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Full text of "Papers relating to the aboriginal tribes of the Central Provinces"

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PAPBS8 KKLAXata TO THE 



ABOfilQIKAL TBIBSS 07 THS G2SNT&AL PHOVIHOSSr 

Lirr nr ubs 

BT THB LATE SEW. 8TEPBBH BISU^. 

1II88I0KA9T OF THI FBBB CHUBCH OF SCOTLAND 
AT FAGPOBE: 



EDITED, 



WITH NOTES AND TBXFA.CS, 




BT 



It? TEMPLE, C5.L, 



CHIEF COMMISSIONER OF THB OENTBAL PROVINCES. 

1866. 



INDEX. 

FUTACB. 

Pabt I.— Essay by Mr. HUlop ; with note by Editor. 

Past li— Yoeabulary by Mr. Hifllop ; with note by Editor. 

Sapplement to the Vocabulary as respects the Gondi dialect 

only ; with note by Editor. 
Comparative Yocabnlary of the Mo^ or Euri dialect; 
with note by Editor. 

Pabt IH— Songs : 

Note and Abstract English version by the Editor. 

The Songs reduced to writing with English equivalents 

by Mr. Hislop and examined or supplemented by Mr. 

Pandurang. 

Past IY.«— Appendices, consisting of miscellaneous memoranda; with 
note by the Editor. 






ie. 0. & I« 



Edited by R. Ti 

Ts 6ave the pleB9atit task of noticitig^ ttie un- 
reteuding volumd before us. Mr. Toruple has every . 
gilt to the title of a good writer ; an^ at a time ' 
hen it is the f Ashiou to write books simply to 
e, it is eomethisg to have a. hMk^'^^ is 
|Ute, and At the same time instr jk?tiv8L^>^Mb ile 
Icptl works of dctioD mttst retaii|;tibeir 0P<M^ in 

Tptfbular estiiQation, it is asMtrediv.^ter that 
iaae^ould be devoted^ by thoa* VTio oan ^are 
me, to the perusal of MK^rks of travel -and careful 
esc^riptioa M natural objects, than that Hours 
tiould be wasted in the perusal of such works of 
ction as emanate yearly fiom the London press. 
a many cases, while the incidents are familiar, 
ae dramatis personcB proceed on a principle oi^ 
ction peculiar to themselves. In works of the 
ind now before us, neither are the incidents fami- 
iartothe majority of readers, nor is the inner 
tructure of society the same as that which 
re are accustomed to see in civilized life, 
lence it requires no mechanism in the story, — 
10 far-fetched description , of social usages,— no 
lorrowing from the world of romance, — no false 
olouring of the l^fe of eavagerie in its wildest 
ispects, — no breaking through thet commonplaces 
)f sentiment, — no eSort to introduoe characters of 
tartling originality, — to invest the subject with 
ome degree of interest, so as to make the book 
eadable. In most oases the bare narration speaks 
lor itself ; and the characters in their delineation 
eauire no accessories from the art -of word-painting 
lend to them a suggestion of the marvellous. 

The wavk is collated from the MSS. papei^ of the 
^te Kev.SteplyBn Hislop,to which a preface has been i 
idded by the editor, and appendices containing ^ 
nuch useful information, and indicating much 
isef al research. Considerable light has thus been 
thrown on the inner structure of Gond society ; on 
their customs, manners, and religion ; and a voca- 
bulary has been added of the Gondi dialect, with 
Si comparative vocabulary of the Muase or Kure 
spoken languages. As yet but too little is known 
of the Qonds of Grondwaiina, and while few traces 
are left of their past rule, still there is unmistake- ' 
able evidence from the ruins of some of theirs 
cities, that although they never equalled the 
Mahrattae, whom they preceded, either in the 
Btrength of their administration, or in the extent 
of their role, they were nevertheless spread over a 
large extent of country, and that their rule extend 



" The Hinda oonquerord ot the Uonda were 
Rajpoots. These intermarried with the conquered, and'theu: 
desoendants are called Rajpoots, and pride themselves on ! 
their descent. Most of the indigenoos Ri^poots, so called, ; 
are really Gond Rajpoots. These mixed races, becommg' 
acclimatised to countries that would have proved deadly to 
many civilized nations, spread themselves over wide domains, 
and in arms and policy emulated the achievements 
of BOperior tribes. 

" Their original boundary in the south may perhaps have 
^een the Grodavery. If it was they must have crossed that 
river, and extended far into the Dekhan. They formed 
from Urst to last four kingdoms within the present limits 
of these provinces. The northern kingdom bad its capital 
at Mundla, aod at Gnrra (near the modern city of Jubbul- 
pore) and dominated the greater part of the Nerbudda Valley. 
^~^<}ftbe:tvl|) midland klagaoms, one had its capital: 
at Deqpurh, on the southern face or slopes of the Sautpoora 
RangaJBoverlooking and commanding tne plains which now 
belong to Nagpore. Deognrh is now rmned and utterly 
^desolate ; but it was a cit^ before Nagpore- was even a- 
village. 

^ The otter midland kingdom has its capital at Kherla, a 
hill commanding the'rich valley of Baitool, in the heart 
of the Sautpoora hills. To this also belonjged the celebrated*^ 
forts of Oamilgurh and Numulia, both in the same range. 
The southern kingdom had its capital at Cbanda on ue 
Wurda, and comprised a vast but wild territory. It 
stretched far up to the north-east, and again commanding the 
Godavery, stretched far down to the south. 

** These four dynasties existed at least some time before 
the formation of the Moghul empire. They were brave and^ 
independent, but they could never have been rich or power- 
ful. Still, each of them -must have possessed an annual re- , 
venue of some lakhs of rupees. Thev were quite inferior in , 
art and civilization to the Hindu and Mahomedan dynasties 
known in other parts of India ; but still they each left 
architectural remains and monuments of great interest ; at 
Mimdla, at Gurra near Jubbulpore, at Cnowragurh near 
Nursingpore, at Deognrh near Chindwara, at iLherla near 
Baitool, and at Chanda. 

** These ruins, surrounded by, or adjacent to, the waste, or 
the rocks, or the forest, fill the modern enquirer with 
surprise, and attest the former energies of half civlized races 
contending with the wildnesa of nature. As the Mahomedan 
rule absorbed the different parts of Central India, it attacked 
these Good kings in turn. The northern kingdom, however, 
in some struggles well known to local tradition, maintained 
something ofits independence, though it may have lost 
many of its richer provinces. The southern kingdom also 
does not appear to have been enturely subdued, though it , 
was rendered tributary ; but its branches across the Goda- 
very were carried away and added to the Mahomedan king- 
doms in the Dekhan. That dominion indeed spread d^nar : 
buth banks of the Godavery, and up to a recent period the 
strip of territory on the left, or Nagpore side of the rivec; 
belonged to the Nizam. The midland kingdom was at all] 
events rendered tributary, and its princes were, by force 
or influenoe, converted to Islam." 



■^ 



ed over a greater part of the Nerbudda Valley and , _^ _.. 

of the great Vyndyan Ranges of Central India."^ i the kind we have yet seen 
Of thorite and progress of this singular race we universal among wijid, savi 
leave Mr. Temple to speak :— 

'^^The earliest dynasties in this part of India of which 
anything ia now either recorded or remembered are those 
of the Uond-Rajpoots. But prior to these, and superior to 
them in civilization, there must have been several Hindu 
dynasties, which are only now known by architectural 
remains ; some at Jubbulpore on the banks of the Ner-, 
bndda ; some in the nilly part of Chutteesgurh -, and some atj 
Bustar m the heart of the wilderness. 

*^ The ancient Gondwanna, or country of the Gonds. 
comprises most of the countries now included in the GentraL 
Provinces, both below and above the Sautpoora Range. 
The earliest settlers in the woods and hills, and theoldesn 
dynasties, were Gond. J 

'' The Gonds seem, without doubt, to have been one of 
the most powerful and important of the aboriginal races of 
India. Existing prior to the advent of the Hindus, ihey 
possessed their own forms of heathenism, which often are 

preserved entire and intact to this day, and which haV^ , guitable to them :— 
always, and under all changes, impressed their mark on the "^""^^ 

character of the tribe. But some Gonds, while retaining' ^' O Monachi, 

their external characteristics, adopted the Hindu, and some 
few the Mahomedan, religion. Thus there are seen in, 
ttbe present age, as respects faith and custom, three kuids . 
Ee Gonds,— -namely, the aboriginal Gonds, the Hindu Gonds, \ 



. We have not room to ^ve any more extracts, orj 
we would quote some hues of the quaint Gond' 
ballad translated by Mr. Hislop, the only one of > 

How curious and how 
savage, and untutored races! ' 
is the love of poetry or rhyme. Whether among the] 
savages of North America, or the peasant of the U 
North ; whether among the vintagers of Sicily, the . 
south of France, or of Spain, or the rude cultivators of j 
the wild regions of Turkistan > whether among the 
Tyrol mountains or the hills of Central India, — ' 
rude and untutored feeling expresses itself in song ;; 
often the offspring of credulous simplicity or of 
uQsch,ooled fanc}^ as an American writer expresses' 
himself. The savages of Gondwanna are no ex-; 
ception to the rule. The graphic description which 
Mr. Hislop gives of the religious rites of the Gond 
.feiheBia entertaining We,ftr« not, however, «ure 
If the savage monsignon who officiated a9 prophets, 
or priests, or " Lingo" were very amiable in their 
manners. The following old rhyme would be very 



Vestri stomacbi, 
Sunt amphora Bacchi, 
Vo9 estis, 
Deus est testis, 

Turniiuimtt iw»ai-ia " 



'^ 






PREFACE. 



It is bift too well known to all persons interested in the 
Nagpore Country that the Rev. Stephen Hislop, Missionary of 
the Free Chnrch of Scotland at Nagpore, — a gentleman distin- 
guished for all the virtues and qualities becoming his sacred 
profession, and for attainments in scholarship and in practical 
science, — died by accidental drowning on the 4th September 
1863. During nineteen years of labour in the service of the 
Mission, he had diligently and perseveringly enquired, not only 
into the physical resources of the country, but also into the 
languages, the manners, the religions, the histories, and the 
antiquities of the people. In the pursuit of these enquiries, 
he investigated much regarding the aboriginal tribes inhabiting 
the territories now known as the Central Provinces, and especi- 
ally regarding the Gond people. The results of this investiga- 
tion were embodied in several elaborate papers, which were 
intended for publication ultimately in a complete form, but 
which were inevitably left scattered and incomplete at the time 
of his sudden and lamented death. 

It was naturally considered by the late Mr. Hislop's relations 
and friends, that these valuable and important papers should 
not be lost to the public, but should be examined, collated, and 
prepared for publication, in a manner which (though falling far 
short of what the author himself would have produced had he 
lived} might yet present the work in a sufficiently intelligible 
shape. At first there was hope that some gentlemen possessing 
more or less of literary leisure might be found to fulfil the task 
of editing these papers. But it is difficult to secure such 
assistance in these Provinces. And at length, at the request 
of Mr. Hislop's friends, I undertook to have the papers brought 
out under my own supervision and direction. The work is 
now done, imperfectly no doubt, but as well as time and means 
permitted ; and if not actually good, it is perhaps better than 
nothing at alL 

Mr. Hislop had considerable opportunities and facilities for 
obtaining reliable and detailed information regarding, what are 
commonly called, the aboriginal tribes of this part of India. 
In the cold season of each year, he made tours by marching in 
the interior of the districts, and thus saw much of, and heard 



11 



much from, the pepole in their homes, their villages, their fields 
and their forests. He was generally accompanied by educated 
natives connected with the Mipsion, who helped him in securing 
full and correct answ3rs to all queries. These were native 
catechists and preachers, either stationed in, or moving about, 
the country — and especially in Chindwara, the heart of the 
Oond region, — who recorded and transmitted facts to him. He 
was acquainted with various European officers and gentlemen 
who resided among, or otherwise came in contact with, these 
tribes, and who supplied him with information. He made 
use of all these several advantages with patience, assiduity^ 
and rese9.rch. He tested and verified the information thus 
accumulated, by extensive study of the works of other authors 
on the aboriginal races of India and of other countries. 

These tribes will, from their numbers, their position, and 
their antecedents, be found worthy of the erudition and study 
which Mr. Hislop bestowed on all that belonged to them. 

Though much imbued with Hinduism, they are yet quite 
distinct in race and language from the Hindus. Again, they are 
not all of one tribe, perhaps not even of on^ nationality, for some 
of their dialects differ altogether from others. By themselves, 
in the aggregate, they form an important section of the popu- 
lation. They are spread, thinly perhaps, but broadly, all over 
the large territories now known as the Central Provinces— 
from our extreme limits in one direction to our furthest frontier 
in another; from Bundlecund in the north to the Teloogoo 
coast districts in the south; from Malwa and Oandeish in the 
west to the confines of Orissa in the east ; and right through the 
very centre of the country, among the Vindhya Mountains 
which overlook the valley of the Nerbudda and the Sautpoora 
Ranges which bound the plains of Nagpore and the cotton- 
fields of the Wurda. 

Among these tribes one, namely the Gonds, have formed 
political annals of their own, have wielded dynastic power in 
most parts of those Provinces, and have left architectural re- 
mains in attestation of former greatness. On this subject it 
may be well to transcribe some brief pf^ssages from my first 
Administration Report (.for the year 1862) : — 

y The earliest dynasties in this part of {ndia of which any- 
thing is now either recorded or remembered are those of the 
Gond«Rajpoots. 3ut prior to these, and superior to them in^ 
civilizationi there must have been several Hindu dynast^eSj 
^l^ich 4re only now known by architectural remains : some at 



Ill 

Jubbulpore on the banks of the Nerbudda; some in the hilly 
part of Ohutteesgurh ; and some at Bustar in the heart of the 
wilderness. 

" The ancient Gondwdna, or countfy of the Gonds, comprises 
most of the countries now included in the Central Provinces, 
both below and above the Sautpoora Range. The 'earliest 
settlersinthe woods and hills and ihe oldest dynasties were Gond. 
The Gonds seem, without doubt, to have been one of the most 
powerful and important of the aboriginal races of India. Existing 
prior to the advent of the Hindus, they possessed their own forms 
of heathenism, which often are preserved entire and intact to this 
day, and which have always, and under all changes, impressed 
their mark on the character of the tribe. But some Gonds, while 
retaining their external and distinctive characterisiics, adopted 
the iJindu, and some few the Mahoraedan, religion. Thus 
there are seen in the present ago, as respects faith and custom, 
three kinds of Gonds, namely the aboriginal Gonds, the Hindu 
Gonds, and the few M ussiilmau Gonds. In physique and morale 
all three seem much alike. I'he Hindu conquerors of the 
Gonds were principally Rajpoots. These intermarried with the 
conquered, and their desoendents are called ll.ljpoots, and pride 
themselves on flieir descent. Most of the indigenous Rajpoots 
80 called are really Gond Rajpoots, These mixed races, becom- 
ing acclimatised to countries that would have proved deadly to 
many civilized nations, spread themselves over wide domains, 
and in arms and policy emulated the achievements of suparior 
tribes. Their original boundary in the south may perhaps have 
been the Godavcry If it was* they must have crossed that 
river, and extended far into the Daklian. 

" They formnd from first to last four kingdoms within the 
present limits of these provinces. The northern kingdom had 
its capital at Mundla, and «it Gurra (near the modern city of Jub- 
•bulpore) and dominated the greater part of the Nerbudda Valley. 
Of the two midland kingdoms, one had its capital at Deo- 
gurh on the south -rn face or slopes of the Sautpoora Range, 
over-looking and commanding the plains which now belong to 
Nagpore. Deogurh is now ruined and utterly desolate; but it 
was a city before Nagpore was even a village. The other raid- 
land kingdom has irs capital at Kherla, a hill commanding the 
rich valley of IJaicool, in the heart of the Sautpoora Hdls. To this 
also belonged the celebrated forts of Gawilgurh and Nurnalla, 
both in the same range. The southern kingdom had its capital 
at Chanda on the Wurda,and comprised a vast, but wild, territory : 
itstreached far up to to the north-east, and again, commanding 



IV 

tile Godavery, stretched far down to the south. These four dy- 
nasties existed at least some time before the formation of the 
Moghul Empire. They vere brave and independent, but they 
could never have been rich or powerfuL Still, each of them 
must have possessed an annual revenue of some lakhs of 
rupees. They were quite inferior in art and civilization to the 
Hindu and Mahomedan dynasties known in other parts of India; 
but still they each left architectural remains and monuments of 
great interest; at Mundla, at Gurra near Jubbulpore, at Choura- 
gurh near Nursingpore, at Deogurh near Chindwara, at Kheria 
near Baitool, and at Chanda. These ruins, surrounded by, or adja- 
cent to, the waste, or the rocks, or the forest, fill the modern enquir- 
er with surprise, and attest the former energies of half-civilized 
races contending with the wildness of Nature. As the Mahomed- 
an rule absorbed the diflferent parts of Central India, it attacked 
these Gond Kingdoms in turn. The northern kingdom, how- 
ever, in some struggles well known to local tradition, maintained 
something of its u^dependence, though it may have lost many 
of its richer provinces. The southern kingdom also does not 
appear to have been entirely subdued, though it was rendered 
tributary; but its branches across the Godavery were carried 
away and addtd to the Mahomedan kingdoms in the Dakhan. 
That dominion indeed spread over both banks of the Godavery; . 
and up to a recent period the strip of territory on the left, or 
JS^agpore side of the river, belonged to the Nizam. The midland 
kingdom was at all events rendered tributary, and its Princes 
were, by force or influence, converted to Islam. 

" Besides these four kingdoms there was a Gond Raj poot dynasty 
at WurunL^al in the liakhan. When that place fell to the 
Mahomedan, the Knja fled northward across the Godavery, and 
established himself in wild independence among the inaccessible 
forests." 

But besides forts, palaces, and tombs, they have in some 
parts of the country left traces of works wisely designed for 
material improvement. On this point, it may be proper to insert 
the following passages from my official report on the river 
Wyngunga :^- 

*« This tract, as already seen, lies between a low range of hills 
and a river, having an average breadth of thirty miles. Though 
partly champaign, it is yet much broken up and diversified by 
hills and jungles. Advantage has been taken of the undulations 
in the ground and the streams permeating it, to construct a regu- 
lar tank system. These are not so large as the lakes mentioned 
in the upper basin of the Wyngunga; but are second to them 



alone. This tract belonged to the Gond dynasty of Chanda, 
who, probably established at a later period, were cotnpara- 
tively more civilized; and these have left behind them a noble 
mark on the land. In 1865, after visiting these tanks, I caused 
a letter to be written to the local authorities, which, as it 
conveyed impressions on the spot, may furnish a few extracts 
to make up the description, as follows: — 

, ' The number and size of these tanks is certainly remarkable. In some 
parts thej even cluster thick round the feet of the hills« From the summit 
.of the hill, called '' PSrzagurh" by the Gonds, and ''The Seven Sisters" hj 
the Hindus, no less than thirty-seven tanks were counted as disttnetly 
visible. 

* These tanks are indeed the pride and ornament of the district. Thev 
are, as the people themselves told the Chief Commissioner^ the very life of the 
place. They are the object to which much of the industry and capital of 
the people are devoted; and are the main source of agricultural wealth. 
The two staples are rice and sugarcane — and both are entirely dependent on 

^the water supply for irrigation from the tanks. Not only have large, indeed 
sometimes very extensive, sheets of water been formed by damming up 
streams by heavy earthwork dykes, but masonry escapes and sluices and 
channels have been constructed. Some of the sluices, as head works for irrigation 
channels, present an almost elaborate apparatus, creditable to the skill and 
ingenuity of the people. 

* With many, perhaps with most, of the largest tanks, the works were in 
good, even capital repair.' '' 

Thus it is that some knowledge of these tribes must be useful, 
indeed almost essential, to the various Officers engaged in the 
Civil Administration of these Provinces. 

Though these people have in bygone ages lorded it over the 
plains cultivated with regular husbandry, the} live in recent 
times, for the most part, in the hilly and wooded tracts. These 
* are the tra^^ts which yield tliose vast supplies of timber wood 
and fuel; those extensive soams ot coal; those iron ores; those 
mineral riches; that lac dye, and many other jungle products, 
which constitute in the mass so large a part of the resources 
of these Provinces. In all efforts that are being, or may yet 'l)e 
made to utilize these resources, an acquaintance with the people 
who dwell in these often desolate and inaccessible tracts, is 
really requisite. 

It behoves especially those who are employed in the conserva- 
tion and management of the forests — a department of fast- 
growing importance— to learn all about the hill tribes whose 
co-operation is necessary to departmental success, and over whom 
influence can be won only by conciliation. Regarding the 
important position occupied by these people in the hill districts, 
the following psssage may be extracted from my second Ad- 
' ministration Report, for 186S: — 



VI 



•* One great caiwe of wastage and destruction of the forests 
is what is called '* Dbya" cultivation. This " t)hya" cultivatidn 
is practically s^ substitute for ploughing, and a idevice for saving 
the trouble of that operation. It is resorted to by hill jieople, 
who are averse to labor, and have little or no agricultural capital. 
The method is \u this wise : A piece of ground on a raocierate slope 
isselected, clothed with" trees, brushwood, arid grass; the trees 
are cut down in Xovember, the brushwood and grass are set fire to 
in May^ the' charred ground is left covered with ashes; in the 
beginning of June quajitities pf seed ^re placed at the upper 
end of the slope; the rains descending wash the seed over and 
into the prepared ground ; no ploughing or any other operation 
is resorted to. There springs up a plentiful crop, which has 
to be watched all day and night, till it is cut. If not so watched, 
it would be eattn up by wild animals. In this manner all the 
pulses Bre raised. Besides this culture, there will be a few 
fields around the homesteads, regularly ploughed, and growing 
^superior products. The pulses, however, form the staple food 
.„ J, of the hdl people in four districts,* and 

*Mxindla. . * * ^ ^ r i- ^ • . a' ^ 

Sc6neo. lu mt^oy parts oi districts adjacent to 

BaitliT*™' them. The population dependent mainly 

" " on Dhya cultivation may .be a million 

or more. Unfortunately the best ground for this peculiar 

cultivation is ]>recisely ,ihat where the finest timber trees like 

to grow. It may be hoped that by degrees these hill people 

will learn a better mode of cultivation But to prohibit the 

Dhyaxultivation, would be to drive this widely-scattered popii- 

lation jto cjespair. Though rude and ignorant, they are not 

^destitute of .spirit and endurance. They have clans and Chiefs; 

they are always^predatory; and they have on occasions shown 

themselves capable of .armed resistance If by a prohibition of 

their. favorite culture they were reduced to any distress, they 

would resort to plunder, and especially to cattle -stealing. And 

it is to be remembered that the great pasturage whither the 

cattle from the plai^ districts resort, is situated in their country. 

And if they were not in, the country, the last state of the forests 

would be worse than the first. For then the traces of huiiian 

habitation, settlement, and clearance, would disappear. The 

^foresters and the woodmen could no longer live in, or even 

en)terinto, the wilderness, rank and malarious with uncleai^ed 

jungle, and overrun with wild beasts. These animals are already 

so destructive as to constitute a real difficulty. The only ch^ck 

upon their becoming masters of the forests is the presence of the 

.hill tribes.*' " ' ' -- - ^. 

There is much in the character .of. these l^rilpes to, attract 



Vll 

Britisb eympathies. They are honest and truth-telling; they 
are .sin^ple-minded; though superstitious, they are yet free 
from fanaticism ; they have great physical eudurance. Their 
courage is reiparkable: the instance is freshly remembered in 
the Chindwara District, where an Engliea officer was saved 
from instani death in the grip of a panther by the bravery of 
a Gond hunter; and still more recently, a wounded officer on 
the (Jodavery was rescued from the wild beasts by his native 
hunter. 

In former days, the bane of all these trihes has been the 
drinking of ardent spirits, and even wilful and deliberate 
drunkenness. But of Jate years radical change's in the manage- 
ment of the excise have removed many temptations from 
their way. And it is the concurrent testimony of all persons, 
liuropean and Native, most competent to judge, that a marked 
reform in the habits of these people has been setting in of late. 

While a knowledge of these aboriginal tribes is thus seen 
to subserve so many practical uses, it will not be without its 
scientific and ethnological value. For it is liie opinion of the 
best informed persons, that in their languages and religions, 
these people have much in common with the wild races of other 
parts, both of the Indian peninsula and of the Asiatic continent; 
and that numerous points of interesting comparison suggest 
themselves. 

Such, then, very briefly, are the tribes for the elucidation of 
whose character Mr. Hislop devoted so much of his heavily-taxed 
time and thought. From the inevitably incomplete and 
fragmentary papers which he left, those which follow have 
been selected for pjiblication in the order as below : — 

I. Essay. 

II. Vocabulary. 

III. Songs and descriptive preds. 

lY. Appendixes, consisting of miscellaneous memoranda. 

To each paper have been appended such notes or other ex- 
planation as seemed to be required. 

The words in the Gondi, the Mu&st, and other dialects, are 
written in the Roman character; all these languages being 
destitute of any written character of their own. But it is 
supposed by some well able to judge, that the Oriental Deva- 
n&gri character would afford much better means of convey- 
ing the sounds of the words of these dialects as really pro- 
nounced by the people. This point may deserve consideration, 



VIU 

as a mission ta the Gonds has recently been commenced by 
the Free Church of Scotland at Chindwara ; and as hereafter 
schools for secular instruction in Gondi may be established 
there. 

Though the preparation of these papers may be imperfect, 
still the labour of several gentlemen has been given to it, 
whose assistance I have pleasure in acknowledging. They are, 
Mr. G. Barclay ( Superintendent of the Chief Commissioner's 
Office), the Rev. Mr. Baba Pandurang (of the Free Church 
of Scotland Mission ), and Syud Noor ( the Meer Moonshee 
of the Secretariat). 

And though this work must necessarily be altogether inferior 
to what it would have been had it been completed and brought 
out by its author himself, yet the publishing of it, even in 
this broken shape, seems desirable, iu justice to the subject, 
and from regard to Mr. Hislop's memory, — a memory which 
is revered and beloved by all who knew him; is respected by 
all scieutific persons interested in the practical advancement 
of these Provinces ; and is cherished by the natives, for whose 
moral and lasting welfare he laboured so long. 

Nagtorb: > 
dUt October 1866. j R. TEMPLE, 



PART L~ESSAY. 



Note by the Editor. 

TfliB Essay, by Mr. Hislop, on the aboriginal tribes of the 
Central Provinces was not left by its author in exactly the shapci 
in which it is now presented. It appears from the autograph 
znanoscript that he first composed an Essay on the aboriginal 
tribes of the Nagpore country before the incorporation of that 
territory in the present Central Provinces. Afterwards he en- 
larged his design so as to embrace the whole of these Provinces; 
and he obtained more specific information regarding the sub- 
divisions of the Gond tribe in particular. This induced him to 
amplify that portion of the essay which related to the Gonds, and 
to include among the Gonds proper two trihas (the Madias and 
the Kol&ms), which he had reckoned among the other aborigines. 
For these, or for some such reasons, he began to rewrite his 
essay. But at the time of his death, he had proceeded only so 
fiu: as the specification of ten out of the twelve sub-divisions of 
the Gonds. Thus there are two manuscripts — the first, being the 
ori^al, carried to its conclusion; the second, being the rewritten, 
or revised essay, carried only a short way into the subject. 

It seemed, therefore, desirable, even necessary, to make up 
one new essay out of these two manuscripts; following the re- 
written essay, so far as it goes, and taking the rest from the 
onginaly-prepared manuscript. On examination ofthe papers, I 
have found that this adaptation is quite feasible, and is the best 
means of carrying out the intention of the author, to the utmost 
that is now possible. Thus, although the essay which follows 
has something of compilation and re-arrangement, yet it contains 
nothing that is not to be found in one or other of Mr. Hislop's 
two manuscripts above described ; and it comprises everything 
essential that is to be gathered from them. 

To the essay, as now published, are appended as foot notes 
various annotations taken from Mr. Hislop's manuscript. Some 
hesitation was felt in ordering the publication of these notes, 
for they were incomplete at the time of the author's death ; it 
was often very difficult to decypher them ; and sometimes they 
contain references to authorities not now obtainable at Nagpore, 
and, therefore, are not always capable of being verified. Bu^ so 
far as verification has been practicable, it has been made. And 
though the notes are not by any means what they would have 
been had they been finished, still they have been put into a 
readable shape : and, even with their unavoidable imperfections, 
they may be useful, and may, at least, give some idea of Mr. 
Hislop's minute and extensive research. 

R. T. 



£SSAY on this UiU Tribes of the Central Provincet. 



Besides tlie general population of the Central Prb^inces, con- 
sisting of a great preponderance of Hindus and a Hinall minority 
of Mahomedans, there are various tribes resuiing in the hilly 
and jungly districts, of whom comparatively little is kriowu/ 
Though among these there are diversities of dialect, and in one 
instance a complete difTerehce in language, yet thete are some 
features which are possessc^d by all in common. 

Physwal appearance. — All are a little below the average size 
of Europeans, and in complexion darker than the generality ^of 
Hindus. Their bodies are well proportioned, but t;heir features 
are rather ugly. They have a roundish head^ distended nostriU, 
wide mouth, thickish lips, straight black hair, and scanty beard 
and moustache. It has been supposed that some of ihe abori- 
gines of Central India have woolly hair ; but this is a mistake. 
Amoi:^ the thousands that I have seen I have not touud one 
with hair like a Negro. A few indeed have curly locks, as a few 
Britons have : but I have not met with one inhabitant of the 
forest who exhibited any marked rese^mblance to the African 
race. On the contrary, both their hair and their features are 
decidedly Mangolian. 

Dress.— Al\ are scantily attired ; but what they want in cloth- 
ing they make up for by the abundance of their ornaments and 
beads, of which they are passionately fond. 

Character. — All are endowed with an average share of intel- 
ligence and a more than ordinary degree ot observation. Shy. 
in their intercourse with strangers, they are not wanting in 
courage, when there is an understood object to call it forth. 
Truthful in their btatements, faithful to their promises, and 
observant of the rights of property among themselves, they 
nevertheless 4o not scruple to plunder those to whom they are 
under no obligation to fidelity. But the great blot on their moral 
charaiiter is their habitual intemperance. . Bes^ides their daily 
potations, a large quantity of liquor is an esijeutial element in 
their religous. rites. No festival can be held in the forest or 
village in honour of their deities; no birth, marriage, or death can 
take place in their families, without an excessive indulgence 
in ardent spirits. Their acts of worship invariably , end iu 
intoxicatioi^. 



2 

Literature. — Among none of our jungle tribes can the slightest 
appioach to learning be said to exist. All are destitute of any 
written character of their own ; and, with the exception of a very 
few individuals who have come in contact with Hindus, they 
are entirely uneducated in any other language. 

TiUeige. — The system of cultivation, whicn all prefer, is mi- 
natory, like that of the ancient Germans, and many forest tribes 
m Asia at the present day. Here it is called Ddhi or D&hya, 
and is essentially the same with the practice of the Torus, of the 
Terai, of the hill Cacbaris, the Bodos, the Mikirs, the Kukis, the 
Kajmahalis, the Kols, &c. On the West^ern Ghats, near Sattara, 
it is Jcnown as Dale or Kumari, and in the mountainous districts 
of Burmah it goes by the name of Toungya. In the hot wea- 
ther they select some spot on a plateau or declivity of a hill, on 
which tney cut down tne brushwood and lop off the boughs of 
the larger trees, and place them in layers to dry. Before the 
beginning of the rains in June they set the whole on fire, and 
spread the ashes over the cleared space. On these, after they 
have been slightly mingled with the soil by the first showers, 
they scatter a variety of inferior grains, chiefly millet, along 
with one or two species of cucurbitacesd. In sowing the castor- 
oil plant, and different kinds of pube, they use a tool in some 
places somewhat resembling a hoe. The crops are not very 
productive the first season; but the following year, without any 
runher sowing, they are more abundant. The third year the 
land is comparatively unretnunerative, yielding little but grass; 
but the houses that had been erected at the place are still 
allowed to stand there until the cultivators have burnt down the 
jungle on another spot, when they remore thither with their 
families and property. They do not return to an old piece of 
ground till after the lapse of about 12 years, when they find it 
again covered with jungle, and requiring the same process of 
burning and cultivation as before. This rude system of farming 
is doubtless unfavourable to the growth of valuable timber. It 
is only on superior soil that Teak thrives, and, of course, these 
are the vei7 soils chosen for Dfi^hi tillage. As a necessary con- 
sequence, Teak falls a sacrifice. 1 his tree, as Captain P. G. 
Stuart, late Superintendent of Nagpore Forests, suggests, yields 
a large amount of ash, and our jungle cultivators are specially 
anxious to secure it for manuring their temporary fields ; or, as 
they themselves allege, its large, broad leaves, catching and 
retaining the rain, cause a heavy drip, which washes out the 
grain — and hence they rest not till it is either cut down or 
deprived of its crown and branches. From such motives many 
parts of the country have been stripped of the finest forest 



3 

trees, and in their place has sprung up nothing but a Worthless 
fcrub. 

RHiyion.*'^ All introduce figures of the horse in their worship. 

^/arriage."^ Among all, this ceremony does not take place until 
both bride and bridegroom have reached maturity. A consider- 
ation in the shape of money or service is always given to the 
father of the former. The nuptial rites are performed at the house 
of the latter. The expenses, which are considerable, are borne 
by the parents of both. Polygamy is permitted, though, from 
the straitness of their wordly circumstances, not commonly 
practised. On the death of either party the survivor may re- 
marry ; but when it is a woman who a second time enters on 
wedded life, the rites are few and simple. 

Peath.'^Both interment and cremation are observed. The 
old are often burned, though frequently also buried : the bodies 
of the young are always committed to the earth. 

The above description is intended to apply only to those mem- 
bers of the hill tribes who adhere to their original customs. 
With respect to those who have conformed to Hinduism, several 
of the remarks will not hold good. Of the points of resemblance, 
some may have been produced by similarity of circumstances, and 
Cithers may have been borrowed by one tribe from another. 

Whether any indicate a community of origin, will be considered 
towards the conclusion of this paper. 

THE GOND RACE. 

The name of Gond, or Gund, seems to be a form of Kond,* or 
Kund, the initial gutturals of the two words being interchangeable, 
as in gotalghar, an empty house: from Kotal^ a led horse, and 
ghar, a house. Both forms are most probably connected with 
Kandd — the Teloogoo equivalent for a mountain — and therefore 
will signify *' the hill people." And no designation could be more 
appropriate to the localities which the majority of them inhabit. 
Though they are also found residing in the villages of the plains 
along with the more civihzed Hindus, yet they chiefly frequent 
the mountain ranges lying between 18^ 40' and 28^ 40' north 
latitude, and between 78^ and 82i^ east longitude. This tract 
somewhat corresponds with the old Mahomedan division of Gond« 
w&na. but differs from it in not reaching so far to the east and 
in extending considerably fmther towards the south-east. The 

* I believQ the aboTe, and not the oommon aeinnted inodei ii the ooneot speUing of the 
name of the Orisea aborigmee. 



1 



Moghul geographers seem to have included With the Gonds of 
Nagpore the Eols on their east frontier, and to have been igno* 
rant of the relationship batween thi^m and the inhabitants of 
Bustar. In the north, Gonds are met with about Saugor and near 
the source of the Hasdo ; on the east, they cross that river into 
Sarguja, where they border on the Kols, and are found with 
Konds and Uriyas in Nowagudda, Kareal, and Kharond or ,Ki- 
lahandi ; in the south, they form the mas^ of the population of 
Bustar and a portion of the inhabitants of Jeypur (in the Madras 
Presidency ;, while they occupy the hills along the left bank of 
the Godavery, about Nirmul ; and on the west, they are inter- 
mingled with the Hindus of Berar for 30 miles from the right bank 
of the Wurdah, and, along the Kl^rs, extend along the hills 
both north and south' of the Narbadda to the meridian of 
Uindia, where they give place to the Bhils and Nahals. 

In such a large extent of country, as n^igbt be expected, they 
are divided into various branches, and distinguished by specific 
names. The classification adopted by themselves is into twelve 
and a half castes or classes, in imitation of the Hindus. These are : 
Kdj Gond, RaghuwAl, Dadave, Katulyd, Pddil, Dholi, Ojhydl, 
Thotydl, Koilabhutdl, Koikop&l, Koi^m, M Ady^l, and an inferior 
sort of Pidkl as the half caste. The first four, with the addition, 
according to some of the Koldm, are comprehended under the 
name of Koitor--"-the Gond, par ezcdleiice. This terra, in its radical 
form of Koi, occurs over a wide area, being the name given to 
the Mena-sacrificing aborigines of Orissa and to the jungle tribes 
skirting the east bank of the Godavery, from the apex of the 
delta as far up nearly as the mouth of the Indrawati. Its mean- 
ing is evidently aasociated with the idea of a hill; the Persian 
name of which, Kohy approaches it more closely than even the 
Teloog^oo, Kondd. J need scarcely, therefore, add that it h^ no 
connection with the, int^rogative Koi^ as some have supposed, 
nor has Koitor any relftUoA.to the. Sanskrit Kshatr^fa^ as sug- 
gested by Sir R. Jenkins. Though there area few of the more 
wealthy Koitors who would gladly pass themselves off as Raj* 
puts, yet the great majority of those known by that name resent, 
with no small vehemence, the imputation of belonging to any 
portion of the Hindu community. The sacred thre^^d of the 
twice-born, instead of being ^.xi object of ambition, is to them 
a source of defilement. 

The RAj Gonds are so called because they have furnishtid 
from their number most of- the families that have attained to 
royal power. They are widely spread over the plains and mouu- 
tains of the province of Nagpore, and are found in Berar and 



the jungles south of the Wurdah, as well as those north 
of the Narbudda. The Raghuwal and Dadave are more limited 
in their range, being confined chiefly to the district of 
ChindwSra. These three classes generally devote themselves 
to agriculture. 1 hey eat with each other, but do not inter- 
marry. The Katulyd, though not a very numerous class in 
regard to individuals, is extensively scattered. It includes 
all those who, originally belonging to one or other of the 
preceding Koitor classes, have bej;un to ci)nform to the Hindu 
religion and to ape Hindu manners. Prof^^ssing to be Ksha- 
iriyas, they have invested themselves wiih a sacred thread, 
and make great efforts to have their claim allowed, by contract- 
ing marriage with needy Kajpoot brides. With scrupulous 
exactitude, they perform the prescribed ablutions of their adopt- 
ed faith, and carry their passion for purification so far as to 
have their faggots duly sprinkled with water before they are 
used for cooking. At the time of dinner, if a stranger or a crow 
come near them, the whole food is thrown away as pointed. 
These practices, which other Koitors re^»ard with profound 
contempt, are gaining ground among the rich. It was only one 
or two generations ago that the Zemindar, or petty Uaja of 
Kheiragad, — the present bearer of which title still carries in his 
features unmistakeable traces of his Gond origin, — was received 
within the pale of Hinduism; and similar transformations, though 
at a more distant date, seem to have been undergone by the 
royal dynasties of Bustar, Mundla, and various smaller princi- 
palities. This tendency to claim connection with Rajpoots ia 
not peculiar to ambiticms Gonds: it prevails among the Bhils 
of Malwa, and is not unknown to the wandering Keikadis of 
the Dakhan, both of whom boast of being Yadawas, or Powdrs, 
or some other equally high bom section of the Kshatriyas. On 
the other hand, there was a temptation in the days of Aurangzib, 
when Mahomedanism was rampant, to adopt that religion. In 
comparison with the Bhils, however, few of the Gonds actually 
made the change. The only instance that has come to my 
knowledge is that of Bakht Buland, the Kajah of Dewagad, who 
wag^ converted to Islam when on a visit to Aurangzib at Delhi. 
Still his descendants, though adhering to this change of creed, 
have not ceased to marry mto Gond families; and hence the pre- 
sent representative of that regal house is not only acknowledged 
by the whole race about Nagpore as their head and judge, but 
18 physically regarded a pure Kdj Gond. 

The Pddal, also named Pathddi, Pardhan, and Desdi, is a 
numerous class found in the same localities as the Rdj Gonds, 
to whom its members act as religious counsellors (Pradhdna). 

t 



They are, in factj the bhats of the upper classes, — ^repeating their 
genealogies and the exploits of their ancestors, explaining their 
religious system, and assisting at festivals, on which occasions 
they play on two sorts of stringed instruments, named Kingri 
and Jantur Cyantra). For their services they receive presents 
of cows or bullocks, cloth, food, and money. The birth or 
death either of a cat or dog in their family defiles them ; and 
from this uncleanness they cannot be free till tfcey have shaved 
off their moustache, purchased new household vessels, and 
regaled their caste fellows with a plentiTul allowance of arrack. 
These have assumed the name of Kaj Pardhdns, to distinguish 
themselves from a subdivision of the same class, which is 
degraded to the rank of a half-caste; consisting of those who in 
the vicinity of Nagpore speak Marathi, play on wind instruments 
of brass, and spin cotton-thread, like the outcast Hindus. 

The Dholis are so styled from the kmd of drum (dhola ) which 
they are in the habit of beating. They also play on a kind of 
wooden clarionet, named Surnai ; and at marriages, where they 
exercise their musical powers, they prompt the wo»nen when 
they hesitate in their songs. The Nngdrchis are a subdivision 
of this class, whose instrument is the kettle-drum (nakara). 
These are also known by the name of Chheikya in the more 
jungly districts , where they aie employed as goatherds The 
wives of both Dholis and Nagdrchiji act the part of accoucheurs 
in Hindu as well as Gond families. 

The Ojhyal follow two occupations — that of bards, as their 
name implies, and that of fowlers. Like the two classes to be 
next mentioned, they lead a wandering lite; and in the villages 
which they pass through, they ging from house to house the 
praises of their heroes, dancing with castanets in their hands, 
bells at their ankles, and long feathers of jungle birds in- their 
turbans. They sell live quails, the skins of a species of Buiieros, 
named Dhanchidiy^. which are used for making caps, and for 
hanging up in houses in order to secure wealth (dhan) and good 
luck, and the thigh bones ot the same bird, which fastened arouad 
the waists of children, are deemed an infallible preservative 
against the assaults of devils and other such calamities. Their 
wives tattoo the arms of Hindu women. Of this class there 
is a subdivision, who are called M&nd Ojhyal. Laying claim 
to unusual sanctity, they refuse to eat with any one — Gond, 
Rajpoot, or even Brahmin, and devote themselves to the manu- 
facture of rings and bells, which are in request among their own 
race, and even Lingas and Naudis, which they sell to all ranks 
of the Hindu community. Their wives are distinguished by 



wearing the cloth of the upper part of the body over their 
right shoulder, whereas those of the common Ojhyal, and of all 
the other Gonds, wear it on their left. 

The Thotydl, i. e. the maimed, or inferior class, are also 
known by the more honorable appellation of Pendabarya, or 
minstrels of God. Their songs are in honor of their deities; 
but the divinity whose service they find most profitable is the 
Goddess of small-pox — the power of Matd being equally dreaded 
by Hindus and Gonds. Hence they are frequently called 
Mitydl, though among Hindus they wish rather to be styled 
Thdkurs. They may be seen travelling about with a kawad 
over their shoulder, from one erd of which is suspended a 
bambu box, containing an image of their favourite goddess, and 
from the other a basket, designed to be the ret^epta^^le of grain 
and other gifts. A tambourine (daph) is their usual musical 
instrument. To their sacred occupation they ad'l the trade of 
basket-making; while their womati acquire a knowledge of 
simples, and practise the art of physic in rural districts. 

The Koilabhutdl are the third class of itinerants. Their oc- 
cupation, however, is neither of a religious nor secular kind, 
but consists In making a profit of vice. Their women are danc- 
ing girls, in both senses of the word. I^hev follow their 
profession chiefly among the Hindu«*, it beinsz re( k med disreput- 
able by the people of their own race. The Biiirad. not in- 
cluded in our list, are found in the north-east of the Bundara 
District. Though they resemble the Koilabhutdl in their habit 
of dancing in the villages through which they pass, they are 
believed to abstain from their open depravity. 

Unlike the three preceding, the Eoiko|)^l are a settled class, 
devoted entirely to the employment of cow-keeping — Eopal 
being the Gondi corruption of Gop&l. They have the epithet 
of Koi., t. e. Gondi, prefixed to distinguish them from other 
Ahirs living in the province of Nagpore, of whom three sub- 
divisions, the Ednojiyd Gw&lwanshi, and Mai h&, speak ^Hindi, 
while the Dudh Gowars use Mar&ihi. 

Of the remaining two classes on the list, viz. the M&dyas 
and Kolams, some account shall now be given. 

The name of the Mddya subdivision of Gonds* seems to be 
derived from Mar&, the Gondi term for a tree. In Bustar they 
are also called Jhorias, probably from Jhodi, a brook. Every- 

^InliAbitaiiia of So<mohoor Talook genenlly Oonds, with a few Holiera. Mott of th# 
OoBdi, i «. IttdiM, luboit on rooU «nd flowtr of llliow» drMd in mid, of which btWr 



8 

where they are wilder than the Gonds commonly so called; 
but on the Beila Di\k Hills, which run south-east parallel to 
the Godavery, and where they are known by the name of 
Mddians, they are perfectly savage. 

On the east of Chanda District the men wear no covering 
for their head or for the upper part of their bodies, and con- 
stantly go about with a battleaxe in their hands. The women 
deck themselves with 30 or 40 strings of beads, to which -sotre 
add a necklace of pendant bells. Bangles ot zinc adorn their 
wrists, and a chain of the same metal is suspended from the 
hair, and attached to a large boss stuck in the ear. But the 
greatest peculiarity connected with their costume, is the practice, 
which prevails in the more remote districts, of the women wear- 
ing no clothes at all; instead of which they fasten, with a string 
passing round their waists, a bunch of leafy twigs to cover them 
before and behind. The Kev. Mr. De Rodt says that this 
practice was re | or ted to exist south of the K61 country ,f which 
he visited about 1840 or 1841. His allusion may refer to the 
Juangas, who fell under the personal notice of Mr. Samuells 
in 1854. This custom was observed by Mr. Samuells to exist 
also in Orissa. In his notes on them in the Bengal Asiatic 
Journal, Volume XXV , page 295, Mr. Samuells states the some- 
what interesting fact, that the practice is traced up to the com- 
mand of one of iht ir deities when reproving the women for 
their pride. A similar custom is said to obtain among the 
Chenchawas that inhabit the jungles between the Mddians and 
Masulipatam ; and it did exist till about 30 years ago among the 
Hollers in the vicinity of Mdngalur. 

In their villages bothies for bachelors are universal. Every- 
where they are extremely shy in their intercourse with stangers: 
but on the Bell& I)il& Hills they flee at the approach of 
an V native not of their own tribe. Their tribute to the Kaja 
of Bustar, which is paid in kind, is collected once a year by an 
officer who beats a tom-tom outside the village, and forthwith 
hides himself, whereupon the inhabitants bring out whatever 



cat 4 Hcers for every neer of rice. All armed with bows and arrows, and good marksmen. 
Gonds and Holiers live long about Sooncboor. Even when old they cut wood, make mats, 
and build houses. — Tuke, 

A thief is beaten out, according to Tuke, The Gonds ar^honest among themselves (see 
Maopherdon). Dr. Walker's fugitives robbed, ^ 

In Ruga and Chikhilnada Talouk chiefly Gondfl. 

Dr. Walkei's men said : Near Buster town dress of Gonds simply a bit of cloth 14 cubits 
long, and 7 or 8 inches bri»ad, called in Hidustani a ** langoti;" their heads and bodies bare ; 
food— rice, aid dal of green gram. Coarse cloth brought by Mussulman merchants from 
Hadras and Nagpore to Marunkah, where blind Bhopal Deo lived. 

t The Bhils have bows with bambu string, like Midia8.~ro(f, p. 94. 



9 

th^y have to give, and deposit it on au appointed «pot 

Religion. — They have one great festival in the jungles, ^^X the 
begiotting of the monsoon, before they eow their crops, (or 
which a priest (Seadi Mdnji) goes round and collects oontri- 
ImtioDfs. The xjeremony consists in setting up stones in a row, 
to represent their gods, daubing them with vermilion, and 
.presenting tbe accustomed offerings. On gathering in their 
crops, they have a day of rejoicing in their respective abodes. 

Birth. — ^The separation bf a woilieT lasts for a month, during 
idiich nt) one touches her, and xmless there aregrown-'upd»ttgh- 
tefs, rtie is obliged to cook for herself. 

Marriage. — Oh the east of Chinda District the chief part 
of the nuptial eeremonies is confined to one day. In the mom- 
iflg, about 7, a bower having been erected near the bridegroom's 
house, the two young people are led into it and made to stafad 
up together, when a vessel of water is dashed upon their heads 
from above. They then put on dry dothes, and sit down in the 
midst of their friends, Ivho lay on their heads some grains of 
rice. The marriage is completed by an exhortation from the 
paretrts. On the east of Arpeili Zemindary, which is farther 
•south, the ceremony commences in the morning by setting np 
at the door of the cow-housed tow of carefiiHy washed stones, 
with one in the middle, to represent the **great god'" Rounrd 
all a thread is passed, and each is honoured with a bladk mai'k, 
made with a mixture of charcoal arid oil. A brass drinking 
vessel is placed in front of the chief deity, into w'hich each 
carried woman drops Ifour cowries,^hich 'become the property of 
the, principal roan of the village. They then present their 'offer- 
ings, burn incense, and sprinMe "water three times before their 
god«), whereupon they retire to the house for refreshments. 
iAitinoon tbe nuj>tials are solemnized, commencing with thef>our- 
ing of water on 4;he heads of the young people as before. Their 
clothes being changed, and the bridegroom having received from 
^elhead man^a dagger^ which he-is^o hold Coring -the /remain- 
'ider of the Cdremony,fbe 'and bis partner /are both seated at the 
'door "with the comers of their garments knotted together; ^xnd 
^ white titark ^avii^ been applied to the forehead of each, 
"waterin which safipofn «nd lime have been mixed, so as to form 
^ red liquid, is carried round them thrice, as an 'honorary gift, 
'moA throMm away. The elder :peop]e. are seated near, and music 
iand dancing are kept -up for two or three hours among the un- 
married youth of 'both "sesies. In the evening, at the sound of 
ihe^tom^om, the people again assemble, and similar rites .are 
npmted, «s also on three #eoa8k»is 4ihe following ^day. With 

t 



to 

the customs in the wildest parts of the coimtry I mi not 
acquainted. 

Death. — When a Madid dies, the relatives kill and offer be- 
fore his corpse a fowl. They then place the body on a bambu 
mat, and four young men lift it on their shoulders. All the 
neighbours, calling to mind their own deceased fathers, pour out, 
on the ground, a handful of rice in their honor; then turning to 
the corpse, they put a little on it, remarking that the recently 
departed had now become a god, and adjure him, if death had 
oome by God's will to accuse no one, but if it had been caused 
by sorcery to point tmt the guilty party. Sometimes, it is saidy 
there is such a pressure exerted on the shoulders of the bearers, 
that they are pushed forward and guided to a particular house. 
The inmate is not seized at once; but if three times the 
corpse, after being taken some distance back, returns in the 
same direction, and indicates the same individual, he is appre- 
hended and expelled from the village. Frequently, also, his 
house shares the same fate. The body is then carried to a tree, 
to which it is tied upright and burned amid the wailing of ihe 
spectators. Funeral riies are performed, a year or eighteen 
months after the cremation, when a flag is tied to the tree where 
it took place. After sacrificing a fowl the friends return and 
eat, drink, and dance at the expense of the deceased man*s 
family for one or more da} s, accordirg to their ability, TJie 
dancing is performed by men and women in opposite rows, alter- 
nately approaching to, and receding from, each other. On occa- 
sion of these funeral festivities it is reckoned no sin for a virgin to 
be guilty of fornication, though such conduct is strictly forbid- 
den at other times; and unfaithfulness in a wife is punished by 
the husband with death. 

Names of men: Bursu, BTutmfoji, M&hingu, Newara, Tiyi, 
and Wdrlu. Women : Ledi, Mdhingi, Masi, Semi, and Tomi. 

The Eol&ms extend all along the Kandi Eond& or Pindi Hills, 
on the south of the Wurda River, and along the table-land 
stretching east and north of M&nikgad, and thence south .to 
Dantanpalli, running parallel to the western bank of the Pranhiti. 
'The Eold.ms and the common Gonds do not intermarry, but 
they are present at each others nuptials, and eat from each others 
hands. Their dress is similar; but the Eolftm women wear 
fewer ornaments, being generally content with a few blaiok beads 
of glass round their neck. Among their deities, which are the 
usual objects of Gond adoration, Bhimsen b chiefly honoured. 
In the celebration of their marriages they follow acustom, which 



11 

preyaib also 9BX>og the Kfaonds, as jit does among the tribes 
of the Caucasus, and did aiaoDg not a few of the ancient 
Eiiropean natioiis.* I mean the practice of carrying ofi a biidie 
j4i,pparently by force. When a young man desires to enter qn 
the connubial state, two or three friends of the Camily, having heard 
of a suitable partner in the neighbourhood, and most probably 
having come to a good understanding with her relations, proceed 
thither on their errand of abduction. The men in the village, 
who see what is going on, do not interfere, and the opposition 
of the matrons is easily overcome. The nuptials are celebrated 
«at the bridegroom's house ; after which he and his bride pay ^ 
.visit to the family of the latter, and the^ friendship, which had 
^seemingly been interrupted, is formally re-established. 

This completes the accoimt of the twelve tribes, as Bpecified 
in the earlier part of this Essay. 

The following are further particulars regarding the Gond 
nation generally; — 

Personal appearance.jf — ^They are al)out the middle size of 
natives, with features rather ugly, though among those living in 
Hindu villages I have seen a considerable approximation to the 
Hindu type of countenance. They have been said to possess 
ourly hair: but this is a mistake. 

JJres<s. — The men seldom wear more than a piece of cloth 
^aroimd their waists (dhoti) and a small kerchief 'about their 
heads. The more civilized, in addition, throw a loose clcrfh 
(ingwastra) over the upper part of their body. The women, 
, besides a lower garment, which is tucked up so as to expose 
their thighs and legs, wear a sddi (cloth), which passes like 
a broad sash over the back, and is somewhat more spread out 
in front upon the chest. 1 he men are fond of silver or brass 
•chains round their ears .and a narrow bangle at their wrists. 
(The women tie up their hair into a knot behind, which in the 
Bundara District they adorn with a profusion of red thread. 
Their ears above and below are decked with a variety of 
fines and pendants: chains of silverware suspended from. their 
necKs; big brass bangles, named sinum, enclose their wrists; 
and the backs of their thighs and legs are tattooed down to 
their ancles,;]; on which they wear plated ornaments (kharging). 

* A daooe among theBenuaa^ during which the bride-elect darts <iff into the forest^ and 

TeqaireB to be captured by the bridogroonu-— iVtico2. Art Khonds. Calcutta Review, p. 91., VoL T. 

f See deacription of Phyaiqiie of Khooda^-^alcuUa JUvieto, p. Al, VoL V ; inteUectaaL 

.|».p.«2-S0,VolV. ' t- » .-• 

$ Their cloths can't go with them to heaven; but the marks are the only thing thai 

does. Tho Ojha and Thota women only tattoo when about 20 years of age, before or gSter 

jDOvniage. First make the forms with juice of Biwali and lamp bUck with four needles, ^he 

,, lonna of the tattoo are a peacock, an antelope, and a dagger. The mark is done on the back 

^.of.^thig|baa&d legs: the .operation is paii)Xu]» and the patient xequirea, to be held d^wn. 

The hair aomMimea m^tufally o^rla; but 00 doea t^ of Hi^^dooa^ Bur^gefuu^ Ita 



■1^ 

i^(?rf.— Tbfey hi»ke two iheaU k day: thdir bt^kfiast, ttbtAlftt- 
'tofg g;^nei*illy of 'j^riifel, ahd th^ir «uppfer of eoime boiled coartsfe 
jgf ifn, x/rith pnhe tnd V'eg^tables. Oc6a*siouaUy fcbfa f-outitie is 
Varied, Vhea the cbtee or ^ rolii^iofta feAtival ha!9 provided them 
'%tth tbfe a«bh of deaf, h'og, goat, or foWlfl.* 

Social position.-^^la the pkins, where they are mingled with 
flindns, the CF<md8 take rank abore Mah&rs and other ontoasts. 
in this honor they are partly indebted to the political influenee 
'which 8omex>f their raxse have retained up to the present day. 
indignity dannot be heaped on those whose kindred are known 
to be at no gr6at distance the owners of property 6n wbicfa 
even respectable Hindus are content to live.t But it must 
be confessed that tbe G'onds have acquired their honorable 
position, in ^ considerable degree, by yielding to the prejudices 
y>f the Hindus. Though their owYi principles admit of the 
slaughter of cows, yet, in deference to the feelings of their 
more potrerful neighbours, they abstaib from the practice, and, 
if i mistake not, do not fpartake of the carrion, wiiich ftCahftra 
'Bfe ready to devonr. in many cases the wi^h to stand well 
^th the followers bf the dominant faith has led tbem in Ia 
great measure to embrace it and -surreDder their own; and 
Mime bf their Th&ai^ or ^Zemindars, Or, as they at-'e sometimes 
'oall^ Rajas, Wave hised their utmost endeavours to be recog^ 
"dfsed as Kshatryas, by eontraoting marriages with needy bUj- 
put brides*! The family 'at Kheiragad has succeeded in this 
vttempt. On the other iia^d, there was « temptation in tin^ , 
"days of Aurangzib, ifT^lexx Mahomedanism was ralmpant, to 
Udopit that religion ; wad we 'find that tMs change Was actually 
•made by Bakht Buland, the ancestbr of the Raja 'of Dewagad. 
Still the present representative of that regal h(!mse, tboo^ 
•dheriolg to thfe dbarigre of creed, has not erased to -marry int6 
Gond families — and ^henoe is uokaowled-;^ed by the *whole raWe 
>iboutNagporetes their head and judge, 'and is, frhysically., a ptife 
^j *Gond. in their 4iiH retreats the Qonds are left totheir*owft 
Bteridard of tespobubility; 'but when they haVe there (ano^tlMft* 



. • At I^jp^ti^^Wjto^tt** % a.m/eat' iiilltet,»brfBid, and *il. Moa'ftat ^tliobo^wtaMi MleaMd 
froiii work, and aup at 94 p.m. on vogetablos. Hiiaband and wife don't dine together. 
*At Kamptee same bwin, only early part gruel, made of rice flour boUed in much water. Ai 
night they eat hce and pulse. 

t lifHKBlfAVoiB.— After 'dgV^h of father fa'tifly retniin to^eth*/dr*if £he ISdIhs '^h to 
feMrate they divide the prope. '.7 equally. They may give their sisters aolhe dhi'am'Shta yx 
•loth, btib'the latter Hive no shafe, 

't ThA'tettdetttjy of the O-md Rajas ^dAim ettnn^otibn tirith Rajputs. 'Oh(feia Bhlfa-^fW^ 
l>.'«4;'atad'«ven*K03rbba-^'i^r. fftlfiur, lo Auranafzib'a titho We fibd 'th«tte QbAd FriWfibt 
hi MtiudtUa, D^oghur, a^'0!m!d9a ; *&ua/)aiccohlihg to Kaf^ Khan;thffOWtit»^tonWWi,yi(r<^h, 
•nd elaphaata*f^Mi««tfl&Hfa0l«t)4ilbter ihuifetf gAAktr-X^StiHu, p.'^L 



i 



13 

jungle race living among them, as on the range of hills north 
of Ellichpoor, they generally are the patMs^ or head men of 
their villages; and their neighbours occupy an inferior position. 

Houses and ViUagesi* — When residing in the midst of a 
Hindu population, the Gonds inhabit mud houses, like +he in- 
ferior sort common in the Dakhan. But in the junj:; les the 
houses are of wattle and daub, with thatched roofs. The iritornHl 
arrangements are of the simplest kind, comprising tw- apart- 
ments, separated from each other by a row of tall ba> '.(its, xn 
which they store up their grain. Adjoining the hon^e is a 
shed for buffaloes; and both house and shed are protected 
from wild beasts by a bambu fence. The villaores are situated 
on table-lands, or on slight elevations above the general 
level of the country, and they seldom number more than 10 
houses, and more frequently contain only 3 or 4. But, however 
small the village may be, one house in it is sure to be the ^bode 
of a distiller of arrack. 

Oceupa/ions, — In the immediate vicinity of the city of Nag- 
pore, and of all British stations throughout the province, the 
Gonds have entered into the service of Europeans as grass- 
cutters. In rural districts they are employed as assistants in 
farm labor by Hindu cultivators, or sometimes plough a few 
fields for themselves in the usual way. In the jungles, as we 
have seen, they dispense with the plough, and adopt the nomadic 
system of tillage; In places of mixed population, some of 
their women add to their husband's gains by tattooing the 
forehead and arms of Hindu females. In their own wilds the 
men increase the means of their family's subsistence by hunt- 
ing, in which their chief reliance is on their matchlocks, 
though in some of the more remote parts they kill their game 
with arrows, which most shoot in the" common mode, but others 
in a sitting posture, their feet bending the bow, and both hands 
pulling the string. When they go out on such expeditions, 
and frequently at other tim'^**, they carry a small axe and knife 
for lopping off the branches that might obstruct their path. 

Religion. — Though the Gond pantheon includes somewhere 



* Ehond houses are of boards plastered inside ; thatohed ; in two rows, — Oalcutiti 
JUview, Vol. v., p. 46. At Hutta, in the Bundara District^ the Gond houaee are of bambu 
tatti, daabed with mud ; thatched ; with veranda ; 3 doors, one front and the other behind 
no windows ; divided by tatti or by baskets of grain — larger half with door, in whidi they 
eook and eat ; other daik, in which they keep goods, veasek, &o. Around single houste 
is a compound. But in the jungle houses are in two rows, with compound behind. Thay 
keep Qows, sows, buffaloes, fowls, but no hones, ezeepi thsst who aw risk. 9swt are 
y«ked to the plough, wheie tins plough is \ 



14 

about fift««n gods, yet T have ne^/er obtained from one individual 
the names of ru«>re than seven deities. These were BAdu 
Dewa (thegn^at god), who in other districts is called Budhii 
I*en (the oil god), Matiya (devil or whirlwind), Sale, GangarA 
(little belU), or more properly Gagar&, Palo, Gadawd, and 
Khani; or, cus enumerated by another, Badii, Mdtiyd, Salei, 
G^ngaro Mai, Palo, Chawar, and Kank, The above lists were 
furnished to me by worshippers of seven gods near the Maha- 
deva Hills. To the "great" god, common to all the sects, the 
adherents of these deities jom Kuriyd and Katharpar. Besides 
these, 1 have heard at various times the names of Kodo Pen, 
Pharsi Pen, and Bangar&m; and the Rev. J. Phillips, who 
visited the Gonds at Amarkantak, mentions Hardal as the 
principal object of veneration there.* 

What are the characters or offices of these deities, whose 
very names are so imperfectly known by their worshippers, it 
is vain to inquire from any Native authority. I have been left 
therefore merely to conjecture, and would wish my remarks 
on the subject to be received simply as suggestions. It ap- 
pears to me that Budh&l Pen is the same as Bura Pen,f the 
chief god among the Khonds. Perhaps Harddl may be the 
synonym near the source of the Narbadda. Mdtiva J I would 
suppose is a name for the god of small-pox, who is also one of 
the Khond divinities, and may be identical with Bangdrkm, 
afterwards to be mentioned. vSal« m^'iy probably be the god 
who presides over cattle-pens (.^alo). Kui iya may denote the 
deity who takes care ol the tribo (Kul), or, as it is frequently 
mispronounced, (Kur). Kattarpdr m:iy correspond with the 
Katti Pen of the Khonds, L e, the god of ravines. Kodo 
Pen is considered by the I?l-v. J. G. Driberg, in his '' Report 
on the Narbadda Mission, 1849," to preside over, a village, and 



• Jiingoo (war or wild). Tloyata is also given, to wlioui they pray on e'ghth day q| 
the iHisara; make a circje c2 a pt; >;, and in n.'A '1.: Ill j:i.;':;ery. and make witli their hand* 
rays hho the Sun's, *v\d ko make a l.*i!i mooj; via l;Li imik. aii«i fry both in oil. 

t Sun god and Hoon giKl—f a!' dlta Jlrvii,.!:, Vi.l. V., p. 55. The Bliiiniuk of th* 
r>ev. ilwcida said his goc]^ were BLimseu and Mat.tlcwa, who, ho sail, v.os aunQ as Sun. 
Boor.ii i.nce, god of light, Supreme in other distncLs. Bellapennee, Sun god. — Church 
Mimon TnUlligtn/^er. 

Accordhig to Lieut. Hill, the great sacrificQis among Khonds take place at full moon of 
Pooahum and Maghura. 

At Doli 8 times : on 8th of Dusara, when new rice comes ; 9th of Cheitum, when Mhowa 
flowers ; in Jhiet, before ri«* Rowinj::. 

Am<mS Khonds, to Pattoorij^enne^ a hoar ia eacrifioed before sowing. 

Boorapenn^ among ditto is worsliippt.! at rice harvest. 

Hill god (Soropennee), i. e. Durgudeo.— Cci^wYto HevieiCy Vol. V., p. 67. 

Bura Pen is worshipped onoe a year, at riea harvest ; the worship lasta 5 dayi : • h<]|fVs 
Mcnficed. 

X UiMyi, in not known by the three Gond women belonging to Nagpore whom I qutft- 
tioned, but is considered by Pahad Singh and Gadi Rawaji to caeimadevil. Itiatk* 
name given to a whirlwind, against which Hindus lift up their shoe and utter threatenings. 



IS 

would thus be the counterpart of tlie Nadzu* Pen of the 
Khonds. But may it not signify rather the god who is believed 
to bless crops of grain, of which Kodo (paspulum frumenta- 
eeum) ai^iong Gonds is one of the cliief? The name of Pharsi 
Pen, who is represented by a small iron spear-head, may possibly 
be formed from Barchi, which in Hindi denotes a spear, on 
which hypothesis this deity would be the equivalent of the 
Khond Lohaf Pen, the iron god, or god of war. 

In the south of Bundara District the traveller frequently 
meets with squared pieces of wood, each with a rude figure 
carved in front, set up somewhat close to each other. These 
represent Bangkram BungaraJ Bai, or Devi, who is said to 
have one sister and five brothers — the sister being styled Dau- 
teshwari, a name of KAli, and four out oi the five brothers being 
known as Gantdrkm, Champ4r4m and Nkik&r&m, and Potlinga. 
These are all deemed to possess the power of sending disease 
and death upon men, and under these or different names seem 
to be generally feared in the region east of Nagpore City, I 
find the name of Bungara to occur among the Kols of Chybis^, 
where he is regarded as the god of fever, and is as^iociated with 
Gohem, Chondu, Negra, and Dichali, who are considered, respec- 
tively, the gods of cholera, the itch, indigestion, and death. It 
has always appeared to me a question deserving more attention 
than it has yot received, how far the deities who preside over 
disease, or are held to be malevolent, are to be looked on as belong- 
ing to the Hindus or aborigines. Kali in her terrible aspect is 
certainly much more wk rshipped in Gondwana and the forest 
tracts to the east and south oi it, tlan in any other part of India. 
As the goddess of smnll-pox she has attributed to her the cha- 
racteristics of various aboriginal deiti. s, and it is worthy of re- 
mark, that the parties who conduct the worship at her shrines, 
even on behalf of Hindu?, may be either Gonds, fishermen, or 
members ol certain other low c-astes. The sacrifices, too, in 
which she delij^hts would well agree with the hypothesis of 
the aboriginal derivation of the ma- u features of her character. 
At Chanda and Lanji in the piovmce of Nagpore, there are 
temples dedicated to her honour, in which human victims have 
been offered almost within the memory of the present genera- 



* In voTBhipping PidJiu Pen and Bur» Pra Klioadp oaU oa Ban and X«ri tad Uie 
otbfiT godfl. 

t Loha Pen, a pieoo ol iron or au iron weapon is buried ; fowl, rice» and fum/Ek «ie 
offered in grove. Vilkge gud, Nudzu Pen. Horatin Ko {Ticket p. SOO) are spiiite oi the 
lerelathens ol a newly married woman-— worshipped on the road, invoked in stcluieaB. 

t Bungara, or ram, may be a deity named from Sontal and Ho, — generiA word for god. 
v. 19. There ia a goddeia oam«d Pangara.--^ TickeU, IX-, p.p, 799, 100. Bhungara-- 
a tribe anong the WariUi, 



16 

tion. The victim was taken to the tediple after sunset and 
shut up within its dismal walls. In the morning, when the 
door was opened, he was found dead, much to the glory of the 
great goddess, who had shown her power by coming during the 
niglit and sucking his blood. No doubt there must have been 
some of her servants hid in the fane, whose business it was to 
prepare for her the horrid banquet. At Dantewada in Bustar, 
situated about fiO miles south-west of Jagdalpur, near the junc- 
tion of the Sankani and Dankani, tributaries of the Indrawati 
in Bustar, there is a famous shrine of El&U, under the name of 
Danteshwari. Here many a human head has been presented 
on her altar. About 30 years ago, it is said that upwards of 25 
full-grown men were immolated on a single occasion by a late 
Raja of Bustar. Since then numerous complaints have reached 
the authorities at Nagpore of the practice having been continued, 
though it is to be hoped that, with the annexation of the 
country, it has entirely and for ever ceased. The same bloody 
rite in the worship of Kali, as we learn from Major MacPherson, 
prevailed among the immediate predecessors of the present hill 
Rajas of Orissa, including those of Boad, Gumsur, &c.* 

Whether Bhima,t who by Hindus is esteemed one of their 
greatest heroes, is to be regarded as borrowed from that nation, 
or lent to them, it is difficult to say. One thing is certain, that, 
under the name of Bhim Pen, or Bhimsen, his worship is 
spread over all parts of the country, fix)m Berar to the extreme 
east of Bustar, and that not merely among the Hinduized 
aborigines, who have begun to honour Khandobd, Hanuman, 
Gunpati, &c., but among the rudest and most savage of the tribe. 
He is generally adored under the form of an unshapely stone 
covered with vermilion, or of two pieces of wood standing 
from 3 to 4 feet in length above the ground, like those set up 
in connection with Bangdram's worship. 

But, in addition to the deities generally acknowledged, there 
are many others who receive reverence in particular local- 

* Regarding Afanko, compare If(dian Review ; where it is laid that in Jeypur there is 
Kanikeoro — ^god of war ; but afterwards it is remarked that Hindu chiefs before any great 
enterprise used to propitiate goddess Maniksoro. 

Tooahmool are Meria-sacrificing Gonds. 

The Sontal Marucg Bura and his elder brother Maniko may be our Budhll, or Royata 
and his consort Manko. 

The chief Khond deity, Bura Pen, however, is obviously our Budhil Pen. 

f Bhiwasu is admitted to be chiefly a Gond deity, and to be named after Bhim the 
Pandu. About one cosa south-west from Bajar Kurd (north of Parseani) is a large idol of 
Bhiwasu, 8 feet high, formed into shape, wiUi a dagger in one hand and a burchie (javelin) 
m the otherj A Bhumuk is the Pujiiri ; and the people repair to worship on Tuesdays and 
Saturdays, oSbring hogs, he-goats, cocks, hens, cocoanuts. The PatM of Awareghat, who 
is a ICusBolman, gives Rupees 8 ; and Hindoo cultivators give rice for an annual faast, which 
takes plaoe at the oommeocement of the rains, when the Bhumuk taket « c^w by foree 
from the Qowir, and offers ^t to Bhimsen in the presence of about 35 Gends. 



17 

ities. It is the custom of the Gonds to propitiate, for at least 

C^ the spirits of their departed friends, even though they have 
men of no note. But when an individual has been in any 
way distinguished, — if, for example, he has founded a village^ of 
been its headman or priest, — then he is treated as a god for vewa, 
or it may be generations, and a small shrine of earth (Thapani, 
or, more pmperly, Sth&pan&\ is erected to his memory, at which 
sacrifices are annually offered. 

It has been stated that the Gonds have no idols. It is true 
they have no images in their dwellings, but at the scene of their 
religious ceremonies in the jungle there are for the most part 
some objects set up, either iron rods, stones, pieces of wood, or 
little knobs of mud, to represent their deitie& Among these, 
when there is a number together, the representation of the 
**great god" usually occupies the chief place. 

Though one of their deities is styled the "great god," yet, if 
I may judge of the whole race by what 1 heard in one of their 
districts, they hold that this chief of their divinities is to be 
distinguished from the Invisible Creator and Preserver of the 
World, of whom my informant stated they had a distinct concept 
tion, and to whom, in imitation of the Hindu agricultural po« 
pulation, they give the name of Bhagaw&n. According to tnia 
view their '^great god*' is only the first of their inferior gods, 
who are all looked on as a sort of media of communication in 
various departments between God and man, though, as is the 
case in every form of polytheism, the near, or visible inferioXi 
receives more attention than the unseen Supreme. 

Worfihip. — The Creator, as I was told by a Gond in the neigh- 
bourhood of the Mahadeva Hills, is occasionally adored in their 
houses by offering prayers, and by buroing sugar (gul) and 
clarified butter in the fire. 

The public worship of these forest tribes seems to be coo- 
oected with their crops. In places, where rice is produced, there 
are three great days, when they leave their villages, and proceed 
to worship under the shade of a Saj or Ein tree (^Pentaptera 
iofnento&d)^ — 1st, the day when rice begins to be sown; !&idy 
when the new rice is ready; and 3rd, when the Mhowa tree 
comes into flower. The great festivals among the Bodos, of 
which there are four, appear, in like manner, to be associated 
with their crops. 

In the wilder villages, near the Mahadeva Hills, Eodo Pen, 
as we learn from Mr. Driberg, ia worshiped at a small heap of 
•tones by every new comer, through the oldest resident, with 
fowls, eggs, grain, and a few copper coins, which become the 



18 

ptutjqty of the officiating priest Bhimsen, who is there re- 
mxded ma the god of rain, has a festival of four or five days* 
dofation held in hia honour at the end of the monsoon^ when 
two poles about 20 feet high, and 5 feet apart, are set up with 
a tope attached to the top, by means of which the boys of the 
village dimb up and then slide down the pole. The same ofier- 
ings are presented to this god as to Kodo Pen, with the excep- 
tion of the money. 

Ceremonies connected with Births. — A woman remains apart 
for thirteen days after her delivery. On the fifth day after the 
occurrence of a birth, the female neighbours are feasted: on the 
twelththe male friends are similarly entertained: and on the 
thirteenth the purification is ended by giving a dinner to both 
parties. The child is named a month or two later.* 

Marriage. — The expediency of a marriage is occasionally 
determined by omens. A vessel is filled with water, into which 
16 gently dropped a grain of rice or wheat, in the name of the 
respective parties, at opposite sides of the vessel. f If these ap- 
proach each other the union will be a happy one, and the mar- 
riage day is fixed. Another way of settling the question, is to 
consult some man with a reputation for sanctity, who sits and 
rolls his head till he appears furious^ when, under supposed in- 
•piration, he gives the answer. But frequently the matter is 
determined by personal negociation between the fathers, who 
call in some neutral parties to name the sum that should be paid 
for the bride. This obligation is discharged on the day of the 
betrothal, along with a present of such things as are necessary 
for feastinff the friends assembled at the bride's father's house on 
that occasion. On the day fixed for the commencement of the 
marriage ceremonies the bridegroom and his father go to the 
&ther-in-law's house with presents^ which contribute again to the 
entertainment of the guests. Next day an arbour is constructed 
at the bridegroom's house, to which the bride is taken, and 
a dinner is provided. The day following, the two young people, 
after running round the pole seven times, retire to the arbour and 
have their feet washed. Pice (i . e, copper coins) are waved round 
their heads, and given to the musicians, when the ceremonies 
are concluded by a feast. 



• Ammig Gonds of Kolit the child ib named on 0th day; among the Hindos on 18th day. 

t This omen is resorted to among the Ehonds to determine a child's name— only it 
in if grain swim at a particular anosstor'a name. — GakMttta Revkm, p. 81, Vol. V. A few el 
•WT class— *1 out of 1,(MK>— become celebites, and are received among Gtosains. 

Tney put turmeric and thon ghee oyar whole body, and on a woman they put Knkn (red 
povdar) beaidsa. 



19 

Funeral rites.^ — The relatives of a deceased person are tm« 
dean for a day. The ceremonial impurify is removed by bath* 
ing. Some time after the occurrence of a death a sort of low 
square mound is raised over the remainsf of the deceased, at the 
comers of which are erected wooden posts, around which thread 
is wound, and a stone is set up in the centre. Here offerings 
are presented, as in the jungle worship of their deities, of rice 
and other grains, eggs, fowls, or sheep. On one occasion, ailer 
the establishment of the Bhonsla (or Maratha) government in 
Gondwdna, a cow was sacrificed to the manes of a Gond ; but 
this having come to the hearing of the authorities, the relatives 
were publicly whipped, and all were interdicted from such an act 
again. To persons of more than usual reputation for sanctity, 
ofierings continue to be presented annually for many years after 
their decease. In the district of Bundara large collections of 
rude earthenware, in the shape of horses, may be seen, which 
have accumulated from year to year at the tombs of such men. 

Priesthood. X — There is scarcely an institution among the Gonds 
that may properly be called priesthood ; marriage, and such like 
ceremonies being for the most part performed by some aged 
relative. There are, however, some men, who, from supposed 
superior powers, or in consequence of their hereditary connec- 
tion with a sacred sp^t, are held to be entitled to take the lead 
in worship. These men are named Bhumuks, Puj&ris, &c. 
About the Mahadeva Hills the higher Pardhdns act as Pujaris, 
and the lower as rude musicians: the Koitars seeming to look 
down upon both offices as somewhat menial. But in other dis- 
tricts tbe last mentioned class appear rather to take the lead as 
holy men, and many of them make use of their supposed sacred 
character to impose on their simpler neighbours. They profess 
to be able to call tigers from tbe jungles, to seize them by the 
cars, and control their voracity by whispering to them a com- 
mand not to come near their villages. Or they pretend to know 
a particular kind of root, by burying which they can prevent 
the beasts of the forests from devouring men or cattle. With 
the same view, they lay on the pathway small models of bed- 
steads, &c., which are believed to act as charms to stop their 
advance. They are supposed to have the power of detecting 



* They are buried at Kolltmird naked, as unmarried Kooroos are burned naked, with face 
upwards, and leaf of Rui (CalotropU gigantea) or Palas tree in the jungle, the head south, and 
the feet north. Sometimea they bum hou£e of deceased and desert it. 

t A.t Umret they burn the dead, and after burning ashes erect ehubutras, and at oomAia 
place tall red stones. 

X Khond priests poassaad of magioal arts. 'Calcutta Beview, p. 59, VoL V. 



20 

•OTceryt* which is greatly dreaded, and, like the gipsies in this 
eouncry, they are consulted by their more civilized neighbours 
on the fortunes of the future, which they read in the lines of 
their applicant's hand. At Mandanpur, about 100 miles north- 
west of the city of Nagpore, there isa6ond,named Sonsei, who 
boasts of the possession of miraculous powers. He an4 his 
sons are engaged in quarrying red ochre, the property of a Gond 
K4ni, who lives at Gandei, still farther to the north-west. Near 
his quarry he has erected a sacred mound to the manett of his 
father, who was similarly gifted ; and he uses the awe which 
a^ttaches to this spot as a means of extorting money from the 
deluded Queen. Besides 5-l6ths of the proceeds of the quarry, 
which he receives for the labour of himself and family in work- 
ing it, he induces his superior to sengi him Rs. 10 (£5) every 
two years, on the pretence that his deified ancestor in the neigh- 
bourhood is angry, has turned the ochre into material of very 
indifferent quality, and will not be appeased until the sum named 
is spent in offerings. The sum is sent: a part of it is expended 
on fowls, a goat, hog, arrack, &c., which go to the entertain- 
ment of the cunning quarryman, and the remaining rupees go 
into his pocket 

Names of males among the Gonds : Bh&du, Chin&, Dh&nu^ 
Gondd, Jilu, Eokarr&, Mahingu, Pdnda, Ph£g&, iiammani Rig&, 
Runs, Woja. ' 

Of females: Birjo, Buto, J4mo, Jango, Mahingi, Mirgo, Peto, 
Renu« Siikaro, Sonaki, Polai, and TumkL 

Tribes connected toith the Gonds. — Badiyds and Baltvds. 

The Badiy&s are found in the Chindw&ra District, scattered 
from the town of that name to the Mahadeva Hills. They 
seem to be Gond^, who retain much of their original customs, 
but have conformed to the Hindus in language and some of 
their religious observances. They worship the gods of their 
ancestors under the shadow of the Saj tree; but they have 
adopted the use of idols of stone and brass, which they keep 
in their houses, and carry out only on the recurrence of their 
festivals, which are the aame as those of the Gonds. Exce}>t 
in rare cases, they burn the bodies of their deceased relatives, 
and throw the ashes into an adjoining river. They observe 

• Sorcery— See also the Beigas of Phillips, though some reckon them siniply a diBtinct 
race. The OjhAS are bird catchera and exoroiata. Goj Raj omens compared with Khonds. — 
Calcutta Review f p. 61, Vol. V. Nnmbeni of unfortunate poraoos fall yictims to belief in 
witohcn&ft.— T^'Jte, p.p. 811 And 807 . ( Ragapar). Diviner. — Tuke, p.p. 809 and 803. Sickness be- 
lieved to oome from supernatural tio\ine.—Caleutia Review, Vol. V., p. 50. In Poiidacole maipc 
eifios are bonwd : three were so treated at PipulpankA in 1831-d5.— (^oZcutto Review, Vol V., 
p ft3. 



21 

HU>te of the Hindu feasts than is done by the great majority 
of the Gonds. 

The HalwAs* form a pretty numerous body in the districts of 
Bundara and Baepore and the dependancy of Bustar. In 
these parts of the country they seem to occupy a position 
similar to that of the Badiy&s to the north-west of them, though 
they have perhaps still more imitated the manners of the Bdn- 
duB. They wish to hold a respectable place in their village, 
and eagerly covet the distinction of wearing a sacred thread 
over their shoulder. This privilege, till recently, was sold to 
those in Bustar by the Raja of that principalityt and such may 
have been the beginning of the practice amons those in the 
more civilized parts of the country. But even there they still 
retain the custom of offering worship to their deceased ances« 
tors, and presenting at their tombs the usual number of earthen- 
ware horses. 

Admitting the identity of their origin with that of the Gonds, 
among whom they at present dwell, it is difficult to explain- 
the abandonment by these Badiyds and Halwas of their mother 
tongue. Their case, however, is not singular, for the Gonds of 
Amarkantak have also laid it aside, although it is generally 
spoken in the district to the west of them as far as Jubbulpore. 
But in this instance we can see the reason of the change. 
Lying in the highway between the plains of Chutteesgurh and 
Sohagpore, they have constant intercourse with the Hindu mer- • 
chants, who pass by that route, and have thus come to be more 
familiar with their language than their own. 

Gain Gonds. 

These call themselves also Koitars, and are as much Gondii 
in language and everything else as those who are known by no 
other name. Their cliief peculiarity, -which I have not found 
among common Gonds, though it may exist even among them, 
is to have in each village a separate tenement set apart for 
the occupancy of unmarried men during the night. This they 
call agotalghar (empty bed house) and answers to the dekha ehung 
of the hill Cachdris and the Ndgds, and to morang among Abors 
or Fadans. In some villages there is a like provision made 
for the unmarried Gditi women. Mr. Samuells, who has given 
us some interesting information regarding the Juangas of OrissSi 
doubts the report he had heard of similar establishments exist- 
ing among them\ but I have been assured by my frienj 
Dr. Shortt, that he found them in the villages which he visited 

» Halwtfs won't kill bison or buffiilo. In Soonohoor tb^ are mized with » prapgodmilO*- 
of Oonds (MatTDM). Halwtb art mixed in Jeypur (TtOv) with Uiiyw and Qondi, 



22 

in Eeonjus. Wlien the Gfiitia have returned in the evening 
from their work in the jungle, where they are very industrious' 
m cultivation and cutting timber, all the families go to their 
nspective houses for their supper; after which the young men 
rstiTO to their common dwelling, where, around a blazing fire, 
th^ dance for an hour or two, each having a small drum 
suspended in front from his waist, which he beats as he moves 
about, while the young women sit at no great distance accom- 
panying the performance with a song. 

Religion. — ^The worshippers of six deities could enumerate 
Budhfil Pen, Saleng, Gigardl, Rayetdl, and Puijdl: but those, 
who are devoted to seven, could not mention more than Kodiyd, 
Sup&ri Dewa, Sakra Bai, and Dewa Dul&, without having re- 
course to Hindu divinities. 

Their great festival seems to be after the ingathering of the rice 
harvest, when they proceed to a dense part of the jungle, which 
no woman is permitted to enter, and where, to represent the 
•*great god," a pice has been hung up enclosed in a piece of 
bfonbu. Arrived at the spot, they take down the copper BudhAl 
in his case, and selecting a small area about a foot square under 
a tree, to be cleaned, they lay on it the pice, before which they 
aarange as many small heaps or handsful of uncooked rice, as 
there are deities worshipped by them. The chickens brought 
for sacrifice are loosed and permitted to feed on the rice, after 
which they are killed and their blood sprinkled between the 
pice and tne rice. Goats are also offered, and their blood pre- 
sented in the same manner. Until prohibited by the Hindus, 
aacrifices of cows were also common. On the blood, arrack is 
poured as a libation to their deities. The pice is now lifted 
and put in its bambu case, which is shut up with leaves, wrapt 
in grass, and returned to its place in the tree, to remain there till it 
is required on the following year. 

Names of males: Eanhu, Eokshd, Eopd,Mahdru, Fundi, and 
Sfiuk 

Of females: Gursi, Eonji, Eonsi, Mah&ri, M&si, Milo, Min* 
Isdy Silo, and Tursa. 

Maria O^nds. 

These are more civilized than the M&rias, They form the 
bulk o£ the agricultural population in the north and centre of 
the Buatar dependancy . Beyond the east frontier, however, where 
thay mis with the Ehonds in P4tnd, Ehdrond, and Jeypur, they 
aMf somewhat wilder, and devoted to the chase. With their 



23 

long hair tied in a knot behind, and their spare arrows hanging 
down from it by the barb between their shoulders, they pursue 
the deer of their forests, and at short distances (according to 
Lieutenant Hill) seldom miss in their aim. In these districts 
they are evidently immigrants, having come from the plains 
on the west, where they are separated from the Khonds by the 
physical character of the country, which would allow peculiari- 
ties of manner and language to spring up between the neigh- 
bouring tribes. Even now, however, the two are not much 
more distinct from each other, than are the Oditis from the 
adjacent M&rias. In Bustar the Moria villages generally con- 
tain individuals of a different race, as we find to be the case 
among the Khonds. And here we meet with the distillers 
of the Eastern Ghats, under the identical name of Sundis ; and the 
G&hindds of the s^ime district are represented by the G&nd&s, 
who act as Kotwdls and weavers for their villages. 

Religion — I do not possess detailed information regarding 
the mythology of the Morias ; but from the names, Gagaru and 
Rod&l, borne by their males, I would infer that they have some- 
what the same ^ods as are recognised in the vicinity of Nag- 
pore City. Major Charles Elliot states that their most common 
deities are the earth goddess, the hill god, and Bhim Pen. 
Of the first two there are no images in use: but a small hut, 
similar to those erected for the accommodation of the tiger 
god in the jungly districts of the Dakhan, is set apart for the 
people offering arrack and sacrifices in their honour. Before 
the two pieces of wood, representing the third, worship is 
regularly performed previous to the period of sowing. Of 
course, in every village, as in the other parts of the province, 
Bhaw&ni comes in for her share of superstitious reverence 
under the two forms of the small-pox goddess, and Mdoli or 
Danteshwari, the counterpart of the great Kali at Dantewlul^. 

Marriage. — ^The marriage ceremony combines certain cus- 
toms that we have already had to notice. As in the north- 
west of Chindw&ra, the expediency of a match is decided by 
what may be called the attraction omen. At the time ap- 
pointed for the union oil and saffron, which have been em- 
ployed in the worship of Bhim and the small-pox goddess, are 
Nought from their shrines, and used to anoint the bride and 
bridegroom ; who are then attired in the usual coarse cloth of 
the country, and have a yellow thread tied round their wrist; 
water descends on their heads in the bower; their clothes are 
Imotted together; and sometimes they run round the marriage 
pole. 



24 

Names of males : Badal, BukaU B 3y&l> DheU, Dhodi, Dorge, 
d^aru, Gedi, Higkl, JadabsLI, Kod41, Mal&l, Malal, Miloi, 
Musial, Odhi, Pichke, Samdrc , Surka. Suval. 

females : G&gari, Hinge, Judahi, Kodo, Kdni, Sukali. 

Isaikude Gonds. 

These have more thaa any other section of their race con- 
formed to Hinduism. They inhabit the jungles on the north 
and south banks of the Pain GangA, but especially abound in 
the tract between Digaras and Umarkhed. They are found 
about Apkrawa Pet, and as far as Nirmul, from whence, inter- 
mingled with Hindus, they are scattered westward nearly to 
Bidar. Of all the subdivisions of the Gond race, with the 
exception of the Halwas and, perhaps, the Badiyks, they have 
the most been influenced by Hinduism, They dress like Hindus, 
and will not eat beef. Some partly support themselves by the 
produce of the chase, which provides them with the flesh of 
the antelope, elk, and wild hog, and partly by collecting honey, 
wax, and 1^ for sale. The poorer classes earn a bare subsis. 
tence by cutting wood and grass. In the more considerable 
villages they cultivate land, and are employed by patels or 
headmen as sipdhis. None of them have abandoned their 
aboriginal love for liquor. They are a terror to their neigh, 
bourhood by their depredations. 

Religion. — Ancestor-worship forms an important part of 
their religion. They also acknowledge as deities Bhimsen and 
Kdjuba, not to mention those dreaded by the Hindus as well 
as the forest tribes of their part of India, — Wdghobd, the 
tiger god, and Marai, the cholera goddess. In the month of 
Cheitra these Gonds go on a pilgrimage to Sasarkund, a pool 
in the Mahur jungle, in which the Pain Ganga is said to be 
engulphed. Here in a gorge there is a huge stone rising out 
of the ground and covered with vermilion, which goes by the 
name of Bhimsen. In front of this, Naikude Gonds mingle 
with Rdj Gonds and Kolams in acts of adoration. The order 
of the religious service seems to be the following: at 5 p.m», 
Laving cooked a little rice, the worshippers place it before the 
god, and add a little sugar. They then besmear the stone 
with vermilion, and burn resin as incense in its honour; after 
which all the parties ofler their victims, consisting of sheep, 
hogs, and fowls, with the usual libations of arrack. The god is 
now supposed to inspire the Pujari, who rolls about his head, 
leaps frantically round and round, and finally falls down in a 
trance, when he declares whether Bhimsen has accepted the ser- 
vice or not. At night all join in drinking, dancing, and beating 



25 

their tomtoms. Early in the morning they partake of a meal 
and depart for their own houses. Those who are not able to 
go to the place of pilgrimage repaii* to the shade of a Mhowa 
tree, where they go t|irough similar rites. Rajuba is wor- 
shipped in the month of K^rtik, with ceremonies somewhat 
like the above. The tiger god is honoured with ajatra, or 
gathering, of two days at the village of Pipalgaum, south of 
Mahur, where Hindus, as well as Gonds, take part. On the 
5th day of Shrdwun a feast, named Jambatas, is celebrated by 
the latter in their own dwellings; but to what god I am un- 
able to say. 

The services of a Brahmin are called in to name their 
children and to celebrate their marriages, which always take 
place before the parties have come to years of discretion. 
The influence of Hinduism is also seen in the prohibition 
against the remarriage of their widows. 

The dead are either burned or buried. The relatives are 
unclean for two days. On the third day, the manes are wor- 
shipped in the usual Gond manner; and on every Saturday, 
and feast day thereafter, they are treated to incense and some 
of the family food. 

Names of males : Bheisi, Bhutiya, Gontiyd, Gunaji, Jhk- 
diyfe, Manaji, Riji, Sambhu, Satwa, and Wdghee. 

Females: Bhimi, Chimmi, Eiti, Gadin, Gangi, Housi, Jaggi, 
Mukhi, Nousi, Rukhma, Satai, and Yemnai. 

Ahoriginal tribes separate from the Gonds. — K'O^rs. 

We come now to a race, in language at least, quite distinct 
from any that have engaged our attention, — a race in that re- 
spect not allied to the Dravidian stock, but to the &mily 
which numbers among its members the K61 nation. With 
the name of this last mentioned nation, the word JTtir, or Kul 
as it ought properly to be pronounced, is evidently identical^ 
the t/ and a being frequently interchanged, as in Gond or Gund^ 
Oriya or Uriya. The KClrs are found on the Mahadeva Hills, 
and westward in the forests on the Tapti and Narbadda, until 
diey come into contact with the Bhils. On the Mahadeva 
Hills, where they have been much influenced by the Hindus, 
they prefer the name of Mu&.si, the origin of which I have 
not been able to ascertain: unless it be that the word is 
derived from the Mhowa tree. Their food is of the most 
meagre kind. Though they have no objection to animal food, 
yet a considerable portion of their diet consists of a grud 
made from the pounded kernels of mangoes and flowers of 
the Mhowa tree. 



26 

KeUgian. — The chief objects of their adoration are the stiti 
and moon, rude representations of which they carve on wooden 
pillars** Aftsr reaping their crops, they sacrifice to Sultan 
Sakadd, whom they suppose to have been some king among 
them in former times. 

A feast is generally provided on the 4th or Sth day after a 
birth, and without any further ceremony the father, in the 
course of a month or two, gives a name to his child. 

As among the Bodos, or, to quote a more illustrious example, 
like Jacob of old, a Khv bridegroom, in the absence of the 
money demanded for his bride, comes under an obligation to 
serve his father-in-law for a certain number of years. The 
marriage ceremonial, which, like that of the Gonds, includes 
the tying of garments together and the running round a pole 
or Mhowa tree, concludes on the third day with a feast and 
dance; during which the newly married pair are carried about 
for some time on the backs of two of the company. 

In some cases the dead are burned ; but, for the most part» 
they are interred with their head towards the south. Near 
their villages they have a place appointed for burials, where, 
after having offered a goat to the manes of the deceased, they 
set up a rude representation of him in wood about 2 feet above 
the ground. There worship continues to be paid for at least 
a year. 

Names of males: Bendu, Bongd, Dhokol, Naru, Suk&K, 
Surprai, and Tata. 

Females: Batro, Bdd&m, Irm&, Jaso, M&njibakan, Pundiyd, 
and Bajani. 

Coneliuion. 

In looking over the vocabularies, which I have collected 
from the dialects of the above tribes, I find that among the 
words used by the different subdivisions of the Gond race there 
is the utmost similarity, and that these, with the exception of 
the vocables of the Kol^m and Naikude Gond dialects, agree 
more with the distant Tamil than the neighbouring Teloogoo 
type of Dravidian speech. The dialects excepted, while exhibit- 
ing proofs of the modifying influence of Teloogoo, retain enough 
of their original structure to show that they also were once 
more closely allied to the Tamil. In the additional list of worda 
derived from a wandering tribe, named Keikddis, whose route 

• Aooox^ding to Mr. Bullock, wooden pillan, with hone, mm, and moon, aet up b«for9 ho^m 
of mairied people, Nahals are not allowed muBio at their weddingB, NabaU on north- east 
of Khandeiah. 

The Scythian origin of Kiln and of Qon^fi v^gai perhapa be Meete^frcm. Sodo Pep, ml 
earthen horMB, which are offered inatead of liTing mcnfioe. (Sondl don't uaahpiviiflr 
p«niaa much. 



97 

lies more remote from the Tamil country, than from Telingana 
or C&nad^, I find evidence of the same fact. Thus the Ke^&di 
name for "fire" — narpu — agrees exactly with the Tamil term for 
that element, but differs considerably from the Teloogoo,— 
nippuj — and still more from the Canarese — benki. 

As the language of the Kftrs is found within the territory 
assigned to the Gonds, it has been supposed to be another of 
their dialects. This seems to be the opinion of two such emi- 
nent philologists as Dr. Latham, and Mr. Logan of Singapore, 
who, I fear, have been misled by a list of words furnished by 
the first and, certainly, one of the ablest geological observers 
that ever sojourned in India — I mean Dr. Voysey. That list 
its complier distinguished as KAr Gond. The vocabulary of 
the Kiir language, which I have drawn up, demonstrates that 
there is no relation between it and the Gondi, but that there is 
a connection, amounting almost to identity, between it and the 
speech of the K61s.* 

For*the affinities of the Kdv and Kdl tongues we must look 
in another direction than the south of India. They must be 
sought at the foot of the north-east Himalayas, and still more 
among the M6ns of Pegu, and the Benwas, described by Cap- 
tain Newbcld, inhabiting the mountainous regions of the 
Malayan peninsula. Thus the word for *' water '* in the lan- 
guage of the Ktlrs and K61s, da; among the Bodos, Cacharis, 
and Kukis in the north-east of India, is doi, dij tui; among the 
Karens and M6ns in Burmd, is ti and dat; and among the 
Benwas of Malacca, di. Again, the word for "eye" among 
the KArs and K61s — med or met — is among the Kukis and 
Mikurs in north-eastern India, met andmek; among the Karens 
and Mdns, me and mot; and among the Benwas, med. Time 
will not permit me to prosecute this investigation further, 
than to add that the first three numerals, which among the 
Kflrs and Kols are mik bdrd, dpid, are among the M6ns, 
mue, b^ and p&i. May we not conclude then, that while 
the stream of Dravidian population, as evidenced by the 
Brahuis in Beluchistan, entered India by the north-west, that 
of the K61 family seems to have found admission by the north- 
east; and as the one flowed south towards Cape Comorin, and 
the other in the same direction towards Cape Romania, a 
part of each appears to have met and crossed in Central India. 

* BhummB and Ktlro— this beoomee KOls on the eaqt according to Bengali custom, 
Kooroof on the louth. Among rude tribee names for whole tribe are seldom found. It is 
their n^hboun that know them in their collectire capacity. Todd in hie Trayels, page 8S, 
tUnks that the name Bhomia ia assumed by Bhils in a spirit of boasting. Bhumijs that 
are among EOls speak Koli As to the supposed aborigines of Bengal, see Benffol Aiiatic 
S$ckV$ VwtmtO, Vol IZ, p. 000. Bhoonujas an the exarcasU^.^TickOl, p. 709. 



PART IL— VOCABULARY. 



Note by the Editor. 

Ths foUowing Yocabulary of the unwritten dialects of the 
aboriginal tribes is in all essential particulars the same as that 
left by Mr. Hislop, but has been re»arranged for this publica- 
tion. In his manuscript, the alphabetical order of the words 
was not followed, though doubtless this would have been done 
had he lived to complete his work. He classified the English 
words according to subjects, beginning with nouns, which sup- 
plied the names of the primary objects of observation ; such as 
the elements, the prominent features in the face of Nature, the 
minerals, and so on; then the relations in the human com- 
munity, the members of the human body, the brute creation, 
the vegetable world. Next came numerals and adverbs. Then 
came a fairly large selection of adjectives, and, lastly, of verbs. 

The English words having been thus classified, the design 
was to ascertain and record in the Roman character the 
equivalents in eleven unwritten dialects, namely Gondi, 
Gayeti, Rutluk, Naikude, Kolami Madi or M&ria, Mddia, Euri or 
Mudsi, Eeikddi, Bhatr&in, and Parjd. Also in juxtaposition 
were to be entered the equivalents in the Teloogoo and Tamil 
languages. It will have been seen from the Essay that Mr. 
Hislop considered that some afBnity was discernible between 
some of these aboriginal dialects and the Tamil. 

But this classification by subjects, however convenient for 
the rough draft of a vocabulaiy, in which the words would be 
entered as they were ascertained from these wild people in the 
sequence of ideas, would not be suited for publication, when 
the object is to facilitate reference. It has, therefore, been 
necessary to re*arrange all the words strictly in alphabetical 
order. 

In several parts of the manuscript Vocabulary, there are 
breaks and blanks where the work was left unfinished. And 
for the verbsy the equivalents are only given in the Euri or 
Mu6si, and not at all in the Ciondi and the other dialects. 
All the breaks and blanks in the Gondi have been -filled ap 
from information obtained at Nagpore, which can probably 
be relied on. But it has not been possible to supply mtisitic- 
torily the deficiencies in the other dialecta. This much, there- 
fore, is unavoidably left wanting. 

The Vocabulary thus made up comprises some 362 words. 
Though perhaps tolerably full for an unwritten dialect, it 



u 



probably does not contain all the words actually n use, or 
otherwise ascertainable. Indeed there are other and addi- 
tional words used by, or known to, the Gonds of Nagpore. 
These have been recorded; but they have not been inserted 
in this Vocabulary, as it seemed better not to enlarge Mr. 
Hislop's plan, but to leave it in its originality as much as 
possible. 

The Teloogoo and Tamil words have al^o been entered as 
given by Mr. Hislop. Several of the coincidences with the 
Tamil vnll be found to be interesting and important. In addi- 
tion to what is said on this point in Mr. Hislop^s Essay, 
I would adduce the following passage from the preface to H. H. 
Wilson's Sanskrit Grammar : — 

^' In the south of India cultivated languages of local origin 
are met with, largely supplied with words which are not of 
Sanskrit origin. There, however, as in the north, the intro- 
duction of Sanskrit was the precursor of civilization, and 
deeply impressed it with its own peculiarities. The spoken 
languages were cultivated in imitation and rivalry, and but 
partially aspired to an independent literature. Tne principal 
compositions in Teloogoo, Tamil, Canara, and Malayalam, are 
translations or paraphrases from Sanskrit works/* 

In this passage, Teloogoo and Tamil are clearly recc^nised 
as aboriginal languages. 

In this Vocabulary, also, many words appeared to be bor- 
rowed from the Sanskrit, and where this is seemingly the case, 
I have noted it in the column of remarks. 

Some words, also, now naturalized in the Groncli, such as the 
names of the superior sorts of weapons, are taken from the 
Hindoostanee, and were probably learnt by the Gonds from 
the Mahomedans* 

Among Mr. Hislop*s papers was found a printed copy of 
the narrative of a second visit to the Gonds of the Nerbudda 
territory by the Rev. J. G. Driberg and the Rev. H. J. 
Harrison m 1849, to which was appended a grammar 
vocabulary of their language. Doubtless Mr. Uislop in- 
tended to compare, or may have actually compared, that voca- 
bulary with his manuscripts. But there is no record of such 
comparison to be found. The comparison has now been made, 
and may possess some interest, inasmuch as the Gonds whom 
Mr. Driberg met were those inhabiting the outskirts of the 
Nerbudda Valley to the north of, or on the northern face of 
the Sautpoora, or Puchmurree, or Mahadeva hills; whereas 
the Gronds whom Mr. Hislop met were those dwelling to the 



Ul 



9outh of the range, and separated by mountain barriers from 
their northern brethren. Some words given in one vocabulary 
are not found in the other, and vice versd ; but, on the whole, 
that by Mr. Hislop is much the more complete and copious of 
the two. In many instances there is full agreement; in some, 
partial resemblance; and in some, difference. In every instance 
I have noted the result of the comparison in the column of 
remarks. 

In reference to the short grammar given by Mr. Driberg, it 
may be added that Mr. Hislop does not appear to have com- 
menced the preparation of any grammar, though doubtless he 
would have done so had he survived. 

Also among Mr. Hislop's papers was found a printed copy 
of the transactions of the Bombay Geographical Society of 
the year 1846, which contained an account of the Gonds of 
the Gawil hills on the north of Berar, by Assistant Sui^eon 
Bradley, then of the Nizam's Infantry. To this account was 
appended a vocabulary of the dialect of the tribes inhabiting 
those hills. This, no doubt, was intended by Mr. Hislop for 
purposes of comparison, though no record of such has been 
left. I find, however, on comparison that the words do not 
generally agree with the GoncU properly so called, nor with 
the Gondi word^ as given by Mr. Hislop and Mr. Driberg. 
But they do agree to a considerable extent with the Euri or 
Mu&si words as given by Mr. Hislop, and with the words 
given by other authorities, as spoken by the Koorkus, and by 
the tribes inhabiting the hills to the south of Hoshungabad. 

The result of this latter comparison has not been given in 
the column of remarks in the Hilsop Vocabulary now under 
consideration; but has been treated of in another part of this 
publication. 

R-T. 



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4S 



Aote by Editor an the following Supplement to the Eialop 
Vocabulary, ae respects the Gondi dialect only^ 



Mb. Hislop's Vocabulary is bo far comprehensive, that 
perhaps it may be well to make it as complete as possible, 
according to the means available at Nagpore. The following 
list of English words is given, which appear to be useful, 
although they did not enter into Mr. Hislop's scheme. And 
the synonyms are given in Gondi as ascertained from Gonds 
at Nagpore. Though the population of Nagpore is not, of 
conrse, Gond, still the Deogurh Gond Kajah and his dependants 
live there; and there are Gond Ozhas (or minstrels) there also, 
on whom Mr. Hislcp used to rely as being of some authority 
on these points. But in offtiring this brief Supplement, I by 
no means intend it to be supposed that this list includes all 
the remaining Gondi words, or that there are no other words. 
Indeed there may be many others, and doubtless there must 
be such. 

R. T. 



aUPPLSMBliT TO TEB HI8L0P 70GABULART, AS MMSftCTS 
TEE GONDI DIALECT ONLY, 



TCni^lUh 


GondL 


English, 


Gondi. 


Able (v) 


• • 


Parintona 


Autumn 


• • 


Kahlai 


▲bUM 

Acho 


• •Ringftn* 

• • KarawuUana 


Awake 
Aze 


• • 

• • 


Ckaitoayana 
Kara 


Add 


• • Suwitfl 


B. 






AetiTo 


• • Tapur 


Bald 


• • 


lU 


AM 


• •Jumma 


Bake 


• • 


Ataaa 


Adopted 8on 


• • 




Bard 


• • 


Pataree 


Adore 


• • 


PooDjakiana 


Bar« 


•• 


Koottaka 


Afternoon 


• • 


Piyal 


Barley 


•• 


Jou 


Age 


• • 


Woi 


Barren 


• • 


Wanjooli 


Aged 


• • 


Seira 


Baae 


•• 


Hulko 


Agree (▼) 


• * 


Sarko ayana 


Bathe 


•• 


Tarekiana 


Aim W 


• • 


HiDdanlawat 1dm 


BatUe 


• • 


Tarotantor 


Al«l* 


•• 


Huggana 


Battieaze 


• • 


Pharchia 


Angry 


• • 


Keea 


Bawl 


«• 


y^Ti'i^^ 


Av!f^w\ 


• • 


Ban 


Bead! 


• • 


Poting 


Another 


• • 


DlXRO 


Beak 


•• 


Chaohu ^ 


Appear 


• • 


Diaana 


Bear 


«• 


Tedjal 


ArUe 


•• 


Taidana 


Beat 


•• 


JIana 


Armpit 


•; 


Rootling 


Beauty 


«• 


Bajfo 


Arms 


•• 


Partal 


Bed 


•• 


Bichona 


Aaoend 


•• 


r&rganft 


Bee 


• • 


Fhukee w»aii« 


Am 


•• 


Qadhal 


Beginning 


1 
• • 


fiobtur 



BBSfitoh. 



Qtottdl 



BeliBTa(v] 

BeU 

B«lt 

Bend 

Beft 

Bttroth 

Big 

Bloom 

Boiom 

Bnokiah 

Brave 

Bread 

Bnaat 

Breath • 

Bright 

Brother-in-bw • 

Brown • 

Bud 

Bull 

Buah 

0. 
Cany 
Cart 
GaiUe 



B(an tatana 

Tapper 

yia«edohta 

Bagukiana 

Bako 

KqUoo dohtana^Paring 

Paror 

Poongaroayana 

Chhati 

Eharo 

Hatal 

Sarei 

ChatI 

Waree, Naiakana 

Jhalkamaata 

Saimdo Eoko (wife'a 
brother) 

Bhurka 
• • Jewai 

• Kurra 

• Jhooipuree 



Tahtana 

Gadda 

Killa 



Cattle 

Ceaae 

Change 

Chaste 

ChastiaeCy} 

Chew 

Chirp (v) 

Clear (▼) 

Climb 

Club 

Coooannt 

Colour 

Conquer 

Cook 

Country 

Cousin 

Creep 

Cripple 

Cry 

Cub 

CuItiTate 

Cup 

Custardapple 

D. 
Dagger 



Dobalk 



••Moiekiana 

• ■ EKitro 

• •Soetokiana 

• • Kanhkaaa 

• • Chirohirkii 

• •Ootakiana 

• •Taigana 

• •Eutka 

• •Naral 

• •Rango 

• •Myana 

• • AtUna 



Dees, Debar 
fTaina(Mothe>^bra- 
ther's son) 
Tummo (Fatbw^^ 
[de 
Ghursay mayaaa 



Langra 

AnuM 

Piela 

Julekiana 

Wate 

Cheeta-far 

Boorie 



ii 



B-eHA. 


€k»ndi. 


EngUah. 


€k»dL 






Enter 




Waai bandana 




Diah 


Apiikiyana 


Err(v) 




Bhulai matana 




Daughter-fahlMT •• 


Korial 


Escape 




Soddaifdhundana 


- 


Dawn 


Pahto 


Evening 




Kulpay 




Dearth 


Ankro 


Evil 




Burte 




Deep 


Khole 


r. 








Dear 


Kura 


Fair 




Goto 




Deairoj 




Faithful 




Sooda 




Dig 


Katana 


False 




Khotal 




Dirt 


OacUy 


Famay 




Hutum 




Diatant 


Luk 


Famine 




Mahang 




Dn« 


Umana 


Father-in-law 




Murial 




Dread 


Varitana 


Feed 




Teehtana 




Dream •• 


Kanchkana 


Feel 




Pundana 




DreB8(T) 


Pondana 


Fever 




YerW 




Drira 


Haklekiaoa 


Fight 




Tarotana 




Drop •• 


Arootana 


Pill 




Neihetana 




Drown 


Murutana 


Find 




Puttana 




Dry 


Wattal 


Firrt ^^ 




Fehlo 




DweU 


Mandauk 


Flint 




Qarea 




E. 




Float 




Pohay mayana 




Egg 


Mea 


Flow (V) 




Pong-in-tana 




Elephant 


Tani 


Fly 




Paritana 




End 


At 


Food 




Nehna 




Enemj •• 


Dandi 


Fool 


*' 


Khotal 





•Rf^lifli- 




Gpndi. 


English. 


G«ndi. 


T,~''^nti3Mied 






Hasten 




Foreno^p 


• • 


Piyal 

j 


Hatchet 




tfura 


^Fore^fc 


•• 


j^airay Dongur 


Hate 




Burteikkaft 


Forgot 


• a 


3hule mayaiui 


Have 




Srana 


Foi^ve 


••• 


Damtindana 


Heal 




Nehen ayana 


Fort 


• • 


KiUa 


Heap 




JO&ai 


Foul 


•• 


Qrote 


Hear 




Ken j ana 


Fowl 


* • 


Pitte 


Heart 


►•• 


Boka 


Fox 


• • 


Khekr«e 


Heat 


••• 


.Kahlaimat 


Fragraot 


,•.' 


t 
Makmak 

j 


Heel 


• • 


Moorwing 


Friend 


•' 


Sungo 


Help 


•• 


Aarokiana 


Fruit 


• • 


Kaya 


Hide 


-• t 


Xole 


FuU 


• • 


Nintal 


Hill 


• • 


MatU 









Hip 


• • 


Kula 


Girdlt 


... 


Nun dohU 


Hit 


• t 


Jeana 


Give 


.•• 


Slyana 


Hold 


• • 


Biana 


Qlad 


• « 


Kehna 


Honey 


• • 


PJiukey 


Grain 


- 


Dan^ 


Hunger 


•• 


Karu 


Grandfather 


..Tado 


Hunt 


• • 


Rhfkar 


Graze 


..Mehtana 


Hurt 


• • 


Khoere 


Grove 


.. 


Gurba 


Husband 


• • 


Muido 


9 

Hand 




Kyk 


J. 






Hang(v) 


• • Tangkiana 


Jackal 


• • 


Kolial 


Hare 


.. Malol 

1 


Join 


•M 


liliare mayana 


Harveet 


• • 


S|igge 


Jump 


• • 


Qyana, Dehkana 



Bn^Uah. 


Gondi. 


English- 


Oondi. 


K. 




M 


! 


Keep 


Iirana 


Mad 


,.Piflal 


Kindle 


Maasiana 


Madnees 


• •<Pise 


King 


Kural 


Maise 


• • Makaik, Making 


Kiu •• 


Buirana 


Make 


• • 


^ 


Kneel 


Tongurotek kiana 


Marry 


« • 


Marmingkiana 


Knife 


Surie 


Meat 


»• 


Khandk 


Kno« 


Oattee 


Midday 


• •vDopuhri 


L. 


1 


Mill 


..Jatta 




Fatru 


Mix 


..^Milaykiana 


Lamp •« 


Diwa 


Moist 


».»Pahna 


Last •* 


Pujjat 


Mei« 


,..Unde 

1 


Lay 


Iraiyana 


Morning 


• • 


Sukkare 


heU 


Siao 


Mother 


• > 


Awal Ya 


Leeck 


Juroo 


Mother^in-kw 


>•• 


Borar 


Liek 


Nakana 


Mounter) 


•r» 


Turgana 


Lie 




Mouse 


..YelleMssal 


Life 


Jiwa 


Muscle 


.. Sirang 


Lift 


Tahtana 


Music 


• t 


Bujaoaikana 


Like(T) 


Dilte wayana 


N. 






Lip 


SUvi 


Naked 


-. 


Kuttake 


Live • • 


Piasana 


Name 


..Pallo, Parol 


Load 


Wajje 


0. 






L<k^k 


Hurana 


Oath 


.. 


Aura 


Loee .'. 




Once 


• • 


Oondi pullo 


Lost 


Khoe mat 


Ox 


• • 


Kunda 



Engliih. 


OondL 


English. 


Gondi. 


P. 






Restore 




Malocbiana 


Pair 


• t 


Jora 


Right 




Chokote, Oojo 


Panther 


•• 


Cheet^ 


Roast 




Borsana 


Parrot 


• • 


Bagho 


Rob 




Kallana 


Paaa 


• • 


Handan* 


Rock 




Tonging 


Paature 


•• 


Akur» Gohtan 


Roll 




Qurbare mayan* 


People 


•• 


Lokoork 


Rot 




Karitana 


Penpire 






Rotten 




Karita 


Pursue 


• •Wittan* 

1 


Rub 




Malaikiaoa 


PiK 


1 
• •Puddy 


Rush 




Sorit«na 


Pigeon 


• •PaniA 


8. 






Plough 


t 
• •'Nagur 

j 


Sacrifice 




Taruhsiana 


Poet 


..Pateri 

1 


Sand 




Waroo 


Powder 


..'fiurko 


Sandy 




Warwat 


Prick 


•• Qadustaoft 


Savage (adj.) 




Kore matal 


Purchase 


• • Sambakeyaoa 

f 


Save 




Pisutana 









Say 




Indana 


Quail 


•• 


Batte 


Scream 




Kilitai# 


Quarrel 


• • 


Tarotana 


Season 




Qhalumb 


Quick 


t • 


Jhupna 


Seed 




Vijja 


QtiiTer 




Peti 


Seldom 




Bapore 


R. 






Send 




Rohtana 


Real 


•• 


Khurro 


Separate 




Agrokiana 


Reap 


.. 


Koele 


Serve 




Chakrikana 


Reside 


•• 


MftndAH*' 


Sew 




Wulchana 



ibigliA 


Gondi. 


EngUak 


€hmdi» 


Pi— — cownnifw. 












Shako 


• • 


Halakiona 


Squirrel 


• • 


Vurche 


Pluuneful 


• • 


Bearonul 


SUnre 


• • 


KarumayaDa 


SfaAipta 


•• 


SorBtana 


Stay 


• • 


Posana 


Shay* 


9* 


ICoritana 


Stink 


•• 


Dyngana 


«'"p i &^ 


• • 

• • 


Mnindal 
Maiudral 




• • 


Paddo 


Shina 


• • 




Stray 


• • 


DOimdai ixiayaa* 


Shoe 


• • 


Sarpok 


Stretoh 


•• 


Sftht^niv 


Shooi 


• •Sistjiana 


Suffer 


• • 


Ganja mayama 


Shout 


• • ICiUltana 


Sugar 


• •'Sokur 


Shnt 


• • 


Moohchiaiana 


Summ«r 


•• 


Dokalumb 


Siekla 


• • 


Sattar 


Sunriaa 


• • 


Dinpasit 


Sioknev 


1 
• •■Yerki 


Sunaet 


• • 


Koolpay 


Silent k\ 


j 


Swear 


• • 


Arutana 


SiUy 


• •Bhoral 


Swim 


•* 


Pohsmayaaa 


Snyer 


• •Khuro 








Sink 


••Morohtana 

j 


T. 






Sister-in-law 


• •aaimdor 


Talk 


• • 


Warkana 


Slip(v 


• •'Gbatiraina 


Taste 


..Naka 

1 


Slow 


• •Hallo 


TeU 


..Wurkana 


Smallpox 


•• Wiink 


Thief 


• • KuUay, Lunrial 


SoUd 


• . Niuthol 

1 


Think 


• •Mao kiana 
j 


Son-iu-law 


• •Saro 
1 


Thirst 


• •jWutkee, Wusta 


Soon 




Thumb 


• •Unktia 


Sow 


• •Yeddan* 


Top 


• •Parro 


Spit 




Torch 


»• 


Thxtj 


Sprins 


• • 


Dekana (▼) 


Touch 


• • 


Ittana 



8 



En^Mlk 


Qondi.. 


Engliah. 


* Gondii 














Town 


•• 


C Dagro N«p 
( Ouge Tillage) 


Wedded 


•• 


Warr^f^m. 


Turbtn 


•« 


Phag 


Wet 


•• 


Pahnft 


u. 






Wheat 


•• 


Qohk 


Undt 


•• 


Eakal 


Wicked 


»*Wtai?e 


V. 






Wife 


••liluja 


Viotoigr 


•• 


Myttrir 


Wind 


••^Dhuodar 


Toioe 


•• 


Lange 


Wine 


..Eall 


w. 






Winter 


•^ Pieni Ohalnmh 


Wait 


• • 


Posana 


TJlther 


»*AJciana 


Wak0 


•• 


Cbaitomindanft 


WoU 


••Landgal 


Wander 


• • 


Bhullay mayaaa 


Wonder 


•• 




War 


•• 


Tarotaato 


Work 


•• 


Woxi&n kiona 


Warm 


• • 


Kastal 


World 


• • 


Manial, Doonya 


Waste (▼ 


• • 




Worm 


•• 


Kitkur, Park 


Watch 


• • Kaipana 


Worship 


• • 


PuDJa kiana 


Wed 


• ■ 


UarmlDgkiaoa 


WreaUe 


•• 


Dkawari kiana 



NoTi!.-.In this Supplement the Gondi yerbe m all giren in the infinitirdi toood, whldi 
may be known by the tonnination " ana '» «**~«» — «» 



Note bp the Editor regarding the Mtidait or Kuri^ dialect 

It will have been seen that Mr. Hislop in the Essay points 
out that the K{krs, or Mu&sis, are distinct from the Gonds, at 
least in language; and that Kuri, or Muasi, is not, as may have 
been supposed by some, a dialect of Gondi. Mr. Hislop indi- 
cates that the error may have arisen from expressions used by 
Dr. Voysey when, many years ago, he supplied a brief vocabu- 
lary of the language spoken by the tribes of the hills lying 
between Hoshungabad and Berar. This region is believed to 
be the real home of the Kiirs, or Mudsis. 

The vocabulary which Dn Voysey gave in 1821 is to be 
found in Vol. XIII , Part I., of the Journal of the Asiatic 
Spciety. Several of the words agree with the Kuri, or Mudsi, 
as given by Mr. Hislop. 

Dr. Bradley's list has been adverted to in this publication in 
a previous Note (see Preface to the Hislop Vocabulary). Many 
of those words also agree with theMu&si in Mr. Hislop's Voca- 
bulary. 

In 1863, Major Pearson ^the Conservator of E^orests in 
the Central Provinces) furnished to Mr. Hislop a few words 
spoken by the Koorkus, whom he considers to be the same as 
the Mudsis ; and that memorandum is found among Mr. Hislop's 
papers. A few ot the Koorku words agree witn those in Or. 
Bradley's list. 

In 1865 Mr. C. A. Elliott, Settlement OflBcer of Hoshunga- 
bad, transmitted a Memo, on the Koorkus of Kalibheet (in the 
hills south-west of Hoshungabad), to which a short vocabulary 
is attached. Of these words, many agree with those given by 
Mr. Hislop and the other officers above mentioned. 

For many of the Kuri words then, there are data obtained 
by various persons at various times and places, and I have caused 
a comparison to be entered of the points of agreement. 

R. T. 



COMFARATIVB VOCABULARY OF THE MUA8I, OR KURT. 

DIALECT. 



ieng1i«]|. 


Mr. Hifilop. 
Muasi 


Hr. Klliott 


Dr. Voyaey. 


Dr. Bradley. 


Major Pear- 
aon. 


JJff 


Koyo 


Koyo 


• • 


Kooyo 


• • 


Bambu 


Mahat 


liad 


Mat 


Mat 


• • 


Bcdstend 


• • 


Parkhum 


Parkouxn 


• • 


• • 


Blood 


Padm* 


PaohxiA 


• • 


Puchna 


• • 


Body 


Komor 




•• 


• • 


• • 


BuffiOo 


ButUl 


Bitkfl 


Btttkil 


•• 


• • 


Cat 


Minnee 


Meenoo 


• t 


Munoo 


•t 


Cowduog 


• • 


Sena 


Shena 


• • 


•• 


tb* 


Singal 


Seengol 


Singhel 


Singhiil 


• • 


FUi 


Kaku 


Kakoo 


• • 


Kakoo 


• • 


VMx 


Jiltt 


Jeeloo 


Jeloo 


Zulo 


•• 


Ughu^ 


China 


ChMmn 


• • 


Chearun 


• • 


TUntaia 


Keto 


Km 


• • 


•• 


•• 


Bttr 


Epal 


Eefeol 


Ipeel 


fiphffl 


#• 


SkOM 


Deg^ 


Gota 


• t 


Totha 


Daegah 


Bob 


Qomoi 


Qomuj 


•• 


Qoz&oi 


•« 


Tlg« 


KuU 


KooUa 


Koda 


•• 


Kootar 


Tooth 


Tiding 


TirinJ 


•• 


Tening 


•• 


Tno 


Binff 


SecDg 


Saeng 


fling 


S««g 


Waior 


Da 


Da 


Da 


Dhea 


•• 



PART HI. SONGS 



Note by the JSdit^r- on the Gond' Songs. 



Xqx^ ^^^SL ^^re reduced to writiag io the Oondi 
lapgiiage bj Mr. J^islop inhla own handwriting. He obtained 
t)i^m from a Pardhdn priest of the Gonds at Nagpore. Having 
Xf^f^dk ft v.ery complete and accurate copy in Gondi, in the 
lipman character of course, he began to translate by entering 
over each Gpndi word the counterpart in Knglish. But at his 
^f/Uh he }^ad proceeded only a short way with the last named 
PJ^rt of the task. His translation did not comprise a fjurth 
of, tlje wholp — and even then it was only m detadied fra^^raents; 
apd in no place was it consecutive. But, inasmuch as he had 
reduced to writing these lengthy Songs with f^o much care, it 
Bpemed very desirable to bring into an available and intelligible 
ajiape an unfinished work, which he regarded as- of much 
importance, as evidenced by the admirable industry which he 
iQust have devoted to it. Moreover it was found quite possible 
to do this, inasmuch as the very Pardh&n who recited the Songs 
tp Mr. Hislop was still at Nagpore; and being versed both in 
Hindi and Mahrattee, was able to interpret the Gondi, word for 
wor^y in^ those language& from which the rendering into English 
was easy. Moreover, assistance was obtainable from the Kev. 
Baba Pandurang ( of the Free Church of Scotland Mission), who 
was Mr Hislop's native assistant^ and his amipanion in several 
tours, and who frequently was employed by Mr* Hislop in obtain- 
ing information^ I, therefore, entrusted to Mr. Pandurang, as 
bciing specially qualified, the task of comparing Mr. Hislop's 
manuscript with the recitations of the Pardh&n, and of ascer- 
taining the £nglish equivalent for every word. 

Thus is reproduced Mr. Hislop's manuscript of the Gondi, 
with Mr. Pandurang's equivalent in English entered over each 
word. 

. From, this detached yerbal translation I have myself prepared 
t)^,j(bllowing cpnaecutive HSngliah version, adhering as nearly 
to.ifaeorigia,aia8,may consist with the easy understanding of 
tbe.P9n8e,.and pieaerving the precise order of the Knes. And 
I hifverSQpplied notes explaining the passag^ea which seemed 
t9.^n^d; explanation. 

The Songs form a soul . of nidft epiq^ JuU of . episodes . and 



u 



digressions* bat preserving a thread of narrative connection from 
beginning to end . I have divided them into five parts, according 
as the sense of the piece indicated the propriety of sach division. 
They are indeed recited or sung in parts, or in whole; hot 
such parts would not necessarily correspond with the parts 
into which I have ventured to subdivide the pieces. 

But, as already mentioned, these Songs were very lengthy 
in the original. While» on the one hand, many passages are 
curious, others vividly illustrative of Gond life and reality, 
and others remarkable in their way; yet, as might be expect- 
ed, many passagres were redundant, others frivolous, othei^ 
improper or objectionable. All passages clearly belonging 
to any of the latter catet^ories have been cut out. Ana thil 
original whole has been thus paired down to about one Ibalf. 
And it has been found practicable to do this, witbout at all 
impairing the sense or breaking the sequence of the story. 
Even in this abridged shape the Songs are long, being sonie 
997 lines in the Gondi. 

The Songs and the Notes will speak for themselves. It will 
be seen therefrom, that they are to some extent worthy of 
being selected for the laborious treatment which Mr., flislop 
bestowed upon them. For they are the best Gond pieces 
extent; and they comprise a sort of comp^^ndium of Gond 
thoughts and notions. Though abounding in things borrowed 
from the Hindus, they ate yet possessed of much originality, 
and in many passages they are, so to speak, redolent of Gondism. 

They have never before been reduced to writing, but have 
been for many generations sui^ or said by the Pardhltn priests^ 
to circles of listening Gonds» at marriages^ and on other 
festive occasions. They are for the m^^st part old, perhape 
even ancient, though much obscured by modem interpolations 
and additions. And though the first original must be older 
than the Hindus, yet the framework of the Story, as it now 
exists, must have been composed subsequently to the arrivid 
of the Aryan Hindus among the aborigines of Central India. 
Beyorid tbis most vague estimate, it is impossible to say how 
old or how new these pieces may be. For the Gondi being 
uav/ritteu, and the Pardhans being unlettered, none of these 
men can explain the history of the Songs. A Gond will refer 
the enquirer to the Pardh&n. Then one Pardh&n will sav 
that he learnt the piece by heart from the mouth of ancithar» 
perhaps aged, Pardh&n, who will say that Ke learnt it from 
another Pardbdn before him, and so on. This is all thkt ddi 
be ascertaiiied at ^ikgpor^ «t ttU 4veiite'. 

tLT. 



JLBSTBACT ENGLISH 7BRSI0N, MT THM BDITOB. 



PART I. 



Th$ Creation of (he World and of the Ootid people^ and 
ihe bondage of the Gonda. 



1. In the midst of twelve hills, in the glens of seven hilb| it 
LingawHogad, or mount Lingawan. 

"t. In that mount is a flower tree named Dati; thence for 
twelve koss there is no dwelling— 

Z. Caw saying there is no crow, chirp saying there is no bird, 
roar saying there is no tiger. 

4. Then, what happened ? God spread betelnut, and called 

Nalli yado rishi [saint)* 

^. When an order to the vakeel (.servant) Narayan waa nada, 
he heard it, and went runniog 

€. To Eurtae Subal to ask him. He said there are Bixteen 
threshingfloors of Teloogoo gods, 

7. Eighteen threshingfloors of Brahmin gods, twelve threshing' 
floors of Gond gods. Thus he waa asking for gods. 

5. So many gods J where are they? their tidings I seek. 
9 What did he begin to say? He said thus: 

1. The tweWe hills aod the seyen valleys are the same as those hAreafter to be men- 
tioned (see Part IV., line 85;, as the place chosen by the Qond gods for their local habitation, 
lingiiwani^'this name hae nothing particular about it^ but seems intended merely to i» 
irodnce the story of Lingo. 

9. The flower tree is the same as that mentioned in Part 11., line 9, «i that from which 
lingo was bom. 

8. This is a forcible CFond idiom for expreanng tttter sZlenee, and aptly desoilbes the 
•iolitudes which are frequent among the homes of the Gond people. The phrase is alee 
JuowB to the Hindus of these parts. 

4. Betel-leaf and nut are frequently mentioned in all €he Parts. The idea is EBndn. 

6. This Narayan must be the same as the Narayan of the Hindus, Or perhi^^ai 
Tefersnce to the belief of the common Hindus, the Sun is meant. 

0. Kurtao Subal—this nime appears to be of Qond origin, and not a Hindu name, "wliuA 
Hm worthy of remark, inasmuch as the other names in this part of the story are Hindu. 

7. The term threshingfloor is supposed to be here intended to express some indefinite 
•number. Mahadewa is said to have had a threshingfloor in a field, whereon he created the 
4^nds. Thus the pure Gonds'are called threshingfloor Gonds. The idea has been extended 
jis-a n utophor to other xaoei. And each noeivrepreMnted liy its spedeldiiniitiai. 



10. There (tbe god) Mahadewa was ruHng from the apper sea 

to the lover sea. 

11. What was that Mahadewa doing? He was awimmiDg like 

a roller stone: he had no hands no feet: 

12. He remained like the tnmk (of a tree)» 

IS. Gowara Parwatee (hb wife) having stood, began to ask 
Narayan — 

14. Who art thou? He said, I am Bhagaw&n^s (god^s) Subadar 

(deputy). 

15. She Faid, Why hast thou come so far? I came to see 

Mahadewa* 

16. Gowara Parwatee came. Narayan having gone to the 

banks of the Narbadda, stood there. 

17. The Raja Mahadewa was swimming and came up^ 

18. Then Parwatee, with joined hands^ 8tood» and so did 

Narayan. 

19. Then said Mahadewa, For what has thou come? where are 

the gods of the twelve threshingfloors of the Gonds? 

20. What did he say, Kurtao Subal ? what did he say to 

Mahadewa? 

21. Perform devotion (tap) for twelve months, and then you 

will come to know the names of them. 

22. Five and six months passed; at the end of it, the derotion 

was finished* 

23 Then came Bbagaw&n and stood close to Mahadewa, and 
called to him — 

£4. Thy devotion is finished, emerge out of the water* He ssid^ 
how shall 1 

25. Emerge ? I have no hands, no feet, no eyesw 



10. And the subaeqaent Cues compiua distorted vecBioDs ia OoaSS, phnuie of portibni oi 
eie Hindu mytholugy. 

14. The Mahotnedan word SnlMidar ia known to the ICabrattvi aa weU aa to th* Ooadk 
Tka Qonda say hare borrowed it atraijgpEit ftoni tii« Mahomedana. 

1ft. Twehe U probably a number of myatio aignificanee, though sixteen ia the num^ar 
vaed iB Hht a«baeq«ent paaaagok Perhapa here alluaioA is madft to tbtf twelra tdlMa of th* 



n. Tbm" ta^'^wtinMBnpmtkngaJMi'BiaSti 



C6. Then Mahadewa received man^s form. 

37. Thus man's form complete was made in the luminous world. 

• 28. He raised his eyes and saw Bhagawan (god>; but he 
(^Bhagaw&n) immediately disappeared. 

29^. Mahadewa said, It is not well that God should not be seen 
(actually visible). Hear, O God, my story. 

30. My devotion is fruitless; I received a man's form, which 

is not well. 

31. Then he began to establish a (tap) devotion. 

32. At the end of nine months and nine days his boil moved 

and burst— 

33. Ealia Adao was bom. Then Mahadewa what did he say ? 

S4. Said Mahadewa to him, Establish a tap (devotion). 

35. He (the Ealia Adao) began a devotion ; one month, two 
months passed, when a boil arose in his hand. 

S6. The boil burst and^sixteen daughters were bom out of it 
Then said he, 

37. What ! why are these daughters bom ? 

38. I shall have cause to cast my head down. Whence shall 

I bring husbands for them ? 

39. He took hold of them and threw them in the water. After 

the throwing 

40. The water was dried up, and sixteen sorts of earth were 

produced. 

41. (He said) I shall perform devotion, and then I shall be 

at peace. 

42. He then established a devotion, and a boil arose in his hand : 

43. Twelve threshingfloors of Gondi gods were bom. 

44. Hither and thither all the Gonds were scattered in the jungle ; 

98. Kalia Adao is believed io be the rame penonage as Eurtao Subal. 

87. These sixteen daughters may perhaps be in allusion to the sixteen Gk>nd goddesses 
mentioned in Part II,, line S58; and this view is borae out by the Pardh^ who recites the 
Song. 

41. Whether the sixteen kinds of earth have any special purport, is doubtful. The 
Pardhiin who recites the song, pays that the phrase merely refers to the several sorts of toil 
^nown to the people ; such as black loam, reddish earth, sandy ground, gravel, and the like. 



45. Places, hills, and valleys were fiUed with these Gonds. 

46. Even trees had their Gronds. How did the Gonds conduct 

themselves ? 

47. Whatever came across them they must needs kill and eat it; 

48. They made no distinction. If they saw a jackal they killed 

49. And eat it; no distinction was observed: they respected 

not antelope, sambur, and the like. 

50. They made no distinction in eating a sow, a quail, a pigeon, 

51. A crow, a kite, an adjutant, a vulture, 

52. A lizard, a frog, a beetle, a cow, a calf, a he and she-baffalo, 
58. Rats, bandicoots, squirrels— all these they killed and ate. 

54. So began the Gonds to do. They devoured raw and ripe 

things ; 

55. They did not bathe for six months together; 

56. They did not wash their faces propejrly, even on dung hills 

they would fall down and remain. 

57. Such were the Gonds born in the beginning. A smell was 

spread over the jungle 

58. When the Gonds were thus disorderly behaved; they be- 

came disagreeable to Mahadewa, 

59. Who said, The caste of the Gonds is very bad; 

60. 1 will not preserve them; they will ruin my hill Dhawal- 

agiri; 

6t. I perceive here and there smells. So said Mahadewa. Call 

the Gonds 

62. Said he to Narayan; He went, and called them, 

63. And brought them into the presence of Mahadewa. 

64. When they were standing, Mahadewa arose and looked, 

and saw all the Gonds come. 

65. He spoke within himself, and took them away into his valley. 

66. He made them to sit in a line, and he sat at the head of 

them. 



47. Thifl gomewhat svcaittic deMription, whioh fcUows, of the h«bi«t of tibe Qondi m 
ytobMy of Hindu ragg^stion. 



! 



67. He took substance fix>m bis own body, and made it into 

a squirrel. 

68. Thus he made a squirrel while bathing, and gave it life. 

69. When he made it alive, he caused it to run away. 

70. With its upright tail the squirrel ran from the midst of 

them. 

71. The Gonds saw it running, and they pursued it. 

72. As the Gonds were pursuing it, some said, kill it, kill it t 

73. Another said, catch it; it will serve as a nice roast. 

74. So saying, some seized a stick, some a stone ; 

75. Some seized a clod: their waist cloths were shaking: their 

hair began to fly about. 

76u The squirrel entered a hole (which) was god's prison oa 
earth. 

77. The Gonds also followed it up to the hole. 

78. All the threshingfloor Gonds ran into the caire. 

79. Thus all the Gonds ran; the rest, four in niunber, remained 

behind. 

80. They came to Parwatee : she was sleeping. In the meantime 

81 . She awoke. She cared for the Gonds. She said, For many 

82. Days I have not seen my Gonds; 

83. There used to be noise in mount Dhawalagiri, 

84. But to-day there is silence. For many days there has betn 

a smell (of Gonds), 

85. But to-day I perceive no smell; 

86. They must have gone somewhere. 

87. Mahadewa is not to be seen, where did he lead them? Thus 

said Parwatee. 

88. She ascended Dhawalagiri, and saw no Gonds. Then she 

said 

89. To Mahadewa, My Gonds do not appear, where have they 

gone? 

79. See Note on line 7. The tena Uureahingfloor Qonda mfftnn the Tvpuler Ckmdecreated 
hj Mahadewa. 

80. The number of four peraona, which appeen, too, in aubMq^Mat parti ol the Sterf 
aiCat be thought to hare lome nc"»<>^»^^ ; but noae ia 4 



90. Mahadewa arose and placed a stone sixteen cubits long 

at the entrance of the cave, and thus shut in the Gonds. 

91. He stationed BhasmasClr (a giant) to guard it. Still 

Parwatee remained asking (after them). 

92. Then said Mahadewa, Dhawalagiri began to be odorous, and 

I fell into a rage thereat; 

9S. But four Gonds have survived* and they are fled. . So said he. 

94. Then Parwatee thought in her mind, My Gonds are lost. 

95. The four Gonds who fled travelled onward over hills. 

96. Thence they went and saw a tree rising upright, as a Date 

tree, which they climbed, and looked Tabout them). 

97. They said there is no hiding place visible for us. 

98. But one of them looked and saw a place named Eachikopa 

Lahugad. 

99. They went by the jungly road and reached that place. 

100. There the four brothers remained. 

101. When the Gonds were not to be found, Parwatee began 

to feel regret for them. 

102. She then commenced a devotion (tap): 

103. Six months passed 

104. Parwatee ended her tap. Bhagawdn (god) meanwhile 

was swinging (in a swing). 

105. He said, What devotee at my resting time has begun a 

devotion; Narayan, go and see to it 

106. Narayan went to«^ee ; ascending a hill, he came to Parwatee, 

107. And stood while Parwatee was performing her tap, and 

saying, My threshingfloor Gonds do not appear; 



91. This Bhaflnutfrflr Beema to be one of the giants of Hindu mythology. 

99. The name Kachikopa Lahugad appears frequently in the Story, bat there is no known 
place particularly of that name. The meaning in Gondi is the ''Iron Valley — ^the Red Hills ;"^ a 
nomenclature very applicable to the mineral produote and external aspect <^ many hills in 
the Qond country. 

104. The name Gk>d Bhaftawtfn occurs frequently in all the Parts. It is borrowed, oi 
course, from Hinduism. It is remarkable, however, that this name should be used especially 
as the Qonds have an idea of their own for the one great GK^d, Supreme over all the gods 
who ii named Bars D^, But the name Bara D^ is not used any where in these Songs. 



108. Therefore I commenced my devotion. When Narayan 
heard this, he ran; restiing amd running, he came to 
Bhagawan and said — 

109. Parwatee is performing a devotion, and says my threshing- 
floor Gonds do not appear ; where have they gone ? 

no. Bhagaw^ said, Go and tell her I will make her Gonds 

visible. 



PART 11. 



The Birth, Life^ and Death of Lingo. 

1. Then care fell to BhagawAa (god), Tliere was a tree : 

2. It waa blossoming. Then, said he, One of ita flowers shall 

conceive. 

3. By God's doing, clouds and winds were loosed. A cloud 

like 

4. A fan arose : thunder roared, ani lightning flashed; 

5. The flower burst, clouds opened, and darkness fell; the day 

was hid. 

6. A heap of turmeric fell at the fourth watch of the night. 

7. In the morning, when clouds resounded with thunder, the 

flower opened 

8. And burst, and Lingo was born, and he sprang and fell into 

the heap of turmeric. 

9. Then the clouds cleared, and at the dawn Lingo began 

to cry. 

10. Thereat, care fell upon God; the (face of Lingo) began to 
dry amidst the powder. 

XL But by God's doing, there was a Ficus tree, on which 
was honey — 

12. The honey burst, and a small drop fell into hio mouth. 

13. Thus the juice continued to fall, and his mouth began to 

suck. 

14. It was noon, and wind blew, when Lingo began to grow. 

15. He leapt into a swing, and began to swing, when day was s*et 

16. Lingo arose with haste, and sat in a cradle swinging. 

17. Lingo was a perfect man: water may be stained, but he had 

no stain whatever. 



8. Lingo, or Lingal, is a sort of prophet among the Qouds. Though ht? ap;)farb thrtiughout 
this Story in the character of a devout Hindu, yet the name ia oi Uond ongin. 8i«metimei 
Bhin (Gondi for devotee) ia affixed to hia name, and sometimes Pariilr (^Gondi for Saint.) 



9 

18. There was a diaraond on his navel and sandle wood mark 

on his f(»rehead. He was a divine Saint. He became two 
years old. 

19. He played in turmeric, and slept in a swing. Thus days rolled 

away, 

20. He became nine years old ; he was ordered not to eat any- 

thing from off the jungle trees or thickets. 

21. Lingo, in his mind, said, Here is no person to be seen; man 

does not appear, neither are there any animals; 

22. There appears none like me ; I will go where [ can see 

someone like myself. 

23. Having said so, one day he arose and went on straight. 

24. He ascended a needle-like hill; there he saw a Mundita 

tree ; 

25. Below was a tree named Kidsadita: it blossomed. 

26. He went thither, and having seen flowers be smelled them. 

27. He went a little beyond, upon a precipitous hill, and climbed 

a tree.' 

28. Then he looked around and saw smoke arising from 

Kachikopa Lahugad. 

29. What is this? said he; I must go and see it. 

80. He ascended, and saw the smoke. The four brothers 
quickly brought their game, and began to roast it ; they 
began to eat it raw or cooked. 

31. In the meantime Lingo went there. They saw him and 

stood up; he stood also; 

32. Neither spoke to the other. The four then began to say 

within themselves, 

33. We are-four brothers, and he will be the fifth brother. Let 

us call him. 

34. We will go and bring him Then they wont. 

35. They came to (the place) where he was. Who art thou? 

asked they of Lingo. 

IS. These are Hindu diatinctioas. 



10 

36. Lingo said, I am Saiut Lingo; I have a knot of hair on m^ 

head. 

37. The four brothers said, Come to our house. 

38. They took him home. While some game was lyii^ there^ 

39. Lingo said, What is ihis ? ^ (They said) it is game that we 

have brought. 

40. What kind of game is this ? Lingo asked. They said, It is 

a pig. 

4L He said^ Give tre its liver. There was no liver ther-e» 
Then they said, 

42. Hear, brother, we have killed an animal without liver I 

43. Then Lingo said. Let me see an animal without liver. 

44. Then care fell upon them. Where shall we show him an 

animal without a liver? said they. 

is. One said, Hear my word! He is a Utile (fellow), we are b^ 
men; we will take him to the jungle among large ston^a. 

46. Among thorns in thickets and caves we will Toam; he 

will get tired, and will sit down ; 

47. He will be thirsty and hungry, then he will propose to 

return. 

48. With Lingo, "they, with how and arrow in their handb, 

went by ihe jungle road. 

49. Onward they went, iwd -saw an antelope. Lingo said^^ 

Kill it I 

50. It had a liver. Then came a sambur, kill ye it ! 

5 1. It had a liver. A hare came, and he said, kill ye it ! 

52. It had a liver. 

5S. Thus the devout Lingo did not tire. These four brothers- 
were tired. 

54. For water they thirsted. On a steep they ascended to 
look for water; 

96. Again a Hindu mark in contradistinction to Gcodi. 

39. This and many subsequent paesages contain life-like descriptlooa of the hontins: 
pa&times of Uie Qonda. 



11 

&5. But no water appeared, so tliey desc»:rir:<.l from theliilL 

56. Thu3 they came to a thick jui},:iVi of Arjun trees, where 

thorny plants blockaded tho r:>.iJ. 

57. They came and stood. A little \yi\U-v appeared. They 

plucked Palas (Butia) leaves, and made them into a 
trough ; 

58. They drank water with it, and were much refreshed. 

59. Lingo said, What are you doing sitting there ? (They 

said) we cannot find an animal without a liver. 

6Q. If we don't find it we will leave off mentioning the name 
(of such a creature). This is a good place; 

61. After scraping the ground, and cutting down trees, we will 
sow rice. 

6S. (Lingo said) I will sleep a little; you make a field ready. 

63. The four brothers brought hatchets, and they all four began 

to cut the Anjun trees. 

64. (Lingo) feU asleep, and he dreamed a dream. In his dream 

65. He saw the twelve threshingfloors of Gond?, and he was 

afraid. 

66. He awoke, and returned wliile the four brothers 

6T. Cut down the tree: their ha:icls were blistered, and each 
blister was as large as an Awala fruit. 

68. They threw down their hatclieta and came to Lingo, 

69. (And said ) our hands are blistered, therefore we threw 

down our hatchets. 

70. They went asidj, and saf dc\vn. Then arose Lingo and 

held a hatchet in his hand, 

71. And went on cutting trees; the trees fell, their roots 

were dug up. 

72. Thus he began to cut down jungle. In an hour he made a 
good field. 

60. The Anjun tree (Harduichla hiruita) was pn^bably more abundant at former 
periods. It stiil is found, but it is no longer plentiful In the Gond country. 

05. See the prcvioria note explaining the term threshingfloor. Allusion eecms here to 
h»i— di» to th» tweW* tiib«k 

70 'to 70. Compri&cs regular description of the cultivstfon so well knoini in recent 
timsi ss Dhya. 



13 

73. (They said) our hands are blistered and not one tre^ have 

we cut down, 

74. But Lingo in one hour has cut down several trees; 

75* He has made the black soil (appear;, and has sown rice 

and hedged it round ; 

76. He has made a door to it, and has made a shutter (for 

the door). 

77. Til en they arose and took their homeward road, and came 

to their own hi^uses. 

78. On the first day of tlie rainy season a little black cloud 

appeared : 

79. Wind blew vi'oLniiy; it was cloudy all day; rain began 

to fall; 

80. Rills in th'^njvn rlMfos were {ilhd knee deep; all the holea 

were i'lW^A (vviiii waler). 

81. When tlic r.iin litil poured for three dayf, the weather be- 

caiiij fuir: nee U'.:!^:ui to spring; 

82. All tlu> iu ids ain^rarod green. In one day the rice grew 

a linyei's breadth high; 

83. In a niontli it rose up to a man's knee. 

84. There were sixteen scores of Nilgais Cdeer), among whom 

two bucks (uncle and nephew) were chiefs. 

85. "When ihe scent of rice spread around, they came to know 

it ; thither they went to graze. 

86. At the head of the herd was the uncle, and the nephew 

was at the rear. 

87. With cracking joints the nephew arose; he leaped upwards. 

88. With two ears upright, and with cheerful heart, he boxmded 

to^vards his uncle, 

89. TAnd snid) some one has a beautiful field of rice: it muat 

be green tender fodder. 

90. To us liLtlc ones give that fields the sixteen scores of deer 

Will go there; 

84. The tcnn " Bixtccn Bcores" is'/requcntly used ; for instaaee, nxteen Bcoresof GKnAr 
are epoken of. No particular (ugoificaiice is aacertainible ; perhaps the term may (ml^ be en 
idiom for a lam^ number. 



IS 

91. After eating rice we will comeback. (The uncle said) 

O nephew, hear my words! Take 

92. The name of other fields, but not that of Lingo's field, 

(othcr\vise) he will not preserve even one of the sixteen 
scores of deer for seed to carry on the species. 

93. The nephew said, You are old, but we are j^oung; we 

will go. 

94. Arriving there we will cat. If any one sees us we will 

bound away; 

95. We will make a jump of five cu!)its, and thus escape; but 

you, being an old one, will be caught. 

96. Therefore you are afraid to go, 1 will not ]\:ii: yowc word; 

don't come with us. 

97. So said the nephew. With straiglit tails and crjot oars they 

turned back. 

98. The uncle was grieved. Then he ar.)-e aiul u\.]t arter them; 

99. They left him far behind. The he:\i ca^ne near tlic fields; 

100. But the nephew and the deer begrai to look for a way to 

enter it, but could not find one. 

101. The deer said. Your uncle was the wise one amongst us, 

of whom shall we now ask advice? 

102. We have left him behind (instead of him), you are our 

chief. 

103. The nephew said, Do as you see me doing before you. 

104. He put himself in front, when one of the deer said: 

106. At first, your uncle told you that this is Lingo's field, but 
you did not hear; 

106. Look behind and before you (be prudent). So said the deer. 

107. But the nephew said. We will not keep an old one's company. 

108. So he, being in front, gave a bound, and was in the midst 

of the rice, 

109. And stood; then all the deer came after him leaping. 

110. After him came the uncle to the hedge and stood. 

111. All the deer were eating rice. But the uncle could not 

find his way. 



14 

1 1 3, Being clu, ho -vvas u::uble to leap tho door of the field of rice. 

113. Tiiov \v. n^ fi'oiu thence and leaped back over the hedge, 

^.vlivii i\\c uncle said to them: — 

114. ITcn]', s'xteen scores of deer, you have eaten this field I 

Fatiicr Lingo when he comes to it 

115. YvHijit i:i( aMires will \ic adopt? Then the nephew, who 

was behind, came in front, 

116. And said, Hear, O friends and brethren I flea fr«m this 

place, but hear my word. 

117. As you flee keep your feet on leaves, and stonea, and boughs, 

and grass, but don't put your feet oa the soil. Sp Sf^id 
the nephew. ' 

118. As he told them, so they did — all the sixteen scoreis of 4^«r 

began to run, 

119. And left no marks nor traces* 

130. Then they stopped ; some remained standings some slept. 

121. In the midst of the flower fragrance wa?, L^ngp sleeping, 

while half of the night was passed. 

122. In his dream ho ?aw a fielcj catG^ by dc^r, iin4 ^11 ihe rice 

becoming spoilt. 

123. Tlien Lingo departed, a::d took liis r )rid to Efichikopa 

Luhugad. 

124. Hence he departed, ar.d went to tlie brolliers and said, O 

brothers! out of your house come ye; 

125. Hear one word: the deer have. eaten our fiJd of rice. 

126. The four brothers said we iiecd rice to offer our firstfruits 

(to the gods). 

127. Then Lingo said. Hear, . O brethren ! our rice has; beei^ 

eaten up ; 

128. Ithas been spoilt; we have no firstfruits. Lingosaid, We» 

will offer the liver of these deer as firstfruits ; 

129^ Then I will remain as a devotee, otherwise my povjer* 
will vanish. 



15 

130. I fill any stomach "by the smelling of flowers; 

131. But how will the Gonds fill their bellies, there is nothing 

for their eating — 

132. The rice has been spoilt by the deer. So said Lingo, 

133. The four brothers said we will take in our arms, bow and 

arrow. 

134. With anger against the deer they came to the field, and 

entered in the midst of it, 

135. When they came in the centre they saw only black soil. 

136. Only rice stubble appeared, and Lingo saw nothing. 

137. Then his anger arose from the heel to the headland he bit 

his finger on the spot ; 

138. His eyes became red. Where are the deer ? said he, look 

lor them? 

139. They looked, but did not see anywhere the footprints of 

deer. 

140. Near a tree they beheld some foot-marks; they looked at it. 

141. -As they went they beheld a jungle trodden down; then 

some traces appeared. 

142. Onward they went, but did not see the deer, they beheld 

a peepul tree. 

143. Lingo said, I will climb the tree, you stand below. 

1 44. From the top he looked, and the deer were visible. He said, 

145. The deer are in sight, some are seated, some are sleeping, 

some are leaping about. 

146. You four brothers separate yourselves on four sides with 

your arrows, 

147. And allow not one of the deer to escape. 

148. I will shoot them from the tree and you shoot from below. 



16 

149. Having heard this, the four brothers went and ambuscaded 

on four sides. 

150. They shot their arrows from four comers, while Lingo shot 

from the tree. 

151. The uncle (the buck) and one deer alone survived ; they had 

aimed at them also, but the arrow tell from Lingo's band. 

152. He said to himself, when the arrow fell out of my hand. 

That must have been a good omen. 

153. That uncle is a devout follower of the servant of god, and 

has not eaten anything. 

154. But the two survivors began to run ; then these four 

brothers went after them in pursuit, saying, We will catch 
them here or there. 

155. But the two could not be found; then the brothers turned 

and looked around. 

156. The eldest brother said, Hear, O brethren ! These two have 

escaped, and Lingo 

157. Has remained behind at a distance from us. Let us return, 

said the eldest brother. 

158. When they returned. Lingo asked them, Where have you 

been? 

159. They said. The two survivors have fled and cannot be 

found, so we have returned to you. 

160. He said, I will show you something; see if anywhere in 

your 

161. Waistbands there is a flint; if so, take it out and make fire. 

162. Then they took out pieces of flint and began to make fire, 

163. But the matches did not ignite. As they were doing this, a 

watch of the night passed. 

]164. They threw down the matches, ar.d said to Lingo, Thou 
art a Saint; 



17 

165. Show us where our fire is, and why it does not come out 

lfi6. Lingo said, Three koss {jdx miles) hence is Rikad Gawadi 
the giant 

167. There is fire in his field ; where smoke shall appear, go there. 

168. Come not back without bringing fire. Thus said Lingo. 

169. They said, We have never seen the place, where shall we go? 

170. Ye have never seen where this fire is ? Lingo said; 

171. I will discharge an arrow thither. 

172. Goin the diisction of the arrow ; there you will get fire. 

173. He applied the arrow, and having pulled the bow^ he dis- 

charged one: 

174. It crashed on breaking twigs and making its passage clear. 

175. Having cut through the high grass, it made its way and 

reached the old man's place (above mentioned). 

* 176. The arrow dropped close to the fire of the old man, who 
had daughters. 

177. The arrow was near the door. As soon as they saw it, the 

daughters came and took it up, 

178. And kept it. They asked their father, When will you give 

us in marriage ? 

179. Thus said the seven sisters, the daughters of the old man. 

180. I will marry you as I think best for you; 

181. Remain as you are So said the old man, the Rikad Gawadi. 

182« Lingo said, Hear, O brethren ! I shot an arrow; it made its 
way. 

183. Go there, and you will see fire; bring thence the fire. 

184. Each said to the other, I will not go: but (at last) the 
• youngest went 

180. This Rik^ Gawadi, a sort of giant, is a name of doubtful origin. The Qawadi 
may be a oomiption of Gawali, or Gaoli, — a cowherd. The Gaolis were powerful in the early 
dajB of the Gkmd people, and establishea a dynasty of their own ia the Gond country. 

184. The picture of the old man sleeping in the midst of his field, so well fenced round, 
(to keep off wild beasts) and by the fireside (to preserve him from the xiight damps of the 
forest), is a true representation of the habits of the Gonds. 



18 

185. lie descried the fire, and went to it; then beheld he aa old 

man looking like the trunk of a tree. 

186. He saw fr'^m afar the old man's field, around which a 

hedge was made, 

187. The old man kept only one way to it, and fasteix^d a screen. 

to the entrance, and had a fire in the centre of the field. 

188. He placed logs of the Mohwa and Anjun and Saj trees 

on the fire. 

189. Teak faggots he gathered, and enkiadled flame. 

190. The fire blazed up, and, warmed by the heat of it, in deep 

sleep lay the Rikad Gawfiwli. 

191. Thus the old man like a giant did appear. When the 

young Gond beheld him, he shivered; 

192. His heart leaped; and he was much afraid in his mind, and 

said : 

193. If the old man were to rise he will see me, and I shall be 

eaten up; 

194. I will steal away the fire and carry it off, then my life will 

be safe. 

1 95« He went near the fire secretly, and took a brand of Tembhur 
wood tree. 

196. When he was lifting it up a spark flew and fell on the hip 

of the old man. 

197. That spark was as large as a pot: the giant was blistered: 

he awoke alarmed, 

198. And said, I am hungry, and I cannot get food to eat any 

where ; I feel a desire for flesh ; 

199. Like a tender cucumber hast thou come to me. So said the 

old man to the Gond, 

187. The Mohwa is the tree from the flower of which the Oonda obtun their HvoaxiU 
liquor. 

168. The Tmk tree i0 still found, though 8omewh«t dwarfed, in most parte of the Qond 
oountiy. 



19 

200. Who began to fly. The old man followed him. The 

Gond then threw away the brand which he had stolen. 

201. He ran onward and was not caught. Then the old man, 

being tired, turned back. 

202. Thence he returned to his field, and came near the fire and 

sat, and said, What nonsense is this ? 

203. A tender prey had come within my reach ; 

204. I said I will cut it up as soon as I can, but it escaped from 

my hand ! 

205. Let it go: it will come again, then I will catch it. It is 

gone now. 

206. Then what happened ? the Gond returned and came to 

his brethren, 

207. And said to them, Hear, O brethren 1 I went for fire, as you 

sent me, to that field; I beheld an old man like a giant 

208. With hands stretched out and feet lifted up, I ran. I thus 

survived with diflSculty. 

209. The brethren said to Lingo, We wiU not go. Lingo said, 

Sit ye here. 

210. O brethren, what sort of a person is this giant. I will go 

and see him. 

211. So saying. Lingo went away and reached a river. 

313. He thence arose and went onward. As he looked, he saw 
in firont three gourds. 

213. Then he saw a bamboo stick, which he took up« 

214. When the river was flooded 

215. It washed away a gourd tree, and its seed fell, and each 

stem produced bottle gourds. 

21 6. He inserted a bamboo stick in the hollow of the gourd and 

made a guitar. 



217. He plucked two hairs from his head and strung it. 

218. He held a bow and fixed eleven keys to that one stick, and 

played on it. 

219. Lingo was much pleased in his mind. 

220. Holding it in his hand, he walked in the direction of the 

old man's field. 

221. He approached the fire where Rikad Gawadi was sleeping. 

222. The giant seemed like a log lying close to the fire: his teeth 

were hideously visible ; 

223. His mouth was gaping. Lingo looked at the old man 

while sleeping. 

224. His eyes were shut. Lingo said This is not good time to 

carry the old man off while he is asleep. 

225. In front he looked, and turned round and saw a tree 

226. Of the peepul sort standing erect; he beheld its branches 

with wonder, and looked for a fit place to mount upon. 

227. It appeared a very good tree; so he climbed it, and ascended 

to the* top of it to sit. 

228 As he sat, the cock crew. Lingo said. It is daybreak; 

229. Meanwhile the old man must be rising. Therefore Lingo 
took the guitar in his hand, 

2S0. And held it; he gave a stroke, and it sounded well: from 
it he drew one hundred tunes. 

231. It sounded well, a^ if he was singing with his voice. 
Thus (^as it were) a song was heard. 

232. Trees and hills were silent at its sound. The music loudly 

entered into 

233. The old man ears; he rose in haste, and sat up quickly; 

lifted up his eyes, 

917. Thia two BtringMl guitar (jantar) vi a fovourite indtrument with the Oonda. 



«1 

234. And desired to hear (more). He looked hither and thither, 

but could not make out whence the sound came. 

235. The old man said, Whence has a creature come here to-day 

to sing like the maina bird? 

236. He saw a tree, but nothing appeared to him as he 

looked underneath it. 

237. He did not look up ; he looked at the thickets and ravines, 

but 

238. Saw nothing. He came to the road, and near to the fire in 

the midst of his field and stood. 

239. Sometimes sitting, and sometimes standing, jumping, and 

rolling, he began to dance. 

240. The music sounded as the day dawned. His old Ionian 

came out in the morning and began to look out. 

241. She heard, in the direction of the field, i( melodious music 



playin 



g- 



242. When she arrived near the hedge of her field, she heard 

music in her ears. 

243. That old woman called her husband to her. 

244. With stretched hands and lifted feet, and with his neck 

bent down, he danced. 

245. Thus he danced. The old woman looked towards her hus- 

band, and said, My old man, my husband, 

246. Surely that music is very melodious. I will dance said the 

old woman. 

247. Having made the fold of her dress loose, she quickly b^;an 

to dance near the hedge. 

248. Lingo said in hie mind, I atn a devout Lingo ; God's Servant 

am L 

tSS. TbtOoncUartTSiyfoii^of boii^cnnii danoiiig. 



249. I Cwciir) my dhotee (cloth round the loins) down to my 

heels, and (keep) a knot (of hair) on my head, and on 
the navel a diamond, and on my forehead a sacred mark. 

250. Water may possess a stain, but I have none. I am Lingo. 

I will make the old man and old woman 

25 L To dance the Gond dance. T will sing a song, and cause 
them to dance, if I be Lingo. 

2 52. Lingo worshipj)ed his god, and invoked Budhal Penta, Adul 
Penta, 

253. The sixteen eatiks (goddesses) and eighteen flags, Manko 

Eaytal, Jango Raytal, and Pharsa Penda, 

254, And said, Balutaiion (to you Gods) 1 He, holding his guitar 

in his hands, sung various tunes. 

256. la my guitar an allurement to them ? So said Lingo. He 
stopped the guitar. 

266. From on high he saluted the uncle, Hikad Gawadi, the old 
man; 

2") 7. Who looked towards the top of the tree, and said. Saluta- 
tion to you, O nephew 1 

£;8. Well hast thou deceived me and caused us to dance 
Whither hast thou come, nephew ? 

C.V.>. (Let ) us embrace each other. Lingo descended from the 
tree, 

CG9. And going to the old man, held his hand, and said, Uncle, 
salutation to you! 

'itiU They met together: nephew became known to the uncle, 
and the uncle to the nephew. 

'2C^ After the meeting was over, the nephew held the uncle'd 
hand. 

Su3. They both came near the fire, and sat nephew, whence 
hast thou come? asked the uncle. 

940 TheM are Hindu marks in oontradistinction to QoncU. 
ibO J. These names belong to Qond gods atid goddeeses. 



43 

264. I have killed sixteen scores ol deer; we want to roast their 
liver to eat. 

2S6. We were trying to make fire fall from the flint, but fire 
ieil not. 

266. You possess fire in your field, therefore I discharged an 
arrow. 

?G7. It came near your fire. It arose and fell at the door of your 
daughters. 

2G8. The daughter?? have lifted it up and carried it away. 
Have you no sense, uncle? 

?(>9 I sent my brother to fetch fire, and you ran to eat hiln. 

270. If you had caught him, you would have eaten him up; 

and where should I have seen him again? 

27 1 . The uncle said, I made a mistake ; O nephew, the thing that 

I did is past. 

272. He replied, O uncle, I have killed sixteen scores of deer ! 

Go and eat their flesh as much as you like. 

273. Thus said Lingo. Then the old man said, Hear, O nephew, 

my word. There are seven sisters, my daughters ; 

274. I have them here. Take them away. Having first bound 

the.r eyes, 

275. Lingo thence arose, and stood before the uncle and said, I 

am going uncle, 

276. Receive my salutation. Lingo thence went by the way to 

the house where the old man's daughters were. 

277. Having arrived, he stood at the door. Lingo appeared a 

youth of twelve years 

278. Or as sixteen years old ; in front he looked foppish, like 

a young man ; 

279. From behind he looked like a devout Brahmin. He 

appeared as a good man. 

87j^ This ifl not rappoeed to convey any allunon to the seyen niflter goddeaaeB of thft 
taid tlM lower elufems of Hindw. 



24 

280* l^he seven sisters from withia the house came to Lingo, 
and regarded him 

281. As a young man. They came out and stood before Lingo. 

282. Tell us, said the seven sisters, who art thou? tell us. 

283. He said, Thy father is my uncle, and thy mother is my 

aunt. 

284. t am devout Lingo, the servant of God. I am Lingo. 

285. Hear, O sisters I my arrow came to your house and fell ; I 

have been in search of it for a long time. 

286. My four brothers are sitting in the jungle; and I have killed 

sixteen scores of deer; 

287. They are also in the jungle, and my brothers are sitting 

near them. 

288. I have come here for fire: it is very late. 

289. My brothers must be expecting fire; they must have felk 

hunger, 

290. And thirsty they must have become; where will they get 

bread ? 

29L Thus said Lingo. Then the seven sisters, what did thejr 
begin to say. 

292. Hear, O brother, our word. Thou art a son to uncle, and we 

are daughters to aunt, 

293. There is a good relationship between you andns; how 

can you leave us ?"" 

294. We will come along with you; therefore, don't fiay No. 

295. If you like to come* be ready soon, and take the dnward 

road, said Lingo. 

296. They took the bedding for their beds, and their clo&ei, 

and gave the arrow to Lingo. 

S98. This IB the Qondi idiom for ezproMing a desire for friendly r^atioiM bdng • 



25 

397. Lingo in tbe front, and they in the rear, began to tread 
the way. 

298. The brothers were sitting and looking, and saying when 

will he come ? 

299. They beheld him from a far; and said, Hear, O brothers, 

our Lingo appears 1 

300. They arose and looked, and saw Lingo, and behind him 

the seven sisters. 

801. They said, With whose daughters, or whose daughters- 
in-law, 

302. Is he coming ? Look, brethren ! they are of good 

appearance. 

303. If Lingo give them to us, we would make them our 

v^ives. So said the brethren. 

304. Lingo came near and stood, and said. Hear, brethren, 

my word ! 

305. These seven sisters are the daughters of our uncle: they 

have come ; 

306. Take out your knives, and give to them the livers of the ' 

deer. 

307. They took out the livers: some brought faggots and 

enkindled fire; 

808. On its blaze they roasted flesh, and set it on the ground. 

309. Offer this liver in the name of God. 

310. 8o said the four brothers. Lingo arose. 

311. They began to eat, while Lingo did not eat. Then he said, 

312. Let the seven sisters quickly go back, their father will 

abuse them. 

313. Hear, sisters! Go quickly, or else your mother will 

abuse you. 

800. This oflfwing of the liyer to Qod seems to have been borrowed from the Hindus. 



26 

S14. They replied, an J eaid, Hear, O Tjingo! Thou who art 
called good, may we call you bad ? 

315. We will not go, we will stay. Whither thou shalt go. 

thither we will follow thee. 

316. The brethren said, Hear, Lingo, these seven sisters 

Bay well I 

31 7. Say thou yes to them, O brother, we will marry them. 

318. We will make them our wives. Hear, Lingo, such is 

our word. 

319. He Faid, Take these as wives in marriage, and I shall be 

greatly pleased. 

320. Take them here in marriage, I will give you leave to 

make them your wives. 

321 . 1 ley said, If you see any one of them to be good-looking, 

vou take her. 

322. If any be inferior, we will take her. 

323. He said, Hear my word, brothers 1 [ do not need this. 

324. I promised to give them to you; they are of no use to me. 

325. So, said Lingo, if you marry them they will serve me. 

326. They will be my sisters-in-law. You are older, and I am 

younger. 

327. They can give me water and bread, and spread a bed 

forme: 

828. I will sleep on it They can give me a bath; my clothes 
they will wash* 

329. They will be my sisters-in-law, and like my mothers 

they shall be. 

330. So said Lingo. When Lingo said they will be my 

mothers, the suspicion of the four vanished. 

331. They went to Lingo, and asked him: O Lingo, marry us 

quickly ! 



27 

S32. If yon marry us, then they are seven sisters, and we are 
four brothers. 

333. Distribute to each of us a wife, O lingo. 

334. He said the three elder should marry two each, and the 

youngest, one only. 

335. Then said Lingo, Hear, my word, brethren ! In this jungle 

336. And in this plain how can we make preparation; we have 

our town, namely Kachikopa Lahugad : 

337. We will go there and make preparations for the marriage. 

338. So said Lingo. When they heard this, they departed. 

339. They walked in front, and the (women) walked behind. 

340. They came to their village Kachikopa Lahugad, and 

began to make 

341. Preparations. There were no men or women; then Lingo 

brought water. 

545. He bathed them, boiled turmeric and gave them, and 

pounded saffron. 

843. He erected a bower, and tied garlands of leaves round it. 

344. He called the four brothers to sprinkle turmeric round 

about. 

345. He applied turmeric to the four brothers and the seven 

sisters. 

546. He said we cannot marry ail at once. Hear, brothers. 

347. Let us marry one set only at first, and the rest shall work 

with us (for that occasion). 

348. Then shall the marriage of the second set take place. 

349. Those who have been already married shall now help us 

(in this marriage ceremony), and so on. 

350. Thus said Lingo ; and the four consented to it. 



351. TliUB ended ^e oaarriage. When some ^kys pMsed, the 
eldest brother said, Hear my word, O Iw^threa. 

Z52. Lingo has done (good lo us, e&d brougiii wives to our 
houses. 

353. But Lingo is without a wife : he thought of our good, 

but not of his own, 

354. So we will reckon him as our father. 

355. We will kill game, and bring flowers for Lingo. Let him 

sit in a swing. 

356. So said the four brothers. . 

357. Lingo sat in a swing, and the seven sisters swung the 

swing. 

SfS6. The four brothers tool: their bows and arrows, and repaired 
to the jungle. 

359. After that, what happened ? The seven sisters said \rithin 

themselves, Hear, O sisters. This Lingo 

360. Is our husbands' younger brother, and we are his sisters- 

in-law ; we are at Jiberty to laugh with him; 

361. We can pull him by the hand, and we can make him to 

speak with us. 

362. Lingo does not laugh with us ; he neither speaks nor 

looks towards us ; he has closed his eyes : 

363. But he shall laugh, and we will play with hiA. So saying, 

364. Some held his hand, and some his feet, and pulled him, 

but Lingo moved not his eyes ; 

365. He did not speak or laugh with them, 

366. Then Lingo said to them. Hear, sisters. Ton have held 

my hands 

854, This mairiage bower is ohanicteziBtio of the Oonds: but is not unknown to the 
Hindus. 



S9 

367. And feet, and jmlled theto; but temennibet' you are tny 

sisters. 

368. You are my moAers ; why do you deal 60 with me ? I am 

God's servant. 

389. I don't care though my life be sacrificed, but I will not 
speak witli you, nor look at yon, nor laagh with you. 
So said Lingo. Having heard this, 

370. The eldest sister said, Hear, sisters. Lingo speaks not 
to us, looks not towards us. 

S71. They began to embrace him. Then Lingo became angry : 
the anger ascended from the heel to his head ; 

372. Thence descended into his eyes and down to his feet. 
Lingo looked before him 

/37d. But saw nothing, save a pestle for cleaning rice. 

374. He descended from off his swing and took the pestle in 

his handy 

375. And soundly flogged his sisters-in-law. As he was beating 

them, 

376. The seven sisters began to flee^before him like bellow- 

ing cows. 

377. Thence he returned, and having come to his swing, 

378. In a swing he slept. Thus these seven sisters had received 

a sound beating, 

379. They returned to their house» and having each one gone 

to her room, 

380. The seven sisters slept in seven places; and Lingo slept in 

a swing. 

SSL Thus noontide came, and the time for the returning of 
the four brothers arrived. 

382. Some of ihem had killed an antelopoi some a hare, some 
a peafowl, 



80 

383. Some a quail ; Bome brought flowers. 

384. They came into their house and set their burdens down, 

and said, Let us go to our Lingo ; 

385. We will give him flowers ; he may be expecting us. They 

entered the house. 

386. They came near Lingo and stood, and saw him sleeping. 

387. They said, There is no one here. Lingo is sleeping; our 

wives do not appear. 

388. Then we will come and awake Lingo. Thence they 

returned 

S89. To their houses, and going to their rooms, they began to 
look. 

390. They Tthe women ^ were feigning sleep, and panting, as 

if fear had come upon t^em. Then the husbands asked 
them, 

391. Why are you sleeping? and why don't you swing Lingo? 

They replied, Hear our words 

392. How Lingo, your brother, dealt with us. How long shall 

we hide this disgrace f 

393. He allows you to go to the jangle, and behind your back 

he shamefully maTtreats ua. 

394. Such is the conduct of this Lingo. We have kept quiet 

till to-day ; 

395. Now we will not stop quiet We will go back to our 

father s place. 

396. We will not stay here. Can one woman have two 

husbands? 

397. The brethren said, We told Lingo at the first 

398. That there were seven sisters, and that he might choose 

one from amongst them, 

399. And that we would marry the rest. But he said, 

400. They are my sisters, they are my mothers, 

401. Thus said that sinner, wicked and ill-conducted, that 

Lingo. 



3( 

40S. While we were out hunting, he deceived U9, We will take 

403. Him to the jungle, and, having killed him, we will pull 

out his eyes. 

404. Up to this day we have killed antelope and hares; 

405. But to-day we go to hunt Lingo, and after killing him we 

will take out his eyes, 

406. And we will play with them as with marbles; and then 

we will eat food and drink water. 

407. Then they came to Lingo, and stood before him and said. 

Rise, O Lingo, our youngest brother ! 

408. Lingo said. Why, brethren, — why have you not brought 

the game and the flowers to me ? and why have you 
come so soon ? 

409. They said. There is a large animal ; we hunted it hard* 

but it did not fall: 

410. It d<»e8 not flee, it stands still only ; we are tired of dis- 

charging our arrows at it. 

411. Lingo arose from the swing and sat, and looked towards 

his brothers. 

412. I will kill that animal. So said Lingo. 

413. Lingo thence arose and came out of the housa^ and saidt 

Come, O brothers. Where is the animal ? 

414. In front Lingo, and in rear the four brothars walked 

towards the jungle. 

415. It is a very large animal, said thev; and saying thus, they 

searched for it among trees and grass. 

41 6. Lingo said, If it has gone, let it go. 

417. Lingvo went under a Char tree and sat. Then they said, 

d brother 1 

41 8. Sit here, and we will bring water. So saying, yonder they 

went. 

4)9. Being amongst the trees, they said among themselves. 
Good Lingo is seated in the shade. 



32 

4fi0. This is the right time to effect our desire. The four took 
four arrowB and shot : 

42 i . One arrow hit the head, an i the head split open ; 

4f22. One hit the neck, and it bowed down ; one hit the liver, 
and it was cleft. 

423. Thus Lingo breathed his laet ! 

424. The four brothers came up to Lingo and stood, 

4S5. And said. Draw a knife, and we will take out his eyes. 
They drew out a knife and 

420. Took out his two eyes, and said, Cover him. 

427. So they took some twigs and covered Lingo^ 

428. Then they said, We have killed Lingo, who was wicked. 

489. They plucked some green leaves of the trees and made a 
cup of them, 

450. And placed in it the two eyes of Lingo, and one tied it to 

bis waistband. 

451. They walked towards their house, and at evening ume 

they arrived home. 

432. One said. Hear, O wives ! Kindle fire quickly, 

43S. And light a lamp. They drew the stalks of flat from 
the eaves of the house roof and enkiudled fire. 

434. One said, It is a find light, let us play at marbles. 

435. They took out both the eyes, and said. O seven sisters ! 

you also join in play. 

436. They brought the eyes, and placed one on the east side, 

and the other on the west ; 

437. And the brethren, sitting close, held the marbles between 

the joints of their fingers. 

438. Then began to play at marbles with the two eyes ; and 

their game lasted an hour. 



PART III. 



The revival of Lingo^ and hie delivery of the Gonds from 

bondage^ 

1. What did god (Bhagawdn) do now? 

2. Rayetal, Pharsi Pen, what did they in the upper world? 
8. In the courts of god all the minor divinities sat. 

4. God spake to them — Hear, O friends, Can you tell in what 

world the body (of Lingo) is fallen ? 

5. Will any of you trace it and go on this errand? 

6. They made the preparation of betelnut, and threw it before 

the saints. 

7. God said. Take this up, and come and tell me. 

8. But none of the saints took it up. 

9. Then God becaxe angry, and began to reproach them. 

10. God aros?, and with a potfu] of water washed his hands 

and leet. 

11. After washing, he, from the substance of his body created 

a crow, tiud spriukled water of ambrosia on it, 

19. And thus made it alive, and named it Kagesur; and held it 
in hi^ hand, 

13. And said, Go to the jungle, and make a search bo tweeny 

hills, glens, lanes; amongst trees, in rivers, and water. 

14. Thence the crow departed, and roamed over the upper 

world. 

15. But did not find the body of Lingo anywhere; thence he 

came to the lower world and began his search. 

1. This fioeae id the courts of god nJborre^ muist probablj bo of Hindu im^giuia^ as ths 
word used is Bhagiiwan. But the §reat god of the Gonds may be meant ; only if th%t sup< 
position be entertained, it is obaervable tbit the GK>nd tanxi BuiuDoois-Tuiyseidoui used, 

9. These are Uond gods. 
IS. The crow's imzb»— Ksge8ar-*it afipareiiUy «f Gond origyi. 



34 

16. When it came to the jungle of Kachikopa Lahugad, it 

searched iu the valleys there. 

17. Its sight fell on the twigs, it came to them and sat, and 

searched the twigs. 

18* It saw Lingo lying there looking as if smashed, and 
without eyes. 

19. This the crow observed, and flew away and came to the 

upper world. 

20. Perching on god's hand, it sat. God .^^ked it. Where have 

you seen him? 

21. It said I came to the jungle of Kachikopa Lahugad, I saw 

a man there in a cave« 

2S. When god heard this he became silent, and understood 
the truth ol it; 

23. And then said, It was in that very jungle that Lingo was 

born from a flower of the tree. 

24. And has never been there since. He took nectar 

25. From out of his Angers and called Kurtao Subal, and said 

to him: 

26. Take this and sprinkle on the liver, belly, and head of the 

body, 

27. Thii^, the crow in front, and Kurtao Subal behind, went to 

Kachikopa Lahucad. 

28. Kurtao Subal said, Hear, crow. Here is my Liogal. 

29. Ambrosia was brought, and droppei into his mouth, and 

sprinkled over his head and body: then Lingal's head 
legHii 10 unite, 

30. And his fljsh became warm. 

SI. Lingo rose 

82. And sat up. Looking towards the crow, he sjud, I was fast 
asleep ; 

33. Where are my brothers? 

M. I see only a man and a crow, and I don't see my brothers. 
After this 

85. Kurtao Subal replied^ "Where are your brothers? 



35 

36. You were dead, your body was lying here; we came and 

restored you to life; 

37. The brothers you enquire about have killed you, and gone 

away. 

38. Then said Kurtao Subal, what do you say to going? Lingal, 

addresiing the crow, said — 

39. I will go to my sixteen scores of Gonds. 

40. I will go and see them, and speak to them. 

41. The crow and Kurtao Subal started in one direction, 

42. And Lingo took another road. 

43. Lingo, while crossing the mountains and jungle, was 

benighted. 

44. Then Lingo said, I will stay here alone; 

45. Tigers and bears may devour me. 

46. He went to a large Niroor tree. 

47. When he climbed to the top, the night came on : 

48. Wild cocks crowed, peacocks cried, antelopes were afraid, 

49. And beara wagged their heads, jackals yelled, and the 

jungle resounded. 

50. At midnight Lingo saw the moon, and said to himself: 

51. The day is approaching, and while the stars are still visible, 

I will ask them about my Gonds. 

52. At the third watch of the night, the cock crowed: 
63. The morning star appeared, the sky became red. 

54. Lingo, descending from the tree, ran towards the sun and 

saluted him ; 

55. And said, I want to know where my sixteen scores of Gonds 

are? 

56. The sun said, I am engaged in the service of God during 

the four watches of the day, 



90. The nnmber of sixteen scores of Oonds, which frequently rectzrs, is doubtless intended 
lor tome original tribal sub-dinsian of the people, althoagh the number may not be reooneil- 
abU with tbotribesas now doclandtotii«t.-SeeforfiirtherspQ8lflfiati^ IT. andV. 



36 

57. And have not seen your Gonda- 

58. Lingo went to'the moon, 

59. Saluted and asked her if she knew anything 

60. About his sisOeen scores of Gonds. The moon replied: 

61. I travel all night, and during the day am engaged in the 

service of God; 

62. Therefore I know not. 

63. Lingo then went to black Kumayat, 

64. Sahited him, and asked himi where are my sixteen scores of 

Gonds. 

65. Fie replied : Hear, Lingo : Mention about anyone but Oonds. 

66. The Gonds are foolish like the ass. 

67. They eat cats, miee, and bandicoots; 

68. They also eat pigs and buffaloes ; they sre of mch a bad 

caste. 

69. Why do you ask me about them? 

70. At the source of the Jumna rivert on the Dhawalagiri 

mountain, 

71. Mahadewa has caught the Gondr, 

72. And has confined them in a cave, and shut its mouth with 

a stone of sixteen cubits long. 

73. BasmasQr the ^iant has been appionted to guard it and 

watch the place. 

74. After hearing thisj Lingo set out, and walked night and 

day, 

75. Making devotion. After twelve months had expired, the 

term of his devotion was complete, 

76. When the golden seat of Mahadewa began to shake (from 

the effects of Lingo's devotion). 



03. Thift name^bUJc Kamn.y.\t— is obicure« It labdievadto refer to eomo Hiadu ni&t^ 
eqpeoially if takaa in ttumoxlua wUU the reoiark that f oUawa. 
07. This MYtre rtuurk opaa the Qend people u doubtleai of Hindu derivation. 



37 

77. Then Mahadewa said, What devotee has come to Dhawal- 

agiri and has performed devotions to me, 

78. Rendering me under obligation to him ? 

79. As he was wondering and searching, 

80. He went towards Lingo, stood at a distance, and recog- 

nized him. 

81. Lingo did not shake his head, or lift his foot, or open 

his eyes. 

82. His flesh was consumed; his bones only remained. Thus 

Lingo was found on the thorns. 

83. Whereupon Mahadewa said, 

84. What do you ask for ? — ask what you wish, and it will be 

granted. 

85. Lingo replied: 

86. I want nothing but my sixteen scores of Gonds. 

87. Mahadewa replied : 

88. Make no mention of Gonds; ask for any kingdom, or for 

any amount of money which you can enjoy, 

89. And remember me. Thus said Mahadewa: To which 

Lingo did not agree. 

90. On his again asking for the Gonds, Mahadewa disappear- 

ed and consented to give them to him, 

9L Saying: Hear, Lingo. Your Gonds are below the earth, 
take them away. 

92. Lingo rose, saluted him, and went on. After this, 

93. Narayansaid: Hear, Mahadewa: All these Gonds 

94. Were well concealed and were forgotten; if they were 

dead, it would be a pleasure to me. 

95 If they come out alive from below the earth, they will act 
as usual: 

96. They will eat bufialoes, birds, such as pigeons, crows and 
eagles, and vultures. 

89. The phrase, on the thoniB, alludes to a heap of thorns which the devotee prepared in 
order that he might lie on them by way of penanoe. 

96. This and the following lines contain refleetions on the Qonds from a Mindu point of vww. 



38 

97. Thej will alight here and there ; smells will arise, bones 

will be scattered, and make the earth look very bad. 

98. The respect for mount DhawaJagiri will be lost 

99. Mahadewa, hearing this, replied: Hear, Narayan, I have 

passed my word. 

100. I have erred, but will not change my word. 

101. Narayan then addressed Lingo: 

102* Hear, Lingo, Bring me the young ones of the black bird 
Bindo for an offering; 

103. After that you may take the Gonds away. 

104. Lingo went and reached the sea, where there was nothing 

but water visible; 

105. And on the shore he saw the young ones of the black 

bird. The parent bird 

106. Had gone to the jungle. This bird was such, that 

107. For food it killed the elephant, and ate its eyes; and 

breaking its head, brought the brains for the young 
ones to eat 

108* There had been seven broods, at seven different times; 

109. But they had been devoured by a sea-serpent, called the 

Bhowrnag. Lingo went near. 

110. After seeing the young ones, he said to himself: If I take 

them in the 

111. Absence of their parents, I shall be called a thief; I will 

therefore 

119. Take them in the presence of the parents, and will be 
true to my name. 

113. He slept near the young ones with comfort 

114. A large snake, as thick as the trunk of the Itumna tree, 

appeared 

105, The episode about the bird Bindo, and the sea-Berpent, and the shore of the ocean, 
cannot be of Oond origination. The ideas and the imagery are quite bejond the Gonds. 
The ftkhie must be derived from the Hindus, though 1 am not sure that the name Bindo 
occurs in their books. However, there is a great bird in Hindu mythology, described 
as *' the king of the feathered tribe and the remorselesa enemy of the serpent race." But 
his name is Qariida.— See H. H. Wilson's Yiahnu Purftna, page 140. 



39 

115. With a hood as large as a basket for winnowing corn. 

This serpent, called the Bhowrnag, came out of the 
water to eat the young ones. 

116. The young ones were terrified on seeing the serpent, and 

began to cry. 

117. Lingo, taking an arrow, and fixing it in his bow, 

118. Shot the serpent, and then cut it into seven pieces, which 

he immediately 

119. Brought and laid at the head of his bed, and covered 

them up. 

120. Then the male and female of the black bird returned from 

the jungle. 

121. They brought the carcase of some camels and some 

elephants, together with some eyes and lips of elephants, 

122. As food for their young ones. 
12S. But the young ones refused to eat; 

124. When the female said to the male; 

125. Notwithstanding my having had young seven times, 

126. I am like a barren she-buflfalo; if these young ones are 

spared 

127. I shall be like a mother of children. What evil eye has 

been cast on 

128. My young ones, that they do not eat! 

129. The male bird, alighting from the tree, saw a white 

object lying below, where was Lingo. 

130. He then exclaimed: Here is a man, and that is why our 

young ones do not eat. 

'131. Let us kill him and extract his brains; 

132. Our young ones will then take their food. 

133. Hearing this, the young ones said : 

134. You have brought food for us, but how shall we eat it? 

You are our parents, 

135. You leave us alone, and go away to the jungle; 

136. Who is there to protect us? 



40 

137. The serpent came to eat us. 

138. This man whom you see, has saved our lives. 

139. Give him first to eat, we will then take our food; unless 

he eats, we will not eat. 

140 After hearing what the young ones said, ^ 

141. The mother flew down from the tree, and coming near 

Lingo, 

142. And lifting up the cloth with which he had covered 

himself, saw the sev^n pieces of the Bhowrnag serpent. 

143. Seeing this she began to exclaim: 

144. This is the serpent that has always eaten my young ones, 

and rendered me childless ! 

145. Had this man not been here it would have devoured these 

also. 

146. Addressing Lingo, she said: Rise father, — ^rise brothei; 

who are you, and 

147. Where have you come from ? You have saved the lives of 

our young ones, and you have become our grandfather. 

143. Whatever you say, we will listen to it. 

149. He said: 

150. bird, I am a devotee, a worshipp^ of the Deity. 

151. Tell us, the bird said, what has brought you here. 

152. Lingo replied, I want your young ones. 

153. On hearing this the bird began to cry bitterly, 

154. And, opening her eyes, she said: 

155. I would give you anything 

156. Except my young ones. 

157. Lingo said: 

158. I will take your young ones merely to show them to 

Mahadewa. 

159. In reply to this, the black Bindo said: 



41 

teO. If Mahadewa wants ne, I am ready ta go, 

161. Saying this, the female bird carried the yotmg onem oo 

one wingg 

162. And Lingo on the other. The male Bindo then said. 

Hear me, Liiigo; 

165. Yon will feel the effects of the sun, why then should I 

remain here ? , 

164. The female Bindo then flew towards the sea,—. 

IGq, The male Bindo Bying over her, a^d using his. wings a9 
a shelter for Lingo^ 

166. It \ias six months* journey to the residence of Mahadewa; 

but starting in the morning 

167. They alighted at mid-day in the court- yard of Mahadewa. 

168. Narayan seeing them from the door, went to Mahadewa 

and paid i 

169. Here is Lingo and the black Bindo birds which he haa 

brought. 

170. Mahadewa exclaimed: O Narayan { 

171. I foresaw this, and you would not believe me when I 

told you 

172. That Lingo would bring the birds. 

173. Mahadewa then said: Hear, Lingo s I giro you back 

your sixteen scores of Gonds; 

174. Take them, and go away. 

175. Lin^o then saluted Mahadewa and went to the cave, and 

taking the name of the Great god, 

176. And that of the god Rayetal, he made Dasmasiirf the 

giant, to walk in front of him. 

177. Reaching the cave« he lifted up the stone, sixteen cubiti 

long, and laid it aside. 

178. The Gonds coming out of the cave and seeing LingO| 

cried, 

179. We have no one but you. 

175. ThU is the Bun Deo, or Qraat god of the Qoikk 
17a. Reyetol is ft QoQd god. 



42 

180. Mabadewa gave flonr of wheat to soxnej flour of mHIet 

to others, 

181. And rice to others. 

182. The Goods went to the river and began preparing their 

food. 

183. Some of the Gonds said that they had been confined and 

punished severely, 

184. On hearing this. Lingo sail: 

185. You are now at the river, cook and eat, and then complaiB* 



PART IV. 



The subdivision by Lingo of the 0*>rds into tribes^ and the 
* institution of the worship of the Gond gods. 



1. Lingo kneaded the flour and made it into a tliick cake, 

and cooked pulse, and satisfied all the Gonds. 

2. Then clouds arose, and it began to lain, 

3. When the rivers flooded and the flood began to roll, all 

the Gonds spoke: 

4. O Lingo, much rain has, come up and is falling, 

5. Then all these Gonds began to walk in the middle of the 

river, 

6. From among all these Gonds, four persons with Lingo 

remained. 

7. Lingo, having seen this, began to say: Hear, brethren ; 

8. This river is flooded, how shall we cross it ? 

9. More clouds came up, and darkness fell, 

10. Wh^n those four persons and Lingo began to speak— 

IL Hear, O brethren, what shall we do, and how shall we go 
on ? the day is departing. 

12. Now Dame the tortoise, and Pusi the alligator, were playing 

in the water. 

13. They came to them out of the water, and began to speak: 

14. Hear, O brethren, why do you silently stand and cry ? 

15. They said: Our sixteen scores of Gonds have all gone, and 

we only have remained ; 

16. brethren, how shall we go ? They said : Sit on us, and 

we will take you across. 

8. The four penont who remtxiMd with Lingo when t!io rest crossed the river seem to 
be the same at the lour who remained behind when all the rest entered tho caye.^-See 
FM I., line 79. 

19. The epiiode el the tortoiae and the alligator is of Oond origin. The Qonds nre said 
to hold the toridae aured even noW| iod nersr to oatch it themaelyes^ and eren to procure 
Ifainlaaceil oaai^t by othmi. 



44 

17. If you keep your oath we will take you across the river. 

18. They replied: Hear, O sisters. You are Pusi the alligator, 

and you are Dame the tortoise. 

19. These four persons who are before you will keep their 

oath first of alU 

20. If any beat you we will not allow it, or if any (try to) 

catch you we will prevent it. 

21. You shaU be the eldest sister of us four persons, said they. 

22. Dame the tortoise, and Pusi the alligator, Mme before the 

face (of the Gonds), and those persons sat on the alligator's 
back, leaving LiDgo alone to sit on the back of the tortoise. 

23. The alligator went first, and then followed the toitoise in 

the flood. 

24. The wicked alligator, having taken them into the midst of 

the water, began to drown them. 

25. They began to cry. Then the tortoise spoke : Hear, O Lingo. 

26. 3tretch thy hand and drag them off, and make them sit en 

my back. 

27. Lingo, having stretched his hand, caught them and dragged 

them away, and made them sit on the tortoise's back. I 

28. Then the tortoise took the four men on his back and went 

across the river; 

29. And they fell at its feet, and said: Hear, O tortoise, we will 

not become faithless to you. 

SO. Tlien those four went by a jungly path, and ascended 
one hill, 

31. And descended another. Thus they went forward. 

32. They began to cut trees and build houses, and they remained 

(not together), but here and there. 

33. Fields and houses were formed by the (xonds^ and that 

town became large. I 



33. From thia line to line 87 is a deecription of the scattered settlements made by the 
Gonds in the forests. The name Nar Bhami is t4ie Qtvidi term for a dt j ; it has no further 
significanoe. 



45 

34. A bazaar (periodical market) was held in Nw Bhumi (the 

name of the town). 

35. Then Lingo began to say: Hear, O brethren. If you will 

sow millet, it will spring up. 

36. Thus twelve months passed, and Nar Bhumi began (o 

appear excellent. 

37. Those who had no bullocks received them. 

38. Those who had no carts received carts : thus all the houses 

of the city became prosperous. 

39. All the Gonds came to Lingo, and sat close to each other 

in rows, 

40. While Lingo stood in the midst of them, and began to ■ 

speak : 

4L Hear, O brethren. All you Gonds understand nothing. 

42. Tou do not know whom to call brother, and whom father, 

43. Or other relative; from whom to ask a daughter, and to 

whom to give your daughter; 

44. With whom to laugh. Then those Gonds began to say: 

45. O Lingo, you possess great and good understanding; do 

as you 

46. Have said with all your might, and make tribes of us* 

47. Then Lingo, out of the sixteen scores of the Gonds, sepa- 

rated four scores, and told them to rise. 

48. He caught one of them by the hand, and said: O friend, 

become Manawaja. 

84. This bazaar is an exact alliuioa to the periodical markets (on nome fixed day oi thd 
week), which are to this day held by the hill people, even amongst the wilds of the momitain*. 

S6. The command of Lingo to the Gonds to sow millet (jowareo) is in advertence to their 
progress in agriculture. Their practice is first to sow rice, which i% e.wLl/ nr^iii^ed- Ai 
their reeources increase, they begin to raise a little millet, which requires more care and 
reiouree. 

87 and 38. Though the words are simple, — ^merely that the Gonds reoeiyed bnllookBy 
and then cartf , — ^yet they are pregnant with actual meaning, which is this. In the earlioit 
stages the Gonds lived first on fruit and game, as described in Part I. Then, as specified 
in Part II, line Gd, et pamm, they cut down trees, and bum them for ashes, which fertilijses 
the ground, and makes it yield, from seed town without ploughing or other agricultural 
o^iecation. As they advance they begin to cultivate with bullocks and ploughs; and then, 
lastly, as their villages improve, they urc carta t«> carry grain to marked and especially to 
convey the wild fruits and other produce of the jungles. Theee Beveral atagea of progress 
are visible to this day among the the Gonds. 

47. Though this and the subsequent lines refer to soms tribal di«tribnii(»if J«t the 
division muet not be regarded as at all complete; and it only pw^sUy ffNOnipQBds iwi jUi# 
best received specification of the twelve Oond tri\Jes. 



46 

l9. then (that man) became Manawdja. Then he caught 
another by the hand^ and said: Become, friend, Dahuk- 
waja; 

50. And he became Dahukw6ja. He then caught 

6i. Another by the hand, and said: O friend, Be Koilabutal; 

and he became Koilabutal. 

•• > 

52. Thenhecaughtanotherby the hand, and said: You become 

a wild Koikopal ; 

53. And he became Koikopal. Thus the four scores were 

divided. 

54. Out of the remaining twelve bands, four more we're sepa- 

rated: 

55. The first band he made to be Koorkus, and the others he 

made to be Bhils. 

56. The third he made to be KolSlmi, and the fourth he made 

to be Kotolyal. Thus eight bands 

57. Were divided. There (still) remained eight bands. Then 

what followed ? After the third of the month Weish^k 

58. Arrived, then Lingo said: Come, O brethren, we cannot 

see God 

59. Anywhere; let us make a god, and we will worship him. 

60. Then all the Gonds wiih one voice 

61. Said — Yes, O brethren, bring a goat 

6^, Five years old, a crowing cock one year old, a three year 
old calf, a cow 



.48.. ^nawija meanB ono who casta and fashions the images of the g^ds. The exact 
demvation of the term is not ascertainable. It is the name of a class, or perhaps even of a 
tr^be amonn the Qonds, , , . 

49. Dahiikwaja, — ^the term means drum-sounding, and is applied to a particular tribe 
aijixong^the Qpi^d*. 
U. Koilabutal is the actiud name of one of the tribes of the Qonds. 

59. Koikopal is also the name of a tribe. 

55. -Koorku is the name of a tnbe inhabiting the same hills as the Gonds, but auppoaed 
ta be distinct from. them in race, and oei-tainly distinct f rum them in language. The name 
Bhil refers to .the well-known tribt; of .that name, who are, however, considered to be distinct 
frw^ai th<? Qun(|4, and A^^habit the hills to the westward of the Gond country. 

60, Tho name KoUmi belongs to one of the regular Gond tribes, KotolyAl is the name 
of- a tribe also : the word is derived from the Gondi word for a log of wood. 

* 57. The month WeishiOc (May) is borrowed from the Hindus. The Gonds have no names 
of their own for the moothi. 



47 

68. Two years old; and call two of the 

64. Manozas (bards). Then they named one god GhagaraPen 

(the Bell god). 

65. Lingo said : Bring a chouri (fan) made from the tail of the 

wild cow. 

66. Then, said Lingo, open the shop (of the ironsmith), and 

make the god Parsapot of steel. 

67. Go to the jungle and cut a bamboo stick, and bring it. 

68. Keep their god in Dhanegaon, and the seven sisters, god- 

desses (satiks), in Anegaon. 

69. In the morning, Lingo arose and went to a river and bathed, 

and wore a dhote (cloth round the loins), 

70. And applied the tikaCsacred mark) to his forehead. What 1 

says he. Hear, O brethren, to the Ozas (bards). 

71. Call two Dahaking drummers; and they called them, and 

brought the Stick god. Then 

72. Lingo bound the Chain god to the stick, and placed 

another stick in the god Pharsapot ; and the Gungftwan 
Chawor (the cow-tailed fan) was waved over it ; 
and with joined hands then said: Hail ! Pharsa (Pen). 

78. He lifted the stick, and the gods Manko Rayetal, Jango 
Rayetal, 

74. And Pharsa Pen came and stood (there) ; and Lingo was 

possessed of them. 

75. Then Lingo became a man devoted to god, and moved and 

jumped much : 

76. Lingo (wa;«^) in front, and behind were goats, cocks, a calf. 
And all the Gonds 

^. Hanozsk^or Oza, are regular names for the barda or minstrels, so common amonsst 
tKe Oonds. The Ghagara Pen, or Bell god, is one of the Gond gods, formed by strin^g 
tdgether a set of small tinkling bells. 

. 65. This sacred fan (Gungftviean Chour, or Chowri) is well known among the Gonds; but 
the idda is believed to be borrowed from the Hindus. 

66. The god Pharsapdt, or Phw^sa Pen, is represented by a spear, and is one of the regular 
Oond goda. Pharsa also means a trident in Gondi. Iron-ore is obtained in most par^ of 
th^ Gond country. 

67. This is the Stick god, well known among the Gonds, and represented by a batnboO. 
The bamboo is plentiful generally in the Gond country. 

68. DhanegSon and AnegCk»n are names of villages without any particular meaniiig. The 
•even sisters are goddesses, well known to the common Hindus as well as to the Gonds. 

72. The GhAin god is represented simply by an iron chain, and is worshipped by the 
Gonds under the name of S&kla Pen. 

78. Man^9 Kayetal and, Jaogo Rajjretal are known to be n9em.berp of the Gond petitbMn. 
The PaMh4n who irecites this Song declares them to be the wives of the god Phan* Pen, 



48 

77. Assembled ia one place. Having left the village Dhaneg&on, 

78. They came, and began to say this is a thick jungle. 

79. Then the Gonds (called on the gods) to stand still. 

80. They fell at the feet of the gods, and asked virhere they 

should make seats for the gods of each band. 

81. Then all the Gonds came in front and, with joined hands,' 

stood, 

82. And began to ask Pharsa Pen; who replied: Hear, O 

brethren. 

83. Between twelve glens and seven dales go,' and make place 

foj (us gods). 

84. Then in front went the Stick god, and behind followed all 

the Gonds. 

• 85. They arrived, and after alighting they began to pick up 
grass and lift stones. 

86. Then said Lingo, 

87. Hear, O brethren. Do you see yonder a 

88. Bijesal tree ? Go and cut it, and make a kettle-drum from 

its wood. They, taking an axe, went and cut it, 

89. Some held a pitcher, and brought a pitcherful of water; 

some digged earth, and 

90. Made a platform, and placed on it the Stick god. Some said : 

Our drum is not ready, 

91. Burn this fire in front and light the lamp. 



79. The Gonda calling on the gods to stand still has a particular meaning, which is thifl» 
The people are marching in a sort of rude procession into the heart of the forest; and their 
gods, consisting of a sacred string of bells, a sacred spear, a sacred chain, a sacred bamboo 
stick, and a sacred fan, being waved about, are being carried hy prietts and bearers along with 
iKe mtUtitude, Then the bearers of these consecrated emblems are ordered to stop ; and 
Ulus it is phrased that the gi ds are made to stand still. 

81. This standing on on one leg and with joined hands is a Qond praotioe, probably learnt 
by them from Hindu devotees. 

Sd. The twelve hills and the seven dales are the same as those mentioned in the opeodxig I 

line of Fart I. It is an established phrase among the Gonds. 



84. The Stick god lending the way, means that the sacred bamboo wvi carried in fronts 
$8. Th« Bijesal {Pterocar]^ Martupium) tree ■ still oommon among the Gond forsttfk 



49 

92. They wetted five tolas' weight o£ vermilion in ghee, and 

threw five tolas of ral (resin) on the fire. 

93. Then sat Lingo with joined hands before the god 



L nen sat Liingo wiu io 
Ghangara (the bell god) 



' 94, Ghangarang began to jump about, and possessed the body 
of Lingo. Pharsa Fen began to play also. 

95. Then they took a pitcherful of daru (liquor), 

96. And sprinkled it on the stick, and said: Hail to you 

Fharsa Pen f 

97. And, with joined hands, they fell at his feet. While 

they were falling at his feet, 

98. The god Rayetal possessed the body of Lingo, who moved 

and danced much. 

99. Then he began to speak thus: Bring to me victims,— 

100. Goats of five years old. After bringing the goat they fell 

at its feet 

101. And washed its head, and applied vermilion, and poured 

daru (liquorj into its ears. 

102. Then after catching the goat by the feet, they threw it 

before the god: 

103. And the god Rayetal possessed the bodv of the goat, which 

began to shake its head, ears, and whole firame very 
much. 

104. Then two or four persons ran and caught it, and threw 

it down 

105. Before the god, and killed it. Then blood was sprinkled 

around. 

106. And they placed the head before the god, and took the 

body. 

107. Then a white cock, a year old, was brought, and they 

killed it. 

08. lUjetal is the Sun god among the Qondi. 

MO. The linee which follow give an atcount of the Morificial oeremoaiefl stiil uaed by 
the Gk)nd0. 



50 

103. And began to play a good tune on the Kingree (one- 
etringed guitar) and the drum. 

K39. f%e god derived pleasure therefrom. Then two feet of 

110. A calf were washed, and Tso) was its mouth; vermilion 

was applied to its forehead. 

111. (Then) they threw them (the other animals) down, and 

killed them toe. 

112. The head of the calf was placed before the god. Then 

said Lingo: Hear, O brethren ; 

1 13. Remove quickly the skin cf the calf and roast its liver. 

114 They brought stones and made an oven, and placed a 
pitcher on it. 

115. The pitcher was filled with water« and flesh was put in it. 

11 6. The leaf of the Eyn tree (was) cut and brought, and made 

into plates. 

117. And in a brass plate they placed cooked rice, liver, flesh, 

and they lighted four lamps, and took and placed them 
before the gods. 

118. Some made an offering of silver pieces as a present to 

the god. 

119. Thus a heap of silver up to the knee (of a man) was 

gathered before the god. 

120. Then ( Lingo J spoke : Hear, O brethren : The offerings are 

good in the courts of the god. 

121. (There is) no one to receive these offerings. 

122. Hear, O brethren : From the midst of all (these Gonds) 

some one should become a Pardhdn, 

123. And we will give (this offering) to him. 

124. Then Lingo looked well among the company and (saw) an 

old, hoary haired man first of all ; 

122. The mtroduction of the Pardh^, a sort of priest among the €k>nds, is here made 
by the Pardhtfn who ndtee this very Song, foi the c^QriAoation of himself and his cUss. 
Tbe Pardh^ns are well known in this capacity. 



51 

125. And having looked on him, held his hand and said: 

126. Become a Fardh&n, and we wHl give you much wealth and 

clothes; 

127. We will give you a horse, and whatever you ask us we 

will not refuse. 

128. Well, brother, (said the) old man, I am (fit fornothing but) 

to sit and eat. 

129. All saluted him ; and some gave clothes, some gave silver • 

pieces, 

130. Some gave him a pipe. 

131. As they were rising, Lingo said : Hear, O brethren and friends. 

132. Then (said they) what shall we do, brethren ? He rose, 

and made ^ 

133. Seven persons out of them to stand aside, and said to them, 

You become a family of seven. 

134. He then made six persons to stand aside, 

135. (And said) You become a family of six. He took five 

more aside, 

136. And made them to stand, and breaking surface of the 

earth, a family of five were formed. 

137. To the remaining four he said: Be divided into families of 

four and five. 

138. After saying this, he reminded them to keep their promise 

with the tortoise. 



1S7. The present of a bone is a mark of higb bonour. The god Koda Pen, or horae-god, is 
■ometimea worabipped bjr the Qonda, and sometimes there are sacred imageB of this aaoioial 

12S. The man here g^ves a true descriptien of the chanoter of tlie Pardh&ns, who art 
arerse to any sort of industry. 

139 to 137. This arrangement of some of the people into faunQies of seven, of uz, of 
Are, and of four, nu^lit at first appear obscure, but it refers to the division of the people 
into sects, who worship— -some, seven gods; some, six; some, five; some, four. It is well knowm 
that some Qonds arc seven-god-worshippers, others six-god worshippers, and so on. 

138. The covenant with the tortoise refen to the episode mentioned in the preceiing 
Hne 13 of this Part. 



52 

139. Then they all made salutation. Lingo said: O brethren, 

look yonder towards the gods. 

140. All persons looked behind, but Lingo vanished and went 

to the gods. 

141. While they were looking behind, they said: Where is our 

Lingo gone? 



PART V. 



The institution by Lingo of the rites of Marriage among the 

Gonds. 



1. After the Pardh&n had been made, he said: I will go to 

look for a partner (wife) for you Gonds. 

2. Lingo (told ) the four Gonds, and all the Gonds, small and 

great, to gather in one place and hold a council; 

3. And said : Hear, O brethren ; I will send the Pardhiui— <:om- 

muue with him. 

4. Then they sent for water, and put rice in it. 

5. If the rice sticks or adheres, then we will send him; if not^ 

we will not send him. 

6. Then came all the Gonds, and stood before and behind 

Lingo. ^ 

7. (He said) cast two whole grains of rice in water. Thdn 

they threw rice in water. 

8. The two grains of rice joined one to the other. 

9; Then Lingo looked with his eyes, and said within himself: 
Just as I said, so it has happened; our marriage omen Li 
good. Hear, O brethren. 

10. (Let us) send our Pardhdn to look for a wife. 

11. The Pardhdn became ready. 

12. Linj^osaid: Hear, O Pardh&n, to my word. Go to Eacld. 

kopa Lahugad, 

13. There are (many) Gonds; go to them only. 

14. When you reach their house, salute the head m^; 

\3. And say Lingo has sent salutation, may it reach yoxl. 

--- — --^ 

1. tt 18 BtiU tlie reoogniced duty (^ a PardhiCii to negotiate marriagw among ih« Gondii 

9. Th« four Oonda aro doubtleas the aame as thoae who figured in Part I. at tba caw^ 
and in Part IV. in the xiTer. They are chiefs. Beyond this there is no special 
Moertainable. 

4. This dsMriplio&of theomenutheiameaitlMtalftaiUMdhytbtOo^ 



54 

16. Hearing Lingo's words, the Pardhin departed, and began 

to go on the way towards Kachikopa Lahugad. 

17. Having reached it, he stood before the house and saluted 

the head man, 

18. And said : I am your Pardhdn, I was made Pardhkn 

by Lingo your lord. 

19. Lingo has sent me to you, because he knows that you pos- 

sess daughters; to ask them in marriage he has sent 
me to you. 

20. If I see a fit person I will join her in marriage. 

21. Then the four brothers said: Give our salutation to Lingo , 

and tell him that we will not reject his proposals. 

22. Then went the Pardhdn (back) to his town, and came to 

Lingo 

23. And said to Lingo: They told me to tell you that whatever 

Lingo does, to that we will consent. 

24. Let him give our daughters to any one (he likes}, said the 

four brothers. 

25. So the Pardhan went to ask them for their daughters. 

26. When he reached the place, he saluted the landlord, and 

called for a pitcherful of water, and performed the omen. 

27. Then the four brothers saluted the (new) son-in-law. 

28. After washing the feet of the Pardhan, they made him to 

sit in their house. 

29. The Pardhdn said: To make sure of this, (let us) go to the 

liquor shop. 

S}, Whatever Lingo told the Pardhai about marriage cere- 
monies, so the Pardhais now tell the Gronis to dv>. 

81. Assemble five daughters and grind turmeric. 

82. Make an offering to the domestic gods first; 

83. Then fofftfr) saffron to all other 'gods by their 

names. 

S9. ThU refers to the fatil habifc am^n? the OjiI^ of ratifyingf evetytbiag with a drinking 
kottt. TiL» liquor is maiefrom the flower •£ the Msha tree, soabundint in the Oond foraata. 

W. The dejcription of the mirriajj oervnjaiw, whioh f;>Uow3, is said ta ba oarfdot and 
authentic. 

81. Tamerlo is grown in the Oond ooantry. 



65 

34. Drink, wash the feet, (present) salutations, join yourhands— 

35. Spread the blanket, and make all the Gonds sit on it. Bring 

a pitclierful of liquor to the fiide of the bridegroonii 
and half a pitcher to that of the bride. 

36. Then make all the women, both small and great, sit down. 

S7. Keep the full pitcher of liquor on the right side, and the 
half-full pitcher on the left. 

38. Call (for) two more pitchersful of liquor, and drink according 
to custom, 

89. Keep in a brass plate a lamp, some prrains of rice, two pice, 
some betelnut, ard a box of kiiku (red powder), with 
gulal powder ( red ochre). Apply a tika (sacred mark ) to 
the front of the pitcher, 

40. Then apply the mark to the pitcher- man, then to all the 

rest. 

41. Break the pitcher, and let the women on the bride's side 

sing— 

42. "A pair of blankets having been spread: father, you 

have lost your dearest d uighter. 

43. father, for the love of liquor you have lost your dear 

daughter." 

44. Then distribute liquor cups, first to the pitcher-man, 

45. And after he has drunk, then to all the rest of the company. 

46. Salute (one another) and thus observe the custom. 

47. (Then should) follow eating and drinking. 

48. Next, at the time of departure, only those on the bride- 

groom's side must follow with the departing, and salute 
them. 

49. Embrace, and then return to your house ; and when the 

bridegroom reaches his house, 

85. The spreading of these rough woollen bUnkcts (sheep abound in the Oond oountrjrj is 
an ini^ral part of the ceremonies. 

38. ITie frequent mention in thi.? and in following lines of liquor and drinking, are in- 
dicatiw of the customs of the Goods ; and on the^d osoafliond the ^rumea drink as much 
astfa^meo. 



SG 

50. TlwMkbiftfeet, efeowld be washed, and let all the guests on 

the bridegroom's eide drink. 

51. What, happerw BQxt? Woraea should grind turmeric. 

Then what. soo^ is; ta be sung? 

53. TtQ Bbaiwajftt (brotWs wife) should say, Sing the brid^ 
groom's song ; and the bridegroom may say. Sing the 
Bhawajai's song. 

53. After this, let all f the women; sing — let them grind saflFron, 
and after making powdep of it, 

54s^ Let the Bhawajai sing, and say, Brother, sing a song^ 

50. After grinding saffron, wave a lamp;, and i&a brass plate 
keep saffron^ and the preparation of betel-Ieaf with a 
whole nut. 

56". Let there be a box of kuku (red powder), some grains of 
rice, and a waving lamp. 

57. Bring in a pot of water, and hold liquor in a bottle named 

Lauguyal. 

58. Then depart from the house. L^t musicians be in front, 

and let the bridegroom follow them 

59. With singiDo: of songs. The saffron should be carried to 

the god Bliiinsen; 

60. Then to Main, the goddess of the town; then to Matamai; 

fourthly, to the boundary gods; 

61. Fifthly, to the god Ilanuman ; sixthly to the Pandhari god ; 

seventhly, to the manes of the djud; then sing a.sjng 
to Bhimsen. 

53; Bhawajai, tHe elder brother's wife, is aiwaya an important jjersonage on t^ieae occasiosa. 
If thero bo no Buch. pernun actually, tbou qpub iemalu relative U ohuaen to tako.thc.part. 

57. Lauguyal is the common O'ondi name for an e^irthen wine bottb. 

5D. Bhimsen ia. of course, a Hindu mythological pcnsoziagd ; but bo is venomted as a god 
bytheGoncU. 

60. Mata and Matamai represent the Rmall-poz : tho nanws are doubtleaBbonwed from 
the Hindu?. Mat\ ia 'ilao ono of the seven uisUirft alluded to in the procedinaf line 273, 
Part II. Tho fact of Mata being also tho goddess of the town, imlicates that the diseaw 
ia frequently present and permanently dreaded, partly owing to. the dir^y and unw«i&hfld 
cundiiion of the QonU. Tho boundary g>d3 merely alluda. ti». an im a ^nar y. dnnm B yat iflBu 
among the hiUs ; the Gunds do not put up land-mark^. 

61.. Hanumani-thf monkey, god, iax»l course adoptctd from the Ilinduf, Tho PaDdhadt.t2iA> 
god of the knd, is a Mahiatta name. The Bhad«a of the dead (Sanyal Pen) aoL nuuk^ 
▼enerated by the Gondi. 



57 

64. 1 hen the song of oil offering should follow. 

63. Then visit the domestic god. Let the bridegroom put a 

ring and chain on bis neck, 

64. And present grains of rice in his hand. 

65. Let one woman stand in front, and the rest behind him. 

66. Give a blanket to the bridegroom; apply the tika (mark) 

of rice. 

67. Then, what song will thej sing? That song will be thus: 

68. brother, apply rice to the father with laughing counte- 

nance. 

69. Apply with a smile a tika to your mother, brother. 

70. Apply with a smile a tika to your sister, brother. 

71. Apply with a smile a tika to your grandfather, brother. 

72. Apply with a smile a tika to your grandmother, O brother. 

73. Apply with a smile a tika to your brother's wife, O brother. 

74. Then brin^ the bridegroom home and wash his feet, and 

make him sit down« 

75. Then sprinkle saffron (water) and apply saffron to the bride- 

groom. 

76. What song shall we now sing? Pardhan, our household 

priest, sing thus : 

77. Tell, O father, tell us some story about our ancestors. 

78. At bathing what song will they sing ? They will sing thus : 

** Tour body 

79. is like the plantain pith, and elegant is the nose of our 

brother." 

80. Let the (bridegroom) bathe, and let all the (women) sing. 

66. The tika onMitioxied in ibis wiig is the laored maak borrowed from the Hindus. 

76 This oalling on the PardUm to ajng a aong of the Gk>nd traditions is exactly what 
occuTB on these occasions. 

70. The plantain tree is grown in the Oond country, and is found wild in some parts. 
Th« Oond ra^ haTf onall noses; and they would esteem a marked prominent nose om 
beautiful. 



S8 

8 1, Let four women catme the bridegroom to be sent for. 

After this 

82. Take the bridegroom into the house, atwl make him eit 

there. 

83 Place around him four pots fastened together with thread, 

and 

84 Surround the whole by one thread connecting all. 

S5 On the bridegroom'^B head hold ca^es plar^^^d on an iron 
spoon, 

86. And let 6ve women hold their hands suspended over his 

head. 

87. Then fpour oil on 4he ^eakes, and then oa bm head 
88 PcmrVater; then bathe him with water. 

89. ^hen what custom follows? When the brother's wife 

covers a vessel on her lap, then the bridegroom should 
put a copper pice in it. 

90. Then let him throw water till het body is wdtted. 

91. BhaWajai f brother's wife) will throw *wateir also, and *thd1i 

let him bathe. 

92. After bathing, what is to be d6ne? Apply ktiku (red 

powder). What song should be sung ? 

93. Wdtnen, holding betelnut to his mouth, "and holding kuku 

(red powder) to his forehead, shall sing: ** What Raj st*« 
son is this?" 

94. Then what follows? Apply rice, then sing aa follows: 

95. ** The Bhawajai ( brother's wife], has not ptlt oil in the 

lamp." She will say, in front is the bndQgroom, and 
behind is the bride. 

96. Then at the same time the drum should be eoonded ; 

97. And with pipes; then should follow all ihe musicians 

with cheerful hearts. 

98. Let (both) young and old men be merty, dnttTatee tip ^the 

bridegroom with force. 



59 

99. dkncltnake-him^it on a heap of cowdang, and danoe -gladly 
aroond him. 

100. One woman, having lifted np the seat on ^^diich J;he bride- 

groom bathed, should dance also. 

101. One having taiken a waving lamp, let her dance also. 

10€. Then let all dance and sing; first one may (lead), then 
let all follow him. 

LOS. Thus ends the bathing — the bathing ceremony of the 
bridegroom* 

I04. WbaAithen follows? Make the bridegroom io be seated, 
«nd let four women lift him. 

109. After raising him, let him be taken *home, and having 
Heated him bring the wedding .caksB. 

106. The cakes having been eaten, all begin singing. 

107. As they move round {Jnm in the dance), let him wipe 

his hand on the garment of Bhawajai (brother's wife)* 

108. What then happens? What is the eating and drinking to 

be? 

109. Bring a pitcher full of liquor to the house, and keep it 

there; and call the guests into the house, and make 
them sit down. Call women, both young and old, and 
likewise make them sit down. 

110. Apply first a tika, sacred mark, to the pitcher(of liquor), 

and then to the pitcher-man, 

111. Then to all fthe company;. 

112. After applying the tika (mark) to the lid of the pitcher, 

open it and distribute the liquor. 

1 13. Serve on the plates millet, and peas, and chillies, 

114. A little salt, and serve as god (blessed you). 



99. This sitting on a heap of cowdung ia a Qond custom. But th« idea of cowduof 
being particularly desirable, must have been learnt from the Hindus. 



60 

115. After eating is eaded, then cause the hands to be washed 

in a brass plate. This is the eating custom — so do. 

116. After rising, what follows next ? Let the preparation be 

made for going to the bridegroooi^s house. 

117. Call one woman, and place on her head a pitcher, and on 

it a burning lamp, and around it let a betel-leaf be 
fastened. 

118. Then let all the women in procession pass. 

119. When all is ready, let the bridegroom with all the 

company depart from the house. 

120. First, take the names of the gods, and so let them depart. 

121. After their departure, let them offer preparation of betel 

to the god Maroti, and let the bridegroom fall at ite feet. 

122. With the musicians beating their drums, let all take their 

homeward way. 

191. The god Maroti is th« same aa Hanum^n, or the monkey-god of the Hindiuk 



FINIS, 



J 



PART I. 

Ganfi f$ang^ « reduced to writing in the Roman chnrqcfer by 
Mr. Uisl^p, with tlie Enqluih cquiralenfM as rendered h J^^'^ 
Also; the whole hamng been now examined and corrected by 

Mr. Pandarang. 

The Creatum of the W^rldand of the Gond people, and the bondage of (he Gonds: 

1. Parin matan gondite yediing mataa .««;j^^l\^®^ 
■^' Of twelve hilU intberannos ofBCven hiUa ^n the gl*a 

Lingawanprad rehemand 

Lingiiw^Jiigad (mount Lingawan) u remainiug 

2 Hadu ffadterapo pahiadi pangar mada agatal bara 
Of it (in the) midst datti .flowiar tr«^Cwas) thonca ^twilrf 

koak wasti halle 

(for) COM (is) dwelling no 

a Kaw itke kawal halle chi itke pite halle raghum 
Cftw aayipg crow (th«rew)np chirp aaying bird there i« no roar 

itke puUi halle 

laying tiger (there is) no 

4. Aske bang ata Bagawantal vida .iiiandelcitur NalU Yiidojr 
' Then what happened god -betel-nut spread KalUTadow 

kiesia 
called 

Z. Aske hi\kni|i .fcar Nara^fantun hnkiim kenstur vichj^ 

When anpid^ to>hi» vake<>l Narajran ,wajifLi4e he heard it came 

tOT&t 
running 

C. ^artaw Subainge hon pusi kiya latnr sola kadang 

Kurtao Subal near him ' to aak he began sixteen thre^hin^oon 

Telanganang 
Teloogoo (where ac^) 

"7. Atara kadang Bimanang paria kadang Koya penk 

Eighteen threahingfloors of Brahmin twelve threihin;$i jorj of Qj^uii goJj 

,ihua pusi kindor penk 
thuH he was asking gods 

8. Ichong penk baga manda ihun idena bitani talash 
So man/ gods where are they thui of them tiding aeek 

^. Vera bango wadki later 

He what to say begin 

10. Hagada Rnje madu Riii Mahadewan parrainta darl;i\svi k^alvra 
There (ruler) Raja was King Mahadewa up to boa duwnwju4 

11 Veni Mahadewan bahun mandur warula kaltle^a 

That 'Mahadewa how waahe roller stone (fur pounding oarfy) like 

yot ' paca poheman-d tir 
j^fjj^r on ; he Wiis swimu^ing 

IZ Venu keik halle kalk halle dhiiDdi».ipQ^<ik|t rrfhfd .fiandiir 
To him hands were not feet not Jcui^hke he ^gs . remaining 



62 

13. Gowra Parbatal wasi niltu Narayantun pusi kiya lata 

Guwrft Parbati having come stood to Narayiin to aak bogxin 

14. Ime boni andi ana Bhagawantana Subadar andan 

Thou who art I of Bhagawan Subadar I am 

15. Aake ime bartun wati Mahadewa baga mantor honu 

Aud thou why haat come ALihadewa where ia he 

16. Ida nmnne ata pajaye Narayau Narb^iddat Qimga adina thadit 

She first came after Narayan Narbadda Guuga of Vm>.ir 

paro baiiji nila latork 
on having gone to atind begao 

17. Pope masike Raja Mahadewa waya latnr Parbatal keik jodi 

Swimming Uaja Mahadewa to eome he begaa Parbati hasidd joined 
kiai uila lata 
having to stand began 

18. Pajadal Narayan honinde keik jodi keya latiirk 
Behind her Narayan he also hiinds to join began 

19. Aske Mahadewa bang inta ime bartim watal parin kadannr 
'l*hen Mahadewa what tajn thou (for) what haat coma twdlve thra^hii^^ora 

Kcda penk awii baga manda 
of Qond gudfl they where are 

20. Usade bang indur bor Kartao Snbal veru banga indur im» 

Then what he says who Kartao Subal he what tnyfl t* 

Mahadewa 
Mahadewa , 

21. Bara mahinana tapu kim munne raikun idena malum aial 

For twelve monbhfl devotion do hereafter to you their newj knowa (will be) 

22. Seiyung mahinang atung sarung maliinang atnng parotapsha atu 

Five mouthn jiaased six mouths bdcima ddvotion fluished 

23. Aske Bhagawantal wasi niltiir Mahadewa itke haka 

Then Bhagawan having come stood close to Mahadewa lo a ealiiag 

situr horn 
gave him ' 

24 Niwa tapu atu inga ime yeta bahero pasiya ana bahun 
Thy devotion is finishdd now thou water out of emerge I how shall 

pasika 

' emerge 

S3. Nakun hallekeiku nakun halle kalku naknn halle kauku 
, To ma no hands to me no feet to me no eyes 

26. Affke veru Mahadewaun tala atu talatuu chutingatnng 
Then to him (that is) to Mahadewa head became ta head hair becssM 

kanka^randUt^^asitung 



H)3 

27. Sal)e manyana murat bnne raatnr japrne vedachi atu 

All uiau's form wiw marie (iu) world ^*f) light become 

28. Ahnne kanku tahachi liudhir veni Bha^awantal matkasi 

Th^A eyes having raise he :saw him Bhagawdu having eeeu 

hatnr 

went away 



29. 


Bhalo ata hallc nakun 

Well has not bccouie to ua 


pen dista halle icbor batu 

god apjH^jired not ho much storj- 




kenja pent! 
hear Ood 


• 


30. 


Nawa tapu waja hatu 
My <ltivotioxj in vain has g.)ne 

halle ata 

has not happened 


nakun manyana murat siti idu bhalo 
t4> me of man*tt form gave thiit well 



peida atur 
bom was 


horu Kali 
that Kalia 


A daw 

Adao 


peida 
born 


bang itu 

Wll»t MUd 









31. Undo veru lapu mandi kitur 

And he devotion estiiblished 

32. Nawa masii nowodinku atung poda wortu 

Nine months nine days became boil burst 

33i Kali Adaw peida atur horu Kali A daw peida atur aske 
Kalia Adao bom was that Kalia Adao born w«ui then 

Mahadowa 
Mdhodeira . 

84. Aske honu Mahadewa bang itur iino* tapu kimo 
Then to him Mahadewa what said thou devotion do 

35. Boru Kali Adaw tapu kitur undi mahina atu randu mahinang 

Who Kalift Adao devotion did one month become two mouths 

atung hana kalkeidun poda watur 

became to his hand boil came 

36. Hadu podha wortu sola tudik jalnie matung aske veru itur 

That boil bunt sixteen daughters bom were then he said 

37. Iwu tudik bartun peida atung 
These daughters wherefore wero bom 

38. Nawa sir tala aial iveruku ana bagador mangal talka 

My head l.»clow will be to these I of what place husbands should bring 
ihun itnr 

so iiatd 

30. Aske tudikun bisi yetrapo wfnUx situr aske watnoke 

Then daughters haying oaught in water he threw after throwing th«m in 

yer 
water 

40, Soke matu sola bhar dhartari pei<la atu 

Dry it become sixteen kinds t»f earth ppMhuKd ^tre 



04 

4). Nana unde tapu kika aske nawa jiwate shanti vvayar 
I more devotioQ will do then my mind (at) peace will be 

42. Aske veru Kartaw Subal tapu mandi kitur yena keide podha 

Then he devotion e«tabliBhed in his hand boil 

watu 

came 

43. Parin .kadaug kora penk jalme matung 

Twelve threHhingfloors of Oond gods were born 

44. Koitoik pagare tnaturk beke hake 

QondH spread over hither thither 

45. Koitork aturk jagang jagang mataDg matang gonding ghoding 

Qonds became from place to place ou hill to hill in Talley to vallej 

46. Aladak madak Koiturk atiirk horkna karar batal mandana 

Tree to tree Gonds became their honor how must be 

47' Bail distu adan jiana tan tindana 

If any thing appeared to xnuiit kill it and eat 

48. Halle samje maiwa koljal bhalyal adan jiana tan tindaDa 

No distinction miut know jackal those killed to it they must eat 

49. Halle samje maiwa kurshu mawku 

No distinction miiatbe antelope (deer) sambur 

50. Halle samje maiwa tan tindana lialle samje maiwa uti pural 

Not knew distinction BOW mu6te<it not knew distinction quail pigeon 

51. Halle samje maiwa kawal gidal tan tindana dokum baj 

Not knew distinction crow kite must eat adjutant yulture 

52. Dokke panne kida kituk muda piya yermi halyal 

Lizard frog beetle cow calf she and he-buffalo 

58. Yalk ghusing warcheng ihun tinda latur 
Rats bandicoots squirrels so to eat began 

54. Itork horku Koiturk peida aturk bange kocho bange pakko 

Such these Gonds born were some raw some ripe 

tindana 

must eut 

55. Sark mahinang yer kiwa halle dhad gatna todi 

Six month;) l>athing must not be done nicely face must not 

norwa 
be washed 

56. Gagara gutate kudsi mandana itur 

In dunghill having fallen must remain 



65 

57. Itork Roitork pahile mas peida aturk sabdan gude deing latu 

Such Gondfl first time were bom in all the jungle a smell began 

58. Ihun Koiturk bedangal iturk aske Mahadewatun nadan 

Such Gonds without order became then to Mahadewa disagreeable 

la^tu 
they bec«^me 

69. Ide Koirtona jatu bhurtai mautor 

(Thua) Gonds easte bad . was 

60. Irwa lialle ihun itur boru Mahadewa nawa Dhawalagiri nas 

(I will) keep not so said who Mahadewa my Dhawalagiri they 
kiturk 

have sitoiled 

61. Btke hake dein^rta ihim itur verkun kesitarat 

Hither chii^her Kmell oomes so said to them call'^ 

62. Ihun itur Narayan handa latur horkun kesi latur torat 

So said Narayan to go began to them to call bei^an he brought 

63. Munne Mahadewa 
In presence of Mahadewa 

64. Nihitur Mahadewa techi hud tur sabe Koitork waturk 
Made them stand Mahadewa having risen lie saw all Gondb come 

# 

65. Ihun tanwa dilte itur horkun tanwa bowante kesitarit 

So in hi« mind said to them into his own cave called 

66. Horkun wori wori upustur poraing kak lana utur 

To them in lines he cauised to sit to one end himself sat 

67. Tanwa menduda neiyul tantur adena warehe bano kitur 

Of his own body the dirt he took off of it a squiri'el he made 

68. Ital kitur yer kinake warehe kitur tanu sajjio kitur 
Thus did (while) bathing squirrel made to it living made 

69. Tanrapo jiva wadtur tana igetal sute kiyald 

Into it life threw from near himself he let it go 

70. Usadc sarko tokar kiyal horkunrapodal sudital latu 

Then straight its tail it made through midst of them to escape it began 

71. Ade hudturk Koitork tan paja vita laturk 
Then saw Gonds it behind to run (they) began 

72. Paja viti laturk bore indur jimtro jimtu 
Behind they (to) run began some one said kill kiU 

73. Bore indur bimtro bimt bake aplotun chakana aial 

Another one said catch catch goc»d to us a kr\bab will be 



66 

74. Ihun indiirk borku Koitork bore him katka bore bim tongi 

So said they who GouJ^ some seized a stick Home seized a stone 

75. Bore him dhakala pembiti laugoti burbiir nair tudi lataug 

Some seized a clixi of hii^s cloth was shaking sending to fly began 

7(J. Beke mandot rapo penyade bhuyartrapo ade rapo soditur 
It into a hole (god's prison) on the earth into it did enter 

77. Warchi tanpaja Koitork sodita latnrk 
The squirrel after Qonds to nin began 

78. Parin kadaog Koitnrk soditar Jaturk bado bhtiy artrapo 
Twelve threshingfloorti (of) Gonds to run began where in the cavo 

79. Aske sab KoUurk socliturk towha nabirk pistur 

Thus all Gonds ran when four remained 

80. Parbatin • nind lagsi achalate 
They came to Parwati she sleeping wu« in the meantime 

81. Nind ugade towha Parbatin cbinta lagtii 

Sleep openud when tu Parwati care fe)l 

82. Ichong diydDg maw4 Koitork matork disork 

^ Many days iny Gonds were not seen 

83. Dhowlagiaite kalla andu 
On my Dhawalagiri noise was going on 

84. NeDd kameke &ta ichong diyang deing gund 

To-day sUence has become so many days smell was 

85. Nend deingo ihim itu 

To-day smell is not so said 

86. Bangena bange atu 

Some where mui'l^bo 

87. Mawor Maliadewa disor Koitorkun beke atur itke ahun 

My Man.idewa not to be seen Gonds whether has he led so 

itu Parbatal 

said Parwati 

88. Towha Doulagiriparo tarksi hudtur bogane Koiturk 

When Db.awala^ii i having ascended saw where (no) Gonds 

disork ihim itu 
appear so said she 

89. Mahadewtun puse kitu mawark Koiturk disork ihun 

Mahadewa abkcd my Gonds appear not so 

Koitork sodinake hudtur 

Cfoiidi- entering I saw not 



67 

90. Mabadewa tetur 6ola katanor tingi darwajate keelii 

Mabadewa arjso sixtscu cubita l)nj a Sv-jas oa tbo d'^r he laid 

situradtongi j:ike kitii Koiturk 
(with) that stoDe he shut ia Gondd 

91. Basrnisur deituna pahara nilocbi situr Parbatal puse kitu 
' Basmuaur the deuiun to guard h3 stationed Parwati to oak began 

Mde ihun kiti nawa 
wbj BO ia doue 

92. Dhawala<;:iri karab kitnrk nakun songu watur anahun kitan 

|)hawalaglri bad made to mo au^er came 1 thua did 

ihun itur 
60 said 

98. Tannipo nalurk pisturk hork soditnrk ihiin itur born 
From i\\"ia f'jur 'h.iv6 ^ auryived they fled so said who^ 

Mabadewa 
Muhadewa 

94. Parbatal tauwa HAanto itur Koiturk mure maturk 

Parwati in her mind saii Gonds Uit are 

95. Nalurk Koiturk ao^ital soJiturk undl mata tarksi 

Four Gond3 tUcauj fled oao hill aficendiag 

96. Mnnne ma'la litu sanaglianji.^endd tiinparo laturk 

A little forv.ard a t:eo was striU;^ht gous like (a datu tree) on it the/ ^Umbed 

a^atal liadtiirk 
thence they looked 

97. Maknn maknal jaga diso 

To us a hiding phua ia not visible 

98. Warur budtur undi jaga dista inda latur bagate 

One looked a pLtcj a^vpeara to saj began on one aide 

dista Kacbikopa Labugad 
appeared 

99. Ad donguda saribiturk aga haturk 
Of that jungle the road they took thcra they went 

100. Aga mabirk tamork burkii manda 

There the four brothers they remained 

101. Aske bagane Koitor halle Parbatin cbinta lagtee 
Then anywhere Gonda were fiot to Parwati care become 

102. Tapsbya mandi kitu 

Devotion she did 

103. SaniDg mahinaDg atung 

Six months became 



63 

104. P&rbatitid tapit fiintti Bbagawantand, dolhara hal« ittatn 

Parwati'a devotion fulGUoi i5hu2<«*w^^n in a swing to ^«cin^ began 

105. Borbhaktnjan nnwa kilite bor tap kitUr hon tandat 

AYLat devotee my reBtiii^ time wLo devotion did who (it is) see 

hukum Narnyantnn kitur 

order to Isarayan ho made 

lOiJ. Tevu hiulale positur wasi Dhoulagiri parbatnd 

He to seo went out haviug como lo bhawdia^iiri mountain 



107. Wasi Parbatnni^e i)ila latur imo brvli jiwato tapsbyi kiti | 

Coming near I'arwati to at-uid began thou in the mind devi^ti^^ did | 

n.'lwaug parii'g kodang Koid pink disong 

my tbiCohiuL^Hoor Guud god appear not ! 

108. Itke ana tapsliya kirang ibim indal banu inne malsikun 
Therefore I devotion did so she said pjo thoa back a^^ain 

veh I Bhngawjia verii mnta latur vichike taksiko hatur 

tell I5ha;;iiw/m h^ to return began niuniaj walking he went 

banjikiin nila latur veni Narayan Bhagawantige ebatA 
haviut,' gono to stand he be^au that Naiayon to god to tell 

latur 
began 

109. Purbatal tapn kitu idu paran kadang Koitang tanwor 

Porwati devotion did these twelve thre.>hingfloor3 Gonds ^ker0 

pusi kinfa sabe doug ule liudtur halle bagane disork 

are askuig in all 3Uiij;!o seen (tbcy are) not anywhere not Men 

110. Hanu pajane imo velia amot niwak Koitorkun hudsi sikom 

Qo back thDu sa/ we thy Qonds will make vifiibl« 

ibun iudur boru Bhagavvaho 
•o laid who Bha^w^ 



PART II. 

Tilt Birth, Life, and Death of Lingo. 



1. Hadu u?afle Bhagawantun chinta laoftu pahindi mada manda 

To that god caro fell of Puhandi a trae there was 

2. Tan pungar wxial tan garbhd manddl pnngatun dinkuinandana 
To it flower will come to it foetus will be to flower days will remain 

3., Usade kim^r pentun ankdr dhukar chute matu chidor abhar 
Thta by god's doing clouda winds wero looeoned small cloud 

4. Seta ichor watu garjan atu bijli chamke mata 

(Like) a fan so big came thuuder roared lightniug flashed 

5. Pung^r kbulc matu abhar khule mata andh&rdrtu din jak« 
The flower opened cloud3 opened darkneBS fell dftj hid 

znatu 
was 

6. Kamkata gnndo aral 
Of turmeric the powder will fall 

7. NahiDg pahark din pnsital sakada pabara abhar karke 
(At the) four watches of nigM day will arise in the momiag clouds rasoandod 

matu ah'ifie pnngar ukalc 
therefore flwwer opened 

8. Phakano pungar peitii ahune Lingal paida atur hanjikun 
With % crack fiwwer i^urst so bom was hftTOig gjcmm 

mirtnr kharnka gundak artur 

sprang into powder (of) the turmeric he fell 

9. Abhar phake matu yadita jaku lagtu Lingal ade latur 
Clouds cleaved (at)tho light (of) the dawn to waephegaa 

10. Pentun chinta lagtu aga toddi wati latu gundat akbhame 

;To)Ood caro fell theoi faj3 to dry b.'^gm amidit thepowdar 

11. Penta kinni kechal tog\ madu mata tanparo phuki mate 

(By) Qodli doing near a Ficus glomerate treo %ra8 on it honqy was 

12. Phuki warsi hatu chidur mando arta toddite 

The honey burst a small drop fell in his mouth 

18w Rasu tana phukita are latu ihun toddi chttple kijalatn 
Th«juios of that hjney to fall began so his mouth to suck lie began 

14 Dupar atu wadi lagtu Lingal poindi latur 
It was noon wind blew to grow began 



70 

16. Agatal deisi ukade hanji atur aga jhule 

Thence having leapt into a swing having gone he fell in a swing 

maia latur ahun kinake dia mulet 
to swing began so doing day set 

16. Lingal parkane techi hatur ukade kadangi latur 

with haste arose and sat in a swing to swing began 

17. Her Lingal yetuii dag malice lingandag halln 
That (was such that) to water might be a stiiin but to Lingo there was no stain 

IB. Bomli hira kapadi lira pen pariyor 

On his navel was a diamond on his forehead a saudle-wood mark a divine saint 

lingal salmetor atur rand salknor atur 

of a year's full became of two ' years bscame 

19. Oundate khumka garsawa ukade narmana ihun bango 

In turmeric powder he played in the swing he slept so some 

diyang atung 

days (passed) 

80. PuTO naw warshang atung her toddatl hange tinwa 

Fvil nine years became in his mouth anything must not eat 

donguda mada guta tang 
of the jungle tree (or) of thickets 

21. Linga aske tanwa dilte itur ige boro disor xnaoyalk 
then inhia mind said here no one is seen mfui 

disor bade janwar diso 
sot aume animal appears not 



22. Naleha batiyo dist) naleha bagan^atke aga hankan 

Me like some appear not me like somewhere will be there will I go 

23. Ihua itur agatal undi diya pasi'.nr munne eignr hatta 

So said thence one day he rose before gtrai^rht he went 

24. Suyalmata tan paro tarktur aga Mundifca kumoita m^dak 
(like a needle) hill on aa^eaded thero Hundita kumblta iziees 

matang 

were 

25. Tan khalwa K!r??adita tnada mata tan pnr^gat wasi adena 
Below them Kirsadita tree was to it HoWvir had come 

SB. Hike "hatur pungakun Imdsi ku^i tanwa jiwate atar 
Thither he went d!>wors having seen (in his) mind came 

pungakana wasu yetur 
of the flower the smell to take 

27. .A^;atokl liabade hatur sugal matate jsundli 

Mtnaae beyond hewont on aprecipitQus likfia amdl0.hill cipAtree 

mada tarktur 
h« dimbed 



71 

26. Agatal hadi Itttar hcma bajute Eachikopa Lahtzj^ta. cU^ua 

Thence to look began oft the rido(oi)t ixnoko 

ata dhua hudsi 
orofie haying seen 

29. Id bati andu like ittcr aga hanji handan* itiir 
This what is eo said he there having gone miuft ae^ 

30. Agatal raktur dhua hudsi handl latur herku nalofk 
Thenoe he ascended smoke having seen to go began ttieae four 

tamurk matark verk matkise sikar tachi matuk tan 

brothen were they quickly prey brought hadr it 

borsandurk bange vetal bange pahana tindurk 
they Kere roasting somo oookfed some raw they were eating 

31. Achlate her hatur boru Lingal hen hudsa horku 

If eanwhile (at that time) he went who him having seei»> they 

neturk herku neturk herkun hudsa her nitur warona 
stood up seeing them he Btood^ them havii^gseen he stood still with each 

waror 
other 

82. Wadkork nalurk a^ke aga tamwa^ dilte inda laturk 

They did not speak the four then there an their minds to M»y bsgMt 

83. Aplo nalurk manda dada ahun bom seiwark tamaift 

we four are brothen this is h* fiv<» kvothen 

aikat rodada hon keyat 
w^wHl b* O brothers call him 

S4. Handakat hon talkat aske handa laturk 
We will go him we will bring then tO go (they) began 

35. Houige haturk ima bor andi ihun iturk bon Lingan 
Where he was they went thou who art so said to whom Lingo 

88. Lingal inda latur ana satodhar Lingana andu matatf 
to say began lam a saint (named) Li^go Ihavo onhnd' 

kupar ihun itu borkun 
the knot oi hair so said to whom 

87. Nalurk tamurkun herku inda laturk mawa ronu da dada 

Four brothers they to say began (to) onr house oshmt brother'. 

38l Hon ari 'vraturk aske jagate Bikar arsi mata 

Him having taken (they came) then in that plaoe gfaao had^ lUllB- 



39. Lingal inda latur idu bati andu herk indalaturk amot 
to say began this what- » tbsgr i^mjhegim wo 

sikar tatorm dada 
game brought brother 



7« 
40r Bate aiuia inda latur Lingal pndi andu ^ 

Tni&t (kiod of skar) is it to say Wgan Lingo a gig it is*' 

41. Tena tadaki nakun simtu aga tadaki halwake aske inds iaturk 

Its lirer tome giye thero lirer was not then to say began 

42. Eerrjaw dada bintadakita amot janwar jitorom 

Hear* brother without Uter we animal have killed 

4Bl Afike^ inda latur bintadakita janwar badixro ando 

Then lilngo to say began without liyer animal what ia 

madun had Bimt 

t&me aeo allow 

44. Ask9 berkun. artu sankat veninga bagata budurskom 
Then them fell the thought to him now of what place we shall show 

bintadakita 

Hitbout UTer 

4St Janwar ihua iturk waror bang intor nawiw. bat' kenja 
An animal so said one what says my word hear 

her mandachi alpo manda pedhork hen dongude 
this one is a little we are great him in j\xngle 

warkat padhang; tonginrapo 
1i»«1IbU carry* ' large (among) stones 

4fti Sakunraptr sanding walukat aske daranar udanur 
icnong thorns in thickets we shall roam then he will be tired he will sit down 

47. Yer watkanur harosanur aske tanaiyo mala<1a indanur 
For water he will thirst he will be hungry then back turn he will say 

48L Lingan donguda sare tanturk tirkamtang keide ^bitur 
(With) Lingo jungles road selected bow and arrow he hand held 

49. Mlinne kurs dist tan jaka itur 

Onward antelope appeared it kill said Lingo 

flD. Tan tadake manta munne maw disal tan laka 
To it liver is before a sambur will be seen it kill ye 

51. Aden tadaki manda munne malol disal tan jakat 
To it liver ia before a hare will appear it kUl ye 

JUL Tan* tadaki nmnda 
To it liver is 

53. lingal daror birk naliirk tamnrk darturk' 
tires not these four brothers were tired 

64r Yer waikturk paro maia sareg hata tan paro 
For water theythiisted above thehiU sta^. wm it. mi 

tarkturk yeta kojhudi Iaturk 
thoy«Neadfd forwatM* to search b^gaa 



T3 

&5. Aske baTle yer diso idiun kiDake wasi neli 
Thon no water appeared bo haTing done they came dowa 

56. Pedda do:i,<:]far maadu bekene chilatitang mad^k gupe masi 
(A) great juagle there was where thorny trees entangled were 

nULnyalkuQ hendale sari hale 

to man to go • away was not (obtained) 

67. Putun haga wasi nilturk jarasa yer distu raura 

There having gone they stood a little water appeaWd Butea (Pahtf) 

iking haven koiturk hevenang chuding kiturk 
leaviid then they plucked of them trough made « 

68, Aye yer undd laturk yer unjikim yerkn4 giit* 
WitLit water to drink began > water having drunk- thcii^ life 

thando &tu 
refreshed was 

W Lingo itur dadd imet uchikun bang kiyd imet bintadakit* 
Lingo said O brother you having sat down what doing are you without liyer 

xnakun janwar halle hudustavet 

to us animal do not appear 

§0.. Inga baleseti disoti inga tana p'aror mutmat idu' jaga 

* Now never mind (if it) is not seen now its name leave off this place 

bakota marda 
good is 

M. Aplo idjagate kachi marak narksi aplo' Wanjing Vilkat 

We in this place having dug having cut down our rioe will sow 

i£ Ana unde narmaka imet padka lakor tayar kimtu iwu 
I a little longer will sleep you a field quickly ready make these 

63. Marsu tanturk pedba madate haturk nalurk nadka laturk^ 
A hatchet brought out to great trees went four to out began 

(I4» Vera kubbenae zopo watu kancliki 
To him muoh sleep came- he dreamed 

85. Hork parin kAdang Koiturk distnrk vera kodpade masi 

Those twelve threshingfloors of Qonds appeared he afraid biaving become 

6BC Tetur paja malsibuda verku nahirk taraurk 
He arose back turned those four brothers 

67. Verka madak natkeneke keidua nalliwichak phodku 

That tree had cut down to their hands as lax^ge as Awala fruit blisters 

watnng 
had oome 



74 

66. Usade verkii margti celi madturk wadsi siturk hatrjikuA 

Then tbey the hatchet down threw (haTmg) thrown awaj gone 

Linga 
to Lingo 

69. MawaDg koikun phodk watung verk marsk wadu siturk 

To our hands blisters come they hatchet have tttvowA. dowm 

undikuk 
one said 

?•» Haturk hanji watur nsade Lingal tetur mars 

They wont (aside) haying gone they sat down then rose the hatchet 

kei^e bitur 
in hand he took 

71. Natka latur madakun paro neadak anita tanag sirk kat» 

TecuA began trees tiie trees fell then it»oU to dig 

latu 

began 

72. Netematur ihun dungan natka undi gatkata baloparka itoc 
He applied himaell thus jungle to cut (in) one hour a good field ^fAf 

verku 
he 

73. Mawang keikun phodk watung undi mada mawa wastn« 

To our hands blisters came one tree: fa|r ns 

haile iwata halle ver 
not (is) cut down that 

74. Lingal undi gatkato bachole madak warktur 

Lingo (in) one hour several trees has cut down 

75. Cariyal todi kitur tanrapo wanjiog yatur bheke nake 

Black soil he has made on it rice (dtun) he has sown here and there 

walum kitur 

a hedge he has made 

76. TJndiye darwaja irtur taBtati clDhotur aske 
One only door he has kopt t j it a tatty (^aatter) he has bound 

77. Verku agatal teturk anwa natena sanye handa laturk 

They thence arose to their own village by the road tu go began 

tamwa ron waturk 
to their own house they came 

78. Paliilo mirag lagtu chidore abhadun kariyal disa lata 
First day (of) rainy season b^;an a little doud black to seett begMi 

79. Hainal wade sute matu abhar Babbe din yake rnatu 
With great force the wind WM lecMd Af all dl^ ohmif- war 

pirn barse matu 
rain to fall began 



75 

80. Sawan jagate tongron handa nete matii sabbe gardorang 

In open place up to kne^ij riila to go be^au all the holes 

buje matnng 

to fill began 

81. Pir sute kio mund diyang aneke pir ugade bagane 

Rain ceased not for three days having became (rain) fair all 

wanjing parsiya latung 
rice , to spring began 

82. Sabbe nel hirwal disa latu undi diyak nalung botang 

All field green to appear began (in) one day fourfingor^ breadth 

[high (rose) 

83. Undi mahiua atii tongron wanjing 
(In) one month became up to knee rice 

84. Sola kandiyang mawk mandung havetirapo roamal 

Sixteen scores of deer were among them uncle 

bhasiyal karbhari 

nephew (were) chief 

85. Id wanjing was sute mata aven kare mata a^ke menake 

This rice smell spread waa to them known it became then to graze 

luike handa 

thither went 

86. Paraing selate mamal padtiir kalwa selate bhasiyal padtur 

On the upi)cr eud uncle sat on l:>wor end ncphow sat 

87. Bhasiyal katkut tetur deitnr . paro 

Nephew with cracking his joints arose leaped upwards 

88. Randok knuk iiihitung phedate kushite watur deisike 

Two ears upright it made greatly into pleasure it came leaped 

mamanige 
near uncle 

89. Nel manda eiwaka wanjing bdrwalk distang ko^aro chare 

Field is beautiful (of) rice green appears teuder fodder 

manda ihnn itnr 
it is BO said he 

90. Makvm ehidor hukum siani amot sola kandiang mauk 

To us the little one please give it we Bixtccn scares (of) rohis 

haiierom 
will go 

91. Wanjing tanji waeron nawa bat kenja bhasa 

The rice haTing eaten we will coma my word hear O nephew 



76 

92. Sabbeta paror mata Lini^aiia padkata paror yenma ihua 

Of all the names tike Lin'^o'i) field'd name take nut so 

itur boruhoru innate sola kanding inauk mautrit mikun 

eaid though you sixteen Bcores (of) deer are to you 

vijatun iindi irnal halle 
for tfecd cue keep will not 

93. Usade bhasij'al intor ima mantani sedal mantorom riyark 

Then nep!ic\7 said thou art old we are young 

94. Amot banjikun tindokora bore hudanurte dcikom 

We having gone will eat any one will aee then we will leap Awmj 

'95. Teik kutanEf deikom ima seda mamyal sapade 

Five cubits wj w Jl leap thju art an old man will be caught 

96. Maiki itke warintantori niwa kenjom ima wama 

To go thu3 thou art afniid thy word I h^^r not you como not 

97; Bor bhiaiyal ibun itur sarke tokar kitur kasnk kauk 

Who nephjw s) said 8trai^ht> tail d^i eroct ita 

kitnr paja maltnr 

ears did back turned 

98. Maman laG^lu doka usade tetur pajaya handalatur 

Uncle felt grief thou rose after them to gu began 

99. Maman wale laku watsi sitnrk mawku padkat 

Uucle very far thrown they gave (left behind) rohis the field 

kacbul batu 

near went 

100. Bbasiyal inawk'vri pnja kitu a.£fatal sari biidi latnr sari 

Nephew (the) rohia behind put thence way to look began » way 

bairano pnti> 

any where was not olitiiiued 

101. Mawk intang marapo mamal sbabanal mator amot bon 

The rohis Baid among U3 uncle wise was we whom 

piise kikom 
shall we ask 

102. Honpnja irtit maktin ima karbhari matini 

Him behiud (you) left to us you chief are 

103. Vebatur bhsisiyal ana karbhar kintone nawa hndsckun imat kinit 

Said nephew I work do my having seen you do 

104. Tana mnnne atnr bang inta undi maw 

Ho in front became when says one deer 

105. Mntme mama vebandnr Lingal padki andu ima kdnchta 
At first uncle has said Lingo field it is you did not hear 

106. pnja miinne buda ibun itnr 

Behind l>eforo look so he said (be prudent) 



77 



107. Sedanas sujr kimal ihiin itnr boru bhasiyal 

Old mau*B company kt^cp not so said who nephew 



108. Munne atur timne 

In front beaune (went) a Bpring 

rapo nitiir 

rice stood 



deitur bhasiyal 

La leaped nephew 



nadum 
in the midst 



wanjing 
of the 



109. 



110. 



Mawku 

Ruhii 

Pajadal 
Behind 



paja 
behind 



III. Sahbo 
All 



veni 
mawk 

rohia 



deisi 
leaping 

mamal 
uncle 



wanjmg 
rice 



honi2^e 

near him 



handa 

to go 



latiir 
began 



watur 



walamonigo 
the hedge near 



wasi niltur 

hiving (come) stood 



tinda 

to bat 



latnng 

be;:an 



112* Seda 

Old 



xnaryal deia 
man leap 

nadum jagite 
v.p (of) centre pines 



paror sabbe 
coiUd not all 



maman 

unolo 

mawk 

rohia 



san pnto 

way find did not 



padkufcun 

the field 



tinji 

ate 



wadtung 



113. Hagatal pasitang walum deisikun baliera pa<;itung usade 

Thence they went the hod je having lt)aped out went th3n 

bang wadka latiir boru mamal 
what to speak began who uncle 

114. Kenjatro sola kanding mawkauil id padkatun titl 

Hear sixteen scores (of) rohis this field you have eaten 

beskitit miwor babo hudit wan tor 

Well you have done your father to seo will com4 

115. Miwa batal npaw kintor usade paja mator boru boru 

Your how method does then behind he was • who ha 



bbasiyal mnnne 
nephew in front 



watar 



116. Kenjatro gndialknit kenjatro dadalknit imet igedal sodisidat 
Hear O fiiend hear brothers you hence fleecing go 



undi 



nawa 
my 



palo 
word 



kenjat 
hear 



117. Tongitpaio kalk irsike bantu akin 

On Htones feel i*lac;ug go on 

hanto kakadan pare jadit pare 

go boiik^hs on on gniss 

toditparo kalk irmate ihiin itnr 

on the soil feet keep not so said 



paro 

l-javej 



kalkan irsiko 

feet loeping 

kalkaii irsike bantu 

feet leaping go 

boru bhasiyal 
who nephew 



118. Babun vohattir 

How (as) he told 

sodita latnng 
td run began 



ahune 
so only 



kensbtung 
they heard 



sola 
sixteen 



kanding 
scores 



mawku 

(of) rohis 



78 

119. Halle bacfino kojing disong ivena bagane mobojba lago 

No wliere tnarkj of feet appeared thuir no where traces appeared 

120. Bade padte bide nilta bade nanimta 
Some ftAt down some stood eomo ftlcpt 

121. Pungak muskiindur nanimsi Lin^ro mandur adho ra^ne 

(Of) flowers in the smelling bkepiug Liu go was (at) half of the niglit 

122. H}ru kanclikMir hadii padka niriwku titling r.ewang 

Ho was dreaming saw a field by rohia eateu they have 

uslito wanjitig 
spoilt rice 

123. Lingal agatal positur Kachikopa Lahnngadota sari bitur 

Lingo thence departed Kachikopa Lahugad'a road to look 

,124. /gatal pasitur horkunige watur dada itur rotal 

Thence went to them come brother he said of the house 

bahero pasiyat 
outside come ye 

123. Undi batu kenjat apalota padka tang wanjing mawku titang 

One word he<ir our field of rico rjLLj ate 

126. 



Nawo apalo bapi watkab 

Firatfruit to us to oGer 


halle 
is not 


ihua 
so 


itiirk 

said 


borka 

who 


naliirkte tamiiik 

four brothers 











127. Usade Lingal intor kenjatro dada apalotang wanjing 

Then Lingo said Lear brother our rice 

titnng 

they ate 

128. Ushto atung avena nawo lialle mawkna taclakita nawo 

Spoilt have thdy ' firstfruit wo have not of the roliis liver a firstfnut 

watkan 

I will ofior 

129. Lingohan pariyona aikan ballete nawa sato handa 

Lingo a d^jvoteo I will bo otherwise my power will go 

130* Auk pugak muskintona nawa pir pajinla 

I with the flower of smell my stomach I'fill 

131. Koitork mantork horkn^ parbapi nind.\l horkna tindJln^ 

Gonda are their bellies with what will they till their eating 

132. Wanjing ushto kitnng bawii mawku i:jim itnr boru Lingal 

liice (spoil) did what rohis so said who Lingo 

133. Ahun ilur nalurk tamurk hatiyar biturk tirkamtang 

So said four brother's weapons held bow and arrow 



79 

134. Mawkna parode ris watur padkate hanji badtuik kitiuk 
• 0« FoWa oc »eooai»t ange» caiae - in field goiiig f«U into 

rapo sodita laturk 
midst to enter begut 

185 Nadum hanji hudturk kariyat todi disi latu 
In^tre going toll «•* •« to ^e^ N«>» 

186 Waniing phanku disi latung hudturk Upgal 

Bice •*ubUe toppew b«(j«B »w(potJaiig) !<»)«» 

137 Dakata risu matate tarktu agane batatan 

From of the heeU the anger to the heed aaoeuded on the spot hie fingere 

kasktur 
he bit 

laa Lai kank atung bagatung mawku manda ihun itur hudatur 

Bed eye. became where rohi. - «. BO mi eee y. 

189 Horku hudi laturk mawkna kojing bagane disong 

They to see began of rohis foot marks any where appeared not 

140 Munne kakada distu kojite aga hudtur 

Before a bough appeared hie footmarto there lodted 

141 Unde munne taktur jhadi dista jhadi • rounde masi 

And before went jungU appeared jangle tKH]d«»do«i> 

mate oga koji distur 
was there trace appeared 

IAS Haturk teri disong munne ali m«da mata 

aSfw** ^ not seen (wfrohis) a UtUe forward peepul tree ws. 

143 Liueal atu ana mada terjintona imat khalwa nUat 

l^o said I tree wiU oUmb you below sUad 

144 Affatal hudtur munne mawk dlstung 
Thenoe looked before rohis appeared 

1A.K MiwiLk distune bade utte bade nammte bade 4*^™^^ 

^^' l^r app^ «>">• "«'^'«* ~°"> are .leaping .o»* Um* »b^i 
^*^- "^^ -Z"^ rt, oifien T^ r^ 

'^^ r ^ts. as lit '^ -w ^i^ 



80 

1^0. KaiuDg kongtane aturk tirk jhodekituik avWbjift 

(On) iom eomera faiitiieig become enow UppUed to them to be^t 

laturk parodal LiDgal jia Ikiur 
b^gan from on high Lingo to strike bsjgyitt 

151. Mamal pistur midi nlawa -pikiXL tansUttt bituf iir kiialwa artu 

Unole seemed one rohi seemed at it aim he took arrow below (fell) 

152. lingal iS&'il^^ ailti Mf naM kei«b tiru airtu id Mtal sat 

Idngo in his mind said out of my hand arrow fell that how omen 

aistu 

appears 

153. Tanwa bhaktal japo matur honu mamal disiuf apalota 

Thy servant worships thee that uncle appears of mine 

bdhge lita Mile 
anything has not eaten 

154. Jffadee sodila latii tan tod'a mamal sodite latur nalurk 
Female (rohe) to run began with it uucle to nm began four . 

tamurk tan paja lagturk ige biyatat ia,ya jihat 
brother them behind ptirsued here we will catcli there we will catch 

1B9. Ibun iturk ftd.{^add mata h'alle bawu mawku paja masi 

So said found they were not who rohis (behind) turning 

hudturk 
looked 

156. Padbf kenjalro dado mawku batuDg disong balle &awar 
Eldest said here brother rohis have gone appear not our 

Lingal paja manda 
Lingo behind is 

157. Tak rehe m^t "^plolo malsldal ihun itur bor* 

At the distance remained let us return ito MA. who 

p^dbartatnu itnr 

Md36Bt brother said 

158. Harkun puse kitur imat baga hanji ihun itur boru Lingal 

To them asked you wliere goiiC So iSdd w1i6 Elngd 

159. Amat hanji nLatoraim d&da mawun paja matorom mi^w 

We gofie had brethren rohis after mh. rclffii 

Bodisihatu diso hallo amot maltom nihiga 
fled appeat ^ot '^ retuSded tieibr^ 

160. Mikun vehatantona begane hudat miwa 

TojSk I\fta'At6f^ ^EftS^ef& iee jhyour 



81 

161. Nadide chakmak niatang avan tandat kis ^iiyat ikiii 
WaiBto 8t«6l8 maybe then briB^out five faufeWlidl lo 

itur boru Lingal 
said who Lingo 

Its. Yerku Badidal chakmak tai>tnvk kigu aduta laturk 
Theip waists steek brought out ftvs to lall bsgaa 

168. Tdatqn tnndo balle ihun kiiiake undi pahai (dinu 

IThe matches ignited not so doiug one watch of night pasMd (day 

tarktu) 
ascended) 

\9^ ChakmakuB pheki kiturk Lingob&n pariyoni maatom 

The matches they thvow did Lingo saints thdu art 

165. Eis nakun \eba mawang kis balle arta 
Fire (where is) tell us show (why) our fire not falls 

''IGG. Lingal intor igetal mund koskunpara manta Bikad Oawadi 
Lingo said hence three coss (on) is Rikad Qawadi 

167. Hona parkate kis maiid& dhu& pasinta ag& bantu ibun itur 
In his field fire is smoke will appear there go S9 gaid 

boru Lingal 
who Lingo 

168. Kis mucbuk waym&t manq ibun itur Lingi^ 

Fire without come not so said Lingo 

169. Hanji Lingan pusi kiturk amot budt& balle ihun iturk 
Haying gone to Lingo asked we have seen not so said 

beke bankom 
where we shall go 

170. Makun diso balle bati kisu usade Lingal intor 

We (see) no^ where fire (is) th^n Lio^p si^d 



171. Ana tir jintona aga 

I aiTow will diBcharoe there 



dischai^ there 

17i2. Bagark bandal agark VMi bwdakit \mi% kifl 

la wUt direqUco itviUlsO in that 4i>eotioa yw 8Q Um» fii« 

putal 
fpuwilltil 

178. Ihun itur bor Lingal tir jode kitur umsi whir undi 
So said who Lingo arrow implied havingdmwn kateek one 

tir jitur 

•mw(uid)&Mhaiga4 

174 S«i sftwari i^tu baiji dakigpang Mxkn 

i. way it made 0010001 lome twi^p it lvo)» 



83 

176* Ba&ge jhadi koitur sari artu haajikuD tiru artu ^aital 
Some gran U out a road lell alter going arrow laU thenee 

sedana 
at the old man'a 

17d. Kmuparodal tirtetu hanji yedung sedanang miyak 
From off the ftte arrow arose fa»Ting goae (to) aeTen (of) thd old man's teughter^ 

177. Havena darwajate artu tiru hawa budtung tichika 

In their doer leU arrow they saw having rua 

watung hadu tiru pehaksi watung 
they came having lifted they took away 

178. TirtuD irtuUg babon puse kindnng dawa mawang 

They kejt'^ (it) their father they aaked O father ub 

madming baske indung 
in marriage when will you give 

179. Haun yedung selak sedal indur 

(Thus) wh0 " seven sisters of old man's said 

180. Nawa diltor putanur honku sikun mikua haUlete 

According to my mihd will be to him I will give you (or) ho 

181. Ahune mandakit ihun indur sedal boru Rikad Oawdi 
As you are you will remain so said old man who Rikad Gawadi 

182. Kenja ro dada nawa palo ana jitona tir 

Hear brethren my word I dtscuarged arrow 

183. Ad sariya bantu munne kisu disal a<7atal kisu talkit 
By this road go before fire will appear theuoe fire bring 

184. Hor intor home ima hanu intor ana hanor 
(Thus) he said to them they to (one to another) said I will not g<v 

chidor tamu hatur 
youngest brother went 

185. Kisu distu kisu kachut hatur agatal hudtur phedaye 

Fire he saw fire near went thence saw a Large 

kodt leha sedal 
trunk like the old man 

IM. LlJcanal hudtut «edana padka bbowatal walum kisi 
iVotti afar he iaw oid mantl field lux)tmd it hedge Wfis made 

187. TJndi sari irshi tan tale dohachi nadum padkate 

One road he kept to it a shutter he had tied In the middle of the field 

kis kisi 
fire was made 

188. Irukna kodku mangita yachi mator mad Mgnang 

OfaMohwa the trunks ofAnjun were put in trees of Saj 

189. Tekatang katyattg jatfta kisl kidu patiisl mator 

Teak fagots wheh; gathered on fire fire was kindlei 



83 

190. Kidnirusi mata kisna shekane Rikad Qawadi sedal 

Fire was blaied at the fire by the heat Rikad Gawadi the old man 

hainake narumoi mator 

(in) deep (sleep) slept waa 

191. KakasuQ leka disandur ver narumsi ver Ahkesaral walsike 

Giant like he appeared he was sleeping the Ahkesaral stealthily 

kflchum hatuT sedan hudtur sedan kodaneke 

near went the old mao saw the old man (while) beholding 

mendodun pinakatang watung 
to (his) body cold bustles came 

192. Tadake deia latur jiwate waditnr manda ihun itur 

His liver to leap began in his mind much afnid he was then he said 

193. Veru sedal sedanur nakun hudsi tindaour nana arkate 

If the old man rises me ho will see (and) eaten I will be 

194. Kisu kalsikun woyaka aske nawa jiwa plsar 

Fire having stolen I vrill carxy then my life will survive (safe) 

195. Ver watsike kisunige hatur undi viskur bitur hadu viskur 
He secretly near fire went one brand took that bnutd 

tamadita andu 
of Tembhur was 

196. Tahuneke tana sidange mirtu sedana kulatun hanjikun 
When having lifted it a spark leaped away on old man's hip it having gone 

tunatu 
fell on him 

197. Thaliatsor venu phoda ^atu veru sedal daske masi 
As large as a lota the blister had come that old man alanned becaue 

tetur yen 

he arose 

198. Nakun karoo wasta bagane tindale puta khankna 

To me hunger is felt anywhere to eat I get not of flesh 

nawhari asi mata 
the desire is f eli 

199. Eowan kakade leka bhalo wati ihun inaka 
(A) tender cucumber like weU (haat thou) come to said 

veru Ahkesaral 

to that Ahkesaral 

200. Sadita latur pajaye sedal vita latur kis wadsi 
To run he b^gan behind old man to run began fire (brand) he thrtw 

ditur munneta 

away in front 

201. Munne sodita latur paiaye sedal vita latur ige bika naga 
Onward to run he b^gan behind old man to run began hero I will seiae 

UtOlfc 



84 

202. Hagatal maJtur tanwa padkate watur kisuaige haojikutur bang 
Theuce turned tg hia field came omt fire going nt whftt 

rande 
nonsense (is this) 

2Q8. Kawaro ina sikar wasi mata 
Tender like prey was come 

SQi. Tiaka itan paisiai hutur nava keide 

I would hvre ealw H hQ said Hia nuniiiwil ^m mj hand 

205. Hatte harai baskane wajar itkhepne hatu 
(It is) gone let it go sometime I will get ii this time it has gone 

206. Muaue bang atu Akkesaral hatur malaikua aga 

Beloire wbat hapfdned Ahkesarel vent kaving returned Iramthenee 

tamurkun 
to hia brothers 

207. ItuT kenjatro dada ana kisoiup hatac i.iqat. rohtit ^ga 
Said hear bretl^ren I to fire was gone yeu sent tkeia 

padkate padhoree inautor sedal 
in field a giant only was old man 

208. Keik wadseke kalk tacheke vitur ana pissi wator 
Hands throwing feet lifting ran I haying aurriyed 

watan 
I game 

209. Amot hanom ihun iturk borku nalurk tamurk Lingal iturk 

We will not go so said who four brothers lingo said 

igene udat ro 
here sit ye 

210. Dadalknit bator sedal mantor ana budsi wayaka 

O brothers what sort of person he is I having seen will come 

211. Agatal pasitur munne taktur jbodi lagtu aga 

T&nce he went onward he walked river happened to be thwe 

212. Mund tumang distung munne hutur 

Three bottle gourds appeared in front he aaw them 

213. Waduda kati distu aden tahtur 

Bamboo stick appeared he lifted it 

214. Jboditun usa aga 

Tbe river wa« floQ^ tbere 

215. Paras pade tana arsi veli velitun tumang 

(Itwashed away) the bottle gouxd tree its seed fell to e^ ttdnner bottle goora 

la^i 
wtre 

216. Waduta kati pongsi wasi adena kitur jaftlur 
A bamboo atiok initahoUow heposhed its mada gwliv 



ti7\ Wi^tMg ehuting hkndu t^ttur ft^na titr kitur 
OfftiAd haM tw« fato {fucked i«i «Mlg t&ad* 

218. Kuji bitur akra naJdang kitur tan upi!l^tuf adene 
▲ bow he held eleven keys he made (lo) il 'and fixed it 

nekuBttOit' bakoii^ nekVii 

^^bnit ^eH itpUybd 

219. Lingal tanwa dilte bakone kusi 

Lingo in hia mind (was) much pleased 

220. Adftn bitur sari iaghif Bedana f)adkata disunig6 hatrd* 

It he held h& tviy took to old msh'u field tPeio- fir6 to ge 

latur 

began 

221. Sedal narumdi mator bpni Kikad Gawadi kisujiige 

Old man sleeping was the Kikad Gawadi nev fire 

222. .Kodtleka kudsi mator palku kisi mantar burtai 
Like^atnink fallen he wffi^ his teeth made wm% bad 

223. Todi dakane kitor jhopane tnator Lingal nebanagd hoodtur 
(His) mouth gaping he kept in sleep he was Lingo well beheld 

sedan 
tiie old man 

224. Ean lagta ibun itur Lingal ingatae ' woikan sedal 
(EUs) eyes were shut thus said Lingo now (is not time) to carry away the old man 

narurator 
while slept 

225. Lingal mutine kal Wadiur paja maisi hudtiir kachull ^mttSk 

Lingo before his foot threw behind turned and saw near a tree 

826. Alita Barko tnata aden kbnnding Nebai^a^ hudtdft 
Of Peepid erect was to its farandieB fiorpriflingly fie looked 

udanlaik 

(it is) fit for sitting oh 

227. Bakota distu adenparo tarktur paro sendata hatur 

Very good it kpptktn ^ it %« climbed on the top he MSI 

udanjogtd 

to sit 

228. TJdnakene gogote kustu munne Lingal in^a latur din 
As he was dtting cook crew before Lingo to speak began of day] 

|>asitana wakbtii 
rising (itiaj time 

229. Icbalate sedan tebtana itke jantur tahtul' Linga 
In the meanwhile the old man will rise therefore the guitar lifted lAag^ 

vahJM 



86 

230. Bitur tana tokar jltor bekone oektu tanrapodal WAJa 

He hftH ii a stroke hie gavt weU aeimded from the loMnl of it munc 

tantur nurakting 

he drew of hundred tuoes 

1231. Bakota neki lata tana leng Todda wartap 

Well to sound began it« (sound) (Was) with mouth as if sung 

pata kenjile wanta 
a song can be heard 

232. Tana agajne mada xnata kameken^ atang 

At its sound tree hill silent became 

233. Sedala nehanage konde saran sodita harkana tichi 

(In) old man's budly ears the sound entered in haste haying ris«i 

utur jakane sedal kanku tahata latnr 

he sat up quicklj old man his eyes to lift began 

234. Nehahnaye kenji latur hake bakehudi bagane diso 

He desirdd to hear began here there to look anywhere appeared 

halld 
not 

235. Pite bagatal wata nendu wadki lata bakota kogadleka 
A bird whence hast come to-day to sing began good iQaina like 

236. Madak hudi latur bagaue bange diso khalwa hudsi mator 

Tree to see began anywhere nothing appeared below looked 

287. Paro halle hudta sandi gondi hudtur 
Up did not look in thickets ravine he looked 

236. Halle bange diso sedal waya latur sardige water 

BTot anything appeand old man to come began near rood ho came 

rapo soditor kisunige hanji mltnr 

into midst of field he entered near fire having gone stood 

839. ucbi ucbi techi techi deisi dei3i kuds 

(Sometimes sitting sitting standing standing jumping jumping rolling 

kndsi yendi latur 
rolling to dance he began 

240. Pata wari latur din pasit bona sedo sakadene 

A song to sing began day dawned his cftdwonuui fa tkomoniiiig 

kenji latur 
tphoar bogoa 

241 Eenstu mawa padkat beke eiwake waja nekinte 

She hoard her towards fielda afine musio risjoj 



87 

242. Tanwa padkata walumnnige hanji niltu tanwa kowdp waja 

Of hor fi«ldi near the hedge IttTing come with her ean muiio 

kensta 
die heard 

243. Idu sedo bang kita tanwar sedan hike muedon nike 

ThBA old wonun idtat did to her old lOiD her hiubatid at her 

Tehachi 

riiecaUed 

244. Keik Bahaohi yenda latur kalk tahaohi yenda latur wadel 
Hands stMichingout todaaee began feel lifting toda&oe began neck 

wadsi yenda latur 

hanring thrown down to dance began 

245. Sedan bike sedo hada latu nawar sedal nawar 

The old man towards the <Ad woman to see began my old man my 

muede 

husband 

246. Yenku idu waja bakota lagta venleka ana yendaka idna 

To him that music melodious was like him I will dance (said) that 

sedo 

eld man 

247. Enskane soga tandta dhangunkita 

Quickly the folded end of her dress drew out (and) having made free 

walumunigetal yenda latu 
near the hedge to dance began 

246. Yeru Lingal tanwa pite bang wadkintor aHa satodhari 

That Lingo in his belly what speaks (as) I am devout 

Lingal aika penpariyor Lingana aika 
Lingo I will be Qod's servant Lingo will be 

249. Dakate dbanc:un matate ktipaA liikun mandu 

I wear down to heel the fold of dhote en head a knot tome is 

bomali hira kupade tira yetun dag mandan 
on the navel diamond on forehead tika water stain has 

250. Nakun dag balle ana Lingana aika sedal sedon diwadita 

To mi stain not I Lingo will be old man to old woman Diwalia 

dandhar 
danoe in dandar 

251. Kditoiia sar bisuka pata waruska verkun yenobuska 
Of Gk>nds in rows will held song I will cause to sinK them I will cause to dance 

ana Lingana aika 

I Lingo will be 



88 

252. Wera Lingal sewakiutor ianwa pendun Budhal pentas paror 

That Lingo wonhipped his god Budhal god'« name 

mudtur Adal pentas paror mudtur 
ho invoked Adal god's name he invoked 

253. Sola satikna paror mudtur atiara khankna paror madtur 
Sixteen tatii name invoked eighteen flvgs name invoked 

Manko Rajetal Jungo Bayeial Pharsipenda paror mudtur 

Hanko Sayetal Jungo Rajetal Pbaraipenda's name invoked 

354. Sewasewa itur idu janturta paiiu paharaua keide bitur 

Salutation said that guitar (of) vaiioua tnnes in hands held 

255. Nawu jantarta iven mohani artu ihua indur boru 

My guitar this is an allurement that has fallen so said who 

Lingal bade jantartun kameke kiya latar 
lingo that guitar silent to inake begsa 

256. Laknal parodal mama sewa itur veru Rikad Oawadi 
> From a&r from on high uncle salutation said to that Rikad Oawadi 

sedal 
the old msti 

257. Madata sendatparo huda latur sewa bhasa 
(Of) trees (on) top to see began salutation nephew 

258. Ihnn itur bbalo makuQ ime darusti bhasha yendusti 

So said well me thou bast deceived nephew thou hast oaused to dance 

bhasba bendal boke wati 

O nephew whence to whither hast thou oome 

259. Bbasha ime wada bheting yetkat horu Lingal madital 
nephew thou hast oome (1st us) embrace ea<^ other that Lingo from the tree 

ragi lator 
to descend began 

260. Sedana hanjikun keiye bitur mama sewa utur horkna 
Old man's after going hand caught O ujbcI* aslntaiioa said their 

bheting atung 

meeting took plaoa 

261. Bhashal werke matur maman mamal warke matur 

Nephew known become (to) uncle uncle known became 

. bhashan 

(to) nephew 

262. Yerkna randate jankna bheting atung mamana kie bhashal 

Those two persons meeting took place uncle's hand nephew 

bitur 

caught 



89 

263. HaDJikun kisunige uttark ver mamal pusikindur ime bhaaha 

HATing gone iMu* firt mt that unde Mked you nephew 

bendal beke watin 
from whence to what place hast come 

264. NikuQ mama malum halld sola khandyang mawakin jaktona 

To you uncle known not sizteAn scores of rohia have killed 

havena tadakitun rodsi tindakom 
their liyers having roasted we will eat 

265. Itke itom chakmakne kisa aduadom kisu aro 
ThuB we said from chakmak fire we were oauaing to fdl fire leU not 

266. Mater niwa padkatige kis manda itke agatalte jitan niva 

But your In field fire ia thenlore thenoe anmr Idiaeharged 

S67. Kisunige tira watu igetal tettu hike munne^ niwang 

Kear (your) fire arrow came thence it roae here before thy 

miyakna darwajate banji artu 

daugfaten door hafiB^gone (it) fell 

t 

268. Niwa miyak pebaksi watung bhalo maada mama niknn 

Thy daughters having lifted carried it away well done unole to you 
budhi halle 

269. Nawor tamu kisunsati rohachi matona bonku Abkesaral imet 

My brothers for fire aent I had whom Ahkeaaral you 

iindale vitlinmawa 

to eat ran 

270. Ime begeni beyeni ime tinene ana baga hudena 

(If) you would have oaogbt you would have eaten I where would have aeen him 

271. IbuQ itur sedal anate chukton bhasaha nawa bang 

So aaid old man I then have erred nephew I what 

kiyana mata hadu atu 
I done ' have tibia ia past 

272. Usuade bangii wadki lator boru Lingal ye mama anate kenja 

Then what to apeak began who Lingo O unde ma hear 

mama sola khandyang mawku jaktona davi mama khandk 
unde sixteen aooraa of deer I have kiUed go unale flesh 

tara mama hainake tinvi 
bring uncle much eat 

273. Ihun itur boru Lingal usade munne bangu wadkanur boru ver 

So aaid who Lingo then before what did he aay ^o that 

scdal nawa palo kenja bhaaha yedung miyak mandang 
old man my word hear O nephew seven daughters have 

nawang 



90 
274. Ha^en worn harenige kandku dohachi Sike yeru 

Them take vwf their eyes hftTixig tied thou duH pve them 

madming 
(in) marriage 

97£. liogal itur affatal laitur muniid niltnr hantorom mama 

lii^o aaid thenee aroae before stood I am going uncle 

276. Ihun nawa 8ewa jena mama itar agatal Lingal pasitar 

So my Balutation recehre thou unole said he thence Idogo went 

fledanang miyakna rota sariye kaada laiiir 
okdmaa'a d«ughten house way to go hsgan 

977. Banjikan faaveoa darwajate niltur Teru Lingal bara warshaDa 
HAtisg gone in their door stood that Lingo ol twelve yean 

jani disi latu 
a youth to Eoem began 

278. Sola warshana umbar diata mmiDetal hudneke maratfaa 

Sixteen years (of) i^ he i^ppearsd in fvooi wheA seen foppish 

riyon leka distor 
young man H^ appeared 

279. Pajatal hudneke bamna riyon leka eiwake riyor distor 

Behind having seen Brahnun devout like good servant appeared 

280. Hot rapodal selak jedang bahero pasitung tenku mani 

Thehottse firomwitida sisters seven out came titose regarded 

kiturk 
him 

281. Riyanleha awn watting babaro lingal monne nitting 
A9 A yotmg rata they oame out Iiteg» MdM stood 

382. Makuu veha ihun indung selak yedung 

Us tell so said sisters the seven 

Belak puse kindung ime boni andi 

sistexB to ask began thou who art 

28d. Horn bangu wadka latair niwor babo nawor mamal 

He what to say began thy father (is) my uncle 

miwa, awal mawa ato 

thy mother my aunt 

284. Ana satodhari Lingana andan pen pariyor Lingana andan 
I am devout Lingo am Qod's servant Lingo I 

285. Nawang palong k^njat ho bai nawa tiru miwa rotige 

My words hter eastftr my arrow to your house 

wasi arta ana nanegatal hudintona 
came and fell lam from a longtime searohingit 



91 

286. Nawork nalurk tamurk dongude attork ana 

My Cour brothers in jungle aat I sizteea 

khaDoiDg mawaku jaktonah 
scores of rohis have killed 

287. Aunde dangude artang havenege nawor tamurk uttork 
They also in jungle fall nearttieini my brotheiB are sat 

288. Ana kisansate watona bikene nakun walle ushir atu 

I for fire have come here to me much delay became 

289. Hake nawork tamurk sari hudseke mandanurk horkun 
There my brothers way expecting may be to them 

karu wasi mandal 
hunger felt may be 

290. Ter watksi bagada yer bagoda sodi borkun 

For water they may be thiiBty of what place water where bread they wUi 

putal 
get 

291. Than wadki lator Lingal venku bangu ^adki latang 

So to speak began Lingo to him what ^^sak hegm 

jedung selak 
seven sisters 

292. Eenja mawa palo dada ime maman marine amot 

Hear our word brother thou to unde Bon thou art and we 

atin raiyaknem andom 

to aunt daughters we are 

L Mii\a mawa eiwakc nato manda niku baga sutikikom 
Your and our good ^relattcHOship is you how will leave (us) 



294. Amot niwatoda naiakom imet wateke ana badtun hallo 

We along with you will come you come thou wherefore not 

indaka 

sayest 

295. Payana niatkete lakon gaware mamtu munne amtu 

Come (if) you come (then) quickly ready be forward be 

saribimtu ihun itur bom IdQgal 
way take so said who Lingo 

296. Iwu tamwa toranang gindang mucbanaug dikring 

These of their beds the clothes for covering heads (and) gaimenta 

bitung Lingana tir bona bonkun sisi 
took * Lingo's arrow they to him gave 

297. Munne munne Lingal pajaye pajaye riyang handa latung 

Before before Lingo behind behind young women to go b^gvi 

298. Tamurk matork ucbimatork hakene hudundurk baske wanur 
Where brothers were seated there they were looking when willheoome 



9e 

299. Lingaa woneke laknal hudturk kenjatro dada mawor 

Lingo comiog from afar they beheld hear brotbsr our 

LiDgan leka distor 
Lingo like appean 

900. Techi nilturk hiida laturk miitine Lingal pajaye yedung janik 
BftTiag risen to see began before Lingo behind eeven persons 

801. Kenjatro dada bonangte miyak bonang^ kodiyak mawor 

Hear O brother whose daughters whose daughtcnrs-in-law our 

Lingal arti 
Lingo haying taken 

302. Wantor hudat dada eiwake distang riyang mandang 

Is ooming look O brothers of good appearance young women are 

803. Siyur Lineal amot baikok kiyerat dada ihun 

(If) Lingo would give (then) we wiyes would make of them brothers so 

indur borku nalurk tamurk 

said who four brothers 

S04l Yet LiDgal kachul watur yiltur mawa palo kenjatro dada 
That Lingo near came stood my word hear brother 

305. Tedung janik mamana miyak iwu watang 
Seven persons uncles daug^ten these haveoome 

906. Iwinsati suring tandat iwu mawkna tadaking simt 

To them knives bring out of these rohis livers give 

307. Verku suring tandturk mawknang pir wohaturk tadaking 
They knives took out of rohis belly ripped (split) livers 

tanturk bore tatur *kachara kisu patusturk 
took out some brought faggots fire enkindled 

808. Eiturk tana ubara khandk haven bodsturk tanturk neli 

On its blase flesh they roasted took out (and) down 

irturk 
laid ft 

809. Idu tadaki penta parode idurkate 
This liver in Qod's name offer 

810. Ihun iturk borku* nalurk. tamurk Lingal tettur 

So said who four brothers Lingo arose 

811. Tinda laturk sabe tintork Lingal tinor 

To eat they began all ate Lingo did not est 

812. Lokor handa simt haven baven yedung selakun avenor baho 
Qniekly to go allow them the seven sisters their fiither 

ranganur wallene 
an abuse will give 



93 
318L KeDJatho bai imet lokor hanta miwa awal rang sike 

Hear astert you quickly go your mother abuse may be 

tnaDdal 

giving 

S14 Kecjtung kencfaikun indar kenja ro Linga ime bhalo 

They heard haying heard said hear O Lingo thou who art 

indana bhurain 
called good bad called (may be) 

315. Amot hanom igene mankom siwatoda waikom handakit 

We will not go here will stay along with thee we will come where you go 
bakeoe amot waikom 

there We will go 

^ 316. Nalurk tamurk wadkiutor kenja ro dada kenja ro Linga iwu 

Fourth brother flaid hear O brother hear Lingo thete 

yedung selak eiwake 
•even Bistera well aay 

317. Inge in dada iwckun woikat madming 

Tea say thou brother theee we wUl carry (in) marriage 

318. Eikat baikok kenja Linga nawang palong itang 
We will make wives hear Lingo our word (is) such 

319. Lingal kencbikim ida latar imet iv^en woikit madming 

Lingo having heard to speak b^gan you to these take (in) marriage 

baikok nakan pedha kushi wayar 
wivea (make) to me (then>« great pleasure will come 

320. Hagane woneke igene miwang madming kisiya 

Whither will you take away here only you marriage make 

miwang baikokun arikuu hanta 
I will give leave wivea to take away 

321. Herkn bona palo kencbikun ban^ wadki laturk kenja ro 

They his word having heard What to say began hear 

dada mawang palong niwa mala riya eiwake disal 

brother my word if thou wish young good looking that you §«• 

aden iraa kimu 

to her you marry « 

322. Batang puting makun sim «• aven amot kikom 

Whosoever (is) bad looking give tous we will marry 

323. Lingal bang wadki laturk kenjat ro dada nakun halle 

Lingo what to aay b^gan hear brothers to me it do not 

lago 

want 

324. Mikun kisikan nawa kamma halle 

Tou having married I will go they are of no use to me 



94 

325. Ihun itur boru Liogal imet kikite oawa kaiODe 

So Mdd who Lingo ^if) 70U nuury th«ii to mj iim thsy 

nvayanung 
will come 

326. Badeka nawa&g taogek aianung imet padhork maotiint ana 

Who to XD/B ft BisbH -iu-law will be you eldest are I am 

chidur 
younger 

327. Nakun yer sianung jetkan Aade nakun tarsi sianung 

He water they will give 1 will take bread for me bed they will Bpmd 

328. Ana narmika nakun yer mihatanungkikan dhadotang sukanung 

I will sleep me water they will give to bathe dothea they will wash 

329. Nakun tangek wanung av^akunleka disanung 

Tome aiBtera-in-law they will be like moth«;r they will appear 

330. Ihun itur Lingal ahun awak inake nalurkna tamurkna 

So said Lingo when mother he oallad them from four brotheift 

dilta pappasisi hatu 
mind sin departed 

831. Honige handa laturk hon puni kiyalaturk kenja ro Lingid 
To him to go they began to him ask began hear O Lingo 

lokor mawang madming 
quickly our marriage do 

332. Kintoni aim yedung janik mantiftig amot nalurk mantoram 

(If) thou wish (then) give seven persons they ;in» we lour are 

338. Apalo apalo baikokki sim Lingal 

(To) each one their wives distribute O Lingo 

334. Lingal bang iutor imat padhork rehall rehaku kimtu chidur 

Linge what says you are elder one two two msny (he 'vho)yottngiBst 

manton hon unde simta 
is hJm one give 

335. Iturk Lingal unde nawa palo kejat ro dada ige 

Said Lvigo the my word hear O brother in th]» 

dongude 
jungle .. 

336. Chipadite baga kintirit apalota Eachikopa Lahugad 
In the plain how can you do it our Kachik<^ Lahugad 

837. Nar manda aga iven wokat aga madming kikal ige 
Town is there to them we will take there marriage will do her* 

halle kiwa 
not do 



95 

33R Ihun iutur Lii^gai bona kenctxikun ahune kiturk agatal poeitark 

So laid Llngu they having heard bo did thence departed 

339. Borku seiurkte tacnurk awa yedungte selak agatal pasitnng 

Those the five brothora those . seven siBters thence departed 

waya latung berk uade miiDue takintork p^j^je 

to^go began they and in front they walked (Uie women) behind 



awuwantang 

followed . 

84Q. Akaue tanwa nate waturk Kachikopa Lahugad rapo 
So to their village they came Kachikopa Lahugad of 

madmina* sama kiya laturk 
marriage preparation to make began 

341. Ige halle mauyalk halle baikok Lingal yer 

Here there are no men no women Lingo water 

342. Tatintor bore yerkasu sinior bore piclii watiekinbor 

Brings lie bathes having boiled he turmeric pounded 

343. Manda dasintor toren dobtinton 

Bower he erected leaf garland he tied 

344. Nalurk tamurkun keitur bike bake pichi wadtur 

lliefour brothers he called here there turmeric powder sprinkled 

345. Nalurk tamurkun yedungte selakun picbi soktung 

To four brothers to seven siuters turmeric he applied 

346. Madming latung nawa palo keujat ro dada warsan 

Marriage cannot be my word hear O brothers all at once 

347. TJndi madming kikat waye janik mandnung dliando 

One marriage we will do the rest remaining work 

kiyanung 
wdll do 

348. XJsade avenang madming ayanung tebawn dhando kiyanung 

Then their marriage will be those (remaining) work will do 



349. Barenang munen« madming 


ayanang 


awu 


usade 


dbando 


(Those) whose at first marriages 


shall be 


they 


then 


work 


kiyanung 











will do 



350. Ihun itnr boru Lingal usado nalurkte taraurk iturk inge 

So said who Lin^o then four brothers said yes 

dada abiine kikat 

O brother no do 



851. Abun kinake madming atung bange di^'^ang atuncr padbor 

So doing maniage finished some days p<issttd eliiedt 

tamu intor nawa palo kenjat daJa 

brother says my word hear bix; .ar 



96 

332. Apalotor Lingal apalotor eiwake kitor madming kisitur 

Our Liogo our good did loarriaga did 

apalotang baikok apalotige watucg 

" our wives to our place brought 

353. Lingal bin baikonor Lingal ven baiko halle kenjat ro 

Lingo without a wife (is) Lingo to him wife not hear O 

dacla apalota bhalo kitur tanwa hallo kita 

brother our go<xl did hia < not did 

354. Tenka bagane watawa apalotor baboa leka vera atur bom 

Him anywhere throw not our father like he became who 

Lingal 
Lingo 

355. Dongude daikat sikar jikat pungak tatakat Lingal ukade 
(To) jungle we will go game will kill flowen we will bring Lingo in a awing 

udar dada 

will ait brother 

356. Ihun indurk nalurk tamurk 

So said four brothen 

357. Ukade uttur Lingal yedung selak ukad uhtinta 
In a swing sat Lingo seven aistera the awing awung 

358. Nalurk tamurk tawang tir kamtang bisikun dongude 

Four brothers their arrow and bowa having held in jungle 

haturk 

went 

359. Paja banguata yedung selak tamwa pite bang wadkintang 

After what happened seven sistera in their bell/ what aaid 

kinjat hobai ver Lingal 

hear O sisters this Lingo 

360. Mawor sherandu andur vena amot tangek andom 

Our husband's young brother is to him we aiaterinlawa are 

venu kawale awjinta 
with him aport can be 

361. Kei bise imale awjinta masi wadkale awjinta 
His hand by holding pull we can with ua to speak he can 

362. Ver Lintral matoda kawor ruatoda wadkor mahake hudor 

That Linj;o with ua tU os not laugh does not speak toward ua look not 

kank pehachi sitor 

eyes he has clodcd 

363. Kawaiiur mawatoda garsanur ihun ita 

(But) he muBt laugh with us must pliy so aaid they 

364. Bade bita kei bade bita kal bisikun umalatang ver Lingal 

Some held baud some held feet having caught pulled him that Liu|^o 

adike kanka piha(;bisitor 

more eyes cloaod 



97 

865. Halle wadkor halle hudor halle kawor usade 
Not 8|)oke not looked not laughed then 

366. Lingal bangu wadki lator kenjat ho bai imot nawa kei bisi 

Lingo -what to say began hear sister you my hands held 

867. Umi kalk bisi iirai imette nawang selakaik 

(And) pulled feet caught and pulled you are my sisters 

368. Imette nawang auhaknik ihun badi kintorit anate pen pariyor 
You are my mothers so why do this lam god's servant 

379. Nawa jewa handal bale mari anate miliake hudsi halle 

(though) my life will go never mind I will at you see nqt 

kawanar halle ihun indur boru Lingal bona kenchik 
laugh will not so said who Lingo these (word^ having heard 

370. Pedba selad hadu bangu wadkinta kinjat ro bai verte Lingal 

Eldest sister she what says hear sisters that Lingo 

wadkor halle hudor halle imet 

speak not look not at you 

371. Hanjikun bilange matang Lingana ris wata dakata 
Having gone to embrace they began to Lingo anger came from heel 

risa matate tadkta 
anger to head ascended 

372. Matate risu kadkne reita kadku kalk itang Lingal 

From head anger to eyes descended from eyes to feet came Lingo 

munne hndtor 
in front looked 

373. Bangete dista halle wanjing usana uskulam ad en hadtur 

Anything appeared not rice for cleaning the pestle that he beheld 

874. XJkadal nele raktur uskulam keide beitur 

Out of the swing down he descended the pestle in hand held 

375. Bainake tanwa tangekun jia latur jineke 

Much to his sisterinlaws to beat began aa he was beating 

376. Yedung selak munne sodita latung mudanleke jhodpang 

Seven sisteiS in front to flee began like a cow bellowing 

877. Lingal bngatal paja maltur tanwa ukadige wasikun 
Lingo thence behind turned to his swing having come 

37<^. Ukatparo narumtur iwa yedungte janik hamake 
In a swing he slept these seven persons much 

uskulamtang mar tii»ji matang 

pestle beating had received 

379. Hagatal paja maltuug tanwa ron watung apaloapalo 
Thenoe behmd returned to their houses came to their own 

kontane hanjikun 

rooms having gone 



98 



380. Yedung janike j^diiog jagan^Ekeb 

Seven Bisters in seven placef 

Lingal ukade narumtor 
Lingo in a swing slept 



haojlkun narumtaog 

Iw^ing goii» slept 



381. Ihun kinake dupardin tarkta wayana velo aita nalurk 

So doing it was noon the coming dme it was (pf) fovr 

tamurkna 

brothers 

382. Bore jaktor- kursu bore jaktor malor bore jaktor 
Some killed she antelope some killed » boar some killed 

nialu 

a peafowl 

383. Bore beitor urum bore piingar kweitor 
Some held ^uail some ^flower had plucked 

384. Hagatal handa laturk rota sari biturk tamwa rachade 

Thence to go began hcMise road took to their compound 

waturk talanang wajenk rehachi irturk da vitro dada 
came of head burdens down kept let us go brothers 

Lingan intork 

to Lingo said they 

385. Pungak sikat sari hudsike mandanur verku nalurkte 

Flower we will give way he expecting may be those four 

tamurk rotrapo soditurk 

brothers in the house entered 

386. Ukadijre hangi nilturk Lingaa hadturk Lingal narumtor 

Near a swing go^ng stood to Lingo saw Lingo was sleeping 

387. Bade disc kenjatro dada Linsral mantor narumtor apalotang 

None ixppears hear brother LiDg4l is slept our 

baikok halle disong 

wives do not appear 

'388. Havekun hundakat usade Lingal tehakat agatal pojpa 

Them we will search tbeu Lingo we will awake thence they returned 



389. 



Apalo 

To their 

laturk 
began 



apilo 

own 



k on tana 

rooms 



handa 
to go 



laturk 

began 



hanjikun 

having gone 



hada 
to see 



390. Iwaw narumtang 

These are slept 

pusikiya laturk 
to ask began 



yndki 

as if fear 



watap 

hid come 



kuthe mantang yerku 

pautiug they 



391. Badi narumtorit Linsfana ukad uhavit mawa palo kenjat 

Why liast thou slept Lingo are not swingiuj^ our word hear 



99 

892. Hor Lingal xniwor tamu bacbojel amot maktiskom 
That liiDgo your brothei^B (acts) how long we may hide 

893. Iraet doDgude sirkartum hantorit paja Lingal mawang 

Tou to jungle for hunting to go (alljwa) behind Lingo our 

• yat yetintor 
shame takes 

894. Bachajel pito daskom ital buddhi vena Lingana 
How long in belly shall we keep such the conduct of this Lingo 

manta uendom daskom 
is till to-day we have kept 

395. Toga amot hallo kcnjanal amot mawor babona nate 
Now we will not hear we to our fathers' town 

bandakom 
will go 

396. Amot halle rehemayom undi baikon reball muedork 

We not will remain for one wife two husbands 

baitun pahiji 
why should be 

897. Tamiirk wadki latork ver Lingan munnene indal 
Brethren to speak began that Lingo formerly told us 

898. Aga yedung selak manda evenrapodal achikun ime 
There seven sisters are amongst them having chosen one yom 

munnene baiko kim 
before us wife make 

399. Pissanung hon haven amot kikom ver Lingal indur 
Those who shall remain' them we willmairy that Lingo said 

400. Nawang selak andung nawang awak andung 

Our sisters they are our mothers they are 

401. Indur papi Lingal dushte Lingal karam chandali Lingall 

Baid sinner Lingo wicked Lingo of bad conduct Lingo 

402. Sika:ita parode nade kikat 
Of hunting in the name deceived ua 

408. Dongude woikal venku jaksi watkat venang 

In jungle we will take away him having killed we will throw his 
kadku tandakat 
eyes will puU out 

404. Nend dom kursana sikar jindom maloda sikar jindom 
To-dkj till antelope we have killed of hare ftp^y killed 

405. Lingana sikar jikom bonang kadku tansikum 

Lingo's hunting will do his eyes having taken out 

406. Ooling garsakom aske sodi tinkom yeru undakom 
Aamarbto will play then bread will eat water we wiU drink 



100 

407. Hanjikun Linganige nilturk tendaro Liogaitedaro dada 
Haying gone to Lingo they stood rise O Lingo InotiMr 

cbidore 
the joungest 

408. Badi dada tata halevit punga tnalsi watit 
Why brother you have not brought flower why have you oome back 

achorte dina banda 

so great a part of the day is set 

409. Bate janwar andu hadenk hainake jkitorom hadu aro 
Whatever animal it might-be to it however we strike it does not fall 

410. Halle sodigo hagane nilta amot jineke dorsi hatom 

Not flee there it stands we by striking tired 

411. Lingal ukadal tettur uttur tamurkan hike hndtur 

Lingo from a swing arose (and) sat brothers there look 

412. Hadu janwartun jiakan ihun itur Lingal 

That animal I villkill so said Lingo 

413. Aga^l titturk rotal pasiturk davitro dada baga mania 

Thenoe arose from home went come O brothers where is it 

414. Munne Lingal pajaye naTurk dongude laturk dongude 

fief ore Lingo behiud four to jungle to go b«gan the jungle 

sari bitnrk 
way they took 

415. Pedha jat mata korite haturk mada hudintork 

Large- kind was it {viz. the animal) as they went trees they searched 
jadi budintork 
grass searched ** 

416. Lingal bangu wadkintor kenjatro dada nawang palong 

Lingo what says hear O brothers my woid 

batute bani batte 
if it has gone let it go 

417. Lingal sarekata madat aid hanjikun utur verini 

Lingo the Char tree below having gone nt thai* 

nalurkte dada iturk 
four brothers said 

418. Uda Lingo yer tatinterom babadi aturk 

Sit O Lingo water we will bring yonder went 

419. Madakun adam aturk Ukesaral bangu wadki lator kenjatro 

Of tree to the side came what to aay began hmt 

dada eiwake Lingal dhadmite utor 
brother good Lingo in shade sat 

420. Ide wakht manta nalurkte tamurk nalung tirk tandat suti 
This the time is four brothers four airows took and 

kiturk 
discharged ^ 



101 

421. Bore jitur talladun worshi 
8om» bit to the head (it) split open 

422. Bore jitur gudaDgattm gudanga hata bore jitur tadakitun tadaki 

Some hit the neck neck f eU lome hit to thje Uver (it) deft 

423. Ahune Liugana jiwa pasisi hatu 

So Lingo's life went away 

424 Nalurte tamurk waya laturk wasikun Lingan kachul nilturk 
Four brothers to come began having come Lingo near stood 

425. Suring tandat kadku tandat suri tantur 

A knife let us draw ont eyea we will draw out knife (they) drew out 

426. Lingal kachul hatur randute kadku tantur bangu wadki 

Lingo near went two eyes drew out .what to say 

latur sinitu 

began we will bury him 

427. Kakadang ari Linganparo mucha latur 

Twigs having taken on Lingo to cover began 

428l Bangu wadki latork Lingan jaktat Lingal dusbt 

What to say began Lingo we have kUled (that) Lingo wicked 

429. Pandta mada tanang aking koitork hadena doca kiturk 

Ripe tree its leaves they plucked its eup made 

430. Hadurupo randute Linganang kadku irturk nadide 

In it two of Lingo's eyes placed in their wiiat 

dohaturk 
they tied them 

481. Handa laturk Rota sariye waya laturk ronu waturk 

To go began house way to come began to house came 

432. Bangu wadkintor undi kcnjatro baikoknit lakore kisu pattisat 

What says one hear wives quickly fire kindle 

433. Diveng dasat iwu munguda huradi umtung kisu 

Lamps light they of the leaves the flax stalks drew out firs 

paturtang 
enkindled 

434. Bangu wadkintor undi kenjatro dada eiwake yedachi 

What says one near O brother good light 

ata ingane goling gursakat 
has become now marbles we will play 

435. Yerku ^ hadinropodal kadku tanturk usade undi bangu 

They^'* from waists eyes took out then one what 

wadkintor yedungte selaknit imet wadat goling 
says O seven sisters you come^ marbles 

garsintiorom 
we will play 



102 

436. Yerku kadk tanturk Qndi kad khalwa irturk nndi 

Those eyes brought out oim #79 ude kept on one 

kad paring 
one eye on another {fade) 

437. Tamurk uchi horkonigi situr keida botate golUeka 
The brothers eat down near them gave Qn) hands finger marble like 

biturk 
they held 

43S. Hagatal golitleka jitur jineke verkun hikekhalwa 

Thence marble like (will) strike while striking to their aide 

watu golina garsmud verkna lagtu undi gatka 
the marble game their lasted one hour 



PART III. 



The revival of Ltngo^ and his delivery of the Ootids from bondage* 



i. Bang peDdim kimad 

What god did (now) 

12. Rayetan kimad Pharsip«ntuii kimad bang atu parodipne 

did did wh^t happened in the upper worlds 

3. Sabbe penkna - uchu kacheri Sri Israna 

All minor diTiniues having sat in the court of god's 

4. Horu bangu wadki lator kenjatro gadyalknit kenjatro badu 
They what began to say hear O friends hear in what 

. Dipne murda arta 

world (has this) dead body fallen 

5. Hona koju kimtu bor andur 

His trace will do who may he be 

•6. Seijnmg akina vida kitur rishirk munne wadtur 

Five leaves bida he made of rushis in front he threw 

7. Hudatu hudi ikun nahaga wadatu nahaga veha ihun itur 

Having seen him near me come (and) me tell so said )m 

8. Vida rishi halle tahatork 

Bida the rishis not lifted 

S, Usade siri isral bainake risne wator ranga lator 
Then to god much anger came to reproach began 

10. Siri Isral tettur tbalite yer keyustur kei kal nortu 

Qod arose in a pot water called hands and f €<et washed 

11. Mendoda macbu tantnr tana kawal kitur tanrapo amrit 

(From his) body dirt he took (of) it crow he made on him ambrosia 
wadtur 

sprinkled 

12. Sajjiv kitur Kagesur paror irtur keide bitur tanku 
Made it alive the name of Kagesur he kept in hand he held it 

13. Wadkintor Siri Isral handuki dongude matan rupo karitrapo 

Says Qod go in jungle between hills glens 

samtinrapo joditrupo yetrapo hududi 
valleys in rivers in water shalt thou look 

14. Agatal kawal handu latu parodipne walita latu 
Thence <nrow to go began in the upper world to roam began 

15. Halle bagane disc hagatal sidtadipne watu haga huda lata 

Did not anywhere see thence in thel^erwoiid came there to look began 



104 

16. Kacfaikopa Lohugad adena dongude M^asikum hudu latu 

of its jungle having come to look began 

matane korite 
in the hilly valleys 

17. Najur batu kakadang distu agatal kawal tettu 

Sight fell t^igs appeared thence orow ardae 

hanjikuQ kakadanige uttu kakadanrapo hudu lattu 

having gone near twigs sat under twigs to search began 

18. Lingal artor bttrotaye distur honku kadk halle honu 

Lingo was fallen bad he appeared to him eyes were not his 

talla worta distu piru worta distu paduk pasitang 
head burst appeared belly bui^t appeared intestines come out 

distu 
ap{)eat^ 

19. Eawal hudtu agatal kawal tettu tuda latu waya latu 

Crow looked thence crow ^6nt to tty ' be^n to cotne begao 

parodipne 
in the upper world 

20. 3iri Israna keitparo wasikun uttu veru Siri Isral pusi kitur 

God's on hands having come 6at that Gud to ask began 

baga manta kharone veha 

where (and) what is truly tell 

21. TTsade Eachikopa Lahugad hadena dougude ivatan haga 
Then in its jungle I came there 

hudtan waror manyal koritrapo artor 
I searched one man in a cave is fallen 

22. Siri Isrkl tantea pitd keraekena atur samje matur 

Gk)d in his beUy became silent (and) understood 

23. Hade dongude pahindi pungar mada tnata Litiga! 

In that jungle Pahindi flower's tree was (where) Lingal 

Jon me masi 

was bom 

24. Askedal wata lialle 
Since then came not 

25. Botutal amrit tantur keitur Kurtao Subal honku vehatur 
Out of his finger ambrosia took out he called to him said 

26. Ime idu honu amrit womu todakeparo pitparo watakin 
Tou this to him ambrosia take on his liver on the belly sprinkle 

tallatparo watakin 
on the head 'sprinkle 

27. Munne kawal paja Kurtao Subal handa laturk Kachikopa 

In Yrotit or6w behind to go began to 

Lahugad ta 



105 

28. Kenja ho kawade mawor Lingal andur ihun itur 

Hear crow my Lingo is thus said 

Eurtaoa Subal 

29. Amrit tantur bona todde wadtur bona tallat puro 
Ambrosia brought in hia mouth put and his head un 

wadtur bona pit paro wadtur usade Lingana talla 
put his belly on put then Lingo's head 

jude znaya latu 
join to 



30. Mendol kastu 
(His) body became warm 

31. LiDga techikuH 

Linga arose "" 

32. Uda latur kawalbike buda latur ba&gu wadki latur Linga 

To sit began crow to see began what to say began Lingo 

nana bainake matona 
I in deep (sleep) was 

33. Nawork tamurk beke baturk 

My brothers where have gone 

31 TJndi kawal waror manyal distpr nawork tamurk disork 

One crow one man is seen my brothers are not seen 

ibun ineke 
so said 

35. Wadkintor turtao Subal bagatork niwork tamurk 

So he said Kurtao Subal where are your brothei-s 

36. Tme te Basi matoni arse matoni amot watom nihun tebatom 
You dead Yrare lying you were we came you raised 

37. Tamurkna paror matintom borke nikun jakturk borku 

Of brothers name take they you killed they 

baturk 
went »way 

38. Indur Kurtao Subal veru Linga bangu intor kenja 
(Then) said to Kurtao Suba) that Linga what sayi hear 

kaku 

crow 

39. Ana handakan nawung sola kadaug koiturk 

1 wifi'go to my sizttoeb scores (of Qondti) 



40. Handakan borkun budakau aske wayakan 
I willigo thdm IwiU-see with them 1 will speak 



41. Kawal Kurtao Subal verku andii laturk 
Crow and Kurtao Subal both to go began 



106 

42. Linga handa laturk dusara sarye 

Liuga to go began another way 

43. Linga batur undi mata waiiutu undi mata turginton 

Linga went one mountain passing one mountain ascending 

dongude handu lator haoeke din mulitu 
in jungle to go began tlien day waa set 

44. Veru Lingo bangu wadktar inga dinu hatu ige rehe 

That Lingo what said now day is set here staj 

znayka waronaye 
I will alone 

45. Benke chital wayah nakun tindal bcnke 
From somewhere tiger will come me will eat from somewhere 

yadjal wayal nak tindal 
bear will come me will eat 

46. Veru pedhajat nirura mada aden hudtur 

That large niroor tree to it he went 

47. Tanparo turktur shendute aga din mulit 

Thereupon he climbed to the top then day set 

48. Dongur gogoting kusintang mulk tahosintang kursk 

Wild cocks crow«d peacocks cried antelope 

chamrke mantang 

afraid were 

49. Yedsku game mantang kolyalk kolla kintang dongur 

Bears wagged their heads jackals a yell made jungle 

gajbaje 

resounded 

50. Ardho rat ata Lingo bangu wadkintor -eiwake 

Half night passed Lingo what was saying good 

jango mamal pasitor 
moon is up 

51. Yedachi atu sukkuk pasltang verkun pusi kiku nawa 

The light coming stars appearing to them ask I will about 

koiturk 
my Qonds 

52. Mund pabark atu gogoti kustee 
At the third watch of night cock crowed 

53. Via sukkum pasitor lal abhar atu din pasita 
Homing star appeared red sky became day appeared 

54. Veru Lingo madatal rutur vicbike bandu latur 

That Lingo from tree -came down running to go begui 

dintunige bunjikun Hsewa kitur 
towards the sun having gone salutation made 



107 

55. Yehatu nawa sola kadatig koitork baga mantofk 

Tell mj sixtMO ■cores «l Qond« where mrn 

56. KeDJa Linga nanate sin israna cbakari kiritona naldtlg 

Hear Liogo I ef god's eervioe I do four 

pabark takiDtona 
watohee I imrel on 

57. Distu faalle 
I nw (them) not 

58. Agatal Lingo jango maman ige WatWi 

Thence Lingo moon undo to oame 

59. Sewa kitur ban pusi kitur maitia ftawang 
Ehdutation made him uked O unde my 

60. Sola kadang koitorkuti hudsi kenja jango mandaU 
Sixteen ioorae el Qonde eeen hear O moon if yon half 

nakun vehata 

tome tell 

61. Kenja Lingo anate narkapoding takintona din 

Hear Lingo I night all walk daylight 

pasinta aske udintona siri israna cbakaii 
Until then I sU (in) god'a aerrioe 

62. Nakun malum ballo 

To mo known not 

691 Agatal handa lator ver Lingo karyal kumaitunige 
Froi4uthen to go began that Lingo to black kmnait 

64 Hanjikun sewa itor pusikitor nawang sola kadang koitork 
After going salutation made asked my sixteen scores of Gbnda 

baga mantork 
where are 

65. Kenja Linga sabbena paror muta koitorkna paror mutma 

Hear Lingo of aU the names mention of Qonds'' names do not mcntio 

66. Gadhana jat koitona barabar manda 

To asses' caste Qonds equal^ are 

67. Bilal unde tintork yalli undo tintork gbusi undo tintork 
Cats also they eat mice also they eat bai^dicoota also they est 

68. Padi unde tintork mudatang kbandk jedmitang tintork ital 

Pigs also they eat cow's flesh buffaloes they eat Bueh 

buratai mantork 
bad they are 



69, Horkunigerk nakun barkur pusi kiya 
▲houtthem me why you ask 



108 

70. Dlmwalagiri PMwat Jtrnma^ii* tiritb 

DhAWHlagiii moiuitain. JasmA place of wonlfip 

71. Hagft MahadewA* manda* horn sabbe^ kottorku^ bisikim. 

Thero Mahadeo ia lie all Gonda caught (faoaTiBg) 

72. Yaditrapo muchi sitor sola kutang tongi tana todtparo 

In a cave shut did aixieao cubita atone on ita monib 

darwajate muchi situ 

door coyered 

75. Basmasur Deitumi^ pahara irtu deitur- kepintar 

Baamaaur giant, afiagt:^^ kepjb the giant .wutchingXtiieplaaa)^ 
74. Lingo agat^.1. posUur taka . latur amte unde takintu narka 

lingo fromthece atai^ted to walk b(9gai» day.- and he walked* nij^t 

7-5^, Tap kitur bara . ipahinapg^ at^ng vena tapu nintu 

I)9TQtlon madd twelve j, moQtl)3; paasQd.. wh^n dei^otixat waa. oompletod 

76. Mahadewa undana sonota cbowrang dagmage; muta 

Mahadej*a aitung goMen stool toahake began 

77,' Mahadew§t indur nawa Dhawalagirat paro boru Risku. wator 
Kahadeo said my Dhaw^lagiri on whr^t Deyotee haaoome 

ige tap kitu nawa. paro 
here devotion made me npon 

78. Waje kitu ihun itur Mahadewa 
Load he put thus said Mahadeo 

79. Hand^^ latur hud^Jatur xnaka latur: 

To go began to see b^gan to wonder began 

89: Li^gau^ kacbul, hatuick lake nilti^rk hiatal hudturk 

lingo towards went after stood from there saw 

verte Linga 

he was Lingo 

81^: Halle kei maluyor h'alle . kal tahator kadkne hudor 

Do not hand ahake' do not feet lift up with eye do not see 

82. Sabbe savi watta padekaye pi9ta ihun . Lins^l sahakun paro 

All flesh wasdiy bones renmining thus Lingo thorna updft 

nasumtu 

was asleep 

83. Mahadewa bangu wadkilatur 

Mi»hsdii> what began to.aaf 

84. Ime xaluka bang talukiya bang indaki hadi»- siksa* 

Tou aak what ask what yoawiah tfait Iwillgiv% 

85. Yer Linga bang intor/- 
Thia Lingo what lay 



109 



86. Nakun badaadaya tamti haHe na^aDg Sbla kadtfng 

Ferine any thi4 , lew U not my «xteon «sori. 

koitork nakun siina 
of GondB me gi^o 

87. Mahadewa intor 

Kfthadeo said 

aa Paror mutma baga dayo lajye tuluka bange 

Name dont take ofiiy pl«oe kmgdom .A «y amount . 

rupyang tuluka uchi tendake 

money aak whioh you will enjoy 

ar Mawa nuror nmtaki ihun itur Mahadewa Lingal kBiqts 
' My n«ne take ttua aaM Mahadeo Lingo agne 

halle 
did not 

90 Koitorkun taluktur Mahadewa jaba hare koiturkun situr 

Mahadeo disappeared the Qouds gtTe 



Qonda 



onaakiog 



koitork 
Gondi 



mantork 



91. Kenja Linga bhuyartrapo niwork 

Hetf Lingo below the earth your 

horkun worn 
tlio*a tike away 

92. Lingal tettur sewa itur handu latur 

Tnn g o arose salutation made to go began 

93 Vera Narayan bang intor kenja Mahadewa sahbetinne 
This Narayan what said he^vr Mahadewa all 

koitork verku 
QondB 



M Besh makstti^ paror marso mata sasi manerk 

(Were}weU oonoealed (their) name. forgotten. ia (ilthey)i 

mnkan bukota mata 

to me good would have been 



95. Undo Terku koitork jitoaturk bhuyatal positnrk 
Again. saidi (if) Oonda living. from below the earth- caMiovt 

ahtmer kinnrk 

aaniual they will eat 

96. Tedming tendanurk pileng purhuk tendanurk kaw^ 

Buflfalo they win eat WwU and pigeon*: theyyinaiLest: ceam 

giduk dhokuk 
eagles and vultures 



97. RnaTning beke hake was wayal pad^kang 
Win aBghf heroandthere itink wiUr-- **^- 

buTotai disal 

bad look 



artmang 

wiUiaU 



110 

98. Mawa Dhawalagirita satwo bude mayal 

My Dhawalagiri's puritj lost will bo 

99. Hona keDJtur Mahadewa kenja Naray&n undi palote 

His (word) heard Mahadeo hear Nanjma aij word 

ana sisi 
I have given 

100. Chuktan nawaipe dnsaro halle 

lorred near me aoofthar hanisiiol 

101. Narajan bang intor 

Karayan what said • 

102. Eenja Linga mawa punjatua karyal Biado pitetaog 

Hear Lingo {or my offenog blaok Biodo biidi 

chiwak ime arikun 
youug ones for me bring 

IQi Usade nawork koitorkuu womu 
After that from me the Qonda take away 

104. Lingo Yontur daryawun kachul hatur aga hudintor beke 

Lingo reaohed the sea near went thart he saw here 

heke yer dista 
and there water was visible 

105. Ina kudkate karyal Bindo pitetung chiwaka manda 
Of that sea-shore black Bindo the birds youag unea were 

admanasalk 

male and female 

106. Bandute dongude hatung 

Both to jai«gle had gone 

107. Aada pile batal mandu yenin jakund tanang 

That bird how was dephant killing of that (elephaak) 

kadnu tindu talla wohtand tana maddur 
the eyes they ate the head breaking of that bcaia 

108. Chiwakiin tatund piteta yedung khopka yetrapoda 
For young ones they brought of this bird seven broods aqujitio 

109. Bhowarnag tnanda tarasu idu tinji mata ver Linga 

Bhowamag was snake he eaten had this Lingo 

kachul batur 
near went 

110. Chiwakua hudtiir bang wedkintor 

The youog ones seeing what (he) said 

111. Paja woyakan nakun kalle indanurk 
In absence if I take (the young ones away) me a thief they wiHoall 

112. Horkun munne woyakan ana Lingana aikaa 

In their presenoe if I take them away I Ling)^ will be 



Ill 

118. Chiwakun kachul naramtur hainaki 

The young ones near healept with comfort 

114. Itumna kodtleka tarasa tosuro distu 

Name trunk like snake thick appeared 

115. Setitichor tana phadi kitu idu Bhowaraag 
Like basket (for winnowing com) his hood was this fihowamag 

tarasu yetropodal chiwak tendale waya latur 

make from water the young ones to eat to come began 

116. Iwa chiwak torasun hudtung hainake wuritung ada 

These young ones the snake seeing much were terrified to cry 

latuDg 

began 
117 Lmgubhan parekatal tir tantur kamtatun jodi kutur 

Lingo from his back arrow took (in) bow fixed 

tiru 
the arrow 

118. Jitur turasna yedung khandang kitur nake vitur 

Shot the snake seven pieces he made fast ran 

yedungte khandang 

all seven pieces 

119. Mahachi tuttur talla wada vitur adenpara 

Carried and brought (of) his head on the side he kept at 

muchi situr 
covered 

120. Usade dongudal kuryal Bindo radute admunsaolk 

Then from the jungle black Bindo both male and female 

121. Bade jakta hutum bange jaktork yening badena konku 

Some they killed camels some they killed elephant some eyes 

bitork yenotang 

got of elephant 

122. Ihiin chiwakan sati eharo arikan wajra latung 

These young ones for food taking coming began 

128t Iwu chiwaku charo tinong 

These young ones food will not eat 

124. Usade bangu wadku latung bodu kuriyal Bindo pitte tanwor 

Then what to say began female black Bindo's bird to her 

muedon bangu inta 

he ones what said 

1S6. Tedung velku atung asikun 

Seven times I got notwithstanding 



112 

126. Ana tongu wangu yedmileka mantona iwu teri 

I am now without (young ones) buffalo like I am these il 

pisanung 
can be spared 

127. Ana chawa wale disuka ihun itan usade nawang chiwang 

I like mother of child will look thus said again (on) my young odm 

batita diti lagta 
what evil eye has fallen 

128. Iwu tinung balle 

These eat do not 

129. Tanor munsiir neli budtur pandri distu Linga nAmmsi 

Her he one alighted (and) looked white appeared Lingo aleepLog 

bon 
this 

130. Hudtu kenja bo inawang cbiwak tenal balle neli buda 

Saw hear these , our young ones eat do not below set 

manyal 
a man 

131. Mantor bontu jaksi wata bona tullada madur tansi 

There ia him kill of his head brain take out 

132. mawang cbiwaka cbaro tindanung 

Our young ones food for eating (will be) 

133. Cbiwaku kenchikun bangu wadkintang 
The young ones hearing what they said 

184. Makun ime cbaro tatan amot babun tindakom imet babo 



For us 


you food have 


brought we 


how eat you father 


ime 
you 


awal mawor 
mother of us 


andit 

are 




[akun 
Us 


wadsikun 

leaving 


dongude 
to jungle 


bandit ige mabaga 
you go here near us 



boru rebe mandur 

who remains 

136. Hakun boru kepandur 

Us who will guard 

137. Idu yetrapodal Bbowamag makun tindale wandu 
This aquatic Bhowamag us to eat was coming 

138. Horn manwal mator mawa jiva pistu met hudtit 



That man was here our life was saved 



you 



139. Ponko tindale dosat boru tindanur usade amot tindakom 
Him to eat give he eats alter we will eat 



113 

140. TJsade chiwakna kenjtu 

After (of) the young ones heazing 

141. Awal neli LiDgan kuchal wasikun atto bona tullawadutai 

Themotlier below Lingo near coming sat his head from 

142. Dupta tuhustu hudtu hagu yedung khandang Bhowamag 

Cover having lifted eaw these seven pieces of Bhowamag 

143. Hudsikun tanwa pite baogu -wadki latu 

Seeing in her belly -what to say began 

144. Ide taras eabbe iiawang cbiwak titu nakun -v^anjulal kitu 

This snake all my yoimg ones ate me childless made 

146. Veru manyal halle idunde kepne tiDJi mamwal usada 

If this man was not (there) the young ones eaten would have again 

karyaJ Bindo 

the black Bindo 

146. Fitte bangu wadki lata tedu ro dada tedura baba ime bonu 

Bird what to say began rise brother rise father you who 

and! beke wati 

are whence you have come 

147. Nawang chawanu jiwa pisusti mawor pedhor baba ati 

Of my young ones the life you saved our grand &ther you bectmt 

148. Ime bangu indaki badu amot kenja kan 

You whatever say that we hear will 

149. Linga bangu wadkintor kerja 

Lingo what said hear 

150. Ho karyal Bindo pitteti anate satwadhari Linga penparyor 

black Bindo bird I am a devotee Lingo worshipper of deity 

151. Ime bartun wati Linga makun veba ibun itu badu 



^G' 



Tou why came Lingo us ;tell thus said who 

pitte 
the bird 

152. Kenja pitteti niwang rundute chiwakun nakun simu 

Hear bird your both young ones me give 

ibun itur boru Lingal 

thus said who Lingo 

153. Usade cbiwa'xna paror mutaneke kuryal Bindo pitte 

Then of young ones the name on taking black Bindo bird 

bainake adu latu 

much to cry began 

154. Eudhek tantn bangu wadki latu 

Her eyes lifting up what to say began 

165. Kenja Linga unde bange talukem anaseyena 

Hear Lbgo any other thing if you (would have asked) I would have givMi 



114 

156. Nawang chiwakna paror halle matni 
My joung ones name do not mentioa 

167. Usade bangu wadki latur Lingal 

Then what to say began Lingo 

158. Haga Mahadewa mantor bona najude hudansati niwan^ 
There Mahadeo ia for him with eyea to look your 

chiwakun wontona 
young ones I will take 

159. Usade banga wadkiuta kuryal Bindo pitte 

Then what said black Bindo bird 

160. Kenja Linga Mabadewa keitor amot wayakom 

Hear Linga (if) Mahadeo oalla we will go 

161. Undo khato pakal paro tanwa randute cbiwakim upusta 

One Bide of wing on their both young ones made to lit 

undi khaku Linga upusta 

on one aide Lingo made to sit 

162. Usade karyal Bindo pittetor mansur bangu wadkiator 

Then black Bindo bird's male what aaid 

kenja Linga 
hear Lingo 

163. Ana bartun mandaka mikun hainake yaddi lagal 

I for what will remain you much aim will feel 

164. Ihun itur noli modi tudintu paro 
Thus Eaid from below the female flew up 



K Tanor mansur 


dhadim 


kitur 


daryawan 


igetal 


tuda 


Her male 


shelter 




towarda the sea 


thienoe 


to fly 


latur 













166. Sarung mebinana sari mata iwu pitteng sakadene pasitang 

Six months' road was this bird early in the morning started 

167. Dupar ayo te wasikun Mabadewata rachede reitung 
Mid-day till they flew of Mahadeo in the court they alighted 

168. Duadal hudtur Narayan vichike hanjikun Mahadewatige 
From door seeing Narain ran and going Mahadeo 

vehata latur 
to show began 

169. Kenja Mahadewa ver Lingo karyal Bindo petten ari 

Hear Mahadeo this Lingo black Bindo bird has brought 

170. Usade Mahadewa bangu wadki later kenja Narayan 

Then Mahadeo what to say began hear Karain 

171. A.nate wadkandan anate vehandan ime haQe T^jrhorte Lingo 

I told I imderatood you hear did not lingo 



115 

172. Tatanur suti kiuar halle 

Will bring leave will not 

173. Usade mahadewa wadktur kenja Lingo niwang sola kaciang 

Then mahadeo said bear Lingo your aizteen Boorea 

koitorkun 
of Gonds 

174. Womu sitan hanu Lingal 

Take I have given and go Lingo 

175. MahadewatuQ sewa kitur yadit karun hatur Fhursipenda 

To mahadeo aalutation be made cave near the he went great god'a 

paror 
name 

176. Mutatur Rayetana paror mutatur basmasur deituro tabadi 
He took of Rayetan god'a name be took baamasur giant in front 

kitur 
made to go 

177. Sola katang tangi chira tachikun bahadi irtar tamvang 
Sixteen cubits of stone piece lifting up aside kept bis 

178. Koiturkuro bahers tantur borku koiturkun budtur verku 

Gonds out brought those Gonds aaw him these 

koitork bango wadkintor 
Gonds what said 

179. Kenja Lingo mawor bore balle makun vera mabadewa 

Hear Lingo we have one no to ua thia mabade» 

180. Gahokna pindi bone situr janana pindi 

Of wheat flour to some gave of millet flour 

181. Boue situr paryok 
To some he gave rice 

182. Yadite aturk atu laturk bonake intork 
To river went to cook be£;an some were saying 

183. Kondi kusi mator muwa jiwata botal solu kitur 

What he had kept them our lives bow punish be did 

184. TTsade Linga bangu wadkintor 

Then Linga what said 

*% 

185. Imet yadite datu imet atatu tintu usade wadkakel 

You in river come you cook and eat then you speak 



PART IV. 



The suhcUviiian of thfi Qondi into tribes^ and the imtitution of the wonhip 

oj the Gondgods, 



1. Lingo pistur rotang kitur kusari atatur sabbe 

Lingo (having) kneeded thiolc cake made pulae cooked all 

koitorkna atmad atu 
Qond*B souIb satisfied 

2. Ihun abhal tettu piru ara latu 

Then clouds aroee rain to fall began 

3. Joditun usa waya lata sabbe koitork 
To a river flood to come began ell Gonda 

bangu wadki 
what (began) to speak 

4. Linga hainake pir tetta palang pirurinia 
O Lingo much rain rose up rain is falling 

5. Yerku koitork handa laturk sabbe koitork joditrapo handa 
Those Gonds to go began all Gonda in middle of river to go 

laturk 



6. Horkun rapadork nalung koitork Lingan toda rahe maturk 

Them amongst four Gonds Lingo with remained 

7. Hotu LiDgal hudtiir bangu wadki lator kinjat dada 
That Lingo saw what to speak began hoar brother 

8. Joditur usa wata apalo had khak bahur handakat 
To river flood came we that side how we shall go 

9. Adhike abhal watu andhar atu 

More clouds came darkness became 

10. Verku nalurkte jank Lingal bang wadkintor 
(To) those four persons Lingo what speaks 

11. Kinjat dada bahun kikat bahun handakat din hanta 

Hear brother how we will do how we will go day is going 

12. Dame kasuwal Fuse magral yetrupo garsiki 

Dame the tortoise Fuse the aligator in water were playing 

'l3. Waya latung virkunkachul jetropodal wadka latung 
To come they began to them out of water to speak hogjui 



117 

14. Kinjatro dada imet badi kamehene atorit adintorit 

Hear brother you why gilent became (and) cry 

15. Mawang sola kadang koitork achorte haturk amot 

Our sixteen scores (of) Qonds all went we 

rahematam 

remained 

16. Bahiin handakom kinjat dada mawang palong amot 

How we shall go hear O brothers our word we 

mikun rehachi sikom 
you a crossing will give 

17. Makun imet pari kikot te amot rehachi siya 

With us you oath keep then we a crossing will giy* 

18i Wadki lator kenja bai imet te Fuse maffrani 

(They) to speak began hear nsten you than Pus« th« idigator 

imette Dame kaswane 

you Dame the tortoise 

19. Undi verku nalurk jank mantork nikun munne pari 

First those four persons (who) are you firas <»th 

kinurk 
keep 

20. Nikun bora jianur jiasmar halli bori biamur biasenar 
(If) you any will beat to beat we will not allow any apprehend (to) cstoh 

halle 

we will not (allow) 

21. Imette verkna nnlurkte jankna pedha turad aiki 

Tou to those four persons eldest sister will beoom* 

ihun itur 
thus spoke 



22. Dame. kaswal Fuse magral todit kachul waturk 
Dame the tortoise Fuse the tdigator face near came 

verkraal urkte jank Fuse magranporo parekate warore 
those sat persons Puse the aligator's on back alone 

Lingal Dame kuswana parekate 

Lingo Dame the tortoise on back 

2Sl Dame kaswal paja atix Fuse magra munne atu 
Dame the tortoise behind became Puse tbeoligator in front bMame 

usatrapo sodita 
in flood entered 



24. Bangu kiya 

What to do 

muduta 
to drown began 



latu 
began 



nahirkunte 
to the four 



arikun 
having taken 



opoadhike 
in deep water 



118 

25. Yerku ada laturk usade kaswal banga wadkinta kinja 

Thtfj toory begaa then tortoise what Bpoka hear 

Linga 
Lingo 

26. Itne kai simu horkun nawa parikat paro umsi yena 
Ton hand give to them mj back on drag 

27. Lingal kei situr nalurkunte bitur umsi yetur kaswana 

Liugo hmd gave to the four caught dragged from water tortoise 

parikate upustur 
on back caused to sit 

28. Idu kaso rechachi situ tana parekate nuliirkto jank 

This tortoise a croaiang gave on his back to four persons 

29. Eal kara laturk kenjtin ka3wa amot nikun halle 

On feet to faU they began hear tortoise we have to you not 

beimaw anal 
faithless become 

30. Usade verku handa laturk donguda sariye undi mata 

Then those to go began by jungly way one hill 

Torgentork 
ascended 

31. Undi mata runtork handa latork munni 

One hill descended to go began forward 

32. Yerku madak nadktur robk dohaturk munda laturk bekebake 

Thoae trees cut house built to remain began here there 

33. Netku kiturk achorte rohku koltorkna kiturk pedhojat naru 

Fields made all hooae for Qonds made large city 

atu 
became 

34. Agane hatum nebaturk pedba nar Bhumi atu 

There a bazaar held large Bhumi became 

35. Wadkt later dada imet netku yadakit janang anung 

To say they began brother you fields sow jawari will spring 

36. Usade verkun bara mabinang atung aiwake Bhumi sahar 

Then to them twelve months became a good Bhumi dty 

disa latu 
to appear began 

37. Bone kondang halveke honku kondang atung 

Who bullocks have not those bullocks became (received) 

38. Ben godang halveki hon gadang atung sabbe wadang 
Those who carts have not to them carts became all endorarea 

naru nande matu 
(of) dty prosperous beoama 



119 

39. lingal achorie koitork waturk manditel woriya 
To Lingo sU Oondi came gIom to thigh in rowi 

40. Utturk nadttm Lingal Diltur usade Lingal wadka latur 

Sot inmidflt Lingo stood then Lingo to apeak began 

41. Kenjatro koitork 

Hear O Gonda 

42. Achorie koiturk nit imet bange samje mavit nit bon 

All you Qonda to 70a anything nndentanding not to whom 

indana dada bon indana baba 
to call brother whom to call lather 

43. Bon indana pari bona myad talukana bon siana 
Whom to call a relative whom a daughter to aak whom to give 

44. Bontoda kawana usade verku koitork bangu wadkintork 
With whom to laugh then those Qonds what said 

45. Lingo imete pedhar buddhitone eiwake wadkte 

To you great understanding (is) good apoke 

46. Bahun wadkte ahun Linga niwa keide khamk kimu 

How spoke so Lingo you with hands that do 

47. Lingal sola kodang koitork miatork korkun ropodal 

Lbgo sixteen companies (of) Qonds that were d them from amidst 

nalnng kodang undi khak tehatur 

four bands one side raued 

48. Warona kei bitur bon intor ime ro gadiga manawa^ia 

One's hand caught whom said he you O friend ' manawajia 

atung 
become 

49. Aske horu manawajia atur usade dusarona kei bitur 
Then he manawajia became Then another's hand caught 

kenja ro gadiya mete dahakiWali ojal aike 
hear O friend you dahakwale bard be 

50. Horu dahakiwale ojal atur 

That dahakiwale baids became 

61. XJnde dusroni kei bitur hon , itur ime gadiya ' 
And another's hand eauj^t him said yju friend 

koilabutal aiyal^ horu koilabutal atur 

koilabatal be he koilabutal became 

52. Usade dusroca kei bitur honku bang itur ime 
Then other^s hand oaught to him what add you 



gadiya koikopal aiyake 

wild koikopal be 



no 

53. Horu koikopal atur ilmn kineke nalnng kodang martung 

He koikopal l]!bOttne thus < he made tliem four loorea became 

54. Bara kodang pistung usade Lingal nalung kodang tantur 
Twelve baada • remained then Lii^^ four bands separated 

55. Muneta kadutun korku kitur dusiaro kadatun bhil 
(Of) first band korku became (of) another band bhil 

kitur 

J became 

56. Tisaro kadatun kolami kitnr chontotun kotoleyal kitur 
(Of) third band kolami made (of) fourth kotole^ made 

at kodang 
eight bands 

57. Mortung at rehe matung usade. bangu ata tiju 

(Finished) ended eight remained then what became thjxd 

weishakna mahina 
ol weishak month 

6& Watu usade Lingal wadkintpr davitro dada makun 
(Came) arrived then Lingo said eome O brothers to m 

halle 

not 

69. Pen bagane diso apalo penn kikat punja 
God anywhere appears we god will make and wonhip 

60. Achonti jank undiya .palo 

AU persons one word 

61. Eiturk seiyung warshana baknd 

Spoke five years' old goat 

62. Salmeta kusana ghogoti mund worshana kuwarik padnag 

A year old erowing oo<£ three ;7Mn virgin ealf 

68. Gai randu taratu 

Cow two bring 

64. Manaojan keyat pen ghagaiang 

llanaojan call god chain 

65. Dongur mudana tokada gangawan chawur tarat. ihun 

Wild cow tailed cow tailed fan bring thus 

itur Lingal 

said Lingo 

66. Dukan mandekimtu poladna Pharsi pot bftnekimtu ■ 

Shop spread (keep) of steel Phani pot make 



181 

67. Dongude hanta wadudiT kate norksi taratn iehor 

To juDgle go bamboo stick cut (and) bring ^ it 
6*^. Dhanegaon pentnan dana satik mandana Anegaon 

(In) Dhanegaon god keep goddesses keep (in) Anegaon 

69. Sakade lettur jodite hatar yer kitur usade dhote 

(In the) morning arose (to a) riyer went water took then garment 

pondtur 



70. Kapade tira metatitr veHi bang wadkintor kenjtro 

(On) forebead tika applied he what said hsmt 

ojal kun 
ojato 

71. Keyat joda dahaking keyatu penkate torata ver Lingal 

CSaJl two drummers they call god stick brought he lingo 

katitun 

to the stick 

72. Ghagarang dohatur Pharsipot paro dastur gangawan chawar 

Gangara (bell god) bound Pharsipot in shoved cow tailed fan 

paro tuduta latur tuna kei jodikitur sewa sewa Pharspondi 
on to wave began his hand joined hail hail Phsdnipen 

73. Kati tahatiir tahaneke Manko Bayetal, Jango Bayetal 
Stick (U£ted)took whenhfting Manko Bayetal, Jango Bayetal 

' -i ' ' . ' - 

74. Pharsipen wase niltu vena mendode rummematu 

Parsapen (having) come stood in his body played 

75. Lingal pen kotedal atur bainake ghume matur deiya latur 

Lingo god devotee became much to turn he began to jump began 

76. Munne munne Lingal pajayk bakralk ghogbotin kuwaring 

In front Lingo behind goats cocks virgin 

padang 
calf 

77. Undi jagpaniaturk bbumi sutikiturk 
(In) one place assembled the place left 

78. Waturk inda laturk pedba 

Came to speak began loudly 

79. Wadki laturk borku koitorku kenjatro dada imet nilat penti 
To speak began who Gonds hear brother you stand god 

80. Kal kurat pusi kimtu baga pen kada koda 

(On) feet fell asking made where gods (for) each band 

marana chun indur 

shall we prepare place . so said 

81. Usade sabbe koitork munne aturk keik jodikiturk nilturk 

Then aU Gonds m front became hands joined ' (and) stood 



122 

82. Usade' pus kiturk Pharsipen bang wadklnta kenjatro dada . 

Then to ask began Phanipen what aajs hear father 

83i Farin matan gondite yedung sandite imet datu higa 
Between twdve hiDa in cayea in aeven^ hilly dalea you go 

higa nawa pen kada kimta 
there my ' goda place make 

84. Munne pen kaie pajaye sabbete koitork handa latark 
In front god atiok b^iind all Qonda to go began 

85. Imet datu higa reiturk jadi tora laturk tonging worsi 
They went there alighted graaa to pick began atonea threw 

86. Bangu -wadkintor Lingal 

Then spoke Lingo 

87. Kenjatro dada munne dista biwalata mada tan narkat 

Hear O brother yonder appMn bijeaal tree that cut 

88. Tana dhole kintu mars biturk medetige haturk madA 

Ita (drum) dhol make axe oau^t near tree went tree 

nad turk 

did cut 

89. Bone sola biturk soramend yer tatturk todi katurk 
Some iHtcher held pitcherful water brought earth dug 

90. Tana wadata kiturk adenparo penkate irturk 

Its ohabtttre made on it god atiok placed 

kinjatro dada . niwa dhol atu halle atu 

Hear brother your dhol became not ready 

91. Munne kis patusturk diyeng dosturk 
In front fire bum lamp light 

92. Seyung torang palnide shendur nahalork seiynng torang 

Five tolas in gbi vermilion wet fiye tolas 

rani tanturk kisun paro ^adturk 
ral (resin) take fire on threw 

93. Munne Lingal uttur keide pen Ghagarang 

Before Ungo sat hand joined god Ghagara 

94. Ghagarang nekusta latur vena mendode pen Rayetal watu 
Gangara (bell god) play began that (in) his body god Rayetal 

Fharsipen garsa latur 

Paraapen to play began 

95. Jorat badakmend phul 

Bring goglet full of daru 

96. Kathi paro wadtur sewa Fharsipen itur 
The stick on sprinkled it salam Phanipen apoke 



1C3 



97. Randuto keik joda kiturk k^l kara laturk kal karaneke 
Twu hands joined did at feet toiall began feet falling time 



98l Pen Kayetal mendode wata veru Lingal deija 
God Bayetal in body camo ho lingo to jump 



latnr 
began 



hainake hale matur yenda latur 
tomoTO b^n danoe(to) b^gaa 



99. Usade bangru wadki latu Pbarsipen ari nawa seijarang 
Thoa what toipoak began Phanipea bring to mo ▼ietima 

100. Yerku seiyung salkna bakral mumie tachikan nilntorik 
Thoio livo yaara goato bofon baviqgbnmght BUidotootand 

lOlt Adenang kalk norturk tana taladan sandur sokturh 

Their feet washed hia head Temiliun i^^pliod 

tanaDg kowdrapo phul wsdturk 
(in) hia ears dani poorod 



102. Bakranku bisikun kal kara laturk 

Qoftt having oaoghfe foot to threw began 

103. Bakrana , mindody Rayetal watu lioiimke karnnga latu 

(In)goatB body llayetil came much to shako began 

tala hale kitu kowku gode litur mendodum jadte 
head to move began oar to ftbake began to the body shake 

situ 
gave 

104. Verku raa salungcha jank viturk bakrau betnr tan 

Then two four pmaoua na goat caught it 

aru turk 
threw (down) 

105. PeDtparo aske laturk achorte natur beke hake watu 

Uod before to out bagaa all bloud here andthero sprinkled 

106. Aturk taladuQ munno iturk bakranku taha chikun 

Began the head before to keep totheguat haviog lifted 

uudi kbak irturk 
one sido kept 

107. Usade sal xneta pandu gogute tan laturk haden aske 

Then ft year old white cook brought to it (they) out 

108. Jantur seku&ta laturk dhohi nekusta laturk eiwake 

ICiogri to play began dhol to play b^pui good 

pendawaja nekusta latork 
god muno to play began 

109. ISwake pena knsite watu garsa . lata 

Chwd god iapleaittva oam» topiay b^gan 



124 

110. Ifgade randute padana kalk norturk toddi ^wortoTk 

Then two(oO ealfs feet WMbed noath 

avena talade sendur soktiirk 
their head Termilioii applied 

111. Aven neli anitark aska laturk 

Then down threw to cut began 

112. Randu padanang talang munue irtark nsade Lingal 

(Of) two thecelvee heedi before kept then li^^ 

wadke latar kenjatro dada 
to lay began hear brother 

113. Lakore ireioa imdana tolk tar.dat bore tadaking barsat 
Quickly theae calvee nkina flay aome li^er 



114. Boun tong^g tatnrk sodck kiturk sodekun pitro atkang 
Some atonea bronght anorwi nude onofan on piteher(foroookiag 

iturk 
kept 

115. Atkan rapo yer wadturk yetraro khandk wadturk 

Picthar in water put in water flesh pat 

116. MardDang akung kweisik*m taturk badenang kuding kiturk 

Ten (tree) leaf haTingeut brought tholr pUtea made 

117. Dhadiatd ghato biturktt toda kitang khandku bitark 
In brass plate eookedriee took liver took flesh took 

nalimg diveng patu^turk pent mnnne ari 
four lampe lighted god bafore placed 

118. Puja kinturk bore irintor rapya pahud pendun 

An offering made a«»me were keeping (as) rupee present (before) god 

119. IhaQ pendun munne rupyana tongronmend rasi artu 

So god before of rupees up to knee a heap fell 

120. Lingo wadki Uturk kenjatro dada eiwake mawa pengada 

Lingo to apeak begas hear hiothar good (in) my god'aeouil 

atu 



121. Hanku sikat ihun 

Whom ahall we give thia 

122. Kinjatro dada ichorkun rapodal bore waror Padal amtn 

Hear Obrothen (of)aU frommidst aoaie one Paidhan (n1iall)baawa 

123. Horka amot aikoii 
Te him wa wiUgiiia 



125 
I24i Usade Lingal eiii^ake budtur sabbenropoo sedal pantang 

TliOD Lingo good looked in the company old hovj 

chttting wale nudtar 
haired man saw 

125. Faksi sedan budtur banjikun bona kei bitur 
Fint old man he looked hayioggono his hand held 

196. Ime Padani amu amot ikun wallenaye rasyud sikom 
Too Pferdhan be we tojou much wealth willglva 

dhadotang sikom 
dothef will give 

137. Nikun kongang sikom band talukriki sikoro balle inar 
Yon a horae we will giro whatever (will) you.aak will gtw not ipeak 

balie 
no 

12& Bbalote dada ana sec^a maniwana ucbikun tendaka 

Well brother I am (ao) old man 1 will dt and eat 

129. Niltur sabbokun sewa itur bore situr dhadotang bore 
Stood aU ealam B^id aomo gave clothes tome 

siturk rupyang 

gave rupees 

180. Hadu kikri venku siturk 
That pi|je to him gave 

131. Bangu wadki latur Lingal kenjatro pfidiya 

What to speak began Lingo hear frienda ^ 

132. ITsade bahun kiaua dada vera tettuu 

Then what shali we do brother he arose 

133. Yedung jankun tebatur horku undi khak nilutur imet 

Seven persons made to rise to them one side made to stand you 

ro dada wadkal velta yedung sagang aming 
O brother kindred ^oue) be seven family become 

131 Usade sarung jankun undi khak nilutur 

Then six persons one side made to stand 

135. Horkun itur sarung sagang amini)^ seiyun janknn 

To them said (of) six a family become five pefsons 

136. Unde khak nilutur seiru saga aiakat 

Also (one )aide to stand (made) fifth famUy formed 

137. Pisturk nalurk horkun bangu wadktur imet tasmartnsU 

Bsmained <oar to them what Mid joa be divided 

nalung sayung sagang 
' ^imu aodflva families 



126 

I3& Ihnn itnr imet kason pari kikit 

ThuB said you tortuise promiM keep 

' 139. Sabbarkun sewa kitur hahadi hudut ro dada maw penti 
All Mlam made yooder looked brother m/ aetr f»^ 

han 
I go 

140, Acfaonte jank paja malsi hudturk hike Lingal mayad latnr 

All peraone belund turned and looked here Linfo to hide bifM 

Lingal turtur seri Israna saba ti hanji xultar 
Lingo quiddj go (to) gods courts in gou^ stood 

141. Achonte koitork mahaka laturk beke hatar mawor Lingal 

All Qonds to look began where (is)gQae our Uage 



PART V. 

Tki imtiiution hy Lingo of iht rite$ of Marriage amyng ths Gonii. 



1. MuBne Padal atur joda hudile handaka ihua itar Padal 

B«fox« Pwdhaa became Bpouso to look X wiU go thus said Pardhaa 

2. Ihtin itiir Lingal nalnrkte upalotork cLidurk padork 
Thvm Mdd lingo to four your axiMll and p^Mt (onai) 

mandauork temile mamt iindi jaga unat undi palo 
TOxnainiog join (gathor) becoms (in) one place ait one MUiiiil 

kimt 
make 

& Acbode koitork usadi Lingal intor mawa palo kanjairt 

(To) all Qoudi then longo aaji our word MK 

dada Fadan rohkat adeoa bichar kikat 
O brother Pardhan IwiUiend hie conaidMratioii take (do) 

4 Aske rohkat paryak yet rapo watkat paryatun 

Then they sent f^rioe water in put rioe 

6. Parya tundal nsade rohkat te halle rohanal 

(If) nco atioka than we will aead if not we will not aead 

6. Eoitork usade walork Ltngaii paja muone niltnrk 
Qonda then came lingo'a bohmd before -^^^wi 



7. Paiyak yetrapo watat rand paryat nsade yetrapo watnrk 

Riee in water caat two rioe then in water ihijeait 

8. Paryaku unditun nndi judematnng 

Bie« to one to one joined 

9» TTsade Lingal hudtur tanwa kankne bad tar tanwa maata 

Then Lingo looked with hii own eyes looked hie (in) nlad 

inter bahun itan ahune ata mawa madmina aagua 

t did how aaid ao become oor nuunriagw *BM 

bakota distu kenjatro dada 
good aeema hear O brother 

10. Apalotor Padan misati velak hudile banda 

Our Pardhaa for yon wives toaee ktge 

11. Usade Padan saware kitur 

Thn PMdhaa nady vaade (bimttlQ 



128 

ISL LiDgal inior Padan kinja nawa palo ima handaki 
lingo ttTB OFardhaa hmr sgr wovdi jroa t» 

Eachikopa Lahngad 

13. Aga koitork mantork horkunige handaki 
Than Goodi are to them go 

14 HaDJik'jn ima nitki sewa dharnirknit 

After going you stand aalam (make) to the head man 

15. Nawa jahar mikun yavvi ihun indaki iua vebtur 

My Btdutation to you may reach thu tell thai laj 

16. Hona palo kinjtar bor Padal agatal pasitor Eachikopa 

His word heard that Pardhau theaoa departed Kaohikop« 

Lahugadta sariya ban da latur 
Lahugad way to go bejaa 

17. Bor Padal horkna batiir rachadt niltnr bor Padal 
That Pardbaa their went inoompound stood that Parlhaii 

sewa dhanirknit 
i (made) to the landlord 



18. Ana miwar Padana andan dada nakim Padal kitur 

I your Pardhau am brother I Pardban wasmad* 

mawor Lirgal iDikun iibaoirk kitur 

our lingo you lord made 

19, Lingal mihigi robtor miwang tudik bade mantang 

Ungo me sent you daughters possess therefon 

mawor Lingan robtor miwang tudikan talkana 
oiir Lingo sent your daughten to ask 

madmiDg 

Snx&arriags 

90. War budsikun amot kikom 
Bride hftTiog seen wo will join them 

U. Nalurkte tamurk ^ inda laturk Lingaa mawa sewajabar 
The four brothers to tell began (to) Lingo our nlutafciQa 

. vebakun sikom 

toll we will giYO 

22. Padal sewa kitur tanara natenda sari bitar LiDganiga 
i'SrdhAa salutation made to (his) town way took to Lingo 

hatur 

went 

28. Ibun itur bor Padal Linganige mawor Lingal kintorte 
Urns said that Paidhaa to Lingo our Liqgo (wliit)4oM 

kia sim 
(lilhia} do 



1«9 

24. Mawang tudik sikom ihun iturk bork nalark tamurk 

Our daughters tre will give so said thoM four brotl^on 

25. Bor Padal tudik talkite hatnrk bork koitork 
That Pardhau daughter to nsk want (o!) thoao Gond« 

26. Padal munne hanjikun palong vehatur bar Padal lewa 
Pardhaa before having gono word told that Pardhan tftlatation 

dhaDirknii tatur talite yer arikun 

to laadlord gave a pot (of) water having taken 

87. Se^a saderknit ihun iturk 
Salutation son-in law thu3 said 

23. Kalk norturk rachade utturk 
]^t washed in compound aat 

20. Padal palo tantur aga palo lave kiiur kiladi 

Pardhan word brought out there word eetabUih did kalal'e (liquor) 

godite baturk 
ahop went 

30. Bacbomanda acbo Liugal vebatur sabbe Koitork kiaoa 

Whatever that Ltnge eaid all theOgndi do 

kintork abune mnnne abun inga anta konjat dada 
are doing aa before so now (it) happent hear Obrethm 

madmiDang 
about maniage 

31. SciyuDg tudik kesikan picbi kobknstane 

Five daughters aaaemble turmerio grind 

82. Bota peojanan wet siana 
(To) domeatia godi offering give 

S9L Avena paroda rota pen picbi watan 

^ Bj their naiuM (to) house gods turmerio offer 

34. Ealubtale kalk norana sewajabar kiana keik jodekiiu 

Drink feet waah salutation do handa joining do 

85. Gamading tarana sabbe Koitork chidur padhork udana 

Blanket spread aU Gouds email great make ait 

kudang gbagading tatana sawran binda nawarin 

(of) liquor pitcher bring (on) bridegroom's aide (on) bride's 

binda adho ghagadita tatana 
side half a pitcher bring 

86. Ayimaikun cbiduk padang tapana aven apustana 
To the women smaU great bring to them make sit 

87. Tindana keide gbagadi koda irana dawa kiede aduto 

Onrii^t hand pitcher of liquor keep (to) left hand hall 

kada irana 

(pitcher) of Uqaor keep 



190 

98. Obagading indana kaluhtaoa mom 

Fltdierful (of liquor) call gire to dzink (oeoordiiig to) eqttom 
89. Dadiyate diwa paryaknang danang irana rand peisaiq^ 

InbraMpIata a lamp rice grains keep two pioe 

irana akita vida kukuta dabba irana gulyada pudi 

kMp betel rolU kuku box keep gulal powder 

irana gbagaditun mtmne tika metustana 

keep (of) pitcher to the front tikA (sacred mark) ^Pply 

40. Ghatiyan mitustana tanpaja sabbetun mitustana 

(Then) to pitcheiman appl/ ft^ter (it) to all ^pplj 

41. Tanpaja ghat wahatana usade ask pata tandana nawarin 
After it pitcher break then women song sing oabiiide'» 

hindang 
■ido 

42. Joda gamoding tartil babare bain hare matil surwaa 
Pair ol Mankete spread fathar daughther Islost 0ai promise dsmit 

parematit 

who was brought up 

43. Babare cbaka lobhi bainor snrwanor hare 
O father (for) liquor's love daughter dearest is lost 

44 Kada chaka ghatiyan siana 

(01) liquor drinking onp pitchennaa give 

45. Tanpaja ghatiyal chaka nndana paja sabbe pangetnn 

After this (let) pitohemiMi the cup drink after all to oompanj 

siana 
give 

46. U^ade sewa kiana ihun kaluhtana 

Then salutation do thus custom 

47. Jawayer nndana 

Eating drinking 

48. Sakado sariboront nowran hindorkna 

(In)themoniing way sending (or despatching time) bridegroom's side 

kisiana sewa jahar kiana 
do follow salutation do 

49. Mela bheting yestana apalo ron handana nawran hindork 

Embracing take to your house go bridegroom's nde 

hanjikun nawaran ron 
having gone (at) bridegroom's house 

BO. Kalk norana nawaranork mrartalk knibhtnn 
Ftot wash bridegroom side guests may drink 



ISl 

51. Hnnne bang anta ask pichi nawrirtaog am bat pata 

B«for« what happtos women taflEron grinding wEm . what aong 

warinsaog 
may aiog 



52. Ange 

(Bhowjai) elder brother's wife 



indanur angewo karal indanar 
will apeak O Bhowjaee bridegroom will ipeak 



angeowona pata ask 

Bhowjai'a aong women 

63. Taupaja sabbe patang 

After this all 



waranung 

will sing 

warana pichi nor 

may dng (o^ saffron ground 



sikum 
hating 



kamkang kohkana 
saffron make powder 

14. Bawajai indanur dadal ihun pata 
rhowajai will say brother so slog 



63. Saffron kahksikim arti kiana dadiyati irana akina 
Sftffiron having ground ware lunp in biaas pUU aaSrgii keep 

vida irana tteigo snpari irana 
bida(roU} keep whole nut keep 



58. Kuknta 

Knku*s (red powder) 



dabba irana paryaknang danang irana 
box keep rioo gnons katp 



S7. Tbalito jer trana Laguyal badukne kel biana 

In a pot water bring (in) I^yal bottle liquor keep 

581 Rotal pasitana lagnal munne aiana hon mnnne 
House from depart one who marries in front may beoome him before 

dholta 
musioiaDs (follow) 

§9. Pata warana bad a 
Bongs sing loudly 

natebhtman 
(to) town Bbimeen (give) 



pichi wahituna pahile picbi 

saffron ^}proceMion(take) first saffron 



60. Dnsaro pichi nate inarain iisaro 

Second saffron (to) town Mata (god) thiid 

pichi Siwarya boharyakun 

saffron to boundary and surrounding gods 



mitawan * chonto 
to matewan fourth 



61. Pachawo pichi nate Hanumantun sahawo pichi 

Fifthly saffron (to) town Uanuman sixthly saffron 

Panderitang penkun sat wo pichi sanadumalkun tenpaia 
(to) Paodhari god seventh saffiron (to) (departed manes) alter tnia 

id pata warana bhimanige 
this song alng to Bhimsen 

62. Nil tarutana pata warana 

Oil oj&iing soni( sing 



132 

83. TTsade ron handana cauraa wadade " Uagon tanpaw 

Then (to)hoiiM goon bridogroom a ring -pafe ^hia 

akari dastaua 

ehoin put 

64. Kieda paryaknang danang siana 

(In) hand of rico griins give 

65. Undi ask munne aiyal pajayo walle aska nitanaas 

Ono woman before become behind many women thellfUBd 

nauran 
el' the bridegroom 

66. Qamade muchustanung mitustale 

Blanket cause to wear vp9^7 tiha (tacred mark) 

67. Bat pata waranung 

Than eong ting 

69. Dada kowsi paryak mitusa hori aiyanar tama dad* 
Brother with smile rioe apply he will be father OhraihMr 

69. Kowsi paryak mitusa ade aiyale awwale dada 
lAughing rioe ^ppl/ that will be mother O brother 

70. Kowsi paryak miinsa adi aiyale selado dada 
Langhing rice apply that wiU be titter O brotbar 

71. Kowsi paryak mitusa hore aiyanur akoye dada 
Ijaughing rice *pply thf^ will be grandiather Obrathv 

79L Kowsi paryak mitusa dada ade aiyale kakoya 
lAug^f rice >^Pplj brother that will be grandaelliw 

dada 

O brother 

73. Kowsi Paryak mitusa selak tangek 

Laughing rice ^pply to sister bhowajal 

74. Routatana nouran kuttulwatana honang kalknoratia 

Home bring bridegroom (make) seat spread hii feet wash 

75. Hike hake pichi sitadekiana nauran picfai sakana 

Here there saffron spriuUingdo bridegroom safiron apply 

76. Bati pata warana hona bidhita kotkator pattadin 
What soDg we will sing our household priest Paidhaa 

77. Kayat babare bidhi cbawadi vebtanur 

Tell father household story tell 

7& Tcr kineke bad pata warana 
At bathing what song wiHifaig 

79. Kere gaba mendul dadana kumakore masoii dadaxia 

(LSke)phatatn pith (is) body (of) bmther elegant 0s) nose of brother 



ISS 
'40l lie yefrkiana pata warat tanpaja walli patang manda 

80 tallM do mog Bing after 16 many songi iiii|^ 

81. Nanaran caluDg asku kutudun nawaran uttal 
(To) bridegroom f ouv women (on) seat of bridegroom make tit 

82. Hon tahatana bon cauaran racbade woyana aga 
(Hake) him to riM that bridegroom in compound take there 

npustana 
make (him) ait 

89l Bon bbawatal saluDg tballng irana aven tbaliniDg ntil 
Him round iour pota keep thoae pota thread 

. gundi 
bind 

84. Sirmut kiana 
Surround (it) make 

85. Usade sawarana talat paro kacho snkud kotana 

Then brld^room head on (in) iron apoon puih 
kopasaditun biaoa 

cakea hold 

66. Tankbalwa seiyung janik asku kiek irana talat 

Under it five iudindual women handa (ma7)kaef haad 

paru kieku iraoa 
on hands keep 

87. Paro ni watana 

On it oil pour 

88l Sikim yer kopasadet paro bona talat nawrana yer 
Four water cakea on ofhia head bridegroom (iritL)wate 

mihatana 
bathe 

89. Aga bad mura kiana naurana tange gaogal paro 
Then what custom do bridegpnoom of Bhowajaje'a battilngTMMl oa 

sewmitcbal undi piesa watintor 
the cover one pice (oast) will pat 

90. Ter jokekintor tana sew pubtantor mendnl pnmal 

Water sprinkle (till) her Up wiU wet (till) body ia wetted 

91. Ter watintor tanggen paro usade nauran yermibitana 

Water throw Bhpwajai on then bridegroom will bathe 

9SL Ter micbikun bati mura kiaha kaku mitostana koku 
Water aftor bathing what oostoBi do koku $gjAj kuktt 

mitusnake bad pata warintang aeku 
hATing applied what pong wiUiing wobmbi 



1S4 

93. Todda vida kapade kuku bora Bajaoar kawanl ihurn 
In oumlh bida en lonhitd kuku whafc lUjft'a ipa it thw 

waringtttDg 

•ing 

94. XT«ade bad mura anta paryak xnitostantang usade pata 

Then wlut eiutom happeof rioa ^VV^J ^^on *onS 

warintang 
eing 

95. Indanure dadal angede tawrite walleni dosiroa angede 

Willsaj brother Obhawjaai in lamp much(o3) uuotpab bhawajtl 

indaDure dadal munneyo tawrt pajaye novrri 

willaaj brother (in front) bridegroom (ii} bmp ft&v (behind) (is) brido 

96. Dboli nekusta 
Drum beat 

97. Usade Mirnaite dhobrk nebanaje 

Then in pipoe mueloiAM gUdly (inng) 

9d Riyan^; asku sedo sadoku tanura jiwatani phurke 
Toung women old old (women) in their mindj glad 

maiyanung undi jani ptidkne techikan nawraa 

will be one pexwm farolbl/ htmn^ riien tho hridi|^{reon 

tabtanta 
make lino 

99. Podi paro upastanta nouran yedinta nebanayo 
DunghiU on makent bridegroom "and danoe e^adl/ 

100. Tanpaja undi jani kuttal ari naurana yerkital 
Thereafter one ponon aeat (wooden) hanng taken of bode^toom't bathing 

yedinta 
may dance 

101. Tanpaja arti bisi undi jani yedinta 

niereafter a waving lamp havinj taken one penon majdanoe 

102. Aven paja baren kushi aw yedintang aven paja gubbe 

Then after who wiih those may dance then affear all 

patang waristing 
iongs aing 

103. Morang nawrana mantang yerkiana ato 

Custom bridegroom's la bathing ended 

104. Aske bang kiana unde nanran kuttudi npu^na nalonf 

Tiien what do andtbe brid^gvoom on the aeat onkeai^ iow 

aski tabtana nawran 
women maka to riaa tha bridegrwa 



1S5 



105. TachikuD ron woyana usikun upiistana upusikon madmiiig 
AfteF rising home take haTuig taken make ait after flitting weddiug 

gawanaofi^ talana 

Ibring 



106. Have gawanang sabbe tintang pata badaro warintang 

Those cakei all eat ' and song with loud voice aing 

107. Sarutan waktne babina gawanatun jim dada 

(At) turning time to Bhowajayi'a garment beat O brother 

108. Tanpaja bate anta tindana undana mora bang manda 

Thereafter what happena (of) eating drinking custom what ia 

109. Qbagadi mend kal tatana raehade irana manjalkun: keyana 

Pitcher . full liquor bring in compound keep (to) men call 

wartalkuu keyana raehade upiirikna upusikun sabbe askun 
(to) gueete call in conpound make sit after sitting all women 

chiduk padhanung keyana sab^>e raehade upustana. 
small groat call aU in compound make ait 

110. Qhagaditun tika paryakna mitustana ghatyan 

To pitcher tika of rice apply to pitoherman 

111. Mitustana usada sabbotun mitustana 

Apply tfata to all »pply 

112. Mitusikun kada uklekim chaka tirutana 
After applying to (the) Ud of the cover open it cup distribute 

113. Jawadi kndiagporo wade tan pare kusari watana tanparo 
Soji of jawori plates on serve it on dal put it on 

undi mircha watana 
one chilly put 

Hi! Nuka sawor irana kudinparo watsikun bahun pensita 

little salt keep plates on after ser^ng how god give 

acho wade 



lis. Tinjikun atu usade keikun dhatiyate norustana ihun 
After eating (is) ended then hands inabraaaplate (cause to) wash so 

kiana mandita mora 
do eating custom 



116. Techikun bang kiana nawranige rator handana manyalk 
▲Iter rising what do brid^Joom house to go (let) men 



aawari kiana 

preparation make 



196 
117. Eeyana undi asun talada ghatu thalita siana 

CaU one woman (on) her head ghat (with a lamp) of pot giye 

taBparo patal tawari irana thautparo tansirmul aking 

' on it a buruing lamp keep on the pot around it betel of 

nagweltang dohaehikun 
nagael be fastened 

11& Sabbe manditork ano aska handana 

AU in oompany thoee women let go 

119. Sabbe saware mayana nanrran toda paring dontale rotal 

(Every) preparation being made bridegroom with his friends from home 

pasitana 

may depart 

ISO. Apalota penta paror yetana yechiVtin rotal pusital 

Of their . god name taken having from house let them depart 

121. PasisikuD Marotin vida cbade nawral* kal karana 
After departoxe toMarod bida offer bridegroom. (or) feet fall 

1S9L Nawrina rota sari biana munne dholik dhol 

Brides house way take before (^ifrxmt) ' muaioiaos drum 

nckustana 



Kora.— The wofd Tida» or bida» oooun frequent^ in the Ahure song, It means an 
oflMig of b«t«l-a«t iDide to tht gods. 



Fl^IS. 



PART IV.— APPENDICES, CONSISTING OF MISCEL- 
LANEOUS MEMORANDA. 



Note by the Editor, 



The following seven appendices have been selected or extracted 
from a common-place book kept by Mr. Hislop, and relating to 
a great variety of subjects in connexion with the natives of the 
Nagpore country. These selections, or extracts, relate, of course^ 
to the aboriginal tribes desr.ribed in the foregoing Essay. Though 
doubtless all the points which the author regarded as of the 
most importance have been given in that Essay, yet these appen- 
dices may be of use by way of corroboration or of illustration, 
and, therefore, have been included in this publication. 

It was Mr. Hislop's practice not only to take down in writing 
the statements which he obtained from -individual members of 
the tribes whom he met with on his tours, or from persons 
specially acquainted therewith; but also he used to employ 
catechists, and others connected with the Mission, to collect 
information regarding the customs, the feelings, and the faith of 
the wild people among whom their ministrations lay. From 
their reports or verbal accounts he would record notes. And it is 
from notes recorded from one or other of the above named 
sources that these appendices have been taken. 

These appendices will be found to relate to the Gonds of each 
of several districts, namely Nagpore, Chindwara, Seonee, 
Bundara, Chanda, and also two other aboriginal tribes, namely 
the M&dias and the Eoorkus. 

R T 



APPENDIX I. 



The foUovfing Note is atcertained to have been tofcen by Mu Hulop ai Nagpw^. 

Three Gk>Ddi women, named respectively Kangali, Tami, and Mohani, eame to me tQ-digr 
( S5th July 1801 ) with Paharsingh. They are natives of this district (Nagpur). Mangali wom 
shipped six gods, and the two others seven. All say tnat there is one Creator, whom the Hiudu» 
call Bhagawdn, and they call simply Pen, t. e. god. Among the six gods the greatest is Phaiyt 
PeQj so called from Pharsi, a battleaxe, in the form of a B^mzhi, eight inches long, becaufle>h% 
is said to have been bom in the house of a Lobar. 2. — Khode, or Khodial, so named froia 
being made of the trunk of a tree, called in their language mundi, buL in Marathi, T^»ri^.n^ 

•f this fonn X ; the spherical part being about three inches in diameter, and the projectiiig. 

head, which is made of the same piece, about 34 inches. When it is worshipped on Akhid^. 
Jiwati, Shimga, and Diwali, it is )>laced, as above, on a chabutra; at other times it is kept in ^ 
ghagar, or earthen pot. 3.— Sdurilk, from Siltur, to die, or a dead man ; in the Marathi 
expressed as Utranche dewa, i, e, the god or guds who descend (utarane) to the earth again 
after they have left it by death. On a day devoted to the worship of the manes, for which 
no time is lixed, the relatives of the deceased assemble and go through the prescribed oer^ 
monieb at the house ; after which they go to an open place, where into the hands of the Puj^ri 
come down, aa is imagined, two or three morsels of a white thing like quartz^ of the siae of a 
rice grain. The ceremon Ich include the sacrifice of a goat^ when they make a ohabutTB> and place 
on it four or five pebbles, and at the four corners new ghagars encircled with thread; and rice, 
poH, and wada^ according to the number of the deceased's gods, are plaoed around the 
chabutra. They throw a little of each on thepebblen with dam; the relativeB saying, "Accept 
it 4nd willingly descend." The women sing,4» the musicians make a noise, and into the 
hands of the Pujtiri comes S:tn£[lk. 4. — Munj^, which means an unmarried man (kuwftri). It 
rises like a protubenmce, about one and a half inches high, of shendur (red lead), spon- 
taneously on a chabutra in the houoe at night, when no person can see. This is to com- 
memorate dead unmarrie<l men ; and the supx>OBed miracle does not take place so often 
as in the case of the S^in^k. 5. — Durga ( is a god, and not to be confeiinded with Uie 
Hindu goddess). His form is like Khodial, and is made of the same wood, and is kept In a 
earthen pot, es^cept when he is worshipped on Akh^di, Jiwati, Shimga, or Holi and Diwali. When 
sick they make vows to him, and if they get better they fulfil their vows on the days men- 
tioned. Khodial they worship also, on Jiwati, Holi, &c., but not in consequence of a vow ; 
they simply remember him when they are feasting, and pay him the attention of a finger full of 
vermilion and a hen. Pharsi Pen is worshipped at full muon of Weishak, every third year. 
He was worshipped last in 18G0. To him they offer a white cock, a white he-goat, and a 
white young cow. 0.-— Chuda Pen, chuda being the Hindi for the Marathi yer, or kada,^^^ 
man's bracelet. He is worshipped under the form of a bracelet of iron, along with Khodial 
and Durga, on the four feasts. The two worshippers of seven gods said that the above- 
named were theirs also, and they added a seventh, i. e. SakaH Pen, equal to the chain god, which 
is spread out on the household chabutra in the form of a circle, above one foot in diameter, 
worshipped along with the others that are adored on the four feasts. Pharsi Pen is not 
worshipped with these, though a little honor is paid him on Akhidi ; when, going out into 
their compound, the men offer him there a few Mohwa fruits, throw a little rice, which they 
allow a chicken to eat ; after which, the chicken is killed, cooked outside, and eaten, women 
not being allowed to be present. So when Pharsi Pen's great feast takes place every third^ 
fourth, or fifth year, and people assemble from a distance, the ceremonies are conducted with 
great secrecy ; no Hindu, or even Qond women being allowed to be present. On that day, if » 
Oond woman in black comes to the door of a Gond house, she is not admitted. No fire im. 
given from the house. 

The Sat-dewala can intermarry with the Saha-dewala, or five and four-ffod worshippen ; 
bu^ t^e six, five, and fo\ir-god worshippers might not intermarry, they bemg reckon^ one. 
TJUf Kt!i|fi(sects) among Sat-dewala are — Maskola (to which my two informants belonged), Madavi 
^^dvi, Masaram, Dhurwal, li^uhi, Kursangal, Kouratti, Sarotal, Sariyam, Qajyam, Seryam, 

* DondenlL mad& dolka nike Uttf . 
( under) Bauhinia tree (when J the drum to beat has begun. 
Kago endl UXor, 
/ Nago (any dead man'e name) to danee thou hatt begun. 



11 

EandAtal, BoMUiflh^ Earpatirk, Eokodjal or Kokotta, Jugnakal, Yucsti, Pui<Sanm, wttb on* 
or two otiienk These E<!Ub are the Adnaw of the Sat-dewftlay as Sirkia, &c, are among thm 
Mahrattae. Maskola must not marry a Maskola woman, they must look out beyond the seren 
to the six Dewala. The KOiU among the six Dewala, are Kumral ( informant ), Wikal, Watti, 
Marapal, Ghodam, Kodapal, Pendam, Malgam, Mandhari, Narpachi, Salanik, Sedam, Gadam, 
Namurtal, Puranik, Tedanganik, Warkadalk, Adalk, Neitamk, Kowalk, liarkamk, Tekamk. 
The Kills of the five or foor-god worshippers are reckoned among those. The seven and four 
are the most numerous. Khusram, Tadun, Eoriam, and KoUam are six DewaUas ; others, 
mentioned by Colonel Balmain, as at Raepore, are not Imown here, e. g. Seduram, Pandotit 
Jagret, Sakkam, and south of Wurdah, Surpam— five, and Atram, Kulmntta, Terma— dx. 

My informants, whether seyen or six-god worshippers, call themselves Koitors, and say thai 
although the Pardh^ns* follow the same religion, and are sub-divided, according to tha 
number of their gods, yet the ca^te is different, and they neither eat mx intermarry with 
them. The Pardh6na will eat from the hands of the Koitors, and are reckoned inf mor. 
Hohani, one of the seven-god worshippers, is a Pardh^, and goes to the house of Tami, 
where she may eat; but if Tami goes to Mohani's house, she may not eat. The Pardhins> like 
Mohani's husband, who, however, is employed in secuUur service, discharge the functions of 
Bhats, i. e. sing songs and ^ve information on genealogical matters. But these are few. 
They also think it no Indignity to play on stringed instruments ; they call themselves Raj- 
Pardhiin, as Tami is a lUj Gond. Beneath them there is a sub dividinn whose women tattoo 
Gonds and Hindus. Beneath them again is a sub-division who play on wind instru- 
ments of wood, while there is still a lower class who speak more Marathi than Gondi, 
and play on wind instrumeniB of brass, and spin thread like the Mhars. All these, however, 
worship the same gods, and are sub-divided accordingly. The Bhumuks in the villagee are 
either Gonds or Pardhdns. They profeas to keep the boundaries of the village free from 
wild beasts and cholera, and are entitled, on thiit single account, to a field and some mango 
and other trees from the Patel, and to an allowance of rice and other grains from each culti- 
vator, Hindu or Gond. Gawaris profess the Gond religion, but speak Marathi. They act aa 
servants in keeping the cows and bu&loes of others ; but in general have none of their own, 
except in the jungly districts, where they loosen a heifer for sacrifice, 

FESTIVALS — ^Akhadx, Jiwati, Pola, Diwali, aud Shimoa. 

On Akhadi, which this year, IBOl, happened on 33rd July, the men go out to their woiit ; 
but the women clean the houne and vessels, bring water, bathe, grind, and breakfast 
about noon, when the men have returned from their work. These now bathe, and, ^nth- 
out eating, prepare for celebrating Phami Pen's worship, which takes place in the compound 
of each about 3 p.m. There the head of the house prepares a spot with eowdung. and 
lays on it a small heap of rice (tandul), and above that again he beomears a little dry 
vermilion, sets before the heap a whole ^upari on five betel leaves. Then he kills a young 
cock, aud sprinkles its blood on the heap, on which he subsequently pours libations of arrack. 
After this he throws into the fire, which is burning before the heap, a fruit of the Mohwa 
tree {Bassia-latifolm); and then proceeds to buil the fowl for his own entertainment^ which he 
eats, after having drunk off a bottle of arrack. There is no image or representation of Pharsi 
Pen, except the rice ; and at the time of offering the vermilion and young cock, he simply says, 
*'I am a poor man, and give you this vermilion and fowl ; accept it at my hand. Keep us aafe ; 
bless our fields ; and if I survive, I shall worship theo next year." Then about four o'clock ha 
enters the house, and all the family join in drinking daru. The male members then go out 
and drink more at the liquor-shop, and don't return till about eight. At 10 the household 
feast commences, which consists of small cakes of udid, and of wheat fried in Mohwa oil, 
(which is forbidden to be eaten new from the tree till that date), rice, pulse, fowl, and vegeta- 
ble. Before the company commences to eat there is a copious allowance of arrack drank. 
Then when the women have served up the eatables to the males, they themselves sit down at 
a short distance to partake, though sometimes they wait till the others have finished. About 
11 at night all go to sleep. 

Jiwati, which is in the month of Shravan. — In the morning, haviuK attended to hooaehold 
duties, as before, the mother about 13 gives the children their breakfast. About 3 p.m. she 
begins the cooking for the feast. About 8 p.m. the oeremoniee oommence, till which tima 
both the parents have been fasting. The wife brings forward the articles, and the husband 
pUces them in order. On each side of the chabutra in the house are placed small cakes 
(as above)— two of udid, two of wheat flour covered with jgru/ 'sugar). On the chabutra are placed 
8, 4, 6, 6 small heaps of rice, according to the number of gods professedly worshipped by the 
family, wanting one for Pharsi Pen. On the rice heaps is p4iured dry vermilion. Aft«r 
which on the chabutra in front of the heaps is laid a cock or a young pig, which may be 
bought at 4 annas. Then joining hands, and pronouncing the names of his gods, with the 
exception of Pharsi Pen, e. g., Khodial, Sdndlk, Munja, Durga, Chuda Pen, and Sakali Pen, he 
asks them to receive the offerings to keep the hands and feet of the family safe, to blen 

*Hindu name equal to Pradh4n (Prime Miniitor}, but among themaelrM^ PathidL 



11> 

thttm in their labouni, and to grant children, if in that rospect thero be a deficiencsy. Theo 
arrack is pi:)iired on the heaps, the head of the victim lying before these. If on the liquor 
going into the ear of the pig it shnkea its head, or if the fowl on becoming wet shakes it« 
body, it is held that the offering is accepted. Till this sign is given they wait. Then the 
victiu is killed, while resin (ral) is burning on the fire. Plates of leaves covered with ddl, 
bbdt, and cakes, are placed before the heaps, and airack prtured on the pro vidians. Three or 
four bottles of daru are now consumed in the family ; and dinner is at 0, like that on Akhddi. 

Pold, — Having cleaned the house and bathed, &c., from 8 or 9 they begin to cook for the 
bullocks and themselves. At 2 the cooking is over. Then the bullocks are adorned with 
tinfoil and hemp, and sprinkled all over the body with round spots of red ochre, and led out- 
side of the village to be marshalled with the rest, where the owners boast with one another 
about the superiority of their own bullocks. Then at an appointed signal from the Patdl of 
tile village aU start off as fast as they can towards their respective homes, flere the pair 
of bullocks have their feet reverently washed ; then on a brass plate an offering of rice, 
kuku, (woman's powder for marking the forehead, which is made chiefly of saffron with some- 
thing to turn it red,) and a lamp is presented, — rice and kuku are stuck on their foreheads and 
on that of their driver. Then in a new basket part of the dinner which had been cooked is 
given to the bullocks to eat, consisting of rice, pulse, bread, small cakes fried in oil, vegetable* 
of cucurbitaceee, &c. Then the bullocks are led round to various houses, the owners of whick 
are expected to give a pice to the driver. At 10 supper commences,^ These are very much 
the ceremoniee that prevul among the Hindos. No worship is paid on the PoU to GKind 
deities. 

Dlicali. — On this day the same rites as on Jiwati, and so on Shimga (whieh falls 
between February and March). If on any feast the worship of their gods is neglected, and 
disease enters the family, the doctor tells them that the gods are angry, and that they must 
be caieful by vown to propitiate them aad to perform these vows on the next feast. 

Pharsi Pen's great worhhij) tikes ijKce every 3rd, 4th, or 6th year in M4gh, or abo at the 
end of Waijjhdk. Early in the morning the women quite overturn the house, spread new 
clay on the floor, and whitewash the w;iU>, and buy new earthen vessels for water and cook- 
ing, a new a up for winnowinijj, new iMskcfcv brooms, wooden spoons. The parents dress in 
new AvTdte clotli^, and a new white dIioti\% is earned by the father as a gift to the Pardhdn. 
The father and hi;» boy.^ start about 7 a.m. for the scene of the day's ceremonial. There about 
twenty or forty, including reladves from a distance, assemble, and take down from among the 
branches of a Saj {Termiwdia tomentosa) or Mohwa {Bastia lati/olia) tree a small javelin, cased 
in a bamboo and covei*ed with grass. After they have spent sometime in preparing the spot and 
collecting wood, they bring out the god, and with two bolLf (gbdngarfk) on the fore and third 
finger of each hand the Pajdri clasps the iron dart, which they then carry to a tank or river 
and batht», and set upon a chabutra under the tree with the four bullock's bells (ghdngar& 
dewa) in front. They apply vermilion to him ; and when the cow is offered they slaughter 
it by striking it on the heiul witli the back of a hatchet. There they remain all night 
feasting and drinkiyg, and return to their village about 3 p.m. next day. When they ap- 
proach the village the women meet them, and stretch a bamboo across their path, singing 
that they are the daughters or the wives of their priests, and that they must not pass after 
they have been away engaged in worship until they have given a present in money. Perhapa 
10 annas will be collected. Arrived at the house, they throw more pice into a chatty, and 
about Rs. 1 is spent on the women that wash the men's feet ; then all drink and all dine 
together. Besides the seven there are* village deities, whom all, whether 4, 5, 6, 7, worship 
together} e.g. Koda Pen, horse god, —a stone which is worshipped on the outskirts of the 
village at the commencement of the raijis in the Mirg Nakshatra. The women do not go 
out to its worship, only men. A Bhumuk acts for the village on the occasion, and he may 
be either a Gond or Pardh&n ; whereas Pharsi Pen's worship being that of a family, it would 
■ecm thata Pardhdn generally officiates. First of all, the Bhumuk besmears the stone with 
red lead, presents a horse of pottery, then a heifer, on the head of which he pours daru, and 
lays to the deity, — ''Thou art the guardian of the village ; we have come and offered to thee 
according to curability. If in anything we have failed to please thee, foigive us. Protect 
our oxen and cows ; keep us in safety ; let there be no fear iu the jungles." After this, with 
a blow from the back uf an axe on the animal's forehead, they prostrate the victim ; the 
fle^ is then boiled, and part of it is laid along with suji» made of jhondale flour, on a leafy 
plate bf^fore Koda Pen, and the company, assembled, dine on the remainder of the beef, suji, 
and daru. The Bhumuk for his trouble receives from each man 3 or 4 paiHea of jhondale. 

Bhiwasen's woxBhip takes place two or three days before Akktfdi. 

0»r<A.— After a child, whether male or female, is bom, the famOy bring into the house 
a chatty of dani (pitcher full of spirits), and then neighbouring women, being assembled, 
divide it among them. On the 6th or 6th day, when the dried part of the umbilical cori 

*A god named Eolasur is worshipped with offering of earthen horMS on* the top of a 
hill near great Axnbora^ 



IV 

falli off the child, they nhave its head, and dean the floor and walls of the houaei Then the 
cfeUd, who had been washed daily from the day of birth, with the mother, are bathed for the 
kat time, and the women of the neighbourhood are called in, to whom is distributed a bran 
plate full of turmeric flour to apply to their bodies. Then theee women bathe and receive 
a portion of a dish composed of fried sesamum seeds, gul, and coooanut. Arrack is brought in 
a pot and poured over the now filled pit dug in the floor for the water used in bathing the 
haby and mother ; the nurse worships C^ati, who is supposed by Hindus on that day to 
write on the skull of each child its future destiny. The worship consists in offering pan- 
uipari* and one pice, and kuku, and a little lamp black, which is applied with the finger to. 
the ground^ and a little tooth powder. After this, they lay down on the same spot a portion 
Af the sesamum, gul (Bii^ar) and cocoanut mixed together ; then dam is sprinlded ; tiien an 
unboiled fish named bepaii (small,', like minim, which is sometimes living, sometimes dead, 
kichari, and dal bhat. After this, all the women dine and drink together: from that day the 
faiOiily aie free from cercuiouial defilement. On 7th day is B^U^ so called by Hindus becsAise 
D< is observed on iWth day among them. On this day the family invite friends and relatives 
from a distance, who c<.)me with presents of cloth for the mother and child, and bangloi. 
for the latter. After all the women, both of the village and other villages, are assembled 
in the house, and the. men in the compound, a chatty full of arrack is brou£^ to the latUr^ 
the women sing — 

H6ror€ boro deunQ baindr 

Tedaro shendukdkd jheld nadi dohi 

Phu]k^t4 chhak^wdlhuyd 

Taigu&k^ chidung chadung 

Beinkke gh&tung te jheld peiyaka deurmor^ 

Of this lady, who ( is ) the brother-in-law ( husband's younger brother) f 

O brother-in law dada, rise O f with dupata bind ( your) waist. 

The arrack dividing go round. 

To ascend 1 am pregnant. 

To descend over the hills ( without ) oloth a child will be bom, tny brother-in-law. 

And after having partaken liberally of the liquor, all dine. On 9th day the name is given. 
They fii-st distribute boiled wheat and gram ; and women in a cloth rock the child to sleep, at 
which time the name is given by all the women present. 

Marriafje.—The betrothal takes place generally about two years before the marriage.^ Tht, 
father of the young man goes to the house of the young woman and asks her father if he is will- 
ing to give. Before giving his consent omens must be consulted. Into a brass plate they pour 
water, and put one grain of rice for the lad, and another for the lass. If they adhere, then 
the belrotlial proceeds. The father of the former promises to give the father of the latter 
Rs. 16 (apparently a constant amount Rs. 14, to which other 2 are added on the plate, see. 
below) and two lugade. The rupees are given about one month before the marriage ; and the. 
young man, having his br)dy anointed with oily turmeric, with a retinue goes to his future 
father-in-law's village, outside of which he is met by the father-in-law, %ith a number of 
friends also, and he is lodged in the house of a neighbour (wdnos& of Mahrattas). There all 
remain during the night, receiving from the father-in-law something to eat. Next day the 
bridegroom's father, &c., go to the bride's house, where they are seated outside of the 
threshhold, the father-in-law being in the inside. The bridegroom's father presents to the. 
bride's father on a brass plate kuku, rice, a lamp, and Rs. 2, and the latter presents to 
the former in a brass plate kuku, rice, a lamp, 2 pice, and red powder, which is thrown by each; 
fiCther on the other and the rest of the company. Then they give each other dam to drink* 
Lb a brass cup. Then the bridegroom's father brings two chatties of dam, and the bride'a 
father one, when all join in drinking. The bride's relatives take the bridegroom's father, &c. 
to'a river or tank, cover them with turmeric, and bathe them, when they return to the house. 
The bride's father provides a pig (with the 2 rupees) for the entertainment of the compai^, 
^e also brings one chatty of dam, and the other fatiter two chatties. Meanwhile, the briott 
has left her own house and hid herself among the rafters of some neighbouring tenemeat ; 
and the women, taking a kamli (blanket), go in search of her, son^png^ 

Teda kamlo awar aia ]Mk 
Sal awar ai ten kamlo tedon. 

Rise lady, delay is happening. 

Oo : delay is, still, ladies, I rise not. 

Then they climb up towards her ; she leaps down ; they seiEe her, and covering her up wifch 
the kamli| she all the time struggling in vain, they bring her to the house, wher« she 
grasps her parents and all her relatives, and hangs on their necks weeping. Then tlie 
entertainment proceeds. This is the great Sagai bk Marathi (in Gk)ndi, p^^ring) or betrothal. ^esX, 
morning the bridegroom and his relatives leave' for their homes. At parting, the bride's 
female relatives, having made a garland of. the pig*s feet, a small cake of udid, onion, and red 
pepper, the bride's father throws it oyer \h» neck of the other father, and on hia^ i^ou»jU<^ 



and hctf th« wted of ■ome pknt (oall«d, in Biamthi, aahta) like talai. whoM aeeds art 
at fint black, bat by Hteepm^ m water become white. The bridegroom'a relatives contribute 
among themaelYes pioe, oownes, red thread, pieces of cocoanut ; and give the bride --and so 
depart. On that same day the bridegmom'a relativefl^ after reacMng tlieir bome^ commence 
to build the marriage bower. (From the day that the Rb. 14 were given, the bride had 
begun to go weeping, along with other two, also weeping, to neighbonring villageB, and they 
are entertained by relatives for a day here and Uiere, and receive a cow, goat, pice cloth, ftc., 
according to the abiUty of the givera). That evening in the house a lota is filled with water 
and a pice thrown into it, and a cover is placed on the top of it and set before the bride^room^ 
who is seated, arrayed in a new doth ; and in this position he is obliged to remain till the 
bride and her party arrive --about 2 o'clock next morning. At their arrival they salute the 
bridegroom's relatives with opprobrious songs and beat wooden cymbals ; friends are received in 
the same manner by the latter. Quarters are appointed to them in a neighbouring house. 
Then about 5 o'clock they return to the house ; but before entering, the bridegroom goes out 
and meets the bride in the plain. The friends of both hold up between them two dupattas 
as veils, with a slight inteorval between them. A. woman who had taken up the Iota attends 
the bridegroom wnh it on her head, and so a woman, similarly f umished, attends the bride. 
And now the bridegroom creeps under the veil into the intermediate space, and so does the 
bride. Then, when both are met^ the veil is withdrawn, and they are left fmaag each ctW ; 
when the bridegroom puts his foot on that of the bride to prevent any resistance, and an iron 
ring on the little finger of the bride's right hand, and fixes his left litUe finger in her right 
little finger. Then an old man, not neoeasarilv a relative, knocks their foreheads together ; and 
while they are renudnins in tUs poeilaon he kills a chicken, and places its body under the 
compressed foot of the bride, adding in a whisper an exhortation to them to be faithful to 
each other. Lifting two balls, one of rice and another of cowdung, he waves them round 
their heads and throws them away. Again, taking a fowl he wrings its neck and waves 
its body round them and throws it away, and so with a cup of dani. Then from 
one side and the other women throw on the two jhondale colored with saffiron. If 
the bridegroom is six or seven Dewala, then, according to the number of his gods, cakes 
of wheats and udid fried in oil (poli and wada), along with rice, are brou£^t in n new 
basket and given by him, together with the fowl and any daru that remains, to the old man, 
who had remained about two days fasting, i.e. from the time of erecting the bower. Then the 
bridegpx)om leads the bride to the bower. Here in the centre a pole has been erected, round 
which, holding still her finger, they walk five times, the bridegroom's female attendant being 
before him all the time wiSi the lota on her head and pouring water on the ground bv a 
spout out of an earthen pot like ateapoi ; the bride'sfemale attendant following her with the lota 
on her head, but pouring no water. The bridegroom is not only linked to we bride behind 
him, but to the attendant before him. Then under the shade of the bower a dhabatra Is 
constructed, on which the two young people sit in a Une, the bridegroom with hia lota at his 
side, and the bride with hers, and have the skirts of th^ reapective garments knotted to- 
gether by the bridegroom's elder brother's wife or l^ his sister. After this the bride anoints 
her spouse with saflton and bathes him. Then both having flUed their mouths with water 
squirt it en each other, and holding eadh other by the little finger they go to his house, at tiw 
door of which they are met by his sister, who aaks aomething before she will permit them to 
enter, nie bridegroom gives a bracelet, vid promises a cow, whereupon they are permitted to 
enter. ^ Here they sit on a kamli side by side, with the bridegroom's thigh resting on that of 
the bride. Then the bridegoom gives a handful of rice into the hand of the bride, who 
puta it into a small earthen vessel, nod her eyes bdng covered by the bridegroom's siater sho 
spills it on the floor, and vice vena ahe givea him, the bride's sister blindfolding the brido- 
groom, and he spillinff the rice. Then before each of the two>, 9 leafy plates of rice, poll, 
and wada are set, which they anatc^ from each other ; these remaining with tfce stronger par^; 
but ultimatehr all are divided among the company. Instead of their dal bhat, aome rice oakea 
are placed before them, when the bridegroom endeavours to feed the bride by force. After 
which, about 8 a.m., the wife leaves him and goes with some girk to the separate house m* 
pointed for her reception. There two opposite rows of women strike up abusive songs, xespond- 
Ing to each other, and drinking an abundance of daru. which oontinues till % pjn. Tnok a 
pig is prepared for the coming entertainment, which takes pUu^ at 10 p.m., and consists of tiio 
pork, rice, poli-wadi, and daru. At the end the bride returns to the separate house as before, 
oat next morning she is brought to her husband's house and left with him, when her relatiTsa 
take their departure ; the bnde's father being now the wearer of the pig's foot'garland ; 




die must retom on JiwatL In some places a marriage mniklaoe (in 
in Hindi, pot ;) Is bound ; but this is learned from Hindus, 

DetUK-^lt the deceased had been rich, they pnrcfaaae a new doth; if poor, an old one is 
vaed for the purpose. They first bcu^ the body out of the house, bathe it, and ancnnt it 
with turnmio, and then with g^ee, and oover the loins with a langoti. Then they lay it on 
e be mboo bieri and oovsr it with the etoUi^ mA tie it with ogapdi. Thai the men eany it to 



VI 

th« place of interment, on a riTer^a bank or m the juns^e, and bury it^ after having atripped 
it of eveiy pieoe of cloth and laid a leaf of Palaa or Ral {Oalotro]^ ffioantea). The face is 
kept upwards, head to south, the feet to north. Then they go to the lirer, bathe, and 
repair to A liquor shop and drink. The women have meanwhile cleaned the house ; the 
neighbouring women bring bread, rice, ^c to it; and all the men who had gone to 
the funeral sit down to eat. On the spot where the deoeaaed expired a basket is 
placed with rice, two roots of huldi, and one chicken, and a little flour is scattered 
on the ground, and all is covered up with a large basket all night. Next morning 
they open it up, and place the contents in an earthen vessel, along with butter, turmeric, 
and red lead, and one carries the whole over his shoulder with a hatchet. All the 
men of the village form the prooeBsion, and at the river anoint themselves with the 
turmeric and butter, and under a tree make a tkapnA, and on it offer a little heap of rice and 
red lead, asking the dead man, now deemed a god, to accept them. They then sacrifice a 
chicken. There the men remain, cook and eat. Men bring daru ; and the women 
who had been cooking at home carry some of the victuals toward the same spot, and on the 
way, on a branch of Galotropis placed for the purpose, they throw some dal bhieit and daru and 
water, and ask the dead man to receive them ; after which they return home. A messenger 
from the th&pnk now comes and carries ofif the provisions and dam, and the men feast at the 
tree ; while Uie women do the same at the house. When the men return, they dine again. 
Then 'the co-religionists of the deceased bring dam, and dipping in it a branch of Nim tree, 
sprinkle the heads of the members of the family, and serve tiie whole nude and female 
present with as many cups of dam as the deceased wonhipped gods. 



7hii Note is aacertmned to have been taken by Mr, Hidop at Nagpore, 

QOKDS: 87th SEPTEMBER, 1862. 

MiSnge Pardhdn Sedam(4-god-wor8bipper) and Dubali DhoU, Ma8kola(7-god), from the Motibag. 
The Gawali dynasty ruled over this countiy. At Deogad and Nandbesur, near Qirad, Chimnaji 
and Gbndaji, two brothers, were the representatives when Bade (great) Row, originally of the 
Kangali tribe, and afterwards, for the reason afterwards given, made the head of a new tribe, 
was his Bhumuk. His great god Pharsi Pen was set up at Jamb, 34 koss above Deogad, on the 
Dev^ River. In Mirgeahwar (i. e. beginning of the monsoon ) this river was flooded and brought 
down many Eheir trees ; all the inhabitants of Deogad went out to secure the snoils, and 
among others went the Bhumuk. Others took the small trunks, but not so he. A large one 
came, and immediately he leaped upon it, but it eluded his grasp and floated up tlie river, he 
swimming after it. It stopped not till it came to Jamb, and there he brought it out to the 
bank, when it appeared very beautifuL At the sight the captor was overjoyed, saying, 
in his mind, that I will make out of it a splendid baton. At last, with a promise of Rs. 5 
to a carpenter, he had made out of it a wooden sword (khanda). Going to a Jingar he 
made a similar promise for a scabbard, but fulfilled neither, as he was but a poor man. 
Then off he went with the weapon under his arm to the Kachari of the Qawali king^ and, 
after T^ft^ing salaam, stated that he came for service. On being asked how much stdary he 
wanted, he replied 16 Kudus of mpees a month (1 Kudus=10 seers, ordpailies). ''What. will 
you do for such a large salary ? stay at home, and come when occasion requires." The Raja 
consented, and the mpees were duly given for six months, during which Bade Row built 
lor hims^ a house. But one of the Rajah's servants, who professed great friendship, dis- 
ooveredy on one occasion, when the sword was inadvertently laid on the .ground out of its 
accustomed armpit^ that it was of wood, and communicated his discovery to His Highness, 
The Raja said we will soon see; in 10 days is the Dusara. Let a five year old male buffaloe be 
TOOvided for the occasion, and let the Qond be appointed to cut off its head with his khazidii. 
The poor man was sorely perplexed. How could he with hfli wooden sword accomplish supH a 
f<9at. He could neither eat nor drink. The god Pharei Pen, and Manko Rayetdl his wif^ 
a^^ypeared to him in a dream, told him to be. of good cheer, to take his weapon at the saoie 
time witii the others to the river, but to go higher up the stream to wash it, ihen.^ qaixv 
S^ home and worBhip it. The preliminaries over, he smeared a spot in his houjie ynxk 
opwdung-— fiet up on the chabutra the kh<»ndft. While engaged in the worship a., ^noat 
from two men at the door of the angsn reached him, calUng him to come, as thd, buffalo 
was ready. He told them to tell the Raja he was in the middle of the ceremonies, ^i, woul4 
^me when they were finished. The Raja sent three mare. The same reply^ Th^ four^^ wh» 
were ordered to bring him by force. Kow he called on his gods not to allow him to, ba w^ 
lionoied: " Adhalpen, Budhal Pen i Pharsi Pen,Jfanko Rayetal I 016 Satis! (who ol^red 
themselves on the funeral pile, when Pharsi Pen killed his three brothera, Subhadra, Kubh/ijdriL 
and lingobhan Pariyor,— we 16 bdng the mother oi all, three wives of three, and the l| 
daughters of Subhadra) be favorable to me." The answer wss, ''Why do you fear." //Biit 
what sign do you give of your favor V] "Draw your sword and you will see." He drew |ihe 
sword and it flashed like lightnizig, at which he was blinded and proistrated on thiS glptuid. 
The gods, moreover, told hun to uiorm the Raj^ that when he should lift hUi sword to MS 
the buffalo, the Elng should sQt 76 Q men with their matchlocks ready turned bil liSpi libA 
diBchai|;e their bullets, otherwise Phand Peii woifldrenddr ill th^ wOJaieii ot Out tfly htentt. 



vn 
APPENDIX II. 



l^oU made hy Mr. Eidop from information obtained from Captain Chapmat^. 

GONDS OF THB CHINDWARA. DISTRICT: IST NOVEJffBBR 1801. 

Jawahir, a worshipper of five gods, stated to Captun Chapman that his divinities are, — 
Pharsi Pen, or Dula dewa ; S, Nitnna ; 3, Qhangrah (according to Captain Chapman), or 
Gangara ; 4, Rayetal ; and 5, Badialtai. Dula dewa ie the god of the battleaxe, and superior 
to all the rest. He is worshipped once a year, about a month before the Holi. His worship 
eontinues fifteen days, or a month, according to the leisure or devotion of the worshipper, 
and is as follows. The head of the family leaves his house with an offering of flowers, 
fruit, or animals— i. c. sheep or fowls — to lay at the foot of the Saj tree, which is supposed to 
be inhabited by the god. If on their way they find the road miry, they return home witli- 
out making the offering; if otherwise, they proceed. On arriving at the tree, the fruit is out 
in half, or the animal slaughtered, and a part offered ^rith daru (spirits) to the god. The whoU 
18 then cooked, during which the officiating priest addresses the audience ; and then he and 
the other Pardluins eat what they waot of the part that was offered with the dam ; and if 
any remain, it is burie<l in the earth. The people, in like manner, eat and drink of what was 
not offered^ The officiating priest never gets drunk on these occasions ; but the non-officiating 
«nd the people are under less restraint. Nurma appears to be one of the Penates ; his iorvfi 

is Q made of a piece of Hardua or Mundi wood. Four of such pieces of wood (to re- 
present the minor gods) are fastened to a flat piece of iron, and suspended in a chat cy 
(eartlien pot) from the roof of the house. The worship of Nurm* is celebrated four timeA iii a 
year, and U as follows. The four pieces of wood aie taken out of the chatty (earthen jpotf) 
and carried to any convenient tree : there the ground is plastered with cowdung, in the idtti 
of a square, of about four feet. The four pieces of wood are then laid upon the ground 'anid 
covered with a new cloth, and two Bucking pigs are brought, which are laid, withtheilr fedt 
tied, in front of the god ; and the priest or I'ardhAn is sent for. On his arrival he opeiu 
the Shastras, and having read a portion, some ghee, oi butter, and coarse sugar are b\imt 
together in front of the idol. Then all the worshippers stand up, both male and female, 
and name the various giftd which tUey ictend to present to the Pardh^, — cows, sheep, 
rupees, cloth, ^. They then take u]j the pigs and idols, and return to the house, outside 
of which they remain till une, who had been purpobely left behind to plaster the floor and 
jinralls of the house with cowdung, comes out with a brass vessel containing water ancl,l|^ 
rupe<)s, and sprinkles the pigs, idol:}, and worshippers. As the people are sprinkled th^ 
^Dss into the house : last of all comes the Pardliiin, who receives the remaining water ; and 
in order that none may be wasted, turns the vessel upside down, and the 1^ rupees fall 
into the priests hands, and soon tinci their way into his pocket. In the centre of the l^use 
is a raised altar (chabutra), upon which five eggs are now broken, one code, and the tw;o 
auckiug pigs slain, one cocoanut broken, one bottle of daru (spirits) poured, and five loaVM 
looked in oil, and a small quantity oi rice placed. The four idols are now put in the middle, 
and covered with the blood of the victims. The priest breaks the besmeared bread, and 
hands it soaked in blood and liquor to eiich of the worshippers. He then repeats certaia 
words, and removes the idols from the altar to the chatty (earthen pot) again, when thiely 
are- suspended as before. All the company now tike off the clothes they have. worshipped 
^ and putting on other clothes, cook the offeiin^, — cocoanut, sucking pigs, fowls,— and 
laen women and children all pai-take of the yiandd with a plentiful supply of liquor. Th« 
worship of the remaining three idols is celebrated at the same time, and with the saifte 
rites, as Dula dewa. 

-1, Dola dawft is represented by a battleaxe fastened to a tree ; 9, Nurma, by a.round.pi^oe 
«f .wood lake. an orange; 9, Gangara, by an iron uhain of four liul^ ; 4, Rayet^ by an 
Iron tiger about -3 inches in length, which is sometimes kept in the hou«e, and.soznetijn^ 
in certain appointed places in the jungle; 6, Budial-tal, also by an iron ti^er^iie, being 
looked on as the brother of the last. 

Digas are the barcU among the Gonds. They play on a low-toned, . wir^ iostrnm^Qt^ 
called kiukree, \vith a horseh^r bow, and their music is accompanied by a reoitatiqii jjn 
^onouTi^of t^eir gods; they wander about from house to house,7-Teniaining two or t^ree di^ys 
p.one place, and living on the bounty of their audience. The Pardhdns oocasionailT 
juaag^e themselves . poiisesaecl of a demon. Captain Chapman's watter-carrier, a Par- 
^lUUi, a month ago, . went to his house and took a haudcul of wheat, whi(^ he sqwed 
.\D, the middle of the house; in the 'centre ol the wheat he put a i^ew ohattj oi wat^, ai^d 
^yertjiedhtattya lamp- the, wick of whicli .was so long ^at it burnt f or hi^i'e dim and 
mghta. These niiie days and' niighta the Watennab aH^eiuced .^^t^feflyA— he ju^npfd, h« 



danced and Mug ; but the demon allowed him to sleep near the wheat. At the ezpiratioQ 
of the ninth day, the demon auggeeted that a lime should be fixed on the end of a swcwd, 
which the man had in his hand. The women put earthen pots of water and wheat npon their 
heads, and, dancing and singing, all went to the river and threw in the offering of the first- 
frqits. Whethet this was an unusual possession, or whether it always aooompanies the' 
offering of the firstfruits, I cannot exactly find out 



APPENDIX III. 



IfoU made by Mr, Hidop^ from information obiavned through Serqfooddeen, a 
Native Christian^ Inspector of Police, 

GONDS OF THE SEONEE DISTRICT : a6TH Novmibkb 1861. 

fiis informant was a sevengod worshippei^-Bada dewa, Matiya, Sale, Palo, Sakal dewa, 
Oadawa, and Kham ; Khatar Pen, and Khawariyal (Kodiyal). Three others were mentioned, 
as Dhanbai, Dhan-takoor. and Dhan Gopal. Khatar Pen and Khawariyal are 4repre8ented 
by balls of wood, and Dhanbai and the other two by balls of iron. When Gonds die they 
a» committed to Gadawa, who is the god of the dead, and takes care of theoL Kham 
dewa is worshipped under a Saj tree. Chhota dewa, is reprebented by a little stool,^ with 
^bri legs, about 10 by 8 inches, of one piece of wood. There ia offered to him a chicken, 
pig, shendur (red powder) and dam (spirits) but no fheep or goat; bukra (sheep) is offered 
onty to the great god. Matiya dewa remains with the great god, and is like his KotwiaL 
They offer him a young pig. Sale is nearly equal with the great god, and sits ^ith him 
on tiie same gaddi (cushion or throne). He is offered a she-goat. Gangara and Palo are 
offered a cow. 

The Gond informant said : Our gods eat cow's flesh, and why should we not ? Gsdawa 
dwells in our houses. After performing the funeral ceremonies of the dead, b his name we 
commit them to his protection. He is represented by a chatty (earthen pot) with a little 
vermilion in it, and a lid, like a lamp, coveripg its mouth ; it is hung up to the inside of the 
roof, and taken down by a man after bathing, when it is to be worshipped. Kham dewa is 
worshipped under a Saj tree, and similar offerings are made to Chhota dewa. Pharki Pen ib 
not a dewa ; he is pAt or saint. Vows are made to him ; and thoso who have them fulfilled, 
worship him : but all do not. Along with Chhota dewa there are two gods of wood, called 
Khawariyal and Khatar Pen, and three of iron, t. c. Dhanbai, Dhan-takoor, and Dan-gopaL 
Besides these, is a chain of iron, which is called Sakal dewa. On the day of Amawasbya, 
I put it on after worshipping; then take it through the bazaar, which is held on Monday, 
with the sound of dnims ; and on the eleventh day, after worshipping it again, I will 
place it inside of Gadawa, which ia suspended from the roof. Chuda Pen is the same a* 
Bakal Fen; the symbol in some cases being a chain, in others an iron bangle. HolS 
Ray (Ray = King) ia represented by ^ of wood ; he is worshipped only by those who have 
00W8, Bag dewa is a person killed by a tiger, and he is worshipped under that name by 
'his family in the jungly districts around. Sana is a dead woman, and Doma is a dead 
man. They are also worshipped. We worship Marimdtd as well. We dont worship Munjal j 
we oononit him, like a dead body, to Gadawa. Durga remains near Khodi dewa. 

We worship the great god twice a year— when the new rice comes in, and when oil is 
ezttaeted from the Moha. Till worship is performed on these two occasions, we cannot aa* 
the rice or use the oil. On these two occasions it is usual to fall at the feet of thto Ptedh^ 
laale-Gfaaogara is the sign of the great gtjd. The great god is represented by ia tea 
.tpiear, abd those Gonds who do not possess this sign, worship him under a Saj trse. W% 
must especially worship the groat god, for if we do not, we shall suffer great n a l a mitif* . 
Bhumka (Bhumuk) is the permm who draws a line of protection round the villsffe with 
charms, shuts the mouths of tigers. He is intelligent, acts as a nhysician, and OMta 
out devils. There are twelve aud a half castes— lUj Gond, PardhiSn, Khotowriy«» Janwiei* 
-waia, Thakur, Kurri Gond, Gondhera, Thathiya, Dubarya, Panka» Nagarchi, OJhijL Kiaijr^ 
Payam ; which last is the half-caste. These do not intermarry, except the B^ Qondi'un 



Pardhdns. In marriage we do not worship any but the great god, to whom w© oiAr • 
fowl or goat. The Bhumuk officiates. Any clothes, Ac., that W been wortx b^AejJJJ 
-we do not keep in our house, but give to the Pa.'tlh^nii. . We do not reVersiioe ]BiAi|^n^ 
Wo acknowledge the differeuce between Sin an'd r:ghteuUsiiMs, and we believe thai W^ 
%hra aa aocount ol our iu» aftiar death. 



ARPENDIX IV. 



AecautU of the Oonds of Hutia^ in the Bhundara District , given to Mr. Eidop 
by Oajiaj Sing^ Zemindar, 

GUNDS ov THB BHUNDARA DISTRICT: DECEMBER, 1801. 

In the village of Hiri, part of Oajrag*** Zemindaree, there are three or four QoDd houses. 
One Ootid, named Daiiaru, is of the Tekam trihe. and a woi-shipper of four goda ; «. e. Budha, 
who ift also called Gagaradewa ; 2, Dula dewa ; 3. Mahadewa ; 4, Parbati. He says he does 
not know any Gonds who worship one, two, three, or eight gods, but he is acquainted with 
some who worship four, five, six, seven, and nine. Another Gond of Hiri, named Holee, 
is of the Seiyain tribe, and worships seven gods : 1, fiudha, or Gagara ; 2, Dula dewa ; 
a, SakaUya dewa, 4, Nirrd; 5, Parbatti; G, Mahadewa; and 7, Kaiha, in whose name Hindu 
parents, in performance of a vow made when childless, used to precipitate their eldest son, 
when he was about ten years of age, from the top of the Mahadewa hills. He worship 
six of his gods every year, either on the Dewali in the month of Kartik, when rice is new, 
or if not then, on Tij or Akatij (i. e. the 3rd) in the month Weishdk, when the crop of Mcha 
flowers is ripe. From this latter date, tbey begin to extract oil from these flowers. Thef>a 
are used as articles of diet by Lodhees, Ahirs (i. e. Gowars), and Gonds, &c.; but they 
are not so considered by Rajpoots, who simply bum the oil in their lamps. To Mahadewa, 
Holee offers a he-goat — to Parbati, a she one ; to Dula dewa, as to Mahadewa ; to Nirra, 
a pig. Budha. or the great gud, is worshipped once in about three years. 'J'he ceremonies, 
including the offering of a cow, are performed at night, while feasting goes on during 
the day. If, in the interval between thehe triennizd' feasts, any unmarried man dice, he 
is Teckoned among the gods, and on that occasion Budha is worshipped. A third Gond 
in Hiri is Kesari Pujari, a worshipper of four gods, which were enumerated as above, and 
of the Kumara tribe. There are two kinds of Kumara : one, that offers gnats as well as 
cows ; the other, to whom goats are an abomination ; and if one should stray into their 
yards or compounds they throw away every chatty (earthen water pot). They offer only 
fowls, pigs, and cows. 

Maniagt—^B celebrated in any month. In a flat dish, full of water, they put two grains 
of rice, and, naming a day for the marriage, see whether it is suitable by their sinking 
or going together. Then the bride goes about crying among her relatives, attended by six 
to twenty women singing songs : this lasts from eight to fifteen days, accordiug as relatives 
are numerous and distant. Relatives give a little to the bride ; after this she is annointed 
with haldi, and goes to the village of the bridegroom with parents, &c. Outside of the 
village they stop, and one itets up a spear in the village dunghilL They are now joined by 
the bridegroom and his party ; and the young couple, stauding on the dunghill, t]|ie lad takes 
au iron ring off hia own right little finger and puts it on the lass', and strikes her on the 
back with his fist three times. All then proceed to bridegroom's father's house, where 
the women of both sides, standing in opposite rows, address each other in abusive songs. 
At night they feast ; in the morning, the bride's relatives return home, leaving her. 

The dead are buried at a distance from the vilhige, but thk^mas (shrines) are erected, 
many together ; four stones forming the sides of the thkp^uias. 



APPENDIX Y. 



NoU made hy Mr^ Hitlop in Odtcher 1862, fnm in/ormcUum cbipiiyfd ihff^h 
iSerajooddeen Native Chrietian. 

GONDS OF TBS CHAKDA DISTRICT. 

Oonds bui7 their dead with their faces np. The head may be placed towards any qu^^rter 
of the heavens, but the west. Sons equally inherit ; and if there be unmarried daughte|;« 
they receive a share. If without <^flpring the nephews succeed. They swear by Bud» 
Dewa ; by sons, Ac. He repeated a part of a song taken at Hoharle, about Daka Dan 
Kesal, Sonlat Keaal, and Kad^uti KesaL Mention is made of a Shukurwar tank. 

A Bhagai is one into whoee body the Bnda Dewa comes ; in this state of inspiratioii he 
eUmbe the trees and brinyi down Bade Dews, who near Chand» is called Pharsapen. 



At Nagbhid marriage among the Raj Gondfi is celebrated, after going round in the lane 
4 timee, by the bridegroom taking au iron ring from a finger of bis right hand and putting 
it on the bride's. With tha g*eat toe of hiij left foot, he presses her foot. At Nawar- 
gftuin» 4 COS8 south south-west of Chimnr, it was related by a Kaj Good Bhumak, that the 
day before marriage the relatives worship the village gods as Marai, Bhangarai or Bhangara 
Bai (female) &c : there is a Bhangaram (male) also. The wife comes from one side and tlie 
husband from another and they both stand together in the akada (place of assembly). The 
bridegroom shuts his hand firmly on an iron ring. The V>nde shuts her hxmd' equally 
firmly. • Then he opens hers by force and puts the iron, ring on the little finger of her right 
hand, after which they go to his house and drink together. 

^ XS^aen a person at . Newergaum is killed by a tiger, he gives the relatives no rest* unless 
ti^ appease him with offerings : they go to a creeper named Phusi — prer ent to it, by a Weidh, 
or pujari, (priest) dheep, vermilion, and kill a chicken, male ur female, according to the sex of 
the person that had been killed, and bury it there, after which they go round the tree 5 
times :. The pujari theu disini&sea them, telling them not to louk back (does he take out 
the chicken ?). After all are gone, be repeats a mnntra, (incantation) and with one blow of his 
hand breaks the creeper, and leaves, himself not looking back. For the protection of cattle 
Kolasur is worshipped by Maratbas with veroiilion ouly ; but by Gonds who reckon him 
ii^eir deity, with a young cock and daru (spirits). At Nagbhid, according to Katu, a Raj Gond 
c>f 7 gods, there is a chain with 7 bells (gagaii) of bell metal, according to tbe number of 
goda,. This is kept in au earthen vessel and hung up by a rope round the neck or mouth 
to the bough of a tree. It is taken down once ia one or two years, by the bhagat, whea 
worship is to be pei-formed, and a guat or fowl offered. A kuth-'i, or song, the beginning of 
which was taken down by Serajoodeeu at Moharle, 18 miles north oi Chanda, is about 
C^ohan Eaja» whose father was JadoMalhari. J^lo Malluiri's wife was Naga Moti. Chohau 
Raja's wife was Maia Motl. Their daughter was Tadmawanti. TbeMohamedan Emperor of 
Dfilbi first sent a Bhat^ who took the youug lady's portrait, and un showing it to the Emperor, 
tS^ flatter was so smitten that he sent an army of Pathans like a cloud, to take her by 



APPENDIX VI. 



yde taken by Mr* Uidop in July 1856, from information obtained through 
Appaya Native Chrisiiun. 

THE KURKUS. 

Appaya made his enqviries near Adrgad and Baiiul en the noth-west of Xagpore. The 
Eurkus acknowledge that there is one invisible Supreme Being whom they cull Bhagawan- 
jee : — perhaps having borrowed this opinion from tbe Hicdi s. But nfrer reft|.iing their, 
crops of rice they sacrifice a goat, fowl &c., to Sultan Sakada who in bu) posed to bave been 
■ome King among them in former times. Those at Asirgadsay that the Zimiiidar^ or Thakurs 
at the Mahadewa hills worship Shiwa for them, as well as themselves. When a man 
dies, his family, if in the rains, buiy him, if at other seasons they bum bis body and afterwards 
oflfor a goat, when they set up a rude wooden imnge, of the deceased near the village at a 
place appointed for the reception of all such representations. The image is about 2 feel 
•boTO the ground of this shape : IX 

The deceased seems to t>e worshipped only the first year for protection. 

For marriage S^ days are required. On the first day the relatives of the brid^;room go 
to the bride's house and bring her to her intended husband's hou^e. On the :ind day they 
tie together the garnients of the two and cause them to join bauds and to run seven times 
rodnd * niohwa tree after whic& tbey are conducted to the bower (mandap) prepared at "tn^ 
husbands house. Then they are reminded of their having been knotted together and that' 
henceforth thejr must not be separated, after which all feast and drink, and one hiaving. 
lifted the hoabojid and another the wife on their backs th^y dance. 

Their employment is to cut down the jungle : with a bambojp ,«tiGk to sow Kutki (pulseX 
•a. the hills ; and with a plough to sow rice on tiie planes -, and. make tatties of bamboos. 



Xi 

An Kurkus m of one cSfte. They eat from the baodji of HindulP^ bat ndt ft^Mii dends 
or K4har8. They poand the kernels of maogoes and rub down the flowers of the mohi^a, and 
tnake a |;ruel t>f each of them. This is an important part of their food. Dam, or anwek 
of tfie mohwa aa usual among jungle tribe« is very much drunk. They dreftft lik» Hittdcis 
and >K''ear fewer ornaments than Qoncls. The Gonds are generally the Patela of th^ villages 
and Seem to be wealtheir then they. 

Kaineii of Kurku males, Bonga, Bendu, Sukali, Rajaji. Tuta, Badagi, tUmsingh, Chholu, 
Nam. 

Female. Inna, Batro, Rajani, Budiya, Ouji, Pandiya, Manjibakan imcl Bodan. 

Aocnrdin^ to Buldewa the aborigines who live aroand Gawalgad, know Marathi better 
tiian Hindi. 'Riey have a Patel whose dress and armour are different from the rest, he wearing 
a irooden sword, on«shoe, and a coat of n^s of various colours. They will eat dead anim&is» 
and yet thB fixndtrstanee Brahmaasand Rajpoots who trade among them drink from their 
biada 



APPENDIX VII. 



Sufe made hy Mr^ Hnlop in April 1857. from information obtixvncd through 
Appaya Native Christian, 

« THE MADES akd the MARLVS. 

Appaya met none of this tribe m Weiragad but in a village named Wadgaon to the east, 
where they tive apart from Hindus. In the village just named there may be ten houses of 
the jungle people and ten or twelve of Hindus. lUit they are apt to be migmtory as they 
fhid their crops not thriving or when death invades their habitations. They are siippoeed 
to extend from Weiragad to Kakair and Bustar. 

They have broad fac^s and flattish noses and of the same stature as a middle sized Hindu. 
Appiah considers the Gotjds he met in the north weit of Chindwara taller than Hindus. 
The men wear no turband and in general only u dhotee, (round their loins) but whe*j they 
go abroad they throw on any wastra (cloth) about their uhonlders. They wear a brass or 
iron bangle and brass collar round their necks— they cany hatchets in their hands. The 
women wear a great m*any strings of beads ; from 80 to 40 ; and at Chamursi, they 
also adorn themselves with a string of prudent bells. Bangles, (4 or 5) on each hand, 
of zinc, a chain of the same metal is suKpended from the hair and is Jittached at 
the ear to large boss that is stuck into the ear. The women are covered with a single 
doth about 12 feet long which is thro%\Ti twice round their !eft shoulder and then 
oovexs their loins, but not bound a£ among the Mahratta wumi'n. In the jungles the 
women wear only leaves. In every village there is a bothy for young men. They acknow- 
ledge the god of the Gonds called Bad2i Dewa or the great god who is inferior to the Su- 
preme Being ; also Bhawani and Banga Kow. They do not seem to have ai»y worship for 
the Supreme Being ; but in honor of the great god, they go once a year into the jungle 
and under any kind Of tree according to Appaya, they clean a spttt with cowdung on which 
they. oiTer a handful of rice bum ral (a kind of resin) and sacrifice a goat or fowl. A 
priest (&endi mangi pujari) of the great god goes round the buildings of a tract of country 
and asks the people on pain of cursing to give something as an offering for the great god,. 
w|^en each house gives about 3 or 3 annas. They carry sick people to Bhawani's temple which 
is' placed on a chaibutra (pUt form) netfr a wall. From a transverse beam, which resis ^upon 
two uprights, there hangs a swing with a wooden box contaicing kuku (powderfor woman- 
C^., Bhawani, mftking the mark on her forehead). This U covered up on the exposed sideby 
a oUrtaJtL, From eseh side hangs la chain of iron. Near it at one end is a lampstand. itk 
ft^nt are irdnfods one of which near the lamp is high. At the other 'end is a mttrchal 
rfftnof -peaicock feathersl. Near the iron rods are wooden horses' and horsemen. There is'lio- 
iddl ih the ar^le. They offer Bhowmi a goat once a year with turmeric and ral. . Whe» a 
itLtai Is brought 'sick to the temple they place some turmeric and burn a lamp -inside of "the 
t#fng, tod ^u& ihe goddess to md^e the sick man well. 

^pn finishing the cutting of then* ci'ops, each family has a day of rejoicing, on whi^'^t 
terfood than usual is prepared, (their crops at "Weiragad are oi rice and 'jo^vari (millet) 'for 
which the groimd is ploughed, they cut d6wn and bum the jangles as afaiong other tritfet). 

After a birth, the mother i4 separaCe'd for a month and treated as unclean — no one* 
t^Bdhislier-AHd'tmle&B ifiere are' oldtth dat^ghters, she is oblif^ed to <!uok -for hersdtf. Wheito 
tKe )period is ended her clothes are washed, and diris allowed to return to tliB £aittily. Tfaa 
I oooaiata of a mnd wall with chapper (thatoh). 



xu 

Before tttrria^ « man ii Bent to enquire ebout a bride. The perents of the bridq^room 
give for the bride, to her parents Re. 10 or Ra. 20. The marriage which to^ea pUce betweea 
Bartira of the age of 10 to 20 is c(>n.sumated in a day. In the sooming about 7 a bower 
haTiug been erected near the house of the bridegroom the two young people are led into ife. 
and made to stand up together, and from the top of the bower, dash on their heads a ohattj 
(pitcher) of water. After which they put on dry clothes ; when having been seated all the. 
people put rice on their heads, and the marriage is completed by an exhortation from the 
parents. The whole day and night, they eat> dmik and dance. 

After a man is dead they kill and offer to the body a fowi The. corpse is then put on a 
tatty and placed on the shoulders of four young strong men. All the neighbours placing 
on the ground a handful of rice, call to mind their own dead forefathers, and turning to 
the corpse place on it some rice, remarking that now he has become god and adjure him, if 
death had came of Rod's will to accuse no one, but if death had been caused by witchcraft^ 
to point out the guilty party. Sometimes it is said, there is such a pressure exerted on the 
ahoulders of the bearers, that they are pushed forward and guided by the corpse to some 
house. The inmate is not seised at once, but if other three times the coipse . returns after 
beinff taken some distance back, he is apprehended and expelled from the village. The 
corpse ts then carried to a tree to which it is tied upright and burned. (Apa^'a does not 
know about burying) Then they begin to collect money for afiweral feast which is celebrated 
in a year or 16 months, from the time of the ciemation. Repairing to the spot where the 
body waa burned, they ftud the neighb^>urhood surround it with a tatty, (grass screen) in 
which they btick wooden spears, while a flag is fixed to the tree, and At a chopper (thatched 
roof) built for the pn^poee, they sacrifice a fowL Thereafter they return to the house 
of the deceased, and having killed a goat, &c., make a feast, and if the deceased was poor 
they continue for a day, if rich for three days with music and dancing. The danoiuf is 
perfo'-med by a string of men on one side and of women on the other, approochingTnd 
receding. On that occasion, it is no sin for a virgin to be guilty of f^rnicatiun, though it is 
oarefuUy forbidden at other time^. Six or seven years after they carry a stone or any 
remaaidng bones of the deceased to his original village, and set up the one and bury the 
other. Then they offer and sacridce, and feast the villagers ; when they conclude that the 
deceased has been joiued to or absorbed in the great god. 

In making salutation the Madea say juwar ; and seem to live at peace among themselves. 
They an) hospitable to btrangers, and honest, and never go into a mau's house in his ab:it nca 
In the hot weather they remain in vilhiges, but at the coumeocement of the uionsooo, they 
separate to their various patches of cultivation, where they live night and day. If a mar- 
ried woman is convicted of adultery, bhe is killed by her husband, lioth husband and wifia 
may marry again. 

Names of men, Mang;u, Bheia, Karya, Bhuriya, Lalu, Somiya, Hiriya, Kutmanji, Tengana^ 
Lebudu, Nawalu, Dasaru, Tiya, Pakaru, Warlu, Bursu, Newaiu, Sonu. 

Names of women, Rukmi, Lingi, Lidi Kali, Tomi, Maogi, Sukali, Masi. Langadi, Dumi, 
Semi. 



Name^ of 3£arias on east frontier of Bustar supplied by Captain C. Elliot^ from fiustar 
June 1867. 

Men, Odhi, Gasiya, Magadu, Wakani, Chirke, Mugul, Ram'ah, Gade, Boyal, BodkA, 
Kutha, Chirka, Burka, Jiidahal, Padaru, Sumaru, Dusmi, Sunal, Kadi, Dhodi, Higal, 
Adharu, Jaliyal, Biadhal. Badal, Racharu, Lakhmal, Gagaru, Bakal, Pichke, Dehla, Rupu> 
Malal, Oedi, Bikal, Gubada, Bira, Jhitku, Mesial, Dorge, Mulal, Kodal, Chatu, MiraL 

Women— Hinge, Judahi, Dukari, R,ame, Qagade, Eani, Beishaki, Koeli, Ratnal, Rags, 
Sukadi, Kado. 

The following tnfonnation, regarding the marriage of the same Bustar people, was fiir- 
nidied with the above names. 'When thev are going to celebrate a marriage, they sprinkle 
(asayet) en the goddess Mata» and the gud Bhim» and anoint them with oil and saffbop 
which two last are carried from their deities to anoint the bride and bridegroom, who are 
then dressed in the usual coarse cloth of the country^ and a yellow thi-ead is tied round their 
wriaL Goats are killed and arrack is drunk, until the company are intoxicated. The bride 
•nd bridegroom also share in the liquor, Gondi aongs are suns, accompanied with muida. 
Arbours are oonstmctedat the houses of both bride and bridegroom ; and out of a v e s s e l 
full of water hung up in the bride's arbour, water is sprinkled on the two and their dothas 
are tied to(gpBther ; .aod seven tames they run round a pole erected in the manda?^ (bower). 



I>eseriptM» of the eastona of the Made's as obtained by Virapa Vei^Btaehalam, Jtwtiy 
1»S8 from tke FSKtel of Waiganm 44 cosa north of AdnpaUiCAiyeim) whoia* Made^ thoogb 
his people Uvo more to the east. 



Xlll 

Marriag* among them doM not take place till the age of maturity. The bridegroom ia 
expected to give dowry to the parents of the bride, amounting sometimes to Rupees 20. At 
the marriage feast which lasts for four days, four pigs, two goats, rice, jowari, and darn (spirits) 
are consumed. There is much dancing among the boys and giris, to the sound of the tom-tom 
(drum). There is no bower, but the bridegroom and bride sit in the open air, near the bride- 
groom's father's door, surrounded by the spectators. Females, till their marri^^e, wear no 
covering over the u; per part of their body. 

ks soon 03 a person expires, his eyes are closed and his boly waahed, which is then carried 
to the jungle and fastened upright by three ropes to the trunk of a tree. Firewood is 
brought and the body is burned amid the weeping of the relatives and loud wailing of the 
others. 

Some worship 7, some 0, some 5, some 4 q^ods. They have one great festival at the be- 
ginning of the monsoon before they sow their crops, when they repair to a hill on the top of 
which they set up stones in a row to represent the number of their gods,— daub them with 
vermilion and present to them cakes, (piiria) of riceflour, ghul (sugar) and ghi (clarified butter) 
on teak leaves, rice puUe and daru. They then kill a pig, a goat or ahe^p, and a cock, whose 
blood they sprinkle before their deities, and their bodies they take home along with the other 
offeriugs, to make meiry at their homes. They then sow millet and maize. 

Worship is performed before the marriaji^e ceremony. In the morning at the door of the cow 
house, they set up aiow of stones, which had been carefully washed, each about 4 inches hiorh ; 
but one in the middle, to i-epresent the great god bein;; somewhat larger. They pass a 
thread round all, and put a sectarial mark (black.) mjule of chire:)al and oil, ^JTheir own marks 
are of a white colour formed from a white stone rubbed down). A lota (brass pot) is placed 
Id front of the big god into which each married woman drops four cowries. They offer bade 
(oakeA of black mung, onion, ghi and salt,) rice, kill a hen, bum incinse, and sprinkle water 
three times, when they retire to the houee, the cowries being the chief property of the chief 
. man among them and the fowl being divided. At noon the marriage commences. Charcoal 
is mixed with a quantity of water and poured with a brass pot on the heads %nd bodies of the 
bride and brideffroom, after which they are dried and clean clothes being put on them, and 
the bridegroom having received from head man a dagger (kataf) which he holds in his hand 
all the time from day to day, they are seatedoit the bridegroom's door with the comer of 
their garments knotted to each other and each receives a white m:brk on the forehead. Next, 
tiurmeric and water are mixed with lime in a brass plate, which is turned red by the lime 
and carried to the bride's three times as a present and thrown away on the road. The 
elder people are seated near, and music and dancing among the unmarried youths of both 
sexes are kept up bey^md two or three hours. In the evening at the sound of the drum 
the people again assemble and a similar ceremony is gone through for a like period of time. 
Early next morning they assemble for similar purposes and before they part they have a meal 
together on pigs, Ac., and daru ^snirits). At noon when they assemble there is no repast or 
present; but in the evening and during the continuance of the mairiage, all the people live at 
the expense of the bride's and bridegroom's parents. 

The Mades have good features They eat anything including beef. They reckon them« 
selves higher than Gonds and wijl not allow Mahars to touch tiiem as the Goods do. Mades 
and Gonds dont eat from each others hands, the Gonds and Kolamis at Manikgad will do so. 

Eight coss to north of Weinu^ad is a hill called Sonsari. The Zemindar of the district 
(January 1853 when we visited Weiragad) was Kuja Bapoo of the Ualba ttibe. The inhabitants 
are Madee, from whose hijuads Uaj Goods will not eat. In the Made viUagss east of Weira« 
gsd there are generally less than five houses one sometimes being a Qowali's. Thej wear 
doth round the loum, and a roomal or kerohief. 



APPENDIX VIII. 

Addendum. 

JSote by Editor. 



While this work was passing through the Press I have 
received a copy of Mr. E. G. Man's work on Sonthalia and 
the Sonthals. At the end of this work there is a brief Voca- 
bulary of Sonthal words. Some of these are evidentlj^ of 
i^'anskrit or Hindi origin. Others are evidently, aboriginal^ 
1 hese latter do not at all correspond with the Gondi words as 
given in the present work. But some of them do correspond 
with the Mu&si words as given in the foregoing Vocabulary 
of the present work in the following instances:— 



English. 


Sonthal. 


MUASI. 


Nose 


Mu 


Mu 


Ear 


Lutur 


Lutur 


Hair 


Up 


Op 


Belly 


Lai 


Lai 


Star 


Ipil 


Epal 


Fire 


Sengel 


Singal 


Water 


Da 


Da 


House 


Ora 


Uru 


Dog 


Seta 


Sita 


These are important points of i 


similarity. On the other 


hand there are some 


words of importance regarding which no 


coincidence u to be found. 





So far as I can make out, there does not seem to be any 
reeemblance whatever between the Sonthal language and the 
Gondi in this part of India. Indeed it is to be expected that 
if the Sonthali resembles the Mu&si to any extent, it could 
hardly have any affinity with the Gondi, which is a different 
laaguaga 

Mr. Pandurang, who at my request has been good enough 
to examine the point further, reports as follows : — 

*^ So many of the Sonthal words resemble the Mu&si, that 
1 should suppose that the Sonthals and the Mu&sis must either 
have originally formed cne tribe, or else must subsequently . 
have had intercourse with each other. After comparing the 
Sonthal Vocabulary with the Gondi I should infer that the 
Gonds and the Sonthals must have been disiinct and separate 
aboriginal tribes.'* 

R, T. 



A VOYAGE FROM ENGLAND TO CHILE, 

OR 

DOWN SOUTH IN "THE LONG." 

BY THE 

REV. W. B. KEER. 

Reprinted from the ^'Oxford Oimrdian,'' Oct. 1877. 



Valparai9o, Chile, S. A. 
Sir, — As some of your readers at times 
find it difiScult to decide where and how 
they may spend the Long Vacation so as 
to obtain the greatest amount of change 
with healthful recreation, amid new and 
instructive scenes, it may not be unaccept- 
able to them to have pointed out the prin- 
cipal features of a little known, but now, 
thanks to the enterprise of the Pacific 
Steam Navigation Company, a pleasant 
and practicable tour. I heard just before 
Commemoration, some suggesting the 
Danube and Black Sea, others Siberia and 
Kamschatka, and as North America, had 
been '' done " last summer, at the Centen- 
nial, and Scandinavia and Iceland^ have 
long been familiar, those who do not like 
being exposed to Turkish and Russian 
guns, will hardly find the north-east of 
RttBsiA practicable, the like objection does 
not apply to South America. The start 
being made firom Oxford one is taken by 
^he Great Western Railway via Warwick, 
and the beautiftil vale of Llangollen to 
Chester and Birkenhead, where the vast 
lines of docks and lofty warehouses and 
palatial offices that line the Mersey may 
bo investigated, and several huge ship 
building and other works may be seen, 
b«tidt tAi« N«w Art*Q«U«i7 and iplendid 



public library and museum of Liverpool. 
The last named building, opened in 1864, 
is the munificent gift of the late Sir Wil- 
liam Brown, a merchant pnnoe of Liver- 
pool and America, and is with its contents 
an interesting study. But as our business 
was elsewhere we lingered not among 
these splendid objects of industry ;, enter- 
prise and art; but hastening to the spacious 
offices, known as the Pacific BuildingSi at 
31, James Street, Liverpool, we learned 
that the steamer ValpaaroMo, of 3576 tons 
and 600 horse-power, one of a fleet ot50 
steamers, possessing an aggregate of 111,- 
525 tons and 19,915 horse*power, was 
about to sail at noon of Wednesday, Uay 
80th, for Magellan's Straits and West Coast 
of South Amerjica, calling at Bordeaux, se- 
veral Spanish ports, and then at the chief 
ports of Brazil and La Plata, we booked by 
return tickets Ist class at a rate a trifle 
higher than one pays for accommodation 
at a first class Paris or London hotel, and 
were soon with our " traps '^ on board the 
tender for the steamer which, having just 
come out of Morpeth Dock, Birkenhead, 
lay snorting like a gigantic restive horse 
in the river. At 1 p.m. precisely the huge 
moorings were loosed, farewells were ex- 
changed, the tender left, and with another 
magnifioent steamer of 4000 tons, the £^t^ 



- 2 - 



bound for New York, we steamed down 
aznid the shipping and out of the Mersey 
exchanging parting cheers. We soon left 
the latter vessel, which went westward, 
while we took a more southward course, 
and with delightful summer weather we 
passed the mountains and headlands of 
Wales, and the next morning those of 
North Devon and the Coast of Ck>mwall, 
the copper works and fishing villages 
being plainly seen. Passing the Land's 
End we gave the Scilly Isles a wide berth 
, on our starboard ; and some of the passen- 
gers recalled to mind the fatal wreck of 
the German steamer SchiUer, some four 
years ago; as they recalled to mind the no 
less disastrous wreck of the Boyal Charier 
on the coast of Wales 18 years ago : such 
events live long in memory. We were 
now in the swell of the Atlantic, and the 
S.W. wind began to rise into a stiff breeze 
and then into a gale. The next day five 
men and a young cat were picked up off 
the JFVijoj a small Swedish vessel which lay 
helpless and dismasted in the Bay of Bis- 
cay. A subscription was soon get up 
among the first class passengers for the 
officer and four brave men who went out 
in the life-boat amid the surf to the rescue. 
The five men were taken next day into 
Pauillac, the port of Bordeaux, but they 
left the young cat on the steamer, where 
it soon became a general favorite amongst 
the sailors from its playfulness, and espe- 
oially among some eight or ten children 
onboard. At Pauillac some few first and 
second class passengers left us, and several 
others went for a promenade on shore, 
imd to obtain an early taste of fruit in the 
shape of strawberries and cream, while the 
ship was unloading and reshipping cargo. 
After an agreeable day spent in the small 
port we left in the evening, passing the 
masts and funnel of a large French stea- 
mer which had been sunk in the tideway 
some two years before by a collision. In 
again entering the bay the heavy swell 
had partially subsided, and next morning 
Sunday, we had scarcely concluded the 11 
ftiin. Diyine Seryioe (which by a rule of 



the Company is always to be held on Sun- 
days, weather permitting), when we found 
ourselves amid the bold bluff headlands of 
the harbour of Santander. A few hours 
sufficed to land and take in a few passen- 
gers and a small amount of cargo, and to 
obtain a few cattle and sheep, and a stock 
of fresh vegetables and early ripe fruits, 
such as strawberries, cherries, and oranges, 
which came to hand in excellent condi- 
tion. We sailed about 4 p.m., and at 
seven o'clock another brief service was 
held in the saloon, both were well attend- 
ed, and music and singing relieved them 
of monotony. The next day we were at 
Corunna. The day being bright and clear 
many passengers went on shore, and visit- 
ed the tomb of Sir John Moore, who fell at 
the retreat after the battle of Corunna, 
and whose burial, has been immortalized 
by the poet Wolfe, and who has himself 
been immortalized thereby. This tomb, 
an oblong rectangular stone chest elevat- 
ed about eight feet high and surrounded 
by an iron palisade fence, is situate in a 
flower garden near a fort on a hill on the 
north side of the harbour, and is inscribed 
'^ Joannes Moore, exercitus Biitannici 
Dux, pr»lio occisus, A.H 1809.'' Another 
inscription on the wall says the tomb was 
rebuilt and repaired in 1824. The princi- 
pal churches, markets, and Grand Place 
were also visited, more passengers taken 
and others left, cargo taken in, and fresh 
ripe fruit obtained ; and in the aftemocm 
we sailed again, the weather being delight- 
ful and the coast visible nearly all the way 
till we reached Lisbon. With the early 
morning we entered the Tagus and an- 
chored shortly after breakfast a mile off 
and in front of the principal square of the 
city, in which is a bold group of statuary, a 
lofty arched entrance and a fine collection 
of buildings. At the back of the square 
are several fine streets on the spot which 
suffered most a century and a quarter ago, 
as Golden Street and the Street of the 
Grand Queen, in which the houses are 
many of them four or five stories high, 
and the cause of wonder is that the earth* 



3 — 



quake which buried more than half the 
city little more than 120 years since has so 
soon been forgotten — for should another 
such shaking occur the greater part of the 
city must bring swift destruction on the 
inhabitants. There are other fine squares, 
grand and lofty buildings, churches, &c., 
and the place has the appearance of wealth 
and prosperity. A stay was made here 
over night and till after noon next day» 
giying an opportunity to those who wish- 
ed to visit the theatres, gardens, skating 
rink, and hotels. Some passengers left 
for a tour in Spain and elsewhere. A large 
stock of fresh vegetables, ripe fruits, and 
numerous passengers and much additional 
cargo, beside oxen and sheep and fowls 
for the voyage were taken in here, and the 
vessel then left for her southwest and 
longest trip of 12 days clear, via the Cana- 
ries for Pernambuoo. The weather was 
now delightfiil, awnings had been spread 
in Santander and continued in the day- 
time ever since, though nowhere was it 
disagreeably warm much less oppressively 
hot ; the thermometer rarely rose above 84 
in the saloon and cabins, and a refreshing 
breeze, even at the equator was generally 
felt on deck. The ship steamed about 300 
miles a day. Quoit playing and other 
games, as well as reading were therefore 
perpetually resorted to, and betting on 
the ship's speed to while away the time, 
and prevent ennui when too cahui as it ge- 
nerally was, for mal de mer to trouble the 
passengers. The Canary Islands were 
passed in the night, and the weather was 
misty so that nothing could be seen of the 
lofty peakof Teneriffe; but a light-house 
was seen on one of the group. It was 
much the same with the Cape de Verde 
Islands which were seen at no great dis- 
taooe. The time however passed agreeably 
enough, some rubbing up their Spanish, 
or attempting it for the first time ; and on 
the 11th day from Lisbon the Island and 
lofty peak of St. Fernando de Nerunha was 
passed. This island is some 300 miles or 
more f^m Femambuco, and is a penal 
settlement of Brasil, and the place appears 



to be carefully cultivated and fairly popu- 
lated ; a few fishermen were seen a mile or 
two out from the shore on their logs, or 
eatamarana as they are called in India* 

On the next d»y, or second Sunday from 
Lisbon, we were oflF the rocky reef and 
palm fringed shores of Pernambuoo, or 
Recife, t.^., a reef, as it is also called. The 
reef which' runs about a mile more or less 
from the shore forms the harbour, and 
extends for two or three hundred miles 
and may have been the work of an earth- 
quake, though originally formed by coral 
insects. The city together with Olinda, a 
suburb about two miles north on a hill, 
may contain nearly 150,000 souls, of whom 
about 150 are English merchants, the rest 
speakPortuguese. There are extensivetram- 
ways, and a railway nearly 400 miles bag 
to connect the river San Francisco above 
the falls and rapids with the port. It has 
been constructed it said by Englishmen 
and with English capital ; and tfiough it 
runs through a fine country is sud not to 
pay. It cost over two millions sterling. 
Here we obtained tropical fruits— pine 
apples, bananas, &c., and fresh vegetables. 
A run of 380 miles brought us to Bahia, 
or the Bay of All Saints, discovered in 
1503 on All Saints Bay, by Amerious Ves- 
pucius (under the patronage of don Ma- 
noel King of Portugal), who carried 
thence a cargo of dye wood, which when 
cut resembled brazaSf or coals of fire. 
Hence the name of the whole of the vast 
country of Brazil containing the Amazon 
and other large rivers. This city of Bahia 
was long the capital of Brazil, but the 
Emperor often spends his time at Bio de 
Janeiro when not abroad travelling as he 
was then, and still is in Europe. The city 
is still the ecclesiastical capital, and has 
an archiepiscopal see and some conventual 
and college establishments ; the churches 
are not grand. There are many miles of 
tramways, and a hydraulic lift to raise 
passengers from the lower to the upper 
town. There is also a railroad into the 
country. There appears to be a good 
trade done in the port, aud the city. 



-«» 



which m&y contain 180,000 inhabitants, is 
a thriving one. There is a small English 
community of about 200 souls, and the 
city is indebted to a former English Oha- 
plain for several improvements. A large 
iron screw steamer lay stranded near the 
lighthouse, an awfiil warning to others, 
as it was not the effect of bad weather. A 
considerable quantity of oranges, cocoa 
nuts, bananas, and other tropical fruits 
were put on board here for Rio de Janeiro, 
a port 742 (geographical) miles further 
south, and where such fruits are less abun- 
dant. A run of little more than three 
days brought us early on the morning of 
the fourth day to Rio de Janeiro ; the en- 
trance to the magnificent land locked 
harbour or bay is very grand. Several 
mountain-like islands are passed and then 
several forts, where the mountains part as 
if to admit ships to one of the most beauti- 
ful and quiet harbours in the world. Syd- 
ney, in Australia, and Naples are only to 
be compared to it for beauty, though it 
bears more resemblance to Bombay than 
to I7aples. The bay it is said was called 
Rio de Janeiro because it was discovered 
in the month of January, and because it 
was then erroneously supposed to be the 
mouth of a large river ; it was also called 
St. Sebastiano, and the city which is 
built on the south side is now called 
simply Rio, and contains with its 
suburbs nearly 600,000 inhabitants. The 
bay has plenty of deep water, good 
anchorage, and room for several fleets, 
and there are several docks and shipbuil- 
ding yards. The city has a cathedral, 
several collegiate oroonventual colleges, 
and othbr public schools, and a very fine 
Jardi)liBota7vicOj in which is a double row 
or avenue of lofty pahn trees. There is 
also a large and busy Bourse, and several 
daily and other newspapers are published. 
The most remarkable feature of the place 
are the mountains ; one at the entrance of 
the harbour called Sugar-loaf mountain is 
a splendid granite cone nearly 1000 feet 
high, and rising more than 720 feet it is 
said without a chink ; the Redonda is } 



about the same height, 1212 feet, thieOaiift 
2576 feet, the Oorcovado a little mora east, 
a lofty point 2272 feet high, appears to- 
pierce the heavens, and at times the tops 
of several of the mountains may be seen 
above the clouds. On one or two of the 
summits observatories or watch stations are 
placed. In the harbour are several islands 
Ilha dos Ratos, or Rat Island, and Ilha 
Cobras, or Serpent Isle, on which is a fort, 
and Mucangue Pequenho, a coaling sta- 
tion, four miles up to the west. Nitche- 
rohy, the capital of the province on the 
opposite side of the bay to Rio, with its 
suburbs of Fria Grande and Santo Domin- 
go, are places of fashionable resort for 
residences of wealthy citizens and for Sun- 
day and other holiday excursionists ; and 
ferries constantly ply to and fro every ten 
minutes as they do between New York 
and Brooklyn. Both sides of the bay are 
brilliantly lit with gas, and at night pre- 
sent a magnificent spectacle both from 
the bay and also far out at sea, the sky 
being so illuminated that the light is dis-> 
tinctly visible to avast distance. There 
are several fine but narrow streets. Rue 
Ouvidor is the Regent Street of the city. 
The city is drained by an English Deodo- 
rizing Sewage Company, which is said to 
pay well : I was told from 8 to 10 per cent. 
There is a railroad thence up country, 
many leagues of tramways in the city, and 
every facility for locomotion. Fruit, espe- 
dially oranges are plentiful, mangoes and 
bananas, and pine apples rather dear. 
There are several good hotels, but the 
place is said to be one of the most expen- 
sive in the world. We passed two days 
pleantly here and took in cargo, &c* It is 
however a prosperous place, and undoubt* 
edly as a port is the glory of Brazil. From 
Rio to Monte Video is a run of 1039 miles 
which occupied nearly four days, since the 
shallows of the La Plata shores were only 
passable by day-light; and we had a se- 
vere thunder storm the evening before. 
Monte Video or, I see a mount [frcm a 
mount over the bay), is port situated on a 
peninsula rising from a flat shore which 



- B — 



admitB no larger oraffc near the land. The 
town 10 scattered, but contains some good 
bnildings and streets with fine shops and 
hotels, of which Hotel d'Orient is the best> 
but many of these having sky lights not a 
whole pane was left by the hail that fell 
in the tempest of the evening before. 
Here are perhaps 100,000 inhabitants, 
about 300 English, who have a church : 
and the place being more accessible than 
Buenos Ayres is a flourishing port, and 
export hides, wool, com, and cattle. A 
BritiBh scapegrace came on board who it 
was said had killed three men in the past 
month. It is the chief city of Uruguay, 
and from its tramways and railroads con- 
necting it with the interior is a place not 
likely to decline, though there were grave 
complaints of trade being dull. Here the 
oranges and other fruits brought from Rio 
were discharged, and were no doubt sold 
at a high figure to indemnify the shipper 
for the heavy loss sustained in throwing so 
many overboard en voyage. Here we met 
Bishop Sterling, of the Falklands, who 
had come in his bark, the AUen Gar- 
denary to visit the La Plata. We left here 
after staying a day and night, and had a 
chat with the Bishop on his missions, but 
as my paper is too long already I reserve 
for a future one the narration of the plea- 
sant trip down or up to Magellan Straits, 
and round by the west coast of the vast 
peninsula. — Yours, &c., 

W. B. KEER. 



II. 

Sir,— -When I last wrote I had brought 
your readers down to our departure from 
Montevideo, the chief port of Uruguay, at 
the distance of 6,763 geographical miles 
from Liverpool. The heat of the tropics 
(if heat it can be called in the Atlantic, 
being so much cooler than the Red Sea 
and India route) had been passed very 
agreeably, and the climate was now begin- 
ning to feel decidedly fresh. And as the 
steamer was running about 800 miles 
duly, still southward, no wonder that the 



morning cold bath, so refreshing In th« 
^Iropics, soon began to feel a little chilly. 
From Montevideo to Punta Arenas, or 
Sandy Point, in the Straits of Magellan, is 
a run of 1,360 miles, and in that distance, 
though there was no place of call, there 
was ihuch to interest, in clear fair weather 
such as we had, in the novel aspect of th^ 
heavens and starry bodies. We had long 
since lost our old familia^^j^c^nstant 
friend of northern latituddfipfiiG(0br the 
fOkiSiSsL ^^^ ^^® southern cross came 
mte view, besides' many other less ap"^ 
parent changes. Then, too, both fishes 
and sea birds were changing. The bonita 
and purple nautilus, or "Portuguese 
Man-of-War," as the sailors call it, and 
flying fish so common in the tropics, dis- 
appeared altogether, and the shark and 
porpoise were less fluent. Small sea 
gulls, as well as Cape pigeons, were fre- 
quent, and soon the gracefully moving 
and gigantic albatross was sailing around 
us. As we neared Cape Virgin, at the 
entrance of the Straits of Magellan, we 
had occasional patches of fog and showers 
of rain, and the temperature lowered so 
much that steam was turned on by a new 
system of apparatus for warming the sa* 
loon 'y and as the air became more chill 
and damp, the ship's library, a very good 
one, came more into use, and the comfor- 
table cabins and state rooms were occupied 
with readers, chess and draft players, and 
by some who preferredj whist. Concerts 
were also held after dinner^ and some 
excellent singing and pianoforte play- 
ing enlivened the saloon. But it was ob- 
servable that after the loss of several of 
■our most agreeable lady passengers at Bor- 
deaux, Lisbon, and Pemambuco, some of 
the younger gentlemen allowed themsel- 
ves a greater latitude and license both in 
word and deed. Occasional embellish** 
ments of speech which some do not regard 
as ornaments, and a greater roughness in 
horse-play and practical joking, were more 
frequent, and on two or three occasions so 
great a freedom at the bottle was indulged 
in, and they stayed so late on .deck and 



— 6 — 



became bo noiBy, that the officer on duty, 
half in jest, half in earnest, with great tact 
dispersed them summarily, by ordering 
the hose, with a forcible jet of water, to be 
turned on them, thus breaking up their 
social carousal with flooded decks, and 
sending these would-be devotees of Bac- 
chus in consternation to the abodes of 
Morpheus. 

As we neared the Straits of Magellan 
the steamATf which had been running 
from twelve to fourteen knots an hour, 
slackened speed, and amid fog and occa- 
sional showers we reached Sandy Point 
towards evening, snow having been for 
some time visible on the hills. Sandy 
Point is a Chilian penal settlement in the 
Straits of Magellan, with perhaps 1,600 in- 
habitants. They trade in skins, wool, fish 
and timber, there being two or three steam 
saw mills here worked by foreigners. Dr. 
Fenton, an Irish gentleman in the service 
of the Chilian government, attends to the 
convicts. It is also a coaling station for 
steamers and it has been in contemplation 
to make it a station for powerful steam 
tugs to take sailing ships through the 
Straits instead of their being left to make 
the long and often stormy voyage round 
Cape Horn. That the Straits will come 
more into use as they are better known, 
and as the Pacific commerce increases, 
there can be no doubt, but at present 
nothing is satisfactory, there being no 
lights at either entrance nor any pilots, 
and hence ships are obliged to wait when 
it is dark and foggy. Our skilful oom- 
mander, however (Mr. 0. G. Fowler) 
though only his first voyage as captain, 
was so famiUar with the place that neither 
he nor his able officers seemed to need 
lights or pilots. The captain had made 30 
passages of the Straits as officer, and se- 
veral of his officers and men had been 
through nearly as many times. There is 
sometimes a little relaxing of care when 
such a long course of success hits been ex- 
perienced, but I failed to see it in this 
case, for a small hut was rigged up on the 
bridge epedally for the charts, and to pro- 



tect the navigators from the cold rain and 
mist of the Straits, where they were con- 
stantly on the steering bridge. The ves- 
sel, I ought to have said, had been for this 
voyage newly fitted up with steam steer- 
ing gear, which made her perfectly obe- 
dient to the slightest touch of the man at 
the wheel. 

Leaving Punta Arenas early in the 
morning we were all day defiling through 
straits between high mountains and rocky 
islets, mostly covered with snow, though 
not down to the water's edge ; an occa- 
sional shower of fine rain or mist obscured 
our surroundings, but when not so the 
scenery was grand and beautiful. The 
water was delightfully clear and smooth, 
and seals and large fish were frequently 
seen, and numerous sea and land birds, 
gulls, geese, divers, Cape pigeons, &c., 
while the wood-skirted shores, with snow 
above and blue or purple glaciers peeping 
out among the rocks in the rugged valleys, 
reminded one of Swiss scenery. The 
breezy air, though keen enough to bring 
wrappers, ulsters, and Inverness capes 
into requisition, was not frosty, and hence 
many were on deck the whole day. No 
natives were seen, but I was told of a Mis- 
sion station farther south under the Bev. 
Mr. Bridges, which is doing much good in 
civilising the Fue^ans and Patagonians. 
Towards evening we were out into the 
long heavy roll of the Pacific ; Smyth's 
Channel, which protects from this for 
many miles, not having been attempted, 
with our large vessel, upwards of 400 feet 
long, and the rumour that a German stea- 
mer, the Denderah, now overdue at Punta 
^Arenas, was lost there, we afterwards found 
correct. One belonging to the Pacific 
Company had also been wrecked here in 
the channel in former days ; rocks are the 
great dangers, as there appears to be plen- 
ty of depth of water, everywhere for large 
vessels to approach the shores. 

The weather in the Pacific, though £ar 
South and at the mid-winter season, in 
these parts was delightful, though aooom* 
panied by a long and heavy swell the re- 



_7- 



suit of former storms. Three or four days 
steamii^g with the prospect of distant hills 
to starboard brought us to the little port 
of Lota, a coaling station at the hgad of a 
spacious bay. There are some 4^00 in- 
. habitants here with 300 English, employed 
mostly in copper smelting works. The 
coal is brought a distance of two or three 
miles by rail from the mines, where it 
is very abundant and of fair quality; some 
of it is shipped at Ck>ronel, about twelve 
miles farther florth. The copper ore is 
brought to Lota from the north as ballast 
in coal trading ships. The town of Lota 
is built of low framework houses of one 
storey only, to stand against earthquakes, 
which however are seldom if ever severe. 
The streets in winter rains are a foot deep 
with mire, and in summer equally deep 
with dust, and in the upper part of the 
town (amid the lower class of miners) are 
hovels exhibiting the utmost squalor and 
wretchedness, though the people are in 
full employ if they will work, and earn 
liberal wages — 6 dols. to 6 dols. per week. 
On the north of the bay and town is a hill 
rising a couple of hundred feet from the 
shore, on which stands a well built modem 
mansion, surrounded by a most beautiful 
and luxurious garden laid out with great 
taste and at much expense, with hot- 
houses, grottoes, miniature lakes, suspen- 
sion bridges, fountains, bronze statues, 
parterres of grass and flowers, groves and 
bowers in which birds sing delightfully. 
The little humming birds are abundant 
here. This is now the property of Ma- 
dame Cousino, the widow of the late pro- 
prietor of the copper works, and of great 
part of the coal mines, and who laid out 
the place (which is not yet finished) at 
great cost. The courtesy of the present 
proprietor permits free access to strangers 
during the day to every part of the 
grounds. Here there is a strange contrast 
in luxury and splendour to the squalor 
and wretchedness of the miners' district 
at the upper part of the town, where some 
of the huts are made of the branches of 
trees and grass. Strong drink, I was told 



; by an English store keeper there^is the 
; bane of the place, as it is sold in every 
variety, at every store, and the stores are 
in plenty. Here I observed that modem 
auxiliary to the public house, viz., the 
Pawn Shop in one of the principal streets 
with the following inscription in Anglo- 
Spanish: — ^'Monte de Piedad Pawn Shop," 
ue., " Mount of piety pawn shop," thus 
sheltering itself under a benevolent aspect 
in a way I had never before seen. There 
was lately an English clergyman here con- 
nected with the South American Mis- 
sionary Society for the English commun- 
ity, but he died recently ; and now they 
are left to the care of a schoolmaster who 
gives to the children week-day instruction, 
while a worthy Scotch layman from the 
copper works gives an address or Christian 
exhortation on Sundays. A night and 
day's steaming from this place brought us 
to Valparaiso, the largest and most im- 
portant port of Chile, and indeed of the 
West Coa^t of South America, with a po- 
pulation it is reckoned of nearly 100,000 
and an English community of about 1000, 
besides Americans and others. The port 
possesses good anchorage in south winds, 
but is rather too exposed to the north 
winds. Here are many lar^e mercantile 
houses and the community appears to be 
a thriving one. The port is an entrepot 
for foreign goods for the whole Chilian 
coast. There is one English and one 
American church, and several good 
schools. The Roman Catholic and native 
community are of Spanish or mixed ori- 
gin, and speak the Spanish language. The 
climate is a very healthy one, and in 
winter greatly resembles Nice; the pepper 
tree, geraniums, eucalyptus globulus, or 
Australian gum tree, roses, and many 
other garden plants and flowers are green 
all the year round. Swallows and martins 
too, stay during the winter, though they 
are not perhaps so numerous as in sum* 
mer. The latitude is little over 38^ South 
(while Kice is 48° North), but the proxim- 
ity to the sea and the snowy mountains 
renders the olimate cooler thaa is uiaid 



— 8 — 



in tach latitudes, though it is dry and 
warm in summer. 

I had intended (but omitted it in my 
last) to say something of the South Ame- 
rican Republics in general, as some think 
them peculiarly favourable for farming 
emigrants of small capital and enterpris- 
ing spirit, combined with habits of perse- 
vering industry ; but men with those qual- 
ities will succeed anywhere, and that they 
do so in Buenos Ayres, in Banda Oriental 
or Uruguay, as well as in Chile is only 
what they may do anywhere. The grea- 
test drawback in these Roman Catholic 
countries arises from the absence of 
fall religious liberty. I talked with 
one or two gentlemen who had been 
long in Buenos Ayres and Uruguay and 
they both said that while cattle and sheep 
farming might pay fairly yet they were of 
opinion that Australia or New Zealand 
presented greater advantages, without los- 
ing one's nationality or being beyond 
English government, which they were 
loyal enough to prefer. There js however 
in Chile and Peru a field of industry in 
connection with the coal, copper, cobalt 
and silver nunes, but in Peru the govern- 
ment have assumed much of the work and 
rendered private enterprise less practic- 
able than formerly. The business of agri- 
culture is however said to be extending, 
but the bad harvest of last year has for the 
piMent made trade unusually dull. 

The i, #. Vaharako stopped at this port 



after which she was named, and I still re- 
main on shore -, and hence the remainder 
of the trip down or up North to Coquimbo, 
to Callao and Lima, and thence by the 
coast ofiFeru to the Isthmus of Panama 
and Colon and the West India Islands 
home to Southampton or Plymouth, must 
be deferred sine die. To Valparaiso from 
Liverpool is a voyage of nearly 10,00() 
miles distance, and it is accomplished in 
40 days time, and with the return journey 
by the route indicated some 8,000 miles or 
more would be travelled, and another 40 
days occupied. But the new and strange 
scenes afford recreation and interest, and 
the cabins and state rooms and splendid 
saloons of the steamers with their libraries 
and other accommodation afford abund- 
ance of comforts and opportunity for 
study, where that is an object, and the 
table and provisions as well as the lodging 
are all that the most fastidiois can desire. 
It is not every one who can travel with 
Mr. Brassey round the world in the Sun- 
beamj but to an Oxford student who may 
wish to do half of it in *^ the Long Vaca- 
tion," the trip to South America by the 
Pacific Steam Navigation Company^s 
splendid vessels, so arranged that there- 
turn ticket may enable him to return via 
Panama and the West Indies, thence 
home by the Royal Mail Steamers^ may not 
only be practicable but easy, economical, 
instructive, and delightful. 

W. B. KEBR. 



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