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Document. — No. 9. 






No. 18 State Street. 


(^Jmn (D'J !B(DS^(DSr^ 


In Common Councilj March 1, 1838. 

The following document submitted bj Mr. Lin- 
coln, being a communication addressed by R. H. Ed- 
dy, to the Chairman of the Committee on Water, re- 
lating to crossing Charles River by iron pipes through 
a brick gallery under the same, for the purpose of in- 
troducing pure water into the city, was referred to 
the Standing Committee on Water, and 300 copies 
ordered to be printed for the use of the council. 

Attest, Richard G. Wait, Clerk C. C. 

To Samuel A. Eliot, Mayor, and Chairman of the 
Standing Committee for supplying the city with Soft 


Knowing the deep interest you take in the in- 
troduction of water into our city, and believing it is 

jour warmest desire to accomplish the same through 
the best system of works, I feel that any information 
I can impart will be cheerfully received by you, and 
discussed without prejudice. 

Sometime about the year 1825, as you may be 
aware, Mr. Treadwell was appointed by the city au- 
thorities to investigate the subject and report on the 
best mode of supply. Spot Pond was presented to 
his notice, and with the assistance of Mr. Moody, 
he made estimates on this source. This project 
seems to have been abandoned through the apathy of 
the councils, or for some other reasons. During Mr. 
Lyman's administration, Mr. L. Baldwin was engag- 
ed to survey and report on the best mode of supply, 
according to his judgment. Of the result and nature 
of his report you are aware. 

The generality of persons, seem either to have lost 
sight, or to have entirely overlooked the expense of 
raising water by steam power. I presume they have 
assumed for their standard of comparison, the old 
works at Fair Mount, Philadelphia, where engines 
and boilers ill adapted to the purpose were used, con- 
suming immense quantities of fuel. As well might 
we base our calculations of the effective power of a 
locomotive engine and rail road, at the present day, 
on the performances of the same machine twenty 
years ago. 

Disagreeing entirely with Mr. Baldwin as to the 
cost and propriety of a supply from the sources he re- 
commended, I mentioned my views to your predeces- 
sor and several gentlemen of the Water Committee 
of 1835. The conversations with them resulted in 
the survey and report which were made by me to the 
City Government. ' 

The ideas of combining Spot and Mystic Ponds ; 
of using the former for the high service forever, and 
also for both high and low, until such time as it might 
be requisite to employ the latter for the low service, 
were original with me. According to my plan, the 
water was to be forced into a reservoir on Bunker 
Hill, 60 feet above high tide ; of course, at about one 
half the expenditure of fuel required to raise the same 
120 feet. The coal used could be delivered at the 
mouth of the furnace from the vessel, without any 
expense of transportation to a distance from the 

The only plausible objection, to my knowledge, 
ever offered against my project, consisted in the mode 
of passing Charles River, near Warren Bridge. 

At the time I made my report, I had in cojntempla- 
tion various methods of crossing these navigable wa- 
ters, but being ordered to make the survey and re- 
port during the winter season, I had not proper op- 
portunities to make such examinations as I could have 
desired. For my own part, I could perceive then no 
very alarming difficulties attending any of the various 
ways presented. I therefore reported on one, and 
supposed should the city authorities or Hydraulic 
Company undertake the erection of works from these 
ponds, time and reflection would develope the best 
and most economical mode of crossing the river. 

In conversation with some of my friends, since my 
report was made, I originated the idea of a small tun- 
nel, gallery or drift under the bed of the river, and I 
also informed them that by a cursory examination 
of the subject, I was satisfied the river might be 
crossed for a sum not far from fifty thousand dollars. 

Having since communicated with many practical 
miners and intelligent persons, and submitted mj 
plans to their inspection, I have found several, one 
gentleman in particular, tvho will readily undertake to 
build the wells and gallery for ffQO^dQQ. They are 
also ready to give any reasonable security for the full 
and faithful performance of the same. 

On recurring to data in my possession, relative to 
the great tunnel under the Thames River, at Rother- 
hithe, I find the different strata of earth in a trans- 
verse section of the river are as follows. 

ft. in. 

Upper or stratum No. 1, consisting of brown 

clay, 9 

No. 2. Loose gravel, with a large quantity of 

water, 26 8 

No. 3. Blue alluvial earth, inclining to clay, 3 
No. 4. Loam, 5 1 

No. 5. Blue alluvial earth, inclining to clay, 

mixed with shells, 3 9 

No. 6. Calcareous rock, in which are imbed- 
ed gravel stones, and so hard as to 
resist the pickaxe, and to be broken 
only by wedges, 7 6 

No. 7. Light colored muddy shale, in which 

are embeded pyrites, &c. 4 6 

No. 8. Green sand, with gravel and little water, 6 
No. 9. Green sand, 8 4 

68 4 

The top of the brick work of the Thames tunnel 

is represented by the section to be but 10 feet below 

the river bed in the deepest part of the stream, over 

which at high tide rests a depth of water of thirty- 

five feet. The excavation is 38 feet in breadth, and 
22J feet in height, presenting a sectional area of 850 
square feet, which will be found to be more than ten 
times the area of the proposed drift under Charles 
River. The greatest depth of the top of the Thames 
tunnel below the bed of the river appears not to ex- 
ceed 20 feet, varying to ten, as above mentioned. 
Thus it will be observed that nearly the whole of this 
great w^ork is carried through stratum No. 2, consist- 
ing of loose gravel, with a large quantity of water. 
The stratum No. 1, of brown clay, 9 feet thick, is 
the only covering above, which prevents any irruption 
of top water. 

By careful soundings made near Warren Bridge at 
50 feet apart, the rod near Charlestown side struck 
hard blue clay in 5 feet below low^ water mark, 
after passing through two feet of mud. At 450 feet 
further, the clay was reached in 25 feet below low 
water mark, the rod passing through one foot of mud. 
Between the draw and Boston abutment at a distance 
of 300 feet from the point last mentioned, the clay 
was reached at 34 feet 4 inches below low water 
mark, the rod passing through 9 feet of mud. At 
250 feet further it touched clay 28 feet below low 
water, after penetrating 2 feet of loose gravel. 

At Boston shore, 150 feet further distant, the clay 
was found at 25 feet, with a stratum of mud of 15 
feet over the same. The whole distance across the 
river is about 1400 feet. From the above it will be 
seen that the clay in the deepest part of the river 
lays about 50 feet below the top of the bridge. Then, 
if for full security against accident, we place the top 
of the brick gallery at 20 feet below the top of the 


clay, lue shall have double the thickness of clay above 
our excavation, (only 9 feet wide) that there is over 
the top of the arch of the Thames tunnel, where the ex- 
cavation is 38 feet ivide. 

Knowing the character of the earth on each side of 
the river, there can be no apprehensions of meeting 
with any serious difficulty from water. 

Prior to the commencement of the Thames tunnel 
a drift way was carried under the river at Rother- 
hithe, a distance of 1,010 feet and within 130 feet of 
the opposite shore. Meeting with a body of quick- 
sand, being interrupted in the operation by the in- 
flux of water, and having no very great inducement 
to fill the breach, and continue the excavation, it was 
abandoned. The above drift proceeded at the rate 
of 4 to 10 feet per day, only one man being employ- 
ed in digging the same. 

The top and sides were shored with timber and 
plank similar to the present mode of drifting in mines, 
no brick arch being turned therein. 

The success which was met with in this under- 
taking laid the foundation for the present magnificent 
work now erecting under the direction of M. J. 
Brunei, Esq. 

The plan which I propose of crossing the river at 
some suitable place in the vicinity of Warren or 
Charles River Bridges is more fully explained as fol- 

On the shore at each side of the river a well of 10 
feet internal diameter, is sunk to a depth of 80 feet. 
A small circular gallery or tunnel of masonry 6 feet 
internal diameter proceeds in a horizontal direction 
from one of these wells to the other on the opposite 

side. The water pipes pass down the well on the 
Charlestown side ; thence through the under ground 
passage or gallery to the opposite well ; rising up 
through the same and continuing from thence to any 
desired part of the city. 

As the excavation for this drift way would only be 
about 9 feet diameter, in order to construct therein a 
brick gallery of 6 feet internal diameter ; and as the 
earth removed would in all probability be a compact 
stiff clay, it will at once he evident that it is in point 
of magnitude and cost, no Thames tunnel affair, hut 
perfectly feasihle and of simple construction. 

By a project of this nature every foot of the mains 
leading from the pond into the city, can be inspected 
and repaired whenever necessary. 

A brick gallery 6 feet internal diameter will be 
sufficient for two trains of water pipes of 22 inches 
diameter, a main gas pipe for lighting Charlestown 
from the Boston Gas works, and sufficient space for 
workmen to pass throughout the same at any time for 
the purpose of repairing or examining the pipes. 

Estimate of cost of a circular arched gallery under 
Charles River, 6 feet internal diameter, 3 courses of 
bricks, sides 12 inches thick, length 1500 feet.* 
851 M of bricks a p, ,^6,808 00 

Amount carried forward, 6,808 00 

* Since the above was written it has been discovered that by crossing tinder 
the bed of the stream below or east of Charles River Bridge, or from the solid 
part of Gray's Wharf in Charlestown to the solid part of Brown's Wharf on 
the Boston side — the distance or length of brick gallery may be reduced to 
about 1,000 feet, thus saving from four to five hundred feet, which would 
materially lessen the above estimate of cost. 


Amount brought forward, 6,808 00 
Cement 2, S27 bbls. a p, 6,381 00 
Sand and clay, for puddling, 330 00 
Laying bricks and tending perM, ;^10, 8,510 00 
Excavation a ^7 per lineal foot, 10,500 00 
140 M brick or wells a ^8, 1,120 00 
Digging each well at ^1,000, 2,000 00 
350 bbls. Cement a #3, 1,050 00 
Sand, 35 00 
Laying bricks and tending a ^5 per M, 700 00 
Cost of two steam engines with pumps 
for raising water, and fuel for same, 
deducting sale of same after com- 
pletion of work, 5,000 00 
To which add for contingencies and 

extra work not enumerated, 15,000 00 

;^57,434 00 
The above sum of ^1 per lineal foot for the exca- 
vation of the drift, is obtained from data furnished me 
by one of the agents of the mining companies at Mans- 
field, and is the sum it costs them per foot for this 
size of drift. They pay about ^9 per foot when the 
excavation is through rock. Therefore if in our fu- 
ture calculations we assume the arched gallery to cost 
j^60,000, in all probability we shall not be far from 

In the late report of the Water Commissioners, we 
find it stated that the distance from the proposed 
reservoir on Walnut Tree Hill, to the reservoir on 
Beacon Hill, is 39707 feet, or 7, fo'o miles, by the way 
of the route over the Mill Dam. All other things 
being the same, if, instead of adopting this route, we 


lay a pipe from the reservoir at Walnut Tree Hill, by 
the shortest route through Charlestown, under the 
river in the brick gallery, to the reservoir at Beacon 
Hill, we shall have saved a distance of at least 2^ 
miles of pipe; which according to their estimate will 
cost ^107,152 00 

Stone Bridge over Charles River 14,000 00 

Arches and additions required to cross 

sluice ways at Mill Dam 8,493 00 

2 Culverts 1,000 00 

Contingencies, 10 per cent. 13,064 50 

^143,709 50 

From which subtract the cost of brick 

gallery under Charles River 60,000 00 

;^83,709 50 

Thus is left a clear saving of 83,709 fo°o dollars at 
the first outlay, by the route through Charlestown, if 
a pipe of 22 inches is used. 

For reasons stated in the report of the Water Com- 
missioners, they affirm " that by means of a main 
pipe extending from the city reservoirs to the source, 
of much smaller dimensions than would be required 
were no reservoir provided in the city; an abundant 
supply will be kept up at all times of the day, and a 
great saving of cost attained by this expenditure ;" 
they also state they used the formulae of Prony in the 
calculations of the size of their pipes, and for the de- 
livery of 2,592,000 gallons per day, a 22 inch main 
would be required. 

By the formula Q=38,l 16 v/D^, where Q=the 


discharge per second=4.0103 cubic feet, D=the 
theoretical diameter, and j=i or lengfn'^^soTo-j we deduce 
D, or diameter=lfooo feet, or say 22 inches. Now let 
us deduce from the formula the proper theoretical 
size of a pipe from the reservoir at Walnut Tree Hill 
through Charlestown to Beacon Hill. Then the 

equation becomes Q=38,116v'D^ 27^29 ! roS pipe i and 
D=liooo feet, or saj 20t| inches. 

Then from the above it will be clearly seen that 
there is a saving of 1§ inches in the diameter of the 
pipe, which in the distance of 27827 feet will amount 
to ^38,300, reckoning weight of pipe and lead saved. 
Contingent expenses of 10 per ct. should also be added 
to above which increases the same to ^42,130. Then 
if we deduct ^^'7000 the amount to be expended in the 
extra thickness of the main through the brick gallery, 
we have ;^35,lo0, which added to the above sum of 
;^83,709,50 gives 118,839 fo°o dollars, as the adval 
amount saved by adopting the route from Walnut Tree 
Hill through Charlestown instead of that over the Mill 

From the above calculations of the discharge and 
size of pipes, it will at once be evident that the Water 
Commissioners have adopted the theoretic size of pipe, 
to insure the delivery of 4 cubic feet per second 
throughout 24 hours at the reservoir on Beacon Hill. 
As all the formulae of Du Buat, Prony and Etelwyn 
fail in giving true results, and on the authority of Mr. 
F. Graff of the Philadelphia Water works, neither 
come up to practice ; particularly in long ranges of 
pipes where flexures and undulations abound, and as 
atmospheric air and incrustations of the internal sur- 
faces of the pipes soon materially retard the flow of 


water through the same, it behooves us not to stride 
over nor crawl under such diificulties, without large 

The calculations for the size of main pipes for the 
Fair Mount Water works utterly failed, so that the 
corporation have since been obliged to lay down 
another main of 20 inches diameter. To be certain 
of a discharge of 4 cubic feet per second, would seem 
to require a material addition to the size of the main„ 
when we take into consideration the effects of incrus- 
tation and resistance from other causes. 

At page 32 of the Commissioners' report we find 
the following. " We have assumed the population at 
the end of ten years (or 1 848) requiring a supply of 
water, will be 105,000, and that it will increase in 
ten more years to become 150,000. There will be 
required then on the average for that ten years (or 
/rom 1848 to 1858) 3,619,000 gallons a day ; or about 
1,119,000 a day more than the average quantity pro- 
vided for, " during the first ten years. To furnish this 
quantity, there will he required in 1848, a new steam 
engine and pumps at Mystic Fond, which ivith build- 
ings ivill cost 45,000 ; and a pipe from Walnut Tree 
Hill reservoir to the reservoir on Beacon Hill, ivhich 
will cost ^358,157." They also affirm in another 
part of the report that the ivaters of Mystic Pond ivill 
not he required for four years or until 1 842, from 
which time to 1848 there will be an average of 650,- 
000 gallons per day pumped into the reservoir from 
Mystic Pond. 

Now let us compare the cost of a brick aqueduct 
proceeding from the pond to steam-works at Bunker 
Hill, (where the water is to be forced into a reservoir 


thereon,) with the cost of this extra pipe from the Wal- 
nut tree hill reservoir, in 1848, the time when the 
latter must be laid. 

Cost of brick aqueduct from Mystic Pond to Bun- 
ker Hill, calculated to discharge 8, /om cubic feet per 
second, or 5,288,328 gallons per day. 
4,3331 M bricks, at ,^8, p4,668 00 

Cement and laying same, 49,315 00 

Trenching and filling, 32,100 00 

Crossing Mystic River, &c. 3,500 00 

Pipes from end of aqueduct to reservoir, 2,000 00 
To which add for expenses not enumer- 
ated, 12,158 30 

^133,741 30 
The above sum 133,741 ^^^ dollars would be ex- 
pended in 1842; from which time to 1848, an inter- 
val of six years will elapse, when it will become re- 
quisite for the city to expend ^358,157 for the pipe 
from Walnut tree Hill to Beacon Hill. Then ^133,- 
741 fHo at interest for six years at 5 per cent., will 
amount to ^173,863 ,"^00; to which add f 7000 for ex- 
tra thickness of pipe through brick gallery under 
Charles River, equals ^180,863 jo^f,; which subtracted 
from ^358,157, leaves ^177,293 Z gained hj the 
brick aqueduct at the expiration often years or 1848. 
Moreover we have at command 7,388,328 gallons of 
water per day if required ; so that if there should be 
any deficiency from Spot Pond, the same can always 
be relied on from Mystic Pond. 

It is unnecessary for us in the above to take into 
account the pipe from the Bunker Hill reservoir to the 
Boston side of Warren Bridge ; for this may be con- 
sidered as belonging to the distribution of Charles- 


town, and as its course would be through the Main 
street or that portion of Charlestown where the wa- 
ter would be mostly taken, it would undoubtedly af- 
ford as good interest on its cost as any other main 

Next let us examine the difference in cost between 
a main pipe from Spot Pond [via Medford turnpike, 
through reservoir on Bunker Hill] to the Boston shore 
near Warren or Charles River Bridge; and one from 
the same source through Walnut tree Hill reservoir 
[over the Mill Dam] to reservoir on Beacon Hill. 

If we examine the estimate for the main of 22 
inches diameter, as exhibited by report of commis- 
sioners, we shall find by making a proper allowance 
for teaming pipes, and for air and stop cocks, that 
they would estimate the pipe to cost, laid, (contin- 
gencies 10 per cent, included) to be ,^601,414 fjl,? the 
distance being 56,496 feet. 

The distance from Spot Pond to the Boston shore 
near Warren Bridge, may be taken at 34,534 feet, 
and a conduit pipe on this route would cost as fol- 

33,174 feet of pipe, 22 inches diam- 
eter, a j^9,02 per foot, (the sum such 
pipe is estimated by the Commis- 
sioners to cost) ^299,229 48 
Pipe under Charles River, (extra thick- 
ness) 17,416 44 
Damages to land, 1,000 00 
Air and stop cocks, teaming pipes, &c. 4,000 00 
Brick gallery and wells at Medford 
River, near Medford Bridge, crossing 
canals, &c. 14,000 00 

Contingent expenses, at 10 per cent. 33,514 59 

^^369,210 41 

Therefore the whole cost of this pipe, is the above 
sum of 0369,210 Z; to which add ,$f60,000 cost of 
gallery under Charles River, equals ^429,210 /ooj which 
subtracted from the cost of main on route through 
Walnut Tree Hill, and over Mill Dam, as proposed 
bj the Water Commissioners, leaves the sum of 
^172,204 Z actually saved. 

Let OS suppose for the sake of fair comparison the 
pipe to be 34,534 feet long, or that the distance be- 
tween Spot Pond and Bunker Hill Reservoir is equal 
to 34,534 feet, that the head between the pond and 
reservoir is 35 feet. Then by formula of Prony, Q 
= 38,116 VlF]'; D = I So', feet or 19J inches=di- 
ameter of a pipe calculated to deliver 4 cubic feet per 
second, or 2,592,000 gallons per day. From whence 
it will be discovered there is a difference of 2| inch- 
es between the diameters of the two conduits; which 
will be found to be equal to a difference of cost of 
057, 32Q /o'j, which should be added to the above sum 
6f $n2,2Q4>, 2 =$229,530 g, or the saving at the 
first outlay in iron conduit pipes. 

It must be understood, as was before mentioned, 
that the theoretic discharges and sizes of pipes are 
compared ; as we may infer, from the commissioners 
assertions, that such pipes will be of sufficient diame- 
ters to ensure a supply when the water is continually 
running through the same for 24 hours. 

The above difference of cost between the two 
routes, viz. ^229,530 i^fo put at interest at 5 per cent, 
for four years, amounts to #275,436 /oV This may 

. 17 

be more properly considered as the amount saved be- 
tween the routes at the period where it shall become 
necessary to erect steam w^orks to supply water from 
Mystic Pond. If we continue the calculation of in- 
terest on ^^229,530 i*;fo, the amount at the end of ten 
years, or 1848, will be $3U,2do,l\. 

Then by combining the amounts saved by the 
brick aqueduct, from Mystic Pond to Bunker Hill, 
and the conduit pipe from Spot Pond, through Charles- 
town, as follows, — 

Brick Aqueduct, ^177,293 31 

Iron Conduit Pipe, 344,295 94 

^521,589 25 
we obtain 521,589^00 the sum saved the city at the 
end of ten years, (or 1848) in conduits alone by 
adopting the route through Charlestoivn, or through 
the brick gallery as proposed under Charles River. 

The next subject requiring examination, is the 
saving of cost of reservoirs. 

It is stated in the report of the Commissioners, that 
a reservoir 250 feet square and 10 feet deep will be 
required at Walnut Tree Hill, and that this reservoir 
will cost ^'13,000. The price to be paid for the 
land for the above reservoir, is not stated in a man- 
ner to enable us to ascertain what the same would 
amount to. In all probability, we shall not be far 
from truth, if we assume it, together with the cost of 
land at Mystic Pond, required for steam works, to be 
equal to ^5,000. The reservoir will then cost ;^1 8,000« 
If we then consider a sufficient quantity of land and 
flats at Bunker Hill, together with a wharf, to cost 



^18,000; and the same kind of reservoir to be built 
thereon, the expenditure for land and reservoir v^^ill 
be j^31,000, to which add 10 per cent, for contingen- 
cies, equals ^34,100. 

The Reservoir at Bunker Hill will be situated at a 
less distance from the head of State street, than the 
Fair Mount reservoirs are from Chestnut street, Phil- 
adelphia; and thus any expenditure for reservoirs in 
the city may be avoided. 

The Commissioners estimate the reservoirs on 
Beacon and Fort Hills to cost for land and struc- 
tures, including the amount allowed for contingent 
expenses 10 per cent. =;^85,440 84. The difference 
between this latter sum and ,^34,100, the cost of 
land and reservoir at Bunker Hill, is ^51,440 foo? 
which may be considered the sum saved by the re- 
servoirs at the first outlay. If we add io the above 
the interest on the same for 10 years, the amount will 
be ;^82,305 34, which is the sum saved at the end of 
ten years, or 1848. 

The report of the Water Commissioners also states 
that the actual expense of fuel for pumping 650,000 
gallons of water per day for the year, will be ^790. 

They assume ^10 to be the value of a chaldron of 
coal at Mystic Pond ; from which it is evident they 
require 79 chaldrons per year. The same coal may 
be afforded, delivered at the wharf of the steam 
works, at Bunker Hill, for ^1 fo^, less in the chaldron, 
creating a saving of ;^118 fol) per year, amounting with 
interest, at the expiration of 6 years, or 1848, to 
^806. If we continue our calculation for the next 
ten years, we shall find the difference would be very 
materially augmented, and always be an increasing 


expense, as the city shall require a greater supply of 
water. I have thus far, in my comparison, supposed 
the water which is to be raised, to be elevated 120 
feet. If, as I stated in my report to the city govern- 
ment in 1835, Spot Pond will always supply the high 
service of the city, or that part of it situated on ground 
of 20 feet and upwards above high tides ; the waters 
of Mystic Pond need be raised only 60 feet, of course 
at one half the expenditure of fuel required to elevate 
the same quantity 120 feet. So that here is a sub- 
ject for still further consideration, but on which I 
deem it unnecessary to scrutinize more particularly. 

Having before shown that there will be an actual 
saving of ^229,530 uil,, by the iron conduit pipe from 
Spot Pond, through Charlestown to Boston, over that 
from the same pond, by the way of Walnut Tree 
Hill, over the Mill Dam to Boston, I shall proceed to 
ascertain what the city will gain at the expiration of 
four years, or in 1842. 

The sum of ^229,530 f^^, put at interest at 5 per 
cent, for four years, or from 1838 to 1842, will amount 
to ^275,436 i^V The estimated cost of the brick 
aqueduct from Mystic Pond to Bunker Hill, as be- 
fore stated, is ;^ 133,741 fo*!)? which subtracted from 
the above sum ^275,436 /o'o, leaves ^141,695 tm- 

To this latter we must add the sum saved in reser- 
voirs, together with 5 per cent, interest on the same 
for four years — the two latter amounting to ^^61,729. 
Thus ^141,695 ifo plus ;^61,729,=^^203,424 tL which 
will produce yearly at 5 per cent, interest, ^10,171 
1^0* The sum of ^118,50 per year, say in transport- 
ing fuel, should be added to ^10,171 foo? amounting 
to ^10,289 i^ol)- On recurring to the Water Commis- 


sioners report at paj^c 72, vvc lind they estimate the 
whole expenditure per year for coal, superinteiidant, 
engiiienian, wear and tear, insurance, &c., required to 
force 5,000,000 gallons 120 feet high through a 15 
inch pipe, 8250 feet or 1 i^ miles long, to be y*^! 1,808. 
To raise water 120 feet they assume the pressure to 
be overcome to be equal to a column of water 150 
feet high ; thus adding a pressure of a column of 
30 feet, as an equivalent force for the friction and re- 
sistance of 8250 feet of pipe. 

As the engines at Bunker Hill would be situated 
at only about 200 or 300 feet from the reservoir on 
top of the same, it is evident, that there will be re- 
quired a much less expenditure of coal, to force any 
given quantity of water into Bunker Hill Reservoir, 
than there would be to elevate the same to the reser- 
voir on Walnut Tree Hill. Therefore from tlu; above 
examinations, the following conclusions are deduced. 

The mere difference in expense saved at first out- 
lay by an iron conduit pipe from Spot Pond, via 
Charlestown (through the brick gallery under Charles 
River,) over the one from Spot Pond by the Mill 
Dam or route recommended, will be sufficient when it 
shall become necessary to use the water of i\!ystic 
Pond, (or 1842) to build the brick aqueduct of masonry 
therefrom to Bunker Hill, and supply the City of Bos- 
ton for ever iviih 5,000,000 gallons of ivater from 
Mystic Pond free of any yearly expense : whereas 
by the plan devised and reported by the commission- 
ers, the city would be subject for the succeeding six 
years, to the annual cost of elevating 650,000 gallons 
a day, which would be a continual and increasing ex- 
pense in proportion to the consumption. 


As we are informed by the Water Commissioners, 
that the expenditure in 1842, for steam works at 
Mystic Pond, for one engine and pumps, sufficient to 
elevate 2,500,000 gallons per day if required; together 
with the pipe from the same to Walnut Tree Hill 
would be ^80,640, the same sum would be sufficient 
to furnish two engines and pumps at Bunker Hill of 
the necessary power to force 5,000,000 gallons into 
the reservoir thereon. 

Any objections which may be raised against forc- 
ing water at Mystic Pond through a pipe 8250 feet, 
or 1 foifo miles long, will not apply to the works at 
Bunker Hill, as the distance between the steam en- 
gine and reservoir is only a few hundred feet. Again, 
if it should be desirable to lift the water perpendicu- 
larly, and thereby render the duty of the engine pre- 
cisely equal to that of the Cornish engines described 
in the report of the Water Commissioners, the same 
can be effected at a trifling expense, by excavating a 
small drift into the body of the hill, through which the 
brick aqueduct might communicate with a perpendic- 
ular shaft or pump well sunk in the engine house on 
top of the hill. 

The above remarks are offered, not as intendiner to 
show in this particular instance that lifting the water 
would be preferable to forcing the same, but are only- 
presented to exhibit how for objections to forcing the 
water through a very extended pipe will apply to the 
steam works at Bunker Hill. 

In order to rebut any objections that may be rais- 
ed against the aqueduct of masonry on account of the 
injurious effect of the cement on the water passing- 
through the same, I have added the cost of an iron 

pipe of sufficient size and thickness, under a fifteen 
feet headj to convey 5,000,000 gallons of water per 
day to Bunker Hill. If a dam is raised at Mystic 
Pond, six feet high, it is evident by laying the iron 
conduit to a proper depth, we can command a head 
of 15 feet from the pond, to the pump wells at Bun- 
ker Hill. We deduce under the considerations before 
enumerated the size of a pipe to deliver 5,000,000 gal- 
lons per day, to be 29 inches diameter. As the head 
and pressure are small, the thickness may be greatly 
diminished beyond that of a pipe under a head of 150 
feet, so that we shall find on making a very liberal 
allowance for contingent expenses, that such a con- 
duit when laid, will cost ^250,000. 

The sum saved at first outlay, or in 1838, by a 
pipe from Spot Pond [via Bunker Hill,] under Charles 
River to Boston, over the one proposed to be laid on 
the route via Mill Dam, by the Commissioners, was 
before stated to be ^229,530 f^Q, to which add saving 
in reservoirs pi, 440 fo'o, we have ^280,971 2- This 
sum put at interest for four years, at 5 per cent, 
amounts to p37,165 7oV From this latter subtract 
;^250,000, the cost of iron conduit pipe, and we ob- 
tain a remainder of ^87,165 /oV Now add to ;§f87,- 
165 7o*o) the cost of the pipe from Mystic Pond to re- 
servoir on Walnut Tree Hill=j^35,640, and we ob- 
tain the sum of ^122,805 ^q, actually saved when it 
becomes necessary to use the waters of Mystic Pond. 
The interest at 6 per cent, on the above sum is 
;^7,368 Z per year. 

The Commissioners assume the duty of the engine 
to be 60,000,000 lbs. of water raised one foot by one 
bushel of coal ; from which it will be found that to 


force 2,500,000 gallons per day to the necessary 
height into a reservoir on Bunker Hill, we shall re- 
quire 372 chaldrons of coal per year; which at ^8J 
the price of coal at Bunker Hill, will cost, ^^3,162 00 
Superintendent of engines per year, 1,000 00 

3 Firemen a ^1,50 per day, 1,642 00 

Wear, tear and insurance, 1,500 00 

Whole yearly cost, ^7,304 00 

Then from the above calculations we arrive at the 
conclusion that the saving of expense of the first out- 
lay (1838) between the iron pipe from Spot Pond 
through Charlestown, and the one as recommended 
by the Water Commissioners to be laid on the Mill 
Dam route to Beacon Hill, will be sufficient to lay 
an iro7i conduit pipe in 1842, (or when water is re- 
quired from Mystic Pond,) from Mystic Pond to 
Bunker Hill free of any expense to the city : so that 
the city may then be considered to be supplied from 
the two sources Spot and Mystic Ponds with 4,600,- 
000 gallons per day^ree of expense. 

By the plan of the commissioners there will be the an- 
nual and increasing expenditure required to elevate 
650,000 gallons per day. 

Recapitulating the results herein before obtained, 
the amounts saved by adopting the Spot and Mystic 
Pond routes, through Charlestown [under Charles 
River in a brick gallery] to Boston, will be as follows. 

1. By adopting the nearest route 
through Charlestown, for the main con- 
duit pipe from Walnut Tree Hill Reser- 


voir to Beacon Hill, over the route from 
the same, by way of Mill Dam to Bea- 
con Hill Reservoir, ^118,839 50 

2. Amount gained by a brick aque- 
duct from Mystic Pond to Bunker 
Hill at the expiration of 10 years, (or . 
1 848) over the second main conduit pipe 
proposed by the commissioners to be 

laid at this period, 177,293 31 

3. Amount gained Rtjirst outlay (or 
1838) by an iron conduit pipe from 
Spot Pond, via Medford Turnpike and 
Bunker Hill to Boston [near Warren 
Bridge,] over one from the same source 
through Walnut Tree Hill [by the way 
of Mill Dam] to Reservoir on Beacon 

Hill, 229,530 63 

4. Amount gained by the above in 

10 years, (or 1848,) 344,295 94 

6. Amount gained at Jirst outlay by 
a reservoir at Bunker Hill over the re- 
servoirs at Walnut Tree, Beacon and 
Fort Hills, 51,440 84 

6. Amount gained by the above at 

the expiration of 10 years, [or 1848,] 82,305 34 

7. Amount gained at the expiration 
of 10 years in transportation of fuel by 
establishing steam works at Bunker 

Hill, 806 00 


8. The mere difference in expense at the first out- 
lay bj an iron conduit pipe from Spot Pond via 
Charlestovvn, through the gallery under Charles River, 
over one from Spot Pond via Mill Dam (or route re- 
commended by Water Commissioners) will be suffi- 
cient, when it shall become necessary to use the wa- 
ter of Mystic Pond (or in 1842J, to build the aque- 
duct of masonry therefrom to Bunker Hill, and sup- 
ply the City of Boston forever with 5,000,000 gallons 
of water from Mystic Pond free of any yearly ex- 
pense. Whereas, by the plan devised and reported 
by the Water Commissioners, the city would be sub- 
ject, for the succeeding six years to the annual cost 
of elevating 650,000 gallons per day, which would be 
a continual and increasing expense in proportion to 
the consumption. Add to the above 2,100,000 gal- 
lons from Spot Pond and the amount becomes 7,100,- 
000 gallons per day. By plan of the commissioners, 
the city could only command the average supply of 
2,100,000 gallons per day free of expense. 

9. The mere difference in expense saved at first 
outlay by an iron conduit pipe from Spot Pond via 
Charlestown, through the brick gallery under Charles 
River, over the one from Spot Pond via Mill Dam, (or 
route recommended by Water Commissioners) will 
be sufficient when it shall become necessary to use 
the water of Mystic Pond, (or in 1842) to provide 
and lay an iron conduit pipe from Mystic Pond to 
Bunker Hill and to force 2,500,000 gallons of water 
per day (for ever) into a reservoir on Bunker Hill, 
free of any expense to the city; so that the city may 

be considered to be supplied from the two sources 


Spot and Mjstic Ponds, with 4,600,000 gallons per 
day free of expense. Whereas by the plan of the Wa- 
ter Commissioners there will be an annual and in- 
creasing expenditure of forcing 630,000 gallons per 

10. Lastly. The whole sum which the city 
would gain at the expiration of 10 years from the 
present time by adopting the routes of conduits from 
Spot and Mystic Ponds through Charlestown, in 
manner herein proposed by me, over the routes re- 
commended by the commissioners, would be 

^604,700 59 

I have no doubt from the haste in which these cal- 
culations have been made and the little time I have 
devoted to them, that small errors may have crept in 
unobserved; but should such be the case I am fully 
confident there is still sufficient latitude to allow for 
any diminution of either of the estimates ; so that the 
final results herein obtained cannot be seriously af- 

I have never feared the result of an examination 
by fair and candid minds of the several water projects 
which have been proposed. 

It has always been my firm belief that Spot and 
Mystic Ponds would eventually be adopted as the 
cheapest sources of supply ; and now as this question 
appears settled, I hope the Water Committee will in- 
stitute a careful comparison of the plan herein recom- 
mended, with that devised and reported by the com- 

The only subject at variance seems to be the mode 
of introduction, and if the Water Committee will 


thoroughly examine the same, I feel as sanguine of 
the route through Charlestown as I alwas have been 
of the mode of introduction, by the combination of 
Spot and Mystic Ponds. 

Another and material advantage connected with 
the route through Charlestown consists in supplying 
what may be considered in every respect other than 
name and government as a portion of Boston. Com- 
paratively speaking, it must be an object of as great 
importance to the owners of real estate in Charles- 
town, as it is with us, to be able to command a copi- 
ous supply of pure water for the promotion of health 
and protection against fire. 

By the immediate distribution of water throughout 
the Mill Pond lands at the northern and western sec- 
tions of the city, their value would be at once increas- 
ed to a great extent; thus creating a large addition 
to the city revenue derived from taxes. Whereas if 
the water is introduced by the Mill Dam route, a con- 
siderable period will elapse before the pipes can be 
extended throughout the northern or that section suf- 
fering most for good water. As the Neck and other 
lands at the south end are partially supplied by the 
Jamaica Pond Aqueduct, it should be a subject of con- 
sideration in thus infringing on rights so long held 
and enjoyed to the injury of this corporation. 

If one thousand families are at present receiving 
water by the works from Jamaica Pond, other por- 
tions of the city and such as are really suffering 
should receive first attention. 

The naval interests of the United States at 
Charlestown, together with that of our shipping at 
the wharves in the vicinity of Commercial and In- 
dia Streets, should be subjects of due consideration. 

28 ' 

These are but few of the many advantages which 
might be enumerated in favor of the adoption of the 
project of introducing water into the city from Spot 
and Mystic Ponds, by a conduit pipe from the former 
source to Bunker Hill, and an aqueduct of masonry 
from Mystic Pond, together with the steam works be- 
fore mentioned, and an arched gallery in the vicinity 
of Warren or Charles River Bridge. 

In making this communication I have been solely 
actuated by a desire to place the subject in a true 
light before the Water Committee, and hoping it will 
receive due consideration from them, 

I remain, 

Your ob't servant, 

R. H. EDDY, Civil Engineer. 

In Common Council, March 1, 1838. 

Read and referred to the Standing Committee on 
the Introduction of Water into the City, and ordered 
that 300 copies be printed for the use of the City 

Sent up for concurrence. 

PH. MARETT, President. 

(Qim^ ©IF iB®^^t)sr^ 


In Common Council, March 1, 1838. 
The following Petitions for, and Memorials against 
the Introduction of Pure and Soft Water into the Ci- 
ty, the reading of which being dispensed with, were 
laid on the table and ordered to be printed for the 
use of the Council. 


Richard G. Wait, Clerk C. C. 

To the Honorable the City Council of the City of 


The undersigned. Inhabitants of the City, respect- 
fully represent — 

That in their opinion such is the scarcity of pure 
fresh water in Boston, and the pressing demand for it 
in every part of the city, that it is highly expedient 


for the city to begin and complete upon its own ac- 
count, the necessary works for the introduction of a 
supply from some one or more of the sources in the 
vicinity— as soon as the necessary powers can be ob- 
tained from the Legislature. 

The fact that there is in our city a great scarcity 
of this most important necessary of life, your memo- 
rialists did not believe admitted of a single doubt, nor 
did they believe, after so much has been said by sci- 
entific and medical gentlemen upon this long agitated 
subject, and after so many complaints as have been 
and are constantly making about the scarcity of wa- 
ter, and the impurity of that now in use — that there 
could be a doubt in the mind of any person, at all 
conversant with the matter, that the health, comfort, 
and convenience of the citizens generally, would be 
greatly promoted by the introduction of an abundant 
supply of pure water, and it is therefore with a great 
deal of surprise that your memorialists have learnt 
that a proposition for bringing about this much desir- 
ed object, after having passed one branch of the City 
Government by a large majority, is violently opposed 
by many members of the other branch, and that the 
principal arguments made use of by these opponents, 
are that there is already a sufficient quantity of pure 
water in the city, and consequently an additional sup- 
ply from an external source, is wholly unnecessary, 
either for the present or future use of the inhabit- 
ants : — and that the inhabitants generally, either do 
not want to see the project carried into effect, or take 
no interest in it whatever, because they have not 
flooded the City Council with their petitions in its 

Now the undersigned, with all due deference to the 
gentlemen who make use of such arguments, beg 
leave to differ from them in opinion. They think in 
regard to the first position assumed by them, " that 
there is now such an abundance of water that no 
more is needed," is but mere assertion, unsupported 
by the facts of the case, and that an inquiry upon this 
point among the citizens generally, or among the in- 
habitants of any particular ward, would convince gen- 
tlemen entertaining such opinions that they are found- 
ed in error. With regard to the second position, 
" that the citizens do not approve of or take any in- 
terest in the project, because they do not petition in 
favor of it." Your memorialists have only to observe 
that they had believed such an enterprize as that of 
supplying the city with pure water would be so 
manifestly for the good of the whole people of the 
city, that no member of the City Government would 
think of opposing it, and that after the subject was 
once fairly before the Council, it would be brought to 
a successful termination at once. It is a fact, known 
to the citizens generally, that this subject has been di- 
rectly before the City Council for three or four weeks, 
and that already more than a fortnight has elapsed 
since it was acted upon and passed with great unan- 
imity by one branch of the government, and yet no 
remonstrances have been sent in against it. This 
fact, in the opinion of the undersigned, is worthy of 
much consideration. It shows most clearly, that 
there is little or no opposition to the measure on the 
part of the citizens, and denotes more strongly the 
feeling of the community in regard to it, than does 
the absence of petitions. 


In conclusion, the undersigned beg leave again to 
express it as their unqualified opinion, that the public 
good requires the mtroduction of a supply of pure 
water into the city, as soon as the proper works can 
be constructed, and without going into the question 
as to the source of this supply, but leaving that to the 
discretion and best judgment of the City Council, 
they trust that these works will be commenced and 
completed with all possible despatch. 

Boston, February, 1 838. 

Joseph Tilden, 

Jonathan Davis, 

John Harriman, 

Nathaniel Cotton, 

Jotham Bush, 

M. W. Green, 

John A. Page, 

Ephraim Marsh, 

William Washburn, 

Ehsha Field, 

L. H. M. Cochran, 

E. W. Pike, 

Daniel Davies, 

John Sawyer, 

William C. Perkins, 

John Leavitt, 

Prentiss Whitney, 

S. Harris Hayward, 

D wight Prouty, 

Enos Briggs, 

George Hills, 

Presbury Coffin, 

Jacob Ulman, 

John Bates, 

Josbua Child, 

Caleb S. Pratt, 

Samuel S. Perkins, 

Charles Hersey, 

Alanson Rice, 

Dexter Dana, 

Francis Bundy, 

Nichols Town, 

Alpheus Cary, 

CD. Strong, 

Samuel Gragg, 

Hosea Carthell, 

Gridley Bryant, 

Ira Drew, 

Joseph Blood, 

Seth Fuller, 

Joel Wheeler, 

I. Richardson, 

Asa Day, 

D. K. Hitchcock, 

David Tillson, if the Lor 

ig W. G. Pierce, 

Pond is used, 

Benjamin H. Dewing, 

Frederick H. Manson, 

Benjamin T. Gould, 

Hosea Bartlett, 

N. H. Whitaker, 

John Mclntire, 
Isaac R. Butts, 
John Davenport, 
John H. Pray, 
George Domett, 
George W. Talbot, 
William S. Sweet, 
James S. Bruce, 
Calvin Walton, 
W. L. Wheeler, 
Otis Homer, 

George F. R. Wadleigh, 
E. Hasket Derby, 
Warren B. Thomas, 
Jos. Goodwin, 
Thomas M. J. Cargill, 
Gearfield Leonard, 
Joseph W. Tilden, 
Jos. W. Ingraham, 
A. D. Webber, 
Lott Pool, 
Frink Stratton, 
A. H. Read, 
A. W. Upham, 
J. M. Plaisted, 
Luther Mann, 
David Bryant, 
William J. Hobbs, 
Dexter Harlow, 
Phinehas Dow, 
Charles Dupee, 
Edward A Vose, 
George M. Thomson, 
Thomas T. Wyman, 
Charles S. Hunt, 
W. A. Thompson, 
Thomas Snow, 


T. S. Winslow, 
George Yendell, 
Ebenezer Kenfield, 
Otis Gray Randall, 

D. H. Williams, 
Joshua Jacobs, jr. 
Josiah Capen, 
William G. Edwards, 
Robert B. Williams, 
John Sawin, 
Bodwell Sargent, 
Watson Freeman, 
Benjamin Freeman, 
Isaac H. Hazelton, 
Otis Bullard, 

E. R. Broaders, 
Charles B. F. Adams, 
George Gibson, 
Thomas Moulton, 
John Perry, jr. 

J. B. Pollard, 
S. P. Meriam, 
Walter Bryant, 
John Borrowscale, 
Caleb Pratt, jr. 
L. V. Badger, 
J. M. Thompson, 
Thomas L. Rayner, 
Theodore N. Hall, 
Osgood Hoyt, 
J. S. Stackpole, 
W. F. Haynes, 
John Waldron, 
Thomas S. Weld, 
James S. Whitney, 
William S. Baxter, 
John White, 

J. H. Palmer 

John S. Trott 

Samuel O. Aborn 

Benjamin F. Stoddard 

Charles S. Smith 

Phineas Blair 

John Heard 

John Gray Rogers 

W. W. Aylwin, provided wa- 
ter be taken from Spot Pond 
in Iron pipes. 

James H. Blake 

Jonathan M. Dodd 

A. O. Bigelow 

John B. Baker 

Cornelius Driscoll 

Francis B. Brown 

Louis Dwight 

Joseph Willard 

Grenville W. Gay 

Samuel M. Hurlbert 

A. H. Rhoades 
Charles S. Clark 
Henry Alline 
Nathaniel Perkins, 
Stephen Rhoades^ 
John Bigelow, 

B. H. Andrews, 
Harvey Wilson, 
L. Norcross, 

J. Merrill Kimball, 
M. Day Kimball, 
J. Francis Kimball, 
Charles L. Gibson, 
Peter Harvey, 
George A. Lord 
E. W. Brigham 

Henry Bailey, 
Grenville T. Winthrop, 
William Foster, 
Richard Upjohn, 
William S. Lovell, 
Charles C. Paine, Long 

Pond, Iron pipes. 
William Gray 
A. G. Baxter 
William Foster Otis 
Alanson Bigelow 
George W. Phillips 
Jacob Rhoades 
Edward Turner 
Joseph L. Bates 
W. W. Upham 
L. Stimson, jr., goes the 

death for Long Pond. 
N. C. Cary, goes the 

death for Long Pond. 
J. L. Clendenia 
George A. Chafee 
Elnalhan Holden 
W. C. Reed 
Trueman Mory 
James Wilson 
Thomas Alker 
Augustus Peobody 
H. M. Willis 
Samuet Mclntire 
Samuel S. Sumner 
William Hales 
J. Webster, jr. 
F. C. Hunt 
M. M. Kellogg 
Francis Robbins 
Joseph Dean 

Henry Poor 
Nathaniel Greene, jr. 
William B. Stevens 
Frederick James 
Holmes Ammidovvn 
Samuel Farrington 
John Brooks Fenno 
Samuel R. Payson 
Trumbull Ball 
John Bancroft 
Sewall B. Bond 
John B. Cruft 
Samuel Wentvvorth 
B. S. Clapp 

William M. Hatslat 
B. A. Goldsmith 
Elisha Jacobs 
Richard Williams 
G. C. Lyford 

D. B. Jewett 
W. L. Allston 

E. P. Mackintire 
Austin Dunton 
Joseph L. Leach 
Charles Barrel 
W. W. Peck 
Daniel Kimball. 
David Morgan 

The undersigned, citizens of Boston, respectfully 
petition the City Council, to adopt such measures, as 
in their wisdom shall be found expedient, for the im- 
mediate supply of good and wholesome water to every 
portion of the city. 

Ichabod Macomber 
Bela Hunting 
Benjamin A. Tufts 
Richard W. Shapleigh 
John Hill 

Daniel Chamberlain 
Silas Pierce 
Isaac Means 
Joseph H. Cotton 
Joseph Cotton 
William W. Stone 
Aaron Sweet 
W. W. Tucker 
A. Tucker, jr. 

John Tappan 
Pliny Cutler 
James Haughton 
Paul Whitney 
Levi B. Haskell 
E. Mears 

James L. L. F. Warren 
William A. Brewer 
Nathaniel Brewer 
Samuel N. Brewer 
William M. Wesson 
William Bradford 
Benjamin Perkins 
John Dane 

J. H. Jewett 
J. B. Hutchinsonr 
Samuel Johnson 
Charles F. Hovey 
Paul Alden 
Henry H. Hall 
William Larned 
Edward Baldwin 
James C. Converse 
H. Amidown 
Charles Scudder 
David W. Horton 
Thomas B. Curtis 
John M. Hewes 
John L. Dimmock 
Thomas R. Sewall 
Amasa Walker 
William Blake 
Alfred Greenough 
M. R. Pollard 
George E. Cook 
George P. Bangs 
E, A. Raymond 
William Underwood 
Thomas P. Gushing 
E. Matthews 
A. W. Thaxter, jr, 
W. E. Blanchard 
J. Merrill Kimball 
Joel Thayer 
8amuel F. Morse 
Edwin Lamson 
M- H. Simpson 
George B. Blake 
E. Haskell 
Isaac Thacher 
William Davis, jr, 

David Stoddard 
Elias Banks 
James Tufts 
William Page 
Arthur McAvoy 
Isaac Adams 
S. H. Barnes 
D. W. Barnes 
P. Greely, jr. 
W. L. Beal 
D. R. Chapman 
Gilbert Brownell 
William H. Foster 
H. Wainwright 
WiUiam W. Goddard 
G. P. Tewksbury 
H. S. Bascom 
Calvin Washburn 
William Thwing 
Henry Cutter 
John L. Emmons 
Benjamin Bruce 
Philo S. Shelton 
M. F. Wood 
H. B. Mather 
Edward C. White 
J. Lamson 
A. E. Belknap 
Elisha D. Winslow 
Alfred H. Pratt 
Thomas Hall 
J. C. Bates 
Wm. Jarvis Eaton 
William G. Lambert 
Thomas D. Quincy 
WiUiam B. Reynolds 
Nathaniel C. Nash 

R. W. Bayley 
W. Sayles 
L. Norcross 
W. B. Spooner 
Charles Wilkins 
Wm. Lang 
E. C. Purdy 
Francis R. Bigelow 
William A. Wellman 
Charles Lane 
N. B. Gibbs 
Samuel Dana 
John Wheeler 
Benjamin Seaver 
Henry Clapp, jr. 

A. N. Moore 
James Boyd 
Smith Eldredge 

J. Thomas Stevenson 
L. Sanger, jr. 
J. T. Prince 
W. H. Delano 
Albert Adams 
Nathaniel Vinal 
Zebeon Southard 
Samuel Sanford 
John F. Robinson 
Peleg Churchill 

B. T. Reed 
P. Grant 
Julius A. Palmer 
Anson Dexter 
Amos Stevens 
John Hartshorn 
Joseph Eveleth 
Samuel Pearce 
Benjamin Rich 

Nathan Rice 
Joseph Whitney 
H. Blashfield 
H. S. Chase 
E. Copeland, jr, 
Josiah Colby 
John Slade, jr. 
William Lincoln 
Jeremiah Fitch 
James Leeds, jr. 
Lot Clark 
John R. Parker 
Thomas Howe 
William E. Coffin 
Z. Cook, jr. 
William Parkman 
Robert M. Morse 
Robert J. Brown 
Thomas R. Foster 
James S. Wilder 
Charles Rice 
Alfred Slade 
David Cambell 
C. F. Baxter 
AVilliara H. McLellan 
Wyman Osborn 
Parker Fowle 
H. ,Oxnard 
Daniel Kimball 
J. Forbush 
E. Codman 
Charles Cunningham 
B. Thaxter 
Henry G. Rice 
Nahum Capen 
Moses Mellen 
James W. Gates 


Samuel Cabot 
Henry B. Humphrey 
H. K. Horton 
Samuel B. Pierce 
Henry A. Norcross 
A. C. Palmer 
Daniel Noyes 
Amos Coolidge 
Ephraim Lombard 
Joseph Barrell 
Thomas Lamson 
R. R. Rand 
George Partridge 
Willis Howes 
S. C. Gray 
Edward Noyes 
Benjamin Burgess 
John D. Gardner 
Charles Brown 
Daniel Dole 
H. B. Townsend 
F. B. Callender 
William Blake 
Leonard French 
J. G. Gibson 
W. C. Stimpson 
George C. Aitchison 
T. R. Marvin 
R. D. C. Merry 
Horatio Lock 
George Davenport 
J. B. Lincoln 
John D. Stoddard 
J. B. Kimball 

John Gulliver 

D. Babcock 
Jabez Fisher, 2d 
S. P. Blake 

A. Cunningham 

E. B. Steason 
S. K. Putnam 
James Patten 
Elijah Cobb 
Thomas Haven 
David Ramond 
W. H. S. Jordan 
S. Hancock jr. 
Samuel F. Barry 
J. A. Blanchard 
L. T. Stoddard 
D, Lee Child 
Edmund Munroe 
Daniel C. Bacon 
Isaac H. Wright 
J. W. Hall 
George A. Whitney 
J. W. Converse 
Josiah Stickney 
Francis Bacon 
Simon Clough 
Isaac Field 

Wm. F. Weld 
R. C. Kemp 
C. E. H. Richardson 
Charles Waterman 
Aaron Hobart 
Joshua Leach 


To the Honorable the City Council of the City of 


The undersigned beg leave to express the follow- 
ing opinions on the introduction of pure water into 
the city, for general use . 

1. Convenience, security, cleanliness, health, and 
the pleasure of existence, will be more promoted by 
accomplishing this object, than by any which can be 
done by the exercise of the power conferred by the 
citizens on the Council. 

2. That it is a good, desirable for all alike, and 
will be especially a blessing to those who cannot have 
pure water, without the same be brought in by the 
city authority. 

3. That actual examination by competent men,, 
has proved the practicability of bringing in water, and 
that nothing is needed but the exertion of the public 
officers of the city. 

4. That the expense of accomplishing the object,, 
cannot be an objection, because the money necessary 
may be borrowed, and the product of the investment 
would not only pay the interest, but maintain the 
works, and provide a fund to discharge the debt. 

Lastly. Let the thing be done, and done as 
soon as by any exertion consistent with prudence and 
reasonable economy, is practicable. 

Boston, Febriirary 24, 1 838. 

William Appleton William Sullivan 

Charles P. Curtis H.G.Otis 

Abbott Lawrence Samuel G. Perkins 

Henry Williams I. P. Davis 

John Allen Albert L. Lincoln 


Elias Kingsley 
John Sikes 
Kimball Gibson 
E. K. Lyford 
S. Center 
Slade Luther 
Nathaniel Sweet 
Jabez Hatch 
Joseph W. .Clark 
Ralph Thompson 
Wyatt Richards 
I. S. Rogers 
Stephen Dockham 
Cushing Nichols 
Benjamin Brown 
John Cowdin 
Timo. Reed 
G. M. Thacher 
Andrew Abbott 
John Hamlin 
M. W. Hopkins 
N. E. Jenkins 
Lyman Goodnow 
John Hammond 
James Bartlett 
William H. Homer 
James Stevens 
William Stearns 
E. L. Snow 
Lawrence Nichols 
John Pierce 
Nathaniel Brown 
Hamilton Smith 
James Crackbon 
E. A. Welbasky 
Charles Woodberry 
N. W. Jackson 

George Hallet 
I. Ingersoll Bowditch 
P. P. F. Degrand 
James Davis 
W. P. Fisher 
James Riley 
C. N. Cummiugs 
David Harden 
William Crombie 
John Park 
M. Lee 
Reuben Frost 
James P. Snow 
Jeremiah Washburn 
David Granger 
Amasa G. Smith 
Thomas Appleton 
M. L. Wallis 
Leonard Spaulding 
Enoch Plummer 
Amos Stevens 
Stephen Titcomb 
C. C. Barney 
J. Goodnow 
G. W. Edmands 
Peter Dunbar 
Henry B. Lloyd 
H. Bosworth 
John Foster 
Eben. Weeman 
Warren Boles 
Benjamin Applin 
F. B. Winter 
F. Cambridge 
William Ray 
Charles Brown 
Joseph Limcoln, jr. 


Isaac Howe 
Elias Payne 
F. L. Cusliman 
Sam'l K. Bay ley 
John Low 
J. D. Annable 
Leonard Hollon 
H. Simmons 
Thomas O. Spring 
John Hohon 
N. P. Snelhng 
George Baird 
R. O. Sevrens 
Caleb Thurston 
Thomas M. Howard 
Nahum Brigham 
Louis Dennis 
Benjamin King 
A. M. Brigham 
Abraham Munroe 
John W. Warren 
John B. Meserve 
Thomas J. Stone 
Edward Eastman 
Uriah Proctor 
Calvin P. Allen 
Isaac B. Waitt 
Daniel B. Prescott 
Samuel A. Allen 

W. R. Bawle 
John T. Reed 
William W. Clapp 
George W. Vinton 
E. Forrisiall 
J. Holbrook 
J. W. Merriam 
A. Sawtell 
Thomas J. Peirce 
Albert Guild 
Nathaniel Seaver 
Aaron Blood 
James Newell 
S. D. Houghton 
H. P. Park 
Thomas Davis 
Joseph Smith 
James Hunkins 
Daniel Leverett, jr. 
P. Simpson, jr. 
John Liscom 
John W. Griggs 
James Bride 
Benjamin Leeds 
George S. Tolman 
Francis O. Watts 
William J. Hubbard 
Horace Williams 

To the City Council of Boston. 
The undersigned, inhabitants, principally of wards 
11 and 12, feeling daily the want of pure water in 
their families and work shops, respectfully request of 


your honorable body, that immediate measures be 
taken by the City Government to introduce that in- 
valuable article. 

Boston, February 1838» 

J. F. Curiis 
Daniel Deshon 
Ellis Gray Loring^ 
Henry Plympton 
John H. Stephens 
Seth Goldsmith 
Henry Parmele 
T. C. Stearns 
Walter E. Hill 
J. P. Clark 
C. C. Coolidge 
F. Brown 

G. D. Flagg 
Joseph T. Brown 
James Kelt 
P. C. Field 
Daniel Messinger, jr, 
L. H. Morris 
Thomas Thompson 
William Taylor, jr^ 
William Brown 
Orlando Tompkins 
Gardner Edmands 
E. Weston, jr. 
Charles F. Barnard 
Warren Clapp 
Edward Bugbee 
James S. Marble 
Ira Canterbury 
John C. Hubbard 
C. W. Hartshorn 
G. D. Hay ward 

Oliver S. Gordon 
John Weed 
P. H. Richards 
Joseph Cheney 
M. S. Hyde 
L. H. Bradford 
B. G. Sweetser 
R. H. Robinson 
John Holman 
Frederick Brown 
Jonathan Goddard 
Joseph B. Sawtel 
Moses Lyon 
James C. Averill 
John Truman 
Elisha Carter 
D. Brighnm, jr. 
Richard Sanborn 
Sewall L. Gregg 
John Bennett 
John H. Griggs 
Reuben Lovejoy 
George Savage 
Daniel Goodnow 
George Goodnow 
Aaron Morse, jr. 
Stephen Sargent 
W. H. Tyler 
Aaron Adams, jr. 
Elisha White 
L. A. Cooledge 
Peleg Mann 


James Barry 

Charles Upham, from Pond 

H. G. Perkins 

Leonard Drake 

Leonard Putney 

Henry Bowen 

Andrew Common 

I. M. Albert 

J. Drake 

Lewis Hersey 

Kendall P. Saunders 

William Huse 

John Osgood, jr. 

Edward Coddington 

Otis Tufts 

James W. Carter 

J. Brereton 

Stephen Badlam 

Job Kent 

Isaac B. Sardlees 

A. Stuart 

Levi Hawkes, jr. 

Stephen Murdock 

Buckley A. Hastings 

George Milton 

Oliver Carter 

Albert Day 

George M. Smith 
Asa Piatt 
Benjamin Gould 
James Hendley 
Thomas Brewer 
James McDougall 
William Burnett 
William Defrees 
John A. Lamson 
Joseph Leeds 
Dudley P. Cotton 
Joseph A. Ballard 
Rollin Abell 
Joseph L. Smith 
Simeon Child 
Thomas Bundle 
Shadrach S- Pearce 
Wyman Harrington 
Edward A. Williams 
Cornelius Briggs 
Samuel M. Hawkes 
Henry K. Hancock 
Charles H. Ayliug 
John Melville 
George H. Sweetser 
David Miller 
William D. Willard 

To the Honorable the Mayor and Aldermen and 
Common Council of the City of Boston. 
The memorial of the subscribers, inhabitants and 
tax payers of said city, humbly represent, that they 
are alarmed at the prospect of having the debt of the 
city increased in a two or three fold ratio, for the 


purpose of supplying the city with water, and this 
too before any measures are taken to ascertain how 
many families and others will take the same, and pay 
annually for the use of it — as your memorialists doubt 
the willingness of citizens to incur the expense of re- 
linquishing their present good supply of well and 
aqueduct water with which use has long made them 

The Hon. Mayor stated in his late inaugural ad- 
dress " that a private corporation has for several years 
been ready to undertake the work on their own ac- 
count, if they could obtain permission," your memori- 
alists therefore would more deeply deprecate the pas- 
sage of any act whereby the city should engage to 
accomplish this work in their corporate capacity, be- 
lieving that a private corporation could perform it 
with much less expense. The present time does 
not, in the opinion of your memorialists, appear to be 
a suitable one to increase the taxes or debt of the 
city; this is a time of great commercial distress. If 
the debt of the city is increased two or three millions 
of dollars, the interest at least, must be paid, and that 
added to the annual expenses of the city, without any 
additional income absolutely known to exist to meet 
it, will double the present heavy taxes, thereby creat- 
ing a burthen on the citizens, which, under present 
circumstances, they are ill able to bear. For these 
reasons, your memorialists pray that the project of 
bringing an additional supply of w^ater into the city, 
may be granted to that " private corporation," which 
" has for several years been ready to undertake the 
w^ork," or that the City Council will, before any fur- 
ther steps are taken in this extensive undertaking, 


cause an accurate inquiry to be made throughout the 
city, and ascertain the names of all the citizens who 
are ready and willing to pay annually for the use of 
the water, at such rates as the City Council, in their 
wisdom, may believe it can be afforded. 

And in duty bound, will ever pray. 

Boston, Feb. 24, 1838. 

David Ellis 
Josiah Bradlee 
James B. Bradlee 
W. M. Sledman 
William B. Bradford 
J. F. Priest 
Calvin Bruce 
James Weld 
Winslow Wright 
S. G. Priest 
Henderson Inches 
John S. Eliery 
Isaac Waters 
Samuel Salisbury 
James Dennie 
Charles Hammatt 
R. Lash 
Thomas English 
Henry Hall 
Samuel Hammond 
C. C. Parsons 
Benjamin Bangs 

B. Gorham 

C. R. Codman 
R. C. Hooper 
Henry Hubbard 
John Bryant 
Andrevt^ J. Allen 
E. G. Wellington 

Nathaniel Faxon 
Joseph A. White 
Thomas Curtis 
John Stratton 
F. B. Houghton 
John Ballard 
Lemuel Pope 
Giles Lodge 
Francis Welch 
Jacob Hall 
Samuel Torrey 
Benjamin Russell 
Jeremiah Briggs 
Moses Wheeler 
Charles Sprague 
Samuel Fales 
John D. Williams 
Robert G. Shaw 
Benjamin Willis 
John Belknap 
B. B. Appleton 
Samuel Tenney 
Samuel May 
Henry D. Gray 
George Homer 
Isaac Stevens 
Eben. Chadvvick 
James Andrews 
Joseph Jones 


John G. Low 
Jeremiah Fitch 
George Odin 
Samuel Hunt 
Joseph Hay 
William Eayrs 
Calvin Haven 
F. H. Bradlee 
S. H. Babcock 
Andrew T. Hall 
Samuel Hall 
N. F. Ames 
Thomas Thompson 
William Reynolds 
Joseph Head 
Jeremiah S. Boies 
James Dalton 
Lemuel Crackbon 
George C. Thacher 
C. W. Cartwright 
John Dorr 
Benjamin Adams 
Isaac Hall 
James Sargent 
Richard D. Tucker 
Henry G. Chapman 
Henry Chapman 
Stephen Fairbanks 
Henry Loring 
J. H. Swett 
William S. White 
J. M. Smith 
O. C. Greenleaf 
Peter Goodnow 
S. Thomas 
H. M. Holbrook 
J. H. Bowman 

H. Lincoln 
Edward L. Stevens 
Richards Child 
J. H. Dorr 
John Waters 
John O. Page 
John G. Powers 
J. Parker, jr. 
George Pratt 
Jeffery Richardson 
Henry B. Stone 
N. Thayer, jr. 
Henry Hatch 
Samuel K. Williams 
Josiah Stedman 
Galen Merriam 
William Sturgis 
Stephen Brown 
Charles Knapp 
William Boardman 
Perrin May 
P. Parker 
G. Barker 
P. C. Brooks, jr. 
I. Packard 
Windsor Fay 
P. T. Homer 
Robert B. Storer 
John W. Langdon 
William B. Spooner 
H. C. Manning 
James Brackett 
Samuel ToplifF 
Henry H. Tuckerman 
Edward Blanchard 
Joseph Ballard 
Samuel Bradlee 


Henry A. Brewer 
Ebenezer T. Andrews 
John P. Whiton 
Edward D. Peters 
A. Chandler 
A. O. Wellington 
Nathaniel Tracy- 
Nathaniel P. Smith 
T. A. Tirrell 
Joseph B. Wiggin 
Josiah Whitney 
S. E. Brackett 
Ebenezer Bailey 
Samuel Hill 
James M. Blaney 
Daniel Wheelwright 

Benjamin W. Gage 
John Stearns 
Isaac Jackson 
Samuel M. Phillips 
Noah Brooks 
Benjamin Howard 
Alfred Wellington 
Aaron Livermore 
Harrison Fay 
Thimas Hills 
E. P. Hartshorn 
Benjamin Atkins 
Jeffrey R. Brackett 
William Lawrence 
John Eliot Thayer 
Horace Dupee 

To the Honorable the Common Council of the City 
of Boston. 

The subscribers, citizens of Boston, do respectful- 
ly represent, That our community have been reduc- 
ed by circumstances beyond their control from a state 
of proud prosperity to a condition verging upon ruin. 
All property is greatly reduced in value ; our monied 
institutions and public confidence are paralyzed ; 
much of our floating taxable property lost ; enterprize 
and occupation suspended ; and with no prospect of 
an immediate change for the better. 

Under these adverse circumstances, it appears to 
us that no new project, involving an increase of the 
city debt, and an increase of taxation ought to be 

Therefore they humbly pray that you will restrict 


the expenses of our city to such objects as may ap- 
pear to be necessary, for the good goverment and 
health thereof, and in particular, that you will defer 
all action upon the project for introducing fresh wa- 
ter into the city, from neighboring ponds, until more 
prosperous times. We feel that we ought to deny 
ourselves this luxury in common with many others, 
until our means will afford their use ; we are now in 
a diseased condition, and unable to bear an addition- 
al burthen ; but restore us to health and prosperity, 
and we will again jog on, with such burthen as you 
may please to load us. 

Daniel Dickinson 
Cyrus Wakefield 
Andrew Hanson 
Charles Ranslead 
Dyer Qnimby 
John Plaisted 
Waker Jones 
Samuel Boynton 
Reuben Reed 
Alexander Wentworth 
Charles Woolley 
Linus Jackson 
William Gould 
John T. Robinson 
William Robinson 
Samuel Lovell 
John Milk 
Stephen G. Hiler 
Thomas Reed 
John Rice 
Benjamin Clark 
Daniel Ballard, jr. 
Samuel Lovell, jr. 
William Cate 
Joseph Hartt 

Ephraim Milton 
John B. Tremere 
Benjamin Burrows 
Henry Fowle 
John H. Clark 
Benjamin Pepper 
Francis Low 
William Learned 
William C. Marden 
Samuel N. Cushing 
J. Sherman 
Benjamin G. Brown 
William Dorey 
George Fenlee 
Peter Black 
Enoch H. Wakefield 
Ezekiel Lincoln 
Hiram Smith 
Luke Fay 
John Williams 
John Smith 
Levi Wilcutt 
R. T. Hooton 
Joseph Hayden 
Edward Sargent 


Francis Horton 
John Wilson 
Rufus S. Owen 
Martin Berds 
George W. Gilman 
Isaiah B. Libby 
William R. Lovejoy 
Ephraim Cunningham 
Edward Maxwell 
Reuben Coombs 
G. C. Haynes 
Gustavus Burrison 
Charles Bradford 
Joseph M. Leavitt 
William Green 
Moses Miller 
Joseph Urann 
Benjamin Dodd 
Otis Munroe 
Samuel Yendell 
Alexander P. Chandler 
Benjamin Comey 
Jesse Tuttle 
Alexander Lovett 
Elijah L. Green 
Thomas Somerby 
Samuel Bell 
Simoa Wilkinson 
Oliver Chandler 
Abner Smith, jr. 
Asa Goodnow 
Charles Andre 
William Dewhurst 
Eleazar J. Howes 
John B. Hewes 
C. G. Bascom 
Simon Wilkinson, jr. 

H. L. Gurney, jr. 
J. P. Snow 
Ebenezer Tasker 
E. W. Barnicoat 
Josiah G. Lovell 
Joseph F. Barber 
Edward J. Newhall 
Benjamin Gowan 
Charles H. Wellock 
William W. Kissick 
•Tames A. Sutton 
Humphrey Chadbourn 
John Pratt 
John Davis 
Thomas Mair 
Joseph King 
Gideon Jennings 
Benjamin C. Seaver 
Nathaniel Brown 
Samuel S. Pettingil 
Benjamin Abrahams 
P. Gildersleeve 
Henry Andrews 
Charles A. Yendell 
George W. Brown 
Enos Holbrook 
Edmund Smith 
George Green 
Benson Leavitt 
William Dillaway 
William Hawes 
Charles M. Dickinson 
Nathaniel Brown 
Francis Holmes 
E. H. Little 
G. A. Godbold 
Zenas Snow 


Charles E. Gay Henry Gurney 

S. Beatley Ezra Allen 

Samuel Hosea, jr. Joseph Simmons 

Ephraim Snow John Rooton 

Ezekiel Morse George Hoolon 
John Hooton, jr. 

To the Hon. Mayor and Aldermen and Common 
Council of the City of Boston. 

The undersigned having learned that the City Gov- 
ernment intend incurring a debt of some millions of 
dollars, with a view of bringing water into the city, 
for the purpose of supplying the inhabitants there- 
with, would respectfully suggest to your Honorable 
bodies, whether it would not be a prudential step, 
first to ascertain who of our citizens want, and will 
pay for the water, before the same is introduced and 
the debt contracted. 

Your memorialists, who have hereunto set their 
names, respectfully ask that the project may for the 
present be suspended, until more information may be 
obtained as to who wants and who will pay. 

James B. Richardson Levi Bliss 

Prentiss Hobbs Andrew Drake 

Solomon Piper John Curtis 

Jonathan Lane Frederick Curtis 

L. Snow Jed. Tuttle 

Francis Bullard Perry Brigham 

Thomas Cunis Charles French 

WiUiam Badger, jr. Robert Bobbins 

Nathaniel G rover Shepard Bobbins 

James Dillon Joseph Calfe 


"William D. Jenkins 
George W. Miller 
George Miller, jr 
William Rupp 
Archibald Hill 
Seth Dewing 
William Thompson 
Simon HiifF 
Henry Blaney 
John Cloyd 
Thomas B. Warren 
Isaac Prescott 
Timothy Tenny 
George Farwell 
Benjamin Pike 
William Goddard 
Darius Dutton 
R. A. Newell 

Nehemiah S. Calfe 
William H. Prentice 
George W. Prentice 
Thomas C. Bell 
James Bliss 
Thomas N. Kingsbury 
George W. Wilkins 
George Hall 
Caleb I. Pratt 
Anthony Hanson 
John C. Cook 
Daniel Draper 
Tisdale Drake 
Gideon L. Pease 
Joshua Molt 
Loring Gardner 
Francis Holway 
James Arnold 

To the Honorable the Common Council of the City 
of Boston. 

The subscribers, citizens of Boston, do respectful- 
ly represent, — That our community have been reduc- 
ed by circumstances beyond their control, from a state 
of proud prosperity, to a condition verging upon ruin. 
All property is greatly reduced in value ; our monied 
institutions, and public confidence are paralyzed; 
much of our floating taxable proper lost; enterprize 
and occupation suspended ; and with no prospect of 
an immediate change for the better. 

Under these adverse circumstances it appears to us, 
that no new project involving an increase of the city 
debt, and in increase of taxation, ought to be sustained. 


Therefore, they humbly pray that you will restrict 
the expenses of our city to such objects as may ap- 
pear to be necessary for the good government and 
health thereof, and in particular, that you will defer 
all action upon the project of introducing fresh water 
into the city from neighboring ponds, until more pros- 
perous times. We feel that we ought to deny our- 
selves this luxury in common with many others, until 
our means will afford their use ; that w^e are now in a 
diseased condition, and unable to bear an additional 
burthen ; — but restore us to health and prosperity, and 
we will again jog on with such burthen as you may 
please to load us, in reason. 

Noah Lincoln 
Dexter Dickinson 
Nathaniel Nottage 
Samuel C. Nottage 
James Loring 
William Cook 
George A. Wilkins 
John P. Whitwell 
William Harris 
Washington Armstrong 
Thomas White 
Daniel Lillie 
Elijah Stearns 
Michael Dutton 
Christopher Gore 
Ezra Eaton 
Benjamin Smith 
John Simmons 
Henry Leeds 
Isaac Irish 
Geo. W. Almy 
Thbmas Tirrell 

Henry K. May 
William Palfrey 
A. B. Munroe 
Charles W. Woolsey 
Benjamin Kimball 
Frederick Lincoln 
William Tapley 
John B. McCIeary 
Eleazar G. House 
Edward Bell 
Samuel Millard 
John Doke 
John Lally 
.Tacob Jones 
Nathaniel Goddard 
Asa Willbur 
Josiah Hiler 
Timothy Dodd 
N. G. Snelling 
John F. Ehot 
J. Stetson 
George W. Simmons 


James Fillebrown 
Thomas Lewis 
Isaac Cazneau 
Joseph Clark 
Noah Luicohi, jr. 
Jonathan Thaxter 
John Sargent 
Loring Sargent 
Thomas Edes 
Augustus M. Pulsifer 
Isaiah A. Rich 
John Adams 
James Steele 
Wilham Mair 
Peter Mair 
Hugh Short 
Jonathan Loring 
Edward W. Tuttle 
Thomas Chase 
Christopher C. Gore 
Josiah Stedman, jr. 
Philip Jennins 
Samuel Aspinwall 
Henry Floyd 
WiUiam H. Greely 
George Ballard 
William P. Tenney 
John Swift 
Elijah Loring 
Thomas Thacher 
William G. Billings 
Elihu H. Reed 
N. F. Frothingham 
Thomas W. Herrick 
Geo. Thacher 
Levi Melcher 
W. B. Wilkins 
John V. Ford 

Thomas Murray 
Martin Bates 
George Bradford 
William Stowe 
Robert S. Badger 
Joseph Noyes 
John Howard 
Joseph Fenno 
John McField 
Charles French 
H. H. W. Sigourney 
Thomas G. Temple 
Georse Bradford 
John D. Howard 
Henry Carroll 
John Torsleff 
William DufF 
George Gordon 
Charles E. Wiggin 
Theodore A. Gore 
Samuel P. Ridler 
Robert Keith 
Jocob R. Holmes 
Moses Rogers 
George Ellis 
James S. Wilder 
J. L. Loring 
Henry Wood 
James Parker 
John H. Pearson 
James H. Bennett 
Nathaniel Budd 
Joseph Ames 
Bo wen Harrington 
R. L. Barrus 
Richard Brackett 
David N. Badger 
John Piper 


Jabez Fisher 
Mark Fisher 
Nathaniel M. George 
William Humphrey 
Simeon Butterfield 
A. D. Gamage 
William Bramhall 
William Wildes 
Joshua Crane 
William B. Oliver 
J. E. Curlz 
Stephen Tilton 
David J. Collier 
J. Parker 
William Shimmin 
George Low 
Oliver Adams 
Samuel Blake 
Albert A. Bent 
John H. Gray- 
Levi Brown 
J. Cullen Ayer 
Chas. Eberle 
Seth W. Fowle 

Joseph Austin 
David W. Hill 
Thomas Chamberlain 
William Collier 
Joseph Austin, jr. 
Spencer J. Vinal 
M. G. Chapin 
Elijah Bigelovv 
George T. Cook 
S. G. Shipley 
George Cutter 
S. G. Bowdlear 
T. B. Warren 
E. Wright, jr. 
Newell Withington 
Quincy A. Keith 
Samuel Wheeler 
John F. Pay son 
Abner Dearborn 
Constant T. Benson 
Wm. H. Leonard 
E. F. Pratt 
George Munroe 

(ca^n (^w 


In Common Council, March 1, 1838. 

The following document, submitted by Mr. Shat- 
tuck, being a letter from L. M. Sargent, Esq. relative 
to certain questions propounded to him by Eliphalet 
Williams, Esq., in reference to the Boston Aqueduct 
Corporation, was laid on the table and ordered to be 
printed for the use of the Council 

Attest, Richard G. Wait, Clerk C. C. 

Boston, Feb. 21, 1838. 


To the questions, five in number, proposed in 
your letter of the 16th current, I send you the sub- 
joined replies. 

1st. W^hen was the Boston Aqueduct Corporation 
incorporated ? 

Answer. A. D. 1795. 

2d. What is its capital ? 

Answer. The capital, so far as can be ascertain- 
ed, is ^'130,000, or ^1,300 per share. The stock 
was originally divided into 100 shares, and has so re- 
mained. It has proved a ruinous concern to the orig- 
inal stockholders, many of whom sold their stock for 
j^300 per share, after having paid in ^1,000 per 
share. The present market value is from ^500 to 
0600 per share, perhaps less ; sales however are un- 

3d. What are the average dividends ? 

Ansiver. No dividend was made, during the first 
ten years after the works were commenced. The 
average dividend for 30 years, since 1807, when the 
first dividend was made, is ^51 76 per annum, or a 
fraction less than 4 per centum per annum, on a share 
of ^1,300. 

4th. What number of families take it ? 

Answer. The corporation now supplies between 
1,400 and 1,500 houses. 

5th. What proportion of the dwellings that it pass- 
es take the water ? 

Answer. According to the best judgment of the 
superintendent, T. A. Dexter, Esquire, about one 
dwelling house in every four, within its range, is 
supplied, on an average. In certain streets, recently 
laid out, where new buildings are erected, nearly all 
the houses take the water; and, in most of these 
cases, no other supply of water is afforded. This is 
especially true of new houses on the neck lands, and 
in all the new streets and avenues, extending south 
from Pleasant street, and in Front and Charles street, 
and in some of the streets north of Cambridge, and 


west of Chamber streets. In many of the old streets, 
Washington, Tremont, Essex, Summer, &c., the 
aqueduct passes a large number of houses, without 
supplying them. In Washington street, ranging from 
No. 188 to No. 833, the whole number of customers 
is 183. In Tremont street, which numbers, as far as 
West street, 143 houses, we have only 30 customers. 
In Mason street, a main supply pipe was laid down 
upwards of four years ago, at the earnest solicitation 
of the inhabitants of Collonade. row^, so called, and, 
up to the date of my letter, four houses only, in that 
entire row, have requested and been supplied with 
the water. 

I have thus, sir, replied to your enquiries. At the 
close of your letter, you invite me to subjoin to my 
replies " any other information" I " may deem im- 
portant, in relation to the subject." 

I have been a stockholder in the Boston Aqueduct 
Corporation for twelve years, and a director for a 
large portion of that time. An extreme reluctance to 
encounter the imputation of a secret and selfish mo- 
tive has prevented m.e from taking any part in the 
discussion of this important question, through the 
medium of the public journals or otherwise. Upon 
your suggestion, however, I will venture a few ob- 
servations, and offer one or two statements of facts. 
Every man will give me credit for sincerity, in the 
ratio of his own consciousness of an ability to speak 
impartially upon a matter, wherein he has a personal 
interest. For the accuracy of such facts as I may 
state, I am responsible — of my opinions you and oth- 
er men may judge for yourselves. So far as these 
facts may be gathered from the books and papers of 


the corporation, those books and papers have been 
tendered, for the inspection of the City Government, 
upon more than one occasion ; and, on behalf of the 
directors, my associates, I tender them again. 

I have patiently listened to much abuse, which has 
been heaped upon this corporation, in the public jour- 
nals and elsewhere. It is certainly wholly undeserv- 
ed. Eight water companies supply the city of Lon- 
don. They are not menaced, from year to year, with 
an overwhelming municipal interference, in the form 
of a grand city aqueduct. They invest their money 
with a feeling of security. The Boston Aqueduct 
Corporation is willing to do the very same thing, up- 
on the very same encouragement. In evidence of 
this, permit me to revive your recollection of their 
memorial, presented to the City Government, Aug. 
20th, 1836, in the following words. 

" To the Mayor and Aldermen of the City of Bos- 
ton the memorial of the Boston Aqueduct Corporation 
respectfully represents : that your memorialists have, 
for many years, supplied a considerable portion of the 
city with pure and soft water ; that, for the purpose 
of meeting the increasing demands of the citizens, 
your memorialists have long since caused surveys and 
estimates to be made, by Loammi Baldwin, Esquire, 
whose report has been before the City Government ; 
and by which it appears, that an additional expendit- 
ure of money and a more judicious and skilful em- 
ployment of their present powers, will enable your 
memorialists to supply the city with " ten times''' the 
quantity of water furnished at present, and at any 
point of elevation, where it may be reasonably requir- 
ed ; — that your memorialists have been restrained 

from the requisite extension of their works, and the 
necessary investment of money for that end, by an 
apprehension that the City Government, urged by a 
strong popular feeling, might, at some time, cease any 
longer to permit the provision of pure water to re- 
main in the hands of private corporations, as in Lon- 
don and elsewhere, where it is supposed, that, by the 
competition of such corporations, the public is likely 
to be the better served. In connection with the 
present exhibition of popular feeling and opinion on 
this subject, your memorialists have thought proper to 
state to the City Government, in a formal manner, 
their perfect willingness to extend their works, agree- 
ably to Mr. Baldwin's suggestion, upon any reasona- 
ble assurance, if such can consistently be given, that 
your memorialists will have no reason to fear any 
more formidable competition than that of a private 
corporation. On the other hand, should the City of 
Boston decide, that it will furnish a supply of pure 
'water to the citizens, itself, your memorialists hereby 
tender their water works to the city, for a reasonable 
compensation. The books and records of the compa- 
ny are open for the examination of the City Govern- 
ment. All which is respectfully submitted." 

The will and the ability of the corporation are 
herein sufficiently exhibited. At the present time 15 
miles of lineal extent of supply or main pipe are laid 
in the city, which distributes the water through the 
whole extent of Washington street, as far as the 
Marlboro' Hotel, and branching off easterly through 
Front street, extends as far north as the Exchange 
Coffee House, which it supplies, as well as the Pearl 
Street House, the Commercial Coffee House, and 

Broad street in an easterly direction. It also branches 
off vvestwardlj through Pleasant and Charles streets, 
and supplies the Massachusetts General Hospital. 
All the Mill Pond Lands and vSouth Cove Land are 
within the level and near the lines of supply ; and 
the corporation will extend their supply pipes to meet 
the wants of these sections, whenever they can feel 
themselves secure from an oppressive competition 
with the city. 

Such is this aqueduct at present. Mr. Baldwin, 
whose testimony should be in good odour with the 
city, for he is their engineer, as well as ours, has 
stated, as you perceive, that we can supply " ten 
times " the present amount, and carry the water to 
any height, which may be reasonably required. Yet 
sir, neither in the commissioners' report of Nov. 23, 
1857, nor in the report of Jan. 29, 1838, which is 
now before you, is there any allusion to this corpora- 
tion. In the report now before you, it is stated, as 
the opinion of the colnmittee, that an aqueduct should 
be under the control of the city authorities, and not 
the property of a private corporation. Such is the 
opinion of the authorities of Philadelphia. In Lon- 
don it is otherwise, and the city is supplied, as we 
have stated, by eight private companies. Now sir, 
suppose these splendid conceptions are carried out to 
the uttermost — and they are sufficiently dazzling and 
magnificent — ^1,507,560, are invested. The city 
will not then have that entire control, which your 
committee recommends. Our corporation must still 
continue to offer its water. If your water rents are 
reduced, ours must be also. Will your water be pre- 
ferred for its purity ? Probably not. The water of 

Jamaica Pond has a very high reputation. Your own 
commissioners admit the fact, and acknowledge its 
superior purity on page 11 of the report. One of 
them, Mr. James F. Baldwin appears not to enter- 
tain a very high opinion of the water, in one of the 
ponds, from which it is proposed to bring it to the 
city. His words are these, " I object to the color 
and character of the water, which composes this 
source. Much of the water is derived from the Mid- 
dlesex Canal, from leaks and wastes on a larger por- 
tion of its length. This canal is fed from Concord 
River a larger part of whose waters lie every year 
nearly motionless, through the dog days, steeping the 
grass on the Sudbury meadows. There are also upon 
the streams, which flow into this pond 15 or 20 dams 
or water privileges, where various kinds of mills and 
factories are in operation ; and, though there may not 
be, at present, any, more objectionable than hat fac- 
tories, tanneries, &c., still, at some future day, they 
may all contribute, more or less, to render the water 
unfit for domestic purposes," Page 50. To this opin- 
ion of their colleague Messrs. Treadwell and Hale 
have replied in a manner sufficiently pointed. They 
differ from Mr. Baldwin, it appears, entirely, on some 
other points in the Report, and your Standing Com- 
mittee on water differ from them. They say that 
they "cannot think that the sum of ^110,000, which 
the commissioners have named as the probable amount 
of damage," fee. 

I have said, that we should still be obliged to offer 
our water for sale ; and we should sincerely regret 
the necessity of exercising our chartered right of dig- 
ging up the streets, which is certainly a public incon- 


venience, likely to be trebled by the operations of 
two aqueducts and one gas light company, in a city 
not remarkable for the width or the straightness of its 

There may be an end to all our humble competi- 
tion with the city. This end is not absolutely invisi- 
ble in the distance. Pray, sir, can you assure me, that 
the very same popular clamor, which is driving the 
city into an expenditure of an enormous sum, for the 
introduction of water, will not, at some future day, 
perhaps not very distant after all, be heard once more, 
demanding an universal freedom from an odious and 
oppressive water tax ? And may there not be some- 
thing like justice in the demand ? Has not the pos- 
tulate of the water party been this, that water should 
be as free as the air we breathe ? I have been told 
by more than one respectable mechanic of this city, 
that he gave his vote in favor of the measure, on a 
presumption, that he would have the water, as he has 
the high way, for nothing. When this demand shall 
have been obtained, competition must cease, and we 
shall endeavor to contemplate the ruin of our proper- 
ty, as philosophically as possible. 

I see nothing at all extravagant in this anticipation. 
"Whenever an organized city government suffers itself 
to be directed by the feverish expressions of a popu- 
lar assembly, the people ascertain their power^ — they 
employ it, under the impulse, given by the agitators 
of the day — the will of a noisy and highly stimulated 
body prevails over the deliberations of boards of coun- 
cil — and the demands of the multitude become not 
less imperious than they are capricious and chimeri- 
cal. Consider a single argument, offered at Faneuil 

Hall, as a sample of a large proportion of those, 
which were offered to a popular assembly. It was 
stated, that a pump in this city, I)elonging to the city, 
as a corporation, was kept chained, and that the poor 
people — widows and orphans every one. of them be- 
yond a doubt — were prevented from getting a cup of 
cold water thereat! This was stated, by an orator 
of the day, as a fact ; it operated on the feeling of 
the assembled multitude, as a fact. On the follow- 
ing day, diligent search was made for this pump. It 
was no where to be found. The tale was a sheer 
fabrication, credited, very probably, by the young 
gentleman, who related it, at Faneuil Hall, and upon 
whose credulity some one had imposed. 

Do not suppose, sir, that I misunderstand the fact, 
that a reasonable demand exists in this city for pure 
and soft water. On the high lands and upon new 
made lands it assuredly exists, to a certain extent ; 
but by no means, even there, to the extent alleged 
by the water party. I say this, after a careful exam- 
ination, and continued enquiries for years. I have 
owned real estate, dwelling houses, in this city for 
many years. I never received from my tenants but 
two complaints in relation to water. In one case, 
the main well was in need of being cleaned, and the 
suction pipe, from which my tenant drew, received 
an earthy deposit. The evil was easily and immedi- 
ately remedied, and my tenants of that house have 
never since complained. Upon another occasion, a 
gentlemen, occupying a house in McLean street, 
whose well of water was excellent and abundant, de- 
sired me to furnish him the aqueduct, for washing, as 
his cistern was small. I replied, that the aqueduct 


was, I believed in Eaton street ; that ihe corporation 
could not bring the main pipe into McLean street, for 
one person ; but, if three others would agree to take 
the water, I thought the directors would comply with 
his request. He stated with perfect confidence, that, 
in his opinion, every householder would take it, as 
their cisterns were all too small. I heard nothing 
from him for a month. When I met him, I enquired 
if the inhabitants of McLean street had decided to 
take the water. He replied that he had made the 
effort, but they did not seem to want it, and the 
main pipe has never been carried into that street. 

Permit me to enquire whence the great popular ex- 
citement, upon this subject, which certainly bears the 
marks of agitation ? Are we in any imminent danger 
of being poisoned ? There are many aged people 
among us, who never tasted any purer or softer wa- 
ter than that of their wells. Medical gentlemen have 
been sent to the bottom of our wells; and, though 
truth is said to lie there, I exceedingly doubt if they 
have succeeded in bringing it up. Water has been an- 
alyzed, and its impurities set forth in tabular state- 
ments. Now sir, you well know there is no such 
thing in common use, in any part of the world, as 
pure water. So true is this, that medical prescrip- 
tions direct it to be distilled, whenever it is desired 
to have it j?wre. Mr. James F. Baldwin, one of the 
commissioners, has given his opinion, already referred 
to, that the water of Mystic Pond, one of the approv- 
ed' sources, is anything rather than pure water. In 
reply to his remarks Messrs. Treadwell and Hale, his 
associates, observe, " It is by no means pleasant to 
dwell upon the sources of impurity to which all wa- 


ters, which can be procured in civilized life, are ex- 
posed, whether in ponds, rivers, wells or even 
springs." This appears to me a very judicious obser- 
vation. It seems however, that, by dwelling upon 
these sources, for some object or other, we are about 
to be taught, that our wells contain nothing better 
than a poisonous beverage. What may this object 
be ? Has not the water question become a pivot, 
upon which municipal elections are to turn ? Have 
we not among us a number of button holding agita- 
tors, who argue at the corner of the streets, who are 
the agents of a party, and who are equally indefatig- 
able and importunate, whether the object be the 
procurement of pure rum or pure water ? Are these 
men likely to suffer greatly from taxation, when the 
public burden shall be laid on ? Are there none 
among us, who want a job? Your standhig committee, 
in the report before you, as an argument for an imme- 
diate commencement of this work, remark that they 
see " no better means of aleviating the distresses of 
those, who depend upon their labor for support." 
This is not only ?i. gracious, but <i popular suggestion. 
But, for this end, is it discreet to bring the burthen 
of an enormous debt upon the city ? A debt, whose 
estimate by the commissioners is, in the opinion of 
many judicious persons, altogether fallacious and 
inadequate. Your standing committee observe, that 
" the interest, spent upon this or any other valuable 
improvements, will be no intolerable addition to our 
burthens." I believe sir, that very little comfort 
will be derived from such negative consolation as 
this, by those, who have already thought the municipal 
expenditure unwarrantably prodigal, and whose taxes 


are becoming a topic of loud and almost universal 

The commissioners appear to anticipate that the 
proposed aqueduct will take the place of wells, he. 
very generally. Now sir, there is a very large num- 
ber of our citizens, to whom aqueduct water, as a 
drink, is positively disagreeable. They do not desire 
it. I resided for some time in Philadelphia ; I took 
the hydrant water for w^ashing, &c., but never drank 
it, preferring such as I obtained from a pump, one of 
the very few in that city, standing near the curb 
stone, and in the vicinity of my residence in So. 8th 

There are few pumps in that city connected with 
wells. The vaults of privies are therefore allowed to 
be dug of any depth, and are commonly built up in 
steened work, or with bricks laid dry. The vault at 
my own house, w^hich w^as not so deep as many oth- 
ers, was 28 feet deep. The chief dependance for 
water is upon the hydrant. It was introduced into 
that city, at an early period, and has become almost 
their only resource. Thus it is that your Commis- 
sioners are enabled to exhibit 13,632 customers of the 
aqueduct in the city proper. It is not so here, I am 
greatly mistaken, if those, who are satisfied with their 
wells and cisterns — those, who are already thus sup- 
plied and are moved by considerations of economy — 
those, who will not use the aqueduct water, as a drink, 
on any terms — those, who being already customers of 
the Boston Aqueduct Corporation, are contented so to 
remain, at whatever rent may be the city rate — those, 
who prefer the Jamaica Pond water, for its purity — I 
am greatly mistaken sir, if all these do not form an 


important body, worth the consideration of the City 
Government, before it ventures to act upon the cal- 
culations of the Commissioners, as infallible data. 
These calculations are sufficiently magnificent. They 
seem to me, sir, less adapted to the present situation 
and resources of our city, than to those of Mehem- 
med Ali, the grand Egyptian reformer. 

^1,507,560, the first estimate, and v^^hich cannot 
be presumed to be a solitary exception from that 
never failing rule, that all such estimates fall short of 
the cost, in the ratio of their magnificence and com- 
plicated character. This vast amount is to be obtain- 
ed at 5 per cent. ; and to meet the interest, 12,500 
families are to take the water of the city — this pure 
water — at six dollars per family, an event sir, which 
the great grand children of the youngest of your three 
Commissioners will never live to witness. This is 
not all the good fortune in store for our favored city. 
We are to save, in the single item of insurance, 
j^ 1 00,000 per annum ! Had this proposed aqueduct 
been in existence in the years 1824 and 1825, prop- 
erty of the value of |f 1,507, 568 would have been 
saved from fire! [n respect to this, the Commission- 
ers appear not to be so entirely convinced : they say 
" perhaps it is not an extravagant opinion, &c." 
It may here be stated that the engine companies of 
the city have ever had a right to open the fire plugs of 
the Boston Aqueduct in case of fire, of which right 
they have frequently availed themselves. The com- 
missioners proceed to state, that, in ten years, the 
income from the proposed aqueduct may be estimated 
at 105,000 dollars per annum. If the city govern- 
ment have a sincere faith in the prospects, present- 


ed by the commissioners, they ought not to withhold 
these promised blessings from their fellow-citizens. 
The commissioners especially advert to the great ad- 
vantages to the city resulting from an aqueduct pass- 
ing over their neck lands. It may not be amiss to 
state, that the present aqueduct passes directly 
through a lot of land, owned by me, within the city, 
Jying between Suffolk and Tremont street. There 
is no field, more obviously adapted to the operations 
of the present aqueduct than the whole tract from 
Pleasant street to the boundary creek, and entirely 
across the isthmus. 

I believe, most implicitly^ in the ability of the Bos- 
ton Aqueduct Corporation to suppl})^ all reasonable 
calls for '■'•jmre and soft'''' water, if such a thing there 
be, in all parts of the city, high and low. With the 
printed report of Mr. Loammi Baldwin before me, at 
this moment, I cannot entertain a doubt upon that 
point. In expressing this belief, I take into calcula- 
tion a fact, established by our experience for forty 
years, that, of those, who are already supplied with 
wells and cisterns, a large majority will not receive 
the aqueduct. We shall not probably be able to per- 
suade them, that those wells are poisoned, from which 
they and their fathers have drunken for many gener- 
ations, and to a good old age. Of the capacity of Ja- 
maica Pond, Col. Baldwin's report presents a careful 
calculation; and our experience has demonstrated, 
that the draught of the company does not equal the 

A very small sum comparatively, a few hundred 
thousand dollars, will enable the corporation to follow 
out the plan, suggested by Col. Baldwin, and carry 


the water to any dwelling house, which may require 
it. In the present condition of public feeling, you 
would not deem it discreet for us to throw down our 
money upon a hazard. We are precisely of that opin- 
ion. We can have no security against the effects of 
popular clamor. After we shall have done our ut- 
most, we shall have done very little to satisfy those, 
who want a job in the manufacture of ^80,000 worth 
of masonry, or ;^30,000 worth of stop cocks, or 
;^9,000 worth of fire plugs, or ^47,000 worth of 
small pipe, or ^437,000 worth of iron pipe, or $^50, 
000 worth of complicated labor and materials for 
bringing the water to the city confines. However 
sufficient for the occasions of your fellow citizens, the 
very best of our successful labors would produce a 
humble result, contrasted with the splendid visions 
of your commissioners. 

It has not been thought expedient to call the stock- 
holders or even the directors together upon the 
present occasion. They have expressed their senti- 
ments very fully and frankly, in the memorial, of 
which my lettter contains a copy. They have res- 
pectfully tendered a proposition to the city to extend, 
upon agreement to save harmless against municipal 
competition — or to sell their franchise to the city, 
for a reasonable consideration. This proposition I 
have no doubt the corporation would renew at the 
present time. I speak, however, as an individual, 
and of course, without authority. The fault is not 
our own, that the suggestions of Col. Baldwin were 
not long since put in operation. 

If I have gone into this matter, with a measure of 


precision, or to an extent, beyond your wish or ex- 
pectation, you have all that I can tender for any un- 
necessary consumption of your time, the assurance of 
my sincere regret. 

I remain, respectfully. 

Sir, your ob't servant, 


Eliphalet Williams, Esquibe. 

(Qjmn (Dij ]ii(D^^(Dsrc 



^ 1C30. ^^S^ 

In Common Council, March 1, 1838. 

The following document, submitted by Mr. Austin^ 
was laid on the table, and ordered to be printed for 
the use of the Council. 

Attest, R, G. Wait, Clerk C. C, 

Extracts from the Minutes of Evidence taken and 
Papers laid before the Select Committee of the 
House of Commons and the Commissioners on the 
Supply of Water to the Metropolis, in the years- 

1821, 1828, and 1834. 

Matthias K. Knight, 

Secretury to the West Middlesex Water Works Co. 

" Is there any such understanding existing amongst 

the companies now, that in case of an accident hap- 

pening to any one of the companies that the others 
would supply it with water during that time? Yes; 
the mains of the several works communicate with 
each other, so that in case of an accident happening 
to either of the companies, the other companies can 
supply till the accident is repaired. 

What mains do you communicate with ? With the 
New River on the east and the Grand Junction on 
the other side. 

So that in fact, according to the present under- 
standing among the companies now existing, the pub- 
lic have the benefit of the whole, as if they were one 
entire company ? Yes ; I conceive so. 

Have any occurrences taken place in which that 
has been done ? Yes ; about two years ago an acci- 
dent happened to the Grand Junction engine ; the 
Grand Junction applied to the West Middlesex Com- 
pany for assistance ; a communication was opened 
between the mains, and the West Middlesex Com- 
pany during the night worked their engines for the 
supply of the St. George's District, for a certain num- 
ber of days, till the engine was repaired, it was no 
length of time. So as to remedy the defect ? Yes. 

Has any other accident occurred, to your knowl- 
edge ? Yes ; there was a temporary stoppage during 
the late frost, in the New River ; the ice I believe 
was blown up by an easterly wind, and choaked it so 
that they could not get an adequate supply for the 
whole of their tenants ; and the West Middlesex 
Company, assisted by the Grand Junction, worked 
through their mains, and for two days I believe, sup- 
plied their tenants. 

Is that, in your belief, resulting from the arrange- 

ment that has taken place, and from the pipes being 
now so contrived as to afford a junction with one or 
the other ? Yes ; I conceive that the three compa- 
nies are so constituted as to comprise only one capi- 
tal ; and that the public derive the benefit of three 
capitals, having to pay the expense of only one." 

Manchester Water Works. 

Extract of a letter from Mr. Nicholas Brown address- 
ed to Lord Wharncliffe, (1828.) 

" In the latter end of the year 1823, I was called 
upon by the direction of the Manchester and Salford 
Water Works Company, to view some situations 
which had been pointed out for one or more reser- 
voirs, and to state my opinion, whether I thought the 
situation proper for the purpose, and whether there 
was a probability of procuring a sufficient supply of 
water for so large a population. 

Previous to this time, about the year 1807, an act 
of Parliament was obtained for supplying the towns 
of Manchester and Salford, with water by a company 
principally residing in London, at least very few of 
the inhabitants of Manchester were share holders, if 
any, and the works were then carried into effect un- 
the directions of the late Mr. Rennie, by pumping 
water by means of steam power out of the river Med- 
lock, a small stream which derives its supply from the 
hills above Oldham, into a reservoir of about seven 
Lancashire acres. The water from this river being 
at times very much polluted, that portion of it which 
was taken out by means of a guage-wier, was passed 
into two small reservoirs, in which to deposit the great- 


est parts of its impurity. It was thence pumped up to 
the seven acre reservoirs, and pipes laid to convey it 
to town. 

The original promoters of this scheme, having been 
previously engaged in manufacturing stone pipes, 
they were laid as mains to the town and through the 
various streets, (hence the name given to this compa- 
ny, the Stone Pipe Company.) So soon as the 
works were complete, the water was turned upon 
the mains, and the presence of the water being too 
powerful for the stone pipes they gave way in all di- 
rections, and the town was literally in a state of in- 

Various attempts were made to repair the breaches 
partly with stone and partly with iron, but in vain, 
the stone pipes were obliged to be abandoned, and 
iron substituted. From the various expenses then 
incurred, the then proprietors sold their interest in 
the works to a number of the inhabitants of the town 
and neighborhood, and for a lime, the works contin- 
ued upon the original construction. 

But the increase of population, and thereby the 
demand for water, and their not having the power of 
taking a further supply from the Medlock, without 
injury to the mill property, and the increasing impu- 
rities of that river, occasioned by the erection of vari- 
ous dye, bleach, and other works upon its hanks, gave 
rise to an application to Parliament, in 1 823, to ena- 
ble the company to procure a further and more pure 
supply from another source. 

This act of Parliament being obtained, it fell to my 
lot to carry the new works into execution. The two 
reservoirs were constructed upon some small stream 

at the distance of about three miles from the town, 
with the necessary works to convey the water to the 
town, and notwithstanding our meeting with consider- 
abhi delay for the want of the cast iron pipes being fur- 
nished us from the founderies, the works had so far ad- 
vanced that water was drawn from the new works to 
the town on the 4th May, 1826, and has continued to 
flow from that time to the present, and the works are 
now complete. The engine as well as the polluted 
water from the river Medlock, are given up altogeth- 
er, and the town is now supplied with abundance of 
pure water notwithstanding the large quantities there 
used in the various manufactories. 

The two new reservoirs are situate one immediate- 
ly above the other, the higher covering 31 acres, the 
lower 231, making together 54^ statute acres, the 
cubical contents I calculated to hold 37,534,235 cu- 
bic feet; and taking into consideration the extent of 
ground which is 1,600 acres only and from which 
water is collected to supply the reservoirs, I was led 
to conclude that the two would be filled twice and a 
half within the year and affording a supply to the 
town, of 1,600,000 gallons per day. 

Since these works have been completed, it is as- 
certained that my estimate was underrated, and that 
notwithstanding the very dry summer in 1826, there 
was two months supply in the reservoirs at the set- 
ting in of the wet season, independent of a large 
quantity which had been allowed to run to waste. 

During the old establishment when the water was 
pumped out of the river Medlock, the supply given 
out was from 7 to 800,000 gallons per day ; since 
the new works have been carried into effect partly 


from increase of services and partly owing to the 
quality of water being more pure, the quantity now 
given out is not less than 1,200,000, a certain number 
of hours each day to upwards of 9,500 families, ex- 
clusive of 900 services to the different branches in 
trade, such as for steam engines, common brewers, 
dye-house, public stables, &c. &c. 

1 now, my Lord, come to that part of the state- 
ment to which I beg to call your Lordship's particu- 
lar attention; that if 1,600,000 gallons per day can 
be produced from so small an extent of ground as 
1,600 acres of land, surely some eligible situation can 
can be found upon the Brent or Colne, or rather up- 
on the feeders of one oi other of those rivers upon 
which a reservoir of sufficient capacity may be form- 
ed, and into which a sufficient drainage can be effect- 
ed, to give out that supply which may be required for 
that district to which the works of the Grand Junc- 
tion Company have been applied, and to an extent 
much beyond their present power. I am aware that 
to a certain extent the Grand Junction Canal Com- 
pany have the control of the two rivers as feeders to 
their canal, but I feel confident, from a reference to 
the county survey, the district must afford means of 
making sufficient provision without at all interfering 
with their right." 

Mr. Philip Taylor'' s plan for supplying the metropolis 
with pure ivater from the river Thames, sent to the 
board, in 1828. 

" I have directed my attention to the two follow- 
ing most important points for consideration : — First, 
the source from whence to obtain a sufficient quanti- 

ty of pure and wholesome water ; aand secondly, the 
best mode of producing a regular^ equal and effective 
supply on fair and liberal terms to the public. 

The modes at present resorted to for bringing wa- 
ter from a distance, and of raising it to reservoirs, 
from which mains are supplied for its distribution, 
are liable to various difficulties and objections. 

The New River after passing through 40 miles, 
terminates in a reservoir only 84 feet and a half above 
the level of the Thames, and steam power is requir- 
ed to raise a portion of it to a greater height." 

"Other water companies have placed their steam- 
engines on the banks of the Thames in London or its 
immediate vicinity, and have forced water from the 
river to reservoirs on some elevated spot at a distance. 

By following such a plan much of the power ex- 
erted is lost in consequence of the friction and resist- 
ance occasioned by forcing an ascending column of 
water through a long extent of pipe ; and the desire 
of avoiding this waste of power has probably induced 
such companies to draw water from parts of the river 
too near the metropolis to obtain it of good quality, 
and to select situations for reservoirs not sufficiently 
elevated for the effectual supply of the public. 

The highest reservoir supplied in this way is only 
121 feet above the level of the Thames, which has 
been found insufficient for the purposes required ; and 
in consequence the water has been also forced into 
the mains direct from the engines. This method is li- 
able to all the objections arising from loss of power by 
friction^ to which must be added the great evil of the 
supply depending 07i the constant action of mechanical 
power, as a large quantity of water may be required 


in case of an extensive fire, at a time when such 
power is not in operation. 

To avoid these evils and objections, and to insure 
to the public water of the best possible quality at a 
moderate charge, delivered with such sure force as 
would produce a regular flow at an elevation that can 
be desired, I have projected the following plan; — 

A part of the river Thames being selected from 
which pure and unpolluted water may be obtained, 
(and which I believe may be best found between 
Brentwood and Richmond,) I propose cutting a sub- 
terranean aqueduct from such point in a line that will 
terminate under an elevated spot near the metropolis; 
and no situation presents so many advantages as 
Hampstead Hill or its vicinity." 

" The situation and altitude being determined up- 
on, engine shafts will be sunk perpendicularly, to 
meet the aqueduct, and the water at once raised by 
steam engines into the reservoir, from whence it will 
be distributed to the varioss parts of the metropolis 
with a force proportioned to the elevation." 

"The means by which I propose raising water from 
the aqueduct to the reservoir, for the service of the 
metropolis, are the most improved means now adopt- 
ed in the Cornish mines ; and it is obvious that, by 
the use of such means, a like quantity of water will 
be raised to a given height with the same expense of 
fuel. No untried plan and no doubtful calculations 
are involved in this part of my proposal, as printed 
reports are published every month, giving the return 
of water raised and coals consumed by every large 
engine in Cornwall. I have already stated that a 
considerable quantity of power is lost by the usual 

mode of forcing water through a sufficient length of 
ascending pipe to roach a reservoir at a distance, 
which loss will be obviated bj the mode I have pro- 
posed of raising it at once by a perpendicular lift." 

" Mr. Taylor stated that the distance for the tun- 
nel would be nine miles and a quarter, and he pro- 
posed a brick aqueduct of six feet in diameter, and 
with a head of one foot, there would be a flow equal 
to the quantity of the New River." 

" Mr. Taylor was asked what power of engines 
would be required at Hamstead, and he replied, that 
the expense of engines, on his plan, would not be 
more than one fourth of the expense of the engines 
now employed by the water companies ; for the forc- 
ing of water through a great length of iron tubes, and 
up inclined planes, was attended ivith so much friction, 
that these engines did not more duty than to lift 18 
millions of pounds one foot high with the consump- 
tion of one bushel of coals ; whereas the Cornish en- 
gines which were employed in pumping water from 
the mines by direct and pe7pendicular lifts performed 
the duty of raising as much as 74 millions of pounds 
one foot high by the consumption of the same quan- 
tity of coals ; and this latter plan of employing en- 
gines, namely by a direct perpendicular lift, was the 
one and the only one that would be adopted on his 

Mr. Mills plans for supplying the Metropolis with 
water from the river Thames, (1834.) 

Mr. James Mills. " You have no difficulty, I sup- 
pose, in getting people to contract upon your esti- 


mate ? I have no doubt Mr. Mcintosh or any other 
respectable contractor, would furnish either of these 
designs upon my estimate. 

Your estimate is only for a single conduit not for a 
double water-way, like Mr. Telford's plan ; do you 
think it safe, in supplying this large metropolis, to 
trust entirely to a single conduit ? Certainly ; I can- 
not consider any thing more safe ; I do not think it 
probable that the conduit would require any material 
, repairs for a thousand years. The conduit is made 
upon those dimensions which could convey a suppl} 
in a quarter of a day so that it may be empty three 
quarters of a day, during which time any little re 
pairs might be effected. 

In your ])lan you propose to pump into a great re- 
servoir on Wimbledon common ; could you not con- 
vey the water from the point from whence you pro- 
pose to take it by the conduit to stations nearly the 
level of the Thames, from whence the present com- 
panies might pump it by means of their present en- 
gines ? Certainly; in two of the designs this is done. 

Would that not materially lessen the expense ? I 
think it would ultimately nearly double it. 

What is your reason for thinking so? Because the 
friction of pumping between the perpendicular lift 
and that at which the companies are compelled at 
present to work is nearly one hundred per cent.'''' 

Mr. Mills' plan for supplying water from other 
sources, (1834.) 

" I shall now proceed to recapitulate briefly the 
plan I would recommend for supplying the whole of 
the metropolis with pure water, abundant in quantity, 


and upon the most reasonable terms. It would con- 
sist of three covered conduits to convey all the neces- 
sary supplies in a pure state. One on the north west 
side from my reservoir on the Verulam to a ser- 
vice reservoir at Primrose Hill, 150 feet above 
the level of high water in the Thames. One on 
the north east side from Hertford to Newington. 
One on the south side from Carshalton to Clapham 
common. The Primrose Hill reservoir to command 
the highest service, and the other two conduits, ser- 
vices below eighty feet. It is most essential now to 
take a correct view of the relative permanent cost be- 
tween high and low service. High service requires 
no pumping and the mains to be of moderate size. 
Low service requires the eternal expense of pumping 
which must increase as the supply does, and the mains 
to be very large. 

The actual expense of pumping 3J feet per second 
or 288,048 feet per day is stated in the Parliamentary 
report of 1821 by the West Middlesex Company to 
be £3,150 per year ; about £1000 per cubic foot for 
water pumped 136 feet high. 

The actual expense of pumping 3| cubic feet per 
second or 310,000 feet per day is stated in the same 
Report by the Grand Junction Company to be £3,500 
per year, equal to £1,000 per cubic foot per second 
for water pumped 115 feet high. 

The expense in the same Report by the New River 
engineer for pumping 18^ cubic feet per second 84 
feet high, is stated to be £16,000 per year which 
would amount to £1,400 per cubic foot per second 
for an elevation of 120 feet." 



James Simpson, Esq., to the Chelsea Company. 

Can you state what expense you are at for pump- 
ing for high service ? I cannot off hand. 

What does it cost you ? I cannot state it off hand. 

Do you consider it a very expensive part of your 
outlay ? Yes ; a very expensive part. 

What power have you for pumping ? One hundred 
and iifty-five horses. 

How many steam engines ? Three. 

What power ? One of 60 ; one of 70 and one of 25. 

How many of these are constantly at work ? The 
whole of them." 

Statement of Mr. J. G. Lynde, Secretary to the 
Chelsea Water Works, (1834.) 

"Mean elevation at which the water is supplied is 
eighty five feet. 

2,337,000 imperial gallons is the average quantity 
now pumped per diem, 45 feet to 135 feet. 

What expense is your company at yearly for pump- 
ing ? I should say rather more than £4000, between 
£4 and £5000. 

Do you include in that the expense of coals, and 
the expense of persons conducting the engines, and 
the wear and tear of the engines and the repairs of 
the engine houses ? 

Yes, including every thing attached to the engines^ 
I should say the annual expense is about £4500. 


Extract from Mr. W. Anderson's letter to the Com- 
missioners, on the plan of taking a supply of water 
from the Thames, at Teddington Lock, (1828.) 

" On further examination it occurred to me that 
the only plan would be to erect powerful engines at 
Teddington ; and by laying a main pipe one mile and 
a half in length to the ridge of the ground at the oil 
mill near Wilton, which is about 50 feet above the riv- 
er at Teddington Lock, it would get over part of the 
difficulty as above stated ; it might then cross the 
valley of the Wilton, by an aqueduct, &c. &c." 

" From the rough survey I have made of the above 
plan, I do not presume to give an estimate of the ex- 
pense of it ; but to pump the whole quantity at Ted- 
dington [50 feet] to supply the three companies ac- 
cording to their present consumption [6,734,190 im- 
perial gallons] would cost for coals alone and wear 
and tear of engines, an annual expense of £7000 ; 
and the outlay for engine house, engines and main 
pipe, would amount to £76,000. These sums are ex- 
clusive of the cost of land, and making the channel or 


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