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Pioneer Log School House. 

The First Registry Office in Lennox and Addington, Millhaven. 













Pioneer Log- School House Frontispiece 

The First Registry Office in Lennox and Addington, 

Millhaven Frontispiece 

Chronology 4 

Publications of the Society 5 

Introduction The Bell and Laing- Papers by C. M. W.. 6 

The Bell and Laing School Papers 7 

Notes, by C. M. W 23 

Introduction An Early School Register by W. S. H... 28 

An Early School Register 29 

Notes, by W. S. H 58 

Index . . 62 


Society Organized May 9th, 1907 

Constitution Adopted June llth, 1907 

First Open Meeting held Oct. 25th, 1907 

Affiliated with the Ontario Historical 

Society March 31st, 1908 

Papers and Records Published : 

Volume I June 12th, 1909 

" H September 19th, 1910 

" III November 15th, 1911 

" IV lime 14th, 1912 


Honorary Presidents- 
Rev. Canon Jarvis 1907 to 1908 

John Gibbard, Esq 1907 

*James Daly, Esq 1908 to 1913 

Walter S. Herrington, K.C 1909 to - 


Clarance M. Warner 1907 to - 

Vice Presidents 

Mrs. Alexander W. Grange 1907 to - 


Ulysses J. Flach, Esq 1907 to 1913 

John W. Robinson, Esq 1913 to - 

Executive Committee 

Mrs. H. T. Forward 1907 to - 

Mr. Frederick Burrows 1907 to 1913 

Uriah Wilson, Ex-M.P 1907 to - 

Geo. D. Hawley, Ex-M.P.P 1907 to - 

Rev. Alexander Macdonald 1907 to 1913 

Raymond A. Leonard 1913 to - 

John W. Robinson 1913 to - 



Vol. I. Chronicles of Napanee, first published in 1873 
and 1874. The Origin of Some of Our Local Names, by ,W. 
S. Herrington, 1908. Yarker and Vicinity, by E. R. 
Checkley, 1908. Some Notes of Early Ecclesiastical His- 
tory, Bay of Quinte District, by Rev. Canon Jarvis, 1908. 
Some early Amusements of the County, by C. M. Warner, 
1908. The Village of Centreville, by J. S. Lochhead, 1908. 

Vol. II. Early Education, by Frederick Burrows, 1909. 
A Story of the Rear of Addington County, by Paul Stein, 
1910. John Thomson, Inventor of a Process for Making 
Wood Pulp, by C. M. Warner, 1909. Newburgh, by Geo. 
Anson A,yles worth, 1910. The First Telegraph Office in 
Napanee, by Mrs. John Perry Hawley, 1909. The following- 
copies of Original Documents in the Collection : In Mmor- 
iam, B. C. Davy, Esq., (1874) ; Assignment of a Slave, 
(1824) ; School Teacher's Contract, (1818) ; Proceedings of 
the Napanee Club Library, (1853) ; Programme of Proces- 
sion when Corner Stone of the Market Hall was laid, 
(1856) ; Montreal's Invitation to Celebrate the Completion 
of Grand Trunk Railway between Montreal and Toronto, 
(1856) ; Railway Pass to Attend the Above Celebration, 

Vol. III. The Casey Scrap Books. Introduction by W. 
S. Herrington, 1910. Concerning Mr. Thomas W. Casey, 
by A. Dingman. An Old Adolphustown Burying Ground, by 
T. W. Casey. Champlain, the Discoverer of Bay of Quinte 
and Lake Ontario, by T. W. Casey. Champlain in the Bay 
of Quinte District, by T. W. Casey. First Explorers and 
Discoverers of this Section, by T. W. Casey. This County 
a Century Ago, by T. W. Casey. Our County's First 
Surveys, by T. W. Casey. The Adolphustown U. E. L. 
Burying Ground, by T. W. Casey. In Old Time Graveyards, 
(from Toronto Sun, Aug-. 9th, 1899). The Old Time Dis- 
trict Councils, by T. W. Casey. 

Vol. IV. The Casey Scrap Books Part Two. Early 
Bay of Quinte Steam-boating, by T. W. Casey. Early 
Slavery in the Midland District, by T. W. Casey. Some 
Anti Rebellion Arrests, by T. W. Casey. Our First Repres- 
entatives in Parliament, by T. W. Casey. This County in 
the Sixties, by T. W. Casey. Amherst Island, by T. W. 
Casey. Newburgh, by T. W. Casey. 


Shortly before the death of Dr. William Canniff, 
whose valuable work, "The History of the Settle- 
ment of Upper Canada" was published in 1869, he 
presented to the Lennox and Addington Historical 
Society a portion of his collection of papers and 
documents. In that collection were found a few 
papers on the early schools in the Bay of Quinte 

References to these have been made in Dr. 
CannifT s own book ; Dr. Hodgins in Volume I. of 
the "Documentary History of Education in Upper 
Canada" has copied a few of them, and Mr. W. S. 
Herrington quotes from some of them in his "His- 
tory of Lennox and Addington". 

It has been deemed advisable to print exact 
copies of all of these papers in order to have them 
in convenient form for reference. The original 
spelling is given and a few explanatory notes are 

The Society hopes to publish, at an early date, 
a complete list of all papers secured from Dr. Can- 
niff. There are several hundred of these, most of 
which relate to the militia of the Bay of Quinte 
district during the years 1787 to 1833 inclusive. 

C. M. W. 
Napanee, March 1st, 1914. 



Mr. William Belli 
at the Head of the Bay of Quinte. 

Sir. I received your letter, respecting the Mohawk 
School. 2 I can give you no positive answer at 
present ; because I have agreed, conditionally, with 
a Schoolmaster at Montreal. That is, if he comes 
up he is to have the School. But three or four 
weeks are elapsed since he promised to give me a 
positive answer. I expect daily to hear from him ; 
altho I do not think it very likely that he will 
accept the Employment. 

Some time ago Mr. Ferguson^ mentioned you 
to me as a Person who would probably undertake 
that charge. I told Cap't. John* that if the person 
from Montreal disappointed me, I would talk with 
you on the subject. Therefore if you come to King- 
ston about the time you mention I will be able to 
give you a positive answer. 

The salary is 30 Sterling, with a house to live 
in and some other advantages which depend wholly 
on the pleasure of the Mohawks. But the teacher 
must be a man and not a woman however well 

I am 

Your very humble Serv't 

John Stuart. 5 

Sep't 26, 1796. 


Exchange for 15 Sterl.s 

Mohawk Village, Bay of Ouintie. 
July 5th, 1797 

Sir, At thirty days sight of this my first of 
Exchange (second and third of same tenor and date 
unpaid) please pay to Mr. Robert Macauley or 
order the sum of fifteen Pounds Sterling, being my 
half year's Salary, from the I5th Day of November 
1796 to the 1 5th day of May 1797 due from the 
Society, without further advice from 

To Calvert Clapham Esq Your humble Servant 

Treasurer William Bell 

To the Society (Schoolmaster to the Mohawks) 
for the Propogation 
of the Gospel in 
foreign Parts. 7 
Duke Street. 

Kingston, Aug. i8th, 1799 

Unless the Mohawks will send such a number 
(of) their Children to School as will justify me in 
continuing (a) Schoolmaster ; in Duty to myself, 
as acting for the Society (i) shall be under the dis- 
agreeable necessity of discontinuing the payment of 
your salary after the Expiration of (the) present 
year, which I believe will end next month. 8 - 

This information I think proper to give you r 
that you may govern yourself accordingly 
I am, 

Your very humble Servant 

Jno Stuart. 
Mr Bell. 

to the Mohawks. 

Bay of Ouinte. 


Kingston, March 16, 1800 

Sir, By a letter lately received from your place I 
am happy to hear that the school is now furnished 
with a dozen or more Scholars. And it is expected 
that you will be very strict in your Discipline and 
see that Prayers are read, night and morning, that 
the Children are taught the Lords Prayer, Creed, 
and ten Commandments, that the Children may 
not be sent Home, even if their Parents do not 
send wood at the stated times, that cattle may 
not be allowed to go into the School, but that it 
be kept clean, and the wood belonging to it, may 
not be used unless in school Hours. 

The opportunity for writing being unexpected I 
can only give you these short hints at present. 
However your own Discretion will point out to you 
that every reasonable method of giving satisfaction, 
and being useful, should be adopted. 

I am, Sir 

Your hum'l Servant 
Jno Stuart. 

Mr. William Bell 

Schoolmaster to 
the Mohawks. 

Mohawk Village. 

Mohawk Village, 3oth March, 1801. 
Rev'd Sir, 

I received a letter from you dated 27th Feb'y and 
also half a dozen Mohawk primers. 9 The primers I 
am at a loss how to dispose of as by giving them 
to any particular Children would affront others, 
and there is not enough for the whole children that 
I have reason to expect will come to school in the 
summer. I am sorry to inform vou that voiir 


letter did not reach me in time to see Mabie before 
he left your However I left word with Mr. 
Somes to tell him to come to me when he comes 
down. He moved to some place up the Bay the 
24th of Feb'y with all his cattle Etc. I had a 
letter ready wrote to inform you that he had left 
your land when I received yours, but I am told th'at 
he will be down as soon as the ice is out of the Bay 
to bring his fowls and shingles which he has been 
making on your land. I am told he has made a 
great many thousand shingles last winter for sale. 
He and a man who boarded at his house in partner- 
ship and injured the place very much by taking the 
best of the pine timber for that use. Now Sir in 
order to prevent such practices in future I think it 
would be necessary to put a stop to- his taking 
away what shingles he has made and the stuff 
which he has ready to make more of. He has 
cleared last season and sow'd some wheat which 
looks very well, which wheat if he should not pay 
you before harvest will pay you and a Great Dale 
to Spare. I have put off writing you thinking to 
see the man and let you know what he said with 
respect to paying you and when you might expect 

As there is a Great Dale of Repairs wanting to 
the fences, I have told Mr. Somes that he should 
have the use of the place for this year for the sum 
of 3-0-0 which sum he is satisfied to pay you. 
Mabie has about half the land that is cleared taken 
up with wheat and rye. I am 

Rev'd Sir your 
Most obed't 
& humble servant 

William Bell 

Mr. Somes promises to take care that no persons 
shall cut or take away any timber off the land Etc. 

The Rev'd John Stuart 


Kingston, Sep't. nth 1801 

I have waited with Patience to see whether 
(the) Mohawks would send their Children more 
regularly, but if the accounts I receive are true the 
money is (spent) to no purpose. I am told that 
there has not been a (days) School since last 
spring, and as I have never found (the) fault was 
on your side I cannot, in conscience, allow (the) 
Salary of the Society to be paid for nothing. 

Therefore unless Capn John and the Chief men 
of (the) village will promise that the school shall 
be furnished with at least six constant scholars I 
must dismiss you (from) their service. That is if 
you now have or are promised immediately six 
scholars the school may continue ; if not it must 
cease as soon as you receive this notification. 

I hope you will see the reasonableness of this 
determination of mine and you may show this let- 
ter (to) Capn John & the other Mohawks, by which 
they (will know) the continuance or discontinuance 
of the School (is) wholly on themselves. 
I am Sir 

Your Friend 

(John Stuart) 

Note. The signature has been torn from this 
letter, but it is in the Rev. Mr. Stuart's handwrit- 
ing, and was evidently sent by him to Mr. Bell. 

Kingston, Aug 26th, 1802 
Dear Sir, 

I have not yet received any letter from the 
Society ; But, for the reasons which I mentioned to 
you, I think it will be expedient to let the Mohawk 
School cease, at least, for some time. I therefore 
notify you, that after your present Quarter is ended 
you are not to expect a continuance of the Salary. 
I expect to see you at the Village, in the course of 
a few weeks. In the meantime I am 


Your very hum'l Servant 

Jno Stuart 
Mr. Wm. Bell. 


Quebec 2ist May 1795. 
My Dear Son 11 , 

I hope this will find you in health as we are at 
present thank God for it. On the 9th inst. your 
Father rec'd a letter from Mr. Betty. I understand 
by it you are well and I hope happy though I 
should have been more so to have had a letter from 
you by the same conveyance, as the December 
packet (by which I suppose you wrote) was taken. 
However we had pretty early intelligence through 
Mr. Lyrnburner of your being arrived in the Downs 
on the nth November. We have enjoyed a toler- 
able share of health. Although it has been a very 
sickly winter there has not been many deaths. 
Some few however have died with very short ill- 
ness. Mr. McKay (our neighbor) died early in the 
winter. Mr. Reid of the 6oth Reg't also of the 
brain fever. Mr. Colins went to bed very well and 
was found dead next morning. Mr. Webb is also 
dead. About a fortnight ago Mr. Willard (being 
crazy as they supposed) fired a gun into the print- 
ing office which unfortunately killed doctor Lajer's 
eldest son. He survived till next day and next 
morning when Hill told Mr. Willard he was dead 
he strangled himself. 

We lately rec'd a letter from Mr. Hayward who 
desires his best wishes to you. Mr. Warner desires 
likewise to be remembered to you. Mr. O. Ayhoin 

We have had very poor markets this long time. 
Everything very scarce and very dear. All the 
people that were in prison for treason are dismiss- 
ed. John Neilson is not returned nor do we hear 
anything about him. 

I hope you find London agreeable altho we have 
been told it has been very cold there. I fear you 
have suffered with your toes. I beg you will write 
me soon and let me know how Mr. and Mrs. Betty 
and your Aunt received you and how they behave 
to you since and how you like the people where you 
are. Tell me how you are situated and where you 
lodge. Tell me all the curiosities you have seen. 
Be sure fill you letter full. I make no doubt but 
you have heard all the Ministers that are worth 
hearing in London by this time. Though you live 


in a place full of snares and temptations yet the 
almighty is all sufficient to keep you in the midst 
of them. I hope you will not leave off to watch 
and pray. I never neglect to humbly beseech the 
Almighty to bless you and guide you in the way he 
would have you to go that the light of his coun- 
tenance may shine upon you continually. I suppose 
your father will write you by this opportunity. 
Your sisters join me in love to you. Pray, give all 
our best respects to Mr. & Mrs. Betty & love to 
your Aunt. 

Your father has wrote to Mr. Betty for 500 
Queens Needles, however there is a very pretty sort 
of needles I don't know the makers name they are 
marked with the letter C under the eye. They are 
made in Liverpool. If Mr. Betty could procure that 
sort it would be better. 

I remain 

Your affectionate Mother 
Elizabeth Laing. 

I beg you will write me often. When there is no 
opportunity of a vessel coming here put your let- 
ters in the bag at the Coffee House to go by some 
vessel to New York directed to the care of Messrs. 
Burkanan & Mabie, Merch'ts. New York. 

Upper Canada 26th October 1816. 
Honourable Sir, 13 

A becoming amendment to my behaviour ap- 
pears to me such an acknowledgement as you 
would expect that I had the honour to receive your 
letter of the 2yth February yet as my conduct here 
though it should be offensive might from its being 
without your official notice escape your observa- 
tion. I am now so far conformed to the counsel 
which through sympathy in my Father's feelings 
you were pleased to bestow on me as to be occupied 
in the capacity of elementary instructor where my 
manners are in some degree approved by my em- 


ployers having engaged me for a second term in 
the same situation when the first one ended. 

Notwithstanding my mode of life as represented 
to you gives me no claim to be treated with deli- 
cacy I have derived comfort from the terms of 
consideration in which you have seen meet to speak 
of (to) my near connexion and I hope it may pre- 
vent you regret for preferring mildness before sever- 
ity in my case, that my subsequent conduct has in- 
vited other instances which indicate that a habit, 
marked by drunkenness the sourse of so much dis- 
order may be quickly abandoned for one of steady 
sobriety and of course that probably many persons 
might easily benefit themselves and others by avoid- 
ing that evil through the force of their own reflex- 
ion awakened or assisted if necessary by Christian 
representations from friends. 

In the humble desire that intention to express 
by this the sense I have of your compassion for my 
relations and consideration and lenity towards my- 
self may sufficiently appear to obtain from your 
liberal discernment such allowance as anything 
here submitted has need of. 

I beg leave to subscribe myself, 
Honourable Sir, 

Your greatly obliged, 
and obedient servant 

Robt Laing. 

Mr. Robert Laing at the Township School 
House 4th Concession of the town of Fredericks- 
burgh 14 to the care of Mr. Miles, 15 Printer, King- 
ston, Upper Canada. Mr. Osgood begged the favor 
that he would forward it to its address 

From William Laing, Quebec. 

(Last line and date are in different hand.) 


Commencing 26 Jan'y 1817. 




Mr. Jacob Smith Senr 

Mr. Matthias Smith 

Mr. George Smith 

Mr. John Pickle 

Mr. George Lucas 

Mrs. Bo wen 

Mr. Asabel Bradshaw 

(July Ann 






(J. Easudy 



(William R. 
(Mary J. 

















Mr. Kauchner (Everard 



Mr. Scriba (Rachel 



Mr. Shaw (Betsey 

Mr. Sharp (Jacob 

We the Subscribers promise according to the 
number of Scholars subscribed for by us severally 
to pay Robert Laing Ten Dollars when due for 
keeping School in Mr. Peter Cole's house for one 
month commencing 28 April 1817 each day Sundays 
and every other Saturday excepted and also to 
contribute according to our several portions to 
furnish him with board, lodging and washing during 
the same, he to make up after the end of the month 
any loss of time that he may not attend duty dur- 
ing the same, and agreeing to quit when a majority 
of the subscribers shall desire it on being paid for 
the time he has remained. 

Big Island 17 28 April 1817 

Number of Number of 

Subscribers Scholars Subscribers Scholars 

Peter Cole . 3 . 

James Benedick. 2 . 

Jacob Tremper 2 . 

Johh Prich I . 

Cornelious Greenleaf . . I . 

James Parke I . 

John Vader... 2 . 

We the Subscribers do hereby engage and ac- 
cordingly do hire Robert I^aing to keep School at 
the school house near Mr. Essom Loveless house in 
Ameliasburgh 18 on the following conditions, Vis. 
that he is to keep a steady day School for one 
quarter to commence on "Friday the 8th inst. 
School hours to be seven hours in the dav or there- 


about, but in dull weather the School may be 
dismissed at an early hour. Every other Saturday 
to be a holiday and he is not bound to keep school 
when there is not a proper supply of firewood. 19 
And we do promise to furnish him with board 
lodging washing for the quarter according to our 
several proportions. 

And to pay the Trustees 20 for him seven shil- 
lings & six pence 21 per quarter for each Scholar 
subscribed for by us severally in monthly payments. 

We promise also to pay our respective propor- 
tions to repair the school house and keep it in 
repair. And to furnish one cord of wood made 
sufficiently small by chopping or splitting for each 
Scholar Subscribed for by us or two dollars for a 

We appoint Mr. John Snyder to act as Trustee 
to receive the payments above mentioned and the 
supply of wood. 

Ameliasburgh 6th January 1818. 

Number Number 

Subscribed Subscribed 

Subscribers Names for Subscribers Names for 

Essom Loveless 2 . 

John Snider.;., 3 . 

Henry Vantassel I . 

David Gerow... . . I . 

John Loveless I . 

William Crompton ... . I . 
Cross... . 2 . 

This agreement made this ninth day of May, 
One Thousand eight hundred and eighteen, between 
Robert Laing, Teacher, of the first part, and the 
other Subscribers hereto, Inhabitants of Hallowel 22 
of the Second part, Witnesseth, That the said 
Party of the first part engages to keep a good 
school, according to his ability, and to teach 
Reading, Writing and Arithmetic, if required, for 

one Quarter to commence on next, 

at the School house nearest to Daniel I/eavens, and 
William Clark, in the second Concession of the said 
Township. That he is to keep school from eight 


o'clock till twelve, and from half after one till five 
o'clock each School day ; the remainder of the time, 
and every second Saturday, to be at his own dis- 
posal, but he is to be allowed the liberty used by 
other teachers, of being absent at other times, if he 
should require it, and make up for the same. That 
in a general way he is to cause the scholars to say 
six lessons each day besides tasks, if practicable, 
but is nevertheless subject to reasonable directions 
respecting the School from the said Daniel Leavens 
and William Clark, who are hereby acknowledged 
Trustees thereof And the said party of the second 
part doth promise, according to the number of 
Scholars subscribed for by each of them respect- 
fully, to pay the said Robert Laing, at the rate of 
Twelve dollars and a half per month ; whereof 
one half in Cash at the end of the Quarter, and 
the other in orders or other value Monthly, 
if requested, and to furnish him with board, 
lodging and washing, as aforesaid, during the 
said term. And if the said Trustees, for good 
cause, should desire him to retire from the 
said Employment before the time above appointed, 
he is to be paid for the days he has kept at the rate 
of Twenty-four to the month 

In Witness whereof, we have hereunto severally 
and respectfully subscribed our names the day and 
year first herein written 

Robe't. I v aing, Teacher. 

Number Subscribed 
Subscribers for Scholars. by each. 

Daniel Leavens 2 

William Clark 3 

John Huff % 23 

David Clark i% 

Eli McConnell % 

Norman Leo Harvey... i 

Henry Gerow % 

Abraham Greene i% 

Reuben Burlingham i l / 2 

Peter Leavens.. i% 


We the Subscribers engage to employ Robert 
Laing to teach. Reading, Writing and Arithmetic 
if required at the School house near the Farms of 
Peter leavens and Daniel Leavens at the rate of 
ten dollars per month and to find him with board 
lodging and washing provided he keep a good school 
to enable him to do which we promise to support 
such proper endeavours as he may make for that 
purpose. School to begin on Monday the 17 May 
1819. School hours to be from 8 to 12 and from I 
to 5 or thereabouts. 

W T e are to supply the Children properly with 
books. 24 He is engaged till the first of September 
and Daniel Leavens, Peter Leavens and William 
Clark are to be Trustees till then if they are willing 
(and) receive (such) money (and) have charge of the 
allowance from the Government if any should be 
applied for for the above period. And may require 
payment up to the time he is discharged Not more 
than 9 shillings per Scholar. 
Hallowel May 1819. 

No. of 

Subscribers Names No. Subscribers Names Scholars. 

. William Muskell .... 

. Benjn Gerow i 

. Isaac Gerow I 

. Daniel Leavens i% 

. Reuben Burlingham . . i% 

. Peter Leavens i% 

Article of agreement between Robert Laing of 
the one part and we the undersigners of the other 
part that is to say that Robert Laing doth engage 
to keep a regular School for the term of seven 
months from the first day of November next at the 
rate of two pounds ten shillings per month and he 
further doth agree to teach reading writing and 
arithmetic to keep regular hours keep good order 
in school as far as his abilities will allow, see that 
the Children goes orderly from School to their res- 
pective homes, and we the under signers doth agree 
to pay Robert Laing the sum above named of ten 


dollars 25 per month for the time above mentioned 
and further doth agree to find a comfortable house 
for the school and supply the same with wood fitted 
for the fire and further to wash mend lodge and 
victual him for the time of keeping said school. 
School to be under the Charge and inspection of the 
following trustees William Clark, Peter Leavens 
and Daniel I/eavens. 
Hallowell Oct 28th 1819. 

It is understood that the said Robert lyaing has 
performed his business rightly till he is discharged. 

Robt Laing. 

Subscribers Names Scholars. 

William Clark 3 . Num<ber 

Peter I/eavenS 2 . Subscribers Names Scholars. 

Daniel I/eavens .... 2 . Norman S. Harvey . i 

Benjamin I/eavensi . . % . John Tucker I 

Abraham Gunter . . . 2 . DC i 

Reuben Burlingham . 2 . Henry Gerow i 

Isaac Gerow i . 

William Muskel ....%. 

Benjn Gerow 2 . 


Quebec 26th Sep't 1821 
Dear Brother 

I received yours of the 27th ulto and was much 
concerned to learn you had not received the box and 
letter I sent from hence in the Steam Boat Quebec 
by Mr. David Douglas the loth ulto. I wrote in 
haste as it was late in the day I heard he was going 
up. The letter was to be put in the post office at 
Montreal and the case was directed agreeable to 
your direction to Peter Smith Ksqr Kingston to 
care of Messrs. Forsyth & Co. Montreal. I wrote 
again by the thursday post from hence more parti- 
culars. I hope you will have received all safe before 
this comes but if not you will apply as above and 
let us know the result that we may make enquiry 
as we will of course be anxious and hope you will 
let us know how you make out. We are all as 
usual and join in Affectionate Remembrances 

I Remain 
Dear Brother 

Your Affectionate Sister 
Ann I/aing 

The outside address. 
Mr. Robert lyaing 

School Master Belleville 26 
Upper Canada. 


At Public ) 


Auction ) Will be sold on Thursday the 23rd Day 
of October 1823 at the House of John Taylor Inn- 
keeper in the Township of Thurlow at the hour of 
ten o'clock in the forenoon the following wearing 
apparel and Books, the Property of the late Robert 
Laing Deceased Vizt I New Blue Coat, I Drab 
Surtout Coat, 3 Satton Wiastcoats, 3 Wollen 
Wiastcoats, 4 Cotton Wiastcoats, I Silk Handker- 
chief, i pair of Shoes, i Rasor, i Comb, 9 pair of 
Stockings, i Cotton Nightcap, i Back of an old 
Wiastcoat, about l / 2 lb of Thread, 6 fine linen Shirts, 
one old Shirt, i Diaper To well, 2 Cotton Handker- 
chieffs, 2 Dozen and 8 Buttons, i Gilt Bible, i 
I/attin Bible, I Old Lexicon, I Shorter Catechism, 
i I/attin Grammer, i I/attin and Grek Book, i 
Hymn Book, i I/attin Vergel, i Greek Grammer, i 
I/attin Dictionary and one Book, The whole of the 
above Property to be Sold to the Highest Bider in 
order to Defray the Funeral Expenses of the said 
Robert Laing and if any money should remain after 
the Funeral Expenses are paid the same to be 
Equaly Devided amongst the Creditors, Provided 
they bring just accounts Duly authenticated on the 
Day of Sale to be Delivered to William Bell Esqr. 

Coroner for the Midland 


An Advertisement 
of the effects of the 
Late Robert Laing 
to be sold on the 
23rd Day of Octr 1823 
to be put up at 



1. William Bell was born about 1760, presumably in 
[rcland as early letters from his brother were sent from 
that country. He served as a British soldier through the 
American Revolutionary War and came to Canada shortly 
after peace was declared. During- the war he was with 
Lieutenant James Lavice of the 31st regiment of foot and 
on active duty in the Lake Champlain region for about 
eight years. Our first records of him tell of a partnership 
with John Ferguson in a store in the 8th township on the 
Bay of Quinte, Sidney, in 1789. From this date his life was 
entirely spent in this township, at the Mohawk village and 
in the township of Thurlow. He devoted but a portion of 
his time from 1796 to 1802 in teaching the Mohawks and 
appears to have given up teaching in 1802. 

The most interesting part of his career is that portion 
associated with the army. He was actively connected with 
the Hastings Militia from the time he first arrived in the 
country until his retirement in 1824. Early in 1798 he was 
commissioned an Adjutant, later in the same year as 
Captain, in 1800 as Major and in 1809 received his com- 
mission as Lieutenant-Colonel from Lieut. -Governor Sir 
Francis Gore. 

On April 24th 1824 in reporting the rolls and returns 
of the eleven companies of Hastings Militia he asked his 
old friend and associate for so many years, Colonel Fergu- 
son, stationed at Kingston, to be relieved from further 
duty, complaining that rheumatic pains in his back prevent- 
ed his attending to the duties of his office. He was then in 
his sixty-fourth year. He served his new country well 
throughout the war of 1812. 

Lt.-Col. Bell was included among the first appointments 
of Magistrates for Thurlow and he held Court regularly 
after his appointment. No record of his death is obtain- 

In the collection of the Lennox and Addington Historical 
Society several hundred letters, muster rolls and other 
interesting papers which belonged to Lt.-Col. Bell are 

2. The Mohawk School was situated in the tract of land 
bordering upon the shores of the Bay of Quinte which was 
bought from the Mississaugas by General Haldimand and 
conveyed to the Mohawks. The precise time that the school 
was opened is not known but reference is made to it as 
early as Sept. 18th, 1792, when John Bininger was employ- 
ed as teacher. Bininger taught the school until 1795. 

3. Mr. John Ferguson was actively engaged in trade 
with the Indians of the bay district for a number of years 
throughout which time he was in partnership with Mr. Bell. 
He was Colonel of the Hastings Militia throughout the war 
of 1812. During that war he had charge of the Hastings 


soldiers on duty at Kingston. He should not be confused 
with Lieut. Ferguson, who with Capt. Singleton started 
the first store in Thurlow at Myers Creek. Col. Ferguson 
lived in Kingston and held his military position for many 
years after peace was declared. 

4. Captain John Brant, (Deserontyou) , was a cousin 
of the celebrated Mohawk Chief, Joseph Brant, (Thayenda- 
nagea). He was instrumental in locating the Indian 
reservation on the bay. He spent a considerable portion of 
his time at the Bay and was a trusted friend of Mr. 
Stuart. A certificate of character given him by the mission- 
ary, on September 9th, 1806, is in the Lennox and 
Addington Historical Society collection. Forrester's Island, 
situated in the Bay of Quinte, opposite Deseronto, was 
formerly called Capt. John's Island, after Chief Deseront- 
you. Captain John Brant died of cholera at Brantford, 
Ontario, on August 27th, 1832. 

5. The Reverend John Stuart, D.D., was born in 
Harrisburg, Pa., in 1740. He received Holy Orders in the 
Church of England in 1770, and was immediately appointed 
missionary to the Mohawks at Fort Hunter. He ex- 
perienced many difficulties during the American Revolution- 
ary War, because of his loyalty to England, and was 
ultimately forced to leave the United States. He finally 
settled at Cataraqui, Upper Canada, in August, 1785. Mr. 
Stuart is frequently referred to as the last missionary to 
the Mohawks. He was the first clergyman to settle in 
Upper Canada, and was known as the father of the Church 
of England in Upper Canada. Dean Starr in his interesting 
history of Old St. George's, (Kingston), relates many 
incidents in the life of "The little gentleman". Mr. Stuart 
died at Kingston, on August 15th, 1811. 

6. From this draft it is apparent that Mr. Ferguson's 
recommendation and his talk with Mr. Bell, after his 
arrival in Kingston, secured for him the position of teacher. 

7. The Society for the Propogation of the Grospel in 
Foreign Parts not only employed Mr. Stuart to work in 
the missions among the Mohawks, but likewise set apart a 
sum of 30 as a salary for a teacher to instruct the child- 
ren of the Indians upon the Bay of Quinte. The Society 
had its headquarters in England. 

8. In these days difficulty was experienced in educating 
the Indians. They seemed to have a prejudice against 
sending their children to school. Undoubtedly they were 
influenced by the fear that the children would not turn out 
strong men and women if they were confined for so much 
of the time. The Government experienced the same diffi- 
culty for many years after the Indian Schools were 

9. The only regular school book used was the primer, 
which had been translated into the Mohawk language. The 
New Testament was the principal book in the school. This 
had been translated for the Indians and several copies are 
now known to exist. The teachers were instructed to 
teach the Christian religion. 


10. Mr. Stuart was an extensive land owner. He is 
reported to have had title to four thousand acres at one 
time, and some of his lands were near the Mohawk reser- 
vation, in Thurlow. 

11. This letter sent by Mrs. Elizabeth Laing to her 
son, Robert Laing, who was evidently on a visit to the old 
land, is given to show some of the characteristics of the 
future teacher's mother. It is most interesting because it 
tells of some of the conditions at Quebec, in May, 1795, and 
of the methods of travel and of receiving mail. 

12. Robert Laing, some of whose correspondence and 
contracts for teaching school are given in this little 
volume, evidently spent his younger days at his father's 
house in Quebec City. No record of his birth is obtainable. 
This letter from his mother would indicate that his visit 
to London was made while he was yet a young man. If 
the school teacher referred to by Mr. Stuart in the first 
letter given in this volume was Robert Laing, as is 
probably the case, he evidently did not remain a long time 
in the old land. Our next reference to him is in a letter 
sent from Quebec in 1800, in which he is reproved for his 
bad habits and particularly for his use of liquors. His own 
letter of October 26th, 1816, tells of being employed as a 
teacher in Upper Canada, and would indicate that he had 
reformed. According to the address which follows this 
letter he was teaching at the school house in the fourth 
concession of Fredericksburgh, Lennox and Addington, in 

The various contracts which follow show that he 
taught at Big Island, Hallowell and Ameliasburgh, while 
the letter from his brother would indicate that he was 
located at Belleville in 1821. His death probably occured 
in 1823, as we find the coroner advertising his personal 
effects for sale on October 23rd of that year. The papers 
copied here are the only ones relating to Robert Laing 
known to exist. 

1 13. The address for this letter has been lost. The 
gentleman to whom it was written was evidently a friend 
of Laing's father, William Laing, and probably lived at 
Quebec. This is a copy of the letter kept by Laing. 

14. Fredericksburgh is one of the townships in the 
County of Lennox and Addington, originally being called 
Fourth Town. It was named for one of the sons of King 
George the Third. There has never been a village of much 
importance in the fourth concession. 

15. Mr. Miles, the printer referred to here, was the 
printer and publisher of the "Kingston Gazette". This 
weekly paper was started in 1810, and it cost the sub- 
scribers four dollars per annum. It was a four page paper, 
the page being about 11 in. by 17 in. 

16. These names of contributors are those of "the 
parents sending pupils to the school at that time. The 
numbers given after the names of the children evidently 
indicate the aggregate number of days all of the children 


of each subscriber attended school during the term. Part 
of this document is missing. The original probably gave 
the school register. 

17. Big Island is located in the Bay of Quinte, off the 
north shore of the township of Sophiasburgh, in the County 
of Prince Edward. It lies directly south of the present 
village of Shannonville, which village is situated at the 
western extremity of the Mohawk reservation. The Island 
contains about three thousand acres of good farm land. 

18. Ameliasburgh, named for Amelia, one of King 
George the Third's daughters, is the most westerly town- 
ship in Prince Edward County. It was originally known as 
Seventh Town. 

19. This teacher had evidently found some difficulty in 
keeping a good supply of wood on hand during the winter 
months. In one of the early school registers in the Lennox 
and Addington Historical Society Collection, several days 
have the following entry, "No wood, no school". 

20. The fact that trustees are mentioned in this con- 
tract and that a school house was provided, would indicate 
that an effort was being made to operate the school under 
the act of 1816, and therefore receive a Government Grant. 
To secure such a grant they would have required at least 
twenty scholars. 

21. Note should be made of the fact that in one con- 
tract before given the pay of the teacher was named in 
dollars. The price of wood is given in dollars in a later 
paragraph of the same agreement. 

22. Hallowell is a township in Prince Edward County, 
lying immediately south of Sophiasburgh. The principal 
town in it at the present time is Picton. 

23. Mr. W. R. Rigg, ex-Inspector of Public Common 
Schools in the County of Leeds, in an interesting letter 
on early schools, written in 1896, explains the "half a 
scholar" as follows, "The 'signer' became bound to pay the 
teacher one dollar at the rate of two dollars per scholar, 
whether he sent any pupils to the school or none, though 
he generally contrived to send one or two for an occasional 
few days, and then omitted sending any for a month, 'to 
make up', taking special pains that his 'average attendance' 
should not exceed one scholar for half a term, or half a 
scholar' for the whole." 

24. This is the first reference to the supply of school 
books in Mr. Laing's contracts. In the earlier days it was 
quite the common thing for the teacher to have the only 
books used in the school. 

25. The apparent difference in the price named here, 
and the one given in the early part of the document is 
explained by the fact that the "pound" of those days was 
equal to $4.00, and the "shilling" to 20 cents. 


26. Belleville had been so named in 1816. The Kingston 
Gazette of Aug. 24th, 1816, tells of the interesting manner 
in which the name was selected. "The Lieutenant-Go ver- 
nor, in council, has been pleased to give the new town 
(formerly known by the name of Myer's Creek), at the 
River Moira, the name of Bellville, by the request and 
petition of a great number of the inhabitants of that town 
and the Township of Thurlow." In the issue of Sept. 7th, 
the Gazette remarks, "We were under the impression, from 
the very pleasant situation of that town (Bellville) that 
its name was from the French ; but we have since been 
informed that it has been given the name Bellville in honor 
of Lady Gore". The Lt. -Governor's wife was Lady Bella 
Gore. The old name of Myer's Creek was after Captain 
Walter Meyers of Jessups' corps, who moved to the mouth 
of the Moria in 1790, where he built a saw mill in 1791, 
and a grist mill in 1802. The population of Bellville was 
about 150 in 1818. Note that the original spelling was 
Bellville instead of Belleville as at the present time. 



Among the interesting records of our ; Society is a 
school register, which is herewith reproduced in full. The 
family names are those of the early settlers of the first and 
second concessions of Ernesttown, along the bay shore, east 
of Millhaven. The little hand-made book is similar to one 
known to have been kept by John C. Clark in 1810, in 
Wilton, and the handwriting appears to be the same. Is 
this the same John C. Clark who taught school in Freder- 
icksburgh in 1786, who is said to be the first school teacher 
in the County of Lennox and Addington ? If so, he must 
have been pretty well advanced in years at this time. 

Paper was scarce, as the little book was used for other 
purposes than that for which it was originally prepared. 
It may be that it was more convenient to make the other 
entries in the register, as it was so small, seven inches by 
three and one-half, that it could be easily carried in his 
pocket, and he could always have it ready at hand. Every 
available space was used. The writing, other than that 
devoted to the school attendance, is in a cramped hand, 
and some of it so small that it cannot easily be read with- 
out the aid of a glass. The writing itself, and the fact of 
the weather record having been so faithfully kept, indicate 
that the penman was an old man. Young men, as a rule, 
are not given to keeping records of this character. 

W. S. H. 



Names of Schollars 



1 2 





Ira Smith 



Eliza Smith 




David Smith 



Mary Garbbutt 







Nancy Garbutt 

Henry Garbutt 




Henry Walker 


Anthony Rankin 




James McAuley 




Richard Baker 






William Baker... 







Decemr 1st Snow above one foot deep. Cold. 

2nd Weather very cold. Sleighs going lively 

3rd Wind N.E. Clear and very cold. 4 o'clock cloudy. 

4th Wind N.E. Snowing most of the day, and more 

5th 9 o'clock wind S.W. 2 o'clock wind N.W. Cold 
good sleighing. 

6th 9 o'clock wind S.W. cloudy, snowing. 1 o'clock 
still snowing 

7th 8 o'clock wind N.W. very cold and clear. 2 o'clock 

8th 8 o'clock wind N.E cold and cloudy. 4 o'clock P.M. 
W South chilly 

9th 8 o'clock w S.W. clear and pleasant 1 o'c mild 
thawing in the sunshine. 

10th Wind S.W. cloudy 



M. T. W. T. F. S. 

Names Nov'r 7 8 9 10 11 12 

Ira Smith a a p p a 

Eliza Smith P P P P p 

David Smith a a a a a 

Mary E. Garbutt P P P P P 

Nancy Garbutt P P P -2 P 

Henry Garbutt P P P P p 

Henry Walker p p p -J p 

Anthony Rankin P P P P P 

James McAuley P P P P P 

James Baker P P P P P 

Richard Baker P P P P P 

William Baker p a p p p 

David McAuley P P P P P 

Martha Purdy P P P P P 

Charlotte Odle P P P P P 

George Lamkin p p p p 


Names of Scholars 


Novr 14 







Ira Smith. 



Elizabeth Smith 





Eliza Smith 



David Smith 





Mary E. Garbutt 







Nancy Garbutt 






Henry Garbutt 







Henry Walker 






Anthony Rankin 






Mary McAuley 







Jame* 2 McAuley 






David McAuley 







James Baker 







Richard Baker 






William Baker 







Martha Purdy 







Charlotte Odte 






Georere Lamkins... 

. P 






llth Wind S.W. cloudy and cold 
12th Wind South W. Clear and cold 

13 Wind S.W. Cloudy and very cold. High wind. 

14 Wind N. clear, and perhaps the coldest morning this 



Names of Scholars 

Novembr 21 








George Lamkin 




Elizabeth Smith 

. a 





Ira Smith 




Eliza Smith... 




David Smith 



Mary E. Garbutt 





Nancy Garbutt 





Henry Garbutt . 






\rchd Garbutt 




Henry Walker 

. p 





Anthony Rankin 




Mary McAuley . 






James McAuley 




David McAuley 






.Tames Baker 



Richard Baker .... 






William Baker 






Martha, Purdy 






Charlotte Odle... 

. a 





15th Wind North, fair 8 o'c very cold. 1 o'clock wind 
S.W. Snowing 

16, 8. o'clock high wind S.W. cloudy. A severe storm 
2. o'clock a tremendeous blow, with flurries of snow 4. o'c 

17th 8. o'c snow fell last night over a foot. Wind W. 
Snow and drift like also. 2. o'c. wind blowing a gale and 
the snow flying that I cannot see but a few rods. 5. o'c, 
clear and verv cold. 


M. T. W. T. F. S. 
Names of Scholars Novr 28 29 30 1 2 3 

George Lamkin a a a a p p 

Elizabeth Smith a a a p p p 

Ira Smith p a p p a p 

Eliza Smith p a a p p p 

David Smith a a a a a a 

Mary Eliza Garbutt P P P P P P 

Nancy Garbutt a a a a a a 

Henry Garbutt P P P P P P 

Archd Garbutt a a a a a 

Henry Walker P P P P P P 

Anthony Rankin P P P P P P 

Mary McAuley a a a a a a 

James McAuley p a a a a a 

David McAuley a a a a a a 

George Baker p p i a a a 

James Baker p p p a a p 

Richard Baker r ... p p p a a p 

William Baker a a a a a a 

Martha Purdy p a a a a a 

Charlotte Odle a a a a a a 

Jacob Homes p p p a a a 

Ann Swan p p a a a a 

Jacob Helmer p a a a a a 



Scholars Names Deer 











Mr. George Smith 
Mr. J. Lamkins 









Mr. Wm. Garbutt 
Mr. Henry Baker . 








Mrs Walker 








Mr. Rankin . 








Mr. Samuel Purdy... 






Mr. Joseph Purdy 
Mr. Saml Swan 







Mr. James McAuley .. 








Mr. B. Vanwinckel... 







18th Wind N.W clear and very cold, the coldest day this 
winter. 5 o'clock cloudy, has the appearance of 


19th 8. o'c. A.M. snow fell last night about 5 inches, still 
snowing. 1. o'c. PM. Fair and Calm 

20th 8. o'c. M. Wind S.E. Snowing. 1. o'c wind S.W. 
severe storm. 2. o'c. P.M. Roads drifted full 
and still snowing and drifting. 

21st 8. a.m wind high from S. W. snow still drifting and 
cloudy. 9 a.m. snow and blow, a tremendeous 
storm. 1 P.M. a little thaw south side of the 
house, snow flies like Jan'y 

*22d 8. a.m. Fair and very cold. The Ic.e took in the lake 
last night. 1 P.M Fair and Cold. 4 o'c. Boys 
Skating, on the ice 

23d 8 a.m Wind South Cloudy. 1 P.M Wind South 
cloudy, weather more mild. 9 P.M. a heavy 
wind from S. Appearance of a Storm. Cloudy. 

24th 8. A.M Wind S. snowing very fast. 2 P.M. W. S.W- 
mild thawing a little South side of house. 

25th Christmas, fair, calm and pleasant 9 o'clock 2 P.M. 
Cloudy but pleasant. 


Scholars Names 

Deer 12 



















Wm Garbutt 






Henry Baker 

.... OQ 






Mrs Walker 






Mr Rankin .. 







Samuel Purdy 







Joseph Purdy 







J ames Me Auley 







Samuel Swan... 







26th 8. A.M. Wind N.E. Cold. Snowing a little. 1 P.M 
wind S.E. snowing fast 

27th 8. o'c. Wind W Fair Cold but pleasant. 
1. P.M W. S.W. Fair and pleasant. 

28th 8. o'c. W. N. cold and snowing. 1. o'c. W. N.E. 
cloudy and snowing a little. 4. o'c. Snowing yet. 

29th 8. o'c. A.M. calm, Cloudy but mild. 
1. o'c. P.M. Still cloudy and mild 

4. o'c Wind rises from West, weather cooler and snow 

30th 8. o'c. Wind W. Fair and cold 
1. o'c. P.M Fair and pleasant 

31st 8. o'c. A M Wind S.E. cloudy, snowing a little 

1. o'c. P.M. Wind S.E. Snowing very fast. 
*Mrs. Galacher died at Mr. Roses at 1 o'clock this morning. 


Scolars Names M. T. W. T. F. S. 

in numbers December 19 20 21 22' 23 24 

Mr. George Smith 

" J. Lamkin 

Wm. Garbutt 

.... 2 





" Henry Baker 

.... 2 





Mrs. Walker 

.... 1 





Mr. Rankin 






Saml Purdy 

J.oseph Purdy ... . 

. . 

" James McAuley... . 

. . 2 





" John Hough 

.... 1 





" Saml Swan 

Jany 1st 1832. Fair, calm and mild, thawing a little, 
south side of the buildings 4 o'clock P.M. cloudy 
and cold 
*Mrs. Galacher Buried. 

2nd 8. o'c. A.M. wind N. Cloudy and cold. 1. o'c. P.M. 
wind N.E clear and cold. 10. P.M. Wind S.E. 
Snowing fast. 

3rd 8 A.M. Wind S.W. Cloudy. Roads drifted full 
1. P.M. Wind S.W. Snow flying and cold. 

4th 8 A.M. Wind N. Cloudy and one of the coldest morn- 
ings this winter. 1 P.M Wind N.E. cloudy and 

5th 8 A.M. Wind South, Cloudy weather milder 

1. P.M Wind S.W. Snowing moist thawing little. 

4 P.M. Wind W. Cloudy, mild, appearance of a thaw. 



Proprietors Deer 26 











George Smith 
J Lamkin 


















cT ! ~ r 



Wm Garbutt 
Henry Baker 


Saml Purdy 
Joseph Purdy 
James McAuley 
John Hough 
Saml Swan... 

6th 8. o'c. A.M. Wind N.W. brisk and snowing, the antici- 
pated thaw has shifted to cold. 
1. o'clock P.M. Calm, Cloudy but mild. A wood bee 

7th 8. A.M. Wind N. Fair and pleasant. 1 P.M-Wind S.E. 
pleasant cloudy 

8th 8. o'clock Wind E. 2 wind South begins to rain and 
freeze. 10 P.M. Wind shifted to N.E. a little 

9. 8 A.M. Wind S.W. Cloudy but pleasant. Crust on the 
snow near a quarter of an inch. 1. P.M Wind 
S.W. cloudy and thawing. 

10th' 8. High wind from South. Cloudy. 1 P.M. wind 
still brisk from south and cloudy 


January 1832 








Mr. George Smith 







" J Lamkin 


o o 

rt- ^, 


" Wm Garbutt.... 

. o 





" Henry Baker & 3 Z.B "^ 

ooo tTo o 

Mrs. Walker < > w g w g g. 

g, S- P 2- cr 

Mr. Rankin 5 n o 2 & 

ooo .o o^ o 

James McAuley f Q ^ 

Sam'l Purdy.. 
Joseph Purdy. 
John Hough... 

Jan'y llth 8 A.M. Wind north, Cold and snowing. 
1. P.M. Wind N.E. begins to clear away 

12th 8. A.M. wind N. Fair, cold and good sleighing 
1. P.M. Wind S.W. Cloudy 
4 P.M. Wind E. snowing moderate 
*James Losee & Hannah Grass married 

13th 8 A.M Wind S.W. fair and pleasant. 1 P.M wind 
S.W. Fair and thawing very pleasant. 5, Fair, 
this was the most pleasant day this winter so 

14th 8 A.M. Fair, Calm and foggy appearance of a thaw. 
1 P.M. Fair. Wind S. Thawing 
*Henry Grass shop burned last night. 

15. 8 A.M. partially fair, Wind S.W. warm and pleasant. 
1. P.M. Fair. Wind S.W. warm and Thawing. After 
one of the most boisterous Decembers that was 
ever known in U. C. the weather now appears 
like April 


Proprietors Jan'y 







Mr. George Smith 
" J Lamkin 











" Wm. Garbutt 
" Henry Baker 
Mrs Walker . . 










Mr Rankin 

James McAuley 
Samuel Purdy 
" Joseph Purdy 








" John Hough 
Oliver H. Ellithorp 







16th 8 A.M. Light wind from E. partially fair and warm. 
1 P.M. wind light from S. Another warm day. 

17th 8 A.M. Fair calm and pleasant. 

*Mr. Rankins child died last night. 

1 P.M. Wind S. Cloudy, warm, has the appearance 

of rain. 
5. begins to rain. High wind from South. 

18th 8 A.M. Rained most of last night, cloudy and foggy 
1 P.M. cloudy and foggy. 10 P.M. Heavy rain. 

19th 8 A.M. Wind W. Fair weather getting colder, bad 

1 P.M. Wind W. Cloudy but thawing. 



Proprietors Jany 16 

T. W. T. 

17 18 19 




r 1 


George Smith. 


li| 3 



J. Lamkin 


1 ig 1 



Wm. Garbutt 




Henry Baker 


JL -1 t^ Q 

"3 * ^ 






1 i^' 1 







James McAuley .... 


2 1 1, 3 




Saml D. Purdy 





Joseph Purdy 


1 i| 1 


John Hough 



Oliver H. Ellithorp . 





20th 8 A.M. Cloudy 


S.W. Froze a 



1 P.M. W. S.W. Cloudy and thawing 

21st 8. A.M. Wind N.W. cloudy, snowing a little colder. 

*1 P.M. Wind N.W. Fair and cool. Donald Ross liv- 
ing at Major Kreins Broke his leg near Mr. A. 

22nd 8. A.M Wind E. Fair, cool and pleasant. 
1 P.M. Fair and pleasant 

23rd 8 A.M. Wind brisk from S.E. Fair and cold 
1 P.M. Wind do S. Cloudy and chilly 

24th 8. A.M. High wind from S, cloudy and appearance of 


1 P.M. do do do 4 o'clock snowing and blowing 

25th 8 A.M. Wind N. Cloudy and very cold 

1 P.M. Cold wind from N. Snowing a little. 

26. 8 AM Wind N. partially fair and very cold 
1 P.M. Wind E. Fair and Cold 


Proprietors Jany 


24 - 







Mr. George Smith 

. 3 






" Wm Garbutt 







" Henry Baker... 





Mrs. Walker 
Mr. H. Rankin 







" James McAuley 







" Saml D Purdy 




" Joseph Purdy 
" John Hough 
" Oliver H. Ellithorp 

'. 1 



B. Vanwinckel 1 1 1 

Jan 27th 8 A.M. Wind S.W. Snowing a little and cold. 

1 P.M. Wind S.W. Snowing and blowing a cold storm 

28th 8. A.M. Wind N. Snowing a little, bad storm last 

1 P.M. Wind E. still snowing. 10 High wind & snow 

29. 8 A.M. Wind N. Cloudy and cold. 

1 P.M. Fair Wind N. and very cold. 
*5 P.M. Mr. Rose cellar took fire and Mrs. Rose 
severely burned 

30. 8 A. M Wind N.E. Snowing and blowing, a severe 


1 P.M. Wind N.E. still snowing, but not so cold as 
in A.M. 

31. 8 A.M. Wind S.W. Cloudy 

1 P.M Do. Do. Do. 



Proprietors 30 

T. W. 
31 1 






George Smith 
Wm Garbutt 
J. Tjanrilcin 






















James McAuley 
Henry Baker 

Hugh Rankin 
Saml Swan 

Saml Purely 

Joseph Purdy 

John Hough 
Oliver H. Ellithorp... 
Benjn VanWinckel .. . 

Feby 1st 8 A.M. Light wind from N. Fair and pleasant 
1 P.M. Cloudy and not very cold 
*Sylvester Lamkin and Miss Hough married 

2. 8 A.M. Cloudy and Raining heavy. 1 P.M. Cloudy 

and Thawing. 

*Mr. Edward Walker shot himself this morning at Mr. 
Rents Barn 

3rd 8 A.M. Wind NE. Cloudy Roads soft. 
1 P.M do do do 
8 P.M. Mrs. Rose died. 

4. 8 A.M. Wind S.W. partially fair, cold 
1 P.M do do do. 


Feb 5. 8 A.M. Wind N. Snowing and cold 
1 P.M. do and Fair and cold 

*Mrs. Rose Hurried 

6th 8 A.M. Wind E. Cloudy and cold 
1 P.M. Wind S. Snowing 

7-8 A.M. Wind N. Fair and cold 

1 P.M. Wind N.E. Fair and pleasant 

88 A.M. Wind N.E. Snowing and cold 
1 P.M. Do Do. Do. 

9th 8 A.M. Wind N. Snow & blow, road drifted full 

1 P.M. Wind N.E. Snow, hail and rain, a bad storm 

10th 8 A.M. Wind S.W. Cloudy and cold 

1 P.M. Wind do Partially fair and pleasant 

llth 8 A.M. Wind N. Cloudy and cold 

1 P.M. Wind S.E. Cloudy and appearance of rain 
4 P.M. Rain and hail 

10 P.M. Wind S. heavy rain, roads soft and wet 

12th 10 A.M. Wind N.E. Snowing, weather mild. 

2 P.M. do do do 

13th 8 A.M. Wind W. partially fair and cold 
1 P.M. Wind S.W. fair and cold 

14th 8 A.M. Wind N.W. Cloudy and snowing a little 
1 P.M. Calm, cloudy but pleasant 

15. 8 A.M. Wind N. Cloudy and mild, snow last night 
1 P.M. Wind W. Cloudy, thawing a little 

168 A.M. Wind N. Fair and cold 

1 P.M. Wind N.W. Fair and cold 

17. 8 A.M. light wind S. Cloudy and cold 

1 P.M. Wind S.W. Cloudy and cold 

18. 8 A.M. Wind S.W. Cloudy, rained a little last night 

1 P.M. Wind N.W. Snowing 


1831 November 23rd 

Samuel D. Purdy one load wood 

24th Mr. James McAuley one load wood 

Deer 3rd Mr. W. Garbutt, one load wood 

' 14th Mr. Henry Baker one large load wood 

Mr. Joseph Purdy, one large load not short 

Jan'y 6th 1832 Mr. Saml D. Purdy one load not short 
" 17th Mr. James McAuley, one load, not cut 
" 25th Mr. Lamkin, one load, fit for the stove 

Febr llth Mr. Smith, one load cut short at school. 
" 14th Mr. Henry Baker one load good wood short 
" 27 Mr. George Smith one load of wood, not short 

Mch 9th Mrs. Walker one load not short 
" 24. Mr. Rankin one load of wood 

Arithmetic's used in this school 

Gaugh, an Irish work 
Ingram, a Scotch author 
Gray, a do do 

Willets an American Author 
Pikes, do do 

Dilworth an English Author 
Tutors Assistant do do 



Proprietors Feb'y 












Mr. George Smith 
Wm Garbutt 
" J Lamkin 

. 1 








James McAuley... . 
Henry Baker 
" Hugh Rankin 
Mrs. Walker 

. 2 
. 2 










Mr. B. VanWinckel 
" Saml Purdy 
" Oliver H. Ellithorp 

. 2 
. 1 
. 1 







8 A.M, Wind N.E. Snowing 
1 P.M. do do cloudy 

20. 8 A.M. Wind E Cloudy but mild 

1 P.M. calm cloudy thawing a little 
*John Savage & E. McAuley married 

21. 8 A.M. Wind N.W. Cloudy and cold 

1 P.M. do do Fair, Snow flying and cold 
10 P.M. Cloudy wind S.W. 

22nd 6 A.M. Wind N.E. Snowing and cold 

8 A.M. Wind S. W. cloudy snow flying 

9 do Snowing very fast 

1 do cloudy snowing a little 

23rd 8 AM Wind N. snowing, a bad storm 
1 P.M. Wind N.W. Snow flying cloudy 








F. S. 
17 18 

[r. George Smith 






Wm. Garbutt 
James McAuley 
Henry Baker 









Hugh Rankin 
[rs Walker 






[r Saml Purdy 





" B. VanWinckel .. 

24th Last night very windy and very cold. 

8 A.M. Wind N.W. Fair, one of the coldest mornings 

this winter. Thermometer 2^ degrees lower than 

in 5 years before. 
1 P.M. Wind S.W. Fair and cold. 

25th 8 A.M. Wind E. Cloudy & very cold 

1 P.M. Wind S. E. Snowing & blowing, bad storm 
5 P.M. Wind South and snowing 
10 P.M. Calm and very foggy 

*Donald Ross who broke his leg commenced walking 
on crutches 

26. 8 AM Wind South, Partially fair and mild 

1 P.M do do Fair and cold 

27. 8 AM. Calm, fair and foggy. Appearance of a thaw 

1. Wind S. Chilly 

28. 8 AM Wind S.W. Snowing, roads drifted full. 

1 P.M. Wind S.W. Misty and thawing a little. 



Proprietors Feby 










Mr. George Smith 
" J Lamkin 






" Wm. Garbutt 
James McAuly 
Henry Baker... ,... ,... . 
" Hugh Rankin 
Mrs. Walker. 












Mr. Samuel Purdy 
B. VanWinckel 
" R. Bouglass 








29th 8 AM. wind N.W. Fair and cold 

1 P.M. Wind W. Fair and chilly 

March 1st 8 AM. Wind N. Fair and very cold 
1 P.M. Wind S.W. Fair and pleasant 

2nd 8 A.M Wind N. Fair cold but pleasant 

1 P.M. Wind S. Fair and pleasant. Thawing. 

3rd 8. A.M. Wind W. Cloudy but moderate 

1 P.M. Wind S.W. Fair Thawing considerable 

4th 8 A.M. Calm, Fair and foggy 

1 P.M. Fair, Thawing fast, roads getting soft. 
8 P.M. Wind N.E. Cloudy. Some sleet 

5. 8 AM Cloudy wind N.E. Storming sleet 

1 P.M. Wind N.E. Cloudy and raining a little 
*Betsy Vanwinckel married to Saml Badgley 
T. Borland Esq Bied. 
















Mr. George Smith ^ 

" Wm. Garbutt o 2 H 2 2 

" Henry Baker 3 2 3 14 2 

" James McAuley o 3 2 3 3 

" J. Lamkin CL 1 1 1 1 

" Hugh Rankin 1111 

" Saml Purdy Ill 

Mrs. Walker 1 

Mr. Richard Douglas Ill 

" B. Vanwinckel 

" John Hough 22- 

6th 8 A.M. Wind N.W. Cloudy. Snowing a little. Cold 
1 P.M. do do cloudy and chilly 

7. 8 A.M. Wind N. Cloudy and cold. Roads hard 
1 P.M. Wind N. Cloudy and cold 

8th 8 A.M. Wind N.E. Cloudy and chilly 

*This morning Charles Blanchard, a carpenter, hanged 

himself in his barn 
1. Wind S.W. Thawing roads wet 

9. 8 AM. Wind S.E. Cloudy and chilly 

1 P.M. Wind S.E. Cloudy and misty. Thawing 

10th 8 AM. Wind S.E. Cloudy and thawing, road dirty 
I P.M. Calm, Fair and thawing fast. 






W. T. 

7 8 





Ir. George Smith 
Wm. Garbutt 
Henry Baker 
James 'McAuley 
J. Larrikin 



3 2! 


i 3 









Hugh Rankin 
Saml Purdy 
John Hough 
Irs Walker 





Ir. Richard Douglas 

" B. VanWinckel . 

llth 8 A.M. Wind N.E. Raining very steady, thawing 
fast Water two or three feet deep on the ice in 
many places, a great thaw. 

1 P.M. Calm. Partially fair, water running in tor- 
rents. Spring approaches with rapid strides. 
5. Brisk wind from W. with heavy rain. 

13th 8 A.M. Wind brisk from W. Cold and snowing 
1 P.M. Wind N.W. Cloudy and cold. Ice hard 

14. 8 A.M. Wind NW. Fair and very cold. 
1 P.M. Wind N.W. Fair and cold 








F. S. 
16 17 


George Smith 
Wm Garbutt 
Henry Baker ... . 
James McAuley .. . . 
Josiah Lamkin 












Hugh Rankin 
Saml Purdy 






| r 








John Hough 
Richd Douglass 






15th 8 A.M. Wind S. Fair cold and chilly 

1 P.M. High wind from South, thawing 


8 AM. High Wind from S. Cloudy 
1 P.M. do do Fair and thawing 

17th 8 A.M. Wind N.E. Cold, freezing beginning to snow 
1 P.M. do do snowing fast cold 

18th 8 AM. 
1 P.M. 

Wind N.E. Still snowing. A cold storm 
Wind N.W. Cold and snow flying 

19. 8. AM. Calm. Fair and very cold. Sleighing by Ice 

1 P.M. Wind S.W. Fair and cold 












George Smith 
Wm. Garbutt 
Henry Baker 
James McAuley 












Hugh Rankin 
Saml Purdy 











John Hough 
Ricd Douglas 
Henry Badgley 
Riehd Clark 









20th 8 A.M. Brisk wind from S. Cloudy. Appearance of 

1 P.M. Wind S. Cloudy & thawing. Misty. 

21. 8 A.M. Calm. Cloudy & mild, a little snow last night 
1 P.M. Wind S.W. thawing partially fair 
5 P.M. Wind W. cold and freezing 

22nd 8. A.M. Wind N.W. Fair and very cold 
1 P.M. Wind W. partially fair and cold 

23rd 8 A.M. Wind N.W. Cloudy and cold 
1 P.M. Wind S. Fair and thawing. 













George Smith 
Wm Garbutt 
Henry Baker 











James McAuley 






Josiah Lamkin .. 








Hugh Rankin 
Saml Purdy 
















J. Hough 

Henry Badgley 
Richard Clark 








24th Through the day Fair and Warm. Pigeons flying, and 
many summer birds appeared 

25th 8. Wind S. Smoky, looks like Indian Summer. Fields 
bare except about fences, but low lands are cov- 
ered with ice. 

3 P.M. High wind South. Cloudy, foggy and appear- 
ance of Rain 

26. 8 A.M. Wind N.W. cloudy and snowing fast Sleighs 

still travelling on the ice. roads bare. 
1 P.M. Wind N.W. Partially Fair. 'Chilly 
*Betsy Ladley & Wm McKee married 

27th 8. AM. Wind E. Cloudy but pleasant, hard frost last 


1 P.M. Wind S. Fair but chilly, thawing 
*Susan Lockwood married 

28. 8. AM. Wind N. Cloudy but pleasant, hard frost last 

1 P.M. Wind N.E. Fair warm and pleasant. 












Georg-e Smith 
Henry Baker 
Wm. Garbutt 
James McAuley 











Josiah Lamkin 
Hugh Rankin 
Saml Purdy 
- Walker 













J. Hough 

Henry Badgley 
Richard L. Clark 
Wm. Hawlev... 








29th 8 A.M. Wind S. Fair warm and 
Phebe bird sing this morning 
1 P.M. Wind S. Fair and warm 

pleasant heard a 

30th 8 A.M. Wind N.E. Partially fair and pleasant 
1 P.M. Wind S. Fair and warm 

30. 8 A.M. High Wind S. Cloudy, a little rain this morn- 
Rain and Thunder 


1 P.M. Wind S. Cloudy 

2 do Fair 

Apl 1. Wind N.W. Cloudy and cold, flurries of snow 

2. 8 AM High Wind S.W. fair Cold and frosty, ground 
froze hard 1 P.M. Wind S.W. Cloudy and chilly 
Sleighs on ice yet 

3rd. 8 A.M. Wind S. Cloudy and rain 

1 P.M. Wind N.W. Cloudy. Squalls of snow. 

4th 8. A.M. Wind S.W. Snow and blow bad storm 
1 P.M. High wind from S.W. Fair and cold. 











George Smith 

. 3 






Wm Garbutt 
Henry Baker 
James McAuley 

. 24 
. 3 










J T jam lei n 








Hugh Rankin 
Saml Purdy 
- Walker 

. 1 
. 1 
. 1 








John Hough .... 


Henry Badglev .. .. 
Richd L. Clark 
Wm. Havvley 

. 1 

. i 








Apr 5, 1832 Wind N. Fair and Cold 
6th Wind N.W. Fair and cold 
7. Wind S.W. Fair and Warm 

8 Wind N. Fair and Cold 

9 Wind N.E. Fair and Cold. Cutter and horse crossing the 


10 Partially fair. Wind S.K Warm and pleasant 

llth Wind S.W. Cloudy, but warm and pleasant 
1 P.M. Smoky warm weather 

12 Fair and warm, smoky. Roads dry. Ice rotten but 

people crossing on foot 

13 Wind S.E. Fair and warm, handsome weather Ice 

breaking up. 

14 Wind S. a little rain this morning but fair the remaind- 

er of the day 

15. Wind N.E. partially fair, cool, Ice clear from this to 

16th Wind N.E. a heavy rain and some hail 

P.M. Snow and cold a bad storm. Boat crossing 

17th Wind N.E. Still raining, Sleet and cold, snow on the 

18th Wind N.E. Still raining and cold. P.M. Raining still 

19th 8 A.M. Wind N.E. Raining yet 
P.M. Wind N.E. Partially fair 

20th Wind N.E. Cloudy P.M. Fair and cool 

21 Wind S.W. Cloudy and cool 
P.M. Wind S.W. Raining 

22d Wind S.W. Cloudy. A little snow 
P.M. Wd N. Fair and cold 

23rd Wind E. Cloudy & cold hard frost last night 

24 Wind E. Fair and cold. 

25 Wind S. Foggy and rain. 

26 Wind N.E. Fair and cold. 

:, i 


M. T. W. T. F. 
April 16 17 18 19 20 


Mr. George Smith GO 02 233 

" Wm Garbutt al si 24 2 2 2 

Henry Baker 2322 

" James McAuley 

" Hugh Rankin 1111 

Mrs - Walker 1111 

Mr. John Hough 

" Henry Badgley 

" Richd L. Clark 1111 

" Wm. Hawley 1111 

Saml D. Purdy 

Josiah Lamkin 

M. T. W. T. F. S. 
April 23 24 25 26 27 28 

Mr. George Smith 3 

" Garbutt - 

" H. Baker o 

J. McAuley 2 

" H. Rankin Attending Court 

Mrs. - Walker 1 

Mr. Sam'l D. Purdy - 

Richd L. Clark - 

" Henry M. Badgley ... - 

" Wm Hawley - 

27th Wind E. Partially, fair 

28. Wind variable, fair 

29th Wind S. Cloudy and rain 

30 Wind E. Cloudy a little rain 

May 1st Wind N.W. Brisk Fair and cold 

2nd Wind E. Fair and pleasant, frost last night 
3rd Wind E. Cloudy and cold. P.M. Raining a little 
4th Wind N.E. Raining fast, all day cold storm 
5th Wind N. Partially fair and Cold 
6th Wind N.E. Fair and Cold, froze ice last night 

7. High Wind S. Fair 

8. High Wind. S. Cloudy and a little rain 

P.M. Fair and pleasant 

*Barbary How & Mr Ruttan married 










George Smith. 






Wm Garbutt 
H Baker 

. 2 


I 4 




J McAuley 






H Rankin 








. 1 






S Purdy 


Richd L Clark 







H M Badgley 







Wm Hawley 


Thos. Smith... 







9th Wind S. W. fair and pleasant 

10th Calm, fair and pleasant 

P.M. Warm and Calm. Spring weather 

llth Wind S. Partially fair and pleasant 
*Protracted meeting Waterloo. 

12th Wind S. Fair, Smoky and pleasant 
13th Wind S. Fair, Smoky and pleasant 

14th Wind S. Cloudy. Appearance of rain 
P.M. A little rain 


Wind S. W. Rainy 
P.M. Fair 

16th *Public Fast. Wind S.W. Rainy 
P.M. Wind N.W. Fair 












George Smith 






Wm Garbutt 





H. Baker 








J McAuley 



Hugh Rankin 








S Purdy 


Richd L Clark... 








Henry M. Badgley ... 

Thomas Smith... 

, 1 






May 17. Wind S.W. Partially Fair and cold 

P.M. Wind S. Cloudy. Appearance of rain 

18th Calm and Cloudy. P.M. Wind S.W. a little rain 

19th. Wind N.E. Cloudy. P.M. Heavy Rain 
Went to 5th Concession. 

20th Wind N. Fair and Cold 

21st Wind N.W. Frost this morning Cold and chilly 

22nd A.M. Wind N.E. Warm and Fair 

P.M. Wind S.W. Cloudy and Cold returned from 5th 

23rd Wind E. Cloudy and cool 
P.M. Wind S.W. Raining 
*Mr. Dopple died 
10, o'c. P.M. Wind very high S. Rain. Violent storm 

24th Wind S. Rain. P.M. Partially fair cold 

25. Wind N.E. Cloudy and cold. P.M. Rain 

26. Wind S.W. Fair. P.M. Wind E. Rain and Cold. 

27. Wind N.E. Fair and pleasant. 

P.M. Cloudy and cold. 


May 28. Light wind. S.W. Fair and pleasant 
*Caravan in Bath 

29th Light Wind S. Partially fair and pleasant. 
P.M. Cloudy, Rain in the evening. 

30th Heavy Rain last night. 

Wind West. Cloudy and Cold. 

P.M. Wind variable with rain and hail 

31st Wind N.E. Fair and cold 
P.M. Warm and pleasant. 

June 1st Light Wind E. Cloudy P.M. Fair and warm 
2nd Fair calm and warm. Fine weather 

3rd Wind E. Fair and pleasant 

P.M. Cloudy & Cold appearance of a storm 

4. Wind N.E. Cloudy and cold 

P.M. A little cold rain 

5. Wind N.E. Partially Fair and Cold 

6. Wind N.E. Partially Fair and Cold 
7th Wind S.W. a little rain 

8 Wind E. Partially fair and cold 

12 o'clock some thunder to the north 

9th Wind S. Some Rain this morning 
10th Wind S.E. Fair foggy and warm 
llth Wind light and variably. Fair Warm. Mare died. 

12th Wind S.W. Partially fair. Smoky and warm 
P.M. A heavy shower, and very seasonable 

13th Wind E. Cloudy. P.M. Rain and warm summer 

14th Wind S. Very foggy. Fair and warm 

15. Wind S. Fair and warm P.M. Chilly, appearance of 


16. Wind S.W. Cloudy a little rain. 



Page 29. The idea of utilizing the spaces at the bottom 
of the pages of his register, or Day Book as he calls it, 
evidently did not occur to him until a month after he had 
been keeping the record of the attendance of the scholars. 
The register begins on October 31st, and the memoranda 
subjoined was, not commenced until December 1st. 

It will be observed that school was kept open for six 
days of the week. The custom, at that time, was to treat 
every alternate Saturday as a holiday, and he followed this 
rule at the commencement of his engagement, but, later on, 
perhaps to make up for lost time, he had very few holidays 
except Sundays. 

He could not have consulted his spelling book when he 
wrote "schollars" at the top of this page. 

Page 30. Five new pupils were admitted this week. 
With the exception of the Smith family, the pupils were 
very regular in their attendance. 

Two more pupils appear upon the roll Elizabeth Smith 
and Mary McAuley. As these two families were already 
well represented, th teacher must have made a favorable 

Page 31. The 17th of December was ushered in with an 
old-fashioned blizzard, which had a disastrous effect upon 
the school attendance, as will be seen by a reference to the 
register for that date. 

Another member of the Garbutt family has put in an 
appearance, but it is safe to conjecture that Archibald won 
no prizes for his regularity. 

Page 32. As the season advances the roll increases, but 
the new arrivals do not appear to have taken full advantage 
of their opportunities. The average attendance does not 
compare very favorably with that of the preceding weeks. 
The snow storm of December 1st must have kept most of 
the scholars at home. 

Page 33. The teacher here introduces a new system and 
records the number of pupils from the several families in- 
stead of entering the names of pupils, although he erroneous- 
ly retains the heading "Scholars Names". It may be that 
he had ruled his book in advance and had filled in the 
heading and dates before he changed his style of entry. 

The attendance is on the decline. 

Samuel Purdy established the first stage line between 
Bath and Kingston in 1816, and in the following year in- 
augurated a line between Kingston and York. Single fare 
was eighteen dollars. 

The teacher records his first prediction on the evening of 
the 23rd, and the following entry establishes his reputation 
for the time being as a very fair weather prophet. 


He availed himself of the vacant spaces set apart for 
Saturday, the 10th, to credit Mr. Rankin with 26 Ibs. of 
flour, which, no doubt, was on account of his salary. 

Page 34. The astericks are used by the teacher to direct 
attention to entries of events other than the weather bul- 
letins. He adopts the phonetic system of spelling- in his 
reference to Mrs. Gallagher. 

Page 35. The slim attendance during this month may 
be accounted for by the severity of the weather. He says, 
under date of January 15th, that this was the most bois- 
terous December ever known in Upper Canada. It must also 
be borne in mind that some of the scholars had long dis- 
tances to travel. Joseph Purdy lived on lot 41, and Henry 
Baker on lot 19, both in the first concession. William Gar- 
butt lived on lot 35, in the second concession ; and James 
McAuley owned lot 28 in the first concession, yet these 
four families were all supporters of the school, sending no 
less than twelve scholars, some of whom had to walk two 
and three miles through the heavy drifts. Note the spelling 
of "Scolars". 

Page 36. For the first time he now adopts the new 
heading "Proprietors" at the top of the page. 

In well chosen language he reluctantly confesses his 
erroneous prediction of the 5th. 

Samuel Purdy contributes 27 Ibs. of flour to the teach- 
er's larder, and is duly credited with that amount. 

Page 37. It seems incredible, at a time when fire wood 
could be had for the asking, that the school should be 
closed for over a week through want of fuel, but here the 
faithful old teacher presents the fact to us in such a manner 
that it cannot be questioned. 

He changes his heading to "Subscribers", but evidently 
concluded that the term was not suitable, as he falls back 
again during the remaining weeks to "Proprietors", and 
continues its use when he fills in a heading. 

Page 38. As the weather moderates the attendance im- 

Page 39. Here we see the teacher figuring in a new role, 
writing deeds and memorials, thereby earning a few shillings 
to help out his small salary. 

On the 24th he makes another prediction of a storm, 
which did not materialize. 

For the five weeks following the wood famine, the 
teacher had no holiday on Saturday. It looks as though he 
was endeavoring to make up for that lost week. The 
scholars were not all in full sympathy with this course, as 
some of the most regular attendants absented themselves on 
this day. 

Page 40. B. Vanwinckel, for the first time, avails him- 
self of the privileges of the School, although as early as the 
first week in December his name appears as one of its 
supporters. He lived on lot twenty-seven, in the first 


Page 41. The Vanwinckels must have raised the old 
gentleman's hopes during the week, but soon dashed them 
to the ground, as they were not seen in the school again 
after Monday of the following week. That section was 
sorely in need of a truant officer. 

The teacher, in his items of gossip, pretty well confines 
himself to the tragedies and matrimonial events of the 

Page 42. Just here he indulges in a little extravagance, 
and sets apart a whole page for his entries of the condition 
of the weather, after which he resumes his former place. 
Note with what precision the observations are made at 
8 a.m. and 1 p.m. On the 12th he varies it to 10 a.m. and 
2 p.m., but as this was a Sunday he may have had good 
reason for postponing the entry. He made two extra entries 
on the llth to establish his record as a weather prophet. 
The prophecy, however, preceded the storm by only three 

Page 43. This page was set apart on November 23rd 
for the purpose of keeping an account of the contributions 
to the wood pile, and the entries were made from time to 
time as the wood was hauled to the School. This is 
apparent from the nature of the entries, the date at the 
top of the page, and the fact that the same colored ink was 
not used throughout. 

D. Purdy, the Stage proprietor, drew the first load and 
was also the first to relieve the wood famine on January 

With what pride he records the fact that he was in 
possession of no less than seven arithmetics. 

Page 44. E. McAuley, whose marriage was recorded on 
the 20th, was evidently a member of the family of James 
McAuley, as no scholars from that family attended school 
upon that day. 

Page 45. The entry respecting the 24th of February 
appears to be a comparison merely of the temperature of 
that with the particular day of the month with the same 
day of the month of former years, otherwise he wouldn't 
speak of it as "one" of the coldest mornings. 

Page 46. Captain Thomas Borland was a prominent 
farmer in the Township of Adolphustown, and was placed 
in command of a company of Volunteers at Kingston during 
the War of 1812. 

Page 47. By referring to the wood account, it will be 
seen that George Smith relieved the wood famine on this 
occasion, and none of his children were in attendance during 
the week to enjoy it. He also contributed a load and cut 
it at the school on the llth. 

Page 48. The trustees of this school, if there were any, 
could not be congratulated upon their management of the 
wood problem. Mrs. Walker came to their rescue on the 
9th with one load. On Sunday, the llth, the teacher looks 
forward with satisfaction to the approaching Spring, when 
his troubles in feeding the stove will end. 


Page 50. On Friday the teacher takes his first holiday, 
or, at least, gives one to the scholars, and on Saturday he 
-absents himself from school and assigns a very commendable 
reason for his doing so. 

Page 51. The experiences of the severe winter must 
have been a sore trial to the old gentleman, if such he was, 
as he loses no opportunity to welcome the evidences of 
Spring. Note the recurrence of the word "pleasant". 

Page 52. We can see his face aglow with delight as he 
listens to the merry song of the "Phebe bird" on the 29th. 
How disappointed he must have been on the morning of the 
4th as he plodded through the "bad storm" to school. 

Page 53. He again sets apart a whole page and devotes 
it exclusively to the weather, but does not seem to evince 
the same interest in the subject. For the most part he 
contents himself with a single entry to each day, and, in 
few instances does he give the hour of the day. He does 
not appear to have been pleased with the belated Spring. 
The ice did not go out of the bay until April 15th. 

Page 54. There is no hint as to the capacity in which 
he was attending Court, and he does not appear to have 
seen anything in the town worth mentioning. Even his 
favorite theme, the weather, is disposed of in a summary 

Page 55. It is remarkable that a man who took such 
pains to preserve a record of the trifling variations in the 
weather took no notice of the public events of the day. 
Marshall Spring Bidwell and Peter Perry were making 
things pretty lively for the Family Compact about this 
time. Bath was the commercial centre of the County, and 
the merchants and other business men of that thriving 
village ought to have furnished the news gathering with 
more interesting gossip than we find interspersed among 
these items of wind, snow and rain. What good purpose 
these were intended to serve it is difficult to conjecture. 
He does not associate the conditions of the weather with 
any event, and rarely makes comparisons with other 

Page 56. This concludes his "Day Book" of the school. 
Whether his services terminated with this last entry . there 
is nothing to show. 

Page 57. It appears, from the entry of May 28th, that 
a travelling menagerie honored Bath with a call. 



Addington County , 5 

Adolphustown '. 5 

Ameliasburgh 16, 17, 25 

American Revolution 24 

Amey, A 39 

Amherst Island 5 

Aylesworth, Anson 5 

Badgley, Henry 50 

Baker, George 32 

Baker, Henry 33, 59 

Baker, James 30, 31, 32 

Baker, Richard 29, 30, 31, 32 

Baker, William 29, 30, 31, 32 

Bath 58, 61 

Bell, William 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 22, 23 

Belleville 22, 23, 26, 27 

Benedict, James. 16 

Bidwell, Marshall Spring 61 

Big Island 17, 25, 26 

Bininger, John 23 

Blanchard, Charles 47 

Bowen, Mrs 15 

Bradshaw, Ashabel 15 

Brantford 24 

Brant, John 24 

Brant, Joseph 24 

Burkanan & Mabie.... 13 

Burlingham, Reuben 18, 19 

Burrows, Frederick 4, 5 

Casey, Thomas W 5 

Cataraqui 24 

Centreville 5 

Champlain, Samuel de 5 

Chapham, Calvert 8 

Checkley, E. R 5 

Clark, David 18 

Clark, John C 28 

Clark, Richard L 50 

Clark, William 17, 18 

Cole, Peter 16 

Crompton, William 17 

Cross, Mr 17 

Daly, James 4 

Davy, B. C 5 

Deseronto 24 

Deserontyou, Capt. John 7, 11, 24 

Dingman, A 5 

Dopple, Mr 56 

Dorland, Capt. Thomas 46, 60 

Douglas, David 21 

Douglass, Richard 46 

INDEX. 63 

Education, Early 5 

Ellithorp, O. H 38, 39, 40, 41, 44 

England, Church of 24 

Ernesttown '. 28 

Family Compact 61 

Ferguson, John .. 7, 23, 24 

Flach, U. J 4 

Forrester's Island 24 

Forsyth &i Co 21 

Forward, Mrs. H. T 4 

Frederick sburgh Township 14, 25, 28 

Gallagher, Mrs 35, 36, 59 

Garbutt, Arch'd 31, 32 

Garbutt, Henry 29, 30, 31, 32 

Garbutt, Mary 29 A 30, 31, 32 

Garbutt, Nancy 29, 30, 31, 32 

Garbutt, William 33, 59 

Gazette, Kingston 25, 27 

Gerow, Benjamin 19, 20 

Gerow, David 17 

Gerow, Henry 18, 20 

Gerow, Isaac 19, 20 

Gibbard, John 4 

Gore, Lady 27 

Grange, Mrs. A. W 4 

Grass, Hannah 37 

Grass, Henry 37 

Greenleaf, Cornelius 16 

Gunter, Abraham 20 

Haldimand, General 23 

Hallowell 17, 19, 20, 25 

Harrisburg, Pa 24 

Harvey, N. L 18, 20 

Hastings Militia 23 

Hawlev, George D 4 

Hawley, Mrs. J. P 5 

Hawley, Wm 52 

Helmer, Jacob 32 

Herrington, W. S 4, 5 

Homes, Jacob 32 

Hough, John 35 

Hough, Miss 41 

How, Barbary 54 

Huff, John....'.... 18 

Hunter, Fort 24 

Jarvis, Rev. Canon 4, 5 

Jessup's Corps 27 

Kauchner, Mr 16 

Kent, M 41 

Kingston 7, 8, 10, 11, 14, 21, 24, 58 

Kreins, Major 39 

Ladley, Betsy 51 

Laing, Ann 21 

Laing, Elizabeth 13, 25 


Laing, Robert.... . 13, 14, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 25 

Laing, William 14, 25 

Lamkins, George 30, 31, 32 

Lamkins, J , 33 

Lamkin, Sylvester 41 

Lavice, James 23 

Leavens, Benj 20 

Leavens, Daniel 17, 18, 19, 20 

Leavens, Peter 18, 19, 20 

Leeds County 26 

Leonard, R. A 4 

Lochhead, J. S 5 

Lockwood, Susan 51 

London 25 

Losee, James 37 

Loveless, Essom 16, 17 

Loveless, John 17 

Lucas, George 15 

Macaulcy, Robert 8 

Macdonald, Rev. A 4 

Meyers, Walter 27 

Midland District 22 

Miles, Mr 14, 25 

Millhaven 28 

Mississaugas, The 23 

Mohawks, The 8, 9, 11, 23 

Mohawk School 7, 23 

Mohawk Village , 8, 9, 23 

Moira River 27 

Montreal 7, 21 

Muskel, Wm 20 

Myer's Creek , 24, 26 

McAuley, David.... .. 30, 31, 32 

McAuley, E 44, 60 

McAuley, James Jr 29, 30, 31, 32 

McAuley, James Sr 33, 59 

McAuley, Mary 30, 31, 32, 58 

McKee, Wm....' 51 

Napanee 5 

Newburgh 5 

New York 13 

Odle, Charlotte 30, 31, 32 

Ontario Historical Society 4 

Parke, James 16 

Perry, Peter 61 

Pickle, John 15 

Picton 26 

Prich, John 16 

Purdy, D 60 

Purdy,. Joseph 33 

Purdy, Martha 30, 31, 32 

Purdy, Samuel 33, 58 

Quebec.... . 12, 20, 21, 25 

Quinte, Bay of 5, 7, 8, 24, 25 

INDEX. 65 

Rankin, Anthony 29, 30, 31, 32 

Rankin, Hug-h 33, 59 

Rigg, W. R 26 

Robinson, J. W 4 

Rose, Mr 34, 40 

Ross, Donald 45 

Ruttan, Mr 54 

Savage, John 44 

Scriba, Mr 16 

Sharp, Mr 16 

Shaw, Mr 16 

Singleton, Capt 24 

Smith, David 29, 30, 31, 32 

Smith, Eliza 29, 30, 31, 32 

Smith, Elizabeth 30, 31, 32, 58 

Smith, George , 33, 60 

Smith, George Jr 15 

Smith, Ira 29, 30, 31, 32 

Smith, Jacob 15 

Smith, Matthias 15 

Smith, Peter 21 

Smith, Thomas 56 

Snyder, John 17 

Sophiasburgh 26 

Starr, Dean 24: 

St. George's Cathedral 24 

Stein, Paul 5 

Stuart, Rev. John 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 24, 25 

Swan, Ann 32 

Swan, Samuel 33 

Thayendanagea 24 

Thomson, John 5 

Thurlow 23, 24, 27 

Tremper, Jacob 16 

Tucker, John 20 

United States 24 

Upper Canada 13, 14, 24, 25, 59 

Vader, John 16 

Vantassel, Henry 17 

Vanwinckel, B 33, 40, 59, 60 

Walker, Edward 41 

Walker, Henry 29, 30, 31, 32 

Walker, Mrs 33, 60 

Warner, Clarance M 4, 5, 6 

Wilson, Uriah 4 

Yarker 5 

York... 58 

Spinning Wheel 

Flax Wheel 





By W. S. HERRINGTON. K.C. ' jib* 









Chronology 4 

Publications of the Society 5 

Pioneer Life on the Bay of Quints By Walter S. 

Herrington, K.C . 7 

The Court of Requests By Walter S. Herrington, K.C. 35 

Index . . 51 


Spinning Wheel ... Frontispiece 

Flax Wheel Frontispiece 

Foot Stove 8 

Swift 8 

Gears and Reeds ? .... 12 

Crackle 12 

The Lang-horn Residence, Bath 16 

The Finkle Tavern, Bath 16 

Standard Weights and Measures. 24 

Large and Small Heckles 24 

Shuttles, Water Bottle, Candle Mould, Spools and 

Temple 24 

The Fairfield Residence, Bath 32 

St. John's Church, Bath 32 

Marshall Spring Bidwell 48 

Promissory Notes, Free Holders Bank 48 


Society Organized May 9th, 1907 

Constitution Adopted June llth, 1907 

First Open Meeting held Oct. 25th, 1907 

Affiliated with the Ontario Historical 

Society March 31st, 1908 

Papers and Records Published : 

Volume I June 12th, 1909 

" II September 19th, 1910 

" III November 15th, 1911 

" IV June 14th, 1912 

" V..., March 14th, 1914 


Honorary Presidents- 
Rev. Canon Jarvis 1907 to 1908 

John Gibbard, Esq 1907 

James Daly, Esq 1908 to 1913 

Walter S. Herrington, K.C 1909 to 

William J. Paul, M.P 1914 to 


Clarance M. Warner 1907 to - 

Vice Presidents- 
Mrs. Alexander W. Grange 1907 to 

S eeret ary-Treasurer 

Ulysses J. Flach, Esq 1907 to 1913 

John W. Robinson, Esq..... 1913 to 

Executive Committee- 
Mrs. H. T. Forward 1907 to 

Mr. Frederick Burrows 1907 to 1913 

Uriah Wilson, Ex-M.P 1907 to 

Geo. D. Hawley, Ex-M.P.P 1907 to > 

Rev. Alexander Macdonald 1907 to 1913 

John W. Robinson 1913 to 1914 

Raymond A. Leonard 1913 to - 

Edwin R. Checkley , 1914 to 



Vol. I. Chronicles of Napanee, first published in 1873 
and 1874. The Origin of Some of Our Local Names, by W. 
S. Herring-ton, 1908. Yarker and Vicinity, by E. R. 
Oheckley, 1908. Some Notes of Early Ecclesiastical His- 
tory, Bay of Quinte District, by Rev. Canon Jarvis, 1908. 
Some Early Amusements of the County, by C. M. Warner, 
1908. The Village of Centreville, by J. S. Lochhead, 1908. 

Vol. II. Early Education, by Frederick Burrows, 1909. 
A Story of the Rear of Addington County, by Paul Stein, 
1910. John Thomson, Inventor of a Process for Making 
Wood Pulp, by C. M. Warner, 1909. Newburgh, by Geo. 
Anson Aylesworth, 1910. The First Telegraph Office in 
Napanee, by Mrs. John Perry Hawley, 1909. The following- 
copies of Original Documents in the Collection : In Memor- 
iam, B. C. Davy, Esq., (1874) ; Assignment of a Slave, 
(1824) ; School Teacher's Contract, (1818) ; Proceedings of 
the Napanee Club Library (1853) ; Programme of Proces- 
sion when Corner Stone of the Market Hall was laid, 
(1856) ; Montreal's Invitation to Celebrate the Completion 
of Grand Trunk Railway between Montreal and Toronto, 
(1856) ; Railway Pass to Attend the Above Celebration, 

Vol. III. The Casey Scrap Books. Introduction by W. 
S. Herrington, 1910. Concerning Mr. Thomas W. Casey, 
by A. Dingman. An Old Adolphustown Burying Ground, by 
T. W. Casey. Champlain, the Discoverer of Bay of Quinte 
and Lake Ontario, by T. W. Casey. Champlain in the Bay 
of Quinte District, by T. W. Casey. First Explorers and 
Discoverers of this Section, by T. W. Casey. This County 
a Century Ago, by T. W. Casey. Our County's First 
Surveys, by T. W. Casey. The Adolphustown U. E. L. 
Burying Ground, by T. W. Casey. In Old Time Graveyards, 
(from Toronto Sun, Aug. 9th, 1899). The Old Time Dis- 
trict Councils, by T. W. Casey. 

Vol. IV. The Casey Scrap Books Part Two. Early 
Bay of Quinte Steam-boating, by T. W. Casey. Early 
Slavery in the Midland District, by T. W. Casey. Some 
Anti Rebellion Arrests, by T. W. Casey. Our First Repres- 
entatives in Parliament, by T. W. Casey. This County in 
the Sixties, by T. W. Casey. Amherst Island, by T. W. 
Casey. Newburgh, by T. W. Casey. 

Vol. V. The Bell and Laing School Papers, with an 
introduction and notes by C. M. Warner. An Early School 
Register, with an introduction and Notes by W. S. Her- 



Pioneer life on the Bay of Quinte does not 'differ mater- 
ially from pioneer life in any other part of Ontario, except 
along such lines and to such extent as that life may be 
moulded or influenced by the proximity of the bay itself. 
Ths presence of an extensive body of navigable water 
indenting the shore line would naturally induce the residents 
along its shores to seek communication with each other by 
the means that offers the least resistance, that is by means 
of boats. The familiarity with this means of conveyance 
would have a tendency to develop a love for a life upon the 
water ; for while familiarity with that life may breed a 
contempt for its dangers, the old adage holds good no fur- 
ther. It is not a matter of surprise, therefore, to learn 
that the FRONTENAC. the first steamer on Lake Ontario, was 
built on the bay shore at Bath in 1816 ; the first shipyard 
of any consequence for building sailing vessels was estab- 
lished just across the bay on Amherst^ Island about 1832, 
and the sailing masters upon all the inland lakes regard the 
homes on the Bay of Quinte as the best recruiting grounds 
for manning their ships. 

The longer one has lived upon the banks of a stream or 
the shores of a bay, the more loath is he to live amid 
surroundings of a different character. There is a fascination 
about the presence of the water which baffles our efforts to 
describe it. There is a sublime majesty about a mountain, 
a weird loneliness about a desert, an appealing mystery 
about a prairie, but a body of water, particularly a small 
navigable one, seems to comport with all our moods. 

It would have been difficult to convince some of our 
pious and sainted grandmothers that the Bay of Quinte did 
not leave its moral effect upon those who lived along its 
shores. Who is so dead to the influences of his surround- 
ings 'that he has not stood spell-bound upon the shore as 
the boisterous waves broke with an angry roar at his feet ? 
No sooner, had one spent its energy than another with a 
fury as relentless rushed madly forward, followed by count- 
less others, and yet there was no apparent loss of power. 

*Read before The Ontario Historical Society at Ottawa on 
June 3rd, 1914. 


Or who could sit unmoved upon a moonlight night and look 
upon the silver sheen over the placid bosom of the water 
and not feel the inspiring presence of that grand object 
lesson of "Peace ! perfect Peace !"? Why should it not be 
a part of the divine plan of the Creator to mould our char- 
acters by these evidences of his power and omnipresence ? 

While we may not be able to demonstrate the theory of 
some of our ancestors that the bay has produced a benign 
effect opon the lives of many within the sphere of its influ- 
ence, yet I believe that our physicial environments mould 
our characters more than we are accustomed to admit. We 
unconsciously look through Nature up to Nature's God ; 
and, the more avenues there are open to that God, the 
more likely are we to wander in that direction. Is not this 
mysterious influence evidenced by the superstitions of the 
sailors and the fishermen ? They hear a voice calling to 
them from the waters and in their simple way they try to 
interpret it. 

When the first Loyalists landed at the different points 
along the shore, the lots had not yet been marked out by 
the surveyors, and they were obliged to wait several weeks 
before the "drawings" could take place. They had brought 
with them a number of military, tents which had seen ser- 
vice during the revolutionary war. Camping out in tents, 
as a recreation for a few weeks during the summer, is still 
looked upon as- a rather pleasing pastime. It was, however, 
very annoying to the Loyalists. They had left their homes 
across the border eight months before to enable them to be 
ready to take possession of their new homes in the early 
spring, and it was already past the middle of June and 
every day lost meant one day less to enable them to pre- 
pare for the coming winter. 

They had no alternative but to pitch their tents near 
where they had landed and wait until the surveyors had 
completed their work. Several weeks were thus passed in 
idleness and July was far spent before the "drawings" took 
place. This was a simple process. Small pieces of paper 
upon which were written the numbers of the lots to be 
apportioned were placed in a hat and the surveyor, with a 
map spread out before him, superintended the operation. 
The officers came first and drew their lots in the first con- 
cession, fronting upon the water. As each drew forth a 
piece of paper from the hat the surveyor entered his name 
upon the corresponding number upon the map. After the 
officers had been served, the other members of the company 
went through the same ceremony. During the few weeks 
that they had been waiting, some had made short trips 
through the forest and 'had observed favorite locations, and 
after, the drawings had taken place, there was more or less 

Foot Stove 


trafficking in lots and exchanging locations for a consider- 
ation ; but for the most part each accepted the lot drawn 
and hurried away to his future home. 

The white village upon the shore was soon a scene of 
great confusion. Each family secured a few days' rations 
from the government supplies, packed up the tent and their 
other belongings and set out through the lonely forest. 
Unless one has visited a section of our country from which 
the timber has not yet been removed, it is difficult to form 
a proper conception of the condition of our older settled 
portions one hundred and thirty years ago. The debris of 
the forest lay rotting as it had fallen, the swamps were 
undrained, the rivers and creeks unbridged and the only 
roads were the blazed trails of the surveying party. The 
clearing up and draining of the farms has brought about a 
great change in the low lands. Large impassable creeks 
have been reduced to small streams that can be crossed 
with ease, and tho swamps, winch threatened to mire any 
who ventured over them a century ago, furnish a safe and 
firm foothold now. 

It was with difficulty that the lots could be located, as 
there was nothing to indicate the boundary lines but the 
markers placed by the surveyors. When the little family 
group arrived at their, destination, they pitched their tent 
again and the housewife busied herself in preparing their 
first meal in their new home, while the husband surveyed 
his domain, noting the character of the soil, the presence 
of creeks, mounds and other conditions favorable for the 
first clearing and the erection of a house. That the selec- 
tion was in most cases wisely made is attested to-day by 
the excellent natural surroundings of the old homesteads. 

As they partook of their first meal in their wilderness 
home they contrasted their primitive surroundings with the 
comforts and luxuries they had left behind them in the 
south ; but, with no regret for the sacrifices they -had made, 
they laid their plans for the future. On the morrow the 
father and sons, if there were any, and not infrequently the 
mother too, set out to do battle with the forest. The 
short handled ship axe, not much heavier than the modern 
hatchet, was their only weapon. They labored with a will 
and cleared a space large enough for the cabin. 

There was no cellar nor foundation as for our buildings 
of to-day. A small excavation in the centre, to be reached 
through a trap-door in the floor by means of a short ladder, 
served the purpose of the former, and a boulder placed 
under the ends of the base logs at each corner of the build- 
ing was ample support for the walls. It was slow work, 
felling the huge pines, cutting them into proper lengths, 
hewing them into shape and laying them into position, but 


slowly the building rose until it attained the height of nine 
feet, when the rafters were set in position. Then, too, the 
chimney was commenced. A stone foundation was carefully 
prepared, crowned with flat stones to serve as the hearth. 
The huge fire-place was then built of stones, and above it 
was erected a chimney in a manner similar to the house, 
but instead of using logs, small sticks, two or three inches 
in diameter, were laid tier upon tier in the form of a 
hollow rectangle. It was carried a foot or two above the 
peak and plastered over with clay inside and out. In many 
of the early dwellings there were no chimneys and the 
smoke was allowed to escape through a hole in the roof as 
best it could. 

The roof was composed of thick slabs, hollowed out in 
the form of shallow troughs, and these were laid alternate- 
ly with the hollow sides up, the convex form of one over- 
lapping the edges of the concave forms of those on either 
side. There was an opening for a door, but, with timber 
"to burn", no lumber was to be had at any price unless it 
was sawed out by the tedious process of the whip saw, so 
doors there were none ; but a quilt hung over the opening 
served the purpose. Two small windows, one on either side 
of the door, admitted light to the dwelling. These windows 
would hold four or six 7x9 panes of glass, but many a 
settler had to content himself with oiled paper instead. 
The sash he whittled out with his pocket knife. Some- 
times there was no attempt at a transparency, and the 
window was opened and closed by sliding a small piece of 
board, set in grooves, back and forward across the aperture. 
The interstices between the logs were filled with sticks and 
moss plastered over with clay. Thus the pioneer's house 
was complete and not a nail or screw was used in its con- 
struction. When lumber became available a plank or thick 
board door took the place of the quilt in the doorway and 
was fastened by a strong wooden latch on the inside. The 
latch was lifted from without by means of a leather string 
attached to it and passed through a hole a few inches above 
and when the inmates of the house retired for the night or 
did not wish to be molested the string was pulled inside. 
The old saying "the latch^string is out" was a figurative 
method of expressing a welcome or saying "the door is not 
barred against you". The pioneers had big hearts, and to 
their credit it can be said the latch-string was rarely pulled 
in when a stranger sought a meal or a night's lodging. 

If the family was large the attic was converted into a 
second room by carrying the walls up a log or two higher. 
Poles flattened on both sides were laid from side to side to 
serve as a ceiling to the room below and as a floor for the 
one above. A hole left in one corner gave admittance by 


means of a ladder and one small window in the gable com- 
pleted the upper room. 

For the same reason that there was no door there was 
precious little furniture. Some of the Loyalists brought a 
few pieces, a grandfather's chair, a chest of drawers or a 
favorite bedstead, but, as a rule, there was no furniture 
but such as was hewed out with the axe and whittled into 
shape and ornamented with a pocket knife. A pocket knife 
and a pen knife are not synonymous. The former was a 
strong knife made to serve many useful purposes, while the 
latter was a small knife carried for the purpose of shaping 
the quill pens. 

For a bedstead there was a platform of poles across one 
end of the room, about two feet above the floor, supported 
by inserting the ends between the logs in the wall. Rough 
benches xvith four legs served as seats and a table was 
similarly constructed on a larger scale. Later on when 
lumber was obtainable these articles of furniture were re- 
placed by more serviceable ones. The deal table, the board 
bench and the old fashioned chair with the elm bark bottom 
and back, woven as in a basket, were one step in advance. 
It not infrequently happened that in large families there 
were not enough seats to accommodate all, and the younger 
members stood up at the table during meal time. If a 
bedstead could be afforded it was sure to be a four-poster 
with tester and side curtains. Bunks were built against the 
walls which served as seats in the daytime but, when open- 
ed out, served as beds at night. Wooden bedsteads were 
also made and supplied with mattresses of boughs, corn 
husks, straw or feathers, resting upon wooden slats or more 
frequently cords laced from side to side and end to end of 
the framework. A trundle bed for the children would be 
stowed away under the bedstead during the daytime and 
hauled out at night. This was like a large bureau drawer 
with rollers or small wooden wheels on the bottom and 
handles in front. The handles consisted of short pieces of 
rope, the ends of which ran through two holes and were 
knotted on the inner side. 

As soon as the iron could be procured a crane was 
swung over the fire-place and from it were suspended the 
iron tea-kettle and the griddle. The latter was a large disc 
upon which the pancakes were made. It was supported by 
an iron bale and was large enough to hold eight or ten fair 
sized cakes. The frying pans were similar to those in use 
to-day, but were furnished with handles three feet long so 
that they could be used over the hot coals of the fire-place. 
The bake-kettle was an indispensible article in every house- 
hold. It was about eighteen inches in diameter, stood upon 
short legs and would hold four or five two-pound loaves or 


their equivalent. The coals would be raked out on the 
hearth and the kettle set over them and more coals heaped 
upon the iron lid. These were replenished, above and below, 
from time to time, until the bread was thoroughly baked. 
The bake-kettle was superseded by the reflector, which was 
an oblong box of bright tin enclosed on all sides but one. 
It was placed on the hearth with the open side next a bed 
of plowing coals. In it were placed the tins of dough 
raised a few inches from the bottom so the heat could cir- 
culate freely about the loaves. The upper part of the 
reflector was adjustable, to enable the housewife to inspect 
the contents. 

The reflector in time gave way to the bake-oven, which 
was built in the wall next the fire-place, so that one chim- 
ney would serve for both, or the oven would be built out- 
doors under the same roof as the smoke-house. The latter 
was a comparatively air-tight brick or stone chamber used 
for smoking beef and the hams and shoulders of the pigs. 
Before the advent of the smoke-house, strips of beef required 
for summer use were dried by suspending them from pegs in 
the chimney. 

The reflector was sometimes used for roasting meat, but 
where the family could afford it, a roaster was kept for 
that purpose. It was smaller than the reflector and con- 
structed in a similar manner and, running from end to end 
through the centre, was a small iron bar, one end of which 
terminated in a small handle or crank. This bar, called a 
spit, was run through the piece of meat, and by turning 
the handle from time to time the meat was revolved and 
every portion of the surface was in turn brought next the 
fire. The drippings from the meat were caught in a drip- 
ping-pan placed underneath for the purpose. These drip- 
pings were used for basting the roasting meat and this was 
done with a long handled basting spoon through an opening 
in the back, which could be closed at will. 

As there were no matches in the early days the fire was 
kept constantly burning, and when not required the coals 
could be covered over with ashes, where they would remain 
alive for hours. Occasionally the coals would die out and 
then one of the younger members would be sent away to a 
neighbor to obtain a pan of live ones. Most families were 
skilled in making a fire by striking sparks from a flint upon 
a dry combustible substance, or by rapidly revolving one 
dry piece of pine against another, as the Indians used to 
do, but these practices were slow and not resorted to except 
in extreme cases. 

The blazing logs in the fire-place furnished ample light 
during the winter evenings. The inventive genius of man 
has since produced the kerosene lamp, gas, acetylene, elec- 

Gears and Reeds 



tricity and other illuminants, but none of them can extend 
the bright welcome of the pine knots blazing about the old 
fashioned back-log. If any other artificial light was required 
the tallow dip was the only alternative. This was a tallow 
candle made before the moulds were introduced. A kettle 
would be placed over the coals with five or six inches of 
water in the bottom. When it was brought to the boiling 
point there was added the melted tallow, which remained 
on the surface of the water. The only service the water 
was intended to render was to support the tallow by rais- 
ing it so many inches above the bottom of the kettle, where 
it could be made use of much more easily than it could if it 
remained at the bottom. The candle wicks were twisted 
with a loop slipped over the end of a small stick. Five or 
six would be thus suspended from the stick and slowly 
dipped into the liquid tallow, by which process the wicks 
became saturated and as soon as the tallow congealed they 
were dipped in again and the operation repeated until the 
wick was surrounded by a thick coating of tallow very 
similar to the ordinary wax or tallow candle, but not so 
smooth or uniform in size as those made in the moulds. 

Dishes were as scarce as cooking utensils. A few 
earthenware plates, bowls and a platter were displayed up- 
on a shelf and these were all the house could produce. 
Others were whittled out of the fine grained wood of the 
poplar and served the purpose fairly well until the Yankee 
pedlar arrived with the more desirable pewter ware. 

A corner cupboard, from whose mysterious depths, even 
in our time, our grandmothers used to produce such stores 
of cookies, doughnuts, tarts and pies, completed the equip- 
ment of the pioneer's first house. 

Unless the site for the homestead was conveniently near 
a spring or other never-failing supply of fresh water, one of 
the settler's first requirements was a well. The location 
for this was, as a rule, determined by a divining rod of 
witch hazel in the hands of an expert. Confidence in this 
method of ascertaining the presence of water has not yet 
died out, as the writer witnessed the payment of five 
dollars last summer for a service of this kind. When the 
well was dug and stoned up, heavy poles were laid over it 
to protect it. A pole was planted ten or twelve feet from 
the well and terminated in a crotch several feet above the 
ground, the distance depending upon the depth of the well. 
In this crotch rested another pole called a "sweep", to 
the small end of which, suspended over the centre of the 
well, hung the bucket. The sweep was so balanced that its 
heavy end would lift the bucket of water from the well with 
vtery little effort upon the part of the operator. 

During the first season neither barns nor stables were 


required, as the settler had neither stock nor crop of grain. 
When he did need them they were built of logs in the same 
manner as the house. 

A small clearing about the house was made the first 
year in which was planted some turnip seed. This patch 
was carefully guarded and yielded a small crop of roots 
which were stored away for winter use in a root cellar built 
for the purpose. It was a small rough enclosure of logs 
built in a bank or the side of a hill and covered over with 

Little further progress could be made in the new home 
until more land was cleared, stock introduced and farming 
operations begun in earnest. This took years to accomplish 
as the land was densely wooded and even with the aid of 
the cross-cut saw and the oxen it was slow work getting 
ready for the plow. The farmers worked early and late 
battling with the forest, single handed and in bees, cutting 
and burning the valuable timber, which to-day would yield 
a fortune, but then, the only return from it was the potash 
made from the ashes. The stumps were most unyielding, 
particularly the pine ones, and all sorts of contrivances 
were devised to uproot them. Sometimes they were burned 
out, but this was a slow process and a large portion of the 
soil about them would be burned. Blasting powder was 
used and many patterns of stump machines, but the most 
common and perhaps the most satisfactory method was to 
cut the roots that could be easily reached, hitch a logging 
chain to one side and let the oxen tip it over by sheer 
brute force. The pine stumps made excellent fuel for the 
fire-place, and were also used 'for fences. 

When the first crop of grain was obtained it was har- 
vested with the crude implements of the day and conveyed 
to the threshing floor. As a^ rule, this consisted of a bare 
piece of ground, sometimes covered with boards or flat 
stones, but more frequently the bare earth had no covering. 
Here the grain was pounded out with a flail and nature 
supplied the fanning mill by blowing the chaff away when 
the mixed grain and chaff were tossed into the air during 
a stiff breeze. 

To convert the wheat into flour was a more serious 
matter. The government had provided a few little hand 
mills, but they were not adapted to the purpose, so the 
settler took a lesson from the Indian, burned a large hole 
in the top of an oak stump and pounded the wheat to a 
powder with a pestle or a cannon ball suspended from the 
end of a sweep. It was not many years before government 
mills, operated by water power, were erected at different 
points, so that this section, through its excellent system of 
waterways, suffered little inconvenience compared with some 


parts of the province, in getting their grists to the mills. 

Ten, fifteen or twenty years wrought a great change in 
the wilderness home. Small clearings were everywhere to 
be seen. Barns had sprung up, the houses had been enlarg- 
ed, and the hoarse tinkling of the bells betrayed the 
presence of the cattle. Sheep and swine were also found on 
every farm, but they had to be guarded to protect them 
from marauding bears and wolves. Of horses there were a 
few. Awkward as the ox may appear with his swaggering 
gait, he was more than a match for the horse in finding a 
sure footing among the stumps, logs and fallen timbers. 
Breaking in "Buck and Bright" to come under the yoke and 
to respond to the "gee", "'haw" and the snap of the whip 
was a tedious undertaking, but was successfully accom- 

The general store had appeared, but the pioneer had 
learned to be independent, and still supplied most of his 
own wants. He raised his own flax, and when it was ripe 
he pulled it by hand, tied it into small sheaves so it would 
dry quickly, and shocked it up. When it was cured, it was 
taken to the barn and threshed out with a flail. The straw 
was then spread out on the ground and left for two or 
three weeks until it had rotted sufficiently to permit the 
stalks to be broken without severing the outer rind, which 
supplied the shreds. The object was to get it in such a 
condition that this outer part could be freed from the inner. 
It was first put through a crackle, which was a bench four 
feet long composed of three or four boards stood on their 
edges and just far enough apart so that three or four 
similar boards, framed together and operated from a hinge 
like a pair of nut crackers, would, when closed down, drop 
into the several spaces between the lower boards. The 
straw was passed over the lower boards at right angles and 
the operator raised and lowered the upper frame bringing 
it down on the flax, breaking the stalks and loosening the 
outer shreds from the inner pulp. To remove the pulp the 
stalks were then drawn over a heckle, which was a board 
with scores of long nails protruding through. This combed 
the coarser pulp away, when the same process was repeated 
over a finer heckle, which left the shreds ready to be spun 
into thread on a spinning wheel similar to but smaller than 
that used in spinning wool. The thread was then bleached, 
dyed, wound into balls and passed on to the weaver. In 
like manner the farmer raised his own sheep, sheared them 
and washed and carded the wool. Every maiden served her 
apprenticeship beside the spinning wheel and her education 
was not complete until she had learned how to spin the 
yarn, pass it over the swift and prepare it for the loom, 
which had become a part of the equipment of nearly every 


house. The linen, flannel and fullcloth for the entire family 
were made upon the premises. Service was more sought 
after than style, particularly in the "every day clothes", 
and, if the mother or maiden aunt could not cut and make 
a suit, the first itinerant tailor who happened along was 
installed as a member of the household for a fortnight and 
fitted out the whole family for the next year. 

The boots and shoes were also home-made, or at least 
made at home. Somewhere about every farm would be 
found a tanning trough, .in which a cowhide would be 
immersed for three weeks in a weak solution of lye to re- 
move the hair and any particles of flesh still adhering 1 to 
the skin. It was then transferred to a tub containing a 
solution of oak bark and left for several months, after 
which it was softened by kneading and rubbing, and was 
then ready to be made up. The making of the boots requir- 
ed considerable skill. A man can wear and obtain good 
service from an ifl-made suit of clothes, but a poor fitting 
pair of boots is an abomination likely to get the wearer 
into all sorts of trouble. Corns and bunions are not of 
modern origin, but have afflicted the human race ever since 
boots were worn. A kit of shoemaker's tools, composed of 
a last, hammer, awls and needles, was to be found in every 
house, and some member was supposed to be expert in 
adding a half sole or applying a patch ; but few attempted 
to make the boots. The itinerant cobbler went about from 
house to house and performed this service. A few years 
later every neighborhood had its tannery and every village 
its one or more shoemakers. The tanner took his toll from 
each hide and the shoemaker for a bag of potatoes, a roll 
of butter or a side of pork would turn out a pair of boots 
which would outwear the factory-made articles of to-day. 

The skins of the bear, fox and raccoon furnished fur caps 
for the winter, and the rye straw supplied the material for 
straw hats for summer, and some member of nearly every 
family was capable of producing the finished articles from 
these raw materials. The milliner, as such, would have had 
a hard time in earning a living a hundred years ago, as 
head-gear at that time was worn to protect the head. 

The life of the early settler was not all work and 
drudgery. They had their hours of recreation and what is 
best of all they had the happy faculty in many matters of 
making play out of work. This was accomplished by means 
of bees. There were logging bees, raising bees, stumping 
bees and husking bees for the men, while the women had 
their quilting bees and paring bees. The whole neighbor- 
hood would be invited to these gatherings. It may be that 
upon the whole they did not accomplish more than could 
have been done sinR-lehanded, except at the raisings, which 

The Langhorn Residence, Bath 

The Finkle Tavern, Bath 


required many hands to lift the large timbers into place ; 
but work was not the only object in view. Man is a gre- 
garious animal and loves to mingle with his fellow man. 
The occasions for meetings of any kind during the first few 
years were very rare. There were no fairs, concerts, lec- 
tures or other public entertainments, not even a church, 
school or political meeting, so, in their wisdom, they 
devised these meetings for work, and work they did, but 
Oh ! the joy of it ! All the latest news gathered from every 
quarter was discussed, notes were compared on the progress 
made in the clearings, the wags and clowns furbished up 
their latest jokes, and all gorged themselves with the good 
things brought forth from the corner cupboard. 

Perhaps some special mention should be made of the 
logging bee, as it stands out alone as the only one of these 
jolly gatherings that was regarded as a necessary evil, par- 
ticularly by the female members of the family. Perhaps 
the grimy appearance of the visitors had something to do 
with -the esteem in which they were held at such times. 
The logging bee followed the burning of the fallow, which 
consumed the underbrush, the tops and branches of the 
trees and left the charred trunks to be disposed of. In 
handling these the workers soon became black as negroes, 
and the nature of the work seemed to demand an extra- 
ordinary consumption of whiskey, anyway the liquor was 
consumed, the men frequently became disorderly and con- 
cluded the bee with one or more drunken fights. The after- 
noon tea now serves its purpose very well, but modern 
society has yet to discover the equal of the quilting bee as 
a clearing-house for gossip. To the credit of the fair sex 
we might add that they rarely made use of intoxicants ; 
but the old grannies did enjoy a few puffs from a blackened 
clay pipe after their meals. 

Whiskey was plentiful in the good old days, but the 
drinking of it was not looked upon with such horror nor 
attended with such disastrous consequences as in our day. 
This difference was probably due both to the drink and the 
drinker. Some people will not admit that any whiskey is 
bad, while others deny that any can be good, but the 
whiskey of a hundred years ago does not appear to have 
had as fierce a serpent in it as the highly advertised brands 
of the present day. It possessed one virtue, and that was 
its cheapness. When a quart could be purchased for six 
pence, a man could hardly be charged with rash extrava- 
gance in buying enough whiskey to produce the desired 
effect. It was considered quite the proper thing to drink 
upon almost any occasion and upon the slightest provoca- 
tion, and if a member of a company received an overdose 
and glided under the table, it created no more sensation 


than if he had fallen asleep. As the population increased 
taverns were set up at every crossing of the roads. Some 
of these, especially the recognized stopping places of the 
stage coaches, were quite imposing hostelries, and as the 
guests gathered about the huge fire-place on a winter's 
evening and smoked their pipes, drank their toddy and ex- 
changed their tales of adventure and travel, the scene pro- 
duced was one that has no counterpart in our day. It was 
a form of sociability and entertainment that departed with 
the passing of the stage coach. 

In this age of railroads and motor cars we have no 
conception of the discomforts of travel eighty or a hundred 
years ago. The Loyalists clung for many years to the 
bateaux, the flat bottomed boats, which brought them in 
the first place to the shore of the bay. They were used 
even in long journeys, and in going west they were carried 
across the Carrying Place at the head of the bay by a man 
named Asa Weller, who kept a low wagon and a yoke of 
oxen ready at hand to transport the travellers from the bay 
to the lake and back again upon the return trip. In 1816 
the first stage line in the province was inaugurated between 
Kingston and Bath by Samuel Purdy, of Bath, and in the 
following year he opened a line from Kingston to York. 
The roads were wretched and the fare was eighteen dollars. 
Fourteen years later William Weller, a son of Asa, whose 
business ol transporting the bateaux from one body of water 
to the other had brought him in contact with the travelling 
public and acquainted him with their needs, established a 
bi-weekly service between the Carrying Place and York, in 
connection with the steamer Sir James Kempt, which car- 
ried the passengers on to Prescott. The fare from York to 
Prescott was 2 slO. The stage left York at four o'clock 
in the morning, arriving at the Carrying Place the same 
evening. The very term stage-coach suggests to our minds 
a spanking four-in-hand, in brass mounted harness, attached 
to a gayly decorated conveyance. We picture them dashing 
through a village under the crack of the coachman's whip. 
Away they go, rattling over the bridge -down the turnpike, 
and with a shrill blast of the footman's horn they haul up 
at the wayside inn where a fat and smiling landlord escorts 
them in to a hot dinner. Such were not the stage coaches 
of our forefathers. They were simply lumber wagons, with- 
out springs, covered with canvas like the prairie schooners, 
or plain wooden enclosures with seats suspended by leather 
straps. Just think of being cooped up in such an affair 
from sunrise to sunset, jolting over the rough roads, dodg- 
ing stumps, rocks and fallen trees, plunging down a steep 
embankment, fording rivers and streams, and sinking now 
and then to the axl-es in mud. During the summer months 


the mosquitos and black fties added to the misery of the 
travellers. Even so, in this as in all things, the pion-eers 
looked not so much on the dark side of life as on the 
bright. The distance was to be covered, every jolt and 
bump brought them one step nearer their destination. The 
tales of the fellow travellers were entertaining and helped 
to shorten the way. Perhaps he was a legislator just re- 
turning from a meeting of the House, perhaps a merchant 
on his way to Montreal to make his year's purchase of 
g-oods, or a young adventurer from the old country spying 
out an opportunity to better himself in the new world. The 
forest had its charms, albeit the insects at times were 
abominable. As they passed through a clearing the yeoman 
with a swing of his hat would wish them God-speed. The 
monotony was broken time and again by a glimpse of the 
bay or lake and the road, in places, followed the beach 
where the waves broke under the horses' feet. Awaiting 1 
them at the journey's end were that rest and peace which 
the home alone can afford, that bright welcome of the fire- 
side built with their own hands and the smiles of the loved 
ones who had shared all their trials and victories. It was 
symbolical of that greater journey through life upon which 
we are all embarked and which we travel but once. 


During the first few years of the Loyalist settlements 
the laws were administered in a haphazard fashion a sort 
of paternal military despotism. Being a portion of the 
Province of Quebec, the laws of that province technically 
applied ; but there was no machinery for enforcing them, so 
the officers in command of the various companies preserved 
order and settled civil disputes as best they could, and, 
considering the opportunities for differences, there was very 
little friction, and such as did arise was disposed of most 
creditably. In 1792 a government was given to Upper 
Canada, but, even before the arrival of Governor Simcoe, 
many of the communities had organized their town meetings 
and appointed their local officers, such as clerks, constables 
and overseers of highways. The Statute authorizing such 
meetings was based upon the organizations already in 
existence, so that the idea of local self-government did not 
originate with the legislature. Parliament merely legalized 
and made general throughout the entire province the holding 
of just such town meetings as had already been organized 
in many of the older townships. 

i It is no particular mark of superiority to-day to be en- 
rolled as a justice of the peace. ; on the contrary it might 
be regarded as a distinction to escape it. Not so in the 


early days of our province. The humblest citizen is now 
addressed as an esquire, but a hundred years ago all hats 
were doffed when the "Squire" passed through the streets 
of a village. He was a man of some importance. He tried 
petty offences in 'his own neighborhood, as a member of the 
Court of Requests minor civil actions were heard by him, 
but as a member of the Court of General Sessions he rose 
to his greatest dignity. This body of justices, assembled in 
General Session, not only disposed of civil and criminal 
cases, but were clothed with ministerial power as well. 
They enacted local legislation for the districts they repre- 
sented, levied and disbursed the taxes, granted licenses, 
superintended the erection of court houses and gaols, the 
building of bridges and generally performed the functions of 
our municipal councils of to-day. They would meet periodi- 
cally in the leading village of the district and would some- 
times remain in session for a week, and, considering the 
amount of business they transacted, they were very expedi- 
tious when compared with the modern County Council. 

The town meeting continued to meet once a year, the 
first Monday in March, to appoint its officers, and, although 
they had no jurisdiction to do so, to pass, repeal and 
amend enactments for purely local purposes. These "Pru- 
dential Laws", as they called them, regulated such matters 
as the height of fences, the running at large of certain 
animals and the extermination of foul weeds. The people 
favored the town meeting, as it was of their own making. 
It was the first step in democratic government by and for 
the people. The chronic grumbler found there an opportun- 
ity to air his grievances. The loquacious inflicted his 
oratory upon his assembled neighbors. Each man to his 
liking played his part at the annual gathering and realized 
that he was of some consequence in controlling the affairs 
of the township. Thus did the inhabitants continue to 
encroach upon the authority of the Justices in Session, who 
from time to time issued their decrees dealing with some 
of the matters over which the town meetings had assumed 
jurisdiction, until 1850 when our present municipal system 
was introduced and the justices were practically shorn of 
all but their judicial power. 

Parliamentary elections to-day are very tame affairs 
compared with those of a century ago. The open vote 
afforded opportunities for exciting scenes that the rising 
generations know not of. The closing of the bars on 
election day has robbed the occasion of a good deal of 
romance. The actual voting contest is now limited to eight 
hours, from nine to five, and one might rest peacefully in a 
room adjoining a polling booth and not be aware that an 
election was in progress. It was all very different even fifty 


years ago. Whiskey and the open vote were two very 
patent factors in keeping up the excitement. Instead of 
having several boaths scattered throughout each township 
there was only one in the electoral district. The principal 
village in the district was generally selected, but some 
times the only booth was set up in a country tavern, 
especially if it was in a central location and the proprietor 
could pull enough political strings. A platform would be 
constructed out of rough boards and protected from the 
weather by a slanting roof. On Monday morning of election 
week the candidates and their henchmen would assemble in 
the vicinity of the platform, which was known as the hust- 
ing. The electors would come pouring in from all parts of 
the electoral district. Each party would have its head- 
quarters at a tavern or tent, or both, where the workers 
would lay their plans. The forenoon would be spent in 
listening to the orators of the day, and at one o'clock the 
polling would begin. It is easy to imagine what would 
happen to the doubtful voter when he arrived at the village. 
As the poll was kept open every day until Saturday night 
it is not quite so easy to picture the scene during the last 
day or two of a hat contest. Couriers with foaming horses 
were going and coming. Heated discussions frequently 
terminated in a rough and tumble fight, in which a score 
or more participated. Drunken men reeled about the streets 
until carefully stowed away by their friends in a tent or 
stall in the tavern stable. If the inebriate had not yet 
polled his vote his whilome friends would be most solicitous 
in the attention bestowed upon him. It not infrequently 
happened that the indifferent voter would purposely play 
into the hands of both parties. It was a golden opportunity 
for free lunches and whiskey, and the longer he deferred the 
fateful hour when he was to announce to the returning 
officer the candidate of his choice the more difficult it was 
for him to choose. In his dilemma he would seek his solace 
in a little more whiskey and, in the end, perhaps vote for 
the wrong man. If unhappily he did make such a mistake, 
his political guardians never failed to call his attention to 
the error in a manner not likely to be soon forgotten. Such 
incidents' were thereafter associated in the mind of the 
offender with unpleasant recollections of the village pump 
or the nearest creek. 

The Loyalists were so busy in clearing the land and 
getting the new home into shape that little time was left 
for looking after such matters as educating the young. 
There were no laws regulating the school system, no build- 
ings nor funds for school purposes, no officials to take the 
lead, and what was done was the spontaneous outcome of 
a desire to equip the rising generation for the duties of 


citizenship. The first efforts were those of the mother and 
other elder members of the family, but as early as 1786 a 
rural school was opened in the Township of Fredericksburgh. 
This was the second school in the province, the first having 
been opened the year before in the Village of Kingston by 
the Rev. John Stuart, the father of the English Church in 
Upper Canada. A few families clubbed together and 
employed a man to instruct their children in the rudimen- 
tary elements of a common school education. There was no 
building for the purpose, so a room was set apart in one 
of the dwellings, probably the only room on the ground 
floor, and while the good housewife busied herself about her 
duties on one side of 'the room the teacher was training the 
young ideas how to shoot on the other side. For one or 
two weeks he would remain with this family, getting his 
board and washing and two or three dollars a week, and 
then he would move on to the next neighbor with his little 
flock, and so on until the circuit of his subscribers of five 
or six families was completed, when he commenced again 
at the first. As late as 1818 in a contract entered into 
between the farmers in the Township of Halliwell, in the 
County of Prince Edward, we find the covenant to teach in 
the following words : "That the party of the first part 
engages to keep a good school according to his ability and 
to teach reading, writing and arithmetic." His hours were 
from eight o'clock in the morning until four in the after- 
noon, with one and one-half hours for noon. He was to 
teach every alternate Saturday. In addition to his board, 
lodging and washing, he was to be paid the princely salary 
of twelve and one-half dollars a month, "whereof one-half 
in cash at the end of the Quarter and the other in orders 
or other value monthly". Soon the little log school house 
appeared, not larger than fifteen by twenty feet, with a 
door in one end and a window on each side. On the inside 
holes were bored in the logs, pegs inserted and upon these 
pegs rested a plank. This was the desk, and the pupils 
while working at it necessarily sat with their faces towards 
the wall. A rude bench without a back was the only seat. 
Books were very scarce. About the only real school book 
that ever found its way into the hands of the pupil was 
Mayor's spelling book. The New Testament was the univer- 
sal reader, and if any other books were in use in the school 
the teacher was the only one who -had access to them. The 
three R's : Reading, Kiting- and Rithmetic were the extent 
of the general curriculum. 

There were no authorized text-books, and such as were 
in use were not all that could be desired. For many years 
the only geography used in the schools contained the follow- 
ing information relating to the continent of America : 


"What is America? The fourth part of the world, called 
also the New World," "How is North America divided ? 
Into Old Mexico, New Mexico, Canada or New France, New 
England and Florida". 

The next answer must have been particularly enlighten- 
ing to the ambitious youth thirsting for knowledge. 

"What is New France ? A large tract of ground about 
the River St. Lawrence, divided into East and West, called 
also Mississippi or Louisiana". 

Having given this very lucid explanation the author 
then proceeds to make his readers feel at home by acquaint- 
ing them with their neighbors.. "What does the East 
contain ? Besides Canada, properly so-called, it contains 
divers nations, the chief of which are the Esquimalts, 
Hurons, Christinals, Algonquins, Etechemins and Iroquois. 
The considerable towns are Quebec, Tadousac and Mont- 

"What is New Britain ? It lies north of New France 
and is not cultivated, but the English who possess it 
derive a great trade in beaver and originac skins." 

The painful part of the story of this most extraordin- 
ary geography is that what I have already quoted was all 
there was between its two covers in any way touching 
upon North America. So incredible does this sound in this 
enlightened age that to protect my own reputation I feel it 
necessary to submit as my authority the Documentary 
History of Education in Upper Canada Vol. 1, page 166. 

The great drawback to the legislative efforts to improve 
the system was the lack of uniformity. Each section and 
later, each district, followed, its own inclination and no 
satisfactory results were attained until Egerton Ryerson 
introduced his reforms and brought every school in the 
province under the same general supervision. 

The old teacher of the pioneer days is gone from us 
forever, and, while he served his day and generation as 
well as he knew how, we cannot entertain any feelings of 
regret that he will never return. Brute force played an 
important part in his system of instruction. The equipment 
of no school was complete without the tawse or leather 
strap, and the offending pupil was frequently despatched to 
the neighboring woods to cut from a birch tree the instru- 
ment of torture to be applied to his particular case. The 
minor parts of speech were recognized as such, not from 
the functions performed by them in the sentence in which 
they entered, but from the fact that they were in the list 
which the pupil was forced to memorize. "With" was a 
preposition because it was in the list of prepositions, and 
"forth" was an adverb, because the teacher said it was, 
and if by chance from nervousness or any other cause, the 


boy with a treacherous memory failed to place it under its 
proper heading, a flogging was considered a proper remedy 
for the offence. It sometimes happened that a boy did not 
see eye to eye with his teacher upon this question of cor- 
poral punishment, and a scrimmage would ensue, and if the 
teacher came out second best, his usefulness in that neigh- 
borhood was gone. 

To be learned, as the teacher was supposed to be, was 
a distinction which gave him a certain amount of promin- 
ence, and opened up for him several other fields of 
usefulness. He was frequently called upon as arbitrator to 
adjust complicated accounts, or to settle disputes in the 
measurement of wood or lumber, or to lay out a plot of 
ground with a given acreage. He was the court of last 
resort in matters of orthography and spelling. If he 
happened to be of a religious turn of mind he might be 
called upon to fill the pulpit in the absence of the regular 

The Squire and the school teacher each played their 
parts in the administration of the affairs of the neighbor- 
hood, each carried some weight and commanded a certain 
amount of respect ; but both yielded first place to the 
clergyman. While there were several denominations, the 
Anglicans, Presbyterians and Methodists included the great 
bulk of the population. The Anglicans were the pampered 
class, received most of the public favors, and were cor- 
respondingly haughty and independent. For the first 
fourteen years of the settlement the clergymen of this 
church enjoyed a monopoly in the matter of marrying. It 
was lawful under certain circumstances, where the parties 
were far removed from the clergyman, for a Justice of the 
Peace to tie the knot, and in rarer cases still for a mili- 
tary officer to perform the ceremony. In 1798 the privilege 
was extended to the ministers of the Presbyterian Church, 
and as they did not insist upon the wedding party going to 
the church, the "meenster" secured many fees which other- 
wise would have gone to his Anglican brother of the cloth. 
The great democratic body of Methodists were severely 
handicapped, and did not come to their own until 1831, 
when the gate was thrown wide open, and the clergy of 
nearly every recognized religious denomination were placed 
upon the same footing in respect to marrying as the 
Anglicans and Presbyterians. 

Some of the extreme Loyalists could not reconcile 
Methodism and loyalty to the Crown, and the records 
inform us of more than one persecution for preaching the 
doctrines of the Methodist Church ; in fact one duly 
elected member of the Legislative Assembly was refused his 
seat in the House because he had upon occasions filled the 

Standard Weights and Measures 

Large and Small Heckles 

Shuttles, Water Bottle, Candle Mould, Spools and Templey 


pulpit in a Methodist meeting house. It is only fair to 
those who opposed such extreme measures to explain that 
these extraordinary occurrences took place at a time when 
the feeling- in this country against the United States was 
very strong, and the Methodist body in Upper Canada was 
under the jurisdiction of a General Conference across the 

The life of the preacher even in our day is not one of 
unadulterated bliss, filled with sunshine, stewed chicken, 
prayers and mince pie, as a good many laymen seem to 
think. I can conceive of no more difficult task than being 
kept under constant restraint, listening to a thousand silly 
grievances and meeting all manner of people with a smile. 
So far as the comforts of this world are concerned, the 
modern clergyman has a very easy time of it when com- 
pared with the pioneer preacher of a hundred or more 
years ago. He travelled on horseback with his bible and 
a change of clothing in his saddle-bags, preaching ten or 
twelve times a week in churches, school houses, taverns and 
the log cabins of the settlers, wherever a few could be 
collected to receive the Gospel message. In all kinds of 
weather, the faithful preacher might be seen plodding along 
through the heavy snow drifts, or fording the unbridg-ed 
streams upon his holy mission to the remotest corners of 
the settlement. No complaint escaped his lips as he 
threaded his way through the lonely forest, now and then 
humming a few snatches from some old familiar hymn. 
Perchance he halted beside a spring for his mid-day meal, 
and fervently thanked God from whom all blessings flow as 
he hauled from his spacious pockets the sandwiches furnish- 
ed by his host of the night before. His circuit extended 
sometimes for fifty, sixty or an hundred miles, and he 
rarely spent his evenings at home, if he had one, but slept 
where night overtook him, glad of the opportunity to share 
a bunk with the parishioners' children, or make himself as 
comfortable as he could upon a mattress on the floor. His 
uniform may have been frayed and not of the orthodox cut, 
his sermons may not have possessed that virtue of brevity 
which so many congregations now demand, they may have 
fallen far short of some of the sensational discourses of 
to-day, but he was a faithful exponent of the Gospel, the 
plain and simple truth as he found it exemplified in the 
life of our Saviour. That the pioneers closely followed the 
tenets of the Golden Rule is largely due to the self-sacrific- 
ing efforts and exemplary life of the early missionaries. 

No religious gathering among the Methodists could com- 
pare with the camp-meeting. It was the red-letter week of 
the year, given up wholly to prayer, singing and exhorta- 
tion. The first meeting of this kind was held in the autumn 


of 1805 on the south shore of Hay Bay, near the old Metho- 
dist chapel. The Rev. Wm. Case is credited with having 
planned the meeting, and he was assisted by the old pioneer 
preachers, Bangs, Ryan, Pickett, Keeler and Madden. For 
several years they met annually in this vicinity, and the 
meetings became so popular that they began to look about 
for a more favorable location. Several matters had to be 
considered. The first essential was a grove high and dry 
and free from underbrush, accessable both by land and 
water. An ideal spot was found at the head of Carnahan 
Bay, then known as Perch Cove. It is the first inlet north 
of the main channel of the Bay of Quinte, nearly opposite 
Glenora. At the head of this small bay a stony point 
separates the mouths of two creeks ; Chalmer's creek on 
the south and a small tortuous stream on the north bear- 
ing the rather effeminate name of Mary Ann's Creek. The 
latter ran alongside a grove which was selected as the 
permanent camping ground. Near by was a never-! ailing 
spring of pure water, and Ohalmer's Creek furnished a safe 
shelter and convenient landing for the bateaux. The audi- 
torium was in the shape of a horseshoe, about one^half acre 
in extent, surrounded by tents made of canvas or green 
boughs supported by poles. Across that part corresponding 
with the opening in the shoe was a preachers' platform. In 
front of it was a single row of logs, the penitent bench, 
and the rest of the space was filled with parallel rows of 
logs, the pews. Thither by land and water came the 
devout Methodists of the district ; but then, as now, the 
females far outnumbered the males in their religious obser- 
vances. With them they brought chests of provisions, their 
bedding and bibles. Morning, noon and night the woods 
resounded with songs of praise, the warning messages of the 
preachers and the prayers of the faithful pitched in every 
conceivable key. The surroundings seemed to add an inspir- 
ation to the services. When the great throng joined fervent- 
ly in "All Hail the Power of Jesus' Name", to the accom- 
paniment of the rustling leaves, the hearts of all present 
were deeply moved. During the closing exercises, marching 
in pairs around the great circle, with mingled feelings of 
gladness and sorrow, they sang lustily the good old hymns 
and then with many affectionate leave-takings dispersed to 
their several homes. 

The staple articles of food among the pioneers were 
much the same as in our day. Pork formed the chief item 
of meat. The hams and shoulders were smoked, and the 
rest of the carcass preserved in a strong brine. The flour 
was coarser than the article we get from the modern 
roller mills, but none the less wholesome. Corn meal was 
used much jnore extensively than now. It was boiled and 


used as a porridge for breakfast with a thick covering of 
brown sugar sprinkled over it, and what was left over 
became quite firm as it cooled and was eaten for supper 
with milk, or cut into thin slices and fried. Corn meal 
griddle cakes were also in great demand. Johnny-cake was 
not popular, as it was regarded as a Yankee dish, and it 
took a good many years for the Loyalists to reconcile 
themselves to anything in any way associated with their 
former persecutors. 

Wild strawberries, raspberries, plums and gooseberries 
were to be had for the picking, and the thrifty housewife 
always laid in a good supply. The raspberries and plums 
were dried in the sun and put away for future use or made 
into a jam like the .gooseberries and strawberries. 

The maple furnished the most of the sugar, but cane 
sugar was afterwards imported, not the white lump or 
granulated sugar of to-day, but a moist, dark brown un- 
refined product known as muscovado, from which the syrup 
had been drained. 

Tomatoes were not considered fit for human food until 
after the middle of the nineteenth century. If grown at all 
the fruit was used merely for purposes of ornamentation, 
suspended from strings in the windows under the name of 
love apples. 

Although our fresh waters abounded in fish of a superior 
quality, the Loyalists were not what we would call a fish 
eating people. Perhaps no people ever were or are as a 
matter of choice. Most of us enjoy a fish dinner once in a 
while, but few, if any, of us would care to accept it as a 
steady diet or as a substitute for meat. The rigors of our 
climate and the outdoor life of hard work seemed to call 
for something more sustaining. The bay teemed with 
maskalunge, bass, pickerel and pike, and in the late autumn 
months the whitefish and herring were very plentiful. The 
mascos were speared at night by the aid of a jack light, 
and they were even shot from the shore as they were 
lazily swaggering along in the shallow water. In the early 
spring a mess of pike could be secured at any time with 
very little effort. Every inlet and creek seemed to be alive 
with them. The white fish always has held first place 
among our merchantable fish. In the summer season they 
are caught in nets upon the shoals of the lake, and in 
October and November the seines are thrown across their 
path as they are running up the bay. I have heard an 
octogenarian, whose , truthfulness even in a fish story . I had 
no reason to doubt, declare that he had frequently, when a 
boy, speared fifty or sixty whitefish in one night. 

Clergy reserves and bad roads would not in the ordinary 
process of association of ideas be linked together, much less 


would we regard them in the relation of cause and effect. 
But to a great extent such is actually the case. It is only 
in recent years that it has -dawned upon our legislators that 
it requires some brains and good management, as well as 
tile, broken stones and ballast, to construct and maintain 
a good road. In very few rural sections of the Day of 
Quinte district, and the same holds good, I believe, of the 
greater part of the province, has any intelligent system of 
constructing public highways been adopted. Under the 
Constitutional Act a portion equal to one-seventh of the 
lands granted for settlement was set apart for the support 
of a Protestant clergy. These reserves lay, for the most 
part, unimproved. The only provision for the maintenance 
of roads cast upon the owners of lands the burden of keep- 
ing up the road crossing or adjoining their respective farms. 
The reserves were exempt from this liability, with the result 
that the highways along the reserves were as bad as ordin- 
ary wear and tear could make them. The load that can be 
carried over any road must be adapted to the worst part 
of it. "Why s-hould I", the farmer asked himself, "build a 
good road in front of my farm so long as there is that 
wretched stretch along the reserve ? I can take no greater 
load to market than can be hauled over that bad piece of 
road". So he neglected his own road, and his neighbors did 
the same. They became accustomed to poor roads, and, 
although there was an abundance of first-class material 
from which to build them, the roads were not built. The 
old system passed away and Statute labor was introduced. 
Was labor ever put to such poor use f The chief object of 
the pathmaster, who, as a rule, knew no more about build- 
ing roads than he did about higher mathematics, was to see 
that the time was put in. In some places he would cause 
the sides of the roads to be ploughed out and the loose 
earth heaped in the centre to facilitate the miring of the 
heavy loads after the first rain. In others, the loose stones 
uncovered and unrolled were left to be scattered about by 
the horses' hoofs. It is only in recent years that a genuine 
effort has been put forth to rouse the people from that 
indifference upon the subject of good roads that took posses- 
sion of them in the days of the clergy reserves. 

There were courts as early as 1787, and the parties 
before them were represented by counsel, but there was no 
recognized standard of admission to the bar, nor were there 
any restrictions placed upon those who appeared for the un- 
fortunate principals in the proceedings, and consequently 
there was no uniformity in the practice. In 1794 the Legis- 
lature empowered the Governor, Lieutenant-Governor or 
person administering the affairs of the province to "author- 
ize by license, under his hand and seal, such and so many 


of His Majesty's liege subjects, not exceeding sixteen in 
number, as he shall deem from their probity, education and 
condition in life best qualified, to act as advocates and 
attorneys in the conduct of all legal proceedings in the 
province." It will be observed that this Statute called for 
no educational test nor professional experience, which quite 
naturally, gave rise to an oft-repeated sarcastic allusion to 
the favored few so chosen as the "heaven-born lawyers". 
In 1797 another Act was passed, whereby all persons then 
admitted to practice were incorporated as the "Law Society 
of Upper Canada," which society, with its executive head- 
quarters at Osgoode Hall, still administers the affairs of 
the legal profession. In appointing the first members of 
the bench and bar the Government looked not so much for 
legal training- as common sense and uprightness. The 
jud-geship of the first Court oi Common Pleas in Upper 
Canada was tendered to a clergyman. 

Until such time as court houses and town halls were 
provided, justice was administered in such convenient room 
as could be secured for the purpose. The first sentence of 
capital punishment imposed in this province was pronounced 
in a tavern on the shore of the Bay of Quinte at Bath, and, 
as summary execution was the only recognized method of 
carrying- into effect the decrees of the court, the convict was 
immediately hanged to a basswood tree on the roadside, 
only a fe,w rods distant. The pathetic part of this tragic 
incident is that it was afterwards learned that the poor 
victim was innocent of the charge of which he was found 
guilty, the theft of a watch. Such a stigma attached to 
this particular basswood tree that it was adopted and used 
for years as a public whipping post. 

The first court of the General Quarter Sessions, outside 
the Village of Kingston, was held in a barn on Hay Bay in 
July, 1794, which served the purpose very well at that sea- 
son of the year. When the December Sessions came on it 
was a different matter and the authorities appealed to the 
Methodists for the use of their chapel, which was granted 
for that sittings ; but not without some unsavory com- 
ments about making "the house of prayer a den of thieves". 
A timely explanation was added to the effect that the 
reference was not directed against the lawyers, but the 

Very few, if any, of the lawyers in the early days 
devoted themselves exclusively to the practice of their pro- 
fession or depended solely upon their fees for a living. One 
of the first and most distinguished pioneer practitioners was 
Nicholas Hagerman, who lived, died and was buried upon 
his farm, a stone's throw from the spot where the first 
Loyalists landed ra the Township of Adolphustown. He had 


no office nor regular hours of practice, but was sought out 
by his clients in the harvest field or woods, and, leaning 
upon his scythe or sitting astride a fallen tree, he listened 
to the story and gave his advice. His son, Christopher, 
followed in his footsteps, and in due course became Chief 
Justice of the Province of Ontario. 

Our forefathers were subject to the same physical ail- 
ments as ourselves, but they do not appear to have suffered 
to the same extent from disease as we do in our day. The 
surgeon was rarely called upon to exercise his calling, and 
then only when amputations were felt to be necessary or 
some mutilated member needed mending. Fashionable 
operations were unknown. The iconoclastic tendencies of 
the bacteria in the human body had not been discovered, or, 
ii they had, war had not yet been declared upon them. Men 
went about their daily occupations too busy to bother with 
the microbes that the modern scientists tell us are gnawing 
at our vitals. Their greatest fear was from epidemics like 
the smallpox, which occasionally swept through a neighbor- 
hood, leaving a trail of sorrow in its wake. Licensed 
practitioners there were but few, and they were, for the 
most part, attached to the military posts. Occasionally, if 
the roads were passable, and they felt in the humor and 
saw a prospective fee of respectable proportions, they might 
be induced to visit a patient in the neighboring townships. 
In this, as in all other matters, the settlers did their best 
to serve themselves. 

No community in this or any other age ever lacked the 
services of a skilled specialist in any line very long before 
some unqualified individual volunteered to supply the want. 
It was not long before the quack doctor with his vile 
decoctions appeared among the pioneers. Strenuous efforts 
were made to legislate him out of existence, but he man- 
aged to evade the statutory prohibitions and has survived 
to the present day. During the first few decades of the 
Loyalist settlements it was not so much a question of 
whether the quack COULD practise in the townships, but the 
question more to the point was whether the educated and 
skilled physician WOULD practise. The settlers had become 
so expert in treating most of their complaints that they 
rarely deemed it necessary to secure the services of the 
medical practitioner, and when the real physician did take 
up his abode among them he generally engaged in some 
other calling as well and practised 'his profession as a side 

The mother or grandmother, as a rule, was the doctor, 
nurse and apothecary for the whole family. In the month 
of September, or perhaps October, when the phase of the 
moon was supposed to be favorable for the purpose, she 


would organize an expedition to the woods in search of a 
supply of herbs to replenish her medicine chest. In some 
cases she would dig" in the ground for the roots, in others 
the bark, leaves or stems were sought, and in others still 
the fruit or seeds possessed the medicinal properties. When 
she had gathered in her stores she would tie them up in 
bundles and hang them up in the attic or stow them away 
in some convenient nook until required. Her collection 
would contain specifics for nearly every ache and pain. It 
may be that in those days there was not the mad rush for 
excitement and wealth, and the average citizen kept better 
hours, ate plain and wholesome food and had some respect 
for the different organs of his body and did not make such 
ridiculous demands upon them as are made by some of the 
high livers of to-day. It may be, too, that mother's simple 
remedies went a long way to correct the excesses and in- 
dulgences of the weak and careless and to restore the 
health of the sickly. In any event the mortality does not 
appear to have been any greater than it is to-day. It might 
not be out of place to enumerate some of the uses to which 
many of the common herbs were put, as they possess the 
same, if any, medicinal properties to-day. 

For coughs and colds, a syrup was made from the roots 
of the spignet, another name for spike-nard. The tuber of 
the blood-root was dried and then grated into a fine pow- 
der. This was snuffed up the nostrils as a cure for polypus. 
Catnip has lost little of its popularity as a medicine for 
children. There are few, if any, of us who have not pro- 
tested vehemently against having our mouths pried open to 
receive a spoonful of tea made from the leaves of this 
common weed. The first symptoms of a stomach ache were 
sufficient to set the vile decoction brewing and almost any 
affection of the throat called for a dose of the same liquid. 

The word "tansy" is derived indirectly from a Greek 
word meaning "immortality", because the yellow blossoms, 
when dried, lose very little of their original shape and 
color. It is doubtful if the name had anything to do with 
the prescribing of tansy-tea as a tonic. It was extensively 
used for this purpose, and I can readily conceive a patient, 
after taking a dose, being quite ready to eat the first thing 
in sight to overcome the disagreeable taste left in his 
mouth by the medicine. 

Hop tea for indigestion and cherry bark tea for regulat- 
ing the blood were remedies widely known and extensively 

Smartweed steeped in vinegar was applied to bruises 
and swellings where there was no abrasion. It gave instant 
relief from pain and reduced the swelling. For use upon 


dumb animals, particularly the legs of horses, wormwood 
was substituted for the smartweed. 

For lame feet and other troubles requiring a soothing 
poultice the leaves of the plaintain were used. The -stems 
and ribs were first removed, the leaves allowed to wilt and 
then crushed by rolling them between the hands. 

A healing ointment for abrasions and open sores was 
made from the leaves of the ordinary garden bean. These 
were cut up, mixed with lard and heated over a slow fire. 
While still 'hot, the liquid lard, which had absorbed some of 
the juice of the leaves, was poured off and allowed to cool, 
when it was ready to be applied to the affected part. 

Even the roots of the burdoch, a most persistent and 
troublesome weed about most country homes, were put to 
an useful purpose. These were preserved by being dried, and 
when required were steeped and the tea thus produced was 
administered as a cure for indigestion and to regulate the 

The mandrake, mandragora or may-apple, has attracted 
much attention from the days of King Solomon to the 
present day. It has figured in literature in many capacities, 
all the way from a death dealing agent to the main ingred- 
ient of a love potion. From its roots our forefathers made 
a tea which they used as a gargle for sore throat. 

The roots of the nerve vine were chewed to quiet the 
nerves, hence the name. 

The roots of alacompane were utilized for man and beast. 
When steeped they produced a soothing and healing lotion 
for open wounds, and, made into a syrup, were administered 
to children suffering from whooping cough. 

In grandmother's dispensary every little leaflet had a 
mission all its own. 

It was not at all uncommon for a plain and simple 
farmer, with no pretensions of a knowledge of medicine or 
surgery, to acquire a reputation as a specialist in some 
particular branch of the profession. Perhaps in some emer- 
gency he would set a broken limb with results so satisfac- 
tory that his services would be requisitioned in the next 
case of a similar character. His patients so successfully 
treated would proclaim his fame abroad, and with the little 
experience thus acquired he would, in the eyes of his neigh- 
bors, become an expert in this operation. Another may 
accidentally have had thrust upon him the distinction of 
being able to reduce a dislocated joint. Dentists there were 
none, and extraction was the only remedy for troublesome 
teeth. Some one in the locality would own one of those 
vile instruments of torture, a turn-key. If a molar had 
been demanding too much attention from its owner and a 
hot fomentation failed to overcome the pain, the man with 

The Fairfield Residence, Bath 

St. John's Church, Bath 


the turn-key was paid a visit. Anaesthetics were unknown, 
and sterilization was not practised by the unprofessional. 
The victim was seated in a kitchen chair and grasped the 
rungs on either side. The operator loosened the gum from 
the unruly tooth with the blade of his pocket knife, the 
hook of the turn-key was inserted and with grim determin- 
ation the two men faced each other. The one clung dogged- 
ly to the chair, the other twisted the key. I will draw a 
curtain over the further details of the operation. Brute 
strength in the end prevailed. 

Such services were, as *a rule, rendered gratuitously, and 
while we would not care in our day to be at the mercy of 
such amateur practitioners, yet they were a great 
benefit to the neighborhood in which they resided, where it 
was frequently a choice of such aid as they could render or 
nothing at all. 

Of an entirely different class were the fakirs, who, with 
little or no knowledge of the diseases they treated and the 
remedies they prescribed, preyed upon the helplessness of 
their patients. With such the two great specifics were 
opium and mercury, and when in doubt a dose of calomel 
was administered. Bleeding, as a remedial measure, was a 
very common practice, and it was not considered at all 
extraordinary to relieve a patient of a quart or two of 
blood at a time. 

The educational qualifications of the quack may be in- 
ferred from the following advertisement, which was posted 
up in a public place in 1817 : 

"Richmond Oct 17, 1817. 

ADVERTISEMENT ;-Thls is to certify that I, Solomon Albert, 
is Good to cure any sore in word Complaint or any Pains, 
Rheumatick Pains or any Complaint what so ever the Sub- 
scriber doctors with yerbs and Roots, Any Person wishing 
to employ him will find him at Dick Bells. 
Solomon Albert" 

Mr. Albert's parents misjudged the possibilities of their 
hopeful offspring when they bestowed upon him the Christian 
name. , He must have been quite exhausted after his literary 
effort in composing that advertisement. 

In due season the need for doctors and medicines was 
no more and the grim reaper claimed his harvest. The 
undertaker had not yet risen to the dignity of a separate 
calling and the plumed hearse was unknown. Simplicity 
and economy were the main features of the last sad rites. 
The nearest carpenter was furnished with a rough estimate 
of the proportions of the deceased and, with plane and saw, 
he soon shaped a coffin out of bass wood boards. This was 


stained on the outside or covered with a cheap cloth, and, 
with plain iron handles as its only adornment, it was ready 
for the corpse. It was not until well on into the nineteenth 
century that rough boxes were brought into general use. 
The funeral service was held at the residence of the deceas- 
ed, after which a silent procession was formed and accom- 
panied the remains to the grave, and in the winter season 
the silence 'was intensified by removing the bells from the 
horses and sleighs. The general regret over the loss of the 
deceased was measured by the length of the funeral proces- 
sion. In some neighborhoods there were public graveyards, 
as a rule in the rear of the church ; but in many instances 
a plot was selected on the old homestead, generally a sandy 
knoll, where a grave could be easily dug and there would be 
little likelihood of a pool of water gathering in the bottom. 
In such a lonely sp.ot were laid the remains of many of our 
ancestors with a wooden slab at the head of the grave. 
Upon this was painted a brief epitaph and a favorite quota- 
tion from Holy Writ. In time the lettering yielded to the 
ravages of the weather, the paint was washed away, the 
board rotted and the fence surrounding the reservation, if 
such there was, was broken down by the cattle. Either a 
careless posterity neglected to remove the remains or renew 
the wooden marker by a more enduring monument, until 
sentiment ceased to play its part in the respect to the mem- 
ory of the dead, the farm was sold with no reservation and 
the plough and harrow soon removed the only visible trace 
of the last resting place of some who in their time played 
important parts in shaping the destiny of our province. 


When the Loyalists first settled in Upper Canada they 
were in reality within the jurisdiction of the French speak- 
ing province of Quebec ; but there was no attempt to apply 
the code of that province to the new arrivals. The ad- 
ministration of justice was left in the hands of the officers 
in charge of the various bands. There were no judges, no 
lawyers and no regularly established courts. The people 
were too busy to devote much time to litigation ; but when 
differences did arise one or both of the interested parties 
would appeal to the nearest officer. He may or may not 
have had any knowledge of the civil law or experience in 
adjusting legal disputes. Martial law was the order of the 
day ; but not that martial law that prevails in times of 
war when the severest penalties are meted out for trifling 
offences. The officer who undertook to mediate between the 
contending parties was not hampered by hair-splitting pre- 
cedents or long established forms of procedure. He was 
supposed to administer the British law, but in effect he 
simply endeavored to apply the golden rule and made the 
best use he could of his common sense. For a little over 
four years this practice was continued and so far as is 
known substantial justice was done by those who thus acted 
as arbitrators between the contending parties. 

On the 24th of July, .1788, Lord Dorchester, Governor 
of Quebec, issued a proclamation dividing the newly settled 
territory into four districts. That portion lying between 
the Gananoque and Trent rivers was called the district of 
Mecklenburgh 1 . He evidently thought it was time to do 
away with the primitive method, that had served its pur- 
pose very well, and to organize a regular system of courts. 
He accordingly established in each district a Court of 
Common Pleas, presided over by one judge, attended by a 
sheriff and the other necessary officers. In the opinion of 
Lord Dorchester the first prerequisite for the man on the 
bench was uprightness. The legal qualification was a 
secondary matter. The commission for the first judge of 
Mecklenburgh was sent to the Rev. John Stuart, who is 
affectionately remembered as the Father of the Church of 
England in Upper Canada. He was a scholarly gentleman, 
a graduate of Philadelphia College, and a regularly or- 
dained priest, but he had no legal training. He returned 
the commission and declined the appointment, which was 
tendered to, and accepted by Richard Cartwright, a stern, 
dignified, educated business man, but possessing no profes- 


sional experience qualifying him for the important position. 
His was the only court in the district, and from his de- 
cisions there was practically no appeal. He was given a 
free hand, and while he was inclined to be severe in dealing 
with criminals, yet he acquired the enviable reputation of 
being an expeditious, just and fearless judge. 

It was not until 1792 when the first provincial parlia- 
ment of Upper Canada met at Niagara, that trial by jury 
was established. The draftsman of this the second act 
placed upon the Statute books of our Province waxed 
eloquent in the preamble and described this highly prized 
privilege as "one of the chief benefits to be attained |by a 
free constitution." Up to this time there was no simple 
provision for the collection of small debts, and the absence 
of such a court placed a premium upon the dishonest deal- 
ings of a debtor who borrowed a few shillings and refused 
to return them, or made no effort to pay his small debts. 
To overcome this evil a statute was passed at this first 
session, establishing Courts of Requests, for the recovery 
of debts up to forty shillings. In 1816 the jurisdiction was 
extended to five pounds, where the amount was acknow- 
ledged by the signature of the defendant or established by 
a witness other than the plaintiff. 

It was by the act declared to be lawful for any two or 
more justices of the peace acting within the respective 
limits of their commissions to hold a court of justice on 
the first and third Saturday in every month at some place 
fixed within their respective divisions. These divisions were 
arranged by the justices assembled in their General Quarter 
Sessions, and in so doing they adhered as far as practicable 
to the municipal boundaries. The act provided a schedule 
of fees to be collected, but everything else was left for the 
justices to work out for themselves. They appointed their 
own officers, deviled their own forms, and laid down their 
own method of procedure. One of the divisions of this 
district was composed of the townships of Amherst Island 
and Ernesttown, including the Village of Bath 2 . 

There lies before the writer an old and well thumbed 
book coming from the custody of Mr. F. W. Armstrong, 
Division Court Clerk at Bath, and entitled "Records of the 
Court of Requests, Bath". It is filled from cover to cover, 
300 pages in all, with brief records of the cases tried from 
the 5th of June, 1819, to the 3rd of June, 1826. We learn 
from these public enquiries into the misfortunes or short- 
comings of the residents of these townships of a century 
a#o that no less than 1600 claims of 5 or less were ad- 
judicated upon by this court within the period covered 
by those old records. Inside the front cover we find a 
memorandum in the handwriting of Benjamin Fairfield, 


informing us that the book was purchased for twelve shill- 
ing's and sixpence by Matthew Clark, Isaac Fraser, Robert 
Williams and Benjamin Fairfield 3 . These frur justices 
were quite regular at the bi-monthly sittings, but we, from 
time to time, find Thomas Empey, John Carscallen, Colin 
McKenzie and Wm. J. McKay taking part in the proceed- 
ings, and less frequently still a few other county justices 
appear upon the bench. 

From the imposing array of esquires presiding over this 
court, the reader is likely to form an erroneous conception 
of the dignity of the tribunal. If he has pictured to him- 
self a procession of portly and wise looking gentlemen 
entering a crowded court room and taking their places 
upon an elevated platform, while the crier commands order 
and attention from the admiring audience, he is far astray 
in his mental reconstruction of the old Court of Requests, 
and will have to revise his conception of 

"The justice 

"In fair round belly, with good capon lined, 
"With eyes severe, and beard of formal cut, 
"Full of wise saws and modern instances." 

The old justices of the peace may have commanded the 
respect of their neighbors, for as a rule they were among 
the most respectable and law abiding citizens in the com- 
munity ; but their courts were of the most unpretentious 

There was no public hall in which to meet, so the court 
was held in a private house, and it is not at all likely that 
the best room and furniture were set apart for the purpose. 
At the appointed hour the justices arrived and took their 
places behind a deal table in the kitchen or dining i room of 
an ordinary village or farm house. The low ceiling and the 
crowded room were not likely to contribute to the comfort 
of those taking part in the proceedings. 

It not infrequently happened that as many as fifteen 
cases were disposed of at a session, and it is not at all 
improbable that the justices, suitors and witnesses would 
number fifty or more individuals. It is doubtful if there 
was a single room in any private house in the township 
capable of accommodating so many for any length of time 
without becoming unbearable. 

There was no clerk of the court to issue the processes 
and keep the records, but all of the clerical work was done 
by the justices themselves. A claimant desiring to com- 
mence proceedings against his debtor would go to the 
justice of his choice and obtain a summons. The form of 
summons adopted conveyed very little information to the 


defendant as to the nature of the claim. The following is 
copy of one found in the old book of records : 

Court of Requests 
Midland District ) 

County of Addington ) You John Clark 

to wit ) 

are hereby commanded to be and appear before the com- 
missioners of His Majesty's Court of Requests held at 
Peter Davy's house in the Town of Bath on Saturday the 
first day of September next at ten o'clock in forenoon to 
answer the demand of George Ham & Co. in a plea of debt 
of the value of five pounds or under Lawful money of this 
province which they claim for value received, Herein fail 
not at your peril. 

To any bailiff in ) 

the Court of Requests ) 

Sgd. A. B. Hawke, C.C.R. 
Given under my hand this 
23rd day of August, 1819 

The subpoenas in use were as simple and to the point, 
as appears from the following : 

Court of Requests 
Midland District ) 

County of Addington ) 

to wit ) You Adam Van Vincle 

are hereby summoned and required to be and appear in 
your own proper person (all excuses laid aside) before the 
Commissioners of His Majesty's Court of Requests held at 
Peter Davy's House in the town of Bath on Saturday, the 
eighteenth day of August at ten o'clock in the forenoon to 
testify what you know in a case depending between John 
Sharp plaintiff and Peter Ham defendant on the part of the 
plaintiff. Herein fail not, under the penalty of forty shill- 
ings Current money of the Province. 
Bath 9th August 1819 

Sgd. George Ham C.C.R. 


The initials after the signature of the justice issuing 
the process stand for "Commissioner of the Court of Re- 

The entries in the book were made by the justices in 
turn and as it was passed on from one to another the 
recipient acknowledged his responsibility for preserving the 
records for the ensuing three months, by making a mem- 
orandum to that effect upon a page of the book set apart 
for that purpose. This plan resembles the course of pro- 
cedure adopted by the man who borrowed a sum of money 
from his neighbor, filled out and signed a promissory note 
and placed it in his own pocket book to remind himself of 
his indebtedness. The following are copies of a few of these 
entries : 

"Colin McKenzie, Esquire has taken the Court Record 
this day to keep the same and enter the judgments, etc., 
for three months. 5th of June 1824." 

"Benjamin Fairfield Esquire has taken this record of 
the proceedings of the Court of Requests to keep and enter 
the judgments etc., for three months from this date. Sep- 
tember 13th, 1824." 

"Isaac Fraser Esq. has taken Record of the Court of 
Requests from this period 5th February 1825 to keep three 

The records themselves were as brief as possible, yet 
they appear to preserve all the essential information that it 
was necessary to keep in connection with the trials. Prac- 
tically the same form appears to have been observed 
throughout the entire period. The (following is a copy of 
the record of the proceedings of the first court entered in 
this interesting old book : 

At a Court of Requests held at Abel P. Forward's in 
Bath 5th June 1819. 

Present ; Matthew Clark, 

Robert Williams, ) 
Benjamin Fairfield, ) Esqrs. 
Thomas Empey, ) 

s d 

Benjamin Bennet ) Fees 2 - 4 

) Defendant 1 - 

vs ) Judgment 2-6 

Zachariah Snyder ) 5-10 

The Court having heard the parties find no cause of 
action and 'order the plaintiff to pay the cost taxed at 


Gervis Worsen ) s d 

) Fees 3-2 

vs ) Judgment 2-6 


Benj. Booth ) 5-8 

The defendant not appearing and the plaintiff producing 
a note for the amount of 1-11-2 the court do order the 
defendant to pay the said sum of 1-11-2 with cost of 
suit taxed at 0-5-8 

s d 

Michael Percy ) Fees 2 - 6 

) Subp 2 - 4 

vs ) oath 1 - 

) witness 2-6 

Outer Cork ' ) judgment 2-6 


The Court having heard the partys and evidence do 
order the defendant to pay the plaintiff five shilling's with 
costs of suit, taxed at - 10 - 10. 

s d 

George H. Dutler ) Fees 4 -10 

) ajurnment 1-0 

v ) oath 1 - 

) evidence 

John Clark ) subpoena 2-5 

This action ajurned until the next court. 

Samuel Nelson 

s d 
Fees 3 - 

Isac Chadwick ) 

The defendant came forward and acknowledged himself 
indebted to the plaintiff the sum of fifteen shillings which 
sum the Court do order the defendant to pay with cost of 
sute taxt at three shilling. 

s d 

George McGin ) 2 sub 5-6 

) 2 witnesses 5-0 

v ) 2 oaths 2 - 

) judgment 2-6 

Isaac Hough ) 


The court having heard the parties and witnesses do 
order the defendant to pay the Plaintiff 15 - 6 with cost of 
suit taxed at - 15 - 0. 


Anthony Lake ) s d 

) Fees 2 -10 

v ) Judgment 2-6 

James Lake ) 5-4 

The court having- heard the partys find no cause of 

action an order the plaintif to pay the costs taxed at 

John Snyder 7th concession ) 

) s d 

vs ) Fee 2-6 

John Cumstock ) 

adjourned to the 19th inst. 

s d 
David Bowman ) 2 summons & 

) service 

vs ) subp 

) adjm 

Johnston Hawley & ) 2 oaths 

Andrew Hawley ) 

adjourned to the 19th inst. 17 - 

s d 

Samuel Nelson ) summons 0-6 

) 2 oaths 2 - 

vs ) judgment 2-6 

\ _ 

Allen Leyman ) 5-0 

The Plaintiff having affirmed to the serving a summons' 
the summons & producing an acct and affirming to the 
truth of it the court do order the defendant to pay the 
sum of 1-10-0 with cost of suit taxed at 0-5-0. 

Isac Hough ) s d 

) Fees 3 - 

v ) adjournment 1-0 

Benj. Van winkle ) 4-0 
adjourned to the 19th inst. 

s d 

William Magmnis ) Fees 2-6 

) oath 1 - 

vs ) judgment 2-6 

) - 

Margaret Hartman ) 6-0 


In default the defendant not appearing and the plaintiff 
producing- an account and swearing to the truth of it to 
the amount of 1-0-0 the court do order the defendant 
to pay the same with cost of suit taxed at 0-6-0. 

Thus through the three hundred pages the record con- 
tinues with very slight variations in the wording of the 
various entries. It will be observed that in many instances 
the costs exceed the amount recovered and in one case the 
costs are more than double the debt. In only one instance 
does any extraneous matter find a place in the book, and 
it might be difficult to trace the connection between the 
proceedings of the Court and these extraordinary entries, 
which are as follows : 

"July 7th, 1820" 

"Clarissa Fairfield Dr 

to 3 gallons whisky per Mr. Rose 

- 10 - 6" 

"Calvin Wheeler Dr 

to 5 gallons whisky" 

Whiskey at three shillings and six pence a gallon would 
to-day be quite as startling as a private entry of a sale of 
the intoxicant among the records of the court proceedings. 

Many an award has been set aside by proving that the 
arbitrator was so related to one of the parties that there 
was a reasonable probability of his being prejudiced in 
favor of or against him and no judge in our day would 
think of taking part in any trial if there was the faintest 
suspicion of his being even remotely connected with any of 
the parties to the action. The old justices in the Court of 
Requests do not appear to have been moved by any such 
considerations. For instance on the 4th September, 1819, 
the justices upon the bench were according to the record, 
Matthew Clark, Robert Williams, Benj. Fairfteld and Isaac 
Fraser, and the plaintiff in the first case that came before 
them was none other than the same Benj. Fairfield, and the 
entry of the judgment in the old book is in his handwrit- 
iog. It might be urged in extenuation of this particular 
offence that the defendant appeared in court and acknow- 
ledged his indebtedness ; but we observe that in another 
case tried before the same justices on the same day, the 
same Benj. Fairfield obtained judgment against another 
defendant who does not appear to have been in court. He 
was not the only offender in this respect. Several other 
justices from time to time appear in the double role of 
judge and suitor, and in every such instance there were 
two or more other justices present ; so that it could not 
be urged in their defence that it was necessary for them to 


take their places upon the bench in order that the proceed- 
ings of the court might be carried on. 

The 17th of March, 1827, appears to have been a record 
day for the court which met at Peter Davy's, at Bath. 
There must, have been a celebration or some other special 
attraction on hand ; as no less than ten justices answered 
to the roll call. A perusal of the names of those present, 
however, would not lead one to conclude that they .would 
be particularly interested in any program commemorating 
the death of St. Patrick. They appear to have conducted 
their proceedings with more expedition than customary, for 
out of twenty-four cases upon the docket no less than ten 
were adjourned and four were' dismissed. 

What strikes the reader as quite remarkable in compari- 
son with present day practice, is the large number. of 
promissory notes taken in settlement of small accounts. 
Hundreds of these written promises were produced in this 
court, many of them for amounts under five shillings. That 
they were given in the ordinary course of business is quite 
evident as many of the plaintiffs producing them were 
general merchants in Bath. The explanation may be found 
in the statute extending the jurisdiction of the court from 
claims of forty shillings to those of five pounds, but only 
in cases where the amount was acknowledged by the 
signature of the defendant or could be established by 
evidence other than that of the plaintiff. In order to avail 
themselves of the increased jurisdiction, merchants and 
others acquired the habit of taking promissory notes and 
soon learned that it was the simplest method of establish- 
ing beyond any doubt the balance due upon an account. 

Imperfect as they were the Courts of Request served 
an useful purpose as is shewn by the fact that this parti- 
cular one provided a simple and effective means of annually 
disposing of two hundred and fifty or more claims, which 
otherwise would have remained unsettled, unless the liti- 
gants had resorted to the cumbersome and more expensive 
procedure of the higher courts. In 1833 the jurisdiction 
was extended to 10. This was a move in the right 
direction, but at the same time another radical change 
was introduced which proved a serious blunder. The 
justices had their shortcomings, and the fact that the 
personel of those presiding was ever varying was regarded 
as a hindrance to the successful working of the system. 
The legislature sought to remedy this by appointing 
regular commissioners for each division, and as the coveted 
appointments were bestowed upon political favorites, the 
evils too frequently attending such preferments, crept into 
the proceedings of these courts. The old justices from time 
immemorial sought to maintain the traditions of country 


"Squires". They had many failings, it is true, but upon 
the whole they rendered excellent service, and the public 
felt that there was safety in numbers. The newly appointed 
commissioners assumed their duties at a time when the 
Family Compact was making itself particularly obnoxious 
to the ordinary citizen, and in no part of the province was 
its- autocratic rule resented more bitterly than in the Vill- 
age of Bath, the home of Marshall Spring Bidwell 4 . It 
may be that in the violent opposition to everything 
emanating from the government of the, day that many 
charges were preferred against the commissioners which 
could not be substantiated. The outcry was so pronounced 
that in 1839 a commission was issued to investigate the 
whole subject, and if practicable to devise a better means 
for the collection of small debts. The result was the 
introduction of our present system of Division Courts by 
the passing of 4 and 5 Victoria, Chapter 3. This has been 
amended from time to time, and the jurisdiction extended 
and extensive but simple rules of procedure adopted. When 
these courts were first introduced, each District Court 
Judge was authorized to lay down rules governing the 
practice in the courts under his jurisdiction. The following 
are the first rules regulating the procedure in the Division 
Courts of the Midland District : 

Midland District. 

It is ordered by virtue of the powers vested in me by 
the Statute 4th & 5th Victoria Chapter 3, for making 
rules and regulations for regulating the practice and pro- 
ceedings of the Division Courts in the Midland District and 
for establishing forms to be used therein ; 

First That the form of summons prescribed by the Act 
be altered, by leaving out the word "account" and using 
instead thereof the word "'demand" and by leaving out the 
whole of the clause referring to a notice of special defence 
after the word "statute" and using instead thereof the 
words "you must give to the plaintiff or leave at usual 
place of abode notice thereof in writing three days least 
before the said - - day of " 

Second That all precepts or warrants against goods 
(except those issued under the 55th and 56th sections of 
the Act) shall be issued signed and sealed by the clerk and 
be tested in the name of the Judge and that the form 
thereof in the Act be altered by omitting all the words 

after "peril" and adding the words "witness 

Esquire, Judge this - - day of 

in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and 
- and by his order 

A. B. 
clerk of the said Division Court." 


Third That on every proceeding required by a defend- 
ant such fees as are not set down in the schedule to the 
act or which shall be set down in any schedule of reduced 
fees for such proceeding shall be paid in the first instance 
by the defendant on or before such proceeding. 

Fourth That the expenses to be allowed to witnesses 
be as follows, viz : 

For their attendance s2-d6 per die 

To witnesses residing more than five miles from the 
place where the Court is holden an allowance in addition 
of 3c per mile for each mile over five miles travelled in 
going to the court without any charge of mileage for re- 

Fifth That when the defendant intends to set off any 
debt or demand the notice thereof under the act 4th and 
5th Victoria Chap. 3, sec.. 37 shall state the particulars 
and items of such debt or demand. 

Sixth That when the plaintiff s'hall in accordance with 
the 40th section of the act signify to the clerk his intention 
to proceed for the remainder of his demand the clerk shall 
make an entry of such signification in the book where the 
entry of issue of the summons was made and if such signi- 
fication be made after the rising of the court for which 
such summons was issued the cause shall be tried at the 
next court and be put at the top of that list to which it 
may belong according to the 31 section of the act. 

Seventh That the following be the form of summons 
for the jury : 

"The Division Court of the Midland District 

To A. B. 

You are hereby summoned to be and appear at the 

sittings of the said court to be holden at on 

the day of at 

of the clock in the noon to serve as 

a juror and not to depart the court without leave. 

Dated the day of 

in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and 

By the court 

A. B. 


To the late Chief Justice Draper, who at the time, was 
Attorney-General of Canada is due the honor of having 
devised and introduced before the Legislative Assembly the 
original Division Courts Act, which is substantially the 
same as the Act in force to-day. This court has been 
designated "The Poor Man's Court" ; and so it is, inas- 


much as it provides a cheap and simple means for adjust- 
ing small claims. If I were to pass any adverse criticism 
upon the practical working out of the system it would be 
in respect to the judgment summons. When compared with 
the procedure in the higher, or if you please, "rich man's 
courts", there is an unfair discrimination against the poor 
man. From his paltry earnings of a few dollars a week he 
may be ordered to pay so much each month to his judg- 
ment creditor, and if he fails to comply with the terms of 
this order he may be committed to gaol. This harsh 
provision is defended upon the ground that he is not im- 
prisoned for debt but for contempt of court in not complying 
with the terms of the order. This is too nice a distinction. 
There is nothing analogous to it in our County and 
Supreme Courts. The result is that the dishonest debtor, 
who has defrauded his creditors out of thousands of 
dollars, may be in possession of a handsome income and be 
immune from attack ; while his poorer neighbor may be 
serving a term in gaol because he neglected to pay his 
grocer a dollar a week. 


1. By this proclamation of Lord Dorchester the terri- 
tory comprised in what afterwards became Upper Canada 
was divided into four districts, as follows : Luneburg com- 
posed of that territory east of the Gananoque river, 
Mecklenburg, from the Gananoque to the Trent, Nassau 
from the Trent to a line running north and south through 
the extreme projection of Long Point on Lake Erie and 
Hesse, that portion of the province west of the last men- 
tioned line. At the first session of the first parliament of 
Upper Canada these districts were renamed respectively the 
Eastern, Midland, Home and Western districts. It is 
interesting to observe that in the proclamation above re- 
ferred to, the names of the first two of these districts were 
spelled "Luneburg" and "Mecklenburg" respectively, and in 
the statute of 1792 the same were spelled "Lunenburgh" 
and "Mecklenburgh". 

2. When the justices in their Quarter Sessions first 
established the Courts of Request in the Midland District 
there were only five divisions in the entire district as 
follows : 

Division No. 1, composed of the townships of Kingston 
and Pittsburgh. 

Division No. 2, composed of the townships of Amherst 

Island, Ernesttown and Camden. 


Division No. 3, composed of Fredericksburgh and Rich- 

Division No. 4, composed of Adolphustown and Sophias- 

Division No. 5, composed of Ameliasburgh, Sidney and 

At the present time this same territory including of 
course, the rear townships, is served by no less than 
thirty-six Division Courts. 

3. Three out of four of these justices were, during- some 
portion of the period covered by the old records, members 
of the Legislative Assembly of Upper Canada. Matthew 
Clark was elected as a representative of Lennox and 
Aldington in 1823, after the expulsion of Barnabas Bidwell 
from the house. His parliamentary career was cut short, 
as the same forces that drove Bidwell from public life 
appealed against his election upon a mere technicality, and 
he was unseated. 

Isaac Fraser was elected in 1817 as a supporter of the 
Family Compact and continued to represent the riding 
until 1820. He was a hard-headed and thoroughly con- 
scientious Presbyterian, but saw nothing improper in 
securing for himself the appointment of Registrar for 
Lennox and Addington, the first one to hold the office in 
the county. Prior to his appointment the records were kept 
in the city, then town, of Kingston. He built a small 
stone building at Millhaven, which was used exclusively for 
the purpose. A picture of this the first registry office in 
the district outside of Kingston, appeared in Volume V. of 
the publications of the Lennox and Addington Historical 
Society. He held the office until his death in 1858. 

Benjamin Fairfield was also a member of the Legisla- 
tive Assembly from 1812 to 1816, and likewise filled the 
position of Registrar of Lennox and Addington from 
March, 1818, to February, 1819. 

In the reminiscences of John Collins Clark, published 
in this volume, will be found several comments upon the 
Fairfield family. There is also reproduced herewith a 
photograph of the old Fairfield residence still standing on 
the bay shore at Bath. It is doubtful if there is a more 
typical or better preserved house of the early U. E. L. 
period in the province. This building was erected in 1796, 
and with proper care bids fair to stand for another cen- 
tury. The main timbers are of solid oak, the lumber 
entering into its construction was sawed by hand, and the 
nails were made by the village blacksmith. In its day it 
was among the handsomest 'houses in the district, and its 
beautiful location makes it still one of the most attractive 


homes on the shores of the bay. For generations following 
the event, the descendants recalled with pride the gay 
festivities which marked the house warming of the old 
building. As several of the guests came in their lumber 
wagons from Kingston, a distance of eighteen miles, over 
roads little better than a modern trail through an undrain- 
ed woods, the entertainment that awaited them was 
worthy of the occasion. For three days the tables groaned 
under their burden, and for three successive nights the 
fiddles screached, and the dancers made merry. 

St. John's Church at Bath, a picture of which is also 
shewn herewith, was erected three years earlier than the 
Fairfield residence, and bears many traces of belonging to 
the same period. This church has been in continuous use 
for one hundred and twenty-two years, and we have yet to 
learn of any other in the province of Ontario to equal it. 
This building rests upon a well built stone foundation, and 
the timbers in the frame are said to have been cut from 
the lot upon which the church stands. As originally 
erected in 1793, it was 30x48, but an extension of twelve 
feet was added to the length in 1844, thereby increasing 
the dimensions to 30x60. The joists are from three to four 
feet apart and will average about 'ten inches in diameter, 
and some of the boards in the lower floor are fifteen inches 
wide. The rafters in the older portion are of oak squared 
to four or five inches with an adze and fastened by wooden 
pins. Those in the extension are made from heavy plank. 
The original entrance was in the centre of the south side, 
but in 1837 this was walled up and two doors were placed 
in the west end, corresponding with the two aisles within. 
There they remained for forty years. In 18<77 the seating 
arrangement was changed, new pews were installed which 
called for one wide centre aisle and two narrow side aisles. 
To meet this new order of things a door was cut in the 
centre and the two small windows, as shown in the photo- 
graph, took the place of the doors. In 1829 a "singers' 
pew" was built in the western gable at the base of the 
tower, and was lighted by the window over the entrance. 

4. Marshall Spring Bidwell was not a Canadian by 
birth, but came to Bath with his father about the year 
1811 ; yet we may fairly claim him as a Lennox and 
Addington boy. He was a noble character, and the kind of 
man who would come to the front in any sphere of life. In 
the face of strenuous opposition he was returned to the 
Legislative Assembly as the representative of this county 
in 1824. He was a young man, only twenty-five years of 
age ; yet he held his seat for thirteen consecutive years, 
during four of which he was Speaker of the House. He was 

Marshall Spring Bidwell 

Promissory Notes, Free Holders Bank 


uncompromising in his attacks upon the Family Compact, 
and was finally driven from the country by the stubborn 
and hot-headed Governor, Sir Francis Band Head. He 
went to New York, where he became the leader of the bar, 
and died in 1872, universally respected. 

Many well merited eulogies have been passed upon him, 
but none more eloquent than his own words as contained 
in a hitherto unpublished letter from the collection of Mr. 
C. M. Warner. He had sacrificed a lucrative practice in 
Kingston, and although guiltless, had left his home and 
friends under a dark cloud of suspicion. At the time of 
writing he was alone in a great city with no immediate 
prospect for the future ; yet not one word of reproach has 
he for those who had so cruelly wronged him. His kind 
and sympathetic nature manifested itself in his enquiries 
about the young man he was anxious to help, and in his 
touching reference to the grief of his friend. The letter 
reads as follows : 

New York, 2 January, 1838. 
My Dear Sir : 

I have been here for a fortnight, and expected to have 
visited Washington before this time ; otherwise I should 
sooner have written you. This expectation I can no longer 

I 'have left Upper Canada, forever, at the request of Sir 
Francis Head, to whom I have given a written pledge not 
to return. I was not implicated in the recent revolutionary 
movement ; but was an object of suspicion on account of 
my political opinions, & supposed influence. 

I have felt anxious to see you about John Hunt. And 
I had been intending to write you about his future pros- 
pects & situation. I shall not have the means of keeping 
him longer at school. I do not know what I shall do, or 
where I shall go ; and my limited resources may soon be 
exhausted. Mr. Brainerd has written my sister since I left 
Toronto that John had taken charge of a school. This, I 
learn from a letter which she wrote Mrs. Bidwell who is at 
St. Croix, & which, coming into my hand, I opened and 
read, not having received any letters myself from home. 

What is to be done about him '? I wish you would 
write me on the subject. A letter addressed to me here to 
the care of Francis Hall, Esquire, Editor of the Commercial 
Advertiser, will be handed to me or forwarded to me if I 
should be absent. 

I have sympathized with you most sincerely in your 
recent trial and should have written immediately and ex- 
pressed my condolence, if I had not felt that your grief 
was too sacred to be disturbed even by the utterance of 


sincere sympathy. I can participate in your feelings more 
readily because I have for years been in a state of tremb- 
ling anxiety about Mrs. Bidwell's health. Hitherto the 
Lord has been better than my fear and has spared her 
for my comfort, but her condition has been such that I 
have felt that she was a blessing which was continued at 
His good pleasure alone and preserved only by His Mercy. 
Happy was I to learn that amidst your great & sore trial 
you ha-d precious & inestimable consolation, and that 
your's is not the "sorrow without hope". 

1 suppose Cousin Emily is with you. If so, be pleased 
to remember me to her most affectionately. If I should 
ever get settled in my native 1 land, I hope to see her at my 

I am, dear Sir, 

James Lamed, Esq. 

Your friend & faithful servant, 
Marshall S. Bidwell. 

I should be glad to hear all about Mr. Hunt's children 
where they are &c. 



Addington, County of 38 

Adolphustown, Township of 29, 47 

Albert, Solomon 33 

Algonquins, The. 23 

Amelia'sburgh, Township of 47 

Amherst Island 7, 46 

Anglicans, The 24 

Armstrong, F, W 36 

Aylesworth, George Anson 5 

Bangs, Pioneer preacher 26 

Bath 7, 18, 29, 36, 38, 43 

Bell, Dick 33 

Bennett, Benjamin 39 

Bid well, Barnabas 47 

Bidwell, Marshall Spring 44, 48, 50 

Booth, Ben j 40 

Bowman, David 41 

Brainerd, Mr 49 

Burrows, Frederick 4, 5 

Camden, Township of 46 

Canada 23 

Carrying Place 18 

Carnahan Bay 26 

Carscallen, John 37 

Cartwright, Richard........ 35 

Case, Rev. William 26 

Casey, Thomas W 5 

Catnip 31 

Chadwick, Isac 40 

Chalmer's Creek 26 

Checkley, Edwin R 4, 5 

Ohristinals, The 23 

Church of England 35 

Clark, John 38, 40 

Clark, John Collins 47 

Clark, Matthew... 37, 39, 42, 47 

Clergy Reserves k 27 

Commercial Advertiser 49 

Common Pleas in Upper Canada, Court of 29, 35 

Constitutional Act 28 

Cork, Outer 40 

County Council 20 

County Courts 46 

Cumstock, John . 41 


Daly, James 4 

Davy, B. C 5 

Davy, Peter 38, 45 

Division Court Clerk 36 

Division Courts 47 

Documentary History of Education in Upper Canada 23 

Dorchester, Lord 35, 46 

Draper, Chief Justice 45 

Dutler, George H 40 

Eastern District 46 

Empey, Thomas 37, 39 

English, The 23 

English Church ^ 22 

Erie, Lake 46 

Ernesttown, Township of 46 

Esquimalts, The 23 

Etechemins, The 23 

Fairfield, Benjamin 36, 37, 39, 42, 47 

Fairfield, Clarissa 42 

FairfieH Residence 47, 48 

Family Compact .....44, 47 

Flach, Ulysses J 4 

Florida : 23 

Forward, Abel P 39 

Forward, Mrs. H. T 4 

Fraser, Isaac 37, 39, 42, 47 

Fredericksburgh, Township of 22, 47 

Frontenac, Steamer 7 

Gananoque River 35, 46 

General Sessions, Court of 20 

General Quarter Sessions, Court of 29, 36 

Gi'bbard, John 4 

Glenora 26 

Grange, Mrs. Alexander W 4 

Hagerman, Nicholas 29 

Hall, Francis 49 

Halliwell, Township of 22 

Ham & Co., George 38 

Ham, George 38 

Ham, Peter 38 

Hartman, Margaret 41 

Hawke, A. B ' 38 

Hawley, Andrew 41 

Hawley, Geo. D 4 

Hawley, Mrs. John Perry 5 

INDEX. 53 

Hawley, Johnston 41 

Hay Bay 26, 29 

Head, Sir Francis Bond 49 

Herring-ton, Walter S., K.C 4, 5 

Hesse, District of 46 

Home District... ' 46 

Hough, Isaac ..40, 41 

Hunt, John .- 49 

Hurons, The ; 23 

Iroquois 23 

Jarvis, Rev. Canon 4, 5 

Keeler, Pioneer preacher 26 

Kempt, Sir James, Steamer 18 

King-, Solomon 32 

Kingston 18, 22, 29, 47, 48, 49 

Kingston, Township of 46 

Lake, Anthony 41 

Lake, James 41 

Law Society of Upper Canada 29 

Legislative Assembly of Upper Canada 24, 45, 47, 48 

Lennox and Addington 47, 48 

Lennox and Addington Historical Society 47 

Leonard, Raymond A. ? 4 

Leyman, Allen 41 

Lochhead, J. S 5 

Long Point 46 

Louisiana 23 

Loyalists, United Empire 

8, 11, 19, 21, 24, 27, 29, 30, 35, 47 

Luneburg, District of...., 46 

Lunenburgh, District of 46 

Macdonal'd, Rev. Alexander 4 

Madden, Pioneer preacher 26 

Maginnis, William 41 

Mary Ann's Creek 26 

Mecklenburg, District of 46 

Mecklenburgh, District of 46 

Methodists 24, 25, 26, 29 

Midland District 38, 44, 46 

Millhaven.. 47 

Mississippi 23 

Montreal 23 

McGin, George . 40 


McKay, Wm. J 37 

McKenzie, Colin 37, 39 

Nassau, District of 46 

Nelson, Samuel 40, 41 

New Britain 23 

New England 23 

New France 23 

New Mexico 23 

New York , 49 

Niagara 36 

North America 23 

Old Mexico 23 

Ontario Historical Society 4, 7 

Ontario, Lake 7 

Ontario, Province of 7, 30, 48 

Osgoode Hall 29 

Parliament 19 

Paul, William J., M.P 4 

Perch Cove 26 

Percy, Michael 40 

Philadelphia College 35 

Pickett, Pioneer preacher 26 

Pittsburgh, Township of 46 

"Poor Man's Court, The" 45 

Presbyterians, The 24 

Prescott 18 

Prince Edward, County of 22 

Purdy, Samuel 18 

Quarter Sessions 46 

Quebec, Province of 19, 35 

Quebec, Town of 23 

Quinte, Bay of 26, 28, 29 

Requests, Court of 20, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 42, 43 

Richmond 33, 47 

Robinson, John W 4 

Ryan, Pioneer preacher 26 

Sharp, John 38 

Sidney, Township of 47 

Simcoe, Governor 19 

Snyder, John 41 

Snyder, Zacariah , 39 

Sophiasburgh, Township of 47 

St. Croix < 49 

INDEX. 55 

St. John's Church, Bath 48 

St. Lawrence River 23 

St. Patrick 43 

Stein, Paul 5 

Stuart, Rev. John 22, 35 

Supreme Courts 45 

Tadousac 23 

Thomson, John 5 

Thurlow, Township of....'. 47 

Trent, River 35, 46 

Upper Canada 19, 25, 35, 36, 46, 47, 49 

United States 25 

VanVincle, Adam 38 

Vanwinekle, Benj 41 

Warner, Clarance M 4, 5, 49 

Welier, Asa 18 

Weller, William 18 

Western District 46 

Wheeler, Calvin 42 

Williams, Robert 37, 39, 42 

Wilson, Uriah 4 

Worden, Gervis 40 

York . 18 

LL.D., C.M.G. 

Born at Napanee, June 14, 1863. 
Died June 23, 1916. 





Candidates for the County of Lennox and Addington for Election to the 
Legislative Assembly, 1836. 







LL.D., F.R. Hist., etc. 


, * (>,J+ 








Chronology 4 

Officers , 4 

Publications of the Society 4 

Preface _ ..;... 5 

Introduction by William Renwick Riddell, LL.D., F.R. Hist. 

Soc., <3?c 7 

Debate... .. 19 

The late C. C. James, LL.D.. C.M.G Frontispiece 

Candidates for the County of Lennox <> Addington 

for election to the Legislative Assembly, 1836.... Frontispiece 


Society Organized May 9th, 1907 

Constitution Adopted June llth, 1907 

First Open Meeting Oct. 25th, 1907 

Affiliated with Ontario Historical Society March 31st, 1908 


Vol. I. Chronicles of Napanee June 12th, 1909 

Vol. II. Early Education Sept. 19th, 1910 

Vol. III. The Casey Scrap Books (Part I) Nov. 15th, 191 1 

Vol. IV. The Casey Scrap Books (Part II) June 14th, 1912 

Vol. V. The Bell and Laing School Papers March 14th, 1914 

Vol. VI. Pioneer Life on the Bay of Quinte, by 

W. S. Herrington, K.C May 4th, 1915 

OFFICERS, 1916. 

Honorary President Wm. J. Paul, M.P. 

President Walter S. Herrington, K.C. 

Vice President Mrs. Alexander W. Grange 

Sec'y-Treas Rev. A. J. Wilson, B.A.. B.D. 

Executive Committee : 

Dr. R. A. Leonard 

Mrs. M. C. Bogart 

E. R. Checkley 

J. M. Root 

Rev. J. H. H. Coleman, M.A. 

J. W. Robinson 


It is with no small degree of pride that the Executive Board 
presents to the members of the Lennox and Addington Historical 
Society this number of its publications. While our Empire is en- 
gaged in a life and death struggle for the preservation of its 
national ideals, it is well for us occasionally to call to mind the 
part our forefathers played in securing for us the rights and 
privileges which we now enjoy. Not the least among these bless- 
ings is responsible Government. Among the documents presented 
to our Society by the late Dr. James Canniff a few years before 
he died was a pamphlet published eighty years ago containing a 
verbatim report of the various addresses delivered in the Legisla- 
tive Assembly of Upper Canada upon the motion for the adoption 
of the report of the Select Committee appointed to deal with the 
question of the duties and responsibilities of the Executive Coun- 
cil. If we did nothing more than reproduce the pamphlet we 
would feel that we were rendering a great service to our mem- 
bers and all others reached by our publications. We are singu- 
larly fortunate in being able to publish at the same time an intro- 
duction from the pen of the Hon. William Renwick Riddell, LL.D., 
F. R. Hist. Soc., one of our most distinguished Judges of the 
Supreme Court of Judicature for Ontario. It was originally 
planned that the biographical notes upon those participating in the 
debate should be written by the late Charles Canniff James, 
C.M.G., LL.D., but his untimely death occurred before he was 
able to prepare the manuscript. It is most regrettable that we 
were unable to secure this contribution from Dr. James, who al- 
ways took the deepest interest in all matters appertaining to his 
native town, and on many occasions rendered our Society most 
valuable assistance. No town in Ontario can boast of a nobler 
son than he, who unreservedly dedicated his life to his country's 
service, and at all times wisely and faithfully discharged the oner- 
ous duties assumed by him. Owing r to the completeness of 
Mr. Justice Riddell' s Introduction, we are still able to publish the 
pamphlet in a setting of which we have just cause to be proud. 


Pres. L. <3? A. H. S. 

Napanee, November 8th, 1916. 



Justice of the Supreme Court of Ontario. 

When the first Parliament of Upper Canada met at 
Newark (Niagara-on-the-Lake) , Monday, September 17th, 
1792, His Excellency the Lieutenant Governor, Colonel 
John Graves Simcoe, in the Speech from th Throne, said 
to the Members of the Legislative Council and Legislative 
Assembly (or House of Commons) : 

"I have summoned you together under the authority of 
an Act of Parliament of Great Britain passed in the last 
year and which has established the British Constitution, 
and also the forms which secure and maintain it in this 
distant country. 

The wisdom and beneficence of our Most Gracious 
Sovereign and the British Parliament have been eminently 
proved, not only in the imparting to us th? same form of 
Government, but also in securing the benefit of the many 
provisions that guard this memorable Act ; so that the 
blessings of our invaluable constitution thus protected and 
amplified we may hope will be extended to the remotest 
posterity . . / 

The British form of Government has prepared the way 
for its speedy colonization" (i.e., the colonization of 
Upper Canada). 

Both Houses made a most loyal address in answer, that 
of the Council following closely the wording of the speech 
from the Throne. 

In his Speech from the Throne closing this Session, 
Simcoe said that the Constitution of the Province was "the 
very image and transcript of that of Great Britain". (1) 

From the very beginning of our national career, it has 
been considered that our constitution is the very image 
and transcript of that of the mother country : and no 
small part of the disputes and troubles between the 

(I 1 ) The speech from the Throne and the Answers will be found in 
the Seventh Report of the Bureau of Archives. Ontario. 1910. pp. 1-3 ; 
Sixth Report of the Bureau of Archives, Ontario, pp. 2-3. The 
closing speech is on page 11 and 18 respectively. 


Governors and Parliament, and between the two Houses 
of Parliament arose from the contention that the British 
Constitution was not followed in the government of Upper 

It will be well in the first place to define what is 
meant by the "Constitution". In American law and par- 
lance the Constitution is a written document expressed in 
terms, more or less precise, which defines powers, lays down 
rules and limitations and which may be interpreted by 
Courts in all cases of difficulty. In English law and par- 
i lance, the Constitution is not a written document, but it is 
i the totality of the rules more or less vague upon which the 
government of the people should be conducted ; in cases of 
^difficulty, Parliament must decide, the Courts have no 
jurisdiction in the matter. 

In the American sense whatever is unconstitutional is 
illegal, however right it may be ; with us what is uncon- 
stitutional is wrong however legal it may be. (2) 

But whenever there is a written document, be it 
Statute or otherwise prescribing any proceeding, etc., etc., 
in Government, the word "unconstitutional" will in that 
regard take on the American connotation. 

In the case of Upper (as of Lower) Canada, the Charter 
of her government is to be found in the Constitutional Act 
of 1791, 31 George III., c. 31. The only part of this Act 
which will be examined here is that part which deals 
directly or indirectly with the Executive Council, as it is 
upon the Duties and Responsibilities of the Executive 
Council that the Debate now under consideration was had. 
While there is in the Act, sections 2, 3, 13, 14 and 20 
express provision for the summoning of Legislative Coun- 
cillors and the election of Members of the Legislative 
Assembly, there is no express provision for Executive 
Councillors. But an Executive Council was necessarily 
implied : Section 34 provided for a Court of Appeals 
consisting in part of "such Executive Councillors as shall 
be appointed by His Majesty for the affairs of such 
Province"; section 38 authorized the Governor "with the 
advice of such Executive Council as shall have been 
appointed by His Majesty, his heirs or successors within 
such Province" to erect Parsonages and endow them. 

Outside these two sections there was no provision for 
the duties of the Executive Council, and consequently the 
position of the Executive Council was left very much at 
large. (Section 50, indeed, gave the Governor power with 
the assent of the major part of his Executive Council to 
make laws for his Province before the meeting of the First 

(2) See Bell v. Town ol Burlington (1915) 34 O.L.R. 619. at 
PP. 621. 622. for a (Hscusrion of thi dintinction. 


Parliament, such laws to remain in force till six months 
after such meeting unless in the meantime repealed by 
Parliament, but this was a purely temporary provision.) 
It is obvious that it might be a matter of much 
honest contention, and indeed it more than once formed the 
battle ground of party. 

An Executive Council was in fact appointed at the 
beginning of Upper Canada's separate existence and the 
institution was continued without interruption. 

In the Province, the House of Assembly claimed the 
rights and privileges of the British House of Commons 
and (speaking generally) had the claim allowed ; the Leg- 
islgtive Council corresponded to the House of Lords (3) 
there was nothing in the formal constitution of England 
to which the Executive Council could correspond but the 
Privy Council, and nothing in the informal constitution 
but the Cabinet. 

At the present time there is little difficulty in 
determining the relative functions and powers of the 
Crown, the Houses of Parliament, and the "Ministry" ; 
but in 1792 it was not so easy. 

At the Common Law and before the Revolution of 
1688, the King did not only reign, he also governed. He 
was master in theory, and in practice he was as much 
and as far master as his subjects would permit without 
successful armed opposition. The Revolution changed both 
theory and practice, thereafter both in theory and in 
practice the King must find a Minister who would take 
upon himself the responsibility of the King's acts. 

While this was never forgotten, the King, George III., 
in his long reign came perilously near the old practice in 
some instances ; but he never failed to find a minister to 
father any of his acts, however unwise. In every case the 
King was considered blameless, "the King can do no 
wrong," and the Minister was the culpable party. That 
is Responsible Government, i.e., the Minister who is res- 
ponsible for the advice to the King is responsible to the 
representatives of the people in Parliament, for giving 
such advice. 

In the mother country, these propositions were acknow- 
ledged in theory and fairly well observed in practice. 

In Upper Canada, there was no resident hereditary 
hoad of the State, who could do no wrong. The effective 

(3) There was a very curious provision in the Act of 1791. 
Section 6 authorized the Crown to annex to any hereditary title of 
honour, rank or dignity conferred by Letters Patent under the 1 GreaH 
Seal of the Province, an hereditary right of being summoned to the 
Legislative Council. This right was never exercised and this Province 
fortunately escaped an hereditary second house of Parliament. 


power at the head of affairs was an officer appointed for 
a short term of years by the King on the advice of the 
Home Administration, not to reign, but to govern ; he 
had specific instructions as to many of his duties, and was 
responsible to the authority which appointed him. 
Unlike the King, he could do wrong ; unlike the Home 
Ministry, he was responsible not to the people or their 
representatives, but to an authority across the seas. It 
naturally followed that those whom he appointed to carry 
on the business of state were responsible to him alone and 
not to Parliament ; their advice he need not seek ; if 
sought and given, it might be neglected, and he could not 
hide himself behind any officer or the advice of any officer. 

The Constitution of Upper Canada, then, was far from 
being the image and transcript of that of Great Britain. 

In the early days of the Colony the inhabitants were 
too much engaged in material matters, in chopping down 
the forests, in clearing the land and in making a home in 
the new world, to pay much attention to the theory or 
indeed to the practice of government. The Governor had 
Crown Lands to draw upon and other revenues, and did 
much as he pleased without interference or complaint ; Par- 
liament had certain taxes imposed by its own authority and 
certain customs' duties, and this money was expended under 
the order of Parliament. The money at the disposal of the 
Governor tended rather to decrease than to increase ; that 
of the Parliament had the reverse tendency, and it was 
inevitable that at some time the Governor would desire to 
encroach on the money of Parliament. And if money is not 
the root of all evil, it is the root of most revolutions and 
constitutional changes. 

In 1803, the first instance on record occurred of the 
Governor (Hunter) using some of the Parliament's money 
without its consent ; the money was employed for useful 
and necessary purposes, but in the absence of the consent 
of Parliament this was unconstitutional (in our sense of 
the word, i.e. legal, but not in accordance with our views 
of government). Hunter continued this practice till his 
death, apparently without open complaint ; but in 1806 the 
matter received the serious attention of the Houses of 
Parliament. On March 1st, 1806, (4) the House of Assem- 
bly approved an address to Hon. Alexander Grant, the 
Administrator of the Government, successor to Hunter, in 

(4) The address is to found in the Eighth Report at the 
Bureau at Archives for Ontario (1911) page 107 ; it seems to have 
been drawn up by William Weekes. a notorious agitator who after- 
wards wa killed in a duel at Fort Niagara. N.Y.. by William 
Dickson ; see an article in the Canadian Law Time* for 1915. page 
726. "Th? Dwl in Early Upppr Canada." 


which it complains "that the first and most constitutional 
privilege of the Commons has been violated in the applica- 
tion of moneys out of the Provincial Treasury to various 
purposes without the assent of Parliament or a vote of the 
Commons House of Assembly. The comment on this 
departure from constituted authority and fiscal establish- 
ment must be more than painful to all who appreciate the 
advantages of our happy Constitution and who wish their 
continuance to the latest posterity ; but however studious 
we may be to abstain from stricture we cannot suppress 
the mixed emotions of relative condition, we feel it as the 
representative of a free people, we lament it as the subjects 
of a beneficent Sovereign, and we hope that you in your 
relation to both will more than sympathize in so extra- 
ordinary an occurrence." 

It is plain that the House understood that it was not 
precisely in the same case as the House of Commons at 
Westminister. Had it been, it would not have abstained 
from stricture, it would have vigorously assailed the 
Ministry and ousted them from office ; the Ministry might 
consider themselves fortunate if they escaped impeachment. 
But it was recognized that the Administrator or Governor 
was the sole person responsible and blamable ; and courtesy 
to His Majesty's representative restrained even that House, 
radical as it was. (5) 

Grant temporised, and a peace was patched up. When 
Gore became Governor he informed the House that the 
money would be replaced. (6) The House, not to be out- 
done, presented an address to Gore about a month there- 
after, wherein they "beg leave to inform Your Excellency 
that we have relinquished the sum of 617.13.7 paid by 
the late Lieutenant Governor Hunter without the concur- 
rence of the other branches of the Legislature, as we are 
convinced that the same was expended for the public use 
and for the benefit of this Province." (7) 

No further trouble came on till after the war of 1812- 
14 : everyone in the Province was too busy to raise ques- 
tions concerning the Constitution. 

(5) The sum was not very large 617.13.7. ($2470.72). It is 
reasonably certain that the mainspring at the objection by the House 
of Assembly was the well-known Robert Thorpe. Puisne Justice of the 
Court of King's Bench. Some account of Thorpe will be found in an 
article "Scandalum Magnatum in Upper Canada" in the Journal of the 
American Institute for Criminal Law and Criminology for May, 1918. 

(6) In the speech from the Throne. February 2nd, 18O7 (Eighth 
Report of the Bureau of Archives, Ontario. 1911, page 122). 

(7) In an Address to His Excellency, page 175; March 7th. 1807. 
The motion to abandon the claim passed by a vote of 12 to 2 
Thorpe and Ebenezer Washburn, (the Member for Prince Edward and 
a life-long- Radical), voting in the negative. 


But in 1818, a new complaint was made that Gore had 
expended considerable sums "in a manner obnoxious to 
Constitutional proceeding," and "thereby the sense of the 
country . . . over-ruled by an exercise of authority over 
the public moneys wholly unconstitutional and so subser- 
sive of legislative power as to call for the most serious 
notice in" the House of Assembly. (8) Nothing was done 
about this, as the Administrator, Samuel Smith, promptly 
prorogued Parliament. (9) 

But even yet there was no real movement to make the 
Executive Council a Responsible Ministry ; nor did the 
notorious Robert Gourlay urge this as a reform called for 
by the Province. (10) 

In Lower Canada there had been and continued to be a 
demand on the part of the French Canadians that the 
Executive Council should be responsible to the representa- 
tives of the people (11) but so far the demand had no 
distinct echo in the Upper Province. 

From almost the very beginning of the Province there 
had been one, here and there, who desired a real and 
responsible Ministry, but this wish was practically inarticu- 
late ; and it was not till the early part of the third 
decade of the nineteenth century that it can be said that 
there was a party calling for this reform. Even when the 
Reform party was organized, the demand for Constitutional 
Government did not recommend itself to all Reformers. 
Gourlay for example jeered at it (12) and while it may be 
said that it was implied in the demands of Mackenzie and 
his friends, it was not at first explicitly stated. 

However, before long it was manifest that the members 
of this party were with few exceptions agreed that the 
promise of Simcoe should be more fully implemented and 
that the Executive Council should be made responsible to 
the people, as was the Ministry at Westminster. 

All legitimate means were taken to bring about the 
change desiderated, but in vain. I do not propose here to 

(8) Ninth Report of the Bureau ol Archives. Ontario (1912) 
pp. 558. 599. (Under date Saturday. 28th March. 1818.) 

(9) Ninth Report of the Bureau of Archives, Ontario. (1912) 
pp. 564, 566 ; very appropriately on All Fools' Day, Wednesday. 1st 
April, 1818. 

(10) See my Life of Gourlay. just published by the Ontario 
Historical Society. 1916. 

(!!) It may be that this demand was rather with a view to the 
"loaves and fishes" than on constitutional grounds : that it was again 
and again urged is certain. 

(12, See my T.ife of Oonrlny. p. 112. 


give an account of these efforts ; they may be read of in 
the pages of Dent and Lindsey. (13) 

In the course of time, Sir Francis Bond Head was sent 
out as Lieutenant Governor, and it is in reference to his 
claims and his conduct that this debate took place. For 
some reason the Reformers believed Head to be a thorough- 
going Liberal, a "tried Reformer" who would redress all 
their grievances ; but they were soon to learn their 

Nobody knows why Head was appointed Governor ; he 
could not even guess himself ; but there never was a person 
more utterly satisfied with himself, his actions and judg- 
ment than was the new Governor. Arriving in Toronto, 
January 23rd, 1836, while the Parliament was in session, 
he deemed it proper four days thereafter to attend Parlia- 
ment in person, instead of pursuing the usual method of 
sending a written Message. He told the amazed members 
"I have nothing either to promise or profess," and shortly 
afterwards sent Parliament a copy of his Instructions. 
These Instructions made it manifest that there was to be 
no Responsible Government in the true sense of the words, 
but that the Governor was held responsible to the Home 
authorities, not to the people of the Province. The House 
of Assembly indeed had the right to remonstrate against 
the conduct of the Governor, but had no control over him. 

An Address passed by the House on the motion of 
Mackenzie failed to draw from Head a definite answer ; he 
could never be got to understand that the Reformers were 
anything other than Republicans, determined to destroy all 
connectio^i of the Province with the Mother Country. Still, 
as there \vere only three existing Executive Councillors, it 
seemed neeessary to increase the number ; and Head 
thought it wise to take into the charmed circle some of the 
more temperate of the Radicals. 

He accordingly appointed Dr. John Rolph, and Robert 
Baldwin, prominent members of the Reform Party, and 
John Henry Dunn who had not taken a strong stand either 

It is reasonably plain that the appointments were 
accepted on the understanding that Head should be govern- 
ed by the advice of his Council, so that the House of 
Assembly would know where to attach blame. Moreover 
it was necessarily implied that if the advice of the Council 
did not recommend itself to Parliament, the Councillors 
would be removed, thus making a real Responsible Govern- 

(13) Dent's "The Story of the Upper Canadian Rebellion", an 
interesting but not wholly accurate work : Tvindsey'g '''Life of William 
Lvov MneKenzie." 


Head never had the slightest intention of being con- 
trolled by the Council or indeed by anyone. He forthwith 
proceeded to make appointments which were wholly 
obnoxious to the majority of the House. The Council pro- 
tested, all six joining in a document in favour of what Head 
calls "the republican principle of making the Lieutenant 
Governor's Executive or Privy Council responsible to the 
people ... a democratic principle of government which 
I felt so long as the British flag waved in America, could 
never be admitted." He declined to accede to the demands 
of the Council ; the Council unanimously resigned, and their 
resignations were accepted, March, 1836. Their conduct in 
so resigning was approved by the House by a vote of 27 
to 21. The correspondence between the Governor and his 
Council was referred to a Committee of the House. The 
Committee reported. This Debate was on the motion to 
adopt the Report of the Committee, and is self-explanatory 
in most instances. (14) 

The Committee was composed of Peter Perry, Chair- 
man, and Messrs. Morrison, Roblin, Norton and Charles 
Buncombe. The Report (No. 106) is very long, taking up 
with its appendices 70 foolscap-size pages in the "Appendix 
to Journal of Assembly, 2nd Session, 12th Parliament, 
Vol. 3." 

It starts off with a reference to "the increasing 
dissatisfaction which has been produced by the mal- 
administration of our provincial affairs under Lieutenant 
Governors Gore, Maitland and Colborne", the removal of 
Colborne owing to complaints, and the appointment of a 
successor, Head, "to administer the affairs of the Province 
in such a way that the people should have reason to be 
attached to the parent State". The lively and general 
satisfaction felt on the appointment as Executive Coun- 
cillors of Rolph, Baldwin and Dunn was mixed with 
serious apprehension of the influence of the old Councillors. 
Complaint is made that the principles of the British Con- 
stitution were not put in practice as it regarded the 
Council in the past, and it was plain that matters 
were not bettered by the appointments of the three new 
men "the appointment of the new Councillors was a 
deceitful manoeuvre to gain credit with the country for 
liberal feelings and intentions where none really existed, 
for it was notorious that His Excellency had really given 
his confidence to, and was acting under 'the influence 
of secret and unsworn advisers." 

It is claimed that "the responsibility of the Governor 

(14; These facts are to be found in detail in Lord Durham's 
Report, Sir Franci* Bond Head's Narrative. Lindsey's Life of William 
Lyon MacKenziV. the Makers of Canada Series, etc.. etc. 


should consist in great measure of selecting good Council- 
lors and acting with their good advice" ; and that he 
should in matters of patronage receive the advice of his 

The necessity of an Executive Council under the Act 
of 31 George III. is pointed out in opposition to the 
Governor's contention. Simcoe's Speech from the Throne 
is quoted, as is his speech closing the first Session of 
Parliament in which he says "this Province is singularly 
blessed not with a mutilated Constitution but with a 
Constitution which . . . is the very image and tran- 
script of that of Great Britain." 

The answers made by Head to popular Addresses came 
in for comment, criticism and censure ; the conclusion is 
expressed that His Excellency was not so much shocked at 
the doctrine contended 1'or by the Assembly as he was 
averse to its practical bearing against his own arbitrary 
pleasure ; and reasons are given at length for that con- 

The Report concludes "The privileges of Parliament 
were not more obvious and certain or more important 
than the duties and functions of the Executive Council for 
the prace, welfare and good government of the country, 
and it only needs on the part of the people and their 
representatives the same firm and constitutional exertions 
to insure the same success in the present all-important 

A few remarks may not be out of place : "Mr. Gourlay" 
mentioned by Dr. Morrison, is the well-known Robert 
(Fleming) Gourlay, the agitator malgre lui, (15) who was 
banished from Upper Canada in 1819, and afterwards 
adopted the title "The Banished Briton". 

"Governor Preston" was Sir Robert Prescott, Governor 
General of Canada : he had disputes with his Council at 
Quebec concerning some land grants he charged them with 
dishonesty ; they, him with deceit and falsehood ; and he 
was recalled. 

"Mr. Sullivan" was Robert Baldwin Sulliven, cousin of 
Robert Baldwin, a man of the highest character and 
attainments, afterwards a Justice of the Court of Queen's 
Bench. On the resignation of the Council, he, with John 

(15) Gourlay on coming to this Province d>id not intend to 
remain, but being made ill by mosquito bites and laid up for some 
weeks, MB intention was changed. There is no reason to suppose that 
he wished to agitate politically ; but his economic investigations 
roused the suspicion of the governing classes, especially Dr. John 
Strachan, and the opposition at these forced Gourlay, (ae h*' thought) 
into politics. SRC my Lite of Gourlay, p. 57, note (42). 


Elmsley, Augustus Baldwin and William Allan, had been 
appointed to the Council (March 14th, 1836). Elmsley 
was the son of Chief Justice Elmsley ; Augustus Baldwin 
(Admiral Baldwin) the brother of William Warren Baldwin, 
and uncle of Robert Baldwin. William Allan was a well- 
known Tory Magistrate in Toronto. None of these could 
at that time be considered of the Radical stripe of politics- 
Allan and Elmsley were always ultra Tories. 

"The hon. and learned Solicitor-General" was Chris- 
topher Alexander Hagerman, afterwards Justice of the 
Court of Queen's Bench. 

From about 1824 there had been efforts made to 
suppress the Orange Order, then almost wholly Tory in its 
membership ; but in vain. Head had no sympathy with the 

"Mr. Francis Collins" was the editor, proprietor, and 
publisher of "The Canadian Freeman," a strongly Radical 
weekly, published in Toronto. He got into trouble with 
the Government and was prosecuted for libel. (16) 

"Mr. McKenzie" is of course William Lyon Mackenzie, 
whose press was destroyed by certain scions of Tory 
families a celebrated scandal of the times. (17) 

"The Chief Justice of Newfoundland" was Henry John 

"William Forsyth of the Niagara Falls" claimed certain 
land which was also claimed by the Crown and which was 
taken possession of by a military force under the command 
of Captain George Philpotts of the Royal Engineers on the 
direction of Governor Maitland. It became a political 
question, the Radicals taking Forsyth's part ; but from all 
the material available it seems clear that he was in the 
wrong. (18) 

The case of Mostyn v. Fabrigas, referred to by the 
Solicitor General (Hagerman) was tried in 1774. John 
Mostyn was the Governor of Minorca. Anthony Fabrigas 
was endeavoring to raise a rebellion against British rule 
in the Island, and was imprisoned by order of the Gover- 
nor. Fabrigas sued Mostyn in the Court of King's Bench 
at Westminster ; and that Court held that the defendant 

(16; A reasonably full and accurate account of Collins will be 
found in Chapter IX. (Vol. 1.) at Dent's Rebellion in Upper Canada. 

(17) See Dent, Chapters V. and IX. (Vol. 1) ; Lindsey's Life of 
William Lyon MacKenzie, etc., etc. 

(18) See Dent. Chapter VII., Vol. 1. I have also examined the 
legal proceedings extant, and think Forsyth had no rights in the 
property tal^en from him. 


might be sued notwithstanding that he was Governor. (19) 
Peter Robinson was Commissioner of Crown Lands, the 
brother of Sir John Beverley Robinson and the founder of 
Peterborough, Upper Canada. (20) 

(19^) The case is reported at length in Reports at Cases adjudged 
in the Court ot King's Bench by Henry Cowper, Vol. 1. at page 161. 

Wyatt v. Gore is reported in Holt's Reports, page 299. This 
report is best known from the curious mistake made by the reporter 
in calling Upper Canada an "Island". The case was tried in 1816. 
and it decides that the Governor of a Province may be guilty of libel 
for handing a libellous' document to his 1 Attorney-General. Serjeant 
Firth. Gore's former Attorney-General, gave evidence for the plaintiff, 
con amore, as he had had difficulties with Gore also. 

(20.) Of those voting on the Reform side : 

Robert Alway was one of the two members for Oxford. 

William Bruce one of th* two members for Stormont. 

William Buell one of the two members for Leeds. 

Alexander Chisholm one of the two members for Glengarry. 

John Cook one 1 of the two members for Dundas. 

Charles Duncombe one of the 1 two members for Oxford. 

David Duncombe one of the two members for Norfolk. 

James Durand one of the two members for Halton. 

David Gibson member for 1st Riding of York. 

(Dr.) John Gilchrmt one of the two members for Northumberland. 

Caleb Hopkins one of the two members for HaHon. 

Matthew M. Howard one of the two members for Leeds. 

Samuel Lount one of the two members for Simcoe. 

Aeneas McDonell on of the two members for Stormont. 

John Mclntosh member for the 4th Riding of York. 

William Lyon MacKenzie member for the 2nd Riding of York. 

Gilbert McMicking member for the 4th Riding of Lincoln, 

Ellas Moore one of the two members for Middlesex. 

(Dr.) Thomas David Morrison member for the 3rd Riding of York. 

Hiram Norton one of the two members for Grenville. 

Thomas Parke one of the two members for Middlesex. 

Peter Perry, one of the two members for Lennox and Addington. 

John P. Roblin one of the two members for Prince Edward. 

Jacob Rymal one of the two members for Wentworth. 

Peter Shaver one of the two members for Dundas. 

James E. Small member for the City of Toronto. 

David Therburn member for the 3rd Riding of Lincoln. 

Charles Waters one of the two members for Prescott. 

William B. Wells, one of the two members for Grenville. 

James Wilson one of the two members for Prince Edward. 

Dennis Woolverton member for the 1st Riding of Lincoln. 

Henry W. Yager one of the 1 two members for Hastings. 

Of those voting on the Tory side : 

George I. Boulton was one of the two members for Durham. 

John Brown one of the two members for Durham. 

Francis Caldwell one of the 1 two members for Essex. 

Robert Graham Dunlop member for Huron. 

John Bower Lewis one of the members 1 for Carleton. 

William McCrae one of the two members for Kent. 

Donald McDonell one of the two members for Glengarry. 

Alexander McDonell one of the two members for Northumberland. 

Thomas McKay member for Russell. 

Archibald McLean member for .Cornwall. 


Allan N. McNab member for Hamilton. 

Edward Malioch member for Carleton. 

William Hamilton Merritt member for Haldimand. 

Charles Richardson member for Niagara. 

WilHam B. Robinson one of the two members for Simco*. 

Gteorge Rykert member for the 2nd Riding of Lincoln. 

Solicitor General Christopher Alexander Hagerman member for 


John Strange one of the two members for Frontenac. 
Francis L. Walsh one of the two members for Norfolk. 
John A. Wilkinson one of the two members for Essex. 

Not voting : 

David Jones member for Brockviile. 

William Morris one of the two members for Lanark. . 

Josias Tayler one of th two members for Lanark. 

Jacob Shibley one of the two members for Frontenac. 

James H. Samson one of the two members for Hastings. 

Marshall Spring Bidwell (Speaker) one of the two members for 

Lennox and Adding ton. 

Hermannus Smith one of the two members for Went worth. 
Nathan Cornwall one of the two members for Kent. 






Dr. Morrison, seconded by Mr. Gibson, moved that it be 

"Resolved That the Report of the Select Committee to 
whom was referred the communications between His Excel- 
lency the Lieutenant Governor and the late Executive 
Council be now adopted, and that the Memorial to the 
House of Commons accompanying the same be also con- 
curred in and adopted and signed by the Speaker, and 
transmitted by him to some member of the House of Com- 
mons, with the request of this House that he will present 
the same and support its prayer." 

Dr. MORRISON said that a more exciting and import- 
ant topic had never come before that House. The whole 
Province was now agitated by it. In the remarks he was 
about to make, he should endeavour to confine himself to 
the main point. The question was, whether or not the 
advantages of the British Constitution were to be enjoyed 
by the Province ? There were various opinions entertained 
in the country as to what constituted good government. 
The House, at the commencement of the Session, had given 
its opinion in favour of elective institutions ; and expres- 
sions of public opinion had since been given, by the country 
that this was necessary to preserve the union with the 
mother country. The important question to be discussed 
that day was not urged forward by the House, but had been 
forced upon it by the head of the administration entering 
into the discussion of the preliminaries of government ; and 
upon him would rest the blame if it should lead to the 
further inquiry whether the people or the king should elect 
the governor. The question before the House might be 
narrowed into this principle : If there is an Executive 
Council, what duties have the people a right to expect from 


it f One thing was ckar, there had been an Executive 
Council from th earliest period. But this was strangely 
denied by th present Lieutenant Governor ; although, if he 
had searched the records of the Province, he would Jiave 
found that it had existed coeval with the government 
itseli'. (Here the hon, gentleman read at some length from 
the works of Mr. Gourlay.) It would be worth while also 
to read the whole account of Governor Simcoe's adminis- 
tration. But he would not rest this question upon the bare 
authority of Governor Simcoe, but would refer to the last 
clause of the Constitutional Act, and to the King's 
Instructions, in which an Executive Council was plainly 
represented as an essential appendage to the Government. 
But he would contend further, that, laying aside all argu- 
ments deducible from law, established usage, and general 
admission, the very principles of colonial government re- 
quired the existence of such a Council to advise on all 
affairs of the Province. He had often admired that prin- 
ciple in the British Constitution which allows that the 
King can do no wrong. The meaning of this was, that he 
was not subject to trial by law ; because, being one branch 
of the legislature, he is and ought to be free in the dis- 
charge of his duties. But still there was responsibility in 
the Government ; because the King is surrounded by a 
responsible cabinet and Privy Council. The necessity for 
such a body as the Privy Council arose out of the very 
nature of the Government, although there was neither 
statute nor common law which provided for its existence, 
any more than for that of the Executive Council here. In 
order to avoid despotism, there must be a cabinet ministry 
liable to impeachment for the advice they give ; and as the- 
Lieutenant Governor here is the representative of the King 
by royal commission, the same principle should hold good, 
that he can do no wrong, and therefore he should be sur- 
rounded by responsible adisers, liable to punishment as in 
England. Without some such responsibility the Government 
must be the height of despotism, and the most ardent 
admirers of the British constitution would most strongly 
deprecate its existence. If unlimited power being vested in 
the King would constitute a despotism, is it not equally so 
if vested in the Governor-? He would ask, if the day had 
arrived when the people would tamely submit to be 
deprived of those blessings which had cost the blood of 
patriots ? No, he hoped the time had come when they 
would contend for good government. It would be as reason- 
able for judges % to dispense with juries, whose business it is 
to inform the conscience of the court, as for a governor to 
rule without responsible and intelligent advisers. It might 
as well he said that the Parliament is only to legislate on 


some affairs, as that the Executive Council is only to 
advise on some affairs. The very term Executive Council 
implied that it was to give counsel or advice on all Execu- 
tive matters. But how does the doctrine laid down by His 
Excellency accord with this, when he declares that he alone 
is responsible, and that he will ask advice only when he 
pleases ? To advise was the very essence of their 'office ; 
and they had as much right to exercise their privilege, as 
the Governor had to exercise his constitutional powers. It 
had always hitherto been supposed that the Council was 
consulted on all the affairs of the Province. That belief 
had been inculcated in all the public records, in the Jour- 
nals of the 'Assembly, and 'in speeches from the Throne, and 
had never before been questioned. Was it to be admitted 
that Sir Francis Head, an entire strang-er in the Province, 
was to come and upset opinions that had been entertained 
for fifty years ? He (Dr. M.) would appeal to the people 
whether they would submit to this from an individual 
whom nobody knew. The long- existence of the practice, if 
nothing else, had made it the constitutional law of the 
land. (Hear, hear !) Yes, the first Governor had an Execu- 
tive Council. The 31st Geo. III., chap. 31, showed that 
there was to be one. And, if such a Council does exist, the 
Royal Instructions state that they are to be advised on all 
affairs of the Province. It was the most odious doctrine 
that ever was promulgated, to tell the Council at this late 
day that they are to be limited in their advice to only 
those subjects on which the Governor may feel it necessary 
to ask it, and that they are alone responsible to him for 
that advice. In the year 1799, Governor Preston of Lower 
Canada took upon himself the same authority, but the Tory 
Council told him they would not submit to it. He con- 
tinued to act without their advice, and he had to walk 
about his business. Sir Peregrine Maitland did the same, 
and led some persons into crime. The Executive Council 
told him it was their province to advise him, and that, if 
he continued to act without advice, they would accuse him, 
and he must be recalled. Indeed, it was evident that the 
Governor could no more act by himself than the Assembly 
could. The privileges of both were defined by law. He 
would close by observing that Sir Francis Head, in reply- 
ing to the Address of the City Council, had entirely mis- 
taken the subject of it. He had represented them as 
dictating whom he ought to appoint as Executive Council- 
lors. But they did no such thing : They said what every 
constituted body has a right to say that the present Coun- 
cil had not the confidence of the country. But they nomin- 
ated no persons in their stead, but left the whole Province 
to His Excellency, from which to make his selection. 


Mr. PERRY commenced by remarking, that, if there 
ever was an important crisis in the affairs of Upper Canada, 
for good or for evil, it was the present time. There 
generally was a time in the history of every country, which, 
like the "tide in the affairs of men," as it was improved or 
neglected, exalted that country to greatness and prosperity, 
or sunk it into insignificance and contempt. That time, in 
his opinion, had arrived in Upper Canada. (Hear, hear !) 
For many years we had been struggling to get along in the 
best way we could, but things had still been getting worse 
instead of better. At length the time came when it was 
ardently hoped the prosperity of Upper Canada would be 
advanced, her grievances redressed, and her people made 
contented and happy ; but, as if some evil genius presided 
over her destinies, at that very time this question was 
forced into discussion. People of all classes, tories as well 
as reformers, had at different times complained of the 
administration of affairs in this Province, it had given 
satisfaction to none. When reformers made complaint, they 
were denounced as being factious, as demagogues, revolu- 
tionists, destructives, &c. ; but they never were told they 
should not enjoy the blessings of the British constitution ; 
in fact the contrary was the answer on all occasions : 
"You have the British constitution, and what more do you 
want ?" There had been a sort of deception practised upon 
the country : the complaints to which he alluded had been 
mostly directed against the Executive Council ; they had to 
bear the odium of all the unpopular acts of the Lieutenant 
Governor, and they had heretofore been prudent enough to 
keep up the delusion, knowing that the matter would not 
bear the light of investigation. Who, he would ask, had 
brought up the discussion of this question ? Was it the 
people, or the Council? No 1 he would say in his place, 
without fear of successful contradiction, that it was Sir 
Francis Bond Head. (Hear !) He had, to use his own 
emphatic language, "dragged it into day-light." What did 
he come here for ? Avowedly for the purpose of redressing 
the grievances of the country ; for he tells us in one of his 
popular appeals, "the grievances of this Province must be 
corrected, impartial justice must be administered ; the 
people have asked for it 'their Sovereign has ordained it. 
I am here to execute his gracious commands." Well, what 
did he do when he came here ? He sent for the Hon'ble 
Robert Baldwin, and he told His Excellency in plain simple 
language which could not b misunderstood, that, if he took 
office, it would be to advise him as a cabinet minister 
advises the King. Doctor Rolph told him the same thing. 
But did His Excellency tell them, before they went into his 
Council, that ho ronld not a'^orlo to nor accept of thHr 


services on these terms ? No ; but urged them to take 
office, at the same time telling them that they would have 
a better opportunity to discuss that question in Council. 
It seemed he wished to get them into his Council that the 
question might be "dragged into day-light," relying on his 
abilities as a writer to carry him through in writing down 
that great constitutional question in this Province. When 
they, with Mr. Dunn, consented to take office, he wrote a 
note to them to be read publicly in the House of Assembly, 
saying that they had done so free and unpledged ; but the 
note was not forthcoming till the day after they were 
sworn, notwithstanding- he tells the country, in one of his 
popular replies, that it was delivered to them before they 
were sworn into office just as he tells many other things 
and then it was altered from the draft agreed upon at the 
time they were sworn ; thus stooping to duplicity in order 
to get them into the Council, knowing that they were 
opposed to his principles. Having thus got them in, he 
proposed that no business should be done till the question 
was discussed between him and them, and they each should 
understand their relative duties. But did he do so ? No, he 
went on administering the government as if there was no 
Council, making appointments to office, without coming to 
any decision with his Council ; and seeing this they resign- 
ed office like honest men and gentlemen, not only the new 
councillors, but also the three old members, who were gen- 
erally thought to belong to the old tory school. They drew 
up a formal request to His Excellency, representing their 
views on the question at issue between 'them ; which was 
never, intended to be made public, as they took all precau- 
tions to keep it secret, they even swore the junior clerks 
of the office to secrecy, and then went up to him in a body 
and read it to him. He might have told them in answer, 
'Gentlemen, I find the practice of my predecessors different 
from what you claim, and I will submit the .question to the 
decision of His Majesty's Government.' But did he do so ? 
No, by no means ; but like a tyrant he told them, 'What 
you have written you have written ; you have put your foot 
in it, you must now retire from your principles or from my 
confidence.' Immediately he got it put into print for cir- 
culation throughout the country, (he must get credit for 
good manoeuvring ;) and thus he has been the cause of 
dragging the question before the country, and if any evils 
arise from it he must take the consequence. If the people 
be aroused to discuss questions of government, upon him 
must fall the blame. No doubt His Excellency never 
thought of such consequences following ; or if they did fol- 
low, that he could put them down as he would the 
clamours of the Kentish paupers. But he would find himself 


mistaken ; the people of Upper Canada were British sub- 
jects who understood their rights, and would not submit to 
be deprived of them by Sir Francis Bond Head or any other 
Francis. The question now before the country was not 
whether we should have a new constitution, like the United 
States ; no, but whether we should have the British con- 
stitution administered in all its blessings and advantages, 
as Governor Simcoe promised us ; or whether we should 
have all its evils, pensions, high salaries, established 
church, rectories, &c. without any of the advantages 
attending it ? It was admitted by Sir Francis himself, that 
if the King was here he would require an Executive Council 
to advise him. And was it not, most ridiculous and absurd 
in His Excellency to set himself above the King, to pro- 
claim that he was all-wise and all-powerful, and required no 
assistance in the government of the country ? If it was 
necessary for the liberties of the people that the King, 
whose interests were identified with theirs, should have this 
check over him, was it not much more necessary in the case 
of a captain of the Waggon Train or a commissioner of 
Poor Laws, who had no other interest in this country but 
the few paltry pounds he put into his pocket while he was 
here ? The Council claimed nothing but what was admitted 
in England ; not one of the editors in the Province said 
they did ; he knew His Excellency said they did as he said 
many other things which it would take more than his word 
to make go down as truth. (Hear, hear !) His Excellency 
says, the constitution of this Province ordained no such 
absurdity as an Executive Council j but the latent intention 
of His Majesty to create a Council was soon made known 
by the King's Instructions. He (Mr. P.) would like to know 
what he meant by the word "soon," for it was not till 27, 
years after the passing of the 31st Geo. III., cap. 31, that 
the Instructions which he sent down to the committee were 
transmitted to this country, they were dated in 1818 ; but 
that was of no consequence, for he would say with his hon. 
friend, that if neither the Constitution nor the Instructions 
said one word about an Executive Council, it would, not- 
withstanding, be required by the form of government. There 
was no such thing in the constitution of England, but 
it had grown out of necessity. The British government was 
a government of three branches. With the King rests the 
executive branch, in whom there must of necessity be a 
great deal of power entrusted, such as making war and 
concluding peace, entering into treaties, the power of life 
and death, &c. &c. ; and there ought to be some check upon 
the exercise of such power. What was that check ? It was 
the Cabinet Council, the bulwark of the rights and liberties 
of the country. Talk to Englishmen of resigning the con- 


trol they possessed through a Cabinet Council having the 
confidence of the House of Commons, and you might as 
well talk to them of resigning their hearts' blood : yet there 
was not a word in the constitution or laws of England 
which said that the King should be advised by his Council. 
Was not such a check as necessary in this .country as in 
England ? It was even more necessary ; and the Council 
should be responsible to the people for reasons which he 
stated before, the Governor having no permanent interest 
in the country. But His Excellency not only says that the 
constitution ordained no such absurdities, we would be 
ruined if we had it, yes, it would be the ruination of the 
country ; and, in fact, that it would be unconstitutional for 
the Governor to advise with his Council. And then, not- 
withstanding, he says, the constitution ordained no such 
absurdity as an Executive Council : he tells us again, that, 
to supply his want of local knowledge, the constitution has 
wisely provided an Executive Council. (Hear !) Never in 
his (Mr. P.'s) life did he hear such a mass of contradictions 
as His Excellency had put forth in his various documents. 
He might just as well say that the House of Assembly 
should not legislate upon all matters of the Province, as 
that the Council should not advise upon all its affairs. The 
Governor admits that if he stood in the place of the King 
he would need a Council ;, but he says he is only the minis- 
ter of the Colony ; yet, in the Instructions to which he 
appeals, -the Government of this country is called in five 
different places "your Government." And he has a discre- 
tionary power : he could declare war. (Hear !) Yes, he 
could ; and he calls parliaments and dissolves them at his 
will and pleasure : it is therefore necessary that he should 
have a council to advise him upon those important matters. 
Those who took a part in the debate which took place 
in the Imperial Parliament on the passing of our Constitu- 
tional Act, well knew that it was part of the constitution 
of England that a cabinet council should exist, and they 
must have intended when giving to Canada "all the 
forms," yes, "the very image and transcript of the British 
constitution," that there should be a cabinet council to 
advise the Governor upon all the affairs of the province ; 
and it would be found that this was their purpose, both 
from the Act itself and from the language of all public 
documents from that time to this. Governors Simcoe, 
Hunter, and all others down to this day, acknowledged the 
principle, although they found it their interest to deny it 
in practice. And so says Lord Stanley, who was not a 
reformer ; and the Constitutional Association of Quebec, 
who were not reformers, but tories, set out by saying in 
their Declaration, that there should be an executive council 


to advise the Governor on all the affairs of the province. 
And he had no doubt but if a question, had been moved in 
that house for an elective legislative council, and the pres- 
ent resolution was moved in amendment,- it would be 
.-.upported by all the tories in the house, even by the Sol.'r 
General himself. (Hear him !') (The hon'ble gentleman here 
read some extracts from the report of the Canada commit- 
tee of the House of Commons, which was drawn up by Mr. 
Stanley.) It must be conceded that the Governor takes 
advice of somebody, and if not from his council it must be 
from secret, unsworn, and irresponsible advisers. Was there 
a man in Upper Canada who wished such a system pursued? 
Did even the tories desire it ? for it must be granted that 
if persons were allowed to advise him in that way, they 
would feel no restraint, but would say any thing true or 
untrue that might suit their purpose. No one of any party 
was desirous of the welfare and prosperity of Upper Canada 
who wished the government to be administered in that way. 
The Governor says the Council take an oath of secrecy, 
which to his mind appears to be an oath of non-responsi- 
bility to the people. But was it not the same as the oath 
taken by the King's Council in England ? The very same ; 
it was an old oath ; the King's Council were sworn to 
secrecy, and yet His Excellency admitted they were respon- 
sible to the people. (The hon. member read the oath.) The 
very oath itself bound them to give advice upon all matters 
of the government ; and when they were thus sworn to give 
the Governor their best advice upon all matters which they 
thought was for the peace, welfare, and good government 
of the Province, was it just, was it honourable, to bring 
the charges against them which had been done in His 
Excellency '-s appeals to the people in the shape of answers 
to public addresses ?- His Excellency further says, it would 
not only be unconstitutional but it would be inexpedient 
that the government should be administered here as it is in 
England, and men could not be found properly qualified to 
take office as often as a change would make it necessary. 
Now, he (Mr. P.) would say that Upper Canada contained 
within itself men as well fitted for all the purposes of good 
government as any other country in the world, and who 
would lose nothing in comparison with the statesmen of any 
nation ; and he must say, it was not becoming in His 
Excellency to speak so contemptuously of the people of 
Upper Canada ; and not only of them, but also of all the 
Englishmen, Irishmen, and Scotchmen, who had emigrated 
here. But it seemed he was the only man fit to administer 
the government. Again he says, that if it was administered 
as was proposed, it would fall into the hands of a few 
dominant families at Toronto. (Hear !) What had he done 


to take away the power of the family compact ? Nothing ; 
he took his new council from those very men who had 
"built and feathered their nests in the branches of the tree 
of abuse." He told the House that when he named his 
council he thought they would be the most acceptable ,men 
to the people of Upper Canada. Was there a man in the 
country who believed that when he penned that declaration 
he himself believed it was true ? But that was nothing 
singular, for he kept men in his council who had convicted 
him of deliberate falsehood. When he was asked by the 
house whether a certain document was in existence, he 
replied it was not ; but Mr, Sullivan, when examined before 
the committee, said there was such a document, and that 
it was drawn up by his Excellency himself and executed in 
the council chamber ; and Captain Baldwin said the same : 
they only differed about who suggested it. Mr. Sullivan 
said he did, but Captain Baldwin said it was Mr. Elmsley ; 
yet he still kept this very Robert Baldwin Sullivan in his 
council. Could any one believe that 57 rectories would have 
been established in Upper Canada, contrary to the often 
expressed wish of nineteen twentieths, if not ninety-nine 
hundredths, of the people, if the government was adminis- 
tered by the advice of a Council responsible to the people ? 
What use was it to the people of this Province that the 
Governor was responsible to Downing Street ? Suppose he 
appointed Sheriffs and other important officers who would 
exercise their power to oppress the people, what redress 
could be had ? for it must be proved, to sustain a charge 
against him, that he was actuated by improper motives ; 
but this it would be difficult, if not impossible, to do. Such 
responsibility was all a "bubble," and His Excellency had 
better been writing about bubbles than about such respon- 
sibility. How could a case be made out against Sir John 
Colborne for setting apart 57 rectories last year contrary 
to the almost unanimous wish even of the last tory House 
of Assembly ? The hon. and learned Solicitor-General said, 
the other day, that he (Sir John Colborne) was compelled 
to do so by the Constitution. This was not the case ; the 
constitution authorised but did not compel it to be done. 
Because the constitution authorised the Assembly to stop 
the supplies, was it to be argued that they must do so 1 
How could Sir John Colborne be impeached for withholding 
from the House of Assembly important information relative 
to the revenue, when the Everlasting Salary Bill was under 
consideration ? Instead of being impeached or turned out, 
he actually made his boast of it and was approved of. And 
one of the answers of His Excellency, Sir F. B. Head, to 
the House was enough to impeach him ; for, at the very 
time when measures were taking in the Parent State to 



suppress Orange Societies, His Excellency tells the As- 
sembly he will take no step to suppress them in this 
country : That very answer showed not only that he had 
no regard for the wishes and feelings of the people of 
Upper Canada, but also that he had none for the wishes of 
His Majesty's Government. 

His Excellency says it is better that the people should 
apply to him for redress of their grievances, than to his 
Council. Well, he (Mr. P.) need not go back to the case 
of Mr. Francis Collins, the destruction of Mr. McKenzie's 
printing office, &c. ; he would say nothing of these bygone 
matters, but come at once to His Excellency's own admin- 
istration, and what would be found ? There was a 
gentleman who was well qualified to be at the head of the 
office which he had long been in as its chief clerk, and ho 
had applied to the Governor for it, backed by such a 
recommendation as he might well be proud of, and which 
few indeed could boast a recommendation signed by men 
of all parties and all classes, in the House of Assembly, 
the Legislative Council, and elsewhere, (he referred to 
Mr. Radenhurst ;) but did His Excellency give him the 
.situation ? No. And when the Assembly subsequently 
addressed him to inquire whether the office was filled up, 
plainly insinuating their wishes in regard to Mr. Raden- 
hurst, he did not even mention his name in his reply. 
And did not he connive, in the most disgraceful way, to 
prevent Mr. McDonell being promoted to the colonelship of 
the regiment which by rank he was entitled to ? And was 
there not a young stripling of a boy taken out of Peter 
Robinson's office the other day, and made collector of 
customs in Prince Edward, as if there was not a man fit 
for the situation in that county ? If these things were 
appealed against, what redress could be got at the Colonial 
Office, where one man was out and another in while the 
complaints were on their way there ? Look to the removal 
of the two crown officers, which was done to the great joy 
and satisfaction of the people of Upper Canada, and see 
how, by interested misrepresentations, they were re- 
appointed, the one to the Chief Justice of Newfoundland, 
and the other installed in his former situation. Suppose 
His Excellency should appoint a man to be a judge of the 
King's Bench, with slender qualifications as to character 
and still slenderer talents and knowledge of the laws, and 
he should, either from his ignorance or wickedness, sacrifice 
a man's life. How was redress to be obtained ? Then, 
there was the case of William Forsyth of the Niagara 
Falls, whose premises were invaded and whose property 
destroyed by a military force by command of the 
Lieutenant Governor ; he applied to the Colonial Office 


after seeking in vain for redress in this country, but had 
not obtained justice yet, nor was there any more probabil- 
ity of his getting redress than there was years ago. This 
responsibility to Downing Street was of no practical use 
to the people of this country, and therefore the necessity 
of a responsible Executive Council to advise upon all 
matters relative to the government of the colony^ 

His Excellency told the House that he was preparing 
remedial measures for the consideration of his Council. 
What, he (Mr. P.) would ask had become of them ? he 
would like to know where they were ; His Excellency had 
every opportunity to bring forward his remedial measures, 
but not one of them had made its appearance ; on the 
contrary, there was 'not a step he had taken yet, that has 
given satisfaction to the country ; and notwithstanding all 
his professions of coming here to "root out the tree of 
abuse," we are just where we were, he had done nothing 
but dismissed one Council and appointed another. He says 
he has followed in the same track of other Governors. He 
(Mr. P.) denied it. His Excellency told them, there never 
was an Executive Council till 1818, but he did not deny, 
that other Governors had an Executive Council before that 
time, and thus he contradicted himself. But saying noth- 
ing about that, he would ask, what was the use of 
recalling Sir John Colborne, and sending him, if he was to 
follow in the course of other Governors ? He admits, there 
are certain families who have actually grown rich upon the 
abuses of the Government, so that agitators have subsisted 
by exposing them, and therefore, there must have been 
some use in recalling Sir John Colborne and sending out 
Sir Francis Head ; but if he intends to do just as others 
have done, he (Mr. P.) must say,' that of the two, he 
would prefer Sir John Colborne ; indeed they should never 
be named in the same day. (Hear, hear, and laughter.) 

The very state of our affairs in a country blessed by 
Providence, with so many natural advantages, proves that 
there must be something wrong in the administration of 
our Government ; and he would maintain, that it became 
the Representatives of the people, after the question bad 
been "dragged into day light" as it had been, to support 
the principle of responsible Government, and if it had not 
hitherto been introduced to the country, to do it now, for 
the interests of the country required it. In doing so, they 
did not seek for any change in our Institutions, but merely 
to enjoy the same blessings as our fellow-subjects in the 
Mother Country. He further maintained, that it was their 
bounden duty to use all constitutional means, to obtain 
these desirable ends. What could they do ? In the first 
place, they could stop the Supplies, and in the next place. 


appeal to the King and Parliament at home. It was 
admitted on all hands, that they might withhold the 
Supplies ; but it might be said the time had not yet come, 
when it was proper to do so. In the name of God, when 
would it come ? It might be said that in England the 
supplies have not been withheld in times of great agitation. 
He would admit it. But why? Because the majority of 
the Commons always rules the Ministry. He was aware 
that many scare-crows would be held up, but he was of 
opinion, notwithstanding, that this was the time. 
Perhaps it would be said that we ought to tell the 
Governor what we intend to do. But the House had been 
as moderate as men could be, under their circumstances. 
They intimated, in their address to the King last year, 
their intention, and the only remaining question was, 
whether the right time had arrived. He believed the 
Mouse would not be doing its duty if it did not now take 
a firm stand ; when the Constitutional rights of the people 
were invaded by force and violence, when the Governor 
tells them that they cannot have the British Constitution, 
and thus attempts to strip them of their birthright. 
Under such circumstances, should the House grant the 
supplies, it would betray its trust. When the new Council 
was formed by the addition of known reformers, it caused 
universal satisfaction. But for what purpose was it 
formed ? Merely to be a. screen for Sir Francis Head, a 
mere delusion. When that Council was dismissed, the 
House went up to the Governor with an Address, express- 
ing their regret that such a step had been taken. They 
afterwards passed resolutions declaring their want of 
confidence in the present Council. But what was the 
result ? The Governor would not dismiss them but he 
derided the people, telling them that he had confidence in 
his advisers. Why, it would be committing political 
suicide, to grant the supplies under such a state of things. 
Perhaps he would be told that if the supplies were stopped, 
the Governor would refuse the contingencies. Well, let him 
refuse them. He was addressed for 2,000 several days 
ago, and was to give an answer to-day at 12 o'clock. 
What it was he did not know ; but had little doubt but it 
was a refusal. It was also reported by some of his 
satellites that he intended to shut up all the public offices. 
Let him do so ; if he thinks it will advance the interests 
of the country or the purpose for which he was sent here, 
let him do it. Of course he had the power in his own 
hands if he pleased. The farmers of the country were 
independent of him,-H:hey could "shear their own fleece 
and wear it." He would say here in his place, that if the 
supplies were stopt. and his Excellency did not dissolve 


the House, it would be a clear admission that he was 
aware the country did not go with him. The Executive 
Council were bound by their oath to advise him to dissolve 
the House to send home those demagogues , and get men 
who would go with him. He trusted that day would 
decide the question whether the supplies were to be stopt 
or not ; and if they were, let His Excellency come down 
and thunder his cannon in their ears, dissolve the House, 
and see what the consequence would be. Let him denounce 
us as traitors to the interests of the country, betrayers 
of the trust reposed in us by our constituents, and send us 
back to them again, and ask them whether they approve 
of us or not. The whole course of His Excellency, not 
only on general matters but in particular acts, was to be 
condemned. He had interfered with the privileges of the 
House of Assembly, in saying he was surprised it should 
address him on the subject of the present Council till the 
Committee had reported. And does he not speak of this 
matter most freely to members of the Assembly, and to 
private persons out of doors ? He tells them, 'The House 
of Assembly has got the pig by the wrong ear, they have 
got hold of the stick by the wrong end.' Many names ar,e 
already in his black book ; my name, I am told, occupies 
a very conspicuous place there. And did not he influence 
officers high in His Majesty's service to come to this 
House and pilfer that very Report from the table, in order 
that he might see it and be able to shape his course 
accordingly ? 

Tf ever the time could come to stop the supplies, it 
w r as now. Had not every step of the Executive Government 
been against the interests of the country ? Look at the 
57 rectories ; and instead of that number there would soon 
be 444, as the Solicitor General wished there was the 
other day. If the House did not take a stand now, they 
would soon have no privileges to guard, or none worth 
contending for. He recollected when Mr. Boulton refused 
to give evidence before a committee of the House, he was 
brought to the bar and received a lesson from the 
Speaker ; and he afterwards turned out one of the greatest 
sticklers for the rights of the people in the Assembly he 
(Mr. P.) ever saw. And he had no doubt but Sir Francis 
Head, when he was broken down from his present haughti- 
ness, would be a useful Governor to Upper Canada, and as 
great a stickler for the privileges of the House of 
Assembly, as Mr. Boulton was. He was desirous of moving 
the following amendment : 

"That this House regards it as one of the brightest 
features and most important attributes of the British 
Constitution that the head of the Government is assisted 


ID. all its affairs by the advice of known and responsible 
Councillors and Officers who possess the confidence of the 
people ; and that the people of this Province had imparted 
to them the same form of Government by the British 
Statute 31st Geo. 3rd, chap. 31st which, in the memorable 
language of the revered Simcoe, 'established the British 
Constitution and all the forms which secure and maintain 
it in this distant country,' and 'singularly blessed this 
Province, not with a mutilated Constitution, but with a 
Constitution which has stood the test of experience and is 
the very image and transcript of Great Britain.' " 

Let any man who pretends to be for the Constitution 
of the. country, vote against that proposition ; but what- 
ever became of the amendment, he hoped the original 
resolution would be adopted, that the country might know 
the Report had the sanction of that House. 

MR. McNAB said, that before entering into the 
discussion of the important question now before the House, 
and which had been so unfairly kept from the country, he 
would endeavor to remark upon what had fallen from hon. 
gentlemen who had spoken before him. He expected that 
the hon. and learned member who introduced this matter, 
would have furnished the House with something like 
authority for the principles he advocated ; but the only 
authority he adduced, was that of Mr. Gourlay's opinion. 
The whole proceedings on the part of those who called 
themselves Reformers, in regard to, His Excellency and the 
Administration of the Government, were the most singular 
he ever saw. When Sir Francis Head arrived here, they 
extolled him to the highest pitch. The hon. member for 
the second Ridiner of York, sent out "epistles to the 
farmers," through the Correspondent and Advocate, prais- 
ing him as a "Radical of the first water." But short-lived 
was his popularity with them ; for the very first speech he 
made, his very first communication to the House of 
Assembly, was, on motion of the learned Doctor from 
Oxford, referred to a committee of privilege, as a breach 
of the privileges of the House. This must have been 
premeditated, for the hon. and learned Doctor had his 
motion prepared before he heard the speech delivered. He 
did not even take his seat on the return of the House, 
irom the Bar of the Legislative Council, but actually made 
,the motion before the Speaker was fairly settled in the 
chair. When it was rumoured that the Executive Council 
had resigned, the House addressed His Excellency for 
information concerning the facts, and he, in the most 
frank manner, communicated the correspondence between 
him and his council on that subject. His Excellency's 
Reply, together with the correspondence, was referred to a 


select committee ; and it was worthy of remark, of whom 
that committee was composed. Were the members chosen 
from both sides of the House ? No, they were from only 
one side ; and although he moved to add two from that 
side of the House with whom he generally acted, in order 
that the opinions and views of both parties, might be 
fairly represented in the committee, it was refused. He 
said then, and he must still say, that he thought it was 
very unfair. He wished to have the hon. and learned 
members for Cornwall and Kingston named on the com- 
mittee, both Lawyers of high standing, and he thought it 
was due to their side of the House, that they should be on 
it ; but no, not one but men of their own party would they 
appoint : and would it be believed, those hon. gentlemen 
who took on themselves the whole responsibility of this 
great question, and would not receive any assistance from 
others, voted against his motion. Having got it all their 
own way, they had at last brought in a Report embodying 
the grievances of the last seven years. But it ought to be 
known it was all from one side of the House. What 
authority had they shown for the principles of the Report ? 
Why, the learned Dr. (Morrison) had found the authority 
of Mr. Gourlay. (Hear.) After sitting in secret conclave 
upwards of three weeks, they brought it in, late on Friday 
night, or rather on Saturday morning, and immediately 
resolved that it should be printed. Where was the 
necessity for being in such hurry to get the order passed 
for printing it ? Did they print the documents sent down 
by his Excellency, before they petitioned the people of the 
country to petition the Assembly to stop the supplies f 
(Hear, hear.) No, but it was to prevent hon. members on 
his side of the house from reading and examining this 
precious document, in order that they might be prepared 
to answer any thing like argument, that might be found 
within its two or three hundred pages. Yet that house 
ordered the report to be distributed among the clerks, to 
be copied for the Correspondent & Advocate newspaper, 
and that its discussion should be the first thing on the 
order of the day for Monday morning : thus was a great 
majority of hon. members on his side of the house driven 
into the discussion of the subject, without even affording 
them an opportunity of reading the report. 

Such is the manner in which the committee was 
appointed and the Report made ; and how have they 
proceeded this morning f Did they come forward and 
propose to discuss the question in committee of the whole 
House, in such a way that an opportunity would be 
afforded to the hon. and learned Speaker to express his 
sentiments, and give the House the benefit of his learning 


and talents on this great question I No ; but with the 
Speaker in the chair, one moves a resolution, and another 
moves .an amendment to it, which was a manoeuvre to 
prevent any one from the other side of the House from 
recording their sentiments on the Journals. (Hear, hear.) 
Was that fair ? They should not do so ; and he could 
assure .them that he, and those who took the same view 
of the question that he did, would take another opportun- 
ity of recording their sentiments. They come forward and 
talk of responsible Government : but he would like to ask 
those gentlemen, if they wished the Government to be 
responsible to the Mother Country? If they did, he must 
declare that he thought lit would be most unjust to turn 
out the members of the Executive Council, when they could 
not go with the majority of the House of Assembly. 
(Hear, hear !) Yes, he> would declare it would be the most 
iniquitous system for this country to be governed by the 
majority of the Assembly, and much worse than our 
present system was represented to be by those gentlemen. 
Why, they would turn out every officer who was not of 
their party ; and yet this was the system they wished to 
introduce into this country. Such was not the practice of 
the present Government ; th records showed that all the 
patronage ,was not bestowed on one side, although the hon. 
gentleman from Lennox and Addington had asserted it 
was. He complains of the appointment of some young 
gentleman, a Mr. Beeston, to the office of Collector, and 
says that the Government should act impartially, and the 
fittest men should always be selected to fill office. Was 
that the course pursued by the majority of that House, of 
which that hon. gentleman claims the honor of being the 
leader ? It was not ; for instance, that hon. gentleman had 
received no less than three appointments this Session, from 
a majority of the House : 1st. A Commissioner , with Mr. 
Bidwell, to treat with Commissioners on the part of Lower 
Canada, on all subjects connected with this Province. 
2d. To sell the Stock and arrange all the affairs of the 
Welland Canal. 3d. For disposing of the School Lands ; 
and each appointment to the tune of $4 per day. And was 
he the fittest man in Upper Canada to discharge the duties 
of those several offices ? He (Mr. McNab) supposed the 
majority of the House intended to commit the affairs of 
the Welland Canal to his holy and safe keeping, in conse- 
quence of the friendly feeling he had uniformly shown 
towards that great work. As to the Government confining 
their appointments altogether to persons of one class of 
politics in the country, it was not true ; the opposition 
benches on the floor of the House gave a flat contradiction 
to the assertion. The hon. gentleman himself was a 


Justice of the Peace, it was true, he did not hold very 
high rank in the Militia, but whose fault was that ? He 
(Mr. McNab) was sure it must be fresh in the recollection 
of many hon. members, the reasons assigned by that hon. 
member, for retiring from the service. According to his 
own statement, he had the honor of holding the rank of 
Corporal in the Militia, and was one of the gallant band 
who made such an admirable retreat before a shot was 
fired, after marching many miles to take the Brig Oneida, 
and immediately after retired from the service ; con- 
sequently his promotion was stopped, and thus was His 
Majesty deprived of the Military services -of the hon. and 
gallant Corporal. The hon. member for Dundas (Mr. 
Shaver) was also made a Magistrate, and also held the 
commission of Captain of Dragoons ; and was not he a 
thorough-going Reformer ? And was he the fittest man in 
all the county of Dundas to be a Justice of the Peace, and 
Captain of Dragoons ? His hon. colleague was a Justice 
of the Peace Mr. Chisholm was also a Justice of the 
Peace and Colonel of Militia. Dr. Bruce had also accepted 
the appointment of Coroner since he had been in Parlia- 
ment, in fact, said Mr. McN. there is scarcely one of the 
gallant band of Reformers that are now before me, who 
does not hold some situation under the Government. In 
addition to which, they have all been well provided for by 
the majority of this House. No less than eight members 
of the opposition were, by their own votes, and those who 
act with them, appointed in one batch, Commissioners at 
$4 per day. Even the hon. and learned Doctor (Morrison) 
opposite had accepted an office during the present Session 
from the Government he is forever abusing. He hoped the 
hon. and learned gentleman would not get into a passion 
with him for mentioning his name, at least not such a 
passion as he saw him in, in the Methodist Committee 
Room he referred to the gentleman who sat all Good 
Friday, trying the Methodists ; had not he taken office 
under the Government ? Yes, he had, he was a member of 
the Medical Board, appointed by Sir F. B. Head, as that 
hon. and learned gentleman says, without the advice of 
the Council. And with all the boasted independence of the 
majority, they were continually applying for every little 
office that became vacant in their own part of the country, 
while they were playing into each other's hands in the way 
of appointments in that House. It was truly ridiculous 
to hear hon. members abusing the Government for not 
appointing persons to office who were unfit to discharge 
the duties required of them, while the Journals of the 
House showed that with the exception of one or two, 
every member on the opposition, had either obtained 


appointments from the Government or from, the House, and 
some of them three and four situations ; for instance 
appointing the hon. member for Halton, Mr. Durand, a 
Commissioner to sell the School Lands, and at $4 per day, 
when it is a notorious fact, there is not a foot of School 
Lands in the Gore District, and he knowing this, and 
voting for his own appointment. 

There were some more of the proceedings of the party 
relative to this matter which ought to be exposed. When 
the documents came down to the House, he moved to print 
5,000 copies of them that they might be sent forth to the 
country ; but the learned Mayor and others opposed and 
defeated the motion ; while they prepared a petition, sent 
it forth to the country, got a few signatures to it, and 
when it came back, they say, "Here is an expression of 
public opinion." That was what he (Mr. McNab) called 
begging the question. They ask the people, "If we oppose 
the Governor, stop the supplies, bring the government into 
embarrassment, and throw every thing into confusion, will 
you support us at the next election ?" And these petitions 
they call a spontaneous expression of public opinion. 
Here is the document, which I will read to you : it is 
signed William Lyon Mackenzie, a gentleman whom I 
suppose you have heard of. (Laughter.) (The hon. gentle- 
man read from the circular letter which accompanied the 
petition, and then from the language of His Excellency in 
answer to addresses, and asked) Is that like the lang- 
uage ascribed to him in this circular ? And yet you hear 
his Excellency accused of "garbling" when a clerical, error 
happened in leaving out the word 'these' in the extract 
from the King's Instructions ; and this too by men who 
had the face to send forth such perverted language as an 
exposition of his sentiments. (Hear, hear !) 

Was not the Governor sworn to uphold the British 
constitution in this Province ? And if his Executive 
council should take a different view of matters, and give 
him such advice as would, if followed, lead to the over- 
throw of British supremacy in the country, was he not 
bound to dismiss them, whether they were approved of by 
the majority of the Assembly or not ? Was a system 
which had been acted upon for fifty, years to be abandoned 
for the mere opinion of Mr. Attorney Baldwin or John 
Rolph ? (Hear him !) And because his Excellency was 
pleased to accept of their resignations would any man 
think the less of him ? or would he do so even if Sir 
Francis Head had expelled from his councils men who had 
signed a document which was a libel upon the people of 
Upper Canada, and which contained doctrines destructive 
of our connexion with the Parent State ? The Report 


states that his Excellency said, if the council would retire 
from their principles he would keep them in his service, 
and that such declarations are calculated to corrupt the 
public morals. The expression of his Excellency on that 
subject was merely the usual hint to resign ; but what did 
the council say ? At the conclusion of their document to 
the Governor they pray, that if their proposal is noi 
acceded to, they may be allowed to disabuse the public 
mind. They were quite willing to settle the matter with 
their consciences, and continue in the council, if they could 
be allowed to publish to all Uppef Canada the secrets of 
the Executive Council. But no, his Excellency tells them 
he does not want such men for his confidential advisers. 

Honourable members on the opposite side talked a great 
deal about the Everlasting Salary Bill, as they called it. 
He voted for that bill, and counted it . one of the best 
public actions of his life. (Hear, hear !) It was well for 
Upper Canada that that bill was passed ; for, if it was 
not, they would now be able to accomplish their object. 
They would be able to dismiss the judges and all the 
public officers, at any time, and would vote no salary to 
the Governor if he did not see proper to appoint Doctor 
Morrison, Peter Perry, &c. to office, and make William 
Lyon McKenzie postmaster-General. (Laughter.) What 
were the salaries voted by that bill ? In the first place, 
there was the salary of the Governor, 2000, should not 
that be paid ? Then, there was the salary of the Chief 
Justice 1250 ; should he not be paid ? and was not the 
present Chief Justice an honour to Upper Canada ? the 
son of one of those U. E. Loyalists about whom so much 
had been said in that house, the descendant of a gallant 
officer, and who, with many other officers of that distin- 
guished regiment, after fighting during the whole of the 
Revolutionary War, came and settled with their Colonel 
the late General Simcoe, in this country. Two judges, 
1000 each. The Attorney General 300. Should not he 
have a salary ? was not that office necessary ? The 
Solicitor General 200 ; and five Executive Councillors 
100 each. That was the sum total of the everlasting 
Salary Bill about which so much had been said ; and he 
must say again, that he thought making the salaries of 
those officers permanent was the best thing ever done for 
Upper Canada. Talk about the extravagance of the 
Government when the contingent account of the House of 
Assembly this year was between 9,000 and 10,000- 
more than is required for the support of the whole govern- 
ment of the colony. (Hear, hear !) A great deal had been 
said about the terms upon which the three new councillors 
took office ; but the note from the Governor to them said. 


"I shall rely on your giving me your unbiassed opinion on 
all subjects respecting which I may feel it advisable to 
require it." If he practised any deception upon them, why 
did tfiey not return the note at once and require 
explanation immediately when copies of it were read in the 
House of Assembly and Legislative Council ? Did they 
not authorise the Speaker in this House, and the hon. 
Captain Baldwin in the Legislative Council, to read this 
note, for the express purpose of informing the Legislature 
and the Country of the terms on which they accepted 
office f It might be that Mr. Baldwin had some wisdom, 
and Mr. Rolph a great deal of cunning, and they knew his 
Excellency was a stranger in the country, that there was a 
great deal of business, and they thought he would need 
them and would keep them on their own terms. But they 
found their mistake, for he no sooner saw the document 
they presented him than he bowed them out of office. And 
he (Mr. McNab) did think, if his Excellency had acceded to 
their views he should have lost his head for it. They 
found no fault with the note explaining the terms on which 
they took office, but went to the Council Chamber, and 
drew up the declaration which caused their dismissal ;, and 
he believed they would give half what they were worth if 
they could recal it and go back to the Council again. 

The hon. member for Lennox and Addington says the 
Governor has power to declare war. That was new 
doctrine ; at least he never heard before that a Lieutenant 
Governor of a colony had the power of making war. That 
hon. gentleman and those who act with him will find war 
enough when they go back to their constituents, for he 
(Mr. McN.) was persuaded the document, they had brought 
forward would not go down with the country, but they 
would be told by the people, "You have brought yourselves 
into collision with the Governor, you have stopt the 
supplies and thereby deranged the affairs of the govern- 
ment, retarded the improvement of the country, and injured 
the public credit abroad ; that is not the way to advance 
the interests of this Province, and you are not the men to 
be entrusted with them." Let it be known that this 
Radical Parliament was the first in the history of the 
country to stop the Supplies. When Mr. Hume proposed 
such a thing in the House of Commons it was denounced 
as a revolutionary project and was scouted at once. The 
hon. member for Lennox and Addington talks a great deal 
about the language of the Governor ; but what sort of 
language did he make use of about the head of the Govern- 
ment to-day ? Such I am sure as the people of Upper 
Canada will not approve of. He (Mr. McN.) feared, when 
he came into the House in the morning, he would find 


difficulty in meeting the arguments which would be brought 
forward on the other side ; but he did not feel so now ; 
they had brought forth nothing like argument to show that 
the Executive Council should be responsible to the people. 
Governor Simcoe, and all from his time to the present, 
had followed the same practice with regard to taking the 
advice of their council ; and he was persuaded the people- 
would not approve of the present measures. No Radical 
Parliament would ever die a natural death in Upper 
Canada ; the last one sat only two years, and it was 
called the Long Parliament, and it was not very probable 
the present one would sit much longer. 

Having said so much in reply to hon. members on the 
other side who had spoken before him, he would now pro- 
ceed to the main question. 

It was difficult to conceive what object the Executive 
Council had in view when they made their representation, 
or rather it was difficult to conceive how the real bearing 
and effect of the representation could have escaped them, 
for he would be unwilling to charge the whole of them 
with having made it knowingly. It opens with an almost 
express declaration of the truth of a variety of statements, 
which, although zealously asserted and put forth by a 
particular political party, have been denied with equal 
zeal and more truth by their opponents. These assertions 
too reflect strongly on the administration of the govern- 
ment in former times, and therefore came with a 
peculiarly ill grace from the heads of departments. For 
example, they assume as the proper construction of the 
opinion expressed by lord Glenelg, that the condition of 
the province is "unhappy" ; they attribute it to an 
"unconstitutional abridgement" of their duties. They 
assert an "established opinion" in the country on the 
subject, infer a state of discontent when they speak of 
contentment being "restored", and treat the public mind 
as in a state of excitement bordering on revolution, which 
cannot be prevented unless "the system of local government 
is altered and conducted according to the true spirit and 
meaning of the constitutional act" ; the whole forming a 
running commentary on the seventh report of the 
committee of grievances, admitting its truth in some 
important particulars, and falsifying in spirit and almost 
in letter the address of the Legislative Council in reply to 
lord Goderich's celebrated despatch, to which three, if not 
four, of the very Executive Councillors expressly assented. 

The representation may be examined under two heads, 
the matter and the manner : 1st. The Executive Council 
claim as a constitutional right, or rather as a duty 
imposed on them, by the constitution, and which they have 


taken an oath to discharge, to advise the King's represen- 
tative on the affairs of the province generally, i.e. to 
have all the affairs of the province submitted to them for 
their advice, without reservation. This claim is founded 
upon the language of the 31st Geo. 3d, which speaks in 
one or more clauses of such Executive Council as shall be 
appointed for the affairs of this province ; and it is 
inferred, that because they are 'so appointed for the affairs, 
&c., and because only some particulars are fixed in which 
their concurrence is necessary, the consequence is that their 
advice must be taken on all affairs, though their concur- 
rence to particular acts only is required. This seems a 
forced construction even upon the words of the act, still 
more so when other considerations are adverted to. 
Would it have been such a violation of the 31st Geo. 3d, 
as to have prevented the affairs of the province from being 
carried on, if no Executive Council had ever been appointed; 
or if one had been appointed limited to the particular 
matters mentioned in that statute ? In other words, is 
the Executive Council so integral and necessary a part of 
the government, that the government can have no existence 
without it ? He should find it very difficult to assent to 
the affirmative of such a proposition, and however impolitic 
he might deem such a course, and however he might 
condemn it, he was not prepared to say, that the public 
business (with the particular exceptions adverted to) 
might not be legally and constitutionally carried on, 
though there were no Executive Council. If, otherwise, 
there must be a species of interregnum, on the resignation 
of the Council, and a cessation of business till its 
reorganization not required by any constitutional principle, 
and occasioning an uncalled for inconvenience to the public 
service. The appointment of the Council rests entirely 
with the Sovereign; he appoints what number he pleases, 
and dismisses them at pleasure, although, to use the terms 
of the statute, they are appointed for the affairs of the 
province. He could not deduce from that expression any 
thing directory on the part of the legislature, as to the 
nature of the appointment or of the rights or duties of 
the Executive Council. They are not, either as individuals 
or as a body, responsible for the advice they give, and it 
cannot therefore be necessary, as a constitutional principle, 
that their advice should be talcen, with a view to hold 
them responsible to the public for the measures which the 
q:overnment adopts. To understand the question thor- 
oughly, it was necessary to analyze the office of Lt. 
Governor. The portions of the kingly prerogative, which 
is delegated to him, are to be administered by him under 
his personal responsibility ; he is to obey such instructions 


as he may receive from the home government, or in the 
exercise of a sound discretion in matters on which he is 
called upon to decide, without reference to that govern- 
ment. In the mere exercise of the prerogative, the 
performance of those acts which the Crown alone can 
perform, he stands in the place of the Sovereign ; but for 
the propriety of the course he may take in any such act, 
he remains personally and individually responsible, not in 
this province, by reason of the nature of his office, but to 
the King's government, and to the British parliament : the 
one of which may dismiss him, the other impeach him. 
Although therefore clothed with executive functions, he 
exercises them as a minister, subject to the same respon- 
sibilities as the ministry at home. This responsibility is 
in its nature indivisible ; whatever acts are done must be 
viewed as done by him alone. The Lieutenant Governor 
requires the concurrence of the Executive Council in certain 
points, and he has the right of applying for their advice 
on any other affairs he may deem advisable. To give him 
this right they are constituted a council for the affairs of 
the province, in order that he may advise with them, 
whenever any subject presents itself rendering such advice 
desirable. The very limitation of the advice of the 
Executive Council to certain specified cases, would appear 
to negative the necessity of their advice on other occasions, 
while their being an Executive Council for the affairs of 
the province renders them liable to be called upon for their 
advice as often as the Lieutenant Governor may require 
it. Such was the construction put on the 31st Geo. 3d, 
by the ministry by whom the act was carried through the 
British Parliament, and such construction had uniformly 
prevailed to the present day. 

In the consideration of this question, it must bo 
carefully borne in mind, that we are construing a law 
that exists, and not enquiring into the policy of forming 
an Executive Council on other principles. Arguments 
drawn from any supposed advantages that would result 
from converting the Executive Council into an administra- 
tion of individuals holding office in the colony, liable to 
lose their offices when the policy they pursue is not 
acceptable to the majority of the House of Assembly, are 
foreign to a proper consideration of the question that now 
arises. Upon that point he should only remark, that 
such a scheme seemed rather difficult to reconcile with the 
relation of colony and parent state, and that it would 
seem rather unjust that the members of the local govern- 
ment should be responsible for the policy pursued here, 
while that policy is dictated by the home government ; and 
that unless the home government has the right of such 


dictation, the connexion with the mother country becomes 
merely nominal, extending in reality to little more than 
the appointment of the Lieut. Governor. 

Having thus far adverted to the matter of the 
communication, a few remarks might be offered on its 
manner. The Council commenced by an assertion that they 
made their representation "impressed with the oath which 
they have taken" they argue that they are in duty bound 
to advise the Lieutenant Governor on all the affairs of 
the province, and that no affairs of the province ought to' 
be withheld from their view, which he presumed to mean, 
that they felt impressed that they . were sworn to advise 
the Governor on all the affairs of the province, and could 
not conform to the spirit of their oath, unless all such 
affairs were submitted to them. In no other view could 
we justify them in making so novel a demand on the 
Lieut. Governor, at the moment when his attention was 
necessarily much occupied with the legislature, and when, 
from his being a stranger in the province, he might find it 
useful to make frequent reference to his Council. It 
seemed strange that, resting their application on the 
obligation of their oath, they should conclude their repre- 
sentation 'by a prayer, not that they might be allowed to 
retire, but that they may be allowed "to disabuse the 
public from a misapprehension of the nature and extent of 
the duties confided to them" ; that is, to be allowed to 
tell the public, "We believe the duties of our office require 
us to advise on ALL the affairs of the province we have 
taken an oath to perform those duties we are prevented, 
by the course the Lieut. Governor adopts, from discharging 
the obligation of that oath ; but our scruples of conscience, 
which impelled us to represent the matter to the Lt. 
Governor, and to require what we have required, will be 
removed if we are allowed to let you know the true state 
'of the case. We have no objection to remain Executive 
Councillors> although restrained in the discharge of our 
sworn duties ; our only objection is to be thought 
responsible by the public when we are not so in fact." 
It was obvious there could be but one answer to such a 
communication. He would offer no remarks on the present 
Council ; but it must be evident, that a new appointment 
was rendered unavoidable, unless his Excellency had been 
unwise enough to yield the point in dispute, and while he 
remained in his own person responsible, to submit to the 
views and opinions of the Council in the administration of 
the government. 

MR. McLEAN remarked, that the Report under 
consideration contained 104 pages, and, owing to the 
shortness of the time since it was brought in by the 


Committee, little opportunity had been afforded for hon. 
members not in the secrets of the committee-room to 
become acquainted with its contents. That, however, was 
not of much consequence, for the very principle avowed 
by the framers of it during this discussion, as being the 
foundation of the Report, was quite sufficient to cause its 
rejection by every loyal and patriotic man. That principle 
was, "responsible government." Perhaps he did not 
properly understand what was meant by a responsible 
government ; but he took it for granted that it meant a 
government responsible to the House of Assembly. Now, 
he would like to ask hon. members who seemed so anxious 
to have a responsible government, as they call it, if they 
were to form an Executive Council responsible to the 
House of Assembly, whether its members could retain their 
situation ? Surely they could not ; nor had he any idea 
that any one of the gentlemen who were called Reformers, 
and who were appointed to the Executive Council, ever 
thought of being responsible to that House. It was 
practically impossible that such responsibility could exist ; 
for, being consulted upon all affairs of the Crown, and 
being responsible to the House of Assembly for the advice 
which they gave, they would acquire such power and 
control over the Governor as was altogether inconsistent 
with the proper subjection of the government of this 
Province to that authority of the Mother Country which 
must be necessarily maintained by every Parent State over 
its Colonies. Notwithstanding all that had been heard of 
the grievances of the country and the means of redressing 1 
them, it was now avowed that nothing would satisfy the 
majority of that house but what they call a responsible 
Government ; that is a government responsible to the 
House of Assembly of Upper Canada, but not to Great 
Britain. But the very moment we establish that doctrine 
in practice, we are free from the Mother Country. If it 
was the wish of the majority of that house to separate 
this Province from the fostering care and protecting power 
of that country, or from what they ungratefully called her 
"baneful domination," let them adopt that Report. But 
they might rest assured that the people of this country had 
eyes and ears, they could read and understand, and they 
would discriminate between those who were actuated by 
patriotic motives and those who were only the demagogues 
of the hour, (hear, hear !) whose element was agitation, 
but who had no sincere desire to remedy the real grievances 
of the country. (Hear, hear.) Yes, hear ; he hoped the 
people would hear and understand. He was not in that 
house to court the populatity which was gained without 
merit and lost without a crime ; but he trusted that so 


long as he had the honour of a seat in it, he would 
fearlessly advocate those measures which he considered 
were for the interest of the country to be adopted, and as 
fearlessly oppose all others of a contrary tendency, how- 
ever speciously they were put forth. 

The discussion of this question, it was said, was forced 
upon the house by His Excellency the Lieutenant Governor. 
He (Mr. McL.) would like to know how he had done it. 
He came to this Province an entire stranger, and, as he 
said, unconnected with the political differences of the 
country ; and what interest could he have in agitating 
such a question ? He came here a professed Reformer, he 
was even called a "Reformer ol the first water" by those 
very persons who now seemed to think they could not find 
epithets sufficiently abusive by which to designate him 
but the moment he would not agree to all their views they 
attacked him in the grossest manner. The Report stated 
that the first Governor of this Province was a member of 
the British Parliament when our Constitutional Act was 
passed, and it greatly extolled him for his liberal and 
patriotic views in regard to this Colony ; but do we find 
in any of his acts, speeches, or proclamations, one word 
about "responsible government ?" Not one syllable. The 
bone of .contention seemed now to be whether the Governor 
is bound to consult the Council upon all affairs of the 
Colony ; but the very first act of Governor Simcoe, whom 
the hon. member for Lennox and Addington holds up as 
a pattern to all other Governors, namely, the division of 
the Province into Districts, was evidently done without 
the advice of the Executive Council ; as the Proclamation 
on that subject says not one word of its being done with 
their advice and consent. And the very first act he 
performed, when the first Parliament met, was to appoint 
a Speaker of the Legislative Council, which was also done 
without the advice of the Executive Council. How, then, 
could hon. members stand up and say that the Governor 
was bound to consult them on all affairs, when such was 
not Governor Simcoe' s practice, and when the very Act 
under which we live only requires him to do so on two or 
three occasions f The moment you declare that he, 
through his Executive Council, is amenable to this House, 
that very moment you declare the Mother Country has 
nothing to do with us. He is appointed by His Majesty 
as one of his Ministers, and he has a painful duty to 
perform for which he is accountable to his Sovereign. 
But hon. gentlemen on the opposition say, "Shall we have 
a Governor who is only responsible to Downing Street, 
4,000 miles distant?" Sir, (said Mr. McLean) I look 
upon all such expressions as that to be tantamount to a 


declaration of a wish for independence from the Mother 
Country, and they show but too clearly that the persons 
who make use of them are tired of the connexion f (Hear, 
hear.) To be sure they do not come out and say so 
plainly, for they well know there is too strong an attach- 
ment to that country by the people of this Province to 
tolerate it ; and therefore they insidiously instil, under 
specious names, the poison of their principles into their 
unsuspicious minds ; thus endeavouring to destroy their 
confidence in the justice of the Government of Great 
Britain towards them, and render them discontented with 
their present colonial condition. (Hear !) While they 
thus industriously labour to agitate this country, they are 
not idle in forwarding the same designs with the Govern- 
ment at home, by endeavouring to create distrust of the 
loyalty of the people of this Province. Address after 
address, and representation after representation, and 
grievance report after grievance report, embracing "every 
imaginable topic of complaint," are sent home, which must 
produce a very unfavourable impression respecting the 
people of this Colony. And it is to be feared, if they 
continue crying "grievance, grievance, grievance !". that, 
like the boy who cried "wolf", they will not be heeded 
when there is some real grievance to complain of, and then 
their object will be accomplished. He held it to be the 
duty of every good subject to inculcate peace, and do all 
he could for the good government of the country ; but he 
would ask, was it consistent with the duty they owed to 
the Government to be crying out "grievance" continually ? 
Or, was it a duty the members of that House owed to 
their constituents, to get up petitions in the .House and 
send them out to the country, asking the people to sign 
them ? Would it not be better to leave it to the good 
sense of the people to petition them when they saw a 
necessity for so doing ? But no, they could not wait for 
that, but sent out petitions calling, yes, actually calling 
on the people to sign them. 

In further discussing this question he would remark, 
that the very next clause of the Constitutional Act to 
that on which they found their claim that the Council 
should be consulted upon all occasions, says that the 
Governor shall do certain acts without their advice- 
present an incumbent to such rectories as were established 
with the advice of the Council. But what does all this 
agitation amount to ? Just to this : the late Executive 
Council claim to be consulted on all the affairs of the 
Province ; the Governor says, "No, gentlemen, I am sent 
here by the King with particular instructions for the 
government of the Colony T will consult vou whenever T 


think it necessary ; and if you claim to be consulted upon 
all occasions as a matter of right, you must give up such 
opinions or leave my Council." This was just the whole 
matter. Was there any thing new or extraordinary in His 
Excellency's conduct ? No one could say so with truth ; 
but, on the contrary, he had acted in conformity with the 
view taken of the matter by the Act and all who adminis- 
tered it. But, because certain individuals had expressed 
different views, the house was called upon to take such 
measures as never were taken on any question in this 
country to adopt the Report and stop the supplies. 
Would the people support the majority in this course ? 
No, they have had too much opportunity of judging of the 
acts and disposition of that majority already ; and if this 
resolution was adopted, they would ask, "what good is 
to result from it ? why is the public business stopped ?" 
They would be told in answer, "We want to get a res- 
ponsible government." Then they would ask, "What do 
you mean by a responsible government ? must not the 
Governor be responsible to the King ?" What would 
those gentlemen reply to such a question ? He was 
inclined to believe they would find more difficulty in 
satisfying the people even with regard to that plausible 
term, responsible government, than they anticipated ; for 
they would find themselves mistaken if they imagined that 
the great bulk of the people had not sufficient understand- 
ing to know that a responsible government, in the sense 
in which they meant it, was inconsistent with a state of 
Colonial relationship ; and they were not yet prepared to 
throw off their allegiance, and break the connexion which 
subsists between this Colony and the mother country. 
He did not believe the country would support them in 
these measures. He had not much time to look over the 
Report, but, from what he had seen of it, he would say, 
that he never saw so disgraceful a public document 
emanate from any public body. (Hear, hear\!) He would, 
however, warn hon. gentlemen that the people would not 
be cajoled and bamboozled by abusive language instead of 
argument. The hon. member for Lennox and Addington 
said that so much precaution was taken in the Council to 
keep their representation secret, that the junior clerks 
were sworn to secrecy. Well, he (Mr. McLean) would 
like to know how the hon. gentleman became acquainted 
with that fact ; but he would say this, that, if any 
member of the Council administered such an oath, he far 
over-stepped the line of his duty and authority. ("Show 
it," from Mr. Perry.) Show it, he says ; why he ha.? 
just as much right to administer such an oath of secrecy 
as any member of the Council had, and to do so is con- 


trary to the statute against unlawful oaths, (hear.) 

Mr. Perry, interrupting, he never said that any 
member of the Council swore the clerks. He only said 
they were sworn to secrecy. 

Mr. McLean replied, well, how does that help it ? 
(hear, hear.) How dare they require any other person to 
do what was against the law of the land ? No other- 
person would feel it necessary to do so ; and by their 
doing it they proved themselves unworthy of their 
situation. Just as well might that hon. member swear 
any of the copying clerks of this House to keep any thing 
secret he was copying for him. It was said Mr. Baldwin 
did not receive the note from His Excellency till after the 
new members were sworn in : wjiat difference did that 
circumstance make ? If they found fault with the terms 
of it when they did receive it, why did they not at once 
resign .office ? Was it to be supposed the King would send 
out a Governor here, who was to be accountable to him 
for the manner in which he administered the Government 
of the Colony, and bind him hand and foot and deliver him 
over to an Executive Council who were to be under the 
control of the House of Assembly ? What authority 
would His Majesty then have in the Colony ? or on what 
principle of justice could he hold the Governor responsible 
for the administration of its affairs ? Such principles 
were contradictory and inconsistent, and would not go 
down with an intelligent and reflecting people, (hear, 
hear.) Public opinion on the subject had already been 
shown from the spontaneous meetings which had been held 
in different parts of the country, and the addresses which 
had been forwarded to His Excellency, the signatures to 
which he was authorized to say amounted already to 
5,000, and they were pouring in daily. A few months, he 
was convinced, would prove to the majority of that house, 
that they had misrepresented the feelings of the people of 
this country, who did not desire a system of responsible 
Government, or self Government, that was inconsistent 
with their connexion with their revered Mother Country. 

MR. WELLS remarked, that he found great difficulty 
in rising to* address the House after the hon. and learned 
member for Cornwall ; but he felt it to be his duty to 
express his sentiments on this question. The ancients had 
a custom of crowning their heroes with laurels at the close 
of any great battle ; and in accordance with that custom 
he thought the people ought to crown the hon. and learned 
member at the close of the session for his patriotic 
exertions. He had talked a great deal about responsible 
government, and called all who advocate this measure 
demagogues, whom the people would spurn from them at 


another election. That hon. and learned gentleman had, 
to be sure, a good opportunity of knowing at the last 
election what the country thought of the men he politely 
termed demagogues, when he was turned out of the 
representation of the county of Stormont and had to get 
some few canal-men to put him in for the little village of 
Cornwall. Such remarks about public opinion came with a 
very bad grace from that gentleman. His Excellency, he 
says, came here to make those reforms which are required. 
Does the hon. and learned gentleman indeed admit that 
there was any abuse to reform ? Who ever heard him talk 
of reform before, except it was to oppose it ? 

MR. McLEAN. I did not say so but that he was 
called a reformer. 

MR. WELLS. Well, His Excellency says himself that 
he has come here for the purpose of reform ; but that hon. 
and learned gentleman says no reform is necessary, and 
yet he pretends to be a supporter of His Excellency ! 
That, however, was just as consistent as the rest of his 
conduct. With regard to His Excellency's measures of 
reform, he (Mr. W.) thought they would amount to about 
the same thing as the reform of the hon. and learned 
member for Cornwall. That hon. gentleman made a long 
speech, containing a great many bold assertions ; one of 
which was, that Governor Simcoe did not consult his 
Executive Council in his first act as Governor of this 
Province. He (Mr. W.) was willing to admit that the 
proclamation does not say he did, but it was for that 
gentleman to prove he did not consult his Council respect- 
ing the matter on which it was issued. Such begging the 
question was the sign of a bad cause. He says those who 
call themselves reformers won't come out and declare what 
they want, and insinuates that they want a separation 
from the mother country. Such assertions were a libel 
upon the reformers of Upper Canada : and if a separation 
was desired by any in this country, it was by the hon. 
and learned gentleman's party. Look at the Montreal 
Rifle Corps, the "casting about in the mind's eye for some 
new state of political existence," the threats of those 
high in office that they would resist the law by physical 
force when it did not suit them, and many other similar 
instances. And, indeed, all the acts of his party have 
done more to bring the affairs of the country into a state 
of confusion, than all the reformers ever did. (Hear, hear.) 
Have they not upheld every abuse ? The people have 
declared that reform is necessary to preserve the union of 
the Empire, but he says no reform is necessary. 

The hon. and learned gentleman from Hamilton found 
great fault because the committee were all from one side 


of the house. But suppose two members had been 
appointed from the other side, as he proposed, what could 
they have done against the five others ? No doubt he 
would like that such persons should be appointed by the 
majority of the house on their committees ; but he 
(Mr. W.) thought the majority knew their own business, 
and who to appoint to transact it ; not tories, for they 
could not put confidence in them. Then the hon. gentleman 
made a great outcry about stopping the supplies, and said 
it had not been done in England for a hundred years. No 
doubt he would not like them to be stopped, as he and 
his friends expect to be benefitted by them ; but so long 
as the Government is administered contrary to the wishes 
of a majority of the House of Assembly and of His 
Majesty's Government, the supplies should be stopped, 
whatever consequences might follow. Lord Glenelg says 
in his Despatch, that they should be withheld whenever 
the interests of the country require it ; and this act of the 
house will be approved of by all who are not willing to 
bow down to the golden calf. 

With regard to the question of the Executive Council, 
the first thing to be considered was, does the constitution 
appoint them? and next, are they to be consulted on all 
the affairs of the Province, or only on a few ? It is quite 
foreign to the principles of the constitution, that they 
should be consulted only on such matters as the Governor 
pleases. That he believed would be admitted. He 
considered it to be the brightest gem in the British Con- 
stitution, that the King was dependant on the people 
through the Cabinet Council ; and the constitution of this 
country, as explained by Governor Simcoe, required that 
the council should be consulted on all the acts of the 
Governor, and be responsible to the House of Assembly 
for the advice which they gave ; and without it the govern- 
ment was nothing but a despotism, the mere government 
of one man, who was a stranger to the country. When 
His Excellency first came to the country he admitted the 
principle that a Ministry should govern the Province, for 
he sent for the hon. Robert Baldwin, and required him to 
name the other members of the Council, according to the 
English principle ; but he did not carry it out in practice. 
Why should he have been so very particular in naming his 
Council, if he did not intend to take their advice ? A 
great deal had been said about those petitions ; but if any 
hon. members thought their constituents could be deceived 
by the petitions, he knew it was not the case with his. 
They speak as if we were chucking the petitions down the 
throats of the people ; but when they received them, they 
were at liberty to sign them or not, as they pleased. Not 


only a great deal had been said in that house about not 
printing the documents that were referred to the Com- 
mittee, but some fellow down in Quebec had the ignorance 
and impudence to propose a resolution at some meeting, 
condemning the House of Assembly of Upper Canada for 
not printing them. (Hear him.) Let His Excellency 
dissolve the house, and see if the constituency of the 
country will not acquit themselves nobly, and show him 
that Britons were never born to be slaves. (Loud cries of 
hear, hear.) We might derive a useful lesson from the 
page of history. In the old Colonies, now the United 
States, secret despatches were sent home, recommending 
measures contrary to the interests and wishes of the 
people, till they could stand it no longer ; and so it would 
be in this country if the present system was continued, 
it would result in open rebellion. It was the duty of 
raembers of that house to do all they could for the interest 
of the country ; and as h believed nothing else would 
secure attention to our complaints in England but stopping 
the supplies, he would vote for the resolution. 

THE SOLICITOR GENERAL began by observing, that 
when this important subject was referred to a Select 
Committee, the house and the country had a right to 
expect that an able, statesman-like and temperate report 
would have been made, containing intelligible, if not 
convincing arguments, and referring to authorities which 
would at least have the appearance of plausibility, if they 
were not found absolutely conclusive in favour of the views 
of its framers : he regretted, however, to state that in 
these expectations the country at teast, if not the house, 
would be completely disappointed. The dispassionate and 
intelligent reader of the voluminous document then lying 
on the table, would search in vain throughout its pages 
for dignity of sentiment, patriotic views, or calm, con- 
vincing argument illustrative of truth : while, as a literary 
production, it would be found to be beneath criticism, 
and in its general style and language, so marked with an 
utter disregard of all delicacy of feeling, and the ordinary 
courtesies of life, as to render it a disgrace to any 
legislative body that might sanction its promulgation. 
The speech of the Chairman of the Committee, which had 
been addressed to the house, was but a repetition of the 
loading statements contained in the Report, and like the 
Report itself, contained no one solid argument to sustain 
the new and most extraordinary interpretation of our 
Constitution which had suddenly broken in upon the minds 
of some of our self-styled reformers. It would not be 
surprising therefore if, in the course of the remarks he 
should address to the house, he should not refer very 


frequently either to the Report or to the speech of the 
Chairman, as in fact his principal duty would be, to 
endeavour to supply information which had been altogether 
overlooked or disregarded by the advocates of the new 
theory. It appeared to him that the point to which the 
Committee should have turned their attention was the 
origin of Executive Councils in the Colonies the duties 
originally assigned to them, and the responsibility, if any, 
which attached to them as Councillors : had this course 
been adopted by the Committee, they would have been 
greatly assisted in coming to a correct conclusion and 
why they had not done so, he w<^uld not stop to enquire, 
but leave it to the public to conjecture motives, of which 
they could form as good an opinion as he could. Another 
advantage which would have resulted from this plan of 
investigation, had it been adopted, would have been, that 
the Committee would have informed themselves of the 
utter impossibility of the Lieutenant Governor's divesting 
himself of responsibility, and that by the Laws and 
Constitution, he is emphatically and distinctly responsible 
to the King as the head of the Empire, politically ; and to 
the people of this Province, individually, in his private 
capacity, for every act of his Government ; and that the 
Executive Council are not, and cannot be made responsible 
to the people for any of their acts. Without further 
remark he (the Sol. Gen.) would proceed to show on what 
grounds, and upon what authorities, he rested these 
opinions. There were not many works extant containing a 
history of the Constitutions and forms of Government in 
the Colonies, but there were a few, and some of them 
giving a very explicit account of the Councils appointed 
by the Crown, their duties and responsibilities, especially 
in the Colonies in America : and in order to attract the 
attention of the House to the line of argument he intended 
to pursue, he begged hon. members would bear in mind 
that it would eventually appear, that the Executive 
Council of Upper Canada, which it was contended was 
created by, as well as identified with, the Constitution of 
the Province, (as conferred by the 31st Geo. 3,) was 
merely the continuation of a body that had existed in 
Canada from the first moment of an organized Governmeiu 
after the Conquest, down to the period of the passing of 
that Act, which divided the Province of Quebec into Upper 
and Lower Canada, and which was precisely similar to 
those existing in the old Colonies, on this Continent, and 
the West Indies. The first authority he should cite in 
support of this argument was that of a gentleman who 
held the office of Chief Justice of Georgia, during the time 
that State was a Colony of Great Britain, and subse- 


quently held high legal appointments in the West Indies. 
This gentleman in his remarks on the Council says, 

"They are to give advice to the Governor or 
Commander in Chief for the time being when thereunto 
required ; and they stand in the same relation to the 
Governor in a Colony that the Privy Council does to the 
King in Great Britain : in some cases the Governor can 
act without their advice and concurrence, and there are 
other cases in which the Governor is required by his 
instructions not to act without the advice and concurrence 
of his Council" "which, (instructions) every Governor and 
Commander in Chief should carefully attend to." 

"The Council sit as Judges in the Court of Errors or 
Court of Appeal." 

"The Council are named in every Commission oi the 
Peace, as Justices of the Peace throughout the whole 
Colony." Stoke's Constitutions of the British Colonies, 
pp. 239,240. 

Thus we see the origin of Councils in the Colonies, and 
the duties assigned to them, and how completely the duties 
heretofore performed by the Council in this Province 
correspond with those imposed on the Councils in the old 
Colonies now separated from Great Britain, as well as 
ihose which remain appendages of the Empire. In the old 
Colonies, they advised the Governor when required by the 
King's Instructions, they do so here ; in the old Colonies 
they constituted a Court of Appeal, by our Constitution 
that duty is imposed upon them here ; and in this 
Province, as in the other Colonies, their names appear as 
Justices in every Commission of the Peace throughout the 
Province. The same author observes, that when a new 
Governor came to a Province, the names of the persons 
who were to constitute his Council were named in his 
instructions, and that no other appointment or commission 
was necessary ; but this practice has now fallen into 
disuse, at least in this Province. The last set of 
instructions containing the names of the Council were 
those brought out by Sir Peregrine Maitland ; but it should 
be borne in mind, that those very instructions are these 
now laid on the table by command of Sir Francis Head, 
that they contain the names of the Councillors then 
existing in Upper Canada and prescribe their duties. 
These instructions and these duties have undergone no 
change since that period. 

Governor Simcoe, the first Governor that came to this 
Province, brought with him the first instructions that 
were designed to direct the King's Representative, the 
Council, and other Officers of the Government in their 
duties ; and as they were in the adjoining building, on 


record in the books of the Council, it was somewhat 
strange that the Committee did not examine them. They 
would be found to be the same as those delivered to Sir 
Peregrine Maitland. 

In some of the old Colonies the Council was possessed 
of legislative power conjointly with the Governor, and 
sometimes formed an intermediate legislative branch 
between the Governor and an Assembly elected by the 
people : of course, in all matters relating to the enact- 
ment of laws, the Governor could not act independently of 
the Council, except in so far as respected the assenting to 
or refusing of bills. Upon the death, removal, or resigna- 
tion of the Governor, the senior Councillor by the King's 
Instructions assumed the Government, as in this country, 
unless the senior Councillor happened to be Superintendent 
of Indian Affairs, or Surveyor General of the Customs, 
(which officers were always extraordinary members of the 
Council,) in which case the Government devolved on the 
ordinary member of the Council next in seniority. 

Such was the nature and constitution of the Executive 
Councils in the old Colonies in America, and although in 
the majority of those Governments, Legislative Assemblies 
existed, one branch elected by the people as in this 
country, yet there is no trace of any pretence that those 
Councils were responsible for their official acts to any 
other person or party than the King. Responsibility to 
the elective branch of the Legislature was never thought 
of ; and the Chief Justice of Georgia, whose work he had 
quoted, and who had resided and held office in several of 
the other Colonies, distinctly states, that the Executive 
Council were guided by the King's Instructions, and were 
therefore responsible to His Majesty only. They were 
appointed as in this Province by the King, and removed 
at his pleasure ; they advised his representative, when 
required, in secrecy ; their acts could be known to the 
King only, and to him only were they accountable for 

Let us now consider the origin and constitutional 
powers of the Executive Councils in these Provinces : they 
will be found to be precisely similar to those already 

It would be recollected that Canada was obtained by 
conquest from the Crown of France in 1759, and that by 
the Treaty of Paris in 1763, it, together with other 
Territories in America, was finally ceded to Great Britain : 
the form of Government in Canada between the years 
1759 and 17,63, was of course a purely military despotism, 
regulated by the terms of the capitulation. In the year 
1763 the King issued his Proclamation, in which he 


declares, that the Territory in America, ceded by the 
Treaty of Paris, should be erected into four separate 
Governments, viz. : Quebec, comprising the whole of 
Canada ; East Florida ; West Florida ; and Grenada. For 
the purpose of shewing 1 clearly the views of His Majesty 
with respect to the form of Government intended by him 
to be established in those Territories, it would be proper 
to refer to the Proclamation itself, which contains the 
following passage : 

"And whereas it will greatly contribute to the speedy 
settling our said new governments, that our loving subjects 
should be informed of our paternal care for the security of 
the liberty and properties of those who are and shall 
become inhabitants thereof, we have thought fit to publish 
and declare by this our proclamation that we have, in the 
letters patent under our Great Seal of Great Britain, by 
which the said governments are constituted, given express 
power and direction to our Governors of our said Colonies 
respectively, that so soon as the state and circumstances 
of the said Colonies will admit thereof, they shall, with 
the advice and consent of the members of our Council, 
summon and call general assemblies, within the said gov- 
ernments respectively, in such manner and form as is used 
and directed in those Colonies and Provinces in America 
which are under our immediate government ; and we have 
also given power to the said Governors, with the consent 
of our said Councils and the Representatives of the people, 
so to be summoned as aforesaid, to make, constitute, and 
ordain laws, statutes, and ordinances, for the public peace, 
welfare, and good government of our said Colonies, and of 
the people and inhabitants thereof as near as may be 
agreeable to the laws of England, and under such regula- 
tions and restrictions as are used in other Colonies ; and 
in the mean time, and until such assemblies can be called 
as aforesaid, all persons inhabiting in, or resorting to our 
said Colonies, may confide in our royal protection for the 
enjoyment of the benefit of our laws of our realm of Eng- 
land ; for which purpose we have given power undr our 
Great Seal to the Governors of our said Colonies res- 
pectively, to erect and constitute with the advice of our 
said Council respectively, Courts of Judicature and public 
justice within our said Colonies, for the hearing and 
determining of causes, as wll criminal as civil, according 
to law and equity, and as near as may be agreeable to 
the laws of England, with liberty to all persons who may 
think themselves aggrieved by the sentence of such Courts, 
in all civil causes, to appeal, under the usual limitations 
and restrictions, to us in our Privy Council." 

Here then was the root from which sprung our present 


Constitution. In the above extract it will be observed, 
that in the Patent constituting the Government of Quebec, 
allusion is made to "a Council," and that the Governor, 
with the advice of such Council, might summon and call a 
General Assembly, "in such manner and form as is used 
and directed in those Colonies and Provinces in America 
which are under our immediate government." Now it 
would scarcely be contended that the Council thus created 
by the King, could be responsible to any other power than 
himself. There was not at that time, nor for years 
afterwards, any representative body in the Colony ; and it 
might be further remarked, that had an Assembly been 
convened in pursuance of the power contained in the 
proclamation, it (the Assembly) was to be constituted as 
in the "other Colonies and Provinces in America," and it 
does not appear that it was to be clothed with greater 
powers than they possessed. No Assembly, however, was 
ever called under the authority of the proclamation, and 
Canada continued to be governed by a military officer, 
assisted by a Council, until the year 1774. For eleven 
years an Executive Council did exist, clearly and positively 
irresponsible to any power but the Crown, and possessed 
too of powers greatly transcending those of the present 
Council, for it appears by the 4th section of the Act 14th 
Geo. III. ch. 83, that with the Governor it had power to 
enact laws by which the inhabitants of the Colony were 
bound. This Act, the 14th Geo. III. was the first passed 
by the British Parliament giving a settled form of govern- 
ment to Canada, and in it allusion was made to the 
existence of a Council, possessing the powers just 
mentioned. That Act authorized His Majesty to appoint a 
certain number of persons as Legislative Councillors, who, 
when appointed, should hold their offices for life ; and 
ordained that the laws and ordinances passed by them, 
and assented to by the Governor, on behalf of the King, 
should supersede all ordinances previously made by the 
Governor and Executive Council. The Executive was not, 
however, done away with ; on the contrary, it continued 
to exist to advise the Governor ; and by an ordinance 
passed in the year 1785 by the Legislative Council and 
Governor, it was constituted a Court of Appeal as in the 
old Colonies : which ordinance is recognized and confirmed 
by our Constitutional Act, 31st Geo. III. ch. 31, sec. 34. 
Before proceeding to examine the provisions of the import- 
ant act last mentioned, it might as well be asked whether 
the Executive Council of Quebec, between the years 1774 
and 1791, could be said to be responsible to any other 
power than the King for their official conduct ? It would 
be manifestly absurd to say that it was responsible to the 


people, at a time when the people had no voice in the 
Government. The Governor and the Legislative Council 
were both appointed by the King ; the Executive Council 
was a body created* by the King, which he could continue 
or suppress at his mere will and pleasure there being no 
law or ordinance that required their existence. Being 
appointed, their duties were defined by the King, and 
lessened or extended according to his sole decree, unless 
where particular duties were imposed by ordinance ; and 
when so, those duties were of a character distinct from 
those of advisers of the King's Representative. Where, 
then, should we seek for their responsibility to the people ? 
It could no where be found. (Hear, hear.) If then up to 
the time of passing the Constitutional Act the Executive 
Council were alone responsible to the King, the next and 
most important question to be decided was, whether by 
that act their character was changed, whether in fact, as 
is now alleged, "The Executive Council of this Province is 
by the Constitution responsible to the people, and not to 
the Crown and like the Cabinet in England should go out 
of office upon a vote of the Assembly, and that the 
Governor is bound by their advice, and is not responsible 
for his acts, any more than the King is for his acts." 
Those who blindly contended for a principle so dangerous 
to the peace, welfare, and good government of this 
Province, would search in vain for support from the great 
Charter conferred upon its inhabitants for the protection 
of their liberties. That act recognizes a Council to be 
appointed by the King, but it creates no such body. It 
was manifest that when the 31st Geo. III. was passed, the 
British Parliament had before it the King's Proclamation 
of 1763 the Royal Instructions to the Governor the Act 
of 14th Geo. III. ch. 83 and the ordinances of the Province 
of Quebec, passed in virtue of the last mentioned act ; 
each of which was specifically referred to in the Constitu- 
tional Act ; and Parliament assuming that the King in 
the exercise of his royal prerogative would continue a 
Council which had previously existed, required of it, when 
created, certain specified duties, but no where making it 
a Cabinet which by its advice was to govern the Province, 
and assume the power and responsibility of the Crown, 
rendering the King's Representative a mere cipher, subject 
to its domination and control. A principle so preposterous 
as this, could no where be found in the Constitution. 
(Hear, hear.) Nothing could be more clear than that it 
never was intended that the Council should have greater 
powers than were entrusted to it prior to the passing of 
the Constitutional Act ; which powers were defined in the 
King's instructions, and in the laws and ordinances then 


in, force in the Colony, passed in pursuance of the powers 
given by the 14th Geo. III. By an ordinance of the 
Province of Quebec the Governor and Executive Council 
were constituted a Court of Appeals, and were continued 
such by the 34th section of the Constitutional Act and by 
another section the Governor was required to act with the 
advice of his Council in erecting parsonages and endowing 
them: these are the only duties specifically required of , the 
Council ; all others depend on the will of the Sovereign. 
If, as is contended, it was meant that nothing could be 
constitutionally done without the advice of the Council, 
was it to be believed that so important a principle would 
have been left in doubt by the eminent Statesmen who 
framed the Constitution ? -- It was inconsistent with 
common sense to suppose they would have been so blind to 
their duty. (Hear, hear.) 

But in truth, there could be no doubt in the minds of 
dispassionate and intelligent men the Constitution itself 
gave a plain and distinct negative to the assertion, that 
the Governor is at all times, and upon every public matter, 
to consult the Council. It would be admitted that no 
duty which a Governor has to exercise can be of greater 
importance, than deciding on the Laws presented to him by 
the other branches of the Legislature for the Royal assent ; 
and it may be fairly argued, that if upon any one point 
more than another he stands in need of the advice of a 
council, it must be in coming to a decision on questions 
which may involve the safety of the liberties and property 
of the people of the country ; notwithstanding this, how- 
ever, he is not to be guided by the advice of his Council, 
but by the Royal Instructions. This was a provision of 
the Constitution itself, couched in the following plain and 
intelligible words : 

"Sec. XXX. And be it further enacted by the 
authority aforesaid, That whenever any bill, which has 
been passed by the Legislative Council and by the House 
of Assembly in either of the said Provinces respectively, 
shall be presented, for His Majesty's assent, to the 
Governor or Lieutenant Governor of such Province, or to 
the person administering His Majesty's Government there- 
in, such Governor or Lieutenant Governor, or person 
administering the Government, shall, and he is hereby 
authorized and required to declare, according to his 
discretion, but subject nevertheless to the provisions 
contained in this act, and to such instructions as may 
from time to time be given in that behalf by His Majesty, 
his heirs or successors, that he assents to such bill in His 
Majesty's name, or that he withholds His Majesty's assent 
from such bill, or that he reserves such bill for the signi- 


iication of His Majesty's pleasure thereon. 

This section of the Constitutional Act was important 
for several reasons, but principally because, in the first 
place, it at once overthrows the doctrine that the Governor 
is on all occasions to consult his Council, or act by its 
advice ; and secondly, as shewing that the King's 
instructions from time to time given were recognized by 
Parliament, and embodied in the Constitution as binding 
on the Governor. (Hear, hear.) The clause just quoted 
required the person administering the government to assent 
to or reject bills "according to his discretion," not by 
and with the advice of his Council, but in conformity with 
the instructions he may "from time to time" receive from 
His Majesty. How absurd would it then be for a Governor, 
were he to apply to his Council in a doubtful case for 
advice, and acting upon it, assent to a bill contrary to 
the orders contained in his instructions, which, by the 
express terms of the Constitution, were to be his guide. 
How would he excuse himself by alleging that he acted 
upon the advice of his Council, instead of his instructions ? 
Where then must the responsibility rest ? Upon himself, 
of course ; and it would be out of his power to rid himself 
of it, and cast it upon another. (Hear, hear.) 

The Constitution having thus emphatically recognized 
the Royal Instructions, ag binding upon the Governor, and 
forming a part as it were of the Constitution itself, it 
would be proper again to refer to those Instructions for 
the purpose of placing before the house, in a clear and 
connected manner, the duties required by the Sovereign 
of the members of his Council when he appointed them to 
their office : the following were the words employed : 

"To the end that our said Executive Council may be 
assisting to you in all affairs relating to our service, you 
are to communicate to them such and so many of these 
our instructions wherein their advice is mentioned to be 
requisite, and likewise all such others from time to time 
as you shall find convenient for our service to be imparted 
to them." 

Language could scarcely be more- intelligible, or free from 
ambiguity, than was here employed ; and let it be borne 
in mind, that these instructions were brought to this 
country by Governor Simcoe, who was also the bearer of 
the Constitution conferred upon this Province, and which 
he was charged to put in operation. They were moreover 
delivered to him after the Constitutional Act had passed 
the British Parliament, and by the same Statesmen who 
had conducted that measure to maturity. (Hear, hear !) 
If, then, the measure now contended for was correct, those 
Statesmen were the first to attempt to violate the Con- 


stitution they had framed, and Governor Simcoe was 
selected and agreed to assist them in, their design ! There 
was something so wicked and preposterous in the mere 
mention of such a conspiracy that the mind instantly 
repels it without further investigation. 

The Councillors named in the instructions containing 
the paragraph just quoted, were sworn into office in the 
presence of Governor Simcoe, and it would be too much 
for the most credulous to believe that such would have 
been the case if that able and excellent man believed that 
the duties of those Councillors were unconditionally cir- 
cumscribed by the King, from whom he had just received 
his commission as the first Lieutenant-Governor of Upper 

And here he (the Sol. -General) would pause on this 
branch of the subject, and calmly, but earnestly, entreat 
hon. members to consider the question as he had attempted 
to present it to them. An attack has been made upon the 
Lieutenant-Governor, of a most violent one might say 
ferocious, character and he is charged with an attempt to 
change the Constitution, or to prevent His Majesty's 
subjects from fully enjoying it, by refusing to surrender 
his power and responsibility to the Executive Council ! 
but, upon a candid examination, will any one say that he 
could have acted differently from what he had done ? 
Cle"arly not. Were he now to adopt the views contained in 
the Report of the Committee, he must place himself in 
direct opposition to the commands of the Sovereign con- 
tained in his Royal Instructions, and by which every 
preceding Governor had been bound. The real state 01 
the question is this it is with the King that the House is 
coming into collision, and not with his representative. If 
Sir Francis Head be wrong, the error did not originate 
with him : The King on his throne is the party thi.s 
attack must affect 4t is against his royal authority that 
this House is now contending ; and, to be successful, they 
must compel him to surrender, as unconstitutional, the 
powers he has exercised without dispute ever since, and 
long before, Upper Canada became a portion of his domin- 
ions. For his own part, he (the Sol.-General) earnestly 
prayed, that, for the safety, peace, and tranquillity of 'the - 
country, the attempt now made by the House might fail : 
In its success he sincerely believed the highest interests 
of the Colony would be sacrificed ; but he had too much 
confidence in the wisdom and integrity of Government to 
suffer himself for a moment to imagine that a scheme so 
certain to bring destruction on our most valued institu- 
tions could succeed ; something? more than blustering 
language, and insulting resolutions, and abusive reports, 


must be resorted to, in order to obtain so important a 
change in the system of our Government as that contended 
for by the majority of the House. With the British 
nation, hard names and violent conduct would avail but 
little ; on the contrary, such proceedings would effectually 
counteract the result sought for, especially when they 
betrayed themselves, as in the present instance, in public 
documents emanating from a legislative body whose acts 
should be marked with dignity, forbearance, and calm 
reasoning. There were few men whose political sentiments 
he more cordially detested than those of Mr. Joseph Hume, 
of "baneful domination" memory ; but let the Report 
under discussion be laid before that gentleman, and he was 
satisfied that it would be treated with contempt even, by 
him for its rudeness and its entire destitution of dignity 
and argument. The House might, if it pleased, destroy 
the prosperity of the country, and spread embarrassment 
through all classes of the community, by refusing supplies, 
but what would this avail ? The King upon his throne 
must be attacked and overcome before his right to issue 
and enforce those Instructions could be invalidated. (Hear, 
hear ! and applause.) 

From what he had stated it was evident that the 
powers of the Executive Council were limited by the King, 
and that their very existence was dependent upon his 
pleasure. It had been stated that the Council ought to be 
responsible, not to the Crown but to the people, and that, 
if such were not actually the, case, it ought to be so. This 
he would deny in the most distinct and unqualified manner, 
and he defied any man in Upper Canada, or in the whole 
world, to maintain such a position. It was not so ; it 
ought not to be so. (Hear !) Suppose that the Council 
should be compelled to retire whenever a House of 
Assembly (no matter,. what its political character) should 
say it was not worthy of confidence, the right of the King 
to appoint the advisers of the Governor would in such 
case be at once destroyed. It might be said the House did 
not wish to dictate what particular persons should com- 
pose the Council ; but such an assertion would be mere 
evasion. If the House were at liberty to remove the 
Councillors by declaring their want of confidence in them, 
they could repeat their declarations until they obtained 
the particular persons they desired, and this would be 
virtually appointing them. Where, under such a state of 
things, would be the King's authority ? The moment the 
House had power to say who should compose the Executive 
Council, that moment the kingly office and authority 
would be annulled, and the power and patronage of the 
Crown, within the Colony, would be transferred to the 


House of Assembly. (Hear, hear.) The hon. and learned 
gentleman (Dr. Morrison) might smile, as he observed he 
did, but he knew it could not be otherwise ; and no single 
argument could be brought to bear against this plain and 
obvious truth. In favour of the new theory of responsi- 
bility to the House of Assembly it had been asked, how 
will you get rid of the consequences of any improper acts 
of the Governor, seeing that his removal will not make 
reparation to injured individuals, or restore the lives of 
any who may have been victims of his unadvised tyranny ? 
But he (the Sol. -Gen.) would ask how, so far as the 
consequences of improper acts are concerned, would the 
matter be amended by making the Council responsible, 
instead of the Governor ? Would that restore the dead to 
life ? Would that make good any injury that might 
otherwise accrue to individuals, or to the Colony ? But 
that was not all. The responsibility contended for was a 
mere shadow (hear, hear,) a mere illusion of the fancy. 
The Governor was really, and tangibly responsible for his 
acts, and might be punished ; as he should take occasion 
to show in the course of his argument. But how would 
you punish the Council ? It was impossible to do so, 
otherwise than by dismissing them ; for this obvious 
reason, that as they are, and must of necessity be sworn 
to secrecy, it would be impossible to find who among them 
gave bad advice, and who opposed an improper measure. 
Thus, the punishment, if such it could be called, must be 
inflicted on the innocent as well as the guilty, or all must 
go free. If he had not misunderstood some hon. gentlemen 
who were in favour of the new system, they had contended 
that the Council should be consulted on all occasions, but 
admitted that the Governor might act upon their advice, 
or reject it, at his pleasure. How then would they hold 
the Council responsible ? To be sure the late Council 
have said, "We have laboured under much odium, and we 
wish to be allowed to tell the people that we are not 
guilty, when any unpopular act takes place without our 
advice." Suppose this were granted, would not common 
candour require that they should tell the people that they 
did not deserve the credit of a popular act, if done against 
their advice f Where would be the obligation of their 
oath, if, contrary to it, they were thus to "respond to the 
people." Such a system of responsibility might have 
peculiar charms for some hon. gentlemen, but it was 
really beyond his comprehension to perceive its propriety. 
Just look at the absurdity of the Council communicating 
with the public whenever their advice was not acted on, 
and telling the people "We are not tyrants, but the 
Governor is a despot." Sworn agitators ! (Hear, hear.) 


However fond of new things reformers might be, and 
whatever they might declare to the contrary, they did not, 
they could not wish for such a state of things, if they 
really had the peace of the country at heart. (Hear, hear.) 

It had been argued that the Executive Council is here 
what the Cabinet is at home. Now this was just as 
absurd, and betrayed the same ignorance of facts, as the 
declaration in the Report, that the Governor has power to 
declare war ! The Executive Council strictly resembled 
the King's Privy Council, and it might be worth while to 
direct attention for a moment to that body, and its 
powers. Some hon. gentlemen seemed to imagine that the 
King consults the Privy Council on all occasions ; but in 
this they were entirely mistaken. The King could call on 
his Privy Council or any portion of its members for 
advice whenever he pleased, and they were bound to give 
him their assistance whenever required of them, and that 
too whether they agreed with the general policy of the 
government or not. The Privy Council, at present, was 
composed of a great number of gentlemen of different 
political views, and the King could act with or without 
their advice. They were altogether differently constituted 
from the Cabinet Ministers, which last held their offices 
virtually at the will of the House of Commons ; but the 
changes of the Cabinet do not at all affect the Privy 
Council. The latter are bound by their oath to give their 
advice in any case in which it may be asked, but His 
Majesty is not obliged to ask it ; but he may send for 
other persons, if he pleases, and consult them, and then 
act according to the best of his judgment. 

During this discussion there had been various 
authorities quoted on the other side, and among others, 
that of Lord Stanley had been adduced ; now, he was also 
willing to refer to that able and honest nobleman's 
opinion, given when he was a member of the Cabinet. 

The Executive Council (he says) is a body acting in 
the nature of the Privy Council in this country advising 
the Governor, but not responsible to him, and forming a 
Council against whose opinion as well as with it, he may 
act and subject also to the control of the Treasury here 
as auditing and passing the accounts of the Province, so 
far as the jurisdiction of the Treasury extends." 

So much for the opinion of Lord Stanley when a 
Cabinet Minister, and when it became necessary for him 
to inform himself of the constitutional duties and powers 
of the Executive Council. It will scarcely be found to 
favour the notion that the Executive Council are respon- 
sible to the people rather than to the Crown ; and far less 
will it establish the opinion, that the Governor is bound 


by the Constitution to consult them on those affairs not 
specified in the Constitution or the King's Instructions, 
except when he may think it proper and necessary to do 
so. He would next adduce that of the Hon. James Stuart, 
late Attorney General of Lower Canada, a very eminent 
and able lawyer, who says, that "it would, in his opinion, 
be better if the Council were more frequently consulted ;" 
but he never intimated, that the Constitution required 
them to be consulted on all affairs. He (the Sol .-General) 
knew not how often the Executive Councillors were con- 
sulted on general affairs ; but he knew that when they 
were, they were bound to give their honest advice, and the 
Governor had the same right to act upon it, or to decline 
following it, that His Majesty had with regard to the 
advice of his Privy Council. If this were not the case, the 
Governor would be the mere passive tool of his advisers, 
and, according to the system against which he was con- 
tending, they, the Council, must be equally the tools of 
the majority of the Assembly, Such a system would 
annihilate the kingly authority. (Hear, hear.) Such was 
not the Constitution of England, or of this Province ; but 
the blind theory of the hon. member for Lennox and 
Addington. It was much to be lamented that hon. 
gentlemen did not think, and examine, before they rushed 
into such absurdities. It was still more remarkable that 
the late Executive Councillors, who had thrown the affairs 
of the Province into such confusion, should have imagined 
that, consistently with their oath of secrecy, they might 
insist upon being consulted upon all occasions, and then 
proclaim to the people the result of their deliberations. 
(Hear, hear.) Another argument had been adduced, which 
had not a little astonished him. He alluded to the 
reference which had been made to the administration of 
Governor Smicoe, who had been eulogized as the best 
Governor that had ever been appointed to the Province. 
He (the Sol. -Gen.) was as ready as any other hon. 
gentleman to admit, that General Simcoe was a most 
excellent man ; and he would be the last to detract from 
his well earned merits. While in England lately, he was 
highly gratified, and much affected, on observing a splendid 
monument which had been erected to the memory of that 
gallant officer, by the gentlemen of Devonshire, in the 
Cathedra] Church of Exeter, bearing a highly honourable 
and appropriate inscription, and ornamented with devices 
commemorative of his valuable services during the Ameri- 
can Revolution, and while Governor of Upper Canada. 
But could any person prove that he had administered the 
Government differently from his successors, in the point 
which was that day the subject of debate f No, it was 


impossible. He would refer hon. gentlemen to the Council 
books, and ask them whether Governor Simcoe consulted 
his Council on all affairs <? The result of such an examin- 
ation would be fatal to the argument which hon'ble 
gentlemen had attempted to bring to bear upon Sir Francis 
Head. Look at the other public records of the Province. 
Governor Simcoe had assented to laws, summoned parlia- 
ments and dissolved them, issued proclamations dividing 
the Province into Districts, (certainly one of the most 
important powers ever entrusted to a Governor) ; and all 
this without any mention being made of the advice of the 
Council. It was probable that he might have conversed 
on these subjects with his old friends and companions-in- 
arms, by whom he was surrounded in this country, and 
the Councillors appointed ; but it could never be shown 
that the Council was to assist him on all occasions : the 
instructions delivered to him, as has been shown, made 
this unnecessary. The same observations would apply to 
the administration of General Hunter, Mr. Gore, and 
indeed every succeeding Governor. Yet it was now 
declared, in order to bring odium upon Sir Francis Head, 
and to induce him, by intimidation, to yield up to irrespon- 
sible advisers one of the most important prerogatives 
entrusted to him by his Sovereign, that he is, in this 
particular, taking a stand never before assumed by his 
predecessors. (Hear, hear.) But bold assertions could 
not, in this day, be passed off on the country as facts, and 
hon. gentlemen would find this to be the case before this 
question was settled. 

It had been contended, that Governor Simcoe said we 
had the very image and transcript of the British Constitu- 
tion. He (the Sol.-Gen.) would say we had more ; 
(hear, hear ;) even the Constitution itself, except such 
portions of it as we had refused to receive. Every part 
and parcel of the British Constitution that was necessary 
for the practical purposes of good government in this 
Province had been extended to it. The British Constitu- 
tion, consisting of King, Lords, and Commons, each branch 
possessing its peculiar rights, powers and prerogatives, and 
the laws and institutions of the Empire, were not confined 
to Great Britain and Ireland, their influence reached 
throughout all the widely extended dominions of the 
British Empire, and shed their protecting power and 
blessings to the remotest portion of the realms and 
possessions of our Sovereign : and the people of Upper 
Canada are as much protected by that Constitution as if 
they lived in an English County. Nay, more, for the 
British Parliament had given up a portion of its legitimate 
powers, and imparted them to these Colonies. Thus the 


Provincial Legislature had power to make laws, without 
any interruption or interference on the part of Great 
Britain, except where such laws would militate against the 
general interests, or any of the great constitutional 
principles, of the Empire. Such a check it would of course 
be necessary to preserve, so long as we remain a Colony. 
Besides this, we are under the powerful protection of the 
British Crown ; and were our rights to be infringed by 
any nation or power on earth, the arm of mighty England 
would at once be raised for our defence, and to protect us 
from injury or insult. (Hear, hear.) Yes, he would ask, 
who provides fleets and armies for our protection ? who 
erects forts and constructs canals at an expense of 
millions for our benefit f who gives protection to our 
trade, and exclusive privileges to our commerce ? who 
nurses and cherishes all our institutions until we shall be 
able to manage and bear the expenses of them ourselves ? 
It was the Parent State ; it could not be denied that all 
these blessings flow from the practical working of the 
British Constitution, and that, so far as was compatible 
with our Colonial relation, we had the full benefit of that 
Constitution. In our local Legislature, we had the prin- 
ciples of King, Lords, and Commons. We had trial by 
jury the habeas corpus Act and every other privilege 
essential to the protection of life and property. It should 
be further recollected, that we thus possess the laws and 
protection of the .British Government without its expenses ; 
so that it is true, as Sir Francis Head has asserted, that 
though we may not have the exact image and transcript 
of the British Constitution, the only point of essential 
difference is as it respects its expensive arrangement and 

The first act of the Provincial Legislature, which in its 
constitution resembles the Imperial Parliament, and is a 
sort of imperium in imperio, was to adopt all the English 
laws, except the Poor and Bankrupt laws ; the former 
happily being unnecessary in a country where honest 
industry will generally suffice to secure a competency of 
wealth and comfort. The Court of Chancery, and other 
important institutions of England, we can have whenever 
we wish to avail ourselves of them. Indeed, it was clear 
that this Province possessed the advantages of the British 
Constitution, with many additional blessings, without any 
of its burthens. 

He would now again pass to the question of the 
responsibility of the Government. If, by that term, it was 
meant that the Lieutenant Governor should be responsible 
to every individual in the Province, he would prove that 
he is so. (Hear, hear.) Yes, and he would prove in the 


most satisfactory manner that the responsibility contended 
for by some hon. gentlemen is a mere shadow, a thing of 
nought, compared with that which really exists, according 
to the laws and constitution of this Province. 

As long ago as in the reign of William III. it appeared 
that some of the Colonial Governors did not always 
conduct themselves with propriety, and an Act was passed 
which, as it was short, he would beg leave to read : 

"Whereas a due punishment is not provided for several 
crimes and offences committed out of this His Majesty's 
realm of England, whereof divers Governors, Lieutenant 
Governors, Deputy Governors, or Commanders-in-chiei of 
plantations and colonies within His Majesty's dominions 
beyond the seas, have taken advantage, and have not been 
deterred from oppressing His Majesty's subjects within 
their respective governments and commands, nor from 
committing several other great crimes and offences ; not 
deeming themselves punishable for the same here, nor 
accountable for such their crimes and offences to any 
person within their respective governments and commands ; 
for remedy whereof, be it enacted by the King's Most 
Excellent Majesty, by and with the advice and consent of 
the Lords Spiritual and Temporal, and Commons, in 
Parliament assembled, and by the authority of the same, 
That if any Governor, Lieutenant Governor, Deputy Gover- 
nor, or Commander-in-chief of any plantation or colony 
within His Majesty's dominions beyond the seas, shall 
after the first day of August, one thousand seven hundred, 
be guilty of oppressing any of His Majesty's subjects 
beyond the seas, within their respective governments and 
commands, or shall be guilty of any other crime or 
offence, contrary to the laws of this realm, or in force 
within their respective governments or commands, such 
oppressions, crimes, and offences, shall be enquired of, 
heard and determined, in His Majesty's Court of King's 
Bench, here in England, or before such Commissioners, and 
in such county of this realm, as shall be assigned by His 
Majesty's Commission, and by good and lawful men of the 
same county, and that such punishment shall be inflicted on 
such offenders, as are usually inflicted for offences of like 
nature committed here in England." 

Let it be remembered, that the Act he had just read 
was passed when the present United States formed part of 
the British Empire, when there were Legislative bodies in 
those colonies, similar to those in Upper Canada. But if 
the Executive Councils had been Cabinets, and responsible 
for the acts of the Governors, why was such a law passed ? 
It would have been the height of absurdity. The Act 
shows plainly that the responsibility rests upon the 


Governor, and that he cannot be allowed to shelter himself 
under any pretended responsibility to his Council ; and this 
Statute is in force at this day. He (the Sol.-Gen.) 
would grant that a Governor could not be prosecuted in 
this country : and why t Because, as Lord Mansfield 
says, if he could, he might be imprisoned ; and thus the 
colony be without a Governor, and the power and author- 
ity of the Crown be destroyed. But what of this ? He 
can be prosecuted in England, and tried like any other 
individual by a jury of his country. In the year 1774 a 
Governor Mostyn was prosecuted, by a person of the name 
of Falrigas, and a verdict of 3000 rendered against him 
for an act which would have bee^i, perhaps above any other 
strictly illegal acts, considered excusable. It was for 
imprisoning a man who had been accused of stirring up 
treason and rebellion in the colony. (Hear, hear.) Here 
was proper responsibility, and proper redress ; and Lord 
Mansfield in pronouncing the judgment of the Court 

"That a Governor was not that sacred character that 
an action would not lie against him for an illegal act 
committed by him within his Government but that for 
many reasons, if an action did not lie against any other 
maji, for an injury done, it should most emphatically lie 
against the Governor but that he must be tried in Eng- 
land to see whether he had exercised the power delegated 
to him legally and properly ; or whether he had abused it 
in violation of the laws of England, and the trust reposed 
in him." 

It was not pretended that this gentleman had been 
advised to do what he had done by his Council ; and if he 
had set up such an excuse it would have availed him 
nothing. If, however, it had been in his power to shelter 
himself under the advice of his Council, the consequence 
would have been that the man who had sustained a 
grievous injury would have been without any remedy, an 
admirable proof of the advantage of taking away responsi- 
bility from a Governor and placing it nominally on a 
Council that cannot be prosecuted. Neither are we without 
examples of the responsibility of Governors to individuals 
for injuries done them nearer home. Honourable gentlemen 
no doubt recollected Governor Gore ; and some of them 
might have heard of Judge Thorpe, Mr. Surveyor General 
Wyatt, and others, who either abandoned their situations 
or were suspended by Mr. Gore for alleged misconduct. 
Mr. Wyatt was so disposed of, but, considering himself 
unjustly treated, he brought an action against Mr. Gore 
when in England and during the time he was on leave of 
absence as Lieutenant Governor of the Province, and 


received 300 damages against him. Many other cases 
might be adduced proving the responsibility of Governors 
for their acts, and showing that they never pretended to 
shelter themselves under the advice of their Council. 
Neither could they do so ; for the laws and constitution 
make them, and not the Council, responsible for whatever 
injury may have been committed by them. They arc 
known, tangible individuals ; but a Council could not be so 
prosecuted and if a party were told to seek redress from 
it, for an injury however enormous, he would find that his 
hopes of compensation were visionary and unfounded. 

He would conclude this part of the subject by referring 
to two Acts of the Imperial Parliament showing the heavy 
responsibility imposed upon Governors of Colonies, and 
from which neither an Executive Council, nor any other 
power but Parliament itself, could save them. The first is 
an Act passed in the 7th and 8th years of William and 
Mary, for preventing frauds, and regulating abuses in the 
Colonial Trade, by the 4th clause of which it is enacted 
that if a Governor of any of the Colonies shall fail to do 
the utmost in his power to carry that law into effect, he 
should forfeit one thousand pounds, and be removed from 
his government. The second Act was passed in the 4th 
year of Geo. III. to prevent paper bills of credit, issued in 
the Colonies in America, from being made a legal tender 
by any Act of the local Legislature ; and by 4 the 3rd section 
of which it is enacted that if any Governor shall give his 
assent to a bill passed by a Colonial Assembly in opposi- 
tion to the intent and meaning of that Act, he should 
forfeit 1,000, be removed from his government, and for 
ever rendered incapable of any public office or place of 
trust. Of what avail, he would ask, would it be to a 
Governor of Upper Canada, who had rendered himself 
liable to punishment under the provisions of either of these 
Acts, to plead as his excuse that he had acted by and 
with the advice of the Executive Council ? Should such a 
plea save him from punishment, where would the responsi- 
bility rest then ? (Hear, hear.) He might multiply 
proofs and authorities but it could not be necessary. 
Those hon. gentlemen who wished to be influenced by 
honest argument and truth had heard enough, and if any 
were already determined as to their votes, without regard 
to facts or arguments, they must pursue their own course. 
It had been asserted that the doctrine laid down by His 
Excellency was altogether novel ; but when, he would ask, 
had responsibility been claimed at any former period of 
our history by the Council, or by anybody on their behalf f 
Where was the proof of it ? ("Where is it not ?" from 
Dr. Morrison.) The hon. and learned gentleman a-sks, 


"where is it not ?" He (the Sol.-Gen.) was really sur- 
prised. Why was there no noise made about it last 
Session ? Had not that hon. gentleman himself, and those 
with whom he acted, declared that the Council was a 
perfectly irresponsible and useless body ? Perhaps the 
hon. gentleman has forgotten this, but his memory should 
presently be refreshed. When the Act was passed, making 
a permanent provision of 500 annually for the support of 
the Council, it was asked often during the debate, and 
particularly by the hon. member from Lennox and Adding* 
ton, "What is the use of such a body, responsible to no 
one for their conduct ?" He (the Sol.-Gen.) had no doubt 
but those arguments would be found in the speeches of 
hon. members, as reported at that time in the public- 
papers ; but now they seem to have acquired new light. 
(Hear, hear.) To show that some changes of opinion had 
occurred, he would read an extract from the famous Griev- 
ance Report of last Session : 

"It appears that it is the duty of the Lieutenant 
Governor to take the opinion of the Executive Council 
only in such cases as he shall be required to do so by his 
Instructions from the Imperial Government, and in such 
other cases as he may think fit." 

Now, he particularly desired to call the attention of 
the hon. member, (Dr. Morrison) , to the fact, that his own 
name, the name of T. D. Morrison, was stuck to that 
Report. Yes, there he was,' saying the the very thing 
which he, now declares, and almost swears, is not true. 
(Hear, hear, and laughter.) The hon. gentleman who 
fabricated that Report knew well that the Council, as well 
as the Governor, was only responsible to the King, and 
that such was the Constitution. 

He (the Solicitor-General,) felt an unwillingness to refer 
to the extraordinary conduct of the late Councillors, with 
all of whom, except one, he had ever been, and hoped still 
to continue, on terms of friendship and intimacy. It was 
a maxim with him, never to allow political feelings to 
destroy private friendship ; he had become perfectly callous 
to the attacks made upon himself by political opponents, 
and should never suffer them to affect him. But his public 
duty required him to refer to the letter which had been 
read in that House, and in the Legislative Council, setting 
forth the terms on which those gentlemen took office. It 
was asserted, in the Report under consideration, that that 
letter, as read in the two branches of the Legislature, had 
been altered from the original draft shown to those gentle- 
men by His Excellency, and that it did not contain the 
terms on which they accepted office. (Hear.) But, if this 
were true, wotild those gentlemen have taken office under 


such circumstances ? If gentlemen, so distinguished for 
acuteness and deliberation, had seen additions of such 
importance made to the original draft, would they not 
have returned the letter to His Excellency, and have 
retired, saying "No Sir, these are not the terms on which 
we accepted office?" Or if they did not wish to embarrass 
the Government by retiring, could it be supposed that they 
would have put the letter into your hands, Mr. Speaker, 
and in the hands of a friend and member of the other 
House, for the purpose of having it read, as it was by 
you, with much emphasis and apparent satisfaction, for the 
express purpose of shewing the conditions upon which ; they 
had accepted office, if it did not truly describe those 
conditions ? He (the Sol. -Gen.) was bound to assume 
that the assertion made in the Report, was unauthorised, 
because, he could not for a moment suppose that the hon. 
Speaker of this House would have consented to read to 
the House, on behalf of his most intimate friends, as an 
authentic document, one which he must have known was 
not so. He felt very sensibly the embarrassing situation 
in which the hon. Speaker must be placed on the present 
occasion, and would most gladly sit down in order that a 
motion might be made for the House to go into Com- 
mittee, and thus allow the Speaker an opportunity to 
express his views on this affair. Indeed, it was most 
unfair in the majority of the House not to go into 
Committee ; as by the present course, the House was 
deprived of the valuable legal opinions of the hon. Speaker 
on so important a subject. But to him (the Sol. -Gen.) it 
appeared perfectly clear that as the Speaker was the 
intimate friend of the late Councillors, and had been 
consulted by them at every stage of the proceedings which 
led to their taking office, he must have been, by direct 
information, or otherwise, aware of the incorrectness of 
that letter, if it were incorrect ; and therefore, if it were 
so, he would not have permitted himself to be the medium 
of communicating it to the House. Hence, he (the Sol.- 
General) was bound to believe that that letter contained 
the real principles under which those gentlemen became 
Councillors. Now, he would ask, if they accepted office 
with an understanding that their advice was to be limited 
to those affairs on which His Excellency might feel it 
necessary to consult them, how could they have understood 
the Instructions in that unlimited sense in which they 
have construed them in their address to His Excellency ? 
(Hear, hear.) There was a something of mysteriousness 
hanging over the whole affair which he could not compre- 

It had been stated, that after His Excellency received 


the address from the Council, it was wrong for him to 
require them to renounce their principles or retire from 
office. But how could His Excellency do otherwise ? He 
replied to them in a document in which he gave his 
exposition of the Constitutional powers of the Council, and 
then, he, in substance, said, "Your views and mine are 
directly at variance on a vital principle of Constitutional 
law it is impossible that we can act harmoniously under 
such circumstances you must therefore calmly weigh the 
views which I have laid before you, and if you cannot 
conscientiously accede to them, I cannot conscientiously 
give them up, and therefore we must part on good terms." 
Had His Excellency done otherwise, he would have been 
justly condemned. 

It had been stated by the hon. member for Lennox and 
Addington that the Executive Council were willing to 
withdraw the paper they had addressed to His Excellency 
\vhen they discovered the difficulties it was likely to lead 
to ; and that it was proposed to erase it from the Council 
books, and that the Clerks of the Executive Council had 
been sworn to secrecy on the subject. All that he could 
say was, that if this statement was true, it involved very 
serious charges against these gentlemen : in the first place, 
he knew of no authority under which the Councillors could 
administer such an oath to the Clerks, and if no such 
authority existed, then the oath was an illegal and a 
profane oath ; and in the second instance, the proposal to 
erase from the records of the Council the document they 
had so deliberately signed, if made as asserted by the 
hon. member, (which he was bound to discredit) was most 
reprehensible : and he must say that if such a proposal was 
made to His Excellency, and he had not forthwith 
dismissed those who made it from office, he would not have 
performed his duty ; unless indeed they had been convinced 
of their error of judgment, and on that account wished to 
retract their opinions. To continue them as Councillors, 
they retaining the opinions they had expressed in opposi- 
tinn to the Governor would have been objectionable indeed. 
Suppose by way of illustration, that two or three Clergy- 
men should write an elaborate document to their Bishop, 
declaring their disbelief of the great truths of Christianity, 
and stating their reasons, thinking thereby to convert him 
to their views, and that the Bishop should reply at length 
to their objections, and inform them if thy persisted in 
their opinions they must be suspended, as he could not 
labour in connexion with persons holding such sentiments ; 
suppose that when they see they are in consequence likely 
to lose their livings and be expelled from the Church, they 
should request permission to recall their declaration, at 


the same time retaining- their opinions. What would be the 
duty of their Bishop ? Evidently to say, "No, gentlemen, 
it will not be sufficient that you Avithdraw the testimony 
of your guilt, you must retract your opinions, you must 
declare that they were wrong, and that you no longer 
retain them, before I can consent to continue you in your 
sacred office." Now, the affair with the Council was pre- 
cisely similar. If the gentlemen were not convinced by the 
able, plain and kind reply of His Excellency, they were 
bound in honour to retire, even if not requested to do so. 
He had too high an opinion of the honourable feelings of 
those gentlemen to believe that they had proposed to with- 
draw their paper and continue in office, retaining the 
opinions they had avowed, and he was astonished that such 
an assertion should be made. If true, nothing in his 
opinion, could more fully prove their unfitness for the con- 
fidential and honourable situation of Executive Councillors 
than that they were capable of making such a proposal. 

A great deal had been said about His Excellency having 
garbled the documents sent to the Council. It appeared 
that, through a clerical error, the word "these" had been 
omitted, and on this ground His Excellency is charged 
with a laxity of moral principle. To say nothing of the 
unjustifiable grossness of this charge, it was really aston- 
ishing that hon. gentlemen could not discover, that, if His 
Excellency had designed to garble his extracts, it would 
have been as easy a matter for him to have done so the 
second time as the first, and thus not have exposed him- 
self. Such accusations were no credit to those who made 
them. Such charges might, with much stronger semblance 
of truth, be brought against the authors of the Report 
under discussion. A most laboured effort had been put 
forth by the Committee to impeach the character of His 
Excellency in reference to the arrangement which had been 
made between two of the Councillors concerning the admin- 
istration of the government in case of the death of His 
Excellency. As it respected the arrangement itself, it was 
altogether unnecessary. It appeared to have been made 
under the impression that the senior councillor must other- 
wise become the administrator of the government in the 
case supposed. But that was a mistake. When Mr. Smith 
was sworn into office there were two older Councillors than 
himself, Mr. Baby and Chief Justice Powell ; neither of 
whom was forbidden by the Constitution to administer the 
Government. But no man is obliged to assume the office. 
He would now state the facts of this case, and leave every 
honest mind to judge whether there was any foundation for 
the abuse which had been heaped upon His Excellency. One 
of the Councillors, before they were sworn into office (let 


that be remembered) suggested that, in case of His Excel- 
lency's death, the administration of the government should 
devolve on the hon. Mr. Allan. To this Mr. Sullivan read- 
ily assented, being anxious to be free from so great respon- 
sibility. And to place his wish beyond doubt, it was 
suggested by Mr. Sullivan that a writing should be drawn 
and signed by him, declaring that, in the event of the 
Government devolving on a Councillor, he would resign and 
make way for Mr. Allan. This conversation took place in 
presence of His Excellency, who was requested to draw an 
instrument to that effect. He did so, and it was signed by 
Mr. Sullivan ; and Mr. Allan received it, and there the 
matter rested. It was no official document, it was not 
done in Council, nor was any record made of it. It was a 
private arrangement between two gentlemen, with respect 
to which the. Lieutenant Governor was perfectly indifferent. 
(Hear, hear!) Now, what does the Report state? It 
states that when His Excellency was addressed by the 
House for information, he intimated (mark the expression) 
he "intimated that he knew of no such agreement, and 
that in fact no document of such a nature existed." Now, 
this was plainly a misrepresentation. His Excellency inti- 
mated no such thing ; and to prove this, it will be most 
satisfactory to read the answer His Excellency did give to 
the Address of the House for information on this subject. 
It is as tollows : 

"Gentlemen I herewith transmit as much of the infor- 
mation desired by the House as I possess. 

"I have entered into no bond or agreement, of any sort, 
with my present Executive Council, and I do not possess, 
nor does there exist in Council, any document of such a 
nature, between two or more of the said Council." 

This answer was in the possession of the committee at 
the time they made the unfounded assertion contained in 
their Report. Any man of ingenuous disposition any man 
who was not desirous of perverting the truth, would have 
at once seen that His Excellency, merely wished to inform 
the House, that officially he had no controul over any 
document such as was referred to, but that he by no means 
intended to Convey the idea, that "no document of such a 
nature existed ;" on the contrary, he very plainly intimated 
the ( reverse, and to prove that he had no objection to its 
being made public, and that he was ready to assist in its 
disclosure, he permitted Mr. Sullivan to appear before the 
Committee and state every thing he knew respecting the 
matter. Had His Excellency desired concealment he could 
have prevented this : and the Committee would then have 
been left without this new topic, upon which to assail the 
Lieutenant Governor. But, as an honest man, he had no 


desire to conceal the truth all he asked, was, that the 
truth should be plainly told, and no false interpretations 
placed upon it. Much stress was laid upon Mr. Sullivan 
having expressed an unwillingness at first to state who 
drew up the document. But why was he unwilling ? Un- 
doubtedly, because he suspected the dishonourable use that 
would be made by the Committee of that information: 
(Hear, hear !) But it would be a mere waste of time for 
him to attempt further to show how utterly impossible it 
was for any imputations to be fairly cast upon the charac- 
ter of His Excellency with regard to that transaction. 
What he had said had not been for the sake of convincing 
the Committee, or those who were already determined to 
sustain the Report, and all the slanders contained in it ; 
but to show to tho country the real nature of a transaction 
which had been so shamefully misrepresented, for party 
purposes. (Hear.) 

He had detained the house a long time, but he hoped 
that the vast importance of the subject would form for him 
a sufficient apology. He had felt a deep and thrilling inter- 
est in the question before the house, and although he had 
no doubt as to the course which the majority would pursue, 
and that it would be of no avail for him to argue against 
the decision which had been already determined on, yet 
that regard which every patriotic man must feel for the 
prosperity of the country in which the interests of himself 
and his posterity are at stake, rendered it impossible that 
he should say less than he had. The subject was an excit- 
ing one, but be had endeavored to confine himself to a 
deliberate consideration and calm discussion of its true 
principles and merits, and of those prominent features of 
the Report which, from their connexion with the main ques- 
tion, seemed to possess some importance. He hoped that 
he had accomplished what he proposed at the commence- 
ment of his observations. He had noticed the origin of the 
Executive Councils he had pointed out their legitimate 
functions, and how far their existence was identified with 
the Constitution. He had shown the real responsibility of 
Colonial Government ; and had made it obvious that the 
system advocated by the late Council and in the Report, if 
indeed it might be called a system, would completely 
remove that responsibility from where alone it could safely 
rest, and would introduce in its stead a merely ideal 
responsibility, subverting the best interests of the country, 
and annihilating in it every vestige of British rule. (Hear, 
hear.) And now he would close his remarks by expressing 
his deep regret that men should be found occupying the 
important and distinguished places of representatives of a 
patriotic people, who would abuse the trust committed to 


them, and avail themsolves of their parliamentary privileges 
to traduce the character, and misrepresent the conduct, of 
as honest, upright, disinterested, straightforward, able, and 
truly patriotic a man as ever was entrusted by Britain's 
Monarch with the; government of any Colony of the Empire, 
(Hear, hear,) a man whose only study was to maintain 
alike inviolate the prerogatives of his Sovereign, and the 
indefeasible rights of the people, (hear, hear ;) whose most 
ardent desire was, to carry out in all their extent the 
benevolent designs of one of the most indulgent and 
patriotic Kings that ever wore the British Crown, (hear, 
hear ;) and who still would persevere in accomplishing the 
important work entrusted to him, amidst all the obstacles 
which might be thrown in his way. (Hear, hear.) Yes, 
such was the individual against whom all the vituperative 
language of that laboured Report was directed ; such was 
the individual who, it might be almost said, immediately 
on his arrival, is accused of crimes and offences which, if 
true, ought not only to .depose him from his exalted office, 
but ought for ever to close against him the door of civil- 
ized society. (Hear, hear.) He would not give that man 
credit for much strength of understanding, or honesty of 
principle, or goodness of heart, who would not decide that 
there was some other object kept in view, by the framers 
and advocates of that Report, than the investigation of 
constitutional principles. It spoke not the calm and digni- 
fied language of virtuous patriotism, but that of an un- 
worthy and factious attempt to embarrass the administra- 
tor of the Government. That would be traced by every 
candid man in almost every paragraph, and it would pro- 
duce in the country a very different effect from that which 
the supporters of it appeared to anticipate. (Hear, hear.) 
He supposed that hon. members were resolved, however, to 
try the experiment. Well, let them do so. They had of 
course power to stop the supplies necessary for carrying on 
the Government in an advantageous manner ; but there was 
another power from which theirs was derived ; and it was 
for the people to decide whether it was for the peace, wel- 
dare, and good government of the Province that the. Courts 
of Justice should be impeded in their important proceed- 
ings, that the public offices should be shut up, and that 
the industrious farmer and mechanic should suffer from the 
suspension of all internal improvement. Yet such every 
hon. member knew must be the inevitable result of stopping 
the supplies. 

But this, notwithstanding all the evils that would re- 
sult from it, would undoubtedly be done ; and then efforts 
would be made to persuade the country that it was done 
from a regard for their rights and interests. (Hear, hear.) 


But the people would not believe it ; there was too much 
intelligence in the country for such a deception to be prac- 
tised upon its inhabitants. There was no Colony that 
possessed the power and the advantages which had been 
entrusted and granted to Upper Canada, for the benefit of 
those patriotic men who were among its first inhabitants, 
and who risked their lives, and sacrificed their property, in 
defence of British principles ; yes, many of them had fought 
and bled for the sake of the privileges which they then en- 
joyed under merely chartered governments. But the British 
Government, with that nobleness by which it has ever been 
distinguished, generously decreed a reward to their loyalty 
by increasing and greatly extending the privileges they had 
previously enjoyed, and conferred upon this Province that 
constitution which it was the object of the Report under 
consideration to subvert and destroy under the false pre- 
tences of supporting it. (Hear, hear.) Yes, the object 
could not be concealed, and the country will pronounce an 
equitable sentence on its authors and abettors. The powers 
entrusted to the Colonial Legislature were never intended 
to be exercised in the manner now contemplated. It never 
was supposed that an effort would be made to withhold the 
necessary supplies for carrying on the Government, because 
of a difference of opinion having arisen between the Gover- 
nor and the majority of the House on a constitutional 
question ; and on a question which the Imperial Govern- 
ment alone could decide. What was the meaning of such a 
step ? It was saying most distinctly, not to the Governor, 
for he had not power to grant what was .demanded of him, 
but to the King, "Unless this question be decided according 
to our dictation we will refuse to co-operate with the Gov- 
ernment, we will array ourselves against the constitutional 
powers of the King's representative, or in other words, 
against the King himself." (Hear, hear.) Such was the 
language spoken by the measure, and although it might be 
denied, it could not be disproved. A certain system is laid 
down by our Reformers in the Assembly, and it is designat- 
ed responsible government ; it is asserted that it is the 
system acknowledged by the constitution, and the Governor 
is required to act upon it. He dissents, and states that he 
cannot view the constitution in that light, and therefore 
cannot, in accordance with his oath, administer the govern- 
ment on such principles ; but he points to the imperial 
government as the only tribunal competent to award a 
decision, and to that decision he declares himself willing 
respectfully to bow. Why then does not the House wait for 
that decision? If hon. members were willing to abide by 
it, and to uphold the Constitution as it exists, why stop 
the Supplies ? Such a step is evidently an attempt, to in- 


timidate the Government, and it loudly declares to the 
King, "you must either decide that our construction of the 
constitution is right, or you must make such changes as 
will accord with the system we have demanded ; and if you 
will not, we will not be governed by you." (Hear, hear.) 
Suppose the Government should decide that that system 
cannot be established without destroying all colonial de- 
pendency, what then must be done ? The answer was 
obvious :but there were more than 150,000 men, loyal and 
true, within this province, who would never consent to have 
the authority of the Sovereign trampled under foot ; and 
never, without their concurrence, could the moral power of 
the Government be put down. (Hear, hear.) If the refusing 
to vote the Supplies would not open the eyes of the people, 
they would deserve to be slaves ; not the slaves of the 
British Monarch, for such a relation could not exist within 
the boundaries of his Empire, (hear, hear,) but the slaves 
of the present majority of the House of Assembly, whose 
eager grasping after uncontrolled power sufficiently proved 
how utterly disqualified they were for possessing it. (Hear, 
hear.) He was but an humble individual, and stood in a 
minority in that House ; but, of that minority he was proud 
on the present occasion, and he felt assured the cause he 
and his estimable friends were now advocating would be 
found to be the cause of the people, and that he was ex- 
pressing the views of those who constituted the worth, 
and the intelligence, and the patriotism of the country. 
Whatever might be the result of that evening's discussion, 
and he had no expectation but that the Report would be 
adopted, it would afford him unmixed satisfaction to the 
latest period of his life, that he, and his respected friends 
around him, had lifted up their voices, and recorded their 
votes, against a measure so fraught with most disastrous 
consequences to the Province, and so directly at variance 
with every principle which ought to find a lodgment in a 
Briton's heart. (The hon. and learned gentleman resumed 
his seat amidst loud cheers from the crowded galleries, and 
the space below the bar.) 

Mr. ROBLTN said, that, with regard to the document 
which had been spoken of between Mr. Sullivan and Mr. 
Allan, he was as well satisfied as any thing could be, when 
the Governor's reply was read, that he had been misinform- 
ed ; and he was very much astonished when Mr. Sullivan 
told the committee there was such a paper. But it is 
argued there is no such paper in Council. That was a way 
of getting along that he was not used to. But, leaving 
that matter, he would come to the question of responsible 
government. The constitution recognized "such Executive 
Council as shall be appointed by His Majesty for the affairs 


of the Province," and therefore he argued that the Act 
created an Executive Council. The hon. and learned 
Solicitor-General stated that the Report said the Governor 
should consult the Council upon all the affairs of the Gov- 
ernment. Now, it said no such thing ; but the Royal 
Instructions said so, and also that the senior Councillor 
should administer the government in case of the death of 
the Governor. The simple question was, Ought we not to 
have a responsible Executive Council in this Province ? 
Why not ? He could not see how it was going to curtail 
the prerogative of the Crown, as it had been argued. Was 
the Lieutenant-Governor to have more power than the King 
himself ? (Hear, hear !) He had an Executive Council, just 
as the King had his Privy Council ; and from the Privy 
Council the King selected his Cabinet Council, whose advice 
he was to take upon all affairs of the government. (Hear, 
hear !) Whenever they gave advice, the King acted in ac- 
cordance with it, so long as he retained them in office. The 
acts of the Government were the acts of the Council, and 
in that way their opinions went forth to the country. But, 
if they did not suit the views of a majority of the repre- 
sentatives of the people, the Council must go out of office ; 
for it was contrary to all the principles of good govern- 
ment that two bodies should be constituted to act together 
who at the same time held views contrary to each other ; 
just as the good book said, a house divided against itself 
could not stand. It was not required that if the Governor 
advised with the Council he should act with that advice ; 
but it was wished to know who did anything for the good 
of the country and who did not. If they were paid 500 a 
year, he would like to know what good they did for it. If 
they gave the Governor advice and he did not please to act 
according to it, the House of Assembly wanted to know it, 
that in such case the matter might be submitted to the 
decision of His Majesty's Government. If they say, we 
approve of your course, and you may dismiss your Council, 
he would of course do so. He takes another ; but they 
cannot agree with the people. Here we are at a stand, and 
obliged to recur to first principles, and ask for what pur- 
pose governments were instituted, if it was not for the 
good of the people ? That should be the foundation of all 
governments, the welfare of the people. And were not the 
people of Upper Canada to be the judges of what was for 
their own good, and what was not ? or was the Colonial 
Minister at 4000 miles distant to be judge of what was for 
our good, and tell us, "You must swallow whatever I please 
to cram down your throat, whether you like it or not ?" 
These were his opinions on government, and he was satis- 
fied that on no other principle could it exist. While the 


people of this Province could look to other countries where 
government was thus administered, they would not be con- 
tented so long as the present state of things existed here, 
and while the rights enjoyed by others were denied to them. 
If the Governor could not agree with the Representatives 
of the people, they being a factious set of fellows like the 
present House of Assembly, let him dissolve them and 
appeal to the people. Should he do this, and a majority of 
the same sentiments be again returned, what was to be 
done ? Could we get on in this way ? Surely the British 
Government had no desire, and could have no interest, in 
persisting to govern this Colony in a manner contrary to 
the wishes of its inhabitants. The hon. and learned 
Solicitor General had told the house in pretty plain terms 
that it was unconstitutional to stop the Supplies ; but they 
had the opinions of Mr. Stanley and Lord Glenelg against 
the opinion of .the hon. and learned Solicitor, which he was 
inclined to think was quite as good authority. If a 
Governor was sent out here, who, under all the circum- 
stances, could not administer the government according to 
the wishes of the representatives of the people,, he (Mr. R.) 
would say, give us another Governor or another House of 
Assembly. He had thought seriously upon the question of 
withholding the supplies, and had come to the conclusion 
that it was best to do so at the present time ; for then 
they would bring matters to an issue at once, and see who 
was right. The question of course would be referred to His 
Majesty's Government ; and they would have to recal the 
Governor or turn out the Assembly as often as they were 
elected, until they agreed. 

The Executive Council ought, in his opinion, to be re- 
sponsible to the people ; he would not take upon him to say 
they were so at present, but they should be so, that it 
might be known who it was that gave the advice by which 
the Government was conducted. At present it was never 
known whether it was by the advice of the Council, or some 
other persons, or whether the Governor acted as he pleased 
himself. His Excellency had provoked this discussion, and 
"dragged the question into day-light ;" and in one of his 
documents he had admitted that he should advise with his 
Councill, for he says he cannot divulge which of the mem- 
bers of his Council advises him, which plainly implied that 
he should consult them. If he agreed with the Council, he 
might in his public documents say, "I have done so with 
the advice of my Executive Council ;" or "on my own 
responsibility," if he disagreed with them. There was noth- 
ing in his oath which in his (Mr. R.'s) opinion prevented 
him from doing this, although he might not divulge which 
of the members gave him the advice bv which he acted. 


His Excellency says, "whenever embarrassment requires it 
he must draw upon their sterling 1 fund," meaning* their ad- 
vice ; that is, he will in ordinary affairs think and act for 
himself ; but whenever, perhaps by his own unadvised mis- 
management, the affairs of the government gets into em- 
barrassment, he will ask their advice, that they may bear 
all the odium of the measures he has pursued. Then, he 
goes on to say, "'if they faithfully honour his bills, they 
fulfil their duty to their oath, their Sovereign, and to 
him." What he meant by honouring his bills, he, (Mr. R.) 
being a plain farmer, might not understand so well as some 
others, but he believed it meant this, when one merchant 
draws' a bill upon another, his Mend pays it according to 
instruction's received from the drawer ; and His Excellency 
must, therefore, mean that if the Council approved of .the 
"remedial measures" which he told the House he was pre- 
paring, they discharged their duty. He could not agree 
with His Excellency in this limited interpretation of the 
powers and duties of the Executive Council as they were 
set forth in the Constitutional Act and the King's Instruc- 
tions, for the latter say, "You are to communicate to them 
such and so many of these our Instructions, &c., and all 
such others from time to time as you shall find convenient 
for our service." What did the word convenient mean, upon 
which so much stress had been laid ? Not that it would be 
inconvenient to ask their advice upon all occasions ; but the 
better to enlighten their judgments and inform their minds, 
in order that "impartiality" might be assisted by "knowl- 
edge," he should communicate to them the views of His 
Majesty's Government as often as he might find it conven- 
ient to enable them to come to a judicious and proper 
decision. That was what he considered the word "conven- 
ient," in the Instructions, to mean. The Governor, at the 
conclusion of his reply, tells the Council, that, "to the 
opinions they have expressed he can never subscribe." 
What were those opinions ? Not that they might be allow- 
ed to tell the advice they gave, but simply to inform the 
public when they advised a measure and when they did not. 
But no, he tells them he will not allow them to do so ; 
"The country shall not know whether you advised me in 
the course I have pursuecj or not." 

The adoption of the resolution before the House would 
decide the question whether the Supplies were to be 
stopped or not. To do so he acknowledged was a strong 
measure, it was the last resource ; but what was to be 
done ? That House and the Country had addressed His 
Majesty's Government for the last four or five years, 
setting forth that there was no Established Church in 
Upper Canada, and praying that there might be none 


established and endowed, but that the Clergy Reserves 
might be devoted to general education. But how had they 
been respected or answered ? In the last year no less than 
fifty-seven Rectories had been established and endowed out 
of those Reserves. Were they to grant the Supplies and 
again address His Majesty and say, "We pray your 
Majesty this system may not be continued ?" (Hear.) 
No ; if there ever was a time, or if there ever could be a 
proper time, to stop the Supplies, it was now. Let His 
Majesty's Government be plainly told, "if you will not 
attend to our representations, we will not support your 
Government ;" that was the meaning of stopping the 
Supplies, and he hoped it would wake them up to pay 
attention to our affaire. Whether his constituents would 
approve of the vote he was about to give, he could not 
tell ; but it never had been any advantage to him to be a 
representative of the people, and he was willing cheerfully 
to retire into private life, if the people would not support 
him in taking what he willingly acknowledged, was a bold 
stand a very important step, but which he thought, all the 
circumstances of the times required. He had, however, 
made up his mind on the subject, and was prepared to 
vote for withholding the Supplies. 

MR. PARKE observed, that the principal arguments 
against a responsible Executive Council in this Province 
seemed to be, that it would destroy the power of the 
mother country in the colony. But it should be remember- 
ed that England, when she passed our constitutional act, 
reserved to herself the power of regulating our trade and 
commerce, and retained in her hands the whole patronage 
of the government. For what was this done ? To main- 
tain her control over the affairs of the colony. But that 
she should exercise any such control through the Executive 
Council, was never intended when the act was passed. 
That Council was not appointed by any law, but by the 
principle upon which all laws were founded, that of safety 
and protection against oppression ; and to take away that 
check over the Executive Government would be the very 
essence of tyranny. The Government of Upper Canada 
must be administered by an Executive Council responsible 
to the House of Assembly ; for it never could be intended 
by the people of Great Britain, that their fellow subjects 
in Upper Canada should be degraded into the condition of 
slaves. The Governor, we were told, was responsible to 
Downing Street ; but had they ever been called to account 
for tyrannizing over the people ? No ; but they were 
praised when they exercised their power for the interest of 
those who appointed them. The hon. and learned Solicitor 
General said the powers of the Executive Council were 


derived from the King's Instructions ; but he (Mr. P.) 
contended that he had no right to give such instructions 
without Act of Parliament. (Hear, hear.) 

MR. NORTON. After the very severe castigation which 
the hon. and learned gentleman from Cornwall (Mr. 
McLean) has been pleased to bestow upon me for the crime 
of having been born in the United States, it may be 
considered presumption in me to say one word upon a 
subject of this nature. I will give the hon. and learned 
gentleman all the advantage, and all the honour that he is 
entitled to, for having made the discovery that a man was 
disgraced in consequence of his birth-place. I have seen, 
Mr. Speaker, men, nay even hon. and learned gentlemen, 
whose conduct was a disgrace to the high station they 
held, to themselves and to the country that gave them 
birth ; (hear, hear,) but that the country should disgrace 
the man, is a discovery left for no less an honourable, 
noble, and generous personage than the gentleman" from 
Cornwall to make. That man who is so lost to the 
noblest feelings of our nature, as not feel a glow of pride 
at the mention of his native land, is indeed only fit to 
become the base and abject slave of such a man as the hon. 
and learned gentleman has upon this occasion shown him- 
self to be. The law in your Statute book, Sir, has made 
me eligible to a seat in this House, and the spontaneous 
and united voice of as intelligent, patriotic, and loyal a 
people as Upper Canada can boast has done me the honour 
to send me here, and they expect that I will do my duty 
to my God, my King, and my Constituents ; and, Sir, I 
shall not shrink from the task upon this occasion, not- 
withstanding the sneering taunts, which no gentleman 
would make, but which could have emanated from no 
other than the hon. and learned member. (Hear, hear.) 
The hon. and learned gentleman says, grievances are 
preached continually, which are sickening to the ear I 
doubt not, Mr. Speaker, but such cries are sickening to the 
ears of the hon. gentleman, but was he ever known to lend 
a helping hand to redress those grievances, has he not 
invariably denied that there existed any grievances He 
has been pleased to laud the people of this Province for 
their intelligence and discrimination, and warned the 
majority of this House that the people were too intelligent 
and too enlightened to be duped by any artifice, from 
asserting and maintaining those just rights. Pray, sir, 
how long since that hon. and learned gentleman has made 
the discovery ? Has he not invariably opposed every 
measure giving the people a voice in the management even 
of their local affairs ? Has he not invariably scouted the 
idea of consulting the people ?-Tf the records of your 


journal since the first day of his taking a seat in the 
House of Assembly, answer the question, among the 
specimens of his regard for the people you will find his 
support for the celebrated Gagging Dill, preventing these 
enligntened and intelligent people from meeting and 
petitioning for a redress of these grievances. (Hear, hear.) 
No surer proof however can be given of the march o 
intelligence in the county which he formerly represented, 
than that the people very plainly told him they had no 
further need for his valuable services. (Hear, hear.) With 
regard to the question before you, the hon. and learned 
Solicitor General, (the only hon. gentleman opposed to it, 
who had undertaken to use any argument,) had really 
made out our case most admirably. The whole drift of 
his argument was to show us that the Executive Council 
of this Province was exactly similar to that body in Eng- 
land called the Privy Council, and he has quoted several 
authorities to prove this fact. Well, Mr. Speaker, what 
else do we contend for ; this is all we have ever asserted, 
and we complain that although a similar body, and 
constituted for similar purposes, yet they cling to office 
after having entirely lost the confidence of the people. Yet 
while the Solicitor admits that we have the "very image 
and transcript of the British Constitution," His Excellency 
denies it, (hear, hear,) and he is the first person in the 
Province who has ever done so. Those very hon. gentle- 
men, who now say it would be the greatest curse that 
could be inflicted upon this Province, if we had responsible 
Executive, ghould refresh their memories before they so 
loudly proclaimed their own inconsistency. Did not our 
Address to His Majesty in the last Parliament, respecting 
the Banks, declare, in the most emphatic language, the 
necessity of a responsible Government ? did not that 
address receive the support and the vote of every member 
in that House ? Let us come a little nearer the present 
period : let hon. gentlemen look at the Resolution upon 
which an Address was founded to His Excellency on the 
14th of last month, upon the subject of the late Council, 
which reads as follows : 

"Mr. Perry, seconded by Mr. Chas. Duncombe, moves 
that it be Resolved, That this House considers tin- 
appointment of a responsible Executive Council to advis.- 
the Lieutenant Governor, or person administering the 
government of the affairs of this Province, to be one of the 
most happy and wise features in our Constitution, and 
essential in our form of government, and as being one of 
the strongest securities for a just and equitable adminis- 
tration of the government, and full enjoyment of our civil 
and religious rights and privileges." (Hear, hear.) 


Now, Mr. Speaker, this resolution was adopted after a 
whole day's debate, and upon which there was a call of 
the house, and when there were fifty-five members present, 
(the fullest House we have had during the present session,) 
and when the yeas and nays were called for, the only 
members found to oppose it were Messrs. Boulton and 
Malloch. (Hear, hear.) But, sir, when these hon. and 
learned gentlemen found that such was not the opinion of 
Sir F. B. Head, they immediately change their colours, 
(hear, hear,) and now denounce this very principle as the 
most absurd and wicked principle ever agitated in this 
House. What are we to think ? What will the public 
think of such men and such conduct ? I will ask hon. 
gentlemen to satisfy their own consciences and the country 
for this (to use the mildest term) most gross and flagrant 
inconsistency, and dismiss from my mind the humiliating 
reflections which their conduct has created. During the 
whole discussion, not one argument of my hon. friend from 
Lennox and Addington (Mr. Perry) has been answered : 
sir, they are unanswerable, as well as those of my hon. 
friend from Prince Edward (Mr. Roblin.) I trust, Mr. 
Speaker, that I feel deeply the responsibility of this day's 
proceedings, of the vast importance of the question now 
before us. We have arrived at a most critical juncture in 
the history of this Province. The fate of this measure 
doubtless decides whether we are to enjoy the "very image 
and transcript of the British Constitution," or whether 
we are to have a mutilated and degraded one ; whether we 
are to have a constitutional and responsible government, 
possessing the confidence and affections of the people, or 
whether we are to be governed by the arbitrary will of an 
irresponsible vacillating Executive. We are called upon to 
protect the sacred rights and privileges for which the 
brave U. E. Loyalists nobly struggled and nobly bled. 
Those rights and privileges which are the palladium of our 
liberties, one of the foremost pillars in the British Con- 
stitution. Those rights and privileges which form the 
basis of every free and enlightened government throughout 
the world, viz. responsibility to the people. (Hear, hear.) 
When therefore shall this house assert with independent 
dignity, a resolute and unequivocal declaration of those 
sacred rights and privileges secured to us by that Con- 
stitution, which, from our earliest infancy, we have been 
taught to reverence and obey ? When, T say, shall wi- 
st and forth in its defence, but in the instant of its most 
imminent danger ? Low indeed shall we be placed in the 
scale of human nature if we quietly suffer ourselves to be 
longer governed by a secret, unknown, and unconstitutional 
influence, base in itself as it is treacherous in its conse- 


quences. An administration such as this can only receive 
the support of those who know no higher and more noble 
principles to actuate their conduct, than the aspiring to 
or obtaining some office of emolument, and who are willing 
to obtain and hold them by no worthier tenure than secret 
influence. Every true friend to his country cannot but 
admit, however, that a responsible Government, possessing 
the confidence of the people, is the only government that 
can secure the country against the infinite abuses so 
natural to the possession and exercise of power. Should 
we unfortunately ever become so unmindful of our interests 
as to suffer this great bulwark of our Constitution and of 
our liberty to be wrested from us, we should soon become 
the miserable and abject slaves of a secret despotism. So 
long as the Governor is guided by a secret, intriguing, 
underhand influence, the Executive Council act the part of 
puppets to some unknown juggler behind the screen. 
(Hear, hear.) They are not allowed to consult their own 
opinions, but must pay implicit homage to those whom 
they know not, and perhaps whom but to know were but 
to despise. (Cries of hear, hear, hear.) The only rule 
that guides them is a secret mandate which carries along 
with it no other alternative than obedience or ruin. What 
man, who has the feeling, the honor, the spirit, or the 
heart of a man, would stoop to such a degraded condition 
for any official dignity or emolument whatever. The 
Council who would act so dishonorable a part, and the 
country that would submit to it, would be mutual plagues 
and curses to each other. What, sir, is the distinction 
between an absolute and a limited monarchy but that the 
sovereign in the one is a despot and may do what he 
pleases ; while in the other, he is himself subjected to the 
laws, and consequently not at liberty to advise with any 
one who is not responsible for that advice. The preroga- 
tives of the Crown are by no means to be exerted in a 
wanton and arbitrary manner. The good of the whole is 
the exclusive object to which all the branches of the 
Legislature and their different powers invariably should 
point. It is undoubtedly the prerogative of the Crown to 
select the Council, but to secure the blessings of good 
government that Council must possess the confidence of the 
public. That Governor must be bold indeed, who dares to 
despise and reject the voice of the people, and short must 
be the duration of that administration that is not upheld 
by the popular will. Is there an individual here who feels 
for his honour, so lost to every honourable, every patriotic 
feeling, so regardless of his dearest and most sacred rights 
and privileges, as to feel callous and indifferent in such a 
crisis as this f Tf there be, then I say that man is 


unworthy to enjoy, because he cannot duly appreciate the 
blessing's secured to him by that Constitution which has 
been . the glory and the pride of ages. Sir, I fear not the 
result 'of this most important crisis, I feel confident that 
the characteristic spirit of British subjects is still equal 
to the trial. I trust they will feel as jealous of secret 
influence as they are to open violence. (Hear, hear.) I 
trust they are not more ready to defend their interests 
against foreign depredation and insult than to encounter 
and defeat this midnight conspiracy against the constitu- 
tion. We are now deliberating 1 on the life and blood of our 
constitution. Give up the point of responsibility to the 
people, and we seal our own quietus, and are accessory to 
our own insignificance and destruction. Though we have 
been most unjustly deprived of our just weight in the 
constitution, yet if we acquit , ourselves honourably to our 
constituents, to our friends, to our own consciences, and 
to the public, whose trustees we are, and for whom we 
act, we shall come out of this struggle honourably and 
triumphantly. I have too much confidence in the justice- 
and the magnanimity of the British Government to suppose 
for one moment that they will oppose our wishes wishes 
founded so strong in justice, and so dear to our best 
interests. Whoever wished for the liberty secured to us by 
the constitution, whoever wished for good government, 
whether he be a whig or a tory, conservative or radical, 
they should equally unite in wishing for the removal of the 
present administration, because until this is done there can 
be neither freedom of constitution nor energy of govern- 
ment. I have seriously reflected on the course I ought to 
pursue upon this momentous question, and I deliberately 
declare, that I have never in my life supported any 
measure with a firmer conviction of duty. (Hear, hear.) 
The glorious cause of freedom, of reform, of civil and 
religious liberty, and of the constitution in its purity, 
ever has, and ever shall receive my deliberate support. 
Thus far this course has borne me up, under every 
aspersion to which my x character has been subjected. The 
resentment of the mean, the aversions of the great, the 
rancour of the vindictive, and the subtilty of the .base, the 
dereliction of friends, and the efforts of enemies have never 
succeeded in diverting me from what I believed to be my 
conscientious duty. 

(Mr. Norton's speech is copied from the Correspondent 
and Advocate, and the Reporter of the Guardian perceives 
that the commencement of it is a reply to some remarks 
made by Mr. McLean which were not heard by him, and 
therefore do not appear in the report of that g-entleman's 


MR. ROBINSON said, he supposed he would be the 
only member for the Home District that would vote 
against the resolution, and therefore would take the liberty 
of making- two or three remarks. The differences on this 
question had been called "a matter of dry law," but it 
would not appear to be a very dry subject to any one who 
had attentively listened to the speech of the hon. and 
learned Solicitor General. It was a speech full of argument 
and historical information. He thought it was so utterly 
impracticable to have an Executive Council responsible to 
the House of Assembly, that it could never have been the 
intention of His Majesty's Government that such a 
responsibility should exist. He must say, that when he 
has heard these measures brought forward under the name 
of Reform, he always feared they did not intend Reform 
but Revolution. The history of all Revolutions would 
show the specious names by which those measures were 
called which finally thus terminated. (Hear, hear.) With 
regard to withholding the Supplies, hon. members should 
ask themselves before doing so, whether the end would 
justify the means. He thought not. So much had already 
been so well said, that he would not take up any more 

MR. PERRY remarked, that the hon. gentleman before 
he sat down, observed that so much had been said on his 
side of the question that it was useless for him to say 
any thing more. Now, in the name of common sense, 
what had they said to support the position of His 
Excellency ? Was it any thing said by the hon. and learned 
member for Hamilton ? His arguments were, that some 
members of the majority of that house had been made 
Captains of Militia and Justices of the Peace. But his 
hon. friends from Dundas and stormont (Messrs. Shaver 
and Chisholm/ when they were appointed were great tories, 
but they saw their error and left the ranks of the tories, 
because they saw it was a wicked system. Indeed, the 
minority seemed broken down in spirit as well as argument 
during the discussion. The only thing on which they 
seemed to be animated was concerning the remark he 
made, that the junior clerks of the Council were sworn to 
secrecy, which they said was unlawful, &c. ; but there was 
no law which required the senior clerk to be sworn, and 
yet it was well known that he was. What then had they 
made of it ? Then they seemed to turn into ridicule what 
he (Mr. P.) said about the Governor having power to 
declare war ; but what did the King's Instructions to the 
Governor say? "You shall not make war." Were hon. 
gentlemen satisfied now ? (Hear, hear, and laughter.) 
That was just what he expected from ignorance. "You 


shall not make war except in some special emergency." 
Did not that very exception give him the power ? Most 
certainly it did. Had it been shown that there was any 
difference between the oath of the Executive Councillors 
here and the Privy Councillors in England ? The Privy 
Council and the Cabinet Council were the same ; all the 
members of the Privy Council were not Cabinet, Coun- 
cillors, but all Cabinet Councillors were Privy Councillors. 
They were not properly two offices ; but .the Cabinet 
Councillors held the seals of office so long and no longer 
than they retained the confidence of the people. There was 
not one letter of the law which required the King to take 
the advice of the Cabinet Council, yet it was invariably 
done ; and what he contended for was, that the practice 
pursued in England ought to be followed in this Province. 
MR. MERRITT wished to say a few words on this 
question. It was a matter of great importance ; but he 
did not agree with the sentiments of any hon. members 
who had spoken on it. The late Council say, they wish 
the course to be pursued which they proposed, in order 
to prevent the adoption of other measures uncongenial to 
the constitution of the country ; .and the majority of the 
house pursued the same means to attain a different end. 
There was some inconsistency here which he could not 
comprehend. He neither entirely approved of the measures 
of, the Governor nor those of that house. It was constitu- 
tional and right to refuse the Supplies when it was 
necessary to do so ; but he did not think it was necessary 
in the present stage of the question ; for he was satisfied 
that if they would calmly and temperately discuss it, and 
point out the remedy, they would obtain it. It was 
admitted he believed on all hands, that some change was 
necessary : but there was difference of opinion respecting 
what that' change should be. He found fault with the 
Colonial Office for dismissing the Crown Officers ; and he 
was of opinion that there were too frequent changes at 
that Office, and not that stability in our Colonial Govern- 
ment which was necessary for the public good. They 
dismissed officers for the expression of their opinions. We 
also saw persons go home and make representations about 
our institutions, for instance the representations that were 
made by a certain individual concerning our Banking 
Institutions, and these were adopted and attempted to be 
forced upon us to the ruin of the country. Such things 
should be prevented. If that house would make such 
representation to England as he had mentioned, he thought 
they would get the change desired ; but if they adopted the 
Report and stopt the Supplies, he could see no good 
that would result from it. They were going on in the 


same track as Lower Canada, and would get into the 
same difficulties, which they could not tell what would be 
the end of. He was satisfied this course of conduct would 
not result in the good of the country. He was constrained 
to vote against the Report, and could not consent to 
withhold the Supplies. 

MR. DURAND said, that when the hon. and learned 
Solicitor-General got up, he (Mr. D.) expected that he 
would dissect the Report, and tear it all to pieces. The 
hon. and learned gentleman said he had taken notes, and 
that he would give it a showing up. But what had he 
done ? He had made a long speech with nothing in it. 
He had attempted to defend the Governor in the course he 
had taken ; because, no doubt, the hon. and learned 
gentleman had whispered in the royal ear as a secret 
adviser. At the beginning of the Session the hon. and 
learned gentleman had said he was willing to go all lengths 
to meet reformers ; but, when he found he could blow into 
the royal ear, he turned round, and said he had not yet 
reached his meridian. The Report before the House was 
an important and able one, and when it reached England 
it would procure redress of the public grievances. It would 
show that the House was determined to take a firm stand. 
A good deal had been said against stopping the Supplies, 
but that was the only remedy which the representatives of 
the people had in their hands. He would repeat what he 
had before said, that this was the most important 
measure that had been discussed this Session, and reform- 
ers would now get their rights. The tories, who opposed 
the Report, were completely foiled, and were afraid to 
come up to the scratch. The great question was, Shall 
we have responsible government or not ? He hoped we 
should, and for that reason he would support the Report. 
He was not afraid to go back to his constituents, and tell 
them he had done his duty. The Tories were the persons 
who had reason to be afraid. If the country should decide 
against him, he could not help it. He had not come here 
from personal choice, or for his own interest, but to 
promote the good of the country ; and he should vote for 
the resolution, because he believed it was his duty to do 

MR. RICHARDSON rose amidst loud cries of 
"question." He said, if he were not in the minority he 
should not hear so much clamour on rising, from those 
who were afraid of discussion. He thought as it was 
late, the debate ought to be adjourned. (Confused cries 
of "hear, hear," "go on," &c.) It was now proposed to 
stop the supplies ; but was it just to those who were 
opposed to that measure, to bring on the question when it 



was only 48 hours to the close of the session, and there- 
fore not time to discuss it ? (More confusion.) His 
opinion most decidedly was, that these proceedings were 
carried on in concert with the Papineau party in Lower 
Canada, in order to effect a change in our Constitution and 
break off the connexion with the mother country. (The 
cries of "question," "hear him," "go on," "go a-head," 
coughing, &c. increased to such a degree that the hon. 
gentleman could not be heard, and was obliged to sit 

Mr. Perry's amendment was adopted, and on the 
original question as amended, the yeas and nays were 
taken as follows : 

Messieurs Alway, 





Duncombe, of Ox- 

Buncombe, of 







McDonell, of 


















Yager, 32. 

Majority for the Adoption of the Report, sending it and the 
Memorial to England, stopping the Supplies, &c. 11. 

Messieurs Boulton, 






McDonell, of 

McDonell, of Nor- 
thumberland , 









Solicitor General 




Wilkinson, 21. 

Born 30th June, A.D. 1830 
Died 18th Oct., A.D. 1910 

















Chronology 4 

Officers 4 

Publications of the Society 4 

Introduction 5 

The Canniff Collection 7 

Index..., . 59 

The late William Canniff, M.D., M.R.C.S., Eng.... Frontispiece 

Society Organized May 9th, 1907 

Constitution Adopted '. June llth, 1907 

First Open Meeting Oct. 25th, 1907 

Affiliated with Ontario Historical Society March 31st, 1908 


Vol. I. Chronicles of Napanee June 12th, 1909 

Vol. II. Early Education Sept. 19th, 1910 

Vol. III. The Casey Scrap Books (Part I) Nov. 15th, 1911 

Vol. IV. The Casey Scrap Books (Part II) June 14th, 1912 

Vol. V. The Bell and Laing School Papers March 14th, 1914 

Vol. VI. Pioneer Life on the Bay of Quinte, by 

W. S. Herrington, K.C May 4th, 1915 

Vols. VII and VIII. The Constitutional Debate in 

(Double Number). the Legislative Assembly 

of 1836, with Introduction by 

William Renwick Riddell, 

LL.D., F. R. Hist., etc Nov. 7th, 1916 


Hon. Presidents Wm. J. Paul, M.P., and Clarance M. Warner 

President Walter S. Herrington, K.C. 

Vice President Mrs. Alexander W. Grange 

Secretary-Treasurer Rev. A. J. Wilson, B.A., B.D. 

Executive Committee: 

Dr. R. A. Leonard 

Mrs. M. C. Bogart 

E. R. Checkley 

J. M. Root 

Rev. J. H. H. Coleman, M.A. 

J. W. Robinson 


Two years before his death Dr. William Canniff gave 
to Mr. Clarance M. Warner for the Lennox and Addington 
Historical Society several hundred documents which he had 
been treasuring for years. At page 100 in his Settlement 
of Upper Canada, in commenting upon John Ferguson, he 
writes, "It has been our good fortune to come into posses- 
sion of a good many public and private letters penned by 
his hand, and invaluable information has thus been 
obtained." Again at page 547 he says, "Through the 
kindness of Mr. Sager, of the front of Thurlow, grandson 
of the late Colonel William Bell, we have had placed ,in our 
possession a portion of the papers left by Colonel Bell, of 
an official and semi-official character." The papers referred 
to in the passages just quoted are among the ones that 
were given to Mr. Warner, and were by him classified and 
catalogued under five headings : Case number 14 "Muster 
Rolls and Returns", Case number 15 "Personal Papers", 
Case number 1'6 "School Accounts, etc.", Case number 17 
"Militia Papers", and Case number 17 (a) "Memoirs and 
School Papers". A catalogue of these papers may not be 
very interesting reading for the ordinary member of the 
Society, but to many others whom our publications reach, 
they will be of great interest, and may point the way to 
much useful information not to be gathered from any other 
source. If Dr. Canniff prized them so highly nearly half 
a century ago, they certainly have not deteriorated since 
they came into his possession. The "School Papers" were 
reproduced in Volume V. of the Papers and Records of our 
Society, and in the same volume will be found a brief 
biographical sketch of Colonel William Bell. Dr. Canniff 
frequently refers to John Ferguson in his history, and 
particularly in Chapters X. and LIT. He was Lieutenant 
of the County of Hastings, and later Colonel of the Militia 
and as such exercised a general supervision over all 
military affairs of that County. Bell, during the period 
covered by the correspondence, rose from the ranks to be 
a Lieutenant-Colonel and received all of his orders from 
Ferguson. William Bell figures in many other capacities 
in these papers. He was a farmer, storekeeper, Justice of 
the Peace, Coroner, and for a time a teacher in the 

Mohawk reserve. Throughout his entire career he kept in 
close touch with Ferguson, with whom there was a sort of 
partnership in many of his business transactions. They 
were, I believe, related by marriage. Bell was always 
very respectful towards Ferguson, and the latter did not 
hesitate to administer a severe reproof when he thought 
the occasion demanded it. 

Case number 14 contains a large number of Muster 
Rolls and Militia Returns. These were the bane of Wm. 
Bell's existence. He coaxed, scolded and threatened his 
subordinate officers in his endeavors to make these out fully 
and promptly, and he in his turn was coaxed, scolded and 
threatened because he did not secure and forward them to 
his superior officer. V 


The Canniff Collection 

(Case Number 15.) 

The following- is a list of the contents of Case No. 15 : 

1. Letter from David Bell, Ireland, to his brother, 
William Bell, dated 7th November, 1779. 

2. Order from Reuben Pitcher for seven shillings in 
favor of Wm. Bell, dated 1786. 

3. Letter from John Grant to Wm. Bell, complaining 
of hard times, dated at La Chine, February 21st, 1787. 

4. Receipt from Adam Gordon to Wm. Bell, dated 
Montreal, 1788. 

5. Letter from John Ferguson to Wm. Bell, from 
Elizabethtown, holding out inducements for Bell to join 
him in a "job" he expects to get from the Government, 
dated 18th December, 1788. 

6. Letter from James Woods to Wm. Bell, dated 1st 
October, 1788. 

7. Letter from John Ferguson to Wm. Bell, dated 4th 
July, 1789. 

8. Letter from John Ferguson to William Bell, author- 
izing the purchase of a feather bed at an auction for one 
pound, dated 8th August, 1789. 

9. Letter from John Ferguson at Kingston to Wm. 
Bell at La Chine, complaining of hard times and advising 
him not to go to the northwest, dated 31st March, 1788. 

10. Letter from Capt. D. MacDougall at La Chine to 
Wm. Bell, "Kingstown", regarding purchase of lands, 
dated 4th August, 1789. 

11. Letter from John Blaken to Wm. Bell, dated 22nd 
September, 1790. In this letter the following description 
of a novel surgical operation- appears : "The day after. you 
left me I was taken with a violent nose bleeding, and con- 
tinued for 24 hours, and I suppose would have continued 
until now if my father-in-law had not butchered my arm 
with a broken lance to turn the course of the blood, and 
has lamed my arm so that I am unable to do anything 
ever since." 

12. Letter from John Ferguson, of Kingston, to Wm. 
Bell, of Sidney, regarding conditions at Kingston, dated 
15th October, 1790. 


12 (a). A letter similar to number 12, dated llth 
November, 1790. 

13. Letter from J. Grant of La Chine, to Wm. Bell, of 
Sidney, complaining of hard times, dated 20th February, 
1790. ' 

14. Record of laundry lists in Wm. Bell's handwriting, 
extending over several weeks. The following is a fair 
sample : "Sydney, Oct. 4th, 1790, 4 shirts, 3 westcoats, 2 
pr. trousers, 3 handkerchiefs, 1 pr. breeches, 2 pair stock- 
ings, 1 night cap, 1 table cloath." 

15. Letter, John Ferguson to Wm. Bell, dated llth 
March, 1790. 

16. Order, Joseph Pritchard, dated 5th June, 1791. 

17. Order, John German, 1st July, 1791. 

18. Letter from John Ferguson to Wm. Bell, asking 
for butter, meat and lumber, etc., dated 3rd April, 1791. 

18 (a). Letter, John Ferguson, of Kingston, to Wm. 
Bell, of Sydney, again complaining of hard times, dated 
12th May, 1791. 

19. Letter from John Ferguson, at Sydney, to Wm. 
Bell, at Kingston, dated 23rd July, 1791. "Send a memor- 
andum of what you want from Canada. I think I heard 
you say you had a quantity of apple seed. If you can 
spare any send me a little. I mean to have a couple Can- 
adians for the winter." 

19 (a). Letter from John Ferguson, Kingston, to Wm. 
Bell, Sydney, complaining of shortage of potatoes and 
garden seeds, dated 17th April, 1791. 

20. Letter from John Ferguson to Wm. Bell, repri- 
manding him for quarrelling, dated 20th May, 1792. 

21. Contract for the manufacture of shingles at $3.00 
per thousand, dated 27th November, 1792. 

22. Letter from John Ferguson to Wm. Bell, regarding 
the sowing of fall grain, dated 20th August, 1792. 

23. Letter from Wm. Bell, of Thurlow, to Robert Mc- 
Cauley, at Kingston, dated 6th October, 1793. The follow- 
ing is an extract : "Your goodness gives me courage to 
make another request of your favours which is to be so 
kind as to send me a few more necessaries which will 
augment my acct. with you, and I am in hopes to have it 
in my power to discharge the whole in the course of the 
next season, the following is the articles I stand much in 
need of at present, viz., 

3 gallons best rum 
2 ditto port wine 
a loaf of sugar 
a quire writing paper 
1 Ib. green tea". 


24. Letter from S. Aitkins, of York, to Wm. Bell, of 
Thurlow, regarding allotment of lands, dated 28th August, 

25. Letter from John Ferguson, respecting a lawsuit 
over the sale of lot 31, in the first concession of Sydney, 
for 50, dated 1793. 

26. Letter from John Ferguson to Wm. Bell, dated 
16th Nov., 1793." 

26 (a). Letter from Wm. Bell to S. Aitkins, asking for 
an allotment of lot 37 in the first concession of Sydney, 
dated 25th June, 1793. 

27. Last will of David Vanderhider, as follows : "In 
the name of God, Amen, I David Vanderhider of Thurlow, 
being weak in body but of sound memory (bleased be God) 
do this day, being the twenty-first of August in the year 
of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and ninety-five, 
make and publish this my last will and testament in man- 
ner following (that is to say) I give my beloved friend 
Phillip Sweek all the following articles vizt, one broad ax, 
one brass kettle, and one iron pott, now in the possession 
of Mr. John McArthur of Murray in the District of North- 
umberland and likewise to receive from the said McArthur 
wages from the first of Novr. till April being five months 
and payment for thirty-five bushels of potatoes two bushells 
of wheat at seven shillings and six pence pr bushell which 
I bought from Mr. John Chisholm and one bushell of wheat 
which I bought from Mr. Archd. Chisholm at seven shil- 
lings and six pence pr bushell, mushrat skins in the fall of 
the year to the ammount of one pound eighteen shillings to 
your son out of which I had one yard and a quarter of 
eloath two weeks wages in the fall helping you to move 
your things from Thurlow to Murray geting stone for a 
chimney back and digging a cellar (till the bay was froze 
up) four gallons and a half of rum at seven shillings and 
six pence pr gallon a hogg which I. paid two dollars for in 
the begining of winter and kept it all winter and next sum- 
mer and in the fall Mr. MeArthur fatted it and made use 
of it, two buck skins and two doe skins, the whole of the 
above mentioned articles I give and bequeath to the before 
mentioned Phillip Sweek his heirs and assigns, he first 
paying the said McArthur for the following articles vizt, 
two arm bands valued at five shillings each five scalping 
knives, one pound of powder and four pounds of 1 shott, four 
tommeyhawks valued at two shillings and six pence each 
and one quarter of a pound of vermillion and I make and 
ordain the before mentioned Phillip Sweek the sole execu- 
tor of this my last will in trust for the interests and pur- 
poses in this my last will contained in wittness whereof I 
the said David Vanderhider have to this mv last will and 


testament set my hand and sail the day and year above 

Signed sealed and delivered by the ) 
said David Vanderhider as for his ) his 

last will and testament in .presence ) David x Vanderhider 
of us who were present at the sign- ) mark 

ing and sealing thereof ) 

Wm. Bell. 

28. Letter from Wm. Bell, of Thurlow, to George 
Irlinson, asking for the loan of 5, dated 6th February, 

29. Information and warrant for the arrest of William 
Bell for assault, dated 15th September, 1796. 

30. Letter from Wm. Bell at Mohawk village to John 
Ferguson, dated 26th April, 1798, imploring him to join 
him in a project for the building and operating of a still 

31. Letter from John Grant to Sergt, Wm. Bell, dated 
June 10th, 1797. 

32. Form of contract for the loan of a pair of steers 
to be returned in three years "at which time they are to 
be well broken and in good order saving accidents by 
thunder or lightning or the bite of a snake". 

33. Letter from A. Chisholm to Wm. Bell, dated 12th 
November, 1797. 

34. Dunning letter from William Dougall of Hallowell 
to W r m. Bell, dated March llth, 1800. 

35 Letter, James Irvine, J.P., to Robert Land, sever- 
ely reprimanding him for his dissolute habits. 

36. Letter from Surveyor General's office to Timothy 
Thomson, Esq., M.P., regarding the location of a lot, 
dated 31st October, 1801. 

37. Letter from John Ferguson to Wm. Bell, respecting 
the purchase of uniforms, dated 10th March, 1801. 

38. Receipt and release from Abm. Allen to Wm. Bell, 
dated 27th March, 1802. 

39. Dunning letter from John Kirby to Wm. Bell, 
dated 38th Jany., 1804. 

40. Certificate of good character from John Stuart, 
formerly missionary to the Mohawks at Fort Hunter, X. 
York, to Captain John Deserontyon, dated 9th September, 
1806. This document is endorsed, signed and sealed by W. 
Hans, D.L.G. 

41. Letter from John Ferguson to Wm. Bell, dated 1st 
June, 1805. 

42. Letter from the Deputy Surveyor of His Majesty's 
woods to Wm. Bell, dated 10th May, 1810. 

43. Letter from Jas. McNabb, at York, to Col. Wm. 


Bell, respecting lots in Thurlow, dated 23rd July, 1810. 

44. Letter from John Ferguson to Wm. Bell, complain- 
ing of the scarcity of flour in Kingston, dated 8th July, 

45. Letter to Wm. Bell from his nephew, Jacob H. 
Bell, of Montreal, who left Ireland two years before and 
had been hunting for his uncle ever since, (dated 1813. 

46. Receipt of Wm. Bell for large quantities of flour 
and peas to be delivered by him at Kingston, dated 8th 
February, 1814. 

47. Letter from John Ferguson to Wm. Bell, regarding 
the transport of Indian goods, dated 27th February, 1815. 

48. Letter from L. McNabb to Wm. Bell, complaining 
that Bell had assessed Mm as a merchant, dated 10th 
April, 1815. 

49. Recognizance taken before Wm. Bell, J.P., at Thur- 
low, on October 20th, 1815, for the appearance of the 
prosecutor, and also of the accused at the next general 
sessions of the peace for the Midland district to be holden 
at Adolphustown. 

50. Public notice by Wm. Bell, Lt.-Col. of the 1st 
regiment of Hastings militia, calling upon the inhabitants 
to take the oath of allegiance, dated 21st October, 1812. 

51. Letter from John Ferguson to Wm. Bell, exhorting 
him to drill his men well and maintain the reputation al- 
ready acquired of having the best regiment in the district, 
dated 14th June, 1816. 

52. Receipt for twenty shillings, being Wm. Bell's sub- 
scription to Kingston Gazette, dated 25th July, 1815. 

53. Letter from Jas. MeNabb at York to Wm. Bell, 
at Thurlow, regarding the location of lands for which Bell 
had forwarded applications, also suggesting that a petition 
be sent in for the division of the district, dated 16th Feb- 
ruary, 1817. 

54. Letter from Alex. Taylor to Wm. Bell, asking for 
the loan of a cross-cut saw. 

55. Deposition of Spencer Patrick, taken before Wm. 
Bell, J.P., complaining that one, Wm. Dodds, an invalid, 
was suffering from neglect, dated 14th February, 1817. 

56. A receipt for one pound. 

57. Letter from James Nickall, of Kingston, to Wm. 
Bell, of Thurlow, informing him, that upon an application 
being sent to him he will remit a license to two parties 
who had been married by Bell, dated 31st January, 1818. 

58. A beautifully engrossed letter from Patrick Strong, 
of York, to Wm. Boll, dated 18th June, 1818. In this 
letter he explains, that Bell's children were not entitled to 
the U. E. privilege, and must pay the regular fee for cer- 
tain lands they were endeavoring to obtain. After com- 


menting severely upon some irregular legal proceedings in 
which he and Bell were interested, he concludes his letter 
as follows : "Times are amazing dull at Little York. No 
such thing as cash to be seen. We expect our Governor 
Mr. Gourley, from below, soon ; he is doing all he can to 
put our Land Granting Gentry and big men through their 
facings, and all I can say for him is God speed the 

59. Letter from James McNabb to Wm. Bell, dated 
10th October, 1818. In this letter the following appears : 
"Please inform Mr. Dan'l Brown that the Council has 
granted to him a town lot in the village of Belleville and 
that he should lose no time in making his choice of a lot 
and sending up the fees (about 8) and I will see to his 
name being entered with ink on the map". 

60. Warrant issued by Wm. Bell, J.P., for the arrest 
of Phillip Zwick, charged with assaulting one Mary 
Stimers, dated 27th November, 1818. Upon the back of 
the warrant appears the following endorsement, "Phillip 
Swick, junior, proves that Mary Stimers on this affair was 
the first aggressor, and pelted him with stones at the time 
the within affray took place, and that it was after that he 
struck her with a whip, and having already taken the 
examination of Mary Stimers with all the evidence in 
allusion to this breach of the peace, would discharge him if 
the within named magistrate were not now personally 
attending a Court of Justice in sight. Therefore to him 
I refer the constable with the prisoner." 

5th Deer. 1818. Sgd. J. McNabb, J.P. 

61. Letter from S. McNabb to Wm. Bell, demanding 
payment of an account placed in his hands for collection, 
also asking for certain fees -for conveyancing, dated 6th 
March, 1819. The demand for payment of this account 
begins as follows : "I really would be happy if you could 
make it convenient to discharge Mr. Grey's account for 
the Montreal Herald". 

62. Oath of allegiance of Tobias Bleecker. 

63. Letter from John Ferguson to Wm. Bell, rebuking 
him for meddling as a magistrate, with Courts of Re- 
quests, or any other business but where the King was con- 
cerned, and advising him to settle a suit brought against, 
him for illegally issuing a warrant, dated 27th January, 

64. Oath of allegiance, signed by several militia offi- 
cers, apparently from Ernesttown, among them are Joshua 
Booth, Sheldon Hawley and Isaac Fraser. No date. 

65. Letter from John Ferguson to Wm. Bell, stating 
that he would consider it a great honor to be named as a 
candidate for Hastings, dated 14th March, 1820. 


66. Letter from John Ferguson to Wm. Bell, concern- 
ing 1 his inability to be present in person at the election. 

67. Notice of meeting of the committee of the Midland 
District Agricultural Society at Bath sent to Wm. Bell, 
a member of the committee, dated 1st June, 1821. 

68. Oath of allegiance of Joseph P. Huycke, taken be- 
fore Wm. Bell, J.P., at Thurlow, on 16th July, 1821. 

69. Notice by executor of the estate of John W. 
Meyers, asking for payment of accounts due the estate, 
dated 19th February, 1822. 

70. Warrant issued by Coroner Wm. Bell, summoning a 
jury to enquire into the death of John W. Canniff, dated 
4th May, 1822. 

71. Oath of allegiance of Emerson Ruff, taken before 
Wm. Bell, J.P., 22nd August, 1822. 

72. Letter from Richard Bell to his uncle, Wm. Bell, 
23rd July, 1822. 

72 (a). Letter from Richard Bell to his uncle, Wm. 
Bell, 14th July, 1823. He states that timber is selling in 
New Brunswick at twenty shillings sterling per ton. 

73. Letter from Wm. Bell to Hugh C. Thompson, 
Kingston, dated 26th June, 1822. In this letter appears 
the following : "I am sorry to acquaint you that I seldom 
get your paper delivered at my house altho I have put up 
a box on a Plumb tree almost hanging over the Road in 
front of my House the old man that caries the mail has 
sometimes taken them to Belleville to Nelsons". 

74. Letter from Jacob H. Bell, of Kingston, to Wm. 
Bell, Thurlow, dated 3rd December, 1813. In this appears 
the following : "W 7 e are not in quite so much dread of the 
Americans as we have been some time ago it is said that 
there is 5000 them between Cotte du Lac and Prescott on 
their way up but whether this is authentic I cannot say". 

75. Notice to Col. Bell of the funeral of John Car- 
michael, dated 21st April, 1823. 

75 (a). Letter from John Ferguson to Wm. Bell, dated 
15th July, 1824. The following is an extract : "I am 
sorry to hear that you are so badly off for flour, and the 
more so, as I have it not in my power to relieve you, as 
there is very little flour here, and what is cannot be had 
for less than six dollars and a half, cash paid down, which 
last I have not, nor have I had five dollars in my posses- 
sion these five weeks past". 

75 (b). A love song, of eight stanzas, composed by 
Stephen Ferguson Bell, in 1823. The first stanza reads : 

"My Julia my life my love 

To the to the I call 

I cannot live if thou remove 

For thou are all in all." 
The other seven are just as bad. 


76. Apology from Daniel Canniff to Wm. Bell for that 
he "did in an unguarded moment of passion insult and 
abuse William Bell." 

77. Muster roll of the Mohawk Tract. 

78. Letter from the Council of Indian Chiefs of the 
Mohawk Tract to Wm. Bell, concerning some threatened 
litigation, and suggesting that he refuse to listen to the 
complaints of hot headed young men, and leave it to the 
Indians to settle their differences according to their own 
customs, dated 2rd April, 1828. 

79. A certificate signed by sixteen Mohawk Chiefs to 
the effect that all Indians are privileged to cut timber any- 
where upon the reserve outside the enclosed fields, dated 
3rd April, 1828. 

80. A summons issued by Chief Joseph Claus, calling 
a Council of the Chiefs to deal with a question of cutting 
timber upon the reserve, dated May 1st, 1828. 

81. A summons, issued in the name of Alexander 
Fisher, one of the judges of the District Court by A. 
Hagerman, Plaintiff's attorney, against Wm. Bell, for 
twelve pounds ten shillings, dated 28th December, 1820. 

82. Letter from the Mohawk Village to Col. Wm. Bell, 
in which the Chiefs present their thanks for his forbearance 
and kindness in referring a dispute among the Indians to 
the Chiefs to settle, dated 25th May, 1829. 

83. Copy of directions for the guidance of the Court 
of Requests at Kingston, dated May, 1829. 

84. Minutes of town meeting for the Township of 
Tyendinaga, held at the house of Richard Lazier, in Shan- 
nonville, in 1830. 

84 (a). Minutes of town meeting for the Township of 
Tyendinaga, held at the house of Thomas D. Appleby, at 
Shannonville, in 1831. 

85. Minutes of town meeting, held at the house of 
Thomas D. Appleby, on 2nd January, 1831. At this 
meeting the following prudential law was passed : "No hog 
to run at large till six months old, all hogs after six 
months old to be free commoners till they trespass, then 
the owner to pay said damage". All of the foregoing 
minutes are written on loose sheets of paper. This 
practice, if general, would partly account for the fact that 
it is very difficult to secure the minutes of the early town 
meetings "of most townships. 

86. Notice demanding payment of subscription to 
Genesee Farmer, dated July llth, 1836. 

The Canniff Collection 

(Case Number 16) 

While Case Number 16 was intended to contain militia 
papers only, a close scrutiny of its contents discloses the 
fact that a number of miscellaneous letters and documents 
are among the number. 

1. An order, dated June 27th, 1795, directing Wm. Bell 
as pathinaster, to "order all hands to work at the roads". 

2. The following brief communication, dated 27th 
January, 1796, recalls familiar names : "Wm. Bell, I 
expect youll not fail to have wheat into Capt. W. Myers 
Mill very shortly for what you owe me and oblige Sir, 
Your obedt. serv't John Bleeker". 

3. An order from John Ferguson, dated 29th Novem- 
ber, 1796, directing that the inhabitants of the County of 
Hastings be summoned to meet for the purpose of enroll- 

4. Letter from John Ferguson to Wm. Bell, dated 
29th November, 1798, advising him of his appointment as 
adjutant and directing him to enroll the militia. 

5. Order for a pair of stills and pewter worms. 

6. Letter from John Ferguson to Major Alexander 
Chisholm, dated Dec. 13th, 1798, giving directions as to the 
formation of a company. 

7. A similar letter to Captain Wm. Bell. 

8. Commission appointing Wm. Bell Captain. 

9. Commission appointing Wm. Bell Adjutant. 

10. Letter from John Ferguson to Wm. Bell to meet 
him in Sydney to receive his commission. 

10 (a). Order of John Ferguson, 25th February, 1799, 
for assembling the militia of Hastings. 

11. Letter from John Ferguson to Captain Wm. Bell, 
dated 1st March, 1799, warning him to hold himself in 

12. Notice of adjutant Wm. Bell, calling upon the 
militia of Hastings to assemble for parade "armed agree- 
able to the Act". They are cautioned to have "their 
crossbelts well cleaned". 

13. Letter from John Ferguson, Lieutenant of the 
County of Hastings, to Capt. Wm. Bell, dated 10th March, 
1799, forwarding copy of circular from the president, re- 


questing that the men ordered to be selected for immediate 
service be instructed "in loading and firing and in the 
evolutions necessary for preserving the order of march and 
deploying before an enemy". 

14. Circular letter, asking for a report on the state 
of the Militia. 

15. Informal letter from Ferguson to Bell, giving 
directions about equipment, etc. 

16. Directions from John Ferguson to Captain William 
Bell, commanding the detachment for immediate service 
from the battalion of militia of the County of Hastings 
"regarding the teaching the volunteers and drafts who are 
to assemble at Wallbridges every other Saturday the 
platoon exercise that is to say, to load and fire with 
expedition and orderly". 

17* Letter, asking that a militiaman be excused from 
attending training. 

18. Order for assembling militia. 

19. Notice of Captain William Bell, summoning militia 
to assemble. 

20. Summons to officers of Hastings' militia to appear 
at the general sessions at Kingston, on April 23rd, 1799, 
to take the oath of allegiance. 

21. Notice from Capt. Wm. Bell, calling upon default- 
ers to pay a fine for non-attendance at drill. 

22. Notice of promotion of Capt. Wm. Bell to his 

23. Order for uniform as follows : "Red coats with 
blue facings, long yellow buttons and white lining with 
shoulder straps, the light infantry to have short coats 
with wings". 

24. Wm Bell's commission as Major. 

25. Summons for a funeral meeting of the battalion of 
militia of Hastings. 

26. Memorandum concerning officers' uniforms. 

27. Order for enrollment 1800. 

28. Notice of promotions. 

29. Order of John Ferguson, directing attention of 
officers to the manner in which they have been neglecting 
their duties. 

30. Letter from John Ferguson, giving details of cost 
of officers' uniforms, and advising Wm. Bell "if any of 
these gentleman wish to have them from Montreal and 
will put into my hands sixteen bushels of wheat each, as a 
part payment I will send for them". 

31. Order for assembling militia. 

32. Letter from John Ferguson to Wm. Bell, congratu- 
lating him upon the improvement of his command and 
enquiring about some delinquents. 


33. Letter to Major Wm. Bell, complaining about not 
having received returns. 

34. Copy of reply with particulars about organizing a 
troop of horse. 

35. Appointment of Sergeant David Harris. 

36. Requisition for dates of certain commissions. 

37. Letter from J. Ferguson, complimenting Major 
Wm. Dell on the work of his battalion and granting them 
exemption from certain training. 

38. Order for battalion parade and exercise in firing, 
Ferguson to Bell, 1801. 

39. Letter from Ferguson to Bell. 

40. Order of William Bell for companies to meet at 
the mouth ,of the river in Thurlow. 

41. Letter shewing details of cost of uniform amount- 
ing to 4 sll d2 each. 

42. Order for assembling of the militia of Hastings, 
for the purpose of exercising and training, 1801. 

43. Letter for copies of orders. 

44. Letter enquiring as to false report of a certain 
officer as to attendance of his company at training. 

45. Order of Major Bell for assembly of company 

45 (a) . Order of John Ferguson, Lieutenant of the 
County of Hastings, for the assembly of the militia of 

46. Similar to number 45 (a). 

47. Similar to number 45 (a), and asking for full 
report of conduct of men, condition of arms, etc. 

48. Order cancelling order to assemble for training, 
owing to the lateness of the seeding. 

49. Peremptory demand for returns which have been 
delayed, 1805. This communication from John Ferguson 
is addressed to Lieut. Colonel William Bell. 

50. Reply from Lieut. Col. Bell, giving excuses for not 
forwarding returns. 

51. Order for the assembly of the militia of Hastings 
at the usual place of rendezvous. 

52. Letter from Lieut. John Ferguson, demanding that 
a certain captain be prosecuted for not making a proper 

53. Order for battalion to parade, dated 4th June, 
1808, signed by John Ferguson, Colonel of Hastings militia 
instead of Lieutenant of the County of Hastings as for- 

54. Original commission by His Excellency Francis 
Gore, appointing William Bell Lieutenant Colonel in the 
first regiment of militia in the County of Hastings in the 
Midland District, dated January 2nd, 1809. 

55. Order of Colonel Wm. Bell. 


56. Letter, transmitting order from His Honor the 
President Major General Brock, dated 6th of April, 1812. 

57. Letter from Ferguson to Bell, advising him that 
"war is declared by the United States against Great 
Britain", and requesting him to hold his battalion ready 
for active service. i ; 

58. Permit for WilKam Bell to return from Kingston 
to Hastings. 

59. Order regarding absentees sending substitutes. 

60. Letter regarding passports and for certain men 
who had "been ballotted for active service" to repair to 
Kingston without loss of time. 

61. Order for assembling of Hastings militia at the 
mouth of the River Moira. 

62. Order for deserters to march to Kingston under 
escort, dated 1st August, 1812. 

63. Order of Col. Ferguson, for muster of Hastings 
militia for active service, dated 10th Sept., 1812. 

64. Order of Lt. Col. Bell, for battalion to assemble 
for active service, 12th September, 1812. 

65. Order of Lt. Col. Bell, for certain men to proceed 
to Kingston immediately, dated 15th October, 1812. 

66. Letter, offering to purchase Lt. Col. Bell's red 

67. Letter from Col. Ferguson to Col. Wm. Bell, re- 
questing men on furlough to be sent to Kingston, dated 
20th October, 1812. "The reason why these men are 
wanted is because there are a number of American prison- 
ers, taken at the death of General Brock, expected down 
every hour and there is not men enough to guard them 

68. Order for arrest of deserters. 

69. Order of Lt. Col. Wm. Bell, for assembling five 
companies at mouth of River Moira "each man to be 
provided with one blanket and three days provisions also 
arms and ammunition", dated 12th November, 1812. 

70. Letter from Bell to Ferguson, with returns. 

71. Order for arrest of deserters. 

72. Letter, concerning deserters. 

73. Pass granted by Richard Cartwright, O.C. 

74. Order for arrest of deserters. 

74 (a). Peremptory order from Ferguson to Bell, to 
send down certain men for duty, dated 10th March, 1813. 

75. Order for Sergeant James Liddle to report for 

76. Order for assembling of Hastings militia, dated 
20th September, 1813. 

77. Summons from James McNabb to Li-out. Col. Bell 
to answer to a complaint. 


78. Order from Ferguson to Bell to send down 
seventy-five men with their officers. 

79. Order for seventy-five men "to be ballotted unless 
their service is volunteered". The letter concludes with : 
"I need not tell you that an attack upon this place 
(Kingston) by the enemy is daily expected", 1st October, 

80. Order of Wm. Bell, for the apprehension of desert- 

81. Order from Ferguson to Bell, forwarding request 
from His Honor the President for a return of all teams of 
oxen and horses in the County. 

82. Request from James McNab, J.P., to Lieut. Col. 
Bell for five militia men to take down a bateau to the 
sixth township. 

83. Letter -advising that the Honorable Colonel Cart- 
wright has obtained permission from the President to have 
the detachments from the County of Hastings relieved 
every two months. 

84. Order for all men to return to duty and for the 
arrest af certain deserters. 

85. Circular letter of Lieut. Col. Bell for return of 
men to duty. 

86. Request for men to load a boat at Napanee Mills 
with provisions for the troops at Kingston. 

87. Circular letter from Lt. Col. Bell, to the captains 
or officers commanding companies in the Hastings militia, 
dated 20th November, 1813. 

88. Letter from Bell to Ferguson. 

89. Order for arrest of deserter. 

90. Letter from Ferguson to Bell, for fifteen sleighs. 
90 (a). Summons from Lt. Col. Wm. Bell to Capt. 

Jacob W. Meyers to appear at Margaret Simpson's house 
to answer for neglect of duty in not furnishing his quota 
of men agreeable to the general order. 

91. Order from Ferguson to Bell, to send one subalt- 
ern, one sergeant, and ten rank and file to assist in the 
public works at Kingston, dated 26th January, 1814. 

92. Resolution of officers of the militia of Hastings for 
devising means for securing better instruction in their mili- 
tary duties. 

93. Appointment of Court of Enquiry to investigate 
complaints against certain officers, for neglect of duty in 
not furnishing their quota of men. 

94. Order of Col. Ferguson to assemble battalion. 

95. Letter from Ferguson to Bell, complaining among 
other things about officers sending to Kingston men who 
are not fit for duty. 

96. Militia order from Col. Ferguson, for Hastings 


battalion to ass-emble and to forward certain men to 
Kingston. Officers are warned not to send men unfit for 

96 (a). Letter from Ferguson to Bell, commenting 
upon the laxity of the dealings of officers with deserters. 

97. Order for arrest of two officers to attend a general 
court martial to answer to the charge of disobedience of 
orders in not sending men for actual service at Kingston 
when required to do so. 

98. Order to forward men to Kingston. 

98 (a). Letter from Ferguson, cautioning Dell to see 
that order is strictly observed. 

99. Copy of order of Lieut. Gen'l. Gordon Drummond, 
warning all magistrates to pay strict attention to orders 
for requisitioning men to be employed in towing the King's 
bateau and for other purposes. 

100. Order for arrest of a delinquent. 

101. General order, announcing articles for a conven- 
tion entered into for the mutual release of all prisoners of 
war except certain hostages, dated 24th April, 1814. 

102. Copy of order forwarded to all magistrates and 
commanding officers to furnish such horses, wagons and 
men as may be required for the transportation of provi- 
sions, etc. 

'103. Letter regarding the arrest of a captain.. 

104. Requisition for "bateaumen". 

105. Letter from Colonel Ferguson, announcing the 
pleasure of the Lieutenant Governor in directing the 
release of a certain Lieutenant from arrest. 

106. Letter from Wm. Bell to Lieut. Zwick, to secure 
men to take charge of prisoners. 

107. Letter from William Bell, announcing a report 
that "our people have taken Oswego". 

108. Letter from William Bell, for bateaumen. 

109. Letter to Colonel Wm. Bell, enclosing copy of 
general order of Lt. General Drummond, asking that a 
quantity of provisions be sent to Burlington Heights. 

110. Copies of letter, order and court martial proceed- 
ings from the Deputy Adjutant General. 

Head quarters, Kingston April 

15th, 1814. 
Militia General Order 

At a general Court Martial assembled at Kingston by 
order of His Honor the President and Lieutenant General 
Commanding His Majestys Forces in Upper Canada on the 
4th of the present month, and continued by adjournment 
to the 13th instant, was arraigned Lieutenant Colonel 


Beuoni Wiltsie of the 2 regiment of Leeds Militia on the 
following charges, viz : 

1. For having in the month of November last, dis- 
regarded the Orders given him by Colonel Stone Command- 
ing the 2d regiment of Leeds Militia, directing him to call 
out the men of that regiment at a time when the enemy 
appeared of the coast. 

2. for permitting the Militia men, when called out on 
military service to leave their post without orders from 
the Commanding Officer to that effect, and contrary to his 

3. for endeavoring to circulate disobedience and in- 
subordination, by making use of language tending to 
disuade the militia of the above mentioned regiment from 
obeying the orders issued to them, when called upon to 
perform military duty. 

4. for making use of language unbecoming an officer 
and a gentleman towards the commanding officer Colonel 

Opinion and sentence. The Court after mature delibera- 
tion, found the prisoner guilty of the whole of the charges 
preferred against him, and therefore order and adjudge the 
said Lieut. Colonel Benoni Wiltsie to pay a fine of fifty 
pounds and to hold him unfit to serve His Majesty as an 
officer in any military capacity pursuant to the militia 
laws of this Province. 

At the same General Court martial was arraigned 
Lieut. Samuel Kelsie, of the 2d regiment of Leeds Militia 
on the following charges, viz : 

1. For unofficerlike conduct, in initiating a suit in 
civil law against His Commanding Officer Colonel Stone 
for pay due him for service performed as a militia officer. 

2. For in an indecent and unbecoming manner, levying 
an execution on the property of His Commanding officer 
Colonel Stone, in discharge of a suit commenced for the 
recovery of pay due him for service as a militia officer. 

Opinion and sentence. The Court after mature deliberation 
were of opinion that the prisoner Lieutenant Samuel 
Kelsie was guilty of both the charges preferred against 
him, and therefore sentence him to be cashiered. 

At the same Court Martial was arraigned Private 
Charles Morgan of the 2d regiment of Leeds militia on the 
following charges, viz. 

1. For deserting to the enemy on or about the 31st 
October, 1812. 

2. For unsoldierlike conduct in initiating- a suit at 


civil law, against His Commanding Officer Colonel Stone, 
for services done by him as a militia man. 
Opinion and Sentence. The Court after having maturely 
considered the circumstances of the case, were of opinion 
that the prisoner Charles Morgan, not having at the time 
taken the oath of allegiance, nor having been enrolled in 
any regiment or company of militia, or having been called 
upon for that purpose by any officer, does not come under 
the Militia Law of this Province, but being to all intents 
and purposes an alien, cannot be guilty of desertion, and 
therefore under those circumstances of the case, do aquit 
the said prisoner of both the charges preferred against him. 

At the same General Court Martial was arraigned 
Captain Jacob Weldon Meyers of the 1st regiment Hastings 
Militia on the following charges, viz. 

For disobedience of orders in not furnishing two men 
from his company for actual service at Kingston when re- 
quired so to do by his commanding officer. 
Opinion and sentence. The Court after maturely consider- 
ing the circumstances of the case, were of opinion that 
Captain Jacob W. Meyers was guilty of the charge prefer- 
red against him, and therefore sentence him to pay a fine 
of three pounds currency, and to pay the costs attending 
the prosecution. 

At the same general Court martial was arraigned Cap- 
tain Samuel Budsiye Gilbert of the 1st regiment of 
Hastings Militia on the following charge, viz, 

For disobedience of orders in not furnishing two men 
from his company for actual service at Kingston when re- 
quired so to do by His Commanding Officer. 
Opinion and sentence. The court after mature deliberation 
were of opinion, that Captain Samuel B. Gilbert was 
guilty of the crime laid to his charge, and therefore sen- 
tence him to pay a fine of five pounds currency, and to 
pay the costs attending the prosecution of the said 

His Honor the President approves of the foregoing 
sentences, and directs that the general fine therein adjudged 
be forthwith paid to the Commanding Officers of the 2d 
regt., Leeds and 1 regt. of Hastings Militia respectively 
who will report their receipt of the same to the Adjutant 
General of Militia for His Honors further pleasure thereon. 
By Command of His Honor 

'signed) C. Forster Lieut. Col. 
Adjutant General of Militia 
Copy Upper Canada 

(signed) Nathn Coffin, Lieut. Col. 
Dy. Adjt. Gen. of Militia 
Upper Canada 


In answer to the letter prefering a charge of dis- 
obedience of order against Lieut. John Reed of the 1 
regiment of Hastings Militia, in not attending the above 
General Court Martial as an evidence, when ordered so to 
do by His Commanding Officer Lieutenant Colonel Bell, 
His Honor the President has been pleased to direct, that 
Lieut. John Reed will be tried at a suitable opportunity 
but is to continue his duty until then. 

Signed Nath. Coffin, Lieut. Col. 
Dy. Adj. Gen. Militia 

Upper Canada 
Colonel Ferguson 

Commanding 1 reg. 
Hastings Militia. 

111. Letter from the Deputy Adjutant General to 
Colonel Wm. Bell, expressing the Lieut. Governor's concern 
at not having a situation to which he could appoint him. 

112. Copy of Capt. Chisholm's report concerning pris- 
oners in his division. , 

113. Explanation of a man charged with deserting. 

114. Letter to Colonel Bell for men for the bateaux. 

115. Order of Colonel Bell for men to man the bateaux. 

116. Letter from Bell to Ferguson, about men for 
bateaux service. 

117. Letter from the Deputy Adjt., General, threaten- 
ing to report Colonel Bell unless crews be provided 
immediately for the bateaux loaded with flour for the 
troops in Kingston. 

118. Order to forward men for duty in Kingston. 

119. Letter to Wm. Bell for a bateaux crew. 

120. Letter from Colonel Bell to Adjt. Thompson, for- 
warding copy of militia general order. 

120 (a). Requisition for men for bateaux. 

121. Letter from Colonel Bell to Lieut. Zwick. 

121 (a). Letter to Bell, for more men for the boats. 

122. Order for forwarding delinquents under guard to 

123. Memorandum re endorsement to be made on 

124. Militia order concerning appointment and duties 
of an orderly for Colonel Bell. 

125. Warrant for arrest of Benjamin Gerow, for using 
seditious expressions. 

126. Certificate of Col. Richard Cartwright, exempting 
Reuben White from other militia service. 

127. Letter from Col. Ferguson about white belts. 

128. Order offering rewards for the capture of certain 


129. Order of Colonel Ferguson, for annual meeting of 

130. General order of court martial proceedings as 
follows : 

Head Quarters, Falls of Niagara Oct. 28, 1814. 

Militia General Orders 

At a General Court Martial held at Stamford on the 
25th instant and continued by adjournment to the 27th of 
the same month, Private John McMillan of the 2d regiment 
of Lincoln Militia was arraigned on the following charges, 

1st. For having deserted to the enemy with his arms 
and accoutrements when on duty, on or about the 6th of 
October, 1813. 

2d. For having been taken, bearing arms in the service 
of the enemy on or about the 17th of September last. 

And the Court after duly considering the evidence for 
the prosecution, and on behalf of the prisoner, were clearly 
of opinion that he is guilty of both charges ; and therefore 
sentence^ him to suffer death at some place and time as His 
Honor, the President, may be pleased to direct. 

His Honor the President, approves the finding and sen- 
tence of the court and directs that the same be carried into 
execution at Bridgewater on Monday morning next the 31st 
instant at 11 o'clock. 

The General Court Martial of which Lieut. Colonel 
Dickson is president is dissolved. 

By Command of His Honor the President 
C. Forster 

Adjutant General of Militia 
Upper Canada. 

Head Quarters Falls of Niagara November 1, 1814 
Militia General Orders 

At a general court martial held at Cornwall on 
Saturday the 3 September last John Johnson of the 1st 
regiment Stormont Militia was arraigned on the following 
charge, via. for having deserted to the enemy near Corn- 
wall on or about the 10th day of November, 1813. 

The Court having weighed the matter and upon due 
deliberation are of opinion that the prisoner John Johnson 
is not guilty of the charge preferred against him, viz. tor 
having deserted with his arms to the enemy on the 10th 
November, 1813, but find him guilty of having deserted 
from his company when before the enemy and having 
delivered his arms to them unnecessarily ; and do therefore 
sentence him to be transported beyond Seas for Life at 


what time and to what place, His Honor tne President or 
person administering- the Government of the Province may 
be pleased to direct. His Honor the President approves 
the finding and sentence of the court and directs that the 
prisoner John Johnson be detained in confinement until 
an opportunity offers of carrying the sentence into effect. 
The Court martial of which Lieutenant Colonel MacLean 
of the 1st regiment of Stormont Militia is president is 

By command of His Honor the President 

C. Forster 

Adjutant General of Militia 
Upper Canada. 

Lieutenant Colonel William Bell of the 1st regiment of 
the Hastings Militia is hereby required to promulgate to 
the regiment under his command these two proceedings 
and sentences of General Court Martial in the most con- 
venient and public manner possible. 

Kingston 1st December, 1814. 
John Ferguson Col. 

Commanding 1 regiment 
Hastings Militia 

131. Complaint of a sergeant major that too many 
are presuming- to interfere with him when on duty. 

132. Circular from Colonel Bell forwarding copy of 
circular from the Dep. Adit. Gen'l giving information 
about certain prisoners who escaped from their guard at 
Hallowell (Picton). 

133. Militia order for court martial to assemble. 
Militia Orders 

County of Hastings 5th Novr. 1814 

A Militia Regiment Court martial to assemble at the 
mouth of the river Moira at the home of Margaret Simp- 
son, on Saturday the 19th day of Novr. instant at the 
hour of ten o'clock in the forenoon, for the tryal of all 
such delinquents as may be brought before them. 
Capt. Alex. Chisholm, President 
Lieut. Wm. Ketchison ) 

Lieutenant Alec. Gilbert ) Members 
and Ensign Olipt. Petrie ) 

All officers are hereby required to bring such delinquents 
forward for tryal, before the said court martial as may 
belong to their respective companies. 

William Bell, Lt. Col. 

1st Regt. Hastings Militia 


Capt. and Adjutant Thompson will communicate his 
order to the officers commanding company, and also direct 
that all officers belonging to the battalion of the County 
of Hastings attend on the same day, and at the same time 
and place. 

Wm. Bell, Lt. Col. 

134. Proceedings of a regimental court martial. 

Thurlow 19th November, 1814 

Proceedings of a Regimental Court Martial, held here 
this day by order of Lieutenant Colonel Bell, for the trial 
of such persons as may be brought before it belonging to 
the first Regiment of Hastings Militia, 

Captain Alexander Chisholm, President 
William Ketchison ) 

Archibald Chisholm ) Members 

Ensign Alex. Oliphant Petrie) 

The Court being duly sworn proceeded to the trial of 
Lewis Rosebush for disobedience of orders, having on the 
thirty-first day of July, last been duly warned to proceed 
to Kingston to discharge his duty as a private Militia 
man. Sergeant Spencer Patrick being duly sworn, says, he 
warned Lewis Rosebush in obedience to the orders he had 
received from Captain Gilbert Harriss to hold himself in 
readiness to go to Kingston to do duty as a militia man, 
that on the day of he received 

orders from Captain Harriss, to make Lewis Rosebush 
prisoner, and take him before Colonel Bell, that on the 
approach of Sergeant Patrick, the said Rosebush went to 
a barn, armed with a stick or cane in which there was a 
sword and said he would not suffer himself to be taken. 

The Court further proceeded to the trial of Samuel P. 
Cummings for not attending Captain Harriss 's company 
training on the twenty-fourth day of September last. 
Captain Harriss being duly sworn, says that Samuel P. 
Cummings did not appear at the company training on the 
twenty-fourth day of September last. 

Samuel P. Cummings being put on his defence says he 
understood Captain Harriss was not at home on the 
twenty-fourth day of September last, and further, that he 
had business at the river Moira, which he must have at all 
events attended to. 

The Court further proceeded o the trial of ledediah 
Cummings, for neglect of duty on the twenty-fourth days 
of June and July last, Captain Harriss being duly sworn 
says that the said ledediah Cummings was absent from 


both the company trainings on the days above mentioned. 

Samuel P. Cummings being duly sworn, says that 
ledediah Cummings was absent from his home on the 
twenty-fourth days of June and July last, and believes 
he was at work in the district of Newcastle, does not 
know what was the cause of ledediah Cummings leaving 

The Court further proceeded to the trial of Henry Me- 
Mullen, for neglecting to attend company trainings on the 
twenty-fourth days of June and July last. 

Captain Harriss being duly sworn, says that Henry 
McMullen was not present at the company trainings on the 
twenty-fourth days of June and July last and has reason 
to think the said Henry McMullen absented himself to 
avoid doing his duty as a militia man. 

The Court further proceeded to the trial of Stephen 
McMullen, for neglecting to attend company trainings on 
the twenty-fourth days of June and July last. 

Captain Harriss being duly sworn says that Stephen 
McMullen was not present at the company trainings on the 
twenty-fourth days of June and July last, and has reason 
to think the said Stephen McMullen absented himself to 
avoid doing his duty as a militia man. 

The Court further proceeded to the trial of Leman 
Barnum for neglecting to attend company training on the 
twenty-fourth day of October last. 

Lieut. Phillip Zwick being duly sworn, says that Leman 
Barnum was not present at the company trainings on the 
twenty-fourth day of October last. 

Leman Barnum being put on his defence, says that on 
the twenty-fourth day of October last he was at work at 
th r e Napanee river, drawing timber, which he believes was 
intended for the use of Government, that he only arrived 
at home on his return from the Napanee river on the thir- 
teenth day of November instant. 

The Court further proceeded to the trial of Thomas 
Badgely for neglecting to attend the company training on 
the twenty-fourth day of October last. 

Lieutenant Phillip Zwick being duly sworn, says, that 
Thomas Badgely was not present at the company training 
on the twenty-fourth day of October last. 

Thomas Badgely being put on his defence, says that on 
the twenty-fourth day of October last, he was at work in 
the township of taking care of a quantity 

of wheat belonging to himself, and could not possibly leave 
it without it being injured. 

The Court having heard the evidence against Lewis 
Rosebush is of opinion that he is guilty of the crime laid 
to his charge, and do sentence him to pay a fine of twenty 


pounds currency, in default of payment to be .committed to 
gaol for the span of six calendar months. 

The Court having heard the evidence for and against 
Samuel P. Cummingrs, do sentence him to pay a fine of 
one pound currency together with all reasonable expenses. 

The Court having heard the evidence, for and against 
Tedediah Cummings, do sentence him to pay a fine of one 
pound currency together with all reasonable expenses. 

The Court having heard the evidence against Henry 
McMullen, sentence him to pay a fine of two pounds cur- 
rency, together with all reasonable expenses and in default 
of payment to be committed to some safe place of confine- 
ment for the span of twelve days. 

The Court having heard the evidence against Stephen 
McMullen sentence him to pay a fine of two pounds cur- 
rency, together with all reasonable expenses, and in 
default of payment to be committed to some safe place of 
confinement for the span of twelve days. 

The Court having heard the evidence for and against 
Leman Barnum is of opinion that he acted thro ignorance 
and do acquit him. 

The Court having heard the evidence for and against 
Thomas Badgeley sentence him to pay a fine of ten shil- 
lings currency together with all reasonable expenses. 

The Court was then adjourned until the 3rd December 

Thurlow, 3rd December, 1814 

The Court reassembled here this day pursuant to 
adjournment, and proceeded to the trial o-f Solomon Reid 
for appearing on parade without fire arms on the twenty- 
fourth day of October last. 

Captain John McMichael being duly sworn says, that 
Solomon Reed appeared on parade without fire arms on 
the twenty-fourth day of October last. 

Solomon Reed being put on his delence says he cannot 
possibly procure fire arms without actually distressing his 

The Court further proceeded to the trial of David Seley 
for appearing on parade without fire arms on the twenty- 
fourth day of October last. 

Captain McMichael being duly sworn says, that David 
Seley appeared on parade without fire arms on the twenty- 
fourth day of October last. 

David Seley being put on his defence says, he cannot 
possibly procure fire arm's without actually distressing his 

The Court further proceeded to the trial of James 
Badgley for appearing on parade without fire arms on the 
twenty-four tli day of October last. 


Captain McMichael being duly sworn says, that James 
Badg-ely appeared on parade without fire arms on the 
twenty-fourth day of October last, and believes could fire 
arms be obtained Badgely would purchase a stand. 

James Badg-ely being put on his defense says, he has 
not an opportunity of procuring arms, there being none to 
be obtained. 

The Court further proceeded to the trial of Joseph 
Parks, for being absent from the company training on the 
twenty-fourth day of October last. 

Captain McMichael being duly sworn says, that Joseph 
Parks did not appear at the company training on the 
twenty-fourth day of October last, and that he does not 
make a practice of attending any company training what- 

Joseph Parks being put on his defence says, that he 
was considered unfit for militia duty when in Kingston in 
the month of March, 1813, and that Captain Jacob Myers, 
sometime in the month of November following, told him, 
he should not attend any company training whatever. 

The Court further proceeded to the trial of Luke 
Potter, for not attending company training on the twenty- 
fourth day of October last. 

Lieutenant William Ketchison being duly sworn says, 
that Luke Potter was absent from company training on 
the twenty-fourth day of October last. 

Luke Potter being put on his defence, produced a 
certificate signed by N. Coffin, Deputy Adjutant Gen'l of 
Militia, dated 26 June 1814, stating that Luke Potter is 
reported by a medical board as unfit for militia duty. 

The Court further proceeded to the trial of Isaac 
Whiteman, for being absent from company training on the 
twenty-fourth day of October last. 

Lieutenant Ketchison being duly sworn says, that Isaac 
Whiteman was absent from company training on the 
twenty-fourth day of October last. 

Isaac Whiteman being put on his defence, says, that he 
is incapable of doing militia duty owing to his left arm 
being lame. 

The Court further proceeded to the trial of Francis 
Pimble, for being absent from the general training on the 
fifth day of October last. 

Lieutenant Ketchison being duly sworn, says, that 
Francis Pimble was absent from the general training on 
the fifth day of October last. 

The Court having heard the evidence for and against 
Solomon Reid is of opinion that what he states is truth, 
he having a certificate from Captain McMichael to that 
effect and do acquit him. 


The Court having heard the evidence for and against 
David Seley, is of opinion that what he states is truth., 
he having a certificate from Captain McMichael to that 
effect, and do acquit him. 

The Court having heard the evidence for and against 
James Badgely, and owing to the scarcity of fire arms do 
acquit him. 

The Court having heard the evidence for and against 
Joseph Parks, sentence him to pay a fine of twenty shil- 
lings currency, with all reasonable expenses, and in default 
of payment, to be confined fifteen days unless the fine and 
expenses be sooner paid. 

The Court having heard the evidence for and against 
Luke Potter, is of opinion that the certificate he produced 
is not meant to exclude him from attending company 
trainings, and do sentence him to pay a fine of twenty 
shillings, with all reasonable expenses, and in default of 
payment, to be confined fifteen days unless the fine and 
expenses be sooner paid. 

The Court having heard the evidence for and against 
Isaac Whiteman, is of opinion that what he states is 
truth, and do acquit him. 

The Court having heard the evidence against Francis 
Pimble, is of opinion and do sentence him to pay a fine of 
forty shillings currency, with all reasonable expenses, and 
in default of payment to be confied one calendar month 
unless the fine and expenses be sooner paid. 

The foregoing proceedings are submitted to Lieutenant 
Colonel Bell for his approval and further directions there- 

135. Letter from Bell to Ferguson enclosing rolls and 
returns with explanations. 

136. Letter from Ferguson to Bell, asking for particul- 
ars about conveying a load of goods to York. 

137. Letter from Ferguson to Bell, advising him that 
to avoid impressment as much as possible the Lieut. 
Governor has instructed him to offer to pay thirty 
shillings per hundred weight for conveying Indian presents 
from Kingston to York. 

138. Order of Col. Wm. Bell, for meeting of officers at 
the house of Margaret Simpson, to receive orders, dated 
16th December, 1814. 

139. Letter from Ferguson to Bell, demanding imme- 
diate reply about furnishing fifteen teams to convey Indian 
goods to York at thirty shillings per hundred weight. 

141. Letter from Lieut. Col. Bell to Wm. Meyers. 

142. Letter from A. O. Petrie, forwarding court mar- 
tial proceedings for the approval of Lieut. Col, Bell. 

143 and 143 (a), 1 otters forwarding lists of men who 


had engaged to go to Kingston to transport Indian stores 
from that place to York. 

144. Letter from Ferguson to Bell, about storing and 
forwarding Indian goods. The letter concludes with 
"several gentlemen from York give a very good account of 
the roads". 

145. Receipt for linen and ammunition. 

146. Blank forms reading as follows : 


I certify that are employed with their 

sleighs and horses, under my orders in transporting stores, 

provisions, and forage, on the communication between 

and and that 

they are not liable to be impressed into any other service. 

To all military and civil officers 1815 

147. Letter to provide transport to York for Captain 

148. Order explaining method to be strictly adhered to 
in transporting goods. 

149. Order, forbidding any officer of the battalion of 
militia of Hastings to leave the country without notifying 
the officer commanding the battalion. 

150. Letter from Francis Vandervoort, stating that he 
had lamed his horse the last time he took a load of goods 
to York, and therefore begs to be excused this time as his 
horse is still lame. 

151. Letter from Ferguson to Bell, urging haste in 
forwarding goods to York, dated llth February, 1815. 

151 (a). Letter urging expedition in carrying on the 
transport, dated 19th February, 1815. 

152. Certificate of Lieut. Col. Wm. Bell to the effect 
that Benjamin Ketcheson reports that he had spent two 
and one half days in a fruitless effort to secure sleighs for 
transporting Indian presents from Thurlow to York. At- 
tached to, and based upon the foregoing report, is the 
warrant of Solomon Hazelton, J.P., authorizing Ensign 
Bryan Ketcheson to impress ten sleighs and horses for the 
above purpose. 

152 (a). Letter from Ferguson to Bell, urging further 
exertion in transporting goods to York. 

153. Order to Solomon Hazelton, J.P., to give the 
necessary impress warrants for thirty sleighs for trans- 
porting His 'Majesty's stores, etc., from Thurlow to York. 

154. Account of Indian goods on 7th March, 1815, re- 
maining in store in the barn of Lieut. Col. Wm. Bell, at 
Thurlow, and forwarded on the 10th, llth and 20th of the 
same month to the store of Capt. Mclntosh, at the mouth 


of the Moira River. This document is published in Dr. 
Canniff's history at page 671. 

155. Letter re militia law. 

156. Letter delivered by a man prepared to take a 
load of goods to York. In this letter Ferguson expresses 
the hope that Bell's difficulties will soon cease as he had 
exhibited several charges against Clark, among them was 
one for impeding and obstructing His Majesty's service in 
the transport of Indian stores from Kingston and Thurlow 
to York. 

157. Letter from Lieut. Col. Bell to Sergeant James 
Yeomans, reproving him for not looking more sharply after 
the stands of arms for which he was responsible. 

158. Order of Lieut. Col. Wm. Bell, to provide escort 
for two prisoners. 

159. Militia General's order announcing promotions. 

160. Order for arrest. 

161. Militia order reading as follows : 

Upper Canada ) 

Midland District ) Militia Orders 

County of Hastings ) 

It having been reported to me that Lieutenant John 
Reid has behaved unbecoming the character of an officer 
and a gentleman, in passing counterfeit money, knowing 
it to be so, he is hereby suspended from doing duty as an 
officer of militia in the 1st regiment of the County of 
Hastings until the pleasure of His Honor the president is 
known on the subject and all other officers of the same 
battalion are desired to take notice of the order, and to 
refrain from being in company with the said Lieutenant 
Reid, as any officer af the said battalion, who may be 
known to keep company, or correspondence, with the said 
Lieutenant Reid, untill he has cleaned up his character, 
will be treated in like manner, and presecuted as the law 

Kingston, 18 April 1815 John Ferguson Colonel 

Commanding 1st regiment Hastings Militia 

162. Letter from Richard Cartwright to Col. Fergu- 
son : 

Kingston, 18th April, 1815 

In answer to your note of yesterday I have to observe, 
that tho' I have doubt whether the persons in question 
can now be punished as deserters from the militia yet I 
am very clear that they are liable to be tried for treason, 
or treasonable practice as adhering to the King's enemies, 
and ought immediately to be committed under that charge, 


by any magistrate before whom a complaint of that kind 
can be made an oath. 

I am, 
Col. Ferguson Sgd. Richard Cartwright 

163. Deposition of Reuben Potter, 

The examination of Reuben Potter of the County of 
Hastings a militia man, heretofore enrolled in Captain 
Leonard Meyers company of the 1st regiment of the 
Hastings militia. 

Reuben Potter says he left this province about the last 
day of July, or first day of August, in the year one thous- 
and eight hundred and twelve, and that he returned to this 
province from the United States since the termination of 
the war. 

Reuben Potter 

Taken the 25th day of April ) 

1815 before me ) 

John Ferguson, Col. ) 

Comm. 1st reg. H.M. ) 

164. Deposition of Richard Davis. 

164 (a). Order for Reuben Potter and Richard Davis, 
to return to Hastings. 

165. Letter to Lieut. Col. Wm. Bell, advising him of 
the arrest of Reuben Potter by Capt. Mclntosh. 

166. Letter from Ferguson to Bell, concerning pro- 
ceedings to be taken against Potter and Davis for 
desertion, also enquiring about goods left in storage on 
the way to York. 

167. Order from Col. Ferguson, concerning court 
martial, and the collecting, repairing, and cleaning, of 
arms and accoutrements. 

168. Letter from Lieut. Col. Wm. Bell to Sergeant 
James Yeomans, transmitting order of Col. Ferguson to 
collect arms and account rements. 

The following appear in the handwriting of Lieut. Col. 
Wm. Bell :- 


Crime 1st 

John Henesy Private in Capt. Chisholm Company of 
the Hastings Militia confined by Lt. Colonel William Bell 
for refusing, when he was required by Capt. Mclntosh to 
say God Bless the King, said he could not saud that word 
as he had not received any more than six pence a day from 
the King he could not say God Bless that man, that had 
given him no more than six pence a day, and other dis- 


respectful words to Lieutenant Colonel Bell when in the 
execution of his duty. 

William Bell, Lt. Col. 1st regt. 
Thurlow, 10th Apl. 1815, Hastings Militia Commanding 

Crime 2nd. 

Theophelus Nelson inkeeper, and private militia man 
in Capt. Simon McNabbs company of the Hastings militia 
confined by order of Lt. Colonel Wm. Bell of the battalion 
of militia of the County of Hastings, for neglecting his 
duty in permitting Jonathan Selden a prisoner, given into 
his charge, as a militia man willfully to escape ; who had 
deserted, to the enemy from his duty at Kingston, when he 
was there on duty in the embodied militia, on or about 
the day of July, 1812, and was apprehended at 

Meyers Creek on the 8th day of April, 1815, by Capt. John 

Wm. Bell Lieutenant Colonel 1st 
regiment Hastings Militia Commanding. 

170. Proceedings of a militia regimental court martial 
held at Thurlow on llth day of April, 1815, by order of 
Lieut. Colonel Wm. Bell. 

Capt. Alexr. Chisholm, President 
Lieut. Philip Zwick ) 

Ensign Wm. Zwick ) 

Ensign Hugh Cunningham ) Members 
Ensign Peter Holmes ) 

The court proceeds to the tryal of Theopilus Nelson, 
for neglect of duty and dissobedience of orders. 

The evidence of Capt. John Mclntosh after being duly 
sworn, saith, on the morning of the 9th April 1815 Jona- 
than Seldon was brought to me before I was out of bed. 
I then directed the men that had the prisoner in custody 
to Mrs. Simp, to get their breakfast. Mr. Nelson was 
willing to take charge of the prisoner, and likewise took 
charge of the prisoner, and then asked, where he must 
deliver the prisoner in the morning. I told him not to 
fetch him to me, I would go up to his house in the morn- 
ing, and accordingly went up on the morning of the 10th 
inst. I met Mr. Nelson on the plains, near to his own 
house, and asked him where was Seldon. Mr. Nelson said, 
he was gone down with Wm. Maybee to see Colonel Bell. 
1 asked Mr. Nelson how he could take it upon him to 
countermand my orders, whether you consider me as a 
sipher. I believe that Mr. Nelson knowingly, and willingly, 
let the prisoner go. 

The evidence of Lieut. John Taylor of tho Durham 


militia saith on his oath, he saw Mr. Nelson in front of 
his house, and asked him if Jonathan Seldon Avas yet 
there, he told me he was not, he was gone to Colonel 
Bells with Wm. Maybee, and said I saw Wm. Maybee 
going from Mr. Nelsons house and Jonathan Seldon was 
not with him, the above was on the 9th in the afternoon. 

The prisoner Theopelus Nelson saith in his defence, I 
deny the charge of willfully letting the prisoner Jonathan 
S'eldon go, with the intention of making his escape. Wm. 
Maybee requested that the prisoner might go with him, 
and he would be accountable for his return in the morning 
of the 10th inst. The evidence of Capt. John W. Meyers 
in behalf of the prisoner, he saith on his oath that, the 
prisoner was in Mr. Nelsons charge after being in Mr. 
Nelsons house. Wm. Maybee requested Mr. Nelson to let 
the prisoner go to Colonel Bells, and he would come back 
with him on the 9th inst., then Maybee, and the prisoner 
went out of the house, as I thought to go to Colonel 
Bells, after being gone a short space of time, the prisoner 
returned, and said to Mr. Nelson that it was Mr. Maybee' s 
request that the prisoner might go with him to his own 
house, and stay there that night, and they would return 
in the morning, and I saw no private conversation between 
Mr. Nelson and the prisoner, nor no person else. 

Capt. Mclntosh Saith, that he considered himself as 
doing his duty as a capt. of militia on actual service, and 
also considered Mr. Nelson on actual service. 

After hearing the evidence, the court is of opinion that 
Theopelus Nelson is guilty of the crime laid to his charge, 
therefore sentence him to pay a fine of ten pounds cost, 
and charges 5. 7.6 and in default of payment, that the 
prisoner Theo. Nelson shall be committed to some place 
of confinement for the space of 4 months, or untill the fine 
and expenses is paid. I approve of the above sentence, and 
order the same to be immediately carried into execution. 

Wm. Bell, Lt, Col. 
1st regiment Hastings Militia 

The Court proceed to the tryal of the prisoner .John 

The evidence of Capt. John Mclntosh saith on his 
oath that on the 10th day of April, 1815 I asked John 
Henesey when he was going to take a glass of grog, I 
asked him to say God bless the King. John Henesey said 
he could not say that. I then said cannot you sayd God 
bless the King. He said no, his pay was so small that 
he couldn't, then say God bless a man that did not 
give him more than six pence a day. Colonel Chambers 


then asked him if he could say God dam him, he said no, 
he could not say that neither. 

Ensign Hugh Cunningham after being duly sworn, 
coroborats the above. 

After hearing the evidence the court is of opinion that 
the said John Henesey is guilty of the crime laid to his 
charge therefore sentence him to pay a fine of one pound, 
and costs of court 17.6. 

Alexander Chisholm Capt. president. 

I approve of the above sentence and order the same to 
be immediately carried into execution. 

Wm. Bell, Lt. Col. 

1st regiment Hasting militia Commadg. 

County of Hastings ) A Militia regimental court martial 

Militia orders ) to assemble on the llth instant. 

The .house of Margaret Simpson, near the mouth of the 

River Moira, at the hour of 9 o'clock in the forenoon, to 

try all such prisoners that may be brought before them. 

Capt. Alex. Chisholm, 
Lieut. Philip Zwick 
Ensign H. Cunningham 
Ensign Peter Holmes 
.and Ensign Wm. Zwick 

All officers are hereby required to bring forward all 
delinquents that may belong- to their respective companies 
for tryal before said court martial. 

Willm Bell, Lieut. Colonel 

1st regiment Hastings militia 
Thurlow, 10th April, 1815 


Thurlow, 10th Apl. 1815 
Sergt. Ozekul Lawrence 

Sir, You are hereby required and strictly commanded 
to apprehend the body of John Henesy private of Capt. 
Chisholms company of the Hastings militia and bring him 
here to the house of Margaret Simpson at the hour of 
nine o'clock in the forenoon of the eleventh inst., to an- 
swer to the complaint of Lt. Colonel Wm. Bell and herein 
fail you not. 

Given under my hand the day and 
year above written 
Alexander Chisholm Capt. 

173. Order of Lieut. Col. Wm. Bell, for the issuing of 
rations for prisoners. 



Thiirlow, 12th Apl. 1815 
James McNabb, Esquire, 

Sir, Theopelus Nelson, a private man in Captain 
Simon McNabbs company of the Hastings militia, having 
been tried by a militia regimental court martial, by my 
orders, and sentenced by the said court martial to pay a 
fine of ten pounds currency, and five pounds seven shillings 
and six pence cost and charges, which suon, the said Theo- 
pelus Nelson refuses to pay, this therefore is to require 
you to issue a warrant of distress, to levie the above 
amount by distress, and sale of the goods, and chattels, 
of the aforesaid Theopelus Nelson, agreable to the 15th 
clause of the militia act, passed in the 54th of the King, 
and in the year of our Lord 1814. 

I am sir your most obedt. humble servant 

William Bell, 

Lt. Col. 1st regt., Hastings Militia 

174 (a). Order, suspending a Lieutenant for passing 
counterfeit money. 

175. Letter from Bell to Ferguson, endeavoring to 
clear up the troublesome matter of the Indian goods, that 
appear to have been "left on the way to York", and also 
excusing himself for the delay in collecting the arms and 

176. The evidence of Capt. John Mclntosh taken upon 
the trial of John Henesy. 

177. Certificate of payment of a reward of six pounds, 
and one shilling, for bringing in a deserter. 

178. Letter requesting signature to a return. 

179. Letter for information concerning certain corres- 
pondence, about forwarding returns of men who had sleighs 
and horses fit for service. 

180. Memorandum of Lieut. Col. Wm. Bell, explaining 
the circumstances under which he apprehended John Rice. 
On the back of this are endorsed a number of miscellaneous 
memoranda, varying from a reminder that he needed one 
pound of pepper, to an acknowledgement of having received 
pay for apprehending John Rice, and also his son's pay 
for acting as his orderly. 

181. Subpoena for Bell to appear as a witness upon 
the trial of John Rice. 

182. Notice as to the time and place of the fall train- 
ing for 1815. 

183. Letter from Ferguson to Bell, announcing that 
the quarter master is being sent up to collect the arms, 
accoutrements, drums and fifes. Elijah Ketcheson is 


recommended as a proper person to be appointed sergeant. 

184. letter from Dell to Ferguson, enquiring about the 
appointment of a training day and asking when he is to 
get pay for the storage and forwarding of the Indian 

185. Letter from Ferguson to Bell, in which the writer 
refers to "the change of the seat of Government to this 
place", dated June 10th, 1816. 

186. Letter from Bell to Ferguson, pleading his in- 
ability to raise a dollar to transmit to the Receiver 
General as ordered. 

187. Commission to William Bell as Coroner, dated 
25th July, 1816. 

188. Bail bond taken before Wm. Bell, J.P. 

188 (a). Subpoena for witness to appear before Court 
of King's Bench at Kingston. 

189. Summons to appear before the Court of Requests 
at the house of Margaret Simpson. 

190. Letter from Bell to his lawyer, Christopher 
Hagerman, advising him of the settlement of an action. 

191. Copy of letter from Bell to Ferguson, enclosing 
rolls and returns of complaints. 

192. Proceedings before Coroner Wm. Bell upon an 

192 (a). Letter from Ferguson to Bell, threatening to 
report him to the Lieut. Governor for neglect of duty. 

193. Letter from Ferguson to Bell, concerning a parade 
to be held at Belleville. 

194. Militia order of Lieut. Col. Wm. Bell, for the 
assembling of the Hastings Militia on "the plains in 
Belleville on Saturday, the 30th day of October, 1819". 

195. Letter from the Adjt. Gen'l to Lt. Col. Bell ask- 
ing for returns. 

195 (a). Letter from Ferguson to Bell, acknowledging 
receipt of returns, and complaining, that the postage was 
not prepaid, and that he had to pay five shillings and 
eight pence. 

196. Copy of order in council for giving location 
tickets to members of the militia who served in the war. 

197. Letter from Ferguson to Bell, warning him to 
order a fall meeting of the militia of the County of Hast- 

198. Letter from Ferguson to Bell, dated 30th May, 
1821, pointing out that the militia must according to 
statute assemble on the 4th of June. 

198 (a). Order of Lt. Col. Wm. Bell, calling upon 
Hastings militia to assemble on June 4th. 

198 (b). Letter from Ferguson to Bell, regarding rolls, 
n-turns and conduct of certain officers. 


199. Certificate of marriage solemnized by William Bell 
as a justice of the peace, under the provisions of a statute 
authorizing him to do so in case there was no Church of 
England minister residing within eighteen miles of either 
of the contracting parties. 

200. Letter from Ferguson to Bell, about filling 
vacancies in Hastings and asking for complete returns as 
to the assembly of June 4th. 

201. Letter from Bell to Ferguson, enclosing returns 
and explaining absence of certain members. 

202. Copy of Act in pamphlet form, respecting part of 
militia laws dated 17th January, 1822. 

203. Notice of appointment of sergeants from Ferguson 
to Bell. 

204. Certificate of returns of delinquents having been 

205. Summons issued by Wm. Bell, J.P., dated 9th 
April, 1822, calling upon certain parties to appear before 
the Court of Requests. 

206. Order of Col. Ferguson, 21st October, 1822, for 
the selection of Flank Companies for the 1st regiment of 
the Hastings militia and outlining the procedure to be 

206 (a). Letter from Ferguson to Bell, with additional 
particulars about the Flank Companies. 

207. Letter from Ferguson to Bell, 23rd January, 1823, 
requesting him to take charge of a box of arms at Grant's 

208. Letter from Ferguson to Bell, regretting the 
falling off in the membership of the regiment and suggest- 
ing means of adding to their numbers. 

209. Order from Col. Ferguson to Lieut. Col. Bell, to 
call out the Hastings militia for fall training. 

210. Letter from Ferguson to Bell, complaining of the 
failure of a certain officer to do his duty, and demanding 
prompt action or a resignation. 

211. Letter from Bell to Ferguson, dated April 26th, 
1813, enclosing incomplete returns, with an explanation 
that bad roads and bad weather rendered it impossible to 
secure a full attendance of officers at the last assembly. 
In this letter, he intimates his intention of resigning. 

212. Letter from Ferguson to Bell. 

213. Certificate of out-pensioner John Joyce, contain- 
ing instructions for the guidance of out-pensioners. 

214. Letter from Bell to Ferguson, dated 24th April, 
1824, with incomplete returns and explanations. In this 
letter appear the following pathetic remarks, "I was not 
on the parrade myself as I was not able to stand out so 
long, being in such great distress with Rnmatic pains in 


my back, and both shoulders, on which account and for no 
other Reason, I wish to Resign as I am not able to do 
the duty of my situation in the militia, as it ought to be 
done, which I believe to have preceded from the effects of 
the hard services of the Revolutionary war on and about 
Lake Champlain, for about 8 or 9 years with Lieutenant 
James Davice of the 31st regt. of Foot to which regiment 
you know I formerly did belong. I am now in the 64 year 
of my age and it need not be wondered at if I begin to be 
infirm from the Hardships I have seen in the Revolutionary 
war in the Services which was alotted to me to Perform 
mostly in the winter Season". 

215. Order for a court of enquiry to enquire into the 
cause why Major Chisholm neglected to muster the inhabi- 
tants as ordered and why the officers and captains neglect- 
ed to furnish rolls and returns. 

216. Letter from Adjt. Gen'l to Colonel Ferguson, for- 
warding forms of returns to be used. 

217. Letter from Ferguson to Bell, forwarding forms 
of returns. 

217 (a). Letter from Ferguson to Bell, instructing him 
to bring a certain officer before a magistrate for not for- 
warding roll and returns. 

217 (b). Letter from Bell to Ferguson, forwarding re- 

218. Letter from Ferguson to Bell, acknowledging cer- 
tain returns, but asking for further returns. 

219. Proceedings of Court of Enquiry into conduct of 
officers for not making returns. The officers are excused 
upon the ground that they did not understand the instruc- 

219 (a). Proceedings of Court of Enquiry into the 
conduct of Major Chisholm for neglect of duty. The Major 
is excused owing to bad roads and his indisposition. 

219 (b). Letter from Bell to Ferguson, enclosing resig- 
nation of Capt. Petrie, who assigns no reason for so doing. 

220. Order of Lieut. Col. Wm. Bell, requiring officers 
to meet at the house of John Taylor in Thurlow Township 
on Friday, the 19th day of August, 1825, to receive orders. 

220 (a). Order of Lieut. Col. Wm. Bell, for a meeting 
of the officers of 1st regiment of the Hastings Militia. 

221. Letter from Capt. Robt. D. Liddell to Lieut. Col, 
Wm. Bell, forwarding names of persons wishing to have 
their names taken off the roll of the company of Light 

222. Letter from John W. Ferguson to Lieut. Col. 
Wm. Bell, resignation of Col. John Ferguson, and certain 
recommendations made by him and concluding with "The 


Col. is much better than when you saw him, but without 
any use of his left side". 

223. Letter from Adjutant General to Colonel Bell, 
requesting tne names of thirty-five candidates for the 
troop of cavalry. 

223 (a). Letter from Adjutant General to Col. Bell, 
stating 1 that the Lieut. Governor declines to accept the 
resignation of Capt. Petrie, who assigned no reason for 
resigning, also instructing the Colonel to take proceedings 
against him if he declines to serve. 

224. Militia General Order from the office of the 
Adjutant General, advising of the promotion of Lieut. Col. 
Bell to be Colonel vice Ferguson who resigns ; and of Major 
Alex. Chisholm to be Lieut. Colonel vice Bell promoted, 
dated June 1st, 1825. 

225. Copy of letter to the Adjutant General, contain- 
ing suggestions respecting the division of the Hastings 
Militia into two regiments, dated 1st Sept., 1826. 

226. Copy of circular of Colonel Bell to the officers, 
commanding companies of the First Regiment of Hastings 
Militia, in which he goes carefully into the question of 
irregularity, and 'neglect of duty, and threatens to deal 
severely with all delinquents. This document bears a most 
striking resemblance to the orders he used to receive with 
painful regularity from Colonel Ferguson. 

227. Order of Colonel Bell, directing the manner of 
organizing the Troop of Dragoons. 

228. Letter of Col. Bell to Capt. Abel Gilbert, favor- 
ing although regretting his resignation. 

229. Copy of letter to Col. Bell, to the Adjutant 
General, expressing his views upon certain resignations. 

230. Application of Donald Mackenzie, for appointment 
as Lieutenant of the Troop of Dragoons. 

230 (a). Letter from Major Coleman to Capt. Petrie, 
calling for certain explanations regarding failure to make 
returns, and including the following, "It is not the desire 
of Col. Bell to take any further notice of your conduct on 
that day, providing you are sensible of the impropriety 
thereof and acknowledge the same". 

231. Order of Colonel Bell, directing Captain Turnbull 
to call out his troop. 

232. Letter from Capt. Wm. Zwick, recommending ap- 
pointment of Benjamin Clark as Sergeant. 

233. Letter from the Adjutant General to Colonel Bell, 
requiring a return shewing all moneys received from 
Menoni'sts, Quakers and Tunkers, for exemption from 
Militia Services. 

234. Letter from Adjutant General, dated January 
31st, 1829, to Colonel Bell, acknowledging receipt of a 


letter from the Colonel, requesting that he be allowed "to 
retire from active life", and expressing His Excellency's 
pleasure in permitting him to do so, and promising to 
forward his name to the Secretary ,of State for the Colon- 
ies in the hope that some provision may be made to 
reward him for his faithful services. 

235. Letter from the Adjutant General to Colonel Bell, 
dated 15th October, 1831, asking why certain names were 
omitted from the lists, shewing the men who served in the 
year 1812. 

236. Letter from Government House, conveying the 
consent of the Lieut. Governor that Wm. Bell may hold 
the offices of magistrate and coroner of the Midland 

237. Articles governing the training of the officers of 
the Hastings Militia. 

(Case No. 16 Accounts, &c.) 

William Bell appears to have been most methodical in 
his habit of preserving all sorts of documents and papers. 
Scores of papers, that could have had but a passing inter- 
est to him were neatly folded, and on the back he 
invariably made an endorsement, indicating the nature of 
the document, and its date. He not only preserved the 
letters received by him, but in many instances he kept 
copies of his replies. At a time when there were no letter 
books, or carbon impressions, this meant the re-writing of 
the letters, and this too was invariably done by himself. 
The contents of Case No. 16 are principally accounts dat- 
ing back as far as 1787. To the ordinary reader these 
might not prove to be very interesting reading, yet much 
useful information can be gleaned from them. 

No. 1. A three page account of John Grant with Wm. 
Bell, beginning July 7th, 1787. 

No. 2. Account of Stephen Gilbert with Ferguson & 
Bell, dated 1789. In this account we find tea charged at 
six shillings a pound, and sugar at one shilling and ten 

No. 3. Is a long list of goods left with Wm. Bell for 
sale. The list contains among other articles, tomahawks, 
clasp knives, razors, beaver spear and scalping knives. 

No. 4. Account of Ferguson & Bell with Elizabeth 
Smith. This account begins and ends with tobacco at 
2s. 6d. per pound. 

No. 5. Joseph Forsythe account against Wm. Bell, 
dated 1789. 

No. 6. Is a homemade day book, dated 1790, stitched 
with shoe thread. We find in this account that two shil- 


lings and six pence were paid for otter skins and four 
pence for muskrats. 

No. 7. John Fairman's account with Ferguson & Bell, 
dated 1790. Loaf sugar and butter each are charged at 
two shillings per pound. 

No. 8. David Simmon was charged by Ferguson & Bell 
12s. 3d. for 3'^ yards of 'linen, and in the same account was 
credited with 12s. 6d. for clearing one acre of land ; date 

No. 9. (1790). Orry Rose is credited by the same firm 
with eleven shillings for two and one quarter days' work 
with his horses. 

No. 9 (a). (1790). The same Orry Rose, according to 
this account buys tobacco at 3s. 6d. per pound and sheet- 
ing at 3s. 6d. per yard, and pays for his purchases with 
turnips at nine pence per bushel, and in work at two 
shillings per day. 

No. 1C. (1790). Elizabeth Smith's account with Fer- 
guson & Bell. 

No. 11. Asa Walbridge's account with Wm. Bell. Two 
gallons of gin share the honors with a hat as the most 
important items, each twenty shillings. 

No. 12. (1790). G. Mikel in account with Ferguson & 
Bell. In this we find Is. 3d. charged for one half gallon 
of salt. 

No. 13. (1790). James Kenny in this account with 
Ferguson & Bell is credited with 12s. 6d. for clearing one 
acre of land. 

No. 14. (1790). An account rendered by Peter Vanal- 
stine to David Vandorhidah. 

No. 14 (a). Another account between the same parties. 

No. 15. Wm. Laumberg's account with Ferguson & Bell. 

No. 16. (1790). John Germain's account at the store 
of Ferguson & Bell, calico is charged at five shillings per 

No. 17. (1790). Thomas Colquhune pays for his tobac- 
co and thread by working for the firm at one shilling and 
eight pence a day. 

No. 18. (1790). Order in favor of Ferguson & Bell, for 
nine shillings Halifax currency. 

No. 19. (1790). John Germain's store account. 

No. 19 (a). (1791). The same. 

No. 20. (1791). An account shewing that pork sold at 
seven and one half pence per pound. 

No. 21. (1791). Receipted account of James Robins, a 
tavern keeper, against Wm. Bell. 

No. 22. (1793). This account of John Blacker against 
Wm. Bell contains tho item "a black silk handkf 5s." 


No. 23. (1793). Samuel Sherwood in account with Wm. 

No. 23 (a). The same. 

No. 24. (1795). Estate of John Fairman to Wm. Bell. 

No. 25. (1795). Account Philip Z,wick with Ferguson & 

No. 26. (1794). From this memorandum book we learn 
that venison sold at one and one half pence per pound. 

No. 27. (1796). Account for crockery. 

No. 28. (1796). Order on Wm. Bell, addressed to Wm. 
Bell, Bay Kanty, which would indicate how the name of 
the bay was pronounced at that time. 

No. 28 (a). Account for 7i gallons of whiskey, which 
cost 1 17s. 6d, date 1794. 

No. 29. (1799). Letter to Wm. Bell, asking for pay- 
ment of an account. 

No. 30. Another homemade account book similar to 
No. 6, and containing 58 pages, and extending over a 
period from 1799 to 1814. Most of it is in the hand- 
writing of William Bell, and the first few pages are 
headed "mohawk village", but the rest of the book where 
there are any headings at all are "Thurlow". The en- 
tries are of a miscellaneous character and vary from an 
entry of a sale of "a Dill worth Spelling book" to a charge 
for a search warrant. 

No. 31. (1800). Receipt on account. 

No. 32. (1802). An account against Wm. Bell made up 
principally of charges for making shoes. The prevailing 
charge for making a pair of shoes appears to be two 
shillings and six pence. 

No. 33. (1806). Copy of an account rendered by Wm. 

No. 34. (1806). Copy of account rendered by Wm. Bell 
to Margaret Simpson, including among other things, a 
charge for several gallons of whiskey at five shillings per 

No. 34 (a). Similar to No. 34. 

No. 35. (1806). An account against Wm. Bell, in which 
he is charged seven shillings and six pence per pound for 
three pounds of green tea. 

No. 35 (a). An account in the following year between 
the same parties from which it appears that green tea had 
been reduced in price by one shilling. 

No. 36. (1807). A small account of Wm. Bell's against 
Seth Meecham. 

No. 37. (1810). A blacksmith's account against Wm. 

No. 38. (1815). Letter from John Ferguson to Wm. 


No. 39. A dunning note. 

No. 40. (1820). Account rendered by Wm. Bell. 

No. 41. Account rendered to Wm. Dell. 

No. 42. Account rendered to Wm. Bell. 

No. 43. A ledger of Wm. Bell, covering the years 1818 
to 1823, inclusive. 

No. 44. Account against Wm. Bell, 1827 to 1832, in- 

No. 45. (1829). Account for two loads of wood ashes 

sold at six pence per bushel. 

No. 46. (1830). Promissory note. 

No. 47. (1834). A carpenter's account against Wm. 
Bell ; wages seven shillings and six pence per day. 

No. 48. A doctor's account. 

No. 49. Fragment of an account. 

(Case No. 16 Local) 

The documents in Case No. 16 classified as "local", 
were written from some point in the County of Lennox and 
Addington, and are of especial local interest. 

No. 1. Letter written from John Ferguson to William 
Bell from Fredericksburgh, and dated 29th December, 1788. 
In it appears the following, "Our courts are opened but 
they have done nothing particular, but I suppose will in a 
few days". 

No. 2. Letter written from the same place by Fergu- 
son to Bell, dated 1788. 

No. 3. Letter from Ferguson to Bell, dated 1789. 

No. 4. (1790). Letter written from "Nappanie Mills" 
by Ferguson to Bell, advising him of the forwarding of 
two bags of flour. 

No. 5. (1790). Letter written from Fredericksburgh by 
Ferguson to Bell. The writer had been taken ill, but .says 
he must attend court on the 16th, sick or well. 

No. 6. (1790). Letter written by Jas. Clark to Wm. 
Bell from "N. Mills", urging Bell to secure for him twenty 
or thirty bushels of oats. 

No. 7. (1790). Letter from Ferguson to Bell written 
from 3rd Township. 

No. 8. The following autograph letter is to the point, 
and was written by the first lawyer of the County of Len- 
nox and Addington : 

Adolphustown, Deer. 19th, 1796 


Mr. Forsyth insists upon me summoning you if 
the debt due him is not discharged without delay. You I 
hope will not put me to the necessity. 
I am sir, 

Your hum'l serv't 

Mr. Wm. Bell. N. Hagerman 


Nicholas Hagerman, the writer of this letter, was one 
of the ten practitioners who met ai Wilson's Hotel, 
Newark, in July, 1797, to organize the Law Society of 
Upper Canada. 

No. 9. Written in 1791 from the 3rd township from 
Ferguson to Bell. The following are extracts, "I wish 
you would put up, and send by him the five volumes of the 
History of England by Hume, and the two volumes of 

Andersons History of France I was sorry to 

hear that you allowed any woman whatever to jilt you, 
If you was ever serious in the other quarter you richly 
deserve it". 

No. 10. (1795). Letter from Alex. Clark, Fredericks- 
burgh, to Wm. Bell, asking "payment for the whiskie". 

No. 11. (1799). Letter from Ferguson to Bell. 

No. 12. (1799). Letter from Ebenr. Washburn, of 
Fredericksburgh, to Wm. Bell, asking him to acquaint the 
Indians with his desire to purchase a quantity of Ginsen 

No. 13. (1808). Order for payment of money given to 
Timothy Thompson. 

No. 14. Oath of Walter T. Orr, as a surveyor of lands, 
taken before Robert Clark, J.P., at Ernesttown, in Sep- 
tember, 1819. 

No. 15. (182,0). Notice, summoning a meeting of the 
Midland District Agricultural Society. 

No. 16. (1820). List of subscribers to the funds of the 
Midland District Agricultural Society. Wm. Bell heads the 
list with one pound, the largest subscription. 

No. 17. (1830). Report of the commissioners for the 
road from Napanee to Belleville, to the Justices of the 
Peace for the County of Hastings. This report, referring 
to the work of laying out the road, is in the handwriting 
of Allan Macpherson, of Napanee, the chairman of the 

No. 18. Letter from Rev. R., S. Fqrneri to. Dr. William 
Canniff, requesting him to assist in the centennial cele- 
bration of the landing of the Loyalists, to be held at 
Adolphustown, in 1884. 

The four succeeding documents are uniform in style, all 
engrossed upon foolscap with a wide margin on the left 
hand side containing brief references to the contents. 
Each set of papers is bound by a bit of white parchment 
at the upper left hand corner, fastened with green tape, 
and the handwriting proclaims itself to be that of a pro- 
fessional penman. Everything about them points to their 
having been prepared in one of the departmental offices of 
the Government. Are these the copies of manuscript from 
the Parliamentary Library at Ottawa, for which Dr. 


Canniff thanks the Hon. Lewis Wallbridge in the preface to 
his history f 


The most voluminous document in the Canniff collection 
is a copy of the memoirs of Col. John Clark, which 
extends over 114 pages of closely written foolscap. While 
the Colonel pays some attention to himself and his family, 
the production is by no means an autobiography, but it 
fairly carries out his intention as expressed by himself. 
"It will give posterity a general idea of the early state 
of the country soon after it was settled by disbanded sol- 
diers and U. E. Loyalists, whose ambition was to live 
and die under the British flag." 

There does not appear to be any phase of life of the 
early settler upon which he does not touch to some extent. 
In many instances he goes quite minutely into the details 
of some event or custom. Being a military man, it was 
quite natural that he should take a deep interest in the 
war of 1812, and by far the greater part of his memoirs 
deals with this subject. He goes into the causes leading 
up to the outbreak, enumerates the composition of the 
opposing forces, follows the movements of the troops, and 
describes the various engagements. 

Upon the whole, the memoirs are very good reading, 
and furnish much useful information, which it would be 
very difficult to secure, but for the foresight of such men 
as Col. Clark. 

Colonel Clark's father lived for a time in the township 
of 'Fredericksburgh, about three miles from the site of the 
present town of Napanee, and shortly after its erection in 
1786, he was placed in charge of the Government flour mill 
at that place. In 1789 he was transferred to Fort Niag- 
ara, where he was appointed Barrack-master, a position 
which he continued to fill until his death in 1810. He is 
not to be confused with Robert Clerk, who built the flour 
mill at Napanee in 1785. Col. Clark was born at Fron- 
tenac in 1783, and was baptised by the Rev. John Stuart, 
the first English Church Missionary in Upper Canada. He 
recalls in the memoirs but few recollections of his early 
life in Fredericksburgh, as the home was saddened by the 
death of his mother in 1787, but he frequently reverts to 
the experiences of his boyhood days in the Niagara penin- 
sula, with which he was seemingly infatuated. In writing 
of the location of his father's home, he says, "when we 
would occasionally stroll over to Queenston Heights and 
look at the magnificent prospect, little did I contemplate 
that a battle would ever be fought on that pleasant spot, 


or that a magnificent monument to a British hero would 
ever crown those heights". 

It is quite apparent that in writing his settlement of 
Upper Canada, Dr. Canniff used much useful information 
from these memoirs of Col. Clark. 


On page 258 of Dr. Canniff 's valuable work will be 
found in italics and quotation marks a reference to a 
transcript of the memoirs of Rev. John Stuart. 

"Memoirs of the Rev. John Stuart, D.D., father of the 
Upper Canada Church. He opened the first academy at 
Cataraqui-Kingston, 1786. The last missionary to the 

This identical document is also preserved in the Canniff 
collection and covers twenty-six pages of foolscap. Written 
at the top of the first page in pencil is the following : "I 
will not insert the whole but will the more salient facts 
under the head of "Clergymen". This memorandum was 
evidently made by Dr. Canniff, when laying out the mater- 
ial for his book, and he adhered to his intention as 
expressed in this memorandum. In chapters XXVI. and 
XXVII. he quotes extensively from these memoirs. 


This brief but interesting testimonial is not referred 
to by Dr. Canniff in his history, although he quotes from 
its contents at pages 199 and 202. I am not aware that 
it has ever been published and as the information it con- 
tains is given first hand and is of an important character, 
I consider it worthy of being reproduced in full. 


"Our family came originally from Yorkshire in England. 
They were of the old fashioned Tory or Conservative 
School, who looked upon no form of Government equal to 
the British Constitution founded on the principles laid 
down by the English Barons at Runnymeade, when they 
compelled King John, to sign the great Charter of 

"To the present day, all the Bates family follow in the 
footsteps of their ancestors." 

"As encouragement was held out for Loyal British 
Settlers to locate in America, my Grandfather turned his 


attention to the western Hemisphere and having satisfied 
his mind that his posterity might become considerable 
land owners." 

"He sailed for the New World, and arrived in Boston 
between the year 1760 & 1770, when he commenced farm- 
ing, lands at that period being obtained at a very low 
price to actual settlers." 

"The troubles commenced in 1774, wheo all who were 
loyal to the House of Hanover, took up arms in defence of 
their Sovereign. In this conflict my Grandfather took a 
conspicuous part. My Grandmother was an active intelli- 
gent woman, wonderfully industrious, who attended to the 
farming affairs till they were compelled to quit the United 
States territory being determined never to side with the 
Republicans. Liberal offers were made to the U. E. Loyal- 
ist so the family removed their effects to Upper Canada, 
where for their services the Governor granted them 1200 
acres of land and 200 acres for each of the children." 

"To the best of my knowledge it was about the year 
1780 when they came into the country. My father was 
then a boy about 13 years of age. before they finally 
settled down, they looked about to ascertain the most 
favourable location, a vast number went to Prince Edward 
District in the Bay of Quinte and there my Grandfather 
and Grandmother with their young family went also." 

"At first they had to experience great privations, but 
being possessed of indomitable courage, and love for the 
British Constitution they soon set to work with the 
materials they brought with them and erected a log 
House, After clearing a few trees and thus got a shelter 
from the storms and winds of Heaven." 

"From over exertion and exposure my Grandfather had 
a very severe attack of ague, it is a most trying complaint 
and at that period there seemed to be no cure. It was 
with great reluctance that he made up his mind to leave 
this fine locality. The waters teemed with fish the air 
with birds no end to ducks the woods filled with deer, 
beaver, wolves, martins, squirrels and rabbits." 

"Implements were very scarce, so that at first they 
adopted many ingenious contrivances of the Indians for 
procuring food. Not the least simple and handy was a 
crotched pole with which they secured salmon in any 
quantity the creeks and Rivers being full of them." 

"Skins of animals they obtained from the Indians who 
at that period were very numerous throughout the coun- 

"With those skins my grandmother made all sorts of 
useful and last drepes which were most comfortable for a 
country life, and for going through the bush made leather 


petticoats for herself and girls, as they could not be torn 
by the brambles, they made capital dresses made some for 
the boys, and at night were extremely comfortable for bed 
covers. There were no tanners in those days shoes and 
boots were made of the same useful material." 

"Finding the ague still troublesome a batteau was 
built with the assistance of the Indians, and one general 
moving the whole family departed with their effects, coast- 
ing along the shores of Ontario, until they reached the 
present Township of Clarke in Northumberland County." 

"The change of air operated favourably and there they 
drew their lands and settled." 

"My Grandfather often remarked that for six months 
he never saw a white person, their only visitors being 
Indians with whom they got along with well and in process 
of time learned a smattering of their language, those real 
owners of the soil being then under British protection were 
well treated and became firm and loyal to the British 

"In exchange for little presents given them they reci- 
procated by bringing skins of animals and frequently a 
deer so that they got along capitally. Could they rise 
from their ashes they would be astonished at the nourish- 
ing condition of Clarke now." 

"In process of time other settlers came along, not the 
least conspicuous in after time were the Baldwins and the 

"Robert Baldwin, who was my grandfathers intimate 
friend afterwards, was a gentleman of good family the 
owner of a small property called Knockmore in the County 
of Cork, Ireland." 

"He emigrated to Canada at the early period of 1798 
in all probability in consequence of the Rebellion in that 
distracted country." 

"From the liberality of Governor Simcoe's proclama- 
tion inviting settlers into the country, he drew lands near 
my Grandfathers and located calling his clearing Annawa 
in the Township of Clarke. A stream ran through the 
property which to this day is called Baldwin's Creek." 

"A Grandfather of the Beards of Toronto was also one 
of my fathers neighbours. As the girls grew up they 
married. I had five aunts. Betsey Sally, Huldah Polly 
and Theodosia. The three first married Thomas Barrett, 
Amos Gills and Joseph Selden from the United States, 
where they joined their husbands who were well to do, 
having good property there and though adherents to the 
new republic, were highly respectable. Sally and Huldah 
married Stephen Conger of Prince Edward, and Richard 


Lorekin, of New Castle both staunch Government men, 
and have remained so with their families." 

"My Grandmother remained on the farm at Clarke until 
her death which took place in 1838 at the advanced age of 
96. My Grandfathers death was caused by fright in conse- 
quence of a fire which took place in 1819." 

"He was then a hearty old man, but the above 
calamity hastened his death, at the premature age of 84. 
had it not been for this dire event, in all probability he 
would have reached 100 possessing a wonderful athletic 
constitution, he was a terrible aristocrat, a regular John 
Bull to the back bone." 

"As our family grew up in the Clarke settlement, my 
Grandfather wished to see them well settled before he died, 
and an opportunity offered by the purchase of a military 
grant from George Shaw of 600 acres of land, which they 
drew in 1804 in the vicinity of Cobourg." 

"Whilst the lands were being cleared and a log house 
erecting they opened a small store close to the property 
now possessed by the White family." 

"Here my father Stoddard Bates and my uncle Lew 
Bates planted an orchard and we had a snug temporary 

"This store was supplied with goods by Enoch Wood, 
who brought the first assortment to Toronto." 

"Everything at that time was very dear, but a system 
of barter was carried on that was of advantage to all 

"My father made a great quantity of Pot Ash, which 
fetched at that time a good price." 

"This in part paid for his goods. On referring to the 
Old Books now in possession of my mother, I find some 
entries that give an Idea of the general prices of goods 
which people had then to pay." 

"1804. Gimblet $i, Padlock $U Jack-knife $1 Callico 
$li per yd. Needles Peach, Ball of cotton 7i. Board of 
Pigs $1 dollar per week. Old axe $2^ had to send them to 
Kingston to be ground. Tea 8 s Ib to 10 s. Halifax Cur- 
rency. Barrel Pork 27 to 30$ per barrel. Flannel 6-3 
yards, Salt 6 d. per Ib, Mill saw fourteen dollars" 

"The first saw mill erected in the neighborhood was 
where the present Ontario Mills and Factory stands and 
was put up by the father of Colonel McDonald, of Peter- 
boro' in 1803, this was a great boon to the people, who 
were always in want of a few boards to finish off their 

"My Father and Uncle were partners in this store, 
which turned out very profitable, as the settlers round 
were always in want of something or other. The woods 


at that time were alive with deer and bears. Many were 
killed by the Indians who traded off their skins dressed by 
the Squaws, which made useful garments. I find by me- 
morandum in my fathers old books, that he was married 
on the 20th October, 1806." 

"An old family of the name of Hare had located a few 
miles from our residence and it was one of that old far- 
mers, buxom daughters that he fell desperately in love with. 
The mode of courting in those days was a good deal of the 
Indian fashion." 

"She would run through the trees and bushes and pre- 
tend to get away from him, but somehow or other, he 
managed to catch her, gave her a kiss and they soon got 
married, I rather think by a magistrate, Clergymen being 
rare in those parts." 

"Time was too valuable to make a fuss about such 
matters they depended upon their own industry and got 
along wonderfully well." 

"John McCarty was also married by a Magistrate, he 
was an old settler. For a long time my Grandfather had 
to go with some of the neighbours, all the way from 
Clarke to Kingston 125 miles with their wheat to be 
ground there. They had no other conveyance than Bat- 
teaux, which were commodious as the journey would some- 
times occupy five or six weeks." 

"Of an Evening they putting up some Creek and ob- 
tained their salmon with ease using a forked stick that 
passed over the fishes backs, and held them tight as with a 
spring, the wood I have often heard my Grandfather say, 
that after a few trees were felled, they burnt the brush- 
wood, and planted the seed between the stumps which be- 
ing planted on virgin sail, turned out most prolific." 

"Some times they were so long gone for grist, in con- 
sequence of bad weather setting in, that the women would 
collect together and have a good cry, thinking the batteaux 
had foundered, they however always turned up in time, 
taking the precaution to make tents of poles, and brush to 
keep out the bad weather and wolves which were wonder- 
fully plentiful, when they were gone on these provision 
journeys, the dogs were very useful in finding game." 

"One ol<J dog in particular was very smart evidently 
having an eye to his own bill of fare. You had nothing to 
do but tell him you had nothing to eat and off he would 
go driving the Deer into the Lake, where the youngsters 
could easily shoot them with an old Queens Arms Musket, 
the principal fire arms in use." 

"The privations they underwent at times will scarce 
bear mentioning, when- compared with the early settlers at 
Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick after taking Quebec." 


"From the best authority we have accounts, the pri- 
vations, which the early colonists endured were severe to 
a degree of which, those who now plant themselves in a 
Canadian Woods, have scarcely a conception. They had 
not only to suffer the miseries of hunger and the want of 
almost every convenience of life, to which they had been 
accustomed, but they could scarcely enjoy that relief from 
toil which sleep usually affords, from the dread of being 
burnt in their habitations by the Indians or of becoming 
victims to the Tomahawk. So that it required more than 
ordinary resolution and fortitude to establish themselves 
in defiance of immense difficulties. My father said, that 
some of the IT. E. Loyalists brought their spinning Wheels 
and looms with them. All the youngsters learned to 
weave and do a bit of sewing." 

"In the back country out at Keene there is an old loom 
now extant, which was in use by my mother, 50 years ago, 
which I have often worked. Every settlement foi years 
was a sort of Robinson Crusoe Life very healthy none 
seemed to suffer from accidents. If they met with any 
they had many simple remedies that performed many won- 
derful cures, far more efficacious than the art and mystery 
of Quack Doctors, located through the country. People 
lived in those days to a good old age. There was no fuss 
about Religion in those days the families would assemble 
together on the Sunday or any evening to read the 
Scriptures and sing a Psalm or Hymn, often found more 
solid consolation than in our crowded churches now-a-days. 
Fully verifying the Truth of the Scriptures "that where 
two or three are gathered together"." 

"Preachers were rare and very thinly scattered. The 
Rev. Mr. Stuart, was I believe the first Church Missionary- 
He was driven out of the United States after the declara- 
tion of Independence, most cruelly treated but found a 
hospitable Asylum under British Supremacy, which he 
originally enjoyed. He was recommended to the Mission 
Society by Sir William Johnson and arrived at the 
Mohawk Village in 1770 but had to leave in 1781 and 
became Chaplain to the Royal Yorkers from which date 
his field of labor in Canada commences." 

"The Revd. John Doty four years before in 1777 escaped 
with his family into Canada and was appointed by Sir 
John Johnson to a Military Chaplaincy but the earliest I 
believe of all was the Revd. John Ogilvie who attended 
the Royal Regiment upon the expedition to Fort Niagara 
which surrendered in 1759." 

"The principal settlers being French of course those 
reverend gentlemen were not patronized nor did their 


labours really commence until the first settlement of Upper 
Canada by the U. E. Loyalists." 

"My mother remembers a Mr. Langhorne an eccentric 
good old man, who never would marry any one after 11 
o'clock A.M. much to the disappointment of lovers who 
travelled through the woods on Horseback or Boat expedi- 

"As such occasions were generally holidays they furn- 
ished themselves with Tomahawks and implement in case 
of Emergency, so as to camp out if required. The ladies 
had no white dresses to spoil or fancy Bonnets. With 
deer-skin petticoats, home spun gowns, and perhaps a 
squirrel skin bonnet, they looked charming in the eyes of 
their lovers, who were rigged out in similar materials." 

"How they managed for rings I know not but presume 
the Missionary or Magistrate were furnished with them as 
part of their labors of love. 'Now I think of it I have 
heard my mother say that Uncle Ferguson, a magistrate 
rather than disappoint a happy couple who had walked 
twenty miles, made search throughout the house and 
luckily found a pair of old English skates, to which a ring 
was attached, seizing the glorious prize, he went on with 
the ceremony and fixing the ring on the young woman's 
finger, reminding her that though a homely substitute, she 
must continue to wear, otherwise the ceremony would be 
dissolved. That curious token was greatly cherished and 
is still among the family relics." 

"Before the country was properly settled the marriage 
ceremony was performed sometimes by Magistrates or a 
sjtray Missionary, an Adjutant or Surgeon of the Regiment 
who officiated as chaplain there were then no Registry 
Offices, and as the documents were often lost by fires or 
other contingencies and as families grew up and increased, 
there was some demur as to the legality of those 
marriages. In 1793, therefore, while the Parliament was 
held at Niagara in Governor Simcoes, time an Act was 
passed legalizing all those marriages, that no demur should 
hereafter arise posterity, as to the validity of titles to 
lands and the occupants thereof. The war with the United 
States broke out in 1812, which was a source of great 
consternation to the country at first, a great hindrance to 
those engaged in clearing their lands. The determined 
Loyalty of the settlers however soon changed the gloomy 
aspect of affairs." 

"My father at that time had a good team and horses 
and as such appendages to a farm were rare, he was em- 
ployed by the Government in Teaming ammunition and 
provisions to the scene of action for which he was after- 
wards liberally remunerated by the Government." 


"There was but one regular road through the country, 
called the Danford Road which led from Kingston to 
Toronto and continued thence to Hamilton and Niagara." 

"It was on a rough scale similar to the Watling Street 
road constructed by the Romans through England. In this 
vicinity it is still known by the original name." 

"When we look back and contemplate the last fifty 
years, it is wonderful to notice the extraordinary change 
that has taken place in the general aspect of the country." 

"We have now good roads through every part of the 
Province, comfortable Farm Houses first rate implements 
of Agriculture. Orchards in full bearing. The finest 
wheat in the world, with the exception of Australia." 

"Improved breeds of Cattle, fine Teams, good oxen, 
Superior, Sheep, excellent wool, Esculants of every descrip- 
tion, Cider presses, in short everything that would do 
credit to the Mother Country, whose bosom our Ancestors 
left for the wilds of Upper Canada, and with indomitable 
courage, persevering Industry and great labour, have now 
the unbounded pleasure of viewing Farms that are a credit 
to the present generation who I trust will pursue the old 
beaten track of their forefathers, and forever remain 
faithful and loyal in defense of those institutions that 
stand pre-eminent in the Annals of Nations. 

(Signed) ROGER BATES. 


This report made under the direction of His Excellency 
Lord Dorchester was no doubt a most useful document at 
the time it was presented, as it dealt very extensively 
with the condition of the forts, and harbors from Carlton 
Island to Michillimackinac. Whatever Collins undertook 
to do he performed it most thoroughly and this report is 
no exception. 

U. E. ROLL. 

This is a copy of "A roll of the inhabitants of the 
Midland District, in the province of Upper Canada, who 
adhered to the Unity of the Empire, and joined the Royal 
standard in America before the Treaty of Separation in 
the year 1783, taken in open sessions held at Kingston, 
October the llth and at different adjournments to the 15th 
day of November, 1796" and contains 972 names. 

In the same case with the foregoing documents are a 
number of "school papers" which were published in Volume 
V. of this Society's publications. 


Two copies of the Kingston Gazette, dated respectively 
March 16th, 1816, and June 14th, 1817, are in the collec- 
tion. The former contains sixteen columns, and the latter 
twenty, with a corresponding increase in the length. The 
period of startling headlines had not arrived. The news 
items were very meagre, and were published in the most 
unostentatious manner. The first, and fourth pages, were 
given over exclusively to advertisements, and a fair pro- 
portion of the two inner pages were used for the same 
purpose. The advertising rates were as follows : 

Six lines and under 2s. 6d. first insertion, and Is. 3d. 
every subsequent. 

Ten lines and under 3s. 4d. first insertion, and Is. 8d. 
every subsequent. 

Ten lines and upwards 4d. per line first insertion, and 
2d. per line every succeeding insertion. 

Nicholas Hagerman, the Adolphustown lawyer, occupies 
three shillings and four pence worth of space in a promin- 
ent place on the first page to announce to the world that 
he has two pot ash kettles for sale. In the same column 
Geo. Okill Stuart offers for sale several farms in the 
Townships of Pittsburgh and Kingston. 

Daniel Brown invites the public to come to him for 
garden seeds, assuring intending purchasers that he has 
"nine different kinds of lettice seed, early, late and red 
cabbage, culliflower, savory, kail, eight kinds of kidney 
beans, carrett, Thyme, marjoram, red beet, &c., &c." 

Peter Van Skiver, of Adolphustown, offers for sale 
three elegant wooden clocks, warranted to keep good time, 
and states his willingness to accept most kinds of country 
produce in payment. 

Barnabas Dickinson, of Montreal, advertises the intro- 
duction of a new line of stages, a bi-weekly service between 
Montreal and Kingston. "It leaves Montreal on Mondays 
and Thursdays at eight a.m. and arrives in Kingston Wed- 
nesdays and Saturdays, and leaves Kingston at the same 
time and arrives in Montreal on Wednesdays and Satur- 

Under the heading "education" we find the following : 
"Mr. & Mrs. Woolf beg leave to inform the public, that on 
the 21st inst., they purpose to commence a Boarding and 
Day school in the house recently occupied by Dr. McCauley 
for the instruction of young ladies in the different branches 
of Female Education." 

The following advertisement by the publisher of the 
Gazette under the caption "something new" is rather un- 
usual in its character. "The subscriber is desirous of 
settling all his accounts up to 30th June, 1817, in order 
that he may know how he stands in the world. Those 


therefore who have accounts against him are desired to 
present them on or about that day, that a settlement may 
take place. He also expects that some of his country 
subscribers who are one, two, and three, years in arrears 
will call and settle their accounts without further invita- 

There evidently were no bargain counters in those 
days, or if so, they were not announced through the ad- 
vertisements, as in no instance is the selling price of a 
single article mentioned. 

One may look in vain for an editorial comment of any 
kind or a local news item in either of these copies. Those 
portions not given over to advertisements are filled with 
extracts from other papers and communications. Among 
the latter is a rather lengthy but clever dissertation upon 
the sin of swearing which began as follows: "It was the 
saying of a great man of the British nation that common 
swearers give their souls to the devils gratis, having no 
pleasure in return for it, and doubtless it was well 
observed ; for no man in his senses can pretend to say 
there is any enjoyment in that particular vice . . . let 
us then search a little into the motives that prompt men 
so often to fall into it. It must I think proceed either 
from a barrenness of invention, keeping continually bad 
company, being overpowered by liquor, from a false mod- 
esty which is afraid to be particular, or finally from a 
monstrous desire of being thought wicked merely for the 
sake of wickedness without either pleasure or profit". He 
then 'proceeds to deal with the question under these different 
heads. Of drunkenness, he says, "Let a man's parts be 
ever so bright, if he suffers liquor to take possession of the 
seat of his understanding, reason no longer presides ; his 
passions which before lay dormant, rise up with redoubled 
vigour and hurry him away impetuously into the abyss of 
vice and swearing in that case is generally the forerunner 
of all the rest, being, as it were, a signal to let us know 
that we are no longer our own masters." Further on 
the writer adds, "It has been of late too much the custom 
for men of quality and fashion to swear by way of giving 
a grace to their conversation ; others have heedlessly fol- 
lowed their pernicious example, which has been no small 
reason of its spreading so much." 

The next communication in the same issue was a step 
from the sublime to the ridiculous. In it a certain 
Dulcibella Thankley implores the editor for his advice as 
to whether or not there is any remedy for a mania her 
husband has contracted for smashing all the household 
goods, and furniture, within reach of his cane when he is 
in a passion. She assures him that he is "a good honest 


gentleman, that is exceedingly good natured and at the 
same time very choleric, there is no standing before him 
when he is in a passion, but as soon as it is over he is 
the best humored creature in the world ; when he is angry, 
he breaks all my china-ware that chance to lay in his 
way, and the next morning sends me in twice as much as 
he broke the day before". The editor did not presume to 
enlighten his correspondent as to how to treat this 
malady. Perhaps the desired end was attained by pub- 
lishing the letter which concluded with, "you will be 
pleased to publish this letter, by that means my husband 
will know that you do not approve of his conduct". 


Advertisements, Early 56, 57 

Advertising- Rates 5g 

Agricultural Society 46 

Agricultural Implements, Scarcity of 49 

American Invasion Feared 13 

Assembly of Militia 17 

Badgely, Thomas, Court Martial of 27 

Baldwin, Robert 50 

Ballot for Militia 19 

Barnum, Leman, Court Martial of 27 

Bateaumen, Requisition for 20 

Bateaux and Boats, Request for 23 

Bates, Roger, Testimonial 48 to 55 

Bell, Wm., Appointed Magistrate and Coroner 38, 41 ; 
Information for Arrest of, 10 ; Commission as 
Captain, 15 ; Commission as Adjutant, 15 ; 
Commission as Lieut .-Colonel, 17 ; Commis- 
sion as Major, 16 ; Habits of, 42 ; Miscellan- 
eous Correspondence with J. Ferguson, 8 to 
40 ; Pathetic Appeal on Applying- to Resign 
From Militia, 40 ; Promotion of, 41 ; Threat- 
ened by N. Hag-erman with Lawsuit, 45 ; 
Recognizance of, 11 ; Resignation Requested.. 42 

Belleville, Assembly of Militia at 38 

Brock, Gen., Letter From 18 

Burling-ton Heights, Provisions for 20 

Butter, Price of 43 

Canniff, John W., Warrant for Inquest 13 

Canniff, William, Frontispiece 5 

Cartwright, Richard, Opinion re Deserters 32 

Cartwright, Richard, Pass Granted by 18 

Cavalry, Request for Candidates for 41 

Chisholm, Major, Trial of 40 

Clark, John, Memoirs of... : 47, 48 

Clergymen, Scarcity of 39, 53 

Collins, John, Report of 55 

Commandeering Oxen and Horses 19 

Commissariat, Transport 31 

Counterfeit Money, Passing of 32, 37 

Court of Enquiry, Order for and Proceedings of 40 


Court Martial Proceedings 20, 21 

22, 23, 24, 26, 27, 28, 29, 34, 35, 36, 37 

Cummings, Samuel, Court Martial of 26 

Cummings, Jedediah, Court Martial of 26 

Danforth Road '. 55 

Deserontyou, Capt. John 10 

Deserters 18, 19, 28, 32, 37 

Deer Hunting ! 52 

Delinquent, Order for Arrest of 3^ 

Delinquent, Returns of 39 

Delinquent, Ruling re..... 41 

Doctor's Account 45 

Doty, Rev. John 53 

Editors, Troubles of 57, 58 

Election Candidate, Ferguson , 12 

Exemption From Military Service 17 

Exemption of Menonists, Quakers, and Tunkers 41 

Ferguson, John, Advises Bell Not to Go to Northwest, 
7 ; Asks Bell for Butter, etc., 8 ; Repri- 
mands Bell, 8 ; Wants Bell to Assist in 
Building a Still House, 10 ; Exhorts 
Bell to Drill His Men, 11 ; Rebukes Bell 
for Meddling With Court of Requests, 
12 ; In Politics, 12, 13 ; Orders Inhabi- 
tants of Hastings to Meet for Enroll- 
ment, 15 ; Orders Assembly of Hastings 
Militia, 17; Orders Assembly of Militia, 
in War of 1812, 18, 19 ; Demands Teams 
to Convey Goods to York, 30 ; Order for 
Court Martial, etc., 33 ; Threatens to 
Report Bell, 38 ; Store Accounts of, 42, 
43, 44, 45 ; Sickness of, 45 ; Sympath- 
izes With Bell Upon His Being Jilted, 
46 ; Fondness for Books, 46 ; Miscellan- 
eous Correspondence with Bell 8 to 40 

Flour, Scarcity of 13 

Ginseng Roots 46 

Hagerman, Nicholas, Letter From 45, 46 

Harbours, Report on 55 

Henesy, John, Charge Against 33 

Henesy, John, Trial of 36 

Herrington, W. S 6 

Indian Chiefs' Council 14 

Indians' Gratitude to Wm. Bell.... . 14 

4 INDEX. 61 

Indians, Loyalty to Settlers 50 

Indians, Privileges of 14 

Indian Supplies for York 30, 31, 37, 38 

Johnson, John, Court Martial of 24 

Johnson, Sir William .. 53 

Justice of Peace Marriage Certificate 39 

Kelsie, Lieut. Samuel, Court Martial of 21 

Kingston, Candidates at in 1780 7, 8 

Kingston Gazette 56 

"Land-granting Gentry" ... 12 

Laundry List 8 

Loan, Request for 9 

Love Song 13 

Loyalists, Centennial Celebration, 46 ; Clathing of, 50 ; 

Hardships of, 49, 52, 53 ; Removal of, 49 ; 

Roll of, 55 ; Travelling of 52 

Mail, Delivery of 13 

Marriage Certificate by Justice of the Peace 39 

Marriage License 11 

McMillan, John, Court Martial of 24 

McMullen, Henry, Court Martial of 27 

McMullen, Stephen, Court Martial of 27 

Meyers, Capt. Jacob Weldon, 'Court Martial of 22 

Militia, Assembly of, 17, 38, 40 ; Ballot for, 19 ; Direc- 
tions for Movements of, 16 ; Miscellaneous Cor- 
respondence re, 15 to 40 ; Parade of, 15 ; Order 

for Parade 17 

Missionary to Mohawks 10 

Morgan, Charles, Court Martial of 21 

Napanee Mills, Letter re Flour 45 

Napanee Flour Mill 47 

Nelson, Theophilus, Trial of 34, 35 

Newspapers, Early 57 

Oath of Allegiance 11, 12, 13 

Officers, Negligence of 16, 19 

Officers, Order for Meeting of 30 

Oswego, Capture of 20 

Oxen, and Horses Commandeered 19 

Parks, Joseph, Court Martial of 29 

Patrie, Capt., Resignation Declined 41 

Pimble, Francis, Court Martial of 29 

Pork,. Price of 43, 44 

Postage, High Rate of 38 


Potash, Manufacture and Sale of 51 

Potter, Luke, Court Martial of 29 

Potter, Reuben, Deposition of 3^> 

Prices of Necessaries 51 

Prisoners of. War... 18, 20, 25 

Prisoners, Escort for 32 

Prisoners, Rations, for : 36 

Promotions, Order for 32 

Quack Doctors 53 

Reid, Solomon, Court Martial of 28 

Religious Observance 53 

Roads, Bad 39, 40 

Roads, Danforth 55 

Road, Napanee to Belleville 46 

Roads, Order for Work on 15 

Rosebush, Lewis, Court Martial of 26 

Rum, etc., Request for 8 

Salt, Price of 43 

Saw Mill, First in Clark Township 51 

Sedition, Arrest for 23 

Seed Shortage 8 

Seley, David, Court Martial of 28 

Shingles, Contract for 8 

Shoes, Price of 44 

Sickness of Wm. Bell 39 

Skins, Price of 42 

Sleighs, Scarcity of ' 31 

Sleighs, Commandeered 31 

Spinning Wheels and Looms 53 

Still House, Building of at Mohawk Village 10 

Stuart, Rev. John, D.D 48, 53 

Subpoena for Witness 38 

Sugar, Price of 42 

Summons for Court Martial 25 

Surgical Operation on John Blaken 7 

Tea, Price of 42, 44 

Timber, Price of 13 

Tobacco, Price of 42 

Town Meeting Minutes 14 

Uniforms, Order for 16 

Uniforms, Cost of 16, 17 

Uniforms, Purchase of 10 

Vanderhider, David, Will of.... 9 

INDEX. 63 

Wagres Paid 43, 45 

War, Declaration of 18 

War of 1812, Account of by John Clark 47 

Warner, Clarance M 5 

Wedding Ceremony 53 

Whiteman, Isaac, Court Martial of 29 

Wild Fowl in 1780 49 

Will of David Vanderhider 9 

Wiltsie, Lieut.-Col., Court Martial of 21 

Wood Ashes 45 

Zwick, Phillip, Warrant for Arrest of.... .. 12 


















The Newspapers of the County Frontispiece 

Chronology, Publications and Officers 4 

Introduction 5 

The Napanee Bee 7 

The Emporium 16 

The Index 16 

The Napanee Standard 18 

The Reformer 41 

The Bantling 46 

The British North American 49 

The Lennox and Addington Ledger 49 

The Addington Reformer 51 

The Echo 52 

The Napanee Star 53 

The Napanee Express 55 

The Napanee Beaver 55 

Index... 60 

Society Organized May 9th, 1907 

Constitution Adopted June llth, 1907 

First Open Meeting Oct. 25th, 1907 

Affiliated with Ontario Historical Society March 31st, 1908 


Vol. I. Chronicles of Napanee June 12th, 1909 

Vol. II. Early Education Sept. 19th, 1910 

Vol. III. The Casey Scrap Books (Part I) Nov. 15th, 1911 

Vol. IV. The Casey Scrap Books (Part II) June 14th, 1912 

Vol. V. The Bell and Laing School Papers March 14th, 1914 

Vol. VI. Pioneer Life on the Bay of Quinte, by 

W. S. Herrington, K.C May 4th, 1915 

Vols. VII and VIII. The Constitutional Debate in 

(Double Number). the Legislative Assembly 

of 1836, with Introduction by 

William Renwick Riddell, 

LL.D., F. R. Hist., etc Nov. 7th, 1916 

Vol. IX. The Canniff Collection... ....Oct. 30th, 1917 


Hon. Presidents Wm. J. Paul, M.P., and Clarance M.Warner 

President Walter S. Herrington, K.C. 

Vice President Mrs. J. E. Eakins 

Secretary-Treasurer Rev. A. J.Wilson, B.A., B.D. 

Executive Committee: 

Dr. R. A. Leonard 

Mrs. M. C. Bogart 

E. R. Checkley 

W. J. Trenouth 

Rev. J. H. H. Coleman, M.A. 

J. W. Robinson 


In the preparation of this volume I have had something 
more in view than to simply place on record the history of 
the newspapers of Lennox and Addington. By studying 
these papers, particularly the editorials and communica- 
tions, we may get into ( closer touch with the thoughts and 
feelings of the people for whom and by whom the articles 
were written. It may appear that I have given undue 
prominence to The Standard. I feel that I am quite 
justified in devoting so much space to it, as it is the only 
paper which preserved its files and provided material for 
extended references. Moreover it was by far the strongest 
paper published in the county and for over thirty years it 
was a weekly visitor to hundreds of homes, and the 
uniform soundness of its editorials gained for it the 
respect and confidence of its readers. 

In making my selections I have confined myself pretty 
well to the story of the separation of the County. I 
might, instead, have taken up the subject of the American 
War or Confederation, both of which were very ably and 
fully treated in its columns. Separation appeared to be the 
most suitable subject as it is a purely local and a very 
important one too, and the press, particularly The 
Standard, played a most conspicuous part in bringing it 




Lennox and Addington did not boast a newspaper as 
early as many of the other counties of the province. That 
was due to the fact that Kingston was the county town 
and the press of that place was the first established in 
Upper Canada and appeared to serve the needs of the 
people of this part of the old County of Frontenac, Lennox 
and Addington. The first publication to enter the field was 
The Napanee Bee, which made its bow to the public on 
the 2nd of November, A.D. 1850. The editor and proprietor 
was the Rev. G. D. Greenleaf, who resigned the pulpit for 
the editorial chair, and in the rear of the press-room spent 
his spare hours in making and mending furniture. In his 
dual occupation he never quite abandoned his ministerial 
functions and frequently officiated in the Methodist pulpit 
on Sundays, and regularly padded his columns with 
lectures on temperance and never missed an opportunity to 
expose what he conceived to be the weaknesses of the 
other denominations. 

The Bee was a five column sheet of four pages, which 
was occasionally enlarged to six columns when matter was 
plentiful and orders were not awaiting fulfilment in the 
cabinet making branch of the establishment. The editor 
found it necessary to apologize at times for reducing its 
size. This was generally due to the scarcity of paper, but 
on one occasion the explanation was as follows, "One of 
our printers having taken French leave of us on Sabbath 
evening and taken sans ceremonie a watch belonging to 
another from our office, our being obliged in consequence 
to lose a day in catching and properly disposing of the 
thief and getting back the watch are the principal reasons 
of our being under the necessity of allowing our sheet to 
go out in its present appearance." 

With a prescience rarely encountered in a village sanc- 
tum the editor in commenting upon the recently enacted 
Fugitive Slave Law of the United States, writes in his 
issue of November 16th, 1850 : "Between the Northern and 
Southern portions of the Union an implacable enmity 
seems to have taken root ; and bitter, indeed, will be the 
fruit thereof when it shall have been matured. Slavery is 
a dark stain on the escutcheon of the American people, a 


stain which will only be removed, I fear, by the spilling 
of blood." 

I fancy I can see a smile lighting up the fat counten- 
ance of the Reverend editor when he penned the following: 
"The Bishop of Toronto has recently exercised his 
Episcopal authority in dismissing from his pastoral con- 
nection with the English Church in this province, the Rev. 
Daniel Murphy, a regularly ordained clergyman in the 
Church in which he is now degraded." 

Then follows a copy of the Bishop's letter in which he 
reprimands the Rev. Mr. Murphy for "attending protracted 
meetings of dissenters and permitting your family to go to 
dissenting places of worship. Add to all this you appeared 
before me without any clerical habit not even bands and 
had only one confirmation in your extensive mission." 

There evidently were other reasons for the action of 
his Lordship in arriving at the conclusion, as he did, that 
Mr. Murphy's continuance in the Diocese was not for the 
benefit of the church ; but as these were the only ones 
mentioned in the Bishop's letter, Mr. Greenleaf eagerly 
seized upon them as the "only assignable reason for this 
exercise of his Lordship's displeasure". 

The Bee adopted an attractive method of reminding its 
delinquent subscribers that payment of their accounts 
would be quite acceptable to the proprietor : 

"It does not with our views agree, 

To be forever dunning ; 
But if you'll pay us for the Bee, 

You'll save us cost and running. 

We've served you all, as best we could 

To literary honey, 
And now we want both flour and wood 

And wont refuse the money. 

Our terms, you know, are IN ADVANCE, 
Of this you've not been heedful, 

And now improve the present chance, 
And hand us in the needful." 

It was on the subject of temperance that the Bee waxed 
most eloquent. Every copy devoted one or more columns 
to the question so dear to the heart of the editor. On one 
occasion The Whig took up the gauntlet for the tavern 
keepers and expressed the opinion that the taverns were 
so well managed that they were becoming as clean, tidy 
and comfortable as 1 the far famed inns of New and Old 
England, and regretted that they were being so persecuted 
by the temperance organization. This exasperated the 


reverend editor, who promptly came to the rescue of the 
temperance societies, and handled the Whig without gloves. 
"This is certainly a rich idea an idea every way worthy 
of the cranium which conceived it, the pen which wrote it 
and the press which spread it before the world." In a 
masterly style he advanced the oft-repeated arguments 
against the traffic and reached the climax of his effort in 
the following : f -'It is, however, indeed true, that the 
popular voice is beginning to be heard, and that the work 
of spoiliation carried on by the vendors of strong drinks 
in the sale of those drinks is becoming more and more 
apparent to all persons of all classes, and that the general 
cry "down with the liquor traffic", is reverberating louder 
and yet louder still, throughout Canada ; and throughout 
the world. Speed it on ye winds of Heaven ! Ye mighty 
waves of the King of Waters ! Ye snorting iron steeds, 
traversing vast continents ! Ye earth confined lightning, 
transmitting knowledge with the speed of thought ! Ye 
literary cohorts, engaged in the cause of truth and. right- 
eousness and who wield instruments mightier than the 
sword, the. pen and the press. Speed on the shout "down 
with the liquor traffic", until that class of men, whose 
pieces of silver are many of them often, very often, the 
price of blood, are compelled to abandon a business which 
produced and yet produces nine-tenths of the pauperism and 
crime throughout the country." 

In concluding his three column effusion he took one 
parting shot at his co-temporary who h#d dared to say a 
word in extenuation of the business of the tavern keeper. 
"The Whig may trumpet forth his honorable alliance and 
make dolorous lament over the imaginary wrongs of his 
persecuted constituents he may extol his own virtues and 
dilate upon the praiseworthy efforts of his compeers in the 
cause of intemperance ; but let him beware how he 
charges upon teetotalers the possession of those motives 
and passions which more than one fact evince to be 
rankling in his own bosom." The granting of licenses 
rested with the township councils and for many years the 
Sons of Temperance were a factor to be reckoned with at 
election time. The following communication from a cor- 
respondent in the Township of Ernesttown upon the 
question of tavern licenses is enlightening : "Mr. Editor, 
For the edification of your numerous readers, I lay down 
to you a short sketch of the proceedings of our learned 
council on the question of licensing the sale of intoxicating 
drinks. You will remember that there were twelve 
licenses granted last year ; for which the council, the 
majority of which were Sons, were roundly taken to task 
by the advocates of the good order, but one of the Sons 


being ousted by the advocates of the good old rum system, 
who says that the greatest enjoyment he has, is to take a 
glass with an old friend when he is out, very little could 
be expected from that quarter ; but light has been advanc- 
ing during the year and the opposers of the license were 
sanguine in their expectations." 

"Mr. Day thought they ought to give licenses to all 
who could pay for them." 

"Mr. Warner moved, seconded by Mr. Booth, that the 
number should not exceed eight." 

"Mr. Perry moved, seconded by Mr. Davy, that the 
number should not exceed eleven." 

"The lesser number was carried by the casting vote of 
the Reeve." 

"On the question how much each applicant should pay 
for a license, Mr. Perry wished to lessen the amount 
because he did not like to derive a revenue from such a 
source. Mr. Booth would increase the amount because he 
thought men ought to pay well for the harm they did in 
this community." 

"On the question whether moral character should be 
required of the applicants, Mr. Perry thought it would be 
wrong to employ moral men in such an immoral business. 
The question was carried in the affirmative by the casting 
vote of the reeve." 

"There are many persons who have heard Mr. McLean 
declare that he would rather have his right arm cut off 
than to vote for licenses ; but we saw him last Monday 
deliberately vote for eight." "But he was reeve and could 
not help it," says somebody. "Who made him reeve ? 
Verily his unenviable position is voluntary. It has been 
said that every man has his price ; but the honor of being 
reeve of a township is a small price. I have nothing more 
to say, your readers will make their own comments. You 
will see I am not in the habit of writing, but I can chop 
or thresh with any fellow in these diggings." 

"Yours respectfully, 

"Ernesttown, 17th Feb., 1852." 

The early newspapers were not afraid to discuss all 
public questions and if in so doing it became necessary to 
criticize the conduct of some one in office the editor 
unhesitatingly did so. Correspondents were encouraged by 
his example, and the result was the free and open ventila- 
tion of all public grievances through the columns of the 
local press. An excellent illustration of this wholesome 
practice is shewn in respect to the letter of Josh Jumper. 


He opened up the question of the excessive number of 
licenses and scored Reeve McLean, a Son of Temperance, 
for voting for eight tavern licenses in the Township of 
Ernesttown. In the very next issue of the Bee another 
correspondent comes to the rescue of the Reeve, in an able 
communication so forceful and well written that I do not 
hesitate to reproduce it in full : 

"Sir, In the last number of your excellent little 
journal there is published a communication from some 
person who evidently intends to injure the recently elected 
Reeve of the township of Ernesttown. Now, much as I 
am opposed to the licensing of taverns those places of 
infamy I cannot join in trying to injure Mr. McLean for 
his vote at the time mentioned. Surely, friend "Josh 
Jumper", keen and sprightly as he may. appear to be from 
the name he bears, must be an excessively dull and stupid 
fellow, if he cannot perceive that, although the reeve did 
vote for the licensing of eight taverns, yet he did not at all 
go contrary to his formerly avowed principles ; for, the 
question was not whether there should be eight taverns or 
none at all, but whether eight or eleven ; and he, as every 
conscientious public man should do, voted the smallest 
possible number. And, it is an act of great injustice, on 
the part of the writer of this communication, so to 
misrepresent the thing as to leave an entirely wrong im- 
pression on the minds of your readers as there is no 
doubt but what it actually -is the -desire of the Reeve to 
have Ernesttown free from all grog holes." 

"Now, supposing that he, instead of using his influence 
in the manner he did, had given the casting vote against 
the party that is now triumphant, what may I ask would 
have been the consequence ? Why, instead of having only 
eight of those grog holes, there would have been three more 
added to this number, to assist in the cause of drunkeness, 
which is already a deadly curse to the township." 

"There is no doubt but that Josh's assertion that "he 
can chop or thresh with any fellow in the diggings", is 
perfectly correct, but surely he would have done far better 
to have remained at the business for which nature seems to 
have designed him, than to have exhausted his time and 
energies in trying to injure the characters of certain men, 
unless he can find some better reasons for doing so than 
the one given in his last communication." 

"Far better would it be for him and such men to 
remain quietly chopping on their log heaps or threshing on 
their barn floors than to run their heads against some- 
thing for which nature had never designed them, for 
although he may make fearful havoc in chopping a bass- 


wood tree, "he's no great shakes" when it comes to 
cutting and slashing at an opponent through the columns 
of a newspaper I do not at all attempt to defend the 
other part of the council for their proceedings on the 
question, and although I am of the opinion that they 
might have done more towards lessening the number of 
tippling houses that are already in existence yet I had 
never expected that they would be abolished entirely dur- 
ing the short space of one year." 

"Yours respectfully, 

"March 3rd, 1855." 

The effect of Josh's letter did not end with the ventila- 
tion of the license question in the township of Ernesttown. 
Richmond, including the Village af Napanee, had no less 
than thirteen taverns, and one "E. S.", moved by the 
correspondence from Ernesttown, came forward with an 
epistle, in the same issue of the Bee, which gives us an 
insight into the game of municipal politics as it was 
played sixty-six years ago. 

"Sir, In the Bee of the 27th of Feb. I observe a 
communication signed "Josh Jumper", which gives the 
proceedings of the Ernesttown Council, with respect to the 
licensing public houses. He complains most of the Reeve, 
for giving the casting vote for eight tavern licenses for 
that township. I do not know what the number of inhab- 
itants is in the township of Ernesttown, but I should think 
it is one-third more than the township of Richmond, at 
least, and yet Richmond is to be cursed with 12. What 
will "Josh" think of this ? Can he complain ? Rich- 
mond has on the assessment roll about five hundred & 
fifty freeholders and householders. If this be correct it 
will give two taverns and a fraction over for every hundred 
on the assessment roll. Perhaps, Mr. Editor, before going 
any further it will be proper to look back a year or two. 
In the year 1850 there were licensed in the township of 
Richmond 13 taverns. Well sir, the Sons and other true 
hearted temperance men thought this too many ; and were 
determined to lessen the number. To accomplish this, at 
the town meeting of 51, there were three pledged temper- 
ance men and two Sons proposed for councillors and two 
Sons and one temperance man for inspectors. The Election 
was lost, it is true ; but with it was lost three taverns." 

"The council elected in 51, said Richmond should have 
only ten taverns. In this they kept their word. It was 
all we had. The townmeeting of 52 came on and two of 
the council were candidates again. One of these and the 


second who addressed the electors in the course of his 
address said, "as regards the taverns, we last year reduced 
the number 13 to ten and I think these will have a further 

"The next speaker endorsed the sentiments and said 
he thought ten too many ; and that the number ought to 
be reduced. After him, came on, a thorough going tem- 
perance man as was supposed, but he did not allude to 
the question at all. It was supposed that, as he was a 
temperance man, he would go for reducing the number of 
licensed taverns. But, how vain our wishes and our 
hopes ! The very first by-law passed, by the new council 
revealed to the sober part oif the community how greatly they 
were deceived. The very first clause of by-law 34 modes- 
tly reads "that the whole number of taverns to be licensed 
to sell wines and spirituous and fermented liquors for the 
year commencing the first of March, 1852 and ending the 
last of February, 1853 shall not exceed twelve in the 
township of Richmond." 

"I need only refer to this very by-law to prove decep- 
tion in order to secure their election." 

"But sir, I hope he will listen to by-law 34 of the 
Richmond code which orders the inspectors to report to 
the 'council on the 24th of Feb. the number of applicants 
they may find qualified, according to by-law No. 33. They 
did report eight all that they thought qualified. But what 
does our learned council do ? They do not think it 
enough, some friends are left out and they must have 
licenses. But they are not prepared, according to by-law 
No. 33 and the inspectors will not report them qualified. 
What must be done ? This is reduction in the wrong 
quarter. Tell it not in Gath, speak it not in Akelon that 
by-law 34 of the township of Richmond is suspended until 
the 28th of Feb., in order to allow certain parties .time to 
prepare for the inspectors and they are ordered to go and 
again examine the premises of those they could not report 
before. One applicant must have yards put in one place, 
another rent stables away from his house ; a third, must 
repair sheds and I suppose, if necessary borrow some beds 
and furniture. By the 28th all is ready. The inspectors 
sally forth, the premises are re-examined and reported as 
qualified, according to by-law 33, they obtain licenses and 
so come up to the number specified in said by-law twelve. 
And, yet, our council go tooth and nail for reduction. 
But, sir, if this be reduction, I do most sincerely hope we 
shall have no such reduction in our taxes." 

"I may refer again to this question, at some future 
time and try to fix the responsibility of the increase of 
taverns on the right parties, and answer one or two 


reasons advanced for this increase. I shall close by re- 
questing your readers to consider this matter and 'Josh 
Jumper' in particular not to takei umbrage at the use of 
his name. I only show him -that he ought not to complain 
of eight taverns when he has three villages and we only 

"Yours E. S." 

The Bee like most of the early newspapers encouraged 
the rhymster and under the heading "poetry" appeared 
many contributions, all of them bad, but some- much worse 
than others. Why editors give space to such matter the 
writer has often wondered for it is a species of offence 
not confined to the early newspapers. Is the editor afraid 
of offending the contributor by refusing to publish the silly 
rhymes that so frequently appear in his columns ? If so, 
it might be well, before accepting the copy, to consider the 
offence he gives his readers by publishing such stuff. The 
editor of the Bee was partial to rhyme, especially so, if it 
dealt with the temperance question. I will inflict only one 
sample upon the reader. A certain Mr. Clark had the 
distinction of keeping a temperance hotel at Mill Creek 
(Odessa). The following lines were alleged to have been 
left at the house by an admiring guest as "a token of 
respect" to the landlord : 

Long in mem'ry will I cherish 
This bright spot amid the gloom 
Gath'ring round, while thousands perish 
Mid its dark and fearful gloom ! 
Here, I do not finds its trace ; 
Here, the curse hath not a* place. 

While the darkness yet is o'er us, 
Faith is firm and hope is bright ; 
There's a better day before us ; 
There's an end to this dark night ; 
We may doubt we may fear 
Yet, a Resurrection's near. 

Hasten then, its glorious breaking, 
Sever Rum's soulcankering chain, 
Rise, the millions now are waking, 
Dawns Earth, a primal morn again, 
May this gloom forsake our skies 
"Star of Temperance" arise. 

But, adieu, the years I number, 
Will be bright with mem'ries here ; 
Though in distant lands T slumber, 


God will bring your triumph near ; 
Firmly then with faith and might 
Battle on for human right ! 

Good night, Good night, 

For I must away by the morning light. 

The Bee was doomed to be short lived. The editor 
scolded and coaxed but the subscriptions remained unpaid 
and there was a falling off in the advertising matter except 
the patent medicines. He did not seem to realize that the 
chief end of a newspaper is to provide news for its readers. 
His advocacy of the temperance cause was quite proper, 
but the space devoted to it was out of all proportion to 
that given over to other ' reading matter. In vain he 
appealed to the temperance lodges to make the Bee their 
mouth-piece and thus hasten the coming of prohibition. A 
newspaper man needs to be broad minded ; but we can find 
no trace of this characteristic in the editor of Napanee's 
first newspaper. Shortly before the demise of the Bee, a 
Mr. Youmans, who had for some time been tutoring the 
young Mohawks up on the Tyendinaga Reserve, was giving 
a series of concerts, consisting of "comic, sentimental and 
moral songs ; dialogues, addresses, &c.", just the class of 
program we find in our Sunday Schools to-day. While 
accepting the advertisement Mr. Greenleaf felt it his duty 
to discourage this form of entertainment as likely to have 
an injurious effect upon the performers. In the same issue 
in which the advertisement appeared he commented editor- 
ially, "The Indian children, under Mr. Youmans, are 
decidedly active, they are bright specimens from Nature's 
quarry and susceptible of receiving a high and useful 
polish. Hence our fears. That friction which they are 
now having with a professedly civilized and Christian 
people cannot, we fear, result in any lasting good, either 
to themselves or those who hear them and see their theat- 
rical exhibitions. Comic songs and grotesque illustrations 
contrast strangely with those of a sentimental and moral 
character, when mingled therewith. Those whose motto 
is : 'while we live let us live', may see nothing wrong in 
comic songs or comic exhibitions ; but with those whose 
motto is, 'in the midst of life we are in death', a distinc- 
tion between that which exalts and that which debases man 
is ever discernable in the commonest occurences of life." 

This is a fair sample of his puritanical views, and yet 
he saw nothing ridiculous in his narrow mindedness and 
wondered why his paper was not popular. The wonder is 
that it prolonged its life as long as it did. The Bee 
ceased to buzz before it had completed its second volume. 



Not content with his experience with the Bee, Mr. 
Greenleaf concluded to make another trial at the news- 
paper business. He chose a more pretentious name, "The 
Emporium", for his new venture and took in a new 
partner, Mr. C. Lowry ; but neither the new name nor the 
new partner could overcome the prejudice against the 
editor's methods. He could not understand why the 
general public should not take as deep an interest in the 
temperance movement as he did and was annoyed to find 
that even the enthusiastic temperance advocates were not 
satisfied to accept dissertations upon temperance instead of 
news. The Emporium made its first appearance a few 
weeks after the Bee had suspended publication, but it was 
doomed to meet the same fate, and after a few issues, it 
also was discontinued. The editor quite disgusted with 
the poor taste of the citizens of Napanee and the sur- 
rounding country made no further efforts to reclaim them 
from the slough, ignorance and depravity in which, in his 
opinion, they had fallen in spite of his fatherly advice and 
grood example. 


Newburgh was not to be outdone by Napanee in the 
newspaper line. In the month of January, 1853, there 
issued from the back shop of a drug store in the ambitious 
village the first number of the Index. It changed hands 
several times and continued to make its weekly appearance 
for nearly ten years. From a perusal of the few copies I 
have been able to unearth the wonder is that it lived as 
long as it did. In the first place one is struck with the 
utter absence of local news. This department is overdone 
in the local press of to-day which seriously chronicles the 
fact that Mrs. Jones called upon Mrs. Smith on Sunday 
afternoon, as though such an event could possibly be of 
public interest. The Index went to the other extreme and 
gave absolutely no information concerning the happenings 
in the village or any part of the county. The editorials 
were rare, and in vain have I searched for one worth re- 
producing. What did it contain f Methinks I hear the 
reader ask. In the first place there was the inevitable 
poem, at least, it was published under the heading 
"Poetry". Some of these were copied from other publi- 
cations ; but many of them were composed for the Index. 
A bard from Colebrook writing over the name "Experior", 
was a frequent contributor. In one of his lighter veins he 
inflicted a dozen stanzas upon the readers of the Index in 
the issue of May 2nd, 1855. The first three will serve 
our purpose as samples : 


'Tis obvious it would not do 
If mankind had no whiskers, 
For there's the fop and dandy, too, 
They could not then exist, sir. 

Moreover in this hairy age, 
When shaving- is a crime, sir, 
There's many a serious minded sage, 
Is not behind the time, sir. 

He wears whiskers 'cause they're warm, 
The dandy wears moustaches, 
Because they dignify his form 
And beautify his dashes. 

The following, incredible as it may appear, is from the 
same pen : 

Beyond death's cold and chilling flood 
There is a heavenly land of rest, 
Where followers of the living God 
Repose upon their Saviour's breast, 
No waves of trouble ever roll 
O'er the serene and peaceful shore, 
And those who reach this heavenly goal 
Rejoice to sigh and weep no more. 

After the never failing poem came the serial, short 
stories and boiler plate anecdotes that still prevail in most 
of our local papers, and which under no conditions could 
be treated as news. The second page was given over to 
extracts from other papers, editorials, if any, and cor- 
respondence. The third page was devoted almost 
exclusively to advertisements. In this respect the Index 
showed considerable enterprise, as twelve columns out of 
the twenty-eight were advertising matter, many of them 
from business houses across the border. The scissors were 
freely used in securing 1 material for such portions of the 
last pag-e as were not filled with patent medicine advertise- 
ments, and the man wielding them does not appear to 
have been governed by any general rule in making his 
clippings. Anything and everything to fill up the space- 
poetry, sermons, parliamentary proceedings, it mattered 

Thus, week .after week, the same program was pursued 
and long suffering subscribers endured it nearly ten years. 
The editor occasionally woke up to snap back at the 
Standard or Reformer for poking fun at "Rogues Hollow", 
as Newburgh was called sixty years ago. 



The Napanee Standard was founded in 1854 by a 
number of citizens of Napanee prominent among whom 
were Allan MacPherson, Robert Esson, B. C. Davy and 
Alexander Campbell. They all took a deep interest in 
the village and felt it should have a newspaper of its own. 
It was the first newspaper worthy of the name published 
in the county, and from the beginning it took its place 
among the best papers of the day. The editor took his 
stand upon public questions and, while it was at first 
recognized as a Conservative organ, he did not hesitate 
to withhold its support, when it was to the interest of 
the community to do so. This was very clearly manifest- 
ed in the general election of 1863 when Augustus Hooper 
and Sir Richard Cartwright were the respective candidates. 
For many years one absorbing local issue in Napanee had 
been the separation of the Counties of Lennox and Adding- 
ton from the United Counties of Frontenac, Lennox and 
Addington. Because Hooper had in 1860, while Warden of 
the United Counties, used his influence against the move- 
ment, the Standard, at a time when he was sorely in 
need of its support, chose to withhold it. For years it 
fought all comers who opposed separation. Many obstacles 
had to be overcome and powerful influences had to be met. 
Arrayed against the proposal were such stalwarts as John 
A. Macdonald, Henry Smith and Benjamin Seymour, and 
of course the united influence of the City of Kingston and- 
the County of Frontenac. The Governor-in-Council had 
power by proclamation to effect a separation, if he deemed 
the circumstances such as to call for a separate establish- 
ment of courts and other County institutions ; but only 
after a majority of the Reeves and Deputy Reeves of the 
junior County had in the month of February for two 
successive years passed a resolution affirming the exped- 
iency of separation and in the month of February of the 
following year did transmit to the Governor a petition 
asking that separation be granted. Before its final con- 
summation the battle was waged for ten years. Resolutions 
were passed and petitions were presented ; but the oppon- 
ents of separation always found some means of thwarting 
the will of the people. In 1860 the Standard entered the 
arena with a determination to see that justice was done to 
Lennox and Addington. The following extracts from the 
editorials illustrate the ability displayed in that contest. 

The issue of March 29th, 1860, contained the following : 
"The separation of the Counties of Lennox and Addington 
from the County of Frontenac has been the subject of much 
discussion within these Counties for some time past ; and 


as the subject is of not less importance to us, as a com- 
munity now, than when it was first introduced for debate, 
we assume the responsibility of referring to it again." 

"It is no great secret in these parts that a petition is 
now safely before the House of Assembly, signed by a 
majority of the Municipalities of Lennox and Addington, 
praying that the separation in question be granted ; and, 
which is in agreement with the expressed wishes of about 
two thousand of the inhabitants of the Counties of Lennox 
and Addington and furnished, as evidence of the prevailing 
desire of the people for the separation, to the House of 
Assembly two years ago, and it would be an insult to the 
common sense of the thinking portion of the Counties, to 
say that their views have since changed, notwithstanding 
the vacillation of any aspiring gentleman, or the tenacity 
for petty office honors of any, ' whose independence cannot 
rise above the love of a municipal election. 

"The objections that have been urged against separa- 
tion have been of the most flimsy nature, characteristic of 
pure selfishness from its beginning and running through all 
subsequent discussion, a principle most destructive to all 
future progress! veness, in any branch of local or public 
enterprise. It is a sad day for the weal of the public, that 
so little independence of mind is obtained among public 
men, even from the lowest municipal office to the legisla- 
ture of the country, that sacrifice of local and public 
interests are made, in order to the accumulation of politi- 
cal capital. Because one man aspires after Legislature 
distinction ; and another after the petty office of munici- 
pal councillor, interests of thousands must be sacrificed. 
This surely is a feature in our political economy not very 
complimentary to the intelligence and moral integrity of 
the nineteenth century." 

"The strategems of political jobbers have become so 
notorious that the public eye is becoming brightened, so 
as the more efficiently to watch the manoeuvres of those, 
by whose hands are played the game of political trickery ; 
and let not him, whose cunning may be thought to screen 
him from being detected in his complicity, dream that the 
day of retribution will never come ; for, as sure as every 
effect has its cause, so sure, will 'one's sins find him out' 
though the day of revelation may be somewhat tardy in 
its approaches ; and then will he smart for his duplicity." 

"The double game, which is generally supposed, by 
parties who watched the progress of Legislature on the 
separation bill, when in a recent session it passed through 
the Lower House, only to be rejected by the Lords of the 
Upper House, is not yet effaced from their memories and a 
no less vigilance will mark the same parties, during the 


present session ; however, we trust to witness an honest 
and successful disposition of this increasingly vexatious 

"It is patent to every one that has taken the pains to 
ascertain the good sense of the community affected therein, 
that a large majority of the inhabitants of the Counties 
of Lennox and Addington, are ripe for the separation and 
are only hindered in effecting their scheme, by the predom- 
inant selfishness of a faction, who, up to the present, have 
possessed strategy sufficient to thwart the purposes and 
designs of the majority ; thus retarding the progress of 
justice and inflicting serious injury upon others, who from 
some technicality of prescribed form, have been rendered 
powerless to obtain their rights." 

"What was it but the selfishness of a local faction, in 
and about the obscure village of Newburgh, that prompted 
their hostility against a joint separation with the County 
of Lennox, while they used every plea for a separate dis- 
union from both the Counties of Frontenac and Lennox ? 
A more manifest injustice against a sister county could 
not easily have been projected. And what could have been 
the outside influence brought against the bill in the Upper 
House, but the political presence of certain members con- 
nected with the representation of Frontenac and the city 
of Kingston ; to say nothing of the moiety of the back 
water current, occasioned by the dread of accumulated 
taxes upon a few acres of land within the Counties owned 
by the Hon. Mr. Seymour, whose obtuseness prevented the 
vision of increased valuation to real estate, far eclipsing 
the consideration of increased taxation ?" 

"Thus far we have merely been giving ventilation to 
the opposing influences ; shewing the predominant and only 
motive for opposition is selfishness, we now turn our 
attention to consider some of the arguments in favor of 
separation and demanding it." 

"If we are not in error there is no county or union of 
counties that has an equal extent of territory with our 
United Counties. The Counties of Frontenac, Lennox and 
Addington embrace an area of 1,335,640 acres of land, of 
which 1200324 acres were returned as assessed in 1859. 
And in the separation Frontenac, in this respect, cannot 
complain, for she will still have 858940 acres as forming 
her County, nearly double the amount of Lennox and 
Addington together. We argue then, the necessity of a 
separation from the oversize of the United Counties, 
necessarily causing many miles distance from the County 
Town to a large portion of the inhabitants and especially 
as the County Town is not centrally located, being at one 
side, namely, in the County of Frontenac, probably about 


sixty miles distant from the remotest municipality. To 
bring parties interested in the County Courts and Assizes 
from so great a distance six times a year and probably an 
average loss of time each occasion of two weeks, and those 
interested in the County Councils as many times more, is 
a consequence of very serious moment, involving sacrifice 
of time, means and comfort, which is oppressively felt 
and complained against ; yet, hitherto, without any relief. 
The grievance complained of, in this respect is rendered 
doubly grievous in the fact that the greater portion of the 
time thus consumed is occupied by the business of the 
County Town, incurring serious sacrifices upon those who 
are not in any way connected therewith. And' again, a 
very disproportional amount of the current County 
expenses, is borne by the County of Frontenac and the 
City of Kingston and especially in view of the incontro- 
vertible fact that the larger amount of the expenses is 
incurred by that portion of the County contiguous to the 
County Town and which has to be paid in a disproportion- 
ate ratio by the inhabitants of the Counties of Lennox 
and Addington, a fact which renders separation imperative 
in order that Lennox and Addington may be relieved from 
oppressiveness so cruel and burdensome." 

"In the name of common sense, we ask, where is the 
justice in compelling the inhabitants of Lennox and 
Addington, who probably are not interested in over one- 
fifth of the business of the whole County, to be taxed 
with three-fifths of the county expenses ? In the face of 
truths like these, and facts are stubborn things, how can 
any enlightened Legislative body deny to Lennox and 
Addington a separation ?" 

"It is, indeed, very fine for the people of the city of 
Kingston and the County of Frontenac, to have the 
establishment of a County Town perpetuated among them 
at the expense of Lennox and Addington Counties that 
have but little participation in their operations, only as 
they are called upon to hand over their means to give 
respectability to those who blush not in perpetuating this 
grievous burden." 

"From this state of things as they exist, it is now 
readily understood how selfishness is chargeable against all 
opposers of this movement." 

"If the Hon's. John A. Macdonald, A. Campbell and 
Henry Smith be found opposing our scheme, it is enough 
to say that each of them hails from 'the city of Kingston 
and are the representatives of that city and contiguous 

"If any portion of Addington be found in the opposi- 
tion, it is eneugh to say that the rising town of Napanco 


threatens rivalry with their obscure Newburgh, in aspira- 
tion for County Town. And let it not be forgotten, so 
as to put our sister Addington in a fair light, before the 
Legislature and the public, in order that the motive of any 
opposition may appear undisguised, that Addington, even 
Addington, the amiable Addington took the initiatory, in 
her three annual Municipal votes for a separation both 
from the Counties of Frontenac and Lennox, she being the 
intervening county and put in her application before the 
Governor General for said separation, which was very 
wisely refused by His Excellency ; and now as a political 
job, she desires to take back her separation application, 
until a more favorable time turns up for the honor ol 
having the County Town." 

"We say, and have said all along, give us the separa- 
tion, and let the location of the County Town be an after 
consideration and submitted to the decision of the reeves." 

"In conclusion, we may remark, that our chief hope is 
in the independence and indomitable perseverance of our 
faithful and independent member, Mr. Roblin, whose power- 
ful influence has been so much felt in support of men and 
measures, , which have received the approbation of our 
enlightened county." 

"We trust that Mr. Roblin will shew no less zeal and 
force, in pushing this measure through its various stages 
of legislation until the sanction of the Governor-General 
proclaims it law. We think that Mr. Roblin has undeni- 
able claims upon the Ministry, who have received so much 
of his able support for a return of Legislative influence, 
which is not only due to Mr. Roblin, but demanded by the 
oppressed yeomanry of Lennox and Addington. Parliament 
was never convoked for merely local and personal 
aggrandizement ; but for the general welfare of the -people 
interested in Legislative enactment. Hence upon public 
grounds, the rights of the people, we claim the passage of 
the Bill," 

Thus did the Standard long before separation was 
effected state its case and, for upwards of three years, in 
season and out of season, it kept the question prominently 
before the. public, met all arguments advanced against its 
position and no matter what the political effect was, no 
matter what friends or enemies were made, it never 
swerved from the terms of that manly editorial. Such a 
clear and convincing statement of the case for separation 
could not fail to attract the attention of those opposed to 
the movement, and the Whig was the first to comment 
upon it. To answer the arguments of the Standard it 
could not. The only course open to it was to challenge 
the statement of facts, which it did by alleging that the 


United Council had petitioned against separation and that 
all the reeves and deputy-reeves of Addington and one 
reeve of Lennox had joined in a similar petition. To 
facilitate the movement Mr. David Roblin, the member of 
the Legislative Assembly for Lennox and Addington, had 
prepared a special Bill and brought it before the House. 
After the Bill had been introduced it is quite true that its 
opponents had succeeded in securing such petitions against 
it, but the Whig was in error when it stated that all the 
reeves and deputy-reeves of Addington had joined in the 
counter petition. These petitions, however, in. no way 
wiped out the arguments for separation and in the next 
issue of the Standard the attempt of the Whig to evade the 
real issue was disposed of as follows : 

"The whole machinery at work effecting the sham 
movements among the Addingtonians is apparent to the 
most superficial observer. The vain expectancy of political 
influence affecting the future locality of the County Town 
is developing a duplicity which for the credit of Addington 
we lament. It is as patent as that two and two make 
four, that the majority of Addington is ripe for separation 
and the only obstacle in the way of their co-operation, 
officially, with Lennox is the County Town question'. 
Indeed, it is very difficult to please those locality servers, 
and when the just principle of settling the point at issue, 
is so liberally proposed in the Bill now before Parliament 
one would hardly have thought that it could have been 
rejected ; yet, so it is for they are unwilling even to let 
the people decide where the most eligible location is. The 
faction whose manoeuvres have given existence to the 
petition in question, would not, apparently be satisfied 
unless the Bill provides that the aspiring village of New- 
burgh be made the County Town, although a large 
majority of the inhabitants of Lennox and Addington 
might say otherwise. As far as our judgment is concerned 
in the matter, it is very doubtful what locality the voice 
of the people would say shall be the honored one, and in 
'ft, Lennox runs as much risk as does Addington ; yet we 
are willing to leave the matter in the hands of the people, 
because the principle is fair and just, and we are sorry to 
say that the same generous, open, liberal and unselfish 
feelings do not characterize the Addington local faction. 
We will take a step farther in the scale of anti-selfishness 
and say that the interests of Lennox and Addington, as 
a separate county, are so paramount that we would 
advocate the separation, though the Bill provided that even 
New-burgh should be the County Town. We ask, will 
Addington evince such liberality ? The faction say No ! 
We will not even leave it to the people whose interests 


ought to be considered in the settlement." 

"We trust that our legislators will take an enlarged 
view of the matter and not permit the subterfuge of a few 
interested jobbers to bias them to the favoritism of any 
party. We ask, in this matter, for no private local 
favors. All that we ask is that justice be done to Lennox 
and Addington, an aggrieved and burdened portion of the 
United Counties as they now exist, with the County Town 
at one corner of the Counties, the expenses of which 
establishment are so disproportionately borne by Lennox 
and Addington without any adequate benefit arising there- 

"And touching the composition of the petition itself, 
it need scarcely be repeated that they do not represent 
the feelings of the people on this question, but that it is 
got up for a party purpose. The petition itself can have 
very little, if any, weight with the members of Parliament 
excepting with a few who are personally interested in the 
matter, as a neutralizing element had preceded it in the 
petition of a majority of the municipalities of the Coun- 
ties of Lennox and Addington, praying for the separation, 
which petition, unquestionably, represents the sentiments 
of the people and whose voice doubtless will be heard." 

The Standard also accused the editor of the Whig of 
stating an untruth when he said in his editorial "All the 
reeves and deputy reeves of Addington, together with one 
of the few reeves of Lennox united in a separate petition." 
This was an incorrect statement and admitted by the Whig 
to be so ; but it claimed that it had corrected the error 
by publishing the proceedings of the council in its next 
issue. This could hardly be treated as a correction of a 
statement of fact in the editorial in question and the 
Standard stood by its gun and insisted upon it that the 
editor had not only stated Avhat was not true, but was 
guilty of another similar offence by claiming that he had 
corrected his error. This was too much for the Whig. 
Under the heading "A One-horse Newspaper", he adminis- 
tered what he evidently believed to be a very sever* 
castigation to the editor of tne Standard and seemed 
quite pleased with the manner in which he had done it. 
The editor of the Standard took full advantage of his 
opponent's display of bad taste and an unruly temper in 
the following clever editorial. 

"As we have a few moments to spare, perhaps we 
cannot employ them to the amusement of our readers 
better than in the way of acknowledging the courtesy of 
the venerable *Doctor of the Whig." 

* The Editor of the Whig at this time was Dr. Edward John Barker, 
grandfather of his successor, the late Mr. K J. B. Pense. 


"And since the splenetic Doctor has shown such 
symptoms of feverish excitement, threatening a derange- 
ment of the cerebrum, which may be alarming to his 
friends, we will proceed cautiously to the analysis of the 
causes of this temporary aberration and offer these pre- 
scriptions and suggestions which we hope may lead to his 
speedy convalescence." 

"In the first place, the venerable Doctor, in the mani- 
festation of the over zeal for the local interests of the city 
of Kingston touching the County separation question, 
allowed himself to falsify the doings of the County Council 
in the premises by stating that all the reeves and deputy- 
reeves of Addington had petitioned against the separa- 

"In our issue of the 5th instant we directed the 
attention of the Whig to his incorrect statement, which, of 
course, was calculated to damage the separation interests 
and intimated the probability of the Doctor's correcting it, 
for we were jealous for our own side of the question, and 
desirous that the truth should appear so that no false 
capital might thus be formed against us. Instead of 
correcting the error as ought to have been expected, the 
Doctor betrayed a haughtiness peculiar to the profession of 
quackery and denouncing us as impertinent, demanded to 
know wherein the falsified statement existed. In our next 
issue following, we quoted the objectionable paragraph, and 
asked the amiable Whig to correct it, and in reply we have 
the Doctor 'busted up' the richest feature in the whole 
a complete coup de grace a diminishing stroke. Here it 
is, just as it came hissing and spitting and sissing and 
boiling from the over-heated cranium of the splenetic 

"A ONE-HORSE NEWSPAPER. Nothing is more 
vexing to a journalist than to be annoyed by the rudeness of 
the one-horse press. These creatures of paste and scissors 
know they can be impertinent with impunity, trusting to 
their utter insignificance. On the day the County Council 
adjourned, believing that all the Reeves and Deputy-Reeves 
of Addington had signed the petition against separation, it 
was so stated by us ; whereas in fact, all but one had 
signed it. The next day this error was corrected by the 
publication of the procee'dings of the Council, taken from 
the minutes. This error, a miserable seven by nine sheet, 
published at Napanee, has seized hold of and with an im- 
pertinent rudeness, natural in its condition, reiterates the 
cry of 'false', 'falsehood', 'false statement', etc. There is 
but one way to get rid of such annoyances." 

"This perfect gem of literary taste and exquisite 
decorum, demands a little attention at our hands." 

"We, all along, maintained our good nature with the 
Doctor and when this last precious exhibition came to 
hand, our risible propensities had a good opportunity of 


development. Throughout we endeavored to maintain a 
proper respect for the age and position of our venerable 
co-temporary The Father of the Press ; but if we have 
now lowered a degee or two in scale of editorial etiquette, 
the Doctor, himself, must be held responsible ; for when we 
have stuffed haughtiness to deal with a real six-horse 
power we must square our action accordingly, lest the 
Doctor be wanting in appreciation of our 'One Horse 
Seven-by-nine' ' 

"The propensity of the Whig for fibbing and sticking to 
it, is unmistakably developed throughout the entire melee 
and, in this his last precious demolisher, he clings tenac- 
iously to it, showing how closely it is allied with his 
moral constitution." 

"He now states that all the reeves and deputy-reeves 
of Addington, but one, had signed the petition to which so 
much notoriety is given. This is not the case if Mr. Win. 
H. Gordanier belongs to that body of officials ; and why 
could not the Doctor own the corn at once, after he found 
himself exposed, and not wait for further ventilation of his 
fibbing tendencies. Again, to make some covering to his 
retreat and to hide his moral delinquencies, he states that 
on the next day the error was corrected, and, until he 
shall show up to the letter that such was the case, we 
shall hold him responsible for fib No. 2 in the matter. 
Alas, poor Doctor, thy hoary head is coming down dis- 
honored, and be sure that thy sins will find thee out." 

"Now, as to the Doctor's characteristic compliments 
to ourselves and paper, we cannot but smile it off as quite 
a good attempt in its way, but rather an unfortunate 
opening to his whereabouts and associated contingencies. 
We shall let the good sense of a respectable and increasing 
list of intelligent subscribers to the Standard bear its own 
testimony of appreciation of the 'One Horse Seven-by-nine.' 
This is our thirteenth number, and without effort, we have 
about 150 new subscribers, principally volunteers, and the 
over-abundant original matter refutes the slander of 'paste 
and scissors', an insinuation, the responsibility of which 
no paper in the Province, of which we have knowledge, is 
less prepared to assume than is the veritable Whig itself, 
a starved abortion in the newspaper circle of Canada, 
living upon the quack advertisements with which the 
country is so abundantly flooded. The egregious gorman- 
dizer of the Whig, in order to cater for the Whig family, 
sallies out on his annual puffing walks, thus eliciting the 
sympathies of those by whose compassion it is permitted to 
subsist, and when his local perambulations are over we hear 
of his country strides, and village puffing, and all, to secure 
the same desirable object ; and it may be, aught we know, 


the railway and steamboat companies are bored out of 
dead-head passes, so as to give greater velocity to the 
Doctor's flight for pottage. Now, Dear Whig, take from 
the entire amount of the real originals gracing your 
columns these sketches of walks, trips, puffs, together with 
the book and exchange notices and what have you left to 
feast your readers upon, besides 'paste and scissors' and 
quack advertisements ? Well, Doctor, this appears really 
too bad, you have a little more, we think, than you bar- 
gained for, but no one is to blame but yourself. Learn to 
be civil in your old days and assume not the haughtiness 
of the frog who never became an ox because of his failing 
to discover the philosophy of expansion." 

"We fear the Doctor may have been driven to this 
frenzy, in view of the said consequences to his voracious 
stomach, in the event of Lennox and Addington's separa- 
tion, seeing, in it, a probable diminution of provender ; 
which reminds us of an anecdote we lately heard of a Cali- 
fornia adventurer, who upon turning up an unfortunate 
card, found himself embedded in the diggings, with his 
craving- stomach now and anon, giving notice of being five 
meals behind hand." 

"At a prospect like this, the Doctor, doubtless, would 
shudder ; hence his demolisher at our heads. We take our 
leave, for the present of our friend, by remarking that we 
have much less consideration shown to us by him than even 
the Pope showed to his intractable son, Emanuel, to whom 
he gave some notification, before his final excommunication - 
for the Doctor's blow was nearly before the word. He 
closes by saying 'there is but one way to get rid of such 
annoyances' and that way seeming more practicable than 
any other, was our 'excommunication, which was as 
promptly done as said, for we are cut off from the usual 

"We have hopes of surviving this calamity and the 
Doctor, probably, may have an opportunity of testing his 

In this verbal altercation one does not need to seek far 
to learn which contestant got the better of the exchange of 
compliments. As usual, the man who loses his temper, 
loses also the respect of his readers, and leaves himself 
open to the jibes of his opponent. The Standard took full 
advantage of the opportunity and gave a further illustra- 
tion in the same issue of his coolness and good sense when 
confronted with a reverse. After he had penned his reply 
to the Whig' s ill-timed comments, word was received that 
the Roblin Bill was defeated. He met the unwelcome news 
with this brief editorial : 



"We give it up. When the powers that be, say No, we 
must succumb, until we gather strength to renew our 

"The News can afford to be jubilant in the turn the Bill 
has taken and we shall still maintain our good nature and 
jog along as if all were right, looking forward to a future 
day when enlarged views will obtain and personal aggrand- 
izement will give place to general interests." 

In the next issue appeared an extract from an article 
contributed to the Spectator by its Quebec correspondent, 
which tells the story of the fight put up for the county by 
its member Mr. David Roblin. "I found the committee in 
question (Private Bills) hard at work and Mr. Roblin on 
one side of the chairman and the Hon. J. A. Macdonald 
and the Speaker on the other. They were quarreling with 
a vengeance and this is the occasion of the strife." He 
then briefly outlines the issue and continues : "Mr. Roblin, 
the member for Lennox and Addington, has this year 
brought in, for the third time, a bill to this effect which is 
of course strongly opposed by all the influence Kingston 
can bear through Mr. Macdonald the member for the city, 
Mr. Speaker Smith member for Frontenac, and Mr. Camp- 
bell member for Cataraqui division. In the committee 
therefore these three set upon poor Roblin, who fought, I 
must say, manfully and brought in one or two members to 
his aid. But the legal and tactical skill of his opponents 
was too much for him and although what the preamble of 
the Bill states 'a majority of the Councillors of the United 
Counties have petitioned for joint separation' is unques 
tionably the fact, the majority of the committee was 
brought to disbelieve its own senses and reported 'preamble 
not proved'. Mr. Roblin is raging mad and intends to move 
to-morrow, that the committee be instructed to report the 
evidence on which they came to their conclusion." 

The Whig came to the rescue of its member and his 
associates who had strangled the Roblin Bill in the com- 
mittee : 

"The correspondent of the Spectator does not tell all 
the truth, he omits the fact that Addington does not now 
want separation, though it did two years ago ; that all 
the Reeves and Deputy-Reeves of Lennox and Addington, 
save one, petitioned against separation ; and that owing 
to the large settlement in rear of the Counties, the separa- 
tion when it does take place, must be North and South 
not East and West. 'A little knowledge is a dangerous 

The venerable editor of the Whisr was somewhat slow in 


learning: his lesson and the Standard was quick in bringing 
him again to task as it did in the following snappy 

"The incorrigible Whig is at it again. Surely, 'a little 
dishonesty is a dangerous thing'. When one undertakes to 
correct another he should be careful that he is correct him- 
self. But the fibbing propensity is so effectually developed 
in the venerable Doctor, that the kind reader must make 
some allowance for the shortness of his memory, as con- 
tinued habit assumes the form of a necessity ; such is the 
danger of a little dishonesty." 

"Instead of the -Doctor's improving upon the castigation 
lately given him by us, he has gone farther and farther 
astray ; and in hopes, though faint,' that he may be awak- 
ened to see his folly before he goes hence, we beg to remind 
him that he is grossly at fault in stating that 'all the 
Reeves and Deputy-Reeves of Lennox and Addington, save 
one, petitioned against separation'. A man that has any 
remaining sense of honor, character or reputation, ought 
to consider well the facts of the case which he publishes to 
the world and be sure that figures cannot be produced in 
refutation of his statements. It is enough simply for us to 
declare that the Doctor's statement is far from being the 
truth and the correction will be at his door." 

"We would like that the Dr. give to the public some- 
thing more tangible than his word and that miserable party 
petition which he quacks so much about that Addington 
does not want separation. Does he not know that it is as 
patent as the glasses on his nose, that Addington is only 
prevented in their official action towards separation by the 
artful dodge of a political aspirant and a clique of locality 
servers, in and around the village of Newburgh ?" 

"If impatience ' be at any time, justifiable, we think 
that it is we and not the splenetic Doctor, should feel 
annoyed in view of the trickery, dodges and falsifying in 
vogue, for the promotion of self interests at the sacrifice 
of principle and general interests." 

"We would like to see the one idea of the Doctor illus- 
trated by diagram, for the information of those for whom 
he writes, and we recommend the Doctor to describe his 
East and West line of division, for it is not intelligible to 
us, the form his creative genius may give to the proposed 
county. On the whole it is plain to be seen 'that a little 
knowledge is a dangerous thing." 

"We wonder how the Doctor likes his remedy !" 

As intimated in the quotation given from the Spectator 
Mr. Roblin did give notice to refer the report upon separa- 
tion back to the Private Bills Committee ; but the session 
was too far advanced for him to accomplish anything 


towards the desired end ; so he contented himself just be- 
fore prorogation with making a speech in which he exposed 
the motives underlying the opposition to the bill. The 
following is from the Standard's Quebec correspondent's 
comments upon Mr. Roblin's speech : 

"The amount collected in the United Counties for 
County purposes was in 1859 $23880 of which was paid by 
Lennox $5292) 

Addington $9096) * 
Frontenac $ 9492 

Frontenac at the last census had 19150 inhabitants ; 
Addington 15155 ; Lennox 7955 ; thus these Counties paid 
per head : 

Frontenac $0.49i 

Addington $0.59f 

Lennox $0.65 

"Taking Lennox and Addington together, they paid 
$0.62.^ per head. All this while the city of Kingston paid 
$1200 to the counties, with a population of 11399 or about 
10^ cents per head. No wonder, then, said Mr. Roblin that 
extraordinary means are used to prevent separation. Law- 
yers stepped in to take advantage of their neighbors' differ- 
ences they took the oyster for themselves, giving a shell 
each to Lennox and Addington (hear and laughter)". 

The Standard did not whine over the defeat of separa- 
tion and made little reference to the question again during 
the year 1860. It had by no means given up the fight but 
merely bided its time. In its editorials it adopted the 
wholesome practice of enunciating a general doctrine and 
getting the reader to subscribe to it, then applying it to 
the case in hand. Naturally the Standard would support 
Mr. Augustus Hooper in political matters, but it very 
skillfully prepared the way for a break with him, in case 
he presented himself as a candidate for parliamentary 
honors and in so doing illustrated the practice to which I 
refer. Where could you find more convincing arguments or 
a more wholesome doctrine than in the following extracts 
from an editorial of June 7th, 1860. 

"Public men are public property and when men aspiring 
for public position assume to be, ex officio, secured from 
the criticism of the public, they claim to themselves an 
exclusiveness which the world is in no wise prepared to 

"If the public men from a sense of delicacy refuse to 
canvas the merits of the claims of office seekers, wherein is 
involved the public weal, a very sad delinquency is betrayed 
and an injury may be thus inflicted which can only by much 
patient endurance and vigorous effort, be counteracted. 
This is a regimen through which all public men are liable 


to pass and many have to submit to the rigid scrutiny 
whether it be congenial to their sensitiveness or not and 
the man who is not prepared for the like process, had 
better forego the anticipated honors of public life." 

"In the various departments of public life is this appli- 
cable but perhaps in no department is it more so than in 
the political sense." 

Having carried the reader with him thus far the editor 
proceeds to explain the folly of Mr. Hooper in taking 
offence at the criticisms passed upon him by the Standard 
in respect to his opposition to separation. 

"The position which we assumed in the late discussion 
of the county separation question brought us in contact 
with the late action of Mr. Hooper therein ; and if we 
thought our position was the correct one, why, of course, 
we would not approve of the course adopted by Mr. 
Hooper, to whom we look as the chief instrument in the 
defeat of the bill and for which he himself may yet have 

cause to regret. We think every man ought to have fair 

play and upon this principle we wish to act." 

"We take this opportunity of saying that upon political 
grounds we have not been influenced in this controversy. 
We profess very little political feeling and whether Mr. 
Hooper be of the old Conservative school, or a Coalitionist 
or a Reformer of the Baldwin school it is no matter of 
ours ; he has just as good a right to political bias as our- 
selves or anyone else and upon these premises he has no 
opposition from us ; the opposition, if any, was upon 
local grounds county interests." 

In the issue of April llth, 1861, the Standard again 
summarizes the arguments in favor of separation, but 
avoids all direct reference to the vexed question of the 
County Town and touches very gingerly upon the local 
jealousies that defeated the Roblin Dill. Its policy was to 
get the municipalities committed to separation first and 
settle the question of the County Town afterwards. By 
a recent Act of Parliament Lennox and Addington had been 
incorporated as one County, but the union with Frontenac 
still existed. The question of separation was again to the 
fore and the indications pointed towards it being before 
the ratepayers at an early date. Although a plebiscite 
was not necessary ; yet it was advocated as a means of 
strengthening the hands of the petitioners for separation. 
It was through no fault of the Standard if the electors of 
this county did not fully understand the merits of the case. 
It again summarized the case as follows, "The question 
heretofore seems to have been imperfectly understood and 
crudely considered, whether arising from the misrepresenta- 
tions of interested parties or from the foolish jealousy 


formerly existing between different parts of the county, or 
it may be from the facts of the case not being placed 
before the people in a clear and intelligible shape. It is 
quite clear that for many years the people of this county 
have been deprived of privileges enjoyed and freely granted 
to many counties in the Province less wealthy, smaller and 
more thinly settled, viz., of having justice administered 
to them at some convenient central place within their own 
limits ; this is our simple right, and one which ought to 
have been conceded long ago, agreeable to the wants and 
requirements of our extensive territory and large and 
increasing population. Instead of which we are wasting 
more and more of our time and money every year for the 
want of it. We think it can be conclusively demonstrated 
to the dullest apprehension that the loss and expense to 
the inhabitants of this county caused by having their 
County Town forty miles from the average residences of 
the people, quite equal to the utmost expense, if separated 
to-morrow and Frontenac was presented with the whole of 
our joint property." 

"But there are other considerations ; Frontenac has 
about the same number of inhabitants that we have, with 
larger territory and an equal number of reeves ; yet in the 
payment of expenses and taxes, we have to pay three 
dollars to their two and within the last ten years have 
actually deposited in the treasury at the city of Kingston 
thirty thousand dollars more than the County of 
Frontenac. There is some debt existing against the 
United Counties, of which we are paying three-fifths and 
will continue to do so, besides in the end are likely (if all 
is even paid) to be turned out when the separation does 
come (as it is only a question of time) with naked hands, 
yielding the county's buildings and other improvements to 
the Frontenac people, having paid three-fifths of all their 
cost and after that, at our own expense, putting up our 
own buildings. By separation now we can take such 
portion of the county's debt as we ought to pay, if any, 
and assume it at once, reserving our extra money which 
we have been so long paying to Frontenac to scatter in 
their new and poor townships and build our own county 
buildings with it ; the surplus money in eight years will 
do it all, if we assume half the county's debt and make 
them over the whole of the present extravagant county 
buildings at Kingston, without putting on one penny of 
extra tax on the inhabitants of the county." 

"In the event of a separation, our expenses would on 
almost every point be reduced, the principal outlay would 
be the county buildings and those may be erected at a 
moderate cost, say three or four thousand pounds, if use 


and not show was the object sought ; the whole cost of 
which would be more than saved by the county at large in 
a single year. The salaries of the Judge, Sheriff and other 
officers of the court are paid by fees, so that there would 
be no additional cost on that head." 

"The benefit of having our county business transacted 
at home among ourselves must be obvious to all. In 
every well regulated community periodical Courts of 
Justice are a necessity and it does not require the most 
discriminating persons to see that Courts held in some 
central locality in our own county, when jurors, witnesses 
and suitors would be released in four days at most at any 
one time, is quite preferable to travelling from twenty-five 
to ninety miles to the city of Kingston and be detained 
there from two to three weeks and until fifty cases have 
been decided, not ten of which properly belong to us. 
Consequently, while the expenditure in separating the 
counties can be defrayed once and for all for the moderate 
sum of three or four thousand pounds, we are wasting 
much more than that every year we continue united." 

"The principle of separation has been frequently 
admitted and declared by both Lennox and Addington 
while they were separate counties and that the question 
has only been retarded by local jealousies, which have 
heretofore existed, groundless as they have been, to some 
considerable extent. We trust, however, that hereafter all 
petty local feelings on the subject will be avoided and that 
the question will be viewed, discussed and decided upon its 
merits, only as affecting the whole county." 

For the balance of the year of 1861 the Standard was 
silent on its favorite subject. A general election was held 
in July. The candidates who presented themselves at the 
opening of the campaign were John Stevenson, Augustus 
Hooper and David Roblin. Just before nomination Mr. 
Stevenson withdrew from the contest leaving the field to 
Hooper and Roblin. We expected to find the Standard 
opposing Hooper owing to his having opposed separation, 
but it managed to maintain a strictly independent position 
and gave no support to either candidate. The editor 
probably concluded that it would be unwise to mix 
separation and politics. He saw the futility of dividing 
the county on party lines upon a question which should be 
supported by everyone in the county, in order to present 
a solid front against the opposing forces in Frontenac and 
Kingston. As Hooper was elected by a large majority the 
wisdom of the policy of the Standard is quite manifest. 
The question was not revived in the press until the issue 
of August 28th, 1862, when the leading editorial showed 
that the long continued silence of the writer was not to 


be mistaken for indifference. He evidently had been chafing 
for months biding his time to strike. As was his custom 
he approached the question very gently saying among other 
things : 

"Our county is not far behind the best and most 
enterprising in this fair land, but it must not be forgotten 
that there are difficulties which must be removed ere we 
can fully enjoy the advantage of the facilities afforded it 
for improvement." 

"Look at our county geographically, or statistically, 
look at it in the length of time it has been settled, or in 
the wealth and intelligence of the inhabitants, or in what 
view you please and compare it with other counties posses- 
sing all the privileges and advantages of independent 
counties and tell us, does it suffer in comparison with 
them? We think not." He concludes his able editorial 
with a strong series of arguments not heretofore advanced 
by him. In its efforts to arouse the people of the county 
to the necessity and importance of separation the Standard 
certainly displayed great tact and enterprise. 

"We must have our county set off from Frontenac. 
We should be no longer compelled to feed the latter with 
our business as we must do, so long as we remain in our 
present situation." 

"The effect of remaining as we now are is, that we 
are stultified in our own estimation, as well as in the 
estimation of others. Indeed, it appears that the King- 
stonians are disposed almost to ignore our existence but 
as a sort of trifling to their great county. Notwith- 
standing a very large export and import business done 
both at our port and railroad depot, some of the news- 
papers of our indulgent mother city would have our port 
closed, as a regular port of entry and would have us 
trudge to Kingston to do our excise duty, as well as to 
attend court and do other necessary business. The truth 
is, although we are equally important and wealthy with 
them, they have come to the conclusion that we think 
little of ourselves and as a consequence they can use us 
as they see fit. To stand up firmly for our position to 
ask for a separate existence and have it, is our plain 
duty and must be done before Lennox and Addington can 
attain to that lofty position of which it is capable." 

"To speak of the expense to whih we would be driven 
in the erection of buildings, support of a full staff of 
county officials, etc., is to talk of refusing to take a step 
which, whatever may be the present cost, will remunerate 
before the county has time fully to organize. Remuneration 
will arise in many ways but the actual increase of value 
of property in the county alone will more than counter- 


balance all the expenditure which would be necessitated at 
the beginning of our separate existence. We go for 
secession and are pleased to know that the constitution 
does not deny it to us but has made provision for it." 

"We trust that our citizens generally, and our munici- 
palities in their corporate capacity, will take action in 
this matter and that we shall soon see Lennox and Adding- 
ton in some chosen and favorably situated centre, adorned 
and beautified with such county buildings as may be 
deemed requisite." 

"The honor due to our ancestors and the interests of 
this fine county demand it and we look soon to know that 
the enterprise of our people expressed in a legitimate way 
has secured it." 

In 1863 the time was ripe for a renewal of the struggle 
before the Governor-in-Couneil. Thanks largely to the 
efforts of the Standard in keeping the question before the 
public and discouraging local differences over the site of 
the county town, all sections of the county had been 
brought to a realization of the fact that Lennox and 
Addington was sorely handicapped by the union with 
Frontenac. At a meeting of all the reeves and deputy 
reeves of the county held at Napanee on the 10th of 
February, 1863, a resolution in favor of again petitioning 
the Governor-in-Council, was carried unanimously, and the 
petition was forwarded accordingly. 

After the presentation of the petition it was the duty 
of the Governor, if he deemed the circumstances such as to 
call for a separate establishment of courts and county 
institutions, to issue a proclamation constituting the reeves 
and deputy-reeves a provisional council and to appoint a 
time and place for the fist meeting of the council and to 
name one of its members as the presiding officer and to 
determine the place for and the name of the County Town. 
Weeks passed and no proclamation issued. The air was 
full of politics, the Government was tottering and the 
Governor's advisers doubtless thought they had more 
important business to transact than to settle the little 
family quarrel that had arisen in the United Counties of 
Frontenac, Lennox and Adding-ton. Then there was the 
excuse that the County Town had not been agreed upon. 
The Governor could, if he saw fit to do so, name any 
place in the county ; but he would naturally prefer to 
make a wise selection, and one that would meet with the 
approval of a majority of the inhabitants. No procedure 
was laid down by the statute for his guidance. To hasten 
the issuing of the proclamation a meeting of the reeves 
and deputy-reeves was again called to make a final effort 
to agree upon a County Town. Two new contestants, 


Bath and Tamworth, had entered the field. Bath in its 
day had been the most important business centre in the 
county, and not many years had passed since it prided 
itself in being the commercial centre of Lennox and 
Addington. The merchants from all the other villages 
were wont to replenish their stocks from the well filled 
warehouses at Bath. The village, however, had already 
begun to live upon its past ; which is now but a faint 
memory. Its courts, schools, shipyards and commercial 
houses were once the objects of envy of the villages farther 
inland, but the building of the Grand Trunk Railway 
several miles distant had sounded the death knell of the 
old village. But the pride of the Bathites had not 
diminished and they still had hopes of regaining their lost 
prestige and had visions of a beautiful Court House over- 
looking the shores of the Bay of Quinte. 

Tamworth had pretentions that were justified by its 
geographical position if we took no account of the charac- 
ter of the soil of the northern part of the county or the 
number of the inhabitants upon it. No one but a visionary 
enthusiast like Ebenezer Perry would have put forth such 
a claim. He was responsible for the active measures 
taken to introduce settlers into Denbigh and the neighbor- 
ing townships, was the originator of the Addington 
Colonization Road still spoken of as the Perry Road, and 
had great hopes of some day seeing those northern 
districts converted into rich agricultural settlements. He 
was reeve oi Sheffield at the time, and may be pardoned 
for having rather exaggerated views of the possibilities of 
his pet project. 

After much wire pulling and canvassing of the situation 
from all points of view the representatives met in Napanee 
on April 16th. At this meeting the supporters of Bath 
concluded that their case was a hopeless one, and no 
resolution in favor of selecting their village was presented. 
Out of fifteen votes, Tamworth secured but five. Two of 
these were of course the reeve and deputy-reeve of Sheffield, 
one was the representative of the northern townships, and 
strange to say one representative from Camden and the 
reeve of Newburgh supported the motion. The motives 
of these last two are clearly discernable even at this late 
day. They did not vote according to their convictions or 
with the least expectation that Tamworth would be chosen. 
They knew it was impossible ; but they hoped to catch 
the three northern votes when their resolution was put to 
the meeting. Newburgh's reeve felt that he could not at 
that meeting secure a majority of votes in favor of his 
village, so, instead of moving that Newburgh be chosen, 
he brought forward a resolution through the representative 


from Camden that the selection of the county seat be left 
to the vote of the people. His policy was to gain time 
in the hope that something might turn up to improve 
Newburgh's chances of securing a majority of the votes. 
The ruse, however, was not successful. The three northern 
representatives voted against this resolution and it was 
lost. Then the original motion that Napanee be chosen 
was put to the meeting and carried by a majority of three, 
the three northern men again refusing to be led into the 
trap laid for them by the reeve of Newburgh. 

The Standard in commenting upon the proceedings at 
this meeting, after repeating the arguments in favor of 
separation, endeavored to pour oil upon the troubled 
waters. The article concluded with : 

"We have not paid much attention to the question of 
the chances of Napanee being the county seat, because we 
thought from the first that it was almost certain and did 
not wish to raise discussion, which could answer no good 
purpose. Our contemporary, the North American, has 
pursued the same course, as, till last week we have not 
noticed that he mentioned the matter. His reference to 
the subject last week is mild but characteristic of the 
village which he represents. There is a union of sentiment 
and action amongst our neighbors in Newburgh ' and a 
willingness to make personal sacrifices for the good of their 
village which we might well emulate." 

"But it is a question to us after all whether the 
Newburghers would like to have their village named as the 
head of this large and important county. Its inaccessibil- 
ity alone would be a sufficient reason, if, when reached, it 
was equal in other respects to Napanee, to make the choice 
a very bad one." 

"No doubt their good sense and desire for the general 
good will prevail over sectional considerations and bring 
them to co-operate in the establishment of the County 
Town where destiny appears to have fixed it." 

"The resolutions of the reeves of the county passed on 
Saturday were duly forwarded to Mr. Hooper, our worthy 
member, with a request that he will urge the Government 
to act upon the measure with as little delay as possible. 
We hope that no counter-influence, or appearance of want 
of concert on the part of leading parties in the county, 
will prevent the consumation of an arrangement so vital 
to the interests of the county." 

Mr. Hooper, the member, was thus called upon to play 
an entirely different role from that the Standard accused 
Mr. Hooper, the Warden, of playing three years before. 
We have no reason to doubt that he was true to his 
constituents and presented the petition and urged the 


Government to act upon it, although it must have gone 
somewhat against the grain to ask that Napanee be named 
as the County Town. He can hardly be held responsible 
lor the delay, when we remember that three weeks later 
the Government was defeated upon a motion of want of 
confidence introduced by the Hon. John A. Macdonald. 

The Standard in a very sensible editorial summed up 
the political crisis in f?eAA- words and fore-shadowed Federa- 
tion which followed three years later. 

"We have never taken sides with or against the present 
Government. In many respects we thought them equal to 
their predecessors and have not changed our opinion. But 
either they or their too warm friends promised too much ; 
more than they had energy to accomplish. The truth is, 
as we are situated in connection with Lower Canada, it 
is impossible to do much to mend matters. Form 
any Government you please, and as the Brown-Dorion a 
few years ago, and the Macdonald-Sicotte of the present 
day, promise as they may, they cannot do as they would. 
The elements are adverse and cannot coalesce. You never 
can make an Upper Canada Protestant constituency to be 
satisfied with the doings of its member, who must work in 
harmony with a Lower Canada Romanist. It is out of 
the question. Some arrangement must be entered into by 
which each section can manage its own local affairs and by 
which matters affecting the country as a whole, may be 
settled by a general representative body from all parts 

"A Federation of the different parts of British North 
America is the only cure for the miserable state of things 
which exist." 

The election which followed was a hot one. The 
candidates in Lennox and Addington were Augustus Hooper 
and R. J. Cartwright (Sir Richard). The Standard was 
not at all satisfied with Mr. Hooper's record in the House, 
particularly his absenting himself when the vote of want 
of confidence was taken. It is not at all probable either 
that the position he had taken on separation in 1860 had 
been fully erased from the memory of the editor. It 
accordingly supported Mr. Cartwright, with the result 
that the candidate of its choice was elected by a majority 
of 285. 

During the long fight for separation there were many 
side issues of more or less importance of which the press 
appears to have taken little notice. Notably among these 
was the desire of Amherst Island to secede from Lennox 
and Addington in case separation was effected. The Island 
township was the only one not represented at the meeting 
in February when the resolution favoring separation was 


unanimously adopted. A great deal can be said in favor 
of the position taken by the Islanders. Their business 
relations had always been more closely allied with King- 
ston than with any portion of Lennox and Addington. 
Kingston was nearer and more easily reached than any 
point in Lennox and Addington that was likely to be 
chosen as the County Town, and it was quite natural in 
the event of separation that they should desire to remain 
associated with that part of the United Counties with 
which they had been more intimately connected. 

Another incident which may have had a tendency to 
delay matters was the somewhat stubborn attitude of the 
reeve of Newburgh after the meeting which fixed upon 
Napanee as the County Town. He was a man not easily 
moved when he had set his heart upon any particular 
object and he was evidently ill at ease over his failure to 
secure the votes of the northern townships with the aid of 
which he had hoped to carry the day. Instead of sub- 
mitting to the inevitable and taking his defeat gracefully, 
he caused his village council to petition the Government 
to defer the question. Mr. Stevenson met this with a 
counter-petition executed on behalf of seven of the munici- 
palities pointing out the many delays that had already 
taken place, and submitting that any further delay would 
be detrimental to the interests of all the localities 

Finally on the 21st day of August, 1863, the long 
wished for proclamation was issued and separation became 
an accomplished fact. John Stevenson was then named 
as the person to preside at the first meeting of the Pro- 
visional Council and Napanee was fixed as the County 

The Standard which had for years made separation the 
pre-eminent local issue and might well have taken to itself 
much of the credit for the victory, expressed its gratifica- 
tion with the result and concluded its announcement 
with : 

'''With regard to the County Town, there can be but 
one opinion and that is, that the proper place has been 
selected. We trust that all local jealousies will now cease 
on this head and that the Provisional Council will enter 
upon their new duties in a proper spirit and with a view 
to the welfare of the whole county." 

The timely advice in this editorial did not pass un- 
heeded. On the 10th of September, the day named in the 
proclamation for the first meeting, the Provisional Council 
met and burying all former animosities proceeded at once 
to organize and get ready for business. Mr. Stevenson was 
elected Warden, and Mr. William V. Bettor Clerk. The 


personel of this the first council was as follows : J. J. 
Watson, of Adolphustown ; J. McGinnis, Amherst Island ; 
W. F. Peterson, Bath ; S. Warner, Ernesttown, Reeve ; C. 
Fraser, Deputy Reeve ; D. Sills, South Fredericksburgh ; 
M. Parks, North Fredericksburgh ; J. N. Lapum, Camden, 
Reeve ; G. Paul, Deputy Reeve ; J. D. Ham, Newburgh ; 
E. Perry, Sheffield, Reeve ; J. Murphy, Deputy Reeve ; C. 
R. Flint, Kaladar & Anglcsea ; J. Sexsmith, Richmond, 
Reeve ; R. Denison, Deputy Reeve ; J. Stevenson, Napanee. 

It is quite possible that half a century has added 
something- to the reputation of these men and that we give 
them credit for having 1 been bigger men than they really 
were. Making all due allowance for an unconscious 
exaggeration of their merits we are forced to the con- 
clusion that the standard of municipal representatives was 
higher sixty years ago than it is to-day. There are 
notable exceptions to-day where good business men arc 
prevailed upon to accept nomination for municipal honors ; 
but as a rule such men as Sidney Warner, John D. Ham, 
John Stevenson, J. J. Watson and Ebenezer Perry are 
rarely found sitting at the council table. The wonder is 
that our municipal affairs are not more muddled than they 
are. The one year term is largely responsible for the 
inefficiency in many cases. It is to be hoped that the time 
is not far distant when the affairs of all municipalities 
will be placed on a business basis and managed by a 
competent and well paid business manager. It was fortun- 
ate for our county that it started out upon its separate 
career under the guidance of such shrewd practical men. 
The erection of the county buildings was proceeded with at 
once by the building committee, composed of the Warden 
and Messrs. Warner, Sills, Denison, Perry, Ham, Lapum 
and Watson. They were completed at a minimum of cost, 
and stand to-day as a monument of the good taste of the 
builders. The affairs of the new municipality moved along 
smoothly, local jealousies were soon forgotten, and all 
worked together for the general welfare of the entire 

The Standard content with its success did not gloat 
over its victory, but pursued the even tenor of its way 
and continued to grow in favor with its readers. From 
the very beginning it was a very creditable sheet, but there 
was a marked improvement when it passed into the Henry 
family in 1858. The three brothers, Thomas S., Alexander 
and Robert, were* interested in it more or less from the 
time of the purchase until it ceased to exist in 1885. For 
many years Mr. Thomas W. Casey was on the staff, and 
was the author of the articles upon temperance. These 
were so numerous and well written that the Standard 


became recognized as an authority upon all temperance 
questions by the different organizations in the province 
fighting the liquor traffic. It was quite natural therefore 
that when the Sons of Temperance concluded to publish 
an official organ, that Mr. Casey should be chosen as the 
editor, and that it should be printed upon the press of 
Henry & Bro., in the office of the Standard. 

It was thus that the Casket first made its appearance 
in 1869, and for fourteen years was the official mouth- 
piece of the Sons of Temperance. It is difficult to 
estimate the important part played by this temperance 
organ in its intensive, educative campaign during the 
fourteen years it was published. The files among the 
archives of our Society are still sought after by the leading 
temperance workers in Ontario. During the past few 
months a prominent lecturer and writer asked for and was 
given the privilege of making copious extracts from them. 
The Standard did not, however, lose its character as a 
temperance newspaper, but continued to publish much of 
the matter that was printed in the columns of the Casket. 

Mr. F. R. Yokome, for many years the managing 
editor of the Peterborough Examiner, was responsible for 
many of the leading editorials which contributed to the 
high standing the Standard acquired among the provincial 
newspapers of its time. Among the number who graduated 
from its press-room were the late William Templeton and 
George M. Beeman, the founders of the Napanee Beaver. 


The Reformer, as its name indicated, was an out-and- 
out Liberal newspaper. In a lengthy and well written 
prospectus, the proprietors left no doubt as to their 
leanings, but, as is usual with politicians and newspapers, 
they reserved certain rights to act independently, which 
rights, as is usual too, they rarely exercised. While no 
mention of any contemporary is made in the prospectus, 
yet its publication in Napanee was a direct challenge to 
the Standard and was so interpreted by the editor of the 
latter. The first number was issued in September, 1854, 
and it was not many weeks before the rival sheets began 
to pay their respects to each other. When they got into 
a real controversy over any subject they did not hesitate 
at times to use language that would not pass muster in 
the drawing rooms of polite society. "Leather-headed con- 
temporary across the street" was a quite modest reference 
to the editor of one, who in equally expressive terms 
replied to the '"Contemptible Rag". As a rule, however, 
they refrained from using such abusive epithets, and pre- 


seated their arguments in a proper but forceful manner. 

Upon one subject they did agree and that was the 
question of separation of the county, but even upon that 
they found occasion to differ now and then in respect to 
the manner of presenting the case. Both took special 
delight in hammering away at the Index of NeWburgh if 
it dared to say a word upon the subject not in harmony 
with their views. As early as February, 1856, the Index 
declared, "If Addington consents to the separation she 
will see to it that she has the County Town situated 
within her own limits". The Reformer was waiting for 
such an opening and in its next issue thus replied to this 
bold assertion : "We would ask in the name of wonder, 
providing the separation be ratified, where would the 
County Town be situated ? Certainly our contemporary 
cannot imagine, for a moment, that the inhabitants of 
these counties would consent that Rogues Hollow should 
be thus honored ! And yet, from his language, that would 
be inferred. Mighty Moses ! How some folks aspire ! 
It reminds us of a fable, how preposterous the idea !" 

"In way of consolation to our friend of Newburgh, we 
just remark that we cannot blame him in striving to 
uphold the interests of his darling village, for it is natural 
so to do, but, that must be considered a very poor pretext 
indeed, for asserting it to be the proper place for the 
County Town. Perhaps there is not an individual residing 
three miles on this side of that place who has an occasion 
to visit the ambitious village twice a year and probably 
very many who live in the western part of Camden much 
oftener visit Napanee than they do Newburgh doing so 
with greater ease. Newburgh's advantage as a market is 
very inferior, which fact is easily substantiated. On the 
contrary our advantages are, or soon will be, in that 
respect all that can be desired, showing superabundant 
advantages over our aspiring neighbors. This fact is so 
well established that it needs no controversy, and all that 
may be said by our contemporary, hereafter, cannot, in any 
way, affect these verities. A thing once substantiated by 
self evident truths cannot be refuted. Our neighbor, 
therefore, may as well rest content with his present 
position, for we predict he will never see the day when 
Newburgh will be honored as a County Town." 

The rising generation perhaps have never pictured to 
themselves a Napanee without a railway or a Town Hall. 
In the issue of the Reformer of November 28th, 1855, the 
editor refers to both of these innovations. In commenting 
upon a dinner at Brockville celebrating the completion of 
the Grand Trunk from Montreal to that town the editor 
concludes an article with : 


"Our time is near at hand. The tide of trade will 
soon be swept in this direction and we shall certainly 
reap many advantages by a more convenient mode of 
transport. Shall we be benefited as a village ? Answer, 
that, those who can. We say, yes ! but not by nor 
through our present selfish tight fisted old fogeyism which 
reigns and rules ; but by the rise and influx of enterprise. 
Napanee has advantages which must be available and 
somebody will find it out first, who will it be?" 

The Standard in dealing with the same subject passed 
a very timely criticism upon the bridge in Napanee : 
"The splendid and massive masonry of the piers and 
arches elevated a great height above the river, will be an 
ornament to the place. The only visible objection, that 
I am aware of in its construction, is a pier in the centre 
of the macadamized road, endangering the lives of those 
who may happen to come in contact with it on a dark 
night, or whose horses may run away down the hill. A 
few years ago the stage drawn by four horses and loaded 
with passengers, ran from the top of the hill, passed 
over the bridge and in turning the curve of the road the 
stage upset, injuring several of the passengers and nearly 
killing one of them. Similar accidents have frequently 
occurred, and will again happen only with more fatal 
effects, unless this pier be removed." 

In referring to the work upon the Town Hall, the 
Reformer said, "The contractors of the new Town Hall and 
market building, have, within the last few days, made a 
commencement by breaking ground for the foundation. The 
building, however, will not be commenced until next spring, 
when it will be proceeded with rapidly, the principal part 
of the joiner work, etc., being done through the winter. 
The principal front is, at present, intended to be towards 
John St. 

The ratepayers were by no means unanimous as to the 
wisdom of erecting such a building. In one issue a 
correspondent writes : "Is it expedient to involve our 
infant municipality in a heavy debt, requiring for its 
liquidation, an annual average tax for ten years of eight 
and three-fourths pence in the pound in addition to the 
regular and ordinary taxes ?" 

"Will such an annual payment not have a tendency to 
depreciate the value of real estate, to that extent, unless a 
corresponding advantage can be obtained, from the works to 
be erected with the money." 

As originally constructed the upper storey was as at 
present, an auditorium, but the lower storey was divided 
up into a number of butcher stalls, hence the reference to 
the "Town Hall and market." 


Another heavy ratepayer attacks the Council through 
the columns of the Reformer, as follows : 

"Look to your market, see the blunders committed 
there, and that too in the face of a protest by the con- 
tractors themselves. Do they dig a sufficient depth to 
insure a solid foundation, have they specified that the part 
designed as market shall be finished ? The beams that 
project beyond the walls are they to be covered ? Have 
they planned the roof sufficiently strong to insure safety ? 
I tell you people of Napanee, nay, they have done nothing 
of the kind ; and I predict, if put up according to the plan 
and specifications, in less than five years it will tumble in 

The old building has outlived the writer of that article 
by many years, and is still far from the ruins he predicted. 
The concluding paragraph of his letter of criticism is not 
without interest : 

"I am told that the contract is left open, that altera- 
tions and additions may be made and for these alterations 
and additions I have no doubt we shall, at least, have to 
pay a thousand dollars, which added to the debt already 
incurred will be a serious burden upon the village, but in 
my opinion this is not their greatest blunder. Seventeen 
licenses and a bowling alley ? People of Napanee think 
of it ? Think of the amount of drunkeness visible at all 
times by means of this system. Tell us, has there been 
an arrest made when the offenders were not half-seas over 
and then tell us by your vote at the coming election 
whether you approve of the conduct of the men that have 
brought all these things upon us ?" 

The population of Napanee at the time was under 
eleven hundred. Let us picture to ourselves, if we can, 
seventeen bar-rooms in a village of a little over one 
thousand inhabitants, and we will scarcely find room for 
wonder that the temperance advocates were loud in their 
denunciation of the liquor traffic. In this connection 
another correspondent in a later issue enquires from the 
editor "whether the habit of drunkness does not stigmatize 
men with immorality ? If so, how are drunken school 
teachers permitted to continue in an office of such res- 
ponsibility ? This state of affairs is annoying and morally 
pestilential and should not be tolerated, at least, such is 
my opinion." 

There was scarcely an issue of any of the early papers 
that did not contain one or more articles on the temper- 
ance question. The Reformer was no exception to the 
rule. It also had its poetry column and a contributor to 
that column who did not hesitate to style himself a poet. 


In the first issue of 1855 he thus eulogizes the Good 
Templars : 

My friends accept a poet's praise, 

Nor it unworthy deem, 

'Tis all a grateful heart can raise, 

Though humble it may seem ; 

It is the sentiment of one, 

Who loves your noble cause, 

Who views the work that you have done 

And grants you his applause. 

Your object is benign and pure, 
Designed to bless our race, 
Their highest interests to secure, 
And save them from disgrace, 
'Tis to remove the maddening cup 
That leads to misery, 
To raise the fettered drunkard up 
And set the captive free. 

<,'! ; -,; >r 

Your labour is a work of love 

Where words and deeds unite, 

The rules of Temperance to prove 

And guide mankind aright, 

To break the drunkards' poisoned bowl, 

The moderate drunker stay, 

To rescue him 'ere past control, 

And take the curse away. 

Ye are a band of noble hearts 

With noble deeds in view 

Who gladly would to all impart 

The joys that dwell with you, 

Ye would most gladly wipe the tears, 

From every weeping eye 

Remove the anxious mother's fears 

And stay the orphan's cry. 

The drunkard's midnight orgies cease, 

At your supreme command ; 

The swearer's voice is hushed to peace 

Calmed by your magic hand, 

The beast departs, the man returns 

When brought to own your sway. 

His baser pleasures then he spurns 

And turns from them away. 

Press onward ye heroic throng 

Proclaim the drunkard free, 

And push your glorious cause along 


Till all its worth may see, 

Respected stand throughout our land ; 

The advocate of right, 

And when at last your work is past, 

In glory all unite. 

The Reformer was not a financial success. In fact 
there was not room at that time for two newspapers in 
Napanee. The Standard was' first in the field and had 
secured a goodly number of subscribers. It was never 
offensively partisan in its views and was thus able to hold 
its subscribers even if its views differed at times from 
theirs. It was published by natives of Napanee which 
counted for something. The Reformer was ably edited and 
under more favorable conditions might have weathered the 
storm. The proprietors, Messrs. Carman & Bro., were 
not local men, and after struggling hard for several years 
to place the paper on a paying basis the plant was removed 
and they sought their fortune in more promising sur- 


M. E. H. 

When on Christmas Day, 1858, a Mr. F. M. Blakely 
offered to the people of Napanee specimen copies of a new 
paper, the promise conveyed in the title was to amuse 
rather than to instruct. From a Bantling, nothing of a 
very serious nature could be expected, and Mr. Blakely 
evidently had that saving sense of humor that can enjoy a 
joke even at one's own expense ; for his paper began with 
a jest, jested through its brief career and died like Mercutio 
with the bravest jest of all. 

In conformity too with its name the Bantling is an 
unusually small paper of four three-column pages, just 
one-quarter the dimensions of an ordinary news sheet. 
The prospectus announces that it "will present, every week, 
an agreeable melange of the notable events and literature 
of the day, its columns will always contain a goodly 
selection of the cream of domestic and foreign news, so 
condensed as to present the largest possible amount of 
intelligence in the smallest space the whole, well spiced 
with wit ' and humour. In politics and upon all sectarian 
questions it will be strictly impartial." In a later issue, 
the editor points out to correspondents that there are some 
lines to be drawn even by the strictly impartial ; "We 
would inform our party correspondents, however, that we 
are not particularly fond of communications which are 
filled with abuse, calling their opponents thieves, rogues, 
liars, etc., as it only creates a hard feeling." 


The front page of the ' Bantling was devoted to. two 
departments, and that there might be no confusion the 
departments were headed by appropriate woodcuts, clearly 
labelled "Poetry" and "Literature" respectively. Most 
of the literature belongs to ' the Sam Slick school of 
dialect humor, varied occasionally by a highly moral tale 
about poor virtuous little Jemmie or the "R. R. Con- 
ductor's lesson an admonition to incivility" items that 
must have made pious Aunt Mehitabel beam with gracious 
approval. Only, once, in the issue of Feb. 26th, has this 
page anything of local interest. Like every other Napanee 
paper, the Bantling takes a fling at Newburgh, in a fanciful 
set of "Rules and Regulations of the Napanee and New- 
burgh Railroad". Newburgh at this time was smarting 
under the disappointment of having failed to persuade the 
Grand Trunk Railway to run its line through that village, 
and the following suggestions would not tend to soothe the 
disgruntled population. 

"A through train will leave the log barn, used as 
station house, at Slab City, at 7 a.m. and arrive at 
Newburgh at 10 p.m., leaving Newburgh next morning and 
arrive at Slab City when it gets there." 

"A local train will leave Mink's Bridge for Bowers' 
Mills every morning at 9 a.m. and return the same evening; 
thus giving the people a chance to do business and return 
by daylight. Thus parties can go the same distance, in 
the same length of time as they formerly could on foot 
without the trouble of walking, except up the heavy 

"Passengers taking live stock, such as pigs, sheep or 
other tender animals on the passenger train, must take 
two days' provisions (in case of accident) as the company 
will not be responsible nor pay for any animals that may 
starve to death on the journey." 

"Passengers are strictly forbid getting out of the cars 
when in full motion or running ahead, as the cars will not 
stop for any such when it catches up." 

"Persons driving teams (either oxen or horses) are 
strictly forbid running by the train while in full motion 
without first asking leave of the engineer to pass." 

"Farmers' wives wishing to trade, with the conductor, 
butter, eggs, rags, vegetables, or anything else for grocer- 
ies, patent medicines or tinware, must signify their wish 
,to do so by displaying a red flag, and it shall be the duty 
of the engineer to stop the train." 

"Women are requested not to hang clothes lines across 
the road nor in any way to stop the train." 

"in consequence of the Grand Trunk Railway Company 
not having built a branch road to Newburgh, the directors 


of the Napanee and Newburgh Railroad will have no 
connection with the Grand Trunk whatever." 

The second and third pages contain the "Cream of the 
Domestic and Foreign News", correspondence and what few 
advertisements were inserted, while the fourth page dis- 
played the "Wit and Humor" under the title "Mirth's 
Melange" with an occasional generous repetition of the 
third page advertisements to fill up space. The domestic 
news was skimmed with a very sparing hand, for except 
the municipal elections and an occasional fire, there is very 
little of local interest. The election results also called 
forth a display of local talent. The issue of Jan. 15th 
contains a melancholy ode, "On the downfall of the 
Radicals", in the following strain : 

Oh bloodiest picture in the book, of time, 

Dill Miller fell unwept, without a crime, 

Hope for a season bade the world farewell, 

And Forward shrieked as Wm. Detlor fell, 

Departed spirits of the mighty dead, 

Ye that at Napanee elections bled, 

Oh once again your freedom's cause fulfill, 

And put in William, Dave, Bob, Hank and Bill. 

In the space devoted to foreign news, we have gossip 
about the Empress Eugenie's crinoline, the contemplated 
tour of the Prince of Wales, P. T. Barnum's lectures on 
money making and the birth and christening of the Kaiser. 
Later this is superseded by news of Italy's war of libera- 
tion against Austria. On' this subject, there are some 
rather able editorials, parts of which are strangely 
applicable to-day. In the issue of May 28th we find, 
"and who that ever read of the demoniac doings of 
Austria in these classic lands who that can believe that 
high minded and earnest lovers of their country are 
enraptured and snared into the utterance of their yearn- 
ings, only that they may be made the victims of Austrian 
bullets or Austrian ropes ! but we must wish those who 
are the seeming champions of a better order of things 
"God speed". Let no needless complications arise, let 
the issue be based fairly and truly on the regeneration of 
Italy, and liberty cannot be but more fully assured", and 
in the number for .July 9th, "Peace must be restored ere 
long or the whole of Europe will be drawn in the great 
struggle, and then, alas, where will it end ?" 

The Bantling itself did not survive to see the restora- 
tion of peace. In the next issue, that of July 16th, there 
appeared in the editorial column, surrounded by heavy 
black lines, the following pathetically witty notice : 


"Obituary It is our painful duty to record the last week 
of a Mr. Bantling, who breathed its last on the IGth of 
July, 1859, after a lingering sickness of 6 months and 21 
days. The remains of Mr. Bantling will be removed from 
this office followed by its numerous mourners to its final 
rest. It is to be hoped the shops will be closed when the 
procession is moving and a general mourning be observed 
by all our citizens. It is lamentable that one so young, 
just blooming into life, should be cut off from the world ; 
but disease seized him with an iron grasp and held on till 
the last 'breath of wind' reluctantly departed from his 


Many a man with a fairly good business reputation has 
failed in the newspaper business, and this was never better 
illustrated than in the case of Mr. Geo. W. McMullen, who 
was foolish enough to believe that the village of New- 
burgh could support a second paper. It was just before 
the separation of the counties was effected that he ventured 
forth in the journalistic world as the proprietor and 
editor of the British North American. He surely must 
have seen visions of the rapid expansion of the village 
when it was to become the county seat. It was no fault 
of his paper that it did not attain that distinction. He 
entered the . arena when the fight was fiercest and sup- 
ported the claims of the village and the final efforts of its 
reeve to side-track- the question until some new means 
could be devised for bettering Newburgh's prospects. The 
formidable title of his paper and his over-zealous efforts 
could not stay the trend of public opinion. Newburgh 
lost the day and the British North American's visions of 
a populous county town springing up in Rogues Hollow 
quickly faded away, and Mr. McMullen's cherished weakling 
soon departed this life from the want of sufficient nourish- 


The Lennox and Addington Ledger advertised itself to 
be the largest county newspaper in Central Canada. It 
was a large four page, eight column paper first published 
in Napanee in 1864, by two young men who committed the 
initial blunder of launching it as an independent paper in 
the belief that the people of this county could possibly 
forget their political leanings. Their conception of what 
a newspaper should be was all right, but their measure of 
the electors of Lennox and Addington was all wrong. 

The editorials were well written and their summaries 
of parsing events were concise and readable. In one 


number before the writer, appears a report of the first 
assizes in the county. The Court House was not built 
so the court was held in the Town Hall. The presiding 
judge was the Hon. Adam Wilson, who congratulated the 
county upon taking its place among the separate and 
independent municipalities of the Province. The first 
criminal case disposed of was The Queen against John 
Hoolighan, in which the prisoner was charged with 
robbery and attempted stabbing. His victim was none 
other than our respected octogenarian, John B. Blanchard, 
still a resident of Napanee. The accused was found guilty 
and sentenced to be hanged, but upon the recommendation 
of the grand jury his mental condition was afterwards 
inquired into, and he was found to be insane, so the 
sentence of the court was not put into effect. There was 
a large docket which in itself justified one of the strongest 
arguments in support of separation. That was the great 
waste of time and money in attending court at Kingston. 

In a leading editorial in the issue of March 25th, 1805, 
the editor sounded a note of warning which if heeded 
might have resulted in forestalling the Fenian Raid of the 
following year : 

"Notwithstanding the oft repeated assertion that such 
a thing as Fenianism does not exist in Canada, it is quite 
evident that there are those residing in the country who 
would not flinch from any act, which according to their 
ideas, would free Ireland from the chains of her oppressor 
England ! On the evening of St. Patrick's Day this 
was fully exemplified by a meeting in the Music Hall, 
Toronto, where a young yankee blow-hard named Mc- 
Dermott, from New York, delivered an address before the 
Hibernian Society. During two hours and a half he 
dealt out to them liberal potations of such treasonable 
ravings as "The Fenians were organized for the express 
purpose of achieving the independence of Ireland, and they 
are as confident of being able to do so as they are that 
the sun will rise to-morrow. They are also certain that 
a war will take place before long between England and 
the United States and then they would strike for the 
liberty of .Ireland." He also advised his hearers to do all 
in their power to form a republic in this country and 
then be annexed to the United States." 

"It is very much to be regretted that we have in our 
midst men who have so little respect for truth that they 
will for two hours and a half endure the affliction of an 
itinerant Yankee lecturer's bombastic productions and 
nonsensical treason." 

From the want of that financial support, without which 


no enterprise can long exist, the Ledger was obliged to 
suspend publication after a brief but very respectable 
career of only a few months. 


The Addington Reporter which later on changed its 
name to The Newburgh Reporter, demonstrated that it is 
possible to maintain a newspaper in a small village for a 
number of years. The first number was published in May, 
1875, by W. J. Pappa & Bro., two Newburgh young men 
who had received some experience in the office of the 

In glancing over the few numbers upon our files it is 
quite apparent that the secret of its success, assuming that 
existence for a number of years, implies success, was in 
the local news. There were columns of items telling all 
about what was going on in the village, just the sort of 
news that people talk about on the street corners, so that 
a perusal of the Reporter was to the ordinary housewife 
as good ' as an hour's chat with her neighbor over the 
backyard fence. That particular part of the paper from 
which it was most difficult to withdraw the writer's 
attention was the market reports. In these meatless, 
heatless, wheatless days with war prices, how we long for 
the good old days when a dollar would go so far. The 
following are samples of the prices we shall never see 

Ham, 12c. to 15c. per Ib. 

Mutton, 6c. per Ib. 

Lamb, 7c. per Ib. 

Butter, 18c. to 22c. per Ib. 

Eggs, 4c. per doz. 

Chickens, 25c. to 30c. per pair. 

New Potatoes, 50c. per bag. 

Apples, $1.00 to $1.50 per barrel. 

The Reporter ventured now and then to deal through 
its editorial column with the leading public questions of 
the day, but as a rule the editor confined himself to local 
issues. Of the twenty eight columns only eight were 
advertising matter, and a large percentage of that was not 
the profitable kind. The Pappa Bros., however, managed 
to keep it going for over five years, when the plant was 
leased to an employee of the office. A few months were 
sufficient to convince him that the Reporter was dying a 
natural death. It finally succumbed, and no one has been 
brave enough to attempt to publish a paper in Newburgh 
since its demise. 



The Echo could hardly be classed among the early 
newspapers of the county, yet it was a pioneer in its own 
territory, being the first and only newspaper ever published 
in Tamworth. If others take warning from its fate, it 
is likely to be able to claim the distinction for a long 
time to come of being the last to be published in that 
part of the county. It first made its bow to the public 
in Mill Point (Deseronto) in 1877, as the Mill Point Echo, 
but as the Mill Pointers did not give it the support its 
proprietor seemed to think it merited, it suddenly depart- 
ed one September morning in 1879, and made its appear- 
ance in Tamworth under the shorter title "The Echo". 

In the first issue appeared the notice of a by-law to 
be submitted to the ratepayers of Sheffield, providing for 
the granting of a bonus of $10,000 to the Napanee, Tam- 
worth and Quebec Railway Company. In his first editorial 
the editor who had been provided with his arguments from 
the Mill Point end of the railway scheme said : 

"The importance of the rear townships to the front 
towns has been long well understood by the frontier, but 
just how the towns and cities of the front may be made 
a great source of benefit and wealth to the rear villages 
and townships, is only lately taken practical shape and 
becoming a matter of vast interest." If the ratepayers of 
the front towns and rear townships, who voted away their 
money, to bring the extremes of the county in closer 
touch, could have forseen how it has worked out, I fear 
the majorities would have been against these by-laws that 
were submitted in the various municipalities along the line 
of the railway. 

To-day there is a daily regular passenger service 
connecting the rear of our county with the city of 
Kingston ; but no practicable timetable for those v.'ho wish 
to visit their own county town. 

In glancing over the advertisements, we were forcibly 
struck by the many changes that have taken place since 
that first number was issued ; but none was more striking 
than the modest little card, "M. J. Butler, Provincial 
Land Surveyor, Mill Point, Ontario." 

The proprietor, as he told his readers in his first 
number, aimed at securing 1500 subscribers. Just how or 
where he intended to get them he did not say. The 
villagers and the people in the immediate neighborhood 
gave him all the patronage he could reasonably expect, but 
it fell far short of the number he set out to get. He, 
upon his part, did the best he could and furnished a 
gossipy little sheet, which for the first few months was 


eagerly sought after by a certain class, who delighted to 
see their names in print. The novelty soon WOK- off, the 
editor's supply of jokes and local hits became exhausted, 
and the Echo, before it had passed its first half year, had 
become what most village papers are, a cheap patented 
outside lined with local advertisements and inferior sum- 
maries of the week's news as gathered from the daily 
press. It managed to survive for throe years when the 
editor-proprietor concluded that the people of Tamworth 
and vicinity were not siiMionii l\ appreciative of his talents 
to justify him in striving longer to maintain a newspaper 
in their midst. lie. however, departed with a smile after 
publishing as his final effort a neat little valedictory 
addressed to his patrons. 


During the federal election campaign of ISIMJ Mr. t'riah 
Wilson was the straight Conservative candidate for 
Lennox. The Liberals were none too sanguine about 
carrying the riding with a straight party man and thought 
to better their chances by joining forces with the Patrons 
of Industry, a fanners' organization, which was acquiring 
some influence throughout the country. Accordingly a 
Patron-Liberal candidate was agreed upon in the person of 
Mr. ECdmund Switzer, an old time Mrnesttown Liberal, but 
a prominent member of the Patrons. The Beaver support 
ed Mr. Wilson and the Kxpress championed the cause of 
Mr. Swit/cr. There were a number of Patrons not 
entirely satisfied with the choice of Mr. Swit/.er. owing to 
his former Liberal attachments, and there were a number 
of Liberals equally dissatisfied because he was a Patr-.n. 
These murmurings of dissatisfaction were interpreted by 
some as indicating a general desire throughout the riding 
for a real independent candidate. Doubtless many an 
elector in bis quiet, moments was sick and tired of polities, 
but as a rule they speedily rccovcicd as polling day drew 
near. Mr. Charles Stevens, of Napance, who had just 
completed two terms as Mayor, beard the mnrmni ings, 
and aspiring to higher honors, offered himself as an inde 
pendent candidate. He had no local organ to lay his 
views before the electors, and without such help his cause 
was hopeless. Never did a newspaper come into being so 

quickly. Presses, type and other equipment were rushed 
t.t Napam-c, a real live editor secured and early <"ie morn 
ing, almost before any one rcali/cd that a. new weekly was 
even contemplated, thousands of copies of The Napaneo 
Star and Lennox and Addin,".!oii Independent were di in 
Imled in cvcrv home in I lie ridiii-r. The lirst few issues 


were devoted almost exclusively to election matters. The 
entry of a third candidate in the field improved Mr. 
Wilson's chances, and he was elected by an increased 

Mr. Stevens lost the election but he still had The Star. 
It had announced in its "Salutory" that it had come to 
stay, and stay it did and proved to be a newsy, spicey 
little paper. It was quite fearless in its comments and 
criticisms upon local events and public questions and set a 
good example for the two other papers of the town. Its 
example has not, however, had a very lasting effect upon 
them. Our editors are altogether too considerate for the 
feelings of their patrons. Some people may take offence 
if uncomplimentary comments upon their conduct appear 
in the newspapers. But the men who really count are not 
so thin-skinned as they may appear. There should be no 
room in any paper for petty personalities or social scan- 
dals ; but any man or woman, who comes before the 
public in any capacity, has no ground for complaint if the 
press comments upon his or her stand upon matters of 
public interest. This was the policy adopted in the 
sanctum of The Star and it worked out successfully and 
was appreciated by its readers. 

It was no easy task to compete with the other two 
papers with their long established lists of subscribers. 
Outside of Napanee few people in the county subscribe for 
two local papers, and to gain admission in the home for 
The Star meant crowding out one of the other papers, 
which was perhaps looked upon as an old friend. To many 
readers the political complexion of his newspaper means 
a good deal, and there are precious few really independent 
electors in Lennox and Addington. Many think they are, 
but when the testing time comes they are generally found 
lined up in the old party ranks. The Star continued to 
be a really independent paper and for four years en- 
deavored to win over the people of the county to its way 
of thinking, but met with very little success. They 
preferred to remain Grits and Tories as their fathers had 
been before them. It finally gave up the task, and its 
proprietor thereafter devoted his entire energies to his 
other business enterprises. 





The Napanee Express and The Napanee Beaver are the 
two remaining papers to be touched upon in order to 
bring our record up to date. As both are still published 
in Napanee, we need give them but a passing notice. If 
the readers of fifty years ago were to return to-day and 
peruse the local press, the first comments they would make 
would be in respect to the entire absence of anything 
approaching the scraps of their boyhood days, when the 
rival sheets never lost an opportunity of exposing each 
other's weak points. 

The Express is the senior of the two by nine years. 
It had its origin as most newspapers do as a political 
organ to advocate the candidacy of the Hon. Richard 
Cartwright in the general election of 1863. The first 
proprietor and editor was Mr. T. S. Carman, who publish- 
ed it under the name of the Weekly Express. For about 
ten years he continued to fight the battles of the Reform 
party, and then sold out to Mr. T. W. Casey, who changed 
the name to the Napanee Express. It passed through 
several hands, barely escaping at times those of the 
sheriff, until it reached the present proprietor. 

The files have not been preserved, and we have no 
means of forming an opinion of its merits in its early 
days except what can be gathered from an odd copy here 
and there. Mr. Carman could write a good editorial, but 
appears to have devoted most of his time in canvassing 
for advertisements, in which branch of the business he 
must have been eminently successful. In the issue of 
October 16th, 1868, now before the writer, there are no 
less than twenty-three columns of advertisements and 
practically all of them were local. Everyone in business 
of any kind seemed anxious to reach the public through the 
columns of the newspapers. There were in all 135 adver- 
tisements, and of all that number there was only one name 
that will be found in the business directory of Napanee 
to-day, and that was the legal card of D. H. 
Preston, LL.B. Such a complete change have all the 
businesses in Napanee undergone during the past fifty 
years that the only family names preserved in the firms 
of to-day are found in the advertisements of Boyle & 
Wright, Gibbard & Son, and D. J. Hogan. The paper 
underwent a radical change when it passed into the hands 
of Mr. Casey. It then was teeming with temperance pro- 
paganda. ID the issue of February 24th, 1876, is a report 


of a series of addresses given by the famous lecturer, Mrs. 
Youmans. The C. M. Church at Odessa is said to have 
greeted her with an audience of 600. Anyone familiar 
with the dimensions of the edifice would, naturally enquire 
where they stowed them away. As the correspondent 
subscribed himself "A worker in the cause", we could 
hardly expect him to see double ; yet we have a suspicion 
that he did. 

We gather from the few copies we have been able to 
examine that the Express would compare favorably with 
the ordinary small town newspaper. The local reporter 
was a busy man and gathered in many items of news and 
the editorials though not numerous were well written and 
to the point. 

The Beaver was first published in Newburgh in 1870 by 
Cephas I. Beeman, under the title of The Addington 
Beaver. It was well received and had just begun to take 
its place among the permanent institutions of the county 
when two Napanee journeymen, Mr. Wm. Templeton and 
Mr. Geo. M. Beeman, who had served their time in the 
office of the Standard, thought they saw an opening for a 
third newspaper in Napanee. , Undeterred by the 
misfortunes of so many of their predecessors in Newburgh 
and Napanee, they purchased the plant, moved it to 
Napanee, and continued the publication, but changed the 
name to the Ontario Beaver. A few years later it came 
out in a new dress, was enlarged to eight pages, and was 
thereafter known as the Napanee Beaver. While the 
Standard continued to be a popular family paper and 
leaned towards the Conservative party, yet it was not an 
out and out party organ and prided itself upon its inde- 
pendence. The Express left no doubt where it stood upon 
matters political. It could always be relied upon to 
support the Reform party. Here was an opportunity for 
the Beaver, and it was not slow in taking advantage of 
it. The time had arrived in the realm of politics when 
each party felt that a local party organ was an indispcn- 
sible part of the election machinery and the Conservatives 
accordingly welcomed the Beaver as their champion. While 
as a rule, it has been comparatively mild in its handling 
of political matters, yet there has never been any room for 
doubt as to which party it supported. Nearly half a 
century ago the Beaver and Express stood respectively for 
Conservative and Reform, Tory and Grit, and from that 
day to this they have marched side by side, carrying their 
party banners, proclaiming the virtues of their respective 
leaders and deploring the frailties of their opponents. 

For many years Mr. T. W. Casey, who, in turn, had 
written much for the Standard, had edited the Casket, and 


owned and published the Express, contributed liberally to 
the columns of the Beaver. His "Old Time Records", 
dealing with the early history of this district, were eagerly 
sought after by everyone taking an interest in such 
matters. He took great pains in tracing the history of 
many of the first settlers, and there are scores of families 
in the county to-day whose knowledge of their ancestors is 
limited to the information they gathered from the "Old 
Time Records" published in the Beaver. 

All this had a tendency to improve the tone of the 
paper and the old families, whose genealogy had been 
traced through the energy of a member of its staff and 
published in its columns, felt grateful for the attention 
shown them. The result has been more far-reaching than 
was ever anticipated by the editor, and we venture to 
assert that the subscription list to-day contains hundreds 
of names of people who have moved away, but still keep 
up their connection with the county through the weekly 
visits of the Beaver. It had penetrated the family circle 
through its "Old Time Records" and the attachment thus 
created is not to be lightly broken off. 

Only once in its long and respectable career has the 
Beaver departed from the course mapped out for it by its 
founder. In 1890 it ventured forth in a new dress as a 
tri-weekly ; but the experiment was not a success, and after 
a few months it reverted to the weekly issue, and resumed 
its old dress. 

There was a time in the history of both the Express 
and the Beaver when they were conducted upon lines 
calculated to serve the interests of the public better than 
the policy adopted by both papers to-day. In their early 
days the editorial column was an important feature in 
both papers. All local matters of interest to the public 
were freely discussed. To-day the local press rarely 
comments editorially upon events and conditions that ought 
to be brought to the attention of their readers. It is a 
notarious fact that there is no, means of correcting an evil, 
quite so potent as the press. Most people will endure a 
certain amount of criticism in private or even from the 
public platform, but few need to be reminded of their 
errors a second time through the local newspaper. A case 
in point will illustrate the force of my argument. For 
years the streets of Napanee have been overgrown with 
weeds and presented a very untidy appearance. Everyone 
knew it, many were the complaints, but no effort was 
made to remedy the evil. During the past season the same 
conditions existed. An enterprising "Critic" took up the 
question through the Beaver, and by good natured banter 
"jollied" the Town Council into getting out a gang of 


workmen to remove the weeds. In like manner many 
private citizens were induced to tidy up their premises. 

Our Town Council and School Board are frequently 
criticized in private for something- done by them or left 
undone, when, if matters had been fully understood, they 
would have been praised instead. A few timely remarks 
from the editors would have cleared matters up ; but the 
remarks as a rule are not forthcoming 1 . 

Many important measures have come before our County 
Council and the councils of the local municipalities through- 
out the county and their decisions have not always been for 
the best interests of their constituents ; not because the 
representatives did not want to do what was right, but 
because the public was not educated up to the modern 
point of view. Here, too, the local press fails to take 
advantage of its opportunities for doing- good. If the press 
of Napanee had energetically taken up the good roads 
question and kept at it, our public hig-hways to-day would 
not be in such a disgraceful condition. There are many 
fields in which the "Critic" could do useful work and it is 
to be hoped that the Beaver will maintain that department. 
It is precisely what has been sorely needed for years. 

Each local paper has a score or more of news gatherers 
throughout the county who send in their weekly budgets^ It 
is quite apparent that these amateur correspondents have 
never attended a School of Journalism, and the prominence 
given to certain individuals in the petty personals simplifies 
the task of guessing the source of the items. These contri- 
butions to the papers do little, if any, harm, and if the 
personals tickle the fancy of those who look with favor 
upon such references to themselves the subscribers who do 
not enjoy that sort of reading have no serious grounds for 

The absence of criticism in the Napanee papers leaves 
them free from the charge of circulating scandals of any 
kind, and to their credit it may be said that neither one 
has, so; far as the memory of the writer extends, ever been 
called upon to answer the charge of libel. 

It is not necessary for newspapers to indulge in criti- 
cism in order to receive their due share of it ; for there is 
no one engaged in a business catering for public support 
who is so freely and generally criticized as the man who 
publishes a newspaper, and if he is a keen critic himself he 
must be prepared for all sorts of criticism in return. The 
very nature of his calling invites it, and he is not very 
often neg-lected in this respect. He is just as likely to get 
into difficulty when he is trying 1 his very best to be agree- 
able ; for when paying compliments some one is sure to be 
overlooked. He has a very extensive and varied list of 


customers, and to please them all is out of the question. 
There are innumerable religious, literary, patriotic and 
social organizations, each one of which claims special con- 
sideration from the publisher and insists upon presenting 
advertisements disguised as items of news. To publish 
them means the loss of so much time and space, to refuse 
to do so brings down upon his head the anathemas of the 
unreasoning members of the society. 

The Napanee papers' have at all times been extremely 
generous in this respect, and particularly so since the out- 
break of war. Hundreds of columns of notices and adver- 
tisements, although not classed by the writers as such, have 
been published free, at a time when most papers could ill 
afford to do it. This commendable generosity will cover 
a multitude of shortcomings and dispose the writer to 
wish them both God Speed in their sometimes unenviable 


Amherst Island 38 

American War.. , 5 

Bantling, The 46 

Barker, Dr. Edward John 24, 27 

Bath 36 

Beeman, Geo. M 41, 56 

Beeman, Cephas 1 56 

Beaver, The Addington .. 56 

Beaver, The Ontario 56 

Beaver, The Napanee 55 

Bee, The Napanee fc 7 

Blakely, F. M 46 

Blanchard, John B 50 

Bogart, Mrs. M. C 4 

Bowers' Mills 47 

Boyle & Wright 55 

British North American, The 49 

Butler, M. J 52 

Campbell, Alex 18, 21, 28 

Carman, T. S * 55 

Carman & Bro 46 

Cartwright, Sir Richard 18, 38, 55 

Casket, The 41, 56 

Casey, Thos. W 40, 41, 55, 56 

Checkley, E. R 4 

Chronology 4 

Colebrook Bard 16 

Coleman, Rev. J. H. H., M.A 4 

Confederation 5 

County Town 21, 22, 23, 31, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 42 

County Buildings 32, 40, 50 

Critic, The 57, 58 

Davy, B. C 18 

Denison, R 40 

Detlor, Wm. V 39 

Eakins, Mrs. J. E 7. 4 

Ernest town.... .. 9, 10, 11 

INDEX. 61 

Echo, The 52, 53 

Emporium, The 16 

Esson, Robert 18 

Express, The Napanee 55 

Fenianism... 50 

Flint, C. R fc ".' 40 

Fugitive Slave Law 7 

Fraser, C fc 40 

Frontenac, Lennox and Addington 35 

Frontenac, Lennox and Addington, Area of 20 

Frontenac, Lennox and Addington, Population of 30 

Gibbard & Son fc 55 

Good Templars 45 

Grand Trunk Railway 36, 42, 48 

Greenleaf, Rev. G. D 7, 15, 16 

Henry Bros 40 

Herrington, W. S 1, 4, 5 

Hogan, D. J 55 

Hooper, Augustus 18, 30, 31, 33, 36, 37, 38 

Index, The 16 

Jumper, Josh 10, 11, 12 

Lapum, J. N 40 

Lennox and Addington Ledger 49 

Leonard, Dr. R. A 4 

Liquor Traffic, The 9 

Lowry, C 16 

Macdonald, Sir John A 18, 21, 28, 38 

MacPherson, Allen ~ 18 

Market Quotations 51 

M. E. H 46 

Mill Creek 14 

Mill Point Echo 52 

Mink's Bridge 47 

Murphy, J -. 40 

Murphy, Rev. Daniel 8 

McMullen, Geo. W 49 

McGinnis, J 40 

Napanee and Newburgh Railroad 47 

Napanee, Tamworth and Quebec Railroad 52 

Newbnrgh 29, 42, 56 


Odessa 56 

Old Time Records 57 

Pappa, W. J., & Bro 51 

Patrons of Industry 53 

Paul, W. J., M.P 4 

Perry, Ebenezer 36, 40 

Peterson, W. F 40 

Preston, D. H., LL.B .. 55 

Reformer, The 17, 41 

Reporter, The Addington 50 

Rhymes . 8, 14, 17, 45. 48 

Richmond Township 12, 13 

Robinson, J. W 4 

Roblin, David 22, 23, 28, 29, 30, 33 

Rogues Hollow 17, 42 

Separation of Lennox and Addington 5, 18, 23, 28, 31 

Seymour, Benj .. 18, 20 

Sills, D 40 

Slab City 47 

Smith, Henry 18, 21, 28 

Sons of Temperance .. 9, 11, 41 

Standard, The 5, 17, 18, 43 

Star, The Napanee 53 

Stevens, Chas... 52, 54 

Stevenson, John . 33, 39, 40 

Tamworth 36, 52 

Taverns , . 13, 44 

Templeton, Wm 41, 56 

Town Hall,- Napanee... 42, 43 

Trenouth, E. R 4 

Warner, Clarance M 4 

Warner, S '. 40 

Watson, J. J 40. 

Whig, The... 8, 24, 25, 26, 29 

Wilson, Rev. A. J 4 

Wilson, Hon. Adam 50 

Wilson, Uriah 53 

Yokome, F. R 41 

Youmans, Mrs .... 56 



Lennox and Addington 
Historical Society, Napanee, 

Papers and records