SIGMA ALPHA EPSILON
THE FOUNDING OF THE FRATERNITY TO
THE PRESENT TIME
By WILLIAM C. LEVERE
I am happy to be able to give the fraternity
a book which will be useful in teaching the
members some of the important events in our
I hope no one will expect to find all our
history here, or even a thorough treatment of
some of the subjects which are presented.
For such information a resort must be made
to the larger three volumed work.
This little book is simply a skeleton of Sigma
Alpha Epsilon history, all the flesh for which
can be found in other reading. The author
has been compelled to pass over the intimate
doings of National Conventions, and to merely
mention in some instances important events,
for if he had departed from this rule, as he
was often tempted to do, this book would not
have been what it was aimed it should be, A
Paragraph History of Sigma Alpha Epsilon.
It is my desire that this book shall be of
especial use to the fine young men just coming
into the fraternity. They will be eager to
learn about Sigma Alpha Epsilon. My regret
is that I have not been able to preserve the fire
and glow in this compact volume which so
possessed the men who have preceded this day.
I hope that those who read these pages to
gain their first .knowledge of Sigma Alpha Ep-
silon, will have a disposition born in them to
go on to the large work and there learn of the
deeds of 'our', earlier mm.
WILLIAM C. LEVERE,
Evanston, 111., March 1, 1916.
SIGMA ALPHA EPSILON
Birth of Sigma Alpha Epsilon. The Sigma
Alpha Epsilon fraternity was founded on the ninth
day of March, 1856, at the University of Alabama,
in the old city of Tuscaloosa. Eight students who
had become hard and fast friends were the found-
ers of this brotherly society, which was destined
to extend to the furthermost limits of the country.
Chief of the eight was Noble Leslie De Votie, an
Alabama boy by birth, who was a youth of splen-
did promise. He was the originator of the frater-
nity. He, as well as the others, had formed a
warm friendship for each of their group, and it
was his idea that a fraternity would best per-
petuate the tie.s which, as their college days drew
to a close, seemed nearer and dearer to them all.
Along the banks of Black Warrior River is the
edge of the Tuscaloosa campus, and in the fall
days of 1855, as these companions strolled by the
river side, De Votie first unfolded his conception
of a new fraternity. The thought of a bond
which would hold them together for all time was
full of interest to them. So it came about that in
the late hours of a stormy night, the friends met
in the old southern mansion and by the flicker of
dripping candles organized Sigma Alpha Epsilon.
The Founders. There were eight of the friends.
They were Noble Leslie De Votie, John B. Ru-
dulph, John W. Kerr, Nathan E. Cockrell, Wade
Foster, Abner Patton, Samuel Dennis and Thomas
C. Cook. The last of these named was not present
at the time of organization. Cook had planned
the fraternity with the others, but shortly before
it was organized Jia^ withdrawn from the Uni-
4 PARAGRAPH HISTORY
yersity of Alabama and entered Princeton. At the
first meeting it was voted that no one should be
considered a member of the fraternity "except
those present." This was afterwards rescinded
to the extent of voting Cook a member, and send^
Ing him a ritual that he might initiate himself.
He has always been considered one of the
The Preliminaries. In planning for Sigma Alpha
Epsilon the strictest secrecy was observed. Only
eight men who had trod the campus at Tuscaloosa
knew that such a movement was aroot, and these
were the eight men directly concerned. John
Kerr'B home was in Tuscaloosa, and the prelimin-
ary meetings were frequently held there, but no
member of his family knew what it meant, though
the secret councils gave rise to much whispered
speculation. Sometimes, when the meetings to
talk the project over were held elsewhere, Kerr
would arm himself with an air of mystery and an
old Mexican horse pistol that Had been in the
family ever since the Mexican War, and would
quietly steal away to the rendezvous. No suspi-
cion of what was afoot roused the Greek chapters
from their lethargy; and if the men who were in
the venture were seen together more frequently
than usual, it was attributed to tne feeling that a
company of fast friends were aware that the day
that would rupture their union was close at hand.
So the days passed until March came.
The First Meeting. The ninth of March meeting
was held in a building still standing in Tuscaloosa,
which is now occupied as a private residence, but
which for many years was called the Mansion
House and previous to that was known as John-
son's Schoolhouse. Noble De Votie presided at
the first meeting. He declared that they had
met "for the purpose of organizing a fraternity to
OF SIGMA ALPHA EPSILON 5
be called Sigma Alpha Epsilon." John B. Rudulph
had designed the badge and it was unanimously
adopted without debate. The badge has come
down through the years with but little change.
Abner E. Patton was elected to serve as president
until the adoption of the constitution. An odd
provision adopted at this meeting was that the
chapter could not have a membership larger than
thirteen per cent of the student body.
The First Constitution. A constitution was the
^important question to be considered, for it was
'the very foundation of the fraternity. This was
so because under the term "constitution" were
comprised not only the laws to govern the frater-
nity, but its ritual. This remained true for many
years. What are now known as the national laws
and the ritual were formerly comprised in the
word "constitution." In the minutes of the first
meeting we read that a committee of three was
appointed to write the constitution. We already
know that De Votie had the constitution practi-
cally completed the night they met for organiza-
tion. The action providing for a committee to
write it must have here referred to its form, for
we have Rudulph's word for it that it was com-
pleted at the time of the first meeting, though
not adopted. At the very next meeting, one week
later, it was read and adopted, though not without
being amended. Minerva, the Goddess of Wisdom,
was made the patron of the fraternity.
The Topoi. One of the provisions of the first
constitution required each member of the frat-
ernity to choose a subject on which he must write
essays throughout his college course, for the
literary meetings of the chapter were then a
prominent feature of the fraternity work. These
subjects were known as degrees, though the next
year they changed the name to "topoi" at the
6 PARAGRAPH HISTORY
suggestion of Noble De Votie, who wrote the
chapter from Princeton, urging the change. This
system of literary work was one of the cardinal
points in the constitution, and its observance was
rigidly enforced not only at the Mother chapter,
but throughout the fraternity as it extended from
college to college.
The Grand Chapter. The first system of govern-
ment of Sigma Alpha Epsilon was by a Grand
Chapter. Each general convention choose a chap-
ter to administer the affairs of the fraternity until
the following convention. This plan, modified
from time to time, remained the method of ad-
ministration from 1856 to 1885.
Mother Mu. The first chapter of the fraternity
adopted for its chapter name Mu, the letter stand-
ing for the word "Mother."
A Southern Fraternity. It was the intention of
the founders to confine the fraternity to the
southern states. Yet the fraternity was not a
year old before the agitation for northern exten-
sion commenced, an agitation which was to con-
tinue twenty-seven years before it achieved its
The First Pledge. There was a boy of rare
promise on the campus, a boy eagerly sought after
by their older rivals. His name was Newton
Nash Clements. Th\e new fraternity rwas as
anxious to have him as the older chapters, but
there were one or two who doubted the expediency
of inviting him. To them it seemed a doubtful
venture to tempt fate with their first "bid." They
all wanted him. They all realized what a victory
his capture would be to Sigma Alpha Epsilon, but
could they get him? There were brave spirits in
that first chapter, who were not afraid to cross
swords with any rival, and De Votie, Kerr, and
Rudulph led in the insistence that Clements should
OF SIGMA ALPHA EPSILON 1
be given the opportunity of refusing them. It was
at the second meeting he was voted through. At
their third meeting, one week later, he was in-
itiated. It was the first battle the newcomers
had fought with other Greeks, and they had won
The Second Meeting elected the permanent of-
ficers of the fraternity. John W. Kerr was elected
president, and John B. Rudulph, vice-president.
The secretaryship was given to Samuel M. Den-
nis, the treasury was placed in the charge of
Abner E. Patton. To Noble De Votie was given
the position of corresponding secretary, the most
important position the new organization had, for
the place then meant that the man who held it
was extension officer of the order. It was ordered
that Dr. Garland, the president of the university,
should be officially notified of the presence of
the new fraternity, and the meeting then ad-
journed to attend the first Sigma Alpha Epsilon
banquet. The spread consisted of a big roast
turkey, with plenty of hot coffee to wash it down.
Early S. A. E. Feasts. When the meeting of
May 31, 1856, was over, the secretary recorded
that the "Members returned to the university
where they feasted their physical appetites on the
fat thighs of a Shanghai gobbler." The meetings
of the first months of the fraternity were in-
variably followed by a "feed."
The Founders and the 'Possum. Quite often
they would have the old negro who provided them
secure a fine roasted 'possum. It was at a feast
after one of the meetings of the first months that
Kerr deigned to deliver an oration over the re-
mains of a 'possum; and the words "remains" is
used advisedly, for the boys had stripped it to the
bones and were feeling exceedingly comfortable
therefor. Kerr's professor in zoology had that
8 PARAGRAPH HISTORY
very week been holding forth on the anatomy of
'possums and had explained how they, differing
from many kindred animals, had embricated Jaws.
"Fraters of Sigma Alpha Epsilon," began Kerr,
swelling with dignity, amid all sorts of greetings
and salutations from his fellows. "Fraters of
Sigma Alpha Epsilon, we have before us the last
sad remains of a marsupial mammal. It differs
from many of the familiar animals on account of
its embricated jaws," and as he delivered his re-
cently gained knowledge with a flourish, Kerr
grandly reached for the skull of the animal and
displayed it in his most impressive manner. Sud-
denly his eyes snapped and he looked closer; his
compatriots followed his stare. This 'possum, at
least, had no embricated jaws. Further investiga-
tion followed, to be ended by summoning the
cook. At first he temporized, but to no avail, and
so at last, driven to a corner, he confessed. No
'possum had been obtainable that day, and be-
lieving the fraternity boys would never discover
the difference, he had procured a fat torn cat and
had served it to them.
Early initiations. The victory they had won
in capturing Newton Nash Clements, the besought
of all the fraternities, encouraged them greatly.
He was initiated at the meeting of March 22. At
the meeting of April 26 James Atwood Bullock
and James Forrest Tarrant were taken into the
brotherhood. These were followed on the 3d of
May by James D. McLaughlin, on the llth of May
by Thomas Lucien Moreland Owen, on the 17th
of May by Jewett Gindratt De Votie, on the 24th
of May by Robert Kershaw Wells and Gustavus
Adolphus Wynne, and on the 12th of July by
Enoch Parsons Riley. The most notable of these
initiations was that of Jewett G. De Votie. The
fact that he was a brother of Noble De Votie,
the founder, was not the only factor that con-
OF SIGMA ALPHA EPSILON 9
tributed to the importance of his becoming a mem-
ber of Sigma Alpha Epsilon. He was to be the
founder of the important chapter, Washington City
Rho, which during the days of the Civil War was
alone to survive the shock of battles.
The First Badge. The color of the enamel of
the first badge was Nazarene blue. All of the
figures were in gold as now, and Minerva and the
lion were as prominent as they have been ever
since. The gold sides were beveled. In size the
first badge varied greatly from today. From top
to bottom the length of the badge was one and
one-half inches. Across from point to point it was
fifteen-sixteenths of an inch in width. From the
top point to the side point it measured twenty-nine
thirty-seconds of an inch in length, while from the
side point to the bottom point it was seven-eighths
of an inch in length. It was about one-eighth
of an inch in thickness. The arrival of the badges
at Tuscaltoosa made a great} sensation.* Col.
Rudulph in his toast at the fiftieth anniversary
banquet at Atlanta described it. He said "Con-
sternation reigned in the other Greek societies.
None of them had anything like this, and all the
girls in Tuscaloosa went wild over it. They were
all saying, 'what a cute badge,' and for a few days
it seemed as if everybody was talking about the
lady making the lion behave. The fact is we
captured the girls with our badges at once."
A General Fraternity Planned. The purpose of
the founders that Sigma Alpha Epsilon should be-
come a general fraternity was one of the fore-
most thoughts of the workers during these early
months, and in this connection an important step
was taken at the third meeting held. It was the
adoption of a motion "that those members of the
Sigma Alpha Epsilon fraternity who may have
trustworthy friends in other colleges, South, have
10 PARAGRAPH HISTORY
written communication with them, if they choose,
for the purpose of organizing chapters of the
Sigma Alpha Epsilon fraternity in their respective
De Votle and Extension. De Votie was one of
the strongest advocates of extension, and so fully
did he believe that the destiny of the fraternity
was to expand that at the first meeting in May
he proposed an amendment to the constitution to
govern the interrelations of chapters, although
at that time no other chapters existed. This
amendment, which was adopted, was as follows:
"That the corresponding secretary of each chapter,
immediately on entering on the duties of his of-
fice, shall write to the corresponding secretary of
the Grand Chapter, giving the names of the newly
elected officers of his respective chapter, and
other news of interest. The chapters shall com-
municate with each other at least twice during
each collegiate year." Thus did De Votie, the
first of our fraternity statesmen, combine the two
not antagonistic principles of extension and in-
ternal development at the very outset of the
A DC Votle Prank. Among the nappy episodes
of De Votie's college life is a joke he played on
his room-mate, Jonas Duckett or "Father Rhodes"
by nickname. The room-mate was a fine student,
innocent as a girl and about as timid as one.
De Votie persuaded him to call on a pretty maiden
who received and treated him nicely. Next day
De Votie and his fellow conspirators bought a
peck of sweet potatoes, and hid them nicely under
"Father" Rhodes' bed. That night, after Rhodes
had settled down to his books, and was wholly
absorbed in them, in rushed De Votie with his
crowd in fearful consternation, telling Rhodes it
was reported that the potato-house of the father
OF SIGMA ALPHA EPSILON 11
of the young lady he had visited the night before
had been robbed, and that that worthy gentle-
man, violently suspecting students of the theft,
was coming, armed with search warrants and
with officers, to search; and followed it with the
apparently frightened question, "Duckett, have we
any potatoes in our rooms?" Then, without wait-
ing for an answer from Rhodes, who had become
nervous, he rushed to where he had hidden the
potatoes, dragged them out, lifted his hands in
horror, and exclaimed, "Who would have thought
it?" What can we do?" Just then the remainder
of the plotters who had climbed the stairs to the
third story with heavy resolute steps, to imitate
official tread, rushed in and joined in the chorus,
"Who would have believed this of Father Rhodes?"
Instantly Rhodes saw the prank, and still half-
terrified, half angry, and yet laughing despite him-
self, he seized a poker, chased them out, down
stairs, and into the darkness that covered the
De Votie the Scholar. All through his university
course De Votie brilliantly maintained his intel-
lectual supremacy. His grade for his entire course
at Alabama was 96^. He was graduated as
valedictorian at the head of his class on Julj
University of Alabama Abolished Fraternities,
by a vote of the board of trustees at the 1856
commencement. It was eighteen months later
before the Sigma Alpha Epsilon chapter was dis-
President Garland Attacked Fraternities, charg-
ing them with disorder, clannishness and demoral-
izing to literary work. At this very time he was
graduating, first in scholarship and superb in char-
acter, a young man who was the leader of one
of these four societies, while the rolls of all the
12 PARAGRAPH HISTORY
organizations contained the names of young men
who were among the brightest and cleanest of
all the students. It simply goes to show how
human nature can be stampeded by the cry of
the mob. In this very report he eulogized in the
strongest terms Enoch P. Riley as the highest type
of student, and yet Riley, two days before, had
been initiated into Sigma Alpha Epsilon.
Lawlessness Follows Going of Fraternities at
Alabama. In the immediate years which followed
the abolition of fraternities at the University of
Alabama, the institution almost collapsed under
the lawlessness which existed. The public prints
of the state were full of the lamentable conditions.
One student was stabbed to death in a college
fight. Hundreds quit the institution or refused to
come and the attendance went down to eighty-
three. To stop the disintegration, the board of
trustees of 1859 adopted the astonishing standard
of twenty-five per cent passing grade in scholar-
Abner Patton was elected president of the frat-
ernity in the fall of 1856. He was the only one
of the founders in college. At that time Alabama
Mu continued to be the only chapter.
S. A. E. Faces Extinction. When the Univer-
sity of Alabama began its college year, October 2,
1856, Sigma Alpha Epsilon found itself face to
face with complete destruction. To the other
Greeks at Tuscaloosa, the decree of the trustees
meant the loss of a chapter. To Sigma Alpha
Epsilon it meant the death of the whole frater-
nity. No wonder that Patton and Jewett De Votie
at Tuscaloosa and Noble De Votie, Thomas Cook
and Samuel Dennis, who were at Princeton, were
ardent in their desires to see the fraternity spread
to other colleges.
Alabama Mu Through 1856-1857. Though under
OF SIGMA ALPHA EPSILON 13
a ban the eleven men at Tuscaloosa held weekly
chapter meetings through the college year 1856-
57. All the eleven had been in the chapter in the
previous college year, although Riley was not
initiated until its last days. The chapter passed
through this year without a single initiation until
its very close. It was far from the ambitions and
hopes of the chapter that this should be so. It
was that offensive ban of the trustees and the
dubious future that restrained them. Of the eleven,
ten were in college; the eleventh was John W.
Kerr, and his stay with them was only for part of
the year. While with them he served as corre-
sponding secretary of the chapter. The ten col-
lege mates were Abner Patton, Jewett De Votie,
Newton N. Clements, James A. Bullock, James D.
McLaughlin, T. L. M. Owen, James P. Tarrant,
Robert K. Wells, Gustavus A. Wynne, Enoch P.
Riley. As the ten were comrades on the Alabama
campus they were destined to be comrades in the
Confederate army a few years later, and of the ten
young soldier boys, seven were to lose their lives
in that service.
Jewett De Votie at Alabama. Jewett De Votie
was as immeasurably active in the chapter, as
he was immeasurably proud that his brother was
the founder of the fraternity. In the old chapter
records the name of De Votie is quite as frequent
during the second year as it was the first. Mother
Mu was a good training school for Jewett, and
the spirit generated there together with the ex-
periences gained was to stand him in good stead
when he founded Washington City Rho later in
his fraternity life. As it was the name of Noble
De Votie which appeared first in the old minutes
of Mother Mu, so it was to be the name of Jewett
De Votie which should appear last when the
chapter "adjourned to meet no more."
14 PARAGRAPH HISTORY
Literary Work at Alabama Mu. Each man in
the chapter was held sternly to his literary work
in the ante-bellum Alabama Mu. The secretary's
comments were sometimes amusing. It appears
that at the meeting of November 22, 1856, Brothers
Owen and Riley read essays which according to
Secretary Clements "were very good and satisfac-
torily written," but that Brother Tarrant failed
to produce his. His excuse was that he had not
been notified of his appointment. There was a
lengthy debate as to whether he should be fined
or not. Several held that, as it was announced
at the previous meeting that Tarrant was to be
on the program, and that, although he was not
present, it was his duty to have inquired. Presi-
dent Patton decided that he had no power to im-
pose a fine, and Tarrant was excused. The mem-
bers immediately proposed an amendment to the
constitution, giving the president the authority to
fine delinquent essayists. At the meeting two weeks
later Wells, Bullock and Wynne, all failed to
have essays, and all were fined.
Early Chapter Discipline. It is not the least
interesting study of the early days of the fraternity
to note the amusing frequency with which the
punitive right was used at the slightest infringe-
ment of order. At the very first meeting, after
the college year in 1856 opened, Wynne and Riley
were "fined for putting their feet on the rounds
of their chairs." Riley had been initiated at the
last .meeting of the year before, and on the plea
that he had not been able to learn of the rules of
conduct at the chapter meeting, he was excused,
but Wynne had to pay. This became almost a
habit with him before the year was passed, for,
excepting Jewett De Votie, he was the most fined
man in the chapter. Jewett, who always had his
feet on the table, or was late for meeting because
he had no watch, or some other similar reasons,
OF SIGMA ALPHA EPSILON 15
was fined ten times during the college year.
Thomas Lucien Moreland Owen was the only
man who was not fined, and we cannot help re-
flecting what a paragon of behavior he must have
been. It is not surprising that at one of the
meetings during the year the treasurer "made a
good report," announcing among other things that
"he had more money than he could account for."
End of Second College Year. The chapter held
its last regular meeting for the college year on
the 4th of July. The year had been a successful
one despite the drawbacks of opposition on the
part of the college authorities. Beginning the
year with Patton as president of the chapter, he
had been succeeded at the winter term by James
D. McLaughlin. In March McLaughlin was called
away from college for a while, and James A. Bul-
lock was elected to succeed him. Robert K. Wells
was elected president for the spring term. At the
final meeting of the year T. L. M. Owen was
elected for the next year. A special meeting of
the chapter was called July 11, 1857, and J. Hodges
Golson, who had been pledged tne month before,
was duly initiated into Sigma Alpha Epsilon. This
happy event closed for the fraternity its second
The Second Chapter. It was in January, 1857,
that the second chapter of Sigma Alpha Epsilon
was established with the University of Nashville
as its domicile. Joseph Harris Field was the
prime factor in gathering his companions in the
military department of the university to form Ten-
nessee Nu. There were only four of them beside
Field, the others being John S. Lanier from his
home town of Columbia, Miss., and three young
Texans. They were John D. Alexander, Van H.
Manning and David Butts. Field survived to be
the oldest living member of the fraternity, passing
away in 1915.
16 PARAGRAPH HISTORY
The Activity of Thomas Cook. De Votle, Cook
and Dennis continued active for the fraternity at
Princeton, and through the efforts of Cook nego-
tiations were commenced in the fall of 1856 with
John M. Fleming of the University of North Caro-
lina to establish a chapter there.
De Votie and Chapel Hill. Noble De Votie
wrote John M. Fleming concerning the proposed
chapter at the University of North Carolina, say-
PRINCETON, N. J. February 2nd, 1857.
MB. J. M. FLEMING.
DEAR SIR: Mr. Cook requests me to inform you
that your kind favor has been duly received. The
petition has been forwarded to the Grand Chapter,
from which you will immediately receive a copy
of the constitution. You will be authorized when
it reaches you to open, read, sign it, and then at
any appointed time to proceed with the initiation
of your friends. Permit us to tender to you our
warmest regards for the assistance you have af-
forded us in advancing the cause at Chapel Hill,
and also to welcome you as a member of our hon-
ored fraternity. After you organize please forward
us a catalogue, with the names of members under-
scored. You will have to determine the time of
your meetings, for that is not a matter prescribed
by the constitution. The meetings are expected
to be weekly. Everything about correspondence
and other duties, you will find laid down in the
constitution. Excuse this hasty note, and believe
me, your obedient servant.
(Signed) N. L. DE VOTIE.
North Carolina Xi Established. It was Feb-
ruary 14, 1857, that the mother chapter voted to
send the constitution to the petitioners at the
University of North Carolina. Fleming, to whom
De Votie wrote together with Thomas Jarrett,
OF SIGMA ALPHA EPSILON 17
Wiley W. Whitehead and Thaddeus Belcher, were
the charter members. This was the third chapter
of Sigma Alpha Epsilon.
Early Communication Between Chapters was
hindered in the first days of the fraternity be-
cause neither Sigma Alpha Epsilon nor any other
fraternity had established a magazine. It was the
rule that the chapters should write to each other
regularly and this was a duty the early corre-
spondents attended to religiously.
National Aspirations. The fraternity scarcely
found itself with three chapters, when the young
eagle tried to spread its wings for loftier flights.
John M. Fleming of the North Carolina chapter
raised the question of Northern Extension. Cook
wrote him from Princeton that the constant agita-
tion of the slavery question was a barrier to north-
ern chapters, as it would preclude the possibility
of harmony. The mother chapter, which at this
time was the governing body of the fraternity and
was known as the Grand Chapter, voted to have
a general convention as soon as there were eight
chapters. The fraternity adhered to this plan.
Early Chapter Nomenclature. When the frat-
ernity was founded nothing was thought of or
heard but the general name of Sigma Alpha Ep-
silon. The second chapter had no sooner been
established than it became evident that some
individual chapter name must be adopted. In the
absence of any official action it became the custom
to denominate the chapters by the names of the
towns in which they were located. This was un-
satisfactory, and it was one of the tasks to devise
some system of nomenclature which should carry
out the Greek idea, embodied in the national name
of the fraternity. It was obviously appropriate
that each chapter should be given for its individual
name one of the letters of the Greek alphabet.
18 PARAGRAPH HISTORY
It was the first convention that christened the
chapter at the University of Alabama "Mu," and
this letter was chosen because "Mu is the equi-
valent of the initial of 'Mother/ " and the names
which were given the other chapters are chrono-
logically almost those which alternately precede
and follow Mu, but they were not exactly so.
The Murfreesboro Chapter. This interesting
chapter, long since defunct, is generally called by
the name above which it first bore after it was
established as the fourth chapter of the fraternity
at old Union University at Murfreesboro, Tenn.
It later took a Greek letter, but as Tennessee now
has another chapter bearing that name, it comes
down to us in history under its original cognomen.
The Founder of Murfreesboro Chapter was Henry
P. Halbert, who had been a student at the Univer-
sity of Nashville. At Nashville he refused to
apologize for signing a paper criticising the fac-
ulty for, as he believed, unjustly disciplining a
fellow student. He was dismissed and entered
Union University. Through his knowledge of
Sigma Alpha Epsilon at Nashville, he persuaded
four Union students to petition for a charter. It
was granted July 4, 1857, but the chapter was not
installed until September, for in the meantime an
insane theological student killed one of the peti-
tioners and severely wounded a second.
Virginia Kappa Founded. Thaddeus Forniss en-
tered William and Mary College at Williamsburg,
Va., in the fall of 1857, coming there from the
University of Alabama. Together with several
friends, he petitioned the Grand Chapter at Tusca-
loosa for a chapter. It was granted December 12,
A Virginia Kappa Hero. Robert C. Atkinson
was one of the early members of Virginia Kappa.
He became the hero of the chapter for a while
OF SIGMA ALPHA EPSILON 19
as the result of a personal encounter he had with
Garrett, a fellow student and member of a rival
society, known as the E. A. Letters intended for
S. A. E. had fallen into the hands of the members
of the E. A., and had been opened by them, un-
doubtedly through mistake. Atkinson wrote Gar-
rett acknowledging the receipt of one of these
opened letters, and requested him to be more
careful in the future regarding the letters, mean-
ing by this to refer to the similarity of the letters,
"S. A. E." and "E. A." Garrett believed that Atkin-
son meant to say that the members of his society
were making common property of the correspond-
ence, and the next time he met Atkinson he at-
tacked him. Atkinson was quick to meet him on his
own ground and in a few minutes Garrett found
himself on his back with the valiant S. A. E.
astride him. His face was adorned with a black
eye, whose purple tinge was so vivid that it be-
came a nine days' wonder and was referred to
everywhere on the campus as "Garrett's S. A. E.
End of Virginia Kappa. The Williamsburg
chapter was one of the ante-bellum chapters des-
tined to be killed by the civil war. Upon its cam-
pus, battles were fought and its first member,
Forniss, was killed at Malvern Hill. It was a
greatly beloved chapter during its lifetime and
was the last Grand Chapter before the civil war.
Georgia Pi is Founded. There is an uncertainty
whether Georgia Pi was organized February 23,
1857, or a year later, but the probability is 1857. It
was situated at the Georgia Military Institute. It is
famous in S. A. E. history as "the chapter that
went to war." Its men left its college halls for-
ever when in the dark hours of a May night, the
long roll of the drum was sounded through the
dormitories. The cadets went from their beds
20 PARAGRAPH HISTORY
to the scene of action. The chapter continued Its
life in the camps of the army, and at Resaca won
great glory. Their major said of them, "Those
boys go into battle as if they were going into a
War Record of Georgia Pi. The sons of Georgia
Pi, like the members of our other chapters at the
outbreak of the civil war, were Southern boys, and
naturally enlisted in the Confederate Army.
Georgia Pi furnished to the army from the forty-
one men it had initiated, one brigadier-general-
two colonels, four majors, sixteen captains, nine
lieutenants, or a total of thirty-two commissioned
S. A. E. Enters the University of Virginia. Sig-
ma Alpha Epsilon almost from the day of its in-
ception turned longing eyes to the University of
Virginia. It was the great institution of the
South, and the members of the fraternity felt that
the chapter roll would be incomplete until the
name of the Charlottesville school was on its
roster. Thomas C. Cook, in a letter to John M.
Fleming early in 1857, had voiced this aspiration
of the fraternity. The members of the new chap-
ter at Williamsburg were anxious for a sister
chapter in Virginia, and immediately after their
own chapter was established they urged an imme-
diate entrance into the state university. The
wisdom of this was recognized so generally that,
without opposition, the new chapter was launched
Feb. 16, 1858, and Omicron chapter became a
living reality. The chapter was composed of
young Virginians, and they possessed all the high
spirits and pride for which the scions of the old
Dominion are noted.
First Men at Virginia. Among the leaders of
Virginia Omicron was brilliant Junius French.
His friends told of an incident when he was a
OF SIGMA ALPHA EPSILON 21
small boy. Junius held in his fingers a small tin
cup, an older brother used as a target at which to
fire a revolver. Another chapter leader was El-
liott Healy of distinguished family and great
manly beauty. A few years later at the second
battle of Bull Run he led his company in the final
charge, crying, "Come on, boys. Victory once more
on the plains of Manassas." A moment later he
was killed. Young and dignified Benjamin Gar-
lington was among the charter members. Four
years later, after the battle of Savage Station, his
commander found him still in death, lying per-
fectly straight, his arms crossed and his sword
standing with the point in the ground by his side.
Affiliates of Virginia Omicron. From the first
Virginia Omicron has been a chapter which has
had many affiliates from other chapters. Forniss of
Virginia Kappa was one of these. William L. Wil-
son, years afterward a cabinet minister of Presi-
dent Cleveland, came later. James H. Judkins
came from the mother chapter, and affiliated in
the fall of 1858. He did not know there was a
chapter at Virginia until Henry Martyn Neblett
stopped him on the streets of Charlottesville and
pointing to the S. A. E. badge Judkins proudly
wore, demanded, "Where did you get that?" When
Neblett was satisfied that Judkins was an S. A. E.
he told him of the chapter, and that night took
him to the chapter meeting.
Mother Chapter Disbands. It was January 9,
1858, that the ante-bellum mother chapter met at
Tuscaloosa for the last time. The edict of the
university trustees had proved all-powerful and
Sigma Alpha Epsilon was to disappear from the
Alabama campus for many years. It was ar-
ranged that as the title of Grand Chapter was still
held at Tuscaloosa that the business of the fra-
ternity should be transacted through the corre-
22 PARAGRAPH HISTORY
spending secretary, who was none other than
Newton Clements, the first initiate of the eight
founders. Jewett De Votie moved to burn all
essays and papers in the hall. Then Robert K.
Wells wrote the mournful words, "We adjourned
to meet no more."
Texas Theta Chartered. Texas Theta was in-
stalled at Baylor University soon after the open-
ing of the college year in the fall of 1858. Timo-
thy Dunklin, the founder, lost his life at the sec-
ond battle of Bull Run. The chapter was killed
by the war. It has never been revived.
Planning the Eighth Chapter. John M. Pendle-
ton, of the Murfreesboro chapter, had a cousin
who, in 1858, was a senior in Bethel College, in
Russellville, Kentucky. Virgil A. Garnett was the
name of the cousin. The two boys had spent the
spring vacation together at Pembroke, the home
of Garnett, and his Tennessee cousin had some
wonderful stories to tell him about Sigma Alpha
Epsilon, which he had joined at Union University.
The enthusiasm of young Pendleton was conta-
gious, and when Garnett returned to Bethel College
it was with the determination to get a number of
his friends together and start a chapter of this
"society," as it was the custom in those days to
denominate the fraternity.
Birth of Kentucky lota. Virgil Garnett pledged
ten men at Bethel College at Russellville, and in
April, 1858, received a charter from the members
at Tuscaloosa who were carrying on the work of
the general fraternity. With the installation of
this chapter, the promise that a general conven-
tion would be held when the fraternity had eight
chapters was ready to be fulfilled.
First National Convention. The first general
convention of Sigma Alpha Epsilon was held at
Murfreesboro, Tenn., August 6, 1858, at the Lytle
OF SIGMA ALPHA EPSILON 23
Hotel under the auspices of the Murfreesboro
chapter at Union University. The University of
Alabama, University of North Carolina, Union
University and Georgia Military Institute were
represented by delegates. The other four chap-
ters sent no representatives.
Delegates to First Convention. When the roll
was called at the first convention it was found
that Newton Nash Clements had come from Tusca-
loosa to represent the Grand Chapter. The Chapel
Hill chapter had sent Vernon H. Vaughan, who,
like Clements, was an initiate of the mother chap-
ter, but had affiliated at the University of North
Carolina, where he had become one of the most
prominent members of that chapter. John S.
Lanier, whom we have already met at the Uni-
versity of Nashville and Georgia Military Institute,
came to represent the latter chapter, while the
chapter at Murfreesboro had selected Josephus
G. Westbrooke, of the Jovelike face, as its del-
Designs on the Tressel Board. The first con-
vention had many things to consider. The nam-
ing of chapters after the town where they were
located was unsatisfactory. The necessity for a
fraternity catalogue was understood, and prepara-
tions for the publication of one must be made.
There were revisions and amendments to the con-
stitution to be made, and those young minds that
are always anxious to tinker with the fundamen-
tals of the fraternity had been agitating changes
in the badge. A decision about future conven-
tions must be arrived at their frequency and the
place of the next one. The selection of a Grand
Chapter was one of the most important features
to be considered.
Extension at the First Convention. The im-
portant question before the first convention was
24 PARAGRAPH HISTORY
the spread of the order, for it was realized that
the northern fraternities were coming into the
South rapidly, and it was necessary for the first
fraternity established in the South to be able to
meet them on its own ground. Within a half-
dozen years nearly forty chapters of northern
Greeks had been established in southern institu-
tions, and the outlook was that the flood had but
just begun. Delta Kappa Epsilon, Phi Gamma
Delta, Beta Theta Pi, Phi Kappa Psi and Phi
Kappa Sigma had been especially active in estab-
lishing southern chapters, and the delegates to
the Murfreesboro convention were fully alive to
the fact that they must be up and doing, if the
fraternity was to do its share of the tilling of the
virgin soil of the southern colleges. There was
another phrase of this extension question with
which they must deal, for already the cry had
gone up for northern extension. There were those
who were eager to test the steel of the new claim-
ant for Greek honors with the strongly intrenched
Greeks to the north. Even the mother chapter,
with its prejudices of section so strongly ingrained
from its birth, had been forced to yield to the
importunities of the Nashville chapter in this
direction, and grudgingly to instruct its secretary
to give the "reasons for retaining our society in
the southern states" and to instruct the secretary
to say to the Nashville chapter "that a conven-
tion will be held next summer, and if at that con-
vention the majority of the delegates shall deter-
mine to extend the society to the northern states,
we will abide by that decision.
Work at the First Convention. The presiding
officer at the first convention was Newton Clem-
ents, who as corresponding secretary of the Tus-
caloosa group, was the real administrative officer
of the fraternity. The publication of the first
catalogue was placed in charge of North Carolina
OF SIGMA ALPHA EPSILON 25
Xi. The general conventions were to be held an-
nually. The city of Columbia, S. C., was selected
for the second general convention. Several
amendments to the constitution were adopted.
The question of northern extension was post-
poned a year. The question of more chapters wag
vigorously debated and unanimously approved.
Provision for a chapter diploma or shingle was
made, though not subsequently carried out. The
chapters were given Greek letters for names.
Chapter Names. Immediately after the Mur-
freesboro convention the chapters commenced to
use the Greek letters for their names and found
it a great convenience. It was the purpose that
the chapters should take the Greek letters follow-
ing and preceding Mu in order, although they did
not exactly do this. Under the new order of things
Alabama chapter became "Mu"; the Nashville chap-
ter became "Nu"; the Chapel Hill chapter became
"Xi"; the Murfreesboro chapter became "Lamb-
da"; the Williamsburg chapter became "Kappa";
the Charlottesville chapter became "Omicron";
the Russellville chapter became "Iota"; the Mari-
etta chapter became "Pi"; the Waco chapter be-
came "Theta." If the order had been followed
as designed, the Chapel Hill chapter would have
been "Lambda" and several others would have
been given a different sequence.
The Grand Chapter. The Murfreesboro conven-
tion elected North Carolina Xi Grand Chapter of
the fraternity. From first to last the fraternity
had 7 Grand Chapters. Their names and periods of
service were: Alabama Mu, 1856-58; North Caro
lina Xi, 1858-60; Virginia Kappa, 1860-61; Virginia
Omicron, 1867-69; Georgia Beta, 1869-76; Kentucky
Chi, 1877-83; Tennessee Omega, 1883-85. During
the civil war years there were no general meet-
ings and no Grand Chapter was elected. As the
26 PARAGRAPH HISTORY
war went on the chapters gradually disappeared
until Washington City Rho was the only one to
emerge from the clouds of that conflict. The
Grand Chapter system disappeared from the fra-
ternity in 1885.
Washington City Rho. Jewett De Yotie entered
the old Columbian College, now George Washing-
ton University, in Washington^ in September,
1858. In November he established Washington
City Rho, "the chapter which lived through the
war." Several of its charter members attained
prominence, one of them being United States Sen-
ator W. A. Harris.
European Extension. There is a tradition In
Sigma Alpha Epsilon that had its rise in the year
of 1859, a tradition veiled in the hazy mist of years
long past. In truth, among the younger members
of the fraternity there is almost no knowledge of
the legend, for it is doubtful that one in a hundred
of them ever heard of it. But meet some old
fellow who was in college before the war and
who has been out of touch with the fraternity for
years, and almost the first question he will ask
you will be about "the chapter in Europe. Was
it ever established? What became of it?" It ap-
pears that one of the brothers of that early day
went to Europe to study. The university most
frequently mentioned is Heidelberg. The enthu-
siasts of that time set up the cry that he must estab-
lish a chapter across the water, and from the in-
terest among the old fellows that has come per-
colating through the years down to the present,
it is evident there must have been a deep feeling
about European extension. For some reason it
never came about, but the memory of it has never
died among the fraters of half a century ago.
Georgia Eta Founded. Georgia Eta of Ogle-
thorpe University was established January 23,
OF SIGMA ALPHA EPSILON 27
1859, and is another of the ante-bellum chapters
which disappeared 'mid the strife of civil war.
Like in Georgia Pi, every member of the chapter
went to war. Grigsby Thomas, who founded the
chapter, came from Columbus, Ga., which at that
time was the home of the De Voties. Through
them, partly, but through James A. Cody, a North
Carolina Xi, especially, Thomas was induced to
form the chapter.
A General Convention in 1860. The convention
called for 1859 at Columbia, S. C., was not held,
as only the general secretary appeared there. The
Columbus, Ga., gathering of 1860 was for the
purpose of considering constitutional amendments.
The general convention held that year was at
Nashville and was the last convention before the
war. The social side of the convention was em-
phasized. Thirty delegates were in attendance.
James H. Shorter, who represented Georgia Pi, has
said, "I remember what a bright, alert and genial
set of young fellows composed it."
The First Catalogue was issued by North Caro-
lina Xi in 1859. It had nineteen pages bound in a
purple paper cover. It gave the names of the ten
chapters and the hundred and sixty-five members.
Four New Chapters in 1860. Tennessee Lambda,
Virginia Upsilon, Kentucky Chi and Louisiana Tau
were established in 1860. Tennessee Lambda,
whose domicile is Cumberland University, has
come down through the years giving to the fra-
ternity in its progress many illustrious sons. Vir-
ginia Upsilon at Hampden-Sidney College, and
Louisiana Tau at Centenary College were two
more chapters to be killed by the war. Ten-
nessee Lambda was the result of ten S. A. E.'s
from various chapters entering Cumberland in
the fall of 1860, and as nearly every man had
been a leader in his chapter, it did not take them
28 PARAGRAPH HISTORY
long to organize a new chapter. Kentucky Chi,
which was founded in the last days of 1860 at
Kentucky Military Institute, was a chapter which
was to fill a great place in the fraternity.
Early Days of Kentucky Chi. Charles Shorter,
an S. A. E. from North Carolina Xi, entered the
Kentucky Military Institute in 1860. He wrote to
the Chapel Hill chapter and receiving the proper
documents organized Kentucky Chi. Within a few
months the war came and every member of the
A Woman S. A. E. When the Kentucky Chi
men left for the war, they left the secret work and
effects of the fraternity in charge of Miss Lucy
Patty, who was a popular "college widow." She
took great care of her trust and when the war
was over and the chapter re-instituted, Miss Patty
was made a member by the chapter to show their
appreciation of her good work.
The Civil War and S. A. E. Sigma Alpha Bp-
silon was born, grew and thrived, and five years
passed. Then the civil war came, days of iron
and blood, and into that war the fraternity went,
and there was not a battlefield in all the republic
where some bright-faced, courageous youth who
wore its badge did not perform deeds worthy of
men of steel. It might well be said that into the
conflict the entire fraternity went, for the per-
centage of men who did not go was so small that
there was scarce a boy who had donned the purple
but now wore the gray or blue. We write gray
first because most of Sigma Alpha Epsilon en-
listed in the Confederate army. This was natural,
for every chapter of the fraternity was in the
South, with the possible exception of Washington
City Rho, and even Washington was accounted a
southern city in those days, certainly in atmos-
phere if not geographically. And so it came about
OF SIGMA ALPHA EPSILON 29
that of all the college fraternities, Sigma Alpha
Epsilon was the one that sent the largest per-
centage of its members into the civil war.
Alabama Mu in the War. The record of the
Mother Chapter in the war was remarkable. Of the
eight founders, one was dead when the war came
on. Six of the seven living founders enlisted in
the Confederate Army. Three of the six died in
the service, De Votie while on duty, Patton on
the battlefield, and Dennis while in a Federal
prison. Nobie Leslie De Votie, the chief founder,
will be marked for all time as the first man to
lose his life in the civil war. The mother chapter
initiated fourteen men, in addition to the founders.
Every one of them served in the war. Rudulph,
Clements, Hall and Golson became colonels. Ten
of these nineteen men were killed in the war.
S. A. E. in the Union Army. Although when the
civil war came Sigma Alpha Epsilon was a south
era fraternity, there were seven of its members
who joined the Union Army. Washington City
Rho and Kentucky Iota contributed men to both
armies. Daniel D. Johnson and Edwin A. Cran-
dall of Washington City Rho became colonel and
major respectively in the Union Army.
S. A. E.'s War Record. The record that the
fraternity made in the war is altogether honora-
ble; the places of high position won are nothing
less than astonishing when the number of such
honors is contrasted with the number of men in
the fraternity. George Paul Harrison and George
W. Gordon were brigadier-generals in the Con-
federate army. General Kirby-Smith, to be so
beloved by the boys of Tennessee Omega, was full
major-general in the C. S. A. There were seven
adjutant-generals: James N. Gilmer, William A.
Harris, John S. Lanier, Henry Jackson, George M.
Blount, Wayland F. Dunaway and Adolphus C.
30 PARAGRAPH HISTORY
Powell. Joseph Harris Field was an inspector-
general. Newton Nash Clements, the first initiate
of the founders, was colonel of the 50th Alabama,
C. S. A. He was only one of eighteen colonels
who came from S. A. E. chapters. There were four
lieutenant-colonels. There were thirteen who be-
came majors. Of captains there were fifty; of
lieutenants thirty. There were twelve adjutants,
and non-commissioned officers by the score. The
founder of every chapter the fraternity had before
the civil war was a soldier. Over sixty S. A. E.'s
made the supreme sacrifice, and gave their lives
for the cause for which they fought.
Regenesis of the Fraternity. The war over,
Sigma Alpha Epsilon began to take account of
herself. All through the southland were the
wrecks of the colleges where her chapters had
so proudly held up their heads. The military
chapter of Pi had been the last to die, disbanding
with the army in May of 1865. Yonder in Wash-
ington city, old Rho still lived, the only one of the
bright band of the ante-bellum days. But if all
the chapters of Sigma Alpha Epsilon save one
were dead, neither her sons nor the spirit of the
fraternity had passed away. Crippled as they
were, their buildings burned, their resources gone,
the southern colleges, with a courage equal to that
which their faculties and students had shown on
the battlefield, opened their doors, and the fac-
ulties resumed their duties, the students their
books. Among the students were many S. A. E.'s
who four years ago as beardless boys had taken
up arms, now as mature men, scarred and hard-
ened by endless adventures, put aside their
weapons and took up their books. It was to the
collegians returning from the battlefields that the
task of revivifying the fraternity fell.
Virginia Omicron Revived. In the fall of 1865,
OF SIGMA ALPHA EPSILON 31
John Bagby, Washington City Rho, and Robert
Atkinson, Virginia Kappa, entered the University
of Virginia. They had both been fighting for
four years in the Confederate army. Bagby knew
that his old chapter at Washington had lived
through the war, and he told Atkinson this. At-
kinson urged Bagby to send to Rho at once for
the constitution of the fraternity, and declared
they would reorganize Omicron. Bagby agreed
to this and a few days later placed in Atkinson's
hands the proper papers, which Rho had promptly
forwarded. They were the first to reorganize a
chapter at Virginia, and he had no trouble in get-
ting together a splendid company. They initiated
fifteen fine fellows, and the chapter at once be
Georgia Pi Men Enter Athens. Three gallant
Georgia Pi men entered the University of Georgia
in the fall of 1865. They were Samuel Spencer
George Goetchius and James McCleskey. Their
coming together was momentous for the history
of Sigma Alpha Epsilon, for they were to be the
founders of Georgia Beta, a chapter which was to
win a place of great honor in the fraternity.
These three men believed that every active chap-
ter was dead. They had all been soldiers in the
Confederate army and no word had come to them
through the lines that Rho survived, nor did they
know the good work which Bagby and Atkinson
were doing at Virginia.
The Founding of Georgia Beta. It was on the
last day of 1865 that Spencer, Goetchins and Mc-
Cleskey met and organized the chapter at the Uni-
versity of Georgia. A chapter historian has writ-
ten: "The genuine affection for their beloved
order still lived and burned in the breasts of the
truly loyal sons of the Pi charge, and they deter-
mined to re-establish their chapter and thus re-
32 PARAGRAPH HISTORY
vive under the classic shadows of the state uni-
versity the old associations so endearing to their
hopes and consoling to their hearts."
First Days of Georgia Beta. From the start,
Georgia Beta became a strong chapter. It took a
prominent part in the councils of the fraternity.
The minutes of the Georgia Beta meeting of Feb.
16, 1867, show there had been no general conven-
tion since the war. Samuel Spencer, then the sec-
retary of the chapter, wrote: "The secretary then
read before the house the amendments to the con-
stitution made by the last general convention in
Virginia Omicron at the Helm. In the minutes
of Georgia Beta of April 16, 1867, we learn Omi-
cron is "the acting Grand Chapter at the Univer-
sity of Virginia." This was through the agree-
ment of Rho and Omicron. The Washington City
chapter, at the close of the war, was dean of the
fraternity by virtue of its solidarity and Benja-
min's mess naturally belonged to it. It was not
disposed to claim its rights, and its interest was
great in the revived chapter at Virginia, in the
renaissance of which one of its own sons had had
so great a part. So it was that the reins of power
were handed over to Omicron and it became, un-
til the holding of a convention, "acting Grand
Mississippi Gamma Is Planned. Even while
Beta was organizing Thomas B. Manlove, who had
come from the war and was living at Vicksburg,
Mississippi, was planning for the rejuvenation of
Sigma Alpha Epsilon. He, like the men at the
University of Georgia, believed that all the Sigma
Alpha Epsilon chapters had disappeared from th*
face of the earth and was casting about for a good
opportunity to bring the fraternity back to life.
Manlove had a young friend, William Champe
OF SIGMA ALPHA EPSILON 33
Marshall, who was a student in the University of
Mississippi. He explained the situation to Marsh-
all, who readily agreed to be initiated, and Man-
love made him an S. A. E. To do this the S. A. E.
had to depend upon his memory for he had not
seen a copy of the ritual since the war began.
This he was able to do, for he had known the
ceremony by heart at both the Nashville and the
Cumberland chapters, to both of which he had
The Founding of Mississippi Gamma. When
William C. Marshall returned to the University
of Mississippi in the fall of 1865, he gathered a
fine group of young fellows about him and made
them S. A. E.'s. The first man Marshall invited
and initiated was Frank Bell Webb, a cousin of
John W. Kerr, the founder. There followed
Charles B. Howry, L. Q. C. Lamar, Hiram Cas-
sedy and Walter Acker among others. All of
these became famous in later life as Federal or
Venus Aids Minerva at Louisiana. Charles
Read, Tenn. Nu, had a sweetheart who lived at
Alexandria, La., when the state educational in-
stitution was there, and when he went there to
visit her and saw the cadets on parade he was
so pleased with them he obtained a charter from
the Grand Chapter and Louisiana Epsilon was
born. There were seven charter members, and
though these boys had scarcely passed their major-
ity, yet most of them were war veterans. For
three years the chapter thrived and twenty-four
fine young men were initiated. It was while Ep-
silon was in her most flourishing estate that tin
order for its dissolution came. The members of
the chapter were summoned before Superintend-,
ent Boyd and told that initiations must cease,
He held that a military college was no place for a
34 PARAGRAPH HISTORY
secret society and that Epsilon must go. Tho
chapter slowly dwindled as its members were
graduated and Sigma Alpha Epsilon went into
that long sleep at Louisiana State University from
which it did not awake until 1897.
Two Tennessee Chapters. Tennessee Lambda,
which had disappeared in war days, was revived
in 1867 by Thomas Taliaferro, who was at Cum-
berland University studying law. Taliaferro was a
cousin of Charles B. Howry, Mississippi Gamma.
Tennessee Eta was founded by three Cumberland
S. A. E.'s in the fall of 1867 at West Tennessee
College, now Union University.
General Convention of 1867. The convention
held at Nashville in the summer of 1867 was the
first the fraternity had had since the war, and
there was a general accounting of conditions and
a hopeful outlook for the future. Charles B. Howry
of Mississippi Gamma was chairman of the conven-
tion. Omicron, which had been acting Grand
Chapter of the fraternity, was legally endorsed by
the convention and given authority to continue
as Grand Chapter. The need of a new catalogue
was strongly felt, and Omicron was directed to
compile and publish one. It has been well said
that from this convention dates the formal reor-
ganization of the fraternity. Not that any single
action of the convention was of paramount import-
ance, but the act of holding a general gathering
in itself made all the fraternity settle down once
more to the fact that each chapter was but a part
of a large whole. There were fifteen present. Dur-
ing the discussion on the extension of the order,
one of its first phases to be broached was the
question as to whether the fraternity should go
north. It is almost strange that so near the close
of a fierce fratricidal strife between the North and
South, the subject could be mentioned in a group
OF SIGMA ALPHA EPSILON 35
of southern boys, and although but little time was
given to it, Howry did express his opinion that it
might be a wise move for the fraternity to make.
Virginia Sigma Installed. Frank Bell Webb of
Missisippi Gamma entered Washington and Lee
University in September, 1867, and the absence of
any fraternity brothers made him lonely. He
wrote to the Grand Chapter, then at the University
of Virginia, asking for a charter. This was
granted, and Webb initiated William H. Washing-
ton, Sidney D. McCormick, Edward A. Cheek,
Edward P. Clarke, James S. Clarke, and Samuel
H. Yonge as charter members. Edward P. Clarke
wrote to the writer some time since the following
interesting accounts of the very first days of the
chapter: "The initiation was peculiar, in that it
was done in a classroom by Frank Webb of Ala-
bama, with no one but the two of us present, he
having been deputized by the supreme lodge to
organize the chapter. He had succeeded in cap-
turing his roommate first, S. D. McCormick of Ken-
tucky, and I was the second member of a chapter
that for years occupied an enviable position
among the college fraternities."
Kentucky Chi Revived. Kentucky Chi com-
menced the second and greatest period of its ex-
istence when John Holt and Edward Blount, stu-
dents at the Kentucky Military Institute, took the
vows of the fraternity ner the end of the college
year of 1868. This was the real beginning of the
life of Kentucky Chi, a chapter which will be for-
ever famous in the annals of Sigma Alpha Epsilon.
For twenty years this chapter was to hold a posi-
tion and wield an influence -in the fraternity
equaled by very few if any other of the chapters.
Chapters Called Kephs. A chapter was fre-
quently designated by the Greek word "keph" dur-
ing the early years of the fraternity.
36 PARAGRAPH HISTORY
South Carolina Phi. In the fall of 1868 South
Carolina Phi was founded at Furnam University,
Greensville, S. C., by Joseph P. Deans of Wash-
ington City Rho.
Two General Conventions. Sigma Alpha Epsi-
lon continued to hold annual general conventions
following the 1887 gathering for many years. The
convention of 1868 was held at Oxford, Miss., with
Mississippi Gamma. The feature of this conven-
tion was the public oration delivered by J. E.
Matthews, of Tennessee Lambda. The literary
features of the early conventions were very pro-
nounced. The Athens convention of 1869 of Sigma
Alpha Epsilon was opened July 6th at the Masonic
Hall with Georgia Beta as host of the gathering.
There were now ten chapters but only four were
represented, including Beta. The other three were
Virginia Omicron, Mississippi Gamma and Louisi-
ana Epsilon of the Louisiana state. In those days
a chapter could be represented by as many dele-
gates as it chose to send, and Georgia Beta, hav-
ing the convention at her home, had elected ten.
A practically new constitution was adopted.
Fraternal Insurance Proposed. William D.
Trammel, of Georgia Beta, proposed to the con-
vention of 1869 that S. A. E. should adopt the fra-
ternal insurance idea. The plan was rejected.
Georgia Beta Selected as Grand Chapter. The
convention of 1869 made Georgia Beta the Grand
The Constitution of 1869. One of the most im-
portant documents in the history of Sigma Alpha
Epsilon is the constitution of 1869. This consti-
tution was the first to provide for northern exten-
sion. The wording of the act governing extension
was as follows: "Chapters may be established
beyond Mason's and Dixon's line, but the Grand
Chapter must be confined south of it." Virginia
OF SIGMA ALPHA EPSILON 37
Sigma made a protest against it, and succeeded
In having it repealed at the convention of 1870.
The constitution provided for yearly conventions,
at which each chapter was allowed ten delegates.
If it failed to be represented it was fined one hun-
dred dollars. Each chapter was allowed thirteen
members to every hundred students in the col-
Mississippi Zeta Appears. With the closing
days of 1869, Mississippi Zeta was instituted at
Mississippi College. The charter was withdrawn
three years later.
Second Catalogue Issued. The second catalogue
was issued in May, 1870.
The Fraternity in 1870 had nine active chapters.
They were Georgia Beta, Kentucky Chi, Virginia
Sigma, Mississippi Gamma, Tennessee Eta, Lou-
isiana Epsilon, Tennessee Lambda, Mississippi
Zeta, South Carolina Phi.
General Convention, 1870. The general conven-
tion of 1870 met July 6 at Memphis, Tenn. Georgia
Beta, Kentucky Chi, Virginia Sigma, Mississippi
Gamma and Tennessee Eta were represented by
First National Officer. The convention of 1870
provided for the first national officer. Heretofore,
the officers of the Grand Chapter had been to all
intents the national officers, though not designat-
ed as such, and the fraternity thought of the
Grand Chapter as the head of the fraternity,
rather than of any set of officials. The act passed
by the convention of 1870 providing for a Grand
Treasurer did focalize the attention of the fra-
ternity that it had a national official. Isaac T.
Heard, Georgia Beta, was elected the first Grand
38 PARAGRAPH HISTORY
Northern Extension Rescinded. The convention
of 1870 repealed the act of 1869 providing for ex-
tension and enacted a law which provided, "No
extension north of the Mason and Dixon line,
north of California and Kansas.
The Judicial System. The convention of 1870
adopted a judicial system. It provided for a su-
preme court, a superior court, and inferior courts.
The general convention of the fraternity was de-
nominated the supreme court and the officers of
the general convention were to be judges of the
supreme court. The superior court was the Grand
Chapter. All decisions were to be made by a
majority vote. The inferior courts were courts
which the several chapters were required to or-
Chapters Founded and Revived. Tennessee Nu,
and the Murfreesboro chapter, both of ante-bellum
days, were revived in the autumn days of 1870,
while Georgia Psi at Mercer University and Ala-
bama Beta-Beta at Howard College were estab-
lished. Alabama Beta-Beta owes its existence to
George D. Bancroft, of Georgia Beta, who went to
Howard College to teach. Georgia Psi started
with John Pope Jones, Thomas F. Stubbs and
William M. Jordan as its charter members.
Lean Years for S. A. E. With the year of 1870
the extension of the fraternity ceased for five
years. The end of the period found the fraternity
at a very low ebb.
Five General Conventions. The convention of
1871 met at Nashville; of 1872 at Atlanta; of
1873 at Louisville; of 1874 at Augusta, Ga., and
of 1875 at Nashville. The last of these had but
The Phinizy Amendment. Leonard Phinizy,
Georgia Beta, introduced an act at the 1871 con-
0^ SIGMA ALPHA EPSILON 39
vention authorizing alumni chapters. The Atlanta
alumni were the first to organize.
Third Catalogue Issued. Georgia Beta, the
Grand Chapter, issued the Catalogue of 1872.
Virginia Theta and North Carolina Rho-Rho
were established near the end of 1870. Virginia
Theta at the Virginia Military Institute and
North Carolina Rho-Rho at the Carolina Military
Virginia Sigma Made Grand Chapter. Virginia
Sigma at Washington and Lee University was
made Grand Chapter of the fraternity by the
Nashville convention of 1875.
Difficulties of the Fraternity. Sigma Alpha
Epsilon awoke in 1877 to find that the general
convention appointed for the summer before had
not been held. It was only the extraordinary vi-
tality of Sigma Alpha Epsilon that kept it alive
in that decade.
Kentucky Chi in Leadership. Kentucky Chi was
the chapter which took the lead in the rejuvena-
tion of Sigma Alpha Epsilon. On February 18,
1877, it issued an address to the Grand Chapter.
In view of the conditions of that day and the re-
sults achieved, it may be said that this address
was one of the most important papers ever issued
by a Sigma Alpha Epsilon chapter. It declared
the fraternity in danger of extinction and ar-
raigned the chapters for their negligence so se-
verely that a convention was called to be held in
Richmond, Va., July 9, 1877.
Richmond Convention of 1877. The ninth of
July, 1877, came. Richard H. Wildberger, of Ken-
tucky Chi, found himself in Richmond as the
representative of the chapter which had brought
about the convention. He found there a repre-
sentative from every chapter except one, the Unl-
40 PARAGRAPH HISTORY
versity of Virginia. The fraternity was of age.
A few months before it had passed its twenty-first
birthday. Twenty-four chapters had graced its
rolls and of these but six remained. Wildberger
and Murphy, Georgia Beta, believed that the fin-
ances of the fraternity were a prime factor in its
success. The convention fixed the annual duea
of each active member for national purposes at
four dollars. From this time on the Grand Chap-
ter was to have the means with which to do
things. Kentucky Chi was chosen Grand Chap-
ter and Ben T. Farmer, Kentucky Chi, was elect-
ed Grand Treasurer.
The Catalogue of 1877. Kentucky Chi promised
the speedy appearance of the long expected cata-
logue. The little pamphlet appeared in Novem-
ber, 1877. It contained the names of eight hun-
dred and six members. A supplement was issued
in March, 1880, with two hundred and fourteen
new names. Another activity of the Grand Chap-
ter was the installation of Kentucky Alpha at
Forest Academy. At the end of the year the char-
ter was withdrawn.
Alabama Alpha-Mu Founded. Alabama Alpha-
Mu, at Alabama Polytechnic Institute, is the
child of a "prep" school friendship. William
Wallace Lambdin, John J. Huguley and John B.
D. Shipp were at the Gordon Institute. Lambdin
and Huguley entered the University of Georgia,
where they were received into Georgia Beta,
while Shipp went to Auburn. The two new S. A.
E.'s at Georgia wanted their old chum to be a
fraternity brother, and they urged him to estab-
lish a chapter. He organized a chapter of four-
teen men. It was installed June 15, 1878.
1 Augusta Convention of 1878. The Augusta con-
vention of 1878 was held August 28, 29 and 30.
The Augusta convention was largely attended, but
OF SIGMA ALPHA EPSILON 41
most of those present were Georgia alumni. Only
four active chapters had delegates. These were:
Georgia Beta, Georgia Psi, Tennessee Lambda,
which had been reorganized by Charles Z. Mc-
Cord, and Tennessee Nu, which had been reor-
ganized by W. Leroy Broun, Jr. Kentucky Chi
was re-elected Grand Chapter; Ben T. Farmer
was re-elected Grand Treasurer.
Alabama lota Launched. John E. D. Shipp, Ala-
bama Alpha-Mu, sat in his college boarding house
reading a newspaper, and his attention was at-
tracted by the account of a literary contest in
which several students at Southern Universi-
ty at Greensboro had done well. Shipp copied
the names and then and there wrote the contest-
ants asking them to organize and petition S. A. K.
for a charter. They responded, saying that the
idea was an agreeable one, and the chapter was
soon organized and petitioning. The Grand Chap-
ter issued the charter and, with Shipp as in-
stalling officer, Alabama Iota, on Nov. 23, 1878,
became an integral part of S. A. E.
Georgia Delta Begins Career. Roland Lyon, of
Georgia Psi, went to Dahlonega October 8, 1879,
and initiated his brother, who was a student at
the Georgia A. M. College, into S. A. E. This
proved the starting of Georgia Delta.
Proposed Amalgamation with Beta Theta Pi.
Kentucky Chi announced to the fraternity on No-
vember 21, 1879, it had received a proposition to
unite S. A. E. with Beta Theta Pi and that the
Grand Chapter favorably considered the plan.
The entire order became aflame with anger at
the suggestion, and there was not a single chap-
ter addressed but took indignant action repelling
the attempt at subversion.
Attitude of the Chapters Toward Amalgamation
42 PARAGRAPH HISTORY
was humorously expressed in a letter to Kentucky
Chi by Samuel Lane, of Georgia Beta. He asked:
Are you fellows really in earnest, or was it your
object to stir things up and make the dry bones
rattle a little by proposing such steps? I have
never seen the S. A. E. camp in such commotion
in Georgia. Every man in Beta has gone to writ-
ing letters. Psi, at Macon, Georgia, is red hot. I
have about four letters from them about the sub^
ject within the past week; our Dahlonega,
Georgia, chapter is also puffing. All the fellows
reject the proposition most emphatically and I
am afraid if Brother Wildberger were to take a
tour through Georgia just now he would be in some
danger of having an S. A. E. head put on him. I
know he would, did not our boys know what a
faithful sentinel in the watchtower he has been
and is, and that nearest his heart come the best
interests of our order.
Tennessee Kappa Founded. Tennessee Kappa
was a June bride in the early summer of 1879.
The alliance was with Sigma Alpha Epsilon. The
union was brought about by John E. D. Shipp, of
Alabama Alpha-Mu, and Joseph W. Horton, of
Tennessee Lambda. The charter was granted on
Nashville Convention of 1879. Yellow Jack was
very impolite to Minerva in the summer of 1879,
for he shut the doors of Nashville to her. Four
general conventions of the fraternity had been
held there and the convention of 1879 would be
the first of five to follow. It was held the three
days before Christmas. The conventions early
passed the following resolutions: That it is con-
trary to the spirit of our fraternity to absorb or
in any manner whatever unite* with any other
college fraternity, north or south. The big four
definite things it did was to provide for a fra-
OF SIGMA ALPHA EPSILON 43
ternity magazine, of which Robert Wildberger was
elected editor. Kentucky Chi was chosen again
as Grand Chapter and Ben T. Farmer was re-
elected treasurer. A medal was provided for
The S. A. E. Record Appears. The first nun>
ber of the Sigma Alpha Epsilon Record appeared
in March, 1880, with Robert H. Wildberger as
The Wooing of Minerva. Although the chap*
ters had stood steadfast in their loyalty, the news
of S. A. E. having been invited to amalgamate by
ano'ther fraternity was taken by some as a desire
on her part to do so. They had not heard of the
resolutions of the 1879 convention. In August,
1880, a letter was received from W. L. McClung,
secretary of the extension committee of Delta
Tau Delta. He wrote to the Grand Chapter: How
would you look on a project to unite our two fra*
ternities? If you favor such a plan, of course,
you can exert very great influence with your fra-
ternity, as I can also with mine. If we should
unite, S. A. E. would at one bound gain twenty-
three chapter members, while D. T. D. would
gain, I don't know just your numbers, but most
of them are in good colleges and occupy high po-
S. A. E. Has Another Suitor. Sigma Alpha Ep-
silon must have had very attractive characteris-
tics about 1880, for Alpha Tau Omega wrote to
Wildberger in February, 1881, "We heard that
your fraternity at large contemplates disband-
ment or merger into some other fraternity. If
such be the case, the High Council of the Alpha
Tau Omega fraternity would like to treat with
the authorities of S. A. E. We have eight large
and energetic chapters and five alumni chapters.
44 PARAGRAPH HISTORY
Our magazine has taken a prominent place among
college fraternity publications."
Baird Suggests a Plan of Union. William Rai-
mond Baird reopened in the spring of 1881 his
negotiations looking toward a union of Beta Theta
Pi and Sigma Alpha Epsilon. He wrote to the
Grand Chapter: "The addition of your chapter
would strengthen us where we do not exist," and
in another letter suggested the following plan of
action: Can't you get a committee appointed "on
the general condition of the fraternity" with ple-
nary powers? Then let the committee suggest to
our authorities a union; we would appoint a com-
mittee to arrange terms, and this being done our
convention could ratify them and yours could be
submitted to the chapters individually, and if
some of your influential alumni approve of the
plan I have no doubt as to the result, for the
alumni virtually control opinion in such matters.
A committee of three from S. A. E. and three
from Beta Theta Pi, meeting in Louisville, Nash-
ville, Berkeley or White Sulphur Springs, could
settle the whole thing in a day.
A Warning to Suitors. The issue of the REC-
ORD, after these proposals of union from the
three influential fraternities, contained a warn-
ing notice, "There are several fraternities wait-
ing around to pick the bones of S. A. E.,, but we
will go to some of their funerals yet! S. A. E. is
not dead and not going to die; please don't forget
that. We are not even sick. It is very compli-
mentary to always be receiving offers of union
with other similar bodies."
The Inactive Chapters. S. A. E., like other fra-
ternities, has its list of inactive chapters, several
of whose stories have been told. Anti-fraternity
laws, the Civil war, the passing of the institu-
tion, the lowering of educational standards and
OF SIGMA ALPHA EPSILON 45
consequent withdrawal of charters have been con-
tributing causes to their demise. Having a place
historically but not in the active life of the fra-
ternity of today, we enter the remaining ones
here with name of college and years of activity:
S. C. Upsilon, Charleston College, 1881-2; Texas
Rho, Marvin College, 1881-84; S. C. Lambda, The
Citadel, 1883-94; Va. Pi, Emory and Henry, 1884-
95; Va. Tau, Richmond College, 1884-87; S. C.
Mu, Erskine College, 1884-94; Ky. Epsilon, South
Kentucky College, 1885-87; S. C. Gamma, Wofford,
1885-1912; La. Zeta, Thatcher Institute, 1886-88;
Texas Theta, Buffalo Gap, 1888; Miss. Theta,
Mississippi A. and M., 1887-92; Texas Psi, South-
western, 1887-88; Iowa Sigma, Simpson, 1889-98;
Conn. Alpha, Trinity, 1892-99.
Halcyon Days Begin. The eighties were pro-
pitious years for Sigma Alpha Epsilon. Like a
strong runner, the fraternity had at last found its
second wind. Moments of difficulty would come,
the period of dying chapters was by no means
over; but withal, the time of steady advance had
Atlanta Convention of 1881. The general con-
vention of 1881 met at the State Capitol in Atlanta
the last day of June. A charter was granted for
a chapter at the University of the South. Robert
H. Wildberger was re-elected editor of the Rec-
ord. It forgot to elect a treasurer and Ben T.
Farmer was subsequently named by the Grand
Northern Extension at 1881 Convention. Oliver
Mitchell, Georgia Beta, presented the following
resolution to the 1881 convention: "That every
chapter in the different states lying on the line
of the southern states, and all other chapters em-
braced in this fraternity, be urgently requested to
abolish the custom of confining this fraternity to
46 PARAGRAPH HISTORY
exclusively southern states, and that they be urged
to press on their work knowing no South, no
North, no East, no West." William B. Walker,
Georgia Beta, has written of the reception of the
resolution: "Mine was not the popular speech
and when I advocated the extension of the fra-
ternity north of the Ohio River, my speech fell
flat. If there is any honor coming to me I would
rather have the distinction of this plea made,
rather than be known as the founder of Tennes-
see Omega. Of that act, which is undeniably
mine, I am proud, but of the other I am more
than proud, for though I stood alone, the subse-
quent history has been my vindication."
Tennessee Omega Founded. Tennessee Omega,
at the University of the South, was the result of
the work of William B. Walker, Georgia Beta. He
obtained a charter from the 1881 convention and
the first initiation was held August 20, 1881. The
first ten men for the chapter were selected for
Walker by the faculty of the institution.
Northern Fraternities Extend South. With the
coming of the eighties many northern fraternities
commenced to look southward. The question of
the invasion of the South by the northern fra/
ternities was always a subject frequently agitat-
ed; their wealth and numbers were dwelt upon
with so much gravity that it is evident it was
used as a bug-a-boo by the officials of the south-
ern fraternities to accelerate the activities of
their chapters. When the northern fraternities
did enter the South they succeeded in making the
same comfortable place for themselves that the
southern fraternities won when they spread
through the North and became national organiza*
First Panhellenic Agreement. Kentucky Chi
was probably the first chapter in the Greek world
OF SIGMA ALPHA EPSILON 47
to formulate a Panhellenic agreement when in
1881 it brought about an agreement with its
rivals not to pledge or initiate any student until
six weeks after the opening of the college year.
First S. A. E. Chapter House. Tennessee Omega
was the first S. A. E. chapter to own its own
house. One of the prettiest stories of all S. A. E.
history is the starting of their chapter house
fund. The chapter obtained the government con-
tract for delivering the mail at the university.
The members took charge in alphabetical order
and served either in pairs or singly, each for one
or two weeks. The mail for the university was
brought by "hand and foot" power from the sta-
tion a mile away. It was then sorted "on the
hill" and delivered to the residents by the car-
riers, who had previously carried it from the sta-
tion. The chapter was ready to essay the task
and pledged itself to do the work. The contract
paid $110.00 a year, and Guerry, Glass, Harris, Mc-
Glohon, and the rest of the chapter served. One
day McGlohon, with a two bushel sack of mail
on his back, met Bishop Elliott, of Texas. The
Bishop said : "I want to shake your hand and tell
you I am glad to hear that your boys are carry-
ing this mail for your chapter. That action has
raised you to the highest moral plane. You de-
serve success and I want to thank you men for
setting such a manly example here at Sewanee.
Your chapter has not only taken a high place by
this action, but you have done something for the
whole student body which will last. On all sides
your men are commended and with all my heart
I honor you and wish your chapter success."
When Chapters "Reorganized." In the seven-
ties and eighties the chapters were accustomed to
go through a process they called "reorganizing."
The use of the term "reorganize" in that period of
48 PARAGRAPH HISTORY
the fraternity's history was a peculiar one. Chap-
ters did not seem to regard themselves as having
incessant existence, but every college year they
would pass through this reorganization proceed-
ing when the college term began. If a chapter
returned none of its workers there was danger
that the inactivity of those who did come back
would allow the chapter to drag, and even to die,
while the lazy ones would excuse themselves with
the specious "We have not reorganized this year."
The Birth of Georgia Epsilon took place at the
opening of Emory College at Oxford in the fall of
1881. Robert S. Patillo and James E. Hunnicutt
were initiated by alumni during the summer.
Their first initiate was Alexander J. Smith, who
became a most industrious S. A. E.
South Carolina Delta. The fraternity owes to
the work of James G. Glass, Tennessee Omega,
the South Carolina Delta chapter at the Universi-
ty of South Carolina. He went to Columbia in
February and interviewed President Miles, of
South Carolina College, concerning the conditions
under which a chapter of Sigma Alpha Epsilon
might be established there. President Miles gave
him a warm welcome. He believed in the college
fraternities and in their beneficial influence in the
college where they were situated, and that they
also tended to draw into closer relation to each
other the colleges of the country. The first two
members of the chapter were William St. C. Syiri-
mers and Philo H. Burney. These were initiated
on the night of February 28, 1882.
Kentucky Kappa Organized. Charles W. Welch,
Kentucky Chi, installed Kentucky Kappa at Cen-
tral University, March 4, 1882. The institution was
then at Richmond, Ky., but the college has since
been removed to Danville, Ky.
OF SIGMA ALPHA EPSILON 49
Augusta Convention of 1882. The Augusta con-
vention of 1882 of Sigma Alpha Epsilon was called
to order by Major J. H. Young, of Kentucky Chi.
The Grand Chapter election of the year had made
him president of the Grand Chapter. The Record
was continued and strengthened and J. H. Young
was elected editor-in-chief. The Grand Chapter
was sent back to Kentucky Chi.
The Ritual in Cipher. During the fall of 1882
the first recorded effort was made to devise a
cipher for the secret work of the fraternity.
Caskie Harrison, Tennessee Omega, undertook this
work. The cipher he submitted was a unique one.
It depended upon the use of one hundred letters,
which gave more than three representations of
each letter of the alphabet. Various ciphers have
been devised by several members of the fraternity
since then, but they have never come into gen-
Tennessee Zeta Founded. Samuel B. McGlohon,
one of the sons of Tennessee Omega, was deter-
mined to build up the fraternity in the Volunteer
state, and it was his zeal which brought Tennessee
Zeta into existence. McGlohon founded Tennessee
Zeta at the Southwestern Presbyterian University,
on November 10, 1882.
Georgia Beta in 1883. Davis Freeman, Georgia
Beta, wrote to John A. Harris, Tenn. Omega, in
the spring of 1883, "Our chapter is probably the
largest on the list (twenty-seven men). I have
been a member of Georgia Beta since March 7,
1880, and during all that time I have not known
more universal good fellowship. We meet every
Saturday night. Georgia Beta believes that our
order is now on the high road to success and is
making rapid strides toward the goal of perfect
and extended foothold in all the first-class col-
leges in the South. To further this rapid consum-
50 PARAGRAPH HISTORY
mation she believes that every chapter should be
on the alert, and whenever an opening presents
to seize the opportunity and fill it by establishing
a branch of the S. A. E. fraternity.
North Carolina Theta. North Carolina Theta
was founded by Edwin G. Seibels, South Carolina
Delta, May 20, 1883.
Northern Extension Accomplished. The Grand
Chapter sprung a surprise on the fraternity in
June, 1883. For a quarter of a century the ques-
tion of northern extension had been a perpetual
theme of agitation. It appeared coeval with the
birth of the fraternity, and since had been dis-
cussed among the members in the chapters and the
conventions. Even ardent friends were not
prepared for the announcement made by the Grand
Chapter, in June, 1883, that Sigma Alpha Epsilon
had a northern chapter. Even the Grand Chapter
must have been surprised at itself when it found
It had established the chapter at Pennsylvania
College. Attendance at a Panhellenic gathering in
Philadelphia had profoundly impressed the Grand
President with the strength of the northern fra-
ternities and he was in accord with the northern
extension idea. It was soon after this that the
application for a charter came from Pennsylvania
College, sometimes called Gettysburg College, on
account of its location in that Pennsylvania city,
The men whose names were signed were especially
persistent, and it was finally decided that Russell
H. Snively, the vice-president of the Grand Chapter,
should be sent to Gettysburg to investigate, and
he was given full authority to act. At Gettysburg
he found H. B. Kline, R. R. D. Kline, Frank E.
Warren, and J. F. Foust. The Kline brothers were
southern boys and so knew much of Sigma Alpha
Epsilon. Snively was so impressed with the prom-
ise of the little group that they would build up
OF SIGMA ALPHA EPSILON 51
a strong chapter, that he gave heed to their plea
and initiated them.
Louisville Convention of 1883. The Louisville
Convention of 1883 met August 14. This conven-
tion made Tennessee Omega Grand Chapter and
elected William A. Guerry head of the fraternity.
James G. Glass was elected Grand Treasurer. J.
H. Young was continued as editor of the Record.
The titles of the national officers were changed
from English to quasi Greek titles. Royal Purple
had added to it as a companion color old gold.
New Titles for National Officers. The changes
of the titles of the officers of the Grand Chapter
at the 1883 convention were as follows: Grand
President to Eminent Grand Archon, Grand Vice-
President to Eminent Deputy Grand Archon,
Grand Secretary to Eminent Grand Recorder,
Grand Treasurer to Eminent Grand Treasurer,
Grand Corresponding Secretary to Eminent Grand
Correspondent, Grand Historian to Eminent Grand
Chronicler, Grand Door-Keeper to Eminent Grand
Warden, and in addition the office of Eminent
Grand Herald. The Eminent Grand Archon and
the Eminent Grand Treasurer came nearer to the
corresponding officers of the present time than
any of the others. In a large sense the Grand
Treasurer for years had been the only real bona-
fide national officer. The Grand President had be-
gun by being head of the Grand Chapter, rather
than the national fraternity.
New Titles for Chapter Officers. Until the 1883
convention the chapter officers as well as the na-
tional had been designated by English names. The
changes for the chapter officers were: president
to eminent archon, vice-president to eminent dep-
uty archon, secretary to eminent recorder, corre-
sponding secretary to eminent correspondent,
treasurer to eminent treasurer, historian to emi-
52 PARAGRAPH HISTORY
nent chronicler, door-keeper to eminent warden.
The office of eminent herald, which had not ex-
isted, was created.
The Constitution of 1883. The national law of
the present era in many respects is similar to the
revised constitution of 1883. In a comparison of
the regulations then and now, it will only be nec-
essary to place emphasis upon the variations. The
literary requirements of the chapter were as rigid
as of old, and members continued to be held re-
sponsible for a series of essays. Under the con-
stitution of 1883 the national fraternity continued
to take an active interest and provide laws for
the minutiae of chapter government. The old fine
of one dollar imposed on an active member of a
chapter who refused to accept any office to which
he was elected was retained. The power to organ-
ize new chapters was vested in both the Grand
Chapter and the general convention.
Chapter Correspondence Continued. One of the
duties of the Eminent Correspondent in 1883 was
to write at least once a month to the Grand
Chapter, and to every other chapter at least once
every two weeks. This constitution for the first
time required the filing of a membership blank
with the Grand Chapter.
When a Prater Died in 1883. The general laws
of the fraternity in 1883 required that when a
chapter member died, that the surviving members
should immediately convene, pass suitable resolu-
tions and appoint a committee to take charge of
the body. All members were required to wear
their badges covered with black crepe. It was
provided that the members acting as pall bearers
should be dressed in full black and wear a white
scarf extending from the left shoulder across the
breast and back to the right hip-bone, and from
there fall to the knee-joint.
OF SIGMA ALPHA EPSILON 53
Ritual Part of Constitution. The laws of the
fraternity and its ritual continued in 1883 to be
published under the same cover; they were still
more or less interwoven, although certain portions
of the ritual which formerly had been included
were now omitted, and had been since the con-
vention of 1879, which had directed that the most
intimate secrets of the fraternity should not be
put in print. The unprinted portions, which were
circulated among the chapters in writing, came
to be generally known as "secret portion of the
ritual," or sometimes as the "secret portion of
Northern Extension Opposed. Although, in 1883,
Pennsylvania Delta had been founded and the
fraternity had crossed the Mason and Dixon line,
there remained a minority who constantly agitated
against northern extension. They claimed the fra-
ternity was large enough. There were now sixteen
active chapters. Some of them knew nothing
of the other chapters. There were grave doubts as
to whether the fraternity should establish chapters
anywhere until it was on a stronger and surer
basis. The duty of the fraternity was to improve
the chapters it had by making them correspond
more regularly with each other. Admitting, how-
ever, that extension might be advisable, the South
and not the North was the place to extend. To
go into a northern college would mean to lower the
standard of the fraternity by taking unworthy
men. Finally, the memories of the war were stiii
rife and the two sections could not get along in
the same organization. Such were the arguments
used by the opponents of northern extension.
New Editor of The Record. J. H. Young, Ken-
tucky Chi, resigned the editorship of the Record
immediately after the 1883 convention, and William
A. Guerry acted as editor for the next two num-
54 PARAGRAPH HISTORY
bers. Piromis Bell, Georgia Beta, was chosen as
editor early in 1884.
Florida Upsilon Founded. Florida Upsilon was
organized by Milton Bryan, Georgia Epsilon, who
had entered the University of Florida. The first
men were initiated Feb. 11, 1884. The chapter
did not continue but was revived Feb. 13, 1915, and
started its new career with fine prospects.
Missouri Alpha Established. James C. Preston,
Tennessee Omega, was sent to Columbia by Guerry,
the E. G. A., to establish Missouri Alpha at the
University of Missouri. The installation was on
May 27, 1884.
Texas Rho Organized. Texa Rho was founded
by Thomas C. Barrett, June 10, 1884, at the Uni-
versity of Texas.
The Ritual Revised. William A. Guerry, E. G.
A., revised the ritual of the fraternity in 1884. He
had taken De Votie's work and had added to it.
Athens Convention of 1884. S. A. E. met in
convention at Athens, Ga., July 27, 1884. For the
first time in the history of the fraternity a delegate
from a northern chapter was present. Tennessee
Omega was continued as Grand Chapter. Georgia
Beta was intrusted with the publication of a cata-
logue. The Oxford gown was adopted as an initia-
tion robe. William A. Guerry was continued as
E. G. A., James G. Glass as E. G. T. and Piromis
Bell as editor of The Record.
Chapter Names Improved. One of the practical
acts of the 1884 convention was to prefix the state
name to the chapter letter. For the purpose of
clearness in writing this history, we have fol-
lowed this custom but in so doing have commit-
ted an anachronism. Before this rule was adopted,
it had forced its way in several instances into
OF SIGMA ALPHA EPSILON 65
Glass Becomes E. G. A. A month after the 1884
convention William A. Guerry, who had faithfully
served as Eminent Grand Archon, was graduated
from the University of the South, and removed
from the seat of the Grand Chapter. James G.
Glass was elevated to this place by the Grand
Chapter, and Samuel B. McGlohon was elected
Eminent Grand Treasurer.
First State Convention. The South Carolina
State Association of Sigma Alpha Epsilon was
organized at Columbia, S. C., Nov. 7, 1884. This
was the first state association of Sigma Alpha Ep-
Northern Extension Triumphant. Ohio Sigma
was born April 4, 1885, and with its advent into the
fraternity the question of northern extension was
a settled fact. Ohio Sigma was to wear the laurels
of a pioneer in the north and become the progeni-
tor of a line of chapters.
Fraternity Conditions in 1885. The Grand Chap-
ter had studied conditions in the North and knew
there was a big harvest for the fraternity which
would enter and possess the land. Although the
West in 1885 had many fraternities, their chapter
rolls were not at all large and many of the im-
portant schools had but two or three chapters.
Sigma Alpha Epsilon was enabled by this condi-
tion to enter many colleges either ahead or at the
identical time that they were entered by fra-
ternities indigenous to the soil. In other instances
it was there so immediately after that the differ-
ence gave no advantage to the others. Institu-
tions like the University of Cincinnati, the Uni-
versity of Colorado, Denver University, University
of Missouri, Iowa State College had only one rivai
fraternity when Sigma Alpha Epsilon entered.
Washington University, Boston University, the
University of Nebraska, Purdue, Bucknell had only
56 PARAGRAPH HISTORY
two or three chapters. Many were like Illinois,
which had seven, the University of California,
which had nine, Allegheny, which had four. Oth-
ers were plainly lacking in enough chapters to ac-
commodate the fraternity material and the witness
to this is the large influx of fraternities into these
schools since the entrance of Sigma Alpha Ep-
Effect of Increased College Attendance. There
has been a greater factor than the lack of rival
chapters which has aided Sigma Alpha Epsilon
in its winning of the West. During the years that
have followed 1885, the attendance at all the
northern colleges has wonderfully increased. Col-
leges which then had two hundred and three hun-
dred students have become universities with two
thousand and three thousand students.
Northern Extension Proceeds. Pennsylvania
Delta came in 1887, Ohio Sigma in 1885. Two years
later the start was made in earnest. Michigan
Alpha at Adrian College was the first fruits. Two
months later Pennsylvania Omega at Allegheny
College, flung aloft the purple and gold banner.
Then Ohio Delta at Ohio Wesleyan University ap-
S. A. E. in 1885. William E. Wooten wrote
from Georgia Beta, where he was E. A. to the E.
G. A., in September, 1885, a letter which has some
interesting data about S. A. E. at that time.
"On examining the old catalogue and other pa-
pers and Records in my possession I find that to
send one to each of the alumni we should have at
least 1,400 circulars. This is a rough guess, but it is
the lowest number at which I would like to place
it. I really believe that our living alumni num-
ber 1,500 or in that neighborhood."
Two Chapters Revived. North Carolina Xi at
the University of North Carolina, which had slept
OF SIGMA ALPHA EPSILON 57
since the civil war, was revived the Commencement
Week of 1885 at Chapel Hill, and the following
October, South Carolina Gamma, which had had a
brief career ten years before at Wofford College,
came to life again.
Nashville Convention of 1885. The Nashville
Convention of 1885 convened Oct. 20. James G.
Glass, as E. G. A., called the convention to order.
Tenn. Omega was to relinquish the reins of govern-
ment and go down in the history of the fraternity
.as the last of the Grand Chapters. Glass in his re-
port, speaking of the change of government, said,
"The varied duties and the constant and unwearied
attention which the management and supervision
of thirty-five active chapters, spread over a section
of country extending from Missouri to Texas,
from Florida to Ohio, entails upon the officers of
the Grand Chapter more work than they can per-
form as college students. Whatever may be the
zeal and willingness of any chapter in the cause
of Sigma Alpha Epsilon, it is not right to saddle
a number of young men, who have been sent
away from home to receive an education, with the
management of a large and growing fraternity."
The system of government by a Supreme Council
The Supreme Council Plan. The new system of
government adopted by the 1885 convention pro-
vided that the convention should elect a Supreme
Council, consisting of six members. The chairman
of this council was to be the official head of the
fraternity, and also its national secretary and
treasurer. His title was to be Eminent Supreme
Archon. The members of the council were re-
quired to be residents of the same city. The Emi-
nent Supreme Archon of 1885 was, in effect, the
sole administrative officer, the other members of
the Supreme Council having little or nothing to
do with the control of affairs.
58 PARAGRAPH HISTORY
The First E. S. A. Thomas S. Mell, Georgia
Beta, was elected by the 1885 convention as the
first Eminent Supreme Archon of Sigma Alpha
Province System Instituted. The Supreme Coun-
cil was directed by the 1885 convention to divide
the fraternity into provinces of from four to eight
chapters each, and to appoint one of the chap-
ters in each division the Grand Chapter of the
province. The plan as adopted contained a provi-
sion that each chapter of the fraternity must cor-
respond monthly with every other chapter of the
The First Provinces. The Eminent Supreme
Archon announced the arrangement of the six prov-
inces with the Grand Chapter for each, Nov. 15,
1916. They were named with the letters of the
English alphabet. The arrangement of the prov-
inces was as follows: Province A, Georgia Beta,
Grand Chapter, Georgia Epsilon, Georgia Psi;
Province B, South Carolina Delta, Grand Chapter,
South Carolina Gamma, South Carolina Mu; Prov-
ince C, North Carolina Theta, Grand Chapter,
North Carolina Xi, Virginia Omicron, Virginia
Sigma, Virginia Tau, Virginia Pi; Province D,
Kentucky Chi, Grand Chapter, Kentucky Epsilon,
Kentucky Kappa, Ohio Sigma, Missouri Alpha;
Province E, Tennessee Zeta, Grand Chapter, Ten-
nessee Eta, Tennessee Lambda, Tennessee Nu, Ten-
nessee Omega; Province F, Mississippi Gamma,
Grand Chapter, Texas Rho, Alabama Iota. In
1893, the Chattanooga convention substituted
The Province Archons. Archons appointed to
supervise the new provinces were: Prov-
ince A, Peyton H. Snook, Georgia Beta; Province
B, William H. Thomas, South Carolina Delta;
Province C, Oscar L. Clark, North Carolina Theta;
OF SIGMA ALPHA EPSILON 59
Province D, Richard J. Owen, Kentucky Chi; Prov-
ince E, William B. White. Mississippi was Grand
Chapter of Province F. The Eminent Archons of
the province Grand Chapters were the Eminent
Grand Archons of the provinces.
Atlanta Convention of 1886. The Atlanta con-
vention of 1886 was in session three days, opening
August 24th. A special constitutional convention
was provided for. Thomas S. Mell was re-elected
E. S. A.
Tennessee Omega Keystone Laid. It was a
happy day for Tennessee Omega and an auspici-
ous one for the fraternity, Oct. 23, 1886, when the
Sewanee chapter had a ceremonial laying of the
keystone to its chapter house. It was the first
house to be owned by a chapter of Sigma Alpha
Harry Bunting Initiated. Harry Bunting went
to Clarksville to college and Tennessee Zeta in-
itiated him in the fall of 1886. He was only a
little preparatory school boy, but he had two
older brothers, Robert and William, in the chap-
ter and Greek society methods were easier in
those days. George Bunting, the fourth brother,
was initiated five years later.
The Catalogue of 1886. The catalogue' of 1886
was a handsome publication, comprehensive in its
matter, and as a piece of book-making was some-
thing of which to be proud. This volume has al-
ways been called the catalogue of 1886, because
this was the year that Georgia Beta completed
the manuscript. It came from the press the
spring of 1887.
The Third Northern Chapter. A new-risen star
in the North marked the early days of 1887.
Michigan Alpha, at Adrian College, commenced
to glitter in the S. A. E. constellation January 22.
Pennsylvania Omega Founded. Four chums at
60 PARAGRAPH HISTORY
Allegheny College in 1885 formed the C. O. V.,
and it prospered and occupied so prominent a
place in the college world at Meadville that its
need of a charter from the national fraternity was
impressed upon it. The application for a charter
to S. A. E. was made in December, 1886. The
charter was issued and on March 5th the chapter
Constitutional Convention of 1887. The conven-
vention of 1886 had authorized a constitutional
convention. It was held Dec. 27, 1887, at Colum-
bia, S. C., and its work consisted in a codification
of the existing laws.
Two National Conventions. The national con-
vention held at Columbia, S. C., in 1887 met Dec.
28, the day after the holding of the constitutional
convention. Thomas S. Mell was re-elected E. S.
A. and John G. Capers, South Carolina Lambda,
was elected editor of The Board. The national con-
vention of 1888 was held at Nashville. A charter
was granted for a chapter at the University of
Michigan. Thomas S. Mell was re-elected E. S. A.
and John G. Capers was re-elected editor of The
Ohio Delta Founded. Ohio Delta was the only
chapter to come into the fraternity in 1888. The
chapter was organized through Ira Leighley, who*
the year before had been a student at Mt. Union.
The chapter was installed the evening of Novem-
ber 16th. Later the chapter initiated Albert M.
Austin, whose services to the fraternity were to
Michigan lota-Beta Founded. The northern Ar.
gonauts of Sigma Alpha Epsilon set sail from the
ports of every chapter as the last decade of the
nineteenth century grew near. They were not
mere scatterlings, nor even adventurers, but schol-
OF SIGMA ALPHA EPSILON 61
ars, who, as they went from the seat of their
mother chapter to other institutions, carried with
them the flame of love and loyalty to Sigma Alpha
Epsilon. Such was Frederick G. Cadwell, a mem-
ber of Michigan Alpha, who in the fall of 1888
entered the University of Michigan. Michigan has
ever been a fruitful field for fraternities, and it
was not long before Cadwell had surrounded him-
self with a little group which petitioned Sigma
Alpha Epsilon for a charter. The petition was
signed by Edward C. Nichols, Albert Z. Horning,
Frederick R. Angell, Charles J. Barr, Frederick
E. Wood. The granting of the charter waited upon
the action of the Nashville convention of 1888,
where affirmative action was taken. The date
of the installation of the chapter was January 12,
1889. From this chapter came two national offi-
cers: Judge A. J. Tuttle, Honorary Eminent Su-
preme Archon, and Elmer B. Sanford, editor of
Greek Meets Greek. The fraternity world was
enlivened in the autumn of 1889 by a dispute
which arose between the S. A. E. and the Chi
Phi chapter at the University of Georgia. Each
claimed the other was initiating men before they
were matriculated. Chi Phi challenged S. A. E. to
battle, but declared that S. A. E. must not choose
revolvers. B. C. Collier, of Georgia Beta, and
one of the Chi Phi members had a personal en-
counter in which the purple and gold banner
maintained its supremacy.
Ohio Epsilon Established. Henry Dannenbaum,
of Virginia Pi, was visiting friends in Cincinnati
in 1889 and met a number of students of the
University of Cincinnati. He obtained a charter
from the Eminent Supreme Archon for a chapter.
So it was that Ohio Epsilon came into being No-
vember 22, 1889. The popular S. A. E. song,
"Sing, Brothers, Sing," was written by George H.
62 PARAGRAPH HISTORY
Kress and others of this chapter. Albrecht F.
Leue, E. S. D. A., is a son of Ohio Epsilon.
S. A. E. in 1889. Sigma Alpha Epsilon was grow-
ing and prospering in 1889. It had thirty-two ac-
tive chapters and thirteen alumni associations.
Charlotte Convention of 1889. When the Char-
lotte, S. C., convention came, it was bothered
very little by either politics or business. It was
the gayest kind of a gay social event. The North
Carolina alumni had exerted themselves beyond
measure to entertain the delegates and they met
with brilliant success. The sessions of the con-
vention were called to order December 26th. Mell
was re-elected Eminent Supreme Archon, and
Capers, editor of The Record by unanimous votes.
A charter was granted the Georgia School of
Supreme Council in 1890. The members of the
Supreme Council in 1890 were B. C. Collier, Guy
C. Hamilton, D. S. Sanford, James G. Basinger,
Edward W. Charbonnier, with Thomas S. Mell as
E. S. A. W have already indicated that the Su-
preme Council methods of that day were very
different from the present, when each member
of the council is the head of a department, while
in 1890, its operations were as described by Col-
lier, "We simply met from time to time and en-
dorsed whatever the Eminent Supreme Archon
The Extension Movement. At the beginning of
the last decade of the nineteenth century, the
various chapters showed that while they were
not neglecting building up their own vitality, they
were keenly interested in the extension move-
ment then going on in the fraternity. H. H. Cow-
an expressed very vividly the temper of the fra-
ternity concerning extension in these words: "No
one will believe that a few good chapters are
OF SIGMA ALPHA EPSILON 63
preferable to many good ones. If we look at our
rivals we will see that the strongest are the most
aggressive, and although some of them have a
chapter roll twice the length of ours, yet they
do not consider that they have chapters enough,
but on the contrary lose no favorable opportunity
of adding another. No fraternity ever grew strong
by ceasing to grow. The successful carrying out
of a wise extension policy cannot fail to add ma-
terially in the successful solution of other prob-
Georgia Phi Begins Career. George Freeman, a
brother of Henry and Davis Freeman, of Georgia
Beta, entered the Georgia School of Technology
in 1889. Encouraged by his brothers, and by the
Georgia Beta men, Freeman industriously worked
on building a local. It was upon his work that
the Charlotte convention based its grant of a
charter. Collier went to Atlanta and on March 8,
1890, initiated Freeman and his men. This chap-
ter has given the fraternity two Eminent Supreme
Archons, G. Hendree Harrison and Floyd Furlow,
as well as Charles Frederick Stone, an Eminent
Pennsylvania Sigma-Phi. A boyhood friend of
H. H. Cowan's, Chester N. Ames, entered Dickin-
son College. Between then and the time of the
birth of the chapter, Ames had fifty letters from
Cowan, filled with advice, direction and sugges-
tion about founding a chapter. Ames, believing
that the time for action had come, when the col-
lege opened in September, 1890, pledged George
P. Singer and Thurston M. Simmons. Nine others
were brought into the band, and than they met
and signed a petition for a charter from Sigma
Alpha Epsilon. The charter was forthcoming,
and October llth was named as the day to install
the chapter. This duty was assigned to Cowan.
Stanley Rinehart came to assist in the ceremo-
64 PARAGRAPH HISTORY
nies. The other fraternities were soon aware of
the presence of a new band of Greeks, and that
night, soon after the S. A. E.'s had returned to
their rooms in the dormintory, their Greek friends
sent ringing through the hall: "Rah, rah, rah,
Dickinson! Sigma Alpha Epsilon."
Cincinnati Convention of 1890. The Cincinnati
convention of 1890 will always be distinguished
as the first national convention held in the North.
The convention opened December 29. The con-
stitution was amended so that instead of the mem-
bers of the Supreme Council being all residents of
the same city, at least one was to be elected from
each province. The Supreme Council was em-
powered to choose a chapter to publish a cata-
logue. Thomas S. Mell announced his retirement
as E. S. A. John G. Capers, South Carolina Lamb-
da, was chosen to succeeed him. H. H. Cowan
was elected editor of The Record. The new mem-
bers of the Supreme Council, one being chosen
from each province, were: Province A, Stanley
Hugh Dent; Province B, Benjamin H. Harvin;
Province C, R. P. Mahon; Province D, Frederick
L. Taft and Charles E. Burnham. At the banquet
William L. Lowrie responded to the toast: "Let
the Limits of Our Growth be Only the Nation's
Boundaries," a sentiment which was frequently
quoted throughout the fraternity for several years
Constitution of 1891. The 1891 constitution
provided for the annual conventions, and retained
the old provision which allowed a chapter to send
from one to ten delegates to a convention. The
voting on the various questions was by chapters,
with each chapter entitled to one vote. The con-
stitution of 1891 provided for a Supreme Council
of six members; each province was entitled to
one of these. The Supreme Council had the
power, which now is vested in only the national
OF SIGMA ALPHA EPSILON 65
convention, of granting charters, although where
they were issued by the Supreme Council that
body was required to have the consent of the
Colorado Chi was founded at the University of
Colorado, April 11, 1891.
Rise of New York Alpha. William A. Clarke
was a Cornell student, who desired a chapter
of Sigma Alpha Epsilon there. In the Spring of
1891, discovering that there was a chapter of
Sima Alpha Epsilon at Allegheny College, he
wrote to Pennsylvania Omega inquiring the
necessary steps to present a petition to the
fraternity, and soliciting the support of that
chapter. A prompt reply came from Meadville
with the necessary instructions and assurances of
support. In the middle of April Clarke received
word that Pennsylvania Omega had secured the
charter, and that Elmer Higley, of the chapter,
was coming to install the chapter. Higley arrived
on the evening of April 22, and after dinner he
initiated the three men in the parlors of the Ithaca
Hotel. This chapter has given the fraternity many
fine workers. Among these have been Don R.
Almy, E. S. A., and author of the S. A. E. Stand-
ard Accounts and Charles P. Wood, editor of The
Record for two terms.
Colorado Zeta Appears. Colorado Zeta is the
child of Colorado Chi. It was installed December
18, 1891, at Denver University, and named by the
Colorado Chi men "Zeta," in honor of Harry Bunk
ing's chapter, Tennessee Zeta. One of the char r
ter members of the chapter was George D. Kim-
ball, who served the fraternity as E. S. A. and
E. S. T.
Work Started on 1893 Catalogue. Pennsylvania
Sigma-Phi was selected in 1891 by the Supreme
Council to edit and publish the catalogue.
Atlanta Convention of 1891. The Atlanta Con-
66 PARAGRAPH HISTORY
vention of 1891 did many things. It separated uie
ritual and the constitution, it authorized the puo-
lication of the Phi Alpha, it adopted the violet as
the S. A. E. flower, it divided the office of E. S. A.
and E. S. T., and it forbade the initiation of hon-
orary members It met December 28. Harry Bunt-
ing was unanimously tendered the position of E. S.
A., but declined. J. Washington Moore, Tennessee
Nu, was elected E. S. A.; John G. Capers was elected
E. S. T. and H. H. Cowan was re-elected editor.
The law was again changed as to membership on
the Supreme Council, it being provided that the
executive power of the fraternity shall be vested
in a Supreme Council consisting of six members,
and the officers of this Supreme Council shall be
an Eminent Supreme Archon, an Eminent Su-
preme Treasurer, and four Province Presidents,
to be elected one from each province.
The Mother Chapter. One of the cherished hopes
of Harry Bunting was to see the mother chapter
of the fraternity revived. The attempt of 1886,
which had had so much promise, had been short-
lived. Bunting spent the summer of 1891 at Flor-
ence, Ala., and while there he met William M.
Adams, an Alabama student. He agreed to en-
deavor to re-establish Alabama Mu and Bunting
assisted by a company of S. A. E.'s' initiated him,
August 25. Adams returned to Tuscaloosa with
the opening of the college year. He soon gathered
a group of others about him and Alabama Mu
Recovery of the Original Minutes. Very little
was known of the early history of the fraternity in
the nineties. Harry Bunting realized the value of
such knowledge and went to Tuscaloosa in search
of anything which would cast light on the first
days of S. A. E. In an old garret, forgotten by
their keeper, he found the original minutes of the
mother chapter containing the records of every
meeting from March 9, 1856, until that eventful
OF SIGMA ALPHA EPSILON 67
farewell meeting, January 9, 1858. They had been
lost for thirty-four years.
The 8. A. E. Yell. Its official form as adopted
in 1892 is:
"Phi Alpha Alicazee! Phi Alpha Alicazon!
Sigma Alpha ! Sigma Alpha ! Sigma Alpha Epsilon !
Rah rah! Bon ton! Sigma Alpha Epsilon!
Rah rah! Bon ton! Sigma Alpha Epsilon!
Ruh rah! Ruh rah! Ruh rah ree!
Run rah! Ruh rah! S. A. E."
The Bunting Specials. Certain printings became
known in the fraternity as "the Bunting Specials."
Harry Bunting was learning the printers' trade in
the composing room of the Atlanta Constitution as
a means of getting a grip on the publishing busi-
ness. He finished work at four o'clock in the
morning and then would write an S. A. E. bulletin
of five hundred or a thousand words, and then reel-
ing off as many copies as he wished to use, would
mail them at dawn.
The Extension Year. The year 1892 is destined
to be remembered in the annals of Sigma Alpha
Epsilon. It was a year of magnificent chapter
building such as the fraternity had never seen be-
fore. Eight chapters were founded and their or-
ganization gave Sigma Alpha Epsilon a chain
which reached from the shores of the Atlantic to
the shores of the Pacific.
Indiana Alpha Born. First of the many chapters
established in 1892 was Indiana Alpha, which was
installed at Franklin College February 10.
California Alpha Founded. When Stanford Uni-
versity opened its doors in 1891 there were two
loyal sons of Minerva on the coast who were deeply
interested in seeing a chapter of the fraternity
instituted at Palo Alto. William Mack and Edwin
Du Bose Smith were the men of the hour for
68 PARAGRAPH HISTORY
Sigma Alpha Bpsilon at Stanford. They pledged
the men who became the charter members of Cali-
fornia Alpha on March 5, 1892.
Missouri Beta Nascent. The Knights of the
Green Umbrella was a local society at Washing-
ton University in 1892 which, joining with another
local, became the R. S. R. and then a chapter of
Sigma Alpha Epsilon. The chapter was installed
April 30, 1892.
S. A. E. in New England. H. C. Burger of Ohio
Sigma and George K. Denton of Ohio Delta had
entered Boston University. They scanned the
field watching for an advantage. A spark was
needed to kindle the flame, and that spark came
in the person of Harry Bunting, who was in New
York City. He came and stayed a week with
Burger and Denton. Massachusetts Beta-Upsilon
at Boston University was commenced carefully
and systematically. The first man was pledged.
With the work started, Bunting returned to New
York City. The Ohio men continued the work and
succeeded in adding five others. The chapter be-
came Beta-Upsilon, the two letters representing
the name of the school. April 29 ought to be a
memorable day in the calendar of New England
S. A. E.'s. Then the first chapter was established.
Pennsylvania Alpha-Zeta Initiated. The found-
ing of Pennsylvania Alpha-Zeta came about in this
way. George H. Bunting was visiting his ma-
ternal grandfather in Steubenville, Ohio, when he
came in touch with H. H. Cowan. When Cowan
told Bunting of negotiations he had with George
L. W. Price of Pittsburgh, a student at Pennsyl-
vania State College, looking to the founding of a
chapter, Bunting at once joined forces with
Cowan. Stanley M. Rinehart, another Michigan
Alpha Man, who lived in Pittsburgh, lent his good
offices to the work and in the meantime Price was
OF SIGMA ALPHA EPSILON 69
not idle at the State College. He pledged eight
good fellows whom Cowan and Rinehart met at
Bellefont and initiated. The chapter was
named Alpha-Zeta in honor of the chapters of
Cowan and Bunting.
Genesis of Ohio Theta. William L. Cleland, who
had been a student at Mt. Union College and knew
Sigma Alpha Epsilon there was the organizer of
Ohio Theta. He pledged a fine company of fel-
lows. The most absolute secrecy was maintained
about the formation of the chapter and it was the
intention to allow no word of its coming to escape
until the third of June, the date of its installation.
The chapter had fourteen charter members.
Connecticut Alpha was installed at Trinity Col-
lege, Hartford, November 11, 1892. L. J. Doolittle
of New York Alpha was the founder of the chap-
ter. The chapter disbanded in 1899.
inauguration of Massachusetts lota-Tau. Massa-
chusetts lota-Tau came into the fraternity at
Thanksgiving time. Its birthday was November
25, 1892. Beginning in late November with four
charter men, the chapter had nineteen in June. It
took the initial letters of its college for its name.
Leslie W. Millar, one of its early members, has
served as Eminent Supreme Recorder.
The Auburndales. The second initiation of
Massachusetts lota-Tau was held at the Woodlawn
Hotel, Auburndale, Mass., December 30, 1892. It
grew to be the custom for the New England chap-
ters to gather here and hold their joint initiations.
The events took on the name "Auburndales."
The Hustler. The private publication of the
fraternity now known as the Phi Alpha was first
called The Hustler. Harry Bunting and George
Bunting, his brother, were the founders of this
magazine. It appeared September 1, 1892.
70 PARAGRAPH HISTORY
Ohio State Association of S. A. E. The Ohio
State Association of S. A. E. was organized at Co-
lumbus, June 3, 1892, and H. Lindale Smith was
elected president. As the S. A. E.'s were gathered
at the banquet table that evening their distin-
guished brother, William McKinley, appeared to
express his regrets that he could not enjoy the
banquet with them as he was leaving for Minne-
apolis to preside over the Republican National Con-
Province Delta in 1892. Province Delta in 1892
had twenty chapters. The most eastern was
Massachusetts Beta-Upsilon and the most western
Chattanooga Convention of 1892. The Chatta-
nooga Convention of 1892 was December 28. The
convention provided that the Supreme Council
should be composed of the Eminent Supreme
Archon, Eminent Supreme Treasurer, the Editor
of The Record and two alumni. A new honorary
archonship was established to be designated Past
Eminent Supreme Archon. The province was re-
districted. A fraternity flag was adopted. J. Wash-
ington Moore was re-elected E. S. A., H. H. Cowan
was re-elected Editor and Albert M. Austin was
elected E. S. T.
The Fraternity Flag. The S. A. E. flag adopted
by the Chattanooga convention was from a design
offered by H. H. Cowan. The background of the
flag is royal purple with a corner of old gold, the
size and shape of the corner being the same as
the blue field in the American flag. Upon the
gold corner appears the letters 4> A in royal purple.
In the center of the purple field are the letters
2 A E in gold. Immediately beneath the gold cor-
ner are the golden stars, one for each founder.
The Honorary Eminent Supreme Archon. The
act creating the office of Past Eminent Supreme
OF SIGMA ALPHA EPSILON 71
Archon provided that it should be filled by a dis-
tinguished alumnus. This office still remains in
the National laws but the 1909 convention changed
the title from Past Eminent Supreme Archon to
Honorary Eminent Supreme Archon. It has been
filled by Postmaster-General William L. Wilson,
Washington City Rho, 1892-1898; Justice C. B.
Howry, Mississippi Gamma, of the U. S. Court of
Claims, 1898-1904; Secretary of War Jacob M.
Dickinson, Tennessee Nu, 1904-1906; John B. Ru-
dulph, Alabama Mu, last surviving founder, 1906-
1909; William C. Levere, Illinois Psi-Omega, Fra-
ternity Historian, 1909; Governor Albert Gilchrist,
North Carolina Rho-Rho, 1910; William C. Levere,
Illinois Psi-Omega, Fraternity Historian, 1910-1912;
Bishop William A. Guerry, Tennessee Omega, 1912-
1914; Federal Judge Arthur J. Tuttle, Michigan
New Province Boundaries. The convention of
1892 made a thorough re-districting of the prov-
inces increasing the number from four to seven.
Entrance of Massachusetts Gamma. Massachu-
setts Gamma, at Harvard University, was in-
stalled March 17, 1893. The initiation was held at
Auburndale, Massachusetts. Gamma has been rep-
resented on the Supreme Council by two Eminent
Supreme Recorders, Howard P. Nash and Edward
H. Virgin, and by two editors of The Record, Her-
bert Lakin and Edward Mellus.
Indiana Beta Arises. Harold U. Wallace must
always be regarded as the first man in the his-
tory of Indiana Beta of Sigma Alpha Epsilon at
Purdue University. In 1893 the Lafayette school
had only five fraternities, though the material for
chapters was plentiful. Wallace was one of a
number who decided to bring a new charter to
the university. He had heard of Sigma Alpha
Epsilon and of the chapter at Franklin College.
72 PARAGRAPH HISTORY
Wallace wrote to Carl D. Hazelton, of the Frank-
lin chapter, and received a letter generously prom-
ising all the support that Indiana Alpha was capa-
ble of giving. A charter was secured, and on May
18th the chapter was initiated by an installing
committee which came from Franklin.
Dawn of Nebraska Lambda-Pi. Arthur J. Tuttle,
Michigan Iota-Beta, received a letter from Miss
Lola Paddock in the college year of 1892-3 urging
a chapter of S. A. E. at the University of Ne-
braska where she was a student. The year be-
fore she had been at Michigan and the two were
friends. Tuttle opened a correspondence with
Willard P. Bross, whose name Miss Paddock had
sent him. Bross, obedient to directions from Tut-
tle, gathered his friends in close bonds. A char-
ter was granted. The name for the new chapter
was easily decided. The initial letters of Miss
Paddock's name were chosen, and the chapter
became Nebraska Lambda-Pi, May 26, 1893.
The Inception of Pennsylvania Zeta came
through efforts of J. M. Vastine and John I. Robi-
son, both of Pennsylvania Alpha-Zeta. The in-
stallation was June 14, 1893.
The Catalogue of 1893. Pennsylvania Sigma-Phi
issued the 1893 Catalogue. The catalogue showed
the membership of the chapters in 1893 was:
Georgia Beta, 252; Tennessee Nu, 169; Tennessee
Lambda, 168; Kentucky Chi, 159; Georgia Phi,
141; Virginia Omicron, 133; Ohio Sigma, 121; Ala-
bama Iota, 113; Tennessee Omega, 101; South
Carolina Phi, 95; Tennessee Eta, 93; Tennessee
Zeta, 93; Virginia Sigma, 90; North Carolina Xi,
87; Mississippi Gamma, 82; Georgia Delta, 74;
North Carolina Theta, 72; South Carolina Delta,
71; Alabama Alpha-Mu, 70; Texas Rho, 70; Penn-
sylvania Omega, 62; Alabama Mu, 59; Kentucky
Kappa, 59; Georgia Epsilon, 55; Mississippi
OF SIGMA ALPHA EPSILON 73
Theta, 54; Michigan Alpha, 53; Michigan Iota-Beta,
48; Virginia Pi, 48; Missouri Alpha, 47; Kentucky
Iota, 46; South Carolina Mu, 44; Washington City
Rho, 42; Georgia Pi, 40; South Carolina Gamma,
38; Tennessee Kappa, 35; Tennessee Lambda-
Omega, 32; Ohio Delta, 30; Iowa Sigma, 30; South
Carolina Lambda, 28; Georgia Phi, 27; Alabama
Beta-Beta, 26; Louisiana Epsilon, 24; Texas Theta,
23; Ohio Epsilon, 22; New York Alpha, 22; Penn-
sylvania Sigma-Phi, 21; Louisiana Zeta, 19; In-
diana Alpha, 19; Pennsylvania Delta, 18; Ohio
Theta, 16; Virginia Kappa, 16; Pennsylvania Al-
pha-Zeta, 16; Mississippi Zeta, 15; Missouri Beta,
15; Colorado Alpha, 15; Colorado Chi, 14; Con-
necticut Alpha, 14; Georgia Eta, 13; Massachu-
setts Gamma, 13; North Carolina Rho-Rho, 12;
Colorado Zeta, 12; Massachusetts Beta-Upsilon,
12; Virginia Upsilon, 11; Virginia Tau, 10; Florida
Upsilon, 10; Kentucky Alpha, 9; Kentucky Epsilon,
9; Texas Psi, 9; Massachusetts lota-Tau, 9; South
Carolina Upsilon, 8; Nebraska Lambda-Pi* 8';
Pennsylvania Zeta, 7; Indiana Beta, 6.
Pittsburgh Convention of 1893. The Pittsburgh-
convention of 1893 was the second national con-
vention of the fraternity held in a northern city.
Little was accomplished beyond the routine of
official and committee report submitted and acted
upon. All the old officers were returned, except
Cowan, who could not continue for business rea-
sons. J. Washington Moore as E. S. A., Albert
M. Austin as E. S. T. H. C. Burger was elected
Editor of The Record. The two alumni members
of the council chosen were Harry Bunting and
H. H. Cowan.
The S. A. E. Friars At Work. The map of the
United States hung on the wall of the apartments
where Harry and George Bunting lived in At-
lanta, took on a different aspect as the nineteenth
74 PARAGRAPH HISTORY
century advanced Into the nineties. It hung there
with golden-headed pins stuck wherever there
was an S. A. E. chapter, white pins wherever the
Buntings believed there should be one, and black
pins where there was a dead chapter. In the last
few years many of the white and some of the
black had been replaced by ones with the golden
heads. Early in 1894, matters took on a new as-
pect. Harry Bunting had moved to Chicago, and
was looking about for new worlds to conquer,
while George Bunting was resolved that the chapr
ters in the lower Mississippi valley should be
strengthened by new additions.
The Six Brothers. Mississippi Gamma has al-
ways done her duty in binding family ties with
fraternity ties, for among the young initiates of
the Oxford chapter in 1894, was Edgar B. Provine,
the youngest of six brothers, all of whom had
donned the pin at the University of Mississippi.
These six hold the record: John W. Provine,
Mississippi Gamma, '88; Charles C. Provine, Mis-
sissippi Gamma, '90; Robert F. Provine, Mississippi
Gamma, '90; George H. Provine, Mississippi Gam-
ma, '92; James N. Provine, Mississippi Gamma,
'94; Edgar B. Provine, '96.
A Leader in Fraternal Ethics. Sigma
Alpha Epsilon was to take a forward step
in fraternity ethics in 1894 which should
speak well for the principles and high ground on
which it stood. Few have followed her even to
this day. The action of Sigma Alpha Epsilon
in adopting a constitutional amendment forbidding
the initiation into the fraternity of any man who
had ever been a member of any other college frar
ternity was in accord with her traditions and
Rise of Massachusetts Delta. Massachusetts
Delta, the new chapter at Worcester Polytechnic,
OF SIGMA ALPHA EPSILON 75
received its introduction to Sigma Alpha Epsilon
at "Auburndale." It was also the occasion of the
New England celebration of Pounders' Day, 1894.
The initiation was the largest up to that time
ever held by the fraternity. The new chapter
presented twenty-two neophites, and in addition
to these Massachusetts Beta-Upsilon had five,
Massachusetts lota-Tau six, and Massachusetts
Gamma five; or thirty-nine in all. The installa-
tion was conducted by Massachusetts Gamma.
The date was March 10.
Arkansas Alpha-Upsilon Founded. George Bunt-
ing organized a chapter at the University of Arkan-
sas through correspondence with James D. Head,
a student there. Bunting installed the chapter
with seventeen charter members, July 8, 1893.
Illinois Psi-Omega Founded. Illinois Psi-Omega
was founded by Harry Bunting, who installed the
chapter formally October 17, 1894.
California Beta Inaugurated. California Beta
was developed by Vance C. Osmont, Massachu-
setts lota-Tau, who was in attendance at the Uni-
versity of California in 1894. Twelve California
Alpha men conducted the initiation, Nov. 24, 1894.
The Purple and Gold Appears. The PURPLE
AND GOLD appeared in December, 1894. It was
the bulletin which the Ohio State Association had
ordered published. It was the first periodical
issued by any of the smaller bodies of the fra-
Washington Convention of 1894. The Washing-
ington convention of 1894 was the last of the an-
nual national conventions. Its chief importance
was the thorough revision of the laws of the fra-
ternity. The granting of charters to Columbia and
St. Stephens, the adoption of a biennial national
convention, and the inauguration of giving the
custody of the fraternity banners to the two
76 PARAGRAPH HISTORY
chapters making the hest showing for promptness
in their relations with the national fraternity,
were some of the measures which had their rise
at this convention. This was the last national con-
vention to choose province presidents. The officers
elected were: Eminent Supreme Archon, Albert
M. Austin; Eminent Supreme Deputy Archon,
Claudius Dockery; Eminent Supreme Recorder,
Howard P. Nash; Eminent Supreme Treasurer,
Champe S. Andrews; Editor of The Record, H. C.
The Flags of the Fraternity. The disposition by
the 1894 Convention of the two flags owned by
the fraternity during the interval between the con-
ventions, was a happy one. It was decided that
S. A. E. flag should go to the chapter which had
met its obligations to the fraternity most promptly,
and that the American flag should be in the cus-
tody of the chapter which stood second. At this
convention the fraternity flag was given into the
custody of North Carolina Xi, and the American
flag to Kentucky Kappa. The awards at the suc-
ceeding conventions have been: 1896, Georgia Ep-
silon, North Carolina Theta; 1898, Georgia Epsilon,
Arkansas Alpha-Upsilon; 1900, Massachusetts
lotapTau, Arkansas Alpha-Upsilon; 1902, Colorado
Zeta, Alabama Iota; 1904, Massachusetts Iota,Tau,
Alabama Iota; 1906, Pennsylvania Alpha-Zeta,
Alabama Iota; 1909, Pennsylvania Alpha-Zeta, Co-
lorado Zeta; 1910, Pennsylvania Alpha-Zeta, Iowa
Gamma; 1912,, Illinois Psi-Omega, New Yoirk
Sigma-Phi; 1914, Illinois Psi-Omega, Pennsylvania
Constitutional Changes of 1894. The national
laws adopted by the 1894 convention made the
Supreme Council a living reality. Two new offices
were added to this body, that of Eminent Supreme
Deputy Archon and Eminent Supreme Recorder.
OF SIGMA ALPHA EPSILON 77
The duties of the Eminent Supreme Recorder
were those of a national secretary. The corre-
sponding secretary of the mother chapter in ante-
bellum days is suggestive of such an office, but
did not resemble it in a statistical sense. The
development of the province system was one of
the marked features of the revised laws. The
province presidents, heretofore chosen by the na-
tional conventions, were hereafter to be elected
by province conventions. These conventions were
to meet biennially, in alternating years with the
national conventions. The province grand chap-
ter was abolished. The old judicial system which,
with its machinery, had proved inefficient and
cumbersome, was done away with, and in its place
was introduced a simple system of appeals from
acts of the chapter to the province convention,
thence to the Supreme Council, and finally to the
national convention, which as ever was "the su-
preme power of the fraternity."
A Joint Installation. New York Mu at Columbia
University and New York Sigma r Phi at St. Steph-
en's College had received charters at the 1894
convention and they were initiated together in
New York City, Feb. 21, 1895. Henry Sydnor Har-
rison, a member of New York Mu, served as a mem-
ber of the Supreme Council for four years as Edi-
tor of The Record. New York Sigma-Phi had been
a local for twenty-five years before it became a
national fraternity chapter. The chapter ,has
never countenanced what is known as "a rough
house initiation" but in examplifi cation of the
ritual has few equals in the fraternity.
The Province Conventions. The fraternity had
been organized into provinces for ten years be-
fore a province convention was held. The aban-
donment of annual national conventions in 1894
made it advisable for the provinces to meet. The
78 PARAGRAPH HISTORY
first convention was held by Province Delta with
Ohio Epsilon as host. The other provinces fol-
lowed through the year. The first elected prov-
ince presidents were Province Alpha, H. C. Lakin,
Massachusetts Gamma; Beta, Henry G. Mac-
Adam, New York Mu; Gamma, G. Hendree Har-
rison, Georgia Phi; Delta, Arthur J. Tuttle, Michi-
gan Iota-Beta; Epsilon, Clarence Bryant, Tennes-
see Nu; Zeta, Harvey B. Fleming, Missouri Beta;
Eta, George D. Kimball.
The Fraternity Grows Rich. As the last decade
of the nineteenth century went on, the fraternity
treasury commenced to feel the effect of the
numerous new chapters which had come into being
in the past few years. With the expenses but
slightly increased and the chapter roll swelling,
the fraternity suddenly found itself with a surplus
in its treasury. This was so unheard of that
Austin, the E. S. T., was alarmed. Both he and
his successor, Champe S. Andrews, Alabama Al-
pha-Mu, watched the funds grow with increasing
responsibility. Andrews gradually developed the
idea which was ultimately adopted for the safe-
guarding of the funds, which is known as the
Board of Trustees' plan.
A Badge for Every Initiate. The Eminent Su-
preme Archon in 1895, proposed that the St. Louis
convention, when it met, should arrange to pur-
chase a plain gold badge in large quantities and
one should be presented to every initiate. When
the St. Louis convention met, this valuable con-
ception was put into effect.
S. A. E. Enters National Politics. For the first
time a magazine of the fraternity appeared in 1896
with a political ticket at the head of its editorial
column. The Phi Alpha advocated the election of
two men running for national office, heading its
choice: "The S. A. E. ticket. For President, Wil-
OF SIGMA ALPHA EPSILON 79
liam McKinley, of Ohio Sigma; for Vice-President,
Thomas Watson, of Georgia Psi." The repub-
licans had nominated McKinley for President of
the United States, while the populists, who had
nominated William J. Bryan as their candidate
for the same office, had given him as a running
mate, Thomas Watson.
St. Louis Convention of 1896. The St. Louis
convention of 1896 was opened December 29th.
It was the first biennial convention. It was dis-
tinguished by the presence of John W. Kerr, one
of the eight original founders of the fraternity.
The convention granted charters for Louisiana
Tan-Upsilon at Tulane University and Louisiana
Epsilon at the University of Louisiana. The
election of officers resulted in the re-election
of Albert M. Austin as Eminent Supreme Archon,
Howard P. Nash, as Eminent Supreme Recorder,
and Champe S. Andrews, as Eminent Supreme
Treasurer. Two new men were promoted to the
Supreme Council in the election of Herbert C.
Lakin, Massachusetts Gamma, as editor of The
Record, and Harry J. Cox, of California. Alpha,
as Eminent Supreme Deputy Archon.
John W. Kerr at St. Louis. John W. Kerr was
the first founder to attend a national convention
of the fraternity when he met with the 1896 St.
Louis gathering. He said to the convention:
"Brothers of Sigma Alpha Epsilon. To roll back
forty years of a busy life is not an easy thing to
do, but you have carried me back that far, to the
long past years when we were boys together in
Alabama and gathered together the friendship
and fashioned the bonds of brotherhood, founding
this fraternity. Forty years ago was the last time
I attended an initiation or took any active part in
Sigma Alpha Epsilon. Yet when I met you today
I was borne backward to those good times, when I,
80 PARAGRAPH HISTORY
too, was a youth full of hope and ambition, and
never dreamed that I should become as a sere and
yellow leaf. Away back in that time of youth
earnest young men met in a little brick school-
house and formed the first beginning of Sigma
Alpha Epsilon. As the weeks slipped by we in-
itiated more friends, and when the time came in
the spring for us to graduate, we had quite a
company. We remain scattered to all points of
the wind. But we carried in our hearts a better
and nobler spirit for the bond with which we had
bound ourselves. And may Sigma Alpha Epsilon
always thus make her members better and nobler
The Louisiana Chapters. Sagacious George
Bunting was responsible for the Louisiana chap-
ters which applied for admission to the fraternity.
They were the children of a campaign he con-
ducted which resembled the raid of a cavalry gen-
eral in time of war. This is particularly true of
his accomplishment at the Louisiana State Uni-
versity, where one can scarcely refrain from
laughing at his audacious success, though a re-
view of what he did there will not fail to add due
respect to the merriment. Bunting arrived at
Baton Rouge early in the morning and advanced
on the University. He had remembered the name
of a student of whom a Louisiana alumnus of an-
other fraternity spoke, not without lamentation,
that this student had refused an invitation from
his fraternity. He found the student, introduced
himself and soon had him pledged. He told Bunt-
ing of three other men, who like himself had
been bid by the fraternities at Louisiana and had
refused. By three o'clock in the afternoon, Bunt-
ing had met all of these fellows, spiked and
pledged them. At four o'clock he held the first
meeting of the local chapter he had formed. His
new compatriots named four other students they
OF SIGMA ALPHA EPSILON 81
would like to have with them. Bunting again set
the wheels in motion, and at six o'clock these
men were enrolled. The local took the name of
Phi Alpha and the first clause in its constitution
pledged it to apply to Sigma Alpha Epsilon for a
charter. At ten o'clock that night, George Bunt-
ing was on his way to New Orleans looking for
new worlds to conquer. The St. Louis convention
granted the charter and Champe S. Andrews in-
stalled the local as Louisiana Epsilon, Jan. 21,
1897. At the time George Bunting met with his
success at Baton Rouge, there were a number of
S. A. E.'s enrolled at Tulane, and were desirous
for a chapter there. These were John Webb Mc-
Gehee and John G. Lilly, of Alabama Iota, and
John W. D. Dicks, of Tennessee Zeta. At this
time George Bunting arrived in New Orleans.
The other S. A. E.'s in the university and in the
city were enlisted and from the non-fraternity
students several available men were selected, and
Bunting left the city in a few days, assured that
Louisiana Tau-Upsilon, as it came to be called
after Jan. 22, 1897, was on the road to success.
President McKinley's S. A. E. Spirit. William
McKinley, Ohio Sigma, took the oath of office as
president of the United States, March 4, 1897.
During the ceremony there sparkled on the lapel
of his coat, a beautiful studded badge of Sigma
Coat of Arms Adopted. The Coat of Arms of
the fraternity was designed by W. L. French, Con-
necticut Alpha. The Supreme Council, to whom
the 1896 convention had referred it, adopted it in
S. A. E. in the Spanish War. Sigma Alpha Ep-
silon has had an honorable part in the foreign
wars in which the American people have en-
gaged in recent years. In the Spanish-American
82 PARAGRAPH HISTORY
war, in the Philippine insurrection, in the Boxer
rebellion, in the Moro uprising, the fraternity has
had her sons, who acquitted themselves like men.
There were 187 S. A. E.'s who fought in the for-
eign wars at the close of the nineteenth century.
Nashville Convention of 1898. The National
convention which was at Nashville in 1898 was
the eighth general convention of the fraternity to
be held in that city. This convention reduced the
Phi Alpha to a mere official bulletin, accepted a
ritual entirely new, which the next convention re-
pealed, granted a charter to the petitioning local
at the University of Illinois and placed the grant-
ing of a charter to Kentucky State College in the
hands of the Supreme Council. At the election
of officers, Floyd Furlow, Georgia Phi, was elected
E. S. A.; George D. Kimball, Colorado Zeta, E. S.
D. A.; Howard P. Nash, E. S. R.; G. Hendree Har-
rison, E. S. T., and Herbert C. Lakin, Editor of
Beginnings of Illinois Beta. Illinois Beta was
installed at the University of Illinois, Jan. 28, 1899.
The chapter has furnished an E. S. D. A. to the
fraternity in the person of Carl E. Sheldon.
A Supreme Council Change. Herbert C. Lakin,
Massachusetts Gamma, resigned the editorship of
the Record in October, 1899. The Supreme Coun-
cil elected Edward Mellus, Massachusetts Gam-
ma, to the position.
The Entrance of Kentucky Epsilon of Kentucky
State College into the fraternity was on Feb. 10,
Resignation of the Eminent Supreme Recorder.
Howard P. Nash resigned as Eminent Supreme
Recorder, September 30, 1900. Edward H. Virgin,
Massachusetts Gamma, was appointed to the va-
Province Presidents In 1900. Five province
OF SIGMA ALPHA EPSILON 83
conventions met 1 1900 and selected as province
presidents, Province Alpha, James A. Stetson,
Massachusetts lota-Tau; Beta, Watson B. Selvage,
New York Sigma-Phi; Delta, Clyde K. Cairns, Ohio
Epsilon; Eta, Harry A. Deuel, California Alpha;
Theta, James W. McClendon. Province Zeta held
no convention and there being a vacancy in the
province presidency, the Supreme Council ap-
pointed George H. Bunting to the position.
The Chariot of Minerva. A device used in the
old days which attracted attention outside of the
fraternity, was, "The Chariot of Minerva," in-
vented by members of Kentucky Epsilon. The
wheels of the vehicle were about two and a half
feet in diameter with the holes for the axle about
three inches out of center. The candidates for in-
itiation would be placed in the cart and then the
chapter would rush it about the monument of
John C. Breckenridge until the statue would al-
most open its eyes in amazement. Outside ini-
tiation is now prohibited.
Boston Convention of 1900. The Boston Con-
vention of 1900 created the Board of Trustees, to
care for the surplus funds of the fraternity. It
restored the Phi Alpha to its original form and
granted three charters to important institutions.
These were the University of Maine, the Univer-
sity of Pennsylvania and the University of Min-
nesota. The charter to the latter was to remain
in the hands of the Supreme Council a year before
it was issued. The convention marked an era in
the fraternity. In point of attendance it surpassed
all previous ones and in every way was a national
gathering. It completed its business by electing
as members of the Supreme Council: G. Hendree
Harrison, E. S. A.; William C. Levere, E. S. D. A.;
Edward H. Virgin, E. S. R.; George D. Kimball,
E. S. T., and Edward Mellus, Editor of the Record.
84 PARAGRAPH HISTORY
The Board of Trustees. The 1900 convention
adopted the plan of Champe S. Andrews for a
board of trustees to care for the surplus funds of
the fraternity. This board was to be composed of
five alumni of the fraternity, all of whom were re-
quired to be residents of New York City. The
purpose for which the funds were to be conserved
was to aid chapters in building chapter-houses.
The convention elected as members of the board,
Champe S. Andrews, Albert M. Austin, and Her-
bert C. Lakin, for the term of four years, and
Henry G. MacAdam and Bryan C. Collier for the
term of two years. These were all from differ-
ent chapters, such being one of the requirements.
Rise of Pennsylvania Theta. Pennsylvania
Theta was installed at the University of Pennsyl-
vania, Feb. 9, 1901.
Birth of Maine Alpha. Maine Alpha was in-
stalled at the University of Maine on Washing-
ton's Birthday, 1901. Clarence W. Stowell, a char-
ter member of the chapter, has served on the Su-
preme Council as Eminent Supreme Recorder.
Organization of the Board of Trustees. The
new board of trustees created by the Boston con-
vention met in New York city March 25, 1901,
and formally organized. Champe S. Andrews, the
father of the law which provided for the board,
was elected its first president. Henry G. Mac-
Adam was elected vice-president and Bryan C. Col-
To Protect Official Badge. John D. N. McCart-
ney, a member of Georgia Beta, commenced an
agitation in 1901 against the wearing of the
official badge by members of the fair sex, which
had its culmination at the next national conven-
tion in the passage of a law forbidding such use.
Anti-Fraternity Warfare. The anti-fraternity
men at the University of Arkansas in the fall of
OF SIGMA ALPHA EPSILON 85
1901 won a victory by carrying through the legis-
lature a bill prohibiting fraternities at the state
university. Some clever Greek, when he saw the
day was lost, had an amendment tacked onto the
bill which was carried through with it to the ef-
fect that members of the Greek letter societies at
the university should not be allowed to hold any
of the honors of the university, and that in the
military department no fraternity man should have
rank above second lieutenant. This amendment was
ultimately to save the fraternities, for two years
later, when the excitement had died away and the
Greeks came out of hiding, the faculty chose to
interpret the law as allowing the fraternities to
continue in existence but refusing the members
the right to participate in the honors of the in-
stitution, except to hold minor military positions.
The fraternities reorganized as clubs and main-
tained as vigorous organizations as ever. Arkan-
sas Alpha-Upsilon was known as the Arkansas
Locals Seek S. A. E. There was throughout
1901-02 a remarkable movement going on among
local societies over the country to win charters
from S. A. E. The pages of the fraternity's pub-
lications were filled with accounts of college so-
cieties seeking charters from the fraternity. That
many of these societies were located at institu-
tions like Wisconsin, Chicago and Kansas, was
very gratifying to the officers of the fraternity,
who recognized how desirable it was that Sigma
Alpha Epsilon should have chapters at these
Resignation of Editor of the Record. Edward
Mellus resigned as Editor of The Record at the
close of 1901 and Champe S. Andrews, Alabama
Alpha-Mu, was appointed to the position by the
86 PARAGRAPH HISTORY
Minnesota Alpha Founded. Minnesota Alpha at
the University of Minnesota was installed Jan.
Province Presidents In 1902. Province Alpha,
Robert C. Allen, Massachusetts Delta; Beta, Wat-
son B. Selvage, New York Sigma-Phi; Gamma, F.
H. Ficklen, Georgia Epsilon; Delta, Carl E. Shel
don, Illinois Beta; Epsilon, Marvin E. Holderness,
Tennessee Nu; Zeta, George H. Bunting, Tennes-
see Zeta; Eta, Walter E. White, Colorado Chi;
Theta, James W. McClendon, Texas Rho.
The Record In 1902. Champe S. Andrews had
taken up the editorship of the Record with char-
acteristic vigor, and had appointed as his assist-
ant Henry Sydnor Harrison, New York Mu. It
was a cardinal principle with Andrews that the
Record should appear promptly on date of issue,
and the fraternity enjoyed this feature of the
magazine quite as much as it relished what the
Phi Alpha Convention Bulletin. Two weeks he-
fore the Washington convention of 1902, the Phi
Alpha Convention Bulletin appeared. Its name
indicated its mission. It was to advertise the con-
vention. A list of petitioning locals showed that
sixteen colleges were anxious for 8. A. E. char-
The Christmas Convention of 1902. The Christ-
mas convention is the name which belongs to the
Washington convention of 1902, not only because
it was in session on that anniversary but because
it was a convention typical of the generous spirit
of that day. It was the cheeriest kind of a con-
vention, and the glow of Christmas hope and mirth
permeated it through and through. On the great
natal day the S. A. E.'s gathered around the board,
and together, like a great family of brothers, ate
their Christmas dinner. It was this Christmas con-
OF SIGMA ALPHA EPSILON 87
vention that gave the splendid gift of Illinois
Theta, Wisconsin Alpha, Kansas Alpha, Colorado
Lambda, and Virginia Theta to the fraternity. It
was one of the hardest-working conventions the
fraternity ever had, though the spirit of good-
will and good-cheer was the very essence of it.
Even as the delegates passed each other in the
halls of the beautiful New Willard, they could not
refrain from expressions of good-fellowship and
happiness. The convention opened in the Willard
Hotel, Dec. 23. The work of the committee on
manual, chapters and convention fund was ardu-
ous. The constitutional revision committee was in
session day and night, for while most of the mate-
rial was old, there were some new features intro-
duced. Five charters were granted. The success-
ful petitions were University of Chicago, Univer-
sity of Wisconsin, University of Kansas, Colorado
School of Mines and a revival of the ancient chap-
ter at the Virginia Military Institute. The elec-
tion of officers Christmas eve was unanimous, the
following being chosen: E. S. A., William C. Le-
vere, Illinois Psi-Omega; E. S. D. A., Marvin E.
Holderness, Tennessee Nu; E. S. R., Edward H.
Virgin, Massachusetts Gamma; E. S. T., George D.
Kimball, Colorado Zeta; Editor of the Record,
Henry Sydnor Harrison, New York Mu.
The Lost President. There was a note of sad-
ness in the convention, which all its joys did not
eliminate. Washington had been chosen as the
place of the 1902 Convention because Sigma Alpha
Epsilon wanted to come to the capitol while Wil-
liam McKinley was President. But in the two
years strange and serious events occurred. The
cruel hand of the murderer had intervened, the
country had been plunged in grief, the lovable
William McKinley had passed from the theater of
life's fretful scenes, and when Sigma Alpha Ep-
silon came to Washington, it found him not tnere.
88 PARAGRAPH HISTORY
National Laws Amended. The 1902 convention
made numerous amendments to the laws of the
fraternity. It was provided that the official badge
given to the members at the time of initiation
should continue to be the property of the national
fraternity, subject to recall at any time. This of-
ficial badge, it was provided, should not be worn
by anyone but a member. A law was adopted that
vacancies in province offices between conventions
should be filled by appointment by the Supreme
Council. The law regulating delegates to prov-
ince conventions was changed so that in the
future each chapter should be entitled to repre-
sentation by two elected delegates and the Emi-
nent Archon of the chapter.
The Province Boundaries. The 1902 Convention
arranged the provinces as follows: Province Al-
pha Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachu-
setts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, Nova Scotia and
New Brunswick. Province Beta New York, Penn-
vania, New Jersey, Ontario and Quebec. Province
Gamma Maryland, Delaware, District of Colum-
bia, Virginia, West Virginia, North Carolina and
South Carolina. Province Delta Michigan, Min-
nesota, Wisconsin, Indiana, Illinois and Ohio.
Province Zeta Arkansas, Missouri, Kansas, Ne-
braska and Iowa. Province Eta North Dakota,
South Dakota, Colorado, Wyoming, Utah, Nevada,
Washington, Oregon, California, Idaho and Mon-
tana. Province Theta Louisiana, Mississippi,
Texas, Oklahoma, Arizona, New Mexico and In-
dian Territory. Province Iota Tennessee and
Kentucky. The changes made since have been to
remove South Dakota to Province Zeta; California
to Province Kappa; Washington, Oregon, Idaho
and Montana to Province Lambda.
Happy Days in the Fraternity. The influence
of the Washington convention on the fraternity
OF SIGMA ALPHA EPSILON 89
was unparalleled in the fervor and spirit which
went out from it and reached even to the farthest
chapter. In the weeks which followed the evi-
dences of this were seen everywhere, and although
the Record did not appear until the convention had
been over for two months, its pages were filled
with the glow of the Christmas convention. Even
the chapter-letters to an unusual degree reflected
the charm which the convention had worked in
the hearts of the men of Sigma Alpha Epsilon.
Colorado Lambda Inaugurated. Colorado Lamb-
da was installed at the State School of Mines, Jan.
Wisconsin Alpha Founded. Wisconsin Alpha
was installed at the University of Wisconsin, Feb.
Kansas Alpha Born. Kansas Alpha was installed
at the University of Kansas, Feb. 14, 1903.
Illinois Theta Instituted. Illinois Theta was in-
stalled at the University of Chicago, March 9, 1903.
Virginia Theta Arises. Virginia Theta was re-
vived at the Virginia Military Institute, April 11,
Province Presidents in 1902 were: Province Al-
pha, Leslie Millar, Massachusetts lota-Tau; Beta,
Ralph S. Kent, New York Alpha; Gamma, Alfred
R. Berkeley, North Carolina Xi; Delta, Carl E.
Sheldon, Illinois Beta; Epsilon, Lauren W. Fore-
man, Georgia Epsilon; Zeta, Elmer B. Sanford,
Michigan Iota-Beta; Eta, Walter E. White, Colo-
rado Chi; Theta, Powell Crichton; Iota, J. Rock-
well Smith, Kentucky Kappa.
Discovery of Rudulph. Up to 1903, it had gen-
erally been accepted as a fact that all the original
founders of the fraternity were dead. William C.
Levere, E. S. A., journeyed Southward and. found
John B. Rudulph, on an old plantation in southern
90 PARAGRAPH HISTORY
Supreme Council Mid-Convention Meeting, 1903,
was held at Evanston, 111., Dec. 21-24. The mem-
bers of the council conducted a province initia-
tion. The chief work of this meeting was to elect
the E. S. A. as temporary E. S. R. while he edited
the 1904 catalogue, which had been given him to
do, after the resignation of Edward H. Virgin,
Massachusetts Gamma. George H. Kress was
chosen to publish a fraternity manual.
The Catalogue of 1904 appeared in June. It
showed a membership of 8,500.
Systematic Records Adopted. In 1904, the mem-
bership book for recording data and providing a
blank to report initiates was devised by the E. S.
A. and delivered to the chapters.
A New Eminent Supreme Recorder. With the
appearance of the 1904 Catalogue, William C.
Levere, E. S. A., who had been acting as E. S. R.
during the production of the book, resigned as
E. S. R. and Leslie W. Millar, Massachusetts lota-
Tau, was appointed to the position.
S. A. E. Day at the World's Fair in St. Louis
was observed July 14, 1904.
Active Membership of S. A. E., Nov. 1, 1904, was
The S. A. E. Manual appeared Dec. 1, 1904. It
was a compendium of fraternity information.
George H. Kress, Ohio Epsilon, was the editor.
The Original Minutes appeared Dec. 20, 1904.
The volume contained the minutes of Alabama
Mu during its ante-bellum days. William C.
Levere was the editor.
The Memphis Convention of 1904 met Dec. 27.
The S. A. E. Daily made its initial appearance.
Important events were the endorsement of the
De Votie Memorial Building, offer of cash prizes
to chapters building houses, creation of a chapter
OF SIGMA ALPHA EPSILON 91
house officer, to which place Carl E. Sheldon was
elected, the granting of five charters to the Uni-
versity of Iowa, George Washington University,
Iowa State College, Case School of Science and
the University of Washington. The officers chosen
were: E. S. A., William C. Levere; E. S. D. A.,
Marvin E. Holderness; E. S. R., Clarence W.
Stowell; E. S. T., George D. Kimball; Editor of
the Record, Henry Sydnor Harrison; Board of
Trustees, Herbert Lakin, Harry P. Layton, Robert
Iowa Beta Established. Iowa Beta was in-
stalled at the University of Iowa, Feb. 11, 1905.
Ohio Rho Installed. Ohio Rho at Case School of
Science was installed, Feb. 18, 1905.
Washington City Rho Revived. Washington
City Rho, the chapter which had lived through the
civil war, and then as the other chapters came
back to life fell asleep, was revived by the fra-
ternity, March 2, 1905, at George Washington Uni-
Iowa Gamma Initiated. Iowa Gamma was in-
stalled at Iowa State College, June 3, 1905.
Province Presidents in 1905. Province Alpha,
Sylvester Beach; Beta, Ralph S. Kent; Gamma,
Alfred R. Berkeley; Delta, Carl E. Sheldon; Zeta,
Elmer B. Sanford; Epsilon, J. Clay Murphy; Eta,
Walter E. White; Theta, Oswald McNeese; Iota,
J. Rockwell Smith.
Mid-Convention Meeting of Supreme Council,
1905, was held at the Washington City Rho House.
The Lion's Paw issued its first number Feb. 22,
March 9, 1906, the fiftieth anniversary of Sigma
Alpha Epsilon was widely celebrated by alumni
associations and chapters.
Incorporation Day. Sigma Alpha Epsilon was
92 PARAGRAPH HISTORY
incorporated under the laws of the state of Illi-
nois, March 9, 1906. The incorporators were
Harry Bunting, William C. Levere, Granville H.
Twining, Clyde D. Foster, Walter B. Long, Ken-
neth Brown, John W. Robinson.
Washington Alpha Founded. In 1906, the Su-
preme Council issued the charter intrusted to it
by the 1904 Convention for the chapter at the
University of Washington. The chapter was in-
stalled May 30.
Annual Chapter Letters. These publications,
later called the Year Book, appeared first in 1906
with William C. Levere as editor. In 1907, the
editor was C. W. Stowell; 1908, C. P. Wood; 1909,
Ritze Mulder; 1910, Ritze Mulder; 1912, William
The Life of De Votie began publication in The
Record in Sept., 1906, and continued in each num-
ber for four years. It was written by William C.
The Fiftieth Anniversary Convention was held
in Atlanta, Ga., opening Dec. 26, 1906. The
presence of John B. Rudulph, the last of the
founders, was the great event of the convention.
It was a convention historic for great work for
the fraternity and exquisite social occasions. The
officers chosen were: E. S. A., George D. Kimball;
B. S. D. A., Carl E. Sheldon; E. S. R., Clarence W.
Stowell; E. S. T., Charles F. Stone; Editor of the
Record, Charles P. Wood.
Indiana Gamma Installed. Indiana Gamma at
the University of Indiana was installed Jan. 18,
New York Delta Founded. New York Delta at
Syracuse University was installed Washington's
The S. A. E. Song Book appeared in 1907 with
OF SIGMA ALPHA EPSILON 93
William C. Levere editor and Walter Squire musi-
Province Presidents in 1907. Province Alpha,
Charles F. Davis; Beta, Ralph C. Stewart; Gamma,
Alfred R. Berkeley; Delta, Clyde I. Webster; Ep-
silon, Hugh W. Kirkpatrick; Zeta, Henry F.
Droste; Eta, Charles J. Ling; Theta, Henry P.
Dart, Jr.; Iota, Frank K. Houston.
Mid-Convention Meeting of Supreme Council,
1907. Massachusetts Gamma was host to the Su-
preme Council in 1907. The council at this meet-
ing arranged for the publication of the S. A. E.
New Hampshire Alpha was installed at Dart-
mouth College, May 2, 1908. The initiation was at
A Pan-Hellenic Conference was held in Chicago,
February, 1909, at which George D. Kimball, E. S.
A., presented resolutions which resulted in the
formation of the New York Inter-Fraternity Con-
The Atlantic City Convention of 1909 was the
first summer convention held by S. A. E. in many
years. John B. Rudulph, the founder, was again
present. The experiment of meeting in summer
was not a success. The officers elected were:
E. S. A., George D. Kimball; E. S. D. A., Carl E.
Sheldon; E. S. R., C. W. Stowell; E. S. T., Charles
F. Stone; editor of the Record, Charles P. Wood.
Installation of Oklahoma Kappa at the Univer-
sity of Oklahoma was held October 23, 1909.
Province Presidents in 1909. Province Alpha*
William E. Waterhouse; Beta, Ralph C. Stewart;
Gamma, Albert L. Cox; Delta, David W. Wen-
strand; Epsilon, William W. Brandon; Zeta, Roy
H. Monier; Eta, William N. Vaile; Theta, Paul A.
Walker; Iota, L. L. Fonville. The newly created
94 PARAGRAPH HISTORY
province of Kappa, comprising California and
Washington, elected Louis S. Beedy president.
Death of John B. Rudulph. With the death of
John B. Rudulph, April 13, 1910, the last of the
founders of S. A. E. had passed on.
Resignation of Two Council Members. In March,
1910, Charles F. Stone resigned as E. S. T. Wil-
liam C. Levere was appointed by the Supreme
Council to the position. In April, Charles P.
Wood resigned as Editor of the Record. Elmer B.
Sanford was appointed to the position.
Mid-Convention Meeting of Supreme Council,
1910. Illinois Beta was host to the Mid-Convention
Supreme Council meeting, 1910.
The Revised Ritual was referred by the 1909
convention to the Supreme Council for action. It
was accepted at their meeting at Champaign. The
committee which had this work in charge was com-
posed of Ralph C. Stewart, Albrecht F. Leue, Carl
F. White, Dean Taylor.
Ohio Sigma celebrated its twenty-fifth anniver-
sary in 1910 with a quarter-centennial historical
address, an initiation and a banquet.
Province Presidents in 1910. Province Alpha,
William E. Waterhouse; Beta, L. J. Doolittle;
Gamma, Albert L. Cox; Delta, H. S. Warwick; Ep-
silon, W. W. Brandon; Zeta, Roy H. Monier; Eta,
William N. Vaile; Theta, Paul A. Walker; Iota, L.
L. Fonville; Kappa, Louis Beedy.
Kansas City Convention of 1910. The Kansas
City convention held its first business session De-
cember 28. It was a convention radiant with
S. A. E. feeling. Charters were granted to the
University of South Dakota, the University of
South Carolina and Millikin University. The offi-
cers elected were E. S. A., William W. Brandon,
Alabama Mu; E. S. D. A., Clarence W. Stowell;
OF SIGMA ALPHA EPSILON 95
E. S. R., Marvin E. Holdeness; E. S. T., George D.
Kimball; Editor of the Record, Elmer B. Sanford.
The De Votie Memorial. It was at the 1910 con-
vention that General William W. Brandon was able
to announce the completion of the De Votie Memo-
ial building at Tuscaloosa. The movement to erect
this memorial was commenced in 1904. The 1912
convention gave the Alabama Mu chapter a deed
to the building. The edifice was erected through
contributions made by the general fraternity and
the efforts of Alabama Mu.
Illinois Delta Arises. Illinois Delta was installed
at Millikin University, January 14, 1911.
South Dakota Sigma Born. South Dakota Sigma
was installed at the University of South Dakota,
January 27, 1911.
The S. A. E. History. The History of Sigma Alpha
Epsilon appeared in May, 1911. It was published
in three volumes and extensively illustrated. The
edition of 2,000 sets was oversubscribed on the
day of publication. The historian was William C.
Mid-Convention Meeting of Supreme Council,
1911, was held in New Orleans. The council at
this meeting adopted the S. A. E. Standard Ac-
Province Presidents in 1912. Province Alpha, C.
G. Sherman; Beta, L. G. Doolittle; Gamma, T.
Gibson Hobbs; Delta, William E. Webbe; Epsilon,
John D. McCaraney; Eta, Omar Garwood; Zeta,
Arthur T. Wallace; Theta, George D. Booth; Iota,
E. L. Carney; Kappa, R. L. Phelps.
Who's Who in S. A. E. Who's Who in S. A. E.,
a biographical dictionary of notable living mem-
bers of the fraternity by William C. Levere, ap-
peared in July, 1912.
The Mississippi Case. The Mississippi legisla-
96 PARAGRAPH HISTORY
iature passed a law in 1912 abolishing fraternities
from the University of Mississippi. Sigma Alpha
Epsilon together with Sigma Chi, Phi Delta Theta,
Delta Tau Delta and Kappa Alpha (so.) took the
case to the Supreme Court of the United States.
The decision of the Supreme Court was handed
down June 1, 1915, and the constitutionality of the
law was upheld.
S. A. E. Standard Accounts. No more significant
indication of the forward progress of the fraternity
happened in 1912, than the installation throughout
the fraternity of the S. A. E. Standard Accounts.
The improvement in the business methods of the
chapters was apparent at once. The system had
been devised by a committee of which Don R.
Almy was chairman and Ralph C. Stewart, Wil-
liam A. Vawter II, Ralph S. Kent and C. W.
Stowell were members.
The Pocket Directory appeared in December,
1912, with William C. Levere as editor.
Nashville Convention of 1912. For the ninth
time a national convention of S. A. E. was con-
vened in Nashville, when the 1912 gathering was
called to order on December 26. Few conventions
have worked harder or wrought better. The Life
Subscription Plan to the S. A. E. Record was
adopted and the E. S. R. was made the traveling
secretary of the fraternity. Charters were granted
to Kansas State College and the University of
Pittsburgh. Marvin E. Holderness, Tennessee Nu,
was elected E. S. A. The others elected were E.
S. D. A., Albrecht F. Leue; E. S. R., William C.
Levere; E. S. T., George D. Kimball; Editor of The
Record, Elmer B. Sanford.
The Installation of Kansas Beta at Kansas State
College took place January 24, 1913.
The Installation of Pennsylvania Chi-Omlcron at
OF SIGMA ALPHA EPSILON 97
the University of Pittsburgh took place March 10,
Anti-Fraternity Agitation was violent through-
out the country in 1913. In Wisconsin, Ohio, Texas
and elsewhere the fraternities were vigorously at-
tacked. In several states anti-fraternity legisla-
tion was narrowly averted.
The Traveling Secretary. Complying with the
duties of the position, William C. Levere, E. S. R.,
visited every chapter of the fraternity in 1913-14.
At each chapter the illustrated lecture, "A Pil-
grimage into S. A. E. Land" was given.
Province Presidents in 1914. Province Alpha, H.
H. Bennett; Beta, L. G. Doolittle; Gamma, T. Gib-
son Hobbs; Delta, Louis W. Mack; Epsilon,
Charles C. Thomas; Eta, Harold Garwood; Zeta,
A. R. Thomas; Theta, E. Lloyd Posey; Iota, J. D.
Turner; Kappa, R. L. Phelps.
S. A. E. in 1914. Under the administration of
Marvin E. Holderness, E. S. A., the fraternity ap-
proached the end of 1914 with its chapters in re-
markably fine condition and an era of general pros-
An Alumni Ritual. Throughout 1914, a very gen-
eral agitation arose to strengthen alumni associa-
tions. Led by Don R. Almy and R. S. Uzzell, there
arose an advocacy of a degree for alumni. The
national fraternity endorsed the plan and it is
Chicago Convention of 1914. The Chicago con-
vention of 1914 opened December 21. In point of
attendance it was the largest convention ever held.
The arrangements were perfect and the enthusi-
asm and interest at high key. The work of the
convention was largely devoted to perfecting and
improving the organization. Charters were
granted to Washington State College, Oregon State
98 PARAGRAPH HISTORY
College, Beloit College and the University of Flor-
ida. Don R. Almy, New York Alpha, was elected
Eminent Supreme Archon. The other members of
the Council were E. S. D. A., Albrecht F. Leue;
E. S. R., William C. Levere; E. S. T., George D.
Kimball; Editor of The Record, Elmer B. Sanford.
Pittsburgh was selected for the 1916 convention.
Four New Chapters were installed early in 1915
in accordance with the vote of the 1914 conven-
tion. Florida Upsilon at the University of Florida
was the revival of a former chapter. It was in-
stalled February 13, and the same day Wisconsin
Phi was installed at Beloit College. Washington
Beta at Washington State College was installed
March 9 and Oregon Alpha at Oregon State Col-
lege was installed March 19.
Province Lambda Created. The 1914 convention
made the states of Washington, Oregon, Idaho
and Montana into a new province called Lambda.
Arthur A. Cook is the first president.
Two Fraternity Publications. William C. Le-
vere was the editor of Leading Greeks, an Encyclo-
pedia of the Workers in the American College Fra-
ternities and Sororities, which appeared in June,
1915, and of Songs of Purple and Gold, which ap-
peared in November, 1915.
Province Presidents in March, 1916. Province
Alpha, Edward M. Peters; Beta, L. G. Doolittle;
Gamma, T. Gibson Hobbs; Delta, Louis W. Mack;
Epsilon, William W. Brandon; Eta, Frank J. Rein-
hard; Zeta, Ralph Bryan; Theta, E. Lloyd Posey;
Iota, J. D. Turner; Kappa, R. L. Phelps; Lambda.
Arthur A. Cook.
In the Year of 1916. The fraternity under the
administration of Don R. Almy, E. S. A., is steadily
moving on, strengthening and building itself.
Among the important committees at work are
those on the financial code, scholarship, extension
OF SIGMA ALPHA EPSILON 99
investigation, medical examination, alumni, degree
and anti-fraternity legislation. It is safe to say
that 1916 is the best year to date. It is better on
A Paragraph History of Sigma Alpha Epsilon,
by William C. Levere, was published in March,
Abolished Fraternities at
Adams, William M., 66.
Alabama Alpha -Mu Pound-
Alabama Beta-Beta, 38.
Alabama Iota Launched,
Alabama Mu Pounded, 3;
Through 1856-1857, 12;
Disbands, 21; in the War,
29; Memorial, 95.
Alabama, University of,
place of founding, 3; ab-
olished Fraternities, 11;
lawlessness follows going
of Fraternities at, 12.
Almy, Don R., 65; advo-
cates alumni ritual, 97;
Eminent Supreme Arch-
on, 98; Administration,
Alpha Tau Omega wooes
Alumni Ritual, An 97.
Amalgamation, proposed by
Beta Theta Pi, 41; At-
titude of the Chapters
toward, 41; proposed by
Delta Tau Delta, 43;
proposed by Alpha Tau
Omega, 43; by W. R.
Ames, Chester, 63.
Andrews, Champe S., 76;
Watches Surplus, 78.
Angell, Frederick, 61.
Annual Chapter Letters,
76; founded, 75.
Athens Convention of 1869,
36; of 1884, 54.
Atkinson, Robert C., 18.
Atlanta Convention of 1872,
38; of 1881, 45; of 1886,
59; of 1891, 65; of 1906,
Auburndales, The, 69.
Austin, Albert M., 60, 76,
73; watches surplus, 78.
Augusta Convention of 1874,
38; of 1878, 40; 1882, 49.
Badge, designed by Ru-
dulph, 5; color of, 9; girls
went wild over it, 9; the
first, 9; for every ini-
tiate A, 78.
Baird Suggests a Plan of
Banquet, First Sigma Alpha
Barr, Charles J., 62.
Barrett, Thomas C., organ-
izes Texas Rho, 54.
Beach, Sylvester, 91.
Beedy, Louis, president of
Kappa Province, 94.
Berkeley, Alfred R., 91;
province president, 93.
Bennett, H. H., province
Beta Theta Pi, Proposed
Amalgamation with, 41;
suggests union again, 44.
Birth of Sigma Alpha Epsi-
Board of Trustees, 78, 83,
Booth, George D., 95.
Boston Convention of 1900,
Brandon, William W., 93,
94; Eminent Supreme
Archon, 94, 95; a prov-
ince president, 98.
Bross, Willard P., 72.
Brown, Kenneth, incorpo-
rator of fraternity, 92.
Bryan, Milton, 54.
Bryan, Ralph, a provLic3 i
Bryant, Clarence, 78.
Bullock, James Atwood, 8.
Bunting, George H., 68; a
founder of Phi Alpha, 69,
Bunting, Harry, initiated,
59; refuses Eminent Su-
preme Archonship, 66;
searches for lost records,
66; and his specials, 67;
in New England, 68; a
founder of Phi Alpha, 69,
73, 74; incorporator of
Bunting, Robert, a member
of Tenn. Zeta, 59.
Bunting Specials, The, 67.
Bunting, William, a mem-
ber of Tenn. Zeta, 59.
Burger, H. C., 68, 73, 76.
Cadwell, Frederick G., 61.
California Alpha Founded,
California Beta Inaugu-
Capers, John G., 60, 62, 64,
Catalogue, The First, 27;
second, 37; third Issued,
39; of 1877, The, 40; of
1886, The, 59; of 1893,
72; of 1904, 90.
Chapter Alumni Letters, 92.
Chapters, Early Communi-
cations Between, 17.
Chapter House, First Sig-
ma Alpha Epsilon, 47.
Chapter, Names, 25, 54.
Chapters' Officers, New Ti-
tles for, 51.
Chapter, The Second, 15.
Charlotte Convention of
Chattanooga Convention of
Chi Phi challenges Sigma
Alpha Epsilon, 61.
Chicago Convention of 1914,
97. . '
C-rrmrati Coi'jv^ntion of
Cipher, The Ritual in, 49.
Civil War and Sigma Alpha
Epsilon, The, 28.
Clark, Oscar L., 58.
Clarke, William A., 65.
Cleland, William L., 69.
Clements, Newton Nash, 6,
Cockrell, Nathan E., 3.
Cody, James A., 27.
Collier, B. C., 61, 62, 63, 84.
Colorado Chi, 65.
Colorado Lambda, 89.
Colorado Zeta, appears, 65,
Columbia, South Carolina
Convention of 1887, 60.
Connecticut Alpha, 69.
Constitution of 1869, The,
Constitution of 1883, The,
Constitutional Convention or
Constitution of 1891, 64.
Constitutional Changes of
Convention, Delegates to
First Convention, 23; ex-
tension at the first, 23;
work at the first, 24.
Cook, Arthur A. the first
president of Lambda
Cook, Thomas C., 3; activ-
ity of, 16.
Cowan, H. H., 63, 64, 66, 68;
author of flag, 70, 73.
Cox, Albert L., province
president, 93, 94.
Dart, Jr., Henry P., prov-
ince president, 93.
Davis, Charles F., province
Death of a Brother, 52.
Delta Tau Delta Wooes
Dennis, Samuel, 3
Dent, Stanley, Hujrfc, 64.
De ^orie, -7ewett, et Ala-
bama, 8, 9, 13; most fined
man, 14; founder of
Washington City Rho, 26.
De Votie, Life of, 92; the
memorial, 95; memorial
De Votie, Noble Leslie, the
founder, 3; presided at
first meeting, 4; and ex-
tension, 10; the scholar,
11; and Chapel Hill, 16;
first man to lose his life
in the civil war, 29.
Dickinson, Jacob M., Hon-
orary Eminent Supreme
Dockery, Claudius, 76.
Doolittle, L. J., 69; province
president, 94, 95, 97, 98.
Droste, Henry P., province
Early Chapter Discipline,
Early Literary Work, 14.
Eighth Chapter, Planning
Eminent Supreme Archon,
The first, 58.
Extension in Europe, 26.
Extension Movement, The,
Extension Year, The, 67.
First Meeting, The, 4.
Flag, Sigma Alpha Epsilon
Flags of the Fraternity, The
Fleming, Harvey B., 78.
Fleming, John M., 16, 17,
Florida Upsilon Founded,
54; revived, 98.
Fiftieth Anniversary, widely
celebrated, 91 ; conven-
Fonville, L. L., province
president, 93, 94.
Poi-niss, Thaddeus, 18.
Foster, Clyde D., incorpora-
tor of fraternity, 92.
Foster, Wade, 3.
Founders, The, 3; purpose
Fraternity Planned, A Gen-
Fraternity, Regenesis of
Furlow, Floyd, 63.
Garland, President, Attack-
ed Fraternities, 11.
Garwood, Harold, province
Garwood, Omar, 95.
General Convention 1870,
Georgia Beta Complete*
Georgia Beta, First Days or.
the Founding of, 31, 32;
selected as Grand Chap-
ter, 36; in 1883, 49.
Georgia Delta Begins Ca-
Georgia Epsilon, the Birth
of, 48, 76.
Georgia Eta Founded, 26.
Georgia Phi Begins Career,
Georgia Psi, 38.
Georgia Pi, 20; is founded,
19; men enter Athens, 31.
Grand Chapter, The, 6.
Gibson, Robert, Jr., 91.
Gilchrist, Albert, Honorary
Eminent Supreme Arch-
Glass, James G., Becomes
Eminent Grand Archon,
48, 51, 55.
Goetchius, George, 31.
Golson, J. Hodges, 15.
Government, The First SyB-
tem of, 6.
Grand Chapters of Sigma
Alpha Epsilon, 25.
Grand Chapter Plan In-
Guerry, William A., 51; re-
vised the ritual, 54; Hon-
orary Kminent Supreme
Greek letters for names of
Halbert, Henry P., Is.
Harrison, Caskie, Cipher,
Harrison, G. Hendree, 63,
Harrison, Henry Sydnor, 86,
Heard, Isaac T., 37.
Higley, Elmer, 65.
History of Sigma Alpha
Hobbs, Gibson T., 95; a
province president, 97, 98.
Holderness, Marvin E.,
Eminent Supreme Deputy
Archon, 91; Eminent Su-
preme Recorder, 95; Emi-
nent Supreme Archon,
96; Administration, 97;
Honorary Eminent Su-
preme Archon, 70.
Horning, Albert, Z., 61.
Houston, Frank K., prov-
ince president, 93.
Howry, Charles B., 33;
Eminent Supreme Arch-
Hunnicutt, James E., 48.
Hustler, The, 69.
Illinois Beta, Beginnings of,
82; host to Supreme
Illinois Delta Arises, 95.
Illinois Psi-Omega Found-
ed, 75, 76.
Illinois Theta, Established,
Insurance Proposed, Fra-
Inactive Chapters, The. 44.
Incorporation of the Fra-
Indiana Alpha, Born, 67.
Indiana Beta Arises, 71.
Indiana Gamma Installed,
Initiations, Early, 8.
Installation of Oklahoma
Iowa Beta Established, 91.
Iowa Gamma, wins frater-
nity flag, 76; initiated, 91.
Iowa Sigma, 45.
Johnson's Schoolhouse, 4.
Joint Installation, A, 77.
Judicial System, The, 38;
done away with, 77.
Judkins, James H., 21.
Kansas Alpha established,
Kansas Beta, The Installa-
tion of, 96.
Kansas City Convention of
Kentucky Alpha, 40.
Kentucky Chi, 27; early days
of, 28; revived, 35; in the
leadership, 39; chosen
Grand Chapter, 40; Chap-
Kentucky Epsilon is found-
ed, 82; its chariot of
Kentucky Iota, Birth of, 22.
Kentucky Kappa Organizes,
Kent, Ralph S., 91.
Kephs, Chapters Called, 35.
Kerr, John W., 3; elected
Kimball, George D., 65. 78:
Eminent Supreme Treas-
urer, 91; Eminent Su-
preme Archon, 92, 93:
brings about New York
ence, 93; Eminent Su-
preme Treasurer, 95, 96.
Kentucky Epsilon, South
Kentucky College, 45.
Kirkpatrick, Hugh W.,
province president, 98.
Lakin, Herbert, 71, 78, 91.
Lambda Province created,
Lane, Samuel, on Amalga-
Lanier, John S., 23.
Layton, Harry P., 91.
Leading Greeks, An Ency-
clopadia of the Fraternity
Leue, Albrecht F., Eminent
Supreme Deputy Archon,
62; revisor of the ritual,
94 ; Eminent Supreme
Deputy Archon, 96.
Levere, William C., 71, 91,
96, 98, 99.
Life of De Votie, 92.
Life Subscription Plan to
Ling, Charles J., Province
Lion's Paw Issued, The, 91.
Literary Work at Alabama
Mu, 5, 14.
Long, Walter E., Incorpora-
tor of Fraternity, 92.
Louisville Convention of
1873, 38; of 1883, 50.
Louisiana Epsilon Founded,
Louisiana Tau, 27.
Louisiana Tau-Upsilon, 79,
Louisiana Zeta, 45.
Lowrie, William L., 64.
MacAdam, Henry G., 78, 84.
Mack, Louis W., province
president, 97, 98.
Mack, William, 67.
Maine, Alpha, 83, 84.
Massachusetts Delta, Rise
Massachusetts Gamma, En-
trance of, 71.
Massachusetts lota-Tau, In-
auguration of, 69, 76.
McCartney, John D., 95.
McCleskey, James, 31.
McGlohon, Samuel B., 47,
McKinley, William, 70, 87.
McLaughlin, James D., 8.
McNeese, Oswald, 91.
Meeting, The Second, 7.
Mell, Thomas S., first Emi-
nent Supreme Archon, 58,
59, 60, 62, 64.
Mellus, Edward, 71.
Membership, Early Limit
Memphis Convention of
1870, 27; of 1904, 90.
Mexican Horse Pistol, 4.
Michigan Alpha Establish-
Michigan Iota-Beta Found-
Mid- Convention Meeting of
Supreme Council, 1905,
91; 1907, 93; of 1910, 94;
of 1911, 95.
Millar, Leslie W., 69.
Minnesota Alpha, 83, 86.
Mississippi Case, The, 95.
Mississippi Zeta Appears.
Mississippi Gamma is Plan-
ned, 32; the founding of,
Mississippi Theta, 45.
Missouri Alpha Established,
Missouri Beta Nascent, 68.
Mitchell, Oliver, 45.
Monier, Roy H., province
president, 93, 94.
Moore, J. Washington, 73.
Mother Chapter Revived, 66.
Mother Mu, 6.
Mulder, Ritze C., 92.
Murfreesboro Chapter, The,
Murfreesboro first Conven-
Murphy, J. Clay, 91.
Names of Chapters, 25.
Nash, Howard P., 71, 76.
Nashville Convention of
1860, 27; of 1867, 34; of
1871, 38; of 1875, 38; of
1879, 42; of 1885, 57; of
1888, 60; of 1898, 82; of
National Convention, First,
National Officer, First, 37.
National Politics, in Sigma
Alpha Epsilon, 78.
Neblett, Henry M., 21.
Nebraska Lambda-Pi, Dawn
New Hampshire Alpha, 93.
New Titles for National Of-
New York Alpha, Rise of,
New York Delta Founded,
New York Mu, 77.
New York Sigma-Phi, 77.
Nichols, Edward C., 61.
Nomenclature, Early Chap-
North Carolina Theta, 50,
North Carolina Xi, Estab-
lished, 16; Grand Chaptei*
of the Fraternity, 25, 76.
North Carolina Rho-Rho,
Northern Extension, Agita-
tion for, 6; provided for,
36; rescinded, 1870, 38;
at 1881 Convention, 45;
accomplished, 50; op-
posed, 53; triumphant, 55;
Northern Fraternities, Ex-
tend South, 46.
Ohio Delta Founded, 60.
Ohio Epsilon Established,
61 ; host of first province
Ohio Rho Installed, 91.
; Ohio Sigma Quarter-centen-
Ohio Theta, Genesis of, 69.
Oklahoma Kappa, 93.
Oregon Alpha installed, 98.
Original Minutes Recovered,
66; Published, 90.
Owen, Richard J., 59.
Owen, Thomas Lucien
Oxford Convention of 1868,
Paddock, Lola, 72.
Panhellenic Conference, 93.
Paragraph History of Sig-
ma Alpha Epsilon, 98.
Patillo, Robert S., 48.
Patton, Abner, 3; President
of the Fraternity, 12.
Pennsylvania Alpha- Zeta
Initiated, 68, 76.
The Installation of, 96.
Pennsylvania Delta, 50, 53,
Pennsylvania Omega Found-
ed, 59; aids New York
63; issued the 1893 Cata-
Pennsylvania Theta, 83, 84.
Pennsylvania Zeta, The In-
ception of, 72.
Peters, Edward M., a Prov-
ince president, 98.
Phelps, R. L., 95; Province
president, 97, 98.
Phi Alpha was first called
the Hustler, 69.
Pilgrimage into Sigma Al-
pha Epsilonland, A., 97.
Pittsburgh Convention of
1893, 73; of 1916, 98.
Pledge, The First, 6.
Pocket Directory, The, 96.
Posey, E. Lloyd, Province
president, 97, 98.
Preston, James C., organ-
izes Mo. Alpha, 54.
Price, George L. W., 68.
Province Archons, The, 58.
Province Delta in 1892, 70.
Province Boundaries, New,
Province Conventions, The
Province Presidents in 1905,
Province Lambda created,
Provinces, The First, 58.
Provines, The Six, 74.
Purple and Gold Appears,
Record Life Subscription
Recovery of the Original
Reinhard, Frank, Province
"Reorganized," When Chap-
Richmond Convention of
Riley, Enoch Parsons, 8.
Rinehart, Stanley, 63, 68.
Ritual Formerly Comprised
in Constitution, 5; in
Cipher, 49; part of Con-
stitution, 53; ritual re-
vised, 54, 94; for Alumni,
Robison, John I., 72.
Robinson, John W., Incor-
porator of fraternity, 92.
Rudulph, John B., 3; De-
signed the badge, 5;
Honorary Eminent Su-
preme Archon, 71; dis-
covery of, 89; at Conven-
tion, 92; death, 94.
Sanford, Elmer B., 61, 91;
appointed editor, 94; edi-
tor of The Record, 95, 96,
Second College Year, End
Seibels, Edwin G., 50.
Sheldon, Carl E., 91; E. S
D. A., 92, 93.
Sherman, C. G., 95.
Shipp, John E. D., 40, 41, 42.
Shorter, Charles, 28.
Shorter, James H., 27.
Sigma Alpha Epsilon, the
Founding of, 3; its found-
ers, 3; meetings at Kerr's
home, 4; first stated
meeting, 4; faces extinc-
tion, 12; conquers the
north. 56; in New Eng-
land, 68; leader in fra-
ternity ethics, 74.
Sigma Alpha Epsilon Stand-
ard Accounts, 96.
Sigma Alpha Epsilon Yell,
"Sing Brothers, Sing," 61.
Smith, Alexander J., 48.
Smith, Edwin DuBose, 67.
Smith, J. Rockwell, 91.
Snook, Peyton, 58.
Song Book, The S. A. E.,
Songs of Purple and Gold,
South Carolina Delta, 48.
South Carolina Gamma, 48.
South Carolina Lambda, 45.
South Carolina Mu, 45.
South Carolina Phi, 36.
South Carolina Upsilon, 45.
South Dakota Sigma Born,
Spencer, Samuel, 31.
Squire, Walter, Musical
St. Louis Convention of
State Association of Ohio,
State Convention, The First,
Stewart, Ralph C., Province-
president, 93; revisor of
Stone, Charles Frederick.
Stowell, Clarence W., E.
S. R., 91; 92, 93; E. S.
D. A., 94.
Supreme Council Plan, 57.
Supreme Council in 1890,
Supreme Court of United
States Decides Mississ-
ippi Case, 96.
Tarrant, James P., 8.
Taylor, Dean, Revisor of the
Tennessee Eta Founded, 34.
Tennessee Kappa Founded,
Tennessee Lambda, 27, 34.
Tennessee Nu Established,
Tennessee Omega Founded,
46; first chapter to own
house, 47 ; carries the
mail, 47 ; keystone laid,
Tennessee Zeta Founded.
Texas Psi, 45.
Texas Rho the First, 45.
Texas Rho Organized, 54.
Texas Theta Chartered, 22.
Thomas, Alexander R.,
Province president, 97.
Thomas, Charles C., prov-
ince president, 97.
Thomas, Grigsby, 27.
Thomas, William H., 58.
Titles, New for National
Topoi, The, What It Was, 5.
Traveling Secretary Cre-
ated, 96, 97.
Treasurer, The First Na-
Turner, J. D. Province
president, 97, 98.
Tuttle, Arthur J., 61, 71,
Twining Granville, incorpo-
rator of fraternity, 92.
Union Army, S. A. E.'s in
Uzzell, R. S., Advocates
Alumni Ritual, 97.
Vaile, William N., Province
president, 93, 94.
Vastine, J. M., 72.
Vaughn, Vernon H., 23.
Vawter, William A., II., 96.
Violet, The S. A. E. Flower,
Virgin, Edward H., 71.
Virginia Kappa Founded,
18; end of, 19.
Virginia Omicron, Affiliates
of, 21; revived, 30; at the
Virginia Pi, 45.
Virginia Sigma Installed,
35; opposes extension
northward, 37; grand
Virginia Tau, 45.
Virginia Theta, 39, 89.
Wallace, Arthur T., 95.
Walker, Paul A., Province
president, 93, 94.
Walker, William B., and
northern extension, 46.
War Record of Georgia Pi,
War Record of S. A. E., 29.
War, S. A. E. After the
Warwick, H. S., 94.
Washington Alpha Found-
Washington Beta Installed,
Washington City Rho, 26;
Washington Convention of
1894, 75; of 1902, 86.
Waterhouse, W. E., Prov-
ince president, 93, 94.
Webb, Frank Bell, 33, 35.
Webbe, William E., 95.
Webster, Clyde I., Province
Welch, Charles W., founder
Kentucky Kappa, 48.
Wells, Robert K., 8.
Wenstrand, David W., Prov-
ince president, 93.
Westbrooke, Josephus Gv,
White, Carl F., reviser of
White, Walter E., 91.
White, William B., 59.
Who's Who in S. A. E., 95.
Wilson, William L,., 21;
honorary E. S. A., 71.
Wisconsin Alpha Pounded,
Wisconsin Phi Established,
Woman, A. S. A. B., 28.
Wood, Charles P., 65, 92, 93.
Wooten, William E., 56.
Wynne, Gustavus A., 8.
Year Book, The S. A. E.,
Yell, The S. A. E., 67.
Young, J. H., President of
the Grand Chapter, 49;
editor of The Record, 49,
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