Skip to main content

Full text of "Parallel History: Being an Outline of the History and Biography of the World ..."

See other formats

This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 
to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 
to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 
are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other marginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 
publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing this resource, we have taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 

We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attribution The Google "watermark" you see on each file is essential for informing people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 

at |http : //books . google . com/ 


\,L .J- ' • ' -■ 

; -J \ l" \" — 

^' - ". 

•,-- -_^^ 

'-■N t.-:^-j;',': 


i ^-''^''t/.j' v 


'"""'. >' 

;- -/'.^.i^ ; ;- 


" r.^' 

■'./ V -' "^ '"' r 



' ,-^'^ 

'';ib^'t'^ 'n 



V ,./ •"■■ 

: 'jL_ 

_■ 7^"' ^ 



'-•__ ^-■-, 

^\ "- -f---^.--' . 

\. i--. 

." — - . ' 

■■ . ■-. , -v-..'-,-^ ,: ^ , ■• 




-.:••■"- '- 

• v-*^'^, - "^^ , 

/v^ '-r '- •'^■":> 

• Jj^f-" 

u:;J ♦ - - ' - "r 



r I:"',' 




"^''^ 1- 

v~V',:i .^ v" .■ 

' ..^-n ■^■-^._j 

^v". - 

yV-'t :':.'■ 

" i . 


.r ->:.-^':'\/ 

' ^■!:' f -^ '• -^ V ■> -1: ^-' ^./- 









Vjfte ibeconH Sdltion* 


VOL. m. ; 













Hating brought down his sketdi of History from the earliest pe- 
riod to the prraent day, the Author wguld, in conclusion, exhort the 
Reader to remember what he said in his Preface, that ' the opinions 
oSered throughout on politics and rdigious faith, are to be regarded, 
cot as resuUing firom a wish to dogmatise, hut from a sincere desire 
to insdl sober sentiments into the youthful mind.* The doctrines he 
has, imperfectly enough, laboured to uphold, are those wherein him- 
self was nurtured ; and if only entitled to the name of prejudices on 
that account, he must be allowed to designate them principles, now 
ihat his reason and judgment have, in maturer years, forced upon his 
miod a couTiction of their truth. K, in the notion. of some, or even of 
maoy, they should be thought a little antiquated and out of fashion, 
that he must lament ; but he must be permitted to assert boldly, that the 
man who resolves to act closely up to them, and accomplishes his re- 
snlTe, will, with the blessing of God, find himself both advanced in 
%-irtiie, and full of the hope of the humble Christian : 

■ * percat mea musa, dolosum 

Si quando omaret vitium, aut cecinisse recusct 
Virtutemque, artemque, et qoicquid carmine dignuni/ 

So opnion that the Author has ventured to offer in reprobation, has 
been directed against the person, but against the act. We have no 
right to judge men ; but regarding men's positive deeds and their 
tendency, it is permitted us to deliver our sentiments. The matter of 
History demands of the narrator the illustration of his private judg- 
ment as he proceeds ; and every one is aware how almost impossible it 
is to perfonn this duty so as to give offence to no party. It was our 
<>^n Icing Charles the Second who registered his sense of the His- 
toran*s dtfficnlty in this particular. * What work are you upon ?' said 
fe maiesty to Gregorio Leti, then at his court * II Teatro Britan- 
r.kf} sire an historical one of your court,' replied the author. 'How 



can you,' rejoined king Charles, * write history, and not give offence 
somewhere ?' * That, sire,' answered Gregorio^ * not even Solomon could 
have done.' * Then,' rejoined his majesty, with his usual quickness of re- 
partee, ' be as wise as Solomon, and write only proverbs.' To the utmost 
of his power the Author has laboured to avoid giving offence, without 
obeying the royal monition ; but he will not lose sight of his principles 
to apolog^ for having denounced, when required so to do, the cha- 
racters of the quack, the demagogue, the purse-proud and therefore 
viciously-ignorant man, the oonfounder of principles, the unjust doer, the 
Bcomer of authority in church or etate, or the infidel. He has given 
due praise to whig good intentions and achievements, while showing a 
preference for the greater security and conformity to the dicta of reli- 
gion and reason of tory institutions ; and when supportmg the orthodox 
religious sentiments of our fore&thers by condemning dissent, he has 
felt no animosity towards a single individual, no want of charity for the 
really pious professor, be his notions of what is required of the Christian 
ever so opposed in character to his own. For one especial deviation 
firom propriety, however, he must give some explanation. He has 
expressed his regret, and more than his reg^t, that a want of reverence 
for things holy is a crying sin of this day. There can be but one 
opinion respecting the practice of discussing subjects which especially 
appertain to the pulpit, in the secular works of the public ; but so 
gross has been of late the interference of even the common newspaper 
prints in polemical controversy, that it appeared to the Author a point 
of duty to relate, as clearly as his epitome of History would permit, the 
occurrences which have, during a long course of years, led to the 
recent movements in ecclesiastical matters. Had not his mind been 
turned to divinity studies for higher purposes than such an elucidation, 
he should not have dared to enter upon so sacred a ground. As 
respects the author's desire to uphold the church of England, it may be 
alleged that the opinions of a layman to that effect can least of all be 
charged as interestedy according to the usual acceptation of the term. 

In conclusion, the Author has but to intreat the patience and favour of 
the Historical Inquirer, while perusing a work for which he has had 
no model, and which he undertook solely because some such com- 
pendium, arranged in the order of time, on the contemporaneous plan, 
had long been demanded, and that in vain, by the public. 



Pkrioi> XV. 1789 to 1815.-26 Years. 

"*' PAGE 

Mil. PaktII. OcoKCsm hi. 1789—1815. Origin of tbe Jacobins. The 
ouan Loyalists. Openiogr of tbe Scheldt Scottish Epincopml Chnrch 

stored. Federate Republtcsnism. The New French Calendar. Lord 
^cartney's Embassy to Chins. Insurrection of Kosciosko. Maroon In- 

T^HTtion. Alleged Escape of the Danphio. National Distress in Eufland. 

' ti^ii Guiana fonnded. Mutiny amongst the British Sailors. Trinidad 

• e an English Colony. Inconne-taz Act. Malta captured by the British. 

• suits on the kingr. Georgia incorporated with Russia. Circassia. The 
rAce of Amiens. Despard*t Conspiracy. Restoration of (be Jesuits, 
r ith of colonel Montgotnery. Revolt of St. Domingo. The French Con- 
r ption. Van Dieoien's Lisnd colonised. The Modern Roscius. Boo* 

•irte annoanees himself Emperor of France. The Empire of Germany 
.red to Austria. Cape of Good Hope taken by the British. The Afri- 
.1 Slave-trade abolisbed prospectiFely. Heligoland a Britisli possession. 
■■^ Pecinsnlar War. The Walcheren Expedition. The Tyrolese Insar* 
i-<-tioB. Oake of York's Trial. Jubilee of George III. Abolition of the 
.::al Power. The Mauritius an English colony. Death of the Princess 
\meJia. Reform Agitation. Msssacre of the Mamluk Beys. Murders of 
HP Families of Marr and MTiliiamson. The Regrocy Question settled. The 
'•-fit Comet. Assassination of Mr. Perceval. Second American War. 
5' :;ie of the Shannon and Chesapeake. Brief Independence of Norway. 
n^-storation of Sovereigns- Lnddite Riota. The Sootbcott Imposture. 
i '.e Royal Visit. A Severe Frost. Breton Insurrection. Ceylon made a 
I'iniish colon V. Ionian Republic ibonded. Holland and Belgium united. 
i be Holy Alliance. The Germanic Confederation. Escape of Count La- 
V' ette. Genoa added to Sardinia. Wood Eograring improred by the 
?;< vricks. LifC'boat. Oeaf and Dumb Asylum. Telegraph invented. 
V ^tccioation introduced. The Blind School. The Philanthropic Society. 
Litbt^raphy invented. New London Docks. Military Asylum, Chelsea. 
G a*- jiehting introduced. Bude Light. Steam-carts. Hat leybury College! 
Phrenology promulgated. Steel Engraving. Suamboats. National Ed uca- 
i. Vauxhall-bridge. Law of Copyright Safely Lamp. Turkey under Se- 
ll I. and Mustafa IV. Popes: Pius VI.. Pius VII. France under Louis 




Prussia under Frederick William II. and IIL Holland under WiUUm V. 
Naples under Joseph Buonaparte and Joachim Murat. Persia under Lnft 
Ali Khan. Kaubul under Timur Khan, Zemaun« Mahmndr Shiijab-oU 
Mulk, and Mahmud restored. The Sikh Monarchy established by Runjeet 
Singh. Spain under Charles IV. Fall of Venice under Manini. Ireland 
under George IIL Battles: Lord Howe's Victory, Nile, Seringapatam» 
Marengo, Assaye, Austeriitz, Trafalgar, Jena, Maida. Friedland, Corunna, 
LeipsiCi Waterloo. Napoleon Buonaparte. Duke of Bninswick-Oels. 
Horatio Nelson. William Pitt Charles James Fox. The Jeokinsons. 
Princess de Lamballe. Lord CoUingwood. Lord Edward Fitzgerald. 
Marquis Cornwallis. Sir Ralph Abercromby. Admiral Duncan. Mar- 
shal Ney. Marshal Macdonald. Btfrthier. Moreau. Pichegrn. Keller* 
mann. Kleber. Desaix. Field- marshal Suvaro7. Sir John Moore. 
Marshal Blucher. Dumouriez. The Empress Josephine. La Fayette. 
Monge. Burke. Sheridan. Lagrange. Burckhardt. Captain Hardy. 
Monk Lewis. Lackington. Volney. Florian. Holkar. Sir Richard 
Worsley. Joseph Wright. Philip Hackert. Tiraboschi. Eschenburg. 
Baron Reding. Drs. Gall and Spurzheim. Mrs. Trimmer. Mrs. Bar- 
bauld. Charlotte Smith. Thomas Paine. Berthollet. Loutherbourg. 
Alexander Wilson. La Harpe. St. Pierre. Bougainville. Cheni^r. Du- 
cie. Peslalozzi. Roland. Bailly. Dr. Price. Brissot. Danton. Dan- 
necker. Louvet. Duke of Orleans (Egalite). Lalande. Portalis. The 
Anqneiils. Richard Cumberland. Kirke White. Hayley. Bloomfield. 
Edward Whitaker. Thomas Dunham Whitaker. Leyden. Ebeling. 
Ebel. Ginguene. Haiiy. Jovellanos. Johnea. Mehul. William Ni- 
cholson. Olivier. David Ricardo. Samuel Whitbread. Aikin. Bry- 
done. Bichat. Banks. The Bells. Bonnycastle. Corvissart. Car- 
not. Catalaui. Mrs. Mountain. Charles Dibdin. Thomas Denman* 
Sir Richard Croft. Deluc. DoUond. Delambre. Emiyn. The Edge- 
worths. Fulton. Ugo Foscolo. Ferguson. De Gassicourt. G rattan. 
Costilla. Inchbald. Sophia Lee. Karamsin. Langles. Maury. Matu- 
rin. The two Milners. John Milner. Maltebrun. Naldi. Pinkerton. 
The Playfaits. Repton. Raffles. Rees. Salomon. Earl Stanhope. 
The abb^ Sicard. Baroness de Stael. John Walker. Arthur Young. 
Dr. Woicot. Porson. Wieland. Alfieri. Klopstock. Ireland. Dr. 
Lettsoro. Wntt. West. Kanfinann. Opie. Fuseli. Romney. Mor- 
land. Copley. Flaxman, Bartolozzi. Canova. Paieiello. Blllington. 
Mrs. Jordan. Werner. Dr. Hutton. Count Ruroford. De Lac^pede. 
Mary of Buttcrmere. Close of the French Revolution .... 1 

Period XVI. 1815 to 1843—28 Years. 


CLXXIIL Part IU. GrorokIII. 1815—1820. The Expedition to Alirien. 
Volcanic Phenomena in England. Lord Amherst's Emhassy to China. 
Spa-fields Riots. Mission to Ashantee. Shipwrecks of theAlceste and 
Medusa. Waterloo-bridge. Savings' Banks. Adult Orphan Institution. 
Singapore an English colony. Southwark-bridge. Chinese Primrose. Re- 
suteitation of Pompeii and Herculaneum. Assassination of the Due de 
Berri. France under Louis XVIH. restored. British India under George 
III. concluded. Barariat Wurttemberg, Saxony, and Hanover, raised to 
the rank of sovereign states. Laplace. Wilberforce. Romilly. Gibbs. 
Curran. Vicesimus Knox. Edward Clarke. Gregory. Kutzebue. Parr. 
Cyril Jackson. The Burneys. Herbert Marsh. Viscomti. Lindley Mur- 
ray. Keats. Soane. Mrs. Radcliffe. Shelley. Madame de Genlis. Beechey. 
Angerstein. Beethoven. Lord Erskine. Henry Mackenzie. John Kern- 
ble. Mrs. Siddons. Talma 324 


vXIV. Gsomos IV. 1820^18^. Cato-street Conspiracy. Allmd Mi. 
trlc^ of Prince Hobenlohe. Lampeter Collei^e founded. Pall of Interest. 
(rxican Revolutioo. Babbage's Calcalatiog Engine. Murder of Mr.Weare. 
r> ±:t lah Soath America independent. Eipedition to the North Pole. Eze- 
uTion o€ Mr. Faontleroy. Death of the King and Queen of the Sandwich 
=les in LxmdOD. Nev London* bridge. Pinal Cession of the Isle of Man to 
be Britisb Crown. Malacca made an Enirlish settlement. Suppression of 
je Jaaixarics. Equalisation of British Weights and Measures. The first 
'einperanoe Society. The Insol rent-lavs consolidated. Catholic Eraan- 
:r.iiioa irrantcd. Swan River colonised. Corn-law Act passed. Increase 
i Aii:»«nteeism. Sir Felix Booth's Expedition. Inundation of Moray. St. 
^^ibaxine's Docks. Promulgation of Homoopathy. Algiers made a 
rench settlemenL Deontology promulgated. Epsom Race-sUnd. De- 
fine of the Drama. Alterations in Dress. France under Charles X. 
'Dpes z Leo XII. and Pius Vill. British India under George IV. Spain 
r-i'^r Ferdinand VII. Portugal under John VL Foundation of Modem 
-Greece. The Councils of the Church. Brazil raised to an empire. Kau- 
A uodcr Ayiib, Habeeb Oolah, and Dost Mohammed. Ireland under 
'^^rjrc IV. Caroline, queen of England. Sir Walter Scott. Lord Byron. 
^^ixr-vrand. Lord Castlereagh* Mr. Canning. The Scotts. Biehop Jebb. 
-•;«hop Heber. Judge Park. Hon. Philip Pusey. Alexander BennetL 
..'-n Piinoe. Thomas Prince. Last Earl of Brid^rewater. Bridgewater 
TrT^aiisea. Sir Humphry Dary. Sir Thomas Lawrence. Mrs. Hemans. 
'.rjnah More. Weber. Henry Hunt Hogg, the Ellrick Shepherd. Sir 
tia Leicester. Goethe. Mr. Combe. Captain Clapperton. Thomas 
h'pe. Bishop Hobart Crabbe. Oberlin. Cobhett. Cuvier. Malthus. 
1 >:e MaJttiosian Doctrines. Judge Littledale. Richard Froude. Cardi* 
-nl Weld. Darid Wilkie. Alexander Knox. Roarland Hill. Adam 
CUrke. Robert Hall. Edward Irving. Jeremy Bentham. Lady Hester 
^'..^nbope. Kean. Ali Pacha. Prince Ypsilanti. Miss Landon. John 
Abirmechy. Sir Astley Cooper. Sir Sidney Smith. Dr. Kitchener. Cas- 
I'trUaaaer. Cherubini. Nollekens. Stoihard. Callcott, Charles Lamb. 
Ldmund Lodge. Rossi. Haynes Bayley. Gait. Alison. Charles Ma- 
: .«^a-s. Grimaldi. Thomas Dibdin. Belzoni. Raebnrn. Darid Douglas 96 1 
lAXV. William IV. 1830—1837. Rick-burning. Steam-coaches. Ei- 
tension of Judicial Courts. The Cold-srater Cure. Expulsion of the 
^ ike of Brooswick. Breaking out of the Asiatic Cholera. Bristol Riots. 
>e;»aration of Belgium from Holland. Reform of the Game Lairs. Rise 
o! me Mormonites. American Revivals. PasAing of the Reform Bill. 
lc<Trrection of the duchess dc Berri. Siege of Antwerp. Succession war 
.c Spain. Rerolt of Egypt. China Trade thrown open. Durham Uni- 
versity founded. Reform of the Factory system. Poor-law Amendment 
Acu Trades' Union Agitation. Burning of the Houses of Parliament. 
Opening of s new 'parliament. Bringing in and passing of Bills in parlia- 
menu St. Stephen's chapel. Abolition of Nejrro-slavery etfected. Tu- 
mult in the Kirk of Scotland. Reform of English Corporations. Return 
of Halley's Comet. Reduction of Newspaper Sumps. London Univer- 
flitv chartered. Revolution in Burniah. Isle of J nan FernHndez colo- 
Di:>ed. IndiA- rubber clothing. Turkey under Mahmud II. France dur- 
inr 'ibe Three Days.' Portugal under Pedro IV. and Maria 11. Spain 
nDrier the Regency of Queen Maria Christina. The Netherlands under 
William I. Sweden ander Charles XIV., Bernadotte. Egypt under Me- 
liemet AH Kingdom of Herat founded. British India under William IV. 
iUrqaiB Weliesley. Marquis Camden. Bishop Burgess. Lord leign- 
moQib. Lord Hili- Dugald Stewart. Lord Woodhouselee. Last earl 
nf Rr'iAir^mAt^r* Lord Tentcrden^ Grove Price. Michael Thomas 
<!r^Jpr Mr Coke, of Holkam. Robert Southev. Dr. Arnold, of 
i r ulrUtt. Sir Alexander Bumes. Thomas Plait. Bishop Otter. 
JhSre lJ»ok. Cbantrey. Allan Cunningham. Sir John Malcolm. 



Marshal Jourdan. Tiedge. Nathaa Rothschild. Du Petit Thouars. 
Thurmer. Malibran. Paganini. Thomas Taylor .... 375 
CLXXVI. Victoria. 1837. The Queen's Pedigree. Insurrection in Canada. 
The Jamaica Question. Rise of the Chartists. Frost's attack on New- 
port. The Socialists. MischieTous effects of exporting British Machinery. 
Sunday trading suppressed. StockdaIe*s breach of the Commons* privi- 
leges. Sir John Yarde Buller's charge against the Melbourne administra- 
tion. Increase of Assessed Taxation. Trial of lord Cardigan. Seizure of 
Mr. Macleod. New Cabinet of sir Robert Peel. Corn-law change: the 
sliding scale. Great Exchequer fraud. Monetary crisis in the United 
States of America. Visit of the king of Prussia to England. Sir Robert 
Peel's Income-tax and Tariff. Bill to prevent the employment of females 
in the English mines. Distress in the manufacturing districts, and Queen's 
Letter thereanent. Failure of an attempt to ftree dissenters from liability 
to church-rates. Lord chancellor Lyndhurst's law-reform. Rise of the 
labourers in the manufactories of Lancashire, &c. against the master-manu- 
facturers. Anti-corn-law League. Settlement of the American Boundary 
Question. Sir Robert Peel's regard for the interests of our colonies. 
Queen's visit to Scotland. Capture of Kostantineh, the ancient Cirta. 
South Australia colonised by the English. Completion of the National 
Gallery. Heroism of Grace Darling. Murphy's Weather Almanac. As- 
saasiuation of the earl of Norbury. Rural and London Police System. 
Wind Storm. Equalization of PosUge Rates. Commercial Distress. 
The Eglintoon Tournament, South Pole Expedition. Photogenic Draw- 
ing. Spread of Socialism. The Syrian Expedition. The War with China. 
Persecution of the Damascus Jews. New Zealand colonised by the Eng- 
. lish. Union of the Two Canadas. Attempted Assassination of the Queen. 
Court Martial on captain Reynolds. Postage Equalization Act Trial of 
Madame Laffarge. Glass-weaving. Murrain among cattle. Hullah's 
system of Mnsic. Atmospheric Railway and Voltaic Telegraph. Change 
in the Corn-law. Loss of the Ship President. Fire at the Tower. Com- 
pletion of the Thames Tunnel. Taylor and Randolph Institate. Niger 
Expedition. Additional Vice-Chancellors. Distillation of Sea-water. 
Ivory made flexible. Wood-paving. English bishop of Jerusalem. Pre- 
dicted Earthquake in London. Fire at Hamburg. Earthquake at St. Do- 
mingo. The Marquesas colonised by the French. French seizure of the 
Society Isles. British colonization of Natal. Sale of Strawberry*hiU. 
Chimney-sweeping Act. Assassination of Mr. Dmmmond. Earthquake 
in the West Indies, and shock in England. Corruption of English Lite- 
rary Taste. The Queen's Land Forces. Pronunciation of Oriental names. 
British Memoranda. Modem Fortification. History of the English Par- 
liament. Frequency of Wrecks. Revolution in St, Domingo. France 
under Louis Philippe I. Austria under Ferdinand I. Prussia under Fre- 
derick William IV. Russia under Nicolas I. Church of llussia. Servia 
acknowledged free by Turkey. Persia under Mohammed Mirza. Spain 
under the Regency of Espartero : Insurrection of Barcelona. The Sikhs 
under Kurruck, Nao Nehal, and Shere Singh. Kaubul under Dost Mo- 
hammed continued, and under ShilJah-ol-Mulk restored : the disastrous 
retreat of the British t narratives of Dr. Brydon, Captain Eyre, Lady Sale, 
Lieutenant Crawford, Captain Lawrence, Captain Johnson, and Sergeant- 
major Taylor. British India under Queen Victoria : Murder of colonel 
Stoddart and captain ConoUy; the Banyan- tree ; the Baya. Turkey 
under Abdul Medjid I. China under Taou-Kwang. Ireland under Queen 
Victoria: British emigration. Nineteenth Century of the Church: high 
and low church divisions; the evangelical clergy; Bible-societies; the 
Lancaster system ; the Voluntary system ; the Oxford movement, and 
church self-reformation ; restoration of the Gallic church ; division in 
twain of the Scottish Kirk ; Proposed Restoration of the Conventual 
System ; the Church Missionary society 477 




1789 TO 1815 — 26 teabs. 



1760 TO 1820—60 yeabs. 

Pabt IL— 1789 TO 1815—26 years. 

Politic AJL History continued — It was our remark, in concluding the 
previous volume, that a new era had commenced for Europe when the 
principles of the French Revolution had found means to develop themselves. 
it is almost needless to explain that the change contended for by the leaders 
of the great movement, was the taking out of the hands of kings and nobles 
3. sufficient share of the power and privileges they had for ages enjoyed, to 
bestow it upon the third estate, that is, the people. The subsequent grant 
of constitutions to various continental states, and the Reform-bill of our own 
country, are some of the necessary consequences of the working of tlie prin- 
ciples of the French Revolution. Those causes of mutation, it must be borne 
in mind, have not yet ceased to operate, and will still continue to work ; and 
It is for the wisdom of European sovereigns and their advisers, to see that 
proper checks are put from time to time upon tlie progress of, and boundaries 
set to the issues of, what is called radical reform, or, in other words, that a 
watch be kept upon the probable attempts that will, in time, be every where 
cnade to pve an undue preponderance to democratic power. 

France had, Jong before the year 1789, been bordering on anarchy. A 
« rfes of wars, and a careless expenditure of the public revenue, had drained 
fij« exchequer of the nation ; insomuch that even the skill of the best 
:. ijciers could devise no means of replenishing its coffers. Add to this, 
"hch umbrage had been taken at the engrossing of all patronage, and almost 
'/ all national profits, by the nobles on the one hand, and by a centralizing 
vol.. III. * 

2 GEORGE m.— 1789— 1815. [modern 

system of tlie government on the other ; and these circumstances combined, 
and not any profligacy of the French court, or of the higher ranks of people 
(a charge which historians have very unauthorize^ly brought against them), 
enabled the spread of books, which directed men to claim their rights, and 
overthrow the tyranny of kings, to stir the minds of a starving populace (no 
longer kept under due restraint by the powerful influence of the Jesuits) 
to the most atrocious deeds of violence. When, accordingly, a national 
bankruptcy was virtually announced by the crown ministers, 1789, the public 
indignation knew no bounds. By the advice of Necker, and Calonne, the 
comptroller-general, king Louis convoked the ancient assembly of the States- 
general, which, meeting in one body, clergy, nobles, and commons, and 
assuming the title of The National Assembli/, commenced a total change in 
the constitution. Feudal privileges were abolished ; local divisions set 
aside; monastic institutions suppressed; the country distributed into de- 

gartments instead of provinces, to be uniformly taxed ; and the English trial 
y jury substituted for the administration of justice by the old provincial 
parliaments. The count d'Artois (aflerwards Charles X.), the prince of 
Cond^, and others of the royal family, emigrated, and aggravated thereby 
the jealousy of the people. A furious mob instantly assailed the state-prison 
of the Bastille, and levelled it with the ground ; and a national guard being 
formed, the notorious La Fayette was put at its head. 

England had watched these transactions with anxiety ; though there were 
many who saw nothing but good in the impending clouds, and who thought 
that the sun of liberty would in a short period shine forth in France with 
renewed lustre. The continental sovereigns, however, were inclined to re- 
gard affairs in the gloomiest light, and perliaps accelerated the mischief by 
the promptitude with which they issued their threats against the authors of 
the rebellion : for no sooner had the duke of Brunswick's manifesto been 

Sublished, 1792, than all power in France was given into the hands of the 
acobins, who, storming the king^s palace, massacred his guards, made himself 
and family close prisoners, and abolished royalty. Before the people had 
time to understand the full nature of these atrocious deeds, the unhappy 
king was brought to trial, and summarily decapitated, 1793. 

During the period that France was thus distracted, the anns of England 
in the East Indies had been especially successful Tippu Salieb, the son of 
Hyder Ali, subdued by lord Comwallis, was forced to buy a peace, 1 792, by 
the cession of a large portion of his dominions, and the payment of an 
enormous sum ; for the performance of which his sons were given as hos- 
tages. But the ferocious regicides of France did not long allow serenity to 
the English : they declared war a^inst the king of Great Britain, and the 
Stadtholder, 1799, intimating, by this artful naming of two sovereigns without 
their subjects, that the people of these countries had an interest distinct 
from their respective rulers. It was, in fact, a war against kings. Almost 
at the instant of the declaration of hostilities, a general paralysis appeared 
to seize the British nation ; and the number of bankruptcies exceedeoall that 
had ever happened in the most calamitous times. Sucn was the distress, that 
each man looked upon his neighbour with suspicion ; those possessed of 

Sroperty knew not where to deposit it, while those who suffered pecuniary 
istress seemed at a loss whither to look for relief. At length Mr. Pitt sug- 
gested that 5,000,000/. should be issued in exchequer-bills, as a loan to such 
as might be able to give security for the sums advanced ; and this timely 
relief probably averted the nation's insolvency. In the midst of these cala- 
mities, the duke of York was sent to join the allies in their attack upon the 
French Jacobins ; but the latter, in two campaigns, wholly defeated them. 
The fortified haibour of Toulon, which bad been surrendered to the £ng- 

BBiOK.] OEORGE HL— 1789— 1815. 3 

&h on the outbreak of the ReyoludoD, was wrested from them, 1794, by 
NapoleoQ Baonaparte, ^who for the first time appeared on a scene, wherein 
i»« was aft^^nrards to play so conspicuous a part. The French fleet, how- 
em, was dispersed by lord Howe, in the Mediterranean, June 1st, and many 
of the coWoies of France iw^ere captured ; but England saw the parties who 
bad entered with her so spiritedly into the war. gradually retire from the 
canse, until she was lefl alone to struggle with the enemies of order. The 
paod duke of Tuscany set the example of making a peace with France, 
1795, and was fcdlowed by Spain, the Swiss, Sweden, and Holland; the 
latter oC w\uch, having expelled the Stadtholder, declaired itself a republic. 
The French, therefore, were free to pursue their career ; and under the 
diiectkm of Buonaparte, now become their general-in-chief, their armies soon 
drove the Austriaos from Italy. England kept them in check on the seas, 
hot at sudi an enormous expenditure of money, that in 1797 the bank 
hecune unable to supply the waste ; while two mutinies broke out among 
the saik^Ts, one at Spithead, and the other at the Nore, the latter of which 
was not quelled without bloodshed, and the execution of the ringleaders. 
M length, by 1796, Austria was forced into a trea^ with the enemy ; when 
the victonoos Buonaparte, after seizing Malta, invaded Egypt, and was 
onW kept ftom penetrating to our Indian possessions by the watchful eye of 

Buonaparte was soon after this elected consul, at Paris, 1799 ; and Russia, 
wbidi had lately agreed to oppose the French, became neutral. Austria 
again commenced war, but was again forced into a treaty ; and an armed 
neutnlity, which had been formed by the nortliem powers during the Ame- 
rican war, with the feigned purpose of protecting the trade of neutral vessels, 
bnt in reality to harass the British navy, v^as entered into again by Russia, 
Sweden, and Denmark. Nelson almost annihilated the lines of the Danish 
defence, and would have executed summary punishment on all concerned in 
tbe disgraceful confederacy, had not some of his ships run aground. This 
was in 1801 ; when the succession of Alexander I. to the Russian throne 
^caosed British rights to be better respected by the nortliern governments. 
Tbe French being at this juncture expelled from Egypt by the English 
under Abercrombie, nothing but the total destruction of Great Britain 
wroald satisfy the councils of the French consul. He was soon, however, 
convinced how difficult a task it would be to evade the ever watchful Nelson ; 
and satisfied of the superiority of England by sea, the attempt to invade our 
shores was abandoned, after a vast display along the whole north coast of 
France, of vessels ready to transport troops across the channel. Both coun- 
tries seemed at this moment inclined to peace ; and Mr. Addington succeed- 
ii^ Mr. Pitt as premier 1801, a treaty was entered into between France and 
England at Amiens, March 27, 1802. 

From the period when this peace was signed, jealousies and discontents 
daily arose in both countries, and threatened to produce fresh hostilities. It 
was clear to the English that the consul of France meditated universal 
domination : Piedmont had been added to France, Switzerland had been 
invaded, and the whole of Italy, with the exception of Tuscany, was known 
to be, by various stratagems, in the interests of the French cabinet. Buona- 
parte, on the other hand, soon publicly spoke of the retention of Malta by 
England, in opposition to the late treaty, observing that it ought to have 
been restored to the knights from whom he had taken it ; he also com- 
jdained of the libels against him in the English papers, which he believed to be 
sanctioned by the government These mutual bickerings soon produced more 
ancry demonstrations ; and the consul, during an audience granted to lord 
Whitworth, the English ambassador, so grievously insulted him, that his lord- 


4 GEORGE III.— 1789— 1815. [modebn 

ship returned to England, and war was proclaimed, May 180'3. Buonaparte 
instantly overran Hanover, and compelled Prussia to close its ports against 
the English : while the English blockaded the mouths of such rivers as 
excluded the British traders, and took many French merchant-ships. Tiie 
consul hereupon detained all English persons who happened at the moment 
to be in France, as prisoners of state ; and again vainly tlireatened to 
descend with an overpowering force upon Britain. 

Meanwhile, in July, 1803, an ill-concerted insurrection took place in Dublin, 
and lord chief justice Kilwardenand several others were cruelly assassinated. 
It was soon suppressed, the ringleaders secured, and Mr. Robert Emmet, a 
young man of high connexions, the chief one, was executed for treason. Dur- 
ing the same year, lord Wellesley, the governor-general of India, found it neces- 
sary to engage in war with three of the native princes ; his brother, general 
Wellesley, obtained the signal victory of Assaye in the central parts ; and 
lord Lake was equally successful in the north of Hindustan. A severe but 
brief illness again attacked the king, 1804, in which year Mr. Addington 
retired, and M r. Pitt returned to office, determined on curbing, if he could 
do no more, the ambitious designs of Buonaparte ; a course which was fully 
justified by the unprincipled murder of the due d'Enghien. Immediately 
after the perpetration of this crime. Napoleon Buonaparte had been declared 
emperor of the French, and king of Italy, May 18, 1804 ; and Spain, anxious to 
conciliate the man whose very name appeared to lead his soldiers to victory, 
entered into a treaty with him. Witliout a declaration of war, the Britisii 
ministry gave orders for seizing the Spanish treasure-ships as they returned 
from South America, and two were taken ; Nelson then pursued the com- 
bined French and Spanish fleets to the West Indies, and back again to 
Europe ; and on the coast of Spain, at length, 1805, brought them, by 
astonishing perseverance, into action. Off cape Trafalgar, October 21, a 
terrible engagement ensued, and the combined hostile fleets were totally 
annihilated ; insomuch that, to this day, neither France nor Spain has ever 
been able to produce on the seas a force equal to that which they then 
respectively possessed. The brave Nelson, however, fell at the moment of 
victory ; and when too late, the nation, as one man, lamented the fate of a 
commander, whose services had never been, when tht?y ought to liave been, 
sufficiently estimated. 

So terrible a defeat spurred Napoleon to still greater efforts ; and the 
victory of Austerlitz, December 2, 1805, compelled the Austrian emperor to 
submit to any terms he dictated. One of the conqueror's arrangements was 
to diminish the Austrian power by erecting Bavaria and VVurttemberg into 
kingdoms, which he eflected. It was in 1806 that Mr. Pitt, grievously 
affected by the impeaclmient of his colleague, lord Melville, died. Mr. Fox 
and lord Grenville formed a new ministry, and abolished the slave trade ; 
but the former of the two, who had been long the political rival of Mr. Pitt, 
died in the same year with him. Indeed the country was singularly be- 
reaved of important characters during this one year ; for in eleven months 
Nelson and Cornwallis, her most victorious commanders by sea and land, 
and Pitt, lord Thurlow, and Fox, her most eloquent and able legislators, 
paid the debt of nature. It was now that the king of Prussia, Frederick IV., 
in a moment of chivalrous enthusiasm, thought to crush Napoleon single- 
handed ; but one campaign decided the fate of the war. At Auerstadt, 
near Jena, October 14, 1806, the Prussian cause was wholly ruined; and 
the king, stripped of half his dominions, implored assistance from the 
Russians, who suffered a total defeat in his defence at Friedland, and made 
a treaty with the emperor at Tilsit, June 25, 1807. Buonaparte then, by 
his celebrated Berlin decrees, closed all the most important continental ports 

TORY.] GEORGE III.— 1789— 181 o. 5 

ii^t I he manufactures of England; whereupon the latter power harried 
an e.xpc-dition to Denmark, and seized the fleet of that countn-, whicli it 
? TAtll known that Napoleon intended to employ. TIm? British arms 
re not so successful in other parts: Buenos Ayres. uliich had been taken 
-\T Home Popham, was recovered by the inhabitants, and an armament 
t out thither under general Whitelocke, failed signally and di^jiracefuHy, 
y 3, IS07. The general allowed himself to be surrounded by tl)e enemy, 
' a common foresight might have prevented such a disaster ; and he was 
lL^^-d- after losing a great many of his men, to ai^ree to retire from tlie 
wirce. He was subsequently tried by court-martial for his misconduct, 
; .iismissed the service. Various attempts on the part of the Britisli to 
tiie Xurks and Swedes, and keep them at least neutral, failed at the 
e unfortunate juncture. 

I liiid been the policy of Mr. Fox to attempt fresh negotiations with 

Di-r*, a. course which was pursued by the remnant of iiis cabinet under 

* . »iJ«^a^ie lord Grenville. But when catholic emanci}»ation was broui^ht 

v..i.rd in a new parliament, 1807, the public dislike of the ministry was 

"isi n in the most marked manner ; and the king, equnlly alarmed, was glad 

- TjtjLklant it by the remnant of Mr. Pitt's tory administration, and even 

. I'ii 3. new parlLiment, though the period that Imd elapsed from the 

nj^>lingof the former one was but six months. The new ministry, at 

ijt'iitl of which was Mr. Perceval, became wholly engros^jod in the ariairs 

' ; 111 cj and Portugal, 1808. The regent of Portugal had fled to his colony 

1 irii^il, and the French had taken possession of Lisbon : Spain, under 

.V '-ak C-harles IV., was, by the wasteful and unprincipled policy of Godoy, 

ce or the peace, in a state of revolution, so that the king gave up his 

-2. n to his son Ferdinand VII., March 19 : Napoleon was meanwhile 

-lusr Iiow best he might add the whole peninsula to F'rance. In a short 

e r.f time the Spanish family was invited by the latter to meet him at 

onTM?, just within the pale of France; and its members were there 

rallv compelled to abdicate their claims upon Spain, whose crown the 

•Tor had resolved to bestow on his own brother Joseph. Tliis trefi- 

-' .u5 pr<x*eeding caused a general rising both of Spaniards and Portu- 

-r ; and at Madrid, to strike terror into the insurgents, a fearful massacre 

Hti, hv order of the French general Wurat. Portugal was alone kept 

n hv a like severity; but Cadiz was secured by the British fleet; the 

nrh armv under Dupont, 15,000 strong, was compelled to surrender to 

patriot Castanos ; and a Spanish force, employed by Napoleon in Ger- 

is . revolted on hearing of the usage of the sovereign, and wiis conveyed 

.'British squadron to the penirisula. . „. „ , . , , 

T ua-* on the fst of August, 1808, that sir Arthur Wellesley, with the 

' h troops landed in Portugal : his splendid career will be found briefly 

IH in tlie account of the Peninsular War. To create a diversion in 

irof Austria, ngstin at war with Napoleon, the English sent an expe- 

^nbdiie the island of Walcheren, on the coast of Holland, 1H09 ; 

■' ^^ Ipfi disastrously. For after the island and fortress of Flushing 

, ' ^" L disoase seized the troops, and an immense sacrifice of life 

J "rf- ^«l 1 creat progress had been made by the British general, now 

•'^; yy tov^-'ards the expulsion of the enemy from the peninsula : 

j WfUmgton, j|,£.v retreated from the land where their hopes had been 

tn«' French, ^^ -^^ tamed, were guilty of crimes which deserve the un- 

'^.l and their P ^ ^f posterity. Every offence to which lust and rapine 

ri."d reprobati jj^cipled soldiery, was committed with impunity : the 

i prompt an «* I ^^^ ^gc afforded protection from murderous outrage : 

,;. nritlicr of sex 

6 GEORGE UL— 1789— 1815. [modmn 

and mangled cones and gmoking ruins marked the track by which those 
ruffian warriors retrograded. 

Meantime the war between England and France, liaYin^, during the first 
part of 1808, noplace of combat, necessarily languished, if we except the 
trifling display ot hostilities in the southern extremity of the kingdom of 
Naples. The English had still possession of Reggio on the continent, and 
of the rocky isle of Scylla ; and both those places fell to the overpowering 
force of the French in that quarter. Our operations at sea in that year 
were wholly confined to a long and unsuccessful search after a French 
squadron, which had escaped in January from Rochefort; and after tlic 
ocean about the West Indies, and the whole coasts of North and South 
America, had been swept by Sir Richard Strachan and admiral Duckworth, 
the enemy's ships were found safely harboured at Toulon. The fact, how- 
ever trifling, of a few ships haying kept the sea so long, undiscovered by the 
British fleets, formed a fine subject for the declamatory triumph or the 
French ; nor was the object of their cruise ever clearly ascertained. 

In 1609 the chief matters of interest were the trial of the duke of York, 
the annihilation of the pope*s power by Buonaparte, the battles of Corunna 
and Talavera in Spain, and the unfortunate expedition to the Scheld, which 
failed, as before mentioned, in its design, through the pestilential effects of the 
air around Flushing. A jubilee to commemorate the king's entrance upon the 
fiftieth year of his reign Was celebrated with the utmost display of loyalty 
and affection in OctoW, and closed the main events of the yea^. 

In 1810 the islands of Bourbon and France were captured by the English 
from France, as also was Guadaloupe ; and in 1811 the most important 
matter was the debate respecting the powers which ou^ht to be vested in 
the prince of Wales, on being appointed Regent, on occasion of the return of 
his parent's malady. But in 1812 the prince had full powers siven him ; and 
upon the assassination of the prime minister, Mr. rercevaT, in the same 
year, lord Liverpool was appointed his successor. Just as this change was 
taking place^ Napoleon commenced a war with Russia, which, though 
attended with success in the onset, ultimately proved the ruin of this soldier 
of fortune. The French having advanced, in spite of every resistance, to 
Moscow, the Russians set fire to their city ; the invaders were forced to 
retreat ; the severity of a northern winter succeeded ; and by thousands the 
invaders perished, as thev attempted a return to their native soil. The 
cause of Buonaparte in otner parts was equally on the decline : in Spain, 
king Joseph attacked lord Wellington at Vittoria, 1813, and was so com- 
pletely beaten, that he fled with the remnant of his army into France, and 
thus evacuated the peninsula : while Prussia, Sweden, and Austria united 
against the discomfited emperor, and obtained a decisive victory at Leipsic. 
The retreat of the defeated troops of Napoleon from Germany was most 
calamitous ; and they liad no sooner crcssed the Rhine, than the allied 
armies followed, and penetrated at once into the heart of France, 1814. 
Just as lord Wellington had gained a complete victoiy over marshal Sonit 
at Toulouse, he was informed of Napoleon's abdication, and that conse- 
quently the war he had conducted with such consummate prudence was 
at an end. His lordship soon after joined the emperor of Russia and 
king of Prussia at Paris ; Buonaparte was removed to the little isle of Elba, 
on the coast of Italy, with sovereign power ; and Louis XVIII. was re* 
called from exile to ascend the throne of his ancestors. 

But a year had scarcely elapsed, when all Europe was once more put in 
agitation, on hearing that Napoleon had landed again upon those inviting 
shores which were ever in his view. A congress of ambassadors from the 


GEORGE IIL—1789— 1815. 

iing powers was assembled at Vieima at the moment of this event, to 

i e the peace of Europe ; and it was now compelled to devise the 

11 est means of meeting an evil so strangely unapprdiended. The issue 

tiie important battle of Waterloo, 1815, which closed with the surrender 

lie disturber of nations, and his exile to St. Helena. Louis XVIII. was 

»red without opposition ; a few of Napoleon's most zealous partisans, of 

jm the chief were marshal Ney and colonel Labedoyere, suffered the 

antics of treason, while the greater part of the delinquents escaped with 

(initj; the wars which had so long distracted Europe^ were at length 

\y terminated ; and a peace, which promised, from the eiLhausted state of 

tiie nations concerned, to be one of considerable duration, was forth- 

Ti aad most happily established. 

^RiGiM OP XHB Jacobiks, 1789. — 

e first plotters against social order 

^ ranee hdd their secret conclaves 

a Dominican convent in Paris; 

1 :a9 tlie; Dominicans, or black friars, 

-K_' ix?.ually fslled Jacobins, from the 

' > r i ty gained to their order by the 

l^rtty and beneficence of the Do- 

. <.-iin monastery of the Rue de St. 

r.ios (S. Jacobus), established in 

I -^itb crentury, the usurpers of one 

!*^ houses of those worthy brotliers 

« 1 1 J leci, in derision, the same appel- 

>ri- The revolutionary club nad 

^'jioLlIy met at VersaiUes; but in 

- «. vb ben the strength of tlie popu- 

pnrty had increased, it removed to 

Oominican house, at that time in 

• Rue St. Honors The faction 

rt ised a great influence on the 

r.xs of the revolution ; and in 

«J, all the men of violent princi- 

-% in France were its associates. 

>clil5in, however, as is usual in 

tj unrighteous compacts, soon sent 

Dantoo, A/arat, and other like 

uiidrels, to form a worse league at 

- suppressed convent of the Corde- 

Ti. or Franciscan friars ; for it was 

trrand object of the enemies of 

Ir to show their triumph over re- 

.n, by converting the places hi- 

■ rro defotcd to it, i«to temples of 

Tjon. ITieantagonistfactionwas 

,. f orcfdiers . »" advocated mas- 
fi po5ed It <*P^„ -^and confiscation, 
"• P^'^'^^r'^lflkblisUing the sove- 

•uvoftbc P.^^^itU the Jacobin 

club, from which they took care to 
expel every man who would not swear 
to cut throats, or waylay, or in some 
way destroy, the foes ot the injured 
populace. The attack on the Tuile^ 
ries in August 1792, the massacres of 
the following September, the abroga- 
tion of royalty, in a word, all the atro- 
cities of the * reign of terror,' origi- 
nated with tliis club. After the 
death of Robespierre, the Jacobins 
gradually declined in power; and, 
when Buonaparte had assumed con- 
sular authority, they were never im- 
portantly heard of more. 

Thb Chouan Loyalists, 1789. — 
When the French revolution broke 
out, tlie western provinces of Bre- 
tagne and Poitou, but especially 
that part of the latter designated 
La Vend^, displayed a firm resolu- 
tion to support the cause of the 
throne ; a disposition which had, on 
former occasions of hazard to the mo- 
narciiy, been in the same manner 
evinced. An army was soon raised 
in La Vendue ; and as it was agreed 
that the pride of birth should be kept 
in strict subservience to the senti- 
ments of loyalty, its first commander- 
in-chief was a peasant named Cathe- 
lineau, who had been put in nomina- 
tion by the marcpiis de Lescure. 
Henri de Larochejaquelein, a young 
noble, and the marquis de Boncliamps, 
were subsequently in high command, 
and lost their lives in the cause ; and* 
as ol^scrved by a writer in the * Quar- 
terly Review,' * history, ancient and 
modem, min;ht be ransacked without 
finding parallels to tlie numerous in- 


GEORGE 111.-1789—1815. 


Btanccs of high daring, patient suffer- 
ing, and cheerful self-sacrifice' re- 
corded of the loyalists engaged in 
this fruitless struggle to prop a throne, 
long before thoroughly undermined 
by the enemies of kings and of reli- 
gion. Every class of persons in the 
two provinces named, joined fear- 
lessly in the cause ; and while from 
ten to twelve women regularly en- 
rolled themselves in the ranks, seve- 
ral boys, the sons of Bretagne nobles, 
did duty as aides-de-camp or officers. 
The chevalier de Mondyon, for in- 
stance, a lad of fourteen, was sta- 
tioned on one occasion near a tall 
officer, who complained of being 
wounded, and was about to retire. 
* I don't see that you are,' said de 
Mondyon, * and your retiring will 
only discourage the men ; besides, if 
you do attempt to go, I will shoot 
you through the head.' The remon- 
strance was effectual. The Vendean 
peasants rarely omitted saying their 
prayers before engaging in battle ; 
and most of them made the sign of 
the cross each time they fired. The 
fervour of the religious sentiment 
was well exemplified at the bat- 
tle of Fontenai : — * Before the at- 
tack,' writes Madame de Laroche- 
jaquelein, ' the soldiers received ab- 
solution. The generals then said to 
them. Now, friends, we have no pow- 
der : we must take these cannon with 
clubs. We must recover * Marie 
Jeanne' [a 12-pounder of fine work- 
manship, that had been taken by the 
republicans from the Chateau de 
Richelieu, where it had been placed 
by the famous cardinal] ; and there- 
fore let us see who runs the best ! 
The soldiers of M. de Lescure, who 
commanded the left wing, hesitating 
to follow him, he advanced alone 
thirty paces before them, and then 
stopping, called out, ' Vive le Roi !' 
A battery of six pieces fired upon 
him with case-shot. His clothes were 
pierced, his left spur carried away, 
and his right boot torn ; but he was 
not wounded. * You see, my friends,' 
cried he instantly, 'the Blues (i,e. 
republicans) do not aim well.' The ' 

peasants took courage, and rushed 
on ; and M. de Lescure, to keep up 
with them, was obliged to put his 
horse to the full troL At that mo- 
ment, perceiving a large crucifix, they 
threw themselves on their knees be- 
fore it. M. dc Bang^ wanted to urge 
them on. ' Let them pray,' said M. 
dc Lescure calmly. They soon rose, 
and again rushed on.' The issue was 
that * Marie Jeanne' was captured by 
the Vendeans, who regarded it as en- 
dowed with miraculous power, and 
were wont to adorn it with flowers 
and ribbons. 

l^hc modesty of the expectations of 
both peasants and nobles in case of suc- 
cess is tlie best proof of the pure and 
disinterested character of the Vendean 
loyalty. Henri de Larochejaquelein 
said, * If we establish the king upon 
the throne, he will grant me a regi- 
ment of hussars.' Another of tlii^ 
young nobleman's sayings is highly 
characteristic. When acctised of in- 
attention at the councils of war, he 
exclaimed, * Wliy was I made a ge- 
neral ? My only wish is to be a 
hussar, that I may have the pleasure 
of fighting.' Yet he made an excel- 
lent commander; and his dislike to 
councils of war appears to have been 
as well grounded as lord Clive's, who 
used to say that he never called but 
one council, and gained the battle 
(Plassy) by acting contrarj' to its ad- 
vice. His fondness for fighting was 
his chief error ; for he rushed to the 
fray as if he were summoned to a 
banquet, and gave his whole soul and 
spirit to the charge. In an attack on 
the republican camp, seeing his men 
recoil, he flung his hat into the in- 
trenchments, and calUng out, ' U ho 
will go and fetch it?' jumped in first, 
and was instantly followed by num- 
bers. Red handkerchiefs, the manu- 
facture of the country, formed a con- 
spicuous part of his costume : he 
wore one round his head, one round 
his neck, and several round his waist 
as belts. At Fontenai, the word 
among the Blues was, ' Aim at the 
red handkerchief;' and the other offi- 
cers entreated him not to make him- 


GEORGE III.— 1789— 1815. 


nia-rk. lor their musketry. But, 
i-ite as Nelsoo in that particular, 
*! Liseti ; and as the only means of 
1 5 i 11 n g his danger, they adopted 
r*r^i handkerchief themselves, 
n z xlie greater part of the war, 
cUt arm of Henri was useless 
a wound. In this condition, he 
;t tracked alone in a hollow way 
f '_»oi-soldier- Henri seized him 
•e collar witli his left hand, and 
-:z'^ his horse so well with his 
rlifit the man could not * hurt' 
Xhe peasants came up, and 
d lo kill the soldier; but he 
i not suffer it. * Return to the 
■lu-ans,' said he to the man; 
them you were alone with the 
c .f tlie Brigands, who has only 
^irjii. and no weapon; and that 
.Mild not kill him.' His pithy 
- -^ UD his followers is well known: 
ivaiioe, suivez moi : si je recule, 
Tnr>i : si je tombe, vengez moi.' 
v:i.^ kiJled towards the termina- 
< t the struggle ( 1 794), by one of 
zreiiadiers whom he had inter- 
i to save. The words * You shall 
'- your lives,* were hardly out of 
. y»>, when one of them shot him 
i^n the head. He was then 
tvrentv-ooe years and a few 
tl s old." 

If seat of the Choiian war was 
'\y in Bretagne ; for the people 

- it province, in tlie early part of 
-tru^irle, had constantly sheltered 

i of the Vendean peasantry as 

- obliged to seek refuge from the 
rity of the republicans, whom 

consequently drew upon them 

nrfiil arrav. ' The Choiian war,' 

Alt^)n, ''lonff consumed the vi- 

. and paralyzed the forces of the 

rnhlic. Tlie nobles of that dis- 

[(he errs as to tlie nobility of 

.. named). Puisaye, Bourmont, 

r.^e Cadoudal, and others com- 

. (J a ^lerilla warfare with mur- 


»O,000 men 

>d parties ol 

Brittany, inter- 

s, abounding 

ardently de- 

-r7n'S?-«» P»"'-f 

orm)Oeach. -^ abounding 

;.^ l,v wooded ^^^^"i^^nHv aI 
VI hardy smuggle 

voted to the royalist cause, and con- 
taining a population of 2,500,000 
souls, afforded far greater resources 
for the royalist cause than the deso- 
lated La Vendue, which never con- 
tained a third of that number of in- 
habitants. Puisaye was the soul of 
the insurrection. Proscribed by the 
Convention, with a price set upon 
his head, wandering from chateau to 
chateau, from cottage to cottaco, he 
became acquainted with the spirit of 
the Bretons, their inextinfriii-ihahle 
hatred of the Convention ; and he con- 
ceived the bold desij;n of hoisting the 
royal standard again amidst thoir se- 
cluded fastnesses. His indcfalisrable 
activity, energetic character, and com- 
manding eloquence, eminentij- quali- 
fied this intrepid cliief to become the 
leader of a party, and soon broushi 
all tlie other Breton nobles to range 
themselves under his standard.* 

The marquis de Bonchamps was 
the last of the Vendean chief com- 
manders. He made himseh' master 
of Fontenai, Saumnr, Angers, and 
other towns ; but in endeavouring to 
effect the passage of the Loire, 1 79,3, 
he was assailed by a superior repub- 
lican force, and received a mortal 
wound. The Vendee royalists were 
never able to make head ag;iin after 
this event. 

In the Chouan war fell, in the cause 
of royalty, above 200 noblemen pass- 
ing under fictitious names ; and of the 
private persons and peasantry who 
commenced the contest, not one in 
ten was alive at its close. On both 
sides, it would be no exaggeration to 
assert that 500,000 men, armed and 
unarmed, were sacrificed on the occa- 
sion. The word Chouan is a contrac- 
tion of chat huani, a common term of 
reproach, under the old regime, for a 
sullen person, who does not reveal 
his designs. As the word also 
means a screech-owl, which carries on 
its labours by night, and as the Ven- 
deans were accustomwl to drill their 
soldiery by night, before their plan of 
rising was matured, to keep their de- 
sign as secret as possible, they jocosely 
styled each other * chouan,' till the 


GEORGE IIL— 1789— 1815. 


meaning of the word, in its new ap- 
plication, became known. Since that 
time Ckouannerie is imderstood syno- 
nymously with 'loyalty/ and desig- 
nates in France a love of monarchy. 

Every thing connected with the 
Chouan contest is interesting ; and it 
IS to be lamented tliat its history 
exists only in petty and detached 
narratives of personal daring and 
hardships. Out of those small works, 
the escape of the marchioness de 
Bonchamps may be selected with ad- 
vantage to the reader. The tale is 
from her own memoirs, edited by 
Madame de Genlis ; and it must he 
premised that the marchioness, who 
nad accompanied the army of which 
her husband was tlie heroic leader, 
remained with it after hb decease, 
until its final dispersion a few months 
subsequent to that event. She then 
strove to conceal herself; and, in 
pursuance of her plan, took refuge, 
on the first nieht, at the house of an 
old servant, who was either unwilling 
or unable to grant her any longer an 

* I was abruptly roused/ she writes, 
' at five o'clock by the mistress of the 
house, who came in haste to tell me 
that the Blues were coming into those 
parts. I had only time to save my- 
self, with my two children and the 
girl who followed us, in order to reach 
the village of Saint Herbolon. The 
distance between that village and 
Ancenis is hardly four leagues ; but 
although we set ofi* at five o'clock in 
the evening, we onlv reached Saint 
Herbolon at six in the morning. It 
is true we were on foot, and that I 
carried Hermen^e on my back ; — my 
servant carried my daughter. We 
often saw the Blues at a distance ; 
and then we were obliged to so back : 
I am convinced that in this night we 
walked six or seven leagues. Having 
reached Saint Herbolon, after having 
been exposed to a thousand dangers, 
we were hospitablv received at a 
farm ; — that very oay a burning fe- 
ver obliged three of us to be put to 
bed. My daughter and myself found 
our boilies covered with pustules ; it 

was the small-pox. The symptom 
were very mild in my little girl, an< 
myself; but with Hermen^e th 
eruption was imperfect, and in tha 
moment he gave me the most heart 
rending anxiety. We were not ye 
recovered from this frightful malad^^ 
when some neighbours came to tel 
the farmer with whom we lodged 
that if he had Yendcans concealec 
with him, he ought to send tlien 
away without delay, to avoid tlie de 
struction of his house by a detaclv 
ment of Blues who were approaching 
The farmer led us, in this extremity 
to a bam open to every blast, and 
there laid us under the straw. Wc 
remained there all night. The exces- 
sive cold, joined to all that Uermendc 
had suffered at the passage of the 
Loire, completely threw back the 
eruption of the smallpox ; and the 
next day tliis dear child expired on 
my bosom. I know not what would 
have become of me in this horrible 
situation without religion, which is 
all-sufficient and all-supporting. I 
saw thb beloved child in heaven, and 
I onl^ wept for myself. I wrapped 
him m a large white handkerchief, 
and I held him dead in my arms for 
forty-eight hours, unwilling to part 
with the body till I could deposit it 
in consecrated ground. At length I 
found the means of having him se- 
cretly buried in the churchvard of 
Saint Herbolon. This cruel event 
having led to the discover}' that wc 
were sheltered in the barn, we were 
obliged to leave it. A good man of 
the village, named Drouneau, came 
to take us away ; and he conducted 
us (my daughter and myself) to the 
house of one of his relations at Har- 
douilli^re, about half a league from 
Saint Herbolon. We were yet co- 
vered with smallpox. I grieved to 
rrt from my faithful servant; but 
had the consolation of thinking, 
that, beine no longer with us, she hsud 
ceased to incur any individual danger. 
The Republicans having come from 
Nantes, to make a search about our 
new refuge, we were compelled with- 
out delay to leave the house; and 


GEOBGE IIL— 1789— 1815. 


^ve were placed in the hollow of a 
tree, about twdTO feet high. We 
dimhed to this hiding-place hy means 
of a ladder, and we remained in it 
three days and three nights, still in 
the smallpox ; I had moreover a ga- 
tiwring in the knee, and one in Sie 
hg, 1 soflfeied greatly from these 
two sores; yet I hdieve they contri- 
buted to save my life, as they freely 
earned off all the humours of my dis- 
ease. The good peasant placed near 
us, in the hollow of the tree, a small 
pitdier of water and a morsel of 
bread. After the moment of joy 
which I derived from the possibility 
of saving myself with my child, even 
in the hollow of a tree, who can ex- 
pre» all that I suffered in that situa- 
tion ? But it was an asylum, and in 
that terrible hour it was every thing. 
Never did any one with more satis- 
faction and pleasure take possession 
of a convoiient and suitable apart- 
ment. But, afterwards, what dark 
reflections came crowding upon my 
mind ! At the end of an hour I found 
myself so fatigued, by the constrained 
attitude in which 1 was obliged to 
remain in this narrow prison, and 
which I could not change, that I 
thou^t it would be impossible for 
me to close my eyes. My daughter 
suflened less than myself^ because I 
held her on my knees, and she could 
torn about, which she never did with- 
out rubbing my diseased knee: in 
these moments she always gave me 
extreme pain ; but 1 abstained from 
complaint. 1 spent, indeed, a horri- 
ble night, and my inquietude, as well 
as my bodily sufferings, did not allow 
me a moment of repose. My daugh- 
ter slept a little; but during her 
sleep she constantly groaned, and her 
wailings wrung my heart. When she 
awoke, it was to ask for drink. I 
was myself devoured by a burning 
thirst, which 1 dared not satisfy, in 
the fear of exhausting our little store 
of water. At leng5i, at daybreak, 
oarduuitable peasant came to bring 
US sme brown bread and some ap- 
Dies, This visit alone was a conso- 
Cra me; ie proved to me that 

we were not entirely abandoned, and 
that we had yet a support and a pro- 
tector. I had no appetite, but I 
eagerly ate some of the apples, be- 
cause they quenched m^ thirst a lit- 
tle; but I soon perceived that this 
bad nourishment aggravated my dis- 
ease. My daughter experienced the 
same effect ; — our fever redoubled. 
In spite of the cold of the season, we 
were both bumins; we were not 
only widiont a physician, without 
any relief from skill, without servants, 
but without a bed, without a room, 
without having even the possibility 
of stretching ourselves ; a prey to 
the sufferings of a dangerous malady, 
and exposed to the inclemency of 
the air ; for if the weather had not 
been frosty, and had become stormy, 
the rain and hail would have fallen 
in our tree. In this dreadful state, 
it appeared impossible not to sink 
speedily under such a combination of 
evils. This idea caused in me the 
most extraordinary feeling that could 
ever distract the mind of a mother ; I 
wished to survive my daughter, had 
it been only for an hour. I could 
not bear the thought of what would 
become of her — of what she would 
feel, when I should no longer answer 
her, when she would no longer receive 
my caresses, when I should no longer 
support her in my arms, when she 
should see me motionless, lifeless, 
cold, insensible to her tears and her 
cries. These thoughts rent my soul ; 
they would assuredly have cost me my 
life but for religion, which lifted me 
above myself. I prayed with confi* 
dence, fervour, and resignation ; and 
after every prayer, poured out from 
tiie bottom of my heart, I felt myself 
strengthened and reanimated ; my 
pulse beat with less violence; my 
fever lessened ; my heavy eyes closed ; 
and I sometimes slept two or three 
hours in succession, with the sweetest 
and calmest sleep ; mv daughter also 
recovered her strength, and 1 ceased 
to fear for her life. On the morning 
of the third day, they brought us some 
milk, which I saved for my child, and 
which did her great good. At length 


GEORGE III.— 1789— 1815. 


our place of refuge was discovered, 
or at least suspected. A peasant, 
passing in the dusk of the evening 
near our tree, tieard me cough seve- 
ral times ; he guessed that some- 
body was hidden in the tree. On 
his arrival in the village, he men- 
tioned the circumstance. An old 
soldier of the army of M. de Bon- 
champs heard his account : he was 
living with his aged father. Having 
served in the army of the royalists, 
he often hid himself when the repub- 
licans passed through the village. 
Believing I was only a fugitive, ne 
soon discovered the truth ; but he 
abstained speaking of it to the other 
villagers. He pretended to retire to 
rest ; but instead of lying down, he 
came immediately to the place where 
I was, of which he had informed him- 
self. All at once, towards the end 
of the night, I heard myself called by 
my name ; — the unsuitable hour, and 
the rough voice of a man which I did 
not recognise, terrified me very much. 
I did not answer. The soldier was 
not discouraged ; he pronounced his 
name ; but that did not give me confi- 
dence, for I did not remember it. 
Nevertheless, he persisted, adding in 
alow voice, lYutt yourself to a soldier 
of tke army of jSonchamps. This 
name, so dear, produced upon me the 
effect which he expected. My tears 
flowed whilst I thanked God for 
sending me a deliverer. He climbed 
the tree, assisted me to get up to 
him. and prevailed upon. me to place 
myself on his shoulders. Although 
the load was heavy, he descended 
with much dexterity and good for> 
tune ; but as he was reaching the 
ground, his foot slipped, and we all 
fell into the hedge. My fear for my 
child was extreme ; but I was soon 
comforted, for this poor little girl, 
who suffered no injury from the fall, 
began to laugh at it. This laughter, 
so astonishing in our circumstances, 
this sound, so strange to my ear, at 
once caused me surprise, joy, and the 
most tender emotion. The soldier 
conducted us to his fathcr*s house 
hard by. The good old man and his 

family received us with an affecting 
cordiality. They lighted a large tire, 
which produced such an effect upon 
me, that, having warmed myself for a 
moment, I fainted. The good peo- 
ple, in their terror, thought at first I 
was dead. At length, by their kind 
attentions, I recovered my senses. 
They put me with my little girl to 
bed ; and although we liad only a bad 
mattress, I found it delightful. The 
possibility of stretching myself caused 
me the most agreeable sensation ; 1 
never passed a better night. Our 
sleep was long and peaceful, and t\\v 
next morning we were really conva- 
lescent. But the terrifying news of 
the approach of the Blues forced us, 
the following night, to hide ourselvo^ 
with the soldier in a large stack of 
hay ; I again slept very well, and 
only awoke in broad daylight, but 
with a violent headach. However, 
the soldier, who feared for hhnself at* 
well as for us, told me that the direc- 
tion which the Blues had taken made 
it necessary for us to go back to la 
Hardouilliere. The good people at la 
Hardouillibre received me with the 
more joy, as they had been very un- 
easy on my account, not having Riund 
me in my tree. They told me they 
would give me refuge as long as I 
pleased. I rested myself there for 
some da}^ ; and surely never did the 
magnificence of a palace cause so 
much pleasure as the satisfaction 1 
experienced in that cottage; having 
the power to sit on a w(M)den stool 
before a rude table, with the liberty 
of going about the house, and enjoy- 
ing the comfort of a lamp in the even- 
ing, and spending the night on a straw 
bed ! But 1 saw clearly that 1 com- 
promised my kind hosts, though their 
friendly reception and generosity were 
the same. There was, at a little dis- 
tance from the farm, a large hollow 
tree ; and I there resolved to hide my- 
self, but alone, confiding my daugh- 
ter to these peasants. 1 established 
myself in that tree ;— but not so high 
up as in the first I only remained 
there onedav, for nobody could brin^ 
me food. iThey made me leave it 


GEORGE IIL— 1789— 1815. 


n the morniDg; I promised to 
to the cottage in the evening ; 

ii tenir2uxis changed my design, 
ib:*n<ioned myself entirely to 

ionoe- I wandefed alone in 
- Ld ; I passed tlie night in a 
; at length the voices of some 

lir^n troops who passed by 
I' me. Although I was dressed 
-»-a-ajit, and pretended to be an 

-jnt of the countiy-, they ar- 
i me." Madame de Bonchamps 
'-.i*-d. in the end, in obtaining her 
-e ari<l pwirdon from the Blues ; 

•-r ciaughter is now the wife of 

• ie Breton. — (See Breton Siu- 

a n d. J^murrection of the Duchet* 


. !?ooner had Antwerp yielded to 

rench amis, than, in order to 

ii;ite the Belgians, the opening 

-^ n^*vi^ation of the Scheld, shut 

V the treaty of Munster, 1648, 

-•ejected and ordered ; notwith- 

r.i^ this treaty had been con- 

i to tlie Dutch by subsequent 

• i-ents, and those guaranteed 
: y the courts of Versailles and 

.■ .ri. The Dutch regarded the 

' tk' as injurious to their trade, 

• Antwerp might prove a dau- 

-s rival to Amsterdam; and the 

ri.>n formed one of the reasons 

i\ induced the parliament of 

it Britain to oppose the unwar- 

I'lle pretensions of the French. 

ME Scottish Episcopal Church 

1 jf-ED. — In 1792 tlie roj-al assent 

;!ivpn to the Scottish Episco- 

in Relief bill (seir \o\. ii. 178); 

a^ the bodv thus aided had not 

■Minted the confessional of the 

• h of En'^Iand, Mr. Sandlord, 
. [,ad the care of a congregation 
ibe latter church in Ldinburgh, 
„.nuJh suggested to Dr. Skuiner 

n of Aberdeen, and primus of 
,,.•3- art/cJes on the part of Ins 
mi7 Uect wliat was greatly 
3 ^t'"'^/^j^''.^.o episcopalian 
- 'J'^'^f^ ' oerfect union.* The 
;^.rjanieiv,a f' j convened at 

'''n!rfadap"eda"d subscribed 

the 39 articles as the permanent 
standard of the Scottish Episcopal 
Church ; whereon Mr. Sandford 
united himself and his congregation 
to her communion, and was soon 
afterwards raised to the Scottish sec 
of Edinburgh, vacant by the retire- 
ment of Dr. Abernethy Drummond. 
The cruelty exercised against this 
pure branch of the Church Catholic 
had been most unmerited. After 
the rebellion of I74j, the edilices 
wherein its members had assembled 
for divine worship were every where 
burned by the English soldiery ; 
though no political guilt could possi- 
bly be attributed to any individual of 
the community, and though its doc- 
trine and discipline were precisely 
those of the church of England, save 
as to subscription. But this was not 
all. Laws were subsequently passed, 
whereby its clergy were subject to 
transportation for life, if three times 
convictfxi of the crime of reading 
the English service in the company 
of more thau four persons ; and 
every layman present was to be de- 
prived for life of all civil and political 
privileues ! These laws had con- 
tinued in force, until the exertions of 
Judge Park and his friends, as before 
stated, obtained their repeal. 

In 1841 a laudable desire on the 
part of the lay members of this ill- 
used church, induced the excellent 
primus. Dr. Skinner, bishop of Aber- 
deen (son of the before-nuined pri- 
mus), and his brother prelates, to set 
on foot a subscription for the erection 
and endowment of a theological school 
and college, to be devoted to the 
training of its candidates for holy 
orders. * Our church (records the 
party) having been long depressed, 
iiath suffered the total loss of tem- 
poral endowments ;' but we rejoice 
to say that the call has been miuiili- 
cently responded to, and that among 
the subscribers are the duke of liuc- 
cleugh, John Gladstone, Esq., and 
the Society for Promoting Christian 
Knowledge, for 1000/. each. 

Federate Republicanism, \79ii. 
—-The tvrannv of the Convention, 


GEORGE III.— 1789— 1815. 


which was daily bringing to the scaf- 
fold at Paris some great leader of the 
Revolution^ without regard to his 
belonging to the moderate or the 
terrorist mction, caused those through- 
out France who still retained pro- 
perty, though originally advocates of 
the Revolution, to change, in a mear 
sure, their sentiments. Such persons 
every where cooled in their attach- 
ment to the great movement ; and, in 
Sroportion as Uieir love of change 
immished, a desire to go back to 
old feelings, and to restore the mo- 
narchy began to prevail. But they 
had a vast deal to contend against ; 
and their first measure was to form 
leagues, under the title of * federate 
republicanism,' in order the better to 
keep the bloodthirsty Convention at 
bay, before the general mind of the 
nation should be sounded as to the 
restoration of royalty. The chief 
formidable league with this view, was 
that entered into by the three cities 
in the south of France, Lyons, Mar- 
seilles, and Toulon. The Conven- 
tion on hearing of this federation, 
179S, and seeing that no time was 
to be lost, instantly sent Kellermann 
with 80,000 troops, and a considera- 
ble train of artillery, to reduce Lyon.<i 
to obedience. The siege commenced 
on September 19, and lasted till the 
9th ot October. The powers of de- 
scription are inadequate to the hor- 
rors which succeeded the surrender 
of the devoted city. Above 2000 
persons were put to death by the 
guillotine and musket, independently 
of the numbers which had been slain 
in the course of the siege ; making 
the total loss to the country at least 
15,000. As the opulent inhabitants 
had been the chief promoters of the 
union, the confiscations of their pro- 
perty amounted to the enormous 
sum of 150 millions sterling. The 
total of the condemned was so 
peat, that they were bound together 
m fifties and sixties, and blown to 
pieces by cannon loaded with grape^ 
shot The Marseillais opened their 
gates on the approach of the repub- 
lican army, and submitted; and it 

was on this occasion that a subser- 
vient musician composed 'the Mar- 
seillaise Hymn,' which became ever 
after the republican pean, or trium- 
phant song of each dominant demo- 
cracy. On the other hand, the peo- 
ple of Toulon entered into a nego- 
tiation with the English admiral, lord 
Hood ; who took possession of the 
city and shipping, in the name of 
Louis XVII., throwing into the place 
a mixed force of all nations, amount- 
ing to 18,000 men. Toulon was at 
length invested ; and on the SOth of 
November, the garrison having made 
a vigorous sortie, in order to destroy 
some batteries which the enemy 
were erecting, the French troops 
were surprised, and compelled to fly. 
The allies, too much elated with 
their success, pursued tlie fugitives 
till tliey unexpectedly encountered a 
considerable force sent to cover their 
retreat ; and in the conflict which 
ensued, nearly 1000 of the British 
and alHed forces were killed, wounded, 
or captured. On the night of De- 
cember 19th, the allies and part of 
the inhabitants (having previously 
set fire to the town and shipping} 
evacuated the place. 

The precipitation with which the 
evacuation was effected, was attended 
with the most melancholy conse- 
quences to the wretched inhabitants, 
who crowded to the shores, and de- 
manded the protection promised them 
by the British. Though every effort 
was made to receive them on board 
the ships, thousands were left to fall 
into the hands of their enraged coun- 
trymen. Many made a vain attempt 
to swim to the- fleet, while some 
were seen to shoot themselves in 
despair on the beach. The flames, 
meanwhile, were seen spreading in 
every direction, and the ships that 
had been set on fire, threatened to 
destroy, by their sudden explosion, 
every thing around them. The scene 
on board the fleet was scarcely less 
dreadful. Laden with the hetero- 
geneous mixture of nations; with 
aged men and infants, as well as 
women ; with the sick from all the 


GEORGE ni.— 1789— 1815. 


InsfHtmb, and the mangled Boldiere 
from the posts just deserted, their 
voonds ^1 undressed ; nothing 
cookl equal the horrors of the speo 
tade, except the still more appalling 
cnes of distraction and agony that 
filled the ear, for husbands, fathers, 
and children, left on shore to perish. 
It is needless to say that ' federate 
repubBcanisin' was heard of no more. 

Tbs New Fbench Calendab, 
1793. — Fabre d*Eg^tine made the 
jtMr to commence on the 22d of 
September (the autiminal equinox), 
a period inconsistent with the laws 
of nature, the sun being then retro- 
grade. The object of the change 
was an impious attempt to obliterate 
every allusion to the deity, by abol- 
ishing the Sabbath from the Calen- 
dar. As all important fects during 
the Revolution, and for some time 
after, were recorded by this new 
nomenclature, it may be useful to 
show how it designated the ancient 
dirision of months. Auiumn. Yen- 
demaire (vintage), September, 22 ; 
Bruniaire (foggy), October 22 ; Fri- 
maiie (frosty ^Twovcmber 21 ; fVm- 
itr, Nivose (snowy), December 2 1 ; 
Plurioae (imny), January 20 ; Yen- 
tose (windy), February 19; Spring, 
Geraunal (budding), March 21 ; 
Floreai (flowery), April 20 ; Prairial 
(faaj-hanrest). May 20 ; Summer, Mes- 
sidor (com-lmrvest), June 19; Ther- 
midor (hot), July 1 9; Fructidor (fruit), 
August 18. Every month was to con- 
ast of thirty days, and those days were 
divided into decades (or weeks of ten 
days) : as this, however would give the 
year only 960 days, five were added an- 
swering to those of our September, 
from toe 17th to the 21st; and in 
leap-year a sixth was appended. The 
deqJes, thirty-six in number, were 
named distinctively in numerical or- 
der ; the first being Primidi, the se- 
cond Dnodi, and so on ; and each so 
named ten days was devoted to some 
virtue, grace, or moral principle ; the 
first to Nature and the Supreme 

Betn^ the second to the human race, 
the third to the French people, the 
«i/i to Uberty and equahty, the 

tenth to the hatred of tyrants, the 
twenty-sixth to filial piety, and so on. 
The five supplementary days were 
called Sans-culottides, out of respect 
to the unclad revolutionary mob, 
called Septembrizers, and were kept 
as days of joy. A large party in the 
state still persisted in observing the 
Sunday, and manv in trade shut their 
shops on that oay : such persons 
were called Dominicans, and the ob- 
servers of the new code Decadists, 
from their calling every tenth day, as 
well as the tenth decade, decadi. 

Lord Macartney's Embassy to 
China, 1798.— The squadron, hav- 
ing onJ[)oard the ambassador of the 
king of Great Britain (consisting of 
the Lion, Hindustan, and Jackal), 
anchored in a broad bay in the Yel- 
low Sea, near the city of Ten-chu-fn, 
the last syllable of which always de- 
notes a place of the first order. Some 
of the suite were constantly invited 
by mandarins to land, and hold -con- 
versation with them in a temple 
close to the shore; when particular 
inquiries were made as to the species 
of nutriment to which the ambassa- 
dor and his suite had been accus- 
tomed, and how his excellency wished 
to travel. In the crowd were some 
of the bonzes, or priests of the tem- 
ple ; and these were remarkable for 
the contrast between their gray beards, 
and their robes of rose-coloured silk. 
On August 5, lord Macartney and 
his suite were shipped on board junks, 
vessels very capacious, but built of 
such light wood, and so construct- 
ed, that they did not draw more than 
eighteen inches of water, though 
they were lofty above it ; and in these 
they reached Ta-cu,up the Pei-ho river, 
that evening. Most of the houses on 
their way were little better than huts, 
with mud walls and thatched roofs. 
A few buildings were large, elevated, 
painted, and ornamented, like the 
dwellings of opulence ; but there were 
scarcely any which indicated the exist- 
ence of middle ranks, or the multi- 
plied gradations existing elsewhere 
between abundant wealtli and abso- 
lute indigence. The young children 


GEORGE III.— 1789— 1815. 


seen about were mostly naked ; the 
men in general were well-looking, 
well-limbed, strong, and muscular; 
the few women who were in tlie 
ways were very alert, but their faces 
were not visible. The progress of 
the embassy up the Pei-ho was very 
slow, from the very serpentine form 
of the river ; and when the first night 
came on, the banks were illuminated 
by lanterns, the transparent sides of 
which were made of differently co- 
loured paper. The number ol lan- 
terns hoisted at the same time on the 
mast-heads of the various vessels in 
the river, denoted the respective ranks 
of the passengers on board ; all which 
produced a moving and particolour- 
ed illumination, a species of magnifi- 
cence much affected by the Chinese. 
The night was nearly as noisy as the 
day, to which contributed not a little 
the shrill sounds of the loo or gong, 
on every occasion of conveying sig- 
nals. On arriving next day at Tien- 
sing, where the viceroy resided, lord 
Macartney was informed that the 
emperor was at his country residence 
of Zhe-hol, in Tartary ; and it was 
therefore resolved to go on to Tong- 
chu-fu by water, and thence journey 
by land to Zhe-hol. A play was per- 
formed in a temporary theatre, open 
to the air, which the viceroy com- 
manded to be erected opposite the 
ambassador's junk, before his excel- 
lency proceeded ; and in the way to 
Tong-chu-fu all the carriages observed 
on the roads had only two wheels, 
many gentlemen were seen on horse- 
back, and many ladies in close litters, 
suspended between mules. Not the 
slightest rise of ground was observed 
by the party between the river and 
the horizon, on cither side, until the 
fourth day of their departure from 
Tien-sing, when some blue mountains 
were observed rising from the north- 
west ; and they indicated the ap- 
proach to Pekin, beyond wliich they 
were situated. From Tong-chu-fu 
the embassy passed on, in their own 
post-chariots, to Pekin ; and it was 
remarked on reaching that city, that 
not one person in the garb of a beg- 

gar had been seen. On the way from 
Tong-chu-fu, every Chinese gentle- 
man, whether on horseback or in a 
two-wheeled vehicle, alighted, out uf 
respect to the ambassador; and the 
road between the two placis was 
paved in the centre with flags of gra- 
nite. On entering Pekin, it exhi- 
bited an appearance contrary to that 
of European cities, in which the 
streets are often so narrow, and the 
houses so lofty, that from one extre- 
mity of a street the buildings appear 
at the other to be leaning towards* 
and closing upon each other. Here 
few of the houses were higher than 
one story; none more than two ; 
while the width of the street which 
divided them was considerably above 
100 feet. The first street extended 
in a line directly to the westward, 
until it was interrupted by the 
eastern wall of the imperial pa- 
lace, called * the yellow wall,' from 
the colour of the small roof of 
varnished tiles with which the top of 
it is covered. Various public build- 
ings, seen at the same time, and con- 
sidered as belonging to the emperor, 
were covered in tlie same manner. 
Those roofs, uninterrupted by chim- 
neys, and indented in the sides and 
ridges into gentle curves, witli an 
effect more pleasing than would be 
produced by long straight lines, were 
adorned with a variety of figures, 
either in imitation of real objects, or 
more commonly as mere works of 
fancy ; and the whole, shining like 
gold under a brilliant sun, imme- 
diately caught the eye with an ap- 
pearance of grandeur in that part of 
buildings where it was not accustomed 
to be sought for. In front of most 
of the houses were shops painted 
and gilt, and decorated like those of 
Tong-chu-fu, but in a grander style. 
Over some of them were broad ter- 
races, covered with shrubs and flowers. 
Before the doors several lanterns were 
hung of horn, muslin, silk, and paper, 
fixed to frames ; in varying the form 
of which, the Chinese seemed to have 
exercised their fancy to the utmost. 
Outside the shops, as well as within 


GEORGE ni.--l789— 1815. 


displayed a variety of goods 
r'^-sale. Several circumstaoces, in- 
i^-endendy of the arrival of stran- 
ZfTs, contributed to tliroDg so wide a 
■^T^et. A procession was moving 
t'-vards the gate, in which the white, 
.: bridal colour, according to Euro- 
>?an ideas, of the persons who formed 
■u seemed at first to announce a 
Marriage ceiemony ; but the appear- 
inre of young men, overwhelmed 
%ith grieC showed it to be a funeral, 
rj-jch more indeed than die corpse\£, which was contained in a hand- 
some square case, shaded with a ca- 
nopy, painted vrith gay and lively 
ojlouia, and preceded by standards of 
Tariegated silks. Behind it were 
«edaii-diairs covered with white cloth, 
noQtainiiig the female relations of the 
deceased ; the white colour denoting 
ciMiction in China. White is, there- 
fore, never seen in the ceremony of 
r.u ptiab, a procession of which was met 
focMi afto^rards, where the lady (as yet 
liDseen hy the brid^TOom) was being 
rzmcd in a gilt and gaudy chair, 
iiing round with festoons of artificial 
Acrweis, and followed by relations, 
uttendants^ and servants, bearing the 
parapfaemalia, being the only portion 
ciren with a daughter in marriage by 
i>er parents. The crowd was not a 
little increased bv the mandarins of 
rLok appearing always with numer- 
o'ls attesidants; and still more by 
circles of the populace round auc- 
tioneers, venders of medicines, for- 
tunetellers, singers, jugglers, and sto- 
ry-tellers* beguiling their hearers of 
a' few of their chen, or copper-money. 
Among tlie stories tliat caught 
the imagination of the people, tlie 
zTTi^ of the embassy was said 
to famish no inconsiderable share. 
The presents conveying by it to the 
emperor were asserted to include 
lb hatever was rare in other countries, 
or not known before to the Chinese. 
Of the animals brought it was gravely 
mentioned, that there was an elephant 
ef the size of a monkey, and as fierce 
2< a lion ; and a cock that fed on 
niarcoal. - Every thing was supposed 
to vary from what had been seen in 

VOL. Ill, 

Pekin before, and to possess qualities 
different from what had been there 
experienced in the same substances. 
The sight of the strangers, bringing 
such extraordinary curiosities, dis- 
turbed, as they passed along, the se- 
veral occupations of the people ; and 
Chinese soldiers, seeing the crowd 
stop the carriage-way, drove the peo- 
ple off* by smacking long whips upon 
the ground. Among the spectators 
of the novel sight were some women 
of a Tartar race. Their feet were 
not cramped, like those of the Chi- 
nese ; and a thick patch of vermi- 
lion on the middle of the lower lip 
seemed to be a fiivourite mode of 
using paint. Some of them were 
sitting in covered carriages; others 
were on horseback, and rode astride 
like men. At length the embassy 
crossed a street which extended the 
whole length of the Tartar city, (Pe- 
kin being divided into two parts, one 
called the Tartar city, walled in, and 
a full third larger than London, pro- 
perly so called ; the other half, called 
the Chinese city, is surrounded by a 
wall of nine miles in length, having 
a diameter of three miles), namely, 
four miles! internipted only by tri- 
umphal fabrics and pagodas, the latter 
being only ornamental erections, 
and not temples, — the temples being 
in all respects like common houses. 

On reaching the part of the Tartar 
city where stands the imperial palace, 
the embassy had a view of its gardens, 
on entering one of three immense 
gates in the wall. The grounds oc- 
cupied about a square mile, and were 
laid out precisely in the manner de- 
picted on the Chinese skreens, paper, 
and pictures, which, in days of old, 
were used to ornament English man- 
sions. The ground was seldom level, 
as outside the garden wall ; some of 
it was raised into hills of steep ascent ; 
and tlie earth taken to form them 
left broad and deep hollows, which 
became filled with water. Out of 
these artificial lakes, of which the 
margins were diversified and irregu- 
lar, small islands rose, with a variety 
of fanciful edifices, interspersed with 


GEORGE in.— 1789— 1815. 


trees. On hills of different heights, 
the various buildings, which together 
form the palace, were erected, of 
course detached, and constructed in 
the most fanciful ways, highly adorned 
with gilding, and brilliant colouring, 
and affording a complete scene of 
enchantment, when contrasted with 
the dark foliage through which the 
gilt and enamelled parapets and pa- 
goda points in all directions seemed 
to burst. Fanciful bridges, highly 
painted, and hung witli bell-shaped 
ornaments, ran from lake to lake ; 
and from many of the grotesque 
buildings were long lines of zig-zag 
railing, gilt or coloured, but occasion- 
ally hidden by the profusion of flow- 
ers of extraordinary size, colours, and 
beauty, which burst through the &n- 
tastic openings of the fence, as if to 
outvie Its imitative painting. Most 
of the buildings themselves were ap- 

Sroached bv a flight of steps, and the 
oors of tnem paved with what ap- 
peared to be marble of various co- 
lours, cut into diamond shapes. 

At length the embassy was on 
the road to Tartary, lord Macart- 
ney's post-carriage being drawn by 
four Tartar horses, and being the 
first four-wheeled and English car> 
riage that had ever rolled thereon. 
His lordship took occasionally some 
of the mandarins into his carriage, 
who were at flrst somewhat startled, 
fearing lest it should overturn : but, 
being assured of its perfect safety, 
they became inexpressibly delighted 
witn its easiness, lightness, and rapi- 
dity. About twenty miles from the 
capital, the country towards Tartary 
began to rise ; and a few miles fur- 
ther on, tlie travellers stopped for the 
day at one of the emperor's palaces, 
surrounded with a park and measure- 
grounds. On the fourth day from 
Pekin, a prominent line was descried 
by the embassy in its progress, whidi, 
on a nearer survey, assumed its real 
form of a wall with battlements. This 
was the famous Wall of China, which 
is not so remarkable for its antiquity, 
amounting to three centuries beyond 
the Christian era, nor for its extent 

of 1500 miles, as for the wonderfu 
appearance of the mountains ovei 
which it is carried, and which are ap* 
parently inaccessible. As the travel- 
lers advanced into Tartary, the road< 
became more rueged, the mountains 
less richly dotlieoTand the trees were 
chiefly stunted oaks, aspen, elm, ha- 
zel, and walnut, diminished to the 
size of shrubs. Dunns the seven tli 
and last day's journey, tne mountains, 
receding a little from each other, open- 
ed to the view of the travellers the val- 
ley of Zhe-hol. Here his imperial ma- 
jesty retires in summer from his Chi- 
nese dominions, to a pakce and plea- 
sure-grounds; the former called * the 
seat of grateful coolness,' and the lat- 
ter ' the oarden of innumerable trees.' 
The roaa near to Zhe-liol is percep- 
tible from an eminence in the em- 
peror's gardens ; and from that spot, 
as was afterwards learned, his im- 
perial majesty had the curiosity to 
view the procession of the embassy. 
It was received with military honours, 
amid a crowd of spectators on horse- 
back and on foot. Tlie suite of edi- 
fices destined for the embassy was 
situated on the gentle slope of a 
hill, at the southern extremity of the 
town of Zhe-hol. On the north side 
of that town, which, except the 
houses of mandarins, consisted of 
miserable hovels, the imperial gar- 
dens, the palaces, and the temples, 
displayed much grandeur: magnifin 
cence and wretchedness seem to know^ 
no medium in China,— a manifest 
proof of the antiquity of the country, 
and that it lias been rarely interfered 
with by other nations, of which 
another evidence is the names of 
streets and places, all of which were 
found to be not arbitrary appella- 
tions, but descriptive of things exist- 
ing in such streets or places. 

It being determined, after much 
debate, that the embassy need not 
prostrate themselves before the em-; 
peror, lord Macartney and his suite 
went before daylight, on the morning 
fixed for the first audience, to the 
garden of the palace of Zhe-hol. In 
the midst of the garden was a spa-i 

GEORGE IIL--I789u^l815. 


doQs and magDificeDt tent, supported 
h gilded pillais : and in this, his 
imperial majesty, Kien LuDg, was to 
receive, sealed on bis throne, as a 
prtscular distinction, the delegate 
from the king of Great Britain. Soon 
2fcer daylight, the sound of several 
instmments, and the confused voices 
cftaen at a distance, announced the 
emperor^s approach. He soon ap- 
;«ared from behind a hirii and per- 
pendicular mount skirted with trees, 
iLs if from a sacred grove, preceded 
by a number of persons busied in 
jjrodaimlDg aloud his virtues and his 
jower. He was seated in a trium- 
piial car, borne W sixteen men ; and 
WM acoompanied by guards, officers 
rif the household, flag and um|>rel]»> 
bearers, and music. He was clad in 
plain purple silk, with a bonnet like 
that of Scottish Highlanders, but 
ijn ing on the front of it a large pearl 
— ^the only ornament he wore. On 
^vLs entrance into the tent, his majesty 
luoanted the throne by the front 
•^teps, consecrated to his use alone. 
Three of the principal persons of 
iiL^ honsdold were close to him, and 
alwmys *V^^^ ^ ^>° upo° ^^^^ 
knees. The princes of his family, 
%^ tributaries, and great officers of 
sute, haTti^ taken Uieir places, tlie 
preiident m ' the tribunal of rites' 
condu4;ted the ambassador, attended 
br his page and interpreter, to the 
steps or the throne, on the left side, 
vbich is in China accounted the 
place of honour. The other gentle- 
men of the embassy, and a great 
Qomber of mandarins, stood at the 
rpening of the tait, whence most of 
the ceremonies could be observed. 
The emperor, after some conversar 
uon with the ambassador, gave, as 
die first present to bis Britannic ma- 
jesty, a gem, accounted by the Chi- 
licse of high value : it was upwards 
« f a loot long, and carved into the 
form of a sceptre. The etiquette 
rcquinog tliat ambassadors should, 
blades the presents brought in the 
I aroe of the sovereign, offer others 
on iheir own part, his excellency 
2od h0 suite respectfully presented 

theirs; which Kien Lung conde- 
scended to receive, and give in re- 
turn others to them. (This inter- 
change of presents is an indubitable 
proof of the antiquity and primitive- 
ness of the Chinese nation.) During 
the ceremonies, Kien Lung appeared 
perfectly unreserved, cheerful, and 
unaffected. Througliout the day, 
his attention to his guests did not 
abate ; a banquet being served, he 
sent them several dishes from his 
own table ; and soon after the am- 
bassador had retired,'.he transmitted to 
him presents of silk, porcelain, and tea. 
The next example of civility was an 
invitation to see the pleasure-grounds 
of Zhe-hol, which included the ut- 
most variety of surface ; some parts 
bearing the hardy oaks of nortbera 
liills, and others the tender plants of 
southern valleys ; tlie whole exhibit- 
ing the striking contrast of rugged 
wUdness and cultivated softness. 

After many interviews, in one of 
which there was a ludicrous scene with 
the Chinese astronomers, who laughed 
heartily on hearing explained the 
Copernican hypothesis, and the New- 
tonian system of gravitation, the 
embassy quitted China for England, 
having remained five montlis in the 
country ; during whidi more know- 
ledge was gained by Europeans, of 
its inhabitants and their customs, 
than had been acquired in as many 
preceding centuries. It is clear that 
the Chinese are the political and 
almost moral antipodes of modem 
nations. We have shown how the 
right hand yields the place of honour 
to the left, and how white usurps 
the place of black : to these may be 
added, hanging liaving the precedence 
of beheading, the nobles, if requisite, 
being hung, and the vulgar be- 
heackd ; and whereas in Europe 
parents transmit nobility to their 
children, a man of China, who has 
been illustrious by his own merit, 
communicates the honours of rank 
and title, not to his descendants, but 
to his deceased progenitors. As 
respects 'office* in China, knowledge 
is the sole passport to promotion; 


GEORGE IIL— 1789— 1815. 


and all aspirants undergo very rigid 
examinations. Tlie population of 
Pekin is understood to be above two 
tfiillions ; but Nanking is a still 
larger city. The canals of China 
are, like its wall, wonders of art : 
what is termed ' the great canal' is 
above 600 miles long, and 30,000 
men were employed 40 years in its 
construction. Every province has 
its canal, with branches to each im- 
portant town. (See Lord Amhenft 


— Thaddeus Kosciusko, descended 
from an ancient and noble, though 
not rich family, in Lithuania, was 
born 1 756, and educated in the mili- 
tary school at Warsaw. The prince 
Adam Czartoriski, perceiving his 
talents and industry, made him se- 
cond lieutenant in the corps of cadets, 
and sent him, at his own expense, to 
France, where he studied drawing 
and the military art. Afler his re- 
turn he was made captain. But the 
consequences of an unhappy passion 
for the daughter of Sosnowski, mar- 
shal of Lithuania (who was after- 
wards married to the prince Joseph 
Lubomirski), obliged him to leave 
Poland ; and, being thus thrown 
upon the world, he engaged under 
Washinston in the revolt of the Ame- 
rican colonies of Great Britain, and 
in that contest received the rank of 

Ceral, and in 1786 returned to Fo- 
1. When the Polish army was 
formed, 1 789, the diet appointed him 
a major-ffcneral ; and aher declaring 
himself for the constitution of May 
drd, 1791, he served under prince 
Joseph Poniatowski. In the cam- 
paien of 1792, he distinguished him- 
self against the Russians at Zielc- 
neck and Dubicnka ; and at the lat- 
ter place, under cover of some works 
which he had thrown up in the course 
of twenty four hours, herepulsed,with 
4000 men, three successive attacks 
of 18,000 Russians, who prevailed 
only afler the loss of four thousand 
men. Kosciusko retired without 
liavtng suffered severely. When king 
Stanislaus submitted to Catherine, 
Kosciusko, with sixteen other offi- 

cers, left the army, and retired to 
Leipsic ; and the legblative assembly 
of France thereupon gave him the 
rights of a French citizen. The 
Poles becoming impatient under Rus- 
sian domination, some of Kosciusko's 
friends in Warsaw determined to 
make an effort for freedom, and ac- 
cordingly elected him their general, 
1 794 . Kosciusko, responding to the 
call, went to the frontier, and sent 
^nerals Zajonczeck and Dsialynski 
into the Russian provinces of Poland, 
to prepare every thing in silence; 
but when the Polish army luid been 
merged in part in the Russian, and 
the remainder had been reduced to 
15,000 men, the insurrection broke 
out before the time fixed on. All 
now flew to arms; the Russian 
garrison was immediately expelled 
from Cracow ; the citizens formed 
the act of confederation of Cracow, 
March 24th, 1794; and Kosci- 
usko, at their head, called upon the 
Poles to restore the constitution 
of May 3rd. Kosciusko then ad- 
vanced to meet the Kussian forces ; 
and without artillery, at the head of 
only four thousand men, part of whom 
were armed only with scythes and 
pikes, he defeated twelve thousand 
of his opponents at Raclawice, April 
the 4th . His army was now increased 
to nine thousand men, and he formed 
a junction with general Grochowski. 
In the mean time, the Russian gar • 
risons of Warsaw and Wilna had been 
put to death, or made prisoners by 
the Poles. Kosciusko checked this 
outbreak of popular fury, sent troop 
against Volhynia, and organized tfic 
government at Warsaw. He march- 
ed out of the city with thirteen tliou- 
sand men, to oppose seventeen thou- 
sand Russians and Prussians, attack- 
ed them at Czezekocini, June the 
6th, but was defeated after an obsti- 
nate conflict, and obliged to retreat 
to his intrenched camp before War- 
saw. The Prussians having soon 
after taken Cracow, disturbances 
broke out in Warsaw, June the 28th ; 
on which occasion the people mur- 
dered a part of the prisoners, and 
hung some Poles who were connect- 


GEORGE ra.-.1789— 1815. 


'.[\ the Rosdians. But Kosci- 

punished tlie guilty, and re- 

1 order. The king of Prussia 

rV^rmed a junction with the Rus- 

, zlimI besieged Warsaw with 

thousand men. Kosciusko, 

; vf*r, kept up the courage of his 

f rT,nn«i ; and after two montlis 

.«';dy fighting, he repelled, with 

•ou'sand men, a general assault. 

( TTc-at Poland now rose under 

' rowski against the Prussians. 

' ire u instance, together with the 

•t' a body of artillery, compelled 

-. ri ::; of Prussia to raise the siege 

'* rirsaw- Thus did Kosciusko, 

an army of 20,000 regular 

T»^, and 40,000 armed peasants, 

. iiin himself against four hostile 

<>r^ amounting together to 

•■ inj Etien. His great power con- 

i in the confidence which the 

^ reposed in him ; and it must 

;.>jwed that he dbplayed the in- 

t ' y and disinterestedness of Wash- 

♦ .n, wtfa the activity of Csisar. 

attended to procunng supplies, 

rincended the raising and pay- 

>t rif money, prevented plundering 

i (rxuA, and was equally inde&ti- 

1^ in the coundl and in the field. 

> da\-3 and nights, all his powers, 

■e devoted to his country. He 

.red the administration of justice, 

. -iied bondage, and finally re- 

->d to the nation. May the 20th, 

the sopreroe national council 

-:i he established, the great 

Mrer wiiich had been delegated to 

'.. Tl»e empress Catherine at 

.th decided the contest by an 

rw helming superiority of numbers. 

warov defeated the 'Poles under 

mkoi*-ski at Brzec, in Volhynia, 

trmber the I8th and 19th; Rep- 

ji penetfated through Lithuania, 

,i formed an nnion with Suwarov ; 

.: ('cneral Fersen was to support 

-m'wirh 12,000 men. To prevent 

>. Ko^iusko marched ^'«"" J^ ": 

^ with 2L0OO men. ^omnski 

" to Lve supported him with bs 

.to ime wipi « jans mtercept- 

iihe messenger, j. j, attacked 
.11 armies under ^ ^^ 

the Poles, who were not more than 
one-third the strength of the Rus- 
sians, October tlie 1 0th, at Mac- 
ziewice(about 50 miles from Warsaw) ; 
they were three times repulsed, but, 
on the fourth attack, they broke 
through the Polish lines. Kosciusko 
fell from his horse, covered with 
wounds, exclaiming, ' Finu Pok>- 
nife !' and was made prisoner by the 
enemy. In losing him, his country 
lost ail. Suwarov stormed Praga, 
November the 4th ; Warsaw capitu- 
lated on the 9th; Madalinski left 
Great Poland ; an Austrian army 
appeared before Lublin. But the 
noble eflbrts of the conquered had 
awakened tlie regard of Europe to- 
wards the unhappy country ; and the 
dearest hopes of the nation — the r^ 
storation of their monarchy with a 
free constitution—found a powerful 
support in public opinion. Though 
Catherine had caused Kosciusko and 
his colleagues, who were prisoners of 
war, to be thrown into a state prison, 
Paul I. gave them their liberty, and 
distinguished Kosciusko by marks of 
his esteem. IJe even offered his own 
sword to the general, who modestly 
declined its acceptance, with these 
touching words : ' I no longer need 
a sword} sire, since 1 have no longer 
a country ;' and to the day of his 
death he would never again wear a 
sword. Paul then presented him 
with 1500 peasants, and his friend 
Niemcewicz, the poet, with 1000; 
but when arrived on the Russian 
frontier, Kosciusko declined this 
munificent token of royal esteem by a 
letter, lie and his friend now went 
by the way of Paris and London (in 
both which capitals Kosciusko was 
treated with distinction), to America, 
1797; and though, when Napoleon 
subsequently formed the plan of re- 
storing Poland, in order to mjure Rus- 
sia and extend his own power over 
the east of Europe, Kosciusko was 
offered a command, he would take 
no part in the struggle, (which was 
conducted by Dombrowski in 1807 
and 1808), being prevented, he de- 
clared, by having given his word to 


GEORGE m.— 1789-1815. 


Paul L never to serve against the 
Russians. To Napoleon's proposals 
he answered, 'that he would exert 
himself in the cause of Poland, when 
he saw the country possessed of its 
ancient territories, and having a free 
constitution/ Fouch^, the French 
minister, tried every means to carry 
him to Poland ; but he refused, and 
an appeal to the Poles, which ap- 
peared under his name in the Moni- 
teur of November the 1st, 1806, he 
declared to be spurious. Ha\nng 

Eurdiased an estate in the neighbour- 
ood of Fontainebleau, he lived 
there in retirement until 1814, when 
he wrote to the emperor Alexander, 
asking of him an amnesty for the 
Poles in foreign lands, and request- 
ins him to become king of Poland, 
and to give the country a free consti- 
tution like that of England. A fall 
with his horse from a precipice, not 
far from Vevay, occasioned his death, 
in his 62nd year, October, 1817, at 
Soleure. He was never married. 
In 1618, the emperor Alexander re- 
moved his bo<hr, and had it deposited 
in the tomb ot the kings of Cracow : 
and all the women of Poland went 
into mourning for his loss. 

Maroon Insurrection, 1795. — 
The runaway slaves of Jamaica and 
Cuba, as they escaped year after year 
from their respective masters, congre- 
gated in the woods on the north side 
of Jamaica, and there, under the ap- 
pellation of Maroons, passed a preda^ 
tory life. In 1738 the assembly ap- 
pomted garrisons, from whose bar- 
racks excursions were from time to 
time made against them ; neverthe- 
less the contest went on till articles 
of pacification were concluded with 
the insurgents, 1 738. This peace was 
tolerably observed till July, 1795, 
when two Maroons of Trelawney 
town, having been found guilty by a 
jury of stealing some pigs, were pu- 
nistied with thirtv-nuie lashes each. 
The proceeding drove the Maroons 
into open revolt ; and a bloody and 
successful war was waged by these 
savages against the whole force that 
the government could raise. At last 

the assembly, though with much re- 
luctance, sent to the island of Cuba 
for one hundred blood-hounds, and 
engaged a number of Spanish chas- 
seurs to direct their operations. These 
animals are used in Cuba to pursue 
wild bullocks, which they drive from 
such heights and recesses of the moun- 
tains as are inaccessible to the hun- 
ters. When these new allies were 
landed at Mont^o Bay, in Decem- 
ber, the wild and formidable appear- 
ance of both men and dogs spread terror 
through the place. Tlie streets were 
clear^, all doors were shut, and not 
a negro ventured to stir out, while 
the muzzled animals, ferociously mak- 
ing at every object, and dragging for- 
ward the chasseurs, who, with diffi- 
culty held them in with heavy rat- 
tling chains, proceeded onwards. 
Anxious to review the chasseure, ge- 
neral Walpole arrived at Seven Ri- 
vers, where the Spaniards, forty in 
number,'soon appeared, at the end of 
a gentle* acclivity, drawn out in a 
line, with their dogs in front, unmuz- 
zled, and held by cotton ropes. On 
receiving the command * fire, the men 
discharged their fusils, to ascertain 
what effect would be produced on 
the dogs, if engaged under a fire of 
the Maroons. The volley was no 
sooner discharged, than the do^s 
rushed forward with the greatest 
fury, amid the shouts of the Spa- 
niards, who were dragged on by them 
with irresistible force. Some of the 
animals, maddened by the shout of 
attack, seized, while held back by the 
ropes, on the stocks of the guns in the 
hands of their keepers, and tore pieces 
out of them. Their impetuosity was 
such, that the general found it neces- 
sary to get expeditiously into the 
chaise from which he had alighted ; 
and if the most strenuous exertions 
had not been made to stop them, 
they would most certainly have seized 
upon his horses. A scene so terrific 
had its effect. General Walpole was 
ordered to advance upon the Maroon 
territory on the 14th of January fol- 
lowing, witli his dogs in the rear. 
Their fame, however, had reached the 


GEORGE IIL— 178d— 1815. 


UtroooB ; and tiie general had pene- 
tated but a ihort way into the woods, 
wbai a supplication for mercy was 
brou^jbt £tom the enemy, and i260 of 
them fiCMNi afterwards sarrendered, on 
BO other condition than a promise of 
their tiTes. It is pleasing to observe 
that not a drop of biood was spilt af- 
ter file dog;E» arrived in the island: 
the war terminated with the expatria- 
tion to Hali&x of every Maroon who 
did not swear to leave his predatory 
habits ; and from that period to this 
day, tiiie Maiooos have been known as 
quiet occupiers of a few towns, built 
by tbemselves in those forests of Ja- 
iiiaica» wfaerdn they at first became a 

The blood-hound is a sagacious 
species of dog, not peculiar to Cuba. 
The ' sleug^ hnnd' may be called 
the feudal dc^, since no baronial cas- 
tle was tbooght complete without 
one ; and connected with many a ro- 
mantic stotyof the middle ages have 
been hs unerring attempts to track the 
object of his pursuit across pathless 
wiJds, and through seeminf^y imper- 
vioas thickets, to his pla^ of con- 
cealment. Our own ancestors soon 
diseoveted the infallibility of the 
blood-hound in tracing any animal, 
living or dead, to its resting-place; 
and they accordingly took pains to 
trasn him early for the purposes of 
wood-craft, war, or * following gear/ 
as the pursuit after pmpeitj plun- 
dered in a border fomy was termed. 

AtAJoeRD Escape op the Dauphin, 
1 795^ — After the close of the French 
Revolution, many attempts were made 
to induce tlie world to believe that 
the due de Normandie, or, as he is 
called in history, Louis XVII., had 
escaped ftom the hands of his perse- 
cQtorSy and was yet alive. Many 
ptetenderB, of course, arose to sub- 
stantiate the assertion ; and the last 
of theses sinoe his expulsion from 
Trance by Louis Pliilippe a few years 
back, fass taken up his abode in Eng- 
land, and pabiisbed his case. To be- 
gin with his escape from the Temple. 
Laaren^ his keeper (he affirms), con- 
tnVcda hkimg-p^^ce in an old lum- 

ber-room in the garret, at the top of 
the tower of the Temple, into whi eh 
one night he was conveyed h alf 
asleep, under the effects of a dose of 
opium. A great doll was put into 
his bed. This was done just as 
the guard was changed ; the said 
guard, satisfied #ith seeing a sleeping 
figure, and not surprised at his si- 
lence, which was habitual, gave no 
alarm at the time ; and as watch was 
kept only at tlie entrance of the 
tower, nothing was easier than to 
take him up stairs unperceived. The 
substitution was discovered, however, 
that night: and the government, 
alarmed, procured immediately a deaf 
and dumb child, who took the dau- 
phin's place in prison,, and was treated 
exactly as the latter liadbeen. His 
friends sent off another child to 
Strasburg, as a blind ; and, so far as 
we learn from the book, no suspi- 
cion fell upon Laurenz, nor did they 
ever think of searching the old lum- 
ber-room. Laurenz, it seems, sup- 
plied him with food from time to 
time; and there he remained from 
the end of October, 1794, to the be- 
ginning of July, 1705. Meanwhile, 
when, in spite of their precautions, 
it was whispered abroad that the real 
dauphin was no longer in the Temple, 
the government decided that the deaf 
and dumb child should die, lest the 
imposture should be discovered. They 
therefore caused poison to be mixed 
with his food, and sent the physician 
Dessault to visit him, on pretence of 
humanity. Dessault saw the case at 
once, gave the child an antidote, and 
at the same time declared that he 
was not the dauphin. Dessault died 
the next day ; poison^, as the narra- 
tive asserts. Meanwliile Josephine 
(at that time the mistress of Barras, 
and eventually empress), ignorant of 
the trick, procured we deaf and 
dumb child (whom she supposed to 
be the dauphin), to be carriwi off; a 
ricketty child from the hospitals was 
again substituted by the government ; 
he was attended by other physicians, 
who had never seen either the former 
child or the dauphin, and died on the 


GEORGE III.— 1789— 1815. 


8th of July, 1795. On the day be- 
fore his burial, the body was re- 
moved to the dauphin's hiding-place ; 
the dauphin, again drugged with 
opium, was placed in the coffin. On 
the road to the cemetery the supposed 
body was taken out, and concealed at 
the bottom of the <farriage, and the 
coffin filled with rubbish ; and the 
dauphin's friends re-entered Paris, 
and placed him in a place of safety. 
Scarcely was this done, when the se- 
cret was discovered. The coffin was 
disinterred, and buried in another 
spot, and eveiy exertion used to dis- 
cover the prince's retreat; but for 
some time ineffectually. After bis 
escape, he felt sick, was removed into 
the country, recaptured, and shortly 
after escaped again by the help of 
Josephine, who was apprised of his 
situation by a Monsieur 6 This 

Monsieur B , and another man, 

named Montmorin, carried him to 
Italy. On the French invasion of 
that country, they took shipping for 

England. B was murdered, the 

prince was captured at sea, disco- 
vered, and again imprisoned ; but 
Montmorin escaped, and in 1803 ma- 
naged to deliver him again. Again 
he was detected, and early in 1804 
thrown into a vaulted dungeon, where 
he languished nearly five years in 
darkness and solitude, with no com- 
panions but rats ; till at length the 
faithful Montmorin again procured 
his deliverance, and carried him to 
Frankfort, 1809. Here they lived 
together for some months in safety 
and concealment ; and here the al- 
leged dauphin learned German, and 
watchmakmg. Afler this, the nar- 
rator and Montmorin fell in with a 
party of Schill's volunteers, who, with 
the duke of Brunswick Oels, were 
engaged in effecting their celebrated 
retreat to England from Germany, 
Some French troops, however, sur- 
prised the party, and Montmorin was 
killed : his companion was wounded 
and captured, but not recognized. 
He was conveyed to the fortress of 
Wesel, but managed to escape thence 
with a young Prussian, named Frie- 

derichs, and on foot they travelled 
throughWestphalia, sleeping in woods 
by day, and walking by night. Fric- 
dericlis, however, was taken and 
hanged one morning, when he had 
lefl his wallet and his friend in a 
hollow tree, to seek for provbions. 
The latter pursued his journey, car- 
rying his deceased comrade's wallet 
along with him, and on the frontiers 
of Prussia met a gentleman in a car- 
riage, who took pity on the wanderer, 
and carried him to Berlin. This per- 
sonage asked how he meant to live ; 
and being told he had no money, bid 
him look in the wallet, which he had 
never opened; whereupon, ripping 
up the seams, he discovered 1600 
francs of gold. Wishing him joy of 
the prize, the gentleman put iiim 
down at the Aigle Noire. Af^er 
some fruitless efforts to find out Frie- 
derichs' friends, the narrator appro- 
priated the money to his own sub- 
sistence ; and he then set up as a 
watchmaker, in a hired apartment, to 
earn his bread. This was in 1810, 
being then twenty-five. It is suffi- 
cient to say that, after many vain at- 
tempts to gain admission to the du- 
chess d'Angouleme, and other rem- 
nants of the family of Louis XVI., 
the narrator, who liad at length mai^ 
ricd, ventured to Paris, 1893, whence 
he was driven by the government, 
1 836, for alleged offences. While at 
Paris, however, he seems to have 
been seen by two females, somewhat 
advanced in years, whose testimony 
is of value, however possible it may- 
be tliat, from the lapse of time, they 
should fall into error. Madame de 
Rambaud, who was with the dauphin 
from the hour of his birth as a nurse, 
to the date of his captivity in the 
Temple, seven years and a half, and 
Madame St. Hilaire, another old ser- 
vant of the royal household, who 
had always believed that the dauphin 
really escaped, saw the pretending 
due of Normandie first in 1833 ; and 
both bein^ convinced of his identity 
with Louis XVI L, the latter, in a 
letter to the duchess d'Angoul^me, 
sister of Louis XVIL thus writes : 


GEORGE m.— 1789— 1815. 


' God, my conscience, and the salva- 
doQ ofniTsoul, impose on me the obli- 
gation of infonning your royal high- 
ness that your unhappy brother is 
living, and that he is now with us. 
1 haTc no hesitation in assuring your 
royal highness that I believe in the 
i«lenti ty of tiiis unhappy prince, as firm- 
ly as I believe in God, and in his di- 
vine Son, the Saviour of the world/ 
The duchess, however, lias ever 
refused to see the aspirant ; and this 
refusal, together with the fact of his 
life having been attempted both in 
France and England, has given colour 
to pretensions, which, however empty, 
derive something of importance when 
reference is made to the singularly 
imperfect proo& and almost contra- 
dictory statements given by the 
French revolutionary government to 
the public, regarding the dauphin's 
death. The following are extracts 
from tlie register of deaths, and tlie 
proc^ verbal of the au/onsy, or in- 
spection of the medical officers. ' On 
^-Ith Prairial, year 3, (12th of June, 
J 795), died Louis Charles Capet at 
three in the afternoon in the Temple, 
son of Louis Capet, last king of the 
French, and of Marie Antoinette 
Josephine Jeanne of Austria* Signed 
by Ditsser, commissary of police, 
Etienne Lasne, keeper of the Temple, 
calling himself a neighbour, Remi 
Bigot, labourer, of Gl Temple-street, 
calling himself a friend, and Robin, 
public officer, witnesses.* The au- 
topsy was conducted by doctors Pel- 
Jetan, Dumangin, Jcanroy, and Las- 
sus. ' Having all four arrived, at 
eleven o'clock in the morning, at the 
outer gate of the Temple, we were 
there received by the commissaries, 
who took us into the tower. Upon 
reacliing the apartment on the second 
floor, in an inner room we found the 
dead body of a child, who seemed to 
us to be about ten years old, which 
the commissaries told us was that of 
the son of Louis Capet, and which 
two of us recognised as the child 
which thev had attended for some 
davs ' tiie 'above-mentioned commis- 
sanes declared to ws that this child 
Jiad died on the preceding day, to- 

wards three o'clock in the afternoon. 
On the 21st Prairial, the deputy 
Sevcstre ascended the tribune of the 
Convention, and made the following 
report : ' Citizens ; for some time 
past the son of Capet was suffering 
from a swelling in tne right knee, and 
in the left wrist ; on the 15th Floreal, 
the pains increased, the patient lost 
his appetite, and fever succeeded. 
The celebrated Dessault, medical 
officer, was appointed to visit and 
prescribe for liim ; his talents and 
probity assured us that no care could 
be wanting which humanity could 
dictate. However, the disease as- 
sumed a verv serious appearance. On 
the IGth ot this month (4th June, 
1 795), Dessault died. To take his 
place, the committee appointed citi- 
zen Pelletan, a well known medical 
officer, and with him was joined 
citizen Dumangin, first physician to 
the hospital of health. Their bulletin 
of eleven o'clock yesterday morning 
announced alarming symptoms in tlie 
patient ; and at a quarter past two 
in the afternoon, we received news 
of the deatli of Capet's son. The 
committee of general safety have 
charged me to make tliis known to 
you. All is verified ; here are the 
procts verbaur, which will be depo- 
sited and remain in your archives.' 

Naiiokal Distress in England, 
1795. — The vast weight of taxation 
arising from the duration of the war, 
and the high price of bread T fifteen 
pence the quartern) occasionea many 
disturbances amongst the lower or- 
ders. At length, to relieve the bur- 
then of additional imposts, the pa- 
triotic portion of the wealthy in the 
kingdom raised, in the short space of 
fifteen hours and twenty minutes, a 
loan, to support the government, to 
the amount of 18,000,000/.! In 1797, 
the Bank was compelled to give up 
its issue of specie, and to send forth 
paper ; and for the better accommo- 
dation of the public, notes of 1/. va- 
lue were then for the first time al- 
lowed, without in any way aflecting 
public credit, notwithstanding the 
alarm such a measure occasioned. 

British Guiana founded, 1 796.— 


GEORGE IIL— 1789— 1815. 


This English colony, composing the 
settlements on the rivers Esseqiiibo, 
Demarara, and Berbice, and covering 
an area of nearly 100,000 square 
miles, extends 200 milei from east 
to west, along that portion of South 
America termed the Main, formed 
by the deltas of the Amazon and Ori- 
noco. The other portion of Guiana 
is divided between the Spaniards, 
Portuguese, and French. In 1580 
the Dutch first colonized this coast; 
and although driven out by the In- 
dians, at the instigation of the Spa- 
niards, they returned in 1602, and re- 
ported their colony in so flourishing 
a condition 1621, that the Dutch go- 
vernment undertook to supply it with 
negro slaves from Africa, for the pro- 
secuting of which trade a company 
was formed, and a monopoly granted. 
Essequibo was, in 1665, taken by the 
English, and various contests for that 
part of Berbice were carried on at 
times by French and British till 1763, 
the Dutch always maintaining their 
ground against both nations. In 1 763, 
however, a negro insurrection began 
in Berbice, which raged a year, deso- 
lating the Dutch possessions; and 
they all surrendered to the English 
admiral, sir Ralph Abercrombie, 1796. 
By the peace of Amiens, 1 80 1 ,they were 
restored to the Dutch, but were again 
seized in 1803, and liave ever since 
belonged to Great Britain. In 1812 
die district of Essequibo was merged 
in Demerara — and those two again in 
Berbice 1831 ; and the three have 
ever since constituted what is now 
called British Guiana. 

British Guiana is a ttat country, 
admirably adapted for plantations of 
sugar, coffee, cotton, and plantains. 
Liarge quantities of these, with rum 
and molasses, are annually exported. 
From the lowness of the level, the 
Demerara portion is, like Holland, 
drained by canals and sluices, with 
lofty dikes or mounds of mud, of 
considerable thickness, embanking 
each estate, and kept in repair, toge- 
ther with the numerous bridges, bv 
the proprietors of the land in whicn 
they are situated. As the country is 

ascended from 80 to 100 miles inland, 
its fine savannahs are frequently in- 
terrupted by a beautiful hiU and dale 
territory, varied with high and fre- 
quently rocky lands. Tlie Demerara 
governors have been, 1796, M. Beau- 
jon; 1806, Henry Bentinck ; 1818, 
major-general Murray; 1824, sir B. 
Urban; 18dd,sir J. C.Smyth ; 1838, 
Henry Light, Esq. The Berbice 
governors : 1 796, governor Van Baten- 
burg; 1806, lieutenant-colonel Ni- 
cholson and general Montgomery ; 
1809, Wm. Woodley; 1810, major- 
general Dalrymple; 1811, Robert 
Gordon; 1813, major Grant; 1814, 
W. Bentinck ; 1820, major Thistle- 
thwayte and sir John Cameron ; 
1821, Harry Beard, who was in office 
at the period of the union of the two 
settlements, 1833, when sir D. B. Ur- 
ban was made sole governor of Bri- 
tish Guiana. A serious insurrection 
of the slaves took place on the east 
coast of the Demerara river in 1823, 
which was finally suppressed, and 
Mr. Smith, a missionary of the LfOn- 
don society, condemned to death for 
inciting the negroes to rebeUion, a 
sentence which was commuted to 
total banishment from the West In- 
dies : Mr. Smith died in prison pend- 
ing the sentence. It should be ob- 
served that the mortality of Eu- 
ropeans, on the early coloniza- 
tion of Guiana, was very great, partly 
owing to torrid heat acting on a 
moist soil and luxuriant vegetation 
pregnant with animal and vegetable 
decomposition, and partly owing to 
the intemperate habits of the settlers, 
and their non-conformity with the 
customs of tlie country and the dic- 
tates of nature. Of late years, how- 
ever, as the coast became clear€M], 
and a free circulation of air was ad- 
mitted, the health of British Guiana 
has materially improved, and may 
now be considered as good as the 
nature of a country will permit, 
where an extraordinary quantity of 
rain falls annually. Diiring the wet 
seasons (of which there are two, each 
lasting three months, Dec. Jan. Feb. 
and June, July, Aug.) the wind is 


GEORGE HL— 1789— 1815. 


la south to 'west, and t^he run 

n dt<cends in torrents, sometimes 

two or three days -witliout inter- 

5-ioQ. At these periods our sai- 

r say * it only leaves off raining to 

u:mence pouring.* The dry sea- 

fi is exceedingly delightful ; the 

niing twilight, commencing at 

ir. ^dually unveils a deep azure 

y, over wfcich the sun crosses 

id\4ssiy from the oc^ean to the in- 

tH mountains, hehind -which it sets. 

it? invigorating sea-breeze sets in 

U'Ti, giving animation to nature, 

d continues to blow with increas- 

:: vijrour tiU sunset at six, when it 

-uiTialiy dies away. The governor, 

. in the old Dutch arrangement, is 

^- -ted by a council of kiezers. 


\i LOB.S, 1 797. — The spirit of insur- 

jvtion, which had been unchained 

. France, was fiist spreading over 

>,:rope ; and as the rabble in Eng- 

±: .d had been in a ferment for two 

^ r^, the disaffection at last spread 

•-' t\\& seamen of tlie channel-fleet, 

t S pithead, who deprived their of- 

c -_ rs of command, and threatened 

Mr lives- On receiving an increase 

T pay, these returned to their duty ; 

• tit under one Parker, a more formi- 

. insurrection broke out amongst 

r'.o vessels at the Nore. Very ex- 

\ '. ^Ta gant demands being now made, 

:!• ivemment proceeded to take vigor- 

! .MS measures ; and after some time, 

t»:e mutineers, ship by ship, surren-, and many of the ringleaders 

Mf<-re hanged. It was to encourage 

loval sentiments amongst the sailors, 

t.iiit diaries Dibdin at this time 

■wrote his admirable sea-songs ; and 

5f> productive were they of the object 

\\vi' author had in view, that the go- 

Mrnment awarded him a pension. 

Trisidad made ak English Co- 
toNT, /7J^.— Tliis isle was discover- 
ed h' Columbus 1408, and named 
hylii'm ID honour of the Holy Tri- 
intv. his 90 miles long, and 50 

?ma. U was j ^cter, and of 

fanbs, of a '?.'jf,^''eolour for that 

race ; and it was left for the Span- 
iards to subdue them, 1588, when 
those who escaped a sanguinary death 
were drafted off to the Hispaniola 
mines. Sir Walter Raleigh visited 
Tnnidad 1595, and found the inha> 
bitants cultivating excellent tobacco 
and sugar-canes. The Spaniards, to 
divert his attention, described to him 
the El-Dorado, wliere tlie rivers were 
full of gold-dust; but on Raleigh's 
return from exploring the Orinoco, 
he entered into a treaty with the In- 
dians, marched with them, attacked 
and carried by assault the capital of 
San Josef, and put the garrison of 
30 men to the sword. Tlie popula- 
tion and trade of Trinidad had he- 
come nearly extinguished from unex- 
plained causes by 1783, wlien Don 
Josef Chacon, a naval captain, suc- 
ceeded in restoring a taste for agricul- 
ture, and encouraged all Spaniards 
to quit the French colonies, (now 
disturbed by the revolution), and re- 
pair to tlie island under his sway. In 
a brief space of time tlie whole face 
of the settlement was changed : the 
handsome capital of Puerta d^Espana 
usurped the place of a few fishers* 
wretched palm-leaved huts, and Tri- 
nidad was constituted an important 
dependency of the Caraccas. Sir 
Ralph Abercrombie succeeded in cap- 
turing the island, and constituting it 
a British colony, 1797. The gover- 
nors have been :— 1801, sir Thomas 
Picton ; 1803, general Hislop ; 1812, 
sir R. Woodford; 1828, sir L. 
Grant; 1833 sir G. Hill. Trinidad 
appears at a distance like an immense 
ridge of rocks ; but on entering the 
gulf of Paria, a most magnificent 
panorama is presented to the eye of 
tlie voyager. To the east, the watei s 
of the mighty Orinoco dispute as it 
were the empire of the ocean ; the 
lofty mountains of Cumana rise in 
stupendous majesty in the back- 
ground ; and on the west appear the 
cape, headlands, mountains, hills, 
rallies and plains of Trinidad, en- 
amelled witli eternal verdure, and 
presenting a coup d'oeil, to which 
the Old World affords no parallel. 
Port of Spain, the cajiital, embosom- 


GEORGE III.— 1789— 1815. 


ed in an amphitheatre of hills, is one 
of the finest towns in the West In- 
dies. The numerous buildings are 
of an imposing appearance, and con- 
structed of massive cut stone. No 
houses are allowed to be erected of 
wood, or independent of a prescribed 
form : the streets are wide, long, 
shaded with trees, and laid out in 
parallel lines from the land to the 
sea, intersected, but not intercepted, 
by cross streets, thus catching every 
breeze tlmt blows ; and, as in most 
tropical climates, there is a delight- 
ful embowered public walk. There 
are several craters in tlie isle, and 
south of Cape de la Brea is a subma- 
rine volcano, which occasionally boils 
up, and discharges a quantity of pe- 
troleum : in the east part of the island 
is another, which in March and June 
gives detonations resembling thunder: 
these are succeeded by flames and 
smoke, and, some minutes after, pieces 
of bitumen, as black and brilliant as 
jet, are thrown on shore. But the 
most singular object to the stranger 
is the mineral pitch lake of La Brea, 
a mile and a half in diameter. It 
occupies a small peninsula, jutting 
two miles into the sea ; and when 
/closely examined, is found to consist 
of bitumenous scoriae, vitrified sand, 
and earth, all cemented together. The 
mobility of the surface is yery re- 
markable. Where an islet, apparent- 
ly solid enough, has been seen 
on an evening, a gulf b found on the 
following morning ; and at another 
part of the lake a pitch islet has 
sprung up, to be in its turn adorned 
with the most luxuriant v^etation, 
and then again ingulfed. Tlie mar- 
gin of this Tartaric Take is adorned with 
beautiful shrubs and flowers ; while 
tuflts of wild pineapple and aloes, 
(pitch-loving plants), swarms of mag- 
nificent butterflies, and brilliant hum- 
mine birds, enliven a scene, which 
would be a perfect picture of the 
Stygian lake without them. The 
asphalte of the lake melts like seal- 
ingwax, and, when mixed with grease 
or common pitch, forms an excellent 
preservative for the bottoms of ships. 

The dry season in Trinidad begins 
with December and ends with May ; 
the heat then increases, and is at its 
height by the end of June ; storms 
commence, and augment in frequency 
and violence during August and 
September ; and in October they oc- 
cur almost daily, accompanied by 
torrents of r?iin. Tliere is seldom any 
fall of rain diving the night ; but a 
heavy shower, without wind, usually 
precedes sunrise by half an hour 
during the season. The government 
is in the governor, an executive 
council of three, and a leeislativc of 
twelve. The cabildo (similar to our 
municipal corporations), is a court 
having power to raise revenues from 
licences granted to certain dealers, 
by which 10,000/. is yearly produced, 
and applied to keep the streets and 
market-house of Port of Spain in 
repair, and to pay the police. Tlie 
laws are chiefly Spanish ; and the 
titles of alcalde, alguazil, &c., are 
always used, in lieu of the correspond- 
ing terms in English. The vegeta- 
tion of Trinidad is of the same 
splendid character as that found on 
the mainland. The forests contain 
the finest wood for ship-building 
and for ornamental purposes, amongst 
which the red cedar and a great 
variety of palms are conspicuous. 
The nutmeg, cinnamon, and clove 
have been introduced, and flourish ; 
but the cocoa-tree (in appearance an 
English cherry-tree), is indigenous, 
not only here, but almost every 
where in the New World. Cocoa- 
beans were formerly used as money 
in Mexico, and six were equivalent 
to a lialfpenny English. The staples 
of the island are sugar, cocoa, cotTce, 
cotton, rum, and molasses ; and the 
fruits and vegetables, pomegranates, 
plantains, sour-fiops, bananas, cocoa- 
nuts, Java-plums, yams, grenadilloes, 
pines, yellow hog-plums, mamme- 
sapoetas, sugar and custard-apples, 
sea-side grapes, ^uavas, oranges, 
lemons, limes, forbidden-fruit, shad- 
docks, Jamaica plums, bread-fruit, 
water-melons, cashew apples, and 
avocado pears. Among the most 


GEORGE m— 1789— 1815. 


beandliii trees of the isle b the hois 
immort^ a lofly umbrageous plant, 
with leQTes of a bright yellow hue, 
and scarlet blossoms, growing in 
dusters, and shining like brilliant 
satin in the sunliglit; while the 
loT^y botterfly-plant, so named on 
acoouDt of its similitude to the in- 
sect, fluttering on its almost invisible 
^taik, adds beauty to every glade of 
this most nature-mvonred spoL 

Taa Ihcome-Tax Act passed, 
1799. — This was an odious tax, war- 
ranted only by the necessity of the 
times, which bore with great hard- 
ship upon all classes of subjects in 
England, but especially upon tliose 
who could least endure tlie pressure. 
It consisted of ten per cent levied on 
all incomes, nominal or real; and 
howerer precarious the stipend of 
the party taxed, and whatever por- 
tion of it still remained in the 
hands of his debtors, his per cent^ 
age must be paid. There can be 
DO donbt of the impolicy of le- 
vying direct imposts of any kind, 
where indirect ones will answer 
the purpose. Times of war and of 
national distress of course demand 
extreme measures. But there is no 
jystem more unwbe than that which, 
in ordinary periods, makes the dead 
weight a subject is compelled to bear 
too palpable; an assertion as com- 
pletely true as that no public officer 
is so cordially hated as the tax-ga- 
therer. Let commodities be duly 
taxed, and the principle be carried to 
its full extent; and all in a nation 
so well stocked with private pro- 
perty, and expending in the main 
with such generosity as Uie English, 
will contribute their fair share to the 
necessities of the state, and tliat with- 
out any one^iSn^ the burthen. To 
abolish direct taxation should be the 
aim of &9eTy finance-minister ; and, 
imposts to a proper amount being 
placed on artfcfes of consumption (by 
wliicfi we mean not simply those eaten, 
drooieD,andwom, but the implements 
aodgenersd commodities of trade and 
biner,betbeywhat theymay)ofeveiy 
kind, the burthen will exactly fall 

where it ought. He who is required or 
wishes to consume more of one com- 
modity than of another, pays a larger 
share of the tax thereon than he who 
consumes little or none of it, who 
will therefore pay little or none of 
the tax ; and the tax will in no wise 
deter consumption. The only points 
to be carefully watched by the im- 
posers are the adequate levying, and 
the due collecting of the taxes they 
impose— to see that there be no 
fraud, no withholding, no collusion 
between payer and collector. As to 
the a^tertion of some writers on eco- 
nomy, that indirect taxes fdl exclu- 
sively upon landlords, it is a ground- 
less statement. , The capitalbt, when- 
ever he realizes his profit in taxed 
commodities, and the labourer, when- 
ever he expends his wages on taxed 
luxuries, does each of them defray, 
out of his own proper and respective 
funds, the taxes which are laid upon 
those articles ; and the landlords have 
no share of tlie burthen. Assuredly 
one of the happiest inventions of 
modern finance was tliat of rolling up 
and disguising the payment of a tax to 
government m the price of the com- 
modity, as is done in the customs 
and excise; where the money is 
taken either in the public office of 
the government, upon the importa- 
tion of the commoaity, or during its 
first stage of manufacture, on the 
premises of the dealer. The con- 
sumer, in paying the price of tlie ar- 
ticle, is scarcely aware that he is pay- 
ing any tax ,or any charge beyona the 
price and value of the article bought. 
If Dr. Johnson, who gave such a de- 
finition of the excise in his celebrated 
dictionary, as, ' that it was a hateful 
tax, levied upon commodities, and 
adjudged, not by the common judges 
of property, but by wretches hired 
by those to whom excise is paid*— 
if that wise and good man liad lived 
to see the real superiority of this 
mode of taxation, through the boards 
of customs and excise, above thot of 
personal, direct, and domestic taxes, 
ne would have entirely altered his 
opinion. The surveyors and as- 


GEORGE IIL— 1789— 1815- 


sesson of these household taxes, being 
paid in proportion to the produce of 
the tax, resemble the old farmers of 
the revenue in France ; and it is the 
fault of well-paid commissioners of 
the crown if, in their contact with 
the privacy of families, their dele- 
gates exercise their inquisitorial pow- 
ers Wrongly. 

Malta captured bt the British, 
1600. — This little island, respecting 
the detention of which by England 
the war with Buonaparte was re- 
sumed after the peace of Amiens, 
(and whose history is given in Vol. 1 . 
103), is situated between Sicily and 
the African coast, and is the most 
southerly spot in the Mediterranean, 
and consequently in Europe. It is 
17 miles long and nine broad ; and 
Gozo, the island in its neighbour- 
hood, and under its government, is 
10 miles long and 5 broad. Malta 
was occupied from 15d0 to 1798 by 
the knights of St J ohn and of Malta ; 
but in the latter year it was seized 
by the French revolutionary troops. 
Tlie invaders, however, had scarcely 
got possession, when the Maltese 
rose en masse, and blocked up the 
6000 French soldiers in Valetta. In 
this condition they were kept more 
than a year ; when a small detach- 
ment ot British came to tlie aid of 
the Maltese, 1800, and after strengtli- 
ening the blockade, forced the French 
garrison to capitulate. Malta has 
ever since formed a portion of the 
British empire. Mr. Cameron was 
the first civil commissioner, and was 
succeeded by Sir Alexander Ball, 
who died 1809; Sir Hildebrand 
Oakes was chief until 1813, when 
Sir Thomas Maitland arrived : he 
died 1824, and was succeeded by the 
Marquis of Hastings, who died 1626, 
and was followed by Sir Frederick 
Ponsonby, who died 1836, when Ge- 
neral Bouverie succeeded. The cli- 
mate of Malta is warm, and indeed, 
almost tropical, and the island has 
often been severely visited by the 
plague. The land is low, and cannot 
be discerned until the mariner ap- 
proaches within twenty miles of the 

shore ; but the country is picturesque 
and productive. Gozo, five mues 
westward, was the Gaulos of the 
Greeks : although fertile, and thickly 
inhabited, it contains no town, the 
inhabitants being scattered in six 
villages, protected by the strong fort 
Rabato, in the centre of the island. 
The surface is very agreeably diver- 
sified with hill and dale ; and tlie 
shores abound in caves and rocks. 
There are quarries in Malta, and 
large quantities of stone for build- 
ing and paving are exported to Con- 
stantinople; but its chief exports 
are its own cotton manufactures o€ 
sail-cloth, striped cloth for shirts, 
nankeens, &c. ; and the cotton used 
is the growth of the island, coarse in 
quality. The oranges and melons oF 
Malta are the finest of the Mediter- 
ranean, and there is a variety of other 
delicate fruits. Rich pasture-lands, 
refreshed by the regular falling of 
nocturnal dews, enable the Maltese 
to rear cattle, sheep, and goats in 
abundance ; while poultir is plenti- 
ful, quails and other wild fowl come 
in myriads, and fish of various kinds 
is constantly to be procured. 

Assaults on the King, 1601. — 
Amongst the proofs of a constantly 
distur^d state of the public mind, 
may be brought tlie frequent attempts 
upon the life of a king, who was con- 
fessedly guided uniformly by a wish 
to benefit his people. In 1786 one 
Margaret Nicholson made an at- 
tempt to stab the monarch as he 
alighted from his carriage; in 1796 
a similar event occurred on his way 
home from the theatre ; and in 1800 
he twice narrowly escaped death in 
one day ; in the morning by a mus- 
ket-shot from one of the soldiers 
he was reviewing in Hvde Park, and 
in the evening, by Hatfield, a maniac, 
discharging a pistol at him in Dniry- 
lane theatre. On all these occasions 
the intrepidity of the monarch was 
admirably evinced ; and when, at the 
time of the council assembling to in- 
quire into the aflbir of 1796, one 
lord was proposing one plan of de- 
tection, and another another, his 


GEOBQE ni^l789— 1815. 


laajeaty, with his usual pietjr, luter- 
Tupled their deliberations, exclaim- 
ing, ' Let us not forget, my lords, that 
while one is proposing this, and 
another is n^yposing tl^t, there is 
One abore who cfisposes all things, 
and whom I must not omit to thank 
for his mercies.' On that day, when 
the king returned to his pauce, he 
tciok a stone out of the cuff of his 
coat, where it had lodged, and pre^ 
renting it to the earl of Onslow, 
^cetionslj said, ' I make you a pre- 
sent of ttus, Onslow, to keep in re- 
collection of the civilities we have 
met with to-day.' 

Georgia nfcoBPoaATsn with Rus- 
sia, 1801. — This state (called rightly 
Gargistan, and by the Russians Gru- 
siaX situated between the Black and 
Caspian seas, is part of a district, 
about 500 English miles in length, 
and 480 in breadth, bounded by those 
seas on the west and east, on the 
south by Persia and Turkey in Asia, 
and on the north by tlie mountain 
range of the Caucasus. The early 
Greeks, as we learn from the Argo- 
nautic expedition, and the Romans, 
from the Mithridatic wars, were] ac- 
quainted with the Caucasian regions ; 
and from the sixteenth century after 
Christ, tlie Muscovites have endea- 
voured to render them subject Tlie 
projects of the latter, the modern 
KossJans, were favoured by their 
commanity of religion with the peo- 
ple of Georgia Proper, who con- 
stantly sought their aid against the 
encroachments of their Moslem neigh- 
bours. The unsuccessful attempt of 
the Muscovites to bring under their 
yoke the highlanders of the eastern 
Caucasus at the opening of the seven- 
teenth century, stopped their career 
of conquest in that quarter till the 
commencement of the eighteenth $ 
when Peter the Great, in 1724, went 
in person against Daghestan, and 
took Derbend. This expedition was 
followed by a treaty with Tamasp, 
the Persian shah, 1 780, who, in con- 
sideration of the promised aid of the 
Muscovites against his Afghan ene- 
^i&, ceded to them the provinces of 

Daghestan, Ghilao, Mazanderan,Shir- 
van, and Asterabad. The empress 
Anne, however, restored the thus re- 
linquished territories to the celebrated 
Nadir Shah, the successor of Tamasp, 
1785. Heraclius 11. brought back 
his state of Georgia to importance 
after the death of Nadir, in whose 
camp he had been bred ; but the 
measure he adopted (after a long 
reign spent in constant wars with his 
neighbours) with a view to insure his 
country's safety, proved destructive 
to hb dynasty. He, in 1 783, declared 
himself a vassal of Russia ; which, in 
return, guaranteed to him and his 
successors, not only the possession of 
his actual dominions, but even of 
tliose he might thereafter conquer. 
Persia was at that time in anarchy, 
and could not resist the desertion of 
her vassal; but in 1795, Aga Mo- 
hammed Khan led an army into 
Georgia, defeated Heraclius, burned 
Tiflis, and carried most of its inha^ 
bitants into captivity. Heraclius 
died 1798, and was succeeded bv 
his son, George XI II., a weak 
prince, whose reign of two years 
was kept in civil war by the rebellion 
of his brothers ; and soon after the 
decease of George, 1801, Georgia was 
declared for ever a Russian province, 
and the members of the regal fa- 
mily were carried to Moscow. The 
Russians, by subsequent invasions, 
compelled the klian of Imiretia, 
and the rulers of other petty states 
in the district generally known as 
Georgia (being tlie territory reach- 
ing, as before said, from the Black 
sea to the Caspian), to yield their 
dominions, in like manner; and 
the treaties of Turkmanchay, 1828, 
and Adrianople, 1629, have confirm- 
ed the arrangement. Georgia, as a 
whole, is mountainous, with exten- 
sive plains ; and the vast difference 
of temperature between the high and 
low lands occasions the growth of 
plants and the production of animals 
common both to warm and cold cli- 
mates. The people of Georgia Pro- 
per were converted to Christianity 
by Armenian missionaries early in 


GEORGE m.— 1789-1815. 


the fifUi century. Iiii&etia became 
a separate state, when Alexander 1., 
king of Georgia, divided his domi- 
nions, 1424, among his tlxree sons. 
He gave Imiretia to one of them ; but 
the fortunes of this little country, 
which fell under the dependance of 
Turkey, 1576, present too little inte- 
rest to need mention. It is a fertile 
territory ; and being protected from 
the nortliern winds by the Caucasus, 
its climate is mild, and in many parts 
the trees blossom and produce fruit 
twice in tlie year. The population 
is 100,000 ; the language is akin to 
the Georgian ; and the religion is 
mostly Armenian. The lower classes 
are very laborious, and remarkable 
for their physical strength. The 
Georgian tongue itself is like the 
Armenian, and evidently springs from 
it ; but though it has possessed an 
alplmbet fourteen centuries, it has 
yet no definite rules, no constructed 
grammar. The kings of Georgia 
have at times endeavoured to remedy 
this defect ; but all their encourage- 
ment of literature has produced no- 
thing beyond a Georgian dictionary. 
The population of Georgia Proper is 
226,000 males ; and the Russian em- 
peror, on amalgamating the countipr 
with his own, respected the class di- 
visions of the state. These were 
four : the tavadis^ or high nobles, lite- 
rally ' heads ;* the asnatuis, or nobles ; 
the mokalaktt or citizens ; and the 
glekht, or peasants ; and tlic tavadis 
are now styled princes, and the as- 
nauris nobles, both having the pri- 
vileges of the Russian nobility, and 
the same right to possess serfs. The 
ecclesiastical affairs of the Armenian 
church of Georgia are directed by 
their patriarch, who resides at Ech- 
miadzin ; and those of the Georgian 
(Russian) church by the catholicos, 
or metropolitan of Georgia. Tlie 
Moslims liave a mooshtend, who is 
acknowledged by the Russians as 
their religious chief. Tiflis is the 
ancient Georgian capital, wherein 
are a college for the Georgian clergy, 
and a large Armenian school ; and 
the town is the seat of government 

for all the Caucasian provinces of 
Russia. The produce of tlie Cau- 
casian countries consists of wine, 
brandy, silk, cotton, rice, and 
madder. The cotton is badly cul- 
tivated, or it might rival the best 
productions. The mountains are 
known to be rich in minerals, but arc 
very little worked ; and it may be 
said, without exaggeration, that were 
a nation, such as tlie English, with 
all its acquired scientific knowledge, 
in possession of the Caucasian coun- 
try, it would soon be rendered the pa- 
radise of the globe. 

CiacASSiA, part of the Caucasian 
district, occupies the northern decli- 
vity of Mount Caucasus, and com- 
prehends the whole of that tract 
from the Black sea to the Caspian. 
The whole country is a succession of 
mountain ranges ; and the people, 
who are tributaries of Russia, have 
no towns, tlieir liabits being opposed 
to the concentration of a great num- 
ber of houses on one spot. They 
live in small villages, tne site of 
which is often changed ; and while 
they very negligently raise their vege- 
table food, they sedulously attend to 
the breeding of cattle and horses, of 
which latter tliey are remarkably 
vain, keeping their genealogies like 
the Bedouins— like the British. The 
Circassians (called also Kabardians, 
from one of their provinces,) arc 
Moslims in faith, and consist of ele- 
ven tribes, independent of each other, 
and governed, on the feudal plan, by 
their own hereditary princes and 
nobles. Their persons are prover- 
bially handsome ; and it is from one 
or two of their tribes, and from the 
Georgians, that the Mamluks of 
Egypt derived their origin. 

The Peace of AMlE^fs, 1802, — 
which lasted but a complete year, 
was the only compact entered into 
with Buonaparte by Great Britain. 
It was a peace to which all the tqry 
party objected, and which the whigs 
declared they were not proud of; 
and its termination appeared to give 
general satisfaction to the country. 
Oiic curious feature should be no- 


GEORGE ra.— 1789— 1815. 


:c9i in connexion with the usual 
r')pa]ar rejoicings observed in the 
cs-nropolis on the signing of the 
reaty. K general illumination heing 
ordered, the high tories put up rush-- 
l-^his in th^r windows ; while ' the 
ireauine lorers of freedom' adopted 
Lie hest means to cive brilliancy to 
ueir edifices. WiUiam Cobbett, the 
itewly-become radical* among the 
btter, thoagh living in an obscure 
street and in lodgings, made so lu- 
minous a display, that a vast mob 
kept about bis nouse all night, ut- 
tering shouts, notwithstanding his 
wife was in a dying state — ' uxor 
can, carior libertas' l^ing the 'patri- 
otV motto. 

Dcspabd's CoNSPiaACT, 1809. — 
In the beginning of this year, a plot 
vas dxsoorered to assassinate the king, 
^ establish a revolutionary govern- 
ment. Colonel Despard, who had 
been regarded as a meritorious of- 
tscer, vras the ostensible head of the 
coispiracy ; and he and six men in 
the lowest ranks of life, were con- 
victed of high treason, and executed 
OQ Kennington common. In July 
of the same year, an insurrection, 
aid to have been connected with 
Dcspard's disappointed party, broke 
rxit also in Dublin ; when lord Kil- 
wnrden, chief justice of the king's 
iHnch, with his nephew, Mr. Wolfe, 
7ere dragged from his lordship's 
carriage, and put to death, before the 
ri'Hers could be dispersed. Edward 
Marcus Despard, bom in Ireland, 
served in the British army in the 
American war, and in 1779 defended 
Jamaica, as an officer of engineers. 
He next assisted in the capture of 
tlie Spanish settlements on uie Mos- 
quito shore ; and the territory being 
given np to the English at the peace 
of 1 783, Despard was appointed its 
commander and superintendant. In 
) 786 he was superseded and sent to 
Europe, on account of some disputes 
in the colony; and, though bringing 
with him very honourable testimo- 
nials as to conduct, his applications 
to government for redress, and for the 
payment of sums whicli he claimed as 

▼OL. Uh 

due to him, were unavailing. This 
soured his temper, and led to his 
crime. The scheme he proposed, 
however, was so ridiculously arrang- 
ed, and his means were so utterly 
inadequate to the success of the plot, 
that many considered him deranged. 
Others, with less wisdom, ascribed 
the affair to the machinations of Buo- 
naparte, who had just declared war 
against England. 

Restoration of the Jesuits, 
1808. — ^This society had been sup- 
pressed thirty years, when pope 
Pius VII., at the solicitation of va- 
rious sovereigns, who, alarmed at 
the convulsions which agitated the 
world, imagined that had the Or- 
der of Jesuits continued, it might 
have proved a powerful means of 
maintaining tranquillity, issued briefs 
for its reinstitution, 1808 ; and on 
his own reinstatement, 1814, the 
same pope gave back to it the house 
of the UesiJ, and subsequently the 
Roman college, in the capitol. 

Death of Colonel Montgo- 
mery. — This was in a duel at Chalk 
Farm, 1803, Captain^ Macnamara 
being his adversary. As both were 
men of good connexion, the unhappy 
af&ir was matter of great public in- 
terest at the time. 

Revolt of St. Domingo, 1803. — 
Hispaniola, or Little Spain, also 
called St. Domineo, and Hayti, is 
one of the Great Antilles, or larger 
islands of the West Indies, and was 
discovered by Columbus, and named 
by him Hispaniola, in his first voyage. 
Soon after, it was colonised by tlie 
Spaniards; and they remained in 
quiet possession until 1697, when the 
French seized a full third of the isle. 
Hispaniola continued thus shared 
until the French revolution ; during 
which convulsion the national con- 
vention of Paris ventured, in 1794, 
to emancipate the negro slaves of the 
Gallic portion of the colony. The 
consequence was a rise of the slaves ; 
who, resolved on expelling the whites, 
made Toussaint L'Ouverture and Jean 
D'Essalines, both bom in slavery, and 
persons of colour, their leaders, and 


GEORGE IIL— 1789— 1815. 


attacked the French force of general 
Leclerc. They were, however, com- 
pelled to make terms ; but Toiissaint 
being thereon treacherously seized, 
and carried off to France, D'Essalines 
had influence enough to raise the 
blacks once more, nochambeau had 
now succeeded Leclerc in command ; 
and, seeing the determined spirit of 
the negroes, he surrendered to the 
British, whose fleet was investing the 
island, and thus escaped the ven- 
geance of the revolters. The French 
part of the island was hereupon 
solemnly declared separated for ever 
from the dominion of France, its 
orifftna] name of Hayti (which it had 
before the time of Columbus) was 
restored, and D'Essalines was ap- 
pointed governor of it for life, in 
1804 the same person declared him- 
self emperor of Hayti ; but in 1806 
he was assassinated by a party under 
Christophe, a relation of Toussaint, 
and the French portion of the isle 
was then divided into two states. 
The northern coast was formed into 
a negro republic under Christophe, 
a black, who, in 1811, assumed the 
style of 'emperor ;' while the plains 
about the Bay of Gonaves were con- 
stituted a mulatto commonwealth 
under one Petion, a mulatto. Con- 
tinual wars were waged by these rival 
states. After the death of Petion, 
1813, one Boyer succeeded as mulatto 
president ; and when Christophe, on 
Uie breaking out of an insurrection 
in his state, 1820, had killed him- 
self, Boyer brought the negro king- 
dom also under his authority. Mean- 
while the Spanish part of Hispaniola 
had been ceded to France, 1795, but 
was re-occupied by the Spaniards, 
1R08; and in 1809 it declared itself 
independent of Spain, and remained 
in an unsettled condition until Boyer 
contrived to reduce it, 1822, whereby 
he brought the whole island under one 
ffovcrnmcnt. France recognised the 
independence of Hayti, as the inte- 
gral countiy was now styled, 1825. 
The constitution, which dates 1816, 
b a representative republic, under a I 
presidenti who is elected for life, and I 

who is aided by a senate and hoii» 
of deputies. The pope*s supremacj 
is abjured : and though the religioi 
professed is Romish, there is no ordci 
of clergy higher than the prie&thooci 
and there are no tithes. As tin 
president can prompt the choice o 
any representative, ne is but a kiii| 
under that name. The staple com 
modities of St Domingo (the nam< 
by which the island is, after all, best 
known) are coffee, cotton, cocoa, to 
bacco, logwood, mahogany, and bees 
wax. The isle is reoarded as the mosl 
fertile one of the West Indies. 1 ( 
has many mountain ranges ; and ncn] 
the centre is a mountain-knot called 
Cibao, whose highest summits do nol 
fall short of 8000 feet. It is dGfj 
miles lonff, and about four times a^i 
large as Jamaica. Port-fiu-Princ<*i 
the capital and seat of govemmentj 
is situated between the large plain oi 
Cul de Sac and a more narrow on<i 
extending along the southern shorosj 
of the Bay of Gonaves, both of whiclj 
are wonderfully fertile, but very ill^j 

Thb French CoNscaiTTioN, 180*1^ 
— The account given by a conscript 
himself, Giovanni Finati, will bi^^i 
illustrate the cruelty of Napoleon \H 
srjrstem to raise soldiers. ' Italy ha<| 
fallen into the power of the French^ 
1804 ; for, though it was still noniin 
nally independent, and retained thui 
form'of a government of its own, yet 
it was in ract become no better than 
a province. Tlie people felt most 
acutely both the weight and humilia- 
tion of this foreign yoke, yet at the 
same time saw that tliey had no 
power of shaking it off. In no point 
did it press upon them more heavily 
than in the continual conscriptions'; 
for no sooner was a son grown to be 
of an age to assist his parents, and to 
contribute to their support, than he 
was forcibly torn from them, and 
sent off into the most distant coun- 
tries at the will of Buonaparte, who 
now reigned as master over almost 
all Europe. My father and mother, 
who were people of domestic and 
devout habits, received with horror 


GEORGE 111—1789—1815. 


the intelligence that my name ap- 
peared in Uie list of conscripts. No 
rppresentation was left untried with 
those in authority ; but none was 
sufficient to get me exempted. At 
b^t the utmost that could be ob- 
tained was, that I might be permitted 
to provide a substitute ; but even to 
this was annexed the condition, that, 
in case of his desertion, 1 must again 
come Ibrward, and make good his 
pboe io the ranks. The substitute 
was accordingly provided, and march- 
ed off* so soon as required by his re- 
dment ; and 1 remained quietly in 
the bosom of my fiimil v. Five mon ths 
had soon passed ; ana we were now 
(ar advanced in the year 1805, when 
the news came that the substitute 
iutd deserted. This was a terrible 
blow to my poor father, who looked 
upon me from that moment as lost 
to him for ever. No sooner was the 
4ct certified to the military comman- 
dant, than the regular warrant under 
the conscription was issued against 
me, and the most diligent seardi for 
me oommenced. But I was nowhere 
to be found ; for, feeling an abhor- 
rence to this compulsory mode of 
service, I had, by my father's wish 
and connivance, on tne very first in- 
timation, withdrawn secretly from the 
hoose, and was lurking in different 
hiding-places of the neighbourhood 
both day and nidbt When the go- 
remment saw Uiat all attempts to 
find me were ineffectual, measures 
were taken to compel my family by 
persecution to deliver me up. The 
tr&t method resorted to was the quar- 
tering of troops upon our house, 
whose number was augmented every 
dav, for the purpose of completely 
exhausting and reducing it to pover- 
ty, fiut my fiither's firmness was 
sudi, that he submitted to this with- 
out a murmiir, thinking that the go- 
reromeDt might be wearied out, and 
vooJtf perhaps desist when the means 
wen foand to fkil of their object ; 
kt hewm mistaken, and exasperation 
^3 the odW consequence. Accord- 
io£iy, my father and ny younger bro. 
tk/wJe seized, and thrown mto 

prison, where they were debarred 
from all communication; the pro- 
perty was confiscated; and I thus 
saw the utter ruin of my whole fa- 
mily inevitable, if I did not, of my 
own act, go and deliver myself up to 
the autliorities. — 1 therefore made up 
my mind to a voluntary surrender.' 

Van Diemen's Land colonized, 
1804, by the English.— This island is 
at the south-east of New Holland, 
210 miles long, and 150 broad, nearly 
the size of Ireland. It was first 
called Tasmania, from its discoverer, 
Tasman, 1642 ; but received its pre- 
sent name in honour of the governor 
of the Dutch possessions in India, 
Antony Van Diemen. In 1803, an 
attempt was made to settle a colony 
of convicts from New South Wales, 
but fruitlessly ; in 1804, however, 
captain Collins took possession of 
the parts about the mouth of the 
Derwent in the name of George III., 
and commenced Hobart Town, the 
present capital, so called in honour 
of lord Hobart, then colonial secre- 
tary. The captain had 400 convicts 
with him, and was made lieutenant- 
governor, with orders to act under 
the governor of New South Wales. 
That system still continues ; but in 
1825 it was agreed that in local mat- 
ters the governor of Van Diemen's 
Land should act independently, with 
an executive and legislative council. 
The general face of this island is 
mountainous, not in ranges, but in 
isolated peaks, varied by lofiy table- 
lands, and extensive fertile valleys and 
plains. The bays and anchorage are 
excellent; and Hobart Town is a 
very neatly-built place, standing on a 
rising ground, next to which in rank 
is Launceston, distant from the ca- 
pital 121 miles. When first disco- 
vered. Van Diemen's land was densely 
peopled by a dark race of inhabit- 
antSy differing somewhat from the 
aborigiDes of the adjacent coast of 
New Holland, in the more negro-like 
cast of countenance, woolly hair, and 
nearly black colour. Contests, how- 
ever, soon began between the white 
and black races, which continued, 

GEORGE III.— 1789— 1815. 


with occasional interruptions, until 
1835, when the blacks were hemmed 
into one corner of the island, and 
finally removed, under the protection 
of government, to Flinder's Island, in 
the adjoining straits. Their numbers 
have since very rapidly diminished, 
through smallpox, famine, and the 
retaliation of the colonists for the 
murders of their relations and friends. 
The principal exports of the colony 
are wool, whale and seal oil, whale- 
bone, and bark, to England ; and pro- 
vision and live-stock to the neigh- 
bouring colonies. There are several 
banks, and a fair amount of specie : 
manufactures of every sort are on the 
increase, and the rate of labourers* 
wages is more than adequate to the 
support of the artisan and his family. 
Port Arthur is now the penal settle- 
ment of the island. It is situated at 
the extremity of a point called Tas- 
man's Peninsula ; the neck of which 
is guarded by a militarv detachment, 
who have numerous tierce dogs to 
apprize them of the approach of run- 
awavs. To Port Arthur the erfi*- 
calcd convicts of Great Britain are 
sent : boy convicts are also ordered 
there, and placed under teachers qua- 
lified to make them useful in vanous 
trades. Colonial convicts, and pri- 
soners re-convicted in the settled dis- 
tricts, are likewise removed thither ; 
where they are employed in felling, 
sawing, cutting, splitting, and load- 
ing timber, in ship-building, con- 
structing wharfs, prisons, barracks, 
&c., in shoemaking, tanning, in the 
coal-mines, and various ways. On 
landing, they are stripped, and clothed 
in tanned sheep-skin ; and the hours 
of labour are irom sunrise to sunset. 
To Port Arthur and Norfolk Island 
alone, convicts of all grades are, by 
recent enactments, at present con- 

The Modern Rosciub. — William 
Betty, the son of Irish parents, was 
advertised to appear, aged only 13, 
on the boards or Uo vent-garden thea- 
tre, December 1, 1804, in the cha- 
racter of Achmet in Dr. Brown's play 
of Barbarossa. As early as one o'clock 

in the afternoon, the crowd began to 
assemble in the piazzas of that house ; 
and at the proper hour, every po- 
pular art was practised to gain ad- 
mission. The utmost danger was 
apprehended, because those who had 
ascertained that it was quite impos- 
sible for them to get in, could not, for 
the dreadful pressure behind them, 
get back. At length they themselves 
called for the soldiers, who, with their 
usual temper and firmness, soon 
cleared the fronts of the entrances, 
and then posting themselves properly, 
lined the passages, permitting any 
one to return, but none to enter. 
The pit was half filled by gentlemen 
who had sprung down from the 
boxes. The actual occupiers of the 
boxes by force, retained them against 
the owners of the places and tlic po- 
lice officers who attempted to be 
their ushers. All that the gallantry 
of the men would permit was allow- 
ing ladies in some cases to occupy 
the front seat, while the remainder 
of the box was held by the strongest 
of all rights, possession. Mr. Charles 
Kemble came forward witli an ad- 
dress for the occasion ; but the house 
would not have listened to the ad- 
dress of even Dr. Johnson, unless 
Master Betty himself had delivered 
it. The play, therefore, proceeded 
through the first act, with a tempest 
rather stronger than that which an- 
nounces the first appearance of a 
pantomime. At length Barbarossa 
ordered Achmet to be brought be- 
fore him ; 'attention held them mute ; 
not even a whisper could he heard, 
till tlie highly-honoured object of 
their curiosity stood in their pre- 
sence. In reply to the thunder of ap- 
plause that ensued, the youth bowed 
respectfully, but with self-possession, 
and immediately turned himself to 
the business of the stage. With a 
voice considerably deeper than that 
of his age, he began his part, and sup- 
ported it to the close of the piece, 
with that accuracy of emphasis and 
manner, and that attention to stage 
routine, which belong to practised 
manhood. There were grievous vul- 


GEORGE HL— 1789— 1815. 


zartsms and harshnesses in his dialect : 
Qo aspirate, a want of elegance in 
sustaining the r at the end of words 
Tiien followed by a vowel (' hair ever 
loose' he would render mr^ever 
l<>i^\ and a provincial coarseness 
nmrked his expression of the vowels 
fand i when they occurred in the 
last syllable of a word. Thus ruin, 
cm el, evil, given, he pronounced 
nwin, cru-ul, evul, givun. 'The 
vonder was (says Mr. Boaden) how 
any boy, who had just completed his 
thirteenth year, could catch passion, 
meaning, cadence, action, expression, 
irid the discipline of the stage, in ten 
tery difierent and arduous charac- 
trrs, so as to give the kind of 
pleasure in them that needed no in- 
dulgence, and wliich, from that very 
circamstance, heightened satisfaction 
into enthusiasm.' For his first three 
nights,* the young aspirant received 
the handsome sum of 150 guineas; 
bnt as the receipts of the house were 
found to average ^QOL per niglit, he 
liad for the twenty-five following ones, 
liX) guineas for each appearance. In 
twenty-eight nights the house took 
DO less than 17,210/. 10«., of which 
27Sa/. lOt. was his very large portion ! 
This was independent of his benefits, 
wiiidi were all free (that is, the lessee 
paid all the actors, and for the lights, 
&c.) of which he had four in the 
season, each producing, with presents, 
at least 1000 guineas clear. Mean- 
while patrons and patronesses arose 
to him in every quarter. He might 
liave chosen among titled dames the 
rarriage he would honour with his 
person. The arts strove to perpetu- 
ate his countenance and his figure ; 
Opie painted him on the Grampian 
Hills, as the shepherd Norval ; 
Northcote exhibited him in a Yan- 
dyck costume, retiring from the altar 
ot'Shakspeare, as having borne thence 
('not stolen)^* Jove's authentic fire.' 
Very wisely/ his parents took advan- 
tage' of the tide while it served, and 
secured an ample fortune for their 
?on*s maturity, who became eventu- 
ally a member of one of England's 
two universities. * Young Betty 

(write the authors of the Rejected 
Addresses, edit. 1833) may now be 
seen about town — a portly personage, 
aged about forty, clad in a furred 
and frogged surtout, and probably 
muttering to himself (as he has been 
at college) *OI mihi prseteritos I' 
The philosopher, with less fun than 
the witty brothers Smith, regards the 
success of 'the modem Roscius* 
only as one of the indubitable proofs 
of the British drama having been on 
the decline so early as the opening of 
the present century. As it has now 
virtually expired, we may be allowed 
to point out that the public taste, 
having come to need every excite- 
ment to appetite, partly through the 
overstrained productions of novelists 
and romance- writers, and partly 
through the narratives of bloody tra- 
gedies actually enacted during the 
revolution in a neighbouring country, 
could only now be satisfied with dis- 
plays out of the ordinary course, 
such as the precocity of young Betty 
afibrded, and which was soon follow- 
ed by the more degrading substitu- 
tion of elephants and other brute 
beasts for the legitimate histrionic 
wearers of the buskin and the sock. 
Napoleon Bctonaparte anno rue - 


and king of Italy, May 18th, 1804, 
as in the French history. 

The Empire of Germany limited 
TO Austria, 1806, by the compelled 
abdication (through Buonaparte) of 
Francis II., emperor of Germany 
and of the West, and king of Rome — 
titles henceforth abandoned. — (See 
Germanic Confederation), 

The Cape of Good Hope taken, 
1806, by the British, under sir David 
Baird and sir Home Popham, as re- 
corded in vol. ii. 266. Out of the 
Dutch possession ofthis colony arose 
many superstitions connected with 
navigating the seas between Europe 
and the Cape ; and the sailors' mc^ 
nienlo niori, called * The Flying 
Dutchman,' or • Ship of Doom,' is 
one of the most striking. Vander- 
decken was a Dutch captain, to whom 
was intrusted the conveyance of the 


GEORGE in.~l789— 1815. 


mails from the mother-country to the 
settlement In one of his voyages, 
when off Table-bay, he encountered 
a furious gale of wind, and for a long 
time was borne before it; during 
which all his 'attempts to enter the 
harbour were fruitless. His mate, 
an experienced seaman, is said to 
have hereupon counselled his giving 
over so vain a struggle with the ele- 
ments, and to have received in con- 
sequence the impious reply, * that he 
would enter the bay, if he beat about 
it till the day of judgment!' — which 
awful speech instantly brought upon 
the captain the just punishment of 
heaven, he being consigned through 
all time to beat about the bay, wiui- 
out ever having the power to enter 
it. Modern seamen, on fancying 
they see 'the flying Dutchman' a- 
head, or, in other words, seeing 
those sinpilar reflections of their own 
vessel, wfiich an imperfect light, and 
a foggy atmosphere occasion, regard 
the affair as an omen of approaching 
danger, either to themselves or their 
ship ; and vain is often every attempt 
to reason them out of the delusion. 

The African Slave Tbade abo- 
lished, 1807, by act of parliament, 
through the long continued exertions 
of Mr. Wilberforce. It has been 
shown, in the memoir of the excel- 
lent prelate Las Casas (p, 70,vol,ii.), 
that the Spaniards first originated 
the traffic in Hispaniola ; and their 
example was soon followed by the 
Portuguese, Dutch, and English . The 
commerce was long clierished by our 
government, as a source of national 
and colonial wealth ; but at length a 
party, chiefly composed of dissenters, 
and of that portion of the church of 
England styling itself 'evangelical,' 
undertook a species of crusade against 
it ; and roused the general attention 
by denouncing it as botli unchristian, 
and in opposition to the rights of 
mankind. In a state of nature, it 
was alleged, no man has a right to 
seize upon his fellow, and compel 
him to labour for his subsistence; 
and as independent communities 
stand to each other in the same rela- I 

tion that individuals do in a state of 
nature, so canndt there exist (said 
the abolitionists) a right in one state 
to cany off by force, or entice by 
fraud, the subjects of any other 
community, for the purpose of re- 
ducing them to servitude. The real 
facts were, in the main, these. Our 
West India colonies required la- 
bourers who could bear the climate ; 
Europeans, even with high pay, un- 
derwent the toil with difficulty ; 
many of the savage nations of Africa 
were known to barter their children 
for mere baubles ; and worthless sea- 
captains, little better than pirates, 
taking advantage of the necessity of 
the one side, and oC the brutality of 
the other, established a trade in hu- 
man flesh. Taken in the aggregate, 
the conduct of the slave-masters 
towards their dependants was mild 
and merciful ; and it is ^ fact 
that, in the regular supply of 
the necessaries of life, the Africans 
were better off in their enslaved, than 
in their natural state j while there 
could be no security of life in coun- 
tries where, on all occasions of public 
rejoicing, human blood is freely shed. 
vSee Mission to Ashantee.) 

The two chief questions involved 
in the abolition, are the moral right 
of one set of men to condemn to 
slavery another portion of their raco, 
without the plea of injury received 
from such portion ; and the fitting 
moment for carrying into effect such 
abolition. As to the first of these 
points, conscience and philosophy 
alike, looking on the world as it is — 
observing the end for which society 
was created, the form into which it 
has been cast, and the laws which are 
necessary for its maintenance — refuse 
to countenance any dangerous no- 
tions of abstract rights, as indepen- 
dent of human or divine law. Un- 
real in themselves, we yet know well 
enough what kind of conclusions the 
* rights of man' are capable of support- 
ing. If every man has an absolute in- 
defeasible right to dispose of his own 
labour (as the extreme abolitionists 
declare), why not to freedom from 


GEORGE in.— 1789— 1815. 


/i the other restraints of external 
-7— why not to an equal sliare of 
u those other means of happiness 
M wellbeiDg — earth and water, 
j>t, hint, and fish, that nature pro- 
ci-d for the use of all ? Those who 
:re not content to rest the origin of 
t i<ir rights on express divine law, and 
r: constituted human authority, will 
id it very difficult to obtain them 

> ort of revolutionary plunder and 
j "idshed. Slavery is certainly not 

riKiuiled by authoritative revelation. 
r.uit it is in its degree contrary to 
: it genius of Christianity, we freely 
< vr. The Christian Church has 
..wTLvs struggled against it, as odious 
a :act, but has never denounced it 

> Iniquitous in principle. The Scrip- 
Mris directly recognise the relation 
1^ lawful ; directing not only bond- 

b.\es (called 'servants' in our trans- 
ui.oo) to be zealous in the service 
"f their masters, but masters (not to 
• nancipate but) to be just and fair 
.» their bond-slaves. The illustrious 
>t. Paul thus writes to the Ephc- 
^ iQs, \i.5, * Servants {ol doOXoi — 
i 'iiot meaning alone bondslave, one 
[iirchascd with money, and over 
'•^ I'jse life the purchaser had as much 
I ziit, by the then laws of society, as 
.'• had 'over that of his cattle) be 
<>dient to them that are your mas- 
t rs according*to the flesh, with fear 
I'i'i trembling, in singleness of your 
vart, as unto Christ ; not with eye- 
Tfice, as men-plessers, but as the 
'^rvants of Christ, doing the will of 
<i ^d from the heart ; with good will service, as to the Lorc^and not 
ij men: knowing that whatsoever 
:"<>d thing any man doeth, the same 
•tail he receive of the Lord, whether 
1 ' be bond or free.' How opposed, 
t .f refore, to the apostolical injunc- 
'.' on, has been the preaching of Bap- 
' <t and other dissenting missionaries 
to the black West India population ; 
it liaving by every means urged the 
laves first to resist, and, if in return re* 
listed, then to rise upon their masters. 
England is alleged to have affirmed 
3s a prindple, • that every man has 
^nght to freedom, which municipal 

regulations can no more abrogate, than 
they could a primary law of morality ; 
and that law can give no man opro- 
perty in another ;' but she has affirm- 
ed no such thing. She has said, both 
well and wisely, that within her own 
jurisdiction she will take cognizance 
of no such property, or of the rights 
which arise therefrom ; but she has 
never pronounced, nor has she the 
right to pronounce, on other nations 
who still maintain their validitv. She 
has enunciated a principle for the 
regulation of her own territories, 
salutary for herself in particular ; sa- 
lutary, we believe, for the world in 
general ; but not therefore fit for the 
adoption of every nation in particular. 
The supreme power in England has 
given to the people the privileges of 
representation and trial by jury ; but 
we do not therefore declare every 
other government iniquitous which 
withholds these rights — much less 
justify insurrection and bloodshed to 
obtain them. As to the second point, 
the fitting moment of abolition, (the 
measure being once determined on), 
we cannot but regard the selection of 
the abolitionists as a fearful experi- 
ment ; and can only pray that good 
may be the issue. Neither were the 
land-owners nor the slaves in a state 
of readiness for the change ; and we 
entirely coincide in opinion with the 
Honourable sir Edward Cust,who tlius 
sensibly writes, afler a four montlis' 
journey through the Windward colo- 
nies, 1841. 'Upon a calm review 
of all the impressions lefl on my mind, 
I am forced to the conviction, tliat a 
whole generation must pass away 
before the negro, in a state of free^ 
dom, will attain, in his social condi- 
tion, to any thing approaching the 
civilization of the European peasant, 
or will work with any thing like the 
constancy and steadiness that is es- 
sential to the profitable culture of 
the land. Nor will this be surprising 
to a reflecting mind ; for if it take 
three generations to make a gentle- 
man, how much more must it require 
to make a barbarian civilized ? The 
endeavour to do this by steam power 


GEORGE III.— 1789— 1815. 


and stove heat only produces an un- 
natural growth, in which the vices of 
the European and African united, 
are more sensibly perceived than tlie 
better qualities of either. The sim- 
plicity of uncivilized life is sharpened 
into cunning by ' a little learning ;' 
the contentedness of an humble con- 
dition is roused into a restlessness, 
virhich can only not be dignified by 
the name of ambition, because there 
is not sufficient knowledge of the 
world to know what to aim at ; wliilst 
the sudden elevation in their condi- 
tion, altogether prevents them from 
being satisfied with continuing as 
they are.* 

The statement made by lord 
Stanley, the colonial secretary, in 
parliament, March 1842, coming as 
It does from one originally friendly 
to the sudden emancipation-plan, 
may be thought at once to settle tlie 
question, as to the propriet}' or im- 
propriety of the measure. * The 
planters,' said his lordship, ' have suf- 
fered a very serious and ruinous ex- 
pense in the cultivation of their es- 
tates (since the abolition), from the 
abstraction of labour, in consequence 
of the application of the labourers to 
their own farms, and from their having 
become possessors of property in- 
stead of mere cultivators of the 
soil. The result is, that the plan- 
ters are compelled to pay exorbitant 
and enormous wages ; and from the 
information I continue to receive, 
unless some remedy can be provided, 
it will be impossiole for the owners 
to continue cultivating their estates.' 
The facts which elicited this unex- 
pected declaration of an abolitionist 
are, that on 62 sugar estates, the ac- 
tual loss to tlie proprietors, from 
January 1 to October 31, 1841, was 
874,000 guilders, and to Decem- 
ber 31, 983,000— the whole of this 
last sum on an outlay of only 
1,295,000 ; so that three-quarters of 
the monej expended in the cultiva- 
tion of his estate by the planter was 
lost. This is, of course, simple ruin; 
and it is leading, with marvellous ra- 
pidity, (in spite of the 20 mUlioDS 

compensation granted the planters), 
to its natural result — one which was 
foreseen by sensible persons on the 
spot long ago — the tranter of all the 
properly of our West India ulands into 
the handa of the coloured population. 
For instance, thus writes governor 
Light, of Demerara, to the secretary', 
with feelings of pride and satisfac- 
tion. ' I cannot but record the enter- 
prise of the lately emancipated classes, 
six of whom have bought an aban" 
doned sugar estate^ named Noith- 
brook, for whidi they paid 30,000 
guilders (*iOOO/. odd) ;' and he tlieii 
mentions other like purchases for 
4000/:, 11,000/, and 16,000/. The 
governor congratulates himself at 
these purchases, as a proof that the 
'blessings' of emancipation have 
shown themselves thus early in 
Demerara; and with some naivete 
observes, * when it is considered 
that the greatest ' part of tlie 
money (of these purchases) has been 
earned nnce emancipation, it may be 
concluded that the labourers have 
been fairly treated.* Pretty fairly 
certainly ; and it will occur to some 
persons to ask whether the masters 
have been treated with as much fair- 
ness, by a sudden change of relations, 
which compels them to hand over 
their entire property, on the most 
ruinous terms, to a race that lias ob- 
tained its actual purchase-money out 
of their pockets? In conclusion, it 
should be observed, that the cruelties 
of slave-stealing have been multiplied 
tenfold by ' the right of search ; the 
power allowed to vessels of boarding 
otliers to ascertain if they are carry- 
ing slaves, liavin^ occasioned the 
owners of slave-ships to add to tlicir 
iniquity by packing living flesh and 
blood into noles and comers, as if 
dead stock, to avoid detection. 
Thousands of negroes are yearly sa- 
crificed in the passage by this prac- 
tice. (See AbokHon ^ Negro Slavery, 

Heligoland a British Posses- 
sion, 1807. — This very small isle, si- 
tuated twenty-four miles from the 
mouth of the Elbe in the north sea, 


GEORGE in.— 1789— 1816. 


:4 onl^ a mile in length, and not 
three in circumference. It is of con- 
>idefable importance to vessels bound 
\o the Elbe, Weser, &C., not only be- 
cause its church and lighthouse fomi 
an admirable beacon, but ships may 
there be supplied with experienced 
pilots- It was conquered from the 
duke of Sleswick by the Danes 1714, 
from them taken by the English 1807, 
and in 181 7 formally ceded to Great 
Britain. The inhabitants are of Fri- 
sian origin, but mostly use the Ger- 
man language. The climate of the 
isle is mild, resembling that of the 
midland countries of Europe, and the 
air is pure and salubrious ; whence 
Heligoland has been much frequented 
by foreigners, for the sake of its very 
efi&cacious baths, erected 1826. There 
is a governor with 500^, and the 
whole expense for salaries, including 
his, does not reach 1000/. There are 
no manu&ctures and no horses ; and 
recently there were onlv six homed 
cattle, 150 sheep, and four goats on 
the island. Tiiere is a good fishery, 
however, for haddocks and lobsters. 

The Peninsular War, 1808.— 
The Portuguese nation having soli- 
cited the aid of the English against 
their French invaders, sir Arthur 
Weilesley, son of the earl of Mom- 
ington, who had commenced his mili- 
tary career in India, was sent to op- 
pose the force under Junot Sir Ar- 
thur, in the East, luid administered 
the civil afiairs of an extensive terri- 
tory, in such a manner as both to 
meet the approbation of his supe- 
riors, and to give satisfaction to those 
under his government. He had 
brought difficult negotiations to a 
sQcc^sful termination, and had led 
numerous armies to brilliant and d&- 
cbive victories. On his return to 
Europe, however, no higher military 
station opened to him, owing to the 
junior rank he still held amongst ge- 
neral officers, than the command of a 
»ogIe brigade on home service ; but 
some prospect of employment more 
suitable to bis enterprbing spirit 
seemed to present itself, 1805. A 
body of troops being tlien sent to 

Germany, his brigade was included 
in it ; but the overthrow of the Aus- 
trian and Russian armies at Auster- 
litz, rendered abortive this attempt of 
the British government to take part 
in the milita^ operations of the con- 
tinent. Another expedition was fit- 
ted out 1807, destined to act against 
Copenhagen ; and on that occasion 
sir Arthur had the command of a di- 
vision. His ability and activity were 
here attended with tlieir customary 
success; and af^er having defeated 
the force collected by the enemy to 
disturb the operations of the siege, 
he was employed by lord Cathcart to 
settle the terms of capitulation with 
the Danish governor. From this mi- 
litary service he returned to discharge 
th oflice of chief secretary for Ire- 
land ; and he was fulfilling the duties 
of that situation, when he received a 
letter from the duke of York, announc 
ing his appointment to the chief 
command or a body of troops destined 
for Portugal ; an appointment that 
opened the way to achievements which 
have immortalized his name. Sir 
Arthur landed in Mondego bay, Au- 
gust 1, 1808, and soon commenced 
active operations. After a slight af- 
fair at Kolica, a severe battle was 
fought at Yimiera, which terminated 
in a complete defeat of the French, 
with the loss of 8000 men. On the 
day succeeding the victory, sir Hew 
Dalrymple arrived from Gibraltar to 
take his post of commander-in-chief, 
and censured sir Arthur, who was 
only second in command, for acting 
without his orders ; he also immedi- 
ately agreed with Junot for a cessa- 
tion of hostilities, and signed a con- 
vention at Cintra, by the provisions 
of which the French were, instead 
of being made prisoners of war, to 
be transported to France, at the cost 
of the English nation, laden as the^ 
were witli tlie property of the spoli- 
ated Portuguese. It was not long 
before a formal annunciation of king 
George's disapprobation was forward- 
ed to sir Hew; and a court of inquiry 
was instituted, but without any par- 
ticular result. It was during the in- 


GEORGE IIL— 1789— 1815. 


vestment of Saragossa by the French 
in 1808, when the place was defend- 
ed by the Spaniards under the brave 
general Palafox, that a young woman, 
named Augustina, materially tended, 
by her heroic exertions, to damp the 
ardour of the enemy. Though made 
prisoner, she escaped from the hos- 
pital to which a fever had confined 
her, and, upon rejoining the Spanish 
army, was raised to military rank in 
the artillery. Sir John Moore was 
then sent to the Peninsula, in full 
command of the British army ; and 
in November he had reached Salar 
manca, where he was informed that 
the forces of the patriots had been 
recently routed by the French. To 
retreat, therefore, was sir John's only 
course ; but the hostility of the vil- 
lagers in those parts, and the cold- 
ness of the season, brought great dis- 
tre^ upon his devoted army, as it 
worked its way to the sea, through 
more than 250 miles of mountain 
country. On the 11th of January, 
1809, it reached Corunna, and on tlie 
16th commenced its embarkation on 
board the transports brought thither 
for the purpose. The French, how- 
ever, under marslial Soult, having 
advanced upon the town before the 
main body of the forces had taken 
ship, sir John determined to give 
them battle ; and in the early part of 
the contest received his death-wound. 
General Hope maintained Ihe action 
until the complete discomfiture of 
the enemy ; so that the embarkation 
was effected in the following night; 
but the British lost in this unfortu- 
nate expedition 6000 men, and all its 
ammunition and stores. Soult now 
advanced upon and took Oporto ; 
but the opportune return of sir Ar- 
tliur Wellesley from England induced 
tliat general to relinquish his acqui- 
sition, and retreat to Madrid. The 
defeat of Cuestra, tiie Spanish leader, 
in Estremadura, by the French, caus- 
ed sir Arthur to give up the pursuit 
of Soult ; and in July, 1809, in con- 
junction with Cuestra, he gained a 
victory over the enemy at Talavera. 

On November 19, 1809, the Spa- 
nish army of Andalusia, about 50,000 
strong, commanded by general Arei- 
zaga, advanced to Ocana (pronounced 
Okami/a)t and threatened Madrid ; 
which was occupied by the French. 
The French, under marshal Soult, 
attacked the Spaniards, who fought 
with great courage, especially the in- 
fantry, and at first repulsed the ene- 
my ; but after three hours of struggle, 
the French succeeded in breaking the 
Spanish line, which dispersed in the 
greatest confusion, leaving all their 
cannon and baggage, and one half oF 
their men killed or prisoners. Arei- 
zaga hurried away with the remain- 
der of his army towards the Sierra 
Morena. The battle of Ocana was 
a most disastrous event to tlie Spa- 
nish cause i and an incident con- 
nected with it generated a ferocious 
spirit, which, in every subsequent 
conflict between Spaniard and 
Frenchman, and unhappily between 
Spaniard and Spaniard, almost to 
the present hour, has painfully 
distinguished Peninsular warfare. 
After the battle, a division, consisting 
mainly of Poles, (who had, on ac- 
count of the failure of their revolu- 
tionary schemes at home, been ex- 
pelled their country, and for bread liad 
taken pay in the levelling ranks of 
tlie French), was charged to escort 
to Burgos the prisoners, amounting, 
according to some accounts, to 80,000 
men. Tiie road from Ocana to Burgos 
is nearly due north, across the Tajo 
(TagusJ through Madrid (the site 
of the Roman Mantua Carpentana^, 
Segovia, Aranda del Duero, and 
Lerma ; but tlie Poles, on reaching 
the open countiy above Madrid , 
turned off* towarcls Alcala de He- 
nares, and there set upon and 
slaughtered above 16,000 of tlieir 
prisoners in cold blood I The whole 
would have been butchered, but for 
the interference of the few French in 
the division, who gave their oatlis to 
the Poles to keep them in safe 
custody. So atrocious a proceeding 
having reached the ears of Merino, 


GEORGE in.— 1789— 1815. 


(tbe commander of one of thoee 
eoerilla pardea, which oontinuallv 
hung upon the skirts of the Frenen 
armies, attacked their rear-guards, 
cut off their convoys and despatches, 
and contributed, in no small degree, 
\o the final expulsion of the inya- 
deis from the Peninsula,) he, clergv- 
Bian as he was, (a man of good %- 
milT and fortune, who had turned 
soldier on being deprived of his 
estates and living by the ravages of 
the French, supporting at his own 
cost a troop of horsemen), vowed 
he would have the life of a Pole for 
everv hair of the head of the Spa- 
niards so hartwrously murdered. The 
&ct of his troops keeping constantly 
close, either in the rear or on either 
side of the Polish division, as it pro- 
ceeded from Segovia to Aranda, be- 
coming known to the latter, various 
stmtagen» were adopted to seize the 
aira Merino's person ; a matter con- 
sidered not difficult, since he never 
bivooacked with his troop, but, 
departing to a distance from it with 
a single orderly, and sometimes quite 
alone, reposed under some trees, witli 
hi^ horse's body for a pillow. At 
length some tlireats being liberally 
d< 3h by the Poles to the villagers 
along the Duero, of burning their 
Tiittages if they did not discover to 
them the cure, a young peasant, 
named Julian, boldly offered to con- 
duct their whole body to where he 
was; and though warned, that if he 
deceived them, his life should in- 
stantly be sacrificed, he accepted 
their terms, and at midnight, being 
provided with a horse, and placed 
between two officers, led the way 
acro» a heath, in the direction of a 
pine wood, where he alleged the 
CUTS was reposing. The night was 
so dark, that not an object could be 
discerned further off than 15 or 20 
paces. The head of the column had 
arrived at about that distance from 
tlie first pine-trees, when a strong voice 
challenged with a ' Que vive? 'La 
fmee/aoswered the French colonel, 
bm his hand on one of his hol- 
ster pistols. • Fuego.' commanded 

the same voice as before. The word 
was illuminated by the simultaneous 
flash of 600 muskets ; the echoes of 
the report running round the moun- 
tains, and at length dying away in 
the distance. The two front ranks 
of the French infantry fell almost to 
a man. At the same instant, the 
rieht flank was charged bv a squadron 
of cavalry, and the whole cavalry 
thrown into inextricable confusion. 
A torch, which had been kept con- 
cealed by tlie Spaniards, was pro- 
duced, and an hundred others were 
immediately Ughted at it. By their 
glare might be seen the whole of 
Merino's forces quietly hemming in 
the devoted little band, which, al- 
ready entirely broken by the volley 
and the subsequent charge of the 
hussars, was in no state to contend 
with the far superior forces brought 
against it. Those who attempted to 
resist, and among them was the colo- 
nel, who had been wounded, but not 
killed by the first discharge, were in- 
stantly despatched. The remainder, 
nearly 700 men, surrendered; and 
their arms and the horses of the ca- 
valry having been taken from them, 
they were marched down to the cor- 
ral (the place where guerilla horses 
are foddered), into which they were 
driven pell-mell, like a flock of sheep 
into the slaughter-house, the en- 
trance of the building being then, by 
Merino's order, blocked up with 
bushes, branches, and trunks of trees, 
which the Spaniards brought for the 
purpose. The terrible intention of 
this proceeding soon became apparent. 
A large stack of firewood, wliich the 
peasants had built up near the shed, was 
by the cure's orders distributed around 
it To this and the branches was added 
straw ; of which a considerable quan- 
tity had been brought for the horses. 
Torches were then applied in fifty 
different places ; and in an instant 
the corral was in flames I Then com- 
menced one of the most horrible 
scenes ever witnessed or described. 
The 700 unfortunate Poles and 
Frenchmen, who, if they had not ex- 
pected quarter, had by no means an- 


GEORGE III.— 1789— 1815. 


ticipated the frightful nature of the 
death reserved for them, uttered 
frantic yells when they became aware 
of their dreadful situation, when they 
saw the flames rising, and heard the 
pine planks of which the building was 
composed, crackling and splitting in 
every direction around them. They 
made desperate efforts to break out 
of their burning prison; but even 
when, aided by the devouring ele- 
ment, they succeeded in making a 
breach, on every side was a wall of 
fire, and beyond that the naked sa- 
bres and fixed bayonets of the gue- 
rillas, by which those who rushed 
out, scorched and blackened, were 
thrust back again into the furnace. 
In a few minutes the roof fell in ; and 
the dry fern and litter which was in 
great abundance on the floor of the 
stable becoming ignited, the heat was 
so violent, that the Spaniards them- 
selves were obliged to retire to some 
distance. The beams and planks of 
which the shed was built now yielded 
inwards to the pressure of the faggots 
piled against them ; the flames spread 
rapidly, and reached those of the 
wretched victims who liad crowded 
together in the centre of the corral, 
to avoid, as long as possible, their in- 
evitable doom ; and to their now ago- 
nizing shrieks for mercy, their execu- 
tioners alone replied by loud shouts 
of • Mueren los Polacos ! Death to 
the Poles— remember Ocaiial' At 
length Merino ordered a volley to be 
fired among the survivors ; every 
shot told on the mass of dark forms 
that were writhing in the midst of 
what seemed a lake of fire ; and 
afler one or two piercing cries and 
groans, a pyramid of brieht flame 
shot up into the air, and all was 
over I The day was breaking when 
the cura, at the head of his troops, 
was leaving the theatre of this bloody 
tragedy, and his horse nearly trode 
on the body of a Spanish peasant, 
who had been killed by a pistol-shot. 
It was Julian: the French colonel 
had kept his word. Merino stopped 
when he recognised his best spy life* 
less, dropped a few tears, and exclaim- 

ing * Povere Julian, que lastisma !' 
(Poor Julian, what a pity!) ordered 
his body to be carried by an orderly, 
till a churchyard came in view where 
to inter it. 

It was in October, 1809, that Na- 
poleon liad thus written to the empe- 
ror of Russia: 'General Wellesley 
has had the extreme imprudence to 
commit himself in the heart of Spain 
with 30,000 men ; having on his 
flanks three armies, consisting of 
ninety battalions and from forty to 
fifty squadrons, and, in his front, tiie 
army commanded by the king, of 
equal force : it is difiicult to conceive 
such an act of presumption.' Sir Ar- 
thur, however, maintained his ground ; 
and on December 20th began tlie 
siege of Saragossa, which proved one 
of the most splendid instances on re- 
cord of a prolonged resistance, last- 
ing as it did until February 20, 1810. 
The last twenty-three days of it was 
a war of streets and houses ; the edi- 
fices in the neighbourhood of the at- 
tacked bastion being of so solid a con- 
struction, tliat they were enabled to 
assist in the defence — which, on such 
occasions, is done by barricading the 
streets leading to the breach, and 
loop-holing the several stories of the 
houses for a musketry-fire. In 1 8 1 0, 
with the rank of viscount Welling- 
ton, the general resolved on prevent- 
ing, if possible, the attempt of the 
French to occupy Portugal ; and 
when the fortress of Almeida, in that 
country, had fallen to the enemy 
(August), his lordship made thepeo. 
pie of the town and neighbouring 
villages remove towards Lisbon, after 
burning every tiling which they could 
not cariy away; and when the French 
had been driven from Sierra Busaco» 
with equal loss on both sides, he re- 
moved to Torres Vedras, earning 
with him the whole population of the 
intervening country. Great indivi- 
dual distress veas the necessary con- 
sequence of this proceeding ; and to 
alleviate it, liberal contributions were 
made in Lisbon and England. At 
the close of tlie year, Massena, with 
the French army, made Santarem his 


GEORGE IIL— 1789— 1815. 


bead-quarteis ; while lord Welling- 
tio, with the capital behind him, aiKi 
the sea open for supplies, had no 
reason to complain ofdifficulties. 

In March 1811, the attempt of a 
combiiied English and Spanish force 
ti> destroy the French blockade of 
Cadiz, bronght on the battle of Bar- 
rasa ; and general Graham, the com- 
mander, obtained great credit for his 
talented conduct on so trying an oc- 
casion. After a vexy severe action, 
the enemy retreated, leaving behind 
them an eagle, six pieces of cannon, 
two generals wounded, and the field 
riiTered with arms and dead bodies, 
^lassena, tired of waiting for supplies, 
and surrounded by a devastated coun- 
try, now quitted Santarem, followed 
by lord Wellington. The object of 
the latter in pursuing the French 
vas to prerent their excesses, and to 
urve them into Spain by the nearest 
roads; notwithstanding which, they 
acted most barbarously to the people 
throng whose villages they passed. 
Maaeoa crossed theSpanisli frontier 
on the 4th of April, and he continued 
his retreat till he reached Ciudad 
Rodrigo, where he established his 
bead-quarters, and whence he sallied 
forth to attack the British, who were 
blockading Almeida. But his assaults 
vere repulsed by the skill of lord 
Wellington, Almeida was evacuated 
by its garrison, and many prisoners 
were UMide, as the retiring men wound 
their way through the blockading 
posts in silence, with the hope of 
escaping unobserved. The battle of 
Albuera took place between marslial 
Soult and the English marshal Beres- 
ford in June, when victory declared 
for the British ; the enemy being com- 
pelled to cross the river, leaving 2000 
dead, and 1000 prisoners. At tlie 
close of the year, sickness, and the 
want of reinforcements, induced lord 
Wellington to take up his winter- 
(juarten within the Portuguese fron- 
tier; but on the 19th of January, 
131^ he got possession of Ciudad 
Hodrigo by assault. The garrison of 
J "00 men, besides officers, togetlier 
with 153 pieces of cannon, and vast 

quantities of stores, were all placed 
at the disposal of the British ; and 
the Spanish Cortes instantly made 
the conqueror a grandee of the first 
class, as duke of Ciudad Rodrigo, his 
grateful country conferring upon him 
an earldom. The earl of WeUington 
next invested Badajoz, on both sides 
of the Guadiana ; and on the 7th of 
April the garrison surrendered, re- 
duced as it was by the operations of 
the siege from 5000 to 3800 men. 
Soult, when he heard of this severe 
loss, retreated towards Andalusia; 
and the earl arrived without opposi- 
tion at Salamanca, July 16th. 

On the 22d a general engagement 
commenced. The resistance of the 
French was obstinate; but at the 
approach of night they fled, and were 
pursued by the English as long as 
they could be distinguished. Twelve 
pieces of cannon, two eagles, and a 
number of colours and waggons, 
were captured, 100 officers made 
prisoners, marshal Marmont wounded 
severely, and four general officers 
slain. The earl lost no time in ad- 
vancing upon Madrid, which he en- 
tered August 12th, king Joseph, the 
brother of Napoleon, having quitted 
it four days before ; and in com- 
memoration of this event, the noble 
general was created marquis of Wel- 
lington, and presented, by tlie una- 
nimous voice of parliament, witti a 
handsome grant of money to pur- 
cliase lands. After a sliort stay in the 
capital, the British advanced towards 
Valladolid, the enemy retiring before 
them to Burgos. Burgos the French 
evacuated in the night ; but they 
left there a large garrison in the 
castle, and the place bcins defended 
by an almost impregnable line of 
works, lord Wellington, for want of 
artillery, was compelled to begin a 
retrograde march. lie was closely 
pursued by the enemy, who gained 
an additional share of courage on 
perceiving an army, which had 
hitherto appeared invincible, actuated 
by fear. By the eminent skill, how- 
ever, of their leader, the British 
reached Freynada on tlic frontier of 


GEORGE IIL~1789— 1815. 


Portugal, with trifling loss : pursued 
as they were by an overwhelming 
force of 75,000 men and 200 pieces 
of cannon. Lord Wellington took 
up his winter-quarters here ; and on 
visiting Lisbon, he was received with 
the most unequivocal marks of trium- 
phant welcome. 

Nothing further occurred worthy 
of mention until 1813, when the 
Cortes, who had hitherto been jea- 
lous of the British general, gave him 
the full command of their troops. By 
a scries of brilliant operations, the 
French were immediately driven from 
their positions on the Ebro and 
Douro, and at length were reduced 
to the alternative of abandoning the 
country entirely, or risking every 
thing upon a pitched battle. King 
Joseph adopted the latter courae, and 
drew up his forces near Yittoria, 
where, on the 21st of June, he was 
signally beaten. The artillery, bag- 
gage, and military chest of the fu^- 
tives, fell into the hands of the vic- 
tors ; and so complete was the rout, 
that the remnants of the defeated 
army scarcely deemed themselves 
safe until they had escaped fairly 
into France. When intelligence 
of this victory reached England, the 
marquis was advanced to the veir 
unusual British honour of Field- 
marshal. Before pu rsu i ng the French 
into their own country, it was neces- 
sary for the marquis to reduce St 
Sebastian and Pampeluna : the for- 
mer, after a frightful loss, was taken 
by storm, and the latter surrendered 
by capitulation. Meanwhile the 
operations of the allied armies in the 
south-eastern provinces proceeded 
badly ; and sir John Murray, after 
beginning the siege of Tarragona 
without consideration, abandoned his 
works and guns with equal haste. 
But the vigour of the marquis com- 
pensated this error : he crossed the 
Bidassoa in October, and in the next 
month defeated Soult's army on the 
Nivellc. Winter interrupted not 
the war; and Soult, being driven 
with severe loss from his strong posi- 
tion at Orthes, exposed Bordeaux to 

the invading army. At the same in- 
stant the due d'Angoul^me, the re- 
presentative of the ancient line of 
monarchs (now by his party styled 
ex-king of France), arrived in the mar- 
quis's camp, and was received by the 
people of Bordeaux with unexpectc*d 
enthusiasm. The white cockade was 
to be seen in every hat and cap ; the 
white flag streamed from every stee- 
ple, castle, and tower ; and no specta- 
tor could have supposed but that the 
loyal feeling of the people, suppress€?d 
during the long tyranny of Buona- 
parte, had now burst forth, never 
again to be subdued. 

The marquis and his Spanish allies 
continuing the pursuit of Soult, that 
marshal was first driven from an ad- 
vantageous post at Aire, then from 
a strong position behind the town of 
Tarbes, and was finally forced to fall 
back upon Toulouse. The British 
general had now rapidly extended 
the authority of the allied army over 
the country, from the Pyrenees to 
the river Garonne ; with the excep- 
tion only of the strong places of 
Bayonne, St. Jean-pied-de-nort, and 
Navarreins ; and these aiso were 
closely blockaded by his troops. But 
to render the diversion in favour of 
the northern armies yet more effec- 
tive, he determined to dislodge the 
enemy from the city and the military 
position of Toulouse likewise. This 
enterprise was attended with extreme 
difficulty ; first, from its being neces- 
sary to separate the allied army into 
two parts, in order to enable it to act 
on both sides of the Garonne, whilst 
the enemy retained his whole force 
perfectly united by means of the 
bridge of Toulouse; secondly, bo- 
cause the passage of the river by the 
part of the allied army destined to 
operate on its right baink, had to be 
effected in sight of, and within reach 
of the enemy ; and thirdly, because 
the French troops occupied on the 
right bank, and in immediate con- 
nexion with the city of Toulouse, a 
position of ver^- great natural strength, 
extremely difficult of approach, and 
to which Soult was daily adding new 


GEORGE m.— 1789— 1815. 


works. But these obstacles were all 
Tfercome ; a sanguinary battle took 
place between the two enemies, April 
tu, 1614 ; and Soult, being,complete]y 
(.efe^ed, evacuated the post in the 
night of the 1 1th, leaving three ge- 
oerab and 1600 men prisoners. On 
die following day, the marquis enter- 
ed ihe pbu:e, amidst the acclamations 
rti the inhabitants. The dislodgment 
oi' the enemy from an almost unas- 
^bble military position, afforded at 
once an evidence of the extraordinary 
ulents and enterprising spirit of lord 
Wellinston, and established a distinct 
r.\SLrk of the progress which had been 
made bv his arms ; nevertheless some 
of the iFrench have recently ventur- 
ed to affirm (and have been support- 
'.%i by a party in England possessing 
iiitieof the * amor patrise') that Soult, 
cot Wellington, was the victor at 
Toulouse. To say nothing of the 
absurdity of a conqueror evacuating 
a p<»t in the night for which he had 
been contending, and leaving his 
men therein to be made prisoners, 
the dispassionate reader need only 
peruse the published dispatches of 
(lie duke of Wellington, who, with 
uvs, accustomed clearness, and hatred 
at all ambiguous and confusing terms 
and details, shows the victory of Tou- 
lo-.ise to have belonged, without a 
^liadow of doubt, to the British. 
Before quitting the subject, a circum- 
«^(ance connected with the battle 
"^biould be recorded. In the first at- 
tack upon the French, the Spaniards 
in the British ranks, anxious to mo- 
nopolise all the glory, made their 
moTcment a little too soon, before 
tliey were supported by the British 
troops: the consequence was, they 
got into a fire they could not sustain, 
and the whole of them set off on the 
full run to the rear. The marquis re- 
|!arded them some time,expecting they 
would stop behind the English, who 
iiad moved forwards, and obliged the 
French to retire ; but no such thing 
—they absolutely ran off^ out of 
H^ht—whereat the illustrious gene- 
ni, unable longer to restrain his 
^ugfater, exclaimed, * Well, hang me, 

if I ever saw 10,000 men run a race 
before!' During the evening of 
the day on which the marquis 
entered Toulouse, news reached 
him, which made it evident that the 
last severe conflict might have been 
spared. The emperor of Russia and 
the king of Prussia had entered Paris 
on tlie 81 St of March ; and Buona- 
parte liad been formally deposed. 
Soult, however, did not deem the in- 
telligence authentic ; and the mar- 
quis therefore continued his advance 
until the 17th of April, when fresh 
despatches came, and the French 
desired a suspension of hostilities. 
Upon the arrival of the marquis in 
Paris, he was deservedly creat^ duke 
of Wellington by hb sovereign ; and 
an additional grant of money was 
made to his grace by the parliament, 
to purchase lands. 

Thus closed the celebrated Penin- 
sular war ; and few military achieve- 
ments can weigh in tlie balance with 
the peculiar merits of this sweeping 
clearance of the foe from every comer 
of Spain and Portugal into the gulley 
of the Pyrenees, and thence into 
France, tliere a^ain to be signally 
conquered on his own soil. The 
vigilance, the patience, the labours of 
years, will be duly estimated, when 
the great leader shall have passed to 
scenes where wars are not, and when 
the narrative shall have taken its 
proper station in historv. According'to 
the judgment of experienced soldiers, 
tlie work is alone sufficient to place 
the name of Wellington in the high- 
est rank of warriors, whether of an- 
cient or modem times ; and as a mer^ 
ciful victor, and the anxious guardian 
of his men, no general has ever more 
deserved, or more obtained, the ap- 
probation of all trtte lovers of their 

The Walchbren ExpEniTioN. — 
It was in 1809 that, to create a di- 
version in favour of Austria (which 
was once more endeavouring to throw 
off the yoke of Napoleon), the Eng- 
lish ministry sent out an expedition 
to the coast of Holland, under the 
earl of Chatham and sir Richard 


GEORGE III— 1789— 1815. 


Strachan, which soon subdued the 
fortress of Fhishing, and the isle of 
Walcheren, then under French do- 
mination ; but the extreme unheal- 
tliiness of the climate forced the con- 
querors to evacuate their acquisi- 
tions, after the sacrifice of many va- 
luable lives. The unfortunate en- 
terprise was both ill-conceived and 
badly executed : the armament did 
not reach Holland until Austria had 
been irretrievably ruined at Wagram ; 
and the main objects of the expedi- 
tion, which were the destruction of 
the French fleet in the Scheld, and 
the occupation of Antwerp, were 
barely attempted. According to the 
French account, 25,000 English pe- 
rished on the occasion. ' The Eng- 
lish Tsays Napoleon himself in a 
letter) might as well have thrown 
their men into the sea, as have sent 
them into the pestilential marshes of 
Walcheren.' The simple reduction 
of the fortress of Flushing was a gal- 
lant affair; but it of course griev- 
ously injured the port and town. 
Flushing has always had much noto- 
riety, as the grand place of resort of 
English smugglers. 

The Tyrolese Insurrection, 
1809.— The Tyrol is a district of 
Germany, at the south of Bavaria, 
bounded on the west by Switzerland, 
on the south and east by Lombardy, 
and on the north-east by Austria, 
into the possession of which it came 
1363, when Margaret, countess of 
the Tyrol, beqiieatlied it to her 
uncles, the dukes of Austria. It is 
150 miles long from north to south, 
and 120 broad from east to west, and 
contains, amongst its many fine towns, 
the ancient one of Trent, where the 
great council was held. The country 
is very mountainous, having the Alps 
in one part of it ; and it has forests 
abounding in game, mines rich in sil- 
ver, copper, lead, and salt, and pro- 
duces rubies, amethists, emeralds, and 
cornelians of fine quality. Innspruck 
is the capital, and Austrian seat of 
gpvernment ; and the Inn is the chief 
river, which, passing into Bavaria, 
falls into the Danube. The Tyrolese 

are remarkably primitive and simple 
in their habits, greatly attaclied to 
their country, and generally indus- 
trious, and of a mechanical turn. 
Necessity has driven them to the 
useful arts, as a means of supply- 
ing the deficiencies of nature ; and 
the numerous cascades with which 
the country abounds, afford ample 
opportunity of obtaining, at no ex- 
pense, an external power, capable of 
setting in motion their simple ma- 
chinery. Conducted into the fields, 
the house, and mills, by little wooden 
troughs, in the course of tlieir preci- 
pitous descent, the mountain torrents 
perform the most important functions 
of domestic economy. The irrigation 
of meadows, the grindins of com, the 
fabrication of oil, the sharpening of 
tools, arc all performed by these 
streams, on the mills which they set 
in motion. In many places each 
peasant has his « mill, which is ap- 
plied to almost every purpose of life ; 
even the rocking of a cradle is some- 
times performed by means of a water- 
wheel. Nor are the most minute arts 
overlooked by this industrious p€H>- 
plc ; and numbers of families earn 
a not contemptible livelihood by rear- 
ing canary-birds, which are sold in all 
the cities of Europe. VVhen Napo- 
leon, after his victory of Austcrlitz, 
1805, had compelled Austria to cede 
the Tyrol to Bavaria, in lieu of VVurz- 
burg, it was stipulated, to calm the 
fears of the Tyrolese, that they should 
retain the same privileges as when 
under the dominion of Austria, whose 
protection they had enjoyed 442 
years. Maximilian of Bavaria^ 
however, was no sooner master of 
the country, than a total change was 
effected, and even the name of South 
Bavaria substituted for that of tlie 
Tyrol. The Tyrolese, upon this 
breach of faith, secretly determined 
to deliver their country from the Ba- 
varian yoke ; aud sending deputies 
privately to Vienna, the Austrians 
promised tlicm a supply of arms. 
Among the deputies was Andere 
Hofcr, whose family, for a long suc- 
cession of years, had been proprietors 


GEORGE m.— 1789— 1815. 


'i the inn at Sand, in the valley of 
Pi'sejT ; of which himself was now 
•e host. His benevolence of cha- 
r:tT had endeared him to the in- 
ihtants of the valley ; and a former 
iispaign, in which he commanded 
1 company of tirailleurs, had made 
Jn snfficiently acquainted with war, 
i» ioduoe him to tstke the lead in the 
n-»jectcd levy of the people. Ac- 
ciirdingly, when 10,500 Austrian 
ti'xps entered the country in the 
r :bt of the 8th April, 1809, merely to 
Lf^anize tlie levie en vuuse^ Hofer 
•iiA his friend Teimer issued their 
pTodamations, and were speedily 
lined by the peasantry. The.Bava- 
ra^&, hardly able to comprehend the 
raiure of so sudden a revolution, 
legzm destroying the bridges and 
1 .chways, to obstruct the further pro- 
cress of the Austrians ; but, to their 
jftontshment, they could obtain as- 
5L<tance only, from their own soldiers; 
:^d on attempting to retreat from 
the Tyrol," a great number of them 
were made prisoners by the country- 
woplc. Though the French speedily 
rrinforoed them, and engaged the 
Tyrolese at St. Laurent, the united 
fyrccs were entirely put to the rout ; 
and the capitulation of Wiltau, which 
0^ rained Martin Teimer the title of 
^eron de Wiltau, effected on the 
1 3th of April the emancipation of 
the coontry. 

ThtB, without the aid of regular 
troops (for the Austrians did not 
contend), the peasantry of the Tyrol 
restored their little territory to the 
protection of its ancient guardians. 
During the conflict, the women, 
armed with pitchforks, were em- 
ployed in rolling down fragments of 
rock from the elevated crags of the 
mountains upon their enemies pass- 
ing along the valleys; and they 
were for the most part boys who dis- 
mounted a corps of cavsUry on the 
plaiiB of Halle. The united French 
and fiararians twice more entered 
tiie little stAte ; and after their third 
n?pwlse by the people, a solemn Te 
Ikm ms celebrated at Innspruck, 
wliicb place Hofer enteredm triumph 
roL, uu 

on the 15th of August Hofer was 
now declared commander-in-chief of 
the Tyrol, and all authority, civil and 
military, was vested in his person ; 
but unhappily a division took place in 
a few weeks between him and Teimer, 
and the French, taking advantage of 
the feud, recovered by the end of 
October every important post. 

Peace liavmg been concluded be- 
tween France and Austria, an am- 
nesty was promised to such of the 
Tyrolese as would lay down their 
arms witliout delay. Hofer, how- 
ever, called upon his countrymen to 
reject the proposal, and, in several 
spirited proclamations.entreated them 
to make one grand effort to drive out 
the invaders. But the heroic Sand- 
wirth found himself alone in the 
field ; and deserted by the peasantry, 
he fled to a little cottage, only four 
leagues distant from Sand, whither 
some faithful adherents carried him 
food. Here an express from the 
emperor reached him, entreating his 
instant removal to Vienna ; but he 
strangely decHncd the gracious offer, 
and Donay de Schlanders, his trea- 
cheroiis confidant, having, for a large 
sum of money, discovered the place 
of his retreat, a company of 1300 
Frenchmen came within musket-shot 
of the cottage, Hofer made no re- 
sistance, and was taken to Mantua, 
where a council of war ordered his 
execution within twenty-four hours. 
The Sandwirth heard his sentence 
with calmness, and only remarked 
that he had hoped the peculiarity of 
his situation would have justified his 
conduct after the amnesty. 

On the morning of the 20th of 
February, 1810, at eleven, Hofer was 
brought forth, escorted by soldiere, 
and conducted in procession to the 
place appointed for his execution. 
Those of the Tyrolese who were in 
the houses, fell on their knees in 
prayer as he passed ; while as many 
as could get into the streets, attended 
him to the fatal spot, inploring his 
benediction. The martyr to the 
cause of the Tyrol freely dispensed 
it to them; and when the escort 


GEORGE IIL— 1789— 1815. 


drew up on a bastion near the Porta 
Ceresa, he gave to the abb6 Mani- 
fest!, his confessor, all he had of va- 
lue about his person, requesting him 
to distribute it as he thought proper. 
Twelve grenadiers and a corporal 
were then commanded to advance,and 
the Sandwirth ordered to be placed 
in the centre. He accordingly came 
forward, but would not suffer his 
e^es to be bandaged ; and when de- 
sired to fall on his knees, refused, 
saying emphatically, ' I am upright, 
speaking as a mortal, before Him 
who created me ; and upright I wish 
to surrender to Him my spirit:' thus 
unconsciously conforming to the 
maxim of Vespasian, < Iraperatorem 
oportet stantem mori.* To the cor- 
poral lie gave a piece of twenty 
kreutzers, coined during his admini- 
stration ; and then exclaimed in a loud 
voice, * Fire !* Though each of tlie 
grenadiers struck him, he died not 
until the corporal's musket had been 
discharged. The grenadiers then 
bore away the corpse, and it was in- 
terred with great solemnity. 

Thb Duke of York's Trial, 1809. 
— The duke was the second son of 
George III., and commandeMn-chief 
of the British armv. Colonel War- 
die, in the house of commons^ having 
accused him of promoting improper 
persons to military rank, through the 
influence of a Mrs. Clarke, an inquiry 
was instituted into his conduct, and 
he was honourably acquitted, though 
he thereupon resigned his post. In 
1610, he was, to tne great joy of the 
army, reinstated ; and during the last 
years of the war with France, his 
ro3^I highness, by an unceasing at- 
tention to the character and talents 
of the officers, and to the comforts 
and health of the men. prepared for 
bis country, under God, the most 
splendid victories which our annals 
iNoast. Trained under a system so 
admimble, the army seemed to in- 
crease in efficacy in proportion to the 
increasing occasion which the public 
had for their services. Nor is it a less 
praise that, when the men so disci* 
pHned returned from scenes of battle, 

they reassumed the habits of privj 
life, as if the V had never left thei 
and that of all the offences which t 
criminal calendar long after pi 
sented, there were very few instan< 
indeed in which the perpetrators w< 
disbanded soldiers. 

The Jubilee of George 11 
1809, to commemorate his majesti 
completion of the fiftieth year of 1 
reign, was celebrated with great sple 
dour, October 25. The public we 
entertained in every possible manii 
gratuitously ; and the same ceren] 
nies were repeated August 1, 181 
when the house of Brunswick 
England completed its hundrcdl 

Abolition of the Papal Powe 
1809 — After the death of Gangi 
nelli (Clement XIV.) and the su| 
pression of the Jesuits, the tempori 
power of the popes rapidly declined 
and when Pius VI. was carried off l| 
Berth ier from the capitol to Fran< 
1798, it may be said to have beci 
extinguished. In 1800 Napoleoi 
to serve his own ambitious end| 
created cardinal Chiaramonte pop< 
with the title of Pius VII. s thd 
personage crowned him emperor 180-i 
but in 1809 he declared the papq 
functions terminated, and the statei 
of the church for ever added U 
France. (See The Popedom in Pa 
rallcl Reigns.) 

The Mauritius made an £n& 
Lisii Colony, 1810. — Mauritius, oi 
the isle of France, is in the Indian 
ocean, forty leagues from the isle oj 
Bourbon, and 120 from Madagascar ; 
and is thirty-five miles long, ami 
twenty broad. It was discovered by 
Mascarenhas, a Portuguese, 1507, 
and by him called Cerne; but it 
was not colonized even when, in 
1598, the Dutch admiral VanNerk 
took possession of it for his country, 
naming it Mauritius, after Maurice, 
Prince of Orange. Van Nerk did not 
leave any one on the isle, nor was it 
inhabited till 1721, when the French 
landed from Bourbon, and established 
a small settlement, on which occa- 
sion they named it tlie isle of France. 


GEORGE ni— 1789-1815. 


r&e spoty howerer, was used for 
bttle other than a uratering-place for 
slips until 1810; wheD, it having be- 
::4ae a rendezvous for the free- 
booters of every nation, especially 
i'rencfav to fit out privateers, and 
o fnmit depredations on English pro* 
p^.TtT, 12,000 troops, with twenty 
rlaps of war, despatched by our go- 
^emraeDt in India, added it to the 
cTOfrn of Great Britain. The Eng- 
lish goTemors have been : 1810, 
K. J. Farqubar; 1817, general G. 
H. Hall; 1818, colonel J. Dal- 
nuiple; 1819, general R. Darling; 
^1:0, sir ft. J. Farquliar ; 1823, sir 
(•aibraith Lowry Cole ; 1827, gene- 
ral Colville ; 1833, general Nicolay. 
Tr.e isle is one of the most pictu- 
n^'^ue and romantic in the eastern 
^:t>mlsphere ; the land rises from the 
coa^t to the centre ; and chains of 
iLountains intersect it in various 
ndii from that centre to the shore ; 
there are, however, three priucipal 
ranges, in height from 1800 to 2800 
rVet above tlie sea, mostly covered 
vith timber. The climate is on the 
vriole salubrious ; sugar is the staple, 
of which large quantities are annually 
exported; and amongst the fruits 
«hich flourish, may be named the 
orange, lemon, mango, guava, lime, 
fig. pomegranate, grape, tamarind, 
c<.>coa-out, bread-fruit, date, almond, 
•|nincey citron, mulberry, pineapple, 
stiaddoc and peach. A great num- 
ber of small isles are under the go- 
vernment of Mauritius, especially the 
Sf^ycbelles, forming an archipelago, 
^iiich capitulated to the British, 1794. 
M^ny of them are good fishing-places, 
and all have a few residents from 
Mauritius on them, to keep up some- 
thing like a government among the 
natives. The rule of Mauritius is in 
the governor, an executive council 
of four, aod a legislative of fifteen 

Death or the Prihcbsb Amelia, 
mo^Tbe decease of this beloved 
^ughter of George HI-. \^*'.5^'"'- 
Imariagia which was ^.^^^^^^^ 

mi before »"^ ^ ^ 

brought upon the declining monarch 
in 1811 a second visitation of his 
dreadful malady; and from this he 
never again recovered 

RsFOBM Agitation, 1810. — 
Throughout the latter period of this 
reign, there was a constant disposi- 
tion amongst men of unsettled minds, 
to ascribe every evil in the national 
affairs to the want of a correct par- 
liamentary representation. Meet- 
ings public and private were con- 
stantly held to discuss the grievances 
of the people ; and in 1794 Mr. 
Home Tooke, a clergyman, who had 
thrown aside his gown, and a Mr. 
Hardy, were tried on this account, 
for high treason, but acquitted. Sir 
Francis Burdett afterwards took up 
the same cause, and was frequently 
seen haranguing vast multitudes of 
persons in the open streets ; and in 
1818 was sent to the Tower for a 
libel on the house of commons ; not, 
however, without a conflict between 
the military and the mob. Mr. Cob- 
bett, author of a cheap political re^ 
gister, and aflerwards a member of 
the house, ceased not to write and 
speak publicly on the same question : 
he also in 1810 was convicted of a 
libel, fined 1000/., and imprisoned 
two years in Newgate. Pursuing 
the same course, Mr. Hunt, a VVilo- 
shire farmer, became the idol of the 
populace, and was returned member 
for Preston; and in 1819, inconse- 
quence of assembling a meeting at 
Manchester, which was dispersed by 
the yeomanry-cavalry with loss of 
life, he was sentenced to imprison- 
ment, and closed his career as a 
vender of blacking. Another reform 
advocate. Major Cartwright, was long 
considered a magnus Apollo by tlie 
vulgar ; and was occasionally caUed 
before the magistracy, and required 
to abstain from reform agitation . To 
the honour of sir Francis Burdett it 
must be stated, he retired, when the 
Reform Bill had passed, from the 
ranks of the popular leaders, declar- 
ing that, as reform had been carried, 
his object was attained ; a secession 
which was greeted with every ima- 


GEORGE IIL— 1789— 1815. 


gtnable mark of reprobation by his 
former colleagues. 

i\lA8»ACBE OF TU£ Mauluk Beys, 
181 1 . — Mehcmel Ali, pacha of Egypt 
for the Turkish sultan, having been 
long fearful of a ris^ amongst the 
Mamluk chiefs, the former rulers of 
Egypt (whose oligarchy of (strictly) 
800 he had supplanted by his o\vn 
tyranny of one), drove many of them 
into Dongola and Nubia, and invited 
such as he had not any excuse to 
expel, to attend the magnificent pro- 
cession of his son Tossun, on occa- 
sion of being created general-in -chief 
in an expedition against the Wah- 
habees and receiving the pelisse, or 
viceroy's insignia. M. Salamc tints 
relates the issue. *The mournful 
Friday came, when Saim Bey 
Kify collected all the other Mamluk 
Beys at his palace ; and, little sus- 
pecting any treacherous dealing, the 
%vhole party, splendidly attired, and 
mounted on the most beautiful horses, 
proceeded at nine in the morning to 
the citadel. After they were gone, 
I mounted my ass, and, not without 
great difficulty on account of the 
crowd, reached the inner courtyard 
of the castle. Here, after some de- 
lay, the beys paid their congratula- 
tions to the pacha and his proclaim- 
ed son, and formed into procession. 
The cavalcade began with the jani- 
zaries ; and the Nlamluk Beys were 
the last who preceded the pacha's 
son. More than an hour elapsed 
before the whole had left the castle ; 
and before the Beys had come out, 
Mehemet Ali, habited in a blue robe 
and pink turban, and accompanied by 
Hassan Pacha, went to a small room 
on the staircase of the divan, lookine 
over the court. He appeared much 
agitated. Suddenly I saw, as the 
Beys came out, to mv utmost horror, 
the gate closed, and I heard Ahmed 
order the troops to firel The sol- 
diers, not aware of the plot, did not 
obey ; whereupon Ahmed himself 
fired at one of the Beys, and the men 
followed his example. The spectacle 
of the innocent victims falling off 
their horses was most awful ; but a 

few, who were not killed at the fii 
fire, rushed (as I did myself) in 
the castle, calling for mercy. 'I'li 
were, however, pursued by the s< 
diery; and all who surrendered, i 
eluding Saim Bey, had their hea 
instantly cut off. Dromedaryers wc 
now despatched by Mehemet Ali 
the governors of provinces, di recti 
them to seize all the Mamlnks \vl 
might be found in the villages, at 
send them in chains to Cairo; ni 
200 were collected and burbarou- 
beheaded, making the whole nunil) 
massacred between COO and 7n 
Giovanni Finati gives the follow) i 
account. • Tlie hour of audience w 
at hand, and a procession of alio 
500 Mamluk officers of higher 
lower degrees presented the^I^<•lv 
at the gate of the citadel, and m- 
in. They made rather si .sj)leiiil 
show, and were led by three of il.i 
generals, among whom Saim Hey \^ 
conspicuous. When entered, iIm 
proceeded directly onwards to tl 
palace, which occupies the hiizho 
ground ; and as soon us their arriv 
there was announced to Mehemt 
Ali and Hassan Pacha, who we 
sitting in conference together withi 
an immediate order was given H 
the introduction of the three chiel 
who were received with great affal 
lity by both. After a time, accon 
ing to eastern custom, coffee wi 
brought, and then the pipes ; hi 
at the moment when the latter wei 
presented, as if from etiquette, c 
to leave his guests more at their oust 
Mehemet Ali arose and withdrew 
and sending for the captain of hi 
guard, gave orders that the gates c 
the citadel should be closed ; adding 
' that as soon as Saim Bey and hi 
two associates should come out (c 
the purpose of mounting, they shoul 
be fired upon till they dropped : an< 
that at the same signal, the trooc 
posted throughout the fortress shoul 
take aim at every Mamluk withii 
their reach. A corresponding ordo 
was sent down to those in the to^rn 
and to such even as were cnc«mipe' 
without, round the foot of the uH 


GEORGE III— 178ft— 1815. 


1 1 pursue the work of exter- 

■ : fiA on all stragglers tliat tiiey 

: :lnd ; so that not one of the 

r.rifl body siio 11 Id escape. 

. :-i Hey, and liis two brothers 

..rnand, iiDding that the paclia 

' ot return to them, and being 

.- •n.i by the attendants that he 

:: >ne ioto his harem,' (an answer 

■ rt-cluded all further inquiry), 

. ^ i' time to take tlieir departure. 

"K* sooner did they make their 

- '.Ucce without, and were mount- 

• ir horses, than they weresud- 
♦ nr.^-d upon from every quarter, 

:.. liecamc at once a scene of 

.-I'.ri, dismay, and horror. Si- 

r Mil leys were directed at all 

"i. re collected round, and pre- 

^ to return with the chiefs ; so 

I : 1(3 Ticiims dropped by hun- 

Saim himself had time to 

1 ..ia saddle, and even to pene- 

' t -» one of the gates of the cita- 

^it all to no purpose; for he 

: 1 It closed like the rest, and fell 

.»% j»:erccd with innumerable bul- 

Auother chief, Amim Bey, a 

-'.; '.II of Saim Bey, urged the noble 

.1 1 which he rode to an act of 

• rrf-titest desperation : for he 
■ mi itim till he made him clamber 

fj ihe rampart, and preferred ra- 
:r t.> be dashed to pieces, than to 
-liir.'ihtered in cold blood. The 
"rri;;s animal obeyed, scaled the 
:'i:. and leaped down the preci- 
.t.iil forty feet; and fortune so 

• r^A the rider, that, though his 
le steed was killed in the fall, 

^ >» if escaped. An Albanian camp 

r^ U'low, and an officer's tent very 

ir the spot on which Amim alight- 

-L Instead of shunning it, he went 

-; and ihrowing himself on the 

^.■< of hospitality (still the sacred 

. i: of the stranger, exile, and hospes 

atie East), implored that no advan- 

:^ mlalit be taken of him. His 

■^'^^w2SD0t on/y granted, but the 

^ . r promised him , protection, even 

'.-..rUperil; and kept him con. 

: >L^"^n; Mamluks A 


exist in Nubia : and one of the most 
wealthy and powerful of tbem lately 
was the same Amim Bey, of tlie 
house of Saim Bey Elfy, whoso hap- 
pily escaped, as related, from the 
snare laid for him in Egypt. 

MciRDEBs OF TBE Families or 
Maab and Williamson. — In De- 
cember, 1811, were perpetrated, in 
the same part of London, two of the 
most dreadful murders on record, 
and without any proved discovery of 
the assassins. Mr. Marr, a trades- 
man of RatclifT-highway, having 
sent his servant-girl out at twelve at 
night to purchase oysters, was found, 
on the girls return in a quarter of 
an hour, lying on the floor of his 
shop with his brains beaten out, to- 
Setlier with his wife and the shop- 
boy. An infant in the cradle had its 
throat cut from ear to ear. Twelve 
nights after this event, John Turner, 
a lodger in one VVilliamson^s publio- 
house in Ratclilf, escaped from the 
house by sheets tied together, and in- 
formed a watchman that he had just 
seen a man standing over the land- 
lady's murdered body in the tap-room. 
The house was accordingly forced 
open, and not only was Mrs, Wil- 
liamson found horribly butchered, but 
her husband also, and their maid- 
servant, Bridget llarrini;ton. As one 
Williams, taken up upon suspicion, 
hanged himself while in prison, it was 
presumed that he had been the chief 
actor in both these tragedies: but 
further evidence wa* in no way ob- 
tained. Such was the horror and 
alarm excited by these un-English 
slaughters throughout the metro- 
polis, that numerous shopkeepers 
dreaded, for some time afterwards, 
lest the approach of night should 
introduce a murderer to their houses 

The Regency Question settled, 
1811. — In consequence of the la- 
mentable illness of his parent, the 
prince of Wales was unanimously 
declared regent, but with very limited 
kingly powers. 

The Great Comet, 1811.— -After 
one of the hottest summers on re- 


GEORGE ni.— 1789— 1816. 


cord, a most brilliant comet appeared 
to the vhole continent of Europe, 
and was at its highest splendour in 
September, 1811. The length of its 
tail, according to Herschell, was up- 
wards of one hundred millions of 
miles, and its breadth, at the widest 
point, fifteen millions of miles. Its 
period of revolution, according to 
jBessel, is 3383 years ; so that it 
could have been seen by the world 
only once before, namely, in the 
year before Christ, 1572, somewhere 
between the decease of the patriarch 
Joseph, who died 1635 B.C., and the 
foundation of Athens by Cecrops, 
1556 B.C. 

The British Regency Esta- 
blished, 1812. — In 1811 the prince 
of Wales had been appointed regent 
of the British dominions, in conse- 
quence of the lamented relapse into 
severe illness of his illustrious and 
excellent parent, king George III. ; 
but the powers witli which his royal 
highness had been invested were 
limited, much to the annoyance of 
the whig party, with whom the prince 
had long associated himself. So gall- 
ing a restraint induced a year's po- 
litical strife and paper-war ; and an- 
tagonist pamphlets, maintaining re- 
spectively the rights of a regent to 
full kingly powers, and that a regent 
was no king, were multiplying in 
every direction, when the parliament, 
in its wisdom, settled the Question. 
In 1812 George, prince ot Wales, 
was declared regent of the United 
Kingdom, with nearly all the regal 

Assassination of Mb. Perceval, 
1812. — As Mr. Spencer Perceval, 
the prime minister, was entering the 
lobby of the house of commons. May 
11 thy a person named Bellingham 
fired a pistol at him, the ball of which 
entered his left: breast. Mr. Perce- 
val uttered a faint exclamation, stag- 
gered a few paces, and fell on his 
face. He was immediately conve3'ed 
into the speaker's apartment ; but be- 
fore he reached it, life had departed. 
In the scene of confusion which en- 
sued, the murderer might have es- 

caped ; but, instead of attempting 
to quit the place, he deliberately 
sat down, and avowed the horrid 
deed, but said that he had mistaken 
Mr. Perceval for lord Leveson Gower, 
late ambassador to the court of St. 
Petersburg. He stated that he had 
been refused redress by the ministry, 
af^er acting in a diplomatic matter 
with Russia ; and he was executed 
for his offence, evincing no signs of 
remorse to the last. Spencer Per- 
ceval (1762 — 1812) was second son 
of the Earl of Egmont ; and after 
an education at Harrow and Trinity 
college, Cambridge, entered at Lin- 
coln's inn, witii a view of practising 
at the chancery bar. In this pursuit 
he soon distinguished himself ns a 
sound constitutional lawyer, and ob- 
tained a silk goiyn. In 1796 he re- 
presented Northampton in parlia- 
ment ; and five years afler, his legal 
abilities, which had attracted the 
notice of the minister, aided by family 
influence, raised him to the office of 
solicitor-general. In 1802 he became 
attorney-general, and filled that situa- 
tion till 1807 ; when, on the forma- 
tion of the new ministry after the 
death of Mr. Fox, he reached the 
zenith of his career, being appointed 
chancellor of the exchequer, on the 
principle of catholic exclusion. In 
this high and respectable post he con- 
tinued until the above-recorded mur- 
der terminated his valuable life, at 
the age of 50, 1812. 

Second American War, 1812. — 
The first war designated ' American,' 
separated that portion of the British 
North American colony, now known 
as the United States, from the mo- 
ther-country, 1782; after which, peace 
was maintained with tolerable steadi- 
ness between the bereaved parent 
and her rebellious offspring for thirty 
years. Bickerings, nowever, had 
not been infrequent, and jealousies 
were constantly fostering ill-will, and 
threatening a second resort to arms. 
At length a trifling incident brought 
matters to a crisis. In 1811 the 
Little Belt, a British ship of small 
force,uDder Captain Bingham, had en- 


GEORGE IIL— 1789— 1815. 


"oed the American frigate, United 
^iites, under Commodore Rogers; 
r i each party laid the blame, as re- 
jected the original offence, upon the 
tl er. As the point was not at once 
T-plicitly settled, it was resolved by 
' f Americans, in 1812, to decide it 
9 ith the sword ; and a contest was 
:-: some time carried on upon the 
b^^es and frontiers of Canada, which, 
t-iu^gji productive of erents, was un- 
»~portant in consequences to either 
rimj. In June» 1813, an engagement 
took place between the British fri- 
irite, Shannon, Captain Broke, and 
:2€ United States frigate, Chesa- 
I^ake, Captain Lawrence, off* the 
(vrt of Boston ; and the former 
'-•^.sg victorious, the Chesapeake 
^^ led awray in triumph in sight of 
i:'^ Americans. [See Battle of the 
^T'vmon and Cket^^ake.] In this de- 
E Itory manner did the war proceed 
rul 1814, when England, having 
.losed her long continental struggle, 
iimde strenuous efforts to end the 
ii5pute. Washington, the capital, 
^zB accordingly taken by surprise, 
Ly Captain Koas, August the 24th ; 
sDd after burning the public build- 
>.zs, together with two vessels of 
war on the stocks, the invaders re* 
tired. Tlie Americans, with tlieir 
icciBtomed confidence, had never 
dreamed of defeat. Mr. Maddison^ the 
president, had even prepared a din- 
ner for the victorious officers of the 
army at his residence ; and when a de- 
tachment, sent to destroy the house, 
entered his dining-parlour, they found 
covezs laid for forty guests. Several 
kinds of wine were cooling on the 
sideboard ; plate-holders stood by 
the fireplace ; knives, forks, and 
spoons, were arranged for immedi- 
ate use; in short, every thing was 
ready for the entertainment of a ce- 
xewoDioas party, 8 uch were the ar- 
rangements in the dining-room ; 
whilst in tlie kitchen were others 
iiswemble to them in every respect. 
Spits loaded with joints of various 
.v)rLs turned before the fire ; pots, 
5n™s, and other « '"f ^^ „"J^^- 
54 sW upon the gmte; and all 

the other requisites for an elegant and 
substantial repast were exactly in a 
state which indicated that tliey had 
been lately and precipitately aban- 
doned. We may readily imagine 
that these preparations were beheld 
by a party of hungry soldiers with no 
indifferent eye. An elegant dinner, 
even tliough considerably over-dress- 
ed, was a luxury to which few of 
them, at least for some time back, 
had been accustomed ; and which, 
after the dangers and fatigues of the 
day, appeared peculiarly inviting. 
They served it up, and sat down to it, 
therefore, with countenances whicli 
would not have disgraced a party of 
aldermen at a civic ^ast ; and bavins 
satisfied their appetites, they finished 
by setting fire to the house which 
had so liberally entertained them. 
This act of severity was occasioned 
by the people of Washington having 
fired upon a general officer when 
carrying a flag of truce into the city 
from the British. On the 24th of 
December a treaty of peace was con- 
cluded between the two countries at 
Ghent ; but not in time to prevent 
an attack by the English on New 
Orleans, in which they were de- 
feated January, 1815, with 2000 
killed; wounded, and prisoners, in- 
cluding generals Pakenham and 
Keane killed, and general Gibbs se- 
verely wounded. 

Battle of the Shannon a no 
Chesapeake, 1813. — Captain Broke 
of the Shannon had sent a challenge 
to captain Lawrence of the Chesa- 
peake, to meet him in any latitude or 
longitude that might be agreed on ; 
and in the forenoon of June 1, 1813, 
the Shannon appeared in the bay off 
Boston to decide the long mooted 
question, ' which would show its su- 
periority, of two ships equally man- 
ned, et ccBteru paribus, the one in the 
British, the other in the American 
service.* Of course nothing but a 
desultory war, such as the one then 
carrying on between the two coun- 
tries, would have warranted such a 
trial. At twelve meridian therefore, 
the Chesapeake lifted he anchor. 


GEORGE IIL— 1789— 1815. 


and stood out into the bay, whh a 
pleasant breeze from the southward 
and westward. As the Shannon was 
then in plain siglit, the ship was 
cleared for action, ' and notwitlistand- 
ing certain sinister circumstances, the 
history of naval warfare,* says Mr. 
Cooper, the apologist of the Chesa- 
peake, * does not contain an instance 
of a ship being more gallantly con- 
ducted tlian the Chesapeake was now 
handled.' Tlie Sliannon stood off 
under easy sail, when captain Law- 
rence fired a gun about half-past four, 
which induced her to heave to, with 
her head to tlie southward and west- 
ward. By this time the wind had 
freshened'; and at five the Chesapeake 
took in her royal and topgallant 
sails, and lialf an hour later she haul- 
ed up her courses. The two ship 
were now about thirty milts from the 
lights; the Shannon under single- 
reefed topsails and jib, and the 
Chesapeake under her whole top- 
sails and jib, coming down fast. As 
the Shannon was running with 
the wind a little free, there was 
an anxious moment aboard of iier, 
during which it was uncertain on 
which side the Chesapeake was about 
to close, or whether she might not 
be disposed to commence the action 
on her quarter. Out captain I^w- 
rencc chose to lay his enemy fairly 
alongside, yardarm and yardarm, and 
he luifed and ranged up abeam on 
the Shannon's starboard-side. When 
the Chesapeake's foremast was in a 
line with tlie Shannon's mizen-mast, 
the latter ship discharged her cabin 
guns, and the others m succession, 
from aft forward. The Chesapeake 
did not fire until all her guns bore ; 
when she delivered as destructive a 
broadside as probably ever came out 
of a ship of her force. For six or 
eight mmutes the cannonading was 
fierce ; but while passing the Shan- 
non's broadside, the Chesapeake had 
ber foretopmast-tie and jib4heetshot 
away. Her spanker-brails were also 
loosened, and the sail blew out. At 
the few first discharges of the Shan- 
non; captain Lawrence liad received 

a wound in the leg; Mr. Browi 
the marine officer, Mr. Ballard, t 
acting fourth lieutenant, and t 
boatswain, were mortally wound* 
Mr. White the master was kill< 
and Mr. Ludlow the first lieu 
nant was twice wounded by t 
grape and musketry. Such \> 
the state of the upper deck of t 
Chesapeake, when captain La 
rence perceived that the ships \v< 
likely to fall foul of each other; n 
while giving commands to prcvc 
that occurrence, a ball struck hi 
and^ passing through his body, i 
stanlancously killed him. Capui 
Broke passed forward with his shij 
and seeinff that the enemy was flint 
ing from his guns, gave the order 
board. The English soon had enti 
command above-board ; and thou] 
some of tlie Chesapeake's ofiicers a 
peared on deck, and foueht desji 
rately, but in disorder, the Clied 
peake's colours were hauled down 1 
the Britishi who soon got complu 
possession. Few naval battles ha* 
been more sanguinary than this, 
lasted altogether not more than t 
teen minutes; yet both ships wc 
charnel-houses. The Chesapcal 
had forty-eight men killed, nr 
ninety-eight wounded ; the Shannc 
had twenty-tliree killed, and fifty-s 
wounded. It was impossible for siiii 
of tliat size to approach so near i 
tolerably smooth water, and to Hi 
with so much steadiness, witho( 
committing great havoc. Pcrhn| 
the capture of no single ship cv< 
produced so much exultation on tl 
side of the victors, or so much di 
pression on that of the beaten partj 
as that of the Chesapeake. Th 
American nation had fallen into tli 
error of imagining themselves invir 
cible on the ocean, and this withou 
any better reason than having bcc 
successful in a few detached combats 
and its mortification was in propni 
tion to the magnitude of its dclii 
sion ; while England joyously hailed 
the success of the Shannon as a proo 
that her ancient naval renown wn 
untaroishcd, Captain Broke wa< 


GEORGE ni— 1789— 1815. 


Cor his distinguished zeal, courage, 
aod iotrepidity in the brilliant afifair, 
created by the Prince-Regent, 1813, 
a barooety by the style and title of 
sir Philip fiowes Vere Broke, of 
Xacton, Sufiblk ; and the relics of 
t je * siiivered' Chesapeake now com- 
pose the timbers of Wickham mill, 
near Portsmouth. 

Bai£F Independence of Norway, 
1314- — By the convention of Kiel, 
ngreed to in Janiiar}% 1814, between 
the courts of Sweden and Denmark, 
Norway was ceded by Denmark to 
Sweden, after being held by the for- 
mer power (from 1897) 417 years. 
A Danish prince, however,Chr!stiern 
Fredencky cousin of Frederick VI. of 
Denmark, who was governor of Nor- 
way at the time, havmg succeeded in 
gainiDg the affections of the nation, 
n;ade aa attempt to constitute Nor- 
way a separate kingdom. For tliat 
purpose he called together a national 
as^mbly at Eidswold, whereat, on the 
1 7th of May, the outlines of a consti- 
tution were laid down. On the 6th of 
August be assembled the legislative 
body, or Storthing, in Christiania. 
Bat the Swedes soon entered the 
country with an armed force; and 
the prince, who had assumed the title 
of king, was obliged to abdicate the 
royal dignity on the 7th of October. 
Prince Christ iern's constitution still 
governs Norway, which, though a por- 
tion of Sweden, thus has its own laws. 
Restoration of Sovereigns, 1814. 
—Buonaparte, on his detlironement, 
ldl4,being constituted king of Elba in 
the Mediterranean, Louis XVllI., 
brother of the murdered Louis XV L, 
was acknowledged sovereign of 
France; while Ferdinand VII. re- 
covered the Spanish crown, and pope 
Pius YIL his tiara. The duke of 
BniDSwick was cordially welcomed 
to his ancient inheritance, and the 
liing of the Sicilies received his terri- 
ton« ummpaired. The Stadtholder 
kd been in 1813 joyfully greeted at 
Amsterdam with cries of ' Oranye 
boreor (Orange for ever!) and the 
^hole coDtinenfc was speedily put 

into the form which characterized it 
before the French revohition. 

The Luddite Riots, 1814. — An 
alarming disposition to riot, having 
for its object the destruction of all 
machinery used by the great manu- 
facturers, prevailed in the hosiery dis- 
trict of Nottinghamshire, throughout 
this and succeeding years, extending 
at length over Cheshire, Lancashire, 
and the West Riding of Yorksliire. 
The numbers and audacity of the 
rioters, the systematic plans upon 
which they acted, and the weapons 
with which many of them were pro- 
vided, rendered them truly formi- 
dable, not only to the master manu- 
facturers whose frames and other 
machinery they demolished, but also 
to persons not concerned in the fray. 
The leaders of these disturbances, 
who affected to act under a general 
Ludd, were found to be of the lowest 
order of people ; and after several of 
the most guilty had been executed at 
Derby and elsewhere, tranquillity 
was in a great measure restored, 181 7. 

The Southcott Imposture, 1814. 
— Johanna Southcott, of mean pa- 
rentage in the west of England, de- 
clared herself, 1810, to be the mother 
of the promised Shiloh, whose speedy 
advent she confidently predicted. 
Although in the highest degree illite- 
rate, she scribbled much unintelli- 
gible nonsense as prophecy, and for a 
while carried on a lucrative trade in 
the sale of seals, which were, under 
certain conditions, to secure the sal- 
vation of the purchasers. She also 
constituted one Tozer, a fanatical 

{)reacher, her high-priest, and gave 
lim diaracteristic attire. It is me- 
lancholy to reflect that more than 
1 OOjOOOpersons became her registered 
proselytes I A cradle of the most cost- 
ly materials was provided at a fashion- 
able unholsterer*s in London, for the 
reception of the miraculous babe ; 
but on a sudden, the prophetess her- 
self began to have misgivings, de- 
claring that, if deceived, she had 
been the sport of some spirit either 
good or evil ; and in December, 181 4, 


GEORGE III.— 1789— 1815. 


she died. Her deluded followers, 
distinguished among whom was Mr. 
Sharpe, the talented engraver, long 
and confidently expected her resur- 
rection from the grave: some still 
live, it is said, and are yet looking 
forward to the certain accomplish- 
ment of the birth. As Chesterfield 
said, in summing up Bolingbroke*s 
character, we may well exclaim, 
' Alas, poor human nature 1* 

The RoyalVisit, 1834, of the em- 
peror of Russia and king of Prussia 
to England, where they were splen- 
didly entertained for some weeks by 
the rrince Regent. The celebrated 
Prussian general Blucher, the Cos- 
sack hetman Platov, and others who 
had been engaged in the subjugation 
of Napoleon, accompanied them. A 
general thanksgiving for the conclu- 
sion of so protracted a war took 
place July 7 ; on which occasion the 
royal party attended divine service 
at St. Paul's. 

A Severe Frost, 1814, in Janu- 
ary, enabled a fair to be held on the 
river Thames, between London and 
Blackfriars bridges. The river re- 
mained nearly six weeks in this state. 
It was commonly remarked that the 
greatest destruction of evergreen 
plants on this occasion occurred in 
the valleys, and protected low 
grounds; and that very few shrubs 
of that sort perished on the hills, 
and in the most exposed situations. 
This is philosophically accounted for 
by the damp collecting in low- 
grounds, whence the little air that is 
in motion during frosts cannot ex- 
pel it : white or hoar-frosts are the 
consequence, and the damp, thus 
freezing upon the leaves, stops their, 
pores, and destroys the circulation of 
the plants. This was again found 
the case in the severe winter of 
January — March, 1838, when most 
of the laurel tribe were killed in the 
vale of Surrey. 

Breton Insurrection, 1815. — 
An ably abridged account from a 
work by M. Rio in the Quarterly 
Review, enables us to continue the 
Bketch of Chouan warfare. We 

have spoken of the Chouan struggle 
in favour of royalty (p. 7), and of 
its suppression at the Loire, 1795. 
As the spirit of chouannerie, however, 
was on the eve, frequently after, of 
renewing the war, and especially in 
1799, when an Smeute took place, 
the revolutionary government of 
France was at length obliged to make 
terms with the Breton and Vend^an 
leaders, the essential condition beins; 
the toleration of their ancient priest- 
hood. As soon as the amnesty was 
declared, those revered exiles, the 
Breton clergy, returned in great 
numbers ; but they were found un- 
equal to the spiritual wants of the 
population, and steps were imme- 
diately taken to breed up a class of 
assistants and successors. The col- 
lege of Vannes, reopened in 1804, 
was one of the seminaries most effec- 
tive for this purpose; and the fa- 
vourite topics with the students were 
the oppressions and insults to which 
their pastors, including the fathers, 
brothers, and other near relations of 
most of them, had been exposed. 
Among the first who enrolled tlieir 
names after the reopening of the 
college, were twelve Chouan chiefs, 
whose boyish studies had been sus- 
pended by the struggle, and who 
now returned to finish their educa- 
tion. Four of them were already 
known to fame, provincial fame at 
all events ; and the admiration they 
inspired while relating their warlike 
feats, excited feelings by no means 
congenial to thesedulous cultivation 
of theology. Napoleon, whose great 
mistake through life was never to 
make allowance for what he called 
* prejudices,* but which the steady 
portion of mankind designate 'prin- 
ciples,' kept the smothered name 
ahve by his intolerance. His ill- 
treatment of the pope, and his fa- 
mous catechism, in particular, went 
far to prepare the way for a revolt ; 
while his Spanish war was regarded, 
with the most uncompromising ab- 
horrence throughout Brittany. When 
the recusant Breton clergy had been 
expelled from their parishes, they 


GEORGE m— 1789— 1815. 


iisd been received with the warmest 
hospitality by their brethren in Spain; 
and it was consequently deemed 
httle short of sacrilege to make war 
s^QSt a country so eminent for 
&ith and charity. Resistance, there- 
fore, became general throughout the 
Chonan provinces ; and the Vannes 
collegians not merely partook, they 
aotictpated the feeling of their 
countrymen. But no fiiyourable 
opportunity (or a demonstration pre- 
sented itself till 1815, during *the 
hundred days ;' when the students 
broke into open revolt, formed them- 
selves into a regular battalion, named 
a leader, and took the field. Nothing 
cm be more affecting or spirit-stir- 
ring than the exploits of this chosen 
bind. A set of boys engaged, not 
in the barring out of a pedagogue, 
but in the exclusion of an emperor ; 
— defying, not birchen rods, but 
bayonets , — enduring the worst ex- 
tremities of hunger and fatigue with- 
out a murmur ; mounting to the as- 
sault of a fortified town with the 
g^illantry of a forlorn hope; and 
covering a retreat like veterans. But 
ve must bear in mind that these boys 
Lad begun life with other than the 
usual scenes of. domestic safety, 
quiet, and happiness; and perhaps 
there was not one among the band 
of students, whose feelings liad not 
been seared and deadened to the ordi- 
nary run of youthful associations by 
some fatal remembrance, — whose 
infant imagination had not been 
kindled by some fearful vow, — who 
had not a father bleeding on the 
scaffold, a mother insulted by a bru- 
tal soldiery, or a brother perishing 
amid the snows of Russia, to revenge. 
* Our generation,' writes M. Rio on 
tlie Breton oii«<fc, himself a Chouan 
by descent and principle, whose 
grandfather had; perished on the 
scaffold, a martyr (o loyalty, and 
whose &ther had died of sufferings 
and privations in the cause, * was too 
near to that which had supplied the 
Mctims of the Revolution, for the 
idea of a violent death by the hand 
of a soldier or executioner not to 

have long since become familiar to 
us.' Madame de Stael says, 'that 
nothing is more irritating than the 
resistance of the weak ;' and tliis is 
the only mode of accounting for the 
useless indignities heaped on tlie 
collegians. An attempt to make 
them do homage to the imperial 
eagle nearly caused an outbreak ; but 
the crowning tyranny, the drop which 
made the cup overnow, was an out- 
rage perpetrated on a comrade, who, 
after being cruelly beaten and kicked 
by the gendarmes, was expelled the 
college, and compelled to enlist as a 
soldier — for almost unconsciously 
wearing a few white flowers in his 
cap. 'A stranger,* says M. Rio, 
'who mixed with the group of 
scholars on the evening of the day 
when Lemanach had to endure such 
ill-treatment, would have stood as- 
tounded at all he saw and heard ; 
all those beardless faces, pale with 
anger rather than with alarm — the 
peasants turning up their long hair 
under their wide-brimmed hats, as if 
to prepare for a struggle — those 
whose hearts were most swollen with 
indignation, giving vent to it before 
an audience who replied sometimes 
by expressive gestures, and some- 
times by tears, which rage as well as 
pity for tlieir comrade wrung from 
them ; and during this time the 
women of the lower class, ever 
watchful and devoted sentinels, keep- 
ing an eye on every window which 
opened above our heads, in the fear 
that some spy might gather up our 
words, which were, in fact, bold and 
uncompromising; for we spoke ot 
nothing less than an armed insurrec- 
tion, and we spoke of it with the 
full and firm anticipation of the con- 
sequences which might fall upon our 

From this time an armed insur- 
rection was resolved upon ; and the 
resolution was carried into effect 
with a degree of energy and per- 
severance which excites our mingled 
admiration and astonishment. The 
entire number of students amounted 
to 600 ; but nearly half were necessa- 

GEORGE III.— 1789— 1815. 


rily excluded from the enterprise on 
account of their extreme youth, de- 
spite of their animated and oft- re- 
peated protest from Corneille, 
' Je sals Jeane, il est Trai, mail auz ames bien 
La valeur n'attend pan lo nombre dca annceal' 
About 350 were eventually declared 
fit for service ; and to supply these 
with arms and ammunition was the 
first point. After clubbing the pocket- 
money of the entire establishment, 
and mortgaging or selling every article 
of personal property they could spare, 
they could only form a fund woefully 
disproportioned to the purpose ; and 
then came the difficulty of investing 
it without exciting suspicion. They 
succeeded in buying a few muskets 
and fowlingpieces ; but the greater 
number were obliged to rest satisfied 
with pocket-pistols. The arms ob- 
tainea, they were ignorant of the 
most eflfective mode of using them, 
and were, moreover, unwilling to join 
the confederate army in the guise 
of 'an awkward squad.' But on 
what pretence could they apply for 
so much as a single drill-sergeant, 
and how long would their proceed- 
ings be tolerated by the governor, if 
they turned the college-yard into a 
parade ? At length an expedient 
was hit upon. There was a Gascon 
officer in the garrison, who had made 
no secret of his disgust at the in- 
sults heaped upon them. Secure of 
his sympathy, one of their committee 
repairect to him with a complaint of 
broken health and failing constitu- 
tion, for which the regular exercise 
of tlie musket and sabre had been 
prescribed. The goodnatured of- 
ficer readily fell into the trap, and 
gave up an hour every morning to 
teaching him. Every evening the 
young recruit became teacher in his 
turn ; the scene a celiar or a garret ; 
the class a dozen of his comrades 
armed with sticks, with which they 
made ready, presented, charged, and 
indeed did every thing but fire and 
stand at ease, until their instructor 
had got hoarse with calling to them ; 
forgetting, as M. Rio suggests, that 


what they might learn in this manner, 
would be utterly useless in the kind 
of warfare in which they were most 
likely to be engaged. Next came the 
grand question, where were they to 
plant their standai-d? In wliat di- 
rection were they to cross the Rubi- 
con ? They could not revolt in the 
abstract; and every individual mode 
suggested to them, seemed fraught 
with impossibilities of its own. Tlie 
notion of assembling in the middle 
of a plain, and declaring war against 
the government, was soon rejected 
by the wildest. There were enough 
soldiers in the neighbourhood to have 
eaten them up bodily; and even 
when the bulk of these had been 
drafted off to attend the emperor to 
Waterloo, it was deemed prudent to 
steal a march upon their enemies, 
it was proposed to begin bv a night 
attack on a neighbouring fort, gar- 
risoned only by a few veterans, where 
they expected to find arms and am- 
munition enough to supply both 
their own body and the auxiliaries 
who were sure to be attracted by 
their success. A leader, however, 
was indispensable; and they fixed on 
their friend the Gascon officer, as 
the fittest person for the post. * The 
same lad, who had before excited his 
sympathy (says M. Rio), was com- 
missioned to make the offer ; and 
unbounded, as may be imagined, was 
the officer's astonishment. He re- 
mained at first utterly confounded, 
not with horror, which would have 
been more according to rule, but 
rather with admiration and pity ; 
pity for our youth, and admiration 
at our audacity. Without affecting 
to be hurt at our doubts of his fi- 
delity, he replied, with equal mild- 
ness and frankness, that he was bound 
to the cause which we wished to 
combat, by recollections he would 
never disown, and vows no tempta- 
tion should induce him to violate. 
You have done wrong, he added in 
faltering accents, to place in me this 
confidence; you ought to know, 
that in not denouncing you, I not 
only betray my duty, but expose my- 


GEORGE III.— 1789-1815. 


self to be ignominiouslj shot at the 
head of my regiment. But never 
nicd ; yoti have nothing to fear from 
rae, except upon the field of battle, 
where I shall liave simply to execute 
ttie orders of my commander.* 

So ended their liopes in thatquar- 
ifT ; and no wonder they were puz- 
zied on whom to fix them next, con- 
sidering the qualities they demanded 
in a general. * We required that he 
shoiiid be at the same time enthii- 
^i3stic and experienced; that he 
t'.vnid have the heart warm, and the 
head cool ; and above all, that he 
ilionld liave a soul suflSciently ele^ 
vated to tell, by our accent alone, 
tiat we were not traitors.' They 
t'>uQd one, notwithstanding, in the 
»i etalier de Margadel, the occupier 
of a neighbouring chateau, who had 
serred with honour in the wars of 
La Vendee, and had commenced his 
miUtary career in much the same 
manner they were anxious to com- 
mence theirs. ' His martial air, his 
almost gig^tic stature, his large 
black eyes, full of fire, his firm and 
sonorous mode of speaking, and above 
nil, his wound, from which he still 
limped a little, had long made him a 
highly interesting personage for those 
among ns who liad heard speak of 
his exploits.' He received the de- 
putation rather coldly at first ; but 
as soon as be was convinced of 
their real character and intentions, 
he accepted their oflTer, gave them 
his full confidence, and offered to 
communicate on their behalf with 
tlie superior council of which he was 
a member. Tbey returned overjoyed, 
and the news of their reception dif- 
fused a general feeling of hilarity ; 
but three mortal weeks passed away 
in the agony of hope deferred, and 
no summons to action arrived from 
tlie chateau. The chevalier was as 
impatient as his troop ; but he felt 
tbefoJIy of acting until the general 
movement had been combined. The 
/loar arrived at last, precipitated by 
ll,e indiscretion of the authorities. 
It was ascertained that forty or fifty 
of the more active students had been 

proscribed, and were to be shipped 
off* as conscripts to the colonies. 
This made further delay impossible ; 
as the Wednesday following the 
receipt of the intelligence was fixed 
for their departure. It is an aflTect^ 
ing part of the story that, the grand 
point once decided, the first place of 
resort was the confessional. Tliey 
thus prepared to meet death; and 
after receiving plenary absolution at 
the liands of their spiritual fathers, 
who necessarily became acquainted 
with the plot, they held a meeting 
in the lofl of an obscure house, for 
the purpose of taking an oath of 
fidelity. They here, one and all, 
swore never to make terms with the 
usurpation, and to die rather than 
abandon their comrades. At length 
the college clock struck four, the sig- 
nal for each to make the best of his 
way to the place of rendezvous be- 
yond the walls. In the course of 
the next three hours all of them ma- 
naged to steal out unobserved. It 
was no business of the elderly ladies 
with whom they boarded, to reveal 
their suspicions ; and the alarm was 
not given until the next morning, 
when great was the surprise of the 
professors, and almost ungovernable 
the rage of the garrison. 

It had been arranged that they 
should act in concert with the prin- 
cipal body of Breton royalists, now 
organized under general De Sol de 
Grisolles; and, to effect a diversion 
in his favour, a party of the youngest 
and worst-armed of the students were 
directed to leave the rest, and show 
themselves in a different quarter, 
where they might be mistaken for an 
independent force. This manoeuvre 
was intrusted to an aspirant for the 
priesthood, named Queilec, who was 
suffering from a dangerous malady 
requiring the greatest care. * A la 
garde de Oieu !' was his exclamation, 
as he tore a blister off his breast, 
before his pitying and admiring com- 
rades. The main party assembled at 
M. de Margadcl's chateau, where a 
beautiful little girl of fifteen, his 
daughter, put them in their own 


GEORGE III.— 1789— 1815. 


eyes on a level with the preux che^ 
vaUert of the best age of chivalry, 
by adorning them with cockades 
made with her own fair hands. Dur- 
ing the performance of this ceremony, 
the sun was shining as he shone at 
Austerlitz ; and they began their 
march in the liighest possible spirits, 
which were not diminished by find- 
ing smiling faces, a good supper, and 
cood beds at the house where tliey 
halted for the night. But the morn- 
ing had hardly broken, when they were 
obliged to prepare in good earnest 
for the hardships and dangers of the 
field. Their supper had been inter- 
rupted by the arrival of an ex- 
press, to say that a hostile detach- 
ment was approaching ; and the two 
youngest of the band were imme- 
diately posted on the look-out, 
about a musket-shot from the house. 
They watched all night in vain ; but 
within an hour after they had been 
relieved, the enemy was upon them 
in overwhelming numbers, and the 
utmost they could do was to make 
their escape into the woods. After 
some hours of wandering, they came 
suddenly upon a valley, where the 
main body of Chouans was encamped. 
The young auxiliaries were of course 
received with the warmest sympathy : 
and though occasional misgivings 
were almost involuntarily expressed 
on the score of their tender years, 
they only served to make them pant 
for an opportunity of verifying the 
maxim expressed in their favourite 
couplet from Corneille. They did 
not wait long ; for on the very day 
after the junction, they learned that a 
strong column from Auray was in 
search of them, crying * Mort aux 
Chouans I' and promising to return 
shortly, each witn one of the icdiratt 
at the point of his bayonet. An at- 
tempt at surprise was disconcerted 
by the vigilance of the Chouans ; but 
an action was inevitable, and their 
dispositions were made accordingly. 
In the front, heading 200 or SOO 
peasants, marched Camber, a pea- 
sant^chief of reputation and expe- 
rience. Promoted to the rank of, 

brigade-general during the Breton 
imeute of 1799, he had treated both 
with the republic and the empire for 
the submission of his followers ; but 
he would never consent to be in- 
cluded in the capitulation, and, traced 
from one lurking-place to another 
like a wild beast, he bad escaped as 
if b^ miracle. Such was the terror 
he inspired, that four gendarmes, 
who on one occasion had tracked him 
to a cottage where they saw him 
quietly eating his dinner, could not 
pluck up heart to lay hold of him. 
The battle began by a close and un- 
expected fire upon the part of the 
line in which the students were 
posted. Tlie Blues were concealed 
by the nature of the ground, and suf- 
fered tlieir opponents to approach 
within pistol-shot before they fired. 
The student who commanded the 
advanced guard, though be had re- 
ceived a severe wound, and saw his 
friends falling round him, continued 
to give his orders, leaning on his car- 
bine, with a coolness which inspired 
his little party with fresh confidence ; 
and they gallantly returned the fire. 
Camber and the other leaders has- 
tened to take part in the combat, 
which raged with great fury for about 
twenty minutes. The younger Ca- 
douhal (the son of George) was seen 
fighting at the head of his division, 
with no other weapon than a club ; 
and, as none of the royalists bad 
above a dozen cartridges at the ut- 
most, they were obliged to come to 
close quarters without delay. De^ 
termined not to throw away a shot, 
they rushed up to the very teeth of 
their enemies, and seldom fir^d until 
their muskets were on the point of 
crossing. This desperate mode of 
conflict confounded the Blues, who 
at length gave way; but the con- 
querors were too much crippled to 
follow up tlie victory ; and most of 
those who attempted a pursuit, were 
checked by the ardent desire to pos- 
sess themselves of the muskets and 
cartridge-boxes of the slain. As for 
old Camber, his strength failed him 
after a quarter of an hour's chase ; 


GEORGE in.— 1789— 1815. 


.lod he was foand seated on a rising 
C'ound, with feet naked, breast bare, 
2nd face inundated with perspiration 
and tears of rage, groaning over ttie 
impotence to which bis infirmities 
\ad reduced him, and hardly capable 
cf being consoled bv the victory. 
Hie general of the Blues was taken, 
and expected to be immediately put 
CO death. On his tremblingly asking 
Cadoulial what they intended doing 
uith him, ' There is only one thing 
i^T US to do,' was his replv — *to 
s^odrou home; but tell me frankly/ 
roo tinned the chief, ' would you, had 
you been conquerors, have treated us 
in the same manner?' < It was my 
i'itention/ rejoined the general, cast- 
ing down his eyes — ' but I dare not 
^j it would have been in my power.' 
His wounds were dressed with the 
greatest care by the chevalier de Mar- 
^del; and their next step was to 
r?pair to the neighbouring chapel of 
Saint Anne, to offer up a thanksgiv- 
iii^ to the God of battles, and to ob- 
tain a renewed absolution from their 

This spirit of piety, although after- 
wards somewhat neglected by the 
Chouan leaders, had long rendered 
the Vendeans invincible. After a 
fhort time spent in collecting arms, 
it was resolved to attack the town of 
Redon. liie students at once re- 
quested to be allowed to form tlie 
aiivance-gtmrd ; but that perilous 
iiononr was refused them, on the 
pound that the young blood destined 
to recruit the priesthood should be 
spared. Tlie students were, never- 
Uieless, the first to enter the place, 
amidst a shower of balls from the 
houses ; and upon this the main de- 
fenders retreated, some to the tower 
or fort, and others to the town-hall. 
'During the whole of the ensuing 
night,' says M. Rio, * the intervals of 
silcDCc were short and rare. Though 
we were undercover, the enemy kept 
firing in all directions, wherever the 
II gilt or the noise led them to suppose 
ti'iere were Choiians. Sometimes 
thcv appeared to agree to fire to- 
SHher, and then the tower and town- 

hall were momentarily lighted up 
like furnaces in the midst of dark- 
ness ; and we roused ourselves with a 
bound at the outburst of these terrible 
explosions, conceiving them as simply 
the prelude to some sally.' Tlie corps 
of Gamber slept in their ranks in the 
main street, sitting back to back, 
with their muskets between their 
legs ; yet, when morning came, the 
tower and town-hall still kept firing, 
and the Chouans were compelled to 
evacuate the place. All their liopes 
were now fixed on the speedy arrival 
of a vessel laden with arms and am- 
munition, that had been promised; 
and they were drawing towards the 
coast to cover the disembarkation, 
when their courage was put to the 
proof, under circumstances which 
might have shaken the stoutest ve- 
terans. Separated from the enemy 
by a river, they were dispersed 
through a village, and asleep, when 
a sudden attempt was made to get at 
them across a bridge. Cadoubal was 
instantly on the spot with six of his 
best men, and succeeded in checking 
the advance, till the rest of the troops, 
including the students, had got under 
arms ; but their situation was still pre- 
carious in the extreme. Gamber was 
at some distance with his battalion ; 
and though Cadouhal might succeed 
in making good his defence of the 
bridge, there was another bridge at a 
short distance, by which the position 
might be turned. The latter post 
was assigned to the students; and 
they had not been two minutes on 
the ground, when the cannon-balls 
began to fell amongst them. By way 
of keeping up their spirits, a lad 
named Le Thi^e, the bard of the 
party, who had been high in^the class 
of rhetoric at Yannes, struck up a 
song of defiance — 

' Si Jamais le fer d'un lance 
Me frappe au miliea des combats, 
Je chanterai— * 

Tliere ended his song : a ball shat- 
tered his head to pieces, and covered 
his comrades with his blood and 
brains. A momentary disorder was 
created by tliis event; and while 


GEORGE III.— 1789— 1815. 


some stood stupified with fear and 
liorror, others hurried to raise the 
body. An old sergeant, who had as- 
sisted in drilhng them, was scandalized 
by this breach of discipline : ' Is this, 
then, what you understand by war, 
young men,' he exclaimed, * and are 
we come here to grow tender, and to 
have attacks of nerves ? Come, face 
about !' And pride getting the better 
of fear and pity, the waverers re- 
turned to their ranks, braced rather 
than shaken by the catastrophe. They 
were condemned now to undergo 
the severest of trials—to watcli the 
result of a battle by which their own 
fate would be decided, without the 
ability to take part in it. The enemy 
made a second attempt on the posi- 
tion of Cadouhal ; and it was not 
until they had been again repulsed in 
that quarter, that they assailed with 
determination that occupied by the 
students. Making light of sucn op- 
ponents, they rushed at once upon 
the bridge ; but before the head of the 
column was half over, they found 
reason to repent of their rashness. 
* Follow me, my children,* exclaimed 
Mareadel, * and, springing forward, 
he shot the foremost dead. His 
young lieutenant was in the act of 
taking aim at the second, when he 
received a bullet through the heart, 
and fell back into the arms of his 
brother, who was mortally wounded 
almost at the same instant. By this 
time, however, the nerves of the band 
had become steeled, and they fought 
under a sort of phrcnsied intoxi- 
cation, rushinff, half blinded with 
smoke, and choked with powder, up 
to the very muzzle of their adver- 
saries' muskets, and firing only when 
their own was stopped by the body 
of an enemy. When the fire slack- 
ened, and the smoke had cleared 
away, the Blues were seen retiring 
from the bridge ; fortunately for the 
students, who had not above two 
cartridges apiece left. Expecting 
an immediate renewal of the attack, 
they were giving up all for lost, when 
the white caps of a troop of women 
appeared in the distance. It was 

thought at first that they came to 
take care of the wounded ; but it was 
neither lint nor food that their aprons 
were laden with — thev brought r/rr- 
iridges, made upon tlie instant, in 
default of lead, out of their tin cook- 
ing utensils ! 

The situation of affairs was still 
most critical. Two cannons were 
brought to bear upon the students 
with effect ; and under cover of a 
sustained discharge of grape-shot, the 
enemy's skirmishers were gradually 
closing in upon them, when the vi- 
dettes were seen galloping up to the 
imperial general with all the marks of 
confusion. Directly afterwards, the 
firing ceased, the wounded of the 
enemy were hastily got together, and 
the Blues were in full retreat. The 
mj'stery was soon solved by the ap- 
pearance of old Gamber at the head 
of 500 picked men, who, without a 
moment's hesitation, pushed on to 
intercept and engage a force which 
quadrupled his own. His skill was 
fortunately on a par with his audacity: 
— so able were liis dispositions, and 
so fiery his onslaught, that in five 
minutes the Blues gave way on all 
sides. The students, for want of 
ammunition, were unable to second 
him ; and the chevalier had very 
considerately refused to expose them 
to be charged, in their disabled state, 
by a reserve of cavalry which kept 
hovering about the ground. • A 
spectacle entirely new,' says M. Kio, 
* both for conquerors and conquered, 
then presented itself. Children, 
whose hearts were choking with sup- 
pressed tears, protecting veteran sol- 
diers who had just been killing their 
comrades. A grenadier with long 
moustaches, who appeared to sufi[er 
horribly since he had been pulled 
about by the elder Chouans with a 
view to plunder, was doubled up in 
a puddle of his own blood, his eyes 
closed, his hands convulsed, and his 
mouth open, not to cry mercy I but 
to blaspheme and curse. He believed 
that his executioners were still there, 
ready to torture him by new acts of 
violence. What was his astonish- 


GEORGE UL— 1789— 1815. 


sent on opening his eyes, to see by 
L-s side, as his defender from further 
: jtrage, a lad, whose mild and fe- 
Ziisiiie physiognomy 9carcel3'[announ- 
red fifteen years, and who, putting 
back the curious and ill-disposed 
peasantry with his carbine, traced 
around his proteg^ a magic circle that 
BO man dared to cross! The old 
^jldler burst into tears at the sight ; 
a£d stammering out some words 
which were no longer curses, he 
searched his pocket and his pouch, 
js if looking for a a watch or purse 
to offer to his protector. 'These 
bngands^' he exdaimed in a tone of 
regret, rathor than of reproach, ' have 
left me nothing save this gour^: 
after fiTe hours' fighting you must be 
b*jth hot and thirsty : come mv 
<^ild (it was filled with wine), drink 
to my health : it will do you good 
and me too/ Even civil war i3 
&ofiened by such episodes as this ; 
jut it is m^ancholy to record, that, 
in the very next engagement, this 
piUant boy was numbered wiUi the 
d^ad. One of the youngest of tlie 
students, named Leray, on being 
struck by a bullet in the side, began 
to cry ; but as he liad already given 
proofs of the highest courage, ' this 
ixKlalgence of an instinct congenial 
with his age,' observes M. Kio, ' by 
CO means diminished our admira- 

The most fatal of their fights had 

still to come to the Chouans, namely 

the murderous conflict around and 

in the town of Auray. They were 

again posted with a river in their 

front; but there were now six bridges 

lo lien of two, and, by a strange over- 

aght, much like that which had not 

secured the grand cause of all their 

troubles in Elba, no one thought of 

destroying them. General Bigarre, 

the imperiaJ commander, came in 

si^t in the afternoon ; but, as his 

tnops were fatigued by a long march, 

be quartered them for the night in 

the chalets of a neighbourmg chapel, 

TOL. iir. 

by their shot. Gamber himself had 
no scruples of the sort, and proposed 
to scale the walls ; but his opinion 
was overruled, and from that mo- 
ment the old chief gave up all for 
lost. One of the patrols found him 
in tears, and inquired if any misfor- 
tune had befallen him ? ' Not yet,' 
he replied, ' but I weep bdbrehand 
for that which cannot fail to befal us 
to-morrow.' At sunrise Bigarre is- 
sued from his quarters, resolved to 
force his way into Auray before night. 
The main body of the Chouans were 
posted directly in his path ; but their 
cannon, on which they mainly relied, 
had not come up, and one division, 
that of Secillon, was seized with a 
panic fear^and fled, their leader all 
the while standing aghast, and tear- 
ing his hair with rage. < In his de- 
spair (savs M. Rio) he told Rohu to 
fire on them ; which he would cer- 
tainly have done himself, had he had 
a loaded musket in his hands. With 
his remaining and best men, deter- 
mined to compensate by their bra« 
very for the defection of their com- 
rades, he hastened to place himself 
by the side of Cadouhal, who fulfilled 
on that day much more in reality ' 
than De Sol, the duties of comman- 
der-in-chief^ and was furious at the 
delay of the guns, on which he found- 
ed his last hope of victory. He had 
just ordered our major-general, De 
la Boissiere, to gallop as fast as he 
could, and hasten the advance of the 
artillerymen, and the latter had turn- 
ed to execute his commission with 
all the zeal of an aide-de-camp, when 
the leader Rohu, a most devoted sol- 
dier, with his characteristic roughness 
and suspicion, seeing him turn his 
back on the field of battle, ran, and 
listened with a gripe on the mane of 
his horse, declaring that he should 
not move a step farther, and asking 
him if his title of marquis dispensed 
with his risking his person like the 
rest? There arose thereupon so 
great a tumult around the two dispu- 
tants, that much precious time was 
lost in explanations, before the in- 
tractable Rohu could be induced to 


GEORGE in.— 1789— 1815. 


let go his hold ;' a circumstance, as 
the Quarterly Reviewer justly ob- 
serves, bearing a curious resemblance 
to an incident at Uothwell Brigg, 
where, as described by sir Walter 
Seott, Henry Morton's retrograde 
movement to bring up fresh troops, 
was similarly misconstrued. Tne 
Blues, meanwhile, had moved up, 
and were on the point of charging 
with the bayonet, when they receiv- 
ed an unexpected check from Gam- 
ber. That chieftain opened so elfeo- 
tive a fire on their flank, that, if the 
reserve and the artillery had been 
there to second him, the affair would 
assuredly have ended in their defeat ; 
but their general, finding that he had 
greatly the advantage of numbers, 
kept nis ground, and sent out such a 
multitude of skirmishers, that the 
Chouans found themselves outflanked 
and outmanoeuvred in their turn. A 
vigorous charge of cavalry being made 
at the same time against the barrier 
in their front, they at length fell into 
irremediable disorder ; and the road 
to An ray was covered with the fugi- 
tives. The guns arrived just as the 
flight began ; and the gunners, firing 
one long shot by way of announcing 
their presence, galloped off in the 
direction of the town, which they 
traversed in haste, and forthwith de- 
posited their trust in a field of com 
close to the main road. Such was 
their hurry, that they did not even 
stay to imharness thejiorses ; so that 
the enemy's attention was immedi- 
ately attracted, and the whole artil- 
lery of the Chouans fell into their 
hands. The reserve, at the -head of 
which were the students, was quar- 
tered in Auray. No orders had ar- 
rived to them until the streets were 
choked with runaways ; when a staff 
ofiicer gave the word, ' Les ^coliers 
au Cliamp de Martyrs I' which natu- 
rally enough struck a chill into their 
susceptible hearts. Margadel, who 
gave vent to a paroxysm of rage at 
every fresh blunder, now thought 
only of the best wa^ of averting the 
useless sacrifice of his company. His 
first care was to put them on their 

guard against the impetuosity of old 
Gamber : ' My children,' was his ad- 
dress, ' I insist on being your only 
leader to-day : promise me that pu 
will not quit me during the action, 
and that you will execute faithfully 
whatever I may command.' An 
unanimous acclamation of assent was 
the reply ; and they proceeded to 
post themselves on a ridge command- 
mg the road, resolved on making the 
Blues pay a heavy toll before passing. 
They opened so close and well-aimed 
a fire on the foremost column, that 
it stopped short. An adjutant-major 
of the enem^ was killed, (he com- 
mander-in-chief received a wound 
long deemed mortal, and one of his 
aides-de-camp was stretched beside 
him. But the reserve of the Chouans, 
like the main body, was soon hem- 
med in by skirmishers ; and a thick 
storm of ^ot descending upon them, 
they were almost blindea by the 
leaves and branches stripped by the 
missiles in their passage, from some 
chestnut-trees above their heads. 
Margadel, considering that enough 
had been done for honour, now gave 
the signal for retreat. The Blues 
followed close; but, a little nearer 
the town, they were encountered by 
another reserve,posted in a cemetery, 
which it cost them dear to dislodge. 
A gentleman of Auray, no soldier, 
M. de Molien, at the head of a few 
royalists,resolutely barred the passage 
of'^the Blues ; and though repeat- 
edly borne to the ground, yet again 
and again did he rush upon their 
bayonets, until he fell senseless, and 
was \efi for dead in the street. The 
place was carried i but the reserve 
kept together, and formed a rallving 
point, to which the disconcertedCdou- 
ans soon repaired in suflSctent num- 
bers to form a fresh army. After one 
more engagement, in which a party 
of the Blues were seized with an 
unaccountable panic, and mshed 
like madmen from the field, the 
struggle grew languid ; and the news 
of Waterloo, and the second conquest 
of Napoleon, necessarily and naturally 
terminated the Chouan struggle. 


GEORGE in.— 1789— 1815. 


'^ Rk> miwes a most pkanng ae- 

i of me meediig which took 

tr t-ecween tlie offi<»n of the two 

-^ when the war had dosed, at 

id •'>f reeondiiation festival. He 

->" that the imperialist general, 

.--«^n, complimented De Sol on 

> le bearing^ of bis little aim? diir- 

.e battle of Muzillac, and that he 

-ed the heroism with which the 

i^uts had defieoded their position 

.e bridge- He then desired to 

^ who had oommanded a certain 

lilion of peasants, who, towards 

ciDae of the action, had forced 

i to beat a retreat ? The Chouan 

:fr-» wese standing around him 

-r dinner wrhen he put the qnes- 

, and, instead of replying to it, 

.ted to a bald and infirm peasant, 

• was satting by himself m a oor- 

' cf the room, his head leaning 

• U breast, and his hands hang- 

r ^<etween his legs. ' HowT ea- 

■'7)^ Ronaaeaa, approaching Gam 

' (for It was hej, 'oould it be 

1 ^'' (for the general had no notion 

.1 Gamber &d played any thing 

t an infimor part), give me vour 

'4 man ; I swear tuit no oofooel 

use imperial army could hare done 

When the cause of Louis XVIII. 

I'i once more safe, an officer was 

'^7jatched to Vannes, for the pur- 

^ of sdectiDg two students who 

^i shown the greatest brarefy in 

'•> Chottan oootest, to receive the 

-i^ of the legion of honour. How 

•^r difficult and invidious the task, 

3'tfre all had been so devoted, two 

'^-re at length pitched on for the 

lenity ; ana they were soon after 

ii^talled on an altar raised in the 

r«itre of the town, the beautiful 

diiiditer of the first magistrate of the 

-iepartmcnt. Mademoiselle d*01onne, 

rr^^ting them with the insignw, 

iter the soJemn performance by the 

d'nv of an expiatory mass. One 

^ the two so di^'^g"***!!?/^?^ 

probane of Ptolemy, and the modem 
Singhala (according to the nativesX 
is situated at the western entrance ot 
the bay of Bengal, and is 390 miles 
long, and 140 broad. It is supposed 
that some singfas or rajpoots of Hin- 
dustan colonised it 400 s.c., whence 
its name. The interior is formed of 
ranges of high mountains, in general 
not approaching nearer to the sea 
than forty miles, with a belt of rich 
alluvial earth nearly surrounding the 
island, and well watered by streams. 
A picturesque table-land occupies the 
southern centre ; to the west, the 
countij is flat ; and on the northern 
shore it is broken into verdant rocky 
islets, and a peninsula named Jafna- 
patam. The mountains are every- 
where clothed to the summit with 
vast forests, from which issue mag- 
nificent cascades or foaming cataracts, 
that form in the valleys placid rivers, 
and babbling brooks, fringed with 
turfv banks, and all the beautiful 
verdure of the tropics. From Tan* 
^alle to Chilau, 195 miles, the country 
IS one continued grove of cocoa*nut, 
bread-fruit, and jack-fruit trees ; and 
there are on the island quantities of 
gigantic cotton-trees, whose silky pods 
on bursting cover the earth around 
with their beautiful glossy filaments. 
Every village has its patch of sugar- 
cane and tobacco ; coflfee grows 
luxuriantly, without care; and the 
pepper-vine and cardamom are found 
m all parts. The areca-nut surpasses 
that of Malabar ; the rice of Ceylon 
is considered the best of the markets ; 
and as respects woods— teak, ebony, 
satin, rose, sapnan, iron, jack, cala- 
mander, and all the most beautiful 
cabinet kinds, are in rich profusion. 
Noble groves of the Palmyra palms 
surround the villages in the north of 
the island, and, like the cocoa-palms 
in the south, are of the greatest value 
to the peasantry in the time of 
drought. There is every evidence of 
Ceylon having been peopled in an- 
cient times by a civilized race, from 
the remains of buildings. Pliny ex- 
tolled it for the purity of its gold, 
and the size of its pearls— the latter 


GEORGE nL-^1789— 1815. 


still found in excellence on the banks 
of Arippo ; and Ovid mentions it as 
so remote, that his own fame would 
never reach it. In the reign of Clau- 
dius, the sovereign of Taprobane 
sent an embassy to Rome by the Red 
Sea. Among the works in Ceylon of 
a remote age is the lake of Kandely, 
near Trincomalee, tifteen miles in 
circumference, which is formed by 
the junction of two hills. The union 
is effected by a parapet of huge blocks 
of stone, in which arches are to be 
seen and conduits over them, similar 
to those used by the Romans in Italy, 
and now termed condottori. There 
is also a gigantic pagoda forW miles 
from Batti^oa, the base of whose 
cone is a quarter of a mile in circum- 
ference, surrounded by a broad wall 
of brick and mortar, a mile in cir- 
cumference, with numerous cells in 
it, and an entering colonnade of stone 
pillars ten feet high. Tiie first notice 
on which we can rely is that of 
Marco Polo, who visited Ceylon in 
the thirteenth century, and called it 
the finest country in the world. When 
the Portuguese first landed on the 
island, 1505, they found it had for a 
long period been declining, owing to 
intestine wars and invasions from 
Malabar and Arabia. The Cingalese 
king availed himself of the assistance 
of tue Portuguese admiral (Almeida) 
for the expulsion of the invaders, 
promising, m return, an annual tri- 
bute of cinnamon. In 1518 the 
Portuguese, under Alvarenza, ob- 
tained complete possession of the 
maritime provinces, and drove the 
king of Kandy to such extremities, 
that he was glad simply to retain pos- 
session of the interior mountain- 
provinces. They held sway until 
1657, when a strong Dutch armament, 
acting in conjunction with the king 
of Kandy*s forces, drove them out. 
The Cingalese, however, soon found 
they had exchanged masters to no 
advantage ; for from 1657 to 1 796 the 
Dutch, who held only the coast, like 
their predecessors, were engaged in 
perpetual hostilities witli their moun- 
tain-neighbours. Id the latter year, 

the English aided the Cingalese, and 
supplanted tlie Dutcli ; but in 1798, 
on the elevation of a new king to the 
Kandian throne, they became in- 
volved in hostilities, which led to 
their capture of the capital, 1803. 
The Kandians, however, soon com- 
pelled them to evacuate it and re- 
treat, massacred 150 sick soldiers iu 
the hospitals, and having at last sur- 
rounded the British troops, required 
them to lay down their arms. The 
commanding officer. Major Davie, 
unfortunately complied ; whereupon 
the Malay troops were picked aside, 
and the whole English force were in- 
stantly massacred, excepting three 
European officers retained as pri- 
soners, and one mutilated corpo- 
ral, who made his escape to Colombo. 
Notwithstanding this awful issue, the 
British retained the maritime pro- 
vinces, while the king of Kandy kept 
the interior; but in 1615, the mo- 
narch being deposed, on account of 
his repeated acts of oppression and 
cruelty (one was, making the wife of 
his prime-minister pound to death 
her own children in a rice-mortar), 
general Brownrigg was invited by 
the Kandian diiefs to take posses- 
sion of the capital; from which period, 
excepting an insurrection of the 
natives, which lasted from 1817 to 
181&, Ceylon has been wholly sub- 
ject to the English. The legblative 
administration is confided to the go- 
vernor, aided by a council of Euro- 
peans, whose duty, however, is only 
to advise, since the governor may 
pass a law without their concurrence. 
The English governors liave been: 
1798, iion. Fred. North ; 1805, sir 
Thomas M ai tiand ; 1 8 1 1 , gen . John 
Wilson ; 1812, sir Robert Brown- 
rigg; 1820, sir E. Barnes; 1823, 
hon. sir E. Paget ; 1822, sir J. 
Campbell; 1824, sir E. Barnes; 
1831, sir J. Wilson; 1831, sir Ro- 
bert Wilmot Horton. Colombo is 
the commercial capital of Ceylon, and 
seat of government, and is defended 
by a strong fort ; but tlie marine 
capital, Trincomalee, is of greater 
importance, being, as the groat Nel- 


GEORGE m— 1789— 1815. 

SOD said, ' the finest harbour in the 
voHd.' The Cingalese are Budd- 
hists, and there are on the island 
iany Hindus, Moors, Malays, Caf- 
fres, and even Chinese. The Veddas 
(tae aborigines) dwell in the great 
Crests, and nse no clothes ; and wild 
fpnts and beasts are their sole suste- 
nance. The cocoa-nut tree, of which 
it is said there are ten millions along 
a particular line of coast, furnish 
ninety-nine different articles to the 
Cin^ese, including arrack, toddy, 
Tinegar, brooms, ropes, lanterns, and 
^£otian harps ! The staple commo- 
dities are paddy, coffee, cinnamon, 
^^^per, cotton, and tobacco. Grapes 
«Fe in perfection nine months in ^^e 
Tear ; the cinnamon of the island is 
the best produced ; gold, iron, rubies, 
sapphires, and the topaz are found, 
aad of superior quality ; in a word, 
Ceylon has been empliatically desig- 
roted (perhaps not without reason) 
the paradise of the Indies, and the 
garden of the East ; and since it has 
become a Britbh colony, it has been 
ofaserred to flourish in a way even to 
oatrie the presidencies of Hindustan. 
Tbe Ionian Repitblic founded, 
1 & 1 5. — 1 1 consists of seven islands on 
tbe coast of Greece, in that part of 
the Mediterranean anciently called 
the Ionian sea. They are under the 
protection of Great Britain ; and an 
English lord high commissioner con- 
^antly resides at Corfu, with a Bri- 
tish force of 3000 men. The islands 
are Corfu, Santa Maura, Cefalonia, 
TheakI, Zante, Cerieo, and Paxo. 
Aithongh all rugged, they are fertile; 
and the ciinants of Cefalonia and 
Zante (a minnte grape dried) are fa- 
mous in commerce all over the world. 
Tbe religion is of the Eastern or Greek 
dmrch; but tbe Roman or Greco- 
ktin diorcb enjoys equal protection. 
JiiCo/ffj and Zante, soap, to the value 
ofaboot 12,0001, is made and ex- 
ported annually ; a^^o considerable 
iwtities of common earthenware. 
he other inanufiictiires of the isles 

tremely rude, and the instruments of 
tillage as primitive as in the time of 
Ulysses. The olive is the principal 
product: the vine is planted gene- 
rally in the valleys, and com on the 
declivities of the hills. The legisla- 
tive assembly of the septinsular union 
consists of forty members, including 
the president : the latter has 600^, 
and each member 1 08/. per annum. 
The senate, or executive power, is 
composed of six ; namely five, and a 
president, entitled ' his highness,' 
while the senators are styled * pre- 
stantissima,' most excellent. His high- 
ness has a salary of 1 500L and a house; 
and each of his five coadjutors 765/. 
per annum. The sanction of the 
English lord high commissioner is ne- 
cessary to the validity of a senator's 
election. Every isle has its courts of 
law ; but at the seat of government 
there is, in addition to them, a supe- 
rior or high court of appeal, deno- 
minated * the supreme council of jus- 
tice,' and consisting of four ordinary 
members (judges), two English, and 
two Greek, and two extraordinary 
members, viz. the lord high commis- 
sioner, and his highness the president 
of the senate. Corfu is thirty-five 
miles long, and at parts twelve broad, 
and has many mountains, and a quarry 
of fine white marble, well adapted for 
statuai^ ; while variegated marble is 
found in small masses widely scatter- 
ed. Earthquakes are frequent, and 
the climate tropical. Corfu is the 
ancient Corcyra, whose inhabitants, 
the Phasacians, are mentioned by Ho- 
mer as a seafaring and hospitable peo- 
ple. Tlie Corinthians built Corcyra, 
and the isle took the city's name. 
The Corcyrseans were the most pow- 
erful naval people next to the Athe- 
nians. Santa Maura (the Neritos 
and Leucadia of the Greeks) is in 
extreme length twenty-three and in 
breadth ten miles. It is a mass of 
mountains, and the chief town, 
Amaxichi, is situated on almost tlie 
only plain, which is ver}' beautiful, 
two miles long, and one broad, thickly 
covered with olives. Cefalonia (Ho- 
mer's Samos) is the largest isle of the 


GEORGE in.— 1789— 1815. 


Septinsular anion! its greatest length 
thirty-two,and|breadth eighteen miles. 
It is extremely rugged and moun- 
tainous, and its harbour runs eight 
miles inland, but is difficult of ac- 
cess, though offering a spacious and 
convenient shipping-port. The en- 
trance to the haven is extremely pic- 
turesque : on either side groves and 
plantations, relieved in the back- 
ground by majestic mountains, meet 
the eye in varied succession . Theaki, 
the ancient kingdom of Ulysses 
(Ithaca), yet shows the gardens of 
Laertes, still fertile, the castle of 
Ulysses, and the fountain Arethusa. 
The last is a spring of the clearest 
crystal water, gently oozing through 
a simple arch of red stone, and mean- 
dering in graceful curves down a ra^ 
vine, amidst magnificent plants of 
myrtle, broom, and arbutus. The 
isle is in extreme length eighteen 
and in extreme breadth only five 
miles : in some places it is not more 
than a mile and a half across. Its 
appearance is unprepossessing, being 
a smgle mountain, divided by volcanic 
influence into rugged and missliapen 
rocks. Zante, the ancient Hyria and 
Zacynthos, is twenty-four miles at its 
extreme length, twelve broad, and 
very mountainous. From its pictu- 
resque beauty, it lias derivea the 
poetical name of ' Zante, il iiore di 
Levante {' and the city of Zante itself 
is very imposing when viewed from 
the sea. Since 1514 Zante has ex- 
perienced twenty-one earthquakes. 
That in 1514 divided the hill on 
which the fortress stood, and buried 
part of the ancient town in the ruins. 
In 1767 the shocks were repeated 
for three months, during which an 
epidemic disease prevailed. In 1791 
the great shock lasted several minutes, 
caused immense damage, and was fol- 
lowed by minor shocks for six weeks. 
In 1820 the earthquake, which once 
more desolated the island, was pre- 
ceded by a single flash of lightnmg. 
That of 1837 lasted with great intensity 
for twenty seconds ; and that of 1640 
was the most disastrous of alL Pe- 
troleum and tar springs are abundant { 

in one of the valleys, similar to the 
asphalte of Trinidad} and so redo* 
lent is the isle of aromatic herbs, that 
the odour is experienced some miles 
off at sea. The Zantiote honey is 
celebrated for its delicious flavour ; 
and its currants, oil, wine, and flax 
are in equal repute. Cerigo, the 
most southern of the union, is twenty 
miles long and twelve broad. It was 
called Poiphyris by the Greeks (from 
its possessing abundance of tliat beau- 
tiful marble), and Cythera. Accord- 
ing to some, Cerigo was first peopled 
b^ the Lacedaemonians, who, in the 
eighth year of tlie Peloponnesian 
war, were expelled by the Athenians 
under Nicias. At a subsequent pe- 
riod it served as a retreat to Cleo- 
menes of Sparta, when he fled at the 
approach ot Antigonus of Maoedon. 
Ibe Ptolemies of Egypt were next 
lords of Cerigo ; the Komans fol- 
lowed, and then the Venetians. The 
relics extant denote the former great- 
ness of the place; Peelo Castro, a 
ruin north of the harbour, stands on 
the site of the ancient town of Mene- 
laus, whose faithless wife Helen 
caused the siege of Troy, and whose 
bath is still shown ; and there is 
standing the remnant of a temple de- 
dicated to Venus Cytherea. Pajto, 
only twelve miles in circumference, 
consists of a single mountain, which 
probably at one period was Joined to 
Corfu ; and its harbour, Port 6ai, 
affords anchorage for a few vessels. 
The inhabitants of all the islands arc 
perfect Greeks, with oUve complexion, 
dark full eyes, and beautiful teeth. 
They are mostly of the middle size, 
somewhat slenaer, extremely active, 
and very voluble and empnatic in 

Holland and Belgium united, 
1815, as the kingdom of the United 
Netherlands, under the prince of 
Orange, stadtholder of Holland ; who 
thereupon assumed the title of Wil- 
liam I. of the Netherlands. 

Tub Holt Alliance, 1815, was 
a solemn league entered into by Aus- 
tria, Russia, and Prussia, now that 
the ambitious schemes of Napoleon 


GEORGE IIL~1789~181«. 


vse frnstialedy to presenre the b»* 
boce of power throughout Europe ; 
mi ako to maintain the rights of 
sovereigns, which had been so uncere- 
TaDknaaly invaded by the modern 

Tax GxastANic Conpbdebation, 
J^15, was formed after the battle of 
Waterloo, to create a barrier against 
French i^giressionand propagandism; 
%od the fint session of its legislative 
Lcdj took place 1816. The princi- 
pd object of this meeting was to 
pjarantee to integral Germany, 
'i:nded into SO states, external and 
intemal security. Of tlie 39 states, 
tvo are large kingdoms, Austria and 
Pruaisia ; lour are minor sovereignties, 
bavaria. Saxony, Hanover, and VVurt- 
Cffmberg; and the rest are grand- 
ditchies, the electorate of Hesse, 
pnncipalities, and free cities. Aus- 
tria has eleven millions of people, 
aad an army of 270,000 men in time 
of peace : its extent 3500 square 
mOes. Prussia has ten millions, an 
armr of d20,000 regular troops and 
iaiMfwehr, with 8333 square miles. 
Bavaria has four millions of people, 
An array of 54,000, and an extent of 
IdOO square miles. Saxony has a 
iBtllion and a half of people, a force 
of ISjOOO, and an extent of 272 
square miles. Hanover lias a popu- 
wion of a million and a half, a force 
of aOgOOO including landwehr, and a 
surface of 690 square miles. Wurt- 
temberg has a million and a half of 
people, an army of 5000, and a sur- 
face of 8612 square miles. Among 
the duchies, Saxe-Coburg has 
156,000, a force of 2500 men, and an 
extent of 49 square miles ; and 
Brunswick 251,000 people, an army 
of 3500, and a surface of 70 square 
nules. Frankfort, Hamburg, Lubeck, 
sod Bremen^ are free cities ; Ham- 
burg bsn'ng 10,000 soldiers composed 
of lnij)^iie^guard, and the others 600 
DCD respectiveiy. To sum up the 
whole, Confederated Germany con- 
Hum tbirty-ave miJJions of people; 
as amy in time of peace of 770,000 
iddierisDd in time of war of nearly 
S, 7 and » Burfiice of country 

of 12,000 square miles. Each of the 
89 states is bound to contribute, in 
war, one in every hiuidred of its 
population, to form an army ; and a 
further one in six hundred for a corps 
of reserve, when tlie troops of the 
first conscription shall have marched 

Escape of Count Lavalktte, 
1815. He liad been thirteen years 
postmaster-general under , Napoleon , 
and having been instrumental in bis 
escape from Elba, was reinstated in 
office. On the re-entry of Loub 
XVill. into Paris, after the battle 
of Waterloo, marshal Ney and La- 
valette were seized, and condemned 
to deatli : Ney was executed, — but 
Lavalette, fortunate in having an en- 
terprising and affectionate wi^, niece 
of the empress Josephine, escaped 
the hands of justice. As all solicita- 
tions to save his life had been sternly 
rejected, nodiing now remained to 
the count but a fearful looking for 
death within forty-eight hours. Two 
days before the morning appointed 
for his execution, Madame Lavalette 
proposed the outline of escape 
which she had planned for the fol- 
lowing night ; and although deterred 
by a conviction tliat it was impracti- 
cable, the count consented to her im- 
portunity. At five on the following 
evening this faithful woman, accom- 
panied by her daughter Josephine 
and her nurse, appeared at the prison, 
dressed in a pelisse of merino lined 
with fur, and carrying in her reticule 
a black silk petticoat. These slight 
preparations were considered suffi- 
cient for disguise; and her instructions 
were, that on going out, Lavalette 
should take hold of Josephine's arm, 
and followed by the nurse, walk very 
slowly, put on gloves, and cover liis 
face with a handkerchief. In passing 
under the doors, which were very 
low, he was to take especial care to 
stoop, so that no risk might be run 
of breaking the feathers ofthe bonnet, 
an accident by which all might be 
lost. At the top of the staircase, a 
chair would be in waiting, into which 
he would probably be banded by the 


GEORGE IIL— 1789— 1815. 


gaoler. Soon afterwards, he would 
be conducted from it to a cabriolet 
which would convey him to a place 
of concealment. 

Seven was (he hour for Madame La- 
valette's retirement ; the clock struck 
six and three quarters,and she rang for 
the valet-de-chambre, whispered a few 
words, and added aloud, • Take care 
that the chairmen be at their post, 
for I am now coming.* Tl)en step- 
ping to a part of the room, divided 
from the remainder by a screen, in 
less than three minutes she tinished 
her husband's toilette, and showed 
him to the astonished and almost in- 
credulous Josephine. * We all ad- 
vanced,' says Lavalette, ' towards the 
door. I said to Emilie, the gaoler 
comes in every evening after vou are 
cone. Place yourself therefore be- 
hind tlie screen, and make a little 
noise, as if you were movine some 
piece of furniture. He will tliink it 
IS J, and will go out again. By that 
means I shall gain a few minutes, 
which are absolutely necessary for me 
to get away. She understood me, 
and I pullea the bell. ' Adieu I' she 
said, raising her eyes to heaven. I 
pressed her arm with a trembling 
hand, and we exchanged a look. If 
we liad embraced, we had been ruined. 
The turnkey was heard ; Emilie flew 
behind the screen ; the door opened ; 
I passed first, and then my daughter, 
and the nurse. After having crossed 
the passage, I found myself in a large 
apartment, in the presence of five 
turnkeys, sitting, standing, and com- 
ing in my way. I put my hand- 
kerchief to my face, the child took 
my right hand, and the gaoler, coming 
down the stairs of his apartment, 
came up to me, and, putting his 
hand on my arm, said, * You are 
going early, madame.' He appeared 
much affected, and undoubtedly 
thought my wife had taken an ever- 
lasting leave of her husband. It lias 
been said, that my daughter and I 
sobbed aloud : the fact is, we scarcely 
dared to sigh. I at last reached the 
end'of the room. 

' A turnkey sits tlierc day and 

night in a large arm-chair, and in 
space so narrow, tliat he can keep ll 
hands on the keys of two door 
Thb man looked at me witiiot 
opening his doors. I passed m 
right hand between the bars, to sho 
him I wished to go out He at \vl\ 
turned his two keys and we got oiii 
We had a few steps to ascend, to com 
to Uie yard ; but at the bottom < 
the staircase there is a guard-hoii$4 
of gendarmes. About twenty sol 
diers, headed by their officer, liaj 
placed themselves a few paces fron 
me at this point, to see Madami 
Lavalette pass. Having slowli 
reached the highest step, I went intl 
the cliair that stood a yard or tw< 
distant ; but no chairman, no servaii 
was there. My daughter and tin 
nurse remained standing by th< 
vehicle, while a sentry at six pacej 
distant kept his eyes fixed on me< 
A violent degree of agitation began 
to mingle with my astonishment. My 
looks were directed towards the 
sentry's musket, like those of a ser^ 
pent towards its prey. It almost 
seemed to me tliat I held that mus^ 
ket in my grasp. At the first motion, 
at the first noise, I was resolved to 
seize it. 1 felt as if I possessed the 
strength of ten men ; and I should 
most certainly have killed any one 
who might Have attempted to lay 
hands on me. Tliis terrible situation 
lasted about two minutes; but they 
seemed to me as long as a whole 
night. At last I heard Bonnevilles 
voice saying to me, * One of the 
chairmen was not punctual, but 
I have found another.' At tlie 
same instant, I felt myself raised. 
The cliair passed through the great 
court, and, on getting out, tum«l to 
the right. We proceeded to the 
Quai des Orf^vres, facing the Rue de 
Harlay. There the chair stopped; 
and my friend Bandus coming up 
and offering me his arm, said aloud, 
' You know, madame, you have a 
visit to pay to the president' 1 got 
out, ana he pointed to a cabriolet 
that stood at some distance in tbat 
dark street. I jumped into it, and 


GEORGE 111—1789^-1815. 


£>e driver said to me, * Give me my 
viLp.' I looked for it in vain ; — be 
bad dropped it. * Never mind,' said 
m companion. A motion of the 
tcias made the horse start off in a 
>)ikk trot In passing by, I saw 
iocfphine on the qnai, her bands 
fUped, and fervently offering up 
jnyeis to God. We crossed the Pont 
Sl Alicfaael, and were soon behind 
iLeOdcon theatre. It was not till 
then that I breathed at ease. In 
leaking at tlie driver of the cabriolet, 
br^ir great was mv astonishment to 
forognise count Chassenon, who said, 
' You have behind you four doubl&- 
'.ofidled pistols, well loaded ; I hope 
you will make use of them — and woe 
lo him that shaU attempt to stop 
your fli^tr We entered the new 
Boulevard at the comer of the Rue 
Plumet: there we stopped. During 
the way, I had thrown off all my 
female attire, and put on a servant*s 
<i^'&7 greatpooat with a round silver- 
Saced hat; and M. Bandus joining us 
&^D. I took leave of M. de Chas- 
seooQ, and modestly followed my new 
master. It was eight o'clock m the 

erening ; it poured with rain ; the 
Di^t was extremely dark, and the 
solitude complete in that part of the 
Fauboarg St. Germain. M. Bandus 
vrat on so rapidly that it was not 
▼iiiiout trouble I kept up with him ; 
but at length, after an hour*s walk, in 
vbich 1 had lost a shoe, we arrived 
Id the Rue de Grenelle, where M. 
Bandus stopped and said, ' I am going 
to enter a noblenmn's hotel. While 
1 speak to the porter, get into the 
^urt You will find a staircase on 
yonr left hand.' Go up to the high- 
^ story. Go through a dark passage 
which you will meet with to the 
ri^t, and at the bottom of which is 
a pile of wood. Stop there.' I was 
5«zed with a sort of giddiness when 
l«aw &1. Bandus knock at the door 
of tfie minister for foreign affairs, the 
duke de Richelieu. While he was 
^iung to the porter, who bad thrust 
lus head out of his lodge, I passed 
rapidly by. • Where is that man go- 
ing? cried the porter. * It is my ser- 

vant,' said he. I quickly went up to - 
the third floor, and reached the place 
that had been described to me. I 
was scarcely there, when I heard the 
rustling of a silk gown. I felt myself 
gently taken by the arm, and pushed 
into an apartment, the door ot which 
was immediately shut upon me. I 
stepped up to a fire, whicii cast a 
faint light around the room; and 
having placed my hands upon the 
stove to warm myself, I found a can- 
dlestick and a bundle of matches. 
I guessed that I might light a candle ; 
and liaving done so, I examined my 
new abode. On a chest of drawers I 
found a paper, on which was written, 
' Make nq noise, never open your 
window but in the night ; wear slip- 
pers of list, and wait with patience.' 
— The mystery was soon explained : 
he was sneltered under the roof of 
M. Bresson, treasurer for the departs 
ment of foreign affairs, a former de- 
puty of the national convention, who 
had been proscribed for voting against 
the death of Louis XVI. His wife, 
liaving found refuge with him in a 
family among the mountains of Vos- 
ges, who faithfully protected them 
during two years, had made a vow to 
save some political offender, if such 
were ever thrown in her way ; and 
she now fulfilled it. M. Bresson ap- 
peared not long afterwards ; he had 
just quitted the drawing-room of the 
minister, and had witnessed the con- 
sternation exhibited when the escape 
was announced. ' Not a soul,' he 
added, ' will go to bed to-night at the 
Tuileries ; your flight is believed to 
be the signal for the explosion of 
a great plot! open only half your 
shutters, and if you catch cold, put 
your head into this closet when you 

The discovery of Lavalette*s escape 
from the Conciergerie had been most 
rapid. Scarcely had he passed the 
outer gate, when the gaoler entered 
his cell, and retired, as it had been 
foreseen he would do, on hearing a 
noise behind the screen. In about 
five minutes afterwards he returned ; 
and although the noise was repeated, 


.GEORGE IIL~1789— 181& 


he looked behind the screen, perceiv- 
ed Madame Lavalette, dashed through 
the door with an exclamation that he 
was ruined, left the skirts of his coat 
in lier hands when she sought to 
detain him, and despatched turnkey 
and gendarmes in general pursuit. 
The sedan was overtaken, but it 
contained only Josephine ; and dur- 
ing the niglit, the houses of every 
friend, acquaintance, and official cen- 
nexion, were searched ineffectually. 
On the following day the barriers 
were shut ; and Af adiame Lavalette 
was subjected to examination, and 
put into solitary confinement. 

Sir Robert Wilson, and Messrs. 
Bruce and Hutchinson, all Eng- 
lish, having agreed Xo complete 
tlie work of deliverance by convey- 
ing the count out of the reach of 
the French authorities, * it was at 
eight in the morning of January the 
10th, 1816, that, after taking leave 
of his friends the Bressons, Lava- 
lette, in the uniform of the British 
guards, stepped into sir R. Wilson's 
gig, Mr. H utchinson being on horse- 
back. As the shops were open, and 
the streets full, the dress of the 
guards drew a salute from every 
English soldier tliey passed ; and two 
officers appeared struck with surprise 
at seeing a comrade with whom they 
were unacquainted, in company with 
sir R. Wilson. On the right and 
left of the Barrifere de Clicliy were 
two guard-houses, occupied respec- 
tively by French and English, who 
drew up under arms as the carriage 
approached ; the former luckily were 
national guards, of a different quarter 
of the city to that of which Lava- 
lette was an inhabitant, and who 
were not likely, therefore, to be ac- 
quainted with his person. ' At last, 
next morning,* continues the fugitive, 
* at seven o'clock, we arrived at Va- 
enciennes, the last French city on 
that line of frontier. I was begin- 
ning to feel more easy, when the 
postmaster told us to go and get our 
passports examined by tlie captain of 
the gendarmerie, lortunatelpr the 
officer signed the passports without 

rising from his bed. We got clear 
of the gate, and flying along the 
Bnissels road, reached the frontier — 
we were on tlie Belgian territory — I 
was saved !' Lavalette found an asy- 
lum first at Munich, and subse- 
(^uently at Augsburg; and after a 
SIX years outlawry, was permitted to 
return to France, where he died 
1830. A severe blow awaited his 
return. The reason of Madame Lava- 
lette had been affected by her suffer- 
ings and anxiety ; and some years 
passed before she could resume tiie 
duties of domestic life. 

Genoa ADDED TO Saudinia, 1815. 
—We have shown ("vol. ii., p. 41), 
how Andrea Doria, tlie Genoese ad- 
miral, surprised the French garrison, 
1528, and delivered his state from 
the yoke of France. He thereupon 
converted the tyranny of Genoa into 
an oligarchy. From the year 1339 
the little dominion had been headed 
by a doge, who was elected boldly 
by the people and installed for life, 
in order to crush the factions of both 
Guelfs and Ghibellines. The aristo- 
cracy was thus excluded from power, 
the doge conducting the government 
without any regular council of nobles. 
This plan of rule existed nearly two 
centuries, but not without frequent 
contentions between the principal 
citizen families, especially the Adorni 
and Fregosi, who proved just as fac- 
tious and troublesome as the patri- 
cians liad done. Several doges were 
elected at a time, some were exiled, 
and others were forced upon the 
community by an armed faction. 
The neighbours of Genoa, the Vis- 
conti of Milan, and the kings of 
France, taking advantage of those 
feuds, at various times obtained pos- 
session of the little state. At last 
Andrea Doria, as before said, drove 
out the French, 1528, and, to avoid 
a recurrence of the former feuds, es- 
tablished a biennial dogeship, in lieu 
of one for life, with a council of no- 
bles to assist ; which council might be 
shifted, abstracted from, or added to, 
if found requisite, in opposition to 
the system adopted at Venice, where 


6EOBGE m.— 1789— 1815. 


v^ hi^ families of the council were 
Ltamoreably and hereditarily fixed. 
This ibnn existed from Doria's revo- 
UitioD until the invasion of Italy by 
die French under Buonaparte, 1795, 
a period of no less than 267 years. 
The reToJutionarY French, on this 
oecasioo, joined tne democracy in a 
rise against ^the doge and council ; 
bat as the Tery lowest classes sup- 
p<»ted the aristocracy, a ternbie 
slaughter of some days duration en* 
Mied, and the democracy and French 
were discomfited. The French Di- 
rectoiy hereupon, under pretence 
that * the honour^ of the French re- 
pablic was concerned, took up the 
part of the democracy, and sent a 
competent force into the city of Ge- 
noa, with an ordinance, compelling a 
thtmMigh change in the institutions 
of the state. A republic was in- 
stantlr formed, and protected by a 
Frendi garrison ; but in 1799 this 
garrison, haying JVIassena at its head, 
was besieged in Genoa by the united 
Austimns and English, and was obli- 
getfto capitulate. In the next year, 
liHOO, when Buonaparte had gained 
die battle of Marengo, Genoa was 
again giyen up to the French ; 
whereon Napoleon, then Consul, gaye 
a new form of government to the 
territory, leaving it a kind of nominal 
independence, under the title of The 
Ligurian Republic, but making it 
hr less democratic than before, even 
allowing it a doge. When emperor 
of France, in 1805, the same ambi- 
tious leader required the formal an- 
nexation of the Ligurian Republic 
to France ; and, with the farcical form 
instituted by the modem Charlo- 
nagne, the doge Durazzo repaired, 
as if of his own accord, or by the 
order of his state, to Milan, where 

I Napoleon had just been crowned 
king of Italy, with the iron crown of 
the Lombard monarchs, and stated, 
' that the Genoese senate and people 
ardently but humbly desired to be 
united to the Great Empire.' These 
wishes were immediately granted; 
and the state was formed into the 
three French departments of Ge> 
noa, Montenotte, and the Apen- 
nines. In 1814 Genoa surrendered 
to the English forces under Lord 
William Dentinck ; and in the fol- 
lowing year, by a decision of the con- 
gress or Vienna, it was united to the 
Sardinian monarchy, and has ever 
since continued part and parcel of it. 
The city of Genoa is situated partly 
on the declivity of several hills, ris- 
ing in the form of a semicircle round 
the spacious harbour, and partly on 
a narrow strip of ground between 
them and the sea. It is enclosed on 
the land side by a double line of 
fortifications ; the external one being 
above eight miles in length. The 
higher Apennines rise immediately 
behind, dividing the waters which 
run to the Mediterranean by the 
valleys of fiisagno and Polcevera, 
from those which flow northwards 
into the Scrivia and the Bormida, 
two affluents of the Po. Upon the 
summits of these mountains, which 
are near enough to command Genoa, 
are several detached forts. The ap- 
pearance of Genoa from the sea is 
exceedingly beautiful. The union of 
the territory of Genoa with Sardinia, 
restored to nearly its pristine form, 
afler the revolutions of 3214 years, 
the ancient sovereignty of Liguria. 
The Genoese port of Liburni, or 
Leghorn, is now in the dominions 
of the grand duke of Tuscany. 


Wood Engbatisg iMPaovEo, 1790, 

by John aad TTiomas Bewick, of 

Aar(wt/cw>n-Tyne. two brothers 

»lio published a hMtory of quadru- 

Beds, with the woodcuts for the first 

rrrelirf; « consequence of 

which they could be worked together 
with the letter-press. Tliese speci- 
mens, many of which consisted of 
vignettes, worthy of the first artists 
in point of design, were equal in 
delicacy to copper-plates, and have 


GEORGE HL— 1789— 1815. 


been since copied in oil on an en- 
larged scale b^ various painters. The 
art, after this important help, has 
gone on improving ; and there is 
now a depth and riclmess in our wood 
engraving, which renders it often 
superior, especially in architectural 
drawing, to tlie productions of both 
steel and copper. (See Thomas BeW' 

This was the production of Mr. 
Greathead ; and the vessel, so im- 
portant in cases of shipwreck, can 
neither be upset nor sunk, will row 
both ways, and is thirty feet long and 
ten broad. 

The Deaf and Dumb Asylum 
FOUNDED, 1792, in the Kent-road, 
near London, for the support and 
education of the children of the 
poor, so afflicted. Deafness obtains 
in a larger degree throughout the 
world ttian is usually supposed, 
special returns constantly making the 
proportion of deaf persons one to 
1537 in the population of Europe at 
large, and in the United Kingdom 
1 to 1622. It is fair, therefore, to 
say, that in every civilized state there 
is 1 in every 1500 persons, who is 
deaf either from birth or infancy. 
Since articulation by speedi can only 
be acquired by those who hear it, 
dumbness is the necessary conse- 
quence of born or early deafness. 
In cases even where deaniess super- 
venes at a period after articulation 
lias been acquired (at the age, for 
instance, of four or six years), 
the power of speech is gradually 
lost, and the voice becomes mono- 
tonous. In establishments, therefore, 
Purposing to educate tlie deaf and 
umb, pictures, bodily attitudes, signs 
made with the fingers, &c, are used 
as auxiliaries; many pupils have 
even been taught, by watching the 
throat, lips, &c, of the speaker, to 
articulate sounds with sufficient 
clearness to be understood. Cardan, 
1550, was the first to call attention 
to means for instructing deaf and 
dumb persons ; John Bulwer and Dr. 
Wallis were the first in England* 

about 1670, to introduce plans for 
the same benevolent object ; and 
the abb^ de L'Ep^e, and his succes- 
sor the abb6 Sicard, 1780, in France, 
seem to have improved upon all for- 
mer systems, and to have been the 
most important labourers in this 
task of humanity. 

The Telegbafh'invented, 1798, 
by M. Chappe, a Frenchman, or at 
least first used by liis recommenda- 
tion, as a national mode of commu- 
nicating intelligence. The word is 
from the Greek tele^ distant, and 
grapho, to write ; and the improved 
instrument of late years has been 
called a semaphore, from sema, a sign, 
and phero,' to bear. Though telc- 
grapliic communication, as a means 
of conveying every species of re- 
quired intelligence, is an invention 
of modern date, the use of signals for 
the speedy transmission of brief mes- 
sages previously arranged between 
persons, is derived from tlie most re- 
mote antiquity. Thus we read of 
beacon-fires in the prophet Jeremiah, 
who directs the Benjamites to 'set 
up a sign of tire in Beth-haccerem ;' 
and iGschylus, in his Agamemnon, 
has a fine description of tne applica- 
tion of a line of fire-signals to com- 
municate the fact of the fall of Troy. 
In the middle ages, the fire-beacons 
of the Scots, which, in the form of a 
cross, passed along height, and hill, 
and cliff, to warn against the ap- 
proach of the English forces from 
the border stations, and the sacred 
bell-clangour, * The Sommaten,' also 
of the feudal times, and rung so re- 
cently as in the last year in Catalonia, 
when the Barcelonese (See Spmn un- 
der Espartero) were in insurrection, 
were but the prototypes of the mo- 
dern telegraph and semaphore. M. 
Cliappe*s telegraph, the precursor o£ 
the rest, is adled, from its position 
when at rest, the T telegraph ; and 
it consists of an upright post, at the 
top of which is pivoted, by its centre, 
a transverse beam ; and this beam, 
worked in a chamber below by ropes, 
is made to assume any required angle 
with the post. Either end of this 


GEORGE in.---1789— 1815. 


Boveable beam has a short arm, ca- 
pable of assuming any required angle 
-arxh it ; and these arms are worked 
\a like manner by ropes, — a contri- 
isBce by which, without the use of 
UT ang^ of more than 45 degrees 
(which miglit be indistinct when 
Tiewed through a refractive atmo- 
^jjere and from a distance), no less 
tLan 256 different signs can be made. 
As M. Chappe, however, proposed 
rocnmuncating intelligence letter by 
letter, and used an alphabet of only 
16 letters, a much fewer number of 
^i^ns would have been sufficient 
Bis first madiine communicated the 
cevs from the Netherlands to Paris 
:q one hour, of the recapture of Lisle 
by the troops of the republic, 1794. 
xVn improved telegraph by the Rev. 
J. Gamble, chaplain to the duke of 
York, and which was subsequently 
simplified by lord George Murray, 
was adopted by the British govern- 
ment, and placed on the Admiralty, 
London (the first time of using tele- 
iraplis in England}, 1796, and worked 
bo a line to Dover. This is known 
:k« 'the shutter telegraph,' because 
r jiksisting of six octagonal shutters. 
Blade to work up and down in a 
frame, and to express si^s by their 
being in a vertical or horizontal posi- 
tion, or by one or more of the shut^ 
teis being closed, while the rest are 
raised. Sixty-three different signals 
are shown by this apparatus* The 
British government, however, in 
Id 1 6, resolved on employing the 
\ind of tel^raph called semaphore, 
«hich had also emanated from the 
French, but had been greatly im- 
proved by sir Home Popham. That 
instrument now occupies the Dover 
sUtton up to tiie Admiralty at 
Chariog-cross, and consists of a ver- 
tical post, having two arms pivoted 
thereto^ one at the summit, one in 
t^ centre. As these arms are apart, 
thevcan eadi assume six different 
pc^itioDs; and the two together are 
^le to present forty-eight signab 

.presto} e.eo^ij:C'ne^US 
ktets of the ^^P^'ff'^r^na that^o 
in hiabic numerals, and tuat so 

clearly and concisely, that thirteen 
signals are leH: unappropriated, for 
abbreviations and arbitraiy signs. As 
secrecy is often required in telegra- 
phic communications, the parties 
working the respective instruments 
on a line, only copy what they see 
through a telescope to be the signal 
of the nearest news-reporting erec- 
tion ; so that only the instructor of 
the first, and tlie secretary of the 
last telegraph, are acquainted with 
the nature of the intelligence trans- 

Vaccination brought into no- 
tice IN England by Da. Jenner, 
1798. — A periodical work, published 
at Gottingen by M. Steinbach, made 
mention, 1769, of the singular immu- 
nity that all such tenders of cows had 
from the infection of smallpox, how- 
ever epidemical, as had caught from 
the udders of the animals an eruptive 
pustule upon the hand or arm. Dr. 
Barry, of Cork, too, asserted, that a 
disorder called Shiuagh had prevailed 
from time immemorial in Ireland, 
having the same origin and the same 
effects. But Dr. Jenner, who had 
long resided in Gloucestershire, 
brought the discovery fully before 
the British public, after watching 
for many years the escape of various 
persons concerned in the care of the 
cowss in his neighbourhood, during 
the rage of virulent smallpox. It is 
sufficient to say, that auer nearly 
forty years* trial, vaccination has been 
found, with very few exceptions (pro- 
vided it has liad due encouragement 
and protection, by the firm prohibi- 
tion of inoculation for the smallpox), 
a perfect protection from the scourge 
of smallpox ; and such as have had a 
relative or friend maimed for life,, 
either in intellect or limbs, by the 
latter disease, will not hesitate for an 
instant to try the effect of the vaccine 
inoculation on their offspring, and to 
tliank God tliat they tiave tlius a 
cliance of escape from one of the 
most destructive and loathsome of 
human maladies. Even in the win- 
ter of 1840-1, when smallpox raged 
more in the metropolis than bad been 


GEORGE IIL~1789— 1815. 


known for a century before, only 
seven in an hundred of those who 
had been vaccinated, died : while of 
those so unprotected, forty-five out of 
the hundred fell victims. 

The Blind School, London, 
FOUNDED, 1799, for the instruction 
of the blind children of indigent per- 
sons in basketmaking and oUier han- 
dicraft trades, by which they may 
obtain a livelihood; an institution 
truly honourable to our nation. Let 
him who doubts respecting vaccina- 
iian, visit this school, and inquire into 
the causes of early blindness amongst 
the objects of the charity ; and ne 
will quit it convinced that any ap- 
proach to a succedaneum for a dis- 
order so often £eital in its conse- 
quences as the smallpox, should be 
hailed as a blessing. It has been a 
question as to which of the five 
senses, of seeing, hearing, feeling, 
smelling, and tasting, would be most 
regrett^, if it pleased God to de- 
prive us of either ; and we believe 
that the chance of happiness under 
the loss would be found, little as 
would be expected, in favour of the 
blind. The blind, if they have health 
of body, are constantly cheerful ; the 
result, probably, of being out of the 
power of the innumerable petty 
peace-anuo3ring objects which pre- 
sent tliemselves to ttie eye, and con- 
stantly disturb the serenity of the 
mind. In proof of this assertion, 
hypochondruus are never found 
amongst the blind: and Dr. Reid, 
in his elesant essays, gives an example 
of a blind man exclaiming, when he 
was told of people having fancied 
grieft, * Sir, put out their eyes, put 
out their eyes, and they will soon be 
happy I* A society for the blind at 
Glasgow has printed no fewer than 
10,850 volumes for the use of blind 
persons, the letters of which are 
raised, so as to be felt and read by 
Ihefingert of the pupils ; two montlis 
only are required to enable a child of 
ordinary mental powers to acquire 
the art ; and in a recent trial at the 
London Tavern (under Mr. Lucas's 
qntem), a chapter in the Bible being 

selected at random, some blind pupils 
read the eighth chapter of Romansj 
verse by verse in rotation, without 
an error. 

The Philanthropic Society, Lon^ 
DON, FOUNDED 1799, ID St. George's 
Fields, for the benevolent purpose of 
rearing in habits of religion and uti- 
lit^^, the oftpring of convicted felons. 
With this view, 160 children are in- 
structed in the principles of the Esta- 
blished Church, clothed, and entirely 
maintained within the walls of the 
institution, from infancy to a compe- 
tent age ; the male portion being in- 
structed fully in ^ve distinct trades 
by competent masters* Would to 
Heaven the national school system 
were on the same basis, however few 
the pupils I By the instrumentality 
of this most excellent association, 
thousands of wretched children have 
been snatched from the jaws.'of ^^ 
struction ; and when it is considered 
that society has been in an equal 
ratio benented by the conversion to 
character and virtue of a large por- 
tion of its worst members (for • im- 
probonim improba soboles'), the debt 
of the public to the Philanthropic 
Society is immense. If any of man's 
imperfect works dare be regarded 
with pride, surely the institution in 
question, the Magdalen, the Asylum 
for Female Orphans, the School for 
the Indigent Blind, and Bethlem 
Hospital for lunatics — five godlike 
charities — all within sight of each 
other, might be thought to plead to 
Heaven, like the ^ye righteous of 
Sodom, for its mercy upon the greet 
city in their vicinity, with all its 
glaring and secret vices — vices not 
peculiar to our own metropolis, but 
common, as we all admit, without an 
imputation upon our diarity, to all 
places which accumulate, in a com- 
parative space, a vast mass — ^more 
than a million— of men. 


Aloys Senefelder, a German stage- 
player, observing tliat calcareous 
stones had the property of receiving 
greasy lines, and, by pressure, of trans- 
mitting tliem to paper, made the ex- 


geo:roe m- — 1789— 1815. 


"■"III with ink, and ot>tAined 
y accurate impTeaslonft. Ilie 

^ made use of are chiefly round 

• aria ; and their surface l>eiiig 

'^ level with fine sand until a 
^ppean, they are sent, to the 
r?pher, who, witli a ^reaay 

V. diairs or writes on tbem as lie 
'i upon psfier. The printer, he- 

' striking off his impreaaions, 
"^^ an acid solution over the 

^^K or mitings, to fix. tliem ; 

:-i.iiiO copies may then he taken 

-1 them, before they are -worn. 

' an is now Gonstantly applied to 

j'ar letteis. etchings, &c. ; and 

Bavarians anert that their late 

:. Maumilian, disoorered it, and 

tiled it to Senefelder. However 

^ ma^ be« it haa been ereailT aul- 

rxHl'in character by Mr, ftuU- 

'sdeTs invention of Hiho-tinting ; 

i*'reby OTifr^nah arc ^ven instead of 

;»'es. This iiaprovement'was made 

\^i\ ; and works of architecture, 

V by the execution of a brush u|K>n 

''-ne, may now be iUustrated by 

Tjwii^s, which cannot be impaired 

^ ^hrt process of printing, and which 

' r.ot depend upon coping artists 
r th^r fidelity to the onginals. 
Tut. New LoifDOB Docks rouKDED 

■•-\ A>r noerchant-shipping chiefly 
.ding thronghont Europe* The 

-'■^t India D<»cks were opened in 

-•n>, and the East India in 1806. 
The MiLiTABT Abtlum, Chelsea, 

:rxDKn 1801, by the duke of York, 
r the ed«ication of 1000 boys and 
r ^S children of soldiers, orphans, or 

' .n«e fiatfaers are serving on foreign 

CiAs-i,icHTiiro nrraoDncED, 1803. 

—The inflammable gases were known 

-Tizinally for their direful effects ra- 

i i-r than for their useful Qualities. 

Minefs were acquainted with two of 

vt.em, called the choke damp and the 

fire damp, long before the establish- 

ratnt of the Royai Society ; but Mr. 

Murdoch was the person who first 

M^plied pa to the purposes of illumi- 

i^oD. This gentleman, residing at 

&)ho, Dear Birmingham, covered the 

^TkiofSabo, on occasion of the 

cebbration of the peace of 1802* 
with a splendour that astonished the 
population of the surrounding coun- 
try. Early in 1809, Mr. Clegg, of 
Soho, communicated to the Society 
of Arts his plan of lighting manul^ 
tories with ^ ; and, after a good deal 
of dispute, a bill was passed in parw 
liament to incorporate the London 
and Westminster gas-light and coke 
company. From comparative dark- 
ness, the metropolis, on a sudden, 
emerged each night into a state of 
brilliant illumination ; while nooks 
and alleys, that had never seen even 
the light of the sun, shared in the 
general lustre. The perpetual full 
moon of gas at once extinguished 
the twinkling oil-lamps of the parish, 
which, like the lighthouses of the 
ocean, had acted as warnings rather 
than guides. In a word, Mr. Murdoch's 
discovery has suppressed more vice 
than the Society for the Suppression 
of Vice itself : rogues cannot bear 
the liglit, and have thus, by a method 
similar to the Roman one, which 
made houses of ill-character frantpa^ 
rent, been routed from their dens. 
* Why,* says a facetious writer of our 
day, ' has not old Murdoch his statue? 
In other days such memorial would 
have equalled the Colossus at Rhodes, 
and the derai-philosopher would have 
breathed flame like the Chimera : in 
the fabulous ages before that, he 
would have come down to us a demi- 
god, the rival of Prometheus, Her- 
cules, and Atlas I* Tlie existence and 
inflammability of coal-gas^ were no- 
ticed so early as 1650 by Shirley, and 
in 1690, by Dr. Clayton and otliers. 
Every organic inflammable substance, 
whetner coal, wood, oil, wax, &c., 
when exposed to distillation in closed 
vessels, yields an inflammable gas, 
composed of hydrogen and carbon ; 
but coal, as being more abundant, 
and most easily obtained, has been 
hitherto most employed by gas- 
makers. Early in the eighteenth 
century, the men at work in the col- 
lieries of sir James Lowther, at 
Whitehaven, were alarmed at seeing 
a sudden rush of what seemed air, 


GEORGE IIL— 1789— 1815. 


catch fire in passing their candles; 
and as the phenomenon recurred, a 
shaft was made to carry such streams 
out of die pits. The stream readily 
ignited, on placing a candle at the top 
of the shaft ; and for three years it 
continued burning, during which 
time the peasantry of the neighbour- 
hood contrived to draw oiT portions 
of the unconsumed gas in little 
pipes, which they conveyed homeland 
burned in lieu of candles. 

But Winsor, a German, was the first 
who contrived to make coal-gas suffi- 
ciently attractive to the inhabitants 
of the metropolis ; and Pall Mall was 
the first street lit thereby, 1807. 
Companies soon started up, to carry 
out the principle on the largest scale ; 
and by 1820 every street and allev in 
the metropolis was illuminated. The 
nightly consumption of gas in the 
great city is about eight millions of 
cubic feet, and, perhaps, in the few 
longest nights of winter, nine millions. 
Oil has been much used, as well as 
coal, for the production of gas ; but 
though the process of making from it 
is far more simple tlian that resorted 
to in the case of coal, the material is 
found too expensive for general use. 
Of the various species of coal, cannel 
coal roost readily and abundantly 
yields the gas. Full 180,000 tons of 
various coal are consumed in the year 
to supply the London lighting; the 
gaft-pipes of tliat metropolis in 1830 
were upwards of 1000 miles in length ; 
in 1B40, 2,800,000/. of capital were 
employed in gas-works, pipes, &c. ; 
the yearly revenue derived is 460,000/.; 
380 lamp-lighters are employed, and 
about 2500 men are engaged in the 
gas manufactories. About the year 
1880, a great improvement was pro- 
mulgated, under the title of < the Bude 
light,' so called from its inventor. 
The government's attention being at 
length called to the latter, a specimen 
of it was ordered to be erected at the 
Horse Guards, Whiteliall, whereby 
the clock at that station was beau- 
tifully illuminated (the light being 
placed before it), as if by the clear 
fight of the moon. The Bude light, 

as improved by Mr. Gumey, 1841?, 
likely to supersede even conini< 
eas. It was first an oil Argand flanr 
having a stream of oxygen thro^ 
upon its internal surface ; but Al 
Gumey, substituting ordinary coz 
gas, purified in an apparatus oF li 
own construction, contrived to Itgl 
the house of commons for 12«. p 
night, in lieu of the old cost by mtj 
candles of 6/. 1 U. An Argand gr^ 
flame emits a light equal to ten -wtn 
candles — the Bude of Gumey« or 
equal to 94. 

Steam Caets, 1804, were lin 
used on railroads, for the Iran: 
portation of mine-produce, such s 
iron, coals, &c, at Merthyr Tydvi 
Soutli Wales, by Messrs. Trevithic 
and Vivian. This must be regardc 
as the first humble practical attemp 
of the steam locomotive system. 


1806, by the East India Company 
at Great AmweU, Herts, for th 
education of such as are intends 
for the civil service in India. Th< 
students amount to 105, who ar 
under the superintendence of 
principal, and several professors 
The company's college for militar 
students is at Addiscombe, nen; 
Croydon, Surrey ; and that institu 
tion is in like manner governed by i 
principal and professors. 

Phebnolooy fiest PEOMULGATEI] 
1810. Erigena, who lived in thi 
time of Alfred, has, in his work ' Di 
Divisione Naturae,* given the figiir 
of a skull, with the places mark^ a 
the residence of six properties of th< 
human mind ; and naming these a 
he does, ' imaginativa, cogitativa, esti 
mativa,' &c., we may presume thai 
Dr. Gall, who in 1810 published al 
Paris his system of craniology, thcnc< 
borrowed at least his peculiar phrase 
ology. Craniology, or the science o\ 
the skull, has now received the man 
definite title of phrenology, or th^ 
science of mind; and althougl 
Dr. Gall was its founder, Dr. Spurs* 
heiro became his so able auxiliaryi 
as to be regarded in the like lights 
Coniideriog the outward form of th< 


GEORGE m— 178d— 1815. 


'jsan skull, in an adult, to be an 

:i^iof the mind of the iDdividual, 

' r^r gentlemen divided the head 

.41- tberty-three compartments, a&- 

>^Qg to each its peculiar power. 

T^^se divisions take the name of 

rzss, and, according to their indi- 

zjjhysSf arc called the organ of ama- 

LTfaoB, of philoprogenitiveness, de- 

CiCtiTeness, &c- ; of which it is 

t*ru^ to say, that the phrenologist 

rAei them the origin of both vir- 

:;^sDd Tices,— destnictiveness, for 

' unple, being in its lue, the remo- 

\-J of obstacles and the annihilation 

■< evil; in its abuse, cruelty and 

?sankr. Since the science seemed 

: < only to strike at the root of 

^-^e-wiU, but to call in question the 

'^sevoience of the Deity, it had at 

i^ and still continues to have, 

-..33V Opponents ; and as no practical 

.<x<{ is likely to result from its culti- 

'ixkm, few need lament, if, like the 

JL'^red system of ^Lavater, it should 

:d into disrepute. The utmost 

>.K3t to which we would 'go with 

V^.7eno]ogi5ts is to admit hypothe- 

Mklly their assertion, ' that the brain 

't^sisHts of a congeries of organs; 

t ui eaxh organ manifests a particular 

^ -Qtal fecolty ; and that, other con- 

uioas being equal, the power of 

suoitesting each faculty bears a pro- 

P'-rtion to the size of its organs/ 

B<jt we think the attemot to elevate 

r^Msohgy (its only autnentic desig- 

riiioo), into the rank of a new phi- 

>>ophy — to set it up as something 

■^pased to, or superseding any other 

p^ihods of investigation — to be 

i ithly preposterous. Whatever have 

V?n' the magnificent results pro- 

^!>€d from the boasted 'science of 

Kind,' nothing but sheer puerilities 

bve in 30 years appeared ; and the 

titraragaoces of phrenologbts have 

?*rved considerably to enlarge our 

Dotions of the possible extent to 

»hich human folJy may gQ- The 

acddental result of a more strict 

attenn'oD to the faculties of the brain 

•^ the part of physiologists^ may 

o'rtainJv'be placed to the credit ok 

^ and Spiiraheim, together with 

the benefits to sctence whidi are 
thence still flowine. Before the re- 
searches of phremMogy, for instance, 
the spinal cord was regarded as a 
prolongation or process of the brain ; 
whereas the investigations of com- 
parative anatomy, &c., prove it to 
nave been formed previously to and 
independently of the cerebrum. Its 
connexion with the brain cause it to 
be closely associated with the actions 
of that organ ; but it nevertheless 
possesses peculiar and highly impor- 
tant properties of its own. (See 

Steel ENOEAViirG, 1810. — Mr. 
Dyer, an American meithaot residing 
in London, obtained a patent this 
year for an improved method of using 
plates and premes, the principles of 
which had been communicated to 
him by Mr. Jaoob Perkins, also an 
American, who loon after became 
celebrated in England for what is 
called roller-press printing, by hard- 
ened steel plates. In engraving by 
copper-platei, the lines become spee- 
dily worn ; and if many impressions 
are to be thrown off*, the plate re- 

auires frequent retouching, and even 
len the latter impressions are in- 
ferior. Engmving by pressure has 
obviated this difficulty. An engrav- 
ing is first made upon soft steel, 
which is hardened bv a peculiar pro- 
cess. A cylinder o/soft steel is now 
made to roll slowly backward and 
forward over it, thus receiving the 
design, — but in relief. Thb is, in 
its turn, hardened without iniui^; 
and if it be slowly rolled to and fro, 
with strong pressure, on successive 
plates of copper, it will imprint on 
a thousand of them a perfect fiio- 
simile of the original steel engmving 
from which it resulted. Thus the 
number of copies producible from 
the same design, is multiplied a thou- 
sand-fold. But even this is very far 
short of the limits to which this pro- 
cess may be extended. The hard- 
ened steel roller, bearing the design 
upon it in relief, may be employed to 
make a few of its first impressions up- 
on plates of soft steel, and these, bting 


GEORGE IIL— 1789— 1815. 


churches usually displays, and be a 
powerful check at other times on 
the conduct of tlie pupils, when free 
from the restraint of masters and 
mistresses, and roving about their 
town or village. 

Vauxhall B&idge founoed, 1819, 
by prince Cliarles of Brunswick (sub- 
sequently the expatriated duke), and 
completed in 1816. It was at first 
called the Brunswick-bridge ; and the 
cost was 300,000/. It is a light and 
elegant structure, having nine arches 
of cast iron, each of seventy-eight feet 
span : and the whole length is 809 

The Law of Copy bight. — In 
1814, an act (54 Geo. Ill, c. 156), 
passed to establish that from July 
29th of that year, the author of any 
book, and his assigns, shall have the 
sole liberty of printing and reprinting 
such book for the full term of twenty- 
eight years from the day of publica- 
tion, and, if the author shall be living 
at the end of that period, for the re- 
sidue of his natural life. Should the 
author die within the twentv-eight 
years, his assigns to liave the benefit 
till their expiration, and the work 
then to become public property. The 
protection thus given to authors is 
coupled with the condition that tlie 
publication be registered at Stationers' 
Hall, London, and that eleven copies 
of the work be given up for the use 
of— the British Museum ; Sion Col- 
lege; the Bodleian Library at Ox- 
ford; the Public Library at Cam- 
bridge; the Advocates* Library at 
Edinburgh ; the four Scotch univer- 
sities of Edinburgh, Glasgow, Aber- 
deen, and St. Andrews ; Trinity Col- 
lege, Dublin, and the King*s Inns, 
Dublin. Mr. Sergeant Talfourd en- 
deavoured, in 1839, to obtain on act 
for putting literary property on the 
same basis as all other property, as- 
serting truly enough that the produce 
of a man's own brain was essentially 
his own property ; but there were 
too many interested parties to op- 
pose the measure, and it fell to the 
ground . Viscount Mahon, with great 
spirit, supported Mr. Talfourd, and 
observed * that while neither the great 

Marlborough, oor any subseqi 
conqueror or statesman, regarded 
glory of his services as a siifficicu 
ward, but looked for and received 
from the country, it was hard 
authors, who did so much moral gi 
should not at least enjoy what 
so essentially their own.* lie 
showed that in France the copyr 
went to the author and widow 
life, and to their children after 
decease of the survivor for twe 
years: in Sweden and Denmark 
was the perpetual property of tlic 
thor's family. But though the be 
volent parties alluded to, fiuled to 
fluence the house of commons, a v 
important measure was carried I^ 
in behalf of literary property. T 
was the putting a stop to the sliar 
ful system of pirating English wol 
in foreign countries ; which spuri< 
copies found purchasers in Englai 
from their cheapness, far more read 
tlum the originals. A penalty 
10/. per volume for every so plnii 
work found in the shops of circulati 
libraries, or other places of sale, 
reading, lias at once produced a I 
medy for the evil. 

The Safety Lamp invented, 181 
— >Sir Humphry Davy, during 
lengthened inquiry into the natu 
of 'fire-damp' in coal-mines, whit 
occasions terrible e&plosions, accor 
panied often with great loss of lii 
discovered that if a lamp or caod 
be surrounded with wire gauze, < 
with metallic plates, perforated wit 
numerous smaU holes, though the gi 
or fire-damp may explode within, 
will not inflame the surrounding a 
mosphere without. Upon this prii 
ciple he formed the safety-lamp ; hu 
it has completely answered the ben< 
volent purpose of the inventor. Th 
saving of human life effected by thi 
providential discovery Ims been grea 
indeed in amount ; and if monument 
of brass and marble are at all due u 
man's perishable renown, thegratefii 
countrymen of Davy, and the civi 
lized world at large, might aid, with 
out a blush, in perpetuating his ho 
noured name. 


GEORGE in.— 1789— 1815. 



srrr irsrDSB. III. akd 
kF^ IV. Selim III. ascended 
■itooiao tlsTOoe, od the decease 

> ^tfaer, Ahmed I Y., 1789; 
^»-tenituiizig upon continuing 
jj- witli Russia, he attacked in 
r tbe luiited forces of Suvarov 

-•'c-arg OD tbe Pnith, but was 

r-cL Xbe battle of Rymnick, 

r SiivaroT^ again distinguished 

', aiMl obtained from his em- 

T.he aiidition to his name, was 

:'. sooo after; and thou(^ the 

1 \ isir Yusef, with the Koran in 

^.-id, rode among bis troops to 

Ae th/ewn against the infidels, the 

«73s complete. In rage and de- 

'. X\tser caused his own men to 

.rt'd upoo br two field-pieces, in 

-' \in bope of rendering them more 

i to flv than to fight. Never- 

-"i fly they did ; and Yusef, being 

-ted with an asthma to a degree 

^ reiulered sitting his horse a pain- 

ition, the fugitives bore him off 

rir arms, abandoning their camp, 

Od field pieces to the enemy. 

-'-3de almost instantly after sur- 

' Tcd to maishal Laiidohn, and 

J ^ to Potemkin. In the winter 

i 'Vi Surarov invested Isniail,8ome 

'^r.)^ below Galatz. The frost, 

« ^er, came on so rapidly, before 

:3d completed the investment of 

r: place, that he was about to aban- 

- the siege;* wlien Potemkin, in 

■^ of his eccentric humours, sent 

:-. a peremptory command, to take 

■■'- place at all hazards. Suvarov 

i^'v he must obey; and, judging 

ii his only chance was to deceive 

^'^ Turks into a temporary security, 

> nsade a show of erecting batteries, 
^-u^ he Iwd not a sin^^e piece of 
&e^vy ordnance in his army. The 
a-nson was immense ; apd the go- 
T^-'ior, a venerable old pacha, in re^ 
pi:. 10 the besieger^s summons, swore 
W ^ia jrrey beard, in the presence of 
tt» messenger, and passionately ex- 
ceed, ' Uo back aod tell him who 

sent thee, that the Danube shall cease 
to flow before I will yield Ismail to 
an infidel.' Suvarov, havine com- 
pleted his arrangements, issued orders 
for an assaidt to be made during the 
nieht of tlie summons ; and the flo- 
tilla cannonading the river defences, 
while the ditch was filled with fas- 
cines, ladders were lodged, and die 
ramparts speedily carried by the Rus- 
sian troops. But the Turks only be- 
came more desperate on being beaten 
from the wall ; and the contest was 
prolonged with dreadful carnage in 
the streets and houses, until the ve- 
nerable governor himself, after a 
resolute defence, was forced by the 
flames to surrender. No sooner had 
this occurred, than Suvarov despatcli- 
ed a messenger to Potemkin at Ben- 
der, with thb laconic despatch : ' The 
Russian standard waves on the ram- 
parts of proud Ismail!* A victory 
on the Danube, gained by Kepnin at 
the same juncture, completed the 
humiliation of the Porte ; and a 
peace was concluded at Yassi, by 
which the Sultan consented that tlie 
Russians should extend their bounds 
to the Dniester, and keep Georgia, 
and tliat the privileces of Moldavia 
and Walachia should be confirmed. 
The Porte noticed not the French 
revolution, until its troops had taken 
Cefalonia from Venice. Selim then, 
for the first time, made an alliance 
with the Russians, sending his fleet 
to assist the Emperor Alexander in 
expelling the invaders of Syria. The 
Turkish defence of Acre soon after, 
in alliance with the British, will 
always be looked upon as an un&d- 
ing laurel. The Turks, however, 
had entirely lost the art of managing 
their armies in the field ; and their 
forces having been annihilated by 
Richer and other French generals in 
Egypt, the Sultan was at length com- 
pelled by Napoleon, 1807, to act 
against Russia, and even to give 
orders to fire upon the British vesseb 


GEORGE ni.— 1789— 1815. 


under admiral Duckworth, which had 
approached Constantinople. Just at 
this juncture, Sellm, who bad long 
been trying to introduce European 
tactics into hia armies, in opposition 
to the wishes and prejudices of the 
Janizaries, (whose tyranny he had 
neatly repressed), saw tliat turbu- 
lent soldiery, after some sanguinaiy 
riots, again obtain the ascendancy. 
He tliereupon resigned his throne to 
his nephew Mustafii, and was about 
to take poison, when the latter, with 
a magnanimity seldom seen in Turk- 
ish revolutions, dashed the cup from 
his uncle's lips, and assured him of 
his friendship and protection. Mus- 
tafa IV. tliereupon succeeded 1807, 
and fell at once into the views of the 
French government The Russians, 
however, beat his fleets ; and it was 
fortunate for him that the treaty of 
Tilsit came to stay his disasters. In 
1806, Selim fell a victim to the se- 
ditions of the Janizaries, headed by 
Bairacter Pacha, who bavins stran- 
gled him, and deposed Mustafa* 
placed Mahmud, the brother of Mus- 
tafa, on the throne. — (See Mahmud 
II. Khan). 

The Popedom.— Giovanni Bnischi, 
a native of Cesena, succeeded, on 
the decease of the celebrated Cle* 
ment XIV., Ganganelli, to the papal 
chair, 1774, as Pius VI. His period 
of rule was one of the longest, as it 
was one of the most unfortunate, in 
papal history: and the well«known 
Latin adage, ' Semper sub Sextb 
perdita Roma fuit,' has been thought 
fully verified by his pontificate, flis 
government was marked by popular 
measures : he repressed abuses, and 
completed the noble museum of the 
Vatican, begun by his predecessor, by 
the collection of vases, medals, statues, 
and monuments, and which now 
chan|ed its name from ' Museo Cle* 
mentino* to tliat of 'Museo Pio' 
Cleraentino.' Canals were construct- 
ed; the Appian way was repaired, 
or rather a new road was built, forty 
miles in length, with rows of poplars ; 
and houses were erected for the con- 
venience of tmTeUen. Bui the 

greatest of his undertakings was 
draining of the Pontine marshes 
district between the Apennine tac 
tains and the sea, overflowed \ 
water, and exhaling pestilential 
flu via, which gave rise to numot 
diseases, and often actually depo 
lated the surrounding country. 1 
while thus gaining popularity at ho 
storms were gathering in the polit 
iiorizon abroad, which threatened, 
only to disturb, but to subvert 
hierarchy. In 1 782, Pius made a v 
to the emperor Joseph II. at 
enna, to endeavour to diiauade I 
from the prosecution of some eccl< 
astical rejforms which he meditad 
but the journey was wholly usel 
beyond the fact of the emperor be 
sensibly struck by the virtuea i 
benevolence of the holy fitther. 
like manner the emperor Paul 
Russia, and other princes, were v 
nesses of his piety and moral woi 
So noble a disposition and charac 
eminently fitted Pius to meet t 
trials which soon after aoailed hi 
In France (the revolution faavi 
commenced), the confiscation of 1 
property of the church, and the st 
pression of tlie religious orden, 
virtue of the decrees of the Natioi 
Assemblv ; in Germany, the congr 
of£ms for the abolition of the Ni 
ciature, in 1786 ; in Naples, the c^ 
tempt of his authority by withholdi 
the customarv tribute of a hon 
and in 1791 the loss of Avignon a 
the county of Venaissin, which w^ 
wrested from Rome, and united 
France, — were so many terrible wai 
ings of the coming destruction. % 
same guileless spirit which had j 
therto prompted the actions of U 
fiither, now led him to oppose 
comparatively feeble power to 
wickedness of French principles : 
stood forth the determmed oppon 
of the Revolution, received with ( 
utmost displav of kindness the ban! 
ed priests of France, and listed 
with calmness to the intelligence of | 
threatened vengeance of the rep 
lican government. Buonaparte 
directed to attack the Roman %u ' 


GEORGE in.— 1789— 1815. 


od after faking Urbino, Bologna, 
v^ Aocona, he offered peace to the 
poQtif, on condition of his paying a 
iirse som of money, and of sending 
v^ Paris the choicest pieces in painu 
:if and sculpture at Rome. A re* 
crociljation thus tyninnically effected, 
pnred not of long duration. The 
Frmch ambassador, Basseville, was 
tsssacred^ 1793, in a popular tumult 
at Koffle ; and though the matter was 
IK4 ooiieed at the moment, general 
lagerean, after the victories of 
i>'ionaparte 1796, marched into the 
'.erritories of the pope, who, unable 
*.'} resist, was glad to accept of an 
iRDistice. Pius having renewed hos- 
:i ities, Buonaparte attacked and beat 
jk troops at Senio 1 797^ and proceed- 
ed towards Rome. He stopped, how- 
ever, to treat with the ministers sent 
H- Pius ; and in February was signed 
'ie treaty of Tolentino, by which the 
9ee lost bomagna, Bologna, and Fer- 
rari. In consequence of another 
eommodon, in which general Du- 
phot was killed, Joseph Buonaparte, 
tr.e French ambassador, Quitted 
Rome ; and general Berthier, having 
entered the capitol, February 1798, 
proclaimed the establishment of the 
Roman republic, — which was hence- 
forth to be governed by consuls, a 
senate, and a tribunate. Pius, after 
tifing some weeks a prisoner in his 
palace, was removed, amid the be- 
waitings of the populace, to Siena ; 
^od, through the rapacity of the 
French soldiery, not naving even a 
change of linen left him, the ladies 
of the capitol, though only apprized 
of the holy father's intended depar- 
ture, a few hours before the event, 
completed for him an ample supply 
of apparel of the finest quality. 

From Siena, Pius was conveyed 
to the Carthusian convent near Flo- 
rence, where he was kept a whole 
year, and then taken across the Alps 
iato France ; and when assailed at 
Brianfon by a ferocious mob, de- 
oonncing vengeance to kings and to 
religion, the benign appearance of 
the father converted the mad rage of 
hk oppressors into admiration and 

reverence. It is an indisputable 
fiict, tliat this fierce rabble nad in- 
tended to tear the pontiff piecemeal ; 
but when, in all the majesty of one 
fully resigned to the will of God, 
Pius stood before them at their bid- 
ding, — their countenances fell, the 
spirit of revenge forsook them, and 
the whole multitude sank simultane- 
ously to the ground, to implore liis 
forgiveness and his blessing! From 
Brian9on the father proceeded to 
Valence, where he was permitted to 
rest ; but as is common under such 
circumstances, the shock of his ca- 
lamities began then first to be felt. 
He fell sick, and in eleven days was 
no more. His decease occurred in 
his 82nd year, August 29, 1799 ; and 
his remains were buried by Buona- 
parte's order at Valence, though they 
were eventually removed to Rome 
in 1802, with great funereal pomp. 

Meanwhile Rome had been re- 
stored, by French madness and 
mockery, to its ancient republican 
form ; and Berthier, the French gene- 
ral, had ascended the Capitol, followed 
by a large retinue of officers, and after 
proclaiming the Roman republic * the 
sister and ally of France,' had said 
something in praise of ' the descend- 
ants of the Brutuses and the Scipios.' 
Songs, illuminations, and balls con- 
cluded the ceremony. When, there- 
fore, news of the death of Pius VI. 
reached Italy, the conclave being 
summoned to assemble at Venice, 
then under the dominion of Austria, 
cardinal Gregorio Chiaramonii (bom 
1742, of a noble family of Cesena, 
and who had exhorted the people to 
be faithful to the new institutions, 
when Buonaparte had annexed the 
Legations to the Cisalpine republic, 
whereby he had acquired that gene- 
ral's good opinion) was, after some 
months' deliberation, chosen to fill 
the papal chair, March 1800, as 
Pius VII. In the following July he 
entered Rome without opposition, 
and made cardinal Gonsalvi liis chief 
secretary; and in 1801, after the 
peace of Luneville, Buonaparte with- 
drew his troops from all the states of 


GEORGE III.— 1789— 1815. 


the church but the Legations. In 
the same year Napoleon, to put an 
end to the religious anarchy of 
France (where manv dioceses had 
no bishops ; others had two ; some 
of the constitutional priests were 
latitudinarians in principle as well 
as in practice ; others had mar- 
ried, contrary to the canons of the 
council of Trent ; some professed 
Jansenist principles ; and a vast num- 
ber of parish churches were shut up, 
and had been so for ten years; and, 
in the midst of this conAision, more 
than one half of the populace fol- 
lowed no mode of worsnip, and pro- 
fessed no religion whatever), induced 
Pius to send his legate to Paris, to 
concert a Concordat witli his brother 
Joseph and Bernier, a Vend^n priest. 
That between Francis I. and Leo X. 
being taken as a basis, a new ar- 
rangement of Frendi dioceses was 
effected; cardinal GonsaWi arrived 
and smoothed down all difficulties ; 
and the document being ratified by the 
pope in August, the Gallican church 
was settled on its present footing. 

From 1801 till 1804 Pius en- 
joyed tranquillity at Rome, and 
employed it in restoring order to 
the finances, in amelioratmg the ju- 
dicial administration, and in pro- 
moting the agriculture of the Cam- 
pagna. His personal establish- 
ment was moderate, his table fru- 
gal, his habits simple, and his con- 
duct exemplary. In May, 1804, Na- 
poleon was proclaimed emperor ; and 
some time after, he wrote to the 
pope, requesting him to crown him 
solemnljr at Paris. After consider- 
able hesitation. Pi us consented, and set 
off from Rome at the beginning of No- 
vember. Thecoronatton took place in 
the cathedral of Notre Dame ; after 
which the pope spent several months 
in Paris, visiting tite public establish- 
ments, and receiving the homage of 
men of all parties, who were won by 
his unassuming yet dignified beha- 
viour. In May, 1805, he returned 
to Rome; and his troubles began 
soon after. In October, a body of 
French troops suddenly took military 

possession of Ancona. Pius remc 
strated by a letter which he wrote 
Napoleon, who was at that time 
the head of his army in Austria, 
was only after the peace of Presbii 
that he received an answer, in wlii( 
Napoleon said he considered hi nisi 
tlic protector of the church agaii] 
heretics and schismatics, like his pr 
decessors from the time of Clia 
lemagne : and that, as such, he h: 
occupied Ancona, to prevent its ful 
ing into the hands of the English < 
Russians. Soon after, Napoleon r 
quired Pius to expel from his d< 
minions all English, Russian, Sw< 
dish, and Sardinian subjects, and i 
forbid his ports to the vessels of a 
powera then at war with France 
An angry correspondence ensMe< 
which lasted more than three year 
Napoleon continually uttering tfireal 
against the papal state (being to 
much engaged in other affairs to d 
more at tliat time); until, when a 
Vienna, May 1809, he issued a dc 
cree, declaring the remaining state 
of the church for ever united to tii 
French empire, and leaving to Piui 
his palaces, and an income of tw< 
millions of francs (80,000/. sterling) 
As Pius hereupon fearlessly issurc 
a hull of excommunication agains 
all the perpetrators and abettors o 
the invasion of Rome, the Frencl 
commander, Miollis, afraid of a rising 
of the people, who were iinequivo 
cally attached to tlieir sovereign, 
thought it expedient to remove Piu« 
from the capitol. General Radet was 
entrusted with the abduction of the 
pope, who had shut himself up in his 
palace of the Quirinal. At throv 
o'clock in the morning of the 6th of 
July, some men scaled the walls in 
the greatest silence, broke open se- 
veral doors, and having opened tlic 
great gates, let in their comrades from 
without. The Swiss guard made no 
resistance, having orders to tliat effect 
from the pope. General Radet pene- 
trated to the apartment in which Pius 
was, and found him in full dress, sur- 
rounded by several attendants. The 
general told him respectfully that lie 


GEORGE m.— 1789— 1815. 


sad orders to lemoye him from Rome, 
' ales he consented to sign an abdi- 
:ation of his temporal sovereignty; 
ind on the pope saying he could not 
do tfaat» Radet told him be must de- 
^■^t immediately. ' I then yield to 
t^jrce,* replied Pius ; and, taking his 
brcriary under his arm, he accom- 
{aaied the general to the gate, where 
hk carnage was ready, and drove off 
aider an escort. He was taken first 
to Grenoble, in Dauphin^, thence to 
Sarona, in the Riviera of Genoa, 
wiiere he remained till June, 1812, 
aod then was removed to Fontaine- 
bleau. During his stay at Savona, 
Napoleon convoked a council at Paris 
•jf the bishops of his empire; but he 
found that assembly less docile than he 
bad expected, and he dissolved it with- 
ciit any conclusion being come to. 
The great question was, how to fill 
up the iracant sees, when the pope 
rvfused the canonical institution. The 
pope, at the same time, would not 
recognise Napoleon^s divorce from 
Ij» first wife Josephine. In short. 
Napoleon found that unarmed priests 
vere more diflicult to conquer than 
the armies of one half of Europe. 
'Strange, but true,' writes Botta, * tlie 
independence of the church on this 
occasion was the only remaining prop 
of general liberty ; and if the eccle- 
siastical authority had given way, no 
chock vras left against an universal and 
overwhelming tyranny.' 

On his return (Dec 1812) from the 
Russian expedition. Napoleon visited 
Pius at Fontainebleau, and t seated 
liim with such marked attention, that 
at length he prevailed on him to 
Mgn in January, 1813, a new Con- 
cordat, the chief articles of which were 
that, in six months after the em- 
peror's nomination of a bishop to a 
soe, he should receive canonical in- 
stitution ; tlmt tlie pope should have 
the nomination of ten sees of France 
and Italy; and that an amnesty 
5faonld be granted to all cardinals 
aod clei^ who had incurred Napo- 
leon's displeasure in the late contro- 
veisies. Tin's new document was 
published bj Napoleon with all speed ; 

but when Pius had held a conclave at 
Fontainebleau, he was induced by 
the cardinals to retract some of his 
concessions, as contrary to the canon 
law, and proposed a new basis. Na- 
poleon, hpwever, took no notice, ex- 
cept by exiling some of the cardinals ; 
and soon after set off for his army in 
Germany. It was only after the ex- 
pulsion of hb forces from that coun- 
try, that tlie falling emperor proposed 
to restore the papal states south of 
tlie Apennines, if the pope would 
agree to a Concordat. Pius answered, 
tliat he would not enter into any ne- 
gotiations, until he was restored to 
Rome. On the 22nd of January, 
1814, an order came for the pope to 
leave Fontainebleau the following 
day. None of the cardinals were al- 
lowed to go with him. He set off, 
accompanied by an escort, and was 
taken to Italy. On arriving at the 
bridge over the river Nura, in the 
state of Parma, he met the advanced 
Dosts of the Neapolitan troops under 
Murat, who was then making com- 
mon cause with the allied powers 
against Napoleon. Murat imd taken 
military occupation of the Roman 
state ; but he offered to give up 
Rome and the Campagna. Pius, 
however, preferred stopping at Ce- 
sena, his native town, until the poli- 
tical horizon had cleared up ; and after 
the abdication of Napoleon, and the 
peace of Paris, he made his en- 
trance into Rome, May 24, 1814, in 
the midst of rejoicings and acclamap- 
tions ; and his faithful Gonsalvi soon 
after resumed his office of secretary. 
By the articles of the congress of 
Vienna, the whole of the papd states 
were restored, including the Lega- 
tions, which were not however eva- 
cuated by the Austrian troops until 
the fall of Murat in 1815. 

Tlie remaining years of Pius were 
spent in tranquillity, tliough not 
in idleness. He applied himself to 
adapt, as far as it was practicable, the 
civil institutions of his dominions to 
the great changes which had taken 
place in their social state. He con- 
firmed the suppression of feudal ju- 


GEORGE m.— 1789— 1815. 


rifldictioos, abolished erery kind of 
torture, and promulgated a new code 
of civil procedure, 1817 ; but he 
soon after found it necessary to re- 
store the old system of proceedings 
in criminal matters, as well as the 
power of the ecclesiastical courts, 
though he greatly altered the plan of 
the Inquisition, and held firm to the 
abolition of torture and death for 
offences concerning religion. He 
also concluded a new Concordat with 
Bavaria, Naples, and other states; 
and, by a bull, condemned the Car- 
bonari and other secret societies. 
This worthy father, who had been 
able to do, and who did so much 
more tlian many former popes, and 
who bore with meekness the insults 
and injuries of his potent and unge- 
nerous adversary, died (from a fall in 
his apartments) universally esteemed 
for his piety and Christian charity, 
aged 81, July, 1823. 

Feancb under Louis XVL, cok- 
cluded, and undbb louis xvil, 
THE Republic, and Napoleon Buo- 
naparte. — We Stated, in our last no- 
tice of the French nation, that its 
awful revolution had commenced, 
1789, the great repository of arms 
at the Hotel des Invaliaes having 
been plundered, and the stato prison 
of the Bastille invested by ferocious 
mobs. The latter, after an obstinate 
contest, was taken Jul^ 14th, De 
Launay, the governor, being instantly 
murdered, and his head borne in 
triumph throueh the city. On the 
morning after this event, king Louis 
attended the national assembly, with- 
out betraying any uneasiness: he 
lamented the disturbances which had 
occurred, disavowed all knowledge 
of any meditated attack on the de- 
puties, and gave orders tliat the 
troops should quit the capital. From 
his ability, however, to effect the 
removal of the soldiers, he must have 
been, notwithstanding his dedanir 
tion, under the influence of the re- 
vohitionary'party ; and the fact is the 
more evident, when we notice the mo- 
narch's singular progress to Paris from 
YerMiUes, three days after the sur- 

render of the Bastille, being that on 
which the razing of that ancient for- 
tress and prison was commenced by 
an order from the 'permanent com- 
mittee' of Paris — the long parlia- 
ment of the French. In a plain 
dress, having only two carriages, and 
followed by a part of the national 
assembly on foot, he was met at the 
Seve by the marquis La Fayette, at 
the head of the Paris militia. Ac- 
companied by 20,000 rabble, the pro- 
cession entered the capital, amid 
shouts of Vive la nation I* M. Bailly, 
the mayor, saying, as he presented 
the keys to the monarch, 'Henri IV., 
when he received these keys, came 
to reconquer his people : we, how- 
ever, have the happiness to reconquer 
our king.* The same officer, after 
this ambiguous compliment, pre- 
sented him with the national cockade, 
andthebonnet^rouge, or cap of liberty; 
and when Louis, having alighted 
from his carriage, showed himself 
at a window of the palace with these 
badges of patriotism, cries of ' Vive 
le roi !* resounded in all directions, for 
the first time on that day. 

The citizens now resolved on re- 
turning with the monarch to Ver- 
sailles in the evening, with a greater 
degree of attention to the order of 
procession ; and the king was appa- 
rently pleased with this dbplay of 
attachment to his person, fhe in- 
discretion, however, of a party of 
officers, who, dining with their ma- 
jesties on the 1st of October (a few 
days after the visit to Paris), drank 
the health of the king, queen, and 
dauphin, with drawn swords, and 
distributed white cockades (the Bour- 
bon emblem) to the crowd about tiie 
pakice, — like the match applied to 
the mine, — kindled the actual flames 
of revolution in the capital. Exag- 
gerated as the conduct of the officers 
was,— feasting, as they were reported 
to liave done, in the most sumptuous 
manner, while the citizens or Paris 
were starving, — the populace was 
roused to acts of violence in an 
instant, at the mere call of an old fish- 
woman. Eight hundred females set 


GEORGE IIL--178d--1815. 


(^in a bod J, on the afternoofk of 
October oth, for Venailles, to de- 
mand bread ; while a band of the 
ame amazoDS ritsbed into the gal* 
leries of the national assembly, ex* 
chimiog tliat they had eaten nothing 
&«r upwards of twenty-four hours. 
The deputies^ to allay the tumult, 
ordered an immediate supply of pro* 
visions to be distributed in the hall ; 
while tlie crowd on the outside, 
sizing upon one of the horses of 
tiie guards, roasted it, and greedily 
devoured it. A deluge of rain 
dused that awful eveniDg; and 
towards midnight tranquillity was 
rfsiored, as far as the capital was 
cuDcemed. But at Versailles a 
fijdrful scene was transacting. The 
queen bad just retired to her bed, to 
iodearour to snatch intervals of rest, 
broken b^ the cries of the furies who 
paraded m the court below, demand* 
mg bread, when M. de Miomandr^, 
die officer on guard near her cham- 
ber, suddenly shouted to the la- 
dies in waiting, * to save the queen.' 
In an instant after, Miomandre and 
Dii Repaire, who were attempting to 
oppose the party of rabble that had 
burst into the gallery, fell covered 
with wounds. As Miomandr6 was 
expiring, one of Uie assassins, in his 
haste to finish biro, blew out the 
brains of an associate who was stoop- 
ing to stab him. Meanwhile the 
((ueen escaped by an opposite door, 
and joined the king; who was sur- 
rounded by friends in another apart- 
ment. The palace was soon after 
cleared of the assailants, and some 
soldiers under La Fayette appearedin 
the court beneath : the troops, how- 
ever, expressed equal disapprobation 
with the mob, and a call for the 
queen obliged that heroic princess to 
show herself alone in a balcony to 
the rabble. The king and dauphin 
soon joined her there ; and all gave 
pledges to the people that they would 
follov them in the morning to the 
capital A ball from some scoundrel 
soon after struck the wall close to the 
window where the queen was stand- 
ing; but nothing could induce her to 

relinquish her dangeroag post to M. 
de la Luzerne, the minister of ma« 
rine, who loyally endeavoured to ex- 
change places with her. ' Thai is your 
place,' she coolly replied, pointing to 
the spot whence he had come, ' and 
this is MINE, monsieur.' 

It was from this balcony that the 
domestics of the palace saw, on the 
following morning, the sad procession 
of their captive master and king, with 
his family, move slowly down the 
Avenue de Paris, surrounded and at 
every step insulted by the furies and 
butchers of the crowd,and preceded by 
the heads of the brave Deshuttes and 
De Varicourt, who had been deca- 
pitated in cold blood by the rebel 
Jourdan Cou petite, as a sacrifice to 
the manes of the villain who liad been 
shot by mistake. Such was the fe- 
rocious nature of the mob, that it 
halted for a moment to compel a hair- 
dresser to curl and powder the two 
heads, * to give dignity to their tri- 
umph ;* and the man bad no sooner 
executed the task, than he fell into a 
fit and expired. At length the caval- 
cade and its accompaniments reached 
Paris once more ; and affiiirs proceed- 
ed somewhat more calmly, when the 
common people saw that the mo- 
narch felt an interest for them. 

The only event of 1790, was the 
solemn ceremony, in the Champ de 
Mars, to celebrate the fall of the 
fiastille; at which Louis took the 
civic oath, in the presence of 40,000 
spectators. The grand affair of 1 79 1 
was the attempted escape of the king 
with his family from France. On 
the 21st of June, in different dis- 
guises, the king, the queen, Madame 
Elisabeth, and Madame de Tourzel, 
governess of the royal children, ac- 
companied by her pnpils, successively 
left the palace, agreeing that they 
were all to unite at the Petit Ca- 
rousel. The queen and her guide, a 
lifeguardsman, being neither of them 
familiar with the streets of Paris, 
missed their way, and were long be- 
fore they reached the rest of the 
party, to whom their delay occasioned 
the utmost uneasiness. At length 


GEORGE III— 1789— 1815. 


all were assembled, and entered the 
vehicle which had been provided for 
them. A gentleman, named De Fer^ 
sin, disguised as a coachman, under- 
took to drive them to the barrier. 
The queen, on her way to the Petit 
Carousel, met the carriage of M. de 
la Fayette, attended by persons who 
walked beside it with torches ; but 
she escaped observation by hiding 
herself under the gates of the Louvre. 
Madame de Tourzel assumed the 
name of Madame de Korf, who, with 
her children, was travelling; the 
king passing for her valet, and the 
queen as governess of the children. 
Three lifeguards, also disguised, were, 
by turns, either to precede the 
carriage as couriers, or to ride beside 
it as servants, to the barrier. They 
reached die Porte St. Martin in 
safety, where a berline, drawn by six 
horses, awaited them, which they en- 
tered, and at lengtli started ; M. de 
Fersin bidding them adieu, and wish- 
ing them success in their enterprise. 
On. returning to Paris, he found that 
nothing was known of their escape 
at the municipality at eight o'clock 
the next morning. The report, how- 
ever, soon gained ground ot the royal 
party having quitted Paris, with the 
intention of proceeding to some fo- 
reign country ; and parties were des- 
patched in all directions, for the pur- 
pose of arresting and bringing them 
back. When the escape became ge- 
nerally known, the shops of the capi- 
tal were closed, the tocsin was sound- 
ed, the drums beat to arms, and a 
rumour spread that Louis would re- 
turn witli an army of emigrants and 
foreigners, and wreak a dreEidfiil ven- 
geance upon the people, for the in- 
dignities heaped upon nim. The aris- 
tocrats, however, were in high spirits, 
and had but one wbh, namely, that 
the fugitives might get clear of the 
kingdom. Meantime the royal party 
advanced, but not with the caution 
requisite for such an enterprise; as 
the king persisted in putting his head 
every now and then out of the carriage 
window. He was recognised at Cha- 
lons } but the mayor prevented any 

measures being taken for his arrest. 
He was not, however, so fortunate at 
St. Menehould ; where Drouet, the 
son of the postmaster, and a furious 
revolutionist, liavine seen tlie unfor- 
tunate monarch, galTopped off to Va- 
rennes with the news, giving time to 
the municipality to make prepara- 
tions for stopping the royal equipage. 
The arrest was effected by Drouet 
himself, who met the carriage at the 
entrance of the town, and presenting 
a loaded musket at the driver, de- 
manded his passports. The sum- 
mons was without hesitation obeyed ; 
but Drouet, to gain time, said the 
papers must be inspected by the re- 
gular authorities. Accordingly, the 
monarch and his party were con- 
ducted to the house of Sausse, who 
also manoeuvred to delay them until 
he found there was a sufficient force 
of the national guard at hand ; when 
he informed the king tliat he was dis- 
covered and apprehended. For some 
time Louis denied that he was the 
king; and high words arising, the 
queen, much irritated, said in an an- 
gry tone, * Then if you acknowledge 
him to be the king, why do you not 
speak to him with the respect which 
is his due ?* Louis, however, finding 
further deception useless, declared his 
good intentions towards his country, 
and said tliat he merely wished to be 
where he could convince the world 
he acted from his free will, which 
could not be the case in Paris. He 
then had recourse to entreaty, em- 
bracing Sausse, and conjuring him 
to save the queen and the children, 
whilst she joined in the same prayer : 
but all was in vain. Sausse was 
deeply affected, but retained his firm- 
ness. Some officers of hussars came 
in, and would have saved the party, 
but they could not count upon their 
men ; and young Romeuf soon after 
arriving, whom La Fayette had de- 
spatched with the decree of the na- 
tional assembly for the king*s arrest, 
further remonstrance was useless. 
The queen hereupon hurst into a 
paroxysm of rage, and gave way to 
the severest invectives against La 


GEORGE nX— 1789— 1816. 

Fayette, even declaring her snrprise 
that the people had not put him to 
death. Romeuf, being a royalist at 
heart, succeeded in prevailing upon 
ber to command her feelings; and 
vhen she had become more calm, the 
fttgitiTes were replaced in tlie car- 
riage, and with the utmost speed car^ 
lied back to Paris. 

When we reflect upon the excited 
state of the French nation at the 
juncture, we can feel little surprise 
u the iU consequences of this flight 
to the royal cause. I1ie threats too 
of foreign nations, and the welcome 
given to such of the hi^ families as 
had taken refuge at their courts, in- 
creased the ferment still more: so 
that the wickedness of tlic mob at 
once displayed itself, when the sud- 
den deaths of two of the marked 
opponents of French freedom, the 
emperor of Germany and king of 
Sweden, were announced, in March, 
1792. But the government, such as 
it was, still took the lead, and de- 
clared war against the new emperor, 
Fiands 1. ; Sie king of Prussia there- 
on joined tlie Austrian monarch in a 
defiance ; and the duke of Brunswick, 
as general of both armies, issued a 
manifesto, wherein he declared he 
would sack Paris, if the slightest 
outrage were offered to the king, 
queen, or royal family of France. 

At midnight of the 9th of August 
the alarm-bell sounded in every de- 
partment of tliat devoted capital : the 
palace of the Tuileries was attacked, 
the royal fkmily had only time to es- 
cape to the hall of the national assem- 
bly, and a fierce battle commenced 
between a band of Marseillais and 
the Swiss guard of the monarch. Tlie 
kuter defended themselves with great 
courage, but were at length over- 
powered ; and a sanguinary massacre 
ensued. The national guard now 
joioed the Marseillais in the work of 
destruction ; and all the Swiss in 
tlie palace were most inhumanly 
butchered, though arranged on their 
knees, as their murderers approached 
them, to implore their mercy. A 
smali party of seventeen, iiaying 

taken refuge in the TeBtry-room of 
the chapel, and not having vet been 
engaged, imagined they might de- 
pend upon the clemency of die vic- 
tors, if they surrendered at discretion. 
But they had no sooner laid down 
their arms and shouted, ' Vive la na- 
tion I' than they shared the fate of 
their companions. The defenceless 
pages and servants of the palace were 
all involved in one promiscuous mas- 
sacre ; and streams of blood were seen 
running from the roof to the founda- 
tion of the building. During the 
perpetration of these matchless enor- 
mities, the national assembly still 
proceeded, in its own phrase, 'to 
deliberate.' But its deliberations 
were no longer free. Tliey were 
overawed by a clamorous multitude 
in the galleries, and by troops of 
rufBans without ; who threatened 
the lives of those who dared to 
think, speak, or act, for themselves. 
The stoutest hearts were appalled ; a 
series of decrees were hastily passed, 
declaring the executive power sus- 
pended, and the authority of Louis 
XV' I. revoked ; and inviting the people 
to form a national convention, and 
meet on the 20th of the ensuing 
month, September. On the day after 
the massacre, the king and his family 
were conducted from the house of 
the assembly to the palace ; and as 
the carriage passed the IMace Yen- 
dome, Gorsas, a violent jacobin, 
stopped its progress, while the statue 
of Louis XIV. was pulled down in 
the monarch's view. 

Nothing more occurred of an alarm- 
ing nature, until information was re- 
ceived of the duke of Brunswick's 
advance upon Verdun. The whole 
mob of Paris rose instantly en nuuse^ 
September 2nd ; in a short space of 
time 137 clersy, who had been im- 
prisoned in the convent of the Car- 
melites, were murdered in cold blood ; 
every man, woman, and child in the 
prison of the Abbaye was butchered ; 
the abb^ Bardy, and the princess 
Lamballe, were decapitated, and their 
heads carried on piKes through the 
streets; while the tenants of the 


GEOEGE ni.— 1789— 1816. 


common prisons were brought to a 
summary trial by the mere populace, 
and cut down, as each was declared 
euilty. On the instant that the 
National Assembly could obtain a 
quiet sitting, it decreed the abolition 
of royalty for ever, and the imprison- 
ment of Louis Capet in the Temple. 
Almost all tlie members, when 
M. d'Herbois exultingly proposed 
the measure, rose as by one impuke ; 
and waving their hats in tlie air, 
they shouted, * We declare that roy- 
alty is abolished for ever I* A new 
era therefore commenced ; and the 
20th of September, 1792, was called 
the first day of the republic. 

Meanwhile the French army under 
Custine was highly successful in Ger- 
many; and that under Dumouriez 
had completely subdued the Austrian 
Netlierlands in November; but no 
foreign advantages appeared to satis- 
tisfy the democrats, so lon^ as the 
king was in existence. His death, 
therefore, was resolved on ; and a 
day fixed whereon to examine his 
papers. The mayor of Paris took 
nim from the Temple to the house of 
the Assemb'y on that day : and when 
it was announced to the members 
that he had arrived, Barrfere, the pre- 
sident, ordered him to be brought to 
the bar. An awful silence prevailed, 
while every eye was turned towards 
the door at wnich the fallen monarch 
was to enter. At length it was open- 
ed, and Louis, calm in demeanour, 
but pale, was ushered forward by the 
mayor. Great emotion was betrayed 
by many in the hall at this moment, 
many handkerchiefs were held to the 
^es, and some seconds elapsed before 
Barr^re, the president, spoke. He 
then said, * Louis, you are accused of 
having committed various crimes to 
re-establish tyranny on the ruins of 
liberty ; the national convention, 
tlierefore, has decreed that you shall 
be tried ; and the members who com- 
pose it are to be your judges. You 
will hear the accusation read ; after 
which you shall answer to the ques- 
tions which shall be proposed.' To 
this the king made no reply. The 

general act of accusation was then 
read ; and a series of questions being 
put to him, some he answered in the 
affirmative, some in the negative, 
and some evasively ; but his general 
replies were * No ;* or, * I know no- 
thing of it.' When the whole had 
been investigated, the president said, 
• I have no other question to propose : 
have you any thing more to add in 
your defence ?* * I desire to have a 
copy of the accusation;* said the kin^, 
' and of the papers on which it is 
founded; and to have a counsel of 
my own nomination.' Barrfere in- 
formed him, 'that his first two re- 
quests were already decreed, and that 
the determination respecting the 
other would be made known to him 
in due time. When the king had 
retired, it was carried, after a tumul- 
tuous debate, that counsel should be 
allowed him : they accordingly spoke 
firmly in his defence, but all was of 
no avail, and he was declared guilty. 
The only question which was then 
pretended to be agitated, was the na- 
ture and degree of the punishment he 
deserved. On this occasion the duke 
ofOrleans,whohad now assumed the 
name of Mr. Equality (M. Egalite) 
in the true spirit of jacobinism, voted 
for death without restriction ; * In- 
fluenced/ said he, * by no considera- 
tion but that of performing my duty, 
and convinced that all who have con- 
spired, or shall hereafter conspire, 
against the sovereignty of the people, 
deserve death, I vote for death !* 
One deputy, on seeing this personage 
anxious for the destruction of a mem- 
ber of his own family, started from 
his seat, struck his hands together, 
and exclaimed * Ah ! le s^eMrat !* 
Death, therefore, being recorded, it 
was put to the vote, whether the 
sentence should be executed in 
twenty-four hours, or longer delayed ? 
when Robespierre and others were 
for the earliest period possible, Tal- 
lien observing, with diabolical irony, 
that to keep the unfortunate man in 
suspense, would be but to prolong 
his agony. The celebratea Tom 
Paine, however, who had been cho- 


GEORGE in.— 1780— 1815. 


ypzk a manb^' of the assembly, here- 
spon rose, aod argued strongly »- 
gainst any execution whatever. He 
concluded a lengthened speech by 
aUtiDg, 'that the king^s death, instead 
of an act of justice, would appear to 
their allies, the Americans, in narti- 
ruiar, an act of vengeance ; and that 
f he were sufficiently master of the 
French language, he would, in their 
Dame, present a petition against tlie 

It was not until Saturday, the 19th 
of Janoaiy, 1798, that the assembly 
£nally decided on the day of execu- 
tion, which was then announced to 
the king to be the following Monday. 
Meanwhile every indignity had been 
o^ered to the monarch, during his 
captivity in the Temple : he had 
been separated from the queen and 
his diildren ; was constantly address- 
ed as Mr. Veto (in derision of his 
former ability to annul the decrees of 
the national assembly) ; and liad been 
compelled to put on the plainest at- 
tire. On leamine that the hour of 
his death was fixed, and that he might 
see his &mily and friends, Louis 
sent for his confessor, M. Edgeworth 
de Fermont ; and it is impossible to 
dojitstice to tlie devout and heroic 
sentiments expressed by the king in 
this interesting conference ;— above 
all, when he dwelt on the misfor- 
tunes of his countiy. After the con- 
Teisation, Louis rose, saying, ' I 
must now go and see my &miTy for 
the last time. This will be the se- 
ferest trial of all. When that is over, 
I shall fix my mind solely on what 
concerns my salvation.' His inter- 
view with the queen and princesses 
OD Sunday was affecting in the ex- 
treme, but allowed to be witnessed 
by all his guards through the glass 
pones of a door : it was no sooner 
over, than the monarch went to con- 
fession, and then retired to rest. 
From ten until five he enjoyed very 
tranquil sleep, and was then awaken- 
ed, according to his desire, to re- 
cei?e the sacrament. At eight on 
the morning of January 21, 1793, 
Suitene came to conduct him to the 


lace of execution ; and, after nass- 
ig a few minutes in private witfi his 
confessor, he came to the outer room, 
where Santerre was, and said, * I am 

The king walked through the court 
with a firm step, and entered the 
mayor's coach, followed by M. Edge- 
worth, a municipal officer, and two 
ofiicers of the national guards. The 
king repeated the prayers for persons 
in the agonies of death, during the 
conveyance from the Temple to the 
Place de Louis XV. ; and when the 
carriage stopped at the scaffold, said, 
' Here we are, then.* He pulled off 
his coat, unbuttoned the neck of his 
shirt, and ascended the scaffold with 
steadiness ; and afler surveying, for a 
few moments, the immense multi- 
tude, he said with a loud voice, 
• Frenchmen, I die innocent, I forgive 
all my enemies, and I wish that 
France' — when Santerre, who was 
on horseback near the scaffold, cried 
out, ' Sir, you come to die, and not 
to speak,' and made a signal for tlie 
drums to beat, and for the executioners 
to perform their office. When they 
attempted to tie his arms, he, for the 
first time, showed signs of indigna- 
tion : but when M. Edgeworth re- 
minded him that the Saviour of 
mankind had allowed himself to 
be bound, he became passive as a 
lamb, and was placed under the 
guillotine. The confessor then kneel- 
ing with his face near to that of the 
king, pronounced aloud, ' Son of St. 
Louis, ascend to Heaven I' The blow 
was given, and M. £dgeworth*s face 
was sprinkled with the blood. When 
the head fell, there was a cry of ' Vive 
la nation I* and when it was held up 
and declared to be that of a traitor 
king, ' Vive la r^publique V resound- 
ed through the crowds, which were 
immense beyond description. Some 
dipped their liandkerchiefs in the 
blood ; but the greater number, 
chilled with horror, escaped as fast as 
they could from the spot. The hair 
was sold in separate tresses at the 
foot of the scaffold ; and the body 
was conveyed in a cart to St. Made- 


GEORGE m.— 1789—1815. 


laine's churchyard, and there thrown 
into the same pit with those who had 
fallen in tiie insurrection of August 

As the Reign of Terror had now 
commenced, and the French rulers 
had broken the treaty made with 
England and Holland respecting the 
opening of the Scheldt, the British 
nation joined the Dutch in their 
attempt to prevent the subjugation 
of their country, by sending over a 
force under the duke of York, and 
were seconded by the Austrians ; but 
the defection of the French general 
Dumouriez did more for the allies 
than all their united exertions could 
effect. Meanwhile events were thick- 
ening in Paris. Factions, under the 
titles of Brissotins and Girondists, 
were opposed to the more destruc- 
tive parties of the Jacobins and 
Mountain : the Mountain, amongst 
which were the regicides Robes- 
pierre and Marat, l^ecame triumphant, 
and Brissot and many Girondists 
were seized and imprisoned. Marat, 
however, the favourite of the Jaco- 
bins, was at the same moment stab- 
bed by Charlotte Corday, a woman 
of a noble family, who had formed 
the resolution of travelling alone 
from Caen to Paris, to rid the world 
of a sanguinary monster. He was 
in a warm bath, when, under the ex- 
cuse of beinff in extreme distress, she 
was admitted to his presence. The 
celebrated general Custine was re- 
called, and ffuillotined ; hundreds of 
distinguished republicans were in the 
same manner immolated ; and upon 
the declaration of the union in the 
south of France, called Federate 
Republicanism, the streets of Lyons 
were actually made to flow with the 
blood of human victims. Tlie dan- 
ger of famine throughout France 
had never been so great as at this 
moment; and fresh tumults began 
to arise. The Jacobinical rulers, 
however, stifled the cries of the starv- 
ing populace, by cramming them into 
the prisons ; and when the common 
receptacles were overloaded, every 
section and commune was ordered to 

fit up some additional strong build* 
ing to receive the disaffected. 

The queen's trial took place 15th 
of October, 1793 ; and throughout; 
it, amidst the most aggravated morti- 
fication and wanton insult, under ac- 
cusation for crimes of which she was 
altogether innocent, or could noe 
commit (one was tliat of having tried 
to corrupt the morab of her own 
son), she submitted with a patience 
that became her sad condition, and 
answered with a spirit that marked 
her elevated mind. She retired from 
the hall without uttering a word to 
the court or the people ; and at four 
o'clock in the morning, was recon- 
ducted to her dungeon. At five, the 
drums beat to arms in eveir part o€ 
the city ; its whole military force was 
soon in a state of preparation ; can- 
non were planted in the squares, and 
at the extremities of the bridges ; 
and at ten, numerous patrols passed 
through the streets. At half-past 
eleven the queen was brought out of 
the prison, and conducted in a com- 
mon cart to the place of execution. 
Her hair was entirely cut off from 
the back of her head, which was 
covered with a small white cap ; she 
wore a white undress; her hands 
were tied behind her ; and she sat 
with her back to the horses. The 
executioner was seated on her right ; 
and on the left was a constitutional 
priest. The cart was escorted by nu- 
merous detachments of horse and 
foot. An immense mob of people, 
in which the women appeared to 
predominate, crowded the streets, in- 
sulted the queen, and vociferated, 
* Long live the republic I' She sel- 
dom cast her eyes upon the crowds, 
and regarded with indifference, if 
she at all regarded, the great anned 
force of 30,000 men, whidi hned the 
streets in double ranks. They who 
liadseen her in the former part of 
her life, could not but observe the 
altered state of her countenance, and 
what a sad change sorrow had made 
in that abode of animation and 
beauty. Her spirit appeared per- 
fectly calm, and she conversed with 


GEORGE m— 1789— 1815. 


be priest, with an air of submission, 

.c vithout the least appearance of 
ik^ectioo. She ascended the scaffold 
Tith much haste and seeming impa- 
Ti£tK^ and after turning her eyes with 
raotion towards the gardens of the 
T:iileries, submitted to the guillotine. 
At half-past twelve her head was 
scYfred from her body ; and the exe- 
ationer exhibited it, all streaming 
v.u blood, to an inveterate and in- 
fatiaUe multitude. Thus perished, 
li itte thirty-eighth year of her age, 
t2e accompushed Marie Antoinette. 

Brissot, and twenty-one other too 
moderate republicans^ were then 
^ammarily tried, and guillotined, on 
the sroimd of having been opposed 
'j^ the king's death. The factions in 
rU d^;Faded country were now di- 
eiicished to two, designated moderates 
ii«d terrorists : the latter, headed by 
Robespierre, were in full power ; 
and the former were those who vainly 
^ideavoared to restrain their fury. 
As the duke of Orleans, notwith- 
•tauting hb assumption of an hum- 
■^r name, was now a suspected per- 
-onage, be also was brought before 
i.:« judges, simply identified, and or- 
•i«rred for execution : he suffered by 
^:^t same engine, to which he had so 
rihumanly condemned his relative 
sTid king. Bailly, the mayor of 
Piris, was the next victim ; and an 
order wBS at the same juncture issued 
^^ Robespierre to imprison every 
£r<glish person then in France, ana 
confiscate his, her, and their property. 
Tkis measure was made to include 
the subjects of all nations having 
any close alliance with Great Britain; 
and no less than • 50,000 houses of 
arrest were instantly filled with pri- 
v>ners, both sexes and all grades 
being mingled in each room. 

The year 1794 was ushered in by 
the edict to abolish the ancient me- 
thod of computing time. This inno- 
^ou was of a more serious nature 
than superficial observers might ima- 
gine; being intended to eradicate 
CTery trace of Christianity from the 
country. After this prelude, the au- 
thorities of Paris came in a few days 

rot. m. 

to the Convention, attended by the 
newly-made bishops and clergy, who, 
decorated with caps of liberty, re- 
nounced the sacerdotal office. They 
declared that the necessitv of comply- 
ing with the prejudices ot the people, 
in order to teach them the moral vir- 
tues and social duties, had alone 
caused their acceptance of their reli- 
gious functions ; that now, abjuring 
3ie trade of superstition, they were 
resolved, instead of Christians, to be- 
come men ; • to own no temple but 
the sanctuary of the law ; no divinity 
but liberty; no object of worship 
but their country ; no gospel but the 
constitution. These and various 
other declarations were despatched 
to all tlie departments and municipa- 
lities, to perfect the work of the re- 
volution ; and the day of this event 
was mentioned in the calendar, as the 
day of reason. The taTis^ulottes, who, 
in consequence of these proceedings, 
considered themselves authorized to 
plunder the places of worship, di- 
vided with the Convention large heaps 
of shrines, figures, and vessels, hither- 
to used in the offices of religion ; and 
at Abbeville and other places, where 
the churches were still kept open, 
the priests were arrested and thrown 
into dungeons. Nor can the bishop 
of Moulines be passed by without re- 
ceiving the execration he merits. 
This furious and atheistical fanatic, 
trampling on the cross and the mitre, 
assumed the pike and the cap of li- 
berty, and from his pulpit preached 
the doctrine, big witn horror, * that 
death is an eternal sleep.* 

Fabre d'Eglantine, the new calen- 
darist, did not live to sec six months 
of his new era run out ; but was 
guillotined with Danton and others. 
On the plea tliat the farmers-general 
of the public revenue had become rich 
with the spoils of the people, Robes- 
pierre put thirty-four of them to 
death ; and 20,000,000i. sterling are 
said to have been gained by this dia- 
bolical proceeding. Meanwhile, the 
revolutionary troops, now a mere 
band of legalized robbers, entered 
each citizen's house, and, wherever 


GEORGE m.— 1789— 1815. 


they found money, carried it off: if 
murmurs arose, a guillotine appeared 
in tlie rear of the division of the arm^. 
Tlie officers in those expeditions, in 
writing from the country to their 
friends in Paris, would say, ' We 
have well sans-culottized such and 
such a town ; we have enlightened it 
to the amount of 200,000 livres, in 
vumnoi #9nfum/, and cured sixty of 
the most diseased inhabitants 'of ach- 
ing heads.' Meanwhile the activity 
of the guillotine was daily increasing; 
insomuch that, from ten to fifteen 
per day, tlie amount of executions 
nad augmented to fifty and sixty, by 
tlie month of May. 

On the 12th of that month, the 
princess Elizabeth, sister of the mur- 
dered king, was brouglit to trial. 
This noble-minded woman, disdain- 
ing any concession which might soften 
the cruelty of her judees, magnani- 
mously replied to the nrst interroga- 
tory of the court, * What is vour 
name?* ' My name is Elisabeth of 
France, and I am sister of the mo- 
narch you murdered, and aunt of the 
present king.' When charged with 
having encouraged her nephew in the 
hope of succe^ing to nis fatlier's 
throne, she replied, * 1 have conversed 
familiarly with that unfortunate child, 
who waa dear to me on more than 
one account; and I gave him all 
those consolations which appeared to 
me likely to reconcile him to the loss 
of tliose who had given him birth.* 
Without further interrogatory, she 
was condemned and led to the scaf- 

Decadi was the only day, for 
months, in which the operation of 
the fatal axe was suspended ; and, as 
the newspapers of that evening did 
not contain the accustomed list of 
victims, they were deemed propor- 
tionably dull by the Parisians. Peo- 
ple looked over the names of the vic- 
tims, as one would the arrivals at 
Bath or Brighton; and unless the 
readers were sufficiently conspicuous 
to be in danger, they perused them 
with little emotion. The day ofj 
doom to Robespierre, tlie atrocious I 

author of these sanguinary see 
was now at liand : he liad no so^ 
got rid of Danton and five others^ 
expressing their fears that he w< 
become a second Cromwell* tha 
conspiracy was formed amongst 
remaining members of the Com 
tion, to cut him off. Tall i en, 
brother regicide, 'was amongst 
first to denounce him from the 
bune ; and the whole assembly t| 
cried, as with one voice, * Down m 
the tyrant 1 Down with the Cr^ 

Robespierre, his brother, Coiitf i 
St. Just, and Le Bas, were install 
put under arrest, and conveyed 
separate prisons; but Robespie 
being set free by the keeper of I 
Luxeraboure, in the night, was ci 
ducted to the hall of the commui 
where Henriot, commander of < 
national guard, Fleuriot, mayor 
Paris, and others of his creatu^ 
had assembled forces for his defeni 
This was the critical moment ; h 
neither Henriot nor Robespierre hi] 
self, had sufficient spirit to head tl 
mob, and lead it against the Conve 
tion. V\hile they deliberated, th< 
opponents proceeded to action, 
proclamation to die Parisians wi 
made known by torch-light and be| 
of dnim, in every quarter of the citj 
The rebels sent one out at tlie sam 
time. It was proscription againi 
proscription. The officers with til 
respective proclamations passed eao 
other in the streets. Many of tli 
guards of these parties were cut t 
pieces, or dreadfully wounded by th 
sabres of each other. On the rlac 
de Gr^ve, both proclamations wcr 
read at one time ; that of Robespiern 
asserting that a majority of the Com 
vention had turned traitors, an^ 
would soon make every patriot an< 
swer for the smallest indiscretion | 
while that of the Convention called 
on every good citizen to sustain the 
national representation, meiuiced aS 
it was by rebels and faithless magis^ 
trates. The latter document won 
the people ; and the military, 10,000 
in force, and iHio bad been called 


GEORGE UL— 1789— 1815. 


. ' '^er tQ support Robespierre, pro- 
-'Z to the Maison de ViUe, 
>» the impeached members were 
^' zning, sommoned all within to 
'_-d«"- llie outlawed deputies, 
' & Tith despair at this unexpected 
~ »i aSTairs, began to lay violent 
1^ on themselTes ; so that, when 
J ^dannes entered the buildine, 
• tooiid Robespierre with one sine 
•> Qce blown away by a pistol- 
'. and Couthon severely wounded 
a carringoknife, which he still held 
- hand. Three others had leaped 
' •>£ a two-pair-of4tairs window, 
i v^ere miserably bruised ; but all 
rz taken, to the number of eleven, 
' ; were hnrried off* on sledges to 
-. piaoe of execution, attended by 
' ^tontshing concourse of people. 
-:- crowd forced Robespierre to 
:1 ap his bead, all bleeding as it 
~ --- as he passed by the church of 
^. Madelaine ; and when the guil- 
t De sevo-ed it from his body, the 
: .buses of the people are said to 
^ip lasted fifteen minutes. 
The Convention next chastised the 
: Ity members of the municipality 
vLo'had aided the rebels ; and no 
>^^ than 1^ magistrates of Paris 
a^t!^ put to death. Above 4000 per- 
if'V.<. who had specific charges against 
ti^em, were released from prison ; but 
Lebco), the commissioner of Arras, 
"^ had guillotined SOO of the inha- 
bitante without proof of their crimi- 
Q^ity, was executed, as also was Car- 
rier, the sanguinary commissioner of 
Nantes. The year 1 794 closed with 
tlif-se proceedings, and the attempts 
nf the Convention to crush the jaco- 
bm party ; and the year 1795 opened 
with the victories of the republican 
army ander Pichegru, in Holland. 
The stadtholder fled to England ; 
and Ficb^ru entered Amsterdam in 
triumph on the 20th of January. 
But the comparative tranouillity pro- 
diced by the last step of the Conven- 
tion, was on the point of being dis- 
turbed in the moat terrific manner in 
May. 00 account of the low rate of pay 
obtained by labourers and artisans. 
The Conreotion wa« aittmg on the 


19th of that month, when 100,000 
citizens took up arms, and a band of 
women rushed mto the hall, with loud 
cries of * Bread I and the convention of 
1793 r The military were called in, 
when the mob in their fury had killed 
one of the members on the spot ; the 
soldiers fired, and tlie former scenes of 
bleeding heads carried on poles were 
exhibited in every street of tlie capitaL 
Some of the deputies themselves being 
afterwards accused of liaving organized 
this insurrection, they, in the true 
spirit of the new French principles, 
retired into an apartment of the 
house of assembly, and stabbed them- 
selves. The son of the late king, 
known in history as Louis XVI L, 
having died in June, the French 
rulers displayed a degree of returning 
svmpathy, by exchanging the young 
sister of that prince (the present legsd 
queen of France), for several deputies 
and ambassadors, who had been deli- 
vered up to Austria by the treachery 
of Dumouriez. Treaties having been 
entered into with Prussia and Spain, 
the new French constitution was 
sworn to in September. By this the 
executive power was henceforth 
lodged in five Directors, and the 
legislative in two Councils, that of 
ancients, like peers, and that of 500, 
like commons. 

The year 1 796 commenced with the 
entrance of Napoleon Buonaparte, an 
obscure attache of the republican 
army, upon his extraordinary career. 
He first came into notice at the battle 
of Monte Notte, and by that victory 
forced the king of Sardinia to cede 
Savoy to France. The last royalist 
insurrection in the south of France 
was, just at the same juncture, 
cnished. Towards tlie close of 1 795, 
an expedition had been sent from 
England to aid the party called 
Chouans, who were in arms against 
the republic; and the force em- 
ployed consisted chiefly of French 
emigrants, under the command of the 
count de Sombreuil. They landed in 
Quiberon bay, and took the fort of 
the same name ; but they soon after 
experienced a melancholy reverse, the 


GEORGE III.— 1789— 1815. 


fort being surprised by the repub- 
licans under general lloche, wlio 
killed or made prisoners 10,000 emi- 
grants, Chouans, and English, found 
therein. The count de Sombreuil, 
the bishop of Dol, with' the clergy vfho 
accompanied him, andother'prisoners, 
were tried by a military tribunal, and 
put to death ; and before April, 1 796, 
the Chouans, with, their chiefs, Clia- 
rette and Stoflet, were exterminated. 
In March, violent disputes arose be- 
tween that party in the two councils 
which supported the Directory, or 
ministry, and that which, for op- 
posing the Directory, obtained the 
title o£ anti-directoridl ; and the latter 
getting the better, its members not 
only accused the Directory of ex- 
travagance, and bad foreign policy, 
but, secretly instigated by two of the 
directors themselves, Carnot and Bar- 
thelemi, plotted an insurrection. The 
other three in the Directory, aided 
by the army, commanded the alarm- 
guns to be fired on a sudden, and 
the halls of the councils to be sur- 
rounded by a military force. General 
Augereau, who was charged with the 
execution of these orders, repaired to 
the barracks ; and being readily sup- 
ported by the soldiers, he entered the 
hall of the 500, and seized Pichegru, 
the president. Carnot took advan- 
tage of the tumult, and fled; but 
Barthelemi calmly awaited the storm, 
and with Pichegru, and a number 
of deputies, was transported to 

The power of the Directory, or 
rather of the party^of Barras therein, 
being rendered complete by this vic- 
tory over the councils, it projected 
new schemes of conquest to employ 
the armies. A French general having 
been killed during a tumult in Rome, 
1797, the French soldiers deposed the 
pope, and erected what they called 
the Roman republic 1798 ; and Swit- 
zerland being in like manner trans- 
formed into a polyarchy, called the 
Helvetic Confederacy, the govern- 
ment of both was vested in the French 
officers and their partisans. 

In the beginning of 1798 peace 

was concluded between Austria and 
France, and Buonaparte returned to 
Paris. Not being able to disband its 
vastly numerous troops, the Directory 
permitted an invasion of England to 
be now talked of, merely, it would 
seem, to employ the public mind ; 
since, after an immense show of pre- 
paration, a large fleet sailed with 
troops, under Buonaparte's command, 
for Malta, and tlience crossed to 
Egypt, the obiect being to penetrate 
overland to the Anglo-Indian terri- 
tory. The proceedings of the French 
in Egypt are traced in the memoir of 
Napoleon, who, at the secret call of 
the abb^ Sieyes, returned to Paris in 
August, 1799, and speedily put an 
end to the revolutionary government. 

Louis XVII., dauphin and due dc 
Normandie, is usually placed in the 
list of Frencli kings by historians ; 
in the same manner that we enume- 
rate king Edward V. amount English 
monarchs. On tlie judicial murder 
of his parent, 1793, the unfortunate 
prince, then eight years of age, was 
placed as a state^prisoner, with one 
Simon, a shoemaker, a man of drun- 
ken and other reprobate liabits, wlio 
treated iiim with studied indignity, 
leaving him for a whole year without 
cleansing his room, or allowing htm 
to change his apparel. Covered with 
vermin and dirt, and denied ever}' 
mode of exercise, he soon lost tlie 
use of his limbs ; and, when fallen 
into that debihtated condition, he was 
roused from the dozings into which 
he habitually fell, by day and by 
night, at stated intervals, to answer 
to the insulting call of his unfeeling 
guards, * Capet, are you there ?* When 
scarcely ten years old, death (accord- 
ing to the statement of the French 
Convention, as at page 25 of this 
volume) put a period to his suffer- 
ings, June 9, 1795. 

We have now to return to Napo- 
leon Buonaparte, whose origin and 
apparently accidental rise to military 
authority, are sketched in his before- 
named memoir. — (See Napoleon Sue 
naparie,) It was in the montli of 
August, 1799, as above stated, tliat, 


GEORGE III.— 1789— 1815. 


suspecting the existence of a plot in 
liif Directory to prevent the carrying 
C'Oi of aDj such plan of personal ag- 
raodizement as he had meditated in 
l/ji own ^b^ialf, he secretly quitted 
\:cs supreme command in Egypt, and 
returned to Paris. The directorial 
B^mbeis were too awe-struck at 
their general's unexpected arrival, 
to ask him why he had deserted his 
post ; and this display of weakness 
of the executive authorities gave an 
ascendant power to the star of Buo- 
ii.-.partey which nothing henceforth 
VZ3 seen materially to cross or check, 
nctil it had taken its firm position 
n the zenith. 

Lucien Buonaparte, tlie next bro- 
ther of the general, had just been 
e-scted president of the council of Five 
Hundred; the military openly rejoiced 
u bis success ; two at least in the Di- 
rectory were his stanch friends ; and 
tiiere was no individual or party in the 
^tate, possessed of influence sufficient 
to oppose, with eflect, any project he 
might devise for his own aggrandisc- 
Dent. Accordingl);, upon the appli- 
cation of many regiments to be re- 
newed by him, he fixed November 
the 10th, 1799, for a large assembly 
of oflkers at his house in the Rue 
io la Victoire, at six in the morning. 
Moreau, Macdonald, Bemadotte, 
were amongst those who thus al- 
lowed their regiments to be reviewed 
ijj the Champs Elys6cs. At the same 
lime the council of ancients assem- 
bled in the Tuileries, and decreed that 
the c^ief command of the armies 
diould be given to general Buona- 
parte ; upon which the general en- 
t^^rod, and in person declared the 
Directory dissolved. Buonaparte now 
took up hb residence in the Tuil- 
eries ; and on the 19th the members 
of both legislative assemblies were 
summoned thither, and placed in dif- 
ferent apartments. Having brought 
tUc council of ancients over, the go- 
Deral suddenly entered the room of 
the five hundred, accompanied by 
four grenadiers. A fierce outcry arose 
of, • Drawn swords in the sanctuary 
of the laws ? Let him be proclaimed 

a traitor!' and many members rushed 
on the intruder, one even aiming a 
dagger at his throat, from which dan- 
ger the grenadiers forcibly saved him, 
carrying him out breathless. Calm 
in the field of battle, Buonaparte had 
no idea of the horrors of civil com- 
motion, which he was thus provok- 
ing; and he came out staggering 
and stammering from the five 
hundred, exclaiming to the soldiery, 
' I offered them victory and fame, and 
they have answered me with daggers I' 
In an instant after, the president 
Lucien came out, much in the same 
manner. He liad refused to pronounce 
his brother an outlaw ; and, now leap- 
ing upon a horse in the court, thus 
addressed the astonished soldiery, 
amongst whom were standing his 
brother, Augereau, Talleyrand and 
Sieyes : * Factious men with daggers 
interrupt the deliberations of the 
senate — I authorize you to employ 
force.' Upon this appeal, Le Clerc, 
by Napoleon's order, rushed with a 
party of grenadiers into the room of 
the five hundred ; and after the coun- 
cil had been driven out, some of the 
members escaping by the windows. 
Napoleon, Sieyes, and Ducos, were 
declared provisional consuls of the 
state. Thus terminated, without 
bloodshed, the revolution of the 19th 
of Brumaire ; and on the 14th of 
December it was agreed that Buona- 
parte should be consul-in-chief, and 
all power be virtually lodged in his 

It was in 1800 that Napoleon re- 
solved on the adventurous plan of 
crossing the Alps, to attack the Aus- 
trians on their own ground in Italy. 
With 60,000 men he passed the great 
St. Bernard ; his main body, of which 
he himself took care, havmg the gi- 
gantic task of surmounting, with the 
artillery, the huge barriers of the Al- 
pine chain. At St. Pierre all traces 
of a road disappeared. We have to 
think of an army, horse and foot, 
laden with all the munitions of a 
campaign, having to be urged up and 
along ridges of rock covered by eter- 
nal snow, where the goat-herd, the 


GEORGE III— 1789— 1815. 

chamois-hunter, and the smuggler, 
are alone accustomed to venture, and 
to find a track amidst precipices, 
where to slip a foot is death. The 
guns were dismounted, and grooved 
into the trunks of trees ; and not 
less than 100 soldiers were sometimes 
occupied in dragging up a single can- 
non. The consul travelled mostly 
on foot, cheering on those who had 
the care of the great guns ; but the 
fatigue undergone by one and all is 
not to be described. The descent 
from the heights they had gained was 
not less difficult than the ascent : the 
horses, mules, and guns were to be 
let down one slippery steep after 
another, while the officers, and even 
Buonaparte himself, were content to 
slide down seated, from time to time, 
for nearly 100 yards together. The 
Austrian troops at Chatillon received 
the onset of the invaders with about 
as much surprise as if they had 
dropped from the clouds ; and at Ma- 
rengo the French soon after gained 
a decisive victory over the Austrian 
general Melas, who brought 40,000 
men into the field. As by this one 
battle the consul had regained nearly 
all that the Frencli had lost in 1 799, 
he hurried back to Paris, afler grant- 
ing an armistice to Melas. 

It was now that many fruitless at- 
tempts were made by the adherents 
of the exiled Bourbons to assassinate 
theambitious general: amongst others, 
by the ignition of a barrel of gun- 
powder, at a point where his coach 
was about to pass to the theatre. 
But iutelligence soon arrived at Pa- 
ris of Abercrombie's complete defeat 
of the French army in Egypt, March 
1801 ; and all Napoleon's rage being 
thereupon directed towards Great Bri- 
tain, 100,000 men were in a few weeks 
assembled on the coast of France, pre- 
paratory to a descent upon England. 
That hazardous attempt, however, 
was never made ; and even a treaty 
of peace was signed, 1802, between 
the two nations, at Amiens. Buo- 
naparte now occupied himself in con- 
solidating his power. He restored 
the French church, though he de- 


clared himself an unbeliever ; allowed 
the pope to appoint clergy to the va- 
cant benefices; and drew up the 
* Code Napoleon,' the first uniform 
system of laws which the French 
monarchy ever possessed, and which 
at this day forms the rule of a great 
portion of Europe, He also insti- 
tuted the Legion of Honour, with 
large national domains for its main- 
tenance, and a cross, which entitled 
the wearer to certain precedence and 
a pension. His party next proposed, 
and carried the point, that Napoleon 
should be consul for life. As re- 
spected foreign nations, the ambi- 
tious consul seemed to consider all 
Europe so completely humbled be- 
fore him, that it was no longer ne- 
cessary to conceal his views, or retard 
their execution. Before the treaty 
of Amiens had been signed, he caused 
himself to be declared president of the 
Italian republic ; and he then omi^ 
nously took possession of the isle of 
Elba, reserved Piedmont, kept Hol- 
land in liis grasp, entered Switzer- 
land, and annihilated its liberty, and 
authoritatively disposed of the aflairs 
of Germany, as if he had been sove- 
reign of tlie empire. He also insisted 
that England should resign Malta to 
its knights. These, and a variety of 
other outrages, equally offensive and 
unjustifiable, at last roused the spirit 
of the^ British nation ; and hostilities 
recommenced between the two coun- 
tries. May. 1808. 

When the British, as supreme on 
the ocean, had seized several French 
vessels before any formal declaration 
of war, all the English who hap- 
pened at the moment to be in France, 
were put under arrest Mortier 
overran Hanover, and the invasion 
of England was again planned. But 
the spirited conduct of the British 
on this occasion, raising in an instant 
a regular army of 100,000 men, a 
militia of 80,000, and volunteer corps 
to the amount of 850,000, and send- 
ing Nelson with his immense fleet to 
watch and sweep the channel be- 
tween the countries, put an end to 
the consul's hopes ; and hb at- 


GEORGE ra.— 1789— 1815. 


-tioQ was again occupied in de- 
' tiDg consptiacies against his own 
. PicheffTu, a general who was 
-i^wn to mvour the cause of the 
-nTbons, and captain Wright, an 
: irishman, were soon after found 
-^ti in their prisons : while the in- 
^c1lt and noble dac d'Enghien was 

• nipped in a neutral territory 
Halen), brought to Vincennes, and 
v<^ in the night after a mock trial ; 

• trsnsaction which must for ever 
in with the deepest die the name 
f Buonaparte. On the 18th of 

>by, 18U4, the consul assumed the 
-yenaX Dignity ; and in the cathe- 
-•j of Notre Dame, taking the 
"^'ViLs from the hands of the pope, 
> placed them himself upon his own 
'A his consort's (Josephine's) head. 
:-i May, 1805, he repaired to Milan, 
' d there received the iron crown of 
' ' Lombard monarchs, styling him- 
"^ f King of Italy. Sweden, Russia, 
M Austria now united with Eng- 
.i •: to free from French rule Hol- 
•irl, Switzerland, Sardinia, Italy, 
"1 the North German states. Na- 

• Ifon, according to his practice 
■"f-n war was declared against him, 
' "^lied to the scene where he was 
*' rst likely to surprise his enemies ; 
-. id he had the good fortune to shut 

I* the Austrian general. Mack, with 
3>.C)00 troops, in the garrison of Ulm, 
v'riich surrendered without a hlow. 
Mas^ena was operating in Italy with 
:i:ccess against the archduke Charles 
ft Austria and 60,000 men ; while 
naRhal Ney completely defeated the 
iirhduke John in the Tyrol. Murat 
and Augereau were with large forces 
n Bohemia and Swabia ; and Buo- 
naparte, triumphant, and without a 
•iditle, entered Vienna, November 
1<^5. He was here acquainted that 
N«>l9on had totally destroyed the 
combined Spanish and French fleets 
at TralkJgar, and that Spain had 
joined his enemies. 

Intelligence so disastrous, however, 
9med as a new stimulus to Napo- 
leon's energies. He quitted Vienna, 
and advanced on the plain between 
firoon and the village of Austerlitz, 

determined to bring the united Rus- 
sians and Austrians to a contest. 
Lannes, Soult, Bernadotte, Murat, 
Oudenot, and Davoust, were in com- 
mand under him ; and on the other 
side were the emperors of Russia and 
Austria, with the archdukes Charles 
and John. The sun rose with un- 
common brilliancy on the 2nd of 
December ; and, from the issue of that 
day's conflict, the ' sun of Austerlitz' 
has long since passed into a proverb 
amongst the French. From the 
heights, the aUied emperors were 
doomed to witness, on this fatal day, 
the total ruin of their armies. It 
was with the greatest difficulty they 
rallied some fragments of their forces 
around them, and effected their re- 
treat: 20,000 prisoners, forty pieces 
of artillery, and all the Russian 
standards, remained with the con- 

3ueror. Such was what the French 
elighted to call ' the battle of the 
Emperors.* A treaty soon followed 
this decisive victory. Russia re- 
turned home, and Austria yielded 
Venice to the French kingdom of 
Italy, and the Tyrol to Bavaria. 
Joseph Buonaparte was now made 
king of Naples ; Murat grand duke 
of Berg ; Napoleon's sister, Elise, 
princess of Lucca; Pauline, prin- 
cess of Gustalla ; and Louis Buona- 
parte, king of Holland. A new 
order of nobility was created : Tal- 
leyrand, Bernadotte, and others, were 
made princes ; the most distinguished 
marshals received the title of duke ; 
and a long array of counts filled tlie 
lower steps of the throne ; all with 
extensive grants of land in the con- 
quered countries. 

In 1806, a bookseller, named Palm, 
a subject of the king of Prussia, was 
seized by Buonaparte's emissaries for 
a libel upon him, and shot All 
Germany was in an uproar on hear- 
ing of so unjust an act ; and the king 
of Prussia, who had long wished to 
shake off the French yoke, now join- 
ed the allies. Napoleon instantly 
marched to Nuremberg, the residence 
of Palm, and principal store-place of 
the Prussians, blew up the magazines 


GEORGE III.— 1789— 1815. 


there, and completely defeated the 
Prussian forces at Jena, under the 
old duke of Brunswick, who was early 
carried off the field wounded in the 
face, and was refused by the heartless 
victor a deathbed in his native city. 
Napoleon entered Berlin, and, as had 
been his practice in every conquered 
city, sent off the best statues and 
pictures of the royal galleries to Paris, 
depriving even the mausQlcum of 
Frederick the Great of the hero's 
sword and orders. He next ad- 
vanced against the Russians ; and liav- 
ing beaten their forces at Friedland, 
the emperor Alexander sued for 
peace, which was granted, and ratified 
by the emperors upon a raft on the 
river Niemen, near Tilsit, 1807— a 
meeting which ended in a singular 
friendship, inasmuch as it was agreed 
that Napoleon should espouse Alex- 
ander's sister, and tliat the two should 
divide Europe between them I Eng- 
land now saw France, Austria, Rus- 
sia, and Prussia, league to destroy 
her commerce, by what Napoleon 
termed the * continental system ;* 
whereby no British manufactures 
were to be received into either of 
those states. Earl Cathcart was in- 
stantly despatched with a fleet, to 
compel tlie Danes to surrender their 
shipping, lest it should fall into the 
lianas of Napoleon ; and after bom- 
barding Copenhagen, he was allowed 
to carry away the wliole, to the in- 
expressible disappointment of the 
French emperor. 

Under the plea of compelling Spain 
to adopt the continental system. Na- 
poleon sent a large force into that 
country and Portugal. John, king^of 
Portugal, departed as speedily as pos- 
sible, with all his family, to his colony 
of Brazil; and Charles IV. of Spain 
was forced by the French to abdicate 
his crown in favour of Joseph Buo- 
naparte. Murat was raised to the thus 
vacated throne of Naples. This was in 
1808. Before the middle of the year, 
however, the Spaniards rose in small 
parties upon their invaders, so that 
no French soldier dared to go out 
alone ; and the streets of most towns 

were red each morning with thi 
sassinations of the previous n 
Still the main body of the Span 
were in alliance with their op| 
sors ; and when sir Arthur Wclh 
landed in the bay of Mondega 
found Junot ready to oppose 
with an immense k>rce. Sir Ar 
drove the marshal back upon 
bon ; but when, in consequenci 
the convention of Cintra, sir J 
Dalrymple was called before a cc 
martial in England, and sir An 
subpoenaed as a witness,' tlie coranr 
devolved on sir John Moore, 
poleon, who liad Icil Paris for £ri 
to be assured, in an interview i 
the emperor of Russia, that no ass; 
was to be apprehended on his u 
hurried towards Spain ; and ha^ 
entered both Saragossa and Mad 
advanced to meet sir John. \ 
Soult was already in array against 
English, who retreated towards < 
runna,on hearing of thesuperior ni 
hers of the enemy. AtCoruuna,Mo 
engaged Soult, but fell, mort; 
wou nded, Jan uary, 1 609. Hist ro< 
nevertheless embarked for Englo 
in safety ; and the French, in adnii 
tion of his heroism, erected a mor 
ment over his remains. Napolc 
hurried off to Paris, on finding v 
declared against him by Austri 
and in an incredibly short period 
gained a victory over tlie archdu 
Charles at Eckmuhl, and re-enter 
Vienna. So far successful, he i 
turned to the Tyrol, where the bra 
mountaineers had risen under Hof( 
to shake off the Bavarian yoke ; ai 
this rebellion being suppressed, i 
defeated the archduke again at W 
gram, taking *20,000 prisoners, at 
all his artillery. Meanwhile, in tl 
peninsula, sir Arthur Wellesley lu 
returned to take his command, ar 
defeated Victor at Talavcra, for wliic 
he was created lord Wellington. Tl: 
Austrians being again compelled i 
sue for an armistice, the duke ( 
Brunswick-Ocls escaped by a mos 
masterly retreat to England; an 
Schill, who had heroically tried t 
rouse the Prussians against Uic Frend 


GEORGE in.— 1789— 1815. 


had penned at Stralsund. As the 
pope (Pius VIL) would Dot agree to 
i^ppose the English, Napoleon de- 
cked the papal power at an end, 
asd conveyed his holiness a prisoner 
'u) Footainebleau. 

Id April, 1810, the emperor di- 
Tore^ his queen Josephine, to marry 
Maria LK>uisa, daughter of the em- 
peror of Austria, who in the next 
jear gave birth to a son, styled king 
of Romew He then removed his bro- 
tber Louis from the throne of Hol- 
land, and added that country to 
Irance. Lord Wellington in 1812 
oade great progress in the work of 
u-iving the French out of Spain, de- 
feaUDg them at Ciudad Rodrigo, Ba- 
dajoz, and Salamanca; and in May 
of tiiat year. Napoleon was obliged 
vhoUy to turn his attention from tlie 
peniosala. Hurrying to Dresden, 
accompanied by the empress, he sum- 
moned the emperor of Austria, the 
kings of Prussia, Naples, Wurttem- 
ber;:;. and Westplialia, to meet him, 
and declared was against Russia. He 
instaDily commenced a march upon 
Moscow ; but found the enemy every 
where retreating before him, after 
bumiog each city and town through 
which he had to pass. At Smo- 
lensko and Borodino, the Russian 
general attacked him, occasioned him 
great loss, and theii retreated. At 
length, September 14, he reached, 
with his immense force, a hill over- 
looking Moscow, when he speedily 
ooticed that no smoke issued from 
the chimneys of the houses ; and on 
entering the place, it was found de- 
serted by all but the very lowest and 
most wretched of its vast population. 
In the pillage which succeeded, there 
▼ere few soldiers who did not clothe 
tliemselves in the silks and rich furs 
of the evacuated warehouses; but 
what was J^apoleon's perplexity, on 
being roused from his bed during tlie 
night after hi's arrival, to witness the 
conflagration of the city. Moscow 
was at every point in flames ; and it 
was now clear that Rostopchin, the 
foveraor, bad, before quitting, under^ 
mined the place. * These are indeed 

Sc3rthians!* exclaimed Napoleon, as 
he removed his head-quarters to Pe- 
trowsky, a league distant : * this bodes 
great misfortune !' Although he kept 
up the appearance of cheerfulness m 
presence of tlie army, and even li- 
censed * Le Tli^&tre Franfais k 
Moscow,' he secretly brooded over 
his inevitable downial. He lutstily 
tried negotiations with the Russian 
generals in the neighbourhood : but 
finding all in vain, he conceived the 
plan of sectjring a retreat to Poland, 
where he hoped to remain unmo- 
lested until the spring. But to exe- 
cute this, required all his art and vigi- 
lance. His tirst object was to deceive 
the Russians by sending all his baggage 
and plunder on the Smolensko road, 
together with his sick and wounded, 
whilst he himself, with his serviceable 
troops, should push on to Minsk, 
where extensive depots liad for some 
time been formed, and where he ex- 
pected to be reinforced by Victor, 
and what remained of Sl Cyr*s divi- 
sion. He at the same time attempted 
to deceive Kutusov with regard to 
his intentions, as if he meant to force 
his way through the Russian army, 
to get possession of Kaloiiga, and 
there to winter, in the most fertile 
province of the Russian empire. 
For this purpose he detached Murat 
upon that route, with orders to keep 
up a protracted warfare ; but evident- 
ly intending to sacrifice that division 
of the army, whilst the other should 
secure its retreat. For all this, how- 
ever, Kutusov was prepared, and 
therefore ordered general Benning- 
sen to set off with a sufficient force 
to engage Murat ; a measure which 
was followed by the total defeat of 
that general at Malo Yarraslovitz. 
The intelligence of this event was 
like a thunderclap to Napoleon, who 
saw tdat not a moment was now to 
be lost in ulterior proceedings, his 
attempt to deceive having recoiled 
upon himself. In fact, that division, 
which he intended to cover his re- 
treat, could no longer be serviceable 
to him; the whole Russian army 
was now in motion, and he had no 


GEORGE 111.-1789—1815. 


route left but over that waste of de- 
solation which his own troops, and 
the Russians, had prepared for his 
retrograde movement. 

Napoleon began his retreat Oct. 23, 
with his own division of the army: 
and as Smolensko was the nearest 
spot to which he could direct his 
route with any hopes of escape, his 
troops were ordered to advance in 
that direction. But to drag on their 
weak and exhausted frames was al- 
most impossible ; as even in this early 
stage of their movements, they were 
actually feeding upon the cavalry 
horses, which were dying daily by 
hundreds, already feeling the in- 
fluence of the hyperborean winter 
which was setting in. Napoleon 
seems at this period to have made 
preparations for his own personal 
escape from dangers which now he 
not only foresaw, but whose pressure 
he actually felt ; for, like his meanest 
soldier, he was obliged to bivouac 
upon the snow, with no other cover- 
ing than the tempestuous and wintry 
heavens. Indeed his situation must 
have been dreadful, if he had any 
feelings of conscience to add to those 
of his body ; when, during those hor- 
rible nights of the extremest cold, his 
famished followers attempted to light 
fires, and huddled round the half- 
kindled billets, but died by hundreds 
in the few short hours of rest, leaving 
on many spots nothing 'but ghastly 
circles of corpses at the morning 
dawn. He was indeed now compelled 
to share in those miseries; for, on 
one occasion in particular, his shiver- 
ing troops actually obliged him to 
pull off the warm mantle in which 
he was wrapped, on horseback— a 
situation, too, which he was forced 
to assume, from their unwillingness 
that he should ride in a close car- 
riage, defended from those inclemen- 
cies under which his troops were 
sinking even close to his side. To 
follow the dismayed and ambitious 
chieftain, and the various divisions 
of his army, step by step, through- 
out the whole or their manifold suf- 
ferings, would fill a volume; we 

must, therefore, proceed shortly to 
state, that early in November. Bean- 
hamois, with liis division, was driven 
upon Smolensko, after several severe 
actions, particularly on the 7th and 
8th of the month, at the passing oF 
the Vop, where he was obliged to 
leave the greater part of his artiJlery 
behind. Indeed great blame is justly 
imputed to Napoleon for bringin<^ 
from Moscow so vast a mass of heavy 
matiriely the delay occasioned by the 
transportation of which was one 
great cause of the final destruction 
of his army, either by their pursuers 
or the weather. 'Ihrough various 
suflTerings, and harassed by Cossacks 
who killed every straggler. Napoleon, 
at the head of 6000 chosen horse, 
pushed on, leaving his daily diminish- 
ing main force to follow as it cguld, 
and arrived on the 9th of November 
at Smolensko, where he fixed his 
head-quarters ; but in such haste 
had he prosecuted his journey, that 
he was totally ignorant, not only of 
the fate of several divisions of his 
army, Iwit even of the movements 
and positions of the pursuing Rus- 
sians. On his arrival at Smolensko, 
he could not muster more than 
60,000, out of 100,000 of which 
his troops consisted on leaving Mos- 
cow ; and even of these a great 
portion were still in danger, particu- 
larly Ney's division, of 15,000, who 
formed his rear-guard, about a day's 
march from head-quarters. From 
Smolensko he soon found it necessary 
to retire, giving directions to Davoust 
to remain with his division, and to 
destroy the place previously to leaving 
it, which was to be done as soon as 
the other divisions had set oflT for 
Krasnoy ; towards which place him- 
self marched, on the 18th November, 
at the head of his imperial guard, 
which was the only part of his troops 
that seemed either to possess any sort 
of fidelity towards his person, or to 
preserve its subordination. The 
villages in the vicinity of Krasnoy 
were, at this moment, occupied by 
general Miloradovitch ; whilst the 
grand Russian army, under Kutusov, 


GEORGE m.— 1789— 1815. 


cs nov pushing on with the greatest 
.crity« in hopes of overtaking the 
'2K)eror even before he could leave 
>'^:>lieD&ko ; movemeots which it 
r& executing with comparative 
' iiiCT, b^ng well clothed, and, 
^.<'<eover, accustomed to the climate, 
-4 lo the rigours of the season. In- 
i'-ni so rapid was its advance, that 
Na^ioieon had scarcely arrived at 
x-i&noy, before he understood it 
■ 35 dose at hand. It was necessary, 
"r**ver, that he should wait for 
'iTOQst, and therefore he made as 
: d a disposition of his force as the 
:'"»nd, and the state of his troops, 
liid permit; at the same time 
-iing particular care to provide for 
^ - retreat, in case of necessity, by se- 
c'jring some important positions on 
•J-p- road to Orcha. On tfie 17th 
DiToost s corps was well advanced to 
;< m Napoleon ; but the latter^s situa- 
: m was extremely critical, as M ilora- 
:i>Yhch had postCKi b'ls troops so as to 
;^rmit him to pass the Russian line, 
^nd then to attack him on his flanks 
3iKt rear, which was put in execution 
^ith great judgment, about a mile 
lod a half from Krasnoy. Tlie corps 
<*( Daroust was soon thrown into 
confusion ; and Miloradovitch in- 
siaotly rushing forward, at the point 
of the bayonet and^ sabre, the whole 
•lirision fled towards the head- 
quarters of Napoleon, who was then 
in the midst of his guards. No 
sooner did the emperor discern the 
fate of the day — indeed he did not 
•:Tcn wait for that — than he set off 
It a full gallop with his whole suite ; 
thus abandoning a part of his army 
to which he had hitherto affixed so 
much consequence, and leaving to 
the fury of an incensed enemy a 
field-marshal whom he had always 
affected to regard with pectiliar 
eteem. The complete destruction of 
Davoust's corps succeeded to the ac- 
daim ofvictoiy from the Russian lines. 
Tlie cries of his deserted and dying 
soldiew roust have followed the flying 
staps of Napoleon ; but he was deaf 
to the appeal and was seen no more. 
TTie wretched few who escaped the 

swords of their conquerors, sought 
shelter in the woods which skirt the 
Dnieper, and there, wounded, starv- 
ing, and naked, laid them down under 
the frozen thickets, and soon forgot 
the unfeeling conduct of their leader 
and their own miseries in the sleep 
of death. 

At length Napoleon arrived at 
the banks of the Beresina, having 
his army in two separate bodies. 
Here he found the bridges all broken 
down ; and while he was endeavour- 
ing to construct a temporary one, 
the Russian army was advancing in 
great force. Wi ttgenstein, who com- 
manded, now ordered the Cossack 
hettman Platov to push forward 
towards Bernsoff, whilst himself, on 
the 26th, advanced towards Vesselovo 
and Stondentze, where Napoleon 
was erecting bridges, at one ot which 
places he hoped to catch him. The 
latter village was first attacked and 
carried, and the whole of the French 
troops in that quarter taken prison- 
ers ; but it being soon ascertained 
that Napoleon was not there, Platov 
was sent across the river to join 
Tchitchagov, whilst Wittgenstein 
proceeded to Vesselovo. The em- 
peror, however, soon appreciated the 
danger of his situation ; and the mo- 
ment that his bridge in this quarter 
was passable, he ordered over a suffi- 
cient number of his guards, to insure 
his safety. Having tnen crossed with 
his principal officers, he was followed 
by a promiscuous crowd of the sol- 
diery, who rushed upon the bridge 
in such numbers, that the way be- 
came completely choked. Tlie Rus- 
sians came upon this impeded mass 
almost by surprise ; when thousands 
plunged into the river, and the whole 
scene became one of the most tu- 
multuous horror. Napoleon, the 
bettet- to aid his own escape, and re- 
gardless of the situation of his 
troops, now ordered the bridge to 
be fired ; by which means such of the 
men as were not drowned fell into 
the hands of the Russians, who also 
got possession of the greater part of 
the French baggage and artillery. 


GEORGE III.— 1789— 1815. 


For half a square mile leading to the 
bridge, the carriages of all descrip- 
tions were so closely locked, that 
neither man nor horse could find 
his way between them ; 5000 men 
were killed in the course of the day, 
the same number were drowned, and 
upwards of 13,000 were taken pri- 

The emperor still continued his 
flight ; and as he hurried onwards, 
he was assailed witli reports of the 
overthrow of one general, the sur- 
render of another, and the hemming 
in of a third. He heard that Victor, 
in crossing the Beresina, over a bridge 
intended solely for waggons and can- 
non, had lost, from overloading it, 
many thousand men in an instant, 
with the best of his artillery. * 'Jlic 
scream that rose at the moment of 
the fall of the bridge,* writes an eye- 
witness, * did not leave my ears for 
weeks : it was heard clear and loud 
over the hurrahs of tlie pursuing Cos- 
sacks, and above all the roar of the 
Russian artillery;' and when the Bere- 
sina thawed after that winter's frost, 
36,000 bodies were found in its bedl 

The cold was still intense, both to 
the flying Napoleon and his far- 
behind main army; and amid the 
latter, discipline could with difficulty 
be kept up. The artillery was every- 
where abandoned ; the horses sank 
and stiffened by hundreds and by 
thousands; while the starving sol- 
diery slew others of these animals, 
that they might drink their warm 
blood, and wrap themselves in their 
yet reeking skins. The assaults of 
the Cossacks continued as before. 
The troops oflen performed tiieir 
march by torch-light, with the hope 
of escaping their merciless pursuers ; 
when they lialted, they fell asleep in 
hundreds to wake no more — their 
enemies found them frozen to death 
around the ashes of their watch-fires ; 
and, on one occasion, a party of poor 
famished wretches were found en- 
gaged in broiling the flesh of their 
dead comrades! Flocks of wolves 
followed in the \ track of the dying 
army, and even entered France in 

pursuit of the small portion wi 
eventually escaped destruction . W 
all these horrors were from titm 
time told to Napoleon, he mtc 
peevishly exclaim, * Why "will 
disturb my tranquillity ? I dc 
to know no particulars. Why ^ 
you deprive roe of my tranquiJJit 
On December 4, he arrived at Sm 
gonie ; when, judging the period 
be favourable to his own pcrsoi 
escape, he appointed Murat nis lU 
tenant-general, and then adopting i 
disguise of a servant, and accomi 
nied by Caulincourt, he entered 
sledge, in which he was drawn acre 
the snows to Wilna, where he ;i 
rived on the 7th. lie staid not 
moment at this place, but pushed c 
with great rapidity to Warsaw, \ihci 
he arrived on the 1 0th of Decern be 
From Warsaw he speedily set off' f< 
Dresden; and then, travelling i:i 
pidly by way of Leipsic and Moiits 
arrived at Paris on the 18th of Dc 
cember, which city he entered at mid 
night. When the army he had thu 
disgracefully deserted reached Ira ncii 
it was found reduced from d0(),<)()(| 
to less tlian 50,0001 Such is the 
price at which ambition does not 
hesitate to purchase even tlie clianco 
of wliat the world calls gkrtf! 

So vast however was the influence 
of this singular man over the French 
people, that he was still able to raise 
by a new conscription 350,000 elfcc- 
tive soldiers! Finding Prussia had 
joined the Russians, and tliat all were 
marching towards France, he wiis 
soon at tlie head of his new army in 
Saxony, and gained, with little ad- 
vantage, the battles of Lutzen and 
Bautzen. Though a congress was 
held at Prague, to bring about a 
general reconciliation, it terminated 
without any such result ; and, Aus- 
tria now joining the enemies of Na- 
poleon, the battles of Dresden,'CuIm, 
and last of all Leipsic, displayed to 
his view that his only security lay in 
retreat. He offered to cede nil his 
cont^uests, and to keep only France 
within the Rhine, but in vain ; the 
allied monarchs would not listen to 


GEORGE III.— 1789— 1815. 


I oi : and when the Germans had 
•T?d him over their ^vouritc river, 
I .r natural boundary of their coun- 
7, 33 uniTersal thanksgiving to the 
' 'jzi of battles was offered up, amidst 
r^of '^The Rhine! the Rhine T 
Napoieoo was now to see all his 
^.HLer allies, and all on whom he 
' J hoperiously trampled, in venge- 
J array against him. Holland re- 
d,rd its stadtholder; Hanover re- 
' T3d to its English possessor ; 
t*7iii3wick, and the other German 
^.:z.<, followed the same example; 
> Tyrolese were in arms ; even 
Mtrat,' Ills own creature, offered to 
'3 Anstria to overwhelm him ; the 
Adriatic was free ; and in Spain, 
. ni Wellington was driving out the 
"sinoDt of the French army, and 
^rcatening to advance upon Paris, 
^ Section too was discovered in 
r.'SQce itself; Bordeaux and other 
■portant cities were known to in- 
jLe to the restoration of the exiled 
/• urbons : add to this, the allied 
i^^-sians, Prussians, and Anstrians. 
7tfre about to cross the Rhine, and 
' pf>rDach tlie capital : in a word, as 
Napoleon afterwards declared at St, 
-iciena, 'he felt the reins slipping 
'■ m his bands !' But he by no means 
; elded to despair. lie headed his 
rxjps, fought at Briennc, La Re- 
tt lere, Soissons, and Laon : and, sure 
f success, refused to negotiate with 
'.h enemies until it was too late. 
He was at Troyes when he re- 
r^Wed the news of the entrance of 
•2e allies into Paris ; and hurry- 
'j^z OB horseback to Fontainebleau, 
liiich he reached late at nieht, he 
iLf re ordered a carriage, and, with 
Caulaincourt and Berthier, drove 
towards Paris. Nothing could shake 
lus belief that he was yet in time ; 
antil, while changing horses a 
fpw miles from the capital, general 
lielliard came up, at the head of a 
colomn of c&yalry, and stated tlie 
kt Leaping from the coach, he 
ht-^, *Why are you here,' Belliard ? 
wliere arc the enemy ? where my 

iteMortier?' Belliard. walking 

by his side, told him the events of 
the day. He strode on towards 
Paris, crying * You should have held 
out longer, you should hav^ raised 
Paris, go, go ; I see every one has 
lost his senses ! This comes of em- 
ploying fools and cowards.' With 
sucn exclamations Napoleon hurried 
on, dragging Belliard with him, until 
they were met by the first of the re- 
treating infantry. * In proceeding 
to Paris,' said their leader, * you rush 
on death or captivity.' At these 
words Buonaparte sank at once into 
perfect composure, gave orders that 
tiie troops, as they arrived, should 
draw up behind the Essone, despatch- 
ed Caulaincourt to Paris to say he 
would accept whatever terms the 
allied sovereigns might offer, and 
turned again towards Pontainebleau. 
The reply from Paris was that he 
must abdicate, before any terms could 
be oflFered : so that, after in vain 
trying to induce his marshals to lead 
his troops, under his own head com- 
mand, upon Paris, he renounced the 
crown of France in a solemn deed. 
The emperor Alexander, and king of 
Prussia, who were at M. Talleyrand's 
hotel in the capital, agreed instantly 
tliat Napoleon should keep his title 
of emperor, and have full sovereignty 
over the little island of Elba, with 
a suitable allowance of money ; that 
the empress should have the duchy 
of Parma ; and that all the Buona- 
parte family should receive pensions. 
On the 20th of April, 1814, the 
fallen emperor desired the relics of 
his imperial guard might be drawn 
up in the courtyard of the castle of 
Fontainebleau. He advanced to them 
on horseback ; and tears dropped 
from his eyes as he dismounted in the 
midst. • All Europe,' said he, 'has 
armed against me; do not lament 
my fate: be faithful to the new 
sovereign whom your country has 
chosen. I will record with my pen 
the deeds we have done together. I 
cannot embrace you all,' he continued, 
taking the commanding officer in his 
arms, * but I embrace your general. 
Bring hither the eagle. Beloved 


GEORGE m.— 1789— 1815. 


eagle! may the kisses I bestow on 
you long resound in the hearts of 
the brave. Farewell, my children, 
fore well my brave companions — ^sur- 
round me once more, — farewell T 
Amidst the silent but profound grief 
of the party, he hurried into the car- 
riage which was waiting for him, and 
commenced his journey to the coast ; 
not, however, without having made 
the painful observation that his do- 
mestics, almost to a man, had forsaken 
him. He called aloud for Constant, 
his head valet, on takins his seat in 
the vehicle ; but that faithless ser- 
vant had concealed himself, that he 
might not be obliged to follow him 
to Elba, though he had, on the prece- 
ding day, received from him a present 
of 50,000 francs. Count Bertrand 
was the most distinguished person of 
the fallen emperor's immediate suite. 
Napoleon passed through Mon- 
targis on tlie 2-2d of April, in a car- 
riage-and-six, with about 25 horse- 
men behind him. Four commission- 
ers (Russian, Austrian, English, and 
Prussian) were, with their suites, in 
about twenty carriages, with the 
baggage, suite, and newly-«ppointed 
domestics of the ex-emperor. The 
foot-guards of the town were drawn 
out under arms, but as the procession 
passed gave no sign either of appro- 
tNition or the contrary. The people 
of Lyon incessantly cried out, * Vive 
le Roi I' as the cortege passed into 
and out of their city ; and Napoleon,, 
knowing that the soutli of France was 
unfavourable to his cause, became 
alarmed for his personal safety, as- 
sumed Uie costume of an Austrian 
officer, and begged to sit as one in- 
cognito at tlie commissioners' table 
at meak. It was at the inn of La 
Caladre, a little village of Provence, 
that he displayed the greatest timidity. 
The hostess, not recognising him, 
came into his room, calling out ' The 
Emperor is a villain, and we hope to 
catch him here that we may drown 
him I' Napoleon hereupon would 
neither eat nor drink, turned away to 
a window and wept, and soon after 
occupied himself in devising the most 

singular costumes for disguise . V^ 
left a few minutes in a room by 1 
self, he was heard to exclairr 
agony, ' Oh ! Richard, Oh 1 mon 
L'univers t'abandonnel' and «i 
joinine his suite again, he said, * Z 
kill themselves for love, — fij 
They kill themselves tliat they i 
not live dishonoured — weaknc 
But to survive the loss of an em i : 
and the outrage of one's cone^ 
poraries — that is true courage !' 

His fears were not always chinn 
cal. In one place, when the tr 
stopped to change horses, a won 
approached one of the commission 
and said, ' In the name of Hea v 
sir, eive us leave to plunder hij 
you have as much reason to coniph 
of him as we have. It is not criiol 
but justice.' At Montelimart, 
took it into his head that the co 
missioners themselves were s^oi 
either to poison or to drown niri 
he would now therefore eat nothii 
unless prepared by the master 
bakers, who had accompanied hi 
from Paris, and acted as his coo 
Calling for M. Chaubane, tlie Inri^ 
lord, he asked, ' At what time shall 
arrive at Avignon?* 'To-morroi 
about six or seven in the mornins 
' I shall arrive in davlight, then : th 
roads must be very bad.' * They nr 
not good, sir.' mpoleon, then pnf 
ting liis hand to his forehead, uttere 
these broken expressions: *Six o 
seven in the morning : it will be day 
broad day. The people of Avignoi 
still love the maintenance of gran 
deur, even to folly ; their heads ar< 
hot, elevated, like the natives o 
Provence. In tliat country is the 
famous glacihe, I do not wish to 
enter Avignon. Let horses be 
brought without the ramparts— it is 
there they shall be changed.' 

Avignon had suffered so much 
from the Revolution, that it re- 
garded the fall of Napoleon as the mo* 
ment of its returning prosperity and 
happiness. The imperial insignia 
had all disappeared, and the wliite 
cockade was in every hat, when, on , 
Sunday the 2Sd, three carriages en* I 


GEORGE m— 1789— 1815. 


tend the town, beariDg the imperial 
2TIM&. * Down with the tyrant V be- 
csme the uniTersal cry ; and the 
Bntesh officer in command of the 
ricon was deeply affected when he 
»v it probable that the whole party 
Bight be overpowered by the furious 
BM^. in spite of the guarantee given 
bf the allied powers for the safe con- 
duct of Napoleon. Urging onwards, 
L^reCore, the three carriages, he re- 
mained with his men in Avignon, 
cotil the arriiral of that wherein 
Baonaparte was ; and terrific in- 
teed was the tumult when it entered 
the town. Men and women sur- 
>anded the vehicle, calling out for 
mdr ^ildren and relatives, victims 
'I bis ambidoD, and complaining of 
all the injuries they had endured. 
Already one man liad seized the han- 
dle of the carriage-door, when a ser- 
Tant of Napoleon, who was sitting 
otk the box, attempted to draw his 
sabre to defend his master. ' Foolish 
man !' exclaimed the English officer, 
'stir not! — and vou, friend,' said he 
to the man at the door, * remember 
be B a prisoner already.' Napoleon, 
letting down the coach-glass in front, 
vith much agitation cried out three 
times to his domestic to remain 
qaiet, and then made signs of thanks 
tu the officer, who, seeing the 
crowd hesitate, ordered his troop to 
tace about, and clear the streets. 
Tnts was effected with a speed little 
expected by the gallant commander ; 
and he then ordered the postilions 
10 drive away at full gallop. Napo- 
leon having only time to exclaim 
from the coach-window, ' Bien 
oblige r General Bertrand was in 
the left comer of the carriage; but 
be did not stir, nor utter a word, 
while all this was passing. At Don- 
me and Aix, the party was received 
vith every mark of liatred ; and on 
quitting Orcon,Napoleon, giving him- 
^if up for Tost^ changed his carriage, 
name, and dress, to escape, if possi- 
ble» the danger, which became every 
nioatemore alarming. He arrived 
at Fnjns, dressed as an Austrian 
officer, with a Russian pelisse ; and 

on his head he wore a Prussian cap, 
adorned with a very large white 
cockade! In this strange garb he 
was completely disguised: besides, 
he had a grisly beard, his eyes were 
hollow, and his aspect was that of 
one wholly beside himself. He ex- 
pressed a wish to make but one step 
from the carriage to the ship which 
was to carry him to Elba. I'he bad 
state of the roads making it advisable 
to bring up the English frieate Un- 
daunted, to St. Rapheau, rather than 
to St. Tropez, the cortege arrived in 
the former village (the very spot at 
which Buonaparte hiad landed from 
Egypt) on the 27th of April. On 
that day the four commissioners, and 
captain Usher of the Undaunted, 
dined with the ex-emperor ; and on 
the foUowing morning early, the whole 
went on board the frigate. Of the pas- 
sage to Elba, and the occurrences in 
that island, until the return of the ex- 
emperor in the next year to those in- 
viting shores which were ever in his 
view, an account will be found in 
the before-named memoir of Napo- 

Meanwhile Louis XVIII., the 
brother of the unfortunate Louis 
XVL, and uncle of the equally un- 
happy Louis XVII., had been re- 
stored to the throne of his ancestors, 
and had taken up his residence at 
the palace of the Tuileries, in a few 
days after tlie departure of Napo- 
leon. That prince had been known 
as 'Monsieur* during his brother^s 
life, and, at the opening of the Revo- 
lution, had shown himself the friend 
of rational reform. When com- 
pelled, through jacobin violence, to 
emigrate, 1791, he took up his abode 
successively at Verona, Venice, some- 
where in Germany, and then at War- 
saw, and Mittau. By the treaty of 
Tibit, however, 1807, he was com- 
pelled to quit the continent ; and an 
asylum being thereupon offered him 
by the British government, he re- 
moved to England, and took up his 
abode in the village of Hartwell, two 
miles from Aylesbury, in Bucking- 
hamshire. There he resided with a 


GEORGE IIL— 1789— 1815. 


few attendants, scarcely to be digni- 
fied witii the name of a court, until 
his restoration in 1814; and during 
his sojourn of seven years at Hart- 
well, he acquired, by his remarkably 
easy temper and condescending man- 
ners, the esteem, not to say the 
affection, of most of his neighbours. 
The poor of Hartwell are still in- 
debted to Louis XVIII., for the 
annual proceeds of 100/., appro- 
priated to the purchase of clothing 
«tc. The duke of Clarence, after- 
wards king William IV., was the ad- 
miral appointed to convey king Louis 
to his own shores ; and the heir of the 
Capets had no sooner assumed the 
reins of government, than he issued 
a decree, wherein he declared him- 
self a constitutional, not an absolute, 
monarch ; promised a total oblivion 
of die past ; and intimated that he 
should be sliortly ready to offer to 
the French people a charter, wherein 
the riglits of the three estates re- 
spectively would be found carefully 
regarded. The charter was accord- 
ingly promulgated in a few days ; 
and it is a sufficient compliment to 
tlie good sense and even the wisdom 
of Louis XVIIL, to state, that the 
document is still (save a few not 
very important alterations made in 
1830) the fundamental law of France. 
King Louis was meditating some 
extremelv rational schemes for carry- 
ing out the charter he had so judi- 
ciously granted, when he was as- 
tounded by the intelligence tliat Na- 
poleon Buonaparte, having escaped 
from Elba, had landed in the south 
of France, and was on the full 
march, with all his own revolted 
troops, towards Paris. The king, 
in his anxiety to display to the old 
friends of Napoleon his wish to bury 
animosities, had kept about his per- 
son, and even advanced to high offices 
and dignities, many of the marslials 
created by that personage ; and, 
amongst these, marshal Ney stood 
foremost to asssure his majesty that 
he need fear nothing— 'for that, 
sooner than France should again be 
deceived and ruined, he would head 

the army then around Paris, meet 
the disturber of nations, and bring 
him cooped in an iron cage, to be 
presented at the foot of his throncfA 
With his usual sagacity, how^ever, 
Louis resolved not to wait at the 
Tuileries for the arrival of the enemy 
of his house, however well caged he 
might be by the matshal of his own 
creation; and he, without loss of 
time, began a journey to Ghent, us 
to a place whence, if necessar)', he 
could easily be carried back into 

On the 1st of March, 1815, having 
narrowly escaped a French ship of 
war. Napoleon landed at Cannes, — the 
day of the violets, the secret symbol of 
his return, — and with 800 soldiers 
began his march towards Paris. As 
he proceeded, he was joined by the 
labouring population, and succes- 
sively by each troop of soldiers sent 
to crush his progress : even marshal 
Ney, in spite of his sworn fidelity to 
Louis XYIIL, and of his promise 
to bring the disturber caged as a 
wild beast, to the feet of his ma- 
jesty, joined his former master 
at Auxerre. On the 19th, Napo- 
leon slept once more in the chateau 
of Fontainebleau ; and on the morn- 
ing of the 20th he advanced through 
the forest towards Paris, in full know- 
ledge that marshal Macdonald was 
marching with a large force to oppose 

It was about noon when the mar- 
shaPs troops, listening with delight 
to the loyal strain of * Vive Henri 
Quatre,' perceived suddenly an open 
carriage among the trees, coming at 
full speed towards them, followed by 
a handful of Poles with their lances 
reversed. The little flat cocked-hat, 
the gray surtout, the person of Na- 
poleon, was recognised. In an in- 
stant the men burst from their ranks, 
surrounded him with cries of * Vive 
TEmp^reur,' and trampled their 
white cockades in tlie dust. On 
that same day Napoleon entered 
Paris, and found in the apartments 
of the Tuileries, which thy King had 
just vacated, a brilliant assemblage 


GEORGE ra.— 1789-1815. 


' tSBote vbo had formerly filled pro- 
^ antt places Id his own coiincUs^ all 
-^nm to sttpport his cause. In- 
xed ail France seemed in his &Tour, 
wie the ancient loyal provinces of 
Bnttnyand La Vendue; where the 
rmiud of legitimacy was raised 
-.csist him by the Chouans, and 
=&3taiDed by them during his rule 
"i 'SO himdred days.' 

It was from foreign nations the 
^^eatiuoiia exile had most to fear ; 
iT'i be was hardly reseated on the 
'inwe, iHien he learned that he must 
::^tain it against the united Aus- 
'rsm, Russians, Prussians, and Eng- 
''a; and his preparations to meet 
•: i gigantic GODfedenicy were most 
"^^reecic. By Ma^, 1815, he had 
"^scd 370g000 men in arms, including 
«■ lOO cboaen veterans, in the most 
"iWsdid state of equipment and dis- 
^'^^ime, a large and brilliant force of 
s'llfT, and a train of artilleiy of 
:n:portioiiable extent and excellence ; 
:zd ba:nng, in the assembly of the 
v^amp-de-Mai, made all his ad- 
>»oti swear to a new constitution, 
^ set oir for the Netherlands, ez- 
tiiiaing as he entered his carriage, 
I go to mcBsare myself against Wet- 
bftonT Blochei's army of Prus- 
'jos, 100,000 in number, communi- 
aced on the right with the left of the 
Aa^o-Belgian ann^r of the duke 
^ Wellii^ton, which consisted of 
05,000 En^ish, 5000 Bninswickers, 
aad a moUej host of Belgians and 
sthers, in all 75,000. On the 16th, 
a Qnatre Bras, Amand, and Ligny, 
nrioas contests took place, and the 
ioas was great on both sides ; the gal* 
^t duke of Brunswick fell, and 
Biticfaer was more than once in im- 
mient danger, and obliged at once 
to retreat ; a course which the duke 
of W^eUington followed, in order to 
Rt his position on the plain of Water- 
loo, vhicb he had previously hoped 
Bigbt be tfoe spot of conflict. 

At Jength the 18th of June arrived ; 

foi Napoleon^ who had feared the 

£i^ vould retreat till the Rus- 

Biiaibould came up. was delighted, 

nnkbing the emineoee of La Belle 

roL m. 

Alliance, to behold the duke's army 
dnwn out upon the opposite side^ 
waiting his attack. ' At last, then,' 
he ezdaimed, / 1 have these English 
in my grasp I' It was about noon, 
when the rain, which had been inces- 
santly fidling for thirty hours, had 
abated, though the weather continued 
gusty and stormy, that Jerome Buona- 
parte began the battle. The English 
formed in squares, and defied all their 
enemy's efibrts. The next attempt was 
made on the British centre, by cuiras- 
siers and infantry; but Ihe English 
heavy cavalry made them retreat, and 
in pursuing them the gallant Picton 
was killed. The third assault was 
against the British right, where the 
in&ntry, in a double line of squares, 
pbced chequerwise, with thirty field 
pieces before them, were drawn up. 
The French cuirassiers drove the 
artillerymen from their guns, and then 
rode fiercely to within ten vards of 
the squares behind. In an instant a 
most deadly musket fire began from 
the latter, and this magnificent force 
was almost annihilated . The French 
cannonade now opened so furiously 
along their line, tnat the duke made 
the English lie flat on the ground 
for a space, to diminish its eflects. 
He had lost 10,000, and Buonaparte 
15,000 men. 

It was six in the evening, and 
Napoleon saw that a decisive blow 
must be given, before the Prus- 
sians should arrive. He therefore 
brought up his guard, the flower of 
his army, and urging them to charge 
boldly under Nev, retired to the 
heights of La Belle Alliance with a 
spy-glass. The duke of Wellington 
hereupon dismounted, and placed 
himself at the head of his line. No- 
thing could witlistand the assault of 
the British, for the first moment act- 
ing on the oflensive. Tlie old guard 
gave way. Napoleon from his sta- 
tion observing what was doing, turned 
suddenly pale, and exclaimins, ' Tout 
est perdu 1' galloped off" to Charleroi. 
At the critical moment of the shak- 
ing of the old guard by this attack in 
front, Blucher was seen emerging 


GEORGE III.— 1789— 1815. 


with his cohimns from the neighbour- 
ing woods : whereupon tlie fatal cry 
of, *Sauve qui peut!' ran through 
the French army, and all was over. 
Blucher agreed to pursue the fugi- 
tives, while the duke rested his men ; 
and it was soon ascertained that this 
elorious victory had left the latter 
loser 15,000 slain. The duke and 
one other officer alone came off with- 
out injury. Buonaparte's loss was 
45,000. On the night of the 20th, 
Napoleon arrived alone in Paris ; on 
the 22nd he signed another act of 
abdication, in favour of his son ; and 
he was then requested by the pro- 
visional government of Fouch^, Uar- 
not, and three more, to retire to 
Malmaison. Fouch^, having recom- 
mended him to escape to America, 
informed the English government of 
what he had advised ; at Rochefort, 
consequently, when he hoped that 
the Bellerophon, under captain Main- 
land, would receive him as a freeman, 
he was told he must be at the dis- 
posal of the English government. 
He appealed from on board that ves- 
sel to the Prince Regent of England, 
calling him * his most generous ene- 
my*, but it was decided he should be 
exiled to St. Helena ; and the Nortli- 
umberland, commanded by admiral 
sir George Cockburn, was appointed 
to convey him thither forthwith, ac- 
companied by four of his friends and 
their families, Bertrand, Montholon, 
I^scasas, and Gour^ud, a surgeon, 
and twelve domestics. Of the re^ 
mainder of the life of this extraordi- 
nary person some account is given at 
the close of his so often alluded-to 
memoir. That is a personal, the 
above a political, history of tlie man. 

Upon this second subjugation of 
the ' modem Charlemagne,' Louis 
XVIII. was a second time restored 
to sovereign power ; and of his period 
of rule, a sketch will be found in the 
closing portion of king George's 

Russia undek Paul I. and Alex- 
ander I.— Paul I. Petrovitz suc- 
ceeded his mother, Catherine II., on 
the Muscovite throne, 1796. His 

czanna was a princess of W'lirtj 
burg, and niece of the king of Vrw 
Paul took an active part, at h'n 
cession, in the general confedcrad 
European monarchs against rc\ 
tionary France ; and sending Suvi 
with an immense force into 1| 
that general, in conjunction with 
Austrians, drove the Frencli tr< 
almost entirely from the peiiiii&j 
Another Russian army was at 
same time despatched to join 
English in Holland, with a vie« 
attack thenortliern frontier of Frai 
But on a sudden, influenced by 
solicitations of a beautiful wonn 
who liad been sent bv the cabin ei 
Paris to the court of St. Petershi 
to second the labours of diploni^ 
intriguers, Paul recalled liis troo 
made peace with tlie revoliitioni 
government of France, and, witl| 
corresponding audacity, seized e\M 
Englisn ship tiiat chanced to be 
his ports, and sent oflTtiie sailors ii 
Siberian exile. This and other 1^ 
extravagancies of the emperor, so 
caused a conspiracy against him i 
the part of his own nobles, who wci 
as a body, hostile to French intercji^ 
and especially opposed to tiie pn'i 
ciples of the Revolution. Paul wi 
at his palace of Michailov, in bo 
when some young men of his cont 
who had purposely intoxicated then 
selves at an entertainment, arrived \ 
the place in the night of Marcli '21 
1801. Generals Subov (the Inst \i 
vourite of Catherine II.) and Bei 
ningsen took the lead ; and, acconl 
panied by Arkamakov, an aidc-d^ 
camp, who daily made reports to ih 
czar, induced the valets of the rova 
sleeping-apartments to open the do<)i 
by telling them it was already six ii 
the morning instead of two. Tin 
servants, on seeing the party enter ii 
arms, escaped ; but an husf ar, who wai 
in the anteroom, resisted, and wal 
cut down. Benningsen and Suhoi 
now rushed forward to the czar*^ 
cliamber ; and Subov, not seeing him 
in his bed. cried * Good God ! he iwH 
escaped ! ' Benningsen, however^ 
more composed, having made a care^ 


GEORGE III.— 1789— 181i 


^'srcb, dscoTered Paul croticlied 
^1 a screen. ApproacLiiog liino, 
-ooDced to bim that he -^iras a 
cjfT, in the name of liis son, the 
;^r Alexander, that his life 
^ be respected, bu^ that he 
< sake no resistance. P&ul made 
a^w«r; bat it was easy to per- 
-^ bj the Simmering oi a siogle 
:-t-hiDp, that his confusion and 
^'ff were extreme. While Ben- 
.rsen was ezaniining; the room, to 
• i against aurpiise, Paul had auf- 
a time to recover ; and advanc- 
- in bis ni^tcap to the middle of 
room (having a flannel gown 
" wn over bis shoulders, and being 
..'Ut either shoes or stockingsX he 
^ T.f bis rebellious officers, * What 
"'* I done to you, sirs, to merit 
^ conduct r The only reply of 
-^T vras, * For these four yeare you 
^^ xortuxed usV and as several 
--.r^ acxxEzAy dnink.en conspirators 
-tjss^ the chamber at the instant, 
^•.t«v departed in search of the 
raad^dnke Alexander, vrho, aware 
'^ the plot, was, with his consort and 
, -± brother Constantine, in an apart- 
' ^ e&t of the palace below. Amongst 
'■^ newly^rrived portion were seve- 
•ai oflhsers, burning with rage against 
'Jie czar lor tuiving been deprived, on 
account of aUeged misconduct, of mili- 
tary rani ; and Benningsen, seeing 
^3421 begin to resist, entreated him to 
-*e paa^ve. A general of artillery, 
Prince Tatchvil, flew upon the czar 
^th snch violence, that he threw 
^ down, and severely wounded him 
isdnst a marble table ; and four or 
^^e others instantly, in the most 
cowardly manner, assailed him while 
^iog prostrate, overturning both the 
^enea and the lamp, so that the 
rawn vas in complete darkness. Ben- 
mogsen had scarcely time to run to 
ti» corridor for a light, when, on his 
Mum, he perceived the czar lying 
00 the ffiound, strangled with a aash. 
Paul b^ made but a shght resistance 
10 this last brutal act ; he had only 

ZJ^t Haven's saVe W .e 

time to pray to God!' when his 
murderers completed their bloody 
work. The unfortunate prince was 
in his forty-eiglith year. 

Alsxanoee I. succeeded to the 
throne upon the murder of his fatlier, 
180], and instantly put an end to the 
war with England. Uniting witli 
England, Prussia, and Austria, against 
France, lb05, a campaign ensued, 
which was notably disastrous to the 
allies ; and after their complete de- 
feat at Austerlitz, Alexander re- 
turned to Russia with his shattered 
forces. Again joining with Prussia 
against Napoleon, he was again beaten 
witli terrible loss at Eylau and Fried- 
land, 1807 ; whereupon, coming to an 
armistice, the emperors of France and 
Russia met in a tent erected on a 
raft in the midst of the river Niemcn, 
and from enemies were converted 
into such ardent friends, as to agree 
(it is said) to divide Europe between 
them. The treaty of Tilsit which 
ensued, showed Alexander the oppo- 
nent of all his former allies ; and for 
five years he acted in close union 
with Napoleon, depriving Sweden of 
Finland, and obtaining eastern Gal- 
licia from Austria. In 1812, how- 
ever, the autocrat broke with the 
French emperor, on account of his 
seizure of the territories of his 
brotheMu-law, the duke of Olden- 
burg; and allying with Sweilcn (Ber- 
nadotte being the crown-prince), he 
saw Napoleon enter lib dominions 
witli a vast force in the month of 
June. Alexander had long been at 
war both with the Persians and 
Turks ; but he came to terms with 
the latter, in order to contend the 
better with his active opponent, who, 
as he advanced into Kussia, found 
every town deserted and even burned 
by the inhabitants, and the country 
every where about him a desert. 
Alexander was with Bemadotte in 
Finland, when he heard of the en- 
try of the French into Smolensk. 
* Should Petersburg be taken,' he 
exclaimed, * I will retire into Siberia, 
resume the ancient customs of our 
long-bearded ancestors, and return 


GEORGE 111.-1789—1815. 


anew to conquer the empire !* ' Tliat 
resoluti on/ retii med the crown-prhice, 
' will free Europe.* The calamitous 
issue of Napoleon's campaign is briefly 
treated of in the reign of that ex- 
traordinary man : after the entrance 
of Alexander with William Frederick 
of Prussia into Paris, at the head of 
150,000 troops, 1814, the deposition 
of the modern Charlemagne followed, 
and the two victorious sovereigns paid 
a three weeks' visit to England. The 
congress of Vienna now agreed to the 
union of the better part of Poland 
with Russia ; and on Napoleon's re- 
turn from Elba, Alexander again re- 
paired to Paris, with the emperor of 
Austria and king of Prussia, and pro- 
jected the celebrated * holy alliance,' 
subsequently entered into for the pre- 
servation of universal peace on Chris- 
tian principles/ The remainder of 
the autocrat's reign was occupied in 
conflicts with the ancient barbaric 
enemies of his country, the Persians, 
Kalmucks, and Turks ; and he died of 
a fever, aged 48, 1825. A conspi- 
racy of a formidable nature, having 
for its object the assassination of the 
emperor and others of his family, in 
order to place the empress alone 
upon the tnrone, had long been on 
foot, when Alexander died. No fit 
opportunity had occurred for the 
hneuie ; and thus, it would seem, he 
happily escaped the murderer's hand. 
The matter was discovered instantly 
after the emperor's decease, as will 
be shown . W nen Alexander ascended 
the throne, the Russian empire was 
nearly as it had been left, a century 
before, by Peter the Great; and 
there is no other instance in history 
of the rise of an old established na- 
tion, in the brief space of twenty- 
five vears, from a condition of com- 
parative rudeness, incivilization, and 
insignificancy, to a state of positive 
prosperity, polish, and power. 


Charles XIII. — Gustavus IV. suc- 
ceeded upon the assassination of his 
father, Gustavus III., 1792, and in- 
stantly evinced the greatest zeal for 
staying the progress of the French 

revolution. At length, in 1803, 
daring bis ftiU resolve to support 
gitimacy, he made an excurs! 
through Germany, in order to un 
all the princes of the empire agaij 
Napoleon ; and being infatuated 
reading Jun^s ' Commentary on \ 
Apocal}'pse,' he considered the lett 
composing ' Napoleon Buonapar 
to represent the mystical number 6i 
or mark of the second beast of I 
John's Revelation ; and moreov 
that he himself was called on 
overthrow his dominion. So /irn 
convinced did he become of the trij 
of his discovery, that he thou| 
nothing more necessary for the t\ 
filment of the prediction, than i 
unqualified refusal to treat wi 
Napoleon. No precaution on 1 
part would be requisite to enable hj 
to accomplish the intention of heav« 
Accordingly, when besieeed in Strc 
sund bv a French army, ne expect* 
the visible interposition of an ang 
in his behalf. But when tliis ang< 
who was to be four German miles i 
height, did not appear, and tbe Fren^l 
batteries were nearly completed, ll 
thought it requisite to attend to hi 
own safety, and forthwith retreatc 
to the island of Rugen. The kin] 
notwithstanding these eccentricities 
had all along been veiy popular wit 
his people ; and the most glorious n 
suits would have taken place, had U 
understood how to profit by the dii 
position of his subjects. But hi 
management of the war in 1808, tin 
deplorable state of the finances, hii 
abandonment of even the English al 
liance, and his firm resolution to se^ 
his country fall, rather than mak< 
terms with the French, caused col 
Aldesparre, who commanded the 
western army, to plan his dethrone^ 
ment. Gustavus appears to have 
discovered that danger was impend* 
ing, since on a sudden he endeavour- 
ed to possess himself of the funds 
deposited in the bank of Sweden. 
Having sent notice to the commis- 
sioners of his intention, he arrived at 
the bank with a military escort, 
March 13, 1809, and demanded pos- 


GEORGE IIL— 1789— 1815. 


*&3a of the money ; but the offi- 
■' jf the bukk baving apprized the 
^•iifsof the matterj generals Kliogs- 
Tst acd Adlerkreiitx raet the king at 
.e establishment, and endeavoured 
' iLake him aware of the impro- 
'.vtf of his conduct. Gustavus, 

verer, treated them as rebels, and 
'^ered the soklien to remove them 
'jta bb presence bj force. Adlei^ 
•^tz then advanced, seized the 
t-JC by the breast, and cried with a 
■Urcice, * In the name of the na^ 

■c I arrest thee, Gustavus Wasa, 
ba traitor.' Of the soldiers who 
^■?e present, about fortjr endeavour- 
-: t3 defend the king ; but the mar 
-' (y followed the odl of the gene> 
'A to cany into effect the ordeis of 
•: diet. Gnstavus defended himself 
r:i desperation ; and it was only by 

te they conid disarm him. He 

-e himself loose from the hands of 
^ soldiers, and had very nearly es- 
sped, but was again secured, and 
icsdned in an apartment, where for 
^fral hours he raved like a madman, 
'.-^oiediately upon the arrest, the 
' ie of Sudermania, uncle of the 
(> 3|, issued a proclamation, in which 
* announced that he had been call- 
^ to tbe head of a regency. On 
'^e 24lh of March, Gustavus was 
.TS'jgfat to the castle of Gripehelm, 
*ifre he gave in his abdication ; and 
'^ the 29th there appeared the deci- 
roa of the diet, by which Gustavus 
v., and all his direct descendants (a 
'.range Swedish political rather thaA 
r;al decision), were declared to have 
•Heited their rights to the Swedish 
::Qvn, which same was conferred on 
'-'ic duke of Sudermania, as Chaales 
Xlll. Gustavus left Sweden shortly 
i''^r his deposition ; and during his 
niJe, he travelled through most of 
tne countries of Europe, but lived 
chiefly in the little town of St Gall, 
a Svitzerland. With the unpre- 
tending name of colonel Gustavson, 
be renounced all external observances 
tbat might remind him of his former 
nnk; refused the appanage which 
Sweden offered him ; urged forward 
> suit of divorce from his wife, which 

he succeeded in obtaining 1812 ; and 
declining all communication with, as 
he obstinately refused all assistance 
from, his own family, subsisted on the 
produce of his labours as an author, 
together with the little pension he 
drew as a colonel. Among his prints 
ed works, is one which 8ysten.atically 
developes his peculiar religious and 
political notions ; and it is clear that, 
beyond an eccentricity, amounting 
nearly to insanity, he was a martyr 
to his belief in the divine right of 
kings, and in the passive ob^ience 
and non-resistance of subjects. The 
moderation and discretion, as well as 
the stead&st tranquillity with which 
he endured his fall, did him infiuito 
honour as a christian prince; and 
when his decease occurred at St. 
Gall, 1837, he was very sincerely 
lamented by thousands. His son, 
prince Gustavus, heir of the line of 
Wasa, is now a colonel in the Au* 
strian service. Meanwhile the duke 
of Sudermania, as before said, had 
mounted the throne as Charles XII L, 
1809 ; but being already advanced in 
years, and without familv* the Swedes 
made choice, first of the prince of 
Augustenburg, and, on his death, of 
general Bemadotte, one of the most 
eminent military officers of the 
French republic, as crown-prince, or 
presumptive heir. On the decease, 
therefore of king Charles, 1618, ge- 
neral Bernadotte was allowed to as- 
cend the throne of the Wasas, with 
free inheritance to hb children ; where- 
upon he assumed the title of Ciiarles 

Denm^hk under Frederick VI. 
— We have shown, vol. ii. 622, that 
Frederick, when prince-royal, and 
eighteen years old, was constituted 
regent of Denmark ; and that he act^ 
ed in that capacity until the decease 
of his father, Christiem VII., 1808 ; 
when he ascended the throne, as 
Frederick VI. During the war of 
the French revolution, Denmark ob- 
served a strict neutrality; but in 
contesting the right of search, as to 
her mercantile shipping, insisted upon 
by England, which led her into a d«- 


GEORGE III.— 1789— 1815. 


Tensive alliance with Russia, Prussia, 
and Sweden, she brought upon herself 
the loss of her east and west India 
colonies, and suffered severely in the 
naval fight of Copenhagen, (Nekon 
being in command of the British,) 
1801. The treaty which ensued re- 
stored her colonies to her. The 
peace of Tilsit, in 1807, in which 
there were secret articles, stipulating 
that the whole Danish navy should 
be delivered over to the French em- 
peror, occasioned, however, a fresh 
rupture with England. This com- 
menced with the appearance of a 
formidable force, under earl Cathcart 
and lord Gambier, on the coast of 
Seeland, and was carried to open 
hostilities upon the refusal of the 
Danish government to surrender their 
fieety consisting of 15 ships of the 
line, 14 frigates, and three brigs, as 
well as their timber, and the naval 
stores then in the yards and arsenal 
of Copenhagen. Lord Gambier, in 
consequence, bombarded the Danish 
metropolis from the 2d to the 5th of 
September, forced it to capitulate 
after a considerable part of the town 
had been burned, and carried away 
the fleet to England. In November 
following, a formal declaration of war 
was issued by the English govern- 
ment ; and Denmark, whom the out- 
rage at Copenhagen had effectually 
thrown into strict amit^ with France, 
was again stripped of her colonial 
possessions, and not only lost the 
islands of Anhalt and Heligoland, 
but the whole of her foreign com- 
merce. Even afler the destruction 
of Napoleon*s armies in Russia, and 
in spite of the efforts of the great 
European powers in 1813, she could 
not be induced to renounce her 
French alliance ; and the summons 
to surrender Norway to Sweden im- 
pelled Jier still more strongly to per- 
sist in that close union. Tiie conse- 
quence was, that the crown-prince of 
Sweden entered Holstein and Schles- 
wig, and, by his successful progress, 
terrified Frederick into signing the 
treaty of Kiel, 1814. In virtue of 
its terms, Denmark gave up Norway 

to Sweden, and received Pomer«i 
in lieu; but in 1815, Pomeranin 
ceded by the Danisli govern me n< 
Prussia, in consideration of obtair^ 
the duchy of Lauenburg, and a. c 
siderable sum of money. In mal^ 
peace with England, Frederick 
covered the colonial possessions 
his state, but still had to lament 
loss of his navy, and of the island 
Heligoland. From the period of 
victory of Waterloo, 1815, to 
close of the life of the king, D 
mark proceeded in an uniform car 
of peacefulness ; her connexion \%^ 
other nations having little to do w 
real traffic, through the dearth of { 
own staple products, but depend I 
on the hire of her mercliant-sliij 
Denmark may be called the carrici 
Europe, lending, or letting out, 
she does, her numerous vessels, \w\ 
their sailors. 

In 1834 the States made a m 
division of the kingdom into fo 
electoral districts, each of which II 
at present its provincial assembl! 
these districts are the Danish islanj 
having 70 representatives. Jut la] 
55, Schleswig 44, and Holstein 4 
The states of Lauenburg are of ve 
ancient foundation : they consist 
the hierarchy, nobles, anci represent 
tives of towns, but seldom meet 
full assembly, their affairs being dj 
spatched by a deputation holding al 
nual councils under the president 
of a marshal. We have shown (v<j 
ii. 270) how Denmark, in 1660, b 
came an absolute monarchy, undi 
Frederick 111. ; and, notwithstan^ 
ing the above electoral arrangement 
the kings of Denmark are still, in til 
main, despotic. As duke of Ho 
stein, the Danish ruler is a memb^ 
of the German Confederationy an 
furnishes 3900 men to the tent 
corps of the confederate armv. (S<i 
Germanic Confederation,) The kin 
of Denmark must profess the AiigS 
burg form of faith ; his nobility ar 
comprised in one duke, 19 countj 
and 12 barons; the Danish orders c 
knighthood are the Elephant, Dan< 
brog, and that of * LUnion Parfaitc, 


GEORGE IIL— 1789— 1815. 


1 ■ bsl admittiDg even females. A 
■ ■ jI jeai^s iiwome of the govern- 
t '.'jt vas a million and a half ster- 
• ^z, with an expenditure beyond it 
• : being the fashion for European 
r^^ to get into debt), of about 
^ .<X0^ The island of Iceland, de- 
i-^bed in toI. i. 419, is a colony of 
Kninark. King Frederick VI. 
i d moch esteemed by his people, 
'<:'-i 71, Dec- Sd, 1889; when he 
T^ s^icceeded by Christiem VIII., 
- prpsent sovereign, his nephew. 


--•Ti JoAo Maaia Jossb. — Dom 
Ml haTing been declared sole re- 
: '^t, in consequence of tiie insanity 
'* nis royal mother, Maria Francisca 
.^siwl C 1789, that prince, as the 
; of England, took a feeble part in 
? war with rerolutionary France ; 
•^ond wfaidi, and a forced treaty with 
'^^leon, 1804, nothing important 
^nrred until 1807, when Napoleon 
': ''eatencd Portugal with an invasion, 
•«caose of the prince's refusal to 
'fak his neutrality, by joining France 
-saiost Britain. On the assembling 
>t 40,000 Frendi soldiers at Bayonne, 
'.e En^ish residents resolved on 
. fitting Portugal, and the court on 
''reaping to its colony of Brazil ; but 
vb?n oo the point of departure, the 
fztnt suddenly determined to make 
accessions to Napoleon, and even 
-2fned an order for detaining the 
t^v British subjects who had not yet 
'inbarked. Sir Sidney Smitli, with 
lis squadron, which had come mainly 
to aid the Portnguese in their escape, 
I (ockaded the Tagus most rigorously 
'JjerenpODp and thus shut in the 
pnnce*s fleet ; and the regent, when 
lie found that, before his apologies 
could reach Napoleon, the emperor 
Ud, witli his usual fiat, declared ' the 
iwuse of Braganza to be no more,' 
?bdly accepted the protection of the 
English* and was safely conveyed 
from the coast. On his arrival at 
Rio Janeiro, prince John issued a 
manifesto, 180d declaring war against 
France, annulling all the treaties he 
had been compelled to conclude by 
Baonapartc (including tliat by which 
lie bad bound Portugal to be neutral. 

1804), and affirming tliat he would 
never agree to a cession of his coun- 
try. The events which followed this 
extirpation of all the wealthy classes 
of Portugal are connected with the 
Peninsular war. The queen died 
1816 ; and great disturbances break- 
ing out in 1820, tlie regent (now 
king John VI.), deemed it prudent 
to restore order by his presence, 
and accordingly returned to Lbbon, 

Gbbmant undeb Leopold II. and 
Fbancis I.— Leopold II. succeeded 
his brother Joseph II., 1790; and 
having ruled the Tuscans for twenty- 
five years, was a very experienced 
prince at the time of his accession. 
He speedily made peace with tlie 
Turks^ and brought the Netherland- 
ers to their allegiance by his judicious 
policy. Having entered into an al- 
liance witli England, he was prepar- 
ing to make a stand against the en- 
croachments of France, when a diar- 
rhoea carried him to the graven after 
a brief reign of barely two years, 
1792. His son, Francis I., succeeded. 
He had been educated by his uncle^ 
Joseph IL, was with general Laudohn 
at the taking of Belgrade from the 
Turks, 1789, and had made himself 
well acquainted with affairs during 
his fiithei^s brief reign. The first dis« 
turbance he received was from Louis 
XVI., whom the legislative assembly 
bad forced to declare hostilities 
against him, in consequence of the 
manifesto of his general, the duke of 
Brunswick. When Buonaparte suc- 
ceeded to the command of the French 
in that war, the emperor was obliged, 
by the trea^ of Campo Formio, 1 797, 
to yield the duchy of Milan and Bel- 
gium to France ; taking Venice and 
Dalmatia in exclianee. In 1799 
Austria allied with Russia and Eng- 
land against France; but Francis 
was still unfortunate, and after losing 
Lombardy, was glad to come to terms 
with his enemy at LuneviIIe> 1801, 
whereby bis brother renounced Tus- 
cany, and his uncle the sovereignty 
of Modena. When Napoleon liad 
declared himself emperor of the 
French, 1804, Francis again joined 


GEORGE IIL— 1789— 1815. 


the ptu^ against him ; but the iuue 
was still more unfitvourable to him. 
After his marked defeat at Austerlitf , 
be saw the ancient empire of Germany 
dissolved, and by the treaty of Pres- 
Durg, 1805, was forced to yield Ve- 
nice and the Tyrol to the conqueror. 
He now relinauished his august titles 
of German and Roman emperor, and 
took the more humble one of heredi- 
tary emperor of Austria, with which 
his house has ever since been content. 
When Alexander of Russia and Na- 
poleon, after the treaty of Tibit, were 
devising changes which threatened 
the subventon of his throne, Francis, 
ATailing hiawelf of Buonaparte's em- 
barrassments in Spain, beoan a fourth 
war with his enemy, and that without 
any ally, 1809. All Germany now 
took an interest in the emperors pro> 
ceedings ; and the seneral hatrra of 
the French voke induced the peasan- 
try to swell his ranks, while Schill 
and the duke of Brunswick- Oeb 
created diversions in his favour, and 
harassed his enemy. Vienna, how- 
ever, WAS obliged to be abandoned ; 
but as the Austrians still kept in 
force. Napoleon was not sorty, after 
his victory at Wagraro, to accept the 
proffered armistice of the arcnduke 
Charles, which ended in the peace of 
Schoenbmnn, 1809. In 1810 Buo- 
naparte married a daughter of Fran- 
cb ; and Austria was enabled to pre* 
serve a neutrality, as regarded the 
contest between France and Russia, 
until Napoleon refused to evacuate 
Germanv in 1818. Francw then 
joined the Russians and Prussians; 
and after mainly contributing to the 
victory of Leipsic, saw hb troops en- 
ter the French territory, preparatory 
to the fall of Parb to hb allies, 1814. 
To that capital he repaired in April, 
to hold conferences with the emperor 
of Russia and king of Prussia ; and 
on hb return to Vienna, a grand con- 
eressof the European powers opened 
Its sittings in his presence. After 
Napoleon's outbreak from Elba, 1815, 
Francb sent troops to occupy Lyon, 
while another force drove Murat from 
Naples, and restored the rightful 
king ; but from that period until his 

death 1885, the emperor, deligh 
with something like a rest from 
labours, interfered not with the 
fairs of other states. He died in 
67tb year, and was succeeded by 
son Ferdinand I., the presene emp 
ror. The daughter of Francis, IVJ 
ria Louisa, ex-empress of France, ti 
widow of Napoleon, now duchess 
Parma, saw her son, the duke 
Reichstadt, sink into an early grav 
1882, to the great sorrow of au tl 
imperial fitmily. 

Ths Siciubs undxr FxaDinTAJirD 
— Thb prince succeeded as Ferd 
nand IV. of Naples, at eight years < 
age, when hb &ther receiFed ih 
crown of Spain, as Charles 1 1 1 ., 1 75S 
The marqub Tknucei, a Tery able mi 
nbter, conducted the regency durio| 
hb minority; bat when Ferdinanc 
was of age, and had married Alaria 
daughter of the empress Afaria The- 
resa, and sister of Marie Antoinette 
of France, 1768, his queen, as be was 
very careless respecting hb authority, 
ruled the state nearly until her death 
in 1814, assisted by the various no- 
blemen who succeeded each other at 
the helm. The Sicilies were go- 
verned in peace till 1777, when Ta- 
nucci was abpbced for objecting to 
the queen*s sitting in the council of 
state. An Irishman, named Joseph 
(or ' the chevalier^) Acton, was, af^er 
or^ixins botli the army and navy, 
which had become alike disordered, 
appointed to succeed him ; and un- 
der hb management^ all went on 
well until the breaking out of the 
French revolution. The queen na* 
turally felt incensed against a peopie 
who were behaving so rigorously to 
her own sister; and Naples joined 
the coalition of 1792 against Frsnoe. 
Peace was, however, made with the 
Directoiy, through fear, 1796; but 
when the papal territory luid been 
occupied by the French in 1798, a 
Neapolitan force of 60,000 men, com- 
manded by general Mack, and ac« 
companied by the king, drove the 
invaders out of Rome. Tlie French 
soon rallied, and compelled Mack 
and the king to retreat towards Na- 
ples; from which city Ferdiosnc'. 


GEORGE m.— 1789--1816. 


the qoeen, and llieoourt* removed to 
I Sjdtj for security. Id the ships under 
Lord Nebon. January 1, 1799, after 
bntoving large sams upoD the laxza- 
rooi to keep them fiuthful. The 
epemy meanwhile advaoced upon 
Naples ; and the populace, left with- 
'Hit a goremment, murdered every 
Fieodunan they oould seise, and 
foagbt for three days in the streets 
vich the invaders. The events which 
bUoved have been the tragic theme 
of many a lengthened relation. The 
lasaaroiu at last agreed to an armis- 
tjoe with Championet, the French 
oommaader ; bnt they had no sooner 
done ao^ than a suspicion began to 
be eoteitained by them that Mack 
bad acted traitorously in retreating 
to hastily from Rome. He was 
Hereupon compelled to flee for re^ 
iage to Championet himself; and 
vbeo the rabble had missed their 
prey, tbej commenced, without re- 
gud to tbe armistice, a most mur- 
derous attack upon the French. The 
Tonng prince of Mollitemo, with as 
many liberal Neapolitans of good fap 
mily as he oould collect, endeavour«l 
to bring his countrymen to order ; 
but he vras compelled to concert an 
stUbck upon the lazzaroni with Cham- 
pionet, and on January 22, a fierce 
contest took place with at least 6000 
peasants, who, unacquainted with 
the stratagems of war, fell into an 
ambuscade near the Caudine Forks 
(tbe spot where the Romans had 
been naade to pass under the yoke of 
the Samoites), and were destroyed. 
On the following day Championet 
gained possession of the heights in 
the rear of Naples, and prepared to 
Morm it« But, with much genero- 
litj, that general endeavoured to pre- 
Teot so terrible a waste of life, and 
ieot 8 chief of squadron to the luza- 
nui with terms. The messeoger was 
rteeifed by a volley of musketry, 
iod Imd tbe pommel of his saddle 
bn^eo by d hail ; and Championet 
W DO resource but to open a fire 
opoo tbe city, though night was now 
jiTsppfoaclii^^V The Uuwroni sus. 
Zed tbe »ttBck with astonishing 

firmness, and, being 60,000 ui num- 
ber, the slaughter which ensued was 
terrible indeed. At the dawn of day 
the fury of the combatants redoubled ; 
and final Tictory was yet uncertain, 
when a momentary cessation of hosti- 
lities took place, from the exhausted 
state of both parties. 

In tliis interval, Championet spoke 
to seyeral of the respectable inhabits 
ants who had crept from their houses ; 
and professing to them a profound 
▼eneration for the city's patron saint, 
Januario, he proposed to put up in- 
stant pmyers to him for the restoration 
of tranquillity. This intelliaence was 
carried into the ranks of the lazsa- 
roni ; when a cry instantly arose of 
'ViTent lea FraufaisT and crowds 
accompanied the general, while he 
paid his homage at the shrine of the 
saint. The news of his converBion 
spread like lightning through the 
city ; and numbers of lazzaroni 
crowded round him when on horse- 
back to kiss his hoots, while one of 
the chiefs took his place at the head 
of the French troops, and harangu- 
ing his own terrible soldiera, ordered 
them to cease their fire, and ground 
their arms. He was heard respects 
fully, and obeyed -, and a shout of 
general joy succeeded to the Toice of 
mourning and the shrieks of despair. 
The war was at an end ; and Cham^ 
pionet had the unexpected good for- 
tune to make allies of his furious 
enemies on the verv field of battle. 
A sudden eruption of Vesuvius, which 
had been quiet for many years, was 
(contrary to the usual notion of the 
people) regarded as a mark of St. 
Januario's approval. Tlie situation 
of Championet had been one of peril. 
The French Directory had actually 
commenced a secret treaty with king 
Ferdinand, to sacrifice him and his 
army; and had not the Neapolitans 
supposed him stronger in amount of 
force when they attacked him in 
Rome, he would undoubtedly have 
been lost. So mistaken had Mack 
been as to the French numbers, that 
three distinct offers were made of 
accommodation with Championet, 


GEORGE III.— 1789— 1815. 


when the latter was hemmed in on 
all sides, and could not rely upon the 
fidelity of a single regiment ; and 
the garrison of Capua actually capi- 
tulated to him, in the supposition 
that the French army in the neigh- 
bourhood was immense. 

But to return to Naples. The 
lazzaroni, who had hitherto been the 
most strenuous defenders of the royal 
cause (since they had regarded Mol- 
literno and his partisans, like Mack, 
as mere tools of the French), were 
now loud in the defence of the new 
system ; and began to e^nce the sin- 
cerity of their conversion by proceed- 
ing to pillage the palace, and the 
houses of such as had been attached 
to the court. This, however, Cham- 
pionet contrived to prevent ; and with 
great tact he induct the people to 
abstain from acts which would injure 
their character as republicans in the 
eyes of France. The ungrateful Di- 
rectory, finding their troops losine 
ground everywhere in Italy, recalled 
C ham pionet just at this juncture, for 
wliat they termed disobedience of 
orders ; it being their purpose to 
make him and the other generals of 
Italy account for the treasures they 
were said to have devoted to the use 
of themselves and the army. Car- 
dinal RufFo hereupon landed in Ca- 
labria from Sicily in June ; and upon 
preaching a sort of crusade against 
the French, the Neapolitans rose in 
a mass, and everywhere murdered 
those whom they had so recently 
called brethren. Tens of thousands 
perished in a few days, either by pri- 
vate assassination, the sword, or the 
axe of the executioner; for the 
royalists condemned every one who 
had favoured the enemy. Thus Ferdi- 
nand saw his whole kingdom sub- 
dued again to his hand. It was on 
this occasion that lord Nelson stained 
his character, by supporting the se- 
verest measures against such as had, 
through fear, united with the French; 
and in no instance was his conduct 
more reprehensible than in the case 
of the aged prince Caraccioli. The 
admiral^ however, considered the 

course necessary to secure the throne 
of Ferdinand ; and that sovereign 
rewarded the hero in a manner to 
display his deep sense of <he ser- 
vices he had rendered. 

In 1801 Ferdinand concluded a 
peace with France, but in 1605 again 
thoughtlessly permitted a Russian 
and English force to land in Naples, 
and attack Napoleon's army, then in 
Italy. The latter had no sooner 
gained the victory of Austerlitz, than 
he declared, * the Bourbon dynasty 
had ceased to reign at Naples,' and 
sent Massena to occupy tliat king- 
dom. Ferdinand and his court with- 
drew a second time to Sicily ; where, 
protected by English forces, they re- 
mained until 1815. A dreadful 
earthquake in Calabria destroyed 
20,000 persons at the moment of 
Massena's occupation ; but natural 
horrors were disregarded during so 
much civil agitation ; and the fickle 
Neapolitans received as their new- 
sovereign, February 1806, Joseph I, 
Buonaparte, the brother of their 
conqueror. The British in Sicily, 
under sir John Stuart, having been 
successful in a pitched battle with 
the French at Maida, July 1806, the 
whole island was soon after garrisoned 
by English troops ; but we must for 
tne present leave the court of Ferdi- 
nand, to return to the more interest- 
ing affairs of Naples. 

King Joseph having been suddenly 
called by Napoleon to fill the throne 
of Spain and the Indies, the way to 
which had been cleared by the active 
services of Mu rat, the brother-in-law 
of the French emperor, the latter 
was invested by his relative with the 
sovereignty of Naples, as Joachiic 
I., 1808. The new monarch put 
down at once the insurrections of 
Ferdinand's partisans in Calabria, 
and in 1810 made an attack upon 
Sicily itself. In the latter case he 
was repulsed by the British ; and 
this want of success, together with the 
impossibility of inducing Napoleon 
to withdraw the 20,000 French sol- 
diers who held military possession of 
his country, induced Murat to think 


GEORGE IIL— 1789— 1815. 


of means by which he might role with 
somewhat more of independence. 

King Joachim y though he had 
shown himself in Egypt, as well as 
in all the hard-fought early battles 
of NapoleoDy a singularly intrepid 
man, was so extremely vain of his 
fine person, as to punde the streets 
of Naples decked in silks and satins ; 
while, in going to battle, he was so 
arrayed as to resemble the chivalric 
knights of the Crusades, rather than 
a modern warrior. Buonaparte used 
to call him in derision, * un roi de 
theatre/ and ' king Franconi/ in al- 
lusion to the pompous director of a 
minor play-house at Paris. He was 
son of an innkeeper at Bastide 
Frontoniere ; and, after a military 
education at Cahors, rose in the re- 
Tolutionaiy army, became one of 
T^apoleon's staff, and was rewarded 
with the hand of the emperor's 
youngest and most ambitious sister, 
Caroline, for his aid in obtaining him 
the first consulship. It is a fact that 
Joachim was concerting measures to 
throw oiTthe yoke of Napoleon, when 
that extraordinary roan called him to 
march with him, 1812, against the 
Russians. He at first hesitated ; but 
drawn on by his own natural dispo- 
sition, as well as b^ the ascendancy 
which his brother-m-law still pre- 
ferred over him, he set out for 
Dresden with 10,000 troops. He 
was the most active of the French 
generals in the pursuit of the Rus- 
sian army: but when he found 
Buonaparte resolved on advancing 
as &r as Moscow, be declared he 
would not proceed. He, however, 
could net retreat ; and prodigies of 
valour were performed by him in the 
sequel. A striking instance of his 
intrepidity occurred at Gjatz. Being 
annoyed by clouds of cossacks, who 
hovered about the head of his co- 
lumns, and compelled him every now 
and then to deploy, he became in- 
censed to the highest degree, and 
suddenly galloping up to the bar- 
baric enemy unattended, exclaimed 
to them in an authoritative voice, 
'Clear the way, you vermin !' It is 

a fact equally incontestable, that 
these wild sons of the desert, awed 
by his manner, at once obeyed his 
command. After the disasters of 
Moscow, Murat abandoned the re- 
treating army, and making the best 
of his way back to Naples, signified 
his intention of joining the Aus- 
trians. When, however, he heard 
of his relative's success in Saxony, 
he again took the command of his 
cavalry, and remained with him till 
the defeat of Leipsic, October, 1818. 
He then precipitately abandoned 
Napoleon's cause again, and in three 
months was in arms, on the Austrian 
side, against the viceroy of Italy, 
Eugene. When informed of his 
defection. Napoleon would not cre- 
dit the fact : ' No/ he exclaimed, 
' that cannot be 1 Murat, to whom I 
gave my sister! Murat to whom I 
gave a crown !* 

The removal of Napoleon to Elba 
soon followed ; but Murat found a 
violent opponent in Louis XVIII., 
and especially in Talleyrand, who 
considered it highly imprudent to 
have a creature of the ex-empe- 
rors on a throne so important as 
Naples. Murat, therefore, scrupled 
not to despatch an emissary to con- 
gratulate his old master, when he 
heard of his having landed again 
in Prance. Soon after, at the head 
of 50,000 men, he advanced upon 
Tuscany, declaring himself * the libe- 
rator of Italy.* He was, however, 
merely joined by the rabble; and 
having seen his army dispersed by 
the English and Austrians in several 
petty conflicts, he returned to Naples, 
only to quit it in disguise with a few 
attendants for France. His queen 
he left behind. When near Mar- 
seilles, he heard of the reverse of 
Waterloo, and that a price was set 
upon his head ; and after concealing 
himself two months in a peasant's 
cottage near. Toulon, he obtained a 
passage to Corsica. 

The reception of king Joachim by 
the iDorsicans was most hospitable; 
and it would have been well for him 
had he accepted the emperor of 


GEORGE m.— 1789-1815. 


Austria's offer of an abode in Ger- 
many, at the expense of giving up 
his regal title. With tlie Austrian 
passports in his pocket, (which had 
been brought to him by Macirone, 
formerly on his own staff.) he madly 
sailed for Naples with a small party, 
and landed at Pizzo in Calabria, Oc- 
tober 8th, 1815. Some mariners recog- 
nising him by his splendid apparel, 
a shout was raised of ' Long live 
king Joachim 1* but just as he had 
reached the town, a party of gen- 
darmes met him, and fired towards 
his little company. The adventurer's 
situation was now desperate; and 
leaping from rock to rock, and from 
precipice to precipice, while the shot 
whistled round him, he at length re- 
gained the beach. But the vessel 
nrom which he had disembarked had 
sailed away I and just as some of his 
companions had got up to him, and 
were leapins with him into a fishine- 
qoat which lay on the shore, the sol- 
diers, followed by an immense mob, 
reached the party, and every musket 
was levelled at Murat. Strange to 
say, all who were with him were 
in a few moments either killed or 
wounded, though he himsel? remain- 
ed unhurt ; but be was now dragged 
from the boat, and hurried, with 
such of his followers as were still 
alive, to the prison of Pizzo. Here 
the fallen monarch was stripped of 
his purse, his diamonds, his passports, 
and a copy of the proclamation he 
had proposed making to the Neapo- 
litans, and which of itself proved his 
breach of promise. 

General Muniante, commandant 
of the Calabrias, was appointed to 
guard the prisoner ; and a commis* 
sion of military officers was selected 
to try him. Murat refused to ac- 
knowledge the authority of the tri- 
bunal, observing that his judges had 
all received their posts in the army 
from himself. It was on the 13th of 
October that one of the commission- 
ers walked into his room, and read 
the sentence. He heard it unmoved, 
wrote a letter to his wife, and having 
cut off some locks of his hair, gave 

them, together with the letter, to 
captain Starage, begging him to send 
them, as well as a seal which would 
be found in his liand after his death, to 
queen Caroline. The seal was a cor* 
nelian head of his wife. When the 
fatal moment arrived, he walked 
with a firm step to the place of exe- 
cution. Twelve soldiers were drawn 
up in a narrow court, before whom 
he stood proudly and undauntedly, 
and whom he thus addressed : * Sol- 
diers, I had hoped better of king 
Ferdinand. Both in court and camp 
my object was die nation's good : at 
this hour of my death I have no other 
wealth than tlutt of my actions. Sol- 
diers, iarewell I Do your duty — save 
my fece — aim at my heart — ^mrewell I* 
Then, turning his eyes downwards, 
he fixed them steadily on the corne- 
lian seal, after fervently kissing it, 
and in an instant more fell. So died 
' the dandy king ;' whose errors must 
all be ascribed to a wretched educa^ 
tion, and the consequent want of re- 
ligious principle and moral energy. 
He had ever been ruled by impulse ; 
and his main joy centred in the pomp 
and vanity and admiration of the 
world* Bravery, amounting to rash- 
ness, was his highest quality. His 
age was 48. 

To return to Ferdinand and Sicily. 
As soon as M urat had satisfied him- 
self of the inutility of any further at- 
tempt upon Sicily, 1810, the mini- 
sters of Ferdinand proceeded to re- 
gulate the affairs of the island ; and 
they had to contend with the great 
jealousy of the people towards the 
exiled Neapolitans. The queen was 
as arbitrary as ever ; wliile the king, 
pursuing his field-sports, most stoically 
bore the loss of half his kingdom | 
and no event of importance occurred 
until the discovery of a conspiracy at 
Messina, 1812, to turn out the Bri- 
tish forces. As* the plot was traced 
to the queen, the English interfered, 
Ferdinand resided his authority into 
the hands of his son Francis, a new 
constitution was framed, and the 
queen's power was at an end. That 
princess left the island soon after, 


GEORGE IIL— 1789— 1815. 


t and died at Vienna, I8I4. la the 
last-named year, Feidiiumd resumed 
the reins of government; and in 1815, 
on the death of Murat, returned to 
Naples, with the imposing title of 
'Feffdinaod 1. king of the United 
Sicilies.* He ruled in peace till 
1820 ; when a military revolt, set on 
foot by the Carbonari, compelled 
him to swear to a new constitution 
as liberal as that of Spain. The 
Sicilttns hereupon tried to dissolve 
the onion with Naples^ demanding 
a partiament of their own ; whereon 
the sovereigns of the Holy Alliance 
invited Ferdinand to a conference at 
Lavbach, and there offered to crush 
the conspiracy. Austrian troops 
marched towards Nanles, 1821, and 
having rooted the Neapolitans at 
Sieti, the rest of tlie army willingly 
readied their king. After reigning 
foor years longer, with the constitu- 
tion cir 1815, he died, much lamented 
by his subjects, as a kind and well- 
intentioned monarch, 1825, having 
borne sway the extraordinaiy period 
of sixty-five yean. 

The lazz ar o mi are the commonest 
order of the people in Naples. Living 
in a fine climate, their wants are few ; 
and the money that 60,000 of these 
persoiiB earn b^f running on errands, 
holding horses in the streets, selling 
pumpkins and water-melons, &c., is 
more than sufficient to supply them 
with food at least, thou^ not always 
with Nothing. They live wholly on 
fish or fruit. From their habit of 
lounging on benches while waiting 
for employ at everv comer of the 
city, they obtained their name, which 
means beggan (from Lazarus) or 
idlen. No poor Neapolitan will 
undertake steady work; and the 
hzzaroni ever act in concert in times 
of civil commotion, obeving then no 
one but the priests of*^ their patron 
Januario. We have seen how Cham- 
pionet overcame them by his respect 
for the saint ; and Kelly, the singer, 
io his visit to Naples, 1779, writes 
as follows, on the same subject: 
*Notbiag could stay the terrible 
imptioD cf Vesuvius but the pre- 

sence of the bust of the saint at the 
mountain. (See St. Januario,) The 
archbishop refused to give it up to 
the mob ; and even the king and 
queen appeared in a balcony of the 
palace, and entreated the people to 
abstain from such sacrilege. All, 
however, was in vain, until Father 
Rocco, a priest, came forth to the 
assembled multitude, who fell on 
their knees bareheaded on seeing 
him. He thus addressed them : 
* What come ye here for, you infa- 
mous scoundrek? Would you dis- 
turb the saint in his holv sanctuary ? 
Think ye, impious rascaJs, that if he 
had chosen the mountain to be silent, 
ere now he would not have caused it 
to be quiet ? Hence, to jroiir homes, 
ye vagrants, lest the samt, enraged 
at your infamous conduct, should 
command the earth to open and 
swallow ^ou upT This soothing 
speech, aided by a kick to one, and 
a knock on the bead to another, 
fairly dealt to all within his reach, 
dispersed the lazzaroni without a 
single murmur.* 

Mr. Matthews, in his Diary, 1818, 
thus speaks of this singular class: 
'The finest^looking men in Naples 
are the lazzaroni ; but if the name 
be at all connected with laziness, it 
has little application to the bearers 
of burdens in Naples. If they are 
fond of sprawling in the sun, they 
are enjoying the holiday of repose 
which they have earned by their in- 
dustiy, and which thejr have a right 
to dispose of according to their 
taste. They appear to be a mernr, 
joyous race, with a keen relish for 
drollery ; and thev are indued with a 
power of feature that is shown in the 
richest exhibitions of comic grimace. 
I know few sights more ludicrous 
than that which may be enjoyed bv 
treating a lazzarone to as many yarcis 
of maccaroni as he can contrive 
to slide down his throat without 
breaking its continuity.' 

The Carbonari is a religious as well 
as political Neapolitan combination, 
ana especially comprises such landed 
proprietors of the provinces as are 


GEORGE III.— 1789— 1815. 


under the rank of nobility. Murat 

gave the league his sanction, and then 
astily proscribed it. (See Rise of 
the Carbonari.) 

The chevalier Acton had become 
known at Naples by rescuing 4000 
Spaniards from the Barbary corsairs. 
He was the son of an Irish physician, 
who had settled at Besanfon. Being 
dismissed from the ministry, 1803, he 
remained in retirement in Sicily until 
his death, 1808. 

Switzerland made the Helvetic 
Republic, 1798. — The Swiss, from 
the time tlieir independence had been 
acknowledged by the treaty of West- 
phalia, 1648, had maintained a pro- 
sperous and peaceful attitude, until 
the invasion of their country by the 
French, 1798 ; when the old consti- 
tution was subverted by those revo- 
lutionists, and a democratical faction 
placed at the head of affairs. Under 
the title of ' the Helvetic Hepublic,' 
the state proceeded as the close ally 
of its enslavers till 1802 ; when Na- 
poleon declared its independence at 
an end, and converted Switzerland 
into a French province. In this shape 
it remained till 1814 ; when, Napo- 
leon being sent to Elba, the ancient 
Helvetic constitution was restored, 
and has ever since continued in force. 
The reformed religion had very early 
been introduced into Switzerland by 
Zuinglius ; and though not adopted 
by all the cantons, it became the 
public faith in others. At Geneva, 
a more rigid system of reform than 
that of Luther was taught by Calvin, 
which spread into many of the pro- 
testant countries, and is at present the 
national religion of Scotland, as well 
as of parts of Switzerland and Ger- 
many. The confederacy of the cantons 
is regulated by an annual diet, the 
president of which is called I^anda- 
mann ; the population is two and a 
half millions ; the state has fine ma- 
nufactures of watches, linen, and 
cotton ; and its mountains, one of 
which, Mont Blanc, is the highest in 
Europe, are remarkable for accuma- 
lating ice and snow about their sum- 
mits, which, suddenly giving way, 
usually do great injury to the country 

beneath. The masses of ice, called 
glaciers, descend gradually, and settle 
on the lower fields ; but those of 
snow y the avalanches ^ rush down with- 
out warning* and frequently over— 
whelm whole villages in an in- 

Fbussia under FasDEaicK Wil- 

III., — Frederick William II., 
grandson of Frederick William I., 
succeeded his uncle, Frederick the 
Great, 1786. Political errors soon 
lessened the credit gained by his pre- 
decessors amongst foreign courts ; 
and the treasure left by his uncle 
( 10 millions sterling) was wasted in 
useless wars, and by the extravagance 
of favourites. In 1787 he sent a 
force under duke Charles VYilliam 
Ferdinand of Brunswick, to compel 
the Dutch * patriots' to acknowledge 
the authority of their Stadtholder ; 
and this being effected, an alliance 
took place between England, Prussia, 
and Holland, at the Hague, 1788. 
In the war between Sweden and Rus- 
sia in the same year, Frederick VVil. 
liam, in conjunction with England, 
prevented any further attack upon 
Sweden by Denmark. Being jealous 
of the success of Russia and Austria 
in the Turkish war, he concluded an 
alliance with the Porte in 1790, and 
guaranteed its possessions. Tliis 
measure having given offence to 
Austria, a Prussian army was assem- 
bled in Silesia, on the Bohemian 
frontier, and an Austrian aroiy in 
Bohemia. The emperor Leopold II. 
did not wish for war with Prussia ; 
and in the convention concluded at 
Reichenbach, 1790, between Austria 
and Prussia, he promised to restore 
the Turks all his conquests, except 
the district of Aluta. The party of 
Stanislaus II. in Poland, liaving pro- 
posed, afler the first partition of the 
kingdom, to establish a new constitu- 
tion, and to make the royal dignity 
hereditary in the house of Saxony, 
an alliance had been concluded with 
Prussia, 1791, b^' which the latter re- 
cognised the integrity of Poland, 
and promised to assist it witli 40,000 
infantry and 400 cavalry, in case any 


GEORGE III.— 1789—1815. 


fcTtetgn power should interfere in its 
btesioal affiiirs. After making peace 
v!th the Porte, Catherine II.. who, 
withoot taking any sliare in the war 
ibtn carrying on by Prussia and Au- 
stria against France, liad calculated 
&i tb«ir efforts, continued to reduce 
Frederick William to the alternative 
Hther of defending Poland against 
Rttssia, by -virtue of his alliance with 
^t state, or of making a second 
partition of iU >n conjunction witli 
Rusia. Frederick William chose the 
faster, and in January, 1793, sent 
troops under general Millendorf into 
Great Poland, which occupied a tract 
ofcGontry of the extent of 1,100 
German square miles, with a popular 
iion« including Danzig and Thorn, 
cf 1,200,000 inhabitants. Tliongh 
tile diet at Grodno was obliged to 
s^ee to this accession, as weU as to 
a iimilar cession of territory to Rus- 
sia, the Poles rose in 1794 under Ko- 
idusko and Madalinski, to recover 
their independence; in which in- 
rarrection the Russians and Prus- 
lians were several times defeated, till 
Kosciusko was taken prisoner, and 
Praga was stormed by Siivarov. 
Hereupon the third partition of Po- 
land followed. All that remained, 
afker the preceding partitions, was 
divided between Austria, Russia, and 
Prussia ; by which the latter acquir- 
ed a large addition of territory, and 
the independence of Poland was an- 
nihilated. In the war against France, 
Prussia sent 50,000 men to the Rhine, 
1792, under the duke of Brunswick ; 
but the duke failed in his plan of 
marching to Paris, and was actually 
compelled to make a retrograde 
movement. In April, 1795, Prussia 
was, in like manner, driven to make 
peace with the French republic, and 
to leave all her territories beyond the 
Rhine in its possession. Soon after 
drawing up a new code of laws, 
wherein the system of indirect taxa- 
tion, imitated from the French by 
Frederick II , was then wisely (be- 
cause of necessity, in the then pinch- 
ed state of all Prussian consumers, 
whether of the productive or unpro- 

ductive class.) abrogated, Frederick 
William died, aged 53, 1797. 

Hisson,FaEn£BicK William III., 
succeeded, and preserved long a strict 
neutrality with respect to the French 
revolution ; and on tliat especial ac- 
count, Buonaparte presented him 
with the House of Brunswick's elec- 
torate of Hanover, 1801. On find- 
ing, however, that the new emperor 
of France had purposed to resume 
his grant, Frederick William declared 
war again, 1806 ; and the conse- 
quences were the defeat of the Prus- 
sians under the duke of Brunswick 
at Jena (Yaynah), the capture of 
Hanover, by Napoleon, 1807, and 
the occupation of Berlin, the capital 
of Frederick William, by a French 
army. The emperor Alexander of 
Russia coming hereupon to the suc- 
cour of the king of Prussia, the war 
proceeded ; but the allied forces were 
defeated at Friedland, and a peace 
was forced on, in the issue, at Tilsit, 
1807, by the provisions of which 
treaty, Frederick William was de- 
prived of a full third of his domi- 
nions, to be added to France. Prussia 
continued thus diminished and crip- 
pled until 1812 ; when the retreat of 
Napoleon from Moscow became the 
signal to her, after enduring the most 
indignant treatment from her con- 
queror, once more to rise in arms. 
Until the fall of her great enemy in 
1614, she continued firm in her al- 
liance with his o{)ponents ; and wben- 
in the following year, he had made a 
last attempt to recover his power, 
she contributed largely, by her army 
under the gallant Blucher, to annihi- 
late his cause at Waterloo. By the 
decision of the Vienna congress, the 
territories of Frederick William were 
restored to him, together with a great 
portion of Saxony, and some districts 
in the west of Germany ; and he 
instantly sat down to bring into 
something approaching order, a coun- 
try which, first, by having been the 
spot whereon the French revolution 
had been originally planned by Vol- 
taire and thellluminati, was next, by 
the progress of that work of destruc- 


GEORGE III.— 1789— 1816. 


tioDy wholly demoralized, as it was at 
last, as if in retribution, almost 
blotted out as a nation by French 
tyranny. By the aid of the Jesuits, 
whose labours in Prussia, however 
elsewhere questioned, were most dis- 
interested, religion and a regard for 
the laws were restored ; and here we 
must speak of the peculiar state of 
religious opinion among the few 
Prussians that were found to enter- 
tain .any, when Frederick William 
recovered his ancient authority. The 
systems of doctrinal belief, handed 
down by Luther and Calvin to the 
protestant part of Prussia, had, in 

Srocess of time, and under the in- 
uence of that liberty of private judg- 
ment which those reformers also 
transmitted as a first principle of 
faith, become thoroughly decom- 
posed. So far, in fact, had tilings 
gone, that the only alternatives in ad- 
vance were either to deny Christianity, 
or to make an absolute separation 
between the province of dogmatic 
theology and that of religious belief; 
reducing the former to a mere de- 
partment of philosophy, and the lat- 
ter to a simple development of the 
individual character. The latter al- 
ternative was naturally accepted as the 
better in itself, and the more agree- 
able to the mystical tendencies of 
the German mind. In this condi- 
tion of the religion of his country, 
Frederick, who had essentially a 
constructive genius, who appreciated 
the advantages, even if he had no 
especial faith in Unity, and who 
saw the means in his power, through 
the exhausted state of the dogmatic 
principle, determined upon founding 
a new church, by the amalgamation 
of the till then divided Lutheran and 
Calvinistic sects. With the assist- 
ance of his minister, M. Bunsen, he 
compiled a new liturgy, and arranged 
a new organization, to which such 
of the Lutheran and Calvinistic pas- 
tors as thought proper, were in- 
vited to conform on a certain day. 
The majority of them did so; and 
what was leti optional at first, was 
eventually made compulsoiy on the 

remainder. In this manner the dis- 
sensions of Lutheranism and Cal- 
vinism were extinguished in Prussia, 
and even in other protestant German 
states; and a new species of unity 
arose, in the sliape of what is now 
designated * The Prussian Evangelical 
Church.' A formidable task, how- 
ever, still remained for king Frede- 
rick. The catholic (much the larger) 
portion of his subjects, and especially 
the Jesuits, who had been so instru- 
mental in restoring order and reli- 
gion, although they, with great wis- 
dom, expressed their satisfaction at 
seeing one Christian schism less in 
Germany, were strongly opposed to 
the still further combination medi- 
tated by Frederick. That well-inten- 
tioned sovereign, on seeing success 
attend his exertions in a case where 
there must certainly have been, on 
either side, a great yielding of prin- 
ciples, since the faiths of Luther and 
Calvin, in their pristine integrity, are 
nearly as contradistinguished as Ro- 
manism and Protestantism, conceiv. 
ed he might blend even Romanism 
itself with his new church. This 
was to be effected by making * open 
questions* of sundry points of faith 
held by the catholics ; and certainly, 
in the then very lax state of religion 
among professing catholics in Prussia, 
the thinff did not look wholly im- 
practicable. The king's first attempt 
was made on the marriage-laws ; and 
when the archbishop of Cologne op- 
posed his views, he, after, however, 
a considerable discussion, deposed the 

To understand this transacdon, it 
should be known, that though the 
Prussian court and government are 
protestant, the catholic religion prin- 
cipally prevails throughout the state ; 
and the see of Cologne has all the 
influence of a metropolitan one in 
other countries, where church and 
state go hand in hand. The univer- 
sity of Bonn, founded in 1818 by 
Frederick, has a theological profes- 
sorship, under the especial control of 
the archbishop of Cologne ; and Dr. 
Hermes, who had some time filled its 


GEORGE nL— 1789— 1815. 


ioir, and died 1835« had Tentared 

10 broacfa doctrines which the hier- 

inehy proaouiiced heterodox. A 

.jU, therefore, was issued hy Pope 

'jregcHj Xyi.y eondemiuitoiy of the 

Uenoesian notionSy just after Cl^ 

"€ot, Baron Draste of Vischering, 

'itular bishop of Calama, a roan re> 

arkable for selAdenia], strict pieQr, 

2si generally estimable qualities, had 

^^ elected to the archiepiscopal 

^, 1836. Serend of the Bonn pro- 

^fsoa, and many others of the ca- 

^;3licdei|gr, had become converts to 

Eenna's opinions ; but so convinced 

ns the Pnissian minister for code* 

t;2sdcal afl&tiB, that the papal boll 

' ±t to be obeyed, that he inti- 

atedtotbe catholic &culty,<thev 

^H beware of contravening the bull 

acdenoatory of Hermes.' The new 

"-ritbiahop, being of the same mind, 

c^sfKiQedtbe withdrawal of all the 

^inofesBoi's works from thedivi- 

^^!coarw;and he had just passeda 

^to that effect, when the king's 

3arriag9K)nlimmce came forth* At 

"•'^t he declared that mixed mar- 

^ (catholics with protestants), 

l^ nd hitherto been winked at u 

'^ and were now to be allowed 

"^ontaiiy restriction, were unlaw* 

Aunlos a promise were previously 

r'^en to edacate all the issue of such 

Carriages as catholics. He also in- 

*^«led bis clergy never to grant the 

= P^ benediction^ until an affimuiF 

n p ^ given to that proposal. 

'UPnm;^ ecclesiastical minister 

^jj^ hereupon remonstrated ; but 

^ uchbisbop refusing to withdraw 

y wdiuance, it was intimated to 

Jl^ from the throne, ' that his resig- 

^on would be accepted.' Aconsi- 

•^te display of feeling on the part 

Jtbe ortbodox Romish clergy fol- 

i V^J^ proceeding ; and violence 

^m probably have been resorted 

^w order to reinsUte the prekite, 

*^J** Wter not enjoined peace. 

j^^ can be no doubt that the aich- 

(J«bop8 attack on the system of 
il^lSPT* ^** impolitic; but 

^^% clear, that he acted on 
^entioQs conviction that they 

^Oli III, 

tended to introduce division and un- 
happiness into society. In Austria 
under the circumstances^ the boys are 
brought up in the father's, and the 
girls in tlie mother's faith ; and in 
Bavaria> and other German states, it 
is by no means uncommon to have 
marriaee contracts, wherein it is sti* 
pulated that all the children shall be 
Drought up in the faith of the father 
or of the mother. But beyond all 
this, the university of Bonn is known 
to support opinions which belong 
neither to one church nor to the other ; 
and the prelate's attempt to bring its 
tenets to at least consistency, was 
regarded as the main cause of his 

riirough the instrumentality of the 
same able diplomatist who liad or- 
ganized 'the evangelical churcli,' a 
settlement of the question in dispute 
between the king and the archbishop 
of Cologne, was obtained from the 
pope himself; and though the pre- 
late was ultimately restored (see 
Prussia wider Frederick WilUam iV,), 
the concession of the whole question 
of mixed marriages, which was in« 
volved in the pope's sanction of his 
previous suspension, gave a com- 
plete triumph to the Pnissian crown. 

The disposition on Frederick's part 
to move with the ' spirit of the times,' 
so forcibly shown, it was thought, in 
this ecclesiastical matter, induced a 
large portion of the Prussian people 
to hope that a constitution, in the 
manner of Great Britain, would be 
awarded them. But Frederick's lead- 
ing maxim was that of the Austrian 
minister, prince Mettemich, a maxim 
displaying the most profound wis- 
dom and knowledge of mankind, — 
* All^, but not through the people :' 
no popular government, in a country 
circumstanced as his was, but a go- 
vernment exercised by the sovereign 
and the state, so as to promote the 
people's best interests, could expect 
his countenance. To conciliate his 
subjects for refusing to accede to 
their wishes in this respect (that is, 
to grant them a constitution^ for which 
they were obviously unfit), he spared 


GEORGE IIL— 1789— 1816. 


no effort to bestow upon them every 
other boon, and every public and 
private blessing. As iregarded his 
officers, and almost his private sol- 
diers, he laboriously inquired into 
every man's private circumstances 
and condition, administered to their 
domestic comforts, and not unfre* 
quently assisted them b^r gifts and 
loans of money. He received every 
petition from every person, and an- 
swered as many as he could. He 
appeared in the streets with the 
dress and simplicity of a private gen- 
tleman; defending himself only by 
gravity and propriety of manners, and 
by the love and esteem which this 
species of conduct added to his known 
kindness and reputed wisdom and 
virtue, universally procured for him. 
He took also the right way to be 
both faithfully served, and heartily 
beloved by his ministers, household, 
and numerous personal friends — ' ami- 
cos quserens amando'-^seeking love 
by love, doubling his benefits by the 
manner of bestowing them, and libe- 
rally and magnificently giving, not as 
the French say, 'en mattre/ as a 
master, but in all cases fa a friend. 
In this way, perhaps, no sovereign of 
the day has left behind him a better 
name, nor better realized the well- 
known assertion of the poet, ' nun- 
quam libertas gratior ex tat, quam 
subrege pio.' That he fell eventu- 
ally into what in England is well 
understood b^ ' evangelical princi- 
ples,' though in a very moderate de- 
gree, is easily to be accounted for. 
He had seen nis country absolutely de- 
prived of relieious faith, and still 
saw it, till his ^focease, crowded with 
teachers of doctrines little in charac- 
ter above infidelity ; and he conceived 
it better to have his subjects all pro- 
fessing Christians, no matter what 
differences mi^ht exist among them 
on certain points of both <toctrine 
and practice, than to see them run 
back into the nullifidianism and ne- 
ology of the illuminating philosophy. 
This most well-intentioned monarch 
died, sincerely lamented by his peo- 
ple, in the 70th year of his age, June 
7th, 1840. 

Holland uvDBft William V.— 

This prince succeeded his fiither 

William IV„ as stadtholder, 1766 

and as the Dutdi connexions witl 

the French had been annually ce 

menting for some period, the Eng 

lish declared war a^nst the Unitec 

Provinces, 1780. A naval engage 

ment near the Dogger Bank tool 

place, 1781 : this was favourable t< 

the British, who effectually stoppec 

the Dutch trade for a while, and go 

possession of most of their Wes 

India colonies. Peace was restorec 

1781. Probably, to their sepiratioi 

in interest from Great Britain, maj 

be attributed the differences betweei 

the states-general and the empero 

Joseph II., who, from the exbauste< 

state of sevend of the Europeai 

powers, seemed to have a finvourabl 

opportunity of accomplishing bis de 

signs. In 1781 he had been allowed 

to demolish the barrier of his do 

minions, for which the Dutch liai 

contended so desperately in the tim 

of queen Anne ; and he now seeme 

desirous to encrcMich upon tlieir tei 

ritories. A conference coucemin 

the boundaries of their respectiv 

nations was proposed to the States 

but as tliis, when begun, 1784, wi 

carried on in that tedious mannc 

which generally marks the proceed 

in^ of the Dutch, die emperor, 1 

bring matters to an issue, sudden] 

delivered in an ultimatum to tli 

commissioners at Brussels, wherei 

he demanded the free navigation < 

the Scheldt in both its branches, i 

the sea ; and in token of his coni 

dence in the good intentions of tt 

States, he determined to consider tl] 

river as open from the date of thi 

paper. He then sent a ship und< 

his flag, up the Schedlt ; but as tl 

Dutch minbtry ordered it to I 

stopped, Josepn made immediate pr 

pamtions for war. ' In Novemb< 

1784, a small force of Germans, wil 

some field pieces, having advance 

towards the counterscarp of Lill 

on the Scheldt, the commander < 

that fortress, resortins to the usui 

mode of defence in Holland, orden 

the sluices to be opened^ and con 


GEORGE IIL— 1789^1815. 


pletelj inoodated the flat countiy 
aiound for manj miles. The lots of 
the West India colonies to England, 
zad the probable success of the im- 
pend arms on the present occasion, 
m exdted the animosity of the 
rBtocmtic &ction ; who boldly ao- 
cased the stadtholder of being the 
Qcse of all their misfortunes, by so 
cpoh expressing his predilection for 
be Engitth at the beginninfi; of the 
Aioerican revolution, 1775. William, 
i^verer, was supported by a mo- 
Qvchics] party sufficiently strong to 
oable him to seize on Vreeswick, 1 786, 
3 post of great importance to Utrecht, 
8 it contained tne sluices by which 
tvovhole proTinces miehtbe over- 
^^ved; and after a vicuent tumult 
^ Amsterdam, in which several per- 
Jus were killed, most of the regular 
^ps of Holland revolted, and went 
(^er to the stadtholder. The dis- 
putes, however, still continued with 
tttreme violence ; insomuch that the 
]>niKessof Orange herself was seized, 
^ detained prisoner a whole night, 
^J tbe aristocrats. The king of 
^nissia brought temi>orary quiet to 
'^e republic, by marching a force into 
Rotierdam ; and a treaty was in- 
»iaDtly signed, wherein the courts of 
I'^KKioo and Berlin guaranteed the 
^^tboldership to the house of 
Orange in perpetuity. 
This arrangement was upset by 
^ French, 1795. Resolved on ex- 
^ing their empire as far in every 
eirection as mere violence could 
effect, that restless people broke into 
Holland like its own waters ; and 
"^precipitate flight of William V. 
^ his family to England was the 
^i- The French general, Piche- 
?^ and his staff, having taken up 
"^eir residence in the stadtholder^s 
P^ at the Hague, a ridiculous 
promulgation took place to all the 
*o^M rcgardmg'the rights of man,* 
calling upon the Dutch, under the 
new title of the Batavian Republic, 
'^ reast oppression ; to remember 
^t all men are bom with equal 
"g^ts; that each man has a right to 
^rve God as he pleases or does not 

K 2 

please; that all men are eliffible to 
all posts and employments ; thateadi 
one has the right to reouire eadi 
functionary of public admmistration 
to give an account and justification 
of his conduct ; and that the people 
have at all times a right to change 
their form of government, to correct 
it, or to choose another.' Nothing, 
however, but fatal mischief resulted 
to Holland from this revolution. 
French forces remained to preserve the 
Dutch in tbe most abject submission ; 
the oriental possessions of the pro- 
Tinces, their ships of trade, their 
ships of war, became the pray of 
the English ; agriculture languisned « 
their trade itself was trans&rred to 
Germany, Denmark, Sweden, and 
Russia ; and for the two factions 
which formerly existed, twenty now 
arose. At length, in 1799, the Eng* 
lish were induced to hope that, by 
an invasion of the Dutch provinces 
they might rescue them from repub- 
lican robbery, and restore their an- 
cient government. Russia lent its 
generous and willing aid ; the British 
fleet easily seized that of Holland ; 
and the landing of a powerful Eng- 
lish and Russian force was accom- 
plished at the Helder. But the diffi- 
culties of the country, the inclemency 
of the season, and other disadvan- 
tages, which had not been foreseen, 
and could not be provided against, 
disappointed the hopes of the in- 
vaders. Holland remained under the 
power of the French ; and in 1806 
It was raised, as if in mockery^ to the 
dignity of a kingdom, with Louis, 
the brother of Napoleon Buonaparte, 
for its sovereign. 

The English were too much engaged 
in Spain to care further about Hol- 
land, until 1809 ; when to create a 
diversion in favour of Austria (which 
had been prostrated by Napoleon's 
victory at Wagram), an expedition 
was sent to the Netherlands, under 
die earl of Chatham and Sir Richard 
Strachan. l*he fortress of Flushing, 
and the island of Walcheren, were 
subdued ; but the unhealthiness of 
tbe climate forced the conquerors to 


GEORGE 111.-1789—1815. 


evacuate these acqubitions, after the 
sacrifice Df many valuable lives. It 
must be confessed that this unfortu- 
nate enterprise was badly conceived, 
and as illy executed. The armament 
did not reach the coast of Holland 
until Austria had been irretrievably 
ruined ; and the main objects of the 
expedition, which were the destruc- 
tion of the French fleet in the 
Scheldt, and the occupation of Ant- 
werp, were scarcely attempted. In 
1810, Louis Buonaparte, tired of his 
brother's iron yoke, (Napoleon having 
all along regarded Holland simply as 
an enslaved province of his empire,) 
resigned his crown ; and from the 
period of that event until 1618, the 
country was dejacto part and parcel 
of France. On the defeat of Napo- 
leon at Leipsic, 1813, an insurrection 
be^n at Amsterdam, the stadtholder 

i'son of William V.) was called over 
irom Euffland, and all the provinces 
of the Netherlands, catholic as well 
as protestant, (Belgium as well as 
Holland,) acknowledged him ruler. 
William V. had died iu England. 
Naples undbk Joseph Buoka- 


the reign of Ferdinand L of the Tt 

Persia under Luit Ali Khan, 
&C. — An interregnum of ten years 
occurred after the death of Kbarim 
Khan 1 776 ; and the period was fear- 
fully marked by bloodshed. Instantly 
on the death of Kbarim being an- 
nounced in Shirauz, two-and-twenty 
of the principal officers of the army, 
men of high rank and ikmily, took 
possession of the citadel, with a reso- 
lution to acknowledge Abul Futteh 
Khan, the eldest son of the late Va^ 
keel ; while another party proclaimed 
Zikea Khan, also related to the Va^ 
keel, and a person of great wealth 
and influence. Each of these and 
many others obtained the govern- 
ment for a short space of time ; and 
at length two powerful competitors, 
Aga Mohammed and Jaafar Khan, 
fought a terrible bkttle, 1788, at 
Yezdekliast, in which the former 
gained the advantagei but was soon 


after driven out by Luft Ali Khan 
of the Zend tribe, and a relative o 
the late Vakeel, 1789. This chief 
tain contrived to keep the throne 
though with difficulty, for six years 
when he fell by the hands of assas- 
sins, and Aga Mohammed was unani- 
mously received as shah, 1795. He 
was of the Kajar tribe, and by liis 
activity and severity put an end to 
anarchy. Having seen tranquillity 
restored to the various provinces, he 
commenced a war witli Russia for the 
recovery of Georgia; but while in 
that expedition, two of his menial 
attendants whom he had tlireatened 
with punishment, murdered him, 
1797. He was succeeded by his ne- 
phew, Futteh Ali Khan ; and during 
that shah*s long reign of thirty-seven 
years, Russia dispossessed Persia of 
all her northern provinces betiveen 
the Euxine and Caspian seas. The 
peace of Turkmanschai, 1828^ left 
Kussia the dictator of Teheran ; ne- 
vertheless, Futteli did everv thing in 
his power to suppress the Muscovite 
influence, and in the poetic and figu- 
rative language of hb country, used 
to exclaim, 'The horses of the IrAnis 
can go where the horses of their an- 
cestors went ; but if we make wide 
roads, the wheels of the infidels will 
speedily be^n to roll, and to traverse 
them.' This was his argument for 
keeping up the ancient warlike habits 
of his race, and for preferring the use 
of the saddle to the modern luxury of 
a carriage. Futteh Ali died 1834 ; 
and a terrible conflict ensued respect- 
ing the succession. 

Kaubul unoeb Tixna Khan, &c. 
— TiMDB succeeded his father, Ah- 
med, founder of the state, 1773, hav- 
ing full sway, at his accession, over 
Kaubul Proper, Balkh part of Kho- 
rasan, Beluchbtan, Scinde, and the 
Punjaub. His reign of twenty years 
was tolerably pea^ul for that of an 
oriental prince ; but he lost Scinde, 
and left the country at his decease in 
1798, in a fearful state of division. 
His eldest son Humaiun ought to 
have been his successor, little as strict 
hereditary right is acknowledged in 


GEORGE nL~17S9— 1815. 


- East : Imt the Bftrakzye tribe 
^npeDed the people to receiTe Ti- 
er's seoofid aon, Zbxaitk, as shah, 
t> prared a wcsk and cruel ruler. 
i reign of seven yean was marked 
ISA extzaotdinary scheme be had 

Aimed for the invasion of India. 

• his trifling force, tbe Mahrattas 
1 British were to be subdued ; and 

> EunOy was to recover tbat aacen- 

• y in the country of the Mon- 
. •£, which had been held by his 
:-.rkd£ftther. An extravagant ezpe- 

: XI to carry out his views was pro- 
•ited, 1799, by the insurrection of 

Tiidar Khan, son of Hadjee Jumal, 

•t-ced in the preceding reign of 
^ nxed ; which Poyndar now assumed 

: title of Sirafnus Khan. Poyn- 
ir vas head of the Banikzyes when 

^ placed Zemaun on the throne ; 

t the shah seized him and put him 

> death* and thus established a 
■•3c4-feod which still exists between 
e two chief tribes of Banikzyes and 
'< nnis. In 1800, Zemaun*s own 
-ir-brother, Mahmdd, rose against, 
-': not only deposed, but blinded 

n ; being aided in his revolt by 

.ttefa Khan, son of tbe executed 
^.rafraos. Mahmud, however, soon 

'lusted the Afghans by his tyrann;^ ; 
' 'J the north-eastern tribe of Ghil- 

?s succeeded in expelling him, 
'S.'3, and placed Sbujah-ol-Mulk, 

- •Tine brother of Shah Zemaun, on 

• e throne. The new sovereign b^ 
.^ bis reign with great wiMom; 

I be had much to contend with. 
^^ rit* fraternal disputes that had taken 
' ^:e, had given strensth to the tribal 
:<tm again, whose feudal authority 
^ been almost annihilated by tbe 
ntroduction of monarchy ; and Shah 
'^ MJab found it impossible to unite 
^ ^e clans against the numerous ene- 

ies tbat he saw rising against tlie 
Afghan power. The Sikhs seized 
'>-e Punjanb (or country of five ri- 
* '-rs), Beluchistan threw off the Kau- 
' .1 yoke, and Persia got back the 
\>ortion of Khorasan which Ahmed 
:>ad taken from her ; so that the 
nev shafa, in a few years after his ac- 
c(asioo, saw the state peeled down to 

a district, which was bounded on the 
north by Bukhara, west by Persia* 
south by Beluchistan and Scinde, and 
east by the Indus — being scarcely a 
third of the territory left by the foun- 
der, Ahmed. The conspirades of the 
tribes at length became so formidable, 
that Futteh Khan, now chief of the 
Banikzyes, and brother of the subse* 
quently cdebrated Dost Mohammed 
Khan, on being refused office by 
Shah Shujali, orppmized a rising at his 
castle of Ghiriskh, drove out the 
shah, and restored Mahmud to the 
throne as nominal sovereign, 1809 ; 
himself acting as visir with real pow« 
er. Futteh, however, had some diffi- 
culty in maintaining hb post. Tbe 
Siklis, who had alroidy obtained the 
Punjaub, threatened to cross the In- 
dus, and seize Attock; and, on the 
other side, Persia was pbmning a 
march across the western boundary, 
to take Herat. Attock actually fell 
to Runjeet Singh ; but Futteh's ra- 
pid advance upon Herat prevented 
the success of the Persian arms. The 
visir, while at Herat, grossly insulted 
prince Feruz, tbe brother of Shah 
Mahmud, its governor; and as the 
ambitious minister had previously 
shown his contempt for prince Kam- 
ran, Mamud*s son, the heir^ppa- 
rent, Ferikz and Kamran united their 
prayers to the shah that the visir 
might be removed. They even laid 
hands on Futteh, and blinded him, 
and eventually had him assassi- 
nated—an act which confirmed the 
Banikzyes blood-enemies of the Du- 
rani house. Dost Mohammed, se- 
cond surviving brother of Futteh, 
now roused his eighteen remaining 
brothers to join in avenging tbe visir s 
murder ; the provinces were soon in 
arms ; and Mahmud, hastily abdicat- 
ing, fled with the crown jewels and 
his other treasures to Herat, 1818, a 
place which had been his residence 
when governor of Khorasan, under 
his fiither Timur. Having at once 
acknowledged himself a vassal of Per- 
sia, he was allowed io keep rule in 
the district of Herat until his decease 
in 1829 ; when his son Kamran was 


GEORGE m.— 1789—1815. 


in like manner, permitted to bear the 
title of khan of Herat. (See Found- 
dation of Herat.) 

The Sikh Monaacht istablibh- 
BD« — The Afghans of Kaubul had so 
harassed the Sikhs (after the esta^ 
blishment of the Afghan power in 
Persia), that they retired for the 
most part from their settlements in 
the plains, to the mountains of North 
India, the former seat of the Af- 
ghans themselves. At leneth, how- 
ever, a youth of the warlike sect, 
named Kunjeet, contrived to per- 
form some signal service for Zemaun, 
shah of Kaubul ; whereon he was in- 
vested, though only sixteen years 
oldy with the government of Lahore, 
as viceroy, 1798. In 1800, Runjeet 
had so well hud his plans, that he 
assembled all the Sikhs, and declared 
himself not only their, king, but in- 
dependent amir of Lahore, to the 
genend satis&ction. He Uiereupon 
abolished the division into tribes, and 
from year to year, in spite of the jea- 
lousy of the Afghans, saw his new 
state rapidly increase in power. With 
the favourite eastern style of Singh, 
or 'The Lion,' Runjeet took a<iU 
vantage of the disturbances of Kau- 
bul, and overran the countiy. On 
the dethronement of Shah Shujah, 
1809, he received that Afj^han mo- 
narch, and gave him a residence at 
Lahore ; and he by no means forgot 
to deprive him of his well-known ez- 
traordinaiy horde of jewels. It was 
in I81d» that Runjeet was resolved 
to force from tlie ex-ehah his magni* 
fioent diamond, called Kohmur, * the 
mountain of lieht,' which Nadir Shah 
luui abstracted from the peacock- 
throne of Delhi; and the 'Lions'' 
character, more unscrupulous than 
cruel, was curiously displayed in the 
measures he adopted to possess him- 
self of the highly coveted prize. The 
exiled fiunily was deprived of all 
nourishment during two dayi; but 
when their firmness was fouod proof 
against hunger, food was supplied. 
It was in vain that Shah Shtkjah de- 
nied the diamond to be in his pos- 
•nd having exhausted re- 

monstrance, he resorted to art! 
and delay. Runjeet, however, 
neither to be deceived, nor divei 
from his purpose $ and at length 
shah, seeing that nothing elae w<\ 
satisfy the rapacity of the Sikh, ag^ 
to give up the jeweL Accordinj 
on the 1st of June, 1813, the Ma 
rajah waited on the shah for the i| 
pose of the surrender. He was 
ceived with great dignity by the 
monarch; and both being seal 
there was a solemn silence, wh^ 
lasted for nearly an hour I Runji 
then grew impatient, and whisp^ 
an attendant to remind the shaii 
the object of their meeting, 
answer was returned ; but the s^ 
made a signal with his ^es to 
eunuch, who retired, and brought 
a small roll, which he placed on \ 
carpett at equal distances betw^ 
the two chien. Runjeet ordered i 
roll to be unfolded, and the diamd 
was exhibited to his sight. He | 
cognized, seized it, and, without a 
ceremony, immediately retired, 't 
jewel in question is of the finest wat 
half the size of a hen'a ^g, i 
is calculated by Jewish lapidaries 
bein^ worth 3^ millions sterli^ 
Runjeet afterwards contrived to s 
stract the Punjaub, and the romani 
vale of Gachemire (the last in 18^ 
from Kaubul, having just before add 
Multan to bis state. In 1823, tj 
decisive battle of Nushero on t 
north side of the Kaubul river, a 
cured his power from that stream 
Pesiiawur, the modem capital of fJ 
then reduced Afghanistan, whidi, u 
der Dost Mohammed, agreed to pay i 
annual tribute to the conqueror. \ 
1839, when the British had resolyi 
on the restoration of Shah Sbuji 
of Kaubul, in order to which Dd 
Mohammed was to be dethrone 
Runjeet became their ally, having k 
gotten perhaps, after the lapse I 
years, how grievously he had des|>oi 
ed the Afj^ans, (the enemies of h 
fiuth,) and especially Shah ShOjs 
himself, of both territories and jewel 
Illness, however, seized 'the lion 
on the march fiK>ffi Lahore to Ghuxn 

GEORGE m.— 1789— 1815. 


23d death ensaed, Joly, 1889 ; when 

nis ttnooe he had founded pased to 

3 300, Kmniek Sin^^. 

Doe of die singiilanties of Runjeet 

W3S bs fornaadoD of a regiment of 

150 in namber, selected 

I tiie prettiest girls of Cachemire, 
t^^sKA, and the Punjanb. The v were 
-agaificcntly dressed, armed with 
en and arrows^ and used frequently 
j^kpear on hoiseback as cavalry, for 
'^ amnsement of ' the maharajah.' 
Tber not only received handsome 
»T from Runjeet, but were reward- 
'i by him for any trifling service, 
v^gtants of whole vilkges; and 
>e of them sacrificed themselves, 
:j§ether with his four wives, in suttee, 
'-jQ occasion of his decease. Runjeet 
Si:^ was one of the wealthiest east- 
fl^ sovereigns of whom we have 
38T reootd, as respects jewels; it 
t«iBg the heriMuric custom to preserve 
property in that concentrated form, 
a case of a sudden reverse of fortune. 
Tbs Xoftnar, perhaps the largest 
diamond in Uie world, was worn by 
ti^ in an armlet, with a diamond on 
csdier aide of the size of a sparroVs 
etg. He had also a ruby of extra- 
onUaary weight, having the names of 
Aarungx^, Ahmed Shah, and other 
riilers, engraven on it; and a topas, 
ibr which he gave 20,000 rupees, as 
i2rgeashalfabUliaidba]l. All these 
ae left by will to the various temples 
of }m sect : and the kohinur at the 
present hour forms the eye of the 
hideous idol in the Sikh &ne at 

Tlie following account of an inter- 
Tiew with Runjeet will be read with 
interest ; it is the authentic narrative 
of a British officer, high in command 
in India. ' He had a fimcv for gar- 
deoi, of iriiich he possessed many iJl 
Toand Lahore ; in each was a small 
siogle-fooroed villa, with a verandah 
all round, and on the flat roo& of 
tbew he often reared a small tent, in 
which be slept. His habit was to 
gallop from one to the other of these 
(some fiew miles apart) in the cool 
lesson, suddenly ordering the lieht 
csmp-eqnipage (always r«dy) to k>I- 
low hiOy sometines t^tpointing his | 

court to meet him. The day I speak 
of, he was girt with hb whole court. 
We approached the garden he occu- 
pied through two lines of his favour- 
ite mountal regiment of suwaurs, 
whom he call^i his 'immortals.' 
Their uniform is a tunic of yellow 
silk, quilted; the legs are dad in 
tight scarlet silk trousers, and on the 
head is a light steel helmet, round 
which twists a red silk turban ; and 
if all that glitters about them is not 
gold, it still shines ver}' brightly. 
A shield of tough bull-hide, with 
bright steel bosses was slung behind 
each horseman's back ; and their pic- 
turesque arms were the curved scime- 
tar, spear, or matchlock. We next 
paned between rows of his chosen 
m&ntry, and so approached the ter- 
race, where, surrounded by his sa^ 
traps, sat the maharajah. A sight 
more gorgeous than this court circle, 
or more simple than the monarch's 
own appearance, could not be ima- 
gined. The Sikhs are a very hand- 
some race : Dhian Singh, the prime 
minister, and Suchait Singh, brothers, 
were dad most sumptuously; the 
former, under a panoply of polished 
steel plate armour, an Asiactic Mars, 
moved as liehtly as if dad in silk 
alone; the latter, taller, and of a 
softer castofbeau^, was rustling in 
keencaub and silk, and was one 
blaze of jewels. The other sirdars 
(chie&) were splendidly dressed also ; 
and when the eye fell from this glit- 
tering circle, it rested upon the figure 
of a little old man, really not much 
taller than a dwarf, seated on a low 
plain chair, and habited in a plain 
green Cachemire suit, of the com- 
monest material. On his head was 
a turban like a night-cap ; and a long 
gray beard (where all the rest were 
black by nature or art) hung down 
upon his breast in uncared-ror rag- 
gedness. This was the mighty Run- 
jeet Sinah — the wisest, bravest, most 
powerful, and richest of Asiatic 
princes. At hb feet two little boys, 
of about four years old, were rolling 
about in childish glee, being die sons 
of two favourite chiefs slain by his 
side in battle, and he had adopted 


GEORGE m.— 1789^1815. 


their offspiing. Tame pigeons were 
lioveriDg over the maharajah's head, 
and deriving from his hands their 
accustomed food. His chair was 
lialf hidden bv the flowers it stood 
amongst ; and his favourite horses 
were being led past by grooms for 
his inspection. 

Spain undeb Chahlbs IV.-^This 
prince succeeded his father, Charles 
III., 178S, and regarded with the 
same anxiety as his predecessor liad 
done, the situation ot French affiiiis. 
In every way he laboured to prevent 
the spread of republican principles in 
the peninsula ; and upon the murder 
of Louis XVI., he commenced war 
with the revolutionary government. 
The Spanish arms, however, were 
constantly unsuccessful; and when 
St. Sebastian, and the fort of Belle- 
garde, followed by Bilboa, had fallen^ 
the affrighted king made an alliance 
with his enemies, 1795. Being now 
entirely under the dominion of 
France, Charles commenced war with 
England, but soon saw his fleet 
beaten off* Cape Sl Vincent, by Sir 
John Jervis. The chief minister of 
Charles was Manuel Godoy» who, 
from being an obscure garde-du-corpsy 
was in one year, 1792, made a lieu- 
tenant-general, an admiral, a duke, 
and a knight of the Golden Fleece. 
He married the king's own niece, 
and was created Prince of the 
Peace. Tlirough his influence with 
the queen, who mipht be said to rule 
the whole nation with Godoy, Charles 
was induced to treat his own son, the 
prince of Asturias, as a weakly youth, 
and unfit to succeed to the throne ; 
and that infante (afterwards Ferdi- 
nand VII.) was accordinsly kept in 
a state of strict seclusion. The prince 
of Asturias, however, was the favour^ 
ite of the people; and when, in 
1807, the Spaniards reflected upon 
the destruction of their nav}-, through 
Godoy*s attachment to France ; upon 
the loss of their North American 
settlements, which had been bestowed 
on that treacherous power for its 
protection ; and upon the probable 
secession of their South American 
colonies, then in a state of insttrreo- 

tion,— thev resolved on cmshisi 
possible, the power of the mini^ 
Prince Ferdinand, urged by mi 
dicious friends, hereupon (secretl^r 
dressed a letter to Napoleon, a 
plaining of his family's and counC 
distresses, which he affirmed to tx\ 
from the thraldom in which l> 
were held by Godoy, requesting 
aid to duplace the fitvourite, c 
putting himself under the emp^r^ 
protection. Godoy, being appri^ 
of the affair, hastened to king Char| 
and having assured him that his ^ 
Ferdinand was conspirinc both ag^i n 
his crown, and his life, had ti{ 
seized, and placed indoee conlif^ 
ment Napoleon, however, lost « 
dme in sending troops into the li 
ninsula under the pretence <^ marc] 
ing against Portugal; and when II 
had surprised, and taken sevend Sp{ 
nish fortresses, the court, in alari^ 
resolved on retiring to the colony 4 
Mexico. March 17tb, 1806, w^ 
fixed for the departure i and th| 
carriages having drawn up^ at thi 
palace at ten at nisht, a mutiny com 
menced against the soldieiy, Godoj 
was sought for and ultimately appr« 
bended, and the spirited conduct ol 
the brothers, Ferdinand and Carlosj 
alone saved that minister's life, llttl< 
as he expected protection at theig 
Imnds. The retreat was now aban^ 
doned; and Charles, observing the 
popularity of his son, abdicated in 
his favour, and on the 19th of March 
the latter assumed the title of Fer- 
dinand VII. This arrangement, how* 
ever, did not suit Napoleon, who con- 
trived, under specious pretexts, to 
draw father and son to Bavonne, and 
obliged both to resign the Spanbh 
crown in his favour. Ferdinand and 
his brother, Don Caries, were con- 
veyed in honouiable custody to Tal- 
leyrand*sseat at Valenfay ; where they 
remained till Napoleon, induced by 
his reverses in Spain and Germany, 
restored the former to his throne, 
1814, with the proviso that heshould 
drive the En^h from the peninsula. 
King Charles IV. died at Rome, 1819. 
Fall or Vsnics unoibthb Doob 
MANiiii.*-Tbree inquiiitorshadbeen 


GEORGE IIL— 1789U-.1815. 


:.ated io the room of the doge Mo- 
'^}§o, 1776, the YeDetiani bring 
^^^^eofawiXij tinctored with repufcK 
usQ BotUMB ; at all erents they bad 
'rc^ae strongly opposed to the ans> 
- -rntical foim which had for ages 
inrfailed. Nevertheless, by the yet 
rtat miSaeiice of the oUgarcby, the 
.^^ govemmeDt had been restored, 
779; wben Paolo REimmiwaselect- 
'^doge, and ruled tlie state until his 
y.umL, in 1789, in which year a 
^'^adfol fire destroyed a large portion 
* ibe dty of Venice. Lu loi M Ainiri 
«is then (JKwen doge : and open the 
'^aodent breaking out of the French 
^olntioii, Ydioe joined the other 
sates of Italy, to oppose the pro- 
:?^s of the republican leaders. The 
t-tj of the oligarchy, however, was at 
H^ oocupi^ by the French, 1 797 ; 
aad the wedding <yf the Adriatic was 
nsitted that year, by the dop's com- 
Eaod, for the first time since the 
:%tmitioD of the magnificent cereoMH 
nUl by Ziani ,1177. A tumult having 
'•aken place in the city soon after the 
GccopBtion,wherein severalFrench sol- 
eifts were k illed, the main republican 
army on its return from Vienna, de- 
posed the doge, dissohed the oligar- 
rhy, and, to the great jo^ of a very 
iooesaed populace, constituted Ve- 
mee a republic Some intention was 
then expresaed by the invaders to 
aonex xne state to the new Cisalpine 
repablsc, as a French province ; but 
the treaty between the French and 
the emperor of Germany not being 
vet signed, on account of the former 
iaving reftised to restore Mantua, as 
it was stipulated they should do in 
the preliminaries, they ceded Venice 
to Germany, in lieu of Mantua. 
Thus* in tlie year 1797, was • the city 
of the seventy Isles,' whose terrible, 
yet often romantic history takes so 
prumiDent a place in European an- 
nals, humbled for ever, by a power 
vhicfa had for centuries been proud 
of ber alliance ; and she now simply 
figures ai a common seaport of the 
Austriao Lombardo-Venetic king- 


1789 TO THX nMiov, 1801.-^ We have 
stated that Ireland was in a condition 
little above anarchy when the Frendi 
revolution began, 1789. It was not, 
therefore, matter of surprise to Great 
Britain, that an explosion which 
shook all Europe, should be very 
seriously felt by her ever-efervescent 
sister. The fint token of rebellioa 
in France was the signal for revolt to 
the discontented, the unprincipled, 
and the profligate of all nations. In 
England, French innovating opinions 
sproul with rapidity, and their pro* 
gress at one time was most ahurming i 
but the firmness of the executive 
government, supported by the good 
sense of tlie nation, prevented any 
actual outbreak. In Irehmd those 
destructive principles took an iaune- 
diate hold; and the people were 
urged forward to the last stage of 
crime. A conspiracy was entered 
upon to separate the territory from 
Great Britain, and to establish a re- 
public, .after effecting the ruin of all 
religious establishments. The roost 
active engine of this treasonable com* 
bination was the Society of United 
Irishmen, established 1791. The 
subject of parliamentary reform was 
a cover to its real designs ; but it cirw 
culated writings of a flagitious ten- 
dency with peneverance; and the 
lower classes were trained by it to be 
instruments of the most diabolical 
barbarity. The soldier was incited 
to betray his king, the tenant his 
landlord, the servant his master. In 
the issue, magistrates, witnesses, ju« 
rors, all who ventured to support 
the laws, were marked for destruc* 
tion ; and assassins, sparing neither 
sex nor age, spread eveiywbere ter* 
ror and dismay. In the summer of 
1796, a direct communication with 
the enemy was opened by the heads 
of the conspiracy ; and French assist- 
ance was promised speedily to be 
sent in aid of the disanected, whose 
number in Ulster alone was 100,000. 
An agent was soon after despatched 
to the French Directory (lord Fitz- 
gerald), who, accompanied by Mr. 
O'Connor, had an interview with 


GEORGE IIL— 1789— 1815. 


general Hoche ; and in this confer- 
ence eveiy thing was settled respect- 
ing an invasion. 

Accordingly, in December, 1796, 
the French fleet took advantage of a 
thick: fog, and escaping from Brest, 
unobserved by admiral Colpoys, an- 
chored in Bantry Bay. The appear- 
ance of this armament excited a con- 
siderable degree of alarm, since the 
Union Society had not extended its in- 
fluence so &r ; so that the demonstra* 
tions given of an ardour to oppose the 
enemy wherever a descent should be 
attempted, induced the invading ships 
to retire. During 1797, extensive 

? reparations were made, both at the 
'exel and Brest, for a second at- 
tempt ; but the enemy's designs were 
again frustrated by the victory of 
lord Duncan over the Dutch fleet, in 
October. In the mean time^ vigor- 
ous measures were pursued against 
the conspirators. The insurrection- 
act was passed, by which the lord- 
lieutenant of Ireland was enabled to 
proclaim any county in a state of 
disturbance, and to treat it accord- 
ingly; while the habeas corpus-act 
was suspended, and the yeomanry es- 
tablished. Notwithstanding these ef- 
forts of the law, many parts of Lein- 
ster and Munster were in the pos- 
session of a complete banditti early 
in 1796 ; and no night passed with- 
out the commission of numerous 
murders. The arrest of the Leinster 
committee, however, on the 12th of 
March, with several leading members 
of the Union, tended so much to 
harass the designs of the conspirators, 
that a plan was digested by tneir mi- 
litary committee for a general rising 
on the 23rd of May. The ffovem- 
ment being perfectly informed of the 
plot, several of the leaders were ap- 
prehended on the 2Ut. Neverthe- 
less, the insurrection took place on 
the night appointed. The rebels first 
attacked the town of Naas, but were 
repulsed by the Armagh militia ; and 
in several other engagements the^ 
were in like manner defeated. Their i 
principal strength seeming to be col- 
lected in Wexford, a vigorous attack { 

was made upon that county by gene- 
rals Lake and Moore ; and such was 
the activity and energy of the officers 
and soldiers, that tranouillity began 
gradually to be restored. Lord Ed- 
ward Fitzgerald, a son of the first 
duke of Leinster, the chief leader of 
the insurgents, was arrested in Dub- 
lin ; and being severely wounded in 
the struggle with the magistrates, 
he died a few days after in prison, 
June 4th. About the end of Au- 
gust, some frigates from France ap- 
peared in Kilala bay, and landed 
about 1000 men, with arms and 
ammunition; but the invaders, on 
being attacked hj general Lake, sur- 
rendered at discretion. Another 
French expedition was intercepted by 
the squadron under sir John Warren, 
and captured. This last occurrence 
put an end to French hopes ; and 
though banditti continued for some 
time to infest the country, they were, 
by the vigilance and activity of the 
king's troops, pursued to their lurk- 
ing-places, and destroyed. 

The union of Ireland with Great Bri- 
tain seemed now the only thing want- 
inj5 to her security. The subject was 
laid before the British parliament by 
Mr. Pitt; and after undergoing an 
ample discussion, it received the ap- 
probation of a great majority in both 
houses. When the subject came to 
be considered in the Irish parlia- 
ment, the same intemperate violence 
which had characterized its debates 
on former occasions was manifested : 
in a word, dazzled and bewildered by 
a pliantom which they called Inde- 
pendence, the members were inca- 
pable of canvassing a subject of such 
magnitude, in all its beanngs. When 
two countries exist as separate na- 
tions under the same sovereign, the 
question respecting the exp^iency 
of a legislative union, abstractedly 
considered, seems to be attended with 
no difficulties. Among the import- 
ant benefits that may naturally be 
expected to flow from such a junc- 
tion, may be reckoned an increase of 
energy, a consolidation of resources, 
a coincidence of views and interests, 


G£OBOE m.— 1789— 1815. 



M die gradual decay of national 
r^rinrtio ia, bjr ^whu^ sLiiimosities are 
-^ceoted. In the cbs^ of Great Bri- 
:£iiaDdIr^aiui, the situation of both 
:^ieBdeTed such a measare nece»- 
£nr far their mutual prosperity ; and 
''sioe, without it, would certainly 
JTe added Ireland to her domi- 
-oQs. Notwithstanding the inflam- 
^£c»7 haffsngnes of the democratic 
.ortTy and the oppontion of Mr. 
'jri£tan,the Irish parliament at length 
^^^^^^cd upon a bill, which, after vast 
s^positiacm, finally passed both houses, 
Apiii 180O ; and a similar bill ba?- 
'ig been broo^t into the Britisii 
pHament by Mr. Pitt and lord 
OreoYille, both reodved the roval 
dissent. It was hereby determined that 
iromthe 1st of January, 1801, there 
siooold be but one imperial pariia- 
^^A for the British islands ; wherein 
Ir^and should be represented at 
Westminster by four spiritual peers 
^aken in rotation every session, twen- 
tr-es^ii temporal peers chosen by 
the Irish prelates and peers for life, 
sad lOO Gommonefs (since increased 
to 105), elected in the usual man- 
ner. By the act of union, the Irish 
are admitted to a share of all the 
tade of Great Britain, except such 
as is confined to chartered companies, 
md is of course not free to the in- 
hsbttants of Britain at large. Ire- 
land still retains her own Uws and 
ttmrts of justice, together with her 
court of chancery ; and her majesty 
is lepcesented in Dublin by a lord- 
lienteiumt, as when tlie two islands 
vere two kingdoms. Ireland is like- 
wise exempted from all concern with 
the debt of Great Britain contracted 
before the Union ; in which respect 
the terms granted to her are prefer- 
able to those which had been granted 
by England to Scotland; and her 
contribution to the imperial expenses 
is bot as one to seven-and-a-half. 

Tns Loans Libittsnant oi Ire- 
hod, from the first, in 1361, to the 
piesent day, have been as follows : — 
1861, Lionel, earl of Ulster; 1879, 
Edmund Mortimer, earl of March ; 
1392, Philip Coorteney, lord Birm- 

ingham, general; 1384, Robert De 
Vere, eari of Oxfords 1394» king 
Richard II., in person ; 1395, Ro- 
ger Mortimer, earl of March and Ul- 
ster; 1399, king Richard II., in per- 
son (second time) i 1401, Thomas, 
earl of Lancaster ; 1410, John, duke 
of Bedfoid; 1413, Edward, eari of 
March ; 1414, sir John Talbot ; 1410, 
Thomas, earl of Lancaster; 1427, 
sir John de Grey ; 1428, sir J. Sut* 
ton, lord Dudley ; 1432, sir Thomas 
Stanley; 1438, Lion, lord Wells; 
1440, James, earl of Ormond ; 1446, 
J., eari of Shrewsbury; 1449, Rich- 
ard, duke of York ; 1461, George, 
duke of Clarence, for life ; 1479, Ri- 
chard, duke of York; 1483, prince 
Edward, son to Richard III. ; 1485, 
John de la Pole, earl of Lincoln; 
1490, Jasper, duke of Bedford ; 1496, 
Gendd, earl of Kildare, and in 1504 ; 
1501, Henry, duke of York, after- 
wards Heniy YIII. ; 1504, Gerald, 
earl of Kildare ; 1590, Thomas How- 
ard, earl of Surrey; 1530, Henry, 
duke of Richmond; 1558, Thomas, 
eari of Sussex ; 1598, Robert, earl of 
Essex ; 1599, sir Charies Blunt, 
lord Mountjoy ; 1639, Thomas, lord 
viscount Wentworth, earl of Straf- 
ford ; 1643, James, marquis of Oiw 
mond; 1649, Oliver Cromwell; 1660, 
James Butler, duke, marquis, and 
earl of Ormond; 1669, John Ro- 
berts, lord Roberts ; 1670, J. Berke- 
ley, lord Berkeley ; 1672, Arthur 
Capel, earl of Essex ; 1677, James 
Butler, dukeof Ormond ; 1685, Henry 
Hyde, earl of Clarendon; 1686, Ri- 
chard Talbot, earl of Tyrconnell ; 
1690, Henry Sidney, lord Sidney; 
1695, Henry Cap^ lord Capel; 
1701, Lau. Hyde, earl of Rochester ; 
1703, James Butler, dukeof Ormond, 
and in 1711 ; 1707, Thomas Herbert, 
earl of Pembroke ; 1709, Thomas 
Wharton, earl of Wharton; 1711, 
July 3» James, duke of Ormond ; 
1713, Oct. 27, Charles, duke of 
Shrewsbury; 1717, Aug. 7, Charles, 
duke of Bolton, 1721, Aug. 28, 
Charles, duke of Grafton; 1724, Oct. 
22, John, lord Carteret ; 1731, Sept. 
11, Lionel, duke of Dor8et> and again. 


GEORGE ra.— 1789^—1815. 


September 19, 1751 ; 1737, Sept 7, 
William, duke of Devonshire ; 1745, 
Aug. 31, Philip, earl of Chesterfield ; 
1747, Sept. 13, William, earlof Har- 
rington ; 1751, Sept 19, Lionel, duke 
of Dorset; 1755, May 5, William, 
marquis of Hartington ; 1757, Sept. 
25, John, duke of Bedford; 1761, 
Oct 6, George, earl of Hali&x; 
1768, Sept. 22, Hugh, duke of North- 
umberland ; 1765, Oct 18, Francis, 
earl of Hertford; 1767, Oct 14, 
George, viscount Townsend ; 1772, 
Nov. 30, Simon, earl Harcourt; 1777, 
Jan. 25, John, earl of Buckingham- 
shire ; 1780, Dec. 23, Frederick, earl 
of Carlisle; 1782, April 14, Wil- 
liam Henry, duke of Portland ; 1782, 
Sept 15, George, earl Temple, and 
again, December 16, 1787, as mar- 
quis of Buckingham; 1783, June 3, 
Robert, earl of Nordiington; 1784, 
Feb. 24, Cliarles, duke of Rutland, 
who died 24th Oct. 1787 ; 1787, Dec. 
16, George, marquis of Buckingham ; 

1790, Jan. 5, John, carl of West- 
moreland; 1795, Jan. 4, William , 
earl of Fitzwilliam ; 1795, March 31, 
John, earl Camden ; 1798, June 20, 
Charles, manjuis Comwallia; 1801, 
May 25, Philip, earl of Hardwicke ; 
1806, March 18, John, duke of Bed- 
ford; 1807, April 19, Charles, duke 
of Richmond ; 1813, Aug. 26, Charles, 
earl Whitwonh; 1817, Oct 9, Charles, 
earl Talbot; 1821, Dec. 29, Rich- 
ard, marquis Wellesley, and again. 
Sept 26, 1833; 1828, Maidi 1, 
Henry, marquis of Anglesey, and 
again, Dec. 23, 1830; 1829, March 
6, Hugh, duke of Northumberland ; 
1830, Dec. 23, Henry, marquis of 
Anglesey ; 1833, Sept 26, Richard, 
marquis Wellesley ; 1884, Dec. 29, 
Thomas, earl of Haddington ; 1 835, 
April 23, Henry Constantine, earl of 
Mulgrave ; 1839, April 3, Hugh, vis- 
count Ebrington ; 1841, Sept 15, 
Thomas Philip, earl de Grey. 


Lord Howb^s Victo&t, 1794, hap- 
pened on the I St of June, in the At- 
lantic ocean, 1000 miles from the 
coast of France ; and it was the first 
of that series of triumphs which even- 
tually extinguished the French navy, 
in the war of the revolution. Villa- 
ret-Joyeuse was the French admiral. 

Nile, 1798, gained by the immor- 
tal Nelson over the French fleet un- 
der admiral Brueys, in Aboukir bay. 

Seringapatam, 1799. — ^This capi- 
tal of the Mysore country, in Hin- 
dustan, was taken by general Harris, 
and the body of Tippii Sultaun was 
found under heaps of slain at one of 
the gates. 

Marengo in Italy, 1800, between 
Napoleon, and the Austrians under 
Melas ; in which the latter were de- 
feated, with the loss of 15,000 men 
in killed, wounded, and prisoners. 

Assays, 1803.— On August 29, 
1803, ffeneral Wellesley, having re- 
ceived mtelligence that Sdndiah and 
the Tuah ofBerah were marching 
upon Hydrabad, the Nizam's capital 
moved forward to the left bank of 

the Godaverv, so as to come between 
the approaching enemy and Hydra- 
bad. TlieconH^erates, finding them- 
selves thus baffled, retraced their 
steps to Jalnapoor; and continued 
retreating, in order to ausment their 
force, until they reached the banks of 
the Kaitna and Juali, along which 
they encamped. Here the general 
resolved to attack them, though their 
army amounted to 40,000 men, and 
his own did not not exceed 5000, of 
which only 2000 were Europeans. 
Having made the fortified village of 
Assaye his head-quarters, the general 
crossed the Kaitna at a ford near the 
village of Pepulsaon ; upon which 
the enemy opened upon his troops a 
cannonade that did terrible execu- 
tion. As the British guns could not 
rrach the foe in return, the general or- 
dered the artillery to be left behind, 
and the whole line to move on . This 
was the critical moment: the stoutest 
heart must have felt the greatest 
anxiety at seeing so small a force ad- 
vancing to the charj^ against an ar- 
my eight times their number, in a 

GEOB6E nL— 1789— 1815. 


i2ie d e s p a tth vas sent to 
viiere it vas presomed diat h would 
isd fab beaa-quaYten cutaWwhed, 
TbeK were sdD, howercr, at Lftge; 
sad the dcspatdi a|»peaniigto be of 
IK) mniwmefice, wkmcAA^ jaaarad^ 
]3T at Hammt unopenedt and was 
r'sBod tbere by Bolow, oidf od his 
iniral at ten o'dock the next moi»- 

Whaterer the defects of Bludief's 
csvaby and ardlieiy at Lignj, and 
wiatefer the merits of the eeDetaTs 
posadoo, it is dear that Napoleon 

vas tasked to the utmost to wrest it 
before nig^tiall from the old warrior 
wtto heid it. The spot had been 
Tsited diortly before toe oonimenoe- 
cent of the action Inr the duke of 
WeDington ; on which occasion the 
i*o ceneials concerted in person 
tbrir mtiiie measures for mutual oo- 
opaadon, in whatever manner the 
£ist collision might end. We be> 
liete it to be the opinion of most 
Eni^ish officers acquainted with the 
groond at Ligny, that the duke 
Older sinular drcnmstanoes, would 
lave defended it in a different manner 
from dmtadopted by the Prussians, for 
dttt the locality amnitted of a dispo- 
srdon which would hare less exposed 
the maBses not immediately enpged, 
to the murderous fire of toe French 
tftfflery ; but it is allied that the 
conise ind been adopted from know- 
ledge and experience of the habits 
and monde of the Prussian troops, 
who cannot think of fighting unless 
tbqr see their enemy. 

Napoleon's first attack was made 
on the Idth ; and it was upon the 
Russian outposts at Thuin. The 
prince of Orange was the earUest to 
bring the duke of Wellington the in- 
telligence ; and he found nis grace at 
dinner at bis hotel (then three o'clock) 
at Brussels, about a hundred yards 
from hxi quarters in the park, which 
he had taken care not to quit during 
the morning, nor even on the preced- 
ing day. Orders were accordingly 
despatched at &ve o'clock for Sie 
movement of the British army to the 
left; and these reached most of the 

eoips by ei^it» andprobaUy aD by 
ten o*MdL F. M. This will at once 
diow that the assertion of the numer- 
ous ' Waterioo chronidemi' wyrdlng 
the dnkc^s having been snrpraed by 
Napoleon's sodden proximity, baa no 
foundation in truth. The drcnm- 
stance of manr of the British olBoeis 
being engaged at a ball at Brasseis, 
on the evening of the 15th, has been 
one of the arguments brooriit to sofN 
port this erroneous riew of the mat* 
ter ; but an attention to the follow- 
ing statement, and to the memoir of 
the duke of Brunswick, will enable 
the reader to banish suc^ a prejudice 
from his mind. 

Whoi the duke of Wdlington had 
been summoned from Vienna to take 
the command in the Netherlands, 
the armies of our continental allies 
were distributed in diilerent parts of 
Europe ; while the greater part of 
that of En^and had been detached 
to North America, and, though peace 
had been concluded with the United 
States, had not yet returned. On 
his arrival finom Elba, Buonaparte 
had found a French army in France, 
completdiy organized, consisting of 
S50,000 men, with cannon and all 
requisites, and capable of increase 
from a number of old soldiers and 
returned prisoners dispersed through 
the country. It is obvious that, 
under such circumstances, the first 
measures which the eenerals of the 
allied armies could tue must be de- 
fensive. The armies in the Belsian 
provinces, and on the lefr bank of the 
Rhine, must have been strictly di- 
rected on this principle. They were 
at the outposts s and it was their 
office to protect the march of the 
other armies of the allies to the in- 
tended basis of combined operations. 
Each of these armies, indeed, had 
particular interests to attend to, be- 
sides those which were common to 
all ; but the peculiar objects intrusted 
to the British, were of supreme and 
paramount importance. The force 
under the duke's command, consist 
ing of British, Dutch, and Hanove- 
rians, had to preserve its communi- 


GEORGE IIL— 1789— 1815. 


cations with England, HoUand, and 
Germany, to maintain its connexion 
witli the Prussian army, and to pro- 
tect Brussels, the seat of government 
of the Netherlands.. Napoleon had 
great advantages, whether for offen- 
sive or defensive operations, in the 
number, position, and strength, of the 
fortresses on the north-east frontier 
of France. These enabled him to 
organize his forces, and arrange their 
movements, beyond the power of de- 
tection on the part of the allies, even 
to the last moment. They put it 
out of the power of the allies to un- 
dertake any offensive operation which 
should not include the means of cai^ 
iyinff on one or more sieges, possibly 
at the same time. The country oc- 
cupied by the duke and his allies was 
comparatively open, for the ancient 
stronsholds of Flanders bad been 
found in very bad condition ; and 
though his measures were as active 
as judicious to put them in a state of 
defence, no activity could repair their 
deficiencies in a very brief space of 
time* ^ No general ever occupied a 
defensive position of greater difficulty 
and inconvenience; and the uncer- 
tain^ of the length of time during 
which it was to be so occupied, was 
an aggravation of that difficulty. It 
is ckaj*, from numerous passages in 
colonel Gurwood's twelfth vdume, 
that the duke could do nothing to 
terminate that period, till the other 
armies of the allied powers should 
have entered on the basis of combined 
operations. The duke could only 
occupy himself, as he did, in strength- 
ening his position by oushing on the 
works of Charleroi, Namur, Mons, 
Ath, Toumay, Ypres, Oudenarde, 
Courtray, Menin, Ostend, Nieuport, 
and Antwerp. Reports of an in- 
tended attack by Napoleon had been 
frequent before June ; and, previously 
to the Idth of that month, it was 
Imown at Brussels, that Buonaparte 
had left Paris to take the command 
on the northern frontier. This cer- 
tainty, however, could make no im« 
mediate chan^ in the position of 
the allied armies : it coula not invest 

them with the power of taking thi 
initiative. All the usual precautloni 
for the forwarding of orders to th^ 
troops in their respective canton^ 
ments liad been already adopted ; hu^ 
any decisive drawing togetner of tli^ 
forces, founded on any hypothesis 
which could as yet be formed, might 
have been destructive to some ono 
or other of the interests which it was 
the business of the duke to preserve 
inviolate. His grace, therefore, was 
as watchful to know his enetny*a 
movements as all these circumstances 
could make a general ; and he vras no 
more surprisra bv the opening at- 
tack of the 15th, tnan he was at find- 
ing his own dinner ready in the park, 
at three o'clock on that day. 

We must be brief with the pro- 
ceedings from the first assault at 
Thuin on the said 15th, to the dose 
of the 17th of June. That onset of 
the French led, on the 16th, to the 
grand attack upon marshal Blucher 
and his Prussian army, consisting of 
100,000 men, at Ligny; and Blu- 
cher*s defeat was the result. Ano- 
ther party of the enemy contended 
on the same day at Quatre Bras, 
against the duke of Brunswick-Oels, 
and his corps of black jagers ; but in 
that conflict die French were driven 
from the field, though, in the pursuit, 
the brave duke received a wound, 
of which he instantly expired. On 
the 1 7th a deluee of rain fell. There 
is no truth in uie story of an inter- 
view having taken place on the 17th 
between the duke of WeUington and 
maishal Blucher. The duke, in the 
early part of that day, had enouefa to 
do to conduct his unexampled re- 
treat to Waterloo, from before Na- 
poleon's united force, and superior 
cavaliy ; a movement which, but for 
a trimng affair at Genappe, would 
have been accomplished without the 
loss of a man. His grace remained 
at Quatre Bras so occupied, until 
half-past one, p. m. ; and ne then re- 
tired by the high road to the field of 
next day's battle, whicli he thorousbly 
examined. H e was quitti ng the plain 
of Waterloo, to dine in the viUage of 


GEORGE in.— 1789— 1815. 


^ oaBM; when an aide-de-camp of 
• '^3 Angleaey orertook him, with 
^ itteS^ieoce that the 7th hussars 
^: been oigaged with the French 
~^is» and l^t the enemy was 
''^iag apoD his rear. On hearing 
-^ be tivned back instantly to the 
^n, and remained there until dark. 
i -cber, on the other hand, was 
Ted to keep his bed throughout 
^^ i7th ; his age and increasing io- 
^^ities hayieg rendered the fatigues 
'^'•ht previoos day almost too much 

Ob the morning of the 18th, how- 
ler, Blocber was nearly as early in 
tae ndcHe as the illustrious duke, 
^"li cook the heaA of Bulow's newly- 
irvnd diTtsion. it is stated to have 
(>CT alaiost ludicrous to see him 
^^dng on its onward course, like 
M::toa*s griffin through the wilder- 
(^•"^ cheering the march- worn troops 
^'d the defile of St. Lambert rang 
u> b^ old war-cry (whence his sobri- 
'^'rt) of *Vorwartsr (forwards 1) 
^^^i reminding them both of the rain 
UviD| spared so much powder at 
^^ Katzbach, and of his solemn 
pledge to assist tlie English. As for 
N^leon, on that most eventful day 
tc< iiim as well as to his opponents, 
vhen he had likewise early mounted 
tii^ borse, he began to look out from 
an eminen<:e he had reached, in search 
of the British cavaky. His first im- 
pression, on seeing so few English 
bi>rse, was, that they had escaped ; 
aod be began to vent his disappoint- 
loent to those around him m no 
measured terms. But Foy, who had 
tad much Peninsular experience of 
ine duke of Wellington's tactics, 
^rned Inra not to rely on appear- 
ances. ' Vellington,' said he, • never 
shows his troops. A patrol of dra- 
goons will soon ascertain the fact; 
but if he be yonder, I warn your 
majesty, 'que Tinfenterie Anglaise, 
en duel, est le diable !' 

We must here state that Napo- 
leon, oat of his large disposable force, 
had 75.000 men on the field, and the 
Ue. in all, about 65.000. The 
French had 25,000 cavalry, mostly 

experienced troops, and forming part 
of the 75.000. Napoleon's men were 
wholly French, and, under their idol, 
felt assured that victory would crown 
their efforts ; while the positive num* 
her of British soldiers was but 32,000, 
including tlie German legion of Bruns- 
wickers, &c — the rest beins com- 
posed of Belgian, Dutch, and Nassau 
troops, and 16,000 out of the 65.000 
never acting on the field, but remain- 
ing stationed all day near Hal, to 
cover the approach to Brussels. 

The field whereon was now to be 
fought a battle, the most singular in 
its accompaniments, and the most mo- 
mentous in its consequences, of any 
before recorded in the history of Eu- 
rope, is not far distant from the spot 
on which Dumouriez gained the tirst 
victory of revolutionary France over 
the Austrians. Though the scourge 
of war had spared for more than 
twenty years the fruitful plains of 
Belgium, its return seemed permitted 
by Providence to achieve, at one 
blow, on the same soil, the annihila- 
tion of a military tyranny, which had, 
from its first rise, sought the aggran- 
disement of a single state, at tlie ex- 
pense of trampling on the rights and 
independence of all others. The road 
from Brussels runs through the forest 
of Soignies, composed of close-grow- 
ing beech-trees, to the village of Wa- 
terloo. Beyond tliat point, tlie wood 
assumes a more straggling appear- 
ance ; and about a mile further, at 
the ridge of heights, called Mont Saint 
Jean, the trees almost disappear, and 
the country becomes quite open. The 
chain of heights extends for about a 
mile and a half, and corresponds 
with a similar but higher chain, nin- 
ning parallel with it. Tlie two lines 
are separated from each other by a 
valley, not a mile in breadth ; and 
the declivity on each side is a gentle 
slope, diversified by undulating banks, 
that seem as if formed by the action 
of water, although the valley is at 
present destitute of any stream. The 
ground is traversed by two high-roads, 
or causeways, both leading to Brus- 
sels ; the one from Cliarleroi tlirou^* 

roL. in. 



GEORGE III.— 1789— 1813. 


Genappe, and the other from Ni- 
velles. On reaching the summit of 
the heights, these two roads unite at 
tlie hamlet of Mont Saint Jean, from 
which the British position was at 
some distance in advance. The Bri- 
tish rear was nearer to the farm of 
Mont Saint Jean ; and another farm- 
house, called La Haye Sainte, is si- 
tuated upon the Charleroi causeway, 
near the foot of its descent from the 
heights. In the middle of the valley, 
considerably to the right of the Eng- 
lish centre, stood the chAteau de 
Hougoumont, an old-fashioned Fle- 
mish villa, Mrith a tower and species 
of battlement. It was bounded on 
one side by a large farm-yard, and on 
the other it opened to a garden, 
fenced by a brick wall, and an exte- 
rior hedge and ditch ; the whole pre- 
mises being encircled by a grove of 
tall beech-trees, covering a space of 
three or four acres. 

The British army, with 120 pieces 
of artillery, was drawn up in two 
lines. Tiie right wing, commanded by 
lord Hill, consisted of the 2nd and 
4th English divisions, under sir Henry 
Clinton, and maior-general Hinuber, 
the Srd and 6th Hanoverians, and 
the 1st Belgians : its extremity was 
stationed at Merke Braine, where it 
was protected by an enclosed coun- 
try, and deep ravines. The chateau 
or Hougoumottt, which stood in front 
of the centre of this wing, formed a 
very strong advanced-post. Tlie chft- 
teau and garden were occupied by 
the light companies of the guards, 
under lord Saltoun, and colonel Mac- 
donnel ; and the wood or park by 
the sharp-shooters of Nassau. At 
the commencement of the action, the 
right wing presented the convex seg- 
ment of a circle to the enemy ; but, 
as the French gave ground, the ex- 
treme right came gradually round, 
and the curve being reverseci, became 
concave, enfilading the field of battle, 
and the hi^h road to Charleroi, which 
intersects it. The centre, under the 
prince of Orange, was stationed in 
the front of Mont Saint Jean : it was 
composed of the Brunswick and Nas- 

sau troops, with the guards xxu 
major^eneral Cooke, and the I 
Englisn division commanded by 
Charles Alten. The farm of 
Haye Sainte seemed as a kev to I 
centre ; it was fortified as well as i 
time permitted, and strongly gai 
soned with Hanoverians. The I 
wing consisted of the 5th and < 
divisions, under sir Thomas Pict^ 
with generals Kempt» Lambert, a 
Pack. It extended to Ter-la^Haj 
which it occupied, and the defiled 
which protected its extremity, at 
prevented it from being tiirn< 
From Smouhen, to which the Hai 
of this wing reached, a road runs 
Oliain, and the woody passes of i 
Lambert, through which the duke 
Wellington kept up a communic 
tion wiw the Prussian army at Wavr^ 
The front line was composed of tK 
^kie of the army ; the second wj 
placed behind the declivity of r| 
heights in the rear ; the cavalry wei 
principally posted in the rear of the 1(^ 
of the centre ; and tlie artillery on tli 
heights in front. In case of disa^te 
the wood of Soignies lay witliin tw 
miles ; and its verge might, by a fe^ 
resolute troops, be defended again*^ 
almost any force. 

ITie force of the French army oi 
the heights of La Belle Alliance Wc'^ 
about 75,000 men, with nearly 3(H 
pieces of cannon. The 2nd corpj 
formed the left wing of the army 
under Jerome Buonaparte, ex-kinj 
of VVestplmlia. It leaned its riglil 
upon the road to Brussels, and it] 
left upon a small wood, within caui 
non-snot of the English army. Tli« 
1st corps was in the centre, wndet 
counts Reille and D'Erlon, on tlio 
road to Brussels* and opposite tlie 
village of Mont Saint Jean. The 
6th corps, under count Lobau» with 
the cavalry of general D'Aumont» 
was kept in reserve, and destined to 
proceea in rear of the right to op- 
pose the Prussians, as soon as tliey 
should make their appearance on the 
left of the British. The cavalry and 
the guards were in reserve in the 
rear. The French lines exteoded 


GEORGE IIL-^178^— 1815. 


tro miks ; those of the English a 
Bile and a hal£ In such a contined 
Lisatn wms the terrible battle to be 
^jght; and this noay iu a great 
^^asnre aoooimt for its sanguinary 


The ni^t of the 17th of June, 
1815 (that prerious to the conflict so 
i^^^eiishabiy designated by the epi- 
t^ of Watejujoo), was a litting pre- 
cazsor of the fuiy and the carnage of 
^ oomipg day. The tempest raged, 
aad the thunder rolled unremitting- 
k accompanied by such vivid and 
cxtenave sheets of lightning, and 
sodi deluges of rain, as are rarely 
vtaeased out of tropical regions. 
K«>th armies bad to sustain the rage 
^ ihe elements, without the means 
either of refreshment or shelter; and 
tbe British soldiers were up to their 
hiees in mud. Napoleon, on enter- 
ing the fi^d at the dawn of day, be- 
hM his enemy drawn up in order of 
battle oo the opposite heights ; and, 
ifter his befbrementioned allusion to 
the small amount of English cavalry, 
he exclaimed to his stan, with appar 
rest exultation, 'Ah I je les tiens 
done, ces Anglais I' and then pro- 
ceeded, with his accustomed quick- 
aesB, to make the necessary arrange- 
ments lor combat. Having compell- 
ed a fiurmer, named La Coste, who 
lived at the house caUed La Belle 
Alliance, to act as his guide, he as- 
cended an eminence, 'and acquainted 
himself with the various features of 
the surrounding country ; every ob- 
^enration he made being carefully 
noted on a map which lie carried 
rolled up in his hand. After his de- 
Eoent, he gave orders for the disposi- 
tion of the troops ; and before three 
o'clock they were aJl at their allotted 
nations. A courier had been previ- 
ously despatched to marshal Grouchy, 
with orders to attack the Prussians 
atWavres, and compel them to a ge- 
neral action. Though Napoleon must 
have been conscious that such an at- 
tempt would terminate in the anni- 
hilation of tlw marshars corps, yet, 


in that same selfish spirit which had 
urged him to desert his army in the 
retreat from Moscow, he conceived 
any sacrifice necessm, bating that of 
his own precious liie, which would 
afford the chance of vanqubhing ' the 
hero of the Peninsula,' who had so 
continually foiled his best tacticians, 
and paved the way for his exile to 
Elba. Simply to keep Blucher in 
check, as we should throw a hat or a 
handkerchief to divert the attention 
of a pursuing meadow-bull, the force 
of poor Grouchy was to be cast at the 
feet of ' marshal Vorwarts.' 

A short time before the conflict of 
Waterloo began. Napoleon again as- 
cended an eminence, on which an 
observatory liad been recently erected 
by the king of tlie Netherlands, and 
whence he was enabled for the first 
time to eain a perfect view of both 
lines. He was forcibly struck by the 
appearance of the British troops — 
against whom he had never before, in 
the military action of above twenty 
years, as nomer would have sung, 
* been placed, standing apart, to fight 
in contention* — machesihai eridi. He 
was, as a soldier, manifestly subdued 
in spirit by the brilliant coup d'oeil 
presented to his sight ; arising from 
the combined effects of the noble 
bearing, beautiful arrangement, tho- 
rough equipment, and, last not least, 
the imposing power of the scarlet 
and blue clothing, of his enemy. Tri- 
fies such as these, like the spark which 
can set the city in a blaze, affect the 
minds of the most ambitious and 
most reckless of men on occasion, — 
and more especially in the moments 
of apprehended danger. They speak 
to the heart, and produce such invo- 
luntary exclamations as that of king 
Ahab, when he saw the dreaded pro- 
phet Elijah—' Hast thou found me, 
oh I mine enemy?* — And the neces- 
sary reply to such interrogatory, * I 
have found thee I* carries with it dag- 

fers to the breast of the inquirer, 
o was it with Napoleon, when he 
had feasted liis eyes upon the splen- 
did exhibition which the English ar- 
rayed forces presented. No more 


GEORGE 111.— 1789— 1815. 


did he exclaim, ' Je les tiens, done, 
ces Anglais r— but, grunting out at 
intervals an *AhI ahl— grandl- 
bell beir he at length said (what 
we will translate), * See how steadily 
those troops take their ground ! How 
beautifully those cavalry form I Ob- 
serve those grey horse (they were 
the Scots Grevsj — aie they not noble 
troops ?*— and then, as if to shake off 
the melancholy forebodings which 
had assailed him, he suddenly changed 
hb tone from a low to a high and 
loud one, and exclaimed, ' Mais voyez, 
mes amis— In half an hour 1 shall 
cut them all to pieces!' All the 
combinations for the attack were now 
made, under his own eye, Witli great 
skill and rapidity, tlie manoeuvres 
being completely concealed from his 
antagonists by the nature of the 

The British army calmly awaited 
the result of these mighty prepara- 
tions. Their illustrious chief liad 
taken a commanding station under a 
tree on the Brussels road, precisely 
in the centre of the British line, near 
the top of Mont Saint Jean, from 
which every movement made or 
threatened could, with the aid of an 
achromatic telescope, be distinctly 
seen ; and every arrangement was 
adopted to meet the first onset of the 
foe, upon wliatever point of the line 
it might be made. An officer of the 
staff, on viewing the formidable forces 
of the enemy, expressed a wish that 
tlie Prussians had arrived. * The 
roads are heavy/ replied his grace, 
' they cannot be here before two or 
three o'clock ; and my brave fellows 
will keep double tliat force at bay 
till then.^ 

About eleven o'clock the troops 
were busily engaged in cooking some 
provisions to recruit their strength, 
which was almost exiiausted by long 
fasting and fatigue ; but before they 
could partake of this refreshment, 
the voice of the aides-de-camp was 
heard, giving the solemn note of 
warning — ' Stand to your arms I The 
French are moving I' A furious can- 
nonade instantly began, which soon 

spread along the whole line ; aiicl 

immense array of French cuira^si 

was seen sweeping across the p]j 

to embarrass the British deploy mci 

But this first essay was checked b 

brilliant charge of the Life Gua 

and Oxford Blues, which in a n 

ment put the enemy to flight. 1 

drd corps of Uie French army, in r 111 

divisions, now advanced towards I 

British right, it being the object 

Napoleon to get possession of H< 

goumont ; the occupation of wh| 

would faciliUite his efforts to tij 

this wing. Prince Jerome advaiK 

to the assault of tliis important pq 

but after a vigorous contest with i 

Nassau troops, he was compolieil 

retreaU Tlie attack was almost | 

stantly renewed by general Foy, wh<l 

furious onset succeeded in dri\i 

the Nassau troops from the wooi 

and the chateau itself must have \w^ 

carried, but for the desperate bnivti 

of tlie light companies of the guard 

by whom it was defended. A Fren^ 

officer and a few of his men actual 

forced their wav into the court- van 

where colonel Macdonnel fouglit Iiaii 

to hand with the assailants ; and 

was owing to an exertion of person^ 

strength on the part of this gallai 

officer, that the gates of the cliAtea 

were closed against the enerav. IIoii 

goumont now became completely h 

vested ; but its valiant defenders u 

solved to avail themselves to th 

utmost of the walls and deep ditclic 

by which it was surrounded. A t om 

time the French rushed through i 

hedge, which they conceived to bi 

the barrier of the garden ; but tiiii 

exterior boundary only masked a gar 

den wall, which was loop-holed aii^ 

scaffolded, and all who penetrated 

through this opening were immcdij 

ately shot. A furious contest ragci 

at tiie same time in tlie orchard, ever) 

avenue of which was strown witli 

the dead or wounded. Finding all 

otlier means to penetrate the ciiAtcaU 

unavailing, the French brought u|i 

some howitzers, the shells from which 

soon set the outhouses on fire, toge^ 

thcr with a large lia^'stack in the 


GEORGE ni— 1789-1815. 


^sn-yvrd ; and numben of the 
viuoded o^ tx>th parties, who had 
-m placed uidiacriminately in ofie 
t loe &red buildings, perished in the 
"biKs. Tet the intrepid defenders 
'< lioagDuiBoat, though surrounded 
^ tLs assemblage of horrors, refused 
'*" jieid ; and when they were driven, 
'^ the ignition of the chateau itself, 
b'jo the garden, they maintained the 
oiabat throagfa the remainder of the 
•2y, under coloneb Woodford and 
Macdoonel, and never permitted the 
n^mj to advance beyond its pre- 
ciacts. The sangiiinaiy nature of 
tis dreadful combat may be appre- 
f^Mfsd from the &ct, that more than 
^*M dead and wounded lay around 
tiia post in a very short space of 

The partial success of the enemy 
ta getting possession of the wood, 
vhieh in a great measure separated 
liGogonmont from the Briti&h line, 
&Toyred a desperate attack, which 
was made by the remainder of prince 
3«rume*s corps, on the duke*s right 
viog. This movement was conducted 
in the most formidable style of French 
tactics; the preparations being carried 
OQ ander cover of the clouds of smoke 
vfcich were driven from the burning 
houses towards the British position. 
Artillery, dexterously placed, and ad- 
ffiirabiy served, with swarms of sharp- 
shooters, endeavoured by their fire to 
thin the ranks, and dbtract the at- 
tention of the opposing battalions. 
Heavy bodies of cuirassiers and Ian- 
cm advanced, supported by dense 
columns of infantry marching with 
shouldered muskets, to take advan- 
tage of the first impression made by 
the cavalry, to rush forward, and com- 
plete the destmction of the broken 
ranks of the British by the bayonet. 
The duke was aware that Napoleon 
would resort to this most favourite 
node of attack; and he was prepared 
to meet it. He had formed his bat- 
talions into separate squares, each 
I side of whidi was four men deep, and 
I the squares were arranged alternately, 
like the squares on a chess-board, so 
ihat each of those in the rear covered 

the interval between two of tliose in 
front. It was impossible that this 
formation could be broken by ca\id- 
ry, if die men preserved their pre- 
sence of mind ; for in the event of 
horsemen venturing between the 
squares, they would be exposed to an 
exterminating fire in front and on botli 
flanks. Tlie artilleiy was placed in 
the intervads of the line of squares ; 
while infimtry, the Brunswick }'agers» 
and sharp-shooters, detached in front, 
skirmished with the French tiralleurs, 
and preserved the battalions in a great 
measure from their desultory but de- 
structive fire. 

This mode of formation presented 
such an apparent inequality of num- 
bers to the eye, that a spectator, 
unacquainted with military' tactics, 
would not have supposed it possible 
tliat these small detached black masses 
could have resisted for a moment the 
furious torrent that was about to 
assail them. The French cuirassiers 
and lancers rushed on with a noise 
and clamour which seemed to unsettle 
the firm earth over which they gal- 
loped, and made a tremendous dash 
on the guards and Brunswickers ; 
but tlie steady appearance of the lat- 
ter soon checked their ardour. Re- 
pulsed at the first onset by a destruc- 
tive volley fired at ten yaras distance, 
the cuirassiers used every effort of 
the most determined valour to throw 
these immoveable phalanxes into dis- 
order. As if reckless of life, they 
galloped up to the very bayonets, cut 
at the soldiers over their muskets, 
and fired their pistols at the officers. 
Others rode at random between the 
squares, and were mown down by 
the crossing fires, or by attacks of the 
British cavalry which rushed at in- 
tervals from the rear; while those 
squadrons, that, less daring, stood 
at gaze, were swept off in hundreds 
by the British artillery, which was 
never in higher order than on this 
memorable day. Still undismayed, 
fresh squadrons of the enemy pressed 
on with desperate courage ; or, if the 
cavalry attacks were suspended for a 
moment, it was only to give place to 


GEORGE III.— 1789— 1815. 


the operations of Uieir celebrated ar- 
tillery, which, at 100 yards distance, 
played on the British squares with 
tlie most destructive execution. The 
cuirassiers, meantime, waited like 
birds of prey» to dash at any point 
where the slaughter should make the 
slightest opening ; but their intrepid 
opponents, closmg their files, with 
steady composure, over the bodies of 
their dead and dying comrades, still 
presented to their view that compact 
array of battle, which rendered every 
new effort to disorder it abortive. 
During the interval of the cavalry- 
attacks, the squares sought protec- 
tion from the murderous effect of the 
French artillery, by deploying into a 
line four deep, and lying on the 
ground ; but m many instances the^ 
Iwd scarcely time to perform this 
evolution, when they were again 
called upon to re-form and oppose 
fresh charges. The promptitude and 
coolness with which the manoeuvres 
were executed, at length convinced 
the enemy of the rashness of their en- 
terprise ; and the battle slackened in 
thb quarter, to rage with greater fury 
on the other points of the line. The 
tiglit continued still exposed to a 
severe cannonade; but the interval 
of comparative tranquillity was seized 
to reinforce witli six companies of 
the guards, under colonel Hepburn, 
the brave garrison of Hougoumont, 
which succeeded in driving back Fo/s 
division, and in regaining possession 
of the wood. 

Defeated in his object of turning 
the right wing, and establishing him- 
self on the road to Nivelles, Napo- 
leon now organized the whole of his 
forces for a combined attack, with all 
arms, on the centre and left of the 
British position, which, if successful, 
would cut it in two, separate the Bri- 
tish army from that of tlie Prussians, 
and make him master of the road to 
Brussels. Preceded by the fire of 
their immense artillery and numerous 
sharp-shooters, vast columns of in- 
fiintfy and cavalry were seen moving 
across the plain to charge on differ- 
ent points at the same moment ; and 

while a strong body advanced to tl 
attack of La iJaye Sainte, the key 
the British centre, which they spec 
ily invested, another pressed on to tl 
heights of Mont St. Jean, and a thi 
moved on Ter la Haye, to the left < 
the position, where the 5th and 6l 
British divBions were posted, wii 
some Belgians, and a brigade ofheav 
dragoons under the command of s 
Thomas Picton. The mode of a 
tack on this point was of the mos 
tremendous description, and was ir 
tended, on the part of the Vrench, t 
be a battle of cavalry and can nor 
Headed by the iron-clad cuirassicn 
on whose mail the musket-balls wen 
heard to ring, as tliey glanced of 
without injuring the wearers, tlx 
French infantry ascended the heights 
where the remnant of Pack's gallant 
brigade (the Royal Scots, 42nd, 44th, 
and 92nd regiments) were posted. 
Some Belgian troops were forced to 
give way before the rapid onset of 
the enemy ; but the duke of Welling- 
ton, who liappened to be in tliat part 
of the field, moved up tlie British 
brigade to a kind of natural embra- 
sure, formed by a hedge and bank in 
front of the line ; and from thence the 
brave Highlanders gave tlie enemy a 
reception similar to that which they 
had experienced from the guank 
and Brunswickers on the right. Sir 
Thomas Picton now advanc^ to sup- 
port the corps with sir James 
Kempt's brigaacy composed of the 
28th d2nd, 79th, and 95th regiment^. 
Vast masses of Frendi infiintry had 
arrived at this time behind the very 
hedge where the Britisli were posted. 
Tlieir muskets were almost muzzle to 
muzzle, and a French mounted ofli- 
cer attempted to seize the colours of 
the d2iyl ; when general Picton, 
suddenly resolved on becoming the 
assailant, and promptly forming 
his division into squares, rushed 
through the hedge, and attacked the 
advancing columns of infantry and 
cavalry with charged bayonets. Ap- 
palled by this almost unparalleled act 
of intrepidity, the enemy hesitated, 
fired a volley, and fled; but tliat 


GEORGE III.- 1789— 1815. 


^dkj pfOTed iatal to one of the 
iMesi oommandets of whom the 
i>ntish army coiM boast. A mus- 
ket-bail struck the right temple of 
cbe gaUant PictoD, and in a moment 
nambered him with the dead. Not- 
cichstanding this disastrous event, 
1^ ffivisioii maintained its chaige 
txder sir James Kempt, till it had 
repulsed tbe enemy from the crest of 
Ci£ hill, to which they had nearly 

Before the French had time to re- 
curer from the eflfects of tliis furious 
attack, a brigade of heavy dragoons, 
ctanmanded by sir William Pon- 
sooby, wheeled round the extremity 
of the cross-rood, full on the flank of 
tiie foe. It was composed of the 
Royab, Greys, and Enniskillens «— 
England, Scotland, and Ireland, in 
Li|^ rivalry and irresistible union. 
The 92nd iiighlanders (now reduced 
to ^M) men) bad at this moment 
piei«ced the centre of a column of 
FreiM^ infimtry of as many tliou- 
sands, and the Grreys dashing in at 
tbe opening, the two regiments 
cheered eac:b other, shouting, ' Scot- 
land for ererT The cuirassiers and 
jsncers now advanced to save their 
io&otry ; and the Greys being rein- 
fi)rced by the Royals and Enniskil- 
len dragoons, one of the most dread- 
M cavalry engagements recorded in 
the history of modem warfare en- 
sued, llie far-famed cuirassiers 
nuntained a long and murderous 
struggle against the British dragoons, 
in which some extraordinary feats of 
de&terity and courage were displayed. 
The impenetrable armour of tbe 
French g^ve them a decided advan- 
tige over their antagonists, who could 
only strike at their necks or limbs ; 
but numbers of them were cut down ; 
and at length both cuirassiers and 
lancers fled in confusion, abandon- 
ing their artillery and in&ntry, when 
nearly 3000 prisoners, two eagles, 
and several pieces of cannon, reward- 
ed the prowess of tbe victors. The 
exultation, however, which this suo 
cess was calculated to inspire, received 
a severe check by the fell of tlje in- 

trepid leader of the attack, sir Wil* 
liam Ponsonby. 

Napoleon, from his commanding 
station near La Belle Alliance, viewed 
the progress of this mightv struggle, 
and the valorous, but fruitless efforts, 
which his devoted followers were 
making to secure the victory. The 
intrepid conduct of the British fre- 
quently called forth his eulogiums ; 
and observing how the chasms were 
everywhere filled up the instant they 
had been made by the French artil- 
lery, he exclaimed to Miarshal Soult, 
' Quels braves soldats I comme ils 
travaillent ! ties bien !* adding, * Mais 
il &ut qu*il^/ plient !' ' Non, sire ! * 
replied Soult, * ils aimeraient mieux 
^tre tailles en pi^es.' To the intel- 
ligence of every fresh repulse, his only 
reply was, * Avant I avant I' Acting 
on this principle, the defeat of his 
troops on the ri^t and leflt led him 
to adopt the most desperate efforts to 
break through the centre, in front of 
which La Have Sainte was still 
vigorously defended by the Hano- 
verian light troops. At each end of 
the court-}'ard of this farm-house 
stood a large door or gate, through 
which the besiegers and the besieged 
fired at each other with dreadful 
effect. When the last cartridge of 
the Hanoverians had been expended, 
they kept up an unequal contest with 
swords and bayonets through the 
windows and embrasures, till the in- 
creasing numbers of the enemy ena- 
bled them to storm the house ; but 
the resistance of tlie gallant Germans 
ended not until nearly their last man 
had ceased to breathe, and the whole 
building presented a scene of simt- 
tered ruin. 

The French had for some houn 
kept up a violent cannonade on the 
centre of the British line ; but the 
latter having now established a post 
on the causewajr, Napoleon ordered 
his general to direct their main force 
against the troops so posted. The 
gallant soldiery resisted for hours the 
varied attacks of the enemy's cavalry 
and artillery ; and a somewhat par- 
ticular description of the kind of con- 


GEORGE III.— 1789— 1815. 


fiict sustained by a square at this 
post, composed of the dOth and 7drd, 
commanded by sir Colin Halket, may 
afford some idea of this extraordinary 
description of combat. To no square 
did the French artillery and cuiras- 
siers pay more frequent visits: so 
that ttie soldiers be^n almost to re- 
cognise the faces of those messengers 
of death. Sometimes they galloped 
op to the very points of the bayonets ; 
at other times, confiding in their ar- 
mour, they fearlessly walked tlieir 
horses round this bulwark of steel, 
that they should have more time to 
seek some chasm in the ranks at 
which they might rush in. The 
cuirassiers were repeatedly driven 
off; and upon each of these occasions 
the line was promptly formed, to give 
the flying foe a more effective volley, 
or to render the enemy's artillery less 
destructive to themselves, when 
again the storm was seen gathering 
and rolling on, the command to ' Re- 
form square — prepare to receive ca- 
valry,' was promptly and accurately 
obeyed. In a moment the whole 
were prostrate on their breasts, to let 
the iron shower fly over ; and they 
were erect in an instant, when the 
cannon had ceased, and the cavalry 
charged. At one period of the com- 
bat, the commander of the cuirassiers 
attempted to throw this invincible 
phalanx off its guard by a ruse-de-' 
guerre, by lowering his sword to 
sir Colin Halket ; when several of 
the English officers cried out, * Sir, 
they surrender r But the general, 
jusUy suspecting that a body of well- 
mounted cavalry would not surrender 
to a corps flxed on the spot in a 
defensive position, made no other 
reply than, * Be firm — fire I' and the 
volley put the colonel and his cuiras- 
siers to flight, with a laugh of derision 
from the men he liad intended to cut 
to pieces. The duke of Wellington 
paid frequent visits to this distin- 
guished square ; and having upon one 
occasion inquired ' How they were T 
their commander replied, ' tliat nearly 
two-thirds of their number had fallen, 
and that the rest were so exhausted, 

that it might be attended with ad- 
vantage if one of the foreign corns 
who had not suffered, would take 
their station even for a short time/ 
The reply of the duke was, ' It is 
impossible I the issue of the battle 
depends on the unflinching front of 
the British troops; you and I and 
every Englishman in the field must 
die on me spot we now occupy/ 
' Enough, my lord,' said sir Colin, 
' we stand here till the last man falls/ 
And, though himself severely wound- 
ed, this brave man would no donbt 
have kept his word, had not the 
British cavalry soon flown to his re- 

The duke now felt that the crisis 
had arrived which called for all his 
energies ; and they were exerted witli 
decisive effect. Many of hb short 
but encouraging phrases liad a talis- 
manic effect on the men. Riding up 
to the 95th, when in front of the 
line, awaiting a formidable diarge of 
cavalry, he exclaimed, 'Stand fast, 
95th, — we must not be beaten — what 
will they say in England ? To an- 
other regiment, when fiercely en- 
gaged, he said, ' Hard pounding tbis» 
gentlemen — let's see wno will pound 
longest. Never mind, we'll win the 
battle yet T 

The situation of the British line 
had become extremely hazardous ; and 
several of the regiments, having no 
longer a sufficient number of men lefi 
to form square, were obliged to re- 
ceive the cavalry in line, in order to 
cover the necessary space of ground. 
A close column of French infantry 
now pressed forward to carry the vil- 
lage of Mont St. Jean, in the rear of 
the British centre ; but some ^lant 
charges from the latter threw the as- 
sailants into disorder. The hussars 
displayed their usual courage; but, 
notwithstanding the heroic exertions 
of the earl of Uxbridge, their light 
blood-horses were forced to give way 
before tlie ponderous rush of the 
cuirassiers, and great destruction 
would have ensued, had not the 
liousehold brigade, composed of the 
life guards, Oxford blues, aod 1st 


GBORGE m.— 1789-1815. 


iaem guards, led on by sir John 

'Jn, made a charge oo txie 'French 

.^»alry, which was productive of the 

post tremendous effects. The weight 

M umoor of the cuirassiers proved 

r^i^ctued against the ^lock of this 

^auM and irresis^ble brigade — 

•yj were Uteially ridden down upon 

^^dd— hundreds were driven head- 

M? ioto a quarry or gravel-pit, 

i^Te tfaaj rolled, a contused and 

lE&tin^iahable mass of men and 

!»j;3es,ull the fire of the cavalry and 

•n&eiy pat a period to their sufier- 

tp. TYioBe who for some time 

stood that ground, proved also the 

wpeiioT strengdi of the British sol- 

&ni,^th ^rhorn they fought band to 

^oad. K corporal of the life guards, 

fiaaed Shaw, well known as a pugi- 

ist, and equally formidable as a 

svordsman, slew or disabled ten cui- 

sanefs wiUi his own hand, before he 

«as killed by a pistol-shot. The 

officers, as weU as the men of this 

heroic bond, were dosely engaged in 

indiTidaal combat with the enemy. 

Sir John Elley, who was remarkable 

for bis strength, his honemanship, 

sad his skill in the use of the swoid, 

perforated feats of valour that would 

nave done honour to the brightest 

da^-s of chivalry ; and being at one 

period of the combat surrounded by 

six or seven cuirassiers, he, though 

severelv wounded, cut his way 

through them, leaving four of his 

assailants dead behind him — their 

wounds bearing striking indications 

of the unusual strengtli of the arm 

tliat had inflicted them. Colonel 

Ferrier, of the 1st life guards, fell 

on tliis memorable occasion. He 

had led his regiment to the charge 

no less than eleven times ; and most 

of the charges were not made till 

after his head had been laid open by 

the cut of a sabre, and his body 

pierced with a lance. Major Pack, 

of the tovbI horse guards, was also 

particularly distinguished. He had 

been one of the first to dash amongst 

the ranks of the enemy ; and he and 

his opponent having dismounted each 

other, he leaped upon a troop-horse. 

and, in his second charge, led his 
squadron against a column of cui- 
rassiers. He killed the officer com- 
mauding the column ; but he himself 
was the next moment run through 
the body, and numbered with the 
slain. The result of this brilliant 
charge was most important. The 
enemy were driven from the heights 
with the loss of 1200 prisoners, the 
fiurm of La Haye Sainte was retaken, 
and the Britbh were re-established 
in the positions they had before oc- 
cupied. The duke of Wellington 
could now with difficulty riestrain the 
impetuosity of the troops ; who, after 
standing so many hours exposed to 
the most furious charges, eagerly de- 
manded to be led against the enemy. 
• Not yet, not yet, my brave fellows I* 
was his reply ; 'be firm a little longer 
— ^you shall have at them by and by.' 
Indeed the patience of the illus- 
trious chief, as well as that of his 
heroic followers, mnst have been put 
to the severest test. The combat had 
continued for six hours with un- 
abated fury, and one-fourth of the 
allied troops were killed or wounded 
— while the remainder were worn 
out with fatigue, and destitute of the 
smallest refreshment. It would be 
impossible, under such circumstances, 
but tliat the spirits of the men must 
droon. In fact, during the intervals 
of the cavalry attacks, while the 
French artillery were dealing ha- 
voc in the British ranks, an indiffei^ 
ence to life seemed spreading fast 
among the soldiery, though, on the 
near approach or Uie enemy, they 
became as alert as eyer. Yet the 
duke remained cool, and apparently 
cheerful ; and he was fully deter- 
mined to maintain the contest so 
long as a single regiment continued 
firm at its post. An aidende-camp 
coming up with the intelligence that 
the 5th and 6th divisions were nearly 
destroyed, and that it was utterly im- 
possible they could maintain their 
ground — * 1 cannot help it,* said his 
grace : * they must keep their ground : 
would to (iod that Bluchcr or night 
were come !' 


GEORGE IIL— 1789— 1815. 


While the battle was thus raging 
in the centre, the 2nd corps of 
French, under prince Jerome, had re- 
newed their attacks upon the right 
wing. The post of Hougoumont, 
which had receired repeated rein- 
forcements from the division of the 
guards, had never ceased to be the 
object of the most desperate assaults ; 
but its brave garrison maintained it 
to the last, and the loss of the French, 
in tliis attack alone, is estimated at 
10,000 men. Sir Frederick Adam*s 
brigade, who were close to the right 
of the centre, had been for two hours 
exposed to a dreadful fire of artillery, 
without being able to discharge a 
musket at the enemy. The brigade 
had only joined the army the pre- 
ceding evening ; and the men were 
so exliausted by a fatiguing march of 
two days, that the continued roar of 
cannon and bursting of shells was not 
sufficient to prevent several of them 
from falling asleep ; in which state 
many fell victims to the balls which 
flew thicklv around them. At length 
the French lancers made a dash at 
some artillery in the rear. The bri- 
gade were instantly on their feet, 
formed square, and repelled the ene* 
my. Tlie latter returned again and 
again to the charge; but, aided by 
die 13th light dragoons, who came 
up to their assistance, under colonel 
Boyer, the brigade finally succeeded 
in putting the lancers to die rout. 

It was now five ; and the British, 
though dreadfully weakened, still g^- 
lantly maintained their position at 
every point ; but some movements 
on the enemy's rieht began to indi- 
cate that they liad ascertained that 
their opnonents were about to be 
supported in the unequal contest by 
their Prussian allies, whose arrival 
had been so long and ardently ex- 
pected. In fact, general Bulow, with 
two brigades of infantry and a corps 
of cavalry, was then defiling by Ohain, 
in the rear of the French army, after 
having encountered extraordinary dif- 
ficuldes in his passage through the 
woods of St. Lambert. But while 
Napoleon condnued the main con- 

flict against the British position, 1m 
opposed to this new enemy the 6tl 
corps, under count Lobau ; and ai 
engagement was immediately corn! 
menced in this quarter, but widi 
litde energy, as Bulow did not wish 
to undertake any thing serious till th^ 
arrival of marslial Blucher. 

It is thought that Napoleon, as i 
prudent general, should at this mo- 
ment have discontinued the action] 
the whole of the Imperial guard 
being still in reserve — who, consider- 
ing me exhausted state of the Bridsh, 
would liave been more than sufficient 
to cover his retreat on the Dyle and 
Sambre. But his recollccdon of the 
day of Marengo, where his reiterated 
eflY)rts, after the battle had been to 
all appearance lost, secured him the! 
victory, led him to hope for a similar 
triumph on diis occasion, — as on dial 
triumph alone rested his hopes of 
uniting the French nation in support 
of his throne. After reflecting for 
some moments on his cridcal situa- 
tion, he determined again to attack 
the weakest part of the Bridsh line 
in great force ; hoping to carry it be- 
fore the remainder of the Prussians 
could arrive. He accordingly brought 
forward the whole of the cavalry of 
his guard, and directed it, supported 
by fresh masses of infantry, on the 
centre of the position. Its first shock 
was irresistible, and thirty pieces of 
cannon fell into its power. But the 
presence of the duke of Wellington 
quickly averted the danger which 
now menaced the army. Placing 
himself at the head of the three bat- 
talions of English, and three of 
Brunswickers, he addressed them in 
a few animating sentences, and dien 
led them against the enemy, who 
were now proudly advancing to the 
very rear ot his lines. In a moment 
victory was rescued from their grasp 
— they abandoned the artillery diey 
had taken, and fled with precipi- 

During the conflict in the centre, 
count Lobau liad repulsed Bulow's 
advanced guard, and driven them 
again into the woods; and Napoleon 


GEORGE IIL— 1789— 1815. 


impressed the strongest confidence 
djst Grouchy was rooring in the 
suae line as tne Prnssians, and would 
short^ arrive to his assistance. He 
ibereme resolved to p^seTcre in his 
rTUTtiiODS to cany the British posi- 
doDs, notwithstanding the immense 
sacrifice of lives whidi was the con- 
sequence of every fresh attack ; and 
ao certain was he of success, eren at 
this achranced period of the battle* 
(bat be ordered his secretary to send 
aa express to Paris, announcing that 
d» victory was his! About seven 
it was told him that powerful bodies 
of Prosaians were opening from the 
woods near Frischennont, and threat- 
ening his rear; but he treated the 
aide-de-camp who brought the intel- 
Mgence with contempt ' Allez-Tous- 
€D r said be, ' vous avez peur^allez 
aux colonnes qui se deploient, et 
Toos verrez que ce sont celles de 
Groudiy.' All who obeyed his com- 
mand were killed or taien ; and he 
vas made sensible of his error, when 
the Prussians commenced the attack 
on his right wing. He still, however, 
beheved that Grouchy must be as 
Dear to support as this new enemy 
vas to attack him ; and he caused 
general Liabedoyere to circulate this 
opinion amongst the troops, with 
whom he now resolved to make a 
last grand effort. Having detached 
the whole of the reserves of tlie 6th 
corps, and the young guard, with 
100 pieces of cannon, against the 
Prussians, he brought forward 15,000 
of the Imperial guard, who, having 
remained on the ridse of La Belle 
Alliance, had scarcely yet drawn a 
tri^er in tlie action. He placed him- 
self at the head of tliese celebrated 
troops, descended the hill, and led 
tliem till they reached a ravine, half 
way between La Belle Alliance and 
La Haye Sainte, where he was pro- 
tected from the fire of the British 
artillery. Here his veteran guards 
defiled before him for the last time. 
Led on by marshal Ney, this noble 
column then pressed on with loud 
$liouts,and the clang of warlike music, 
over ground covered with heaps of 

slain, and slippeiy witli blood ; rally- 
ing in their progress such of the 
broken cavalry and infantry of the 
line, as still maintained the combat. 
Such was the clamour, that the 
British believed Napoleon himself 
would be the leader m this new at- 
tack ; but they were not unprepared 
to meet him. The duke of Wellington 
had not &iled to improve the ad- 
vantages which the repeated repulses 
of the enemy had given him. The 
extreme right of the line, under lord 
Hill, had gradually gained ground 
after each unsuccessful charge, on 
the right of the centre, until, the space 
between Hougoumont and Braine-la- 
Leude being completely cleared of 
the enemy, this wing, with its artil- 
lery and sharp-shooters, was brought 
round from a convex to a concave 
position, so that its guns raked 
the enemy as it debouched upon 
the cauaewav. The service of the 
British artillery upon this occasion 
was so accurate and destructive, that 
the heads of the French columns were 
enfiladed and almost annihilated be- 
fore they could reach the high road ; 
so that they seemed for a consider- 
able time advancing from the hollow 
way, without gainins ground upon 
the plain. The enUtusiasm of the 
Imperial guard, however, enabled 
them to overcome tliis obstacle, as 
well as a charge of the gallant Bruns- 
wickers, which they repelled with 
considerable slaughter. They rushed 
up to the heights with great spirit, at 
a point where the British guards lay 

S rostrate in a hollow, to avoid the 
estructive fire of the French artil- 
lery, by which the assault was co- 
vered. The duke had placed himself 
on a ridge behind, declaring he 
would never quit it but in triumph ; 
and as soon as the Imperial guard 
had approached within one hundred 
yards, he suddenly exclaimed, ' Up, 
guards, and at them I' The French 
battalions appeared startled at the 
apparition of this fine body of men, 
who were drawn up four aeep ; but 
soon recovering tlieir composure, the^ 
advanced at the charge step, their 


GEORGE III.— 1789— 1815. 


artilleiy filing off to the right and 
left, till they were within twenty 
yards of their opponents, and were on 
the point of dashing at them with 
their bayonets, when a volley was 
poured upon them by the British, 
which literally drove them back with 
its shock. A second volley increased 
tlieir confusion ; and before they had 
time to deploy, the Britbh cheered, 
and charged them witli an effect 
that proved irresistible. The duke 
himself at this crisis brought up ge- 
neral Adam's brigade, and completed 
the rout of the enemy. A regiment 
of tirailleurs attempted to cover their 
retreat, and attack the pursuers ; but 
they fled at the very cheers of the 
British. The old guard had still 
preserved their squares; but thev 
were now charged by the British 
cavaJry, forced, and almost entirely 
cut to pieces; and their leader^ general 
Cambrone, was taken prisoner. 

Napoleon beheld, from his station 
in the ravine, the rout of his chosen 
troops. He talked of rallying them 
to make another effort, still persist^ 
ing that Grouchy was at hand ; but 
from tliis he was dissuaded by Ber- 
trand and Drouet, who represented 
how much the fate of France and of 
the army depended upon his life. 
Hitherto he had shown the greatest 
coolness and indifference throughout 
this eventful day ; but when he ob- 
served his celebrated guards recoil in 
disorder, the cavalry intermingled 
with tlie foot, and trampling them 
down, he said to his attendants, * lis 
sont m^les ensemble!' shook his head, 
and retired to his former station on the 
heights of La Belle Alliance. There, 
on the advance of the British line, he 
exclaimed, ' A present tout est perdu 
-r-sauvons nousT and instantly left 
tlie field (then half-past eight), ac- 
companied by five or six officers, and 
galloped along the road to Genappe. 
Mo other course but flight now re- 
mained for him, to escape death or 

The duke of Wellington had hi- 
therto suffered no prospect of advan- 
tage to draw the main army from its 
position, but now the decisive moment 

was come for bringing this dreadful 
engagement to a termination. Tlie 
acuteness of his sight enabled him to 
perceive the advance of the Prussians 
in great force on the enemy s riglit 
flank ; while the ruinous disorder in 
which the French fled before the 
Britbh guards, declared tliem past 
the power of rallying. He therefore 
determined to become the assailant 
in his turn. He ordered the whole 
army to advance to the charge ; the 
centre formed in line four deep, 
and the battalions on the flanks 
in squares for their security ; the 
duke liimself, with his liat in his hand, 
leading the whole line, which was 
supported by the cavalrj' and artil- 
lery. 1 his movement is represented 
as having been one of the finest mi- 
litary spectacles ever witnessed ; and, 
could it have been viewed apart from 
the scene of carnage which tlie field 
exhibited in every quarter, must have 
excited an indescribable glow of tri- 
umph in the bosoms of the gallant 
troops, who for so many hours had 
maintained, with unwavering con- 
stancy, the unequal contest. The set- 
ting sun, which throughout the san- 
guinary day had been veiled in clouds, 
now burst forth for a moment, and 
darted a cheering ray on the British 
columns, as they rushed down the 
slopes, and crossed the plain that 
separated them from the French po- 
sition. To ascend the heights of La 
Belle Alliance was the work of a mo- 
ment,— though in the presence of the 
fire of 150 pieces of cannon. Some 
resistance was still offered by the 
remnant of the Imperial Guard, ral- 
lied by marshal Ney ; but it was 
auickly overcome. Tlie reserve of 
ttie young guard, which was posted 
in a hollow between Belle Alliance 
and Monplaisir, was totally routed 
by the 5*2nd and 7 1st regiments, who, 
after they had put the enemy to flight, 
separated, and, running on two sides 
of an oval for a considerable way, 
met again, and thus cut off a great 
number of prisoners. The first line 
of the French was now thrown back 
upon and mingled with the second, in 
inextricable confusion : pressed by 


GEORGE ni.— 1789— 1815. 


^ Brki^ in front, and by the Prus- 
sbos oo the figbt flank and in the 
rear; corpB of varied description 
were blended in one confused tide of 
iight, wbich no person attempted to 
pide or to restrain. Baggage-wag- 
EpQs, dismoonted guns, ammunition- 
ans» and arms of every description, 
cambered the open fields as well as 
the causeway ; and with them were 
imermingled in thick profusion the 
corpses of the slain, and the bodies of 
die wounded, who in vain shrieked 
axid implored compassion, as the fu- 
gitives and tlieir pursuers drove head- 
ioi^ over them. The victory of 
Waterloo was achieved I 

We have only a few parting re- 
aarks to make. It is an indisputable 
kct, that to the coming up of the 
Pruasiais ai loMt, is to be ascribed the 
otter ruin of the French army, on the 
day of Waterloo; and we should be 
Qi^rateful did we not acknowledge 
the service. But we cannot subscribe 
to the theories, whether French or 
Prussian, which give it the full me- 
fit of saving from destruction an ar^ 
my, which had, while as yet unsup- 
ported, repulsed every attack, and 
annihilateci the French cavalry. We 
know that no tliought of so disastrous 
a result crossed the minds of tliose 
about the duke's person ; and that 
officeis of his staff, who left the field 
vounded tovrards the close of the ac- 
tion, did so with no other feeling of 
aoxiety, than for the personal safety 
of him they left behind. It is said 
that Bertrand, subsequently, at St. 
Helena, set much store by an operas 
gjaas, through which Napoleon had 
discovered Uie English general at 
Waterloo. We believe tliat neither 
the duke nor his staff succeeded at 
any moment of tlie action in identi- 
fying the person, or exact position, of 
lib great opponent ; thoush few great 
battles have brought rival leaders so 
near. That our chief was every 
where, except in the rear, is well 
known; and. the casualties among 
bis own staff, of whom many were 
hit at his side, bespeak the hot ser- 
vice he went through. Danger pur- 

sued him to the last. Afler sixteen 
hours in the saddle, he was alighting 
at his own quarters, when the spi- 
rited animal^ long afterwards a pen- 
sioner in the paddocks of Strath- 
fieldsaye — as if conscious of the 
termination of his labours — jerk- 
ed out his heeb in a fashion, 
which a slight change of direction 
might have made fatal to his late rider. 
Such an exploit would have rendered 
poor * Copenliagen* rather more fa- 
mous than 'the little gentleman in 
black velvet,' so often toasted in our 
Jacobite revels of the last century. 

The following passage, from a rrus- 
sian pen, shows that there need be no 
dispute between the two allied na- 
tions, as to their respective contribu- 
tions, under God, to the victory so 
gloriously achieved on the plains of 
Waterloo. ' Upon the question, 
** Who really fought and won the 
battle of the 18th," no discussion, 
much less contention, ought to have 
arisen. Without in the slightest de- 
gree impeaching the just share of 
rrussia in the victory, or losing sight 
for a moment of the fact that she 
bore a great share of the danger, and 
drew much of it from her allies and 
upon herself, at a decisive moment, 
no unprejudiced person can conceal 
from himself that the honour of the 
day is due to the Anglo- Netherlandish 
army, and to the measures of its great 
leader. The struggle of Mont St. 
Jean was conduct^ with an obsti- 
nacy, ability, and foresight, of which 
history affords few examples. The 
great loss of the English also speaks 
the merits of their services. More 
than 700 officers, among them the 
first of their army, whether in rank or 
merit, and upwards of 10,000 soldiers, 
fell, or retired wounded from the 
field.' We may here remark, in jus- 
tice to the Prussians, that their loss 
on the 18th has been greatly under- 
rated by many writers. The return 
of killed and wounded, for the 14th 
corps alone, shows a loss of 5000 ; of 
which 125<» were killed. This bloody 
struggle occurred principally in the 
village of Planchenoit ; the capture 


GEORGE III.— 1789— 1815. 


of which is compared by the Prus- 
sians with that of Blenheim, in die 
battle of Hochstet It is a part •f 
the action which has been little no- 
ticed, but which was creditable alike 
to French and Prussians. The vil- 
lage was stormed and retaken three 
times. We think that the entire loss 
of the Prussian army on the 16th, 
could hardly liave been less than 
7000, at which their authorities com- 
pute it. Especial credit is due to 
Thielman, who, during the day of the 
18th, resisted the obstinate endea^ 
vours of Grouch/s far superior force, 
to cross the Dyle at Wavres. 
Grouchy, indeed, effected towards 
evening the passage of that river at 
Limales, but too late for his purpose 
of dividing the Prussian army, or 
forcing Dlucher to concentrate his 
force, and abandon his aUies. We 
know not which most to admire — 
the determination of filucher to re- 
deem his pledge of succour to Wel- 
lin^n, or the gallantry with which 
Thielman enabled filucher to cariy 
this resolution into effect^protect- 
ing at once the flank and rear of the 
Prussian army, guarding one road of 
direct access to Brussels itself, and 
preventing Grouchy from marching 
to the assistance of "Napoleon. This 
struggle, so unequal in point of num- 
bers, was continued for some hours on 
the 19th. It was not till Vandamme 
had advanced on the direct road to 
Brussels, as far as Rossieres, on the 
verge of the wood of Soisnies, there- 
by turning the right flank of Thiel- 
man, that the latter abandoned the 
defence of Wavres, and began an on 
derly retreat on Louvain. He had 
previously learned the extent of the 
success of tlie allies on the 18th, and 
must have been easy as to the re- 
sult of any further advance of Grouchy. 
The news reached the Frenchman a 
little later; and he forthwith com- 
menced a retreat, which, perhaps, in 
its execution, did him even more ho- 
nour than his previous exploits. 

It should be borne in mind, that 
in the arrangement of the British 
force on the 18th, the whole English 

army was divided into two corps j 
the prince of Orange having com- 
mand of the one, and lord Hill of the 
other. The duke of Brunswick-Oels 
had expressed his private wish to 
lead one division against the enemy 
of his house ; but this, from some 
point of etiquette, could not be ac- 
ceded to, and the consequent dis- 
appointment to the gallant duke very 
nearly prevented his appearance 
among tne allied troops. During the 
rout that ensued on the evening of 
the 18th, 40,000 (the whole remains 
of their army^ French escaped, leav- 
ing behind tnem 150 pieces of can- 
non, and all their ammunition. The 
British lost on the occasion, generals 
sir Thomas Picton and sir William 
Ponsonby, and four colonels killed ; 
and the killed, wounded, and missing 
of officers and privates, British, Ha- 
noverians, and Brunswickers, amount- 
ed to nearly 13,000. The duke of 
Brunswick Kad fallen, as before stated, 
at Quatre Bras — determined, since 
he could not have a leading com- 
mand, to be foremost in the fight, — 
on the 16th. 

Lastly, the conflict of Waterloo 
itself, to be rightly understood, should 
be regarded as a battle fought by the 
right wing of an army, for the pur- 
pose of maintaining a position, till 
the arrival of its left should render 
victory certain. To act on the de- 
fensive, requires in the commander 
more tact, talent, and technical know- 
ledge, than the assault, the coujhdt' 
main, and all other modes of attack ; 
and the strategy required and dis- 
played at Waterloo by the duke of 
Wellington, has placed him highest 
on the roll of modem warriors^an 
occasion on which all the energies of 
his opponent's master-mind were 
aroused to bafile him. Till the ap- 
proach of the Prussians, the battle 
was purely defensive on tlie part of 
the English, without preventing of- 
fensive operations, as far as cliaTges 
of cavalry and infantry may be so 
termed; although there is no truth 
whatever in the statement made by 
several historians, that the duke flung 


liaiself firom time to time into this 
'. r that 9(|iiarey to animate the men. 
h v«s» u fatct, a holding fast of 
noond ; which, if snoceasuil, could 
Bot ^1 of leading to tlie most sploidtd 
TfsiiltSy the moment the flank move- 
laait should take effect. The two 
great leaders who thus, on this 
aemonible day, Tespectively closed 
a mflitary career, that will excite 

GEORGE in.— 1789— 1815. 


the wonder of future generations, 
were born within three months of 
each other ; the illustrious duke in 
May, and Napoleon Buonaparte in 
August, of the year 1769. The vic- 
tory was gained on the same day, 
June the 18th, that king John signed 
Magna Charta in 1215 — six exact 
centuries after that most important 


Nafolson Boonapabte, born at 
Ajaocio^ in Corsica, Aug. 15, 1769, 
vas seccmd son of an advocate of 
ooosideiable reputation. U is mother, 
Letitia Ramolini, was noted for her 
beauty, and the masculine spirit she 
displayed, when the Corsicans under 
Paoli were struggling to avoid French 
dDminaiioD. Joseph was their eldest 
SOD, then Napoleon, Lucien, Louis, 
sad Jerome, and three girls, Elise, 
Caroline, and Pauline. When the 
emperor of Austria, in after times, 
vould have found the descent of 
the Buonapartes from some petty 
princes of Treviso, his son-in-law re- 
plied, ' I am the Rodolph of my 
race r and he silenced a professional 
genralog^t with, ' Friend, my patent 
dates from Monte Notte,' his first 
battle. The young Napoleon was 
placed at seven in the military school 
at Brienne^ where Pichegru was his 
monitor, and where he first acquired 
the French langiuge ; and it has 
been thought that the hauteur dis- 
played towards him as a foreigner by 
the young French gentlemen of this 
seminary, had a strong effect on tlie 
first political feelings of the future 
emperor of France. Certain it is, 
he looked upon the French as an 
inferior people, and secretly prided 
himself on being bom an Italian. 
At fifteen he was removed to the 
Ecole Militaire at Paris, a wonderful 
compliment to his talents ; and in 
two years spent there, he greatly ad- 
TSDced in mathematics, devoured his- 
tory, and made Ossian his constant 
companion. In his sixteenth year, 
after being examined by the great 
Laplace, he was made a lieutenant of 

artillery, and soon after captain, but 
unemployed; and he witnessed the 
stormmg of the Tuileries by the re- 
volutionary mob, observing, when he 
saw Louis XVI. come into a balcony 
with the red cap of liberty on his 
head, that ' his cannon ought to have 
kept the rabble out.* So poor was 
he at this juncture, that he proposed 
to his friend Oe Bourienne to take a 
house or two on lease, and sub-let 
them, to make a little money. In 
1793 Napoleon was in Corsica, just 
as an order had come from Paris to 
deprive Paoli of his office of go- 
vernor. Paoli raised a civil commo- 
tion, and endeavoured to enlist Na- 
poleon on his side; but the latter 
joined the French in their assault 
upon Torre di Capitello, which prov- 
ing unsuccessful, he was banished 
with his whole family from tlie island. 
In the height of his power he seemed 
to keep tliis disgrace in memory ; for 
he never did any thing for Corsica, 
save defraying the cost of a small 
fountain at Ajaccio. 

After residing some time in France, 
he was appointed by the revolutionary 
government to conduct the siege of 
Toulon, then defended by the French 
royalists and English ; and by great 
perseverance he gained possession of 
the place. But he was soon unat- 
tached again, and was long in actual 
distress at Paris, projecting all sorts 
of plans for immediate subsistence. 
Happening to witness general Me- 
nou*s timid conduct, when sent to 
harangue the national guards, who 
had assembled to compel a change of 
government, he was called on to give 
evidence before the Convention ; and 


GEORGE III.— 1789-1815. 


Barras, one of the directors, who had 
seen his exertions at Toulon, pro- 
posed that ' his little Corsican' should 
meet the tumultuous soldiery on the 
following morning. It was on Oc- 
tober 4th, 1795, that 30,000 national 
guards advanced by different streets, 
at two in the afternoon, to the 
siege of the palace. Buonaparte gave 
orders to fire; and in an instant 
the artillery swept the streets, and 
before nightfal every thing was 
quiet. In a few days after this ex- 
ploit, the director of it was appointed 
commander-in-chief of the armies of 
France. It was now that he married 
Josephine de la Pagerie, a West In- 
dian, the widow of viscount Beauhar- 
nais ; and in ten days after that event 
he fought the battle of Monte Notte, 
near the Alps, against the Sardinians 
and Austrians, a victory which was 
succeeded by one at the bridge of 
Lodi, and the conqueror's entrance 
into Mihu3. Venice, Rome, Tus- 
cany, successively fell to the Frendi ; 
and the battle of the bridge of Ai^ 
cola, where Buonaparte was nearly 
suffocated in a bog ; that of Rivoh, 
where he had three horses shot under 
him ; and that of Mantua, all ended 
in favour of the invading army. The 
treaty of Campo-Formio, 1797, at 
length gave quiet to the Austrians, 
who thereupon ceded Flanders and 
the boundary of the Rliine to France. 
Buonaparte was received on his re- 
turn to Paris with strong marks of ap- 
probation by the people, tliough jea- 
lously regarded by the Directory. He 
courted no one, but passed all his 
evenings in mathematiod studies, and 
was, February 1798, engaged in plan- 
ning an attack upon England ; but in 
May, the fleet which had been pre- 
pared for the descent, took its course 
towards Egypt, seizing on Malta on 
its route. The real object of this 
expedition was to penetrate to the 
British colony in Hindustan. After 
capturing Alexandria, Buonaparte 
declared himself a Mahometan, and 
advanced towards the Pyramids ; and 
there the Mamluks, who were in 
great force, were cut to pieces, in 

their spirited but rash attempt to stop 
his progress. It being tlie custom of 
tlie Mamluks, who are all nearly on 
an equality, to carry their wealth 
about them, an immense booty was 
obtained by rifling their dead bodies ; 
a single corpse often making a sol- 
dier's fortune. At the moment tliat 
Cairo had fallen to the invaders. 
Nelson arrived with tiie British fleet 
ofi^ Alexandria, engaged the French, 
and after a most obstinate battle in 
the bay of Aboukir, completely an- 
nihilated then: force. The French 
admiral's ship, L'Orient, blew up, 
with all on board : and Nelson ob- 
tained, whaflie himself called, ' not 
a victory, but a conquest.' When 
Buonaparte heard of Nelson's suc- 
cess, * The fiites,' he exdaimed, ' have 
decreed to France the empire of the 
land : to England that of the sea.' 

Affecting to have rescued Egypt 
from the Mamluks' usurpation, the 
French general, without showing a 
desire to place any other party on 
the throne, set about improving the 
country. Canals, that had been shut 
up for centuries, were opened ; the 
waters of the Nile flowed again where 
the skill of the Pharaol^ and the 
Ptolemies had guided them ; pro- 
perty was secured, cultivation ex- 
tended, and extraordinary improye- 
ments were eflSected. While thus oc- 
cupied, Buonaparte learned that the 
Turks were preparing to attack him : 
upon which he hastened into Syria, 
and soon possessed himself of £1 
Arish and Gaza. At Jafla, however, 
the Turks made a resolute defence ; 
and when the French eventually en- 
tered it, savage indeed was their re- 
venge. Part of the garrison (1200 
men) were marched out three days 
after their surrender, divided into 
small parties, and bayoneted to a 
man ; and Buonaparte justified the 
atrocious act, on the plea that he 
could not aflbrd soldiery to guard so 
many prisoners. The siese of St. 
Jean d'Acre, which was defended by 
the pacha of Syria, Ahmed Djezzar, 
aided by the Enelish admiral, sir Syd- 
ney Smitli, had lasted sixty days, 


GEORGE III.— 1789— 1515. 


vIkq the plague broke out amongst 
ti:e PreDcfa, and compelled their re- 
trot upon Jaffa, towards Egypt. The 
•i^pitals of Jaffa were soon crowded 
vitb the sick ; and it is affirmed by 
De fiourrienne, the general's own 
irieod, that Buonaparte gave instruo- 
Qoosforthe poisoning of sixty French 
pitieiits, whom the surgeons con- 
sdered unlikely to recover— an order 
v^ was carried into effect. At 
iaigth, with his remaining troops, 
(i)e general reached Cairo ; but ne 
^Bs% repaired to Abouktr, on find- 
ing that a Turkish force had landed 
d^re, and, with Murat and Brienne 
B^b-commanders, completely rout^ 
^ it, taking captive Mustafa Pacha, 
tbe genera^ iad putting kon-de- 
fvmhat 18,000 Turks^ bein^ the pre- 
^ Dumber of the attacking army. 
Tb'B victory had scarcely been mined, 
vhen the letter of the abb^ Si^yes, 
tlbded to in the account of the Revo- 
lution, caused Buonaparte to hasten 
vitfa all secrecy to Faris. He left 
Ueber as his successor in the com- 
°^d; touched at Corsica, but did 
oot loDg stay there (finding, as he 
^ously observed, ' that it rained 
^»vsiai) ; and having passed through 
"^ midst of the English fleet unseen 
It midnight, landed at St. Rapheau, 
3«1 speedily reached Paris ; where he 
»» receiTed by the Directory with 
ao awe that prevented them from 
loquiriDg why he had quitted his 
coamiand and duty. This was in 

"nie parallel reign of France con- 
^ns an outline of the career of 
fiuooaparte (beginning at pages 
»!^1 of this volume) until his ba- 
Dtthment to Elba (page 111); and 
»e will now proceed to note what 
<^Jrred, after the commissioners of 
the Great Powers had seen him safe 
on board the British frigate Un- 
^unted, lying off* the identical village 
PI St. Rapheau, which had received 
bin fim on his ascent to, as it now did 
on tos descent from, power. 

Captain Usher, on receiving the 
«*«inperor on board his ship, on the 
^n»ing of April 28th, 1814, with a 
VOL. In. 

view to carry him to Elba, apologized 
to him for the comparatively insuf- 
ficient accommodation the vessel af- 
forded ; but he was instantly inter- 
rupted by a 'Non, non,' from his 
guest, who observed ' that a British 
man-of-war was a palace.' * When 
he had got on board (writes the cap- 
tain), he walked round the ship ; my 
people crowded about him, and, for 
the first time in his life, he felt con- 
fidence in a mob. [He was always, 
in his best days, manifestly subdued, 
and somewhat agitated, when he saw 
a large multitude of persons, not 
military, collected together, be the 
occasion what it might.] His spirits 
seemed to revive, and he told me 
next morning he had never slept 
better. On that (next) day he 
asked me a thousand questions, and 
seemed quite initiated in all nautical 
matters. At breakfast one morning, 
he asked me to bring-to a neutral 
brig that was passing. I said, laugh- 
ing, that 1 was astonished his ma- 
jesty should give such an order, as it 
was contrary to his system to de- 
nationalize. He turned round and 
gave me a prettv hard nip, saying, 
* Ah, captain !' When we were sail- 
ing by the Alps, he leaned on my 
arm for half-an-hour, looking ear- 
nestly at them. I told him he once 
passed them with better fortune. He 
laughed, and liked the compliment. 
We had a smart gale when off" Cor- 
sica. He asked me to anchor at 
Ajaecio, the place of his birth ; but 
the wind changing, made it impos- 
sible. In the isde I told him I had 
more confidence than Casar's pilot : 
the compliment pleased him. He was 
dressed very plainly, wearing a green 
coat, with the decorations of the 
legion of honour. The whole-length 
portrait of him, with the cocked-hat, 
and arms folded, as walking in the 
grounds of Malmaison, is the strongest 
likeness of him I have seen.' 

On the 8d of Mav, at six in the 
evening, the English frigate ap- 
peared in the roads of Porto Ferrajo, 
m Elba; and hoisting out a boat, 
several officers landed, and ofllicially 


GEORGE III.— 1789— 1815. 


communicated to the commandant of 
the port the events which had taken 
place in France, the abdication of 
Napoleon, and his arrival at Elba. 
All the nece-sary preparations there- 
fore were made during the night for 
his reception ; and all the authorities 
were required to attend the ceremony 
of his entrance. On the ensuing 
morning a flag, sent on shore by the 
dethroned emperor, was taken into 
tlie town with solemnity, and imme- 
diately hoisted on the castle, amidst 
a salute of artillery. This flag had 
been made on board by his own di- 
rection, out of materials accidentally 
at hand, and consisted of a white 
ground, interspersed with bees ; the 
centre liaving the arms of Napoleon 
and those of the isle united. Some 
time after this flag had been hoisted. 
Napoleon landed, and was saluted 
with 101 rounds of cannon : he was 
dressed in a blue great coat, under 
which appeared a suit richly em- 
broidered with silver ; he had a small 
round hat, with a white cockade ; 
and three fiddlers and two flfers pre- 
ceded him, amidst a multitude of 
people, rather curious than eager to 
see him. He w&s conducted to the 
house of the mayor, where he re- 
ceived the visits of all the superior 
civil officers, spoke to each of them, 
affecting an air of confidence and 
even of gaiety, and putting a number 
of questions relative to the isle. Af- 
ter reposing some moments, he got on 
horseback, and, with his suite, visited 
the forts of Marciana, Campo, Capo 
Liviri, and Rio. On the 5th, ac- 
companied by the commissioners, he 
visited the iron mines, which consti- 
tute the wealth of the isle of Elba ; 
and having asked what might be their 
revenue, was told 500,000 livres. 
* These 500,000 livres will then be 
mine.* * But, sir,' said one of his 
suite, *you know, that by a decree 
you appropriated them to the legion 
of honour.* * Where was my head 
when I gave this order ? (he replied) ; 
I have issued so many foolish decrees !' 
At the moment of Buonaparte's 
arrival in Elba, he was to the last 

degree unpopular. The visitations 
of the French had left kisting 
memorials among the suflering in- 
habitants ; but his address and 
liberality soon operated a change. 
He began instantly to alter and im- 
prove ; to make roads, and to erect 
buildings. In a few weeks a theatre 
was raised, an old church was con- 
verted into a spacious barrack, an 
easy carriage-road was made into the 
town, and conducted by the best 
level towards the opposite extremi- 
ties of the island, and others were 
lined and levelled. Five thousand 
men were constantly employed, at 
six pauls (three shillings) a day* in 
these various undertakings ; and the 
peasantry witnessed suddenly the ef- 
fects of improvements, which till then 
perhaps they had scarcely imagined 
possible. The influx of foreigners, 
attracted by curiosity to see the in- 
dividual who had been unceasingly 
present to the hopes and. fears of 
almost every man in Europe during 
by far the most eventful period of 
its history, brought money and occu- 
pation to the islanders. They seemed 
to receive a new existence, and for 
the first time to regard themselves as 
holding an ascertained place in the 
map of the world. No one can won- 
der that the effect of all this should 
be a strong attachment on the part of 
the Elbese for the author of so much 
happiness. Add to this his insinu- 
ating address.— Ttiink of Napoleon, 
who had bowed with his single arm 
the neeks of emperors, and shaken 
the foundations of the oldest Euro- 
pean thrones, that seemed to have 
existed but by his license, talking, 
unattended and familiarly, with any 
common peasant whom he met in 
his walks, — interesting himself in his 
condition, listening to his story, hear- 
ing and, when possible, redressing 
his complaints. 

The ex-emperor had four places 
of abode in the different quarters of 
the isle, to which he sliifted about, 
as if to cheat his fancy with the 
notion that his dominions were 
actually extensive. He ro«e at two 


GEORGE in.— 1789— 1815. 


is the momtng, aod studied till day- 
%ut French and Egyptian history. 
At daylight he went out on foot, or 
an hoiTseback, whatever the weather, 
to saperinlend his public roads, or the 
building of some house. At nine he 
recumed to breakfast, which cod- 
sited of a dish or two of meat, of 
vhbch he eat sparingly, and of various 
kiods of wine, all of which he tasted. 
A cup of coffee followed. He then 
retired to bed, and slept two hours ; 
ifter which he remained in his cabi- 
net, receiving strangers, directing his 
So^enuDeot, giving audiences on busi- 
ccsa, arranging his plans, and latterly, 
pert^ps^ preparing those proclama- 
tions which he issued on his landing 
m France. Towards evening, and 
before dinner, attended by Bertrand 
or Droaet, he took an airing, with 
more than his usual state, and always 
ia his caniage. He dined at eight, 
md never without company. Per- 
sons of ciistinction he placed beside 
ium ; but at the opposite side of the 
table there was left, as in royal usage, 
3o open space. He ate rapidly of a 
great variety of dishes, calling for 
them promptly as he wanted them ; 
a few glasses of French wine, swal- 
lowed hastily, concluded his dinner ; 
aod a dish of coffee was the signal 
£3r rising from the table, which all 
were expected to obey, whether thev 
had dined or not. Half an hour suf- 
ficed for thi» meal. If ladies were 
at the table, he would generally help 
them himself, and sometimes, when 
gay, was full of compliment to ail 
around. When thoughtful, he said 
liodiing, and nobody presumed to 
address him. H is drawing-room after 
dinner was usually the little garden 
behind the palace, where he spent 
the rest of the evening in conversa- 
tion with his friends. He retired at 
eleven ; but his mother and sister 
Pauline still remained, till the com- 
pany bad separated. On Sunday he 
vent regularly at twelve o'clock to 
mass, where all the authorities were 
expected to attend : the mass was 
celebrated in the palace. A levee 
foDowed ; when be addressed himself 


in order to each person round the 

On the 26th of Feb. 1815, not 
quite ten months after his arrival, 
the Elbese were astonished and af- 
flicted to see him sail away, without 
notice to them of any sort, for France } 
and indeed so secret had been his 
preparations for this mighty enter- 
prise, that general Bertrand, his most 
confidential friend, had no intimation 
of it until tlie very moment of de- 
parture. He put to sea in his own 
brig, accompanied by four smaller 
vessels which he had seized for the 
purpose, having on board 1000 or 
1100 men, composed of French, Ita- 
lians, Poles, Neapolitans, and Elbese ; 
and on the 1st of March, the day of 
the violeU, the secret symbol of his 
return, landed at Cannes, in the bay 
of Juan, between Frejus and An- 
tibes. He immediately despatched 
fifteen men to summon Antibes. 
These were admitted within the gates, 
and immediately disarmed by order 
of the commandant. Napoleon, on 
hearing this, sent a detachment of 
(ifcy men to occupy Cannes, which 
he himself reached about midnight : 
his army bivouacked in the vicinitv 
of the town, and early on the 2nd, 
the troops continued their march, 
preceded by four pieces of cannon, 
and a superb carriage, in which the 
emperor was seated. Finding the 
people of Grasse unfavourable to his 
cause, he proceeded through St. Val- 
lier, towards Digne, through which 
he passed on the 4th to Gap. On 
landing in France, he had issued two 
proclamations, one to the French 
people, and the other to the army, 
copies of which he disseminated as 
he proceeded ; and while at Gap, he 
printed several addresses from the 
soldiers of his guard to their comrades 
of the French army. These last were 
well calculated to make an impres- 
sion upon his former subjects. The 
disasters and disgraces which they had 
recently sustained were all imputed 
to treachery; and he held out to 
them the pleasing but delusive hope, 
that his presence would restore the 


GEORGE 111.-1789—1815. 


glorv of the French empire. Mean- 
while intelligence of the landing of 
Napoleon was received at Paris, and 
measures were promptly taken to 
counteract his design ; but in spite 
of the proclamations of king Louis, 
and the activity of marshal Soult, the 
minister of war, the progress of the 
invader was truly alarming. From 
Gap he proceeded towards Grenoble 
on the 6tn ; and forty of his advanced 
guard fell in with the videttes of a 
force of 6000 troops of the line, who 
were on the march from Grenoble to 
oppose him. As they refused to com- 
municate with Napoleon's general, 
Cambronne, the ex-emperor, when he 
came up, hurried to where the vi- 
dettes had stopped, and making him- 
self known to the soldiers (about 
800 men), opened the breast of his 
coat, and told them, * that the first man 
who wished to kill his emperor mi^ht 
do it.' An unanimous cry of * Vive 
TEmpereur!* was their answer — the 
guard and the soldiers embraced — 
and the white cockade being torn off 
and trampled on, every man with 
enthusiasm supplied its place with 
the tricolor. When added to his 
ranks, Napoleon thus addressed the 
party : ' 1 come with a liandful of 
brave men, because I reckon on the 
people and on ^ou. The throne of 
the Bourbons is illegitimate ? because 
it has not been raised by the nation ; 
it is contrary to the national will, be- 
cause it is contrary to the interests of 
our country* and exists only for the 
interests ota few families. Ask your 
fathers— ask all the inhabitants who 
arrive here from the environs, and 
you will learn from their own mouths 
the tnie state of affairs; they are 
menaced with the return of tithes, of 
privileges, of feudal rights, and of all 
the abuses from which your successes 
had delivered you. Is it not true, 
peasants T — * Yes, sire,' answered one 
of them, 'they wish to chain us to 
the soil : you come as the angel of the 
Lord to save us I' 

Fatigued as was the invader, he 
wished to reach Grenoble the same 
evening; and upon his arrival be- 

fore it, notwithstanding the prepa- 
rations made by the garrison to ofH 
pose him, the gates were suddenly 
thrown open, without a shot being 
fired, and at ten at night Buonaparte 
entered the city, in the midst of an 
army and a people animated by the 
most lively enthusiasm. The next 
day he was addressed by the munici- 
pality, and reviewed the troops in 
the midst of the whole population oi 
the department; and then putting 
his army in a forced march to ad- 
vance upon Lyon, he slept at Bour- 
goin on the 9th. Meanwhile the count 
d*Artois, the due d* Orleans, and se- 
veral marslials, had arrived at Lyon, 
fully relying on the fidelity of the in- 
habitants to the Bourbon cause ; but 
on reviewing a regiment of dragoons, 
they had occasion to expect the worst. 
' Let us march,' said the count d*Ar- 
tois to a soldier covered with scars 
and decorated with three chevrons, 
'against the disturber, and shout 
manfully Vive le Roi !* ♦ No, mon- 
sieur,' replied the fellow, ' no soldier 
will fight against his father. I can 
only answer you by crying, Vive 
I'Empereur!' The count instantly 
entered his carriage, and quitted Ly- 
on, escorted by a single gendarme. 
As Napoleon advanced, he re-esta- 
blished in their offices all who had 
been deprived of them at the mo- 
ment of his abdication ; and with a 
rapidly augmenting army, he reached 
Auxerre on tlie 17th. Here count 
Bertrand gave orders to collect all 
the boats to embark the army, which 
was already four divisions strong, and 
to convey the men the same night to 
Fossard, so that they would be able 
to arrive at one o'clock in the morn- 
ing at Fontainebleau ; and while nt 
Auxerre, Napoleon was joined by 
the perfidious Ney, who, on leaving 
Paris, had solemnly pledged his word 
to Louis 'that he would bring Buo- 
naparte to his majesty's feet in a 
cage, like a wild beast, in the course 
of a week.' 

The Bourbons had collected 
100,000 men at Melun, strengthened 
by a powerful artillery j and the best 


GEORGE III.— 1789— 1815. 


v^'jits seemed to prevail among tlie 
tr«ps. Relying on their numbers, 
Ijsj bad left the towns, the rocks, 
ad the forest of Fontaioeblean un- 
{oaitied ; preferring the flat plains of 
Meiuo, where the whole of their army 
c^t act at once against the com- 
/isnchrdy small band of the invader. 
<Jb the 20th, Napoleon reached and 
ocnipied Fontainebleau without the 
'jsast opposition. He had then with 
^ only 15,000 veteran troops : but 
nchers were either following him, or 
livaocing to support his right and left 
Imks, cm parallel lines of march. It 
vas with great joy that he thus made 
(he palace vhich had witnessed his 
liovnfiil, the first to receive him in 
his success. Early on the rooming 
<^ the 20th, preparations were made 
for the encounter which was expected 
to take place. The army was drawn 
op in three lines ; the intervals and 
the flanks were armed with batteries ; 
6e centre occupied the Paris rocui. 
Ttie ground from Fontainebleau to 
Melun b a continual declivity; so 
that, on emerging from the forest, 
jmi have a clear view of the country 
before you, whilst, on the otlier hand, 
these bdow can easily descry what^ 
€Ter appears on the eminence. An 
awftil suence (broken only at times 
by peals of martial music, intended 
to confirm the loyalty of the troops, 
by repeating the royal airs of * Vive 
Henri Quatre !' and < La Belle Ga- 
brielle!' or by the voice of the com- 
maodeiSy and the march of the divi- 
sons to their appointed ground) 
pervaded the army of king Louis, 
under marshal Maodonald. All was 
anxious expectation : the chiefs con- 
scious that a moment would decide 
the &te of the Bourbon dynasty — and 
the troops perhaps secretly awed at 
the thought of meetine in hostility 
the man whom tliey had been accus- 
tomed to obey. On the side of Fon- 
tainebleau no sound as of an army 
nishiDg to battle was heard; if the 
enemy were advancing, his troops 
widently moved in silence : perhaps 
/.is heart failed him— and he liad re- 
treated during the night — if so, 

France was saved, and Europe was 
still free. 

It was about noon, — the Bourbon 
troops listening with delight to the 
loyal strain of ' Vive Henri Quatre' 
—when a trampling of horses became 
audible above the music. The sound 
approached: an open carriage, fol- 
lowed by a handful of Poles with 
their lances reversed, appeared among 
the trees on the skirts of the forest — 
it drove down the hill with the rapi- 
dity of lightning — it reached the 
advanced posts. The little flat cocked- 
hat, the grey surtout, the person of 
Napoleon, was recognised. In an 
instant the men burst from their 
ranks, surrounded the vehicle with 
cries of • Vive TEmpereur,' and 
trampled their white cockades in 
the oust. ' Napoleon, Napoleon le 
Grand r spread from rank to rank, 
while bareheaded, (Bertrand seated 
at his right, and Drouet at his left). 
Napoleon continued his course, now 
waving his hand, now opening his 
arms to the soldiers— whom he called 
' his friends, his companions in arms, 
whose honour, whose glories, whose 
country, he now came to restore!* 
All discipline was forgotten, diso- 
beyed, and insulted — uie comman- 
ders-in-chief took to flight — thousands 
rushed on Napoleon's passage— ac- 
clamations rent the sky. At that 
moment his own euard descended the 
hill — the imperial march was played 
— the eagles were once more displayed 
— and those whose deadly weapons 
were to have been aimed at each 
other's life, embraced as brothers, and 
joined in universal shouts. In the 
midst of these greetings did Napoleon 
pass througli the whole of the royal 
army ; and, placing himself at its h^, 
he pursued his course to Paris. The 
population of the villages flocked 
around him ; the inhabitants of Paris, 
informed of his approach, came out to 
meet him ; and at the head of 200,000 
persons, in the midst of enthusiastic 
exclamations, he re-entered the ca^ 

The events of the * Rt'ign of an 
Hundred Daj's' (as the French stiU 


GEORGE III.— 1789— 1815. 


love to designate the period which 
elapsed between the landing on * the 
day of the yiolets' to what they call 
« the battle of Mont St. Jean'— not 
of Waterloo, on any account — ) will 
be found at p. 112 of this volume; 
and it now only remains to give an 
account of Napoleon's second exile, 
and of the manner in which he closed 
his eventful life. When the order 
from the allied sovereigns had reached 
the fiellerophon, off Rochefort, on 
board which the ex-emperor had taken 
refuge, for *the removal of general 
Buonaparte to the British snip of 
war, Northumberland, therein to be 
conveyed a prisoner to St. Helena,' 
arrangements were made for bringing 
up the Northumberland from Spit- 
head ; and Napoleon was transferred 
thereto on the morning of August 4, 

Mr. Warden, surgeon of the North- 
umberland, who went the voyage to 
St. Helena, thus writes. * As the 
boat approached (bringing Buona- 
parte and his suite from the Bellero- 
phon to the Northumberland), the 
figure of Napoleon was readily dis- 
tinguished, from his apparent resem- 
blance to the various prints of him. 
An universal silence prevailed when 
the barge reached the side ; and there 
was a grave but anxious aspect in 
all the spectators, which, in tbe opi- 
nion of others as well as myself, was 
no small addition to the solemnity of 
th^ ceremonial. Count Bertrand as- 
cended first, and having bowed, retired 
to give place to him whom he still 
considered his master. The whole 
ship's company seemed at this mo- 
ment in breathless expectation. W ith 
a slow step Buonaparte mounted the 

fsngway; and, on feeling himself 
rm on the quarter-deck, ne raised 
his hat, when the guard presented 
arms, and the drum rolled. The offi- 
cers of the Northumberland, who 
were uncovered, stood considerably 
in advance. Those he approached, 
and saluted with an air or the most 
affable politeness. He then address- 
ed himself to sir George Cockburn, 
and hastily asked for the ' capitaine 

de vaisseau,' who was immediati 
introduced ; but on finding tliat 
did not speak French, he intimates 
desire, more by gesture than by wor 
to enter tlie csSbin, where he contin ii 
for about an hour. His ciress ^ 
that of a general of infantry, wheil 
formed a part of his army. The cc 
was green, faced with white ; the n 
was white, with white silk stockin] 
and a liandsome shoe with gold oi 
buckles. His face was pale ; and i 
deed his general appearance justi^i 
the conjecture that he had not passi 
the preceding night in sound repo^ 
His forehead is thinly covered wi 
dark liair, as well as the top of li 
head, which is large, and has a singi 
lar flatness : what hair he has behin 
is bushy, and I could not discern tl 
slightest mixture of white in it. II 
eyes, which are grey, are in continue 
motion, and hurry rapidly to the m 
rious objects around him. His teet 
are regular and good; his neck i 
short, but his shoulders of the fine^ 
proportions. The rest of his dguri 
though blended with the Dutcl 
fulness, is of a very handsome form. 
'On the first day of his arriva 
on board, Napoleon ate a very heartj 
dinner, with which he drank claret 
He passed the evening on the quar 
ter-deck, where he was amused bj 
the band of the 5dd regiment ; snc 
he personally requested them to giv< 
the airs of ' God save the king,' ond 
' Rule Britannia.' At intervals ht 
chatted in a way of easy pleasantry 
with any officer who was able to 
converse with him in French, lie 
never moves his hands from their ha- 
bitual places in bis dress, but to ap- 
ply them to his snuff-box ; and never 
offers a pinch to any one with whom 
he is conversing. At dinner on the 
second day, he selected a mutton- 
cutlet, which he contrived to dispose 
of without the aid of either knife or 
fork. He passed much of the third 
day on deck, and appeared to have 
paid particular attention to his toi- 
lette. He played at whist in the 
evening, and was a loser. Tlie whole 
of the next morning he passed in tlic 


GEORGE III.— 1789— 1815. 


dbkn ; and it was acknowledged by 
'.a atteiidaots that he was very sea- 
tick. Id the afternoon he came upon 
^edk; but I could not help smiling 
wbea 1 beheld the man who had 
stalked so proudly, and witli so finn a 
rpp over submissive countries, totter- 
i&l on the deck of a ship, and catch- 
bf at any arm to save himself from 
iilUQg. He seldom omitted an op- 
portunity of askioff a question. He 
^ed Mr. Smith, the lieutenant, how 
k^ he had been in the service, and 
vfa^ he replied nine years, observed, 
' That sorely is a long time/ ' It is, 
odecd,' said Mr. Smith, 'and part of 
it was passed in a French prison.* 
Napoleon immediately shrugged up 
bk shoulders, and closed the conver- 
satioD. He asked our orthodox chap- 
lain if he was not 9Ljmritan (meaning 
a presbyterian), and inquired the ori- 
fiO of the re&gunu society of John- 
connw in Scotland. Every one re- 
taembeia the threatened invasion of 
Eadand in 1805, and the various 
c<nijectures which were formed on 
this momentous subject. Napoleon, 
in conversation, averred that he had 
S004)OO men on the coast, and that it 
vas his determination to head them 
in person. It was hinted to him that 
his flotilla was altogether insufficient, 
and that such a ship as the North- 
amberknd would have run down fift)' 
of them. This he readily admitted : 
bot be stated that his plan was to rid 
the channel of Engltsn men-of-war ; 
and for that purpose he had directed 
admiral ViUeneuve, with the com- 
bined fleets of France and Spain, to 
sail apparently for Martinique, for 
the express purpose of drawing after 
him our best ships. ViUeneuve was 
d reded, on gaining a certain lati- 
tude, to take a baffling course back to 
Europe, and, having eluded the vigi- 
laaoe of Nelson, to enter the English 
ChaDnel, and dash at the capital by 
way of Chatham. But ViUeneuve 
iras met on his return by sir Robert 
Calder; and, having suffered a defeat, 
took refuge in Ferrol. 

' It having been told Napoleon that 
pwple thought he would commit sui- 

cide rather than be banished to St. 
Helena, he replied, sensibly enough, 
' Suicide is a crime the roost revolt* 
ing to my feelings ; nor does any 
reason present itself to my under- 
standing by which it can be justified. 
It certainly originates in that species 
of fear which we denominate poltro* 
nerie. For what claim can that man 
have to courage, who trembles at the 
frowns of fortune? True heroism 
consists in becoming superior to the 
ills of life, in whatever shape they 
may challenge us to the combat.' 
The ceremony of * crossing the line* 
was performed ; and Napoleon, who 
appeared not, sent his contribution 
to Neptune and Amphitrite, while 
Bertrand, <hc., the children, and do- 
mestics, received with cheerfulness 
their share of the god*s ablutions. 
I recur once more to Napoleon. He 
has an uncommon face ; large, full, 
and pale, but not sickly. In conver- 
sation, the muscles suffer little or no 
exertion : with the exception of those 
in the immediate vicmity of tht 
mouth, the whole seemed Hxed, and 
the forehead perfectly smooth. \^hen 
he wishes to enforce a question, he 
sometimes employs his hand, but that 
alone : and were I describing a peiU 
maiire, I might attribute the display 
to its uncommon handsomeness. £ 
have never observed, when laughter 
has prevailed around him, that he 
has caught the infection. The inte- 
resting children on board, who amuse 
every body else, do not attract his 
attention. There is a large good- 
tempered Newfoundland dog, which is 
a frequent and rather rude playfellow 
of these urchins ; and in a situation 
where no active entertainments are 
exhibited, the interludes of these per- 
formers afford no small degree of 
amusement to those around them. 
But they have never won a smile* 
that I have observed, from the ex- 
imperial spectator. 

* The sensation excited in the little 
colony of St. Helena on the arrival 
of Napoleon, may be more easily ima- 
gined than described. He did not 
leave his cabin for a full hour after 


GEORGE m.— 1789— 1815. 


the ship had anchored in the bay; 
however, when the deck became clear, 
he made his appearance, and looked 
as any other man would look at a 
place which he bel)eld for the first 
time. Indeed 1 saw no change in his 
placid countenance, nor did 1 hear of 
his having uttered a single peevish 
expression throu^ont the voyage: 
the ladies indeed discovered some dis- 
tress on the first view of their rocky 
cage, but their general conduct on the 
occasion displayed a degree of self- 
possession wnich was not expected of 
them. After sunset on the 17th of 
October, 1815, when the inhabitants 
of the only town in the island, James 
Town, wearied out in waiting for the 
spectacle of Buonaparte's landing, had 
retired to their homes, Napoleon, ac^ 
cording to the wish he had expressed, 
passed unobserved to the house where- 
at he was to sleep on the first night. 
Early on the next morning he as- 
cended the mountain on horseback, 
accompanied by sir George Cock- 
4}urn, to Longwood, a spot which was 
to be his residence ; but stopping on 
his way down aeain at the Briars, the 
abode of Mr. Balcombe, a respectable 
merchant, he was so pleased with its 
situation, that he expressed a wish to 

• live there, if possible, until Long- 
wood should be ready for his recep- 
tion. On his removal to the latter 
place, certain limits were allowed him 
for exercise, around which a cordon 
of sentinels was stationed. While he 
continued within the circle, he expe- 
rienced no additional vigilance ; but 
when he ventured beyond, an officer 
was on duty to attena him. 

' On the arrival of a ship from Eng- 
land, Napoleon desired to see me. 

• What is the news from France?' 
was one of his first questions. 
I told him that it related to mar- 
siial Ney. * What,* said he, * Ney 
has been sentenced to be shot.' I re- 
plied it is even so : the marshal de- 
clared he had been deceived by you, 
and that the proclamation which he 
was accused of writing was formed by 
general Bertrand.' The latter, who 
was present, quietly observed that 

Ney had a ri^ht to save himself by a 
fabrication ifhe could ; while Napo- 
leon thoughtfully exclaimed, ' Aey 
was a brave man.' I mentioned that 
it was believed an insurrection would 
take place in Paris, in the event of 
Ney*s execution. * An insurrection!' 
said Napoleon, witli a kind of con- 
temptuous calmness, ' pooh ! get the 
troops under arms V 

* 1 am now about to vary tlie scene. 
Napoleon, when he takes his exercise 
on liorseback, generally bends bis way 
through a deep ravine, luxuriantly 
covered with vegetation, and, from its 
loneliness, called by himself ' the val- 
ley of silence.' Here he stopped the 
other day at a farmer's door, and was 
met by master Legg, the tenant of 
the mansion, a plain honest country- 
man, and invited into the house. He 
accordingly alighted, and, accompani- 
ed by count Las Casas, entered^ took a 
seat, and began bis interrogatories. 
*Have you a wife?'— * Yes, please 
you, emperor.' * Have you any chil- 
dren?'—* Six.' * How much land 
have you got ?'— * A hundred acres, 
sir emperor.' ' All capable of being 
cultivated?* — * No, not one-hali? 

* What profit does it bring you ?'— 

* Not a great deal, but it is much im- 
proved since you, Mr. Emperor, came 
amongst us.* * Aye, how do you 
make that out?*— 'Why, you must 
know, sir emperor, we do not grow 
corn in this nere island; and our 
green vegetables require a ready 
market. We have generally had to 
wait for the arrival of a fleet ; and 
then, rat'em, they'd sometimes ail 
spoil : but now, sir general, we have 
a prime sale for every article.' 
•Where is your wife?*— * Dang it, 
and please you, 1 believe she is scared ; 
for I see my children have all run 
out.' * Send for them, and let me be 
introduced. Pray have you any good 
water?'—* Yes, Mr. Emperor, and 
wine too, such as is to be had from 
the Cape.* Tlie good woman's alarm 
had by this time subsided, and she 
was persuaded by her husband to 
make her appearance, and entered 
with every mark of respect, andsom^ 


GEORGE III.— 1789-1815. 


astooishmcDt. Napoleon, Las Casas, 
ibe former, and his wife, forming a 
pcrtit quarvuie^ sat down to four glasses 
of Cape wine ; and, when they were 
emptied, the vbit concluded. The 
^ooid man and his family had been 
I'bced so much at their ease by the 
courteous demeanour of their unex- 
pected guests, that their subsequent 
Tisits laid them under no restraint ; 
and even the little children used fre^ 
queotly to express their wishes by 
ioqniiing of their mother, ' When 
will Boney come and see us again ?'* 
Enoug;h has been extracted from 
Mr. Warden's letters, to show that 
Napoleon for some time passed his 
exile as cheerfully as could be ex- 
pected from his cliaracter and pre- 
f ions habits. The following account 
of a dinner-party given by the ex- 
emperor, must close our anecdoti- 
cal account. ' I was sitting one morn- 
ing,' records the lady of an ofllcer of 
the 53d, then stationed at St. Helena, 
*in our tent at Dead wood Camp, 
wlien the countess Bertrand called, 
with an invitation from the ex-empe- 
ror for me to dine that day with him 
at Longwood-hoitse. ' The emperor,' 
said the countess, ' will invite your 
husband on another day ; for he 
makes it a rule never to invite hus- 
band and wife together. So you can, 
if you wish, go with me and tiie grand 
mareschal Bertrand.* I replied, I 
should be happy to accept the invita- 
tion, provided my husband sliall have 
DO objection to it. * What !' said the 
countess, ' are the English wives in 
such subjection, that they cannot ac- 
cept an invitation, even from an 
emperor, without leave of their hus- 
bands?' ' Yes,* replied I, 'nor can I 
give an answer until mine comes 
home.' At this reply she looked 
surprised, and rather offended, but 
soon resumed her amiable manner. 

' Buonaparte's carriage and four 
came to fetch general and countess 
Bertrand from HuttVgate, where 
they then resided, and they called for 
me. When we arrived at Longwood, 
we found count and countess Mon- 
tlwlon, baron Gourgaud, count Las 

Casas, and sir George Bingham, as- 
sembled in the drawing-room. Buona- 
parte soon after entered, and sat down 
at the chess-table; for he always 
played a game before dinner. He 
asked me to play with him, which I 
declined, saving I was a bad player. 
He then asked me if I knew back- 
gammon. * You must teach me,' said 
he, * for I know but little of the game.' 
So down we sat. I was in consider- 
able agitation at the idea of giving 
instruction to the great conqueror. 
But luckily, as soon as he liad placed 
the back-gammon men, a servant 
entered, saying, * Le diner de sa ma- 
jest^ est servi.' Madame Bertrand 
then whispered to me, ' You are to 
sit in the empress's seat : it has been 
so ordered.' (This is a seat left vacant 
on ordinary occasions, on the right 
hand of Napoleon.) i accordingly 
was led to it by the grand marescluif. 
The instant Buonaparte was seated, 
a servant came behind, and presented 
him with a glass of wine, which he 
drank off before he began to eat, — 
his invariable custom. The dinner 
was on superb gold and silver plate, 
and beautiful china; the meat was 
served on side-tables by several smart 
servants, in magnificent liveries of 
green and gold ; and there was a vast 
variety of vegetables, cooked in the 
most delicate manner. Buonaparte 
ate of a number of dishes with great 
appetite ; he several times offered 
things to me — an honour, I was told, 
by Las- Casas, he rarely condescended 
to do even to queens, lie talked a 
great deal to me; his conversation 
was chiefly in questions respecting 
India, and the manners and dress of 
the natives there ; I must not forget 
to inform my female friends that he 
admired my dress, which consisted of 
a silver worked muslin in stripes. lie 
asked me how much I gave a yard for 
it in 1 ndia. He also admired, or pre- 
tended to admire, my bracelets, which 
were of beautiful pearls. Be tliat 
as it may, I believed it all, and began 
to feel tolerably conceited and much 
at my ease. * Your English gentle- 
men/ said he, ' sit an intolerable time 


GEORGE IIL— 1789— 1815. 


at dinner, and afterwards drink for 
hours together, when the ladies have 
led them. As for me» I never allow 
more tlian twenty minutes for dinner, 
and five minutes additional for gene- 
ral Bertrand, who is very fond of 
bon-bons.' Saying this, he started up, 
and we all followed him into the 
drawing-room ; when the generals, 
each taking a chapeau-bras under his 
arm, formed a circle round him, all 
continuing standing. Coffee was pre- 
sently brought; and the cups and 
saucers were the most splendidly 
beautiful I ever beheld. I admired 
the china ; upon which Buonaparte 
took a cup and saucer to the light, to 
point out their beauties. Each sau- 
cer contained a portrait of some 
Egyptian chief, and each cup some 
landscape of Egypt. *This set of 
china,' said he, * was given me by the 
city of Paris, after my return from 
Egypt.' He then requested me to 
sing ; and I sang a few Italian airs. 
The countess Montholon next sang 
some little French songs, and he 
joined in humming the tunes. A 
party of reversu was then formed for 
him by his generals ; and I sat down 
to a round-game with the two coun- 
tesses and sir (>. Bingham. Napoleon 
was now in high spirits ; he was win- 
ning, and he always liked to win at 
cards; and he began to sing merry 
French songs. About ten o'clock he 
suddenly rose ; and making a sliding 
bow to us all, he retired to his private 
apartments, attended by count Las 

The remainder of this extraordi- 
nary man's life was passed in conver- 
sations with his officers on past events, 
plans, not to say plots, for the fu- 
ture, in receiving the visits of per- 
sons of respectability who touched at 
the island, and in squabbles with the 
governor sir Hudson Lowe, who had 
the unenviable task of being his 
gaoler. It was in 1820, that from 
not taking regular exercise out of 
doors, his health began visibly to de- 
cline : he would not conform to the 
governor's order to be watched, nor 
would he show himself, as required, 

once in the twenty-four hours, to on< 

of his guards ; and it w^as soon evideni 
that a formidable disease was attack-* 
ing his stomach. He even refused 
to be relieved by medicines : to hi» 
physician he said, * Doctor, no phy- 
sicking ; we are a machine made to 
live ; do not counteract the living 
principle -^let it alone — leave it the 
liberty of self-defence — it will do bet- 
ter than your drugs.' With his health, 
his mina sank also. Some fishes in 
a pond in the garden at L,ongwood 
had attracted his notice : thev sick- 
ened and died. ' Every thing I love/ 
said Napoleon, 'every thing that be- 
longs to nte, is stricken. Heaven and 
mankind unite to afflict me.' Fits 
of long silence and of profound me- 
lancholy were now frequent. ' In 
those days,' he once said aloud in a 
revery, * in those days I was Napo- 
leon. Now I am nothing. My 
strength, my fiiculties, forsake me— I 
no longer live.' Another physician 
was called in (April 1621) but he 
also was heard in vain : ' Quod scrip- 
turn, scriptum,' once more answered 
he ; 'our hour is marked, and no one 
can claim a moment of life beyond 
what fate has predestined.' While 
drawing up his will, he said, *he 
knew he had a schirrus of the pylorus 
— the physicians of Montpellier pro- 
phesied it would be hereditary in our 
family — my father died of it!' He 
then gave directions to the priest, 
Vignali, as to his body lying in state 
by torchlight, and observed, * I am 
neither an atheist nor a rationalist; 
I believe in God, and am of the reli- 
gion of my father. I was bora a 
catholic, and will fulfil all the duties 
of that church, and receive the assist- 
ance which she administers.' The 
last sacraments were therefore admi- 
nistered to him, after which he fell 
into a stupor. On the 4th of May 
the island was swept by a tremendous 
storm, which tore up all the trees 
about Longwood. The 5th was an- 
other day of tempests : and at about 
six in the evening of that day, Napo- 
leon, having pronounced the words 
* tete d'arm^e!' passed for ever from 


GEORGE IIL— 1789— 1815. 


t^ dreams of batUe. On diflsection, 
c VIS ibuDd that a cancerous ulcer 
nmpied nearly the whole stomach. 

Napoleon ^ras buried on the 8th, 
i&er lymg in state, in a grave pre- 
^red among some weeping willows, 
besde a fountain* where his favourite 
evnusg-aeat had been. The pall 
spread over bis coffin was the miii- 
arv doak he wore at Marengo : his 
&wsefaold, th« governor, the admiral, 
sai all the civil and military autho- 
mi«s, attended him to the tomb ; and 
the road not being passable for car- 
nages, a party of English grenadiers 
bore the body. The burial service 
vas read by Yignali ; while the rite 
vas performing, the admiral's ship 
fired minute guns ; and three volleys 
veie given from fifteen cannon, as 
the coffin descended into the 

The character of Napoleon, to be 
^dy estimated, must be discussed 
and 'drawn half a century from his 
(ky. Suffice it to say, in conclusion, 
tlm the last four years of his struggle 
akme^ coat Europe tis mUHofu of hu- 
man lives. 

PasDsaicK William, Duke of 
BaovswicK AND Oelb (1771— 1815), 
fourth and joungest son of duke 
Charles William Ferdinand, was edu- 
cated under private tutors at Lau- 
sanne, and early entered the Prussian 
army. Ue was twice wounded in 
France, 1792 ; after the peace of 
Basle, be obtained a regiment ; and 
he married, in 1804, the amiable and 
beautiful princess Mary of Baden, 
by whom he had two sons, Charles 
and William. In 1805 he succeeded 
his uncle as duke of Oels and Bem- 
stadt. Upon the death of his father 
at Jena, 1806, and the inhuman con- 
duet of Napoleon on that occasion, 
duke Frederick took part in the war 
with France, wilh all the ardour 
whidi the oppression of Germany 
and his Other's unhappy fate inspired; 
and he was taken prisoner with Blu- 
cher at Liibeck. His eldest brother, 
the hereditary duke, dying without 
iaue, 1 806, and his two unmarried bro- 
thers being unable to. reign, (one of 

them throu^ blindness), he would 
have succeeded his father in the go- 
vernment, had not Napoleon at Tilsit 
willed it otherwise. From that time 
the duke lived in retirement at Brus- 
chal, in Baden, until the loss of his 
beloved consort in 1808, again turned 
his attention to the camp ; whereon 
he raised a free corps of Jagers in 
Bohemia, in aid of the emperor of 
Austria. The occupation of Napo- 
leon's best armies in Spain induced 
the emperor, who was anxious to 
escape from French domination, to 
declare war against Buonaparte in 
the spring of 1809. Buonaparte, 
however, entered Vienna in May; 
and, on the 6th of July, destroyed 
the strength of Austria in the deci- 
sive battle of Wagram. By a treaty 
hereupon signed, Austria was d^ 
prived of a large extent of territory, 
and compelled to abstain from all in- 
tercourse with England ; while it was 
agreed that Napoleon should es- 
pouse the daughter of his enemy. 

The duke of Brunswick had al- 
ready engaged in the contest with 
France, as an ally of the emperor, 
and had defeated, with his gallant 
corps, a body of 12,000 men under 
marshal Junot, who with Jerome 
Buonaparte, king of Westphalia, was 
ravaging the unprotected inhabitants 
of Saxony ; but when the news of the 
armistice between France and Aus- 
tria reached him, he determined 
to fight his way to England, where 
he was sure of protection. And here 
it must be stated that, when the 
duke's father had received his death- 
wound at Jena, Napoleon had re- 
fused his request to enter Brunswick, 
and die in his own bed. ' Qu*il s*en 
aille en Angleterre, y chercher son 
salut : — je veux T^raser lui et toute 
sa familleT was the note he wrote 
to the party waiting his orders at 
Brunswick. The young duke, bear- 
ing this inhuman proce^ngin mind, 
arrayed his followers in mourning 
habiliments; as a member of the 
order of the T^te Morte of Wurt- 
temberg, he placed the death^s head 
and cross-bones (its device) upon 


GEORGE III.— 1789-1815. 


their caps in front, and substituted 
flowing black horse-hair for the gayer 
feather ; and till the death of Napo- 
leon, this gloomy uniform was com- 
manded to be used. Though desert- 
ed, on the arrival of the news alluded 
to, by all his cavalry officers, save 
ten of the youngest, the duke set his 
troops in motion ; and notwitlistand- 
ing the opposition he met with at 
Leipsic, Halle, and other points, ar- 
rived with his corps unbroken at the 
^tes of lialberstadt. This town be- 
ing possessed by 3000 Westphalian 
soldiers, the duke assaulted it, and 
after a severe contest gained posses- 
sion, taking prisoner count Wellin- 
gerode, the bosom friend of king Je- 
rome,with all his officers,and 1600 men. 
On the 31st of July, the duke ar- 
rived at Brunswick ; * and it was an 
affecting event to see him, afler an 
absence of several years, once more, 
though as it were by stealth, in the 
midst of his affectionate people. 
The danger and fear of incurnng the 
punishment of death, were not suffi- 
cient to restrain the marks of attach- 
ment which all were eager to show 
him ; and every countenance ex- 
pressed the sentiments which good 
citizens entertain towards their legi- 
timate sovereign.' On the following 
morning intelligence arrived, that ge- 
neral ReubelPs corps was approach- 
ing from Celle, with a view of closing 
the road to Cuxhaven against the 
Black Legion ; and tliat general Grar 
tien, with a force of Saxons, was fol- 
lowing close in its rear. The danger 
of being overpowered induced the 
duke to venture a battle ; and at three 
in tlie aflernoon he advanced against 
Reubell, and drove him back upon 
C^Ue. Notwitlistanding this advan- 
tage, sixteen Brunswick officers, in- 
timidated by reports of the strength 
of the enemy in the rear, asked for 
their discharge ; and the duke having 
freely complied, save up his inten- 
tion of pursuing tne enemy. But in 
order to deceive them, a detachment 
of fifty cavalry was sent to press on 
their rear-ffuard ; so that the Saxons, 
believing the whole force of the Bruns- 

wickers to be approaching, in tin 
hurry of their consequent retreat, lc?l 
behind them ten waggons and tlv 
wounded, together with a note fron| 
the commander, recommending th4 
latter to the protection of the blacli 
troop, the generosity of whose chieii 
tain he complimented in the highest 

The duke now made the best oi 
his way to Hanover ; and on entering 
the city, he took prisoners a battalion 
of the Westphalian infantry, and 
several detachments of Dutch and 
French, besides capturing four can- 
non, and a large quantity of militair 
stores. At Bremen he met with 
similar success, the authorities flee- 
ing, and 600 soldiers laying down 
their arms. The Jagers were in- 
stantly sent to Bracke, to embark in 
such vessels as they could find ; and 
at length, after seeing all his faithful 
followers safely on board, the duke 
himself took snip on the 7th of Au- 
gust. A considerable force of West- 
phalians harassed the Bruns wickers 
at the moment of their departure, 
and the Danish batteries, by which 
the vessels had to pass, fired upon 
them as they approached the land by 
tacking ; but they eventually got 
clear of their enemies, and on the 
8tb, an English squadron under lord 
George Stuart, sent in search of 
them by king George, took them all 
speedily on board. In a few days 
afler, the gallant little party readied 
the British shores, where they were 
received with the greatest joy ; and 
being taken into the British service 
in the peninsula, they tliere acquired 
fresh reputation. 

On the decline of Napoleon's 
fortunes, 1818, the duke was re- 
called to Brunswick, and wel- 
comed witli all the enthusiasm 
which his sufferings and noble con- 
duct had inspired ; but though sin- 
cerely desirous of promoting the wel- 
fare of his subjects — being one of the 
most liberal and high-minded princes 
of his age — he was unable to fulfil 
their expectations. Finding no- 
tiling to support him in the coo- 


GEORGE III.— 1789— 1816. 


xitkHi of his coantr^r, which bad 
TO completely c^uuig^ by tlie 
r:«Qtfa oocnpatioD, and adopting the 
rsobtioa to effect at once those re- 
i vhich a cool judgment would 
nrk otit by degrees and with pa* 
broop, however salutary they might 
^ma, or distinctly they might be 
oiled for, — be lost the affections of 
J iai^ portion of his people. Com- 
1^013 were made of his unwieldy 
laOhary establishment; the finances 
*«Te alleged to be ill-managed ; and 
pf^baps the sudden change in French 
a^cs alone prevented the outbreak 
of that rerolatioD in his state, which 
burst forth upon his son with such 
»efcrity. The return of Napoleon 
fmo ^Bia, probable as that issue had 
iffiginally appeared" to Frederick 
wSliam, drew off from domestic anx- 
ieties the attention of his restless 
sabjects ; who, still sore with French 
voimda, relished little the notion of 
iL second visit from their taskmasters. 
To frustrate as far as possible the 
designs of the enslaver of nations, 
to defend that liberty which the^ had 
obtained so recently, and so distinctly 
against their hopes, the Brunswickers 
to a man thought of nothing now but 
anning against the French. ' The 
^lant duke, as might be expected, 
caught the flame ; but he did not take 
ad^antagie of his subjects' fears, and 
(as other rulers often have done) 
seize the glowing moment to induce 
a compliance with his wishes. No : 
though his life of labour for his coun- 
try was disregarded, and his views for 
its luippiness had been treated as 
visionary, he remembered alone his 
fathei's death, and he resolved to 
avenge it. He had some little am- 
bition to hope for a leading com- 
mand in the coming contest— to be 
entrusted, in fiict, with one of the 
two grand divisions of the British 
army ; but he saw that could not be 
granted him, and at length forgot his 
disappointment. He anticipated his 
own bll ; and in that spirit he went 
forth at the head of his devoted 
Jagers,to seek the enemy of his house 
—the man who had insulted the very 
corpse of his parent.' 

Brussels being the head-quarters 
of tlie British forces, to which he 
still purposed to attach his troops, 
he repaired to that city in the early 
part of June 1815; and while 
waiting there with his allies, he 
accepted the invitation of the duke 
of Richmond to a grand ball at his 
grace's residence on the 15th. In 
the interval between the sending 
forth of the cards and the appointed 
evening, the French had quietly ad- 
vanced upon the Netherlands, were 
already at a comparatively short dis- 
tance from Brussels, and liad even 
sliehtiy conflicted at Thuin. The 
duke of Wellington, however, when 
aware of the fact, out of consider- 
ation for the citizens, proposed that 
the ball should be attenaed by the 
military invited, as if nothing were 
expected ; and every precaution hav- 
ing been taken by the troops, the gay 
assembly accordingly took place. 
The duke of Brunswick attended 
among the rest ; but, aware of the 
proximity of the enemy, he quitted 
the ball-room at midnight, to arm 
for the coming day's fatal conflict. 
At two o*clock on the morning of 
the 16th, his corps being assembled, 
he advanced towards Quatre Bras ; 
but fresh orders coming to him from 
tlie duke of Wellington, he halted at 
the nearest hamlet. While here, he 
expressed great anxiety respecting 
his two children at Brunswick, hav- 
ing despatched a messenger thither 
for their preceptor, the rev. Dr. 
Prince, to whom he was desirous of 
personally communicating his wishes, 
in the event of his fall in action. 
That gentleman, however, from the 
early advance of the French, was not 
enabled to reach Brussels in time ; 
and, an order from the duke of Wel- 
lington to march arriving, his serene 
hi^mess delayed no loneer to put 
himself at the head of his gallant 

The French had been firing for some 
hours upon the British outposts, and 
there had been a slight skirmish be- 
fore his arrival ; so that, having 
speedily formed in battle array, he 


GEORGE III.— 1789— 1815. 


advanced upon the enemy. After 
an obstinate engagement of three 
hours, the enemy gave way, and a 
partial pursuit of them commenced 
by the Bruns wickers. The duke, at 
the moment that the rout commenced, 
was being congratulated by some of 
the officers of his staff, and was in the 
act of taking a handkerchief from the 
breast of his coat, to wipe away the 
perspiration that poured from his 
head and face, the result of his long 
exertion, when a bullet, aimed it was 
thought by a French guerilla from a 
neighbouring hedge— for the fight 
had ceased — struck and shattered his 
right wrist, and passing through his 
body, came out under his left shoul- 
der. He did not live five minutes 
after receiving the fatal shot Once 
he attempted to speak, but could only 
whisper the name of Olfermann, the 
colonel of the corps ; and once he 
made a sign to the men who were 
carrying him off the field, that they 
would raise his head a little higher. 
Before the bearers could gain a rest- 
ing-place for the body, its noble spirit 
had fled. Idolized as the duke had 
been by his faithful Jagers, they put 
the corpse upon the ground, and ' all 
unused to weep' as they were, wept 
aloud ! The shouts of ' The enemy is 
comine I' at leneth roused the bearers 
from their grief ; and they conveyed 
the body with all speed to the palace 
of Lacken, whence it was removed by 
easy stages to Brunswick, for inter- 

Lord Byron has too vividly com- 
memorated the last moments of the 
hero, to pass his description un- 
noticed : 

There wa« a mund ofreyeliy by oisht. 
And Belgium's capital had gathered then 
Her beauty and her chivalry ; and bright 
The lamps ahoue o*er fair women and brare 

A thonaand hearts beat happily ; and when 
Music aroae with its Toluptaous swell. 
Soft ejes look'd lore to eyes which spake 

And all went merry as a marriage beTI. 
But hush 1 hark I a deep sound strikes like 

Did ye not hear it !— No : Mwas but the wind, 
Or the ear rattling o'er tne stony street ; 
On with Che dance I let joy be unconfin'd. 

No aleep till morn, when Youth and PIca-, 

sure met>t 
To chaae the gluwing hours with flyings ffct. 
But, bark I that heavy sound breaks in onc«i 

As if the clouds iu echo would repeat ; 
And nearer, clearer, deadlier, than before ; 
Arm I arm I it is— it is— the canucn'* opea> 

ing roar I 
Within a windowed niche of that high hall 
Sate Brunswick's fated chieftain ; he did 

That sound the first amidst the festival. 
And caugUt its tone with death's prophetie 

And when they smiled because he deem'd it 

His heart more Imly knew that peal too 

Which stretch'd his father on a bloody l>ier, — 
And rous'd the Teogeauce blood alone coold 

quell t 
He rush'd into the field, and foremoat fight- 
ing, fell. 

Duke Frederick Williiim was in 
his 45th year, and was succeeded by 
his eldest son, prince Charles. The 
Black Jagers remained attached to 
the British army> and performed thei r 
last duty, two days after, on the field, 
of Waterloo. Tlie great foe of their 
late chieftain there terminating his 
political existence, they were subse^ 
quently disbanded, to adopt the ori- 
ginal rrussian costume of the Bruns- 
wick troops. (See Expulthn of the 
Duke of Bruntwick.) 

Horatio Nelson (1758—1805) 
was born at Burnham Thorpe, Nor- 
folk, of which parish his father was 
rector, and was in early life placed oq 
board his uncle's ship, though of very 
delicate stature and health. ' V\ liat/ 
said captain Suckling, when he heard 
of his wish to go to sea, * wliat has 
poor Horatio done, that he, above all 
the rest, should be sent to rough it 
at sea?' After various voyages in 
merchant-vessels, he was raised to tlie 
rank of post-captain ; and he had com- 
mand of different ships, when our 
West India settlements were threat- 
ened by the French. I lis first rise 
was occasioned by the admiral of his 
station observing him always more 
prompt and rrgnlar in the perform- 
ance of trifling duties tlian young 
men are usually found ; a strong 
proof of his practice of a maxim 
which was always in his mouth when 
he rose to eminence. * Take time 


GEORGE III.— 1789— 1815. 


'jj the fordock, my bo^T was bis 
>^»i«tant advice to midshipnien, ' and 
tf the tune is to be four in the mom- 
iz^ be at jour post at a quarter be- 
f'xe — let a quarter before be your 
Botto.* He ^was called from America 
ai the breaking out of the French re- 
TolntioD* to aid in the Mediterranean; 
aid there he assisted at the taking of 
ToakMi, and superintended the land- 
iz^ of the troops at Bastia. Although 
-Wlost an eye at the siege of Calvi, 
tus serrices'were wholly overlooked, 
K he bad acted only under the orders 
iAiXT Charles Stuart. For his con- 
duct off Cape St. Vincent, 1797, in 
which action he forced two large 
Spani^ frigates to strike their flags, 
he was aiade rear-admiral of the blue. 
His next service was an attack on the 
town of Santa Cruz, in the island of 
Teneriffe ; in which he received a shot 
through the right elbow, as he was 
stepping from the boat, in conse- 
quence of which his arm was obliged 
to be amputatedf and he received a 
pension of 1000/. 

In April, 1798, admiral Nebon 
was sent to the Mediterranean, to 
vatch tlie progress of the armament 
at Toulon ; and when the French 
fleet, which conveyed Buonaparte to 
Egypt, had escaped his vigilance, he 
soon after discovered it moored in 
the bay of Aboakir, and by a well- 
executed manoeuvre, obliged it to 
come to action. He obtained a most 
signal victory ; all the French ships 
but two bemg taken or destroyed. 
I>uring the severity of the contest. 
Nelson received a wound in the 
hod ; and the great effusion of blood 
occasioned an apprehension tttat the 
injury was mortal. The generous com- 
mander, however, would only be 
assisted in his turn by the surgeon ; 
find the joy of the wounded men, 
and of the whole crew, when they 
heard that the hurt was superficial, 
gave him deeper pleasure than did 
the tmexpected assurance that his 
life was in no danger. The surgeon 
requested him to remain quiet ; but 
when a cry was heard that the 
enemy's ship Orient (the admiraFs) 

was on fire, he appeared on the quar- 
terdeck, and immediately gave orders 
that boats should be sent to her re- 
lief. I txras soon after nine that the 
fire, from some accidental cause, broke 
out The admiral, Br 11 eys, after being 
three times wounded, had been, by a 
fourth shot, severed almost in two. 
By the prodigious light of this con- 
flagration, the situation of the two 
fleets could be clearly perceived ; and 
at ten, the ship, while its defenders 
were firing with great vigour, blew 
up, with a shock that was felt to the 
very bottom of every vessel. The 
tremendous explosion was followed 
by a stillness not less awful : the fir- 
ing immediately ceased on both sides ; 
and the first sound which broke the 
silence, was the dash of shattered 
masts and }rards, falling into the wa- 
ter from the vast height to which they 
had been forced. Only seventy out 
of many hundreds of the Orient's crew 
were saved, and those by the English 
boats. Nelson would not call the 
issue of this memorable conflict of 
the Nile a victory, but a conquest; 
and he received for the achievement 
the title of baron Nelson, and a pen- 
sion of 2000/. 

The admiral's next service was the 
restoration of the king of the Sicilies, 
whose subjects had jomed the French 
against him ; but in efl*ecting this, he 
stained his character by sanctioning 
the trial and hanging of the aged 
prince Careccioli, who had been tre- 
panned, in his alarm, to join the 
French, when at the head of the Sici- 
lian marine. He had been forty 
years a faithful subject ; and Nelson 
is supposed to have been influenced 
by lady Hamilton, wife of the English 
ambassador, his attachment to whom 
occasioned his separation from lady 
Nelson on his return to England. 
Meanwhile the king of Sicily be- 
stowed on his deliverer the estate of 
Bronte (thunder), worth 3000/. a 
year, with a dukedom ; and as Mr. 
Sou they, his excellent biographer, 
observes, the sailors were no less 
pleased with their commander's ap- 
propriate title of duke of thunder^ than 


GEORGE III.— 1789— 1815. 


Nelson himself was with the simple 
offering of the Greeks of Zante. 
They sent him, out of gratitude for 
the security which that part of Greece 
had obtained by his reduction of Si- 
cily* a gold-headed sword, together 
with a truncheon, set round with all 
the diamonds the island could fur- 
nish, in a single row. 

In 1801 lord Nelson was employed 
on the expedition to Copenhagen, 
under sir Hyde Parker ; in which he 
displayed his accustomed gallantry, 
ana effected the destruction of the 
Danish ships and batteries. On his 
return home he was created a viscount, 
and his honours were made heredi- 
tary in his family, even in the female 
line. When hostilities recommenced 
after the peace of Amiens, he was 
appointed to command the fleet in 
the Mediterranean, and for nearly 
two years was enmged in the block- 
ade of Toulon. In spite of his vigi- 
lance, the French fleet got out of i)ort, 
March 30th, 1805, and being joined 
by a Spanish squadron from Cadiz, 
sailed to the West Indies. Tliither 
Nebon pursued them, and tracked 
them back to Europe; and after 
passine some weeks in Uie shelter of 
Cadiz harbour, the French, command- 
ed by Villeneuve, and the Spaniards 
by Gravina, ventured forth again, and 
on the 21st of October came up with 
the English squadron off Cape Trap 
falgar. Hereupon an engagement took 
place, which was followed by a most 
glorious victoiy to the British, though 
at the vast expense of their com- 
mander*s life. Nelson's ship was the 
X'ictory ; and it had been part of his 
prayer that the British fleet might be 
distinguished by humanity in the vic- 
tory which be expected. Setting an 
example himself, he twice gave o^ers 
to cease firing upon the Redoutable, 
supposing that she had struck, be- 
cause her great guns were silent ; 
for, as she carried no flag, there was 
no means of instantly ascertaining 
the fact. From this ship, which he 
had thus twice spared, tie received 
his death. A ball, fired from her 
mizen-top, struck the epaulet on 

his left shoulder, and he fell upor 
his face. Faint as he was, he ob 
served, as they were carrying him 
below, that the tiller ropes, wrhich had 
been shot away, were not replaced, 
and ordered new ones immediately 
to be rove ; then, that he might not 
be seen by the crew, covered his face 
and his stars with his handkerchie/I 
Had he but earlier concealed his 
badges of honour, England perhaps 
would not have had cause to receive 
with sorrow the news of the battle of 
Trafalgar. It was soon found that h is 
wound was mortal. This, however, 
was concealed from all except cap- 
tain Hardy, the chaplain, and the 
medical attendants ; and all tliat could 
be done was to fan him with paper, 
and frequently to give him lemonade 
to alleviate his thirst. Though in 
great pain, he expressed much anxi- 
ety for the event of the action ; and 
as often as the crew of the Victory 
hurraed for the striking of a ship, a 
visible expression of joy marked tlie 
countenance of the dying hero. More 
than an hour elapsed from tlie time 
when Nelson received his wound, 
before Hardy could come to him. 
They shook hands in silence ; Hardy 
in vain struggling to suppress the 
feelings of that painful moment. 
'Well, Hardy,' said Nelson, 'how 
goes the day with us T * Very well,' 
replied Hardy, 'ten ships have struck, 
but five of the van have tacked, and 
show an intention to bear down 
upon the Victory. I have called two 
or three of our fresh ships round, and 
have no doubt of giving them a 
drubbing.' ' I hope,' said Nelson, 
' none of our shipo have struck ?' 
Hardy answered, •There is no fear 
of that.' Then, and not till then. 
Nelson spoke of himself. ' I am a 
dead man. Hardy ; I am going fast ; 
it will be all over with me soon. 
Come nearer to me. Let my dear 
lady Hamilton have my hair, and 
all other thines belonging to me.' 
Hardy observed, that he hoped Mr. 
Beatty could yet hold out some pro- 
spect of life. * Oh no I' he replied. 
' it is impossible. My back is shot 

GEORGE m— 1789^1815. 


dinmgiL Beattv will tell you so.' 
Captain Hardy theo shook hands with 
liim, and with a heart almost bursts 
iQg. hastened upon deck ; butreturn- 
iof afier a while, he congratulated 
the djong commander on having 
pjned a complete victory, after cap- 
tijing fifteen of the enemy. ' That's 
vdl,* cried Nelson, ' but I barsained 
fcr twenty/ He then desired Hardy 
t:> anchor ; but upon being told that 
tiie command of the fleet had de- 
Toived upon admiral Colli ngwood, 
'^Not wiule I am alive I' exclaimed 
NeJson. Collingwood, however, took 
the command, and in this critical 
situation evinced a degree of promp- 
utude and nautical skiU, which tended 
greatly to the preservation of the 
captured vessels, and proved his judg- 
ment as a commander. (For this 
Taluable service he was afterwards 
promoted to a barony, and died, 
sq^ 62, 1810, as in his memoir, j 
The wounded hero now requested 
that his body might be conveyed to 
bis parents — not thrown overboard, — 
and stated that he left lad^ Hamilton 
and his daughter, Horatia, as a le- 
gacy to his country. His articulation 
soon after became difficult, but he 
was distinctly heard to say, ' Thank 
Goi, I have 'done my duty.' These 
words he repeatedly pronounced, and 
were the last which he uttered. This 
illustrious man's death, in the service 
of bis country, occurred in his 48th 
year, October 21, 1805. 

It was long affirmed that the man 
who had given the fatal wound from 
the Bedoubtable, did not live to 
boast what he had done. An old 
quartermaster (as the tale went) had 
seen him fire, and calling out, ' That's 
he — that's he,' two midshipmen 
aimed at him. When they took pos- 
session of the prize, they went into 
the mizen-top, and found him dead ; 
with one ball through his head, and 
another through his breast. But 
there is no truth whatever in the 
story. All the honours which a great 
couotiy could bestow were heaped 
opon the memory of Nelson. His 
brother was made aa earl, with a 
VOL. ui. 

grant of 6000^. a year ; 10,000/. were 
voted to each of his sisters, and 
100,000A for the purchase of an 
estate. So perfectly liad the hero 
performed bis part, that the fleets 
of the enemy were not merely de- 
feated, but destroyed : new navies 
must be built, and a new race of sear 
men reared for them, before the pos- 
sibility of invading our shores could 
again be contemplated. The funeral 
of the first of naval commanders was 
made a national affair, and took place 
at St. PauFs, witli a procession the 
most magnificent in the memory of 

William Pitt (1759— 1806), 
second son of the great lord Chatham, 
completed his education at Pem- 
broke ball, Cambridge, under Dr. 
Pretyman, afterwaids bishop of 
Winchester. After making the usual 
continental tour, he entered at Lin- 
coln's-inn, was called to the bar, 1780, 
and when be liad attended the western 
circuit once or twice,'sat in parliament 
for Applebv. His first speech was in 
support of Mr. Burke's reform of 
finance ; and as he also sided with the 
party wishing for a reform of parlia- 
ment, he acted as a delegate in one of 
the assemblies held in Westminster 
for the promotion of that measure. 
On the dissolution of lord Rocking- 
ham's administration, and the forma- 
tion of lord Shelbume*s, he became 
chancellor of the exchequer, though 
onl^ 23, 1782. The general peace 
which followed, however, wns made 
the ground of censure by a strong 
opposition ; and the cabinet again 
gave way to the coalition of Fox and 
North, which, in its turn, through the 
failure of Mr. Fox's India Bill, re- 
stored Mr. Pitt to office, in the far 
higher capacity of prime minister, 
1 783, when not yet 24 1 A fresh par- 
liament, 1786, gave the new minister 
full power, as the tories, who were 
now mainly excluded, had hitherto 
opposed his liberal views ; and Mr. 
Pitt instantly passed his India Bill, 
establishing the board of control; 
which was followed by the ingenious, 
but, as to direct consequences, delu- 


GEORGE 111.-1789—1815. 


sive sdieme of a siDkiD^fund to li- I 
quidate the public debt. A oommer^ 
cial treaty with France followed in 
1787; and Mr. Pitt then made 
vigorous efforts to put down both 
Russian and Spanish aggrandisement, 
avoiding, however, a war. With the 
same firmness he supported the 
Stadtholder against the machinations 
of France. In 1 788, he evinced his 
determination to support the consti- 
tution, by resisting the doctrine of the 
opposition, ' That the regency, during 
the king's indisposition, devolved 
upon tlie prince of Wales by right ;* 
maintaining, with great good sense, 
that it lav in the two remaining 
branches of the legislature to fill up 
the oflSce as thej^ should tliink pro- 
per, though admitting that the prince 
could not be passed over, in nominal 
ting to this post. By the adoption of 
this principle, he was enabled to pass 
a bill greatly restricting the regent's 
power, which tlie kingfs recovery 
rendered unnecessary. The French 
revolution now broke out, and, as if 
bv magic influence, destroyed the pre- 
vious bearing of party ; the Eng- 
lish nation being suddenly and simply 
divided into the opponents and sup- 
porters of French principles. Thus, 
while a war against anarchy was de- 
clared on the one side, with the pre- 
mier at the head, the friends of ra- 
tional amelioration, on the other, 
found themselves unavoidably con- 
founded with a great mass of ignorant 
and heated characters, who espoused 
some of the wildest and most vision- 
ary notions of the innovators of 
France. Under this state of things, 
a vigilant eye and a steady hand were 
obviously necessary, to steer the ves- 
sel of state amid a conflict of opinions 
so violent and alarming ; and the 
manner in which Mr. Pitt exercised 
the almost unlimited power he pos- 
sessed, can scarcely be regarded by 
any class of men but with admiration. 
Ail sober minds must admit that the 
temporary sacrifices his measures in- 
volved—such as restrictions upon 
personal liberty, the dissemination of 
nigh principles of goyemmeDt, and 

the abandonment of all projects »€* 
home reform— saved the countiy 5 
and that Mr. Pitt had the nation with 
him at the commencement of hostili- 
ties with France, is sufficiently cer- 
tain. In the conduct of the ensuing 
war,'fearfully as it at first went against 
us, his splendid abilities shone fortli. 
England's prime minister became th^ 
arbiter of nations ; in eveir comer 
of the habitable globe did his coun- 
cils either positively direct, or con- 
siderably influence the measures of the 
throne; and his history is therefore 
the history of all the civilized king^ 
doms of the world. But to return to 
his home operations. ' The suspension 
of cash payments in 1797, the nece»* 
sity of attending to home defence, 
the alarming mutiny in the fleet, 
and the accumulation of the public 
burdens, were alleviated by a com* 
mercial monopoly, that, assisted by 
the temporary operation of an un- 
limited paper-issue, materially modi- 
fied consequences, both in form and 
in fact. Soon after the important 
measure of the Irish union had been 
effected, 1800, by Mr. Pitt, (whose 
sole object in which was the ex ten* 
sion of good government to Ireland, > 
the hopeless aspect of the war witn 
France began to turn the national 
attention towards peace ; and Mr. 
Pitt, sensible tliat it never could be 
accomplished on the high terms of 
his councils, (which were privately 
known to admit further concession to 
tlie Irish catholics), resigned his post, 
1801, carrying with him into retire- 
ment the esteem of a strong and 
powerful party, who hailed bim as 
' the pilot who had weathered the 
storm.^ The peace of Amiens suc- 
ceeded ; and the Addington adminis- 
tration, which concluded it, Mr. Pitt 
supported for a time, and then joined 
the opposition, and spoke on the 
same side with his old antagonist 
Mr. Fox. The new minister, who 
had renewed the war, unable to main- 
tain his ground, resigned; and in 
1804, Mr. Pitt once more resumed 
his post at the treasury. Returning 
to power as waMoiniiter, he exerted 


GEORGE 111—1789^.1815. 


d the eoergy of his cfaancter to 
??Bder the mrduous contest suooew- 
^; sod he found means to enga^ the 
^u great DiUitaiy powers, Russia and 
.'.'jstria, in a new confederacv, which 
vis howeyer disaolved by the battle 
iAosteriitz. Mr. Pitt's health had 
*tn sensibly declining for some time ; 
J ooostitution, weakened by an he- 
"^ditary goat, and injured by a too 
•beral use of wine, often mingled 
lith laudanum by way of stimnUint, 
VIS in a most shattered condition; 
ad the intelligence of Napoleon's 
^access, like the last overwhelming 
varc of the defenceless wreck, ex- 
'iB^ished for ever the enei^es of 
-m whose ambition would have 
.^aised his country high above all 
'^'Ctieis, and whose sole earthly object 
vas her glory. He ezpirea at his 
^iouse at Putney, January the 2dd, 
itsOG, aged 47 ; and the last words 
vhich quirered on the lips of the 
d}iiig patriot, were, ' Oh I my coun- 
try T That Mr. Pitt was eminently 
ntted for his elevated station is abun- 
dantly evident. He was steady to 
\ii8 principles, and must not be 
charged with a love of expediency 
because he maintained the opinion 
Qu which be acted, formed as it was 
after mature deliberation, asainst all 
obstacles to the end : his pkins were 
iDfariably magnanimous, extensive, 
and noble. In devisins the good of 
England, he went farther tluui the 
present moment, and beyond the con- 
sideration of her exclusive welfare : 
he l^pslated for ages to come, and 
laboured to bring (under God) ulti- 
mate prosperity, not only upon his 
own native land, but iipon Europe 
sod the world. 

CHAaLSs Jamss Fox (1748—1806), 
second son of Henry, first lord Hol- 
land, was educated at Eton, and 
Hertford coUege, Oxford; and as he 
displayed great abilities, his father 
procured him a seat for the borough 
of MidhurM, 1768, before he was of 
legal age. In J 770 he was made a 
lord oftt^ Admiralty, and soon after 
t oommasioner of the Treasury. As 
* toiy he spoke and voted ^nst 

Wilkes; but havinj^ on some un» 
known ground, oiTended lord North, 
he was, after being a supporter of his 
administration for six years, so cava- 
lierly ejected, that he chanced poli- 
tics, and became leader of tne oppo- 
sition. During the American war, 
1775 to 1782, he was the antagonist 
of the ministry ; and on the removal 
of lord Nortli, he was made secretary 
of state. Tlie death of lordjlock* 
ingham dissolved the new cabinet i 
and Mr. Fox, after some time op- 
posing the measures of lord Shel- 
bume, the next minister, returned to 
power bv his well-known coalition 
with lord North. This event is re- 
garded as a stigma in his political 
life ; as, in the ardour of his zeal, he 
had often declared he would employ 
all his powers to brine lord Nortn to 
the scaffold for the nagitiousness of 
his public life. The memorable 
India-bill brought on the downfal of 
the coalition, 1788» and the elevation 
of Mr. Pitt to the helm of the state. 
The French revolution was an event 
which Fox hailed as the harbinger of 
freedom, happiness, and prosperity 
to all Europe ; but he lived to wit- 
ness and own the fallacy of his belief. 
Deserted by some of his associates, 
who r^arded his systematical oppo- 
sition as dbloyal, he formed the de- 
sign of witlKlrawing from his attend- 
ance in parliament, except on con- 
stitutional occasions ; and in his ad- 
dresses at the Crown and Anchor 
tavern (substitutes for his senatorial 
services), he save offence to the 
ministry, and his name was struck 
from the list of privy councillors. In 
1808 he returned to his seat, and on 
the death of Mr. Pitt, 1806, was 
drawn from opposition, and, by 
the advice of loid Grenville, ma<fe 
secretary for foreign affairs. In this 
situation he had the opportunity of 
witnessing the chicane and perfidy of 
the French government ; and he ex- 
perienced how ill-calculated for the 
nappiness and independence of Eu- 
rope was the political system of that 
people, whose extravagancies and 
crimes had been once honoured as ths 


GEORGE m.— 1780— 1815. 


ebullitions of freemen. Hay ins lived 
to feel the disappointment which a 
senerous mind must experience in a 
diplomatic intercourse, conducted on 
the one part with frankness and sin- 
cerity, and on tlie other witli artifice 
and duplicity, this illustrious states- 
man fell a prey to the insurmountable 
attacks ot a dropsy, aged 68, 1806, 
in the same vear wiUi his illustrious 
rival. Highly gifted as an orator 
and a statesman, Mr. Fox was, in 
private life, the convivial friend, and 
the man of integrity and honour. 
He had been dissipated in youth, and 
tliis cliaracter necessarily tinged his 
maturer years; but his faults, as 
Burke ot»erves, ' were not formed to 
extinguish the fire of great virtues.' 

Thb Jenkinsons. — These were Sor 
ther and son, successively earls of 
Liverpool. Charles Jenkinson (1727 
— 1808), eldest son of colonel Jen- 
kinson, who was youngest s^n of sir 
Robert, first baronet of the family, 
was educated at tlie Charter-house, 
and University college, Oxford ; and 
by family interest became, after hold- 
ing other offices, secretary at war, 
1778. On the dissolution of lord 
North's ministry, he joined that por- 
tion of it which supported Mr. Pitt, 
under whose auspices he became pre- 
sident of the board of trade ; an 
office which he held in conjunction 
with the chancellorship of the duchy 
of Lancaster, given iiim 1786 ; in 
which year he was created baron 
Hawkesbury. In 1796 he was made 
earl of Liverpool, and, as the private 
adviser of George IIL, shared in all 
the obloquy attached to the confiden- 
tial friends of the Bute administra- 
tion. Having early devoted his at- 
tention to political studies, he became 
exceedingly conversant with the law 
of nations, and tlie principles and de> 
tails of commerce and political arith- 
metic ; and for his services in these 
matters, he was rewarded at last with 
the valuable sinecures of collector of 
customs in the port of London, and 
clerk of the Pelk in Ireland. He 
died, aged 81, 1808. Hb treatise on 
the coins of the realm is a very valu* 

able numismatic woriu His son vi 
Robert Banks Jenkhwrn (1770 
1828), who was educated at Chei 
school, and Univenity college* O 
ford. After filling some of the hig 
est offices in the state, he succeed 
to his fiithei^s title, 1808; and on t! 
assassination of Mr. Perceval, 18) 
he became prime minister, and cc 
ducted the afiairs of the nation, d 
only to the close of the war wi 
Napoleon, but far into the reign 
George IV.— being only compell 
to resign by a stroke of paralysi 
February, 1827. His death occum 
at the age of 58, 182a The talen 
of Lord Liverpool were of the hui 
ness, not of tlie speculative orde 
Steady in views, and upright in ii 
tention, the candour he ever di 
played in debate, and the sensibl 
reasons he advanced for carrying oi 
his plans, caused him to be regtuxlc 
as a cautious and safe director of tli 
helm ; and his general worth bein 
acknowledged, this verjr justly addc 
strength to the prevailing good opt 
nion which he enjoyed, aknost witt 
out distinction of party, among hi 
countrymen, to the period of hi 
political decease. To him the churcl 
of England is especially indebted, fo 
his j udicious appointment of bishops 
selecting them as he did, not on ac 
count of birth or political bias, bu 
for their spiritual fitness for the sa 
cred office. 

Marie Thbkssb, Peincbss di 
Lamballs, of the royal house o 
Savoy, was bom at Turin, and pos 
sessed extraordinary beauty, talents 
and virtue. On being left a widoin 
bv the death of the duke de Bourbor 
Penthievre, she became superintend 
ent of the household to queen Marie 
Antoinette; on whose flight witt 
Louis to Varennes, she proceeded U 
England. She hastily returned how- 
ever to Paris, when she heard of the 
arrest of the royal fiunily by Drouct j 
and when the queen was sent to the 
Temple,she heroicallyresol ved to sluirc 
her tote. She accompanied her mis- 
tress thither, therefore, but was soon 
after separated from her, and placed 


GEORGE nL-.1789— 1815. 


^- the pTisom of La Force ; and on 
^rpL 3d, 1 792» was summoned before 
t^ srifconstitated judges. When 
3 their presence, she was required to 
fnar dat she would love liberty and 
^iiailty, and AeUe the king and the 
caeei ; when she replied, ' I will 
like the first oath ; the second I 
'xanot, it is not in my heart.' One 
^ the bystanders, wishing to save 
ijfr, tberenpon said, ' Do however 
i^varf ana there were many con- 
aected with the tribunal, who, in like 
aaxmer, desired to spare her. The 
majority, however, had resolved on 
ber destruction ; and some one hav- 
^"tf called out in mockery, ' Let 
aadame be set at liberty I' the prin- 
ces was attacked on every side by 
abres, and stabbed to death. Her 
body b^ng torn piecemeal, her head, 
beart, and hands, after being paraded 
opon pike-heads about the streets, 
vere carried in procession to the 
Temple, to strike terror into the 
TopX prisoners. The extreme blood- 
tbirstiness of the Parisian mob may 
be gathered from the fact, that tliere 
«as nothing in the conduct or cha- 
racter of their victim, which could 
T^aecmably have excited their anger. 
^ had been uniformly kind and 
obliging to her dependants, and had 
ever displayed moderation in the ex- 
ercise of that power and influence 
vhich she derived from her high situ- 
ation and connexions. In confirma- 
tioo of this remark, her character has 
remained free from reproach amid 
the storms of the revolution ; and even 
her cruel murderers and their abet- 
tors have shown respect to her me> 
mory in various wa}^. She died in 
her 44th year. 


IS 10) was bom at Newcastle-on- 
Tyne, and entering the navy, rose to 
be flag-captain on board the Prince, 
admiral Benbow's ship. In 1797 he 
commanded the Excellent, in the 
aaioa off Cape St. Vincent ; was in 
1799 made rear-admiral of the white ; 
promoted to the red 1801 ; and in 
IB04 to he vice^miral of the blue. 
His most important service was ren- 

dered at Tra&lgar ; and his conduct 
on that memorable occasion elicited 
from Nelson the most encouraging 
remarks. On the fall of the great 
leader, the command of the fleet de- 
volved upon him as senior officer s 
and to his promptitude and skill 
was owing the preservation of the 
numerous captured vessels. He was, 
after the battle, made vice-admiral of 
the red, and a peer, by the title of 
baron CoUinffwood. He died, while 
cruising off Minorca in the Ville de 
Paris, 1810, aged 62; and his re- 
mains were publicly buried at St. 

In conunand, lord Collingwood was 
firm, but mild, most considerate of 
the comfort and health of his men, 
and strongly averse from the disci- 
pline of flogging. His sailors always 
called him ' their father.* As a sci- 
entific seaman and naval tactician, he 
had few if any equals ; and in action, 
his judgment was as cool as his cou- 
rage was fiery. His mind was en- 
lipitened to an astonishing degree, 
considering the circumstances of his 
early life and defective education ; 
and hb letters to his wife, on the 
mode in which he wished his daugh- 
ters to be brought up, while replete 
with good sense, afford a charming 
specimen of his amiable character. 
We will quote one of these epistles,-— 
family letters givinc the closest por- 
trait we can have of any man. 

'Ocean, June 16, 1806.^ This 
day, my love, is the anniversary of 
our marriage ; and I wish you many 
happy returns of it. If ever we 
have peace, I hope to spend my 
latter days amid my family, which 
is the only sort of happiness I can 
enjoy. After this life of labour, to 
retire to peace and ouietness is all 
I look for in the world. Should we 
decide to change the place of our 
dwelling, our route would, of course, 
be to the southward of Morpeth; 
but then I should be for ever re- 
gretting those beautiful views, which 
are nowhere to be eiceeded ; and 
even the rattling of that old waggon, 
that used to pass our door at six 


GEORGE m.— 1789— 1816. 


o'clock on a winter's morning, had its 
charms. The fact is, whenever I 
think liow I am to be happy again, 
my thoughts carry me back to Mor- 
peth } where, out of the fuss and pa- 
rade of the world, surrounded by 
those I loved most dearly, and who 
loved me, I enjoyed as much happi- 
ness as my nature is capable of. 
Many things that I see in the world 
inve me a distaste to the finery of it. 
The great knaves are not like those 
poor unfortunates, who, driven per- 
naps to distress from accidents which 
they could not prevent, or at least 
not (having been) educated in prin- 
ciples of honour and honesty, are 
hanged for some little thievery : while 
a knave of education and hign breed- 
ing, who brandishes his honour in the 
eyes of the world, would rob a state 
to its ruin. For the first I feel pity 
and compassion; for the latter at)- 
horrence and contempt — they are the 
tenfold vicious. 

* Have you read ? — but, what I am 
more interested about, is your sister 
with you ? and is she well and happy ? 
Tellher^God bless hert— I wish I 
were with you, that we might have a 
good laugh. God bless me ! I have 
scarcely laughed these three years. 
I am here with a very reduced force, 
having been obliged to make detach- 
ments to all ouarters. This leaves 
me weak, while the Spaniards and 
French within are daily gaining 
strength; they have patchni and 
pieced> until now they have a very 
considerable fleet. Whether they will 
venture out or not, I do not know ; 
if they come, I have no doubt we 
sliall do an excellent deed ; and then 
I will bring them to England my- 
self. How do the dear girls ffo on ? 
Do not let them be made fine ladies; 
but ffive them a knowledge of the 
world which they have to live in, 
that they may take care of them- 
lelves when you and 1 are in Heaven. 
They must do every thing for them- 
selves; and never read novels — but 
history, travels, essays, and Shak- 
•peare's plays as often as they please. 
What they call books for young per- 

sons are nonsense. The menl 
should be strengthened by getting 
heart such speeches and noble se 
ments from Shakspeare or Ron 
history, as deserve to be imprir] 
on the mind. I would have tli 
taught geometry, too, which is, oi 
sciences, the most entertaining: 
expands the mind more to the kn< 
ledge of all thin^ in nature, i 
better teaches to distinguish bctw^ 
truths, and such things as have 1 
appearance of truths, ^et are ii 
than any other. Their educati* 
and the proper cultivation of I 
sense which God has given them, i 
the objects on which my happing 
most depends. To inspire them ^wi 
a love of every thing that is honoi 
able and virtuous, though they mj 
be in rags, and to give them a co 
tempt for vanity in embroiderv, 
the way to make them the darlinj 
of my heart. They should, in rcai 
ing, never have access to two boo] 
at the same time ; but when a sul 

i'ect is begun, it should be finis he 
before any thing else is undertakei 
How would it enlarge their minds, ! 
they could acquire a sufficient knoM 
ledge of mathematics and astronoro j 
to give them an idea of the beaut 
and wonders of creation I I am per 
suaded that the generality of people 
and particularly fine ladies, onlj 
adore Grod because the^ are told it h 
proper, and the fashion to go t< 
church ; but I would have my girlj 
gain such an acquaintance with the 
works of creation, that they may have 
a fixed idea of the nature of tha< 
Being who could be the autiior oi 
such a world. Whenever they have 
that, nothing on this side the moon 
will give them much uneasiness. I 
do not mean that they should be 
stoics, or want the common feelings 
for the sufferings that flesh is heir 
to; but they would then have a 
source of consolation for the worst 
that could happen. Give them my 
blessing, and charge them to be dili- 

< Tell me, how do the trees which 
I planted thrive? Is there shade un- 

GEORGE IIL— 1789— 1815. 


der the three oaks for a comfortable 
saamieF-eeat? Do the poplars srow 
■t the wmlk? and does the wiOl of 
the terrace stand firm ? My bankers 
tell me, that aO my money in their 
hands is exhausted by fees on the 
peerage, and that I am in their debt, 
which is a new epoch in my life ; for 
it b the first time I was ever in debt 
since I was a midshipman. Here I 
gee nothing ; but then my expenses 
are nothing, and I do not want it, 
partiealarly now that I have got my 
kniTes, forks, teapot, and the things 
Tou were so kind as to send me.' 
Lord CoUingwood's title (he having 
no son,) bcMaune extinct at his de- 
cease, 1810. 

Lord Edwakd Fitzgerald (1763 
— 1796} was fifth son of James, first 
duke of Leinster, and early adopted 
liberal political notions. During the 
ierment which the French Revolu- 
tion produced in Ireland, he became 
an active member of the Society of 
United Irishmen, established 1791, to 
spread levelling principles ; and when 
a conspiracy had been framed to se- 
parate the island from the British 
dominions, he went as its secret agent 
to the French Directory, to solicit 
the aid of a French fleet It has 
been shown in the Irish history, that 
the plans of the conspirators were 
admirably frustrated, and that lord 
EdwartFs peison was attainted of 
hi^ treason, and seized by the ma- 
gbtracy of Dublin. During the 
scuffle which ensued with the officers 
of justice, when his lordship had de- 
clared that neither his papers nor 
himself should be touched, he was 
severely wounded by a pistol-shot, 
and died soon after in prison, aged 
S5, 1798. Lord Edward had mar- 
ried Pamela, natural daughter of 
EgaBii, duke of Orleans, (by the 
governess of his children, the cele- 
brated madame de Genlis), by whom 
he left inue a son and two daughters. 
His attainder was reversed by the 
Britisb parliament, 1819. 


/]7jl9^1805> was son of Charles, 
he tot earl, and rccciyed lus educa- 

tion at Eton, and St. John's eoUeee, 
Cambridge. Devoting himself to the 
profession of arms, he in 1758 ob- 
tained a captain's commission in the 
light in(ant^ ; in 1761 was aide-de- 
camp to the marquis of Granby, and 
went to Germany tiU the conclusion 
of the campaign ; succeeded in 1 762 
as earl Comwallis ; and three years 
after was made aide-de-camp to the 
king. He obtained the d3rd regi- 
ment of foot in 1766, and two years 
after married Miss Jones, a lady of 
large fortune, who died of a broken 
heart, when unable to dissuade him 
from his attendance in the campaigns 
against the Americans. The seizure 
of Philadelphia was followed by the 
reduction of South Carolina, and the 
defeat of Gates with an inferior force ; 
but these advantages were tarnished 
by the earl's defeat at York-town, 
1781, and the surrender of himself 
and his whole army to the enemy. 
He laid the blame of this issue on sir 
Henry Clinton, who had not given 
him the succour he expected ; and 
though removed from nis place of 
governor of the Tower on his return 
by capitulation to England, he was 
in 1786 sent out to India, with the 
double appointment of commander- 
in-chief, and governor-general. His 
first exploit on this new scene was 
an invasion of the Mysore country, 
whose sultan had attacked the state 
of the rajah of Travancore, the ally 
of the English. Lord Comwallis 
entered the Mysore, 1791, and in the 
next year besieged the capital city of 
Seringapatam, and obligea the sultan, 
TippS Saheb, to sue for peace, to pay 
a large sum of money, and to yield 
his two sons as hostages for the mlfil- 
ment of the treaty. On the conclu- 
sion of this important vrar, his lord- 
ship returned to England; and was 
created a marquis, and appointed 
master-general of the ordnance, for 
his services. From 1798 to 1801 he 
was lord lieutenant of Ireland, con- 
ducting himself with great firmness 
and judgment during the rebellion 
there ; in 1802 he signed the peace 
of Amiens; and in 1804, on the 


GEORGE in.— 1789— 1815. 


recsl of the marquis Wellesley, was 
agai,D made goveraox^general of In- 
dia. In that country he died the 
next year, 1805, at uhuzpoor, aged 
67; lamented as an amiable, unas- 
suming man, a just ruler, and a vigi- 
lant and active soldier. 

Ralph ABERCRo»fBY( 1738—1801), 
bom at Tillibodie, Clackmannanshire, 
early entered tlie army, and was ap- 
pointed, 1795, commander-in-chief of 
the forces' in the West Indies ; in 
which expedition he captured the 
islands or Grenada, St Lucia, St. 
Vincent, and Trinidad, with the set- 
tlements of Demeraraand Essequibo. 
In tlie attempt upon Holland, 1799, 
he (now sir Ralph) had the sole 
command on the first landing, and 
both his troops and himself greatly 
distinguished themselves; but he 
acted under the duke of York's or- 
ders when that prince arrived, and 
the final issue of the expedition was 
a truce, which gave great disgust 
. generally to the nation. Tlie next 
and last service of sir Ralph was the 
expedition to Egypt, of which he was 
commander-in-chief, 1801. The 
troops, after a violent conflict, landed 
at Aboukir, March 8th ; and on the 
13th was fought tlie battle of Alex- 
andria, wherein sir Ralph was un- 
horsed and. wounded in two places, 
notwithstanding which he disarmed 
his antagonist, and gave the sword to 
sir Sidney Smith. He kept the field 
during the day, and was then con- 
veyed on board the admiral's ship, 
where he expired on the 19th, aged 
sixty-three. His widow was here- 
upon created baroness Abercromby, 
with remainder to the issue male of 
her late husband ; and a pension of 
2000^ a year was eranted bv the 
country in support of the dignity. 

Adam Duncan (1 731 — 1804), 
bom in Scotland of a respectable fa- 
mily, went very early to sea, and 
served as post^captain in 1762, at the 
taking of Havannah. In 1779 he 
shared in the victory of admiral 
Rodney over the Spaniards ; was 
made rear-admiral of tlie blue, 1789, 
and by regular gradation, became, 

1794, vice-admiral of the white squa- 
dron. In 1795 he was sent to watch 
the Dutch in the harbour of the 
Texel, and had for two years that 
harassing and uninteresting duty, un- 
til at last his men mutinied ; but his 
sailing homewards in consequence* 
induced the Dutch fleet to come out, 
and his men thereupon returning to 
order, he encounter^ the enemy oflT 
Camperdown, in Holland, defeated 
them, and captured eight of their 
ships, together with their admiral, De 
Winter. Tliis splendid achievement 
obtained the gallant admiral the title 
of viscount Duncan, and a pension of 
2000/. a year ; and from that period 
he retired to private life, ana died, 
aged 73, 1804. 

Michael Net (1769—1815), born 
of humble parents, at Savre Louis, 
entered as a private into the French 
hussars, and had obtained the rank 
of a subaltern at the beginning of the 
revolution. In the progress of that 
anarchical visitation, he rapidly rose 
to command ; and in the shameful 
invasion of Switzerland, 1798, be was 
the principal leader. He was created 
marshal of France, 1804, and in the 
next year ^ned the victory to which 
he owed his title of duke of Elchin- 
gen. He mainlv contributed to the 
success of the French at Friedland ; 
was a skilful officer during the re- 
treat from the Peninsula before lord 
Wellington \ and his services at the 
terrible battle of Mojaisk, in Russia, 
where he commanded the centre of 
the French army, procured him the 
title of prince of Moskwa, and the 
soldiers' epithet of ' bravest of the 
brave.' Having subsequently lost the 
battle of Dennewitz, in Germany, 
the dissatisfaction of Napoleon in- 
duced him to retire to Paris in a kind 
of disgrace. He was, however, arain 
employed in 1814 s though he after- 
wards contributed to induce the em- 
peror to resign his authority, and was 
one of the first of the imperial gene- 
rals who offered submission to the 
Bourbons. He preserved therefore 
all his titles and pensions, and was 
created a peer ot France. Id Fe- 

GEORGE m.— 1789— 1815. 


brnaiy, 1815, when Niqpoleon had 
retnmed from Elba, and was on his 
sarch to Paris, Ney receiyed oiden 
fnsm the minuter at war to repair to 
bis government of Besan^on ; and 
before proceeding thither from his 
coantry seat, he visited Paris, and as- 
sured L.oiiis XVIII. that he would 
bnng him the disturber of Europe con* 
Jhed Bi am iron cage. He then set 
out with some regiments towards 
Ljon ; but instead of attacking the 
iarader, he joined his standard, and 
became one of his most active par- 
tisans. He led on the last charge of 
his old master's force at Waterloo, 
on the &ilure of Napoleon to take 
the command, against the duke of 
Wellington in person; andafWr that 
erent, he took refuge in Auvergne, 
where he was arrested as one of the 
authors of the revolution, conveyed 
to Paris, convicted of treason, and 
condemned bv a council of war to be 
shot to deatn, a penalty which he 
saffered with great fortitude, in his 
47th year, Dec 7, 1815. 

Maashai. Macdonalo (1765— 
1B40), of a Scottish family, entered 
the French army as a lieutenant, 
1783. He was a colonel at Je- 
mappes, and was made general on 
passing the Waal when it was frozen. 
He was severely wounded at the 
battle of Trebbia, 1799. Though 
his friendship with Moreau brought 
him into disgrace with Napoleon, 
the latter did not refuse him the 
baton of marechale, when he had 
made a successful attack on the Aus- 
trian centre at Wagram; and he was 
created due de Tarente. In the Rus- 
sian campaign, he commanded the 
iOth corps ; and at Leipsic he sprang 
into the ri?er Elster with ronia- 
towski, and, more fortunate than the 
g^lant Pole, escaped. In 1815, 
when the troop under him in the 
service of Louis XVIII. went over 
to Napoleon, he refused to join in 
their revolt ; and he took no part in 
the ensuing conflict at Waterloo. He 
died at his domain of Courcelles, 
near Orleans, 1840, aged 75. 
AlBXAKDB* Be»th«b (1753 — 

1815), bom at Versailles, having ob- 
tained a commission in a regiment of 
dragoons, served in the American re- 
volutionary war, and acouired con- 
siderable reputation. During the 
French revolution, he became com- 
mandant of the national guard at Ver- 
sailles ; and in this situation he ex- 
erted himself to check the excesses 
of the populace. During the ' reign of 
terror* he served under La Fayette and 
Liickner ; and afterwards under Buo- 
naparte in his first Italian campaign. 
From tliis time he accompanied Na- 
poleon in all his movements, as chief 
of the staff, for which situation he was 
eminently fitted, though, as a general, 
his talents were not above medio- 
crity. In 1803, he married a Bava- 
rian princess ; in 1805, was created a 
marshal, grand huntsman of the em- 
pire, and chief of the first cohort of 
the legion of honour; in 1806, be- 
came prince of Neufchatel; and in 
1809, {>riDce of Wagram. In 1810, 
he officiated as Napoleon's proxy in 
the marriage with Maria Louisa. 
On the restoration of Louis XVIII., 
he accepted the situation of captain 
of one of the companies of the gardes^ 
durcorpt ; and on the return of Napo- 
leon, he retired to Bamberg, where, 
on the 20th of March, 1815, he died, 
either by falling accidentally, or pur- 
posely tnrowine himself, from a win- 
dow, at which he had been surveying 
the entrance of the Russian troops 
into tlie town. 

Jean Victor Mobeau (1763 — 
1813), bom of a respectable family 
at Morlaix in Brittany, quitted the 
law for the army, enlisting clandes- 
tinely as a common soldier at eigh- 
teen. His father, however, purchased 
his discharge, and he became an ad- 
vocate ; but on the outbreak of the 
revolution, he accepted the com- 
mand of a volunteer legion of repub- 
lican Breton youth, and joined the 
army of the north. In the cam- 
paign of 1794, he, at the head of a 
separate corps of 25,000 men, rapidly 
reduced several strong places in Flan- 
ders ; and after aiding richegru in the 
conquest of Holland^ was appointed 


GEORGE m.— 1789-1816. 


commander-in-chief of the army of the 
Rhine, opening the campaign of 1796 
bv the defeat of the Austrian general 
Wurmser, 'whom he drove across the 
Rhine, and pursued into Germany. 
The archduke Charles of Austria, 
who attempted to arrest his course, 
met for some time with no better 
success ; but the Austrians were at 
length so largely reinforced, that Mo- 
reau was compelled to yield to num- 
bers, and he finished the memorable 
campaign by a masterly retreat through 
the denies of the Black Forest, in 
which, though assailed on all sides by 
a hostile peasantry, and with a supe- 
rior army hanging on his rear, he tri- 
umphantly fought his way to the 
Rhine. On being suspected of join- 
ing with Pichegru in a correspon- 
dence with the Bourbon princes, he 
resigned his command, 1797; but he 
was recalled to act against the Aus- 
trians in Italy, 1798 ; supported the 
cause of Buonaparte at Paris, when 
the latter had resolved on being first 
consul ; and received the command of 
the armies of the Danube and Rhine, 
at whose head, 1800, he won from 
the Austrians the sanguinary and de- 
cisive battle of Hohenlinden. The 
first consul loaded him, on his return 
to Paris, with eulogy; but Buona- 
parte and Moreau were each too eager 
m the same career of ambition, to 
pursue it without dangerous collision. 
On a charge, which pretended to im- 
plicate him in the royalbt conspiracy 
of Pichegru and Cadoulial, 1804, 
Moreau was exiled by his rival's fac- 
tion to America; where he resided 
till induced by the emperor Alexan- 
der of Russia to assist the allied ar- 
mies against his country, 1813. He 
had scarcely arrayed himself in their 
ranks, when he was mortally wounded 
at tlie battle of Dresden ; and in a few 
days, after bearing the amputation of 
both legs without a groan, he expired. 
Charles Picrigru (1701 ^1804), 
bom of poor parents at Arbois, en- 
listed as a common soldier, and, by 
his energetic conduct in the revolu- 
tion, was appointed to succeed gene- 
ral Heche in the command of the a> 

my of the north, 1794. He soon 
restored tlie discipline of that force, 
wbich had been greatly broken ; ob- 
tained possession of nearly the inrhole 
country on the line of the river >Valil 
before winter ; and when that season 
had set in, crossed the ice, and com- 
pletely drove the allied English and 
Dutch from Nimeguen, Breda, and 
the adjacent territory. During the 
Parisian insurrection of the ^aux- 
bourss, 1795, he contributed, as gene- 
ral of the army of Paris, to allay the 
ferment ; and he then joined the army 
of the Rhine, and entered into corre- 
spondence with the prince of Cond^ 
to restore the Bourbons. Being sus- 
pected, Moreau was sent to super- 
sede him, 1796 ; and retiring to Jum, 
he was elected deputy for that de- 
partment, and president of the coun- 
cil of 500. In 1 797, on a chatge of 
leaguing to overthrow the republic, 
be was transported with Bartnelemi 
and others to Cayenne ; whence he 
escaped to England, and there plan- 
ned, with Cadouhal, and other Ven- 
d^ans, the overthrow of the first con- 
sul's government He was seized 
while m disguise at Paris, 1804, and 
carried to the Temple ; where he was 
found strangled, April 6, 1804. 

Franz Kbllbrmann(] 735—1820), 
bom at Strasburg, entered the army 
as a private among the Con flans 
^French) hussars, when 17. His ar- 
dour,intelligence,and passion for arms, 
soon attracted the observation of his 
superiors ; and having given manifest 
proofs of his talent and courage, in 
the Seven Years' War, he was made 
an officer, and rapidly promoted, till, 
in 1788, he was appointed quarter^ 
master-general. Having adopted witli 
enthusiasm the principles of the re- 
volution, he was in 1792 appointed 
commander of the army of tlie Mo- 
selle. He then effected a junction 
with Dumouriez, on the plain of 
Champagne; and on the 17th of 
Septeml^r, he greatly distinguished 
himself by his d^ence of the position 
of Valmy. The failure of this • can- 
nonade of Valmy* by the duke of 
Bninswick, caused the alliai to re* 


GEORGE IIL~1789— 1815. 


treaKt, and perbaps dedded» not mere- 
.V the wfac>le campaigOt but abo the 
'ace of Europe, aiid me supremacy of 
France, till 1818. KeUermano next 
senred uoder Custine, who denounced 
ulzn to the National Convention; 
sod thoogh he justified himself against 
the aoeusalion of that officer, several 
similar attacks followed, and he was 
at length arrested, and confined in 
the military prison of the Abbave at 
Paris. Fortunately, his trial did not 
lake place till after the expiration of 
the Ketgn of Terror, and he was 
acquitted. In 1 795 be took the com- 
mand of the army of tlie Alps and 
Italy; but he was soon superseded 
by Buonaparte. On his return to 
Paris in 1798, he was nominated a 
member of the military board esta- 
blished by the Directory. In 1801 
he was president of the conservative 
senate, and in the following year was 
made a marshal of the empire. Uo- 
der Napoleon, he served with great 
credit in Germany and Prussia ; for 
which the 90hdaaant emperor gave 
him the estates of Johannisberg, and 
created him due de Valmy. After 
tlie fall of his benefactor, 1814, Kel- 
lennann voted for the restoration of 
the Bourbons ; and, continuing firm 
to their cause when Napoleon return- 
ed from Elba, he was allowed a seat 
in the chamber of peers, and, though 
on the liberal side, was employed by 
the government until his decease, at 
the age of 85, 1820. His dyins re- 
quest vras ' that his heart should be 
buried on the field of Valmv* — in 
consecrated ground we hope, though 
the Buonaparte school htde cared 
for such matters. 

By the Buonaparte school must be 
understood, the race of militaiy men, 
officers and privates, who sprung up 
in Fnuice with the Revolution. All 
in the main were atheists ; and Uiis 
all pretty well comprised, at one 
juncture (the moment when Napo- 
leon assumed the imperial title), the 
whole French nation. It was not 
riiat Buonaparte encouraged infidel 
opiojODS among his subjects; but 
t£|r had been all bom at a period 

when religion, tfarouch the teachina 
of the illuminating philosophers, had 
been cast aside bv all classes under 
those of the noble and ^ntle ; the 
officers of the Revolution having 
been, almost to a man, taken from 
the ranks, eventuallv to become mar- 
shals and peers of tne empire. Men 
thus nurtured without rehgion, were 
not very scrupulous in matters of 
conscience; and what all duly edu- 
cated persons style 'principle,* the 
Buonaparte school were celebrated 
for denounciog as ' prejudice.' 

Jean Klebbe was an officer in 
the French repubUcan army, who, 
for his many services, was raised to 
the rank or general, and took the 
command of the French army in 
Egypt, when Buonaparte left it se- 
cretly, to return to Paris. In tliis 
post of difficulty, Kleber not only 
kept the unruly soldiery in subjec- 
tion, but captured Cairo. He was 
entering into negociations for the 
removal of the army safely to Eu- 
rope, when an Arab assassinated 
him in the garden of his residence, 
1 800. Kleber, it is affirmed, was al- 
ways envied by Napoleon ; and there 
are those who assert, tliat the de- 
signs of the former upon tlie tlirone 
of France, were both as well concerted 
as those of tlie latter, and well known 
to that more fortunate general. 

Louis Debaix was also a French 
general of the Revolution. He acted 
under Moreau on the Rhine, 1796, 
and materially tended to that com- 
mander^s success at Rastadt and the 
bridge of Kehl ; in which last action 
he was wounded, and had his liorse 
killed under him. Accompanying 
the Egyptian expedition, he was made 
governor of Upper Egvpt, and distin- 
guished himselt greatly against Mti- 
rad Bey; but when Napoleon re- 
quired his aid in the Italian cam- 
paign of 1800, he joined him at Ma- 
rengo, and was killed on the field at 
the moment that victory had decided 
in fiivour of the French. His body 
was interred with high military ho- 
nours in the convent of Mont St, 
Bernard; where a splendid monu- 


GEORGE III— 1789— 1815. 


ment, besides one at Paris, oomme- 
morates his achievemeDts. 

Albxandbe Suvarov, the Russian 
field-marshal, rose to distinction in 
the Seven Years' War. From 1768 
to 1789, he was distinguished as a 
most intrepid, but somewhat barbaric, 
warrior, against both Turks and Tar- 
tars ; and in the last-named year, by 
his timely arrival with 10,000 Rus- 
sians, he saved the Austrian army 
under the prince of Saxe-Coburg, 
then surrounded on the banks of the 
Ryminisk by 100,000 Turks. To his 
victory over this vast force he was 
indebted for his title of count The 
next and most sanguinary of his ac- 
tions was tlie storming of Ismailov, 
1790. In three days ne sacked the 
place, though it had withstood the as- 
saults of other generals seven months ; 
and after putting to the sword 40,000 
of the inhabitants, his only despatch 
to prince Potemkin, the minister, 
was, * Glory to God, Ismailov is ours.' 
The empress now sent Suvarov against 
Poland ; and after sacrificing *20,000 
Poles in his way to Warsaw, he paved 
the way for the unjust division of 
that country. He defeated the French 
at Novi in Italy, 1799 ; but was com- 
pelled to retreat through Switzerland 
when Moreau became nis antagonist. 
This memorable exploit was consi- 
dered on all hands to have displayed 
his military talent even more, if pos- 
sible, than his many victories ; but it 
was his last manoeuvre, as he was soon 
after recalled by tlie capricious Paul, 
who desired peace with France. He 
died near Petersburgh, 1800, aged 
70. Though cruel as a soldier, Su- 
varov was always governed by a spe- 
cies of religious principle, as well as 
by his notions of strict justice. Dur- 
ing the struggle which took place, 
when forcingliis way by the passage 
of the Alps of St. Gothard, he re- 
mained a whole day in his shirt, in 
sight of the army» with a shoe on 
one foot and a boot on the other, to 
accomplish a vow ; and he never 
marched without an image of his pa^ 
tron-saint about his person. 

John Moobs (1761~1809)| son 

of Dr. Moore, the well known author 
of ' Zeluco,' was born at GlasgoviTy 
and educated at the high-school oF 
that city. Afler accompanying his 
father and the youthful duke of Ha- 
milton in a tour of the continent, 
(Dr. Moore acting as travelling tutor 
to the duke), he obtained an en- 
signcy in a foot regiment, the gift o£ 
the duke of Argyll ; and he gradually 
rose to the highest command, after 
serving in the American war, in Ire- 
land during the rebellion 1798, and. 
under Abercromby in Eg}''pt. In 
1808, he was appointed to the com- 
mand of an army to be employed in 
driving the French out of Spain and 
Portugal ; and after a course of the 
most gallant and masterly description, 
he fell at Corunna, aged 48, as re- 
lated in the account of the Peninsular 
War ; and was buried there by torch- 
light, amid the firing of tlie enemy, 
in the night of January 16th, 1609. 

Gebbaral Lebrecht von Blu- 
CHEB n742 — 1819) was born at 
RostocK, in Mecklenburgh Schwerin ; 
in which province his family had been 
established for some centunes, liavin^ 
given a bishop to Liibeck in the 
thirteenth. He entered the Swedish 
army at fourteen ; but, being taken 
prisoner, exchanged the service, on 
bis release, for that of Prussia, in 
which he continued during the Seven 
Years' War. He quitted the army on 
the signing of peace, but rejoined it 
(again in the Pnissian service), and 
distinguished himself, as a major- 
general, by his masterly retreat 
through Liibeck, after the battle of 
Jena, 1806. Towards the close of 
the campaign, he was once more made 
prisoner by the French, but was 
exchanged for the due do Bellino ; 
and he again gained great credit for 
his bravery and skill at Lutzen, Leip- 
sic, and in the driving of the French 
out of Germany, almost to the gates 
of their own capital, 1814. For bis 
constant shouting his war-cry of 
' Vorwarts' to the troops during this 
last exploit, he acquired among them 
the appellation of MartehaU Vor^ 
wttHst ' Marshal Forwards ;* which 


GEOBGE IIL—17&d~1815. 


B sdll the name that Gennaos delight 
to nse in speaking of him. Towards 
the dose of the campaien in ques- 
tion, the infinnities of old age almost 
indnced the marshal, at one moment, 
to abandon his command, and retire 
into the Netherlands ; but the spirit 
triumphed over the flesh, and, thoujgh 
anable to remain in the saddle u>r 
the last attack on Montmartre, he 
gave his orders with calmness and 
precision from a carriage. His ap- 
pearance on thb occasion must have 
taxed the gravity of his staff, how- 
ever difficult the task of exciting 
laughter in a Prussian soldier; for, 
to protect his eyes, then in a state of 
violent inflammation, the grisly ve- 
teran supplied the place of his cocked 
hftt by a French lady's bonnet and 
veil! His health totally prevented 
him from sharing the triumphal entry 
of the sovereigns into Paris ; and on 
the 2d of April (1814) he resigned 
the burden of his military command. 
The peace of Paris, however, by 
no means satiated Blucher*s tbiist for 
the humiliation of France ; and it is 
well known tliat he expressed his dis- 
like of it ver}r unceremoniously, even 
to his sovereign, and openly blamed 
the lenity of the allied monarchs in 
sparing the capital. ' It ought to 
nave been ransacked and then burned 
to the eround (he would exclaim), in 
return for the vUlun's brutal spoliation 
of Berlin, and his monstrous robbery 
of our works of art I' After enioying 
the reward of his services in the en- 
thusiastic congratulations of London 
(wliither he accompanied tlie king of 
Prussia and emperor of Russia, on 
the fell of Paris), and of Berlin, the 
veteran divided for awhile his resi- 
dence between the latter city and 
Breslau ; at all times and places ex- 
haling his discontent at the conces- 
sions of the allies. Napoleon he 
now thought ousht to have been 
hanged, instead of being allowed the 
dignity of a king even of Elbese. 
Unmeasured in his language, mixing 
freely in the society of all classes, 
and venting his spleen on all diplo- 
buC especially on Harden- 

berg, he became, without any per- 
sonal object of aggrandisement or 
political ambition, but in the mere 
mdulgence of his ill-humour, the 
nucleus of a little ' Fronde,' calcu*- 
lated to offend, without influencing, 
the sovereign and his m inisters . That 
he looked forward to another trial of 
strength between his countrymen 
and the French is evident ; but it is 
hardly possible, that, at his age, he 
should have contemplated the pro- 
bability of once more, in person, 
directing the fortunes of the contest, 
and of at last feeding fat the ancient 
grudge he bore, not only to Napo- 
leon, but to the whole French nation. 
His speculations were more tlie ofi^ 
spring of his feelings, than of any 
profound t>bservation of the political 
state of Europe ; and he might have 
gone on smoking, gaming, and scold- 
ing, without intemiption, if the great 
event had not occurred, which re- 
stored him to his more legitimate 
vocation. The news of Napoleon's 
escape, 1815, found him accidentally 
at Berlin. His first impulse was to 
call on the Enelish ambassador, to 
twit him with the negligence of his 
countrymen ; his next tu exhibit 
himself in the principal street of the 
capital in his field-marshal's uniform, 
— a significant hint to younger gene- 
rals, not to expect he would concede 
to them his place in the approaching 
fray. His nomination to that post 
of honour and danger soon ensued^ 
and his old companion and adviser, 
Gneisenau, was once more at his 

It has been shown, in the sketch 
of the battle of Waterloo, how 
spiritedly ' marslial Vorwarts' bore 
the first attacks of the French, yet 
was near being defeated at Ligny on 
the 16th of June, 1815. In that 
conflict he had liis horse shot under 
him, and narrowly escaped with his 
life, — a whole squadron of cavalry 
actually charging over him, as he lay 
helpless on the ground. It was only 
by an act of devotion, to which even 
Froissart has furnished no parallel 
exploit of high chivalry, that his 


GEORGE in.— 1789— 1816. 


aide-de-camp, NostiU, saved him 
from destruction. By that faithful 
and admiring friend, the marshal was 
conveyed to a cottage, whence he 
dictated his despatches, and issued 
his orders, unshaken in spirit, though 
sorely bruised in body. While the 
surgeon was rubbing his contusions, 
he asked the nature of the liniment ; 
and on being told that it was brandy, 
he stated his opinion that an internal 
application would be far more effica- 
cious. This was objected to, but 
was- subsequently allowed in the mi- 
tigated shape of champagne ; and he 
said to the messenger, who was on 
the point of departing with a de- 
spatch finished at the moment the 
bottle was placed on his table, * Tell 
his majesty, when he asks about me, 
dot ich hatte kaU nachgeimnken, and 
that all will do well.* His order of 
the day for the 17th, after some re- 
flections on the conduct of the cap 
valry and artillery, (on whom, when 
he had made the fruitless charge at 
Uieir head, the French cavalry, who 
stood firm in their ranks, poured a 
most destructive carbine fire, in the 
manner of the sixteenth century, 
instead of fighting at the sword point, 
as now the usage,) concluded with 
these words — ' I shall lead you again 
against the enemy : we shall beat 
him— for we mutt.* On the defeat 
of the French troops at Waterloo, 
on the 18th, he was created Furst 
(prince) of Wahlstadt by his sove- 
reign. He did not, however, survive 
this honour long. Hi* last illness 
came upon him at Kriblowitz ; his 
death-bed was attended by the king, 
who had ever regarded him i and he 
expired calm and resigned, in the arms 
of his faithful Nostitz, aged 77, 1819. 
(Bliicher pronounced ISSeeh^-her,) 


1823), born at Cambrai, entered the 
army early, and served in Germany 
dunng the Seven Years' War. After 
the peace of Paris, 1763, he was for 
many years a wanderer, joined the 
French expedition against Corsica, 
1769, then acted as a private emis- 
sary of Louia XY. to diffcient coun- 

tries, but was at last imprisoned in 
^e Bastille, through the jealousy of 
the ministry, and there kept until re- 
leased by Louis XYI. at his acces- 
sion. In 1778 he was sent to Chei^ 
bourg, to form a great naval establish- 
ment connected with the proposed 
invasion of England ; and he fur- 
nished the ministry with plans for 
the conquest of the islands of Jersey, 
Guernsey, and Wight. At the be- 
ginning of the revolution he took 
the popular side, as a Girondist ; but 
he soon became disgusted with, as 
well as afraid of, the ultraprevolu- 
tionists, or jacobins, and was rejoiced 
to escape from internal politics to 
command the army against the duke 
of Brunswick, in the room of La 
Fayette. It was then that he made 
tliat stand in the forest of Argonne, 
which, by giving time to Kellermann 
and others to come up with fresh 
troops, and defeat the Prussians at 
Valmy, 1792, saved France from an 
invasion, which in all probability 
would have extinguished the revolu- 
tion. After gaining the battle of 
Jeroappes against the Austrians, and 
taking great part of Flanders, Du- 
mounez was called to Paris during 
the king's trial ; but after the execu- 
tion, he returned to the army, fully 
resolved, like Monk in the case of 
Charles II., to restore the monarchy, 
should occasion offer. Meanwhile, 
entering Holland, he took Breda and 
other towns ; but being checked by 
the army of tlie prince of Coburg, 
he gladly entered into secret nego- 
ciations with the prince, and retreated 
to St Armand, within the French 
frontier, March, 1793. When cen- 
sured by tlie Convention, he can- 
didly declared, that a republic was 
but another name for anarchy, and 
that he would alone support the con- 
stitutional monarchy of 1791 ; and 
upon some of the members repairing 
to St. Armand to seize him, he sent 
them under guard, to be detained as 
hostages. His design now was to 
march upon Paris; but finding his 
soldiers unwilling to proceed thither, 
he retired firomcQHuiiyid* TheAtis- 


GEORGE m.— 1789— 1815. 


trails, however, did not relish his 
]^ of a constitutional monarchy ; 
» that* regeurded with coldness by 
them, bated by the royalists, and de- 
nounced by the Convention, even to 
the offer of 900,000 francs for bis 
b^d, he once more became a wan- 
derer, till, in 1805, he obtained leave 
from the British ministry to settle in 
England. There the remainder of 
his days was spent in literary pur^ 
sails, especially in writing his own 
memoiis; and he died at Turville 
Park, near Henley, aged 84, 1828. 

Josephine de la PAOEaiE (1768— 
1814), the first wife of Napoleon 
Buonaparte, was born in Martinique. 
While very young her father took 
her to France, to marry her to the 
Tiscount Beauhamais. Josephine, 
in the prime of her beauty, and still 
more adorned bv tliat peculiar grace 
whidi distinguished her through life, 
had what was then called * great suc- 
cess' at court. She bore the viscount 
tvo children, Eugene and Hortense. 
Her husband was known in the begin- 
ning of the Revolution, as an advo- 
otte of constitutional principles ; but 
the fury of terrorism increased, and 
he who had valiantly defended what 
he supposed to be France, at the 
bead of its armies, was thrown into 
prison, and executed. Josephine also 
was included in the list of^ proscrip- 
tion ; but the death of her husband 
reduced her to such a state of inca^ 
pacity, that she could not be removed ; 
and to this circumstance she owed her 
ocape from the sca^old. Robespierre 
at length perbhed,and the vioountess 
was delivered from prison by Tallien, 
who was never forgotten by her, nor 
by Eugene, from idiom he received a 
considerable pension till. his death. 
Josephine was indebted to Barras for 
the restoration of a part of the pro- 
perty of her husband ; and at his 
house, after the 13th Vendemiaire, 
she met general Buonaparte, who had 
previously taken an interest in her 
on the foJJowing account. The dis- 
armiDg of the citizens having been 
decreed, a boy of fifteen years pr^ 
seated himself to Buonaparte^ and 
with great earnestness demanded the 

sword of his father. That boy was 
Eusene; and Buonaparte, touched 
by his filial zeal, was desirous to see 
his mother, to whom he immediately 
became attached. He married her in 
1796; She followed the hero of 
Italy ; and her wbole subsequent life 
was intimately connected with that 
of Napoleon, at whose side she 
stood like a good genius. She had 
considerable influence over him ; and 
his letters to her are proofi both of 
her amiable character, and of his 
warm attachment to her. She was 
always benevolent, and ever accessi- 
ble to such as sought protection or 
mercy from the emperor through her. 
When Napoleon became desirous of 
marrying the daughter of Francis of 
Austria, she felt it deeply ; yet had 
she firmness enough to consent to 
wliat he thought best for France and 
for himself, and to be divorced from 
him. She retired to her beautiful 
seat of Malmaison, with the title of 
empress-qneen-dowager ; and thither 
the respect and love of all the better 
French foUowed her. She was 
doomed to see the destruction of 
that throne on which she had once 
sat, 1814. The emperor Alexander 
of Russia, and the king of Prussia, 
but particularlv the former, showed 
their respect for her virtues by re- 
peated visits to Malmaison ; but the 
fate of her quondam husband undei^ 
mined her strength ; and having ex- 
posed herself, while in a feeble state 
of health, by walking on a chilly day 
with the emperor Alexander, she 
was seized witn a pleurisy, and died, 
aged 51, May 29th, 1814. Her last 
words were, 'L'ile d'Elbe f— Napo- 
leon I' Josephine was handsome ; 
her figure was elegant and majestic; 
and all her movements were full of 
grace ; but her greatest charms were 
a religious conduct, and an unchange- 
able goodness of heart. Her virtues, 
however, place the character of her 
' expedient' husband in the worst of 

Gilbert MottieRi Marqitis x>£ 

LA Paybtti (1757—1884), born at 

Chevagnac, in the now Haute Loire, 

1 adopt^ republican notions from his 


GEORGE ni— 1789— 1815. 


very cradle; and thoush offered a 
place at court by the relations of his 
wife (of the family of Noialles 
d*Ayen), he preferred meddling in 
the American revolution. With that 
view he offered his services to the 
radical philosopher, Benjamin Frank- 
lin, armed a vessel at his own ex- 
pense, and landed at Charleston in 
April, 1777. He fought as a volun- 
teer at the battle of Brandywine, on 
the 11 til of September, 1777, and 
was wounded. Congress having now 

given him a brevet of major-general, 
e served in the north under Wash- 
ington's orders, and was at the battle 
of Monmouth, in June, 1778: and 
he afterwards received the tlianks of 
congress, and the present of a valua- 
ble sword. In 1 779 he returned to 
France, the government of that coun- 
try having acknowledged the inde- 
pendence of the American states ; 
and he obtained assistance in money 
and men, with which he returned to 
America. In 1780, he commanded 
the advanced guard of Washington's 
army ; and in the following year he 
was intrusted with the defence of Vir- 
ginia, against lord Comwallis. Be- 
ing joined by Washington and Ro- 
chambeau, he contributed to the 
operations in consequence of which 
lord Comwallis was obliged to ca^- 
pitulate at York-town. After the 
surrender of Comwallis, he returned 
to France for fresh reinforcements ; 
but the peace of 1783 prevented his 
sailing back to America. Having 
tlius helped to get a foreign people 
through their revolution successfully, 
he next resolved to try his skill in the 
same way in his own country ; and 
in 1787, being returned a member of 
the Assembly of Notables, he advo- 
cated die abolition of lettres de 
cachet and state^prisons ; and sup- 
ported the claims of the protestants 
of France, who were still labouring 
under civil disabilities. He also 
promoted the convocation of the 
States General, of which assem- 
bly he was returned a member. 
In this capacity he seconded Mi- 
rabeau'fl motion for the removal 

of the military from the neighbour- 
hood of the capital; and in July, 
1 789^ he proposed the first declara- 
tion of rights, which formed the basis 
of the following constitution. In 
the same month, being appointed 
commandant-general of raris^ he or- 
ganized the national guard, and dis- 
tributed among the soldiers a tri- 
coloured cockade, namely, blue and 
red, the colours of the commune of 
Paris, and wltite, the colour of the 
lilies of France : and these became 
thenceforth the national colours. On 
the 15th of October of that year, he 
marched at the head of the national 
guard to Versailles, where a tumultu- 
ous multitude had preceded him ; 
and brought thence the alarmed 
Louis XVI. and his family to Paris. 
Something like sympathy for the 
danffer of his king now prompted 
La Fayette to adopt less levelling 
opinions, and to express himself fa- 
vourable to monarchy, if • well re- 
strained.' W ith this change of views, 
he, in the Assembly, afler voting for 
the suppression of the hereditaty 
nobility, supported the proposal for 
' a constitutional monarchy ;' and 
even when the king had been ar- 
rested in his flight, and brought back 
from Varennes, he proposed his resto- 
ration to the regal office, provided he 
would swear to a specified consti- 
tution. Upon this, the republican 
party broke forth into insurrection ; 
an hneuie which La Fayette and the 
national guards put down on the 
Champ de Mars. The war of the 
first coalition having begira, La Fay- 
ette was appointed to the command 
of the army of Flanders ; and he de- 
feated the allies at Philippeville and 
Mauberge. He was, however, hated 
by the jacobins at Paris, and mis- 
trusted by the court ; and so mo- 
narchical had he become in 1792, that 
he demanded of the Legislative As- 
sembly the punishment of the out- 
rages committed against the king at 
the Tuileries on the 20th of June. 
But the republican party was already 
preponderating in that oligarchy ; and 
La Fayette found that Se was not 


GEORGE ra— 1789-1815. 


si£e in PSaris. It is said that he then 
pfopooed to the king and royal fa- 
aD J, to take shelter in his camp at 
C<»np»fe^e ; hut his advice was re* 
iected by JLouis, or rather hy those 
iroand fahn, who placed all their con- 
hdence in the dake of Brunswick 
sod tbe :pTU9Biaiis. On the dOth of 
Itiae, tbe jacohins of Paris burned 
La Fayette in effigy ; and he was 
Kioti after outlawed, and obliged to 
cross tbe frontiers with a few friends. 
His intention was to repair to some 
seutxal country ; but he was arrested 
'&T the Anstrians, and carried to the 
fdrtzesa of Olmutz, in MoraTia, where 
bis wile and daughter soon after 
joiiied him, to console him in his 
confinement. He remained in pri- 
son for ^ve years, and was released at 
bst by the treaty of Campo-Formio; 
bat not wproving of the arbitrary 
conduct of the Directory, he repaired 
to Hamburg, and did not return to 
Prance till after the 1 9th Brumaire, 
1 799. Here be found himself again 
io opposition to Buonaparte's ambi- 
tion ; and after voting against the 
consulship lor life, he retired to the 
country, where he applied himself to 
agricultural pursuits. In 1815 he 
w^ returned to the house of repre- 
eentatives, convoked by Napoleon on 
1 his return from Elba; and when the 
allied troops had compelled a disso- 
lutioo of the new * legislative assem- 
Uy/ lie protested against that vio- 
lence, and retired to his country resi- 
den<:e at L*agrange. In 1824 he went 
on a wisit to the United States, where 
he ^«ras received with the greatest en- 
thusiasm in every department of the 
Union. In 18d0« being in the house 
of deputies, he was foremost among 
ihc members who resisted the or- 
donnances of Charles X. as arbitrary. 
He even, republican once more, 
cadled out the national guards ; and, 
putting himself at their head, he pro- 
posed Louis Philippe, due d'Orleans, 
as king of the French,— stating his 

t conviction, that a monarchy, based 
on popular institutions, was the go- 
▼erament beit suited to France. 
When to sa^€Stion, however, had 


been adopted, and the duke of Or- 
leans had been called to the throne, 
he soon quarrelled with the king of 
his own choice, opposed as he was 
to all Louis Philippe's views of both 
foreign and domestic policy ; and he 
was rapidly descending to his original 
ultra sentiments, when death seized 
him, in his 78th year, 1834. 

Gaspar Mongb (1746—1818), re- 
nowned as a mathematician, was bom 
at Beaune, and made such progress 
among the fathers of the Oratory at 
Lyon, that at sixteen he became a 
teacher. In 1780 he removed to 
Paris, and lectured in the Academy 
of Sciences ; and when the Revo- 
lution broke out, he regarded the 
regeneration of France as certain. 
Through the influence of Condorcet, 
he was made minister of the marine, 
1792 ; and he held at the same time 
the portfolio of minister of war, dur^ 
ing the absence of general Servan 
with the army. He thus became a 
member of the executive council of 
government, in which quality he 
signed the order for the execution of 
Louis XVI. Shortly after, he re- 
signed his functions, in consequence 
of which he was exposed to the per- 
secution of the ruling party of the 
jacobins, against which he success- 
fully defended himself. He was then 
employed, together with other men 
of science, in improving the manu- 
facture of gunpowder, and otherwise 
augmenting the military resources of 
the country ; and, together with Ber- 
thoUetancl Guyton Morveau, he prin- 
cipally contributed to the establish- 
ment of the Polytechnic school In 
1796 he was commissioned to go to 
Italy, and collect the treasures of art 
and science from the countries con- 
quered by the French ; and the la- 
bours of Monge and his colleagues 
gave rise to the splendid assemblage 
of works of taste and genius, wbich 
for a time ornamented the halls of 
the Louvre. In 1798 he went with 
Buonaparte to Egypt, where he was 
again employed in the service of sci- 
ence. On his return to France, he 
resumed his functions as professor at 


GEORGE ni.— 1789^1815. 


the Polytechnic school, in the success 
of which he greatly interested himself. 
The attachment which he on various 
occasions manifested to Buonaparte, 
led to his being nominated a member 
of the senate, on the first formation 
of that body ; and the emperor fur- 
ther made him count of Pelusium (!) 
and gave him, on setting out for 
Russia, a far more tangible proof of 
his affection-~200,000 francs. The 
hU of his benefactor involved Monge 
in misfortune; and after beins ex- 
pelled the Institute, 1816, and de- 
{)rived of all his employments, he 
ost his reason, and died, aged 72, 
1818. *La G^om^trie Descriptive^ 
is the most talented work of Monge ; 
but his practical treatises have been 
made great use of by engineers of all 

Edmund Bueke (1780—1797), 
son of an attorney at Carlow in Ire- 
land, was bom there ; and, after gra- 
duating at Trinity college, Dublin, 
entered at the Middle Temple, Lon- 
don. He some time lived by his 
pen ; and his * Essay on the Sublime,' 
introduced him at once to the circle 
of the learned. Dodsley, at his sug- 
gestion, commenced his Annual Re^ 
gister, 1758, which is to this day con- 
tinued by Messrs. Rivington. In 
the Rockingham administration he 
held office ; but, as a member of the 
commons, he constantly attacked Mr. 
Pitt, especially on the regency ques- 
tion, and was at first a warm admirer 
of the French revolution. Upon 
the destruction of the French mon- 
archy, however, he altered his tone, 
published his * Reflections' on the 
event, separated from his party, and 
zealously supported Mr. Pitt. His 
accusation of Mr. Hastinra is the 
only blot on his political coaracter : 
as a private man, he was aflfable, 
benevolent, exemplaiy in all duties, 
religious and moral, and dignified in 
demeanour. As an author, Burke 
will ever hold rank among the most 
accurate critics, for his elegant and 
philosophical work ' On the Sublime 
and Beautiful' He died 1797, aged 


Richard Bbinslst Shbrida 
(1751—1616), son of Thomas Shei 
dan, the celebrated lecturer on eh 
eutioD, was born in Dublin, but sei 
for education to Eton. Thence Y 
was removed, on account of his pt 
rent's embairassments, at eighteen 
but he soon aft^r entered himself i 
the Middle Temple, with a view I 
the bar. His briefs, however, whe 
called to plead, were lamentably fev 
and for subsistence he began writin 
for the stage ; and it is almost neec 
less to say, that his ' Rivals,' ' Duennt 
and * School for Scandal,' speed i I 
gained him high reputation as wc 
as wealth. Having bought, in coi 
junction with two others, Garrick 
share in the patent of managemer 
of Dnirv-lane theatre, the propert 
qualified him for a seat in parlii 
ment ; and entering the lists again: 
lord North, his oratory was so powei 
ful, that when diat lord resigned, h 
wa& made under war-secretary. H 
held office in the coalition ; and, upo 
its dissolution, became the violcr 
opponent of Mr. Pitt. In the m 
peachment of Hastings he sided wit 
Burke; and his eloquence on tha 
occasion has been considered one < 
the most able of oratorical cflbrti 
Notwithstanding his marriage with 
woman of fortune, a post of 12,000i 
a year from the crown, and his shar 
in Drury-lane, Sheridan, being whollj 
improvident, became at length tfal 
tenant of a gaol. He died I8H 
aged sixty-five. 

As a dramatic author, Sheridan j 
at the head of that department ti 
comedy which exhibits the vices c 
ftshionable society in its eveij-d^ 
commerce, its deceptions, intrigued 
slanders, and detractions ; and tl:^ 
'School for Scandal' is his mastei 

As an orator, Sheridan was ei 
traordinary for variety and force 
and in the anathemas of vengeanoJ 
or in bursts of anger, scarcely air 
English speaker ever equalled hini 
Pitt's eloquence was more accurate 
copious, and better arranged : it w^ 
umfonnly impreisiye^ while his powe 


GEORGE m— 1789— 1816. 


ia siieasm wat equal to Sheridan's 
^ in angiy denundatioo. Fox 
m superior in argumentative force : 
^is reasoning facidcies were always 
^^t io full action daring his 
^weehes ; and so closely did he con- 
ii£X in this way, that he pursued his 
^fflseqiient, link by link, to the very 
nd of the chain of deductions. As 
3 nere speaker* he was inferior to 
Pitt, Burke, and Sheridan. Burke 
TiswhoUv different from the three 
satioDed. He often reasoned ill, 
i^v desultorily from one subject to 
Bother; and when he wished to 
*xose or condemn, lost both temper 
30(1 manners ; but his diction was so 
^ti and varied, his vivacity and ra- 
pidJtT 90 extraordinary, and bis genius 
*o marked, that his hearers thought 
il>«nselTes convinced, when they 
yere only dazzled. In a word, while 
Sheridan, by passionate declamation, 
«ald rouse the slumbering spirit of 
ais asditors, Burke could urge them 
torvard to scenes of daring action : 
«d while Fox could convince his 
cearers by irresistible appeals to their 
reasoning fiiculties, Pitt, by his sober, 
%ufied, and sensible exhortations, 
<:^uld lead them on to prudent re- 
^TCS) and thence to generous and 
noble, but judicious dec^s. 

Joseph Lagrange (1786—1818), 
»as bom at Turin, and at the early 
^^^ofsUteen was made professor of 
^^ anillery-school there. Joining 
htt pupils, who were mostly older 
tban himself, he originated the acade- 
!»;? of Turin ; and in the first volume 
fi its tnnsacriona, made himself 
^^^ by hb applicarion of the 
theoiy of recurring consequences, and 
loe doctrine of chances, to the differ^ 
eniial calculus. Euler was so as- 
toDished at his calculations of the 
n»otions of fluids, and his remarks 
J^ vibration, that he caused him to 
w chosen a member of the Beriin 
^emy; and he ultimately became 
^^MTecior in physics. On the death 
^Frederick the Great, Lagrange 
'^me a member of the academy of 
socnces at Paris ; and although the 
Solution alarmed him, he was, on 

the settlement of the institutions^ 
made professor of the polytedinie 
school, and laden with honours by 
Buonaparte. He died, 1818, aged 77. 

The dbtinctive mark of Lagrange's 
genius consists in the unity and 
grandeur of his views. His pnncipal 
work, ' Mecanique Analytique,' re- 
fers all the laws of equilibnum and 
motion to a sinele principle; and, 
what is not less admirable, it submits 
them to a single method of calcula* 
tion, of which he was himself the 
inventor. All his mathematical com- 
positions are remarkable for that ele» 
gance, symmetry of form, and gene- 
rality of method, which constitute 
tlie perfection of the analytic style. 

JoHANN Lunwio Burckharot, 
bom at Lausanne, studied at Leipsic 
and Gottingen, and visited England 
in 1806, to offer his services to the 
society of African discovery. When 
they were accepted, he went to Cam- 
bridge to study Arabic, and acquire 
a knowledge of medicine and sui^ 
gery ; and in March, 1809, he sailed 
for Malta, and thence proceed^ to 
Aleppo, where he assumed the cha^ 
racter of a Mussulman, and adopted 
the name of Ibrahim. After a stay 
of three years in Syria, he visited 
Nubia, whence he crossed the Red 
Sea; and after visitine Mecca and 
Medina, arrived in Cairo in June, 
1815. The following spring he took 
a journey to Mount Sinai, and on 
his return to Cairo, he proposed to 
join one of the trading caravans to 
Timbuctoo ; but while waiting for 
tlie departure of the caravan, which 
was delayed on account of the dis- 
turbed state of the country, he was 
seized with dysentery, ana died at 
Cairo, ased 82. His travels have 
been published, and are still very 
popular in England. 

Contemporaries. — Thoxas Har- 
OT (1769—1889), son of Joshua 
Hardy, esq., of Portisham, Dorset, 
entered the navy at a very early 
period of his life, and was captain of 
lord Nelson's flM-ship, the Victory, 
at the battle of Trafalgar. In his 
arms the illustrious hero died ; and 


GEORGE in.— 1789-1815. 


after he had carried the banner of 
emblems at his splendid funeral, he 
was made a baronet by George IIL, 
honoured with various commands, 
and finally appointed i^vemor of 
Greenwich hospital. Sir Thomas 
died, aged 70, 1839. Matthew 
Grbgory Lewis, son of a Jamaica 
proprietor, who was undersecretary 
at war, was bom in London, and 
educated at Westminster school ; on 
quitting which he travelled in Ger- 
many, and caught that spirit of ter- 
rific description so peculiarly the 
characteristic of German novelists. 
Commencing romance-writer on his 
return, Mr. Lewis produced his 
'Monk,' 'Tales of Terror,' 'CastleSpec- 
tre,'and other harrowing narratives, 
too well known by the readers of 
such works to need description ; and 
of which it is enough to sa^, tliat 
while thev evince the inventive ge- 
nius of the autlior, they too often 
display bad taste and licentiousness. 
His * Bravo of Venice,' a translation 
from the German, is free from the 
latter cliarges ; but then the work is 
not his own. His most talented 
original production is ' The Monk,* 
the popularity of which obtained him 
the epitliet of ' Monk Lewis.' Mr. 
Lewis sat in parliament, but rarely 
spoke ; and he died at sea, when on 
a voyage home from his West India 
possessions, aged 45, 1818. James 
Lackington (1746 — 1815), born at 
Wellington, Somersetshire, was son 
of a poor shoemaker, and apprenticed 
to his father*s trade. After falline 
among the methodists, he was turned 
to more worldly pursuits by the oc- 
currence of an election at Taunton, 
where one of the parliamentary can- 
didates bought him out of his inden- 
tures. He was for some subsequent 
years a dissipated character, till he 
married, 1770, and with his wife re- 
moved to London, 1778— his whole 
property, on his arrival there, con- 
sisting of. half-a-crown. From being 
a journeyman shoemaker he turned 
book-stall keeper, with a capital of 
5/., 1774; and from buying small 
quantities of secondhand books, he 

rose to be able to purchase wh^ 
libraries, reversions of editions, al 
to contract with authors for th^ 
works. His business at length ^ 
abled him to live in style. lie hi 
married a second wife, a com pie 
' book-worm,' without being a blu 
stocking ; one who read from mor 
ing till niehty and again from nigl 
until bredc of day. ' I now dl 
covered (writes he in his memoir 
himself) that lodgings in the count 
were very healthy. The year aft< 
my country lodging was transform^ 
into a country house i and, in anothi 
year, the inconveniences attending 
stage-coach were remedied by a chi 
riot.' He assures his readers, roori 
over, that he found the whole of w)i^ 
he was possessed of in ' small profit 
bound by industry, and clasped \\ 
economy.' In 1792 the annual pn 
ftU of his business were 5000/. \ 
1798 he retired from business, i 
favour of Mr. George Lackingtoi 
his cousin, who kept up the larg 
establishment in Finsbury-square f(j 
many years ; and he finally residd 
on a large estate he had bought ii 
Budleigh Sulterton, Devon, when 
he rejoined the methodists (aft6 
abusing them in his autobiography] 
and where he died, aged 69, 181 J 


(1755—1820), was born in Britanny^ 
and on coming to his small patrj 
mony, he indulged his taste for trq 
vel. Ader examining Egypt an< 
Syria, he resided some time in \ 
Maronite convent on Mount Liba 
nus, studying the oriental tongues 
and he then returned to France, t< 
publish the result of his labours. Oc 
the breaking out of the revolutionj 
Volney, as a deputy for AjiioUy em- 
braced the liberal cause ; and in 1791, 
appeared his ' Ruines,' a deistical 
work on the revolutions of empires, 
which was soon after practicall) 
answered by the horrible reign ol 
Robespierre, which it contributed to 
bring on, and wherein Volnev was 
imprisoned, and with much di£cuU^ 
escaped with his life. From this 
period he was for a while sileoti 


GEORGE in.— 1739—1815. 


taa^t histofy, and Tisited America, 
viiCTe WashingtcNi received him with 
^leodship. Napoleon, on his eleva- 
£100, did not like his anti-monarchi- 
cal {HindpleSy so that he never ob- 
tained prefermeot during his rule; 
bst OQ the restoration of the Bour- 
boos, 1814^ he wa^ singularly enough, 
cQostitnt^ a peer ; from which mo- 
seat he constantly argued on the 
iiiieTBl side* as formerly, until his 
^eceasc^ aged 65, 1820. Jean de 
FtoaiAH (1755—1794), a novel and 
^iraioatic writer of France, was bom 
s bis fiither*s chateau in Languedoc, 
and through his kinsman Voltaire, 
became page to the due de Pen- 
ibieTre^ who encouraged his taste for 
literature. His first work was < Gra- 
iatbea ^ and a succession of novels, 
pkys, aod fables, soon rendered him 
bighly popular. During the reign of 
Robespierre, he was imprisoned, for 
having affixed to his 'Numa Pom- 
pile* (the production by which he is 
best known in England) some verses 
in praise of the unhappy Marie An- 
lotoette ; and soon aJfler his release, 
which occurred not till tlie ty- 
rant's deaUi, be fell into a decline, 
which terminated his life at the age 
of 39, 1794. The pastorri romances 
of ' Estelle* and < Galathea' have fully 
established Florian*s fame ; and all 
his works are remarkable for their 
good moral feeling and benevolent 
spirit. McLHAa Rao Holkae, a 
Mahratta soldier, became known for 
his conquests, as the general of the 
first Peshwa of that Indian district, 
and whom, before his death in 1766, 
he bad almost supplanted, as chief of 
Malwa. His nephew, Tuckagee 
Holkar, succeeded, and nearly ob- 
tained all the Mahratta district ; and 
the latter dying in 1797, left four 
SODS, whose patrimony was usurped 
for a time by Scindia, the most pow- 
erful of the Mahratta chiefe. In 
1802, Jeswunt Rao Holkar, the third 
son, an able, brave, unscrupulous 
soldier of fortune, defeated Scindia, 
and re-established himself in Malwa. 
Tlic marquis Wellesley, then gover- 
nor-general, refused^ however, to re- 

cognise hb title, and in 1804 com- 
menced a war against him, which 
was terminated, at the end of 1605, 
by a peace more favourable than 
Holkar had reason to expect, and 
which left to him the greater part of 
his dominions. The violence of his 
temper ultimately grew into madness, 
and the last three years of his life 
were passed in close confinement : he 
died in 1811. When he was placed 
under restraint, his son, four years 
old, Mulhar Rao Holkar, succeeded 
to the nominal authority; all real 
power being of course in the hands 
of one or two ministers. A wretched 
anarchy ensued ; but after the final 
overtlirow of the Mahratta power in 
1818, Mulhar was suffered to retain 
a small portion of hb dominions, un- 
der the protection of the Englbh. 
SiaRiCHAEO WoRSLEY (1751 — 1805), 
born in the ble of Wight, succeeded 
to the baronetcy in hb eighteenth 
year, and soon after visited the con- 
tinent ; where he cultivated his taste 
for antiquities by the study of the re- 
mains of ancient Rome, and made 
some large purchases of statues, mar- 
bles, and other articles of virtik, 
which, on hb return to England, it 
formed his principal amusement to 
cbssifv and arrange. Sir Richard 
publbned a ' History of the Isle of 
Wight,* and was about the person of 
king George 111., as comptroller of 
the royal household. Joseph Weight 
(1734—1797), a celebrated painter, 
usually styled * Wright of Derby,* 
was born in that town. He visited 
Italy, where he made great advances 
in his profession, returned to Eng- 
land in 1755, and was elected an as- 
sociate of the royal academy. His 
later pictures were chiefly landscapes, 
which are much admired for elegance 
of outline, and judicious management 
of light and shade. He fell a victim 
to unwearied attention to his pro- 
fession, and died of a decline. Philip 
Hackkrt (1787 — 1806), a distin- 
guished German landscape-painter. 
Catherine of Russia having employed 
him to paint the two battles of 
Tschesme, count Orlov, in order to 


GEORGE III.— 1789— 1815. 


enable the artist to form a correct 
notion of the explosion of a vessel, 
caused a Russian frigate to be blown 
up in his presence. The singularity 
or this model, many months before 
spoken of in all the European papers, 
contributed not a little to increase 
the fame of the picture. GiaoLASfo 
TiBABOBcni (1781 — 1794), was born 
at Bergamoi and was distinguished 
for love of learning and unwearied 
application even in early youth. He 
prevailed on his father to let him, at 
fifteen, commence his novitiate at 
Genoa, with a view to the priest- 
hood ; and on its expiration, after the 
usual period of two years, he was 
directed to give instruction for five 
years in the lower schools of Milan, 
and afterwards in Novara. He was 
subsequently appointed to the pro- 
fessorship of rhetoric at Milan, in the 
university of firera ; and in this situ- 
ation he distinguished himself^ not 
only as a teacher, but as an author. 
Several works of deep research and 
uncommon solidity obtained for him 
an offer of the place of librarian to 
Francis III. of Modene. Tiraboschi 
made use of the valuable resources 
thus placed at his command, to com- 
pose his celebrated work, *Storia 
della Litteratura Italiana,' which ap- 
peared successively in fourteen vo- 
lumes. This production, which, in 
extent of learning, accuracy, com- 
pleteness, and style, has scarcely an 
equal, extends from the commence- 
ment of intellectual cultivation iu 
Italy, to the year 1700 ; and it excites 
so much the more wonder at the 
quantity and value of its contents, as 
it was completed in the short space 
of ten years ; during which the author 
alio found time, as if for recreation, 
to produce various other works, all 
highly distinguished in their kind. 
He died a sacrifice to incessant ap- 
plication, aged 68, 1794. John Joa- 
chim EscHiKBaao (1748^1820) was 
bom at Hamburg, went to Bruns- 
wick as a tutor, and was appointed to 
the professorship in the Carolinum 
there, an office which he filled till 
his death. Germany is indebted to 

him for an acquaintance with mai 
pood English writers ; and much Tali 
IS set on his translation into Germs 
of Sliakspeare. He died aged 7 
Aloys, Baeon von Reding (1755- 
1816\ became a celebrated gener 
and landamman of the Swiss. C] 
the invasion of his countty by it 
French in 1796, he was at the faec 
of the troops raised for its defeoo 
and gained several advantages, e 
pecially at Morgarten, over the en< 
my ; but his forces being unequal I 
the contest, he was at length con 
pelled to submission. He afterwarc 
nad a considerable share in the con 
motions every now and then raised t 
recover independence, and was i 
1801 chosen landamman of all Swi 
zerland. As he still laboured to r< 
store his country to freedom, Buons 
parte had him arrested ; but he wc 
set at liberty in a few months, an 
when his enemy had met with r« 
verses in 1812 and 1818, favoure 
secretly the passage of the allie 
troops through the Swiss territorie 
over the Rhine. The baron dieii 
aged sixty-three, 1618. Feanz Jo 
SBPH Gall (1757— 1828), who wa 
born in Suabia, became known a 
the founder of a new psychologica 
system. When a boy at school, in 
stead of attending to his studies, Ik 
wholly occupied himself in attempt 
to associate the dispositions of hi 
schoolfellows with the forms of the! 
heads, or some features of their coun 
tenances ; and one important resul 
of his observations was, that 'bull 
eyed * boys, as he terms those wh( 
have prominent eyes, were invarin 
bly quarrelsome fellows. (Query 
hence the significant epithet, buUie* f 
One tiling led to another ; and thi 
form of the skull being at last takei 
by the ardent voung German as i 
capital basis whereon to build hi: 
aery castles, he, by dint of visits tc 
lunatic asylums, and to persons re 
markable for any peculiar talent 
gained a sufficient number of notes 
wherefrom to spin lectures, which h< 
commenced giving at his house ii 
Vienna (haying by that time proceed' 

GEORGE 111—1789^1815. 


ed M.D.> 1796. A doctrine so new 
•s thai described under the head of 
'Phrenology,' p. 80, so subyersiTe 
as it was of all that Imd been pre- 
riouslj taught in psychology, pro- 
duced no little excitement in the 
world ; but Dr. Gall, careless of 
bottility, went on lecturing, with his 
GODititutioiial calmness. When he 
bad made 'Dr. Johann Caspar Spurz- 
beim, a highly attractive man, of 
popular manners, not only a convert, 
but bis coadjutor, the science of 
cramlogy made great strides ; and 
ashamed of that original and correct 
ode, the projectors gave it the more 
aspiring one o( phrenology. Every 
European capital but Paris and Lon- 
don, had admitted the lecturers, and 
listened to them with rapture; but 
Napoleon, who bated all 'German 
geniuses,' set his &ce strongly against 
their proceedings, when tliey had 
Qsade a noise in Paris, 1807; and both 
Gall and Spurzheim came thence to 
London for a time, 1613. The amiable 
character of the former, and the bril- 
liant manners of the latter, ensured 
them listeners and friends, if not 
proselytes ; but it was found that the 
pair were already somewhat divided 
in sentiment, and though Dr. Spurz- 
beim remained long a lecturer in 
Britain, Dr. Gall soon returned to 
Paris, where he continued till his 
decease, 1828, in his 72d year. Dr. 
Spurzheim left England for America, 
1832, to spread his opinions; but 
died soon after bis arrival there, at 
Boston, aged 56, Sahah Trimmbb, 
daughter of Mr. Rirby, clerk of the 
works at Kew, was born at Ipswich, 
and eaHy instructed in classical, as 
well as Knglish literature. In 1762 
she married Mr. Trimmer, by whom 
she bad twelve children ; and for 
their advancement she wrote a host 
of religious and moral books, which 
have been adopted by most families. 
She died, aged 69, 1810. Anna 
LsTiTiA Babbauld, daughter of Mr. 
Aikin, a dissenting preacher, was 
bom at Ribwortb, Leicestershire, 
and received a classical education 
from ber&tber, who presided over the 

dissenting academy at Warrington. 
In 1774 she married Mr. Barbauld, 
a dissenting divine ; and at Palgrave, 
Suffolk, his residence, she wrote her 
' Hymns for Children,* which are 
justly considered of standard merit in 
conveying the first rudiments of in* 
struction to the infant mind. Mrs. 
Barbauld eventually resided at Stoke 
Newington, to be near her brother, 
who was a physician there ; and she 
occupied her hours in editing a col- 
lection of £nglish novels, and a selec- 
tion of British essayists. She died, 
aged 62, 1825. Chablottb Smith, 
daughter of Mr. Turner, a gentleman 
of property in Sussex, married at a 
very early age Mr. Smith, a West 
India merchant, whose extravagance 
brought him to a gaol ; in which 
condition his affectionate wife en- 
deavoured to purchase him comforts 
by commencing author. She was 
soon distinguished for her novels of 
' The Old Manor House,' ' Romance 
of Real Life,' &c., productions of 
great merit, though imbued too much 
with her own sufferings ; and she 
also wrote ' Rural Walks,' and other 
books for youth ; which, until the vast 
influx of later publications, were ex- 
tremely popular. She died, aged 67, 
1806. Thomas Paine, son of a 
quaker staymaker of Thetford, Nor^ 
folk, obtained an exciseman's post at 
Lewes, where he also kept a grocer^s 
shop. Under Franklin's patronage^ 
he quitted his business to visit 
America, and preach up the separa- 
tion from the mother-country ; and 
in the same spirit, he returned to 
Eneland, 1792, to'publish his * Rights 
of Man,' in reply to Burke's * Ke- 
flections on the French Revolution.' 
A prosecution on that account by the 
attorney-general occasioned his flight 
to France, where he was at once 
chosen a member of the National 
Convention ; but when, after voting 
^the trial of Louis XVI., he voted 
against his execution, he was arrested 
by the jacobins, and committed to 
the prison of the Luxembourg — 
where a dangerous illness saved him 
from the guillotine. On the fall of 


GEORGE m.— 1789— 1815. 


Bx»bespierre he was released. In 
1795 appeared his attack upon Reve- 
lation, entitled ' The Age of Reason/ 
beins an investigation of true and 
fabulous Theology; a production 
which forfeited the countenance of 
by far the greater part of his American 
connexions, and obliged him once 
more to find refuge in France. He 
bad lost his first wife, and been sepa- 
rated from a second by mutual con- 
sent ; and he now obtained a female 
companion in the person of a ma- 
dame de Bonneville, the wife of a 
French bookseller, who, with [\er 
two sons^ accompanied him in 1802 
to America, where the remainder of 
his life, by the account of all parties, 
was passed in extreme wretchedness. 
Universally shunned for his continued 
gross attacks upon religion, he sought 
solace in drunkenness, and died a 
victim to that species of intempe- 
rance, aged 72, 1809. Claude Louis 
BsRTHOLLET, a Frcuch chemist, born 
in Savoy, who after studying medi- 
cine at Turin, became puysician to 
the duke of Orleans at Paris. His 
analysis of ammonia, azote, and 
chlorine, first gave him a name ; and 
being made professor of chemistry in 
the Polytechnic school, he rapidly 
rose to celebrity. When Buonaparte 
in 1 798 set off on his Egyptian ex- 
pedition, he took with him, among 
other men of science, BerthoUet, 
who, on his return with the general 
to Europe in the following year, was 
rewarded for the zeal he had shown 
in providing, by the resources of his 

fenius, for the exigencies of the 
^rench army. On the restoration 
of Louis XvIIL, 1814, he was made 
a count ; and as he did not take his 
seat in tlie chamber created by Buona- 
parte on his return from Elba, he 
obtained his ri^ht and dignity on tlic 
second restoration of the king. Not 
long after his return from Egypt he 
fixed his residence at the village of 
Arcueil, near Paris, where he asso- 
ciated a bod^ of scientific students, 
who aided him in his experimental 
investigations; and there he died, 
aged 74, 1822. His ' Recherches 

sur les loix d' Affinity,* displays much 
thought and ingenuity, and is en- 
titled to great praise, as affording 
many valuable hints to the chemical 
professor, on a subject which, if 
brought to perfection, would vie with 
the great discovery of Newton. Phi- 
lip LoUTHBRBOUfiG (1740 — 1812), 
born at Strasburg, studied punting 
under Tischbein,anda(\erwara8 under 
Casanova, and displayed great talents 
in the delineation of battles and 
hunting pieces. After residing at 
Paris, he came to London, 1771, 
and was soon employed to decorate 
Drury-lane theatre and the Opera- 
house. In 1782 he was chosen a 
royal academician, and he at length 
devoted his time to landscape. He 
was a highly eccentric man, and at 
one period seems to have been ac- 
tually insane upon the subject of ani- 
mal magnetism, to which imposture 
he was a singular dupe. lie died in 
England, aged 7i$. 1812. Tlie land- 
scapes of Loutherbourg are cele- 
brated for their art, rather than for 
their nature. The painter, though 
his scenery is sometimes beautiful, 
indulged in glaring colours, and vio- 
lent contrasts ; and his skill consisted 
in knowing where best for effect to 
plant a tree, pour a cascade, drop his 
cattle, scatter his sheep, or raise a 
ruined tower or crumbling temple, 
lie also painted a few historical sub- 
jects,' such as lord Howe*s Victory, 
and the Review of Warlev Camp ; 
and he at one time devised what lie 
called the ' Eidophusikon,' (likeness 
of nature,) an exnibition wherein he 
made his pictures move accompanied 
by music, something on the plan of 
the more recent Diorama. Albx- 
ANDER Wilson (1766 — 1818), born 
at Paisley, left tlie weaver's occupa- 
tion to travel with his brother, a 
pedier ;^ and eventually crossing to 
America, besan to take an interest 
in the ornitliology of the United 
States. Though little encouraged, 
he contrived to publish no less than 
seven beautiful volumes of his ' Ame- 
rican Ornithology,' wherein he notices 
more than forty new species of his 


GEORGE ni.— 1789— 1815. 


own discorerj. His death oocnrred 
in a manner characteristic of tlie 
nan, at Philadelphia. While sitting 
at a window with a friend, be caught 
a glimpse of a ' rani avis,* for which 
be bad been looking out in vain ; and, 
roshing out of the house witli his gun, 
bf, after an arduous chase, wherein he 
svam a river, caught the object of his 
punuit. The exertion^ however, 
brought on a dysentery, of which he 
died in ten days, entreating as he ex- 
pired, ' that he might be buried where 
the birds could sing over his grave.' 
Jean de la Habpb (1739—1603), 
tiie dramatic critic, was tlie son of a 
Swiss officer in the French service, 
and was bom at Paris. Having a 
natural taste for authorship, he de- 
ToUfd himself to play-writing, and 
what was then in much repute, to tlie 
composition of encomiastic ' doges' 
of certain great men ; who, however, 
vere mostly of the freethinking turn. 
Alchoiigli hailing the Revolution, at 
its outbreak, as tlie liarbinger of poli- 
tical regeneration, La iftrpe soon 
foaod himself suspected, and in pri- 
son; and his incarceration liad the 
^irable efiect of making him a 
Christian, since it was his lot to be in 
the same cell with the good bbhop of 
Sl Brieux. Escapine from death, 
he sought retirement for the future, 
and died therein, aged 64, 1803. His 
commentary on Racings dramas is 
bis best critical work ; but his * Ly- 
ceum, or Complete Course of Litera- 
ture,' is the production on whicli hb 
fame, as an original tliinker, rests. 
Jacques BBjiNAjaoiN db St. Piebae 
(1737—1814), born at Havre, was 
the descendant of St. Pierre, the pa- 
triotic mayor of Calais at the period 
of Edward III.'s capture or that 
town ; and, after an excellent mathe- 
matical education, having money, he 
rambled from country to country, un- 
til, tired of doing nothing, he enter- 
^t first the Russun service, and then 
that of the Poles against the Rus- 
sians, as an engineer, in which latter 
capacity he was made prisoner. He 
i* next found in the French army, 
^ as an engineer ; but so eccentnc 

were his habits, that some one, to get 
rid of him, gave him the post of in- 
tendant of the botanical gardens at 
Paris; in which capacity, amid the 
storms of the Revolution, he gave to 
the worid the beautiful tales of ' Paul 
et Virginie,' and 'The Indian Cot- 
tage ;* on which his reputation as an 
author may fairly depend. This sin- 
gular, but apparently well-intentioned 
man, was one of the few who passed 
the great Revolution with money in 
their pockets ; and he died in com- 
fortable circumstances, and in retire- 
ment, aged 77, 1814. Louis Bou- 
gainville, an illustrious French na- 
vigator, had the command, in 1768, 
of an expedition of discoverv, fitted 
out by his government; and in his 
passage round the world, visited the 
Society Isles, New Guinea, &c., and 
gained much important insight into 
the habits of the people of the coun- 
tries he explored, of which he subse- 
quently gave an interesting account. 
After escaping so many perils by sea 
and land, he was at length torn to 
pieces by a revolutionary mob in the 
streets of Paris, 1792. Maeie Jo- 
seph Ch£nier(1762 — 1811), was son 
of the French consul in Turkey, and 
bom at Constantinople. Though 
much attached to poetical composi- 
tion, he became n great admirer of 
the Revolution ; and, while his dramas 
were played to regicide critics, his 
odes were sung by the murderous 
mobs of Paris, at the transportation 
of the ashes of Marat to the Pan- 
theon, at the festival in honour of 
Rousseau, and on many similar occa- 
sions. As a deputy of the national 
convention, he voted for the death of 
Louis XVI. ; and when his own bro- 
ther, Andr^ Chenier, a man of oppo* 
site principles, who had offended the 
jacobins by writing in fevour of or- 
der, had been condemned to death, 
and a wish had been expressed dur- 
ing a sitting of the legislative body to 
save him, the unnatural Marie Joseph 
exclaimed, ' Si mon fr^re est coupa- 
ble, qu*il perisseT and Andr^ was 
accordingly guillotined, 1794, at the 
age of 31. This unfeeling conduct 


GEORGE m— 1789— 1815. 


attiacted much notice, eren in that 
bloodthirsty time ; and the deputy 
had many letters sent to him from 
the departments, with this episraph, 
* Cam rendez nous votre frfere? So 
pliant was Chenier in principle, that 
ne successively displayed his devotion 
to the directorial, consular^ and im- 
perial governments ; in consequence 
of which he was one of the council of 
five hundred in 1798, and in 1799, 
was appointed a member of the tri- 
bunate. He died at Paris, aged 49, 
181 1. Jean Ducis (1738—1817), a 
distinguished French tragic poet, was 
bom at Versailles, and studied at the 
college of Orleans. After passing 
many years as a general writer, he at 
thirty-five adopted the course which 
Terence is said to have done as re- 
spects the works of Menander * giving 
to the public the plays of the English 
Shakspeare in a French dress. * Ham- 
let,* * Romeo and Juliet,' * Lear,' * Mac- 
beth,' and * King John,' were pro- 
duced in succession ; and all were 
eminently successful but the last. 
Ducis was soon chosen to succeed 
Voltaire in the French academy ; but 
devoting himself wholly to the drama, 
and professing royalist principles, he 
took no part in the events of the Re- 
volution, and even rejected the fa- 
vours proifered him by Buonaparte. 
Upon the restoration of Louis XVI I L, 
he had an interview with that mo- 
narch, much to his gratification ; and 
he died, aged 84, 1817. Ducis, al- 
though adapted to write from a good 
model, was inferior in original com- 
position ; and in all he produced, 
beyond his paraphrases of Sliakspeare, 
he wants both harmonv and con- 
nexion. But his paraphrases have 
all the merit which Terence could 
claim ; namely; that, although work- 
ing upon a foreign basis, he instilled 
a spirit into his imitations, which 

STe them high claims to originality. 
ENEi Pbbtalozzi, famous for the 
invention of a new system of educa- 
tion, vras bom of respectable but poor 
parents in Switzerland, 1745. Lett 
an orphan early, he adopted from in- 
clination the employment of a teacher; 
and having done some good amongst 

the indigent youth of Zurich, by in- 
stilling into them at least moral prin- 
ciples (the religious he lefb to their 
parents), he was placed over the or- 
phan-house at Staotz by the Helvetic 
government, 1799, whence he re- 
moved to Bauffdorf, and ultimately 
to the castle of Yverdun. In 1803 
he formed one of the Helvetic con- 
sulta summoned to Paris by Napo- 
leon ; but notwithstanding the French 
emperor's notice, that of Alexander 
of Russia, and of his own govern- 
ment, he died, tlirough his ill-re- 
gulated generosity and careless ha- 
bits (certainly not from any vi- 
cious appropriation of his gains), 
in comparative poverty, aged 82, 
at Brugg, 1827. The system of 
Pestalozzi was in its main feature 
(that of mutual instruction}, like 
that of Bell and Lancaster ; a system, 
certainly, when applied to a particular 
range of school studies (especially to 
arithmetic), likely to advance and 
benefit the pupil. Every experienced 
teacher, however, knows that there is 
a limit to the advantage derivable 
from all viv6 voce and mechanical 
methods of instruction; and that a 
good basis in the general principles of 
physics, is of far higher value than an 
acquaintance, complete, as for as it 
can go, with the nature and use of a 
few physical products, tlie objects of 
the Pestalozzi school. Pestalozzi 
was eminently calculated for the pas- 
toral duty which he originally under- 
took, of causing a mass of young 
semibarbarous people to think. His 
scholars were the children of the 
poor ; and unaccustomed as they 
were to the sympathies of home, 
they regarded their instructor as a 
parent, which his persuasive and 
affectionate manners warranted. 
Jean RoLANn (1782—1793), a 
French (revolutionarv statesman who 
was brought into notice by the talents 
of his wife, Jeanne Phlipon, an 
e^raver^s daughter, and author of 
'Travels in England and Swiuei^ 
land.' He became acquainted with 
Brissot and other popular leaders, 
and through their influence was made 
minister of the interior. On the 


GEORGE m.— 1789— 1815. 


abolidon of the monarchy, (thongh 
be and hb wife had hailed the In- 
volution as the commenoemeDt of 
the golden age!) .he was iovolved in 
the proBGription of the Girondists, 
bat escaped to Rouen. His wife, 
however, who remained to plead his 
cause at the bar of the convention, 
vas, though for the moment left 
aione, iiltimatelj seized and guillo- 
tined as a <x>n8pirator against 'the 
unity and indivisibility of the re- 
public/ 1793 ; and when Roland 
Wrd of her execution, he set off 
towards Paris, and at some miles 
from Rouen^ sat down on a bank, 
and deliberately put an end to his 
existence with a sword, being then 
aged 61. His 'Dictionary of Arts 
and Manu&ctures' forms part of the 
'Eocyclop^ie M^thodique.' Jean 
Baiixy (1736—1793), born at Paris, 
Quitted the study of painting for 
Uiat of astronomy; and becoming 
known by bis treatise on the satellites 
of Jupiter, was elected an associate 
of the royal academy of sciences, 
1 770. He reached the highest de- 
gree of celebrity between that year 
and 1785, by the publication of his- 
tories of ancient, modern, and ori- 
ental astronomy ; wherein he gives 
accurate accounts of the origin and 
progress of the science, and of the 
lives, writings, and discoveries of 
prerioQS astronomers. At the open- 
mg of the revolution, M. Bailly 
was chosen a deputy of the tiert'Hat 
in the states-general; and he was 
president of the first national as- 
sembly, when the king's proclaroa* 
tion was issued, ordering it to dis- 
perse ; on which occasion he called 
on the members to swear that they 
would never separate till they had 
obtained a * free constitution/ On the 
day the Bastille was destroyed. 1789, 
he was elected mayor of Paris ; but 
though great];jr aiding the revolu- 
tionists while in that office, he gave 
offence to the people by ordering the 
soldiery to fire on the mob in the 
Champ de Mars, July 17, 1791. At 
the close of that year the constituent 
metahlj was c&asolved, and M. 

Bailly retired to private life ; but, in 
the subsequent reisn of terror, he 
vras denounced as uie enemy of the 
republic s and after the mockery of 
such a trial as was usual in the case 
of the prejudged victims of the de- 
magogues who then ruled France, he 
was guillotined Nov. 11, 1793, with 
circumstances of great insult and 
barbarity, aged 57. Ricbasd Pricb 
(1723—1791), born in Glamorgan- 
shire, became a preacher amone the 
Socinians at Hacaney, 1753, and re- 
mained there in that capacity till his 
decease. After the publication of 
some tracts on religion and morals, 
he was made D.D. by the university 
of Glasgow ; and when, in 1771, he 
had written on ' Annuities,' he be- 
came regarded as a talented mathe- 
matical calculator, insomuch that 
Mr. Pitt, on becoming prime-minis- 
ter, consulted him concerning a re- 
duction of the national debt. The 
establishment of the sinking-fund 
was the result of the doctor's recom- 
mendation. Hailing the French 
revolution as the source of unmixed 
benefit to mankind, he published a 
sermon ' On the Love of our Coun* 
try,* wherein he asserts the right of 
the people to cashier their rulers ; and 
this save rise to Mr. Burke's famous 
' Reflections,' wherein 'the doctor is 
treated as a political incendiary. 
Certainly his allusions to the fate of 
Louis AVI. are deserving of the 
severest censure. Dr. Price died, 
aged 68. Jean Brtssot (1754 — 
1793), the son of a lawyer of Chai^ 
tres, in the Orleannois, espoused the 
principles of the French revolution, 
married Melle. Dupont, a young 
lady employed under Madame de 
Genlis in eaucating the daughters of 
the duke of Orleans, and came to 
England to avoid persecution, and to 
write in favour of the republican 
change in his country. On return- 
ing secretly to Paris, 1784, he was 
seized, on the charee of writioe a 
libel, and Imprisoned in the Bastifie ; 
but his wife's interest with the Oi^ 
leans family obtained his release, 
and he at length croned to Ameripa, 


GEORGE ni.— 1789— 1815. 


1788, with the quixotic intention of 
forming a republican colony of 
Frenchmen in that land of liberty. 
When the revolutionary party had 
got ahead, he returned to France, 
and became president of the Jacobin 
club ; in 1791, he was chosen secre- 
tary of the legislative assembly ; and 
in the latter capacity he soon be- 
came known as the tiead of a party 
composed chiefly of members from 
the department of the Gironde, 
whence they were indifferently styled 
Girondists, or Brissotines. During 
a brief period, he was at the summit 
of power ; but the defection of 
Dumouriez shook his party, and, 
upon quarrelling with the Jacobin 
club,' he was expelled that society. 
As he had expressed himself opposed 
to the king's death, he was marked, 
on the rise of Robespierre, for 
punishment ; and when, on the ruin 
of his party, 1798, he was escaping 
to Switzerland, his flight was inter- 
cepted, and he was tried with twenty- 
one of his friends, and ordered for 
execution. The whole number 
perished with great fortitude by the 
guillotine, October 25th. Geobgb 
Danton (1759— 1794),born at Arcis- 
sur-Aube, entered the profession of 
tlie law, and became a powerful ad- 
vocate of popular rights, at the open- 
ing of the French revolution. On 
the detention of Louis XVI. at Va- 
rennesy he proposed his dethrone- 
ment to the assembly in the Champ 
de Mars; and though pursued by 
duns, and threatened with arrest 
daily for debt, he appeared constant- 
ly in the disgraceful scenes of 1792, 
till chosen minister of justice — ^in 
which capacity Robespierre and the 
other partisans of anarchy rallied 
round him as their protector, on 
hearing of the Prussians having en- 
tered Champagne. His ascendancy 
on that occasion excited the jealousy 
of Robespierre, and was the cause of 
his destruction. After warmly ad- 
vising the king's execution, he took 
a leading part in the proscription of 
the Girondists ; and he was the first 
to procure a decree for the formation 

of the revolutionary ' tribunal.' He 
had thus heaped up the pile for his 
own immolation ; for Robespierre 
caused him to be brought before it as 
an enemy to the republic, and he was 
executed by the guillotine, aged 35. 
John Heineicu Dannecker (1758— 
1841), bom at Stutgard, of poor pa- 
rents, became the Nestor of German 
sculptors. His style was formed 
chiefly on the antique ; and his com- 
positions are full of truth, Ufe, and 
nature. His most distinguished sur- 
viving pupil is Wagner, at Rome. 
The artist, for many years previously 
to his decease, aged 83, had retired 
from all active employment, and 
fallen into a state of second child- 
hood and oblivion. Jean Baptist 
Lou VET, one of the chief actors in 
the French revolution, began giving 
aid thereto by a work in disparage- 
ment of marriage, and subsequently 
voted for the trial and death of the 
king. His personal hatred of Robes- 
pierre, however, caused his outlawry, 
when that other scoundrel's party 
had gained the ascendant ; but on 
tlie death of the great terrorist, Lou- 
vet again appeared in Paris, reco- 
vered his seat in the convention, 
March, 1795, and was made its pre- 
sident in the June following. He 
was afterward one of the council of 
500, and died, 1797. He enjoys a 
dishonourable fame to this day in 
France, as the author of one or two 
most licentious novels, worthy of 
the principles which guided his life. 
Louis, Duke of Orleans (1747 — 
1 793), better known as * Egali't^' was 
descended from the younger son of 
Louis XII L, and knoivn early as the 
due de Chartres. Being disappointed 
in his hope to succeed his father-in- 
law, the due de Penthi^vre, as grand- 
admiral, he entered as a volunteer on 
board the squadron of the count 
d'Orvillters, and was present at the 
engagement with the English off 
Ushant, where he acted with extreme 
cowardice. Instead of being pnv 
moted in the navy on his return, the 
post of colonel-general of hussars was 
created for hiooi and he became chief 


GEORGE IEL-*1789^1815. 


of the Fren<^ Freemasons. Organ- 
ized as tliis last-named body was at 
the time in France, the principles of 
deinocracy were sown in a bosom al- 
ready harbouring resentment against 
the goremment for supposed slights ; 
and on coming to bis title and es- 
tates, the (now) due d'Orleans, 1787, 
adopted Tarious metliods to obtain 
popularity among the lower orders. 
In the aisputes between tlie court 
and parliaments, be constantly op- 
posea tlie former; and when, for his 
radeness to the king at the session 
of 1787, he was exiled to Villers Co- 
teret, Uie liberal journals throughout 
France declared his cause that of the 
people. When the States-general 
asKmbled, he, as necessarily a mem- 
ber, protested against all the decrees 
of the chamber of nobles, and at 
length went so far as to join, with 
other members, the ' tiers ^tat,' and 
form the National Assembly. It was 
then that ambition prompted liim to 
procure the formidable post of lieu- 
tenant-general of the kingdom ; but he 
was unable thus to reduce the king to 
subjection under himself; and his 
want of capacity to profit by the 
commotions to which he had contri- 
buted, compelled him to become the 
passive instrument of the jacobins. 
When elected a member of the Na- 
tional Convention, 1792, he ex- 
changed the name and titles of his 
family for that of EgaliU; but soon 
after voting for the death of the king, 
bis kinsman, he was arrested, and 
Uirown into prison at Marseilles, as 
a secret enemy of his party ; and, 
ailer six months' detention, tried at 
Paris, and executed by the guillo- 
tine, November 6, 1703, being then 
in his 47th year. It is perhaps need- 
less to say that, by a subsequent re- 
volution, tlie son of this misguided 
prince is now (1843) sovereign of 
France. Joseph ob Lalande (1732 
—1807), bom at Bourg-en-Bresse, of 
a good family, became early attached 
to astronomy ; and though obliged 
by his parents to make the law Ins 
profession, he devoted all his leisure 
to the more coogeoial pursuit of his 

mind. In 1762 he was made pro- 
fessor of astronomy in the college de 
France; previously to which he had 
made many curious discoveries con- 
nected with the moon and comets. 
He now found himself in his proper 
element; and, inspired with an ar- 
dent zeal for the advancement of 
science, be attracted around him a 
number of pupils, forming a school, 
whence proceeded a host of young 
astronomers, who filled the observa^ 
tones, and introduced into the navy 
the use of the best instruments, and 
the most accurate modes of making 
calculations. He remained safe dur- 
ing tlie revolution ; and though ac- 
cused of atheism and jacobinism, he 
hazarded his life continually to save 
those condemned to the guillotine, 
giving an asvlum to the priests who 
had escaped the massacres of the 
Abbaye, and making them pass for 
his astronomical assistants. He even 
wrote a treatise in favour of monar- 
chy, and was scrupulously attentive 
to the outward forms of the Romish 
church. He died aged 75. His 
chief works are * Traits de 1* Astro- 
nomie,' and ' Ubtoire Celeste Pran- 
9aise.' Jean Portalis (1746 — 
1807), born at Beausset, was a dis- 
tinguished advocate of the parliament 
of Atx at the outbreak of the revo- 
lution; when, being suspected of fa» 
vouring monarchy, he was arrested, 
and kept in prison till the fall of 
Robespierre. As was the frequent 
case or the old regime, the influence 
of a prison, and an escape from the 
guillotine, in the end caused the advo- 
cate to become tinged with the new 
principles ; and he even became se- 
cretary to the council of ancients, 
1795, and then president. As, how- 
ever, his early notions induced him to 
oppose the violent measures of the 
directors, he was proscribed in 1797, 
and took refuge in Uolstein, until re» 
called by Buonaparte, now first con- 
sul, 1800. He was hereupon made a 
councillor of state, and charged with 
the care of religious affairs ; and it 
was he who arranged the famous con- 
cordat with the imprisoned pope. 


GEORGE HL— 1789— 1B15. 


He died aged 61. Tbb Two An- 

QUBTiLS.—IrOttif (1728— 1808), prior 
of the abbey of La Roe in Anjoa, was 
cur6 of La Yillette, near Paris, when 
the revolution began ; and when 
thrown into prison with other eccle- 
siastics, began liis ' liistoire Univer- 
selle,* which he eventually published 
in twelve volumes. As he escaped the 
guillotine, and was prudent enough 
to leave politics alone, he was chosen 
a member of the French Institute, 
and much employed as an historical 
collector by the government of Napo- 
leon. His great work is a ' History 
of the Wars and Treaties of the 
Reigns of Louis XIV., XV., and 
XVI. :* and he died, aged 80. Abram 
(1731—1805), his brother, styled 
Anquetil du Perron, to escape going 
into the church, got enrolled as a pri- 
vate soldier ; and was present at the 
taking of Pondicherri by the English. 
While in India, he aevoted every 
leisure moment to the study of San- 
scrit, and made progress enough to 
translate the * Yendid^^ Sad6,' 
a dictionary of the lansuage. On 
his return to Paris, after visiting 
London and Oxford, he was made 
oriental interpreter in the king*s li- 
brary, with a pension ; and he was 
permitted, when the violence of the 
revolution had subsided, to pursue 
his literary career in peace, publish- 
ing from time to time on such eastern 
subjects as the ' Life of Zoroaster,' 
* Oriental L^islation,' &c. He died 
aged 74. Kichakd Cumbeeland 
(1732^1811), son of the bishop of 
Clonfert, was born in the house of 
the celebrated Dr. Bentley, Trinity 
college, Cambridge, whose youngest 
daughter was his mother. After 
an education at Westminster and 
Trinity college, he became a fel- 
low of the latter, but did not 
take holy orders. His first oc- 
cupation was as private secretary to 
lord Halifax, through whom be ob- 
tained tlie post of crown agent for 
Nova Scotia, 1769, and whom he ac- 
oomoanied to Ireland when he went 
as lord lieutenant Mr. Cumber- 
land's complete devotion to literature; 

however, occasioned him to be passed 
over when his patron became secre- 
tary of state ; except, indeed, tliat he 
then received from him the almost 
sinecure office of clerk of reports in 
trade and plantations. Eventually 
lord Geoi^e Germaine made him 
secretary to the board of trade j and 
in 1780 he was employed on a con- 
fidential mission to the courts of 
Lisbon and Madrid. He in some 
way so offended the ministry in the 
latter, that they withheld 5000/. of 
his expenses, and he was compelled 
to sell his hereditary property to 
avoid a saol. At the same juncture, 
Mr. Burke's economy bill broke up 
the board of trade, and left him with 
only a poor pension. He passed the 
remainder of his life as a writer, at 
Tunbridee Wells and London, and 
died in the latter city, aged 79, 1811 . 
The irritable temper of Mr. Cum- 
berland exposed him to many molest- 
ations ; and Sheridan's satire of htm 
in Sir Fretful Plagiary^ and Garrick's 
designation of him as ' the man with- 
out a skin,* have served to register 
the fact. As an author, he excelled 
in comedy ; and his best productions 
are the ' West Indian,' * Wheel of 
Fortune,' 'Jew/ and 'Fashionable 
Lover.' Of these the ' West Indian* 
is the most popular, though quite 
unnatural in its plot, and not giving 
any yevy j ust images of real life. The 
Hon. Sib Chaalbs Stuabt (1753 — 
1801), son of the Marquis of Bute, 
entered the army, and was appointed 
aide-de-camp to the viceroy of Ire- 
land. In 1775 he was sent to Ame- 
rica, where he distinguished himself 
on many occasions ; and at the be- 
ginning of the French revolution he 
was employed in the Mediterranean, 
and subdued Corsica, 1796. In 1797 
he was sent to Portugal at the head 
of an auxiliary corps of 8000 men ; 
and his measures both protected the 
country from the designs of the 
French directory, and contributed to 
the future success of the British arms 
(under Wellington) in the Penin- 
sula. After conquering Minoresy 
17&8| be was summoned to the de- 


GEORGE m— 1789— 1815. 


fence of Sicily ; aod he effectually 
goaided the latter from the threat- 
ened danger, arising from the French 
invasion of Naples. At tlie close of 
the same year he sailed to Malta, 
vhich Buonaparte had seized on his 
vay to Egypt; and, after having 
taken the fortress of Valetta by 
blockade, returned to England. At 
bis suggestion, Malta was detained 
by Great Britain — a detention which 
formed Napoleon*s plea for the rup- 
tnre of the treaty of Amiens. Sir 
Charles died, aged 48, 1801. Hkn- 
aT KrRKB White, son of a butcher 
at Nottingliam, while clerk to an 
attorney, employed his leisure hours 
in the composition of poetiy ; and 
being introduced to Mr. Wilber- 
fbrce, that gentleman placed him 
at St. John's, Cambridge, where 
consumption carried him off at the 
age of 20, 1806. < Cliaon Grove,' 
is the only poem of length he 
produced: it has many beauties of 
the pathetic kind, but there is a 
gloomy and querulous strain in all 
this youne man's productions, the re^ 
suit of ill health and disappointed 
^riews, which will probably ever con- 
fine tbem to a small circle of readers. 
^TiLLiAM Haylet, a gentleman of 
■ome fortune in Sussex, is known for 
his * Triumph of Temper,' a poem 
^irfaich has been generally admired, 
though lord Byron observed, ' it tried 
his temper to read it.' His ' Life of 
Cowper,' whose friendship he culti- 
watedi* was long very popular, though 
latterly eclips^ by the more sterling 
hiograpby of the poet by Southey. 
Mr. Hayley died, aged 75, 1820. 
KoaaaT Bloomfibld, a ploughman, 
who, through the patronage of Mr. 
Capel Loffl, was enabled to give to 
tbe world his ' Farmer's Boy,' a poem 
on which his fame rests. It is sin- 
gularly regular and smooth, consider- 
ing the author's defective education ; 
but its principal merit consists in the 
description of rural scenes, which 
none but a practical farmer could so 
accurately paint. He died 1828, 
aged 57. Edward Whttakxr (1750 
«^Idl8> son of sergeant Whitaker, 

completed his studies at Chris^> 
church, Oxford, and obtained the 
livings of St. Mildred and All Saints, 
Canterbury. He latterly kept a 
school at Egham, and wrote on many 
scriptural subjects ; but he is chiedy 
remembered as the founder of that 
useful London institution, the Re- 
fuge for the Destitute. He died 
aged 68. Thomas Dunham Whit- 
aker (1759—1821), born at Rain- 
ham, Norfolk, of which his father 
was curate, completed his studies at 
St. John's, Cambridge, took holy or- 
ders, and became perpetual curate of 
the chapel at Holme, founded by his 
ancestors, but rebuilt and re-endowed 
by himself. lie was afterwards pre- 
sented to the living of Wballey, and 
to that of Blackburne, 1818, acted 
as a magistrate, and died much re- 
spected, aged 62. Dr. Whitaker u 
chiefly known as an indefatigable an- 
tiquary, and for his excellent pub- 
lications concerning the county of 
York. John Letdkn (1775— 181 1), 
bom at Denholm, Roxburghshire, 
was educated at Edinburgh, and be- 
came a kirk minister, 1798 ; but sub- 
sequently quitted the sacred profes- 
sion, and went as a sureeon to Ma- 
dras, 1803. Here, in addition to the 
Sanscrit, Persian, Arabic, and Hin- 
dustani languages, he made himself 
acquainted with the Malay and other 
semi-barbarous tongues ; and these 
accomplishments, with his practice as 
a physician, obtained him the office 
of judge of the twenty-four Par- 
gunnahs of Calcutta. His leisure 
hours were still devoted to litera- 
ture ; and he contributed many va- 
luable papers to the ' Asiatic Re^ 
searches/ tending to explain the origin 
of the Malay nations. He accom- 
panied lord Minto in the expedition 
against Java, 1811, and died in that 
island in the same year, aged 96, 
Cheistopher Ebeli no ( 1 74 1 — 
1817) was for thirty years proressor 
of history and Greek in the Gym- 
nasium at Hamburg, and author of a 
most valuable ' Geography and His- 
tory of the United States of America^' 
in seven octavo volume. Jqhanit 


GEORGE m.— 1789— 1815. 


Ebbl (1764—1830), bora at Frank- 1 
fort-on-the-Oder, resided chiefly at 
Zurich, and wrote an excellent ' Guide 
to Travellers in Switzerland,* and a 
work on the geology of the Alps. 

PlEERE GiNGUSNE (1748—1816), 

bora at Rennes, is celebrated among 
niodera French Writers for his ' His- 
toire Lit^raire de Tltalie,' in nine 
Yolumes. He ran the risk of being 
guillotined, during the reign of terror, 
on account of his moderate opinions; 
but died at peace in Paris, aged 68. 
RfiNi, Ant Hauy (1743—1822), 
the son of a weaver, was bora at St. 
Just, and became a chorister in the 
college of cardinal Lemoine. The 
lectures of Daubenton caused him to 
tura his attention to mineralogy ; and 
the accidental fall of a specimen of 
calcareous spath, crystallized into 
prisms, further induced him to make 
crystallography his study ; the whole 
theoiy of which branch of science is 
founded on his consequent observa- 
tions. He was respected throughout 
the revolution, and subsequently by 
Napoleon, on account of bis non-in- 
terference with political matters ; and 
on the restoration of monarchy, 1814, 
he continued to lecture on his fa- 
vourite science in the capital. Don 
Gaspab db Jovellanos (1749 — 
1812)^ born at Gijon, in the Astu- 
rias, became counsellor of state to 
Charles III. of Spain. As minister 
of finance under Charles IV., he in- 
curred banishment for proposing a 
tax upon the higher ranks of clergy^ 
to relieve the debt occasioned by the 
war with republican France^ 1794; 
but he was recalled, 1799, and made 
minister of justice for the interior. 
Through the influence of Godoy, 
prince of the peace, he was again ex- 
iled, 1800, and remained prisoner in 
a convent at Majorca till the fall of 
Godoy, and ihe invasion oT Spain by 
the French, 1808. On his retura to 
Madrid, he espoused the cause of 
Joseph Buonaparte ; but, being sus- 
pected by his countrymen of promot- 
ing the plans of France for the subju- 
SEition of Spain, he was assassinated 
uring a popular iosurrection, 18 12, 

His works are numerous; but his 
most viduable production is ' Informe 
sobre la Ley Agraria.' Thomas 
JoHNBs (1748^1816), bora at Lud- 
low, Salop, was educated at Eton, 
and Jesus college, Oxford, and be- 
came member of parliament, first for 
Cardigan, and subsequently for the 
county of Radnor. As a country 
gentleman, he laudably occupied him- 
self in the improvement of his landed 
property at Hafod, in Cardiganshire, 
by planting trees to a considerable 
extent. lie also built for himself 
an elegant mansion, and collected a 
noble library, to which he added a 
printing establishment, whence pro- 
ceeded the works on which his lite- 
rary 'reputation is founded. These 
consist of splendid editions of the 
chronicles ot Froissart and Monstre- 
let, and similar works, all translated 
by himself from the French. £ti- 
ENNB Mehul (1763—1817), bora at 
Givet, in France, became assistant 
organist in the abbey of Valledieu at 
twelve, and then went to Paris, to 
study under Gliick. His ' Euphro- 
sine et Coradin' was performed at 
the comic opera, 1790, and esta- 
blished his fame : it was rapidly fol- 
lowed by • Stratonice/ * Irato,' * Jo- 
seph,' and other operas. The com poser 
contrived to get safely through the 
revolution, was a member of the In- 
stitute, 1796, and held the post of 
an inspector of instruction at tlie 
Conservatory of Music, from its in- 
stitution in 1795 till its suppres- 
sion in 1815. William Nicholson 
(1758 — 1815), bora in London, went 
to India, as a sailor, and then became 
agent on the continent for Mr. Wedg- 
wood, the celebrated potter. At 
length he settled in London as a 
teacher of mathematics, and pub- 
lished many useful compilations on 
chemistry and natural philosophy; but 
misfortune seemed to attend all his 
speculations, and he died in poverty. 
GaiLLAUMB Olivier (1756—1814), 
bora at Frejus, became a physician, 
but devoted his chief time to ento- 
mology. The revolution drove him 
from raris, 1792, and he then ob« 


GEORGE in,-.l789— 1815. 


tained a diplomatic mission to Persia, 
though the minister Roland, in the 
eDofii^on, could not obtain funds to 
paT the eoToy. With Brugiii^res, an- 
other naturalist, he travelled through 
I^Tpt, Greece, Turkey, and Persia, 
aad published a narrative of his visit 
on his return to Paris, 1799, espo- 
mQj interesting to naturalists. A 
study of the habits of insects is hiehly 
valuable in one point of view. It is 
£»rful to reflect on the ravages of 
some of their tribes ; and it is matter 
of fact, that the hop plantations in 
Eoglaiid were in one year alone 
( 18^25) so injured by * the fly,' as to 
cause a loss of revenue of 400,000iL 
to the oountiy. David Ricardo 
(1772 — 1823) was son of a Dutch 
merdiant, who was a Jew, and was 
bom in London. His early mar- 
riage with a quakeress offended his 
parent; but though he lost his coun- 
tenance, the friends of the old mer- 
diant aided him, and he entered the 
Stock Ezchan^. In diat establish- 
ineiit he acquired a large fortune; 
and when brought into public no- 
tice by works on the currency, rent, 
&c^ be obtained a seat in parliament 
for Portarlington ; having previously 
exchanged Judaism for the tenets of 
Socinus. His best work is a treatise 
on Political Economy and Taxation, 
w^hich giives a clear and straightfor- 
-ward history of the origin and fluc- 
tuations of national income and ex- 
penditure. Mr. Ricardo died at his 
seat of Gatcomb Park, Gloucester- 
shire, aged 51. Samuel Whitbre AD 
( 1758 — 1815), bom in London, was 
educated at Eton, and St. John's, Cam- 
bridge, and then made the tour of 
£urope with Mr., afterwards arch- 
deacon, Coxe* Soon after marrying 
the daughter of sir Charles, after- 
wards earl, Grey, he was, 1790, elect- 
ed member for Steynine, butafter- 
irards for Bedford, which last he re- 
presented till his decease. He was 
the constant supporter of Mr. Fox 
against the Pitt ministry, favoured 
the French rerohition, impeached 
lord Melville, and finally, from being 
greatly harassed with the concerns 
rou m. 

of Dniry-kme theatre, of which he 
was a principal proprietor, became 
deranged, and put a period to his 
existence, in his 57th year. He suc- 
ceeded to his father's valuable 
brewery, and carried on its extensive 
business to the last. John Aikin 
(1747—1822), bom at Kibwortb, 
Leicestershire, son of Dr. Thomas 
Aikin, a dissenter, and schoolmaster, 
settled as a surgeon at Warrington, 
where he had been educated. He 
became known by publishing several 
things with his sister, Mrs. £irbau]d, 
and by a translation of Tacitus ; and 
this led to an acquaintance with Dr. 
Priesdey and Gilbert Wakefield. He 
afterwards practised as a physician at 
Yarmouth, but gave ofience to the 
people there by his radical notions, 
which seem the necessary accom- 
paniment of dissent His violence 
in favour of the French revolution 
at length obliged him to escape to 
London, 1792, where he became 
editor of Mr., afterwards sir Richard, 
Phillips's Monthly marine ; and 
then engaged with Dr. Enfield in the 
compilation of a general biographical 
dictionary, which, after vast delay, was 
completed in ten volumes quarto, 
1815. Dr. Aikin died aged 75. 
Patrick Batdonr (1741 — 1819), 
born in Scotland, received a liberal 
education, and went as travelling 
tutor with Mr. Beckford (author of 
yathek),and other gentlemen. The 
tour he then made was the subject 
matter of his very popular Travels in 
Sicily and Malta, which, however, 
display a considerable portion of free- 
thinking ; but that licence did not pre- 
vent his obtaining the lucrative post 
of comptroller of the stamp-office, 
which he held till his death, at the 
age of 78. Maris Fran9ois Bichat 
(1771 — 1802), born at Thoirette, 
became celebrated as a physician. He 
was medical professor at the Hotel 
Dieu ; and in that capacity wrote 
some talented works on anatomy and 
physiology, Joseph Banks (1743 — 
1820), born at his father's estate, 
Revesby-abbey, Lincolnshire, was 
I educated at Eton and Oxford. Hav- 


GEORGE III— 1789— 1815. 


ing a great taste for natural history, 
he accompanied captain Cook in his 
first voyage rouncl the world, to 
gather specimens, 1763 ; and in 
1772 be visited Iceland and the 
Western isles, with the same object 
In 1778 he was made a baronet, and 
elected president of the Royal Society; 
and he died, much respected, aged 
77, at his seat. Spring Grove, Mid- 
dlesex. The additions sir Joseph 
made to science are only to be found 
in the ' Philosophical Transactions,' 
and the documents of other learned 
bodies, as he published scarcely at 
all. John Bsll, bom at Edinburgh, 
was eminent as a surgeon ; and his 
• Principles of Surge^ is a well- 
known work. He died at Rome, 
1820, leaving * Observations on Italy,* 
a very sensible book, for publication. 
HsNET Nugent Bell, a student of 
the Inner Temple, is memorable for 
his talent in genealogical research. 
To him the present noble family of 
Huntingdon owes its elevation ; Mr. 
Bell having, with inexpressible pains, 
proved, to the satisfaction of the 
house of peers, the right of Hans 
Francis Hastings, Esq., to the earl- 
dom, after a supposed extinction of 
thirty years, 1819. Of the curious 
mode in which the restored earl was 
obliged to get possession of the es- 
tates belonging to his title, Mr. Bell 
wrote a very interesting account. He 
died 1822. John Bonntcastle, born 
at VVhitechurch, Bucks, of respecta- 
ble parents, had little education, but 
followed the bent of his own mind 
towards mathematics, and by some 
means became tutor in that branch 
of physics to the sons of the earl 
of Pomfret. He by that means 
obtained a mathematical master- 
ship at Woolwich, and held die 
post for forty years, till his de- 
cease in 1821. His elementary works 
are acknowledged to be most useful, 
and his introduction to algebra espe- 
cially so. Jean Corvibsart (1755 
— 1821), bom in Champagne, rose 
to eminence as a physician aiiring the 
French revolution. On the establish- 
ment of the School of Health at Paris, 
1795, he was chosen first clinical pro- 

fessor. Napoleon made him his body 
physician, and in 1811 he was elected 
a member of the Institute. His best 
work is on the diseases of the heart. 
He died aged 66, having been in 
favour even with the restored royal 
house. Louis Carnot, bom in Bui^ 
gundy, rose in the engineers during 
Uie revolution, and was a member of 
the committee of public safety, in con- 
j unction with Robespierre, Barrere, 
&c. In that office he had the espe- 
cial care of military affairs, and 
displayed a marked hatred of the 
nobility ; but as he certainly seems 
to have scorned the secret modes of 
villany practised by his colleagues, 
he was exempted from arrest when 
Robespierre fell, and was chosen one 
of the five members of the executive 
directory, 1795. In 1797 he was 
banished for his supposed connexion 
with a plot to restore the monarchy ; 
but Buonaparte, when first consul, 
recalled him, and made him minister 
of war. At a later period he was in- 
spector of reviews ; and on his re- 
tiring from the service, the emperor, 
though he had always accused him of 
an ignorance of military affairs, gave 
him a pension of 20,000 francs. He 
lived in retirement until Napoleon's 
retreat from Moscow, when he was 
intrusted with the defence of Ant^ 
werp; and on Napoleon's return 
from Elba, he was appointed minister 
of the interior. On the final deposi- 
tion of his master, he retired once 
more, and died in voluntanr exile, 
1828. Carnot was an unflinching 
republican ; and his fidelity to Buona- 
parte was of course based on the 
conviction in his mind, that France 
would become permanently a com- 
monwealth after his decease. He 
was an able mathematician, and 
wrote on the * Calcul Infinitesimal,' 
' La Geometric de Position.' &c 
Madams Catalant, a native of 
Italy, was long known at the King's 
theatre, London, for her transcendant 
vocal abilities. She retired from the 
stage in 1815, and died at hercasinoon 
the Lac di Como, 1841, aged 60. Mas. 
MoiTNTAiN, a charming Enslish singer, 
whose maiden name was WiUuiisoD» 


CEORGE m— 1789— 1815. 


Bade ber first appearance at the Hay- 
BzkeC theatre 178^, and at Covent 
Giniail786. Those who remember 
tiie noie recent Miss Stephens, her 
iweetoem and poirer, ^rill understand 
uswfaeD we say that Mrs. Mountain 
la her prototype- Mrs- Mountain 
wired ftom the stage 181o,and died, 
aeed 70, 1841- CMAai-KS Dibdin 
(1744—1814), son of a silversmith of 
Soatiampton, quitted the foundation 
of Winchester school, from a propen- 
sity to study music as A profession, 
aod became assistant organist in a 
eoaDtry^illaffe, until his brother urged 
him to tryhis fortune in London. 
After teaching music and tuning pia- 
nos for some time, he appeared on the 
Havmarket boards as Kalph in the 
Mud of the Mill; but not liking an 
artel's life, and soon quarrelling with 
Garrickandall other stage-managers, 
he found his account in alone writing 
for the Stage, and produced hb ad- 
mired Deserter, Waterman, Quaker, 
and a hundred other musical pieces. 
Heako entertained the public by his 
own unassisted powers, in singing 
sons of his own composition at his 
'Sans Souci* in Lieicester-square— 
the most profitable of his speculations; 
andhis sea-songs in particular, written 
as they were to suit the known 
loyalty of British sailors, drew the at- 
imtionofthe eoTemment. A pension 
was his reward, on the grouna of the 
▼alue of keeping the nary firm to mo- 
narchical principles at so peculiar a 
crisis as the French revolution. The 
carelesslifeof Dibdin, however, kept 
him ever in difficulties ; and be died 
in very indigent circumstances, aged 
70. Thomas Denm an (1733— 1815), 
bom at Bakewell, Derbyshire, was 
son of an apothecary there, and in 
1757 became a navy surgeon. He 
settled in London as a surgeon, 1764 ; 
and, after mudi struggle and difficulty, 
was chosen joint physician (having 
now his diploma) to the Middlesex 
hospital. Obstetrics had always been 
his forte, and his fiune in that branch 
of practice rapidly increased; inso- 
much that, on the death of Dr. Wil- 
liam Hunter, 17dd» he was acknow- 

ledged to be at the bead of hit pro* 
fession, as regarded midwifery. Tt^ 
wards the close of his life, Dr. Den* 
man relinquished his puerperal praiiy 
tice into the hands of his son-in-law, 
sir Richard Croft, and became a coin 
suiting physician. He died suddenly, 
aged 82, leaving a son, a lawyer, and 
subsequently created lord Denman* 
RicRAan Caorr, bom at Tutbuiy, 
Staffordshire, became a surgeon there^ 
and succeeded his kinsman, sir Her* 
bert Croft, known for his literary 
taste, in the baronetcy. Having mar- 
ried Dr. Denman*s cbughter, he suc- 
ceeded to that able physician's great 
obstetric practice, and was engaged to 
attend on the princess Charlotte of 
Wales in her accouchement, 1817. 
The unhappy decease of her royal 
highness by sir Richard's alleged ad- 
ministration of chicken broth to her 
instead of a glass of brandy, when she 
was fainting through exhaustion, to- 
gether with the public newspaper da- 
mour which ensued, had such an e^ 
feet upon the baronet's spirits, that, 
in spite of the Prince Regent's gens> 
rous assurance by letter tluit the royal 
fiiinily were satisfied he had acted 
with skill and caution on the tryins 
occasion, he at length shot himselL 
Jban Deluc (1727—1817), bom at 
Geneva, was sent in 1768 by the 1^ 
gislators of the republic to raria, on 
a special mission ; but preferring 
geology to politics, he settled in Eng- 
land to write on that science. Here 
he remained until elected, 1798, pro- 
fessor of geology at Gotdngen ; but 
after the Imttle of Jena he returned to 
this country, and resided chiefly at 
Windsor, where his post of reader to 
Queen Charlotte gave him free access 
to the members ofthe royal house, all 
of whom seem to have regarded him 
greatly. In that happy retreat he 
died, aged 90. Deluc wrote much on 
his ftivourite science, wherein he b^ 
boured to reconcile every thing to the 
Mosaic account of the deluge ; and 
he also rendered great service by bis 
improvement of the barometer, as 
applicable to the measurement of 
heights. Pbtsk Dollond (1780^ 


GEORGE IIL— 1789— 1815. 


1820), son of John DoUond, an emi- 
nent London optician, who, turning 
his mind to the improvement of re- 
fracting telescopes, invented the achro- 
matic telescope (so called on account 
of being free from the prismatic co- 
lours), about 1760. The jealousy of 
philosophers had long denied Mr. 
Dollona's claim as the inventor, when 
his son, Mr. Peter^ ably vindicated 
his parentis right, 1789 ; and himself 
made considerable improvements in 
the telescope, and in Hadley's quad- 
rant ; and mvented an instrument for 
correcting the errors arising in alti- 
tude from refraction. He died aged 
90. Jean Baptjste Delambeb 

il 749—1822), born at Amiens, stu- 
ied in the coUese of his native town 
under the poet Delisle, who became 
his friend Having, by the labour 
of tuition, scraped together enough 
money to enable him to enter the 
College of France at Paris, he made 
one of the great Lalande*s class, and 
thus had his attention turned to astro- 
nomy. That science hencefortli be- 
came his pursuit ; and in 1781, when 
the planet Herschell was exciting the 
deep attention of philosophers, De- 
lambre made himself celebrated by 
forming accurate tables of its motion. 
Similar tables for Jupiter and Saturn 
were next effected ; and, during the 
horrors of the revolution, he was em- 
ployed by the government, with Me- 
chain, (when the project of fixing; a 
standard of length had been acceded 
to by France and England,) to mea- 
sure the arc from Dunkirk to Barce- 
lona. This he had to complete alone, 
his coadjutor having died ; and he got 
to the close with accuracv, amidst al- 
most every variety of cTifiiculty and 
J)ersonal danger that can be conceived, 
lis labour lasted eight years ; and 
its results are published in his valu- 
able ' Base du Syst^me M^trique 
Decimal.' Biot and Arago subse- 
quently continued the arc from Bar- 
celona to Formentera, but not with 
the same accuracy. Delambre was 
now appointed a member of the Bu- 
reau aes Longitudes, and perpetual 
secretarjrofthe French Institute. He 
was quietly pursuing his scientific 

labours in his study at Paris, when 
the allies took possession of the city, 
1814; and he professed to have 
felt on that occasion so perfectly 
calm, that he worked on, regardless 
of personal danger, for sixteen hours, 
in the very midst of the cannonade. 
In 1817 he was made a Chevalier of 
the order of St. Micliael ; and in 1822 
he died, aged 73. He wrote largely 
on astronomy and other physical 
branches. Henry Emltn (1729 — 
1815), an English architect, who was 
employed bv King George III. in the 
alteration of the chapel of St. George 
at Windsor, and, in that work, en- 
deavoured to innovate by making a 
double column rise from a single 
pedestal, contrary to those principles 
which regulate the acknowledged 
orders. His system, however, lias 
never been adopted elsewhere. Thk 
Abb£ Edoewobtii 0745—1807), 
born at Edgeworth's Town, in Ire- 
land, went with his father, a clergy- 
man, who had quitted die English for 
the Romish church, to reside at Tou- 
louse. He took holy orders in the 
latter; and becoming confessor to the 
princess Elizabeth of France, was 
appointed to attend Louis XVI. to 
the scaffold, 1 793. After that event, 
he escaped in disguise to England, 
and thence departed for tlie residence 
of Louis XVlII. at Mittau ; where 
he died of a fever caught in the mili- 
tary hospital. Richard Lovell 
EDGEWORTH,a kinsman of the Abb^, 
was bom at Bath, and educated at 
Corpus Christi college, Oxford. He 
entered at the Temple; but having 
the family estates at Edgeworth's 
Town, Ireland, he passed his life 
chiefly there in the pursuit of 
mechanical science. At one period 
he visited France, and engaged 
in the direction of some works 
on the Rhone; but much of his 
time was devoted to literature, 
and to publishing, with his ta- 
lented daughter, Maria, some works 
on education, practical and profes- 
sional, all remarkable for tlie air of * 
good sense and adaptation to the exi* 
gencies of common life which thev 
exhibit He died at Edgeworth^s 


GEORGE ni— 1789— 1815. 


Town, aged 7d, 1617. Robert Ful- 
Tos (1766 — 1815), born in Pennsyl- 
mnta, came to England, and studied 
painting under his countryman West ; 
bat, after some years, turned his mind 
to mechanics. He introduced pano- 
ramas into Paris, 1800; then con- 
trived an apparatus for submarine 
explosion, intended to blow up an 
eneoay's ships ; but as neither France 
nor England noticed his invention, 
he returned to America, and devoted 
the remainder of his life to steam na- 
TigstioD^ of which he claimed the in- 
vention. His death was accelerated 
by his being denied the credit of that 
discovery, at the age of 49. Uoo Fos- 
coxx> (1776 — 1827), son of the Vene- 
tian governor of Zante, was born on 
board a frigate belonging to the oli- 
garcfaj^nd educated at Padua. On his 
tragedy of *Tteste,'written at 20, being 
represented at Venice, he was made se- 
cretary to Battaglia, when sent envoy 
from Venice to Napoleon, to preserve 
the independence of the oligarchy. 
The embassy was unsuccessful ; and 
Foscolo, dissatisfied with the Austrian 
government, retired into Lombardy, 
then the Cisah>ine republic, and wrote 
his ' Ultime Littere di Jacopo Ortis,' 
a romance of talent. He soon after 
entered the Italian army, and was 
shut up in Genoa with Massena, 
during the famous siege of that city, 
1 799. He at length quitted the French 
army, with the rauK of captain, and 
sacoeeded Monti as professor of lite- 
rature in the university of Pavia; but 
Niqioleon, who suspected his fidelity, 
suppressed his office, and Foscolo 
removed to Milan. On the fall of 
the emperor, the professor was made 
a major by the Italian regency ; but 
connecting himself with a party ini- 
naical to the Austrian interests in 
Italy, he fled to England, 1815, and 
there passed the remainder of his life. 
He might have become independent 
DOW as an author ; but his violent 
temper, and the diffiailties into 
iirhich he brought himself by erecting 
and expensively furnishing a cottage 
in the Regent's Park, hurried him to 
the grave in his 52d year, 1827. He 
was a contributor to the Quarterly, 

Edinbur^, Retrospective, and West- 
minster Reviews. Adah Ferguson 
(1724—1816), bom at Logierait, 
Scotland, went as chaplain of me 42d 
foot to the continent ; but at the 
peace of Aix-la-Chapelle returned to 
Edinburgh, and obtained the chair of 
moral philosophy. In 1773 he ac- 
companied the earl of Chesterfield on 
his travels, and then went as secretary 
of the mission to America, 1778, to 
reconcile the colonists. His chief 
works are an essay on civil society, 
and a history of the Roman republic 
Charles Cadet de Gassicourt, 
son of an apothecary of Paris, prac- 
tised as an advocate during the san- 
guinary period of tlie Revolution, and 
was fortunate enough to escape the 
fate of those he defended. He even- 
tually devoted much time to che^ 
mistry, of which he published a dic- 
tionary ; and he originated the board 
of heaith, and was made its perpetual 
secretary by the government. He died 
1823. Henry Grattan (1748— 
1820), bom at Dublin, was son of the 
recorder of that city, and was called 
to the Irish bar, 1772. In 1775 he 
was elected a member of the Irish 
parliament, and by dint of agitation, 
produced a reluctant assent on the 
part of the British ministry, 1782, for 
a repeal of the statute o^ George I. 
That statute had enacted that the 
crown of Ireland was inseparably 
connected with that of Great Britain ; 
that Ireland was bound by British 
acts of parliament, when named 
therein ; that the Irish house of lords 
had no jurisdiction in matters of re- 
peal ; and that the dernier resort, in 
all cases of law and equity, was in the 
lords of Great Britain. For his share 
in the acauirement of this great con- 
cession, tne Irish parliament voted 
him 50,000/., and a house and lands 
for himself and heirs for ever. Two 
or three sessions of great parliament- 
ary controversy followed, which were 
marked by the political rivalry of 
Messrs. Grattan and Flood ; but the 
former still maintained his post of head 
of the Irish Whigs, and was returned 
member for Dublin, 1790. During 
the rebelliou which followed, he se- 


GEORGE m.— 1789— 1815. 


ceded from parliament; but when Mr. 
Pitt had projected a positive Union of 
the two parliaments, he obtained a 
•eat in the Irish one to oppose the 
measure. He did not however refuse 
one in the united parliament, 1805, 
when he sat for Midton, and became 
the champion of catholic emancipa- 
tion. He died aged 72. Don Mi- 
AOBL HiDALOo T CosTiLLA, a rebel- 
lious Spanish priest, who, in 1810, 
had influence enough to raise Mexico 
against Spain, the mother country. 
At the h^ of 80,000 men he entered 
Valladolid, after plundering Dolores, 
San Miguel, ana other towns ; and 
the Indians there joined his cause, in 
consequence of bis repeal of the irc- 
buios, a tax they had ever paid to 
the Spanish government. He now 
marched upon Mexico, and Villegas, 
the governor, having but a handful of 
troops for its defence, resorted to spi- 
ritufld arms against the insurgent. He 
induced the archbishop of Mexico and 
the Inquisition to excommunicate 
• him ; and instantly his partisans aban- 
doned him, all but the few who had 
risked their fortunes in his cause. At 
Aculco his diminished force was at- 
tacked and routed, Nov. 7 ; Hidalgo 
fled, but mustered a fresh body of 
supporters at the bridge of Calderon, 
where he was wholly defeated, Jan. 7, 
181 1. From that time he was a soli- 
tary fugitive about the country, until 
seized by one of his own officers, 
March, 1811 ; and he was put to 
death in July of that year, after having 
been degraded from the priesthood. 
Elizabeth Inchbald(1756 — 1821), 
the daughter of a farmer named Simp- 
son, was born at Stanningfield, Suf- 
folk, and married Mr. Inchbald, a 
provincial actor of some celebrity. 
After his decease, 1779, she went 
herself upon the stage, appearing first 
at Covent Garden as Beltario, in the 
pla^ofPhilaster, 1780; and she re- 
mained a favourite performer until 
her retirement, 1789. She now com- 
menced authoress ; and besides light 
dramatic pieces, wrote a novel of 
great pathos, intitled < A Simple 
Story.' It adds highly to the merit of 

this ingenious woman, that she paased 
a life attended with many difficulties 
and temptations (being herself beau- 
tiful in person), with unsullied repu- 
tation. Sophia Leb 0750— 1824>, 
bom in London, was tne daughter of 
an actor, and became known, 1780, 
by her diverting comedy, ' The Chap- 
ter of Accidents ;' with the profits of 
which she was enabled to open a, 
school at Bath. This establistiment 
she conducted, aided by her sisters, 
with great reputation for several 
years ; and from time to time she gave 
to the public her < Canterbury Tales/ 
and other works of fiction, and ac- 
quired a handsome competency. Miss 
Lee died at Clifton, aged 74. Nicola.z 
Karavsin (1765—1826), a cele- 
brated Russian historian, served for 
sometime in the imperial guard, but 
eventually devoted nimself to literal- 
ture, and, by command of the Emperor 
Alexander, wrote * The History of 
the Russian Empire.* It is an au- 
thentic and valuable work, in 1 1 vols, 
octavo, and has been translated into 
French. The emperor gave Karamsin 
a pension of 50,000 rubles for his 
labour. Louis L angles (1768 — 
1824), born at Peronne, was Intended 
for the civil service in India, in con- 
sequence of his taste for Oriental 
languages ; but the revolution chang- 
ing his views, he remained at home. 
His publication of a Nantchou dic- 
tionary brought him ftune ; and his 
quiet pursuits enabled him to live 
fearlessly in Paris during the worst 
horrors of 1793. On the formation 
of the Institute he became a member ; 
and the remainder of his life was 
passed in learned ease, if we except 
nis constant, though vain attempts, 
to re-establish the ' Journal des Sa- 
vans,' and other works. His ' Dic* 
tionnaire Nantchou-Fran^ats,' is a 
very curious and valuable perform- 
ance. Jban Mauht (1746—1817), 
bom at Valeras, in France, became 
preacher to Louis XVI. ; and was 
elected a deputy from the clerical 
order to the States-general, in the 
revolution. His eflbrta in favour of 
monarchy, at that assembly, occa- 


GEORGE 111.^1789—1815. 


_ him to be regarded with sus- 
pksoiChe iwas arrested ; but he advo- 
ated the same cause in the National 
Amenably, and on its dissolution, re- 
wed to Rome, when the pope sent 
bim as apostolic nuncio to aaaist at the 

'Ton of the Emperor of Ger- 

He was subsequently made 
ihop of Nkaea, in 1794 a caiv 
ffinal, ana, by Napoleon, on his de- 
daring himself emperor, archbishop 
of Pkris. On the fall of the Buona^ 
parte &mily he returned to Rome, 
aodified there, 181 7,aged 71. Chablbs 
Matusiv, curate of St Petei^s, 
Dublin, was an eccentric divine, who, 
^oing out of the sphere of his sacred 
dndes, wrote romances and plays in 
preference to sermons. ' Bertram,' a 
tragedy, in which Kean took the 
leading character, brought him first 
uto notice ; and buoyed up by the 
luooem of the piece, he ran into debt, 
and oontinuect in difficulties till hb 
eviy death, 1825. Thb Two Mii^ 
jraaa. These were sons of a Yorkshire 
weaver, and brought up in their fa- 
ther's trade. Their rise was extraor- 
dinary. Joseph, the elder, being of a 
stndioos turn, was eventuall;^ sent to 
the Iree school at Leeds (his native 
place} ; and I$aae, the younger (the 
more talented of the two), left the 
loom to be usher in a schooL Both 
graduated at Cambridge — Isaac at 
Queen's college, where, as a tutor, he 
had Mr. Pitt and Mr. Wilberforce as 
paptb s with whom he travelled 
abroad. In 1788 he (Isaac) became 
master of his coUege,8oon afler dean of 
Cartisle,vice»chancellor of Cambridge, 
1792, and Lucasian professor of ma- 
diematics, 1798. He wrote against 
Dr. Harsh, in favour of the Bible 
Society (being of the evangelical 
dav), and died 1820. Joseph, who 
was of Catherine-hall and also of low- 
church principles, obtained two liv- 
ings in Yorkshire, and was long mas- 
ter of the grammar-school at Hull. 
He published a ' Historv of the 
Church of Christ,' and died, aged 52, 
1797. The advancement of both 
hvotbeis is attributable to Mr. Wil- 
becforoe. John Milnbe (1752— 

1826), bom in London of a catholic 
family, was educated at the college 
of Douay. Having taken holy or- 
ders, and proceeded D.D., he in 1779 
was appointed pastor of the catholic 
chapel at Winchester, whither he had 
gone to administer spiritual aid to 
Uie French prisoners confined there, 
after two clergymen, who had at- 
tended them, had been cut off* by a 
prevalent malignant fever. His at- 
tachment to the study of ancient 
church architecture, led him to an 
attentive observation of the remains 
of catholic antiquity with which Win- 
chester abounds ; and his many con- 
sequent contributions to the ' Arch»- 
ologia/ together with his work on 
< The Modem Style of altering Ca^ 
thedrals,' procured him admission in- 
to the Royal Society of Antiquaries, 
1790. Some observations he made 
on bishop Hoadly*s character of- 
fending a prebendary of Winchester, 
Dr. Sturges, he was warmly attacked 
in the latter*s tract, ' Reflections on 
Popery ;' and it is impossible to read 
Dr. Milner*s reply, ' Letters to a 
Prebendary,' without high admiration 
of the learning, ability, and acute- 
ness of the author, who, whatever 
may be thougiit of the general ques- 
tions at issue, had manifestly the ad- 
vantage of his antaffonist The doc- 
tor was subsequendy engaged in re- 
pelling assaults against the Romish 
faith, at the same time that he had 
enough to do in correcting the errors 
of those among its friends, whose 
eagerness to obtain the rights for 
which they contended, manifestly en- 
dangered Its safety and independence. 
On the death of bishop stapleton. 
Dr. Milner was appointed to succeed 
him as vicar apostolic in the midland 
district, with the title of bishop of 
Castabala. He for some time re- 
fused the dignity ; but being at length 
prevailed on to accept it, he was con- 
secrated, 1803, and took up his resi- 
dence at Wolverhampton for the re- 
mainder of his life. In 1807 he 
visited Ireland, that he might be 
enabled, by personal observation and 
intercourse, to form an opinion con- 


GEORGE III— 1789— 1815. 


cerning the charges brought against 
the Roman catholics of that country ; 
and the result was his very inter- 
esting, and, it would seem, impartial, 
' Inquiry into certain vulgar Opinions 
concerning the Catliolic Inhabitants 
and the Antiquities of Ireland.' On 
the fall of Napoleon, 1814, he visited 
Rome, to confer with pope Pius VII. 
on the interests of religion ; and after 
a year's stay in the capitol, returned 
to Wolverhampton, and commenced 
a series of tracts in defence of his 
church's principles, among which 
• The End of Religious Controversy* 
is the best known. lie died, 1826. 
CoNAAD Maltsbbun (1775—1826), 
a native of Jutland, studied at the 
university of Copenhagen, but was 
expatriated for his political writings, 
1 796. H e eventually settled at Paris, 
where he acquired considerable repu- 
tation as a geographer. His ' Precis 
de la Geographic Universelle,' a valu- 
able work, has been translate into 
English. Sebastiano Naldt, a buffo- 
singer on the Italian stage, London, 
who distinguished himself above all 
who had gone before him in that 
particular branch. The principal 
character in * II Fanatico per la Mu- 
sica' was his best personation. He 
met his death at Paris, 1819, through 
the explosion of a steam-cooking ap- 
paratus. JOBM PiNKERTON (1768 — 

1826), born at Edinburgh, settled as 
an author in London ; and from his 
pen came a singularly miscellaneous 
series of works, on medals, geogra- 
phy, &c., besides his reprints of scarce 
books, and collections of travels, lives, 
poems, maps, &c. The last twenty 
years of his life this eccentric autlior 
passed at Paris, and there died. 
The Platfairs. — These were two 
sons of a kirk minister. — John ( 1749 
— 181 9), bom at Bervie, near Dun- 
dee, received ordination, and suc- 
ceeded to his father's benefice, 1772 ; 
but he resigned it, to become pro- 
fessor of mathematics in the univer- 
sity of Edinburgh. In 1816 he visit- 
ed the Alps, for the purpose of mak- 
ing geological observations on their 
structure ; and he wrote many philo- 

sophical works. WUSam (I7S9— ^ 
1823) turned his mind to mecliaoics, 
and was some time with Mr. James 
Watt, as a draughtsman in the works 
at Soho. Going to the continent, 
he discovered the plan of the alpha- 
betical tel^raph, and introdu€^ed it 
into England ; and latterly he be- 
came a statistical writer, and sup- 
porter of Mr. Pitt's government. 
Humphry Repton (1752— 1818>, 
bom at Bury St. Edmunds, accom- 
panied Mr. Wyndham to Ireland, and 
obtained a lucrative post at the castlo 
in Dublin, 1788. On his return to 
England, he professionally applied 
himself to the improvement of gar- 
dens and pleasure-grounds, and be- 
came very extensively employed by 
the nobility and gentry in that pur- 
suit. Thomas Stamford Raffles 
(1781 — 1826), son of a captain in the 
West India trade, was appointed a 
clerk in the India House. The in- 
terest of Mr. Ramsay, secretary to 
that establishment, procured him in 
1805, as he wished to go abroad, the 
assistant-secretaryship of the new Jy- 
formed government of Prince of 
Wales*s island (then called Pulo Pe- 
nang) ; and there, under governor 
Dundas, he studied the Malay tongue 
with such success, as soon to be made 
government interpreter of the lan- 
guage. In 1810 he was appointed 
a^nt of the governor-general of In- 
dia with the Malay states ; and in 
181 1, on the capture of Batavia and 
Java from the Dutch, he was nomi- 
nated lieutenant-governor of Java. 
During his rule, from 1811tol816, 
he brought the hostilities, which be- 
fore his time had been commenced 
with the native chiefs, to a successful 
termination, completed a statistical 
map and survey of the island, and 
greatly improved its mode of ad* 
ministering justice. In 1816, having 
lost bis wife, he returned to Englancl 
and published his ' History of Java;' 
and in 1817 he was knighted, and went 
out again as resident of Bencoolen in 
Sumatra. In that capacity, and as 
governor of Fort Marlborough, he 
effected the abolition of slavery 


GEORGE m.— 1789— 1815. 


tliroa^oat the settlement, and took 
possession of the island of Singapore, 
both to protect its inhahitants and to 
boiefit the English trade. Ill health 
compelled him to embark once more 
for home, 1824 ; but on the evening of 
the day he set sail, a fire broke out 
in his ship, and both vessel and cargo, 
indndiDg 30,000^ of his property, 
vere destroyed. The crew and pas- 
seB^rs saved their lives with diffi- 
culty, and landed again fifteen miles 
from Beoooolen ; and two months 
eiapsed before sir Thomas could again 
coomieDce his voyage. He died two 
years after his arrival in England, 
July, 1826, aged 45. Abearam Rb£s 
(1743 — 1825), son of a Welch pres- 
brterian minister, was bom near 
MoDtgomery, and sent for education 
to the Hoxton dissenters* academy, 
founded by Mr. Coward ; where his 
progress in mathematics was so rapid, 
that, at nineteen, he was tutor of 
that branch in the institution, and so 
contioaed twenty-two years. In 1768, 
having obtained the usual licence to 
act as a preacher, he became pastor 
of a presbytenan congregation in the 
Borough; and in 1783 took the charge 
of a congregation of some other de- 
nomination in the Old Jewry. Dr. 
Rees was an able controversialist; 
bat he is now best known bv his new 
and enlaneed edition of ' Chambers's 
CydopaedSa,' which he completed very 
aamirably in forty-five volumes. He 
died aged 82. Johann Salomon 
(1745—1615), bom at Bonn, acquir- 
ed great reputation as a musical com- 
poser in Germanv and France, and 
came to England, 1781. Here he 
was in extraordinary repute as a vio- 
linist; and to him we are indebted 
for the introduction into this country 
of Ha^dn, whose symphonies, written 
for Salomon's concerts, are regarded as 
the standard of perfection for that 
species of composition. He died in 
London, aged 70. Charles, Earl 
Stakhopb (1758— 1816), son of the 
second earl, was educated at Eton 
and Geneva, and represented Wy- 
combe in parliament from 1774 to 
1786, when his Other's death called 

him to the house of peers. He was 
one of the few English noblemen 
who hailed with joy the French re- 
volution ; and he even avowed repub- 
lican sentiments, and went so far as 
to lay by the external ornaments of 
the peerage, in admiration of the un- 
happy M. Egalit^. As a man of 
science, he is known as the inventor 
of a vessel to sail against wind and 
tide, a new printing press, &c ; and 
one of his oaughters, not less eccen- 
tric than himself, was lady Hester 
Stanhope. He died aged 63. Bocii 
Ambrose Sicaro (1742 — 1822), bom 
at Foiisseret, near Toulouse, became 
an abb^, and succeeded the abb^ 
I'Ep^e as director of the Parbian in- 
stitution for the education of the 
deaf and dumb, 1789. During the 
reign of terror he was seized while 
in the midst of his pupils, and drag- 
ged to prison ; but he escaped the 
guillotine, though, until the (Over- 
throw of the directory, he was pre« 
vented returning to his post. Napo- 
leon never noticed him, though he 
never molested him ; and the care- 
less liabits of expenditure of the 
abb^ would have brought him to 
poverty, but for the restoration of 
Louis XVIIL, who made him a 
knight of the legion of honour, and 
gave him one or two lucrative ap- 
pointments. He wrote a course of 
instruction for the deaf and dumb, 
and other similar works, and died 
aged 80. Annb, Baroness ob Stael 
(1766— -1817) was daughter of the 
celebrated French financier, Necker, 
and married tlie baron de Stael Hol- 
stein, 1786. She entered warmly 
into politics, embracing the popular 
cause ; but when she had been driven 
with her father into exile, and re- 
turned to France, 1792, with the 
hope of saving some of the victims 
of revolutionary fury, she narrowly 
escaped the guillotine. Under the 
directory she was allowed to return 
to Paris; and, through her influ- 
ence over Barras, her friend Tal- 
leyrand was raised to the post of mi- 
nister for foreign aflairs. She never 
liked Buonaparte, and even wrote 


GEORGE m.— 1789— 1815. 


agunst him ; and at length he once 
more banished her, 1803. In 1807, 
the sentiments contained in her ' Co- 
rinne,' a novel, revived Napoleon's 
anger, and she was ordered to leave 
R<Mien for Coppet in Switzerland, 
her father's estate ; where, the baron 
de Stael being now dead, slie married 
M. de Rocca, a young French officer. 
She was in London at the £Edl of Pa- 
ris,. 1814; and Louis XVIIL, aflter 
his restoration, ordered two millions 
of francs, which liad been deposited 
in the treasury by her father, to be 
refunded to her. Her various works 
on • Germany,' * The French Revolu- 
tion/ &C., have been for the most 
Strt translated into English. She 
ed aged 51. JoHNWALKEa (1732 
•^1807), bom at Friem Bamet, 
Herts, settled in London as a lec- 
turer on elocution, and became the 
friend of Johnson and Burke. He is 
well known for his ' Pronouncing 
Dictionary,' and a work on * Elocu- 
tion/ and was a very amiable man. 
ARTBna Young (1741—1820), son 
of a worthy divine, was born in Nor- 
folk, and devoted his attention, first to 
the practice, and then to the theory, 
of agriculture, the former having 
ruined his small finances. His ' Far- 
mer's Calendar/ begun 1770, and 
* Annals of Agriculture/ were pa- 
tronised, and even contributed to, 
by king George III. ; and when the 
board of agriculture was instituted. 
Me. Young was made its secretary. 
John Wolcot (1788—1819), born 
at Dodbrooke, Devon, accompanied 
sir William Trelawney, who went 

governor to Jamaica, as a physician ; 
ut finding no patients, he obtained 
holy orders, and had an exclusively 
black congregation under his care. 
On the death of sir William, he re- 
turned to England; and succeeding 
soon after to the property of his 
uncle, he again practised physic at 
Truro, in ComwaU, and then at H el- 
stone. At the latter place he found 
out the talents of the celebrated pain- 
ter, Opie, then a young miner, with 
whom ne came to London, 1780 ; and 
it was now that he became generally 

known by a series of poetical satires* 
published under the assumed name 
of Peter Pindar. His attacks were 
at first levelled at the roval academic 
cians ; but at length the harmless pe- 
culiarities of his sovereign, and or 
his amiable consort, formed the un« 
justifiable field of his wit, which 
was much more conspicuous than 
his veracity. The booasellers came 
in for their share ; and he did 
not spare them when, having been 
enabled to cheat tliose who would 
have cheated him, he gained a 
comfortable annuity from them for 
his declining years. The story is 
thus related. Some of the houses oF 
Paternoster-row had united to pur- 
chase the copyright of his works, for 
which he demanded, in their estima- 
tion, too large a sum. On this, being 
then a martyr to gout, Wolcot in- 
duced some medical friend to attest 
that his life was not worth a year's 
purchase, sotliat a handsome annuity 
might be granted him fearlessly in 
lieu of the purchase-money. The book- 
sellers assented, the documents were 
signed, and off went Wolcot to his 
native village, to lav in a stock of 
health, which lasted him seventeen 
years ! Dr. Wolcot was not a very 
estimable character; and his epicu- 
rean turn, combined with a great 
portion of vulgar coarseness, presents 
altogether a disgusting picture. His 
satires, poignant and Udented as they 
were, are smking fast into oblivion : 
not so our recollection of the dis- 
loyal feelings which gave them birth. 
Their author lived to his 82dyear. 
Richard Posson, the son of a parish 
clerk, was sent to Eton and Trinity 
college, Cambridge, at the cost of 
some gentlemen who had admired his 
early display of talent. His extraor- 
dinary proficiency in Qreek occa- 
sioned his unanimous election to that 
professorship at Cambridge ; and to- 
wards the close of his life be was se- 
cretary to the London Institution, 
with a saUry of 200/. His habits, 
however, were careless and convivial, 
and he passed to his grave, 1808, 
without having secured many^ends. 


GEORGE m.— 1789— 1815. 


A qoiiA perception of thin^, a mo- 
Borj extmordinarily retentive, and 
a judgment which pronounced accu- 
luelj apon the merits of eveiy thing 
it weif^ed, render the &me of Porson 
uadjing ; and liis admirable notes on 
die Medea* Hecuha, Phoeniasa, and 
Orestes of Euripides, place him at 
ODce in the highest rank of critical 
scbolais. On examining his skuU after 
dmh, it was found one of the thickest 
chat had ever been scrutinized by the 
phreDotogist. CHUSTOPHEm Wis. 
ULVD, son of a protestant divine in 
Suabia, g^ve up tne law for literature, 
and was patronized by the duchess of 
Saxe Weimar. After bis retirement 
to hb small estate near Zurich, Buo- 
naparte visited him, and sent him the 
legion of honour. He wrote many ro- 
mances and novels ; but his favourite 
poems in Germany are ' Musarion ' 
and * Oberon,' the latterof which has 
been elegantly translated by Sotheby 
uito English. He died 1813, aged 60. 
ViTToaio Alfieri, bom of a noble 
family in Piedmont, devoted himself, 
after much travelling, and a some- 
what dissipated youth, to the Muses. 
In 1788 he married the countess of 
Albany, widow of the young pre- 
tender. Hb tragedies, on subjects of 
classical hbtory, are highly esteemed 
by his countrymen ; but have far too 
much grandiloquence to please the 
English taste. Alfieri died 1803, aged 
54. FaEOESiCK Klopstock, a Ger- 
man poet, who, with a view to raise 
the character of German poetry, pub- 
lished his ' Messiah,' in twenty-four 
cantos, containing 20,000 hexame- 
ters, unfit as the Teutonic languages 
are coisidered for the rules of ancient 
poetry. Though the work offended 
many, by the sinffular mixture of 
sacred history with poetical inven- 
tion, it obtained the author no small 
share of fame. He died 1803, aged 
78. Samitel Ibeland, a salesman of 
scarce books and prints, who at- 
tempted to deceive the world by the 
publication of * Miscellaneous Papers 
of William Shakspeare.' Amongst . 
tbcn were two tragedies, entitled re- 
tpecdfely Henry 11. and Vortigem, | 

the latter of which was performed at 
Drury Lane. 1796 s but the discern- 
ment of a British audience quickly 
detected the cheat. By the subs^ 

?uent confessions of his son, William 
reland, it seems that the latter im- 
posed the papers upon his parent, 
whom he wholly exculpate from 
narticination in the deception. Samuel 
Ireland died 1800. John Coaclbt 
Lbttsom, a quaker and physician, 
bom in the West Indies, who* upon 
succeeding to his fethei^s property, 
manumitted the slaves, and then ac- 
quired a very lucrative practice in 
London. His ' Hints on Beneficence 
and Temperance' was long a very 
popular book ; and he gave to the 
world an interesting life of his earlv 
friend, also a quaker, Dr. Fothergill. 
He died in London, aged 71, 1815. 
John Watt, the civil engineer, was 
bom at Greenock, in Scotland, 1 730 s 
and as the partner of Mr. Boulton, 
of Birmingham, he effected those im* 
provements in the steam-engine, 
which have immortalized his name. 
With Priestley and others, he made 
experiments in chemistry ; and the 
polygraph, or copy-machine, is one of 
the many useful mechaniod inven- 
tions of this talented man. He died 
1819, aged 83. Benjamin West was 
bora in America of a quaker &mily ; 
and after visiting Italy, settled in 
England, 1769. ratronized by the 
king, he soon rose to eminence ; and 
his Departure of Regulus from Rome, 
Death of Wolfe, Christ healing the 
Sick, Christ Rejected, and Death on 
the Pale Horse, are alike remarkable 
for their spirited representation of 
character, multiplicity of figures, and 
glowing colours. At Windsor are 
many of his pictures from scenes of 
our early history, expressly painted 
for George III. He died 1820, aged 
82. Angelica Kaufmann, daughter 
of a Swiss painter, came to Ensland 
after studying in the Italian school, 
and rose to eminence as an historical 
artist. Tlie best of her pieces were in 
the collection of the late Mr. Hum- 
phrey Bowles, of Wanstead. She died 
1807,at Rome, aged 67. JoBMOni, 


GEORGE HL— 1789—1815. 


the son of a Cornish carpenter, was 
first brought into notice as a painter 
by Dr. Wolcot the poet. His pencil 
was very creditably employed on the 

Sictures exhibited m the Boydell and 
lacklin galleries. He died 1807, 
aged 46. Henry Fdseli, of Zurich, 
declined holy orders, to devote him- 
self to the study of Michael Angelo. 
He was the intimate friend of La- 
vater, and on coming to England was 
patronized by Reynolds. His forty- 
seven pictures from Milton, and ten 
from Shakspeare, are all remarkable 
for an exaggeration of character, 
suitable alone to subjects of the terrific 
class. Lavater had given him a moni- 
tion which he assured him, if he at- 
tended to, would make his fortune : 
it was, * Do the third part of what you 
can do' He died 1817, aged 78, at 
the countess of Guilford's at Putney 
Hill. George Romney, the son of 
a carpenter in Lancashire, came to 
London, after a very little instruction 
in painting, and rapidly rose to emi- 
nence as a delineator of portraits. In 
a single year he made nearly 4000/. 
He added some historical productions 
to the Boydell gallery of Shakspeare ; 
and in the outline of his figures, and 
the disposition of the drapery, he was 
singularly classical. He was accurate 
in colounng, but defective in blending 
his shades. He died 1802, aged 68. 
George Morland, son of a Lon- 
don artist, having fallen into dissipat- 
ed habits, forsook the study of the 
woods and fields for the society of 
the alehouse ; and employed his pen- 
cil upon the subjects that most in- 
terested him there. He has given, 
with the true stamp of genius, living 
pictures of drovers drinking, and of 
stage-coachmen starting and coming 
in; and his farm-yard and stable- 
pieces, wherein he introduces cattle 
of all descriptions, dogs, and poultry, 
have been surpassed by no other 
English artist He died a victim to 
intemperance, 1804, aged 40. John 
Singleton Copley, bom of British 
parents in America, came to Eng- 
land, 1767, on the strength* of his 
&me» which was derived from a paint- 

ing of a boy and squirreL Thougl 
coldly received by West and otherd 
he made his way to celebrity aj 
an historical artist ; and his dcatbi 
of Chatham and Major Pierson ar< 
considered to be his best works. Hi^ 
son (having the same name}, born 
1772, is now lord high chancellor oi 
England for the third time, and a 
peer of the realm, with the title of 
baron Lyndhurst. Mr. Copley died, 
aged 78, 1815. He is said to have 
been ill able to afford his son the 
education (at Trinity college, Cam- 
bridge, where he became a fellow}, 
which he ventured to give him ; but 
he thus proved the truth of the an- 
cient maxim, ' that the money expend- 
ed on a son's liberal education is never 
lost.' John Flaxman, bom at York, 
followed his fathers art as a sculp- 
tor, and, during a residence at Rome, 
executed some fine pieces from Ovid, 
Homer, and Dante. On his return to 
England,hewas henceforward engaged 
on works of the highest national im- 
portance ; and his monuments of the 
countess Spencer, and the poet Col- 
lins, have been especially admired. 
He died, aged 71, 1826. Francis 
Bartolozzi, of Florence, came to 
England with Mr. Dalton (librarian 
to George 111.), who gave him SOOA 
a year to work on his own account as 
an engraver. He soon rose to 
eminence as the improver of the re- 
cently invented red dotted or chalk 
manner of engraving, which, for a 
time, put aside the more legitimate 
style of the line. He accepted an 
offer from the regent of Portugal to 
settle at Lisbon, when an aged man ; 
and died there, 1815, aged 87. An- 
tonio Canova, the most celebrated 
sculptor of modern times, was a 
Venetian of humble origin, and was 
brought into notice by signer Falieri, 
who had seen the figure of a lion, 
formed by the youthful aspirant in 
butter. Under Toretti of Vienna, 
and other eminent masters, he gra- 
dually rose to fame and fortune, and 
was treated with the highest respect 
by Napoleon, George fV., and the 
Pope ; the latter of whom created 


GEORGE in— 1789— 1815. 


him maranis of Isdiia, inscribed his 
aame in the book of the capitol, and 
pne him a handsome pension. The 
chief amongst the very numerous 
Yorks of Canova, are Venus and 
Adonis, his chef^'oeuvre ; a minia- 
tore statue of Mary Magdalen ; 
Cnpid and Psyche, at Malmaison ; 
Hrrcules and Lycas» at Rome ; Psy^ 
che, executed at a very early age, and 
by many thought to be his best work ; 
aod the statue of Napoleon holding 
the sceptre, the property of the duke 
of Wellington by the fortune of war. 
This great artist died, 1822, aged 64. 
GioTAKNi Paisiello, bom at Ta- 
rento, in Italy, gradually rose to 
eminence both as a singer and com- 
poser; and no name was more cele- 
biated dian his, up to the period of 
the French revolution, for the graces 
and freshness of melody, or for sim- 
plicity, correctness, and elegance. His 
operas are more than seventy in 
number. Napoleon pitronized him ; 
and nine years of his life he passed 
at the court of Catherine II. ot Rus- 
sia. He died, aged 75, 16 16 . £liz a- 
iithBii-lington, the most celebrated 
English female singer of her day, was 
dangliter of Mr. Weischell, a Ger- 
man musician, and became the wife 
of an English music-master. No 
opera or concert of reputation was 
considered complete without her. 
She travelled to Italy, and had equal 
ionours paid her at Milan and 
Rome ; and returning to England in 
1801, she appeared aftemately at the 
two great theatres, astonishing the 
whole musical world by her perfor- 
mance of Mandane. She died 1817. 
DoaA Jordan, an actress, famous for 
her delineation of a*peculiarly difficult 
species of character, such as Peggy, 
in 'The Country Girl,* Phoebe, in 
' As You Like It,' &c. She was tlie 
daughter of captain Bland, of a re- 
spectable Irish family, whose poor 
means induced her to look to the 
stage for support ; and, though un- 
married, she assumed the style of 
'Afra. Jordan,' on commencing an 
engagement at the York theatre. 
She soon after appeared on the Lon- 

don boards. Her connexion with an 
illustrious personage led to a tem- 
porary retirement from the stage, 
and upon the termination of her 
theatrical career, she went to reside 
in France; where she died in ob- 
scurity, but much respected for her 
amiable and benevolent character^ 

1816. Abb AH AM Webneb, a Ger- 
man, whose father was overseer of 
the iron-mines of Upper Lusatia, 
has established his reputation by 
forming a system of mineralogy^ 
classifying the various products of 
the earth, and pointing out their 
characteristic analogies. He died, 

1817, aged 67. Chables Hutton^ 
son of a viewer of mines at New- 
castle-upon-Tyne, became a mathe- 
matical master of the srammar- 
school there, and had lord chancellor 
Eldon, bnd his brother, lord Stowell, 
as pupils. But his lame was chieflv 
established by a tract on the princi- 
ples of bridges; and on standing for the 
mathematical professorship at Wool* 
wich, he bore away the prize from ten 
competitors, and during thirty^our 
years held his useful office. His works 
are, ' On the force of exploded gun- 
powder,* ' On the velocity of balls 
exploded from artillery,' mathema* 
tical tables, and a course of mathe- 
matics, which has become a text-book 
in our schools. Dn Hutton died, 
1823, aged 85. Benjamin Thomp- 
son, Count Rdmfobd, an American, 
who, for his services in the war with 
the colonies, was knighted by Georee 
I XL; and he was made a count by the 
duke of Bavaria, for suppressing men- 
dicity m his state. The count was 
the inventor of a stove to economise 
fuel, and prevent a too rapid escape of 
the heat. He married the widow of 
Lavoisier, and died in France, 1814. 
Bebnaed de Lacepede, son and heir 
of the count de Lac^p^de, lieutenant- 
general of the S^nechauss^, was bom 
at Agen, in France, and devoted him- 
self to the study of natural history. 
His family compelled him, however, 
to adopt a profession, and he chose 
the army ; but he quitted it, on 
Buffon's offer to him of the post of 


GEORGE m.— 1789— 1S15. 


curator in the Cabinet du Roi, 1785. 
Throughout the revolution, and dur^ 
ins the period of Napoleon's rule^ he 
hdd office of some kind or other, 
and was from 1803 to the Restora- 
tion, 1814^ grand chancellor of the 
legion of honour. His chief works 
are histories of quadrupeds, fishes, 
the cetaceous kind, and serpents ; the 
best of which Cuvier considered 
< Histoire Naturelle des C6tac^.* He 
died, aged 69, 1825. To the baron 
are attributed some anecdotes of the 
private life and charities of Hen- 
rietta Maria, queen of our Charles I., 
after her consort's death. That high- 
minded princess, after living some 
years at the conveiit of St. Marie 
de la Visitation, in Chaillot, retired 
to the small village of Colombes, 
near Argentueil, and there died, be- 
loved for her benevolent conduct, 
September, 10th, 1669, aged 60. In 
the same work is some praise of our 
William the Conqueror, for his con- 
sistency of character. He is repre- 
sented, for which there is authority 
in our own William of Malmesbury, 
to have been the great restorer of 
religion in ' our then irreligious king- 
dom.' He set the example of daily 
attending mass ; and though, in 
church matters, he ruled with a des- 
potism subversive of the pope's au- 
thority in England, his liberality to 
monasteries and church-foundations 
was most magnificent ; and in no in- 
stance was he guilty of simoniacal 
dealines. In early life he had vio- 
lated the canons by his marriage with 
Matilda, a princess within the pro- 
hibited degrees of consanguinity ; and 
for this he eventually confessed his 
sorrow. All this somewhat helps to 
qualify the recorded roughness of the 
^eat Norman's manners. Maby of 
BuTTBaMEaB. There is a very ro- 
mantic story connected with this 
name. On a beautiful ereen isth- 
mus, which divides two of the lakes 
of Cumberland, (that of Buttermere, 
noted for its cluir, and Crummock- 
water,) stands the little village of 
Buttermere ; consisting of a few scat- 
tered cottages, a minute chapel, and 

the perpetual-curate's abode. On 4 
day in the lake-fishing season, 1802 
there drove up to the Royal Oakj 
the chief inn at Keswick, a handsome 
travelling chariot ; out of whidi de^ 
scended a traveller of dashing exXe^ 
rior, who announced himself as tli« 
honourable Augustus Hope, brotlieil 
of lord Hopetown, whose good pro* 
perty was well known in the neigH^ 
bourhood. The gentleman had come 
to fish ; and the circumstance of tiis 
frankins leiters, which passed at the 
post-omce, in the name of Hope, oo- 
casioned all doors to be opened at 
his approach, and all boats, boatmen, 
nets, and the most unlimited sporting 
privileges, to be placed at his dis- 
posal. Nine miles from Keswick, by 
the nearest bridle-road, and fifteen 
by that which Mr. Hope's chariot 
could pass, lay the aforesaid village 
of Buttermere ; and at the cottage 
of an independent proprietor, named 
Robinson, who allowed travellers to 
use his abode during the char>fishing 
season, though he was not an inn- 
keeper, arrived the equipage of the 
dashing ' honourable' man— in an 
evil hour. He was, of course, abund- 
antly welcomed ; and the daughter 
of the house, a fine young woman of 
eighteen, acted as waiter. In a si- 
tuation so solitary, the stranger had 
unlimited facilities for cultivatine the 
good opinion of the latter ; and the 
accounts from Keswick asserting him 
to be all he represented himself, she 
was induced to give her hand to him, 
in a few weeks after his appearance 
at Buttermere, in the neighbouring 
church of Laughton, October 2, 1802. 
Three weeks rapidly passed away, 
happily enough to the bride ; when, 
early one morning, arrived at But- 
termere (where the honourable gen- 
tleman still sojourned), a messenger, 
with a letter addressed to the honour^ 
able colonel Hope, from the earl of 
Hopetown. The said messenger, on 
having the husband of Mary shown 
to him as Mr. Hope, exclaimed, 
* You are not colonel Hope.' ' That 
letter,' said the stranger, 'is for my 
brother.' The bearer of the epistle, 


GEORGE ni— 1789— 1815. 


hawerer, knew all the Hope family, 
being the earFs own serrant, vho had 
been sent to ascertain who ' the ho- 
oommble Augustus Hope' could be, 
IS the party owning that title was 
abroad. The mystery was soon clear- 
ed up. The stranger proved to be 
a notorious swindler, named James 
liadfield ; who had deserted a wife 
aDd family, been a bankrupt in Lon- 
don, anci been incarcerated seven 
years at Scarborough for crimes. 

He instantly fled from Bnttermere, 
and was not caught until many weeks 
afler, at Brecknock, in Wales : he 
was tried at the next spring assizes 
at Carlisle, on the charge of frank- 
forgery, found guilty, and there exe- 
cuted. Severe was, of course, the 
distress of poor Mary, as the scoun- 
drel had treated her with extreme 
attention ; but, after a time, she mar- 
ried a substantial farmer, and, we 
have heard, is still living. 


Thus have we brought our sketch 
of the awful and sanguinary move- 
ment of the French people to a close. 
Passing over the millions subse- 
quently sacrificed by and to the am- 
bition of a single person (who having, 
by means of the terrible explosion in 
question^ found his way to a throne, 
which, overturned as it had been by 
blood, by blood alone, it would seem, 
could be for a time maintained), we 
must be allowed to pause, ere we 
commence another portion of our 
history, in order to contemplate the 
extent and character of the destruc- 
tion of human life chargeable upon 
the Revolution itself. 

From the first tocsin of the Reign 
of Terror, 1793, to the last public 
execution in Paris in 1795, had &llen 
by violence a million and a half of 
French men, women, and children ; 
and it will be well for the lovers of 
change and innovation, which are 
but too oflen, in state matters, the 
precursors of revolution, to reflect, 
that by far the larger proportion of 
the victims were in the middle and 
lower ranks of life. The oriests, no- 
bles, and gentry, guillotined, or other- 
wise executed, at Paris, Nantes, Ly- 
on, and in La Vendue, were in all 
about 6000 ; while of labourers, arti- 
tuis, and their wives and children, 
there were no fewer than a million 
and a quarter ! The grand contrivers 
of insurrections have been usually of 
the middle and lower ranks, who 
conceive it a matter of certaintv that 
ibey shall slip into the seats or their 
betteiSy and enjoy their wealth ; but 

that wealth, in the main, as in the 
French revolution, finds its way out 
of the country at the first dawn of 
the outbrealc, and the owners of it 
soon follow to the same foreign 
place of security, — leaving the classes 
among whom the revolution emanat- 
ed, to slay one another, in the con- 
test for what the rich have lefk. And 
it needs but to read the list of 
the charges brought against such as 
were guillotined in France, when the 
Jacobms were once triumphant, to 
see how a radical party can outdo 
the higher grades in tyranny towards 
their equals : a few instances will 
sufiSce. 'Henrietta Marbceuf, a^ed 
55^ convicted ofhopinM for the arrival 
of the Austrians and Prussians, and 
of keeping provisions for them, and 
executed accordingly ; Fran9ois Ber^ 
trand, aced 37, publican, or furnish^ 
ing the defenders of the cofuntry with 
sow wine, injurious to the health of 
the citizens ; Marie Plaisant, sem- 
Stress, for exclaiming ' a fig for the 
nation ;' Jean Baptiste Henri, aged 
18, tailor, for having sawn a tree of 
liberty ; Jean Julian, waggoner,, for 
having, while at hard labour to 
which he had been sentenced twelve 
years^ cried out * Vive le roiP; 
Jacques Dudesne, broker, Jean Sa- 
vage, gunsmith, Frances Lozelier and 
Melanie Canosse, milliners,with Marie 
Magdalen YiroUe, female hairdresser, 
for composing, writing, and sneaking 
in fevour of the king, nobles, and 
clergy ;' and, lastly for us to name, 
' Genevieve Gouvan, aged 77, sem- 
strsss, for having been the author 

224 GEORGE 111.-1815—1820. [BioDBBvr 

and accomplice of various conspira- 
cies tending to create civil war and 
paralyze the public/ An aged woman 
of 77, powerful enough to create civil 
war, and paralyze the public! Let 

those prone to pull down and abolish 
ancient institutions, think of these 
things, and be timelv wise,-— if it be 
only to save themselves from a con- 
dition worse than their present estate. 





1815 TO 1843—28 teaks. 

asiON cLXxin. — paet m. 


1760 TO 1820 — GO teaks. 

Part IIL— 1815 to 1820—5 teaks; 


Political Histoey etmimued. -— Peace had been restored to the civilized 
world, and very happily so, we stated, when tiie cause of Napoleon Buona- 
parte and of French supremair^ had been for ever crushed at Waterloo. But 
a general cessation from war, from a condition which had kept all the power- 
ful, and many of the inferior, nations of Europe, either armed or in actual 
collision, for a quarter of a century, must always be expected to induce some 
minor evils. Political bodies, in this respect, are akin to human bodies ; and 
as when some great drain, either upon the ph^ical or the mental constitu- 
tion of the latter, for years accustomed to be m activity, is suddenly stayed, 
inflammation or other dangers must be looked for and guarded against, so in 
the body politic, when the general occupation has been ' arms,' the sudden 
restraints put upon the common soldier (restraints, however n^ative, yet far 
ereater than army discipline) will cause restlessness and discontent to spring. 
In England, the difficulty was also how so large a bodv of men, accustomed 
from their youth to military practices alone, should nnd employ, where al- 
bourers of every sort were in profusion ; so that even when the sword had 
been, after much hesitation, converted into the ploughshare, and the spear 
into the pruning-hook, there was neither nlougninff nor pnming for them. 
The scantiness of occupation was awavatea by the met of the sudden closing 
of the channels of foreign trade, England having, during the latter part of 
the Ions war, engrossed the chief commerce of Europe ; and no mart being 
found for the goods of the manufacturers, whicli the competition existing 
among all classes had augmented to a supply beyond the demands of a whole 
world, distress began to assail masters as well as men. The most alarming 
riots eoBued* Designing men were not wanting at the crisis, to take tlie 

rasToaT.] GEORGE IIL— 1815— 1820. 225 

tad in thae rdellioiisdoiiia ; and under the plea of effecting a reform in the 
representation of the people in parliament, which was to give bread to the 
iianiDg, and clothes to the naked, vast meetings of the populace were called 
tjgether bj Mr. Henry Hunt and others, only to be dispersed by military 
LoterfereDce. As deaths usuallj^ occur during such coUisions, common cause 
vas made by the mob and their directors against the soldiery ; and to the 
credit of the latter be it said, and to the admirable discipline existing in the 
Bntiih armies^ and in the militia and sub-military institutions, that their par 
ucDoe was never to be overcome, their firmness never to be shaken, and their 
lojahy never, by the slightest act of disobedience, to be called in question. 
The suspension of the habeas corpus act, and the imprisonment of several of 
the beads of the popular meetings, had the effect, ainer a time, of restoring 
tnnqaiUity ; while an expedition under lord Ezmouth against the Algerines, 
1616, to punish the audacity of those pirates, and which terminated sucoess- 
iiaUy, helped to draw the public attention from the painful subject of national 

lliere were likewise two incidents of a domestic nature at this juncture, 
1816, wfaidi a great deal contributed to the same beneficial end ; for so esseiH 
tially loyal is the English people in the main, that even two royal marriages 
were sufficient to interest public opinion, and engage it for a while in a plea- 
sQiable maimer. The heiress of the throne, Charlotte Augusta, princess of 
Wales, daughter of the Prince Regent, had for some time entertained a ro- 
mantic attachment for prince Leopold of Saxe Coburg, who had been intro- 
duced to her royal highness when she resided at Warwick house, at a time 
when she was a little estranged from her royal father by the unhappy di^ 
ferences coimected with her royal mother's alleged misconduct; and the 
Prince R^enfs consent to her nuptials being at length obtained, the mar- 
riage was raebrated in the month of May. In the succeeding July, William 
Frederick, duke of Gloucester, to the satisfaction of all parties in the nation, 
^poused his cousin, the princess Mary, one of the sisters of the Prince Regent. 
The duke himself was esteemed for his ^neral virtues, and his unvarying 
urbanity ; while the princess was distinguished for her charities, her amiable 
and condescending manners, and her consideration and extreme kindness to 
all about her person. ' George IV.' (then Prince Regent), writes Sir Astley 
Cooper in his note-book, whence his nephew has recently drawn his biograp> 
phy for the public eye, ' thought lady Melbourne the most delightful person 
he had ever seen, and used to describe her person, her appearance, her man- 
ners, her temper, her gracefulness, as divine. He said, however, that his 
sbter Maiy was the moii of an anael he had ever known, and asked me if I 
had ever seen her? I said that I had had the honour of attending her (as a 
physician), and had seen her at lord Yerulam's. Well, continued he, is she 
not delightful? The praises of a brother in tliis way, we know, in every 
grade oTlife, to be devoid of flattery, and sincere. 

The former of these alliances was, to the great grief of the country, broken 
by the hand of death in a year. Her royal highness the princess Charlotte, 
just after giving birth to a still-bom son, expired, at the age of 21, Nov. 6, 
1817. Never was sorrow more universal throughout a nation, or more dis- 
tinctly manifested, than on that occasion. The day on which the bodies of 
I mother and child were consigned to the tomb, was voluntarily observed as a 
dav of fasting and humiliation by all ranks ; and a stranger witnessing the 
[ amiction on every countenance, and the black crape, if not the complete 
I nouroiog garb ot every person, whatever their condition, in the streets of 
tbe metropolis especially, might have supposed some fearful devastation, 
I either oi war, of pestilence, or of the earthquake, had robbed each family of 
a Moyed member. This loss of the heiress-apparent occasioned several of 


GEORGE ni.— 1815— 1820. 


the royal dukes, uncles of the deceased princess, to form matrimoniiil alliancj 
forthwith ; and the dukes of Kent, Clarence, and Cambridge, and the princj 
Bltzabeth, were united to branches of different princely German houses. 

The decease of the exemplary queen Charlotte, at flie age of seventy-fi^l 
occurred 1818. 

The attempts of the continental sovereigns to restore their lost influence I 
their respective states, now that the enemy of kinn was no more, was li 
tended with various success. In Spain, Ferdinand V II. alienated the affe 
tions of the ' exaltados,' or high radical portion of his subjects, by restori^ 
the Inquisition ; and when the extensive colonies, which the country hfl 
long possessed in South America, revolted in 1819, the troops refused i 
embark in order to quell the insurrections, and even compelled the king i 
give Spain herself a free constitution. Similar revolutions occurred in ro| 
tugal, Naples, and Piedmont ; but in the two last-named countries, the ol 
despotic governments were restored by the Austrians. In 1818, a congrc^ 
of the allied sovereigns was held at Aix-la-Chapelle, which announced th^ 
the troops of foreign nations might be withdrawn from France, now that traC 
quillity had been fully restored in that kingdom. 

The advocates of parliamentary reform were again on the alert in 1819 
and one of the meetings intended to promote the measure was attended witi 
loss of life. It was held at Manchester, its coryphaeus being Mr. Hunt ; ani 
the magistrates, having resolved on seizing that vain and turbulent person 
sent a party of yeomanry, to aid the officers of police. A tumult ensued 
the yeomanry were pelted with brick-bats and broxen bottles, and they wouh 
have been unhorsed and slain to a man, had they not fired, and used theii 
sabres. The result was that many of the mob were either killed, wounded 
or grievously crushed ; while Hunt and his friends were taken into custody 
on a charge of high treason. Though the capital allegation was subsequentfi 
abandon^, the whole party, on being found guilty of sedition, was sentenced 
to imprisonment. Sir Francis Buraett, likewise, who had denounced the 
conduct of both the magistrates of Manchester and the ministry in severe 
terms, in a letter addressed to his constituents, was tried for a libel and im^ 
prisoned. Six restrictive acta were thereupon passed by parliament, to pre- 
vent a recurrence of such evils ; and they liad in view the suppression ol 
seditious meeting, the prohibiting of private arming and training, the stop 
ping of the pubhcation of seditious and blasphemous writings, ana the chect 
ine of cheap periodical works, by imposing on them a tax. 

In January, 1820, the nation sustained another loss, in the decease of Ed- 
ward, duke of Kent, the next heir to the throne after the regent ; and in six 
days more expired at Windsor, January 29th, his venerable parent, king 
George III., at the age ofeighty-one,andafiera reign of nearly sixty years-^ 
the longest, as it was the most eventful and memorable in the annals of Bri- 
tain. The remains of the monarch were interred with due magnificence in 
the chapel-royal of St. George ; and there can be few Englishmen who, 
looking at the lustre of his private character, will feel inclined to deny him 
the title which his virtues earned— not the prostituted one of ' Great,' but 
the far more glorious and enviable one of ' Good.' 


Thb Exfbdxtion to Alqikrs, 
1816.— Lord Exmouth had succeed- 
ed, in a former embassy to the sa- 
vage rulers of the Barbary states, in 
obtaining the release from slaveiY of 
1792 Christian people of various 

nations; but the Algerine govern^ 
ment soon after, out of revenge, 
caused the massacre of a number 
of persons employed in the coral 
fishery at Bona, a trade under the 
espeaal protection of En^and. A 


GEORGE m.~i815~1820. 


ieet» therefore, was speedily fitted 
ODt, to the amount of twenty-fiye 
sail, wliicfa was joined bj a small 
Dntcfa squadron, and the whole was 
placed under the command of the 
same intrepid admiral, himself being 
m the Queen Charlotte; and this 
fofoe arrived off Algiers August 16, 
1816. M. Sakm^ an Egyptian of 
respectable character and talents, 
was sent in a boat to the mole on 
dat 6aj with a paper of terms ; to 
iHiidi, if the dey agreed in two houn, 
he was to hoist a signal, and a depu- 
tttiofD would CO ashore to conclude a 
treaty; bat should he not give his 
assent by that time. Salami was to 
return to the fleet Half an hour 
beyond the appointed moment hav- 
ing elapsed, the messenger ordered 
the men to row him back : the walls 
of the town were then bristling with 
camxMi, and the soldiers were at thnr 
posts, ready to obev the first com- 
mand to fire. Perhaps the simple 
language of Salami himself will here 
best describe what ensued ' Mr. 
Burgess, the flag-lieutenant, having 
agrml with me, we hoisted the sig- 
nal, that 'no answer had been given,' 
and began to row away towards the 
Queen Charlotte. At this time, I 
was very anxious to get out of dan- 
ger; for^ knowing ttieir perfidious 
character, and otnerring that lord 
Exmoutfcu on his seeing our signal, 
gave orders to the fleet to bear up 
for the attack, I had great fear that 
they would fire upon us; in short, 
tiU I reached the Queen Charlotte, I 
was more dead than alive. After I 
had given my report to the admiral, 
I was surprised to see how his lord- 
ship was altered from what I left 
him in the morning ; for I knew his 
manner was in general mild ; and 
now he seemed to me aU-JSghlfidt as 
a fieTDe lion, which had been chained 
in its cage^ and was set at liberty. 
His lordship's answer to me was, 
' Nerer mina, we shall see now ;' and 
at the same time he turned towards 
the officers saying. 'Be ready.' The 
Queen Charlotte passed through all 
tbc cncmy^ batteries, without firing 


a gun. There were many thousand 
Turks and Moors looking on, asti>> 
nished to see so larae a ship coming 
all at once inside of the mole, with- 
out caring for any thing. The ship, 
in a most gallant manner, took up a 
position opposite the head of the 
mole ; and we let go the anchor at 
three quarters past two o'clock, with- 
in 100 yards or the battery. About 
three, the Algerines of the eastern 
battery fired the first shot at the Im- 
pregnable; when lord Exmouth, bav- 
mg seen only the smoke of the gun, 
cried, ' That will do ; fire, my fine 
fellows!' Before hb lordship had 
well finished these words, our broad- 
side was given with great cheering, 
and repeated three times within five 
minutes, and the otlier ships did the 
same. This first fire was so terrible, 
that more than 500 persons were 
killed by it ; and I saw the people 
running away under the walls hke 
dogs, walking upon their feet and 
hands. Upon the commencement of 
the attack, the sky became darkened 
by the smoke, the sun eclipsed, and 
the horizon dreary. Mvears beins 
deafened by the roar of the guns, and 
his lordship perceiving my situatioui 
he said, ' You have done your duty. 
Salami; now go below.' Upon 
which I began to descend from the 
quarterdeck, quite terrified, and not 
sure that I should reach the cockpit 
alive ; for it was most tremendous to 
hear the crashing of the shot, and to 
witness the activity and couraee of 
English seamen dnnns battle I while 
near the hatchway, 1 saw tliat the 
companies of the two guns nearest to 
it wanted some wadding, but not 
having it, two of them cut off" the 
breasts of their jackets where the 
buttons are, and rammed them into 
the guns instead of wadding. Dui^ 
ing all the time of the battle, not one 
seaman appeared tired ; but, on the 
contrary, the longer it lasted, the 
more cheerftilness and pleasure were 
amongst them. Several of the cuns 
now became so hot that,^ when fired, 
they recoiled with their carriaM 
and fixed the wheels into the flooring 



GEORGE in.— 1815— 1820. 


of the deck ; others were thrown out 
of their carriages and rendered use- 

. ' At eleven at night lord Exmouth, 
having observed the destruction of 
the whole Algerine navy, and the 
strongest part of their batteries, made 
signal to the fleet, to move ; and 
then, with a favourable breeze, we 
cut our cables and made sail. I 
went on the poop to observe the 
eiFect of our shot on the enemy's 
batteries, and saw the enemy's ships, 
together with the storehouses witliin 
the mole, burning rapidly. The blaze 
illuminated all the bav, and the view 
was really most awful and beautiful. 
The fortifications were now nothine 
but heaps of rubbish, and I observed 
a number of people dragging the dead 
bodies out. When I met his lord- 
ship again, his voice was quite hoarse, 
and he had two slight wounds, one 
in the cheek, and the other in the 
leg. His coat was cut up by musket- 
balls, and grape ; and was behind as 
if scissors liad slit it to pieces. At 
one in the morning, all the fleet Imv- 
ing anchored in the middle of the 
bay, admiral Van Capellan came on 
board, and afler congratulating his 
lordship, said, * My lord, 1 am quite 
happy if I die now, after liaving got 
full satisfaction from these pirates; 
and we owe a great deal to vour 
lordship for your gallant position 
with the Queen Charlotte, which was 
the safety and protection of more 
than 500 persons of our squadron.' 
Lord Exmouth then gave a grand 
supper to the officers of the ship; 
and then every body went to sleep, 
almost like dead men.' 

Salami was sent off again next day 
with a letter, demanding the instant 
delivery to the fleet of tlie British 
consul, all Christian slaves in the 
dominions of the dey, and a sum of 
money to compensate the losses oc- 
casioned to the allies ; on peril of 
an assault by bombs, which would go 
far to annihilate the city. The dey, 
on the receipt of this, despatched the 
captain of the port and the Swedish 
consul, to assure lord Exmoyth that 

all hb demands should be satisfied, ii 
due time were allowed. The Britisb 
consul was sent to the fleet on the 
29th, and stated that he had been 
kept in chains, deprived of his pro- 

Eerty, and otherwise ill-treated ; and 
e went back to the town, accom- 
panied by captain Brisbane and Sa- 
lami, to make arrangements for his 
final departure. ' At three p. m.,' 
continues Salami, ' we arrived inside 
the mole, where the dockyard, arsenal, 
and storehouses, had been almost de- 
stroyed ; and on going, afler landing, 
to the top of the consul's house, we 
saw that there was not a building 
which had not been damaged by our 
shots. About four, the captain of 
the port came to take us to th^ dey's 
palace. The dey was in a narrow 
gallery, open to the sea, on the third 
floor, where he was seated with 
crossed naked legs, on a hi^h Turkish 
sofa, and liaving a long pipe in hb 
hand.' After a long conference be- 
tween captain Brisbane and the dey, 
during which Salami acted as inter- 
preter, the dey, who had shown much 
pettishness tnroughout, agreed to 
send all the slaves, that were in town, 
on board the fleet without delay, to- 
gether with 382,500 dollars, the cost 
to which the kings of Sicily and Sar- 
dinia had been put by the Algerine 
piracies ; and such slaves as were in 
the interior were to follow in a day 
or two. The dey being at length 
called upon to apologize to tlie Bri- 
tish consul for having treated him in 
a manner contrary to the law of na- 
tions, and to pay him 3000 dollars 
for the property of which he had 
been deprived, after a ffood deal of 
hesitation, complied ; and on the 30tfa, 
Salami was again sent on shore to 
receive the slaves. * When I arrived 
on shore,' says he, * it was the most 
pitiable sight to see in what a horri- 
ble state these more than 1000 poor 
wretches were ; but it is impossible 
to describe their joy and cheerfulness. 
When our boats came inside the 
mole, I wished to receive them by 
number, but could not, because they 
directly began to throw tbemselyes in 


GEORGE in.— 1815— 1820. 


br crowds ; and when we were shoY- 
iag vitfa them off the shore, they all 
at once took off their caps and shout- 
ed in Italian, * Long Hve the king of 
Eogbnd and the ffnglish admiral !' 
Some of these unfortunate people 
bad been for thirty-five years in 
skveiy ; and I only wish to present 
I ootioQ of their cruel treatment, by 
atotioning the following. When the 
Barbery pirates take an European 
vessel, they put all on board in 
ckuos. Tliere are three classes of 
cbios; the one hundred pounders 
{or strong men, the sixty for old men, 
3Qd the thirty for youne persons. 
Iliese are placed round &e body as 
isash^with a piece of chain on the 
nght kg joined by a ring to the 
foot 'niua these poor slaves must 
vork, sleep, and live always wi^ 
these chains ; the marks of which I 
tave seen round their bodies in deep 
farrows, which become black, and as 
^ as bone. Being thus manacled, 
^ are sent to cut stone from the 
mountains, fell trees, carry sand and 
stones for building, or move guns 
from one place to another.' 

When the transports had anchored 
°c» the Queen Charlotte, the slaves 
cune on deck, shouting for joy ; and 
^ were found to amount to 1083, 
of all nations. In the end, 128 more 
vere released; whidi, with the 1792 
^ore recovered by lord Exmouth, 
°ade a total of 3008 souls. At 
length the gallant admiral, having re- 
ceived fall compensation in money 
for the expenses of the war, and 
placed 357,000 dollars on board the 
^em for the king of Sicily, and 
^M30 in the Heron for the king of 
^rdioia, sailed from Algiers with all 
^ fleet, and arrived at Portsmouth 
on the 6th of October, after an ab- 
^cc from England of onlv two 
^^^^ and eight days. In this con- 
^ the Algerines lost about 7000 
"KQ in killed and wounded, and the 
combined British and Dutch, 833. 

Volcanic Phenomena, in Eno- 
i.kKD.— In 1816 a portion of Hol- 
▼orth Cliff, Dorset, to the extent of 
^ acre and a half, on which was a 

cottage tenanted by Baggs, a fisher- 
man, gradiudly sank thirty feet below 
its former level, the cottage remain- 
ing, with the exception of a slight 
crack in one of the walls, perfectly 
entire. Some time afterwards, this 

Siece of ground made a further gra- 
ual slide in the same direction, car- 
rying the cottage with it, without 
any additional injury ; and during a 

Seriod of nearly three years from its 
rat removal, it occasionally con- 
tinued its progress downwards, to the 
extent of nearly 500 feet, when it 
made a stand, exhibiting the entire 
cottage, with its accompanying gar- 
den, well stocked with gooseberry 
and currant trees, and various vege- 
tables, all in the most flourishing con- 
dition. As portions of the cliff along 
the whole extent of this coast are 
constantly falling, particularly after 
heavy rains, this sliae, as it is called, 
did not at the time excite any par^ 
ticular notice; nor was there any 
thine which caused further remark 
until 1822, when a vapour was ob- 
served to rise from that side of the 
cliff facing the sea. In October, 
1826, smoke began to issue from 
three apertures at the tummit of the 
same cliff; and, in March, 1827, 
visiters to the spot, on looking into 
the apertures, saw massy blocks of 
stone enveloped in flames, which 
threw out an intense heat, and a sul- 
phureous effluvium so oppressive, as 
nearly to stifle several persons. The 
attempt to see more of the wonders 
of nature by digging with pickaxes, 
drew down a large portion of the 
surrounding earth, and buried the 
phenomenon ; but the smoke has 
ever since continued to rise. On 
Christmas eve, 1839, a convulsion of 
the earth, most probably connected 
with this subterranean fire, occurred 
so far off as Lyme, which went in-- 
land, destroyed the new road from 
Charmouth to Lyme, and at Dow- 
lands, near the s^ occasioned large 
tracts of soil to slide, on which were 
several cottages, orchards, and a cop- 
pice, leaving huge chasms along the 
coast between Sidmouth and Seaton. 

GEORGE in.— 1815— 1820. 

In this ingtance the cottages sank 
into the earth, juat leaving the chim- 
neys visible. A huge rock, fifty feet 
high, was suddenly thrown up in 
the sea, off Culverhole, at the 
moment of the convulsion. Al- 
though properW was thus injured to 
the amount of 20,000^, happily no 
lives were lost The cliffs on the 
coast suffered no disruption. It is 
now clearly ascertained, that the fire 
in Holworth cliff is occasioned bv the 
salt water coming in contact with tlie 
mixture of pyrites, sulphur, and iron 
ore, that abound at the spot The 
water, perforating the loose pebbles 
at the base of the cliff, first effected 
the separation and removal of the 
mass of earth i and, in proof of this, 
it has been observed, that the equi- 
noctial tides, owing to their coming 
more immediately in contact with the 
active internal agents, have invari- 
ably, while they lasted, increased the 
smoke and effluvium to a prodigious 
degree. At some future day, when 
the materials now feeding the inter- 
nal fire are in part consumed, the 
earth will most jprobably sink at the 
summit, and exhibit to the astonished 
Dorset folk the boiling crater of an 
active volcano. 

Loan Amhsbst's Embassy to 
China. — In 1816, lord Amherst was 
sent as ambassador-extraordinary to 
the emperor of China, to induce him 
to permit the residence of a British 
minister at the court of Pekin. The 
emperor, under the pretext of wish- 
ing to accede to the proposal, de- 
manded the prostration of the am- 
bassador before him, after the custom 
of eastern nations ; but when lord 
Amherst agreed thus to conform to 
court etiquette, provided a Chinese 
nobleman of the like rank with him- 
self performed the same prostration 
to a picture of king Geoige III., the 
latter was refused on the part of the 
emperor, and the object of the mi»> 
non thus totally Med. Among the 
liresents sent by the East India Com- 
pany, through his lordship, to the 
emperor, were two very extiaoidinary 
clocks the woik of £Qglish artists. 

They were in the form of chariots] 
each of which contained a Itudj seated] 
leaning her right hand on a part o^ 
the chariot ; under which was a dock^ 
little larger tlian a shilling, that 
struck, repeated, and went for eight 
days without requiring winding up. 
A bird was on the lady^ finger, finely 
modelled, and set with diamonds and 
rubies, with its wings expanded as if 
to fly, and which was nuuie to flutter 
for a considerable time, on touching 
a diamond button. The body of this 
curious bird, in which .were the 
wheels that animated it, was less 
than the sixteenth part of an inch. 
In tlie lady's lefl hand was a golden 
tube, with a small round box on the 
top, to which was fixed a circular 
ornament set in diamonds, which 
went round in three hours. A dou- 
ble umbrella was over the lady's 
head, supported by a small fluted 
pillar, and under which was a bell 
that struck the hour, though appa- 
rently unconnected with the dock; 
and at the lady's feet was a golden 
dog, before which were two birds, 
set with precious stones, and appa- 
rentlv flying away with the chariot, 
which, from another secret motion, was 
contrived to run in any direction, 
while a boy appeared to pushitfoi^ 
ward. There were also flowers, or- 
naments, and a flying dragon, all set 
with precious stones* or formed of 
them ; and the rest was made of gold, 
most curiously executed, and pre- 
senting a wonderful specimen of in- 
genuity and talent. 

SpAFiBLDS Riovs, ISlfl-^Iu De- 
cember, 1816, a meetins was con- 
vened in Spafielda, in me suburbs 
of London, by Watson, Thistlewood, 
Preston, and liocmer, at which Mr. 
Hunt also attendeo, ostensibly with a 
view to petition the ngent for relief! 
An immense concouiae of the lower 
dasses assembled ; and after hearing 
tlie harangues of Watson and other 
demagogues, a part of the populace 
entered the dty, and seiaed the fire- 
arms there exposed to sale. A gen- 
tleman, named Piatt, on remonstra^ 
ing with the mob Ibit had eomed a 


GEORGE m.— 1815— 1820. 


Ts shop on Snow-hill, wai 
, and there is no calculating the 
mottnt of misdiief that would nave 
eosaed, bad not the magistrates and 
■ilitanr acted most promptly. In 
1817 toe four leaden were tried for 
fai^ treason ; and the unenviable task 
of pleading lor their lives fell to the 
lot of air Charles Wetherell, who, 
vith his usual etoouence, legal acu- 
men, and accurate Inowledge of his- 
fiory, after severely lashing them, ob- 
tained their acquittal. 

lilSfflOIC TO ASBANTBB, 1817. — 

This povrerfbl barbaric nation of 
Africa was first known to the Eu- 
ropeans in 1700 ; but it was not un- 
til 181 1 that the British, having now 
the settlement of Cape Coast Castle 
in its neighbourhood, found it ne- 
cessary to conciliate Quamina the 
king. It was agreed therefore bv 
oor goremment, that Mr. Bowditdfi 
and three other gentlemen should 
cross firom Cape Coast to Coomassie, 
the AiJiantee capital, where they ar- 
rived May 19. The deputation was 
I received with great pomp, and a m»> 
I le&ctor instandy put to the torture, 
* to gratify the strangers ;' the four 
vere then ushered forward by above 
5000 warriors, brandishing their sci- 
mitars, and firing guns, towards the 
cround where the king had stati<Nied 
hiaisel£ 'The king, his tributaries, 
and captains,' says Mr. Bowditch, 
'were resplendent in the distance, 
I surrounded by attendants of every 
description, and fronted by a mass of 
warriors. More than a hundred bands 
I burst forth oo our arrival, with the 
! peculiar airs of their favourite chiefs ; 
the horns flourished defiance with the 
bcadnff of innumerable drums and 
, metal mstmments, and then jielded 
I &r a whOe to the aofl breathings of 
I long flutes, which were truly hanno- 
nioas. At least a hundred large 
umbrdlas, which could shelter thirty 
penon each, were sprung up and 
oovn fay the bearers with brilliant 
efect, being made of the most showy 
dotiu 90^ »lks, and crowned with 
aeteents, pehcaas, elephants, and 
swDidf <d goW I whUe unuiuerftble 

smaller ones, of various coloured 
stripes, were crowded in the inter- 

^The prolonged flourishes of the 
horns, and a deafening tumult of 
drums, announced that we were ap- 
proaching the king. We were al- 
ready passing the principal officers of 
his househoM : the chamberlain, the 
gold-coin blower, the captain of the 
messengers, the captain for royal 
executions, the captain of the market, 
the keeper of the royal burial-ground, 
and the master of the bands, sat sur^ 
rounded by a retinue and splendour, 
which bespoke the dignity and im- 
portance of their posts. The exe- 
cutioner, a man of immense size, 
wore a massive gold hatchet on his 
breast ; and tlie execution-stool was 
held before him, clotted in blood, 
and partly covered with a caul of fat. 
The king's four linguists were en- 
circled by a splendour inferior to 
none; and their peculiar insignia, 
gold canes, were elevated in all di- 
rections, tied in bundles, like fasces. 
The keeper of the treasury added to 
his own magnificence by the osten- 
tatious display of his service: the 
blow-pan boxes, scales, and weights, 
were of solid pold; A delay of some 
minutes, whilst we severally ap- 
proached to receive the king's hand, 
afforded us a thorough view of Qua- 
mma. His deportment especially ex- 
cited my attention : his manners were 
majestic, yet courteous, and he did 
not allow liis surprise to beguile him 
for a moment of the composure of 
the monarch. He appeared about 
thirty-eight years of age, was some- 
what corpulent, and possessed a be- 
nevolent countenance. He wore a 
fillet of a^;iy beads round his temples, 
and had a necklace and bracelets ; 
and his fingers were covered with 
rings. His waistcloth was of a dark 
green silk, a pointed diadem was ele- 
gantly painted in white on his fore- 
head, and the pattern of an epau- 
let on each shoulder ; and an orna- 
ment like a full-blown rose covered 
his whole breast. His gold ankle- 
strings were of delicate workman- 


GEORGE m— 1815— 1820, 


ship, and his sandals, of soft white 
leather, were embossed with sap- 
phires. He was seated in a low 
chair, richly ornamented with gold, 
having a pair of gold castanets on his 
finger and thumb, which he clapped 
to enforce silence; while his numerous 
guards' waved elephants' tails and 
plumes of feathers like a small cloud 
before him. 

' Having passed on, and reached the 
end of the vast place of assembly, we 
were desired to seat ourselves under 
a tree, to receive the compliments of 
the king and all his officers in turn. 
The chief officers dismounted as they 
arrived within thirty yards of us, 
their princinal captains preceding 
them, and a Dody of soldiers follow- 
ing with their arms reversed; then 
came their bands, gold canes, pipes, 
and elephants' tails. The chief, with 
a small body-guard, under his um- 
brella, was generally supported around 
the waist by the hands of his favourite 
slave; whilst captains lialloed hb 
warlike deeds and ttrtmgnamety which 
were reiterated with the voices of 
stentors by those before and behind. 
Old captains of secondary rank were 
carried on the shoulders of strong 
slaves ; but a more interesting sight 
was presented in the young cabo- 
ceers, five and six years of age, who, 
overweighed by ornaments, were cacr- 
ried in the same manner under car 
nopies. A band of Fetishmen, or 
pnests, wheeled round and round as 
they passed, with amazing velocity. 
Manner was as various as ornament ; 
some danced by with irresistible buf- 
foonery; some with a gesture and 
carriage of defiance ; one distin- 
guish^ caboceer performed the war- 
dance, with a large spear, which 
grazed us at every bound he made ; 
but the greater number passed us 
with order and dienity, some slipping 
one sandal, some both, some turning 
round, after taking each of us by the 
hand ; the attendants of others knelt 
before them, throwing dust upon 
their heads; and the Moors appa^ 
rently vouchsafed us a blessing. It 
was nearly eight o'clock before the 

king approached. It was a beautify 
stanight night, and the torches whid 
preceded him displayed the splendou 
of his regalia, and made the hiinnai 
trophies of the soldiers more awfullj 
imposing. He stopped to inquiri 
our names a second time, and to wisi 
us a good night, which he did in i 
mild and delil^rate manner : he wai 
followed by his aunts, cousins, an< 
others of his family, having rows oi 
fine gold chains around their necks 
Numerous chie& succeeded, and i 
was long before we were at liberty U 
retire; when we agreed in estimat 
ing tlie number of warriors we hni 
seen, at 30,000.' 

The party, some time after, wer< 
present at the grand annual cerei 
monial of yam-gatliering, which is a 
species of saturnalia, and a period oi 
complete licence. On one of the 
days, all the heads of the kings and 
caboceers whose states had been con- 
quered, from Sai Tootoo to the pre- 
sent reign, were displayed by two 
parties of executioners ; who passed 
in an impassioned dance, clashing 
their knives on the skulls, in which 
sprigs of thyme were inserted to keep 
tne spirits from troubling the king. 
On anotlier day, a large quantity of 
rum was ordered to be poured into 
brass pans, in various parts of the 
town, die crowd pressing around, and 
drinking like hogs; freemen and 
slaves, women and children, striking, 
kicking, and trampling each other 
under foot, and many falling head 
foremost into the pans. In less than 
an hour, excepting the princinal men, 
not a sober person was to be seen, 
whether man, woman, or child ! On 
another day, 100 culprits were bar- 
barously executed for the amusement 
of the crowd: several slaves were 
also sacrificed over a large brass pan, 
their blood mingling with the various 
vegetable and animal matter within, 
to complete the chamr, and produce 
invincible fetish. All the chiefs kill 
several slaves, that tlieir blood may 
flow into the hole whence the new 
yam is taken. Those who cannot 
afibrd to kill slaves^ take the head 


GEORGE m.-«1815— 1820. 


of one already sacrificed, and place it 
on the hole. 

As Asfaantee is one of die states 
from whi^ skyes have been com- 
monly taken for oar West India set- 
tkments, it is fair to reflect upon 
the sohstance of Mr. Bowditch's 
statement in the following passages ; 
and it becomes a queAion (admit- 
ting as we do, the moral mjusHcc 
of aiarery), whether the exchanee of 
a regulated foreign serritude lor a 
domertic state so fraught with evils 
of the most malignant kind, be not 
beneficial, rather than otherwise, to 
the interests of the coloured tribes. 
'The decease of a person is announced 
bj a disdbar^ of musketry propor- 
tionate to his rank, or the wealth of 
his &mi1y. In an instant vou see a 
crowd of slaves burst from the house, 
and run towards the bush, flattering 
themselves that the hiudmost, or 
those surprised in the house, will 
furnish tte "human victims for sacri- 
fice, if they can but secrete themselves 
until the rite is over. The body is 
then handsomely dressed in silk and 
gold, and laid out on the bed, widi 
the richest clothes beside it. One 
or two slaves are sacrificed at die 
door of the house. On the death of 
a king, his brothers, sons, and ne- 
phews* affecting temporary insanity, 
burst forth with muskets, and fire 
promiscuously among the crowd; 
even a man of rank, if they meet 
him, is their victim ; nor is their 
murder of him, or of any other, vi- 
sited or prevented; the scene can 
scarcely be imagined. Few persons 
of rank' dare to stir from their houses 
for the first two or three days ; but 
they religiously drive forth all their 
vassals and slaves, as the most ao- 
ceptable composition for their own 
absence. The king's Ocras are all 
murdered on his tomb, to the number 
of a hundred or more, and women 
in abundance. I was assured by se- 
veral, that the offering for Sai Qua- 
roioa was repeated weekly for three 
months; and that 200 slaves were 
sacrificed, and twenty-five barrels of 
powder Sred, each time*^ But the 

custom for the king's mother, the re- 
gent of the kingdom during the in- 
vasion of the Fantees, is most cele-^ 
brated. The king himself devoted 
8000 victims, and twenty-five barrels 
of powder! The large towns fur- 
nished 100 victims, and twenty bar- 
rels of powder each, and most of the 
smaller towns ten victims, and two 
barrels of powder each.' Mr. Bow- 
ditch estimates the number of miU- 
tarv in Ashantee at 204,000. 

SniPwaECKs of the Alcbste and 
Medusa, 1817. — The two melan- 
choly events in question are brought 
together for the sake of contrasting 
the good consequences of discipline, 
moral management, and a trust in 
Providence, with the evib resulting 
firom the neglect of order, and an 
attempt to live without God in the 
world. Lord Amherst was return- 
ing from his embassy to China, on 
IxMird the Alceste frigate, captain 
Maxwell, when the vessel struck, Fe- 
bruaiy 18, 1817, onareef of sunken 
rocks, near Caspar island, and re- 
mained immovable. It was soon too 
evident, from the injuries she had re- 
ceived, that any attempt to get her 
ofi^ would be attended with fatal con- 
sequences ; so tliat the best bower- 
anchor was let go to keep her fast, 
and the pumps were abandoned. The 
ambassador and his suite, with a 
party of mariners under captain Hopp- 
ner, embarked as soon as possible for 
Java, in Che barge and cutter, to ob- 
tain assistance ; when the captain and 
crew contrived to fix their abode on 
the island of Pulo Leat, and to gather 
from the wreck a sufficiency of stores, 
to supply the whole, by an excellent 
mani4|ement, until the arrival of the 
Temate. This vessel, despatched by 
lord Amherst, conveyed the party 
safelv from Pulo Leat, March drd, 
and landed them safely on the 9th at 
Batavia. While on the island, they 
were forcibly attacked by the piratical 
Malays, who burned the wreck, and 
occasioned still greater deprivations 
to the crew ; but captain Maxwell, 
by his admirable arrangements, pre* 
served his officers and men from the 


GEORGE m.--1815— 1820. 

horrors of anarchy, and instnicted 
them, by his own example, to rely on 
that Power which is able to save, 
however dire the calamity that op- 
presses. Far different from this had 
been the conduct of a large portion on 
board I^e Medusa, a French frigate 
of forty-four guns, when she met 
with a similar misfortune. 

The Medusa had sailed in June, 
1816, from Aix, in France, with 
400 persons, to take possession 
of the settlement on the African 
coast between cape Blanco and the 
mouth of the Gambia, ceded by Bri- 
tain on the peace of 1815. Off cape 
Finisterre, the ship stranded on a 
sandbank, June 22. Nothing could 
exceed the consternation of all on 
board; and as six boats could not 
take on board 400 men, the captain 
soon drew the plan of a raft, capable, 
as it was said, of carrying 200 men, 
with provisions for all: the crews of 
the boats (the other 200), to come at 
meal-time to the raft for their rations. 
The soldiers were the first sent on 
the raft: they wished to take with 
tliem their muskets and some rounds 
of ammunition, but this was opposed, 
though the officers kept their fowling- 
pieces and pistols. In all, there were 
on the raft 150 persons, twenty-nine 
of whom were sailors ; there was one 
woman, and the remainder were sol- 
diers. At seven on the morning of 
the 5th of July the signal of de- 
parture was given ; when four of the 
txwts, stood out to sea, and the raft 
soon followed, towed by the barge 
and longboat. The party on the raft, 
however, were sadly off for provi«* 
sions ; several casks of flour, six bar- 
rels of wine, and two small casks of 
water had been put upon it ; but the 
weight had caused it to sink so much, 
that it became necessary to throw 
the flour into the sea. The people 
were pocked so closely that they 
eould not stir ; and eveiy where, ex- 
cept in the centre, the water rose as 
high as the waist 

After proceeding some leagues, 
fltst the barge and tnra the lonf^mat I 
threw off the tow-iope, notwithstand* ' 

ing the uigent appeals of the poo^ 
creatures on the ran ; so that the m^ 
chine was left alone on the vast 
ocean. ' Our consternation/ sa^ a \ 
survivor, < was beyond description ; 
the soldiers and sailors immediately 
gave themselves up to despair ; nor 
could we of the ship*8 company 
avoid sharing their fears, thougn we 
showed more fortitude. When quiet 
was a little restored, we began to feel 
severely the calb of hunger s and 
after we had taken our first ineai, 
which consisted of biscuit-paste and 
wine, we fixed on the quantity of 
provisions which should be daily dis- 
tributed to each man. Many of the 
officers now employed themselves in 
encouraging the soldiers to take re- 
venge on their companions when thev 
should reach the shore. Though 
surrounded by dangers, they felt no 
gratitute to the Almishty for having 
supported them thus long ; but, at a 
moment when they most needed His 
protecting arm, their minds were 
filled with anger and revenge, and 
they uttered nothing but expressions 
of Fsge. In the evening a better spirit 
prevailed ; our prayers were directed 
witii fervour to Heaven, and we de- 
rived from this salutary exercise the 
comfort of hope. Nieht came on, 
the wind freshened, and the sea rose. 
The waves struck with violence against 
the raft, and always threw down those 
that were unaccustomed to the sea, 
as indeed were most of our compa- 
nions. In the middle of the night 
the weather became worse : the waves 
now rolled over us and threw us 
down with violence ; and the cries of 
the people mingled awfully with the 
roanng of the waters. About seven 
in the morning the sea became calm, 
and the wind fell ; and we then found 
that twelve had slipped between the 
openings of the raft, and perished. 
The next day was fine, and we spent 
it in great tranquillity: every one 
felt satisfied that the boats would 
shortly appear : evening came, how- 
ever, and they did not. Despair now 
seized die peonle : and when night 
came on, the soldias andsailoi%con- 

GEORGE nL— 1815— 1820. 


_ their destruction inevitable, 
tesdkwed to drown the sense of their 
Btiwtion by drinking. Rushing to- 
vards a cask of wine, and making a 
large hole in it, they drank a consi- 
denble quantity ; but in the empty 
stale of their stomachs, the wine so 
excited them, that they resolved to 
rid themselTes of their officers, and 
then to destroy the raft. With this 
desago, one of them moved to the 
edge with a boarding hatchet, and 
b^an to strike at the ropes: we 
therefore rushed upon this ringleader, 
and though he made a desperate re- 
sistance, despatched him. Some pas- 
sengers and subalterns now happily 
Joined ua ; for the mutineers were 
going to make a general attack on us, 
and the fight berame general. D ur- 
ine the contest, in which several pe- 
rilled, the wretches threw into the 
sea, together with her husband, the 
unfortunate woman who was on 
board ; Messrs, Correard and Lavil- 
lette^ however, plunged and saved 
Aem, and the tumult being shortly 
aSLer, to all appearance, subdued, many 
asked pardon of us on their knees. 
But when almost midnight, the sol- 
diers ec^n rushed upon us with the 
fury or madmen; and such of them 
as nad no arms, bit their adversaries 
in the most cruel manner. Having 
at length repulsed some, and ap- 
peased others, we were again for a 
time in peace. 

'The manner in which we were se- 
venlly affected this nij^t deserves to 
be mentioned. Mr. Savign^ had most 
agreeable visions ; he fancied himself 
io a rich and highly-cultivated coun- 
try, surrounded b^ happy companions. 
Some desired tbeir ccumpanions not to 
feai; tbat they were going to look for 
succour, and would soon return; they 
then plunged into the sea. Others 
became fuirious, and rushed on their 
oomiadea with drawn swords, asking 
for the wing of a cliicken, or some 
bread. Some, thinking themselves 
still aboard the frigate, called for 
tbeir haminocks» that they might go 
below to sleep. Others imagined 
ther«iwah]pa» or a harbour, behind 

which was a noble ntf, Mr. Cor** 
reard believed be was in Italy, enjoys 
ing all the delights of that oountiy : 
one of the officers said to him, ' I r^- 
coUect that we have been deserted by 
the boats, but don't be afraid, I have 
just written to the governor, and in 
a few hours we sh^ be in safety.' 
It is true these illusions did not last 
ibr any time, because the noise and 
confusion before us constantly broke 
them ; but they returned on us, and 
always with more force, during the 
whole nieht. 

' On the return of day, we found 
that sixty-live had perished during 
the night ; but we had only lost two 
of our party, and not a single officer. 
This wonderful difference can only be 
ascribed to the comparative strength 
of mind we displayed; and it is a 
striking proof of the power every man 
has of resisting evil, if he will not 
give way to despair. We had now 
only one cask of wine to be divided 
amongst sixty men, and it was neces- 
sary therefore to put ourselves on 
half allowance. For forty<«ight hours 
we had taken nothing solid, and now 
resolved on making every possible 
exertion to catch some fish; we 
made hooks of the soldiers* tags, but 
the current drew them under the rafk i 
we bent a bayonet also, to catch 
sharks, and a smirk bit at and straight* 
ened it. Some tried to support exist- 
ence by feeding on the deaa bodies of 
their companions ; while others gnaw- 
ed the soldiers' belts and cartridge- 
boxes. The day was calm, and our 
agitation of mind yielded for a mo- 
ment to hope; we expected to see 
either the boats or some ship: we 
prayed to God, and put our trust in 
Him. Night came on, still no assist- 
ance ; the wind, however, was not so 
high, and the sea was calmer: we 
took some minutes' rest, but the most 
frightful dreams disturbed us. Wasted 
away by hunger and thirst, standing 
in water up to our knees, and not 
able to take rest but in that position, 
we bore in our looks the marks of 
J death. The morning of 
fourth day after our dapartura 


GEORGE in.— 1815— 1820. 


from thd frigatei presented to our 
view the dead boaies of twelve of 
our companions who had expired 
during the night : all these with the 
exception of one .were committed to 
the deep. This day also was fine, 
and our minds again began to indulge 
in hopes ; about four o*clock in the 
evening a ^oal of flying-fish passed 
under the raft, and a ^reat number 
of them got entangled in the spaces 
between the timbers ; we threw our- 
selves upon them and caught about 
200. We immediately returned 
thanks to God for tiiis unhoped-for 
relief; and felt matly refreshed b^ 
the meal they afforded us. 'Had it 
not been for another rebellion, we 
mieht have passed a comfortable 
ni^t ; but some Spaniards, Italians, 
and negroes, who had hitherto taken 
no part with the mutineers, formed a 
plot to throw us all into the sea, in 
order to set possession of a bag of 
monev, wnich we had tied to the 
mast-head, as a common fund to be 
made use of, should we reach the 
land! We were again, therefore, 
obliged to take arms, and were sup- 
ported by the sailors, who seized the 
ringleader and threw him into the 
sea. A desperate combat ensued, 
and the &tal raft was quickly piled 
with dead bodies ; but at length the 
mutineers being repulsed, and auiet 
restored, we endeavoured to take a 
little sleep. 

' On the fifth morning we found 
our number reduced to thirty, we 
liad lost five of our faithful sailors, 
and those who still survived were in 
a most deplorable state. The sea- 
water had stripped the skin from our 
feet and less ; we were covered with 
wounds and bruises, which, constantly 
irritated by the salt-water, gave us 
intolerable pain : only twenty of us 
were able to stand upright, or move 
about ; and we had only wine enough 
for four days, and scarcely a dozen 
fish. Twelve, and amongst them the 
woman, were now so ill, that there 
was no hope of their surviving ; and 
as they might live long enough to re- 
duce our stock to a very low ebb, we 

came to the horrible and unjustifiabl 
resolution of throwing them into th 
sea. Three sailors and a soldier tod 
the task on themselves ; and while I 
was being executed, we turned awa^ 
our eyes from the awful sight, triisb 
ing tlmt, in thus endeavouring to pro* 
long our own lives, we were shorten* 
ing theirs but a few hours. This 
gave us the means of subsistence for 
six additional days. On the ninth 
day, a white butterfly, of the kind so I 
common in France, flew over our , 
heads,, and settled on the sail, inspir* 
ing us with the pleasing hope that 
we were near land : some ot us al- 
ready were looking on tliis wretched 
morsel with desire, whilst others, con- 
sidering it the harbinger of our deli- 
verance, took it under their protec- 
tion. Trifling as was the circum- 
stance of an insect settling upon our . 
raft, it animated us to fresh exertions. 
We had recourse to every expedient 
which might lessen the wretohedness 
of our situation. We detached some 
planks from the raft, and made a sort 
of platform on which to lie down : 
anci various devices were resorted to, 
to relieve our dreadful thirst. It will 
scarcely be believed that, on one oc- 
casion, we contended for two small 
phials of a liquor for cleaning the 
teeth, which were husbanded with 
the greatest care, two drops of it pro- 
ducing a delightfully soothing sensa- 
tion . One of us had found an empty 
bottle, which still retained some scent 
of the perfume it liad formerly held ; 
to smell at this for an instant ap- 
peared the highest enjoyment Some 
kept their wine, and sucked it slowly 
through a quill ; the intoxication, how- 
ever, it produced upon their debilitat- 
ed frames was remarkable, even incit- 
ing them to angry dkputes, and to de- 
stroy themselves. Tnree soon died. 
' On the 16th of July, eisht of us 
resolved on trying to rrach tne coast, 
to which we supposed ourselves near, 
on a smaller raft, which we constnict^ 
ed of boards and spars; but when 
tried, it immediately upset. We 
therefore gave it up, resolvins to 
wait upon the laft for death ; which, 


GEORGE m.— 1815— 1820. 


coless we were shortly reUeved, could 
Qot be veiy distant. On the morn- 
ing of the 17thy the sun shone bright- 
W ; and when we had addressed our 
pnyeis to the Almigiitj, we distri- 
bated the rations of wine. Whilst 
each was taking his portion, an officer 
disooTered a ship in the horizon, and 
vhh a shout of joy informed us of iu 
It is impossible to describe the ecstasy 
we felt at the sight ; each looked upon 
his ddivery as certain, and returned 
repeated thanks to God. Still, in the 
rai^ of these hopes, we were appre- 
bamve we might not be seen. We 
straigihtened some hoops, and to the 
end festened some handkerchiefs of 
different colours. We then united 
our efforts, and raised a man to the 
top of the mast, who waved these 
iags. For half an hour we were sus- 
pended between hope and fear; some 
of us thought that the vessel was 
OMaing nearer, whilst others, with 
more accuracy, asserted tliat she was 
making sail away from us. In fact, 
in a short time the vessel disappeared 
We now resigned ourselves to de- 
spair; envying even those whom 
death had taken away from the suf- 
ferings we were now to undergo. 

' We had passed two hours in de- 
sponding reflections, when the mas- 
ter-gunner, who was in the fore part 
of me rafty suddenly uttered a loud 
cry of * We are saved, — the brig is 
dose to usT We rushed from an 
awning under which we had been 
huddlmg, and found that she was in 
&ct only a mile distant, and was 
steering directly towards us, under a 
press of sail. Joy now again suc- 
ceeded to despair, we embraced each 
other, and burst into tears: even 
those whose wounds rendered them 
incapable of more exertion, dragged 
themselves to the side of the raft, 
to enjoy the sight of the vessel, which 
we recognised to be the Argus. The 
crew waved their hats, to express 
their pleasure at having come to our 
relief; and in a short time we were 
all (fifteen in number) on board the 
brig; where were some who had been 
saved in the boats. Every one was 

afiected tosee ourmiserableeondition; 
ten out of the fifteen were scarcely 
able to move ; the skin was entirely 
strinped from our limbs, our eyes were 
sunk, our beards long, and we were in 
tlie most emaciated condition ; but the 
care of the surgeon, and the kind at- 
tention of every one on board, soon 
wrought in us the most favourable 

' A partv in a schooner readied the 
Medusa fifty-two days after she had 
been abandoned ; but what was their 
astonishment to find, that three of 
the miserable wretches left on board 
had outlived their sufferings, though 
apparently now at the point of death. 
They had kept in separate comers of 
the wreck, which they never quitt^ 
but to look for food ; and this had lat- 
terly consisted of tallow and a little 
bacon. If on these occasions they ac- 
cidentally met, they used to run at 
each other with drawn knives; so 
completely had selfishness stifled tliat 
sympathy which fellow sufferers are 
disposed to feel for each other. It 
is a fact worthy of record, that so long 
as these men abstained from strong 
liquor, they were able to support the 
hardships of their situation in a sur- 
prising manner ; but when they be- 
gan to drink brandy, their strength 
rapidly diminished. The poor fel- 
lows received all the attention which 
their situation required, were safely 
conveyed by the schooner to Sene- 
gal, and recovered/ 

Waterloo Baidge completed 
1817. — It is longer than anv other 
bridge over the Thames, and is per- 
fectly level. The cost exceeded, a 
million sterling; and from its stabi- 
lity, it is calculated to remain a mo- 
nument of architectural beauty and 
simplicity to remote ages. It has 
nine elliptical arches, each of 120 feet 
span; and is forty-two feet broad, 
and 1242 feet long. It was projected 
as the Strand bridge, when begun in 
1811 ; but the victory of Waterloo, 
before its completion, and its fom^al 
opening by the conqueror in person, 
occasioned the change of name. 



6£0RaS IIL— 1815^1820. 


•^Many charitable indiriduak had in- 
duced certain among the labouring 
classes to put by weekly a small por^ 
tion of their earnings, as a provision 
for declining years ; and had fixed 
upon secure depositories for such 
savines. Mr. Smith, a clergyman at 
Wendover, Bucks, was perhaps the 
first who systematically planned a 
savings-banlC 1799, by inducing his 

S&rishionerB to bring to him every 
unday evening during the summer 
months, any sum, from twopence up- 
wardb, which they were inclined to 
lay by firom their weekly wages. In 
1617 the plan was thought worthy of 
parliamentary notice ; and a law was 
passed, the better to preserve these 
collections for the ultimate benefit of 
the depositors, whereby eovemment 
security was given, and a fair interest 
allowed. When, therefore, the trus- 
tees of any savings-bank receive 50/. 
they must pay it iuto the national 
fund, and receive, in lieu, from the 
commissioners for the reduction of 
the national debt, a debenture bear- 
ing interest 8/. 16i. Oj^d. per cent per 
year, and allow to the depositors an 
interest of 2^. per da^, or SL Qt. 5^d* 
per cent per year, taking the balance 
to themselves for the expenses of the 
bank, viz., one farthing per cent per 
day. The trustees are not allowed 
to receive deposits from any whose 
previous deposits have amounted to 
150/. ; and when the balance due to 
any one depositor amounts with in- 
terest to 200/., no further interest is to 
be allowed. Persons are not allowed 
to subscribe into more than one 
savings-bank at a time. The total 
numTOr of these banks in England, 
Wales, and Ireland (Cor Scotland 
seems to be content witli the interest 

even on small deposits by private 
mkers), was recently 500, with 
funds amounting to 16,000,000 ster- 

Till Adult Okpran iNSTiTtmoN 
fOOMDSD, 1817.— This is one of the 
' heayen«orig{nated* charities of Eng- 
land's metropolis, and was plannM 
(at the suggestion of the excellent 
princess Charlotte of Saxe Coburg) 

among the royal fiunily, and some 
noblemen and gentlemen, who com- 
passionated the state of deprivation 
m which the children of clergymen, 
and of military and naval oflficers, are 
often left by the premature loss of 
their parents ; a state which they, of 
all young persons, are usually least 
prepared to endure. In some in- 
stances, the widows of mllitaiy and 
naval officers are supported by the 
state ; but for the bereft fitmilies of 
the clergy Uiere is no legal provision. 
The care of the latter peculiarly 
therefore merits our attention. Ac- 
customed, from their education and 
connexions, to the respect of their 
neighbourhood, and, from their re- 
tired habits, unacquainted with the 
usages of the world, see them on a 
sudden, by the decease of the hus- 
band and father, driven from their 
very home, and at once outcasts and 
aliens upon earth ! They ' cannot dig 
— to beg they are ashamed ;* while the 
sensibility of cultivated minds gives 
keenness to their sufferings, sharpens 
every pang, and flings a horror over 
every privation. 

LONY, 1818.— This island is at the 
southern extremity of Malacca, thirty 
miles long and twelve broad, and 
once belonged to the Portuguese and 
Dutch. With the consent of the 
Malay princes of Jehore, and of tlie 
king of Holland, the English formed 
a settlement thereon, 1818 ; and it 
has from that period gone on im- 
proving as a commercial station. 
Singapore is low and flat, with an 
extensive chain of saline and fresh- 
water marshes j in several parts it is 
covered with lofty timber and lux- 
uriant vegetation. On the east of 
the hari>our, enterprising British mer- 
chants are erecting substantial and 
ornamental houses fronting the sea, 
presenting a strange contrast to the 
wretched tenements of the Malays. 
The ground is generally raised three 
feet, and the mansions nave a superb 
entrance, by an ascent of granite 
stairs ; then there is an degant pop* 
tico, supported by Grecian columns : 


GEORGE m.— 1815— 1820. 


the rooms are lofty, with Venetian 
vindovs down to the floor, and fur- 
nished in a luxurious manner ; each 
maosion is provided with its baths, 
bilHard-tables, &c^ and its grounds 
are tastily laid out with shrabs of 
beautiful foliage, the tout ensemble 
affording a most picturesque prospect 
from the shipping in the roadstead. 
As the isle is used rather as an entre- 
pot than for its own produce, it has 
DO staple for export; the agaragar, 
a sea-weed like fern, much vdued in 
China, is its most useful article of 
growth ; and from it glue, paint, and 
a rich jelly used for sweetmeats, are 
extracted. Sago is the only manu- 
&cture, and is brought in its rough 
state to the isle from Borneo. For 
the government, tee Penang. 


1819.— It is a magnificent structure 
of cast-iron, with stone piers, de- 
signed by Mr. Rennie, and consists of 
three arches, the centre one haying a 
span of 240 feet. The bridge and 
the approaches cost 800,000/., with a 
weight of iron of 6780 tons ; being 
one of the most stupendous works 
^er formed of such materials. 

The Cbinsse Primrose intro- 
mited, 1819, FROM THE East.— This, 
being one of the few plants which 
enliven the greenhouse from No- 
vember to February, must be con- 
sidered a great horticultural treasure. 
The first root flowered in the collec- 
tion of Lady Famborough, 1820. 

The Resuscitation op PoifPEii 
AKD HERcuLANEtriff, 1820. It was in 
17 IS, that actual proof was obtained 
of the situation of these two cities, 
^^en some labourers, in digging a 
Well, struck upon a statue on the 
benches of a theatre of Herculap 
neum. The king of Sicily hereupon 
directed that every thing brought 
from beneath should be deposited in 
his palace ; and in a few years a work 
jn six vols, folio was published, giv- 
^^8 an account of such discoveries. 
Herculaneum had been doubly sealed 
down by torrents of lava that had 
*vied subse(}uently to the eruption 
<^'79, A.n ; insomuch that a mass of 

gray stone, twenty-four feet in depth, 
had been formed everywhere over it ; 
while Pompeii had only loose ashes 
above it Galleries, therefore, were 
cut to the principal buildinfls of Her- 
culaneum, and a few of them were 
cleared ; but at Pompeii the labour- 
ers, in very recent years, have been 
far more successful. The latter city, 
after remaining concealed for nearly 
1800 years, has been almost wholly 
recovered; and, with the exception 
of roofs, its houses look as if they 
had been tenanted but yesterday, and 
as if they might be inhabited to- 
morrow. That it is the ancient city 
of Pompeii, is proved by an inscrip* 
tion over one of the principal gates. 
In all instances, the roofs have been 
destroyed by the matter that pressed 
upon them. The interior walls of 
tne better classes of houses are gene- 
rally ornamented with mouldings in 
stucco, and with paintings of fruit, 
flowers, landscapes, figures, or ara* 
besques; and, where only a plain 
surface was painted, the colours, such 
as green, blue, and purple, are as 
fresh as if the painter^s brush had 
just passed over them. In many in- 
stances, the floors of the halls and 
rooms are covered with mosaic. On 
the threshold of one private house 
there is written, in mosaic and large 
capital letters, the Roman term of 
salutation, salve (welcome). At the 
entrance of another house there is 
spiritedly represented in mosaic on 
the floor, the figure of a fierce chained 
dog in the act of flying at some one, 
and the words cave canem (beware of 
the dog) inscribed beneath. The 
chain and the jagged collar are much 
the same we now use; and the doe is 
not unlike the Corsican buU-oog, 
much prized by the modem Italians 
as a house-dog, on account of its 
strength, boldness, and ferocity. In 
some cases, the mosaic work, that 
covers the rooms like a carpet 
merely represents a minutely dotted 
surface of^ pieces of black and white 
marble, with or without a fency bor- 
der round it In other cases more 
colours are employed ; and fantastic 


GEORGE IIL— 1815— 1820. 


and elegant patterns delineated. The 
house of Sallust has been clearly as- 
certained ; also those of various offi- 
cial personages, such as the quaestor ; 
while shops of different artisans, with 
the implements of their trade, have 
been admirably identified. In almost 
every house, even of the better order, 
was a room devoted, as a shop, to 
the sale of the overplus produce of 
the owner's estate. 

' Tlie remains of Pompeii/ says 
Mr. Mattliews, ' afford a truly inte- 
resting spectacle; it is like a resur- 
rection from the dead. The progress 
of time and decay is arrested; and 
you are admitted to the temples, the 
theatres, and the domestic privacy of 
a people, who have ceased to exist 
for seventeen centuries. Nothing is 
wanting but the inhabitants. Even 
now, a momingi's walk through the 
solemn silent streets of Pompeii, will 
give you a livelier idea of their modes 
of life than all the^books in the world. 
They seem, like the French of the 
present day, to have existed only m 
public. Their theatres, temples, ba- 
silicas, forums, are on the most splen- 
did scale ; but in their private dwell- 
ings we discover little or no atten- 
tion to comfort. The houses liave a 
small court, round which the rooms 
are built, which are rather cells than 
rooms ; the greater part are without 
windows, and receive light only from 
the door. There are no chimneys ; 
the smoke of the kitchen, which is 
usually low and dark, must have 
found its way through a hole in the 
ceiling. The doors are so low> that 
you are obliged to stoop to pass 
through them. The stucco paintings 
with which the walls are covered, are 
but little injured; and upon being 
wetted, they appear as fresh as ever. 
Brown, red, veliow, and blue, are the 
prevailing colours. If it were not for 
tlie pilfering propensity of visiters, we 
might have seen every thing as it 
really was left at the time of the 
great calamity : even to the skeleton, 
which was found with a purse of 
sold in its hand, trying to run away 
from the impendung destructiofii 

and exhibiting * the ruling pas- 1 
sion strong in death.' The amphi- 
theatre is very perfect, as indeed are 
the other two theatres intended for 
dramatic representations; though it 
is evident toat they had sustained 
some injuiy from the earthquake, 
which had already much damaged 
this devoted town, before its final de- 
struction by the eruption of Vesu- 
vius. The paintings on the walls of 
the amphitheatre represent the com- 
bats or gladiators and wild beasts, 
the dens of which remain just as they 
were. The two theatres are as close 
together as our Drury-lane and Co- 
vent-garden. The larger one, which 
might have contained 5000 persons, 
like the amphitheatres, had no roof, 
but was open to the light of day. 
The stage is very much circumscrih- 
ed: there is no depth; and there 
are consequently no side scenes; the 
form and appearance are like those 
of our own theatres when the drop 
scene is down. In die back scene 
of the Roman stage, which, instead 
of canvass, is composed of unchange- 
able brick and marble, are three 
doors; and there are two others on 
the sides, answering to our stage- 
doors. The little theatre is in better 
preservation than the other ; and it 
IS supposed this was intended for 
musical entertainments. The temple 
of Isis has suffered little injury ; tlie 
statues, indeed, have been taken away; 
but you see the very altar on which 
die victims were offered; and you 
may now ascend without ceremony 
the private stairs which led to the 
sanctum sanctorum of the goddess. 

* The streets are very narrow; the 
marks of wheels on the pavement 
show that carriages were in use ; but 
there must liave been some regula- 
tion to prevent their meeting each 
other ; for one carriage would have 
occupied the whole of die street, 
except the narrow trottoir, raised on 
each side for foot passengers, for 
whose accommodation there are also 
raised stepping-stones, in order to 
cross from one side to the other. 
There is often an emblem over Ui« 


GEORGE IIL— 1815— 1620. 


iioor of a boose, that determines the 
profession of its former owner. The 
^ord Saice on one, seems to denote 
that it was an inn, as we have in our 
hrsthesigaofTheSaluiatkm, Many 
of the paintings on the walb are very 
elegant in taste and design ; and they 
often assbt us in ascertaining the 
uses for which the different rooms 
tere intended. For example, in the 
baths we find Tritons and Naiads; 
in the bedchambers Morpheus scat- 
ters bis poppies ; and in the eating- 
room a sacrifice to JSsculapius teaches 
IS, ' that we should eat to live, and < 
not live to eat.* In one of these 
Tooms are the remains of a tricli- 
aimn. A baker's shop is as plainly 
I lodicated, as if the loaves were now 
at his window. There is a mill for 
the grinding of com, and an oven 
for haking; and the surgeon and 
dni^;ist have also been traced, by 
the quality of the articles found in 
their respective dwellings. 

' But the most complete specimen 
that we have of an ancient residence, 
is the villa which has been discovered 
at a small distance without the gate. 
It is on a more splendid scale than 
any of the houses in the town ; and 
it has been preserved with scarcely 
any injury. Some liave imagined it 
to be the Pompeianum, or villa of 
Cicero. Be this as it may, it must 
have belonged to a man of taste. 
Situated on a sloping bank, the front 
entrance opens as it were into the 
fint floor; below which, on the 
garden side, into which the house 
looks (for the door is the only aper- 
ture on the road side) is a ground 
floor, with spacious arcades and open 
HMins, all facing the garden ; and 
above are the sleepins-rooms. The 
walls and ceilings of this villa are or- 
namented with paintings, all whicli 
have a relation to the uses of the 
apartments in which they are placed. 
Id the middle of tlie garden there is 
a reservoir of water, surrounded by 
columns ; and the ancient well still 
mnains. Thougb we have many spe- 
ciiDeos of Roman glass in their drink- 
ing^vcsseb, it h^ »««*» doubted whe- 

vol. m. 

ther they were acquainted with the 
use of it for windows. Swinburne^ 
however, in describing this villa, says, 
' in the window of a b^chamber some 
panes of glass are still remaining/ 
This would seem to decide the ques-; 
tion ; but thev remain no longer. 
The host was fond of conviviality, if 
we may judge from the dimensions of 
his cellar, which extends under the 
whole of the house and the arcades 
also ; and many of the amphorae re- 
main, in which the wine was stowed. 
It was here that the skeletons of 
twenty-seven poor wretches were 
found, who took refuse from the 
fiery shower that would have killed 
them at once, to suffer *the lingering 
torments of being starved to death. 
It was in one of the porticoes lead- 
ing to the outward entrance, that 
the bones, supposed to be those of 
the master of the house, were found 
with a key in one hand, and a purse 
of gold in the other. So mudi for 
Pompeii! I lingered among its 
ruins till the close of evening; and 
have seldom passed a day with feel- 
ings of interest so strongly excited, 
or with impressions of the transient 
nature of all human possessions so 
strongly enforced, as by the solemn 
solitudes of this resuscitated town.'. 

From recent discoveries it is evi- 
dent that at least one other town, in 
addition to the two restored, is lying 
safely under the matter of Vesuvius. 

Assassination of tub Dues ov 
BsRRi, 1820.— This prince, the se- 
cond son of the count d*Artois, and 
nephew of Louis XVill. of France, 
led the opera-house at Paris, at 
eleven o'clock on the night of Fe- 
bruary Idtli with his duchess, and, 
afler handing her into the carriage, 
was returning to his box in the 
theatre, when a roan, named Louvel, 
forcibly grasped his shoulder, and 
pluneed into his bosom, up to the 
handle, a poniard six inches long. 
The assassin succeeded in getting out 
of the immediate crowd, but was fol- 
lowed and secured by two gentlemen 
of the court The duke was carried 
into a room of the theatre, and laid 


GEORGE IIL— 1815— 1820. 


Upon benches and cushions ; when 
the wound was proved to be mortal. 
His unhappy father, and several other 
members of the family, were soon in 
attendance. When the royal suf- 
ferer had been placed in the easiest 
position that could be devised, he 
called for ' his daughter, and the bi- 
shop of Angel^e ;' and when the in- 
fant princess was brought to him in 
her cradle, he kissed her, and gave 
her his benediction, saying, * Poor 
infant I may you be less unfortunate 
than the rest of your house!' Al- 
though topical bleedings relieved the 
duke, he felt convinced that his end 
vras approaching ; and having made 
a confession before all present of the 
sins he acknowledged ne had com- 
mitted, he asked pardon of God for 
all his offences, and of his fellow 
men, for such of his actions as might 
have tended to scandalize them. He 
then received the last sacrament, at 
the hands of the cur6 of St. Roch. 
The king himself arrived at half-past 
five in the morning of the 14th ; and 
the duke, on seeing his royal uncle 

enter the room, said in a low tot 
'Pardon, sire, the man who stru 
the blow I pardon him I I must ha 
unknowingly offended him I* Kii 
Louis, being erievousl^ affected, w 
advised by the physician, M. Dt 
puytron, to retire ; but his majesi 
exclaimed, ' 1 am not afraid to loc 
upon death : 1 have a last duty i 
discharge to my son.* At that mi 
ment the duke expired. The kin 
then, taking the arm of M. Dupuj 
tron, approached the bed, dosed tb 
eyes of his nephew, and took a las 

The assassin Louvel was tried oi 
the 5th of June ; and he persisted ii 
declaring that he had no accomplice* 
but that he considered he had don< 
his country a service in ridding it o 
the only Bourbon who was likely 
from his youth, to give his family ar 
heir. He was an Atheist, and had 
studied Paine^s 'Age of Reason' and 
'Rights of Man/ He was found 
guilty, and was guillotined on the 
7th at the Place de Gr^ve. 


STORED. — The victory of Waterloo, 
June 18th, 1815, agam gave to king 
Louis the throne of his ancestors; 
and kind-hearted as he confessedly 
was, he with regret assented to the 
trial for high-treason of several func- 
tionaries, who, in spite of their pre- 
vious oaths, had favoured and aided 
the recent usurpation. After exe- 
cuting marshal Ney and a few others, 
the chamber of deputies, which was 
highlv loyalist, exiled the remainder, 
together with all livine who had 
voted for the death of Louis XVI. 
The ministry of Louis, however, was 
soon found to display a neater desire 
for the restoration of absolutism, 
than the chamber thought consistent 
with the king*s original promise; and 
accordingly, in 1818, a more liberal 
cabinet was formed under count Do- 
cazes. The nation appeared to re^ 
joice thoroughlv in the change ; but 
the fiicdons of Jacobins asS Buo- 

napartists contrived speedily to gain 
an ascendancy, which vras only check- 
ed by the proceedings consequent on 
the atrocious assassination by the 
former of the king's nephew, the due 
de Bern, 1820. The prince was 
entering the opera-house from his 
carriage, when one Louvel mortally 
wounded him with a poniard, exclaim- 
ing that he rejoicea in ridding the 
worid of a Bourbon. A royalist ad- 
ministration was thereupon aeain sum- 
moned, with M. Vilfele at the head ; 
the law of election was amended, the 
newspapers were placed under a cen- 
sorship, and otlier measures of the 
old regime were adopted. No open 
violation, however, of the ^^^^^ 
tion granted by Louis, was involved 
in these proceeding. In 1828 the 
king, in concert with the northern 
powers, sent an army into Spain, un- 
der his nephew, the due d'Angou- 
Ifeme, to rescue Ferdinand Vlhtrom 
his state of thraldom, whidi it ef- 



GEORGE IIL-^1816— 1820. 


feeted. Louis XTIIL had fonndhifl 
^tfa sensibly decline soon after 
U anrder of the due de Bern, an 
r*e&twbicb for a long time deeply 
tfected lum ; and he at length diei, 
i^i. at the ace of 69, very generaUy 
^iBgaied by the nation. He left no 

^^te?er may be Ae opinion of 
^ as kmk but superficially upon 
baan affiin, great applause is due 
to him who, called to rule over a 
^le kmg accustomed to mistake 
f^workfs wonder at their proceed- 
iB;;s for admiration, contrived to 
Mud tbdr aflkirs without offend- 
^ao? party amongst them whatever, 
itk Louis XVIII. assuredly did; 
t^ the amiable nature of his private 
^^aracter is dearly shown by his few 
^b&hed letters— for kin^s letters 
*je EBoaily few— written to his friend 
^<fA?aray, from Hartwell. The 
to'mttf Xvaray had accompanied him 
^ nk lucky escape from Paris, in 
'^ttoe, 1799, and continued attached 
to bis person in all his subsequent 
l^tudes, more on the footing of a 
Pjatefnend than of a courtier, until 
i^^'O; when a pulmonary complaint 
Wfflpelled hun to pass the winter at 
'iMeita, where he died in the next 
yff' VVe liave room only for such 
! « the epistles as allude to the queen's 
I Jf^. Marie Josephine, of Savoy, 
|^«wifeofUuis, died at Hartwell, 
1 JiOT. 1810 ; and the distrest monarch 
(Atts writes: 

'HaitweHJan. 7,1811. Fearnothing 

P^fBiyhealth. It has not suffered. lam 

«'«My at the point where I believe I 

'^1 remain—no more tears— no 

^^^ pangs of sorrow ; but a sincere 

^t» a void in my life, which I feel 

anhiindred times a day. A thought 

^ttn to me— sad, or gay, or indif- 

^nt-^no matter, a recollection of 

^ethmgold, or an emotion at some- 

imngnew; I find myself saying me- 

hanittUy « I must tell her this/ and 

T- 1 ^ol^ my loss, the illusion 

jwnes, and I say to myself, 'ithe day 

those nfi mtercourset is gone for 

^^', ^ this does'* not hinder my 

^^^ ind eating, nor taking part 

in the converuition, nor even huidi* 
ing when the occasion occurs ; but Sui 
sad thought that she is gone^ ever, 
mixes itself with ever^ thing, and, like 
a drop of wormwood m food or drink, 
imbitters the flavour without entirely 
destroying it.' And again, two months 
later— 'March 13, 1611. My grief 
has lost its tharpness^ but it does not 
wear off— any trifle awakens it afresh. 
A bit of paper, accidentally marked 
with two letters by which I used to 
designate her, has wis morning pain- 
fully reminded me that I shall do so 
no more. The other day the duke of 
Havre, on coming into the room be- 
fore dinner, followed by the duchess 
of Serant, whom I did not see, stepped 
aside, as he used to do for hkr in 
happier times. This accident created 
a momentary illusion, the recovenr 
from which was painful ; but still 
more painful, and which I feel as an 
additional calamity, is that the time 
is come which must divide me from 
even her dear remains. Wishes, 
which I could not resist, oblige me 
to send them to the tomb of her an- 
cestors in Savoy. The removal will 
take place on 1 uesday. It cannot be 
helped — but I feel that I am again to 
be separated from her.' Again, a month 
later, * April 1 . You know how much 
I love spring, how delighted I have 
always been with the first fine days, 
the first leaves, the first flowers. The 
delight is not destroyed, but that 
drop of wormwood mixes itself with 
it. When I breathe this genial air, 
I say, it would have done her so 
much good I We have a white camel- 
lia here, which never has flowered so 
brilliantly as this year. Alas I it re- 
minds me that I had bought it for 
her on her birthday. That birth- 
day has since revolved. I softened 
the grief it revived, by prayers for the 
departed. But do not imagine that 
I would get rid of thit drop of worm" 
wood ; for that could only be by foiw 
getting her.' 

Ring Louis was a sood Latinisty 
and especially devoted to Horatian 
criticism. Perhaps no very high vac 
lue usually attaches to French publio 


GEORGE IIL— 1816— 1820. 


opinion ; but we are, on the whole, 
inclined to think ' la grande nation* 
was in its sober senses, and for once 
inclined to be just, when it desig- 
nated Louis XYIIL, as it was fond 
of doing, ' Louis le desir€.' 

British India under George IIL, 
CONCLUDED. — In our last notice of 
the Anglo-Indian empire, we stated 
that lord Cornwallis was appointed 
to succeed Warren Hastings, esq., as 
governor-genera], 1766. His lord- 
ship prosecuted the war with Tippu 
Saheo, and, after defeating him in 
several battles, compelled him to sue 
for peace, 1 792 ; which was granted 
on his payment of a large sum of 
money, ceding part of his territories, 
and giving up his two sons to the 
English as hostages. It was under 
the administration of lord Cornwallis 
that the principal judicial and reve- 
nue regulations^ still in force, were 
enacted; particularly the perpetual 
settlement of the revenue of Bengal 
with the Zemindars. His lordship 
returned to England, 1793, and was 
succeeded by sir John Shore, whose 
pacific system of policy forfeited that 
consideration which the British go- 
vernment had held in his predeces- 
sor's time amongst the native states. 

In 1798 sir John wns succeeded by 
lord Momington (afterwards mar- 
quis VVeUesley), just at the moment 
when Uie sultan of Mysur was medi- 
tating fresh hostilities. Of a fierce 
and naushty disposition, Tippu na- 
turally felt impatient at the humili- 
ations he had endured ; and this led 
to a revival of the war in 1799. The 
final and brief contest with the power 
bent on driving the British from 
Hindustan, terminated wholly in 
favour of the latter. Seringapatam, 
the capital of Mysur, was captured 
by lord Harris, 1799; and, in the 
defence of the place, Tippu lost his 
life. An immense booty fell into 
the hands of the English ; among 
which was Tippu's library, contain- 
ing many valuable works in Sanscrit, 
the Koran in all the languages of the 
East, a history of Tamer&ne, and 
Other HSS. of great rarity, which are 

still in the possession of the 
India Company. Mysur was 
restored by the victors to a dem 
ant of its ancient Hindu prince! 
the conquests made by liyder 
Tippu were retained by them ; a 
subsidiary treaty having been foi 
with the nizam of the I>ekhii^ 
which the defence of his domio 
was undertaken by the Cnglid^ 
his providing for the expense, 
greater part of tlie Dekhin was, i 
manner, subjected to their authoj 
The nawab of Oude, in order to I 
British protection, ceded, in the si 
way, part of the Doab, and ol 

Srovinces, to the Comoanv. The 
ependent Mahratta chieftains. Si 
hia and Bhosla, provoked at tliis 
tension of the European power, lu 
upon attacked the Enslish both 
the north and centre of Hindust^ 
but lord Lake defeated them in 
former, and added the upper pari 
the Doab, with Delhi ana Agra, 
the British dominions, while gene 
Wellesley, a younger brother of t 
governor-general (who had in 17 
commenc^ in India that career 
military gloiy, whidi will render 1 
subseouent title of ' Wellington* i) 
mortal), overcame them at Assaj 
and annexed Cuttack and part 
Guzerat, in the middle part of tl 
peninsula, to the possessions of tl 
Company, 1803. General Welic 
lev's first display of talent was 
Malavelly, and then at Seringapatai 
of which be had been made govem< 
on the fall of Tippu. 

A war with Hoikar, another Mai 
ratta prince, followed. He made 
rapid incursion into the Doab, but w^ 
pursued by lord Lake to the Sik 
country; and all his territories wei 
occupied by a British force, thoue 
they were restored again at tii 
ensuing peace. In 1805 lord Mon 
ington Twho had been create 
marquis Wellesley in 1799) was re 
called, aAer a display of talent 
which proved him eminendy fitted t 
direct a great empire ; and with bin 
returned his brother, die victor o 
Anayei who bad seen his achieve 


GEORGE m.— 1815— 1820. 


m honaaxMy noticed bj the 
sioii of a splendid triumphal mo- 
cat at Cakatta, and who was 
s aboat to reap fresh lanrels in 
m more glorious cause of £u- 

^ (noir marquis) Comwallis was 
sfi appointed goTemor - general 
^^: but, while following out the 
'■^ plans of his predecessor (and 
: shortly after his arrival in India), 
V3S seized* with illness, and car- 
i to the gi«¥e. Sir George Barw 
I his temporary successor, adopted 
Qaie conciliatory course with the 
[^estates, but was superseded by 
amralof lord Minto as govemor- 
'«A 1807. Lord Minto's attention 
5 diieily directed to the subjugation 
Qe remaining possessions of the 
^ in the East ; and the isles of 
3Cfe and Mauritius, and the 
^ Bland of Java, were captured 
^nnaments fitted out in India. 
1<^13 the earl of Moira arrived as 
femor- general ; and, conceiving 
3t the pacificatory plans of previous 
^ro}-3 had generated in the minds 
^ Kmi-bubaric Hindu and Mo- 
nDmedan mleis of Hindustan a de- 
1^ of contempt for British prowess 
^ autboritj, he instantly adopted a 
Hitraiy policy. The conduct of the 
'>rkha government of Nepal having 
^Toked hostilities, the Himalaya 
^traversed by the British armies, 
Wan extensive tract of country per- 
^^tly annexed to the state. The 
^ions of the Pind&ris, a set of 
!*«^te» secredy supported by the 
*^iatta princes, were next punished 
Mhe annihilation of their hordes. 
^^«Pind^^erc at first bodies of 
mercenary horse, serving different 
."nces for hire during war, and in 
>^e of peace subsisting upon plun- 
'^r- Lands along the Nermadlt had 
^n Msijped to some of their leaders 
? ^^ pnnces of Malwa ; and thence 
P^ "]^uently made incursions into 
r^ onttth provinces, devastating die 
knotty in the most ferocious man- 
_^^. and disappearing before a com- 
^^^ ^ could be assembled 
"S**D8t them. In the course of die 

operations put in force to punish 
diese marauders, Bajee Row, the 
usurpinc peishwa (prime minister) 
of the Mahratta king (the rajah of 
Sattaiali), and the rajah of Nagpore» 
attemoted, by treachery and murder, 
to ria themselves of firitish control, 
1817 ; and hostilities ensued, which 
placed the territories and persons of 
both parties in die hands of their 
enemies, 1818. The British here- 
upon restored the rajah of Sattarah 
to his throne at Poonah, relying on 
his fidelity, — that prince having been 
deposed for his opposition to the 
Brahmins, being ot the Shudra, or 
lowest, caste of die H indus, and much 
attached to the Christians. The 
army of Holkar also, which had aided 
the Pindaris, was defeated, and his 
countfy (under Holkar^s son, another 
Holkar) again occupied bv the Bri- 
tish ; and when peace followed, so 
much of Mahratta and other states 
feU to the Ck>mpany, and so exten- 
sively was its protection solicited, 
that, in one way or odier, all Hin- 
dustan, save the extreme west (yet 
under Hindu princes, who have ever 
been independent of the great Mon- 
gul's power), was brou^t under Eng- 
lish authority, 1820. The earl of 
Moira was still the governor-general ; 
and in that year king George HI. 

Bavaeia eaised to a Kingdom. — 
The German duchy of Bavaria, the 
country of the Celtic Boii, was first 
importandv augmented by the ac- 
cession of the elector palatine, Charles 
Theodore, 1777, who, by adding his 
patrimonial possessions (the palati- 
nate, which was a considerable terri- 
tory of Germany on the Rhine, and 
the duchies of Juliers and Berg), in- 
creased its superficial extent to 
21,000 square miles, and its popula- 
don to 2,500,000. The wars of^ Na- 
poleon yet further enlarged the state ; 
and the favour of that arbiter of 
nations exalted it to a kingdom, 
1605, Maximilian Joseph, the elec- 
tor, assuming the regal dde, January 
1st, 1806. He was a parental and 
enlightened monarch, a considerable 


GE0B6E ni.— 1815— 1820. 


patron of learning and the fine arts, 
the inventor of lithography, and a 
warm admirer of the English. He 
died 1825, and was succeeded by the 
present king, his son, Lewis I., whose 
second son, Otho, was advanced to 
the sovereignty of Greece, 1832. 
Munich rMiinchen), the capital of 
Bavaria, has been embeUished by 
Maximilian and the present king 
with public buildings of ereat mag- 
nificence ; and its splendid collection 
of works of ancient and modern art 
has rendered it, like Dresden, a wel- 
come place of resort to travellers of 
taste. The population of Bavaria is 
now above 4,000,000. Bavaria and 
the other raised German duchies, 
were all first duly acknowledged, 
1815, at the Vienna congress. 


— FRBDEaiCK William succeeded his 
fiither, Frederick Eugene, as duke of 
Wurttemberg, 1797, after having mai> 
ried, in 1780, Augusta, princess of 
Brunswick. As his father had been 
nersonally en^edln the Seven Years' 
War in the Prussian army, he was 
brought up a soldier ; but possessing 
ffreat natural abilities, he devoted aU 
his leisure hours to polite learning, 
and became both an accomplished 
linguist and a very sound mathema- 
tician. Like his parent, he entered