five doors above Front Street, and 
Southwest Corner of Chestnut and Second Street : Printed 
and published by Jesper Harding. 74 ^S South Second Street 
and 36 Carter's Alley. 
Title varies : The Album and Ladies' Weekly Gazette ; The Phila- 
delphia Album and Ladies' Literary Portfolio. 
Editors: Thomas Cottrell Clark, Roljert ^Jorris. 
BCHS has: 

1829 lulv 1. 29. Aug. 19. X 
1831 Apr. 30-Dec. 31. \ 
1833 Ian. 5, 26. X 
Feb. 2-23. X 
Mar. 9. 16. X 
Apr. 6. 20. X 
Mav 25. X 
June 15. 22. X 
Duplicate : 
1831 Dec. 24. 
Discontinued Dec. 27. 1834. 

Note: This is one of the periodical treasures of the BCHS Li- 
brary. There are no known complete files. The Album 
was an eight-page, four column sheet. 10 x 13 inches, 
containing some scissored matter, considerable original 
contributions and occasionally a good engraving. The 
Ladies' Literary Port Folio, establishetl by Thomas C. 
Clarke. December 10. 1828. was consolidated with the 
Album about 1830. In the issue of March 14. 1831, is 
an interesting account of "A Novel Case", a suit at law 
before Judges Fox and Watts, at Doylestown, Pa., on 
the charge of "Eaves-Droi)ping. being the third indict- 
ment for a similar offence win'ch has ever occm-red in 
Pennsylvania '" 



52 CHECK LIST OF MAGAZINES 

The Philadelphia Monthly Magazine : Devoted to General Liter- 
ature and the Fine Arts, est Oct. 1827. 
Philadelphia : J. Dobson. Agent, 108 Chestnut Street. 

Editors: Isaac Clarkson Snowden. M.D., Oct. 1827-Tulv 1828; 
R. B. Evans. Sept. 1828-Sept. ( ? ) 1829. 

BCHS has: A' 

1827 Oct.-Dcc. 

1828 Jan.-Sept. 

Note: This magazine was started w'th the high purjiose of im- 
proving American taste for good literature and giving 
worthy writers a medium of expression. The last issue 
was probably September, 1829. Causes for its discon- 
tinuance are not clear, but the time may not have been 
ripe for a periodical of that character. It was well jtrint- 
ed by Mifilin & Parry. Dr. Snowden, its talented editor 
and proprietor, died of pidmonary consimiption, July 21, 
1828, just ten months after he launched the project. He 
was a native of Princeton, N. J., born December 21, 1791, 
and was probably a descendant of John Snowden (b. 
Philadelphia. 1685), an early landholder in Makefield 
Township, Bucks County, Pa. He was a student at the 
L'niversity of Pennsylvania, 1811 to 1814, and received 
the usual testimonials of scholastic and medical profi- 
ciency, but was not formally graduated, as the records 
of the University show no graduating class for 1814. 
After leaving the University he came to Bucks County 
to reside and recuperate his shattered health. While prac- 
ticing medicine here, he conceived in 1827 the idea of 
founding the magazine. In this work his health soon 
broke down completely. 

Godey's Magazine, monthly, est 1880. 

Philadelphia : Louis A. Godey & Company, Cor. .Sixth and 
Chestnut Streets, 1830-1877; Godey's Lady's Book Pub- 
lishing Company. 1877-1883 ; J. H. Haulenbeek and Com- 
pany, 1006 Chestnut Street, 1883-1886; William E. Striker, 
1886-1887 ; Croly Publishing Company, 1887-1888 : Godey 
Publishing Company. 1888-1892; New York: The Godey 
Company, 52 Lafayette Place, 1892-1898. 

Title varies : The Lady's Book, 1830-1839 ; Godey's Lady's Book 
and Ladies' American Magazine, 1840-1843; Godey's 
Magazine and Lady's Book, 1844-1848; Godey's Lady's 
Book, 1848-1854 ; Godev's Lady's Book and Magazine, 
1854-1883; Godey's Lady's Book, 1883-1892; Godey's 
Magazine, 1892-1898. 




■:^.jd^^^<^l-^ 



/'^-f^'ff'^"=^^iL y-^ 



(MM)EY'S MA(;AZINE ANI> LADY'S BOOK 
Covei- Title Page for May, 1S44. Godey's was a keen lival with Gialiam's 
for Fiist IMace in tlie American Magazine Field. 



54 CHECK LIST OF MAOAZINES 

Editors: Louis A. Godey, 1830-1836; Louis A. (lodev, Mrs. Sarah 
J. Hale, 1837-1838; Louis A. Godev, ^^Irs. Sarah J. Hale, 
Mrs. Lvdia H. Sigournev, 1839-1841; Louis A. Godey, 
Mrs. Sarah T- Hale. Mrs. L. H. Sigournev. Morton Mc- 
Michael. 1842; Louis A. Godev, Mrs^ Sarah f. Hale, Mor- 
ton McMichae], 1843-1846; Louis A. Godev, Mrs. Sarah 
J. Hale. 1846-1877; L G. L. P.rown, (diaries W. Frost, 
Mrs S. A. Shields, 1878-1881; J. Hannuni Jones, A. E. 
Brown, 1881-1883 ; T- H. Haulenbeek, Eleanor Moore Hies- 
tand, 1883-1886; Mrs. D. ( i. Grolv. 1887-1888; Albert H. 
Hardy. 1892-1893; Harrv Wakefield Bates. Harold Wil- 
kinson. 1894-1898. 

BCHS has: 

1874 Jan.-Dec. \' 

1875 Jan., Feb. V 

1896 Aug. ("the 793d consecutive monthly issue""). X 

Discontinued Aug 1898. 

Note; Sharf and \\estcott"s History of !'hilade".i>hia. \ol. IH. 
p. 1995, dubs Godey's "the oldest ])ublication of its class 
in America." It was a rival of (iraham"s and Peterson's 
Magazines, both success fu\ and in some respects re- 
sembled them closely. Hut (H)dey s had an individuality 
all its own. well expressed in its title "Lady's Book." 
Female talent and fashion ]vates dominate 1 its pages, 
though I'oe, \\'illis, .\rthur. .Morris and Simms were 
occasional contributors. Much of ( ioiley's success was 
due to Mrs. Sarah J. Hale's editorial ancl executive abil- 
itv. She was identified with the magazme for forty 
years. When Mr. Godey died in 1878. he is reputed to 
have left a fortune of a million dollars. Like Peterson's. 
Godey's boasted a circulation in its heyday of 150,000. 
Again, like Peterson's in its decadence, in 1892 it drifted 
into the New York magazine morgue, where finally Frank 
Munsey rescued it and merged it with his Puritan. Con- 
cluding a delightful chapter on (jodey's, Mott in his His- 
tory of American Magazines, \ol. L pp. 593. 594, says: 
"Thus Godey's disappeared, leaving reminders nowhere 
but on the attic shelves and in the most inaccessible cor- 
ners of our libraries. Yet there is much to be learned 
from its file. Here is a history of manners, a history 
of taste, a history of costume. Here is something of art, 
with some first editions of famous writers. Here are two 
portraits fully painted: those of Louis the Good, and 
Mrs. Sarah losepha Hale. Most interesting of all. per- 
haps, here is a measure by which we may observe the 
advancement of women in later years. It may be that 
some things have been lost along the road of that march 



CHECK LIST OF MAGAZINES 55 

that were worth keeping; if so, the old 'Lady's Book' is 
a guide to their rediscovery. At anv rate, the yellow 
pages have somewhat the charm of old lace, and the odor 
of lavendar alx)nt them." 

The Lady's Dollar Newspaper, semi-monthly, est 184S. 

Philadelphia: L. A. (lodey, 113 Chestnut Street. 
Editors: Fanny Linton, Grace Greenwood. 
BCTLS has: X 

1850 Jan. 1. 
Note: The Lady's Dollar Newspaper was offered as a premium 
by Louis A. Godey wath his Godey's Lafly's Book. The 
date of its discontinuance is not known. 

\\'aldie's Select Circulating Library, weekly, est Oct. 1. 1832. 
Philadelphia : Printed and Published by Adam W'aldie, No. 

6, North Eighth Street: No. 207 Chestnut Street: No. 46 

Carpenter Street. 
Editors: Adam W'aldie, lolm ]. Smith. 
BCHS has: \' " " 

1832 Oct. 1-1837 Dec. 26. 

Duplicates : 

1833 Inly 16-1834 fan. 7. \' 

1834 July 1-Dec. 23. \' 

1835 July 7-Dec. 27. \' 

Note: This publication was really more of a circulating library 
than magazine. Claiming to print "the best po]:)ular liter- 
ature", its pages were made up of novals, memoirs, 
biographies and travel stories pirated from British pub- 
lications. Extras were often issued, containing complete 
novels. They were circulated under the cheap newspaper 
postage rates until 1843, when a new postal order put 
them in the same standing with ])amphlets. Soon after- 
ward most of this class of magazines were discontinued. 

The [Mother's [Magazine, monthly, est Jan. 1833. 

New York: Published bv S. W'hittlesev, 150 Nassau-Street. 
1833-1844: Rev. D. Mead. 1844-1888^ 
Editors: Mrs. A. G. Whittelsev. 1833-1844: Mrs. \. G. Whittel- 
sev. Rev. D. Mead, 1844-1850; Rev. D. Mead. 1850-1888. 
BCHS has: X 
1835 June. 
Discontinued in 1888. 

The Philadelphia X'isiter. Devoted to Popular Literature. [Miscel- 
lany. \-c. monthly, est June 1835. 
Philadelphia: Published by A. Weikel, N. \\'. Corner of 
Coates and Second' Streets, up Stairs, Entrance on Coates 
St. (Probably the second publication site). 



56 



CFIECK LIST OF MAGAZINES 



BCHS has: \' 

1835 T"ly ( fragment )-Dec. 

1836 Tan.-June. 

Note: This magazine has ])retty much all of the defects apparent 
in early efforts to develop popular periodicals. Both short 
stories and serials, mostly anonymous, have prominent 
places. TJttle information about The Visiter is avail- 
able. The Philadelphia \'isiter and Parlour Companion 
"came into existence in March, 1837, edited by H. M. 
]\Ioore, and was published by W. B. Rogers at Xo. 49 
Chestnut Street." (See Historv of Philadelphia, by 
Scharf and Westcott, 1884, Vol. ill, p. 2011). Whether 
The Visiter was a predecessor of that magazine is con- 
jectural. The use of the word "\'isiter" in the title is 




IRISH COURTSHIP 
"Ensi-aved Expressly for Graham's Magazine" by G. J. Anderton ; an 
unusually fine example of American Stipple Ensravint^ daring the period of 
about 1S35-18.55. 



not incorrect, but it is interesting. In the second edition 
of Lingua Britannica Reformata : or, A New Universal 
English Dictionary, by Benj. Martin, London, 1754, the 
words "visiter" and "visitor" are given different mean- 
ings, namely : Visiter, "one that goes a visiting, or seeing 
his neighbours ;" visitor, "one that visits a monastery or 



CHECK LIST OF MAGAZINES 57 

religious house." This distinction no doubt persisted into 
the nineteenth century. Early editions of Webster give 
practically the same two definitions for the word "visitor" 
and state in parenthesis (written also visiter"). 

Human Rights, monthly, est July 1835. 

New York: Published by the Am. A. S. Society. 143 Nassau 
Street. 
Editor: R. G. Williams. 
P.CHS has: N 
1837 Dec. 
Note: Nothing is known about the fate of this periodical, but it 
probably did not long survive after 1837. 

The Ladies' Garland and Dollar Magazine, irregular at first, then 
monthly, est April 15, 1837. 
Philadelphia: Published bv John Libby, 1837-1838: pub- 
lished and printed by J. VanCourt, 1839-1846; Samuel D. 
Patterson. 1847-1849. 
Title varies: The Ladies' Garland, and Family Magazine: The 

Ladies" Garland and Dollar Magazine. 
Editor : Samuel D. Patterson, 
BCHS has: V 

1846 July ( incomplete VDec. 
Discontinued June. 1849. 

Note: The Garland would not fit into the periodical fashions of 
today. Tt was a hotchpotch of silly stories, poorly colored 
flower and bird prints, some passable engravings and 
music. Put it was sufficient unto its own generation — 
no doubt a welcome visitor to many parlors a century 
ago. Tt still has much of interest to the delver into by- 
gones. Sometimes local color will be found, as in the 
engraved plate of "\Mlkes-Parre". with its story of the 
"X'^ale of Wyoming", in the September number for 1847. 

The United States Democratic Review, monthh-, weeklv and quar- 
terly, est Oct. 1837. 
\Vashington, D. C. : Published by Langtree and O'Sullivan, 
1837-1839: S. D. Langtree, 1840; New York: J. 8.^ H. G. 
Langlev and eleven other publishers, 1841-1859. 

Title varies: Tlie Lnite.l States Xlagazinc and Democratic Re- 
view, 1837-1851; The Democratic Review, ]852; The 
United States Review. 1853-1855; Tlie I'nited States Demo- 
cratic Review, 1856-1859. 

Editors: S. D. Langtree and James (VSullivan. 1837-1846; 
Thomas P. Kettell and several others. 1846-1859. 



58 CHECK LIST OF MAGAZINES 

BCHS has: V 

1838 Sept.-Dec. 

Discontinued Oct. 1859. 

Note : This periodical is best known by its first title. The United 
States Magazine and Democratic Review. Under the 
editorial management of Langtree and O' Sullivan it 
wielded great political influence. Its literary features 
were of the highest class, this being true almost to the 
end of its career. For the first ten years of its existence 
it has been described by one writer as the most brilliant 
magazine of that day. Nathaniel Hawthorne was a 
frequent contributor. James K. Paulding. William G. 
Simms and Walt Whitman are represented in its pages. 
W'hittier and Bryant supplied poems. One of its illus- 
trators was Felix O. C. Darley. The Democratic Re- 
view's series of portraits have much value, even today. 

The Literary Messenger, monthly, est June 1840. 
Pittsburgh: Printed by Alex. Ingram, Jr. 

Editor: Alex. AFIlwaine. 

BCHS has: V 

1840 June-Dec. 

1841 jan.-May. 

Carrier's Address of The Literary jMessenger. Pitts- 
burgh, January 1, 1841. 

Note: Collected and preserved in bound form l)y I. Heron Fos- 
ter, founder in 1846 of the Pittsburgh Dispatch, 

Littell's Select Reviews, monthly, est Tulv 1840. 

Philadelphia: E. Littell & Co.. 297 Chestnut St. 

BCHS has: V 

1840 July-Dec. 

Note: The reason for the creation of this periodical is explained 
by a notation on the title page: "It is the more solid part 
of the Museum of Foreign Literature." How long it 
was published is not known, but it was probably discon- 
tinued when Eliakim Littell sold the Museum in January, 
1844. 

The TVterson Magazine of Illustrated Literature, monthly, est 
Ian. 1842. 
Philadelphia: Charles J. Peterson, 306 Chestnut Street, 1842- 
1856: T. B. Peterson & Brothers, 1856-1887; Peterson 
Magazine Company. 1888-1893: Philadelphia and New 
York: Penfield Publishing Company, 1894-1895; New 
York: Peterson Company, 1895-1898. 



60 CHECK LIST OF MAGAZINES 

Editors : Charles J. Peterson, Mrs. Ann S. Stephens, 1842-1853 ; 
Charles T- Peterson, 1854-1887 ; INIrs. Charles J. Peterson, 
1887-1892; Frank Lee Benedict, ] 892-1893; Roderic Camp- 
bell. 1894-1898. 



BCHS ha 


s ■ 










1851 


Jan- 


-1853 


Dec. 


\' 




1857 


Feb. 


. Mar 


., Ma^ 


r-Tuly, Sept., Nov., Dec. X 


1858 


Feb. 


-Sept. 


, Nov: 


, Dec 


:. X 


1859 


Feb. 


-Dec. 


X 






1860 


Jan.. 


-July, 


Sept.- 


-Dec. 


X 


1861 


Jan.- 


■Dec. 


V 






1862 


lan.- 


-Dec. 


V 






1863 


Feb. 


-Dec. 


X 






1864 


Jan.- 


-Apr., 


June- 


Dec. 


X 


1865 


Jan.- 


-Sept. 


. Nov. 


, Dec 


. X 


1866 


Jan.- 


-Dec. 


X 






1867 


Jan. 


, Feb. 


. Apr. 


-Dec. 


X 


1868 


Feb. 


, Apr 


.-Aug. 


, Oct. 


-Dec. X 


1869 


Jan. 


-Nov. 


X 






1870 


Jan. 


-Dec. 


X 






1871 


[an. 


-May, 


Tulv- 


Dec. 


X 


1872 


'lan. 


-Nov. 


X 






3 873 


Tan. 


-Mar. 


, ^lay 


-Dec. 


X 


1885 


Apr 


. X 










D 


nplicates : 






1861 


Jan. 


, Feb. 


, (part), May, June, Aug., Oct., ^ 


1865 


Jan. 


, Mar 


., Nov. 




1866 


Feb 


. (4). 








1869 


Inlv 











1872 Ian., Apr., jnlv, Sept. 

1873 Mar.. May." June- Aug. (2), Sept. (2). Oct. (2), Nov. 

(2). Dec. (2). 
3885 Apr. 

Discontinued Apr. 1898. 

Note: Peterson's Magazine was started by Charles J. Peterson 
while he was associated with George R. Graham as 
editor of Graham's Magazine. The success of his 
magazine being apparent the first year, Mr. Peter- 
son, who besides being a publisher was also a successful 
author, severed all his other publishing interests and 
devoted his time almost exclusively to the magazine. 
Popular female writers were its contributors and fashion 
plates were specialized. In its most prosperous years the 
magazine claimed a circulation of 165,000. Mrs. Peter- 
son managed the periodical after her husband's death, 
1887, but about five years later sold it to other publish- 



:)F MAGAZINES 



61 



ers, who changed its character and moved it to New 
York, where it was bnljsecjnentl}' acquired by Frank 
Alunsey. who merged it with the Argosy. 

The North British Review. (American Edition!, quarterlv. est 

May 1844. 
New York: PnbHshed by Leonard Scott tS: Co., 79 Fulton 

Street, corner of ( lold Street. 
BCHS has: \' 

1853 Alav-Nov. 

1854 Feb. 

Note: The North British Review appeared in F(Hnburgh in 3 842 
and. ceased pubhcation in January, 1871. This is one of 
many British reviews pubHshed between 172.") and 1900 
in Great Britain — a type of magazine not numerous or 
very popular in America. They were, however, high- 
class critical joiirnals. often sponsored l\v noted writers 
or poets. 

The American Whig Review, monthly, est Jan. 1845. 

New York: Published bv Wilev and I'utnam. 1845: (jeorge 
H. Colton, 1845-1847 : D. W. I lollv. Xo. 114 Nassau Street, 
1848-1852. 
Title \'aries : The American Review: A Whig journal of Poli- 
tics, Literature, Art and Science. 1845-1847 ; The American 
Review: A Whig Journal, Devoted to Politics and Litera- 
ture, 1848-Apr. 1850: The American Whig Review. May 
1850-1852. 
Editors : ( leorge H. Colton. 1845-1847 ; James Davenport Whelp- 
lev, associate, Hon. Daniel D. Barnard. 1848-1849 ; Ceorge 
W. Peck, 1850-1852. 
BCHS has: X 
1848 Apr. 
Discontinued Dec. 1852. 

Note : The American Whig Review was established soon after 
the close of the exciting Polk-Clay Presidential campaign 
to offset the political influence of The Democratic Review. 
Chief among its political writers were Congressman Bar- 
nard, an associate editor ; John Ouincy Adams. Edward 
Everett, Daniel Webster and Horace (jreeley. Poe and 
Lowell, it is believed, were likewise contributors, but 
nianv i)oems and leading articles were anon}-mous, and 
authorshi]) is difficult to trace. 

Golden Rule, monthly, e^t 1845. 

Covington, K}. : John II. Pettii X: Co.. Printers. 
Editor: D. F. Newton. 



62 CHECK LIST OF MAGAZINES 

PiCHS has: X 
1848 Oct. 
Note: How long this ])eriodical continued is unknown to the 
com])iler of this List. 

The Anserican Onarterh- Register and Magazine, est May 1848. 
l'hiladeli)hia: E. C. & J. Biddle. No. 6, South Fiftli" Street, 
]848 ; I'uhhshed by tlie Proprietor, No. 520 Chestnut Street, 
W'iHiam !^. \'oung. Printer. Franklin Building, No. 50 
North Sixth Street. 1849 : New York : Published by the 
Proj^rietor (James Stryker). 1850-1851. 

Editor : James Stryker. 

BCHS has: X 

1848 Alay. 

1849 June. 
Discontinued in 1851. 

Note: Stryker's American Register, th(»ugh short-lived, was an 
important periodical. The numl;ers were bulky, com- 
prising some 300 pages each. The contents, mainly his- 
torical articles, documents, statistics and miscellany, have 
much value to the historian of today. The six volumes 
issued were hoarded for manv vears as treasuries of pub- 
lic information. 

Sartain's Magazine, monthly, est Jan. 184!). 

Philadeljihia : F'ublished' by John Sartain & Co. 
Editors: John Sartain, Mrs. Caroline M. Kirkland, i'rof. John S. 

Ilari. Dr. Reynell Coates. 
BCHS has: X 

1850 Aug.. Nov. 

Note: Sartain's Magazine succeeded the I'nion Magazine of 
Literature and Art. New York, in which Sartain bought 
a half interest and then transferred the pericidical to 
Philadelphia. Sartain's Alagazine was discontinued in 
1852 and merged with The National ^lagazine, Devoted 
to Literature. Art and Religion. New York. ( See Apple- 
ton's Cyclopaedia of American P)iography, 1888, Vol. V, 
]). 401. and Scharf and Westcott's Plistorv of Philadel- 
phia. 1884. \ol. 111. pij. 2020. 2021 ). 

Harper's Magazine, monthh . est June 1850. 

New York: Plarper & Brothers. Publishers, 82 Cliff Street: 
329-331 I'earl Street, Frankhn Square: 327-335 Pearl 
Street, l^^anklin Square. 

Title varies: Harper's New Alonthly Magazine. 1850-1899: Har- 
per's AFonthlv Magazine. 1899-1912: Harper's Magazine, 
1913- 



CHECK LIST OF MAC.AZIXES H3 

Editors: Henry J. Raymond. 1850-1856; Alfred H. Guernsey, 
3856-1869: Henry Miles Alden, 1869-]919; Thomas B 
Wells, 1919-1931: Lee Foster Hartman, 1931- 

BCHS has: N' 

1850 June-1922 May. 

Duplicates : 

1851 Oct. X 

1852 lune-Nov. V 

1853 June-Dec. \' 

1854 Jan.-Xov. \' 

1855 |une-.\ov. V 

1858 Mar. X. lune-Nov. V 

1861 Ian. X 

1865 Mar. X 

1869 Aug. X. Dec.-1870 Alay. V 

1870 [an.. May X. |une-Xov. V 

1870 bec.-187i May. \' 

1871 lune-Nov. \' 

1871 bec.-1872 May \ . Mar. X 

1872 June-Xov. X'.'Oct. X 

1872 Dec.-1873 Mav \'. Mar. X 

1873 !une-Xov. V.'luly. X 

1873 beL-.-1874 May. V 

1874 ]une-Xov. V 

1874 ]3ec.-1875 May W Apr. X 

1875 ]une-Xov. \", lune. X 

1875 bec.-1876 Mav. V 

1876 June-Xov. \' '(2) 

1876 Dec.-1877 May. Y 

1877 June-Nov. V^ 

1877 bec.-1878 May. \" (2) 
18/8 lune-Xov. V 

1878 bee. -1879 May. V 

1879 lune-Xov. V 
1879 ]>ec.-1880 Mav. V 
1884 Mar. X 

I'^ragments : X 

1870 Oct. 

1871 Mav. Xov. 

1872 Dec. 
1874 Oct. 

1876 Feb.. Apr.- Tune, Aug;., Sept.. Xov., Dec. 

1877 iH'l)., N(.v. " 
1879 Mav-lulv, Sept. 
1882 Mav.' Nov., Dec. 
1884 July. 

1887 Jan., Xov. 
1903 Feb.-Apr. 



64 CHECK LIST OF MAGAZINES 

In progress. 

Note : Harper's Magazine has undergone many changes since it 
was founded ninety years ago ; but the summation of 
Harper's, pubhshed in 1866 by the Nation, namely: "^^'e 
may well consider it an index to the literary culture and 
general character of the nation," is true of the magazine 
throughout its long career. The most drastic change took 
place in September. 1925, when illustrations, upon which 
Harper's had largely builded its reputation, went into the 
discard and other revolutionary stei)s were taken to bring 
it into line with a changing world. 

Harper's Weekly: A Journal of Civilization, est Jan. 3, 1857. 
New York : Harper Brothers, Franklin Square, 1857-1913 ; 
McClure Publications. June 7, 1913-Aug. 28. 1915; Har- 
per's Weekly Corporation. Sept. 4, 1915-May 13, 1916. 

Editors: Wesle\' Harper, Theodore Sedgwick, John 1 Conner, 1857- 
1863; George William Curtis. 1863-1892; Carl Schurz. 
1892-1894; Henrv Loomis Nelson. 1894-1898; John Keti- 
drick Bangs, 1898-1901; George Harvev, 1901-1913; Nor- 
man Hapgood. 1913-1916. 

BCHS has: X 

1859 Nov. 26-1865 Dec. 30. 

1866 Tan., Feb. 20-Dec. 29. 

1867 Jan. 26. 
May 18. 
Tune 22. 
July 6. 
Aug. 24. 31. 
Sept. 28. 
Oct. 5. 
Dec. 21. 

1868 Tan. 18, 25. 
Feb. 1, 22, 29. 
Mar. 7-May 30. 
Tune 16. 

July 25. 

Aug. 15-C)ct. 17. 
Dec. 26. 
1870 Nov. 26. 

1874 Aug. 22. 

1875 Jan. 16-30. 
Feb. 6-27. 
Mar. 6-27. 
Apr. 3-24. 
May 1-29. 
June 12, 26. 
July 3. 10, 31. 



CHECK LIST OF MAGAZINES 65 



Aug. 7. 21, 28. 
Sept. 4-25. 
Oct. 2-30. 
Nov. 6, 20, 27. 
Dec. 4. 

1876 Sept. 2-30. 
Oct. 7-28. 
Nov. 4-25. 
Dec. 2-30. 

1877 Mar. 31. 
Apr. 28. 
Tune 9. 
Tulv 28. 
Aug. 11. 
Sept. 8, 15. 22. 
Oct. 6. 

Nov. 10, 24. 
Dec 1, 22. 

1878 Jan. 12. 
Feb. 2. 
Mar. 9. 

1891 June 6, 13, 27. 

July 18, 25. 

Aug. 15. 29. 

Sept. 5. 
3892 Jan. 9, 23. 30. 

Feb. 6-27. 

]\Iar. 5, 21 (fragment). 

Apr. 9. 

Mav 7. 

June 11-25. 

July 9. 

Aug. 27. 

Sept. 17. 

Oct. 1-15, 29. 

Nov. 12-26. 

Dec. 3, 10, 31. 
1893 Jan. 7-21. 

Feb. 11-25. 

Mar. 11-25. 

Apr. 1. 15-29. 

^tay 6-27. 

June 3-24. 

July 1, 8, 22, 29. 

Aug. 5, 19, 26. 

Sept. 2, 23. 

Oct. 7-21. 

Nov. ]l-25. 



66 CHECK LIST OF MAGAZINES 

Dec. 9, 16, 30. 

1894 Ian. 6. 
Feb. 3-24. 

Mar. 3, 10. 24, 31. 

Apr. 7-28. 

May 5-26. 

June 9-30. 

Uilv 7, 14, 21(2), 28. 

Aug. 4-25. 

Sept. 1-29. 

Oct. 6-27. 

Nov. 3-24. 

Dec. 1. 8, 22. 

1895 Jan. 5-26. 
Feb. 2-23. 
Mar. 2-16, 30. 
Apr. 13-27. 
May 4-25. 
June 1-15, 29. 
Uily 6-27. 
Aug. 3. 17-31. 
Sept. 7-28. 
Oct. 5, 12, 26. 
Nov. 2-30. 
Dec. 7, 

1896 Jan. 4-25. 
Feb. 1. 15-29. 
Mar. 21. 

Apr. 4, 11. 25. 
Mav 2, 9, 23, 30. 
fulv 18. 
Aug. ]. 8, 22. 
Sept. ]3. 
Oct. 3. 24, 31. 
Nov. 21, 28. 
Dec. 5-19. 

1897 Ian. 16. 
Feb. 27. 

Mar. 6, 13, 27. 

Apr. 3-24. 

Mav 8. 22. 

Tuly 24. 

Aug. 14. 

Sept. 11-25. 

Oct. 2. 16. 

Nov. 6 ( fragment). 

Dec. 18. 25.' 



CHECK LIST OF ^r AGAZI XES 67 

1898 Jan. 8. 
Feb. 5. 
189!) July 29. 

Aug. 5, 12, 26. 
Dec. 30. 
1901 Sept. 21 ( AIcKinley fuiu-ral nunil)er, in Pictorial Pub- 
lications portfolio ). 
Huplicates : 

1862 lune 14. 

1863 "Mar. U. 

also several fragments. 

Discontinued May 13, 1916. 

Note: Harper's Weekly was widely circulated and influential in 
])olitical and literary circles for man}- years. During tbe 
Civil War and for nearl\- a decade later its circulation 
ran from 100.000 to 160,000 weekly. Its period of great- 
est popularity was while under the editorial management 
of George William Curtis. It was not profitable during 
its last twenty-three years. "Henry Allen Mills was ac- 
customed to call it 'the fighting arm' of the House of 
Harper, and its great fights for Lincoln, for the people 
of New York against Tammany, for Grant, for Cleveland, 
for the gold standard, and for Wilson are the achieve- 
ments by which it deserves remembrance. Besides this, 
its records in text and picture of the events of sixty 
years make it a contemporaneous history of the highest 
value." ( See Mott's Historv of .American Magazine. 
\'ol. H. p. 487). 

Harper's I'.azaar. weeklv, 1867-Ai>r. li)01 : monthlv, Mav 1901- 

est Nov. 2, 1867. 

New York: Harper & Brothers, iM-anklin Square; 1867-1913; 

International Magazine Comj^any, 1913-1928: Harper's 

r.azaar. Inc., 1929-1936: Hearst Magazines, Inc., l!)36- 

Title varies: Harper's Bazaar: A Repository of Fashion. Pleasure 

and Instruction. 1867-1929; Harper's liazaar, 192!»- 
Editors: Marv L. Booth, 1867-1889: Margaret Sangster. 1889- 
1899: Elizabeth Jordan. 1900-1913; William Alartin John- 
son, 1913-1914: "Harford Powell. 1914-1916: John Chap- 
man Hilder. 1916-1920; Henrv P.. Sell, 1920-1926; Charles 
H. Towne. 1926-1929; Arthur H. Samuels, 1929-1934; 
( armel Snow, 1936- 
BCHS has: N 

1879 Apr. 26 (fragment) 
Alav 17-lulv 26. 
Aug. 16-()ct. 18. 
Nov. 1-Dec. 27. 



68 CTfECK LIST OF MAGAZINES 

1881 Tan. 1-Feb. 12. 

1892 Feb. 20. 
June 25. 

1893 Oct. 28. 

1894 Jan. 20. 
Feb. 3. 
July 7, 21. 
Sept. 22. 

1896 Jan. 4. 
Feb. 8, 22. 
Apr. 11. 
Nov. 7. 
Dec. 5. 

1897 Tan. 2. 9, 30. 
Feb. 27. 
Mar. 20. 
Apr. 3. 
Nov. 20. 

1398 Feb. 26. 
1899 Mar. 11, 25. 
Aug. 26. 
In progress. 

Note : Except for politics, the general contents of Harper's Bazaar 
bore a resemblance to those of Harper's Weekly. It was 
a magazine for women and devoted much space to 
fashions. Its illustrations, as a rule, were good. In re- 
cent years this periodical has been "modernized" without 
materially changing its character. 

Tlie Illustrated W^averlv Magazine and Literarv Repository, week- 
1}'. est July 6, 1850. ^ 
Boston : Published by Moses A. Dow. 
Editor : Moses A. Dow, 

BCHS has: V 

1854 July 1-Dec. 23. 

Discontinued in 1908. 

Note : Waverly and success went hand in hand from the start. 
From a venture launched on borrowed money, Dow is 
reported to have had yearly incomes as high as $60,000. 
The circulation varied from 20,000 to 50.000. Young 
writers were welcomed to its columns, taking their pay 
in gratification over seeing their contributions in print. 
The last page was always a full-page of music. Dow 
claimed for Waverly "the largest weekly ever printed in 
this countrv." 



CHECK LIST OF MAGAZINES 69 

Household Words. A Weekly Conducted bv Charles Dickens 
est 3850. 
New York: AEcElrath &- Barker, Publishers, \o 17 Spruce 
Street. 
Editor : Charles Dickens. 
BCHS has: \' 

3854 Vol. \'III. 
Discontinued in London 1859. 

Note: This apparently was an American reprint of the well- 
known English i)eri(Klical. How long this reprint was 
conducted here is unknown to tlie compiler of this List, 
but it probably continuefl as long as it was printed in 
England. Through a disagreemen't with his London pub- 
bshers, Dickens discontinued Household Words, which 
had been a marked success, and established another simi- 
lar literary magazine under the title of All the Year 
Round. ( See Chambers' Cyclopaedia of Englisli Liter- 
ature. \'ol. IL p. 52] ). 

Cleason's Pictorial Draw ing-Room Companion, weekly, est May 

3. 185L • ' - 

Boston. Mass. : IJublished every Saturday by F. (jleason, 

C'orner of Tremont and Brombcld Sts., 1851-1854- M M 

liallou, 1854-1859. 
Title varies: Gleason's Pictorial Drawing-Room Companion, 1851- 

1854: Ballou's Pictorial Drawing-Room Companion,' 1855- 

1859. 
Editor: Maturin .Murrav Ballou. 
BCHS has: \- 

1853 lulv 2-1 >ec. 24. 

1854 Jan. 7-july 1. 
Discontumed Xov. 1859. 

Note: .\lter making a fortune from I'ictorial. Frederick Gleason, 
the founder, sold it in November, 1854, to Maturin M. 
Pallou, his editor, and retired. Later he lost part of his 
money and the remainder vanished in his attempt to 
eslahlisli another ])erio(Hca!, Glea.son's Monthly Compan- 
ion. He is said to have died in poverty. 

Ballou's Pictorial Drawing-Room Compan.ion. (See Gleason's Pic- 
torial Drawing-Rooiu Companion), weekly, est May 3 
1851. 
I'oston: M. M. Ballou, Publisher, Corner of Tremont and 
Bromfield Streets. 

Title varies : Gleason's Pictorial Drawing-Room Companion, 1851- 
1854: J5all()u's Pictorial Drawing-Room Companion, 1855- 
1859. 



70 CHECK LIST OF MAGAZINES 

Editor: Matnrin Murray I'allou ; T^ancis A. Durivage. assistant 
editor. 

BCHS has: \' 

1855 June 9-Dec. 29. 

Discontinued in 1859. 

Note: When Jjallou lx)ught the Pictorial in 1854. it was Ijooming, 
witli a large subscription list. It was expensive to pro- 
duce, and later, becoming less profitable, he decided to 
discontinue it and devote his entire attention to his Dollar 
Magazine and other publications. The Pictorial under 
both Gleason and T'allou was noted for its historical 
engravings, which still contin.ue to elicit great interest. 

Ballou's Dollar Monthly Magazine, est 1855. 

Boston: Matnrin M. Ballon. Tremont and Bromfield Streets. 
1855-1859; Number 22 Winter Street, 1860-1872; Thomas 
& Talbot, 1872-1886: George W. Studley. 1886-1893. 
Editors; ^laturin M. I'.allou. 3855-1872: later editors not known. 
BCHS ha^: X 
1859 Apr. 
Discontinued in 1893. 

Note: This periodical was produced more chea]>ly than Ballou's 
Pictorial and financially was more successful. Ballon con- 
tinued to ])ublish it until 1872, when it passerl into other 
hands. The word "Dollar" was drojjped from the title 
in 1866. Sylvanus Cobb's stories ]M)]iularized this maga- 
zine. 

Arthur's New Home Magazine, monthlv. est Oct. 1852. 

Philadelphia: T. S. Arthur & Co.. 1907 Walnut Street, 1852- 
1869: T. S. Arthur & Son, 920 Walnut Street, and 227 
South Sixth Street, 1870-1891 : Arthur Publishing Com- 
pany, E. Stanley Hart, President. 1891-1894; Penfield Pub- 
lishing Company, 1894. 

Title varies: The Home ^lagazine. 1852-1853; Arthur'.s Home 
Magazine. 1854-1856; The Ladies' Home Magazine, 1857- 
1860; Arthur's Home Alagazine, 1861-1871; Arthur's 
Lady's Home Magazine, 1871-1873; Arthur's Illustrated 
Home Magazine, 1874-1879 ; Arthur's Llome Magazine, 
1880-1891 : Arthur's New Home Magazine. 1891-1898. 

Editors: Timothv Shav Arthur, X'irginia F. Townsenrl, 1852- 
1885; Joseph P. Reed, Emilv H.^Mav, 1891-1894; Roderick 
C. Penfield, Marion A. Prentice, 1894-1898. 

BCHS has: X 

1878 Feb., June. ♦ 

Discontinued Dec. 1898. 



CHECK LIST f)P^ MAGAZINES 71 

Note: T. S. Arthur, founder of Arthur's Home Magazine and 
its editor until near hi^ death, AJarch 6, 1885. was born 
in Newhurgh, N. V.. in 1809, moved wlien young with 
his parents to Baltimore, went West and then returned 
to Baltimore to become editor of Fhe Atlienaeum. He 
went to Philadelphia in 1841. He was the author of 
numerous domestic and temperance stories. The most 
successful was Ten Nights in a Barroom, which was 
dramatized. His magazine was designed mainly for 
women and young folks and at one period reached a cir- 
culatin f)f about 30,000. it copied the fashion features 
of its I'hiladelphia contemporaries. After Arthur's 
death, the magazine had a precarious career, suspending 
in Feb. 1896 and Jan. 1897 beff)re it final! v went out 
in 1898. 

Leslie's Illustrated \\'eekl\- Newsi)aper. weekh. est Dec. 15. 
1855. 
New York: Published by Frank Leslie. 19 Citv I lall S(|uare. 
537 Pearl Street, and Park Place. 1855-1879: 1. W. Fng- 
land. Assignee, 1880-1881; Mrs. Frank Leslie. 1881-1889; 
Judge Publishing Company. 1889-1892: W. 1. Arkell. 1892- 
1894; Arkell Weekly Comiianv. 1894-1898: Leslie- ludge 
Company, 1898-1922. 

Title yaries : Frank Leslie's Illustrated .\ewspaper. 1855-1891; 
Frank Leslie's Illustrated Weekh. 1891-1894; Leslie's Il- 
lustrated Weekly, 1894-1895; Leslie's ^^>ekly, 1895-1907; 
Leslie's Illustrated Weeklv. 1907-1912; Leslie's, the People's 
\\'eekly, Mar.-Nov.. 1912; Leslie's, 1912-1914; LesHe's Il- 
lustrated Weekly Newspaper, 1914-1922. 

Editors: Frank Leslie. 1855-1880 (managing editors. Henrv C. 
Watson. 1855-1861; Ephraim Squien 1^6