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Full text of "Parish Register Latinw_language="

0004373 



PARISH REGISTER LATIN: AN INTRODUCTION 



C. Russell Jensen, Ph.D. 




Donated to the Family History Library by 




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VITA NOVA BOOKS 

P.O. Box 520546 

Salt Lake City, Utah 84152 






WARNING - DISCLAIMER 

The purpose of this book is to inform and educate. 
Although the book has been researched and written 
as painstakingly as possible, there may be inadvertent 
typographic or content errors. This book should, 
therefore, be regarded as a general introduction 
to the subject and not as an ultimate authority. 
Neither Vita Nova Books nor the author guarantees 
that everyone using this book will be able to read 
Latin parish register entries, although a careful 
study of the material therein may be of help in 
learning to do so. Consequently, neither Vita Nova 
Books nor the author shall be held liable or responsible 
in any way whatsoever for the failure of anyone using 
this book to read Latin parish register entries; nor 
shall Vita Nova Books or the author be held liable 
or responsible in any way whatsoever for any loss or 
damage said to arise directly or indirectly from any 
information, or lack of information, in this book. 



Copyright (c) 1989 by Vita Nova Books 
All Rights Reserved. No part of this book may be 
reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, 
including photocopying or recording, or by any computer 
storage and retrieval system, or other storage 
storage and retrieval system, without permission in 
writing from the publisher. 



PREFACE 



The Latin of European parish registers, particularly but not 
exclusively those from Roman Catholic parishes, was, in many 
respects, a unique blend of classical Roman literary Latin, 
ecclesiastical Latin, and medieval Latin. Priests and other 
ecclesiastical officials who were well-schooled in classical 
Roman Latin might utilize a classical grammar and syntax in 
recording events in their parishes. Others might rely more 
heavily upon ecclesiastical usages. Spelling, vocabulary, 
certain aspects of grammar, and even abbreviations, when used, 
were frequently derived from medieval Latin. 

Those who work with Latin parish registers, e.g., family and 
local historians, demographers, social historians, and others, 
require, therefore, a text which will introduce them to the 
lineaments of classical Roman Latin grammar and syntax, but will 
also provide sufficient background in ecclesiastical and medieval 
Latin to help in reading register entries. This is especially 
true for those without previous preparation in Latin, who may be 
unable to devote several years to the study of classical Latin at 
a college or university before proceeding to a perusal of parish 
registers. 

To aid in this endeavor, the following book was written. It 
combines the study of Latin grammar, classical and, to some 
extent, medieval, with practical training in the translation of 
parish register entries, both printed and handwritten. This 
book, the product of years of teaching and research, is designed 
for use in the classroom where instructor supervision and aid are 
readily available. It can be completed either in one or two 
semesters, depending upon the preparation of those involved. 

While there is, of course, no substitute for learning in the 
classroom, this book is structured in such a way that motivated 
individuals can, on their own, work through each of the assign- 
ments and verify their results by comparing them with the grammar 
and translation key at the end. It should be noted, however, 
that the systematic study of this book will not necessarily 
guarantee the development of a facility in reading parish 
register entries, nor can it replace the years of study required 
to become proficient in classical languages. This text is an 
introduction to the subject of parish register Latin, and may, it 
is hoped, be of value to those interested in perusing register 
entries. 

The corpus of this volume consists of 14 chapters on grammar 
and vocabulary, with illustrative selections taken from parish 
registers. There are four appendices which contain the following 
information: a brief introduction to paleography and abbrevia- 
tions, a summary of fixed and moveable feast days, a list of 
Latinized first or given names, and several practice documents 
which can be reviewed as an aid in improving translation skills. 



There is also a key to the grammar and translation, a 
synopsis of declension and conjugation, a Latin-English word 
list, and a selected bibliography- It is hoped that the inclu- 
sion of additional material in the appendices and bibliography 
might help to make this book a useful reference tool, as well as 
an introduction to Latin grammar. 

While the practice of keeping rudimentary lists of new 
converts, births, deaths, or marriages, within a geographic or 
ecclesiastical jurisdiction such as a parish, began very early in 
Christian history, the major impetus toward the systematic 
recording of baptisms or christenings, marriages, deaths and 
burials in a particular area was primarily a result of the Prot- 
estant Reformation and the Council of Trent. 

In many parts of Europe such information was not transcribed 
consistently until at least the late sixteenth or early seven- 
teenth century. However, as a result of the deliberations of the 
Council of Trent, which met with interruptions between 1545-1563, 
Roman Catholic priests throughout Europe began to record all 
baptisms, marriages, deaths and burials, as well as confirma- 
tions, and other events in their parishes. 

This means that the student of parish registers is likely to 
encounter Latin entries in many areas of Europe in which there 
were Roman Catholic parishes. This is particularly true of 
central and eastern Europe, Italy, Belgium, and the Catholic 
portions of the Netherlands. Parishes in France and Spain often 
used the vernacular French or Spanish rather than Latin in 
recording entries. Lutheran parishes in certain parts of central 
Europe also used at least some Latin in their register entries, 
while Scandinavian parishes retained the feast and saints' day 
calendar, in some cases well into the nineteenth century. The 
examples selected for this text are, for the most part, derived 
from the registers of Roman Catholic parishes of central Europe 
(e.g., Germany, parts of Switerland, the former provinces of 
Alsace-Lorraine, and Austria) with which I am most familiar. 

With few exceptions, all translations in this book are my 
own, even those taken from such well-known works as the Vulgate. 
They are rather literal to facilitate translation by those who 
work through the exercises. 

Since this book deals primarily with the Latin of parish 
registers, it does not, and indeed cannot, cover all aspects of 
Latin grammar. Those wishing additional information on the 
subject should consult some of the reference works listed in the 
selected bibliography. The same is true of Latin paleography. 
This text should be regarded principally as an introduction and a 
point of departure for future study. 



CONTENTS 

ALPHABET AND PRONUNCIATION GUIDE vii 

EXPLANATION OF LATIN LANGUAGE TERMS xii 

GLOSSARY OF GRAMMATICAL TERMS xiv 

CHAPTERS : 

I. Nouns: The First Declension 
Nouns: The Second Declension 

Masculine Nouns Ending in -us or -er 

Neuter Nouns Ending in -um 
Latinized First Names: First and Second 

Declension 1 

II. Adjectives of the First and Second Declension 
First and Second Declension Adjectives Ending 

in -er, -era, -erum 
Irregular First and Second Declension 

Adjectives 15 

III. Verbs I: First and Second Conjugation 

Present, Future, and Imperfect Indicative 
Active 
Present, Future, and Imperfect Indicative 

Active of esse and posse 
Latin Syntax: An Introduction 22 

IV. Nouns: The Third Declension 

I-Stem Nouns of the Third Declension 

Latinized First Names: Third Declension 

Third Declension Adjectives 39 

V. Verbs II: Third and Fourth Conjugation 

Present, Future, and Imperfect Indicative 
Active 
lO-Verbs of the Third Conjugation 
Prepositions 52 

VI. Verbs III: The Perfect Active System: Perfect, 
Pluperfect, and Future Perfect Indicative 
Active of all Four Conjugations 
Perfect, Pluperfect, and Future Perfect of 
esse and posse 69 



VII. Numbers 

Ablative and Accusative of Time 

Dates in Latin Documents 

Julian and Gregorian Calendars 89 

VIII. Verbs IV: The Passive Voice 

Present, Future, and Imperfect Indicative 

of all Four Conjugations 107 

IX. Verbs V: The Passive Voice 

Perfect, Pluperfect, and Future Perfect 
Indicative of all Four Conjugations 

Deponent and Semi-Deponent Verbs 

The Four Principal Parts of Latin Verbs . . . 116 

X. Nouns: The Fourth and Fifth Declension 
Some Uses of the Ablative 
Determining Place in Latin 
Latinized Place Names 136 

XI. Pronouns and Possessive Adjectives 
Formation of Adverbs 
Comparison of Adjectives and Adverbs 148 

XII. The Subjunctive Mood 166 

XIII. Participles; The Periphrastic Active and 

Passive; The Ablative Absolute; Infinitives; 
Indirect Statement 181 

XIV. The Gerund 

Irregular Verbs: fio, vole, fero, eo 

Dative with Certain Verbs; Impersonal Verbs 

Some Uses of the Genitive, Dative, and 

Accusative 200 

Appendix A Handwriting and Abbreviations 

Classical and Medieval Latin 226 

Appendix B Some Latinized Given Names: Male and Female . 237 

Appendix C Common Fixed and Moveable Feast Days 259 

Appendix D Sample Parish Register Entries 267 

Key to the Grammar and Translation Exercises 278 

Synopsis of Declension and Conjugation 3 29 

Latin-English Word List 362 

Selected Bibliography 415 

Index 423 



VI 



ALPHABET AND PRONUNCIATION GUIDE 

N.B. Although this book emphasizes reading Latin, this 

section on pronunciation is included for reference. 
It is also helpful, on occasion, when confronted with 
an unfamiliar or semi-legible word to sound out the 
letters as an aid in recognizing the word. 

A. Classical Roman Literary Latin, ca. 90 B.C. to 150 A.D. 
(academic pronunciation) 

A Long, as the a in awful (mater [mahter] : mother)* 
Short, as the a in ahead (contentia: self control) 

B As in English (bellum: war) 

C Always hard as in cook; never soft as in city (Cicero: in 
classical Latin is pronounced as if it were spelled Kikero 
in English. ) 

D As in English (deinde: from there, then) 

E Long, as the a in rate (electus: choice) 
Short, as the e in bet (elegans: refined) 

F As in English (familia: family, household) 

G Always hard as in grant; never soft as in general 
(gallus: rooster) 

H As in English (hiems: winter) 

I Long, as the i in machine (munitio [muneetio] : 
fortification) 

Short, as the i in interest (incite: I stimulate) 
I is also pronounced as the y in yet: a) at the beginning 
of a word preceding a vowel ( iacio [also jacio] : 
I hurl, is pronounced as if it were spelled yacio in 
English); b) between tv/o vowels (Maius: the month of 
May, is pronounced as if it were spelled Mai-yus in 
English) . 

♦Although Latin manuscripts have no such markings , modern 
dictionaries and grammars frequently place a line above 
long vowels and a small "u" above short vowels. The 
procedures for determining long and short vowels are 
roughly similar to English. It should be noted, however, 
that Latin vowels are long when found in front of the 
double consonants nf, ns, and, occasionally, ng 
(e.g. , infantia: childhood) or in contracted words 
(e.g., nihilxim: nothing: but nilum) . Vowels are 
short when preceding another vowel (e.g., ferio: I 
strike) or, in general, when they are in front of the 
double consonants nt and nd (emendo: I emend) . 



Vll 



J There was originally no j in classical Latin. The i was 
used instead. Graininarians subsequently separated the twcp 
letters, in part to avoid confusing certain words. The j 
is pronounced as the y in yet (Justus: just, fair — 
also iustus) . 

K Rare in classical Latin; used principally with the vowel 
a and pronounced as in English (Kalendae: Calends, 
the first day of the Roman month) . 

L As in English (lacuna: ditch, gap) 

M As in English (mens: mind, intellect) 

N As in English (nomen: name) 

O Long, as the o in over (dico: I say, tell) 

Short, as the o in off (optime: best, very well) 

P As in English (patentia: patience) 

Q Only with u in classical Latin; pronounced as if it 
were spelled kw in English (quietus [kweeaytus] : at 
rest) 

R Trilled (rumpo: I break in) 

S Unvoiced; always as the s in soft, never as the z sound 
in easy (signum: sign, standard, mark) 

T Always hard as in type; never soft as the "tion" in 
nation (English pronunciation) [tertius: third] 

U Long, as the double o in mood (securitas [secooritas] : 
freedom from care) 
Short, as the u in put (purpura: purple) 

V Originally, v represented both the u and the w. (There 
was no w or double v in classical Latin. ) When the two 
were differentiated, the v remained w in sound. It is 
pronounced as an English w (vivax: long-lived, is thus 
pronounced as through it were spelled wiwax in English). 

X The Greek letter Chi , which was included as part of the 
Latin alphabet late in the first century B.C. At the 
beginning of a word, it is pronounced as the English z 
(xenium: gift, is pronounced as if it were spelled 
zenium in English; note that x appears initially in 
words of Greek origin). If found elsewhere in a word, 
it is pronounced as the ks in kicks (ex [eks] : from, 
out of ) 



Y The Greek letter Upsilon, which was incorporated into the 
Latin alphabet at about the same time as the X. Like the 
latter, it is generally found in words of Greek extraction. 
However, it was used as vowel, rather than a consonant. 
It is pronounced as the long German umlaut u (mude) 
when long (Pytho: Delphi), and as the short German 
umlaut u (Mucke) when short pyra: pyre. 

Z Pronounced as the dz in adze (zamia [dzamia] : harm, damage) 

Diphthongs (double vowels pronounced with one vowel sound) 

AE Pronounced as the ai in aisle (saepe [saipe] : often) 

AU Pronounced as the ou in mouse ( laudo [loudo]: I praise) 

EI Pronounced as the ei in reign (delnceps: one after another) 

EU Pronounced as e and u together (eh oo) , but not slurred 
(seu: or, or if) 

OE Pronounced as the oi in oil (coeptus [coiptus] : beginning) 

UI Pronounced approximately as whee but only in the following 
words: huius [wheeus] , cuius [kwheeus] , huic 
[hwheeic] , cui [kwhee] , and hui [hwhee] (most of 
which are explained subsequently); after q, ui is pronounced 
as the English we (qui [kwe]). 

Double Consonants 

BS Pronounced as the ps in hops (urbs [urps] : city) 

BT Pronounced as the pt in capture (obtero: I trample on) 

CC Each letter is pronounced separately as the k's in sick king 
(occludo: I close up) 

CH The Greek letter Chi; in classical Latin each letter is 
pronounced separately as the kh in knock hard 
(Chirographum: handwriting, autograph). 

GG Each letter is pronounced separately as the gg in bog gold 
(oggero: I bring, offer) 

PH The Greek letter Phi; in classical Latin each letter is 

pronounced separately as the ph in soup hot (phoca: seal) 

SC Pronounced as the sc in scarf (scio: I know) 

TH The Greek letter Theta; in classical Latin each letter is 
pronounced separately as the th in not hard (thronus: 
throne ) 



B. Ecclesiastical Latin (which may approximate the 
pronunciation of the Latin in parish registers in 
those countries formerly belonging to the Roman Empire) 

Ecclesiastical Latin is given an Italianate pronunciation. 
Most vowels and consonants are similar to classical Latin, 
but the following differences should be noted: 

AE, OE Pronounced as the ay in say; saepe (often) and poena 
(punishment) are, for example, pronounced as if they were 
spelled (in English), respectively, saipe and poine in 
classical Latin but saype and payne in ecclesiastical Latin. 

C Pronounced as the k in keg before a, o, u, au, and h 

C Pronounced as the ch in cheer before e, i, ae, and oe 
(Thus, for example, caelum: heaven, sky [also coeliun] 
is pronounced as if it were spelled [in English] cailum in 
classical Latin but chaylum in ecclesiastical Latin.) 

CH Pronounced as the ch in chorus 

G Pronounced as the g in gone before a, o, u, and au 

G Pronounced as the g in giant before e, i, and ae (Gens: 
tribe, clan, family, is pronounced, for example, as 
if it were spelled [in English] gens in classical Latin 
but jens in ecclesiastical Latin.) 

GN Pronounced as the ni in onion (Magnus: great, large, is, 
therefore, pronounced as if it were spelled [in English] 
magnus in classical Latin but maynus in ecclesiastical 
Latin. ) 

H Not pronounced 

PH Pronounced as the ph in philosophy 

S Pronounced as the s in see except when found between two 

consonants or at the end of a word after a voiced consonant 
like r. Then it is pronounced as the z in zebra. (Rasus: 
shaved, is thus pronounced as if it were spelled [in 
English] rasus in classical Latin but razus in 
ecclesiastical Latin. ) 

SC Pronounced as the sc in scan before a, o, u and h 

SC Pronounced as the sh in shame before e , i , and ae 

(Descendo: I go down, is, for example, pronounced as if 
it were spelled [in English] deskendo in classical Latin 
but deshendo in ecclesiastical Latin. ) 

TH Pronounced as the th in theory 



TI If followed by a vowel, pronounced tsi (Gratia: 

grace, pleasure, is, therefore, pronounced as if it were 
spelled [in English] gratia in classical Latin but gratsia 
in ecclesiastical Latin.) 

V Pronounced as in English 

Syllables 

Latin words contain as many syllables as they do vowels or 
dipthongs. Syllabification occurs as follows: 

1) Two or more vowels are separated, e.g., pi-e. 

2) A single consonant between two vowels goes with the 
second syllable, e.g., a-mi-tia. 

3 ) In the case of two or more consonants standing between 
two vowels, the last consonant goes with the second 
vowel, e.g., con-ser-vo. (This rule does not apply 

to liquid consonants, such as r or 1, when preceded by 
p, b, t, d, or go. These are grouped with the following 
vowel, e.g., ma-tres. ) 

4) Ch, ph, th, and h (and occasionally su and gu) are 
considered to be single consonants, e.g., Phar-os. 

5) Prefixes constitute separate syllables, sometimes in 
contravention to the above statements, e.g., ob-te-go. 

6) X is counted as a double consonant, which, however, is 
grouped with the preceding vowel, e.g., vix-it. 

Latin syllables are either long or short, a condition deter- 
mined, in general, by the amount of time used for pronunciation. 
A long syllable contains a long vowel or diphthong. Such a 
syllable is considered to be long by nature. A syllable may also 
be long by position if it contains a short vowel followed by z, 
X, or two or more consonants (with the exception of p, b, t, or d 
followed by r or 1). 

A short syllable has a short vowel before another vowel or a 
single consonant. It may also be short if the syllable contains 
a short vowel before p, d, b or t and a liquid (1 or r). 

Accents 

In words of two syllables, the accent is on the first sylla- 
ble, e.g. , ver-so. Words with three or more syllables have the 
accent on the second syllable if it is long, e.g., co-lon-us. If 
the second syllable is short, the accent is on the first sylla- 
ble, e.g., te-ne-o. 



EXPLANATION OF LATIN LZ^GUAGE TERMS 



Classical Latin, ca. 80 B.C. to 150 A.D. 

This period is often divided into two parts by scholars, the 
so-called Golden Age, ca. 80 B.C. -14 A.D., the age of Cicero, 
Virgil, Horace, Livy, and other famous Roman authors, and the 
Silver Age, ca. 14-150 A.D. The Latin of the Golden Age, espe- 
cially that of Cicero, set the standard of style and grammar for 
future generations. Many dictionaries and grammars are based 
upon the poetry and literature of this time. Hence the terms 
"Classical Latin," refers, basically, to literary Latin used by 
educated Roman poets, authors, playwrights, etc. 

Later Latin, ca. Second to Fifth Centuries A.D. 

Classical grammar, syntax, and vocabulary became simplified 
during this epoch. The language of the common people (vulgus) 
was adopted for use in many types of writings. St. Jerome, for 
example, translated the Bible from Hebrew, Greek, and other 
languages into this vulgar Latin. 

Ecclesiastical Latin, ca. Second-Sixth Centuries A.D. 
(often considered by scholars to be a variety of Later 
Latin; it is also called Christian Latin.) 

The language of the Christian church in the Roman west and, 
subsequently, of the Roman Catholic Church. Based upon vocabu- 
lary from Greek, Hebrew, Coptic, and other languages used by the 
early Christians, as well as the grammar and vocabulary of Later 
Latin, with additions as the Church expanded. It includes, among 
other sources, the Latin of liturgy, theology, and scripture. 

Medieval Latin, ca. Sixth-Fifteenth Centuries A.D. 

Latin underwent many changes in spelling, writing, grammar, 
and vocabulary during this period. Basically it became simpler 
and less stylized than classical Latin. An extensive medieval 
literature developed from the Church, courtly Romances, etc. In 
the twelfth century, the rise of universities, and the rediscov- 
ery of Roman law, as well as portions of Aristotle, added many 
new words to the medieval vocabulary. The same is true of the 
resurgence of commerce and trade, which occurred particularly 
during the later middle ages, ca. llth-15th centuries. Medieval 
Latin moved steadily toward the vernacular languages in the 
former Western Roman Empire. It was probably learned as a second 
language at a Cathedral school, university, etc., while a vernac- 
ular language such as early French, Italian, or German was 
learned as the first language. 



Neo-Latin, ca. Fifteenth-Eighteenth Centuries A.D. 

The rediscovery of many classical Latin texts, especially 
those copied during the reign of Charlemagne in the eighth and 
early ninth centuries A.D., during the Renaissance led to a 
demand for a return to a "pure" Latin, particularly that of 
Cicero, which became the standard for writing, speaking, and 
reading Latin. Neo-Latin or new Latin was above all the language 
of the educated, the language of law, medicine, philosophy, 
theology, science, and, in certain countries at least, politics. 
It was gradually replaced by the vernacular. 

Early Modem Latin, ca. Fifteenth-Twentieth Centuries A.D. 

This is the non-literary, non-technical Latin of the period 
since approximately 1500 A.D. Unlike Neo-Latin, it retained a 
good deal of medieval grammar, syntax, vocabulary, and spelling. 
A prominent example of this type of Latin may be found in 
registers from Roman Catholic parishes, which may contain Eccle- 
siastical Latin together with Medieval Latin and even Classical 
Latin, depending upon how much training in Classical Latin a 
particular priest or scribe may have had. This type of Latin is 
also found, on occasion, in legal documents such as wills, deeds, 
or other property records . 



GLOSSARY OF GRAMMATICAL TERMS 



Adjective (from adjicere: to throw to, to add): An adjec- 
tive is "thrown to" or "added to" a noun, and describes, 
characterizes or modifies a noun, as, for example, a blue sky, a 
round ball, a bright light. In English, adjectives are, in 
general, either attributive or predicate. An attributive adjec- 
tive precedes the noun, as in the above examples. Predicate 
adjectives are found in the predicates of sentences, particularly 
those using the verb "to be" in some form (is, was, are, were, 
etc.), e.g.. The work is hard . Adjectives can also be used as 
nouns, as, for example, the Good, the True, and the Beautiful. 
Latin attributive adjectives generally come after the noun, e.g., 
liber bonus: a good book. Latin adjectives must agree with any 
nouns they modify in gender, number, and case. 

Adverb (from ad + verbum: to or near the verb or word): An 
adverb modifies or describes a verb, an adjective, another 
adverb, or, infrequently, a preposition, phrase, clause, or 
sentence. In general, an adverb indicates some sort of 
relationship — cause, quality, time, etc. — as, for example, in the 
sentence "She richly deserved her success." In English, many 
adverbs are formed by adding -ly to an adjective, e.g., full 
(adj.), fully (adv.). Adverbs are often made in Latin by adding 
certain endings such as -e, or -iter to adjectives, whii.e others, 
like English, must be memorized as they are encountered. Latin 
adverbs are not declined for gender, number, or case. 

Apposition (from ad + ponere: to place next to): This term 
is used to characterize a noun, or a phrase with a noun in it, 
which generally follows another noun or pronoun and explains or 
describes something about that noun, e.g.. The witnesses were: 
John Smith, farmer, and Gerald Knight, merchant. In this sen- 
tence, farmer and merchant are in apposition to John Smith and 
Gerald Knight, since these nouns indicate something about the 
status or occupation of each one. Latin nouns in apposition must 
be in the same case as the nouns they clarify, thus, for example. 
Testes fuerunt Johannes Crasser, agricola, et Georgius Weld, 
caupona: The witnesses were Johannes Crasser, farmer, and 
Georgius Weld, innkeeper. Both occupations, agricola, and caupo- 
na, are in the nominative singular, as also the names Johannes 
Crasser and Georgius Weld. 

Article: An article is either definite (the) or indefinite 
(a, an). There were no definite or indefinite articles in clas- 
sical Roman Latin, although in medieval Latin the demonstrative 
pronoun ille (that) was sometimes substituted for the definite 
article (cf., le, la [French], el, la [Spanish], il, la 
[Italian]) and unus, una, unuM (the cardinal number one) was used 
for a or an (cf., un, une [French], un, una [Spanish], un, una 
[Italian] ) . 



Case (from casus: a fall, because the case endings appeared 
to "fall away' from the Latin nominative case): Case in Latin is 
one of the three relationships established by declining a noun 
(the other two are gender and number). There are seven cases in 
Latin: nominative, genitive, dative, accusative, ablative, voca- 
tive, and locative. The first five will be found most frequently 
in parish registers, and other documents of interest to the 
family historian, and will be explained in detail subsequently. 

Clause (from clausus: closed, i.e., marking the end of a 
rhetorical period in Latin): A clause contains a subject and 
verb, and is generally part of a compound sentence in English. 
There are two types of clauses in both Latin and English, depend- 
ent (subordinate) and independent (main). A dependent or 
subordinate clause depends upon the remainder of the sentence for 
its meaning, whereas an independent or main clause can serve as a 
simple sentence by itself, e.g., The godparents raised the child 
from the baptismal font (main clause), after the priest baptized 
it (subordinate clause). 

Cognate (from cognatus: begotten): A cognate word is one 
based upon the stem or root (v. stem and root) of another word, 
e.g. , fief and fiefdom. 

Conditional Sentences (from conditio, conditionis, f.: 

condition, situation): Conditional sentences in both Latin and 
English have two parts, the protasis or condition (a subordinate 
clause) and the apodosis (the result or conclusion, the main 
clause). The following sentence may illustrate condition: If I 
should have money (protasis), I would have friends (apodosis). 

Conjugation (from conjugare: to join): The inflection of 
verbs; to conjugate a Latin verb is to show five relationships: 
person, number, tense, mood, and voice. In Latin, this is done, 
in general, by adding endings to the verb stem. 

Conjunctions (from conjungere: to join together): Conjunc- 
tions are words which connect other portions of a sentence, e.g., 
until, yet, now, and, or. They are not declined for gender, 
number, and case in Latin. 

Declension (from declinare: to inflect, to turn aside): The 
inflection of nouns, adjectives, pronouns, and participles; to 
decline a Latin noun, adjective, pronoun or participle is to 
indicate gender, number, and case. This is accomplished by 
adding endings to the noun stem 



Discourse (statement): There are two types of discourse in 
English and in Latin, direct and indirect. Direct discourse 
consists of any statement not reported by someone else, e.g.. The 
grass is green. Indirect discourse is a statement about an event 
or circumstance made by someone else, e.g., She said that the 
grass is green. 

Gender: Gender is basically a grammatical device used for 
organizing or grouping Latin nouns. There are three genders in 
Latin: masculine, feminine, and neuter. Males are in the 
masculine gender, in Latin, and females are in the feminine, but 
many things are not in the neuter as might be supposed. Grammar- 
ians appear to have assigned Latin nouns a gender, with the 
obvious exception of men and women, with little regard to sex. 

Gerund (from gerere: to bear): The gerund is a verbal noun 
which, in English, is formed by adding -ing to the verb stem, 
e.g.. Running is healthy exercise. In Latin, a gerund is de- 
clined like a neuter noun, but only in the singular, and for all 
cases except the nominative. 

Genxndive (from gerere: to bear): The gerundive in Latin is 
the future passive participle, a verbal adjective passive in 
meaning. It can be declined like an adjective and has tense and 
voice like a verb. 

Inflection (from inflectere: to bend): Inflection involves 
the addition of suffixes or prefixes to the stems or roots of 
nouns, pronouns, adjectives, verbs, and other parts of speech. 
In Latin, the inflection of verbs is known as conjugation, and 
that of nouns, adjectives, pronouns, and participles is known as 
declension. 

Infinitive (from infinitus: unlimited, endless): The infini- 
tive is a verbal noun, which means that it has tenses and voice, 
like a verb, but may, in theory, be declined like a noun. Latin 
infinitives are conjugated for tense and voice, and are regarded 
as neuter singular nouns, but are not declined for gender, 
number, and case. 

In English, the present and other infinitives are formed by 
adding the preposition "to" to the verb itself, e.g., to walk, to 
run, to think, etc. (all present infinitives). The present 
infinitive in Latin is formed by adding re, or ere to the present 
stem of the verb, e.g., baptizare: to baptize; sepelire: to bury. 
Latin has six infinitives: the present active, the perfect 
active, the future active, the present passive, the perfect 
passive, and the future passive (rare). 



Mood (from modus, modi, m. : manner, means [an alternate form 
of mode] ) : This term applies to verbs and indicates the means or 
manner in which the action of a verb is carried out. Latin verbs 
have three moods: 1) Indicative — which indicates factual state- 
ments and those for which a speaker or writer assumes full 
responsibility, e.g.. Labor durus est. (The work is hard.) 2) 
Imperative — used to express commands in the second person singu- 
lar and plural, e.g., Laborate! (You all) Work! 3) Subjunc- 
tive--a mood not frequently used in English, but with many uses 
in Latin such as, for example, condition contrary to fact, com- 
mand (for the first and third person, singular and plural), 
purpose, result, etc., e.g., Noverint universi quod .... (Let all 
know that ....). 

Noun (from nomen, nominis, n.: name): A noun is a word which 
names a person, a place, a thing, an idea, a concept, a sub- 
stance, a quality, etc., e.g., tree, freedom, work, love, truth. 
In Latin, nouns are declined for gender, number, and case. 

Number (from numerus, numeri, m. : a number): Number in Latin 
and English is either singular (one) or plural (more than one), 
and is used with nouns (thing, things) pronouns (I, we), verbs 
(he/she works, they work), and other parts of speech. In Eng- 
lish, the plural of regular nouns is formed by adding -s , e.g., 
tree, trees. Latin nouns add a number of different endings to 
the noun stem to indicate plurality. 

Object (from objicere: to throw in the way of): There are 
two types of object, direct and indirect. The direct object, as 
the name suggests, receives the action of a verb or prepositional 
phrase directly (without an intervening part of speech), e.g.. 
The girl ran the race. In this sentence, the subject is girl, 
the verb, ran, and the direct object of the verb, ran, is race. 
In Latin, the direct object of transitive verbs must be in the 
accusative case. Thus, for example, Parochus infantem baptiza- 
vit: The priest baptized the child. (Infantem is in the 
accusative case.) The indirect object receives the action of the 
verb indirectly, and is generally translated in English by adding 
the prepositions "to" or "for," e.g.. He gave a gift to his 
friend. In this sentence, he is the subject, gave, the verb, 
gift, the direct object, and to his friend the indirect object. 
The indirect object is indicated, in Latin, by the dative case, 
e.g.. Item lego filio meo Ricardo duas acras prati. (Likewise, I 
bequeath to my son Richard two acres of meadow. ) 



Participle (from particeps , participis: sharing in, 
participating in): A participle is a verbal adjective which, in 
Latin, is declined for gender, number, and case, like an adjec- 
tive, but may also take tense and voice like a verb. In English, 
there are two major participles, the present and the past. The 
present is formed by adding -ing to the verb stem, e.g. , running, 
working, thinking, playing, talking. The past participle of 
regular verbs is formed by adding -ed to the verb stem, e.g., 
worked, played, talked--but ran, thought. Latin has four 
participles, the present active, the future active, the perfect 
passive, and the future passive (also called the gerundive). 

Person (from persona, personae, f.: an actor's mask, a 
character in a play, an individual): In English and in Latin 
there are three persons, singular and plural: singular — I, you, 
he/she/it ; plural — we, you (all), they. English uses the above 
pronouns to indicate person with verbs, while person was usually 
shown in Latin by endings attached to the verb stem. Personal 
pronouns were not used with verbs in classical Latin except for 
emphasis. 

Phrase (from phrazein: to point out — a Greek verb): A phrase 
consists of a number of words used to express some type of 
thought or idea without a subject or a verb. There are three 
types of phrases: prepositional (during the day), participial 
(trimming the hedge), and infinitive (to work alone). 

Predicate (from praedicare: to affirm, assert): The predi- 
cate, in an English sentence, is that portion of the sentence 
which usually follows the subject and the verb, e.g.. The weather 
(subject) is (verb) hot (predicate). The predicate is generally 
related in some respect to the subject, or it attempts to 
establish a relationship with the subject. Thus, for example. 
They (subject) studied (verb) the Latin language (predicate, 
which explains what "they" studied) . Because meaning in a Latin 
sentence is obtained from the endings of nouns , verbs , and other 
parts of speech, the word order of simple English sen- 
tences — subject-verb-predicate — need not be observed. (see also 
"syntax" ) 

Prefix (from praefigere: to fasten before): A prefix 
consists of one or more letters attached to the beginning of a 
word to help provide meaning, cf., for example, "close" and 
"foreclose" (to close in advance). In Latin, prefixes are 
often found in the form of prepositions added to verbs, nouns, or 
adjectives in order to create new words, e.g., mittere (to send), 
amittere (to send away — a + mittere). 



Preposition (from praeponere: to place before): A preposi- 
tion usually precedes a noun or pronoun and establishes some type 
of relationship with that particular part of speech, e.g., We 
spent our vacation in Hawaii. The use of the preposition "in" 
here helps to explain "where" we spent our vacation. Among 
others, English prepositions include: in, on, at, to, for, 
within, among, between, above, below, over, and under. The 
object of a Latin preposition (e.g. , a noun which follows it) is 
either in the ablative or accusative case. A few prepositions 
use both cases. Thus, for example, ex silva: from (out of) the 
wood (ablative case), ad villain: toward the village/villa 
(accusative case). 

Pronoun (from pro + nomen: in place of the name or noun): A 
pronoun commonly replaces a noun, e.g.. The food is good. It 
(pronoun) is good. English and Latin pronouns include, among 
others, personal (I, you, he/she/it, we, you all, they), 
possessive (mine, yours, his/her/its, ours, yours, theirs), 
demonstrative (this, that), relative (who, which, what), inter- 
rogative (who? what?), and reflexive (myself, yourself, 
himself /herself /itself , etc.) 

Root (from old English rot): A root is that part of a word 
from which the rest is derived, principally by adding suffixes or 
prefixes. In Latin, there are two types of roots: 1) verbal or 
predicative roots, which indicate objects, actions, or qualities; 
for example, the "i" in the verb ire (to go); 2) pronominal or 
demonstrative roots which do not show actions or objects, but, 
rather, point out the relationship of such actions with a speaker 
or protagonist; for example, the tu in tui (of you, singular and 
familiar) . 

Sentence (from sententia, sententiae, f.: opinion): A 
sentence generally contains a number of words which express some 
type of thought. The most common simple sentence in English has 
a subject, a verb, and a predicate or object. However, a simple 
sentence can also consist only of subject and verb, e.g.. They 
studied. In addition to the simple sentence, there are two other 
types of sentences in English — compound and complex. A compound 
sentence often has two main clauses (which contain a subject and 
a verb) joined by a conjunction, e.g.. He left the office and 
went home. A complex sentence has at least one independent or 
main clause and one or more dependent or subordinate clauses 
(clauses which are not complete sentences), e.g.. After he left 
the office, he went home. 



81:6111 (from Old English stefn or stemn: the stem of a plant): 
The stem consists of that part of the word which remains 
unchanged after the addition of suffixes or prefixes. In Latin, 
the stem of nouns is found when the ending of the genitive singu- 
lar is removed. In the case of verbs, the present stem is 
obtained by removing the -re or -ere of the present infinitive, 
while the perfect stem (the third principal part of a Latin verb 
when the first person singular indicative active ending -i is 
added) is that which is left after the omission of the perfect 
personal endings. In Latin, there are three types of stems: 1) 
root stems, either the same as the root itself or formed from the 
root, e.g., es-tis: you are, root: es; 2) primary stems, which 
comprise the root and a suffix, e.g., sta (root), tu (suffix), 
statu (stem), status: position (the word itself); 3) secondary 
stems, those which are formed from other stems by adding suffix- 
es, e.g., victor (stem), ia (suffix), victoria: victory (the word 
itself) 

Subject (from subjicere: to throw or place under): The 
subject of a sentence can be either a person or a thing which 
carries out the action of the verb. Thus, for example, in the 
sentence "The priest baptized the child," priest is the subject, 
baptized, the verb, and child, the object. In Latin, the subject 
need not come first in a simple sentence, whereas in English it 
generally occurs at the beginning of such a sentence. 

Suffix (from sub + figere: to fasten below or underneath): A 
suffix is a letter or letters which is attached to the stem or 
root of a word, after the last letter of the stem or root, e.g., 
arbor (stem) +is (suffix [case ending]) = arboris: of the tree. 
The attachment of suffixes is usually done in order to form 
complete words . 

Syntax (from syntattein: to order, arrange [a Greek verb]): 
The syntax of a sentence, clause, or phrase is the order or 
arrangement of the words therein. In English, word order is very 
important for determining meaning. In the sentence, for example, 
"The priest buried the deceased child," the order subject (the 
priest) -verb ( buried) -predicate (the deceased child) must be 
strictly observed. If this order is changed, the meaning is also 
altered. ("The deceased child buried the priest," would, after 
all, make no sense in English.) Because Latin is a highly in- 
flected language, the word order is far less important than in 
English. 

Tense (from tempus, temporis, n. : time): The tense of a verb 
indicates the time of the action of that verb. In Latin, there 
are six tenses: present, future, imperfect, perfect, pluperfect, 
and future perfect. 



Voice (from vox, vocis, f.: voice): There are two voices in 
both English and Latin, the active and the passive. In the 
active voice, the subject acts through or by means of the verb, 
e.g.. The priest married Henry Wilson and Julia Worth. In the 
passive voice, the subject is acted upon, or receives the action 
of the verb, e.g., Henry Wilson and Julia Worth were married by 
the priest. 



Abbreviations used in this Book 



abl. 
ace. 
adj . 
adv. 
cf . 

cl. 

conj 

dat 

dep 

d.o 

e.g 



ablative case gen. 

accusative case i.e., 

adjective m. 

adverb n . 

confer N . B . 

(compare) part, 

classical pass, 

conjunction perf. 

dative case pi . 

deponent pi"ep • 

direct object sing. 

exempli gratia v. 

(for example) voc. 
feminine gender 



genitive case 

id est (that is) 

masculine gender 

neuter gender 

nota bene (note well) 

participle 

passive 

perfect 

plural 

preposition 

singular 

vide ( see ) 

vocative 



XXI 



CHAPTER I 



Nouns: The First Declension 

Nouns: The Second Declension 

Masculine Nouns Ending in -us or -er 

Neuter Nouns Ending in -um 

Latinized First Names: First and Second Declension 



Introduction 

Latin is one of several languages within the Indo-European 
language family which depends upon inflection (from inflectere: 
to bend) for its meaning, rather than syntax (the organization 
and structure of a sentence), as in English. Inflection is 
accomplished, in Latin by adding suffixes (endings) or, infre- 
quently, prefixes, to the stems of nouns, adjectives, verbs, 
participles, and other parts of speech. 

The attachment of endings to nouns, pronouns, adjectives, 
and participles in order to obtain meaning is called declension 
(from declinare: to turn aside, bend away from). In the case of 
verbs, the same process is known as conjugation (from conjugare: 
to yoke together, connect). 

This chapter will consider the declension of nouns, espe- 
cially those belonging grammatically to categories known as the 
first and second declension. 

The Declension of Latin Nouns 

A Latin noun, pronoun, adjective or participle is declined 
by adding an ending to the stem (that part of the word which 
remains unchanged during the process of declension). These 
endings indicate or establish the following three relationships: 
Gender, Number, and Case. The meaning of each of these terms may 
be explained and illustrated through the use of the first declen- 
sion feminine noun ecclesia (church, a Latinized Greek word) as 
well as other feminine, masculine and neuter nouns from the first 
and second declension. 

Gender: Latin nouns are either masculine, feminine, or 
neuter, e.g., ecclesia (feminine), amicus (friend — masculine), 
testamentum (will, testament — neuter). Gender, in Latin, should 
be considered principally as a grammatical convenience, a way of 
organizing nouns, pronouns, adjectives, and participles. Al- 
though males are in the masculine gender, females in the femi- 
nine, and some things in the neuter gender, many nouns were 
assigned genders by Latin grammarians with little regard to sex. 
In addition, certain largely male occupations (in ancient Rome) 
are masculine in gender but declined like feminine nouns of the 
first declension, for example: nauta (sailor), agricola (farmer), 
poeta ( poet ) . 



Number: Singular or Plural (one or more than one); ecclesia 
(church), ecclesiae (churches). In English, the plural of regu- 
lar nouns is formed by adding an -s to the noun stems (tree, 
trees), although irregular nouns change in various ways in the 
plural (man, men, woman, women, child, children). In Latin, 
however, there are a number of plural endings, depending upon the 
type of declension. 

Case (from casus, casus, m. : a fall, since the endings 
seemed to "fall away" from the nominative case): There are seven 
cases in Latin: 

Nominative (from nomen, nominis, n.: name): a case which 
stands without alteration; the subject of a sentence is usually 
in the nominative case, but the nominative case may also be found 
in the predicate of a sentence, provided the main verb is a 
copula or linking verb, generally some form of "to be" (is, are, 
was, were, etc.), without a direct object, e.g., Haec est patrina 
mea. (This is my godmother. ) 

Genitive (from genetivus , -a, -um: inborn, innate): This 
case indicates ownership or possession, and has a number of 
special uses which will be discussed subsequently. It is often 
translated in English by adding the prepositions "of" or "from" 
to a noun, e.g., Parochus ecclesiae parochialis Sancti Thomae 
est. (He is the priest of the parish church of St. Thomas.) 

Dative (from datus, -a, -um: given): This is the case of the 
indirect object which receives the action of a verb indirectly. 
In Latin, it is also used with certain verbs, and has other 
usages, which will be reviewed later. The dative case is gener- 
ally translated, in English, by adding the prepositions "to" or 
"for" to a noun, e.g., Dux terram ecclesiae donavit. (The duke 
donated land to the church. ) 

Accusative (from accusatus, -a, -xna: accused, blamed): The 
accusative is the case of the direct object of a verb, i.e., the 
noun, or other part of speech, which receives the action of a 
verb directly, e.g., Ecclesiam parochialem aedif icaverunt. (They 
built the parish church. ) The accusative case is also used as 
the object of certain Latin prepositions. English nouns do not 
have any special endings or distinguishing characteristics to 
indicate that they are in the accusative case. Pronouns in the 
dative or accusative case do, however, change their nominative 
form, e.g.. He gave her (not she) a book. She loved him (not 
he) . 

Ablative (from ablatus, -a, -um: [having been] separated): 
The ablative case indicates, among other things, separation, 
instrument (the means by which something is accomplished), loca- 
tion, time, and is the object of certain Latin prepositions. 
This is a very flexible and widely used case in Latin, and a 
number of its important uses will be considered subsequently. 
Prepositions such as by, from, with, after, when, etc., are 



usually required when translating nouns in this case into Eng- 
lish, e.g., Ecclesia parochiali aedificata, fabri lignarii abier- 
unt. (After the parish church was built, the carpenters depart- 
ed. Or, more literally: The parish church having been built, the 
carpenters departed. ) 

Vocative (from vocare: to call): This case is used when 
addressing someone or something directly, and is often character- 
ized by the letter O in front of the noun, e.g., O mulier, magna 
est fides tua! Fiat tibi , sicut vis. (O woman, great is thy 
faith! Be it unto thee even as thou wilt. [from the Vulgate, 
Matthew 15:28; English translation: King James Version]) This 
case is now more or less defunct in English, and its use in non- 
literary Latin documents is relatively rare. Consequently, with 
certain exceptions noted in the examples, the noun paradigms for 
the vocative case will not be included. Generally, however, they 
are the same as the nominative, singular and plural. 

Locative (from locare: to place): The locative case, as the 
name suggests, is used to indicate place where or place at which 
in certain special place usages in Latin. It is not employed as 
frequently in parish registers as the first five cases above. The 
specific uses of the locative are summarized under the section on 
determining place in Latin. 

Whereas in English there are no special endings added to 
nouns to indicate the case to which they belong, in Latin, case 
endings are attached directly to the stem of noun. The stem of a 
noun may be obtained by omitting the ending of the genitive 
singular. 

Grammarians have traditionally divided Latin nouns into five 
declensions, each of which differs slightly or considerably from 
the others. In this chapter, nouns of the first and second 
declension will be considered. 



The First or "a" Declension (so-called because nouns 

in the nominative singular end in the letter "a") 

ecclesia (church, stem ecclesi) 

Case Singular Case Ending 



Nominative 

Genitive 

Dative 

Accusative 

Ablative 



ecclesia 

ecclesiae 

ecclesiae 

ecclesiam 

ecclesia 



a 

ae 

ae 

am 

a 



Meaning 

a/the church 
of/from a/the church 
to/for a/the church 
a/the church (d.o.) 
by/with/f rom, etc. 
a/the church 



Case 



Plural 



Case Ending Meaning 



Nominative 

Genitive 

Dative 

Accusative 

Ablative 



ecclesiae 

ecclesiarum 

ecclesiis 

ecclesias 

ecclesiis 



ae ( the ) churches 
arum of/from the churches 
is to/for the churches 
as (the) churches (d.o.) 
is by/f roiii/with, etc. 
a/the churches 



In medieval Latin, the -a of the -ae diphthong (a double 
vowel pronounced with one sound) was often omitted, a pratice 
occasionally continued in Latin parish register entries. 
Consequently, ecclesie might be translated as "of/from the 
church" (genitive singular), "to/for the church" (dative 
singular) or "the churches" (nominative plural). The sense of 
the sentence will determine the proper translation in each case. 

In parish registers, the -e of the -ae diphthong was some- 
times omitted, and a mark of some type indicating this omission 
was placed next to the -a. Thus, for example, ecclesiaP = 
ecclesiae. Another, and much more common, practice in parish 
register entries was the combination of -a and -e in ligature, 
i.e., written so closely together that the two can scarcely be 
distinguished, e.g., ecclesvcE^ = ecclesiae. 

Care must be taken to differentiate these two letters and to 
avoid reading them both as the letter -a. They are most likely 
to be found in the genitive singular of first declension nouns 
and first names, which are treated as nouns, for example: Heri 
natus et hodie baptizatus est Martinus filius legitimus Petri 
Weller et Mari Beck. (Yesterday [was] born and today was 
baptized Martin, legitimate son of Peter Weller and Maria Beck. ) 

Note above that no definite or indefinite articles (the, or 
a, an) are provided. Classical Roman Latin had no articles, 
definite or indefinite. Consequently, ecclesia (nominative 
singular) can be read either as "the church" or "a church," 
depending upon the apparent sense of the sentence. Demonstrative 
pronouns and adjectives such as ille (that), and the cardinal 
number unus , una, unum (one) were, however, occasionally 
substituted for "the" or "a/an" respectively in medieval and 
early modern Latin. (of., French: le, la, un, une; Spanish: el, 
la, un/uno, una; Italian: il, la, un/uno , una). 

Nouns of the first declension are generally feminine in 
gender, such as, for example, parochia, parochiae, f.: parish; 
puella, puellae, f.: girl, filia, filiae, f.: daughter. As 
indicated previously, however, occupations in the first declen- 
sion are usually masculine in gender, even though they are de- 
clined exactly like ecclesia, e.g., bibliopega, bibliopegae, m. : 
bookbinder. 



Second E)eclension Nouns 



Nouns of the second declension are either masculine or 
neuter in gender. Masculine nouns are of two types, those which 
end in -us in the nominative singular, e.g., annus (year), and 
those ending in -er in the nominative singular, e.g., magister 
(teacher). Neuter nouns of the second declension end in -ixm in 
the nominative and accusative singular and -a in the nominative 
and accusative plural, e.g., matr imonium , matrimonia (marriage, 
marriages) . 

The Second Declension: Masculine Nouns ending in -us 

in the Nominative Singular 

baptismus (baptism [Greek] , stem: baptism) 

Case Singular Case Ending Meaning 

a/the baptism 
of/from a/the baptism 
to/for a/the baptism 
a/the baptism (d.o.) 
by/with/f rom, etc. 
a/the baptism 
O baptism! 



Nominative 


baptismus 


us 


Genitive 


baptismi 


i 


Dative 


baptismo 


o 


Accusative 


baptismum 


um 


Ablative 


baptismo 


o 


Vocative 


baptisme 

Plural 


e 


Nominative 


baptismi 


i 


Genitive 


baptismorxim 


orum 


Dative 


baptismis 


is 


Accusative 


baptismos 


OS 


Ablative 


baptismis 


is 



(the) baptisms 
of/from the baptisms 
to/for the baptisms 
(the) baptisms (d.o.) 
by/with/from, etc. 
the baptisms 

Note that masculine nouns of the second declension such as 
baptismus have the vocative ending -e in the singular, an ending 
different from the nominative singular. If, however, the stem of 
the noun ends in -i, such as, for example, filius (son, stem: 
fili), then the vocative singular also ends in -i. Hence, fili: 
son! (vocative singular). The masculine vocative singular 
possessive adjective meus (my) also ends in -i (with the -e 
omitted), e.g., fili mi! (O my son!). NOte that the -i of the 
vocative contracts with the -i of the stem vowel so that only one 
-i remains (fili, not filii). Certain masculine second declen- 
sion nouns such as Deus remain the same in the vocative as in the 
nominative singular. 



The Second Declension: Masculine Nouns ending in -er 

in the Nominative Singular 

magister (teacher; stem, magistr, N.B. ! ) 
Case Singular Case Ending Meaning 



Nominative 

Genitive 

Dative 

Accusative 

Ablative 



magister 

magistri 

magistro 

magistrum 

magistro 



Plural 



er 

i 

o 

um 

o 



a/the teacher 
of/from a/the teacher 
to/for a/the teacher 
a/the teacher (d.o.) 
by /with/from, etc. 
a/the teacher 



Nominative 


magistri 


i 


Genitive 


magistrorvim 


orum 


Dative 


magistris 


is 


Accusative 


magistros 


OS 


Ablative 


magistris 


is 



(the) teachers 
of/from the teachers 
to/for the teachers 
(the) teachers (d.o.) 
by/with/from, etc. 
the teachers 

Nouns such as magister are exactly the same in declension as 
the masculine nouns ending in -us (in the nominative singular), 
with the exception of the nominative singular. Note that the 
stem of these second declension masculine nouns may or may not 
end in -er. The -e is retained, for example, in the noun puer 
(boy, child), e.g., pueri (of the boy, child), puero (to/for the 
boy, child), puerum (the boy, child [d.o.]), puero (by, with, 
from, etc. the boy, child). The genitive singular ending (which 
is usually provided in dictionaries) will indicate whether the -e 
is retained or dropped in the stem. 



The Second Declension; 



Neuter Nouns Ending in -um 
in the Nominative Singular 



matrimonium (marriage, stem: matrimoni) 
Case Singular Case Ending Meaning 



Nominative 


matrimoni vim 


um 


Genitive 


matrimonii 


i 


Dative 


matrimonio 


o 


Accusative 


matrimonium 


um 


Ablative 


matrimonio 


o 



a/the marriage 
of/from a/the marriage 
to/for a/the marriage 
a/the marriage (d.o.) 
by/with/f rom , etc . 
a/the marriage 



Plural 



Nominative 

Genitive 

Dative 

Accusative 

Ablative 



matrimonia 
mat r imon i orum 
matrimoniis 
matrimonia 
matrimoniis 



a (the) marriages 

orum of/from the marriages 
is to/for the marriages 
a (the) marriages 
is by /with/from, etc. 
the marriages 



Note that the neuter nominative and accusative singular have 
the same ending (um), and that the neuter nominative and 
accusative plural also have a similar ending (a). All neuter 
nouns, regardless of the declension to which they belong grammat- 
ically, will have the same ending in the neuter singular nomina- 
tive and accusative, and the same ending in the neuter plural 
nominative and accusative. However, the singular will have a 
different ending than the plural. Neuter second declension nouns 
differ from masculine second declension nouns only in the above 
case endings. 

Latinized Given Names: First and Second Declension 

First or given names in Latin parish registers and many 
other documents are generally treated as proper nouns of the 
first, second, or third declension (see Chapter IV). Given names 
of the first and second declension are declined according to the 
paradigms for first and second declension nouns listed above. 
Examples follow: 

First Declension Female Given Names 

Maria (Mary, Maria, Marie) Anna (Anna, Ann) 

Singular (The plural of given names is rare) 

Latin English Latin English 

Anna 

of/from Anna 
to/for Anna 
Anna (d.o. ) 
by/with/from , 
etc. Anna 

*Also found without the -a of the ae in diphthong in 
medieval documents such as wills, e.g., Marie (of/from, 
to/for Mary), Anne (of /from, to/for Anna — note that 
this is not the given name Anne). 



Norn. 


Maria 


Mary 


Anna 


Gen. 


Mariae* 


of/from Mary 


Annae* 


Dat. 


Mariae* 


to/for Mary 


Annae* 


Ace. 


Mariam 


Mary (d.o. ) 


Annam 


Abl. 


Maria 


by/with/from , 
etc. Mary 


Anna 



Second Declension Male Given Neunes 

(There are no neuter given names.) 



Petrus ( Peter ) 



Marcus ( Mark ) 





Singular 










Latin 


English 


Latin 


English 


Nom. 


Petrus 


Peter 


Marcus 


Mark 


Gen. 


Petri 


of/from Peter 


Marci 


of/from Mark 


Dat. 


Petro 


to/for Peter 


Marco 


to/for Mark 


Ace. 


Petrum 


Peter ( d . o . ) 


Marcum 


Mark (d.o.) 


Abl. 


Petro 


by /with/from, 
etc . Peter 


Marco 


by /with/from, 
etc . Mark 



There are also a few male names which belong grammatically 
to the first declension but are masculine in gender, for example: 

Baimabas (Barnabas, Barnaby) 

Singular 



Latin 

Nom . Barnabas 

Gen . Bamabae 

Dat . Bamabae 

Ace . Bamabam 

Abl . Barnaba 



English 

Barnabas , Barnaby 

of /from Barnabas, Barnaby 

to/for Barnabas, Barnaby 

Barnabas, Barnaby (d.o.) 

by /with/from, etc. Barnabas, Barnaby 



Thomas ( Thomas ) 

Singular 

Latin English 



Nom . Thomas 

Gen . Thomae 

Dat . Thomae 

Ace . Thomam 

Abl . Thoma 



Thomas 

of/from Thomas 

to/for Thomas 

Thomas (d.o. ) 

by /with/from, etc. Thomas 



Note that the -s of Barnabas and Thomas, the last letter in 
the nominative singular, is not retained in the other eases. 



EXERCISES: CHAPTER I 



A . Grammar 

Decline femina and auriga for all cases, singular and 
plural. Decline filius, puer, and signum for all cases, singular 
and plural. 

B. Vocabulary 

Learn the following first and second declension nouns. Note 
that many Latin dictionaries and lexica list the full nominative 
singular of the noun, the genitive singular ending, and the 
gender, e.g., ecclesia, -ae, f. Here, however, the full nomina- 
tive and genitive singular are provided, together with the gen- 
der, e.g., ecclesia, ecclesiae, f. In addition, the medieval 
spelling of genitive singular first declension nouns, in which 
the -a of the -ae diphthong is dropped (e.g., ecclesie = eccles- 
iae) is given in parentheses in order to alert the reader to the 
possibility of encountering such spelling. Parish register 
entries, however, generally do not omit the -a from the -ae 
diphthong. 



First Declension Nouns: Femi- 
nine Gender 

amita, amitae (amite), f.: 

aunt (paternal) 
anima, animae (anime), f.: 

soul, spirit 
avia, aviae (avie), f.: grand- 
mother 
consobrina, consobrinae 

( consobrine ) , f: female 

cousin 
ecclesia, ecclesiae 

(ecclesie), f.: church 

( Greek ) 
familia, familiae (familie), 

f: family 
femina , f eminae ( f emine ) , f . : 

woman 
feria, feriae (ferie), f.: day 

of the week, fair, holiday 
filia, filiae (filie), f.: 

daughter 
hora , horae ( here ) , f . : hour 
infantia, infantiae 

(infantie), f.: childhood 
marita, maritae (marite) , f.: 

wife 
matertera , materterae ( mater- 

tere) , f.: aunt (maternal) 



parochia, parochiae 

(parochie) , f.: parish 

patrina, patrinae (patrine), 
f . : parish 

puella, puellae (puelle), f.: 
girl 

sepultura , sepulturae ( sepul- 
ture) , f.: burial 

sponsa, sponsae (sponse), f.: 
bride , betrothed 

via, viae (vie), f.: way, 
road, street 

vidua, viduae (vidue), f.: 
widow 

villa, villae (ville), f.: 
village, villa, town 



First Declension Nouns; 
line Gender 



Mascu- 



agricola, agricolae 

(agricole), m. : farmer 

auriga, aurigae (aurige), m. : 
driver (e.g. of carts) 

bibliopega, bibliopegae 

(bibliopege) , m. : bookbind- 
er 

nauta, nautae (naute), m.: 
sailor 



Second Declension Masculine 
Nouns ending in -us 

advocatus , advocati , m . : 

advocate, lawyer 
agnatus , agnati , in.: blood 

relative in the male line 
agnus, agni, m. : lamb 
Agnus Dei: the Lamb of God 

(Jesus Christ) 
amicus, amici, m. : friend 
angelus, angeli, m.: angel, 

messenger (Greek) 
annus, anni, m. : year 
avunculus, avunculi, m. : uncle 

(maternal ) 
avus, avi, m. : grandfather 
baptismus, baptismi , m. 

baptism (Greek) 
canonicus , canonici , m. 

canon, cathedral official 
capellanus, capellani, m. 

chaplain 
cibus, cibi, m. : food 
cippus, cippi, m. : gravestone 
colonus, coloni , m. : settler, 

farmer, peasant 
datus , dati , m. : date (also, 

datum , dati , n . ) 
Deus , Dei , m . : God 
discipulus, discipuli, m.: 

pupil, disciple 
domesticus, domestici, m.: 

servant, a male servant 
dominus , domini, m.: lord, 

master, noble, the Lord 

(Jesus Christ) 
episcopus, episcopi, m.: 

bishop 
filius, filii, m. : son 
maritus, mariti, m. : husband 
mundus, mundi, m. : world 
notus, noti, m. : illegitimate 

ma 1 e ( gnothus ) 
pagus , pagi, m.: village, 

district 
parochus, parochi, m. : parish 

priest, priest 
patrinus, patrini , m. : godfa- 
ther 
patruus , patrui , m.: uncle 

(paternal ) 
rusticus, rustici, m. : peas- 
ant, farmer, rustic 



sanctus, sanctii, m.: saint 

(male) 
servus , servi , m.: servant, 

serf, slave 
sobrinus, sobrini, m. : cousin 
socius, socii, m.: comrade, 

ally 
sponsus , sponsi, m.: groom, 

betrothed 
vicinus, vicini, m. : neighbor 
viduus, vidui, m. : widower 

Second Declension Masculine 
Nouns ending in -er or -r 

armiger, armigeri, m. : squire, 
esquire (as a title) 

faber, fabri, m. : smith, 
maker, blacksmith 

liber, libri, m. : book 

magister, magistri, m. : teach- 
er 

puer, pueri, m. : boy, child 

vir, viri, m. : man 

Second Declension Neuter Nouns 

bannum, banni , n. : bann , 
marriage announcement 

biduum, bidui , n.: two-year 
period 

caelum, caeli, n. : heaven, sky 

coelum (see caelum) 

coemeterium, coemeterii, n.: 
cemetery (cimeterium) 

donum, doni, n. : gift 

evangelium (see euangelium) 

euangelium, euangelii, n.: 
gospel, good news (Greek) 

fatum, fati, n.: fate, destiny 

matrimonium, matrimonii, n.: 
marriage 

puerperium, puerperii, n.: 
childbirth 

officium, officii, n. : office, 
duty, position 

scriptum, scripti , n.: writ- 
ing , document 

signum, signi, n. : sign, mark 

testamentum, testamenti , n.: 
will 

verbum, verbi, n.: word 



10 



C. Translation: Latin to English 

Translate the following from Latin to English: 

Patrina mea est. (mea: my, a possessive adjective which 
must be in the same case and have the same gender and 
number as the noun it modifies; est: he/she is; the 
subject of this verb can be either "she" [patrina is 
feminine] or patrina. ) 

test amen turn amitae 

Vidua est. (est: she is) 

aurigae (three possible translations — give all three) 

Aviam habet. (habet: he/she has; two possible translations; 
note that aviam is in the accusative case because it is 
the direct object of the verb habet. Hence the subject 
of this sentence is either "he" or "she.") 

baptimus filii 

discipulis (two possible translations) 

anno domini ( anno : in the year ) 

Testcunentum condidit. (condidit: he/she made; testcimentum 

is in the accusative case, since it is the direct object 
of condidit. Two possible translations.) 

Catharinae (declined like Anna; two possible translations) 

D. Translation: English to Latin 

Translate the following from English to Latin: 

the daughter of the cousin 

to/for the sailor 

She is my wife. 

of/from the burial 

He/she has a godmother . ( ace . ) 

of/from the servants 

to/for the cemetery 

the marriage of the teacher 



11 



by means of the baptism 

of /from Stephen (Stephanus) 

E. Translation: Parish Register 

Document #1 

Translate the following birth entry for 1736, with the aid 
of the vocabulary provided after the entry. 







1 avL-tiCi^/ni^ti' CUTA-Mc 



■paihmi^t*: ctrrA.iio€43ufn.A^ 



Vocabulary 

Sept = September 
Clasina: the child's name 
pater, patris, m. : father (a 

third declension noun, v. 

Chapter IV) 
Henricus Van der Mortel: the 

father's name 
mater: mother (from mater, 

matris , f . : mother , a third 

declension noian, v. Chapter 

IV) 
Susanna de Visscher: the 

mother's name 
matrina (see above) 



Joanna Dekers : name of the 
godmother 

nata: born (perfect passive 
participle of nascor, 
nasci, natus sum: bear, 
give birth to, v. Chapter 
IX [agrees with Clasina, a 
female name] ) 

eodem die: on the same day 

post merid (post meridiem): 
after noon (p.m.) 

circa, prep. + ace: about, 
aroiand 



12 



me: me (ablative singular of 
the personal pronoun ego, 
V. Chapter XI) 

Dominico: ablative singular of 
Dominicus, Dominici, m.: 
Dominic (a given name) 

Weiland: a surname 

ejusdem = eiusdem: of the same 
(genitive singular of idem, 
eadem, idem, demonstrative 
pronoun: the same [v. 
Chapter XI]; refers to 
Dominicus Weiland) 

immediate immediate (ablative 
singular of immediatus, 
immediata, immediatum: 
immediate) 

successor! : successor (abla- 
tive singular [in this 
entry] of successor, suc- 
cessoris, m. : successor [a 
third declension noun, v. 
Chapter IV] ) 

continuatus est: was continued 
(perfect indicative pas- 
sive, third person singular 
[V. Chapter IX] of conti- 
nuo , continuare, conti- 
nuavi, continuatum: contin- 
ue [refers to Dominicus 
Weiland] ) 

ibidem, adv.: in the same 
place; here: the same 
(i.e., Dominicus Weiland) 

pastore: pastor (ablative 
singular of pastor, pasto- 
ris, m. : pastor, shepherd 
[third declension noun, v. 
Chapter IV] ) . Note the 
syntax or word order of the 
sentence in the above 
introduction. The baptis- 
mal register was begun by 
Peter Kaufman and continued 
by Dominicus Weiland. The 
"and" is, however, under- 
stood here. 



anno millesimo septingentesimo 
vigesimo primo: in the year 
one thousand seven hundred 
twenty-one (literally: in 
the one thousand seven 
hundred and twenty-first 
year [ablative of time, v. 
Chapter VII], i.e., 1721) 

ad majorem Dei: to the greater 
(glory) of God 

Beataqz = Beataeque : and of 
the blessed (Note here the 
z-like mark or sign which 
abbreviates the letters -ue 
after a -q. ) -Que is an 
enclitic conjunction, which 
means that it lacks an 
independent accent and is 
pronounced as part of the 
word to which it is at- 
tached. Its meaning is 
"and." In classical Latin, 
-que was generally placed 
at the end of the last of 
the two words to be 
connected by "and." In 
medieval and parish regis- 
ter Latin, however, -que 
often followed the first of 
the two words. 

virginis: genitive singular of 
virgo , virginis , f . : virgin 
(a third declension noun, 
v. Chapter IV); goes with 
Beataeque virginis 

gloria, gloriae, f.: glory 
(accusative singular 
because of the preposition 
ad which requires an accu- 
sative object) Note that 
the English word order here 
would probably be ad majo- 
rem gloriam Dei beataeque 
virginis, and translate 
accordingly. 



14 



E. Translation: Parish Register 

Document # 2 

Translate the following introductory remarks to the baptis- 
mal entries from a parish register for the year 1721, with the 
aid of the vocabulary given below the entry. 







Vocabulary 

iste: this (from iste, ista, 
istud, adj . and demonstra- 
tive pronoun, v. Chapter 
XI; modifies liber) 

baptismalis, baptismale: 
baptismal (modifies liber; 
third declension adjective, 
V. Chapter IV) 

inceptus : begun (perfect 
passive participle [v. 
Chapter IX] of incipio, 
incipere, incepi, inceptum: 
begin; translate this in 
the following word order: 
iste baptismalis liber 
inceptus . 



a, prep. + abl.: by, from (v. 

Chapter V) 
R. = Reverendo: ablative 

because of a 
Reverendo admodum: Right 

Reverend (an ecclesiastical 

title) 
domino: ablative singular of 

dominus (also part of his 

title) 
Petro: Peter (ablative 

singular of Petrus, object 

of the preposition a) 
Kaufmein: a surname 



13 



CHAPTER II 



Adjectives of the First and Second Declension 
First and Second Declension Adjectives Ending 
in -er, -era, -erum 
Irregular First and Second Declension Adjectives 

Introduction 

Adjectives (from adjicere: to throw to, add) modify, de- 
scribe, or characterize nouns in some way, e.g.. The blue sky. 
The little child. The round ball. Such adjectives are, in 
English, known as attributive adjectives, since they are connect- 
ed directly to the noun without an intervening verb. In Latin, 
attributive adjectives must agree with (i.e., be like) the nouns 
they modify in gender, number, and case. 

If a noun is, for example, genitive, plural, and neuter, the 
adjective (or adjectives) modifying it must also be genitive, 
plural, and neuter, e.g., matrimoniorum bonorum (of the good 
marriages). Note that the Latin attributive adjective frequently 
follows its noun except when used for special emphasis or when 
describing how much, how many, or how large. In English, by 
contrast, the adjective, with the possible exception of archaic 
or poetic usages, generally precedes its noun, cf . , for example, 
the learned teacher and magister eruditus. 

Adjectives may also be found in the predicate of a sentence, 
particularly one which has a copula or linking (intransitive) 
verb such as, for example, some form of the verb "to be" (is, 
are, was, were, etc.). Thus, for example: Matrimonium est bonum. 
(or, Matrimonium bonum est. Marriage is good.) Liber est mag- 
nus. (or. Liber magnus est. The book is large.) Puer est 
parvus. (or, Puer parvus est. The boy, or child, is small.) 

An adjective may also be used in place of a noun, e.g., mali 
(the bad men), malae (the bad women), mala (the bad things). An 
adjective used as a noun is sometimes known as a substantive. 

The Declension of First and Second Declension Adjectives 

First and second declension adjectives modify nouns of these 
two declensions, as well as those of the other three Latin 
declensions. They are declined in exactly the same way as the 
respective first and second declension nouns. 

In the example immediately below, the word defunctus, defunc- 
ta, defunctum (dead, deceased) is used. This is actually a 
perfect passive participle, a verbal adjective which is employed 
here simply as an attributive adjective. 



15 



defxinctus, defuncta, defvmctum (dead, deceased) 
Singular 



Case 


Masculine 


Feminine 


Neuter 


Nominative 


defimctus 


defuncta 


defunctvun 


Genitive 


defuncti 


defunctae 


defuncti 


Dative 


defuncto 


defunctae 


defuncto 


Accusative 


defunctum 


defunctam 


defunctum 


Ablative 


defuncto 


defuncta 


defuncto 


Plural 








Case 


Masculine 


Feminine 


Neuter 


Nominative 


defuncti 


defunctae 


defuncta 


Genitive 


defunctorum 


defunctarum 


defunctorum 


Dative 


defunctis 


defunctis 


defunctis 


Accusative 


defunctos 


defunctas 


defuncta 


Ablative 


defunctis 


defunctis 


defunctis 



The -er form of the masculine noun is also found in certain 
adjectives: 

aeger, aegera, aegerum: sick (also, eger, egera, egerum) 

Singular 



Case 

Nominative 

Genitive 

Dative 

Accusative 

Ablative 

Plural 

Nominative 

Genitive 

Dative 

Accusative 

Ablative 



Masculine 

aeger 

aegeri 

aegero 

aegerum 

aegero 



aegeri 

aegerorum 

aegeris 

aegeros 

aegeris 



Feminine 

aegera 

aegerae 

aegerae 

aegeram 

aegera 



aegerae 

aegerarum 

aegeris 

aegeras 

aegeris 



Neuter 

aegerum 

aegeri 

aegero 

aegerum 

aegero 



aegera 

aegerorum 

aegeris 

aegera 

aegeris 



Note that the meaning of the above two adjectives is always 
"dead" and "sick," respectively. The exact meaning is, of 
course, dependent upon the use of these adjectives with an appro- 
priate noun, such as, for example, infans defunctus (the dead or 
deceased child, masculine nominative singular), puellae aegerae 
(of the sick girl, feminine, genitive, singular). 

Adjectives of the first and second declension may be listed 
in dictionaries as follows: 



16 



bonus, bona, bonum (good — like defunctus, defuncta, 
defunctum) or, bonus, -a, -um 

liber, libera, liberum (free — like aeger, aegra, 
aegrum) or, liber, -era, -erum 

There are nine adjectives of the first and second declension 
which end in -ius in the genitive singular and -i in the dative 
singular. These adjectives are declined like the example below: 

totus, tota, totum (whole) 



Singular 








Case 


Masculine 


Feminine 


Neuter 


Nominative 


totus 


tota 


totum 


Genitive 


totius 


totius 


totius 


Dative 


toti 


toti 


toti 


Accusative 


totum 


totam 


totum 


Ablative 


toto 


tota 


toto 



Plural 



Case 



Masculine 



Feminine 



Neuter 



Nominative 

Genitive 

Dative 

Accusative 

Ablative 



toti 

totorum 

totis 

totos 

totis 



totae 

totarum 

totis 

totas 

totis 



tota 

totoirum 

totis 

tota 

totis 



The other eight irregular adjectives include; 



alius, alia, aliud 
alter, altera, alterum 
neuter , neutra , neutrum 
nullus, nulla, nullum 
solus, sola, solum 
ullus, ulla, ullum 
unus , una , unum 
uter , utra , utrum 



other , another 

the other (of two) 

neither 

none, no 

only, alone 

any 

one , a , an 

which ( of two ) 



17 



EXERCISES: CHAPTER II 



A . Grammar 

Decline bonus, bona, bonum and liber, libera, liberim for 

all genders, numbers, and cases. 

B. Vocabulary 

In addition to the first and second declension adjectives 
discussed in the body of this chapter, learn the following: 



abortivus, abortiva, abort i- 

vum: prematurely born 
baptizatus, baptizata, 

baptizatum: baptized 

(perfect passive participle 

[V. Chapter IX] used as an 

adjective) 
beatus, beata , beatum: 

blessed, fortunate 
bonus, bona, bonum: good, kind 
certus , certa, certum: cer- 
tain, fixed, sure 
copulatus, copulata, 

copulatum: married (perf. 

pass. part, as adj.) 
def unctus , defuncta, 

defunctum: dead, deceased 

(perf. pass. part, as adj.) 
honestus, honesta, honestum: 

honest, upright, honorable 
inchoatus, inchoata, inchoa- 

tum: begun 
illegitimus, illegitima, 

illegitimum: illegitimate 
intestatus, intestata, intes- 

tatum: intestate (died 

without a valid will) 
magnus, magna, magnum: large, 

great 
malus, mala, malum: bad, evil 
meus , mea , meum: my, mine 

(possessive adjective, v. 

Chapter XI) 
mortuus , mortua, mortuum: 

dead, deceased (perf. pass. 

part, as adj . ) 
multus, multa, multum: many 
oriundus , oriunda, oriundum: 

originating from, born (in) 



parvus, parva, pairvuin: small, 
little 

pudicus, pudica, pudicum: 
chaste , pure 

relictus, relicta, relictum: 
left behind, abandoned 
(when used as a noun: 
relicta, relictae, f.: 
widow, survivor [relict], 
relictus, relicti, m.: 
widower, survivor [relict], 
perf. pass. part, as adj.) 

sanctus, sancta, sanctum: 
holy, sacred (when used as 
a noun: sancta, sanctae, 
f.: saint [female], sanc- 
tus, sancti, m. : saint 
[male] ) 

sepultus, sepulta, sepultum: 
buried (perf. pass. part, 
as adj . ) 

ultimus, ultima, ultimum: last 

unigenitus, unigenita, 
unigenitum: only begotten, 
only born 

aeger, aegera, aegerum: sick 
( eger ) 

dexter, dextra, dextrvun: right 
(direction) 

liber, libera, liberum: free 
(do not confuse with liber, 
libri, m. : book) 

pulcher, pulchera, pulcherum: 
beautiful 

sacer, sacra, sacrum: sacred, 
holy 



C. Translation: Latin to English 

Translate the following from Latin to English: 

Nauta magnus est. 

liber baptizatorum pueronun, copulatomm, et defixnctorxun 

ecclesia Beati Sctncti Petri 

Unum f ilium habet. 

Filixis meus parviis est. 

D. Translation: English to Latin 

Translate the following from English to Latin: 

the book of the church of Saint Peter 

The honorable Thomas Mattingly and the chaste Anna Barbara 
Wilcox were married (copulati sunt). 

Today (hodie) Martin (Martinus) , illegitimate son of 
Mathilda Stieger, originating (use the feminine, genitive 
singular, because "originating" is in apposition to "of 
Mathilda") from (ex) Rottweiller, died (mortuus est). 

the parish of the blessed (fem.) Saint Mary (gen. sing.) 

a prematurely born (fem.) daughter 

E. Translation: Parish Register 

Document #1 

Translate the following excerpt from a death register with 
the aid of the vocabulary below: 

19 



Vocabulary 



hodie, adv. : today 

13a: tertia decima (die) = on 

the 13th (day) [v. Chapter 

VII for more information on 

the abbreviation of dates . ] 
Augusti: of August 
mortuus est: died, has died 
Josephus: a given name 
Josephi: of Joseph (gen. 

sing. ) 
Burger: a surname 
civis, civis, m.: citizen 

(third declension noun, v. 

Chapter IV) 
Rosemensis: (probably) of 

Rotenwiller (Bas Rhin, 

France) 
Anna = Annae (gen. sing.) 
Lemena: a surname 
friburgensis in Jetlcindia: of 

Frieburg im Uechtland 

(German spelling. Canton 

Fribourg, Switzerland) 
aetatis circiter: of the 

approximate age (of) 
octo mensium: 8 months (v. 

Chapter VII) 
sepultusque est: and he was 

buried 
extra portam: beyond (outside 

of) the gate (Often, beyond 

the gate of the city, where 

the poor were usually 

buried. ) 
praesentibus testibus: the 

witnesses present (were) 

[an ablative absolute; v. 

Chapter XIII for more 

information on this usage] 
Laurentio: Laurence (abl. 

sing, of Laurentius) 
Wehr: his last name 
aedituo: abl. sing. of 

aedituus, aeditui, m.: 

sexton 



eccles. = ecclesiae (gen. 
sing. ) 

cathed. = cathedralis (gen. 
sing. of cathedralis, 
cathedrale: cathedral [a 
third declension adjective, 
V. Chapter IV]; note that 
cathedralis is an adjective 
which modifies ecclesiae. 
Do not translate it as a 
noun. ) 

Argentinensis: of Strasbourg 
(Argentinensis is a Latin- 
ized form of Strasbourg. 
Note that the English 
syntax here would probably 
be: aedituus cathedralis 
ecclesiae Argentinensis, 
and translate accordingly. ) 

Teuschin: a surname 

coniuge: wife, the ablative 
singular of conjux 

(coniux); conjugis, m. or 
f.: husisand, wife, spouse 
(conjunx) 

Jois = Joannis: of John 
(Joaimes is a third declen- 
sion noun, V. Chapter IV. ) 

Jacobi, from Jacobus (declined 
like Martinus, Stephanus, 
Petrus, etc. ) 

Henny: a surname 

civis (see above) 

hujus: of this (also huius, 
genitive singular of hie, 
haec, hoc: this, the lat- 
ter ; V . Chapter XI ) 

civitatis: city, genitive 
singular of civitas, civi- 
tatis, f.: city (a third 
declension novin, v. Chapter 
IV) 



20 



E. Translation: Parish Register 

Document # 2 

Translate the following marriage entry with the aid of the 
vocabulary below: 






Vocabulary 

eodem die: on the same day 

sacramentaliter , adv.: 
according to the sacrament 
(i.e., the proper ecclesi- 
astical ritual) 

copulati sunt ( see above D . ) 

hon. = honestus 

juvenis: young man, bachelor 
(third declension adjective 
and noun, v. Chapter IV) 

Marxer: a surname 

et, conj . : and 

hon. = honesta 

virgo, virginis, f.: virgin 
(third declension noun, v. 
Chapter IV) 



Mar. = Maria 

Meyer: a surname 

coram, prep. + abl.: in the 

presence of (v. Chapter V) 
testibus: the witnesses (third 

declension noun, abl. pi., 

V. Chapter IV) 
Matt: a surname 
Joane = Joanne (John, a third 

declension noun, v. Chapter 

IV) 
Meyer: a surname 



21 



CHAPTER III 



Verbs I: First and Second Conjugation 

Present, Future, and Imperfect Indicative Active 

Present, Future, and Imperfect Indicative 

Active of esse and posse 

Latin Syntax: An Introduction 



Introduction 

It will be recalled that the inflection of nouns, 
adjectives, pronouns, and participles, the addition of suffixes 
or endings to the stems of these parts of speech, is known as de- 
clension and indicates gender, number, and case. The inflection 
of Latin verbs, the process of attaching endings (and occasional- 
ly prefixes) to verb stems, is called conjugation (from 
conjugcire: to join, link). The conjugation of Latin verbs estab- 
lishes five relationships, namely, person, number, tense, mood, 
and voice. This chapter defines these terms and discusses their 
uses. 

The Conjugation of Latin Verbs 

As indicated above, Latin verbs are conjugated for person, 
number, tense, mood, and voice. The meaning of each of these 
terms may be explained by using the first conjugation verb copu- 
lare (to marry) as an example. 

Person: First, Second, Third (I, you, he/she/it [singular]; 
we, you all, they [plural]), e.g., copulas: you (singular) marry. 

Number: Singular or Plural, e.g.,: 

Singular Plural 

copulo: I marry copulamus 

copulas you marry copulatis 

copulat he/she/it (if applicable) copulemt 
marries 



we marry 

you all marry 

they marry 



Tense (from tempus, temporis, n.: time): The time of the 
action of the verb. Latin verbs have six tenses: 



Present 

Future 

Imperfect 

Perfect 

Pluperfect 



copulo 

copulabo 

copulabam 

copulavi 

copulaveram 



Future Perfect copulavero 



I marry, am marrying, do marry 

I shall marry 

I married, was marrying, etc. 

I married, have married 

I had married 

I shall have married 



22 



Note that Latin, unlike English, has no eitiphastic or pro- 
gressive forms, so that copulo, and the other persons, singular 
and plural, in the present indicative active might be translated 
as follows, using the first person singular as an example: copu- 
lo: I marry, I am marrying, I do marry (as in the above 
paradigm) . The apropriate translation will be determined by the 
general sense of the sentence. 

Each of these tenses will be discussed in greater detail in 
this chapter and in subsequent chapters. 

Mood (from modus, modi, m. : manner, way, means): The means 
or manner in which the action of a verb is indicated. There are 
three moods for Latin verbs : 

Indicative (from indicatus, -a, -um: shown, made known): The 
indicative mood is used, as the name suggests, to indicate that 
which is presently taking place, as well as statements of fact or 
those for which a speaker or author assumes full responsibility. 
Parish register entries are generally in the indicative, although 
the subjunctive may be found on occasion, e.g., copulo: I marry 
(a statement of fact). 

Imperative (from imperare: to command): The imperative mood 
is used to give commands in the second person singular and plu- 
ral. It is generally not found in parish registers, e.g., copu- 
la!: you (singular) marry! 

Subjunctive (from siibjungere: to subordinate): Although rare 
in English, this mood is utilized frequently in Latin; for exam- 
ple, as a command form for the first and third person, singular 
and plural, to express purpose, result, condition, concession, 
doubt or uncertainty, etc., e.g., copulem: I marry. 

Voice (from vox, vocis, f.: voice): Latin, like English, has 
two voices, active (the subject acts) and passive (the subject is 
acted upon by someone or something). Compare, for example, the 
following two sentences: Filiam meam copulat. (He marries my 
daughter, [active] ) Henricus Wort et Anna Sophia Wildmann a me 
parocho copulati siont. (Henry Wort and Anna Sophia Wildmann were 
married by me, the parish priest. [passive]) 

There are also two verb forms, verbal nouns and verb adjec- 
tives which display characteristics of nouns or adjectives as 
well as verbs: 

Verbal Nouns 

Infinitives (from infinitus, infinite, infinitum: 

unlimited): Infinitives may be conjugated for tense and voice, 
like a verb, and may, like a noun, be used as the subject of a 
sentence or the direct object of a verb, e.g., Errare est huma- 
num. (To err is human.). In English, the present infinitive is, 
for example, formed by placing the preposition "to" in front of a 



23 



verb, e.g., to run, to sing, to think, to work. In Latin, the 
present active infinitive is formed by adding -re or -ere to the 
present stem of a verb, e.g., habere: to have. The present 
infinitive is the second principal part of a Latin verb. 

Gerund (from gerere : to bear, carry): The gerund is 
declined, like a noun, but only in the genitive, dative, accusa- 
tive, and ablative cases, neuter singular. Like a verb, it may 
take a direct object. The gerund is active in meaning and is 
translated in English by adding -ing to the verb stem, e.g., 
copulandi (of marrying). 

Supine (from supinus, supina, supinum: lying on one's back): 
The supine is a verbal noun of the fourth declension. It is used 
only in the accusative and ablative singular. The accusative 
expresses purpose, especially after verbs of motion or those 
suggesting motion, while the ablative is employed with certain 
adjectives or with verbs of saying, relating, perceiving, etc. 
In the latter usage, it is generally found in fixed expressions 
such as mirabile dictu (a wonderful thing to relate or say). The 
accusative singular supine, such as, for example, copulatum, may 
also be used as the fourth principal part of the Latin verb. 

Verbal Adjectives 

Participles (from particeps, participis: sharing in): Latin 
participles are declined like adjectives, and, like adjectives, 
must agree with any nouns they modify in gender, number, and 
case. Participles are conjugated for tense and voice, like 
verbs, and may take direct objects. Latin present participles, 
for example, are translated in English by adding -ing to the verb 
stem. Thus, for example, copulcins (marrying, present participle, 
nominative singular of all three genders). Note that in Latin 
the gerund and the present participle are guite different in 
form. In English, however, both end in -ing. Compare, for 
example, the following sentences: Heating (gerund) a home in 
winter is easier with proper insulation. By using proper insula- 
tion, we decreased our heating (adjective) bills by 30%. 

Conjugation may be further explained by conjugating the verb 
"to marry" in English in the present tense, indicative, mood, and 
active voice: 

Person Singular Plural 

First I marry we marry 

Second you marry you (all) marry 

Third he/she/marries they marry 

For each person, singular and plural, a personal pronoun — I, 
you, he, she, (it, if applicable), we, you (all), they — precedes 
the English verb. There are no changes in the verb itself, with 
the exception of the third person singular in which marry becomes 
marries. 



24 



Personal pronouns are generally omitted in the nominative 
case in classical Latin, except for emphasis. They are used on 
occasion in later and medieval Latin, and may be found in such 
documents as wills. Pronouns do not appear frequently in parish 
registers. Generally, as may be seen in the preceding examples, 
the verb itself is altered by attaching a different ending for 
each person, singular and plural, to the verb stem. For the 
present, future, and imperfect tenses, indicative and subjunctive 
moods, and the active voice, these endings are: 



Person 

Singular 

First 

Second 

Third 



Ending 



-o, or 

-s 
-t 



Plural 



First 

Second 

Third 



-mus 
-tis 
-nt 



To conjugate a Latin verb, consequently, endings are added 
to the stem (in the above examples, the present stem) to show 
person, number, tense, mood, and voice. The process of conjuga- 
tion in English frequently requires the use of pronouns, and is 
often dependent upon the position of the verb in a sentence. 

The First and Second Conjugation: Present Indicative Active 

The present stem of the verb (which is the basis for the 
present, imperfect, and future indicative active and passive, as 
well as the present subjunctive active and passive) is obtained, 
for the first two conjugations, by dropping the -re of the 
present infinitive, the second principal part of the Latin verb, 
e.g., copulare (to marry), stem copula-, habere (to have), stem, 
habe- . The endings listed above are then added to the present 
stem in order to form the present indicative active: 

copulare (to marry, present stem: copula; First Conjugation) 

Singular Meaning 



copulo 

copulas 

copulat 

Plural 

copulamus 
copulatis 
copulant 



I marry 

you marry 

he/she/it (or a noun) marries 

Meaning 

we marry 

you (all) marry 

they (or a noun) marry 



25 



Note that the -a of the present stem copula is absorbed by 
the -o of the first person singular ending. Note also that 
classical Latin had no separate endings for the familiar (e q 
thou) and polite (you) forms of the second person singular aAd 
plural. This is also true of personal pronouns, which are dis- 
cussed in a subsequent chapter. 



Examples : 

Filium eomm 
Filiam eomm 
Filium eorum 
Filias eorum 
Filios eorum 
Filias eorum 



copulo. 
copulas . 
copulat. 
copulamus. 
copulatis . 
copulant. 



I marry their son. 
You marry their daughter. 
She marries their son. 
We marry their daughters. 
You (all) marry their sons, 
They marry their (i.e., 
someone else's) daughters. 



• ^v, r^V" °^ "°""^ "'^^ ^^ substituted for the personal pronoun 
in the third person singular and plural. Thus, for example, Anna 
Maria Becker filium eorum copulat. (Anna Maria Becker marries 
their son.) Agricolae filias eorum copulant. (The farmers marry 
their [I.e., someone else's] daughters.) 

habere (to have, present stem: habe; Second Conjugation) 
Singular Meaning 



habeo 
habes 
habet 

Plural 

habemus 
habetis 
habent 

Examples ; 



I have 
you have 
he/she/it has 

Meaning 

we have 

you (all) have 

they have 



Amicos habeo. 

Amicos habes 

Pater meus amicos habet. 

Amicos habemus . 

Amicos habetis. 

Magistri amicos habent. 



I have friends. 

You have friends. 

My father has friends. 

We have friends. 

You (all) have friends. 

The teachers have friends 



The First and Second Conjugation: Future Indicative Active 

The future indicative active of the first and second conju- 
gation (I shall marry, you will marry, i shall have, etc.) is 
formed by adding the future tense sign -bi to the present stem of 
the verb, together with the endings previously given e a 
copulabit (he/she will marry). ^ given, e.g., 



26 



copulare (First Conjugation] 
Singular Meaning 



copulabo* 
copulabis 
copulabit 

Plural 

copulabimus 
copulabitis 
copulcibunt* * 



I shall marry 

You will marry 

he/she (or a noun) will marry 

Meaning 

we shall marry 

you (all) will marry 

they (or a noun) will marry 



*In the first person singular, the -i of the tense sign 
-bi merges with the -o to become copulabo; this 
is also true of the second conjugation habebo. 

**In the third person plural, first and second conjugation, 
-u is added to the -b, rather than -i, to indicate 
futurity. 



Examples : 

Filium eorum 
Filiam eorum 
Filium eorum 
Filios eorum 
Filias eoirum 



copulabo . 
copulabis . 
copulabit . 
copulabimus . 
copulabitis . 



Filios eorum copulabunt. 
habere (Second Conjugation) 



I shall marry their son. 

You will marry their daughter. 

She will marry their son. 

We shall marry their sons. 

You (all) will marry their 

daughters . 

They will marry their sons. 



Singular 

habebo 

habebis 

habebit 

Plural 

hcLbebimus 
habebitis 
habebunt 

Examples : 

Amicos habebo. 
Amicos habebis. 
Amicos habebit. 
Amicos habebimus. 
Amicos habebitis, 
Amicos habebimt. 



Meaning 

I shall have 

you will have 

he/she/it (or a noun) will have 

Meaning 

we shall have 

you (all) will have 

they (or a noun) will have 



I shall have friends. 
You will have friends. 
He/she/it will have friends, 
We shall have friends. 
You (all) will have friends. 
They will have friends. 



27 



The First and Second Conjugations: Imperfect Indicative 

Active 

The imperfect tense generally denotes continuous or repeated 
action in classical, Roman Latin (although in medieval Latin, and 
the Latin of parish registers, its meaning is frequently that of 
a single, completed act) which has taken place in the past. "I 
wrote" expresses a single, completed act, whereas "I used to 
write" (periodically), "I kept writing" (repeatedly), "I wrote" 
(habitually, day after day) indicate repetition and continuity. 
Hence the action of the latter is incomplete (unfinished) or 
imperfect. 

Although the classical meaning of the imperfect should be 
learned, the reader of parish register entries, and other Latin 
documents, should be aware that the distinction between completed 
and continuous action was frequently overlooked by priests, 
scribes, and others who used the imperfect and the perfect (which 
indicates completed action) more or less interchangeably. 

The tense sign of the imperfect is -ba, which is combined 
with the present stem of the verb, and the endings listed above, 
to form the imperfect tense, e.g., copulabat: he/she used to 
marry, kept on marrying, was marrying, etc. 

copulare (First conjugation) 



Singular 

copulabam 
copulabas 
copulabat 



Meaning 

I was marrying, I married, etc. 
you were marrying, you married, etc, 
he/she (or a noun) was marrying, 
he/she married 



Plural 

copulabamus 
copulabatis 

copulabant 



Meaning 

we were marrying, we married, etc. 
you (all) were marrying, you (all) 
married, etc. 

they (or a noun) were marrying, they 
married, etc. 



Examples : 



Filiam eorum copulabam. 
Filium eorum copulabas. 
Filiam eorum copulabat. 
Filios eorum copulabamus. 
Filias eorum copulabatis. 

Filios eorum copulabant. 



I married, etc. their daughter. 

You married, etc. their son. 

He married, etc. their daughter. 

We married, etc. their sons. 

You (all) married, etc. their 

daughters . 

They married, etc. their sons. 



28 



habere (Second Conjugation) 



Singular 

habebam 
habebas 
habebat 



Plural 

hcibebamus 
habebatis 

habebant 



Examples : 

Amicos habebam. 
Ami cos habebas. 
Amicos habebat. 
Amicos habebamus. 
Amicos habebatis. 
Amicos habebant. 



Meaning 

I was having, I had, etc. 
you were having, you had, etc. 
he/she/it (or a noun) was having, 
he/she/it had, etc. 

Meaning 

we were having , we had , etc . 
you (all) were having, you (all) 
had , etc . 

they (or a noun) were having, 
they had, etc. 



I had, etc. friends. 

You had, etc. friends. 

He/she (or a noun) had, etc. friends, 

We had, etc. friends. 

You (all) had, etc. friends. 

They (or a noun) had, etc. friends. 



The Verb esse: Present, Future, Imperfect Indicative Active 

The verb esse (to be) is known technically as a copula or 
linking verb between various parts of the sentence. It is in- 
transitive, as in English, meaning that it takes no direct object 
and has no passive voice. Consequently, in a simple sentence of 
subject-verb-predicate, both subject and predicate remain in the 
nominative case, e.g., Magister eruditus est. (The teacher is 
learned.) Esse is irregular in its principal parts. 

Present Indicative Active of esse 



Singular 



Meaning 



sum 

es 

est* 

Plural 



I am 
you are 
he/she/it is 

Meaning 



svimus 
estis 
sunt* 



we are 

you (all) are 

they are 



*Est can also mean "there is," sunt "there are." 



29 



Examples : 

Mercator sum. 
Amita mea es. 
Filius meus est. 
Agricolae sumus. 
Amici mei estis. 
Testes sunt. 



I am a merchant. 

You are my aunt. 

He is my son . 

We are farmers. 

You (all) are my friends. 

The witnesses are. (or, There are 

witnesses . ) 



Futvire Indicative Active of esse 



Singular 

ero 

eris 

erit 

Plural 

erimus 
eritis 
erunt 

Examples : 

Socius tuus ero. 
Junio in Roma eris. 
Januario hie erit. 
eras in urbe erimus, 
Maio ibi eritis. 
Julio hie erunt. 



Meaning 

I shall be 

you will be 

he/she/it (or a noun) will be 

Meaning 

we shall be 

you (all) will be 

they (or a noun) will be 



I shall be your comrade. 
In June, you will be in Rome. 
He/she will be here in January. 
Tomorrow, we shall be in the city. 
In May, you (all) will be there. 
In July, they will be here. 



Imperfect Indicative Active of esse 

Singular Meaning 



eram 
eras 
erat 



Plural 

eramus 
eratis 
erant 

Examples : 

Discipulus eram. 
Magister eras. 
Socius erat. 



I was , used to be , etc . 
you were , used to be , etc . 
he/she/it (or a noun) was, 
used to be, etc. 

Meaning 

we were, used to be, etc. 

you (all) were, used to be, etc. 

they (or a noun) were, used to be, etc, 



I was, used to be, a pupil. 

You were, used to be, a teacher. 

He/she was, used to be, a comrade. 



30 



Patrini ereunus. We were, used to be, godparents. 

Infantes eratis. You (all) were, used to be, children, 

Fabri erant. They were, used to be, blacksmiths. 

The Verb posse: Present, Future, and Imperfect 
Indicative Active 

The verb posse (can, be able [to]) is a combination of the 
adjective potis (able, capable) and the verb esse. In the proc- 
ess of combining the two, certain changes occur in the structure 
of the verb which are noted in the paradigms (examples of conju- 
gation or declension) below: 

Present Indicative Active of posse 

Singular Meaning 

possum* I can , I am able ( to ) 

potes you can, you are able (to) 

potest he/she/it (or a noun) can, is able (to) 

Plural Meaning 

possumus* we can, we are able (to) 

potestis you can, you are able (to) 

possunt* they (or a noun) can, they are able (to) 

*In the first person, singular and plural, and the third 
person plural, the -t of pot is changed to -s. 

In order to complete the meaning of "be able , " what is known 
as a complementary infinitive is required, i.e., "to" (do some- 
thing). Thus, for example, Magister potest docere. (The teacher 
is able to [can] teach.) Complementary here has the sense of 
completing or finishing the thought. 

Examples : 

Possum laborare. I can (am able to) work. 

Potes baptizare. You can (are able to) baptize. 

Potest legere. He/she can (is able to) read. 

Possumus videre. We can (are able to) see. 

Potestis studere. You can (are able to) study. 

Possunt nubare. They can (are able to) marry. 

Future Indicative Active of posse 

Singular Meaning 

potero I shall be able (to) 

poteris you will be able (to) 

poterit he/she/it (or a noun) will be able (to) 



31 



Plural 



Meaning 



poterimus 
poteritis 
potemnt 



we shall be able (to) 

you (all) will be able (to) 

they (or a noun) will be able (to) 



Examples : 

Julio venire potero. 

eras proficisci poteris. 

Augusto abire poterit. 

Perendie navigare poterimus. 

eras mane discedere poteritis, 

Octobre revenire poterunt. 



I shall be able to come 

in July. 

Tomorrow, you will be able 

to depart . 

In August, he/she will be 

able to go away. 

The day after tomorrow, we 

shall be able to sail. 

Tomorrow morning, you will 

be able to leave. 

In October, they will be 

able to come back. 



Imperfect Indicative Active of posse 

Singular Meaning 



poteram 
poteras 
poterat 



Plural 

poteramus 
poteratis 

poterant 



I was able (to) , I could 
you were able (to), you could 
he/she/it (or a novin) was able (to), 
he/she/it could 

Meaning 

we were able (to), we could 
you (all) were able (to), 
you (all) could 
they (or a noun) were able to, 
they could 



Examples : 

Hie remanere poteram. 
Scribere poteras. 
Laborare poterat. 
Librum legere poteramiis. 
Redire poteratis. 
Baptizare poterant. 

Latin Syntax: An Introduction 



I was able to remain here. 
You were able to write. 
He/she was able to work. 
We were able to read the book, 
You (all) were able return. 
They were able to baptize. 



Inasmuch as the endings attached to the stems of nouns , 
adjectives, verbs, and other parts of speech provide meaning in a 
Latin sentence, it should be apparent that Latin is not bound by 
the fixed word order of simple English sentences, especially 
those with transitive verbs taking direct objects, i.e., subject- 



32 



verb-predicate. If the word order in such sentences is changed, 
the meaning is also altered. 

One may write, for example, "The parish priest will baptize 
the child," but any of the following alterations in word order 
changes the sense of the sentence: 

The child will baptize the parish priest. 
Will baptize the child the parish priest. 
The child the parish priest will baptize. 

The order of each of the above examples , and other word 
orders as well, may, however, be quite, acceptable in a Latin 
sentence, e.g. , 

Parochus baptizabit infantem. 
Infcintein baptizabit parochus. 
Parochus infantem baptizabit. 
Baptizabit infantem parochus. 
Baptizabit parochus infantem. 

Each of these sentences has exactly the same meaning, i.e., 
"The parish priest will baptize the child." Parochus, the nomi- 
native singular, will always be the subject in any of the above 
word orders, just as infantem, the accusative singular, will 
always be the predicate, the direct object, and baptizabit, the 
third person singular future indicative active of baptizare will 
always be the verb. 

The word order or syntax of documents using simple Latin 
prose, such as parish registers, sometimes approximates that of 
the English subject-verb-predicate. Frequently, however, the 
priest or scribe employed a more classical syntax which placed 
the main verb at the end of the sentence. Consequently, when 
translating Latin sentences, it is best for beginners to trans- 
late each word as it occurs in the sentence, regardless of wheth- 
er or not it makes sense in English, and then arrange the sen- 
tence to correspond to correct English word order. For example: 

Hodie baptizatus est infans filius legitimatus Martini 
Forster et Annae Catherinae Rickert. 

Today was baptized (See Chapter IX on the perfect passive 
for an explanation of why this should not be translated 
as "is baptized.") a child, the son legitimate of Martin 
Forster and (of) Anna Gather ina Rickert. 

The basic word order of classical Latin, especially prose, 
is summarized below for reference: 

In a simple Latin sentence, the subject often came first and 
the main verb last, e.g., Caesar Galliam vicit. (Caesar 
conquered Gaul. [Caesar Gaul conquered.]) This was especially 
true if no part of the sentence was given special emphasis. 



33 



Whatever was to be emphasized was usually placed first in 
the sentence, e.g., Galliam Caesar vicit. (Caesar conquered 
Gaul.) Vicit Galliam Caesar. (Caesar conquered Gaul.) The last 
word or place was never, in theory at least, emphasized in a 
proper Latin sentence. 

For additional information on classical Latin syntax, con- 
sult some of the grammars listed in the selected bibliography at 
the back of this book. 

Note that in the vocabulary provided for this chapter the 
first two principal parts of the Latin verb are listed for all 
verbs reviewed in the chapter. These include: the first person 
singular, present indicative active and the present infinitive, 
e.g., copulo, copulare (I marry, to marry). The other two prin- 
cipal parts of the Latin verb, the first person singular, perfect 
indicative active and the perfect passive participle are dis- 
cussed in Chapter VI and Chapter IX respectively. 



EXERCISES: CHAPTER III 



A . Grammar 

Conjugate baptizare (like copulare), docere (like habere), 
and sum in the present, future, and imperfect indicative active 
tenses . 



B. Vocabulary 

Learn the following verbs. Note that this book follows the 
practice of many Latin dictionaries and lexica in introducing the 
four principal parts of the Latin verb to the reader. Below are 
listed the first two, the first person singular, present indica- 
tive active (e.g., copulo: I marry), and the present infinitive 
(e.g. , copulare : to marry ) . 



First Conjugation Verbs 

approbo , approbare : approve 
baptize, baptizare: baptize 
copulo, copulare: marry 
habito, habitare: live in, 

dwell 
humo , humare : bury 
marito , maritare : marry 
narro, narrare: narrate, 

relate 
nubo , niibare : marry 
oro, orare: ask, beg, pray 
probo , probare: prove, ap- 
prove, test, probate 
servo, servare: save, preserve 



Second Conjugation Verbs 

debeo , debere : owe , ought 

doceo, docere: teach 

habeo, habere: have, hold 

moneo , monere : warn 
remaneo, remanere: stay 

teneo, tenere: hold, keep 

video, videre: see 

Other Verbs 

possum, posse: can, be able to 
Slim, esse: be 



34 



C. Translation: Latin to English 

Translate the following sentences from Latin to English: 

Infantem meum baptizeibit. 

(infantem: child, accusative singular; a third declension 
noun, V. Chapter IV.) 

Nauta est. 

Aviae sunt. 

Avxmculi matrimonium filiarum earum approbant. 
(earum: of their [daughters]) 

Filli avunculi filli fratris sunt. 

(fratris: of the brother; study the case endings 
very carefully in this sentence. Is filli the 
genitive singular or the nominative plural? Is 
avxmculi the genitive singular or nominative 
plural? Is the second filli nominative singular 
or genitive plural? Which usage seems to make the 
best sense? ) 

Consobrina feibulas narreiba't. 

D. Translation: English to Latin 

Translate the following sentences from English to Latin: 

They are sailors. 

The witnesses (testes) are: 

My daughters used to work (laborabant) in the village 
(in villa) . 

Today (see previous chapters for this word), John (Johannes) 
Merz, legitimate son of Thomas Merz and Maria Catharina 
Belcher, was baptized (baptizatus est). 

E. Translation: Parish Register 

Document #1 

Translate the excerpt on the following page from a Lutheran 
parish register which describes conditions in and around the city 
of Darmstadt, Germany, during the Thirty Years' War (1618-1648). 



35 







Vocabulary 

hie: this (goes with annus) 

furiosus, furiosa, furiosum: 
furious , maddening 

quippe, adv. : indeed, certain- 
ly, to be sure 

in eo: in it 

Mars, Martis, m. : the Roman 
god of war 

cum, preposition + ablative: 
with (V. Chapter V) 

Libitina, Libitinae, f.: the 
Roman goddess of the dead 

ovo , ovare ( ovi , ovatum): 
celebrate, exult 

i.e. = id est: that is 

ira, irae, f.: anger, wrath 

terras, ace. pi. of terra, 
terrae, f.: land, earth 

hastis, hastis, f.: spear (el. 
Latin: hasta, hastae, f.) 
(here, a third declension 
noun, V. Chapter IV) 

bellum, belli, n.: war 



pestis, pestis, f.: plague, 
pestilence (third declen- 
sion noun, V. Chapter IV); 
note that haste, bello et 
peste are all ablatives of 
means , and the idea is that 
God punished the area with 
(by means of) these three 
items . 

cum analogis: with similari- 
ties, i.e., like (since the 
minister is comparing the 
wrath of God to Mars cele- 
brating with Libitina); 
from analogus, analoga, 
analogum: having a similar- 
ity or proportion 

ita, adv.: thus, so 

premebat, from premo, premere 
(pressi, pressum) : press, 
suppress, oppress (third 
conjugation verb, v. Chap- 
ter V) 



36 



ut: that 

Darmstadii, gen. sing, of 
Darmstadius, Darmstadii, 
m. : the city of Darmstadt 
(a city now in the state of 
Hessen, Germany) 

ex, preposition + ablative: 
from (v. Chapter V) 

curia, curiae, f.: court (ex 
curia: from the court [of ] , 
goes with Darmstadt) 

intra, preposition + accusa- 
tive: within; here, proba- 
bly, under 

cujus (cuius): whose (from 
qui, quae, quod: who, 
which, what [v. Chapter 
XI]) 

tectum, tecti, n. : roof 

fames, famis, f.: hunger (a 
third declension noun, v. 
Chapter IV) 

grassansq = grassansque: and 
walking about, proceeding 
(from: grassor, grassari, 
grassatus sum: walk about, 
proceed [deponent verb, v. 
Chapter IX] ) 

Bellona, Bellonae, f.: Roman 
goddess of war, sister of 
Mars 

incolas, ace. pi. of incola, 
incolae, f.: inhabitant, 
resident (accusative be- 
cause it is the object of 
the verb compulerat) 

plerusque, pleraque, pler- 
umgue: very many, a large 
part (Note that the -que 
here is not the enclitic 
con j unction "and . " ) 

compulerat: had forced, 
compelled (fames 

grassansque bellona 

compulerat: hunger and 
walking about Bellona [war] 
had forced [many under the 
protection of the court of 
Darmstadt] ; compulerat is 
the pluperfect indicative 
active third person 

singular of compellere: to 
force, compel) 



eodem carru: in the same cart; 
from carrus , carrus , m.: 
cart (a fourth declension 
noun, v. Chapter X) 

ultra, adv. & preposition + 
accusative: beyond, more 
than 

a, preposition + ablative: 
from, here, probably, of 

libitinariis: the dead, from 
libitinarius, libitinaria, 
libitinarium: dead (as a 
noun: a dead person) 

evecti fuerint: were carried 
out (to be buried), from 
eveho , evehere , evecti, 
evectum: carry out (a third 
conjugation verb, v. Chap- 
ter V) 

fuerint: perfect subjunctive 
active, third person plural 
of esse (v. Chapter XII for 
more information on the 
subjunctive. ) 

videatur: is seen (i.e., the 
recording of the event 
described above); 

literally: shall be seen 
(the present subjunctive 
passive of video, videre: 
see [but in the passive 
voice often: seem]; v. 
Chapter IX for additional 
information on the passive 
voice. ) 

matricula, matriculae, f.: 
register 

ecclesiastica: ecclesiastical 
(Note: before matricula the 
preposition in + abl.: in, 
inside of, within, is 
understood. ) 

Darmstatina: Darmstadt (as an 
adjective, i.e., the 
ecclesiastical register of 
Darmstadt [The preposition 
"of" may be added to pro- 
vide a more felicitous 
translation. ] ) 

ann. = anno 



37 



E. Translation: Parish Register 



Document # 2 

Translate the following birth entry with the aid of the 
vocabulary below. 










' 1' *f 
'. I* 






ct 









Vocabulary 

Under infantes (children): 

nata: (she was) born 
19a = decima nona (die): on 
the 19th (day) 

Under parentes ( parents ) : 

Heimburger: a surname 
incola, incolae, f.: resident 
Colm. : of Colmar 
et (see previous chapters) 
Lambolcinii: a place name 
vinitor, vinitoris, m. : vine 

dresser 
Roos: a surname 
ex: from (prep. + abl.) 
Doplischirand: a place name 
oriunda: originating, spring 

from 

Under patrini 

Oberrieder: a surname 

civis (see previous chapters) 






Colm. (see above) 

et (see above) 

procuratoris: proxy lawyer, 
representative (from procu- 
rator, procuratoris, m. ) 

magistratrus: of the magis- 
trate (of Colmar) [from 
magistratus , magistratus , 
m. : magistrate] 

tertianus: the third (goes 
with his name), from ter- 
tiannus, tertiana, 

terticoium: third 

Schidyn: a surname 

civis (see above) 

Colm. (see above) 

et (see above) 

textoris: of a weaver (from 
textor, textoris, m.: 
weaver ) 

pud. = pudica (see previous 
chapters ) 

virgo, virginis, f.: virgin 
(see also Chapter II) 



38 



CHAPTER IV 



Nouns: The Third Declension 

I-Stem Nouns of the Third Declension 

Latinized First Names: Third Declension 

Third Declension Adjectives 



Introduction 

The stem of most third declension nouns (which remains after 
the genitive singular ending is removed) ends in a consonant and 
is often very different from the nominative singular. For this 
reason, the nominative and genitive singular, as well as the 
gender, of third declension nouns should be memorized together, 
e.g., tempus (time — nominative singular), temporis (of 
time — genitive singular), n. (neuter gender). Note that in the 
above example, the stem of the noun is tempor. Third declension 
nouns can be either masculine, feminine, or neuter in gender. 

Third Declension Nouns 

Nouns of the third declension are declined according to the 
examples given below. 



pater, patris, m. : father (stem: patr) 



Singular 



Case 



Ending 



Meaning 



Nom . pater 

Gen . patris 

Dat . patri 

Ace . pat rem 

Abl . patre 

Plural 



IS 

i 

em 

e 



a/the father 
of/from a/the father 
to/for a/the father 
a/the father (d.o.) 
by/with/f rom, etc. a/the 
father 



Nom . patres 

Gen . patrum 

Dat . patribus 

Ace . patres 

Abl . patribus 



es 

um 

ibus 

es 

ibus 



(the) fathers 
of/from the fathers 
to/for the fathers 
(the) fathers (d.o. ) 
by/with/f rom, etc. the 
fathers 



39 



confirmatio, conf irmationis, f 



Singular 



Case 



Nom. confirmatio 

Gen . conf irmationis 

Dat. conf irmationi 

Ace . conf irmationem 

Abl . conf irmatione 



Ending 



xs 

i 

em 

e 



confirmation 
(stem, confirmatio) 



Meaning 



a/the confirmation 
of/from a/the confirmation 
to/for a/the confirmation 
a/the confirmation (d.o.) 
by/with/from, etc. a/the 
confirmation 



Plural 



Nom. conf irmationes es 

Gen. conf irmationum urn 

Dat. conf irmationibus ibus 

Ace . conf irmationes es 

Abl . conf irmationibus ibus 



(the) confirmations 
of/from the confirmations 
to/for the confirmations 
(the) confirmations (d.o.) 
by/with/f rom, etc. the 
conf irmat ions 



From these examples, it should be clear that a new set of 
case endings is required for nouns of the third declension. The 
above endings will be found for all masculine and feminine nouns 
of the third declension, with the exception of i-stem nouns to be 
discussed subsequently. Neuter nouns are, however, somewhat 
different from masculine and feminine nouns of the third declen- 
sion, as noted in the example below: 

tempus, temper is, n. : time (stem: tempor) 

Singular 



Case 

Nom . tempus 

Gen . temporis 

Dat . tempori 

Ace . tempus 

Abl . tempore 



Plural 

Nom . tempera 

Gen . temporum 

Dat . temporibus 

Ace . tempera 

Abl . temporibus 



Ending 



IS 

i 



a 

um 

ibus 

a 

ibus 



Meaning 

a/the time 
of/from a/the time 
to/for a/the time 
a/the time (d.o.) 
by/with/from, etc. 
a/the time 



(the) times 
of/from the times 
to/for the times 
(the) times (d.o.) 
by/with/f rom, etc. 
the times 



40 



In the above examples, note that the nominative and accusa- 
tive plural, masculine and feminine genders, have the same end- 
ing. This is also true of the neuter nominative and accusative, 
singular and plural. The meaning in each case must be determined 
by the sense of the sentence. 

I-Stem Nouns of the Third Declension 

A few third declension nouns have a stem ending in -i, to 
which case endings are added in the genitive plural of all gen- 
ders, the ablative singular and the nominative and accusative 
plural, neuter gender. Certain masculine and feminine nouns such 
as tussis, tussis, f.: cough also end in -i (the actual stem) in 
the ablative singular and -im in the accusative singular. Mascu- 
line nouns such as ignis, ignis, m. : fire, may also have an -i 
ending in the ablative singular. Generally, however, masculine 
and feminine nouns retain the ablative singular ending -e from 
the regular third declension endings. 

I-stem nouns generally belong to one of the following cate- 
gories: a) nouns ending in -is, -is, or -es, -is in the nomina- 
tive and genitive singular respectively (see examples below); b) 
neuter nouns ending in -e (cf. mare below), -al, or -ar in the 
nominative singular such as animal or exemplar (example); c) a 
number of nouns ending in -s or -x in the nominative singular 
such as mons, mentis, m. : mountain. A few examples are provided 
below: 



testis , testis , m . 

Singular 



or f.: witness (stem, testi) 



Case 

Nom. testis 

Gen . testis 

Dat . testi 

Ace . testem 

Abl . teste 



Ending 



IS 

is 
i 

em 

e 



Meaning 

a/the witness 
of/from a/the witness 
to/for a/the witness 
a/the witness (d.o.) 
by/with/from, etc. 
a/the witness 



Plural 



Nom . testes 

Gen . testium 

Dat . testibus 

Ace . testes 

Abl . testibus 



es 

ium 

ibus 

es 

ibus 



(the) witnesses 
of/from the witnesses 
to/for the witnesses 
(the) witnesses (d.o.) 
by/with/f rom, etc. 
the witnesses 



41 



civis, civis, m. : citizen (stem: civi) 
Case Ending Meaning 



Singular 

Nom. civis 

Gen . civis 

Dat . civi 

Ace . civem 

Abl . cive 

Plural 

Nom. cives 

Gen . civium 

Dat . civibus 

Ace . cives 

Abl . civibus 



IS 

is 
i 

em 
e 



es 

ium 

ibus 

es 

ibus 



a/the citizen 

of/from a/the citizen 

to/for a/the citizen 

a/the citizen (d.o.) 

by/with/f rom, etc. a/the citizen 



(the) citizens 

of/from the citizens 

to/for the citizens 

(the) citizens (d.o.) 

by /with/from, etc. the citizens 



tussis , tussis , f . 

Singular 



cough (stem: tussi) 



Case 



Nom. tussis 

Gen. tussis 

Dat. tussi 

Ace. tussim (N.B.) 

Abl . tussi 



Plural 



Case 



Ending 

is 
is 
i 

im (m) 

i ( ) 



Ending 



Nom. 


tusses 


es 


Gen. 


tussium 


ium (urn) 


Dat. 


tussibus 


ibus 


Ace. 


tusses 


es 


Abl. 


tussibus 


ibus 




mare , maris , n 


. : sea (stem: 




Singular 





mari) 



Case 

Nom . mare 

Gen . maris 

Dat . mari 

Ace . mare 

Abl . mari 



Ending 



xs 
i 



Meaning 

a/the cough 
of/from a/the cough 
to/for a/the cough 
a/the cough (d.o.) 
by/with/f rom, etc. a/the 
cough 



Meaning 

(the) coughs 
of/from the coughs 
to/for the coughs 
( the ) coughs (d.o. ) 
by/with/f rom, etc. the coughs 



Meaning 

a/the sea 

of/from a/the sea 

to/for a/the sea 

a/the sea (d.o. ) 

by/with/f rom, etc. a/the sea 



42 





Plural 


Nom. 


maria 


Gen. 


marium 


Dat. 


maribus 


Ace. 


maria 


Abl. 


maribus 



ia (a) (the) seas 

ium (um) of /from the seas 

ibus to/for the seas 

ia (a) (the) seas (d.o.) 

ibus by /with/from, etc, 



Latinized First Names of the Third Declension 



the seas 



Latinized given names of the third declension are declined 
exactly like masculine or feminine nouns of the same declension. 
Examples follow: 

Jo(h)annes, Jo(h)annis, m. : John (English), Jean (French), 

Johann (German) (stem: Joann) 



Case 

Nom • Joannes 

Gen . Joannis 

Dat . Joanni 

Ace . Joannem 

Abl . Joanne 



Ending 



IS 

i 

em 
e 



Meaning 

John 

of/from John 

to/for John 

John (d.o. ) 

by/with/f rom, etc. John 



Note that Joanne, without the -h after the -o, is not 
"JoAnn," but, rather, the ablative singular of Joannes. The 
female equivalent of Joannes is Joanna, Joannae, f.: JoAnn, 
Joanna, a first declension noun. 

Vico, Viconis, m. : Guy (stem: Vicon) 

Case Ending Meaning 



Nom . Vice 

Gen . Viconis 

Dat. Viconi 

Ace . Viconem 

Abl . Vicone 



IS 

i 
em 

e 



Guy 

of/from Guy 
to/for Guy 
Guy (d.o. ) 
by/with/f rom , 



etc . Guy 



Agnes, Agnetis, f.: Agnes (stem: Agnet) 
Case Ending Meaning 



Nom . Agnes 

Gen . Agnetis 

Dat . Agneti 

Ace . Agnetem 

Abl . Agnete 



IS 

i 

em 

e 



Agnes 

of/from Agnes 

to/for Agnes 

Agnes (d.o. ) 

by/with/f rom, etc. Agnes 



43 



Felicitas, Felicitatis, f.: Felicity (stem: Felicitat) 

Case Ending Meaning 

Nom. Felicitas Felicity 

Gen. Felicitatis is of /from Felicity 

Dat. Felicitati i to/for Felicity 

Ace. Felicitatem em Felicity 

Abl. Felicitate e by/with/f rom, etc. Felicity 

Third Declension Adjectives 

A large number of third declension adjectives are declined 
like i-stem third declension nouns, rather than those with a 
consonant stem, i.e., the ablative singular ends in -i, the 
neuter nominative and accusative plural in -ia, and the genitive 
plural of all three genders in -ium. These adjectives have been 
divided by grammarians into three different groups: a) those with 
the same nominative singular for all three genders; b) those with 
the same nominative singular ending for masculine and feminine 
genders, but a different ending for the neuter; c) those with a 
different nominative singular ending for all three genders. 
Examples of each type of adjective are provided below. 

par (m. , f., n.), paris (gen. sing.): equal, like 
(same nominative singular ending for all three genders) 

Singular 

Case Masculine & Feminine Neuter 

Nom . par par 

Gen . paris paris 

Dat . pari pari 

Ace . par em par 

Abl . pari pari 

(N.B. ! ) 

Plural 

Nom . pares paria 

Gen . parium parium 

Dat . paribus paribus 

Ace . pares ( is ) * paria 

Abl . paribus paribus 

*An alternate ending in classical Latin found rarely 
in parish register entries. 

parochialis (m. & f.), parochiale (n. ) : parish (e.g., 
parish church) , parochial 

(same nominative singular ending for masculine and feminine 
genders; different ending for the neuter singular) 



44 



singular 






Case 


Masculine & Feminine 


Neuter 


Norn. 


parochial is 


parochiale 


Gen. 


parochialis 


parochialis 


Dat. 


parochial i 


parochiali 


Ace. 


parochialem 


parochiale 


Abl. 


parochiali 


parochiali 


Plural 






Nom. 


parochiales 


parochialia 


Gen. 


parochial ium 


parochial ium 


Dat. 


par och i a 1 i bus 


parochialibus 


Ace. 


parochiales 


parochialia 


Abl. 


parochialibus 


parochialibus 



celeber (m. ) , Celebris (f.), celebre (n.): famous 
(three different nominative singular endings for all three 
genders ) 





Singular 






Case 


Masculine 


Feminine 


Neuter 


Nom. 


celeber 


Celebris 


celebre 


Gen. 


Celebris 


Celebris 


Celebris 


Dat. 


celebri 


celebri 


celebri 


Ace. 


celebrem 


celebrem 


celebre 


Abl. 


celebri 

Plural 


celebri 


celebri 


Nom. 


celebres 


celebres 


celebria 


Gen. 


celebrium 


celebrium 


celebrium 


Dat. 


celebribus 


celebribus 


celebribus 


Ace. 


celebres 


celebres 


celebria 


Abl. 


celebribus 


celebribus 


celebribus 



Note that, as also with adjectives of the first and second 
declension, the meaning of each of the above adjectives is de- 
pendent upon its use with a noun. They mean, respectively, 
"equal," "parish," and "famous" in each of the cases and numbers 
above . 

There are also a few consonant stem adjectives, which have 
endings similar to those of the consonant stem third declension 
nouns. Like i-stem nouns adjectives of category "a" above, these 
also have the same nominative singular ending for masculine, 
feminine, and neuter genders. In their declined form, as, for 
example, in a parish register entry, they can, in general, easily 
be differentiated from similar i-stem adjectives, e.g.. 



45 



c(a)elebs (m. , f., n. ) # c(a)elibis (gen. sing.): 
unmarried, bachelor (as a noun) (same nominative singular 
ending for all three genders) 



Singular 



Case 

Nom. 
Gen. 
Dat. 
Ace. 
Abl. 



Nom. 
Gen. 
Dat. 
Ace. 
Abl. 



Plural 



Masculine & Feminine 

c(a)elebs 
c(a)elibis 
c(a)elibi 
c(a)elibem 
c(a)elibe (N.B. ) 



c(a)elibes 

c(a)elibum 

c(a)elibibus 

c(a)elibes 

c(a)elibibus 



Neuter 

c(a)elebs 

c(a)elibis 

c(a)elibi 

c(a)elebs 

c(a)elibe 



c(a)eliba 

c(a)elibuin 

c(a)elibibus 

c(a)eliba 

c(a)elibibiis 



Note that caelebs (or celebs) frequently applied to males, 
particularly in marriage entries, in Latin parish registers. 
An unmarried female was often designated as pudica virgo 
(chaste virgin) or pudica (chaste). 

Adjectives of the third declension can, of course, be used 
with nouns of the first or second declension, just as adjectives 
of the first and second declension may be used with nouns of the 
third, e.g. , 

magister celeber a famous teacher 

matricula ecclesiae parochialis register of the parish church 



rex bonus 



leges malae 



the good king 



bad laws 



When i-stem adjectives are used as nouns, the ablative 
singular generally ends in -e, like a third declension consonant 
stem noun, rather than -i. 

Third declension adjectives may be listed in dictionaries as 
follows: 

a) adjectives with the same nominative singular for all 
three genders: felix, felicis (happy — like par, paris) , or felix, 
-icis. 



46 



b) adjectives with the same nominative singular for mascu- 
line and feminine genders but a different ending for the neuter 
singular: omnis, omne (all, every — like parochialis, parochiale) 
or, omnis, -e. 

c) adjectives with three different nominative singular 
endings for all three genders: celer, celeris, celere (swift, 
fast — like celeber, Celebris, celebre) , or, celer, -eris, -ere. 

d) adjectives with consonant stems and the same endings for 
all three genders in the nominative singular: vetus , veteris, 
(old — like caelebs, caelibis) , or, vetus, -eris, abl . sing. -ere. 

The following examples illustrate the use of nouns, i-stem 
nouns, and adjectives of the third declension: 

liber ecclesiae parochialis 

(the book or register of the parish church) 

Omnes milites adfuerunt, 

(All knights were present. ) 

Die prime mensis novembris dominus Carolus pro me notario 
comparuit . 

(on the first day of the month of November, Lord Charles 
before me, the notary, appeared. Or: On the first day 
of the month of November, Lord Charles appeared before me 
the notary. ) 



EXERCISES: CHAPTER IV 



A. Grammar 

Decline aetas, aetatis, f. (age), fons, f ontis , m. (font, 
spring, baptismal font), nomen, nominis, n. (name), civis, civis, 
m. (citizen), felix, felicis (happy, fortunate — like par), omnis, 
omne (all, every--like parochialis), celer, celeris, celere 
(swift, quick — like celeber) , vetus, veteris (old — like caelebs) , 
Michael, Michaelis, m. (Michael), and Mathildis, Mathildis, f. 
(Mathilda; also Mathilda, Mathildae, f.). 

B. Vocabulary 

Learn the nouns and adjectives given in the chapter, plus 
the following: 

Third Declension Nouns (conjunx), pi.: married 

couple, spouses 
compater, compatris, m. : dux, ducis, m. : duke, leader 

godfather fons, f ontis, m.: font, bap- 

con jux, conjugis, m. or f.: tismal font, spring, foun- 

husband or wife, spouse tain 



47 



f rater, fratris, m. : brother 
heres, heredis, m. or f.: heir 
homo, hominis, m. : human being 
infans, infantis, in.: child 
labor, laboris, iti. : work 

levans, levantis, m. or f.: 

godparent 
levantes, m. pi.: godparents 
miles, militis, in.: knight, 

cavalry soldier 
nepos , nepotis, m.: nephew, 

grandson, descendent 
neptis, neptis, f.: grand- 
daughter, niece, descendent 
parens, parentis, m. or f.: 

parent, father, mother 
parentes, m. pi.: parents 
pater, patris, m. : father 
susceptor, susceptoris, m.: 

godparent 
susceptores, m. pi.: godpar- 
ents; note that both sus- 
ceptores and levantes refer 
to the practice of raising 
the child from the baptism. 
aetas , aetatis , f . : age 
aetatis suae: abbreviates anno 
aetatis suae: in the year 
of his or her age, age 
aetatis circiter: of the 

approximate age (of) 
civitas, civitatis, f.: city, 

citizenship 
commater, commatris, f • : 

godmother, sponsor 
confirmatio, conf irmationis, 

f.: confirmation 
cognatio, cognationis, f.: 

blood relationship 
copulatio, copulationis, f.: 

marriage 
dos , dot is , f . : dowry 
lex, legis, f.: law 
mater , matris , f . : mother 
mulier, mulieris, f.: woman 
proles, prolis, f.: offspring, 

issue, child 
soror, sororis, f.: sister 
uxor, uxoris, f.: wife 
virgo, virginis, f.: virgin 
altare, altaris, n. : altar 



caput, capitis, n. : head 
corpus, corporis, n.: body 

( human body ) 
genus , generis , n : type , kind , 

birth, descent, origin 
nomen, nominis, n. : name 
tempus, temporis, n. : time 

Third Declension I-Stem Nouns 

hostis, hostis, m. : enemy (cl. 
Latin: an enemy of the 
Roman state rather than a 
personal enemy [which was 
inimicus, inimici, m. ] ) 

mensis, mensis, m. : month 

mors , mortis , f . : death 

nox, noctis, f.: night 

testis, testis, m. or f.: 
witness 

Third Declension Adjectives 

adulescens , adulescentis : 

young ( as a noun : young man 
or woman), adolescent (also 
adolescens) 

compos, compotis: having 
control of, having posses- 
sion of 

felix, felicis: happy, fortu- 
nate 

fortis, fortis: strong, brave, 
powerful, bold 

peur, paris: equal 

superstes , superstitis: sur- 
viving, still living 

fidelis, fidele: loyal, faith- 
ful 

omnis, omne: all, every 

parochialis, parochiale: 
parish, parochial 

similis, simile: like 

talis, tale: such, of such a 
kind 

acer, acris, acre: sharp, keen 

celeber, Celebris, celebre: 
famous 

caelebs, caelibis: unmarried 
(as a noun: bachelor) 
[celebs] 

vetus, veteris: old 



48 



C. Translation: Latin to English 

Translate the following sentences from Latin to English: 

In hoc rotulo nomina baptizatorum infantum ( inf antixim) et 
susceptonim continentur . 

(hoc: this; rotulus, rotuli, m. : roll, record; 
continentiir : are contained) 

Testes huius ortus fuerunt: Michael Worthington arm. et 

Matthaeus Foss, miles 

(huius: of this; ortus, ortus: birth [a fourth 

declension noun, v. Chapter X]; fuerunt: were; arm. = 

armiger [v. Chapter I]) 

Johannes filius Caroli, cancelloris regii, duxit Mathildam 

filiam Thomae, clarissimi. 

(Carolus, Caroli, m. : Charles, Carl; cancellor regius: 
royal chancellor; duxit: he led [short for duxit 
matrimonium: he led into marriage] ; clarissimus, 
clarissima, clarissimum: most illustrious) 

Hie sunt nomina eorum omnium qui in ecclesia parochiali 
Beati Scincti Pauli, in coemeterio extra portcim sepulti sunt, 
(hie: here; sunt: are; eorum: of those; qui: who; 
sepulti sunt: were buried) 

Heri in matrimonio sancto conjuncti sunt: caelebs Jalcobus 
Walder, filius legitimus Johannis Walder et Mathildae 
Vorwcind, et pudica virgo Maria Anna Rueckstaetter , filia 
legitima Wilhelmi Rueckstaetter et Margaretae Oberbauer. 
(heri: yesterday; conjuncti sunt: were joined) 

D. Translation: English to Latin 

Translate the following sentences from English to Latin: 

The godparents were (fuerunt) Thomas Brown and Mathilda 
Westover . 

In this register, the names of all of the baptized children 
and godparents are contained (see above). 

The witnesses of this marriage (huius matrimonii) were: 
Martin Vineaux, farmer and citizen of this place (huius 
loci), Pierre (Petrus) Waldeck, innkeeper (caupo, 
cauponis, m. ) and citizen of this place, and Jean Paul 
Giron, blacksmith (fciber) and citizen of St. Martial 
(Sancti Martialis). 

The labor of all built (aedef icavit) the city. 
(Remember, "city" must be in the accusative case, since 
it is the direct object of aedef icavit. ) 



49 



To all the faithful (use the dative) in Christ (in Christo) , 
greetings! (salutatio, salutationis, f.: a greeting) 

E. Translation: Parish Register 

Document # 1 



With the aid of the vocabulary below, translate the follow- 
ing birth entry: 



dTiftm 



M 



(/atoPUA - 



^ 



fcvrtmttd 



4" 



MU*. .^^ 












Vocabulary: 
Under Infeintes 

natus : born 

24a: vicesima quarta (die): on 
the 24th day (i.e., the 
24th; the month is not 
given in this entry) 

Under Parentes 

Laurentius: Laurence (declined 

like Matthaeus) 
Mentzer: a surname 
coriarius, coriarii , m.: 

tanner 
Tcintz: the mother's surname 
oriunda (see Chapter II) 
ex, prep. + abl.: from 
Thuringhemio : abl. singular of 

Thuringhemius = Turckheim, 

Haut Rhin, France 
civis: note that this is the 

genitive singular 



hospes , hospitis , m . : innkeep- 
er, host, tenant, stranger, 
guest 

Under Patrini 

Mentzer: a surname 

lanio, lanionls, m. : butcher 
(Ictnius, Icinii, m) 

Brucher : a surname 

Tantzin nata: born Tantz (The 
-in is a feminine ending in 
German and may be 
ignored.), i.e., her maiden 
name was Tantz 

^^ 
Jois = Johannis (the genitive 

singular) 
Ephippiarius , Ephippiarii, m. : 

saddle maker (a word of 

Greek extraction) 
uxor (see the vocabulary list 

above ) 



50 



E. Translation: Parish Register 

Document #2 

Translate the following birth entry, with the aid of the 
vocabulary below: 



^ /tu \c^ "*^ {fiyu^fSsi/ ^uhniff ^^i^^rsJ^nu WfiAe^ffM- at/pangKi dntinit^ 



Vocabulary 

heri, adv.: yesterday 
hora: hour (see Chapter I) 
circiter, adv: approximately 
quinta: fifth (see Chapter 

VII) 
pomerdiana: in the afternoon 
(from pomeridianus , pomeri- 
diana, pomeridianvtm: of, or 
relating to, the afternoon) 
natus est: was born 
infantulus, infantulus, m. : a 
little child (male), a 
little boy 
ex, prep. + abl.: from, by (in 
this case "to," would 
appear to be more appropri- 
ate) 
Antonio: a given name (The 
nominative is Antonius. 
This is ablative because ex 
requires the ablative 
case. ) 



qif^ : quondcim, adv.: the late, 

the former, formerly „ 

Antonii: a given name (nomina- uj 



DC UJ CO 
< —1 — 



m 



I- >^ 



CO h- 



tive: Antonxus) 
Micherelli: a surname 
Maria = Mariae 
Antonia = Antoniae 
filia (note the f) 
Siva = a surname 
ambcibus : both 
loci: of the place (of) 
Lostalli: a place name 
qui: who (the child) ^ 

ob periculum: because c^ £ — ' 

danger (of death) 5 2*" 

baptizatus fuit: was baptizec^ ^^ ^ 
domi: at home u. co c^ 

a me: by me 

Francisca: a given name 
ut supra: as above (This is 

the midwife who baptized 

the child at home.) 



QC ^^ ^_ 

O m TT 
H- > O 

t < 



0004373 
51 



CHAPTER V 

Verbs II: Third and Fourth Conjugation 
Present, Future, and Imperfect Indicative Active 
lO-Verbs of the Third Conjugation 
Prepositions 

Introduction 

The third conjugation is quite different from the first and 
second, although the present infinitives of third conjugation 
verbs seem to resemble those of the second. In the latter the 
present stem is found by dropping the -re of the present 
infinitive, leaving a stem such as habe or doce. The present 
stem of third conjugation verbs is obtained by omitting the -ere 
S£ 5^?.^''^^^^}^ infinitive, e.g., vivere (to live), stem: viv, so 
that the verb stem ends in a consonant rather than a vowel The 
endings given below are added to this stem to form the present 
future, and imperfect indicative active tenses. 

Verbs of the fourth conjugation have tense signs and endings 
similar to those of the third. It should, however, be recognized 
that m the fourth conjugation, the present stem is found just 
as It IS for verbs of the first and second conjugations, by 
dropping the -re ending of the present infinitive. Fourth 
conjugation verbs end in -ire in the present infinitive, such as 
for example, sepelire (to bury), stem: sepeli. 

Third Conjugation Verbs 

When the -ere of the present infinitive of third conjugation 
verbs IS omitted, the present stem, as indicated above, ends in a 
consonant. It is therefore necessary in certain of the persons 
and numbers to add what is known as a thematic vowel, a vowel 
which comes between the stem and the inflectional ending, in 
order to prevent a conjunction of consonants. The vowels and 
are^'arfollows^ present, future, and imperfect indicative active 

Present Indicative Active of vivere (to live, stem: viv) 

Singular 
Verb Ending Meaning 

vivo o I live 



vxvxs is 

vivit it 



you live 

he/she/it (or a noun) lives 



52 



Plural 



Verb 



vivimus 
vivitis 
vivxint 



Ending 

imus 
itis 
ixnt: 



Meaning 

we live 

you (all) live 

they (or a noun) live 



In the present tense, third conjugation verbs add -i to 
those endings given in an earlier chapter for the present tense 
of first and second conjugation verbs. The -i, like the -a of 
first conjugation verbs, is absorbed by the -o of the first 
person singular. The third person plural, present indicative 
active ends in -unt, which, unlike verbs of the first and second 
conjugation, is not an indication of the future tense. 



Examples : 

In vice vivo. 
In vice vivis. 
In vice vivit. 
In vice vivimus. 
In vico vivitis. 
In vico vivunt. 



I live in the village. 

You live in the village. 

He/she (or a noun) lives in the village. 

We live in the village. 

You (all) live in the village. 

They (or a noun) live in the village. 



The tense sign of the future for third conjugation verbs is 
-e, rather than -bi. Hence the future indicative active is 
formed by adding -e to the stem except in the first person singu- 
lar. 

Future Indicative Active of vivere 



Singular 



Verb 

vivam 
vives 
vivet 



Plural 



Verb 



vivemus 
vivetis 
vivent 

Examples : 

In rure vivam. 
In rure vives. 
In rure vivet. 



Ending 



£im 
es 
et 



Ending 

emus 
etis 
ent 



Meaning 

I shall live 

you will live 

he/she/it (or a noun) will live 



Meaning 

we shall live 

you (all) will live 

they (or a noun) will live 



I shall live in the country. 

You will live in the country. 

He/she/it (or a noun) will live in the country. 



53 



In rure vivemus. We shall live in the country. 

In rure vivetis. You (all) will live in the country. 

In rure vivent. They (or a noun) will live in the country. 

The imperfect indicative active tense of third conjugation 
verbs is formed by adding the tense sign -ba to the present stem 
of the particular verb. Since, however, the present stem ends in 
a consonant, a thematic vowel, in this case an -e , is placed 
between the consonant ending and the -b of the -ba tense sign. 
The endings given in Chapter III are then added to the imperfect 
tense sign. 

Imperfect Indicative Active of vivere 



Meaning 

I was living, used to live, etc. 
you were living, used to live, etc, 
he/she/it (or a noun) was living, 
used to live, etc. 



Singular 




Verb 


Ending* 


vivebam 


ebam 


vivebas 


ebas 


vivebat 


ebat 



Plural 



vivebamus ebamus we were living, used to live, etc. 
vivebatis ebatis you (all) were living, used to 

live, etc. 
vivebant ebant they (or a noun) were living, used 

to live, etc. 

*with thematic vowel included 

Examples : 

In hac parochia vivebctm. I used to live in this parish. 

In hac parochia vivebas. You used to live in this parish. 

In hac parochia vivebat. He/she used to live in this parish. 

In hac parochia vivebamus. We used to live in this parish. 

In hac parochia vivebatis. You (all) used to live in this parish, 

In hac parochia vivebant. They used to live in this parish. 

Fourth Conjugation Verbs 

Verbs of the fourth conjugation, as indicated above, end in 
-ire in the present infinitive. Once the -re is dropped, the 
stem vowel -i remains, together with the rest of the stem. 
Fourth conjugation verbs are conjugated in the present, future, 
and imperfect indicative active as follows: 



54 



Verb 



Present Indicative Active of sepelire (to bury, stem: sepeli) 
Singular 

Ending Meaning 



sepelio 
sepelis 
sepelit 



Plural 



Verb 



sepelimus 
sepelitis 
sepeliunt 



Ending 

mus 
tis 
xint 



Examples : 

Filiam meam sepelio. 
Filium tuum sepelis. 
Filiam suam sepelit. 
Filium nostrum sepelimus. 
Filiam vestram sepelitis, 
Filium suum sepeliunt. 



I bury 

you bury 

he/she (or a noun) buries 



Meaning 

we bury 

you (all) bury 

they (or a noun) bury 



I bury my daughter. 

You bury your son. 

He/she buries his/her (own) daughter, 

We bury our son. 

You (all) bury your daughter. 

They bury their (own) son. 



Future Indicative Active of sepelire 



Singular 



Verb 



sepeli am 

sepelies 

sepeliet 

sepeliemus 

sepelietis 

sepelient 



Ending 

Etm 

es 

et 

emus 

etis 

ent 



Meaning 

I shall bury 

You will bury 

He/she/it (or a noun) will bury 

we shall bury 

you (all) will bury 

they (or a noun) will bury 



Note that the -i of the stem is retained in the future tense 
of fourth declension nouns. 



Examples : 

Infantem sepeliam. 
Infantem sepelies. 
Infantem sepeliet. 
Infantem sepeliemus, 
Infantem sepelietis, 
Infantem sepelient. 



I shall bury the child. 

You will bury the child. 

He/she will bury the child. 

We will bury the child. 

You (all) will bury the child. 

They will bury the child. 



55 



Imperfect Indicative Active of sepelire 

Singular 
Verb Ending* Meaning 



sepeliebam 
sepeliebas 
sepeliebat 


ebam 
ebas 
ebat 


Plural 




sepe 1 i ebamus 
sepeliebatis 
sepeliebant 


ebamus 
ebat is 
ebant 



I buried, was burying, etc. 
you buried, were burying, etc, 
he/she (or a noun) buried, 
was burying, etc. 



we buried, were burying, etc. 
you buried, were burying, etc. 
they (or a noun) buried, 
were burying, etc. 

*with thematic vowel included 

Note that in the imperfect indicative active, the vowel -e 
is placed between the -i of the stem ending and the tense sign 
and endings of the imperfect. The use of the thematic vowel -e 
has also been noted in connection with verbs of the third conju- 
gation . 

Examples : 

Heri pauperem nomen nescio in coemeterio extra portam sepeliebam. 

(Yesterday I buried a pauper, name unknown, in the cemetery 
beyond the gate . ) 

Heri pauperem nomen nescio in coemeterio extra portam sepeliebas. 

(Yesterday you buried a pauper, name unknown, in the cemetery 
beyond the gate . ) 

Heri pauperem nomen nescio in coemeterio extra portam parochus 
sepeliebat. 

(Yesterday the parish priest buried a pauper, name unknown, in 
the cemetery beyond the gate . ) 

Heri pauperem nomen nescio in coemeterio extra portam sepeliebamus. 

(Yesterday we buried a pauper, name unknown, in the cemetery 
beyond the gate . ) 

Heri pauperem nomen nescio in coemeterio extra portam sepeliebatis. 

(Yesterday you [all] buried a pauper, name unknown, in the cemetery 
beyond the gate . ) 

Heri pauperem nomen nescio in coemeterio extra portam parochiani 
sepeliebant . 

(Yesterday the parishioners buried a pauper, name unknown, in the 
cemetery beyond the gate. ) 



56 



Repetition and continuity, characteristic of the imperfect 
tense, obviously do not apply to sepelire. Consequently, the 
imperfect may be translated here as a simple past tense. 

lO-Verbs of the Third Conjugation 

A number of third conjugation verbs are conjugated like 
those of the fourth conjugation in the present and future indica- 
tive active tenses. The stem of these verb endings is -i, rather 
than a consonant. Consequently, they are known as -io verbs of 
the third conjugation, since the first person singular, present 
indicative active ends in -io. Note, however, that the present 
infinitive of third conjugation -io verbs ends in -ere, rather 
than -ire like those of the fourth conjugation. The conjugation 
of -io verbs of the third conjugation is as follows: 

Present Indicative Active of facere (to make, do, stem: faci) 

Singular 

Verb Ending Meaning 

facie o I make 

facis s you make 

facit t he/she/it (or a noun) makes 

Plural 

facimus mus we make 

facitis tis you (all) make 

faciunt unt they (or a noun) make 

Examples : 

Hoc beneficium coram reverendissimo domino episcopo ipso facio. 

(I make this benefice [a gift or grant] in the presence of the 
most reverend lord bishop himself.) 

Hoc beneficium coram reverendissimo domino episcopo ipso facis. 

(You make this benefice in the presence of the most reverend 
lord bishop himself.) 

Hoc beneficium coram reverendissimo domino episcopo ipso facit. 

(He/she makes this benefice in the presence of the most 
reverend lord bishop himself.) 

Hoc beneficium coram reverendissimo domino episcopo ipso facimus. 

(We make this benefice in the presence of the most reverend lord 
bishop himself.) 

Hoc beneficium coram reverendissimo domino episcopo ipso facitis. 

(You [all] make this benefice in the presence of the most reverend 
lord bishop himself.) 



57 



Hoc beneficium coram reverendissimo domino episcopo ipso faciunt. 

(They make this benefice in the presence of the most reverend lord 
bishop himself.) 

Future Indicative Active of f acere 

Singular 
Verb Ending 



faciam 
facies 
faciet 



am 
es 
et 



Plural 



Verb 



faciemus 
facietis 
facient 



Ending 

emus 
etis 
ent 



Meaning 

I shall make 

you will make 

he/she/it (or a noun) will make 



Meaning 

we shall make 

you (all) will make 

they (or a noun) will make 



Examples : 



Annam Barbaram filiam meam heredem meam faciam. 

(I shall make Anna Barbara, my daughter, my heir.) 

Annam Barbaram filiam tuam heredem tuam facies. 

(You will make Anna Barbara, your daughter, your heir.) 

Maria Tibaldi Anna Barbaram filiam suam heredem suam faciet. 

(Maria Tibaldi will make Anna Barbara, her daughter, her heir.) 

Annam Barbaram filiam nostram heredem nostram faciemus. 

(We shall make Anna Barbara, our daughter, our heir.) 

Anna Barbaram filiam vestram heredem vestram facietis. ) 

(You [all] will make Anna Barbara, your daughter, your heir.) 

Franciscus et Bertha Steinhauer Anna Barbaram filiam suam 
heredem suam facient. 

(Franciscus and Bertha Steinhauer will make Anna Barbara 
their [own] daughter, their heir.) ' 

Imperfect Indicative Active of f acere 

Singular 



Verb 

faciebam 
faciebas 
faciebat 



Ending* Meaning 



ebam 
ebas 
ebat 



I made, was making, used to make, etc. 
you made, were making, used to make, etc, 
he/she/it (or a noun) made, was making, 
used to make, etc. 



58 



Plural 

faciebamus ebamus we made, were making, used to make, etc. 
faciebatis ebatis you (all) made, were making, used to 

make , etc . 
faciebant ebant they (or a noun) made, were making, used 

to make, etc. 

*thematic vowel included 
Examples: 

Johannem Ribeaux procuratorem meum faciebam. 

(I made [was making, etc.] Jean Ribeaux my procurator [legal 
representative] . ) 

Johannem Ribeaux procuratorem tuum faciebas. 

(You made Jean Ribeaux your procurator.) 

Geraldus de Martiali Johannem Ribeaux procuratorem suum faciebat. 

(Gerald de Martiali made Jean Ribeaux his [own] procurator. ) 

Johannem Ribeaux procuratorem nostrum faciebamus. 

(We made Jean Ribeaux our procurator.) 

Johannem Ribeaux procuratorem vestrum faciebatis. 

(You [all] made Jean Ribeaux your procurator.) 

Franciscus Berengarii et Petrus Jacquet Johannem Ribeaux 
procuratorem suum faciebant. 

(Francois Berengarii and Pierre Jacquet made Jean Ribeaux their 
[own] procurator. ) 

Prepositions 

Prepositions (from praepositus: [having been] placed in 
front or before) are generally "placed before" other words such 
as nouns, and explain or clarify those words in some way. Thus, 
for example, "They walked into the forest." In this sentence, 
"into" indicates where they walked. Into is, of course, the 
preposition. 

In Latin, the object of a preposition, a noun, pronoun, or 
other part of speech, is either in the ablative or the accusative 
case. A few prepositions take both cases. Common prepositions 
taking the ablative and accusative cases are listed below. 

Common Ablative Prepositions 

Preposition Meaning 

a, cib (before vowels), abs from, away from 

(the outside of), by 
cum with 



59 



de 

e, ex 
in 
pro 

Examples : 

a villa 

cum laude 

de silva 

de bello Gallico 

ex Roma 

in domo 

pro patria 



from, down from, about 
from (out of the inside of) 
in, on, at 
for, in place of, in front of 



(away) from the village 

with honor (praise) 

(down) from the wood 

about (concerning) the Gallic war 

from Rome 

at home (in the house) 

for the fatherland 



Note that if cum was used with an adjective and a noun, it 
was often placed between the adjective and the noun, e.g., magna 
cum laude (with high honor [with great praise]). Note also that 
the preposition de was frequently used as the beginning of the 
title of a book or treatise in Latin. It can often be omitted 
when translating such a title. 

In parish registers, the preposition ex was used, on occa- 
sion, to indicate a place of origin or residence. Thus, for 
example, Patrinus fuit Bemardus Rulon civis ex Steinheim. (The 
godfather was Bernardus Rulon, citizen [of] from Steinheim.) 

Common Accusative Prepositions 



Preposition 

ad 

ante 

apud 

circum 

contra 

inter 

ob 

per 

post 

super 

trans 



Meaning 

to, toward, for, near, at 

before (in time and place) 

near, at, by, at the house of, 

in the presence of 

around 

against 

between , among 

toward, on account of, for 

through, by, for 

after (of time), behind (of place) 

above , over 

across 



Examples : 

ad ecclesiam 
ante meridiem 
apud parochum 
circum urbem 
contra be Hum 
inter silvas 
ob iter 
per duos annos 



to (toward) the church 

before noon (midday — a.m. ) 

at the house of the parish priest 

around the city 

against the war 

between the woods 

for (by) the journey, way 

for (through) two years 



60 



post meridiem 
super montes 
trans maria 



after noon (midday — p.m. ) 
above the mountains 
across the seas 



Common Prepositions taking both Ablative and Accusative 

Preposition Meaning 



in + abl. 
in + ace. 
sub + abl. 

sub + ace . 



Examples: 

in urbe 
in iirbem 
sub carruca 

sub carrucam 



in, inside, on, at 

into, to, against 

under, up under, close to 

(after verbs of rest) 

under, close to 

(after verbs of motion) 



in (inside) the city 

into the city 

under the cart (e.g., baggage 

lying siib carruca) 

under the cart (e.g., baggage 

falling sub carrucam) 



In medieval and parish register Latin, prepositions often 
acquired meanings rather different from those of classical, 
Roman Latin. The context of a particular document may, there- 
fore, suggest a meaning different from those given here. In such 
instances, glossaries or lexica of medieval Latin, such as those 
listed in the selected bibliography at the back of this book, 
should be consulted. 

A number of compound verbs in Latin were formed by combining 
a preposition and a verb. Thus, for example: circumspectare (to 
look around), from circum + spectare (to look at, look 
carefully), superscribere (to write above), from super and scri- 
bere (to write). The meaning of the preposition used to form 
such a verb often provides an important clue to defining the verb 
itself. 

An understanding of Latin prepositions and compound verbs 
should also be of help in learning new English words. What, for 
example, might the following words mean: circumnavigate, 
superman, submarine, contradict (from dicere: to say, tell), 
interject (from jacere [iacere]: to throw). These are just a few 
examples of the way in which a knowledge of Latin contributes to 
a greater understanding of the English language, which derived 
approximately 60% of its vocabulary from Latin. 



61 



EXERCISES: CHAPTER V 



A . Grammar 



Conjugate contraho, contrahere (third conjugation), venio, 
venire (fourth conjugation), and capio, capere (third conjugation 
io-verb) for all of the tenses discussed in this chapter. 

B. Vocabulary 

Learn all of the verbs conjugated in this chapter, together 
with all prepositions listed, plus the following: 



Third Conjugation Verbs 

ago, agere: do, discuss, lead, 
drive, discuss, etc. 

contraho , contrahere : contract 
(e.g., a marriage), trans- 
act 

decedo, decedere: die, depart, 
go away 

dico, dicere: say, tell 

duco, ducere: lead 

emo , emere : buy 

gigno, gignere: beget, pro- 
duce, be born 

lego, legere: read, choose, 
gather, select 

nosco, noscere: know (be 
acquainted with) 

promitto, promittere: promise 

scribo, scribere: write 

vivo, vivere: live 

Fourth Conjugation Verbs 

audio , audire : hear 
consentio, consentire: agree, 

be in harmony or accord 
nescio, nescire: not to know, 

be ignorant of 
scio, scire: know (how to do 

something) 
sepelio, sepelire: bury 
venio , venire : come 
invenio, invenire: find, come 

upon 

lO-Verbs of the Third Conjuga- 
tion 



f acio , f acere ; 
f ugio , f ugere : 

Prepositions 



make , do 
flee 



capio, capere; 

capture 



take, seize. 



a, ab, abs, + abl.: from, away 

from (the outside of), by 
absque + abl . : without 
ad + ace: to, toward, for, 

near 
ante + ace . : before 
apud + ace: at, by, near, at 

the house of, in the 

presence of 
circum + ace . : around 
coram + abl. & ace: in front 

of, in the presence of, 

before 
cvtm + abl. : with 
de + abl.: from, down from, 

about 
e, ex + abl.: from (out of the 

inside of) , out of 
extra + ace . : beyond 
in + abl.: in, inside, on, at 
in + ace . : into 
infra + ace.: below 
inter + ace . : between , among 
intra + ace . : within 
juxta + ace: next to, beside, 

according to (iuxta) 
per + ace.: through, by, for 
post + ace . : after 
pro + abl.: for, in place of 
prae + abl.: before (pre) 
praeter + ace.: except (pre- 

ter) 
prope + ace . : near 
propter + ace.: on account of 
sub + abl.: under (rest) 



62 



C. Translation: Latin to English 

Translate the following sentences from Latin to English. 

Libruin etiam legere promittimus . 
(etiam, adv. : moreover) 

Willelmus de Leye, junior, et Rosalinda Ralston matximonium 
contrahent. 

Pater infctntis nescit scribere; igitur signum facet, 
(igitur: see Chapter IV, Exercise F.) 

Conferimus libere et quiete Stephano Winckmeier terrain in 

perpetuo possidendam. 

(conferimus: we confer, grant; libere et quiete: freely 
and quietly [adverbs] ; Stephano: this is dative; translate 
accordingly; in perpetuo: forever; possidendam: to be 
possessed [geriindive, v. Chapters XIII and XIV]) 

Volo quod Jakobus Hofbauer matriculam huius peirochiae ab 

mense Jaunuarii ad mensem Decembris anno millesimo 

septingentesimo vicesimo sexto sumat. 

(volo: I will, I wish; quod: that; huius: of this 
[goes with parochiae] ; mensis, mensis, m. : month; 
anno millesimo septingentesimo vicesimo sexto: in the year 
1726; sumat: shall record [the svibject is Jcikobus 
Hofbauer] , shall take down; present subjunctive active of 
sumo, sumere, sumpsi, sumptum: take down, 
record [v. Chapter XII]) 

D. Translation: English to Latin 

Translate the following sentences from English to Latin. 

George Wilson and Sophia Graham will contract a marriage. 

He came (use veniebat) into the parish (use parochia) , 
impregnated (use impraegnabat ) Martha, a serving girl 
( f ctmula , f cimulae , f . ) and orphan ( orba , orbae , 
f.), under the promise (promissum, promissi, n. or, 
promittum, promitti, n.) of marriage (use matrimonium) , 
and fled (use fugiebat) . 

We promise moreover (etiam) to write the epistle (epistula, 
epistulae , f . ) . 

The mother produced (use the imperfect of gignere) twins, 
(gemellos) upon whom (quibus) the names were placed 
(imposita sunt) Fredericus and Thomas. Both (use ambo) 
of these (eorum) were baptized (baptizati sunt) by 
me (ab me), Stephania Leguinne the midwife (obstetrix, 
obstetricis, f. [use the ablative here]) because of 



63 



imminent (imminens) peril (periculum) of death (use 
mors, mortis, f. [use the genitive case]). 

I will come into the city. 



E. Translation: Parish Register 
Documents #1 and #2 



With the help of the vocabulary below, translate the follow- 
ing two pages from a parish register recording burials and 
deaths . 

" /■■ ■ ' '''■■■': '. ^-i?i 



..^^/^^^^^^'^^^^'^"'^^^ "^ 



^..y^^ 



■7" 



^. 



^JU^. i^i^^^ z///^^^'- 



7^' 



'^tiia^'^- 











N.y 







64 



Vocabulary 



incipit (from incipio, 
incipere, incepi, inceptum: 
begin): begins 

hie, adv.: here (with "the" 
understood before liber) 

sti. = sancti 

Argentina , Argentinae , f . : one 
of a number of Latin names 
for the city of Strasbourg 

constans , present participle 
of consto, constare, 
constavi, constatirm: here, 
consisting of (with de + 
abl . understood; hence, 
ducentis, and foliis) 

ducentis: two hundred (abla- 
tive plural), from ducenti, 
ducentae , ducenta: 200 
(cardinal number; v. Chap- 
ter VII for additional 
information on numbers . ) 

octoginta septem: 87 (v. 
Chapter VII) 

folium, folii, n.: page, leaf 

datum: given (perfect passive 
participle of do, dare, 
dedi, datum: give) 

Argentinae: at Strasbourg 
(locative case, v. Chapter 
X) 

vigesima octava: 28th (goes 
with die = on the 28th day) 

J\inii: of June (from Junius, 
Jvinii, m. : June; v. Chapter 
VII) 



anno millesimo septingentesimo 
quadragesimo quinto: in the 
year one thousand seven 
hundred forty-five 

(literally: in the one 
thousand seven hundred 
forty-fifth year, v. 
Chapter VII) 

explicit: ends (from explico, 
explicare, explicavi, 

explicatum: unfold, i.e., 
to unroll a papyrus scroll 
to the end, hence, to end, 
bring to an end; treated 
here as a third conjugation 
verb, third person singu- 
lar, with liber.) 

hie ( see above ) 

sti . ( see above ) 

Argenta = Argentinae (see 
above ) 

palatium, palatii, n.: palace 

episcopalis , episcopale , ad j . : 
episcopal (as an adjective 
modifying palatio) 

vigesima septima Junii: on the 
27th (day) of June 

anno millesimo septingentesimo 

decimo nono: in the year one 
thousand seven hundred 
nineteen (v. Chapter VII) 



65 



A note on incipit and explicit. Many medieval texts began 
with the word incipit (or, hie incipit) and concluded with ex- 
plicit (or, hie explicit). These two terms are often used to 
identify anonymous or undated documents. 

E. Translation: Parish Register 

Document #3 

Translate the two death entries below with the help of the 
vocabulary which is given after the entries. 



r/J> ff''^' ■fc.-f:-' ^^^ Z'^'^'"^'' y^'"^^!^ y,c.^-i.^ \ 



5 



66 



Vocabulary 



Entry #1 

catalogus, catalog!, in.: 

catalog 
xenodochium, xenodochii, n.: 

hospital, senior citizens 
center, hostel (from the 
Greek xenodokeion: a place 
for strangers to lodge; an 
inn) 

regius, regia, regium: royal 

site: located 

extra portam (See previous 
chapters for this phrase.) 

vulgo, adv. commonly (goes 
with dictam) 

Lahienem: a place name; the 
nominative is probably 
Lahienis 

dictam: called (perfect pas- 
sive participle of dice, 
dicere, dixi, dictum: say, 
tell, call); note that the 
English syntax here would 
probably be as follows: 
site extra portam vulgo 
dictam Lahienem; translate 
accordingly. (N.B. Lahie- 
nem and dictam are accusa- 
tive because of extra. The 
gate is, therefore, common- 
ly called Lahienis. ) 

anno: in the year (v. Chapter 
VII) 

die 12a 7bris: on the 12th day 
of September (v. Chapter 
VII for more information on 
the abbreviation of Septem- 
ber. ) 

mortuus est: died (or, has 
died) 

Petrus de Vaisseaux: his first 
and last names 

levis armaturae: of the light- 
armed ( troops ) 

civis (the c is hidden in the 
margin) 

Benj : a place name 

milite (from miles, militis, 
m.: cavalry soldier, 
knight, soldier): (being) a 
soldier; the English syntax 



here would probably be 
milite levis armaturae; 
translate accordingly. 

omnibus ecclesiae sacramentis 
provisus: provided with all 
the sacraments of the 
church (i.e., the last 
rites,; v. Chapter X for 
additional information on 
this usage. ) 

aetatis suae (the su of suae 
is hidden in the margin): 
his age (here) 

circiter 32 annorum: about 3 2 
years (here) 

sepultusqz est = sepultusque 
est: and he was buried 

proprio (the p is hidden in 
the margin): private 
(here); from proprius, 
propria, proprium: one's 
own, private (goes with 
coemeter io ) 

assistentibus testibus: 

(being) assisted by the 
witnesses, or the witnesses 
assisting (were); v. 
Chapter XIII for additional 
information on this usage. 

Philippe Forbet: his first and 
last name 

dicto: called (see above) 

Argentcourt: his nickname 

infirmario: from infirmarius, 
infirmarii, m.: hospital 
orderly, male nurse (This 
is in the ablative case 
because of assistentibus 
testibus, an ablative 
absolute, v. Chapter XIII.) 

praedicti: of the aforesaid 
(from praedictus, praedic- 
ta, praedictvim: aforesaid) 

Claudio Verdun: his first and 
last names; note, however, 
that Claudio is in the 
ablative case for the same 
reason that infirmario is 
in the ablative case. The 
nominative form of Claudio 
is Claudius: Claude 

eticim, adv. : also (here) 



67 



infirmario (see above) 

Entry #2 



die 14a 7bris: on the 14th day 

of September (see above) 
mortuus est: see above 

dnus = dominus : lord (as a 

title) 
N: his name was omitted 
la Premiere des Gendarmes de 
Bourgogne: the head of the 
police constables (gen- 
darmes) of Bourgogne (his 
occupation, French) 

oibus = omnibus 
santis = sacramentis 



omnibus ecclesiae sacramentis 
provisus ( see above ) 

aetatisqz = aetatisque 

aetatisque suae 36 circiter 
annorum ( see above ) 

sepultusqz = sepultusque 

sepultusque est (see above) 

in coemeterio (the in is 
hidden in the margin) 

assistentibus testibus (see 
above ) 

supra signatis: signed below 
(who have signed below); 
the English syntax here 
would probably be assisten- 
tibus testibus supra 
signatis; translate 

accordingly. 



68 



CHAPTER VI 



Verbs III: The Perfect Active System 

Perfect, Pluperfect, and Future Perfect 

Indicative Active of all Four Conjugations 

Perfect, Pluperfect, and Future Perfect 

of esse and posse 

Introduction 

The perfect active system is one of the most important for 
the study of Latin parish registers, and other documents as well, 
since the entries were generally written down after the 
event — baptism, marriage, or death — had already occurred. 
Whereas the imperfect, which was discussed in Chapter III, ex- 
presses continuous or repeated action, the perfect system indi- 
cates action which is completed in the past. Compare, for 
example, copulabant (they married, kept on marrying, married 
habitually, etc. — imperfect [incomplete]) and copulaverunt (they 
married [presumably once only] — perfect [complete]). In this re- 
gard, the Latin perfect is similar to the English simple past 
tense or present perfect tense, e.g., I came, I have come (a com- 
pleted, not a continuous action). 

The Perfect Active System 

There are three tenses in the perfect active system: perfect 
indicative active, pluperfect indicative active, and future 
perfect indicative active. While the last two are not found 
frequently in parish registers, they do occur in other types of 
documents. The future perfect, for example, may be used in place 
of the simple future, with exactly the same meaning, e.g. , copu- 
laverint: they will marry (literally: they will have married). 
Substituting the future perfect for the future was relatively 
common in certain types of later medieval Latin documents such 
as, for example, wills, a practice continued by some parish 
priests . 

The perfect indicative active includes the English simple 
past tense (The priest baptized.), past progressive (The priest 
was baptizing.), past emphatic (The priest did baptize.), and the 
present perfect (The priest has baptized.). However, the simple 
past or present perfect can generally be used to translate the 
Latin perfect in many parish register entries. 

The pluperfect indicative active is similar to the English 
past perfect (copulaverant: they had married) , and the future 
perfect to the English future perfect (copulaverint: they will 
have married). 

To form the perfect active system tenses, a new stem is 
required, one which constitutes the third principal part of the 



69 



Latin verb and must be learned as it occurs in this book, in 
other grammars, in dictionaries, or in documents. The perfect 
stem of first conjugation verbs consists of the present stem 
(e.g. , baptiza) plus -v (the perfect stem of all first conjuga- 
tion verbs ends in -v) plus the perfect system endings, e.g., 
copul av , bapti z av , humav . 

Perfect stems of the other conjugations are often irregular 
and should be memorized as they are encountered. However, the 
perfect stems of second conjugation verbs sometimes end in -u, 
e.g., habu (from habere). Stems of third conjugation verbs may 
end in -did (vendidi: I sold, from: vendo, vendere) , -x (vixi: I 
lived, from vivere) , -c (didici: I learned, from disco, discere) , 
-SB or -s (decessi: I died, departed, from decedo, decedere) , or 
-rr (cucurri: I ran, from curro, currere) . Some third conjuga- 
tion -io perfect stems end in -c (feci: I made, from facere) , and 
a number of fourth conjugation perfect stems end in -v (sepelivi: 
I buried, from sepelire) . 

The perfect indicative active is formed by combining the 
perfect stem, the third principal part of a Latin verb, and the 
perfect indicative active endings, as shown below: 

Perfect Indicative Active of copulare (stem: 
copulav — first conjugation) 



Verb 

copulavi 

copulavisti 

copulavit 

copul avimus 
copulavistis 
copul averunt 



Ending 

i 

isti 

it 

imus 

istis 

ervmt 



Meaning 

I married, have married 

you married, have married 

he/she (or a noun) married, 

has married 

we married, have married 

you (all) married, have married 

they (or a noun) married, have 

married 



Another ending for the third person plural , perfect indica- 
tive active is -ere ( copulavere ) . This ending may be encountered 
in documents written during the later Middle Ages such as, for 
example, wills, as well as in some parish registers. In order to 
avoid confusing this ending with the infinitive endings of second 
and third conjugation verbs, both of which also end in -ere, 
always look for the perfect stem. Compare the following as 
examples: habuere: they have had (perfect stem habu), but hat>ere: 
to have (present infinitive). 

The pluperfect indicative active (from plus guam perfectus: 

more than perfect) adds the imperfect of the verb esse to the 
perfect stem. 



70 



Pluperfect Indicative Active of copulare 



Verb 

copulaveram 

copulaveras 

copulaverat 

copulaveramus 

copulaveratis 

copul aver ant 



Ending 

eram 

eras 

erat 

eramus 

eratis 

erant 



Meaning 

I had married 

you had married 

he/she (or a noun) had married 

we had married 

you (all) had married 

they (or a noun) had married 



The future perfect indicative active is formed by adding the 
future of esse to the perfect stem of the verb. The third person 
plural ending is, however, erint, rather than erunt. 



Future Perfect Indicative Active of copulare 



Verb 



copul avero 

copulaveris 

copulaverit 

copulaverimus 
copulaveritis 
copulaverint 



Ending 

ero 

eris 

erit 

erimus 
eritis 
erint 



Meaning 

I shall have married 

you will have married 

he/she (or a noun) will have 

married 

we shall have married 

you (all) will have married 

they (or a noun) will have 

married 



The examples below are given for copulare only, albeit the 
sequence of tenses and the endings are valid for all of the 
con j ugations : 

Georgius Steinacker et Anna Maria Grenz copulaverunt. 

(Georg Steinacker and Anna Maria Grenz married. [an action 
completed in the past, prior to whatever is taking place 
at the moment] ) 

Georgius Steinacker et Anna Maria Grenz copulaverant. 

(Georg Steinacker and Anna Maria Grenz had married, 
[considerably prior to whatever is occurring at the 
moment] ) 

Georgius Steinacker et Anna Maria Grenz copulaverint. 

(Georg Steinacker and Anna Maria Grenz will have married, 
[e.g., by the Feast of St. Stephen this event will have 
taken place; when the feast day is celebrated, they 
already will have been married.]) 



71 



Perfect Indicative Active of habere (stem: 
habu — second conjugation) 



Verb 



habui 

habuisti 

habuit 

habuimus 
habuistis 
habuervmt ( ere ) 



Ending 

i 

isti 

it 

imus 

istis 

erunt 



Meaning 

I had, have had 

you had, have had 

he/she/it (or a noun) had, 

has had 

we had, have had 

you (all) had, have had 

they (or a noun) had, have had 



Pluperfect Indicative Active of habere 

Verb Ending Meaning 



habueram 


eram 


habueras 


eras 


habuerat 


erat 


habueramus 


eramus 


habueratis 


eratis 


habuerant 


erant 



I had had 

you had had 

he/she/it (or a noun) had had 

we had had 

you (all) had had 

they (or a noun) had had 



Future Perfect Indicative Active of habere 



Verb 



habuero 

habueris 

habuerit 

habuerimus 
habueritis 
habuerint 



Ending 

ero 

eris 

erit 

erimus 
eritis 
erint 



Meaning 

I shall have had 

you will have had 

he/she/it (or a noun) will 

have had 

we shall have had 

you (all) will have had 

they (or a noun) will have had 



Perfect Indicative Active of vivere (stem; 
vix — third conjugation) 



Verb 



Ending 



VIXX 




1 


vixisti 




isti 


vixit 




it 


vix imus 




imus 


vixistis 




istis 


vixerunt 


(ere) 


erunt 



Meaning 

I lived, have lived 

you lived, have lived 

he/she/it (or a noun) lived, 

has lived 

we lived, have lived 

you (all) lived, have lived 

they (or a noun) lived, 

have lived 



72 



Pluperfect Indicative Active of vivere 



Verb 

vixeram 

vixeras 

vixerat 

vixeramus 

vixeratis 

vixerant 



Ending 

eram 

eras 

erat 

eramus 

eratis 

erant 



Meaning 

I had lived 

you had lived 

he/she/it (or a noun) had lived 

we had lived 

you (all) had lived 

they (or a noun) had lived 



Future Perfect Indicative Active of vivere 



Verb 



vixero 

vixeris 

vixerit 

vixerimus 
vixeritis 
vixerint 



Ending 

ero 

eris 

erit 

erimus 
eritis 
erint 



Meaning 

I shall have lived 

you will have lived 

he/she/it (or a noun) will 

have lived 

we shall have lived 

you (all) will have lived 

they (or a noun) will 

have lived 



Perfect Indicative Active of sepelire (stem: 
sepeliv — fourth conjugation) 



Verb 



Ending 



sepelivi* 


i 


sepelivisti 


isti 


sepelivit 


it 



sepelivimus imus 

sepelivistis istis 
sepeliverunt (ere) erunt 



Meaning 

I buried, have buried 

you buried, have buried 

he/she (or a noun) buried, 

has buried 

we buried, have buried 

you (all) buried, have buried 

they (or a noun) buried, 

have buried 



*The alternate perfect stem sepeli may also be found 
on occasion. 

Pluperfect Indicative Active of sepelire 

Verb Ending Meaning 



sepe liver am 
sepe liver as 
sepe liver at 
sepeliveramus 
sepe liver at is 
sepe 1 i ver ant 



eram 

eras 

erat 

eramus 

eratis 

erant 



I had buried 

you had buried 

he/she (or a noun) had buried 

we had buried 

you (all) had buried 

they (or a noun) had buried 



73 



Future Perfect Indicative Active of sepelire 



Verb 



sepelivero 

sepeliveris 

sepeliverit 

sepeliverimus 

sepeliveritis 

sepeliverint 



Ending 

ero 

eris 

erit 

erimus 

eritis 

erint 



Meaning 

I shall have buried | 

you will have buried 

he/she (or a noun) will have buried 

we shall have buried 

you (all) will have buried 

they (or a noun) will have buried 



Perfect Indicative Active of facere (stem: 
fee — third conjugation io-verb) 



Verb 



feci 

fecisti 

fecit 

fecimus 

fecistis 

f ecerunt ( ere ) 



Ending 

i 

isti 

it 

imus 

istis 

erunt 



Meaning 

I made , have made 

you made , have made 

he/she/it (or a noun) made, has made 

we made , have made 

you (all) made, have made 

they ( or a noun ) made , have made 



Pluperfect Indicative Active of facere 

Verb Ending Meaning 



feceram 

feceras 

fecerat 

feceramus 

feceratis 

fecerant 



eram 

eras 

erat 

eramus 

eratis 

erant 



I had made 

you had made 

he/she/it (or a noun) had made 

we had made 

you (all) had made 

they ( or a noun ) had made 



{ 



Future Perfect Indicative Active of facere 



Verb 



fecero 

feceris 

fecerit 

fecerimus 

feceritis 

fecerint 



Ending 

ero 

eris 

erit 

erimus 

eritis 

erint 



Meaning 

I shall have made 

you will have made 

he/she/it (or a noun) will have made 

we shall have made 

you (all) will have made 

they (or a noun) will have made 



As an aid in understanding the perfect active system, it may 
be useful review the time sequence of each tense involved: 

Perfect: An action completed in the recent past, rather 
close in time to the present, e.g.. Terrain tenui . (I held the 
land, possibly until as late as yesterday; the implication is 
that at the present time I probably do not hold it. ) 



74 



Pluperfect: An action completed in the more remote past, 
i.e., further removed from the present than the perfect, e.g., 
Terram tenueram. (I had held the land — perhaps ten years earli- 
er, but not now. ) 

Future Perfect: An action which simultaneously looks to the 
future and the past. When the event or action takes place, it 
will do so in the future, and when this has occurred it will also 
be in the past, e.g.. Post festum Conceptionis Mariae terram 
vendidero. (After the Feast of the Conception of Mary, I will 
have sold the land; by the time this feast has arrived, the land 
will no longer belong to me. ) 

The Perfect Active System of esse 

The perfect, pluperfect, and future perfect tenses of esse 
are obtained by adding the appropriate endings to the perfect 
stem fu. 

Perfect Indicative Active of esse (stem: fu) 

Verb Ending Meaning 



fui 

fuisti 

fuit 

fuimus 

fuistis 

f uerunt ( ere ) 



1 

isti 

it 

imus 

istis 

erunt 



I was , I have been 

you were , have been 

he/she/it (or a noun) was, 

has been 

we were , have been 

you (all) were, have been 

they ( or a noun ) were , 

have been 



Pluperfect Indicative Active of esse 



Verb 

fueram 

fueras 

fuerat 

fueramus 

fuerat is 

fuerant 



Ending 

eram 

eras 

erat 

eramus 

eratis 

erant 



Meaning 

I had been 

you had been 

he/she/it (or a noun) had been 

we had been 

you (all) had been 

they (or a noun) had been 



Future Perfect Indicative Active of esse 



Verb 

fuero 

fueris 

fuerit 

fuerimus 
fueritis 
fuerint 



Ending 

arc 

eris 

erit 

erimus 
eritis 
erint 



Meaning 

I shall have been 

you will have been 

he/she/it (or a noun) will 

have been 

we shall have been 

you (all) will have been 

they (or a noun) will have been 



75 



The Perfect Active System of posse 

The perfect, pluperfect, and future perfect indicative 
active tenses of posse are obtained by adding the endings for 
these tenses to the perfect stem potu. 



Perfect Indicative Active of posse (stem: potu) 



Verb 



potui 

potuisti 

potuit 

potuimus 
potuistis 
potuerunt ( ere ) 



Ending 

i 

isti 

it 

imus 

istis 

erunt 



Meaning 

I could, I was able (to) 

you could, you were able (to) 

he/she/it (or a noun) could, 

was able (to) 

we could, were able (to) 

you (all) could, were able (to) 

they (or a noun) could, were 

able (to) 



Pluperfect Indicative Active of posse 



Verb 



potueram 
potueras 
potuerat 

potueramus 
potuerat is 
potuerant 



Ending 

eram 
eras 
erat 

eramus 
eratis 
erant 



Meaning 

I had been able (to) 

you had been able (to) 

he/she/it (or a noun) had been 

able (to) 

we had been able (to) 

you (all) had been able (to) 

they (or a noun) had been (to) 



Future Perfect Indicative Active of posse 



Verb 



potuero 

potueris 

potuerit 

potuerimus 
potueritis 

potuerint 



Ending 

ero 

eris 

erit 

erimus 
eritis 

erint 



Meaning 

I shall have been able (to) 

you will have been able (to) 

he/she/it (or a noun) will have 

been able (to) 

we shall have been able (to) 

you (all) will have been 

able (to) 

they (or a noun) will have 

been able (to) 



Note that the third principal part of the Latin verb is 
given in the vocabulary of most standard Latin dictionaries and 
lexica (together with the other principal parts) as the first 
person singular, perfect indicative active, e.g., copulo, copu- 
lare, copulavi (I marry, to marry, I married [have married]). 
The fourth principal part, the perfect passive participle will be 
discussed in Chapter IX. The first three principal parts of all 
verbs included in all of the chapters to this point are listed 
below. These should be studied carefully. 



76 



EXERCISES: CHAPTER VI 



A. Grammar 



Conjugate habitare (first conjugation), tenere (second 
conjugation), venders (third conjugation), venire (fourth conju- 
gation), and capere (third conjugation io-verb) in the perfect, 
pluperfect, and future perfect indicative active. The perfect 
steins of each of these verbs are given below in the third princi- 
pal part of each one. 

B. Vocabulary 

In addition to all of the verbs given in body of this chap- 
ter, learn the first three principal parts of the following 
verbs. Note that many standard Latin dictionaries and lexica 
list the four principal parts of Latin verbs. With the discus- 
sion of the perfect system active, three of these four have been 
introduced to the reader. These include: first person singular, 
present indicative active, present infinitive, and first person 
singular, perfect indicative (for example: baptize: I baptize; 
baptizare: to baptize; baptizavi: I baptized, have baptized). 
The fourth principal part, the perfect passive participle, will, 
as indicated on the preceding page, be discussed in Chapter IX. 



First Conjugation Verbs 

adjuvo, adjuvare, adjuvavi: 

help, aid (adiuvo) 
allege, allegare, allegavi: 

accuse, allege 
appello, appellare, appellavi: 

call, name, appeal, accuse 
approbo , approbare , approbavi : 

approve, approve a business 

or legal transaction 
baptize, baptizare, baptizavi: 

baptize 
cause, causare, causavi: 

cause, give as a reason, 

accuse 
cepule, copulare, cepulavi: 

marry, join 
celebre , celebrare , celebravi : 

celebrate; nuptias 

celebrare: to celebrate the 

nuptials, to marry 
de, dare, dedi: give 
habite, habitare, habitavi: 

live in, dwell 
hume, humare, humavi: bury 



laude, laudare, laudavi: 

praise 
lege, legare, legavi: leave, 

bequeath 
marite, maritare, maritavi: 

marry 
narre, narrare, narravi : 

narrate, relate 
ere, erare, oravi: pray, ask, 

beg 
prebe, prebare, prebavi: test, 

prove , approve , probate 
seirve, servare, servavi: save, 

preserve 

Second Conjugation Verbs 

centinee , centinere , centinui : 

contain, connect 
debeo, debere , debui : owe, 

ought 
despendeo, despondere, 

despendi : betroth 
decee, docere, decui: teach 
habee , habere, habui : have, 

hold 



77 



jaceo, jacere, jeci: lie, lie 

down (iaceo) 
moneo, monere, monui: warn 
remaneo , remanere, remansi: 

remain, stay 
teneo, tenere , tenui : hold, 

keep 
video, videre, visi: see 

Third Conjugation Verbs 

absolve, absolvere, absolvi: 

absolve, forgive, release, 

complete (studies) 
acquiesce, acquiescere , 

aquevi : die, repose, be 

content with 
ago, agere, egi: do, drive, 

discuss, lead, act, etc. 
cerno, cernere , crevi : 

discern, perceive 
condo, condere, condidi : 

found, make, construct; 

testamentum condere: to 

make a will 
contraho , contrahere, con- 

treixi: contract, contract a 

marriage 
decedo , decedere , decessi: 

die, depart, go away 
detego , detegere, detexi : 

reveal, uncover, detect 
dice, dicere, dixi: say, tell, 

call 
decumbo , decumbere , decubui : 

die, lie down 
dego, degere, degi : spend 

time, pass time, live, 

exist, dwell, reside, rest; 

vitam degere: to spend 

(one's) life, live 
duco, ducere, duxi: lead 
emo , emere , emi : buy 
gigno, gignere, genui : beget, 

produce, be born 
lego, legere, lexi: read, 

choose, gather 
nosco, noscere, novi: know (be 

acquainted with) 
pono , ponere , posui : put, 

place, lay 
impono , imponere, imposui: 

place upon, impose 



promitto, promittere, pro- 

missi: promise 
relinquo, relinquere, 

relinqui: leave behind, 

abondon 
requiesco, requiescere, re- 

quievi: rest, lie 
scribo , scribere, scripsi: 

write 
subscribe, subscribere , sub- 

scripsi: undersign, 

underwrite, sign below 
sumo, sumere , sumpsi: take 

down, complete, finish 
vendo, venders, vendidi: sell 
vivo, vivere, vixi: live 

Fourth Conjugation Verbs 

abdormio, abdormire , abdor- 

mivi: sleep away, die 
audio, audire, audivi: hear 
consentio , consentire : consen- 

si: agree, be in harmony 

with 
cupio, cupire, cupivi: desire, 

want 
custodio, custodire, 

custodivi : guard, keep 

watch 
scio, scire, scivi: know (how 

to do something) 
sepelio, sepelire, sepelivi 

(or, sepelii): bury 
venio, venire, veni: come 
invenio, invenire, inveni: 

find, come upon 

Third Conjugation -10 Verbs 

capio, capere, cepi: take, 

seize, capture 
concipio, concipere, concepi : 

conceive, comprehend, 

become pregnant 
facio, facere, feci: make, do 
fugio, fugere, fugi: flee 

Other Verbs 

possum, posse, potui: can, be 

able (to) 
sum, esse, fui: be 



78 



C. Translation: Latin to English 

Translate the following sentences from Latin to English: 

In dolor ibus partus obi it Agnes de Groot dum vivens uxor 
Wilhelmi Sloet, vulgo dicti Gerrit, civis et brasiatoris 
huius loci nono die mensis Junii anno domini nostri MDCLXXX. 
(dolor, doloris, m. : pain; partus, partus, in.: birth, 
childbirth [fourth declension noun, v. Chapter X; note here 
that partus is genitive singular "of birth"]; obiit: 
died [V. Chapter XIV]; dum vivens: while living; vulgo 
[see Chapter V, Exercise E, 3]; dicti: called; brasiator, 
brasiatoris, m. : brewer [e.g., of beer]; huius loci: of 
this place; nono die: on the ninth day; anno domini nostri 
MDCLXXX: in the year of our Lord 1680 [v. Chapter VII for 
additional information on Roman numerals.]) 

Nos, parochi huius parochiae Beatorxun Sanctorum Petri et 
Pauli, Abnerum Roth et Eleanoram Murphy copulavimus. 
(nos: we [goes with copulavimus]; parochi: nominative 
plural; huius: of this; Abnerum: Abner, ace. case) 

Heri ego Stephanus Rotgermann decanus seniculam n.n. , quae 

in vicum nostrum erravit et a morbo ignoto juxta forum 

obiit, in coemeterio figulorum sepelivi. 

(heri: yesterday; ego: I; decanus, decani, m. : deacon; 
senicula, seniculae, f.: a little old lady; n.n.: name 
unknown [n.n.: nomen nescio: I do not know the name; name 
unknown]; erro, errare, erravi [erratum]: wander, stray, 
travel; morbus, morbi, m. : disease; figulus, figuli, m. : 
a potter [in this case, the potters' cemetery where the 
poor were buried] ) 

23 Julii exhalavit animam suam Johanna Jakobina Seidt, post 
longum morbum, vidua Michaelis Johannis Nethe, omnibus 
sacramentis ecclesiae provisa et die sequenti sepulta est. 
(Julii: of July; exhalavit: from exhalo, exhalare, 
exhalavi [exhalatum] : breathe out, expire, die; omnibus 
sacramentis ecclesiae provisa: see Chapter V, Exercise 
E, 3; die sequenti: on the following day; sepulta est: 
she was buried) 

Agnes Nebl, mulier, pauper, laboriosa, pia erga Deum, 
postquam ultra novem menses in stomacho suo ita laboraverat, 
ut cibos vix non omnes, quos sumpserat, iterum evomere 
coacta sit, periculum mortis sentiens, sacramentum petiit, 
atque in divinam voluntatem resignatissma post plures dies 
in agone exspiravit 15 December 1777 anno aetatis suae 54 
et eodem die sepulta est. 

(mulier, mulieris, f.: woman; laboriosa, laboriosae, f.: 
worker [female]; postquam: after; novem menses: 9 months 
suo: her; ita: so, thus; laboro, laborare, laboravi 
[laboratum]: work; ut: so that; cibus, cibi, m. : food; 
vix; scarcely; hardly; sumo, sumere, sumpsi [sumptum] : 



79 



take, use [here] ; itenim: again; evomo, evomere, evomui 
[evomitvun] : vomit; coacta sit: she was compelled [perfect 
passive subjunctive of cogo, cogere, coegi, coactiun: 
compel v. Chapter XII]; sentiens: sensing, feeling; petiit: 
she asked [for] , from peto, petere, petii [or petivi] , 
petitum: ask, seek after, request, beg, entreat; atque: 
and; resignatissma: most resigned; plures: many; agon, 
agonis, m. : agony [contest — Greek; also cl . Latin]; 
exspiro, exspirare: exspiravi, exspiratum: die, 
breathe out, exhale) 

D. English to Latin 

Translate the following sentences from English to Latin: 

The witnesses of this (huius) baptism were: Thomas 
Plumboldt, merchant (mercator, mercatoris, m. ) and 
citizen of this place (huius loci) , and Wilfredus Crom, 
goldsmith (aurifaber, aiirifabri, m. ) and citizen of 
Snodlond (Snodlondus, Snodlondi, m. ) 

The physician (medicus, medici, m. ) made (use fecit) an 

operation (operatic, operationis, f.) and removed (use 

removeo, removere, removi [remotum] ) an infant 

of the female sex (sexus feminei) from the womb (ex utero) 

of its (eius) mother. I (ego), Francesca Capelli, midwife 

midwife (obstetrix, obstetricis, f.)/ baptized this 

(hunc) child (ace. case), because of danger of death 

(see previous chapters for this phrase), and gave (use do, 

dare, dedi, datvim) it (ei) the name (ace. case) 

Maria Angelica (ace. case). 

Paul Bitrand, a faithful (use fidelis, fidele) servant 
(use famulus, famuli, m. : servant) for (use per + ace.) 
many years in our (nostro) apothecary (pharmacopolius, 
pharmacopolii, m. ) , swelled up (use intumesco, intumescere, 
intumui) with dropsy (use hydrops, hydropis, m. in the 
ablative ease without a preposition [an ablative of cause] ) 
and, provided with all of the sacraments of the church (see the 
previous chapter for this usage), died (obiit) in agony 
on the twelfth of August (duodecimo August!) 1765 in the 
year of his age 40. 

Today (hodie) I, Walter Grund, parish priest of the parish 
of St. Victor (Victor, Victoris, m. ) married the honest 
(ace. case) young man (ace. ease) Rudolf (ace.) Schmelzer, 
a blacksmith (faber, fabri, m. , ace. case) and citizen 
(ace.) of Oppenheim (Oppenheimensis) , legitimate (ace.) 
son (ace.) of Friedrich (Frederici) Schmelzer, farmer 
(gen. case) and citizen of Oppenheim (see above) and Maria 
(gen.) Anna (gen.) Duersch his wife (uxoris eius), and 
the chaste (ace.) virgin (ace.) Apollonia (ace.) Barabara 
(ace.) Wuerth, legitimate (ace.) daughter (ace.) of the 
deceased (gen.) Nicolaus (gen.) Wuerth, while living (see 



80 






above) a carpenter (lignarius, lignarii, m. [use the 
gen. case here] ) and citizen of Oberkatzbach 
(Oberkatzbachensis) , and Martha (gen.) Eva (gen.) Moench 
his wife (see above). The witnesses of this marriage 
(huius matrimonii) were: Joseph Wund farmer from 
Oppenheim (ex Oppenheimense ) and Adam Winck blacksmith 
from Oberkatzbach (ex Oberkatzbachense) . 

Yesterday, I buried Jean (use Johcumem) , the illegitimate 
(ace.) son (ace.) of Jeanne (Joanna, Joannae, f. [gen. 
case here]) Montreaux in the potters' cemetery (see above) 
beyond the gate of our village (villae nostrae) . Within 
a few days (paucis diebus) after the death (use mors, 
mortis, m. ) of this child (huius infantis) , the mother 
died (use obiit) also (etiam) and was carried away 
(delata est) by her father ( ab patre suo) to be buried 
(sepelienda) in the tomb (tumulus, tumuli, m. ) 
of his family (familiae suae). 

E. Translation: Parish Registers 

Translate the following parish register entries with the aid 
of the vocabulary below. 

Document #1: Birth 



fii-^u^ 'Jinno ^tnini iiif ^t'Cl^ Jiu^uf/i 



wxsau 






81 



Vocabulary 

1756: the date 

15 August!: 15th of August 

Ego : see above 

Jo = Johannes 

Albertus a Lauda: his name 

missionarius Cappuccinus: a 
Capuchin missionary (i.e., 
a member of th order of 
Capuchin friars — a branch 
of the Franciscan friars 
founded in 1529 and active 
in preaching and missionary 
work) 

infantula, infantulae, f.: a 
little child (female) 

nocte antecedent!: in the 
preceding night 

ex 

Joanne Gobba: the father's 
name 

et 

J 
Mra = Maria (also in the left 
margin): a given name of 
both mother and daughter 



Dominica Porta: the mother's 

name 
eius: his 
cui nomen imposui: upon whom I 

placed the name 
Mciria 

domnus = domxnus: lord (as a 

title) 
judex, judicis, m. : judge 
Amabilis: a given name 
Paravisius: a surname 
Pizzetta: the surname of the 

godmother 
Lostallo: a place name 
hec = haec: these 

et haec omnia: and these 
things all (or, and all 
these things) [were done] 

Sancti: goes with Nicolai 
Gabioli (the name of the 
church ) 



82 



Document # 3 : Death 

Note that since this entry is from a parish in Germany, the 
handwriting does contain some German Gothic letters or partial 
letters, especially the -s, which appears to be an -f here. 
Compare the vocabulary below with the handwritten entry as you 
translate. 



I ■ ^ :7^-^^i I izf ^'.^y^, t^KytiC^ ^Jj^' %.iJiC^X^^^' ■ _ .V 



Vocabulary 

Potinger: a surname 

erat: was 

vir 

praefectus, praef ecti , m.: 

magistrate 
res, rei, f.: thing, matter 
lignarius, lignaria, lignari- 

um: relating to wood, 

forest 
aguarius , aguaria, aguarium: 

relating to water; hence 

Andreas Potinger was a 

magistrate of wood and 

water . 
strenuus, strenua, strenum: 

active , vigorous , strenuous 
robustus, robusta, robustum: 

powerful, hard, firm, solid 

(like an oak tree) 
cui: to whom 
vires: plural of vis, vis, f.: 

force, power, violence; 

plural : strength 
inconcussus , inconcussa, 

inconcussum: unshaken 

(firm) 
sanitas, sanitatis , f.: 

health, good sense, sanity 



longaevus, longaeva, 

longaevum: long (as in long 
life) , aged, old 

promittere 

videbantur: seemed (third 
person plural , imperfect 
indicative passive; the 
passive form of video, 
videre, visi, visum, which 
means "seem" rather than 
"see.") Note that the 
subject of this verb is 
vires corporis. The entire 
sentence, if placed in an 
English word order, would 
probably read: cui vires 
corporis videbantur 

promittere inconcussem 
sanitatem et vitam longae- 
vam; translate accordingly. 

aft (at), con j . : but, moreover 

expectatio , expectationis , f . : 
expectation (the object of 
contra ) 

jam (iam), adv.: now, already 

mense Octobr = mense Octobris: 
in the month of October 



84 



Document #2: Death 



,. J . ■- — 



Vocabulary 

Left Hand Margin 

Joseph 

Ma = Maria 

Fidelis: one of the child's 

given names 
Michcirolus: the surname (which 

is declined in this entry) 

Entry 

_♦ 

dni = domini 

1734: the year 

26 Junii: 26th of Jvine 

evolavit: from evolve, 
evolare, evolavi 

(evolatum) : fly, fly away 

ad 

consortium consortii, n.: 
fellowship, society, commu- 
nity, association 

Angelorum: of the angels 

cuiusdam infantuli: of a 
certain infant (cuiusdam, 
from quidam: , quaedam, 
quoddam: a certain person 
or thing, someone, some- 
thing) 

Anto = Antonio (nominative: 
Antonius ) 

Mciria: his middle given name 



Micharolo: the surname de- 
clined 

Dominica Jacomella: the given 
names of his wife 

coniugibj = conjugibus 

mensium quatuor circiter: 
about four months (of 
months) (of age) 

eiusq. = eiusque: and his 
(goes with corpus, the next 
word) 

sepultum fuit: was buried 

p. = per 

me = me ( ace . ) 

J. = Johannem 

Aloysium (nominative: Aloy- 
sius) 

conciontm = concionatorem: 
from concionator, conciona- 
toris, m. : preacher 

cappuccinum: Capuchin (modify- 
ing preacher) 

Miss: = missioncirium: mission- 
ary, ace. sing. 

tumulus, tumuli, m. : cemetery, 
hill, burial mound, mound 

parvulorum: of the children 
(literally: of the small 
ones — from parvus) 

S. = ScUicti 

Nicolai Gabioli (see above) 



83 



male, adv.: badly (from malus, 
mala, malum: bad, evil) 

se habere: a reflexive verb; 
when used with male: to be 
badly off, to be sick 

coeperat: began (from coepi, 
coepisse, coeptum, a defec- 
tive verb for which the 
present tense is supplied, 
except in rare cases , by 
incipio, incipere, incepi , 
inceptum: begin; the above 
three forms are, consecu- 
tively: the first person 
singular, perfect indica- 
tive active, the perfect 
infinitive [v. Chapter 
XIII], and the perfect 
passive participle [v. 
Chapter IX] . ) 

vir robustus: the robust 
(healthy) man 

paulatim, adv.: gradually, 
little by little 

deficiebat: failed, ceased 
(from deficio, deficere, 
def eel , defectum: fail, 
cease ) ; note that the tense 
here is imperfect and 
translate accordingly 

viribus: from his strength 

exhaustus, exhausta, exhaus- 
tum: exhausted, emptied 
out, deprived, taken away 

officio suo: his duty 

amplius, adv.: longer, more, 
further 

fungi: to perform (from 
fungor, fungi, functus sum: 
be busy, be engaged in, 
perform, execute; a depo- 
nent verb, V. Chapter IX; 
note that the direct object 
of this verb officio suo is 
in the ablative case. 
Fungor is one of a small 
number of deponent verbs 
which take ablative objects 
[v. Chapter IX for addi- 
tional details] ) . 

mature, adv.: soon, too soon 



SS. = Sanctis: modifies sacra- 
mentis 

munitus: fortified; Sanctis 
sacramentis munitus: forti- 
fied by (means of the) holy 
sacraments 

morbo: by a disease 

qui: which 

erat ( see above ) 

peripneumonia , peripneumoniae , 
f.: pneumonia, pleurisy 

ingravescente : being op- 
pressed; present participle 
of ingravesco, 

ingravescare , ingravescavi , 
ingravescatum: to become 
heavy, be oppressed, 
burdened; here an ablative 
absolute when combined when 
morbo (v. Chapter XIII for 
additional information on 
this usage.). The meaning 
is "being burdened or 
oppressed by (with) dis- 
ease . " 

et: above the line 

ad extrema: to the last things 
(i.e., the end of life) 

deductus : led , brought 

31 Jan. = 31 Januarii 

7 vesp. = 7 vespertina: at 7 
in the evening (7 p.m.); 
from vespertinus, vesperti- 
na, vespertinum: of, or 
relating to, the evening 

efflavit: he breathed out 
(goes with animam; "his" is 
understood with animam. ) ; 
from efflo, efflare, ef- 
flavi, eff latum: breathe 
out, blow out 

agonizantem: suffering (modi- 
fies animam) ; present 
participle of agonize, 
agonizare, agonizavi, 
agonizatum: suffer, agonize 

confortante ( comf ortante ) : 
being comforted (i.e., by 
the lates rites) 

exanimis, exanime, adj.: dead, 
lifeless 

tumulo tradente: being carried 
to the tomb (buried) 



85 



Document #4: Marriages 

Translate the following marriage entries from a Polish 
parish register of 1815 with the aid of the vocabulary included 
below. 










/fif7t4/2t t^)S/0 







t^'fe: -. (>^^r^. 










/o- -7-: : — '" I«T 7^i__ --V2. 



f^/, r/^i/S. 



m- 






^/er>y^ J* «m«^ PTTm^m^ ^t^-"*'^ 






t^„,^/<M«/ •^M^ ^ifc*^ •^iWr. «■*>»/*► 



86 



Vocabulary: 



Haurytki: a place name 

Millesimo Octingentesimo 
Decimo quinto: 1815 

praemissis tribus bannis 
continuis diebus dominicis : 
after the publication of 
marriage banns (announce- 
ments ) on three consecutive 
Sundays (an ablative abso- 
lute; V. Chapter XIII for 
additional information) 

dies dominica, diei dominicae, 
f.: Sunday (the day of the 
Lord) 

guarum: of which (relative 
pronoun, v. Chapter XI) 

Ima = prima: the first 

Dca = Dominica 

2do = secundo: the second, 
i.e., the first (bann) was 
on the second Sunday 

2da = seciinda: second 

Dca ( see above ) 

3cia = tercia (tertia): third, 
i.e., the second (bann) was 
on the third Sunday 

^ = et 

4ta = quarta: fourth; missing 
here are the words tertia 
dominica (and the third 
[bann] was Sunday the 
fourth [i.e., the fourth 
Sunday] ) 

post Epiphaniam: after Epipha- 
ny, a fixed feast day 
occurring on January 6th 
each year. Note however, 
that these banns were read 
on the second, third, and 
fourth Sundays after Epiph- 
any (v. Chapter VII for 
additional information on 
feasts days. ) 

nullo impedimento canonico 
detecto: (and) no canonical 
hindrance (to the marriage) 
having been uncovered (an 
ablative absolute; v. 
Chapter XIII) 

praevioq = praevioque 



praevioque examine liberi 
consensus: and (being) 
previously examined of 
(their own) free consent 
(an ablative absolute, v. 
Chapter XIII) 

caeteris praemittendis : (and) 
the remaining (information, 
banns, etc. ) to be an- 
nounced (gerundive, v. 
Chapter XIII and Chapter 
XIV) 

Ego: I 

Caspar Godleviski: name of the 
priest 

V.E.B. = vicarius ecclesiae 
Bochoviensis: vicar of the 
church of Bochoviensis (a 
place name) 

laboriosus , laboriosi, m.: 
worker, laborer 

Sobotowski : the groom's sur- 
name 

juven^ = juvenis 

Bogumila, Bogumilae, f.: 
Bogumila (the bride's first 
name) 

Vrolewna: her surname 

parochianis: (being) parish- 
ioners (i.e., the groom and 
bride) 

Boo' avi'e = Bochoviensis: (of 
the parish) of Bochoviensis 

interrogo, interrogare, 

interrogavi ( interrogatum) : 
question, ask 

eor - eortim: of them, their 
de eorum mutuo consensu (super 
libera) secum contrahendi 
voluntate explorato: (and I 
asked [them] ) about their 
mutual consent above freely 
(given) with them to be 
contracted, (being) 

voluntarily examined (being 
examined by [their own] 
will); i.e., I questioned 
them concerning their 
willingness to contract (a 
marriage) of their own free 
will. 



87 



matrimonio: supply in with 

this 
coniunxi = conjunxi 
eosgz = eosque: and them 
ritus, ritus, f.: rite (fourth 

declension, v. Chapter X) 
de ritu: according to the rite 
S . = Sanctae : 
sanctae matris ecclesiae 
benedixi: from benedico, 

benedicere, benedixi 

(benedictum) : bless 
praesentibus testibus: the 

witnesses present (were) 
Rogowoski : a surname 
Chudrinski: a surname 
Wiercienie: a place name 
praemissis tribus bannis 

continuis dominicis (see 

above ) 
una: one (i.e., the first) 
dca 4ta: the fourth Sunday 

(after Epiphany) 



dca 5ta: the fifth Sunday 
(after Epiphany) 

dominica 

Tpef"""^ = 7 post Epiphania(in) : 
the seventh Sunday after 
Epiphany (i.e., the third 
bann was posted on the 7th 
Sunday after Epiphany) 

nobilis, nobilis: noble 

Wiercienski: the groom's 
surname 

Rosalia, Rosaliae, f.: Rosalie 
(the bride's first name) 

Wiercienska: her surname 

For the rest of the 
vocabulary for the second 
entry, see above. Note 
that the surname of the 
last witness is mostly cut 
off in this entry. 



88 



CHAPTER VII 



Numbers 
Ablative and Accusative of Time 

Dates in Latin Documents 
Julian and Gregorian Calendars 



Introduction 

There are two kinds of numbers in Latin, as also in English, 
cardinals (from cardo, cardinis, m. : hinge, axis, turning point) 
and ordinals (from ordo, ordinis, m. : line, row, series). Cardi- 
nals indicate the amount, such as 1, 2, 3, etc., while ordinals, 
as the name implies, show order or sequence, e.g., first, second, 
third. 

Numbers 

Cardinal numbers in Latin from one to one hundred, with the 
exception of unus, una, unum (one), duo, duae, duo (two), and 
tres, tria (three) are indeclinable adjectives. No matter what 
the gender, number and case of the nouns they modify, these 
numbers remain, therefore, unchanged, e.g., septem menses (seven 
months — nominative and accusative plural), nonaginta annonm (of 
ninety years — genitive plural). 

Unus is declined like those adjectives of the first and 
second declension which have the genitive singular ending -ius 
and the dative singular ending -i for all three genders (see 
Chapter II) . 

unus , una , unum ( one , a , an ) 

Case Masculine Feminine Neuter Meaning 

Nom. unus una unum one, a, an 

Gen. unius unius vmius of /from one, a, an 

Dat. uni uni uni to/for one, a, an 

Ace . unum unam unum one , a , an ( d . o . ) 

Abl. uno una uno by/with/f rom, 

etc. one, an, an 

Example : 

Unam filiam habet. (He/she has one daughter. ) 



89 



duo , duae , duo 



Case 


Masculine 


Feminine 


Neuter 


Meaning 


Nom. 


duo 


duae 


duo 


two 


Gen. 


duorum 


duarum 


duorum 


of/from two 


Dat. 


duobus 


duabus 


duobus 


to/for two 


Ace. 


duos 


duas 


duo 


two ( d . o . ) 


Abl. 


duobus 


duabus 


duobus 


by/wi th/f rom , 
etc . two 




Example : 









Parentes duorum puerorum sunt. 

(They are the parents of two boys [children] . ) 





tres 


, tria 


Case 




Masculine 


Nom. 




tres 


Gen. 




trivun 


Dat. 




tribus 


Ace. 




tres 


Abl. 




tribus 




Example: 



Feminine 

tres 

trium 

tribus 

tres 

tribus 



Neuter 


Meaning 


tria 


three 


trium 


of/from three 


tribus 


to/for three 


tria 


three ( d . o . ) 


tribus 


by/wi th/f rom , 




etc . three 



Tres ex agricolis in agro sunt. 

(Three of the farmers are in the field. ) 

Note that with all numbers except milia, the ablative prepo- 
sitions ex or de were generally used in classical Latin, rather 
than the genitive. Parish register entries may, however, include 
both usages . 

Cardinal numbers from 200 to 900 are declined like adjec- 
tives of the first and second declension plural, e.g., ducenti, 
ducentae, ducenta (200), trecenti, trecentae, trecenta (300). 

mille (1000) 



Case 


Mase . & 


Fem. 


Meaning 


Neuter 


Meaning 


Nom. 


mille 




1000 


milia 


thousands 


Gen. 


mille 




of/from 1000 


milium 


of/from thousands 


Dat. 


mille 




to/for 1000 


milibus 


to/for thousands 


Ace. 


mille 




1000 (d.o.) 


milia 


thousands (d.o.) 


Abl. 


mille 




by /with/from , 
etc. 1000 


milibus 


by/with/from , 
etc . thousands 



90 



Note that the genitive of the whole, which completes the 
meaning of the word immediately preceding it, was used in classi- 
cal Latin with milla. The meaning is thousands (of). 

Examples : 

In rure mille coloni laborabant. 

(One thousand peasants [farmers, settlers] used to work 
in the country . ) 

In rvire milia colonorum laborabant. 

(Thousands of peasants used to work in the country. ) 

Ordinal numbers are declined like adjectives of the first 
and second declension, e.g, primus, prima, primum (first), 
secundus, secunda, secundum (second), tertius, tertia, tertium 

(third) 

Examples: 

Prima die mensis Novembris Carolus, infans, filius 
legitimus Jakobi Wagner et Berthae Mitler, baptizatus est. 

(On the first day of the month of November, the infant 
Charles, legitimate son of Jakob [or James] Wagner and 
Bertha Mitler, was baptized. ) 

Secunda hora noctis, tempestas magna fuit. 

(In the second hour of the night, there was a great storm.) 



Numb 


ers 








Numerals 


Cardinals 


Meaning 


Ordinals 


Meaning 


I 


unus, -a, -um 


1 


primus, -a, -um 


1st 


II 


duo , duae , duo 


2 


secundus, -a, -um 


2nd 


III 


tres , tria 


3 


tertius , etc . 


3rd 


IV 


quattuor 


4 


quartus 


4 th 


V 


quinque 


5 


quintus 


5 th 


VI 


sex 


6 


sextus 


6 th 


VII 


septem 


7 


Septimus 


7 th 


VIII 


octo 


8 


octavus 


8 th 


IX 


novem 


9 


nonus 


9th 


X 


decem 


10 


decimus 


10th 


XI 


undecim 


11 


undecimus 


11th 


XII 


duodecim 


12 


duodecimus 


12 th 


XIII 


tredecim 


13 


tertius decimus 


13th 


XIV 


quattuor dec im 


14 


quartus decimus 


14th 


XV 


quindecim 


15 


quintus decimus 


15th 


XVI 


sedecim 


16 


sextus decimus 


16th 


XVII 


septemdecim 


17 


Septimus decimus 


17th 


XVIII 


duodeviginti 


18 


duodevicesimus 


18th 


XIX 


undeviginti 


19 


undevicesimus 


19th 



91 



Numerals 


Cardinals 


Meaning 


XX 


viginti 


20 


XXI 


viginti unus 


21 


XXII 


viginti duo 


22 


XXIII 


viginti tres 


23 


XXIV 


viginti quattuor 


24 


XXV 


viginti quinque 


25 


XXVI 


viginti sex 


26 


XXVII 


viginti septem 


27 


XXVIII 


viginti octo 


28 


XXIX 


viginti novem 


29 


XXX 


triginta 


30 


XXXI 


triginta unus 


31 


XL 


quadraginta 


40 


XLI 


quadraginta unus 


41 


L 


quinquaginta 


50 


LI 


quinquaginta unus 


i 51 


LX 


sexaginta 


60 


LXI 


sexaginta unus 


61 


LXX 


septuaginta 


70 


LXXI 


septuaginta unus 


71 


LXXX 


octoginta 


80 


LXXXI 


octoginta unus 


81 


XC 


nonaginta 


90 


XCI 


nonaginta unus 


91 


C 


centum 


100 


CI 


centum unus 


101 


CXX 


centum viginti 


120 


CL 


centum quincjuaginta 150 


CC 


ducenti, -ae, -a 


200 


ccc 


trecenti , etc . 


300 


CD 


quadringenti 


400 


D 


quingenti 


500 


DC 


sescenti 


600 


DCC 


septingenti 


700 


DCCC 


octingenti 


800 


CM 


nongenti 


900 


M 


mille 


1000 



Meaning 



vic(g)esimus 
vic(g)esimus primus 
vic(g)esimus secundus 
vic(g)esimus tertius 
vic(g)esimus quartus 
vic(g)esimus quintus 
vic(g)esimus sextus 
vic(g)esimus septimus 
vic(g)esimus octavus 
vic(g)esimus nonus 
tric(g)esimus 
tric{g)esimus primus 
quadr ages imus 
quadragesimus primus 
quinquages imus 
quinquagesimus primus 
sexagesimus 
sexagesimus primus 
septuagesimus 
septuagesimus primus 
octogesimus 
octogesimus primus 
nonages imus 
nonages imus primus 
centesimus 
centesimus primus 
centesimus vic(g)esimus 
centesimus quinquagesimus 
ducen tes imus 
trecentes imus 
quadringentesimus 
quingentes imus 
ses ( X ) centesimus 
sept ingentes imus 
oct ingentes imus 
nongen tes imus 
mi lies imus 



20th 

21st 

22nd 

23rd 

24th 

25th 

26th 

27th 

28th 

29th 

30th 

31st 

40th 

41st 

50th 

51st 

60th 

61st 

7 th 

71st 

80th 

81st 

90th 

91st 

100th 

101st 

120th 

150th 

200th 

300th 

400th 

500th 

600th 

700th 

800th 

900th 

1000th 



Roman Numerals 

Roman numerals may be used instead of Arabic numerals in 
parish registers or other documents. There are seven basic 
numerals from which all others are formed. These include: I (1), 
V (5), X (10), L (50), C (100), D (500), and M (1000). In order 
to make other number combinations from these seven, place addi- 
tional numerals to the right of the first numeral, e.g., I (1), 
II (2), X (10), XII (12). To subtract, place numerals to the 
left of the basic numeral, e.g., X (10), IX (9 = 10 minus 1), C 
(100), XC (90 = 100 minus 10). 



92 



The Days of the Week 

In the Christian calendar, feria, feriae, f . (a neuter 
plural in classical Latin with the meaning of feast or festival 
days) was used for a day of the week on which no feast or saint's 
day was celebrated. Eventually, it came simply to mean "day," as 
in a day of the week. Days of the week were often named by 
adding numbers to feria, e.g., feria secunda (Monday, the "sec- 
ond" day of the week in the Christian calendar). 

Sunday was often called either the day of the Lord (domini- 
ca, dies dominica) or the first day of the week (feria prima) in 
commemoration of the resurrection of the Lord Jesus Christ, 
which, according to the New Testament, occurred on the first day 
of the week. This day replaced the Jewish Sabbath or seventh day 
of the week as the day of worship and rest in Christianity. In 
the Roman calendar, the days of the week took their names from 
various gods and goddesses, e.g., dies Veneris (the day of Venus 
= Friday), as well as the sun and the moon. 



Latin 



English 



dominica, dies dominica (dominicus) Sunday (the day of the sun. 



dies Solis, feria prima 
feria secunda, dies Lunae 

feria tertia, dies Martis 

feria quarta, dies Mercurii 

feria quinta, dies Jovis 

feria sexta, dies Veneris 

feria septima, dies sabbatina 
( sabbatinus ) , sabbatum, dies 
Saturni 



the first day of the week) 
Monday (the second day of the 

week, the day of the moon) 
Tuesday (the third day of the 

week, the day of Mars) 
Wednesday (the fourth day of 

the week, the day of Mercury) 
Thursday (the fifth day of the 

week, the day of Jove/ Jupiter ) 
Friday (the sixth day of the 

week, the day of Venus) 
Saturday (the sabbath [from 

the Jewish calendar] , the 
day of Saturn) 



For the week itself, two terms were used, one of Greek and 
one of Latin origin. These were, respectively, hebdomada, 
hebdomadae, f. (week, or, hebdomas, hebdomadis, f. --Greek) and 
septimana, septimanae, f. (week — Latin). 

The Months of the Year 

Latin months are either second declension masculine nouns 
(declined like baptismus or filius) or third declension masculine 
nouns (declined like pater, patris) . Since the Roman calendar 
originally began in March, the months September, October, Novem- 
ber, and December were number seven (septem), eight (octo) , nine 
(novem) , and ten (decem) respectively. In parish registers, and 
other documents as well, these four months were often abbreviated 
by substituting an Arabic number or a Roman numeral for septem, 
octo, novem, and decem, e.g., 7ber, Vbris, Vllber, Vllbris = 



93 



September, of September, 8ber, 8bris, Vlllber, Vlllbris, = Octo- 
ber, of October, 9ber, 9bris, IXber, IXbris = November, of Novem- 
ber, lOber, lObris, Xber, Xbris = December, of December. 

Latin English 

Januarius, Januarii, m. January 

Februarius, Februarii, m. February 

Martius, Martii, m. March 

Aprilis, Aprilis, m. April 

Maius, Mail, m. May 

Junius, Junii, m. June 

Julius, Julii, m. July 

Augustus , Augusti , m . August 

September, Septembris, m. September 

(7ber, 7bris, Vllber, Vllbris) 

October, Octobris, m. October 

(8ber, Sbris, Vlllber, Vlllbris) 

November, Novemberis , m. November 

(9ber, 9bris, IXber, IXbris) 

December, Decembris, m. December 

(lOber, lObris, Xber, Xbris) 

January was named for the Roman (or old Italian) God Janus, 
who was traditionally represented as having two faces. His image 
was often placed over the outer door (janua) of a Roman household 
to protect the house against intruders and various types of evil 
or misfortune. February was named after the Roman festival of 
purification, Februa (a neuter plural), which occurred on Febru- 
ary fifteenth. March, as is, perhaps, obvious, took its name 
from Mars (genitive singular Martis) the Roman God of agriculture 
and war. April may have been derived either from the Greek 
goddess Aphrodite (Venus in Latin) or the verb aperire (to open 
(since many flowers open in the spring). In classical Latin 
Aprilis was an adjective which modified mensis (month). 
Subsequently, mensis was dropped and Aprilis became a noun. 

May was named after Maia, the daughter of Atlas and Pleione 
in Greco-Roman mythology, who became the mother of Mercury with 
Jupiter as the father. Maius was also originally an adjective 
modifying mensis. June was name for Juno (Greek: Hera), the wife 
of Jupiter, head of the gods. July was called such in honor of 
Julius Caesar (Julius was the name of an old Roman tribe or 
clan); its original name was Quintilis or Quinctilis (the fifth 
month). August was named for Augustus Caesar, the successor of 
Julius Caesar and his grand-nephew. Its original name was Sexti- 
lis (the sixth month) . 

Ablative and Accusative of Time 

Time when or within which is generally expressed in Latin by 
the ablative without a preposition. When translating into Eng- 
lish, the prepositions on, in, at or within must be added, e.g.: 



94 



Anno domini 1778 

(in the year of the [our] Lord 1778) 

Anno millesimo sescentesimo quarto et die nono mens is 
Xbris Johannes Bemelli et Isabella Corolli copulati sunt. 

(In the year one thousand six hundred four, and on the ninth 
day of the month of December, John Bernelli and Isabella 
Corolli were married. Literally: in the one thousand 
six hundred fourth year . . . ) 

Duration and extent of time are indicated by using the accu- 
sative case. In classical Latin, this was done without a prepo- 
sition, e.g.. In urbe tres dies remansit. (He/she remained in 
the city for three days.) Latin documents of the medieval and 
early modern periods, however, may contain examples of duration 
or extent of time in which an accusative preposition might be 
used, e.g., Elizabetha filia Robert! per tres annos in vico 
vixit. (Elizabetha, daughter of Robert, lived in the village for 
three years . ) 

Dates in Latin Documents 

The dating of many Latin primary sources such as parish 
registers, wills, leases, marriage contracts, tax or civil re- 
cords, and ecclesiastical transactions of various sorts (bishops' 
registers, the formularies of papal notaries, etc.) was accom- 
plished in a number of different ways. Examples of some of the 
more common methods of dating are provided below. (The problems 
involved in determining approximate dates, or time periods, when 
no specific information is available in the document, will not be 
discussed here. Those interested should consult a standard 
reference work on the subject of diplomatics such as Giry [listed 
in the bibliography] . ) 

1) Ordinal Numbers with the Ablative of Time 

Anno domini (Christi, Gratiae) millesimo 
septingentesimo septuagesimo octo et die vicesimo 
tertio mens is August i . . . 

(In the year of our Lord [of Christ, of Grace] one 
thousand seven hundred seventy-eight and on the twenty- 
third day of the month of August . . . 

This is the most common method of dating parish registers. 
Note that these are ordinal numbers and are correctly translated 
as "In the one thousand seven hundred and seventy-eighth year of 
our Lord and on the twenty-third day of the month of August ..." 
It is, however, customary to treat them as cardinal numbers and 
to translate them as above. 

2) Day, Month, Year with Arabic Numbers 

23 August 1778 

(23[rd] of August 1778) 



95 



3 ) With Roman Numerals 

XXIII August! millesimo DCCLXXVII (or, XXIII August! 
MDCCLXXVII ) 

(August 23, 1777) 

4) Abbreviated, wholly or in part 

o 
XXIII die mensis August!, anno Dom. M DCC LXXVII ... 
(vicesimo tertio die mensis August!, anno Domini millesimo 
septingentesimo septuagesimo septimo . . . [on the twenty- 
third day of August, in the year of our Lord one thousand 
seven hundred seventy-seven . . . ] ) 

5) According to Feast or Saints' Days 
(the ecclesiastical calendar) 

3. Ep!phan!a(am) renata est Bertha filia legitima Jacobi 
Bauer et Mariae Barbarae Wortmann. 

(The third Sunday [after] Epiphany [6 January], Bertha, 
legitimate daughter of Jacob [James] Bauer and Maria 
Barbara Wortmann was baptized. ) 

The ecclesiastical calendar was organized according to 
saints' days, feast days, and other special holidays such as 
Christmas and Easter. There were two types of feast days in the 
ecclesiastical calendar, fixed and movable. Fixed feast days 
were celebrated on the same day each year, while the celebration 
of movable feast days varied from year to year. Movable feast 
days were usually calculated on the basis of their proximity to 
important holidays in the church calendar such as Christmas, 
Easter, and Trinity Sunday. In the example above, 3. Epiphania 
means three Sundays after Epiphany, a fixed feast day which was 
celebrated on the sixth of January each year. (Three Sundays 
after Epiphany is, however, a movable feast day.) 

To determine dates based upon fixed feast days, locate the 
day in the list of fixed and movable feast days in Appendix B of 
this book. To calculate movable feast days, a special calendar 
of fixed and movable feast days, such as, for example, that found 
in R. Cheney. Handbook of Dates for Students of English History. 
London: Royal Historical Society, 1978, should be consulted. A 
useful summary of dating procedures such as the determination of 
Easter, a movable feast day, or the hours of the day, is found in 
the article "Medieval Chronology," by R. Dean Ware, in James M. 
Powell, ed. , Medieval Studies: An Introduction (New York: Syra- 
cuse University Press, 1976), pp. 127-221. See also, Reginald L. 
Poole, Studies in Chronology and History (Oxford: At the Claren- 
don Press, 1934; reprint ed. , 1969), pp. 7-27. 



96 



6) Based upon the Beginning of the Christian Era 

In nomine Domini Amen. Anno eiusdem incamationis 
millesimo trecentesimo sexagesimo quarto et die septimo 
mens is Marti i . . . 

(In the name of the Lord, Amen. In the one thousand 
three hundred sixty-fourth year of [after] the 
incarnation of the same [i.e., the Lord Jesus Christ], 
and on the seventh day of the month of March . . . ) 

Dating according to the Christian era, e.g., anno Domini, 
anno incamationis Dei or Domini, anno gratiae, was begun in the 
sixth century A.D. It was reckoned from 1 A.D., which was con- 
sidered to be the year of the birth of Christ. The chronology of 
many parish registers was based upon this date as the birth year 
of Jesus Christ. 

7) By the Reign of a Pope, King or other Ruler 

. . . pontif icatus sanctissimi patris et domini nostri 
dominorum, divina providentia papa, Drbani quinti anno 
secixndo . . . 

( . . . in the second year of the pontificate of our most 
holy father and lord of lords Urban V, by divine 
providence pope... [or, by the grace of God]) 

To determine the year, if it is not provided in the docu- 
ment, on the basis of papal reign, it is useful to consult a list 
of popes such as that found in Cheney, Handbook of Dates of 
Students of English History, pp. 3 3-39. In the case of Urban V, 
he was pope from 1362-1370. Hence the second year of the pontif- 
icate of Urban V would be sometime (depending upon whether or not 
the calculation was based upon the date of election or corona- 
tion) in the year 1364. 

emno quinto domini Johannis rege f rancorum regnante . . . 

(in the fifth year of the reign of lord Jean, King of 
France ... ; literally: in the fifth year of the Lord Jean 
reigning King of the Franks ... ) 

Approximately the same procedure may be used for determining 
the regnal year as for the papal year, albeit there are certain 
problems involved in arriving at an exact date not found in 
connection with the popes. The regnal year might, for example, 
begin on the day of coronation, the day of the death of the 
preceding king, or the day of the king's first use of independent 
power. In general, however, the regnal year can be established 
by referring to a list of medieval or early modern kings or 
rulers and their reigns, such as that available in William L. 
Langer, comp. & ed. An Encyclopedia of World History (many 
editions). With regard to Jean, King of France, it must first be 
decided which king named Jean is sought. This can be accom- 
plished through the use of supporting information such as papal 
year, indiction (see below), any kind of date, or through various 



97 



sorts of internal evidence such as document structure, style, 
type of abbreviations (or lack thereof), etc. Although the above 
example does not indicate this, the Jean in question was Jean le 
Bel, King of France 1350-1364. Therefore, the fifth year of the 
reign of Jean would, in all likelihood, be 1355. 

8) From the Indiction, a Fifteen-Year Cycle 

Anno millesimo trecentismo sexagesimo quarto et die 
duodecimo mensis martii indictione secunda . . . 

(In the one thousand three hundred [and] sixty-fourth 
year, and on the twelfth day of the month of March 
[in the] second indiction ... ) 

The indiction was originally a fifteen-year tax cycle estab- 
lished in the later Roman Empire. Medieval chronologists began 
their computation of the indiction from the year 312 A.D. The 
number of the indiction, first, second, third, etc., refers to 
its position within a particular fifteen-year cycle. Indictione 
secunda in the above example is, therefore, the second year of 
the cycle. The Romans based these cycles on an indictional year 
beginning 1 September, a practice continued until the eighth 
century A.D., when it was changed to 24 September, rather than a 
calendar year beginning in March or January. (Occasionally, 
however, the papal chancellery utilized an indictional year 
beginning on 25 December or 1 January. ) 

The standard method of determining an indictional year, if 
the date is known, is to subtract 312 from the year in question 
and divide the results by 15. The remainder is the indictional 
year. In the excerpt above, the date is 1364; 1364 minus 312 = 
1052 divided by 15 = 7, with a remainder of 2. Thus the indic- 
tional year is 2 and indictione secunda is correct. 

It should be noted, however, that inasmuch as the indiction- 
al year began in September, any date after 1 September (prior to 
the eighth century A.D.) or 24 September (thereafter) will be 
included in the next indiction. Thus 1 October 1364 would be 
indictione tertia, even though there is a remainder of 2 . In 
many documents, additional forms of chronological evidence such 
as the date, regnal or papal years, will generally be found, 
together with the indiction, and will frequently corroborate the 
latter, 

9) Using the Roman Civil Calendar 

Datum apud Swinford vi kalendis Maii, anno Dom. M CC 
nonages imo primo . . . 

(Given at Swinford, on the sixth Kalends of May 
[26 April] one thousand two hundred ninety-one ... ) 



98 



In the Roman civil calendar, days of the week were generally 
established with reference to Kalendae (Calendae), Nonae, or 
Idus. Kalendae (Kalends or Calends) occurred on the first day of 
the Roman month, Nonae (Nones) on the fifth day, with the 
exception of the months of March, May, July, and October, when 
they took place on the seventh day, and Idus (Ides) on the 
fifteenth day of the months of March, May, July, and October, and 
on the thirteenth day for all other months. Dates were fixed by 
their proximity to Kalendae, Nonae, or Idus. In the above 
example, vi kalendis Maii is six days before the Kalends of May 
(1 May). The Romans called the day prior to Kalends pridie, 
which was counted as day #2 in determining the date from Kalends. 
Thus vi kalendis Maii is 26 April rather than 25 April, which 
might be expected if 30 April were counted as the first day 
before Kalends. 

Nonae, like Kalendae, was counted backwards, in this case 
from the fifth or seventh day of the month. Thus, for example, 
iv nonae Februarii is 2 February, iii nonae Februarii is 3 Febru- 
ary, and pridie nonae Februarii is 4 February. The same proce- 
dure was used with regard to Idus, e.g., viii idus Februarii 
would be 6 February. See Cheney, Handbook, for Roman calendar 
tables . 

The Julian and Gregorian Calendars 

Those who work with parish registers, should recognize that 
prior to 1582, the Julian Calendar, begun by Julius Caesar and 
amended by Augustus, was the principal calendar for many parts of 
Europe. This calendar was divided into seven months of 31 days: 
January, March, May, July, August, October, and December; four 
months of 30 days: April, June, September, and November; and one 
month, February, of 28 days, which was lengthened to 29 days 
every fourth year. Thus a year of 3 65 1/4 days was established. 

It was, however, discovered in the sixteenth century that 
this calendar did not agree precisely with the solar year, e.g., 
the solstices. By this time, a discrepancy of ten days between 
the calendar year and the solar year had been created. In order 
to align the calendar with the changing seasons, ten days were 
omitted from the calendar approved by Pope Gregory XIII in 1582. 
Consequently, 5 October was followed by 15 October in that year. 

Because this calendar originated with the Roman Catholic 
Church, it was not immediately adopted in Protestant areas of 
Europe (and, for that matter, in certain Catholic regions as 
well). As a result, it is important to learn exactly when a 
particular area or country may have adopted the Gregorian calen- 
dar. To aid in this endeavor, a table of adoption dates is 
included below. 



99 



Country or Area 



Julian Date Gregorian Date Year of Adoption 



Spain 
Portugal 
Poland 
( German & 
Areas ) 
France 
Lorraine 
Dutch Catholic 
Provinces: 
Holland 
Brabant 
Flanders 
Hennegau 

Catholic Areas of 
Germany & Central 
Europe : 
Bishopric of 
Luettrich 
Bishopric of 
Augsburg 

Archbishopric of 
Trier 

Bavarian Bishoprics 
Brixen 
Eichstaett 
Freising 
Regensburg 
Salzburg 

Upper Alsace and 
Breisgau (Austria) 
Bishopric of Basel 
Duchy of Juelich- 
Berg 

Archbishopric of 
Cologne 
Bishopric of 
Wuerzburg 
Archbishopric of 
Mainz 

Margravate of Baden 
Bishopric of 
Strasbourg 
Duchy of Cleves 
Bishopric of 
Muenster 

Styria (Steiermark) 
Bohemia 
Austria 



) 5 


October 


15 


October 


1582 


5 


October 


15 


October 


1582 


5 


October 


15 


October 


1582 


5 


October 


15 


October 


1582 


trian 










10 


December 


20 


December 


1582 


10 


December 


20 


December 


1582 



22 December 1 January (1583) 1583 

22 December 1 January (1583) 1583 

22 December 1 January (1583) 1583 

22 December 1 January (1583) 1583 



11 


February 


21 


February 


1583 


14 


February 


24 


February 


1583 


5 


October 


15 


October 


1583 


6 
6 
6 
6 
6 


October 
October 
October 
October 
October 


16 
16 
16 
16 
16 


October 
October 
October 
October 
October 


1583 
1583 
1583 
1583 
1583 


14 
21 


October 
October 


24 
31 


October 
October 


1583 
1583 


3 


November 


13 


November 


1583 


4 


November 


14 


November 


1583 


5 


November 


15 


November 


1583 


12 
17 


November 
November 


22 

27 


November 
November 


1583 
1583 


17 
18 


November 
November 


27 
28 


November 
November 


1583 
1583 


18 

15 

7 

7 


November 
December 
January 
January 


28 
25 
17 
17 


November 
December 
January 
January 


1583 
1583 
1584 
1584 



100 



Country or Area 

Catholic Swiss 

Cantons: 

Fribourg 

Lucern 

Schwyz 

Solothurn 

Unterwalden 

Uri 

Zug 

Lausitz 

Silesia (Schlesien) 

Hungary 

(did not take effect 
Duchy of Westphalia 

(Westf alen) 
Bishopric of 
Paderborn 
Siebenbuergen 
Appenzell (Catholic 

Swiss Canton) 
Duchy of Prussia 
Pf alz-Neuburg 
Valais (Catholic 

Swiss Canton, part) 
Bishopric of 
Osnabrueck 
Bishopric of 
Hildesheim 
Valais (Catholic 

Swiss Canton, part) 
Principality of 
Minden 

Strasbourg (city) 
Protestant Areas of 
Germany 
Denmark 
Norway 

Dutch Protestant 
Provinces: 
Gelderland 
Zutphen 

Utrecht (part) 
Overijssel 
Utrecht (part) 
Drenthe 
Friesland 
Groningen 
Protestant Swiss 
Cantons: 
Basel 
Bern 
Biel 



Julian Date 


Gregorian Date Ye^ 


ar of , 


12 


January 


22 January 


1584 


12 


January 


22 January 


1584 


12 


January 


22 January 


1584 


12 


January 


22 January 


1584 


12 


January 


22 January 


1584 


12 


January 


22 January 


1584 


12 


January 


22 January 


1584 


13 


January 


23 January 


1584 


13 


January 


23 January 


1584 


23 


January 


2 February 


1584 


ct 


legally unt 


il 1587) 




2 


July 


12 July 


1584 


17 


June 


27 June 


1585 


15 


December 


25 December 


1590 


7 


January 


17 January 


1597 


23 


August 


2 September 


1612 


14 


December 


24 December 


1615 


22 


December 


1 January (1622) 


1622 



1624 



15 


March 


26 


March 


1631 


19 
) 


February 


1 


March 


1656 


2 


February 


12 


February 


1668 


6 


February 


16 


February 


1682 


19 


February 


1 


March 


1700 


19 


February 


1 


March 


1700 


19 


February 


1 


March 


1700 


1 


July 


12 


July 


1700 


1 


July 


12 


July 


1700 


1 


July 


12 


July 


1700 


30 


November 


12 


December 


1700 


30 


November 


12 


December 


1700 


31 


December 


12 


January (1701) 


1701 


31 


December 


12 


January (1701) 


1701 


31 


December 


12 


January (1701) 


1701 


1 


January 


12 


January 


1701 


1 


January 


12 


January 


1701 


1 


January 


12 


January 


1701 



101 



Country or Area 



Julian Date 



Gregorian Date Year of Adoption 



Geneva 

Neuchatel 

Schaf fhausen 

Thurgau 

Zuerich 

Appenzell 

Glarus 

Great Britain 



1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
20 
20 
2 



January 

January 

January 

January 

January 

December 

December 

September 



(including colonies) 

Sweden 18 February 

Finland (as a 18 February 

Swedish province) 

Graubuenden (Swiss 18 February 

Protestant Canton) 
Bulgaria (part) 1 November 

Greece (part) 15 July 
Estonia 1 January 

Russia (western) 1 January 
Latvia 2 February 

Lithuania 2 February 

Rumania (Catholic) 5 March 
Yugoslavia 5 March 

Greece (part) 5 March 
Rumania (Greek) 5 March 
Russia (eastern) 5 March 
Bulgaria (part) 4 September 



12 


January 


1701 


12 


January 


1701 


12 


January 


1701 


12 


January 


1701 


12 


January 


1701 


1 


January (1724) 


1724 


1 


January (1724) 


1724 


14 


September 


1752 


1 


March 


1753 


1 


March 


1753 



1 March 

13 November 
28 July 

14 January 

14 January 

15 February 
15 February 
18 March 

18 March 

18 March 

18 March 

18 March 

17 September 



1812 

1916 
1916 
1918 
1918 
1918 
1918 
1919 
1919 
1920 
1920 
1920 
1920 



Grammar 



EXERCISES: CHAPTER VII 



Decline unus, una, unixm, duo, duae, duo, tres, tria, primus, 
prima, primum, and milia for all appropriate genders, numbers, 
and cases . 



B. Vocabulary 

Learn all of the vocabulary in the corpus of this chapter 
plus the following: 



anno gratiae: in the year of 

Grace = anno domini 
eras, adv. : tomorrow 
heri , adv . : yesterday 
hodie, adv.: today (in hoc 

die) 
matutinus, matutina, 

matutinvun: of, or relating 

to, the morning, early in 

the morning 
meridianus, meridiana, merid- 



ianum: noon, midday (as an 

adjective), of, or relating 

to , noon 
perendie, adv. : the day after 

tomorrow 
pridie, adv.: the day before, 

yesterday 
vespertinus , vespertina, 

vespertinum: evening (as an 

adjective), of, or relating 

to , the evening 



102 



C. Translation: Latin to English 

Translate the following sentences from Latin to English: 

Anno Christi millesimo quingentesimo nonagesimo quinto et 
die tertio mensis Xbris . . . 

Epiphania (v. Appendix C for the date) millesimo 
octingentesimo quadragesimo sexto baptizati sunt gemelli, 
filli legitimi Josephi Conrad et Susannae Magdalenae Meyer, 
conjugum ex Boxwiller. 
(baptizati sunt: were baptized; gemelli: twins) 

Hie sunt nomina et cognomina baptizatorum in ecclesia nostra 
parochiali sanctae Marthae una cum nominibus et cognominibus 
parentum et patrinorum quoque ab anno MDCCLXIV. 
(hie: here; cognomen, cognominis, n. : family name, 

surname; nostra: our; una cum: together with; quoque: 

also; write the year in Arabic numerals) 

Anno domini 1774, Circumcisionis Domini, contraxerunt 
matrimonium Henricus Bierdregger et Catarina Gemuesen, ambo 
de Deventer; peirochiis fuit Jan Classen. 
(Circumcisionis Domini [Octava Nativitatis Christi] : a 

fixed feast day [v. the list in Appendix C for the exact 
day]; contreixerunt : contracted; ambo, adv.: both) 

Datum apud Hereford v Kalendae April is Anno Dom. M CC 
quadragesimo uno. 

(datum: given; give the day and year in Arabic numerals, 
as also the correct month for this date) 

D. Translation: English to Latin 

Translate the following sentences from English to Latin: 

In the year one thousand seven hundred and seventy-two, and 
on the fifteenth day of the month of October (abbreviate), 
George Walker and Mary Catherine Spelt were married 
( copulati sunt ) . 

In the year of Grace, one thousand five hundred and thirty- 
five, on the twentieth of March, old (use vetus) John 
Brenner, widower of Mathilda Steinheim died (mortuus est) 
and was buried (sepultus est) on the twenty-second of 
March . 

On the day of the Discovery of (the bones of) St. Stephen, 
the First Martyr (v. the list of feast days in Appendix C 
for a day and month) 1634 (use Roman numerals for this 
date) , the child Margaretha, legitimate daughter of William 
Smith and Barbara Anna Wheeler was born (nata est) and 
was baptized (baptizata est) 3 Sundays after the same 
feast day (post idem festum) . 



103 



Given (dattun) on the tenth of January 1802 (use ordinal 
numbers and the ablative of time). 

Done (actum) in the pontificate (in pontificatu) of our 
most holy father and lord of lords Urban (gen. Urbanis) by 
divine providence pope. 

E. Translation: Parish Registers 

Document #1 

Translate the birth entry below from a Polish parish. 






^^.^ fl^.^ ^-...^ Siy.^ if^^<>^ 




^ » *M* f A^Mmi 



Vocabulary 

Chrostkowo: a place name 

1818 

ego: I 

Fulgentius: a first name 

Petrykowski: a surname 

Hon. = Honnesis: Latinized 
name of the parish of Honne 
(part of Chrostkowo) 

nomine: by the name of 

Mairtinum: 

natum: born 

ejusdem = eiusdem: of the same 

honestae Catharinae (genitive 
singulars) 

Mxirawski: her surname 

famula, famulae, f.: servant 
(female), apprentice (This 
noun is also genitive 
singular in the entry. ) 



patris ignoti 

ignotus, ignota, ignotum: 

vmknown 
patrini fuere = patrini fuer- 

unt 
Melchior: a first name 
Hawieki: a surname 
meiritatus = maritus: married 
Nerienna: a first name 
Jankowfka: a surname 
virgo 
cunbo 

Krentowo: a place name 
omnes catholici 



104 



Document #2 

Translate the following death entries from a French parish 
register, and calculate the dates in these entries using the 
information on the Roman civil calendar provided previously. 



/^.: -'■— ' - / .^^_.9'^^,:,,^yS<^, 



;'fi./. 



-T/^Q^.-,^^'/- -^ 



<^iL yo,-/ p^--—- .,.c^. ^/4i^ 






105 



Vocabulary 



Idibus Januarii: see above 
under the Roman civil 
calendar 

decessit: died, departed 

Del Tombe: a surname 

pupilla, pupillae, f.: orphan 
(female), minor, ward 

pastor, pastoris, m. : pastor, 
shepherd 

decimo octavo Kalendas; note 
that Kalendis or Kalenda- 
Tvaa: is also possible 

decessit: departed (here) 

de vita: from life 

pupillus, pupilli, n.: orphan 
(male), minor, ward 

Sentis: a surname 

flamen, flaminis, m. : priest 
(In ancient Rome, the 
priest of a particular 
deity such as Jupiter. ) 

curialis, curiale, adj.: of, 
or belonging to, the curate 
(the parish in this case; 
hence, flamen curialis, 
would be the parish 
priest. ) 



quinto Kalendas (Kalendis) 

vita = vitae 

statio, stationis, f.: sta- 
tion, place of abode 

de statione vitae: from the 
station of life 

decessit: departed (here) 

Amulphus: a first name 

Waresquelle: a surname 

viduus 

curia: curate (here), i.e., a 
parish priest 

pridie Kalendas (Kalendis) 

a vita: from life 

de Flandre: a surname 

pubes , pubis , f . : youth , young 
adult 

quarto Idus (Idibus or Idubus) 

ex vita 

Julianus: a given name 

Del Salle: a surname 

orbus, orbi, m. : orphan (male) 

tertio Idus (Idibxis or Idubus) 

e vita cessit: from life 
departed 

Petrus 

Cola: a surname 



106 



CHAPTER VIII 



Verbs IV: The Passive Voice 
Present, Future, and Imperfect Indicative 
of all Four Conjugations 

Introduction 

In the passive voice, the subject receives the action of the 
verb but does not act (is acted upon rather than acts). The term 
passive comes from the deponent Latin verb patior, pati , passus 
sum: suffer, allow, permit, since the subject permits or "suf- 
fers" itself to be acted upon. Compare, for example, the follow- 
ing sentences: The priest baptized the child, (active) The child 
was baptized by the priest, (passive) 

Baptismal and marriage entries are often in the passive 
voice, because these activities were performed by the parish 
priest or other ecclesiastical official. Burials, though not 
necessarily carried out by the priest himself, were generally in 
the passive voice, as also births. Deaths were usually recorded 
in the active voice. 

The Passive Voice 

The passive voice requires different endings from those 
previously given for the active voice. These are added directly 
to the present stem to form the present, future, and imperfect 
indicative active of all four conjugations. In the third and 
fourth conjugations, certain changes, indicated below, occur in 
the verb stem. First and second conjugation verb stems remain, 
however, unchanged. 

Present Indicative Passive, First and Second Conjugation 

Verb Ending Meaning 

copulor r I am married 

copularis* ris you are married 

copulatur t\ir he/she (or a noun) is married 

copulamur mur we are married 

copulamini mini you (all) are married 

copulantur ntur they (or a noun) are married 

*The alternate ending -re may also be found on occasion. 



107 



Verb 



Ending 



Meaning 



doceor 

doceris 

docetur 

docemur 

docemini 

docentxir 



r 

ris 

tur 

mur 

mini 

ntur 



I am taught 

you are taught 

he/she (or a noun) is taught 

we are taught 

you (all) are taught 

they (or a noun) are taught 



For illustrative purposes, doceo, docere, docui, doctum 
(teach) is substituted for habere in these examples. 

Future Indicative Passive, First and Second Conjugations 

Verb Ending Meaning 



copulabor 

copulaberis* 

copulabitur 

copulabimur 

copulabimini 

copulabuntur 



r 

ris 

tur 

mur 

mini 
ntur 



I shall be married 

you will be married 

he/she (or a noun) will be 

married 

we shall be married 

you (all) will be married 

they (or a noun) will be married 



Verb 



*In the second person singular, the tense sign -bi is 
changed to -be . 

Ending 



docebor 


r 


doceberis 


ris 


docebitur 


tur 


docebimur 


mur 


docebimini 


mini 


docebuntur 


ntur 



Meaning 

I shall be taught 

you will be taught 

he/she (or a noun) will be 

taught 

we shall be taught 

you (all) will be taught 

they (or a noun) will be taught 

Imperfect Indicative Passive, First and Second Conjugations 

Verb Ending Meaning 

I was married 

you were married 

he/she (or a noun) was married 

we were married 

you (all) were married 

they (or a noun) were married 



copulabar 


r 


copulabaris 


ris 


copulabatur 


tur 


copulabamur 


mur 


copulabamini 


mini 


copulabantur 


ntur 



108 



Verb 



Ending 



Meaning 



I was taught 

you were taught 

he/she (or a noun) was taught 

we were taught 

you (all) were taught 

they (or a noun) were taught 

Present Indicative Passive, Third and Fourth Conjugation 
and Third Conjugation lO-Verbs 



docebar 


r 


docebaris 


ris 


docebatur 


tur 


docebamur 


mur 


docebamini 


mini 


docebantur 


ntur 



Verb 



promittor 

promitteris 

promittitur 

promittimur 
promittimini 
pr omi ttun tur 



Ending 

r 

ris 

tur 

mur 

mini 

ntur 



Meaning 

I am promised 

you are promised 

he/she/It (or a noun) Is 

promised 

we are promised 

you (all) are promised 

they (or a noun) are promised 



In order to avoid an awkward English translation, promittere 
will replace vivere as an example of third conjugation verbs in 
the passive voice. 



Verb 



Ending 



sepelior 


r 


sepeliris 


ris 


sepelitur 


tur 


sepelimur 


mur 


sepelimini 


mini 


sepeliuntur 


ntur 



Verb 

capior 

caperis 

capitur 

capimur 

capimini 

capivmtur 



Ending 

r 

ris 

tur 

mur 

mini 

ntur 



Meaning 

I am burled 

you are burled 

he/she It (or a noun) is buried 

we are burled 

you (all) are burled 

they (or a noun) are buried 

Meaning 

I am taken 

you are taken 

he/she/it (or a noun) is taken 

we are taken 

you are taken 

they (or a noun) are taken 



For ease of translation, capere will be substituted for 
facere as an example of a third conjugation -io verb in the 
passive voice. 

Note that In the present indicative passive for third conju- 
gation and third conjugation -io verbs, the second person singu- 
lar Is formed by adding an -e, rather than an -i to the stem. In 
the third conjugation, the -e and -i are actually thematic vowels 
placed between the stem and the ending. The stem remains pro- 
mitt , etc . 



109 



Future Indicative Passive, Third and Fourth Conjugation 
and Third Conjugation lO-Verb 



Verb 



promittar 

promitteris 

promittetur 

promittemur 
promittemini 
pr omi ttentur 



Ending 

r 

ris 

tur 

mur 

mini 

ntur 



Meaning 

I shall be promised 

you will be promised 

he/she/it (or a noun) will 

be promised 

we shall be promised 

you (all) will be promised 

they (or a noun) will be 

promised 



The future indicative passive, second person singular, for 
the third conjugation, and the present indicative passive, second 
person singular, have the same ending. Note also that the 
passive stem of the imperfect and future indicative passive, 
third conjugation -io verbs and fourth conjugation verbs, is -ie, 
rather than -i alone. 



Verb 

sepeliar 

sepelieris 

sepelietur 

sepeliemur 

sepeliemini 

sepelientur 

Verb 



Ending 

r 

ris 

tur 

mur 

mini 

ntur 

Ending 



Meaning 

I shall be buried 

you will be buried 

he/she/it (or a noun) will 

be buried 

we shall be buried 

you (all) will be buried 

they (or a noun) will be buried 

Meaning 



capiar 

capieris 

capietur 

capiemur 

capiemini 

capientur 



r 

ris 

tur 

mur 

mini 

ntur 



I shall be taken 

you will be taken 

he/she/it (or a noun) will be 

taken 

we shall be taken 

you (all) will be taken 

they (or a noun) will be 

taken 



Imperfect Indicative Passive, Third and Fourth Conjugation 
and Third Conjugation lO-Verbs 



Verb 



promittebar 
promittebaris 
pr omi ttebatur 

promittebamur 
promittebamini 
pr omi tteban tur 



Ending 

r 

ris 

tur 

mur 

mini 

ntur 



Meaning 

I was promised 

you were promised 

he/she/it (or a noun) was 

promised 

we were promised 

you (all) were promised 

they (or a noun) were promised 



110 



Verb 



Ending 



Meaning 



sepeliebar 

sepeliebaris 

sepeliebatur 

sepeliebamur 

sepeliebamini 

sepeliebantur 

Verb 

capiebar 

capiebaris 

capiebatur 

capiebamur 

capiebamini 

capiebantur 

Example : 



r 

ris 

tur 

miir 

mini 

ntur 

Ending 

r 

ris 

tur 

mur 

mini 

ntur 



I was buried 

you were buried 

he/she/it (or a noun) was 

buried 

we were buried 

you (all) were buried 

they (or a noun) were buried 

Meaning 

I was taken 

you were taken 

he/she/it (or a noun) was taken 

we were taken 

you (all) were taken 

they (or a noun) were taken 



Hodie Petrus Torlini et Angela Maria Portelli a* me Josepho 
Hinck parocho huius parochiae copulantur. 

(Today, Peter Torlini and Angela Maria Portelli are married 
by me the parish priest of this parish. Note that the 
tense here is present . ) 

*The preposition a (ab, abs) was often used with verbs 
in the passive voice to show the agent (in this case, the 
priest) by whom (or which) something was done. 

EXERCISES: CHAPTER VIII 



A. Grammar 

Conjugate baptizare (first conjugation), tenere (second 
conjugation), vendere (third conjugation), venire (fourth conju- 
gation) , and fugere (third conjugation io-verb) in the passive 
voice, present, future, and imperfect tenses. 

B. Vocabulary 

Learn the following words: 



abluo, abluere, ablui: wash, 

baptize 
Claude, claudere, clausi: 

close, enclose, finish 
concipio, concipere, concepi: 

conceive, become pregnant, 

comprehend 
decumbo , decumbere , decubui : 

lie down, die 



munio, munire, munivi: forti- 
fy, strengthen, protect 

relinquo, relinquere, reliqui: 
leave behind, abandon 

subscribe, subscribere, 

subscripsi: undersign, 
write below 



111 



C. Translation: Latin to English 

Translate the following sentences from Latin to English: 

Heri septima die mensis Vllbris anima infantis n.n. , qui ab 
matre eius relinquebatur, Deo omnipotenti reddidit, 
(reddo, reddere, reddidi: return, give back, pay; is it 

possible to determine the sex of the child from the 

information in this entry? Why or why not?) 

4 Epiphania (4 post Epiphaniam) aimo domini MDCLXXXIV 
(write in Arabic numerals) Mathilda Reichwald filia legitima 
Matthaei Reichwald et Agnetis Meinert baptizabitur. 

Sepelitur in coemeterio honestus vir Georgius Meyer ing. 

Anno Gratiae 1779, Francisca, filia illegitima Mariae 
Louisae Franchon, confirmabitur. 

In hac matricula nomina defunctorum in hac parochia 

continentur . 

(hac: this [in both uses; ablative singular]) 

D. Translation: English to Latin 

Translate the following sentences from English to Latin: 

The honest young man Henrich Longue from Hammwiller and the 

chaste virgin Maria Sattler were married (use the imperfect 

indicative passive, third person plural, of copulare) 
on the same day (eodem die). 

23 June 1685 is buried a poor (mendicus) Frenchman (Callus, 
Galli, m. ) who (qui) died (obiit) in the hospital 
( xenodochium , xenodochii, n. ) 

After a brief (brevis, breve) illness (morbus, morbi, m. ) 
her soul (anima sua) was returned (use the imperfect 
passive third person singular of reddere above) to Almighty 
God. 

The child will be baptized in the parish church by me (a 
me), Martinus Forcellini, priest of the parish of St. Agnes. 
(Martinus and priest must be in the ablative case because of 
the preposition a. ) 

We will donate (done, donare, donavi [donatum] ) a forest 
(silva, silvae, f.) to the diocese (diocesis, diocesis, f., 
or diocesa, diocesae, f.). 



112 



E. Translation: Parish Registers 

Document #1 

Translate the following entry recording the celebration of 
an aimiversarium, a special day commemorating a variety of activ- 
ities such as the consecration of a bishop, a death, etc. , from a 
parish in Germany. Since there are some Gothic letters in this 
entry, study the vocabulary carefully and compare the printed 
words with those in the written entry. 



^^~^*^ 17J 7;i^'/-' A>r^-^^^^ cc^^^tU*^ iU^. ^i^l 



Vocabulary 

Stum = sextum 

fundatum: established, founded 
(from fundo, fundare, 
fundavi, fundatum: found 
establish [anniversarium, 
not found here, is the 
antecedent] ) 

pro 

Joe = Jocinne 
Wildt: a surname 
celebratur: from celebro, 

celebrare, celebravi, 

celebratum: celebrate 
8tva = octava 
legata: donated (from lego, 

legare, legavi, legatum: 

bequeath , donate ) 
summa capitalis: a chief, main 

or capital sum 

cAh^ = sunt 

viginti 

florenus, floreni, m.: a 

Florin (a gold coin minted 

in Florence) 



de quorum annuo: from which 

yearly 
interesse: it is necessary (v. 

inters vim in the word list) 
solvuntur: to be paid (from 

solve, solvere, solvi, 

solutum: pay) 
parocho ( dative ) 
30 
ludimagister , ludimagistri, 

m. : teacher (also dative 

here) 
10 

pauperibus ( dative ) 
sex 



J 



= et 

ecclesia = ecclesiae (dative) 

14 

xgeri = crucigeri: Kreutzer 
(from crucigerus, crucig- 
eri, m.: Kreutzer, a 
denomination of currency, a 
coin) 



113 



Document #2 

Translate all of the death entries for November and December 
from a parish register in northern France. Since this area was 
in the former province of Alsace-Lorraine, where both German and 
French were spoken, there are some Gothic letters, and some 
German words (which are translated in the vocabulary below) in 
the entries. Study the vocabulary which follows carefully as a 
help in identifying these letters (and words) and in making the 
proper translation. 









ITV. 






*UL> 







A^/tJ^-. 



T:3miSSLL3XS]BKcsgJSCBMaBBX£. 



114 



Vocabulary 

in novo coemeterio: in the new 

cemetery 
allhir = allhier: from here, 

here, at this place (a 

German word) 
honesta vidua 
Ursula: a first name 
Krysserin: her surname (the 

-in is a feminine ending in 

German ) 
mortua: died 
negligentia, negligentiae, f.: 

neglect, negligence 
domesticus , domestici , m.: 

servant 
eodem: on the same (day) 
honestus vir 

Hanss = Hans: a first name 
Cronhart: his surname 
Zinde: also part of his sur- 
name 
gewester Buerger allhir: 

former citizen from here 

( German ) 



Zoboltin: a surname 

vulgo, adv. : commonly (called) 

die alte Witschgerin: the old 
Witschger (her nickname 
[German] ) 

allhir (see above) 

Georg: a given name 

Oetterlin: a surname 

gewester Buerger allhir (see 
above ) 

Meyerin: a surname (i.e. , 
Meyer, the -in is a German 
feminine ending) 

allhir (see above) 

extrema unctio: extreme unc- 
tion (the last anointing, 
part of the sacraments of 
the last rites) 

H. = Hans: a given name 

Michel 

Braunrissen: a surname 

gewester Buerger allhir (see 
above ) 



115 



CHAPTER IX 



Verbs V: The Passive Voice 
Perfect, Pluperfect, and Future Perfect 
Indicative of all Four Conjugations 
Deponent and Semi -Deponent Verbs 
The Four Principal Parts of Latin Verbs 



Introduction 

In the previous chapter, the passive voice was discussed, 
and the present, future, and imperfect tenses in the passive 
voice were explained. This chapter will consider the perfect 
system passive. The perfect system passive -- perfect, 
pluperfect, and future perfect — combines the perfect passive 
participle, the fourth principal part of a Latin verb, with the 
present or perfect, the future, or the imperfect of esse (e.g., 
sum or fui, ero, eram) . 

The Perfect Passive Pari:iciple 

The perfect passive participle is a verbal adjective, which 
means that it is declined like an adjective and has tenses and 
voices like a verb. Since it is an adjective, it must agree with 
any nouns or pronouns it modifies in gender, number, and case. 
(Participles are discussed in greater detail in Chapter XIII.) 

The perfect passive participle is declined like an adjective 
of the first and second declension such as bonus, bona, bonum or 
beatus, beata, beatum. Its meaning is always passive . Thus, for 
example, copulatus literally means "having been married," or, 
when used as an adjective "married." The stem of the perfect 
passive participle (actually the supine stem, v. Chapter III) is 
found by omitting the endings -us, -a, -um from the singular, or 
-i, -ae, -a from the plural, e.g., doctus (taught, learned; stem: 
doct) . 

The Perfect Indicative Passive of all four Conjugations 

The perfect indicative passive is formed by combining the 
perfect passive participle, explained above, with the present or 
perfect tense of esse. The meaning is "has been" or "was" 
(something), e.g., sepultus est: He was buried, has been buried; 
baptizata fuit: she was buried, has been bured; copulati sunt: 
they were married, have been married; natus est: he was born, has 
been born. Examples follow: 



116 



copulare (first conjugation, perfect passive participle 
stem: copulat) 



Verb 

copulatus, copulata, copulatum sum 

copulatus, copulata, copulatum es 

copulatus, copulata, copulatum est 

copulati, copulatae, copulata sumus 

copulati, copulatae, copulata estis 

copulati, copulatae, copulata sunt 



Meaning 

I was married, have been 

married 

you were married, have 

been married 

he/she (or a noun) was 

married, has been married 

we were married, have been 

married 

you (all) were married, 

have been married 

they (or a noun) were 

married, have been married 



Because the perfect passive participle is an adjective, as 
well as a verb, it must, as indicated above, agree with a noun or 
pronoun it modifies in gender, number, and case. If such a noun 
is plural, then the plural must be used. Thus, for example, the 
marriage of Johnathan Black and Susanna Treadwell would be 
recorded as copulati sunt (Johnathan Black and Susanna Treadwell 
were married. ) , since two people are obviously involved and nouns 
of mixed gender use the masculine plural. 

The baptism of a male child might be written as baptizatus 
est and a female child as baptizata est. This is not, however, 
an infallible rule. If the word infans was used for "child" in a 
parish register entry, and no name was provided to show whether 
this child was a male or a female, the baptism would be recorded 
simply as baptizatus est, since infans is masculine singular 
(although it parish registers it sometimes appears as a feminine) 
and the perfect passive participle would have to agree with it in 
gender, number and case. 

The Declension of copulatus, copulata, copulatum 

The complete declension of this perfect passive participle is 
given below as an example of the declension of all perfect pas- 
sive participles. As mentioned previously, these are declined 
like adjectives of the first and second declensions. 



Singular 



Case 

Nom. 
Gen. 
Dat. 
Ace. 
Abl. 



Masculine 

copulatus 

copulati 

copulate 

copulatum 

copulato 



Feminine 

copulata 

copulatae 

copulatae 

copulatam 

copulata 



Neuter 

copulatum 

copulati 

copulato 

copulatum 

copulato 



117 



Plural 



Case 

Nom. 
Gen. 
Dat. 
Ace. 
Abl. 



Masculine 

copulati 

copulatorum 

copulatis 

copulates 

copulatis 



Feminine 

copulatae 

copulatarum 

copulatis 

copulatas 

copulatis 



Neuter 

copulata 
copul atorum 
copulatis 
copulata 
copulatis 



docere (second conjugation, perfect passive participle 
stem: doct) 



Verb 

doctus, docta, doctum sum 

doctus, docta, doctum es 

doctus, docta, doctum est 

docti, doctae, docta sumus 

docti, doctae, docta estis 

docti, doctae, docta sunt 



Meaning 

I was taught, have been 

taught 

you were taught, have been 

taught 

he/she/it (or a noun) was 

taught, has been taught 

we were taught , have been 

taught 

you (all) were taught, have 

been taught 

they ( or a noun ) were taught , 

have been taught 



promittere (third conjugation, perfect passive participle 
stem: promiss) 



Verb 



promxssus, promxssa, promissum sum 
promissus, promissa, promissum es 

promissus, promissa, promissum est 



promxssi , promissae , promissa sumus 
promissi, promissae, promissa estis 
promissi, promissae, promissa sunt 



Meaning 

I was, have been promised 

you were , have been 

promised 

he/she/it (or a noun) was 

promised, has been 

promised 

we were promised, have 

been promised 

you (all) were promised, 

have been promised 

they (or a noun) were 

promised, have been 

promised 



118 



sepelire (fourth conjugation, perfect passive participle 
stem: sepult) 



Verb 



sepultus, sepulta, sepultum sum 

sepultus, sepulta, sepultum es 

sepultus, sepulta, sepultum est 

sepulti , sepultae , sepulta sumus 

sepulti , sepultae , sepulta estis 

sepulti, sepultae, sepulta sunt 



Meaning 

I was buried, have been buried 

you were buried, have been 

buried 

he/she/it (or a noun) was 

buried, has been buried 

we were buried, have been 

buried 

you (all) were buried, have 

been buried 

they (or a noun) were buried, 

have been buried 



capere (third conjugation io-verb, perfect passive 
participle stem: capt) 



Verb 



captus, capta, captum sum 

captus, capta, captum es 

captus, capta, captum est 

capti , captae , capta sumus 

capti , captae , capta estis 

capti, captae, capta sunt 



Meaning 

I was taken , have been taken 

you were taken, have been taken 

he/she/it (or a noun) was taken 

has been taken 

we were taken, have been taken 

you (all) were taken, have 

been taken 

they (or a noun) were taken, 

have been taken 



Pluperfect Indicative Passive of all Four Conjugations 



copulare 

copulatus, copulata, copulatum eram 

copulatus, copulata, copulatum eras 

copulatus, copulata, copulatum erat 

copulati, copulatae, copulata eramus 

copulati, copulatae, copulata eratis 

copulati, copulatae, copulata ereuit 



docere 

doctus, docta, doctum eram 

doctus, docta, doctum eras 

doctus, docta, doctum erat 



Meaning 

I had been married 

you had been married 

he/she (or a noun) had 

been married 

we had been married 

you (all) had been married 

they (or a noun) had been 

married 

Meaning 

I had been taught 
you had been taught 
he/she (or a noun) had 
been taught 



119 



docti , doctae , docta eramus 
docti, doctae, docta eratis 
docti, doctae, docta eretnt 



promittere 

promissus , 
promissus , 
promissus , 



promissa, 
promissa , 
promissa , 



promissum eram 
promisstun eras 
promissum erat 



promissi, promissae, promxssa eramus 
promissi , promissae , promissa eratis 

promissi, promissae, promissa erant 



we had been taught 

you (all) had been taught 

they (or a noun) had been 

taught 

Meaning 

I had been promised 

you had been promised 

he/she (or a noun) had 

been promised 

we had been promised 

you (all) had been 

promised 

they (or a noun) had 

been promised 



sepelire 

sepultus , 
sepultus , 
sepultus , 



sepulta , 
sepulta , 
sepulta , 



sepultum eram 
sepultum eras 
sepultum erat 



sepulti, sepultae, sepulta eramus 
sepulti, sepultae, sepulta eratis 
sepulti, sepultae, sepulta erant 



Meaning 

I had been buried 

you had been buried 

he/she/it (or a noun) had 

been buried 

we had been buried 

you (all) had been buried 

they (or a noun) had been 

buried 



capere 

captus, capta, captiim eram 
captus, capta, captirm eras 
captus, capta, captum erat 

capti, captae, capta eramus 
capti, captae, capta eratis 
capti, captae, capta erant 



Meaning 

I had been taken 

you had been taken 

he/she/it (or a noun) had 

been taken 

we had been taken 

you (all) had been taken 

they (or a noun) had been 

taken 



Future Perfect Indicative Passive of all Four Conjugations 



copulare 

copulatus, copulata, copulatum ero 

copulatus, copulata, copulatum eris 

copulatus, copulata, copulatum erit 

copulati, copulatae, copulata erimus 

copulati, copulatae, copulata eritis 

copulati, copulatae, copulata erunt 



Meaning 

I shall have been married 

you will have been married 

he/she (or a noun) will 

have been married 

we shall have been married 

you (all) will have been 

married 

they (or a noun) will have 

been married 



120 



docere 



Meaning 



doctus, docta, doctum ero 

doctus, docta, doctum eris 

doctus, docta, doctum erit 

docti, doctae, docta erimus 

docti, doctae, docta eritis 

docti, doctae, docta erunt 



promittere 

promissus, promissa, promissiun ero 
promissus, promissa, promissum eris 
promissus, promissa, promissum erit 

promissi, promissae, promissa erimus 
promissi, promissae, promissa eritis 

promissi, promissae, promissa erunt 



I shall have been taught 

you will have been taught 

he/she (or a noun) will 

have been taught 

we shall have been taught 

you (all) will have been 

taught 

they (or a noun) will have 

been taught 

Meaning 

I shall have been promised 

you will have been promised 

he/she (or a noun) will 

have been promised 

we shall have been promised 

you (all) will have been 

promised 

they (or a noun) will have 

been promised 



sepelire 

sepultus , sepulta , 
sepultus , sepulta , 
sepultus , sepulta , 

sepulti , sepultae , 
sepulti , sepultae , 



sepultum ero 
sepultum eris 
sepultum erit 

sepulta erimus 
sepulta eritis 



sepulti, sepultae, sepulta erunt 



Meaning 

I shall have been buried 

you will have been buried 

he/she/it (or a noun) 

will have been buried 

we shall have been buried 

you (all) will have been 

buried 

they (or a noun) will 

have been buried 



capere 

captus , capta , captum ero 

captus, capta, captum eris 

captus , capta , captum erit 

capti, captae, capta erimus 

capti , captae , capta eritis 

capti, captae, capta erunt 



Meaning 

I shall have been taken 

you will have been taken 

he/she/it (or a noun) will 

have been taken 

we shall have been taken 

you (all) will have been 

taken 

they (or a noun) will have 

been taken 



The following examples illustrate the difference between the 
perfect passive participle used as an adjective, and the perfect 
passive participle with the proper tense of esse used as the 
perfect indicative passive. 



121 



Donvun promissum ei dedi. 

(I gave the promised gift to her. Here, the perfect 
passive participle is used as an adjective which agrees 
with donum in gender, number, and case [neuter singular 
accusative] . ) 

Donum ei promissum est. 

(A gift was promised to her. Here, the perfect indicative 
passive, third person singular is used. Note, however, 
that as a verbal adjective promissum must agree with 
the subject donum in gender, number, and case. In this 
example, it is the neuter singular nominative.) 

The perfect tense of esse was used, on occasion, rather than 
the present tense, to form the perfect indicative passive. The 
meaning in either case is the same. Thus, for example, "They 
were married" might be written either as copulati sunt or 
copulati f uerunt ( f uere ) . 

Examples: 

Hie incipit matricula baptizatortun, copulatorum et 
sepultorum in parochia Beati Sancti Pauli. 

(Here begins the register of the baptized, married, and 
buried [individuals] in the parish of the Blessed Saint 
Paul. [perfect passive participles used as adjectives 
with "people" or "individuals" understood] . ) 

Heri mortua est et hodie sepulta est Anna Maria Hinck 
vidua Thomae Rothweiler agricolae et civis in hoc loco. 

(Yesterday died and today was buried Anna Maria Hinck, 
widow of Thomas Rothweiler, farmer and citizen in this 
place. [sepulta est: perfect indicative passive, 
third person singular, with Anna Maria Hinck as the 
subject] ) 

Deponent and Semi -Deponent Verbs 

Deponent verbs take their name from the verb deponere: to 
put or lay aside. Although they are passive in form, they "lay 
aside" their passive meaning and are translated in the active 
voice. Because these verbs are passive, no new endings need be 
learned. The principal parts of deponent verbs include: first 
person singular present indicative passive, present passive 
infinitive, and first person singular perfect indicative passive. 

patior, pati passus, -a, -urn sum 

(I allow) (to allow) (allowed: I allowed, 

have allowed) 

Note that, in theory at least, the meaning should always be 
active, and the above should never be translated as "I am 
allowed," "to be allowed," or "I have been allowed." 



122 



Listed below are the principal parts of some of the more 
common deponent verbs. Of these, the three most likely to be 
encountered in many parish register entries are defungor, 
defuncti, defunctus sum (die, depart), morior, mori, mortuus sum 
(die), and nascor, nasci, natus sum (be born). 

arbitror, arbitrari, arbitratrus sum judge, consider 

Conor, conari, conatus sum try, attempt 

defungor, defungi, defunctus sum die, depart 

egredior , egredi , egressus sum go out 

experior, experiri, expertus sum try 

fateor, fateri, fassus sum confess 

hortor, hortari, hortatus sum urge 

ingredior, ingredi, ingressus sum go in, enter 

largior, largiri, largitus sum bestow 

loquor, loqui, locutus sum speak 

morior, mori, mortuus sum die 

moror, morari, moratus sum remain, dwell 

nascor, nasci, natus sum be born, descend 

orior, oriri, ortus sum arise 

patior, pati, passus sum suffer, allow 

queror, queri, questus sum complain 

reor , reri , ratus siom think 

sequor, sequi, secutus sum follow 

First, second, third, or fourth conjugation verbs can often 
be recognized by considering the first person singular present 
indicative and the present infinitive, e.g.. 

First Conjugation 

moror cf. copulor (a-stem absorbed by -o) 

morari infinitive ending -ari (stem ends in -a; 
the active form would be morare. ) 

Second Conjugation 

fateor cf. doceor (e-stem is retained) 
fateri infinitive ending -eri (stem ends in -e; 
the active form would be fatere. ) 

Third Conjugation 

sequor cf. promittor (consonant stem is retained) 
sequi infinitive ending -i (stem sequ plus 

infinitive ending; the active form would 

be sequere. ) 

Fourth Conjugation 

largior cf. sepelior (i-stem plus ending) 
largiri infinitive ending iri (stem ends in -i; 
the active form would be largire. ) 



123 



Third Conjugation lO-Verb 

morior cf . capior (mor plus -i plus ending) 
mori infinitive ending -i (the active form would 

be morere. ) 

The following parts of deponent verbs are active rather than 
passive in form: 

present and future participle (see Chapter XIII) 
future infinitive (see Chapter XIII) 
gerund (see Chapter XIV) 

It is also possible that the third principal part of a 
deponent verb might best be translated as a passive, even though 
its meaning should theoretically always be active. Thus, for 
example, passus sum might mean "I have been allowed," rather' than 
"I allowed." The apparent usage within the context of a 
particular sentence must determine the proper translation. In 
addition, the gerundive, or future passive participle (see 
Chapter XIII) of deponent verbs often kept its passive meaning. 

The complete paradigm of the verb nascor, nasci, natus sum, 
with the exception of the subjunctive mood (see Chapter XII), and 
participles (see Chapter XIII) is given below as an aid in under- 
standing deponent verbs. 

Present Indicative 

nascor i am born 

nasceris* you are born 

nascitvir he/she (or a noun) is born 

nascimur we are born 

nascimini you (all) are born 

nascuntur they (or a noun) are born 

Future Indicative 

nascar i shall be born 

nasceris* you will be born 

nascetur he/she/it (or a noun) will be born 

nascemur we shall be born 

nascemini you (all) will be born 

nascentur they (or a noun) will be born 

*Note that the second person singular, present and future 
indicative can be either -eris or -ere. 



124 



Imperfect Indicative 

nascebar* I was born 

nascebaris you were born 

nascebatiir he/she/it (or a noun) was born 

nascebamur we were born 

nascebamini you (all) were born 

nascebantur they (or a noun) were born 

*Obviously, the concepts of repetition and continuity are 
not applicable to this particular verb. 



Perfect Indicative 

natus, nata, natum sum 

natus, nata, natum es 

natus, nata, natum est 

nati, natae, nata stimus 

nati , natae , nata estis 

nati , natae , nata sunt 

Pluperfect Indicative 



I was born 

you were born 

he/she/it (or a noun) was born 

we were born 

you (all) were born 

they (or a noun) were born 



natus, nata, natum eram I had been born 

natus, nata, natum eras you had been born 

natus, nata, natum erat he/she/it (or a noun) had been born 

nati, natae, nata eramus we had been born 

nati, natae, nata eratis you (all) had been born 

nati, natae, nata erant they (or a noun) had been born 

Future Perfect Indicative 



natus, nata, natum ero 
natus, nata, natum eris 
natus, nata, natum erit 



I shall have been born 
you will have been born 
he/she/it (or a noun) will have 
been born 
nati, natae, nata erimus we shall have been born 
nati, natae, nata eritis you (all) will have been born 
nati, natae, nata erunt they (or a noun) will have been born 

Semi -Deponent Verbs 

Certain verbs are active in the present indicative and 
present infinitive but passive (deponent) in the perfect tense. 
The meaning of these verbs is always active in all principal 
parts. Some examples are included below: 



audio , 

(I dare) 



audere , 

(to dare) 



ausus sum 

(I dared, have dared) 



audeo, audere, ausus sum dare 

fido, fidere, fisus sum trust (+ dat. ) 

gaudeo, gaudere, gavisus sum enjoy, rejoice 

soleo, solere, solitus sum be accustomed 



125 



Deponent Verbs with Ablative 

The deponent verbs listed below have objects in the ablative 
case. This is because each one is used with an ablative of means 
without a preposition. 

utor, uti, usus sum* use, enjoy, experience 

fruor, frui, fructus (frutus) sum enjoy, have the use of 
fungor, fungi, fvinctus sum perforin, execute, discharge 
potior, potiri, potitus sum acquire, get possession of 

*Dtor, uti, usus sum literally means to benefit by the use 
of (by means of), thus the ablative of means. 

Example : 



Multis officiis fungar. 

(I shall perform many duties, 
off icia] ) 



[where one might expect multa 



The Four Principal Parts of the Latin Verb 

The perfect passive participle constitutes the fourth, and 
last, principal part of the Latin verb. To review, these are: 
the first person singular present indicative active, the present 
active infinitive, the first person singular perfect indicative 
active, and the perfect passive participle. In most standard 
dictionaries and lexica, Latin verbs are generally listed as 
follows: 



First Person 

Singular 

Present 

Indicative 

Active 

moneo 

( I warn ) 



Present 
Infinitive 

monere 

(to warn) 



First Person 

Singular 

Perfect Perfect 

Indicative Passive 

Active Participle 



monui 

(I warned) 



monitum 

( [having been] 
warned) 



Some dictionaries may omit the present infinitive and 
provide only the endings of the first person singular perfect 
indicative active and the perfect passive participle, eg., moneo, 
-ui, -itum. Verbs of the first conjugation, which are regular in 
all four principal parts, may be listed in this manner, in many 
instances with the ending of the present infinitive included, 
e.g., copulo, -are, -avi, -atum. There are also some diction- 
aries and lexica which use the supine accusative singular as the 
fourth principal part of the verb. 

It will be recalled that the supine is a verbal noun of the 
fourth declension found only in the accusative and ablative 
singular. The endings are, respectively, -um and -u. The supine 
in the accusative is used primarily either as the fourth 



126 



principal part of the Latin verb or, after verbs of motion, to 
express purpose. The ablative singular is, as reviewed in 
Chapter III, used largely in fixed expressions such as mirabile 
visu (a wonderful thing to see). The neuter nominative singular 
of the perfect passive participle and the accusative singular 
supine are exactly the same in form, e.g., monltiim. 

Two examples illustrating two of the ways in which the four 
principal parts of Latin verbs may be given in dictionaries or 
word lists are provided below. 

1st Person Singular Stem § Ending 1st Person Stem and Supine Ending 

Present Indicative Singular Perfect (Perfect Passive 

Active \ Indicative Active Participle) 



\ 




xnonSo -Gi -Itnm. 2. (from root MEN, whence 
mens), to remind, oWmontiA. L Terentiam <ie 
!J;umento, Cic IL A. Lit, 1, a to icarn, 
teach, admoauk ; with de and the abJ.. ahu'iem I 

From. Casseni^J,atin_Di^^ 

revised by J.R.V. Marchant and Joseph f . Charles, 

New York: Funk ^ Wagnalls Co., 1957 
1st Person Singular Present 1st Person Singular Perfect Passive 
Present Indicative Infinitive Perfect Indicative Participle 
Active A'^tive (Supine) 




moneo, monere, monui, monitus 

warn, advise; teach 

From, John F. Collins, A Primer of Ecclesiastical Latin , 

Washington, D.C.: Catholic University Press, 1985, 



127 



EXERCISES: CHAPTER IX 



A . Grammar 

Conjugate laudare (first conjugation), tenere (second conju- 
gation), vendere (third conjugation), audire (fourth 
conjugation), and fugere (third conjugation io-verb) in the 
perfect, pluperfect, and future perfect indicative passive. 

B. Vocabulary 

This vocabulary follows the practice of a number of Latin 
dictionaries and lexica in listing the four principal parts of 
Latin verbs. These include: first person singular present indic- 
ative active, present active infinitive, first person singular 
perfect indicative active, perfect passive participle, e.g., 
baptize (I baptize), baptizare (to baptize), baptizavi (I bap- 
tized, I have baptized), baptizatus, baptizata, baptizatum 
(having been baptized). 

Some dictionaries, as noted above, use the supine accusative 
as the fourth principal part, which is the same in form as the 
neuter singular perfect passive participle (e.g., baptizatum). 
The vocabularies in this exercise and the remainder of the 
exercises, and the word list at the back of the book, also use 
the supine as the fourth principal part of the Latin verb. 

Most of the verbs found in previous chapters, as well as 
several new verbs, are given below. Learn the four principal 
parts of all of these verbs. Although the deponent and semi- 
deponent verbs discussed in this chapter are not listed below, 
they should be considered as part of this vocabulary exercise and 
memorized. 

It should also be noted that Latin verbs are listed in 
dictionaries under the first principal part. Thus, for example, 
when looking up the verb esse, always look vinder sum. 

Some glossaries and lexica, however, list verbs only under 
the present infinitive, presumably in order to save space. 
Consequently, it is strongly recommended that the principal parts 
of all of the verbs listed below, as well as those in the word 
list, be memorized in order to utilize these reference tools more 
effectively. 



128 



E. Translation: Parish Registers 

Document # 1 

Translate the following birth entry from a parish register 
of northern France (from the former provinces of Alsace- 
Lorraine) . 



1 .1 «7^cL vex «.m* J*Jt.'^ C4 t4/id t »rt- 



Vocabulary 

Gast: a surname (in the left 
margin ) 

septuages imo 

mens is 

mortuns est 

tribus circiter annis: (being) 
about three years old 

operarius, operarii, m. : day 
laborer (most of this word 
is hidden in the far right 
margin of line 3 after the 
surname Gast) 

Margarithae 

Fischer: a surname 

Gombrechtshof f en : a place name 

commorantium: dwelling, resid- 
ing (present participle, 
genitive singular of 
commorans, commorantis: 
residing, living, dwelling, 
V. Chapter XIII) 



ejusdem: of the same 

a me: by me 

Gondershoffen: a place name 

annexum, annexi, n.: annex, 

suburb, surroionding area 
sepultus fuit = sepultus est: 
coemeterio 
ecclesiae 
filialis, filiale, adj.: of, 

or relating to, a daughter 
ecclesia filialis: a daughter 

church 
testibus praesentibus : the 

witnesses present (were) 
infantis patre: (being) the 

father of the child 
Josepho Michael 
ludimagister , ludimagistri , 

m. : schoolmaster, teacher 
qui : who 
mecum: with me 
subscripserunt 



133 



Document # 2 



Translate the following death entry from a parish in south- 
eastern Switzerland. ^ ^ ^^ ^ 







fo^ 









Vocabulary 

Cunzini: a surname (in the 

left margin) 
sexto: in the far right margin 

of line 1 
sexta (after hora) 
cuite meridiem 

qd. = quondam: the late (here) 
Cravella: a surname 
filia: in the far right margin 

of line 3 
loco Plcini et: from the place 

of Piano (inserted as a 

marginal note between et 

and hac parochia) 
hac: this 
S. = Sancti 

Bernardi Campi D. M. : 

Sancti Bernardi Campi di 

Maggia (the name of the 

parish) 
aetatis suae 
agens: doing, making (present 

participle of agere , v. 

Chapter XIII) 



S. 



agens annum septuagesimum: 

making year seventy, i.e., 

in her seventieth year of 

age 
proprius, propria, proprivun: 

own, private, one's own 
communio, communionis, f.: 

community, fellowship 
s. Matris Ecclesiae = sanctae 

Matris Ecclesiae ( gen . ) 
euiimam Deo reddidit 
cujus = cuius: whose 
die sequent! 

prope , prep . + ace . : near 
mihl: to me 
Archangelo: a first name 

(dative case) 
Giumini: a surname 
conf essarius , conf esscirii , m. : 

confessor 
probato: approved (from probo, 

probare, probavi, probatum: 

test , prove , approve ) 



134 



confessa est: she confessed 
(from confiteor, confiteri, 
confessus stun: confess) 

die decima prima 

ejusdem = eiusdem: of the same 

sanctissimoque: and by (means 
of) the most holy 

viaticum, viatici, n. : commun- 
ion (in this case, given to 
someone in danger of death 
as part of the last rites) 

refecta: refreshed, restored, 
strengthened (i.e., Anna 
Maria Cunzini); from refi- 
cio, reficere, ref eci , 
refectum: refresh, restore, 
strengthen 

die eadem: on the same day 

oleum, olei, n.: oil 

unctio, unctione, f.: unction; 
the anointing with holy oil 
which is part of the last 
rites (Note that the last 
rites or sacraments 
properly consisted of three 
parts, confession, commun- 
ion, and extreme unction 
[or the anointing with holy 
oil].) 



roborata: strengthened, made 
firm (from roboro, robo- 
rare, roboravi , roboratum: 
strengthen, make firm) 

per me: by me (through me) 

aliisque: and by (means of) 
other 

precibus: from prex, precis, 
f . : prayer 

ritualis, rituale, adj.: of, 
or relating to, ritual 
(religious ceremony, 
usage); as a noun: ritual; 
note that aliisque precibus 
ritualibus: could mean 
either by (means of) other 
ritual prayers or by (means 
of) other prayers (and) 
rituals. 

confortata est: she was com- 
forted (from conforto, 
confortare, confortavi, 
confortatum: comfort) 



135 



CHAPTER X 



Nouns: The Fourth and Fifth Declension 

Some Uses of the Ablative 

Determining Place in Latin 

Latinized Place Names 



Introduction 

Nouns of the fourth and fifth declension are not found as 
frequently as nouns of the first, second, and third declensions 
in Latin parish registers. However, certain nouns such as partus 
(birth, chi ldbirth--f ourth declension), domus (house, 
home — fourth declension), and dies (day — fifth declension) occur 
often and should be studied carefully. 

Foiirth Declension Nouns 

The stem of fourth declension nouns ends in -u. For the 
sake of clarity, however, in the paradigms provided below, the 
stem and the endings will be included together. Most fourth 
declension nouns are masculine in gender, but there are also a 
few feminines and neuters. Fourth declension nouns are declined 
as follows: 

partus, partus, m. : birth, childbirth (stem: partu) 

Singular 



Case 

Nom . partus 

Gen . partus 

Dat . partui 

Ace . partum 

Abl . partu 



Ending 



us 
us 
ui 
um 
u 



Meaning 

a/the birth 
of/from a/the birth 
to/for a/the birth 
a/the birth (d.o.) 
by/with/f rom, etc. a/the 
birth 



Plural 



Nom . partus 

Gen . partuum 

Dat . par tubus 

Ace . partus 

Abl . partubus 



us 

uum (um) 

ubus 

us 

ubus 



(the) births 
of/from the births 
to/for the births 
the births (d.o.) 
by/with/from, etc. the 
births 



Note that the nominative and accusative singular, the 
nominative plural, and the accusative plural all have the same 
ending in masculine and feminine nouns of the fourth declension, 
namely, -us. Meaning must be determined by the use of such nouns 
within a sentence. 



136 



Note also that a few fourth declension nouns such as partus 
retain the -u of the stem in the dative and ablative plural 
(ubus). With most nouns, however, the -u of the stem is absorbed 
by the -i in -ibus. 

genu, genus, n. : knee (stem: genu) 

Singular 



Case 

Nom . genu 

Gen . genus 

Dat . genui 

Ace . genu 

Abl . genu 



Ending 



u 

us 

ui 

u 

u 



Meaning 

a/the knee 

of/from a/the knee 

to/for a/the knee 

a/the knee ( d . o . ) 

by /with/from, etc. a/the 

knee 



Plural 

Nom . genua 

Gen . genuum 

Dat . genibus 

Ace . genua 

Abl . genibus 



ua 

uum (um) 
ibus 
ua 
ibus 



( the ) knees 
of/from the knees 
to/for the knees 
(the) knees (d.o.) 
by/with/f rom, etc. the 
knees 



In the nominative, accusative, and ablative singular, the 
ending is -u, which is also the stem, for neuter nouns of the 
fourth declension. The use of neuter nouns within a sentence or 
sentences should enable the reader to select the correct case 
when translating. 

domus, domus, f.: home, house (irregular) 

Singular 



Case 




Ending 


Meaning 


Nom. 


domus 


us 


a/the home 


Gen. 


domus ( domi ) 


us (i) 


of/from a/the home 


Dat. 


domui ( dome ) 


ui (o) 


to/for a/the home 


Ace. 


domum 


um 


a/the home (d.o. ) 


Abl. 


domu ( dome ) 


u (o) 


by/with/f rom, etc. 
home 



a/the 



Plural 

Nom . domus 

Gen . domuiim ( domorum ) 

Dat . domibus 

Ace . domus ( domos ) 

Abl . domibus 



us ( the ) homes 

uum (orum) of /from the homes 
ibus to/for homes 

us (os) (the) homes (d.o.) 
ibus by/with/from, etc. the 

homes 



137 



Domus is one of a small group of nouns which indicate, by 
their case endings, place where , place to which, place from 
which , and place at which . These include the names of cities, 
towns, small islands, and the nouns domus, and rus (rus, ruris, 
n.: the countryside, the country). 

In the case of domus, there are several special case endings 
which show place. These are: domi (at home; locative case [see 
below] indicating place where without a preposition); domum (to 
home, home; accusative); dome (ablative; from home). When point- 
ing out place, in these instances, domus is declined like a 
masculine noun of the second declension. Consequently, it com- 
bines aspects of the fourth and second declension and is, 
therefore, irregular. 

Fifth Declension Nouns 

The majority of nouns of the fifth declension are feminine 
in gender, with the exception of dies, diei (day) and a few 
others which are masculine (although dies can be either in parish 
register and medieval Latin). The stem of fifth declension nouns 
ends in -e. However, as in the case of fourth declension nouns, 
the entire ending is included with the stem in the paradigm 
below. 

dies, diei, m. or f.: day (stem: die) 
Singular 



Case 

Nom. dies 

Gen . diei 

Dat. diei 

Ace . diem 

Abl . die 



Ending 



es 
ei 
ei 
em 
e 



Meaning 

a/the day 
of/from a/the day 
to/for a/the day 
a/the day ( d . o . ) 
by/with/f rom, etc, 
a/the day 



Plural 

Nom. dies 

Gen . dierum 

Dat . diebus 

Ace . dies 

Abl . diebus 



es 

erum 

ebus 

es 

ebus 



( the ) days 
of/from the days 
to/for the days 
( the ) days ( d . o . ) 
by/with/from, etc. 
the days 



The alternate ending -e for the genitive and dative singular 
(die), though rare in the Latin of parish registers, is also 
possible. Note that when die is used with dates, it means "on 
(see Chapter VII ) . 



po 

the day 



138 



Fifth declension nouns, like those of the fourth declension, 
have the same ending in the nominative, singular and plural, and 
the accusative plural. Here also one must rely upon the context 
for the proper case and translation. 

Some Uses of the Ablative 

It will be recalled from Chapter I that the ablative case is 
a flexible and widely used case in Latin. It may indicate, for 
example, separation, location, time (when or within which), 
means, and instrument. Because of the variety of usages possible 
with the ablative, it is well to review the majority of these 
here. The following ablative usages have already been discussed: 

a) With Prepositions: a (ab, abs) , absque, cum, coram 

de, ex, in, sine, etc. 

coram facie ecclesiae 

(before the face of the church, i.e., in front of or 
facing the church [the traditional place for posting 
or reading marriage banns] ) 

cum dispensatione propter consanguinitatem in tertio 
gradu 

( [married] with a dispensation because of consanguinity 
[blood relationship] in the third degree) 

b) To Indicate Time When or Within Which (with ordinal 
numbers ) 

Anno domini millesimo septingentesimo quinquagesimo nono 
et die tredecimo mensis Martii . . . 

( In the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred 
fifty-nine and on the thirteenth day of the month of 
March ... [literally: In the one thousand seven 
hundred fifty-ninth year of our Lord . . . ] ) 

c) To Show Agency with the Passive Voice 

Hie liber a me parocho ecclesiae parochialis Sancti 
Thomae scr iptus est . 

(This register was written by me the priest of the parish 
church of Saint Thomas . ) 

d) To Indicate Place From Which with a Preposition 

Testes fuerunt: Martinus Deville ex Colmar et Franciscus 
Moreaux ex Niedersheim. 

(The witnesses were: Martin Deville from Colmar and 
Francois Moreaux from Niedersheim. ) 

Note that in classical literary Latin the names of cities 
and towns were generally written without a preposition when used 
as places of departure. For example: Mercator Roma abiit. (The 

139 



merchant departed from Rome.) 

e) With Deponent Verbs such as utor, fruor, or fungor 

Walterus Kampf in parochiam nostram intravit et terra 
episcopi per quinque annos usus est. 

(Walter Kampf entered into our parish and used the land 
of the bishop for five years. [Note that it is terra, 
the ablative not terrain the accusative which is the 
object of usus est.]) 

Other important uses of the ablative, most of which have not 
been previously reviewed, include: 

a) Ablative of Means, with or without a Preposition 

Omnibus sacramentis moribundorum munitus/a (refectus/a, 
provisus/a) est. 

(He/she was fortified with [by means of] all of the 
sacraments of the dying. [refectus/a: refreshed, 
renewed; provisus/a: provided) 

b) Ablative of Manner, with or without cum 

Parochus infantem magna cum cura baptizavit. 

(The priest baptized the infant [child] with great care. 
Or, Parochus infantem magna cura baptizavit.) 

c) Ablative Absolute 

nullo impediment© canonice detecto 

(no hindrance [to the marriage] having been revealed 
canonically; see Chapter XIII for more information on 
this construction.) 

d) Ablative of Cause, with a Preposition 

Mater, ex causa doloribus pairtus, post natum infantis 
obiit. 

(Because of the pains of childbrith, the mother died 
after the birth of the child. N.B. ex causa + abl . : 
because of, for the sake of; classical Latin might use 
causa without a preposition in such a construction. ) 

e) Ablative of Comparison 

Hie liber est magno illo. 

(This book is larger than that [book] . See Chapter XI 
for additional information on this usage.) 

f ) Ablative of Separation, with or without a Preposition 

Ex pecunia sua separata est. 

(He/she was separated from his/her money. ) 

140 



Note that in classical Latin the ablative of separation was 
used with special verbs which indicated separation, lack, want, 
deprivation, etc., such as careo, carere, carui , cariturus: be 

without, want, lack, be deprived of. 

g) Ablative of Accompaniment with cum 

Parentes cum duobus patrinis infantem ad baptismum 
tulerunt . 

(The parents brought the child to the baptism with 
[accompanied by] by two godparents.) 

h) Locative Ablative (place in which) 

In parochia Sancti Johannis de Gardonica baptizata est. 

(She was baptized in the parish of St. Jean du Gard. 
[France] The locative case, reviewed below, was also 
used for locations in Latin.) 

Determining Place in Latin 

Place in parish registers, as well as medieval Latin, was 
often indicated through the use of prepositions. Examples 
follow: 

a) Place where: with in 

In urbe per quatuor menses remansit. 

(He/she remained in the city for four months.) 

In vice Sancti Thomae per duos annos vixerunt. 

(They lived in the village of St. Thomas for two years.) 

Note that in classical Latin specific cities required the 
locative case, which consists of the genitive singular for place 
names of the first and second declension singular and the 
ablative case for first and second declension plural. Place 
names of the third declension also used the ablative for the 
locative case. For example: Romae vixerunt. (They lived at 
Rome. This is used to show the place where they lived.) 

b) Place to which: with an accusative preposition 

In villam venerunt. 

(They came into the village.) 

Ad Romam iter facemus. 

(We shall take a trip to [i.e., toward] Rome.) 

c) Place from which: with a (ab, abs) , de, ex 

Matrina erat: Maria Gather ina Feld ex Transaquense 

(The godmother was: Maria Gather ina Feld from Ueberwasser 
[Nordrhein-Westf alen, Germany].) 



141 



As noted previously, ex was frequently used in parish 
register entries to indicate a place of origin or residence. 

Latinized Place Names 

The names of European (and British) cities, towns, and 
villages were often Latinized in parish register entries and 
various types of medieval documents. Sometimes, the old Roman 
name, or medieval name, for a place might be used. Frequently, 
however, a place name was Latinized by making it a noun of the 
first, second, or third declension. 

Thus, for example, the German town Ueberwasser (over, or 
across, the water), now in the state of Nordrhein-Westf alen, 
Germany, was Latinized into the third declension noun 
Transaquensis, which means approximately the same thing in Latin 
as in German, namely, "across the water." 

Some town names were Latinized merely by adding the third 
declension ending -ensis to the German, French, English, etc. 
name, e.g., Strasbourgensis = Strasbourg (French spelling) or 
Strassburg (German spelling). The declension of such town names 
is as follows (using Transaquensis as an example): 

Case Singular Meaning 

Nominative Transaquensis Ueberwasser 

Genitive Transaquensis of/from Ueberwasser 

Dative Transaquensi to/for Ueberwasser 

Accusative Transaquensem Ueberwasser (d.o.) 

Ablative Transaquense by/with/f rom, etc. 

Ueberwasser 

Note, however, that in some cases, the Latinized name of the 
city, town, or village is not merely a vernacular name with 
-ensis added, and, in fact, bears little resemblance to the 
current French, English, German, etc. name. For example, one of 
the more common Latinized names for the city of Strasbourg is 
Argentinensis (which relates to argentum, argenti , n.: silver). 
To find the modern vernacular name of a Latinized city, town, or 
village, in such instances, it is advisable to consult a refer- 
ence work such as Graesse, Benedict, and Plechl . Orbis Latinus. 
3 Vols. Braunschweig: Klindhardt & Biermann, 1972, or others 
listed in the selected bibliography at the back of this book. 



142 



EXERCISES: CHAPTER X 



A. Grammar 

Decline obitus, obitus, m. : death, and fades, faciei, f., 
for all appropriate genders, numbers, and cases. 

B. Vocabulary 

In addition to all nouns and other words introduced in the 
body of this chapter, learn the following: 



Fourth Declension Nouns 

adventus , adventus , m.: 

advent, arrival. Advent 

(the four consecutive 

Sundays prior to Christmas; 

also, the first Sunday of 

these four. ) 
casus, casus, m. : case, 

chance, accident, fall 
cornu, cornus, n.: horn (of an 

animal) 
domus , domus , f . : house , home 
fructus, fructus, m. : fruit, 

harvest 
genu, genus, n. : knee 
gradus, gradus, m. : degree 
ingressus, ingressus, m.: 

entry 
Jesus, Jesu, m. : Jesus (a 

Latinized form of the Greek 

lesous); an irregular 4th 

declension noun: gen.: 

Jesu , dat . : 

Jesum, abl . : 
manus , manus , f 
obitus, obitus, m. : death 
ortus , ortus , m.: origin 

birth, dawn 
partus , partus , 

childbirth 



Jesu, ace. 
Jesu. 

hand, band 



birth , 



redditus, redditus, m. : rent, 
revenue, income (from rent) 

ritus, ritus, m. : rite, cere- 
mony; de ritu sanctae 
matris ecclesiae: according 
to the rite(s) of the holy 
mother church (often used 
with deaths in connection 
with the last rites) 

sexus, sexus, m. : sex 

spiritus, spiritus, m. : spir- 
it, breath 

Spiritus Sanctus: the Holy 
Spirit (N.B. The genitive 
singular is Spiritus Sanc- 
ti.) 

textus , textus , m.: text, 
document 

usus, usus, m. : use 

Fifth Declension Nouns 

dies, dial, m. or f.: day 
facies, faciei, f.: face, 

appearance, front 
meridies, meridiei, m. : noon 
ante meridiem: before noon 
post meridiem: after noon 
res, rei, f.: thing, matter 
spes , spei , f . : hope 



143 



C. Translation: Latin to English 

Translate the following from Latin to English: 

In partu obiit. 

(obiit: she died [here]) 

Jakobus Pistor, faber lignarii, ad meridiem sepultus est. 
(faber lignarius: carpenter, cabinet maker) 

In hoc textu, nomina, aetates, et sexus defvmctorum 
puerorum in parochia Sancti Johannis sumpta simt. 
(hoc: this; sumpta sunt: have been recorded) 

Parentes fuerunt: Petrus Fortner et Magdalena Bauer ambo 
ex Hochheim. 

Per duos dies in domo remansit. 

D. Translation: English to Latin 

Translate the following sentences from English to Latin: 

The name of the child, whose (cuius) mother died (use obiit) 
in childbirth, was Martin. 

After the death (use decessus) of the mother, an operation 
was made (use facio, facere, feci, factum) and a child 
of the male (masculini) sex, name unknown, was taken 
(extractus fuit) from her (eius) womb (uterus, uteri, m. ) . 

The marriage (use copulatio) was postponed (delata est) 
because of a blood relationship (consanguinitas, 
consanguinitatis , f.) in the third degree. 

The marriage banns (use banna) were read (use lego, legere, 
lexi, lectum) in front of (use coram + abl . ) the face of 
the parish church. 

She lived in the village for (use per + ace.) two years. 



144 



E. Translation: Parish Registers 

Document #1 

With the aid of the vocabulary below, translate the title 
page of a Belgian parish register. 



JanUi Martini 
Epiicopi J^jw^enJh 



7 



■57 ' /"' / . 



Vocabulary 

eplscopus, episcopi, m . : mums, muri, m. : wall 

bishop, bishopric (here) Leodlensis: a Latinized form 

Tongrensis: of Tongrensis, a of Liege, Belgium (in this 

Latinized form of the case, the genitive singu- 

Belgian town Tongres. lar) 



145 



Document # 2 

Translate the heading of the baptismal entries for 1693 from 
the same parish (slightly altered for illustrative purposes), and 
then the baptismal entry which follows. 









146 



Vocabulary 



sanctissimae: of the most holy 
(superlative of sanctus, 
sancta, sanctum; modifies 
Trinitatis) 

Trinitas, Trinitatis, f.: the 
Trinity 

filii: (after at) 

eorum: of those (the anteced- 
ent is nomina) 

qui : who 

baptisatos: from baptizatus, 
baptizata, baptizatum; 
here: the baptized children 
(adjective used as a noun) 

baptisma, baptismae, f.: 
baptism 

susceperunt: from suscipio, 
suscipere , suscepi , suscep- 
tum: raise up, lift up, act 
as a godparent; N.B. The 
subject of this verb is 
"those who," and the object 
is baptisatos. 

ordinatio, ordinationis , f.: 
decree, regulation, ordina- 
tion, ordinance 

concilium, concilii, n.: 
council 



Tridentinum, Tridentini , n.: 

Trent (Trento) [i.e., the 
Council of Trent, which met 
with interruptions between 
1545-1563; the decrees of 
the Council of Trent served 
as an important basis for 
the reform of the Roman 
Catholic Church in the 
sixteenth century.] 

n 
dni = domini 

Ghire : a surname 

Gregorii : a surname 

eius uxoris: his wife 

Aegidius, Aegidii, m. : Giles 

(also Egidius) 
Masuyr: a surname 
compatre: the godfather being 

(is, or was) 
Gerardus : Gerard 
LeRoy: a surname 
commatre ( see above under 

compatre ) 
Heyde: a first name 
Devitte: a surname 



147 



CHAPTER XI 



Pronouns and Possessive Adjectives 

Formation of Adverbs 

Comparison of Adjectives and Adverbs 



Pronouns and Possessive Adjectives 

Pronouns (from pro + nomen: in place of the noun) may re- 
place nouns in both English and Latin. The most important pro- 
nouns for the Latin of parish register entries, are personal, 
possessive, demonstrative, relative, and reflexive. The inter- 
rogative, indefinite, and intensive pronouns do not occur as 
frequently in parish registers, especially in the baptismal, 
marriage, or death entries, but will considered here for compara- 
tive purposes. 

Personal Pronouns 

Latin personal pronouns (sing.: ego, tu, is, ea, id [I, you, 
he, she, it]; pi.: nos, vos, ei, eae, ea [we, you, they]) have 
slightly different forms for first, second, and third persons, 
singular and plural. They are declined as follows: 



ego (I), nos (we) [first person, singular and plural] 



Case 

Nom. 
Gen. 
Dat. 
Ace. 
Abl. 



Singular 

ego 

mei 

mihi 

me 

me 

Plural 



Meaning 



of/from me 

to/for me 

me ( d . o . ) 

by/with/f rom, etc. me 



Nom. 
Gen. 
Dat. 
Ace. 
Abl. 



nos 

nostrum ( nostri ) 

nobis 

nos 

nobis 



we 

of/from us 

to/for us 

us (d.o. ) 

by/with/f rom, etc. us 



tu, vos (you, familiar & singular; you, plural) 
Case Singular Meaning 



Nom. 
Gen. 
Dat. 
Ace. 
Abl. 



tu 

tui 

tibi 

te 

te 



you (also thou) 

of /from you (thee) 

to/for you (thee) 

you (thee, d.o. ) 

by/with/f rom, etc. you (thee) 



148 



Nom. 
Gen. 
Dat, 
Ace. 
Abl. 



Plural 

vos 

vestrum ( vestri ) 

vobis 

vos 

vobis 



you (all, and you, polite) 
of /from you (you all) 
to/for you (you all) 
you (you all, d.o.) 
by/with/f rom, etc. you 
(you all) 



is, ea, id; ei, eae, ea (he, she, it, sing; they, pi.) 
Singular 



Case 


Masc. 


Fem. 


Neuter 


Meaning 




Nom. 


is 


ea 


id 


he/she/it 




Gen. 


eius 


eius 


eius 


of/from him, 
(his/her/its) 


her, it 

1 


Dat. 


ei 


ei 


ei 


to him, her, 


it 


Ace. 


eiun 


earn 


id 


him, her, it 


(d.o.) 


Abl. 


eo 

Plural 


ea 


eo 


by/with/from, 
him/her/it 


etc. 


Nom. 


ei, ii 


eae 


ea 


they 




Gen. 


eomm 


earum 


eorum 


of /from them, 


their 


Dat. 


eis 


eis 


eis 


to/for them 




Ace. 


eos 


eas 


ea 


them (d.o. ) 




Abl. 


eis 


eis 


eis 


by/from/with , 


etc . them 



Note that is can also mean this or that man, ea, this or 
that woman, and id, this or that thing. 

In classical Latin, personal pronouns of the first, second 
and third person, singular and plural, were rarely used in the 
nominative singular case with verbs (and then principally for 
emphasis), since the pronoun was provided by the verb ending, 
e.g., teneo (I hold) or, occasionally, ego teneo (I hold, or, I, 
not any other person, hold). Personal pronouns may, however, be 
found in parish register entries, e.g.. Ego Johannes Braun 
parochus huius parochiae infantem baptizavi, qui imposui nomen 
Geraldum. (I, John Braun, priest of this parish, baptized an 
infant, upon whom I placed the name Gerald. ) 

When the preposition cum is used with the second person, 
singular and plural, it is usually attached to the pronoun, e.g., 
pax vobiscum (peace be with you! ) 

The following example illustrates a possible use of the 
personal pronouns listed above: 



149 



Ego Amaldus, pastor ecclesiae parochialis Sancti Viti, 

f ilium legitimum Stephani Gera et Mathildae Brock baptizavi. 

(I, Arnald, priest of the parish church of St. Vitus, 
baptized the legitimate son of Stephen Gera and Mathilda 
Brock. ) 

If personal pronouns other than ego were used in the 
sentence above, the order might be as follows: 



tu . 
is . 
nos 
vos 
ei . 



baptizavisti (you . . . baptized) 
baptizavit (he . . . baptized) 
baptizavimus (we . . . baptized) 
baptizavistis (you [all] . . . baptized) 
baptizavemint (they . . . baptized) 



Note that it is unlikely that any of the above personal 
pronouns will be encountered, in parish registers at any rate, 
with the exception of ego, and nos. 

Since pronouns can take the place of nouns, they must, of 
necessity, agree with the nouns they are replacing (or, even if 
they are added additionally) in gender, number, and case, e.g., 

Pecuniam duobus parochis dedi. 

( I gave money to the two priests . ) 

Ecun els dedi. 

(I gave it [i.e., the money] to them. 
[i.e., to the two priests]) 

Possessive Adjectives and Pronouns 

Possessive adjectives of the first and second person, singu- 
lar and plural, are declined like first and second declension 
adjectives, e.g., bonus, bona, boniun. Since these are possessive 
adjectives, they must, of course, agree with any nouns they 
modify in gender, number, and case. 



Singular 



Meaning Plural 



Meaning 



meus , mea , meum 
tuus , tua , tuum 

Examples : 



my 
your 



noster, nostra, nostrum our 
vester, vestra, vestrum your 



Filia mea erudita est. 

(My daughter is learned. ) 

noster liber 

(our book) 

The third person singular and plural uses the genitive 
singular and plural of the personal pronoun is, ea, id, namely, 
eius, eius, eius (his, her, its); eorum, earum, eorum (their). 



150 



e.g., filius eius (his/her son); infantes eorum (their 
children/infants). Plural nouns of mixed gender, men and women, 
generally use the masculine, rather than the feminine gender.' 
Consequently, infantes eorum could mean "their" (i.e., the fa- 
thers') children, or "their" (i.e., the children of a father and 
a mother or fathers and mothers). "Their" (i.e., the mothers') 
children would, of course, be infantes eanun. 

Note, however, that in medieval and parish register Latin, 
it was common to use the reflexive possessive suus , sua, suum 
(his own, her own, its own, their own) in place of the genitive 
singular of the third person singular personal pronoun, e.g., 
infantes sui (their [own] children). 

Demonstrative Pronouns and Adjectives 

Demonstrative pronouns (from demonstrare: to point out) are 
frequently utilized in Latin to point out a person or thing. The 
meaning of these pronouns is "this" (the latter) or "that" (the 
former). Note that these pronouns can also be used as pronominal 
adjectives. In such instances, they must agree with any nouns 
they modify in gender, number, and case. 

hie, haec, hoc (this, the latter; as an adverb: here) 
Singular 

Meaning 

this, the latter 
of /from this, the latter 
to/for this, the latter 
this, the latter (d.o.) 
by/with/from, etc. this, 
the latter 



Case 


Masc. 


Fem. 


Neuter 


Norn. 


hie 


haec 


hoc 


Gen. 


huius 


huius 


huius 


Dat. 


huic 


huic 


huic 


Ace. 


hunc 


hanc 


hoc 


Abl. 


hoc 


hac 


hoc 



Plural 



Nom. 


hi 


hae 


haee 


Gen. 


horum 


harum 


horum 


Dat. 


his 


his 


his 


Ace. 


hos 


has 


haec 


Abl. 


his 


his 


his 



these 

of/from these 

to/for these 

these (d.o. ) 

by /with/from, etc. 

these 



Example : 

Hoe die baptizata fuit Elizabetha filia legitima 
Bemardi Freneaux et Isabellae Jaequot. 

(On this day, Elizabetha, legitimate daughter of Bernard 
Freneaux and Isabelle Jaequot, was baptized.) 



151 



ille, ilia, illud (that, the former) 
Singular 



Case 

Nom. 
Gen. 
Dat. 
Ace. 
Abl. 



Nom. 
Gen. 
Dat. 
Ace. 
Abl. 



Masc. 

ille 

illius 

illi 

ilium 

illo 



Plural 



illi 

illorum 

illis 

illos 

illis 



Fem. Neut. Meaning 

ilia illud that, the former 

illius illius of /from that, the former 

illi illi to/for that, the former 

illam illud that, the former (d.o.) 

ilia illo by /with/from, etc., that, 
the former 



illae ilia those 

illarum illorum of/from those 

illis illis to/for those 

illas ilia those (d.o.) 

illis illis by/with/from, etc. those 



Examples; 



Illo die haec sepulta est. 

(On that day, this woman was buried.) 

Illo tempore parochiani multi ab peste obierxint. 

(At that time, many parishioners died of [from] plague.) 

As may be seen in the above examples, hie and ille can also 
be used as nouns (as substantives), e.g., hie (this man), ilia 
( that woman ) . 

Another term for "that," which sometimes had pejorative 

overtones in classical Latin is iste, ista, istud. It is 

declined exactly like ille, ilia, illud, e.g., iste vir (that 
[wicked] man) . 

Demonstrative Pronoun: idem, eadem, idem (the same) 

By combining is, ea, id with -dem, a demonstrative pronoun 
is formed which means the same (thing). This pronoun is declined 
like is, ea, id, with these exceptions: 



Case 



Nom, 
Ace. 



Singular 



Masc. 



Fem. 



idem (not isdem) eadem 
eundem eandem 

(instead of eumdem or eamdem) 



Neut. 



idem 
idem 



152 



Plural 



Case 
Gen. 



Masc. 
eorxtndem* 



Fem. 
earundem 



Neut. 
eonmdem 



*not eorumdem, earumdem, eorvundem 

Examples : 

Eodem die mortua est Maria Catherina Schwarz , vidua def uncti 
Johannis Brinckmann agricolae et civis huius loci . 

(On the same day, Maria Catherina Schwarz, widow of the 
deceased Johannes Brinckmann, farmer and citizen of this 
place, died. ) 

eodem (after a date: on the same day) 

idem (after a date, name, place name, etc.: the same) 

Reflexive Pronouns 

As the name suggests, reflexive pronouns "reflect back" upon 
the subject (from reflectere: to bend [back]), e.g., I, myself, 
did it. First, second, and third person singular and plural are 
declined like the personal pronouns reviewed previously, except 
that there is no nominative case (a reflexive pronoun must be 
declined in Latin). 



Singular 



Nom. 
Gen. 
Dat. 
Ace. 
Abl. 



Nom. 
Gen. 
Dat. 
Ace. 
Abl. 



Nom. 
Gen. 
Dat. 
Ace. 
Abl. 



mei (of /from myself) 
mihi (to/for myself) 
me (myself , d.o. ) 
me (by /with/from, etc. 
myself) 



Plural 



nostri (of /from ourselves) 
nobis (to/for ourselves) 
nos (ourselves, d.o.) 
nobis (by/with/from, etc. 
ourselves ) 



tui (of /from yourself) 
tibi (to/for yourself) 
te (yourself, d.o.) 
te (by /with/from, etc. 
yourself ) 



vestri (of /from yourselves^ 
vobis (to/for yourselves) 
vos (yourselves, d.o.) 
vobis (by/with/from, etc., 
yourselves ) 



Singular 



sui (of /from himself, herself, itself) 

sibi (to/for himself, herself, itself) 

se (himself, herself, itself, d.o.) 

se (by /with/from, etc. himself, herself, itself) 



153 



Plural 

Nom. 

Gen. sui (of /from themselves) 

Dat. sibi (to/for themselves) 

Ace. se (themselves, d.o.) 

Abl. se (by/with/from, etc. themselves) 

The difference between personal and reflexive pronouns may 
be illustrated in the following examples: 

Ego me laudavi. 

(I praised myself [reflexive].) 

Parentes mei me laudaverunt. 

(My parents praised me [personal.) 

Reflexive Possessives 

For the first person, singular and plural, these are the 
same as the possessives already explained: meus, tuus, noster, 
vester, etc. The third person singular and plural has a slightly 
different form, which has been discussed above, namely, suus , 
sua, suum, declined like adjectives of the first and second 
declension such as sanctus, sancta, sanctum. The meaning is his 
(own), her (own), its (own), or their (own), e.g., 

Puerum suum sepelivit. 

(He buried his own child. ) 

Puerum eius sepelivit. 

(He buried his [i.e., someone else's] child.) 

The Intensive Pronoun ipse, ipsa, ipsiim 

The intensive pronoun ipse, ipsa, ipsum (myself, yourself, 
himself /herself /itself , themselves [It can have any of these 
meanings depending upon the sense of the sentence.]) is declined 
in the genitive and dative singular like hoc or ille, i.e., 
ipsius, ipsius, ipsius (genitive); ipsi, ipsi, ipsi (dative). 
Otherwise, it is declined like bonus, bona, bonum and other 
adjectives of the first and second declension. This pronoun was 
employed, especially in classical Latin, mainly for emphasis, 
e.g. , 

Episcopus ipse puervim baptizavit. 

(The bishop himself [as opposed to a representative] 
baptized the child. ) 

The Relative Pronoun qui, quae, quod 

The relative pronoun (from referre: to bring back) looks 
back to the subject while forming a subordinate, relative clause 
(subject plus predicate/object within a compound sentence) e.g., 



154 



The man, who bought the book, is an old friend. The relative 
pronoun qui, quae, quod (who, which) is declined as follows: 





Si 


ngular 






Case 




Masc. 


Fem. 


Neuter 


Nom. 
Gen. 
Dat. 
Ace. 
Abl. 


PI 


qui 

cuius 

cui 

quem 

quo 

ural 


quae 

cuius 

cui 

quam 

qua 


quod 

cuius 

cui 

quod 

quo 


Nom. 
Gen. 




qui 
quorum 


quae 
quarum 


quae 
quorum 


Dat. 
Ace. 
Abl. 




quibus 

quos 

quibus 


quibus 

quas 

quibus 


quibus 

quae 

quibus 



Meaning 

who, who, which 
of /from whom, whose 
to/for whom, whose 
whom, which (d.o.) 
by/with/from, etc. 
whom, which 



who , who , which 

whose (of /from whom, 

which) 

to/for who , which 

who, which (d.o. ) 

by/with/f rom, etc. 

who, which 

Relative pronouns must always agree with their subject 
antecedents in gender and number, but the case is determined by 
the way in which these pronouns are used in the relative clause 
itself. For example: 

Puella quam parochus baptizavit abortiva fuit. 

(The girl, whom the priest baptized, was prematurely born.) 

In this sentence, quam agrees with puella in gender and 
number (feminine singular). However, quam is the direct object 
of baptizavit, in this subordinate clause, and must be in the 
accusative case even though the subject, puella, is nominative. 

The Interrogative Pronoun quis? quid? (who? what?) 

In form, the interrogative pronoun (from interrogare: to ask 
a question) resembles closely the relative pronoun in the 
singular. Both interrogative and relative are exactly the same 
in the plural . 

Singular 



Case 



Masc. & Fem. 



Nom. 


quis 


Gen. 


cuius 


Dat. 


cui 


Ace. 


quem 


Abl. 


quo 



Neut. 


Meaning 


quid 


who? what? 


cuius 


of/from whom? whose? 


cui 


to/for whom? what? 


quid 


whom? what? (d.o. ) 


quo 


by/with/from, etc. 




whom? what? 



155 



Examples : 

quid pro quo 

(what for what?, i.e., tit, for tat, this for that) 

cui bono 

(literally: to whom for a good?, i.e., what good is it?) 

The above phrase illustrates the use of two different types 
of dative, the dative of reference (cui: to whom) and the dative 
of purpose (bono: for a good). This construction is often found 
in classical Latin literature, and is known as the double dative. 
It is rare in parish registers. 

The following sentences may illustrate the difference in 
usage between the relative and interrogative pronouns : 

Quis donum tibi dedit? 

(Who gave the gift to you? [interrogative]) 

Vir qui donum tibi dedit ctmicus meus est. 

(The man, who gave the book to you, is my friend, 
[relative] ) 

Cuius filia sepulta est? 

(Whose daughter was buried? [interrogative] ) 

Mater cuius filia sepulta est ab peste obiit. 

(The mother, whose daughter was buried, died of plague, 
[relative] ) 

Interrogatives can sometimes be used as adjectives, e.g.. 

Quod pretium pascuam (pascua) habet? 

(What price has the pasture? [How expensive is the 
pasture?] ) 

Formation of Adverbs 

Latin adverbs (from ad + verbum: to or near the verb) de- 
scribe or modify verbs, as well as nouns and other adverbs. They 
are formed from adjectives through the addition of -e to the stem 
of first and second declension adjectives, and -iter to those of 
third declension adjectives, e.g., 

magnus (large), adj. magne (largely), adv. 

liber (free), adj. libera (freely), adv. 

similis (similar), adj. similiter (similarly), adv. 

Adverbs which are not formed from adjectives, such as autem 
(however, but, and) should be memorized as they are found in 
parish registers and other documents. Unlike adjectives, adverbs 
are not declined for gender, number, and case. 



156 



Comparison of Adjectives and Adverbs 

Latin adjectives are compared, like English adjectives, in 
the positive, comparative, and superlative degrees, e.g., bad 
(positive), worse (comparative), worst (superlative). In parish 
register entries, the comparative does not appear frequently, 
although it may be found in other documents such as wills, while 
the superlative is used largely for titles such as, for example, 
clarissimus (most famous, most illustrious). 

Latin and English adjectives are compared in two ways: a) 
The stem of the adjective remains unaltered in each degree of 
comparison, e.g., nicer, nicer, nicest; b) The stem of the adjec- 
tive changes with each degree (or at least one of the degrees) of 
comparison, e.g., good, better, best. 

The comparison of Latin adjectives of type a) above is 
accomplished by adding -ior to the stems of masculine and femi- 
nine adjectives and -ius to the neuter in the comparative degree, 
and -issimus, -issima, -issimum in the superlative. 

Positive Comparative 

Masc. & Fem. Neuter 

beatus (blessed) beatior (more blessed) beatius (more blessed) 

clarus (famous) clarior (more famous) clarius (more famous) 

felix (happy) felicior (more happy) felicius (more happy) 

sanctus (holy) sanctior (more holy) sanctius (more holy) 

Superlative 

beatissimus, beatissima, beatissiminn (most blessed) 

clarissimus, clarissima, clarissimum (most famous) 

felicissimus, felcissima, felcissimum (most happy) 

scinctissimus , sanctissima, sanctissimvun (most holy) 

The comparative degree can be translated in English by 
adding an -er to the verb stem, e.g., felicior, felicius: happi- 
er, or by using the adjective "more," e.g., felicior, felicius: 
more happy (or happier). The superlative may be translated 
either by adding -est to the verb stem, e.g., felicissimus: 
happiest, or through the use of the adverb and adjective "most," 
e.g., felicissimus: most happy (or happiest). The comparative 
can also mean too or rather, e.g., rather happy, rather famous, 
and the superlative very, e.g., very happy, very famous. 

When comparing one adjective with another, and, of course, 
any nouns such adjectives modify, in Latin the conjunction and 
adverb quam (than) is often utilized, e.g., Haec femina est 
clarior quam ille. (This woman is more famous than that man.) 
Note that no change in grammar occurs with the nouns or adjec- 
tives preceding or following quam. 



157 



It is also possible to make comparison in Latin with an 
ablative of comparison, to place the appropriate adjectives and 
nouns in the ablative case. Thus, for example, Populi huius 
villae sunt nobis feliciores. (The people of this village are 
happier than we [are] . ) Note that the ablative is used only with 
that which is compared, or the second part of the comparison. 

A number of adjectives are irregular in the comparative and 
superlative degrees. A few of the more common are listed below: 



Positive 

bonus, -a, -um (good) 
magnus, -a, -um (great) 
malus, -a, -um (bad) 
multus, -a, -um (much) 
parvus, -a, -um (small) 



Comparative 

melior, -ius (better) 
maior, -ius (greater) 
peior, -ius (worse) 
plus (more) 
minor, -ius (smaller) 



Superlative 

optimus, -a, -um (best) 
maximus, -a, -vun (greatest) 
pessimus, -a, -um (worst) 
plurimus, -a, -um (most) 
minimus, -a, -um (smallest) 

Note that plus must be used with what is known as a 
partitive genitive, or genitive of the whole, because it 
completes that portion of the thought represented by the 
adjective (or the number which precedes it), e.g., plura puerorum 
(more children, or, more of children). Plus is somewhat 

irregular in its declension. It is not declined in the masculine 
and feminine singular (plus). In the neuter singular, it is 
declined like a third declension noun, except that no dative is 
present. The plural of all three genders is declined like i-stem 
nouns of the third declension: 





Singular 






Case 


Masc. 


& Fem. 


Neuter 


Norn. 


plus 




plus 


Gen. 


plus 




pluris 


Dat. 


plus 







Ace. 


plus 




plus 


Abl. 


plus 




plure 



Plural 

Masc. & Fem. 

plures 

plvirium 

pluribus 

plures 

pluribus 



Neuter 

pluria 

plurium 

pluribus 

pluria 

pluribus 



Some adjectives which end in -er in the nominative singular 
have the ending -errimus, -errima, -errimum in the superlative, 
rather than -issimus, -issima, -issimum. Those ending in -lis in 
the positive degree, such as facilis (easy), often retain the -1 
in the superlative, -illimus. Examples of some of these adjec- 
tives are provided below: 



158 



Positive Comparative 

acer, acris, acre (keen, sharp) acrior, acrius (keener) 

aeger, aegra, aegrum (sick, [eger] ) aegrior, aegrius (sicker) 

facilis, facile (easy) facilior, facilius (easier) 

humilis, humile (low, humble) humilior, humilius (lower) 

liber, libera, liberum (free) liberior, liberius (freer) 

pulcher, pulchra, pulchrum (beautiful) pulchrior, pulchrius 

(more beautiful) 

similis, simile (similar, like) similior, similius 



(more similar) 



Superlative 



acerrimus, acerrima, acerrimum (keenest) 

aegerrimus, aegerrima, aegerrimum (sickest) 

facillimus, facillima, facillimum (easiest) 

humillimus, humillima, htunillimum (lowest) 

liberrimus. Uberrima, liberrimum (freest) 

pulcherrimus , pulcherrima, pulcherrimxim (most beautiful) 

simillimus, simillima, simillimum (most similar) 

Note that the -1 or -r of the adjective in the positive 
degree is doubled in the superlative degree. Thus, for example, 
similis but simillimus. 

Adjectives in the comparative degree are declined like 
consonant stem nouns of the third declension: 

Singular 

Case Masc. & Fem. Neuter 

acrius 

acrioris 

acriori 

acrius 

acriore 



Nom. 






acrior 


Gen. 






acrioris 


Dat. 






acriori 


Ace. 






acriorem 


Abl. 






acriore (not -i) 




Plura 


1 




Nom. 






acriores 


Gen. 






acriorum (not -ium) 


Dat. 






acrioribus 


Ace. 






acriores 


Abl. 






acrioribus 



acriora (not -ia) 

acriorum 

acrioribus 

acriora 

acrioribus 

The superlative is declined like adjectives of the first and 
second declension such as sanctus, sancta, sanctum. 



159 



The Comparison of Adverbs 



In the comparative degree, -ius is added to the stem of 
adverbs, and -issime in the superlative degree. For adverbs 
ending in -ere (from adjectives ending in -er), however, the 
superlative is -irrime, and for those ending in -ile (from adjec- 
tives ending in -ilis) , it is -illime, e.g.: 



Positive 

bene (well) 
libere (freely) 
facile (easily) 



Comparative 

melius (more well) 
liberius (more freely) 
facilius (more easily) 



Superlative 

optime (most well) 
liberrime (most freely) 
facillime (most easily) 



EXERCISES: CHAPTER XI 



A. Grammar 

Decline ego, nos; hie, haec, hoc; ille, ilia, illud; is, ea, 
id; qxii, quae, quod; noster, nostra, nostrum, and quis, quid for 

all appropriate gender, numbers, and cases. Write the positive, 
comparative, and superlative of beatus (blessed, fortunate). 
Decline fortior (stronger, braver) for all appropriate cases and 
numbers . 



B. Vocabulary 

Learn all of the pronouns and possessive adjectives reviewed 
in this chapter, as well as the following: 



at 



and 



alias, adv. : another, alias 

antea, adv. : formerly 

autem, adv.: however, but, and 

bis, adv. : twice 

circiter, adv. : about, approx- 
imately (also, prep + ace.) 

dxxm, adv. : while 

dumtaxat, adv.: only, 
least, thus far 

etiam, adv.: also, even, 
also, and even 

hie, as an adverb: here 

hine, adv.: hence (from there) 

jam, adv.: today (iam) 

ibi , adv.: there, in that 
place 

ibidem, adv. : in the same 
place 

inde, adv.: thence (from 
there ) 

ita, adv.: thus, so 



item, adv.: also, likewise 

jure, adv. : lawfully 

licite, adv.: lawfully (i.e., 

that which is permitted) 
magnopere, adv. : greatly 
non, adv.: no, not 
nondum, adv. : not yet 
omnino, adv. : wholly 
praetera, adv.: besides, 

morever (preterea) 
quoad, adv. as long as, as far 

as (do not confuse with 

quod, conj . : that, because) 
quondam, adv.: formerly, the 

former, the late (eondam) 
rite, adv.: properly, duly 
satis, adv. : enough, very 
statim, adv.: immediately, at 

once 
vero, adv.: truly 
vulgo, adv. : commonly 



160 



C. Translation: Latin to English 

Translate the following sentences from Latin to English: 

Infans, cui impositum est nomen Magdalena, in dome 

baptizatus est. 

( impositum est: was placed, was given) 

Maria Magdalena Schulzin, acatholica, filia Johaimis 
Michaelis Schulz, civis huius loci et sartoris, quae 
graviditatem coram me, parocho huius parochiae, declaravit 
et allegavit Franciscum Entz, etiam acatholicum, qui 
per sententiam magistratus hodie 2a Vllbris punitus est. 
(acatholicus, acatholica, acatholicum: non-Catholic; 
graviditas, graviditatis , f.: pregnancy [the direct 
object of declaravit] ; declaravit: from declare, 
declare, declaravi, declaratum: declare, state; allegavit: 
from allege, allegare, allegavi, allegatum: accuse; 
sententia, sententiae, f.: sentence, opinion; magistratus, 
magistratus, m. : magistrate; punitus est: was punished; 
note that the English syntax here would probably be: Maria 
Anna Schulzin [the -in is a German feminine ending] . . . 
declaravit graviditatem . . . et allegavit . . . , etc . 
Translate accordingly. ) 

Eodem die, eodem mense, et eodem anno, Anna Praetor, uxor 
defuncti Henrici Hinck, magistri in hoc loco, sepulta est. 

Patrini fuerunt: clarissimus, consul tissimus ac praenobilis 
dominus Joannes Chrysostomus Mueller, senator et procurator, 
et clarissima ac nobilis domina Margaritha Freye, uxor 
consultissimi, doctissimi ac nobilis domini Francisci Geiger 
consul is. 

(clarissimus: most illustrious; consultissimus: most 
experienced [from consultus, consulta, consultum: 
experienced, knowledgeable]; ac: and; praenobilis: right 
honorable, noble; Chrisostomus : Chrysostom [golden mouth, a 
name of Greek origin]; procurator, procuratoris , m. : proxy 
lawyer, legal representative; doctissimus: most learned 
[from doctus, docta, doctum: taught, learned]; consulis, 
consulis, m. : town councillor [here, in cl . Latin: one of 
the two chief magistrates of the Roman state]) 

Anno gratiae millesimo septingentesimo vicesimo sexto et die 
tricesimo mensis Martii, infems, baptizatus ob periculum 
mortis in domo a me Anna Catherina Klein obstetrice, statim 
exspiravit et puella anonyma erat. 
(expiravit: expired, died [literally: breathed out]; 

anonymus, anonyma, anonymum: unnamed, anonymous [a word 

of Greek origin] ) 



161 



Note that in the above entry inf ans , which is generally 
masculine but can also be feminine in the Latin of parish 
registers, is masculine, as the modifying adjective (perfect 
passive participle) baptizatus clearly indicates. The child was, 
however, a girl (puella). It is not always possible, therefore, 
to determine the sex of a child, who was unnamed at birth or who 
died before it could be given a first name, solely on the basis 
of generic terms such as inf ans, and proles. 

This is also true of adjectives such as baptizatus which 
must agree with any nouns they modify in gender, number, and 
case. Consequently, inf ans baptizatus est, and proles baptizata 
est, while grammatically correct, provide no clue to the sex of 
the child. Baptizatus, as indicated above, must agree with 
inf ans, a masculine noun here, in gender, number, and case. By 
contrast, baptizata agrees with proles, a feminine noun, in 
gender, number, and case. 

E. Translation: English to Latin 

Translate the following sentences from English to Latin: 

On the ninth day of the month of August, I, Andreas Binck, 
priest of this place, baptized a child of the male sex 
upon whom (use the dative) I placed (imposui) the name 
Charles (Carolum is grammaticaly correct, but Carolus 
might also be found. ) . 

23 July 1775, twins (gemelli, m. pi.) were baptized, 
the father of whom was (erat) a young man, name unknown, 
who impregnated ( impraegnavit or impregnavit ) the mother, 
Susanna (ace.) Knipps, under (use sub + abl . ) the promise 
(promittum, promitti, n.) of marriage. 

On the same day, in the same month, and in the same year, 
Francis Walter, who was a farmer from Newton, former 
(use quondam) husband of the deceased Agnes Terry, 
and citizen of this village, died (use mortuus est). 

The priest baptized his (own) cousin (female) but (sed) 
not (non) his (i.e., someone else's) granddaughter (use 
neptis , neptis , f . ) 

The godmother was the most famous, most learned, and right 
honorable lady Marie de Villefort. 



162 



E. Translation: Parish Registers 

Document #1: a Death 

Translate the following death entry from Germany. Some 
German Gothic letters appear in this entry. Study the vocabulary 
below carefully as an aid in identifying these letters and in 
translating the entry correctly. 






Vocabulary 

Scheffler: a surname 

a = a, ab 

meretrix, meretricis, f.: 

prostitute , harlot 
guadam: a certain (goes with 
meretrix) 

amentatus = dementatus: de- 
mented, made insane 
( dementatus , dementata, 
dementatum) ; note that est 
is understood here, so that 
the second line should 
read: a meretrice quadam 
dementatus est (from [by] a 
certain prostitute [driven] 
mad) 

amentia = dementia, dementias, 

f . : madness , insanity 



miserrime, adv. : very misera- 
bly, very poorly 

inqieteqz = inquieteque: and 
restlessly 

traducens: giving up, handing 
over (present participle of 
trado, traders, tradidi, 
traditum: give up, hand 
over, deliver, entrust; v. 
Chapter XIII); note that 
the object of this verb is 
vitam. 

affinis, affinis, m. : an in- 
law (in this entry, it 
could be either a 
father-in-law or a brother- 
in-law) 

Christophorum: Christopher 

Zwieknet: a surname 

reqescat = requiescat 



163 



Document #2: Death Entries 

Translate the death entries below from a parish register of 
northern France, using the vocabulary below as an aid. 



L(? «:.ViO jxtMiutif cocAafcau.ir~rt/n*Ti»ttrrL J 
jCAttrj.', ^euclu^ /-TeiH ^ut^to^U j!^ CmSiA 

■Lpwna. Cllaria. ^cUf<- <^r»t»iZ/i«.4 tmMx'xU. ■ 






Vocabulary 

vitae diem clausit extremvun: 

closed the last day of life 
claudo, claudere, clausi, 

clausum: close, enclose 
extremus , extrema , extremum : 

last 
uxor (after Christina, but 

with a large gap between 

the two) 
Pfuettelin: a surname 
Ingersheimensis : of Ingersheim 

(a place name) 

oia = omnia 

recepit: received (the siibject 
is Christina Pfuetterlin) 

ecclie = ecclesiae (gen.) 

die sequenti: on the following 

day 
exhalavit: from exhalo, 

exhalare , exhalavi , exhala- 

tum: breathe out. 



Heidt: a surname 

longu = longum 

rite, adv.: properly (accord- 
ing to the proper ecclesi- 
astical ritual) 

provisus: provided; note that 
the English word order here 
would probably be rite 
provisus (cum) omnibus 
sacramentis ecclesiae. 
Translate accordingly. 

sepultusqz = sepultusque 

decessit ex hac mortali: 
departed from this mortal 
(life); here, decessit 
should not be translated as 
"died_J' 

immortale = immortalem 

senicula, seniculae, f.: a 
little old (woman) 



164 



extranea: foreign (goes with 
senicula and mulier) ; from 
extraneus , extranea , extra- 
neum: foreign 

nomine: by the name of 

Nathe: her surname 

munita: fortified; note that 
the English word order here 
would probably be munita 
(ab) omnibus sacramentis. 
Translate accordingly. 

ubi , adv . : where 

decumbebat, imperfect 

indicative active, third 
person singular of decumbo, 
decumbere , decubui : die, 
lie down 

haec : she (demonstrative 
pronoun used as a personal 
pronoun ) 

legavit: from lego, legare, 
legavi, legatum: bequeath, 
leave, donate 

ecclae = ecclesiae: (dat.) 
R: a denomination of currency 
to go with the number 10 
(This might either 

Rhinegulden or Happen . ) 
per 



syngraphus , syngraphi , m . : a 
written contract, promisso- 
ry note (i.e., a written 
agreement to pay, which is 
probably what is intended 
here; a word of Greek 
extraction) 

debitos: debts (ace); from 
debitus, debiti , n.: debt 
(debitum) 

Blaisy: a surname 

cive Ratzentalensi : (being a 
citizen [of] Ratzental ) 

retribuere: to pay back, to 
give back (from retribuo, 
retribuere, retribui , 

retributum: give back, 
restore, pay back); the 
English word order might be 
retribuere debitos a Joanne 
Blaisy cive Ratzentalsi, 
which would follow per 
syngraphum. Translate 

accordingly. Note that the 
idea here is that she left 
10 Rhinegulden, Rappen , or 
other denomination to the 
church in order to pay back 
debts owed by Johannes 
Blaisy. 



165 



CHAPTER XII 



The Subjunctive Mood 



Introduction 

The subjunctive mood takes its name from the Latin verb 
stibjungere (to subordinate, join under — since it often expresses 
doubt or uncertainty and is, therefore, subordinated to the more 
direct and certain indicative mood). The subjunctive is more or 
less defunct in modern English, although it may be found in such 
usages as contrary to fact conditions, e.g., If I were rich, I 
would have many friends. (The implication is, of course, that I 
am presently poor and friendless.) In this example, note that 
the plural "were" is used with the pronoun "I" rather than "was" 
(the singular) . 

The subjunctive is, in contrast to English, utilized exten- 
sively in Latin, for example, to give commands in the first and 
third person singular and plural, in clauses of purpose and 
result, to show certain conditions, statements, or characteris- 
tics, and in indirect questions. When cum is employed as a 
conjunction, rather than a preposition with the ablative, it is 
often used together with the subjunctive, in which case it has 
the meaning "when," "since," "although," or "whenever." (In 
classical Latin, cum was translated as "when" with the 
subjunctive mainly in the imperfect and pluperfect. ) 

There are only four tenses in the subjunctive mood, the 
present, imperfect, perfect, and pluperfect, active and passive. 
Should it become necessary to refer to the future in the subjunc- 
tive mood, the present subjunctive is generally utilized. 

Formation of the Present Siib j unctive , Active and Passive 

In the first conjugation, the -a of the stem vowel (copula) 
is changed to an e (copule). Verbs of the second, third, and 
fourth conjugation add an -a, either to the stem vowel or to the 
stem consonant ( doce = docea; promitt [plus thematic vowel] = 
promitta; sepeli =sepelia; capi = capia. The present indicative 
active or passive endings are then added. In the first person 
singular, present subjunctive active, -m, rather than -o is used 
as the ending. 

Present Siibj unctive Active of all four Conjugations 



copulem 

copules 

copulet 

copulemus 

copuletis 

copulent 



doceam 

doceas 

doceat 

doceamus 

doceatis 

doceant 



promitt am 
promittas 
promitt at 
promittamus 
promittatis 
promitt ant 



sepeliam 

sepelias 

sepeliat 

sepeliamus 

sepeliatis 

sepeliant 



capiam 

capias 

capiat 

capiamus 

capiatis 

capiant 



166 



Present Subjunctive Passive of all Four Conjugations 



copuler 

copuleris 

copuletur 

copulemur 

copulemini 

copulentur 



docear 

docearis 

doceatur 

docectmur 

doceamini 

doceantur 



promittar 
pr omi ttar i s 
promittatur 
pr omi 1 1 amur 
pr omi tt amin i 
pr omi tt an tur 



sepeliar 

sepeliaris 

sepeliatur 

sepeliamur 

sepeliamini 

sepeliantur 



capiar 

capiaris 

capiatur 

capicunur 

capiamini 

capiantur 



Imperfect Subjunctive of all Four Conjugations 



The imperfect subjunctive is relatively easy to identify, 
since it is a combination of the present active infinitive and 
the present indicative endings, active and passive. 



Imperfect Subjunctive Active of all Four Conjugations 



copularem 

copulares 

copularet 

copularemus 

copularetis 

copularent 



docerem 

doceres 

doceret 

doceremus 

doceretis 

docerent 



promitterem 

promitteres 

promitteret 

promitteremus 

promitteretis 

promitterent 



sepelirem 

sepelires 

sepeliret 

sepeliremus 

sepeliretis 

sepelirent 



caperem 

caperes 

caperet 

caperemus 

caperetis 

caperent 



Imperfect Subjunctive Passive of all Four Conjugations 



copularer 

copulareris 

copularetur 

copularemur 

copularemini 

copul ar en tur 



docerer 

docereris 

doceretur 

doceremur 

doceremini 

docerentur 



promitterer 



sepelirer 



promittereris sepelireris 
promitteretur sepeliretur 
promitteremur sepeliremur 
promitteremini sepeliremini 
pr emitter en tur sepelirentur 



caperer 

capereris 

caperetur 

caperemur 

caperemini 

caperentur 



Present and Imperfect Subjunctive Active of esse and posse 



Present 



Imperfect 



sim 

sis 

sit 

simus 

sitis 

sint 



essem 

esses 

esset 

essemus 

essetis 

essent 



Present 



Imperfect 



possim 

possis 

possit 

possimus 

possitis 

possint 



possem 

posses 

posset 

possemus 

possetis 

possent 



167 



Perfect and Pluperfect Subjunctive of all Four Conjugations 

The perfect subjunctive active of all four conjugations is a 
combination of the perfect active stem (copulav, etc.)/ -eri, and 
the present indicative active endings. The pluperfect 
subjunctive active is formed by adding -isse to the perfect stem 
plus the present indicative active endings. 



Perfect eind Pluperfect Subjunctive Active 



copul aver im 

copulaveris 

copulaverit 

copulaverimus 

copulaveritis 

copulaverint 

copulavissem 

copulavisses 

copulavisset 

copulavissemus 

copulavissetis 

copulavissent 



docuerim 

docueris 

docuerit 

docuerimus 

docueritis 

docuerint 

docuissem 

docuisses 

docuisset 

docuissemus 

docuissetis 

docuissent 



promisserim 

promisseris 

promisserit 

promisserimus 

promisseritis 

promisserint 

promississem 

promississes 

promississet 

promississemus 

promississetis 

promississent 



sepeliverim 
sepeliveris 
sepeliverit 
sepel iver imus 
sepeliveritis 
sepel iver int 

sepel ivissem 
sepel ivisses 
sepel ivisset 
sepel ivissemus 
sepelivissetis 
sepel ivissent 



ceperim 

ceperis 

ceperit 

ceperimus 

ceperitis 

ceperint 

cepissem 

cepisses 

cepisset 

cepissemus 

cepissetis 

cepissent 



Perfect and Pluperfect Subjunctive Passive 

The perfect subjunctive passive of all four conjugations 
adds the present subjunctive of esse (sim, sis, sit, simus, 
sitis, sint) to the perfect passive participle. The pluperfect 
is formed by combining the imperfect subjunctive of esse (essem, 
esses, esset, essemus, essetis, essent) and the perfect passive 
participle. 

Perfect Subjunctive Passive of all four Conjugations 



First Conjugation 



copul atus , 
copul atus , 
copulatus , 
copul at i , 
copulati , 
copulati , 



copulata , 

copulata , 

copulata , 

copulatae , 

copulatae , 

copulatae , 



copulatum sim 
copul at 'jm sis 
copulatum sit 
copulata simus 
copulata sitis 
copulata sint 



Second Conjugation 



doctus, docta, doctum sim 

doctus, docta, doctum sis 

doctus, docta, doctum sit 

docti, doctae, docta simus 

docti, doctae, docta sitis 

docti, doctae, docta sint 



168 



Third Conjugation 



promissus , 
promissus , 
promissus , 
promissi, 
promissi , 
promissi , 



promxssa , 

promissa , 

promissa , 

promissae, 

promissae , 

promissae , 



promissum sxm 
promissum sis 
promissum sit 
promissa simus 
promissa sitis 
promissa sint 



Fourth Conjugation 

sepultus , sepulta , 
sepultus , sepulta , 
sepultus , sepulta , 
sepulti , sepultae , 
sepulti , sepultae , 
sepulti , sepultae , 



sepultum sim 
sepultum sis 
sepultum sit 
sepulta simus 
sepulta sitis 
sepulta sint 



Third Conjugation -10 

captus, capta, captum sim 

captus, capta, captum sis 

captus, capta, captum sit 

capti, captae, capta simus 

capti, captae, capta sitis 

capti, captae, capta sint 

Pluperfect Subjunctive Passive of all Four Conjugations 

First Conjugation 



copulatus , copulata , 
copulatus , copulata , 
copulatus , copulata , 
copulati , copulatae , 
copulati , copulatae , 
copulati , copulatae , 

Second Conjugation 



copulatum essem 
copulatum esses 
copulatum esset 
copulata essemus 
copulata essetis 
copulata essent 



doctus , docta , 
doctus , docta , 
doctus , docta , 
docti , doctae , 
docti , doctae , 
docti , doctae , 



doctum essem 
doctum esses 
doctum esset 
docta essemus 
docta essetis 
docta essent 



169 



Third Conjugation 



promissus 
promissus 
promissus 
promissi , 
promissi , 
promissi , 



, promissa , 
, promissa , 
, promissa , 
promissae , 
promissae , 
promissae , 



promissum essem 
promissum esses 
promissum esset 
promissa essemus 
promissa essetis 
promissa essent 



Fourth Conjugation 

sepultus , sepulta , 
sepultus , sepulta , 
sepultus , sepulta , 
sepulti , sepultae , 
sepulti , sepultae , 
sepulti , sepultae , 



sepultum essem 
sepultum esses 
sepultum esset 
sepulta essemus 
sepulta essetis 
sepulta essent 



Third Conjugation -10 



captus , capta , 
captus , capta , 
captus , capta , 
capti , captae , 
capti , captae , 
capti , captae , 



captum essem 
captvim essetis 
captum essent 
capta essemus 
capta essetis 
capta essent 



Perfect and Pluperfect Subjunctive Active of esse 

Perfect Pluperfect 



fuerim 

fueris 

fuerit 

fuerimus 

fueritis 

fuerint 



fuissem 

fuisses 

fuisset 

fuissemus 

fuissetis 

fuissent 



Perfect and Pluperfect Subjunctive Active of posse 
Perfect Pluperfect 



potuerim 

potueris 

potuerit 

potuerimus 

potueritis 

potuerint 



potuissem 

potuisses 

potuisset 

potuissemus 

potuissetis 

potuissent 



Some Uses of the Subjimctive 

In the above paradigms, no translations have been provided. 
This is because the subjunctive can be used in a variety of ways, 
and it is, therefore, impossible to assign only one specific 



170 



meaning to verbs in the subjunctive mood. Listed below are a 
number of the more common uses, and translations, of the 
subjunctive. 

The Jussive or Command Subjunctive 

The jussive subjunctive takes its name from the Latin verb 
iubere (or jubere) : to command, order. It expresses, as the name 
suggests, orders or commands, but only for the first and third 
persons singular and plural (I, we; he/she/it, they). (The 
present imperative active and passive is used for the second 
person singular and plural.) It is often translated in English 
by prefacing the verb in the subjunctive with "may," or "let." 
Examples are provided below: 

Requiescat in sancta pace! 

(May he/she rest in holy peace; Let him/her rest in 
holy peace! ) 

Caveat emptor! 

( Let the buyer beware ! ) 

sciant omnes presentes et futuri 

(let all [men] know, present and future; or know all ... ) 

Noverint universi quod ego, Bemardus de Clareto miles, 
per hos presentes, creavit, ordinavit, et fecit . . . 

(Let all [men] know [or: let it be known to all men] that I, 
Bernard de Clareto, knight, have created, established 
[ordained] , and made by these presents . . . Many Latin legal 
documents such as deeds, wills, leases, marriage contracts, 
etc. begin with some type of jussive subjunctive phrases 
such as "Let all men know by these presents that ...") 

Care should be taken in translating clauses such as the 
above to distinguish between presentes, meaning in the present, 
now, or at present (as in the example beginning with sciant) and 
presentes meaning documents or records. A useful key in this 
regard is the word futuri. If presentes is followed by futuri, 
then it generally refers to all men, present and future. (In 
most later medieval and early modern legal documents women were, 
with certain exceptions such as wills or property transfers, 
generally excluded.) By contrast, such phrases as per hos 
presentes, ab his presentibus, or his presentibus usually refer 
to whatever documents were written to attest that which the 
writer wished. In such cases, presentes can usually be taken to 
mean documents to records. 

Purpose 

Purpose in classical Latin was usually expressed with ut (in 
order that, so that, to) or ne in order that . . . not, so that 
not, not to, lest) and the subjunctive. In medieval and parish 
register Latin, quod (that, because) plus the subjunctive was 



171 



also used in clauses of purpose. For example: 

Parochus venit ad domum Martini Girardeaux ut eum cum 
Sanctis sacramentis muniverit. 

(The priest came to the home of Martin Girardeaux in order 
to fortify him with the holy sacraments [the last rites], 
i.e., for the purpose of fortifying him with the holy 
sacraments . ) 

Ego, Renaud de Thierry, parochus huius ecclesiae 
parochialis, baptizavi et nominavi infantem ne sine 
nomine obeat. 

(I, Renaud de Thierry, priest of this parish church, 
baptized and named a child lest it die without a name.) 

Result 

The result, as opposed to the purpose, of an act, is also 
expressed in Latin by the subjunctive. Clauses of result gener- 
ally begin with ut or ut non, albeit words such as tam (so), ita 
(thus, so), or tantus, tanta, tantum (so great) are also used to 
show result. In medieval and parish register Latin, quod might 
also precede tantus and the other terms. 

The most important difference between clauses of result and 
purpose is that the latter indicate why something is or was done, 
e.g.. The midwife delivered the child in order to save the life 
of its mother (purpose), whereas result clauses show the result 
or results of an action taken, e.g.. The midwife was so skilled 
in her craft that she saved the lives of many mothers (result). 
In other words, as a result of the skill of the midwife (in the 
preceding example), the lives of many mothers were saved. 
Compare the two examples below: 

Parochus litteras dimissorias Annae Mariae Lagenstein dedit 
ut Martinum Daumel in parochia sua copularet. 

(The priest gave a dimissorial letter to Anna Maria 
Lagenstein so that she could marry Martin Daumel in his 
own parish [i.e., for the purpose of marrying Martin Daumel 
in his own parish] — purpose.) 

Note that a dimissorial letter was basically a letter of 
permission, one which entitled its bearer to certain 
ecclesiastical privileges (such as marrying outside one's own 
parish) or exempted the bearer from certain ecclesiastical 
restrictions. (See also the word list at the end of this book.) 

Parochus teintas dimissoriales parochianis dedit ut multi 
extra parochiam copulare possent. 

(The priest gave so many dimissorial letters to his 
parishioners that many were able to marry outside the 
parish — result. [In other words, as a result of the 
dimissorial letters given by the priest, many of his 
parishioners were able to marry outside their own parish. ] ) 

172 



Conditions 

In "should-would" conditions, or future more vivid 
conditions, the subjunctive (present tense in classical Latin, 
often the imperfect tense in medieval Latin) is used: 

Si testamentum condant, bonixm sit. 

(If they should make a will, it would be a good thing.) 

Si testamentum conderent, bonum esset. 

(This is also possible. The meaning is the same with 
either usage. ) 

Conditions contrary to fact, present and past use the 
subjunctive mood. For example, the English sentence "If she were 
here, she could help us." (but, by implication, she is not so she 
cannot) would, if translated into Latin contain verbs in the 
subjunctive mood. For present conditions, as in the above 
sentence, the imperfect subjunctive would be utilized, for past 
conditions, the pluperfect. Latin examples follow: 

Si testamentum conderent, bonum esset. (present) 
(If they were making a will, it would be a good thing. 
[The implication is that they are, unfortunately, not 
engaged in this activity at the moment, but they ought 
to be.] Do not confuse this usage with the "should-would" 
conditions. The sense of the sentence should help to 
determine the proper translation.) 

Si testamentum condidissent , bonum fuisset. (past) 
(If they had made a will, it would have been a good thing. 
[This form points out their past failure to have made the 
will, so that now, in the present, they must presumably 
abide by the consequences of their unwise action.] Note 
that in medieval Latin the imperfect can also be used 
in past conditions contrary to fact.) 

The Subjunctive with cum 

Ciim is a conjunction, as well as a preposition with the 
ablative case. When used as a conjunction, it is often found 
with the subjunctive. In such instances, it has the meaning 
"when," "since," "although," "whereas," etc. In classical Latin, 
cum was also used with the indicative to mean "when" or 
"whenever . " 

Cum infcins baptizaverim, statim obiit. 

(Although I baptized the child, it died immediately. or: 
After I baptized the child, it died immediately. This 
example should make it clear that the proper translation 
of cum is closely related to the apparent meaning of 
the sentence . ) 



173 



Indirect Statement with quod 

Indirect statements are those reported through an 
intermediary, not directly, e.g.. It is cold outside. (direct 
statement) They said that it is cold outside. (indirect state- 
ment reported by others). In classical Latin, indirect 
statements were generally supplied by combining the infinitive 
with the subject accusative. (This usage is discussed in the 
next chapter. ) 

Medieval and parish register Latin more often employed a 
verb of saying, thinking, perceiving, etc., with quod (that) or 
other words such as ut, quoniam, quia, etc. and the subjunctive 
in indirect statements. Compare the two examples below: 

Parochus dixit obstetricem infantem n.n. baptizavisse. 

(The priest said that the midwife baptized a child, name 
unknown — indirect statement with subject accusative and 
infinitive. ) 

Parochus dixit quod obstetrix infantem n.n- baptizaverit. 

(The priest said that the midwife baptized a child, name 
unknown — indirect statement with quod plus the 
sub j unctive . ) 

Indirect Question 

The examples below will help to explain the difference 
between a question which is direct, and does not require the 
subjunctive, and one which is hidden or indirect and generally 
utilizes the subjunctive: 

Cuius parochiam episcopus visitavit? 

(Whose parish did the bishop visit? [direct question] ) 

Parochus rogavit cuius parochiam episcopus visitaret. 

(The priest asked whose parish the bishop was visiting, 
[indirect or hidden question] ) 

In subordinate clauses in which the indirect question may be 
found, classical Latin employed a certain order of the tense of 
the verb of saying, thinking, etc., which preceded the indirect 
question, as well as the subjunctive in the clause which 
followed. If the main indicative verb was in the present or 
future tenses, the subordinate subjunctive would utilize either 
the present tense (which would indicate action going on at the 
same time or time after that of the main verb) or the perfect 
(which would show action prior to that of the main verb). If the 
main indicative verb was in any of the past tenses (imperfect, 
perfect, pluperfect, or future perfect), the subordinate 
subjunctive would use either the imperfect (which would point out 
action going on at the same time or time after that of the main 
verb) or the pluperfect (which would indicate action going on 
prior to that of the main verb). 

174 



Thus, in the example above, the imperfect subjunctive 
visitaret is used, correctly, with the main indicative verb 
rogavit, which is in the perfect tense. However, the proper 
order and use of tenses was, as might be imagined, not always 
maintained either in later medieval Latin or parish register 
Latin. Conseguently , the sentence above might also appear, for 
example, as follows: Parochus rogavit cuius parochiam episcopus 
visitaverit (the perfect subjunctive). 

The Volitive Siibjunctive 

The volitive subjunctive is called such because of the use 
of the verb volo, volere, volui (will, wish, want), as well as 
other verbs of wishing, willing, ordering, etc. with the 
subjunctive. In medieval Latin, the subjunctive was also used 
with verbs of promising, such as promittere, attempting (conor, 
conari , conatus sum: to attempt), influencing (moveo, movere, 
movi, motum: move, influence), preventing (prohibeo, prohibere, 
prohibui , prohibitum: prevent, forbid, prohibit), permitting 
(permitto, permittere, permissi, pennissum: permit, allow), and 
others . 

Examples: 

Volo quod in hac matricula nomina baptizatorum, copulatorum 
et sepultonim contineantur . 

(I will that the names of the baptized, married, and buried 
shall be contained in this register.) 

Episcopus promittit quod duos parochos ordinet. 

(The bishop promises that he will ordain two priests. N.B. 
Ordinabit [the future indicative active] might also 
be found. ) 

The above summary does not, of course, include all possible 
uses of the subjunctive either in classical or medieval Latin, 
but, rather, those most likely to be encountered in parish 
registers or documents such as wills, marriage contracts, leases, 
etc. A standard reference grammar, such as those listed in the 
selected bibliography at the rear of this book, should be 
consulted for additional information on the subjunctive. 



175 



EXERCISES: CHAPTER XII 



Grammar 



Give the subjunctive forms for all four tenses (present, 
imperfect, perfect, and pluperfect) of laudare (first conjuga- 
tion), videre (second conjugation), conjungere (third 
conjugation), audire (fourth conjugation), and capere (third 
conjugation io-verb). 



Vocabulary 

aliqui, aliquae, aliquod: 

some , any 

cin, conj • : whether, or 

animadversio , animadversionis , 
f.: observation, remark 

antequam, conj , : before (used 
with the subjunctive in 
medieval Latin and, on 
occasion, in parish regis- 
ter entries) 

consuetus , consueta, 

consuetum: customary, 

accustomed 

erro, errare, erravi, erratum: 
wander, stray 

esurio, esurire, esuri, esuri- 
tum: be hungry for, be 
hungry (in classical Latin, 
esurire had no perfect) 

finis, finis, m. : end, finish 

gaudium, gaudii, n.: joy, 
rejoicing 

inscribe, inscribere, 

inscripsi, inscriptum: 
inscribe, write in 

intro, intrare, intravi , 
intratum: enter, go into 

ludimoderator , 

ludimoderatoris , m,: 

teacher, school master 



manduco , manducare , manducavi , 
mcinducatum: eat (literally: 
swallow rapidly, gorge, a 
later Latin word) 

note, notare, notavi, notatum: 
note, mark, denote 

ordinarius , ordinaria, ordi- 
narivun: regular, ordinary 

panis, panis, m. : bread 

peroro, perorare, peroravi , 
peroratum: conclude a 
speech, conclude, wind up 

quatenus, adv. & conj . : as far 
as, since, that (often used 
in place of quod plus the 
subjunctive) 

quomodo , adv.: how, in what 
way 

removeo , removere , removi , 
remotum: remove, withdraw 

respondeo , respondere , respon- 
di , responsum: answer, 
reply, respond 

rogo, rogare, rogavi, rogatum: 
ask 

utinam, conj . : if only, would 
that (used with the sub- 
junctive to express wishes) 

vel , conj . : or 



176 



C. Translation: Latin to English 

Translate the following sentences from Latin to English: 

Et respondens Jesus ad eos dixit: nee hoc legistis cpiid 
fecerit David cum esurisset ipse et qui cum eo fuerunt, 
guomodo intravit in domum Dei et panes propositionis sumpsit 
et manducavit et dedit his qui cum ipso fuerunt . . . 

(from the Vulgate: Luke, Chapter V:39-VI:5 [slightly altered 
for illustrative purposes]; note that much of the 
vocabulary for this sentence is found in the general 
vocabulary under Section B above; respondens: answering 
[present participle of respondere above] ; nee: not; 
nee hoc legistis: have you not read? esurisset: 
pluperfect subjunctive of esurire above; ipse: he, 
himself, or just "he" in this context; qui: those who 
[here]; propositio, propositionis, f.: presentation; 
panes prepositionis: the shew bread reserved for the 
priest in the temple; sumpsit: took; his: to those 
ipso: him [here] ) 

Notandum sit quod nova eeelesia paroehialis in parochia 
Sanetae Veronieae ad gloriam majorem Dei et Beatae Mariae 
Virginis et omnium Sanctorum aedifieata esset (see above). 

Ut cum eonsueta sua suada ad f inem huius nuptialis 
solemnitatis peroraret, Johannes Michael Rauch, 
ludimoderator , dixit, magno cum gaudio et pluribvis 
fletibus, quod multos annos in matrimonio vivere vellet et 
plures jubilaeos etiam viderent. 
(ut: as [here]; suada, suadae, f.: persuasion; 
nuptialis solemnitatis: nuptial solemnity [i.e., a 
marriage celebration, since a golden wedding anniversary 
is being celebrated here] ; magno cum gaudio = cum 
magno gaudio; pluribus: many [abl. pi.]; fletus, 
fletus, m. : a weeping, wailing; here, in the plural, 
probably just "tears;" vellet: imperfect subjunctive, 
third person singular of velle: to wish [here: wished, 
subjunctive because of dixit quod]; note that eos [them] 
should be understood after vellet but before vivere; 
plures: many (ace. pi); jubilaeus, jubilaei, m. : fifty 
years; here, a golden or fifty-year wedding anniversary 
[a jubilee year in the ancient Hebrew calendar] ) 

Cum operatio facta sit, et infans ab utero matris remotvis 
sit, ambo mater et infcins mortui sunt. 

Rogabat quare pater eius matrem eius impraegnaverit et ex 
parochia sua erraverit. 

( quare , adv . : why? , how? , wherefore? ; note that rogabat 
is imperfect and translate accordingly. ) 



177 



D. English to Latin 

Translate the following sentences from English to Latin: 

Let it be noted: a new altar was built in our parish church 
to (use ad + ace.) the glory of God, (of) the Blessed Virgin 
Mary, and (of) all (of) the saints. 

She asked why the priest had left (abisset) the diocese. 

In the year of our Lord one thousand six hundred fifty-five, 
on the twenty-third day of the month of April, the feunous 
and illustrious mayor (major, majoris, m. ) of our village 
(use villa) died (mortuus est) , and was buried on the 
following day. He was mayor of this village for (use per + 
ace.) twenty years and worked (use leiborare) faithfully 
(fideliter) and well (bene). Although (use cum + 
the subjunctive), his wife died (mortua sit) in childbirth, 
he was, nevertheless (teunen, adv.) the father of one son, 
who is now a lawyer in the royal court (curia regia) . 
May he rest in peace ! 

If she would come today, it would be a good thing. 

The parishioners (parochiani) donated (use donatre) money 
(pecunia, pecuniae, f.) in order (ut) to help (use the 
present subjunctive of juvo, juvare, juvavi, juvatum: 
help) the priest, who was renovating (use renovo renovare, 
renovavi, renovatum, imperfect tense, third person singular; 
note that renovcire meant "to beautify" in classical Latin.) 
the parish church. 

E. Translation: Parish Registers 

Document #1 

Translate the printed headings for death entries from a 
parish register in Hungary using the vocabulary given previously 
under Section B and that which is listed below. 



■"" 








Uu. 








n 


MciMM 


Ww 


AtUt 


ialM 




Stpul- 


foo- 




WUdU, 


ta»H- 


ctL 







Komcn, Cognomen & Conditio 
IMuncu (si proles sit,. Nomea 
&: Cognomen Parentum ~ 
corumque Conditio.) 



X^Ifl^k 



Loau 
Doau« 
.cUil 



4a fiMTtl 
protinut 



6«|k«Ui^iu, 



Ani^ l'j^ 



Most of the vocabulary for these headings either has been 
given in previous chapters or is in the vocabulary under section 
B above. Note, however: litera initialis nominis: first letter 
of the name: aetas defuncti; locus domicilii: place of residence; 
sepeliens: burying (i.e., where buried; present participle, v. 
Chapter XIII for additional information.) 



178 



Document #2 

Translate the section of instructions below on the proper 
procedures for filling out register entries. This excerpt is from 
a parish in Liechtenstein. 






j:l-: 



CJiU (LU, 



Ml ' 



c^xufimtL 



'ucf s^ ciim MjpcnfctiiHteimpeAifKC'nJH j 









Ci4t^i ^l 



Vocabulary 

notetur similiter: let it 
likewise be noted! 

banc esse: this is (v. Chapter 
XIII for a discussion of 
the subject accusative and 
infinitive in indirect 
discourse. ) 

ordinciricim (see above) 

inscribendi: to be inscribed 
(future passive participle, 
V. Chapter XIII) 

quid: literally "what?"; here, 
probably, anything 

accesserit: from accedo, 
accedere, accessi, 

accessum: approach; here, 
probably, happen (should 
have happened) 



quoz = quoque, adv. : also 
superioribus : to the superiors 

(to those above the parish 

priest in authority) 
adscribendum = ad scribendum: 

ought to be written (goes 

with id and 

extradordinar ium ) 
e.g.: for example 
denunciationes aliquae: 

certain marriage banns 
vel omnes : or all (of the 

banns ) 
de: with (here) 
licentia, licentiae, f.: 

permission 
episcopi: of the bishop 
aut, conj . : or 



179 



vicarius, vxcarii, m. : vicar 

omississent : should be 

omitted, should be left out 
(from omitto, omittere, 
omlssi, omissum: omit, 
leave out [-issent has been 
omitted at the end of the 
line of text] ) 

post 

suppletae: completed (The 
antecedent is 

denunciationes aliquae.)'* 
from suppleo, supplere, 
supplevi, suppletum: 
complete, fill up, make 
good 

fuissent: should be 

vel : or 

impedimenti dirimentis: of 
[for] a diriment impediment 
or hindrance; from 

dirimentis: the present 
participle [v. Chapter 
XIII] of dirimo, dirimere, 
diremi, diremptum: stop, 
interrupt, break up (N.B. 
See the word list at the 
back of this book for a 
discussion of diriment 
impediments to marriage . ) 

contraxissent : should be 
contracted (i.e, if the 
marriage should be 

contracted with a 

dispensation for a diriment 
impediment ) 

quo casu: in which case 

gradus , gradus, m. (see 
Chapter X) 

exprimendus : from exprimo, 
exprimere, expressi, 

expressum: express, 

articulate (future passive 
participle, v. Chapter 
XIII, modifying gradus) 



quo casu gradus exprimendus 
erit: in which case, the 
degree (of the diriment 
impediment) will be (ought 
to be) expressed 

vel 

coniugum = conjugum: of the 
spouses (here) 

alterius parochiae: from 
another parish 

ut fieri desset: so as to 
become absent (i.e., if one 
of the spouses is from 
another parish and is, 
therefore, absent from his 
or her own parish); for 
fieri, v. Chapter XIV; 
desset, from desum, desse, 
def ui : be absent, be away 
from 

quoqz = quoque (see above) 

denunciatus : here , announced 
(i.e., the banns should be 
read or announced in the 
spouse's own parish, even 
if it is necessary for him 
or her to leave his/her own 
parish in order to marry) 

fuisset: translate this with 
the conditional "should" 

A note on the above: In 
connection with the impedi- 
ments to marriage, the 
sense of this section is 
that if the couple should 
be married with impedi- 
ments, the degree of the 
impediment should be 
expressed. In other words, 
the cause of the hindrance 
or impediment, such as a 
cousin marrying a cousin, 
should be indicated. 



180 



CHAPTER XIII 



Participles 

The Periphrastic Active and Passive 

The Ablative Absolute 

Infinitives 

Indirect Statement 



Introduction 

Participles and infinitives are two parts of speech that are 
verbal in nature, and yet distinguish themselves from verbs in 
several notable ways. Participles (from particeps, participis: 
sharing in, taking part in) are verbal adjectives, which means 
that they have tenses and voices, like verbs, and are declined 
for gender, number, and case like adjectives (hence participles 
"share in" both verbs and adjectives). Also, like an adjective, 
a participle must agree with any noun or nouns it modifies in 
gender, number, and case; it can also be used as a noun. 

An infinitive (from infinitus, infinita, infinitum: 

unlimited), as indicated in Chapter III, is a verbal noun 
conjugated in Latin for tense and voice only. Although an infin- 
itive is, technically, a neuter singular noun, it is not de- 
clined for gender, number, and case. Note, however, that when an 
infinitive is used as the subjective of a sentence, together with 
an intransitive verb, any predicate adjectives in the sentence 
will be in the neuter nominative singular, eg., Errare est huma- 
num (Errare humanum est.): To err is human. 

Participles 

Latin participles have three tenses: present, future, and 
perfect. Future and perfect Latin participles also have a pas- 
sive voice. 

The present participle in English ends in -ing, e.g., 
working, speaking, writing, and the past participle of regular 
verbs ends in -ed, e.g., worked, but, spoken, written. In the 
active voice, English past participles are preceded by "has" or 
"have," e.g., "I have worked." "She has written." In the pas- 
sive voice, they are preceded by "was" or "were," e.g., "The work 
was done by the carpenters." "The baptisms were performed by the 
priests. " 

Most Latin verbs have four participles: present active, 
future active, perfect passive, and future passive. The present 
active participle is formed by combining the present stem, such 
as copula, doce, promitt, sepeli, or faci with -ns, -ntis, e.g., 
copulans (marrying), copulantis (of marrying), docens (teaching), 
docentis (of teaching), promittens (promising), promittentis (of 
promising), sepeliens (burying), sepelientis (of burying), and 



181 



faciens (making), facientis (of making). The meaning of the 
Latin present participle is approximately the same as the English 
present participle. The present participle is declined like 
third declension adjectives, except that the genitive singular 
ends in -e rather than -i. 

The future active participle is constructed by joining the 
stem of the perfect passive participle (the supine stem), the 
fourth principal part of the Latin verb, minus -us, -a, -um, etc. 
(copulat, doct, premiss, sepult, fact), with the endings -urus, 
-ura, -urum (which are declined exactly like first and second 
declension adjectives such as bonus, bona, bonum) . The meaning 
of the future active participle is "going to do" (something) or 
"about to do" (something), thus, for example: copulaturus (about 
to marry), docturus (about to teach), promissurus (about to 
promise), sepulturus (about to bury), facturus (about to make). 

The perfect passive participle was discussed in Chapter IX. 
To review, briefly, the perfect passive participle is formed by 
combining the stem of the participle (the supine stem), copulat, 
etc. with -us, -a, -um, etc. It has the meaning "done" or 
"having been done" (e.g., copulatus ([having been] married). 
Since this participle is passive , it should always be translated 
as such. 

The future passive participle links the present stem of the 
verb to the endings -ndus, -nda, -ndtim, etc. It is translated as 
"to be" (something), "deserving" or "fit to be" (something), 
e.g., copulandus (to be married), docendus (to be taught), prom- 
ittendus (to be promised), sepeliendus (to be buried), faciendus 
(to be made). It is declined like bonus, bona, bonum and other 
first and second declension adjectives. 

Examples of the participles of verbs of all four conjuga- 
tions are given below: 

copulare (first conjugation) 

Active Meaning 

Present copulans (-antis, etc.) marrying (of marrying, etc.) 
Future copulatui-us , -a, -um going to marry, about to marry 



Passive 
Perfect copulatus, -a, -um 
Future copulandus, -a, -inn 



married, having been married 

to be married, deserving, etc. 
to be married 



182 



docere (second conjugation) 
Active 
Present docens ( -entis , etc . ) 
Future doctums, -a, -urn 

Passive 
Perfect doctus, -a, -um 
Future docendus, -a, -um 

promittere (third conjugation] 

Active 

Present promittens 

( -entis , etc . ) 

Future promissurus , -a, -um 

Passive 
Present promissus, -a, -um 
Future promittendus , -a, -um 

sepelire (fourth conjugation) 
Active 

Present sepeliens (-ientis, 

etc. ) 

Future sepulturus, -a, -um 

Passive 
Perfect sepultus, -a, -um 
Future sepeliendus, -a, -um 



Meaning 

teaching (of teaching, etc.) 

about to teach, going to teach 

taught, having been taught 

to be taught, deserving, etc. 
to be taught 

Meaning 

promising (of promising, etc.) 

about to promise, going to 
promise 

promised, having been promised 

to be promised, deserving, etc, 
to be promised 

Meaning 

burying (of burying, etc.) 

about to bury, going to bury 

buried, having been buried 

to be buried, deserving, etc. 
to be buried 



183 



facere (third conjugation io-verb) 

Active Meaning 

Present f aciens , ( -entis , etc . ) making 
Future facturus, -a, -um about to make, going to make 

Passive 

Perfect f actus, -a, -urn made, having been made 

Future faciendus, -a, -um to be made, deserving, etc. 

to be made 

Declension of the Present Participle 

Singular Plural 

Case Masc. & Fem. Neuter Masc. & Fem. Neuter 



Nom. 


copulans 


copulans 


copulantes 


copulanti a 


Gen. 


copulantis 


copulantis 


copulantium 


copulantium 


Dat. 


copulanti 


copulanti 


copu 1 ant ibus 


copulantibus 


Ace. 


copulantem 


copulans 


copulantes 


copulantia 


Abl. 


copulante* 


copulante 


copulantibus 


copulantibus 



*In classical Latin, a participle used as an attributive 
adjective generally ended in -i rather than -e, e.g., 
de copulanti viro (about or concerning the marrying man). 
In parish register Latin, either -i or -e might be used, 
depending, it would appear, upon the amount of classical 
training a priest or other ecclesiastical official might 
have received. 

Like copulans are declined docens, promittens, sepeliens, 
and f aciens . 

Examples : 

Cum erranti (errante) peregrine venit. 

(He/she came with the wandering pilgrim. [The participle 
is used here as an attributive adjective which agrees 
with peregrinus in gender , number , and case . ] ) 

Infans natus fuit. 

(The child was born. The participle is used here as a 
predicate adjective which agrees with the subject infans 
in gender, number, and case.) 

Ave Caesar morituri te salutamus! 

(Hail Caesar, we who are about to die [lit.: we about to 
die] salute you! [salutation of Roman gladiators, future 
participle] ) 



184 



Hoc beneficium faciendum sit. 

(Let this benefice be made. [The participle here is the 
future passive, used with the present siibjunctive of 
command — see Chapter XII.]) 

The Active and Passive Periphrastic 

The periphrastic construction is, basically a kind of cir- 
cumlocution, a way of speaking around or speaking indirectly 
about a subject, as opposed to a shorter, more direct and concise 
way. (The Greek present active infinitive periphrazein means to 
go out indirectly [hence, to periphrase] . ) There are two types 
of periphrastic constructions in Latin, each of which uses parti- 
ciples, namely, active and passive. 

The active form makes use of the future active participle, 
and has the meaning "going to do," "about to do," as indicated 
above. The passive form utilizes the future passive participle, 
and is translated as "to be done." 

If the future passive participle — also called the gerun- 
dive — is combined with a tense of the verb esse, this is known as 
the passive periphrastic. It expresses obligation or necessity, 
e.g., Carthago delenda est. (Carthage must, or ought to be, 
destroyed. This is a well-known pronouncement of the Roman 
statesman Cato.) 

In this example, the future passive participle of deleo, 
delere, delevi, deletum (destroy) agrees in gender, number, and 
case with Carthago, which is feminine. The same is true of all 
periphrastic constructions. 

If an agent is required with this participial usage to 
express the idea that this ought to be done by someone or some- 
thing, the ablative preposition a or ab is not used (as it is 
with the passive voice to indicate the agent by which something 
was done). Instead, the agent, in classical Latin should be 
placed in the dative case without a preposition, e.g., Haec poema 
mihi scribenda est. (This poem ought to be written by me.) This 
construction is not commonly used in parish registers. When it 
is found, it is possible that an ablative preposition might be 
employed in place of the dative of agency. 

Should a participle be used in a phrase or clause, it is 
generally translated adverbially, with the aid of a preposition. 
Thus, for example, in the sentence Administrans extremam 
unctionem, parochus cibiit. (After administering the last rites, 
the priest departed. [literally: Administering the last rites, 
the priest departed.]) The proper translation of the participle 
is usually determined by the apparent meaning of the sentence in 
which it occurs . 



185 



The tense of the participle, as the above example indicates, 
is not the same as that of the main indicative verb. 
Administrans is the present participle, while abiit is the per- 
fect indicative active, third person singular. The reason for 
this apparent discrepancy is that the tense of the participle is 
relative to that of the main verb, i.e.. 

Participle Action 

Present same time as that of the main verb 

Future time after that of the main verb 

Perfect time before that of the main verb 

However, in ecclesiastical Latin (as, for example, the Latin 
of the Vulgate) and in certain types of medieval documents, which 
seemingly influenced the Latin of parish registers, the present 
participle might also be utilized to show action which occurred 
before that of the main verb. (This was done, originally, in an 
attempt to imitate the Greek aorist participle which has no exact 
Latin equivalent. ) 

In general, present participles, when found in parish regis- 
ter entries or in commentaries by priests or other ecclesiastical 
officials, are used much the same way as they are in English. 
They can, therefore, be translated accordingly. 

The Ablative Absolute 

A noun or pronoun and a participle may be joined in Latin, 
and made more or less independent of the sentence of which they 
are a part, by placing them in the ablative case. This construc- 
tion, called the "ablative absolute" because of its independence 
from the rest of the sentence, is very common in both classical 
and medieval Latin. It is used to express circumstance or time, 
and is preceded by such words as "when," "since," "although," 
"after," "because," and "if." Thus, for example: 

Omnibus sacramentis munitis, pie in domino obiit. 

(literally: Having been fortified by all the sacraments, 
he/she died piously in the Lord. Or: After he or she had 
received the last rites, he/she died piously in the Lord. 
Here, the perfect passive participle of munio, munire 
munivi, mimitum: fortify, build, secure, protect, is 
combined with the noun sacramentum and the adjective 
omnis, omne. Note that omnibus sacramentis munitus/a — 
an ablative of means [fortified by means of the 
sacraments] — is more likely to be encountered in death 
entries in connection with the last rites than the ablative 
absolute. ) 



186 



Tribus in hac ecclesia parochial!, in Niedersheim, et in 
Kappel in quo sponsus laborabat, factis proclamationibus , 
copulati sunt, honestus juvenis Joheinnes Rath et pudica 
virgo Anna Catherina Brueck. 

(literally: Three in this parish church, in Niedersheim and 
in Kappel, in which the bridegroom used to work, having 
been made banns , were married the upright young man 
Johannes Rath and the chaste virgin Anna Catherina Brueck. 
Or: After three marriage banns had been made [posted, 
announced, etc.] in this parish church, in Niedersheim, and 
in Kappel, in which the bridegroom used to work, the 
upright young man Johannes Rather and the chaste virgin 
Anna Catherina Brueck were married. Here the ablative 
absolute is tribus factis proclamationibus [some other 
arrangement such as tribus proclamationibus factis is 
also possible] ; factis is the participle — the perfect 
passive participle — while proclamationibus is the noun and 
tribus the adjective.) 

Since classical Latin had no present participle of the verb 
esse (being), two nouns, or a noun and a adjective, could be 
placed in the ablative case with the participle "being" under- 
stood, e.g. , 

praesentibus testibus . . . 

(the present witnesses being ... or, the present witnesses 
are or were ...; or, the witnesses present are or were ...; 
praesentibus [or presentibus] is often found alone, 
with testibus understood. ) 

susceptoribus ex sacro f onte baptismi . . . 

(the godparents being [are or were]; literally: those lifting 
[the child] from the sacred font of baptism are or were . . . 

In parish registers, the ablative absolute is likely to be 
found in the following expressions: 

1) To give the godparents in a baptismal entry: 

Heri nata et hodie baptizata est, Helena, filia 
legitima Martini Hock et Mariae Magdalenae Rickert. 
Levantibus: Joanne Hock, fratre patris, et Helena Julianna 
Kranz, uxore Caroli Hansen ex villa nova. 

(Yesterday [was] born and today was baptized, Helena, 
legitimate daughter of Martin Hock and Maria Magdalena 
Rickert. The godparents were [being]: Johann Hock, a 
brother of the father, and Helena Julianna Kranz, wife 
of Carl Hansen from Neuhof . Levantibus is from the 
verb levo, levare, levavi, levatum: to raise up, 
lift up, and refers to the practice of the godparents 
raising the child from the baptismal font. Note, however, 
that such statements as patrini fuerunt: [the godparents 
were:] are perhaps more common than the ablative absolute 
in birth entries.) 



187 



2) In marriage entries: 

a) To list the marriage banns: 

Anno Domini 1754 et die X Maii denunciationibus 
praemissis tribus, quamm prima Dominica III post 
Pascham, secunda Dominica IV post Pascham, et 
tertia Dominica V post Pascham . . . 

(In the year of our Lord 1754 on the tenth day of May 
three marriage banns were published before* [the 
marriage] , of which the first [was published] on the 
third Sunday after Easter, the second on the fourth 
Sunday after Easter, and the third on the fifth 
Sunday after Easter) 

*praemitto, praemittere, praemissi, praemissum: 

send before, dispatch, publish previously or before 

N.B. In this example, the dates of the marriage banns 
have been slightly altered for illustrative 
purposes and are not accurate representations 
of actual days. 

b) To indicate whether or not any hindrances to the 
marriage may have been revealed and, if so, whether 
or not these were removed by a special dispensation: 

nulloque impedimento detecto**, ex parte sponsi aut 
sponsae . . . 

(and no impediment was [having been] revealed, on the 
part of the bridegroom or the bride . . . ) 

**detego, detegere, detexi, detectum: uncover, reveal 

nulloque detecto neque canonico neque civili 
impedimento excepto tertio et quarto consanguinitatis 
gradu, autem ab episcopo dispensatio data est 

(and no hindrance [impediment] having been revealed, 
neither canonical nor civil, except in the third and 
fourth degree of consanguinity [blood relationship] , 
however a dispensation was given by the bishop . . . ) 

c) To list the names of the witnesses: 

Praesentibus testibus: Joanne* Herult, agricola huius 
loci, Jacobo Till, mercatore ex Winzighausen, et 
Susanna Marianna Gross, sorore sponsae . . . 

(The witnesses present [or, the present witnesses] were 
[being]: Johann Herult, a farmer of this place, Jakob 
Till, a merchant from Winzighausen, and Susanna 
Marianna Gross, a sister of the bride ...) 



*The names and occupations or status of any witnesses 
listed using the ablative absolute must be in the 
ablative case (hence, Joanne, Jacobo, Susanna 
Marianna, agricola, mercatore, and sorore) . 

Note the uses of the ablative absolute in the following: 

Anno millesimo septingentesimo septuagesimo octavo die 
vero vigesima septima mensis Aprilis factis tribus 
publicationibus de futuro matrimonio inter missas 
solemnes, nulloque detecto negue canonico negue civili 
impedimento excepto tertio et guarto consanguinitatis 
gradu, autem ab episcopo dispensatio data est et cum 
consensu mutuo guorum interest, a me infrascripto 
parocho matrimonialiter conjuncti sunt, honestus juvenis 
Stephanus Taunis et pudica virgo Petronella Kramer. 
Praesentibus : Ludivico Bichantz, tonsore, et Jacobo 
Hunger , serrario , ambo huius loci , gui una meciun 
subscr ipserunt . 

(In the year one thousand seven hundred seventy-eight, on 
the twenty-seventh day [truly] of the month of April, 
three marriage banns were made [published] between solemn 
masses concerning a [the] future marriage, and no hindrance 
[impediment] was revealed, neither canonical nor civil 
[i.e., an impediment in canon or civil law] except in 
the third and fourth degree of consanguinity, [for which] 
however, a dispensation was given by the bishop, and with 
the mutual consent of those concerned [of those of whom 
it is a concern], by me the undersigned priest were joined 
matrimonially [i.e., were married], the upright young man 
Stephan Taunis and the chaste virgin Petronella Kramer. 
The witnesses present [or the present witnesses] were 
(being): Ludwig [Louis] Bichantz, barber [hair dresser], 
and Jakob Bunger, locksmith, both of [from] this place, 
who together with me signed [wrote] below.) 

For a discussion of the impediments to marriage, and the 
degree of consanguinity [blood relationship] involved, 
see the word list. 

d) In death entries, to provide information concerning 
whether or not the deceased received the last rites: 
(or with the ablative of means, as noted above) 

Vigesimo octo mensis Septembris emno domini 1668 Maria 
Anna Gartner, ixxor Josephi Weld etiam defuncti, omnibus 
sacramentis munitis (munita) , pie in domino nostro 
Jesu Christo obiit. Reguiescat in sancta pace! 

(On the twenty-eighth [day] of the month of September 
in the year of our Lord 1668 Maria Anna Gartner, wife 
of Joseph Weld already deceased, fortified with all 
[of] the sacraments, died piously in our Lord Jesus 
Christ. May she rest in holy peace! [Rest in holy 
peace! ] ) 



189 



Note that the ablative absolute might also be used in death 
entries to furnish the names and status or occupation of any 
witnesses provided, e.g., Presentibus testibus : Martino 
Reinhardt, fabro cupri, et Roberto Gest, ludimagistro. (The 
witnesses present [were]: Martin Reinhardt, coppersmith, and 
Robert Gest, school master [teacher] . ) 

Infinitives: Active and Passive 

There are six infinitives in Latin, three in the active and 
three in the passive voice. These include the following: 

active: present infinitive 
perfect infinitive 
future infinitive 

passive: present infinitive 
perfect infinitive 
future infinitive 

Active Infinitives 

The present active infinitive is formed by adding -re or 
-ere to the present stem, e.g., copulare: to marry, docere: to 
teach, promittere: to promise, sepelire: to bury, and facere to 
make. The present active infinitive is the second principal part 
of the Latin verb. 

The perfect active infinitive combines the perfect stem with 
-isse, e.g., copulavisse: to have married, docuisse: to have 
taught, promississe: to have promised, sepelivisse: to have 
buried, and fecisse: to have made. 

The future infinitive is constructed by linking the future 
active participle (discussed above) with esse, e.g., copulatunis 
esse: to be about to [going to] marry, docturus esse: to be about 
to teach, promissurus esse: to be about to promise, sepulturus 
esse: to be about to bury, and facturus esse: to be about to 
make. 

Passive Infinitives 

The present passive infinitive is formed by combining the 
present stem with -ri or -i, e.g., copulari : to be married, 
doceri: to be taught, promitti : to be promised (present stem 
promitt plus -i), sepeliri: to be buried, faceri: to be made. 
Note that the meaning here (and in the case of the other two 
infinitives discussed below) is always passive and must be trans- 
lated accordingly. 

The perfect passive infinitive consists of the perfect 
passive participle and esse, e.g., copulatus esse: to have been 
married, doctus esse: to have been taught, promissus esse: to 
have been promised, sepultus esse: to have been buried, and 



190 



f actus esse: to have been made. 

The future passive infinitive is the supine accusative 
singular plus iri, e.g., copulatum iri: to be about to [going to] 
be married, doctum iri: to be about to be taught, promissum iri: 
to be about to be promised, sepultum iri: to be about to be 
buried, and factum iri: to be about to be made. The future 
passive participle was rarely used in classical Latin and is 
seldom, if ever, found in parish register entries. 

Indirect Statement 

Perhaps the most important use of the infinitive in classi- 
cal Latin was in indirect statement or discourse. Direct 
statement, as may be recalled from the previous chapter, is an 
actual statement of fact such as "The girl won the race." or, 
"The boy walked to school." Indirect statement is, as the name 
suggests, a statement made by someone else about the event, e.g., 
"He said that the girl won the race." "The teacher said that the 
boy walked to school." 

In classical Latin, there was no word or expression for 
"that" after a verb of saying, thinking, reporting, etc. In- 
stead, the Romans put the subject in the accusative case and the 
verb in the infinitive. Compare the two sentences below: 

Eodem die Sebastianus Hinck obiit. 

(On the same day, Sebastian Hinck died [direct statement].) 

Parochus dixit eodem die Sebastianum Hinck obisse [obiisse] . ) 

(The priest said that on the same day Sebastian Hinck died 
[indirect statement].) 

In medieval Latin, however, the indirect statement was often 
replaced by a verb of saying, thinking, etc. and quod (that) plus 
the subjunctive. If indirect statements are found in parish 
registers entries, they are more likely to utilize this con- 
struction than the classical subject accusative and infinitive. 
(The use of quod with the subjunctive was explained in the previ- 
ous chapter. ) 

The sequence of tenses in an indirect statement is similar 
to that of the participle, e.g., 

present infinitive: same time as the main verb 
perfect infinitive: time before the main verb 
future infinitive: time after that of the main verb 

Examples : 

Present Main Verb 



191 



Dicit parochujn puellcun baptizare. 

(He/she says that the priest baptizes the girl. The statement 
and the baptism occur at the same time, the present.) 

Dicit parochum puellam baptizavisse. 

(He/she says that the priest baptized the girl. The baptism 
comes before the statement, which is in the present. ) 

Dicit parochum puelletm baptizaturus esse. 

(He/she says that the priest will baptize the girl. The 
statement, in the present, is made prior to the baptism. 

Perfect Main Verb 

Dixit parochum puellam baptizare. 

(He/she said that the priest was baptizing the girl. The 
statement and baptism occur at the same time, in the past.) 

Dixit parochum puellam baptizavisse. 

(He/she said that the priest had baptized the girl. The 
baptism took place in the past, before the statement was 
made. ) 

Dixit parochum puellam baptizaturus esse. 

(He/she said that the priest would baptize the girl. The 
statement, made in the past, occurred before the baptism. ) 

Future Main Verb 

Dicet parochum puellam baptizare. 

(He/she will say that the priest baptizes the girl. The 
statement and baptism both occur at the same time, in 
the future . ) 

Dicet parochum puellam baptizavisse. 

(He/she will say that the priest baptized the girl. The 
baptism will come first, in the past, before the statement 
about it is made in the future. ) 

Dicet parochum puellam baptizaturus esse. 

(He will say that the priest will baptize the girl. The 
statement comes first, then the baptism, and both occur 
in the future . ) 



192 



EXERCISES: CHAPTER XIII 



A. Grammar 

List all forms of the participles of humare (first conjuga- 
tion), tenere (second conjugation), vivere (third conjugation), 
sepelire (fourth conjugation), and facere (third conjugation io- 
verb). Decline the present participle of baptizare. List all 
infinitives of maritare (first conjugation), videre (second 
conjugation), promittere (third conjugation), venire (fourth 
conjugation), and capere (third conjugation io-verb). 

B. Vocabulary 



Learn any new words given in this chapter, plus the follow- 



ing: 



praemitto, praemittere, 

praemissi, praemissum: send 
before, dispatch, publish 
previously (premitto) 

detego , detegere , detexi , 
detectum: uncover, reveal, 
detect 

praesto , praestare , praestiti , 
praestitum: show, profess, 
pledge, lend (presto) 

praestare juramentum: to take 
an oath 

carentia, carentiae, f.: 
penance accompanied by 
fasting (from careo, 
carere, carui, cariturus: 
want, lack, be without, 
used with an ablative of 
separation in classical 
Latin) 

guicumgue, guaecumgue , 

quodcumque : whosoever, 
whatsoever (declined like: 
qui , quae , quod ) 

obtineo, obtinere, obtinui , 
obtentum: obtain, hold, 
possess (optineo) 



gravis, grave, adj.: heavy, 

severe 
causa , causae , f . : cause 
proclamatio, proclamationis , 

f . : bann , announcement 

littera, litterae, f.: a 
letter of the alphabet; 
plural: a letter (written) 

dimissorius , dimissoria , 
dimissorium: when used with 
litterae in the plural, a 
dimissoral letter; in the 
case of marriage, for 
example, a letter from an 
ecclesiastical authority 
which might grant 

permission to marry outside 
of one's own parish or 
diocese. (v. the word list 
for other definitions) 

dimissorialis, dimissoriale, 
adj . : see above ; as a noun , 
pi.: dimissorial letters, 
or a dimissorial letter 

dispensatio, dispensationis, 
f.: dispensation, permis- 
sion 



193 



C. Translation: Latin to English 

Translate the following sentences from Latin to English: 

4ta Maii 1768 praehcibita dispensations in tribus bannis 

et dimissorialibus a reverendo domino parocho matrimonium 

contraxerunt , Quirinus Laumen et Anna Cornelia Heyen. 

Presentibus testibus vero Christian© Rodegast et Reinero 

Fleischer. 

(praehabito, praehabitare , praehabitavi , praehabitatum: 

supply, furnish, offer; cl. Latin: praehibeo, praehibere, 

praehibui, praehibittun) 

Anno millesimo septingentesimo octogesimo octavo die 
decimo mensis Octobris hora decima post meridiem in utero 
materno ab obstetrice jurata Maria Catherina Hirt, uxore 
Theoboldo Hirt cive et doliario in hoc loco, ob imminens 
mortis periculum et propter necessitatem apertam, baptizata 
est infans, filia legitima Josephi Bringel, civis et 
agricolae et pro tempore deputale municipalis et Magdalenae 
Frick conjugum, cui impositum est ab obstetrice nomen 
Susannam, quae postea suscepto baptismo mortua est. 
Praesentibus testibus: patre supreuiominato et obstetrice, 
qui ambo una mecum Rudolf o Krietscher , parocho huius loci , 
subscr ipserunt . 

(juratus, jurata, juratum: legal, lawful; doliarius, 
doliarii, m. : cooper, barrel maker; aperio, aperire, 
aperui, apertum: evident, open, exposed; deputale 
municipalis: being a deputy of the city or community [i.e., 
a town councillor] ; suscipio, suscipere, suscepi, 
susceptum: undertake, take up; supranominatus , 
supranominata , supranominatum: above named; una mecum: 
together with me) 

Anno millesimo sescentesimo nonagesimo et die decimo quinto 
mensis Februarii in hac nostra ecclesia parochiali factis 
tribus denunciationibus quarum prima, die tricesimo primo 
Januarii, secunda, septimo huius mensis, et tertia, die 
decimo quarto, nulloque detecto impediment©, et cum consensu 
eorum quorum interest obtento, in vinculis sancti matrimonii 
conjvmcti sunt Stephanus Franciscus Heyer, Jacobi Heyer 
civis in hoc loco et defunctae Catharinae Annae Bilsch 
filius legit imus natus viginti quatuor annos et octo 
circiter menses, et Philippina Drossel Georgii Drossel 
civis huius loci et Mariae Philippinae Schmitt filia 
legitima nata viginti unum annos et quatuor menses, a me 
Paulo Josepho Heralt parocho huius dicti loci. 
Praesentibus: Adolpho Braun, ludimagistro una cum patre 
sponsi et patre sponsae. Adolphus Braun subscripsit, 
sed pater sponsi et pater sponsae dixerunt quod scribere 
nescirent et sic signa eorum fecerunt. 

( denunciatio , denunciationis , f.: marriage bann; consensus, 
consensus, m. : consent; interest: it concerns; vinculum, 
vinculi, n.: bond, chain; nescirent: they did not know [how]) 



194 



1805 Maius, Martinus Caspar! Eislinger, colon! hujus et 
El!sabethae Kangger, conjugmn, fil!us leg!t!mus natus est 
9na Ma!! hora 6ta vespertina. Puer !n eccles!a paroch!al! 
Sctnct! v!t!! hora 8va vespert!na a parocho bapt!zatus est. 
Levans fuit Mar!a Wester!n, vulgo Meier, xixor Michael!s 
Wester colon! in Oberholzer. 

(colonus, colon!, m. : fanner, settler, landholder; hujus = 
hu!us; vulgo = vulgo dicta) 

Proles anonyma: Matthaei Nebl feibri ex villa nostra et Evae 
Gertrudae Goldhofer conjugmn filius legitimus et 
primogenitus ob dif icultatem partus 2 dies durantem in utero 
ab obstetrice, in arte sua longe pertissima, signum vitae 
advertens, baptizatus est circa horam tertiam ante meridiem 
vicesimo secundo mensis Julii, statim obiit eodemque die 
circa horam quinteim translatus ad tumulum et sepultus est. 
(durantem: present participle [ace] of duro, durare, 
duravi, duratum: last, endure; ars, artis, f.: art, skill, 
ability; peritus, perita, peritum: experienced, skillful, 
expert; adverto, advertere, advert!, adversum: 
perceive, attract, turn towards; statim, adv.: immediately; 
translatus [est] : carried away [here] ) 

D. Translation: English to Latin 

Translate the following sentences from English to Latin: 

On the third day of the month of October, toward the fifth 
hour of the evening, the legitimate daughter of Martin 
Margolin and Marie Eva Faubert, was born, and, because of 
imminent danger of death, was baptized by the midwife. 

After the publication of three marriage banns, the first 
on the 14th of J;ine, the second on the 21st of June, and 
the third on the 28th of June, and no hindrance having 
been uncovered, the mutual consent of those of whom it is 
a concern having been obtained, August Grenz, worker and 
citizen of Rankweil, legitimate son of William Thomas 
Grenz, also (eticun) a worker and citizen of Rankweil, 
and of his wife Regina Margaretha Eberhardt, and Penelopea 
Mathilda Siedler, legitimate daughter of Thomas Jacob 
Sielder, a cooper and citizen of our village, and of his 
wife Ottilia Gertruda Falk, were joined in the bonds of 
holy matrimony by me Casparus Kratz, priest of this parish. 
The witnesses present were: John Frederick Wann, carpenter 
and citizen of our village, Thomas Michael Wolfenstein, 
blacksmith and citizen of Grenzweil, and Gerhardus Martin 
Grenz, brother of the groom, farmer and citizen of 
Rankweil. All three of the witnesses said that they did 
not know how to write, and so (sic) they made their marks. 



195 



When the child was examined (use the ablative absolute with 
exajnino, examinare, examinavi, examinatiim) , the midwife, 
being very skilled in her art, perceived (use cemo, 
cemere, crevi, ere turn) that it lived (use the subject 
accusative for "it," i.e., eum and the perfect active 
infinitive for "lived") and baptized it. After the baptism, 
the child died immediately and was carried away to the 
cemetery on the same day and buried. 

On the thirtieth day of December in the year of our Lord 
one thousand six hundred twenty-five, the upright and 
faithful (fidelis, fidele) Mary Catherine Ostwald, 
widow of the mayor, lord Robertus Sigmundus Regenkamp, 
while living (dum vivens) a most illustrious citizen of 
the town of Bordenheim, died piously (pie) in our Lord 
Jesus Christ, after receiving extreme unction (use the 
ablative, e.g., unctione extrema recepta, etc.) 

Since the bishop is about to make a journey (iter facere: 
to take trip, make a journey; use the future participle of 
facere), he will ordain (use ordinare) two priests. 

E. Translation: Parish Registers 

Document #1 

With the aid of the vocabulary in Section B and below, 
translate the following marriage entry from a German parish. 
There are some Gothic letters here, so study the vocabulary 
carefully before translating. 






JimXtt 
vctxn 



4fC 

Aniui Mavia 
(xanhtumrin 



Amu Dtfrntfu Jij^ JUt^O^ll .M^ duuuul*iumlui tutmlAh-bnJbuitSC Jb^mu- 
ptfA^BJcfui ;.* SUM. OMBt jtS^ Mofi.'f ioAii, nuiWuc U«cci]m« wmdlmtMa dtbA» , 

tifUnUi ot gCAvu ouiIm lucntui a 'Kb^ VuMn^ttu-f^vdiSJ. , «ul Hi/lk. $AvtiH4M, 
£m Wta icxifiHU TmxoJiut £,<Adim. 6Atiktjuniit ksnAum. C^ti^im- ^<kmitt OL 
/Cu.vtl3P«-AccA*P«>t<<li<^titv tr «W!i<^A>ytU[yMK M«MJl)ur«*.Ma^<n&UMiu '^•^ f 
hUdtttuM-Sckmitt B.m.Cwu iU^flnxS^AnnA MfLn« tiMtm. 0(baak (jtr^ufun {lilunXf 
rttx. n»n. nantJkdm Atuuuti Maxuuk (xvdntlmtA f lei* J^xttuuuu (svi0uxrrux 
Qyt* in O/fcnbofAfd^ AniuK £.liCd)mtkjt ruttM. ^Jl^t&uM Ca/^u*um l^tinuun, iiU'^m 
lntttt»^vi , mutu»^u^ c^cum €bnUnlM^ ctnun mcpctJik* , A kai>aa JjtUmnittx pa 

^i^m./ <XJ0,uux4, Sturm CiyiUu 0/li«4«.£««/»U^, InjUvn . 

OflcnkuA^ lit fufuL , 



196 



Vocabulary 

quidem: even, indeed 
Dominica V. post Pascha(m): 
the fifth Sunday after 
Easter (a movable feast 
day) 
Pascha, Paschae, f.: Easter 
zda = 2da = seciinda 
in festo Ascensionis: in the 

feast of the Ascension 
D.N.J.C. = Domini Nostri Jesu 
Christi: of our Lord Jesus 
Christ (i.e., in [during] 
the feast of the Ascension 
of our Lord Jesus, a 
movable feast day which 
traditionally occurred 
forty days after Easter) 
Dom. VI. post Pascha: the 

sixth Sunday after Easter 
qua = quae 
factis: goes with denunciatio- 

nibus praemissis tribus 
nulloque legitime impedimento 

detecto 
praestito: established 

[showed] 
insuper, adv. : moreover 
pars, partis, f.: part (N.B. 
The accusative of this novm 
can be either partem or 
partim, and the ablative 
either parte or parti.) 
juramento de carentia: by an 

oath of (from) penance 
cujuscunque = cuiuscumc[ue 
cuiuscumque impedimenti: of 
(any) impediment whatsoever 
obtenta (v. obtineo above) 
ob graves causas: because of 

important (heavy) causes 
obtenta licentia: an ablative 
absolute = permission 
having been obtained be- 
cause of important causes 
Rev. mo = reverendissimo: the 
most reverend, the right 
reverend 
vicariatus, vicariatus, m. : 
vicarate or vicariate, the 
office of a vicar; here, 
possibly, vicar 



Spirensi: of Speyer (a German 
city); ablative because it 
is part of a me reveren- 
dissimo vicariatu Spirensi 
ad missae solemnia: to (for) 
the solemnities of the mass 
Offenbacensis: of Offenbach (a 

place name) 
Casparum Schmitt; 
Rueveren: a place name 
archidiocelis: archdiocese 
Trevirensis: of Trier (a 

German city) 
Satinpia, Satinpiae, f.: the 
name of the monastery (Note 
that the genitive singular 
Satinpiae is used here with 
monasterio; i.e., in the 
monastery of Satinpia.) 
Mayenfeldensis: of Mayenfeld 

(a place name) 
page: from pagus, pagi , m. : 
village (add "in" when 
translating) 
Matthia = Matthiae 
p.m. = piae memoriae: of 
blessed memory, i.e., 
deceased 
nee non: and not, moreover, 
and also 
r\ 
jois = Jocuinis 
Anna Elisabetha nata = Annae 

Elisbethae natae 
interrogavi: I examined, 

questioned 
mutuoque eorum consensu: and 

with their mutual consent 
coram me praestito: pledged 

(given) in my presence 
habito : sworn ( here ) 
verbum, verba, n.: word 
de praesenti: concerning the 
present (i.e., the present 
mutual consent) 
Andrea Vogler: a first and 

last name 
sutor, sutoris, m. : shoemaker 
in fidem: in faith, faithfully 
ut supra: as above 



197 



Document #2 



With the aid of the vocabulary below, translate the 
following marriage entry from the former provinces of Alsace- 
Lorraine (now in northern France). Note that the medial -s 
(i.e., in the middle of a word) resembles an English -h or -f 
(also,' occasionally, at the beginning of a word). 



y4to 'fum^^t^- 






tHU^-/^^^**^^^ 






/Si. 






^^^^^i^J^^ -^:^-^^ ^^^- ^^^^ 



198 



docere (second conjugation), gerund: docendum 
Case Gerund Meaning 



Noiti. 
Gen. 
Dat. 
Ace. 
Abl. 



docendi 
docendo 
docendum 
docendo 



of/from teaching 
to/for teaching 
teaching (d.o., etc.) 
by/with/f rom, etc. teaching 



promittere (third conjugation), gerund: promittendum 
Case Gerund Meaning 



Nom. 
Gen. 
Dat. 
Ace. 
Abl. 



promittendi 
promi ttendo 
pr omi ttendum 
promi ttendo 



of/from promising 
to/for promising 
promising (d.o., etc.) 
by/with/from, etc. promising 



sepelire (fourth conjugation), gerund: sepeliendum 
Case Gerund Meaning 



Nom. 
Gen. 
Dat. 
Ace. 
Abl. 



sepeliendi 
sepeliendo 
sepeliendum 
sepeliendo 



of/from burying 

to/for burying 

burying (d.o., etc.) 

by /with/from, etc. burying 



facere (third conjugation io-verb), gerund: faciendum 
Case Gerund Meaning 



Nom. 
Gen. 
Dat. 
Ace. 
Abl. 



faciendi 
faciendo 
faciendum 
faciendo 



of/from making 
to/for making 
making (d.o., etc.) 
by/with/from, etc. making 



Example : 



Advocatus mittetur ex nobis ad regandum et gvibemandum 
omnia necessaria. 

(The lawyer is sent by [from] us for the purpose of 
regulating and directing all necessary things.) 

As may be seen above, the accusative gerund was often used 
in medieval Latin with ad to express purpose, e.g., ad copulandum 
(for the purpose of marrying [towards marrying]). 



201 



Gerrrnd and Gerundive 

The gerund, as indicated above, is a verbal noun in the 
active voice only. The gerundive, or future passive participle, 
is, by contrast, a verbal adjective in the passive voice which, 
as discussed in the preceding chapter, has the meaning of "to be" 
(something), "fit or deserving to be" (something), e.g., 
laudandus, laudanda, laudandum: to be praised, deserving or fit 
to be praised. 

The gerundive masculine and neuter singular for the cases 
other than the nominative are declined exactly the same way as 
the gerund. Since, however, one is active and the other passive 
in voice, it is important to distinguish between the two. In 
parish registers, this should not be overly difficult. The 
meaning of the word in context should be considered carefully in 
order to make the proper translation. 

In the previous example, if regandum et gubernandum were 
gerundives, the translation would have to be: "The lawyer is sent 
by us to be regulated and to be directed all necessary things," 
which would make no real sense. (The sentence: "The lawyer is 
sent by us so that all necessary things might be regulated and 
directed," would require an entirely different construction, 
namely, a subjunctive clause of purpose.) 

In both classical and medieval Latin, there are, however, 
numerous instances of the use of the gerundive in place of the 
gerund (i.e., an active translation of the passive voice). 
Consequently, it will be useful to consider the gerundive more 
closely. The gerundive is frequently found in legal documents, 
and, occasionally, in parish registers, in certain fixed expres- 
sions, such as, for example: 

habendum et tenendum 

(literally: a thing to be had and a thing to be held, 
usually translated as "to have and to hold" [active 
meaning with a passive form] ) 

Dos filiae meae data est habendum et tenendum. 

(A dowry is given to my daughter to have and to hold. ) 

Note in the last example that habendum et tenendum, both 
future passive participles, do not agree in gender with dos, 
dotis (dowry), the subject, which is feminine. This is because 
habendum et tenendum was often used as a more or less standard 
phrase which remained independent of the rest of the sentence. 
It was also abbreviated, on occasion, as habend' et tenend' . 

Additional examples of the use of the gerundive in place of 
the gerund are given below: 



202 



notandum est 

(it is to be noted . . . or, note! [active meaning]) 

notandum sit 

(it should be noted . . .or, note!) 

sciendum est 

(it is to be known . . .or, know!) 

sciendum sit 

(it should be known . . .or, know!) 

The Irregular Verbs fio, volo, fero, eo 

fio, fiere, f actus sum (be made, be done, become) 

This verb was used in both classical and medieval Latin as 
the passive form of facio, facere, feci, factum. Although the 
perfect system is exactly the same for both verbs (f actus, facta, 
factum sum, ero, eram, sim, essem, etc.) the present, future, and 
imperfect indicative active are rather different, as noted below: 

Present Indicative of fieri 

fio I am made , done , I become 

f is you are made , done , you become 

fit he/she/it (or a noun) is made, done, he/she/it 

becomes 

fimus we are made, done, we become 

fitis you (all) are made, done, you (all) become 

f iunt they ( or a noun ) are made , done , they become 

Future Indicative of fieri 

fiam I shall be made, done, I shall become 

fies you will be made, done, you will become 

fiet he/she/it (or a noun) will be made, done, 

he/she/it will become 
fiemus we shall be made, done, we shall become 
fietis you (all) will be made, done, you (all) will 

become 
fient they will be made, done, they will become 

Imperfect Indicative of fieri 

fiebam I was made, done, I became 

f iebas you were made , done , you became 

fiebat he/she/it (or a noun) was made, done, 

he/she/it became 

f iebamus we were made , done , we became 

fiebatis you (all) were made, done, you (all) became 

fiebant they (or a noun) were made, done, they became 



203 



Note that the meaning here is always passive. Thus, for 
example, the sentence Matrimonium fit would be translated: "The 
marriage is made," not "He/she is making the marriage." (This 
would be Matrimonium facit. ) 

Subjunctive of fieri (for possible translations, 

V. Chapter XII) 



Present 

f iam 
f ias 
fiat 
f iamus 
f iatis 
f iant 



Imperfect 

f ierem 
f ieres 
f ieret 
f ieremus 
f ieret is 
f ierent 



Infinitives 

Present: fieri (to be made, be done, become) 

Perfect: f actus esse (to have been made, done, to have 

become ) 
Future : factum iri ( to be about to be made , done , to be 

about to become ) 

Participles 

Perfect: f actus, facta, factum (having been made, done) 
Future: faciendus, facienda, faciendiun (to be done, made, 

deserving or fit to be done, made) 

vole, velle (not velere) , volui (wish, want, be willing, will) 

Volo is an irregular verb of the third conjugation. The 
perfect system, volui, etc., and the perfect subjunctive are, 
however, regular. Most of the irregularities may be found in the 
present indicative, present subjunctive, and, to a degree, the 
imperfect subjunctive as shown below: 

Present Indicative Active of velle 



volo 

vis 

vult 

volumus 
volutis 
volunt 



I wish, want, will, etc. 

you wish, want, will, etc. 

he/she/it (or a noun) wishes, wants, 

wills, etc. 

we wish, want, will, etc. 

you (all) wish, want, will, etc. 

they (or a noun) wish, want, will, etc. 



204 



Future Indicative Active of velle 



volam 
voles 
volet 

vol emus 
volet is 
volent 



I shall wish, want, will, etc. 

you will wish, want, will, etc. 

he/she/it (or a noun) will wish, want, 

will, etc. 

we shall wish, want, will, etc. 

you (all) will wish, want, will, etc. 

they (or a noun) will wish, want, will, etc, 



Imperfect Indicative Active of velle 

volebam I wished, was wishing, wanting, willing, etc. 
volebas you wished, were wishing, wanting, 

willing, etc. 
volebat he/she/it (or a noun) wished, was wishing, 

wanting, willing, etc. 
volebamus we wished, were wishing, wanting, willing, etc, 
volebatis you (all) wished, were wishing, wanting, 

willing, etc. 
volebant they (or a noun) wished, were wishing, 

wanting, willing, etc. 

Perfect Indicative Active of velle (stem: volu) 

volui I wished, wanted, willed, have wished, etc. 

voluisti you wished, wanted, willed, have wished, etc. 
voluit he/she/it (or a noun) wished, wanted, willed, 

has wished, etc. 
voluimus we wished, wanted, willed, haved wished, etc. 
voluistis you (all) wished, wanted, willed, have 

wished, etc. 
voluerunt they (or a noun) wished, wanted, willed, 

have wished, etc. 

Pluperfect Indicative Active of velle 

volueram I had wished, wanted, willed, etc. 
volueras you had wished, wanted, willed, etc. 
voluerat he/she/it (or a noun) had wished, wanted, 

willed, etc. 
volueramus we had wished, wanted, willed, etc. 
volueratis you (all) had wished, wanted, willed, etc. 
voluerant they (or a noun) had wished, wanted, 

willed, etc. 



205 



Future Perfect Indicative Active of velle 

voluero I shall have wished, wanted, willed, etc. 
volueris you will have wished, wanted, willed, etc. 
voluerit he/she/it (or a noun) will have wished, 

wanted, willed, etc. 
voluerimus we shall have wished, wanted, willed, etc. 
volueritis you (all) will have wished, wanted, 

willed, etc. 
voluerint they (or a noun) will have wished, wanted, 

willed, etc. 

(Velle has no passive voice.) 
Subjunctive of velle 

Present Imperfect 



velim 

velis 

velit 

velimus 

velitis 

velint 

Perfect 

voluerim 

volueris 

voluerit 

voluerimus 

volueritis 

voluerint 

Participle of velle 

Active 

Present volens 

Infinitives of velle 



Present 
Perfect 



Active 



velle 
voluisse 



vellem 

velles 

vellet 

veil emus 

velletis 

vellent 

Pluperfect 

voluissem 

voluisses 

voluisset 

voluissemus 

voluissetis 

voluissent 



Meaning 

willing, wanting, wishing, etc. 

Meaning 

to wish, want, will, etc. 

to have wished, wanted, willed, etc, 



As discussed in Chapter XII, velle is frequently found in 
medieval and early modern Latin documents with quod (also ut or 
even alone) plus the subjunctive, e.g., Volo quod (ut) Geraldus 
de Clareti feodum meum habeat. (I will that Geraldus de Clareti 
shall have my fief.) 



206 



Conjugated like velle are nolo, nolle, nolui (not ... wish, 
be unwilling) and malo, malle, malui (wish rather, prefer). 
Note, however, the conjugation of nolo, nolle, nolui in the 
present indicative active: 

nolo I do not wish, am unwilling 

non vis you do not wish, are unwilling 

non vult he/she/it (or a noun) does not wish, is 

unwilling 

noluMus we do not wish, are unwilling 

non vultis you (all) do not wish, are unwilling 

nolunt they (or a noun) do not wish, are unwilling 

fero, ferre, tuli, latum (bear, carry) 

Fero is a third conjugation verb which is highly irregular 
in its four principal parts. The perfect stem and the perfect 
passive participle bear little resemblance to the present indica- 
tive and infinitive. The conjugation (and declension) of the 
former two is, however, quite regular. 

Present Indicative Active of ferre 



fero 

fers (not feris) 

fert (not ferit) 

ferimus 

fertis (not feritis) 

ferunt 



I bear, carry 

you bear, carry 

he/she/it (or a noun) bears, 

carries 

we bear, carry 

you (all) bear, carry 

they (or a noun) bear, carry 



Future Indicative Active of ferre 



feram 
feres 
feret 

feremus 
feretis 
ferent 



I shall bear, carry 

you will bear, carry 

he/she/it (or a noun) will bear, 

carry 

we will bear, carry 

you (all) will bear, carry 

they (or a noun) will bear, carry 



Imperfect Indicative Active of ferre 



ferebam 
ferebas 
ferebat 

ferebamus 
ferebatis 

ferebcint 



I was bearing, carrying, etc. 

you were bearing, carrying, etc. 

he/she/it (or a noun) was bearing, 

carrying, etc. 

we were bearing, carrying, etc. 

you (all) were bearing, carrying, 

etc. 

they (or a noun) were bearing, 

carrying, etc. 



207 



Perfect Indicative Active of ferre (stem: tul) 

tuli I bore, carried, have borne, etc. 

tulisti you bore, carried, have borne, etc. 

tulit he/she/it (or a noun) bore, carried, 

has borne , etc . 
tulimus we bore, carried, have borne, etc. 

tulistis you (all) bore, carried, have borne, 

etc. 
tulerunt they (or a noun) bore, carried, 

have borne , etc . 

Pluperfect Indicative Active of ferre 

tuleram I had borne, carried 

tuleras you had borne, carried 

tulerat he/she/it (or a noun) had borne, 

carried 

tuleramus we had borne , carried 

tuleratis you (all) had borne, carried 

tulerant they (or a noun) had borne, carried 

Future Perfect Indicative Active of ferre 

tulero I shall have borne, carried 

tuleris you will have borne, carried 

tulerit he/she/it (or a noun) will have 

borne, carried 
tulerimus we shall have borne, carried 

tuleritis you (all) will have borne, carried 

tulerint they (or a noun) will have borne, 

carried 

Present Indicative Passive of ferre 

feror I am borne, carried 

ferris you are borne, carried 

fertur he/she/it (or a noun) is borne, 

carried 

ferimur we are borne, carried 

ferimini you (all) are borne, carried 

feruntur they (or a noun) are borne, carried 

Future Indicative Passive of ferre 

ferar I shall be borne, carried 

fereris you will be borne, carried 

feretur he/she/it (or a noun) will be borne, 

carried 
feremur we shall be borne, carried 

feremini you (all) will be borne, carried 

ferentur they (or a noun) will be borne, 

carried 



208 



Imperfect Indicative Passive of ferre 



ferebar 

ferebaris 

ferebatur 

ferebamur 

ferebamini 

ferebantur 



I was borne, carried 

you were borne, carried 

he/she/it (or a noun) was borne, 

carried 

we were borne, carried 

you (all) were borne, carried 

they (or a noun) were borne, 

carried 



Perfect Indicative Passive of ferre 

latus, lata, latum sum I was borne, carried, have been 

borne, carried 
latus, lata, latum es you were borne, carried, have been 

borne, carried 
latus, lata, latum est he/she/it (or a noun) was borne, 

carried, has been borne, carried 
lati, latae, lata sumus we were borne, carried, have been 

borne, carried 
lati, latae, lata estis you (all) were borne, carried, have 

been borne, carried 
lati, latae, lata sunt they (or a noun) were borne, 

carried, have been borne, carried 

Pluperfect Indicative Passive of ferre 

latus, lata, latum eram I had been borne, carried 
latus, lata, latum eras you had been borne, carried 
latus, lata, latum erat he/she/it (or a noun) had been 

borne, carried 
lati, latae, lata eramus we had been borne, carried 
lati, latae, lata eratis you (all) had been borne, carried 
lati, latae, lata erant they (or a noun) had been borne, 

carried 



Future Perfect Indicative Passive of ferre 



latus , lata , 
latus , lata , 
latus , lata , 

lati , latae , 
lati , latae , 



latum ero 
latum eris 
latum erit 

lata erimus 
lata eritis 



lati, latae, lata erunt 



I shall have been borne, carried 

you will have been borne, carried 

he/she/it (or a noun) will have 

been borne, carried 

we shall have been borne, carried 

you (all) will have been borne, 

carried 

they (or a noun) will have been 

borne, carried 



209 



Subjiinctive of ferre 

Present 



Active 

feram 

feras 

ferat 

feramus 

feratis 

ferant 



Passive 

ferar 

feraris 

feratur 

feramur 

feramini 

ferantur 



Imperfect 
Active Passive 



ferrem 

ferres 

ferret 

ferremus 

ferretis 

ferrent 



ferrer 

ferreris 

ferretur 

ferremur 

ferremini 

ferrentur 



Perfect 

Active 

tulerim 

tuleris 

tulerit 

tulerimus 

tuleritis 

tulerint 

Pluperfect 

Active 

tulissem 

tulisses 

tulisset 

tulissemus 

tulissetis 

tulissent 



Passive 

latus , lata , 
latus, lata, 
latus, lata, 
lati, latae, 
lati , latae , 
lati , latae , 



Passive 

latus, lata, 
latus, lata, 
latus , lata , 
lati, latae, 
lati , latae , 
lati, latae. 



latvim sim 
latum sis 
latum sit 
lata simus 
lata sitis 
lata sint 



latum essem 
latum esses 
latum esset 
lata essemus 
lata essetis 
lata essent 



Participles of ferre 

Active 

Present ferens 

Future laturus, latura, laturum 

Passive 
Perfect latus, lata, latum 
Future ferendus, ferenda, ferendum 



Meaning 

bearing, carrying 
going to bear, about to 
bear, etc. 



borne, having been, 
borne , etc . 
to be borne, fit or 
deserving to be borne, etc, 



210 



Infinitives of ferre 



Active 

Present ferre 
Perfect tulisse 
Future laturus esse 



Meaning 

to bear, carry 

to have borne, carried 

to be about to bear , carry 



Passive 

Present ferri 
Perfect latus esse 
Future latum iri 



to be borne , carried 

to have been borne , carried 

to be about to be borne, carried 



Ferre is found in many compound verbs consisting of a prepo- 
sition and the verb itself, e.g., transferrer to bear across, 
carry; deferre: to bring down, carry away; conferre (cum + 
ferre): I bring together, compare). A number of these compound 
verbs are listed in the vocabulary for this chapter. 

eo, ire, ii, itum (go) 

This is one of the more important verbs for students of 
Latin parish registers, since it occurs in compounds often found 
in register entries. It is conjugated as follows: 

Present Indicative Active of ire 



eo 

is 

it 

imus 

itis 

eunt 



I go 

you go 

he/she/it (or a noun) goes 

we go 

you go 

they (or a noun) goes 



Futxire Indicative Active of ire 



ibo 

ibis 

ibit 

ibimus 

ibitis 

ibunt 



I shall go 

you will go 

he/she/it (or a noun) will go 

we shall go 

you (all) will go 

they (or a noun) will go 



Imperfect Indicative Active of ire 



ibcim 
ibas 
ibat 

ibamus 
ibatis 
ibcint 



I went, was going, etc. 

you went, were going, etc. 

he/she/it (or a noun) went, was going, 

etc. 

we went, were going, etc. 

you (all) went, were going, etc. 

they (or a noun) went, were going, etc, 



211 



Perfect Indicative Active of ire 



ii ( ivi ) 
isti* ( ivisti ) 
iit (ivit) 
iimus ( ivimus ) 
istis* ( ivistis ) 
ienint ( iverunt ) 



I went, have gone 

you went, have gone 

he/she/it (or a noun) went, has gone 

we went, have gone 

you (all) went, have gone 

they (or a noun) went, have gone 



*Note that the -i is not doubled in the second person 
singular and plural, i.e., isti and istis, but ii, 
iit, iimus. 

Pluperfect Indicative Active of ire 



ieram (iveram) 
ieras ( iveras ) 
ierat ( iverat ) 
ieramus ( iveramus ) 
ieratis ( iveratis ) 
ierant ( iverant ) 



I had gone 

you had gone 

he/she/it (or a noun) had gone 

we had gone 

you (all) had gone 

they (or a noun) had gone 



Future Perfect Indicative Active of ire 



iero ( ivero ) 
ieris ( iveris ) 
ierit (iverit) 
ierimus ( iverimus ) 
ieritis ( iveritis ) 
ierint ( iverint ) 



I shall have gone 

you will have gone 

he/she/it (or a noun) will have gone 

we shall have gone 

you (all) will have gone 

they (or a noun) will have gone 



Note that ire has, in general, no passive voice. In classi- 
cal Latin, it had three passive forms: itur (present, third 
person singular); ibatur (imperfect, third person singular), and 
itum est (perfect, third person singular). These three were used 
in certain impersonal constructions in classical Latin. In 
medieval Latin, it is possible to find passive forms of this 
verb, particularly in compounds such as obire (to die). 

Note also that the four principal parts of ire are sometimes 
listed in dictionaries and grammars as follows: eo, ire, ii, 
itum. The last part, itum, should be regarded as the supine, not 
the perfect passive participle, in such instances. 

The Siibjunctive of ire 

Present 



earn 

eas 

eat 

eamus 

eatis 

eant 



Imperfect 


Perfect 


Pluperfect 


irem 


ierim 


issem 


ires 


ieris 


isses 


iret 


ierit 


isset 


iremus 


ierimus 


issemus 


iretis 


ieritis 


issetis 


irent 


ierint 


issent 



212 



Participles of ire 

Active 

Present iens ( euntis , 

eunti , etc . ) 
Future iturus 

Passive* 

Perfect itus, ita, itiun 
Future eundus, eunda, eundvun 



Meaning 

going 

about to go, going to go 



gone, having been gone 

to be gone, deserving or fit 

to be gone 



*In classical Latin ire had only the present and future 
active participles. In medieval Latin, the two passive 
participles listed above may occasionally be seen. 

Ire also has a gerund, conjugated as follows: 



Case 



Gerund 



Meaning 



Nom. 





Gen. 


eundi 


Dat. 


eundo 


Ace. 


eundum 


Abl. 


eundo 



Infinitives of ire 



Present 
Perfect 
Future 



Active 

ire 

isse 

iturus esse 



of/from going 
to/for going 
going (d.o., etc.) 
by/with/f rom, etc. going 



Meaning 

to go 

to have gone 

to be about to go, to be going to do 



One of the most important compounds of ire for the student 
of parish registers is obeo, obire, obii, obitxim (ob + ire: go 
away, die) . 

Die IV mensis Februari 1798 obiit Anna Catherina Ploetzl 
filia legitima Johannis Ploetzl et uxor Georgii Scheider, 
aetatis suae circiter 75 annorum. R.I.P! 

(On the fourth day of the month of February 1798 died Anna 
Catherina Ploetzl, legitimate daughter of Johann Ploetzl and 
wife of Georg Scheider, of the approximate age of 75 years. 
Rest in Peace! ) 

Dative with Certain Verbs 

Some Latin verbs have an object in the dative case, just as 
others, as discussed previously, have one in the ablative. A few 
of the more common of these verbs include: 



213 



credo, credere, credidi, creditixm 

ignosco , ignoscere , ignovi , ignotum 

impero, imperare, imperavi, imperatum 

noceo, nocere, nocui, nocitum 

pareo , parere , parui 

persuade© , persuadere, persuasi, 

persuasum 



believe, trust, trust to 
grant pardon to, forgive 
give orders to , command 
to harm to , harm 
be obedient to , obey 
make sweet to , persuade 



Thus, for example, "I believe him or her" would be written 
credo ei rather than credo eum/ectm. 

Impersonal Verbs 

Impersonal verbs are generally used in the third person 
singular, sometimes with more than one tense, in the active 
voice, with "it" as the subject. In classical Latin, some imper- 
sonal verbs were used with the accusative and infinitive, e.g., 
oportet: it is necessary, some with the accusative of person and 
the genitive of cause (or an infinitive), e.g., me paenitet: I 
regret, and some with a dative and an infinitive, e.g., licet 
mihi librum legere: It is permitted to me to read the book. (I 
may read the book. ) 

Common impersonal verbs , a number of which may be found in 
parish registers include: 



decet (+ ace. and infinitive) 

difficile est 

facile est 

interest 

iuvat (juvat) 

libet (+dat. and infinitive) 

licet (+dat. and infinitive) 

necesse est 

me ( te , etc . ) miseret 

(with ace. of person or cause) 

me ( te , etc . ) paenitet 

(with ace. of person or cause) 

me ( te , etc . ) piget 

(with ace. of person or cause) 

me ( te , etc . ) taedet 

(with ace. of person or cause) 

oportet 

patet 

refert 

videtur 



it becomes, befits 

it is hard, difficult 

it is easy 

it concerns , it matters 

it pleases 

it is pleasing (to) 

it is permitted, one may 

it is necessary 

I (you, etc.) pity 

I (you, etc.) regret 

I (you, etc.) am displeased 

I (you, etc.) am ashamed 

it is necessary 

it is plain, open 

it concerns , it matters 

it seems 



A number of these impersonal verbs are, as may be apparent, 
the third person singular of regular verbs, e.g., interest, from 
intersum, interesse, interfui (intervene, be between). Note, 
however, that refert is not derived from the verb ref ero , 
referre, retuli, relatum, but, rather, from a combination of res 
and ferre. 



214 



Some Uses of the Genitive, Dative, and Accusative 

Genitive 

a) To Indicate Possession 

Anna Maria filia Johannis Tourville et Isabellae Benoit 
baptizata est. 

(Anne Marie, daughter of Jean Tourville and Isabelle 
Benoit was baptized. ) 

b) Predicative Genitive 

Testes fuerunt homines bonae voluntatis. 

(The witnesses were men of good will.) 

c) Genitive of Description 

Erat femina annorum circiter quinquaginta . 

(She was a woman of approximately 50 years. [or. She was 
a woman about fifty years old.]) 

d) Partitive Genitive (use to indicate part of a whole) 

Milia populi in urbe habitabat. 

(Thousands of people used to live in the city. ) 

e) Objective Genitive (The genitive relates to a noun or 
pronoun as an object does to a verb. ) 

amor pecuniae 

(the love of money; if these were verb and object, the 
phrase might read Pecuniam amavit. [He/she loved money.]) 

f) With causa 

causa consanguinitatis in tertio gradu . . . 

(because of consanguinity in the third degree ... ; the 
idiom ex causa plus the ablative is also very common 
in medieval Latin. ) 

g) With Certain Adjectives 

plena sapientae 

(full of wisdom) 

h) With Certain Verbs 

Pudeo tui. 

(I am ashamed of you.) 



215 



Dative 

a) As the Indirect Object of Transitive Verbs 

Librum amico meo dedi . 

(I gave the book to my friend.) 

b) Dative of Agent with the Passive Periphrastic 

Hoc faciendum mihi. 

(This [thing] ought to be done by me.) 

c) With Certain Adjectives 

Haec matricula est similis illi. 

(This register is similar to that [one] . ) 

d) The Dative of Reference and the Dative of Purpose 

cui bono? 

(to whom for a good? what good is it? The dative of 
reference [cui: to whom] is combined here with the 
dative of purpose [bono: for a good] . This construction 
is known as the double dative in classical Latin.) 

e) With Certain Verbs 

Credo tibi 

(I believe you. ) 

f) Dative of Possessor (with esse) 

Gemelli sunt Catherinae Rickert. 

(Catherina Rickert has twins. [The dative is used here to 
indicate ownership — who/what belongs to whom.] The 
subject of this sentence, Catherina Rickert, is the 
possessor. Hence: The twins are to Catherina Rickert, 
i.e., Catherina Rickert has twins.) 

g) Dative of Reference; Advantage or Disadvantage 

Hie liber parochianis scriptus est. 

(This register was written for [the advantage of] the 
parishioners. ) 

Accusative 

a) Direct Object of Transitive Verbs 

Parochus puenim baptizavit. 

(The priest baptized the child [boy] . ) 



216 



b) Indirect Statement: Subject Accusative and Infinitive 

Parochus dixit puerum baptizavisse. 

(The priest said that he baptized the child.) or: 

Parochus dixit quod puerum baptizaverit. 
(quod + the subjunctive) 

c) Duration and Extent of Time 

In vico tres annos vixit. 

(He/she lived in the village for three years.) or: 

In vico per tres annos vixit. 

(The use of a preposition is more common in medieval and 
parish register Latin. ) 

d) With Prepositions: ad, ante, apud, per, trans, etc. 

apud pastorem 

(at the house of the pastor) 



217 



EXERCISES: CHAPTER XIV 



Grammar 



Decline the gerunds of copulare (first conjugation), docere 
(second conjugation), vivere (third conjugation), audire (fourth 
conjugation), and capere (third conjugation). 

Vocabulary 

Learn all of the irregular verbs, dative verbs, and imper- 
sonal verbs discussed in this chapter, plus the following: 



From fero, ferre, tuli, latum 

affero, afferre, attuli , 

allatum: carry, bring to 
confero, conferre, contuli, 

collatum: confer, bestow 

upon , compare 
defero, deferre, detuli, 

delatum: bear, carry 
effero, effere, extuli, 

elatum: bring out, lift up, 

bear 
infero, inferre, intuli, 

illatum: bring into, intro- 
duce, inflict 
offero, offerre, obtuli, 

oblatum: bring, offer 
perfero, perferre, pertuli, 

perlatum: bring forward, 

bring forth 
praefero, praeferre, praetuli, 

praelatum: prefer, bear 

before (prefero) 
transfero, transferre, 

transtuli, translatum: 

carry over, carry across, 

transfer 

From eo, ire, ii, itum 

abeo , abire, abii or abivi , 

abitum: go away, pass away, 

die 
ineo , inire, inii or inivi, 

initum: enter, go into 
intereo, interire, interivi or 

interii, interitum: perish, 

die 



introeo, introire, introivi or 

introii, introitum: enter, 

go inside 
obeo, obire, obii or obivi , 

obitum: die, go away 
pereo, perire, perivi or 

perii, peritum: die, perish 
queo , quire, quivi or quii, 

quitum: be able (to) 
redeo, redire, redii or revi- 

di , reditum: go back, 

return 
transeo, transire, transii, 

transitum: go over, pass 

over 

from vole, velle, volui 

male, malle, malui (magis + 

volo): prefer, choose 

rather 
nolo, nolle, nolui ( ne + 

volo): be unwilling, not 

wish (to) 

Other Vocabulary 

dies omnium animarum: All 

Souls Day (a fixed feast 

day celebrated 2 November) 
fio, fieri, f actus sum: be 

done, be made, become 
fore = futurus esse: to be 

about to be, to be going to 

be (the future active 

infinitive of esse) 
neque, (nee): and not 
neque ( nee ) . . . neque ( nee ) : 

neither . . . nor 



218 



C. Translation: Latin to English 

Translate the following sentences from Latin to English: 

Anno millesimo septingentesimo septuagesimo octavo die 
vero vigesima septima Aprilis factis tribus publicationibus 
de future matrimonio inter missarum solemnia, nulloque 
detecto impedimento neque canonico neque civili excepto 
tertio et quarto consanguinitatis gradu, autem ab episcopo 
dispensatio data est et cum consensu mutuo quorum interest, 
a me infrascripto parocho matrimonial iter conjuncti sunt, 
honestus juvenis Stephanus Taunis et pudica virgo Petronella 
Kramer . 

(publicationibus = bannis or denunciationibus ; 
data est: was given; matrimonial iter: in marriage 
[here]; for a discussion of the impediments to marriage, 
and the degree of consanguinity [blood relationship] 
involved, see the word list at the end of this book.) 

Ego, Matthias Hinckel, episcopus in diocese de Hochwiller, 
dono tibi, Michaeli Furton, agricolae in parocho Sancti 
Viti, quatuor acras aratri per tres annos habendum et 
tenendum. 

(Sancti Viti: of St. Vite; aratrum, aratri, n. : plow land, 
plow) 

Vinea in loco vocato silva bella Frederico Torinaldi 

venendo data est. 

(vinea, vineae, f.: vineyard; bellus, bella, bellum: 

pretty; silva, silvae, f.: wood, forest; venendo: gerund 

or gerundive? Why? ) 

Anno millesimo sescentesimo octogesimo quarto et die ultimo 
mensis Xbris, hora sexta matutina in cimeterio nostro huius 
loci sepultum est corpus Valentini Martin, vitariarii in 
pago nostro et mariti defunctae Elisabethae Margarethae 
natae Grapeaux, anno aetatis suae quinquagenti octo et 
circiter decem menses, qui heri hora tertia matutina pie 
in domino obi it rite antea sacramenta paenitentiae , 
eucharistae, et unctionis extremae in domo administrati a 
me Theodore Reich parocho huius parochiae. Praesentibus 
testibus: Ludovico Bichantz, tonsore, Jacobo Hunger, 
serrario, ambo huius loci, qui una mecum siibscr ipserunt . 
(vitariarius, vitariarii, m. : glass maker; rite: properly, 
according to religious custom; antea: formerly, before 
paenitentia , paenitentia , f . : penance ; euchar ista , 
eucharistae, f.: euchar ist [communion, sacrament]; unctio 
extrema: the last annointing, extreme unction; [N.B. The 
administration of the last rites properly involved 
three activities: the sacraments of penance, euchar ist, 
and extreme unction.] tonsor, tonsoris, m. : barber; 
serrarius, serrarii, m. : locksmith) 



219 



Heri Thomas Little in curiam ecclesiasticam nostram intravit 

finem ad solvendum. 

(curia ecclesiastica: the ecclesiastical or church court; 

intro, intrare, intravi, intratum: enter (into); 

finis, finis, m. or f.: fine; also, end, boundary, limit) 

D. Translation: English to Latin 

Translate the following sentences from English to Latin. 

Maria Martha Brosis entered (use ineo, inire, inii, 
initum) the church (ace.) for the purpose of marrying, but 
(sed) she was unable (non quivit) to marry because (use 
propter + ace.) she refused (noluit) to make (use facere) 
the proper (use rite) penance. 

On the 10th day of August, in the year 1645 (use ordinal 

numbers and the ablative of time), after the publication of 

three marriage banns, and with an impediment in the third 

degree, for which (per quod), however (autem), 

a dispensation was given, with the mutual consent 

of those of whom it is a concern, Conradus Breit, widower 

and carpenter of the village of Breckenbach, and Justina 

Leopoldina Lauer, legitimate daughter of Hilarius Lauer and 

the deceased Magdalena Rosaldina Pfort, both of the parish 

of St. Leopold, were married. 

Today at the hour of 10 a.m. , the body of Emerentiana 
Staller was carried to the cemetery for the purpose of 
burying. She died yesterday at the hour of 6 a.m. She 
was about 3 years of age, and was a servant (ancilla, 
ancillae, f.) in the house of our deacon (decanvis, 
decani, m. ) for (per + ace.) 12 years. She received 
(use recipere) the sacraments of penance, the eucharist, 
and extreme unction, after which (postquam) she died 
piously in the Lord. May she rest in peace! 

It is necessary that (use quod + subjunctive) Josephus 
Blackwell should come to the ecclesiastical court to pay 
a fine. (Can the gerund be used here? If so, how?) 

After (use cum + subjunctive) Hermannus Wild confessed 
(confessus sit) and did (use facere) penance, the 
priest granted pardon to (i.e., forgave) him. 



220 



E. Translation: Parish Registers 

Document #1 

Translate the following commentary on All Souls Day from a 
parish in the Netherlands, with the aid of the vocabulary in 
Section B above and that included hereafter. 






, 4^^^V ^/^:5(W^ z^ 



\ j^^' 



7 



;?* O' 



/A( 



.rfj^n 






~ (^\ufft (U/^^ nifcfh^^ .^ ^^"^^^'i} 



^/l£Jt 






221 



Vocabulary 



summum sacriim: literally, the 
highest sacred thing, i.e., 
the most solemn feast day 

defunctis 

celebrat: from celebro, 
celebrare, celebravi , 

celebratum: celebrate 

celebrat^ Decanus : summum 
sacrum is the object of the 
verb celebrat 

in summo altari: at the high- 
est altar 

eodem tempore: at the same 
time 

celebrat Pastor 

pastor, pastoris, m. : pastor, 
shepherd 

in altari parochiali: at the 
parish altar 



J 



= et 



canonici: the canons (clerics 
appointed by a bishop to 
assist in divine services) 

cum caeteris: with the rest 

veniunt 

offertorium, offertorii, n. : 
an offering of money placed 
upon the church altar; an 
offering 

ad offertorium: to the offer- 
ing 

uterque , utraque , utrumque 
(gen.: utriusque, dat.: 
utrique) : each of two, both 

utroqz = utroque (see above) 

in utroque altari: on (in) 
each altar 

unde, acv. : from where, whence 

patet: it is evident 

olim, adv.: at once, once, 
earlier, previously 



cum magis forent Catholici: 
since there are more Catho- 
lics 

venisse: to have come (i.e., 
came) 

ille mos revoccindus est: that 
custom ought to be revoked 
(i.e. , the custom of having 
all Catholics come to the 
offering [at once] ) 

in quem finem notandi sunt 
omnes defuncti: to which 
end all the dead should be 
noted (i.e., all of the 
dead should be noted or 
given an offering, but the 
custom should be revoked of 
allowing all of the Catho- 
lics [i.e., the par- 
ishioners] to come to make 
an offering for the dead at 
the same time) 

faciendaque: modifies commemo- 
ratio 

ipsorum: refers to omnes 
defuncti 

faciendaque commemoratio 
ipsorum: and the commemora- 
tion of (the dead) 
themselves ought to be made 
(i.e., be carried out) 

cathedra, cathedrae, f.: 
bishop's throne, chair 

in cathedra: at or from the 
bishop's throne (i.e, the 
celebration of All Souls 
Day should not be done at 
the altars, which are too 
crowded with worshipers, 
but, rather, should be 
carried out from the 
bishop's throne to avoid 
overcrowding. ) 



222 



Document # 2 

Translate the following excerpt from a German parish regis- 
ter. Use the additional vocabulary below if needed. Since this 
is from a German parish, there are some Gothic letters in the 
entry. Study the vocabulary carefully, and compare the printed 
words with the handwritten ones in order to translate more effec- 
tively. 









223 



Vocabulary 



notandum: note that a mark or 
macron has been placed over 
the -u in this word, as 
also in other words in this 
entry. This was done in 
German script in order to 
distinguish the -u from the 
-V. In certain types of 
Gothic script, the two were 
virtually indistinguisha- 
jble. 

nouilm = novum 

in ecclesia Holthausensi : in 
the church of Holthausen 

B.M. = Beatae Mariae 

semp = semper 

Beatae Mariae semper Virginis: 

of the Blessed Mary always 
a Virgin (i.e., of the 
Blessed Virgin Mary) 

Honorem 

3 Augusti 

in Festo Inventionis S. Steph- 
ani Protomartyris et 
sociorum: in the Feast of 
the Discovery (of the Bones 
of) St. Stephen, the first 
martyr, and his comrades; a 
fixed feast day celebrated 
on 3 August. 

erectum sit: the antecedent is 
novum altare; subjunctive 
because of notandum quod 

praesentib9 = praesentibus 

admodum: highest (in this 
case, right, as in right 
^_ reverend ) 

Rdo = reverendo 



dno = domino 

Joe = Joanne 

Thier: his surname 

Treinsaquensis: of Transaquen- 
sis (a place name; the 
German equivalent is Ueber- 
wasser [across the water] ) 

ecclia = ecclesiae: goes with 
Trans aquens i s 

decano: in English word order, 
this would probably be as 
follows: Joanne Thier, 
decano ecclesiae Transa- 
quensis; translate accord- 
ingly 



rdo dno (see above) 
Everwino: a given name 
Wermelings: his surname 
= pro: here, in behalf of 



<f 



honesto 

dno (see above) 

Joe (see above) 

~^. , . 

Heyma = Heymann: his surname 

Amptmanno: a Latinized German 
word meaning, approximate- 
ly, civic official or town 
councillor 
Trans aquens i : at Transaquensis 
de quo: concerning which 
(i.e., the building of a 
new altar) 
laus, laudis, f.: praise 
omnipotenti Deo: dative case 



224 



Document #3 

Translate the following death entry from a parish in north- 
ern France with the aid of the vocabulary below. Note that the 
medial -s sometimes resembles as English -f in the entry. 






Vocabulary 

dolor, doloris, m. : pain 

in utero matemo 

ab obstetrice 

jxirata: legal, lawful 

Bllsch: a surname 

uxore 

Theobald! : a given name ( gen . ) 

Wolff: a surname 

doliarius, doliarii, m.: 

binder, cooper (barrel 

maker ) 
Bumhaupt inferiori: Burnhaut- 

le-bas (a place name) 
ob inuninens mortis periculum 
in apparente pede: in obvious 

need (here) 
Kirscher: a surname 
et pro tempore 



deputali municipali: a munici- 
pal deputy (probably a town 
councillor; abl.) 

cui impositum est ab obste- 
trice 

postea, adv. : afterwards 

suscepto baptism© : the baptism 
having been undertaken 
(i.e., after the baptism 
was finished, an ablative 
absolute) 

mortuus natus est: translate 
as a whole thought 

praesente patre supra nomina- 
to : another ablative 
absolute 

et obstetrice: goes with the 
above 

Hinck: a surname 

supra dicti: above said 

subscripserunt 



225 



APPENDIX A 



Handwriting and Abbreviations 
Classical and Medieval Latin 



Handwriting 

The handwriting of many Latin parish registers is based upon 
some form of Renaissance Italic. This script was developed by 
humanists in Renaissance Italy, whose interest in recovering 
ancient texts led them to earlier copies of classical Latin 
works. These copies were made primarily but not exclusively in 
the eleventh and twelfth centuries and were written in Caroline 
script, the script of Charlemagne's empire. Because of its 
clarity, pleasing appearance, and relative ease of writing, a 
number of humanists adopted and modified Caroline for their own 
copies of classical works or their own writings. 

Humanistic script actually evolved through several stages 
from a quasi-Gothic influenced by Caroline to a new script which 
was ultimately given the name Italic. When Italic was used to 
copy manuscripts for wealthy patrons, it was written with pains- 
taking clarity. Italic hands utilized for less lofty purposes, 
such as writing personal letters, could, as might be expected, be 
very difficult to read. 

Italic script resembles modern English script closely enough 
that the reader of parish registers should have little difficulty 
distinguishing letters. Most of these registers were, however, 
written in a cursive hand (from curro, currere, cucurri, cursum: 
run), i.e., an informal handwriting rather than one used to copy 
important documents . 

In addition, the handwriting of priests, ministers, and 
scribes who wrote the parish register entries varied considerably 
from area to area, time period to time period, and priest to 
priest. Thus, for example, priests in the Germanic areas of 
Europe might use some Gothic letters in their entries, as several 
of the parish register excepts in previous chapters have shown. 

When reading parish registers, therefore, it is useful to 
begin by searching for letters or words which might be familiar 
and then attempting to decipher unfamiliar letters or words. If 
published register entries are available for a particular area, 
it is helpful to compare these printed sources with the actual 
sources from which they were taken. If one has access to such 
sources, it is also worthwhile to read entries from as many 
different areas of Europe as possible in order to become familiar 
with the various styles of writing. 



226 



The Gothic script gradually replaced Caroline in many areas 
of Europe, ca. 1200-1500 A.D. Gothic letters became more point- 
ed, stiff, and crowded together than those written in Caroline. 
A number of abbreviations were also employed in order to save 
space and obtain maximum use of the writing surface. 

Many documents such as wills, notarial records, tax lists, 
court records, etc., written between approximately the thirteenth 
and sixteenth centuries, were written in some form of Latin 
Gothic (cursive, textura quadrata, etc.). Many documents written 
during the later middle ages contain information useful to family 
historians, local historians, and genealogists. Because of the 
types of letters and the many abbreviations, however, the scripts 
of such documents may be difficult to read without special train- 
ing in paleography (the study of ancient writing) and abbrevia- 
tion systems. In preparation for such study, it is helpful to 
consult reference works on paleography and abbreviations, such as 
those listed in the selected bibliography at the back of this 
book. 

As vernacular languages came to be increasingly used for 
legal and official documents, rather than Latin, Italy, France, 
and other areas formerly belonging to the Roman Empire, eventual- 
ly abandoned Gothic in favor of some form of Italic. Many re- 
gions of central Europe, by contrast, did not. Hence, Latin 
Gothic script became the parent of the German Gothic script. As 
an aid to those who might work with registers from Roman Catholic 
or Lutheran parishes of central Europe, a few Gothic letters 
often found in Latin entries are given below, together with 
English equivalents. 



Lower Case Letters 
Gothic 

A 
i 

i 

e 



English 

c 

d 

e 

h 

r 

s (medial) 

s (medial — resembling an English "h" ) 

s (terminal) 

s (terminal) 

double s 



227 



Gothic English 

double s 



fl 

! 



no 
9 



double s 



u (Note the macron [an D-Bogen in 
German] above the letter. This 
was placed above the -u to help 
distinguish it from letters written 
with two vertical strokes [minims] 
such an, v, or double i.) 



w 

y (In the Latin Gothic cursive 
scripts, the double i [ii] was 
often written as ij , from which 
the German Gothic y developed. ) 



It should also be noted that Latin parish registers were 
sometimes written in a script used to write the vernacular lan- 
guage of a particular country, e.g., Dutch, French, English. In 
such cases, guides to vernacular handwriting, some of which are 
listed in the selected bibliography at the back of this book, 
should be consulted. 

The following suggestions may also prove helpful in studying 
parish registers and other documents: 

1 ) Work as far as possible from the known to the tinknown 
( ignotum per notum) 

Begin, for example with the handwriting in nineteenth cen- 
tury parish registers, which is relatively close in form to 
twentieth century English. Then work back gradually to documents 
from the eighteenth, seventeenth, and sixteenth centuries. 

2) Read a number of baptismal, marriage, and death/burial 
entries in order to become familiar with the structure 
and organization of each type. 

In general, these entries will have at least the following 
information: 



228 



Baptism 

1. Date of baptism 

2. Name of child 

3. Date of birth of child 

4. Parents of child (sometimes with occupation and 

residence) 

5 . Godparents and/or witnesses 

Marriage 

1. Date of marriage 
2 • Dates of banns 

3. Impediments if any (such as a close blood 

relationship) 

4. Name of groom (sometimes residence and occupation) 

5. Name of parents of groom (sometimes residence and 

occupation) 

6 . Name of bride 

7. Name of parents of bride (sometimes residence and 



8. Names of witnesses 
C. Death/Burial 



occupation) 



1. Date of death 

2 . Name of deceased 

3 . Occupation and residence of deceased 

4. Status (single, married, widowed, child, etc.) 

5. If child, names of parents (sometimes residence 

and occupation) 

6. Date of burial 

7. Place of burial 

8 . Names of witnesses 

In addition, the following suggestions may be of value in 
the perusal of Latin documents: 

1) Read printed editions, if available, of medieval and 
early modern documents before attempting to read the 
originals, particularly when dealing with highly 
abbreviated Latin. 

2) Become familiar with different styles of handwriting 
such as Caroline, Gothic cursive, Neo-Latin Humanistic, 
various English court hands, etc., by reading as many 
different kinds of documents as possible. This can be 
done, in part at least, by consulting such reference 
works as M. B. Parkes. English Cursive Hands, 1250- 
1500. Oxford: At the Clarendon Press, 1969, and 
others listed in the selected bibliography. 



229 



Abbreviations 

Italic script did not utilize many abbreviations from Gothic 
texts. Abbreviations might, however, be found in parish regis- 
ter entries. They will most certainly occur in documents from 
the later middle ages. Consequently, some of the more common 
types of Latin abbreviations will be discussed below. 

There were, fundamentally, three types of Latin abbrevia- 
tions: suspensions, contractions, and stenographic characters 
with more or less consistent meanings (often used with words 
abbreviated by suspension). The term suspension comes from the 
Latin verb suspendere (to hang up). To abbreviate by suspension, 
a portion of the word was omitted (truncation) and some type of 
abbreviation mark, or sign was placed next to the missing portion 
or "hung up" above it, to indicate an abbreviation. Abbreviation 
by single letter and a period was also used, e.g., eni-^ = enim 
(for); B.M.V. (Beatae [Beate] Mariae [Marie], Virginis). 

Contractions (from contrahere: to draw together) were made 
by omitting some of the letters in a word — vowels or 
consonants--but leaving the case or verb ending intact. Early 
Christians abbreviated the names of God, Jesus Christ, the Holy 
Spirit, etc. by this process, e.g., 

DS : Deus 

XPC or XRS: Christos (Greek) or Christus (Latin) 

IHC or IHS lesous (Greek) or lesus (Latin)* 

SCS : Sanctus 

SPS Spiritus 

EPS episcopus 

*The H is the Greek letter eta, a long e, which was 
often carried into Latin, while the P is the Greek 
letter rho, an r, not a p. 

When a word is abbreviated so that only the first and last 
letters remain, this is known as a "pure" contraction. By con- 
trast, an "impure" contraction has some of the vowels or conso- 
nants left between the first and last letters, e.g., Joae = 
Joanne, sd = sed. A line was usually placed above the word to 
indicate missing letters. Sometimes a small letter, often a 
vowel, was written above the word, e.g., rfc = nee. 

There are two important differences between contraction and 
suspension: 1) Contracted words generally retain the case or verb 
ending intact, e.g., aia: anima. Words abbreviated by suspen- 
sion, by contrast, usually do not. 2) The contraction is fre- 
quently indicated by a line drawn above the contracted letters. 
Suspensions, however, are shown by a variety of signs and sym- 
bols, as well as lines. 

Stenographic characters with a generally consistent meaning 
were used by the Romans to abbreviate words. Some of these were 

230 



allegedly developed by Tiro, a freedman scribe of the Roman 
orator Cicero (the Tironian notes), while others were derived 
from Roman jurisprudence. Examples of abbreviation by suspen- 
sion, contraction, or stenographic character are provided hereaf- 
ter. 

Abbreviation by Suspension 

A. Abbreviations by Truncation (missing letters not specified) 

1. With a line above the word 

adm administrator 

respond respondens 

pac pacem 

qq quoque 

fact factae 

2. With an abbreviation mark or sign 
grat' gratia 

o omnis 

a autem 

3 . Abbreviation by letter or letters with a period 
N.B. nota bene 

ob. obi it 

s.p.d. sine prole decessit (died without 

issue) 

n.n. nomen nescio (name unknown) 

B.M.V. Beat(a)e Mari(a)e Virginis 

(generally in the genitive case) 

Abbreviation by Contraction 

A. With a line above the word to point out missing letters 

baptims baptimus 

copulatnis copulationis 



231 



Hartman Hartmcum (a surname; a line above 

the first -n often indicates another 
missing -n; this can be either a 
suspension, with a line above to 
suggest a missing nasal -m or -n, 
or a contraction, depending upon 
which -n is regarded as omitted. 
[If it is a contraction, avoid 
confusing it with a suspension.]) 

B. With a small letter above the word 

qre* quare ( why? ) 

i 

i illud 

t 

e est 

*Note that the small letter above is an "a" not a "u." 

Abbreviation by Stenographic Character of Generally 
Consistent Meaning 



9 



This siglum is from the Tironian 
notes. When it was placed at the 
beginning of a word, it abbreviated 
con or com, cun or cum, e.g., 
gdcim = condam (formerly, the late 
[classical Latin: qnondam] ) . The 
same mark, when found at the end of 
a word, indicated a missing -us, 
-is, -OS, or -s, e.g., bonu9 = 
bonus . 

■7 The so-called Arabic numeral 2-r, i.e., 

the letter r which resembles the Arabic 



^ 






number 2. It often abbreviated -ur 
or -tur , e.g., vocat"^ - vocatur . 

-um (the Arabic 2-r with a line 
transecting) abbreviated genitive plurals 
of first and second declension nouns, 
e.g., dictcTZ^ = dictorum 

This mark often pointed out a missing 
-lis, -ris, -us, -iter, or -liter, 
e.g. , facii^ = facilis. 

-s, -is, -nis, e.g., denunciation-^ = 
denunciationis 



232 



3 



lU 



A z-like figure (which developed from 
a semi-colon) after a -q usually 
indicated a missing -ue, e.g., quoq^ = 
quoque. This siglum was also used to 
show a missing -us, -s, -m, or -n, 
e.g. , trib? = tribus. 

This sign after a vowel generally 
indicated a missing nasal -m or -n, 
e.g. , poteraP = poteram. 

A sigliim resembling the Arabic numeral 
7 or the letter z abbreviated -ed or 
-et, e.g., pat^ = patet or p^ = patet. 
Words considered very familiar were 
sometimes abbreviated with this figure 
and the first letter. It is from this 
practice that the abbreviation viz. = 
videlicet (namely) originated. 

y. An -i placed above a consonant often 

' indicated a missing -r, especially in 

the genitive singular of third declension 
nouns , e.g., mat s = matris . 

-f per , par , e.g., piter = par iter 

^ pro , e.g., Dportionis = proportionis 

J prae, pre, 

\ ( predict! ) 



,) prae , pre , e.g., p^ dicti = praedicti 



1 
" qui , e.g., qd = quid 



1? 



quod 



quoque 



Abbreviation of Numbers 

Ordinal numbers in the ablative case were sometimes abbrevi- 
ated by combining Arabic or Roman numerals with the ablative 
singular case endings, e.g., 9no or IXno = nono; 3tio or Illtio = 
tertio; DCmo = sescentesimo. The last four months of the year 
(the 7-10 months in the early Roman calendar) — September, Octo- 
ber, November, and December — were abbreviated in a similar fash- 
ion (cf., the chapter on numbers). 



233 



The Diphthong ae 

The diphthong or double vowel -ae, as discussed previously, 
was used as the genitive and dative singular, as well as the 
nominative plural, ending of first declension nouns. In medieval 
Latin, the -a was often omitted, so that filie might mean filiae 
(of the daughter), filiae (to/for the daughter), or filiae (the 
daughters ) . 

Subsequently, however, the -e of this diphthong was either 
left out altogether, and a mark of some sort placed next to the 
-a to make the reader aware of this omission, e.g., filial = 
filiae, or it was combined in ligature with the -a so closely 
that the two letters became virtually indistinguishable, e.g., 
fili^ = filiae (not f ilia) . 

In the case of the latter, it is often difficult to deter- 
mine the proper case ending. Consequently, a careful study of 
the sentence, in which a word with a possible -ae ligature is 
found, should enable the reader to make the correct translation. 

It is recommended that the examples in this book be reviewed 
as an aid in becoming familiar with the use of the -ae diphthong 
in parish register entries. Where possible or feasible, register 
entries from a number of different parishes should also be 
consulted. 

Classical and Medieval Latin 

There are many important changes in grammar, vocabulary, and 
orthography from classical to medieval Latin. Although this 
subject cannot be explored in detail in the space allotted here, 
it is important to review at least the lineaments of these 
changes, particularly since many of them were continued in the 
parish register Latin of the early modern era. What follows has 
been taken principally from Beeson, A Medieval Latin primer, 
Strecker, An Introduction to Medieval Latin, and other reference 
books listed in the selected bibliography. 

Changes in Grammar 

A. Declension 

1. The dative was often used in place of the ablative or 
accusative. 

2. Prepositional phrases taking the dative were more 
frequent. 

3. Extended use of the ablative absolute was common in 
medieval Latin. 



234 



4. Prepositions were used to express purpose, means, 
manner, etc., where classical Latin would employ the 
ablative without a preposition. 

5. Some overlapping of genders was common in medieval 
Latin, e.g., a neuter plural becoming a feminine 
singular. 

6. Singular and plural were occasionally interchanged 
in medieval Latin in such a way that words used in 
the plural in classical Latin sometimes had a singular 
usage in medieval Latin. 

B. Conjugation 

1. Tense and voice were employed less inflexibly than in 
classical Latin, e.g., the imperfect and the perfect 
were frequently interchanged, the future perfect was 
often used as the simple future, and some classical 
Latin deponent verbs were given active forms in 
medieval Latin. 

2. The infinitive was used in a variety of new ways, e.g., 
to express purpose (instead of the subjunctive). 

3. Relative clauses in indirect discourse or statement 
frequently used quod plus the subjunctive in medieval 
Latin, rather than the infinitive and subject accusative 
of classical Latin. 

4. Quod was, in fact, employed as a conjunction quite 
often. 

5 . The indicative was frequently substituted for the 
subjunctive in clauses of result. 

C. Vocabulary 

Many new words were introduced into medieval Latin from 
ecclesiastical Latin. These were largely of Greek origin, e.g., 
ecclesia (church), apostolus (apostle), baptismus (baptism). 
However, ecclesiastical Latin contributed a number of new Latin 
words such as decanus (deacon), resurrectio (resurrection), missa 
(mass ) , etc . 

There were also many neologisms (new words or words used in 
a new way) in medieval Latin, e.g., murilegus (cat), modernus 
(modern), campana (bell). In addition, each area of Europe 
contributed certain new words or usages to medieval Latin which 
must be learned by reading documents from that particular region 
and consulting reference works based upon such. 



235 



D. Spelling 

The following changes are noted below: 

Classical Medieval 

ae e 

b V, p 

c g, k, qu, s, t 

ch h 

ci ti 

d t 

f ph 

g c, k 

h often omitted or added to words 

beginning with a vowel 

i Y/ e, j 

1 r 

o u 

oe e 

gu c 

s X 

t c 

ti ci 

-tus sus 

V w (not found in classical Latin, 

but gradually introduced into 

medieval Latin) 

In addition, letters were frequently added or omitted, e.g., 
contempno (medial -p added), permito (medial -t omitted), hostium 
(ostium, ostii, n.: door, entrance; initial -h added, making it 
difficult to distinguish this and the classical hostium, the 
masculine genitive plural of hostis , hostis , m. : enemy), ordeirm 
(barley — classical Latin hordeum [initial -h omitted]). 



236 



APPENDIX B 



Some Latinized Given Names: Male and Female 
(With English, German, Dutch, French, Italian, 
and Spanish equivalents) 

Male Names (Genitive and Ablative included, e.g.,: 

Marcus : Mark [ nom . ] , Marci : Mark [ gen . ] , 
Marco: by, from, with, etc. Mark [abl.]) 



Latin 


English 

German 

Dutch 


French 


Italian 
Spanish 


Aaron 
Aaron is 
Aarone 


Aaron 
Aaron 
Aaron 


Aaron 


Aronne 
Aaron 


Aberlardus 
Aberlardi 
Aberlardo 


Abelard 
Abaelard 


Abelard 


Abelardo 
Abelardo 


Abrahamus 
Abrahami 
Abrahamo 


Abraham 
Abraham 


Abraham 


Abramo 
Abrahan 


Adalbertus 
Adalbert! 
Adalberto 


Ethelbert 

Adalbert 

Adelbert(us) 


Aubert 


Adalberto 
Adalberto 


Adamus 
Adam! 
Adamo 


Adam 
Adam 
Adam 


Adam 


Adamo 
Adan 


Adolfus 
Adolf! 
Adolf o 


Adolf 
Adolf 
Adolf 


Adolfe(phe) 


Adolfo 
Adolf o 


Aegidius 
Aegidii 
Aegidio 


Giles 
Aegid(ius) 
Gillis (Egidii 


Gille(s) 
as) 


Egidio 
Egidio 


Aemilius 
Aemilii 
Aemilio 


Emile 

Emil 

Emilius 


Emile 


Emilio 
Emilio 


Albertus 
Albert! 
Alberto 


Albert 
Albert 
Aalbert 


Albert 


Alberto 
Alberto 


Alexander 
Alexandri 
Alexandre 


Alexander Alexandre 

Alexander 

Alexander (Sander) 


Alessandro 
Ale j andro 



237 



English 



Latin 

Aloisius 
Aloisii 
Aloisio 

Alfonsus 
Alfonsi 
Alfonso 

Alfredus 
Alfredi 
Alfredo 

Andreas 
Andreae 
Andrea 

Anton ius 
Antonii 
Antonio 

Annandus 
Armandi 
Armando 

Amaldiis 
Arnaldi 
Amaldo 



German 
Dutch 




French 


Italian 
Spanish 


Aloysius 

Alois 

Aloisius 


(AL 


Louis 
(Alois) 
ois) 


Luigi 
Luis 


Alphonse 

Alfons 

Alfons 




Alphonse 


Alfonso 
Alonso 


Alfred 
Alfred 
Alfred 




Alfred 


Alfredo 
Alfredo 


Andrew 

Andreas 

Andries 




Andre 


Andrea 
Andres 


Anthony 
Anton ( ius 
An toon 


■) 


Antoine 


Antonio 
Antonio 






Armand 


Armando 
Armando 






Arnaud 


Arnaldo 
Amaldo 



Amoldus 
Arnold! 
Amoldo 



Arnold 
Arnold 
Amoldus 



Arnold (Arnou) Amoldo 
Arnoldo 



Artunis 
Arturi 
Arturo 



Arthur 

Artur 

Aart 



Arthur 



Arturo 
Arturo 



Barnabas 
Bamabae 
Barnaba 



Barnaby 

Barnabas 

Barnabas 



Barnabe 



Barnaba 
Barnabe 



Bar tho 1 omaeus 
Bartholomaei 
Bar tho 1 omaeo 



Bartholomew 
Bartholomeus 
Bart (Bartel) 



Barthelemy 



Bartolomeo 
Bartolome' 



Basil ius 
Basilii 
Basilio 



Basil 
Basil (ius) 
Basiel 



Basile 



Basilio 
Basilio 



238 



Latin 


English 

German 

Dutch 


French 


Italian 
Spanish 


Benedictus 
Benedicti 
Benedicto 


Benedict 

Benedikt(us) 

Benedictus 


Benoit 


Benedetto 
Benito 


Ben j ( i ) aminus 
Ben j amini 
Ben j amino 


Benjamin 
Benjamin 
Benjamin 


Benjamin 


Beniamino 
Ben j amin 


Bemardus 
Bernard! 
Bernardo 


Bernard 

Bernhard(t) 

Barend 


Bernard 


Bernardo 
Bernardo 


Bertoldus 
Bertoldi 
Bertoldo 


Berthold 
Berthold 
Bertold 


Bertaud (Bert) 


Bertoldo 
Bertoldo 


Bertrandus 
Bertrandi 
Bertrando 


Bertrand 
Bertrand 
Bertrand (us) 


Bertrand 


Bertrando 
Beltran 


Bonifatius 
Bonifatii 
Bonifatio 


Boniface 
Bonif az 
Bonefass (Boni 


Boniface 
.f atius) 


Bonifacio 
Bonifacio 


Caesar 
Caesaris 
Caesare 


Caesar 
Caesar 
Caesar 


1 

Cesar 


Cesare 
Cesar 


Carolus 
Carol i 
Carolo 


Charles 

Karl 

Karel 


Charles 


Carlo 
Carlos 


Caspar ( Gaspar ) 
Casparis 
Caspare 


Casper 
Kaspar 
Casper 


Gaspard 


Gaspare 
Gaspar 


Christianus 
Christian! 
Christiano 


Christian 
Christian 
Christiaan 


Cretien 
(Chretien) 


Cristiano 
Cristian 


Clarentius 
Clarentii 
Clarentio 


Clarence 







Christopherus 
Christopher! 
Christophoro 



Christopher 
Christoph 
Christophorus 
(Christoffel) 



Christophe 



Cristoforo 
Cristobal 



239 



Latin 

Clemens 
dementis 
Clemente 

Conradus 
Conradi 
Conrado 

Constantinus 
Constantini 
Constcintino 

Cornelius 
Cornel ii 
Comelio 



English 

German 

Dutch 

Clement 
Clemens 
Clemens 

Conrad 
Konrad 
Koenraad 

Constantine 

Konstantin 

Constantijn 

Cornelius 
Cornelius 
Cornells 



French 
Clement 

Conrad 

Constantin 

Corneille 



Doedatus ( see Theodatus and Theodosius ) 



Italian 
Spanish 

Clemente 
Clemente 



Corrado 
Conrado 



Costantino 
Constantino 



Cornelio 
Comelio 



Dominicus 
Dominici 
Dominico 


Dominic 
Dominik 
Dominicus 


Dominique 


Dominico 
Domingo 


Eberardus 
Eberardi 
Eberardo 


Everard 

Eberhard 

Everhard 


Evrard 


Everardo 
Everardo 


Edmundus 
Edmundi 
Edmundo 


Edmund 
Edmund 
Edmond 


Edmond 


Edmondo 
Edmundo 


Eduardus 
Eduardi 
Eduardo 


Edward 
Eduard 
Eduard(us) 


Edouard 


Edoardo 
Eduardo 


Emmanuel 
Emmanuel is 
Emmanuele 


Emmanuel 

Emanuel 

Emanuel 


Emmanuel 


Emanuele 
Manuel 


Epiphanius 
Epiphanii 
Epiphanio 


Epiphane 
Epiphanius 
Epifanes (Epihanius) 


Epif anio 
Epif anio 


Emestus 
Emesti 
Ernesto 


Ernest 

Ernst 

Ernst 


Ernest 


Ernesto 
Ernesto 


Eugenius 
Eugenii 
Eugenio 


Eugene 

Eugen 

Eugenius 


Eugene 


Eugenio 
Eugenio 



240 



Latin 


English 

German 

Dutch 


French 


Italian 
Spanish 


Eustachius 
Eustachii 
Eustachio 


Eustache 

Eustachius 

Eustachius 


Eustache 


Eustachio 
Eustaquio 


Fabianus 
Fabiani 
Fabiano 


Fabian 
Fabian 
Fabian 


Fabien 


Fabiano 
Fabian 


Felix 
Felicis 
Felice 


Felix 
Felix 

Felicius 


Felix 


Felice 
Felix 


Ferdinandus 
Ferdineindi 
Ferdinando 


Ferdinand 
Ferdinand 


Ferdinand 


Ferdinando 

Fernando 

(Ferdinando) 


Franciscus 
Francisci 


Francis 
(Frank) 
Franz 
Franciscus 


Francois 


Francesco 
Francisco 


Fridericus 
Friderici 
Friderico 
( Fredericus , 
Federicus ) 


Frederick 

Friedrich 

Fredericus 

(Freek) 


/ / 

Frederic 


Ferderico 
Federico 


Fulcus 
Fulci 
Fulco 


Fulk 

Fulk(o) 

Fulko 


Foulque 


Fulco 
Fulquio 


Gabriel 
Gabrielis 
Gabriele 


Gabriel 
Gabriel 
Gabriel 


Gabriel 


Gabriele 
Gabriel 



Gaspar (see Caspar) 

Georgius 
Georgii 
Georgio 

Geraldus 
Geraldi 
Geraldo 

Gerardus 
Gerardi 
Gerardo 



George 

Georg 

Georg (Joris) 

Gerald 
Gerald 
Gerald(t) 

Gerard 
Gerhardt 
Gerard (Gerrit) 



Georges 

Giraud 
(Geraud) 

Gerard 



Giorgio 
Jorge 



Giraldo 
Geraldo 



Gerardo 
Gerardo 



241 



Latin 

Gervasius 
Gervasii 
Gervasio 

Gilbertus 
Gilbert! 
Gilbert© 

Godefridus 
Godefridi 
Godefrido 

Godehardus 
Godehardi 
Godehardo 

Gregorius 
Gregorii 
Gregorio 

Guntherus 
Guntheri 
Gunthero 



English 

German 

Dutch 

Gervase 

Gervas 

Gervasius 

Gilbert 
Gilbert 
Gilbert 

Godfrey 

Gottfried 

Godefridus 

Goddard 

Gotthard 

Goddard 

Gregory 

Gregor 

Gregorius 



Guenther 
Gunter 



French 
Gervais 

Gilbert 



Geoff ray 
(Geoffrey) 



Gothard 



Gregoire 



Gontier 



Italian 
Spanish 

Gervasio 
Gervasio 



Gilberto 
Gilberto 



Gof f redo 
Godf redo 



Gotardo 
Gotardo 



Gregorio 
Gregorio 



Gustavus 
Gustavi 
Gustavo 



Gustave 
Gustaf (v) 
Gustaaf 



Gustave 



Gustavo 
Gustavo 



Haraldus 
Haraldi 
Haraldo 



Harold (Herold; 

Harald 

Harald 



Araldo 
Haroldo 



Henricus 
Henrici 
Henrico 

Herbertus 
Herbert! 
Herberto 



Hercules 
Herculis 
Hercule 

Hermannus 
Hermann! 
Hermanno 



Henry 

Heinrich 

Hendrik 

Herbert 
Herbert 
Herbert 
(Heribert) 

Hercules 
Herkules 
Hercules 

Herman 

Hermann 

Herman 



Henri 



Herbert 
(Harbert) 



Hercules 



Herman ( n ) 



Enrico 

Enrique 

(Enrico) 

Erberto 

Eriberto 



Ercole 
Hercules (o) 

Ermanno 



242 



Latin 


English 

German 

Dutch 


French 


Italian 
Spanish 


Hector 
Hectoris 
Hectore 


Hector 
Hektor 


Hector 


Ettore 
Hector 


Helmodus 
Helmodi 
Helmodo 


Helmut 
Helmold 






Hilarius 
Hilarii 
Hilario 


Hilary 

Hilarius 

Hilarius 


Hilaire 


Ilario 
Hilario 


Hi 1 debr andus 
Hildebrandi 
Hildebrando 


Hildebrand 
Hildebrand 
Hildebrand 


Hilldebrand 


Ildebrando 
Hildebrando 


Horatius 
Horatii 
Horatio 


Horace 

Horatius 

Horatius 


Horace 


Orazio 
Horacio 


Horstius 
Horstii 
Horstio 


Horst 
Horts 






Hubertus 
Huberti 
Hiiberto 


Hubert 
Hubert (us) 
Hubert 


Hubert 


Uberto 
Huberto 


Hugo 

Hugonis 
Hugone 

(Ugo) 


Hugo ( Hugh ) 

Hugo 

Hugo 


Hugues 

( Hue , Huon ) 


Ugo 
Hugo 


loachimus 
loachimi 
loachimo 
( Joachimus ) 


Joachim 
Joachim 
Joachim (Joj 


Joachim 
akin) 


Gioacchino 
Joaquin 


Ignatius 
Ignatii 
Ignatio 


Ignatius 

Ignaz 

Ignatius 


Ignace 


Ignazio 
Ignacio 


Isaacus 
Isaaci 
Isacco 


Isaac 
Isaak 
Isaac (k) 


Isaac 


Isacco 
Isaac 


Isaias 
Isaiae 
Isaea 


Isaiah 
Esaias 
Esaia(s) 


Isaie 


Isaia 
Isaias 



243 



Latin 

Ivo 

I von is 
Ivone 

Isidorus 
Isidori 
Isidore 

Jacobus 
Jacobi 
Jacobo 

Johannes 
Johaimis 
Johanne 
( Joannes ) 

Johannulus 
Johannuli 
Johannulo 

Jordanus 
Jordani 
Jordano 



English 

German 

Dutch 


French 


Italian 
Spanish 


Yves 

Iwo 

Yvo 


Yves 


Ivo 
Ivo 


Isidore 

Isidor 

Isidoor 


Isidore 


Isidore 
Isidore 


James ( Jacob ) 
Jakob (us) 
Jakob (us) 


Jacques 


Giacomo 
Jaime 


John 
Johann 


Jean 


Giovanni 
Juan 



Johannes ( Jan ) 



Johnny 

Hans 

Hans (Hannes) 

Jordan 
Jordan 
Jordaan 



Jeannot 



Jordan 



Giovannino 
Juanito 



Giordano 
Jordan 



Josephus 
Josephi 
Josepho 

Julius 
Julii 
Julio 



Joseph 

Josef 

Joseph 

Julius 
Julius 
Julius 



Joseph 



Jules 



Giuseppe 
Jos^ 



Giulio 
Julio 



Justinus 
Justini 
Justino 



Justin 

Justinus 

Justinus 



Justin 



Giustino 
Justino 



Justus 
Justi 
Juste 



Justus 
Just (us) 
Justus 



Juste 



Giusto 
Justo 



Laurentius 
Laurent ii 
Laurentio 



Lawrence 

Lorenz 

Laurens 



Laurent 



Lorenzo 
Lorenzo 



Leonardus 
Leonard i 
Leonardo 



Leonard 
Leonard 
Leonard (us) 



Leonard 



Leonardo 
Leonardo 



244 



Latin 


English 

German 

Dutch 


French 


Italian 
Spanish 


Leonillus 
Leonilli 
Leonillo 


Lionel 


Lionel 


Leonello 
Leone llo 


Leo 

Leonis 
Leone 


Leo 
Leo 
Leo ( Lioen ) 


/ 
Leon 


Leone 
Leon 


Leopoldus 
Leopoldi 
Leopoldo 


Leopold 
Leopold 
Leopold (us) 


Leopold 


Leopoldo 
Leopoldo 


Lotharius 
Lotharii 
Lothario 


Lothar (Lotha; 

Lothar 

Lothar 


Lr) 


Lotario 
Lotario 


Ludovicus 
Ludovici 
Ludovico 


Louis ( Lewis ) 

Ludwig 

Lodewijk 


Louis 


Lodovico 
Ludovico 


Malachias 
Malachae 
Malacha 


Malachi 

Malachias 

Malachias 


Malachie 


Malachia 
Malaquias 


Marcus 
Marci 
Marco 


Mark 

Markus 

Marcus 


Marc 


Marco 
Marco(s) 


Martinus 
Martini 
Martino 


Martin Martin 

Martin 

Martinus (Maarte) 


Martino 
Martino 
(Martin) 


Matthaeus 
Matthaei 
Matthaeo 


Matthew 

Matthaeus 

Mattija 


Mathieu 


Matteo 
Mateo 


Max imili anus 
Maximiliani 
Maximiliano 


Maximilian 
Maximilian 
Maximiliaan 


Maximilien 


Massimiliano 
Maximiliano 


Michael 
Michael is 
Michaele 


Michael 
Michael 
Michael 


Michel 


Michele 
Miguel 


Moyses 
Moysis 
Moyse 


Moses 
Moses 
Mozes 


Moise 


Mose^ 
Moises 



245 



Latin 


English 

German 

Dutch 


French 


Italian 
Spanish 


Nicholaus 
Nicholai 
Nicholao 


Nicolas 

Nikolaus 

Nicolaas 


Nicolas 


Nicolo 
Nicolas 


Norbertus 
Norberti 
Norberto 


Norbert 
Herbert 
Norbert 


Norbert 


Norberto 
Norberto 


Olivarius 
Olivarii 
Olivario 


Oliver 
Oliver 
Olivier 


Olivier 


Oliviero 
Olivero 


Osvaldus 
Osvaldi 
Osvaldo 


Oswald 
Oswald 
Oswald 


Oswald 


Osvaldo 
Oswald 


Otto 

Ottonis 
Ottone 


Otto 
Otto 
Otto 


Otton 


Ottone 
Oton 


Paulus 
Pauli 
Paulo 


Paul 
Paul (us) 
Paulus 


Paul 


Paolo 
Pablo 


Paschal is 
Paschal is 
Paschale 


Pascal Pascal 
Paschalis (Paschal) 
Paschalis 


Pasquale 
Pascual 


Peregrinus 
Peregrini 
Peregrine 


Peregrine 

Peregrinus 

Peregrinus 


Pelegrin 


Pallegrino 
Peregrin 


Petrus 
Petri 
Petro 


Peter 
Peter 
Pieter 


Pierre 


Pietro 

Pedro 


Philippus 
Philippi 
Philippo 


Philip 
Philipp 
Philip (Flip) 


Philippe 


Filippo 
Felipe 


Quintinus 
Quintini 
Quintino 


Quentin 

Quintin(us) 

Quint 


Qui(e)ntin 


Quintino 
Quintin 


Radulfus 
Radulfi 
Radulfo 


Ralph 

Radolf 

Radolf 


Raoul 


Raul 
Raoul 



246 



Latin 

Raphael 
Raphael is 
Raphaele 

Raimiindus 
Raimundi 
Raimundo 



English 

German 

Dutch 

Raphael 
Raphael 
Raphael 

Raymond 
Raimund 
Raimond 



French 
Raphael 

Reymond 



Italian 
Spanish 

Raffaelo(e) 

Rafael 

(Raphael) 

Raimondo 
Ramon 



Randulfus 
Randulf i 
Randulfo 



Randolph 
Randolf (ulf ) 
Ranulf 



Randolf o 
Randolfo 



Rainerius 
Rainerii 
Rainerio 

Richardus 
Richardi 
Ri char do 

Robertas 
Roberti 
Roberto 

Rodericus 
Roderici 
Roderico 



Rainier 

Rainer 

Rainerus 



Rainier 



Richard Richard 

Richard 

Richard (Rickard) 



Robert 
Robert 
Robbert 

Roderick 

Roderick(h; 

Roderik 



Robert 



Roderique 



Ranieri 
Ranier 



Riccardo 
Ricardo 



Roberto 
Roberto 



Rodrigo 
Rodrigo 



Rodulfus 
Rodulfi 
Rodulfo 



Rudolph 

Rudolf 

Rudolf 



Rodolphe 



Rodolfo 
Rodolfo 



Rogerius 
Rogeri 
Rogero 

Rolandus 
Rolandi 
Rolando 

Romanus 
Roman i 
Romano 

Rupertus 
Ruperti 
Ruperto 



Roger 

Rudiger 

Rutger 

Roland 
Roland 
Roeland 

Remain 
Roman ( us ) 
Romanus 



Roger 



Roland 



Remain 



Rupert Rupert 
Rupprecht ( Rupert ) 
Rupert (us) 



Ruggero 
Rogelio 



Orlando 
Rolando 



Romano 
Roman 



Ruperto 
Ruperto 



247 



Latin 


English 

German 

Dutch 


French 


Italian 
Spanish 


Samuel 

Samuelis 


Samuel 
Samuel 


Samuel 


Samuele 
Samuel 


Sebastianus 
Sebastian! 
Sebastini 


Sebastian 
Sebastian 
Sebastiaan 


Sebastien 
(Bastian) 
(Bastiaan) 


Sebastiano 
Sebastian 


Sigefridus 
Sigefridi 
Sigefrido 


Siegfried 
Siegfried 
Sigfrid 




Sigfrido 
Sigfrido 


Sigismundus 
Sigismundi 
Sigismundo 


Sigmund 

Siegmund 

Siegmond 


Sigismond 


Sigismondo 
Segismundo 


Silvester 
Silvestri 
Silvestro 


Silvester 
Silvester 
Silvester 


Silvestre 


Silvestro 
Silvestre 


Simon 

Simonis 
Simone 


Simon 
Simon 
Simon 


Simon 


Simone 
Simon 


Stephanus 
Stephctni 
Setphano 


Stephan(en 

Stefan 

Stephanus 


) Etienne 


Stef anno 
Esteban 


Thaddaeus 
Thaddaei 
Thaddaeo 


Thaddeus 

Thaddaeus 

Thaddeus 


Thaddee 
(Tadie) 


Taddeo 
Tadeo 


Theobaldus 
Theobaldi 
Theobaldo 


Theobald 
Theobald 
Dietbald 


Thibaud(ult) 


Tebaldo 
Teobaldo 


Theodoricus 
Theodorici 
Theodorico 


Theodric(k 
Theoderich 
Theodorik 


) Thierry 
(Dietrich) 


Teodorico 
Teodorico 


Theodorus 
Theodori 
Theodoro 


Theodore 
Theodor 
Theodoor ( ' 


/ 

Theodore 

Theo) 


Teodoro 
Teodoro 


Thomas 
Thomae 
Thoma 


Thomas 
Thomas 
Thomas 


Thomas 


Tomaso 
Tomas 


Timotheus 
Timothei 
Timotheo 


Timothy 

Timotheus 

Timotheus 


Timothee 


Timoteo 
Timoteo 



248 



Latin 


English 

German 

Dutch 


French 


Italian 
Spanish 


Udalricus 
Udalrici 
Udalrico 


Ulrich 
Ulrich 
Uldrik 


Ulric 


Ulderico 
Ulderico 


Urbanus 
Urban i 
Urbano 


Urban Urbain 

Urban 

Urbanus (Urbaan) 


Urbano 


Valdemarus 
Valdemari 
Valdemaro 


Waldemar 
Waldemar 
Waldemar 




Valdemaro 
Valdemaro 


Valentinus 
Valentini 
Valentino 


Valentine 

Valentin 

Valentinus 


Valentin 
(Valentijn) 


Valentino 
Valentin 


Valerianus 
Valeriani 
Valeriano 


Valerian 

Valerianus 

Valerianus 


Valerien 


Valeriano 
Valeriano 


Venceslaus 
Venceslai 
Venceslao 


Wenceslas Venceslas 

Wenzeslaus 

Wencelas (Wencelaus) 


Venceslao 
Venceslao 


Vergil ius 
Vergilii 
Vergil io 


Virgil 
Virgil (ius) 
Virgilius 


Virgile 


Virgilio 
Virgilio 


Victor 
Victoris 
Victore 
( Victorius ) 


Victor 
Viktor 
Victor 


Victor 


Vittore(io) 
Victor 


Vido 

Vidonis 
Vidone 


Guy 

Guido 

Gui 


Guy(i) 


Guido 
Guido 


Vilfridus 
Vilfridi 
Vilfrido 
(Wilfridus) 


Wilfred 

Wilfried 

Wilfried 


Wilfrid 


Wilfrido 
Wilfrido 


Vincentius 
Vincent ii 
Vincentio 


Vincent 
Vinzenz 
Vincentius 


Vincent 
(Vincent, Sent) 


Vincenzo 
Vincente 


Walterus 
Walteri 
Waltero 


Walter Gautier 

Walter 

Walter (Gualterus) 


Gualtiero 
Gualterio 



249 



Latin 

Wilhelmus 
Wilhelmi 
Wilelmo 
(Wilelmus, 
Guilelmus) 



English 

German 

Dutch 

William 
Wilhelm 
Willem 



Guillaume 



Italian 
Spanish 

Guglielmo 
Guillermo 



Xianus (see Christianus) 

Xoforus (see Christophorus ) 

Female Names (Genitive and Ablative included, e.g., 

Anna: Anna [nom. ] , Annae: of Anna [gen.] 
Anna: by, with, from, etc. Anna [abl.]) 





English 








German 




Italian 


Latin 


Dutch 


French 


Spanish 


Ada 


Ada 




Ada 


Adae 


Ada 




Ada 


Ada 


Ada 






Adelaidis 


Adelaide 


Adelaide 


Adelaide 


Adelaidis 


Adelheid 




Adelaida 


Adelaide 


Adelheid 







Adriana (see Hadriana] 



Aemilia 
Aemiliae 
Aemilia 
(Emilia) 

Agatha 
Agathae 
Agatha 

Agnes 
Agnetis 
Agnete 

Alexia 
Alexiae 
Alexia 
(Alicia) 

Aloisia 
Aloisiae 
Aloisia 



Emily Emilie 

Emilia 

Aemilia 



Agatha Agathe 

Agatha 

Agatha ( Aag j e ) 

Agnes Agnes 

Agnes (e) 

Agnes (Agnesia) 

Alice Alice 

Alexia 

Alexia 



Louise Louise 
Luise (Aloisia) 
Aloisia 



Emilia 
Emilia 



Agata 
Agueda 



Agnese 
Ines 



Alessia 
Alicia 



Luisa 
Luisa 



250 



Latin 

Camillia 
Camilliae 
Camillia 



English 

German 

Dutch 

Camille 
Camille 
Camiele 



French 
Camille 



Italian 
Spanish 

Camilla 
Camila 



Carol a 
Carolae 
Carola 



Carol 

(Charlotte) 
Karla (Carola) 
Carola 



Charlotte 



Carla 
Carlota 



Cassandra 
Cassandrae 
Cassandra 

Catharina 
Catharinae 
Catharina 

Caecilia 
Caeciliae 
Caecilia 

Clara 
Clarae 
Clara 

Claudia 
Claudiae 
Claudia 

Clementina 
Clementinae 
Clementina 

Constcintia 
Constantiae 
Constantia 

Christina 
Christinae 
Christina 

Dominica 
Dominicae 
Dominica 



Cassandra 

C(K)assandra 

Cassandra 



Cassandre 



Catherine 



Catherine 
Katharina 
Catharina (Katrien) 

Cecilia Cecile 

Caecilia 

Cecilia (Cieltje) 

Clara Claire 

Klara 

Klara (Klaartje) 



Claudia 
Claudia 
Claudia 

Clementine 
Clementine 
dementia 



Claudine 



Clementine 



Constance Constance 

Konstanze 

Constantia (tina) 

Christine Christine 

Christine 

Christina (Christiana) 



Dominica 
Dominika 
Dominica 



Dominique 



Cassandra 
Casandra 



Caterina 
Catalina 



Cecilia 
Cecilia 



Chiara 
Clara 



Claudia 
Claudia 



Clementina 
Clementina 



Costanza 

Contancia 

(Constanza) 

Cristina 
Cristina 



Dominica 
Dominga 



Dorothea 
Dorotheae 
Dorothea 



Dorothy 

Dorothea 

Dorothea 



Dorothee 



Dorotea 
Dorotea 



252 



Latin 



English 

German 

Dutch 



Amalia Amelia 

Amaliae Amelie 

Amalia Amalia 

(see also Aemilia) 



French 
Amelie 



Italian 
Spanish 

Amalia 
Amalia 



Anastasia 
Anastasiae 
Anastasia 


Anastasia 
(Anstace) 
Anastasia 
Anastasia 


Anastasie 


Anastasia 
Anastasia 


Angela 
Angel ae 
Angela 


Angela 
Angela 
Angela 


Angele 


Angela 
Angela 


Angelica 
Angel icae 
Angelica 


Angelica 
Angelika 
Angelica ( 


Angelique 
Gelika, Lika) 


Angelica 
Ange'lica 


Anna 
Annae 
Anna 


Ann ( Anne , 
Anna) 
Anna 
Anna 


Anne 


Anna 
Ana 


Beata 
Beatae 
Beata 


Beata 
Beate 
Beata 


Beate 


Beata 
Beata 


Beatrix 
Beatricis 
Beatrice 


Beatrice 

Beatrix 

Beatrijs 


Beatrice 


Beatrice 
Beatriz 


Benedicta 
Benedictae 
Benedicta 


Benedicta 
Benedikta 
Benedicta 


Benoite 


Benedetta 
Benita 


Berenice 
Berenicis 
Berenice 


Bernice 

Berenice 

Berenike 


Berenice 


Berenice 
Berenice 


Berta 
Bertae 
Berta 


Bertha 

Berta 

Bertha 


Berthe 


Berta 
Berta 


Blanca 
Blancae 
Blanca 


Blanche 

Blanka 

Blanca 


Blanche 


Bianca 
Blanca 


Brigida 
Brigidae 
Brigida 


Bridget 

Brigitte 

Brigiet 


Brigitte 


Brigida 
Brigida 



251 



Latin 


English 

German 

Dutch 


French 


Italian 
Spanish 


Edith 
Edithae 
Editha 


Edith 
Edith 
Edith(a) 


Edith 


Editta 
Edita 


Eleemora 
Eleanorae 
Eleanora 


Eleanor 

Eleonore 

Eleanora 


Eleonare 


Eleonora 
Eleonor 
( Leonor ) 


Elisabetha 
Elisabethae 
Elisabetha 


Elisabeth 
Elisabeth 
Elisabet(h) 


Elisabeth 


Elisabetta 
Elisabet 


Emma 
Emmae 
Emma 


Emma 
Emma 
Emma ( Hemma ) 


Emma 


Emma 
Ema 


Ermina 
Erminae 
Ermina 


Hermine 
Hermine 
Ermina 


Hermine 


Erminia 
Herminia 


Esther 

(not declined) 


Esther 

Esther 

Esther (Ester) 


Esther 


Ester (ina) 
Ester 


Eva 
Evae 
Eva 


Eva ( Eve ) 

Eva 

Eva 


Eve 
(Eva) 


Eva 
Eva 


Felicitas 
Felicitatis 
Felicitate 


Felicity 
Felicitas 
Felicitas (Fel 


Felicite 
icia) 


Felicita 

Felicidad 

(Felicitas) 


Flora 
Florae 
Flora 


Flora 
Flora 
Flora 


Fleur 
(Fleurie) 


Flora 
Flora 


Francisca 
Franciscae 
Francisca 


Frances 

Franziska 

Francisca 


Francoise 


Francesca 
Francisca 
(Francesca) 


Gabriela 
Gabrielae 
Gabriela 


Gabriella 

Gabriele 

Gabriella 


Gabrielle 


Gabriella 
Gabriela 


Gertrudis 
Gertrudis 
Gertrude 


Gertrude 

Gertrud 

Gertruda 


Gertrude 


Geltrude 
Gertrudis 



253 



Latin 


English 

German 

Dutch 


French 


Italian 
Spanish 


Gisela 
Giselae 
Gisela 


Gisela 
Gisela 
Gisela 


Gisele 


Gisella 
Gisela 


Gloria 
Gloriae 
Gloria 


Gloria 
Gloria 
Gloria 


Gloria 


Gloria 
Gloria 


Gratia 
Gratiae 
Gratia 


Grace 

Gratia 

Gratia 


Grace 


Grazia 
Gracia 


Hadriana 
Hadrianae 
Hadriana 


Adrian Adrienne 
Adriana (Adriane) 
Adriaantje 


Adriana 
Adriana 


Helena 
Helenae 
Helena 


Helen 

Helena 

Helena 


Helene 


Elena 
Elena 


Henrica 
Henricae 
Henrica 


Henriette 

Henrike 

Hendrika 


Henriette 


Enrica 
Enriqueta 


Hilda 
Hildae 
Hilda 


Hilda 

Hilda(e) 

Hilda 


Hilde 


Ilda 
Hilda 


Hildegardis 
Hildegardis 
Hildegarde 


Hildegarde 
Hildegard 
Hildegard (Hi 


Hilegarde 
Idgard) 


Ildegarda 
Hildegarda 


Ida 
Idae 
Ida 
(Itta) 


Ida 

Ida (Itte) 

Ida 


Ida 


Ida 
Ida 


Irene 
Irenis 
Irene 


Irene 
Irene 
Irene 


Irene 


Irene 
Irene 


Isolda 
Isoldae 
Isolda 


Isolda(e) 

Isolde 

Isolde 


Iseult 


Isotta 
Isolda 


Johanna 
Johannae 
Johanna 
( Joanna , 
loanna) 


Johanna 

( JoAnn , Jane ) 

Johanna 

Jo ( h ) anna 


Jeanne 


Giovanna 
Juana 



254 



Latin 


English 

German 

Dutch 




French 


Italian 
Spanish 


Josepha 
Josephae 
Josepha 


Josephine 
Josef ine 
Josephina 


Josephine 
( Josina) 


Giuseppina 
Josef a 


Juditha 
Judithae 
Juditha 


Judith (Judy) 

Judith 

Judith(a) 


Judith 


Giuditta 
Judit 


Julia 
Juliae 
Julia 


Julie(a) 

Julie 

Julia 




Julie 


Giula 
Julia 


Juliana 
Julianae 
Juliana 


Juliana 
Juliana 
Juliana 




Julienne 


Giuliana 
Juliana 


Justina 
Justinae 
Justina 


Justina 
Justine 
Justina (Justa 


Justine 
) 


Giustina 
Justina 



Katharina (see Gather ina) 



Laura 


Laura 


Laure 


Laura 


Laurae 


Laura 




Laura 


Laura 


Laura 






Lina 


Lina 


Line 


Lina 


Linae 


Lina 




Lina 


Lina 


Lina (Lien) 






(Carolina) 








Lucretia 


Lucretia 


Lucrece 


Lucrezia 


Lucre tiae 


Lukretia 




Lucrecia 


Lucretia 


Lucretia 






Magdalena 


Madeleine 


Madeleine 


Maddalena 


Magdalenae 


Magdalena(e) 




Magdalena 


Magdalena 


Magdalena 






( Magdalene , 








Magdalenis , 








Magdalene ) 








Margareta 


Margaret 


Marguerite 


Margherita 


Margaretae 


Margareta 




Margarita 


Margareta 


Margreta 






( Margarita ) 








Maria 


Mary (Maria) 


Marie 


Maria 


Mariae 


Maria 




Maria 


Maria 


Maryke 







255 



Latin 


English 

German 

Dutch 


French 


Italian 
Spanish 


Maria Anna 
Mariae Annae 
Maria Anna 


Marianne 
(Mary Ann) 
Marianna 
Marianna 


Marianne 


Marianna 
Mariana 


Martha 
Marthae 
Martha 


Martha 
Martha 
Martha 


Marthe 


Marta 
Marta 


Mathildis 
Mathildis 
Mathilde 


Mathilda 
Mathilde 
Mathilda 


Mathilde 


Mathilde 
Mathilde 


Monica 
Monicae 
Monica 


Monica 
Monika 
Monica 


Monique 


Monica 

Monica (Monia) 



Nora (see Eleonora) 



Norma 
Norma 


Norma 
Norma 




Norma 
Norma 


Odilia 
Odiliae 
Odilia 


Odile Odile 
Odielie (Ottilie) 
Odilia 


Odilia 
Odilia 


Paula 
Paulae 
Paula 


Paula 
Paula 
Paula 


Paule 


Paola 
Paula 


Paulina 
Paulinae 
Paulina 


Pauline 
Pauline 
Paulina 


Paulette 


Paolina 
Paulina 
(Paulette) 


Petronella 
Petronellae 
Petronella 
(Petronilla) 


Petronella 
Petronilla 
Petronilla 


Petronille 
(Pieternella) 


Petronilla 
Petronilla 


Priscilla 
Priscillae 
Priscilla 


Priscilla 
Priszilla 
Priscilla 




Priscilla 
Priscila 


Rachel 
Rachel is 
Rachele 


Rachel 
Rachel 
Rachel 


Rachel 


Rachele 
Raquel 


Regina 
Reginae 
Regina 


Regina 
Regina 
Regina 


Regme 
(Regina) 


Regina 
Regina 



256 



Latin 


English 

German 

Dutch 


French 


Italian 
Spanish 


Rosa 
Rosae 
Rosa 


Rose 
Rosa 
Rosa (Roos) 


Rose 


Rosa 
Rosa 


Rosalia 
Rosaliae 
Rosalia 


Rosalie 
Rosalie 
Rosalia 


Rosalie 


Rosalia 
Rosalia 


Rosalinda 
Rosalindae 
Rosalinda 


Rosalind 
Rosalinda 
Rosalinde (] 


Roselientje) 


Rosalinda 
Rosalinda 


Rosamimda 
Rosamundae 
Bosamunda 


Rosamund 

Rosamunde 

Rosamunda 


Rosemonde 


Rosmunda 
Rosamunda 


Sabina 
Sabinae 
Sabina 


Sabina 
Sabina 
Sabina (Sab: 


Savine 
iana) 


Sabina 
Sabina 


Silvia 
Silviae 
Silva 


Silvia 
Silvia 
Silvia 


Sylvie 


Silvia 
Silvia 


Sophia 
Sophiae 
Sophia 


Sophia 
(Sophy) 
Sophie 
Sophia 


Sophie 


Sofia 
Sofia 


Stephania 
Stephaniae 
Stephania 


Stephany 
Stephanie 
Stef ania 


Stephanie 


Stef ania 
Estefania 


Teres i a 
Teres iae 
Teres i a 


Teresa 

Theresia 

Theresia 


Therese 


Teresa 
Teresa 


Ursala 
Ursalae 
Ursala 


Ursula 
Ursula 
Ursula 


Ursule 


Orsola 
Ursula 


Valentina 
Valentinae 
Valentina 


Valentina 
(Valentine) 
Valentine 
Valentina 


Valentine 


Valentina 
Valentina 


Veronica 
Veronicae 
Veronica 


Veronica Veronique 

Veronika 

Veronica (Verona) 


Veronica 
Veronica 



257 





English 








German 




Italian 


Latin 


Dutch 


French 


Spanish 


Viola 


Violet 


Violle 


Viola 


Violae 


Viola 




Viola 


Viola 


Viola 






Victoria 


Victoria 


Victoire 


Vittoria 


Victoriae 


Victoria 




Victoria 


Victoria 


Fictoria 






Zenobia 


Zenobia 


Zenobie 


Zenobia 


Zenobiae 


Zenobia 




Cenobia 


Zenobia 









This list was compiled from the following sources: 

Dauzat, Albert. Dictionaire Etymologique des Noms de Famille 
et Prenoms de France. Paris: Librairie Larousse, 1951. 

Drosdowski , Guenther. Duden Lexicon der Vomamen. 

Mannheim/Zuerich: Bibliographische Institute, 1972. 

Dupaquier, Jacques, et al. Le Temps des Jules: Les prenoms 
en France au XIXe siecle. Paris: C.N.R.S., n.d. 

Egger, Carl. Lexicon Nominum Virorvim et Mulierum. 

Rome: Societas Libraria "Studium," 1963. 

Maijers, J. A. and Luitingh, J. C. Onze Voomamen. 
Amsterdam: Moussault's Uitgeverij NV, 1966. 

Tibon, Gutierre. Diccionario Etimologico Comparado de Nombres 
Propios de Persona. Mexico: Union Tipografica Editorial 
Hispano Americana, 1956. 

Wasserzieher , Ernst. Hems und Crete: 1500 Vomamen Erklaert. 

18th Ed. Bonn: Ferdinand Duemmlers Verlag, 1972. 



258 



APPENDIX C 



Fixed and Movable Feast Days 

The Christian ecclesiastical calendar, utilized by Roman 
Catholics and many Protestants, is based upon various highlights 
in the life of Jesus Christ and certain events in Christian 
church history. It is organized around a series of fixed and 
movable feast days, and includes periods prior to or after the 
celebration of these festivals, periods of preparation for their 
celebration, and the feast days themselves. 

Fixed feast days , as the name suggests , occurred on the same 
day each year, whereas the dates of movable feast days varied 
from year to year. The latter were, generally, based upon their 
proximity to Christmas, Epiphany, or Easter, the three most 
important religious festivals in the Christian calendar. 

The calendar year actually began with the period immediately 
prior to Christmas, the four Sundays of Advent--or the four 
Sundays prior to Christmas. The date of December 25 was appar- 
ently selected to celebrate the birth of Christ because of its 
proximity to the Roman Saturnalia, or the winter solstice festi- 
val, and the birth date of Mithras, a Middle Eastern deity popu- 
lar in the later Roman Empire. It also coincided with Celtic and 
Nordic mid-winter festivals. 

Epiphany commemorated the arrival of the Magi at the stable 
in Bethlehem to present gifts to the infant Jesus. It was cele- 
brated on January 6 . 

Easter was the final, and most important, event in the 
Christian calendar. Just as the celebration of Christmas 
occurred only after a period of four Sundays of penance, so 
Easter was also preceded by a time of penance, in this case forty 
days rather than four Sundays . 

Easter was established as a movable feast day, which was to 
be celebrated after the first full moon of spring. Since the 
first day of spring was, traditionally, March 21, the celebration 
of Easter varied from March 22 to April 25. The remainder of 
the calendar was adjusted to this time period every year. The 
Easter season officially began with Septuagesima (70th) Sunday, 
and lasted until Trinity Sunday, which occurred eight weeks after 
Easter. The total length of the Easter season, including Lent, 
the penitential period lasting forty days, and the eight weeks 
after Easter Sunday, was fixed at 123 days. 



259 



The remainder of the ecclesiastical calendar was, therefore, 
adjusted to maintain this interval each year. Since there were, 
for example, four Sundays prior to December 25, in the Advent 
season, the time period of Epiphany and Trinity had to be changed 
annually. 

Eventually, additional feast and saints' days were added to 
the ecclesiastical calendar, many of which were fixed rather than 
movable. The names of a number of these feast days were taken 
from religious sermons, sayings, verses of the Vulgate, etc. 
Thus, for example, the fourth Sunday of Advent was called Rorate 
Coeli Desuper (Drop down ye heavens from above . . . Isaiah 45:8 
[King James Translation] ) . 

Common fixed and movable feast days are given below. The 
dates of fixed feast days are included here. For the calculation 
of a particular movable feast day, using either the Julian or 
Gregorian calendar, consult such reference works as A. Giry. 
Manuel de Diplomatique, 1896, reprint ed. , New York: Burt Frank- 
lin, 1965, Reginald L. Poole. Studies in Chronology and History. 
Oxford: At the Clarendon Press, 1934; reprint ed. , 1969, R. Dean 
Ware, "Medieval Chronology," in James M. Powell, ed.. Medieval 
Studies: An Introduction (New York: Syracuse University Press, 
1976), pp. 127-221, or others listed in the selected 
bibliography . 



Fixed Feast Days 



Date 
1 January 

6 January 

13 January 
22 January 
25 January 
27 January 



Latin 

Circumcisio Domini 

Octava Nativitatis Christi 



Regum Trium 
Epiphania 



Baptismus Christi 
Deponsatio Mariae 
Conversio Pauli 
Septem Gaudia(ae) Mariae 



2 February Ptirificatio B.M.V. 

(or the Sunday following) 



2 February 



Obviatio Simeonis Justi 



English 

Circumcision of the 

Lord 

Eight Days after the 

Birth of Christ 

(Feast) of the Three 

Kings 

Epiphany 

Baptism of Christ 

Engagement of Mary 

Conversion of Paul 

The Seven Joys of Mary 

The Purification of 
the Blessed Virgin 
Mary 

Meeting (with) Simeon 
the Just 



260 



Date 
2 February 

20 February 
20 February 

1 March 

18 March 

19 March 



25 


March 


25 


March 


3 


May 


8 


May 


24 


June 


2 


July 


15 


July 


3 


August 


6 


August 


15 


August 


29 


August 



Latin 

Presentatio Domini Nostri 
in Templo 

Eucharias* 

Incathedratio Petri 

Conversio Mariae Magdalenae 

Gabrielis Archangeli 



Josephi Mutricii Domini, 
Sponsi B.M.V. 



Annunciatio Domini ad Mariam 



Conceptio Domini 



Crucis Inventio 

Michaelis Archangeli 
Apparitio 

Johannis Baptistae Nativitas 



Visitatio Mariae 
Divisio Apostolorum 



Inventio Protomartyris 
Stephani 



Transfiguratio Domini in 
Monte Tabor 



Ascensio (Assumtio) Mariae 

Decollatio Johannis 
Baptistae 



English 

Presentation of our 
Lord in the Temple 

Eucharias 

Creation of the See 
of Peter 

Conversion of Mary 
Magdalene 

(Feast) of the 
Archangel Gabriel 

(Feast) of Joseph 
earthly father of the 
Lord, husband of the 
Blessed Virgin Mary 

Annunciation of 
the Lord to Mary 

Conception of the 
Lord 

Discovery of the Cross 

Appearance of the 
Archangel Michael 

Birth of John the 
Baptist 

Visitation of Mary 

Division of the 
Apostles 

Discovery of (the 
bones of) St. Stephen, 
the First Martyr 

Transfiguration of 
the Lord on Mount 
Tabor 

Ascension of Mary 

Beheading of John the 
Baptist 



*also (Festum) Eucarii episcopi (Feast of Bishop Eucarius; 



261 



Date 

1 September 
14 September 

23 September 

24 September 

29 September 

1 November 

2 November 
8 November 

25 December 

26 December 



Latin 

Duodecim Fratrum 
Crucis Exaltatio 
Gaudia Mariae 
Conceptio Johannis 

Festtun Angelonim 

( Conunemoratio ) Omnium 
Sanctomm 

( Commemoratio ) Animarum 

Conceptio Mariae 

Nativitas Christi 

Stephani Protomartyris* 



English 

The Twelve Brothers 

Elevation of the Cross 

Rejoicing of Mary 

Conception of John 
(the Baptist) 

Feast of Angels 

All Saints Day 

All Souls Day 

Conception of Mary 

The Birth of Christ 
(Christmas) 

(Feast) of St. Stephen 
the First Martyr 



*Be careful to avoid confusing this feast day with the 
celebration of the discovery of the bones of St. Stephen 
on August third. 



Movable Feast Days 
Latin 
I post November Annum 

I post Epiphaniam 

II post Epiphaniam 

III post Epiphaniam 

IV post Epiphaniam 

V post Epiphaniam 

VI post Epiphaniam 

Septuages ima 

( Circumdederunt me gemitus 
mortis, Psalmi 17:5 
[Vulgate] ) 



English 

First Sunday after the New Year 

First Sunday after Epiphany 

Second Sunday after Epiphany 

Third Sunday after Epiphany 

Fourth Sunday after Epiphany 

Fifth Sunday after Epiphany 

Sixth Sunday after Epiphany 

Ninth Sunday before Easter 

(70th Day) 

(The sorrows of hell 

compassed me about, 

Psalms 18:5 [KJV] ) 



262 



Latin 
Sexagesima 

(Exsurge, quare obdormis, 

Psalmi 43: 23 [Vulgate]) 



Quinquages ima 

(Esto mihi [in lapidem 
fortissimum] Psalmi 30:3 
[Vulgate] ) 

Quadr ages ima 

Invocavit ( me ) 

(Invocabit me et exaudiam eum, 

Psalmi 90:15 [Vulgate]) 



Reminiscere 

( reminiscere miserationum 

tuarum Domine, Psalmi 24:6 

[Vulgate] ) 

Oculi 

(Oculi mei semper ad dominum, 

Psalmi 24:15 [Vulgate]) 

Laetare 

(Laetare Jerusalem [laetamini 
cum Jerusalem et exultate in ea 
omnes qui diligitis earn] , 

Isaias 66:10 [Vulgate]) 

Judica 

(Judica me Deus et disceme 
causam meam a gente non sancta, 

Psalmi 42:1 [Vulgate]) 

Palmarum 

(Domine, ne longe facias 
[tu autem Domine ne longe fias 

fortitude mea in auxilium meum 

festina] , Psalmi 21:20 

[Vulgate] ) 

Dies Viridium 



English 

Eighth Sunday before Easter 

(60th Day) 

(Awake, why sleepest thou 

[O Lord]?, Psalms 44:23 [KJV] ) 

Psalms 44:23 [KJV] ) 

Seventh Sunday before Easter 
(50th Day) 

(be thou my strong rock, 
Psalms 31:2 [KJV] ) 



Sixth Sunday before Easter 

First Sunday in Lent 

(He shall call upon me, and I 

will answer him: Psalms 91:15 

[KJV]) 

Fifth Sunday before Easter 
(Remember, O Lord, thy tender 
mercies ... Psalms 25:6 [KJV]) 



Fourth Sunday before Easter 
(Mine eyes are ever toward 
the Lord; Psalms 25:15 [KJV]) 

Third Sunday before Easter 
(Rejoice ye with Jerusalem, and 
be glad with her, all ye that 
love her: Psalms 66:10 [KJV]) 



Second Sunday before Easter 
(Judge me, O God, and plead my 
cause against an ungodly 
nation: Psalms 43:1 [KJV]) 

Palm Sunday 

(But be not thou far from me, 
O Lord: O my strength, haste 
thee to help me. Psalms 22:19 
[KJV]) 



Maundy Thursday 

(Thursday before Easter; from 
mandatum meum, the first words 
of the washing of the feet 
ceremony which occurs on 
this day. ) 



263 



Latin 

Dies Adorationis 

Pascha 

Quasimodogeniti 

(Quasi modo geniti infantes 

[sicut modo geniti infantes 

rationale sine dolo lac 

concupiscite ut in eo 

crescatis in salutem] , 

Epistula Petrii 1:2 [Vulgate]) 

Misericordia 

( misericordia Domini plena 

est terra, Psalmi 32:5 

[Vulgate] ) 

Jubilate 

(Jubilate Deo omnis terra 
cantate gloriam nomini eius, 

Psalmi 65:1-2 [Vulgate]) 



Cantate 

(Cantate domino canticum novum, 

Psalmi 97:1 [Vulgate]) 

Rogate 

(Rogate Vocem Jucunditatis , 

Isaias 28:20 [Vulgate]) 

Exaudi 

(Exaudi, domine, vocem meam 
[audi Domine vocem meeim 
invocantis miserere mei et 
exaudi me], Psalmi 26:7 
[Vulgate] ) 

Ascenscio 



Pentecostae 
( Pentecoste ) 

Trinitatis 

I post Trinitatem 

II post Trinitatem 

III post Trinitatem 



English 

Good Friday 

Easter 

Sunday after Easter 

(As newborn babes, desire the 

sincere milk of the word, that 

they may grow thereby: 

I Peter 1:2 [KJV] ) 



Second Sunday after Easter 
(the earth is full of the 

goodness of the Lord. 

Psalms 33:5 [KJV] ) 

Third Sunday after Easter 
(Make a joyful noise unto God, 

all ye lands: Sing forth the 

honor of his name: 

Psalms 66:1-2 [KJV]) 

Fourth Sunday after Easter 
(0 sing unto the Lord a new 
song; Psalms 98:1 [KJV]) 

Fifth Sunday after Easter 
(Ask [with] a voice of pleasure, 
Isaiah 28:20 [KJV] ) 

Sixth Sunday after Easter 
(Hear, Lord, when I cry with 
my voice: have mercy also upon 
me and answer me. Psalms 27:7 
Psalms 27:7 [KJV] ) 



Day of Ascension 

(40 days after Easter) 

(Day of) Pentecost 



(Feast of) Trinity Sunday 
First Sunday after Trinity 
Second Sxinday after Trinity 
Third Sunday after Trinity 



264 



Latin 

IV post 

V post 

VI post 

VII post 

VIII post 

IX post 

X post 

XI post 

XII post 

XIII post 

XIV post 

XV post 

XVI post 

XVII post 



Trinitatem 
Trinitatem 
Trinitatem 
Trinitatem 
Trinitatem 
Trinitatem 
Trinitatem 
Trinitatem 
Trinitatem 
Trinitatem 
Trinitatem 
Trinitatem 
Trinitatem 
Trinitatem 



XVIII post Trinitatem 

XIX post Trinitatem 

XX post Trinitatem 

XXI post Trinitatem 

XXII post Trinitatem 

XXIII post Trinitatem 

XXIV post Trinitatem 

XXV post Trinitatem 

XXVI post Trinitatem 



English 

Fourth Sunday after Trinity 

Fifth Sunday after Trinity 

Sixth Sunday after Trinity 

Seventh Sunday after Trinity 

Eighth Sunday after Trinity 

Ninth Sunday after Trinity 

Tenth Sunday after Trinity 

Eleventh Sunday after Trinity 

Twelfth Sunday after Trinity 

Thirteenth Sunday after Trinity 

Fourteenth Sunday after Trinity 

Fifteenth Sunday after Trinity 

Sixteenth Sunday after Trinity 

Seventeenth Sunday after 
Trinity 

Eighteenth Sunday after Trinity 

Nineteenth Sunday after Trinity 

Twentieth Sunday after Trinity 

Twenty-First Sunday after 
Trinity 

Twenty-Second Sunday after 
Trinity 

Twenty-Third Sunday after 
Trinity 

Twenty-Fourth Sunday after 
Trinity 

Twenty-Fifth Sunday after 
Trinity 

Twenty-Sixth Sunday after 
Trinity 



265 



Latin 

XXVII post Trinitatem 



Adventus 

(Ad te levavi [Ad te Domine 
cLnimam meam levabo] , 

Psalmi 24:1 [Vulgate]) 



II post Adventum 
(Populus Sion, Isaias 3 
[Vulgate] ) 



30 



III post Adventum 
(gaudete in Domino semper 

itenun dico gaudete, 

Epistola ad Philippenses 4:4 
[Vulgate] ) 

IV post Adventum 

(Rorate coeli desuper [rorate 
caeli desuper et nubes pluant 
iustum] , Isaias 45:8 [Vulgate]) 



English 

Twenty-Seventh Sunday after 
Trinity 

Advent Sunday (fourth Sunday befor 
before Christmas — Unto thee, 
O Lord, do I lift up my soul. 
Psalms 25: 1 [KJV] ) 

Second Sunday after Advent 
(Sunday) (People of Zion: 
Isaiah 30:30 [KJV] ) 

Third Sunday after Advent 
(Sunday) (Rejoice in the Lord 
always: and again I say. 
Rejoice. Philippians 4:4 
[KJV]) 

Fourth Sunday after Advent 
(Sunday) (Drop down, ye heavens, 

from above and let the skies 

pour down righteousness : 

Isaiah 45:8 [KJV] ) 



266 



APPENDIX D 



Sample Parish Register Entries 



Included below are three parish register entries. The 
handwritten copy is first, then a Latin transliteration, then an 
English translation. 

It is recommended that each document be read in the origi- 
nal, then compared first with the Latin transliteration and, 
finally, with the English translation. In this way, additional 
facility in the study and translation of register entries may be 
obtained, particularly those in which at least some Gothic 
letters are found. 

Parish Registers: Document #1: A Birth Entry from Germany 






2 \rpt4,n~d*-r%^'Ary»^/ 







10 

11 






12 




15 




14 
IS 




16 


11 


18 




20 






O-n-^-n 



'/^- 



./t/K\ 






J. 


















267 



Latin Transliteration: Document #1 

1) Proles anonyma Matthiae Schuster/ : Krammertippl/ : 

2) nxindinatoris , et Maria Evae Leyrerinn 

3) conjugum, filius legitimus, ob primogenitus , ob 

4) peirtus difficultatem 2 dies integros durantem, ma- 

5) tvire in utero ob obstetrice hujate primum, dein 

6) securitatis causa eib obstetrice Weilheimensi, in arte 

7 ) sua longe peritissima signum vitae advertente ba- 

8) ptizatur h: 3 matut: 22 Jul: statim obiit, eodemque 

9) die h:5 ta vesp: translatus ad tumulum et sepultus est 



10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 



Proles anonymae Joeuiis Georgii Nebl/:Zach:/villae nostrae 

duae operarii, et Meiriae Bellandinn conjugiim 

per abortum terrore caussatum natae, queiriua 

una f aeminea , ab ipsa matre pridie eib obstetrice hujate 

ad casum quo,/: heu! jam bina vice factum!:/ instructa 

baptizata est; altera autem mascula nullum omnino 

vitae signum edidit; heme obstretix in aedicula peir- 

vulorum sine baptismate dedecentium, illam vero utpote 

baptizatam, licet 4 vel 5 poliices longam, sesqviipedali tamen 

loculo inclusam ritu consueto sepelivit eodem die h. 4 vesp: 

30 Julii 



N.B. Krammertippl and Zach are locality names. 

Weilheimensis is Latinized fonn of Weilheim, a 
place name. Note that h: = hora, 5ta = quinta, 
matut. = matutina, and vesp: = vespertina. Note also 
that the first words of lines 10 & 11 are actually 
in the margin, i.e., proles duae, even though 
they are included with these lines for illustrative 
purposes. Translate this phrase with line 10, 
e.g., proles duae Joanis ... etc. 



268 



English Translation: Document #1 

An anonymous child (or, the anonymous offspring) of Matthew 
Schuster, from Krammertippl 

a merchant trading at fairs , and Maria Eva Leyrer 

married couple, son legitimate firstborn, because of 

a difficult birth lasting two entire days, 

promptly in the womb by the midwife of this place, first 
then 

for the sake of safety, by the midwife in Weilheim in art 

her for a long time most skilled, a sign of life perceiving 

is baptized at the third hour of the morning on the 22nd of 
July: (the child) died immediately (thereafter), and on the 
same 

day at the fifth hour of the evening (it) was carried to the 
tomb and buried. 

Two anonymous children (offspring) of John George Nebl from 
Zach of our village 

a worker (manual laborer), and Maria Beland married couple, 

born through a miscarriage caused by fear, of which 

one (was) a female, by the mother herself the day before by o 

the midwife of this place ^ 

>- ^ 
tr uj CO 

for the case, for which — whew! now two instead made — < _j ^ 

instructed S^ '^ < 

was baptized; the other (child) (was) however male, no >. *~ » 
entirely CC co H 

O UJ rr 
of life a sign gave out; this (child) the midwife in the [j^ ^ 
mortuary (literally: the little house) t^ I v^ 

f- < 
of the deceased children (of the small ones) without bap-Q^jH 
it (the child) truly as if 2 2 !j 

< m ^ 
baptized, only four or five inches long, nevertheless in^^ *" 
foot and a half (long) "^ 

coffin shut (placed) according to the customary rite 
buried on the same day at the fourth hour of the evening. 

on the 30th of July. 



269 



(An unnamed child, the legitimate first-born son of Matthew 
Schuster, a merchant trading at fairs, from Kramertippl 
[living at Kramertippl] and [of] Maria Eva Leyrer, married 
couple, because of a difficult birth lasting two entire 
days, promptly by the local midwife, first, then, for 
safety's sake, by the midwife of Weilheim, who is most 
skilled in her art, after perceiving a sign of life, is 
baptized at the third hour of the morning on July 2 2nd; 
the child died immediately [after the baptism] and on the 
same day at the fifth hour of the evening it was carried to 
the tomb and buried. ) 



(Two unnamed children of John George Nebl, from Zach [living 
at Zach], a manual laborer of our village, and Maria Beland, 
married couple, born due to a miscarriage caused by fear, 
of whom one [was] female, [and] was baptized by the mother 
herself, who was instructed yesterday by the local midwife 
for this situation — whew! now two came out instead of one — 
the other, however, [was] a male, [but] he gave out no sign 
of life whatsoever; that child was brought to the mortuary 
for deceased children without baptism; it was, however, 
treated as if it had been baptized, and, even though it 
was only four or five inches long, it was placed in a 
coffin about one and one-half feet long, and buried on the 
same day, according to the customary rite, at the fourth 
hour of the evening on July 3 0th. ) 

Note that proles is a feminine noun. For this reason, 
mascula, illam, baptizatam, longam, and 
inclusam all agree with it in gender, and case (The 
singular is inferred because each child is treated 
separately in the entry.) even though the second child 
who died was a male. 



270 



Parish Registers: Document #2: A marriage from France 



■^Pi 






r-c^ 



12 
• 13 



14 ->*^ / 



15 




■^■^ 







20 



)Att;*25t- ^^^J**- M^M^^/fun^ fi&i^HaA*'***^**^^ 






'>ir ^i 



«' 






271 



Latin Transliteration: Document #2 
Anno millesimo septingentesimo nonagesimo 

die decimo quinto mensis februarii rite antea in hanc (sic) 
nostra ecclesia parochiali factis tribus denxinciationibxis , 
guarum prima die trigesimo Januarii secunda septimo 
hujus tertia die decimo quarto/ nulloque detecto impedi- 
mento obtento eorum quorum interest consensu matri- 
monii vinculo conjuncti sunt Franciscus Josephus 
Strohmeyer Adolphi Strohmeyer civis in hoc loco 
Bumhaupt inferiori et defunctae Mariae Annae Bilsch 
f ilius legit imus natus viginti octo annos et quatuor 
circiter menses et Jacobe Bilsch Michaelis Bilsch civis 
hujus loci et defunctae Annae Mariae Muller filia legi- 
tima nata triginta unum annos et duos menses a 
me Francisco Josepho Hinck parocho hujus dicti 
loci et presentibus testibus Adolpho Strohmeyer 
supra nominato sponsi patre et Michaele Bilsch 
supra dicto sponsae patre, Petro Bilsch praefati 
Michaelis Bilsch f ilio legitime et Ludovico Vogeleisen 
scholae magistro et organista hujus parochiae, qui 
quatuor una cum sponso et sponsa mecum subscrip- 
serunt. 
N.B. Bumhaupt inferior: Burnhaupt-le-bas 



272 



English Translation: Document #2 

In the year one thousand seven hundred ninety 

on the fifteenth day of the month of February formerly in 
the customary manner in this 

our parish church, three banns having been made, 

of which the first (was) on the 30th of January, the second 
on the seventh 

of this (month) (and) the third on the fourteenth day, and 
no having been uncovered hindr- 
ance, having been obtained of those of whom it concerns 
consent, of marri- 
age by the bond were joined Francis Joseph 
Strohmeyer, of Adolph Strohmeyer citizen in this place 
(of) Burnhaupt-le-bas and of the deceased Maria Anna Bilsch 
son legitimate born 28 years and four 

approximately months and Jacobe Bilsch of Michael Bilsch 
citizen 

of this place and of the deceased Anna Maria Mueller daughter 
legi- 
timate born 31 years and 2 months by 
me Francis Joseph Hinck parish priest of this said 

place and the witnesses present (or the present witnesses) 
were Adolph Strohmeyer 

above named of the groom father and Michael Bilsch 
above said of the bride father, Peter Bilsch of the aforesaid 
Michael Bilsch son legitimate and Louis Vogeleisen 
school master and organist of this parish, which 
four together with the groom and bride with me under- 
signed. 



273 



(In the year one thousand seven hundred ninety [and] on the 
fifteenth day of the month of February, earlier [and] 
in the proper manner, in this our parish church, after the 
posting of three marriage banns, the first of which was 
on the 3 0th day of January, the second on the 7th of this 
month, [and] the third on the 14th [of this month] , and 
since no hindrance was uncovered, [and] with the obtained 
consent of those involved, Francis Joseph Strohmeyer, 
legitimate son of Adolph Strohmeyer, citzen in this place 
of Burnhaupt-le-bas , and [son] of the deceased Maria Anna 
Bilsch, born 28 years and about 4 months ago, and Jacobe 
Bilsch, legitimate daughter of Michael Bilsch, citizen 
of this place, and [daughter] of the deceased Anna Maria 
Mueller, born 31 years and 2 months ago, were joined in the 
bond[s] of holy matrimony by me Francis Joseph Hinck, 
parish priest of this said place, and the witnesses present 
were: Adolph Strohmeyer, above-named father of the groom, 
and Michael Bilsch, above-said father of the bride, Peter 
Bilsch, the legitimate son of the aforesaid Michael Bilsch, 
and Louis Vogeleisen, school teacher and organist of this 
parish, the four of whom, together with the groom and 
bride, signed below with me.) 



274 



Parish Registers: Document #3: A Death Entry from Germany 









12 

13 nitm 

14 
15 
16 
17 



275 



Latin Transliteration: Document #3 

Josephus Held viduus. Per plures annos homo vere miser et 
miserabilis, leproso proximus, seine 

plurima contemptum. Pauperitatem, famen, sitim, frigus et 
aestum 

magnosque corporis concreti et debilium membrorxun cruciatus 
patientissime 

velut alter Job sustinuit. Quotidie, permittente calami tate, 
in nostra 

ecclesia tremendis missae sacrificiis interfuit, devotissime 
oreins. Vir ergo 

minime fucato virtutis et magnae pietatis fuit. Tcindein in via, 
beurona (place name) 

domtun redux, pluvia madef actus, digito primum minimo, dein 
toto brachio 

intumescere coepit. Sanie mox fluente, et digito putredine 
consumto 

mirum est, quantos dolores pertulerit, per integras septem 
hebdomades uno 

vilissimi lectuli spatio affixus. At nunquam conquestus, 
nunquam impatienter 

locutus fuit, in tribulatione patienticun maximum Thesaurum, 
impatientiam 

vero maximum damnum esse dictitcuis. Quondam consolatori sue 
commiserati- 

onem ostendenti heroice respondit, miseratione dignum non 
esse, quem Deus 

tot malis percusserit. Ergo bis ss. ecclesiae morientium 
sacramentis refectus 

post durum certamen optime ad j ter ( iter ) aetemitatis 
dispositus et resignatus 

me presente misereim vitam cum meliori et beata, ut pie opto 
et credo 

permutavit. R. J. (I.) P. vixit elemosynis beuronensi (a town) 

Right hand margin: sepultus obiit 2do Octobris 1785 aetatis 
sexagesimo primo. sepultus in Imdorff 3 Octobris. 



276 



English Translation: Document #3 

1) Joseph Heid widower. Through many years a man truly poor and 
miserable, by leprosy next, indeed 

2) many things, condemned: poverty, hunger, thirst, cold and 
heat 

3) and great of the stiffened body and of weak limbs torments 
most patiently 

4) just as another Job endured. Daily, calamity permitting, 
in our 

5) church with tremendous sacrifices at the mass he was present, 
most devoutly praying. A man, therefore, 

6) least in simulation of virtue and of great piety he was. 
Finally on the road from Beurona 

7) he returned home, by the rain made wet, first with the 
smallest finger, then with the whole arm 

8) to swell up he began. Soon with pus flowing, and a putrid 
finger consumed 

9) it is a marvel, how many pains he suffered, through seven 
entire weeks for a 

10) of most vile bed space he was affixed. But never a 
complaint, never impatiently 

11) he spoke, in suffering, patience, the greatest treasure, 
(and) impatience 

12) truly the greatest loss is, repeating, to his former 
consoler 

13) pity showing, he answered heroically (that) he was not 
worthy of pity whom God 

14) will have struck with so many evil things. Therefore, 
twice with the holy sacraments of the church of the dying 
refreshed 

15) after a hard struggle most favorably to the journey of 
eternity disposed and resigned 

16) in my presence a poor life with a better and blessed, as 
piously I desire and believe, 

17) he exchanged. May he rest in peace! He lived from the 
charity of Beuron(a) 



277 



died 2nd October 1785 61 years of age; buried in Irndorf 
3rd October 

(Joseph Heid widower. For many years [this] truly unfortunate 
and miserable man was cursed by leprosy [and] indeed many 
[other] things: poverty, hunger, thirst, cold, and heat, 
and he endured most patiently great torments of [from] his 
stiffened body and weak limbs, just as another Job. He was 
present daily, when his illness allowed, at great sacrifice, 
in our church [and] he prayed most devotedly. He was a man, 
therefore, of great piety, who least simulated virtue. 
Finally, however, on the road from Beurona, as he returned 
home, soaked by the rain, first his little finger, then 
his whole arm began to swell up. Soon, with flowing pus 
and consumed by a putrid finger, he was confined to a most 
vile bed for a space of seven whole weeks. The amount of 
pain he suffered is unbelievable. Yet he never uttered a 
complaint or spoke impatiently, repeating that patience 
in tribulation is the greatest treasure and impatience 
the greatest loss. To his former consoler [i.e., the 
parish priest] he confided heroically that he whom God 
will have struck with so much evil is not worthy of pity. 
Twice, therefore, refreshed by the holy sacraments of the 
church for the dying, [and] after a hard struggle, most 
most favorably disposed and resigned to the eternal journey 
he exchanged a poor life for one better and blessed, as I 
piously hope and believe. May he rest in peace! He lived 
from the charity of Beuron[a]. He died on the second 
of October 1785 at the age of 61. He was buried in Irndorf 
on the third of October. ) 



278 



KEY TO THE GRAMMAR AND TRANSLATION EXERCISES 



Chapter I 

A. Grammar 

Singular 

Norn . f emina 

Gen . f eminae 

Dat . f eminae 

Ace . f eminam 

Abl . f emina 

Plural 



Plural 

Nom. filii 

Gen. filioriim 

Dat. filiis 

Ace. filios 

Abl. filiis 



aurxga 

aurigae 

aurigae 

aurigam 

auriga 



Nom. 


feminae 




aurigae 




Gen. 


feminarum 




aurigarum 




Dat. 


feminis 




aurigis 




Ace. 


feminas 




aurigas 




Abl. 


feminis 




aurigis 




Singular 








Nom. 


f ilius 


puer 




signum 


Gen. 


filii 


pueri 


signi 


Dat. 


filio 


puero 


signo 


Ace. 


f ilium 


puerum 


signum 


Abl. 


filio 


puero 


signo 



pueri 
puerorum 
puer is 
pueros 
puer is 



sxgna 

signorum 

signis 

signa 

signis 



C. Latin to English 

She is my godmother. 

the will of the aunt 

She is a widow. 

of/from the driver 
to/for the driver 
the drivers 

He/she has a grandmother, 

the baptism of a/the son 



(or: My godmother is.) 



279 



to/for the pupils (disciples) 

by/with/f rom, etc. the pupils (disciples) 

in the year of the (our) Lord 

He/she made a will. 

of/from Catherine 
to/for Catherine 

E. English to Latin 

filia consobrinae 

nautae 

Marita mea est. 

sepulturae 

Matrinam habet. (Patrineun habet is also possible.) 

servorum 

coemeterio 

matrimonium magistri 

baptismo 

Stephani 

E. Parish Registers 

Document # 1 

13 September 

Clasina 

Father Henricus (Henry) van der Mortel 

Mother Susanna de Visscher 

Godmother Joanna Dekers 

born on the same day after noon about 4:30 (about the hour 
four and one-half) 



280 



Document # 2 

This baptism book (was) begun by the right reverend lord 
Peter Kaufman by me Dominic Wei land of the same immediate 
successor was continued (and) in the same place pastor in 
the year one thousand seven hundred twenty-one to the 
greater of God and of the Blessed Virgin glory. 

(This baptismal book [was] begun by the right reverend lord 
Peter Kaufman [and] continued by me Dominic Wei land, 
immediate successor of the same [i.e., Peter Kaufman] 
[and] pastor in the same place in the year one thousand 
seven hundred twenty-one to the greater glory of God 
and of the Blessed Virgin.) 



Nom. 
Gen, 
Dat. 
Ace. 
Abl. 



Chapter II 
A. Grammar 

Singular 



Masc. 

bonus 

boni 

bono 

bontun 

bono 



Fern. 

bona 

bonae 

bonae 

bonam 

bona 



Neut. 

bonum 

boni 

bono 

bonum 

bono 



Masc. 

liber 
liber i 
libero 
liberum 
libero 



Fem. 

libera 
liber ae 
liber ae 
liber am 
libera 



Neut. 

liberum 
liber i 
libero 
liberum 
libero 



Plural 



Nom. 


boni 


bonae 


bona 


Gen. 


bonorum 


bonarum 


bonorum 


Dat. 


bonis 


bonis 


bonis 


Ace. 


bonos 


bonas 


bona 


Abl. 


bonis 


bonis 


bonis 



liberi liberae libera 
libero rum liber arxun liberorum 
liberis liberis liberis 
liberos liberas libera 
liberis liberis liberis 



C. Latin to English 

The sailor is large. 

the book (or register) of the baptized children, of the 
married and deceased (persons) 

the church of the Blessed Saint Peter 

He/she has one son. 

My son is small. 



281 



D. English to Latin 

liber ecclesiae Sancti Petri 

Hones tus Thomas Mattingly et pudica Anna Barbara Wilcox 
copulati siint. 

Hodie Martinus, filius illegitimus Mathildae Stieger, 
oriundae ex Rottweiller, mortuus est. 

parochia Beatae Sanctae Mariae 

filia abortiva 

E. Parish Registers 

Document # 1 

Today the thirteenth of August 1703 died Joseph, 
illegitimate son of Joseph Burger citizen of Rotenwiller, 
and (of) Anna Lemena of Frieburg im Uechtland, of age 
about 8 months and he was buried in the cemetery beyond 
the gate. The witnesses present were Laurence Weber, 
sexton of the cathedral church of Strasbourg, and Anna 
Teusch(in) wife of John (Johann) Jacob Henny, citizen of 
this city. (directly below: buried P. Dourne [i.e., 
P. Dourne, the priest, buried the child]) 

Document # 2 

On the same day (in) 1833 according to the sacrament were 
married the upright young man Jacob Marxer and the upright 
virgin Maria Agatha Meyer, in the presence of the witnesses 
Jacob Matt and John (Johann) Meyer. 

(On the same day in 1833, the honorable [upright] young 
man Jacob Marxer and the honorable [upright] virgin Maria 
Agatha Meyer were married, according to the sacrament 
[of the church] , in the presence of the witnesses Jacob 
Matt and John Meyer. ) 

Chapter III 

A. Grammar 

Present Indicative Active 

Singular 

baptizo doceo svun 

baptizas doces es 

baptizat docet est 



282 



Plural 

baptizamus 
baptizatis 
baptlzan-t 



docemus 
docetis 
docent: 



Future Indicatve Active 
Singular 



baptizabo 

baptizabis 

baptizabit 

Plural 

bapti zabimus 
baptizabitis 
bapti zabunt 



docebo 

docebis 

docebit 



docebimus 
docebitis 
docebunt 



Imperfect Indicative Active 
Singular 



bapti zabam 
baptizabas 
bapti zabat 

Plural 

bapt i z abmus 
baptizabatis 
bapti zabant 



docebam 
docebas 
docebat 



docebamus 
docebatis 
docebant 



sumus 
estis 
sunt 



ero 

eris 

erit 



erimus 
eritis 
erunt 



eram 
eras 
erat 



eramus 
eratis 
erant 



C. Latin to English 

He will baptize my child. 

He/she is a sailor. (There is a sailor; The sailor is.) 

They are grandmothers. (The grandmothers are; There are 

grandmothers . ) 

The uncles approve the marriage of their daughters. 

The sons (nom. pi.) of the uncle (gen. sing.) sons (nom. 
pi.) of the brother are. 

(The sons of the uncle are sons of the brother. ) 

The cousin used to relate stories. 



283 



D. English to Latin 
Nautae sunt . 
Testes sunt: 

Filiae meae in villa laborabant. 

Hodie Johannes Merz, filius legitimus Thomae Merz et Mariae 
Gather inae Belcher, baptizatus est. 

E. Parish Registers 
Document # 1 

In the Year 163 5 

This year furious was, indeed in it Mars with Libitina 
celebrated, i.e., the wrath of God the lands with spear, 
war and plague, with similarities, so oppressed, that 
of Darmstadt from the court, within (under) whose roof 
hunger and walking about Bellona the inhabitants very many 
forced, by means (of) with the same cart more than 50 from 
(of) the dead were carried out. (This) is seen (in) the 
register ecclesiastical (of) Darmstadt under the year 1635. 

(In the year 1635 

This year was indeed furious ; in it Mars celebrated with 
Libitina, i.e., the wrath of God so oppressed the lands with 
spear, war, and plague, which was similar to Mars celebrating 
with Libitina, that more than 50 of the dead were carried 
out to be buried, in the same cart, from the court of 
Darmstadt, under whose roof [protection] hunger and war 
forced a great many inhabitants. This event is seen 
[recorded] in the ecclesiastical register of Darmstadt 
under the year 1635.) 

Document # 2 



Children 

Maria Catharina 
born (on) the 19th 



Parents 



Godparents 



Nicolaus Heimburger John Peter Oberrieder 



resident of Colmar 
and vine dresser 
Anna Maria 
Appollonia Rocs 
from Doplischirand 
originating 



citizen of Colmar 
and of the representative 
of the magistrate of 
Colmar the third son 
Maria Catherina Schidyn 
citizen of Colmar and of 
a weaver the daughter, 
chaste virgin 



284 



(Godparents) 

(John Peter Oberrieder citizen of Colmar 
and the third son of the representative of the 
magistrate of Colmar 

Maria Catharina Schidyn, citizen of Colmar and 
the daughter of a weaver. chaste virgin) 



Nom, 
Gen, 
Dat, 
Ace. 
Abl, 



Chapter 


IV 








Singular 










aetas 




fons 


nomen 


civis 


aetatis 




fontis 


nominis 


civis 


aetati 




fonti 


nomini 


civi 


aetatem 




fontem 


nomen 


civem 


aetata 




fonte 


nomine 


cive 



Plural 



Nom • aetates 

Gen . aetatum 

Dat . aetatibus 

Ace . aetates 

Abl . aetatibus 



fontes 

fontum 

fontibus 

fontes 

fontibus 



nomina 

nominum 

nominibus 

nomina 

nominibus 



Gives 

civium 

civibus 

cives 

civibus 



Nom. 
Gen. 
Dat. 
Ace. 
Abl. 



Singular 

Masc. & Fem. 

felix 

felicis 

felici 

felicem 

felici 



Neuter 

felix 

felicis 

felici 

felix 

felici 



Masc. & Fem. 

omnis 

omnis 

omni 

omnem 

omni 



Neuter 

omne 

omnis 

omni 

omne 

omni 



Nom, 
Gen. 
Dat, 
Ace. 
Abl. 



Plural 

felices 

felicium 

felicibus 

felices 

felicibus 

Masc. 



Nom. celer 

Gen. celeris 

Dat . celeri 

Ace . celerem 

Abl • celeri 



Fem. 



felicia 

felicium 

felicibus 

felicia 

felicibus 



omnes 

omnium 

omnibus 

omnes 

omnibus 



omnia 

omnium 

omnibus 

omnia 

omnibus 



celeris 

celeris 

celeri 

celerem 

celeri 



Neuter 

celere 

celeris 

celeri 

celere 

celeri 



285 



Plural 

Masc. Fem. Neuter 



Nom. 


celeres 


celeres 


celeria 




Gen. 


celerium 


celerium 


celerium 




Dat. 


celeribus 


celeribus 


celeribus 




Ace. 


celeres 


celeres 


celeria 




Abl. 


celeribus 

Singular 
Masc. & Fem. 


celeribus 

Neuter 


celeribus 




Noiti. 


vetus 


vetus 


Michael is 


Mathildis 


Gen. 


veteris 


veteris 


Michaelis 


Mathildis 


Dat. 


veteri 


veteri 


Michael i 


Mathidli 


Ace. 


veterem 


vetus 


Michaelem 


Mathildem 


Abl. 


vetere 


vetere 


Michaele 


Mathilde 



Plural 



Nom. 


veteres 


Gen. 


veterum 


Dat. 


veteribus 


Ace. 


veteres 


Abl. 


veteribus 



Vetera 

veterxim 

veteribus 

Vetera 

veteribus 



C. Latin to English 



In this roll (record) the names of the baptized children and 
of the godparents are contained. 

The witnesses of this birth were: Michael Worthington, 
esquire, and Matthew Foss , knight. 

John, son of Charles, royal chancellor, married (i.e., led 
into [marriage]) Mathilda, daughter of the most illustrious 
Thomas . 

Here are the names of all those (those all) who in the parish 
church of the Blessed Saint Paul in the cemetery beyond 
the gate were buried. 

(Here are the names of all those who were buried in the 
parish church of the Blessed St. Paul in the cemetery beyond 
the gate . ) 

Yesterday in marriage holy were joined the bachelor Jacob 
Walder, legitimate son of John Walder and Mathilda Vorwand, 
and the chaste virgin Maria Anna Rueckstaetter , legitimate 
daughter of William Rueckstaetter and Margareta Oberbauer. 



286 



(Yesterday the bachelor Jacob Walder, legitimate son of 
John Walder and Mathilda Vorwand, and the chaste virgin 
Anna Maria Rueckstaetter , legitimate daughter of William 
Rueckstaetter and Margaretha Oberbauer, were joined in 
holy matrimony. ) 

D. English to Latin 

Levantes (or Patrini, or Susceptores) fuerunt Thomas Brown 
et Mathilda Westover. 

In hoc rotulo, nomina omnium baptizatorum puerorum et 
susceptorum (patrinoirum, levantum) continentur. 

Testes huius matrimonii fuerunt: Martinus Vineaux, agricola 
et civis huius loci, Petrus Waldeck, caupo et civis huius 
loci, et Johannes Paulus Giron, faber et civis Sancti 
Martialis. 

Labor omnium civitatem aedificavit. 



Omnibus fidelibus in Christo, salutationes ! 

E. Parish Registers 
Document # 1 
Children Parents 



John 

Jacob 

born (on the) 24th 



Laurence Mentzer 

citizen and tanner 

Anna Maria 

Tantz originating 

from Turckheim 

of a citizen daughter 

and of an innkeeper 

(Laurence Mentzer 
citizen and tanner 
Anna Maria 
Tantz originating 
from Turckheim 
daughter of a 
citizen and innkeeper) 



Godparents 

John George Mentzer 
citizen and butcher 
Maria Elisabetha 
Brucher, Tantz (in) 
born, of John Paul 
Brucher citizen and 
saddle maker wife 

(John George Mentzer 
citizen and butcher 
Maria Elisabetha 
Brucher, born Tantz, 
wife of John Paul 
Brucher, citizen and 
saddle maker) 



287 



Document # 2 

Right Margin 

Carolo (Carolus) Yesterday at approximately the fifth 
Antonio (Antonius) (hour) in the afternoon was born a little 
Maria child from (of) 

Micherolli the legitimate married couple Antonio of the 

late Antonio Micherolli and Maria Antonia, 
daughter of Josepho Siva, both of (from) the 
place of Lostalli (Lostallo), who because of 
danger (of death) bapti- 
zed was at home by me Francisca as above 

(Yesterday at about the fifth hour of the after noon [5:00 
p.m.] a little child, Antonio, was born, from the 
legitimately married couple the late Antonio Micherolli, 
and Maria Antonia, daughter of Josepho Siva, both from the 
place of Lostallo, who [i.e. the child] because of danger 
of death was baptized at home by me, Francisca [the midwife] 
as above ) 

Chapter V 

A . Grammar 



Present Indicative Active 
Singular 



contraho 

contrahis 

contrahit 



venio 


capio 


venis 


capit 


venit 


capit 



Plural 



contrahimus 
contrahitis 
contrahimt 



venimus 
venitis 
veniunt 



capimus 
capitis 
capiunt 



Future Indicative Active 
Singular 



contraham 
contrahes 
contrahet 



veniam 
venies 
veniet 



capxam 
capies 
capiet 



Plural 



contrahemus 
contrahetis 
contrahent 



veniemus 
venietis 
venient 



capiemus 
capietis 
capient 



288 



Imperfect Indicative Active 
Singular 



contrahebam 
contrahebas 
contrahebat 

Plural 

contrahebamus 
contrahebatis 
contrahebant 

C. Latin to English 



veniebam 
veniebas 
veniebat 



veniebamus 
veniebatis 
veniebant 



capiebam 
capiebas 
capiebat 



capiebamus 
capiebatis 
capiebant 



The book moreover to read we promise. 
(We promise, morever, to read the book.) 

William de Leye, junior, and Rosalinda Ralston a marriage 
will contract. 

(William de Leye, junior, and Rosalinda Ralston will contract 
a marriage. ) 

We grant freely and quietly to Stephen Winckmeier land in 
perpetuity to be possessed. 

(We grant land, freely and quietly, to Stephen Winckmeier 
to be possessed. ) 

I will that Jacob Hofbauer the register of this parish from 
the month of January to the month of December in the year 
one thousand seven hundred twenty-six shall take down 
(record) . 

(I will that Jacob Hofbauer shall take down [record] the 
register of this parish from the month of January 
the month of December in the year 1726.) 

D. Latin to English 

Georgius Wilson et Sophia Graham matrimoniim contrahent. 

In parochiam veniebat, Martham, famulam et orbam, sub 
promitto matrimonii impraegnabat , et fugiebat. 

Epistulam etiam scribere promittimus. 

Mater gemellos gignebat, quibus nomina Fredericus et Thomas 
imposita sunt. Propter imminens periculum mortis, ambo 
eorum ab me (a me) Stephania Leguinne, obstetrice, 
baptizati sunt. 

In civitatem (urbem) veniam. 



289 



E. Parish Registers 

Documents #1 and #2 

Begins here the book (register) of burials of the church 
parish of St. Stephen within Strasbourg 
consisting of two hundred and eighty-seven pages. 
Given at Strasbourg on the day twenty-eighth of the month 
of June in the year one thousand seven hundred forty- 
five 

(Here begins the book [register] of burials of the parish 
church of St. Stephen within Strasbourg, consisting of 
two hundred and eighty-seven pages. Given at Strasbourg 
on the twenty-eighth day of the month of June in the year 
1745. ) 

Ends here the book (register) of the dead (deceased) of the 
parish of St. Stephen within Strasbourg. Given at Strasbourg 
in the palace episcopal on the day twenty-seventh in the year 
one thousand seven hundred nineteen. 

(Here ends the book [register] of the deceased of the parish 
of St. Stephen within Strasbourg. Given at Strasbourg in 
the episcopal palace on the twenty-seventh day of June in 
the year 1719. ) 

Document # 3 

Catalog of the deceased in the old hospital 

royal located beyond the gate commonly Lahiens called in the 

year 1704 
On the day 12th of September died Peter des Vaisseaux of the 
light-armed (cavalry) citizen of Benj , cavalry soldier with all 
of the church sacraments provided of age 
his about 3 2 years, and he was buried in the cemetery of the royal 

hospital 
private; the witnesses assisting (were) Philippe Forbet, called 

Argentcourt, hospital orderly 
of the aforesaid hospital and Claude Verdun also an orderly. 

(Catalog of the deceased in the old royal hospital located beyond 
the gate commonly called Lahiens in the year 1704. 
On the 12th day of September Peter des Vaisseaux of the light- 
armed [cavalry], citizen of Benj [and a] cavalry soldier, died, 
provided with all of the sacraments of the church; he was about 
3 2 years of age, and he was buried in the private cemetery of 
the royal hospital. The witnesses assisting were: Philippe 
Forbet, called Argentcourt, an orderly of the aforesaid hospital, 
and Claude Verdun, also an orderly. ) 



290 



On the day 14th of September died in the hospital old royal lord 
N. the head of the police constables of Bourgogne , with 

all of the church sacraments 
provided, and of his age 3 6 about years, and he was buried 
in the cemetery. The above-signed witnesses (were) assisting. 

(On the 14th day of September, lord N. the head of the police 
constables of Bourgogne, died in the old royal hospital, provided 
with all of the sacraments of the church; he was about 36 years 
of age, and he was buried in the cemetery. The witnesses, who 
signed above, assisted.) 



Chapter VI 

A. Grammar 

Perfect Indicative Active 

Singular 



habitavi 


tenui 


vendidi 


veni 


cepi 


habitavisti 


tenuisti 


vendidisti 


venisti 


cepisti 


habitavit 


tenuit 


vendidit 


venit 


cepit 



Plural 

habitavimus 

habitavistis 

habitaverunt 



tenuimus 

tenuistis 

tenuemnt 



vendidimus 

vendidistis 

vendidenxnt 



Pluperfect Indicative Active 
Singular 



habitaveram 
habitaveras 
habitaverat 

Plural 



tenueram 
tenueras 
tenuerat 



habitaveramus tenueramus 
habitaveratis tenueratis 
habitaverant tenuerant 



vendideretm 
vendideras 
vendiderat 



vendideramus 
vendideratis 
vendiderant 



Future Perfect Indicative Active 
Singular 



habitavero 

habitaveris 

habitaverit 



tenuero 

tenueris 

tenuerit 



vendidero 

vendideris 

vendiderit 



venimus cepimus 
venistis cepistis 
venerunt ceperunt 



veneram ceperam 
veneras ceperas 
venerat ceperat 



veneramus ceperamus 
veneratis ceperatis 
venerant ceperant 



venero cepero 
veneris ceperis 
venerit ceperit 



291 



Plural 

habitaverimus tenuerimus vendiderimus venerimus ceperimus 
habitaveritis tenueritis vendideritis veneritis ceperitis 
habitaverint tenuerint vendiderint venerint ceperint 

C. Latin to English 

In the pains of childbirth died Agnes de Groot while living 
the wife of William Sloet, commonly called Gerrit, citizen 
and brewer of this place, on the ninth day of the month of 
June in the year of our Lord 1680. 

We, priests of this parish of the Blessed Saints Peter and 
Paul, Abner Roth and Eleanor Murphy married. 
(We, the priests of this parish of the Blessed Saints Peter 
and Paul, married Abner Roth and Eleanor Murphy.) 

Yesterday, I, Stephen Rotgermann, deacon, a little old lady, 
name unknown, who into village our wandered and from a 
disease unknown next to the market place died, in the 
cemetery of the potters buried. 

(Yesterday I, Stephen Rotgermann, deacon, buried a little old 
lady, name unknown, who wandered into our village, and died 
next to the market place from an unknown disease, in the 
potters' cemetery.) 

(On the) 23 (rd) of July breathed out her soul, Johanna 
Jakobina Seidt after a long illness, widow of Michael 
Johannes Nethe, with all the sacraments of the church 
provided, and on the following day she was buried. 

(On the 2 3rd of July, Johanna Jakobina Seidt, widow of John 
Nethe, breathed out her soul after a long illness, 
provided by all of the sacraments of the church, and was 
buried on the following day. ) 

Agnes Nebl , a woman, a pauper, a worker, pious toward God, 

after more than nine months in stomach her so had worked 

that foods scarcely not all, which she had taken, again to vomj 

up she was compelled, danger of death sensing, the sacrament 

she sought, and to the divine will most resigned after 

many days in agony she expired 15 December 1777 in the 

year of age (her) 54 and on the same day she was buried. 

(Agnes Nebl, a poor working woman, who was pious toward God, 
after more than nine months of being compelled to vomit up 
her food again shortly after she ate it, and sensing that 
death was near, asked for the last rites and expired, 
being very resigned to the divine will, after many [more] 
days in agony, on 15 December 1777, in her 54th year, and 
was buried on the same day. ) 



292 



D. English to Latin 

Testes huius baptismi fuerunt: Thomas Plumboldt, mercator 
et civis huius loci, et Wilfredus Crom, aurifaber et civis 
Snodlondi . 

Medicus operationem fecit et infantem sexus feminei ex 
utero matris eius removit. Ego Francisca Capelli obstetrix 
hunc infantem baptizavi, propter periculum mortis (decessus) 
et ei nomen Mariam Angelicam dedi. 

Paulus Bitrand servus (famulus) fidelis per multos aimos in 

pharmacopolio nostro hydropse intumuit et, omnibus sacramentis 

provisus, in agone (agonem) duodecimo Augusti 1765 anno 
aetatis suae 40 obiit. 

Hodie ego Walterus Grund, parochus parochiae Sancti Victoris 
honestum juvenem Rudolf um Schmelzer, fabrum et civem 
Oppenheimensis , f ilium legitimum Frederici Schmelzer agricolae 
et civis Oppenheimensis et Mariae Annae Duersch, uxoris 
eius et pudicam virginem Appolloniam Barbaram Wuerth, filiam 
legitimam defuncti Nicolai Wuerth, dum vivens lignarii et 
civis ex Oberkatzenbachense , et Marthae Evae Moench uxoris 
eius copulavi (in matrimonium conjunxi, etc.). Testes 
huius matrimonii fuerunt: Jospehus Wund, agricola ex 
Oppenheimense , et Adamus Winck, faber ex Oberkatzenbachense. 

Heri Johannem ( Joannem) , f ilium illegitimum Joannae 
(Johannae) Montreaux in coemeterio figulorum extra portam 
villae nostrae (vici nostri) sepelivi. Paucis diebus post 
mortem huius infantis, mater etiam obiit et ab patre suo 
sepelienda in tumulo familiae suae delata est. 

E. Parish Registers 
Document # 1 

Right Margin: Maria Dominica Gobba (+ = died) 

In the year of (our) Lord 1756 on the day 25 (th) of August 
I John Albert a Lauda, Capuchin missionary and parish priest 
baptized a little child in the preceding night born from John 
Gobba and 
Maria Domnica Porta his legitimate wife, upon whom the name 

I placed Maria 
Dominica. The godparents were lord judge Joseph Amabilis 

Paravisius 
and Maria Rosa Pizzetta, both from Lostallo, and these (things) 

all in the church of Saint 
Nicolaus Gabrioli (were done). 

(In the year of our Lord 1756, on the 25th day of August, I John 
Albert a Lauda, Capuchin missionary and parish priest, baptized a 
little child born in the preceding night to [from] John Gobba 

293 



and Maria Dominica Porta his legitimate wife, upon whom I placed 
the name [to whom I gave the name] Maria Dominica. The godparents 
were lord judge Joseph Amabilis Paravisius and Maria Rosa Pizzeta, 
both from Lostallo, and all these things [were done] in the church 
of St. Nicolaus Gabrioli.) 

Document # 2 

Right Hand Margin: Joseph Maria Fidelis Micharolus 

In the year of (our) Lord 17 34, on the day 26 (th) of June 
Flew away to the fellowship of the angels, the soul of a certain 

little child born from Antonio 
Maria Micharolus and Dominica Jacomella, married couple, of months 

four about and its 
body was buried by me John Aloysius, Capuchin preacher and 

missionary 
in the cemetery of the children in the church of St. Nicolaus 

Gabrioli . 

(In the year of our Lord 1734, on the 26th day of June 
the soul of a certain child flew away to the fellowship of the 
angels, born to [from] Antonio Maria Micharolus and Dominica 
Jacomella, married couple; [the child was] about four months 
[old] and its body was buried by me John Aloysius, Capuchin 
preacher and missionary, in the cemetery of the children in the 
church of St. Nicholaus Gabrioli.) 

Document # 3 

1787 

Andreas Potinger was a man 3 2 of years, of wood (a thing 

wooden) and water 
a magistrate, a man vigorous and robust, to whom strength of 

body 
unshaken health and life long to promise 
seemed; ; but against of all expectation already 
by the month of October, to be badly off he began. The 

man robust 
gradually kept on failing (i.e., became weaker) and from his 

strength exhausted, duty his no 
longer to perform he was able. Soon by the holy sacraments 

fortified by the disease 
which was pneumonia, being oppressed, and to the last 

(things) led 
31 January (at) 7 (in the) evening the soul he breathed out, 

agonizing, being comforted 
and body lifeless 1 February (to the) tomb being carried. 

(Andreas Potinger was a 3 2-year old man, a magistrate of 
wood and water, a vigorous and robust man to whom the 
strength of [his] body seemed to promise unshaken health 
and long life. But against every expectation, already by 

294 



the month of October he began to be sick. The robust man 
gradually declined in health and became so exhausted that 
he could no longer perform his duty. Soon thereafter, 
fortified by the last rites, and oppressed by the disease, 
which was pneumonia, and led to the last things, on the 
31st of January at 7 in the evening, he breathed out [his] 
soul, being comforted [by the last rites], and [his] 
lifeless body was carried to the tomb [and] buried on the 
the 1st of February. ) 

Document #4 

The Year of the Lord 1815 

Haurytki 

In the year of (our) Lord one thousand eight hundred fifteen 

on the day 31 of January, after the publication of marriage banns 

on three consecutive Sundays 
of which the first was on Sunday the second, the second on Sunday 

the third and the (third was on Sunday) the fourth 
after Epiphany, (and) no hindrance canonical having been uncovered 

and (being) previously 
examined of (their own) free consent and the remaining 

(information) to be announced, I Caspar 
Godleviski , vicar of the church of Bochoviensis the worker Gregory 

Sobotowski , a young man 

and Bogumila Vrolewna virgin, (being) parishioners of (the parish 

of) Bochoviensis 
I questioned about their mutual consent above freely with them 

to be contracted, by will 
examined in marriage I joined, and them according to the rite 

of the holy mother church 
I blessed. The witnesses present (were) the workers John 
Rogowoski and Thomas Chudrinski . 

(In the year of our Lord 1815, on the 31st day of January, after 
the publication of marriage banns on three consecutive Sundays, 
the first of which was on the second Sunday after Epiphany, the 
second of which was on the third Sunday after Epiphany, and the 
third of which was on the fourth Sunday after Epiphany, and no 
canonical hindrance having been uncovered, and having been 
previously examined of their own free consent, and the remaining 
information to be announced, I Caspar Codleviski, vicar of the 
church of Bochoviensis, joined the worker Gregory Sobotowski, 
a young man, and Bogumila Vrolewna, a virgin, parishioners of 
of the parish of Bochoviensis, in marriage, after 
I questioned them regarding their mutual consent, freely given, 
to be married [to each other] , and I blessed them according to 
the rite of the holy mother church. The witnesses present were 
the workers John Rogowoski and Thomas Chudrinski . ) 



295 



Wiercienie and Haurytki 

In the year of (our) Lord one thousand eight hundred fifteen, 

on the day 15 
of the month of February, after the publication of marriage banns 

on three consecutive Sundays 
of which one (the first) was on Sunday the fourth, the second on 

Sunday the fifth, the third on Sunday the seventh after Epiphany 
(and) no hindrance canonical having been uncovered and (being) 

previously examined of (their) free 
consent and the remaining (information) to be announced, I Caspar 

Godleviski vicar of the 
church of Bochoviensis the noble George Wiercienski , a young man, 

and 
the noble Rosalia Wiercienska, virgin, (being) parishioners of 

Bochoviensis and 
I questioned (them) about their mutual consent above freely (given) 

with them to be 
contracted by will examined in marriage I joined and them according 

to the rite 
of the holy mother church I blessed. The witnesses present 

(were) the nobles 
Adalbert Wiercienski and Adalbert ? (the surname is partially 

cut off in this entry) 

(In the year of our Lord, 1815, on the 15th day of the month of 
February, after the publication of marriage banns on three 
consecutive Sundays [which was apparently not the case here] the 
first of which was on the fourth Sunday after Epiphany, the second 
of which was on the fifth Sunday after Epiphany, and the third of 
which was on the seventh Sunday after Epiphany, and no canonical 
hindrance having been uncovered, and having been previously 
examined of their own free will, and the remaining information 
to be announced, I Caspar Godleviski, vicar of the 
church of Bochoviensis, joined the noble Ceorge Wiercienski, a 
young man, and the noble Rosalia Wiercienska, virgin, parishioners 
of Bochoviensis, in marriage, after I questioned them regarding 
their mutual consent, freely given, to be married [to each 
other] , and I blessed them according to the rite of the holy 
mother church. The witnesses present were the nobles Adalbert 
Wiercienski and Adalbert ? . ) 





Chapter VII 












A. Grammar 












Masc. 


Fem. 


Neuter 


Masc. 


Fem. 


Neuter 


Nom. 


unus 


una 


unum 


duo 


duae 


duo 


Cen. 


unius 


unius 


unius 


duorxun 


duorrxm 


duarum 


Dat. 


uni 


uni 


uni 


duobus 


duabus 


duobus 


Ace. 


tinum 


unam 


uniun 


duos 


duas 


duo 


Abl. 


uno 


una 


uno 


duobus 


duabus 


duobus 



296 





Masc. 


Fein. 


Neuter 


Neuter 




Nom. 


tres 


tres 


tria 


Nom. 


milia 




Gen. 


trium 


trium 


trium 


Gen. 


milium 




Dat. 


tribus 


tribus 


tribus 


Dat. 


milibus 




Ace. 


tres 


tres 


tria 


Ace. 


milia 




Abl. 


tribus 


tribus 


tribus 


Abl. 


milibus 






Masc. 


Fem. 


Neuter 


Masc. 


Fem. 


Neuter 




Singular 






Plural 






Nom. 


primus 


prima 


primum 


primi 


primae 


prima 


Gen. 


primi 


primae 


primi 


primorum 


primarum 


primorum 


Dat. 


primo 


primae 


primo 


primis 


primis 


primis 


Ace. 


primum 


primam 


primiim 


primos 


primas 


prima 


Abl. 


primo 


prima 


primo 


primis 


primis 


primis 



C. Latin to English 

In the year of Christ one thousand five hundred ninety-five 
and on the third day of the month of December . . . 

6 January (Epiphany) one thousand eight hundred forty-six 
were baptized twins, legitimate sons of Joseph Conrad and 
Susanna Magdalena Meyer, married couple from Boxwiller. 

Here are the names and surnames of the baptized (children) 
in our parish church of Saint Martha together with the names 
and surnames of the parents and the godparents also from the 
year 1764. 

In the year of the Lord 1774 (on the feast day of), the 
Circumcision of the Lord (1 January), contracted marriage 
Henry Bierdreger and Catherine Germesen, both from Deventer; 
the priest was Jan Classen. 

(The year of the Lord 1774, on the feast day of the 
Circumcision of the Lord, January 1, Henry Bierdreger and 
Catherine Germesen, both from Deventer, contracted 
contracted marriage; the priest was Jan Classen. ) 

Given at Hereford 28 March in the year of our Lord 1241. 

D. English to Latin 

Anno millesimo septingentesimo septuagesimo secundo et die 
decimo quinto mensis 8bris (or Vlllbris), Georgius Walker 
et Maria Catharina Spelt copulati sunt. 

Anno gratiae millesimo quingentesimo tricesimo quinto, 
die vices imo Martii, vetus Johannes Brenner, viduus Mathildae 
Steinheim, mortuus est et die vices imo secundo Martii 
sepultus est. 



297 



Die Inventionis Sancti Stephani Protomartyris ( tertio August! ) 
MDCXXXIV, infans (puer) Margareta, filia legitima Wilhelmi 
(Guilelmi, etc.) Smith et Barbarae Annae Wheeler nata est et 
tres dominicae ( or , 3 dominicae ) post idem f estum 
baptizata est. 

Datum decimo Jcuiucirii millesimo octingentesimo secundo. 

Actum in pontificatu sanctissmi patris et domini nostri 
dominorum Urbanis, divina providentia papa. 

E. Parish Registers 

Document # 1 

Chrostkowo 

In the Right Margin: 1818 

On the day eighth of the month of November, I Fulgentius 

Petrykowski 

priest of Honne, baptized a child by the name (of) Martin born 

on day third of the same month, in the hour seventh of the 
evening son 

of the upright Catherine Murawski , a servant, of unknown 
father. The godparents 

were the upright Melchior Hawieki , married, and Nerienna 

Jankowfka, virgin, both from Krentowo , all Catholic. 

(On the eighth day of the month of November, I Fulgentius 
Petrykowski, priest of Honne, baptized a child by the 
name of Martin, born on the third day of the same month, 
in the seventh hour of the evening, son of the upright 
Catherine Murawski, a servant; the father of the child was 
unknown. The godparents were the upright Melchior Hawieki, 
a married man, and Nerienna Jankowfka, virgin, both from 
Krentowo, all Catholic.) 

Document # 2 

On the Ides of Januarii (13th of January) died Maria 
Margareta del Tombe, orphan, John de Sentis, pastor. 

On eighteen Kalends of February (15 January), from life 
departed Thomas del Salle, orphan. John de 
Sentis, priest. 

On five Kalends of February (28 January), from the station 
of life departed Arnulphus Waresguelle, widower. John de 
de Sentis, curate. 

On pridie Kalends of February (31 January), from life 
departed John de Flandre, a youth. John de Sentis, priest. 

On four Ides of February (10 February), from life departed 



298 



Julian del Salle, orphan. John de Sentis, curate 

On three Ides of February (11 February) from life departed 
Peter Cola widower, John de Sentis, priest. 



Chapter VIII 

A. Grammar 

Present Indicative Passive 

Singular 



baptizor 

baptizaris 

baptizatur 

Plural 

baptizamur 

baptizamini 

baptizantur 



teneor 

teneris 

tenetur 



tenemur 

tenemini 

tenentur 



vendor 

venderis 

venditur 



vendimur 

vendimini 

venduntur 



Future Indicative Passive 
Singular 



baptizabor 

baptizaberis 

baptizabitur 

Plural 



tenebor 

teneberis 

tenebitur 



vendar 

venderis 

vendetur 



baptizabimur tenebimur vendemur 
baptizabimini tenebimini vendemini 
baptizabuntur tenebuntur vendentur 

Imperfect Indicative Passive 

Singular 



baptizabar 

baptizabaris 

baptizabatur 

Plural 



tenebar 

tenebaris 

tenebatur 



vendebar 

vendebaris 

vendebatur 



baptizabamur tenebamur vendebamur 
baptizabamini tenebamini vendebamini 
baptizcibantur tenebantur vendebantur 



venior 

veniris 

venitur 



venimur 

venimini 

veniuntur 



veniar 

venieris 

venietur 



veniemiir 

veniemini 

venientur 



veniebar 

veniebaris 

veniebatur 



veniebamur 

veniebamini 

veniebantur 



fugior 

fugeris 

fugitur 



fugimur 

fugimini 

fugiuntur 



fugiar 

fugieris 

fugietur 



fugiemur 

fugiemini 

fugientur 



fugiebar 

fugiebaris 

fugiebatur 



fugiebamur 

fugiebamini 

fugiebantur 



299 



C. Latin to English 

Yesterday, on the seventh day of the month of September, the 

soul of a child, name unknown, who by (from) 
mother its was abandoned, to Almighty God returned. 

(Yesterday, on the seventh day of the month of September, 
the soul of a child, who was abandoned by its mother, 
returned to Almighty God. ) 

(There is, unfortunately, no exact way to determine the sex 
of the child from the information provided. Infans can be 
either masculine or feminine in gender. In this entry, it 
appears to be masculine. Consequently, qui, a relative 
pronoun whose antecedent is infans, simply agrees with the 
latter in gender and number. ) 

On the fourth Sunday (after) Epiphany, in the year of our 
Lord 1684, Mathilda Reichwald legitimate daughter of 
Matthew Reichwald and Agnes Meinert will be baptized. 

Is buried in the cemetery the upright man George Meyering. 
(The upright man George Meyering is buried in the cemetery. ) 

In the year of Grace 1779, Francisca, illegitimate daughter 
of Maria Louisa Franchon, will be confirmed. 

In this register, the names of the deceased in this parish 
are contained. 

(The names of the deceased in this parish are contained in 
this register. ) 

D. English to Latin 

Eodem die honestus juvenis Henricus Longue ex Hammwiller 
(Hammwillerense) et pudica virgo Maria Jacobina Battler 
copulabantur . 

Vices imo tertio Junii millesimo sescentesimo octogesimo 
quinto sepelitior gallus mendicus, qui in xenodochio obiit. 

Post brevem morbum, anima sua Deo omnipotenti reddebatxir. 

Infans (puer) in ecclesia parochiali a me Mairtino Forcellini 
parocho parochiae Sanctae Agnetis baptizabitur. 

Silvam diocesi donabimus. 

E. Parish Registers 

Document # 1 

(Anniversaries established in the parish of Rossbrunn — 
the heading missing in the excerpt) 



300 



6th (anniversary) established 1737 for (in behalf of) John 
George Wildt is celebrated on the 8th of November; donated 

(for this purpose) are (sic) the chief (capital) sum (of) 
20 Florins, of which (from which) yearly it is necessary 
to be paid (Note that this is the third person singular, 
present indicative passive of solvere, but is perhaps 
best translated here as a passive infinitive.) 

to the parish priest 30, to the teacher (school master) 10, 
to the poor six, and to the church 14 Kreutzer. 

(The 6th anniversary established in 1737 for John George 
Wildt, is celebrated the 8th of November; the chief sum 
of 20 Florins is donated for this purpose, from which it 
is necessary to pay, yearly, the following amounts: 3 
Kreutzer to the parish priest, 10 Kreutzer to the 
schoolmaster, 6 Kreutzer to the poor, and 14 Kreutzer 
to the church. ) 

Document #2 

November 

25. Is buried in the new cemetery here 

the upright widow Ursula Krysserin (who) died 

without the sacraments from (because of) the negligence 

of the servants. 

On the same day is buried the upright man Hanss 
Cronhart Zinde, former citizen from here. 

30. Is buried the upright widow Ursula 

Zoboltin (commonly [called] the old Witschger) 
from here. 



December 



13. Is buried the upright man George 

Oetterlin, former citizen from here. 

17. Is buried the upright widow Anna 

Meyer from here (who) died without extreme 

unction from (because of) the negligence of the servants, 

23. Is buried Hans Michel Braunrissen 
former citizen from here. 



301 



Chapter IX 

A. Grammar 

Perfect Indicative Passive 

Singular 

laudatus, -a, -urn sum 
laudatus, -a, -um es 
laudatus, -a, -um est 

tentus, -a, -um sum 
tentus, -a, -um es 
tentus, -a, -um est 

venditus, -a, -um sum 
venditus, -a, -um es 
venditus, -a, -um est 

auditus, -a, -um sum 
auditus, -a, -um es 
auditus, -a, -um est 

fugitus, -a, -um sum 
fugitus, -a, -um es 
fugitus, -a, -um est 



Plural 

laudati, -ae, -a sumus 
laudati, -ae, -a estis 
laudati, -ae, -a sunt 

tenti, -ae, -a sumus 
tenti, -ae, -a estis 
tenti, -ae, -a sunt 

venditi, -ae, -a sumus 
venditi , -ae , -a estis 
venditi, -ae, -a sunt 

auditi, -ae, -a sumus 
auditi, -ae, -a estis 
auditi, -ae, -a sunt 

fugiti, -ae, -a sumus 
fugiti, -ae, -a estis 
fugiti, -ae, -a sunt 



N.B. The perfect tense of sum may also be used for the 

perfect indicative passive, e.g., baptizatus, -a, -um 
fui, fuisti, fuit, baptizati, -ae, -a fuimus, fuistis, 
f uerunt , etc . 



Pluperfect Indicative Passive 

Singular 

laudatus, -a, -um eram 
laudatus, -a, -um eras 
laudatus, -a, -um erat 

tentus, -a, -um eram 
tentus, -a, -um eras 
tentus, -a, -um erat 

venditus, -a, -um eram 
venditus, -a, -um eras 
venditus, -a, -um erat 

auditus, -a, -um eram 
auditus, -a, -vim eras 
auditus, -a, -um erat 



Plural 

laudati, -ae, -a eramus 
laudati, -ae, -a eratis 
laudati, -ae, -a erant 

tenti, -ae, -a eramus 
tenti, -ae, -a eratis 
tenti, -ae, -a erant 

venditi, -ae, -a eramus 
venditi, -ae, -a eratis 
venditi, -ae, -a erant 

auditi, -ae, -a eramus 
auditi, -ae, -a eratis 
auditi, -ae, -a erant 



302 



fugitus, -a, -um eram 
fugitus, -a, -vim eras 
fugitus, -a, -um erat 



fugiti, -ae, -a eramus 
fugiti, -ae, -a eratis 
fugiti , -ae , -a ereint 



Future Perfect Indicative Passive 



Singular 

laudatus, -a, -um ero 
laudatus, -a, -um eris 
laudatus, -a, -um erit 

tentus, -a, -um ero 
tentus, -a, -um eris 
tentus, -a, -um erit 

venditus, -a, -ixm ero 
venditus, -a, -um eris 
venditus, -a, -um erit 

auditus, -a, -um ero 
auditus, -a, -um eris 
auditus, -a, -um erit 

fugitus, -a, -um ero 
fugitus, -a, -um eris 
fugitus, -a, -um erit 

C. Latin to English 



Plural 



laudati, -ae, -a erimus 
laudati, -ae, -a eritis 
laudati, -ae, -a erunt 

tenti, -ae, -a erimus 
tenti, -ae, -a eritis 
tenti, -ae, -a erunt 

venditi , -ae , -a erimus 
venditi , -ae , -a eritis 
venditi, -ae, -a erunt 

auditi, -ae, -a erimus 
auditi, -ae, -a eritis 
auditi, -ae, -a erunt 

fugiti, -ae, -a erimus 
fugiti, -ae, -a eritis 
fugiti , -ae , -a erunt 



On the 25th of April piously in the Lord died Anna Maria 
Lorentz citizen from Katzenheim, wife of John Ancel , tailor 
and citizen of this village, extreme unction having been 

provided, she was buried 
in our cemetery. 

(On the 25th of April, Anna Maria Lorentz, citizen of [from] 
Katzenheim, wife of John Ancel, tailor and citizen of [from] 
this village, died piously in the Lord, having been provided 
with the last rites [extreme unction] ; she was buried in 
our cemetery. ) 

In this month also died, a servant certain Swiss 

who under the wheel of a cart, having been loaded with wine, 

fell and through the middle 
of the (his) body crushed; although a foreigner he was, in 

cemetery our 
16th of June to the tomb he was carried away. 

(In this month, a certain Swiss servant also died, who 
fell under the wheel of a cart loaded with wine, and was 
crushed through the middle of his body; although he was 
a foreigner, he was carried to the tomb in our cemetery 
on the 16th of June.) 



303 



On the twenty-ninth of March in the year of our Lord 1697, 

Anna Margaretha 
Gascon, mother most famous of the priest of this place, 

Francis 
Charles Gascon, by (with) all (of) the sacraments fortified, 

piously in Lord 
our Jesus Christ slept away. May she rest in holy peace! 

(On the twenty-ninth of March, in the year of our Lord 1697, 
Anna Margaretha Gascon, most famous mother of the parish 
priest of this place, Francis Charles Gascon, slept away 
piously in our Lord Jesus Christ, fortified by [with] all 
of the sacraments of the church. May she rest in holy 
peace! ) 

Today was baptized Martin, legitimate son of Peter Borck 
and Maria Magdalena Reeker, married couple; born yesterday 
in the home of his grandfather. The godfather was: George 
van de Heet, merchant and citizen of Delft; the godmother 
was: Gretjde Sleet wife of Martin van der Lubbe, notary and 
citizen of this place. 

On the day thirtieth of the month of May one thousand seven 
hundred ten, three marriage banns having been made, were 
married the upright Caspar Ott, legitimate son of Henry Ott 
and Mathilda Forster, married couple in this place, and the 
chaste virgin Catharina Baum, legitimate daughter of John 
Baum and Magdalena Gartner, married couple from Altersheim. 

(On the thirtieth day of the month of May [in the year] one 
thousand seven hundred ten, after the publication of three 
marriage banns, the upright Caspar Ott, legitimate son of 
Henry Ott and Mathilda Forster, married couple in this 
place, and the chaste virgin Catharina Baum, legitimate 
daughter of John Baum and Magdalena Gartner, married couple 
from Altersheim, were married. ) 

D. English to Latin 

Hodie, vicesimo septimo Decembris (Xbris, lObris) , vetus 
(senex) Anna, vidua Caroli Martin et mater duorum puerorum 
defimctorum (decessorum) mortua est (obiit). Die 
sequent! in coemeterio nostro sepulta est. Requiescat in pace 

Anno domini millesimo septingentesimo sexagesimo nono, tribus 
denunciationibus factis, copulati sunt honestus juvenis 
Georgius Monteverdi, filius Frederici Monteverdi, agricolae, 
et Angelae Tibaldi, et pudica virgo Maria Magdalena Fareti, 
filia legitima Matthaei Fareti et Renatae Rimabanno. 



304 



Septimo Octobris (Vlllbris, 8bris) baptizata est Theresia, 
filia legitima Simonis Schell, sartoris, et Ursulae natae 
Krantz. Propter imminens periculum mortis (decessus) , infeins 
(puer) baptizatus est a me Margaretha Schoher, obstetrice. 
Post baptismum infans per tres horas vixit et eodem die ad 
horeun sextam vespertinam mortuus est (obiit). 

In hac matricula (hoc libro) ecclesiae parochialis 
Frauenbergensis , nomina omnium qui in sacro fonte baptismi 
abluti sunt, qui in sacramento legit imo matrimonii conjuncti 
sunt, et qui ex hac vita ad aetemitatem decessi sunt, 
scripta sunt. 

Duodecimo Novembris (9bris, IXbris) millesimo sescentesimo 
quinquagesimo primo, extraneus in parochiam nostram venit 
et pascua ma j oris nostri per sex menses usus est. Post hoc 
tempus, parochiam reliquit et famulam ex villa Sittardensis 
copulavit. 

E. Parish Registers 

Document # 1 

Left Hand Margin: Josephus Cast 

In the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred seventy- 
three on the day fifteenth of the month of February, died 
Joseph (being) three about years, son of George Gast day 
laborer and Margaritha Fischer, married couple and citizens in 

Gombrechts- 
hoffen living; and on the day sixteenth of the same 
month and year by me the below written priest in Gonders- 
hoffen and suburbs was buried in the cemetery of the church 
daughter in Gombrechtshof f en; the witnesses present (were) 
the said George Gast of the child the father, and Joseph 

Michael 
schoolmaster, who with me signed below. 

(In the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred seventy- 
three on the fifteenth day of the month of February, Joseph 
[a child] , about three years old, son of George Gast 
day laborer and Margaritha Fischer, married couple and 
citizens living in Gombrechtshof fen, died, and was buried 
on the sixteenth day of the same month by me the undersigned 
parish priest in Gondershof fen and suburbs in the cemetery 
of the daughter church in Gumbrechtshof en. The witnesses 
present were: the said George Gast, father of the child, 
and Joseph Michael, schoolmaster, who [together], with me, 
signed below. ) 



305 



Document # 2 

Left Hand Margin: Cunzini Anna Maria 

In the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred ninety-six, 
on the day truly fourteenth, of the month of December, at the 

hour sixth 
after noon, Anna Maria (of) the late Joseph Cravella daughter 
from the place of Plani and this parish of Saint Bernard Campo 

di Maggia, of age her 
the year seventy making, in home her own, in 
the community of the holy Mother Church (her) soul to God 

returned , 
whose body on the day following was buried in the cemetery 

near 
the church of St. Bernard, to me Archangel (o) Giumini 

confessor 
approved she confessed on the day eleventh of the same month 

(and) (by means of) the most holy 
Communion refreshed, on the day same and of holy oil by 

anointing strengthened 
through me on the day thirteenth of the same month, and 

by other prayers (and) 
rituals (she) was comforted. 

(In the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred ninety-six 
on the fourteenth day of the month of December, at 6 p.m. , 
Anna Maria [Cunzini], daughter of the late Joseph Cravella 
from Plani and this parish of St. Bernard Campo 
di Maggia, returned her soul to God in the fellowship of 
the holy mother church, in her seventieth year. Her body 
was buried on the following day in the cemetery near the 
church of St. Bernard. She confessed to me Archangelo 
Giumini, approved confessor, on the eleventh day of the 
same month and, having been refreshed by the most holy 
communion, on the same day, and strengthened by the 
anointing of holy oil, by [through] me, on the thirteenth 
day of the same month, she was also comforted by other 
prayers and rituals.) 



Chapter X 
A. Grammar 
Singular 



Nom . obitus 

Gen . obitus 

Dat . obitui 

Ace . obitirm 

Abl . obitu 



fades 
faciei 
faciei 
faciem 
facie 



306 



Plural 

Nom. obitus facies 

Gen. obituiun faciertun 

Dat. obitibus (ubus) faciebus 

Ace . obitus facies 

Abl. obitibus (ubus) faciebus 

C. Latin to English 
She died in childbirth. 

Jacob Pistor, carpenter was buried at noon. 

In this text (document, record), the names, ages, and sexes 
of the deceased children in the parish of St. John have been 
recorded. 

The parents were: Peter Fortner and Magdalena Bauer, both 
from Hochheim. 

For three days at home he/she remained. 
(He/she remained at home for three days.) 

D. English to Latin 

Nomen infantis, cuius mater in partu obiit, Martinus fuit 
( erat ) . 

Post decessum matris, operatic facta est et infans, sexus 
masculini, n.n. (nomen nescio) , ex utero eius extractus 
fuit. 

Copulatio delata est propter consanguinitatem in tertio 
gradu. 

Banna coram facie ecclesiae parochialis lecta sunt. 
In villa (vico) per duos annos vixit. 

E. Parish Registers 
Document #1 

(The parish register) 

of the parish church of Saint Martin of the bishopric 

of Tongrensis (Tongres) and of Saint Veronica beyond and near 

the walls of the city of Liege. 



307 



Document # 2 

In the name most sacred 
of the Trinity, father and son 
and holy spirit 
amen. 

The names of the baptized and of those 
who the baptized from the baptism 
raised according to the decree 
of the Council of Trent. 

(In the most sacred name of the Trinity: Father, and Son, 
and Holy Spirit Amen. The names of the baptized [children] 
and of those who raised the baptized [children] from the 
baptism according to the decree of the Council of Trent.) 

In the year of our Lord 169 3 

of January on the day 
5 . Joanna daughter of Bertrand Ghire 
and Catharina Gregory his wife 
was baptized by me Giles 
Masuyr, pastor, the godfather (being) 
Gerard LeRoy and the godmother (being) 
Heyde Devitte. 

(In the year of our Lord 1693, on the 5th day of January, 
Joanna, daughter of Bertrand Ghire and Catharina Gregory 
his wife, was baptized by me Giles Masuyr, pastor. The 
godfather was Gerard LeRoy and the godmother [was] Heyde 
Devitte. ) 



Chapter XI 
A. Grammar 



Nom . ego 

Gen . mei 

Dat . mihi 

Ace . me 

Abl . me 



nos 

nostri (nostrum) 

nobis 

nos 

nobis 



Singular 
Masc. Fern. 



Neuter 



Masc, 



Fem. 



Neuter 



Nom. hie 
Gen . huius 
Dat . huic 
Ace . hiinc 
Abl . hoc 



haec 

huius 

huic 

hanc 

hac 



hoc 

huius 

huic 

hoc 

hoc 



ille 

illius 

illi 

ilium 

illo 



ilia illud 

illius illius 

illi illi 

illam illud 



ilia 



illo 



308 





Plural 






Nom. 


hi 


hae 


haec 


Gen. 


horum 


harum 


horum 


Dat. 


his 


his 


his 


Ace. 


hos 


has 


haec 


Abl. 


his 

Singular 


his 


his 




Masc. 


Fem. 


Neute] 


Nom. 


is 


ea 


id 


Gen. 


eius 


eius 


eius 


Dat. 


ei 


ei 


ei 


Ace. 


eum 


earn 


id 


Abl. 


eo 


ea 


eo 



illi 


illae 


ilia 


illorum 


illarum 


illorum 


illis 


illis 


illis 


illos 


illas 


ilia 


illis 


illis 


illis 



Masc. 



Fem. 



Neuter 



qui 


quae 


quod 


cuius 


cuius 


cuius 


cui 


cui 


cui 


quem 


quam 


quod 


quo 


qua 


quo 



Plural 



Nom. ei (ii) eae 

Gen . eorum earum 

Dat. eis (iis) eis 

Ace . eos eas 

Abl. eis eis 



ea 


qui 


quae 


quae 


eorum 


quorum 


quarum 


quorum 


eis 


quibus 


quibus 


quibus 


ea 


quos 


quas 


quae 


eis 


quibus 


quibus 


quibus 



Singular 

Masc. 

Nom . noster 

Gen . nostri 

Dat . nostro 

Ace . nostrum 

Abl . nostro 

Plural 



Fem. 

nostra 

nostrae 

nostrae 

nostram 

nostra 



Neuter 

nostrum 

nostri 

nostro 

nostrum 

nostro 



Masc, 



Fem. 



Neuter 



quis 


quis 


quid 


cuius 


cuius 


cuius 


cui 


cui 


cui 


quem 


quem 


quid 


quo 


quo 


quo 



(The plural of quis, quid 
is exactly the same as 
qui , quae , quod above . ) 



Nom nostri nostrae nostra 

Gen. nostrorum nostrarum nostrorum 

Dat. nostris nostris nostris 

Ace. nostros nostras nostra 

Abl . nostris nostris nostris 

beatus, beatior, beatius, beatissimus, -a, -urn 



309 





Singular 








Mase. 


Fem. 


Neuter 


Nom. 


fortior 


fortior 


fortius 


Gen. 


fortioris 


fortioris 


fortioris 


Dat. 


fortiori 


fortiori 


fortiori 


Ace. 


fortiorem 


fortiorem 


fortius 


Abl. 


fortiore 

Plural 


fortiore 


fortiore 


Nom. 


fortiores 


fortiores 


fortiora 


Gen. 


fortionim 


fortiorum 


fortiorxim 


Dat. 


fortioribus 


fortioribus 


fortioribus 


Ace. 


fortiorem 


fortiorem 


fortiora 


Abl. 


fortioribus 


fortioribus 


fortioribus 



C. Latin to English 

The child, upon whom the name Magdalena was placed, was 
baptized at home. 

Maria Magdalena Sehulz, non-Catholic, daughter of John 
Michael Sehulz citizen of this place and tailor, who 
(i.e., Maria Magdalena Sehulz) declared pregnancy before 
me, the priest of this parish, and accused Francis Entz , 
also a non-Catholic, who was punished by (through) the 
sentence of the magistrate today the second of October. 

On the same day, in the same month, and in the same year, 
Anna Praetor, wife of the deceased Henry Hinck, teacher 
in this place, was buried. 

The godparents were: the most famous, most experienced, and 
right honorable lord John Chrysostum Mueller, senator and 
procurator (proxy lawyer) , and the most famous and noble 
lady Margaret Freye, wife of the most famous, most learned 
and noble lord Francis Geiger, a town councillor. 

In the year of Grace one thousand seven hundred twenty-six 
and on the thirtieth day of the month of March, a child 
baptized because of danger of death at home by me Anna 
Catherina Klein, midwife, immediately died — and the girl 
was anonymous (i.e., she died before she could be given a 
name ) . 

D. English to Latin 

Die nono mensis Augusti, ego Andreas Binck, parochus huius 
loci, baptizavi infantem (puerum) sexus masculini cui nomen 
Carolvun imposui. 



310 



23 July 1775 (Vicesimo tertio Julii millesimo septingentesimo 
septuageslmo quinto) gemelli baptizati sunt, pater quorum 
juvenis n.n. (nomen nescio, nomen ignotum) erat, qui matrem 
Susannam Knipps sub promitto matrimonii impraegnavit . 

Eodem die, eodem mense et eodem anno, Franciscus Walter, 
qui agricola ex Newton erat, quondam maritus defunctae 
Agnetis Terry et civis huius villae (vici), mortuus est. 

Parochus consobrinam suam sed non neptem eius baptizavit. 

Patrina clarissima, doctissima, praenobilis domina Maria de 
Villefort fuit (erat). 

E. Parish Registers 

Document # 1 

On the thirtieth of November died Augustinus 
Scheffler, by a prostitute certain (driven) insane and 
in madness his years fifteen and months six very 
miserably and restlessly (he lived), life giving up at the 
home of in-law his Christopher Zwieknet. May he rest in 
holy peace! 

(On the thirtieth of November, Augustinus Scheffler died, 
after being driven insane by a certain prostitute. He 
lived in his madness very miserably and restlessly for 
fifteen years and six months at the home of his in-law 
Christopher Zwieknet and gave up his life there also. 
May he rest in holy peace!) 

Document # 2 

On the 18th day of January of life day closed 

last Christina wife 

of John Michael Pfuettelin citizen of 

Ingersheim all she received sacraments of the church 

she was buried on the day following 

(On the 18th day of January Christina, wife of John 
Michael Pfuettelin citizen of Ingersheim closed the 
last day of [her] life; she received all of the sacraments 
of the church; she was buried on the following day. ) 

On the 16th day of January breathed out the soul 
John Jacob Fleidt, a young man, after a long 
illness, with all properly provided of the church 
sacraments and he was buried on the day following 

(On the 16th day of January John Jacob Fleidt, a young man, 
breathed out his soul after a long illness; he was properly 
provided with all of the sacraments of the church, and was 
buried on the following day. ) 



311 



26 departed from this mortal to immortal 

life a little old lady, a woman foreign, by the name (of) 

Anna Maria Nathe with all fortified 

the sacraments in the hospital when she died. 

This (woman) bequeathed to the church 10 R. (Rhinegulden, 

Rappen, etc.) by promissory note 
debts from John Blaisy a citizen of Ratzental 
to pay back. 

(On the 26th [of January] a little old lady, and a foreigner, 
by the name of Anna Maria Nathe departed from this life to 
immortal life, fortified with all of the sacraments in the 
hospital where she died. This woman bequeathed 10 R. 
[Rhinegulden, Rappen, etc.] to the church by promissory 
note, to pay back debts [incurred by] John Blaisy, a 
citizen of Ratzental.) 



Chapter XII 
A . Grammar 



Present Subjunctive Active 



laudem 

laudes 

laudet 

laudemus 

laudetis 

laudent 



videam 

videas 

videat 

videamus 

videatis 

videant 



con j ungam 
con j iingas 
con j ungat 
con j ungamus 
con j ungat is 
conjungant 



audiam 
audi as 
audiat 
audiamus 
audi at is 
audiant 



capiam 

capias 

capiat 

capiamus 

capiatis 

capiant 



Imperfect Subjunctive Active 



laudarem 

laudares 

laudaret 

laudaremus 

laudaretis 

laudarent 



viderem 

videres 

videret 

videremus 

videretis 

viderent 



con j ungerem 
con j ungeres 
con j ungeret 
con j ungeremus 
con j ungeret is 
con j ungerent 



audirem 

audires 

audiret 

audiremus 

audiretis 

audirent 



caperem 

caperes 

caperet 

caperemus 

caperetis 

caper ent 



Perfect Subjunctive Active 



laudaverim 

laudaveris 

laudaverit 

1 audaver imus 

laudaveritis 

laudaverint 



viderim 

videris 

viderit 

viderimus 

videritis 

viderint 



conjunxerim 
conjimxeris 
conjunxerit 
con j unxer imus 
con j vinxer itis 
con j unxer int 



audiverim 

audiveris 

audiverit 

audiverimus 

audiveritis 

audiverint 



ceperim 

ceperis 

ceperit 

ceperimus 

ceperitis 

cerperint 



312 



Pluperfect Subjunctive Active 



laudavissem vidissem 
laudavisses vidisses 
laudavisset vidisset 
laudavissemus vidissemus 
laudavissetis vidissetis 
laudavissent vidissent 



con j unxissem 
con j unxisses 
con j unxisset 
con j unx i ssemus 
con j unxissetis 
con j unxissent 



Present Subjunctive Passive 



lauder 

lauderis 

laudetur 

laudemur 

laudemini 

laudentur 



videar 

videaris 

videatur 

videamur 

videeunini 



con j ungar 
con j ungar is 
con j ungatur 
con j ungamur 
con j ungamini 



videantur con j ungeintur 

Imperfect Subjunctive Passive 



laudarer 
laudareris 
laudaretur 
laudaremur 
1 audar emin i 
1 audar en tur 



viderer 

videreris 

videretur 

videremur 

videremini 

viderentur 



con j ungerer 
con j ungereris 
con j ungeretur 
con j xmgeremur 
con j ungeremini 
con j ungerentur 



audivissem 

audivisses 

audivisset 

audivissemus 

audivissetis 

audivissent 



audiar 

audiaris 

audiatur 

audiamxur 

audiamini 

audicintur 



audirer 

audireris 

audiretur 

audiremur 

audiremini 

audirentur 



cepissem 

cepisses 

cepisset 

cepissemus 

cepissetis 

cepissent 



capxar 

capiaris 

capiatur 

capiamur 

capiamini 

capiantur 



caperer 

capereris 

caperetur 

caperemur 

caperemini 

caperentur 



Perfect Subjunctive Passive 



laudatus* sim visus sim 
laudatus sis visus sis 
laudatus sit visus sit 
laudati* simus visi simus 
laudati sitis visi sitis 
laudati sint visi sint 



con j unctus s im 
conjunctus sis 
con j unctus sit 
conjuncti simus 
conjuncti sitis 
conjuncti sint 



auditus sim 
auditus sis 
auditus sit 
auditi simus 
auditi sitis 
auditi sint 



captus sim 
c apt us sis 
captus sit 
capti simus 
capti sitis 
capti sint 



*laudatus, laudata, laudatum, etc. sim; laudati, laudatae, 
laudata, etc. simus, etc. 



Pluperfect Subjunctive Passive 



laudatus essem 
laudatus esses 
laudatus esset 
laudati essemus 
laudati essetis 
laudati assent 



visi essem conjunctus essem 
visi esses conjunctus esses 
visi esset conjunctus esset 
visi essemus conjuncti essemus 
visi essetis conjuncti essetis 
visi essent conjuncti essent 



auditus essem 
auditus esses 
auditus esset 
auditi essemus 
auditi essetis 
auditi essent 



captus essem 
captus esses 
captus esset 
capti essemus 
capti essetis 
capti essent 



313 



C. Latin to English 

And answering Jesus to them said: not this have your read what 
did David when was hungry he (himself) and those who with 

him were, 
how he entered (into) the house of God and the shewbread took 
and ate and gave to those who with him (himself) were . . . 

(And answering Jesus said to them: have you not read what 
David did when he was hungry and those who were with him; 
how he entered into the house of God and took the shewbread 
and ate [it] and gave [it] to those who were with him ...) 

It should be noted that a new church parish in the parish 
of Saint Veronica to the glory greater of God and of the 

Blessed Mary 
Virgin and of all of the Saints was built. 

(It should be noted that a new parish church was built in the 
parish of St. Veronica to the greater glory of God and the 
Blessed Virgin Mary, and all the Saints.) 

As, with accustomed his persuasion, to the end of this 

marriage 
celebration he concluded his speech, John Michael Rauch, 
schoolmaster, said, great with rejoicing and many 
tears, that many years in marriage to live he wished and 
many golden wedding anniversaries also they should see. 

(As, with his accustomed persuasion, he reached the end of 
his speech about this golden wedding celebration, John 
Michael Rauch, schoolmaster, said, with great rejoicing 
and many tears, that he wished [the married couple] to live 
many [more] years in marriage, and that they should 
see [many] more golden wedding anniversaries.) 

Although an operation was made (performed) , and the child 
from the womb of the mother was removed, both the mother 
and the child died. 

He asked (repeatedly) why his father impregnated his mother 
and wandered from his (own) parish. 

D. English to Latin 

Notandum sit: novum altare in nostra ecclesia parochiali 
aedif icatum est ad gloriam Dei , Beatae Mariae Virginis , et 
omnium sanctorum. 

Rogavit (rogabat) quare parochus diocesem abisset. 



314 



Anno domini millesimo sescentesimo quinquagesimo quinto, 
die vicesimo tertio mensis Aprilis, clarus et illustris 
major villae (vici, pagi) nostrae mortuus est, et die 
sequenti sepultus est. Major fuit (erat) huius villae per 
viginti annos et fideliter et bene laboravit. Cum uxor eius 
in partu mortua sit, teimen pater unius filii fuit (erat), 
qui nunc advocatus in curia regia est. Requiescat in seincta 
pace! 

Si hodie veniat, bonum sit. or: 
Si hodie veniret, bonum esset. 

Parochiani pecuniam donaverunt (donabant) ut parochum juvent, 
qui ecclesiam parochialem renovabat. 

(N.B. The imperfect is preferable here, since the process of 
renovation was ongoing [the priest was renovating, rather than 
renovated] . ) 

E. Parish Registers 

Document # 1 

First Letter of the Name 

Month and Day of Death 

Day of Burial 

Age of the Deceased 

Name, Surname and Condition (status, occupation) of the 

Deceased (if it is a child, the name and surname of the 

parents and their status) 
Place of Residence 

Whether he/she was provided (with the last rites)? 
Burying (i.e., place of burial) 
Remarks 

Document # 2 

Let it be noted likewise (that) 

this is the ordinary form (forum) of to be inscribed 

and if anything extraordinary should happen, 

it also to the superiors ought to be written 

e.g. , if banns any, or 

all from the permission of the bishop or the vicar should be 

omitted after the marriage they (the banns) should be made 

good ; 
or if with a dispensation of an impediment 
diriment should be contracted, in which case the de- 
gree ought expressed to be: Or if another 
of the spouses from another parish (so as to become 
absent) in his/her own also parish it announced 
should be. 



315 



(Let it be noted likewise 
that this is the ordinary form of writing; and if anything 
extraordinary should occur, it should also be written to 
the superiors, e.g., if any or all marriage banns should be 
omitted by [from] the permission of the bishop or vicar, 
yet after the marriage, the omission of the banns should 
be made good, or if [a couple] should contract marriage 
with a dispensation [because] of a diriment impediment, 
in such a case, the degree [of the impediment] should be 
indicated: Or, if one of the spouses should be from another 
parish [so as to be absent from his/her own parish] , then 
[the marriage] should be announced in his/her own parish 
also. ) 

Chapter XIII 

A. Grammar 

Active 

Present 

humans 

( humantis , etc . ) 

tenens 

( tenentis , etc . ) 

vivens 
(viventis, etc. ) 

sepeliens 

( sepelientis , etc . ) 

faciens 

( f acientis , etc . ) 

Future 

humaturus , humatura , humaturum 
tentujrus , tentura , tenturxun 
victurus , victura , victurum 
sepulturus , sepultura , sepeltttrum 
f acturus , f actura , f acturum 

Passive 

Perfect 

humatus , humata , hiimatvim 
tentus , tenta , tentum 
victus , victa , victum 
sepultus , sepulta , sepultum 
f actus , facta , factum 



316 



Future 



humandus , humanda , humcuiduin 
tenendus , tenenda , tenendum 
vivendus , vivenda , vivendum 
sepeliendus, sepelienda, sepeliendum 
f aclendus , f acienda , faciendum 



Singular 
Masc. & Fem. 



Neuter 



Nom. baptizans 

Gen. baptizantis 

Dat. baptizanti 

Ace. baptizantem 

Abl . baptizante ( i ) 



baptizans 
baptizantis 
baptizanti 
baptizans 
baptizante (i) 



Plural 



Nom. baptizantes 

Gen. baptizatium 

Dat . baptizantibus 

Ace. baptizantes 

Abl. baptizantibus 



baptizantia 

baptizantium 

baptizantibus 

baptizcintia 

baptizantibus 



Active 



Present 
Perfect 
Future 

Present 
Perfect 
Future 



mar i tare 
maritavisse 
mariturus esse 

videre 
vidisse 
viditurus esse 



P""'' 



Present promittere 
Perfect promississe 
Future promiturus esse 



r':>. 



Present 
Perfect 
Future 



venxre 
venisse 
venturus esse 



Present 
Perfect 
Future 



capere 
cepisse 
capturus esse 



Passive 



Present 
Perfect 
Future 



maritari 
maritus esse 
maritum iri 



317 



Present videri 
Perfect visus esse 
Future visum iri 

Present promitti 
Perfect promissus esse 
Future promissum iri 

Present veniri 
Perfect ventus esse 
Future ventum iri 

Present capi 
Perfect captus esse 
Future captum iri 

C. Latin to English 

4th of May 1768, having been supplied a dispensation in 

three banns 
and dimissorial letters (or a diitiisscrial letter) from the 

reverend lord priest marriage 
contracted, Quirinus Laumen and Anna Cornelia Heyen. 
The witnesses present truly were Christian Rodegast and Reiner 
Fleischer. 

(On the fourth of May 1768, after a dispensation was supplied, 
with [the posting of] three banns and dimissorial letters 
[or a dimissorial letter] from the reverend lord priest, 
Quirinus Laumen and Anna Cornelia Heyen contracted marriage. 
The witnesses present were [truly] Christian Rodegast and 
and Reiner Fleischer.) 

In the year one thousand seven hundred eighty-eight on the 

day 
tenth of the month of October at the hour tenth after 

after noon, in the womb 
maternal by the midwife lawful Maria Catherina Hirt, wife 
(of) Theobold Hirt citizen and cooper in this place, 

because of imminent 
of death danger and because of necessity evident, baptized 
was a child, the legitimate daughter of Joseph Bringel, 

citizen and 
farmer and for the time (being, i.e., temporarily) a town 

councillor, and Magdalena 
Frick, married couple upon whom was placed by the midwife 

the name 
Susanna, who, afterward, the baptism having been finished, 

died. 
The witnesses present were: the father above-named and the 

midwife. 



318 



who both together with me Rudolf Krietscher, priest of this 

place, 
signed below. 

(In the year one thousand seven hundred eighty-eight, on the 
tenth day of the month of October, at the tenth hour 
after noon, a child, the legitimate daughter of Joseph 
Bringel, citizen and farmer, and temporarily a town 
councillor, and Magdalena Frick, married couple, was 
baptized in the maternal womb by the lawful midwife Maria 
Catherina Hirt, wife of Theobald Hirt, citizen and cooper 
in this place, because of imminent danger of death and 
because of evident necessity, to whom the name Susanna 
was given [upon whom the name was place Susanna] by the 
midwife, who died immediately after the baptism was 
finished. The witnesses present were: the above-named 
father and the midwife, both of whom, together 
with me, Rudolf Krietscher, the priest of this place, 
signed below. ) 

In the year one thousand six hundred ninety and on the day 

fifteenth 
of the month of February in this our church parish having 

been made 
three banns of which the first, on the day thirty-first 
of January, the second, on the seventh of this month, and 

the third, on the day 
fourteenth, and no having been uncovered hindrance, and with 

the consent 
of those of whom it is a concern having been obtained, in 

the bonds of holy marriage 
were joined Stephen Francis Heyer, of Jacob Heyer 
citizen in this place and of the deceased Catharina Anna 

Bilsch 
son legitimate born twenty-four years and eight 
approximately months [ago] , and Philippina Drossel of George 

Drossel 
citizen of this place and Maria Philippina Schmitt daughter 
legitimate born twenty-one years and four months ( ago ) , by 

me 
Paul Joseph Heralt, priest of this said place. 
The (witnesses) present were Adolph Braun, schoolmaster 

together with the father 
of the groom and the father of the bride. Adolph Braun 

signed below, 
but the father of the groom and the father of the bride said 

that to write 
they did not know (how) and thus marks their they made. 



319 



(In the year one thousand six hundred ninety and on the 
fifteenth day of the month of February, in this our parish 
church, after three marriage banns were posted, the first 
of which [was posted] on the thirty-first day of January, the 
second [of which was posted] on the seventh [day] of this 
month, and the third [of which was posted] on the fourteenth 
of this month and since no hindrance was uncovered, and 
since the consent of those [of] whom it concerns was 
obtained, Stephan Francis Heyer, legitimate son 
of Jacob Heyer, citizen in this place, and of the deceased 
Catherine Anna Bilsch, born twenty-four years and about four 
months [ago], and Philippina Drossel , legitimate daughter of 
George Drossel, citizen of this place, and Maria Philippina 
Schmitt, born twenty-one years and fours months [ago] , were 
joined in the bonds of holy matrimony by me Paul Joseph 
Heralt, parish priest of this said place. The witnesses 
present were Adolph Braun, schoolmaster, together with the 
father of the groom and the father of the bride, Adolph 
Braun signed below, but the father of the groom and the 
father of the bride said that they did not know how to 
write, and so they made their marks.) 

1805 May, Martin of Caspar Eislinger, farmer (settler, etc.) 

of this (place) and 
of Elisabeth Kangger, married couple, son legitimate was born 
on the 9th of May at the hour 6th in the evening. The child 

(boy) in the church parish 
of Saint Vite at the hour 8th in the evening by the priest 

was baptized. 
The godparent (godmother) was Maria Westerin, commonly 

(called) Meyer, wife of Michael 
Wester farmer in Oberholzer. 

(May 1805, Martin, legitimate son of Caspar Eislinger, 
farmer of this [place] and Elisabeth Kangger, married 
couple, was born on the ninth of May at the sixth hour 
of the evening. The child was baptized in the parish church 
of St. Vite at the eighth hour of the evening by the priest. 
The godmother was Maria Wester, commonly called Meier, 
wife of Michael Wester, a farmer in Oberholzer.) 

Child (issue, offspring) anonymous of Matthew Nebl , 

blacksmith from village our and of Eva 
Gertrude Goldhofer, married couple, son legitimate and 
first born because of a difficulty of birth 2 days lasting 

in the womb 
by the midwife, in art her for a long time very skilled, 

a sign of life 
perceiving, was baptized about the hour third before noon 
on the twenty-second (day) of the month of July, immediately 

died and on the same day 
about the hour fifth carried to the tomb and was buried. 



320 



(An anonymous child: The legitimate and first born son of 
Matthew Nebl , blacksmith, from our village, and Eva Gertrude 
Goldhofer, married couple, because of the difficulty of the 
birth, lasting two days, was baptized about 9:00 a.m. [the 
third hour before noon] on the twenty-second [day] of the 
month of July in the womb by the midwife who [was] very 
skilled in her art for a long time and perceived [perceiving] 
a sign of life; it [the child] died immediately [after 
the baptism] and was carried to the tomb and buried on the 
same day about 5:00 p.m. [the fifth hour after noon].) 

D. English to Latin 

Die tertio mensis Octobris (8bris, Vlllbris) ad quintam 
horam vespertinam, filia legitima Martini Margolin et Mariae 
Evae Faubert nata est, et, ob imminens periculum mortis, 
ab obstretice baptizata est. 

Tribus denunciationibus factis, prima, decimo quarto Junii, 
secunda, vicesimo primo Junii, et tertia, vicesimo octo 
Junii, nulloque impedimento detecto, consensu mutuo eorum 
quorum interest obtento, Augustus Grenz, laborator (labororius) 
et civis Rankweilensis (ex Rankweilense) , filius legitimus 
Willelmi (Guillelmi) Thomae Grenz etiam laborator et civis 
Rankweilensis (ex Rankweilense) , et uxoris eius Reginae 
Margarethae Eberhardt, et Penelopea Mathilda Siedler, filia 
legitima Thomae Jacobi Siedler, dolarii et civis villae 
nostrae, et uxoris eius Ottiliae Gertrudae Falk, in vinculis 
sancti matrimonii conjuncti sunt a me Casparo Kratz, parocho 
huius parochiae. Praesentibus testibus: Johanne Frederico 
Wann, lignario et cive villae nostrae, Thoma Michaele 
Wolfenstein, fcibro et cive ex Grenzweil (Grenzweilense) , 
et Gerhardo Martino Grenz fratre sponsi, agricola et cive 
Rankweilensis (ex Rankweilense). Omnes tres testium dixerunt 
quod scribere nescirent et sic signa eorum fecerunt. 

Infante (puero) examinato, obstetrix, in arte sua peritissima, 
crevit eum vixisse et eum baptizavit. Post baptismum, infans 
(puer) statim obiit (mortuus est) et ad coemeterium eodem die 
ablatus et sepultus est. 

Die tricesimo Decembris (Xbris, 10 bris) , anno domini 
millesimo sescentesimo vicesimo quinto, honesta et fidelis 
Maria Gather ina Ostwald, vidua ma j oris domini Roberti 
Sigmundi Regenkampf , dum vivens civis illustrissimus 
(perillustris) civitatis Bordenheimensis , 

pie in domino nostro Jesu Christo, unctione extrema recepta, 
obiit (mortua est) . 

Episcopus iter facturus, duos parochos ordinabit. 



321 



E. Translation: Parish Registers 

Document # 1 

In the left margin: Caspar Schmitt from Rueveren and 
Anna Maria Gensheimer( in) born March 20, 1729 

In the year of our Lord 1763, on the day 17th of May banns 

having been published three, and the 1st 
indeed on the Sunday 5th after Easter, the 2nd, in the 

Feast of the Ascension of Our Lord Jesus Christ, and the 

3rd on the Sunday 6th 
after Easter: which was the 15th of May, having been made, 

and no legitimate hindrance having been uncovered, 
having been taken moreover on the part of the groom an oath 

concerning the penance of whatsoever hindrance, and 
having been obtained because of heavy causes permission from 

the most reverend vicarate (vicar) of Speyer, to the 

solemnities of the Mass 
I the below written priest of the church of Offenbach the 

upright Caspar Schmitt from 
Rueveren of the archdiocese of Trier, and in the monastery 

of Satinpia, of Mayenfeld in the village 
of Matthew Schmitt of blessed memory citizen in the same 

place and Anna Maria born Oster(in) married couple son, 
and also the upright Anna Maria Gensheimer( in) , of John 

Hermann Gensheimer, 
citizen in Offenbach, and Anna Elisabeth born Weber(in) 

married couple legitimate daughter 
I questioned, and with mutual their consent in the presence 

of me established, and sworn solemnly through (by) 
the words concerning the present, in marriage I joined, 

the witnesses present noted were: Andrew Vogler 
shoemaker, and John Sturm, citizens (of) Offenbach. In faith. 

Offenbach, as above 

(In the year of our Lord 1763, on the 17th of May, after the 
publication of three marriage banns, and indeed the first 
[bann] [was read] on the 5th Sunday after Easter, the 2nd 
[bann] [was read] in the Feast of the Ascension of our Lord 
Jesus Christ, and the third [bann] [was read] on the 6th 
Sunday after Easter, which was the 15th of May, and since 
no legitimate hindrance was uncovered, moreover, an oath 
was taken on the part of the groom regarding the penance 
of any hindrance whatsoever [or, an oath was taken by the 
groom that he had done penance for any kind of impediment 
from his past] , and since permission was obtained from the 
most reverend vicarate [vicar] of Speyer due to very 
very important causes, in [between] the solemnities of the 
mass, I, the undersigned parish priest of the church of 
Offenbach, questioned the upright Caspar Schmitt, from 
Rueveren in the Archdiocese of Trier, and in [near] the 
monastery of Satinpia, in the village of Maienfeld, son 
of the deceased Matthew Schmitt, citizen of the same place. 



322 



and Anna Maria born Oster, married couple, and the upright 
Anna Maria Gensheimer, legitimate daughter of John Hermann 
Gensheimer, citizen in Offenbach, and Anna Elisabeth, born 
born Weber, and with their mutual consent, given in my 
presence, and with their solemn oath [administered] by 
the present priest, I joined [them] in marriage. The 
witnesses present were Andrew Vogler, shoemaker, and John 
Sturm, citizens in Offenbach. In Faith 

[at] Offenbach, as [indicated] above) 

Document # 2 

In the year one thousand seven hundred ninety 

on the day seventeenth of May properly before in the 

churches 
respective between the solemnities of the masses, having 

been made three, the first 
on the day ninth, the second on the day thirteenth, the 

third on the day 
sixteenth of this month banns and of this future 
marriage having been obtained of those of whom it is a 

concern, and having been received 
mutual of the groom as well as the bride consent and no 
having been uncovered hindrance in marriage were joined 

Sebastian 
Bringel, of Sebastian Bringel and Anna Maria Stoffel 
married couple and citizens in Gallfingen son legitimate born 
twenty-five years and 4 about months (ago) and 
Theresia Huerster, of the deceased Conrad Huerster and 
Catharina Bilsch married couple while they lived and citizens 
in this place daughter legitimate born thirty-eight about 
years (ago) by me Francis Joseph Hinck, priest in this 
place (of) Burnhaupt-le-bas and the witnesses present were 

Joseph 
Bringel, citizen in the aforesaid Galfingen, Anton Huerster, 
John Huetter, and Louis Vogeleisen, organist, 
(all) three citizens of this place, who together with me 

signed below. 
The groom however and the bride duly by me called that 
they should sign below declared that they (themselves) to 

write did not know (how) wherefore 
the accustomed marks they made. 

(In the year one thousand seven hundred ninety, on the 
seventeenth day of May, after three marriage banns had 
been previously and properly published in the respective 
churches, between the solemnities of the masses; the first of 
[these banns] was published on the ninth day, the second 
on the thirteenth day, and the third on the sixteenth day 
of this month, after the consent to (of) this future marriage 
had been obtained from those involved, from the groom as well 
as the bride, and since no hindrance was uncovered, Sebastian 
Bringel, legitimate son of Sebastian Bringel and Anna Maria 

323 



Stoffel, married couple and citzens in Gallfingen, [who was] 
born about twenty-five years and 4 months ago, and Theresia 
Huerster, legitimate daughter of the deceased Conrad Huerster 
and Catharina Bilsch, married couple, while they lived, and 
citizens in this place, [who was] born about thirty-eight 
years [ago] , were joined in marriage by me Francis Joseph 
Hinck, priest in this place of Burnhaupt-le-bas . The 
witnesses present were Joseph Bringel, citizen in the 
aforesaid Galfingen, Anton Huerster, John Huetter, and 
Louis Vogeleisen, organist, all three citizens of this 
place, who, together with me, signed below. However, the 
groom and the bride, duly called to sign below by me, stated 
that they did not know how to write, wherefore, they made 
their customary marks.) 

Chapter XIV 
A . Grammar 

Gen. copulandi docendi vivendi audiendi capiendi 

Dat. copulando docendo vivendo audiendo capiendo 

Ace . copulandum docendvun vivendum audiendum capiendum 

Abl . copulando docendo vivendo audiendo capiendo 

C. Latin to English 

In the year one thousand seven hundred seventy-eight, on the 

day 
truly the twenty-seventh of April, after the publication of 

three banns 
about the future marriage, between the solemnities of the 

masses , and no 
having been uncovered hindrance neither canonical nor civil 

except 
in the third and fourth of consanguinity degree, however, 

from the bishop 
a dispensation was given and with the consent mutual of 

whom it concerns , 
by me the below-written priest in marriage joined were, 
the upright young man Stephen Taunis and the chaste virgin 

Petronella Kramer. 

(In the year one thousand seven hundred seventy-eight, on the 
twenty-seventh day, truly, of April, after the publication, 
between the solemnities of the masses, of three marriage 
banns concerning the future marriage, and since no hindrance, 
neither canonical nor civil, was uncovered, with the 
exception of consanguinity in the third and fourth degree, 
[for which] however a dispensation was given by the bishop, 
and the with mutual consent of those concerned, the upright 
young man Stephen Taunis and the chaste virgin Petronella 
Kramer were joined in marriage by me the undersigned priest. ) 



324 



I, Matthew Hinckel, bishop in the diocese of Hochwiller 
give to you, Michael Furton, farmer in the parish of St. 
Vite, four acres of plow land for three years to have and 
to hold. 

The vineyard in the place called wood beautiful to Frederick 
Torinaldi for selling was given. 

(The vineyard in the place called beautiful wood was given 
to Frederick Torinaldi to sell. Venendo is a gerund, since 
the vineyard was given to Frederick Torinaldi for [the 
purpose of] selling.) 

In the year one thousand six hundred eighty-four and on the 

day last 
of the month of December, at the hour sixth in the morning, 

in the cemetery our of this 
place was buried the body of Valentine Martin, glass maker in 
the village our and husband of the deceased Elisabeth 

Margareth 
born Grapeaux, in the year of his age fifty-eight and 
about ten months , who yesterday at the third hour in the 

the morning piously 
in the Lord died properly before (i.e., he received the 

sacraments before he died) the sacraments of penance, 
the eucharist, and unction extreme at home administered by 
me Theodore Reich priest of this parish. The present 
witnesses were: Louis Bichantz , barber, and Jacob Hunger, 
locksmith, both of this place, who together with me signed 

below. 

(In the year one thousand six hundred eighty-four, and on 
the last day of the month of December, at the sixth hour 
of [in] the morning, the body of Valentine Martin, glass 
maker in our village, and husband of the deceased Elisabeth 
Margaret born Grapeaux, in the year of his age fifty-eight 
and about ten months, was buried. Yesterday at the 
third hour of [in] the morning, he died piously in the 
Lord after he had received the sacraments of penance, the 
eucharist, and extreme unction, [which were] administered 
at home by me Theodore Reich, priest of this parish. 
The witnesses present were: Louis Bichantz, barber, and 
Jacob Bunger, locksmith, both of this place, who, together 
with me, signed below.) 

Yesterday Thomas Little into the court ecclesiastical our 

entered 
a fine for the purpose of paying. 

(Yesterday Thomas Little entered into our ecclesiastical court 
in order to pay a fine. Ad solvendum: a gerund used with 
ad to express purpose.) 



325 



D. English to Latin 

Maria Martha Brosis ecclesiam ad copulandiun iniit, sed 
copulare non quivit propter rite paenitentiam facere noluit. 

Die decimo Augusti, anno millesimo sescentesimo quadragesimo 
quinto factis tribus denunciationibus , et cum impedimento 
in tertio gradu, per quod autem dispensatio data est, cum 
mutuo consensu eorum quorum interest, Conradus Breit, viduus 
et lignarius huius villae (vici, pagi) Breckenbachensis, 
et Justina Leopoldina Lauer, filia legitima Hilarii Lauer et 
defunctae Magdalenae Rosalindae Pfort, ambo parochiae Sancti 
Leopoldi ( Leopoldis ) , copulati sunt. 

Hodie hora decima matutina, corpus Emerentianae Staller 
ad coemeterium ad sepeliendum delatum est. Heri hora sexta 
matutina obiit (mortua est) . Circiter triginta annorum, 
et ancilla in domo decani nostri per duodecim annos erat 
(fuit). Sacramenta paenitentiae , eucharistae et unctionis 
extremae recepit, postquam pie in domino obiit (mortua est) . 
Requiescat in pace! (in pacem) . 

Necesse est quod Josephus Blackwell ad curicim ecclesiasticeun 
veniret (veniat) , finem ad solvendum (gerund). 

Cum Hermannus Wild confessus sit, et paenitentictm facerit, 
parochus ei ignovit. 

E. Parish Registers 

Document #1 

Note: On the day of All Souls, the highest 

sacred (thing) for all the faithful 

for the deceased celebrates the deacon, on the highest 

altar, and at the same time will celebrate 

the pastor on the altar parish, and the canons 

with the rest come to the offering 

on both altar (s). From where 

it is evident at once (that) since more there are 

Catholics, all to the offering 

to have come. This custom ought revoked 

to be. To which end, ought to be noted 

all the dead, and ought to be made 

of them the commemoration in the cathedral . 

(Note: On All Souls Day, the deacon celebrates a most solemn 
feast day for all the faithful for the dead at the highest 
altar, and, at the same time, the pastor will celebrate at 
the parish altar, and the canons come with the rest to the 
offering on both altars. From where it is immediately 
apparent [that], since there were more Catholics, everyone 
came to the offering. This custom should be revoked. To 
which end [to avoid further congestion by revoking the 



326 



custom of having so many people at the altars], the dead 
ought to be honored, and [but] their commemoration ought to 
be made in the cathedral.) 

Document # 2 

(to be) noted, that a new altar in 

the church at Holthausen to the glory of God, the Blessed Mary 

always a Virgin honor, in the year 1654, 3 August 

in the Feast of the Discovery (of the bones of) St. Stephen, 

the first martyr 
and his comrades erected was . Those present were the Right 
Reverend Lord John Thier of Transaquensis (Ueberwasser) church 

deacon, 
the Reverend Lord Everwin Wermelings, for the Upright Lord 
John Heymann, civic official at Transaquensis, concerning 

which 
praise (be) to Almighty God Amen. 

(To be noted, that a new altar in the church at Holthausen 
was erected to the glory of God, [and] the honor of the 
Blessed Virgin Mary, in the year 1654, [on the] 3rd of 
August in the Feast of the Discovery of the Bones of St. 
Stephen, the First Martyr and his Comrades; those present 
were the Right Reverend Lord John Thier deacon of the church 
of Transaquensis [Ueberwasser] , the Reverend Lord Everwin 
Wermelings, in behalf of the Upright Lord John Heymann, 
civic official at Transaquensis, concerning which praise 
be to Almighty God, Amen.) 

Document # 3 

In the year one thousand seven hundred eighty-eight on the 

day tenth 
of the month of October at the hour tenth after noon in the 

pains of childbirth 
in the womb maternal by the midwife lawful Anna Maria Bilsch 
wife of Theobald Wolff citizen and cooper in this place Burn- 
haupt-le-bas because of imminent of death danger in obvious 
need baptized was a child, son legitimate of Jacob 
Kirscher citizen, farmer, and for the time deputy municipal 
and Magdalena Kirscher, married couple, upon whom placed 
was by the midwife the name Caspar, who afterwards having 

been under- 
taken the baptism dead born was; present (was) the father 

above- 
named and the midwife, who both together with me Francis 
Joseph Hinck, priest of this place above-said undersigned. 



327 



(In the year one thousand seven hundred eighty-eight, on 
the tenth day of the month of October, at the tenth hour 
after noon, a child was baptized because of imminent danger 
of death, [and] in obvious need, in the pains of child- 
birth, [and] in the maternal womb, by the lawful midwife 
Anna Maria Bilsch, wife of Theobald Wolff, citizen and 
cooper in this place [of] Burnhaupt-le-bas , the legitimate 
son of Jacob Kirscher, citizen, farmer, and temporarily 
town councillor, and Magdalena Kirscher, married couple, 
upon whom the name Caspar was placed by the midwife, who 
after the baptism was finished, was born dead; present was 
the above-named father and the midwife, both of whom, 
together with me Francis Joseph Hinck, priest of this 
above-said place, signed below.) 



328 



SYNOPSIS OF DECLENSION AND CONJUGATION 



Declension 
Nouns 



First Declension 
(ecclesia, f.: church) 



Second Declension 
(parochus, m. : priest) 





Singular 


Plural 


Singular 


Plural 


Nom. 


ecclesia 


ecclesiae 


parochus 


parochi 


Gen. 


ecclesiae 


ecclesianun 


parochi 


parochorum 


Dat. 


ecclesiae 


ecclesiis 


parocho 


parochis 


Ace. 


ecclesiam 


ecclesias 


parochum 


parochos 


Abl. 


ecclesia 


ecclesiis 


parocho 


parochis 


Voc. 






paroche* 





(If the stem ends in -i, another -i is added for the 
vocative, second declension masculine. Note, however, 
that the two i's contract to one, e.g., fill: O son!) 



Second Declension 
(magister, m. : teacher) 



Second Declension 
(matrimonium, n. : marriage) 





Singular 


Plural 


Singular 


Plural 


Nom. 


magister 


magistri 


matrimonium 


matrimonia 


Gen. 


magistri 


magistrorum 


matrimonii 


matrimoniorum 


Dat. 


magistro 


magistris 


matrimonio 


matrimoniis 


Ace. 


magistrum 


magistros 


matrimonivun 


matrimonia 


Abl. 


magistro 


magistris 


matrimonio 


matrimoniis 



Third Declension 

(dxix, m. : duke, leader) 





Singular 


Plural 


Singular 


Nom. 


dux 


duces 


consanguinitas 


Gen. 


due is 


ducum 


consanguinitatis 


Dat. 


duci 


ducibus 


consanguinitati 


Ace. 


ducem 


duces 


consanguinitatem 


Abl. 


duce 


ducibus 


consanguinitate 



Third Declension 
( consanguinitas , f , 

relationship ) 

Plural 



blood 



consanguinitates 

consanguinitatum 

consanguinitatibus 

consanguinitates 

consanguinitatibus 



329 



Third Declension 
(corpus, n. : body) 



Third Declension I-Stem 
(civis, m. : citizen) 





Singular 


Plural 


Singular 


Plural 


Nom. 


corpus 


corpora 


civis 


cives 


Gen. 


corporis 


corporum 


civis 


civium 


Dat. 


corpori 


corporibus 


civi 


civibus 


Ace. 


corpus 


corpora 


civem 


cives 


Abl. 


corpora 


corporibus 


cive 


civibus 



Third Declension I-Stem 
(mare, n. : sea) 



Fourth Declension 

(partus, m. : birth, childbirth) 





Singular 


Plural 


Singular 


Plural 


Nom. 


mare 


mari a 


partus 


partus 


Gen. 


maris 


marium 


partus 


partuum 


Dat. 


mari 


maribus 


partui 


partibus ( ubus ) 


Ace. 


mare 


mari a 


partus 


partus 


Abl. 


mari 


maribus 


partu 


partibus ( ubus ) 



Fourth Declension 
( genu , n . : knee ) 



Fifth Declension 
(dies, m. or f.: day) 





Singular 


Plural 


Singular 


Plural 


Nom. 


genu 


genua 


dies 


dies 


Gen. 


genus 


genuum 


diei 


dierum 


Dat. 


genu 


genibus 


diei 


diebus 


Ace. 


genu 


genua 


diem 


dies 


Abl. 


genu 


genibus 


die 


diebus 



2. Adjectives 

First and Second Declension Adjectives 

bonus, bona, bonum: good 





Singular 






Plural 








Masc. 


Fem. 


Neuter 


Masc. 


Fem. 


Neuter 


Nom. 


bonus 


bona 


bonum 


boni 


bonae 


bona 


Gen. 


boni 


bonae 


boni 


bonorum 


bonanim 


bonorum 


Dat. 


bono 


bonae 


bono 


bonis 


bonis 


bonis 


Ace. 


bonum 


bonam 


bonum 


bonos 


bonas 


bona 


Abl. 


bono 


bona 


bono 


bonis 


bonis 


bonis 



330 



Irregular First and Second Declension Adjectives 
totus, tota, totum (whole, entire) 
Singular Plural 



Masc. 



Fem. 



Neuter 



Masc , 



Fem. 



Neuter 



Nom. 


totus 


tota 


totum 


Gen. 


totius 


totius 


totius 


Dat. 


toti 


toti 


toti 


Ace. 


totum 


totam 


totum 


Abl. 


toto 


tota 


toto 



Abl, 



toti totae tota 

totomim totarum totorum 

totis totis totis 

totos totas tota 

totis totis totis 

N.B. The declension of numbers, most of which are declined 
like adjectives of the first and second declension, 
was considered in Chapter 7 and will not be repeated 
here. 

Third Declension Adjectives 

(same nominative singular ending for all three genders; 
compos, compotis: having control of, having possession of) 



Singular 
Masc. Fem. 



Nom . compos 



compos 



Neuter 



compos 



Plural 

Masc. 

compotes 



Fem. 



Neuter 



compotes compotia 



Gen. compotis compotis compotis compotium compotium compotium 



Dat. compoti compoti compoti 
Ace. compotem compotem compos 
compoti compoti compoti 



compotibus compotibus compotibus 
compotes compotes compotia 
compotibus compotibus compotibus 



Third Declension Adjectives 

(same ending for masculine and feminine nominative singular, 
different ending for neuter; similis, similis, simile: like) 





Singular 






Plural 








Masc. 


Fem. 


Neuter 


Masc. 


Fem. 


Neuter 


Nom. 


similis 


similis 


simile 


similes 


similes 


similia 


Gen. 


similis 


similis 


similis 


similium 


similium 


similium 


Dat. 


simili 


simili 


simili 


simili bus 


similibus 


similibus 


Ace. 


similem 


similem 


simile 


similes 


similes 


similia 


Abl. 


simili 


simili 


simili 


similibus 


similibus 


similibus 



331 



Third Declension Adjectives 

(different ending for masculine, feminine, and neuter 
nominative singular, acer, acris, acre: sharp, keen) 





Singular 






Plural 








Masc. 


Fem. 


Neuter 


Masc. 


fem. 


Neut( 


Norn. 


acer 


acris 


acre 


acres 


acres 


acria 


Gen. 


acris 


acris 


acris 


acrinm 


acrium 


acrium 


Dat. 


acri 


acri 


acri 


acribus 


acribus 


acribus 


Ace. 


acrem 


acrem 


acre 


acres 


acres 


acria 


Abl. 


acri 


acri 


acri 


acribus 


acribus 


acribus 



Third Declension Adjectives 

(consonant stem; one ending for all three genders in the 
nominative singular, vetus, veteris: old) 



Singular 
Masc. Fem. 



Neuter 



Plural 
Masc. 



Fem. 



Neuter 



Nom . vetus 

Gen . veteris 

Dat . veteri 

Ace . veterem 

Abl . vetere 



vetus vetus veteres veteres vetera 

veteris veteris veterum veterum veterum 

veteri veteri veteribus veteribus veteribus 

veterem vetus veteres veteres vetera 

vetere vetere veteribus veteribus veteribus 



Comparison of Adjectives: First and Second Declension 

Adjectives 



Regular (sanctus: holy) 
Positive Comparative 

Masc. & Fem. Neuter 



sanctus 

(holy) 



sanctior 

(more holy) 



sanctius 

(more holy) 



Superlative 



sanctissimus, -a, -um 

(most holy, holiest) 



Irregular (peirvus: small) 
Positive Comparative 

Masc. & Fem. Neuter 



Superlative 



parvus 

(small) 



minor 

(smaller) 



minius 

(smaller) 



minimus, -a, -um 

(smallest) 



332 



Comparison of Adjectives: Third Declension Adjectives 
felix (happy) 



Positive 



felix 

(happy) 



Comparative 
Masc. & Fern. 

felicior 

(happier) 



Neuter 

felicius 

(happier) 



Superlative 



felicissimus, -a, -urn 

(happiest) 



First and Second and Third Declension Adjectives with 
the Masculine Nominative Singular ending -er or -lis 



Positive 

Masc. Fem. Neuter 

aeger , aegra , aegrum 

(sick) 

facilis, facilis, facile 

(easy) 

Superlative 



Comparative 
Masc. & Fem. 

aegrior 

(sicker) 
facilior 
(easier) 



Neuter 

agegrius 

(sicker) 
f acilius 

(easier) 



aegerrimus, -a, -um 

(sickest) 
facillimus, -a, -um 

(easiest) 

Declension of Adjectives in the Comparative Degree 



Singular 

Masc. & Fem. 

Nom. sanctior 

Gen. sanctioris 

Dat. sanctiori 

Ace . sanctiorem 

Abl . Scinctiore 



Neuter 

sanctius 

Scinctioris 

sanctiori 

sanctius 

sanctiore 



Plural 

Masc. & Fem. 

sanctiores 

sanctiorum 

sanctioribus 

sanctiores 

sanctioribus 



Neuter 

sanctiora 

sanctiorum 

sanctioribus 

sanctiora 

Scinctioribus 



Formation of Adverbs from Adjectives of all three Declensions 



bonus ( good ) 
facilis (easy) 
similis (like) 



bene (well) 

facile (easily) 

similiter (likely, similarly) 



333 



Comparison of Adverbs 
Positive Comparative Superlative 

optime 

(most well) 

facillime 

(most easily) 

similiterrime 

(most similarly) 

N.B. Although adverbs are not declined for gender, number, 
and case, and, therefore, are not technically part of 
the process of declension, the formation of adverbs in 
the positive, comparative and superlative degrees is 
included here for reference. 



bene 


melius 


(well) 


(more well) 


facile 


facilius 


(easily) 


(more easily) 


similiter 


s imi 1 i ter ius 


(similarly) 


(more similarly) 



Nom, 
Gen. 
Dat. 
Ace. 
Abl. 



3 . Pronouns 

Personal (ego: 

First 

Singular 

ego 

mei 

mihi 

me 

me 



I, nos: we, tu: you, vos: you [all]) 

Second First Second 

Plural 

tu nos vos 

tui nostri (nostrum) vestri (vestrum) 

tibi nobis vobis 

te nos vos 

te nobis vobis 



Third (is, ea, id: he, she it; ei, eae, ea: they; also the 
demonstrative pronoun: this, that 

Singular Plural 

Masc. Fem. Neuter Masc. Fern. Neuter 



Nom. 


is 


ea 


id 


Gen. 


eius 


eius 


eius 


Dat. 


ei 


ei 


ei 


Ace. 


eum 


earn 


id 


Abl. 


eo 


ea 


eo 



ei (ii) 


eae 


ea 


eorum 


earum 


eomm 


eis 


eis 


eis 


eos 


eas 


ea 


eis 


eis 


eis 



334 



Possessive (meus: my; noster: our; tuus: your; vester: 
your [pi.]; suus: his/her/its [own]; their 
[own] ) 



Singular 



Plural 



Masc, 



Fem. 



Neuter 



Masc, 



Fem. 



Neuter 



Nom. 


meus 


me a 


meum 


mei 


meae 


mea 


Gen. 


mei 


meae 


mei 


meorxim 


mearum 


meorum 


Dat. 


meo 


meae 


meo 


meis 


meis 


meis 


Ace. 


meum 


meam 


meum 


meos 


meas 


mea 


Abl. 


meo 


mea 


meo 


meis 


meis 


meis 


Voc. 


mi 

Singular 






Plural 








Masc. 


Fem. 


Neuter 


Masc. 


Fem. 


Neuter 


Nom. 


noster 


nostra 


nostrum 


nostri 


nostrae 


nostra 


Gen. 


nostri 


nostrae 


nostri 


nostrorum 


nostrarum 


nostrorum 


Dat. 


nostro 


nostrae 


nostro 


nostris 


nostris 


nostris 


Ace. 


nostrum 


nostram 


nostrum 


nostros 


nostras 


nostra 


Abl. 


nostro 

Singular 


nostra 


nostro 


nostris 

Plural 


nostris 


nostris 




Masc. 


Fem. 


Neuter 


Masc. 


Fem. 


Neuter 


Nom. 


tuus 


tua 


tuum 


tui 


tuae 


tua 


Gen. 


tui 


tuae 


tui 


tuorum 


tuarum 


tuorum 


Dat. 


tuo 


tuae 


tuo 


tuis 


tuis 


tuis 


Ace. 


tuum 


tuam 


tuum 


tuos 


tuas 


tua 


Abl. 


tuo 

Singular 


tua 


tuo 


tuis 

Plural 


tuis 


tuis 




Masc. 


Fem. 


Neuter 


Masc. 


Fem. 


Neuter 


Nom. 


vester 


vestra 


vestrum 


vestri 


vestrae 


vestra 


Gen. 


vestri 


vestrae 


vestri 


vestrorum 


vestrarum 


vestrorum 


Dat. 


vestro 


vestrae 


vestro 


vestris 


vestris 


vestris 


Ace. 


vestrum 


vestretm 


vestrum 


vestros 


vestras 


vestra 


Abl. 


vestro 

Singular 


vestra 


vestro 


vestris 

Plural 


vestris 


vestris 




Masc. 


Fem. 


Neuter 


Masc. 


Fem. 


Neuter 


Nom. 


suus 


sua 


suum 


sui 


suae 


sua 


Gen. 


sui 


suae 


sui 


suorum 


suarum 


suorum 


Dat. 


suo 


suae 


suo 


suis 


suis 


suis 


Ace. 


suum 


suam 


suum 


suos 


suas 


sua 


Abl. 


suo 


sua 


suo 


suis 


suis 


suis 



335 



Demonstrative 

hie, haec, hoc (this, the latter) 
Singular Plural 

Masc. Fem. Neuter Masc. 



Fem. 



ille, ilia, illud (that, the latter) 
Singular Plural 

Masc. Fem. Neuter Masc. 



Fem, 



iste, ista, istud (that, that of yours) 
Masc. Fem. Neuter Masc. Fem. 



idem, eadem, idem (the same) 



Neuter 



Nom. 


hie 


haee 


hoc 


hi 


hae 


haec 


Gen. 


huius 


huius 


huius 


horum 


harum 


horum 


Dat. 


huic 


huic 


huic 


his 


his 


his 


Ace. 


hvmc 


hanc 


hoc 


hos 


has 


haec 


Abl. 


hoc 


hac 


hoc 


his 


his 


his 



Neuter 



Nom. 


ille 


ilia 


illud 


illi 


illae 


ilia 


Gen. 


illius 


illius 


illius 


illorum 


illarum 


illorum 


Dat. 


illi 


illi 


illi 


illis 


illis 


illis 


Ace. 


ilium 


illam 


illud 


illos 


illas 


ilia 


Abl. 


illo 


ilia 


illo 


illis 


illis 


illis 



Neuter 



Nom. 


iste 


ista 


istud 


isti 


istae 


ista 


Gen. 


istius 


istius 


istius 


istorum 


istarum 


istorum 


Dat. 


isti 


isti 


isti 


istis 


istis 


istis 


Ace. 


istum 


istam 


istum 


istos 


istas 


ista 


Abl. 


isto 


ista 


isto 


istis 


istis 


istis 





Singular 






Plural 








Masc. 


Fem. 


Neuter 


Masc. 


Fem. 


Neuter 


Nom. 


idem 


eadem 


idem 


eidem 


eaedem 


eadem 


Gen. 


eiusdem 


eiusdem 


eiusdem 


eorundem 


earundem 


eorundem 


Dat. 


eidem 


eidem 


eidem 


eisdem 


eisdem 


eisdem 


Ace. 


eundem 


eandem 


idem 


eosdem 


easdem 


eadem 


Abl. 


eodem 


eadem 


eodem 


eisdem 


eisdem 


eisdem 



336 





Reflexive 
















Singular 






Plural 


Singular 


Plural 


Nom. 
Gen. 
Dat. 
Ace. 
Abl. 


mei 
mihi 
me 
me 

Singular 






nostri 
nobis 
nos 
nobis 

Plural 


tui 
tibi 
te 
te 




vestri 
vobis 
vos 
vobis 


Nom. 
Gen. 
Dat. 
Ace. 
Abl. 


sui 
sibi 
se 
se 






sui 
sibi 
se 
se 










Reflexive 


Posses ives: meus, 


, tuus , suus 


(see above) 




Intensive 


(ipse, ipsa, ipsum: myself, yourself, 
herself /itself , themselves) 


himself/ 




Singular 








Plural 








Masc. 


Fem. 




Neuter 


Masc. 


Fem. 


Neuter 


Nom. 
Gen. 
Dat. 
Ace. 
Abl. 


ipse 

ipsius 

ipsi 

ipsum 

ipso 


ipsa 

ipsius 

ipsi 

ipsam 

ipsa 




ipsum 

ipsius 

ipsi 

ipsum 

ipso 


ipsi 

ipsorum 

ipsis 

ipsos 

ipsis 


ipsae 

ipsarum 

ipsis 

ipsas 

ipsis 


ipsa 

ipsorum 

ipsis 

ipsa 

ipsis 




Relative 


( qui , quae 


, quod: 


who, who, what [which]) 




Singular 








Plural 








Masc. 


Fem. 




Neuter 


Masc. 


Fem. 


Neuter 


Nom. 
Gen. 
Dat. 
Ace. 
Abl. 


qui 

cuius 

cui 

quem 

quo 


quae 

cuius 

cui 

quam 

qua 




quod 

cuius 

cui 

quod 

quo 


qui 

quorum 

quibus 

quos 

quibus 


quae 

quarum 

quibus 

quas 

quibus 


quae 

quorum 

quibus 

quae 

quibus 



337 



Interrogative (quis, quid: who? what?) 

Singular Plural 

Masc. Fem. Neuter Masc. Fein, 



Neuter 



Nom, 


quis 


quis 


quid 


qui 


quae 


quae 


Gen. 


cuius 


cuius 


cuius 


quorum 


quarum 


quorum 


Dat. 


cui 


cui 


cui 


quibus 


quibus 


quibus 


Ace. 


quern 


quem 


quid 


quos 


quas 


quae 


Abl. 


quo 

Indef ini 


quo 

te 


quo 


quibus 


quibus 


quibus 



The following indefinite pronouns are declined, with some 
exceptions, either like quis, quid or qui, quae, quod: 



aliquia aliqua 

quidam quaedam 

quilibet quaelibet 

quispiam quaepiam 

quisquam quaequam 

quisque quaequae 

quivis quaevis 

4. Participles 



aliquid (aliquod) 
quiddam ( quoddam ) 
quidl ibet ( quodl ibet ) 
quidpiam (quodpictm) 
quidquam (quicquam) 
quidque ( quodque ) 
quidvis (quodvis) 



some , some one 

a certain person/thing 

any one you please 

some , some one 

any one 

every one , every 

any one you please 



Nom. 
Gen. 
Dat. 
Ace. 
Abl. 



Present Indicative Active 

First Conjugation (baptizans: baptizing) 

Singular Plural 

Masc. & Fem. Neuter Masc. & Fem. 

baptizans baptizans baptizeintes 

baptizantis baptizantis baptizantium 

baptizanti baptizanti baptizantibus 

baptizantem baptizans baptizantes 

baptizante (i) baptizante (i) baptizantibus 

Second Conjugation (docens: teaching) 



Singular 

Masc. & Fem. 

Nom . docens 

Gen . docentis 

Dat . docenti 

Ace . docentem 

Abl . docente ( i ) 



Neuter 

docens 
docentis 
docenti 
docens 
docente ( i ) 



Plural 

Masc. & Fem. 

docentes 

docentium 

docentibus 

docentes 

docentibus 



Neuter 

baptizantia 
bapti zantivun 
baptizantibus 
baptizantia 
baptizantibus 



Neuter 

docentia 

docentium 

docentibus 

docentia 

docentibus 



338 



Third Conjugation (promittens: promising) 



Nom. 
Gen. 
Dat. 
Ace. 
Abl. 



Singular 

Masc. & Fern. 

promittens 
pr omi t ten t i s 
promittenti 
pr omi tten tem 



Neuter 

promittens 
pr omi tten t i s 
promittenti 
promittens 



Plural 
Masc. & Fem. 



Neuter 



promittentes promittentia 

promittentium promittentium 

promittentibus promittentibus 

promittentes promittentia 

promittente ( i ) promittente ( i ) promittentibus promittentibus 

Fourth Conjugation (sepeliens: burying) 



Nom. 
Gen. 
Dat. 
Ace. 
Abl. 



Nom. 
Gen. 
Dat. 
Ace. 
Abl. 



Singular 

Masc. & Fem. 

sepeliens 
sepelientis 
sepelienti 
sepelientem 
sepeliente ( i ) 



Neuter 

sepeliens 
sepelientis 
sepelienti 
sepeliens 
sepeliente ( i ) 



Plural 

Masc. & Fem. 

sepelientes 

sepelientium 

sepelientibus 

sepelientes 

sepelientibus 



Neuter 

sepelientia 
sepel lent ium 
sepelientibus 
sepelientia 
sepel lent ibus 



Third Conjugation lO-Verbs (faciens: doing, making) 



Singular 

Masc. & Fem. 

faciens 
facientis 
f acienti 
facientem 
f aciente ( i ) 



Neuter 

faciens 

facientis 

facienti 

faciens 

f aciente ( i ) 



Plural 

Masc. & Fem. 

f acientes 

facientium 

facientibus 

facientes 

facientibus 



Neuter 

f acientia 
facientium 
facientibus 
f acientia 
facientibus 



Future Indicative Active 

First Conjugation (baptizaturus: going to baptize, about 

to baptize) 





Singular 








Masc. 


Fem. 


Neuter 


Nom. 


baptizaturus 


baptizatura 


bapt i z aturum 


Gen. 


baptizaturi 


baptizaturae 


baptizaturi 


Dat. 


baptizaturo 


baptizaturae 


baptizaturo 


Ace. 


bapt i z aturum 


bapt i z atur cim 


baptizaturum 


Abl. 


baptizaturo 


baptizatura 


baptizaturo 



339 



Plural 

Nom. baptizaturi 

Gen. baptizaturorvun 

Dat. baptizatiiris 

Ace. baptizaturos 

Abl. baptizaturis 



bapti zaturae 
bapt i z atiir arum 
baptizaturis 
bapti zaturas 
baptizaturis 



bapt i z atur a 
bapt i z a tur orum 
bapti z atur i s 
bapti z atur a 
bapt i z atur i s 



Second Conjugation (docturus: about to teach, going 

to teach) 





Singular 








Masc. 


Fem. 


Neuter 


Nom. 


docturus 


doctura 


docturum 


Gen. 


doc tur i 


docturae 


docturi 


Dat. 


docturo 


docturae 


docturo 


Ace. 


docturxun 


docturam 


docturum 


Abl. 


docturo 

Plural 


doctura 


docturo 


Nom. 


docturi 


docturae 


doctura 


Gen. 


docturorum 


docturarum 


docturorum 


Dat. 


doc tur is 


docturis 


docturis 


Ace. 


docturos 


docturas 


doctura 


Abl. 


doc tur is 


docturis 


docturis 



Third Conjugation ( promitturus : about to promise, going 
to promise) 



Singular 

Masc. 

Nom . promitturus 

Gen . promitturi 

Dat . promitturo 

Ace . promitturum 

Abl . promitturo 

Plural 

Masc. 

Nom . promitturi 

Gen . promitturorum 

Dat . promitturis 

Ace . promitturos 

Abl . promitturis 



Fem. 

promittura 

promitturae 

promitturae 

promitturam 

promittura 



Fem. 

promitturae 

promitturarvun 

promitturis 

promitturas 

promitturis 



Neuter 

pr omi tturum 
promitturi 
promitturo 
pr omi tturum 
promitturo 



Neuter 

promittura 

promitturorum 

promitturis 

promittura 

promitturis 



340 



Fourth Conjugation (sepulturus: about to bury, going 

to bury) 





Singular 








Mase. 


Fem. 


Neuter 


Nom. 
Gen. 
Dat. 
Ace. 
Abl. 


sepultvirus 

sepulturi 

sepulture 

sepulturum 

sepultiiro 

Plural 


sepultura 

sepulturae 

sepultiirae 

sepulturam 

sepultura 


sepulturum 

sepulturi 

sepulture 

sepulturum 

sepulture 


Nom. 
Gen. 
Dat. 
Ace. 
Abl. 


sepulturi 

sepulturonrm 

sepulturis 

sepultures 

sepulturis 


sepulturae 

sepulturarum 

sepulturis 

sepulturas 

sepulturis 


sepultura 

sepulturervun 

sepulturis 

sepultura 

sepulturis 



Third Conjugation lO-Verbs (facturus: about to make, going 

to make) 

Singular 

Mase. Fem. Neuter 

Nom. facturus factura facturum 

Gen. facturi facturae facturi 

Dat. facture facturae facture 

Ace. facturum facturam facturum 

Abl . facture f actiira f actiare 

Plural 

Nom. facturi facturae factura 

Gen. facturerum facturarum facturorum 

Dat. facturis facturis facturis 

Ace. facturos facturas factura 

Abl. facturis facturis facturis 



341 



Perfect Indicative Passive 

First Conjugation (baptizatus: [having been] baptized) 

Singular 

Masc. Fem. Neuter 



Norn. 


baptizatus 


bapti zata 


baptizatum 


Gen. 


baptizati 


bapti zatae 


baptizati 


Dat. 


baptizato 


bapti zatae 


baptizato 


Ace. 


baptizatiim 


baptizatam 


bapti zatum 


Abl. 


baptizato 

Plural 


bapti zata 


baptizato 


Nom. 


baptizati 


bapti zatae 


baptizata 


Gen. 


bapti zatorum 


bapt i z a tarxun 


bapt i z a torum 


Dat. 


baptizatis 


baptizatis 


baptizatis 


Ace. 


bapti zatos 


bapti zatas 


baptizata 


Abl. 


baptizatis 


baptizatis 


baptizatis 




Second Conjugation 


( doctus : [ having 


been] taught, le; 




Singular 








Masc. 


Fem. 


Neuter 


Nom. 


doctus 


docta 


doctum 


Gen. 


docti 


doctae 


docti 


Dat. 


docto 


doctae 


docto 


Ace. 


doctum 


doctam 


doctum 


Abl. 


docto 

Plural 


docta 


docto 


Nom. 


docti 


doctae 


docta 


Gen. 


doctorum 


doctarum 


doctorum 


Dat. 


doctis 


doctis 


doctis 


Ace. 


doctos 


doctas 


docta 


Abl. 


doctis 


doctis 


doctis 



Third Conjugation (promissus: [having been] promised) 

Singular 

Masc. Fem. Neuter 



Nom . promissus 

Gen . promissi 

Dat . promisso 

Ace . promissum 

Abl . promisso 



promissa 

promissae 

promissae 

promissam 

promissa 



promissum 

promissi 

promisso 

promissum 

promisso 



342 



Plural 

Masc. 

Nom. promissi 

Gen . promissorum 

Dat. promissis 

Ace . promissos 

Abl . promissis 



Fem. 

promissae 
pr omi s s arum 
promissis 
promissas 
promissis 



Neuter 

promissa 

promissorum 

promissis 

promissa 

promissis 



Fourth Conjugation (sepultus: [having been] buried) 
Singular 



Masc. 



Fem. 



Neuter 



Nom. 


sepultus 


sepulta 


sepultum 


Gen. 


sepulti 


sepultae 


sepulti 


Dat. 


sepulto 


sepultae 


sepulto 


Ace. 


sepultum 


sepultam 


sepultum 


Abl. 


sepulto 

Plural 


sepulta 


sepulto 


Nom. 


sepulti 


sepultae 


sepulta 


Gen. 


sepultorum 


sepultamm 


sepultorum 


Dat. 


sepultis 


sepultis 


sepultis 


Ace. 


sepultos 


sepultas 


sepulta 


Abl. 


sepultis 


sepultis 


sepultis 




Third Conjugation 


lO-Verbs ( f actus : 


[having been] i 




Singular 








Masc. 


Fem. 


Neuter 


Nom. 


f actus 


facta 


factum 


Gen. 


facti 


factae 


facti 


Dat. 


facto 


factae 


facto 


Ace. 


factum 


factam 


factum 


Abl. 


facto 

Plural 


facta 


facto 


Nom. 


facti 


factae 


facta 


Gen. 


facto rum 


factariim 


facto rum 


Dat. 


factis 


factis 


factis 


Ace. 


factos 


factas 


facta 


Abl. 


factis 


factis 


factis 



343 



Future Indicative Passive 

First Conjugation ( baptizandus : about to be baptized) 

Singular 

Masc. Fem. Neuter 



Nom. 


baptizandus 


bapti zanda 


bapti zandum 


Gen. 


baptizandi 


bapti zandae 


baptizandi 


Dat. 


baptizando 


baptizandae 


baptizando 


Ace. 


baptizandixm 


bapti zandam 


baptizandum 


Abl. 


baptizando 

Plural 


bapti zanda 


baptizando 


Nom. 


baptizandi 


baptizandae 


bapti zanda 


Gen. 


bapti zctndorum 


bapti zandamun 


baptizandorum 


Dat. 


baptizandis 


baptizandis 


baptizandis 


Ace. 


bapti zandos 


bapti zandas 


baptizanda 


Abl. 


baptizandis 


baptizandis 


baptizandis 




Second Conjugation 


(docendus: about to be taught) 




Singular 








Masc, 


Fem. 


Neuter 


Nom. 


docendus 


docenda 


docendum 


Gen. 


docendi 


docendae 


docendi 


Dat. 


docendo 


docendae 


docendo 


Ace. 


docendixm 


docendam 


docendum 


Abl. 


docendo 

Plural 


docenda 


docendo 


Nom. 


docendi 


docendae 


docenda 


Gen. 


docendorum 


docendarum 


docendorum 


Dat. 


docendis 


docendis 


docendis 


Ace. 


docendos 


docendas 


docenda 


Abl. 


docendis 


docendis 


docendis 



Third Conjugation ( promittendus : about to be promised) 
Singular 

Fem. 



Masc, 



Nom. 


promittendus 


promittenda 


Gen. 


promittendi 


promittendae 


Dat. 


promittendo 


promittendae 


Ace. 


promittendum 


promittendam 


Abl. 


promittendo 


promittenda 



Neuter 

pr omi ttendum 
promittendi 
pr omi t tendo 
pr omi ttendum 
promittendo 



344 



Plural 



Masc. 



Nom . promittendi 

Gen . promittendonim 

Dat . promittendis 

Ace . promittendos 

Abl . promittendis 

Fourth Conjugation 

Singular 

Masc. 

Nom. sepeliendus 

Gen. sepeliendi 

Dat. sepeliendo 

Ace. sepeliendum 

Abl . sepeliendo 

Plural 

Nom. sepeliendi 

Gen. sepeliendomm 

Dat . sepeliendis 

Ace. sepeliendos 

Abl . sepeliendis 



Fem. 

pr omi ttendae 
promittendarum 
promittendis 
promittendas 
pr omi t tend i s 



Neuter 

pr omi t tenda 
promittendorum 
pr omi t tend i s 
promittenda 
promittendis 



(sepeliendus: about to be buried) 



Fem. 

sepelienda 

sepeliendae 

sepeliendae 

sepeliendam 

sepelienda 



sepeliendae 

sepeliendarum 

sepeliendis 

sepeliendas 

sepeliendis 



Neuter 

sepeliendum 

sepeliendi 

sepeliendo 

sepeliendum 

sepeliendo 



sepelienda 
sepe 1 iendorum 
sepeliendis 
sepelienda 
sepeliendis 



Third Conjugation lO-Verbs (faciendus: about to make, do) 





Singular 








Masc. 


Fem. 


Neuter 


Nom. 


faciendus 


facienda 


faciendum 


Gen. 


faciendi 


faciendae 


faciendi 


Dat. 


faciendo 


faciendae 


faciendo 


Ace. 


faciendum 


faciendam 


faciendum 


Abl. 


faciendo 

Plural 


facienda 


faciendo 


Nom. 


faciendi 


faciendae 


facienda 


Gen. 


faciendorum 


faciendarum 


faciendorum 


Dat. 


faciendis 


faciendis 


faciendis 


Ace. 


faciendos 


faciendas 


facienda 


Abl. 


faciendis 


faciendis 


faciendis 



345 



5. Gerund (declined in the neuter singular only) 



First Conjugation 
(baptizandi, etc.; 
of baptizing) 

Nom. 

Gen. baptizandi 

Dat. baptizando 

Ac c . bapt i z andum 

Abl . baptizando 



Second Conjugation Third Conjugation 



( docendi , etc , 

of teaching) 



docendi 
docendo 
docendum 
docendo 



( promittendi , etc . : 

of promising) 



promittendi 
promittendo 
promittendum 
promittendo 



Fourth Conjugation Third Conjugation lO-Verbs 
( sepeliendi , etc . : ( f aciendi , etc . : 

of burying) of making, doing) 



Nom. 

Gen. sepeliendi 

Dat. sepeliendo 

Ace. sepeliendum 

Abl . sepeliendo 



f aciendi 
faciendo 
faciendum 
faciendo 



B. Conjugation of Regular Verbs (all four conjugations) 



copulare 


docere 


promittere 


sepelire 


facere 


(marry 


( teach 


(promise 


(bury 


(make, do 


1st conj . ) 


2nd conj . 


) 3rd conj . ) 


4th conj . ) 


3rd-io) 


1. Present Indicative Active 






copulo 


doceo 


promitto 


sepelio 


facio 


copulas 


doces 


promittis 


sepelis 


facis 


copulat 


docet 


promittit 


sepelit 


facit 


copulamus 


docemus 


promittimus 


sepelimus 


facimus 


copulat is 


docet is 


promittitis 


sepelitis 


facitis 


copulant 


docent 


promittunt 


sepeliunt 


faciunt 


2 . Future 


Indicative 


Active 






copulabo 


docebo 


promittam 


sepeliam 


faciam 


copulabis 


docebis 


promittes 


sepelies 


facies 


copulabit 


docebit 


promittet 


sepeliet 


faciet 


copulabimus 


docebimus 


promittemus 


sepeliemus 


faciemus 


copulabitis 


docebitis 


promittetis 


sepelietis 


facietis 


copulabunt 


docebunt 


promittent 


sepelient 


facient 


3 . Imperfect Indicat 


ive Active 






copulabcim 


docebam 


promittebam 


sepeliebam 


faciebam 


copulabas 


docebas 


promittebas 


sepeliebas 


faciebas 


copulabat 


docebat 


promittebat 


sepeliebat 


faciebat 


copulabamus 


docebconus 


pr omi ttebamus 


sepe 1 iebamus 


fac iebamus 


copulabatis 


docebatis 


promittebat i s 


sepeliebatis 


faciebatis 


copulabant 


docebant 


promittebant 


sepeliebant 


faciebant 



346 



4. Perfect Indicative Active 



copulavi 

copulavisti 

copulavit 

copulavimus 

copulavistis 

copul avemnt 

( copulavere ) 



docui 

docuisti 

docuit 

docuimus 

docuistis 

docuerunt 

( docuere ) 



promissi 

promissisti 

promissit 

promissimus 

promissistis 

promisserunt 

( promissere ) 



5. Pluperfect Indicative Active 



copul aver am 
copul averas 
copul aver at 
copul aver amus 
copulaveratis 
copulaverant 



docueram promisseram 
docueras promisseras 
docuerat promisserat 
docueramus promissercunus 
docueratis promisseratis 
docuerant promisserant 



6. Future Perfect Indicative Active 



copul aver o 

copulaveris 

copulaverit 

copulaverimus 

copulaveritis 

copulaverint 



docuero 

docueris 

docuerit 

docuerimus 

docueritis 

docuerint 



promissero 

promisseris 

promisserit 

promisserimus 

promisseritis 

promisserint 



7. Present Indicative Passive 



copulor 

copularis 

copulatvir 

copulamur 

copulamini 

copulantur 



doceor 

doceris 

docetur 

docemur 

docemini 

docentur 



promittor 

promitteris 

promittitur 

promittimur 

promittimini 

promittuntur 



sepelivi 

sepelivisti 

sepelivit 

sepelivimus 

sepelivistis 

sepeliverunt 

(sepelivere) 



sepeliveram 

sepeliveras 

sepe liver at 

sepeliveretmus 

sepeliveratis 

sepeliverant 



sepelivero 

sepeliveris 

sepeliverit 

sepeliverimus 

sepeliveritis 

sepeliverint 



sepelior 

sepeliris 

sepelitur 

sepelimur 

sepelimini 

sepeliuntur 



feci 

fecisti 

fecit 

fecimus 

fecistis 

fecerunt 

( f ecere ) 



feceram 

feceras 

fecerat 

feceramus 

feceratis 

fecerant 



fecero 

feceris 

fecerit 

fecerimus 

feceritis 

fecerint 



facior 

faceris 

facitur 

facimur 

facimini 

faciuntur 



8. Future Indicative Passive 



copulabor 

copulaberis 

copulabitur 

copulabimur 

copulabimini 

copulabuntur 



docebor 

doceberis 

docebitur 

docebimur 

docebimini 

docebuntur 



promittar 

promitteris 

promittetur 

promittemur 

promittemini 

promittentur 



9. Imperfect Indicative Passive 



copul abar docebar 

copulabaris docebaris 

copulabatur docebatur 

copulabctmur docebamur 

copulabamini docebamini 

copul abantur docebantur 



pr omi ttebar 

promittebaris 

promittebatur 

promittebamur 

promittebamini 

promittebantur 



sepeliar 

sepelieris 

sepelietur 

sepeliemur 

sepeliemini 

sepelientur 



sepeliebar 

sepeliebaris 

sepeliebatur 

sepeliebamur 

sepeliebamini 

sepel iebantur 



f aciar 
f acieris 
f acietur 
faciemur 
faciemini 
facientur 



f aciebar 
f aciebaris 
f aciebatur 
faciebamur 
faciebamini 
faciebantur 



347 



10. Perfect Indicative Passive 



copulatus sum* 
copulatus es 
copulatus est 
copuJati sumus 
copulati estis 
copulati sunt 



doctus sum 
doctus es 
doctus est 
docti sumus 
docti estis 
docti sunt 



promissus sum 
promissus es 
promissus est 
promissi sumus 
promissi estis 
promissi sunt 



sepultus sum 
sepultus es 
sepultus est 
sepulti sumus 
sepulti estis 
sepulti sunt 



factus sum 
factus es 
factus est 
facti sumus 
facti estis 
facti sunt 



*The full declension of the perfect passive participle, 
which is part of the perfect, pluperfect, and future 
perfect indicative passive tenses, is not provided here. 
In the paradigms, copulatus, copulata, copulatum 
is understood for the singular, and copulati, copulatae, 
copulata for the plural . 



11. Pluperfect Indicative Passive 



copulatus eram 
copulatus eras 
copulatus erat 
copulati eramus 
copulati eratis 
copulati erant 

factus eram 
factus eras 
factus erat 
facti eramus 
facti eratis 
facti erant 



doctus eram 
doctus eras 
doctus erat 
docti eramus 
docti eratis 
docti erant 



promissus eram 
promissus eras 
promissus erat 
promissi eramus 
promissi eratis 
promissi erant 



sepultus eram 
sepultus eras 
sepultus erat 
sepulti eramus 
sepulti eratis 
sepulti ereuit 



12. Future Perfect Indicative Passive 



copulatus ero 
copulatus eris 
copulatus erit 
copulati erimus 
copulati eritis 
copulati erunt 

factus ero 
factus eris 
factus erit 
facti erimus 
facti eritis 
facti erunt 



doctus ero 
doctus eris 
doctus erit 
docti erimus 
docti eritis 
docti erunt 



promissus ero 
promissus eris 
promissus erit 
promissi erimus 
promissi eritis 
promissi erunt 



sepultus ero 
sepultus eris 
sepultus erit 
sepulti erimus 
sepulti eritis 
sepulti eriint 



348 



13. Present Subjunctive Active 



copulem 

copules 

copulet 

copulemus 

copuletis 

copulent 



doceam 

doceas 

doceat 

doceamus 

doceatis 

doceant 



promittam 

promittas 

promittat 

promittamus 

promittatis 

promittant 



14. Imperfect Subjunctive Active 



copularem 
copulares 
copularet 
copul aremus 
copularetis 
copul arent 



docerem 

doceres 

doceret 

doceremus 

doceretis 

docerent 



promitterem 

promitteres 

promitteret 

promitteremus 

promitteretis 

promitterent 



15. Perfect Subjunctive Active 

copulaverim docuerim promisserim 

copulaveris docueris promisseris 

copulaverit docuerit promisserit 

copulaverimus docuerimus promisserimus 

copulaveritis docueritis promisseritis 

copulaverint docuerint promisserint 

16. Pluperfect Subjunctive Active 

copulavissem docuissem promississem 
copulavisses docuisses promississes 
copulavisset docuisset promississet 
copulavissemus docuissemus promississemus 
copulavissetis docuissetis promississet is 
copulavissent docuissent promississent 

17. Present Subjunctive Passive 



sepelicun 

sepelias 

sepeliat 

sepeliamus 

sepeliatis 

sepeliant 



sepelirem 

sepelires 

sepeliret 

sepeliremus 

sepeliretis 

sepelirent 



sepeliverim 

sepeliveris 

sepeliverit 

sepel iver imus 

sepeliveritis 

sepeliverint 



sepel ivissem 

sepelivisses 

sepelivisset 

sepelivissemus 

sepelivissetis 

sepelivissent 



f aciam 
facias 
f aciat 
f aciamus 
faciatis 
faciant 



facerem 
faceres 
faceret 
facer emus 
f aceretis 
facer en t 



fecerim 

feceris 

fecerit 

fecerimus 

feceritis 

fecerint 



fecissem 

fecisses 

fecisset 

fecissemus 

fecissetis 

fecissent 



copuler 

copuleris 

copuletur 

copulemur 

copulemini 

copulentur 



docear 

docearis 

doceatur 

doceamur 

doceamini 

doceantur 



promittar 

promittaris 

promittatur 

promittamur 

promittamini 

pr omi tt an tur 



18. Imperfect Subjunctive Passive 

copularer docerer promitterer 

copulareris docereris promittereris 

copularetur doceretur promitteretur 

copularemur doceremur promitteremur 

copularemini doceremini promitteremini 

copularentur docerentur promitterentur 



sepeliar 
sepeliaris 
sepel iatur 
sepel iamur 
sepeliamini 
sepeliantur 



sepel irer 
sepelireris 
sepel ire tur 
sepeliremur 
sepel iremini 
sepelirentur 



f aciar 
f aciaris 
facia tur 
faciamur 
faciamini 
faciantur 



facer er 
f acereris 
f aceretur 
facer emur 
faceremini 
facerentur 



349 



19. Perfect Subjunctive Passive 



doctus sim 
doctus sis 
doctus sit 
docti simus 
docti sitis 
docti sint 



promissus sim 
promissus sis 
promissus sit 
promissi simus 
promissi sitis 
promissi sint 



copulatus sim 
copulatus sis 
copulatus sit 
copulati simus 
copulati sitis 
copulati sint 

f actus sim 
factus sis 
f actus sit 
facti simus 
facti sitis 
facti sint 



20. Pluperfect Subjunctive Passive 



copulatus essem doctus essem 
copulatus esses doctus esses 
copulatus esset doctus esset 
copulati essemus docti essemus 
copulati essetis docti essetis 
copulati assent docti essent 

factus essem 
factus esses 
factus esset 
facti essemus 
facti essetis 
facti essent 



sepultus sim 
sepultus sis 
sepultus sit 
sepulti simus 
sepulti sitis 
sepulti sint 



promissus essem 
promissus esses 
promissus esset 
promissi essemus 
promissi essetis 
promissi essent 



sepultus essem 
sepultus esses 
sepultus esset 
sepulti essemus 
sepulti essetis 
sepulti essent 



21. Present Imperative Active 



copula doce promitte 
copulate docete promittite 


sepeli 
sepelite 


fac 
f acite 


22. Present Imperative Passive 






copulare docere promittere 
copulamini docemini promittimini 


sepelire 
sepelimini 


facere 
facimini 



The imperative mood has not been considered in any detail in 
this text, since it was rarely used in parish registers which 
reported births, baptisms, marriages, deaths, and burials. The 
present imperative, active and passive, is used to give commands 
in the second person singular and plural, e.g., copula!: you 
(singular) marry! copulate: you (all) marry! 

The present imperative active , which is the most common form 
of the imperative, is the present stem for the second person 
singular (formed by omitting the -re or -ere of the present 
infinitive). Since the present stem of third conjugation verbs 
ends in a consonant, an -e is added to the majority of such verbs 



350 



in the second person singular (e.g., promitte! : you promise!). 
The third conjugation io-verb facere drops the -e endings, as do 
a few third conjugation verbs. 

The second person plural present imperative active is formed 
by adding -te to the present stem. Note, however, that third 
conjugation and third conjugation io-verbs add an -i to the -te 
rather than an -e (e.g., facite! : you [all] do!). 

The present imperative passive is used primarily with depo- 
nent verbs. The second person singular is identical to the 
present infinitive (e.g., copulare! : [you] be married!), while 
the second person plural is basically the same as the second 
person plural present indicative passive (e.g., copulamini ! : [you 
all] be married! ) 

There is also a future imperative active and passive for the 
second and third person singular and plural. This was not fre- 
quently utilized in classical Latin and will not be discussed 
here. For additional information on this tense of the impera- 
tive, consult some of the grammar books listed in the selected 
bibliography at the back of this book. 

22. Participles 

First Conjugation Second Conjugation Third Conjugation 

Active 

Present copulans docens promittens 

Future copulaturus docturus promissurus 

Passive 

Perfect copulatus doctus promissus 

Future copulandus docendus promittendus 

Fourth Conjugation Third Conjugation lO-Verbs 

Active 

Present sepeliens faciens 

Future sepulturus facturus 

Passive 

Perfect sepultus factus 

Future sepeliendus faciendus 



351 



23. Infinitives 
First Conjugation 
Active 



Second Conjugation Third Conjugation 



Present copulare docere 

Perfect copulavisse docuisse 
Future copulatiirus esse docturus esse 



Passive 



Present 
Perfect 
Future 



copulari 
copulatus esse 
copulatum iri 



doceri 
doctus esse 
doctum iri 



promittere 
promississe 
promissurus esse 



promitti 
promissus esse 
promissum iri 



Fourth Conjugation 

Active 

Present sepelire 
Perfect sepelivisse 
Future sepulturus esse 



Passive 



Present 
Perfect 
Future 



sepeliri 
sepultus esse 
sepultum iri 



Third Conjugation lO-Verbs 



f acere 
fecisse 
facturus esse 



faci 

factus esse 
sepultum iri 



The Principal Parts of the Regular Verbs Conjugated Above 

copulo, copulare, copulavi, copulatum 
doceo, docere, docui, doctum 
promitto, promittere, promissi, promissum 
sepelio, sepelire, sepelivi, sepultum 
facio, f acere, feci, factum 

C. The Conjugation of Irregular Verbs: ferre (to bear, carry; 
irregular third conjugation) 



Present Indicative 
Active 



fero 

fers 

fert 

ferimus 

fertis 

ferunt 



2 . Future Indicative 
Active 

feram 

feres 

feret 

feremus 

feretis 

ferent 



352 



Imperfect Indicative 
Active 



4 . Perfect Indicative 
Active 



ferebam 

ferebas 

ferebat 

ferebamus 

ferebatis 

ferebant 

5. Pluperfect Indicative 
Active 



tuli 

tulisti 

tulit 

tulimus 

tulistis 

tulerunt ( tulere ) 

6. Future Perfect Indicative 
Active 



tuleram 

tuleras 

tulerat 

tuleramus 

tuleratis 

tulerant 



tulero 

tuleris 

tulerit 

tulerimus 

tuleritis 

tulerint 



7 . Present Indicative 
Passive 



8 



Future Indicative 
Passive 



feror 

ferris 

fertur 

ferimiir 

ferimini 

fenintur 



ferar 

fereris 

feretur 

feremxir 

feremini 

ferentur 



Imperfect Indicative 
Passive 



10. Perfect Indicative 
Passive 



ferebar 

ferebaris 

ferebatur 

ferebamur 

ferebamini 

ferebantur 



latus Slim 
latus es 
latus est 
lati sumus 
lati estis 
lati sunt 



11. Pluperfect Indicative 
Passive 



12 



Future Perfect Indicative 
Passive 



latus eram 
latus eras 
latus erat 
lati eramus 
lati eratis 
lati erant 



latus ero 
latus eris 
latus erit 
lati erimus 
lati eritis 
lati erunt 



353 



13. Present Subjunctive 
Active 



14. Imperfect Subjunctive 
Active 



feram 

feras 

ferat 

feramus 

feratis 

feretnt 



ferrem 

ferres 

ferret 

ferremus 

ferretis 

ferrent 



15. Perfect Subjunctive 
Active 



16. Pluperfect Subjunctive 
Active 



tulerim 

tuleris 

tulerit 

tulerimus 

tuleritis 

tulerint 



tulissem 

tulisses 

tulisset 

tulissemus 

tulissetis 

tulissent 



17. Present Subjunctive 
Passive 



18. Imperfect Subjunctive 
Passive 



ferar 

feraris 

feratur 

feramur 

feramini 

ferantur 



ferrer 

ferres 

ferretur 

ferremur 

ferremini 

ferrentur 



19. Perfect Subjunctive 
Passive 



20. Pluperfect Subjunctive 
Passive 



latus sim 
latus sis 
latus sit 
lati simus 
lati sitis 
lati sint 



latus essem 
latus esses 
latus esset 
lati essemus 
lati essetis 
lati essent 



21. Present Imperative Active 

far 
ferte 



22. Participles 
Active 



Passive 



Present ferens 
Future laturus 



Perfect 
Future 



latus 
ferendus 



354 



23. Infinitives 



Active 



Present 
Perfect 
Future 



ferre 
tulisse 
laturus esse 



Passive 

ferri 

latus esse 
latum iri 



The Principal Parts of ferre 

fero, ferre, tuli, latum 

D. The Conjugation of Irregular Verbs: esse (to be), posse 
(to be able [to]), velle (to will, wish; irregular 3rd 
conjugation), nolle (to wish ... not, be unwilling; 
irregular third conjugation), malle (to wish rather, 
prefer; irregular third conjugation), ire (to go; 
irregular fourth conjugation) 

1 . Present Indicative Active 



posse 



velle 



nolle 



malle 



stun 


possum 


volo 


nolo 


malo 


eo 


es 


potes 


vis 


non vis 


mavis 


is 


est 


potest 


vult 


non vult 


mavult 


it 


sumus 


possumus 


volumus 


nolumus 


malumus 


imus 


estis 


potestis 


vultis 


non vultis 


mavultis 


itis 


sunt 


possunt 


volunt 


nolunt 


malunt 


eunt 



2 . Future Indicative Active 



ero 


potero 


volam 


nolam 


malam 


ibo 


eris 


poteris 


voles 


noles 


males 


ibis 


erit 


poterit 


volet 


nolet 


malet 


ibit 


erimus 


poterimus 


vol emus 


no 1 emus 


ma 1 emus 


ibimus 


eritis 


poteritis 


voletis 


noletis 


maletis 


ibitis 


erunt 


poterunt 


volent 


nolent 


malent 


ibunt 


3. 


Imperfect Indicative Act: 


ive 






eram 


poteram 


volebam 


nolebam 


malebam 


ibcun 


eras 


poteras 


volebas 


nolebas 


malebas 


ibas 


erat 


poterat 


volebat 


nolebat 


malebat 


ibat 


eramus 


poteramus 


volebamus 


nolebamus 


malebamus 


ibamus 


eratis 


poterat is 


volebatis 


nolebatis 


malebatis 


ibatis 


erant 


poterant 


volebcint 


nolebant 


malebant 


ibant 



355 



4 . Perfect Indicative Active 



fui 


potui 


volui 


nolui 


malui 


ii 


fuisti 


potuisti 


voluisti 


noluisti 


maluisti 


isti 


fuit 


potuit 


voluit 


noluit 


maluit 


lit 


fuimus 


potuimus 


voluimus 


noluimus 


maluimus 


iimus 


fuistis 


potuistis 


voluistis 


noluistis 


maluistis 


istis 


fuerunt 


potuerunt 


voluerunt 


noluerunt 


maluenint 


ierunt 


( f uere ) 


( potuere ) 


( voluere ) 


(noluere) 


( maluere ) 


( iere) 


5. 


Pluperfect Indicative Act 


ive 






fueram 


potueram 


volueram 


nolueram 


malueram 


ieram 


fueras 


potueras 


volueras 


nolueras 


malueras 


ieras 


fuerat 


potuerat 


voluerat 


noluerat 


maluerat 


ierat 


fueramus 


potueramus 


volueramus 


nolueramus 


malueramus 


ieramus 


fueratis 


potueratis 


volueratis 


nolueratis 


malueratis 


ieratis 


fuerant 


potuerant 


voluerant 


noluerant 


maluerant 


ierant 


6. 


Future Perfect Indicative 


Active 







fuero potuero voluero noluero maluero iero 

fueris potueris volueris nolueris malueris ieris 

fuerit potuerit voluerit noluerit maluerit ierit 

fuerimus potuerimus voluerimus noluerimus maluerimus ierimus 

fueritis potueritis volueritis nolueritis malueritis ieritis 

fuerint potuerint voluerint noluerint maluerint ierint 

There are no passive forms for these verbs. However, the 

compounds of eo, ire, ii, itum, such as 

obire (to go away, die), may have passive forms. 

7. Present Subjunctive Active 



sim 


possim 


velim 


nolim 


malim 


eam 


sis 


possis 


velis 


noils 


mails 


eas 


sit 


possit 


velit 


nolit 


malit 


eat 


simus 


possimus 


ve Iimus 


no Iimus 


ma Iimus 


eamus 


sitis 


possitis 


velitis 


nolitis 


malitis 


eatis 


sint 


possint 


velint 


no lint 


ma lint 


eeint 


8. 


Imperfect Subjunctive Act 


ive 






essem 


possem 


vellem 


no Hem 


mallem 


irem 


esses 


posses 


velles 


nolles 


malles 


ires 


asset 


posset 


vellet 


nollet 


mallet 


iret 


essemus 


possemus 


vellemus 


nollemus 


mallemus 


iremus 


essetis 


possetis 


velletis 


nolletis 


malletis 


iretis 


essent 


possent 


vellent 


no 1 lent 


ma 1 lent 


irent 



356 



9. Perfect Subjunctive Active 

fuerim potuerim voluerim noluerim maluerim ierim 

fueris potueris volueris nolueris malueris ieris 

fuerit potuerit voluerit noluerit maluerit ierit 

fuerimus potuerimus voluerimus noluerimus maluerimus ierimus 

fueritis potueritis volueritis nolueritis malueritis ieritis 

fuerint potuerint voluerint noluerint maluerint ierint 



10. Pluperfect Subjunctive Active 



fuissem 

fuisses 

fuisset 

fuissemus 

fuissetis 

fuissent 



potuissem 

potuisses 

potuisset 

potuissemus 

potuissetis 

potuissent 



voluissem 

voluisses 

voluisset 

voluissemus 

voluissetis 

voluissent 



noluissem 

noluisses 

noluisset 

noluissemus 

noluissetis 

noluissent 



maluissem issem 
maluisses isses 
maluisset isset 
maluissemus issemus 
maluissetis issetis 
maluissent issent 



11. Present Active Imperative 

esse nolle ire 

es noli i 

este nolite ite 

12. Participles 

Active 

Present potens volens nolens iens ( euntis , etc . ) 
Future futurus iturus 

N.B. The verb ire has a gerund eundus, etc. 

13. Infinitives 
Active 

Present esse posse velle nolle malle ire 

Perfect fuisse potuisse voluisse noluisse maluisse isse 

Future futurus esse iturus esse 

( fore ) 

The Principal Parts of the Above Irregular Verbs 

sum, esse, fui, futurus 
possum, posse, potui 
volo, velle, volui 
nolo, nolle, nolui 
malo, malle, malui 
eo, ire, ii, itum (supine) 



357 



E. The Conjugation of the Irregular Verb fieri (to be made, 
be done, become, used as the passive form of facere; 
technically, it has no active forms) 



Present 2 . 


Future 




3. 


Imperfect 


4 . Perfect 


Indicative 


Indicative 




Indicative 


Indicative 


fio 


f iam 






f iebam 


factus sum 


fis 


fies 






f iebas 


factus es 


fit 


fiet 






fiebat 


factus est 


f imus 


f iemus 






f iebamus 


facti sumus 


fitis 


fietis 






f iebatis 


facti estis 


f iunt 


f ient 






f iebant 


facti sunt 


Pluperfect 6. 


Future 


Perfect 


7. 


Present 


8 . Imperfect 


Indicative 


Indicative 




Subjunctive 


Subjunctive 


factus eram 


factus 


ero 




f iam 


f ierem 


factus eras 


factus 


eris 




f ias 


f ieres 


factus erat 


factus 


erit 




fiat 


f ieret 


facti eramus 


facti erimus 




f iamus 


f ieremus 


facti eratis 


facti eritis 




f iatis 


f ieretis 


facti erant 


facti enint 




f iant 


f ierent 


9. Perfect 


10. 


, Pluperfect 






Subjunctive 


Subjunctive 




factus sim 




factus 


essem 




factus sis 




factus 


esses 




factus sit 




factus 


esset 




facti simus 


facti ( 


essemus 




facti sitis 


facti i 


essetis 




facti sint 




facti ( 


essent 





11. Imperative 12. Participles 



fi 
fite 



Perfect factus 
Future faciendus 



13. Infinitives 

Present fieri 
Perfect factus esse 
Future factum iri 



The Principal Parts of fieri 

fio, fieri, factus sum 

F. The Conjugation of the Deponent Verbs conari (to try, 
attempt; first conjugation), fateri (to confess; second 
conjugation), nasci (to be born; third conjugation), 
experiri (to try; fourth conjugation), mori (to die; 
3rd conjugation lO-Verb) 



358 



1. Present Indicative 
conari fateri nasci 



Conor 

conaris 

conatur 

conamur 

conamini 

conantur 



f ateor 
fateris 
fatetur 
f atemur 
f atemini 
f atentur 

Future Indicative 



nascor 

nasceris 

nascitur 

nascimur 

nascimini 

nascuntur 



experxrx 

experior 

experiris 

experitur 

experimur 

experimini 

experiuntur 



morior 

moreris 

moritur 

morimur 

morimini 

moriuntur 



conabor fatebor nascar experiar 

conaberis fateberis nasceris experieris 

conabittir fatebitur nascetur experietur 

conabimur fatebimur nascemur experiemur 

conabimini fatebimini nascemini experiemini 

conabuntur fatebuntur nascentur experientur 



3 . Imperfect Indicative 



conabar 

conabaris 

conabatur 

conabamur 

conabamini 

conabantur 



fatebar 
f atebaris 
fatebatur 
fatebamur 
f atebamini 
f atebantur 



4. Perfect Indicative 



conatus sum 
conatus es 
conatus est 
conati sumus 
conati estis 
conati sunt 



fassus svun 
fassus es 
fassus est 
fassi sumus 
fassi estis 
fassi sunt 



nascebar 

nascebaris 

nascebatur 

nascebamur 

nascebamini 

nascebantur 



natus sum 
natus es 
natus est 
nati siimus 
nati estis 
nati sunt 



5. Pluperfect Indicative 

conatus eram fassus eram natus eram 
conatus eras fassus eras natus eras 
conatus erat fassus erat natus erat 
conati eramus fassi eramus nati eramus 
conati eratis fassi eratis nati eratis 
conati erant fassi erant nati erant 



experiebar 

experiebaris 

experiebatur 

experiebamur 

experiebamini 

experiebantur 



expertus sum 
expertus es 
expertus est 
experti sumus 
experti estis 
experti svint 



expertus eram 
expertus eras 
expertus erat 
experti ereimus 
experti eratis 
experti erant 



moriar 

morieris 

morietur 

moriemur 

moriemini 

morientur 



moriebar 

moriebaris 

moriebatur 

moriebamur 

moriebamini 

moriebantur 



mortuus sum 
mortuus es 
mortuus est 
mortui sumus 
mortui estis 
mortui sunt 



mortuus eram 
mortuus eras 
mortuus erat 
mortui eramus 
mortui eratis 
mortui erant 



359 



6 . Future Perfect 

conatus ero fassus ero natus ero 
conatus eris fassus eris natus eris 
conatus erit fassus erit natus erit 
conati erimus fassi erimus nati erimus 
conati eritis fassi eritis nati eritis 
conati erunt fassi erunt nati erunt 



expertus ero 
expertus eris 
expertus erit 
experti erimus 
experti eritis 
experti emnt 



mortuus ero 
mortuus eris 
mortuus erit 
mortui erimus 
mortui eritis 
mortui erunt 



7. Present Subjunctive 



coner 

coneris 

conetur 

conemur 

conemini 

conentur 



fatear nascar experiar moriar 

fatearis nascaris experiaris moriaris 

fateatur nascatur experiatur moriatur 

fateamur nascamur experiamur moriamur 

fateamini nascamini experiamini moriamini 

fatecuitur nascantxir experiantxir moriantur 



8. Imperfect Subjunctive 



conarer 

conareris 

conaretur 

conaremur 

conaremini 

conarentur 



f aterer 

fatereris 

fateretur 

fateremur 

fateremini 

faterentur 



nascerer 

nascereris 

nasceretur 

nasceremur 

nasceremini 

nascerentur 



experirer 

experireris 

experiretur 

experiremur 

experiremini 

experirentur 



morerer 

morereris 

moreretur 

moreremur 

moreremini 

morerentur 



9. Perfect Subjunctive 



conatus sim 
conatus sis 
conatus sit 
conati simus 
conati sitis 
conati sint 



fassus sim 
fassus sis 
fassus sit 
fassi simus 
fassi sitis 
fassi sint 



natus sim 
natus sis 
natus sit 
nati simus 
nati sitis 
nati sint 



expertus sim 
expertus sis 
expertus sit 
experti simus 
experti sitis 
experti sint 



mortuus sim 
mortuus sis 
mortuus sit 
mortui simus 
mortui sitis 
mortui sint 



10. Pluperfect Subjunctive 



conatus essem 
conatus esses 
conatus esset 
conati essemus 
conati essetis 
conati essent 



fassus essem 
fassus esses 
fassus esset 
fassi essemus 
fassi essetis 
fassi essent 



natus essem 
natus esses 
natus esset 
nati essemus 
nati essetis 
nati essent 



expertus essem 
expertus esses 
expertus esset 
experti essemus 
experti essetis 
experti essent 



mortuus essem 
mortuus esses 
mortuus esset 
mortui essemus 
mortui essetis 
mortui essent 



360 



11. Present Imperative 

conare fatere nascere 
conamlni fatemini nascimini 

12. Participles 
Active 



experire 
experimini 



morere 
morimini 



Present conans fatens nascens experiens moriens 

Future conaturus fassurus naturus experturus mortuurus 

Passive 

Perfect conatus fassus natus expertus mortuus 

Future conandus fatendus nascendus experiendus moriendus 



13. Infinitives 



Present 
Perfect 
Future 



conari 

conatus esse 
conaturus esse 



fateri 
fassus esse 
fassurus esse 



nasci 

natus esse 
naturus esse 



Present experiri 
Perfect expertus esse 
Future experturus esse 



morx 

mortuus esse 
mortuurus esse 



The Principal Parts of the Above Deponent Verbs 



Conor 
f ateor 
nascor 
experior 
morior 



conari 

fateri 

nasci 

experiri 

mori 



conatus sum 
fassus sum 
natus sum 
expertus sum 
mortuus sum 



Semi -deponent verbs such as audeo, audere, aussus sum (dare) 
will not be reviewed here. The conjugation of such verbs is 
similar to the regular or deponent verbs whose paradigms are 
provided above. 



361 



LATIN-ENGLISH WORD LIST 

Note that this word list is structured in a manner similar 
to a number of Latin dictionaries and word lists in that it 
provides the following information: for nouns: the nominative 
singular, the genitive singular (some dictionaries list only the 
ending), the gender (abbreviated), and the English definition, 
e.g., parochus, parochi , m. : priest, parish priest; for adjec- 
tives: the full nominative singular of adjectives of all three 
declension (together with the genitive singular of third declen- 
sion adjectives having the same form for all three genders in the 
nominative singular) and the English definition, e.g., sanctus , 
sancta, sanctum: holy, parochialis, parochiale: parish; felix, 
felicis: happy; for verbs: the principal parts of Latin verbs of 
all four conjugations, with the conjugation number included, and 
the English definition, e.g., copulo, copulare, copulavi, copula- 
tum (1): marry; deponent verbs are listed as follows: nascor, 
nasci, natus sum (dep. 3): die. 

This word list differs from standard dictionaries of classi- 
cal Latin, however, in the following ways: nouns of the first 
declension also have the medieval spelling of the genitive singu- 
lar, without the -a of the -ae diphthong, in parenthesis next to 
the classical genitive singular spelling, e.g., avia, aviae 
(avie) , f.: grandmother. Although infrequent, it is possible, on 
occasion, to find the medieval spelling (with the -a omitted) in 
parish register entries. In addition, some medieval variations 
in spelling are also noted in parentheses so that they can be 
recognized if found in parish registers, e.g., caelum, caeli, n.: 
heaven, sky (celum). A number of phrases such as sine prole 
decessit: he/she died without issue are also included in this 
word list. 



prep 



+ abl 



(see, avunculus 



a , ab , abs , 

from, by 
abavunculus 

maximus ) 
abavus , abavi , m. : 

great-great-grandfather 
abavia, abaviae (abavie), f.: 

great-great-grandmother 
abbas, abbatis , m.: abbot 

(head of an abbey) 
abbatia, abbatiae (abbatie), 

f.: abbey (abbacia) 
abdormio, abdormire, abdor- 

mivi, abdormitum (4): sleep 

away, die 
abeo , abire, abii, abitum 

(irregular 4): go away, 

pass away, die, depart 



abjicio, abjicere, abjeci, 
abjectum (3): throw away, 
throw down (abiicio) 

abjectarius, abjectarii, m. : 
carpenter, woodcarver 

abluo, abluere, ablui, ablutum 
(3): wash, baptize 

ablutus, abluta, ablutum, 
perf. pass. part, of abluo: 
washed, baptized 

abmatertera (see, matertera 
maxima) 

abortivus, abortiva, aborti- 
vum: prematurely born 

abortus, abortus, m. : miscar- 
riage 

abpatruus (see, patruus maxi- 
mus) 



362 



absolutio, absolutionis , f.: 
absolution, forgiveness, 
remission 

absolvo, absolvere, absolvi, 
absolutum (3): absolve, 
release 

absque, prep. + abl.: without 

abstinentia, abstinentiae 
( abstinentie) , f.: absti- 
nence; Also, the practice 
of a penance which consists 
of fasting, or not eating 
certain types of food. 

absum, abesse, afui: be away, 
be absent 

ac, atque, conj . : and 
academia, academiae 

(academie), f.: university, 
academy 

acatholicus, acatholica, 
acatholicxim: non-Catholic 

accido, accidere, accidi (3): 
happen , occur 

accidit, impersonal: it hap- 
pens 

acer, acris, acre, adj . : 
sharp , keen 

acicularius, acicularii, m. : 
needle maker (acuarius) 

acolitus, acoliti, m. : aco- 
lyte, the lowest rank in 
ecclesiastical office 
(Greek) 

acquiesco, acquiescere, ac- 
quievi, acquietum (3): 
repose, die, be content 
with 

acra , acrae ( acre ) , f . : acre 

actionarius, actionarii, m. : 
trader, peddler 

activus, activa, activum: 
active, current 

actuarius, actuarii, m. , 
judicii: legal secretary 

acutiator, acutiatoris, m. : 
sharpener (e.g., scissors) 

ad, prep. + ace: to toward, 
for, near 

adamantium sculptor, sculpto- 
ris, m. : diamond cutter 

adeo, adv.: therefore, at this 
time 



adhuc, adv.: thus, still, yet, 
besides 

adipiscor, adipisci, adeptus 
sum (dep. 3): get, gain, 
obtain 

adjuvo, adjuvare, adjuvavi, 
adjuvatum (1): help, aid 
( adiuvo ) 

admodum, adv. : fully, highest 

adolescens, adolescentis , 
adj.: young (adulescens) 

adolescens, adolescentis, m. 
or f . : young man or young 
woman, adolescent 

adquiro, adquirere, adquisivi, 
adquisitum (3): acquire, 
get 

adsum, adesse, adf ui : be 
present 

advunbrator , adumbratoris , m . : 
artist 

adventus , adventus, m.: ad- 
vent, arrival. Advent, the 
season just prior to 
Christmas; a period of 
preparation for the holiday 
which begins on the fourth 
Sunday before Christmas. 

adversus, adversa, adversum: 
towards , against 

adverto , advertere , adverti , 
adversum (3): perceive, 
attract, turn towards, 
steer 

advocatus , advocati, m.: 
lawyer, legal representa- 
tive 

aedicula, aediculae 

(aedicule) , f . : small 
building, shrine, mortuary 
(edicula) 

aedifico, aedificare, aedifi- 
cavi, adificatum (1): build 
(edifice) 

aedilis, aedilis, m. : archi- 
tect (Also, a public 
official in ancient Rome 
who served as the superin- 
tendent of buildings, 
roads, markets, theaters, 
and police, [edilis] ) 

aeger , aegra , aegrum: sick 
(eger) 



363 



aeneus , aenea, aeneum: bronze 
( eneus ) 

aequalis, aequale, adj.: equal 
(equal is) 

aeradius, aeradii, m.: bell 
founder ( eradius ) 

aestimo , aestimare , aestimavi , 
aestimatum (1): think, 
estimate, judge (estimo) 

aestas , aestatis , f . : summer 
( estas ) 

aestus , aestus, m. : heat 
( estus ) 

aetas , aetatis , f . : age ( etas ) 

aetatis suae: short for anno 
aetatis suae: in the year 
of his/her age, age 

aetatis circiter: of the 
approximate age (of) 

aeternitas , aeternitatis , f , : 
eternity (etemitas) 

aeternus , aeterna, aeternum: 
eternal ( e temus ) 

affero, affere, attuli, alla- 
tum (irregular 3): bear, 
bring to, carry 
affigo, affigere, affixi, 
affixum (3): affix, fasten 
to 

affixus, affixa, affixum, 
perf . pass. part, of affi- 
go: affixed, fastened to 

affinitas, affinitatis, f.: 
relative by marriage; also, 
affinity (as a diriment 
impediment to marriage, see 
impedimentum dirimentum) ; 
relationship, generally 
between a husband and the 
relatives of his former 
wife or a wife and those of 
her former husband. No 
marriage is permitted with 
any relation in the direct 
line. It is, however, 
possible to obtain a dis- 
pensation for marriage in 
the first or second degrees 
of the indirect line (e.g. , 
cousins). See also, con- 
sanguinitas . 



agnata , agnatae ( agnate ) , f . : 

blood relative, female line 
agnatus, agnati , m. : blood 

relative, male line 
agnosco , agnoscere , agnovi , 

agnotum (3): observe, 

acknowledge , approve 
agnus, agni, m. : lamb 
agnus Dei: the Lamb of God 

(Jesus Christ) 
ago, agere , egi , actum (3): 

do, make, drive, finish, 

discuss 
actus, acta, actum, perf. 

pass. part, of ago: done, 

completed, finished 
agon, agonis, m. : agony, 

contest (Greek) 
agonizo, agonizare, agonizavi, 

agonizatum (1): suffer 

(Greek) 
agricola, agricolae 

(agricole), m. : farmer 
aisamentum, aisamenti, n.: 

easement (use of land owned 

by someone else) 
albus, alba, album: white 
alias, adv.: also, or, other- 
wise, at, another 
alibi, adv.: elsewhere, at 

another time 
alienus, alieni, m. : foreigner 
aliqui, aliquae, aliquod: 

some , any 
aliguis, aliquae, aliquid, 

adj . : some , any 
alius, alia, aliud: other, 

another (gen. sing. : alius, 

dat. sing. : ali) 
allege, allegare, allegavi , 

allegatum (1): accuse, 

allege 
altare, altaris, n.: altar, 

the altar upon which the 

eucharist is placed 
altare summum: the high or 

highest altar in the church 

(where special masses and 

other services are cele- 
brated) 



364 



alter, altera, alterum: one 
(of two), the other (of 
two) [gen. sing.: alterius, 
dat. sing.: alteri] ) 

alumna, alumnae (alumne), f.: 
foster child, female 
( alumpna ) 

alumnus, alumni, m.: foster 
child, male (alumpnus) 

alutarius, alutarii, m.: 
tanner 

ambo, ambae, ambo, adj. pi.: 
both, two together 

ambo, adv. : both 

amentarius , amentarii, m . : 
harness maker, saddler 

amerci amentum, amerciamenti , 
n.: amercement (a fine 
whose amount is fixed by a 
court), fine, punishment 

amicus, amici, m. : friend 

amicitia, amicitiae (amicite), 
f.: friendship, relation- 
ship 

amita, amitae (amite), f.: 
aunt (father's sister) 

amita magna: great-aunt 
(sister of the grandfather) 

amita major: great-great-aunt 
(sister of the great- 
grandfather ) 

amita maxima: great-great- 
great-aunt (sister of the 
great-great-grandfather ) 

amplector , amplecti , amplexus 
sum: embrace, grasp, clasp 

amplius, adv.: longer, more, 
further 

ampullarius, ampullarii, m. : 
tinsmith, plumber 

amputator, amputatoris, m. 
arborum: wood cutter 

an, con.: or, whether 

analogus , analoga, analogum: 
having a similarity or 
proportion , analogous 

ancilla, ancillae (ancille), 
f . : female servant 

angelus, angeli, m. : angel, 
messenger (Greek) 

angustus, angusta, angustum: 
narrow 



anima, animae (anime), f.: 
soul 

Animam suam deo reddidit: 
He/she returned his/her 
soul to God (i.e., died). 

Animam suam domino reddidit: 
He/she returned his/her 
soul to the Lord (i.e., 
died) . 

animadversio, animadversionis , 
f.: observation, remark 

annata , cinnatae ( annate ) , f . : 
yield from the soil for one 
year 

annexum, annexi , n.: annex, 
suburb, surrounding area 

anniversarium, anniversarii , 
n.: anniversary, a special 
day commemorating various 
events such as the anniver- 
sary of the consecration of 
a bishop, the death of an 
individual, etc. For the 
latter, a special mass for 
the dead would generally be 
celebrated. 

anno ab incarnatione , see 
cinnus 

anno domini, see annus 

anno eiusdem incarnationis, 
see annus 

anno gratiae, see annus 

annonarius, annonarii, m. : 
grain merchant 

annus, anni, m. : year; einno ab 
incarnatione: in the year 
from (since) the incarna- 
tion (of the Lord Jesus 
Christ); anno eiusdem 
incarnationis: in the year 
of (after) the incarnation 
of the same (i.e. , the Lord 
Jesus Christ); etnno domini: 
in the year of the (our) 
Lord; anno gratiae: in the 
year of grace (i.e., anno 
domini ) 

annus bissextilis: leap year 
(annus bissextus) 

annuus, cinnua, annuum: yearly, 
annually 



365 



anonymus , anonyma, anonymum: 

unknown, unnamed, anonymous 

(Greek) 
ante, prep. + ace: before 
antea, adv.: formerly, before 

( anthea ) 
in antea: for the future, 

henceforth (in anthea) 
antecedo, antecedere, ante- 

cessi , antecessum ( 3 ) : go 

before, precede 
antequam, con j . : before (used 

with the subjunctive in 

medieval Latin) 
antiquarius, antiquarii, m. : 

seller and collector of old 

books 
antiquus , antiqua, antiquum: 

old, ancient 
anularius, anularii, m. : ring 

maker ( emulator , annulatro ) 
aper, apri, m. : a boar 
aperio, aperire, aperui , 

apertum (4): evident, open, 

exposed 
apiarius , apiarii, m. : bee 

keeper 
apostolus, apostoli, m.: 

apostle (Greek) 
apothecarius , apothecarii, m. : 

pharmacist, apothecary 

(Greek) 
apparens , apparentis, adj. 

certain, clear 
apparentia, apparentiae 

(apparentie) , f.: appear- 
ance, appearance in court 

( apparencia ) 
appello, appellare, appellavi, 

appellatum ( 1 ) : call , name , 

appeal , accuse 
appono, apponere, apposui, 

appositum (3): add, affix 
apprehendo , apprehendere , 

apprehendi , apprehensum 

(3): take control of, 

seize, grasp 
approbo , approbare , approbavi , 

approbatum ( 1 ) : approve ( in 

business contracts of the 

later middle ages, to 

approve or agree to a legal 

transaction) 



apricator, apricatoris, m.: 

fuller, bleacher of cloth 
apruator, apruatoris, m. : 

someone who improves land 

or receives a benefit from 

it 
apud, prep. + ace: near by, 

at, with, among, at the 

house of 
aqua, aquae (aque), f.: water 

( acqua ) 
aratrum, aratri , n. : plow 

land, plow 
arbiter, arbitri, m. : witness 
arbitrium, arbitrii, n. : 

j udgment 
arbor , arbor is , f . : tree 
arborator, arboratoris, m.: 

tree farmer 
archiator, archiatoris, m. : 

physician (Greek) 
circhiepiscopus , archiepiscopi , 

m. : archbishop (Greek) 
archiepresbyter , archiepresby- 

teris , m.: chief priest 

(Greek) 
architectus , architecti , m. : 

architect (Greek) 
arcibusarius , arcibusarii, m. : 

sharp shooter 
arcularius, arcularii, m.: 

carpenter (cl. Latin: 

casket maker) 
arcus , arcus , m . : bow 
area, areae (area), f.: plot 

of land 
argentarius, argentarii, m. : 

money changer 
argentius, argentia, argenti- 

um: silver (argenteius) 
eirgentum, argenti, n.: silver, 

money 
arma, armorum, n. pi.: weap- 
ons , coats of arms 
armamentarius , armamentarii , 

m. : weapon maker 
armarius, armarii, m.: cow 

herder 
armentarius , armentarii, m. : 

herdsman 
armiductor, armiductoris , m. : 

fencing master 



366 



armxger, armigerx, m. : squire, 
esquire (as a title of 
nobility) 

aromatarius, aromatarii , m.: 
druggist (Greek) 

arpennus, arpenni, m. : a land 
measure, ca. 120 feet 
(compare the French arpent) 
often used for vineyards 
( arpennis , etc . ) 

arreragium, arreragii, n.: 
arrears 

ars , artis , f . : art , manner 

artopaeus , artopaei , m . : baker 
( arthopeus , artocopus ) 

artifex, artificis, m.: hand 
worker, artisan, architect 

artificium, artificii, n.: 
skilled work done by a 
craftsman, a craft guild 

arvinarius, arvinarii, m. : pig 
butcher 

assectatio , assectationis , f . : 
attendance 

assensus, assensus, m. : agree- 
ment 

assero, assere, asserui, 
assertum (3): claim, assert 

assisa, assisae (assise), f.: 
assize (ordinance, legal 
claim, writ, tax, court, 
etc. ) 

assume, assumere, assumpi, 
assumptum (3): take, re- 
ceive 

astringo, astringere, as- 
trinxi, astrictum (3): 
obligate, bind, restrict 

at, conj . : but, moreover 
(ast) 

atavia, ataviae (atavie), f.: 
great-great-great-grand- 
mother 

atavus, atavi, m. : great- 
great-great-grandfather 

aucellator, aucellatoris, m. : 
falconer 

auctoritas, auctoritatis , 
f . :authority , ecclesiasti- 
cal authority ( aucthoritas ) 

audeo , audere, ausus sum 
(semi-dep. 2): dare 



audio , audire , audivi , auditum 

( 4 ) : hear 

aufero, auferre, abstuli, 
ablatum (irregular 3): 
carry away, remove, rob 

aureus, aurea, aureum: golden 

auricalicifaber, auricalicif a- 
bri, m. : brass worker 

aurifaber, aurifabri, m.: 
goldsmith (aurifex, aurifi- 
cis) 

aurifossor, aurif ossoris , m. : 
gold miner 

auriga, aurigae (aurige), m. : 
driver (e.g., of carts) 

aurigafex, aurigaficis, m.: 
wagon maker 

auris, auris, f.: ear 

avirum, auri, n.: gold 

aut, conj . : or 

aut . . . aut: either ... or 

autem, adv.: however, also, 
moreover 

autximnus, autumni, m. : autumn 
( autumpnus ; cl. Latin: 
auctumnus ) 

auxilium, auxilii, n.: aid, 
help 

avia, aviae (avie), f.: grand- 
mother 

avunculus, awinculi, m. : uncle 
( mother ' s brother ) ; 

avunculus magnus: great-uncle 
( grandmother ' s brother ) 

avunculus major: great-great 
uncle (great-grandmother's 
brother [see also proavun- 
culus] ) 

avunculus maximus: great- 
great-great-uncle (great- 
great-grandmother ' s 
brother) 

avus, avi, m. : grandfather 

avi , avorum, pi. of avus: 
ancestors , grandparents 

ayssida, ayssidae (aysside), 
f.: easement (use of the 
land without ownership) 
[assida, assita, etc.] 



367 



bajulus, bajuli, m. : messen- 
ger, porter 
ballistarius, ballistarii, m. : 

gunmaker, crossbow maker, 

crossbowman 
ballivus, ballivi, m. : bail- 
iff, official 
balneator, balneatoris, m. : 

keeper of a bath 
bannum, banni, n.: bann, 

marriage announcement 
baptismalis, baptismale, adj.: 

baptismal 
baptismus , baptismi , m. : 

baptism (Greek) (baptisma, 

baptismae [baptisme] , f.; 

baptismas , baptismatis , f . ; 

baptismum, baptismi, n. ) 
baptize, baptizare, baptizavi, 

baptizatum (1): baptize 

( Greek ) 
baptizatus, baptizata, bapti- 
zatum, perf. pass. part, of 

baptize: baptized 
barbitonsor, barbitonsoris , 

m. : barber 
barco, barconis, m. : maker of 

small boats 
bare , baronis , m . : baron 
basilica, basilicae 

(basilica), f.: cathedral 

(Greek) 
beatus , beata, beatum: 

blessed, fortunate 
benignus, benigna, benignum: 

benign, kindly 
Bellona, Bellonae (Bellone), 

f.: the Roman goddess of 

war, sister of Mars 
bellum, belli, n. : war 
bellus, bella, bellum: pretty, 

handsome , charming 
bene, adv. : well 
benedico, benedicere, bene- 

dixi, benedictum (3): 

bless , give benediction 
Benedictinus , Benedictini , m . : 

a Benedictine; a member of 

the Benedictine order of 

monks 



benedictio , benedictionis , f . : 
blessing, benediction, 
invoking the favor or 
blessing of deity upon a 
person 

beneficium, beneficii, n.: 
benefice; originally, a 
grant of land as a reward 
for service. An ecclesias- 
tical benefice was one 
which generally involved a 
land grant or revenues 
given in theory for the 
proper execution of the 
religious duties of the 
office to which the bene- 
fice was attached (e.g., 
benefice of a bishop). 

bibliopegus, bibliopegi, m. : 
bookbinder (Greek) [biblio- 
pega] 

biduum, bidui, n.: two-year 
period 

biennium, biennii, n.: two- 
year period 

bini, binae, bina, adj. pi.: 
two 

binus, bina, biniim: two, two 
apiece, twofold 

bis, adv. : twice 

bladum, bladi, n. : corn, corn 
field 

bombardarius , bombardarii, m. : 
gunmaker 

bombardicus, bombardici, m. : 
rifleman 

bombicinator, bombicinatoris , 
m. : silk weaver 

bonus, bona, bonxim: good 

boni, bonorum, m.pl.: goods 

bractearius, bractearii, m. : 
tinsmith, plumber 

bracteator, bracteatoris , m. : 
goldsmith 

brasiator, brasiatoris, m. : 
brewer (e.g., of beer) 

brevis , breve , ad j . : 

bubulcularius , bubulcularii, 
m. : oxherd 

bunarium, bunarii, n. : a land 
measurement equal to about 
one-quarter acre 



368 



burgensis, burgensis, m.: 

burghess , citizen 
bursarius, bursarii , m . : 
pursemaker, treasurer 



caballarius, caballarii, m.: 

groom 
caballus, caballi, m. : horse 
cacubarius , cacubarii , m . : 

tile maker 
cado, cadere , cecidi, casum 

(3): fall 
caduceator, caduceatoris , m. : 

bridge builder 
caelebs, caelebis, adj . : 

unmarried (celebs, coelebs) 
caelebs, caelebis, m. : bache- 
lor, single man 
caelum, caeli, n.: heaven, sky 

(see also coelum) 
caementarius , caementarii , m. : 

stonemason ( cementarius ) 
caesareus, caesarea, 

caesareum: imperial (ce- 

sareus ) 
calcarius, calcarii, m. 

whipmaker 
calciator, calciatoris, m. 

shoemaker ( calceamentarius 
calcifex, calcificis, m. 

chalk burner 
Calendae, Calendarum: Calends, 

the first day of the Roman 

month ( Kalendae ) 
calendarius, calendarii, m. : 

book keeper, accountant 
caligarius, caligarii, m.: 

stocking maker 
caligator, caligatoris, m. : 

boot maker 
calix, calicis, m. : chalice, 

wine cup containing the 

Eucharist (Greek) 
calopedarius , calopedeirii, m. : 

maker of wooden shoes 

( calopidarius ) 
calopedifex, calopedif icis , 

m. : maker of slippers 
calumnia, calumniae 

(calumnie), f.: slander, 

accusation (calumpnia) 



cambasius, cambasii , m. : 

innkeeper 

camerarius, camerarii, m.: 
valet, groom 

caminarius, caminarii, m.: 
chimney sweep 

caminus , camini , m.: road, 
highway (cl. Latin: fur- 
nace, fireplace) 

campanator, campanatoris , m. : 
bell ringer 

campus, campi, m. : field 

cancellor, cancelloris, m. : 
chancellor 

cancellor regius: royal chan- 
cellor 

candidus, Candida, candidum: 
white, shining, clear, 
candid 

canicida, canicidae 

(canicide) , m. : dog catcher 

caniparius, caniparii, m.: 
waiter 

canon, canonis, m.: canon 
(Greek); some ecclesiasti- 
cal definitions of this 
term include: a list of 
books of the Bible accepted 
by the church; the canon of 
the mass, i.e., that part 
of the liturgy which re- 
mains unchanged; monastic 
rule; a statute or rule 
issued by a council or 
synod. 

canonice, adv. : canonical ly 

canonicus, canonici, m.: 
canon, a cleric who is a 
member of a cathedral 
chapter; also one appointed 
by a bishop to assist in 
divine services. 

canonicus, canonica, canoni- 
cum: canonical, of a canon 
(rule, decree, dogma, etc., 
ecclesiastical in nature) 

Ccintafusor, cantaf usoris , m. : 
tin founder 

capella, capellae (capelle), 
f.: chapel; a small church 
with an altar for which a 
chaplain is responsible. 



369 



capellanus, capellani, m . : 
chaplain 

capio , capere, cepi , captum 
(3 ) : take, seize 

capitalis, capitale, adj.: 
chief, main, head 

capitaneus, capitanei, m.: 
captain 

capitium, capitii , n.: hood, 
cowl, collar (capicium) 

capitulum, capituli, n.: 
chapter, article of inquiry 

caplim (see caplinxun) 

caplinum, caplini , n.: wood 
cutting service (part of a 
peasant's obligations to 
his lord; cf . , the French 
corv6 d'abattage) [caplim] 

Cappuccinus, Cappuccini, m. : a 
Capuchin friar (a branch of 
the Franciscan friars 
founded in 1529 and active 
in preaching and missionary 
work) 

Missionarius Cappucinus: A 
Capuchin missionary 

caprarius, caprarii , m.: 
goatherd 

captio, captionis, f.: rent- 
ing, leasing, taking 

caput, capitis, n.: head, 
beginning 

carbonarius, carbonarii, m. : 
collier, charcoal burner 

carcerarius, carcerarii, m. : 
chief prison guard 

cardinalis, cardinalis, m. : a 
Cardinal; originally, any 
priest connected with a 
church. Subsequently, the 
clergy of Rome — parish 
priests, bishops, and the 
seven district deacons. 
Members of this clergy 
eventually formed a college 
and became councillors to 
the popes. In 1179, the 
right of electing a new 
pope was conferred upon 
them exclusively 



carentia, carentiae 

(carentie) , f . : penance 
accompanied by fasting 
Carmelita, Carmelitae (Carme- 
lite) , m. or f.: a Carme- 
lite; a member of the 
Carmelite order of monks or 
nuns founded in about 1154 
A.D. and reorganized sever- 
al times. The order of 
nuns was first established 
in 1452. (Carmelanus, 
Carmelus , etc . ) 

carmen, carminis, n. : song 

carnifex, carnificis, m. : 
butcher (camarius) 

Carnisprivium, Carnisprivii , 
n.: The time immediately 
prior to the 40 day fast 
period (Lent); also, the 
first day of this period. 

cciro, cctmis, n. : flesh 

carpentarius , carpentarii, m. : 
carpenter , cartwright 

carropera (see ccirropus) 

carropus , carroperis , n . : 
cartage (cf., the French 
charroi): a toll on carts; 
sometimes; a service per- 
formed as part of a servant 
or peasant's duty to his 
lord which involved the use 
of carts; usually found in 
the plural carropera 

carruca, carrucae (carruce), 
f.: plow team, plow 

carrucarius, carrucarii, m. : 
carter , drayman 

carrus, carri, m. : cart 

carta, cartae (carte), f.: 
deed , charter 

casarius, casarii, m. : peddler 
(house to house) 

caseus, easel, m. : cheese 

castellanus, castellani, m. : 
castellan, holder of a 
castle or fortified keep 

casus, casus, m.: case, 
chance, accident, fall 

casu: by chance 



370 



catalogus, catalog!, m.: 
catalog, list 

cathedra, cathedrae (cathe- 
dra), f.: cathedral, bish- 
op's throne, chair (Greek) 

catholicus, catholica, catho- 
licum: universal. Catholic 

caupo, cauponis, m. : innkeeper 

caupona, cauponae (caupone), 
f . : inn 

causa, causae (cause) , f . : 
cause, case 

ex causa + abl.: on account 
of, for the sake of 

causatio, causationis, f.: 
legal plea 

causidicus, causidici, m.: 
lawyer, advocate 

cause, causare, causavi, 
causatum (1): cause, give 
as a reason, accuse 

cautela, cautelae (cautele), 
f.: deceit, trick, fraud; 
also, in legal contracts, 
an additional guarantee to 
insure that the terms of 
the contract have been met. 

cautio, cautionis, f.: 

security, bond, caution 
money 

cede, cedere , cessi, cessum 
(3): grant, yield, cede 

celeber, Celebris, celebre, 
adj • : famous 

celebro , celebrare , celebravi , 
celebratum (1): celebrate; 
nuptias celebrare: to 
celebrate the nuptials, 
i.e., to marry; missam 
solemnem celebrare: to 
celebrate a solemn mass; 
missas solenmes celebrare: 
to celebrate solemn masses 

celer, celeris, celere, adj.: 
swift, fast 

cellarius, cellarii, m.: 
servant in charge of the 
cellar or kitchen 

cenaculum, cenaculi, n.: 
dining room, upper room 



censeo, censere , censerui , 

censertum (2): assign, 
allot, appoint (senceo) 

censor, censoris, m. : village 
judge (cl. Latin: Roman 
censor, an official who 
took the census , recorded 
public moral offenses, 
supervised public 

buildings, and had other 
public duties,) 

cerdo , cerdonis, m. : day 
laborer 

cerno , cernere , crevi , cretum 
(3): discern, perceive, 
distinguish 

ceroplasta, ceroplastae 

(ceroplaste) , m. : wax 
chandler (a maker or seller 
of tallow or wax candles) 

certamen, certaminis, n. : 
contest 

ceteri, ceterae, cetera, adj . , 
pi . : others 

certifico, certificare, certi- 
ficavi, certificatum (1): 
attest, certify, determine 

certus , carta, cartum: cer- 
tain, fixed, sure 

chartarius, chartarii, m.: 
paper maker 

chirographum , chirographi, n. : 
chirograph (something 
written by hand — Greek) 

chirothecarius chirothecarii , 
m. : glove maker (Greek) 

chirurgus, chirurgi , m. : 
surgeon (Greek) 

Christus, Christi, m. : a 
Latinized form of the Greek 
Christos = Christ (Messiah; 
Anointed One) 

chymicus, chymici, m. : chem- 
ist, apothecary (Greek) 

ciborium, ciborii, n.: a 
canopy over a tomb or 
altar; also, a vessel 
shaped roughly like a 
chalice in which the sacra- 
mental bread is kept. 

cibus, cibi, m. : food 



371 



cimeterium (see coemeterium) 

cingara, cingarae (cingare), 
f.: gypsy (female) 

cingarus, cingari, m. : gypsy 
(male) 

cippus, cippi, m. : gravestone 

circa, prep. + ace: about, 
around , round about 

circiter, adv. & prep. + ace: 
about , approximately 

circum, prep. + ace: around 

Cisterciensis, Cisterciensis, 
m. : a Cistercian; a member 
of the Cistercian order of 
monks founded in 1098. 
(Sisterciensis, etc.) 

cite, adv.: quickly 

civicus, civica, civicum: of a 
citizen; as a noun: citizen 

civis, civis, m.: citizen 
(gen. pi.: civiim) 

civitas, civitatis, f.: city, 
citizenship 

clam, adv. : privately, secret- 
ly 

clamatium, cleimatii, n. : claim 

(clcunacium) 

clamo, clamare, clamavi, 
clamatum ( 1 ) : claim 

clarus, Clara, clanim: famous, 
illustrious 

clarissimus, clarissima, 
clarissimum: most famous, 
most illustrious (superla- 
tive of clarus) 

claudo, claudere, clausi, 
clausum (3): close, enclose 

clausterium, clausterii, n. : 
cloister; an enclosed space 
which usually constitutes 
the central portion of a 
monastery; also, a reli- 
gious house or the life led 
by members of a monastery 
or encloistered convent. 

claustrarius , claustrarii, m. : 
locksmith 

clericus, clerici, m.: a 
cleric, clergyman 

clericus parochialis: parish 
clerk; an official who 
assists the priest. 



clericus regularis: a regular 
clerk; one who lives in a 
community under religious 
rule but who involves 
himself in the work of a 
diocese or parish with the 
clergy therein, such as 
teaching, rather than 
devoting himself exclusive- 
ly to the life of a monk. 

cocus, coci. m. : cook 

coelum, coeli, n. : heaven, sky 

coemeterium, coemeterii, n.: 
cemetery (cimeterium, 

cimiterium) 

coena , coenae (coene), f.: 
evening meal, supper (cena) 

coenobium, coenobii, n.: 
monastery , convent 

coepio, coepere, coepi , coep- 
tum ( 3 ) : begin ( cepio ) 

cogito, cogitare, cogitavi, 
cogitatum ( 1 ) : think 

cognatio, cognationis , f.: 
blood relationship, blood 
relative 

cogo, cogere, coegi, coactum 
(3): compel, collect 

cognomen, cognominis, n.: 
family name, surname, name, 
nickname 

colligo, colligere, collegi, 
collectum ( 3 ) : gather 
together, collect (conligo) 

colonus, coloni, m. : settler, 
farmer, peasant; also: 1. a 
hereditary landholder or 
serf who is attached to the 
land he farms; 2. some- 
times, a manumitted or 
freed serf who has been 
placed under the protection 
of the king or the church; 
3 . in Germanic areas coloni 
were equal to liti (a group 
between freemen and serfs) 
or land tenants owing labor 
service and quit-rent; 4. 
sometimes, a land holder 
owing fixed obligations; 5. 
inhabitant of a city 

colorator, coloratoris , m. : 
dyer 



372 



collegium, collegii, n. : 

college, assembly, communi- 
ty 
colloquor, colloqui, collocu- 

tus sum (dep. 3): speak, 

talk 
comes, comitis, m.: count, 

earl (occasionally: county) 
comitatus, comitatus , m.: 

county 
comitissa, comitissae (comi- 

tisse) , f.: countess 
commater, commatris, f.: 

sponsor , godmother 
commiseratio , commiserationis , 

f.: pity, commiseration 
commoror , commorari , commora- 

tus sum: (dep. 1): live in 

dwell 
commorcins , commorantis , part . : 

living, residing 
communicatio , communicationis , 

f.): communion, sacrament 
communicativus , communicativa , 

communicativum: common 
communio, communionis, f.: 

community, fellowship, 

communion, sacrament 
compareo , comparere , comparui , 

compartum (2): appear, be 

present 
compater, compatris, m. : 

sponsor, godfather 
compello, compellere, compuli, 

compulsum (3): force, 

compel 
compos, compotis, adj.: in 

possession of 
concede, concedere, concessi, 

concessum (3): go away, 

depart, yield, concede 
concilium, concilii, n.: 

council 
Concilium Tridentinum: the 

Council of Trent, which met 

with interruptions between 
1545-1563; the decrees of 

the Council of Trent served 
as an important basis for 

the reform of the Roman 
Catholic Church in the 
sixteenth century (Concili- 
um Tridentini) 



concionator, concionatoris , 

m. : preacher, minister 

concipio, concipere, concepi , 
conceptum (3): conceive, 
comprehend , become pregnant 

concresco, concrescere , con- 
crevi , concretum ( 3 ) : 
become stiff, thick, hard 

concretus , concreta, concre- 
tum, perf . pass. part, of 
concresco: stiffened, 

hardened 

condam (see, quondam) 

conditio, conditionis, f.: 
condition, situation; sub 
conditione: under condi- 
tion, conditionally (e.g., 
an emergency baptism per- 
formed at home might be 
termed a baptism sub condi- 
tione; in such a case, and 
if possible, the child 
might be re-baptized in a 
church . ) 

conditor, conditoris, m.: 
pastry baker 

condo , condere, condidi , 
conditum ( 3 ) : honor , found , 
make 

condo testamemtum: I make a 
will 

conditus , condita, conditum, 
perf. pass. part, of condo: 
honorable, founded 

confero, conferre, contuli , 
collatum (irregular 3): 
compare, bestow upon 

confessio, conf essionis , f.: 
confession; a part of the 
sacrament of penance during 
which sins are confessed. 

confessor, confessoris, m.: 
confessor; a priest who, 
with the approval of a 
bishop, hears confessions 
and assigns penance; also a 
martyr who testified for 
the faith. 

confido, confidere, confisus 
sum (semi-dep. 3): confess, 
acknowledge 



373 



confirmo, confirmare, confir- 
mavi, confirmatum (l): 
confirm 

confiteor, confiteri, confes- 
sus sum (dep. 2): confess, 
acknowledge 

conforto, confortare, confo- 
rtavi , confortatum (1): 
comfort (comforto) 

conjungo, conjungere, con- 
junxi, conjunctum (3): join 
together , vinite 

conjunx, conjugis, m. or f.: 
husband or wife (conjux) , 
spouse 

conjuges, conjugum, m. pi.: 
married couple, spouses 

Conor, conari , conatus sum 
( dep . 1 ) : try 

conquestus, conquestus , m. : 
complaint 

consanguinitas , consemguinita- 
tis, f.: blood relation- 
ship, consanguinity, con- 
sanguinity as an impediment 
to marriage; in the case of 
the latter, such as rela- 
tionship in a direct line 
(e.g., parents to children 
to grandchildren) was a 
diriment impediment which 
could not be set aside by a 
dispensation. In an indi- 
rect line, marriage in the 
first degree (brother to 
sister) would be prohibit- 
ed, marriage in the second 
(first cousins) and third 
(second cousins) might be 
permitted with a dispensa- 
tion. 

consensus, consensus, m.: 
consent 

consentio , consentire , consen- 
si, consensum (4): agree, 
consent 

consilium, consilii, n.: 
court, counsel 

consobrina, consobrinae 
( consobrine) , f.: female 
cousin 

consobrinus, consobrini , m.: 
male cousin 



consolator, consolatoris , m. : 

a consoler, one who con- 
soles 

consors, consortis, m. or f.: 
spouse, husband or wife 

consortium, consortii, n.: 
fellowship, society, commu- 
nity, association 

consto, constare, constiti , 
constaturus (irregular 1): 
consist, stand still, stand 
firm 

constare de: to consist of 

consuesco, consuescere , con- 
suevi , consuetum ( 3 ) : 
accustom 

consuetudinarius , consuetudi- 
nari , m.: a book which 
contains the "customary," 
the customs of discipline 
and rules of behavior of a 
monastery, religious order, 
or cathedral; also, a book 
containing the ceremonies 
and rites for services in 
the same organizations. 

consuetus, consueta, consue- 
tum, perf . pass. part, of 
consuesco: customary, 
accustomed 

consul, consulis, m. : mayor, 
town councillor (Also, one 
of two Roman consuls who 
were chosen each year as 
chief magistrates of the 
Roman Republic. ) 

consultus , consulta, consul- 
tum: experienced, 

knowledgeable 

consume, consumer e, consumpsi, 
consumptum ( 3 ) : consume , 
destroy, waste 

consumptus, consumpta, con- 
sximpttim, perf. pass. part, 
of consume: destroyed, 
wasted 

consuo, consuere, consui , 
consutum (3): sew, stitch 
together ( suo ) 

contineo , continere , continui , 
contentum (2): contain, 
connect 



374 



continens , continentis , part . : 
containing 

contingo , contingere , contigi , 
contactum ( 3 ) : happen , 
touch 

continuo, continuare, conti- 
nuavi , cont.inuat.uiii ( 1 ) : 
continue 

continuus , continua , continu- 
um: continual, consecutive 

contra, adv. & prep. + ace: 
against, opposite 

contractio , contractionis , f . : 
contract, marriage contract 

contraho , contrahere, con- 
traxi , contractum ( 3 ) : 
contract a marriage, 
contract, draw together, 
unite; Matrimonium contrax- 
erunt: they contracted (a) 
marriage. 

contrarius, contraria, 

contrarium: contrary, 

opposite 

in contrarium: on the con- 
trary, on the other hand 

conubium, conubii, n.: mar- 
riage; in Roman law, the 
legal capacity or capabili- 
ty of a man to marry. 
(connubium) 

convenio , convenire , conveni , 
conventum ( 4 ) : come 

together, assemble, meet, 
agree 

conventio, conventionis, f.: 
covenant , agreement 

conventus , conventus , m.: 
convent (cl. Latin: 

assembly, corporation, 
company ) 

converto , convertere , conver- 
si, conversum (3): turn, 
convert, turn around 

conversus, conversa, conver- 
sum, perf. pass. part, of 
converto : converted , turned 

copulata, copulatae 

(copulate), f.: married 
woman 



copulatio, copulationis , f.: 

marriage 
copulatus, copulati, m. : 

married man 
copulo , copulare, copulavi, 

copulatum ( 1 ) : marry 
copulatus, copulata, copula- 
tum, perf. pass. part, of 

copulo: married 
coqua , coquae ( coque ) , f . : 

cook (female) 
coquus, coqui, m. : cook (male) 

[cocus, coccius, etc.] 
coram, prep. + abl . : in the 

presence of 
coriarius, coriarii, m. : 

tanner 
corpus , corporis , n . : body 
corpus meum in coemeterio 

sepelendium: (and I leave) 

my body to be buried in the 

cemetery 
corporaliter, adv. : bodily, in 

person 
corrigarius, corrigarii, m. : 

harness maker 
eras, adv. : tomorrow 
crastinus, crastina, 

crastinum: tomorrow's, of 

tomorrow 
credo, credere, credidi , 

creditum (3): believe, 

trust in (+ dat. ) 
creo, creare, creavi, creatum 

( 1 ) : create , make , produce 
crof tmannus , croftmanni, m. : 

crofter (tenant farmer in 

England) 
crucigerus, crucigeri, m. : a 

Kreutzer (a unit of money 

in Central Europe) 
cruciatus, cruciatus, m. : 

torture, torment 
crux, crucis, f.: cross, the 

cross (of Jesus Christ as a 

religious symbol) 
cubiculum, cubiculi, n.: 

monastic cell, cubicle, 

small chamber 
cultrarius, cultrarii, m,: 

cutler (cultellifex, cul- 

tellificis) 
cum, prep. + abl.: with 



375 



cunctus , cuncta, cunctum: 

whole, all 

cuparius, cuparii, m. : cooper, 
barrel maker (Greek) 

cupio, cupire, cupivi, cupitum 
(4) : desire, want 

cuprifaber, cuprifabri, m.: 
coppersmith (cuprarius, see 
also faber) 

cura, curae (cure), f.: care, 
concern 

curator, curatoris, m. : guard- 
ian 

curia, curiae (curie), court, 
ecclesiatical court, office 

curia romcina: the Roman curia, 
the center of the adminis- 
tration of the Roman Catho- 
lic Church 

curia regis: royal court, 
court of the king 

curriculum vitae: life sketch 

currifex, currificis, m.: 
cartwright 

cursor, cursoris, m. : messen- 
ger (cl. Latin: runner) 

curtilagium, curtilagii, n.: 
curtilage (a piece of 
ground such as a yard or 
courtyard which is within a 
fence surrounding a house ) , 
yard, courtyard 

custodia, custodiae, f.: 
custody, guardianship 

custodio, custodire, custo- 
divi, custoditum (4): 
guard, watch, keep 

customarius, customarii, m. : 
customary tenant 

custos, custodis, m. : custodi- 
an (cl. Latin: guard), 
guardian 

custos arrestatorum: prison 
guard 



damnum, damni, n.: damage, 
loss, injury, condemnation 
(dampnum) 

datus, dati, m. : date (also, 
datum , dati , n . ) 

de, prep. + abl . : from, by, 

concerning, about 



debeo , debere , debui , debitum 
( 2 ) : owe , ought 

decessus, decessus, m. : death 

decet, impersonal verb: it 
becomes, it befits 

decipio, decipere, decepi, 
deceptum (3): deceive, 
cheat 

declare, declare, declaravi, 
declaratum (1): declare, 
state 

decosto , decostare, descos- 
tavi , descostatum ( 1 ) : cost 

decretum, decreti , n.: decre- 
tal, a papal letter written 
in answer to a specific 
question. 

decumbo , decumbere , decubui 
(3 ) : lie down, die 

deduco , deducere , deduxi , 
deductum (3): lead, bring 
down 

defensio, defensionis, f.: 
dispute, argument, disa- 
greement 

defero, deferre, detuli, 
delatum (irregular 3): 
bear, carry, defer, post- 
pone 

deficio, deficere, defeci, 
defectum (3): fail, cease 

defungor, defungi, defunctus 
sum (dep. 3) : die 

defunctus, defuncta, defunc- 
tum, perf . pass. part, of 
defvmgor: deceased, dead 

deinceps, adv.: finally, next 

deinde, adv.: thereupon, then, 
thereafter (dein) 

dementatus , dementata , demen- 
tatum: demented, mad, 
insane 

denarius, denarii, m. : a penny 

denata , denatae ( denate ) , f . : 
dead person (female) 

denatus , denati , m.: dead 
person (male) 

dens, dentis, m. : tooth 



376 



denunciatio, denunciationis , 
f.: marriage bann, marriage 
announcement (denuntiatio) ; 
factis tribus denunciatio- 
nibus: after the publica- 
tion of three marriage 
banns 
deputalis, deputalis, m.: 
deputy, assistant deputy, 
town councillor 
derivo, derivare, derivavi , 
derivatum (1): divert, 
branch 
desino, desinere, desii, 

desitum (3): depart, die 
despondeo , despondere , despon- 

di , desponsum ( 2 ) : betroth 
destruo , destruere , destruxi , 
destructum (3): destroy, 
ruin, pull down, dismantle 
desum, desse, defui: be away, 

be absent 
desuper, adv.: from above 
detego, detegere , detexi , 
detectum (3): uncover, 
reveal, detect (especially 
in connection with hin- 
drances to marriage); 
nulloque impedimento detec- 
to: and no hindrance (to 
the marriage) having been 
uncovered 
Deus, Dei, m. : God 
devotissime, adv.: most pious- 
ly, most devoutly, most 
devotedly 
dexter, dextra, dextrum: right 

(direction) 
dice, dicere, dixi, dictum 

(3): say, tell 
dictito, dictitcire, dictitavi, 
dictitatum (1): say often, 
repeat, reiterate, assert 
repeatedly 
dictum, dicti, n.: word, 

declaration, saying 
dies, diei, m. or f.: day; 
die: on the day; die cras- 
tini: tomorrow; die sequen- 
ti: on the following day 



didymus , didymi , m.: a twin, 

twin brother (Greek) 
didymi, didymorum, m. pi . : 

twins 
difficile est, impersonal 

verb: it is difficult 
difficilis, difficile, adj.: 

difficult 
difficultas, dif f icultatis , 

f.: difficulty 
digitus, digiti, m. : finger 
dignus, digna, dignum: worthy, 

deserving 
diligo, diligere, dilexi, 
dilectum (3): love, esteem, 
prize 
dilectus, dilecta, dilectum, 
perf. pass. part, of dili- 
go: esteemed, beloved 
dilectio, dilectionis, f.: 

love, esteem 
dimidia, dimidiae (dimidie), 

f . : one-half 
dimidius, dimidia, dimidium: 
one-half (adj.); note that 
in classical Latin, pars, 
partis, f.: part, piece, 
portion was understood to 
be linked to each of these 
adjectives. Classical 

Latin fractions were formed 
by combining dimidia, 
tertia, etc. with pars, 
dimissorius, dimissoria, 
dimissorium: When used in 
connection with litterae in 
the plural, a dimissory 
letter, one which gives the 
holder permission to do 
something out of the ordi- 
nary, as, for example, to 
marry outside of one's own 
parish. Also, a letter of 
authorization and testimo- 
nial which might be sent by 
one bishop to another 
regarding candidates for 
ordination. In Roman law, 
a litterae dimissoriae was 
an appeal to a higher 
court. 



377 



dimissorialis, dimissoriale, 
adj.: as a noun, pi.: 
dimissorial letters (but 
with litterae, a dimissori- 
al letter) 

diocesis, diocesis, f.: dio- 
cese (the jurisdiction of a 
bishop; in the Roman Em- 
pire, the jurisdiction of a 
magistrate. ) 

discipulus, discipuli, m.: 
pupil, disciple 

discus, disci, m. : plate, dish 

dispensatio, dispensationis, 
f.: dispensation, permis- 
sion, i.e., that which can 
set aside a restriction of 
church law, especially one 
applying to marriage, 
ecclesiastical vows, absti- 
nence, or fasting. Dispen- 
sations can be granted by 
various ecclesiastical 
officials including the 
pope. 

dispone , disponere , disposui , 
dispositum (3): dispose, 
arrange, distribute 

distribuo, distribuere, dis- 
tribui , distributum ( 3 ) : 
distribute, divide 

diu, adv. : a long time 

dives, divitis, adj.: rich 

divinus, divina, divinum: 
divine 

divina, n.pl.: divine things, 
divine services 

divisa, divisae (divise) , f.: 
boundary , court 

do, dare, dedi, datum (irregu- 
lar 1) : give 

doceo , docere , docui , doctum 
( 2 ) : teach 

doctus, docta, doctum, perf . 
pass. part. of doceo: 
taught , learned 

dogma, dogmatis, n. : dogma, a 
teaching accepted as valid 
or true, a decree (Greek) 

doleator, doleatoris, m.: 
cooper (doliarius) 

dolor, doloris, m.: grief, 
sorrow, pain, anguish 



dolus, doli, m. : trick, deceit 

domanicum, domanici, n. : 
demesne land (manorial land 
owned by the lord and not 
possessed by tenants ) 

domestica, domesticae, f.: 
domestic servant (female) 

domesticus , domestici, m.: 
domestic servant (male) 

domicilium, domicilii, n.: 
house, domicile 

domicellus, domicelli, m.: 
nobleman, lord of a manor 

Dominiccinus , Dominicani , m . : a 
Dominican, a member of the 
order of Dominican friars 
founded in 1220 and 1221. 

domina , dominae ( domine ) , f . : 
lady 

dominium, dominii, n.: rule, 
power 

dominus, domini, m. : lord, the 
Lord (Jesus Christ), master 
(as a title) 

domus, domus, f. (irregular): 
house, family, home 

in domo: at home 

domi ( locative case ) : at home 

donatio, donationis, f.: gift, 
deed 

donatio causa mortis: a dona- 
tion which cannot be re- 
ceived until after the 
death of the donor 

donatio inter vivos: a dona- 
tion made while the donor 
is still living 

dono, donare, donavi, donatum 
(1): dower, endow, confer a 
dowry 

donum, doni, n. : gift 

dos , dotis , f . : dowry 

doto, dotare, dotavi, dotatum 
(1): endow, provide with a 
dowry 

ducatus , ducatus , m . : duchy 

duco, ducere, duxi, ductum 

( 3 ) : lead 
dulcis, dulce, adj.: sweet, 

pleasant 
dum , adv. & conj . : while, 
still, yet, when, insofar 
as 



378 



dumtaxat, adv.: at least, to 

this extent, only 
dum vivens: while living 
duplex, duplicis, adj.: double 
duplus, dupla, duplum: double 
dure , durare , duravi , duratum 

(1): last, endure, make 

hard 
durus , dura, durum, perf . 

pass. part, of duro: hard, 

difficult 
dux, duels, m. : duke, leader, 

military or naval commander 
dynastes, dynastis, m. : noble- 
man, ruler (Greek) 



e, ex, prep. + ab. : from, from 
out of 

ecclampsia, ecclampsiae 
(ecclampsie) , f.: convul- 
sions 

ecclampsia infantis: convul- 
sions during pregnancy 

ecclesia, ecclesiae 

(ecclesie), f.: church 
( Greek ) 

ecclesia filialis: daughter 
church 

ecclesia parochialis: a parish 
church 

edo , edere , edidi , editum ( 3 ) : 
give out, show, give birth 
to 

effectus, effectus, m. : ef- 
fect, purpose, result 

efflo, efflare, efflavi, 
eff latum (1): breathe out, 
blow out 

ego, personal pronoun: I 

egredio, egredi, egressus sum 
(dep. 3): go out, step out 

electrus, electra, electrum: 
pewter ( electrius ) 

eleemosyna, eleemosynae 

(eleemosyne) , f . : aim 
(Greek) [elemosyna, hele- 
mosyna ] 

elevatlo, elevationis, f.: 
elevation; the elevation of 
the sacred elements of the 
eucharist during the mass. 



eligo, eligere, elegi, electum 

(3): choose, elect (heligo) 
emendo , emendare , emendavi , 

emendatum (1): compensate, 

make amends , repair 
emereo, emerere, emerui , 

emeritum (2): retire 
emineo, eminere, eminui (2): 

be eminent, conspicuous, 

appear 
emo , emere , emi , emptum ( 3 ) : 

buy 
emptor, emptoris, : buyer 
enim, adv.: for, namely, truly 
eo, ire, ii (or ivi) , itum: go 
ephippiarius , ephippiarii, m. : 

saddle maker (Greek) 
episcopus, episcopi, m. : 

bishop (Greek) 
epistula, epistulae 

(epistule), f.: letter, 

epistle 
eques, equitis, m.: cavalry 

soldier, knight 
equus, equi, m. : horse 
equus, equa, equum: equal 
erga, prep. + ace: towards, 

in relation to 
ergo, adv. & prep. + ace. : 

therefore, because of, on 

account of 
erro , errare , erravi , erratum 

(1): wander, stray, travel 
eruditus, erudita, eruditum: 

learned 
escambium, escambii, n.: 

exchange (excambium) 
essendum: being (gerund of 

esse, a post-classical 

usage); essendus, essenda, 

essendum: being (gerund 

used as a present partici- 
ple; also a post-classical 

usage) 
esurio, esurire, esuri, esuri- 

tum (4): be hungry, be 

hungry for 
et, conj . : and 
etiam, adv.: and also, and 

even 
eucharistia, eucharistiae 

(eucharistie) , f.: eucha- 
rist, communion, sacrament 

(Greek) 



379 



euangelium, euangelii, n.: 
gospel, good news (evange- 
lixim, euvangelium, Greek) 

eveho evehere , evecti , evectum 
(3): carry, bear out 

evello, evellere, evelli, 
evulsum (3): tear out, 
pluck out 

evenio , evenire , eveni , even- 
turn (4): occur, happen, 
turn out 

evictio, evictionis, f.: 
entitlement (evixio) 

evolo, evolare, evolavi, 
evolatum (1): fly, fly away 

evolve, evolvere, evolvi , 
evolutum (3): roll out, 
roll forth, spread, study, 
think 

evomo, evomere, evomui, evomi- 
tum ( 3 ) : vomit 

exactio, exactionis, f.: tax, 
accusation 

exaltatio, exaltationis, f.: 
exaltation, raising of 
(e.g., of the cross) 

examen, examinis, n.: examina- 
tion, testing 

examino , examinare , examinavi , 
examinatum (1): examine, 
look at 

exanimis, exanime, adj.: dead, 
lifeless 

excelsus, excelsa, excelsum: 
high, highest 

excidium, excidii, n.: de- 
struction, overthrow 

exconnnuiiicatio , exconununicati- 
onis, f.: excommunication; 
removal from the fellowship 
and sacraments of the 
church 

excommunico , excommunicare , 
excommunicavi , excommunica- 
tvaa ( 1 ) : excommunicate 

exemplum exempli, n.: copy, 
transcript, exact copy 

exec, exire, exii , exitum 
(irregular 4): go out, 
issue from, be derived from 

excommunico, excommunicare, 
excommunicavi , excommunica- 
tum ( 1 ) : excommunicate 



exemplum exempli, n.: copy, 

transcript, exact copy 
exeo, exire, exii, exitum 

(irregular 4): go out, 

issue from, be derived from 
exhalo, exhalare, exhalavi , 

exhalatum ( 1 ) : breathe out , 

exhale, expire, die 
exhaustus , exhausta, exhaus- 

tum: emptied out, deprived, 

taken away, exhausted 
exhibeo, exhibere, exhibui , 

exhibitum (2): show, dis- 
play, exhibit 
exitus, exitus, m. : exit, 

profits, issue, revenue 
exordium, exordii, n. : begin- 
ning 
expectatio , expectationis , f . : 

expectation 
expeditio, expeditionis , f.: 

campaign, expedition 
experior, experiri , expertus 

sum (dep. 4): experience, 

test, try 
explico, explicare, explicavi, 

explicatum (1): unfold, 

explain 
exprimo, exprimere, expressi, 

expressum (3): express, 

articulate 
exsequia, exseguiae 

(exsequie) , f . : funeral 

ceremony (exsequium) 
exspiro , exspirare , exspiravi , 

exspiratum (1): die, 

breathe out, expire 
extra, prep. + ace: beyond, 

outside of 
extraho, extrahere, extraxi, 

extractum (3): extract, 

draw out 
extranea, extraneae 

(extranee) , f.: foreigner, 

non-resident (female) 
extraneus , extranea , extrane- 

um: foreign 
extraneus, extranei , m. : 

foreigner, non-resident 

(male) 
extremus , extrema, extremum: 

last, final 



380 



faber, f abri , m.: maker, 

worker, smith, blacksmith 
fciber armaturae: drill maker 
faber auri: goldsmith 
faber clavorum: locksmith, 

nailsmith 
faber cultrorum: knifesmith 
faber cupri: coppersmith 
faber ensiiun: armorer, weapon 

maker 
faber ferrarius: farrier 

(horseshoe maker) 
faber lignarius: carpenter 
faber nodorum metallicorum: 

maker of metal buttons 
faber serrarius: sawmaker 
faber solarius: cobbler 
faber veteramentarius : tinker 
fades, faciei, f.: face, 
appearance, front; coram 
facie ecclesiae: in front 
of the face of the church 
(where marriage banns 
traditionally were read) 
facile est, impersonal verb: 

it is easy 
facilis, facile, adj.: easy 
facio, facere, feci, factum 

( 3 ) : make , do 
fames , f amis , f . : hunger 
familia, familiae (familie), 

f . : family 
familiaris, familiaris, m. or 

f . : relative 
famula, famulae (famule), f.: 

servant (female) 
famulus, famuli, m. : servant 

(male), apprentice 
fateor, fateri, fassus sum 

(dep. 2): admit, confess 
fatum, fati, n.: fate 
febris, febris, f.: fever 
felix, felicis, adj.: happy, 

fortunate 
femina, feminae (femine), f.: 

woman 
femineus, feminea, femineum: 

female, feminine 
fenile, fenilis, n.: haystack 
fenum, feni, n. : hay 
feodum, feodi, n. : fief 



feria, feriae (ferie), f.: A 

day of the week in the 
Christian calendar during 
which no feast day was 
observed; also, a day of 
the week . 
fero, ferre, tuli, latum 

(irregular 3): bear, carry 
festum, festi, n.: feast day, 
feast, festival; feast 
days were of three types: 
1) Sunday, a commemoration 
each week of the Resurrec- 
tion of Christ which. 
Christians believe, oc- 
curred on the first day of 
the week; 2) fixed or 
immovable feasts, which 
were celebrated on the same 
day each year and came to 
include, among others, 
Christmas, Epiphany, and 
the commemoration of var- 
ious events in the lives of 
Jesus Christ, Mary, and 
many saints. 3) moveable 
feasts, which did not occur 
on the same day each year 
and were generally cele- 
brated according to their 
proximity to important 
religious holidays such as 
Easter, Christmas, Epipha- 
ny, and Trinity Sunday. 

Festum Ovorum: the Feast of 
the Eggs; the Saturday 
immediately prior to Lent 
(the forty day fasting 
period before Easter). 

fidelis, fidele, adj.: faith- 
ful, loyal 

fideliter, adv.: faithfully 

fides, fidei, f.: faith, 
belief 

fide, fidere, fisus sum (semi- 
dep. 3): trust 

figulus, figuli, m. : potter 

filia, filiae (filie), f.: 
daughter 

filialis, filiale, adj.: of or 
relating to a daughter, 
daughter (as an adjective) 



381 



filiaster, filiastri, m . : 
stepson, son-in-law 

filiastra, filiastrae (filias- 
tre), f,: stepdaughter, 
daughter-in-law 

filiola, filiolae (filiole), 
f.: little daughter, god- 
daughter 

filiolus, filioli, m. : little 
son , godson 

filius, filii, m. : son 

finis, finis, m. or f.: fine, 
end, boundary, limit 

fio, fieri, f actus sum (irreg- 
ular 3): be done, be made, 
become 

firmitas, firmitatis, f . : 
safeguard, support, agree- 
ment, validity, deed 

flamen, flaminis, m. : priest, 
a priest in ancient Rome 

fletus, fletus, m. : weeping, 
wailing 

florenus, floreni, m.: a 
Florin (a gold coin minted 
in Florence) 

fluo, fluere, fluxi, fluxum 
(3): flow 

focus, foci, m.: hearth, 
fireplace, home 

foderator, foderatoris, m. : 
fuller 

folium, folii, n.: sheet (of 
paper) , leaf 

fens, fontis, font, spring, 
source , baptismal font 

fore = futirrus esse 

forefacta, forefactae ( f ore- 
facte) , f.: penalty, for- 
feiture 

forensis, forense, adj.: not 
belonging to a parish, 
foreign 

f orestrarius , forestrarii, m. : 
forester 

fortis, forte, adj.: strong, 
brave , powerful , bold 

forum, fori, n. : Originally, a 
market place or court where 
justice was dispensed. In 
ecclesiastical Latin this 
refers to the exercise of 
judicial power by the 
church. Two types of forum 



were distinguished: internal 
forum, which referred to a 
judgement made concerning 
the spiritual welfare of an 
individual (as, for 

example, in the sacrament 
of penance), and external 
form, which referred to 
ecclesiastical courts which 
decide matters relating to 
the public welfare of the 
church. Also, a market 
place. 

fossor, fossoris, m. : grave- 
digger, miner 

francus, franca, francum: free 

f rater, fratris, m. : brother 

f rater germanus : twin brother , 
brother 

f rater consanguineus : step- 
brother (same father) 

f rater uterinus: stepbrother 
( same mother ) 

fratres minores: Franciscan 
friars; friars (from 
fratres) or monks belonging 
to the order of St. 
Francis, founded by St. 
Francis of Assisi, ca. 1209 
A.D. 

fraternitas, f raternitatis , 
f.: brotherhood, fraterni- 
ty, brotherhood of monks 

fraus, fraudis, f.: fraud, 
penalty 

frigus, frigoris, n.: cold 

f rumentarius , frumentarii, m. : 
vegetable seller 

frvunentum, frumenti, n. : grain 

fructus, fructus, m. : fruit, 
harvest 

fruor, frui, fructus sum (dep. 
3): enjoy, have the benefit 
of (+ abl. ) 

fucatus, f ucati , m. : simula- 
tion 

f ugio , f ugere , f ugi , f ugitum 
(3): flee (from), run away 

funarius, funarii, m. : rope 
maker 



382 



f undo , f undare , f undavi , 

fundatum (1): found, estab- 
lish (in ecclesiastical 
Latin, as in the founding 
of an anniversariuBi) 

fundatio, fundationis, f.: a 
foundation mass, a mass 
celebrated as part of a 
bequest given to a parish 
church, diocese or reli- 
gious order 

fvtnerarius, fiineraria, funer- 
ariirm: of, or relating to, 
a funeral 

fungor, fungi, functus sum 
(dep. 3): perforin, execute 
(+ abl) 

f uturus , futura, futurum: 
future 

furo, furare, f uravi , furatum 
(1): steal 



galeator, galeatoris, m.: 

helmet maker 
gallus, galli, m. : a French- 
man, a Gaul 
gaudeo , gaudere , gavisus sum 

(semi-dep. 2): rejoice, be 

happy 
gaudium, gaudii, n.: joy, 

rejoicing 
gemella, gemellae (gemelle) , 

f.: a twin (female) 
gemellae (gemelle), gemella- 

rum, f. pi.: twins (female) 
gemellus, gemelli, m. : a twin 

(male) , twin 
gemelli, gemellorum, m. pi.: 

twins , male twins 
geminus, gemini, m. : a twin 
gemini, geminorum, m. pi.: 

twins 
gener, generi, m. : son-in-law, 

cousin 
generosus , generosa , genero- 

sxom: of noble birth 
genitor, genitoris, m. : father 
genitores, genitorvun, m. pi.: 

parents 
gens, gentis, f.: clan, tribe, 

male line 



genu, genus, n. : knee 

genus, generis, n. : type, 
kind, birth, descent, 
origin 

geometres , geometrae ( geome- 
tre) , m. : surveyor (Greek) 

germana, germanae (germane), 
f . : sister 

germanus , germani , m . : brother 

gigno , gignere , genui , genitum 
(3): beget, bear, produce, 
be born 

gloria, gloriae (gloria), f.: 
glory 

gloria in excelsis Deo: glory 
to God in the highest, a 
part of the mass based upon 
the Gospel of Luke 

gradale, gradalis, n.: a 
"gradual," a group of 
antiphons (chants sung 
originally by two choirs) 
generally taken from the 
Psalms and sung after the 
first prayer in the mass. 
( graduale ) 

gradus , gradus , m . : degree ( as 
in the degree of 

consanguinity which 

prohibits a marriage with- 
out a dispensation) 

granarius, granarii, m.: 
warehouse keeper (especial- 
ly of grain) 

grassarius, grassarii, m.: 
oiler, seller of oil 

gratia, gratiae (gratie), f.: 
grace, the Grace of Christ 
(through which many Chris- 
tians believe that mankind 
may be saved from sin and 
death); also, a gift, 
gratitude for a gift 
(gracia) 

gravamen, gravaminis, n. : 
grievance , in j ury 

graviditas, graviditatis, f.: 
pregnancy 

gravis, grave, adj.: heavy, 
severe 

graviter, adv.: severely, 
heavily 



383 



gubernator, gubernatoris , m. : 

governor (cl. Latin: 
steersman, helmsman) 
gubemo , gubernare , gubemavi , 
gubernatum (1): govern, 
direct, control (cl. Latin: 
steer a ship) 



H 



habeo, habere, habui , habituin 
(2): have, hold; se habere 
male: to be badly off, be 
sick 

habitans, habitantis, m. or 
f.: resident, inhabitant 

habitator, habitatoris, m. : 
inhabitant, resident, 

tenant 

habito, habitare, habitavi , 
habitatum (1): dwell, 
reside, live in 

haeretica, haereticae (haere- 
tice) , f.: heretic (female) 
[heretica] 

haereticus, haeretici, m.: 
heretic (male) [hereticus] 

hastis, hastis, f.: spear 
( hasta ) 

hebdomada, hebdomadae (hebdo- 
made) , f.: a week (Greek); 
the week in the Christian 
calendar came to consist of 
Sunday, the day of rest 
transferred from the Jewish 
Sabbath to the first day of 
the week to commemorate the 
Resurrection; the Jewish 
fasts of Tuesday and Thurs- 
day were transferred to 
Wednesday (the day of the 
betrayal of Christ) and 
Friday (the day of the 
Crucifixion). Thursday 
celebrated the Ascension 
and the institution of the 
Eucharist, and Saturday was 
eventually dedicated to the 
Blessed Virgin Mary. 

helvetia, helvetiae 

(helvetie), f.: a Swiss 
(female) 



helvetius, helvetii, m. : a 

Swiss (male) 
hereditatio, hereditationis , 

f.: inheritance 
heres, heredis, m. or f.: heir 
heri, adv.: yesterday 
heroice, adv.: heroically, as 

a hero 
heu, interjection: alas! woe!, 

oh ! whew ! 
hie, haec, hoc (gen. sing: 

huius, dat. sing.: huic) , 

pronoun or pronominal adj . : 

this , the latter 
hiems, hiemis, f.: winter 

( hiemps ) 
hinc, adv. : hence 
hodie, adv. : today 
homo, hominis, m. : man, human 

being 
honestus , honesta, honestum: 

honorable, honest, upright 
hora , horae ( here ) , f . : hour 
hordeum, hordei, n.: barley 

(ordeum) 
horologarius, horolagarii, m. : 

clockmaker 
hortulanus, hortulani, m. : 

gardener ( hortularius ) 
hortus , hortus , m . : garden 
hospes, hospitis, m. : host, 

innkeeper 
hospitium, hospitii, n.: 

residence, hospice, hospi- 
tal, household (hospicium) 
hostis, hostis, m. : enemy (cl. 

Latin: an enemy of the 

Roman city-state rather 

than a personal enemy; see 

also inimicus) 
hujas, hujatis, adj.: of this 

place, local, native, 

indigenous (huias) 
humo, humare, humavi, humatum 

( 1 ) : bury 
humatus , humata, humatum, 

perf. pass. part, of humo: 

buried 
hundredum, hundred! , n.: 

hundred (a county division 

in medieval England) 
humilis, humile, adj.: low, 

humble 



384 



hydrops, hydropsis, m. : dropsy 

I 

ictm (jam) , adv. : already, now 
ibi, adv. : there, in that 

place 
ibidem, adv. : in the same 

place 
idem, eadem, idem, adj . & 
pronoun: the same; eodem 
anno: in the same year; 
eodem die; on the same day; 
eodem mense: in the same 
month 
ideo, adv.: there, on that 

account 
idoneus, idonea, idoneum: 
pleasing, suitable, fit, 
proper ( ydoneus ) 
idus, iduixm, f.: the Ides, in 
the Roman calendar, the 
fifteenth day of the months 
of March, May, July, 
October; the thirteenth day 
of all other months 
igitur, adv.: therefore, then, 

accordingly 
ignis, ignis, m. : fire 
ignosco, ignoscere, ignovi , 
ignotum ( 3 ) : grant pardon 
to, forgive (+ dat.) 
ignotus, ignota, ignotum, 
perf. pass. part, of ignos- 
co : unknown 
ille, ilia, illud (gen. sing: 
illius, dat. sing.: illi) , 
adj. & pronoun: that, the 
former 
illegitimus, illegitima, 

illegitimxim: illegitimate 
immediatus, immediata, imme- 

diatum: immediate 
imminens, imminentis, adj.: 
imminent, impending, 

threatening 
immobilia, immobilium, n. pi.: 

real estate, property 
impatientia, impatientiae 
( impatiente) , f.: impa- 
tience 
impatienter, adv.: impatiently 



impedimentum, impediment i, n.: 

hindrance, impediment 

(e.g., to a marriage) [cl. 
Latin pi.: baggage]; nul- 
logue detecto impedimento 
matrimonio: and no hin- 
drance to the marriage 
having been revealed 
impedimentum consanguinitatis : 
hindrance to a marriage 
caused by a blood relation- 
ship 
impedimentum consanguinitatis 
in secundo (tertio, etc.) 
gradu: hindrance to a 
marriage caused by a blood 
relationship in the second 
(third, etc.) degree, e.g., 
second cousins 

impedimentum dirimentum: a 
diriment hindrance or 
impediment; an external 
fact or circumstance which 
might invalidate or forbid 
a marriage. Such might 
include, for example, 
marriage partner or part- 
ners under legal age, 
previous marriage, marriage 
between Catholic and non- 
Catholic, affinity (see 
under affinitas) , consan- 
guinity (see under consan- 
guinitas) , spiritual ties 
(e.g. , between the sponsor 
or godparent and a baptized 
child), and legal ties. 
Some diriment impediments 
could be set aside by a 
dispensation in canon law. 

imperator, imperatoris, m. : 
emperor 

imperatrix, imperatricis , f.: 
empress 

imperium, imperii, n. : empire, 
power of command 

impero, imperare, imperavi, 
imperatum (1): give order 
to, command (+ dat.) 

imperitus, imperita, imperi- 
tum: unskilled 

imperium, imperii, n. : empire 



385 



impono , imponere, imposux , 
impositum ( 3 ) : impose , put 
upon, place upon 

impositus, imposita, imposi- 
tum, perf . pass. part, of 
impono: imposed, placed 
upon , given 

cui nomen impositum: upon whom 
the name was placed (to 
whom the name was given) 

impraegno , impraegnare, im- 
praegnavi, impraegnatum 
(1): impregnate, make 
pregnant ( impregno ) 

in, prep. + abl . or ace: in, 
inside, on, at, into 

incamatio , incamationis , f . : 
the Incarnation, the as- 
sumption by Jesus Christ of 
a human nature; His appear- 
ance in human (bodily) 
form. 

inchoatus , inchoata , inchoa- 
tum: begun 

incipio, incipere, incepi, 
inceptum ( 3 ) : begin 

inceptus, incepta, inceptum, 
perf. pass. part, of inci- 
pio: begun 

incola, incolae (incole), f.: 
inhabitant, resident 

inconcussus, inconcussa, 
inconcuss\im: unshaken, firm 

incrementium, incrementii, n.: 
Land which has been recent- 
ly cultivated or on which 
cultivation has recently 
begun. 

inde, adv.: thence, thereafter 

indictio , indictionis , f . : the 
indiction: A fifteen-year 
tax cycle in the Roman 
Empire, used also for 
dating medieval documents. 

indulgentia, indulgentiae 
( indulgentie ) , f.: an 
indulgence; the remission 
of punishments for sins. 
Such a remission can apply 
either to a living individ- 
ual or to a soul living in 
purgatory. Indulgences 
have been granted under 
special conditions, and 



were originally rewards for 

meritorious service (such 

as, for example, going on a 

crusade) . 
ineo , inire, inii, initum 

(irregular 4): enter, go 

into 
infans, inf antis , m. (or f.): 

child, infant 
infantia, infantiae 

(infantie), f.: infancy, 

childhood 
inf antulus , infantuli, m.: 

infant, little child 
infero, inferre, intuli, 

illatum (irregular 3): 

bring into, introduce, 

inflict 
infidelis, infidele, adj.: 

unfaithful , untrue 
infirmarius, infirmarii, m. : 

hospital orderly 
infra, adv. & prep. + ace: 

adv.: below, underneath; 

prep.: below, under, later 
inf rascriptus, inf rascripta, 

infrascriptum: undersigned, 

written below 
ingenium, ingenii, n.: trick, 

plot, malice, reason 
ingenuilis, ingenuile, adj.: 

characteristic of a free- 
man, free; also, a land 

holding, a free or mostly 

free holding. 
ingenuus, ingenui, m. : freeman 
ingravesco, ingravescare , 

ingravescavi , ingravescatum 

(1): become heavy, be 

oppressed, be burdened 
ingredior, ingredi, ingressus 

sum (dep. 3): go in, enter 
ingressus, ingressus, m.: 

entrance, entry, right of 

property entry, dues paid 

to entry property 
inhumatus, inhumata, inhuma- 

tum: unburied 
inimicus, inimici, m. : enemy 

(cl. Latin: personal enemy) 
initium, initii, n. : beginning 
ab initio: from the beginning 



386 



iniuria, iniuriae (iniurie), 

f.: injury, wrong, offense 
inquiete, adv. : restlessly 
inscribo , inscribere , inscrip- 

si, inscriptum (3): write 

in, inscribe 
installarius, installarii, m. : 

miner 
institor, institoris, m. : 

grocer (cl. Latin: peddler) 
instituo, instituere, insti- 

tui , institutum ( 3 ) : 

establish, setup 
ins tnimen turn, instrumenti, n. : 

instrument, document, 

finished draft of a notari- 
al contract 
instrvunentum publicum: a draft 

made by a public official 

such as a notary 
instruo , instruere , instruxi , 

instructum (3): instruct, 

arrange , prepare 
insuper, adv.: moreover, in 

addition , above , over 
integer, Integra, integrum: 

whole, entire, fresh 
inter, prep. + ace: between, 

among 
interest, impersonal verb: it 

concerns, it is of impor- 
tance 
interpello, interpellare, 

interpellavi , interpellatum 

(1): complain, interrupt, 

call, call upon in 
interpositum, interposita, 

interpositum: interposed, 

placed between 
interrogo , interrogare , inter- 

rogavi , interrogatum ( 1 ) : 

question, interrogate 
intersum , interesse , inter fui : 

be present at, take part in 
intestatus, intestata, intes- 

tatum: intestate (died 

without making a valid 

will) 
intra, prep. + ace: within, 

during 
intro, intrare, intravi, 

intratum (1): enter, go 

into, register 



introductio, introductionis , 

f.: introduction 
introitus, introitus, m.: 

entry, appearance in court, 

first prayer in the mass 

book 
intronizo, intronizare, intro- 

nizavi, intronizatum (1): 

marry, wed 
intumesco , intumescere , intu- 

mui ( 3 ) : swell up 
invenio, invenire, inveni, 

inventum (4): find, discov- 
er 
ipse, ipsa, ipsum, adj. & 

pronoun: he, she, it; 

himself, herself, itself 
ira, irae, f.: anger, wrath 
is, ea, id, adj. & pronoun: 

he, she, it; this, that 
iste, ista, istud, adj. & 

pronoun : this 
ita, adv.: so, thus 
item, adv. : likewise 
iter, itineris, n.: journey, 

trip 
iter facere: to take a trip 
itertun, adv.: again 



jaceo, jacere, jacui, jacitu- 

rus (2): lie, recline, lie 
down ( iaceo ) 

jacio, jacere, jeci, j actum 
( 3 ) : hurl , throw ( iacio ) 

janitor, janitoris, m. : door- 
keeper, porter, janitor, 
the lowest of the minor 
ecclesiastical orders 

jejuno, jejunare, jejunavi, 
jejunatum (1): fast ( ieiu- 
no) 

jejunium, jejunii, n.: a fast 
( ieiunium) 

Caput Jejunii: Ash Wednesday 
(first day of the observ- 
ance of the 40 days of Lent 
during which ashes [gener- 
ally of palms] are marked 
on the forehead in the form 
of a cross; a moveable 
feast day) 



387 



Jesus, Jesus, m. : a Latinized 
form of the Greek lesous : 
Jesus ( in Hebrew and Arama- 
ic, Joshua [English spell- 
ing]); irregular declen- 
sion--gen.: Jesu, dat.: 
Jesu, ace.: Jesum, abl.: 
Jesu) 

jubeo, jubere, jussi, jussum 
( 2 ) : order , command ( iubeo ) 

jubilaeus, jubilaei, m. : fifty 
years, jubilee 

judex, judicis, m. : judge 

judicium, judicii, n.: 
judgment, trial, court, 
lawsuit, tribunal 

jungo, jungere, junxi, junctum 
(3): join, unite, marry 
( iungo ) 

junior, comparative of juve- 
nis: younger, junior 

juramentum, juramenti, n.: 
oath ( iur amen turn) 

juratus, jurata, juratum: 
legal , lawful 

jure, adv. : legally, lawfully 

jure, jurare, juravi, juratum 
(1): swear, take an oath 

jus, juris, n.: law, right, 
legal statute 

jus civile: civil law 

jusjurandum, jusjurandi, n.: 
oath 

justiciarius, justiciarii, m. : 
judge, justice 

justifico, justificare, justi- 
ficavi, justificatum (1): 
execute, acknowledge a bill 
as correct, justify 

justitia, justitiae 
( justitie) , f.: justice 

Justus, justa, Justus: just, 
legal, lawful 

juvat, impersonal verb: it 
pleases (iuvat) 

juvenis, juvenis, m. or f.: 
young man or young woman, 
young person ( iuvenis ) 

juvo, juvare, juvavi, juvatvim 
( 1) : help, assist 

juxta, adv. & prep. + ace: 
close to, next to (iuxta) 



Kalendae , see Calendae 
I. 

Icibor, labi, lapsus sum (dep. 

3): glide, slip, slide, 

fall down 
labor, laboris, m.: work, 

labor 
laborator, laboratoris, m.: 

worker, day laborer 
laboriosa, laboriosae, f.: 

worker (female) 
laborius, laborii, m. : worker, 

laborer, manual laborer 
laboro, laborare, laboravi, 

laboratum (1): work, labor, 

toil 
labrum, labri, n. : lip 
lacrima, lacrlmae (lacrime), 

f . : a tear 
lactarius, lactarii, m.: 

seller of milk 
lacuna, lacunae (lacune), f.: 

gap, hole, cavity 
laetitia, laetitiae 

(laetitie), f.: joy, de- 
light ( letitia ) 
laginarius, laginarii, m. : 

potter, bottle maker 
lagena, lagenae (lagene), f.: 

a gallon 
laminarius, laminarii, m.: 

lead smith 
lana, lanae (lane), f.: wool 
laniator, laniatoris, m.: 

butcher 
lanifex, lanificis, m. : armor- 
er, weapon maker 
lanius, lanii, m. : butcher 
lapidarius, lapidarii, m.: 

stone mason 
lapis, lapidis, m. : a stone 
lapsus, lapsus, m.: slip, 

fall, error 
largior, largiri, largitus sum 

(dep. 4): give freely, 

bestow abundantly 
latus, lata, latum: wide 
laus, laudis, f.: praise 



388 



lavo, lavare, lavavi, lautum 
(1): wash, baptize 

lautus, lauta, lautum, perf . 
pass. part. of lavo: 
washed, baptized 

lavacrum, lavacri, n.: laver, 
ewer, wash basin, font, 
baptism (lavacrium) 

lectulum, lectuli, n.: bed, 
sickbed 

lectus, lecti, in.: bed 

lectus funerarius: funeral 
bed, coffin 

legalis, legale, adj.: legal, 
lawful 

legatum, legati , n.: legacy, 
inheritance 

lego, legare, legavi, legatum 
(1): bequeath, donate, 
leave 
lego, legere, lexi, lectum 
( 3 ) : read 

levo, levare, levavi, levatum 
(1): raise, lift up, raise 
up from the baptismal font, 
i.e., act as a godparent 

levans, levantis, m. or f.: 
godparent (the one raising 
the child from the baptis- 
mal font) 

levcintes, m. pi.: godparents 

levis, leve, adj.: light 

lex, legis, f.: law, statute 

libellus, libelli, m. : accusa- 
tion (usually written) 

liber, libri, m. : book, regis- 
ter 

liber baptizatorum: baptismal 
register 

liber defunctonim: register of 
the deceased 

liber matrimoniorum (copulato- 
rum) : marriage register 

liber sepultorum: burial 
register 

liber baro , liberi baronis, 

m. : baron, free baron 
liber rusticus, liberi rusti- 

ci, m. : free peasant 
liberi, liberorum, m. pi.: 

children, freemen 
liber, libera, liberum: free 



libet, impersonal verb: it is 

pleasing 
Libitina, Libitinae 

(Libitine), f.: the Roman 

goddess of the dead 
libitinarius , libitinaria, 

libitinarium: dead; as a 

noun: a dead person 
libra, librae (libre), f.: 

pound (money and weight) 
licentia, licentiae 

(licentie), f.: approval, 

permission, ecclesiastical 

permission 
licet, impersonal verb: it is 

permitted, it is allowed 
licite, adv. : lawfully 
lictor, lictoris, m.: town 

official (cl. Latin: a 

lictor, one who attended a 

Roman magistrate) 
ligata, ligatae (ligate), f.: 

wife 
ligatus, ligati, m. : husband 
lignarius, lignarii, m.: 

carpenter, joiner, cabinet 

maker 
lignarius, lignaria, lignari- 

um: relating to wood, 

forest 
ligniam, ligni, n.: wood 
ligo, ligare, ligavi, ligatum 

( 1 ) : bind , tie , join, 

unite , marry 
linifex, linificis, m. : linen 

weaver 
lis, litis, f.: law suit 
litania, litaniae (litanie), 

f.: litany (Greek), a type 

of prayer sung or recited 

by a deacon, priest, or 

cantor. 
linteo, linteonis, m. : weaver 

(especially of linen) 
litterae (littere), littera- 

rum, f. pi.: letter, 

epistle 
liturgia, liturgiae 

(liturgie), f.: liturgy, 

divine service, public 

worship 
loculifex, loculificis, m.: 
casket maker 



389 



loculus, loculi, m. : a little 

box, coffin 
locus, loci, m. : place 
loci, locorum, m. pi.: related 

spaces , neighbors 
longaevus, longaeva, longae- 

vum: aged, old, long (as in 

long-lived) 
longe, adv. : far off 
longo tempore: for a long time 
longus, longa, longvun: long 
loquor, loqui, locutus sum 

(dep. 3): speak 
lorarius, lorarii, m. : saddler 
ludimagister , ludimagistri , 

m. : schoolmaster, teacher 
lumen, luminis, n.: light, 

candle 
lustrvun, lustri, n.: period of 

five years 
lux, lucis, f-: light; prima 

luce: at first light 



H 



madef acio , madef acere , madef e- 

ci, madef actum (3): make 

wet, moisten, soak 
madef actus , madef acta , made- 

f actum, perf. pass. part. 

of madef acio: soaked, made 

wet 
magis, adv. : more 
magister, magistri, m.: 

teacher, master (as a 

title) 
magistratus, magistratus, m. : 

magistrate 
magnopere, adv. : greatly 
magnus, magna, magnum: large, 

great 
major, majoris, m.: mayor 

( maior ) 
major, majoris, adj.: greater 

(comparative of magnus) 

[maior] 
male, adv. : badly, excessively 
maleator, maleatoris, m.: 

blacksmith 
malignus, maligna, malignum: 

evil, bad 
malo, malle, malui (irregular 

3): prefer, wish rather 



malus, mala, malum: bad, evil 

mandatum, mandati , n.: order, 
mandate , commandment 

manduco , manducare , manducavi , 
manducatixm ( 1 ) : eat , gorge , 
swallow rapidly 

mane, adv. : in the morning 

maneo , manere, mansi, mansum 
(2): remain, dwell 

mcinuop>era (see meinuopus ) 

manuopus , manuoperis, n. : 
manual labor (manus opus) 
required as part of the 
service a peasant might owe 
to his lord; usually found 
in the plural manuopera. 

mansio, mansionis, f.: dwell- 
ing place, room, mansion 

mansus, mansus, m. : piece of 
land, manor, manse, 

dwelling, house, homestead, 
homestead plus land, 
independent estate, manori- 
al holding, a manor (i.e., 
manor house, dependent 
holdings, land, etc.) 
(mansus, mansi; mansum, 
mansi) 

manus , mcinus , f . : hand , band 

manus mortuus : mortmain 
(possession of property by 
a religious or other corpo- 
ration; property left to 
such a corporation for use 
in perpetuity. ) 

manu propria: (signed) by 
one's own hand 

marca, marcae (marce), f.: 
coin, silver money, mark 

marchio, marchionis, m.: 
district count 

mare, maris, n. : sea 

marita, maritae (marite) , f.: 
wife, married woman 

marito, maritare, maritavi , 
mciritatum ( 1 ) : marry 

maritus, mariti, m. : husband, 
married man 

mariti, maritorum, m. pi.: 
married couple 

masculinus, masculina, mascu- 
linum: male, masculine 



390 



masculus, mascula, masculum: 
male, masculine 

mater , matris , f . : mother 

mater meretrix: mother of an 
illegitimate child 

maternus , materna, maternum: 
maternal, mother's side of 
a family 

matertera , materterae ( mater- 
tere) , f.: aunt (mother's 
sister) 

matertera magna: great-aunt 
(grandmother's sister) 

matertera maior: great-great- 
aunt (great-grandmother's 
sister) 

matertera maxima: great-great- 
great-aunt (great-great- 
grandmother's sister) 

matricula, matriculae (matri- 
cule) , f.: parish register 

matrimonium, matrimonii, n.: 
marriage, matrimony 

matrina, matrinae (matrine) , 
f . : godmother 

mature , adv . : soon , too soon , 
prematurely 

matutinus , matutina , matuti- 
num: morning (as an 
adjective), of, or pertain- 
ing to, the morning, early 
in the morning 

maximus, maxima, maximum: 
greatest (superlative of 
magnus ) 

medicus, medici, m. : physician 

medius, media, medium: middle 

melio, melius, adj.: better 
(comparative of bonus) 

mendicus, mendica, mendicum: 
poor, indigent 

mendicus , mendici , m . : beggar 

mensa, mensae (mense), f.: 
table 

mens , mentis , f . : mind 

mense: in the month (of) 

mensis, mensis, m. : month; ab 
hoc mense: from this month 
(on) 

mercator, mercatorxs, m.: 
merchant, trader 

mercenarius, mercenarii, m. : 
day laborer 



meretrix, meretricis, f.: 
prostitute, harlot 

meridianus, meridiana, merid- 
ianum: noon, midday (as an 
adjective), of, or relating 
to, midday 

meridies, meridiei, m. or f.: 
noon; ante meridiem: before 
noon (a.m.); post meridiem: 
after noon (p.m. ) 

metallarius, metallarii, m.: 
miner 

meus , mea meum: mine (posses- 
sive adj . ) 

miles, militis, m.: soldier, 
knight 

miles gregarius: private 
soldier, mercenary 

minime, adv. : least 

minimus, minima, minimum: 
least, little, small 
(superlative of parvus) 

ministeriales , ministerialixim, 
m. pi.: vassals, ministers, 
officials 

mirabilis, mirabile, adj.: 
wonderful , marvelous 

mirus, mira, mirum: wonderful, 
astonishing 

miser, misera, miserum: miser- 
able, wretched, unfortunate 

miserabilis, miserabile, adj . : 
miserable, wretched, de- 
plorable 

miseratio, miserationis , f.: 
pity, compassion 

miseret, impersonal verb: it 
is a pity to (me, etc.), I, 
etc., pity (me miseret) 

misericordia, misericordiae 
(misercordie) , f.: mercy, 
amercement (punishment by a 
fine in an amount fixed by 
the court) 

miserrime, .adv.: miserably, 
poorly, very miserably, 
verby poorly 

missa, missae (misse), f.: 

mass 
missa cotidiana: daily mass 



391 



missa sollemnis: a solemn 
mass, also called a high 
mass, characterized by the 
appearance of a deacon and 
sub-deacon to assist the 
priest or other official 
celebrating the mass. 

missae sollemnes: solemn 
masses 

missa de requie (requiem): a 
requiem mass, a mass for 
the dead, which takes its 
name from the opening words 
of the introit. 

mitto, mittere, missi, missum 
( 3 ) : put, place 

mixtus, mixta, mixtum: mixed 
(e.g., a marriage between 
Catholic and Protestant) 

modius, modii, m. : a measure, 
sometimes, a bushel; a 
measure of land, the amount 
of land sown with a modius 
of grain 

mode, adv.: now, only, lately 

mola, molae (mole), f.: mill 
stone, mill 

molitor, molitoris, m. : miller 

monacha, monachae (monache) , 
f . : nun 

monachus , monachi , m . : monk 

moneo , monere , monui , monitum 
(2): warn, advise, summon 

monetarius , monetarii, m. : 
money, coins, a minter of 
coins 

monetarius, monetaria, mone- 
tarium: of, or relating to, 
money or coins 

monialis, monialis, f.: nun 

mens, mentis, m. : mountain 

monumentum, monumenta , n.: 
tomb , monument 

morbus, morbi, m. : disease 

moribundus, moribunda, mori- 
bundum: dead 

morior, mori , mortuus sum 
(dep. 3): die 

mortuus, mortua , mortuum, 
perf . pass. part, of mori- 
or: dead, deceased 

mors , mortis , f . : death 



mortalis, mortale, adj . : 
mortal 

mos , moris, m. : custom, man- 
ner; more novo: by the new 
style (of dating, i.e., the 
Gregorian calendar); more 
vetere: by the old style 
(of dating, i.e., the 
Julian calendar) ; pro more: 
according to custom 

mox, adv.: soon, then, there- 
upon 

mulier, mulieris, f.: woman, 
wife 

multus, multa, multum: many, 
much 

multum, adv. : many 

mundus, mundi, m. : world 

munio, munire, munivi, munitum 
(4): fortify, strengthen, 
fortify with the last 
rites ; omnibus sacramentis 
defunctorum (morienbundo- 
rum) rite munitus/a: having 
been properly fortified 
(i.e., provided with) all 
of the sacraments of the 
dead (for the dead) 

mureirius, murarii, m. : mason 

murus, muri, m. : wall 

mutuus, mutua, mutuum: mutual, 
common; muto consenu: by 
mutual (common) consent 



N 



narro, narrare, narravi, 

narratum (1): relate, tell 
nascor, nasci, natus sum (dep. 

3 ) : be born 
natus, nata, natum, perf. 

pass. part, of nascor: born 
natales, natalium, m. pi.: 

birth 
natalis, natale, adj.: of, or 

relating to, birth, natal 
nativitas, nativitatis, f.: 

birth, especially the birth 

of Christ, the Nativity 
nauclerus, naucleri, m.: 

ferryman, pilot (ship) 
naufragium, naufragii, n.: 

shipwreck 



392 



nauta, nautae (naute), in.: 
sailor 

navis, navis, f.: ship 

ne, conj . : lest, so that . . . 
not 

nee (neque), conj.: neither, 
and not 

nee . . . nee: neither . . . 
nor 

neeesse est, impersonal verb: 
it is necessary 

necessitas, necessitatis, f.: 
necessity; necessitate 
baptismo: (baptized by 
means of) an emergency 
baptism 

neenon, adv.: and also, and 
indeed 

neeto, neetere, nexi, neetum 
(3): bind, connect 

negligentia, negligentiae 
(negligentie) , f.: negli- 
gence , neglect 

negotiator, negotiatoris , m. : 
merchant ( commerce ) 

negotium, negotii, n.: busi- 
ness 

nemo, neminis , m. or f.: no 
one 

neophyta, neophytae 

(neophyte), f.: newly 
baptized female (Greek) 

neophytus , neophyti , m . : newly 
baptized male (Greek) 

neosponsa, neosponsae (neos- 
ponse), f.: newlywed 
(female, Greek and Latin) 

neosponsus, neosponsi, m.: 
newlywed (male, Greek and 
Latin) 

nepos, nepotis, m. : grandson 
nephew 

nepos ex filia: daughter's son 
(grandson from the daugh- 
ter's side) 

nepos ex filio: son's son 
(grandson from the son's 
side) 

nepos ex fratre: nephew (from 
the brother's side) 

nepos ex sorore: nephew (from 
the sister's side) 



neptis, neptis, f.: grand- 
daughter, niece 

neptis ex filia: daughter's 
daughter (granddaughter 
from the daughter's side) 

neptis ex filio: son's daugh- 
ter (granddaughter from the 
son's side) 

neptis ex fratre: niece (from 
the brother's side) 

neptis ex sorore: niece (from 
the sister's side) 

nescio, nescire, nescivi, 
nescitum (4): not to know, 
be ignorant (of); se nes- 
cire: with the reflexive 
se: he himself, she herself 
does not know, they them- 
selves do not know 

netrix, netrieis, f.: seam- 
stress 

neuter, neutra, neutrum: 
neither (gen. sing.: neu- 
trius, dat. sing. : neutri) 

nisi, conj.: unless, except, 
if not 

noceo, noeere, nocui , noeitum 
(2): do harm to, harm (+ 
dat. ) 

nodarius, nodarii, m. : button 
maker 

nolo, nolle, nolui (irregular 
3): be unwilling, not wish 

nomen, nominis, n. : name 

nomen nescio: name unknown 
(literally: I do not know 
the name. ) 

non, adv.: not, no 

nondum, adv. : not yet 

norma, normae (norme), f.: 
standard, rule, norm; juxta 
normam: according to the 
rule, norm 

nos, personal pronoun: we, us 

nosco, noscere, novi, notum 
(3): know (be acguainted 
with) 

notus , nota, notum, perf . 
pass. part, of nosco: known 

noster, nostra, nostrum, 
possessive adj . : our 

notarius, notarii, m. : notary 



393 



noto , notare , notavi , notatvun 
( 1 ) : note , make , denote 

notus, noti, m. : illegitimate 
ma 1 e ( gno thus ) 

novena , novenae ( novene ) , f . : 
a cycle of prayers covering 
a nine-day period 

noverca , novercae ( noverce ) , 
f • : stepmother 

novercus, noverci, m. : stepfa- 
ther 

novicus, novici, m. : novice, 
beginner, monastic novice, 
i.e., a member of a monas- 
tery or religious order 
with a probationary status 
who follows the rules of 
the order but is not yet 
admitted to full member- 
ship. 

novicus, novica, novicum: 
harmful 

nevus, nova, novum: new; de 
novo: anew, from the begin- 
ning 

nox, noctis, f.: night; nocte: 
at night 

nubo, nubare, nubavi, nubatum 
( 1 ) : marry 

nudius tertius: three days 
earlier (nunc dies tertius) 

nullus, nulla, nullum: no, 
none (gen. sing. : nullius; 
dat. sing.: nulli) 

nunc , adv • : now 

nuncupo , nuncupare , nuncupavi , 
nuncupatum (1): name, call 
by name, announce orally 

nundinator, nundinatoris , m. : 
seller at a market or fair 

nunguam, adv. : never 

nuntius, nuntii, m.: 

messenger, papal legate 
(usually accredited to a 
civil government [nuncius] ) 

nuper, adv.: lately, newly 
dead (may also be used to 
indicate a former resident 
of a town or village) 

nuptialis, nuptiale, adj.: of, 
or relating to, marriage 

nurus, nurus, f.: daughter-in- 
law 



ob, prep. + ace: on account 
of, for, according to 

obdormio, obdormire, obdor- 
mivi, obdonnitum (4): fall 
asleep, die 

obeo, obire, obii, obitum 
(irregular 4): die, depart, 
go away 

obitus, obitus, m. : death 

oblata, oblatae (oblate), f.: 
a female oblate (see obla- 
tus) 

oblatio, oblationis, f: offer- 
ing, oblation 

oblatus, oblati, m. : an 
oblate, a child dedicated 
to a monastery by its 
parents; also, a lay person 
living in a monastery 
without taking the full 
religious vows. 

obligatio, obligationis, f.: 
obligation, debt 

oblitum, obliti, n. : oblation, 
offering (may also refer to 
an offering made for masses 
for the dead [oblatum] ) 

obstetrix, obstetricis, f.: 
midwife 

obtineo, obtinere, obtenui , 
obtentum (2): obtain, 
possess (optineo) 

obventio, obventionis, f.: 
revenue , income ( obvencio ) 

occasus, occasus, m. : sunset, 
setting, downfall 

occasus soils: sunset 

occido, occidere, occidi, 
occisum (3): kill, slay 

occurro, occurrere, occurri, 
occursxim ( 3 ) : occur , happen 

oculus, oculi, m. : eye 

odiiim, odii, n. : hate 

oeconomus , oeconomi , m.: 
farmer, estate owner, lord 
of a manor, innkeeper, 
economist (Greek; also, 
economus ) 

offero, offerre, obtuli, 
oblatum (irregular 3): 
offer, bring, bestow 



394 



officium, officii, n.: office, 

duty, position 
officium divinum altaris: a 

worship service (divine 

service) at the church 

altar 
of f ertorium, offertorii: an 

offering of money placed 

upon the church altar; 

also, the offertory, a part 

of the mass. 
oleum, olei, n. : oil 
oleum sanctum: holy oil used 

for anointing the sick as 

part of the last sacraments 

or rites. 
olim, adv.: once, formerly, 

deceased 
olla, ollae (olle), f.: jar, 

pot 
omitto, omittere, omissi, 

omissum (3): omit, leave 

out 
oBinino, adv. : entirely, wholly 
omnipotens , gen . omnipotentis : 

almighty, all powerful 
oninis, omne, adj.: all, every 
onero, onerare, oneravi , 

oneratum (1): load, burden, 

oppress 
operarius, operarii, m. : day 

laborer, hand worker 
operatio, operationis, f.: 

operation 
opilio, opilionis, m. : sheep- 
herder 
opticus, optici, m. : optician, 

maker of glasses 
optima, adv. : best, most well 
optimus, optima, optimum: 

highest, best (superlative 

of bonus) 
opto, optare, optavi, optatum 

(1): wish for, desire, hope 

for, choose, elect 
oportet, impersonal verb: it 

is necessary 
opus, operis, n. : labor, work, 

deed 
oratorium, oratorii, n.: 

oratory, chapel, chapel 

next to a church, parish 

church 



orba, orbae (orbe), f.: orphan 

( female ) 
orbus, orbi , m. : orphan (male) 
ordinarius, ordinaria, ordi- 

narivun: ordinary, regular 
ordinatio, ordinationis , f.: 

decree, regulation, ordina- 
tion, ordinance 
ordino, ordinare, ordinavi , 

ordinatum (1): ordain, 

arrange, appoint 
ordo, ordinis, m. : rank, rule, 

order, an order of monks or 

nuns, a religious order 
organista, organistae (orga- 

niste), m.: organ builder, 

organist 
origo, originis, f.: origin, 

birth 
orior, ori , ortus sum ( dep . 

4): rise, arise, be born 
oriundus, oriunda, oriundum: 

originating from, born 
oro , orare , oravi , oratum ( 1 ) : 

ask, pray, beg 
ortus, ortus, m. : birth, 

origin, dawn 
OS , oris , n . : mouth 
ostendo, ostendere, ostendi , 

ostentum (3): show, exhib- 
it, display 
ovis , ovis , f . : sheep 
ovis matrix (gen.: matricis) : 

a female sheep, ewe 
ovo , ovare , ovavi , ovatum ( 1 ) : 

celebrate, exult 
ovum, ovi, n.: egg 



pacto , pactare, pactavi , 

pactatum ( 1 ) : make a 

contract, contract, join 

together, bargain 
pactum, pacti , n.: contract 

( pacta , pactae , f . ) 
paedagogus , paedagogi , m.: 

teacher, tutor (Greek) 

[ pedagogus ] 
paenitentia, paenitentiae 

(paenitentie) , f.: penance 

(penitentia) 



395 



paenitet, impersonal verb: I, 
etc., regret (me paenitet) 

pagina , paginae ( pagine ) , f . : 
page (of a book, register, 
etc. ) 

pagus , pagi, m . : village, 
district 

palam, adv.: openly, publicly 

palatium, palatii, n.: palace 
(palacium) 

panis, panis, m. : bread 

pannifex, pannificis, in.: 
cloth worker 

pannitonsor, pannitonsoris , 
m. : cloth cutter 

pannus, panni, m. : cloth 

papa, papae ( pape ) , m.: the 
pope 

par, paris, adj.: equal 

paratorium, paratorii, n.: 
drapes, tapestry (paratto- 
rium, preatorium, paratu- 
ria) 

parens, parentis, m. or f.: 
parent 

parentes , parentium, m. pi.: 
parents 

peirentes spirituales: spiritu- 
al parents, godparents, 
sponsors 

pareo, parere, parui, paritum 
(2): be obedient to, obey 
(+ dat. ) 

pariochialis, parochiale, 
adj.: parish (as an adjec- 
tive), parochial 

pariter, adv. : equally, also 

paro, parare, paravi, paratum 
(1): prepare, furnish, 
provide 

parochia, parochiae 

(parochie) , f.: parish 

parochialis, parochiale, adj.: 
parish, parochial 

parochiana, parochianae 
(parochiane) , f.: parish- 
ioner (female) 

parochianus, parochiani, m. : 
parishioner (male) 

parochiani, m. pi.: parishion- 
ers 

parochus, parochi, m. : priest, 
parish priest 



pars , partis , f . : part 
parsona , parsonae , f . : parson 
partus, partus, f.: birth, 

childbirth 
parum, adv. : a little, a 

little past (of time) 
parvulus, parvula, parvulum: 

very small, little 
parvus, parva, parvum: small, 

little 
Pascha, Paschae (Pasche), f.: 

Easter Sunday 
pastio , pastionis , f . : pannage 
(land or grain set aside for 

feeding animals [usually 

pigs]); sometimes, a wooded 

area set aside so that pigs 

could feed on acorns from 

the oak trees . ) 
pascua, pascuae (pascue), f.: 

pasture (pascuum) 
passim, adv.: here and there, 

continuously 
pastor, pastoris, m.: 

shepherd, pastor, parish 

priest 
pastor anserum: gooseherd 
pastor ovium: sheepherder 
pastor pecorum: cattle herder 
pastor porcorum: pig herder 
patella, patellae, f.: pan 
pateo, patera, patui (2): be 

open , evident 
pater, patris, m. : father 
patres, patrum, m. pi.: fore- 
fathers , ancestors 
paternus, paterna, paternum: 

paternal 
patet, impersonal verb: it is 

known, evident, open, plain 
patientia, patientiae, f.: 

patience 
patior, pati, passus sum (dep. 

3): suffer, undergo 
patria, patriae (patrie), f.: 

fatherland, native land 
patrimonium, patrimonii, n.: 

patrimony, inheritance 
patrina, patrinae (patrine) , 

f . : godmother 
patrinus, patrini , m. : godfa- 
ther 
patrini, m. pi.: godparents 



396 



patronus, patroni, m. : protec- 
tor, patron 

patuerlis, patuerlis, m . : 
cousin (from father's 
brother) 

patruus , patrui , m.: uncle 
(father's brother) 

patruus magnus : great-uncle 
(grandfather's brother) 

patruus maior: great-great- 
uncle (great-grandfather's 
brother) 

patruus maximus: great-great- 
great-uncle (great-great- 
grandfather's brother) 

paulatim, adv.: gradually, 
little by little 

pauper, pauperis, adj . : poor 

pauperitas , pauperitatis , f . : 
poverty 

pax, pacis, f.: peace 

peccamen, peccaminis, n. (see 
peccatum) 

peccatum, peccati, n.: sin 

pecia, peciae (pecie), f.: 
portion, piece 

pectenarius, pectenarii, m. : 
comb maker 

pellifex, pellificis, m.: 
tanner, furrier 

pellis, pellis, f.: skin, hide 

penes, prep. + ace: in the 
possession of 

penulatus, penulata, 

penulatum: lined with fur, 
furred 

penultimus , penultima , penul- 
timvun: next to last 

per, prep. + ace: through, by 
means of, by, for 

perapsis, perapsidis, f.: 
platter, dish (parapsis, 
paropsis) 

percutio, percutere, percussi, 
percussum ( 3 ) : strike , hit , 
beat, pierce 

perdo, perdere, perdidi, 
perditum (3): lose, be 
destroyed 

perditus, perdita, perditum, 
perf. pass, part of perdo: 
lost, ruined, destroyed 



perendie, adv.: the day after 

tomorrow 
pereo, perire, perii, peritum 

(irregular 4): perish, die 
perfecte, adv.: completely, 

perfectly 
perfero, perferre, pertuli, 

perlatum (irregular 3): 

bear, suffer, endure 
perficio, perficere, perf eci , 

perf ectum ( 3 ) : complete , do 

thoroughly 
pergamentar ius , pergamentar i i , 

m. : parchment maker 
periculum, periculi, n. : 

danger 
peripneumonia, peripneumoniae 

(peripneumonie) , f.: pneu- 
monia, pleurisy (Greek) 
peritus, perita, peritum: 

skilled 
pennuto , permutare , jjermutavi , 

permutatum ( 1 ) : exchange , 

change 
perpetuus , perpetua , perpetu- 

um: perpetual; in perpetuo: 

forever, perpetually (in 

perpetutim) 
persolvo, persolvere, per- 

solvi, persolutum (3): pay 
persuadeo , persuadere , persua- 

si, persuasum (2): make 

sweet to, persuade (+ dat. ) 
pertica, perticae (pertice), 

f.: perch (a measure of 

land in England) 
pes, pedis, m. : foot 
pestis, pestis, f.: plague, 

pestilence 
peto, peter e, petii (petivi), 

petitum (3): inquire, seek, 

ask, request, demand 
pharmacopolius, pharmacopolii, 

m. : pharmacy (Greek origin) 
pictor, pictoris, m. : painter 
pie, adv.: piously 
pie in domino obiit: he/she 

died piously in the Lord 
pietas, pietatis, f.: piety, 

devotion, charity, alms, 

mercy 



397 



piget, impersonal verb: it 

repents (me, etc. ) , it 

displeases (me, etc.)/ I# 

etc., repent, I, etc., am 

displeased 
pileator, pileatoris, m. : hat 

maker 
piscator, piscatoris, m.: 

fisherman 
pistor, pistoris, m. : baker 
pitantia, pitantiae, f.: an 

extra allowance for monks 

(pittantia, pittancia) 
plus, pia, plum: devout, pious 
pius (locus): a holy place 
plango, plangere, planxi, 

planctum (3): mourn, wail, 

weep, beat, strike 
planto, plantare, plantavi, 

plantatim ( 1 ) : plant 
planus, plana, planum: wide, 

open , level 
platea, plateae (platee), f.: 

street (Greek) 
plenus, plena, plenum: full, 

full of 
plerusque, pleraque, pler- 

umgue: very many, a large 

part 
plurimus, plurima, plurimum: 

most 
plus, pluris, adj.: more 

(comparative of multus) 
pluvia, pluviae (pluvie) , f.: 

rain 
pocillator, pocillatoris, m. : 

bartender 
poena, poenae (poene), f.: 

penalty, punishment, pain 

( pena ) 
poeta, poetae (poete), m.: 

poet 
polentarius, polentarii, m. : 

maker of malt 
pollex, pollicis, m. : an inch, 

thumb, big toe 
pono, ponere, posui , positum 

(3) : put, place 
pontifex maximus: a chief 

priest in ancient Rome; a 

title of the pope (ponti- 
fex, pontificis, m. ) 



pontif icatus , pontif icatus , 

m. : pontificate 

porcus, porci, m. : pig 

porta, portae ( porte ) , f.: 
gate; extra portam: beyond 
the gate (of the church or 
the city, where the poor 
were often buried) 

portarius, portarii, m. : door 
keeper 

posamentarius , posamentarii , 
m. : maker or seller of gold 
lace, haberdasher 

possideo, possidere, possedi, 
possessum (2): possess, 
have, hold, inherit 

possum, posse, potui: can, be 
able (to) 

post, prep. + ace. : after 

postea, adv.: thereafter, 
afterwards 

postguam, adv. : after 

postridie, adv.: on the day 
after, a day later 

potens, potentis, adj.: power- 
ful 

potentia, potentiae 

( potentie ) , f . : power 

potestas , potestatis , f.: 
power 

potior, potiri , potitus sum 
(dep. 4): obtain, get 
possession of (+ abl.) 

potus , potus , m . : drink 

prae, adv. and prep. + abl.: 
before 

praebendarius , praebendarii, 
m. : a prebend, a canon or 
cathedral chapter member 
who lives from a prebend (a 
donation for the sustenance 
of cathedral members [pre- 
bendarius] ) 

praeceptor, praeceptoris , m. : 
teacher (preceptor) 

praeceptor humanorum studio- 
rum: school director 

praecipio , praecipere , praece- 
pi, praeceptum (3): 
instruct, teach (precipio) 

praeclarus, praeclara, prae- 
clarum: famous, illustrious 
( preclarus ) 



398 



praecontractus , praecontrac- 
tus , m. : precontact (e.g., 
a pre-nuptial agreement 
[ precontractus ] ) 

praedictus , praedicta, prae- 
dictum: aforesaid 

( predictus ) 

praedilectus , praedilecta, 
praedilectum: favorably 
disposed (toward), well- 
1 o ved , ( predi lectus ) 

praef actus, praef ecti , m.: 
magistrate (pref actus) 

praefactus axcubiarum: ser- 
geant major, policeman 

praefactus in dome castigator- 
iaa: prison warden 

praefactus laborum: foreman 

praefactus postamtae: postman 

praefactus tribunalium sau 
staurae: tax administrator 

praefactus urbis: mayor 

praefactus vigiliarum civi- 
camm: overseer of the city 
watch 

praafor, praafari, praef atus 
sum (dep. 1): say before- 
hand, tell in advance 
( prefer ) 

praef atus, praef ata, praafa- 
tum, perf. pass. part, of 
praefor: aforesaid 

( pref atus ) 

praef arc, praaferre, praetuli, 
praalatum (irregular 3): 
prefer, bear before (prafa- 
ro) 

praehabito, praehabitare , 
praahabitavi , praahabitatum 
(1): supply, furnish, offer 
( prahabito ) 

praahabitus, praehabita, 
praahabitum, perf. pass, 
part, of praahabito: pre- 
sented, offered, shown 
( prahcibitus ) 

praalatus, praalati, m.: 
prelate, an ecclesiastical 
official 



praemitto, praemittere, prae- 
missi, praemissum (3): send 
before, publish previously 
(marriage banns) [pramitto] 

praenobilis, praenobila, adj.: 
right honorable, noble 
(prenobilis) 

praenominatus , praanominata, 
praenominatum: aforenamed 
( prenominatus ) 

praescriptum, praescripti , n.: 
task, rule (prescriptum) 

praescriptus , praescripta, 
praescriptum: outlined, 
prescribed (prescriptus) 

praesens , praesentis, adj.: 
present (presens) 

praesentibus : in the presence 
of (witnesses), the (wit- 
nesses) being present, by 
these presents (documents) 

praesto , praestara , praastavi , 
praestatum (1): show, 
profess, pledge, lend 
(presto); praestara jura- 
mentum: to take an oath 

praeter, adv. and prep. + 
ace: past, beyond, besides 
( preter ) 

praeterea, adv.: moreover, 
besides (pratara) 

praetor, praetoris, m. : mayor, 
magistrate (cl. Latin: one 
of several Roman magis- 
trates who administered 
justice) 

praetorium, praetorii, n.: 
courthouse (pretorium) 

praavius, praavia, praevium: 
preceding, going before 
( previus ) 

pratum, prati, n.: meadow, 
meadow land 

precarium, precarii, n.: plea, 
boon, precarial grant 

premo, premere, pressi, pras- 
sum (3): press, suppress, 
oppress 



399 



presbyter, presbytri , m . : 
elder (Greek); in the early 
Christina church, an office 
virtually synonymous with 
bishop. Subsequently, 
however, the bishop assumed 
a greater authority. 

presto, prestare , prestavi , 
prestatum (1): profess, 
pledge, show, lend 

pretium, pretii , n.: price 
(precivun) 

prex , precis , f . : prayer 

pridie, adv. : the day before 
yesterday 

primum, adv. : first, firstly, 
at first 

primus, prima, primum: first, 

prior, prioris, m. : prior, the 
assistant to the abbot in a 
monastery 

priorissa, priorissae (prio- 
risse) , f.: prioress 

prius, adv.: before, previous- 
ly 

privigna, privignae 

(privigne) , f.: stepdaugh- 
ter 

privignus, privigni, m.: 
stepson (of a father) 

pro, prep. + abl . : for, 
before, as far as, in 
behalf of 

proamita, proamitae 

(proamite), f.: great-aunt 
(sister of grandmother) 

proavia, proaviae (proavie) , 
f . : great-grandmother 

proavunculus , proavunculi, m. : 
great-uncle (brother of 
grandmother ) 

proavus, proavi , m.: great- 
grandfather 

probo, probare, probavi, 
probatum ( 1 ) : approve 

proclamatio, proclamationis, 
f . : marriage bann 

procurator, procurator is , m. : 
proxy, governor, proxy 
lawyer 



professio, prof essionis , f.: 

profession, declaration, 

confession 
progener , progeneri , m. : 

grandson-in-law (grand- 
daughter's husband) 
progenitus , progenita , 

progenitum: first born 
prohibeo , prohibere , prohibui , 

prohibitum (2): prohibit, 

hold back 
proles, prolis, f.: child, 

offspring (sex unspecified) 
proles spuria: illegitimate 

child 
promatertera (see, matertera 

maior) 
promitto, promittere, pro- 

missi, promissum (3): 

promise 
pronepos , pronepotis , m.: 

great-grandson 
proneptis, proneptis , f.: 

great-granddaughter 
pronirrus , pronurus , f . : grand- 
daughter-in-law (grandson's 

wife) 
propatruus (see, patruus 

maior) 
prope, prep. + ace. : near 
propinator, propinatoris , m. : 

tenant farmer 
propinquus , propinqua , propin- 

guum: neighboring, near 
proprius , propria, proprium: 

private, one's own 
propter, prep. + ace.: on 

account of , because of 
propter aetatem: on account of 

age 
prosocer ( see , socer magnus ) 
prosocrus (see, socrus magna) 
protomartyr, protomartyr, m. : 

the first martyr, St. 

Stephen (Greek) 
prout, adv.: just as, as 
proventus , proventus , m.: 

income , revenue 
provideo , providere , provisi , 

provisum (2): provide, 

foresee 



400 



provincia, provinciae, f.: 

province; a number of 

dioceses in close geograph- 
ic proximity; a province in 

the Roman Empire. 
proximitas, proximitatis, f.: 

next of kin, neighbor, 

nearness, vicinity 
pubes , pubis , f . : youth , young 

adult 
pudeo , pudere , pudui , puditum 

( 2 ) : to be ashamed 
pudet, impersonal verb: it 

shames (me, etc.), I, etc., 

am ashamed 
pudicus , pudica, pudicum: 

chaste 
puella, puellae (puelle) , f.: 

girl 
puellula, puellulae 

(puellule), f.: little girl 
puer, pueri, m. : boy, child 
puera, puerae (puere), f.: 

girl 
puerperium, puerperii, n.: 

childbirth 
pulvinarium, pulvinarii, n. : 

pillow, cushion 
punio, punire, punivi (punii), 

punitum ( 4 ) : punish 
pupilla, papillae (pupille), 

f.: orphan (female) 
pupillus, pupillis, m. : orphan 

(male) 
purgatus, purgata, purgatum: 

baptized, purged 
putredo, putredinis, m.: 

rottenness, foulness, 

putrefaction (putridiis) 



Q 



quadraplex, quadraplicis, 

adj . : quadruple 
quadriduum, quadridui , n.: 

period of four days 

quadrupliciter, adv. : quadru- 
ple, four-fold 

quam, adv.: how, than (in 
comparisons) 

quamdiu, adv.: so long as, as 
long as, until 



qucunvis , adv . & con j . : as much 
as possible, very much, 
however much, although 
quando, adv. & conj . : when? 
quantumcumque , adv.: as much 

as 
quantus , quanta, quantum: as 

long as 
quapropter, adv.: wherefore, 

on account of 
quare, adv.: why? 
quarteriumium, quarterii, n.: 
a quarter, one-fourth 
(quartarium) 
quasi, adv.: almost, as if 
quatenus, adv. & conj.: as far 
as, sure, since, that 
(often used in place of 
quod plus the subjunctive 
in medieval Latin) 
--que, enclitic conj.: and 
(added at the end of a 
word ) 
queo, quire, quii, quitum 

(irregular 4): be able 
queror, queri , questus sum 

(dep. 3): complain, lament 
qui, quae, quod, adj. & pro- 
noun : who , which , what 
quicumque, quaecumque, quod- 
cumque: whatsoever, 

whichsoever 
quidam, quaedam, quoddam: a 

certain person or thing 
quilibet, quaelibet, quodlibet 
(quidlibet): anyone 

(anything) you please, 
anyone anything 
quindena, quindenae 

(quindene), f.: a fifteen- 
day period 
quis, quid, interrogative 

pronoun: who? which? what? 
quisquam, quaequam, quidquaro: 

anyone , anything 
quisque, quaeque , quodque 
(quidque) : every, everyone, 
everything 
quo, adv.: whereby, so that 
quoad, adv.: with regard to, 

concerning 
quod, conj.: because, on the 
ground that, that 



401 



quomodo , adv. : how, in what 

way 
quondam, adv.: formerly, the 

former, the late 
quoniam, adv.: whereas, since 
quoque, adv. : also 
quotidie, adv.: daily, every 

day 
quousque, adv. : how long, how 

far, until 



ratio , rationis , f . : reason 

ratione, by reason (of) 

recipio, recipere, recepi , 
receptum (3): receive, 
accept 

rector, rectoris, m. : rector, 
school director, pastor or 
parish priest; also, the 
head of a church which is 
not a parish or one used 
for divine services (such 
as a church for pilgrims). 
A cleric who is in charge 
of a seminary or college is 
also a rector. 

regina, reginae (regine), f.: 
queen 

regio, regionis, f.: region, 
district, area 

registrum, registri, n.: 
register 

regius, regia, regium: royal 

regnum, regni, n.: kingdom, 
reign 

rego, regare, regavi, regatum 
(1): guide, regulate, 
direct 

regressus, regressus, m.: 
compensation 

relicta, relictae (relicte), 
f.: widow, survivor (fe- 
male) 

relictus, relicti, m. : widow- 
er, survivor (male) 

relinquo, relinquere, reliqui, 
relictum (3): abandon, 
leave behind 



relictus, relicta, relictum, 

perf. pass. part, of relin- 
quo: left behind, 

abandoned, surviving 
remaneo , remanere , remansi, 

remansum (2): remain, be 

left 
remitto , remittere, remissi, 

remissum (3): give back, 

remit, let go, forgive 
removeo , removere , removi , 

remotum ( 2 ) : remove , take 

out 
renatus , renata , renatum: 

baptized 
renovo , renovare , renovavi , 

renovatum (1): renew, 

renovate, beautify 
reparator, reparatoris, m.: 

repairer 
reparator platearum: street 

repairer 
reparator tegularum in tectis: 

roofer, repairer of roof 

tiles 
requiesco, requiescere, 

requievi, requietum (3): 

rest, repose; requiescat in 

pace: rest in peace! 

(requiescat in pacem) 
res, rei, f.: thing, matter 
resignatus, resignata, resig- 

natum: resigned 
respectus, respectus, m.: 

adjournment, postponement 
respondeo , respondere , respon- 

si, responsum (2): answer, 

respond 
respublica, respublicae, f. 

Christiana: the Christian 

commonwealth (i.e., the 

body of Christianity) 
restiarius, restiarii, m.: 

rope maker 
retiarius, retiarii, m. : maker 

of nets 
reticulator , reticulatoris , m . 

tibialium: stocking maker 
retineo, retinere, retinui , 

retentum (2): hold, retain 
retro, adv. & prep. + ace: 

backwards , behind 



402 



reus, rei, m. : defendant 

reverendus , reverend! , m.: 
reverend 

reverendus admodum: right 
reverend (as a title) 

revoco , revocare, revocavi , 
revocatum (1): call back, 
revoke 

rex, regis, m. : king 

rite, adv.: properly, duly, 
according to the proper 
ritual 

ritualis, rituale, adj.: of or 
relating to ritual; as a 
noun: ritual 

ritus, ritus, m. : rite, cere- 
mony; de ritu sanctae 
matris ecclesiae: according 
to the rite of the holy 
mother church 

roboro, roborare , roboravi, 
roboratiiin ( 1 ) : strengthen , 
make firm 

robur, roboris, m. : authority, 
force, power (cl. Latin: 
oak tree [robor] ) 

robustus, robusta, robustum: 
powerful, hard, firm, solid 
(like an oak tree) 

roda, rodae (rode), f.: rood 
(a land measure in England) 

rogo, rogare, rogavi, rogatum 
(1) : ask, request 

rota, rotae (rote), f.: wheel 

rotarius, rotarii, m. : cart- 
wright, wheelwright 

rotula, rolutae, f.: fringe, 
border, roll, record 

rotulus, rotuli, m.: roll, 
record 

ruber, rubra, rubrum: red 

rubius, rubia, rubium: red 

rusticus, rustici, m. : peas- 
ant, farmer 



sacramentaliter , adv. : accord- 
ing to the sacrament (i.e., 
the proper ecclesiastical 
ritual) 

sacellanus, sacellani, m.: 
chaplain 



sacellum, sacelli, n.: sanctu- 
ary, chapel 

sacer, sacra, sacrum: sacred 

sacerdos, sacerdotis, m. : 
priest, bishop 

sacramentum, sacramenti , n.: 
sacrament 

sacrificium, sacrificii, n.: 
sacrifice 

sacrosancta, sacrosanctorum, 
n. pi.: holy objects (as, 
for example, a copy of the 
gospels) used to touch when 
taking an oath 

saeculum, saeculi, n.: age, 
eternity, world, a genera- 
tion (seculum); in saecula 
saeculorum: forever and 
ever 

saepius, adv.: rather fre- 
quently 

salarius, salarii, m.: salt 
merchant 

salcerium, salcerii, n.: salt 
cellar, salt holder 

salto, saltare, saltavi, 
saltatum ( 1 ) : dance 

saltuarius, saltuarii, m.: 
forest keeper, hunter 

salutatio, salutationis , f.: 
greeting, salutation 

saluto, salutare, salutavi, 
salutatum (1): greet, save, 
protect 

salvatio, salvationis, f.: 
salvation 

salvator, salvatoris, m.: 
savior 

sanctif icatio, sanctif icatio- 
nis, f.: sanctif ication , 
the process of becoming 
holy 

sancta, sanctae (sancte), f.: 
saint (female) 

sanctus, sancta, sanctum: 
holy, sacred 

sanctus, sancti , m.: saint 
(male) 

sane, adv.: sensibly, really, 
surely, certainly, exceed- 
ingly 
sanguis, scuiguinis, m. : blood 



403 



sanies, saniei , f.: blood, 

diseased blood, bloody 

matter 
sanitas, sanitatis, f.: 

health, good sense, sanity 
sano, sanare, sanavi, sanatum 

( 1 ) : heal , cure , restore to 

health 
sanus, sana, sanum: healthy, 

sane 
sartor, sartoris, m. : tailor 
satis, adv. : enough 
sator, satoris, in.: gardener 
saucerium, saucerii, n.: 

saucer for holding salt 
scabinus, scabini, in. : notary, 

juror 
schola, scholae (schole), f.: 

school 
scientia, scientiae 

(scientie), f.: knowledge 
scilicet, adv. : namely, to be 

sure 
scindo, scindere, scidi , 

scissum (3): cut, rend, 

tear asunder, split 
scio, scire, scivi, scitum 

(4): know, understand, know 

how to 
scorifex, scorificis, m.: 

tanner 
scorta , scortae ( scorte ) , f . : 

unmarried mother, whore 
scriba, scribae (scribe), m. : 

scribe, secretary, notary 
scribo, scribere, scripsi , 

scriptum ( 3 ) : write 
scriniarius, scriniarii, m. : 

carpenter 
scriptum, scripti, n.: writ- 
ing, document 
se, sese, reflexive pronoun: 

himself, herself, itself 
secundum , adv . & prep . + ace . : 

according to, afterwards, 

after 
sed, conj . : but 
sedes, sedis, f.: seat, resi- 
dence, place 
sellator, sellatoris, m.: 

saddler, saddle maker 
semel, adv.: once 
semper, adv. : always 



senator, senatoris , m. : sena- 
tor, town councillor 

senex, senis, m. : old man 

senex, senis, adj.: old 

senicula, seniculae 

(senicule), f.: a little 
old lady, an old lady 

seniculus, seniculi, m.: a 
little old man, an old man 

senior, senioris, adj.: older, 
senior 

sententia , sententiae ( senten- 
tie) , f.: sentence, opinion 

sentio, sentire, sensi, sensum 
(4): feel, perceive, sense 

sepelio, sepelire, sepelivi 
(sepelii), sepultum (4): 
bury 

sepultus, sepulta, sepultum, 
perf . pass. part, of sepe- 
lio: buried 

septimana, septimanae ( septi- 
mane ) , f . : a week 

sepultor, sepultoris, m. 
mortuorum: grave digger 

sepultvira, sepulturae (sepul- 
ture), f.: burial 

seguens , sequentis, adj.: 
following 

sequor, sequi, secutus sum 
(dep. 3 ) : follow 

seriatim, adv. : in order, one 
after another 

serrarius, serrarii, m.: 
locksmith 

sertor, sertoris, m. : basket 
maker 

servilis, servile, adj.: 1. 
relating to a class of 
holdings originally granted 
to serfs; 2. a measure of 
land; 3. land held by a 
serf rather than a free 
man; 4. servile 

servo, servare, servavi, 
servatum (1): preserve, 
protect 

servus , servi , m.: serf, 
servant, slave 

sesquipedalis , sesquipedale, 
adj . : a foot and one-half 
long 



seu, conj 



or, or if 



404 



seu . . . seu: whether . . . 

or 
sexus, sexus, m. : sex 
si, conj . : if 
sic, adv.: thus, so, yes 
sicut, adv.: as, just as 
sigillum, sigilli, n.: seal 
signum, signi, m. : sign, mark, 

the sign of the cross 
silva, silvae (silve), f.: 

wood, forest 
silvarius, silvarii, m . : 

forester 
similis, simile, adj.: like 
simplex, simplicis, adj.: 

single 
simplus, simpla, simplum: 

single 
simul, adv.: together, at the 

same time 
simul ac (atque): as soon as 
sine, prep. + abl.: without 
singularis, singulare, adj . : 

one at a time, single, 

alone 
singuli, singulae, singula, 

pi.: single, a single 

person or thing, each one 
sinister, sinistra, sinistrum: 

left (direction) 
sisto, sistere, sistiti, 

sistitum ( 3 ) : represent 
sitis, sitis, f.: thirst 
situs, sita, situm: situated, 

located 
sive, conj . : or, or if 
smigmator, smigmatoris, m. : 

soap boiler, soap maker 

(Greek origin) 
sobrina, sobrinae (sobrine), 

f.: cousin (on the mother's 

side — female) 
sobrinus, sobrini, m. : cousin 

(on the mother's 

side — male) 
socer, soceri, m. : father-in- 
law 
socer magnus: grandf ather-in- 

law 
socer maior: great-grandf a- 

ther-in-law 
socer maximus: great-great- 
grandfather- in- law 



socius, socii, m. : apprentice, 
comrade, associate 

socrinus, socrini, m. : broth- 
er-in-law (female side) 

socrus, socrus, f.: mother-in- 
law 

socrus magna: grandmother-in- 
law 

socrus maior: great- 

grandmother-in- law 

socrus maxima: great-great- 
grandmother- in- law 

sol, solis, m. : sun 

solemnia, solemnium, n. pi.: 
rites, performance (sollem- 
nia, sollempnia) 

solemnicatio, solemnicationis, 
f.: marriage (sollemnica- 
tio, sollempnicatio) 

solemnitas, solemnitatis, f.: 
solemnity, celebration 
(sollemnitas, sollempnitas ) 

solemnitates , f. pi.: solemni- 
ties, the most important 
feast days in the church 
calendar, such as Christmas 
and Easter, (sollempni- 
tates ) 

solemniter, adv.: solemnly, 
duly (solempniter) 

soleo, solere, solitus sum 
(semi-dep. 2): be accus- 
tomed 

solidus, solidi, m. : shilling, 
gold coin, ducat 

soldus turonensium: a shilling 
of Tours (a French royal 
currency) 

solus, sola, solum: alone, 
single (gen. sing.: solius; 
dat. sing. : soli) 

solvo, solvere, solvi, solutum 
(3): pay 

soror, sororis, f.: sister 

soror consanguinea : stepsister 
(same father) 

soror uterina: stepsister 
(same mother) 

sororius, sororii, m. : broth- 
er-in-law (sister's hus- 
band) 

spargo, spargere, sparsi, 
sparsum ( 3 ) : scatter 



405 



spatium, spatii, n.: space, 
place (spacium) 

spes , spei , f . : hope 

spiritus, spiritus, m. : spir- 
it, breath 

Spiritus Sanctus: the Holy 
Spirit 

sponsa, sponsae (sponse), f.: 
bride, betrothed 

sponsus , sponsi, m. : groom, 
betrothed 

stannarius, stannarii, m. : tin 
founder 

statim, adv. : immediately 

static, stationis, f.: sta- 
tion, place of abode 

statue, statuere, statui , 
statutum (3): appoint, 
ordain, decide 

status, status, m.: state, 
condition, status, invento- 
ry, legal property rights 

status animarum: An annual 
report submitted to the 
ordinary of a diocese, or 
another ecclesiastical 
unit, by the parish priest 
on the size of the parish, 
number of members , etc . In 
certain parishes, this 
report included the names 
of family heads, their 
wives, children, and, 
sometimes, their parents 
and grandparents. 

stipendium, stipendii, n.: 
wages , stipend 

stipulans, stipulantis, m. : 
legal stipulant (i.e., one 
of the parties involved in 
a legal contract) 

stipulatio, stipulationis , f.: 
oral (legal) agreement in 
Roman law 

stirps, stirpis, f.: clan, 
tribe , group 

sto, stare, steti , staturus 
(irregular 1): stand, 
standby, assist 

stomachus , stomachi , m. : 
stomach 



strenuus , strenua, strenuum: 

honorable (for nobility), 

active, vigorous, strenuous 
studeo, studere , studui (2): 

be eager for, desire, study 

(+ dat. ) 
studiosus, studiosi, m.: 

student 
studium, studii, n. : 

eagerness, interest, zeal, 

study 
stupratus , stuprata , stupra- 

tum: pregnant out of wed- 
lock 
stupratus, stuprati , m.: 

father of an illegitimate 

child 
suada , suadae ( suade ) , f.: 

persuasion 
sub, prep. + abl. or ace.: 

under, beneath, below 
subito, adv. : suddenly 
subscribe, sxibscribere , sub- 

scripsi, subscriptvun (3): 

write below, undersign 
subscriptus, subscripta, 

subscriptum, perf. pass. 

part, of subscribe: under- 
signed, written below 
subsigne, subsignare, sxibsig- 

navi , subsignatum ( 1 ) : mark 

or sign below 
siibulcus, subulci, m. : swine- 
herd 
successer, successeris, m.: 

successor 
suffragium, suffragii, n.: 

prayer 
sum, esse, fui, futurus: be 
summa, summae ( summe ) , f.: 

sum, highest point 
summus, summa, siimmum: highest 
(superlative of superus: 

upper, higher, high) 
sume, sumere, sumpsi, sumptum 
(3): take down, chose, 

obtain 
super, prep. + abl + ace: 

above , over 
superius , adv . : above 
superstes , superstitis , adj . : 

surviving, still living 



406 



suppleo, supplere, supplevi , 
suppletum (2): complete, 
finish, fill up, make good 

supra, adv. & prep. + ace: 
above, beyond, before 

supradictus, supradicta, 
supradictum: above said 

supranominatus , supranominata , 
supranominatum: above named 

suprascriptus , suprascripta, 
suprascriptum: above writ- 
ten 

suscipio, suscipere, suscepi, 
susceptum (3): undertake, 
take up, raise, raise up, 
lift up, raise from the 
baptismal font (i.e., act 
as a godparent) 

susceptor, susceptoris, m.: 
godparent (male) 

susceptores, m. pi.: godpar- 
ents 

susceptrix, susceptricis , f.: 
godparent (female) 

sustineo , sustinere , sustinui , 
sustentum (2): support, 
sustain 

sutor, sutoris, m. : cobbler, 
shoemaker 

suus , sua, suum, reflexive 
adj. & pronoun: his, her, 
its own, their own 

synax, synacis, f.: communion, 
the eucharist, the sacra- 
ment (Greek) 

synodus , synodi , m.: synod 
(Greek); a periodic meeting 
of officials principally to 
deal with administrative 
affairs. 



tabellarius, tabellarii, m. : 

messenger 
tabellio, tabellionis, m.: 

notary, scribe 
taberna, tabernae (taberne), 

f . : tavern , inn 
tabemaculum, tabernaculi, n.: 

tent, dwelling place, place 
where the sacrament is kept 



taceo, tacere, tacui , taciturn 

(2): be silent, say noth- 
ing, be still, be quiet 

taedet, impersonal verb: it 
disgusts (me, etc.), I, 
etc. , am disgusted 

talis, tale, adj.: such, of 
such a kind 

tarn, adv.: so, thus 

tarn . . . quam: so . . .as, 
as . . . as , both . . . and 

tamen, adv. : nevertheless 

tcuidem, adv. : at last, finally 

tantum, adv. : only 

tantus , tanta , tantum: so 
much, so great, as much as 

tector, tectoris, m. : roofer 

tectum, tecti , n.: roof 

tegularius, tegularii, m.: 
brick maker 

telatextor, telatextoris , m. : 
linen weaver 

teleonarius, teleonarii, m. : 
tax collector 

tellus, telluris, f.: earth 

tempus, temporis, n. : time; eo 
tempore: at this time; illo 
tempore: at that time; pro 
tempore: for (during) the 
time, temporary; nunc 
temporis: of the present 
time; tunc temporis: of the 
former time; 

tempus clausum: literally: a 
closed time; a certain time 
or times of the year during 
which marriages were not 
performed. These were 
generally periods of pen- 
ance or solemn worship. 

tenementum, tenementi , n.: 
holding, territory, juris- 
diction, feudal territory, 
land tenure 

teneo , tenere , tenui , tentum 
( 2) : have, hold 

ter, adv.: three times, thrice 

terminus, termini, m.: end, 
boundary, limit 

terni , ternae, terna , pi.: 
three each 

terra, terrae ( terre ) , f.: 
land, earth 



407 



testamentum, testament!, n.: 

will, testament (in England 

often listing only personal 

property, not land) 
testator, testatoris, m . : 

testator, one who is making 

a will 
testatrix, testatricis, f.: a 

female testator 
testis, testis, m. or f . : 

witness 
testor, testari, testatus sum 

(dep. 1): witness (verb) 
textor, textoris, m. : weaver 
textus , textus , m.: text, 

document, charter 
thesaurus, thesauri, m.: 

treasury, store house, 

treasure house (Greek) 
timeo, timere, timui (2): fear 
tinctor, tinctoris, m. : dyer 
tinctus, tincta, tinctum: 

dipped, baptized 
toga, togae, f.: cloak, gown, 

outer garment, dressing 

gown 
tensor , tonsoris , m . : barber 
tot, indeclinable adj . : so 

many, as many 
totiens, adv.: so often 
totus , tota, totum: whole, 

entire (gen. sing: totius; 

dat. sing. : toti) 
trado, tradere, tradidi , 

traditum ( 3 ) : give up , hand 

over, deliver 
trans, prep. + ace: across 
transeo, transire, transii, 

transitum ( irregular 4 ) : go 

over, cross, pass over 
transfero, transferre, trans- 

tuli, translatum (irregular 

3): bring across, transfer 
tremendus , tremenda , tremen- 

dum: fearful, dreadful, 

terrible, tremendous 
tribulatio , tribulationis , f . : 

suffering, tribulation, 

affliction 
triduum, tridui, n.: three day 

period 



trigemini , trigeminorum, m. 

pi . : triplets 

trinitas, trinitatis, f.: the 
Holy Trinity 

triplex, triplicis, adj . : 
triple 

tripulus, tripula, tripulum: 
triple 

tritavia, tritaviae 

( tr itavie ) , f . : 

great-great-great-great 
grandmother 

tritavus , tritavi, m. : great- 
great-great-great- 
grandfather 

tritor, tritoris, m. : thresher 

turn, adv. : then 

tumulo, tumulare, tumulavi, 
tumulatum ( 1 ) : bury 

tumulus, tumuli, m.: tomb, 
burial mound 

tunc, adv. : then 

tutela, tutelae (tutele), f.: 
guardianship; sub tutela: 
under guardianship 

tutor, tutoris, m. : guardian 

tuus , tua, tuum, possessive 
adj. & pronoun: your (sing. 
& familiar) 



U 



ubi , adv . : where , when 
libique, adv. : everywhere 
ullus, ulla, ullum: any (gen. 
sing.: ullius; dat. sing.: 
ullius) 
ultimus, ultima, ultimum: last 
ultra, prep. + ace: beyond 
ultra, adv.: more than, beyond 
umquam, adv.: ever 
una, adv. : together 
una cum: together with 
una mecum: together with me 
unctio, unctionis, f.: anoint- 
ing, unction 
unctio extrema: extreme unc- 
tion (The anointing of the 
sick with holy oil as part 
of the last sacraments or 
rites for the dying. ) 
unda , undae ( vinde ) , f . : wave 
unda baptismata: baptism 



408 



unde, adv.: wherefore, where- 
upon 
unicus unica, unicum: unique, 

one of a kind 
unigena, unigenae (unigene), 

f.: only born (daughter) 
unigenitus , unigenita , 

unigenitum: only born 

(adj.) 
unigenitus, unigeniti, m.: 

only born (son); when 

applied to Jesus Christ in 

Christian theology, the 

only begotten of God 
universalis, universale: 

universal, all 
universus , universa, univer- 

sum: all, whole, entire 
unus , una, unum: one, a, an 

(gen. sing.: unius; dat. 

sing. : uni) 
usque , adv . & prep . + ace . : as 

far as, all the way (up) 

to, until 
usus, usus, in.: use 
usufructus, usufructus, m. : 

usufruct (use of the land 

but not ownership; also, 

the right to the products 

of the land. ) 
ut, adv. & conj . : as, that, 

therewith 
ut infra: as below 
ut supra: as above 
utencilium, utencilii, n.: 

utensil, appurtenance 

(utens ilium) 
uter, utra, utrum: which (of 

two; gen. sing.: utrius; 

dat. sing.: utri) 
uterque , utraque , utrumque : 

each of two, both 
uterus, uteri, m. : womb, belly 
utilis, utile, adj.: useful 
utilitas, utilitatis, f.: 

benefit, utility, advantage 
utinam, conj.: if only, would 

that 
utor, uti, usus sum; (dep. 3): 

use, enjoy, experience (+ 

abl. ) 
utpote, adv.: as if, inasmuch 

as, seeing that 
uxor, uxoris, f.: wife 



uxoratus , uxorata , uxoratum: 

married 



vacca, vaccae (vacce) , f.: cow 
vacuus, vacuae, vacuum: empty 
vade mecum: handbook 

(literally: go with me) 
vagabundus , vagabundi , m.: 

vagabond, tramp, wanderer 
vago , vagare , vagavi , vagatum 

( 1 ) : wander 
valeo, valere, valui (2): be 

well, farewell 
vallatum, vallati, n.: sur- 
rounding wall 
validus, valida, validum: 

valid, effective 
variolae, variolarum, f. pi.: 

smallpox, pox 
vasa, vasorum, n. pi.: 

equipment, utensils, 

receptacles, war materials 
vassus, vassi, m.: servant, 

vassal 
vastus, vasta, vastum: empty, 

deserted, vast 
vector, vectoris, m. : carter, 

driver, wagoner 
veho, vehere, vexi , vectum 

( 3 ) : carry 
vel, conj . : or 

vel . . . vel: either ... or 
velut, adv.: just as, even as 
venator, venatoris, m. : hunter 
venditio, venditionis, f.: 

sale (vendicio) 
vendo, vendere, vendidi, 

venditum (3): sell 
venio, venire, veni, ventum 

( 4 ) : come 
venter, ventris, m.: womb, 

belly 
ver, veris, n.: spring 
verbum, verbi, n.: word 
vere, adv.: truly, rightly, in 

truth 
Veritas , veritatis , f . : truth 
vernus, vema, vernum: spring- 
like, vernal 



409 



vero, truly 

verto, vertere, versi, versum 
(3): turn, direct 

verus, vera, verum: true 

versus, adv. & prep. + ace: 
toward, in the direction 
of, facing 

vespere, adv. : in the evening 

vespertinus, vespertina, 
vespertinum: evening (as an 
adjective) of, or relating 
to, the evening 

vespillo, vespillonis, m . : 
grave digger 

vaster, vestra, vestrum, 
possessive adj. & pronoun: 
your (plural & polite) 

vestis, vestis, f.: vestment, 
clothing 

vestigium, vestigii, n.: 
footstep, footprint 

vestura, vesturae (vesture), 
f . : crop 

vetula, vetulae (vetule) , f.: 
old woman 

vetus, veteris, adj . : old 

via, viae (vie), f.: road, way 

viaticum, viatici, n.: commun- 
ion given to someone in 
imminent danger of death or 
to soldiers prior to bat- 
tle; this can be given 
prior to extreme unction as 
part of the last sacraments 
or rites. 

vicaritus, vicaritus, m.: 
vicarate or vicariate, the 
office and jurisdiction of 
a vicar 

vicarius, vicarii, m.: a 
representative, one takes 
another's place; 

vice, vicem, vices, adv.: for 
the sake of, in place of 

vicinia, viciniae (vicine), 
f . : neighborhood 

vicinus, vicini, m. : neighbor 

vicis (gen. sing.; nom. is 
omitted in cl. Latin; 
vicem: ace. sing, vice: 
abl. sing.): change, time, 
in turn, alternately 



vicus, vici, m. : village 

videlicet, adv. : namely 

video, videre, vidi , visum 
(2) : see 

videor, videri, visus sum 
(dep. 2 ) : seem 

videtur, impersonal verb: it 
seems 

vidua, viduae (vidue) , f . : 
widow 

viduus, vidui, m. : widower 

vietor, vietoris, m. : cooper 

vigilia vigiliae: The day 
before a feast day, during 
which acts such a fasting 
or penance are undertaken 
in preparation for the 
feast. 

vilis, vile, adj.: cheap, 
worthless, vile 

vilissimus, vilissima, vilis- 
simum: most vile, most 
worthless 

villa, villae (ville), f.: 
village, villa, town 

villanus, villani, m. : villag- 
er, villein 

vinarium, vinarii, n. : 
vineyard 

vinarius, vinarii, m.: wine 
merchant 

vinco, vincere, vici, victum 
( 3 ) : conquer 

vinculum, vinculi, n.: bond, 
chain 

vinea, vineae (vinee), f.: 
vineyard 

vinum, vini, n. : wine 

vir, viri, m. : man 

virgo, virginis, f.: virgin 

viridis, viride, adj. green 

virtuosus, virtuosa, virtuo- 
sum, adj.: upright, honora- 
ble 

virtus, virtutis, f.: 
strength, virtue 

vis, vis, f.: power; pi. 
vires, etc.: strength 

vita, vitae (vite) , f.: life 

vitriarius, vitriarii, m.: 
glass maker 

vitricus, vitrici, m. : stepfa- 
ther 



410 



vitulus, vituli, m . : calf 

(vitulius) 
vivo, vivere, vixi, victum 

(3): live, be alive 

vix, adv. : scarcely 

voco , vocare , vocavi , vocatum 
(1): call 

volo, velle, volui (irregular 
3 ) : wish, want 

voluntas, voluntatis, f.: will 
(individual will); in 
England, a will involving 
real estate as opposed to 
chattel or personalty only. 

vos, pronoun: you (pi.) 

votum, voti, n. : vow 

vox, vocis, f.: voice 

vulgo, adv. : commonly, gener- 
ally 

vulgus , vulgi , m. : common 
people, public 



vulnus, vulneris, n.: a wound 
vultus, vultus, m. : face, 
countenance 



w 



warecta, warectae (warecte), 

f.: land lying fallow 



xenodochium, xenodochii, n.: 

hospital, senior citizens 
center, hostel (Greek) 



zona, zonae (zone), f. 

die, belt (Greek) 



gir- 



411 



ABBREVIATIONS 



Abbreviation 

aet. 

an. 

A.C. 

ace. 

A.D. 



h.m. 

hebdom. 

her. 

hon. 



ibid, 
i.e. 



Latin 

aetas ( aetatis ) 
annus ( anno ) 
Anno Christi 
acatholicus/a 
Anno Domini 



a.q.i.C. 


anima guiescat in 




Christo 


arm. 


armiger 


B.A. 


Bacc a 1 aureus 




Artium 


B.M.V. 


Beatae Mariae 




Virginis 


c. 


centum 


ca. 


circa 


Chro. (Xro) 


Christo 


cf . 


confer 


com. 


comitatus ( comitatu ) 


D. (d.) 


Dominus ( Domino ) 


D. ph. 


Doctor philosophiae 


dat. 


datvim 


dno. 


domino 


d.s.p. 


decessit sine prole 


dr. 


doctor 


dux. 


duxit ( duxit 




matrimonium) 


ecce. 


ecclesia (ecclesiae) 


e.g. 


exempli gratia 


ex cath. 


ex cathedra 


fam. 


familia 


fil. 


filius, filia 


glor . mem . 


gloriosae memoriae 


G. & P. 


Gratiam et Pacem 


h. 


hora 


h.a. 


hoc anno, huius anni 



hoc mense, huius mensis 

hebdomada ( hebdomas ) 

heres 

honestus , honesta , 

honoris , honorem 

ibidem 
id est 



English 

age ( of age ) 

year (in the year) 

in the year of Christ 

non-Catholic 

in the year of the 

( our ) Lord 
may his/her soul rest 

in Christ 
squire, esquire 
Bachelor of Arts 

of the Blessed Virgin 

Mary 
one hundred 
about, approximately 
in Christ 
compare 

county (in the county) 
The Lord; by, from, 

with, etc., the Lord 
Doctor of Philosophy 
given 
by, from, with, etc., 

the Lord 
died without issue 
doctor 
he led (into marriage, 

i.e., he married) 
the church, of /from 

the church 
for example 
from the throne 
family 

son , daughter 
of glorious memory 
Grace & Peace 

(ace. case) 
hour 
in this year, of 

this year 
in this month, 

of this month 
week 
heir 

upright, honest, of 
honor , honor 

(ace. case) 
in the same place 
that is 



412 



Abbreviation 


Latin 


i.f. 


in fidem, in fine, 




ipso facto 


I.N.D. 


In Nomine Dei /Domini 


I. N.D.N. 


In Nomine Domini Nostri 


I.N.S.T. 


In Nomine Sanctae 




Trinitatis 


it. 


item 


jun. 


junior 


juv. 


j uvenis 


Iv. 


levantes , levatores 


m. 


magister 


M.A. 


Magister Artium 


mat.. 


mater , matema , matrina 


max. 


maximus 


M.D. 


Medicinae Doctor 


mor. 


moralis, morbus, morbo 


mort. 


mortuus , mortua 


mut. mut. 


mutatis mutcindis 


n. 


non 


N.B. 


nota bene 


nc. 


nunc 


n.n. 


nomen nescio 


nome. 


nomine 


not. 


notandum , notatum 


Ob. 


obiit 


o.m.s. 


omnibus moribundorum 




sacramentis 


ob.s.p. 


obiit sine prole 


par. 


parentes , parochus 


p.m. 


pontifex maximus 


p.m. 


post meridiem 


pomer . 


pomeridiana 




( postmer idicina ) 


pomerid. 


see above 


P.S. 


Post Scriptum 


qz 


que 



q.e.d. 



(id) quod erat 
demonstreindum 



English 

in faith, at the end, 
by the fact itself 
in the name of God/ 

of the Lord 
in the name of our 

Lord 
in the name of the 

Holy Trinity 
likewise, again, item 
junior 

young man, bachelor 
godparents 
teacher, master 
Master of Arts 
mother, maternal, 

godmother 
largest 

Doctor of Medicine 
moral, disease, by, 

from, with, etc. 
disease 

dead (male or female) 
the things to be 

changed having 

been changed 
not, no 
note well 
now 
name unknown 

( I do not know 
the name ) 
in the name (of) 
a thing to be noted, 

a thing noted 
died 
with all of the 

sacraments of the 

dead (provided) 
died without issue 
parents, pirest 
chief priest (a title of 

of the pope ) 
after noon 
afternoon 



postscript 

and (enclitic attached 

to another word) 
(that) which was to be 

demonstrated 



413 



Abbreviation 


r, 


.d. 




r. 


,d. 


p. 


R. 


.1. 


P. 


r. 


,r. 




s. 


• d. 


,n. 



s.p. 

s.p. 
s.p. 1. 

stupr . 

suscept . 

ut sup. 

ux. 

V. (vid. ) 

verb . sap . 

viz. 

X (Xtus) 



Latin 

reverendus dominus, 
reverendo domino 

reverendus dominus 

pater 
requiescat in pace 

(in pacem) 
reverendissimus 

sanctissimus dominus 

noster 
scuictissimus pater 

sine prole 

sine prole legitima 

stuprata 

susceptores 

ut supra 

uxor 

vide 

verbxam sapientibus 

videlicet 

Christus 



English 

reverend lord, by, 
with, from, etc. the 

reverend lord 
the reverend lord 

father 
may he/she rest in 

peace! 
the most reverend 

(right reverend) 
our most holy lord 

most holy father 
(i.e. , the pope ) 

without issue 

without legitimate 
issue 

ravished, defiled 

godparents 

as above 

wife 

see 

a word to the wise 

namely 

Christ 



414 



SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 



Grammars 



Allen, Joseph and Greenough, James B. New Ijatin Granmar for 

Schools and Colleges. Reprint ed. New Rochelle, New York: 
Caratzas Bros., 1975; from the 1903 ed. (classical Latin 
grammar ) 

Betts, Gavin. Latin. Teach Yourself Books. Suffolk: Hodder 
& Stoughton, 1986. (a good introduction to classical 
Latin grammar) 

Blaise, Albert. Manuel de Latin Chretien. Turnhout: Brepols, 
1986; reprint of the 1955 ed. 
(a handbook of ecclesiastical Latin grammar and vocabulary) 

Chase, Alston Kurd. A New Introduction to Latin. Wellesly 
Hills, Mass.: Independent School Press, 1969. 
(a good review of classical Latin grammar) 

Colby, John K. Review Latin Grammar. New York and London: 
Longman, 1971. 
(a useful review of the basics of classical Latin grammar) 

Collins, John F. A Primer of Ecclesiastical Latin. Catholic 
University of America Press, 1985. 

(An extensive grammar based upon the Christian fathers and 
the Vulgate; designed for Roman Catholic seminary students, 
but a useful supplement to classical Latin grammar.) 

Gildersleeve, Basil L. and Lodge, Gonzales. Gildersleeves Latin 
Grammar. Reprint ed. New York: St. Martins, 1971; from 
the 1894 ed. (a standard reference grammar for classical 
Latin) 

Goldman, Norma and Nyenhuis, Jacob. Latin via Ovid: A First 
Coiirse. Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1982. 
(a very good classical Latin grammar based upon the writings 
of Ovid [Publius Ovidius Naso, 43 B.C. -17 A.D., a famous 
Roman poet] ) 

Goldman, Norma and Szymanski, Ladislas. English Grammar for 
Students of Latin. Ann Arbor, Michigan: The Olivia and 
Hill Press, Inc., 1983. (reviews English grammar and 
provides a 'Latin example of each point) 

Gooder Eileen A. Latin for Local History. 2nd ed. London 

&'New York: Longmans, 1978. (based upon sources pertaining 
to English local history, medieval period; brief paleographic 
note in the second edition.) 



415 



Jensen, C. Russell. A Later Medieval Latin Grammar: Based upon 
Wills, Land and Court Records, and other Documents of 
Interest to Family and Local Historians. Salt Lake City: 
Vita Nova Books, P.O. Box 520546, Salt Lake City, Utah 84152 
( forthcoming ) 

. Latin for Family Historians and Genealogists. Brigham 

Young University. Department of Independent Study. 206 
Harman Continuing Education Building. Provo, Utah 84602 
(correspondence study course) 

. Parish Register Latin: An Introduction. Salt Lake City: 

Vita Nova Books, P.O. Box 520546, Salt Lake City, Utah 84152, 
1988. Revised ed. 1991. 

Lowe, J. E. Church Latin for Beginners. London: Barnes, Oates 
& Washburne, 19 30. 

McLaughlin, Eve. Simple Latin for Family Historians. Birmingham: 
Federation of Family History Societies, 1979. 

Nunn, H. P. V. An Introduction to Ecclesiastical Latin. Cambridge: 
At the University Press, 1927. 

Plater, William. A Grammar of the Vulgate. Oxford: At the 
Clarendon Press, 1926. 

(as the title suggests, based upon the Vulgate, but very 
useful for ecclesiastical Latin grammar and vocabulary; 
apparently out of print) 

Temple, Robin Edgel. Latin for Genealogical Research: A Primer 

for Record Latin. Masters Thesis, Brigham Young University, 
1977. 

Ullman, B. L. et al. Latin for Americans: First Book. New York: 
The Macmillan Co., 1962. (a high school Latin text which 
introduces the student to Latin grammar and vocabulary slowly, 
carefully, and enjoyably) 

. Latin for Americans: Second Book. New York: The Macmillan 

Co., 1962. (a continuation of the first volume; reviews 

and completes basic Latin grammar then proceeds to a condensed 

version of Caesar's De Bello Gallico [the Gallic Wars] . ) 

Wheelock, Frederic M. Latin: An Introductory Course Based on 

Ancient Authors. New York: Barnes & Noble, many editions, 
(perhaps the standard introduction to classical Latin grammar) 

B. Dictionaries, Glossaries, and Lexica 

Andre, Jacques. Dictionnaire etymologique de la langue latxne: 

Histoire des mots. 4th ed. Paris: Editions Klincksieck, 1985. 
(a dictionary of Latin word origins; Latin-French) 



416 



Baxter, J.H. Medieval Latin Word-List from British and Irish Sources. 

London: Oxford University Press, n.d. 

Blaise, Albert. Lexicon Latinitatis Medii Aevi praesertim ad 
res ecclesiasticas investigandas pertinens. Turnhout: 
Brepols, 1975. 

(a dictionary of medieval Latin with an ecclesiastical 
emphasis; Latin-French) 

Bumpus , John S . A Dictionary of Ecclesiastical Terms . London : 

T. Werner Laurie, 1910; reprint ed. Gale Research Co., 1969. 

Chevin, M. Dictionnaire Latin-Fran^ais des noms propres de lieux. 

Paris, 1887. (Latin-French dictionary of place names; 
ecclesiastical emphasis) 

Corradini, Francisco, ed. Lexicon Totius Latinitatis. 4 Vols. 
Padua: Typis Seminarii, 1864-1887. 

(mainly classical Latin usages; entry explanations also in 
Latin) 

Dahmus , Joseph. Dictionary of Medieval Civilization. New York: 
Macmillan, 1984. 

DuCange, Charles du Fresne. Glossarium Mediae et Infinae 
Latinitatis. 6 Vols. Paris, 1844. 

(a medieval Latin glossary covering largely French usages, 
entry explanations in Latin and, occasionaly French) 

Egger, Carl. Lexicon Nominum Locorum. Civitas Vaticana: 

Officia Libraria Vaticana, 1977. (a lexicon of place names, 
rather brief) 

Lexicon Nominum Virorum et Mulierum. 2nd ed. Rome: 
Societas Libraria "Studium," 1963. 

(a lexicon of Latinized given names with Italian, Spanish, 
French, German, and English equivalents) 

Ellis, William, ed. Ainsworth's Latin Dictionary. Reprinted 
from the Folio Edition of 1752. With Numerous Additions, 
Emendations, and Improvements by Rev. B.W. Beatson. London: 
Frederick Westley and A.H. Davis, 1886. 
(English-Latin, Latin-English, classical emphasis) 

Graesse, Benedict, Plechel. Orbis Latinus: Lexikon lateinischer 
geographischer Namen. 3 vols. Braunschweig: Klinkhardt & 
Bierman, 1971. 
(an extensive lexicon of Latin geographic names; Latin-German) 

Habel, E. and Groebel, F. Mittellateinisches Glossar. Paderborn: 
Gerdinand Schoeningh, n.d. 
(a glossary of medieval Latin; Latin-German) 



417 



Lachat, P. "Lateinische Bezeichnungen in alten Kirchenbuechern. " 
Der Schweizer Familienforscher , XXIV (1957): 65-86. 
(a survey of Latin terms found in Swiss parish registers; 
text in German) 

Lampe, Karl, et al. Latein I fuer den Sippenforscher. 2nd ed. 

Limburg/Lahn : C. A. Starke, 1965. 

(Latin with emphasis upon parish register and genealogical 
vocabulary; Latin-German) 

. Latein II fuer den Sippenforscher. 2nd ed. Limburg/Lahn: 

C. A. Starke, 1965. 

(occupations, geographical and place names; Latin-German) 

Latham, R. E. , ed. Dictionary of Medieval Latin from British 
Soiirces. Fasicule I, A-B, Fasicule II, C, Fasicule III, 
D-E, Fasicule IV, F-H. London: Published by the British 
Academy by Oxford University Press, 1975-1989. 

. Revised Medieval Latin Word List from British and Irish 

Sources. London: Oxford University Press, 1965; reprinted 1973 

Lewis, Charleton T. An Elementary Latin Dictionairy. London: 
Oxford University Press (many editions) 
(classical Latin) 

Mittellateinisches Woerterbuch bis zum ausgehenden 13, i.e., 
dreizehnten Jahrhundert . Munich: Beck, 1967. 
(medieval Latin dictionary covering usages through the 
thirteenth century; Latin-German) 

Morris, Janet. A Latin Glossary for Family and Local Historians. 

Birmingham: Federation of Family History Societies, 1989. 

Niermeyer, Jan Frederick. Mediae Latinitatis Lexicon Minus. 
Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1976. 

(medieval Latin, principally from French and Belgian areas; 
Latin-French-English) 

The Oxford Latin Dictionary. 4 Vols. London: Oxford University 
Press, 1968-1982. 
(classical Latin) 

Purvis, J. S. Dictionary of Ecclesiastical Terms. London: 
Thomas Nelson & Sons, 1962. 

Richards, George C. A Concise Dictionary to the Vulgate New 
Testament. London: Samuel Bagster & Sons, 1934. 
(useful background for ecclesiastical Latin; apparently 
out of print) 

Simpson, D. P. Cassell's New Latin Dictionary. New York: 
Funk & Wagnalls, many editions, 
(classical Latin) 

418 



Sleumer, Albert. Kirchenlateinisches Woerterburch . Limburg/Lahn : 
Gebrueder Steffen, 1926. (a dictionary of ecclesiastical 
Latin; Latin-German; possibly out of print) 

Souter, Alexander, comp. A Glossary of Later Latin to 600 A.D. 

Oxford: At the Clarendon Press, 1964. 

Simpson, Elizabeth. Latin Word-List for Family Historiems. 

(no publisher or publishing date provided) 

Traupman, John C. The New College Latin and English Dictionary. 

New York: Bantam Books, 1966. 

(a good, inexpensive paperback dictionary of classical Latin) 

Treixler, Gustav. "Latein in Kirchenmatriken. " Sudetendeutsche 
Familienforschung, I-III, V (1928-1932): I, 25-29, 60-61, 
127-129, 175; II, 12-13, III, 15-16; V, 30, 105. 
(A list of Latin terms freguently encountered in the parish 

registers of the Sudetenland — now part of Czechoslovakia. 

Text in German . ) 

C. Paleography and Abbreviations 

Bischoff , Bernard. Latin Palaeography: Antiquity and the Middle 
Ages. Trans. Dahibhi 6 Croinin & David Ganz . Cambridge: 
Cambridge University Press, 1990. 
(a very good introduction to the subject) 

Boyle, Leonard P. Medieval Latin Paleography: A Bibliographic 
Introduction. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1984. 

Capelli, A. Dizionario di abbreviature latine ed italiane. Milan: 
Ulrico Hoepli, 1967. 

(Perhaps the standard work on Latin abbreviations; introduction 
in Italian. There is, however, an English translation of 
Capelli 's introduction available under the following title: 
The Elements of Abbreviation in Medieval Latin Paleography. 
University of Kansas Libraries, 1982.) 

Chassant, L. A. Dictionnaire des abreviations latxnes et 
francaises. New York, Georg 01m, 1970. 

Paleographie des chartes et des manuscrits de Xle au 
XVIIe siecle. Geneva: Slatkin Reprints, 197 2. 

Grun, Paul A. Schuessel zu Alten und Neuen Abkuerzungen . Vol. 6: 
Grundriss der Genealogie. Limburg/Lahn: C. A. Starke, 1966. 
(abbreviations, Latin and German; introductory text in German; 
very useful for one letter abbreviations such as d.s.p 
[decessit sine prole: died without issue]) 

Hector, L. C. The Handwriting of English Documents. London: 
Edward Arnold, 1958. 



419 



Jenkinson, Hilary. Later Court Hands in England from the 
Fifteenth to the Seventeenth Century. London: Oxford 
University Press, 1960. 

Jensen, C. Russell. Latin Paleography: An Introduction. Vita Nova 
Books, P.O. Box 510546, Salt Lake City, Utah 84152. 
(forthcoming) 

Johnson, A. F. "The Classification of Gothic Types." The Libreiry, 
Vol. IX, Series 4 (1929): 357-380. 

Kopp, Ulrich Friedrich. Lexicon Tironianum. Osnabrueck: Otto Zelle: 
1965. (a lexicon of the Tironian notes, a system of shorthand 
abbreviations first attributed to Cicero's freeman scribe Tiro) 

Martin, Charles Trice. The Record Interpreter: A Collection of 

Abbreviations, Latin Words and Names used in English Historical 
Manuscripts and Records. 2nd ed. London: Stevens & Sons, 1910 

Morison, Stanley. Politics and Script. The Lyell Lectures, 1957. 
Ed. and compiled by Nicolas Barker. Oxford: At the Clarendon 
Press, 1972. 

Parkes, M. B. English Cxirsive Book Hands, 1250-1500. Oxford: 
At the Clarendon Press, 1969. 

/ / / 

Pelzer, Auguste. Abreviatxons Latines Medievales: Supplement 

au Dizionario di Abbreviature Latine ed Italiane de Adriano 

Capelli. 2nd ed. Louvain: Publications Universitaires , 

1966. 

(a supplement to Capelli 's book of medieval Latin 

abbreviations , based largely upon documents in the Vatican 

archives; text in French) 

' . - . 

Stiennon, Jacques. Paleographie du moyen age. Paris: Armand 

Colin, 1973. (medieval Latin paleography; text in French) 

Sturm, Heribert. Unsere Schrift: Einfuehrung in die Entwicklung 
ihrer Stilformen. Neustadt: Degener & Co., 1961. 
(An introduction to German paleography which includes many 
examples of later medieval Latin scripts. Text in German.) 

Thompson , Edward Maunde . An Introduction to Greek and Latin 
Paleography. New York: Burt Franklin, 1965; reprint ed. 

Thompson, S. Harrison. Latin Bookhands of the Later Middles Ages 
1000-1500. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1969. 

Traube, Ludwig. Nomina Sacra. Darmstadt: Wissenschaf tliche 
Buchgesellschaft, 1967. (a reprint of Traube 's famous 
collection of early Christian abbreviations; from the 190 3 
edition) 



420 



Wright, Andrew. Court-Hand Restored, or the Student's Assistcint 
in Reading old Deeds, Charters, Records, etc. London: 
Reeves & Turner, 1879. 

D. Other Useful Works 

Amelotti , Mario and Costamanga , Giorgio. Alle Origini del notariato 
Italiano. Studi storici sul notariato Italiano. Vol. II. 
Rome: Consiglio nazionale de notariator, 1975. 
(a study of the origins of Italian notaries; text in Italian) 

Auffroy, H. Evolution du Testament en France des origins au 
Xllle siecle. Paris, 1899. 

(on the origins of the will in France from the beginning to 
the thirteenth century; text in French) 

Beeson, Charles H. A Primer of Medieval Latin: An Anthology of 
Prose and Poetry. Chicago: Scott, Foresman & Co., 19 25. 

Berger, Adolf. Encyclopedic Dictionairy of Roman Law. Philadelphia: 
The American Philosophical Society, reprinted 1980. 
(useful reference for legal terms encountered in medieval 
documents such as notarial records) 

Brezzi, Paolo and Lee, Egmont, eds. Sources of Social History: 
Private Acts of the Late Middle Ages. Toronto: Pontifical 
Institute of Mediaeval Studies, 1984. 

(contains a number of useful articles on notarial records and 
marriage contracts; text in English, Italian or French) 

Brinkmann, Hermann. Alte und Neue Zeitrechnung. Goerlitz: C. A. 
Starke, 1939. 

(ancient and modern methods for determining dates, feast days, 
etc . ; text in German ) 

Brittain, F. Latin in Church: The History of its Development. 

Alcuin Club Tracts XXVIII, London: A. R. Mowbray & Co., 1933, 
1955. 

Broc, J. et al. Testaments provenc^aux du moyen age: Documents 

pale'ographiques . Marseilles: Institut historique de Provence, 
n.d. (photocopies of actual wills from the 14th and 15th 
centuries, from the former region of Provence; includes a 
Latin transliteration and a French translation of each will) 

Browne, R. A. British Latin: Selections A.D. 500-1400. Oxford: 
Basil Blackwell, 1954. 

Bukke, Inger M. and Thomsen, Finn, comp. Feast Day Calendar for 
Denmark, Norway, Sweden, and Protestant Germany. Bountiful, 
Utah: Thomsen 's Genealogical Center, 1980. 

Cheney, C. R. Handbook of Dates for Students of English History. 

London: Royal Historical Society, 1978. 

421 



Dewindt, Edwin B. Land and People in Holywell-cmn-Needingworth: 
Structures of Teniire and Patterns of Social Organization in 
cin East Midlands Village 1252-1457. Toronto: Pontifical 
Institute of Mediaeval Studies, 1971. 
(Chapter III contains some very interesting information on 

the reconstitution and linkage of non-noble families using 

a variety of later medieval sources.) 

Gibson, J. S. W. Wills and Where to Find Them. Sussex: Phillimore 
& Co., 1974. (contains a brief glossary of important legal 
terms ) 

Giry, A. Manuel de Diplomatique. Reprint ed. New York: Burt 
Franklin, 1966; from the 1896 ed. 
(very useful for Julian and Gregorian calendars) 

Grotefend, H. Taschenbuch der Zeitrechnung des Deutschen 

Mittelalters und der Neuzeit. Hannover: Verlag Hahn'sche 
Buchhandlung, 1971. 

(a handbook of dates, calendars, feast and saints' days; 
text in German) 

Hammond, Mason. Latin: A Historical and Linguistic Handbook. 

Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1976. 

Jensen, C. Russell. The Role of the Notary in European Family 
Life. World Conference on Records. Salt Lake City, 1980. 

Lynch, H. Joseph. Godparents and Kinship in Early Medieval 
Europe. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1986. 
(good background on the origin and development of godparents 
and their functions) 

Norberg, Dag. Manuel pratxqiie de latin medieval. Paris; Editions 
A. & J. Picard, 1968. 
(a manual or handbook of medieval Latin, rather general) 

Pryor, John H. Business Contracts of Medieval Provence: Selected 

Notulae from the Cartulary of Giraud Amalric of Marseilles 1248 

Toronto: Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies, 1981. 
(contains a glossary of many terms found in notarial contracts 

from Provence, as well as a number of transliterated notarial 

contracts redacted by Giraud Amalric) 

Sheehan, Michael M. The Will in Medieval England: from the 

Conversion of the Anglo-Saxons to the End of the Thirteenth 
Centviry. Toronto: Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies, 
1963. 

Strecker, Karl. An Introduction to Medieval Latin. Dublin: 
Weidman, 1968. 



422 



INDEX 



Abbreviation of numbers, 24 3 
Abbreviation, types of 
Contraction, 240 

Examples of, 240-241 
Stenographic characters, 
240 

Examples of, 242-243 
Suspension, 240 

Examples of, 240-241 
Abbreviations 

Key to those used in this 
book , XX 

One or more letters with 
a period, 416-418 
Ablative, see Case 
Accents , xi 
Accusative, see Case 
Adjectives 

Agreement with nouns, 16 
Attributive, 16 
Comparison of, 164-166, 
338 

Declension of the 
comparative, 3 39 
Defined, xiv, 16 
Demonstrative, 158 
First and second declension 
adjectives: declension of, 
17, 336 

Irregular first and second 
declension adjectives 

Declension of, 18, 336 
Listed in dictionaries, 17 
Possessive, 157 
Predicate adjectives, 16 
Third declension adjec- 
tives, 47-49, 337-338 
Listed in dictionaries, 
49 
Used in place of a noun, 16 
Adverbs 

Defined, xiv, 162 
Comparison of, 166-167, 
339 

Formation of, 162-164, 339 
Ae diphthong ,4,9 

Abbreviation of, 4, 243-244 
Alphabet 

Classical, vii-x 
Ecclesiastical, x-xi 



Apposition, xiv 
Articles 

Defined, xiv 
Lack of in Classical 
Latin, 4 
Case, 1, 2 

Ablative, 2 
Ablative, uses of 

Ablative absolute, 147, 

194 

Uses of in parish 
registers, 194-198 

Accompaniment with cum, 

148 

Agency with the passive 

voice, 146 

Cause with a preposi- 
tion, 147 

Comparison, 147 

Locative (place in 

which), 148 

Manner with or without 

cum , 147 

Means , with or without a 

preposition, 147 

Place from which with a 

preposition, 146 

Separation with or 

without a preposition, 

147 

Time when or within 

which, 101, 146 

With deponent verbs such 

as utor, 147 

With prepositions, 146 
Accusative, 2 
Accusative, uses of 

Direct object, 226 

Duration and extent of 

time, 101, 226 

Indirect statement, 226 

With prepositions, 226 
Dative, 2 
Dative, uses of 

Agent, 225 

Indirect object, 225 

Possession, 225 

Reference, 225 

Reference and purpose, 
225 



423 



with adjectives, 225 
With verbs, 222-223, 225 
Defined, xv 
Genitive, 2 
Genitive, uses of 
Description, 224 
Genitive of the whole 
with milia, 97 
Objective genitive, 224 
Partitive genitive, 224 
Possession, 224 
Predicative genitive, 224 
With adjectives, 224 
With causa, 2 24 
With verbs, 225 
Locative, 3, 148 
Nominative, 2 
Vocative, 3, 5 
Classical and Medieval Latin 
Difference between, 244- 
246 
Clause 

Defined, xv 
Cognate 

Defined, xv 
Conditional sentences, xv 
Conjugation 
Defined, xv 
See also. Verbs 
Conjunctions 

Defined, xv 
Dates in Latin documents , 

102-106 
Dative, see Case 
Days of the week, 99-100 
Declension 

Defined, xv 
See also Nouns 
Discourse, xv 
Duration of time, with or 
without a preposition, 
102 
Eg, ire, ii, itum 
Compounds of, 222 
Conjugation of, 220-222, 
357-358 

Principal parts of, 359 
Feast Days, 269-275 
fero, ferre, tuli, latum 
Conjugation of 216-219, 
359-360 
fio, fieri, f actus sum 

Conjugation of, 212-213, 
360-361 



Gender , xvi 
Genitive, see Case 
Gerund, 26 

Declension of, 209 
Defined, xvi, 26, 209 
Verbal noun, 209 
Gerundive 

Defined, xvi 
Gregorian calendar 

Dates of adoption, 106-107 
Handwriting, 236 
Caroline, 236 
Gothic, 237-238 
Italic, 236 

Reading parish registers, 
suggestions for, 238-239 
Impersonal verbs, 223-224 
Indirect statement, xv 
Tense sequence of 
infinitives in, 199-200 
With infinitive, 199 
With quod plus the 
subjunctive, 181, 199 
Infinitives 

Defined, xvi, 26, 189 
Tenses and voices of, 198- 
199 
Inflection 

Defined, xvi, 1 
Of Latin verbs, 24 
Julian and Gregorian calen- 
dars, 106 
Key, grammar and translation 
exercises 
Chapter I 

Grammar, 288 
Translation, 288-290 
Chapter II 
Grammar, 290 
Translation, 290-291 
Chapter III 

Grammar, 291-292 
Translation, 292-294 
Chapter IV 

Grammar, 294-295 
Translation, 295-296 
Chapter V 

Grammar, 296-297 
Translation, 297-299 
Chapter VI 

Grammar, 299-300 
Translation, 300-304 



424 



Chapter VII 

Grammar, 305 

Translation, 305-307 
Chapter VIII 

Grammar, 307-308 

Translation, 308-310 
Chapter IX 

Grammar, 310-311 

Translation, 311-314 
Chapter X 

Grammar, 315 

Translation, 315-316 
Chapter XI 

Grammar, 316-318 

Translation, 318-320 
Chapter XII 

Grammar, 320-321 

Translation, 321-324 
Chapter XIII 

Grammar, 324-325 

Translation, 326-331 
Chapter XIV 

Grammar, 3 31 

Translation, 331-334 
Latinized given names 
Female, 260-268 
First and second declen- 
sion, 7 

First declension female 
given names , 7 
First declension male 
given names , 8 
Male, 247-260 
Second declension male 
given names , 8 
Third declension, 46 
Third declension male 
given names, 46 
Third declension female 
given names, 46-47 
Latinized place names, 149 
Locative, see Case 
Male, malle, malui 

Conjugation of, 357-359 
Principal parts of, 359 
Medieval spelling 

Genitive singular, dative 
singular, & nominative 
plural of first declension 
nouns , 9 

Classical & medieval 
spelling, 245-246 
Months of the year, 100-101 



Mood 

Defined, xvi , 25 

Indicative, 25 

Infinitive, 26 

Imperative, 25 

Subjunctive, 25, 173-177 
Defined, 173 
Uses of 178-182 
Tenses of, 173 
Nolo, nolle, nolui 

Conjugation of, 357-359 

Principal parts of, 359 
Nominative, see Case 
Nouns 

Declension, 1 

Defined, xvii, 1 

Fifth declension, 145, 336 

First and second declen- 
sion, 1, 3 

First declension, 3-4, 335 

Fourth declension, 143-145, 

336 

Gender, 1 

Defined, xvi, 1 

Number, 1-2 

Defined, xvii,l 

Second Declension, 5-7, 335 

Stems ,1,3 

Substituted for personal 

pronouns, 29 

Third declension, 42-46, 

335 

I-Stem nouns of the third 

declension, 44-46, 336 
Number, xvii, 24 
Numbers, 98 

Cardinal & ordinal: 

definition of, 96 

Declension of cardinal 

numbers, 96-97 

Declension of ordinal 

numbers, 97-98 

1-1000, cardinal & ordi- 
nal, 98-99 

1-1000, cardinal & ordinal, 
98-99 

Object, xvii 
Parish register entries 

Examples of , 

Birth, 276-279 
Marriage, 280-283 
Death, 284-287 
Parish register Latin 

Blend of classical, medie- 



425 



val, and ecclesiastical 

Latin, iii 
Participles, 27, 189-193 

Declension of, 192-193, 

343 

Defined, xvii, 27, 189 

Tenses and voices of, 

190-193 

Tenses of relative to main 

verb, 194 

Translation of, 193 
Periphrastic 

Active, 193 

Passive, 193 
Person, xvii, 24 
Phrase 

Defined, xviii 
Place, determination of in 

Latin, 148 
Possum, posse, potui, 3 3 

Combination of sum and 

potis, 3 3 

Conjugation of, 33-34, 82- 

83, 175, 177, 357-359 

Principal parts of, 359 

With complementary infini- 
tive, 3 3 
Predicate 

Defined, xviii 
Prepositions, 65 

Ablative prepositions, 65 

Accusative prepositions, 66 

Defined, xviii 

Prepositions taking both 

ablative and accusative, 66 
Pronouns, 27-28 

Defined, xviii, 155 

Demonstrative, 158-160, 

341-342 

Indefinite, 343 

Interrogative, 162-163, 

343 

Intensive, 161 

Personal, 155-157, 339-340 

Possessive, 157, 340-341 

Reflexive, 160-161, 342 

Reflexive possessive, 161, 

342 

Relative, 162, 343 
Roman Numerals, 99 
Root 

Defined, xix 
Sentence 

Defined, xix 



Stem 

Defined, xix 
Subject 

Defined, xix 
Suffix 

Defined, xx 
Sum, esse, fui, futurus, 31 

Conjugation of, 32-33, 81, 

175, 177, 356-359 

Perfect indicative active 
used to form the perfect 
indicative passive, 129 

Present indicative active 
used to form the perfect 
indicative passive, 124 

Principal parts of, 359 
Supine 

Defined, 26 
Syntax 

Defined, xx, 35 

Latin, 35-36 
Tense 

Defined, xx, 25 

Future, 25 

Future perfect, 25 

Imperfect, 25, 30 

Present, 25 

Perfect, 25 

Pluperfect, 25 
Tense sign 

Future indicative active 
First conjugation, 29 
Fourth conjugation, 61 
lO-Verbs, 6 3 
Second conjugation, 29 
Third conjugation, 59 

Imperfect indicative active 
First conjugation, 30 
Fourth conjugation, 61-62 
lO-Verbs, 64 
Second conjugation, 30 
Third conjugation, 59 
Verbs 

Compound verbs formed 

with prepositions, 67 

Conjugated for person, 

number, tense, mood, and 

voice, 24 

Conjugation 

Defined xv, 1, 24 

Deponents 

Active forms of, 131 
Conjugation, examples of, 
131, 361-363 



426 



Defined, 130 

Principal parts of, 130, 

364 

With ablative, 13 3 

First Conjugation, 27-30 
Conjugation of, 27-30, 
76-77, 115-116, 125, 
127-128, 173-177, 190, 
198, 210, 343, 345, 347, 
349, 351-356 

First two principal parts 

of, 36 

Four principal parts of, 

133, 356 

Listed in dictionaries, 
133-134 

Fourth conjugation, 58, 60- 

62 

Conjugation of, 60-61, 

79-80, 117-118, 126-127, 

129, 173-177, 191, 198, 

210, 344, 346, 348, 350- 

356 

Thematic vowel with, 6 2 

lO-Third conjugation, 62- 
65 

Conjugation of 63-65, 
80, 117-119, 127-129, 
173-177, 192, 198, 210, 
344, 346, 348, 350-356 

No emphatic or progres- 
sive Latin forms, 25 

Perfect passive participle 
Declension of, 124, 125 
Verbal adjective, 124, 
125, 129 

Fourth principal part of 
the Latin verb, 124 



Perfect system active, 

69-70 

Perfect system passive, 124 

Second conjugation, 27-30 
Conjugation of, 27-30, 
78, 116, 126-128, 173- 
177, 191, 198, 210, 344- 
345, 347, 349, 351-356 

Semi-Deponent Verbs, 132 

Stem 

present, 2 3 
perfect, 76 

Third conjugation, 58-60 
Conjugation of, 58-60, 
78-79, 117-118, 126-128, 
173-177, 191, 198, 210, 
344-356 

Present stem of, 58 
Tense sign, future, 59 
Thematic vowel with, 59- 
60 

Third principal part, 82 

Time sequence of perfect 

system active, 80-81 
Vocative, see Case 
Voice 

Defined, xx, 26 
Active, 26 
Passive, 115 

Baptismal, marriage, and 

burial entries generally 

in, 115 
Vole, velle, volui 

Conjugation of, 214-215, 

356-358 



427