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Full text of "Parent-teacher associations of Washington"

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PARENT- 
TEACHER 
ASSOCIATIONS 

of Washington 

Bulletin No. 31 






ISSUED BY ^Vj 

Mrs. Josephine Corliss Preston 

Superintendent of Public 
>\ Instruction JJ 



Parent-Teacher Associations 

of Washington 



ISSUED BY 



MRS. JOSEPHINE CORLISS PRESTON 

SUPERINTENDENT OF PUBLIC 
INSTRUCTION 



Olympia, Washington 



PRANK M. LAMBORy^eB^>PUBLIC PRINTER 



FOREWORD 

(By Mrs. Josephine Corliss Preston, Superintendent of 
Public Instruction) 

The growth of the Parent-Teacher movement in the State of 
Washington has been rapid. Circles have been formed in most of 
the schools of the larger cities, and even in the schools of many rural 
communities. Councils have brought the Circles together for exchange 
of thought and inspiration, while County Divisions have served the 
purpose of federating the isolated country Circles and spreading the 
gospel of helpfulness, of cooperation, of sincere devotion to the wel- 
fare of the citizens of tomorrow. 

The schools of this state are making great progress toward the 
goal of efficiency in moulding aright the men and women of tomor- 
row. The school and the teacher mould and shape the character of 
every pupil, ever stri^Tng__tq"produce the perfect citizen, but the 
greatest good for humanity will never be accomplished until the 
co-ordination of the home and school activities and the complete 
cooperation of the parent and teacher has been brought about. 

The "school marm" of yesterday's romance and idle tales has 
gone. In her place we find the specially trained, enthusiastic teacher 
who has caught the vision of service- and is anxious to serve humanity 
in the field of education. The "little, old, red school house" is now 
but a tradition in most communities. Neat school buildings, many 
of them scientificially constructed, lighted and heated specially for 
school purposes, are scattered throughout the state from the Upper 
Skagit to the Columbia, from the Pend Oreille to the Pacific. 

The Parent-Teacher Association is, perhaps, the greatest new 
influence that has come into the field of education in the last decade. 
Its power for good is inestimable. 

Where Parent-Teacher Circles are strong, the great.es^_harmojm 
exists between the school and the home, the teacher and the parent. 
Where the parents of the school children have interested themselves 
in the school and the teacher, the school is found working under con- 
ditions which approach nearest the ideal of efficiency in education. 
In districts where parents and teachers work at cross purposes, the 
usefulness of the school inevitably is threatened. 

The great Parent-Teacher movement is nation-wide in scope. The 
Circles in the different schools are linked together in Councils when- 
ever the Circles are so located that the representatives in the Councils 
may attend the meetings without too great difficulty. In the rural 
county districts, the Circles are bound together in County Divisions. 
The Divisions serve the same purpose as the Councils in the cities. 
The Washington State Branch of the National Congress of Mothers 
and Parent-Teacher Associations is composed of representatives from 
the Councils or similar bodies, and it, in turn, is represented in the 
national organization. The scheme of organization is simple but 



4 Parent -Teacher Associations of Washington 

effective and the power wielded by the national body in the interest 
of child welfare is great and constantly growing greater. 

The material for this publication was compiled and furnished by, 
some of the best known Parent-Teacher Association leaders in the 
state. Mrs. J. C. Todd, President of the Washington State Branch of 
the National Congress of Mothers and Parent-Teacher Associations, 
Mrs. H. L. Copeland, state chairman of the Parent-Teacher Associa- 
tion, Mrs. William F. Dodge, corresponding secretary of the state 
branch, and Mrs. Robert F. Coffy, the treasurer, prepared most of the 
material. Mrs. Frederic Schoff, President of the National Congress 
of Mothers and Parent-Teacher Associations, and director of the Home 
Education Division, Bureau of Education, Department of the Interior; 
William F. Geiger, superintendent of the Tacoma schools, and M. E. 
Durham, superintendent of the King County schools, also furnished 
material of value in promoting this work. 

The state department of public instruction gladly helps in carry- 
ing the message of the Parent-Teacher Associations to the schools of 
the state by authorizing the publication of this bulletin. 



TEN REASONS FOR PARENT-TEACHER ASSOCIATIONS 

1. Home and school are equal agencies in the education of the 
child; there is, therefore, urgent need that they should work together 
in harmony and mutual understanding; neither can work effectively 
in ignorance of the other or at cross purposes with the other. 

2. The Parent-Teacher Association informs the home of the aims, 
purposes, methods, plans and devices of the school, so that there may 
be intelligent, sympathetic, prompt and open endorsement and co- 
operation between home and school. 

3. The Parent-Teacher Association enlarges the teacher's op- 
portunities by making possible a knowledge of the child's home e^ 
vironment and influence and the view point of the parents. 

4. Improvements for school buildings and grounds, added equip- 
ment and facilities for school work or school play should be of quite 
as much moment to parents as to teachers; the intelligent demand 
of a Parent-Teacher organization is most effective in securing these 
things. 

5. Many problems connected with the training of children are 
identical in home and school; the opportunity afforded by the Parent- 
Teacher meetings for full discussion of these problems, with all points 
of view presented, leads to wiser methods of dealing with children on 
the part of both parents and teachers. 

6. Matters difficult of friendly adjustment when taken up as 
.specific or personal instances may be dealt with as general problems 
.in the Parent-Teacher meetings without offense to any and with 
Benefit to all. 



Parent -Teacher Associations of Washington 



7. The Parent-Teacher Association may combine the energy of 
an entire community for a constructive work, by bringing to the 
front problems of civic betterment, betterment of lives and living, 
passing by local, racial, family, church, political differences and 
prejudices. 

8. The Parent-Teacher Association occupies the middle ground 
between home and school. The needs of the child, continually passing 
between home and school to be educated, call for a single purpose in 
a joint process, therefore the responsibility to initiate betterment is 
a joint function of home and school. 

9. The world has no greater need than that of wiser, better 
trained parenthood; this need is not yet recognized in school and 
college courses; the Parent-Teacher Association, therefore serves as 
almost the only study class open to parents who wish to learn more 
of the duties of their calling. It raises the standards of home life 
through the education of parents. 

10. Parent-Teacher Associations are an intense power for good. 
They strengthen the hands of the educators; they lead in every good 
movement for the schools; they make for the improvement of all 
material conditions; they are boosters for the schools; they are a 
comfort and joy to every one in authority educationally, and they 
place every home behind every phase of school life. 



THE TEACHER IN OUR MIDST 

Parent-Teacher Associations have three main reasons for exist- 
ence. 

First. To give fathers and mothers the opportunity better to 
educate themselves for intelligent home-making and child-nurture. 

Second. To enable parents to learn what the schools are doing 
and how they are doing it in order that the home may offer effective 
cooperation and that the schools may also cooperate with the home. 

Third. To study community conditions affecting the welfare of 
the young with the purpose of arousing a sentiment of community 
responsibility. 

The movement to. foster a closer relation and deeper sympathy 
between the home and the school is nation-wide and stands for the 
nurture of the best moral and material conditions in both. The rapid 
spread of the movement and its endorsement by leading educators, 
is evidence that it is a logical part of the present day forward move- 
ment for higher standards of efficiency along all lines. 

The great work that is being done for the conservation of child- 
hood and the raising of the standards of home life, is largely due to 
the cooperation of earnest, devoted teachers. They caught the vision, 
they embraced the faith and purpose of the leaders of this move- 
ment, and by their large-minded, large-hearted response to the call 



(i Parent-Teacher Associations of Washington 

for cooperation, have helped to rouse the whole country to a sense 
of its duty to childhood. 

That this cooperation shall not be one-sided there should be 
conscious effort on the part of the community to look after the in- 
terests of the teacher. A sympathetic desire to see her happy and 
healthy will do much to increase her efficiency. Show your apprecia- 
tion of what she is doing for your children, by stimulating personal 
acquaintance, mutual understanding, cooperation instead of criticism 
in solving the problems that come up in other words, receive her 
into your-ke^rt^Jind homes. 



A PRAYER FOR ALL TEACHERS 
(By Walter Rauschenbusch) 

We implore Thy blessing, O God, on all the mem and women who 
teach the children and youth of our nation, for into their hands we 
daily commit the dearest that we have. We know that they are the 
potent friends and helpers of our homes, and that as they make our 
children, so shall future years see them. Grant them an abiding 
consciousness that they are co-workers with Thee, Thou great Teacher 
of humanity and that Thou hast charged them with the holy duty of 
bringing forth from the budding life of the young the mysterious 
stores of character and ability which Thou hast hidden in them. 
Teach them to reverence the young lives, clean and plastic, which 
have newly come from Thee, and to realize that generations still 
unborn shall rue their sloth or rise to higher levels through their 
wisdom and faithfulness. Gird them for their task with a double 
measure of Thy patience and tranquility, with a great fatherly and 
motherly love for the young, and with special tenderness for the 
backward and afflicted. Save them from physical exhaustion, from 
loneliness and discouragement, from the numbness of routine, and 
from all bitterness of heart. 

We bless Thee for the free and noble spirit that is breathing with 
quickening power upon the educational life of our day, and for the 
men and women of large mind and loving heart who have made that 
spirit our common possession by their teaching and example. But 
grant that a higher obedience and self-restraint may grow in the new 
atmosphere of freedom. We remember with gratitude to Thee the 
godly teachers of our own youth who won our hearts to higher pur- 
poses by the sacred contagion of their lives. May the strength and 
beauty of Christ-like service still be plainly wrought in the lives of 
their successors that our children may not want for strong models 
of devout manhood on whom their characters can be moulded. 

Do Thou reward Thy servants with a glad sense of their own 
eternal worth as teachers of the race, and in the heat of the day do 



Parent-Teacher Associations of Washington 7 

Thou show them the spring by the wayside that flows from the 
eternal silence of God and gives new light to the eyes of all who 
drink of it. 



HOW TO ORGANIZE A PARENT-TEACHER CIRCLE 

The call for the organization of a Parent-Teacher Association 
may come from one of two sources. The school, through its superin- 
tendent, principal or teacher, may issue an invitation to all interested 
in the school, to meet for the purpose of organization. Or, the invi- 
tation may come from the parents of the community. In either case, 
there should be a group even if small of persons who are deeply 
interested in the betterment of childhood, who have an insight into 
its needs, and a vision of its possibilities, and who realize the need 
of cooperation between the two greatest factors in the child's life, 
the home and the school. 

It should be made clear that the invitation is general, that any 
one interested in the purposes of the organization, i. e., to foster a 
closer relation and deeper sympathy between the home and the school, 
to secure the cooperation of parents and teachers in all work in the 
interest of the children in the school, and to study the welfare of the 
children in the community, is invited and urged to attend the meeting. 
Wide publicity should be given the meeting and its purposes. Every 
means of advertising the meeting should be used. 

A short program of general interest should precede the presenta- 
tion of the purpose of the meeting. When the nature and scope of 
the work of the organization has been presented and the aims and 
purposes of the Parent-Teacher Association are well understood, a 
temporary President and Secretary may be elected, and if so desired, 
the formal and permanent organization effected by using the sug- 
gested Constitution, adapting it to the needs of the organization. 

After the adoption of the Constitution and By-Laws, elect and 
install the officers for which it provides. The organization should be 
simple but adequate. 

Formal organization is the only way to get business done definitely 
and with dispatch. It definitely places the responsibility to plan and 
to initiate school betterment. It makes more forceful any action that 
may be taken. It unites the ideas and opinions of the individual into 
public sentiment and action "In the council of many there is wisdom." 

Every Parent-Teacher Association is part of a great educational 
movement inaugurated by the National Congress of Mothers and 
Parent-Teacher Associations which is receiving the endorsement and 
active cooperation of educators. Every Circle, no matter how small 
or obscure is a part of this great movement. Do not be content with 
being an unknown cooperative force, but become a conscious, en- 
thusiastic support through membership in the State Branch. 



8 Parent-Teacher Associations of Washington 

Largeness of view, breadth of participation, re-enforcement of 
purpose, strengthening of hope, confidence of success these and other 
helps to success come from entering into the county-wide and state- 
wide plans and projects that open and become possible to a state-wide 
cooperative group of associations. Hence it is wise to recognize that 
each association must be active in two fields or lines, namely, the 
local field and the general state-wide or nation-wide field. 



CONSTITUTION 

For a Parent-Teacher Association in the Washington State Branch of 
the National Congress of Mothers and Parent-Teacher Associations 



Article 1 Name 

This organization shall be known as the Parent-Teacher Associa^ 

tion of the School of and shall 

be a member of the Washington State Branch of the National Congress 
of Mothers and Parent-Teacher Associations. 

Article 2 Object 

The object of this Association shall be to study child welfare, to 
foster a closer relation and deeper sympathy between the homes and 
the school of this community and to secure the cooperation of the 
parents and teachers in all that pertains to the welfare of the children 
of this school in the home, school and community. 

Article 3 Membership 

Anyone interested in the purpose for which this Association is 
organized may become a member upon payment of the dues herein^ 
after provided. 

Article A Officers, Their Election and Duties 

Section 1. The officers of this Association shall be a President, a 
Vice- President, a Secretary, and a Treasurer, who shall be elected 
annually, by ballot. No one shall be eligible to the same office for 
more than two consecutive years. 

Sec. 2. Nominations for office shall be made by ballot, the two 
nominees for any office receiving the highest number of votes being 
candidates for that office. 

The election of officers shall take place at the regular annual 
meeting, a majority of all votes cast being necessary to elect. 

Vacancies shall be filled by the Executive Committee. 

Officers shall assume their duties the first day of July and shall 
continue in office until their successors are duly elected and qualified. 



Parent-Teacher Associations of Washington 



Sec. 3. The duties of the President of this Association shall be to 
preside at all meetings and be an ex-officio member of all committees. 

The Vice-President shall act in the absence of the President. 

The Secretary shall keep a record of the proceedings of all meet- 
ings and receive all monies of the Association, making accurate record 
of same before turning funds over to the Treasurer. The Secretary 
shall also have custody of all books and records relating to the trans- 
actions of the Association excepting those pertaining to the office of 
the Treasurer. 

The Treasurer shall receive from the Secretary all monies of the 
Association and pay out same only on written order, voted by the 
Association and signed by the President and Secretary. 

Sec. 4. There shall be an Executive Committee consisting of the 
officers of this Association, the Principal of this School, and the chair- 
men of the standing committees. Five members shall constitute a 
quorum. 

Article 5 Meetings 

Section 1. A regular meeting of this Association shall be held 
each school month unless otherwise provided by the Association. 

Sec. 2. The annual meeting will be held on the 

of May. 

Sec. 3 members shall constitute a quorum. 

Article 6 Discussions 

The effort of this Association is educational. It is non-sectarian 
and non-partisan. Neither religion nor politics shall be discussed nor 
shall any political candidate nor any commercial or religious enter- 
prise be endorsed. 

Article 7 Amendments 

This constitution may be amended, added to or repealed at any 
regular meeting of this Association by a two-thirds vote of those 
present, provided written notice of the proposed amendment shall have 
been read at the next previous regular meeting and such amendment 
shall have been submitted to and approved by the Constitution Com- 
mittee of the Washington State Branch, N. C. M. & P.-T. A. 



BY-LAWS 
By-Law 1 Dues 

The annual dues in this Association shall be cents, 

ten cents of which shall be paid, prior to March 31st, to the Treasurer 
of the Washington State Branch of the National Congress of Mothers 
and Parent-Teacher Associations for State and National dues. (See 
note No. 1.) 



10 Parent-Teacher Associations of Washington 

By-Law 2 Meetings 

The regular meetings of this Association shall be held the. 
of each school month. (See note No. 2.) 



By-Law 3 Committees 

The president of this Association shall, with the approval of the 
Executive Committee, appoint the following standing committees: 
(See note No. 3.) 

By-Law 4 Amendments 

These By-Laws may be amended at any regular meeting by a two- 
thirds vote of those present, provided notice of the proposed amend- 
ment shall have been given at the next previous regular meeting. 



Note No. 1. Twenty-five cents is the amount quite uniformly 
adopted for dues in Parent-Teacher Associations. Circles paying a 
fee to a Council for Parent-Teacher Associations or to a County Di- 
vision of the State Branch should so provide in Section No. 2 of this 
By-Law. 

Note No. 2. In cases where the date for the regular meetings is 
set late in the month many circles provide in this By-Law for the 
omission of the December meeting. 

Note No. 3. Every circle should have a Program Committee and 
a Membership Committee and should, as far as is practicable, follow 
the Departments of the State Branch with parallel committees. 

These By-Laws are merely a suggestive outline. They should 
cover all standing rules of the Association not covered by the Con- 
stitution, arranged to fit each individual circle. 



THE ADVANTAGES OF A COUNCIL OF PARENT-TEACHER 
ASSOCIATIONS 

(By William F. Geiger, Superintendent of Schools, Tacoma, Wash.) 

Some one has very fittingly said that in the United States all good 
thingste^nti to join hands and become national movements. This is 
undoubtedly following out the idea of our forefathers when they 
formed the national government. We are all familiar with the old 
saying "In union there is strength." The first advantage, therefore, 
of a council of Parent-Teacher Associations is to give strength to all 
of them, and special help and encouragement to the weaker members 
of the council. 

In these days of individual thinking and many ideas, frequently 
much valuable time is lost because of conflicting views, sectionalism 
and cross purposes. A council where representatives from all sec- 
tions of the city meet on common ground tends to do away with mis- 



Parent-Teacher Associations of Washington 11 

understandings and promotes harmony. Harmony is necessary to the 
success of any institution. 

Such a council is along the lines of the most helpful development 
of the times. For many years, undoubtedly since the very beginnings 
of education, those outside the school have attempted to help the 
public schools but only in the last few years has this help been 
definitely organized. We see the remnants of this old style of help 
in the establishment of special schools or special courses or special 
endowments in some communities. Now permanent organizations, 
whose sole object is to help the schools, have been organized and 
definite help has been offered. A council of the Parent-Teacher Asso- 
ciations in any community is able to act as a sort of clearing house 
for the many schemes that are suggested for cooperation with the 
school authorities, thus unifying and making purposeful the work of 
all its members. 

Oftentimes much valuable energy is worse than wasted on mat- 
ters of little concern. Such a condition is easily possible in a single 
Parent-Teacher organization. This danger is reduced to a minimum 
where the various associations of the city are organized in a council. 
The representatives in this council frequently view the needs of the 
entire city or school system, as a whole, and select quite intelligently 
those problems which are of most immediate concern, making them 
the problems of the various circles for the current month or year. 
As the opinions of many minds are generally more balanced than the 
opinions of an individual, so the opinions of a council body are apt 
to be better balanced than the opinions of its individual members. 
The council furnishes intelligent leadership for the P.-T. A.'s of the 
city. 

A P.-T. A. council tends to make a progressive community and jj^ 
progressive school system. Human nature is ever interested in what 
its neighbor is doing. The new activities being tried out at one school 
are discussed in the council and frequently committees from other 
schools will visit the scene of the new activity and carry away in- 
spiration and ideas which are loosed in their own districts. The 
development of the noon lunches in many schools is a practical illus- 
tration of this point. 

All the Parent-Teacher Associations of a community or city, drawn 
together by the common bonds of their common interests, tend to 
promote a fine spirit of service. The schools of our cities, which are 
the homes of the spirit of youth, make an impelling appeal to all 
classes of citizens interested in the advancement of humanity. They 
are particularly attractive to parents banded together in the interest 
of better education. A Council of Parent-Teacher Associations, be- 
cause of its organization, tends to promote a more efficient service for 
the schools from all its members. 



Parent-Teacher Associations^ of Washington 



CONSTITUTION FOR A COUNCIL OF PARENT-TEACHER ASSO- 
CIATIONS IN THE WASHINGTON STATE BRANCH OF THE 
NATIONAL CONGRESS OF MOTHERS AND PARENT- 
TEACHER ASSOCIATIONS 

Article 1 Name 

This organization shall be known as the Council 

of Parent-Teacher Associations of the Washington State Branch of the 
National Congress of Mothers and Parent- Teacher Associations. 

Article 2 Object 

The object of this Council shall be to further the purpose and 
unify the effort of the Associations of this city, to bring about their 
cooperation and to further the extension of Parent-Teacher Associa- 
tions in the schools of this district. 

Article 3 Representation and Vote 

Section 1. Any Parent-Teacher Association, duly organized and in 
membership with the Washington State Branch of the National Con- 
gress of Mothers and Parent-Teacher Associations, may be represented 
in this Council by its officers and the chairman of the program com- 
mittee. 

Sec. 2. Representatives from the Associations which have paid 
the required fee and the officers of the Council shall be entitled to 
vote. 

Sec. 3 persons with voting privilege shall con- 
stitute a quorum. (See note No. 1.) 

Article A Officers, Their Election and Duties 

Section 1. The officers of this Council shall be a President, two 
Vice-Presidents, Recording Secretary, Corresponding Secretary, Fi- 
nancial Secretary and Treasurer, who shall be elected annually, by 
ballot, from the representation on the date of election. 

No one shall be eligible to the same office for more than twa 
consecutive years. 

Sec. 2. Nominations for office shall be made by ballot, the two 
nominees for any office receiving the highest number of votes being 
candidates for that office. 

The election of officers shall take place at the regular annual meet- 
ing. A majority of all votes cast shall be necessary to an election. 

Vacancies shall be filled by the Executive Committee. 

Officers shall assume their duties the 1st day of July and shall 
continue in office until their successors are duly elected and qualified. 

Sec. 3. The duties of the President of this Council shall be to pre- 
side at all meetings and be an ex-officio member of all committees. 



Parent-Teacher Associations of Washington 13 



The Vice-Presidents shall in their order act in the absence of the 
President. 

The Recording Secretary shall keep a record of the proceedings 
of all meetings and have custody of all books and records relating to 
the transactions of the Council. 

The Corresponding Secretary shall attend to all correspondence 
of the Council. 

The Financial Secretary shall receive all monies of the Council, 
make a record of the same and turn all funds over to the Treasurer. 

The Treasurer shall receive from the Financial Secretary all 
monies of the Council and shall pay out same only on written order 
voted by the Council and signed by the President and Recording Sec- 
retary, making an accurate record of the same and preparing a writ- 
ten report for each annual meeting and for such other meetings as 
the President shall require. 

Sec. 4. There shall be an Executive Committee consisting of the 
officers of this Council together with three members, nominated and 
elected by ballot at the first regular meeting of the year and from the 
representation on that date. Five members of this Committee shall 
constitute a quorum. 

Article 5 Meetings 

Section 1. A regular meeting of this Council shall be held each 
school month unless otherwise provided by the Council. 

Sec. 2. Special meetings shall be called by the President. 

Sec. 3. The annual meeting shall be held on the of 

May. 

Article 6 Discussions 

Following the purpose of the Associations represented, this Coun- 
cil is non-sectarian and non-partisan. Neither religion nor politics 
shall be discussed nor shall any political candidate nor any com- 
mercial or religious enterprise be endorsed. 

Article 7 Amendments 

This constitution may be amended, added to or repealed at any 
regular meeting of this Council, by a two-thirds vote of those present, 
provided written notice of the proposed amendment shall have been 
read at the two next previous regular meetings and such amendment 
has been submitted to and approved by the Constitution Committee 
of the Washington State Branch, N. C. M. & P.-T. A. 

Note No. 1. Bight persons with voting privilege shall constitute 
a quorum in Councils where there are five (5) or less Associations 
represented, fifteen (15) where there are from six (6) to ten (10) 
Associations and twenty (20) where there are more than ten (10) 
Associations. 



14 Parent-Teacher Associations of Washington 



BY-LAWS 

The By-Laws should cover all other standing rules of the Council, 
One should cover the regular meeting dates of the Council. If this is 
set late in the month the Council may desire to omit the December 
meeting and provision should be made in a second section of this. 
By-Law. Another should cover any arrangement the Associations 
represented may make for contributing to a fund in the Council. 

One By-Law should cover any department or committees appointed 
in the Council to further any special line of effort in the Associations. 
As far as it is practicable, a member or committee should be ap- 
pointed to correspond to the departments of the State Branch to serve 
as a connecting link between the work of that department and the 
effort in the Associations, looking to the time when these members or 
committee chairmen will constitute the State Committees, a chairman 
only being appointed by the State. 

The amendment By-Law should place it out of the power of any 
one meeting to modify these rules. 



ORGANIZATION FOR RURAL CIRCLES WITHIN A COUNTY 
(By M. E. Durham, Superintendent of King County Schools) 

The work of the National Congress of Mothers and Parent-Teacher 
Associations is most potent for good to the schools. The more care- 
fully and systematically we can carry out its work, the greater will be 
the cooperation between the home and the school. 

The function performed by the State organization is limited with 
its one meeting a year. It does not get into as close touch with the 
Circles, nor bring them into as close touch with each other as de- 
sirable, hence the importance of the smaller federating groups within 
the State Branch. This is accomplished by a Council for circles that 
are located near each other. For circles in scattered rural districts a 
County Division is an important feature. 

The purpose of a County Division, like that of the Council, is to 
bring the individual circles into closer relation for mutual strength 
and inspiration; for unity of effort and harmony of purpose. The work 
should be so planned that district meetings will be held in addition 
to the annual meetings of the entire organization. 

The larger meeting brings representatives from all parts of the^ 
county to exchange ideas and methods and to gather inspiration. The 
district meetings draw the smaller groups into still closer relation to 
each other. It is possible for a larger number of members of the local 
circles to attend a division meeting. The privilege of participating in 
the discussions is certain to give great benefit to those who attend. 



Parent-Teacher Associations of Washington 15 

The division meetings serve the same purpose for uplifting, in- 
spiring and refreshing the vision and information as state or national 
conventions. They are the means of greater cooperation and single- 
ness of purpose in county affairs. 



CONSTITUTION FOR A COUNTY DIVISION OF THE WASHING- 
TON STATE BRANCH OF THE NATIONAL CONGRESS OF 
MOTHERS AND PARENT-TEACHER ASSOCIATIONS 

Article 1 Name 

This organization shall be known as the 

County Division of the Washington State Branch of the National 
Congress of Mothers and Parent-Teacher Associations. , 

Article 2 Object 

The object of this Division shall be to further the purpose and 
unify the effort of the Circles represented, to bring about their co- 
operation and to further the extension of Circles organized for child 
study and child welfare in this county. 

Article 3 Representation and Vote 

Section 1. Any Circle, duly organized and in membership with the 
Washington State Branch of the National Congress of Mothers and 
Parent-Teacher Associations may be represented in this Division, upon 
payment of the fee hereinafter prescribed. 

Sec. 2. Circles, which have paid the required fee, are entitled to 
representation in this Division by their president, or her representa- 
tive, and one delegate for ten (10) or more members. They shall be 
entitled to an additional delegate for fifty (50) members and for each 
fifty (50) members thereafter. These and the members of the Execu- 
tive Committee shall be entitled to vote in the meetings of this 
Division. 

Sec. 3 persons with the voting privilege shall 

constitute a quorum. (See note No. 1.) 

Article 4 Officers, Their Election and Duties 

Section 1. The officers of this Division shall be a President, two 
Vice-Presidents, a Recording Secretary, a Corresponding Secretary, a 
Financial Secretary and a Treasurer, who shall be elected annually, 
by ballot. 

No one shall be eligible to the same office for more than two con- 
secutive years. 

Sec. 2. Nominations for office shall be made by ballot, the two 
nominees for any office, receiving the highest number of votes being 
candidates for that office. 



16 Parent -Teacher Associations of Washington 

The election of officers shall take place at the first meeting of the 
regular annual session of this Division, a majority of all votes cast 
shall be necessary to an election. 

Vacancies shall be filled by the Executive Committee. 

Officers shall assume their duties the first day of July and shall 
continue in office until their successors are duly elected and qualified. 

Sec. 3. The duties of the President of this Division shall be to 
preside at all meetings and be an ex-officio member of all committees. 

The Vice-Presidents shall, in their order, act in the absence of the 
President. 

The Recording Secretary shall keep a record of the proceedings of 
all meetings and have custody of all books and records relating to the 
transactions of the Division. 

The Corresponding Secretary shall attend to all correspondence 
of the Division. 

The Financial Secretary shall receive all monies of the Division, 
make a record of the same and turn all funds over to the Treasurer. 

The Treasurer shall receive from the Financial Secretary all 
monies of the Division and shall pay out same only on written order 
signed by the President and Recording Secretary, making an accurate 
record of the same and preparing a written report for each annual 
meeting and for such other meetings as the President shall require. 

Sec. 4. There shall be an Executive Committee consisting of the 
officers of this Division together with three (3) members, regularly 
nominated and elected at the regular annual meeting from the mem- 
bership at large. Five members of this Committee shall constitute a 
quorum. 

Article 5 Sessions 

Section 1. There shall be two regular sessions of this Division 

annually, held the 

Sec. 2. The annual sessions shall be held the 

Article 6 Discussions 

Following the purpose of the Circles represented, this Division is 
non-sectarian -and non-partisan. Neither religion nor politics shall be 
discussed nor shall any political candidate nor any commercial or 
religious enterprise be endorsed. 

Article 7 Amendments 

This Constitution may be amended, added to or repealed at any 
regular meeting of this Division by a two-thirds vote of those present, 
provided written notice of the proposed amendment shall have been 
read at a previous regular meeting and such amendment has been 



Parent-Teacher Associations of Washington 17 



submitted to and approved by the Constitution Committee of the Wash- 
ington State Branch, N. C. M. & P.-T. A. 

Note No. 1. Eight persons with voting privilege shall constitute 
a quorum in Divisions where there are five (5) circles represented, 
fifteen (15) where there are from six (6) to ten (10) circles, twenty 
(20) where there are from ten (10) to twenty (20) circles and twenty- 
five (25) where there are more than twenty (20) circles. 



The By-Laws should cover all other standing rules of the Division. 
One should state the fee to be paid by the Circles to the Division, 
whether a flat fee per circle or a per capita tax. 

One By-Law should cover any departments or committees ap- 
pointed in the Division to further any special line of effort in the 
Circles. As far as practicable a member or committee should be ap- 
pointed to correspond to the departments of the State Branch to serve 
as a connecting link between the work of the department and the 
effort in the circles, looking to the time when these members or com- 
mittee chairmen will constitute the State committees, a chairman only 
being appointed by the State. 

The amendment By-Law should place it out of the power of any 
one meeting to modify these rules. 



COVENANT FOR PARENTS AND TEACHERS 
(From program of Lowell P.-T. A. of Tacoma, Wash.) 

Striving for higher ideals for ourselves and our children; mindful 
that achievement comes only through effort and co-operation; in the 
spirit of loyalty and sincerity, I pledge myself to the loving and 
untiring service of Child Welfare, in my home, my school, and my 
city (community). 



"Lord give the mothers of the world 
More love to do their part; 
That love which reaches not alone 
The children made by birth their own, 
But every childish heart. 
Make in their souls true motherhood, 
Which aims at universal good." 



18 Parent-Teacher Associations of Washington 



TO THE PARENT-TEACHER ASSOCIATIONS OF WASHINGTON 

The Washington State Branch of the National Congress of Mothers 
and Parent-Teacher Associations stands for the united effort of the 
Associations within its membership in child study and for child welfare. 
The purpose of the organization is to bind together these in- 
dividual circles for strength and inspiration and to stimulate their\ 
growth and organization; to suggest lines of thought and study and \ 
to promote that which makes for harmony and helpfulness in their 
cooperative effort. 

This state organization is one of many that are in their turn 
bound and strengthened by the National organization, making all the 
Associations and the individual members a part of a nation-wide move- 
ment calling together fathers, mothers and teachers and all who can 
see that in caring for the conditions of the children of today we are 
caring for the nation of tomorrow. 

All Parent-Teacher Associations are admitted as members of the 
Washington State Branch of the National Congress of Mothers and 
Parent-Teacher Associations on payment of ten cents per capita to 
the treasurer of the State Branch. Half of this goes to the National 
Congress and half is retained in the State Branch to defray the ex- 
penses of printing and postage in the work of stimulation and exten- 
sion. No salaries are asked or can be paid out of the small fund thus 
provided. All work is volunteered and the workers selected from - ^ 
among the membership of the circles. 

Anyone interested is invited to write for information and litera- 
ture. We will gladly respond. 

MRS. J. C. TODD, President, 

502 Sheridan Ave., Tacoma; 
MRS. WILLIAM F. DODGE, Cor. Sec., 

5201 South I St., Tacoma; 
MRS. ROBERT C. COFPY, Treasurer, 

1509 23rd St., Everett, 

Washington State Branch, National Congress of 
Mothers and Parent-Teacher Associations. 



MESSAGE TO PARENTS AND TEACHERS OF THE STATE OF 

WASHINGTON 

(From Mrs. Frederic Schoff, President National Congress of Mothers 

and Parent-Teacher Associations, Director Home Education 

Division, Bureau of Education, Dept. of Interior) 

Doubling the educational uses of the school system while lighten- 
ing the work of superintendents and teachers might seem impossible 
had not the NATIONAL CONGRESS OF MOTHERS AND PARENT- 
TEACHER ASSOCIATIONS proved that it can be done, and that it is 
being done in every progressive school district. 



Parent-Teacher Associations of Washington 19 

The education of children begins with birth and continues until 
maturity. 

The educational work of schools is about one-eighth of that which 
is done in homes. Together, parents and teachers share the education 
of the children. 

That all parents in every community of the United States may 
have the opportunity to study the methods which develop their chil- 
dren most fully in body, mind and spirit, the National Congress of 
Mothers and Parent-Teacher Associations in cooperation with the 
Bureau of Education is promoting the organization of all parents 
through Parent- Teacher Associations or Mothers' Circles in every 
school, for three good objects, viz.: 

First. Study of the greatest of all sciences Child Nurture and 
Home Making. 

Second. Cooperation with teachers in the school work. 

Third. Study and Promotion of Child Welfare in the Community. 

For over twenty years the Congress of Mothers has been helping 
the homes to do better work by awakening parents to the fact that 
instinct is not a sufficient guide in bringing up children. The Bureau 
of Education has given active cooperation since 1913. 

By education in infant hygiene the death rate among infants can' 
be reduced seventy per cent. 

By right home training before school age moral habits take deep 
root, by cooperation with teachers children progress more rapidly" 
and school discipline is made easier. 

By right home training the faults of children are intelligently 
treated, the causes are sought and the right trend is given to the 
child's will. 

For the wayward children in school (who are often wayward 
through causes over which they have no control) the Parent-Teacher 
association has found ways of extending sympathetic guidance. This' 
part of the work alone can prevent the continuance of bad habits in 
children, which eventually make the criminal. Prevention at the time 
when character is forming is what counts. 

In Union there is Strength. Teachers have County and State 
Conventions, and an annual National Education Association. Parents 
with teachers unite in County and State organizations, all of which 
are branches of the National Congress of Mothers and Parent-Teacher 
Associations, with headquarters at 910 Loan & Trust Bldg., Wash- 
ington, D. C. By united study of child welfare in home, church, school 
and state, the weak places are helped, the strong give inspiration to 
the weak and great movements for child welfare have been in- 
augurated and promoted in a nation wide manner. 

Into this work for better opportunities for every child, the National 
Congress of Mothers and Parent-Teacher Associations bids you wel- 
come. There is no work so fundamental, so far reaching in its 
results, so greatly needed for the future of society and the making 



20 Parent-Teacher Associations of Washington 

of higher national standards. Learn what others are doing, widen 
your own horizon, come in touch with the greatest men and women 
who have delved into the mysteries of childhood and youth, and 
whose wisdom is of service in every home. Believe in childhood's, 
possibilities, and through the guide posts that are available assume 
a little share in the great privilege that is ours of giving to parents 
a deeper insight into childhood's needs, to every child the chance to. 
become physically strong, mentally keen and clear sighted, spiritually 
animated by high unselfish ideals of duty and of the great purposes, 
of life. 

The National Congress of Mothers and Parent-Teacher Associa- 
tions empowers the Washington State Branch to carry out the aims, 
and objects of the Congress in the State of Washington, and will 
appreciate all the cooperation given by individuals or organizations. 
CHILD WELFARE MAGAZINE, the official organ of the National 
Congress of Mothers and Parent-Teacher Associations, with other 
publications of the Congress will give explicit suggestions, gleaned, 
from long experience in many states. 

Rural, urban and city communities are allied in this movement. 
Government bulletins helpful to home and school are available, 
Washington has already become a leading state. May the progress, 
continue until every home in the state knows of the National Con- 
gress of Mothers and Parent-Teacher Associations. 



TOPICS FOR DISCUSSION. 

Suggestions of topics for discussion are submitted with the hope 
that they may be the means of encouraging a closer relationship 
between the homes and schools of the State of Washington. 

Public interest in the schools is valuable, not only as a help 
in solving special problems, but as an impelling force in placing on 
a firm foundation the new kinds of education. Homes and schools 
must be drawn into closer and closer bonds of sympathy and co- 
operation with each other. 



SUGGESTIVE TOPICS FOR PARENT-TEACHER ASSOCIATIONS 
GRADE SCHOOLS 



PHYSICAL 

The Child's Physical Health. 

The Meaning of Fatigue, Irritability and Nervousness in Children 
of School Age. 

The Influence of Clothes on Health, on Character. 
The Value of Work and Play. 
The Fears of Childhood. 



Parent-Teacher Associations of Washington 21 

Dietetics for Children. 

Care of Children's Eyes, Ears and Teeth. 

Home and School Sanitation. 

School Athletics. 

Dangerous Vices of Young. 

The Sex Problem as Related to the Pre-Adolescent School Child. 

The Cigarette Evil What Effective Measures May Be Exercised 
by the Home and School. 

The School Lunch Value of Hot Lunches. 

Vacation Employment Changing the Vice of Idleness into the 
Virtue of Industry. 

The Municipal Playground How Make it Attractive and Beneficial 
to the Child. 

Shorter Hours for Younger Children. 



EDUCATIONAL 

Co-operation between Home and School in Attendance, Punctuality, 
Obedience, Loyalty and Morals. 

Home Study for Pre-Adolescent Children. 

School Savings Account. 

Why Should Public Kindergartens Be Established as Universally as 
Public Schools? 

The Value of the Beautiful. 

^frhfluence of Good Reading in Molding Character and How to 
Brevent Reading of Trashy, Sensational Books. 

The Newspaper in the Home What Is its Value for Children and 
How Can It Be Supervised? 

The Education of Boys and Girls as Future Home-Makers. 

How Can We Make the Most of Our School Buildings? 

The Value of Cooperation between the Public Library and the 
Public Schools. 

The Value of Manual Training. 

School Credits for Home Work. 

Vocational Guidance. 

The Habit of Good English. 

Pictures in the School Room. 



MORAL AND RELIGIOUS 

Religious Training of Children in the Home. 

How are Untruthfulness, Deceit, and Dishonesty Inculcated in 
the Home? 

The Power of Precept and Example on the Moral and Religious 
Life of the Child. 

>^Phe Influence of Environment on the Physical, Mental and Moral 
^ture. 



22 Parent-Teacher Associations of Washington 

Moral and Intellectual Degeneracy Resulting from the Use of 
Cigarettes. 

Do Parents Rely too much on Sunday Schools for the Religious 
Training of their Children? 

al Rights of Children. 

Imagination and Untruthfulness. 

Is There Such a Thing as a Depraved Child? 



CIVIC 

v'tJse and Abuse of Motion Pictures How Controlled. 
' Civic Teaching in Home and School. 

Training Children for Future Usefulness. 
Self-government vs. Government by Authority. 
American Citizenship Safeguarded by American Homes. 
What Is the Foundation of Good Citizenship? 

How Can We Make the Work of Our School Relate to the Industry 
of our District? 

.^The Duty of Home and School in Teaching Community Pride and 
Royalty. 

How Can We Make Our Town or City More Beautiful? 
Respect of Property Rights. 
><Jlean School Houses and Grounds. 
' The Value of Home Tasks. 



HOME AND SCHOOL 

Relation of Home Discipline and School Discipline. 

Good Will between Home and School. 

Draining Children in Good Manners and Politeness. 
./School and Home Visitation. 

Pre-adolescent Children and the Mysteries of Life. 

Financing the Home The Mother's Responsibility. 

.What Part of the Child's Education Should Fall upon the School 
Wnat Part upon the Home? 

Teaching Children the Value of Money. 

.yhe Problem of Punishment. 
'"The Father's Place in the Home. 

Family Loyalty: What It Is What It Does. 

How Can Home Help the School? 

Should a Mother Become Acquainted with the Home Life of the 
Associates of her Children? 

How Can Our School Rooms Be Made More Attractive? 

What Should Teachers Expect from Parents vice-versa. 

Habits When Should the Cultivation of Regular Habits Begin? 



Parent-Teacher Associations of Washington 23 

SUGGESTIVE TOPICS FOR PARENT-TEACHER ASSOCIATIONS IN 
THE HIGH SCHOOL 

Industrial Training for the Adolescent Youth. 
.^Vocational Guidance for Youth. 



and Loafing. 

The Young and Religious Good Fellowship. 
^/The Social Needs of Young People How Met and How Controlled. 

Home Management of the Adolescent Boy and Girl. 

Training for Marriage and Parenthood. 

Social Life of Parents in Relation to Youth. 
^^Press and Democracy among High School Students. 

Adolescent Love How Directed and Safeguarded. 

The Adolescent and the Dance Problem. 

Youth and the Problem of Athletics. 

The Cigarette Problem How Can Home and School Unite to 
Wipe out this Evil? 

Evils that Lure the Young Girl. 

How much Home Study Should Be Required of High School Pupils? 

Problem of School Lunches The Tea and Coffee, Candy and Soda 
Habit. 

School Headaches Are They Due to Conditions in or out of School? 

The Boy and Girl Question How Can the Most Normal Conditions 
Be Secured? 

College and Its Relation to High School. 

Patriotism. 

Civic Training for the Adolescent. 

What Diversions and How Much. 

Respect of Property Rights. 



SUGGESTIVE TOPICS FOR PARENT-TEACHER ASSOCIATIONS IN 
THE RURAL SCHOOL 

What Farm Life Experiences Contribute Most to the Development 
of Good Character? 

How Is the Rural Mother to Solve the Problem of Household Help? 

Teaching Health and Sanitation in the Rural School. 

What Are the Advantages of Consolidation of Schools? 

How May the Rural Teacher Be a Community Builder? 

The Rural School as a Social Center. 

How Can the Rural School Be Made Attractive? 

Home and School Sanitation. 

How May We Help the Child to Make the Most of his Time and 
Energy? 

Beautifying the School Grounds. 

The School Playground, Equipment. 

Public School in America History, Organization, Aims, Results. 



Parent-Teacher Associations of Washington 

Hot Lunches and Their Relation to Better Work. 

Clean School Houses and Grounds. 

How Shall Vulgarity Be Met? 

How Shall Parents Meet Complaints about School Affairs? 

Pictures in the School Room. 

Better Teachers Better Salaries. 

What Constitutes a Good Mother Father? 

Women on School Boards. 

Drinking Fountains and Wash Basins. 

Consolidation. 

School Finances. 

The Community Influence on the School. 






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