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PART I. Essay by Mr. Hislop ; with note by Editor. 

PART II. Vocabulary by Mr. Hislop ; with note by Editor. 

Supplement to the Vocabulary as respects the Oondi dialect 

only ; with note by Editor. 

Comparative Vocabulary of the Mua*si or Kuri dialect; 
with note by Editor. 

PART III Songs : 

Note and Abstract English version by the Editor. 

The Songs reduced to writing with English equivalents 

by Mr. Hislop and examined or supplemented by Mr. 


PART IV. Appendices, consisting of miscellaneous memoranda ; with 
note by the Editor. 




IT is but too well known to all persons interested in the 
Nagpore Country that the Rev. Stephen Hislop, Missionary of 
the Free Church of Scotland at Nagpore, a gentleman distin- 
guished for all the virtues and qualities becoming his sacred 
profession, and for attainments in scholarship and in practical 
science, died by accidental drowning on the 4th September 
1863. During nineteen years of labour in the service of the 
Mission, he had diligently and perseveringly enquired, not only 
into the physical resources of the country, but also into the 
languages, the manner?, the religions, the histories, and the 
antiquities of the people. In the pursuit of these enquiries, 
he investigated much regarding the aboriginal tribes inhabiting 
the territories now known as the Central Provinces, and especi- 
ally regarding the Gond people. The results of this investiga- 
tion were embodied in several elaborate papers, which were 
intended for publication ultimately in a complete form, but 
which were inevitably left scattered and incomplete at the time 
of his sudden and lamented death. 

It was naturally considered by the late Mr. Hislop's relations 
and friends, that these valuable and important papers should 
not be lost to the public, but should be examined, collated, and 
prepared for publication, in a manner which (though falling far 
short of what the author himself would have produced had he 
lived) might yet present the work in a sufficiently intelligible 
shape. At first there was hope that some gentlemen possessing 
more or less of literary leisure might be found to fulfil the task 
of editing these papers. Bub it is difficult to secure such 
assistance in these Provinces. And at length, at the request 
of Mr. Hislop's ft iends, I undertook to have the papers brought 
out under my own supervision and direction. The work is 
now done, imperfectly no doubt, but as well as time and means 
permitted : and if not actually good, it is perhaps better than 
nothing at all. 

Mr. Hislop had considerable opportunities and facilities for 
obtaining reliable and detailed information regarding, what are 
commonly called, the aboriginal tribes of this part of India. 
In the cold season of each year, he made tours by marching in 
the interior of the districts, and thus saw much of, and heard 


much from, the pepole in their homes, their villages, their fields 
and their forests. He was generally accompanied by educated 
natives connected with the Mission, who helped him in securing 
full and correct answ?rs to all queries. These were native 
catechists and preachers, either stationed in, or moving about, 
the country and especially in Chindwara, the heart of the 
Gond region, who recorded and transmitted facts to him. Ho 
was acquainted with various European officers and gentlemen 
who resided among, or otherwise came in contact with, these 
tribes, and who supplied him with information. He made 
use of all these several advantages with patience, assiduity, 
and research. He tested and verified the information thus 
accumulated, by extensive study of the works of other authors 
on the aboriginal races of India and of other countries. 

These tribes will, from their numbers, their position, and 
their antecedents, be found worthy of the erudition and study 
which Mr. Hislop bestowed on all that belonged to them. 

Though much imbued with Hinduism, they are yet quite 
distinct in race and language from the Hindus. Again, they are 
not all of one tribe, perhaps not even of one nationality, for some 
of their dialects differ altogether from others. By themselves, 
in the aggregate, they form an important section of the popu- 
lation. They are spread, thinly perhaps, but broadly, all over 
the large territories now known as the Central .Provinces 
from our extreme limit? in one direction to our furthest frontier 
in another; from Bundlecund in the north to the Teloogoo 
coast districts in the south; from Malwa and Candeish in the 
west to the confines of Orissa in the east ; and right through the 
very centre of the country, among the Vindhya Mountains 
which overlook the valley of the Nerbudda and the Sautpoora 
Ranges which bound the plains of Nagpore and the cotton- 
fields of the Wurda, 

Among these tribes one, namely the Gonds, have formed 
political annals of their own, have wielded dynastic power in 
most parts of those Provinces, and have left architectural re- 
mains in attestation of former greatness. On this subject it 
may be well to transcribe some brief passages from my first 
Administration Report (/or the year 1862) : 

" The earliest dynasties in this part of India of which any- 
thing is now either recorded or remembered are those of the 
Gond- Rajpoots. But prior to these, and superior to them in 
civilization, there must have been several Hindu dynasties, 
which are only now known by architectural remains : some at 


Jubbulpore on the banks of the Nerbudda ; some in the hilly 
part of Chutteesgurh ; and some ac Bustar in the heart of the 

" The ancient Gondwana, or country of the Gonds, comprises 
most of the countries now included in the Central Provinces,^ 
both below and above the Sautpoora Kange. The earliest 
settlers in the woods and hills and the oldest dynasties were Gond. 
The Gonds seem, without doubt, to have been one of the most 
powerful and important of the aboriginal races of India. Existing 
prior to the advent of the Hindus, they possessed their own forms 
of heathenism, which often are preserved entire and intact to this 
day, and which have always, and under all changes, impressed 
their mark on the character of the tribe. But some Gonds, while 
retaining their external and distinctive characteristics, adopted 
the Hindu, and some few the Mahomed an, religion. Thus 
there are seen in the present age, as respects faith and custom, 
three kinds of Gonds, namely the aboriginal Gonds, the Hindu 
Gonds, and the few Mussulman Gonds. In physique and morale 
all three seem much alike. The Hindu conquerors of the 
Gonds were principally Rajpoots. These intermarried with the 
conquered, and their descendents are called Rajpoots, and pride 
themselves on their descent. Most of the indigenous Rajpoots 
so called are really Gond Rajpoots. These mixed races, becom- 
ing acclimatised to countries that would have proved deadly to 
many civilized nations, spread themselves over wide domains, 
and in arms and policy emulated the achievements of superior 
tribes. Their original boundary in the south may perhaps have 
been the Godavery If it was, they must have crossed that 
river, and extended far into the Dakhan. 

46 They formed from first to last four kingdoms within the 
present limits of these provinces. The northern kingdom had 
its capital atMundla, and at Gurra (near the modern city of Jub- 
bulpore) and dominated the greater part of the Nerbudda Valley. 
Of the two midland kingdoms, one had its capital at Deo- 
gurh on the southern face or slopes of the Sautpoora Range, 
over-looking and commanding the plains which now belong to 
Nagpore. Deogurh is now ruined and utterly desolate ; but it 
was a city before Nagpore was even a village. The other mid- 
land kingdom has its capital at Kherla, a hill commanding the 
rich valley of Baitool, in the heart of the Sautpoora Hills. To this 
also belonged the celebrated forts of Gawilgurh and Nurnalla, 
both in the same range. The southern kingdom had its capital 
at Chanda on the Wurda, and comprised a vast, but wild, territory : 
it streached far up to to the north-east, and again, commanding 


the Godavery, stretched far down to the south. These four dy- 
nasties existed at least some time before the formation of the 
Moghul Empire. They were brave and independent, but they 
could never have been rich or powerful. Still, each of them 
must have possessed an annual revenue of some lakhs of 
rupees. They were quite inferior in art and civilization to the 
Hindu and Mahomedan dynasties known in other parts of India; 
but still they each left architectural remains and monuments of 
great interest; atMundla, at Gurra near Jubbulpore, at Choura- 
gurh near Nursingpore, at Deogurh near Chindwara, at Kherla 
near Baitool, and at C hand a. These ruins, surrounded by, or adja- 
cent to, the waste, or the rocks, or the forest, fill the modern enquir- 
er with surprise, and attest the former energies of half-civilized 
races contending with the wildness of Nature. As the Mahomed- 
an rule absorbed the different parts of Central India, it attacked 
these Gond Kingdoms in turn. The northern kingdom, how- 
ever, in some struggles well known to local tradition, maintained 
something of its independence, though it may have lost many 
of its richer provinces. The southern kingdom also does not . 
appear to have been entirely subdued, though it was rendered 
tributary; but its branches across the Godavery were carried 
away and added to the Mahomedan kingdoms in the Dakhan, 
That dominion indeed spread over both banks of the Godavery; 
and up to a recent period the strip of territory on the left, or 
Nagpore side of the .river, belonged to the Nizam. The midland 
kingdom was at all events rendered tributary, and its Princes 
were, by force or influence, converted to Islam. 

" Besides these four kingdoms there was a Gond Rajpoot dynasty 
at Wurungal in the Dakhan. When that place fell to the 
Mahomedan, the Raja fled northward across the Godavery, and 
established himself in wild independence among the inaccessible 

But besides forts, palaces, and tombs, they have in some 
parts of the country left traces of works wisely designed for 
material improvement. On this point, it may be proper to insert 
the following passages from my official report on the river 
Wyngunga : 

" This tract, as already seen, lies between a low range of hills 
and a river,, having an average breadth of thirty miles. Though 
partly champaign, it is yet much broken up and diversified by 
hills and jungles. Advantage has been taken of the undulations 
in the ground and the streams permeating it, to construct a regu- 
lar tank system. These are not so large as the lakes mentioned 
in the upper basin of the Wyngunga; but are second to them 

alone. This tract belonged to the Gond dynasty of Chanda, 
who, probably established at a later period, were compara- 
tively more civilized; and these have left behind them a noble 
mark on the land. In 1865, after visiting these tanks, I caused 
a letter to be written to the local authorities, which, as it 
conveyed impressions on the spot, may furnish a few extracts 
to make up the description, as follows: 

' The number and size of these tanks is certainly remarkable. In some 
parts they even cluster thick round the feet of the hills. From the summit 
of the hill, called " Perzagurh" by the Gonds, and " The Seven Sisters " by 
the Hindus, no less than thirty-seven tanks were counted as distinctly 

1 These tanks are indeed the pride and ornament of the district. They 
are, as the people themselves told the Chief Commissioner, the very life of the 
place. They are the object to which much of the industry and capital of 
the people are devoted; and are the main source of agricultural wealth. 
The two staples are rice and sugarcane and both are entirely dependent on 
the water supply for irrigation from the tanks. Not only have large, indeed 
sometimes very extensive, sheets of water been formed by damming up 
streams by heavy earthwork dykes, but masonry escapes axid sluices and 
channels have been constructed. Some of the sluices, as head works for irrigation 
channels, present an almost elaborate apparatus, creditable to the skill and 
ingenuity of the people. 

* With many, perhaps with most, of the largest tanks, the works were in 
good, even capital repair.' " 

Thus it is that some knowledge of these tribes must be useful, 
indeed almost essential, to the various Officers engaged in the 
Civil Administration of these Provinces. 

Though these people have in bygone ages lorded it over the 
plains cultivated with regular husbandry, the) live in recent 
times, for the most part, in the hilly and wooded tracts. These 
are the tracts which yield those vast supplies of timber wood 
and fuel ; those extensive seams ot coal ; those iron ores ; those 
mineral riches; that lac dye, and many other jungle products, 
which constitute in the mass so large a part of the resources 
of these Provinces. In all efforts that are being, or may yet be 
made to utilize these resources, an acquaintance with the people 
who dwell in these often desolate and inaccessible tracts, is 
really requisite. 

It behoves especially those who are employed in the conserva- 
tion and management of the forests a department of fast- 
growing importance to learn all about the hill tribes whose 
co-operation is necessary to departmental success, and over whom 
influence can be won only by conciliation. Regarding the 
important position occupied by these people in the hill districts, 
the following psssage may be extracted from my second Ad- 
ministration Report, for 1863: 


<( One great cause of wastage and destruction of the forests 
is what is called "Dhya" cultivation. This "Dhya" cultivation 
is practically a substitute for ploughing, and a device for saving 
the trouble of that operation. It is resorted to by hill people, 
who are averse to labor, and have little or no agricultural capital. 
The method is in this wise : A piece of ground on a moderate slope 
is selected, clothed with trees, brushwood, and grass; the trees 
are cut down in November, the brushwood and grass are set fire to 
in May, the charred ground is left covered with ashes; in the 
beginning of June quantities of seed are placed at the upper 
end of the slope; the rains descending wash the seed over and 
into the prepared ground; no ploughing or any other operation 
is resorted to. There springs up a plentiful" crop, which has 
to be watched all day and night, till it is cut. It' not so watched, 
it would be eatt n up by wild animals. In this manner all the 
pulses are raised. Besides this culture, there will be a few 
fields around the homesteads, regularly ploughed, and growing 
superior products. The pulses, however, form the staple food 
of the hill people in four districts * and 

*Mundla. . r r .. ,. / 

Seoneo. in many parts of districts acJjacent to 

Ba!tooT ara ' them. The population dependent mainly 

on Dhya cultivation may be a million 

or more. Unfortunately the best ground for this peculiar 
cultivation is precisely that where the finest timber trees like 
to grow. It may be hoped that by degrees these hill people 
will learn a better mode of cultivation But to prohibit the 
Dhya cultivation, would be to drive this widely. scattered popu- 
lation to despair. Though rude and ignorant, they are not 
destitute of spirit and endurance. They have clans and Chiefs; 
they are always predatory: and they have on occasions shown 
themselves capable of armed resistance If by a prohibition of 
their favorite culture they were reduced to any distress, they 
would resort to plunder, and especially to cattle -stealing. And 
it is to be remembered that the great pasturage whither the 
cattle from the plain districts resort, is situated in their country. 
And if they were not in the country, the last state of the forests 
would be worse than the first. For then the traces of human 
habitation, settlement, and clearance f would disappear. The 
foresters and the woodmen could no longer live in, or even 
enter into, the wilderness, rank and malarious with uncleared 
jungle, and overrun with wild beasts. These animals are already 
so destructive as to constitute a real difficulty. The only check 
upon their becoming masters of the forests is the presence of the 
hill tribes." 

There is much in the character of these tribes to attract 


Britisb sympathies. They are honest and truth-telling; they 
are simple-minded ; though superstitious, they are yet free 
from fanaticism ; they have great physical endurance. Their 
courage is remarkable : the instance is freshly remembered in 
the Chindwara District, where an English oiHcer was saved 
from instant death in the grip of a panther by the bravery of 
a Gond hunter : and still more recently, a wounded officer on 
the G-odavery was rescued from the wild beasts by his native 

In former days, the bane of all these tribes has been the 
drinking of ardent spirits, and even wilful and deliberate 
drunkenness. But of late years radical changes in the manage- 
ment of the excise have removed many temptations from 
their way. And it is the concurrent testimony of all persons, 
European and Native, most competent to judge, that a marked 
reform in the habits of these people has been setting in of late. 

While a knowledge of these aboriginal tribes is thus seen 
to subserve so many practical uses, it will not be without its 
scientific and ethnological value. For it is the opinion of the 
best informed persons, that in their languages and religions, 
these people have much in common with the wild races of other 
parts, both of the Indian peninsula and of the Asiatic continent; 
and that numerous points of interesting comparison suggest 

Such, then, very briefly, are the tribes for the elucidation of 
whose character Mr. Hislop devoted so much of his heavily- taxed 
time and thought. From the inevitably incomplete and 
fragmentary papers which he left, those which follow have 
been selected for publication in the order as below : 

I. Essay. 

II. Vocabulary. 

III. Songs and descriptive precis. 

IV. Appendixes, consisting of miscellaneous memoranda. 

To each paper have been appended such notes or other ex- 
planation as seemed to be required. 

The words in the Gondi, the Mu&si, and other dialects, are 
written in the Roman character; all these languages being 
destitute of any written character of their own. But it is 
supposed by some well able to judge, that the Oriental Deva- 
n&gri character would afford much better means of convey- 
ing the sounds of the words of these dialects as really pro- 
nounced by the people. This point may deserve consideration, 


as a mission to the Gonds has recently been commenced by 
the Free Church of Scotland at Chindwara ; and as hereafter 
schools for secular instruction in Gondi may be established 

Though the preparation of these papers may be imperfect, 
still the labour of several gentlemen has been given to it, 
whose assistance I have pleasure in acknowledging. They are, 
Mr. G. Barclay ( Superintendent of the Chief Commissioner's 
Office), the Rev. Mr. Baba Pandurang (of the Free Church 
of Scotland Mission), and Syud Noor (the Meer Moonshee 
of the Secretariat ). 

And though this work must necessarily be altogether inferior 
to what it would have been had it been completed and brought 
out by its author himself, yet the publishing of it, even in 
this broken shape, seems desirable, in justice to the subject, 
and from regard to Mr. Hislop's memory, a memory which 
is revered and beloved by all who knew him; is respected by 
all scientific persons interested in the practical advancement 
of these Provinces ; and is cherished by the natives, for whose 
moral and lasting welfare he laboured so long. 

N A G r o R E : 7 
31** October 1866. \ R. TEMPLE, 

A j y s st 
* L. I {*--. J. 




Note by tfa Editor, 

THIS Essay, by Mr. Hislop, on the aboriginal tribes of the 
Central Provinces was not left by its author in exactly the shape 
in which it is now presented. It appears from the autograph 
manuscript that he first composed an Kssay on the aboriginal 
tribes of the Nagpore country before the incorporation of that 
territory in the present Central Provinces. Afterwards he en- 
larged his design so as to e morals tha whole of those Provinces; 
and he obtain :d more specific inform ition regarding the sub- 
divisions of the G md trib^ in particular. This indue rl him to 
amplify that portion of the essay wluch related to the G- vi Is, and 
to include among the Gon Is proper two tribes (the Ma lias and 
the Kolatns ), which he had reckoned among the oth?r aborigines. 
For these, or for some such reasons, he began to rewrite his 
essay. But at the time of his death, he had proceeded only so 
far as the specification of ten out of the twelve sub-divisions of 
the Gonds. Thus there are two m inuscripts the first, being the 
original, carried to its conclusion; the second, being the rewritten, 
or revised essay, curried only a short way into the subject. 

It seemed, therefore, desirable, even necessary, to make up 
one new essay out of thase two manuscripts; following the re- 
written essay, so far as it g >es, and taking the rest from the 
onginaly- prepared manuscript. On examination of the papers, [ 
have found that this adaptation is quite feasible, and is the best 
means of carrying out the intention of the author to the utmost 
that is now possible. Thus 3 , although the essay which follows 
has something of compilation and re-arrangera onfc, yet it contains 
nothing that is not to bd found in one or other of Mr. Hislop's 
two manuscripts above described ; and it comprises everything 
essential that is to ba gathered from them. 

To the essay, as now published, are appended as foot notes 
various annotations taken from Mr. Hislop's manuscript. Some 
hesitation was felt in ordering the publication of notes, 
for they were incomplete at the timu of the author's death ; it 
was often very difficult to decyphor them ; and sometimes they 
contain references to authorities not now obtainable at Nagpore, 
and, therefore, are not always capable of being verified. But so 
far as verification has been practicable, it has been made. And 
though the notes are not by any means what they would have 
been had they beea finished, still they have been put into a 
readable shape : and, even with their unavoidable imperfections, 
they may be useful, and may, at least, give some idea of Mr. 
Hislop's minute and extensive research. 

R. T. 

AY on the EM Tribes of the Central Provinces. 

BESIDES the general population of the Central Provinces, con- 
sisting of a great preponderance of Hindus and a small minority 
of Mahomedans, there are various tribas residing in the hilly 
and jungly districts, of whom comparatively little is known. 
Though among these there are diversities of dialect, and in one 
instance a complete difference in language, yet there are some 
features which are possessed by ail in common. 

Physical appearance. All are a little below the average size 
of Europeans, and in complexion darker than the generality of 
Hindus. Their bodies are well proportioned, but their features 
are rather ugly. They have a roundish head, distended nostrils, 
wide mouth, thickish lips, straight black hair, and scanty beard 
and moustache. It has been supposed that some of the abori- 
gines of Central India have woolly hair ; but this is a mistake. 
Among the thousands that I have seen I have not found one 
with hair like a Negro. A few indeed have curly locks, as a few 
Britons have: but I have not met with one inhabitant of the 
forest who exhibited any marked resemblance to the African 
race. On the contrary, both their hair and their features are 
decidedly Mango! ian. 

Dress. All are scantily attired ; but what they want in cloth- 
ing they make up for by the abundance of their ornaments and 
beads, of which they are passionately fond. 

Character. All are endowed with an average share of intel- 
ligence and a more than ordinary degree ot observation. Shy 
in their intercourse with strangers, they are not wanting in 
courage, when there is an understood object to call it forth. 
Truthful in their statements, faithful to their promises, and 
observant of the rights of property among themselves, they 
nevertheless do not scruple to plunder those to whom they are 
under no obligation to fidelity. But the great blot on their moral 
character is their habitual intemperance. Besides their daily 
potations, a large quantity of liquor is an essential element in 
their religous rites. No festival can be held in the forest or 
village in honour of their deities; no birth, marriage, or death can 
take place in their families, without an excessive indulgence 
in ardent spirits. Their acts of worship invariably end in 

Literature. Among none of our jungle tribes can the slightest 
approach to learning be said to exist. All are destitute of any 
written character of their own ; and, with the exception of a very 
few individuals who have come in contact with Hindus, they 
are entirely uneducated in any other language. 

Tillage. The system of cultivation, which all prefer, is mi- 
gratory, like that of the ancient Germans, and many forest tribes 
in Asia at the present day. Here it is called Dahi or Dahya, 
and is essentially the same with the practice of the Torus, of the 
Terai, of the hill Cacharis, the Bodos, the Mikirs, the Kukis, the 
Kajmahalis, the Kols, &c. On the Western Ghats, near Sattara, 
it is known as Dale or Kumari, and in the mountainous districts 
of Burmah it goes by the name of Toungya. In the hot wea- 
ther they select some spot on a plateau or declivity of a hill, on 
which they cut down the brushwood and lop off the boughs of 
the larger trees, and place them in layers to dry. Before the 
beginning of the rains in June they set the whole on fire, and 
spread the ashes over the cleared space. On these, after they 
have been slightly mingled with the soil by the first showers, 
they scatter a variety of inferior grains, chiefly millet, along 
with one or two species of cucurbit acese. In sowing the castor- 
oil plant, and different kinds of pulse, they use a tool in some 
places somewhat resembling a hoe. The crops are not very 
productive the first season ; but the following year, without any 
further sowing, they are more abundant. The third year the 
land is comparatively unremunerative, yielding little but grass; 
but the houses that had been erected at the place are still 
allowed to stand there until the cultivators have burnt down the 
jungle on another spot, when they remove thither with their 
families and property. They do not return to an old piece of 
ground till after the lapse of about 12 years, when they find it 
again covered with jungle, and requiring the same process of 
burning and cultivation as before. This rude system of farming 
is doubtless unfavourable to the growth of valuable timber. It 
is only on superior soil that Teak thrives, and, of course, these 
are the very soils chosen for Dahi tillage. As a necessary con- 
sequence, Teak falls a sacrifice. This tree, as Captain F. G. 
Stuart, late Superintendent of Nagpore Forests, suggests, yields 
a large amount ol ash, and our jungle cultivators are specially 
anxious to secure it for manuring their temporary fields ; or, as 
they themselves allege, its large, broad leaves, catching and 
retaining the rain, cause a heavy drip, which washes out the 
grain and hence they rest not till it is either cut down or 
deprived of its crown and branches. From such motives many 
parts of the country have been stripped of the finest forest 


trees, and in their place has sprung up nothing but a worthless 

Religion. All introduce figures of the horse in their worship. 

Marriage. Among all, this ceremony does not take place until 
both bride and bridegroom have reached maturity. A consider- 
ation in the shape of money or service is always given to the 
father of the former. The nuptial rites are performed at the house 
of the latter. The expenses, which are considerable, are borne 
by the parents of both. Polygamy is permitted, though, from 
the straitness of their wordly circumstances, not commonly 
practised. On the death of either party the survivor may re- 
marry ; but when it is a woman who a second time enters on 
wedded life, the rites are few and simple. 

Death. Both interment and cremation are observed. The 
old are often burned, though frequently also buried : the bodies 
of the young are always committed to the earth. 

The above description is intended to apply only to those mem- 
bers of the hill tribes who adhere to their original customs. 
With respect to those who have conformed to Hinduism, several 
of the remarks will not hold good. Of the points of resemblance, 
some may have been produced by similarity of circumstances, and 
others may have been borrowed by one tribe from another. 

Whether any indicate a community of origin, will be considered 
towards the conclusion of this paper. 


The name of Gond, or Gund, seems to be a form of Kond,* or 
Kund, the initial gutturals of the two words being interchangeable, 
as in gotal ghar, an empty house : from Kotal, a led horse, and 
ghar i a house. Both iorms are most probably connected with 
Kondd the Teloogoo equivalent for a mountain and therefore 
will signify " the hill people." And no designation could be more 
appropriate to the localities which the majority of them inhabit. 
Though they are also found residing in the villages of the plains 
along with the more civilized Hindus, yet they chiefly frequent 
the mountain ranges lying between 18 40' and 23 40' north 
latitude, and between 78 and S2 east longitude. This tract 
somewhat corresponds with the old Mahomedan division of Gond- 
wna, but differs from it in not reaching so far to the east and 
in extending considerably fuither towards the south-east. The 

* I believe the above, and not the common aspirated mode, is the correct spelling of th 
*ame of the Orissa aborigines. 

Moghul geographers seem to have included with the Gonds of 
Nagpore the Kols on their east frontier, and to have been igno- 
rant of the relationship between them and the inhabitants of 
Bustar. In the north, Gonds are met with about Saugor and near 
the source of the Hasdo ; on the east, they cross that river into 
Sarguja, where they border on the Kols, and are found with 
Konds and Uriyas in Nowagudda, Kareal, and Kharond or Ka- 
lahandi ; in the south, they form the mass of the population of 
Bustar and a portion of the inhabitants of Jeypur (in the Madras 
Presidency), while they occupy the hills along the left bank of 
the Godavery, about Nirmul ; and on the west, they are inter- 
mingled with the Hindus of Berar for 30 miles from the right bank 
of the Wurdah, and, along the Kurs, extend along the hills 
both north and south of the Narbadda to the meridian of 
Hindia, where they give place to the Bhils and Nahals. 

In such a large extent of country, as might be expected, they 
are divided into various branches, and distinguished by specific 
names. The classification adopted by themselves is into twelve 
and a half castes or classes, in imitation of the Hindus. These are : 
Raj Gond, Kaghuwal, Dadave, Katulyfc, Padal, Dholi, Ojhyal, 
Thotyal, Koilabhutal, Koikopal, Koiam, Madyal, and an inferior 
sort of Padal as the half caste. The first four, with the addition, 
according to some of the Kolam, are comprehended under the 
name of Koitor the Goud, par excellence. This term, in its radical 
form of Koi, occurs over a wide area, being the name given to 
the Meria-sacrificing aborigines of Orissa and to the jungle tribes 
skirting the east bank of the Godavery, from the apex of the 
delta as far up nearly as the mouth of the Indrawati. Its mean- 
ing is evidently associated with the idea of a hill ; the Persian 
tname of which, Koh, approaches it more closely than even the 
Teloogoo, Kondd. I need scarcely, therefore, add that it has n.o 
connection with the interrogative Koi r as some have supposed, 
nor has Koitor any relation to the Sanskrit Kshatriya, as sug- 
gested by Sir R. Jenkins. Though there area few of the more 
wealthy Koitors who would gladly pass themselves off as Raj- 
puts, yet the great majority of those known by that name resent, 
with no small vehemence, the imputation of belonging to any 
portion of the Hindu community. The sacred thread of the 
twice-born, instead of being an object of ambition, is to them 
a source of defilement. 

The Raj Gonds are so called because they have furnished 
from their? number most of the families that have attained to 
royal power. They are widely spread over the plains and moun- 
tains of the province of Nagpore, and are found in Berar and 

the jungles south of the Wurdah, as well as those north 
of the Narbudda. The Raghuwal and Dadave are more limited 
in their range, being confined chiefly to the district of 
Chindwa'ra. These three classes generally devote themselves 
to agriculture. They eat with each other, but do not inter- 
marry. The Katulya, though not a very numerous class in 
regard to individuals, is extensively scattered. It , includes 
all those who, originally belonging to one or other of the 
preceding Koitor classes, have begun to conform to the Hindu 
religion and to ape Hindu manners. Professing to be Ksha- 
triyas, they have invested themselves wiih a sacred thread, 
and make great efforts to have their claim allowed, by contract- 
ing marriage with needy Rajpoot brides. With scrupulous 
exactitude, they perform the prescribed ablutions of their adopt- 
ed faith, and carry their passion for purification so far as to 
have their faggots duly sprinkled with water before they are 
used for cooking. At the time of dinner, if a stranger or a crow 
come near them, the whole food is thrown away as poluted. 
These practices, which other Koitors regard with profound 
contempt, are gaining ground among the rich. It was only one 
or two generations ago that the Zemindar, or petty Raja of 
Kheiragad, the present bearer of which title still carries in his 
features unmistakeable traces of his Gone 1 origin, was received 
within the pale of Hinduism; and similar transformations, though 
at a more distant date, seem to have been undergone by the 
royal dynasties of Bustar, Mundla, and various smaller princi- 
palities. This tendency to claim connection with Rajpoots is 
not peculiar to ambitious Gonds : it prevails among the Bhils 
of Malwa, and is not unknown to the wandering Keikadis of 
the Dakhan, both of whom boast of being Yadawas, or Powars, 
or some other equally high born section of the Kshatriyas. On 
the other hand, there was a temptation in the days of Aurangzib, 
when Mahomedanism was rampant, to adopt that religion. In 
comparison with the Bhils, however, few of the Gonds actually 
made the change. The only instance that has come to my 
knowledge is that of Bakht Buland, the Rajah of Dewagad, who 
was converted to Islam when on a visit to Aurangzib at Delhi. 
Still his descendants, though adhering to this change of creed, 
have not ceased to marry into Gond families ; and hence the pre- 
sent representative of that regal house is not only acknowledged 
by the whole race about Nagpore as their head and judge, but 
is physically regarded a pure Raj Gond. 

The Padal, also named Pathddi, Pardhan, and Desai, is a 
numerous cla&s found in the same localities as the Raj Gonds, 
to whom its members act as religious counsellors (Pradhana). 

They are, in fact, the bhats of the upper classes, repeating their 
genealogies and the exploits of their ancestors, explaining their 
religious system, and assisting at festivals, on which occasions 
they play on two sorts of stringed instruments, named Kingri 
and Jantur (yantra). For their services they receive presents 
of cows or bullocks, cloth, food, and money. The birth or 
death either of a cat or dog in their family denies them ; and 
from this uncleanness they cannot be free till they have shaved 
off their moustache, purchased new household vessels, and 
regaled their caste fellows with a plentiful allowance of arrack. 
These have assumed the name of Raj Pardhans, to distinguish 
themselves from a subdivision of the same class, which is 
degraded to the rank of a half-caste; consisting of those who in 
the vicinity of Nagpore speak Marathi, play on wind instruments 
of brass, and spin cotton-thread, like the outcast Hindus. 

The Dholis are so styled from the kind of drum (dhola) which 
they are in the habit of beating. They also play on a kind of 
wooden clarionet, named Surnai ; and at marriages, where they 
exercise their musical powers, they prompt the women when 
they hesitate in their songs. The Nag&rchis are a subdivision 
of this class, whose instrument is the kettle-drum (nakara). 
These are also known by the name of Chherkya in the more 
jungly districts , where they are employed as goatherds. The 
wivee of both Dholis and Nagarchis act the part of accoucheurs 
in Hindu as well as Gond families. 

The Ojhyal follow two occupatr -that of bards, as their 
name implies, and that of fowlers. "'le two classes to be 

next mentioned, they lead a wandering life; and in the villages 
which they pass through, they sing from house to house the 
praises of their heroes, dancing with castanets in their hands, 
bells at their ankles, and long feathers of jungle birds in their 
turbans. They sell live quails, the skins of a species of Buceros, 
named Dhanchidiya, which are used for making caps, and for 
hanging up in houses in order to secure wealth (dhan) and good 
luck, and the thigh bones of the same bird, which fastened around 
the waists of children, are deemed an infallible preservative 
against the assaults of devils and other such calamities. Their 
wives tattoo the arms of Hindu women. Of this class there 
is a subdivision, who are called M&na Ojhyal. Laying claim 
to unusual sanctity, they refuse to eat with any one Gond, 
Rajpoot, or even Brahmin, and devote themselves to the manu- 
facture of rings and bells, which are in request among their own 
race, and even Lingas and Naudis, which they sell to all ranks 
of the Hindu community. Their wives are distinguished by 

weanr.g the cloth of the upper part of the body over their 
rigbt shoulder, whereas those of the common Ojhyal, and of all 
(he other Gonds, wear it on their left. 

The Thotyal, i. e. the maimed, or inferior class, are also 
known by the more honorable appellation of Pendabarya, or 
minstrels of God. Their songs are in honor of their deities; 
but the divinity whose service they find most profitable is the 
Goddess of small-pox the power of Mata being equally dreaded 
by Hindus and Gonds. Hence they are frequently called 
Matyal, though among Hindus they wish rather to be styled 
Thakurs. They may be seen travelling about with a kawad 
over their shoulder, from one end of which is suspended a 
bambu box, containing an image of their favourite goddess, and 
from the other a basket, designed to be the receptacle of grain 
and other gifts. A tambourine (daph) is their usual musical 
instrument. To their sacred occupation they add the trade of 
basket-making; while their woman acquire a knowledge of 
simples, and practise the art of physic in rural districts. 

The Koilabhutal are the third class of itinerants. Their oc- 
cupation, however, is neither of a religious nor secular kind, 
but consisls in making a profit of vice. Their women are danc- 
irg girls, in both senses of the word. They follo~,v their 
profession chiefly among the Hindus, it being reckoned disreput- 
able by the people of their own race. The Bhimd, not in- 
cluded in our list, are found in the north-east of the Bundara 
District. Though they resemble the Koilabhutal in their habit 
of dancing in the villages through which they pass, they are 
believed to abstain from their open depravity. 

Unlike the three preceding, the Koikopal are a settled class, 
devoted entirely to the employment of cow-keeping Kopal 
being the Gondi corruption of Go pal. They have the epithet 
of Eoi., i. e. Gondi, prefixed to distinguish them from other 
Ahirs living in the province of Nagpore, of whom three sub- 
divisions, the Kanojiya Gwalwanshi, and Malh&, speak 6 Hindi, 
while the Dudh Gowars use Marathi. 

Of the remaining two classes on the list, viz. the Madyas 
and Kolums. some account shall now be given. 

The name of the M&dya subdivision of Gonds* seems to be 
derived from Mara, the Gondi term for a tree. In Bustar they 
are also called Jhorias, probably from Jhodi, a brook. Every- 

*Inhabitants of Soonchoor Talook generally Goads, with a few Holier*. Most of the 
GioncU, i. . Madias, subsist on roots and flower of Mhoira dried in iun, of which latter 


where they are wilder than the Gonds commonly so called; 
but on the Bella Dila Hills, which run south-east parallel to 
the Godavery, and where they are known by the name of 
Madians, they are perfectly savage. 

On the east of Chanda District the men wear no covering 
for their head or for the upper part of their bodies, and con- 
stantly go about with a battleaxe in their hands. The women 
deck themselves with 30 or 40 strings of beads, to which sorre 
add a necklace of pendant bells. Bangles of zinc adorn their 
wrists, and a chain of the same metal is suspended from the 
hair, and attached to a large boss stuck in the ear. But the 
greatest peculiarity connected with their costume, is the practice, 
which prevails in the more remote districts, of the women wear- 
ing no clothes at all ; instead of which they fasten, with a string 
passing round their waists, a bunch of leafy twigs to cover theai 
before and behind. The Rev. Mr. De Rodt says that this 
practice was reported to exist south of the K61 country ,f which 
he visited about 1840 or 1841. His allusion may refer to 
Juangas, who fell under the personal notice of Mr. Sam .;ella 
in 1854. This custom was observed by Mr. Samuells to exist 
also in Orissa, In his notes on them in the Bengal Asiatic 
Journal, Volume XXV., page 295, Mr. Samuells states the some- 
what interesting fact, that the practice is traced up, to the com- 
mand cf one of their deities when reproving the women for 
their pride. A similar custom is said to obtain among the 
Chenchawas that inhabit the jungles between the Madians and 
Masulipatam ; and it did exist till about 30 years ago among the 
Holiers in the vicinity of Mdngalur. 

In their villages bothies for bachelors are universal. Every- 
where they are extremely shy in their intercourse with stangers : 
but on the Beil& DM Hills they flee at the approach of 
any native not of their own tribe. Their tribute to the Raja 
of Bustar, which is paid in kind, is collected once a year by an 
officer who beats a tom-tom outside the village, and forthwith 
hides himself, whereupon the inhabitants bring out whatever 

eat 4 seers for every seer of rice. All armed with bows and arrows, and good marksmen. 
Gonds and Holiers live long about Soonchoor. Even Avhen old they cut wood, make mats, 
and build houses. Tuke. 

A thief is beaten out, according to Tuke. The Gonds are honest among themselve* (see 
Macpherson). Dr. Walker's fugitives robbed. 

In Ruga and Chikhilnada Talook chiefly Gonds. 

Dr. Walker's men said : Near Buster town dress of Gonds simply a bit of cloth 1| cubits 
long, and 7 or 8 inches broad, called in Hidustani a ' langoti ;" their heads and bodies bare ; 
food rice, and dal of green gram. Coarse cloth brought by Mussulman merchants from 
Madras and Nagpore to Marunkah, where blind Bhopal Deo lived. 

t The Bhils have bows with bambu string, like Madias. Tod, p. 34. 


they have to give, and deposit it on an appointed spot. 

Religion. They have one great festival in the jungle?, at the 
beginning of the monsoon, before they sow their crops, for 
which a priest (Seadi Manji) goes round and collects contri- 
butions. The ceremony consists in setting up stones in a row, 
to represent their gods, daubing them with vermilion, and 
presenting the accustomed offerings. On gathering in their 
crops, they have a day of rejoicing in their respective abodes. 

Birth. The separation of a mother lasts for a month, during 
which no one touches her, and unless there are grown-up daugh- 
ters, she is obliged to cook for herself. 

Marriage. On the east of Chanda District the chief part 
of the nuptial ceremonies is confined to one day. In the morn- 
ing, about 7, a bower having been erected near the bridegroom's 
house, the two young people are led into it and made to stand 
up together, when a vessel of water is dashed upon their heads 
from above. They then put on dry clothes, and sit down in the 
midst of their friends, who lay on their heads some grains of 
rice. The marriage is completed by an exhortation from the 
parents. On the east of Arpeili Zemindary, which is farther 
south, the ceremony commences in the morning by setting up 
at the door of the cow-house a row of carefully washed stones, 
with one in the middle, to represent the "great god." Round 
all a thread is passed, and each is honoured with a black mark, 
made with a mixture of charcoal and oil. A brass drinking 
vessel is placed in front of the chief deity, into which each 
married woman drops four cowries, which become the property of 
the principal man of the village. They then present their offer- 
ings, burn incense, and sprinkle water three times before their 
gods, whereupon they retire to the house for refreshments. 
At noon the nuptials are solemnized, commencing with the pour- 
ing of water on the heads of the young people as before. Their 
clothes being changed, and the bridegroom having received from 
the head man a dagger, which he is to hold during the remain- 
der of the ceremony, he and his partner are both seated at the 
door with the corners of their garments knotted together; and 
a white mark having been applied to the forehead of each, 
water in which saffron and lime have been mixed, so as to form 
a red liquid, is carried round them thrice, as an honorary gift, 
and thrown away. The elder people are seated near, and music 
and dancing are kept up for two or three hours among the un- 
married youth of both sexes. In the evening, at the sound of 
the tom-tom, the people again assemble, and similar rites are 
repeated, as also on three occasions the following day. With 



the customs in the wildest parts of the country I am not 

Death. When a Madid dies, the relatives kill and offer be- 
fore his corpse a fowl. They then place the body on a bambu 
mat, and four young men lift it on their shoulders. All the 
neighbours, calling to mind their own deceased fathers, pour out, 
on the ground, a handful of rice in their honor; then turning to 
the corpse, they put a little on it, remarking that the recently 
departed had now become a god, and adjure him, if death had 
come by God's will to accuse no one, but if it had been caused 
by sorcery to point out the guilty party. Sometimes, it is said, 
there is such a pressure exerted on the shoulders of the bearers, 
that they are pushed forward and guided to a particular house. 
The inmate is not seized at once; but if three times the 
corpse, after being taken some distance back, returns in the 
same direction, and indicates the same individual, he is appre- 
hended and expelled from the village. Frequently, also, his 
house shares the same fate. The body is then carried to a tree, 
to which it is tied upright and burned amid the wailing of the 
spectators. Funeral rites are performed a year or eighteen 
months after the cremation, when a flag is tied to the tree where 
it took place. After sacrificing a fowl the friends return and 
eat, drink, and dance at the expense of the deceased man's 
family for one or more days, according to their ability. The 
dancing is performed by men and women in opposite rows, alter- 
nately approaching to, and receding from, each other. On occa- 
sion of these funeral festivities it is reckoned no sin for a virgin to 
be guilty of fornication, though such conduct is strictly forbid- 
den at other times ; and unfaithfulness in a wife is punished by 
the husband with death. 

Names of men : Bursu, Kutmanji, Mahingu, Newara, Tiya, 
and Warlu. Women: Ledi, Mahingi, Masi, Semi, and Tomi. 

The Kol&ms extend all along the Kandi Kondd or Pindi Hills, 
on the south of the Wurda River, and along the table-land 
stretching east and north of Manikgad, and thence south to 
Dantanpalli, running parallel to the western bank of the Pranhita, 
The Kol&ms and the common Gonds do not intermarry, but 
they are present at each others nuptials, and eat from each others 
hands* Their dress is similar; but the Kolam women wear 
fewer ornaments, being generally content with a few black beads 
of glass round their neck. Among their deities, which are the 
usual objects of Gond adoration, Bhimsen is chiefly honoured. 
In the celebration of their marriages they follow a custom^ which 


prevails also among the Khonds, as it does among the tribes 
of the Caucasus, and did among not a few of the ancient 
European nations.* I mean the practice of carrying off a bride 
apparently by force. When a young man desires to enter on 
the connubial state, two or three friends of the family, having heard 
of a suitable partner in the neighbourhood, and most probably 
having come to a good understanding with her relations, proceed 
thither on their errand of abduction. The men in the village, 
who see what is going on, do not interfere, and the opposition 
of the matrons is easily overcome. The nuptials are celebrated 
at the bridegroom's house ; after which he and his bride pay a 
visit to the family of the latter, and the friendship, which had 
seemingly been interrupted, is formally re-established. 

This completes the account of the twelve tribes, as specified 
in the earlier part of this Essay. 

The following are further particulars regarding the Gond 
nation generally : 

Personal appearance.^ They are about the middle size of 
natives, with features rather ugly, though among those living in 
Hindu villages I have seen a considerable approximation to the 
Hindu type of countenance. They have been said to possess 
curly hair: but this is a mistake. 

Dres*. The men seldom wear more than a piece of cloth 
around their waists (dhoti) and a small kerchief about their 
heads. The more civilized, in addition, throw a loose cloth 
(dngwastra) over the upper part of their body. The women, 
besides a lower garment, which is tucked up so as to expose 
their thighs and legs, wear a sadi (cloth), which passes like 
a broad sash over the back, and is somewhat more spread out 
in front upon the chest. The men are fond of silver or brass 
chains round their ears and a narrow bangle at their wrists. 
The women tie up their hair into a knot behind, which in the 
Bundara District they adorn with a profusion of red thread. 
Their ears above and below are decked with a variety of 
rings and pendants h chains of silver are suspended from their 
necks; big brass bangles, named sinum, enclose their wrists; 
and the backs of their thighs and legs are tattooed down to 
their ancles,! on which they wear plated ornaments (kharging). 

* A dance among the Benuas, during which the bride-elect darts off into the forest, and 
requires to be captured by the bridegroom, Nicol. Art. Khonds. Calcutta Review, p. 31., Vol. V. 

f See description of Physique of Khonds Calcutta Review, p. 41, Vol. V ; intellectual, 
p.p. 42-30, Vol. V. 

Their cloths can't go with them to heaven ; but the marks are the only thing that 
does. Tho Ojha and Thota women only tattoo when about 20 years of age, before or after 
marriage. First make the forms with juice of Biwali and lamp black with four needles. The 
forms of the tattoo are a peacock, an antelope, and a dagger. The mark is done on the back 
of the thighs and legs : the operation is painful, and the patient requires to be held down. 
The hair sometimes naturally curls ; but so does that of Hindoos, European*, ifec. 


Food. They make two meals a day: their breakfast, consist- 
ii; ;.' Aioe-rally of gruel, and their supper of some boiled coarse 
grain, with pulse and vegetables. Occasionally thia routine is 
varied, when the chase or a religious festival has provided them 
with the flesh of dear,, hog, goat, or fowls.* 

Social position. In the plains, where they are mingled with 
Hindus, the Gonds take rank above Mahars and other outcasts. 
In this honor they are partly indebted to the political influence 
which some of their race have retained up to the present day. 
Indignity cannot be heaped on those whose kindred are known 
to be at no great distance the owners of property on which 
even respectable Hindus are content to live.t But it must 
be confessed that the G-onds have acquired their honorable 
position, in a considerable degree, by yielding to the prejudices 
of the Hindus. Though their own principles admit of the 
slaughter of cows, yet, in deference to the feelings of their 
more powerful neighbours, they abstain from the practice, and, 
if I mistake not, do not partake of the carrion, which Mahars 
are ready to devour. In many cases the wish to stand well 
with tl,^ followers of tho dominant faith has led them in a 
great- measure to embrace it and surrender their own; and 
some of their Thakiirs or Zemindars, or, as they are sometimes 
called, Rajas, have used their utmost endeavours to be recog- 
nised as Kshatryas, by contracting marriages with needy bUj- 
put brides. J The family at Kheiragad has succeeded in this 
attempt On the other hand, there was a temptation in the 
days of Auran^zib, when Mahomsdanism was ra-npant, to 
adopt that religion; and we find that this change- was actually 
made by Bakht -Buland, the ancestor of the Raja of Dewagad. 
Still the present representative of that regal house, though 
adhering to the change of creed, has not ceased to mirry into 
Gond families and hence is acknowledged by the whole race 
about Magpore as their head and judge, and is, physically, a pure 
Raj Gumd. In their hill retreats the Gonds are left to their own 
standard of respectability; but whan they have there another 

* At NTajpare wom3a at U. a.m. eifc millet, braad, aid dil. Men eat at noon when released 
from work, and sup at 9.j p.m. on vegatables. Husband and wife don't dine together. 
At Kamptee same hours, only early part gruel, made of rice flour boiled in much water. At 
night they eat rice and pulse. 

>m. .\fter death of father family remxin together, or if the sons wish to 
eparate they divide the property equally. They may give their sisters some ornaments or 
oicxth, bat ths latter have no share. 

$ TV- tendency of the Gond fUjas to claim connection with llajpuis. Chohan Bhils Tod, 
p. 34 ; and even Koorooa Dr. Rilfour. ID Aurangzib's time we find these Gond Princes 
in Muudilla, Deo ;hur, and (Jharida ; and, acgordiug to .K-vfee Khan, the tribute in .cash, jewels, 
and elephants taken .from the tw.o latter WAS very great. Je-akitta, p. 41. 


jungle race living among them, as on the range of hills north 
of Ellichpoor, they generally are the patels, or head men of 
their villages; and their neighbours occupy an inferior position. 

Houses and Villages.* When residing in the midst of a 
Hindu population, the Gonds inhabit mud houses, like the in- 
ferior sort common in the Dakhan. But in the jungles the 
houses are of wattle and daub, with thatched roofs. The internal 
arrangements are of the simplest kind, comprising two apart- 
ments, separated from each other by a row of tall baskets, in 
which they store up their grain. Adjoining the house is a 
shed for buffaloes; and both house and shed are protected 
from wild beasts bv a bambu fence. The villages are situated 

* O 

on table-lands, or on slight elevations above the general 
level of the country, and they seldom number more than 10 
houses, and more frequently contain only 3 or 4. But, however 
small the village may be, one house in it is sure to be the abode 
of a distiller of arrack. 

Occupations. In the immediate vicinity of the city of Nag- 
pore, and of all British stations throughout the province, the 
Gonds have entered into the service of Europeans as grass- 
cutters. In rural districts they are employed as assistants in 
farm labor by Hindu cultivators, or sometimes plough a few 
fields for themselves in the usual way. In the jungles, as we 
have seen, they dispense with the plough, and adopt the nomadic 
system of tillage. In places of mixed population, some of 
their women add to their husband's gains by tattooing the 
forehead and arms of Hindu females. In their own wilds the 
men increase the means of their family's subsistence by hunt- 
ing, in which their chief reliance is on their matchlocks, 
though in some of the more remote parts they kill their game 
with arrows, which most shoot in the common mode, but others 
in a sitting posture, their feet bending the bow, and both hands 
pulling the string. When they go out on such expeditions, 
and frequently at other times, they carry a small axe and knife 
for lopping off the branches that might obstruct their path. 

Religion. Though the Gond pantheon includes somewhere 

^ * Khond houses are of boards plastered inside ; thatched ; in two rows, Calcutta 
Review, Vol. V., p. 46. At Hutta, in the Buadara District, the Gond houses are of bambu 
tatti, daubed with mud ; thatched ; with veranda ; 2 doors, one front and the other behind 
no windows ; divided by tatti or by baskets of grain larger half with door, in which they 
cook and eat ; other dark, in which they keep goods, vessels, &c. Around single houaea 
in a compound. But in the jungle houses are in two rows, with compound behind. They 
keep ows, sows, buffaloes, fowls, but no horses, except those who are rich, (2ows are 
yoked to the plough, where the plough is used. 


about fifteen gods, yet I have never obtained from one individual 
the names of more than seven deities. These were Badu 
Dewa (the great god), who in other districts is called Budhal. 
Pen (the old god), Matiya (devil or whirlwind), Sale, Gangara 
(little bells), or more properly Gagara, Palo, Gadawa, and 
Kham; or, as enumerated by another, Badu, Matiya, Salei, 
Gangaro Mai, Palo, Chawar, and Rank. The above lists were 
furnished to me by worshippers of seven gods near the Maha- 
deva Hills. To the "great" god, common to all the sects, the 
adherents of these deities jom Kuriya, and Katharpar. Besides 
these, 1 have heard at various times the names of Kodo Pen, 
Pharsi Pen, and Bangaram; and the Rev. J. Phillips, who 
visited the Gonds at Amarkantak, mentions Hardal as the 
principal object of veneration there.* 

What are the characters or offices of these deities, whose 
very names are so imperfectly known by their worshippers, it 
is vain to inquire from any Native authority. I have been left 
therefore merely to conjecture, and would wish my remarks 
on the subject to be received simply as suggestions. It ap- 
pears to me that Budhal Pen is the same as Bura Pen,f the 
chief god among the Khonds. Perhaps Hardal may be the 
synonym near the source of the Narbadda. Matiya| I would 
suppose is a name for the god of small-pox, who is also one oi 
the Khond divinities, and may be identical with Bangaram, 
afterwards to be mentioned. Sale may probably be the god 
who presides over cattle-pens (Salo). Kuriya may denote the 
deity who takes care of the tribe (Kul), or, as it is frequently 
mispronounced, (Kur). Kattarpar may correspond with the 
Katti Pen of the Khonds, i. e. the god of ravines. Kodo 
Pen is considered by the Kev. J. G. Driberg, in his " Report 
on the Narbadda Mission, 1849," to preside over a village, and 

* Jungoo (war or wild). Royata is also given, to whom they pray on eighth day of 
the Busara ; make a circle of a pusti, and in middle fill jaggery, and make with their hand* 
rays like the Sun's, and so make a half moon with Bhumuk, and fry both in oil. 

t Sun god and Moon god. Calcutta Review, Vol. V., p. 55. The Bhumuk of the 
Dewalwada said his gods were Bhimsen and Matadewa, who, he said, was same as Sun. 
Boorapenuee, god of light, Supreme in other districts. Bellapennee, Sun god. Church 
Mission Intelligencer. 

According to Lieut. Hill, the great sacrifices among Khonds take place at full moon of 
Pooshum and Maghum. 

At Dali 3 times : on 8th of Dusara, when new rice comes ; 9th of Cheitum, when Mhewa 
flowers ; in Jhiet, before rice sowing. 

Among Khonds, to Pattooripennee a hog is sacrificed before sowing. 

Boorapennee among ditto is worshipped at rice harvest. 

Hill god (Soropennee), i. e. Durgudeo. Calcutta Review, Vol. V., p. 57. 

Bura Pen is worshipped once a year, at rice harvest ; the worship lasts 5 days : a hog 

$ Mdtiya is not known by the three Gond women belonging to Nagpore whom I ques- 
tioned, but is considered by Pah-ad Singh and Gadi Rawaji to mean a devil. Jt is the 
name given to a whirlwind, against which Hindus lift up their shoe and utter threateniags. 

would thus be the counterpart of the Nadzu* Pen of the 
Khonds. But may it not signify rather the god who is believed 
to bless crops of grain, of which Kpdo (paspulum frumenta- 
ceum) among Gonds is one of the chief ? The name of Pharsi 
Pen, who is represented by a small iron spear-head, may possibly 
be formed from Barchi, which in Hindi denotes a spear, on 
which hypothesis this deity would be the equivalent of the 
Khond Lohaf Pen, the iron god, or god of war. 

In the south of Bundara District the traveller frequently 
meets with squared pieces of wood, each with a rude figure 
carved in front, set up somewhat close to each other. These 
represent Bangaram Bungaraf Bai, or Devi, who is said to 
have one sister and five brothers the sister being styled Dan- 
teshwari. a name of Kali, and four out of the five brothers being 
known as Gantaram, Champaram and Naikaram, and Potlinga. 
* These are all deemed to possess the power of sending disease 
and death upon men, and under these or different names seem 
to be generally feared in the region east of Nagpore City. I 
find the name of Bungara to occur among the Kols of Chybasa, 
where he is regarded as the god of fever, and is associated with 
Gohem, Chondu, Negra, and Dichali, who are considered, respec- 
tively, the gods of cholera, the itch, indigestion, and death. It 
has always appeared to me a question deserving more attention 
than it has yet received, how far the deities who preside over 
disease, or are held to be malevolent, are tp be looked on as belong- 
ing to the Hindus or aborigines. Kali in her terrible aspect is 
certainly much more worshipped in Gondwana and the forest 
tracts to the east and south of it, than in any other part of India. 
As the goddess of small-pox she has attributed to her the cha- 
racteristics of various aboriginal deities, and it is worthy of re- 
mark, that the parties who conduct the worship at her shrines, 
even on behalf of Hindus, may be either Gonds, fishermen, or 
members of certain other low castes. The sacrifices, too, in 
which she delights would well agree with the hypothesis of 
the aboriginal derivation of the main features of her character. 
At Chan da and Lanji in the province of Nagpore, there are 
temples dedicated to her honour, in which human victims have 
been offered almost within the memory of the present genera- 

* In worshipping Pidzu Pen and Bura Pen Khonds call on Bura'and Tari and the 
other gods. 

t Loha Pen, a piece of iron or an iron weapon is buried ; fowl, rice, and arrack are 
offered in grove. Village god, Nudzu Pen. Horatin Ko (Tic/cell, p. 800) are spirits of the 
forefathers of a newly married woman worshipped on the road, invoked in sickness. 

J Bungara, or ram, may be a deity named from Sontal and Ho, generic word for god. 
V. 12. There is a goddess named Pangara. See TicMl, IX., p.p. 799, 800. Bhungara- 
a tribe among the Waralis, 


tion. The victim was taken to the temple after sunset and 
shut up within its dismal walls. In the morning, when the 
door was opened, he was found dead, much to the glory of the 
great goddess, who had shown her power by coming during the 
night and sucking his blood. No doubt there must have been 
some of her servants hid in the fane, whose business it was to 
prepare for her the horrid banquet. At Dantewada in Bustar, 
situated about 60 miles south-west of Jagdalpur, near the junc- 
tion of the Sankani and Dankani, tributaries of the Indrawati 
in Bustar, there is a famous shrine of Kali, under the name of 
Danteshwari. Here many a human head has been presented 
on her altar. About 30 years ago, it is said that upwards of 25 
full-grown men were immolated on a single occasion by a late 
Raja of Bustar. Since then numerous complaints have reached 
the authorities at Nagpore of the practice having been continued, 
though it is to be hoped that, with the annexation of the 
country, it has entirely and for ever ceased. The same bloody 
rite in the worship of Kali, as we learn from Major MacPherson, 
prevailed among the immediate predecessors of the present hill 
Rajas of Orissa, including those of Boad, Gumsur, &c.* 

Whether Bhima,t who by Hindus is esteemed one of their 
greatest heroes, is to be regarded as borrowed from that nation, 
or lent to them, it is difficult to say. One thing is certain, that, 
under the name of Bhim Pen, or Bhimsen, his worship is 
spread over all parts of the country, from Berar to the extreme 
east of Bustar, and that not merely among the Hinduized 
aborigines, who have begun to honour Khandoba, Hanuman, 
Gunpati, &c., but among the rudest and most savage of the tribe. 
He is generally adored under the form of an unshapely stone 
covered with vermilion, or of two pieces of wood standing 
from 3 to 4 feet in length above the ground, like those set up 
in connection with Bangararn's worship. 

But, in addition to the deities generally acknowledged, there 
are inany others who receive reverence in particular local - 

* Regarding Manko, compare Indian Review ; where it is said that in Jeypur there is 
Maniksoro god of war ; but afterwards it is remarked that Hindu chiefs before any great 
enterprise used to propitiate goddess Maniksoro. 
Tooahmool are Meria-sacrificing G-onds. 

The Sontal Marucg Bura and his elder brother Maniko may be our Budhl, or Royata 
and his consort Manko. 

The chief Khond deity, Bura Pen, however, is obviously our Budhal Pen. 
f Bhiwasu is admitted to be chiefly a Gond deity, and to be named after Bhim the 
Panel u. About one coss south-west from Bajar Kurd (north of Parseuni) is a large idol of 
Bhiwasu, 8 feet high, formed into shape, with a dagger in one hand and a burchie (javelin) 
in the other. A Bhumuk is the Puja"ri ; and the people repair to worship on Tuesdays and 
Saturdays, offering hogs, he-goats, cocks, hens, cocoanuts. The Patel of Awareghat, who 
is a Mussulman, gives Rupees 2 ; and Hindoo cultivators give rice for an annual feast, which 
takes place at the commencement of the rains, when the Bhumuk takes a cow by force 
from, the Gowar, and offers it to Bhimsen in the presence of about 25 


ities. It is the custom of the Gonds to propitiate, for at least one 
year, the spirits of their departed friends, even though they have 
been men of no note. But when an individual has been in any 
way distinguished, if, for example, he has founded a village, or 
been its headman or priest, then he is treated as a god for years, 
or it may be generations, and a small shrine of earth (Thapana, 
or, more properly, Sth&pana ), is erected to his memory, at which 
sacrifices are annually offered. 

It has been stated that the Gonds have no idols. It is true 
they have no images in their dwellings, but at the scene of their 
religious ceremonies in the jungle there are for the most part 
some objects set up, either iron rods, stones, pieces of wood, or 
little knobs of mud, to represent their deities. Among these, 
when there is a number together, the representation of the 
"great god" usually occupies the chief place. 

* Though one of their deities is styled the "great god," yet, if 
I may judge of the whole race by what I heard in one of their 
districts, they hold that this chief of their divinities is to be 
distinguished from the Invisible Creator and Preserver of the 
World, of whom my informant stated they had a distinct concep- 
tion, and to whom, in imitation of the Hindu agricultural po- 
pulation, they give the name of Bhagawan. According to this 
view their " great god" is only the first of their inferior gods, 
who are all looked on as a sort of media of communication in 
various departments between God and man, though, as is the 
case in every form of polytheism, the near, or visible inferior, 
receives more attention than the unseen Supreme. 

Worship. The Creator, as I was told by a Gond in the neigh- 
bourhood of the Mahadeva Hills, is occasionally adored in their 
houses by offering prayers, and by burning sugar (gul) and 
clarified butter in the fire. 

The public worship of these forest tribes seems to be con- 
nected with their crops. In places, where rice is produced, there 
are three great days, when they leave their villages, and proceed 
to worship under the shade of a Saj or Ein treo (Pentaptera 
t wentosa^, 1st, the day when rice begins to be sown; nd, 
when the new rice is ready; and 3rd, when the Mhowa tree 
comes into flower. The great festivals among the Bodos, of 
which there are four, appear, in like manner, to be associated 
with their crops. 

In the wilder villages, near the Mahadeva Hills, Kodo Pen, 
as we learn from Mr. Driberg, is worshiped at a small heap of 
stones by every new comer, through the oldest resident, with 
fowls, eggs, grain, and a Hew copper coins, N ) which become the 


property of the officiating priest. Bhimsen, who is there re- 
garded as the god of rain, has a festival of four or five days' 
duration held in his honour at the end of the monsoon, when 
two poles about 20 feet high, and 5 feet apart, are set up with 
a rope attached to the top, by means of which the boys of the 
village climb up and then slide down the pole. The same offer- 
ings are presented to this god as to Kodo Pen, with the excep- 
tion of the money. 

Ceremonies connected with Births. A woman remains apart 
for thirteen days after her delivery. On the fifth day after the 
occurrence of a birth, the female neighbours are feasted: on the 
twelth the male friends are similarly entertained: and on the 
thirteenth the purification is ended by giving a dinner to both 
parties. The child is named a month or two later.* 

Marriage. The expediency of a marriage is occasionally, 
determined by omens. A vessel is filled with water, into which 
is gently dropped a grain of rice or wheat, m the name of the 
respective parties, at opposite sides of the vessel.f If these ap- 
proach each other the union will be a happy one, and the mar- 
riage day is fixed. Another way of settling the question, is to 
consult some man with a reputation for sanctity, who sits and 
rolls his head til), he appears furious, when, under supposed in- 
spiration, he gives the ; answer. But frequently the matter is, 
determined by personal negociation between the fathers, who 
call in some neutral parties to name the sum that should be paid 
for the bride. This obligation is discharged on the day of the 
betrothal, along with a present of such things as are necessary 
for feasting the friends assembled at the bride's father's house on 
that occasion. On the day fixed for the commencement of the 
noarriage ceremonies the bridegroom and his father go to the 
father-in-law's house with presents, which contribute again to the 
entertainment of the guests. Next day an arbour is constructed 
at the bridegroom's house, to which the bride is taken, and 
a dinner is provided. The day following, the two young people, 
after running round the pole seven times, retire to the arbour and 
have their feet washed. Pice (j. e. copper coins) are waved round 
their heads, and given to the musicians, when the ceremonies 
are concluded by a feast. 

* Among Gonds of Kolit the child is named on 9th day; among the Hindus on 12th day. 

t This omen is resorted to among the Khonds to determine a child's name only it 
is if grain swim at a particular ancestor's name. Calcutta Review, p. 31, Vol. V. A few of 
every class 1 out of 1,000 become celebites, and are received among Gosains. 

They put turmeric and then ghee over whole body, and on a woman they put Kuku ( red 
powder) besides. 


Funeral n'te*.* The relatives of a deceased person are un- 
clean for a day. The ceremonial impurity is removed by bath- 
ing. Some time after the occurrence of a death a sort of low 
square mound is raised over the rernainsf of the deceased, at the 
corners of which are erected wooden posts, around which thread 
is wound, and a stone is set -up in the centre. Here offerings 1 
are presented, as in the jungle worship of their deities, of rice 
and other grains, eggs, fowls, or sheep. On one occasion, after 
the establishment of the Bhonsla (or Maratha) government in 
Gondwdna, a cow was sacrificed to the mants of a Gond; but 
this having come to the hearing of the authorities, the relatives 4 
were publicly whipped, and all were interdicted from such an act ; 
again. To persons of more than- usual reputation for sanctity, 
offerings continue to be presented annually for many years afrer 
their decease. In the district of Bundara large collections of 
.rude earthenware, in the shape of horses, may be seen, which 
have accumulated from year to year at the tombs of such men. 

Priesthood. % There is scarcely an institution among the Gonds 
that may properly be called priesthood ; marriage, and such like 
ceremonies being for the most part performed by some aged 
relative. There are, however, some men, who, from supposed 
superior powers, or in consequence of their hereditary connec- 
tion with a sacred spot, are held to be entitled to take the lead 
in worship. These men are named Bhumuks, Pujaris, &c 
About the Mahadeva Hills the higher Pardhans act as Pujaris, 
and the lower as rude musicians: the Koitars seeming to look 
down upon both offices as somewhat menial. But in other dis- 
tricts the last mentioned class appear rather to take the lead as 
holy men, and many of them make use of their supposed sacred 
character to impose on their simpler neighbours. They profess 
to be able to call tigers from the jungles, to seize them by tha 
ears, and control their voracity by whispering to them a com- 
mand not to come near their villages. Or they pretend to know 
a' particular kind f root, by burying which they can prevent 
the beasts of the forests from devouring men or cattle. With 
the same view, they lay on the pathway small models of bed- 
steads. &c.. which are believed to act as charms to stop their 
advance. They are supposed to have the power of detecting 

* They are burred at Kolitradrd naked, as unmarried Kooroos are burned naked, with fafte 
upwards, and leaf of llui (Calotropis yigantea) or Palas tree in the jungle, the head south, and 
the feet north. Sometimes they burn house of deceased and desert it. 

t <^t Umret they burn the dead, and after burning ashes erect chubutraa, and at coroeis 
place tall red stones. 

| Khond priests possessed of magical arts. Calcutta. Review, p. 59, Vol. V. 


oreery,* which is greatly dreaded, and, like the gipsies in this 
country, they are consulted by their more civilized neighbours 
on the fortunes of the future, which they read in the lines of 
their applicant's hand. At Mandanpur, about 100 miles north- 
west of the city of Nagpore, there is aGond,named Sonsei, who 
boasts of the possession of miraculous powers. He ani his 
sons are engaged in quarrying red ochre, the property of a Gond 
Kaui, who lives at Gandei, still farther to the north-west. Near 
his quarry he has erected a sacred mound to the manes of his 
father, who was similarly gifted ; and he uses the awe which 
attaches to this spot as a means of extorting money from the 
deluded Queen. Besides 5-l6ths of the proceeds of the quarry, 
which he receives for the labour of himself and family in work- 
ing it, he induces his superior to send him Rs. 10 (5) every 
two years, on the pretence that his deified ancestor in the neigh- 
bourhood is angry, has turned the ochre into material of very, 
indifferent quality, and will not be appeased until the sura named 
is spent in offerings. The sum is sent: a part of it is expended 
on fowls, a goat, hog, arrack, &c., which go to the entertain- 
ment of the cunning quarryrnan, and the remaining rupees go 
into his pocket. 

Names of males among the Gonds: Bh&du, Chin, Dhanu, 
Gonda, Jilu, Kokarra, Mahingu, Panda, Phaga, Liamman, Riga, 
Runa, Woja. 

Of females: Birjo, Buto, Jamo, Jango, Mahingi, Mirgo, Peto, 
Renu, Siikaro, Sonaki, Polai, and Tumki. 

Tribes connected with the Gondv. Badiyds and Bafwds. 

The Badiyas are found in the Chiridwara District, scattered 
from the town of that name to the Mahadeva Hills. They 
seem to be Gonds, who retain much of their original customs, 
but have conformed to the Hindus in language and some of 
their religious observances. They worship the gods ot tht-ir 
ancestors under the shadow of the Saj tree; but they have 
adopted the use of idols of stone and brass, which they keep 
in their houses, and carry out only on the recurrence of their 
festivals, which are the same as those of the Gonds. Except 
in rare cases, they burn the bodies of their deceased relatives, 
and throw the ashes into an adjoining river. They observe 

* Sorcery See also the Beigas of Phillips, though some reckon them simply a distinct 
race. The Ojhas are bird catchers and exorcists. Goj Raj omens compared with Khonds. 
Calcutta Review, p. 51 , Vol. V. Numbers of unfortunate persons fall victims to belief in 
witchcraft. T-Jce, p.p. 811 aud 807. (Ragapar), Diviner, Take, p.p. 802 and B03. Sickness be- 
lieved to come from supernatural course. Calcutta Review, Vol. V., p. 50. In Pondacole magi- 
cians are burned: three were so treated at Pipulpanka ill 1831-35. Calcutta Review, Vol. V., 
p 53. 

more of the Hindu feasts than is done by the great majority 
of the Gonds. 

The Halwds* form a pretty numerous body in the districts of 
Bundara and Raepore and the dependancy of Bustar. In 
these parts of the country they seem to occupy a position 
similar to that of the Badiyas to the north-west of them, though 
they have perhaps still more imitated the manners of the Hin- 
dus. They wish to hold a respectable place in their village, 
and eagerly covet the distinction of wearing a sacred thread 
over their shoulder. This privilege, till recently, was sold to 
those in Bustar by the Raja of that principality, and such may 
have been the beginning of the practice among those in the 
more civilized parts of the country. But even there they still 
retain the custom of offering worship to their deceased ances- 
tors, and presenting at their tombs the usual number of earthen- 
ware horses. 

Admitting the identity of their origin with that of the Gonds, 
among whom they at present dwell, it is difficult to explain 
the abandonment by these Badiyds and Halwas of their mother 
tongue. Their case, however, is not singular, for the Gonds of 
Amarkantak have also laid it aside, although it is generally 
spoken in the district to the west of them as far as Jubbulpore. 
But in this instance we can see the reason of the change. 
Lying in the highway between the plains of Chutteesgurh and 
Sohagpore, they have constant intercourse with the Hindu mer- 
chants, who pass by that route, and have thus come to be more 
familiar with their language than their own. 

Gditi Gonds. 

These call themselves also Koitars, and are as much Gonds 
in language and everything else as those who are known by no 
other name. Their chief peculiarity, which I have not found 
among common Gonds, though it may exist even among them, 
is to have in each village a separate tenement set apart for 
the occupancy of unmarried men during the night. This they 
call agotalghar (empty bed house) and answers to the dekha chung 
of the hill Cacharis and the N&gas, and to morang among Abors 
or Padans. In some villages there is a like provision made 
for the unmarried Gaiti women. Mr. Samuells, who has given 
us some interesting information regarding the Juangas of Orissa, 
doubts the report he had heard of similar establishments exist- 
ing among them\ but I have been assured by my friend 
Dr. Shortt, that he found them in the villages which he visited 

* HalwsCs won't kill bison ^r buffalo. In Soonchoor they are mixed with a preponderance 
of Gonds (Marreea). HalwjCs are mixed in Jeypur (Tuke) with Uriyai and Qoudi. 


in Keonjur. When the Gditis have returned in the evening 
from their work in the jungle, where they are very industrious 
in cultivation and cutting timber, all the families go to their 
respective houses for their supper; after which the young men 
retire to their common dwelling, where, around a blazing fire, 
they dance for an hour or two, each having a small drum 
suspended in front from his waist, which he beats as he moves 
about, while the young women sit at no great distance accom- 
panying the performance with a song. 

Religion. The worshippers of six deities could enumerate 
Budhal Pen, Saleng, Gdgaral, Rayetal, and Purjal : but those, 
who are devoted to seven, could not mention more than Kodiyd, 
Supri Dewa, Sakra Bai, and Dewa Dula, without having re- 
course to Hindu divinities. 

Their great festival seems to be after the ingathering of the rice 
harvest, when they proceed to a dense part of the jungle, which 
no woman is permitted to enter, and where, to represent the 
"great god," a pice has been hung up enclosed in a piece of 
bambu. Arrived at the spot, they take down the copper Budhal 
in his case, and selecting a small area about a foot square under 
a tree, to be cleaned, they lay on it the pice, before which they 
arrange as many small heaps or handsful of uncooked rice, as 
there are deities worshipped by them. The chickens brought 
for sacrifice are loosed and permitted to feed on the rice, after 
which they are killed and their blood sprinkled between the 
pice and the rice. Goats are also offered, and their blood pre- 
sented in the same manner, Until prohibited by the Hindus, 
sacrifices of cows were also common. On the blood, arrack is 
poured as a libation to their deities. The pice is now lifted 
and put in its bambu case, which is shut up with leaves, wrapt 
in grass, and returned to its place in the tree, to remain there till it 
is required on the following year. 

Names of males : Kanhu, Koksha, Kopa, Maharu, Pundi, and 

Of females : Gursi, Konji, Konsi, Mahri, Masi, Milo, Min- 
kii, Silo, and Tursa. 

Maria Gends. 

These are more civilized than the Marias. They form the 
bulk of the agricultural population in the north and centre of 
the Bustar dependancy. Beyond the east frontier, however, where 
they mix with the Khonds in Pdtna, Kharond, and Jeypur, they 
are somewhat wilder, and devoted to the chase. With their 


long hair tied in a knot behind, and their spare arrows hanging 
down from it by the barb between their shoulders, they pursue 
the deer of their forests, and at short distances (according to 
Lieutenant Hill) seldom miss in their aim. In these districts 
they are evidently immigrants, having come from the plains 
on the west, where they are separated from the Khonds by the 
physical character of the country, which would allow peculiari- 
ties of manner and language to spring up between the neigh- 
bouring tribes. Even now, however, the two are not much 
more distinct from each other, than are the Gaitis from the 
adjacent Marias. In Bustar the Moria villages generally con- 
tain individuals of a different race, as we find to be the case 
among the Khonds. And here we meet with the distillers 
of the Eastern Ghats, under the identical name of Sundis ; and the 
G&hindas of the s^me district are represented by the Gandas, 
who act as Kotwals and weavers for their villages. 

Religion I do not possess detailed information regarding 
the mythology of the Morias ; but from the names, Gagaru and 
Kodal, borne by their males, I would infer that they have some- 
what the same gods as are recognised in the vicinity of Nag- 
pore City. Major Charles Elliot states that their most common 
deities are the earth goddess, the hill god, and Bhim Pen. 
Of the first two there are no images in use: but a small hut, 
similar to those erected for the accommodation of the tiger 
god in the jungly districts of the Dakhan, is set apart for the 
people offering arrack and sacrifices in their honour. Before 
the two pieces of wood, representing the third, worship is 
regularly performed previous to the period of sowing. Of 
course, in every village, as in the other parts of the province, 
Bhawani comes in for her share of superstitious reverence 
unrfcr the two fjrms of the small-pox goddess, and Maoli or 
Daiiteahwari. the counterpart of the great Kali at Dantewada. 

Carriage. The marriage ceremony combines certain cus- 
toms that we have already nad to notice. As in the north- 
west of Chindwara, the expediency of a match is decided by 
what may be called the attraction omen. At the time ap- 
pointed for the union oil and saffron, which have been em- 
ployed in the worship of Bhim and the small-pox goddess, are 
brought from their shrines, and used to anoint the bride and 
bridegroom ; who are then attired in the usual coarse cloth of 
the country, and have a yellow thread tied round their wrist; 
water descends on their heads in the bower; their clothes are 
knotted together; and sometimes they run round the marriage 

24 - 

Names of males: Badal, Bukal, B^yal, Dhela, Dhodi, Dorge, 
Gagaru, Gedi, Higal, Judah'al, Kodal, Malal, Mulal, Milol, 
Musial, Odhi, Pichke, Samarr, Surka. Suval. 

Females: Gagari, Hinge, Judahi, Kodo, Kani, Sukali. 

J\aikude Gonds. 

These have more than any other section of their race con- 
formed to Hinduism. They inhabit the jungles on the north 
and south banks of the Pain Ganga, but especially abound in 
the tract between Digaras and Umarkhed. They are ioiuid 
about Aparawa Pet, and as far as Nirmul, from whence, inter- 
mingled with Hindus, they are scattered westward nearly to 
Bidar, Of all the subdivisions of the Gond race, with the 
exception of the Halwas and, perhaps, the Badiyas, they have 
the most been influenced by Hinduism. They dress like Hindus, 
and will not eat beef. Some partly support themselves by the 
produce of the chase, which provides them with the flesh of 
the antelope, elk, and wild hog, and partly by collecting honey 
wax, and lak for sale. The poorer classes earn a bare subsis- 
tence by cutting wood and grass. In the more considerable 
villages they cultivate land, and are employed by patels or 
headmen as sipahis. None of them have abandoned their 
aboriginal love for liquor. They are a terror to their neigh- 
bourhood by their depredations. 

Religion. Ancestor-worship forms an important part of 
their religion. They also acknowledge as deities Bhimsen and 
Rajuba, not to mention those dreaded by the Hindus as well 
as the forest tribes of their part of India, Waghoba, the 
tiger god, and Marai, the cholera goddess. In the month of 
Cheitra these Gonds go on a pilgrimage to Sasarkund, a pool 
in the Mahur jungle, in which the Pain Ganga is said to be 
engulphed. Here in a gorge there is a huge stone rising out 
of the ground and covered with vermilion, which goes by the 
name of Bhimsen. In front of this, Naikude Gonds mingle 
with Raj Gonds and Kolams in acts of adoration. The order 
of the religious service seems to be the following: at 5 p.m., 
having cooked a little rice, the worshippers place it before the 
god, and add a little sugar. They then besmear the "stone 
with vermilion, and burn resin as intense in its honour; after 
which all the parties .offer their victims, consisting of sheep, 
hogs, and fowls, with the usual libations of arrack. The god is 
now supposed to inspire the Pujari, who rolls about his head, 
leaps frantically round and round, and finally falls down in a 
trance, when he declares whether Bhimsen has accepted the ser- 
vice or not. At night all join in drinking, dancing, and beating 


their tom-toms. Early in the morning they partake of a meal 
and depart for their own houses. Those who are not able to 
go to the place of pilgrimage repair to the shade of a Mhowa 
tree, where they go through similar rites. Rajuba is wor- 
shipped in the month of Kartik, with ceremonies somewhat 
like the above. The tiger god is honoured with ajatra, or 
gathering, of two days at the village of Pipalgaum, south of 
Mahur, where Hindus, as well as Gonds, take part. On the 
5th day of Shrawun a feast, named Jambatas, is celebrated by 
the latter in their own dwellings; but to what god I am un- 
able to say. 

The services of a Brahmin are called in to name their 
children and to celebrate their marriages, which always take 
place before the parties have come to years of discretion. 
The influence of Hinduism is also seen in the prohibition 
against the remarriage of their widows. 

The dead are either burned or buried. The relatives are 
unclean for two days. On the third day, the manes are wor- 
shipped in the usual Gond manner; and on every Saturday, 
and feast day thereafter, they are treated to incense and some 
of the family food. 

Names of males: Bheisi, Bhutiya, Gontiya, Gunaji, Jha- 
cliya, Manaji, Raji, Sambhu, Satwa, and Waghee. 

Females: Bhimi, Chimmi, Eiti, Gadin, Gangi, Housi, Jaggi, 
Mukhi, Nousi, Rukhma, Satai, and Yemnai. 

Aboriginal tribes separate from the Gonds. Kurs. 
"We come now to a race, in language at least, quite distinct 
from any that have engaged our attention, a race in that re- 
spect not allied to the Dravidian stock, but to the family 
which numbers among its members the K61 nation. With 
the name of this last mentioned nation, the word Kur, or Kal 
as it ought properly to be pronounced, is evidently identical, 
the u and o being frequently interchanged, as in Gond or Gund, 
Oriya or Uriya. The Kftrs are found on the Mahadeva Bills, 
and westward in the forests on the Tapti and Narbadda, until 
they come into contact with the Bhils. On the Mahadeva 
Hills, where they have been much influenced by the Hindus, 
they prefer the name of Muasi, the origin of which I have 
not been able to ascertain: unless it be that the word is 
derived from the Mhowa tree. Their food is of the most 
meagre kind. Though they have no objection to animal food, 
yet a considerable portion of their diet consists of a gruel 
made from the pounded kernels of mangoes and flowers of 
the Mhowa tree. 


Religion. The chief objects of their adoration are the sun 
and moon, rude representations of which they carve on wooden 
pillars** Aft3r reaping their crops, they sacrifice to Sultan 
8akada, whom they suppose to have been some king among 
them in former times. 

A feast is generally provided on the 4th or 5fch day after a 
birth, and without any further ceremony the father, in the 
course of a month or two, gives a name to his child. 

As among the Bodos, or, to quote a more illustrious example, 
like Jacob of old, a Kftr bridegroom, in the absence of the 
money demanded for his bride, comes under an obligation to 
serve his father-in-law for a certain number of years. The 
marriage ceremonial, which, like that of the Gonds, includes 
the tying of garments together and the running round a pole 
or Mhowa tree, concludes on the third day with a feast and 
dance ; during which the newly married pair are carried about 
for some time on the backs of two of the company. 

In some cases the dead are burned ; but, for the most part, 
they are interred with their head towards the south. Near 
their villages they have a place appointed for burials, where, 
after having offered a goat to the manes of the deceased, they 
set up a rude representation of him in wood about 2 feet above 
the ground. There worship continues to be paid for at least 
a year. 

Names of males: Bendu, Bongd, Dhokol, Nam, Sukali, 
Surprai, and Tutd. 

Females: Batro, Badam, Irma, Jaso, Manjibakan, Pundiya, 
and Rajani. 


In looking over the vocabularies, which I have collected 
from the dialects of the above tribes, I find that among the 
words used by the different subdivisions of the Gond race there 
is the utmost similarity, and that these, with the exception of 
the vocables of the Kolam and Naikude Gond dialects, agree 
more with the distant Tamil than the neighbouring Teloogoo 
type of Dravidian speech. The dialects excepted, while exhibit- 
ing proofs of the modifying influence of Teloogoo, retain enough 
of their original structure to show that they also were once 
more closely allied to the Tamil, in the additional list of words 
derived from a wandering tribe, naraed Keikadis, whose route 

* According to Mr. Bullock, wooden pillars, with horse, sun, and moon, set up before house 
of married people. Nahals a*-e not allowed music at their weddings, Nahals on north- east 
of Khandeish. 

The Scythian origin of Kurs and of Gonds might perhaps be inferred fron^Kodo Fen, and 
earthen horses, Trhich are offered instead of living sacrifice, Gondi don't use horiea or 
ponies much. 


lies more remote from the Tamil country, than from Telingana 
or Cdnada, I find evidence of the same fact. Thus the Keikadi 
name for "fire" narpu agrees exactly with the Tamil term for 
that element, but differs considerably from the Teloogoo, 
nippy,, and still more from the Canarese benki. 

As the language of the Kurs is found within the territory 
assigned to the Gonds, it has been supposed to be another of 
their dialects. This seems to be the opinion of two such emi- 
nent philologists as Dr. Latham, and Mr. Logan of Singapore, 
who, I fear, have been misled by a list of words furnished by 
the first and, certainly, one of the ablest geological observers 
that ever sojourned in India I mean Dr. Voysey. That list 
its compiler distinguished as Kur Gond. The vocabulary of 
the Kur language, which I have drawn up, demonstrates that 
there is no relation between it and the Gondi, but that there is 
a connection, amounting almost to identity, between it and the 
speech of the Kols.* 

For the affinities of the Kur and K61 tongues we must look 
in another direction than the south of India. They must be 
sought at the foot of the north-east Himalayas, and still more 
among the M6ns of Pegu, and the Benwas, described by Cap- 
tain Newbold, inhabiting the mountainous regions of the 
Malayan peninsula. Thus the word for "water" in the lan- 
guage of the Kiirs and K61s, da; among the Bodos, Cacharis, 
and Kukis in the north-east of India, is doi, di, tui; among the 
Karens and Mons in Burma, is ti and dat; and among the 
Benwas of Malacca, di. Again, the word for "eye" among 
the Kurs and Kols med or met i among the Kukis and 
Mikurs in north-eastern India, met and/fti&; among the Karens 
and Mons, me and mot; and among the Benwas, med. Time 
will not permit me to prosecute this investigation further, 
than to add that the first three numerals, which among the 
Kurs and Kols are mia bara, apia, are among the Mons, 
mue, ba, and pai. May we not conclude then, that while 
the stream of Dravidian population, as evidenced by the 
Brahuis in Beluchistan, entered India by the north-west, that 
of the K61 family seems to have found admission by the north- 
east; and as the one flowed south towards Cape Comorin, and 
the other in the same direction towards Cape Romania, a 
part cf each appears to have met and crossed in Central India. 

* Bhumiyas and Kiirs this becomes Kols on the east according to Bengali custom, 
Kooroos on the south. Among rude tribes names for whole tribe are seldom found. It is 
their neighbours that know them in their collective capacity. Todd in his Travels, page 32, 
thinks that the name Bhomia is assumed by Bhils in a spirit of boasting. Bhumijs that 
are among Kols speak Koli. As to the supposed aborigines of Bengal, see Bengal Asiatic 
Society's Journal, Vol. IX, p, 606. Bhoomijas are the exorcists. TicbeU, p. 709. 


From a letter from the Acting Principal Assistant 
Collector, to the Acting Collector ot U an jam, d*ted 
1st ultimo, "it appears that the weapons used by the 
Sowrahs are ina<ie by a particular caste called 
* Arisi Paidivallu. 1 Ornaments worn by Sow rah 
women are purchased in the fairs below the ghauts. 
They are chiefly ma ie of brass arid tin. They wear 
white and red beads on their necks. These 
breads are purchased in the fairs below the ghaiun, 
and are worn both by males and females. 
They ao not make use of iron or brass vessels for 
cooking and other purposes. They uce common 
eartheu pots. Some of the Sowrahs buy cloihs 
in the fairs below. Cloths n>auufaoturned iu the 
hills are of a very coarse kind. A woman's cloth is 
generally 3 cubits long and 14 cubits broad. A 
man'? cloth is 6 Co 7 cubits in length aud half a 
cubit a breadth. Each costs about half a Rupee. 
In the hills, cloths are manufactured by the 
' Pauiies.' The faces of these cloths are made 
of red coloured cotton, Scwrahs make their own 
agricultural implements, such aa ploughs, yokes, &c. 
All these thiugs used by Sowrahs ('-he manager 
perhaps means specimens of them) will cost about 
6 Us. and they can b made into a package ad 
sent by steamer. Sowrahs burn their dead together 
with all the things that have been in their use, v>a , 
ornaments, weapons, cloths, &o., aud aftei Wards 
bury the ashes and the remains of the burnt weapons, 
&c. Over this burying place they raise a bouse 
which remains for about a year or 80. It id not 
known whether anything will be found if any of the 
old burial places are now opened. Even- if anything 
were to he found, it wil 1 be quite out of shape, as it 
will have undergone the process of being first burnt 
aud then buried in the earth for a long time. 
8owrahs also wear brass and other kinds of rings in 
the ears ; their women wear brass * Kodiyahi,' 
* A.ridelu,' &o., on the legs and brass bracelets on 
the arms. All these will be about 4 Rupees and 12 
Annas iu value." 


Note by the Editor. 

THE following Vocabulary of the unwritten dialects of the 
aboriginal tribes is in all essential particulars the same as that 
left by Mr. Hislop, but has been re-arranged for this publica- 
tion. In his manuscript, the alphabetical order of the words 
was not followed, though doubtless this would have been done 
had he lived to complete his work. He classified the English 
words according to subjects, beginning with nouns, which sup- 
plied the names of the primary objects of observation; such as 
the elements, the prominent features in the face of Nature, the 
minerals, and so on; then the relations in the human com- 
munity, the members of the human body, the brute creation, 
the vegetable world. Next came numerals and adverbs. Then 
came a fairly large selection of adjectives, and, lastly, of verbs. 

The English words having been thus classified, the design 
was to ascertain and record in the Roman character the 
equivalents in eleven unwritten dialects, namely Gondi, 
Gayeti, Rutluk, Naikude, Kolami Madi or Maria, Madia, Kuri or 
Muasi, Keikadi, Bhatrain, and Paija. Also in juxtaposition 
were to be entered the equivalents in the Teloogoo and Tamil 
languages. It will have been seen from the Essay that Mr. 
Hislop considered that seme affinity was discernible between 
some of these aboriginal dialects and the Tamil. 

But this classification by subjects, however convenient for 
the rough draft of a vocabulaiy, in which the words would be 
entered as they were ascertained from these wild people in the 
sequence of ideas, would not be suited ior publication, when 
the object is to facilitate reference. It has, therefore, been 
necessary to re-arrange all the words strictly in alphabetical 

In several parts of the manuscript Vocabulary, there are 
breaks and blanks where the work was left unfinished. And 
for the verbs, the equivalents are only given in the Kuri or 
Mudsi, and not at all in the Ciondi and the other dialects. 
All the breaks and blanks in the Gondi have been filled up 
from information obtained at Nagpore, ^hieh can probably 
be relied on. But it has not been possible to suppty satisfac- 
torily the deficiencies in the other dialects. This much, there- 
fore, is unavoidably left wimting. 

The Vocabulary thus made up comprises some 362 words. 
Though perhaps tolerably full for an unwritten dialect, it 

probably does not cotitain all the words actually '.n use, or 
otherwise ascertainable. Indeed there are other and addi- 
tional words used by, or known to, the Goncs of Nagpore. 
These have been recorded; but they have not been inserted 
in this Vocabulary, as it seemed better not to enlarge Mr. 
Hislop's plan, but to leave it in its originality as much as 

The Teloogoo and Tamil words have also been entered as 
given by Mr. Hislop. Several of the coincidences with the 
Tamil will be found to be interesting and important. In addi- 
tion to what is said on this point in Mr. Hislop's Essay, 
I would adduce the following passage from Cie preface to II. H, 
Wilson's Sanskrit Grammar : 

'In the south of India cultivated languages of local origin 
are met with, largely supplied with words which are not of 
Sanskrit origin. There, however, as in the north, the intro- 
duction of Sanskrit was the precursor of civilization, and 
deeply impressed it with its own peculiarities. The spoken 
languages were cultivated in imitation and rivalry, and but 
partially aspired to an independent literature. The principal 
compositions in Teloogoo, Tamil, Oanara, and Malayalam, are 
translations or paraphrases from Sanskrit works." 

In this passage, Teloogoo and Tamil are clearly recognised 
as aboriginal languages. 

In this Vocabulary, also, many words appeared to be bor- 
rowed from the Sanskrit, and where this is seemingly the case, 
I have noted it in the column of remarks. 

Some words, also, now naturalized in the Gondi, such as the 
names of the superior sorts of weapons, are taken from the 
Hindoostanee, and were probably learnt by the Gonds from 
the Mahomedans. 

Among Mr. Hislop's papers was found a printed copy of 
the narrative of a second visit to the Gonds of the Nerbudda 
territory by the Rev. J. G. Ltnberg and the Rev. H. J. 
Harrison m 1849, to which was appended a grammar 
vocabulary of their language. Doubtless Mr. Hislop in- 
tended to compare, or may have actually compared, that voca- 
bulary with his manuscripts. But there is no record of such 
comparison to be found. The comparison has now been made, 
and may possess some interest, inasmuch as the Gonds whom 
Mr. Driberg met were those inhabiting the outskirts of the 
Nerbudda Valley to the north of, or on the northern face of 
the Sautpoora, or Puchmurree, or Mahadeva hills; whereas 
the Gonds* whom Mr. Htslop met were those dwelling to the 


south of the range, and separated by mountain barriers from 
their northern brethren. Some words given in one vocabulary 
are not found in the other, and vice versd ; but, on the whole, 
that by Mr. Hislop is much the more complete and copious of 
the two. In many instances there is full agreement; in some, 
partial resemblance ; ancTin some, difference. In every instance 
I have noted the result of the comparison in the column of 

In reference to the short grammar given by Mr. Driberg, it 
may be added that Mr. Hislop does not appear to have com- 
menced the preparation of any grammar, though doubtless he 
would have done so had he survived. 

Also among Mr. Hislop's papers was found a printed copy 
of the transactions of the Bombay Geographical Society "of 
the year 1846, which contained an account of the Gonds of 
the Gawil hills on the north of Berar, by Assistant Surgeon 
Bradley, then of the Nizam's Infantry. To this account was 
appended a vocabulary of the dialect of the tribes inhabiting 
those hills. This, no doubt, was intended by Mr. Hislop for 

Eurposes of comparison, though no record of such has been 
sft. I find, however, on comparison that the words do not 
generally agree with the Gondi properly so called, nor with 
the Gondi words as given by Mr. Hislop and Mr. Driberg. 
But they do agree to a considerable extent with the Kuri or 
Muasi words as given by Mr. Hislop, and with the words 
given by other authorities, as spoken by the Koorkus, and by 
the tribes inhabiting the hills to the south of Hoshungabad. 

The result of this latter comparison has not been given in 
the column of remarks in the Hilsop Vocabulary now under 
consideration ; but has been treated of in another part of this 

R. T. 

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borrowed from the Hindi. 

In Sanskrit, Surya. 
The Gondi term corresponds 
with that given in Mr. 
Driberg'a vocabulary. 

2} 111 - ** 

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Note by Editor on the following Supplement to the Hislop 
Vocabulary, as respects the Gondi dialect only. 

MR. Hislop's Vocabulary is so far comprehensive, that 
perhaps it may be well to make it as complete as possible, 
according to the means available at Nagpore. The following 
list of English words is given, which appear to be useful, 
although they did not enter into Mr. Hislop's scheme. And 
the synonyms are given in Gondi as ascertained from Gonds 
at Nagpore. Though the population of Nagpore is not, of 
course', Gond, still the Deogurh Gond Rajah and his dependants 
live there; and there are Gond Ozhas (or minstrels) there also, 
on whom Mr. Hislop used to rely as being of some authority 
on these points, But in offering this brief Supplement, I by 
no means intend it to be supposed that this list includes all 
the remaining Gondi words, or that there are no other words. 
Indeed there may be many others, and doubtless there must 
be such. 

R. T. 































Adopted son 

Koratai aitoor chhava 

Bard . 


Adore . 


Bare . 




Barley . 










Agree (v) , . 

Sarko ayana 



Aim (y) . 

Hindanlawai kim 



Alight .. 


Battleaxe . 


Angry .. 


Bawl . . 


Annual . . 




Another . 








Arise .. 


Beat . 


Armpit . , 


Beauty . 


Arms . 




Ascend , . 



Phukee wisiing 









B continued, 



Believe (v) 

Man tatana 


Kamma kakisan* 




More kiana 


Naree dohta 





Chastise (v) 

Soeto kiana 






Kulloo dohtana,Paring 

Chirp (v) *. 

Chir chir kiana 



Clear (v) 

Oota kiana 



Climb . 








Cocoanut . 




Colour . 


Bread . 








Breath .. 
Brother-in-lavr . . 

"Waree, Naiskana 
Jhalka manta 

Sairndo Koko (wife's 

Country . . 
Cousin . . 
Creep . 

Dess, Dehar 
.' Yaina (Mother'* bro- 
j ther's son) 
f Tumino (Father's 
Ghursay mayana 











Cub . 


Bush .. 


Cultivate . . 





Carry . 




Cart .. 











D. continued. 

Enter . 

Wasi handana 

Dash * . 



Bhulai matana 

Daughter-in-law . 


Escape . . 




Evening . 






Deep . . 







Destroy . 

Burtai kiana 











Distant . . Lnk 

Famine . 




Father-in-law . 






Dream . , 




Dress (v) 


Fever . 



Hakle kiana 



Drop .. 




Drowa . . 














Pohay mayana 



Flow (v) 








Food . , 




Fool .. 






F. continued 

Hasten . 

Lahki kiyana 

Forenoon . 





RLaira, Dongur 


Burte kkna 


Bhule mayana 




Dam tindana 


Nehen ayaaa 


















S nngo 















Nuri dohta 















Grandfather ..Tado 



Graze Mehtana 







Tang kiana 



Har ..Malol 


lilisre mayana 

Harvest Sugg 


Dyana, Dehkana 


















Makaik, Making 






Tongurotek kiana 














Lamb * 










More . . 








Mother . . 

Awal Ya 



Mother-in-law . 




Mount (r) 




Mouse . 

Yelle Mssal 







Music . . 


Like (r) 

Dilte \rayana 








Name . 

Pallo, Parol 










Once . 

Oondi pullo 


Kkoe mat 









Restore . . 






Chokote, Oojo 

Panther . 













Akur, Gohtaa 


Gurbare may an* 






A ipurepasitana 



Pursue Wittana 

Rub .. 


Pig . Puddy 



Pigeon . Parua 


Plough . Nagur 




Poet . . Pateri 



Powder . . Burko 



Prick Gadustana. 

Savage (adj.) 

Kore matal 








Quail . 












Quiver . 



Bap ore 








Reap . . 












S, continued. 


Hala kiana 




Basro mal 


Kara mayana 







Stink . . 


*<* { S3 :: 


Stomach . 



Jhalkai mayana 

Stray . . 

Doundai mayana 



Stretch . 





Ganja mayana 







Summer . 








Sunset . 



lamme kiaua 

Swear . 





Pohe mayana 






Sister-in-law . 















iullay, Lunrial 




Mao kiana 

Son-in-law . . 



Wutkee, Wusta 

Soon . . 


Thumb . . 











Dekana (r) 

Touch . . 







T. continued. 


C Dugro Nar 
I (large village) 





Wet .. 



Wheat .. 







Wife . 












Pieni Ghaliunb 









Wander t 

Bhullay mayana 


Achrit kiana 


Taro tanto 


Wanari kian* 



World . 

Manial, Doonya 

Waste (v 

Boortai kiana 


Kitkur, Purk 

Watch *. 



Punja kian* 


Harming kiana 


Dhawari kiana 

. To this Supplement the Gondi rerbs 
may be known by the termiuation "ana " 

are aU given in the infinitive mood, which 

Note by the Editor regarding the Mudsi, or Kuri, dialect. 

IT will have been seen that Mr. Hislop in the Essay points 
out that the Kurs, or Muasis, are distinct from the Gonds, at 
least in language ; and that Kuri, or Muasi, is not, as may have 
been supposed by some, a dialect of Gondi. Mr. Hislop indi- 
cates that the error may have arisen from expressions used by 
Dr. Voysey when, many years ago, he supplied a brief vocabu- 
lary of the language spoken by the tribes of the hills lying 
between Hoshungabad and Berar. This region is believed to 
be the real home of the Kurs, or Muasis. 

The vocabulary which Dr. Voysey gave in 1821 is to be 
found in Vol. XIII, Part I., of the Journal of the Asiatic 
Society. Several of the words agree with the Kuri, or Muasi, 
as given by Mr. Hislop. 

Dr. Bradley's list has been adverted to in this publication in 
a previous Note (see Preface to the Hislop Vocabulary). Many 
of those words also agree with the Muasi in Mr. Hislop's Voca- 

In 1863, Major Pearson (J:he Conservator of B'orests in 
the Central Provinces) furnished to Mr. Hislop a few words 
spoken by the Kuorkus, wbom he considers to be the same as 
the Muasis ; and that memorandum is found among Mr. Hislop'a 
papers. A few of the Koorku words agree wit n. those in Dr. 
Bradley's list. 

In 1865 Mr. C. A. Elliott, Settlement Officer of Hoshunga- 
bad, transmitted a Memo, on the Koorkus of Kalibheet (in the 
hills south-west of Hoshungabad), to which a short vocabulary 
is attached. Of these words, many agree with those given by 
Mr. Hislop and the other officers above mentioned. 

For many of the Kuri words then, there are data obtained 
by various persons at various times and places, and I have caused 
a comparison to be entered of the points of agreement. 

R. T. 




Mr. Hidop. 

Mr. Elliott. 

Dr. Voysey. 

Dr. Bradley 

Major Pear- 































































































^ , 








Note by the Editor on the Gond Songs, 

THESE Songs were reduced to writing in the Goruli 
language by Mr. Ilislop in his own handwriting. lie obtained 
them from a Pardhan priest of the Gonds at Nag pore. Having 
made a very complete and accurate copy in Gondi, in the 
Roman character of course, lie began, to translate by entering 
over each Gondi word the counterpart in English. But at his 
death he had proceeded only a short way with the last named 
part of the task. His translation did not comprise a fourth 
of the whole and even then it was only in detached fragments; 
and in no place was it consecutive. But, inasmuch as he had 
reduced to writing these lengthy Songs with so much care, it 
seemed very desirable to bring into an available and intelligible 
shape an unfinished work, which he regarded as of much 
importance, as evidenced by the admirable industry which he 
must have devote 1 to it. Moreover it was found quite possible 
to do this, inasmuch as the very Pardha'i who recited the Songs 
to Mr. Hislop was still at Nagpore; and being versed both in 
Hindi and Mahrattee, was able to interpret the Gondi, word fcr 
word, into those languages- from which the rendering into English 
was easy. Moreover, assistance was obtainable from the Rev. 
Baba Pandurarig ( of the Free Church of Scotland Mission), who 
was Mr. Hislop's native assistant, and his companion in several 
tours, and who frequently was employed by Mi. Hislop in obtain- 
ing information. I, therefore, entrusted to Mr. Pandurang, as 
being specially qualified, the task of comparing Mr. Hislcp's 
manuscript with the recitations of the Pardhan, and of ascer- 
taining the English equivalent for every word. 

Thus is reproduced Mr. Hislop's manuscript of the Gondi, 
with Mr. Pandurang's equivalent in English entered over each 

From this detached verbal translation I have myself prepared 
the following consecutive Kuglish version, adhering as nearly 
to the original as may consist with the easy understanding of 
the sense, and preserving the precise order of the lines. And 
I have supplied notes explaining the passages which seemed 
to need explanation. 

The Songs form a sort of rude epic, full of episodes and 

digressions, but preserving a thread of narrative connection from 
beginning to end. I have divided them into five parts, according 
as the sense of the piece indicated the propriety of such division. 
They are indeed recited or sung in parts, or in whole; but 
such parts would not necessarily correspond with the parts 
into which I have ventured to subdivide the pieces. 

But. as already mentioned, these Songs were very lengthy 
in the original. While, on the one hand, many passages are 
curious, others vividly illustrative of Gond life and reality, 
and others remarkable in their way; yet, as might be expect- 
ed, many passages were redundant, others frivolous, others 
improper or objectionable. All passages clearly belonging 
to any of the latter categories have been cut out. And the 
original whole has been thus pared down to about one half. 
And it has been found practicable to do this, without at all 
impairing the sense or breaking the sequence of the story. 
Even in this abridged shape the Songs are long, being some 
997 linS in the Gondi. 

The Songs arid the Notes will speak for themselves. It will 
be seen therefrom, that they are to some extent worthy of 
being selected for the laborious treatment which Mr. flislop 
bestowed upon them. For they are the best Gond pieces 
extnnt ; and they comprise a sort of compendium of Gond 
thoughts and notions. Thouph abounding in things borrowed 
from the Hindus, they aie yet possessed of much originality, 
and in many passages th<5y are, so to speak, redolent of Gondism. 

They have never before? been reduoe.l to writing, but have 
been for many generations sung or s<iid by the Pardh&n priests, 
to circles of listening Gonds, at marriages, and -on other 
festive occasions. They are for the most part old, perhaps 
even ancient, though much obscured by modern interpolations 
and additions. And though the first original must he older 
than the Hindu?, yet the framework of -the Story, as it now 
exists, must have been composed subsequently to the arrival 
of the Aryan Hindus among the aborigines of Central India. 
Beyond this most vague estimate, it is impossible to say how 
old or how new these pieces may be. For the Gondi being 
unwritten, and the Pardhans being unlettered, none of these 
men can explain the history of the SongF. A Gond will refer 
the enquirer to the Pardhan. Then one Pardhan will say 
that he learnt the piece by heart from the mouth of another, 
perhaps aged, Pardhan, who will say that he learnt' it from 
another Pardhan before him, and so on. This is all that can 
be ascertained at Nagpore at all events, 

R. T. 



Creation of the World and of the Gond people, and 
the bondage of the Gonds. 

1. In the midst of twelve hills, in the glens of seven hills, is 

Lingawangad, or mount Lingawan. 

2. In that mount is a flower tree named Dati ; thence for 

twelve koss there is no dwelling 

3. Caw saying there is no crow, chirp saying there is no bird, 

roar saying there is no tiger. 

4. Then, what happened ? God spread betelnut, and called 

Nalli yado rishi [saint), 

5. When an order to the vakeel (^servant) Narayan was made, 

he heard it, and went running 

6. To Kurtao Subal to ask him. He said there are sixteem 

threshingfloors of Teloogoo gods, 

7. Eighteen threshingfloors of Brahmin gods, twelve threshing- 

floors of Gond gods. Thus he was asking for gods. 

8. So many gods \ where are they? their tidings I seek. 
9 What did he begin to say? He said thus: 

1. The twelve hills and the seven valleys are the same as those hereafter to be men- 
tioned (see Part IV., line 85), as the place chosen by the Gond gods for their local habitation. 
Lingawangad this name has nothing particular about it, but seems intended merely to in- 
troduce the story of Lingo. 

2. The flower tree is the same as that mentioned in Part II., line 2, as that from which 
Lingo was born. 

3. This is a forcible Gond idiom for expressing utter silence, and aptly describes the 
solitudes which are frequent among the homes of the Gond people. The phrase is also 
known to the Hindus of these parts. 

4. Betel-leaf and nut are frequently mentioned in all the Parts. The idea is Hindu. 

5. This Narayan must be the same as the Narayan of the Hindus. Or perhaps, in 
reference to the belief of the common Hindus, the Sun is meant. 

6. Kurtao Subal this name appears to be of Gond origin, and not a Hindu name, which 
is worthy of remark, inasmuch as the other names in this part of the story are Hindu. 

7. The term threshingfloor is supposed to be here intended to express some indefinite 
number. Mahadewa is said to have had a threshingfloor in a field, whereon he created the 
Qonds. Thus the pure Gonds are called threshingfloor Gonds. The idea has been extended 
aua a metaphor to other races. And each race is represented by its special divinities. 


10. There (the god) Mahadewa was ruling from the upper sea 

to the lower sea. 

11. What was that Mahadewa doing? He was swimming like 

a roller stone : he had no hands no feet : 

12. He remained like the trunk (of a tree). 

13 Gowara Parwatee (his wife; having stood, began to ask 

14. Who art thou? He said, I am Bhagawan's (god's) Subadar 
(deputy ). 

15. She Faid, Why hast thou come so far ? I came to see 

16 Gowara Parwalee came. Narayan having gone to the 
banks of the Narbadda y stood there. 

17. The Raja Mahadewa was swimming and came up. 

18. Then Parwatee, with joined hands, stood, and so did 


19. Then said Mahadewa, For what has thou come? where are 

the gods of the twelve threshingfloors of the Gonds? 

20. WTiat did he say, Kurtao Subal ? what did he say to 


21. Perform devotion (tap^ for twelve months, and then you 

will come to know the names of them 

22. Five and six months passed ; at the end of it, the devotion. 

was finished. 

23 Then came Bhagawan and stood close to Mahadewa, and 
called to- him 

4. Thy devotion is finished, emerge out of the water. He said, 
how shall I 

2-5-. Emerge ? I have no hands, no feet, no eyes. 

W. And- the- subsequent lines comprise distorted versions in Gbndi phrase of portions of 
the Hindu mythology. 

14. The Mahomedftn word Sivbadar is known to the Mahrattos as well- as to the- Gonds. 
The Gonds may have borrowed it straight from the Mahomedans. 

19. Twelve is probably a number of mystic significance, though sixteen is the number 
used in the subsequent passages. Perhaps here allusion is made to the twelve tribes of tk 

11. The " tap,"" or devotion, is- a regular Hindu ceremony, 


28. Then Mahadewa received man's form. 

27. Thus man's form complete was made in the luminous world. 

28. He raised his eyes and saw Bhagawan (godr, but he 

(Bhagawan^ immediately disappeared. 

29. Mahadewa said, It is not well that God should not be seen 

(actually visible). Hear, O God, my story. 

30. My devotion h fruitless; I received a man's form, which 

is not well. 

31. Then he began to establish a (tap) devotion. 

32. At the end of nine months and nine days his boil moved 

and burst 

33. Kalia Adao was born. Then Mahadewa what did he say? 

34. Said Mahadewa to him, Establish a tap (demotion). 

35. He (the Kalia Adao) began a devotion ; one month, two 

months passed, when a boil arose in his hand. 

36. The boil burst and sixteen daughters were born out of it. * 

Then said he, 

37. What ! why are these daughters born ? 

38. I shall have cause to cast my head down. Whence shall 

I bring husbands for them ? 

39. He took hold of them and threw them in the water. After 

the throwing 

40. The water was dried up, and sixteen sorts of earth were 


41. (He said) I shall perform devotion, and then I shall be 

at peace. 

42. He then established a devotion, and a boil arose in his hand : 

43. Twelve threshingfloors of Gondi gods were born. 

44. Hither and thither all the Gonds were scattered in the jungle ; 

33. Kalia Adao is believed to be the same personage as Kurtao Subal. 

37. These sixteen daughters may perhaps be in allusion to the sixteen Gond goddesse* 
mentioned in Part II., line 253; and this view is borne out by the Pardhan who recites the 

41. Whether the sixteen kinds of earth have any special purport, is doubtful. The 
Pardhdn who recites the song, gays that the phrase merely refers to the several sorts of j soil 
fcuown to the people ; such as black loaoi, reddish earth, sandy ground, gravel, and the uk 

45. Places, hills, and valleys were filled with these Gonda. 

46. Even trees had their Gonds. How did the Gonds conduct 

themselves ? 

47. Whatever came across them they must needs kill and eat it, 

48. They made no distinction. If they saw a jackal they killed 

49. And eat it; no distinction was observed: they respected 

not antelope, sambur, and the like. 

50. They made no distinction in eating a sow, a quail, a pigeon, 

51. A crow, a kite, an adjutant, a vulture, 

52. A lizard, a frog, a beetle, a cow, a calf, a he and she-bafialo, 

53. Rats, bandicoots, squirrels all these they killed and ate. 

54. So began the Gonds to do. They devoured raw and ripe 

things ; 

55. They did not bathe for six months together ; 

56. They did not wash their faces properly, even on dung hills 

they would fall down and remain. 

57. Such were the Gonds born in the beginning. A smell was 

spread over the jungb 

58. When the Gonds were thus disorderly behaved ; they be- 

came disagreeable to Mahadewa, 

59. Who said, The caste of the Gonds is very bad; 

60. 1 will not preserve them; they will ruin my hill Dhawal- 


61. I perceive here and there smells. So said Mahadewa Call 

the Gonds 

62. Said he to Narayan. He went, and called them, 

63. And brought them into the presence of Mahadewa. 

64. When they were standing, Mahadewa arose and looked, 

and saw all the Gonds come. 

65. He spoke within himself, and took them away into his valley. 

66. He made them to sit in a line, and he sat at the head of 


47. This somewhat sarcastic description, which follows, of the habits of the Gondf it 
probablj of Hindu suggestion. 

67. He took substance from his own body, and made it into 

a squirrel. 

68. Thus he made a squirrel while bathing, and gave it life. 

69. When he made it alive, he caused it to run away. 

70. With its upright tail the squirrel ran from the midst of 


71. The Gonds saw it running, and they pursued it. 

72. As the Gonds were pursuing it, some said, kill it, kill it ! 

73. Another said, catch it; it will serve as a nice roast. 

74. So saying, some seized a stick, some a stone ; 

75. Some seized a clod: their waist cloths were shaking: their 

hair began to fly about. 

76. The squirrel entered a hole (which) was god's prison on 


77. The Gonds also followed it up to the hole. 

78. All the threshingfloor Gorids ran into the cave. 

79. Thus all the Gonds ran ; the rest, four in number, remained 


80. They came to Parwatee : she was sleeping. In the meantime 

81 . She awoke. She cared for the Gonds. She said, For many 

82. Days I have not seen my Gonds; 

83. There used to be noise in mount Dhawalagiri, 

84. But to-day there is silence. For many days there has beem 

a smell (of Gonds), 

85. But to-day I perceive no smell; 

86. They must have gone somewhere. 

87. Mahadewa is not to be seen, where did he lead them? Thus 

said Farwatee. 

88. She ascended Dhawalagiri, and saw no Gonds. Then she 


89. To Mahadewa, My Gonds do not appear, where have they 

gone ? 

79. See Note on liue 7 The term threshingfloor Gonds means the regular Gonds created 
by Mahaclewa. 

0. The number of four persons, which appears, too, in subsequent parts of the Story 
noight be thought to tave some significance ; but ncae is aflcertainable. 

90. Mahadewa arose and placed a stone sixteen cubits long 

at the entrance of the cave, and thus shut in the Gonds. 

91. He stationed Bhasraasur (a giant) to guard it. Still 

Parwatee remained asking (after them). 

92. Then said Mahadewa, Dhawalagiri began to be odorous, and 

I fell into a rage thereat; 

93. But four Gonds have survived, and they are fled. So said he, 

94. Then Parwatee thought in her mind, My Gonds are lost. 

95. The four Gonds who fled travelled onward over hills. 

96. Thence they went and saw a tree rising upright, as a Date 

tree, which they climbed, and looked r about them). 

97. They said there is no hiding place visible for us. 

98. But one of them looked and saw a place named Kachikopa 


99. They went by the jungly road and reached that place. 

100. There the four brothers remained. 

101. When the Gonds were not to be found, Parwatee began 

to feel regret for them. 

102. She then commenced a devotion (tap): 

103. Six months passed 

104. Parwatee ended her tap. Bhagawan (god) meanwhile 

was swinging (in a swing). 

105. He said, What devotee at my resting time has begun a 

devotion ; Narayan, go and see to it. 

106. Narayan went to see ; ascending a hill, he came to Parwatee, 

107. And stood while Parwatee was performing her tap, and 

saying, My threshingfloor Gonds do not appear; 

91. This Bhasmasur seems to be one of the giants of Hindu mythology. 

99. The name Kachikopa Lahugad appears frequently in the Story, but there is no known 
place particularly of that- na,rne. The meaning in Gondi is the "Iron Valley the Red Hills " a 
nomenclature very applicable to ths mineral products an 1 external aspect of many hills in. 
the Gond country. 

104. The name Gad Bha^awan occurs frequently in all the PaHs. It-w borrowed, of 
course, from Hinduism. It is remaikable, however, that this name should ba used especially, 
as the Gonds have an idea of their own for the one groat God, Supremo over all the gods, 
3?ho is named Bara Deo. But the name Bara Deo is uot used aay where in thesa Songa. 

108. Therefore I commenced my devotion. When Narayan 
heard this, he ran ; resting and running, he came to 
Bhagawan and said 

109. Parwatee is performing a devotion, and says my threshing- 
floor Gonds do not appear ; where have they gone ? 

110. Bhagawan said, Go and tell her I will make her Gonds 


The Birth, Life, and Death of Lingo. 

1. Then care fell to Bhagawan (god). There was a tree : 

2. It was blossoming. Then, said he, One of its flowers shall 


3. By God's doing, clouds and winds were loosed. A cloud 


4. A fan arose : thunder roared, and lightning flashed; 

5. The flower burst, clouds opened, and darkness fell ; the day 

was hid. 

6. A heap of turmeric fell at the fourth watch of the night. 

7. In the morning, when clouds resounded with thunder, the 

flower opened 

8. And burst, and Lingo was born, and he sprang and fell into 

the heap of turmeric. 

9. Then the clouds cleared, and at the dawn Lingo began 

to cry. 

10. Thereat, care fell upon God: the (face of Lingo) began to 

dry amidst the powder. 

11. But by God's doing, there was a Ficus tree, on which 

was honey 

12. The honey burst, and a small drop fell into his mouth. 

13. Thus the juice continued to fall, and his mouth began to 


14. It was noon, and wind blew, when Lingo began 10 grow. 

15. He leapt into a swing, and began to swing, when day was set 

16. Lingo arose with haste, and sat in a cradle swinging. 

17. Lingo was a perfect man: water may be stained, but he had 

no stain whatever. 

8. Lingo, or Lingal, is a sort of prophet among the Gonds. Though he appears throughout 
this Story in the character of a devout Hindu, yet the name is of Gond origin. Sometimes 
Bh4n (Gondi for devotee) is affixed to his uame, and sometime* Tariu.r (Qondi for Saint.) 

18. There was a diamond on his navel and sandle wood mark 

on his forehead. He was a divine Saint. He became two 
years old. 

19. He played in turmeric, and slept in a swing. Thus days roiled 


20. He became nine years old ; he was ordered not to eat any- 

thing from off the jungle trees or thickets. 

21. Lingo, in his mind, said, Here is no person to be seen; man 

does not appear, neither are there any animals; 

22. There appears none like me; I will go where I can see 

someone like myself. 

23. Having said so, one day he arose and went on straight. 

24. He ascended a needle-like hill; there he saw a Mundita 


25. Below was a tree named Kidsadita: it blossomed. 

^6. He went thither, and having seen flowers he smelled them, 

27. He went a little beyond, upon a precipitous hill, and climbed 

a tree. 

28. Then he looked around and saw smoke arising from 

Kachikopa Lahugad. 

29. What is this? said he; I must go and see it. 

30. He ascended, and saw the smoke. The four brothers 

quickly brought their game, and began to roast it ; they 
began to eat it raw or cooked. 

31. In the meantime Lingo went there. They saw him and 

stood; up; he stood also; 

32. Neither spoke to the other. The four then began to say 

within themselves, 

33. We are four brothers, and he will be the fifth brother. Let 

us call him. 

34. We will go and bring him Then they went. 

35. They came to (the place) where he was. Who art thou? 

asked they of Lingo. 

18. These are Hindu distinctions. 


36. Lingo said, I ain Saint Lingo; I have a knot of hair en my 


37. The four brothers said, Come to our house. 

38. They took him home. While some game was lying there, 

39. Lingo said, What is this ? (They said) it is game that we 

have brought. 

40. What kind of game is this ? Lingo asked. They said, It is 

a pig. 

41. He said, Give rre its liver. There was no liver there. 

Then they said, 

42. Hear, brother, we have killed an animal without liver I 

43. Then Lingo said, Let me see an animal without liver. 

44. Then care fell upon them. Where shall we show him an 

animal without a liver? said they. 

45. One said, Hear my word! He is alitde (fellow), we are big 

men; we will take him to the jungle among large stones. 

46. Among thorns in thickets and caves we will roam; he 

will get tired, and will sit down ; 

47. He will be thirsty and hungry, then he will propose to 


48. With Lingo, they, with bow and arrow in their hands, 

went by the jungle road. 

49. Onward they went, and saw an antelope. Lingo said, 

Kill it ! 

50. It had a liver. Then came a sambur, kill ye it ! 

51. It had a liver. A hare came, and he said, kill ye it ! 

52. It had a liver. 

53. Thus the devout Lingo did not tire. These four brothers 

were tired. 

54. For water they thirsted. On a steep they ascended to 

look for water ; 

36. Again a Hindu mark in contradistinction to Gonds, 

39. This and many subsequent passages contain life-like descriptions of the hunting 
pastimes of the Gonds. 


55,- But no water appeared, so they descended from the hill. 

56. Thus they came to a thick jungle of Ar.jim trees, where 

thorny plants blockaded the road. 

57. They came and stood. A little water appeared. They 

plucked Palas (Butia) leaves, and made them into a 
trough ; 

58. They drank wa*er with it, and were much refreshed. 

59. Linuo said, What are you doing bitting there ? (They 

said) we cannot find an animal without a liver. 

GO. If we don't find it we will leave off mentioning the name 
(of such a creature). This is a good place; 

61. After scraping the ground, and cutting down trees, we will 

sow ri>:e. 

62. (Lingo said) I will sleep a little; you make a field ready. 

03. The four brothers brought hafcliets, and they all four began 
to cut the Anjiin trees. 

6-1. (Lingo) fel) asleep, and he dreamed a dream. In liis dream 

65. He saw the twelve threshingUoors of Gonds, and he was 

6G. He awoke, and returned while the four brothers 

67. Cut down the tree: their hands were blistered, and each 
blister was as lar^e as an Awala fruit. 


G8. They threw down their hatchets and came to Lingo, 

69. ( And said) our hands are blistered, therefore we threw 
' down our hatchets. 

70. They \v<?nt asido, and* ?at down. Then arose Lingo -and 

held a hatchet m his hand, 

71. And went on cutting trees; the trees fell, their roots 

were dug up. 

72. Tims he began to cut down jungle. In an hour he made a 
good field. 

50. The Anjtm tree ( Harchcickia binata) was probably rriore abundant at former 
periods. It still is found, but it is no longer plentiful in the Gond country. 

05. See the previous note explaining the term threshingfioor. Allusion seems here to 
Ibe made to the twelve tribe's. 

70 to 76. Comprises regular description of the cultivation so well known in recent 
tkuea aa Ehya. 


73. (They said) cur hands are blistered and not one tree have 
we cut down, 

74. But Lingo in one hour has cut down several trees; 

75. lie has made the black soil (appear;, and has sown riee 
and hedged it round; 

76. He has made a door to it, and has made a shutter (for 

the door). 

77. Then they arose and took their homeward road, and came 

to their own houses. 

78. On the first day of the rainy season a little black cloud 

appeared : 

79. Wind bleav violently; it was cloudy all day: rain began 

to fall; 

80. Rills in the open places were filled knee deep; all the holes 

were filled (with wat^r). 

81. When the rain had poured for three days, the weather be- 

came fair: rice began to spring; 

82. All the fields appeared green. In one day the rice grew 

a finger's breadth high ; 

83. In a month it rose up to a man's knee. 

84. There were sixteen scores of Nilgais (deer), among whom 

two bucks (uncle and nephew) were chiefs. 

85. When the scent of rice spread around, they came to know 

it; thither they went to graze. 

86. At the head of the herd was the uncle, and the nephew 

was at the rear. 

87. With cracking joints the nephew arose ; he leaped upwards. 

88. With two ears upright, and with cheerful heart, he bounded 

towards his uncle, 

89. fAid said) some one has a beautiful field of rice: ifc must 

be green tender fodder. 

90. To us little ones give that field, the sixteen scores of deer 

will go there ; 

84. Tho term " sixteen scores " is 'frequently used ; for instance, sixteen scores of Gonds 
are spoken -of. No particular significance u assertainable ; perhaps the term may only be an 
idiom for a, large number. 


91.- After eating rice we will comeback, (The uncle said) 
O nephew, hear my words! Take 

92. The name of olhor fields, but not that of Lingo's field, 

(otherwise) he will not preserve even one of the sixteen 
scores of deer for .seed to carry on the species. 

93. The nephew, said, You are old, but we are young; we 

will go. 

94. Arriving there we will eat. If any one sees us we will 

bound away; 

95. W-3 will make a jump of five cubits, and thus escape; but 

you, being an old one, will be caught. 

96. Therefore you are afraid to go, I will not hear your word; 

don't come with us. 

97. So said the nephew. With straight tails and erect ears they 

turned back. 

98. The uncle was grieved. Then he arose and went after them ; 

99. They left him far behind. The herd came near the fields; 

ICO. But the nephew and the deer began to look for a way to 
enter it, but could not iind one. 

101. The deer said. Your uncle was the wise one amongst us, 

of whom shall we now ask advice? 

102. We have left him behind (instead of him), you are our 


103. The nephew said, Do as you see ine doing before you. 

104. He put himself in front, when one of the deer said: 

105. At first, your uncle told you that this is Lingo's field, but 

you did not hear; 

108. Look behind and before you (be prudent). So said the deer. 

107. But the nephew said, We will not keep an old one's company. 

108. So he, being in front, gave a bound, and was in the midst 

of the rice, 

109. And stood; then all the deer came after him leaping. 

110. After him came the uncle to the hedge and stood, 


111. All the deer were eating rice. But the uncle could not 

find his way. 


112. Being old. lie was unable to leap the door of the iield of rice. 

113. They went from thence and leaped back over the hedge, 

when the uncle said to them: 

114. Hear, sixteen scores of deer, you have eaten this field ! 

Father Liogo when he comes to it 

115. What measures will he adopt? Then the nephew, who 

was behind, came in front, 

116. And said, Hear, O friends and brethren ! flea from this 

place, but hear my word. 

117. As you fl<ae keep your feet on leaves, and stones, and boughs, 

and grass, but don't put your feet on the soil. So said 
the nephew. ' 

118. As he told them, so they did all the sixteen scdres of deer 

began to run, 

119. And left no marks nor traces. 

120. Then they stopped: some remained standing, sornb slept 

121. In the midst of the flower fragrance was Lingo sleeping, 

while half of the night was passed. 

122. In his dream he saw a field catch by deer, and all the rice 

becoming spoilt. 

s - 123. Then Lingo departed, and took his road to Kachikopa 

124. Hence he departed, and went to the brothers and said, O 

brothers! out of your house come ye; 

125. Hear one word: the deer have eaten our field of rice. 

126. The four brothers said we need rice to oiler our firstfruits 

(tb die gods). 

127. Then Lingo said, Hear, O brethren I our rice has been 

eaten up j 

128. It has beer* spoilt; we have no nrstfruits. Lingosaid,We 

will offer the liver of these deer as firstfruits; 

129. Then I will remain as a devotee, otherwise my power 

will vanish. 


130. I fill my stomach by the smelling of flowers; 

131. But how will the Gonds fill their bellies, there is nothing 

for their eating 

132. The rice has been spoilt by the deer. So said Lingo. 

133. The four brothers said we will take in our arms, bow and 


134. With anger against the deer they came to the field, and 

entered in the midst of it. 

135 When they came in the centre they saw only black soil. 

136. Only rice stubble appeared, and Lingo saw nothing. 

137. Then his anger arose from the heel to the head, and he bit 

his finger on the spot; 

138. His eyes became red. Where are the deer? said he, look 

for them? 

139. They looked, but did not see anywhere the footprints of 


140. Near a tree they beheld some foot-marks; they looked at it. 

141. As they went they beheld a jungle trodden down ; then 

some traces appeared. 

142. Onward they went, but did not see the deer, they beheld 

a peepul tree. 

143. Lingo said, I will climb the tree, you stand below. 

144. From the top he looked, and the deer were visible. He said, 

145. The deer are in sight, some are seated, some are sleeping, 

some are leaping about. 

146. You four brothers separate yourselves on four sides with 

your arrows, 

147. And allow not one of the deer to escape. 

148. I will shoot them from the tree and you shoot from below. 


149. Having heard this, the four brothers went and ambuscaded 

on four sides. 

150. They shot their arrows from four corners, while Lingo shot 

from the tree. 

151. The uncle (the buck) and one deer alone survived ; they had 

aimed at them also, but the arrow fell from Lingo's hand. 

152. He said to himself, when the arrow fell out of my hand, 

That must have been a good omen. 

153. That uncle is a devout follower of the servant of god, and 

has not eaten anything. 

154. But the two survivors began to run ; then these four 

brothers went after them in pursuit, saying, We will catch 
them here or there. 

155. But the two could not be found; then the brothers turned 

and looked around. 

156. The eldest brother said, Hear, O brethren ! These two have 

escaped, and Lingo 

157. Has remained behind at a distance from us. Let us return, 

said the eldest brother. 

158. When they returned, Lingo asked them, Where have you 

been ? 

159. They said, The two survivors have fled and cannot 1 e 

found, so we have returned to you. 

160. He said, I will show you something; see if anywhere in 


161. Waistbands there is a flint; if so, take it out and make fire. 

162. Then they took out pieces of flint and began to make fire, 

163. But the matches did not ignite. As they were doing this, a 

watch of the night passed. 

164. They threw down the matches, and said to Lingo, Thou 

art a Saint ; 


165. Show us where our lire is, and why it does not come out. 

166. Lingo said, Three koss (^six miles) hence is Rikad Gawadi 

the giant. 

167. There is fire in his field ; where smoke shall appear, go there. 

168. Come not back without bringing fire. Thus said Lingo. 

169. They said, We have never seen the place, where shall we go? 

170. Ye have never seen where this fire is ? Lingo said; 

171. I will discharge an arrow thither. 

172. Go in the direction of the arrow ; there you will get fire. 

173. He applied the arrow, and having pulled the bow, he dis- 

charged one: 

174. It crashed on breaking twigs and making its passage clear. 

175. Having cut through the high grass, it made its way and 

reached the old man's place (above mentioned). 

176. The arrow dropped close to the fire of the old man, who 

had daughters. 

177. The arrow was near the door. As soon as they saw it, the 

daughters came and took it up, 

178. And kept it. They asked their father, When will you give 

us in marriage ? 

179. Thus said the seven sisters, the daughters of the old man. 

180. I will marry you as I think best for you; 

181. Remain as you are So said the old man, the Rikad Gawadi. 

182* Lingo said, Hear, O brethren ! I shot an arrow; it made its 

183. Go there, and you will see fire; bring thence the fire. 

184. Each said to the other, I will not go: but (at last) the 

youngest went. 

180. This Rikad Gawadi, a sort of giant, is a name of doubtful origin. The Gawadi 
may be a corruption of Gawali, or Gaoli, a cowherd. The Gaolis were powerful in the early 
days of the Goud people, and established a dynasty of their own in the Gond country. 

184. The picture of the old man sleeping in the midst of his field, so well fenced round, 
(to keep oft' wild beasts) and by the finode (to preserve him from the nk'ht damps of the 
forest), is a true representation of the habits of the Uonds. 


185. He descried the lire, and went to it; then beheld he an old 

man looking like the trunk of a tree. 

186. He saw from afar the old man's field, around which a 

hedge was made. 

187. The old man kept only one way to it, and fastened a screen 

to the entrance, and had a fire in the centre of the field. 

188. He placed logs of the Mohwa and Anjun and Saj tees 

on the fire. 

189. Teak faggots he gathered, and enkindled flame. 

190. The fire blazed up, and, wanned by the heat of it, in deep 

sleep lay the Rikad Gawadi. 

191. Thus the old man like a giant did appear. When the 

young Gond beheld him, he shivered; 

192. His heart leaped; and he was much afraid in his mind, and 

said : 

193. If the old man were tqrise he will see me, a^d I shall be 

eaten up; 

194. I will steal away the fire and carry it off, then my life will 

be safe. 

1 95. He went near the fire secretly, and took a brand of Tembhur 

wood tree. 

196. When he was lifting it up a spark flew and fell on the hip 

of the old man. 

197. That spark was as large as a pot: the giant was blistered: 

he awoke alarmed, 

198. And said, lam hungry, and I cannot get food to eat any 

where ; I feel a desire for flesh ; 

199. Like a tender cucumber hast thou come to me. So said the 

old man to the Gond, 

187. The Mohwa is the tree from the flower of which the Gond s obtain their favourite 

188. The Teak tree is still found, though somewhat dwarfed, in most parts of the Gond 


200. Who began to fly. The old man followed him. The 

Gond then threw away the brand which he had stolen. 

201. He ran onward and was not caught. Then the old man, 

being tired, turned back. 

202. Thence he returned to his field, and came near the fire and 

sat, and said, What nonsense is this ? 

203. A tender prey had come within, my reach; 

204. I said I will cut it up as soon as I can, but it escaped from 

my hand ! 

205. Let it go: it will come again, then I will catch it. It is 

gone now. 

206. Then what happened? the Gond returned and came to 

his brethren, 

207. And said to them, Hear, brethren ! I went for fire, as you 

sent me, to that field ; I beheld an old man like a giant, 

208. With hands stretched out and feet lifted up, I ran. I thus 

survived with difficulty. 

209. The brethren said to Lingo, We will not go. Lingo said, 

Sit ye here. 

210. O brethren, what sort of a person is this giant. I will go 

and see him. 

211. So saying, Lingo went away aad reached a river. ! 

212. He thence arose and went onward. As he looked, he saw 

in front three gourds. 

213. Then he saw a bamboo stick, which he took up, 

214. When the river was flooded 

215. It washed away a gourd tree, and its seed fell, and each 

stem produced bottle gourds. 

216. He inserted a bamboo stick in the hollow of the gourd and 

made a guitar. 


217. He plucked two hairs from his head and strung it. 

218. He held a bow and fixed eleven keys to that one stick, and 

played on it. 

219. Lingo was much pleased in his mind. 

220. Holding it in his hand, he T^-^.;. .- the direction of the 

old man's field. 

221. He approached the fire where Tcikad Gawadi \v as deeping. 

222. The giant seemed like a log lying close to the fire: his teeth 

were hideously visible ; 

223. His mouth WP-S gaping. Lingo looked at tlio old man 

while sleep ; flg. 

224. His eyes were shut. Lingo said This is not go< d time to 

carry the old man off whila he is asleep. 

225. In front he looked, and turned round and saw a tree 

226. Of the peepul sort standing erect; he beheld its branches 

with wonder, and looked for a fit place to mount upon. 

227. It appeared a very good tree; so he climbed it, and ascended 

to the top of it to sit. 

228. As he sat, the cock crew. Lingo said, It is daybreak; 

229. Meanwhile the old man must be rising. Therefore Lingo 

took the guitar in his hand, 

230. And held it; he gave a stroke, and it sounded well: from 

it he draw one hundred tunes. 

231. It sounded well, as if he was singing with his voice* 

Thus ^as it were) a song was heard. 

232. Trees and hills were silent at its sound. '1 j? music loudly 

entered into 

233. The old man ears; he rose in haste, ar.d sat up quickly; 

lifted up his eyes, 

817. This two stringed guitar (jantar) is a favourite instrument with the Gonda* 

234. And desired to hear (more). He looked hither and thither, 

but could not make out whence the sound came. 

235. The old man said, Whence has a creature come here to-day 

to siiig like the maina bird ? 

236. He saw a tree, but nothing appeared to him as he 

looked underneath it. 

237. He did not look up ; he looked at the thickets and ravines, 


238. Saw nothing. He came to the road, and near to the fire in 

the midst of his field and stood. 

239. Sometimes sitting, and sometimes standing, jumping, and 

rolling, he began to dance. 

240. The music sounded as the day dawned. His old woman 

came out in the morning and began to look out. 

241. She heard, in the direction of the field, a melodious music 


42. When she arrived n<ur tli3 hedge of her field, she heard 
music in her ears. 

243. That old woman caibd her husband to her. 

244. With stretched i. aJi and lifted feet, and with his neck 

bent down, he dau.;ed. 

245. Thu: he danced. The old woman looked towards her hus- 

band, and said, My old man, my husband, 

246. Surely that music is very melodious. I will dance said the 

old woman. 

247. Having made the fold of her dress loose, she quickly began 

to dance near the hedge. 

248. Lingo said in his mind, I am a devout Lingo ; God's servant 

arn I. 

238. The Qonds are very foud of boisterous dancing. 


249. I (wear) my dhotee (cloth round the loins) down to my 

heels, and (keep) a knot (of hair) on my head, and on 
the navel a diamond, and on my forehead a sacred mark. 

250. Water may possess a stain, but I have none. I am Lingo. 

I will make the old man and old woman 

251. To dance the Gond dance. I will sing a song, and cause 

them to dance, if I be Lingo. 

2 52. Lingo worshipped his god, and invoked Budhal Penta, Adul 

253. The sixteen satiks (goddesses) and eighteen flags, Manko 

Raytal, Jango Raytal, and Pharsa Penda, 

254. And said, Salutation (to you Gods) ! He, holding his guitar 

in his hands, sung various tunes. 

255. Is my guitar an allurement to them ? So said Lingo. He 

stopped the guitar. 

256. Prom on high lie saluted the uncle, Bikad Gawadi, the old 


257. Who looked to wards the top of the tree, and said, Saluta- 

tion to you, O nephew ! 

258. Well hast thou deceive-: 1 ": , and caused us to dance 

Whither hast thou come, nephew ? 

259. (Let , us embrace each other. Lingo descended from the 


260. And going to the old man, held his hand, and said, Uncle, 

salutation to you! 

261. They met together: nephew became known to the uncle, 

and the uncle to the nephew. 

262. After the meeting was over, the nephew held the uncle's 


263. They both came near the fire, and sat. O nephew, whence 

hast thou come? asked the uncle. 

249. These are Hindu marks in contradistinction to Gonds. 
253. These names belong to Gond gods and goddesses, 


264. I have killed sixteen scores of deer; we want to roast their 
liver to eat. 

2S5. We were trying to make fire fall from the flint, but fire 
fell not. 

266. You possess fire in your field, therefore I discharged an 


267. It came near your fire. It arose and fell at the door of your 


268. The daughters have lifted it up and carried it away, 

Have you no sense, uncle? 

269. I sent my brother to fetch fire, and you ran to eat him. 

1270. If you had caught him, you would have eaten him up; 
and where should I have seen him again? 

27 1 . The uncle said, I made a mistake ; O nephew, the thing that 

I did is past. 

272. He replied, O uncle, I have killed sixteen scores of deer ! 

Go and eat their flesh as much as you like. 

273. Thus said Lingo. Then the old man said, Hear, O nephew, 

my word. There are seven sisters, my daughters; 

274. I have them here. Take them away. Having first bound 

their eyes, 

275. Lingo thence arose, and stood before the uncle and said, I 

am going uncle, 

276. Receive my salutation. Lingo thence went by the way to 

the house where the old man's daughters were. 

277. Having arrived, he stood at the door. Lingo appeared a 

youth of twelve years 

278. Or as sixteen years old; in front he looked foppish, like 

a young man ; 

279. From behind he looked like a devout Brahmin. He 

appeared as a good man. 

273. This is not supposed to convey any allusion to the seven sister goddesses of the 
Gonda and the lower classes of Hindus. 


280. The seven sisters from within the house came to Lingo, 

and regarded him 

281. As a young man. They came out and stood before" Lingo. 

282. Tell us, said the seven sisters, who art thou? tell us. 

283. He said, Thy father is rny uncle, and thy mother is my 


284. I am devout Lingo, the servant of God. I am Liugo. 

285. Hear, sisters ! my arrow came to your house and fell ; I 

have been in search of it for a long time. 

286. My four brothers are sitting in the jungle; and I have killed 

sixteen scores of deer; 

287. They are also in the jungle, and my brothers arc sitting 

near them. 

288. I have come here for are: it is very late. 

289. My brothers must be expecting fire; they must have felt 


290. Anc! thirsty they must have become; where will they get 


291. Thus said Lingo. T ' a the seven sisters, what did they 

begin to say. 

292. Hear, brother, our word. Thou art a son to uncle, and we 

are daughters to aunt. 

293. There is a good relationship between you and us j how 

can you leave us ? 

294. We will come along with you; therefore, don't say No. 

295. If you like to come, be ready soon, and take the onward 

road, said Lingo. 

296. They took the bedding for tLair beds, and their clothes, 

and gave the arrow to Lingo. 

293, This is the Gondi idiom for expressing a desire for friecdly relations being establightd' 


297. Lingo in the front, and they in the rear, began to tread 

the way. 

298. The brothers wore sitting and looking, and saying when 

will he come ? 

299. They beheld him from a far; and said, Hear, O brothers, 

our Lingo appears ! 

300. They arose and looked, HHJ suv. Lingo, a^ii behind him 

the seven sisters. 

301. They said, With whose daughters, or whose daughters- 


302. Is he coming ? Look, brethren ! they are of good 


303. If Lingo give them to us, we would make them our 

wives. So said the brethren. 

304. Lingo came near and stood, and said, Hear, brethren, 

my word ! 

305. These seven sisters are the daughters of our uncle: they 

have come ; 

306. Take out your knives, and give to them the livers of the 


307. They took out the livers: some brought faggots and 

enkindled fire; 

308. On its blaze they roasted flesh, and set it on the ground. 

309. Offer this liver in the name of God. 

310. So said the four brothers. Lingo arose. 

311. They began to eat, while Lingo did not eat. Then he said, 

312. Let the save a sisters quickly go bacl: 7 their father will 

abuse them. 

313. Hear, sisters! Go qnickly, or else your mother will 

abuse you. 

309, This offering of the liver to God seems to have been borrowed from the Hindus. 


314 They replied, and said, Hear, Tango! Thou who art 
called good, may we call you bad ? 

315. We will not go, we will stay. Whither thou shalt go, 

thither we will follow thee. 

316. The brethren said, Hear, Lingo, these seven sisters 

Bay well ! 

317. Say thou yes to them, O brother, we will marry them. 

318. We will make them our wives. Hear, Lingo, such is 

our word. 

319. He said, Take these as wives in marriage, and I shall be 

greatly pleased. 

320. Take them here in marriage, I will give you leave to 

make them your wives. 

321. They said, If you see any one of them to be good-looking, 

you take her. 

322. If any be inferior, we will take her. 

323. He said, Hear my word, brothers ! I do not need this. 

324. I promised to give them to you ; they are of no use to me. 

325. So, said Lingo, if you marry them they will serve me. 

326. They will be my sisters-in-law. You are older, and I am 


327. They can give me water and bread, and spread a bed 

for me : 

328. I will sleep on it. They can give me a bath; my clothes 

they will wash. 

329. They will be my sisters-in-law, and like my mothers 

they shall be. 

330. So said Lingo. When Lingo said they will be my 

mothers, the suspicion of the four vanished. 

331. They went to Lingo, and asked him: Lingo, marry us 

quickly ! 


332. If you marry us, then they are seven sisters, and we are 

four brothers. 

333. Distribute to each of us a wife, Lingo. 

334. He said the three elder should marry two each, and the 

youngest, one only. 

335. Then said Lingo, Hear, my word, brethren ! In this jungle 

336. And in this plain how can we make preparation ; we have 

our town, namely Kachikopa Lahugad : 

337. We will go there and make preparations for the marriage. 

338. So said Lingo. When they heard this, they departed. 

339. They walked in front, and the (women) walked behind. 

340. They came to their village Kachikopa Lahugad, and 

began to make 

341. Preparations. There were no men or women ; then Lingo 

brought water. 

342. He bathed them, boiled turmeric and gave them, and 

pounded saffron. 

343. He erected a bower, and tied garlands of leaves round it. 

344. He called the four brothers to sprinkle turmeric round 


345. He applied turmeric to the four brothers and the seven 


346. He said we cannot marry all at once. Hear, brothers. 

347. Let us marry one set only at first, and the rest shall work 

with us (for that occasion). 

348. Then shall the marriage of the second set take place. 

349. Those who have been already married shall now help us 

(ia this marriage ceremony), and so on. 

350. Thus said Lingo ; and the four consented to it. 

351. Thus ended the marriage. When some days passed, the 

eldest brother said, Hear my word, O brethren. 

352. Lingo has done good to us, and brought wives to our 


353. But Lingo is without a wife : he thought of our good, 

but not of his own, 

354. So we will reckon him as our father. 

355. We will kill game, and bring flowers for Lingo. Let him 

sit in a swing. 

356. So said the four brothers, 

357. Lingo sat in a swing, and the seven sisters swung the 


358. The four brothers took their bows and arrows, and repaired 

to the jungle. 

359. After that, what happened? The seven sisters said within 

themselves, Hear, sisters. This Lingo 

360. Is our husbands* younger brother, and we are his sisters- 

in-law ; we are at liberty to laugh with him ; 

361. We can pull him by the hand, and we can make him to 

speak with us. 

362. Lingo does not laugh with us ; he neither speaks nor 

looks towards us ; he has closed his eyes : 

353. But he shall laugh, and we will play with him. So saying, 

864. Some held his hand, and some his feet, and pulled him, 
but Lingo moved not his eyes ; 

365. He did not speak or laugh with them. 

366. Then Lingo said to them, Hear, sisters. You have held 

my hands 

864. This marriage bower is characteristic of the Gonds : but is not unknown to the 


367 . And feet, and pulled them ; but remember you are my 


368. You are my mothers; why do you deal so with me? I am 

God's servant. 

369. I don't care though my life be sacrificed, but I will not 

speak with you, nor look at you, nor laugh with you. 
So said Lingo. Having heard this, 

370. The eldest sister said, Hear, O sisters. Lingo speaks not 

to us, looks not towards us. 

371. They began to embrace him. Then Lingo became angry : 

the anger ascended from the heel to his head ; 

372. Thence descended into his eyes and down to his feet. 

Lingo looked before him 

373. But saw nothing, save a pestle for cleaning rice. 

374. He descended from off his swing and took the pestle in 

his hand, 

375. And soundly flogged his sisters-in-law. As he was beating 


376. The seven sisters began to flee before him like bellow- 

ing cows. 

377. Thence he returned, and having come to his swing, 

378. In a swing he slept. Thus these seven sisters had received 

a sound beating. 

379. They returned to their house, and having each one gone 

to her room, 

380. The seven sisters slept in seven places j and Lingo slept in 

a swing. 

381. Thus noontide came, and the time for the returning of 

the four brothers arrived. 

382. Some of them had killed an antelope, some a hare, some 

a peafowl, 


383. Some a quail ; some brought flowers. 

384. They came into their house and set their burdens down, 

and said, Let us go to our Lingo ; 

385. We will give him flowers ; he may be expecting us. They 

entered the house. 

386. They came near Lingo and stood, and saw him sleeping. 

387. They said, There is no one here. Lingo is sleeping; our 

wives do not appear. 

388. Then we will come and awake Lingo. Thence they 


389. To their houses, and going to their rooms, they began to 


390. They (the women "> were feigning sleep, and panting, as 

if fear had come upon them. Then the husbands asked 

391 Why are you sleeping? and why don't you swing Lingo? 
They replied, Hear our words 

392. How Lingo, your brother, dealt with us. How long shall 

we hide this disgrace f 

393. He allows you to go to the jungle, and behind your back 

he shamefully maltreats us. 

394. Such is the conduct of this Lingo. We have kept quiet 

till to-day ; 

395. Now we will not stop quiet We will go back to our 

father's place. 

396. We will not stay here. Can one woman have two 


397. The brethren said, We told Lingo at the first 

398. That there were seven sisters, and that he might choose 

one from amongst them, 

399. And that we would marry the rest. But he said, 

400. They are my sisters, they are my mothers. 

401. Thus said that sinner, wicked and ill-conducted, that 



402. While we were out hunting, he deceived us. We will take 

403. Him to the jungle, and, having killed him, we will pull 

.out his eyes. 

404. Up to this day we have killed antelope and hares; 

405. But to-day we go to hunt Lingo, and after killing him we 

will take out his eyes, 

406. And we will play with them as with marbles; and then 

we will eat food and drink water. 

407. Then they carne to Lingo, and stood before him and said, 

Rise, O Lingo, our youngest brother ! 

408. Lingo said, Why, brethren, why have you not brought 

the game and the flowers to me ? and why have you 
come so soon ? 

409. They said. There is a large animal ; we hunted it hard, 

but it did not fall: 

410. It does not flee, it stands still only ; we are tired of dis- 

charging our arrows at it. 

411. Lingo arose from the swing and sat, and looked towards 

his brothers. 

412. I will kill that animal. So said Lingo. 

413. Lingo thence arose and came out of the house, and said, 

Come, brothers. Where is the animal ? 

414. In front Lingo, and in rear the four brothers walked 

towards the jungle. 

415. It is a very large animal, said they; and saying thus, they 

searched for it among trees and grass. 

416. Lingo said, If it has gone, let it go. 

417. Lingo went under a Char tree and sat. Then they said, 

O brother ! 

418. Sit here, and we will bring water. So saying, yonder they 


419. Being amongst the trees, they said among themselves, 

Good Lingo is seated in the shade, 


420. This is the right time to effect our desire. The four took 
four arrows and shot : 

42 i. One arrow hit the head, anl the head split open ; 

422. One hit the neck, and it bowed down ; one hit the liver, 

and it was cleft. 

423. Thus Lingo breathed his last ! 

424. The four brothers came up to Lingo and stood, 

425. And said, Draw a knife, and we will take out his eyes. 

They drew out a knife and 

426. Took out his two eyes, and said, Cover him. 

427. So they took some twigs and covered Lingo % 

428. Then they said, We have tilled Lingo, who was wicked. 

429. They plucked some green leaves of the trees and made a 

cup of them, 

430. And placed in it the two eyes of Lingo, and one tied it to 

his waistband. 

431. They walked towards their house, and at evening time 

they arrived home. 

432. One said, Hear, wives ! Kindle fire quickly, 

433. And light a lamp. They drew the stalks of flax from 

the eaves of the house roof and enkindled fire. 

434. One said, It is a fine light, let us play at marbles. 

435. They took out both the eyes, and said, O seven sisters ! 

you also join in play. 

436. They brought the eyes, and placed one on the east side, 

and the other on the west ; 

437. And the brethren, sitting close, held the marbles between 

the joints of their fingers. 

438. Then began to play at marbles with the two eyes ; and 

their game lasted an hour. 


The revival of Lingo, and his dtlivery of the Gonds from 


1. What did god (Bhagawan) do now? 

2. Bayetal, Pharsi Pen, what did they in the upper world? 

3. In the courts of god all the minor divinities sat. 

4. God spake to them Hear, O friends, Can you tell in what 

world the body (of Lingo) is fallen ? 

5. Will any of you trace it and go on this errand ? 

6. They made the preparation of betelnut, and threw it before 

the saints. 

7. God said, Take this up, and come and tell me. 

8. But none of the saints took it up. 

9. Then God became angry, and began to reproach them. 

10. God aros?, and with a potfuJ of water washed his hands 

arid feet. 

11. After washing, he, from the substance of his body created 

a crow, and sprinkled water of ambrosia on it, 

12. And thus made it alive, and named it Kagesur; and held it 

in his hand, 

13. And said, Go to the jungle, and make a search between 

hills, glens, lanes; amongst trees, in rivers, and water. 

14. Thence the crow departed, and roamed over the upper 


15. But did not find the body of Lingo anywhere; thence he 

came to the lower world and began his search. 

1. This scene in the courts of god above, must probably be of Hindu imagining, s.3 the 
word used is Bhagawan. But the great god of the Gonds may be meant ; only if that sup- 
position be entertained, it is observable that the Gond term Bura Deo is very seldom used, 

2. These are Gond gods. 

12. The crow's name Kagesur is apparently of Gond origin, 


16. When it came to the jungle of Kachikopa Lahugad, it 

searched in the valleys there. 

17. Its sight fell on the twigs, it came to them and sat, and 

searched the twigs. 

18. It saw Lingo lying there looking as if smashed, and 

without eyes. 

19. This the crow observed, and flew away and came to the 

upper world. 

20. Perching on god's hand, it sat. God asked it, Where have 

you seen him ? 

21. It said I came to the jungle of Kachikopa Lahugad, I saw 

a man there in a cave, 

22. When god heard this he became silent, and understood 

the truth of it; 

23. And then said, It was in that very jungle that Lingo was 

born Irom a flower of the tree. 

24. And has never been there since. He took nectar 

25. From out of his fingers and called Kurtao Subal, and said 

to him: 

26. Take this and sprinkle on the liver, belly, and head of the 


27. Thus, the crow in front, and Kurtao Subal behind, went to 

Kachikopa Lahugad. 

28. Kurtao Subal said, Hear, O crow. Here is my Lingal. 

29. Ambrosia was brought, and droppe 1 into his mouth, and 

sprinkled over his head and body: then Lingal's head 
legan 10 unite, 

30. And his flesh became warm. 

31. Lingo rose 

32. And sat up. Looking towards the crow, he said, I was fast 

asleep ; 

33. Where are my brothers? 

34f. I see only a man and a crow, and I don't see my brothers. 
After this 

35. Kurtao Subal replied, Where are your brothers? 


36. You were dead, your body was lying here; we came and 

restored you to life; 

37. The brothers you enquire about have killed you, and gone 


38. Then said Kurtao Subal, what do you say to going? Lingal, 

addressing the crow, said 

39. I will go to my sixteen scores of Gonds. 

40. I will go and see them, and speak to them. 

41. The crow and Kurtao Subal started in one direction, 

42. And Lingo took another road. 

43. Lingo, while crossing the mountains and jungle, was 


44. Then Lingo said, I will stay here alone; 

45. Tigers and bears may devour me. 

46. He went to a large Niroor tree. 

47. When he climbed to the top, the night came on : 

48. Wild cocks crowed, peacocks cried, antelopes were afraid, 

49. And bears wagged their heads, jackals yelled, and the 

jungle resounded. 

50. At midnight Lingo saw the moon, and said to himself: 

51. The day is approaching, and while the stars are still visible, 

I will ask them about my Goads. 

52. At the third watch of the night, the cock crowed: 

53. The morning star appeared, the sky became red. 

54. Lingo, descending from the tree, ran towards the sun and 

saluted him ; 

55. And said, 1 want to know where my sixteen scores of Gonds 


56. The sun said, I am engaged in the service of God during 

the four watches of the day, 

39. The number of sixteen scores of Gonds, which frequently recurs, is doubtless intended 
for Borne original tribal sub-division of the people, although the number may not bo reconcil- 
able with the tribes as now declared toexisi.- See for farther specification, Parts IV. and7. 


57. And have not seen your Gonds. 

58. Lingo went to the inoon, 

59. Saluted and asked her if she knew anything 

60. About his sixteen scores of Gonds. The moon replied : 

61. I travel all night, and during the day am engaged in the 

service of God ; 

62. Therefore I know not. 

63. Lingo then went to black Kumayat, 

64. Saluted him, and asked him, where are my sixteen scores of 


65. He replied: Hear, Lingo: Mention about anyone but Gonds. 
6(5. The Gonds are foolish like the ass. 

67. They oat cats, mice, and bandicoots; 

68. They also eat pigs and buffaloes ; they are of such a bad 


69. Why do you ask me about them? 

70. At the source of the Jumna river, on the Dhawalagiri 


71. Mahadewa has caught the Gond?, 

72. And has confined them in a cave, and shut its mouth with 

a stone of sixteen cubits long. 

73. Basmnpur the giant has^ been appionted to guard it and 

watch the place. 

74. After hearing this, Lingo set out, and walked night and 

75, Making devotion. After twelve months had expired, the 

term of his devotion was complete, 

76. When the golden seat of Mahadewa began to shake (from 

the effects of Lingo's devotion). 

63. This* name blacik Kumayat is obscure, It is believed to refer tj some Hindu saint, 
especially if taken in connexion with the remark that follows. 

67. Tliis severe remark upoa the Gond people in doubtless of Hindu derivation. 


77. Then Mahadewa said, What devotee has come to Dhawal- 

agiri and has performed devotions to me, 

78. Rendering me under obligation to him ? 

79. As he was wondering and searching, 

80. He went towards Lingo, stood at a distance, and recog- 

nized him. 

81. Lingo did not shake his head, or lift his foot, or open 

his eyes. 

82. His flesh was consumed ; his bones only remained. Thus 

Lingo was found on the thorns. 

83. Whereupon Mahadewa said, 

S4f. What do you ask for ? ask what you wish, and it will be 

85. Lingo replied: 

86. I want nothing but my sixteen scores of Gonds. 

87. Mahadewa replied: 

88. Make no mention of Gonds; ask for any kingdom, or for 

any amount of money which you can enjoy, 

89. And remember me. Thus said Mahadewa: To which 

Lingo did not agree. 

90. On his again asking for the Gonds, Mahadewa disappear- 

ed and consented to give them to him, 

91. Saying: Hear, Lingo. Your Gonds are below the earth, 

take them away. 

92. Lingo rose, saluted him, and went on. After this, 

93. Narayansaid: Hear, Mahadewa: All these Gonds 

94. Were well concealed and were forgotten; if they were 

dead, it would be a pleasure to me. 

95. If they come out alive from below the earth, they will act 

as usual: 

96. They will eat buffaloes, birds, such as pigeons, crows and 

eagles, and vultures. 

82. The phrase, on the thorns, alludes to a heap of thorns which the devotee prepared in 
order that he might lie on them by way of penance. 

96. This and the following lines contain reflections on the Gonds from a Hindu point of view. 


97. They will alight here and there; smells will arise, bones 
will be scattered, and make the earth look very bad. 

8. The respect for mount Dhawalagiri will be lost. 

99. Mahadewa, hearing this, replied: Hear, Narayan, I have 
passed my word. 

100. I have erred, but will DOT change my word. 

101. Narayan then addressed Lingo: 

102. Hear, Lingo. Bring mo ihe young ones of the black bird 

Bmdo lor an offering ; 

103. After that you may take the Gonds away. 

104. Lingo went and reached the sea, where there was nothing 

but water visible; 

105. And on the shore he saw the young ones of the black 

bird. The parent bird 

106. Had gone to the jungle. This bird was such, that 

107. For food it killed the elephant, and ate its eyes; and 

breaking its head, brought the brains for the young 
ones to eat. 

108. There had been seven broods, at seven different times; 

109. But they had been devoured by a sea-serpent, called the 

Bhowrnag. Lingo went near. 

110. After seeing the young ones, he said to himself: If I take 

them in the 

111. Absence of their parents, I shall be called a thief; I will 


. Take thorn in the presence of the parents, and will be 
true to my name. 

113. He slept near the young ones with comfort. 

114. A large snake, as thick as the trunk of the Itumna tree* 


105, The episode about the bird Bindo, and the sea-serpent, and the shore of the ocean, 
cannot be of Gond origination. The ideas and the imagery are quite bejond the Gonds. 
The fable must be derived from the Hindus, though 1 am not sure that the name Bindo 
occurs in their books. However, there is a great bird in Hindu mythology, described 
as "the king of the feathered tribe and the remorseless enemy of the serpent race." But 
his name ia Garuda. See H. H. Wilson's Viahuu Pur&na, page 1 49. 


115. With a hood as large as a basket for winnowing corn. 

This serpent, called the Bhowrnag, came out of the 
water to eat the young ones. 

116. The young ones were terrified on seeing the serpent, and 

began to cry. 

117. Lingo, taking an arrow, and fixing it in his bow, 

118. Shot the serpent, and then cut it into seven pieces, which 

he immediately 

119. Brought and laid at the head of his bed, and covered 

them up. 

120. Then the male and female of the black bird returned from 

the jungle. 

121. They brought the carcase of some camels and some 

elephants, together with some eyes and lips of elephants, 

122. As food for their young ones. 

123. But the young ones refused to eat; 

124. When the female said to the male; 

125. Notwithstanding my having had young seven times, 

126. I am like a barren she-buffalo; if these young ones are 


127. I shall be like a mother of children. What evil eye has 

been cast on 

128. My young ones, that they do not eat! 

129. The male bird, alighting from the tree, saw a white 

object lying below, where was Lingo. 

130. He then exclaimed: Here is a man, and that is why our 

young ones do not eat. 

131. Let us kill him and extract his brains; 

132. Our young ones will then take their food. 

133. Hearing this, the young ones said: 

134. You have brought food for us, but how shall we eat it? 

You are our parents, 

135. You leave us alone, and go away to the jungle; 

136. Who is there to protect us? 


137. The serpent came to eat us. 

138. This man whom you see, has saved our lives. 

139. Give him first to eat, we will then take our food; unless 

he eats, we will not eat. 

140 After hearing what the young ones said, 

141. The mother flew down from the tree, and coming near 


142. And lifting up the cloth with which he had covered 

himself, saw tht seven pieces of the Bhowrnag serpent. 

143. Seeing this she began to exclaim: 

144. This is the serpent that, has always eaten my young ones, 

and rendered me childless ! 

145. Had this man not been here it would have devoured these 


146. Addressing Lingo, she said: Rise father, rise brother; 

who are you, and 

147. Where have you come from ? You have saved the lives of 

our young ones, and you have become our grandfather. 

143. Whatever you say, we will listen to it. 

149. He said: 

150. O bird, I am a devotee, a worshipper of the Deity. 

151. Tell us, the bird said, what has brought you here. 

152. Lingo replied, I want your young ones. 

153. On hearing this the bird began to cry bitterly, 

154. And, opening her eye?, she said: 

155. I would give you anything 

156. Except my young ones. 

157. Lingo said: 

158. I will take your young ones merely to show them to 


159. In reply to this, the black Bindo said: 


160. If Mahadewa wants us, I am ready to go. 

161. Saying this, the female bird carried the young ones on 

one wing, 

162. And Lingo on the other. The male Bindo then said, 

Hear me, Lingo; 

163. You will feel the effects of the sun, why then should I 

remain here ? 

164. The female Bindo then flew towards the sea, 

165. The male Bindo flying over her, and using his wings as 

a shelter for Lingo. 

166. It ^as six months' journey to the residence of Mahadewa; 

but starting in the morning 

1 67. They alighted at mid-day in the court- yard of Mahadewa. 

168. Narayan seeing them from the door, went to Mahadewa 

and said : 

169. Here is Lingo and the black Bindo birds which he has 


170. Mahadewa exclaimed: Narayan! 

171. I foresaw this, and you would not believe me when I 

told you 

172. That Lingo would bring the birds. 

173. Mahadewa then said: Hear, Lingo: I give you back 

your sixteen scores of Gonds ; 

174. Take them, and go away. 

175. Lingo then saluted Mahadewa and went to the cave, and 

taking the name of the Great god, 

176. And that of the god Rayetal, he made Basmasur, tihe 

giant, to walk in front of him. 

177. Reaching the cave, he lifted up the stone, sixteen cubits 

long, and laid it aside. 

178. The Gonds coming out of the cave and seeing Lingo, 


179. We have no one but you. 

175. This is the Bura Deo, or Great god of the Gonds. 

176. Reyetal is a Gond god. 


180. Mahadewa gave flour of wheat to some, flour of millet 

to others, 

181. And rice to others. 

182. The Gonds went to the river and began preparing their 


183. Some of the Gonds said that they had been confined and 

punished severely. 

184. On hearing this, Lingo said: 

185. You are now at the river, cook and eat, and then complain. 


The subdivision by Lingo of the G^rds into tribes, and the 
institution of the worship of the Gond gods. 

1. Lingo kneaded the flour and made it into a thick cake, 

and cooked pulse, and satisfied all the Gonds. 

2. Then clouds arose, and it began to rain. 

3. When the rivers flooded and the flood began to roll, all 

the Gonds spoke : 

4. O Lingo, much rain has come up and is falling. 

5. Then all these Gonds began to walk in the middle of the 


6. From among all these Gonds, four persons with Lingo 


7. Lingo, having seen this, began to say: Hear, brethren ; 

8. This river is flooded, how shall we cross it ? 

9. More clouds came up, and darkness fell, 

10. When those four persons and Lingo began to speak 

1 1. Hear, O brethren, what shall we do, and how shall we go 

on ? the day is departing. 

12. Now Dame the tortoise, and Pusi the alligator, were playing 

in the water. 

1.3. They came to them out of the water, and began to speak: 

14. Hear, O brethren, why do you silently stand and cry ? 

1 5. They said : Our sixteen scores of Gonds have all gone, and 

we only have remained ; 

16. O brethren, how shall we go ? They said : Sit on us, and 

we will take you across. 

6. The four persons who remained with Lingo when the rest crossed the river seem tp 
be the same a3 the four who remained behind when all the rest entered the cave. See 
Part I., line 79. 

12, The episode of the tortoise and the alligator is of Gond origin. The Gonds are said 
to hold the tortoise sacred even now, and never to catch it themselves, and even to procure 
its release if caught by others. 


17. If you keep your oath we will take you across the river. 

18. They replied: Hear, O sisters. You are Pusi the alligator, 

and you are Dame the tortoise. 

19. These four persons who are before you will keep their 

oath first of all. 

20. If any beat you we will not allow it, or if any (try to) 

catch you we will prevent it. 

21. You shall be the eldest sister of us four persons, said they. 

22. Dame the tortoise, and Pusi the alligator, came before the 

face (of the Gonds), and those persons sat on the alligator's 
back, leaving Lingo alone to sit on the back of the tortoise, 

23. The alligator went first, and then followed the toitoise in 

the flood. 

24. The wicked alligator, having taken them into the midst of 

the water, began to drown them. 

25. They began to cry. Then the tortoise spoke : Hear, O Lingo. 

26. Stretch thy hand and drag them off, and make them sit on 

my back. 

27. Lingo, having stretched his hand, caught them and dragged 

them away, and made them sit on the tortoise's back. 

28. Then the tortoise took the four men on his back and went 

across the river; 

29. And they fell at its feet, and said: Hear, O tortoise, we will 

not become faithless to you. 

30. Then those four went by a jungly path, and ascended 

one hill, 

31. And descended another. Thus they went forward. 

32. They began to cut trees and build houses, and they remained 

(not together), but here and there. 

33. Fields and houses were formed by the Gonds, and that 

town became large. 

33. From this line to line 37 is a description of the scattered settlements made by the 
Gonds in the forests. Th imino Nar Bhumi is the Gondi term for a city ; it has no further 


49. Then (that man) became Manawaja. Then he caught 

another by the hand, and said: Become, O friend, Dahuk- 

50. And he became Dahukwaja. He then caught 

51. Another by the hand, and said: O friend, Be Koilabutal; 

and he became Koilabutal. 

52. Then he caught another by the hand, and said: You become 

a wild Koikopal ; 

53. And he became Koikopal. Thus the four scores were 


54. Out of the remaining twelve bands, four more were sepa- 

rated : 

55. The first band he made to be Koorkus, and the others he 

made to be Bhils. 

56. The third he made to be Kolami, and tke fourth he made 

to be Kotolyal. Thus eight bands 

57. Were divided. There (still) remained eight bands. Then 

what followed ? After the third of the month Weishak 

58. Arrived, then Lingo said: Come, O brethren, we cannot 

see God 

59. Anywhere; let us make a god, and we will worship him. 

60. Then all the Gonds with one voice 

61. Said Yes, brethren, bring a goat 

62. Five years old, a crowing cock one year old, a three year 

old calf, a cow 

48. Manawaja means ouo who casts and fashions the images of the gods. The exact 
derivation of the term is not ascertainable. It is the name of a class, or perhaps even of a 
tribe among the Gonds. 

49. Dalinkwaja, the term means drum-sounding, and is applied to a particular tribe 
among the Gonds. 

51. Koilabutal is the actual name of one of the tribes of the Gonds. 
53. Koikopal is also the name of a tribe. 

65. Koorlcu is the name of a tnbo inhabiting the same hills as the Gonds, but supposed 
to be distinct from them in race, and certainly distinct from them in language. The name 
Bhil refers to ths well-kn^wn tribs of that name, who are, however, considered to be distinct 
from the Gonds, and inhabit the hills to the westward of the Gond country. 

56. The name Kolami belongs to one of the regular Goad tribes. Kotolyal is the name 
of a tribe also : the word is derived from th<i Gondi word for a log of wood. 

57. The month Weishak (May) is borrowed from the Hindus. The Gonds have no names 
of tLeir own for the months. 


34. A bazaar (periodical market) was held in Nar Bhumi (the 

name of the town). 

35. Then Lingo began to say: Hear, O brethren. If you will 

sow millet, it will spring up. 

36. Thus twelve months passed, and Nar Bhumi began to 

appear excellent. 

37. Those who had no bullocks received them. 

38. Those who had no carts received carts : thus all the houses 

of the city became prosperous. 

39. All the Gonds came to Lingo, and sat close to each other 

in rows, 

40. While Lingo stood in the midst of them, and began to 

speak : 

41. Hear, O brethren. All you Gonds understand nothing. 

42. You do not know whom to call brother, and whom father, 

43. Or other relative ; from whom to ask a daughter, and to 

whom to give your daughter; 

44. With whom to laugh. Then those Gonds began to say: 

45. O Lingo, you possess great and good understanding; do 

as you 

46. Have said with all your might, and make tribes of us. 

47. Then Lingo, out of the sixteen scores of the Gonds, sepa- 

rated four scores, and told them to rise. 

48. He caught one of them by the hand, and said: O friend, 

become Manawaja. 

34. This bazaar is an exact allusion to the periodical markets (on some fixed day of the 
week), which are to this day held by the hill people, even amongst the wilds of the mountains. 

35. The command of Lingo to the Gonds to sow millet (jowaree) is in advertence to their 
progress in agriculture. Their practice is first to sow rice, which is easily produced. As 
their resources increase, they begin to raise a little millet, which requires more care and 

37 and 38. Though the words are simple, merely that the Gonds received bullocks, 
and then cart?, yet they are pregnant with actual meaning, which is this. In tlie earliest 
stages the Gonds lived first on fruit and game, as described in Part I. Then, as specified 
in Part II, line 63, et passim, they cut down trees, and burn them for ashes, which fertilizes 
the ground, and makes it yield, from seed iff own without ploughing or other agricultural 
operation. As they advance they begin to cultivate with bullocks and ploughs; and then, 
lastly, as their villages improve, they use carts to carry grain to market, and especially to 
convey the wild fruits and other produce of the jungles. These several stages of progress 
are visible to this day among the the Gonds. 

47. Though this and the subsequent lines refer to some tribal distribution, yet the 
division must not be regarded as at all complete; and it only partially corresponds with the 
best received specification of the twelve Gond tribes. 


63. 'Two years old; and call two of the 

64. Manozas (bards). Then they named one god Ghagara Pen 

^the Bell god). 

65. Lingo said : Bring a chouri (fan) made from the tail of the 

wild cow. 

66. Then, said Lingo, open the shop (of the ironsmith), and 

make the god Parsapot of steel. 

67. Go to the jungle and cut a bamboo stick, and bring it. 

68. Keep their god in Dhanegaon, and the seven sisters, god- 

desses (satiks), in Anegaon. 

69. In the morning, Lingo arose and went to a river and bathed, 

and wore a dhote (cloth round the loins), 

70. And applied the tika (sacred mark) to his forehead. What I 

says he. Hear, O brethren, to the Ozas (bards'). 

71. Call two Dahaking drummers ; and they called them, and 

brought the Stick god. Then 

72. Lingo bound the Chain god to the stick, and placed 

another stick in the god Pharsapot ; and the Gung&wan 
Chawor (the cow-tailed fan) was waved over it ; 
and with joined hands then said: Hail ! Pharsa (Pen). 

73. He lifted the stick, and the gods Manko Rayetal, Jango 


74. And Pharsa Pen came and stood (there) ; and Lingo was 

possessed of them. 

75. Then Lingo became a man devoted to god, and moved and 

jumped much : 

76. Lingo (was) in front, and behind were goats, cocks, a calf. 

And all the Gonds 

C4. Manoza, or Oza, are regular names for the bards or minstrels, so common amongst 
the Gonds. The Ghagara Pen, or Bell god, is one of the Gond gods, formed by stringing 
together a set of small tinkling bells. 

65. This sacred fan (Gun^lwan Chour, or Chowri) is well known among the Gonds; but 
the idea is believed to be borrowed from tho Hindus. 

66. The god Pharsapot, or Pharsa Pen, is represented by a spear, and is one of the regular 
Gond gods. Pharsa also means a trident in Gondi. Iron-ore is obtained in most parts of 
the Gond country. 

67. This is the Stick god, well known among the Gonds, and represented by a bamboo. 

(The bamboo is plentiful generally in the Gond country. 
68. Dhanegaon and Anegaon are names of villages without any particular meaning. The 
seven sisters are goddesses, well known to the common Hindus as well as to the Gonds. 

72. The Chain god is represented simply by an iron chain, and is worshipped by the 
Gonds under the name of S&kla Pen. 

73. Manko Rayetal and Jango Rayetal are known to be members of the Gond pantheon. 
The Pardhan Wjho recites this Song declares them to bo the wives of the god Pharga Pen, 


77. Assembled in one place. Having left the village Dhanegaon, 

78. They came, and began to say this is a thick jungle. 

79. Then the Gonds (called on the gods) to stand still. 

80. They fell at the feet of the gods, and asked where they 

should make seats for the gods of each band. 

81. Then all the Gonds came in front and, with joined hands, 


82. And began to ask Pharsa Pen; who replied: Hear, O 


83. Between twelve glens and seven dales go, and make place 

for (us gods). 

84. Then in front went the Stick god, and behind followed all 

the Gonds. 

85. They arrived, and after alighting they began to pick up 

grass and lift stones. 

86. Then said Lingo, 

87. Hear, O brethren. Do you see yonder a 

88. Bijesal tree ? Go and cut it, and make a kettle-drum from 

its wood. They, taking an axe, went and cut it, 

89. Some held a pitcher, and brought a pitcherful of water; 

some digged earth, and 

90. Made a platform, and placed on it the Stick god. Some said : 

Our drum is not ready, 

91. Burn this fire in front and light the lamp. 

79. The Gonds calling on the gods to stand still has a particular meaning, vrhich is 
The people are marching in a sort of rude procession into the heart of the forest; and their 
gods, consisting of a sacred string of bells, a sacred spear, a sacred chain,' a sacred bambdo 
stick, and a sacred fan, being waved about, are being carried by priests and bearers along with 
the multitude. Then the bearers of these consecrated emblems are ordered to stop ; and 
thus it is phrased that the gcds are made to 'stand still. 

81. This standing on on one leg and with joined hands is a Gond practice, probably learnt 
by them from Hindu devotees. 

83. The twelve hills and the seven dales are the same as those mentioned in the opening 
line of Part I. It is an established phrase among the Gonds. 

84. The Stick god leading the way, means that the sacred bamboo was carried in front. 
88 The Bijesal (Pterocarpus Marsupium) tree s still common among the Gond forest*. 


92. They wetted five tolas' weight of vermilion in ghee, and 

threw five tolas of ral (resin) on the fire. 

93. Then sat Lingo with joined hands before the god 

Ghangara ( the bell god). 

94. Ghangarang began to jump about, and possessed the body 

of Lingo. Pharsa Fen began to play also. 

95. Then they took a pitcherful of daru (liquor), 

96. And spriDkled it on the stick, and said : Hail to you 

Fharsa Fen ! 

97. And, with joined hands, they fell at his feet. While 

they were falling at his feet, 

98. The god Ray etal possessed the body of Lingo, who moved 

and danced much. 

99. Then he began to speak thus: Bring to me victims, 

100. Goats of five years old. After bringing the goat they fell 

at its feet 

101. And washed its head, and applied vermilion, and poured 

daru (liquor J into its ears. 

102. Then after catching the goat by the feet, they threw it 

before the god : 

103. And the god Rayetal possessed the body of the goat, which 

began to shake its head, ears, and whole frame very 

104. Then two or four persons ran and caught it, and threw 

it down 

105. Before the god, and killed it. Then blood was sprinkled 


106. And they placed the head before the god, and took the 


107. Then a white cock, a year old, was brought, and they 

killed it. 

98. Rayetal is the Sun god among the Gonds. 

100. The lines which follow give an account of the iacrificial ceremonies stiD used by 
the Gonds. 


108. And began to play a good tune on the Kingree (one- 

stringed guitar) and the drum. 

109. The god derived pleasure therefrom. Then two feet of 

110. A calf were washed, and fso) was its mouth; vermilion 

was applied to its forehead. 

111. (Then) they threw them (the other animals) down, and 

killed them too. 

112. The head of the calf was placed before the god. Then 

said Lingo : Hear, O brethren ; 

113. Kemove quickly the skin cf the calf and roast its liver. 

114-. They brought stones and made an oven, and placed a 
pitcher on it. 

115. The pitcher was filled with water, and flesh was put in it. 

116. The leaf of the Eyn tree (was) cut and brought, and made 

into plates. 

117. And in a brass plate they placed cooked rice, liver, flesh, 

and they lighted four lamps, and took and placed them * 
before the gods. 

118. Some made an offering of silver pieces as a present to 

the god. 

119. Thus a heap of silver up to the knee (of a man) was 

gathered before the god. 

120. Then ( Lingo; spoke: Hear, O brethren: The offerings are 

goud iu the courts of the god. 

121. (There is) no one to receive these offerings. 

122. Hear, O brethren : From the midst of all (these Gonds) 

some one should become a Pardhan, 

123. And we will give (this offering) to him. 

124. Then Lingo looked well among the company and (saw) an 

old, hoary haired man first of all ; 

12?. The introduction of the PardMn, a sort of priest among the Gonds, is here made 
by the Pardhdn who recites thia very Song, foi the glorification of himself and his claw. 
The-Paidhans are well known in thia capacity. 


125. And having looked on kim, held his hand and said: 

126. Become a Pardhdn, and we will give you much wealth and 


127. We will give you a horse, and whatever you ask us we 

will not refuse. 

128. Well, brother, (said the) old man, I am (fit for nothing but) 

to sit and eat. 

129. All saluted him ; and some gave clothes, some gave silver 


130. Some gave him a pipe. 

131. As they were rising, Lingo said : Hear, brethren and friends. 

132. Then (said they) what shall we do, brethren ? He rose, 

and made 

133. Seven persons out of them to stand aside, and said to them, 

You become a family of seven. 

134. He then made six persons to stand aside, 

135. (And said) You become a family of six. He took five 

more aside, 

136. And made them to stand, and breaking surface of the 

earth, a family of five were formed. 

137. To the remaining four he said: Be divided into families of 

four and five. 

138. After saying this, he reminded them to keep their promise 

with the tortoise. 

127. The present of a horse is a mark of high honour. The god Koda Pen, or horse-god, is 
ometimes worshipped by the Gonds, and sometimes there are sacred images of this animal 

128. The man here gives a true description of the character of the Pardhims, who ar* 
averse to any sort of industry. 

133 to 137. This arrangement of some of the people into families of seven, of six, of 
five, and of four, might at first appear obscure, but it refers to the division of the people 
into sects, who worship some, seven gods; some, six; some, five; some, four. It is well known 
that some Gonda are seven-god-worshippers, others six-god worshippers, and so on. 

138. The covenant with the tortoise refers to the episode mentioned in the preceiing 
line 12 of this Part. 


139. Then they all made salutation. Lingo said : O brethren, 

look yonder towards the gods. 

140. All persons looked behind, but Lingo vanished and went 

to the gods. 

141. While they were looking behind, they said: Where is our 

Lingo gone? 


The institution by Lingo of the rites of Marriage among the 


1. After the Pardhan had been made, he said: I will go to 

look for a partner (wife) for you Gonds. 

2. Lingo (told) the four Gonds, and all the Gonds, small and 

great, to gather in one place and hold a council; 

3. And said: Hear, O brethren ; I will send the Pardhan com- 

mune with him. 

4. Then they sent for water, and put rice in it. 

5. If the rice sticks or adheres, then we will send him ; if not, 

we will not send him. 

6. Then came all the Gonds, and stood before and behind 


7. (He said) cast two whola grains of rice in water. Then 

they threw rice in water. 

8. The two grains of rice joined one to the other. 

9. Then Lingo looked with his eyes, and said within himself: 

Just as I said, so it has happened; our marriage omen is 
good. Hear, brethren. 

10. (Let us) send our Pardhan to look for a wife, 

11. The Pardhan became ready, 

12. Lingo said: Hear, O Pardhan, to my word. Go to Kachi- 

kopa Lahugad, 

13. There are (many) Gonds; go to them only. 

14. When you reach their house, salute the head man; 

15. And say Lingo has sent salutation, may it reach you. 

1. It is still the recognized duty of a Pardhan to negotiate marriages among th Gonds, 

2. The four Gonds are doubtless the same as those who figured in Part I. at the cave, 
and in Part IV. in the river. They are chiefs. Beyond this there is no special meaning 

4. This description of the omen is the game as that still used by the Gonds. 


16. Hearing Lingo's words, the Pardhan departed, and begam 

to go on the way towards Kachikopa Lahugad. 

17. Having reached it, he stood before the house and saluted 

the head man, 

18. And said : I am your Pardhan, I was made Pardhan 

by Lingo your lord. 

19. Lingo has sent me to you, because he knows that you pos- 

sess daughters; to ask them in marriage he has sent 
me to you. 

20. If I ses a fit person I will join her in marriage. 


2L. Then the four brothers said: Give our salutation to Lingo, 
and tell him that we will not reject his proposals. 

22. Then went the Pardhda (back) to his town, and cams to 


23. And said to Lingo: They told me to tell you that whatever 

Lingo does, to that we will consent. 

24. Let him give our daughters to any ona (he likes}, said tha 

four brothers. . 

25. So the Pardhtin went to ask them for their daughters. 

26. When he reached the place, he saluted the landlord, and 

called for a pitcherful of water, and performed the omen. 

27. Then the four brothers saluted the (nsw) son-ia-law. 

28. After washing the feat of tli3 Pardlvai, thay male him to 

sit in their house. 

29. The Pardhan said: To make sure of this, (let us) go to the 

liquor shop. 

3). Whatever Ling) told the ParJhai about marriage cere- 
monies, so the Pardlia H now t,ell the Goals to do. 

31. Assemble five daughters and grind turmeric. 

32. Make an offering to the domestic gods first; 

33. Then (off^r) saffron to all other 'gods by their 


29. This refers to tha fatal habit araoag the Gonls of ratifyln^ereryoliing with a, drinking 
Tbout. Tha liquor is raaae from the flower of the Moha trea, so abuacUat in the Goad forests. 

30. The description of ths niiiviajje cjrarruaiaj, watch fjlk>YYi ; ia said to ba cjiv^b and 

31. Turmeric ia grown in the Goad country. 


34. Drink, wash the feet, (present) salutations, join your hands 

35. Spread the blanket, and make all the Gonds sit on it. Bring 

a pitcberful of liquor to the side of the bridegroom, 
and half a pitcher to that of the bride. 

36. Then make all the women, both small and great, sit down. 

37. Keep the full pitcher of liquor on the right side, and the 

half- full pitcher on the left, 

38. Call (for) two more pitchersful of liquor, and drink according 

to custom, 

39. Keep in a brass plate a lamp, some grains of rice, two pice, 

some betelnut, and a box of kuku (red powder), with 
gulal powder ( red ochre J. Apply a tika (sacred mark ) to 
the front of the pitcher, 

40. Then apply the mark to the pitcher-man, then to all the 


41. Break the pitcher, and let the women on the bride's side 


42. "A pair of blankets having been spread: father, you 

have lost your dearest daughter. 

43. father , for the love of liquor you have lost your dear 


44. Then distribute liquor cups, first to the pitcher -man, 

45. And after he has drunk, then to all the rest of the company. 

46. Salute (one another) and thus observe the custom. 

47. (Then should) follow eating and drinking. 

48. Next, at the time of departure, only those on the bride- 

groom's side must follow with the departing, and salute 

49. Embrace, and then return to your house; and when the 

bridegroom reaches his house, 

36. The spreading of these rough woollen blankets (sheep abound in the Gond country) is~ 
an integral part of the ceremonies, 

38. The frequent mention in this and in following lines of liquor and drinking, are in- 
dicative of the customs of the Gonds; and on these occasions the women drink as much 
as the men. 


50. Then his feet should be washed, and let all the guests on 

the bridegroom's side drink. 

51. What happens next? Women should grind turmeric. 

Then what song is to be sung ? 

52. The Bhawajai (brother's wife) should say, Sing the bride- 

groom's song ; and the bridegroom may say, Sing the 
Bhawajai's song. 

53. After this, let all (the women; sing let them grind saffron, 

and after making powder of it, 

54. Let the Bhawajai sing, and say, Brother, sing a song. 

55. After grinding saffron, wave a lamp ; and in a brass plate 

keep saffron, and the preparation of betel-leaf with a 
whole nut. 

56. Let there be a box of kuku (red powder), some grains of 

rice, and a waving lamp. 

57. Bring in a pot of water, and hold liquor in a bottle named 


58. Then depart from the house. Let musicians be in front, 

and let the bridegroom follow them 

59. With singing of songs. The saffron should be carried to 

the god Bhimsen; 

60. Then toMata, the goddess of the town; then to Matamai; 

fourthly, to the boundary gods. 

61. Fifthly, to the god Hanuman; sixthly to the Pandhari god; 

seventhly, to the manes of the dead; then sing a song 
to Bhirnsen. 

52. Bhawajai, the elder brother's wife, is always an important personage on these occasions. 
If there be no such person actually, then some female relative is chosen to take the part. 

57. Lauguyal is the common Gondi name for an earthen wine bottle. 

59. Bhimsen is, of courSfe, a Hindu mythological personage ; but he is venerated as a god 
by the Gonds. 

60. Mata and Matamai represent the small-pox : the names are doubtless borrowed from 
the Hindus, Mata is also one of the seven sisters alluded to in the preceding line 273, 
Part II. The fact of Mata being also the goddess of the town, indicates that the disease 
is frequently present and permanently dreaded, partly owing to the dirty and unwashed 
condition of the Gonds. The boundary gods merely allude to an imaginary demarcation 
among the hills ; the Gonds do not put up land -marks. 

61. Hanuman, the monkey god, is of course adopted from the Hindus. The Pandhari, the 
god of the land, is a Mahratta name. The shades of the dead (Sanyal Pen) are much 
venerated by the Gonds. 


62. 1 hen the song of oil offering should follow. 

63. Then visit the domestic god. Let the bridegroom put a 

ring and chain on his neck, 

64. And present grains of rice in his hand. 

65. Let one woman stand in front, and the rest behind him. 

66. Give a blanket to the bridegroom; apply the tika (mark) 

of rice. 

67. Then, what song will they sing ? That song will be thus: 

68. brother, apply rice to the father with laughing counte- 


69. Apply with a smile a tika to your mother, brother. 

70. Apply with a smile a tika to your sister, brother. 

71. Apply with a smile a tika to your grandfather, brother. 

72. Apply with a smile a tika to your grandmother, O brother. 

73. Apply with a smile a tika to your brother's wife, O brother. 

74. Then bring the bridegroom home and wash his feet, and 

make him sit down. 

75. Then sprinkle saffron (water) and apply saffron to the bride- 


76. What song shall we now sing? Pardhan, our household 

priest, sing thus : 

77. Tell, O father, tell us some story about our ancestors. 

78. At bathing what song will they sing ? They will sing thus : 

" Your body 

79. fs like the plantain pith, and elegant is the nose of our 

brother.* 1 

80. Let the (bridegroom) bathe, and let all the (women) sing. 

66. The tika mentioned in this song is the sacred mark borrowed from the Hindus, 
76 This calling on the Pardhan to sing a song of the Goud traditions is exactly what 
occurs on these occasions. 

79. The plantain tree is grown in the Gond country, and is found wild in some parts. 
The Gond race have email noses; and they would esteem a marked prominent nose aa 


81. Let four women cause the bridegroom to be sent for. 

After this 

82. Take the bridegroom into the house, and make him sit 


83 Place around him four pots fastened together with thread, 


84 Surround the whole by one thread connecting all. 

85 On the bridegroom's head hold cakes placed on an iron 


86. And let five women hold their hands suspended over his 


87. Then pour oil on the cakes, and then on his head 
88 Pour water; then bathe him with water. 

89. Then what custom follows? When the brother's wife 

covers a vessel on her lap, then the bridegroom should 
put a copper pice in it. 

90. Then let him throw water till her body is wetted. 

91. Bhawajai (brother's wife) will throw water also, and then 

let him bathe. 

92. After bathing, what is to be done? Apply kuku (red 

powder). What song should be sung ? 

93. Women, holding betelnut to his mouth, and holding kuku 

(red powder I to his forehead, shall sing: *' What Raja's 
son is this ? " 

94. Then what follows ? Apply rice, then sing as follows: 

95. u The Bhawajai (brother's wife) has not put oil in the 

lamp." She will say, in front is the bridegroom, and 
behind is the bride. 

96. Then at the same time the drum should be sounded ; 

97. And with pipes; then should follow all the musicians 

with cheerful hearts. 

98. Let (both) young and old men be merry, and raise up the 

bridegroom with force. 


99. And make him sit on a heap of cowdung, and dance gladly 
around him. 

100. One woman, having lifted up the seat on which the bride- 

groom bathed, should dance also. 

101. One having taken a waving lamp, let her dance also. 

102. Then let all dance and sing; first one may (lead), then 

let all follow him. 

103. Thus ends the bathing the bathing ceremony of tha 


104. What then follows? Make the bridegroom to be seated, 

and let four women lift him. 

105. After raising him, let him be taken home, and having 

seated him bring the wedding cakes. 

106. The cakes having been eaten, all begin singing. 

107. As they move round (turn in the dance), let him wipe 

his hand on the garment of Bhawajai (brother's wife). 

108. What then happens? What is the eating and drinking to 


109. Bring a pitcher full of liquor to the house, and keep it 

there; and call the guests into the house, and make 
them sit down. Call women, both young and old, and 
likewise make them sit down. 

110. Apply first a tika, sacred mark, to the pitcher(of liquor), 

and then to the pitcher-man, 

111. Then to all (the company). 

112. After applying the tika (mark) to the lid of the pitcher, 

open it and distribute the liquor. 

113. Serve on the plates millet, and peas, and chillies, 
114.. A little salt, and serve as god (blessed you). 

99. This sitting on a heap of cowdung is a Gond custom. But the idea of cowdung 
being particularly desirable, must have been learnt from the Hindus. 

115. After eating is ended* then cause the hands to be washed 

in a brass plate. This is the eating custom 30 do. 

116. After rising, what follows next ? Let the preparation be 

made for going to the bridegroom's house. 

117. Call one woman, and place on her head a pitcher, and on 

it a burning lamp, and around it let a betel-leaf be 

118. Then let all the women in procession pass. 

119. When all is ready, let the bridegroom with all the- 

company depart from the house. 

120. First, take the names of the gods, and so let them depart. 

121. After their departure, let them offer preparation of betel 

to the god Maroti, and let the bridegroom fall at its feet. 

122. With the musicians beating their drums, let all take their 

homeward way. 

121. The god Maroti ia the same a Hanum&n, or the monkey-god of the Hindus. 



Gond Song* as reduced to writing in the Roman character by 
Aft: HM*pt -with the Enqlish equivalent* a* rendered by him 
also ; the whole having bzen now examined and correetcd by 
Mr. Pandu> ang. 

The Creation of the W*rld and, of the Gond />eo/> V, and the bundctyc of the Gondt. 

1. Parin matan gondite yedung matan snndite 
Of twelve hills in the ravines of seven hill* in the gleua 

Lingawangad rehemand 

Lingaw^ngad (mount Lingxwan) is remaiuiuj 

2. Hadu gadterapi pahindi pungir mad a aaptal Inra 
Of it (in the) midst datti fljwer trea ^w.u) thsao* twelve 

kosk wasti halle 

(for) coss (is) dwelling no 

3. Raw itke kavval halle chi itke pite halle raghum 

Caw saying crow (there is) no chirp saying bird there ia no roar 

itke pulli halle 

saying tiger (there is) no 

4. Aske bang ata Bagawantal vi la rnandekitur Nalli Yadovr 

Then what happened god betel-nut spread Kalli Yad^W 


6. Aske hukum kar Narayantun hnktm kenstur yichike 

When an order to this vakeel Narayaa was made he heard it came 


6. Kartaw Subainge hou pusi kiya latiir sola kadangj 

Kurtao Subaluear him to ask he be jan sixteen 


Teloogoo (where are) 

7. Atara kadang Bimanang paria kadang Koya penk 

Eighteen threshingfbprs of Brahmin twelve threshing Jjora of G Jadi 

ihim pusi kindor penk 

thus he was asking gods 

8. Ichong penk biga manda ihun idena bitani tala^h 

So many gods where are they thus of theiu tidings sak 

9. Veru bango wadki lator 

He what to say begin 

10. Hagada Raje madu Rajt Mahadewan parrainta dariawa khalw.i 

There (rulur) Raja was Khi^ Mahadewa up to sea downward 

11. Veru Mahadewau bahun inandur warula kaltle'<a 

Thai Mahadewa how was he roller stone (for pounding curry) liko 
yet .para poheman-Hur 

water on he was swimming 

12. Verm ke-ik halle kalk halle dhtiudmundleka rehe mandur 
To him hands were not feet not Uuiik Uke he was 

13. Gowra Parbatal wasi niltu Narayantun pusi kiya latu 

Gowra Parbati having couie stood to Narayan to ask feogun 

14. Ime boni andi ana Bhagawantana Subadar andan 

Thou who art I of Ehagawan Subadar I am ' 

15. Aske ime bartua wati Mahadewa baga mantor honu 

And thou why hast come Mahadewa where is he 

16. Jdu ninnne ata pajaye Narayaii Narbaddat Gunga adina thadit 

She first came after Narayan Narbadda Gunga of bauk 

paro hanji nila latork 
on having gone to stand began 

17. Pope masike Baja Mahadewa waya latur Parbatal keik jodi 

Swimming liaja Mahadewa to come he began Parbati hand* 'joined 

kiai uila lata 
having to stand be.jan 

18. Pajadal Narayaa honinde keik jodi keya laturk 
Behind her Narayan he also hands to join began 

19. Aske Mahadevva bang inta ime bartun watal parin 

'Jliea Mahadew^ what say.s thou (for) what ha^t com3 twelve 

K<>ia penk awu baga manda 

of Gond goda they where are 

20. TJsade bang indur bor Kartao Snbal veru ban^a indur imo 

Then what he says who Kartao Subal he what ays to 




21. Bara mahinana tapu kirn munne mikun idena malam aial 

For twelve months devotion do hereafter to you t'asir nawj knrnva (will bs) 

22. Seiynng mabinang atung sarung maliinang atung parotapsha atu 

Five mouths wissed six nuutha b^cunj devotion fl.iislia 

Five mouths jwissed six 

23. Aske Bhagawantal wasi niltur Mabadewa itke haka 

Then Bhagawan having corns stood close to MahadjWJ, BO a calling 

situr horu 

gave him 

24. Niwa tapu atu inga ime yeta babero pasiya ana Ivxhim 

Thy devotion is finishad now thou water put of emerge 1 how shall 



23. !)Nakun hallekeiku nakun halte kalku naknn halle kankii 
JTo.oae jiouhauds .tome no feet to ma no 

26. Aske veru Mahadewaun tala atu taktua cliutin^atung 

Then to him (that is) to Mahadewa head becama t j head hair becam 

;kanku randnte pasihirrg 

eyes two became 


27. Sabe inanyaua mural b;>ne matur jagne vedaclu atu 

All man's form \\as made (in) world (of) light become 

28. Ahune kanku tabacbi hudlur veru Bhagawantal matkasi 

Thu.s eyes having raise he saw him Bhagawan having seen 


went away 

29. Bbalo ata halle nakun pen dista balle ichor batu 

Well has not become to us god appeared nut &o much story 

kenja penti 

hear God 

30. Nav/a tapu waya hatu nakun manyana murat siti idu bhalo 

My devotion in Vain has gone to me of man's form trave this well 
balle ata 


31. tlrde vuru tapu mandi kitur 

And ha devotion established 

82. Nav a inasu nowodinku alung poda wortu 

Ni :....- mouths nine days became boil burst 

33. Kali Adaw peida atur boru Kali Adaw peida atur aske 

Kalia Adao born Was that Kalia Adao born was then 

Mahadewa bang itu 

Mahadewa what said 

34. Aske bonu Mahadewa bang itur imo tapu kime 

Then to him Mahadewa what said thou devotion do 

35. Boru Kali Adaw tapu kitur undi mahina atu randu mabinang 

Who Kalia Adao devotion did one month become two mouths 

atung liana kalkeidun poda watur 

became to his hand boil came 

36. Hadu podha wortu sola tudik jalme matung aske veru itur 

That boil burst sixteen daughters born were then he said 

37. Iwu tudik bartun peida atung 

These daughters wherefore were born 

38. Nawa sir tala aiai iveruku am bagador mangal talka 

My head below will be to these I of what place husbands should bring 

ibun itur 
so said 

39. Aske tudikun bisi yetrapo wadsi sitnr aske watneke 

Then daughters having caught in water he threw after throwing them in 



40. Soke main sola bbar dhartari peida atu 

Dry it become sixteen kinds of earth produced were 


41. JNfana nnde tapu kika aske nawa jiwate shanti wnyar 

I more devotion will do then my mind (at) peace wil) be 

42. Aske vern Kartaw Subal tapu mandi kilur vena keide pod ha 

Then he devotion established in his hand bcil 



43. Farm k a dang kora penk jalme matting 

Twelve threshingfloors of Gond gods were born 

44. Koitork pagare m aturk beke hake 

Gonds spread over hither thither 

45. Koitork aturk jagang jagang raatang matang gonding glioding 

Goods became from place to place on hill to hill in valley to valley 

46. Madak madak Koiturk aturk horkna karar batal mandana 

Tree to tree Gonds became their honor how must be 

47. Bati distu adan jiana tan tindaua 

If any thing appeared to must kill it and eat 

48. Halle samje maiwa kolyal bhalyal adan jiana tan tindana 

No distinction miibt know jackal those killed to it they must eat 

49. Halle samje maiwa kurshu mawku 

No distinction must be antelope (deer) sanibur 

50. Halle samje maiwa tan fed an a lialle samje maiwa uti pural 

Not knew distinction sow must eat not knew distinction quail pigeon 

51. Halle samje maiwa kawal gidal tan tindana dokum baj 

Not knew _ distinction crow kite must eat adjutant vulture 

52. Dokke panne kida kituk mud a piya yermi halyal 

Lizard frog beetle cow calf she and he-buffalo 

53. Yalk ghusing warciieng ihun tinda latur 

Rats bandicoots squirrels so to eat began 

54. Itork horku Koiturk peida aturk bange koclio bange pakko 

Such these Gonds born were some raw some ripe 


must eat 

55. Sark mahinang yer kiwa halle dhad gatna todi 

Six month* bathing must not be done nicely face must not 

be washed 

56. Gagara gutate kudsi mandana itur 

In dunghill having fallen must remain 


57. Itork Koitork pahile mas peida aturk sabdan gude deing latu 

Suck Gonds first time were born in all the jungle a smell began 

58. Ihun Koiturk bedangal iturk aske Mahadewatun nadan 

Such Gonds without order became then to Mahadewa disagreeable 

la jo LI 
they Ix'.cvme 

59. Ide Koirtona jatu bhurtai mantor 

(Thus) (Jonds caste bad was 

C)0. Irwa halle ihun itur boru Mahadewa nawa Dhawalagiri nas 

(I will) keep not so said who Mahadewa iny Dhawalagiri they 

k iturk 
have spoiled 

61. Beke hake dcingta iliun itur verkun kesitarat 

Hither thither smell comes so said to them call 

62. Ihun itur Narayan handa lattir horkun kesi latur torat 

So said Narayan to go began to them to call began he brought 

63. Munne Mahadewa 

In presence of Mahadewa 

64. Nilutur Mahadewa techi hud tur sabe Koitork waturk 

Made them stand Mahadewa having risen he saw alL- Gonds come 

65. Ihun tanwa dilte itur horkun tanwa bowante kesitarat 

So in his mind said to them into his own cave called 

6G. Horkun wori wori upustur poraing kak lana utur 

To them in lines he caused to sit to one end himself sat 

67. Tanwa menduda neiyul tantur adena warehe bane kitur 

Of his own body the dirt he took off of it a squirrel he made 

68. Ital kitur yer kinake warehe kitur tanu sajjio kitur 

Thus did (while) bathing squirrel made to it living made 

69. Tanrapo jiva wad tur tana igetal sute kiyakl 

Into it life threw from near himself he let it go 

70. Usade sarko tokar. kiyal horkunrapodal sudital latu 

Then straight its tail -it made through midst of them to escape it began 

71. Ade hudturk Koitork tan paja vita laturk 

Then saw Gonds it behind to run (they) began 

72. Paja viti laturk bore indur jimtro jimtu 

Behind they (to) run began some one said kill kill 

7*1 Bore indur bimtro bimt bako aplotun chakana aial 

Another one said catch catch good to us a kabab will be 


74. Ihun iudurk borku Koitork bore him katka bore him tongi 

So said they who Gonds some seized a stick some seized .a stoue 

75. Bore him dhakala pendati langoti burbur uair tudi latang 

Some seized a clod of hips cloth was shaking sending to fly began 

76. Beke mandot rapo penyade bhuyartrapo ade rapo soditur 

It into a hole (god 'a prison) on the earth into it did enter 

77. Warchi tanpaja Koitork sodita laturk 

The squirrel after G^nds to run began 

78. Parin kadaug Koiturk soditar Jaturk bado bhuy artrapo 

Twelve thresbiugfioora (of) Gonds to run began where in the cave 

79. Aske sab Koiturk soditurk towha nalurk pistur 

Thus all Gonds rau when four remained 

80. Parbatin wind lagsi achalate 

They came to Parwati she sleeping was in the meantime 

81. Nind ugade towha Parbatin chinta lagtu 

Sleep opened when to Parwati care fell 

82. Ichoiig uiyang mawa Koitork matork disork 

Many Jays my Gonds were not seen 

83. Dhowlagiaite kalla andu 

On my Dhawalagiri noise was going on 

84. Nend kameke ata" ichong diyang deing gund 

To-day silence has become BO many days smell was 

85. Neiid deingo ihun itu 

To-day smell is not so said 

86. Bangena bange atu 

Some where must^be 

87. Mawor Mahadewa dUor Koitork un take atur itke ahun 

My Mahadewa not to be seen Gonds whether has he led so 

itu Parbatal 
paid Parwati 

88. Towha Doulagiriparo tarksi hudtur bagaue Koiturk 

Wheu Dhawalagiri having ascended saw where (no) GoiifU 

disork ihun itu 

appear so said she 

89. Mahadewtun puse kitu mawark Koiturk disork ihun 

Mahadewa aske,d my Gonds appear not so 

Koitork sodinake hudtur 

Gonds .entering I saw not 


90. Mahadewa tetur sola kutang tingi darwajate kechi 

Mahadewa arose sixteen cubits long a sioaa on taa door he Idd 

situradtongi jake kitu Koiturk 
(with) that stone he shut in Gonds 

91. Basm^sur deituna pahara nilochi situr Parbrtal puse kitu 

Basma'sur the demon to guard he stationed Pavwati to ask began 

bade ihim kiti riawa 

why so is done 

92. Dhawalagiri karab kiturk nakun songu watur anahun kitan 

Dhawalagiri bad made to me anger came I thus did 

ihim itur 

so said 

93. Tanrapo nalurk pisturk hork soditurk ihun itur boru 

From them four have survived they fled so said who 



94 Parbatal tanwa mante itur Koiturk mure maturk 

Parwati in her mind said Gonds lost are 

95. Nalurk Koiturk agatal soditurk undi mata tarksi 

Four Gonds thence fled one hill ascending 

96. Murme mada latu sanaghanjisenda tanparo laturk 

A little forward a tree was straight gone like (a date tree) on it they climbed 

agatal hadturk 

thence they looked 

97. Makun maknal jaga disc 

To ua a hiding place is not visible 

98. Warur hudtur undi jaga dista inda latur bagate 

One looked a place appears to say began on one side 

dista Kachikopa Lahugad 


99. Ad donguda saribiturk aga haturk 

Of that jungle the road they took there they went 

100. Aga malurk tamork hurku manda 

There the four brothers they remained 

101. Aske bagane Koitor halle Parbatin chinta lagtee 
Then anywhere Gonds were not to Parwati care become 

102. Tapshya mandi kitu 

Devotion she did 

103. Sarung mahinang atung 

Six months became 


104. Pa"rbata"na tapu nintu Bhagawantana dolhara hale matn 

Parwati's devotion fulfilled Bhagawan in a swing to swing began 

105. Borbhaktajan 

What devotee 


nawa kalite 

my resting time 

hokum Narayantun kitur 

to Narayan he made 

bor tap kitur hon tandat 

who devotion did who (it is) see 

Dhoulagiri parbatne 
ie to Dhawalagiri mountain 


b.idi jiwate 

in the mind 






appear not 

106. Veru hudale positur wasi 

He to see went out having come 

107. Wasi Parbatanige nila latur 

Coming near Parwati to stand began 

nawang paring kodang Koid pink 

my threshingfioor Gond 


108. Itke atia tapshya kitang ihun indal hanu 
Therefore I devotion did so she said go 

veha Bhagawan veru mata latur vichike 

tell Bhagawdn he to return began running 

hanjikun nila latur veru Narayan Bhagawantige 

having gone to stand hs began that Narayan to god 





back again 

taksike hatur 

he went 


to tell 


109. Purbatal tapu kitu idu paran kadang Koitang tanwor 

Parwati devotion did these twelve threshingfloors- G-onda where 

pusi kinta sabe dongade hudtur halle bagane disork 

are asking in all jungle seen (they are) not anywhere not seen 

110. Hanu pajane ime veha amot niwak Koitorkun hudsi sikom 

Go back thou say we thy Gonds will make, visible 

ihun indur boru Bhagawano 

BO said who Bhagawdn 


The Birth, Life, and Death of Lingo. 

"L Hadu, usad.e Bhagawantun ehinta lagtu pahindi mada manda 

To that god care fell of Puhandi t a tree there was 

2. Tan pungar waial tan garbha mandal pungatun dinkumandana 
To it flower will come to it ^featus will be to flower days will remain 

3. Usade kimar pentun a>nkar dhukar enute matu chidor abhar 

Then by god's doing clouds winds were loosened small cloud 

4. Seta ichor watu garjan atu bijli chamke mata 

(Like) a fan so big came thunder roared lightning flashed 

6. Pungar khule matu abhar khule mata andharartu din jake 

The flower opened clouds opened darkness fell day hid 



6. Kamkata gundo aral 

Of turmeric the powder will fall 

7 1 . Nalung pahark 'din posital sakada pahara abhar . karke 

(At the) four watches of night day will arise in the morning clouds resounded 

matu ahune pungar ukalo 
therefore flower opened 

& Phakane pungar p.eitu ahune Lingal poicla atur hanjikun 

With a crack flower burst so born was having gone 

mirtur khamka gundak artur 

sprang into powder (of) the turmeric he fell 

9 Abhar phake matu yadita jaku lagtu Lingal ade latnr 

Clouds cleaved (at) the light (of) the dawn to weep began 

10. Pentun chinta lagtu aga toddi ;wati latu gundat akbhame 

(To) God care fell them face to dry began amidst the powder 

11. Penta kinni kechal toga madu mata tanparo phuki mata 

(By) God's doing near a Ficus glomerate tree was on it honey was 

1*2. Phuki warsi hatu chidur mando arta toddite 

The honey burst a small drop fell in his mouth 

13. Rasu tana phukita are latu ihun toddi chaple ki} T alatu 

The juice of that honey to fall began six his moutk to suck he 

14 Dupar atu wadi lagtu Lingal poindi latur 

It was noon wind blew to grow began 


15. Agatal deisi ukade hanji atur aga jhule 

Thence having leapt into a swing having gone he fall in * awing 

maia latur ahun kinake din mulet 

to swing began so doing day set 

16. Lingal parkane techi hatur ukade kadangi latur 

with haste arose and sat in a swing to swing began 

17. Her Lingal yetun dag malke lingandag halle 
That (was such that) to water might be a stain but to Lingo there was no stain 

18. Bomli Lira kapadi tira pen pariyor 

On his navel wag a diamond on his forehead a sandle-wood mark a divine eaint 

Lingal salmetor atur rand salknor atur 

of a year's full became of two yeara became 

19. Gundate khumka garsawa ukade narmana ihun bange 

In turmeric powder he played in the swing he slept so some 

diyang atung 

days (passed) 

20. Puro naw warshang atung her toddati bange tinwa 

Full nine years became in his mouth anything must not eat 

donguda mad a guta tang 

of the jungle tree (or) of thickets 

21. Linga aske tanwa dilte itur ige bore disor manyalk 

then in his mind said feere no one is seen man 

disor bade j an war diso 

appears not some animal appears not 

22. Naleha batiyo diso naleha bagamatke aga hankan 

Me like some appear not me like somewhere will be there will I go 

23. Ihun itur agatal undi diya pasitur munne sigar hatta 

So said thence one day he rose before straight he went 

24. Suyalmata tan paro tarktur aga Mundita kumbita madak 

(Like a needle) hill on ascended there Mundita kumbita trees 



25. Tan khalwa Kirsadita mada mata tan pimgak wasi adena 

Below them Kirsadita tree was to it flower had come 

26. Hike hatur pungakun hudsi kusi tanwa jiwate atur 

Thither he went flowers having seen (in his) mind came 

pungakana wasu yetur 
of the flower the smell to take 

27. Agatal habade hatur sugal matate mundi 

Hence beyond he went on a precipitous like a needle hill up a tree 

mada tarktur 
he climbed 


28. Agatal hndi latur .hem a bajute Kachikopa Lahugadta dhua 

Thence to look began on the side (of) smok 

ata dhua hudsi 

arose having 

29. Id bati andu itke itur aga hanji hundana itur 

This what is BO said he there having gone must see 

30. Agatal raktur dhua hudsi handi latur herku nalurk 

Thence he ascended smoke having seen to go began these four 

tarnurk matark verk matkise sikar tachi matuk tan 

brothers were they quickly prey brought had it 

borsandurk bange vetal bange paha,na tindurk 

they were roasting some cooked some raw they were eating fc 

31. * Achlate her hatur boru Lingal hen hndsa horku 

Meanwhile (at that time) he went vlio him having seen they 

neturk herku neturk herkun hudsa . her nitur warona 

stood up seeing them he stood them having s-sen ho stood still with each 


32. Wadkork nalurk aske aga tamwa dilte inda laturk 

They did not speak the four then there ia taoir miuda to say began 

33. Aplo nalurk man da dada ahun boru seiwark tamark 

We four are brothers this is he five brothers 

aikat rodada hon keyat 

we will be brothers call him 

34. Handakat hon talkat aske handa laturk 

We will go him we will bring then to go (they) began 

35. Houige haturk iraa bor. andi ihuu iturk bon Lingan 

Where he was they went thou who arb so said to whom Lingo 

36. Lingal inda latur ana satodhar Lingana . andu matate 

to say began I am a saint (named) Liu^o I have on head 

kupar ihun itu borkun 
the knot of hair so said to whom 

37. Nalurk tamurkun herku inda laturk mawa ronu da dada * 

Four brothers they to say began (to) our house come brother 

38. Hon ari waturk aske jagate sikar arsi mata 

Him having taken (they came) then in that place game had fallen 

39. Lingal inda latur idu bati andu herk " indalaturk amot 

to say began this what is they to say began we 

sikar tatorm dada 
game brought brother 


40. Bate anda inda latitr Lingal padi andu 

What (kind of sikar) h it to say began Lingo a pij it is 

41. Tena tadaki nakun simtu a<?a tadaki halwake aske inda laturk 

ltd liver to me give there liver was not thea to say began 

42. Kenja dada bintadakita amot janwar jitorom 

Hear brother without liver we animal have killed 

43. Aske inda latur bintadakita janwar baduro ando 

Then Lingo to say began without liver animal what is 

madun had simt 

to me see allow 

44. Aske herkun artu sankat veninga bagata hudurskom 

Then them fell the thought to him now of what place we shall show 


without liver 

45. Janwar ihun iturk waror bang intor nawa bat kenja 

An animal so said one what says my word hear 

her mandachi alpo manda pedhork hen dongude 

this one is a little we are great him in jungle 

warkat padhang tonginrapo 

we shall carry large (among) stones 

46. Sakunrapo sanding walukat aske daranar udanur 

Among thorns in thickets we shall roam then he will be tired he will sit down 

47. Yer watkarmr harosanur aske tanaiye rnalada ' indanur 
For water he will thirst he will be hungry then back tarn he will say 

4& Lingan douguda sare tanturk tirkamtan<j keide bitur 

(With) Lingo jungles road selected bow and arrow he hand held 

49. Munne kurs dist tan jaka itur 

Onward antelope appeared it kill said Lingo 

50. Tan tadake manta munne maw disal tan jaka 

To it liver is before asarnbur will be seen it kill je 

51. Aden tadaki inanda munne malol disal tan jakat 

To it liver is before a hare will appear it; kill ye . 


52. Tan tadaki manda 

To it liver is 

53. Lingal daror hirk nalurk tamuvk darturk 

tires not these four brothers were tired 

54 Yer watliturk paro mata sareg hata tan paro 
For water they thirsted above the hiE steep waa it on 

tarkturk yeta kojhudi laturk 

they ascended for water to search began 


55. Aske halle yer disc ahun kinake wasi neli 

Then no water appeared so having dons they came down 

56. Pedda dongar mandu bekene chilatitang madak gupe masi 

(A) great jungle there was where thorny trees entangled, were 

manyalkun hendale sari hale 

to man to go away was not (obtained) 

57. Putun haga wasi irilturk ' jarasa yer distu mura 

There having gone they stood a little water appeared Butea (Palan) 

dking" haven koiturk hevenang chuding kiturk 

leaves then they plucked of them trough made 

58. Aye yer unda laturk yer unjikun yerknd giwa" 

With it water to drink began water having drunk their lift 

thando a"tu 

refreshed was 

59. Lingo itur dada imet r.cbikun bang kiya imet bintadakita 

Lingo said brother you having sat down what doing are you without liver 

makmi janwar halle hudnstavet 

to us animal do not appear 

60. Inga baleseti disoti inga tana paror inutmat idu jaga 
Now never mind (if it) is not seen now its name leave off this place 

bakota manda 

good is 

61. Aplo idjagate kaehi marak narksi aplo wanjing vilkat 

Wo in this place having dug havinpj cut down our rice will sow 

62. Ana undo narrnaka imet padka lakor tayar kimtu iwu 

I a little longer will sleep you a Held quickly ready make these 

63. Marsu tanturk pedha mad ate haturk nalurk nadka laturk 

A hatchet brought out to great trees went four to cut began 

64. Veru kubbenae zopo watu kancjiki 

To him much sleep came he dreamed 

65. ITork parin. kadang Koiturk disturk ver'u kodpade masi 

Those twelve threshingfloors of Gond^ ^ppeaved he afraid having become 

66. Tetur paja inalsibuda verku nalurk tamurk 

He arose back turned those four brothers 

67. Verku madak natkeneke keidun nalliwichak phodku 

That tree had cut down to their hands as large as Awala fruit blisters 

had come 


68. Usade verku marsu neli madturk wadsi siturk hanjikun 

Then they the hatchat down threw (having) thrown away gone 

to Lingo 

69. Mawang keikun pbodk watung verk marsk wadu siturk 

To our hands blisters come they hatchet have thrown down 

one said 

70. Haturk hanji watur usade Lingal tetur mars 

They went (aside) having gone they sat down then rose the hatchet 

keide bitur 

in hand he took 

71. Natka latur madakun paro neadak aruta tanag sirk kata 
To cut began treea the trees fell then roots to dig 


began ' v 

72. Netematur ibun dongan natka undi gatkate baloparka itur 

He applied himself thus jungle to cut (in) one hour a good field made 


73. Mawang keikun pliodk watung undi mada mawa wastne 

To our hands blisters came one tree by u 

halle iwata, halle ver 
not (is) cut down thai 

74. Lingal undi gatkate bachole madak warktur 

Lingo (in) one hour several trees has cut down 

75. Cariyal todi kitur tanrapo wanjing yafcur bheke nake 

Black soil he has made on it rice (dhan) he has sown here and there 

walnm kitur 
a Ledge he has made 

76. TJndiye darvvnja irtnr tantati dahotur aske 

One only door hs has kept to it a tatty (shatter) he has bound 

77. Verku agatal teturk anwa natena sariye hand a laturk 

They thenoo arose to their own village by the road to go began 

tamwa ron waturk 
to their own house they came 

78. Pabilo mirag lagtu cbidore abbadun kariyal disa latu 

First day (of) rainy season began a little cloud black to seem began 

79. Hainal wade sute matu abbar sabbe din yake matu 

With great force the wind was loosed sky all day cloudy was 

piru barse matu 
rain to fall began 


80. Sawan jagate tongron handa nete matu sabbe gardorang 

In open place up to knees rills to go began all the holes 

buje matnng 

to till began 

81. Pir sute kio mund diyang aneke pir ugade bagane 

Raiu ceased not for three days having became (rain) fair all 

wanjing parsiya latang 
rice to spring began 

82. Sabbe nel hirwal disa latu undi diyak nalnng botang 

Ail field green to appear began (in) one day four fingers breadth 

[high (rose) 

83. Undi mahina at a tongron wanjing 

(In) one month became up to knee rice 

84. Sola kandiyang mawk mandung havenrapo maraal 

Sixteen scores of deer were among them uncle 

bhasiyal karbhari 
nephew (were) chief 

85. Id wanjing was sute mata aven kare mata aske menake 

This rice smell spread was to them known it became then to graze 

bake ban da 

thither went 

86. Paraing selate mamal padtur kalwa selate bbasiyal padtur 

On the upper eutl uncle sat on lower end nephew . sat 

87. Bbasiyal katkut tetur deitur paro 

Nephew with cracking his joints arose leaped upwards 

88. Randok kauk nilutung pbedate kusbite watur deisike 

Two ears upright it made greatly into pleasure it oame leaped 


near uncle 

89. Nel manda eiwaka wanjing herwalk distang kowaro charo 

Field is beautiful (of) rice green appears tender fodder 

manda ihiin itnr 
, it is so said he 

90. Makim cbidor hukum siani amot sola kandiang mauk 

To us the little one please give it we sixteen scores (of) rohis 


will go 

91. Wanjing tanji waeron nawa bat kenja bhasa 

The rice having eaten we will come my word hear O nephew 


92. Sabbeta paror inata Lingana padkata paror yen ma ihua 

Of all the names take Lingo's field's name take nut so 

itnr boruhom imate sola kanding rnauk mantrit imkun 
eaid though you sixteen scores (oi) deer are to you 

vijatun undi irnal halle 

for seed one keep will not 

93. Usade bhasiyal intor iraa mantaai sedal mantorom riyark 

Then nephew said thou art old we are young 

94. Amot hanjikun tindokom bore hndanurte deikom 

We having gone will eat any one will see then we will leap away 

95. Teik kutang deikom ima seda mamyal sapade 

Five cubits we will leap thou art an old man will be caught 

96. Maiki itke warintantori nivva kenjom ima warna 

To go thus thoxi art afraid thy word I hear not you cume not 

97 ; Bor bhasiyal ihim itur sarke tokar kitur kasuk kauk 

Who nephew so said straight tail did ere ct it 

kitur paja rnaltur 
ears did back turned 

98. Martian lagbu doka usade tetur pajaya handalatur 

Uncle felt grief then rose after them to go began 

99. Maman wale laku watsi siturk mawku padkat 

Uncla very far thrown they gave (left behind) rohis the field 

kachul hatu 
near went 

100. Bhasiyal mawkau paja kitu agatal sari hudi latnr sari 

Nephew (the) rohis behind put thence way to look began a way 

bagane puto 

any where was not obtained 

101. Mawk intang marapo roamal shahanal mator araot bon 
The rohis said among us uncle wise was we whom 

puse kikom 
shall we ask 

102. Honpaja irtit maktm ima karbhari matini 
Him behind (you) left to us you chief are 

103. Vehatur bhasiyal ana karbhar kintone nawa hudsekun imat kinit 

Said nephew I work do my having seen you do 

104. Tana mtmne atur bang inta undi rnaw 

He in front became when says one deer 

105. Munne mama vehandur Lingal padki andu ima kenchta 
At first uncle has said Lingo field it is you did not hear 

106. Paja mnnne buda ibun itur 

Behind before look BO he said (be prudent) 


107. Sedanas sug kimal ihun itur born bhasiyal 

Old man's company keep not so said who nephew 

108. M untie atur timne cleitur bhasiyal nadum wanjing 

In front became (went) a spring he leaped nephew in the midst of th 

rapo nitur 
rice stood 

109. Mawku 


110. Pajadal 









near him 



to go 



walamonige wasi niltur 

the hedge near hiving (come) stood 




mawk wanjing tin da 
rohis rice to eat 

latung maman sari puto 

began uncle way find did not 





deia paror 
leap could not 





the field 



wadtung nadum jagite 

up (of) centre place 

113. Hagatal pasitang w,lum deisikun bahera pasitung usade 

Thence they went the hed^e hawing leaped out went then 

bang wadka latur boru mamal 

what to speak began who uncle 

114. Kenjatro sola kanding 
Hear sixteen scores 


well you have done 


mawfeanil id padkatun titi 

(of) rohis this field you have eaten 

babo hudit wan tor 

father to see will come 

115. Miwa 


batal upaw kintor usade 

how method does then 

paja mator boru horu 

behind he was who he 

bhasiyal munne watur 
nephew in front came 

116. Kenjatro gadialknit kenjatro dadalknit irnet igedal sodisidat 

Hear O friend hear brothers you hence fleecing go 

undi nawa palo kenjat 
one my word hear 

117. Tongitpaio talk irsike bantu akin paro kalkan irsike 

On stones feel placing go on leaves feet leeping 

hanto kakadan pare jadit paro kalkan, irsike bantu 
go boughs on on grass feet leeping go 

toditparo knlk iimate ihun itur boru bhasiyal 
on the soil feet keep not so said who nephew 

118. Ba,hun vehatnr ahune kenshtung sola kand : ng mawku 
How (as) he told &oouly they Leaid sixteen scores (of) rohia 

sodita latung 

to run began 


119. Halle bagane kojing di-song ivena bagane mohojba 

No where marks of feet appeared their no where traces appeared 

120. Bade padte bide nilta bade nanimta 

Some bat down some stood some slept 

121. Pungak muskundur narumsi Lingo mandur adho ra*ne 

(Of) flowers in the smelling sleeping Lingo was (at) half of the night 

122. Hsru kanchktur hadu padka niawku titung r.ewang 

He was dreaming saw a field by rohis eaten they bav 

ushto wanjing 
spoilt rice 

123. Lingal agatal positur Kacbikopa Lahungadota sari bitur 

Lingo thence departed Kaehikopa Lahugad's road to look 

124. /gatal pasitur horknnige watur dada itur rotal 
Thence went to them conie brother he said of the house 

bahero pasijat 

outside come ye 

125. Undi batu kenjat apalota padka tang wanjing rnawku titang 

One word hear our field of rice rohis ate 

126. Navvo apalo bapi watkat halle ihua iturk borka 

Firstfruit to us to offer is not so said who 

nalurkte taramk 

four brothers 

127. Usade Lingal intor kenjatro dada apalotang wanjing 

Then Lingo said hear brother our rice 


they ate 

128. Ushto aiung avena nawo halle mawkna tadakita nawo 

Spoilt have they firstfruit we have not of the rohis liver a firstfruit 

\vatk an 
I wiU offer 

129. LingoKin pariyona aikan hallete nawa sato handa 

Lingo a devotee I will be otherwise my power will go 

130. Ana pnga-k nmskintona nawa pir pajinla 

I with the flower of smell my stomach I fill 

ll. Koitork mantork horkna parbapi nindal horkna tindana 

Gonds are their bellies with what will they till their eating 

132. Wanjing ushto kitung bawu mawku ibun itur boru Lingat 

Rice (spoil) did what rohis so said who Lingo 

133. Ahun itur nalurk tamurk hatiyar biturk tirkamtang 

So said four brother's weapons held bow and arrow 


134. Mawkna parode ris watur padkate hanji hadturk kiturk 

Of rohis on account anger came in field going fell into 

rapo sodita laturk 
midst to enter began 

135. Nadum hanji hudturk kariyat todi disi latu 

In centre going fell black soil to appear began, 

136. Wanjing plianku disi latung hudturk Lingal 

Rice stubble to ppear began saw (nothing) Lingo 

137. Dakata risu inatate tarktu agane batatun 

From of the heels the anger to the head ascended on the spot bis finger* 


he bit 

138. Lai kank atung bagatung mawku manda ihun itur hudatur 

Red eyes became where rohis are so said see y 

139. Horku hudi laturk mawkna kojing bagane disong 

They to see began of rohis foot marks any where appeared not 

140. Munne kakada distu kojite aga hudtur 

Before a bough appeared his foot-marks there looked 

141. Unde munne taktur jhadi distu jhadi rounde masi 

And before went jungle appeared jungle trodden down 

mata oga koji distur 

was there trace appeared 

142. Haturk teri disong munne all nreda mata 

They went still not seen (i.e, rohis) a little forward peepul tree wai 

143. Lingal atu ana mada tarjintona imat khalwa nilat 

Lingo said I tree will climb you below stand 

144. Agatal hudtur munne mawk distung 

Thence looked before rohis appeared 

145. Mawak distnng bade utta bade narumta bade deimta 

Rohis appear some are seated some are sleeping some leaping about 

146. Nalung khak imat amt miwang tirk womt ichong 

(On) four sides you be your arrows take with you 

147. Mawkun rapodal tmde teri panda simat 

(So) rohis among so many one even to go allow not 

148. Ana madatal jintona imat khalwadal jimtu 

I from a tree will strike you from below strike 

149. Acho kenshturk nalung kbak aturk makseke haturk 
So much they heard (on) four sides became concealing they went 


150. Nalung kongtane aturk tirk jhodekiturk avanjia 

(On) four corners having become arrow applied to them to beat 

laturk parodal Lin gal jia latur 

began from on high Lingo to strike began 

151. Mamal pistur undi mawa pistu tansistu bitur tir khalwa artu 

Uncle seemed one rohi seemed at it aim he took arrow below (fell) 

152. Lingal tanwa dilti itur nawa keida tiru airtu id batal sat 

Lingo in his mind said out of my hand arrow fell that how omen 



153. Tanwa bhaktal japo matur honu mamal distur apaiota 

Thy servant worships thee that uncle appears of mine 

bange tita halle 
anything has not eaten 

154. Madee sodita latu tan toda mamal sodite latur nalurk 

Female (rohe) to run began with it uucle to run began four 

tamurk tan paja lagturk ige biyakat aya jihat 
brother them behind pursued here we will catch there we will catch 

165. Ihun iturk sapade mata halle bawu mawku paja masi 

So said found they were not who rohis (behind) turning 



156. Pador kenjatro dado mawku hatung disong balle mawar 

Eldest said here brother rohis have gone appear not our 

Lingal paja manda 
Lingo behind is 

157. Tak rehe mat aploto malsidat ihun. itnr bora 

At the distance remained let ua return so said who 

pedbartamu itur 

eldest brother said 

158. Harkun puse kitur imat baga banji ibun itur boru Lingal 

To them asked you where gone BO said who Lingo 

159. Amat banji ULatoram dad a mawun paja matorom maw 

We gone had x brethren rohis after had rohi 

sodisibatu diso balle amot maltom nihiga 
fled appear not we returned near you 

160. Mikun. vebatantona begane budat miwa 

To you I will show anywhere se in your 


161. Nadide chakmak matang avan tandat kis aduyat ihun 

Waists steels may be them bring out fire cauae to fall so 

itur boru Lingal 

said who Lingo 

162. Verku nadidal cbakmak tanturk kisu aduta laturk 

Their waists &teels brought out fire to fall began 

163. Tdatun tnndo balle ihun kinake undi pabar (dinu 

The matches ignited not so doing one watch of night passed (day 


164. Chakmakun pbeki kittirk Lingoban pariyoni mantoni 

The matches they throw did Lingo saints thou art 

165. Kis nakun \eha mawang kis balle arta 

Fire (where is) tell us show (why) our fire not falls 

166. Lingal intor igetal mund koskunpara manta Bikad Gawadi 

Lingo said hence three coss (on) is Rikad Gawadi 

167. Hona parkate kis manda dhua pasinta aga bantu ihun itur 

In his field fire is smoke will appear there go so said 

boru Lingal 
who Lingo 

168. Kis muchuk way ma" t mane ihun itur Lingal 

Fire without come not so said Lingo 

169. Hanji Lingan pusi kiturk amot hudta" halle ihun iturk 

Having gone to Lingo asked we have seen not so said 

beke hankom 

where we shall go 

170. Makun diso balle bati kisu usade Lingal intor 

We (see) not where fire (is) then Lingo said 

171. Ana tir jintona aga 

I arrow will discharge there 

172. "Bagark bandal agark imat handakit usade kis 

In what direction it will go in that direction you go then fire 


you will get 

173. Ibun itur bor Lingal tir jode kitur umsi yetur undi 

So said who Lingo arrow applied having drawn he took on 

tir jitur 

arrow (and) discharged 

174. Sari sawari atu banji dakarang narku 
A way it made smooth some twigs it broke 

175. Bange jhadi koitur sari urtu hanjikuo tiru artu agatal 

Some gru,33 It cut a road fell after going arrow fell thence 


at the old man's 

176. Kisunparodai tir tetu hanji yedung sedanang miyak 
From off the fire arrow arose having gone (to) seven (of) the old man's daughters 

177. Havena darwajate artu tiru hawa hudtung vichike 

In their door fell arrow they saw having run 

watung hadu tiru pehaksi watung 

they came having lifted they took away ' 

178. Tirtun irtuug babon puse kindung dawa mawang 

They kept (it) their father they asked O father us 

madming baske indung 
in marriage when will you give 

179. Haun yedung selak sedal indur 

(Thus) who * seven sisters of old man's said 

180. Nawa diltor putanur honku sikun mikun halllete 

According tomymihd will be to him I will give you (or) no. 

181. Ahune mandakit ihun indur sedal born Kikad Gawdi 

As you are you will remain so said old man who Eikad Uawadi 

182. Kenja ro dada nawa palo ana jitona tir 

Hear O brethren my word I discharged arrow 

183. Ad sariya bantu mnnne kisu disal agatal kisu talkit 

By this road go before fire will appear thence fire bring 

184 Hor intor home ima harm intor ana hanor 

(Thus) he said to them they to (one to another) said I will not go 

chidor tamu hatur 

youngest brother went 

185. Kisu distu kisu kachut hatur agatal hudtur phedaye 

Fire he saw fire near went thence saw a large 

kodt leha sedal 

trunk like the old man 

186. Lakanal hudtur sedana padka bhowatal walum kisi 

. From afar he saw old man's field around it hedge was made 

187. Undi sari irshi tan tate dohachi nadura padkate 

One road he kept to it a shutter he had tied in the middle of the field 

kis kisi 

fire was made 

188. Irukna kodku mangcita yachi mator mad sajnang 

Of aMohwa the trunks of Anjun were put in trees of Saj 

189. Tekatang katyang jama kisi kisu patusi mator 

Teak faggots where gathered on fire fire was kindled 


190. Kisnirusi mata kisna shekane Rikad Gawadi 

Fire was blazed at the fire by the heat Rikad Gawadi 

hainake narumsi mator 

(in) deep (sleep) slept was 


the old man 

191. Rakasun leka disandur ver narumsi ver Ah'resaral walsike 

Giant like he appeared he was sleeping the Ahkesaral stealthily 

kachum hatur sedan hudtur sedan kodaneke 

near went the old man saw the old man (while) beholding 

mendodun pinakatang watnng 
to (his) body cold bustles came 

192. Tadake deia latur jiwate waditur manda ihun itur 

His liver to leap began in his mind much afraid he was then he said 

193. Veru sedal sedanur nakun hudsi tindanur nana arkate 

If the old man rises me he will see (and) eaten I will be 

194. Kisu kalsikun woyaka aske nawa jiwa pisar 

Fire having stolen I will carry then my life will survive (safe) 

195. Ver watsike kisunige hatur undi viskur bitur hadu viskur 

He secretly near fire went one brand took that brand 

framadita andu 
of Tembhur was 

196. Tahuneke tana sidange mirtu sedana kulatun hanjikun 
When having lifted it a spark leaped away on old man's hip it having gone 


fell on him 

197. Thaliatsor venu phoda watu veru sedal daske masi 
As large as a lota the blister had come that old man alarmed becam* 

tetur ven 


198. Naknn karoo wasta bagane tindale puta khankna 

To me hunger is felt anywhere to eat I get not of flesh 

nawhari asi mata 

the desire is felt 

199. Kowan kakade leka bhalo wati ihun inake 

(A) tender cucumber like well (hast thou) come so said 

veru Ahkesaral 
to that Ahkesaral 

200. Sadita latur pajaye sedal vita latur kis wadsi 
To run he began behind old man to run began fire (brand) he threw 

situr munneta 
away in front 

201. Munne sodita latur pajaye sedal vita latur ige bika aaga 

Onward to rim he began behind old man to run began here I will seize 


Mid ha 


202. Hagatal maltur tanwa padkate watur kisunige hanjikutur bang 

Thence turned to his field came near fire going sat what 


nonsense (is this) 

203. Kawaro ina sikar wasi mata 

Tender like prey was come 

204. Tiuka itan pasisi hutur nawa keide 

I would have eaten it he said it is escaped from my hand 

205. Hatte hami baskane wayar itkhepne hatu 

(It is) gone let it go sometime I will get it this time it Las gone 

206. Munne bang atu Ahkesaral hatur malsikun. aga 

Before what happened Ahkesaral went having returned from thence 


to his brothers 

207. Itur kenjatro dad a ana kisnum ha tan imat rohtit aga 

Said hear brethren I to fire was gone you sent there 

padkate padlioree roautor sedal 

in field a giant only was old man 

208. Keik wadseke kalk tacheke vitur ana pissi water 

Hands throwing feet lifting ran I having survived 

I came 

209. Amot hanom ihun iturk borku nalurk tamurk Lingal iturk 

We will not go so said who four brothers Lingo said 

igene udat ro 

here sit ye 

210. Dadalknit bator sedal mantor ana hud si wayaka 

O brothers what sort of person he is I having seen will come 

211. Agatal pasitur munne taktur jbodi lagtu aga 

Thence he went onward he walked river happened to be there 

212. Mund tumang distung munne hutur 

Three bottle gourds appeared in front he saw them 

213. Waduda kati distu aden tahtur 

Bamboo stick appeared he lifted it 

214. Jhoditun usa aga 

The river was flooded there 

215. Paras pade tana arsi veil velitun tumang 

(It washed away) the bottle gourd tree its seed fell to each twinner bottle gourd 



216. Waduta kati pongsi wasi adena kitur jantur 

A bamboo etick in its hollow he pushed its made guitar 


217. Watatacg chuting randu tartur adena tar kitur 

Of head hairs two he plucked its string made 

218. Kuji bitur akra naddang kitur tan upustur adene 

A bow he held eleven keys he made (to) it and fixed it 

nekustur bakone nektu 

played on it well it played 

219. Lingal tanwa dilte bakone kusi 

Lingo in his mind (was) much pleased 

220. Aden bitur sari lagtur sedana padkata disunige handft 

It he held his way took to old man's field near fire to go 



221. Sedal narumdi mator boru Kikad Gawadi kisunige 

Old man sleeping was the Rikad Gawadi near fire 

222. Kodtleka kudsi mator palku kisi mantar burtai 

Like a trunk fallen he was his teeth made were ' bad 

223. Todi dakane kitor jhopane mator Lingal nehanage hoodtur 

(His) mouth gaping he kept in sleep he was Lingo well beheld 

the old man 

224. Kan lagta ihun itur Lingal ingatae woikan sedal 
(His) eyes were shut thxis said Lingo now (is not time) to carry away theoldmaa 

while slept 

225. Lingal munne kal wadtur paja malsi hudtur kachule mada 

Lingo before his foot threw behind turned and saw near a tree 

226. Alita sarko mata aden klwnding Nehanage hudtor 

Of Peepul erect was to its branches Surprisingly he looked 


(it is) fit for sitting on 

227. Bakota distu adenparo tarktur paro sendata hatur 

Very good it appears on it he climbed on the top ke Went 


to sit 

228. TJdnakene gogote kustu munne Lingal inda latur din 

As he was sitting cock crew before Lingo to speak began of day] 

pasitana wakhtu 
rising (itisj time 

229. Ichalate sedan tebtana itke jantur tahtur Linga 

In the meanwhile the old man will rise therefore the guitar lifted Lingo 

in hands 


230. Bitur tana tokar jitur bekone nektu tanrapodal waja 

He held it a stroke he gave well sounded from the midst of it music 

tant.ur nurakting 
he drew of hundred tunes 








to sound 







a song 

can be 


Todde wartap 

(Was) with mouth as if sung 

232. Tana agajne mada niata kamekene atang 

At its sound tree hill silent became 

233. Serlala nehanage konde saran 

(In) old man's laudly ears the sound entered 

sodita harkane tichi 

in haste having risen 

utur jakane 

he sat up quickly 

sedal kanku 

old man his eyes 


to lift 


234. Nehahnaye kenji latur hake hakehudi bagane diso 

He desired to hear began here there to look anywhere appeared 


235. Pite bagatal wata nendu wadki lata bakota kogadleka 

A bird whence hast come to-day to sing began good maina like 

236. Madak hudi latur bagaue bange diso khalwa hudsi mator 

Tree to see began anywhere nothing appeared below looked 

237. Paro halle hudta sandi gondi hudtur 

Up did not look in thickets ravine he looked 

238. Halle bange diso sedal waya latur sardige wator 

Not anything appeared old man to com" began near road he came 
rapo soditor kisunige hanji mltur 

into midst of field he entered near fire having gone stood 

239. uchi uchi techi techi deisi deisi kuds 

(Sometimes sitting sitting standing standing jumping jumping rolling 

kudsi yendi latur 

rolling to dance he began 

240. Pata wari latur 

A song to sing began 

kenji latur 
to hear began 

din pasit hona 

day dawned his 

sedo sakadene 

eld woman in the morning 

241 Kenstu mawa padkat heke eiwake waja nekinta 

Sk heard her towards field* a fine iau*io pU/t4 


242. Tanwa padkata walumunige hanji niltu tanwa kowde waja 

Of her fields near the hedge having come with her ear* inusie 


he heard 

243. Ida sedo bang kita 

That old woman what did 


she called 

tanwar sedan hike muedon nike 

to her old man her hxiaband at her 

244. Keik sahachi yenda latur kalk tahachi yenda latur wadel 

Hands stretching out to dance began feet lifting to dance began nok 

wadsi yenda latur 

having thrown down to dance began 

245. Sedan hike sedo huda 

The old man towards the old woman to see 






sedal nawar 

old man my 

246. Venku idu waja bakota lagta venleka ana yendaka idna 

To him that music melodious was like him I will dance (attid) thai 


Id man 

247. Kuskane 

the folded 

> a 

of her dress 


drew out 

walumunigetal yenda latu 

near the hedge 

to dance 


(and) having made free 

248. Veru Lingal tanwa pite 

That Lingo in his belly 

bang wadkintor ana satodhari 

what speaks (as) I am devout 

Lingal aika penpariyor 

Lingo I will be God's servant 

Lingana aika 

Lingo will be 


Dakate dhan^un 

wear down to heel the fold of dhote 


on head 


a knot 

nikun mandu 

tome is 

on the navel 

hira kupade 

diamond on forehead 









250. Nakun dag halle ana Lingana aika sedal sedon diwadita 

To me stain not I Lingo will be old man to old woman Diwalii 


dance in dandar 

251. Koitona sar bisuka pata, waruska verkun yenchuska 

Of Gonds in rows will held song I will cause to sing them I will cause to dance 

ana Lingana 

I Lingo 


will be 


252. Weru Lingal sewakintor tanwa pendun Budhal pentas paror 

That Lingo worshipped his god Budhal god'a name 

mudtur Adal pentas paror mudtur 

h invoked Adal god'a name he invoked 

253. Sola satikna paror mudtur attara khankna paror madtur 

Sixteen satia name invoked eighteen flsga name invoked 

Manko Rayetal Jungo Rayetal Pharsipenda paror mudtur 

Manko Rayetai Jungo Rayetal Pharsipenda's name invoked 

254. Sewa sewa itur idu janturta parm paharana keide bitur 

Salutation said that guitar (of) various tunes in hands held 

255. Nawu jantarta iven mohani artu ihun indur boru 

My guitar this is an allurement that has fallen so laid who 

Lingal bade jantartun kameke kiya latur 
Lingo that guitar sileat to make began 

256. Laknal parodal mama sewa itur veru 

From afar from on high uncle salutation said to that 

the old man 

Rikad Gawadi 

Rikad Gawadi 

257. Madata sendatparo huda latur sewa bhasa 

(Of) trees (on) top to see began salutation nephew 

258. Ihun itur bhalo makun ime darusti bhasha yendusti 

So said well me thou hast deceived nephew thou hast caused to dauo* 

bhasha bendal beke wati 

nephew whence to whither hast thou come 

259. Bhasha ime w&da bheting yetkat horu Lingal madital 

nephew thou hast come (lot us) embrace each other that Lingo from the tree 


to descend 



260. Sedana hanjikun keiye bitur mama sewa utur horkna 

Old man's aftr going hand caught uncle salutation said their 

bheting atung 

meeting took place 








(to) uncle 





(to) nephew 

262. Verkna randate jankna bheting atung mamana kie bhashal 

Those two persons meeting took place uncle's hand nphw 



263. Hanjikun kistmige utturk ver mamal pusikindur ime bhasha 

Having gone near fire sat that uncls asked you nephew 

bendal beke watin 

from whence to what place hast come 

264. Nik tin mama malum halle sola khandyang mawakin jaktona 

To you uncle known not sixteen acorea of rohia have killed 

havena tadakitun rod si tindakom 

their livers having roasted we will eat 

265. Itke itom chakmakne kisu adundom kisu aro 

Thus w said - -from chakmak fire we were causing to fall fire fell not 

266. Mater niwa padkatige kis manda itke agatalte jitan niva 

But your in field fire is therefore thence arrow I discharged 

267. Kisunige tira watu igetal tettu hike munne niwang 

Near (your) fire arrow came thence it rose her* before thy 

miyakna darwajate hanji artu 

daughters door having gone (it) fell 

268. Niwa miyak pehaksi watung bhalo manda mama nikun 

Thy daughters having lifted carried it away well done uncle to you 

budhi halle 

sense not 

269. Nawor tamu kisunsati rohachi matona bonku Ahkesaral irnet 

My brothers for fire sent I had whom Ahkesaral yon 

tindale vitlinmawa 
to eat ran 

270. Ime begeni beyeni ime tinene ana, baga hudena 

(If) you would have caught you would have eaten I where would have seen him 

271. Ihun itur sedal anate chukton bhasaha nawa bang 

So said old man I then have erred nephew I what 

kiyana mata hadu atu 

I done have this ia past 

272. Usuade bangu wadki lator boru Lingal ye mama anate kenja 

Then what to speak began who Lingo uncle me hear 

mama sola khandyang mawku jaktona davi mama khandk 
uncle sixteen scores of deer I have killed go uncle flesh 

tara mama hainake tinvi 

bring uncle much eat 

273. Ihun itur boru Lingal usade munne bangu wadkanur boru ver 

So said who Lingo then before what did he say who that 

scdal nawa palo kenja bhasha yedung miyak mandang 

old man my word hear nephw aven daughter* have 



274. Haven worn havenige kandku dohachi Sike reru 

Them take away their eyes baring tied thou shalt give them 


(in) marriage 

275. Lingal itur agatal lattur munne niltur hantorom mama 

Lingo said thence arose before stood I am going uncle 

276. Ihun nawa sewa yena mama itur agatal Lingal pasitar 

So my salutation receive thou uncle said he thence Ling* went 

sedanang . miyakna rota sariye handa latur 

old man's daughters house way to go began 

277. Hanjikun havena darwajate niltur veru Lingal bara warshana 

Haring gone in their door stood that Lingo of twelve year* 

jani disi latu 
a youth to seem began 

278. Sola warshana umbar dista munnetal hudneke maratha 

Sixteen years (of) ago h appeared in front when seen foppish 

riyon leka distor 
young man like appeared 

279. Pajatal hudneke bamna riyon leka eiwake riyor distor 

Behind having seen Brahmin devout like good servant appeared 

280. Rot rapodal selak yedung bahero pasitung renku mani 

The house from within sisters seven out came those regarded 



281. Riyanleha awu watung baharo Lingal munne nitung 
As a young man they came out Lingo before stood 

282. Makuu veha ihun indung selak yedung 

Us tell so said sisters the severn 

selak puse kindung ime boni andi 

sisters to ask began thou who art 

283. Horn bangu wadka latur niwor babo nawor mamal 

He what to say began thy father (is) my uncle 

miwa awal mawa ato 

thy mother my aunt 

284. Ana satodhari Lingana andan pen pariyor Lingana andan 

I am . devout Lingo am God's servant Lingo I 


285. Nawang palong kenjat ho bai nawa tiru miwa rotige 

My words hear O sister my arrow to your house 

wasi arta ana nanegatal hudintona 
came and fell lam from a long time searching it 



Nawork nalurk tamnrk don glide 
My four brothers in jungle 

khanding mawaku jaktonah 





of rohia 

have killed 

287. Aunde dongude artang havenege iiawor tarnurk uttork 

They also in jungle fell near them my brothers are sat 

288. Ana kisunsate watona hikene nakun walle ushir atu 

I for fire have come here to me much delay became 



Hake nawork tamurk 

There my brothers 

karu wasi mandal 
hunger felt may be 






may be 

Yer \vatksi bagada 

For water they may be thirsty of what place 









to them 


they will 

291. Ihun wadki lator Lingal 

So . to speak began Lingo 

yedung selak 

seven sisters 


to him 




to speak 



292. Kenja mawa palo 

Hear our word 

dada ime 

brother thou 


to uncle 

marine amot 

son thou art and we 

atin miyaknem andom 

to aunt daughters we are 

293. Nivva mawa eiwake nato manda niku baga 

Your and our good relationship is you how 


will leave (us) 

294. Amot niwatoda naiakom imet wateke 
We along with you will come you come 





295. Payana matkete lakon saware 

Come (if) you come (then) quickly ready 

saribimtu ihuii itur born Lingal 

way take so said who Lingo 










296. Iwu tamwa toranang gindang muchanang dikring 

These of their beds the clothes for covering heads (and) garments 

bitung Lingana tir liona honkun sisi 
took Lingo's arrow they to him gave 

297. Munne munne Lingal pajaye pajaye riyang handa latung 

Before before Lingo behind behind young women to go began 

298. Tamurk matork uchimatork hakene hudundurk baske wanur 

Where brothers were seated there they were looking when will he come 


299. Lingan waneke laknal hudturk kenjatro dada mawof 

Lingo coming from afar they beheld hear brother our 

Lingan leka distor 

Lingo like appears 

300. Techi nilturk huda laturk munne Lingal pajaye yedung janik 

Having risen to see began before Lingo behind seven persons 

301. Kenjatro dada bonangte miyak bonangte kodiyak mawor 

Hear brother whose daughters whose daughters-in-law our 

Lingal arti 

Lingo having taken 

302. Wantor hudat dada eiwake distang riyang raandang* 

Is coming look brothers of good appearance young women are 

303. Siyur Lingal amot baikok kiyerat dada ihun 

(If) Lingo would give (then) we wives would make of them brothers so 

indur borku nalurk tamurk 
said who four brothers 

304. Ver Lingal kschul watur yiltur mawa palo kenjatro dada 

That Lingo near came stood my word hear brother 

305. Yedung janik mamana miyak iwu watang 

Seven persons uncles daughters these have come 

306. Iwinsati suring tandat iwu mawkna tadaking simt 

To them knives bring out of these rohis livers give 

307. Verku suring tandturk mawknang pir wohaturk tadaking 

They knives took out of rohis belly ripped (split) livers 

tanturk bore tatur kachara kisu patusturk 

took out some brought faggots fire enkindled 

308. Kiturk tana ubara kliandk haven bodsturk taniurk neli 

On its blaze flesh they roasted took out (and) down 

laid it 

309. Idu tadaki perta parode idurkate 

This liver in God's name offer 

310. Ihun iturk borku nalurk taraurk Lingal tettur 

So said who four brothers Liugo arose 

311. Tinda laturk sabe tintork Lingal tinor 

To eat they began all ate Lingo did not eat 

312. Lokor handa simt haven baven yedung selakun avenor babo 

Quickly to go allow them the seven sisters their father 

ranganur wallene 
an abuse will give 


313. Kenjatho bai imet lokor hantu miwa awal rang sike 

Hear sisters you quickly go your mother abuse may be 



814. KeEJtung 

They heard 


called good 

kenchikun indur 

having heard said 


bad called (may be) 

kenja ro 







who art 

315. Amot hanom igene mankom niwatoda waikom handakit 

We will not go here will stay along with thee we will conie where you go 

hakene araot waikom 

there we will go 

816. Nalurk tamurk wadkintor kenja ro dada 

Fourth brother said hear brother 

yedung selak eiwake 

seven sisters well say 


Linga iwu 
Lingo these 

317. Inge in dada iwekun \Voikat madming 

Yes say thou brother these we will carry (in) marriage 

818. Kikat baikok kenja Linga nawang palong itang 

We will make wives hear Lingo our word (is) such 

319. Lingal kenchiknn ida latur inlet 

Lingo having heard to speak began you to 

baikok qakun pedha kushi 
wives (make) to me (then) great pleasure 





(in) marriage 

will come 

820. Hagane woneke 

Whither will you take away 

miwang baikokun 
I will give leave wives 





here only 






to take 


821. Herku hnna palo kenchikun ban^u wadki laturk kenja ro 

They his word having heard what to say began hear 

dada mawang palong niwa mala riya eiwake disal 

brother my word if thou wish young good looking that you see 

aden ima kimu 

to her you marry 

322. Batang puting makun sim 

Whosoever (is) bad looking give 

aven amot kikom 

to us we will marry 

323. Lingal bang wadki laturk ken j at ro dada nakim halle 

Lingo what to say began hear O brothers to me it do not 



324 Mikun kisikun nawa kamma halle 

You having married I will go they are of no use to me 


325. Ihun itur boru Lirigal imet kikite nawa kamne 

So said who Lingo (it) you marry then to my use they 


will coiue 

326. Badeka nawang tangek aianung imet padhork manturit ana 

Who tome a siscei-iu-law wiH be you eldest are lam 



327. Nakun yer sianung yetkan sade nakun tarsi sianung 

Me water they will give 1 will take bread for me bed they will spread 

328. Ana narmika nakun yer mihatanungkikan dhadotang sukanung 

I will sleep me water they will give to bathe clothes . they will wash 

329. Nakun tangek wanung awakunleka disanung 

To me sisters-in-law they will be like inothtr they will appear 

330. Ihun itur Lingal ahun awak inake nalurkna tamurkna 

So said Lingo when mother he called them from four brothers 

dilta pappasisi hatu 

mind sin departed 

331. Honige handa laturk hon pusi kiyalaturk kenja ro Lingal 

To him to go they began to him ask began hear Lingo 

lokor mawang madming 

quickly our marriage do 

332. Kintoni sim yedung janik mantang amot nalurk rnantoram 

(If) thou wish (then) give seven persons they are we four are 

333. Apalo apalo baikokki sim Lingal 

(To) each one their wives distribute Lingo 

334. Lingal bang iutor imat padhork rehall rehaku kimtu chidur 

Lingo what says you are elder one two two marry (he who)youngest 

manton hon unde simtu 

is him one give 

335. Iturk Lingal unde nawa palo kejat ro dada ige 

Said Lingo the my word hear brother in thi 



336. Chipadite baga kintirit apalota Kachikopa Lahugad 

In the plain how can you do it our Kachikopa Lahugad 

337. Nar manda aga iven wokat aga madming kikal ige 

Town is there to them we will take there marriage will do here 

halle kiwa 

not do 


338. Ihun ittir Lingai hona kenchikun ahune kiturk asfatal positurk 

So said Lingo they having heard so did thence departed 

339. Borku seiurkte tarnurk awa yedungte selak a^atal 

Those the five brothers those seven sisters thence 

latung herk unde munne takintork 




to go began they and 

awu wan tang 


in front 

they walked 


(til s women) behind 

340. Ahuue tanwa nate waturk Kachikopa Lahugad rapo 

So to their village they came Kachikopa Lahugad of 

madmina sama kiya laturk 
marriage preparation to make began 

341. Ige halle raanyalk halle baikok Lingai yer 

Here there are no men no women Lingo water 

342. Tatintor hore yerkasu sintor hore pichi watiekintor 

Brings he bathes having boiled he turmeric pounded 

343. Manda dasintor toren dohtiuton 

Bower he erected leaf garland he tied 

344. Nalurk tamurkun keitur hike hake 



The four brothers he called here there turmeric powder sprinkled 

345. Nalurk tamurkun yedungte selakun pichi soktung 

To four brothers to seven sisters turmeric he applied 

346. Madming latung nawa palo kenjat ro dada warsan 

Marriage cannot be my word hear brothers all at once 

347. Undi madming kikat waye janik mandnung dhando 

One marriage we will do the rest remaining work 


will do 

348. Usade avenang madming ayanung tehawn dhando kiyanung 

Then their marriage will bs those (remaining) work \\ill do 

349. Barenang munene madming ayanang awu usacle dhando 

(Those) whose at first marriages aiiail be thsy then work 


will do 

350. Ihun itur born Lingai usade nalurkte tamurk iturk inge 

So said who Lingo then four brotliara said yea 

dada ahune kikat 
brother so do 

351. Ahun kinake madming atung bange diyang atung padhor 

So doing marriage finished Boma days passed eldest 

tamn in tor nawa palo kenjat dada 

brother says my word hear brother 


352. Apalotor Lingal apalotor eiwake kitor madming kisitur 

Our Liujj > our good did marriage did 

apalotang baikok apalotige watung 

our wives to our place brought 

353. Lingal bin baikonor Lineal ven baiko halle kenjat ro 

Li:i-o without a wice (is) Liu^o to him wife not hear 

dada apalota bhalo kitur tanwa halle kita 
brother our good did his not did 

354. Tenka bagane watawa apalotor baboa leka veru atur boru 

Him . anywhere throw not our fathar like he became who 


355. Dongude daikat sikar jikat pungak tatakat Lingal ukade 

(To) jungle we will go game will kill flowers we will bring Liugo in a swing 

udar dada 

will sit brother 

356. Ihun indurk nalurk tamurk 

So said four brothers 

357. Ukade uttur Lingal yedung selak ukad uhtinta 

In a swing sat Lingo seven sisters the swing swung 

358. Nalurk tamurk tawang tir kamtang bisikun dongude 

Four brothers their arrow and bows having held in jungle 



359. Paja banguata yedung selak tamwa pite bang wadkintang 

After what happened seven sisters in their belly what said 

kinjat hobai ver Lingal 
hear sisters this Lingo 

360. Mawor sherandu andur vena amot tangek andom 

Our husband's young brother is to him we sisterinlaws are 

venu kawale awjinta 
with him sport can be 

361. Kei bise imale awjinta masi wadkale awjinta 

His hand by holding pull we can with us to speak he can 

362. Yer Lingal matoda kawor matoda wadkor mahake hudor 
That Lingo vvioh us dees not laugh does not speak toward ua look not 

kank pehachi sitor 
eyes he has closed 

363. Kawanur mawatoda garsanur ihun ita 
(But) he must laugh with ua must play BO said they 

364 Bade bita kei bade bita kal bisikun umalatang ver Lingal 
Some held haud some held feet having caught pulled him that Lingo 

adike kanka pihachisitor 
more eyes closed 


365. Halle wadkor halle hudor halle kawor usade 

Not spoke not looked not laughed then 

366. Lingal bangu wadki later kcnjat ho bai imct nawa kei bisi 

Lingo what to say began hear O sister you niy hands held 

367. Umi kalk bisi * umi imette nawnng 
(And) pulled feet caught and pulled you a/e mj sisters 

368. Iinette nawang auhaknik ihun badi kintorit anate pen pariyor 

You are my mothers so why do this I am god';* servant 

379. Nawa jewa handal bale mari anate mihake hudsi halle 

(though) my life will go never mind I will at you see not 

kawanar halle ihua indur boru Lingal hona kenchik 

laugh will not BO said who Lingo these (words) having heard 

370. Pedba selad hadu bangu wadkinta kinjat ro bai verte Lingal 

Eldest sister she what says hear sisters that Lingo 

wadkor halle hudor halle imet 

speak not look not at you 

371. Hanjikun bilange matang Lingana ris wata dakata 

Having gone to embrace they began to Lingo anger came from heej 

risa matate tadkta 

anger to head ascended 

372. Matate risu kadkne reita kadku kalk itang Lingal 

From head anger to eyes descended from eyes to feet came Lingo 

munne hudtor 
in front looked 

373. Bangete dista halle wanjing usana uskulam aden hadtur 

Anything appeared not rice for cleaning the pestle that he beheld 

374. Ukadal nele raktur uskulam keide beitur 

Out of the swing down he descended the pestle in hand held 

375. Bainake tanwa tangekun jia latur jineke 

Much to his sisterinlaws to beat began as he was beating 

376. Yedung selak munne sodita latung mudanleke jhndpang 

Seven sisteis in front to flee began like a cow bellowing 

377. Lingal bagatal paja maltur tanwa nkadige wasikun 

Lingo thence behind turned to hia swing having come 

37<?. Ukatparo narumtur iwa yedungte janik hamake 

In a swing he slept theso seveix pardons much 

uskulamtang mar tipji matang 

pestle beating had received 

379. Hagatal paja rnaltung tanwa ron watung ^paloapalo 

Thence behind returned to their houses came to their own 

kontane hanjikun 

rooms having gone 


380. Yedung janike yedung jagangneh 

Seven sisters in seven places 

Liu gal ukade narumtor 

Lingo in a swing slept 

hanjikun narumtang 

having gone slept 

381. Ihun kinake dupardin tarkta wayaaa velo aita nalurk 

So doing it was noon the coming time it was (of) four 



382. Bore jaktor kursu bore jaktor malor bore jaktor 
Some killed she antelope some killed . a boar some killed 


a peafowl 

383. Bore beitor urum bore pungar kweitor 

Some held quail some flower had plucked 

384. Hagatal banda laturk rota sari biturk tamwa rachade 

Thence to go began house road took to their compound 

waturk talanang wajenk rehachi irturk davitro dada 

came of head burdens down kept let us go brothers 

Lingan intork 
to Lingo said they 

385. Pungak sikat sari hudsike mandannr verku nalurkte 

Flower we will give way he erpasting may be those four 

tamurk rotrapo soditurk 
brothers in the house entered 

386. Ukadige hangi nilturk Lingaa hadturk Lingal narumtor 

Near a swing going stood to Lingo 

Lingo was sleeping 

387. Bade diso kenjatro dada Lingal mantor narurator apalotang 
None appears hear Q brother Lin^l is slept our 

baikok Lalle diso'ng 
wives do not appear 

388. Havekun Imndakat usade Lingal agatal pojpa 

Them we will search then Lingo we will awake thence they returned 


To their 


apolo kontana handa laturk hanjikun hada 

own room.; to go began. having gone to see 


390. Iwa\v 

These are slept 

pusikiya laturk 

to ask becran 

as if fear 


had coiiie 

kutbe mantang 



391. Badi narumtorit Lingana ukad uhavit mawa palo kenjat 
Why hast thou slept Lingo are not swinging our word hear 

392. Hor Lingal miwor tamu bachojel amot makuskom 

That Lingo your brother's (acts) how long we may hido 

393. Imet dongude sirkartum hantorit paja Lingai mawang 

You to jungle for hunting to go (albwa) behind Lingo our 

yat yetintor 

shame takes 

394. Bachajel pite daskom ital bnddhi vena Lingana 

How long in'belly shall we keep such the conduct of this Liugo 

mauta nendom daskom 

ia till to-day we have kept 

395. Inga amot halle konjanal amot mawor babona nate 

Now we will not hear we to our father*' town 

will go 

396. Amot halle rebemayom undi baikon rehall muedork 

We not will remain for one wife two husbands 

baitun pabiji 
why should be 

397. Tamiirk \radki latork ver Lingan munnene indal 

r iet lire u to speak began that Lingo formerly told us 

398. Aga ycdung selak manda evenrapodal acbikun imo 

There seven sisters are amongst them having chosen one you 

munnene baiko kim 
before ua wife make 

399. Pissanmig bon haven amot kikom ver Lingal indur 

Those who shall remain them we will marry that Lingo said 

400. Nawatig selak andung nawang awak andung 

Our sisters they are our mothers they are 

401. Indur papi Lingai dushte Lingal karam cbandali Lingall 

Said sinner Lingo wicked Lingo of bad conduct Lingo 

402. Sikanta parode nade kikat 

Of hunting in the name deceived us 

403. Dongude woikal venku jaksi walkat venang 

(In jungle we will take away him having killed we will throw his 
kadku, tandakat 
eyes will pull out 

404. Nend dom kursana sikar jindom maloda sikar jindom 

To-day till antelope we h-we killed of hare a prey killed 

405. Lingana sikar jikom honang kadku tansikum 

Liugo'a hunting will do his eyes having taken out 

406. Goling garsakora aske sodi tinkom jer\i undakom 
As marble will play then bread will eat water we will drink 



407. Hanjikun Linganige nilturk tendaro Lingaitedaro dada 

^Having gone to Lingo they stood rise Lingo brother 

the youngest 

408. Badi dada tata halevit punga malsi watit 

"Why brother you have not brought flowJr why have you conie back 

achorte dinu barida 

so great a part of the day is set 

409. Bate janwar andu hadenk hainake jiotorom liadu aro 

Whatever animal it might be to it however we strike it does not fall 

410. Halle sodigo hagane nilta amot jirieke dorsi hatom 

Not flee there it stands we by striking tired 

411. Lingal ukadal tettur uttur tamurkun hike hudtur 

Lingo from a swing arose (and) sab brothers there look 

412. Hadu janwartun jiakan ihun itur Lingal 

That animal I will kill so said Lingo 

413. Aga";al titturk rotal pasiturk dada baga manta 

Thence arose from home went come brothers where is it 

414. Mimne Lingal pajaye ualurk dongtiile laturk dongude 

Before Lingo belaud four to jungle to go began the jungle 

sari bitnrk 
way they took 

415. Pedha jat mata korite Imturk mada hudintork 

Large kind was it (viz. the animal) as they went trees they searched 
jadi hudintork 
grass searched 

416. Lingal bangu wadkintor kenjatro dada nawang palong 

Lingo what eay* hear O brothers my word 

hatute hani hatte 
if it 4ias gone let it go 

417. Lingal Rarekata madat sid hanjikun utur verku 

Lingo the Char tree below having gone sat thorn 

nalurkte dada iturk 
four brothers said 

418. Uda Lingo yer tatinterom habadi aturk 

Sit Lingo water we will bring yonder went 

419. Madakun adam aturk Ukesaral bangu wadki lator kenjatro 

Of tree to the side came what to say began hear 

dada eiwake Lingal dhadmite utor 

brother good Lingo in shade sat 

420. Tde waklit manta nalurkte tamurk nalung tirk tandat suti 

This the time is four brothers four arrows took and 



421. Bore jitnr talladun worshi 

Some -bit to the head (it) split open 

422. Bore jitur gudangatuu gudanga hata bore ji'tur tadakitun tadaki 

Some hit * the neck neck fell some hit to the liver (it) cleft 

423. Ahune Lingana jivva pasisi hatu 

So Lingo's life went away 

424. Nalurte tamurk waya laturk wasikun Lingan. kachul nilturk 

.Four brothers to come began having come Liugo near stood 

425. Suring tandat kadku tandat suri tantur 

A knife let us- draw out eves we will draw out knife (they) drew out 

426. Linga! kachul hatur randute kadku tantur bangu wadki 

Lingo near went two eyes drew out what to say 

latur simtu 
began we will bury him 

427. Kakadang ari Linganparo raucha latur 

Twigs having taken on Lingo to cover began 

428. Bangu wadki latork Lingan jaktat Lmgal dushfc 

What to say begaa Lingo we have killed (that) Liug:> wicked 

42D. Pandta mad a tanang aklng koitork hadena dor.a kifcurk 

Ripe tree its leaves they plucked its cup made 

430. Hadurupo randute Linganang kadku irturk nadide 

In it two of Lingo's eyes placed in their waist 

they tied them 

431. Handa laturk Rota sariye waya laturk ronu waturk 

To go began house way to come began to house c;ne 

432. Bangu wadkintor undi kenjatro baikoknit lakore kisu patnsat 

What says one hear wives quickly fire kindle 

433. Diveng dasat iwu munguda huradi umtung kisu 

Lamps light they of the leaves tae fUx stalks drew out fire 



434. Bangu wadkintor undi ksnjatro dada eiwako veclachi 

What says one near brother good light 

ata ingane goling gursakat 
has b2corae now marbles we will play 

433. Verku hadinropodal kadku tanturk usade undi bangu 

They from waists eyes took out then one what 

wadkintor yedungte selaknit imet wadat goling 

says seven sisters you come marbles 


we will play 





439. Hagatal 



kanfc" ' 'tanturk 
eje^j brought oxit 










on one 

krwl paring 
one eye ou another (side) 







Tha brothers 

sat down 

near them 

gave (in) 




they held 



marbls like (will) 

the marble 









to their 

undi gatka 

one Lour 



The revival of Lingo, and his delivery of the Gonds from bondage. 

1. Bang pecdun kimad 

What god did (now) 

2. Rayetan kimad Pharsipentun kimad bang atu parodipne 

did did what happened in the tipper worlds 

3. Sabbe penkna uchu kacheri Sri Israna 

All minor divinities having sat in the court of god's 

4. Horu bangu wadki lator kenjatro gadyalknit kenjatro badu 

They what began to say hear O friends hear in what 

Dipne murda arta 

world (has this) dead body fallen 

5. Hona koju kimtu bor andur 

His trace will do who may he be 

6. SeiyuDg akina vida kitur risbirk rminne wadtur 

Five . leaves bida he made of rushis in front he threw 

7. Hud'atu hudi ikun naliaga wadatu nahaga veha ihun itur 

Having seen him near me come (and) me tell BO said he 

8. Vida rishi halle tahatork 

Bida the rishis not lifted 

9. Usade siri isral hainake risne wator rauga lator 

Then to god much anger came to reproach began 

10. Siri Isral tettur thalite yer keyustur kei kal nortu 

God arose iu a pot water called hands and feet washed 

11. Mendoda machu tantur tana kawal kitur tanrapo amrit 
(From Lis) body dirt he took (of) it crow he made on him ambrosia 



12. Sajjiv kitur Kagesur paror irtur keide bitur tanku 

Made it alive the name of Kagesur he kept in hand he held it 

13. Wadkintor Siri Isral handuki dongude matan rupo karitrapo 

Says God go in jungle between hills glens 

samtinrapo joditrupo yetrapo hududi 
valleys in rivers in water shalt thou look 

14. Agatal kawal handu latu parodipne walita latu 

Thence crow to go began in the Tipper world to roam began 

15. Halle bagane diso hagatal sidtadipne watu haga huda latu 

Did not any where see thence in the lower world came there to look began 


16. Kachikopa Lohugad adena dongude wasikum hudu latu 

of its jungle having come to look began 

matane korite 

in the hilly valleys 

17. Najur batu kakadang distu agatal kawal tettu 

Sight fell twigs appeared thence crow arose 

hanjikun kakadanige uttu kakadanrapo hudu lattu 

having gone near twigs sat under twiga to search began 

18. Lingal artor burotaye distur honku kadk halle honu 

Lingo was fallen bad he appeared to him eyes were not hia 

talla worta distu piru worta distu paduk pasitang 

head burst appeared belly burst appeared intestines come out 


19. Kawal hudtu agatal kawal tettu tuda latu waya latu 

Crow looked thence crow went to fly began to come began 


in the upper world 

20. Siri Israna keitparo wasikun uttu veru Siri Isral pusi kitur 

God's on hands having come sat .that God to ask began 

baga manta kharone veha 

where (and) what is truly tell 

21. Usade Kachikopa Lahugad hadena dongude watan haga 

Then in its jungle I came there 

hudtan waror manyal koritrapo artor 
I searched one man in a cave is fallen 

22. Siri Isral tanwa pite kemekena atur samje matur 

God in his belly became silent (and) understood 

23. Hade dongude pahindi pungar mada mata Lingai 

In that jungle Pahindi -flower's tree was (where) Lingal 

Jon me masi 
was born 

24 Askedal wata halle 

Since then came not , 

25. Botutal amrit tantuf keitur Kurtao Subal honku vehatur 

Out of his finder ambrosia took out he called to him said 

26. Ime idu honu amrit womu todakeparo pitparo watakin 

You this to him ambrosia take on his liver on the belly sprinkle 

tallatparo watakin 
on the head sprinkle 

27. Munne kawal paja Kurtao Subal handa laturk Kachikopa 

In front crow behind to go began to 



28. Kenja ho kawade mawor Lingal andur ihun itur 

Hear crow my Lingo is thus said 

Kurtaoa Subal 

29. Amrit tantur hona todde wadtur hona feallat puro 

Ambrosia brought in his mouth put and his head on 

wadtur hona pit paro wadtur usade Lingana tiilla 

put his belly on put then Lingo's head 

jude may a latu 
join to began 

30. Mendol kastu 

(His) body became warm 

31. Linga techikun 

Linga arose * 

32. Uda latur kawalhike huda iatur batigu wadki latur Linga 

*To sit bewail crow to see began what to say began Lingo 

nan a hainake matona 

I in deep (sleep) was 

33. Nawork tamurk beke haturk 

My brothers where have gone 

31 Undi kawal waror manyal distor nawork tamurk disork 

One crow one man is seen my brothers are not seen 

ihun ineke 

so said 

35. Wadkintor Kurtao Subal bagatork niwork tamurk 

So he said Kurtao Subal where are your brothers 

36. Tme te sasi matoni arse matoni amot watom nihun tehatom 

You dead were lying you were we came you raised 

37. Tamurkna paror matintoin horke nikun jakturk horku 

Of brothers name take they you killed they 

went away 

38. Indur Kurtao Subal veru Linga bangu intor kenja 

(Then)' said to Kurtao Subal that Linga what eaya hear 



39. Ana handakan nawung sola kadang koiturk 

1 will go to my sixteen scores (of Qonds) 

40. Handakan horkun hudakan aske wayakan 

I will go them I will see with them I will speak 

41. Kawal Kurtao Subal verku andu laturk 

Crow and Kurtao Subal both to go began 


42. Linga ban da laturk dusara sarye 

Linga to go began another way 

43. Linga hatur undi mata waiiutu undi mata turginton 

Linga went one mountain passing one mountain ascending 

dongude handu lator haneke din muKtu 

in jungle to go began then day was set 

44. Veru Lingo bangu wadktur inga dinu hatu ige rehe 

That Lingo what said now day ia set here stay 

mayka waronaye 

I will alone 

4'5. Benke chital 

From somewhere tiger 
yadjal wayal nak tindal 


will come 

nakun tindal benke 

me will eat from somewhere 


will come me will eat 

46. Veru pedhajat nirura mada aden budtur 

That large niroor tree to it he went 

47. Tanparo turktur sbendute aga din mulit 

Thereupon he climbed to the top then day set 

48. Dotigur gogoting kusintang mulk tabosintang kursk 

Wild cocks crowed peacocks cried antelope 

cbamrke mantang 
afraid were 

49. Yedsku gume mantang kolyalk kolla kintang dongur 

Bears wagged their heads jackals a yell made jungle 



50. Ardho rat ata Lingo 

Half night passed Lingo 

jangomamal pasitor 



was saying 




is up 

51. Yedachi atu sukkuk pasitang verkun pusi kiku 

The light coming stars appearing to them ask I will about 

my Gonda 

52. Mund pabark atu gogoti kustee 
At the third watch of night cock crowed 

53. Via sukkum pasitor lal abbar atu din pasitu 
Morning star appeared red sky became day appeared 

54 Veru Lingo madatal rtitur vicbike 

That Lingo from tree came down running 

dintunige hunjikun sewa kitur 

towards the sun having gone salutation made 

bandu latur 

to go began 


55. Vehatu nawa sola .kadang koitoik baga mantork 

Ttll my sixteen stores of Gonds where are 

56. Kenja Linga nanate siri israna chakari kiritona nahmg 

Hear Lingo I of god's service I do four 

pah ark takintona 

watches I travel on 

57. Distil halle 
I saw (them) not 

58. Agatal 'Lingo jango maman ige watwi 

Thence Lingo moon uncle to came 

59. Sewa ,kitur ban. -pusi kitur mama .nawang 

Salutation made him asked uncle my 

60. Sola ikadang .koitorkun 

Sixteen scores .of Gonds 

nakim vehata 

to me tell 







if you have 

61. Kenja Lingo anate narkapoding tdkintona din 

-Hear Lingo I night all walk day light 

pasinta aske udintona siri israna cbakaii 

Until then I sit (in) god's service 

62. Nakun malum halle 

To me known not 

63. Agatal handa lator ver Lingo karyal ' kumaitunige 

From then to go began that Lingo to black kumait 

64. Hanjikun sewa it or pusikitor nawang sola kadang koitork 

After going salutation made asked my sixteen scores of Gonds 

baga mantork 
where are 

65. Kenja Linga sabbena paror muta koitorkna paror mutma 

Hear Lingo of all the names mention of Gonds' names do not mentio 

66. Gadhana jat koitona barabar manda 

To asses' caste Gonds equal are 

67. Bilal unde tintork yalli unde tintork gbusi unde tintork 

Cats also they eat mice also they eat bandicoots also they eat 

68. Padi unde tintork mudatang khandk yedmitang tintork ital 

"* also they eat cow's flesh buffaloes they eat suck 

buratai mantork 

bad they are 

69, Horkunigerk nakun barkur pusi kiya 

About them me why you ask 


70. Dhawalagiri Parwat Jumnagiri tirith 

Dhawalagiri mountain Jumna place of worship 

71. Haga Mahadewa manda horn sabbe kottorkun bisikun 

There Mahadeo is he all Gonds cau fe ht (having) 

72. Yaditrapo muchi sitor sola kutang tongi tana todtparo 

In a cave shut did sixteen cubits stone on its mouth 

darwajate muchi situ 

door covered 

73. Basmasur Deituna pahara irtu deitur kepintar 

Basmasur giant as a guard kept the giant watching (the place) 

74. Lingo agatal positur taka latur arnte unde takintu narka 

Lingo from there started to walk began day and he walked night 

75. Tap kitur bara mahinang atung vena tapu nintu 

Devotion made twelve months passed when devotion was completed 

76. Mahadewa undana sonota chowrang dagmage muta 

Mahadeo's sitting golden stool to shake began 

77. Mahadewa indur nawa Dhawalagirat paro bora Ristu water 

Mahadeo said my Dhawalagiri on what Devotee haa com* 

ige tap kitu nawa paro 

here devotion made me upon 

78. Waje kitu ihun itur Mahadewa 

Load he put thus said Mahadeo 

79. Handa latur huda latur maka latur 

To go began to see began to wonder began 

80. Lingan kachul haturk lake nilturk hagatal hudturk 

Lingo towards went after stood from there *aw 

verte Linga 

he was Lingo 

81. Halle kei maluyor halle kal tahator kadkne hudor 
Do not hand sLake do not feet lift up with eye do not ee 

82. Sabbe savi watta padekaye pista ihun Lingal sahakun paro 

All flesh was dry bones remaining thus Lingo thorn* upoa 


was asleep 

83. Mahadewa bangu wadkilatur 

Mahadeo what began to say 

84. Ime caluka bang talukiya bang indaki hade sika 
You ask what ask what you wish that I will giv 

85. Ver Linga bang intor 
This Lingo what Ray 


86. Nakun badandaye kamti halle nawang sola kadang 

Forme anything less ia not my iixteen icorei 

koitork nakun sima 

of Gonds me give 

87. Mahadewa intor 

Mahadeo said 

88. Paror mutma baga daye rajye tuluka bange 

Name dont take of any place kingdom ask any amount o 

rupyang tuluka uchi tendake 

money ask which you will en joy 

89. Mawa puror mutaki ihun itur Mahadewa Lingal kenjta 

My name take thus said Mahadeo Lingo agree 


did not 

90. Koitorkun laluktur Mahadewa jaba hare koiturkun situr 

Gonds on askiag Mahadeo disappeared the Gonds gave 

91. Kenja Linga bhuyartrapo niwork koitork mantork 

Hear Lingo below the earth your Gjad are 

horkun worn 

them take away 

92. Lingal tettur sewa itur handu ktur 

Lingo arose salutation made to go began 

93. Veru Narayan bang intor kenja Mahadewa sabbetinne 

This Narayaa what said hear Mahadewa all 

koitork verku 

Gonds these 

94. Besh makstu paror 

(Were) well conceded (their) name 

inukun bukota mata 

to me good would have been 

marse mata sasi manerk 

forgotten is (if they) were dead 

95. Unde verku koitork jitoaturk bhuyatal positurk 

Again said (if) Gonds living from below the earth came out 

ahune kinurk 

as usual they will eat 

96. Yedming tendanurk pileng 
Buffalo they will eat birds and 

giduk dhokuk 

eagles and vultures 

purhuk tendanurk kawal 
pigeons they will eat CTOWB 

97. Ruaming beke hake was wayal padekang 

Will alight here and there stink will arise bouea 

burotai disal 

bad look 

will fall 


93. .Mawa Dhawalagirita satwo bude mayal 

My Dhawalagiri's purity lost will be 

99. Hona kenjtur Mahadewa kenja Nara}^an undi 

His (word) heard Mahadej Narayaa my 

ana sisi 

I have given 



100. Chuktan 

fl -erred 

nawaipe dusaro 

near me another 


here is not 

101. Narayan bang in tor 

Narayan what said 

102. Kenja Linga mawa punjatun karyal Bindo pitetang 

Hear Lingo for my offering black Bindo bird* 

chiwak ime arikun 

young ones for me bring 

10.3. Usade nawork koitorkun womu 
After that from me the Gonds take away 

104. Lingo yontur daryawun kachul hatur aga hudintor beke 

Lilian reached the sea near went there he saw here 

heke yer dista 

and there water was visible 

105. Ina kudkate karyal . Bindo pitetxmg chiwaku manda 

Of that sea-shore black Bindo the birds yaung ones were 


male and female 

106. Kandute dongude hatung 

Both to jungle had gone 

107. Aada pile 

That bird 

batal mandu yenin jakund tanang 

how was elephant killing of that (elephant) 

kadnu tindu talla wohtund tana maddur 

the eyes they ate the head breaking of that brain 

108. Chiwalum tatund piteta yednng khopka yetrapoda 

For young ones they brought of this bird seven broods aquatic 

109. Bhowarnag manda tarasu idu tinji mata ver Linga 

Bhowarnag was snake he eaten had this Lingo 

kachul Latnr 

near went 

110. Chiwakim hudtur bang wedkintor 
The young ones seeing what (he) said 

111. Paja woyakan nakun kalle indanurk 

In absence if I take (the young ones away) me a thief they will call 

112. Horkun munne woyakan ana Lingana aikan 

In their presence if I take them away I Linga will be 


113. Chiwakun kacliul narumtur hainaki 

The young ones near lie slept "with comfort 

114. Itumna kodtleka tarasa tosuro distu 

Kamo trunk liko snake thick appeared 

115. Setitichor tana phadi. kitu idu Bhowarnag 

Like basket (for winnowing corn) hi* hood was this Bhowarnag 

tarasu yetropodal chiwak tendalo waya latur 

snake from water the young ones to eat to come began 

116. Iwu chiwak torasun hudtung hainake wuritung ada 

These young ones the snake seeing much were terrified to cry 



117 Lingubhan parekatal tir tantur kamtatun jodi kutur 

Lingo train his back arrow took (in; bow fixed 

the arrow 

118. Jitur tarasna yediing khandang kitur nake vitur 

Shot the snake seven pieces he made fast ran 

yedungte khandang 

all seven pieces 

119. Mahachi tuttur talla wada vitur adenpara 

Carried and brought (of) his head on the side he kept at 

muchi situr 

120. Usade dongudal kuryal Bindo radute admunsaolk 

Then from the juuglo black Biudo both male and female 

121. Bade jakta hutum bange jaktork yening badena konku 

Some they killed cameb some they killed elephant some eye* 
bitork yenotang 

got of elephant 

122. Ihun cliiwakan sati eharo arikan wa,ya latung 

These young ones for food taking coming began 

123. Iwu chiwaku cliaro tinong 

Theso young onej food will not cat 

124. Usade bangu v/adku latung bod a kuriyal Bindo pitte tanwor 

Then what to say began fecaato black Bindo's bird to her 

muedon bansju inta 

he ones what said 

1*25. Yedung velku atung asiknn 

Seven times I got notwithstanding 

120. Ana tongu wangu yedmileka mantona iwu teri 

I am now v/ithoufc (young oaoa) buffalo Ilia I ara thesa if 


can be spared 

127. Ana chawa wale disuka ihun iLnn usade nawarjg chiwang 

I like mother of child will look thus s^iJ a^ain (on) my young one* 

batita diti lagta 

what evil eye has fallen 

12S. Iwu timing halle 

These cat do not 

129. Tanor imnstir neli. hucltur pandri distu Linga narnmsi 

Her hs ona alighted (and) looked wiiits appeared Lingo eleepiug 

130. Hudtu kenja ho mawang chiwak tenal halle neli huda 

Saw Lear theso our young ones eat do not below ice 


A Tn.^yt 

131. Mantor hontti jaksi wata hona tullada madur tansi 
There is him kill of his head brain take out 

132. mawang chiwaka charo tindanung 

Our young ones food for eating (will be) 

133. Chiwaku kenchikun bangu wadkintang 
The young ones hearing what they said 

134. Makun ime charo tatan amot bahun tindakom imet babo 

For us you food have brought we how eat you father 

ime awal mawor and it 
you mother of us are 

135. Makun wadsikun dongndo handit jge mahaga 

Us leaving to jungle you go here near ui 

boru rehe raandur 

who remains 

136. Makun boru kepandur 

Us who will guard 

137. Idu yetrapodal Bhowarnag makim tindale wandu 

This aquatic Bhowarnag us to eat was coming 

138. Horu manwal mator mawa jiva pistu met hudtit 

That man was hero our life was saved you saw 

139. Ponko tindalo dosat horu tindanur usade amot tindakom 

Him to eat give he cut* after w will eato 


140. Usade chiwakna kenjtu 

After (of) the young ones hearing 

141. Awal neli Lingan kuchal wasikun utto hona tullawadutat 

The mother below Lingo near coming sat his head from 

142. Dupta tuhustu hudtu hagu yedung khandang Bhowarnagf 

Cover having lifted eaw these eeveu pieces of Ishowarncg 

143. Hudsikun tanwa pite bangu wadki lain 

Seeing in her belly what to say began 

144. Ide taras sabbe nawang chiwak titu nalcun wanjulal kitu 
This snako all . my young ones ate ine childless made 

145. Vern manyal halle idundc keprie tinji racmwal usadd 

If this man was not (there) the ycung cnes eaten would Lavo cga:n 

karyal Bindo 
the black Bindo 

146. Pitte bangu wadki lata tedu ro dada tedura baba ime bonu 

Bird what to say began rise brother rise father you wh 

andi beke wati 

are whence you have come 

147. Nawang cbawanu jiwa pisusti mawor pedhor baba ati 

Of my young ones the life you saved our grand father yoxi becam* 

148. Tine bangu indaki hadu amot kenja kan 

You whatever say that we hear will 

149. Linga bangu wadkintor kenja 

Lingo what said hear 

150. Ho karyal Bindo pitteti anate satwadbari Linga penparyor 

black Bindo bird I am a devotee Lingo worshipper of de iky 

151. Ime bartun wati Linga makun veba ihun itu badu 

You why came Lingo ua tell thua said who 



152, Kenja pitteii niwang rundute cbiwakim nakun simu 

Hear bird your both young ones me give 

ihun. itur boru Lingal 

thus said who Lingo 

153. Usade cliiwa'ina paror mutaneke kuryal Bindo pitte 

Then of young ones the name on taking black Bindo bird 

hainake adu ]atu 

much to cry began 

154 Kudhek tantu bangu wadki latti 

Her eyes lifting up what to say began 

155. Kenja Linga unde bange talukem anaseyena 

Hear Lingo any other thing if you (would have askpd) I would haye given 


156. Nawang chiwakna paror halle matni ; 

My young ones uame do not mention 

157. Usacle bangu wadki latur Lingal 

Then what to say began Lingo 

158. Haga Mahadewa mantor hona najude hudansati niwang 

There Mahadeo is for him with eyes tw look your 

chiwakun wontona 

young ones I, will take 

159. Usade bangu wadkinta kuryal Bindo pitto 

Then what said black Bindo bird 

160. Kenja Linga Mahadewa keitor amot wayakom 

Hear Linga (if) Muhadeo culls we will go 

161. Undo khato pakal paro tanwa randute chiwakun upusU 

One side of wing on their both young ones waadu to sit 

undi khaku Linga upusta 

on one side Lingo made to sit 

162. Usade karyal Bindo pittetor mansur bangu wadkintor 

Then bkck Binds bird's male what said 

kenja Linga 

hear Lingo 

163. Ana bartun mandaka mikun hainake yaddi lagal 

I for what will remain you much sun will feel 

164. Ihun itur ncli modi tudintu paro 

Thus Fidd from below the female flew up 

165. Tanor mansur dhadim kitnr daryawan igetal tuda 

Her inala shelter making towards the ssa theaca to fly 


166. Sarung mehinana sari mata iwu pitteng sakadene pasitang 

Six months' road w;u this bkd early in tha marning started 

167. Dnpar ayo te wasikun Mahadewata rachede reitung 
Mid-day till they fievv of MaLadej in the court they alighted 

163. Duadal hndtur Narayan vichike hanjikun Mahadewatigo 

From door seeing Karain ran and going Mahadeo 

vehata latur 

to show began 

169. Kenja Mahadewa ver Lingo karyal Bindo petten ari 

Hear Mahadeo this Lingo black Bindo bird has brought 

170. Usade Mahadewa bangu wadki lator kenja Narayan 

Then Mahadeo what to say began hear Narain 

171. Anate \vadkandan anate vehandan ime halle verhorte Lingo 

I told I understood you hear did not Ling* 


172. Tatanur suti kiuar halle 

Will bring leave will not 

173. Usade mahadewa wadktur kenja Lingo niwang sola kadang 

Then mahadeo said hear Lingo your sixteen scores 


of Gonds 

174. Womu sitan hanu Lingal 

Take I have given and go Lingo 

175. Mahadewatun sewa kitur yadit karun hatur Phursipenda 

To mahadeo salutation he made cave near the he went great god's 



176. Mutatur Rayetana paror mutatur basmasur deituro habadi 

He took of Rayetan god's name he took basmasur giant in front 


made to go 

177. Sola katang tangi chira tachikun hahadi irtur tamvang 

Sixteen cubits of stone piece lifting up aside kept his 

178. Koiturkuro bahers tantur horku koiturkun hudtur verku 

Gonds out brought those Gonds saw him these 

koitork bango wadkintor 

Gonds what said 

179. Kenja Lingo mawor bore halle makun veru mahadewa 

Hear Lingo we have one no to us this mahadt* 

180. Gahokna pindi bone situr janana pindi 

Of wheat flour to some gave of millet flour 

181. Boue situr paryok 

To some he gave rice 

182. Yadite aturk atu laturk honake intork 

To river went to cook began some were saying 

183. Kondi kusi mator muwa jiwata hotal solu kitur 

What he had kept them our lives how punish he did 

184. Usade Linga bangu wadkintor. 

Then Linga what said 

185. Imet yadite datu imet atatu tintu usade wadkakel 

You in river come you cook and cat then you speak 


The subdivision of the Gonds into tribes, and the institution of the worship 

oj the Gond gods. 

1. Lingo pistur rotang kitur kusari atatur sabbe 

Lingo (having) kneeded thick cake made pulse cooked all 

koitorkna atmad atu 

Gorki's souls satisfied 

2. Ihun abhal tettu piru ara latu 

Then clouds arose rain to fall began 

3. Joditun usa waya lata sabbe koitork 

To a river flood to come began all Gonds 

bacgu wadki 
what (began) to speak 

4. Linga hainake pir tetta palang pirurinta 

Lingo much rain rose up rain is falling 

5. Verku koitork handa laturk sabbe koitork joditrapo handa 

Those Gonds to go began all Gonds in middle of river to go 


6. Horkun rapadork nalung koitork Lingau toda rahe maturk 

Them amongst four Gonds Lingo with remained 

7. Hotu Lingal hudtur bangu wadki lator kinjat dada 

That Lingo saw what to speak began hear brother 

8. Joditur usa wata apalo had khak bahur handakat 

To river flood came we that side how we shall go 

9. Adhike abhai watu andhar atu 

More clouds came darkness became 

10. Verku nalurkte jank Lingal bang wadkintor 

(To) those four persons Lingo what speaks 

11. Kinjat dada bahun kikat bahun handakat din hanta 

Hear brother how we will do how we will go day is going 

12. Dame kasuwal Fuse magral yetrupo garsiki 

Dame the tortoise Fuse the ah'gator in water were playing 

13. Waya latung virkunkachul yetropodal wadka latung 

To come they began to them out of water to speak began 


14. Kinjatro dada imet badi kamekene atorit adintorit 

Hear brother you why silent became (and) cry 

15. Mawang sola kadang koitork achorte haturk amot 

Our sixteen scores (of) Qonds all went we 



16. Bahun handakom kinjat dada mawang palong amot 

How we shall go hear brothers our word we 

mikun rehachi sikom 

you a crossing will give 

17. Makun Imet pari kikot te araot rehachi siya 

With us you oath keep then we a crossing will give 

18. Wadki lator kenja bai imet te Fuse magr#ni 

(They) to speak began hear sisters you then Fuse the aligator 

imette Dame kaswane 

you Dame the tortoise 

19. Undi verku nalurk jank mantork nikun munne pari 

First those four persons (who) are you first oath 



20. Nikun bora jianur jiasmar halli bori biamur biasenar 

(If) you any will beat to beat we will not allow any apprehend (to) catch 


we will not (allow) 

21. Imette verkna nulurkte jankna pedha iurad aiki 

You to those four persons eldest sister will become 

ihun itur 
thus spoke 

22. Dame kaswal Fuse magral todit kachul waturk 

Dame the tortoise Fuse the aligator face near came 

verkmal urkte jank Fuse magranporo parekate warore 

those sat persons Fuse the aligator's on back alone 

Lingal Dame kuswana parekate 

Lingo Dame the tortoise on back 

23. Dame kaswal paja atu Fuse magra munne atu 

Dame the tortoise behind became Fuse the aligator in front : became 
usatrapo sodita 

in flood entered 

24. Bangu kiya 

What to do 

to drown began 


to the four 


having taken 


in deep water 


25. Verku ada laturk usade kaswal bangti wadkinta kinja 

They to cry began then tortoise what spoke hear 

O Lingo 

26. line kai simu horkun nawa parikat paro umsi yena 

You hand give to them my back on drag 

27. Lingal kei situr nalurkunte bitur umsi yetur kaswana 

Lingo hand gave to the four caught dtagged from water tortoise 

parikate upustur 
on back caused to sit 

28. Idu kaso rechachi situ tana parekate nulurkte jank 

This tortoise a crossing gave on his back to four persona 

29. Kal kara laturk kenjtin kaswa amot nikun halle 

On feet to fall they began hear tortoise we have to you not 

beimaw anal 

faithless become 

30. Usade verku handa Jaturk donguda sariye undi mata 

Then those to go began by jungly way one hill 



31. Undi mata runtork handa latork munni 

One hill descended to go began forward 

32. Verku madak nadktur rohk dohaturk munda laturk bekehake 

Those trees cut house built to remain began here there 

33. Netku kiturk achorte rohku koitorkna kiturk pedhojat naru 

Fields made all house for Gonds made large oity 



34. Agane haturn nehaturk pedha nar Bhumi atu 

There a bazaar held large Bhumi became 

35. Wadki lator dada imet netku yadakit janang anung 

To say they began brother you fields sow jawari wilj spring 

86. Usade verkun bara mahinang atung aiwake Bhumi sahar 

Then to them twelve months became a good Bhumi city 

disa latu 
to appear began 

37. Bone kondang halveke honku kondang atung 

Who bullocks have not those bullocks became (received) 

38. Bon godang halveki hon gadang atung sabbe wadang 

Those who carts have not to them carts became all enclosures 

naru nande matu 

(of) city prosperous becam* 


3D. Lin gal achorte koitork waturk manditel wcriya 

To Liugo all Gonds caine close to thigh in rows 

40. Utturk nadum Lingal niltur usade , Lingal wadka latur 

Sat in midst Lingo stood then Liugo to speak began 

41. Kenjatro koitork 

Hear Gonda 

42. Achorte koiturk nit imet bange samje mavit nit bon 

All you Gonds to you anything understanding not to whom 

indana dad a bon indana baba 
to call brother whom to call father 

43. Bon inda-na pari bona myad talnkana bon siana 
Whom to call a relative whom a daughter to ask whom to give 

44. Bontoda kawana usade verku koitork bangu wadkintork 

"With whom to laugh then those Gonds what said 

45. Lingo imete pedhar buddhitone eiwake wadkte 

Ti> you great understanding (is) good spoke 

40. Bahun wadkte ahun Linga uiwa keide khamk kimu 

How spoke so Lingo you with hands that do 

47. Lingal sola kodang koitork miatork korkun ropodal 

Lingo sixteen companies (of) Gonds that were of them from amidst 

Dalnng kodang undi kbak tehatur 
four bands one side rained 

48. Warona kei bittir bon intor ime ro gadiga manawajia 

One's hand caught whom said he you friend manawajia 

at ung 


49. Aske horu manawajia atur usade dusarona kei bitur 

Then he manawajia became Then another's hand caught 

kenja ro gadiya mete daliakiwali ojal aike 

hear friend you dahakwale bard be 

50. Horu dab aki wale ojal atur 

That dahakiwale bards became 

61. Unde dusroni kei bitur hon itur ime gadiya 

And another's hand caught him said you friend 

koilabutal aiyaki boru .koilabutal atur 

koilabutal be he koilabutal became 

52. Usade dusroria kei bitur bonku bang itur ime 

Then other's hand caught to him what said you 

gadiya koikopal aiyake 
wild koikopal be 


53. Horn koikopal atur ihun kineke nalung kodang martung 

He koikopal became thus lie made them four scores became 

54-. Bara kodang pistung usade Lingal nailing kodang tantur 
Twelve bands remained then Lingo four bands separated 

55. Muneta kadutun korku kitur dusaro kadatun bhil 

(Of) first band korku became (of ) another band bhil 



56. Tisaro kadatun kolami kitur choutotun kotoleyal kitur 

(Of) third band kolami made (of) fourth kotoleyal made 

at kodang 

eight bands 

57. Mortung at rehe raatung usade bangu at a tiju. 

(Finished) ended eight remained then what becanis third 

weishakna raahina 

of weishak month 

58. Watu usade Lingal wadkintor davitro dada makun 

(Came) arrived then Liugo said corns brothers to w 


59. Pen bagane diso apalo penu kikat punja 

God anywhere appears we god will make and worship 

60. Achonti jank undiya palo 

All persona one word 

61. Kiturk seiyung warshana bakral 

Spoke five years' old goat 

62. Salmeta kusana ghogoti rrnmd worshana kuwarik padnag 

A year old crowing cock three" years virgin calf 

63. Gai randu taratu 

Cow two bring 

64. Manaojan keyat pen ghagarang 

Maaaojan call god chain 

65. Dongur mudana tokada gangawan chawur tarat ihun 

Wild cow tailed cow tailed fan bring thus 

itur Lingal 
said Lingo 

66. Dukan mande^imtu poladna Pharsi pot banekimtu 

Shop spread (keep) of steel Pharsi pot make 

67. Don gnde hantu waduda kate norksi taratu iehor 

To jungle go bamboo stick cut (and) bring it 

6B. Dhanegaon penman dana satik mandana Anegaon 

(In) DLanegaon god keep goddesses keep (in) Auegaon 

69. Rakade lettur jodite hatar yer kitur tnado dbote 

(In the) morning arose (to a) river went water took then garment 



70. KapacJe tira metatur veru hang wadkintor kenjtro 

(On) foreliexd tika applied ho what said hear 

ojal kun 

oja to 

71. Keyat joda dahaking keyatu penkate torata, ver Lingal 

Call two drummerj they call god stick brought he Lingo 

to the stick 

72. Ghagarang dohatur Pharsipot paro dastur gangawan chawar 

Gangara (bell god) bound Pharsipot in shoved GJW tailed fan 

paro tuduta latur tuna kei jodikitur sewa sewa Pharspendi 

en to \\ave began his hand joined hail hail Pharaipen 

73. Kati tahatur tahaneke Manko Bay eta I, Jango Bayetal 

Stick (lifted) took when lifting Manko Bayetal, Jango Bayetal 

74. Pharsipen wase niltu vena mendode rumraematu 

Parsapen (having) come stood in his body played 

75. Lingal pen kotedal atur liainake ghume matur deiya latur 

Lingo god devotee became much to turn he began to jump began 

76. Munue munne Lingal pajayk bakralk ghoghotin kuwaring 

In front Lingo behind goata cocks virgin 

pad an g 


77. TJndi jagpaniaturk blmmi sutikiturk 

(In) one place assembled the place left 

78. Waturk inda laturk pedha 

Came to speak began loudly 

79. Wadki laturk borku koitorku kenjatro dada imet nilat penti 

To speak began who Gonds hear brother you stand O god 

80. Kal kurat pusi kimtu baga pen kada koda 

(On) feet fell asking made where gods (for) each band 

marana chun indur 

shall we prepare place so said 

61. Usade sabbe koitork immne aturk keik jodikiturk nilturk 
Then all Gonds in front became hands joined (and) stood 


82. Usade pus kiturk Pharsipen bang wadkinta kenjatro dad a 

Then to ask bsgan Pharsipeu what says hear father 

83. Farm matan gondite yedang sandite im3t dxtu hig\ 

Between twelve hills in caves in seven hilly dal^.3 you go 

higa nawa pen kada kimta 

there my gods place make 

84-. Munne pen kate pajaye sabbete koitork handa laturk 

Iu front god stick behind all Gonds to go b^jan 

85. Imet datu higa reiturk jadi tora laturk tanging worsi 

They went there alighted grass to pick bajau atouAi thravr 

86; B-TRgu -wadkintor Lingal 

Then spoke Lingo 

87. Kcnj'itro dad a munne dista biwalata mada tan nark at 

Hear bi other yonder appears bijj.snl t;-se that , cut 

83. Tana dhole kintu mars biturk medetige haburk mada 

Its (drum) dhol make axe caught near tree weak trea 

nad turk 
did cut 

89. Bone sola biturk soramend yer tatturk todi katurk 

Sonie pitcher held pitcharful water brought earth dug 

90. Tana wadata kiturk adenparo penkate irturk 

Its chabutra made on it god stick placed 

kinjatro dada iiiwa dhol atu halle atu 

Hear O brother your dhol became not ready 

91. Munne kis patusturk diyeng dosturk 

In front fire burn lamp light 

92. Seyung tora,ng palnide shendur nahalork seiyung torang 

Five tolas in ghi vermilion wet five tolaa 

raru tanturk kisun paro \\adturk 
ral (resin) take fire on threw 

93. Munne Lingal uttur keide pen Ghagarang 

Before Lingo sat hand joined god Ghagara 

94. Ghagarang nekusta latur vena mendode pen Rayetal watu 

Gangara (bell god) play began that (in) hi& body god Rayetal caoxa 
Pharsipen garsa latur 

Parsapen to play began 

95. Jorat badakmend phul 

Bring goglet full of daru 

96. Kathi paro wadtur sewa Pharsipen itur 

The stick on spiinkled it ealam Tharsipen spoke 


97. Randute keik joda kiturk kal kara laturk kal karaneke 
Two hands joined did at feet to fall began feet falling time 

Pen Rayetal mendode watu veru Lin gal deiya 

God Rayetal in body came he Lingo to jump 

hainake hale matur yenda latur 

much to move began dance (to) began 


99. Usade bangu wadki latu Pharsipen ari nawa seijarang 

Then what to speak began Pharsipen bring to me victims 

100. Verku seiyung salkna bakrai munne tachikun niluturk 

Those nve years goats before having brought made to stand 

101. Adenang kalk norturk tona taladun sandur sokturh 

Their feet washed his head vemilion applied 

tanang kowdrapo phui wadturk 
(in) his ears daru poured 

102. Bakranku bisikun kal kara laturk 

Goat having caught . feet to threw began 

103. Bakrana mindody Rayetal watu hoinuke kapunga latu 

(In) goats body Rayetal came much to shake began 

tala hale kitu kowku gode kitur mendodum jadte 

head to move began ear to shake began to the body shak* 



104. Verku ran nalungcha jank viturk bakran betur tan 

Then two four persons ran goat caught it 

aru turk 
threw (down) 

105. Pentparo aske laturk achorte natur beke hake watu 

God before to cut began all blood here and there sprinkled 

106. A turk taladun munne 

Began the head before 

undi khak irturk 

one side kept 

iturk bakranku 

to keep to the goat 

taha chikun 

having lifted 

107. Usade sal meta pandu gogute tan laturk haden aske 

Then a year old white cock brought to it (they) cut 

108. Jantur nekusta laturk dhohi nekusta laturk eiwake 

Kingri to play began dhol to play began good 

pendawaja nekusta latnrk 

god music to play began 

109. Eiwake penu kusite watu garsa lata 

Good god in pleasure came to play began 


110. Usade randute padana kalk norturk toddi worturk 

Then two (of) calf's feet washed mouth washed 

avena talade sendur sokturk 

their head vermilion applied 

111. Aven neli aruturk aska laturk 

Then down threw to cut began 

112. Randu padanang talang munne irturk usade Lingal bangu 

(Of) two the calves heads before kept then Lingo what 

wadke latur kenjatro dada 
to say began hear brother 

113. Lnkore ireina Dadana tolk tar.dat bore tadaking bursat 

Quickly these calves skins flay some liver roast 

114. Boun tongmg taturk sodck kiturk sodekun puro atkang 
Some stones brought an oven made on oven on pitcher (for cooking 


115. Atkan rapo yer wadturk yetraro khandk wadturk 
Picther in water put in water flesh put 

116. Mardnang akung kweisikun taturk hadenang kuding kiturk 

Yen (tree) leaf having cut brought their plates made 

117. Dhadiate ghato biturku toda kitang khandku biturk 

In brass plate cooked rice took liver took flesh took 

nalung diveng patusturk pent munne ari 

four lamps lighted god before placed 

118. Puja kinturk bore irintor rupya pahud pendun 

An offering made swme were keeping (as) rupee present (before) god 

119. Ihun pendun munne rupyana tongronmend rasi artu 

So god before of rupees up to knee , a heap fell 

120. Lingo wadki laturk kenjatro dada eiwake mawa pengada 

Lingo to speak began hear brother good (in) my god's court 



121. Hanku sikat ihun 

Whom shall we give this 

122. Kinjatro dada ichorkun rapodal bore waror Padal amtu 

Hear brothers (of) all from midst some one Pardhan (shall) becom* 

123. Horku amot sikun 

To him we will give 


124. Usade Lingal eiwake hudtur sabbenropoo sedal pantang 

Then Lingo good looked in the company old hoary 

chuting wale nudtur 

haired man saw 

125. Paksi sedan hudtur hanjikun hona kei bitur 

First old man he looked having gone his hand held 

126. Ime Padani amu amot ikun wallenaye rasyud sikom 

You Pardhan be we to you much ' wealth will give 

dhadotang sikom 

clothes will give 

127. Nikun kongang sikom band talukaki sikom halle inar 

You a horse we will give whatever (will) you^ask will give not speak 



128. Bhalote dada ana sec?a maniwana uchikun tendaka 

Well brother I am (an) old man 1 will sit and eat 

129. Niltur sabbekun sewa itur bore situr dhadotang bore 

Stood all ealam said some gave clothes some 

siturk rupyang 

gave rupees 

130. Hadu kikri venku siturk 

That pipe to him gave 

131. Batigu wadki latur Lingal kenjatro gidiya 

What to speak began Lingo hear friends 

132. Usade bahun kiana dada veru tettuu 

Then what shall we do brother he arose 

133. Yedung jankun tehatur horku undi khak nilutur imet 

Seven persons made to rise to them one side made to stand you 

ro dada wadkal velta yedung sagang aming 

brother kindred (one) be seven family become 

134. Usade sarung jaiikun undi khak nilutur 

Then six persons one side made to stand 

135. Horkun itur sarung sagang aming seiyun janknn 

To them said (of) six a family become five persona 

136. Unde khak nilutur seiru saga aiakat 

Also (one )side to stand (made) fifth family formed 

137. Pisturk nalurk horkun bangu wadktur imet tusmartusta 

Remained four to them what said you be divided 

nalung sayung sagang 
(into) four and five families 


138. Ihun itur imet kason pari kikit 

Thus said you tortoise promise keep 

139. Sabburkim sewa kitur habadi hudut ro dada maw penti 

All salam made yonder looked brother my near go da 

I go 

140. Achonte jank paja malsi hudturk hike Lingal mayad latur 

All persona behind turned and looked here Lingo to hide began 

Lingal turtur seri Israna saba ti banji niltur 

Lingo quickly go (to) gods courts in going stood 

141. Achonte koitork mabaka laturk beke hatur mawor Lingal 

All Qouds to look began where (is) gone our Lingo 


The, institution by Lingo of the rites of Marriage among the Gonds. 

1. Munne Padal atur joda hudile handaka ihun itur Padal 

Before Pardhan became spouse to look I will go thus said Pardhan 

2. Ihun itur Lingal nalurkte upalotork chidurk padork 
Thus said Lingo to four your email and great (ones) 

mandauork temile raamt undi jaga unat undi palo 

remaining join (gather) become (in) one place sit one council 


3. Achode koitork usadi Lingal inter mawa palo kenjatro 

(To) all Qouds thsn Lingo saya our word hear 

dada Padan rohkat adena bichar kikat 

brother Pardhan I will send his consideration take (do) 

4. Aske rohkat paryak yet rapo watkat paryatun. 

Then they sent for rice water in put rice 

5. Parya tundal usade rohkat te halle rohanal 
(If; rice sticks theu we will sead if not we will not send 

6. Koitork usade walork Lingan paja munne nilturk 

Goncb then tame Lingo's behind before stood 

7. Paryak yetrapo watat rand paryat usade yetrapo waturk 

liice in water caat two * rice then in water they cast 

8. Paryaku unditun undi judematung 

Rice tu one to one joined 

9. Usade Licgal hudtur tanwa kankne hudtur tanwa mantc 

Then Lingo looked with his own eyes looked his (in) mind 

in tor bah tin itan ahune atu mawa madmina sagun 

said how said so become our marriages ooaea 

bakota distu kenjatro dada 
good seems hear brother 

10. Apalotor Padan misati velak hudile handa 

Our Pardhan for you wives to see let go 

11. Usade Padan saware kitur 

Then Pardhan ready made (himself) 


12. Lingal intor Padan kinja nawa palo ima handaki 

Lingo Bays O Pardhau hear my word* you go 

Kachikopa Lahugad 
Kachikopa Lahugad 

13. Aga koitork mantork horkunige handaki 

There Goads are to them go 

I4f. Hanjiksm ima nitki sewa dharnirknit 

After going you stand salam (make) to the head man 

15. Nawa jahar mikuo yavvi * ihun indaki iua vehtur 

My salvitation to you may reach this tell thus gay 

16. Hona palo kinjtur bor Padai agatal pasitur Kachikopa 

His word heard that Pardhan thence departed Kachikopa 

Lahugadta sariya Landa latur 
Lahugad way to go began 

17. Bor Padal horkua hatur rachadi niltur bor Padal 

That Pardhan their went in compoimd stood that Pardhan 

sewa dhanirknit 

Balam (made) to the landlord 

18. Ana mi war Padana andan dad a nakun 

I your Pardhan am brother I 

mawor Lir gal mikun nhanirk kitur 
our Lingo you 

Padal kitur 

Pardhan was made 



19. Lingal mihigi rohtor miwang tudik bade mantang 

Lingo me sent you daughters possess therefore 

mawor Lingan rohtor miwaug tudikun talkana 

our Lingo sent your daughters to ask 


in marriage 

20. War hudsikim amot kikom 

Bride having seen we will join tbenx 

21. Nalurkte tamurk inda laturk Lingan mawa sewajahar 

The four brothers to tell began (to) Lingo our salutation 

vehakun sikom 

tell we will give 

22. Padal sewa kitur tanara natenda sari bitur Linganiga, 

Pardhan salutation made to (his) town way took to Lingo 



23. Ihun itur bor Padal Linganige mawor Lingal kintorte 

Thus said that Pardhan to Lingo our Lingo (what) does 

kia sim 

(let him) do, 

24. Mawang tudik sikom ihun iturk bork nalurk tatnurk 

Our daughters we will give so said those four brother* 

25. Bor Padal tudik talkite hatnrk bork koitork 

That Pardhan daughter to ask went (of) those Gonda 

26. Padal mimne hanjikun palong vehatur bor Padal sewa 

Pardhan before having gone word told that Pardhan salutation 

dhatrirknit tatur talite yer arikun 

to landlord gave a pot (of) water having taken 

27. Sevva saderkuit ihun iturk 

Salutation son-in-law thus said 

28. Kalk norturk rachade utturk 

Feet washed in compound sat 

29. Padal palo tantur aga palo lave kitur kaladi 

Pardhan word brought out there word establish did kalal's (liquor) 

godite haturk 

shop went 

30. Bacliomanda acho Lingal vehatur sabbe Koitork kiana 

Whatever that Lingo said all the Gonda do 

kintork ahune nmnne ahun inga anta kenjat dada 
are doing as before so now (it) happens hear brother* 


about marriage 

31. Seiyung tudik kesikun pichi kohkustane 

Five daughters assemble turmeric grind 

32. Rota penjanan wet siana 

(To) domestic gods offering give 

33. Avena paroda rota pen pichi watan 

By their names (to) house gods turmeric offer 

34. Kaluhtale kalk norana sewajahar kiana keik jodekim 

Drink feet wash salutation do hands joining do 

35. Gamading tarana sabbe Koitork chldur padhork udana 

Blanket spread all Gonds small great make sit 

kudang ghagading tatana nawran hinda nawarin. 

(of) liquor pitcher bring (on) bridegroom's side (on) bride's 

hinda adho gkagadita tatana 

side half a pitcher bring 

36. Ayimaikim chiduk padang tapana aven apustana 

To the women small great bring to them make sit 

37. Tindana keide ghagadi koda irana dawa kiede adute 

On right hand pitcher of liquor keep (to) left hand half 

kada irana 

(pitcher) of liquor keep 


38, Ghagading indaua 

Pitcherf ul (of liquor) call 

kaluhtana mora 

give to drink (according to) custom 

39. Dadiyate diwa paryaknang danang irana rand peisang 

In brassplate a lamp rice grains kep two pice 

irana akita vkia kukuta dabba irana gulyada pudi 

keep betel rolls kuku box keep gulal powder 

irana ghagaditun munne tika metustana 

keep (of) pitcher to the front tika (sacred mark) apply 

40. Ghatiyan mitustana tanpaja sabbetun nritustana 

(Then) to pitcheiman apply after (it) to all 

41. Tanpaja ghat wahatana usade ask pata tandana nawarin 

After it pitcher break then women song sing on bride's 



42. Joda gamoding tartil babare bain hare matil surwart 

Pair of blankets spread father daughther is lost (in) promise doarest 


who was brought up 

43. Babare chaka lobhi bainor surwanor hare 

Q father (for) liquor's love daughter dearest is lost 

44 Kada chaka ghatiyan siana 

(Of) liquor drinking cup prtcherman give 

45. Tanpaja ghatiyal chaka undana paja sabbe pangetur* 

After this (let) pitchermau the cup drink after all to company 



46. Usade sewa kiana ihun kaluhtana 

Then salutation do thus custom 

47. Jawayer 




nowran hindorkna 

bridegroom's side 

48. Sakade sari boroni 

(In) the morning way sending (or despatching time) 

kisiana sewa jahar kiana 

do follow salutation do 

49. Mela bheting yestana apalo ron handana nawran hindork 

Embracing take to your house go bridegroom's side 

hanjikun nawaran ron 

having gone (at) bridegroom's house 

50. Kalk norana nawaranork wartalk knlbhtun 

Feet wash bridegroom side guests may drink 

51. Munne 



bang anta ask pichi 

what happens women saffron 










may sing 

52. Ange indanur angewo kural indanur 

(Bhowjai) elder brother's wife will speak Bhowjaee bridegroom will speak 

angeowona pata ask waranung 

Bhowjai's song women will sing 

53. Tanpaja sabbe patang warana pichi nor sikum 

After this all songs may sing (of) saffron ground having 

kamkang kohkana 

saffron make powder 

54. Bawajai indanur dadal ihun pata 

Bhowajai will say brother so sing 

55. Saffron 


having ground 

arti kiana 

wave lamp 


in brass plate 

iran a 



vida irana seigo supari irana 

bida(roll) keep whole nut keep 

56. Kukuta dabba irana paryaknang danang irana 

Kuku's (red powder) box keep rice grains keep 

57. Tbalite yer trana Laguyal 

In a pot water bring (in) Laguyal 



kel biana 

liquor keep 

58. Rotal pasitana lagnal munne aiana boa munne 

House from depart one who marries in front may become him before 

musicians (follow) 

59. Pata warana bada 

Songs sing loudly 


(to) town Bhimsen (give) 

picbi walutuna pabile pichi 

eaffron (in) procession (take) first saffron 

60. Dusaro pichi nate marain tisaro 

Second saffron (to) town Muta (god) thiid 

pichi Siwarya boharyakun 

saffron to boundary and surrounding gods 

mitawan chouto 

to matowau fourth 

61. Pachawo pichi nate Hanuniantun sabawo pichi 

Fifthly saffron (to) town Hanuman sixthly saffron 

Panderitang penkun satwo pichi sana dumalkun tenpaja 

(to) Pandhari god seventh saffron (to) (departed manes) after thi* 

id pata warana bhimanige 

this song bing to Bhimsen 

62. Nil tarutana pata warana 

Oil offering song sing 


63. Usade ron handana nauran wadade khagora tanparo 

Then (to) house go on bridegroom a ring put on him 

akari dastana 

chain put 

64. Kieda paryaknang danang siana 

(In) hand of rice grains give 

asku nitanang 

women shall stand 

65. Undi ask munne aiyal pajaye walle 

One woman before become behind many 


of the bridegroom 

66. Gamade muchustanung mitustale 

Blanket cause to wear a Pply tika (sacred mark) 

67. Bat pata waranung 

Thon song sing 

68. Dada kowsi paryak mitusa hori aiyanur tatnu dad a 
Brother with smile rice a PPty he will be father brother 

69. Kowsi paryak nritusa ade aiyale awwale dada 

Laughing rice a Pply that will be mother brother 

70. Kowsi paryak mitusa adi aiyale selade dada 

Laughing rice a pply that will be sister O brother 

71. Kowsi paryak mitusa hore aiyanur akoye 

Laughing rice 

72. Kowsi paryak 
Laughing rice 


O brother 


apply that will be grandfather brother 




O brother 



aiyale kakoye 

will be grandmother 

73. Kowsi Paryak mitusa selak tangek 

Laughing rice a pply to sister bhowajai 

74. Kontatana nouran kuttulwatana honang kalknorana 

Home bring bridegroom (make) seat spread hia feet wash 

75. Hike hake piclii sitadekiana 

Here there saffron sprinkling do 

nauran picbi sakana 

bridegroom saffron a pply 

76. Bati pata warana hona bidhita kotkator pattadin 

What song we will sing our household priest Fardhan 

77. Kayat babare bidhi cLawadi vehtanur 

TeU father household story tell 

78. Yer kineke bad pata warana 

At bathing what song will sing 

79. Kere gaba niendul dadana kumakore masori dadana 
(Like) plantain pith (is) body (of) brother elegant (is) nose of brother 


80. Ite yerkiana pata warat tanpaja walli patang manda 

So bathe do song sing after it many songs sing 

81. Nauaran nalung asku kutudun nawaran uttal 

(To) bridegroom four women (on) seat of bridegroom make sit 

82. Hon tahatana bon nauaran rachade woyana 

(Make) him to rise that bridegroom in compound take 



thaling irana aven thalining nul 


make (him) sit 

83. Hon bhawatal nalung 

Him round four pots keep those pots 


84. Sirmut kiana 

Surround (it) make 

85. Usade nawaiana talat paro kache sukud kotana 

Then bridegroom head on (in) iron spoon push 
kopasaditun biana 

cakes hold 


86, Tankhalwa seiyung janik 

Under it five individual 





(may) keep 






On it 








88. Sikim yer kopasadet paro hona 

Pour water cakes oil of hia 

talat nawrana yer 

head bridegroom (with) water 








mura kiana naurana tange gangal paro 

custom do bridegroom of Bhowaj aye's bathing vessel on 

sewmuchal undi piesa watintor 

the cover one pice (cast) will put 

90. Yer jokekintor tana sew puhtantor mendul purnal 

Water sprinkle (till) her lap will wet (till) body is wetted 

91. Yer watintor tanggen paro usade nauran yermihitaiia 

Water throw Bhowaj ai on then bridegroom * will bathe 

92. Yer michikun bati mura kiaha kuku mitustana kuku 

Water after bathing what custom do kuku apply 

mitusnake bad pata warintang asku 

haying applied what song will sing women 


93. Todde vida kapade kuku bore Rajanar kuwaral ihun 

In mouth bida on forehead kuku what Raja's son is thua 



94. Usade bad mura anta paryak mitustantang usade pata 

Then what custom happens rice apply then song 



95. Indanure dadat angede tawrite walleni dosima angede 

Will say brother bhawjaai in lamp much (oil) is not put bhawajal 

iudanure dada'l mimneye tawri pajaye nowri 

will say brother (in front) bridegroom (is) lamp after (behind) (is) bride 

96. Dholi nekusta 

Drum beat 

97. Usade surnaite dhobrk nehanaye 

Then in pipes musicians gladly (sing) 

98. Riyang asku sedo sadoku tanwa jiwateni phurke 

Young women old old (women) in their minds glad 

maiyaming undi jani padkne techikan nawran 

will bo ono person forcibly having risen the bridegroom 


make rise 

99. Podi paro upastanta nouran yedinta nehanaye 

Dung hill on make sib bridegroom and dance gladly 

100. Tanpaja undi jani kuttul ari naurana yerkital 

Thereafter one person seat (wooden) having taken of bridegroom's bathing 

may dance 

101. Tanpaja arti bisi undi jani yedinta 
Thereafter a waving lamp having taken one person may dance 

102. Aven paja baren kushi aw yedintang aven paja subbe 

Then after who wish those may dance then after all 

patang waristing 

songs sing 

103. Morang nawrana mantang yerkiana atu 

Custom bridegroom's is bathing ended 

104 Aske bang kiana unde nauran kuttudi upustana nalung 

Then what do and the bridegroom on the seat make sit four 

aski tahtana nawran 
women make to rise the bridegroom 

105. Tachikun ron woyana usikun upustana upusikon madming 

After ribing home take having taken make sit after sitting weddiug 

gawanang talana 

cakes bring 

106. Have gawanang sabbe tintang pata badaro warintang 

Those cakes all eat and song with loud voice sing 

107. Sarutan waktne babina gawanatun jim dada 

(At) turning time to Bhowajayi's garment beat brother 

108. Tanpaja bate anta tindana undana mora bang manda 

Thereafter what happens (of) eating drinking custom what is 

109. Ghagadi men(} kal tatana raehade irana manyalkun keyana 

Pitcher full liquor bring in compound keep (to) men call 

wartalkun keyana raehade upusikna upusikun sabbe askun 

(to) guests call in conpound make sit after sitting all women 

chiduk padhanung keyana sabbe raehade upustana. 

small great call all in compound make sit 

110. Ghagaditun tika paryakna mitustana ghatyan 

To pitcher tika of rice apply to pitcherinan 

111. Mitustana usada sabbotun mitustana 

Apply then to all 

112. Mitusikun kada uklekim chaka tirutana 

After applying to (the) lid of the cover open it cup distribute 

113. Jawadi kudingporo wade tan paro kusari watana tanparo 

Soji of jawari plates on serve it on dal put it on 

undi mircha watana 
one chilly put 

111. Nuka saw or irana kudinparo watsikun bahun pensita 

Little salt keep plates on after serving how god give 

acho wade 

115, Tinjikun atu usade keikun dhatiyate norustana ihun 

After eating (is) ended then hands in a brass plate (cause to) wash so 

kiana mandita mora 

do eating custom 

116. Teehikun bang kiana nawranige rator handana manyalk 

After rising what do bride? Joom house to go (let) men 


After rising what 

sawari kiana 
preparation make 




117. Keyana undi asun talada ghatu thalita 

Call one woman (on) her head ghat (with a lamp) of pot 

tanparo patal tawari irana thautparo tansirmul aking 

on it a burning lamp keep on the pot around it betel of 

nagweltang dohaehikun 

naguel be fastened 

118. Sabbe manditork ane asku handana 

All iu company those women let go 

119. Sabbe saware mayana navvran toda paring dostale rotal 

(Every) preparation being made bridegroom with his friends from home 


may depart 

120. Apalota penta paror yetana yechikun rotal pusital 

Of their god name taken having from house let them depart 

121. Pasisikun Marotin vida chade nawral kal karana 

After departure to Maroci bida offer bridegroom (or) feet fall 

122. Nawrina rota sari biana munne dholik dhol 

Brides house way take before (in front) musicians drum 



NOTE. The word vida, or bida, occurs frequently hi the above song. It means an 
offering of betel-nut made to the gods, 



Note by the Editor. 

The following se,ven appendices have been selected or extracted 
from a common-place book kept by Mr. Hislop, and relating to 
a great variety of subjects in connexion with the natives of the 
Nagpore country. These selections, or extracts, relate, of course, 
to the aboriginal tribes described in the foregoing Essay. Though 
doubtless all the poiuts which the author regarded as of the 
most importance have been given in that Essay, yet these appen- 
dices may be ot use by way of corroboration or of illustration, 
and, therefore, have been included in this publication. 

It was Mr. Hislop's practice not only to take down in writing 
the statements which he obtained from individual members of 
the tribes whom he met with on his tours, or from persons 
specially acquainted Therewith; but also he used to employ 
catechi ts, and or PUTS connected with the Mission, to collect 
information regarding the customs, the feelings, and the faith of 
the wild people among whom their ministrations lay. From 
their reports or verbal accounts he would record notes. And it is 
from notes recorded from one or other of the above named 
sources that these appendices have been taken. 

These appendices will be found to relate to the Gonds of each 
of several districts, namely Nagpore, Chindwara, Seonee, 
Bundara, Chanda, and also two other aboriginal tribes, namely 
the Madias and the Koorkus. 

R T. 


The following Note is ascertained to have been taken ly Mr. Hislop at Nagpore. 

Three Gondi women, named respectively Mangali, Tami, and Mohani, came to me to-day 
( 25th July 1801 ) with Paharsingh. They are natives of this district (Nagpur). Mangali wor- 
shipped six gods, and the two others seven. All say tnat there is one Creator, whom the Hindus 
call Bhagawa"n, and they call simply Pen, i. e. god. Among the sixgocU the greatest is Phaisi 
Pen, so called from Pharsi, a battleaxe, in the form of a Barchi, eight inches long, because ho 
is said to have been born in the house of a Lohar. 2. Rhode, or Khodial, so named from 
being made of the trunk of a tree, called in their language mundi, but; in Marathi, Karam, 

f this form! ;the spherical part being about three inches in diameter, and the projecting 

head, which is made of the same piece, about 3^ inches. When it is worshipped on Akhddi, 
Jiwati, Shimga, and Diwali, it is placed, as above, on a chabutra; at other times it is kept in a 
ghagar, or earthen pot. 3. Sdnjilk, from S.ltur, to die, or a dead man ; in the Marathi 
expressed as Utranche dewa, i, e. the god or gods who descend (utarane) to the earth again 
after they have left it by death. On a day devoted to the worship of the manes, for which 
no time is fixed, the relatives of the deceased assemble and go through the prescribed cere- 
monies at the house ; after which they go to an open place, where into the hands of the Pujari 
come down, as is imagined, two or three morsels of a white thing like quarfcz, of the size of a 
rice grain. The ceremonies include the sacrifice of a goat, when th ey make a chabutra, and place 
on it four or five pebbles, and at the four corners new ghagars encircled with thread; and rice, 
poli, and wada, according to the number of the deceased's gods, are placed around th 
chabutra. They throw a little of each on thepebble.s withdaru; the relatives saying, '-''Accept 
it and willingly descend." The women sing,* the musicians make a noise, and into the : 
hands of the Puja"ri comes Sa*ndlk. 4. Munjal, which means an unmarried man (kuward). It 
rises like a protuberance, about one and a half inches high, of shendur (red lead), spon- 
taneously on a chabutra in the house at night, when no person can see. This is to com- 
memorate dead unmarried men ; and the supposed miracle does not take place so often 
as in the case of the Sa'nalk. 5. Durga ( is a god, and not to be confeunded with the 
Hindu goddess). His form is like Khodial, and is made of the same wood, and is kept in a 
earthen pot, except when he is worshipped on Akhadi, Jiwati, Shimga, or Holi and Diwali. When 
sick they make vows to him, and if they get better they fulfil their vows on the days men- 
tioned. Khodial they worship also, on Jiwati, Holi, &c., but not in consequence of a vow ; 
they simply remember him when they are feasting, and pay him the attention of a finger full of 
vermilion and a hen. Pharsi Pen is worshipped at full moon of Weishak, every third year. 
He was worshipped last in I860. To him they offer a white cock, a white he-goat, and a 
white young cow. 6. Chuda Pen, chuda being the Hindi for the Marathi yer, or Tcada, a 
man's bracelet. He is worshipped under the form of a bracelet of iron, along with Khodial 
and Durga, on the four feasts. The two worshippers of seven gods said that the above- 
named were theirs also, and they added a seventh, i. e. Sakali Pen, equal to the chain god, which 
is spread out on the household chabutra in the form of a circle, above one foot in diameter, 
worshipped along with the others that are adored on the four feasts. Pharsi Pen is not 
worshipped with these, though a little honor is paid him on Akhadi ; when, going out into 
their compound, the men offer him there a few Mohwa fruits, throw a little rice, which they 
allow a chicken to eat ; after which, the chicken is killed, cooked outside, and eaten, women 
not being allowed to be present. So when Pharsi Pen's great feast takes place every third, 
fourth, or fifth year, and people assemble from a distance, the ceremonies are conducted with 
great secrecy ; no Hindu, or even Gond women being allowed to be present. On that day, if a 
Gond woman in black comes to the door of a Gond house, she is not admitted. No fire is 
given from the house. 

The Sat-dewala can intermarry with the Saha-dewala, or five and four-god worshipper* ; 
but the six, five, and four-god worshippers might not intermarry, they being reckoned one. 
The Kuls( sects) among Sat- dewa la are Maskola(to which mytwo informants belonged), Madavi 
BhalaVi, Masaram, Dhurwal, Irpochi, Kursangal, Kouratti, Sarotal, Sariyam, Gajyam, Seryam, 

* Dondera" madd, dolka nike Mta'. 
( under) Bauhinia tree (when) the drum, to beat has begun, 

Nago endi la"tor. 
Nago (any dead man's name} to dance thou liast begun. 


Kandatal Busansha, Karpatirk, Kokodyal or Kokotta, Jugnakal, Yunati, Pandaram, with on 
or two others. These Kuls are the Adnaw of the Sat-dewala, as Sirkia, &c. are among the 
Mahrattas. Maskola must not marry a Maskola woman, they must look out beyond the seven 
to the six Dewala. The Kuls among the six Dewala, are Kumral ( informant ), Wikal, Watti 
Marapal, Ghodam, Kodapal, Pendam, Malgam, Mandhari, Narpachi, Salanik, Sedam, Gadam 
Namurtal, Puranik, Tedanganik, Warkadalk, Adalk, Neitamk, Kowalk, Markamk, Tekamk. 
The Kuls of the five or four-god worshippers are reckoned among those. The seven and four 
are the most numerous. Khusram, Tadam, Koriam, and Kotlam are six Dewallas ;' others, 
mentioned by Colonel Balmain, as at Raepore, are not known here, e. g. Seduram, Paadoti, 
Jagret. Sakkam, and south of Wurdah, Surpam five, and Atram, Kulmutta, Yerma six. 

My informants, whether seven or six-god worshippers, call themselves Koitors, and say that 
although the Pardha"ns* follow the same religion, and are sub-divided, according to the 
number of their gods, yet the caste is different, and they neither eat nor intermarry with 
them. ^ The Pardhans will eat from the hands of the Koitors, and are reckoned inferior. 
Mohani, one of the seven-god worshippers, is a Pardha'n, and goes to the house of Tami, 
where she may eat ; but if Tami goes to Mohani's house, she may not eat. The Pardhdns, like 
Mohani' s husband, who, however, is employed in secular service, discharge the functions of 
Bhats, i. e. sing songs and give information on genealogical matters. But these are few. 
They also think it no indignity to play on stringed instruments ; they call themselves Raj-- 
Pardhan, as Tami is a Ra"j Gond. Beneath them there is a sub division whose women tattoo 
Gonds and Hindus. Beneath them again is a sub-division who play on wind instru- 
ments of wood, while there is still a lower class who speak more Marathi tiian Gohdi, 
and play on wind instruments of brass, and spin thread like the Mhars. All these, however, 
worship the same gods, and are sub-divided accordingly. The Bhumuks in the villages are 
either Gonds or Pardhans. They profess to keep the boundaries of the village free from 
. wild beasts and cholera, and are entitled, on that single account, to a field and some mango 
and other trees from the Patel, and to an allowance of rice and other grains from each culti- 
vator, Hindu or Gond. Gawaris profess the Gond religion, but speak Marathi. They act as 
servants in keeping the cows and buffaloes of others ; but in general have none of their own, 
except in the jungly districts, -where they loosen a heifer for sacrifice. 


On Akhadi, which this year, 1801, happened on 23rd July, the men go out to their work ; 
but the women clean the house and vessels, bring water, bathe, grind, and breakfast 
about noon, when the men have returned from their work. These now bathe, and, with- 
out eating, prepare for celebrating Pharsi Pen's worship, which takes place in the compound 
x of each about 3 p.m. There the head of the house prepares a spot with cowdung. and 
lays on it a small heap of rice (tandul), and above that again he besmears a little dry 
wermilion, sets before the heap a whole supari on five betel leaves. Theii he kills a young 
cock, and sprinkles its blood on the heap, on which he subsequently pours libations of arrack. 
After this he throws into the fire, which is burning before the heap, a fruit of the Mohwa 
tree (Bassia-latifolia); and then proceeds to boil the fovd for his own entertainment, which he 
eats, after having drunk off a bottle of arrack. There is no image or representation of Pharsi 
Pen, except the rice ; and at the time of offering the vermilion and young cock, he simply sayg, 
*' I am a poor man, and give you this vermilion and fowl ; accept it at my hand. Keep us saf ; 
bless our fields ; and if I survive, I shall worship thes next year." Then about four o'clock h 
enters the house, and all the family join in drinking daru. The male members then go out 
and drink more at the liquor-shop, and don't return till about eight. At 10 the household 
feast commences, which consists of small cakes of udid, and of wheat fried in Mohwa oil, 
(which is forbidden to be eaten new from the tree till that date), rice, pulse, fowl, and vegeta- 
ble. Before the company commences to eat there is a copious allowance of arrack drank. 
Then when the women have served up the eatables to the males, they themselves sit down at 
a short distance to partake, though sometimes they wait till the others have finished. About 
11 at night all go to sleep. 

Jiwati, which is in the month of Shravau. In the morning, having attended to household 
duties, as before, the mother about 12 gives the children their breakfast. About 3 p.m. she 
begins the cooking for the feast. About 8 p.m. the ceremonies commence, till which time 
both the parents have been fasting. The wife brings forward the articles, and the husband 
places them in order. On each side of the chabutra in the hoxise are placed small cakes 
(as above) two of udid, two of wheat flour covered with gul (sugar). On the chabutra are placed 
3, 4, 5, 6 small heaps of rice, according to the number'of gods professedly worshipped by the 
family, wanting one for Pharsi Pen. On the rice heaps is poured dry vermilion. After 
which on the chabutra in front of V 16 heaps is laid a cock or a young pig, which may be 
-bought at' 4 annas. Then joining hands, and pronouncing the names of his gods, with the 
exception of Pharsi Pen, e. g., Khodial, SjCnalk, Munja, JDurga, Chuda Pen, and Sakali Pen, he 
asks them to receive the offerings to keep the hands and feet of the family safe, to bless 

*Hindu name equal to i>radhn (Prime Minister), but among themselves, PatMdi. 


them in their labours, and to grant children, if in that respect there be a deficiency. Then - 
arrack is poured on the heaps, the head of the victim lying before these. If on the liquor 
going into tho ear of the pig it shakes its head, or if the fowl on becoming wet shakes its 
body, it is held that the offering is accepted. Till this sign is given they wait. Then the 
victim is killed, while resin (ral) is burning on the fire. Plates of leaves covered with dal, * 
bhat, and cakes, are placed before the heaps, and arrack poured on the provisions. Three or 
four bottles of dam are now consumed in the family ; and dinner is at 9, like that on Akhiidi. 

Fold. Having cleaned the house and bathed, &c., from 8 or 9 they begin to cook, for the 
bullocks and themselves. At 2 the cooking is over. Then the bullocks are adorned with 
tinfoil and hemp, and sprinkled all over the body with round spots of red ochre, and led out- " 
side of the village to be marshalled with the rest, where the owners boast with one another 
about the superiority of their own bullocks. Then at an appointed signal from the Patel of 
the village all start off as fast as they can towards their respective homes. Here the pair 
of biTllocks have their feet reverently washed ; then on a brass plate an offering of rice, 
kuku, (woman's powder for marking the forehead, which is made chiefly of saffron with some- 
thing to turn it red,) and a lamp is presented, rice and kuku are stuck on their foreheads and 
on that of their driver. Then in a new basket part of the dinner which had been cooked is 
given to the bullocks to eat, consisting of rice, pulse, bread, .small cakes fried in oil, vegetables 
of cucurbitacese, &c. Then the bullocks ai-e led round to various houses, the owners of which 
are expected to give a pice to the driver. At 10 supper commences. These are very much 
the ceremonies that prevail among the Hindus. No worship is paid on the Pola" to Gond 

DiwalL On this day the same rites as on Jiwati, and so on Shimga (which falls 
between February and March). If on any feast the worship of their gods is neglected, and 
disease enters the family, the doctor tells them that the gods are angry, and that they must 
be careful by vows to propitiate them and to perform these vows on the next feast. 

Pharsi Pen's great worship takes place every 3rd, 4th, or 5th year in Mdgh, or also at the 
end of Waishcik, Early in the morning the women quite overturn the house, spread new 
clay on the floor, and whitewash the walls, and buy new earthen vessels for water aud cook- 
ing, a new sup for winnowing, new baskets, brooms, wooden spoons. The parents dress in 
new white cloths, and a new white dhotrci is carried by the father as a gift to the Pardha"n. 
The father and his boys start about 7 a.m. for the scene of the day's ceremonial. There about 
twenty or forty, in eluding relatives from a distance, assemble, and take down from among the 
branches of a Saj (Termlwilia tomentosa^ or Mohwa (Bassia latifolia) tree a small javelin, cased 
in a bamboo aud covered with grass. After they have spent sometime in prepaiing the spot and 
collecting wood, they bring out the god, and with two bells (ghdngara) oa the fore and third 
finger of each hand the Pujdri clasps the iron dart, which they then carry to a tank or river 
and bathe, and set upon a chabutra under the tree with the four bullock's bells (ghangara 
dewa) in front. They apply vermilion to him ; and when the cow is offered they slaughter -- 
it by striking it on the head with the back of a hatchet. There they remain all night 
feasting and drinking, and return to their village about 3 p.m. next day. When they ap- 
proach the village the women meet them, and stretch a bamboo across their path, singing 
that they are the daughters or the wives of their priests, and that they must not pass after 
they have been away engaged in worship until they have given a present in money. Perhaps 
10 annas will be collected. Arrived at the house, they throw more pice into a chatty, and 
about Rs. 1 is spent on the women that wash the men's feet ; then all drink and all dine -- 
together. Besides the seven there are* village deities, whom all, whether 4, 5, 6, 7, worship 
together; e.g. Koda Pen, horse god, a stane which is worshipped on the outskirts of the / 
village at the commencement of the rains in the Mirg Nakshatra. The women do not go 
out to its worship, only men. A Bhumuk acts for the village on the occasion, and he may 
be either a Gond or Pardhan ; whereas Pharsi Pen's worship being that of a family, it would" 
seem that a Pardhan generally officiates. First of all, the Bhumuk besmears the stone with * 
red lead, presents a horse of pottery, then a heifer, on the head of which he pours darn, and 
says to the deity, "Thou art the guardian of the village ; we have come and offered to thee 
according to our ability, If iu anything we have failed to please thee, forgive us. Protect 
our oxen and cows; keep us in safety ; let there be no fear in the jungles." After this, with 
a blow from the back uf an axe on the animal's forehead, they prostrate the victim ; the 
flesh is then boiled, and part of it is laid along with suji, made of jhondale flour, on a leafy 
plate before Koda Pen, and the company, assembled, dine on the remainder of the beef, suji, 
and daru. The Bhumuk for his trouble receives from each man 2 or 4 pailies of jhondale. 

Bhiwasen's worship takes place two or three days before Akhddi. 

Birth. After a child, whether male or female, is born, the family bring into the house 
a chatty of daru (pitcher full of spirits), and then neighbouring women, being assembled, 
divide it among them. On the 5th or Gth day, when the dried part of the umbilical cord 

*A god named Kolasur is worshipped with offering of eajthen horses on the top of a 
laiH near great Ambora, 


falls off the child, they shave its head, and clean the floor and walls of the house? Then the 
ctjild, who had been washed daily from the day of birth, with the mother, are bathed for the 
last time, and the women of the neighbourhood are called in, to whom is distributed a brass 
plate full of turmeric flour to apply to their bodies. Then these women bathe and receive 
a portion of a dish composed of fried sesamum seeds, gul, and cocoanut. Arrack is brought in 
a pot and poured over the now filled pit dug in the floor for the water used in bathing the 
feaby and mother ; the nurse worships Chhati, who is supposed by Hindus on that day to 
write on .the skull of each child its future destiny. The worship consists in offering pan- 
supari, and one pice, and kuku, and a little lamp black, which is applied with the finger to 
the ground, and a little tooth powder. After this, they lay down on the same spot a portion 
of the sesamum, gnl (sugar) and cocoanut mixed together ; then daru is sprinkled ; then an 
unboiled fish named tepari (small, like minim, which is sometimes living, sometimes dead, 
kichari, and dal bhat. After this, all the women dine and drink together: from that day the 
family are free from ceremonial defilement. On 7th iay is Barsa, so called by Hindus because 
it is observed on l'2th day among them. On this day the family invite friends and relatives 
from a distance, who come with presents of cloth for the mother and child, and bangles 
for the latter. After all the women, both of the village and other villages, are assembled 
in the house, and the men in the compound, a chatty full of arrack is brought to the latter, 
the women sing 

Ho'rore' boro deura"! baindr 

Tedaro shendukokd jheM nadi dohi 

Phulkata chhakawalhuyd 

Targnake* ehidung chadung 

Beiua"ke ghatung te jhela peiyaka deurmore*. 

Of this lady, who ( is ) the brother-in-law ( husband's younger brother ) ? 

O brother-in-law dada, rise O ! with dupata bind ( your ) waist. 

The arrack dividing go round. 

To ascend 1 am pregnant. 

To descend over the hills ( without ) cloth a child will be born, my brother-in-law. 
And after having partaken liberally of the liquor, all dine. On 9th day the name is given. 
They first distribute boiled wheat and g^m ; and women in a cloth rock the child to sleep, at 
which time the name is given by all the women present., 

Marriage. The ; betrothal takes place generally about two years before the marriage. The 
father of the young man goes to the house of the young woman and asks her father if he is will- 
ing to give. Before giving his consent omens must be consulted. Into a brass plate they pour 
water, and put one grain of rice for the lad, and another for the lass. If they adhere, then 
the betrothal proceeds. The father of the former promises to give the father of the latter 
Rs. 16 (apparently a constant amount Rs. 14, to which other 2 are added on the plate, see 
below) and two lugade. The rupees are given about one mouth before the marriage ; and the 
young man, having his body anointed with oily turmeric, with a retinue goes to his future 
father-in-law's village, outside of which he is met by the father-in-law, with a number of 
friends also, and he is lodged in the house of a neighbour (wanosa of Mahrattas). There all 
remain during the night, receiving from the father-in-law something to eat. Next day the 
bridegroom's father, c., go to the bride's house, where they are seated outside of the 
threshhold, the father-in-law being in the inside. The bridegroom's father presents to the 
bride's father on a brass plate kukn, rice, a lamp, and Rs. 2, and the latter presents to 
the former in a brass plate kuku, rice, a lamp, 2 pice, and red powder, which is thrown by each 
father on the other and the rest of the company. Then they give each other daru to drink 
in a brass cup. Then the bridegroom's father brings two chatties of daru, and the bride's 
father one, whec all join in drinking. The bride's relatives take the bridegroom's father, &c. 
to a river or tank, cover them with turmeric, and bathe them, when they return to the house. 
The bride's father provides a pig (with the 2 rupees) for the entertainment of the company. 
He also brings one chatty of daru, and the other father two chatties. Meanwhile, the bride 
lias left her own house and hid herself among the rafters of some neighbouring tenement ; 
and the women, taking a kamli (blanket), go in search of her, singing 

Teda kamlo awar aia Idta 
Sai awarai teri kamlo tedon. 

Rise lady, delay is happening. 

Go : delay is, still, ladies, I rise not. 

Then they climb up towards her ; she leaps down ; they seize her, and covering her up with 
the kauili, she all the time struggling in vain, they bring her to the house, where she 
grasps her parents and all her relatives, and hangs on their necks weeping. Then the 
entertainment proceeds. This is the great Sagai in Marathi (in Gondi, pdring) or betrothal. Nexi 
morning the bridegroom and his relatives leave for their homes. At parting, the bride's 
female relatives, having made a garland of the pig's feet, a small cake of udid, onion, and red 
pepper, the bride's father throws it over the neck of the other father, and on his moustache 

and face, the seed of some plant (called, in Marathi, ashta) like tulsi. whose seeds are 
at first black, but by steeping in water become white. The bridegroom's relatives contribute 
among themselves pice, cowries, red thread, pieces of cocoanut ; and give the bride and so 
depart. On that same day the bridegroom's relatives, after reaching their home, commence 
to build the marriage bower. (From the day that the Us. 14 were given, the bride had 
begun to go weeping, along with other two, also weeping, to neighbouring villages, and they 
are entertained by relatives fora day here and there, and receive a cow, goat, pice cloth, c., 
according to the ability of the givers). That evening in the house a lota is filled with water 
and a pice thrown into it, and a cover is placed on the top of it and set before the bridegroom, 
who is seated, arrayed in a new cloth ; and in this position he is obliged to remain till the 
bride and her party arrive about 2 o'clock next morning. At their arrival they salute the 
bridegroom's relatives with opprobrious songs and beat wooden cymbals; friends are received in 
the same manner by the latter. Quarters p. re appointed to them in a neighbouring house. 
Then about 5 o'clock they return to the house; but before entering, the bridegroom goes out 
and meets the bride in the plain. The friends of both hold up between them two dupattas 
as veils, with a 'sligLt interval between them. A. woman who had taken up the lota attends 
the bridegroom with it on her head, and so a woman, similarly furnished, attends the bride. 
And now the bridegroom creeps under the veil into the intermediate space, and so does the 
bride. Then, when both are met, the veil is Withdrawn, and they are left facing each other ; 
when the bridegroom puts his foot on that of the bride to prevent any resistance, and an iron 
ring on the little finger of the bride's right hand, and fixes his left little finger in her right 
little finger. Then an old man, not necessarily a relative, knocks their foreheads together ; and 
while they are remaining in this position he kills a chicken, and places its body under the 
compressed foot of the bride, adding in a whisper an exhortation to them to be faithful to 
each other. Lifting, two balls, one of rice and another of covvdung, he waves them round 
their heads and throws them away. Again, taking a fowl he wrings its neck and waves 
its body round them and throws it away, and so with a cup oi darn. Then from 
one side and the other women throw on the two jhondale colored with saffron. If 
the bridegroom is six or seven Dewala, then, according to the number of his gods, cakes 
of wheat, and udid fried in oil (poli and wada), along with rice, are brought in a new 
basket and grren by him, together with the fowl anW any daru that remains, to the old man, 
who had remained about two days fasting, i.e. from the time of erecting the bower. Then the 
bridegroom leads the bride to the bower. Here in the centre a pole has be&n erected, round 
which, holding still her finger, they walk five times, the bridegroom's female attendant being 
before him all the time with the lota on her head and pouring water on the ground by a 
spout out of an earthen pot like a teapot ; the bride's female attendant following her with the lota 
on her head, but pouring no water. The bridegroom is not only linked to the bride behind 
him, but to the attendant before him. Then under the shade of the bower a chabutra is 
constructed, on which the two young people sit in a line, the bridegroom with his lota at his 
side, and the bride with her&, and have the skirts of their respective garments knotted to- 
gether by the bridegroom's elder brother's wife or by his sister. After this the bride anoints 
her spouse with saffron and bathes him. Then both having filled their mouths with water 
squirt it on each other, and holding each other by the little finger they go to his house, at the 
door of which they are met by his sieter, who asks something before she will permit them to 
enter. The bridegroom gives a bracelet, ind promises a cow, whereupon they are permitted to 
enter. Here they sit on a kamli side by side, with the bridegroom's thigh resting on that of 
the bride. Then the bridegoom gives a handful of rice into the hand of the bride, who 
puts it into a small earthen vessel, and her eyes being covered by the bridegroom's sister she 
spills it on the floor, and vice versa she gives him, the bride's sister blindfolding the bride- 
groom, and he spilling the rice. Then before each of the two, 2 leafy plates of rice, poli, 
and wadaare set, which they snatch from each other ; these remaining with the stronger party ; 
but ultimately all are divided among the company. Instead of their dal bhat, some rice cakes 
are placed before them, when the bridegroom endeavours to feed the bride by force. After 
which, about 8 a.m., the wife leaves him and goes with some girls to the separate house ap- 
pointed for her reception. There two opposite rows of women strike up abusive songs, respond- 
ing to each other, and drinking an abundance of daru, which continues till 2 p.m. Then a 
pig is prepared for the coming entertainment, which takes place at 10 p.m., and consists of th 
pork, rice, poli-wadi, and daru. At the end the bride returns to the separate house as before, 
but next morning she is brought to her husband's house and left with him, when her relatives 
take their departure ; the bride's father being now the wearer of the pig's foot 'garland ; 
the bride crying, and all throwing red powder on each other. In nine days after the bride's " 
father pays thorn a visit, and tabes away the bride to the home of her you-th, and returns her 
to her husband on Jiwati. There is no specified month for marriages a:no.i > the Gonds, but 
she must return on Jiwati. In some places a marriage necklace ( in Marathi, garsoli ; 
in Hindi, pot ; ) is bound ; but this is learned from Hindus, 

Death. If the deceased had been rich, they purchase a new cloth ; if poor, an old one ii 
used for the purpose. They first bring the b >dy out of the house, bathe it, and anoint it 
with turmeric, and then with ghee, and cover the loins with a langoti. Then they lay it on 
a bamboo bier, and cover it with the cloth, and tie it with cords. Then the men carry it to 




the place of interment, on a river's batik or in the jungle, and bury it, after having stripped 
it of every piece of cloth and laid a leaf of Palas or Rui (Calotropi's gigantea}. The face is 
kept upwards, head to south, the feet to north. Then they go to the river, bathe, and 
repair to a liquor shop and drink. The women have meanwhile cleaned the house ; the 
neighbouring women bring bread, rice, &c. to it ; and all the men who had gone to 
the funeral sit down to eat. On the spot where the deceased expired a basket is 
placed with rice, two roots of huldi, and one chicken, and a little flour is scattered 
on the ground, and all is covered up w;th a large basket all night. I^ext morning 
they open it up, and place the contents in an earthen vessel, along with butter, turmeric, 
and red lead, and one carries the whole over his shoulder with a hatchet. All the 
men of the village form the procession, and at the river anoint themselves with the 
turmeric and butter, and under a tree make a th^pna, and on it offer a little heap of rice and 
red lead, asking the dead man, now deemed a god, to accept them. They then sacrifice a 
chicken. There the men remain, cook and eat. Men bring daru ; and the women 
who had been cooking at home carry some of the victuals toward the same spot, and on the 
way, on a branch of Caloti opis placed for the purpose, they throw some dal bhat and daru and 
water, and ask the dead man to receive them ; after which they return home. A messenger 
from the t'l^pna now comes and carries off the provisions and daru, and the men feast at the 
tree ; while the women do the sama at the house. When the men return, they dine again. 
Then the co-religionists of the deceased bring daru, and dipping in it a branch of Nim tree, 
sprinkle the heads of the members of the family, and serve the whole male and female 
present with as many cups of daru as the deceased worshipped gods. 

This Note is ascertained to have been taken by Mr. Hislop at Nagpore. 

Mfinge PardhAn Sedam(4-god-worshipper) and Dubali Dholi, Maskola(7- god), from the Motibag. 
The Gawnli dynasty ruled over this country. At Ueogadand Nandbesur, near Girad, Chimnaji 
and Gondaji, two brothers, were the representatives when Bade (great) Row, originally of the 
Kangali tribe, and afterwards, for the reason afterwards given, made the head of a new tribe, 
was his Bhumuk. His great god Pharsi Pen was set up at Jamb, 3i koss above Deogad. on the 
Dewa River. Jn 5'irgeshwar (i. e. beginning of theinon Boon) this river was flooded and brought 
down it any Kheir trees ; all the inhabitants of Deogad went out to secure the spoils, and 
among others went the Bhtfamk. Others took the small trunks, but not so he. A large one 
came, avid immediately he leaped upon it, but it eluded his grasp and floated up the river, he 
swimming after it. It stopped not till it came to Jamb, and there he brought it out to the 
bank, wb^n it appeared very beautiful. At the sight the captor was overjoyed, saying, 
in his mind, that I will make out of it a splendid baton. At last, with a promise of Rs. 5 
to a carpenter, he had made out of it a woodeu sword (khanda). Going to a Jingar he 
made a similar promise for a scabbard, but fulfilled neither, as he Was but a poor man. 
Then off he went with the --ovwi under his ami to the Kachari of the Gawali king, and, 
after making salaam, stated that he came for .service. On being asked how much salary he 
wanted, he replied 10 Kudus of rupees a month (1 Kudu =10 seers, or Spailies), " What will 
you do for such a large salary? stay at home, and come when occasion requires," The Raja 
consented, and the rupees were duly given for six months, during which Bade Row built 
for himself a house. But one of the Rajah's servants, who professed great friendship, dis- 
covered, on one occasion, when the sword was inadvertently laid on the ground out of its 
accustomed armpit, that it was of wood, and communicated his discovery to His Highness, 
The Raja said we will soon see; in 10 days is the Dusara. Let a five year old male buffaloe be 
provided for the occasion, and Jettiie Gond be appointed to cutoff its head with his khanda. 
The poor man was sorely perplexed. How could he with Ms wooden sword accomplish such a 
feat. He could neither eat nor drink. The god Pharsi Pen, and Manko Rayetal his wife, 
appeared to him in a dream, told him to be of good cheer, to take his weapon at the same 
time with the ethers to the river, but to go higher up the stream to wash it, then to carry 
it home and worship it. The preliminaries over, he smeared a spot in his house with 
cowdung set up on the chabutra the klianda. While engaged in the worship a shout 
from two men at the door of the angon readied him, calling him to come, as the buffalo 
was ready. He told them to tell the Raja he was in the middle of the ceremonies, and would 
come when they were finished. The Raja sent three more. The same reply. Then four, who 
were ordered to bring him by force. Now he called on his gods not to allow him to be dis- 
honored : " Adhalpen, Budhal Pen ! Pharsi Pen.. Manko Rayetal ! 10 Satis ! (who offered 
themselves on the funeral pile, when Pharsi Pen killed his three brothers, Subhadra, Kubhadra, 
and Lingobhan Pariyor, the 16 being the mother of all, three wives of three, and the 12 
daughters of Subhadra) be favorable to me." The answer was, "Why do you fear." "But 
what sign do yoii give of your favor ?" "Draw your sword and you will see." He drew the 
sword and it flashed like lightning, at which he was blinded and prostrated on the ground. 
The gods, moreover, told him to inform the Raja that when he should lift his sword to kill 
the buifalo, the King should set 750 men with their matchlocks ready turned on him and 
discharge their bullets, otherwise Pharsi Pen would render all the women of the city barren. 



Note made by Mr. Hislop from information obtained from Captain Chapman. 

Jawahir, a worshipper of five gods, stated to Captain Chapman that his divinities are, 
Pharsi Pen, or Dula dewa; 2, Nurma; 3, Ghangrah (according to Captain Chapman), or 
Gangara ; 4, Rayetal ; and 5, Badialtal. Dula dewa is the god of the battleaxe, and superior 
to all the rest. He is worshipped once a year, about a month before the Holi. His worship 
continues fifteen days, or & month, according to tfee leisure or devotion of the worshipper, 
and is as follows. The head of the family leaves his house with an offering of flowers, 
fruit, or animals i. e. sheep or fowls to lay at the foot of the Saj tree, which is supposed to 
be inhabited by the god. If on their way they find the road miry, they return home with- 
out making the offering; if otherwise, they proceed. On arriving at the tree, the fruit is cut 
in half, or the animal slaughtered, and a part offered with dam (spirits) to the god. The whole 
is then cooked, during which the officiating priest addresses the audience ; and then he and 
the other Pardhans eat what they want of the part that was offered with the daru ; and if 
any remain, it is buried in the earth. The people, in like manner, eat and drink of what was 
not offered. The officiating priest never gets drunk on these occasions ; but the non-officiating 
and the people are under less restraint. Nurma appears to be one of the Penates ; his form. 

is Q made of a piece of Hardua or Mundi wood. Four of such pieces of wood (to re- 
present the minor gods) are fastened to a flat piece of iron, and suspended in a chatcy 
(earthen pot) from the roof of the house. The worship of Nurma is celebrated four times in a 
year, and is as follows. The four pieces of wood are taken out of the chatty (earthen pot) 
and carried to any convenient tree : there the ground is plastered with cowdung, in the form 
of a square, of about four feet. The four pieces of wood are then laid upon the ground and 
covered with a new cloth, and two sucking pigs are brought, which are laid, with their feet 
tied, in front of the god ; and the priest or Pardhan is sent for. On his arrival he opens 
the Shastras, and having read a portion, some ghee, or butter, and coarse sugar are burnt 
together in front of the idol. Then all the worshippers stand up, both male and female, 
and name the various gifts which they intend to present to the Pardhaii, cows, sheep, 
rupees, cloth, &c. They then take up the pigs and idols, and return to the house, outsid* 
of which they remain till one, who had been purposely left behind to plaster the floor and 
walls of the house with cowdung, comes out with a brass vessel containing water and \\ 
rupees, and sprinkles the pigs, idols, and worshippers. As the people are sprinkled they 
pass into the house : last of all comes the Pardhtfn, who receives the remaining water ; and 
in order that none may be wasted, turns the vessel upside down, and the \\ rupees fall 
into the priests hands, and soon find their way into his pocket. In the centre of the house 
is a raised altar (chabutra), upon which five eggs are now broken, one cock, and the two 
tucking pigs slain, one cocoanut broken, one bottle of daru (spirits) poured, and five loaves 
cooked in oil, and a small quantity of rice placed. The four idols are now put in the middle, 
and covered with the blood of the victims. The priest breaks the besmeared bread, and 
hands it soaked in blood and liquor to each of the worshippers. He then repeats certain 
words, and removes the idols from the altar to the chatty (earthen pot) again, when they 
are suspended as before. All the company now take off the clothes they have worshipped 
in, and putting on other clothes, cook the offerings, cocoanut, sucking pigs, fowls, and 
men women and children all partake of the viands with a plentiful supply of liquor. The 
worship of the remaining three idols is celebrated at the same time, and with the same 
rites, as Dula dewa. 

1, Dula dewa is represented by a battleaxe fastened to a tree ; 2, Nurma, by a round piece 
of wood like an orange; 3, Gangara, by an iron chain of four links; 4, Rayetal, by an 
iron tiger about 3 inches in length, which is sometimes kept in the house, and sometimes 
in certain appointed places in the jungle; 5, Budial-tal, also by an iron tiger, he being 
looked on as the brother of the last, 

Digaa are the bards among the Gonds. They play on a low-toned, wired instrument, 
called kinkree, with a horse-hair bow, and their music is accompanied by a recitation in 
honour of their gods ; they wander about from house to house, remaining two or three days 
intone place, and living on the bounty of their audience. The Pardhans occasionally 
imagine themselves possessed of a demon. Captain Chapman's watter-carrier, a Par- 
dha"n, a month ago, went to his house and took a handful of wheat, which he sowed 
in the middle of the house ; in the centre of the wheat he put a new chatty of water, and 
over the chatty a lamp the wick of which was so long that it burnt for nine days and 
nights. These nine days and nights the waterman appeared possessed he jumped, he 



danced aud sang; but the demon allowed him to sleep near the wheat. At the expirat.__. 
of the ninth day, the demon suggested that a lime should be fixed on the end of a sword 
which the man had in his hand. The women put earthen pots of water and wheat upon their 
heads, and, dancing and singing, all went to the river and threw in the offering of the first- 
fruits. Whether this was an unusual possession, or whether it always accompanies the 
offering of the firstfruits, I cannot exactly find out. 


Note made ly Mr. Hisfap, from information obtained through Serajooddten, a 
Native Christian, Inspector of Police. 


His informant was a seven-god worshipper Bada dewa, Matiya, Sale, Palo, Sakal dewa, 
Gadawa, and Kham ; Khatar Pen, and Khawariyal (Kodiyal). Three others were mentioned, 
as Dhanbai, Dhan-takoor, and Dhan Gopal. Khatar Pen and Khawariyal are represented 
by balls of wood, and Dhaubai and the other two by balls of iron. "When Gonds die they 
are committed to Gadawa, who is the god of the dead, and takes care of them. Kham 
dewa is worshipped under a Saj tree. Chhota dewa, is represented by a little stool, with 
short legs, about 10 by 8 inches, of one piece of wood. There is offered to him a chicken, 
pig, shendur (red powder) and daru (spirits) but no sheep or goat ; bukra (sheep) is offered 
only to the great god. Matiya dewa remains with the great god, and is like his Kotwal. 
They offer him a young pig. Sale is nearly equal with the great god, and sits \*ith him 
on the same gaddi (cushion or throne). He is offered a she-goat. Gangara and Palo are 
offered a cow. 

The Gond informant said : Our gods eat cow's flesh, and why should we not ? Gadawa 
dwells in our houses. After performing the funeral ceremonies of the dead, in his name we 
commit them to his protection. He is represented by a chatty (earthen pot) with a little 
vermilion in it, and a lid, like a lamp, covering its mouth ; it is hung up to the inside of the 
roof, and taken down by a man after bathing, when it is to be worshipped. Kham dewa is 
worshipped under a Saj tree, and similar offerings are made to Chhota dewa. Pharki Pen is 
not a dewa ; he is pat or saint. Vows are made to him ; and those who have them fulfilled, 
worship him : but all do not. Along with Chhota dewa there are two gods of wood, called 
Khawariyal and Khatar Pen, and three of iron, i. e. Dhanbai, Dhan-takoor, and Dan-gopal. 
Besides these, is a chain of iron, which is called Sakal dewa. On the day of Amawashya, 
I put it on after worshipping; then take it through the bazaar, which is held on Monday, 
with the sound of drums ; and on the eleventh day, after worshipping it again, I will 
place it inside of Gadawa, which is suspended from the roof. Chuda Pen is the same as 
Sakal Pen ; the symbol in some cases being a chain, in others an iron bangle. Hole 
Ray (Ray = King) is represented by ^ of wood; he is worshipped only by those who have 

cows, Bag dewa is a person killed by a tiger, and he is worshipped under that name by 
his family in the jungly districts around. Sana is a dead woman, and Doma is a dead 
man. They are also worshipped. We worship Marima'ta as well. We dont worship Munjal ; 
we commit him, like a dead body, to Gadawa. Durga remains near Khodi dewa. 

We worship the great god twice a year when the new rice comes in, and when oil is 
extracted from the Moha. Till worship is performed on these two occasions, we cannot eat 
the rice or use the oil. On these two occasions it is usual to fall at the feet of the Pardha*n. 
Sale-Ghangara is the sign of the great god. The great god is represented by an iron 
pear, and those Gonds who do not possess this sign, worship him under a Saj tree. ^ We 
must especially worship the great god, for if we do not, we shall suffer great Calamities. 
Bhumka (Bhumuk) is the person who draws f a line of protection round the village with 
charms, shuts the mouths of .tigers. He is intelligent, acts as a physician, and casts 
out devils. There are twelve aud a half castes RjCj Gond, Pardhdn, Khotowriya, Janwei- 
wala, Thakur, Kurri Gond, Gondhera, Thathiya, Dubarya, Panka, Nagarchi, Ojhia, Bharya, 
Payam ; which last is the half-caste. These do not intermarry, except the Raj Gonds and 
Pardhdns. . In marriage we do not worship any but the great god, to whom we offer a 
fowl or goat. The Bhumuk officiates. Any clothes, &c., that had been worn by the dead, 
we do not keep in our house, but give to the Pardhans. We do not reverence Brahmins. 
We acknowledge the difference between sin and righteousness, and we believe that we must 
give an account of our sins after death. 



Account of the Gonds of Hutta, in the Bhundara District, given to Mr. Hidop 
by Gajiaj Sing, Zemindar. 


In the village of Hiri, part of Gajrag'* Zemindaree, there are three or four Gond house*. 
One Gond, named Dasaru, is of the Tekam tribe, and a worshipper of four gods ; i. e. Budha, 
who is also called Gagara dewa ; 2, Dula dewa ; 3. Mahadewa ; 4, Parbati. he says he does 
not know any Gonds who worship one, two, three, or eight gods, but he is acquainted with 
some who worship four, five, six, seven, and nine. Another Gond of Hiri, named Holee, 
is of the Seiyam tribe, and worships seven gods : 1, Budha, or Gagara ; 2, Dula dewa ; 
3, Sakaliya dewa, 4, Nirrd; 5, Parbatti; 6, Mahadewa; and 7, Kalha, in whose name Hindu 
parents, in performance of a vow made when childless, used to precipitate their eldest son, 
when he was about ten years of age, from the top of the Mahadewa hills. He worships 
six of his gods every year, either on the Dewali in the month of Kartik, when rice is new, 
or if not then, on Tij or Akatij (i. e. the 3rd) in the month Weishak, when the crop of Moha 
flowers is ripe. From this latter date, they begin to extract oil from these flowers. These 
are used as articles of diet by Lodhees, Ahirs (i. e. Gowars), and Gonds, &c.; but they 
are not so considered by Rajpoots, who simply burn the oil in their lamps. To Mahadewa, 
Holee offers a he-goat to Parbati, a she one ; to Dula dewa, as to Mahadewa ; to Nirra, 
a pig. Budha ; or the great god, is worshipped once in about three years. The ceremonies, 
including the offering of a cow, are performed at night, while feasting goes on during 
the day. If, in the interval between these triennial feasts, any unmarried man dies, he 
is reckoned among the gods, and on that occasion Budha is worshipped. A third Gond 
in Hiri is Kesari Pujari, a worshipper of four gods, which were enumerated as above, arid 
of the Kumara tribe. There are two kinds of Kumara : one, that offers goats as well as 
cows ; the other, to whom goats are an abomination ; and if Oiie should stray into their 
yards or compounds they throw away every chatty (earthen water pot). They offer only 
fowls, pigs, and cows. 

Marriage, is celebrated in any month. In a flat dish, full of water, they put two grains 
of rice, and, naming a day for the marriage, see whether it is suitable by their sinking 
or going together. Then the bride goes about crying among her relatives, attended by six 
to twenty women singing songs : this lasts from eight to fifteen days, according as relatives 
are numerous and distant. Relatives give a little to the bride ; after this she is annointed 
with haldi, and goes to the village of the bridegroom with parents, &c. Outside of the 
village they stop, and one sets up a spear in the village dunghill. They are now joined by 
the bridegroom and his party ; and the young couple, standing on the dunghill, the lad takes 
an iron ring off his own right little finger and puts it on the lass', and strikes her on the 
back with his fist three times. All then proceed to bridegroom's father's house, where 
the women of both sides, standing in opposite rows, address each other in abusive songs. 
At night they feast ; in the morning, the bride's relatives return home, leaving her. 

The dead are buried at a distance from the village, but thapauas (shrines) are erected, 
many together ; four stones forming the sides of the thapanas. 


Note made by Mr % Ilislop in October 1862, from information obtained through 
tierajooddeen Native Christian. 


Gonds bury their dead with their faces up. The head may be placed towards any quarter 
of the heavens, but the west. Sons equally inherit ; and if there be unmarried daughters 
they receive a share. If without offspring the nephews succeed. They swear by Buda 
Dewa ; by sons, &c. He repeated a part of a song taken at Moharle, about Daka Dari 
Kesal, Sonlat Kesal, and Katikuti Kesal. Mention is made of a Shukurwar tank. 

A Bhagat is one into whose body the Buda Dewa comes ; in this state of inspiration he ^ 
climbs the trees and brings down Buda Dewa, who near Chanda is called Pharsapen. 

At Nagbhid marriage among^he Paj Gonds is celebrated, after going round in the lane 
4 times, by the bridegroom taking an iron ring from a finger of his right hand and putting 
it on the bride's. With the g/eat toe of his left foot, he presses her foot. At Nawar- 
gaum, 4 coss south south-west of Chimur, it was related by a Raj Gond Bhumak, that the 
day before marriage the relatives worship the village gods as Marai, Bhangarai or Bhangara 
Bai (female) &c : there is a Bhangaram (male) also. The wife comes from one side and the 
husband from another and they both stand together in the akada (place of assembly). The 
bridegroom shuts his hand firmly on an iron ring. The >>ride shuts her hand equally 
firmly. Then he opens hers by force and puts the iron ring on the little finger of her right 
hand, after which they go to his house and drink together. 

When a person at Newergaum is killed by a tiger, he gives the relatives no rest, unless 
they appease him with offerings ; they go to a creeper named Phasi present to it, by a Weidh, 
or pujari, (priest) dheep, vermilion, and kill a chicken, male or female, according to the sex of 
the person that had been killed, and bury it there, after which they go round the tree 5 
times : The pujari then dismisses them, telling them not to look back (does he take out 
the chicken ?). After all are gone, he repeats a mantra, (incantation) and with one blow of his 
hand breaks the creeper, and leaves, himself not looking back. For the protection of cattle 
- Kolasur is worshipped by Marathas with vermilion only ; but by Gonds who reckon him 
their deity, with a young cock and daru (spirits). At Nagbhid, according to Katu, a Raj Gond 
of 7 gods, there is a chain with 7 bells (gagari) of bell metal, according to the number of 
gods. This is kept in an earthen vessel and hung up by a rope round the neck or mouth 
to the bough of a tree. It is taken down once in one or two years, by the Bhagat, when 
worship is to be performed, and a goat or fowl offered. A kutha, or song, the beginning of 
which was taken down by Serajoodeen at Moharle. 18 miles north of Chanda, is about 
Chohan Raja, whose father was Jado Malhari, Jado Malhari's wife was Naga Moti. Chohan, 
Raja's wife was Maia Motl. Their daughter was Padmawanti. The Mohamedan Emperor of 
Delhi first sent a Bhat, who took the young lady's portrait, and on showing it to the Emperor, 
the latter was so smitten that he sent an army of Pathans like a cloud, to take her by 


IVote taken It/ Mr lli&lop in July 1856, from information obtained through 
Appaya Native Christian. 


A ppaya; made his enquiries near Asirgad and Baitul on the noth-west of Nagpore. The 
Kurkus acknowledge that there is one invisible Supreme Being whom they call Bhagawan- 
jee : perhaps having borrowed this opinion from the Hindus. But after reaping their 
crops of rice they sacrifice a goat, fowl &c., to Sultan Sakada who is supposed to have been 
some King among them in former times. Those at Asirgad say that the Zemindars or Thakurs 
at the Mahadewa hills worship Shiwa for them, as well as themselves. When a man 
dies, his family, if in the rains, bury him, if at other seasons they burn his body and afterwards 
offer a goat, when they set up a rude wooden image, of the deceased near the village at a 
place appointed for the reception of all such representations. The image is about 2 feet 
above the ground of this shape : /X 

The deceased seems to be worshipped only the first year for protection. 

For marriage 2* days are required. On the first day the relatives of the bridegroom go- 
to the bride's house and bring her to her intended husband's house. On the 2nd day they 
tie together the garments of the two and cause them to join hands and to run seven times 
round a mohwa tree after which tbey are conducted to the bower (mandap) prepared at the 
husbands house. Then they are reminded of their having been knotted together and that 
henceforth they must not be separated, after which all feast and drink, and one having 
lifted the husband and another the wife on their backs they dance. 

Their employment is to cut down the jungle ; with a bamboo stick to sow Kutki (pulse) 
on the hills ; and with a plough to sow rice on the planes ; and make tatties of bamboos. 


All Kurkus are of one caste. They eat from the hands of Hindus, but not from Gonds 
or Mahars. They pound the kernels of mangoes and rub down the flowers of the mohwa, and 
make a gruel of each of them. This is an important part of their food. Daru, or arrack 
of the mohwa as usual among jungle tribes is very much drunk. They dress like Hindus 
and wear fewer ornaments than Gonds. The Gouds are generally the Patels of their villages 
and seem to be wealtheir then they. 

Names of Kurku males. Bonga, Bendu, Sukali, Rajaji, Tuta, Badagi, Ramsmgh, Chhotu, 

Female. Irma, Batro, Rajani, Budiya, Guji, Pandiya, Manjibakan and Bodan. 

According to Buldewa the aborigines who live around Gawalgad, know Marathi better 
than Hindi, They have a Patel whose dress and armour are different from the rest, he wearing 
a wooden sword, one shoe, and a coat of rags of various colours. They will eat dead animals, 
and yet the Hindustanee Brahi&ans and Rajpoots who trade among them drink from their 


flvtc made by Mr. Hislop in April 1857. from information obtained through 
Appaya Native Christian. 


Appaya met none of this tribe in Weiragad but in a village named Wadgaon to the east, 
where they live apart from Hindus. In the village just named there may be ten houses of 
the jungle people and ten or twelve of Hindus. But they are apt to be migratory as they 
find their crops not thriving or when death invade? their habitations. They are supposed 
to extend from Weiragad to Kakair and Bustar. 

They have broad faces and flattish noses and of the same stature as a middle sized Hindu. 
Appiah considers the Gonds he met in the north west of Chindwara taller than Hindus. 
The men wear no turband and in general only a dhotee, (round their loins) but whe-j they 
go abroad they throw on any wastra (cloth) about their shoulders. They wear a brass or 
iron bangle and brass collar round their necks they cany hatchets in their hands. The 
women wear a great many strings of beads ; from 30 to 40 ; and at Chamursi, they 
al|p adorn themselves with a string of prudent bells. Bangles, (4 or 5) on each hand, 
of zinc, a chain of the same metal is suspended from the hair and ' is attached at 
the ear to large boss that is stuck into the ear. The women are covered with a single 
cloth about 12 feet long which is thrown twice round their left shoulder and then 
covers their loins, but not bound a& among the Mahratta women. In the jungles the 
women wear only leaves. In every village there is a bothy for young men. They acknow- 
ledge the god of the Gonds called Badk Dewa or the great god who is inferior to the Su- 
preme Being ; also Bhawani and Banga Row. They do not seem to have any worship for 
the Supreme Being ; but in honor of the great god, they go once a year into the jungle 
and under any kind of tree according to Appaya, they clean a spot with cowdung on which 
they offer a handful of rice burn ral (a kind of resin) and sacrifice a goat or fowl. A 
priest (send! mangi pujari) of the great god' goes round the buildings of a tract of country 
and asks the people on pain of cursing to give something as an offering for the great god y 
when each house gives about 2 or 3 annas. They carry sick people to Bhawanf s temple which 
is placed on a chabutra (plat form) near a wall. From a transverse beam, which rests upon 
two uprights, there hangs a swing with a wooden box containing kuku (powderfor woman 
i. e., Bhawani, making the mark on her forehead). This is covered up on the exposed side by 
a curtain, From eaeh side hangs a chain, of iron. Near it at one end is a lampstand. la 
front are iron rods one of which near the lamp is high. At the other end is a morchal 
[fan of peacock feathers]. Near the iron rods are wooden horses and horsemen. There is no 
idol in the cradle. They offer Bhownni a goat once a year with turmeric and ral. When a 
man is brought sick to the temple they place some turmeric and burn a lamp inside of the 
swing, and ask the goddess to make the sick man well. 

On finishing the cutting of their crops, each family has a day of rejoicing, on which bet 
ter food than usual is prepared, (their crops at Weiragad are ot rice and jowari (millet) for 
which the ground is ploughed, they cot down and burn the jungles as among other tribes). 

After a birth, the mother is separated for a month and treated as unclean no one 
touches her and unless there are oldish daughters, she is obliged to cook for herself. When, 
the period is ended her clothes are washed, and she is allowed to return to the family. The 
bouse consists of a mud wall with chupper (thatch). 


Before mai'riage a man is sent to enquire obout a bride. The parents of the bridegroom 
give for the bride, to her parents Rs. 1 or Rs. 20. The marriage which takes place between 
parties of the age of l(i to 20 is consumated in a day. In the morning about 7 a bower 
having been erected near the house of the bridegroom the two young people are led into it 
and made to stand up together, and from the top of the bower, dash on their heads a chatty 
(pitcher) of water. After which they put on dry clothes ; when having been seated all th 
people put rice on their heads, and the marriage is completed by an exhortation from the 
parents. The whole day and night, they eat, drink and dance. 

After a man is dead they kill and offer to the body a fowl. The corpse is then put on a 
tatty and placed on the shoulders of four young strongmen. All the neighbours placing 
on the ground a handful of rice, call to mind their own dead forefathers, and turning to 
the corpse place on it some rice, remarking that now he has become god and adjure him, if 
death had came of god's will to accuse no one, biit if death had been caused by witchcraft, 
to point out the guilty party. Sometimes it is said, there is such a pressure exerted on the 
shoulders of the bearers, that they are pushed forward and guided by the corpse to some 
Louse. The inmate is not seized at once, but if other three times the corpse returns aftar 
being taken some distance back, he is apprehended and expelled from the village. The 
corpse is then carried to a tree to which it is tied upright and burned. (Apaya does not 
know about burying) Then they begin to collect money for a funeral feast which is celebrated 
in a year or 18 months, from the time of the cremation. Repairing to the spot where the 
body was burned, they and the neighbourhood surround it with a tatty, (grass screen) in 
which they stick wooden spears, while a flag is fixed to the tree, and at a chupper (thatched 
roof) built for the puipose, they sacrifice a fowl. Thereafter they return to the house 
of the deceased, and having killed a goat, &c., make a feast, and if the deceased was poor 
they continue for a day, if rich for three days with music and dancing. The dancing is 
performed by a string of men on one side and of women on the other, approaching and 
receding. On that occasion, it is no sin for a virgin to be guilty of furnication, though it is 
carefully forbidden at other times. Six or seven years af rer they carry a stone or any 
remaining bones of the deceased to his original village, and set up the one and bury the 
other. Then they offer and sacrifice, and feast the villagers ; when they conclud e that the 
deceased has been joined to or absorbed ia the great god. 

In making salutation the Mades say juwar ; and seem to live at peace among themselves. 
They are hospitable to strangers, and honest, and never go into a man's house in his absence. 
In the hot weather they remain in villages, but at the commencement of the monsoon, they 
separate to their various patches of cultivation, where they live night and day. If a mar- 
ried woman is convicted of adultery, hhe is killed by her husband. Both husband and wife 
may marry again. 

Names of men, Mangu, Bheia, Karya, Bhuriya, Lalu, Somiya, Hiriya, Kutmanji, Tengana, 
Lebudu, Nawalu, Dasaru, Tiya, Pakaru, Warlu, Bursu, Newaiu, Sonu. 

Names of women, Rukmi, Lingi, Lidi Kali, Tomi, Mangi, Sukali, MasL Langadi, Dumi, 

Names of Marias on east frontier of Bustar supplied by Captain C. Elliot, from Bustar 
June 1857. 

Men, Odhi, Gasiya, Magadu, Wakaru, Chirke, Mugul, Ramah, Gade, Boyal, Bodka, 
Kutha, Chirka, Surka, Judahal, Padaru, Sumaru, Dusmi, Sunal, Kadi, Dhodi, Higal, 
Adharu, Jaliyal, Madhal, Badal, Kacharu, Lakhrnal, Gagaru, Bakal, Pichke, Dehla, Rupu, 
Malal, Gedi, Bikal, Gubada, Bira, Jhitku, Masial, Dorge, Mulal, Kodal, Chatu, Miral. 

Women Hinge, Judahi, Dukari, Rame, Gagade, Kani, Beishaki, Koeli, Ratnal, Rage, 
Sukadi, Kado. 

The following information, regarding the marriage of the same Bustar people, vras fur- 
nished with the above names. When they are going to celebrate a marriage, they sprinkle 
(asayet) on the goddess Mata, and the god Bhima and anoint them with oil and saffron 
which two last are carried from their deities to anoint the bride and bridegroom, who afe 
then dressed in the usual coarse cloth of the country, and a yellow thread is tied round their 
wrist. Goats are killed and arrack is drunk, until the company are intoxicated. The bride 
and bridegroom also share in the liquor, Gondi songs are sung, accompanied with music. 
Arbours are constructed at the houses of both bride and bridegroom ; and out of a vessel 
full of water hung up in the bride's arbour, water is sprinkled on the two and their clothes 
are tied together ; and seven times they run round a pole erected in the mandawa (bower). 

Description of the customs of the Made's as obtained by Virapa Venkatachalam, January 
1858 from the Patel of Waigaum 44 coss north of Adupalli (Arpeilli) who is a Made, though 
his people live more to the east. 


Marriage among them does not take place till the age of maturity. The bridegroom i 
expected to give dowry to the parents of the bride, amounting sometimes to Rupees 20. At 
the marriage^ feast which lasts for four days, four pigs, two goata, rice, jowari, and dam (spirits) 
are consumed. There is much dancing among the boys and girls, to the sound of the tom-tom 
(drum). There is no bower, but the bridegroom and bride sit in the open air, near the bride- 
groom's father's door, surrounded by the spectators. Females, till their marriage, wear no 
covering over the u; per part of their body. 

As soon as a person expires, his eyes are closed and his body washed, which is cheu carried 
to the jungle and fastened upright by three ropes to the trunk of a tree. Firewood is 
brought and the body is burned amid the weeping of the relatives and loud wailing of the 

Some worship 7, some 6, some 5, some 4 gods. They have one great festival at the be- 
ginning of the monsoon before they sow their crops, when they repair to a hill on the top of 
which they set up stones in a row to represent the number of their gods, daub them with 
vermilion and present to them cakes, (puria) of riceflour, ghul (sugar) and ghi (clarified butter) 
on teak leaves, rice pulse and daru. They then kill a pig, a goat or sheep, and a cock, whose 
blood they sprinkle before their deities, and their bodies they take home along with the other 
offerings, to make merry at their homes. They then sow millet and maize. 

Worship is performed before the marriage ceremony. In the morning at the door of the cow 
house, they set up aiow of stones, which had been carefully washed, each about 4 inches high 
but one in the midd]e, to represent the great god being somewhat larger. They pass a 
thread round all, and put a sectarial mark (black,) made of charcoal and oil, (Their own marks 
are of a white colour formed from a white stone rubbed down). A lota (brass pot) is placed 
in front of the big god into which each married woman drops four cowries. They offer bade 
(cakes of black mung, onion, ghi and salt,) rice, kill a hen, burn incense, and sprinkle water 
three times, when they retire to the house, the cowries being the chief property of the chief 
man among them and the fowl being divided. At noon the marriage commences. Charcoal 
is mixed with a quantity of water and poured with a brass pot on the heads \ud bodies of the 
bride and bridegroom, after which they are dried and clean clothes being put on them, and 
the bridegroom having received from head man a dagger (katar) which he holds in his hand 
all the time from day to day, they are seated at the bridegroom's door with the corner of 
their garments knotted to each other and each receives a white mark on the forehead. Next, 
turmeric and water are mixed with lime in a brass plate, which is turned red by the lime 
and carried to the bride's three times as a present and thrown away on the road. The 
elder people are seated near, and music and dancing among the unmarried youths of both 
sexes are kept up beyond two or three hours. In the evening at the sound of the drum 
the people again assemble and a similar ceremony is gone through for a like period of time. 
Early next morning they assemble for similar purposes and before they part they hare a meal 
together on pigs, &c., and daru (spirits). At noon when they assemble there is no repast or 
present; but in the evening and during the continuance of the marriage, alt the people live at 
the expense of the bride's and bridegroom's parents. 

The Mades have good features They eat anything including beef. They reckon them- 
selves higher than Gonds and will not allow Mahars to touch them as the Gonds do. Made* 
and Gonds dont eat from each others hands, the Gonds and Kolamis at Manikgad will do so. 

Eight coss to north of Weiragad is a hill called Sonsari. The Zemindar of the district 
(January 1853 when we visited Weiragad) was Kuja Bapoo of the Halba tribe. The inhabitants 
are Mades, from whose hands Raj Gond& will not eat. In the Made villages east of Weira- 
gad there are generally less than five houses -one sometimes being a Gowali's. They wear 
cloth round the loins, and a roomal or kerchief. 

We glean tome interesting particulars from Colonel 
flaig's narrative of a journey iu search of a practica- 
ble line of road from the Godavery to Jugdulpoor, the 
head quarters of the Bastar country. He found in- 
surmountable obstacles to the construction of a good 
traffic road, as the country was one vast forest, long 
reaches of which were absolutely deserted by every 
living thing. Not a beast, scarce even a bird was to be 
seen, and the path oace missed the traveller might 
wander for days and even perish before a human habi- 
tation could be reached. Approaching the capital, 
but at some distance from it, av the foot of an exten- 
sive tract of elevated country, he came upon the site 
of the long deserted hamlet of Koudasaili ; and saw 
in its vicinity a double row of large slabs of stone 
placed vertically in the ground, and marking the last 
resting-places of the dead belonging to a tribe or race 
of whom the traveller in the Go lavery districts has 
as yet no knowledge. These striking memorials in- 
dicate tne close proximity of a tribe which, isolated 
for ceu buries in the hilly country above, has by suc- 
cessive emigration peopled the low lands, and retain- 
ed customs unaltered which change of place and con- 
tact with other races have obliterated in its descen- 1 
dants. Ascending the hill ranges from 2,000 to 3,000 
fees above sea level, this isolated tribe, the Koi- 
Thor, is met with. It is probably descended from 
those hordes of Indo-Scythians, the Takshaks, who 
over-ran the couutry ages before the consolidation of 
the solar and lunar dynasties in Northern India, or the 
more recent immigrations of the same race previous 
to the invasion of Alexander. Only in the imme-> 
diate vicinity of Jugdu'pcor do the women wear any- 
thing more than a strip of cloth round the middle. 
The cold in winter is severe, and the people habitual- 
ly sleep between two tires ; scars on the 
breast, stomach and back of both men 
and women being caused by contact with 
the hot embers duiing sleep. Still, compared 
with the degenarate population of the low lands, the 
Kol-Thors are the fairest and hardiest of the race. 
They are larger, more muscular, and more healthy* 
looking than the inhabitants of the plains. They 
are even said to be more cleanly in their habits ; but 
one circumstance is noted, which shows that the 
struggle for life is perhaps more difficult in a savage 
than in a civilised community. They universally wear 
a tight cord or rather rope round the belly, which 
compresses the intestines in a most unsightly manner. 
It consists of eleven strands untwisted of strong 
cord like whip cord. At one end is a loop, and at 
the other three knots. It is fastened by simply 
passing the loop over one of these knots. The 
fastening is made" to the end knoo at meals, at other 
times on the middle kuot, and during a journey on 
the highest knot. The length from the loop to the 
middle knot is about 25 inches, so that the whole of 
the lower intestines of a large and powerful mau are 
habitually compressed within a circle 8 inches in 
diameter 1 The habit arises from the support or 
partial relief which tight compression gives to 
that part of the body during periods of pros 
longed hunger to _which this unhappy people 
are much subject. . 


Note by Editor. 

WHILE this work was passing through the Press I have 
received a copy of Mr. E. G. Man's wo'rk on Sonthalia and 
the Sonthals, At the end of this work there. is a brief Voca- 
bulary of Sonfhal words. Some of these are evidently of 
Sanskrit or Hindi origin. Others are evidently aboriginal, 
'I hejre latter do not at all correspond with the Gondi words as 
given in the present work But some of them do correspond 
with the Muasi words as given in the foregoing Vocabulary 
of the present work in the following instances: 


Nose Mu Mu 

Ear Lutur Lutur 

Hair Up Op 

tfelly Lai Lai 

Star Ipil Epal 

Fire Sengel Singal 

Water Da Da 

House Ora Uru 

Dog Seta Sita 

These are important points of similarity. On the other 
hand there are some words of importance regarding which no 
coincidence is 10 be found. 

So far as I can make out, there does not seem to be any 
resemblance whatever between the Bonthal language and the 
Gondi in this part of Irdia. liideed it is to be expected that 
if the Son thai i resembles the Muasi to any extent, it could 
hardly have any affinity with the Gcndi, which is a different 

Mr. Pandurang, who at my request Las been good enough 
to examine the point further, reports as follows : 

" So meny of the Sonthal words resemble the Muasi, that 
I should suppose that tbe 8ontha]s and tbe Muasis must either 
have originally formed ri^e tribe, or else must subsequently 
have had intercourse with each other. After comparing the 
Son thai Vocabulary with tbe Condi I should infer that the 
Gonds and the Sontbals must have been distinct and separate 

R. T. 

most southern of the 
crritories known as ,the Jeypore Domi- 
lionsj is a_ country called Mulkagari. 
Mulkagari^ appears to have been always 
governed by men belonging to a caste 
mown as Patros ; but nothing is known 
>f their history or exploits, beyond the 
act that they must have, at all times, excelled 
the art of * how not to do it,' for they 
' never dug a tank, built a temple, or made a 
oad." One Sanyasi Patro was turned out of 
lie management of the country in 1869-70, in 
tonsequence of certain intrigues in the Jeypore 
?alace,andBungavaDevi was appointed to suc- 
ked him. This person is described as a " well- 
aeaning, but utterly illiterate" woman, com- 
Jetely in the hands of underlings, who now 
illage the whole country remorselessly. For 
evenue purposes, the Taluq of Mulkagari is 
ivided into five Dwavos, all but one 
f which consist each of three Mootahs, 
rhich again comprise a certain number >of 
illages. In all there are -270 villages; 
f which about 30 are deserted. Each 
illage has its headman, who is under 
Mootah headman, who takes orders iroin th<3 
refect of his Dwavo, the Xigoban. There 
re therefore, in round numbers, about 300 
fficials, whilst the revenue they collect cin 
ardly amount to Us. 5,000 per annum, 

The population is made up, as in most parts 
)f the South of India, partly of the soil-folk, 
artly of immigrants from adjoining countries! 
?he former belong to three principal tribes, or 
astes, the Kois, Bondha Purjas, and Matiyas, 
ach of which not only has peculiar manners 
nd customs, but speaks a separate language 
tits own, having nothing in common, appa- 
mtly, with either Telugu, or Ooriya. 

Some of the customs of these 
3ondha Purjas are very curious, and it is to be 
"In each village, in the middle of the 
principal street, there is dug a hole like a 
?rain pit. During Kartika mouth (November) 
he marriageable young women of the village 
ieBcend into the pit after the various house- 
m$ duties are performed. Here they are 
waited by swains of that and neighbouring 
ullages, who display their sociable qualities 
>y dancing and singing before them. In 
>rder to attract the attention of any desired 
)ne the men being ranged on one side 
>t -the pit, and the girla on the other, a 
ighted straw is thrown at her, or him, 
advances, may be -made . by either 
'ex, m the form of a dart. Whether this 
:oessofaras to represent Cupid's arrow has 
tot yet been fathomed, :feut it certainly has 
1 the effect that that famed shaft is held to 
3 giffcMtwith, -for, after an interchange of 
lese lovea messengers, reciprocal vows of at- 
chment are sealed in a sufficiently decisive 
? ay, and the next dav are 





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