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Full text of "The parish registers of England"

THE ANTIQUARY'S BOOKS 

GENERAL EDITOR: J. CHARLES COX, LL.D., F.S.A. 



THE 
PARISH REGISTERS OF ENGLAND 




THOMAS CROMWELL 

THE FOUNDER OF PARISH REGISTERS 
From the painting (in the School of Holbein) at the National Portrait Gallery 




THE 

PARISH REGISTERS 
OF ENGLAND 



BY 



J. CHARLES COX, LL.D., F.S.A. 



" EVERY PARISH MUST HAVE A HISTORY, EVERY PARISH 
HAS A REGISTER, EVERY PERSON HAS A PARISH." 

BISHOP STUBBS 



WITH TWENTY-FOUR ILLUSTRATIONS 



METHUEN & GO. LTD. 

36 ESSEX STREET W.C, 

LONDON 




5*5 / 3 



First Published in 1910 



IT IS A GRATIFICATION 

TO INSCRIBE THESE PAGES 

TO MY OLD FRIEND 

ROBERT MEYRICKE SERJEANTSON, M.A., F.S.A. 

RECTOR OF ST. PETER'S, NORTHAMPTON 

AS A SMALL TOKEN OF MY GRATITUDE 

FOR THE VERY CONSIDERABLE ASSISTANCE 

HE HAS SO FREELY RENDERED 

TOWARDS THEIR PRODUCTION 



PREFACE 

IT is just half a century since I began, in the year 
1860, making extracts from parish registers in 
West Somerset, where my father was beneficed, 
a pursuit followed up with some success a few years 
later in my own county of Derbyshire. At that time 
the only work on the subject was The History of 
Parish Registers in England, by Mr. J. S. Burn, 
published in 1829. A second edition, considerably 
extended, was issued in 1862. With the latter were 
incorporated the salient points of the same writer's 
brief book entitled History of the Fleet Registers. 
Mr. Burn's book, long since out of print, is still of 
value, and contains a variety of legal information, 
but it is ill digested throughout and confusedly 
arranged. 

In 1870 Mr. R. E. Chester Waters reprinted a 
pamphlet on parish registers from the pages of The 
Home and Foreign Review. A few years later, I 
learnt, through a friend, of Mr. Waters' intention to 
extend and reprint his treatise, and, knowing how 
he was crippled by infirmities, I put a variety of 
extracts at his disposal and gave some assistance 
in other ways. The book issued by Mr. Chester 
Waters in 1882, under the title of Parish Registers 
in England, their History and Contents, had become 

vii 



viii PARISH REGISTERS 

expanded from a pamphlet of three sheets into a 
compact little volume of 122 pages. This work, a 
great improvement upon the straggling chapters 
of Burn's bigger book, was much appreciated, es- 
pecially by the clergy ; but it has been long out of 
print, and difficult to procure through second-hand 
agencies. 

Meanwhile, I kept steadily before my mind the 
hope of producing a book which, whilst based upon 
the labours of my predecessors, Burn and Waters, 
should strike out a wider line of its own, and aim 
at a better arrangement and at a fuller explanation 
of unusual points. At last, after many interruptions, 
literary and otherwise, the idea has matured, and 
these pages are put forth with a fair amount of 
hope that they may prove useful and helpful to 
those who desire to have a better understanding 
of parochial registers. 

Another book on this subject was produced in 
1908, of the highest value and yet in no sense 
clashing with this work or causing me to falter in 
my task, which had then made considerable advance. 
I allude to Mr. Arthur Meredyth Burke's volume 
called A Key to the Ancient Parish Registers of 
England and Wales. In the following year a supple- 
ment of addenda and corrigenda was also issued. 
The object of this laborious work is to provide 
those who have reason to consult parish registers 
with an easy and reliable guide as to the period 
covered by each of them, and also with information 
as to their having been printed, if such has been the 
case. It is only those who h&ve had occasion to 
consult such registers who are aware how common 



PREFACE ix 

are the blunders as to their dates in the usual local 
works of reference. 

In conjunction with Mr. Burke, a particular 
endeavour has for the first time been made to 
definitely settle the long vexed question as to the 
existence of parochial registers prior to the year (1538) 
when Thomas Cromwell first ordered them to be 
kept. The number of these early examples has 
hitherto always been exaggerated. Each instance 
is discussed in the last chapter, and they prove to 
be under a score, instead of upwards of forty. Of 
the two which are the oldest Tipton, 1513, and 
Altham, 1518 full details are given. 

It is foreign to my purpose to discuss the advis- 
ability or methods of changing the custody of the 
parish registers in these pages, but no one can be 
more impressed than myself with the culpable care- 
lessness shown, and continued to be shown, by a 
minority of the beneficed clergy as to their safe 
keeping. In three instances, early registers from 
which I took various extracts within the last thirty 
years have hopelessly disappeared. The large 
number of registers lost since the Blue Book of 1833 
is discussed with some detail in the last chapter. 

As to Bishops' Transcripts, no words can be too 
strong as to the scandal of their condition. Mr. 
Waters' statement of 1882 is amply warranted: 
'They present a lamentable picture of episcopal 
negligence, parochial parsimony, and official rapa- 
city." It would be useful if some genealogist would 
undertake a systematic work on their often pitiful 
remains. 

To comply with the requirements of my long- 



x PARISH REGISTERS 

suffering publishers, and a generally expressed wish 
that this book should be of modest dimensions, severe 
excision has been used. Less than half of the original 
number of selected extracts have survived the process 
of sifting. 

No reference will be found to Briefs in these pages, 
though long lists appear on the fly-sheets of some 
registers. Those desirous of following up this 
subject are referred to an excellent and exhaustive 
volume issued by Mr. W. A. Bewes in 1896, entitled 
Church Briefs. 

The details as to visitations of the plague, set forth 
at some length from the registers in Chapter IX, 
will be found to correct some of the exaggerations 
and misstatements of local historians, notably in the 
case of Derby. 

With regard to assistance in bringing out this 
book, my gratitude is in the first place due to the 
Rev. R. M. Serjeantson, who has not only supplied 
a large number of Northamptonshire register extracts, 
but has also carefully read the proofs. In the next 
place it is a pleasure to thank Mr. Burke for his 
generous kindness and help ; without the aid of his 
Key, and his personal supervision, the appendixes 
could not have been produced. Many of the clergy 
have been most courteously prompt in their replies 
to troublesome queries. Among them I should like 
to mention the Rev. J. F. Monckton, vicar of 
Sinnington ; the Rev. T. S. Lea, rector of Penkevil ; 
the Rev. G. B. R. de Jersey, vicar of Kingsbury; 
the Rev. S. G. H. Sargeant, vicar of Nonington ; 
the Rev. C. Swatridge, rector of Thurlton ; the Rev. 
G. S. Biddulph, vicar of Stretton Grandison ; and 



PREFACE xi 

.more especially the Rev. H. H. Whitaker, the vicar 
of Altham. 

I am hopeful ere long of producing a companion 
volume on Churchwardens' Accounts, of which a 
large number of pre- Reformation, examples (many 
quite unknown) remain, including also Constables' 
and Poor Accounts. Towards this book considerable 
preparations have been made. I shall be particularly 
obliged for a post-card note as to any pre- Reformation 
instances, as some may have been overlooked. 

Corrections of these pages will also be welcomed. 

J. CHARLES COX 

13 LONGTON AVENUE, SYDENHAM 
February 1910 



CONTENTS 

CHAPTER I 
r ACTS OF PARLIAMENT AND CANONS 

PAGE 

;romwell's order of 1538 Popular dislike Action of 1547, 1555, 
and 1558 Bills of 1563 and 1590 Convocation in 1597 and 
1603 Action of Parliament in 1644 and 1653 Registration 
Acts of William ill Lord Hardwicke's Act of 1753 The 
Stamp Act of 1783 Rose's Act of 1812 i 

CHAPTER II 
THE STORY OF THE REGISTERS 

The registers of 1 538 Elizabethan registers The transcripts from 
paper Faulty registrations Post-Restoration registers The 
Stamp Act of 1783 Calendar changes Large hand entries . 12 

CHAPTER III 
CHANGES IN RELIGIOUS FORMULARIES 

Much Wenlock Register Death of Henry VIII Accession of 
Edward VI, Mary, and Elizabeth Bidding Prayer of 1545 
Use of English Service temp. Edward vi Commonwealth 
changes ........ 25 

CHAPTER IV 
BAPTISMS 

Births and baptisms Casting nativities Puritans and fonts 
Exceptional baptismal entries Adult baptism Godparents 
Godparents to bastards Baptism by midwives Creatura 
Christi .,....., 39 

xiii 



xiv PARISH REGISTERS 

CHAPTER V 
CHRISOM CHILDREN, FOUNDLINGS, ETC. 

PAGE 

Chrlsom children Foundlings The foundlings of the Temple 
Nurse children Confirmation Churching Bastards 
Terms for illegitimacy . . 59 

CHAPTER VI 
MARRIAGES 

Terms of entry Marriageable age Hours of marriage For- 
bidden seasons Marriage by banns Forbidding of banns 
Marriage by licence Marriage of the defective Marriage 
in smock Marriage of bishops Commonwealth marriages 
Conviviality Exceptional entries Act of 1753 Clan- 
destine marriages and lawless churches Fleet Street and 
London Dale Abbey Peak Forest . . . .76 



CHAPTER VII 
BURIALS 

Burial entries not perfect Singular burial entries Characters 
of the deceased Centenarians Burials of excommunicants 
The Recusants Excommunicate Non-conformists Post- 
Reformation excommunication Burials of suicides Other 
burials by night Burials of criminals Burial without coffins 
Burials in woollen Mortuaries Arrest of corpse for debt 
Burial offered to passing corpse . . . .96 



CHAPTER VIII 
ACCIDENTS 

Deaths from various accidents The fate of Dorothy Matley 
Deaths through cold and snow Mining disasters Deaths 
through drowning Escapes from death Freaks or prodigies 128 



CONTENTS xv 

CHAPTER IX 
THE PLAGUE AND OTHER SICKNESS 

PAGE 

The Sweating Sickness The Plague in London In Northamp- 
tonshire In Derbyshire The Eyam episode Plague burial 
in Cheshire The Plague in the Midland Counties In the 
North of England In the Eastern Counties In the South 
and West The tragedy of the Dawson household The 
tragedy at Great Hampden Small-pox Inoculation 
Influenza Scarlet fever Lithotomy The Royal Touch for 
scrofula ........ 142 



CHAPTER X 
HISTORICAL 

Arrival of King Philip Marian burnings Funeral of Mary 
Queen of Scots The Armada Elizabethan martyrs Levies 
on the clergy Border warfare Historic entries at Youl- 
greave Victories of Van Tromp, 1639 Dewsbury registers 
The Great Civil War Casualties in Northamptonshire, 
Derbyshire, etc. Register irregularities caused by the war 
Tamworth registers The Protestation and the Cove- 
nant The death of the Protector and of his Relict The 
Restoration Rye House Plot Death of Charles II and 
accession of James II Monmouth's rebellion The Prince 
of Orange ....... 184 



CHAPTER XI 
STORMS, FROSTS, AND FIRES 

Storm of 1606-7 The Snowstorm of 1614-15 Later seventeenth- 
century storms The frost of 1683-84" The great storm " of 
I 73 A late snowstorm Aurora Borealis of 1716 Earth- 
quakes Other eighteenth-century storms The Cherry 
Burton register Eclipses Comets Fires The Great Fire 
of London ,,.,,, 205 



xvi PARISH REGISTERS 

CHAPTER XII 
OLLA PODRIDA 

PAGE 

Penance for incontinency and slander Penance for marrying 
deceased wife's sister Tollesbury font inscription Flesh in 
Lent Butchers' recognisances Number of communicants 
Altar wine Benefit of clergy Witches Gipsies Parochial 
whippings Records of exhibitions Tithing notes . . 217 

CHAPTER XIII 
THE DATES AND CONDITIONS OF THE REGISTERS 

The Blue Book Returns of 1833 Numerous blunders Mediaeval 
death registers Parish registers prior to 1538 The numbers 
of 1538-39 registers Transcripts ordered in 1597 and in 
1603 Grievous defects of Bishops' Transcripts exposed in 
1800 Act of 1812 Returns of 1831 Transcripts of the 
peculiars of Lichfield and Southwell Careless loss of regis- 
ters, instanced in Kent and Bucks Irregularities of entry 
Trades and occupations in London, Chesham, Lancashire, 
etc. " Sir " signifying priest Puritan names Similar 
names in one family Double names Contracted form of 
entry Birth registers Printed registers Nonconformist 
and Huguenot registers . . . . . . 234 

APPENDIX I ....... 261 

APPENDIX II . . . . . . .264 

APPENDIX III ....... 270 

APPENDIX IV ....... 272 

INDEX ........ 283 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 
IN THE TEXT 



PAGE 



Facsimile of Title-Page of 1653 Registry Act . . -9 

Title-Page of Register of St. Peter's, Dunwich . . .14 

Title-Page of first Prayer Book in English . . -35 

Title-Page of "Directory" of 1644 . . . . -37 

Edward Myner, a Chrisom Child . . . . .63 

Facsimile of Commonwealth Marriage Entries, Staines . . 88 

Facsimile of Burial Register, Lyminge . . . .97 

Facsimile of first page of Register of Burials in Woollen : 

Littlebourne, Kent . . . . . .123 

Title-Page of " Fearefull Summer," first printed in 1625 . . 149 

Title-Page of " London's Lamentation," 1641 . . . 151 

Petition to Charles I as to King's Evil . . . .180 

Proclamation as to times for "Touching," 1683 . . .182 

Whipping Post and Stocks, Aldbury . . . .231 
From a Drawing by J. C. Wall. 



LIST OF PLATES 



Thomas Cromwell ..... Frontispiece 

From the Painting (in the School of Holbein) at the National 
Portrait Gallery 

FACING PAGE 

The Priory of Wenlock ...... 26 

From a Photograph by J. Valentine & Co. Ltd. 

The Parish Church, Wenlock . . . . .30 

From a Photograph by J. Valentine & Co. Ltd. 

Cardinal Reginald Pole . . . . . -5 

From a Painting (artist unknown) at the National Portrait 
Gallery 

Dale Abbey Chapel . . . . . . -94 

From a Photograph by R. Keene Ltd. 

Mompesson's Well, Eyam . . . . . .162 

From a Photograph by J. Valentine & Co. Ltd. 

Riley Grave Stones, Eyam . . . . . .164 

From a Photograph by R. Keene Ltd. 

Wingfield Manor House . . . . . . 194 

From a Drawing by Colonel Machell, 1785 

The Solemn League and Covenant, Preamble . . .198 

The Solemn League and Covenant, Second Clause . . 200 

Reduced facsimiles of nn engraved edition of the Covenant 
by W. Hollar 

The Frontispiece of Matthew Hopkins' " Discovery of 

Witches," 1644 . . . . . . .228 

Facsimile of First Page of Tipton Register, 1513 . . .238 

Kindly lent by Mr. A. M. Burke 



XV111 



These all are gone, their little day is o'er, 

They laugh, they weep, they sport, they toil no more ; 

Their feet are still, and others in their room 

With busy step are hurrying to the tomb. 

We, in our turn, to others shall give place, 

And others yet come forth to run the race ; 

And yet that race by others shall be run 

Till time is over and the world is done. 

From the Burton Latimer Registers, 1823-24 



XX 



PARISH REGISTERS 

CHAPTER I 
ACTS OF PARLIAMENT AND CANONS 

Cromwell's order of 1538 Popular dislike Action of 1547, 1555, 
and 1558 Bills of 1563 and 1590 Convocation in 1597 and 
1603 Action of Parliament in 1644 and 1653 Registration 
Acts of William in Lord Hardwicke's Act of 1753 The 
Stamp Act of 1783 Rose's Act of 1812 

IN July 1535, Henry VIII, by virtue of the Act of Supre- 
macy, appointed Thomas Cromwell, who was at that 
time Lord Privy Seal, to be his Vicar-General. 
Cromwell in his early life had been a resident in the Low 
Countries, and would therefore have knowledge of the 
baptismal registers introduced there by the Spanish clergy. 
His much improved scheme for securing the registration in 
his own country of births, deaths, and marriages, at little or 
no expense, is the one commendable action in the public life 
of this marvellously shrewd but absolutely unscrupulous 
man. There can be no doubt that Cromwell's registration 
project must have been planned and discussed during the 
first year of his ecclesiastical administration. The rumour 
spread far and wide to the effect that this strange new 
power, which had sprung up within the Church of England, 
was about to levy a tax for his master's coffers on the 
administration of the Sacraments. This rumour, in which 
there was quite possibly some truth, naturally aroused the 



2 PARISH REGISTERS 

keenest resentment among the masses. The very first of 
the list of popular grievances put forth by the insurgents of 
the Pilgrimage of Grace in 1536 was "That no infant shall 
receive the blessed Sacrament of Baptisme bott onlesse an 
trybette be payd to the king." A pamphlet printed in 1537 
states that the Yorkshire insurgents gave out that the people 
were ordered henceforth to pay the crown for christenings, 
marriages, and burials. 

Cromwell, however, who must have been thoroughly 
aware of the extent and gravity of the great popular risings 
against his initial steps in the suppression of the monasteries, 
was clever enough to withdraw for a time, and probably to 
modify his original registration project. 

It was not until three years later that Cromwell issued 
injunctions to every parish in England and Wales, ordering 
the parson to enter every Sunday in the presence of the 
wardens, or one of them, all the baptisms, marriages, and 
burials of the previous week, in a book which was to be kept 
in a two-locked coffer, under pain of a fine of 35. 4d., to be 
applied to the repair of the Church. The following is the 
exact phraseology of this order, which is dated 5th September 
1538, as set forth in the State Papers, save that the con- 
tracted words are extended : 

" In the name of God Amen. By the authorite and comission 
of the most excellent Prince Henry by the Grace of God Kynge of 
Englande and of France, defensor of the faithe Lorde of Irelande, 
and in erthe supreme hedd undre Christ of the Church of Englande, 
I Thomas lorde Cromwell, lorde privie seall, Vicegerent within this 
realme, do for the avancement of the trewe honor of almighty God, 
encrease of vertu and discharge of the kynges majestic, give and 
exhibite unto you theise injunctions folowing, to be kept observed 
and fulfilled upon the paynes hereafter declared. . . . 

"That you and every parson vicare or curate within this diocese 
shall for every churche kepe one boke or registere wherein ye shall 
write the day and yere of every weddyng christenyng and buryeng 
made within yor parishe for your tyme, and so every man succeed- 



ACTS OF PARLIAMENT AND CANONS 3 

yng you lykewise. And shall there insert every persons name that 
shalbe so weddid christened or buried. And for the sauff kepinge 
of the same boke the parishe shalbe bonde to provide of these 
comen charges one sure coffer with twoo lockes and keys wherof 
the one to remayne with you, and the other with the said wardens, 
wherein the saide boke shalbe laide upp. Whiche boke ye shall 
every Sonday take furthe and in the presence of the said wardens 
or one of them write and recorde in the same all the weddinges 
christenynges and buryenges made the hole weke before. And that 
done to lay upp the boke in the said coffer as afore. And for 
every tyme that the same shalbe omytted the partie that shalbe in 
the faulte therof shall forfett to the saide churche ins mid to be 
emploied on the reparation of the same churche. . . . 

"THOMAS CRUMWELL" 

Although the very whisper of disapproval of the king's 
ecclesiastical or general policy had by this time been con- 
verted into an act of high treason, and any hint or form of 
active opposition suppressed with brutal ferocity such as 
one of the fairest of our historians terms a veritable " reign 
of terror" there was no small resentment up arid down 
the country to this registration order. It is but fair to 
state that this resentment was mainly due to popular 
misconceptions as to the details of the scheme, which, as 
has been shown, imposed no kind of fee on any one, save 
the purchase by the parish of a book, and simply added 
to the duties and responsibilities of the beneficed clergy 
and the churchwardens. 

There are three extant communications at the Public 
Record Office addressed to Cromwell in the early part of 
1539, which reflect this current distrust. 1 The first of these, 
dated I5th February, is from John Marshall, of South 
Carlton, Notts, stating, inter alia, that in those parts of 
Nottinghamshire and Lincolnshire around Newark there 
was much resentment as to the various new " fashions," and 
no little fear that some " paymentes shuld or myght grow 

1 Dom. State Papers, Henry vni, vol. xiv. pt. I, Nos. 295, 507, 815. 



4 PARISH REGISTERS 

uppon them at lengthe to the kyngs hyghnes." On I2th 
March, Richard Covert and John Michel wrote to Cromwell 
and the privy council as to words used by one William Hole, 
a smith of Horsham, to the effect that there " wasse come 
downe comyssion or comaridement that a writen tribute or 
some of monye shuld be payd to the Kynges highnes for 
weddynges crystenyngs and buryalls, and that ther shuld 
be payd to the Kyng for every one of these \d or more 
and to the lorde of the Franches as moch." The alleged 
offender was sent up to London to appear before the council. 
The third letter is one, which has been several times cited, 
from Sir Piers Edgcumbe as to the alarm felt in sundry 
parts of Devonshire and Cornwall ; it is dated 2Oth April, 
and expresses a hope that these misgivings will be officially 
set at rest : " Ther mystrust is that somme charges more 
than hath byn in tymes past shall growe to theym by this 
occacyon off regesstrynge of thes thynges ; wher in yff hyt 
shall please the Kynge's majisteto put them yowte offdowte 
in my poor mynde shall encresse moche harty loff." 

The council of the boy-king, Edward VI, reissued in 1 547 
the registration injunctions of Cromwell almost word for 
word, with the exception that the fine of 33. 4d. for neglect, 
was to be assigned to the " poore mens box of that parishe." 
In the same year one of the visitation articles of the diocese 
of Canterbury was 

"Whether they have one Book or Register safely kept, wherein 
they write the day of every Wedding, Christening, and Burying." 

Under Philip and Mary, in 1555, Cardinal Pole directed 
that the Bishops in their visitations were to inquire 

" If the parish priest had a Register with the names of those 
who were baptized, of the sponsors, of the married, and the dead." 

Two years later, among the Cardinal's articles touching 
the clergy was one 



ACTS OF PARLIAMENT AND CANONS 5 

" Whether they do keep the Book or Register of Christenings, 
Buryings, and Marriages, with the name of the Godfather and 
Godmother." 

The question of registering the god-parents is discussed 
in a subsequent section. 

In the first years of Queen Elizabeth, the registration in- 
junctions were again reissued in almost the identical phrase- 
ology used under Henry VIII and Edward VI, with the slight 
alteration that the defaulting penalty was to be divided 
equally between the poor and the repair of the church. 

The first interference of Parliament with matters of 
registration occurred in 1563. On Qth March a bill was 
read for the first time in the House of Commons to authorise 
every archbishop and bishop " to erect one Office of Register- 
ship of all the Church Books to be kept in every diocese." 
This bill was of an elaborate character : transcripts were to 
be sent of all parochial registers to the diocesan centre, and 
copies were to be executed of "all former church books 
of 24 yeeres continuance already passed or thereabouts " 
into " great deacent books of parchment." To cover 
expenses, the Bill provided that the parents of every child 
not baptized having lands to the value of 40, or goods to 
the value of 5, should pay at the christening id. ; that every 
man of like possessions should pay id. on his marriage, and 
2d. on the burial of his wife ; that every woman of like 
possessions should pay id. at the burial of her husband ; and 
that every such man or woman should pay id. at the burial 
of their son or daughter or household servant. These fees 
were to be paid to the churchwardens, and to be by these 
once a year transmitted to the diocesan register. The clergy, 
however, opposed the scheme, and the measure was dropped. 
The like fate befel another scheme for a general registry, 
arranged under counties, which was propounded in 1590 by 
Lord Treasurer Burghley. 



6 PARISH REGISTERS 

Though these two schemes failed, they prepared the way 
for a genuine plan of general registration which was adopted 
in 1597. On 25th October of that year, a constitution 
issued by the convocation of the archbishop, bishops, and 
clergy of the province of Canterbury, and approved by the 
Queen under the great seal of Great Britain, directed the 
more careful keeping of parochial registers, which were 
pronounced to be of the greatest utility {permagnus usus). 
The registers were for the future to be kept on parchment, 
and parchment copies were to be made of those old registers 
which were on paper. For the prevention of guile or negli- 
gence in the keeping of the registers, it was enacted that 
the whole of the entries of the previous week were to be 
read out openly and distinctly by. the minister on Sunday, 
at the conclusion of either mattins or evensong. The names 
of the minister and wardens were to be appended to every 
page of the register on its completion. Lastly it was 
ordained that a copy of the parish register was to be sent 
by the warden annually within a month after Easter, 
without any fee, to the diocesan register, and there to be 
kept faithfully among the episcopal archives. These copies, 
known as " Bishops' Transcripts," have, however, been most 
fitfully and slovenly kept, as is subsequently noticed. 

A somewhat similar ecclesiastical mandate was issued in 
1603, at the opening of the reign of James I, whereby it was 
enacted that a parchment book was to be provided at the 
expense of the parish, wherein were to be copied former 
paper registers, "so far as the ancient books thereof can 
be procured, but especially since the beginning of the reign 
of the late Queen." The safe keeping of the register was to 
be entrusted to " one sure Coffer with three Locks and Keys," 
to be in the several respective custody of the minister and 
the two wardens. The provision for the public weekly 
reading of the register was not repeated. This curious and 



ACTS OF PARLIAMENT AND CANONS 7 

generally forgotten order was only in operation for six years, 
and we are not aware that any memorandum exists as to 
its execution. The Sunday register entries of the past week 
by the minister, in the presence of the wardens, was, 
however, again enjoined, and so too was the order for the 
annual transmission of the bishops' transcripts, though the 
exact date was changed to within a month after 25th March. 

The widespread disturbances during the Civil War, 
and the ejection of so large a number of the Episcopal 
clergy from their benefices naturally brought about consider- 
able irregularity in the keeping of the register in not a few 
parishes, and occasionally resulted in their entire cessation 
The attention of Parliament was called to these irregularities, 
and on 6th December 1644, it was ordered that "it be 
referred to the committee for bringing in the ordinance for 
the establishing the Directory, to bring in a clause in that 
ordinance for registering the time of baptising of children, 
and their parents' names, and for registering of burials." 
In the same year it was further ordained that " there shall be 
provided at the charge of every parish or chapelry, a fair 
Register Book of velim to be kept by the minister and 
other officers of the church, and that the names of all children 
baptized, and of their parents, and of the time of their birth 
and baptising, shall be written and set down by the minister 
therein, and also the names of all persons married there, 
and the time of their marriage ; and also the names of all 
persons buried in that parish, and the time of their death 
and burial ; and that the said book shall be shewed by 
such as keep the same to all persons reasonably desiring to 
search for the birth, baptising, marriage, or burial of any 
person therein registered, and to take a copy or procure a 
certificate thereof." 

Notwithstanding these regulations, it was found that 
during this transition state of matters religious, when 



8 PARISH REGISTERS 

endeavours were being made to suppress Episcopal Church 
government, and even the possession of a Book of Common 
Prayer was visited with the severest penalties, registration was 
reduced to chaotic conditions. In consequence the hand of 
Parliament was again evoked in 1653, when an Act was passed 
on 24th August. By this Act the ministers were required to 
give up their register books to laymen, who were to be 
called "parish registers." 1 These new officials were to 
enter all publications of banns, marriages, births, and burials. 
For marriage entries they were empowered to charge a fee 
of I2d., and 4d. for each entry of birth and burial. The 
lay register was to be chosen by the householders of each 
parish on or before 22nd September 1653, and as soon as he 
had been sworn and approved by the local justice, his 
appointment was to be entered in the register book. The 
enactment by this same Act of civil marriage is subsequently 
discussed. Here it may be remarked that this elaborate 
Commonwealth legislation was ignored at the Restoration, 
when the keeping of the registers reverted to the clergy. 
The civil marriages before justices during 1653-1660 were, 
however, legalised by Act of Parliament (12 Car. ii, c. 33) 
during the latter year. 

The whimsical Act of 1680 for burial in woollen, with 
its enforced register entries, is also treated of in later pages. 

The reign of William III saw several Registration Acts 
passed, which were obviously designed to assist the ex- 
chequer. Amongst other taxes designed " for carrying on 
the war against France with vigour " was a graduated scale 

1 The comparatively modern word Registrar is not to be found in the Statutes, 
nor in Johnson's Dictionary. "In the language of Roman jurisprudence," as 
pointed out by Mr. Waters, "the archivist was regerendarius and the archives 
were regerta, from which came in low-Latin registrum and registraritis. When 
the registrarius signed Latin documents officially, he subscribed himself for 
brevity Registrar, just as the Prebendarius signed himself Prcbendar ; and 
the abbreviation of the Latin signature came to be mistaken, in a generation 
ignorant of Latin, for the official designation in England." 



AN ACT 

tOUCHING 

MARRIAGES 

And the Rcgiftring thereof; 

And alfo touching 

Births and Burials. 




Wcdnefday the 24* of Agf, 1653. 

ORttereJ by the Parliament, ThAt this A ft be forthwith Printed 
tndPttblifred. 

Hen: Scobcll, Clerk of the Parliament. 



London, Printed by John field , Printer to the Par- 
liament of England, 16*53. 



FACSIMILE OF TITLE-PAGE OF 1653 REGISTRY ACT. 



to PARISH REGISTERS 

of duties imposed in 1694 (6 & 7 Wm. Ill, c. 6) on 
marriages, births, and burials ; it also included a tax for five 
years upon bachelors and widowers. The tax collectors 
were allowed full access to the registers, and the penalty on 
the minister for neglect to register was ;ioo. The following 
was the scale adopted : 

s. d. 

For the burial of every person .040 

of a Duke (above the 43.) . . 50 o o 

of a Marquis, etc., etc. in pro- 

portion 

,, of every person having a real 

estate of ^50 per annum or 

upwards, or a personal estate 

of ^600, or upwards . . o 20 o 

,, of the wife of such person 

having such estate . .0100 
For and upon the birth of every person and 
child, except the children of those who 
receive alms . . . . . .020 

of the eldest son of a Duke . 30 o o 
of a marquis, and so forth. 

Upon the marriage of every person . . .026 
of a Duke . . . .5000 

,, of a Marquis . . . 40 o o 

of an earl . . . . 30 o o 

and so forth. 

Bachelors, above 25 years old, yearly . .010 
Widowers .010 

A Duke, being Bachelor or Widower, yearly . 12 10 o 
A Marquis ,, ,, .1000 

In the following year it was enacted (7 & 8 Wm. Ill, c. 35) 
that a fine of 403. was to be imposed on parents who 
omitted to give notice to the minister within five days of 
the birth of a child, and the minister was enjoined under a 
like penalty to keep a distinct reference of such so born and 
not christened, for doing which the parents were to pay 
sixpence to the clergy. This form, however, of registration 



ACTS OF PARLIAMENT AND CANONS u 

was for the most part neglected, and in 1706 (4 Anne c. 12) 
an Act of Immunity was passed in respect to negligent 
clergy, wherein it was plainly stated that an enforcement of 
the heavy penalties would expose them and their families to 
ruin. 

The year 1753 is memorable in the history of registra- 
tion for the passing of "An Act for the preventing of 
Clandestine Marriages" (22 Geo. II, c. 33), which is generally 
known as Lord Hardwicke's Act. It prescribed a special 
form of entry for banns and marriages, and directed that all 
marriages were to be through either banns or licence, and 
were to be solemnised in some church or chapel which had 
been customarily used for such purpose. To this Act, and 
to the evils which it suppressed, further allusion is made in 
the section dealing with marriages. 

The Stamp Act of 1783 (23 Geo. Ill, c. 71) imposed a 
duty of 3d. upon every entry in the parish register, and two 
years later was extended to Nonconformists. This invidious 
tax, which fell lightly on the rich, but was a distinct burden 
on the poor, placed the clergy in the unfortunate position of 
tax gatherers, and was a direct inducement to defective 
registration. This unpopular and obnoxious statute was 
repealed in 1794. 

Rose's Act of 1812 "for the better regulating and 
preserving of Parish and other Register of Births, Baptisms, 
Marriages, and Burials in England" (52 Geo. Ill, c. 14^), 
put the whole question of registration on a surer foundation. 
But the Act was loosely drafted ; the only penalty imposed 
was transportation for fourteen years, whilst a subsequent 
clause provided that one half of all penalties shall go to the 
informer and the remainder to the poor of the parish ! We 
have no concern in these pages with the further registration 
legislation of the nineteenth century. 



CHAPTER II 
THE STORY OF THE REGISTERS 

The registers of 1538 Elizabethan registers The transcripts 
from paper Faulty registrations Post - Restoration re- 
gisters The Stamp Act of 1783 Calendar changes Large 
hand entries 

A KNOWLEDGE of the history of the registration en- 
actments of some three centuries, set forth in outline 
in the last chapter, is necessary to the due under- 
standing of England's parochial registers. 

The one fairly obvious fault of Cromwell's injunctions of 
1538 was the neglect to specify the nature of "the one boke 
or registre " wherein the entries were to be made. Most of 
the first registers appear to have been written on paper, 
which was naturally used on the score of economy. This 
was the case even in an important parish, so near to the 
centre of court life, as St. Margaret's, Westminster. 
The Churchwarden's accounts contain this entry : 

" 1538. Paid for a book to registre in the names of buryals, weddings, 
and christ'nings, 2d." 

It is not worth while to multiply instances of this, but we 
have noted seven similar entries in the churchwardens' 
accounts of other parishes ; in three of these cases it is 
specified that 2d. was the price of a quire of paper. 

Although the use of parchment or vellum was not en- 
joined prior to the ordinances of Elizabeth and James I, just 
a few parishes were sufficiently enterprising to procure a 



THE STORY OF THE REGISTERS 13 

thin folio book of parchment at the very dawn of registration. 
It is exceedingly rare to find an undoubted original register 
beginning in 1538; fully 95 per cent, of those that go back 
to that date are transcripts made towards the end of 
Elizabeth's reign or at the opening of that of. James I. The 
first register book of Staplehurst, Kent, is one of the rare 
exceptions, where the original and the transcript exist side 
by side. 

When parchment transcripts and current registers were 
ordered, various parishes not unnaturally followed the plan 
usually adopted with every class of official record, of pro- 
curing narrow strips or membranes and stitching them 
together to form a roll as occasion required. Such rolls 
have been noted in the Northamptonshire parishes of 
Burton Latimer (1538-1569), and Orlingbury (1564-1653); 
at Brenchley (1539) and Nursted (1561), Kent ; at Appleby 
St. Michael (1582-1677), and Ambleside (1643), Westmore- 
land; and at Thormanby, Yorks (1658). 

The majority of the early registers are in Latin. During 
the Commonwealth, the use of Latin was generally 
abandoned, and but very occasionally resumed after the 
Restoration. The following sensible note occurs in the 
register of All Saints, Derby : 

"May 16, 1610. I see no reason why a Register for English people 
should be written in Latin. Richard Kilbie, Minister of All- 
Hallows in Derbie." 

In the register of Clyst St. George, Devon, is an entry 
under 1735-36 to the effect that "the law now forbids ye 
keeping any records in Latin' 5 ; but in this statement the 
minister was mistaken, the Act of 1731 (4 Geo. II, c. 26) 
ordering that " all proceedings in Courts of Justice " were 
to be in the English language does not extend to parish 
registers. Miscellaneous memoranda, particularly those of 
a personal character, were frequently entered in Latin when 



i 4 



PARISH REGISTERS 



the rest of the register was in English, and occasionally in 
Greek, French, and even short-hand. 

The statement or heading at the beginning of the old 
registers is usually of a fairly simple character, as in the case 
of the register book of the long ago submerged church [of 




TITLE-PAGE OF REGISTER OF ST. PETER'S, DUNWICH. 

St. Peter's, Dunwich. Occasionally the incumbent introduced 
extraneous or verbose matter, particularly if he was a con- 
troversialist. A good example of this occurs in the first 
register book of Newbottle, Northants : 

"October i, 1538. Thys Boke, made by ye expresse command- 
ment of our most Sovereygne Lorde Kynge Henry vm, by 
ye grace of Gode Kynge of Englande and of France, Defender 



THE STORY OF THE REGISTERS 15 

of ye fayth, Lord of Yreland, and ye supreme hede in earth of 
this hys church of England, for certain goodly usys, by his 
ryght excellent wyse and sage Counseul, divised and upon lyke 
consideracons instituted as by the divisyons of ye same in iii 
sundrie places here followynge may apere, begynninge in ye 
yere of hys prosperous and honorable reyne xxx, and in ye yere 
of our mayster Christ MDxxxviii, fyrst day of October, to be 
exercysed after ye forme as therafter ensueth. The Lord 
Thomas Comwell Lord privy seal and vicegerent to hys 
hyghnese of ye ecclesiastycal jurisdiction, exhibiting to us of 
ye clergy ye same with dyverse other at ye time lyke fraytful 
and laudable invention, meted to ye glory of God, to the 
King's honour and to ye great benefyts of ys hys realme and 
annilihatynge of ye bysshop of Rome hys very falsly pretendyd 
and usurped powres. I Edward Medley, beynge Vicar here, 
Robert Wyat and Thomas Harden churchwardens, statynge 
our lyke assyduouse prayer with all fidelyte and obsequence to 
ye accomplisshmet of ye contentes of ye same. Amen." 

In larger parishes it was occasionally arranged, after the 
injunction of 1558, to keep two separate books for regis- 
tration purposes, the one for baptisms, and the other for 
marriages and burials. Thus at St. Minver's, Cornwall, there 
are two registers, both of them beginning in the first year of 
Elizabeth. The first of these contains baptisms extending, 
with a few gaps, from 1558 to 1758; whilst the second 
volume records marriages from 1559 to 1754, and burials 
from 1558 to 1695. As a rule, however, the threefold entries 
of the parish registers were started in three different parts of 
the register book ; in the smaller parishes all the entries were 
not infrequently entered in one place in the exact order of 
their occurrence, whether baptisms, marriages, or funerals. 

An exuberant admirer of Queen Elizabeth and her 
policy took the opportunity of beginning a new register 
book for St. Oswald's, Durham, to thus express his 
feelings : 

" The Register boke of the parysshe of St. Oswalds made the xxvth 



i6 PARISH REGISTERS 

day of Marche a.d. 1580 Ann. Elyzabethe xxii. wherein is contayned 
the names of all suche persons as have been chrystened, maryed and 
buryed within the sayd paryshe the yeares folowynge writen and 
kepte accordtnge to ye Quenes Injunctions by Charlys Moberlye 
Vicar, James Lyddale, Thomas Haryson, Xpofer Rampshaw, James 
Robynson, dated chosen and sworne churchwardens, accordinge to 
the Quenes proceedinges, whose doinges god directe to hys glorye 
and profette of the sayd parysshe, and to the mentayning of the 
quenes Majesties godly proceedinges, whom god preserve to Reyne 
over us, to the abolyshment of popery and strange and false 
Religion, and to the Menteynge of the gospeli, Graunt o lord yt 
she may long continew a Mother in Israel with prosperwos healthe 
honor and felycitie and after thys hyr gret governement in thys 
lyffe, she may with Moyses, Josua, Debora, and other godlye 
govnours, injoy a crowne of aeternall glory, goed Reder say 
Amen." 

Now and again concern is expressed by the custodians 
of registers as to their subsequent preservation. One of the 
quaintest of such interpolations is in the register book of 
Rodmarton, Gloucestershire, under the year 1630, to the 
following effect : 

" If you will have this Book last, bee sure to aire it att the fier or 
in the Sunne three or foure times a yeare els it will grow dankish 
and rott, therefore look to it. It will not bee amisse when you finde 
it dankish to wipe over the leaves with a dry woolen cloath. This 
Place is very much subject to dankishness, therefore I say looke to 
it." 

Burn, in citing this entry, states that the situation of 
Rodmarton is high and dry on a calcareous soil, and that the 
" dankishness " complained of arose solely from the exuding 
nature of the building-stone. 

The second register book of Bishop Wearmouth, beginning 
in 1653, has on its first page a commination against those 
who should mutilate the pages or alter the entries : 

" Signis hunc librum mutilare vel in ulla parte vel nomen aliquod 
delere, aut in falsum immutare audeat, pro sacrilege habeatur." 



THE STORY OF THE REGISTERS 17 

With regard to the Elizabethan and Jacobean transcripts 
of the older register, though care seems for the most part to 
have been taken to secure verbal accuracy with the names, 
there is no doubt whatever that, as a rule, the labour of 
transcribing was reduced to a minimum, and everything of 
an extraneous nature rigidly excluded. Hence the great 
majority of parchment registers beginning in 1538 or 1539 
are uninteresting and almost valueless, save for genealogical 
purposes, right through the sixteenth century. 

Thus when the register of Staplehurst, Kent, was recopied, 
the words printed between brackets were left out of the 
transcript. 

"1543. December 31. There was buryed John Turner the elder 

[whose sowle Jesu pardon. Amen.] 
"1545. June 6. buryed the soun of Thomas Roberts the younger, 

called Henry [upon whose soule I pray God have mercy]. 
" 1548. September 1 1. buryed James Bragelomd an honest man and 

a good householder [whose soule Jesu pardon, and bring to 

eternal rest]." 

An entry in the transcript of the register of St. Dunstan's 
West reads : 

" 1560-1. February 17. Mr. Rithe buried." 
But the old paper book adds : 

" A benchar of Lyncolnes Yne, buryed out of the newe brycke 
byldyngs, beynge in oure parishe, the nether syde of Lyncolnes Yne." 

In obedience to the Elizabethan injunction, the transcripts 
are in many instances signed at the foot of every page, to 
ensure accuracy, by the minister and churchwardens of the 
year wherein the copy was executed. This fact gave rise to 
an ignorant and ridiculous blunder of past antiquaries and 
historians, who ought to have known better, as to the 
remarkable longevity assigned to clergy and their 



i8 PARISH REGISTERS 

wardens. A round dozen of such errors could be cited, made 
by the leading writers of the old-fashioned county histories ; 
it must suffice to mention that Nichols, the very able 
historian of Leicestershire, gravely asserts that the vicar of 
Keigham held his benefice for ninety-two years, and had the 
same wardens for upwards of seventy years ! 

Usually, as is known from the handwriting, the copying 
of paper registers on to parchment was done by the in- 
cumbent; but in towns and larger parishes a paid lay 
copyist was occasionally employed. Thus at St. Peter's, 
Northampton : 

"A true and perfect extracte 'of all entries since 21 Elizabeth 
was ' written and extracted by me Thomas Walsbey by or at the 
appointment of Master William Stocks, parson of the said church, 
and of Arthur Potter and Richard Rands, churchwardens, according 
to the true meaning of the constitution of the late convocation 
holden at London anno Elizabethae Reginae the fortyeth anno 
dni 1597." 

At the beginning of the first register book of Beeston- 
next-Mileham, Norfolk, is the following entry, showing that 
the rector made the transcript from the original register : 

"Johannes Forby, Rector 1598, de integro ex antique exemplari 
scripsit hunc librum. 

"Register booke for the parish church of Beeston-next-Mileham, 
to recorde all such their names as shall be within that parish either 
christened, maryed, or buried accordinge to the booke of consti- 
tutions and canons of the parliament in the yeere 1597. The 
number of sheets herein 13 with 18 leaves of every sheet, in all 244. 
The price of the parchment io/- and for the bindynge 2/-." 

William Cooper, Vicar of West Bradenham, Norfolk, 
declares in 1603 that he had 

" Trully and faithfully colected word for word out of both ye olde 
Register Books from the Beginning of our Lord God 1538 in anno 
regni Henrici Octavi." 



THE STORY OF THE REGISTERS 19 

The register of Nether Compton, Dorset, which begins in 
1538, was copied throughout by the rector in 1600. 

Robert Travell, the minister of Weston Favell, Northants, 
who died in 1641, did a good work in copying fragmentary 
registers. He enters in the earliest register book : 

" Ab anno 1548 the names herein contayned with their moneths 
and yeares very rudely and imperfectly written in loose papers I 
have faithfully set doune without any alteration according to my 
copies." 

On the inner cover of the first register book of Plymp- 
ton, Devon, which begins in 1616, are the following lines by 
the transcriber : 

"Walter Winsband His book 
The Lord of Haven upon him look, 
And so correcke him with a rod 
that he may be a child of God 
And when for him the bel doth dole 
the Lord of haven recive his soul." 

In at least one case the transcribing was the work of a 
woman, as is shown by the following entry in the registers of 
the parish church of Peterborough : 

" 1564, August. Sarah Stowkes, the Daughter of Henry Stowkes, 
was christened the x day, who afterwards in the yeare our Lord 
God 1599 did coppye this Register Book with her own hands, 
then being the Wife of John Lansdune." 

As to admittedly faulty registers, there are a variety of 
quaint entries, such as the one which occurs in the first 
book of Earls Barton, Northants : 

"1593. Understand gentle reader that from 1592 untill 1597 
Renold Eastwood the Clercke was put in trust to write the weddings, 
christenings, and burialls, w ch in part he somewhat negligentlie 
did, but ommitted w t I have unorderly yet treulie sett down as I 
learned there names and tymes of there freindis." 



20 PARISH REGISTERS 

Scores of registers bear witness to the natural 
irregularity or cessation of entries during the Civil War and 
Interregnum, a selection of which are subsequently cited 
in the historical section. But space may be found here for 
a long and gravely worded extract from the registers of 
Carshalton, Surrey. 

" Good Reader tread gently : 

" For though these vacant yeares may seeme to make me guilty 
of thy censure, neither will I symply excuse myselfe from all 
blemishe ; yet if thou doe but cast thine eie uppon the former 
pages and se with what care I have kepte the annalls of mine owne 
tyme, and rectifyed sundry errors of former times thou wilt beginn 
to thinke ther is some reason why he that begann to build so well 
should not be able to make an ende. 

" The truth is that besyde the generall miserys and distractions 
of those pretermitted years wh it may be god in his owne wysedome 
would not suffer to be kept uppon record, the special ground of 
that pretermisseon ought to be imputed to Richard Finch, the 
parishe clerke, whose office it was by long proscription to gather the 
ephemeris, or dyary of the dayly passages and to exhibite them once 
a yeare to be transcribed into this Registry ; and though I often 
called upon him agayne and agayne to remember his chardge, and 
he always tould me that he had the accompts lying by him, yet at 
last perceaving his excuses, and resolving uppon suspicion of his 
words to put him home to a full tryall I found to my great griefe 
that all his accompt was written in sand, and his words committed to 
the empty winds. God is witnes to the truth of this apologie, and 
that I made it knowne at some pish meetings before his own face, 
who could not deny it neither doe I write it to blemishe him, but to 
cleere mine owne integrity as far as I may and to give accompt of this 
miscarryage to after ages by the subscription of my hand. 

"March 10, 1651. (Signed) WILLIAM QUELCH, B.D. Vic." 

Nor did irregularities at once cease with the Restoration, 
as is shown, inter alia, by the two following entries in 
Northamptonshire registers : 

" The very true reason why this register, is found as imperfect in 



THE STORY OF THE REGISTERS 21 

some years as from 1669 to 1695 is because the parishioners could 
never be persuaded to take to see it done, nor the churchwardens 
as y e canon did require, and because they refuse to pay such dues 
to y e curate as they ought by custome to have payed. (Bringtori) 

" Memorandum that the Register booke being neglected two or 
three yeares notice was given two severall times in y e church to desire 
all parents and others to give in y e names of all y l ought to have 
been registered and y e time when baptized married or buried. But 
not more was brought in but what was set down in this and y e two 
next pages. 

"SAM. GEORGE, Minister, 1670 (Long Buckby}" 

After the Restoration, it was generally the custom to pro- 
cure substantially bound parchment volumes to serve as 
register books. The price of these often occurs in church- 
wardens' accounts, and occasionally in the actual books. 
Thus at Kidderminster a register book was bought in 1674 
for i, 155. A new register was purchased for the Derby- 
shire village of Tickenhall, in 1693, for 8s. 

" A register for y e parish of Ravenston (Derbyshire) bought by 
Robert Ayre and Thomas Grant Churchwardens y e ist of 
SeptermV 1705, price 16 shillings." 

The second volume of the registers of Wellington^ Somerset 
has inscribed on the first page : 

"This Book was Bought by Cornelius Marsh, the 2ist day of 
May, Anno Dom. 1726 : and it cost the sume of oi/. 075-. 06^. 

" Baptism, Matrimony, and the Winding Sheet, 
As Times do come, Within this book do meet. 

CORNELIUS MARSH" 

The following entries respecting the Register Stamp Act 
of 1783 in the register of Whittlesey St. Mary, Cambs: 

" i 783, Oct. In the beginning of this month the nasty three penny 
Tax took place, and as I expect, from the great number of poor, and 
the Rebellious Humour of the parishioners, to collect but few three- 
pences I shall mark those that pay with V in the Baptisms and 



22 PARISH REGISTERS 

Burial. N.B. As people are most frequently openhearted on the day 
of Marriage, I expect most of my parishioners will pay y e 3d on that 
occasion. I shall therefore mark those that do not pay with a V. 
I squeezed 3d from many a poor wretch ill able to give even so much 
to Government I am afraid. I think I ought not to urge quite as 
hard." 

The fees for the one year in the parish amounted to 
i t os. 9d., upon which the curate entered this further note : 

" Tis very much more than I expected or than I shall have next 
year, for as Poverty is admitted as a plea, it will be frequently 
urged." 

The beginning of the Christian year in England has been 
subject to various changes. The year was reckoned from 
Christmas Day, 2 5th December, after the sixth century 
until 1066; from ist January to 3ist December, from 1067 
to 1155 ; from the Annunciation, 25th March to 24th March, 
1 1 53 to 1750-51 ; from 25th March to 3ist December, in 1751 ; 
and from ist January to 3ist December, from ist January 
1752 up to the present time. The last of these changes was 
brought about pursuant to Statute 24 Geo. II, c. 23 ; the 
alteration excited a great deal of comment, adverse and 
otherwise, particularly with regard to the omission of eleven 
days in September, to bring about a true balance of the 
calendar. It is not therefore surprising to find occasional 
reference to this subject in the church registers. The follow- 
ing entries occur in the books of All Saints, Northampton : 

"1752, Jan. Whereas the supputation of the year of Our Lord, 
(in the Church of England) did heretofore begin on the 25th 
day of March, it is now, by virtue of an Act of Parliament 
passed in the 24th year of His Majesty's reign and in the year 
of Our Lord 1751 to begin on the first day of January. 

"1752, Sept. According to an Act of Parliament passed in the 
24th year of His Majesty's reign, in the year of Our Lord 
1751, the Old Style ceased on the second day of this month 



THE STORY OF THE REGISTERS 23 

and the New takes place. So that all the eleven intermediate 
nominal days from the second to the fourteenth are omitted, or 
rather annihilated this year : and the month contains but nine- 
teen days." 

A highly unusual note accompanies the first entry of 
the year 1539 in the Chelmsford register book, which was 
kept by Mr. Richard Wolston, the curate. Under the date 
of 1 3th January 1539, Mr. Wolston writes: 

" Beginning at the first Daye of Januarye after the maner of the 
Astronymers and soe we truste to precede." 

Mr. Wolston was evidently far in advance of his times. 

In the register of Whilton, Northants, is another ex- 
ceptional calendar note at the end of the year 1737 : 

" N.B. Before this I began the year as the common almanack 
does. But from this place shall follow the ecclesiastical year, 
beginning on the 25th of March." 

A parish register ought to be no respecter of persons. 
The clerk (using that term in its widest significance) ought 
ever to bear in mind George Herbert's line 

" All equall are within the Churches gate." 

The offices of the Church of England for Baptism, 
Marriage, or Burial are identical, whether used for prince 
or pauper, for peer or peasant. But those who made the 
entries were by no means always of the opinion of the writer 
in the register of Ruyton, Salop, who penned an appropriate 
stanza beginning : 

" No Flatt'ry here, where to be bom and die 
Of rich and poor is all the history." 

Those who were best acquainted with original registers 
cannot fail to be aware that they not infrequently find, as 
they turn over the pages, certain entries written in a far 



24 PARISH REGISTERS 

larger and bolder text than the remainder. On examination 
it will always be found that the register writer has been 
vulgar enough to reserve this prominent big lettering for the 
great people or squires of the parish. This vulgarity is usually 
more noticeable in seventeenth or eighteenth century register 
books than in earlier examples ; but it is occasionally to be 
found in those of Elizabethan date. A single example will 
suffice ; the register book of Elland, Yorks, has the following 
entries in great staring lettering : 

" 1566. Henricus Savile de Stainland gen. sepult. 12 Oct. 
" I S67- Johes Thornell de Fixbie Gen. sepultus 27 Aprill. 
"1582-3. Jana Filia Johis Savile de Bradley Ar. baptiz. 
1 6 February." 



CHAPTER III 
CHANGES IN RELIGIOUS FORMULARIES 

Much Wenlock Register Death of Henry vin Accession of 
Edward vi, Mary, and Elizabeth Bidding Prayer of 1545 
Use of English Service temp. Edward vi Commonwealth 
changes 

EXTRACTS from the register of Thomas Butler, vicar 
of Much Wenlock, beginning 26th November 1538, 
and ending 2Oth September 1562, transcribed by that 
careful antiquary, the late Rev. C. Hartshorne, were printed in 
the Cambrian Journal in 1861. This early register, written 
on paper in a clear bold hand, was unhappily destroyed in the 
fire that consumed the mansion of Sir Watkin W. Wynne, 
at Wynnstay, in 1859, where of course this parochial register 
had no business to be stored. This register, judging from 
the fairly full extracts fortunately taken by Mr. Hartshorne, 
was most exceptionally interesting in the full comments it 
supplied as to the religious changes of the reigns of 
Henry vili, Edward VI, Queen Mary, and Queen Elizabeth, 
and of incidents connected with the latter days of the 
Cluniac Priory of Wenlock, which held the advowson of the 
vicarage of the adjacent parish church up to the time of its 
dissolution. 

The Monastery of Wenlock, as stated in this register, 
surrendered on the morrow of the Conversion of St. Paul, 

1539- 

The register stands out so distinctly and individually in 



26 PARISH REGISTERS 

the character and freedom of its entries, that it seems better 
in this place to print the selected excerpts in a collective 
form and in chronological order, rather than break them up 
among the subsequent sections. It is somewhat singular to 
note that Vicar Butler, appointed to his living by the monks 
of the priory, and with his natural leanings to the unreformed 
faith, could reconcile it with his conscience to follow out the 
various changes in tongue and services that occurred during 
the twenty-two years that he kept this parish register. The 
vicarage was but of slight value, and it is not necessary 
to think that he retained the post of parish priest from 
merely mean motives. He may have enjoyed the responsi- 
bility and prominence of the position, but it is kinder to 
believe that Sir Thomas Butler, in common with others of 
the old priests, recognised that the main essentials of creed 
and worship remained the same under the varied changes, 
and that it was his duty to do the best he could for the flock 
he had been called upon to serve during this upheaval of 
formularies. 

It must have caused him deep pain to record the burning, 
on 7th November 1547, of the bones of St. Milburge, to 
whom the priory was dedicated, and he made the bare 
entry in Latin. There is unrestrained joy about his long 
notice in English of the accession of Queen Mary, and of the 
dates on which the various Latin services, after the Sarum 
Use, were resumed, and genuine sorrow when the time came 
for recording the death of that Queen. But the simple way 
in which he at the same time urged his flock to rejoice over 
the accession of Elizabeth, and to join in the local festivities, 
is pleasant reading, whilst one of his latest entries states 
that the celebration of the Divine Service in the " Englysh 
Tonge" was once more begun on 25th June 1559. 

"12 March 1540-1. Thro lycens was christened at Wylley, Agnes 
the daughter of Ric. Charlton of this towne of Wenlok and of 



CHANGES IN FORMULARIES 27 

Jane his wife, gossibes were Sir Thomas Butler of Wenlok, 
aforesaid Vicar, and mistress Agnes wif of Maistr Ric. Lacon, 
Lord of Wylley aforesaid, and wif of Wm. Davys of Apley 
Lode. 

" Memorandum that the icth day of this instant month of Febry. in 
the year of our Lord 1541, here was buried W m Lowe a 
Cheshire man born, which William was a lad of 1 8 years of age 
or thereabouts, cast by the verdict of 1 2 men at the s d Sessions 
holden here before the s d Justices the day as it is written in 
the last of the leaf next preceding, which Sessions were pro- 
rogued till friday because of the absence of the ordinary, foras- 
much as the s d William desired the Priviledge of the Church, 
saying that he could read; and on friday the loth day of this 
february, when the Justices were sitting, the Ordinary Mr. 
George Dycher parson of Stretton, Dean of this Deanery, being 
ready in presence. It was found he was no Clerk, and so was 
put to execution of the law and buried the same day, confessing 
openly both in the Hall and at the place of Execution on the 
Edge Top that he had robbed divers persons of their goods. 

"1541-2, 5 Feb y . Agnes Pyner a poore woman of thage of 
vi score er old and above as shee sayed unto h r Gostly fad r . 
S r Richard Doghty who mynistred the blessed sacmets of 
thaltar unto her to dayes befor her departing. 

"1542, i yth June. John Mynsterley thrise bailiff of this borowe 
of Moch Wenlok whose corpus lyeth humate in this parish 
churche of the most holy Trinite befor the first stepp to the 
Pulpitt befor thimage of our Lady of Pitie and Elizabeth his 
wif lyeth ther buryed uppo the right hand of him southwards. 

"1542, 5 Nov. on Sonday aft r the feste of Alhallows all 
Saincts in this parish Church sange his first Masse, S r Rychard 
the Son of John Doughty of Burton w4n this parish and of 
Julyane his wif, at whose said first Massinging was offered to 
his use a p'sent. 

"1543-4, Feb. 21. Here was buried out of the Almhouses 
John Treessingham, a Cheshire man born, an aged lame man, 
for on Saturday before his departing, he said unto me, Sir 
Thomas Butler, Vicar of the Church of the Holy Trinity of 
Moch Wenlock, that he was of the age of seven score years, 
and I said it could not be so, and he was, as he said, of the 
age of four score years at the Battle of Blower Heath, and 
since that, there were three score years (count altogeder said 



28 PARISH REGISTERS 

he, and ye shall find seven score years, rather more than less), 
and said also that some time he was servant to the old Sir 
Gilbert Talbot, Knt. at the manor of Blakemore besides 
Whitchurch. 

"1542-3, 5 March. Agnes daughter of John Chistoke departed, 
somtyme deacon or Clerk of this Churche, who departed of 
the pestilens the first day of September in the er of our Lord 
God MDxxxij who was a full honest server of the Churche and 
taught scolers playne song and prick song full well so that the 
churche was well served in his tyme ; buryed he was in the 
churche yard on the knapp uppon the right hand as ye entre 
into the Porche abowte vij cloth yards fro the porch, whose 
sowle God Almighty take to mcy. Amen. 

"1544, 15 Sep. John Gogh at that tyme Curate otherwise 
called S r John Castle sotyme moncke in monastre of St. 
Milbge presctor in Moch Wenlok and prior of the cell in 
Preen, the last Priest that ther was whose body is buryed. 

"1546, 26 May. Here was buryed out of the Strete called 
Mardfold out of the two Tenements nexte unto Sanct Owens 
Well on the same side of the well, the body of S r Will" 1 
Corvehill Priest, of the Service of O r blessed Lady St. 
Marie, within the Churche of the holy Trinite &c. which two 
hows beloging to the said Svice he had I his occupacion, 
w l their apperten and parte of his wages, which was viij 
markes, and the said hows in an overplus : whose body was 
buryed in the chancell of our blessed Ladie befor thalt r under 
the Ston in the myddle of the said altare, upon the left hande 
as ye treade and stand on the heighest steppe of the thre, befor 
the said altare; whose fete streche forth und r the said 
altare to the wall in the Eest of thaltare, the body ther lying 
wHn the Erth in a tomb of lyme and ston which he caused 
to be made for himselfe for that intent ; after the reryng and 
buldyng of the new RufF of the said chansell, which rering 
framyng and new reparyng of thaltare and chancell was don 
throw the councill of the said Sir W m Corvehill, whoo was 
excellently and singularly experte in dyvse of the vij liberal 
sciences and especially in geometre, not greatly by speculacon, 
but by experience ; and few or non of handye crafte but that 
he had a very gud insight in them, as the making of Organs, 
of a clocke and chimes, an in kerving, in Masonrie, and 
weving of Silke, an in peynting; and noe instrumente of 



CHANGES IN FORMULARIES 29 

musike beyng but that he coulde mende it, and many gud 
ghifts the man had, and a very paciant man, and full honeste 
in his conversacon and lyvng ; borne here, in this borowe of 
Moche Wenlok and somtyme moncke in the monastrie of St. 
Mylbge here. Two brethren he had. One called Dominus 
John, Monke in the said monastrie, and a Secular prieste 
called S r Andrew Corvehill who dyed at Croydon beside 
London, on whose soule and all Christian soules Almighty 
God have mcy. Ame. All this contrey hath a great 
losse of the death of the s d Sir W m Corvehill for he was a 
gud Bell founder and a mak r of the frame for bells. 

" 1546, 9 Julii. Ad ultimam missam ego dominus Thomas Boteler 
Vicarius huj. Ecclie in Pulpito legi proclamacionem dni R. 
nri Henrici octavi propter condempnationem librorum hereti- 
corum istor. Vz. Fryth, Tyndale, Wycliff, Joy, Roie, Basilic, 
Bale, Barnes, Covdale, Toner, Tracy, anno regni predicti 
xxxviii. 

" 1546, 7 February. Memorandum that the same 5th day of month 
and year as it is above written, word and knowledge came 
hither to this s d Borough of Moch Wenlock that our 
Sovereign Lord King Henry the 8th was departed out of this 
transitory life, whose soul God Almighty pardon. 

"1547, 17 July. Eodem die fuit communis ludus apud Hopton 
Monochorum cuj s ludi fuit director Rich d Lawley. 

" 7 Nov. Quo die combusta fuerunt ossa dive Virginis 
Milburge in fori itroitu cimiterii cu quatuor imagor 5 vz. S tl 
Jo. Bapt. de Hopebowdlar, Imagines S d Blasii de Stanto 
long, imagines S te Marie Vgis Matris Xti de Acton Ronde, 
et imagines ejusdem S te Virginis Mariae. 

"25 Dec r . Departed and dyed in the man or place of 
Madeley about IX of the clock in the nyght Sir John Baily 
Clercke the last Prior of Moncks that was in the Monastre of 
Moch Wenlock prior ther at the tyme of the Surredr thereof, 
whose bodie was buryed on the morrow, v z fest of S l Stephen 
in the parish churche of Madeley aforesaid. 

"1551-2, 22 March. Out of Calowton John France Fermer of the 
Chief ferme ther, beyng at the tyme of his death of the yeres 
of one hundred vij ; five Score yeres, and seven yeres above 
the C as he himselfe in his lif tyme befor diverse of his neigh- 
bours did declare. 

" (Richard Philips who hanged himself) at the ynde of the Lane 



30 PARISH REGISTERS 

going toward Calowton at the plotte of grownde wher somtyme 
was a Crosse of tymbre called Hamns Weales crosse. 
"1553, Mem. That as some say King Edward the vi by 
the Grace of God died the 6th day of this instant month of 
July, in the year of our Lord God as it is above written, and 
as some do say he died the 4th day of May last preceding, 
in the same year of our Lord, and upon Mary Magdalenes, 
which is the 22nd day of this instant month, at Bridgnorth 
in the fair, there was proclaimed Lady Mary Queen of 
England, &c., after which proclamation finished the people 
made great joy, casting up their caps and hats, lauding, thank- 
ing and praising God Almighty with ringing of bells and making 
of Bonfires in every street. And so was she proclaimed 
Queen the same day at Shrewsbury, and at the Battlefield in 
the same evening with the like joy of the people, and triumphal 
solemnity made in Shrewsbury, and also in this Borough of 
Much Wenlock. 

"1553. Here was buried out of Brosely the body of Sir Thos. 
Parkes, priest, sometime a White Monk of the Cistercian order 
in the monastery of Buildwas. 

"i553> 3 Sep r . Quo die Ego do s . Tho s . Botelar hujus Ecclie 
pochlis Sancte ac individie Tni vicarius, divina servicia ac 
etia missam Latinis verbis more antique et secudum usu Sarum 
auctoritate excellentissime Vgis Marine Reginae nostrse Angli?e 
celebravi, sicut et ceteri curati hujus decanatus, ac ecciar 
com. Salop fecerunt Et in Vesperis, Rege Edwardo defuncto 
Vesperas, de Placebo et dirige ac Cetera p defuncto, cum 
missa de Regnina etiam in Crastino. 

" J 553j 7 Oct. A child first Christned in the Latyne tongue by 
the booke called the Manuale. 

" X 553j 3 Ist Oct. A child first buryed after the Coronacon of 
the Queen's Majistie in the latyne tongue after the use of 
the Church of Sarum. 

" 1554, 1 6 June. The altar of our blessed Ladie within this Churche 
was consecrated and of newe reedified and made up. 

"1554, July 6. Memorandum that in the 6th day of this instant 
month of July in the year of our Lord God as it is above 
written, and in the first year of the noble reign of Marie, by 
the Grace of God, of England, France and Ireland Queen, &c., 
here sat Mr. John Herbert of Buildwas, Wm. Charlton of 
Wombridge, Thomas Eyton, and Richard Lawley, Esq r ., in 



CHANGES IN FORMULARIES 31 

commission directed to them from Lord Nicholas Bishop of 
Worcester, Lord President of the Marches of Wales, for the 
examination of the lands sometime belonging to the Chauntry 
or service of our blessed Lady within this parish Church of the 
Holy Trinity of Moch Wenlock. 

"1554, 1 6 July. That the same day last above written my Lord 
the Bishop of Worcester Dr. Nicholas Heath, Lord President 
of the Marches of Wales coming with Justice Townesynde in 
company with him from Salop, and riding towards Bridgenorth 
about two of the clock in the afternoon, was desired by the 
Burgesses of this Borough of Wenlock to drink, and so they 
did alight and drank, sitting in the house of Richard Lawley 
Gent, at the Ash, hanged and decked in the best manner the 
s d Burgesses could, with clothes of Arrras, Covering of Beds, 
Baneards, Carpets, Cushions, Chair Forms, and a Cupboard 
covered with Carpet and a cloth, whereon stood the silver plate 
whereof they drank, borrowed for the time of Mrs. Agnes the 
wife of Mr. Thomas Rydley, sometime wife of Mr. Rich d . 
Lakyn of W T illey; the table covered with Carpet Cloth of 
diaper and napkins of the same, three dishes of Pears, and a 
dish of old apples, Cakes, fine wafers, wyne white, and claret, 
and sack, and bread and ale for the waiters and servants with- 
out, at their pleasure, where my said Lord and Mr. Justice 
sat the space of half an hour, and then arose, giving the said 
Burgesses great and gentle thanks for their cost and chear, and 
so departed towards Bridgenorth. The names of the Burgesses 
that were the cause of this s d Banquet hereafter do follow as 
they come into remembrance. 

Edmund Sprott, deputy to Mr. Rich d Benthal, Bailiff of this 
Borough of Moch Wenlock and the Liberties of the same. 

Ralph Leigh, Gent. Rich d Leg Christopher Morall 

Wm. Moore David Lien EdWard Dyke i ^ , , 

John Bradeley Wm. Jeffries Wm. Fennymer/ 

John Sothorne Thomas Hill John Wildcocks de Burton. 

Richard Wildcocks Serjeaunt of the s d town and Liberties, and 
divers other of the Burgesses both of town and country. The 
sum of the costs of the said Banquet was us. 

"* 555-6, 4th February. Here was christened Rich d the son of 
Thomas Lawley Gent, and of Beatrix his wife, dwelling within 



32 PARISH REGISTERS 

the site of the Monasterie of St. Mylburge the Virgin : the 
gossibs were Mr. Acton of Aldnam besides Sherlet, Rich d 
Benthal of Benthal, and Ann Chidde widow, the wife sometime 
of Thomas Chidde Gentleman, sister natural of the said 
Beatrix, who hath been and brought into this world in Matri- 
mony by her two husbands with this s d child 1 7 children. 

" 1558, 7 May. At Bridgenorth wtin the Churche of St Leonarde 
was buried the bodie of Dominus Richard Marciall othwise 
called dominus Richard Baker, sotyme Abbot of the Monasterie 
of the Holy Apostles Petre and Paule in Shrowsburie, whoo 
succeeded in the Abbatie the dominus Richard Lye abbate of 
the same, whose bodie lieth buried in the churche of the 
Spittle of St. Bartholomew in London at Smithfield. The s d 
Richard Martiall resigned the s d Abbatie to Dominus Tho s 
Botelar who was Abbate at the suppressyng of the s d Monastrie 
and after lyved and died in Bridgenorth, and his bodie buried 
I the Churche of S* Leonard ther. And the resignation made, 
the s d Ric. Martiall was Prior of the Cell in Northfield whose 
Sowles Almightie God take into his mercie. Amen. 

"In remembrance to be had it is, that the i7th day of this instant, 
month of November, in the year of our Saviour Jesus Christ, 
1558, in the morning of the same day departed by death the 
noble Queen Marie, in the 6th year of her reigne the daughter 
of King the 8th, and of Queen Catherine his first wife ; and 
the same day of her departing at 1 1 of the Clock, with the 
whole r assent of the nobility, was Elizabeth the daughter of the 
said King Henry proclaimed Queen of England &c. in 
London. And upon St. Catherine's day, as Sir Thomas 
Botelar, Vicar of this Church of the Holy Trinity of Moch 
Wenlock was going toward the Altar to celebration of the 
Mass, Mr. Richard Newport of High Ercal Esq r then being 
Sheriff of Salop, coming late from London, came unto me and 
bad me that I after the Offertorie should come down into the 
Body of the Church, and unto the people here being, should 
say these words in open audience and loud voice. Friends ye 
shall pray for the prosperous estate of our most noble Queen 
Elizabeth, by the Grace of God Queen of England France and 
Ireland, defender of the faith, and for this I desire you every 
man and woman to say that Pater Noster with ave Maria, and 
we in the Choir sang the Canticle Te deum Laudamus, pater 
noster, ave maria, cum collecta pro statu Regni prout stat in 



CHANGES IN FORMULARIES 33 

processionale in adventu Regis vel Reginae mutatio aliquibus 
verbis ad Reginam. And then went I to the altar and said 
out the mass of St. Catherine, and after mass forthwith went 
the same Mr. Sheriff with all the people out of the Church and 
by Laurence Rindles the cryar he caused her noble grace to 
be proclaimed Queen in the Market Place at the Church Yard 
Style before the Court Hall ; he the s d Mr. Sheriff giving him 
instructions thereto as is above written ; and then the honest 
men both of this Borough of Much Wenlock and of this parish 
brought and accompanied him to the house of Richard Dawley 
the younger, then Serjeant to Mr. Francis Lawley, then Bailiff 
of the Franchises and Liberties of the same, and this done he 
went homewards, they bringing him on the way ; and he 
taking his Horse rode forth, and upon Sunday next after (the 
28th of the same month being Dominica proxima adventum 
domini) Mr. Richard Lawley in the name of himself and of his 
Bailiff (who then was absent) came with W m More, Rich d 
Legg, and John Sothorne, with others, and willed me before 
(them ?) that we should go in procession to repeat and to say 
in the body of the Church to the people assembled the same, 
saying in words that Mr. Sheriff willed me to pronounce with 
some addition of words as here it followeth after, and hereupon 
I having upon me the best cope called St. Milburges cope, 
said unto the congregation in this wise. Friends, unknown it 
is not unto you that our Sovereign Queen Mary is out of this 
transitory life departed, for whose soul ye shall pray to Almighty 
God to take unto his mercy, and ye shall pray also for the 
prosperous Estate, &c. ut supra. And for this I desire you 
every man and woman to say Pater noster and Ave Maria &c. 
Then I said, Friends, Mr. Bailiff of this Town and of the 
liberties of the same, and Mr. Rich d Lawley his father, with 
other that have been Bailiffs, have willed me to shew you that 
are poor folks that ye may at afternoon about one of the clock 
resort to the Bonfire where ye shall have Bread and Cheese 
and drink to pray unto God Almighty for the prosperity of the 
Queen's noble Majesty, and this said we went forthwith in 
procession with Salve festa dies &c. sicut in dedicatioe ecclesie, 
and at our return unto the quire we sang by note Te deum 
laudamus, and ended with Keerie, Christe (Keerie Eleeson?) 
pro nos ave Maria, cum precibus et collecta pro bono statu 
Regine prout est in processionale. This done I went to mass 
3 



34 PARISH REGISTERS 

and after evening the bonfire was set on fire where the poor 
folks were served. 

"15 59) 25 June. It is to be had in Remebrance that the celebra- 
tion of the divine Svice in the Englysh Tonge was begun this 
day in crastino Nativitat S u Joh is bapt." 

The following are some of the more remarkable and 
definite references to the religious changes of the sixteenth 
and seventeenth centuries, noted in the parochial registers 
up and down the country, beginning with one in the latter 
days of Henry VIII. 

Under the year 1545, the Bidding Prayer to be used before 
the service is written out in the register of Kirkburton, Yorks. 
The sentence, " our most holie father the pope wyt all his 
true college of cardenalls," is crossed out This erasure was 
probably made by Archbishop Holgate during his diocesan 
visitation of 1 546. The prayer runs 

" Yow shalt pray for the whole congregation of Xrystes churche 
wheresoever it be dyspersed throught out all the worlde and 
especyally for this churche of England and Hyreland wherein I 
commend unto your devout prayer our most holie father the 
pope wyt all his true college of cardenalls and for all arche- 
byschopes byschopes parsons vicars and curates who hayth care 
and charge of soules and especyally for the vicar and curat of 
this churche who hay the care and charge of your soules." 

All references to the Bishop of Rome were ordered to 
be "utterly abolished, eradicate and rased out" in 1537 by a 
definite royal injunction ; but the order was in this case 
boldly disregarded for eight years. 

" 1547-8. (St. George Tombland, Norwich}. Agnes Rogers nata fuit 
viij. Februar 1547, et baptizat xj. die Februar 9, minister non 
vult earn baptizare in lingua anglicana ideo differt' baptism set 
nihil p' valuer' quia baptizavit earn in lingua anglicana. 

" 1549 (Sobertotiy Hants\ 12 May. This tyme began the Ingles 
service. 

"1549 (Staplehurst) Keni). The ninthe daye of June. This day 







TITLE-PAGE OF FIRST PRAYER BOOK IN ENGLISH. 



36 PARISH REGISTERS 

being Whitsunday (wherein the Booke of the Common Prayer 
and Administration of the Sacraments and other rite and 
Ceremonie of the Churche, after the use of the Churche of 
Englande began to be executed) there was first baptized 
Marie the daughter of Richard Besiley parsone of this py'she 
Churche borne the last Thursday hora fer' quintu ante 
meridiam of his lawful Wif Jane who were maryed the year 
before, and in the first day that the holly comunion in the 
English tonge (after thorder that now is was here mynystered), 
they bothe w f others most humblye and devoutlie com- 
unicating the same. The parsone Christined his owne 
Childe." 

Under an entry of births in the register of Oundle, 
Northants, on 6th July 1645, is written : 

"These set doune according to y e Directory set forth by y e synnod 
and alow'd by both houses of Parliment." 

According to the Directory, which superseded the Prayer 
Book in 1644, the child was to be baptized in church, but 

41 not in the places where Fonts in the time of Popery were unfitly 
and superstitiously placed." 

It is also therein stated that the minister 

" is to baptize the child with water : which for the manner of doing it, 
is not only lawfull, but sufficient and most expedient to be, by 
powring or sprinckling of the water on the face of the child, 
without adding any other Ceremony." 

"1645 (Whitworth, Durham), July 27. James, son of Ambrose 
Bell, was the last Baptism with the Book of Common Prayer 
in this Parish. 

"1646 (Fitz, Salop), July 7. Alee, d. of Richard Ferington and 
Amias bap. This Alee d. of Richard Ferington was the 
first that ever was baptized in Fittz Church without the signe 
of the Crosse at the instance and earnest desyer of him, that is 
of Richard, was the signe of the Crose omitted. 

" 1647 (Ibid.) Nov. 1 6. John s. of Joseph Lloyd and Elnor bap. 



DIRECTORY 

FOR 

The Publique Worftiip of >, 

Throughout the Three 

KINGDOMS 

OF 

England, Scotland, and Ireland. 

Together with an Ordinance of Parlia^ 

mcnt for the taking away of the Book of 

C O MM O N-PR A YE R: 

A N D 
Foreflablifhingand obfervmgofthis prefem DIRECTORY 

throughout the Kingdom of England, and Dominion of tv ates. 



Die fov/s, 13. cJW Ann , 1644. 

ORdered by the Lords and Commons affembled in 
Parliament, That this Ordinance and Directory bee 
forthwith Printed and Published: 



: Brown, Cleric. H. Elftngt, Clef. 

Parliamentorum. Parl.D.Cont. 



* L O N D O N: 

Printed for Evan Tyler , Alexander Ftfield, Ralpb Smith, and 

J-ohn Field-, And are to be fold at the Sign of the Bible 

in Cornhill 3 necrthe ROYALL-XCHANGE. 1644* 



TITLE-PAGE OF "DIRECTORY" OF 1644. 



38 PARISH REGISTERS 

The infant was the first baptzd after the new forme of the 
Directorie and not by the Common Prayer Book. 

" 1650 (Moze, ssex), July 6th. Francis y e daughter of Mr. Thomas 
Sherman of Harwich Physitian and Francis his wife was 
baptized by me Mat: Duerdon rector of Mose by ye booke 
of Common Prayer at Mr. Shermans house in Harwich. 

"1660 (Whitworth, Durham). Charles n proclaimed at London, 
May 8th, and at Durham, May i2th, on which day I, Stephen 
Hogg, began to use again the Book of Common Prayer." 

The registers of Nassington, Northants, contain the 
following : 

" Memorandum that on Sunday the viii day of Febuary in the 
yeare of our Lord 1662-3, being the second Sunday after the 
Revised Book of Common Prayer was brought him, John 
Laurence, vicar of Nassington, after Morning Prayer, publiquely 
and solemnly read (as it is by the said Booke appointed) and 
declare his unfeigned assent and consent to the use of all things 
in the said Booke conteined and prescribed according to the 
Act of Parliament on that behalfe in the presence of us whose 
names are underwritten and of the whole congregation then 
assembled." [No names, however, follow.] 



CHAPTER IV 
BAPTISMS 

Births and baptisms Casting nativities Puritans and fonts 
Exceptional baptismal entries Adult baptism Godparents 
Godparents to bastards Baptism by midwives Creatura 
Christi 

IT is very rare to find birth as well as baptism entered in 
registers until the Commonwealth period is reached ; 
but from other sources it is quite clear that in mediaeval 
days and throughout the sixteenth century baptism followed 
far more speedily after birth than has now for a long time 
been customary. 1 For instance, in a commonplace book 
of Arthur Mowen of Woodseats, Derbyshire, mention is 
made of Alice Mowen, born on Monday night, and christened 
at Dronfield church on the following Wednesday, 1 3th March 
J 593; f George Wilson, born on Tuesday, I3th September 
1590, and christened on the Thursday; of Frances Wilson, 
born on Saturday about xj of the clock, 7th July 1599, and 
christened in Tickhill church, Yorks, on the morrow ; and 
of George Mowen, born at Milnethorpe on Saturday I9th of 
April 1600, and christened at Dronfield on the following 
day by his uncle. There are many other entries of baptisms 
of his posterity the day after birth, and one of the latest 
is still more remarkable : 

1 By the ecclesiastical laws of King Ine, A.D. 693, a child was ordered to be 
baptized within 30 nights ; if otherwise, the father was to make satisfaction with 
30 shillings. The laws of the Northumbrian priests shortened the period, in 950, 
to 9 nights, under a penalty of twelve ore. The canons under King Edgar, 
made in 960, extended the period to 37 nights. 

39 



40 PARISH REGISTERS 

" George Mowen my son and Hellen his wife had issue, and she 
was brought to bed of a goodly boy on Sunday at morn, 
between i and 2 of the clock, being the i2th of June 1628, at 
Woodseats, and christened at Barley the same day, between 
morning prayers, by me Arthur Mowen, his grandfather." 

The earlier part of the first register book of Chislet, 
Kent, is a remarkable exception to the general rule. The 
birth is always recorded, and the entry is made in Latin, either 
as natus et baptizatus, or natus et renatus. It was obviously 
the rule in that parish to baptize on the birthday. Out of 
15 baptisms in 1544, 13 were baptized on the day of birth ; 
in 1545, 8 out of ii ; and in 1546 the whole of the 16 
entries were of that nature. 

The expression renatus for baptism is not infrequent in 
Latin register entries ; it is the form usually adopted in the 
registers of Hughley, Salop, from 1576 to 1616; it also 
occurs in the Shipton registers of the same county. 

The following is the preface to the 1653 births and 
baptisms in the register of Barnstaple, Devon : 

" Here beginneth a Register of the dayes of the Birth of Children 
here in Barnestaple as it is comanded for Authoryty of Parlam* 
more exact than formerly." 

The list begins with William, son of Henry Drake, born 
4th December 1653. Parallel columns opposite the names 
are prepared for " Born " and " Bap." Out of the 40 
names entered as born up to the end of the year 1653 
(24th March), only one is entered as baptized, and only five 
more up to the end of August 1654. As, however, from this 
latter date up to the close of the Commonwealth period 
baptisms are almost invariably entered after the births, the 
omission of the former for some months in 1653-54 is 
apparently accidental. 

Occasionally births are entered of a much later date, as 
suggested in accordance with the Stamp Act of 1783. Thus 



BAPTISMS 41 

the third register book of Askham, Notts, which begins in 
1784, records both birth and baptism. The following is the 
first entry : 

"1784. Mary, daughter of William Pankerd, born 15 June, 
bap. 27th." 

In the same year occurs Isaac Hilton, born 22nd May, 
baptized 2Oth June ; and Mary Clark, born and baptized on 
2nd April. The double entries continue down to 1812. 

A belief in the follies of astrology caused certain registers 
to be disfigured by the occasional exact entry as to birth, 
in order to give facilities for " casting the nativity," or telling 
the fortune of the child. It is a wonder that the profanity 
of associating holy baptism with such an unscriptural 
attempt to fathom the future did not check such entries. 
Four examples are here given out of about a score that 
have been noted : 

"1574 (Hawsted, Suffolk}. M d . That Mr. Robert Drury, the first 
sonne of Mr. William Drury, Esquire, was born 30 Jan. betwixt 
4 and 5 of the clock in the morning, the Sunne in Libra, anno 
1574, at Durham House, within the Parish of Westminster. 

" 1586 (Exton, Rutland). Mr. Henry Hastings, Son and Heir of Mr. 
Francis Hastings, was bom on St. Mark's Even, April 24, 
between the hours of 10 and n of the clock at night, Sign 
Sagit: secund: die pleni lunii Marte in Taurum intrato die 
precedente; and was christened May 17. 

" 1600 (Brundish, Suffolk). The xxvjth daie of October was 
Baptisid Thomas Colbye the sonne of Thomas Colbye gent 
and Annye ux' beeinge borne the xiij daie of October the signe 
beeinge in Taurus at the hower of vij of the clocke in the 
eveninge. 

" 1636 (South Pickenham, Norfolk}. Elizabetha filia Jacobi Hunter 
ex Anna Uxore ejus in ipsius plateis sub Australi parte 
Magnae Ulmi October 9 in Lucem Edita est, et eodem die 
sacro baptismate aspersa est." 

The Puritans had an innate dislike to the use of a 



42 PARISH REGISTERS 

baptismal font, and preferred to use an ordinary basin as 
necessitating more sprinkling, and belittling the importance 
of the initial Sacrament of the Church. The Elizabethan 
injunctions strictly forbade the use of basins, but when the 
Puritans gained the ascendancy in the Commonwealth days 
basins were ordered to be substituted for fonts, and not a 
few of the latter were broken up or ejected from the 
churches. 1 

The use of anything save a proper font for baptism was 
not only prohibited by Elizabeth in 1584, but is strictly 
forbidden by the reformed Canons of the Church of England. 
Nevertheless the use of basins by the Puritans had obtained 
such a hold that this irreverent custom was not wholly 
abolished at the restoration of episcopacy ; in fact, it is still in 
practice in a few out-of-the-way parishes of slovenly habits. 
At Hillingdon, Middlesex, basin-baptizing continued for 
ten years after its renewed prohibition, as the incumbent 
admits in the register : 

"Elizabeth, the Daughter of William Pratt, Feb. 25, 1671-2. 
The first that in eleven years was baptized with water in the 
font, the custom being in this place to baptize out of a bason, 
after the Presbyterian manner, only set in the Font, which 
I could never get reformed, till I had gotten a new clerk, 
John Brown, who presently did what I appointed to be done." 

We give two out of several register references to new or 
restored fonts immediately subsequent to the Restoration : 

"1660 (Cathedral Church of Peterborough). Hellin Austin, the 
daughter of Humphrey Austin, was born the 2oth of February 
being Wednesday, and baptized the yth of March in the 
Cathedral Church, being the first that was christened in the 
Font there after the setting it up. The said Font being pull'd 
down and the lead taken out of it by Cromwell's soulders. 
Anno Dom. 1643. 

1 See Cox & Harvey's Church Furniture (1907), pp. 160-235, and Bond's 
Fonts and Font Covers (1909). 



BAPTISMS 43 

" 1 66 1 ( Whittington, Lancashire], Mary daughter of Johne Johnson 
bapt. the second day of February in the New font the first 
child in the said font erected in the i4th year of the Reigne 
of our Soverign Lord Charles the second." 

The following are a selection of somewhat unusual entries 
from baptismal registers arranged chronologically ; they 
need no comment: 

"1575 (Christ Church, Newgate Street), Sep. 26, was christened 
4 dau's of Roger Abraham, pulter 
Elyzabeathe^ 

Margerett | these 4 dau's were borne at one byrthe 
Dorathye f by his wyfe Joone. 
Marye J 

"1588 (Mitcham, Surrey). William Anselm, the sonne of William 
Anselm Vicar of this parish of Mytcham was borne upon 
Friday beinge the firste of Novembre and the festivall day off 
all Saintes betwene the hours of one and two of the Clocke in 
the afternone of the same day and was baptized the sonday 
sennight after being the x of the month aforesaid. 

" 1604 (Nunney, Somersetshire], Roger Starr, baptized Dec. 17. 
He clymed up a ladder to the top of the house, 23 Oct., 1606, 
being seven weeks and odd days less than two years old. 

"1613 (Holnest, Dorset). Marye Dober, Hanna and Arthur Dober, 
the ii daughters and sonne of Thomas Dober, were all three 
borne at one tyme, and were baptized the xxixth daye of Marche. 

"1624 (St. Peter's, Canterbury). Elizabeth Fuller, d. of Thomas 
Fuller, a baker of St. James his p'ish in Dover (the mother 
in her jorney overtaken w'th her travaile being delivered here 
with us at the Cherrytree) the sayd Elizabeth Fuller baptized 
Septemb. 5. 

" 1634 (Stock, Essex), 15 Mar. John s. of John Fisher (as was said) 
and of Margaret a stranger, brought to bed at ye 'Cocke' 
some 4 days before was baptized ye same time being ye i5th 
of March, on which day in ye night the sayd Margaret as they 
called her and her sayd sonne were together with one whom 
they called her sister, secretly conveyed away, the host and 
hostesse not knowing thereof. Meretricium certe hoc fuit 
facinus. 

" 1635 (Dry pole, E. JR. Yor%s). George the son of Robart Johnson 



44 PARISH REGISTERS 

was baptized on tuesday the 26th of Januarie about foure of 
the clocke in the morninge being weake and abortivelie borne. 
The said George Johnson was buried on Wednesday the 
2yth of Januarie. 

" 1642 (Nassington, Northants). Rich. Forsters child christned at 
Fotheringhay by Mr. Welby and not signed w th the signe of 
the Crosse 2 June." 

Allusion has already been made to the changes in con- 
nection with baptism under the Commonwealth. This 
change is commented upon in several registers ; it will 
suffice to give two of such references, the one in Latin, 
the other in English : 

"1645 (Wing, Rutland}. Michael Winge films Michael Winge et 
Annae Haule uxoris ejus baptizatus fuit vicesimo sexto die 
Octobris. Iste infans fuit primus qui baptizatus fuit secundum 
Directorium parliamentarum. 

" 1647 (Blathenvick, N'hants). Marke the sonne of Ferdinando 
Broun and Anne his wife was baptized Mar. the 25th, beeing 
the first baptized according to the Directory. 

" 1646 (Maze, Essex). Mattheus Duerdenus filius natu maximus 
Matthei Duerdeni Rectoris de Mose et Elizabethse uxoris 
natus erat 15 die Octobris Ano Dom 1646 inter horas primum 
et secundum nocturnas baptizatus Octob. 22 in ecclesia 
parochiali de Mose. Sponsoribus. 

"1651 (Eastbourn, Sussex). Rich Boulte, the Son of me John 
Boulte, was born January iQth, and was baptized January 2oth, 
he being my 26th child. 

"1655 (St. Botolph, Aldgate). William Clark, a Soldier, and 
Thomasine his Wife, who herself went for a Souldier, and was 
billetted at the Three Hammers in East Smithfield, about 
seven months, and was afterwards delivered of this Child the 
1 6th day of this July, and was baptized the iyth in her lodging, 
being one Mr. Hubler's House. She had been a Souldier, 
by her own confession, about five years, and was sometime 
Drummer to the Company. 

" 1 66 1 (Hackness, Yorks). James the sonn of Thomas Moore gentle- 
man borne the second of September in the morneinge baptized 
the tenth day privately it is supposed by a popish prieste 



BAPTISMS 45 

beinge a straunger then at the manner. Mr. Thomas Moore 
was then at London. 

" 1664-5 (Grinton, Yorks\ Mar. 24. Anthony, son of Mark Raw 
of Blades, baptized in y e presense of y e Great Grandfather, 
and Grandfather and other witnesses then having received y e 
holy communion : he was aged 2 yeares at Martinmas before. 

" 1667 (Abington^ N'hants). John, sonne of Clement Spicer chirothe- 
carius (glover) and of Elizabeth his wife, was made a X an 
24 Novemb. 

" 1689 (Thornton, Bucks}. Richard ye son of William How and of 
Elizabeth his wife was baptized 1 5th day of September. Called 
out of Church in midst of sermon to baptize it, bee likely to 
die. 

" 1692. Debora y e dearly beloved wife of Robert Jenney Esq. dyed 
y e 24th of October and was buryed the 26 of y e same Month 
leaveing 2 pretty Babes Offley and Debora behind her whereof 
Debora dyed y e 28th of May and was buryed y e 3oth 1693. 

"1703 (Corby, N^hants). Presbyterians, Nathaniel Chambers and 
Rebecca his wife had two children a male and a female, born 
May 22, 1703, as I am told, whom one Davis of Rothwell 
has made Christians, they will call (them) Richard and Rebecca. 

" 1709 (Hepworth, SuffolK). Joseph son of Robert Beever of Hep- 
worth junr. baptized with a conditional Baptism the i5th day 
of May, because it was said that the Dissenting Minister Mr. 
Jo. Biram had baptized him before, but the said Robert Beever 
being interrogated about it, could not tell mee that the said 
Mr. Biram had done more than sprinkled it and prayed with 
it, injoyning him to bring the child afterwards to Lidget meet- 
ing to be baptized there. 

"1712 (St. Alkmund's, Derby}. Bap. Nov. 5 Elizabeth and Honey- 
love the daughters of John Key. Note Elizabeth was about 
3 years old. The reason that she was baptized at the same 
time in the church when Honeylove the infant was, was this, 
I (Rev d H. Cantrel M.A.) had some time before preached con- 
cerning baptism, and proved that the dissenting teachers have 
no authority to baptize, and consequently that children that 
had been sprinkled by 'em, ought to be baptiz'd by an 
Episcopal Minister. The Father was so fully convinced by 
what was said, that he came to me and desired me to baptize 
the said child. 

"1767 (Church Broughton, Derbyshire). May, daughter of Humphrey 



46 PARISH REGISTERS 

Morley, was born and baptized June. 2nd. N.B. This child 
had two Teeth cut when born. I saw the teeth when they 
brought the child to me to baptize it. Jno Dimott, Vicar. 

"1771 (Slaley, Northumberland), Feb. 25. Then was baptized 
John, son of William Durick and Mary his wife, a travelling 
dansing master and mistress. 

" 1772 (Stanwell, Middlesex). Robert, John, and Mary Nash, trines 
(i.e. triplets), baptized Feb. 7, buried Feb. 14. 

"1796 (St. Peter's, Canterbury), Dec. 25. Esther Owen, d. of 
William Owen, Drum Major in the Royal Glamorganshire 
Militia and Ester his wife, privately baptized about the i6th 
day of October, 1794, on Maker Heights in the County of 
Devon or Cornwall, was received into the congregation, being 
2 years of age, in this Church. This Battalion in October 
1797, being then in camp on Maker Heights/' 

The following instances, selected from many entries as to 
the baptism of those of riper years, possess some interest. It 
will be noticed that three of them refer to persons of colour : 

1663 ( Westminster Abbey). Drell Pead, one of the King's Scholars, 
ab l 1 6 y rs of age, was bapt d by the Deane publickly in the 
font newly set up, April 18. 

" 1674 (Great Hampden, Bucks). Colliberry Winkfield and Jane 
Winkfield, the daughters of John Winkfield and Elizabeth his 
wife were baptized the 23d of Sept., the first being about 
9 yeares old and the other about 4 years old. 

"1693 (Bishop Wearmouth, Durham}, March 27. A person aged 
about 20 years, a Tawny, borne at the Bay of Bengal, in the 
East Indies, and being taken captive by the English in his 
minoritie was (after due examination of himself and witnesses) 
baptized, and named John Weremouth, by me T. O., Curate. 

"1719 (Bobbingworth, Essex). John Reade (son of John Read 
an Anabaptist) born Dec. y e i9th 1698 was at his own 
request baptiz'd this 22d day of April. 

"1736 (Dunster), Feb. 15. A black man was baptized William, 
being about 22 years of age, and desired to be called William 
Dunster in remembrance of his new birth. 

" T 757 (Stokesby, Yorks). Memorand. Jonathan Hill Physician and 
Chirurgion aged 66 bapt Apr: 24th. 

"1763 (Thurcaston, Leicestershire), Nov. 19. John Cragg of 



BAPTISMS 47 

Thurcaston, an adult, in his 75th year, being bed-rid, was 
privately baptized, at his own request. N.B. His Father 
and Mother had been rigid Anabaptists. 

R. KURD, Rector 

"1788 (Chiskhurst, Kent), Jan. 2oth. Thomas West, a negro of 
about 6 years of age, who had been sent over as a present 
to Lord Sydney from Governor Orde of Dominica." 

Entertainments at the time of baptism were customary 
among the well-to-do classes. Strype tells us that when 
the son of Sir Thomas Chamberlayne was baptized at St. 
Benet's Church, Paul's Wharf, in 1559, 

" the church was hung with cloth of arras, and after the christening 
were brought wafers, comfits, and divers banquetting dishes, and 
Hypocras and Muscadine wine to entertain the guests." 

There is an entry of a choral baptism in 1636 among 
the registers of 1636 at St. Margaret's, Westminster : 

" May 26. Baptized Mrs. Alice, daughter to Sir Robt. Eatan, 
Secretary to King Charles i. The Quire attended : the boys 
had ; 3 , i6s. 8d." 

When Cardinal Ximenes put forth his great influence 
in 1497 to secure the due registration of the baptism of 
children throughout Western Christendom, this step was 
mainly taken to correct the laxity of morals whereby divorces 
had become frequent on the score of alleged spiritual re- 
lationship or affinity, arising out of acts of sponsorship. 
Hence it was ordered throughout the diocese of Toledo, 
and the custom ere long became general throughout Spain 
and Italy and elsewhere, that the names of the sponsors 
should be registered at the time of baptism. 

" Godfathers and godmothers," as Mr. Chester Waters puts it, 
"were regarded by the Church as spiritual parents, who, with 
their husbands and wives and children, were spiritually related to 
each other and to the infant of whom they were sponsors, within 



48 PARISH REGISTERS 

the prohibited degrees. When, therefore, two persons wished to 
dissolve the bond of marriage, they had only to allege that they 
had previously contracted some spiritual relationship which rendered 
their marriage canonically invalid ; and from the absence of any 
record to test the truth of the allegation, they were, by an easy 
collusion, enabled to separate and marry some one else." 

Divorces on the ground of spiritual incest were fairly 
common in England in pre-Reformation days. Thorpe's 
Customale Roffense supplies various instances in Rochester 
diocese during the fifteenth century of divorce or punish- 
ment for such offences. The marriage between John 
Trevemook and Joan Peckham was annulled in 1465 on 
the ground that John's former wife, Letitia, had been god- 
mother to one of Joan's children. William Lovelesse, of 
Kingsdown, was cited in December 1472 on a charge of 
having married his spiritual sister that is, a woman to 
whom his mother had been godmother. John Horsthan, of 
Tunbridge, was sentenced in 1463 by the diocesan official 
to be whipped three times round the market-place and 
church for marrying Dionysia Thomas, a goddaughter of 
his former wife. 

The following entry in the register book of East 
Quantock's Head, Somerset, is the last instance known in 
England of the remarriage of the persons who had been 
divorced for spiritual incest : 

"1560, Aug. 7. Thomas Luttrell esquier and Mrs. Margaret 
Hadley married." 

This Thomas Luttrell was a cadet of the ancient and 
distinguished family of the Luttrells of Dunster Castle. 
During the lax times of Edward VI he had been contracted 
in marriage with Margaret, the infant heiress of the Hadleys 
of Withycombe, notwithstanding the fact that she was the 
goddaughter of his mother, Dame Margaret Luttrell, and 
therefore in the eyes of the Church the spiritual sister of 



BAPTISMS 49 

Thomas. The bride came to full age in the time of Queen 
Mary, when the laws of the Church were strictly interpreted, 
with the result that the offenders were divorced, and ex- 
communicated. Appeal was made for a dispensation to 
Pope Paul IV, and by his decision the culprits were released 
from excommunication in November 1558, on condition 
of a new marriage being celebrated in the face of the 
Church. The remarriage, however, did not take place 
until the new conditions of things under Elizabeth were 
established, when all references to Rome and questions of 
illegality were ignored, and the couple were remarried ac- 
cording to the reformed rite, the bride in her maiden name. 

It is highly probable that in a large number of parishes, 
and possibly in the majority, the names of the sponsors 
were added to the baptismal entries so soon as the general 
law of registration came into force in England. It is known 
that this was the case in several instances, but the vast 
majority of the registers which date back to 1538-9 are 
mere abstract transcripts dating from the close of that 
century, wherein every superfluous word beyond the barest 
record is obviously omitted. 

It would appear, from some of the earliest entries in the 
now missing register of Much Wenlock, Salop, that god- 
parents were there known by the old English term of 
"gossips." The word is more correctly written "gossib," 
for it is derived from the Anglo-Saxon sib, alliance or 
relationship, hence one related in the service of God. 

"Jan. 21, 1538-9. Gossibes S r Thos Butler Vicar of this churche 
and dominus Jas. Ball monke of the Monastre of Sainte 
Milburge. 

"18 Feb. Gossibes Ric. Lawley Gent, and Johan the wif of 
Jas. Fenymer Porter of the Monastre." 

The following entry of the year 1 542, in the register of 
Ickenham, Middlesex, is probably due to the distinguished 
4 



50 PARISH REGISTERS 

position of the sponsors, and not to any adherence to a 
then general Catholic custom: 

" Katharine, the Dowgter of the Lord Hastyngs, and the Lady 
his Wyff, was borne the Saturday before our Lady Day, th' 
assumption, being the n day of August, and was christened the 
20 of August, the godmother, Queene Kateryn by her debite, being 
her syster, one Mr. Harbard's Wiff; the other Godmother, the 
Lady Margaret Duglas, the Kyng's nece, and the Godfather, the 
Lord Russell, beying the Lord Prive Scale, by hys debite, Master 
Francis Russell, hys Son and Heyre." 

In the preliminary Articles of Visitation drawn up by 
Cardinal Pole, in Queen Mary's reign, the final question 
" Touching the Clergy " is " Whether do they keep the 
book or register of christenings, buryinges or marriages, 
with the names of the godfathers and godmothers ? " 

The first register book of Chislet, Kent, shows com- 
pliance with the Marian orders, but the godparent entries 
ceased on Elizabeth's accession : 

"1556. Thomisina filia Thome Clipson erat baptizata 10 die Julii 

patribus et matribus rob'tus alen Thomisina blaksland Elizabet 

Hinckton. 
"1558. Gilbertus Androwe films Johani Androwe baptizat 5 fuit 

3 die Augustii compatres gilbert 3 penj et Thomas Wylkys 

co'mat'r Juliana Lyon." 

The earlier pages of the well-kept registers of the parish 
church of Chelmsford also show obedience in this respect to 
Cardinal Pole's injunctions. The following are among the 
few cases wherein we have noted the more or less regular 
entry of godparents in the baptismal registers of Elizabethan 
days: Mertsham, Surrey, 1559-1562; Selattyn, Salop, 1560- 
1574; Birchington, Kent, 1564-1606; Burton Fleming, 
Yorks, 1577-1599. At Ledbury, Hereford, the entry of the 
sponsors began, according to order, in 1556, and was 
continued down to 1576. 




CARDINAL REGINALD POLE 

(ARTIST UNKNOWN) 
From a painting at the National Portrait Gallery 



BAPTISMS 51 

The registers of St. Martin's, Micklegate, York, give 
the names of the godparents of baptized children for the 
years 1571-75; they are in each case termed "sureties," 
to which term "witnesses" is added in two or three 
instances. 

"1571. Barbara Vandighteryng, doughter of Sir James Vandighter- 
ynge, Flemyng and . . . hys wyf, was baptysed this eleventh day 
of november surties, Mr. Cotton, archedecon of Cleveland, Mrs. 
Trew, and Mrs. Cuttes." 

Godparents are also named in the registers of All 
Hallows-in-the-Wall for several years, beginning in 1584: 

"1585 (All Hallow s-in-the- Wall\ Roose Raman, the daughter of 
John Raman being yeaman purvyar unto her Majestic was 
Baptized the xiiij day of novembre, and had to her witnesses 
John burton currier of this parish, and Roose Willis the wyfe 
of John Willis of the parish of St. peters the poore, and Martha 
Smyth, the wyfe of Richard Smyth one of her majesties 
trumpets, of this parish." 

In the registers of Holy Trinity, Chester, the names of 
the godparents are set forth for each baptism from 1600 to 
1624, thus: 

" 1 60 1, 6 January. To Ashton Baker a sonne named Raf. G. F. Mr. 

Rose Berkenhead and Rafe Crosse, G. M. Mrs. Elizabeth 

Thropp. 
" 1620, 14 March. Margret, Dau. to Robt Flecher Baker; Rafe 

Cratchley, Margret Harndy and Marg 1 Blanchard, Gossips." 

The registers of Mansfield, Nottinghamshire, occasionally 
supply the names of godparents under the baptismal entries 
from 1600 (the beginning) to 1625. In each entry the 
sponsors are termed " witnesses." Thus under 1612 occurs : 

" Christopher Reane sonne of Nicolas Reane and Erne his wyfe 
was baptized the xvj day of June Robt Cockrell, thomas myles and 
Mrs. Mary Jackson wyttnes." 



52 PARISH REGISTERS 

As to the various names, in addition to witnesses or sureties 
assigned in the registers to godparents, it may be mentioned 
that in the early Selattyn entries they are invariably called 
" Goshipps," and at Birchington " Susceptores," " Compatres," 
or " Fidejussores." The last of these terms is also used in 
the registers of Startforth, Yorkshire. 

In the time of Elizabeth there was no necessity to 
continue the entry of sponsors in our registers on the ground 
of avoiding the danger of spiritual incest, as such an impedi- 
ment to marriage was no longer maintained by the Church 
of England. The custom, therefore, generally fell into 
abeyance. But in many a register, more especially in 
country parishes, isolated entries of sponsors are found to 
accompany the baptismal record. In almost all such cases, 
we are sorry to say, the reason for this exceptional setting 
forth of sponsors is the innately vulgar one, particularly odious 
in a Church record, of doing supposed honour to the family 
of the squire or other magnate. This vulgarity is not in- 
frequently still further emphasised by such entries being made 
in an exceptionally large text. 

At Askham, Westmoreland, the Sandforths were lords of 
the manor ; throughout the latter part of Elizabeth's reign, 
and down to 1662, the children of that family bore the 
unique distinction of having their godparents' names set 
forth in full. A single instance is given as a sample : 

" 1592. Oct. 20 was Thomas the chyld of Mr. Thomas Sandforth 
esquier borne and chrystened the fyrst day of Nov. being All 
Saints day, his godfathers was Thomas Lord Scrope by his 
substitute Mr. John Mydleton esquier and Mr. Thomas Salkeld 
esquier, his godmother was Mrs. An Bellingham." 

The only mention of godparents in the registers of Stokes- 
ley, York, which begin in 1571, is a single instance, the entry 
being obviously made for the poor reason of exalting the 
dignity of a family which could command the presence of 



BAPTISMS 53 

such exalted sponsors at the initial sacrament of the Divine 
Carpenter : 

" 1602-3. Margrett the doughter of the Right Worshippfull Sir 
William Eure Knight being borne the xth of December was 
Baptized the xviijth daie of Januarie The God Father my Lord 
Arch Bushopp hys Grace Bush, of Yorke and the God Moothers 
the Right Honorable Countesses of Kent and Cumberland." 

It must suffice to give but two or three other examples, out 
of many that we have noted, of the preferential treatment in 
church registers of the children of the great people of the parish, 
when dedicated to Him who knew not where to lay His head. 
The Bowdens, of Bowden Hall, were the most ancient and 
wealthy family of the widespread Derbyshire parish of 
Chapel-en-le-Frith. Hence their children are singled out 
for elaborate entry : 

" Barnby Bowden was born y e 5th day of August, 1653, about 6 
of y e clock in y e morning, and was baptized y e i6th day of y e same, 
Thomas Barnby and Peter Foljamb Esquiers godfathers, and 
Katharine Wentworth, wife of Michael Wentworth, of Wody, Esquier, 
godmother. 

"Thomas Bowden was born y e 4th of October, 1654, about 
3 o'clock in y e morning, and was baptized y e i8th day of y e same. 
Henry Bagshawe, of Ridge, and Tristram Stafford godfathers, and 
Mrs. Wooderofe, godmother." 

The same principle obviously regulates such exceptional 
entries as the following in the registers of St. Margaret's, 
Westminster : 

"1708, June 28. Charles Grahame, son to Very Rev. Wm D.D. 
Dean of Wells, by Alice, baptized by Jno Ld Arch Bishop of 
York. Her Majestic being godmother, and the Dukes of 
Somerset, Queensberry and Dover, godfathers Born y e 6th. 

"1720, June 22. Lord George Jonnstone, son to the Most Honorable 
William Lord Marquess of Annandale, by Lady Charlotte his 
Marchioness. His godfathers, His Majestic King George (by 
proxy the Earl of Orkney), the Lord Viscount Allington the 



54 PARISH REGISTERS 

other: and Her Grace the Dutches of Hamilton his god- 
mother." 

After all this servility, it is a relief to recollect that there 
are in our English parish registers just one or two very rare 
cases where the minister does honour to the lowly. The 
most touching entry of this kind that we have met with is 
that penned by the parson of West Thorney, Sussex, who 
was not ashamed to make known in the register that he was 
sponsor to a base-born infant. Surely the boy's unusual 
name was the clergyman's choice ; spinola is a small briar 
rose. 



"1615 

films 
terrae 



Spinola, the Sonne of Dorothy Dumpar, base borne baptised 
the tenth day of March, his Godfathers were Godfrey 
Blaxton P'sone of Thorney, and Thomas Roman, and 
Widdowe Toogood Godmother ; God's blessing be uppon 
him, Amen." 

In connection, however, with infants of illegitimate birth, 
it must be recollected that now and again there are register 
entries of sponsors whose names are obviously recorded in 
order that they might serve as witnesses, if required, in 
matters which might be charged on the parish, not unlikely 
to arise in cases of bastardy. This is the explanation of the 
following entry, of the year 1580, in the registers of St. 
Michael le Belfry, York : 

" Dorothye Atkingson, Daughter to M'garett Atkmson,unmaryed, 
and begotten as she did confesse, in the tyme of hir laboure, 
before the wyves there present, by one Roger Nuton, cov'lett weaver. 
The godfather name of it is Thomas Maryson, servant to Mr. 
Henry Maye ; godmothers are Dorothy, ye wyf of one Edward 
Walker, and one Ephame, the wyfe of Laurence Graye, baptized 
the xxvth day of April." 

The same explanation holds good with regard to the 
entry of sponsors in the two following register excerpts : 

" 1607 (Holme Hak> Norfolk}. James, ye bastard of one Maria, who 



BAPTISMS 55 

sayeth she hath or had a husband called Cockson ; was bapt. 
6 April. She sayeth y* James Barbye was ye father of y' ; 
one Peter Whytyng of Walpole was godfather, Ann Cooke and 
Ann Bateman were Godmothers. 

" 1614 (St. Oswald, Durham}, May 8. Richard Elleson, supposed to 
be the son of Richard Elleson of the parish of Pittington, 
bassebegotten with Ezabell Raw, the wife of Cuthbt Raw 
decesed. Godfather John Sim ; godmother Alice Dun, the 
wife of Georg Dun, with S r Wright Curatt that did christen 
the saide child." 

In the registers of the last of these two parishes, there 
are similar sponsor entries at the baptism of bastards for 
the years 1609-12. 

A baptismal entry in the Elizabethan registers of St. 
Olave's, Hart Street, mentions such historical characters as 
"witnesses," that the exceptional registration honour done 
to the infant viscount can be pardoned, especially as the 
saintly Bishop Andrews, then vicar of St. Giles', Cripplegate, 
was the celebrant : 

" I 59~ I J J an - 22 - Robert Lord Deaveraux Vicount Hereford, sonne 
and heyre of Robert Earl of Essex, in my lady wallsingham's 
howse, mother to the Countis, Sir francis Knolls and the lord 
rich with the countess of leicester wittnesses. Doctor 
Andrewes preached and babtized the child." 

The condescension of two well-born men in standing as 
godparents to the child of a mere common sawyer, in the 
reign of Charles I, was thought well worthy by the rector of 
Albrighton, near Wolverhampton, of being honoured in the 
parish register : 

"1638, May 12. John, sonne of Edwarde and Cisley Davies, of 
Albrighton, sawier, was baptized the i2th day of May, being 
Whitsunday even. Sir John Corbett Knight barronett, and 
his kinsman Mr. Thomas Riton coming from London acci- 
dentally being ye two godfathers who desired to doe good unto 
a poore man and so baptized his childe." 



56 PARISH REGISTERS 

The rector of Methley, Leeds, had such an extraordinary 
tale to tell of the godparents at a baptism in his church, in 
1683, that he may readily be excused for making a special 
entry : 

"John, the son of Savile Salsterston bapti d the 16 of May, and it 
weare confirmed and had its sureties on the 24 day of May, 
and his sureties was these : his granfather and his great granfather 
and great granmother, all by the father." 

The Canon Law has always held that the rite of baptism 
could be administered by any person in case of necessity. 
Midwives in the Church of England, both before and after 
the Reformation, were particularly enjoined to baptize if 
there was any risk of the child dying before a priest could 
arrive. The midwife was licensed by the bishop ; to obtain 
a licence, the woman had to be recommended by matrons 
who knew of her skill, and also by the parish minister, who 
was to certify as to her life and conversation, and that she 
was a member of the Church of England. By her oath she 
was sworn to be " diligent, faithful, and ready to help every 
woman travailing of child, as well the poor as the rich, and 
not to forsake the poor woman and leave her to go to the 
rich," and she was also bound to " in no way exercise any 
manner of witchcraft, charms, sorcery, or invocation." 

Curates were enjoined openly in the church " to teach 
and instruct the mydwiefes of the very wordes and fourme 
of Baptisme, to thententes that they may use them perfictly 
and none oder." 

Several examples of entries referring to baptism by 
midwives are here set forth, both from the earlier and later 
parochial registers : 

" J 539 (Goodnestont) Kent\ July 19. Francis Sladde, Son of Henrie, 
who was also christened by y e midwife at St. Alban's Courte. 

" X 555 (North Elmham, Norfolk}. The ij chyldren of Johne Brow 
and Agnes hys wyife, wer chrystened by y e mydwyffe at home 



BAPTISMS 57 

y e xvj day of Apryll, and was buryed yt same dye, it was 
esterne Tuysday. 

" 1567 (Herne, Kent). William Lawson, an infant, christend by the 
woemen, bearyed 21 Martii. 

"1568 (Bobbingworth) Essex). M d that John Browne was Christened 
at home by the mydwyfe beinge in greate perill the ix day of 
November and after his recoveringe was brought to the Church 
to receave according to the Lawe. 

" 1569 (Ibid.). M d that George Bourne the sonn of William Bourne 
was Christened at home by mother Wryte the mydwyffe of the 
parish and in the presence of ix other honest women of the 
parish then beinge present accordinge to the lawe thorowe 
great pearill and dainger the xvj day of Februarie. 

"1578 (St. Michael le Belfry, York). John childe, sonne to Thomas 
childe, baptized at home in the house by the mydwif, mother 
todd, and afterwarde brought to the church, the iij d day of may. 

" 1582 (St. Mary WoolnotJi), Sep. 12. Cislye, daughter of Roger 
Tasker, Goldsmythe, witnes by Roose Freest, Mydwief, that it 
was so weke that it coulde not tarry untelle Sundaye. 

" 1589-90 (Mitcham, Surrey). George Tyrwitt the sonne of William 
Tyrwitt of Kettlebey Esquier was baptized by the hannde of 
the Midwife in Mrs. Rutlands house the Childe being in greate 
daunger. Jan. i. 

"1591 (St. Mary's, Lichfield), Oct. 12. Magarett, D r of Walter 
Hemingham, of Pypehall, baptized by the midwyfe, and as yett 
not broughte to y e Church to be there examyned and testified 
by them that were then presente. 

" 1730 (Bishop Wearmouth, Durham). Robert, daughter of William 
Thompson, bap. 1 5 Feb. the midwife mistaking the sex, ebrietas 
dementat. 

" 1731 (Hanwell, Middlesex), Daughter. Thomas, Son of Thomas 
Messenger and Elizabeth his Wife, was born and baptized 
Oct. 24, by the midwife at the Font called a boy, and 
named by the godfather Thomas, but proved a girl. 

" 1787 (Clunbury, Salop), Augt. 5. Thomas* s. of William and Ann 
James was baptised. 

* " His name was not Thomas but William. He was the 
only son and was born on the i6th June, 1787, as appears by 
Mrs. Hold's (the midwife's) Book. B. Morgan, subcurate." 

Creatura Christi. It will be noticed that the three 



58 PARISH REGISTERS 

last extracts by midwives all relate to mistakes made as to 
name or sex. It was, perhaps, from this liability to error 
in hasty baptisms during dangerous confinements that the 
midwives or others in mediaeval days now and again styled 
the infant Creatura Christi, or simply Creature, a term 
equivalent to Child of God. This term is met with in 
several parochial registers of the sixteenth century. It 
probably had its origin from Tindall's version of the New 
Testament text, 2 Cor. v. 17. " Yf any man be in Christ, he is 
a newe creature." 

" 1547 (Staplehurst, Kent}. Then was baptized by the Midwyffe and 

so buryed the childe of Thorns Goldham called Creature. 
" i Edw. 6 the xxvij of Apryle, there was borne ij Childre of Alexander 

Beerye the one christned at home and so deceased called 

Creature, the other christned at church called John. 
"1561 (St. Peter-in-the-East, Oxford}, June 30, the chylde of God, 

filius Ric. Stacy. 
"1563 (Ibid.\ July 17. Baptizata fuit in cedibus he ri Humfrey 

(Bishop ) filia ejus quae nominata fuit Creatura 

Christi. 
"1563 (Ibid.\ July 17. Creatura Christi filia Laurentii Henfeldi 

sepulta fuit eodem die. 
"1565 (Staplehurst, Kent), March 3. Ther was buryed the sonne 

of John . . ., which dyed imediatly as he was borne, being 

named Creature. 
" 1573 (Kidderminster), April 14. b. Gods creature, the sonne of 

John and Jane Glazzard. 
" 1588 (Elmley Lovett, Worcester). Bur. Creature the daughter of 

Robert Briges being christ d by the midwife, was buried the 

xith day of December." 

Sometimes, however, the little ones then baptized lived 
to mature age. 

"1579 (Staplehurst, Kent), July 19. Marryed John Haffynden and 
Creature Cheseman yong folke." 



CHAPTER V 
CHRISOM CHILDREN, FOUNDLINGS, ETC. 

Chrisom children Foundlings The foundlings of the Temple 
Nurse children Confirmation Churching Bastards Terms 
for illegitimacy 

REGISTER entries of the burial of " Chrisom Children " 
are of fairly frequent occurrence throughout Eng- 
land during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, 
and more rarely during the earlier part of the eighteenth 
century. 

The chrisom was the white linen cloth or vesture placed 
on the child at the time of baptism. In the mediaeval Church 
of England, the priest anointed the child with the chrism 
or holy oil, in the form of a cross, on the breast and between 
the shoulders, and the idea of the chrisom cloth was to 
protect the chrism marks and to preserve them from hasty 
removal. The chrisom was worn as a vesture by the child 
for seven days, or until the mother was able to be churched. 
At the time of the churching, the chrisom was presented to 
the church. The chrisoms were afterwards used by the 
priests for ablutions and such-like purposes in the church. 
If, however, the child died before the mother's churching, the 
infant was termed a chrisom child, and was shrouded in the 
white baptismal vesture, which was bound round the little 
body with ornamental folds or strips of linen. 

The anointing with chrism, unlike other incidentals of 
mediaeval baptism, was not given up by the Church of 

59 



60 PARISH REGISTERS 

England in her early reformed service, and the use of the 
chrisom was also for a short time maintained. The following 
is the pertinent passage as to the chrisom from the first 
Prayer Book of Edward VI (1549): 

" Then the Godfathers and Godmothers shall take and lay their 
hands upon the child, and the minister shall put upon him his white 
vesture, commonly called a chrisom, and say, 'Take this white 
vesture for a token of the innocency which by God's grace in 
this holy sacrament of Baptism is given unto thee ; and for a sign 
whereby thou art admonished, so long as thou livest, to give 
thyself to innocency of living, that after this transitory life thou 
mayest be partaker of the life everlasting. ' ' 

The use, however, of both chrism and chrisom was erased 
from the second Prayer Book of 1552. Nevertheless, though 
no longer enjoined, the use of the chrisom or special white 
vestment lingered in certain parishes for many a long year 
after the disappearance of the word from the Book of Common 
Prayer, together with its presentation at the time of churching. 
Thus in the register book of Wickenby, Lincolnshire, is an 
undated entry made early in the seventeenth century to the 
following effect : 

"The chrysom and a gracepeny is always to be given at ye 
woman's churching. The chrysom must be half a yard of fine linnen 
long and a full yard in width." 

We have met with several late Elizabethan depositions, 
both in Derbyshire and Somersetshire, wherein the actual 
use of the chrisom at baptisms is named in manorial 
inquisitions, godmothers testifying that they had carried the 
chrisom to the font at the baptism of an heir, or had placed 
it on the child. A survival of the custom may even yet be 
noted in some quiet country churches, where the godmother 
is wont to place a clean cambric handkerchief, generally a 
new one, over the infant's face immediately after the actual 
baptism, and whilst the rest of the office is proceeding. 



CHRISOM CHILDREN, FOUNDLINGS 61 

The custom was so engraven upon English minds that 
the application of the term chrisom child to those babes that 
died in their innocency, and who were shrouded in their 
chrisoms, was fairly general throughout the seventeenth 
century. Two entries from the registers of St. Peter's, 
Northampton, for the same year may serve as examples : 

" 1632. A crisom woman childe of Ann Nelson widow buryed the 
xxx of March 1632. A chrisom child of John Taylor was 
buryed the vii of October." 

It was not necessary to be of legitimate birth to obtain 
this title. Thus at Hinckley, Leicestershire, a few years 
earlier, occurs this entry among the burials : 

" 1627. One Crysome, base, of Rebakca Dunning, March i6th." 

The registers of St. Sepulchre's, Northampton, have an 
unusual number of chrisom children burials. They occur 
under the years 1622, 1631, 1632, 1633, 1634, 1637, 1643, 
1644, 1646, 1659, J 663, 1664, 1665, 1667, 1668, 1680, 1684, 
1687, and one at the exceptionally late date of 1716. 

Like entries occur with unusual frequency in the registers 
of Aldenham, Herts, during the second quarter of the 
seventeenth century. There are two in 1637, four in 1642, 
six in 1643, three in 1644, two in 1645, two in 1646, and four 
in 1647 ; they are continued down to 1657. 

Chrisom children occur in the parish register books of 
almost the whole of the churches of the city of London 
and of Westminster. One of the most interesting occurs 
at Westminster Abbey : 

"The Princess Anns Child aChrissome bur. in y e Vault, Oct. 22, 
1687." 

Occasionally the term chrisom or chrisom child was 
lengthened into chrisomer. This is the case in the registers 
of St. Botolph, Bishopsgate, where the terms " male 



62 PARISH REGISTERS 

chrisomer" and "female chrisomer" occasionally occur. 
Chrisomer is also used with some frequency in the registers 
of St. Columb Major's Cornwall, between the years 1603 
and 1618. The register of Boughton-under-Bleau, Kent, 
for the year 1617, has the following entry: 

" The 6th day of March buried a Female Chrisamer, the 
daughter of Thomas Pudall." 

Though the term is oftener found in seventeenth-century 
registers than in those of the sixteenth century, yet there are 
exceptions. Thus there are three such entries in the register 
of Kirkburton, Yorks, under the year 1 568 : 

" The xxvj of November was Margere Kay buryyd. A Crysm 
chyld. 

" The ix day of December was Jhon March buryyd. A Crysm 
chyld. 

"The xxviij day of december was Eyllyn Lytyllwood buryed. 
A Crysm child." 

There are four like entries in these registers for the year 
1569, two in 1570, three in 1571, and seven in 1572; they 
are continued at intervals down to the year 1710. 

The following double entry as to twins, one of whom 
was a chrisom child, which occurs in the register of 
Broxley, Salop, for the year 1669, is sufficiently curious for 
transcription : 

" April 2. Hugh twin son of WilPm Gough deceased and Eleanor 

his relict : 
" April 2. A chrisom son being the other twin of the s d WilPm 

Gough, deceased : " 

A survival of the presentation of the chrisom to the parish 
priest lingered for a long time in certain country parishes, 
where it was customary for a woman at her churching to 
make an offering of a white cambric handkerchief. This is 
stated to have been the use in the parish of Button, Essex, 



CHRISOM CHILDREN, FOUNDLINGS 63 



in Morant's history of that county, which was published 
in 1768. 

Representations of chrisom children are not infrequent 
on monumental brasses of the sixteenth and seventeenth 
centuries ; one occurs on an incised slab at Croxall, Derby- 
shire. 

The baptism, only too often followed by the speedy 
burial of foundlings, is of 
frequent occurrence in town 
and suburban parishes, and 
occasionally in country dis- 
tricts. The naming of the 
deserted infant was left to 
the vestry in towns, and to 
the overseers of the poor 
and churchwardens in the 
country. It was usual to 
give the name of the parish 
as the surname, and of 
the Saint whose day was 
nearest to the discovery of 
the child as the Christian 
name. This is exemplified 
by the two following entries 
from the first register book 
of St. Denis (or Dennis) 
Backchurch in the City : 

" 1567, Dec. 14. A chylde that 
was found at the stran- 
gers dore in Lymstrete 
whych chylde was founde 

on Saynt petter day, and founde of the p'ishe coste. Where- 
fore they named the chylde by the day that he was founde, 
and surname by the p'ishe, so the chyldes name ys Petter 
Dennis. 




INCISED SLAB OF EDWARD MYNER, 
CROXALL: A CHRISOM CHILD. 



64 PARISH REGISTERS 

"1585, April 23. A man child was lead at Sir Edward Osbourne 
gate and was christned the xxiii of Aprill named Dennis 
Philpot, and so brought to Christes ospitall" [Philpot Lane 
was a street in this parish]. 

The registers of another City church, St. Nicholas Aeon, 
supply two interesting instances : 

"1585, Nov. 5. A man child a foundling named Nicholas Aeon 
after our Parishe Church name, was laid in this p'ishe. 

" 1618, Oct. 26. Elizabeth Aeon. This child was found in the 
streete at one Mr. Wythers dore in St. Nicholas lane upon the 
nynteenth of this presnt moneth of October being as it was 
supposed some two monthes old but we not knowing whether 
it was baptized before or no, baptized it by the name of Eliza- 
beth Aeon after the name of this p'she." 

The church of St. Dunstan West affords several curious 
examples. A child found in 1594 was baptized " Relictus 
Dunstan"; a foundling of 1618 was named "Mary Porch," 
doubtless from the porch where it was discovered ; to 
another foundling, buried on loth January 1629-30, the 
strange but not inappropriate name of " Subpoena " was 
applied; whilst an infant found in Chancery Lane in 1631 
was styled " Elizabeth Middlesex." 

The most marvellous surname bestowed on any City 
foundling was that chronicled in the following entry in the 
registers of St. Helen's, Bishopsgate, under the year 1612 : 

"Job Rakt-out-of the Asshes, being borne the last of August 
in the lane going to S ir John Spencer's back gate, and there laide 
in a heape of old cole asshes, was baptized the First daye of 
September following, and dyed the next day after." 

The first register book of All Hallows-on-the-Wall sup- 
plies the following : 

" 1592. Benett Fincke being a man child of vj weekes old, being a 
foundling, in the p'she of St. Benett Finckes, the xvjth daye of 



CHRISOM CHILDREN, FOUNDLINGS 65 

Septembre, and was brought to be nursed wth the good wyfe 
Hill dwelling within the vyne on the wall : was buryed from 
thence the xviijth of Septembre." 

A quaint conceit gave the names of " Moyses and Aaron" 
to two male infants found in the street on 26th December 
1629, as entered in the register of St. Gregory- by- St. Paul's. 

Burn supplies the following from the Kensington registers 
as to treasure-trove in that parish, but neglects to give the 
year : 

" A woman child, of the age of one year and a half or there- 
abouts, being found in her swadlinge clothes, layed at the 
Ladye Coopers gate, baptized by the name of Mary Troovie, 
loth October." 

The registers of St. Mary Woolnoth's for the year 1699 
give two instances descriptive of the clothing of foundlings : 

" March 28. Joseph, a male child, f old, with a Blew Tamarett coat 
and English calico printed frock, was taken up at Mr. Man- 
wood's door. [In margin] Sent for away by the mother 
April 3. 

" Sept. 28. Michael, a child taken up between Deputy Moor 
and Mr. Mark Gilbert's house, with a striped white coate and 
printed frock, put to Nurse Bramwood at Wirehall in Essex." 

The following are a few of the entries of occasional 
foundlings culled from various provincial registers; they 
will suffice as examples, out of a large number of instances, 
of the style of names usually bestowed upon these deserted 
innocents : 

"1600 (Lee, Kent\ Feb. i. Vicessimo quinto die mensis Januarii 
infantula juxta viam communem relicta et inventa fuit, quae 
(ignotis parentibus) primo die mensis Februarii in baptismo 
nominata fuit Fortune Founde. 

"1669 (Chipping, Lancashire]. Moses a child found within the 
forest of Bolland bap 28 March. 

" 1674 (Great Hampden, Bucks], Mary Lane, a child that was 
5 



66 PARISH REGISTERS 

found in the Lane by the street, whose father and mother we 

know not, was baptized (being about eleven months old) the 

23d of Sept. 
" 1689 (Plympton, Devon}. Charity that was found in the strate of 

Plympton Morrish was baptized the 1 2th of Desember. 
"1713 ( Thornton, Bucks). John reputed son of Catherine Cartwright 

of Ockhamstead (found hanging in a basket on the gates which 

open out of the great yard into the Highway) was baptized ye 

4th of Oct. 
" 1732 ( Walesby, Notts]. Ignotus a male child found in the Parish 

of Palethorpe, bap. March 31." 

The Foundlings of the Temple during the eighteenth 
century were almost proverbially and scandalously numerous. 
The coarser cynics of the times sharpened their wits on the 
long-continued custom of abandoning these luckless infants 
amid the intricacies of the Temple precincts. The following 
is the first entry of a foundling baptism in the Temple 
register : 

" Ellenore Temple, being so named, found in the Middle Temple,- 
was baptized on the 7th June, 1700." 

The last is : 

" Mary Temple, a foundling of the Middle Temple, supposed 
to be now about ten months old, and on the i3th November, 
1845, baptised." 

The first entry of the burial of a foundling is : 

" Ann Temple, an infant, found in the Inner Temple, and buried 
in the Temple Churchyard the 2ist May, 1695." 

The last is : 

" Charles Temple, a Foundling, was buried in the Churchyard on 
the 2nd June, 1830, aged six." 

In no other instance is the age of a Temple foundling 
given, but a comparison of the baptismal and burial registers 
shows that their life was usually very brief, often extend- 



CHRISOM CHILDREN, FOUNDLINGS 67 

ing over only a few days. There is one entry, under 
26th August 1763, of the burial of a murdered foundling: 

" A male child found dead in King's Bench Walk, Inner Temple, 
and according to the verdict of the Coroner's Inquest, murdered 
by a Person or Persons unknown." 

During the eighteenth century there are actually 240 
foundling baptisms, and 170 foundling burials recorded in the 
Temple registers. To almost the whole of these the name 
Temple or Templer was assigned. 

The lack of any form of legislative protection of infant 
life caused the foundling scandals of London to be a 
grievous blot on the social condition of the metropolis. Even 
the establishment of the Foundling Hospital in 1739 did but 
little for a long time to mitigate the prodigal sacrifice of 
child life. It is stated that within four years of the 
establishment of that hospital 14,934 infants were admitted, 
and that out of that total not more than 4000 survived. 

"Among the persons buried," writes Mr. Pegge in his 
valuable transcript of the first register book of Chesham, 
Bucks (1538-1636), "a considerable number of 'nurse 
children ' from London are mentioned. This illustrates 
a curious difference in the family relations of the time 
from those which now prevail. Children received little 
attention at home, and were generally sent away as soon as 
possible to spend their early years elsewhere. Londoners 
who could afford it put them out at nurse with people in the 
country, ostensibly for the sake of the benefit supposed to be 
derivable from country air. But that so many of these 
children should die away from their parents and be buried 
unnamed affords ground for conjecture as to the real 
motives which prompted the sending of them to a place so 
far from London and so out of the way as Chesham was ; 
and it does not require a very imaginative mind to read 



68 PARISH REGISTERS 

an occasional tragedy between the lines of these simple 
entries." 

The burial of a nurse child is first entered in 1575, and from 
that year up to 1635 there are forty-five cases of such burials. 
Of the large majority, it is specified that the child came from 
London. Sometimes no name of any kind is given to the 
child, only the name of the Chesham woman who had the 
infant in charge. Usually the name of the London father 
or mother is given, but only in one single instance (namely, 
Henry, son of George and Mary Linford, of Hornsey, buried 
in 1600) are the names of both parents supplied. Mr. Pegge's 
surmises as to these nurse children are far too charitable ; the 
probabilities are strong that in almost every instance these 
infants were born out of wedlock, and the supposed care of 
them would be now termed " baby-farming." 

The mention of the burial of these nurse children is fairly 
common in the registers of the Home Counties or of other 
shires within reasonable distance of London, and occasionally 
near other large towns such as Bristol and Norwich. With- 
out making any special search, we have incidentally noticed 
them in the registers of twenty-seven separate parishes. 
Several seventeenth century instances occur in the records of 
Aldenham, Herts, Stoke Pogis, Bucks, and Orpington, Kent. 
The following explicit instances of the latter part of 
Elizabeth's reign are taken from the registers of Mitcham, 
Surrey : 

"1589. Paul Toobast a fleminge sonne being a Norschilde from 

Loundoun bur. April 21. 
" 1590. Mary the dau. of John Water a Norsechilde of Loundoun 

being drewes norsery bur. Jun. 12. 
" 1590. Elizabeth Beresley a Nurschild of Londoun her father being 

a Joyner borne in St. Olife's parishe, bur. Nov. 13. 
" 1591. Mary Porter aNorschild of Loundoun being a habbardasher 

daughter, bur. March 19. 
"1591. William son of John Platt of Barmondsy Streete being a 



CHR1SOM CHILDREN, FOUNDLINGS 69 

Norschilde of Loundoun with Mr. Frances tenannt beyound the 
River, bur. Apil 2." 

Lewisham, Kent, with its township of Sydenham (usually 
spelt " Sipenham " or " Syppenham "), seems to have been a 
favourite resort of these baby-farmers on the fringe of 
London. They are first mentioned in these registers in 
1576, and are of frequent occurrence between 1690 and 

1703. 

The name given at Holy Baptism has always been re- 
garded by the Church as indelible, save for one exception. 
The Western Church from an early date reserved to itself 
the power of altering the baptismal name at the time 
of confirmation. Thus Charles IX of France only assumed 
that name at confirmation, having been baptized Maximilian. 
The like transformation was effected in the cases of two of this 
king's brothers, Edward - Alexander and Hercules being 
respectively changed at confirmation to Henry and Francis. 
After the Reformation, it was a disputed point whether the 
civil law of England would recognise a revised confirmation 
name. Serjeant Thomas Gawdy, who lived in Elizabeth's 
reign, had two sons, both of whom had been baptized Thomas. 
To avoid confusion, the younger brother's name was changed 
at confirmation to Francis. Both of them went to the bar, 
and both rose to be judges. The younger brother died in 
1606 as Chief Justice of Common Pleas, but he did not 
venture to use the name of Francis in purchases and grants 
until the advice of all the judges had been taken that it 
could be safely done. 

The registers of Holme Hale, Norfolk, furnish an instance 
of a change of name being duly entered when Queen Mary 
was on the throne : 

" J 554- Deci'o nono die Novembris. Baptizat' films Richi Lorington 
et Cecilie censor' sue et no'iat' Samuell et mutat' nomen ejus 
ad confirmacionem et noiat' Willmus." 



70 PARISH REGISTERS 

A learned canon of the Church of England, who has 
taken a considerable share in a recent church history in 
several volumes, has made the strange blunder of stating 
that English mediaeval bishops must have much neglected 
the rite of confirmation because there is hardly ever any 
reference to this sacrament in the extant episcopal registers ! 
If there is anything substantial in so flimsy an argument, it 
certainly follows that the post-Reformation bishops were 
equally guilty of this grave lapse, for not only are their 
registers equally silent, but it is most exceptional to find any 
reference to confirmation in the parochial registers. Five 
such instances are given. 

At the end of the first register book of Pakenham, 
Suffolk, is the following entry : 

" The names of those Children within ye Parrish of Pakenham, 
which were confirmed in Church of Tostock by the Reverend father 
in God Matthewe Ld: Bishop of Norwich, September 21. Ao dni 
1636." 

The names appended are Samuel Cross and seven other 
boys. 

The registers of Bamburgh, Northumberland, supply a 
list of those confirmed in that church by Lord Crewe on 22nd 
July 1676, namely, u males and 3 females. On that 
occasion the following extraordinary entry was made in the 
registers : 

" Mem : y l ye most Rev'end father in God did honour Tho. 
Davison then presbyter of Bamb' with his attendance and accept- 
ance of a glass of sack, sydar, and March beer in honorem parochise 
dictee." 

A most monstrous mixture of liquors ! 

' 1693 (Tideswell, Derbyshire). The fourth day of July, the Reverend 
Father in God William Floyd, Lord Bishop of Lichfield and 
Coventry, came to Tideswell church about n o'clock, and 



CHRISOM CHILDREN, FOUNDLINGS 71 

preached, and after Sermon did confirm four hundred and 
ninety and five persones." 

A memorandum in the Basingstoke registers records 
that on 26th September 1732 the Bishop of Winchester 
confirmed 319 persons at the parish church. The Tarrant 
Hinton, Dorset, registers for 1809 contain a note of 

"Bishop's Visitation Sep. i. Elizabeth Frances and Leonora 
Diggle confirmed." 

A ridiculous and vulgar instance of the abandonment of 
a long-held baptismal name, on the specious authority of the 
King's sign-manual, is recorded by Mr. Chester Waters : Sir 
Onesiphorus Paul, Bart., changed his name to George in 
1780, when he was pricked as high sheriff of Gloucestershire. 

If the absence of allusions to confirmation is to be taken 
as a proof of the neglect of that ordinance, still more so is 
this the case with regard to the Purification of women after 
childbirth. The register references to Churchings are most 
scarce. Here are two of Elizabethan date from the first 
register book of Kirkburton, Yorks : 



30 Sept. Rychard Wrygth howyth my Mr. for churchying 

of y s wyf. 
" 1567, 26 Oct. Rychard Crosland hath payd for churchying of hys 

wyffe. 
"1585. Hursselle Houssie daughter unto Hurselle Houssie was 

baptysed the vjth daye of Auguste. At the churchying they 

dyd put in this name Hursselle Houssie alias Houghesonne." 

Burn mentions that at one period Churchings were entered 
in the register of Staplehurst, Kent ; he gives the following 
extract, but omits to supply the date : 

" The xii day of May was churched Wyllyam Bassoke's Wyffe 
and Willyam Foller's WyfTe." 

Entries of illegitimate birth are for the most part sadly 
frequent. 



72 PARISH REGISTERS 

The register book of Bramfield, Suffolk, which be- 
gins in 1539, has a summary of the parish baptisms at 
the end of each year up to 1558, in which cases of 
bastardy are specially mentioned. At the end of 15 39 is 
entered : 

"The holle yeare Christened xiiij Children, whereoff Men 
Children xj, whereof Bastards ii, Women Children iij." 

The other instances of bastards were, 1540, three; 1544, 
one; 1548, one; 1549, one; 11550, one; 1555, one; 1556, 
one; and 1557, one. 

As a rule, registers bear witness to a growth in the 
number of illegitimate births as time went on. This is 
shown after a striking fashion by a table based on the 
registers of Letheringham, Suffolk : 

1588 to 1600 . . none 

1601 to 1650 . . i : proportion per births, i in 144 

1651 to 1700 . i i in 74 

1701 to 1750 . 3 i in 33 

1751 to 1800 7 i in 2i 

1801 to 1812 3 ,, ,, i in 10 

Not a few registrars, in making entries of the baptisms of 
illegitimate children, set at naught the order in such cases 
of the Roman Church Omnis tainen inf amice vitetur 
occasio. 

It is certainly more seemly to have such entries made 
in Latin. In the first register book of Mitcham, Surrey, 
where the following Elizabethan baptismal entries are to be 
found, the Latin and the vulgar tongue are promiscuously 
used : 

" 1568. Edwardus films populi sed mater erat Anna Moris bapt 18 

die Janarii. 
" I 575- Johes filius nescio cujus sed mater erat Johanna Wagstaffe 

meretrix bapt. 30 die Januarii. 



CHRISOM CHILDREN, FOUNDLINGS 73 

"1586-7. William White his father unknowen, bapt March i 

Anni d. of Martha Hedge the father unknowen, bapt 

March 18. 
"1588. Isabella filia nescio cujus sed mater erat meretrix, qua et 

reliquet earn cum Jasper Dob, bapt 13 Januari. 
" 1592. Annis Parker, the daughter supposed of Thomas Parker, of 

Mordoun, beinge lefte in the Churche portch by that harlot her 

mother, bur. Dec. 18. 
" J 599- Johannes films populi sed mater erat communis meretrix 

serva Johannes Clay de Hollens bapt. 6 April." 

The following chronologically arranged entries are taken 
from registers in every part of England : 

" 1550 (St. George Tombland, Norwich}. Margareta filia cujusdam 

Elizabeth ex fornicatione nata, decimo octavo die augusti, 

1550, batizat' fuit. 
" 1553 (North Elmham, Norfolk). John Curbye, borne in bast:, ye 

sone of Margaret Curbye, Synglewoman and begote by one 

Thomas Wardy Syngleman, as it is seyd, whom he hath 

p'mysed to marye, and was Chrystened ye xjth day of Maye, 

w'ch was Thursdaye. 
"1560 (Chesham, Bucks). Bridget and Elizabeth the daughters of 

Adultery bapt. Jan y 1560. 
"1560 (Chesterfield]. Rian, the mother's name Ashe, a bastar d 

gotten in London, bapt xiij March. 
"1571 (Idem). Alicia Charles et Margreta Charles, filiae Luca Charles 

de Newbold, bastardes, bapt. fuere xxij July. Stephen Lu 

father as she sayth. 
"1583 (Rochdale), Dec. 15, bur. Jacobus films Jacobi Earn- 

shawe et Alice Hallowes boothe of Yorkeshyre and the sayde 

Alice did lye in the house of ux' of James Collinge in 

Butt'worth the woman hath done her penance. 
"1591 (Aston-ly-Birmingham). A bastard out of Yardington was 

baptized 12 May, a travellinge woman brought a bedd in 

the streete. Hard harted people. 
" 1594 (Barnstaple, Devon). Rycharde, base son of Jerymie 

Payment, baptized 16 Aug. Fond uponne Island of Loundye, 

being aged i J years when baptized. 
"1597 (Mansfield^ Notts\ March 26. Elizabeth, bast, born 

child of Eliz. Stones, whose reputed father is Martin 



74 PARISH REGISTERS 

Bridghouse, was, by the tollerance of the Vicare of Munsfield, 

baptized at Plesley. 
"1602 (Broseley, Salop), July 18. Alicia fil, Izabelle Nocke et 

Johi's Berick putavi patris : bap. 
"1613 (Ibid.), Nov. 14. Thomas Croyden fil. Alicie Croyden et 

Ludovici Poell, ut dicitur : bap. 
"1606 (Wigan). William the sonne of one Gould borne by 

channce, bap. 20 Maye. 
" 1616 (Harrow-on-the-Hill), May the 4th, was baptized Lucretia 

Wilblud of Sudbery sojourner at lies, one William Wilblud 

was with me acknowledging hymselfe to be the father, he sent 

xx s to be given to Alice Bateman the mother. 
"1625 (A del, Yorks), July 3. Grace, a base child, nominated by 

the mother to be the doughter of Expofer Kirke, of the 

Brecke. 
"1633 (Petersham, Surrey). Nicolas, the sonne of Rebecca Cock, 

films populi, bapt. 28 Jan. 
" 1658 (Morden, Surrey). Peter, the unlawfully begotten Son of 

Ann Major, bap. Jan. 6. 
" 1662 (Forcett, Yorks). Anne supposed daughter of Sir Jeremiah 

Smithson, fathered y e said Jeremiah in the church, bap. 

9 April. 
"1717 (Ramsden Bellhouse, Essex). Diana daur of John Billy 

and Diana Waker, proles spuria, bap. Jan. 13. 
"1732 (JVeentone, Salop), April n. Brazener Margaret Barret 

bur. Supposed to be the Bastard child of one Sarah Barret, 

a servant at Boreton in the p. of Much Wenlock, and to be 

born at one Brazeners of Cressidge in the p. of Cond but 

left by night in the Beast-house of John \Vall of this p., 

about sixteen months before its death : the s d Sarah Barret 

having liv'd in service some years before in this p. Tho. Nash, 

Curat. 
" J 743 (St. Pancras, London}. William, Son of Lord Talbot, per 

Dutchess of Beaufort, ut asseritur, born November i, 1743, 
bap. Mar. 24, 1743-4." 

The commonest register term to denote illegitimate 
birth is " base-born " ; but the variants of this unhappy 
nomenclature are exceedingly numerous. A selection is 
appended : 



CHRISOM CHILDREN, FOUNDLINGS 75 



1554 
1560 

1564 
J 5 6 9 
1579 
1580 
1582 
1583 



1603 
1608 
1620 
1652 
1676 
1683 
1685 
1688 



St. Martin's, Birmingham 
Cheshunt, Bucks 
Chelsea 
Croydon 
Wimbledon 
Stepney 
Croydon 
Herne, Kent 
Twickenham 
Eckington, Derby 
Isleworth 
Ulcombe, Kent 
Minster, Kent 
Marden, Surrey 
Wilby, Northants 
All Saints, Newcastle 
Lambeth 
Do. 



Filia populi (a common form) 

The Son of the People 

Filius meretricis 

Filius vulgi 

The Daughter of an Harlott 

Begotten in adultery 

Filius terrae 

Filia fornicatoris 

A scape begotten child 

Ye daughter of noe certain man 

Filia uniuscujusque 

Filius scorti 

Filia adulterina 

Begotten in fornication 

One of y e children of y* people 

Lanebegot 

A merry begot 

A byeblow 



CHAPTER VI 
MARRIAGES 

Terms of entry Marriageable age Hours of marriage For- 
bidden seasons Marriage by banns Forbidding of banns 
Marriage by licence Marriage of the defective Marriage 
in smock Marriage of bishops Commonwealth marriages 
Conviviality Exceptional entries Act of 1753 Clan- 
destine marriages and lawless churches Fleet Street and 
London Dale Abbey Peak Forest 

MARRIAGES are as a rule found to be entered in our 
parish registers with greater care and regularity 
than either baptisms or burials. This doubtless 
arose from the obvious importance to persons of all ranks 
of possessing a faithful record of their union, both for their 
own sake and as a legal proof of their children's legitimacy. 
The terms of the marriage entry were usually very simple, 
recording the fact that the contracting couple were 
" married " on such a date, the word being occasionally 
changed to " wedded," or " coupled together in matrimony." 
Most, however, of the registers of the sixteenth and early 
seventeenth registers are in Latin, and that tongue affords 
i greater variety in the expression of the matrimonial union. 
Nupti erant is the commonest phrase ; among other 1 variants 
may be noted copulati sunt in matrimonio (Croydon), con- 
traxerunt matrimonium (Heston), conjuncti fuere (Debtling), 
mariti fuerunt (Wilton), alligati fuerunt (Great Wigston), and 
connubio juncti erant (Bobbin). 

The age of consent for espousals, in the mediaeval Church, 



MARRIAGES 77 

was seven years, at which the infancy of both sexes was 
supposed to end. The canonical age for the completion 
of the contract or actual marriage has long been laid 
down as twelve in the woman and fourteen in the man. 
Consent given by males and females of these respec- 
tive ages was held to be valid up to the passing of the 
Marriage Act of 21 Geo. II, c. 33. By this Act the legal 
age of consent was fixed at twenty-one for each sex, but 
with the consent of parents or guardians the much earlier 
ages remained valid. 

It is exceedingly rare to find the ages of the contracting 
parties set forth in the old registers. An Elizabethan 
exception occurs in the first register book of Burnley, 
Lancashire, under the year 1582 : 

"Edmunde Tattersall of ye age of xiij yeares and Lettice 
Hargreves of thage of xv yeares mar d 14 May." 

For such a marriage, in the case of the boy, a dispensa- 
tion or licence must have been obtained from the bishop or 
his official. 

Exceptional cases of marriage at an early age can 
sometimes be detected by careful examination of the 
registers, as is the case in the following entry of the boy- 
and-girl union of two important local families, probably 
for estate reasons : 

"1611-12 (Middleton^ Lancashire). Edmund Hopwoode gent and 
Dorothie Assheton were maried uppon Sundaye the seconde 
daye of Februarie in thaffore noone in the tyme of Divine 
service by me John Walkden Curate of Middleton with the 
Consente of bothe their parents accordinge to Lawe and 
theffect of a licence granted from Chester dated the first daye 
of thabove named monithe of Feb. ano 1611." 

Previous entries in the Middleton register show that 
both groom and bride were but fourteen years of age. The 



78 PARISH REGISTERS 

bride lived until 1641, but the groom died within four days 
of the wedding, apparently from some virulent disorder, as 
is shown in the burial register : 

"1611-12. Edmunde Hopwoode, of Hopwoode Esquire, deceased 
the sixte daye of Februarie about Eleven of the Clocke before 
noone And was buried Att Middleton before tenne of the 
Clocke in the nighte of the same daye." 

Various early canons provided, in order to secure due 
publicity, that marriage should only be celebrated at 
seasonable hours. As the nuptial Mass formed part of the 
ceremonial, it could not take place save in the forenoon. 

The register of Soberton, Hants, has several entries 
about the year 1580 of marriages "at iiij y e cloke in ye 
morning," and one of " an oure before day breke by licence 
fro the chancelur." 

Canon Ixxii of 1603 ordered that no minister, under 
pain of suspension for three years, " shall join any person in 
marriage at any unseasonable times, but only between the 
hours of eight and twelve in the forenoon." l 

The Commonwealth Directory of Public Worship merely 
named that the marriage was to be "at some convenient 
houre of the day." In the case of the following marriage, 
darkness was probably chosen because of its illicit character : 

"1659 (Great Staughton, Hunts}. Lucy Cosen, widdow, was married 
to Jn Cosen (brother of her former husband) the i5th day of 
December at St. Neots, by the Mynister of the Towne, and at 
seaven of the clocke in the nighte." 

As early as the fourth century, the Council of Laodicea 
(c. 365) forbade the celebration of marriages during Lent. 
Ere long the seasons of canonical limitation were extended. 
According to the rubrics of the Sarum manual and 
missal, the prohibited seasons in England were from Advent 

1 The new canons of 1888 extended the hours to three in the afternoon. 



MARRIAGES 79 

to the octave of Epiphany, from Septuagesima to the octave 
of Easter, and from the Sunday before the Ascension to 
the octave of Pentecost. The close time was restricted to 
Advent and Lent by the Council of Trent, but for some 
time after the Reformation the Church of England adhered 
to the three periods prohibited by the use of Sarum. An 
entry of the forbidden times was not infrequently made in 
the parish registers. 

In the first register book of Cottenham, Cambs, which 
begins in 1572, is this Latin triplet: 

" Conjugium Adventus prohibet^ Hilarius relaxat^ 
Septuagena vetat, sed paschcR octava remittit, 
Rogamen vetitat, concedit Trina potestas." 

The like occurs in Latin in slightly altered phraseology 
in two or three other places, as at Dymchurch, where it is 
dated 1630. 

The four-lined form in the register of Lamport, Northants, 
under the year 1628, runs thus: 

" Regula quce matrimonium inhibet 
Conjugium adventus vctat Hillariusque relaxat 
Septuagena ligat solvitque octavia Paschce 
Rogamen prohibet. Liber avit Trina Potestas" 

On the last page of the first register book of Dunster, 
Somerset, which begins in 1559, is a somewhat confused 
Latin entry : 

" De temporib' in quid' non licet matrimonia solemnizare. 

" Solemnitas nuptiarum facienda non est Septuagesimo in Octava 
Pasche, et prius die rogatione in mane clauditur ilia Sollemnitas 
et Durat xhibitio ad octaviam diem post Pentecosten inclusionem, et 
prima Die Domminicae Adventus usque ad Epiphaniam non Debent 
nuptua Celibrari. 

"THO. SMITH" 

A mingled Latin and English version of the forbidden 



8o PARISH REGISTERS 

times is set forth in the register book of Horton, Dorset, 
under the year 1629. The Latin begins: 

" Conjugium Adventus to Hit, Hi Harms relaxat." 
The English version is particularly explicit : 

" i. From y e Sounday moneth before Christmas 
till y e 7 day after twelf day. 

2. From y e Sounday fortnight before Shravetyde 

till y e Sounday after Est r weake. 

3. From y e rogation Sounday till 7 dayes after 

whit Sounday, and y e 7 last days are in- 
cluded in y e prohibition." 

In certain instances these forbidden seasons appear in 
English rhymes. At the beginning of the old register book 
of St. Mary's, Beverley, are the following rhymes : 

" Rules for Marriage, the Time 

" When Advent comes do thou refraine 
till Hillary sett y e free againe ; 
next Septuagesima saith the nay ; 
but when Lowe Sunday comes thou may; 
yet at Rogation thou must tarrie 
till Trinitie shall bid the mary. 

"Nov. 25, 1641" 

A somewhat later variant occurs in the register of 
Everton, Notts, where the lines run : 

" Advent marriage doth deny 
But Hilary gives thee liberty. 
Septuagesima says thee nay, 
Eight days from Easter says you may. 
Rogation bids thee to contain 
But Trinity sets thee free again." 

Archdeacon Cosin, in his Visitation Articles of 1627, 
inquired : 

" Whether hath your minister or curate . . . solemnized Matri- 



MARRIAGES 81 

monie ... in any time prohibited (that is to say) in Advent, Lent, 
and in the Rogations without a license first obteyned from the 
Archbishop or his Chancellour." 

In the Durham Prayer Book, Cosin added in manuscript 
to the Table of the Vigils, etc. : 

" By the ecclesiastical laws of this Realm, there be some times 
in the year wherein Marriages are not usually solemnized, viz. 

r Advent 1 Sund (8 days after Epiphany 

from -j Septuagesima i .', [ 8 days after Easter 

I Rogation J I Trinity Sunday." 

This brief table is exactly copied in the register book 
of Wimbish, Essex, under the year 1666. 

The register of the parish church of Lindisfarne contains 
the following prose version entered as late as 1660: 

"Tymes prohibiting marriage. Marriage comes on y e 13 day 
of January, and by Septuagesima Sunday it is out again until Low 
Sunday, at which tyme it comes in again and goes no mor out till 
Rogation Sunday, from whence it is forbidden again untill Trinitie 
Sunday ; from thence it is unforbidden till Advent Sunday, but 
then it goes out and comes not in again untill y e 13 day of January 
next after." 

Almanacks and calendars of the seventeenth and occasion- 
ally of the eighteenth century gave tables of the forbidden 
times for the current year. Thus an almanack called Galen, 
for 1642, has the following: 

" Times prohibiting Marriage this yeer 

From the 27 of November till January 13. 
From Februarie 6 untill April 18. 
From May 16 untill June 5." 

A careful comparison of a large number of marriage 
registers up and down the country enables us to say that 
the ancient discipline of the Church of England with regard 

to the three periods was widely observed throughout the 
6 



82 PARISH REGISTERS 

whole of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Thus the 
registers of Letheringham, Suffolk, which begin in 1580, 
contain only three marriage entries during March (the centre 
of Lent) for the term of 182 years. 

On 8th February 1600 occurs the following remarkable 
marriage entry in the registers of Chislehurst, Kent : 

" George Ralins et Susan Switzer sine solemnitate omni propter 
diem hunc septuagessimae." 

The Twickenham registers for 1665 afford an instance 
of marriage by particular licence during the third period, 
which was as a season unforbidden throughout Western 
Christendom save in England : 

"Christoper Mitchell and Anne Colett married 4 June, by 
permission of Sir Richard Chaworth, it being within the octaves of 
Pentecost." 

The term Banns is a Saxon word signifying a proclama- 
tion. It was laid down in the Church of England as early as 
1 200 that no marriage was to be contracted " without banns 
thrice published in the church " (Hubert Walter's Canons 
at Westminster , No. n). The constitutions of Archbishop 
Reynolds, in 1322, provided that these three public banns 
were to be published " on three Lord's days or festivals 
distant from each other." 

Marriage Banns were from time to time forbidden in 
past days as well as at the present time. The record of 
such an occurrence was occasionally entered in the register 
among the marriages. From several entries of this character, 
the three following, one from each century, have been 
selected : 

"1570 (Bramfield, Suffolk}. M d / the banes of Rychard Wappoll 
and Rose Simson was puplished the vj day of August and so 
was Asked ij Severall Sondays and y e last Sonday beyng y e 



MARRIAGES 83 

xiij day of y e sam month did Thomas Neve forbid it no cause 
y l he could lay against him but he sayd whan I am ordenary 
I shuld know. 

" 1 68 1 -2 (Abington, N*hants\ Feb. 9. Henry Mason of Greens 
Norton and Mary Osborn were married by license. A shabby 
fellow came in and forbid the marriage, but wold neither tell 
his name nor shew any Reason thereof. I required Bond of 
him and securities on a sufficient caution that he would try 
the suite, but he ran away to Mr. Newmans the Aleman. I 
sent the clerk and Mr. Henry Osborne of Northton to the 
Alehouse to demand of him the reason of this act of his and 
to demand bond and securitie of him for trying the cause. 
He refused. Mr. Henry Osborne of Northton, Mason entered 
into bond of 40 1 to keepe mee harmlesse. The bond hangs 
upon the file in my studie. 

" 1732 (fifertsham, Surrey). Married Joseph Benge and Betty Liew, 
Nov. 14. It is to be remembered that the Bans were 
publicly forbid in the Church by Morphew spinster of this 
parish but upon her being then publicly told from the Desk 
how she must proceed according to the Kubrick, she was 
advised it seems by some to take another method to hinder 
this man's marriage and prove herself with child by him 
befor Justice Payton tho' in the end it appeared she was 



A marriage could be legally solemnised without banns, 
by virtue of a licence granted either by the bishop or 
ordinary, or by the special licence of the Archbishop of 
Canterbury. The power of episcopal dispensing with banns 
was of ancient use, and is at least as old as the Constitu- 
tions of Archbishop Mepham in 1328. The subject of 
marriage licences was dealt with in detail in 1603 by 
Canons ci-civ. 

Three examples of register entries making definite 
mention of the licence are here set forth ; they are selected, 
almost at haphazard, from a considerable number : 

"1570 (Bobbingworth, Essex). M d that Robert Younger principall 
of David's Inne in Holburne without London and Elizabeth 



84 PARISH REGISTERS 

Brooke daughter of Robert Brooke were maryed together in 
Bobingworth Church the i3th day of Aprill accordinge his 
Lycense graunted therein. 

"1618 (St. Margaret's, Canterbury), Junii 9. Thomas Grenefeild 
And Margery Stace Wyddow were publiklye maryed in the 
p'she Church of St. Margaret in the Cittye of Cant: the 
nynth daye of June by virtue of a lycence under the scale of 
office of the Right Wor : James Hussey doctor of the law and 
Commissarye gen'all for the dyocese of Cant. 

"1631 (Bekesbourne, Kent). Richard Epps and Ann Pye were 
married the 23th of June an predict, by Mr. Arch-Deacon's 
license." 

Registers occasionally bear witness to unusual marriages 
wherein one of the contracting parties is defective or 
deformed. A marriage at St. Martin's, Leicester, in 1576, 
wherein the man was deaf and dumb gave rise to a long 
entry : 

"Feb. 15. Thomas Tilsye and Ursula Russel were maryed; 
and because the sayde Thomas was and is naturally deafe, and 
also dumbe, so that the order of the form of marriage used 
usually amongst others, which can heare and speake, could not 
for his parte be observed. After the approbation had from 
Thomas, the Bishoppe of Lincolne, John Chippendale, doctor 
in law, and commissarye, as also of Mr. Richd. Davye, then 
Mayor of the town of Leicester, with others of his brethren, 
with the rest of the parishe, the said Thomas, for the 
expressing of his mind instead of words, of his own accord used 
these signs : first, he embraced her with his arms, and took her 
by the hand, putt a ring upon her finger, and layde his hande 
upon his hearte, and then upon her hearte, and held up his 
handes toward heaven. And to show his continuance to 
dwell with her to his lyves ende, he did it by closing of his 
eyes with his handes, and digginge out of the earth with his 
foote, and pullinge as though he would ring a bell, with diverse 
other signes." 

An equally long entry of the year 1618 occurs in the 
registers of St. Botolph's, Aldgate, when Thomas Speller, a 



MARRIAGES 85 

deaf and dumb smith of Hatfield Broadoak, Essex, was 
married to Sarah Earle by licence granted by Dr. Edwarde, 
Chancellor of the diocese of London. The bridegroom 
appeared 

" taking the Book of Common Prayer and his license in one hand 
and his bride in the other . . . and made the best signs he could 
to show that he was willing to be married." 

The minister appears to have been nervous about the 
marriage, and required to be assured by the Lord 
Chief Justice of the King's Bench as to its lawfulness. He 
does not seem to have known of any precedent, and the 
entry concludes : 

" This marriage is set down at large because we never had the like 
before." 

At a much later date, namely on 5th November 1832, 
there is a record at St. James's, Bury St. Edmunds, of 
the overcoming of a yet more serious impediment to the 
accustomed ceremonial of marriage : 

"Christopher Newsam married Charity Morrell. Charity 
Morrell being entirely without arms, the ring was placed upon the 
fourth toe of the left foot, and she wrote her name in this register 
with her right foot." 

There must have been some special infirmity to cause 
the following entry in the registers of Sunbury, Middlesex, 
under 7th February 1663 : 

" Samuel Turner and Margaret Shase, widow, was married sitting 
in a cheare, in her house." 

There was an old vulgar error, which lasted for several 
centuries, to the effect that a man was not liable for his 
bride's debts provided that he married her in no other 
apparel than her smock or shift. The strangest thing about 



86 PARISH REGISTERS 

this odious custom is that any priest or minister could be 
found to administer the sacred rite with the woman in such 
a guise. 

"1547 (Much WenlocK), Aug. 4. Here was wedded early in 
the morning Thomas Munslow, smith, and Alice Nycols, which 
wedded to him in her smock and bareheaded. 

"1714 (Chitterne All Saints\ Wilts]. John Bridmore and Anne 
Selwood were married, Oct. 17. The aforesaid Anne Selwood 
was married in her smock, without any clothes or headgier on. 

"1774 (Saddleworth, Yorks). Abraham Brookes, Clother, and Mary 
Bradley, of Ashton parish, Widow. By Banns 3 Feby, by 
Samuel Stones, Curate." 

With reference to this last marriage, a passage occurs in 
Prescott's Journal, under date February 1 2th, 1 774 : 

" On Tuesday sen'night was married at the Parochial Chapel of 
Saddleworth, Abraham Brooks, a Widower, of about 30 years of 
age, to Mary Bradley, a Widow of near 70, but as the Bride was 
a little in Debt the Bridegroom obliged her to be married in her 
shift, and the weather being very severe threw her into such a violent 
fit of shaking as induced the compassionate minister to cover her 
with his coat whilst the marriage was solemnised." 

The marriage of priests, after so many centuries of 
celibacy, as recorded in several registers of the time of 
Edward VI, must have caused considerable astonishment 
and resentment among the adherents of the unreformed 
faith. There must have been still greater surprise for them 
in the marriage of bishops. Here are two of the earliest of 
those episcopal entries, the one in Latin and the other in 
English : 

" 1551 (Croydon\ Oct. 23. Reverendus Pater Johannes Episcopus 
Wynton duxit Mariam Haymond generosam in ista ecclesia 
coram multitudine parochianorum presente Reverendissemo 
patre Thoma Cantuar. Archiepo cum multis. 

" 1560-1 (St Dennis, Backchurch\ Jan 21. Edmond Scamlare, 
byshoppe of peterborowe and Julyan Franncys were married." 



MARRIAGES 87 

The former of these marriages cost the bishop his all, for 
Dr. Poynet was on that account deposed from the bishopric 
of Winchester on the accession of Queen Mary ; he died in 
exile at Strasburg in 1556. 

As examples of the form of record generally adopted for 
marriages under the 1653 Act, these two consecutive entries 
of 1654-5 from the register book of Marshfield, Gloucester- 
shire, will suffice ; in the one case the banns were published 
in the market-place, and in the other in the church. 

" The twelth day of Februarie in the yeare abovesaid Stephen 
Browne and Jeane Simmons both of Westerliegh in the County of 
Glouc. being Three severall markett daies published in the Markett 
place between the hours of Eleavn of the clocke and Two of the 
clocke according to the Act and noe objection made to the contrary 
were married before John Gostlett Esq r , Justice of the peace. 

" The six and twentieth day of Februarie in the yeare abovesaide 
Robert Fry and Ellinor Barton both of the p'ish of Dynham being 
three severall Lords Daies published in the p'she Church of 
Dynham aforesaid and noe contradicion to the contrary were 
married at Marshfield in the County of Glouc. before John Gostlett 
Esq r Justice of the peace." 

The entries of this period rarely omit the name of the 
Justice of the Peace before whom the civil contract was 
made; but this was now and again done for the sake of 
brevity : 

"1657 (Leek, Staffs). Ralph Lees of Consaland a daughter of Hugh 
and Margaret Fynny were published three times at our 
Market Cross, and married April 22." 

The full entry in the register of St. Martin's-in-the-Fields, 
of the civil marriage of Frances, the Protector's daughter, on 
November 11, 1657, is worth citing. It will be noted that 
both " Martin " and " Andrew " are childishly bereft of the 
saintly prefix which they had borne uninterruptedly for so 
many centuries. 

Still greater brevity characterised a few of the Common- 



88 



PARISH REGISTERS 



wealth marriage entries, as was the. case at Staines, 
Middlesex. 



^^; 

- 



-^ 




FACSIMILE OF COMMONWEALTH MARRIAGE ENTRIES : 
STAINES, MIDDLESEX. 



MARRIAGES 89 

" These are to certifie whom it may concerne, that according to a 
late Act of Parliament, entytuled an Act touching Marriages, and 
the registering thereof, etc., publication was made in the publique 
meeting place, in the Parish Church of the Parish of Martins in the 
Fields in the county of Middlesex, upon three several Lord's Days, 
at the close of the morning exercise, namely, upon the xxv. day of 
October MDCLVIL, as also upon the i. and viii. of November follow- 
ing, of a marriage agreed upon between the Honorable Robert Rich 
Andrew's Holborn, and the Right Honorable the Lady Frances of 
Cromwell, of Martins in the Fields, in the county of Middlesex. 
All which was fully performed according to the Act without 
exception. 

" In witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand the ix. day of 
November, MDCLVII. 

" WILLIAM WILLIAMS " 

Then follows, in the hand of Henry Scobell, the clerk of 
the Parliaments, and a Justice for Westminster : 

" Married, xi. Novemb., MDCLVII, in the presence of His High- 
ness the Lord Protector, the Right Honble. the Earls of Warwick and 
Newport, Robert Lord Rich, the Lord Strickland, and many 
others." 

An amusing account of the merriment that followed on 
this marriage has recently been printed in a contemporary 
letter from the historian Dugdale by the Historical Manu- 
script Commissioners : 

"1657, Nov. 14. On Wednesday last was my Lord Protector's 
daughter married to the Earl of Warwick's grandson ; Mr. Scobell, 
as a Justice of the peace, tyed the knot after a godly prayer made 
by one of His Highnesses divines ; and on the Thursday was the 
wedding feast kept at Whitehall, where they had 48 violins and 50 
trumpets, and much mirth with frolics, besides mixt dancing (a 
thing heretofore accounted profane) till 5 of the clock yesterday 
morning. Amongst the dancers there was the Earl of Newport, 
who danced with her Highness." 

Conviviality has been the usual accompaniment of 
weddings from scriptural days downwards, but it is very 



9 o PARISH REGISTERS 

rare to find any entry of such mundane, matters in parish 
registers. Here, however, is a dog Latin entry as to village 
festivities on such an occasion, in a Norfolk parish, at a much 
earlier date than the Commonwealth: 

"1606 (Beeston, near Mileham). Willmus Balye et Suzanna Byrch 
nupti fuerunt ultimo die Julii. Celeberimus autem istorum 
nuptialis dies habitus est apud domum cujusdem Hilarii Balye 
(tarn ipsius Willm? tarn ipsius Margarete amicissimi avunculi) 
die Jovis anno et tempore superdictis maxime tarn cognatorum 
tam amicoroum, cum concorsisque oppidinorum multitudine 
multisque aliis ad idem conviviam tune temporis (ipsiusque 
Hillarii solummodo expensis) congregatis ad numeram ut visum 
est 300 aut circiter populorum, sive ut dictum est sexaginta 



The following are a few of the somewhat noteworthy 
marriage entries, selected from a large number of excerpts ; 
they do not call for any explanatory comment : 

" 1540 (Sandbeach, Cambs\ 27 Nov. John Clarke and Mary Pearson 

were coupled together in matrimony. 
" i56o(SA Bridgefs, Chester). Will" 1 Washington wedded 5 Feb. [no 

bride mentioned *]. 
"1588 (St. Botolptts, Aldgate). Michael Didyer, a stranger, born at 

Marseilles in Province, a pilot under M r Candish in his 

voyage to the South Endyes, and Jaynete Desheaz, a maiden 

born in Jersey, married 2 November. 
" T 599 (Brewood, Staffs), June 4. William Hoyte and Joane Alporte 

of Tettehall Parishe, married at Breewood at the request of Sir 

Thomas Corbit, being a sicke and dying the same day. 
" 1624-5 (Bermondsey, Surrey). James Herriott Esq r and Elizabeth 

Josey, Gent, were married Jan 4. N.B. This James Herriott 

was one of the 40 children of his father a Scotchman. 
"1657 (Ckapel-fn-k-Fritk, Derbyshire}. There came from Tideswell 

and Litton seventeen marriages all married by Randle 

Ashenhurst Esquier justice of the peace. 

1 Burn states that in the parish register of " Hokington" (PHockerton, Notts) 
there is no mention of the wife's name in marriage entries for a period of over 
forty years. 



MARRIAGES 91 

(Aldenham, Herts). A Contracte of matrymony betwene John 
Towers and Elizabeth Edwardes both of this Parish, Published 
on March the 27 and Aprill the 3 and 10; But broke of and 
never maryed. 

" 1659 (Hackness, Yorks). Robert Coulson of Hagg house within the 
parish of Wykham and Marie Cockerell daughter of Henrie 
Cockerell of Sharpegate were married by M r Francis Proude 
min r of Hackness in the Church and in the middest of the 
marriage Mary dreeped down by reason of a swame and after 
she was had to the Queer Doore into the Ayre shee recovered 
verie well againe and there they were married in the presence 
of the Congregacon the xxv th day of October. 

" JOHN RICHARDSON 
" Parish Register 

" 1688 (Hexham, Northumberland), 27 Feb. Thomas Locke, a 
pretended doctor, married to Jane Inglesby; y l he after 
marryed one M rs Elizabeth Clarke of Markett Welton in y e 
East Rideing, York, for which he was prosecuted, but pleaded 
his majestie's pardon. 

"1712 (Ashbornc, Derbyshire), May 1 1. James Dawson and Susannah 
Osbaston both of Derby. This was a fraudulent and wicked 
marriage. Dawson came to Ashbourn fair May io th and 
applied himselfe to old M r Hardister the Surrogate for License, 
who having examined him upon oath (as the Canon requires) 
the perjured wretch swore y* there was no pre contract or other 
legall impediment against his marriage, so he obtained a licence 
and was married next morning being Sunday May i i th . But 
before noon I discovered that his first wife was living at 
Southampton. 

"1750 (Lee, Kent), May 24. Samuel Woodward and Chasable 
Torkinton (the woman's Christian name was so spelt in the 
license by mistake for Chastity ; which she said was the true 
name), both of St. Nicholas, Deptford. 

"1752 (May fair Chapel, London), Feb. 14. James, Duke of 
Hamilton, and Eliza Gunning married." 

Horace Walpole gives a lively account of the circum- 
stances of this marriage : 

" The Duke carried off Miss Gunning from a ball, and not- 
withstanding the lateness of the hour sent for the rector of St. 



92 PARISH REGISTERS 

George's, Hanover Square, to marry them. Dr. Trebeck, however, 
refused to perform the ceremony without licence and ring. The 
Duke swore he would send for the Archbishop ; at last they were 
married with a ring of a bed-curtain at half an hour past 12 at 
night at Mayfair Chapel." 

"1766 (Melverley, Salop\ Dec. 17. Matthew Dodd and Elinor 
Foster married. 

"This morning I have put a Tye 

No man could put it faster 
'Tween Matthew Dodd, the man of God, 
And modest Nelly Foster. 

"JOHN LEWIS Clk." 

The registers of Great Houghton, Northants, contain 
the following indignant protest against the penalty imposed 
on defaulters under the Marriage Act of 1753 : 

"The marriages are entered in a Book provided for that 
purpose according to Act of Parliament which prohibits the clergy 
solemnizing marriage contrary to rules therein prescribed, under 
y e penalty of transportation for 14 years; a punishment little 
inferior to y e gallows and inflicted generally on y e most profligate 
and abandoned part of mankind." 

" Clandestine Marriages and Lawless Churches ." In the 
second edition of Burn's History of Parish Registers, 
published in 1862, there is a long chapter (pp. 130-169) 
under the above title. The same author brought out a 
History of the Fleet Marriages, which passed into a second 
edition in 1834. Those who desire to study the subject of 
the clandestine marriages of the latter part of the seven- 
teenth century and the first half of the eighteenth century, 
which attained to scandalous proportions up to the time of 
their suppression by Lord Hardwicke's Act of 1754, must 
consult the records and information gathered together with 
much care by Mr. Burn. Up to that date a marriage by 
a priest of the Church of England, without either banns or 
licence, was valid and indissoluble, although the contracting 



MARRIAGES 93 

parties were liable to ecclesiastical censure, and the minister 
to heavy legal penalties. But such penalties were practically 
inoperative where the celebrant of the marriage had neither 
liberty to lose nor benefice to forfeit. Hence it came about 
that, under the then careless management of prisons, binding 
marriages were therein performed by disreputable priests, 
more especially at the Fleet. Strange to say the Fleet 
registers abound with aristocratic names, but they have 
never been accepted as legal evidence. The earliest Fleet 
register begins in 1674. At one time these marriages were 
actually performed in the Fleet chapel ; but as these Fleet 
parsons were generally prisoners enjoying the " Rules of 
the Fleet," it became usual for these disreputable men to 
enter into an evil alliance with the lowest class of tavern- 
keepers of the district, who fitted up a room as a quasi 
chapel ; they shared not only in the fees but in the sale of 
the liquors which the wedding parties drank. These dis- 
reputable priests kept rough memoranda of these marriages 
with occasional notes as to disgraceful scenes, and these 
entries from their pocket-books seem to have been generally 
copied into the larger Fleet registers. On the day previous 
to Lord Hardwicke's Act coming into operation, 25th March, 
1754, there were no fewer than 217 of these Fleet marriages 
performed ! 

In addition to these Fleet marriages, there were other 
equally clandestine and scandalous weddings (save in their 
surroundings) celebrated in what were termed the lawless 
churches or chapels. These churches or chapels had real 
or pretended exemptions from the visitation of the Ordinary, 
and claimed or exercised the right of marrying at once 
without either licence or banns. One of the most notorious 
of these was the church of St. James, Duke's Place. The 
rector, Adam Elliott, was suspended for three years in 
1606 for marrying without licence or banns ; but the scandal 



94 PARISH REGISTERS 

was soon resumed. The Mint, Southwark, Lincoln's Inn 
Chapel, and the prison chapel of Newgate were among 
other notorious places for illicit marriages which continued 
to defy the laws ecclesiastical until 1754. 

The Fleet Marriage Act, by its comprehensive wording, 
also brought about the cessation of clandestine marriages 
in several places in the provinces. Two of these, which 
were much resorted to in the Midlands, were both in 
Derbyshire, namely Dale Abbey Chapel and the Chapel 
of Peak Forest. 

The marriage registers of Dale Abbey begin in 1684. 
The yearly average of marriages in this small extra parochial 
district is three ; but in 1605 these weddings numbered thirty- 
eight, in 1606 there were forty-six, and in 1690 thirty-six. 
A literal transcript of the first register book, which extends 
to 1731, but is much mutilated, was printed in vol. xxii. 
(1900) of the Journal of the Derbyshire Archaeological Society. 
These marriages appear to have been wholly illegal, for 
Burn states: 

"The marriages in the parish of Dale Abbey were, until a few 
years previous to the Marriage Act of 1754, solemnized by the 
clerk of the parish, at one shilling each, there being no minister." 

The chapel of the extra parochial district of Peak Forest 
was begun to be erected in 1657, but not completed until 
1668. It claimed to be extra-episcopal, and was a peculiar 
to itself. The minister's title was " Principal Official and 
Judge in Spiritualities in the Peculiar Court of Peak Forest." 
He had the right of granting marriage licenses, and held a 
seal of office, dated 1665, which is still extant. In conse- 
quence of this undoubted and exceptional privilege, the chapel 
in this wild moorland district gradually became the resort 
of runaway couples and of those seeking clandestine marriage 
from various parts of the kingdom. There are numerous 



MARRIAGES 95 

proofs of this in the earlier registers, which begin in 1665 
but are in a fragmentary condition. So much did this 
practice increase that in 1728 a new register book was 
purchased, and endorsed " Foreign Marriages." It simply 
contains the names of the contracting parties, without any 
other particulars. It concludes with the year 1754, when 
Lord Hardwicke's Act put an end to this use of the chapel. 
The minister stated at that time that he lost thereby 100 
per annum. These foreign marriages averaged about sixty 
a year. 



CHAPTER VII 
BURIALS 

Burial entries not perfect Singular burial entries Characters 
of the deceased Centenarians Burials of excommunicants 
The Recusants Excommunicate Non-conformists Post- 
Reformation excommunication Burials of suicides Other 
burials by night Burials of criminals Burial without 
coffins Burials in woollen Mortuaries Arrest of corpse for 
debt Burial offered to passing corpse 

BURN'S statement that the parish register of burials, 
as to correctness and fulness, came next to those 
of marriage is undoubtedly correct. Nevertheless, to 
take the burial entries, as some parochial historians do, as an 
absolute guide to local population or as complete evidence 
of mortality at any given period is by no means a sound 
conclusion. The Abstract of the Population Returns, based 
on the census of 1801, mentions that they are deficient from 
the following causes : 

1. Many congregations of dissenters in towns had their 
own burial grounds, as had also the Roman Catholics and 
Jews in London. 

2. Some persons, from motives of convenience or 
economy, interred their dead without any ceremony. 

3. Children who died before baptism were not registered 
or had no ceremony. 

4. Negligence in small benefices, where the minister is 
not resident. 



BURIALS 97 

5. Many in army and navy (or merchant service) die 
abroad. 

To these causes it ought to have been added that from 
very early times, and certainly through the whole of the 



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7 



98 PARISH REGISTERS 

registration period, the Church forbade the ceremonial inter- 
ment of all excommunicated or unbaptized persons, as well 
as suicides unless bereft of reason, and that the insertion of 
such burials in the registers was only fitful and irregular. 

There are a great number of more or less noteworthy 
burial entries that do not admit of any particular classifica- 
tion ; a small selection of these is here set forth in chrono- 
logical order. 

"1551 (Rotherham), Dec. 24 th vij litle wenches at Cutloffs 
buried. 

" 1578 (St. Michael le Belfry, York). M d y l one Richarde Kendall, a 
p'soner in1:he Bushoppes pryson, wch came frome Doncaster, 
buryed the thirde day of Aprill, without any solemnytye, 
saving that the curate and clarke and others p'sones weare 
by and p'nte at his buryall. 

"1580 (Orpington, Kent). A Poor Childe wiche died in an oxe stall 
at my Lady Hart's house, buried 9 March. 

" 1588 (Durnford, Wilts), 20 Augt. Ludovicus Ria, vicarius de Durn- 
ford Magna, obiit mortem transeuntem per viam Ambrosiam 
inter villam et domum suam Durnfordiae. [He was not buried 
until i yth Sept.] 

" 1589 (Mitcham, Surrey). William a little boy in a blew jerkine and a 
blew paier of gaskins, being the livery of Bridewell, buried out 
of William Swillinghurst his barne, he was supposed to be a 
Cheshire boy as he reported, bur. Oct. 19. 

"1591 (Thorington, Suffolk). It. one Derrowe a ladde of the age of 
viij th yeares whoe as he saide came from Bunggaye and was 
there borne, he dyed at our bricke kell and was buried the 
viij th of December. 

" T 593 (& Martin in the Fields). Tho. Finglas buried Aug st 4, and ij 
yeares after his bodie was taken upp and caried in a Truncke 
into Irelande. 

" i$W (Great Burstead, Essex). Elizabeth Wattes, widdow, sometyme 
the wyffe of Thomas Wattes, the blessed marter of God, who, 
for his treuth suffered his marterdom in the fyer at' Chelmes- 
ford, the xxlj day of May, in the an dni 1555, in the reigne<" r 
Queene Mary, was buryed the 10 day, 1599, so she lived a 
widdow after his death xliiij yeres, and fro' the 22 of May to 



BURIALS 99 

the io th of July, and made a good end, like a good Christian 
woman, in God's name pased. 

" 1599 (Methley, Yorks). Robert Nelsonne was buried the xxviij th 
November, the said Roberte did breake his faste the same day 
and was in good healthe, and came to y e churche to y e buryinge 
of the foresaid Marioye Hagger, and did helpe to ringe a peale 
at y e bells, and withn one halfe howre after died in the p'sence 
of all the people in y e churche, and was buried within fowre 
howres afterwarde. 

"1615 (St. Martiris, Ludgate). Feb. 20 was buried an anatomy from 
the College of Physicians. 

"1617 (Stanton Lacy, Salop). Mem d that there was a blacke cloath 
upon the hearse of Richard Joanes buried this yeare, which 
of right appertaines to the vicar, but I bestowed it upon the 
poore clerke. 

" 1626 (Wickham, Durham]. This present year one Annas Gaskell, 
wife to Anthony Gaskell, bore at one birth fower p'fect children, 
whereof one had life and stirred after it was borne, the rest all 
three still borne, and were all buried in one grave 25 th of 
March. 

" 1627 (Great St. Mary's, Cambridge], March 13. A boy that was 
anatomized in the Schools. 

" 1643 (Carlton, Suffolk}. Jane, the wife of M r John Saunders, Parson 
of Carleton, dyed the thirteenth day of June, about six of the 
clock in the afternoon, being tuesday, and was buried in the 
upper end of the Chancell within a foot length of the wall upon 
the north syde of the sayd Chancell, the fifteenth day of the 
said month of June. M r Gabriel Elend, vicar of Pratfield, 
preached at her buriall, his text was taken out of the Epistle to 
the Hebrewes, ix, 27. This woman was (by her owne account) 
above the age of fourscore yeares, beinge borne in the North, 
in a Towne called Keswicke in the Countie of Cumberland. 
Before shee was married, her Name was Jane Williamson. 

" 1644 (TamwortH), 24th March. Cast into the ground the body of 
Ellen wife of Rich d Ensor, a popeling. 

" 1646 (Tamworth), June 29. buried the body of Richard Harding, 
he was once one of the company but was put out bee: he was 
an ale seller. 

"1699 (Esh, Durham), 27 Jan. David Gordon a poor soldier beging 
his bread fell sick of a feaver and died in a Bakehouse att 
Usshaw. 



ioo PARISH REGISTERS 

"1710 {Ashbourne, Derbyshire), 7 April. Buried old George Wood 
aged about eighty years, a person of good health and activity 
for his years and one that frequented the Prayers and Sacra- 
ments at Church continually. On Wednesday the 5 th of this 
month having eaten his dinner well he came down to Evening 
prayers, and entered the Church with a lively fresh colour in 
his face, and went into the seat y l is just opposite to y e Read- 
ing Desk, laid down his staffe and gloves on y e bench, and 
stood up leaning his arms on the side of the seat, when the 
sentences of Scripture and the Exhortation were read, but 
just as that was ended, and before y e Confession began, he 
fell down on the floor of the seat, and in two minutes time was 
taken up dead and carried home on a pillow upon the Bier. 
Matt. 24 th 42-46. 

"1720 (St. Michael le Belfry, York). Bur. John Brookes, the first 
Hackney coachman, February 26 th . 

"1773 (Breadsallj Derbyshire). M r Joseph Jackson (a Miser under 
a Heap of Riches) buried May 1 8 th . 

" 1814 (Long Buckby, Northants). Edith Freeman, who from an 
obstinate temper kept to her bed 44 years, relict of the Rev d 
George Freeman LL.D., buried 21 January, aged 74." 

Now and again those in charge of the registers did not 
hesitate to express their opinion in writing as to the character 
of the deceased, whether good, bad or unusual. Here are 
some instances : 

" 1580 (St. Oswald V, Durham). Mayster John Watson of thage Ixxx 
years, for wysdome, gravyte, honeste, sobryete, and other 
godly vertews, worthe to be pr'sed, was buryed the xxix day 
of June, beinge the feast day of pet r thapostle. 

"1597 (Aston-by-Birmingham). Edward Vincent buried 3 June a 
great sinner and blasphemer he died desperately qualis vita 
tails ita. 

" 1 60 1 (St. Peter's, Cornhill), Sept. 22. Buryed David Powell Cloth- 
worker but free of y e Merchant Tailors : 54 years old, lies just 
in the mid ile. 

"This Powell was a plaine man and led an honest life, 
Hee loved peace and amitie, and shun'd debate and strife." 

" 1607 (Aston-by- Birmingham). Jeiss wife of Nicholas Eagles of 



BURIALS TOI 

Erdington buried 25 Dec, a good church woman and good 
to the poor." 

Following the entry of the burial of John Collen on 6th 
of July, 1613, the rector of Beeston next Mileham, Norfolk, 
writes : 

" Ipse autem per multos annos habuit in oppido an alehouse ad 
magnum hujus oppidi nocumentum. 

"i6i4(.S/. Oswald's, Durham], Nov. 8. John Richardson, public 
notari, a verie honest nighbore and a good wilier both for the 
good of this Churche and for the good of this parish, whose 
soule the lord Jesus receive in to his Kingdome. Amen. 

"1619 (Kensington), April 23. M r Robert Fen the elder, Esquier, an 
ancient howshold servant unto Queene Elizabeth and unto our 
most gracious Kinge James, a faythful p'fessor of true relegion 
and a most charitable freind to the poore, of age 77, upon 
fryday night at 10 of the clock. 

" 1624 (Burstall, Suffolk), Aprill 5. Jane Salter widdow buried when 
she had lived in the favor of God and all good people Ixxi 
yeares. 

"1670 (St. Nicholas, Ipswich). M rs Abigail Maninge widi whoe had 
tooe housbonds both Ministers her first housbond was that 
Reverend and holy man of God M r Nathonile Smart whoe 
was Minister of this p'ish of St Nicolas fiveten yeares and 
dyed here in his Ministery whose precious ashes lyes Interred 
close to the Entrance into the vestery in the Chancel in whose 
grave rests the boddy of this holy Matrion waiting til her 
Redeemer comes whoe was buryed October 1 7 th . 

"1671 (Condover, Salop), Mar. 20. M r William Owen, the third son 
of S r William Owen, Knight, Prebendary of Worcester and 
Minister of Pontesbury bur. He was a Reverend and learned 
Divine, a Loyeall subject, an excellent friend, a tender husband, 
and most endearing and indulgent Parent, in a word hee was 
a Person of y l great modestie, humilitie, charitee, and hospital- 
itie which made him the best neighbor in the world. Hee 
was a publick loss and publickly lamented, for I never saw 
truer mourning and soe generall in all my life. Help Lord for 
good men decay ! 

"1707 (Ashbourne, Derbyshire), 16 August. M r Charles Chancey, 
Physician and Apothecary, and one of the Church Wardens of 



102 PARISH REGISTERS 

this parish. A man of good knowledge learning and experience 
in Physick, Pharmacy, and Chyrurgery ; of a lepid and satyri- 
call kind of conversation, but of great 'Integrity and good 
nature, and so helpfull and usefill to all sorts, that his loss was 
universally deplored, and his Corps was mett some miles from 
the Town, for he died at Darby in his return from visiting a 
Patient in Leicester, the Gout (with which he was much 
troubled) striking up to his stomach, and that occasioned (as 
was supposed) by eating cowcumbers and ffruit. He was 
sorrowfully (yet voluntarily and without invitation) attended 
to his grave by multitudes of the whole neighbourhood. 
" 1708 (Ibid>\ 8 April. Nathaniel, son of Nathaniel Boothouse and 
Hannah his wife, vicar of this parish, who was born at Careing- 
ton (where his father was then rector) June 22, 1704, and died 
here at Ashburne on Easter Tuesday the 6 th of this instant 
month. A child he was of exceeding sweetness and prettiness 
both in person and temper, and of wonderfull quickness of 
apprehension and parts, far beyond his years. His death drew 
tears from many more eyes than those of his own Parents. 
He lies buried in the east end of the churchyard, his father 
esteeming Churches and Chancels to be too good to lay dead 
bodies in. 

" The Lord gave and the Lord hath taken away, blessed be 
the name of the Lord. 

"He was a flow'r of Sweetness, might have grown 
In age and kindred to perfection, 
But God's resistless Hand, by Death's surprise, 
Transferred him to th' Heavenly Paradise. 

" Verba haec (Lectores) maesto indulgete Parenti. 

" J 773 (Clovelly, Devon), Aug. 6. Catherine Rowe, a pattern of 

Industry and a good Neighbour. 

" Aug. 7. Christian Meek, truly deserving of that name. 
" Oct. 26. Emlyn, Wife of Richard Crews, eminent for a meek 

and peaceable disposition." 

This is not the place in which to discuss the once much 
disputed point concerning Centenarians, as to which the late 
Mr. Thorns was so persistently sceptical. Suffice it to say 
that during the last fifty years there have been several score 



BURIALS 103 

of deaths registered in England of those who have without 
any doubt exceeded the age of 100 years. In fact there is 
no lack of documentary evidence as to recent cases of decided 
super-centenarians. For instance, until a few years ago there 
still lived at Auberive-en-Royen (Isere) a certain Mme. 
Durand, known under the name of " Mere Girard," aged 
135 years. Her birth certificate, registered in the parish of 
Saint-Just-de-Clast, bears the date of September 22, 1740. 
In 1 864 she solemnly celebrated the hundredth anniversary 
of her marriage. 

Two cases of extraordinary longevity have already been 
cited from the remarkable register of Much Wenlock, under 
the years 1541-2 and 1545. In the same register, under 
1546, mention is made of Thomas Smith, subprior of the 
monastery, 1 1 5 years of age at his death. 

The following are a variety of centenarian register entries, 
selected from about double the number, which we have 
culled from old parochial registers : 

"1586 (Swainswick, Somerset). Elianor Cox, wydow, being an 

hundred yeres old, was buried the 8 th daie of Julie. 
" 1588 (Minehead, Somerset]. John Williams was 100 years old. 
"1591 (Aston by Birmingham). Ould Weddowe Seye was buried 

30 March a woman of a hundreth years olde and more. 
" 1596-7 (St. Peter's, Cornhill), 14 March. Margery Mane widow, old, 

yet devout in often hearing y e word : in y e cros ile, (years) 100. 
"1603 (Stoke Newington). Margaret Forster, widow, of the age 

of 103 years or thereabouts, was buried the 2i st of Sept. 
" 1607 (Great Mar low, Bucks}. The Eight day of Marche was 

Buried Emline Clarke widowe 100 yere olde. 
" 1611 (Cathedral Church of Peterborough), January. Bartholomew 

Barnaby, an oulde Faulkener, buryed the 5 day, above an 

hundred yeares old. 
"1627 (Dorking, Surrey], Nov. 14. John Colcott aged 108 years 

was buried. 
" 1630 (Swainswick, Somerset). John Poule the eldest, beinge about 

an hundred years of age, was buried the 2i st of Julie. 



104 PARISH REGISTERS 

"1641 (Albrighton, Salop), Nov. i. Margarett Brooke, 115 yeares 
old and odder wife of Roger of the Harrits Haies of this 
p. : bur. 

" 1650 (Heyford, N'hants). Thomas Ward senex centum annos 
errabundus, melancholitus, et inventus mortuus (on the up- 
permost Furlong beyond Depcambe) resepult : first Decemb 
12. 

"1657 (Stranton, Durham). Richard Brantingham, of Seaton, bur 
May 29 th , aged 106. 

" 1 66 1 (Barton-under-Needwood, Staffs), Feb. 13. Widow Reading, 
aged above an hundred, bur. 

" 1663 (Eyam, Derbyshire), Dec. 30. Bur. Anna, the traveller, who, 
according to her own account, was 136 years of age. 

"1665 (Alstonfield, Staffs), Nov. 27. Eliz. wid. of Ric Baatt, 
reported to be about 100 years old, bur. 

" 1683 (Salehurst, Sussex), Oct. 5. Bur d Peter Sparke aged 120 odd 
years. 

" 1693 (Edlingham, Northumb.), 20 April. Barham Norris, widow, 
aged 100 years and more, buried in Edlingham church. 

"1703-4 (By well St. Peter, Northumberland}, March 23. Ralph 
Seymor, of Rochelport, buried, aged 106 as is reported. 

"1706 (All Saints, Northampton). Old John Bales Button Maker 
buried the i4th April who lived part of y e Fifteenth century, 
the whole sixteenth, and part of the seventeenth century. The 
most probable conjecture of his age is that if he had lived to 
the August following he would have been 114, for we find in 
this Register a John Bales Bapt August y e 20 th 1592. 

"1706 (Cleobury Mortimer, Salop), May 5. Frances Worston, 
widow, aged by computation 114. 

"1708 (Bitterley, Salop), May 20. Maria Smith, quae ad centissimum 
vixit annum sep. 

"1709 (Ibid.), Jan. 21. Margaretta Williams, quse annum prseteriit 
centissimum, sep." 

In the same register are entries of eight subsequent 
centenarians under the years 1714 (two), 1717, 1719 (two), 
1 7$6> J 794) an d 1809, the exact age in these cases varies 
from 100 to 104. 

"1716 (Haughton, Staffs), May 9. Frances Cook, of Booden, aged 
IOT, bur. 



BURIALS 105 

" 1717 (Edlingham, JVorthum.), 10 Oct. Edward Crisp, aged 102, 

Abberwick, in Bolton Chappell. 
"1723 (Warkworth, Northumberland), April 9. Johannes Lamb, 

annos natus 106, et Isabella uxor, annos natus 86, eodem die 

sepult. de Warkworth. 
"1731 (Ahtonfield, Staffs), Jan 5. Margery Baddely of Hope, said 

to have been 107 years old, bur. 
" J 739 ( Warkworth, JVorthum.), 13 Jan. Henricus Richardson annos 

natus 101 de High Buxton. 
"1745 (West Hallam, Derbyshire). Old Sarah Baldack of Dale 

Parish, aged 103, buried Apr. 22. 
" 1746 (Norton, Durham). Frances Wrench bur. October pin no th 

year of her age. 
"1749 (Warkworth, Northum^, 15 Feb. Elisabetha Brown annos 

nata 105, de West Chivinton. 
"1749 (Hartlepoot). Ruth Nicholson was bur. loth of December, 

aged above 103 year. 
11 1761 (Selattyn, Salop), April 2. William Sandland, aged 103, 

bur. 
"1763 (Bothal, JVorthum.), 5 Dec. Robert Turnbull, aged 104 

years. 
"1774 (Ibid.), i Nov. Catherine Brown, Longhirst, aged 109 

years. 
" 1807 (Linton-in- Craven, Yorks). Margret Strorey of Bridgend, Aged 

101 years, was Buried June 13." 

Those under sentence of excommunication were not 
allowed any burial ceremony, and, strictly speaking, could 
not be interred in consecrated ground. Two post-Reforma- 
tion register entries have been noted of interdiction by the 
bishop of all burials, for a period, owing to the infringement 
of this ecclesiastical rule. 

"1598 (Chesterfield). Robertus Eyre generosus sepult p'videntiam 
ab Hercule Foljambe xv die Decemb. 

" Upon the buriall of the said Robert Eyre being an excom- 
municate recusant (R. Catholic), our buriall was interdicted; 
in the tyme of the inhibitian, before it was released these per- 
sones followinge dyed, and were buried at other churches as 
followeth. [Here are entered four burials at Whittington, two 



io6 PARISH REGISTERS 

at Brampton, one at Wingerworth, and one at Barlow.] The 
xiiij day of Januarie the interdiction was released." 

The second instance occurs at a later date in the registers 
of Weedon-Beck, Northants, in the year 1615 : 

" William Radhouse the elder dying excommunicate was buryed 
by stealth in the night time in the churchyard 29 Jan. Wherefore 
the church was interdicted for a fortnight." 

The persecution of the Recusants, that is of those who 
clung to the old unreformed faith, was carried on relent- 
lessly even to the grave throughout the reign of Elizabeth ; 
though their burial at night without any rite was winked at 
in various parishes, particularly where they were numerous. 
In the instances cited below, it can be proved that all were 
Romanists, though in some cases it is not so stated in the 
registers. 

" 1504 (Leeds). Richard Lumbye, of the Chappiltowne, being a papist, 
not comyng to the church the space of 1 2 years, being indycted 
at the generall and private sessions upon the statute, presented 
at the visitacions of papystry, excommunycate, dyed at Chappil- 
towne the third day of December, and was by hys kynsfolk and 
neighbours brought towards the churche to be buryed, but at 
the churchyard gate stopped by the Curate and Churchwardens 
where hys corps remained till the seventh day of the same 
moneth at night, and hys frends could not gett lycens to burye 
him ; going to York for y* purpose, hys said corps was in the 
night conveyed and buryed." 

It may be here mentioned that there are certain remark- 
able additions to some of the burial entries in the register of 
the parish church of Leeds under the years 1573-7. The 
pious old Catholic invocation Cujus anime propitietur Deus 
is added to the interment record in twenty-two instances. 
Possibly these were all at heart Roman Catholics, and the 
additions made by a broad-minded or sympathetic clerk. 
To two of the burial entries during this period is appended 



BURIALS 107 

the absurdly irrelevant ending " God save the Queen," a 
kind of Erastian protest, we suppose, against the use of the 
ancient formula. 

" 1594 (Parhani) Sussex). Widow Duke on the Common, being 
excommunicated, was laid in the Churchyard Nov. 4. 

" 1595 (Longford^ Derbyshire). Margaret Bakewell, a maid of Auk- 
manton, buried excommunicated 14 th of October being Sun- 
day after sun setting. 

" 1602 (Drypole, E. R. Yorks). Thomas Cletheray a recusant of 
the North blockhouse was put into his grave in drypoll 
churchyard vii day of March, by the means of Henry Garrub, 
without the minister and without the order of buriall, according 
to lawe. 

" 1604 (Christchurch) Hants\ April 14. Christian Steevens, the 
wife of Thomas Steevens, was buried in childbirth, and buried 
by women, for she was a papishe." 

There are various night burials mentioned in the registers 
of Stokesley, Yorks, all of which apparently apply to the 
interment of Recusants : 

" 1608. Anne Brasse buryed at midnyght 26 June. 

" 1615. Agnes rountree of tantan was bur d 29 August at nyght in 

inner churche yarde a recusantt. 
" 1618. W ln pillye wif was bur the 7 Nov at nyght butt wher I can 

not tell. 
" 1621-2. Xtofer hutcheson of Sto bu d vj th day Fabruary upon the 

nyght by whom I knowe not. 
" 1639. Frances George buried the n th September at night but by 

whome it is unknone." 

The Recusants were always numerous in the Derbyshire 
parish of Hathersage ; four of them were buried there and 
entered in the register in 1629, four in 1630, and five in 1631 
all by night. 

"1623 (Albrighton, Salop), May 19. Thomas Harrington, of 
Byshton, esquire, was buried in the night by commandment 
from the Byshop. 



io8 PARISH REGISTERS 

"1626 (Tarporley, Cheshire). Richard Welch Papist and excommuni- 
cate bur 20 August at night. 

"1631 (Methley, Yorks). Prothasia Shaun buried the 25 th of 
December, in the night, but not by a minister. 

" 1642 (North Elmham, Norfolk}. Rose, ye wife of Robert Lunford 
was buried y e 23 of December, she was a recusant papist, she 
was buried in the night without the church ceremonies." 

At Norbury, Derbyshire, an old seat of the celebrated 
recusant family of the Fitzherberts, there are three entries 
in the parish register, for the year 1723, of interments without 
service; in two of these instances it is specified that the 
deceased were " papists," and it was doubtless also the case 
with the third. 

There are various register entries which show that other 
Nonconformists were treated after death as excommunicants 
and denied (if they had desired it) formal burial. 

" 1 6 10 (Bees ton next Mileham, Norfolk}. Henery Surskey, widower, 
by the order of his schismaticall sonne, who not only denyes 
but contemnes and rayles agaynst the discipline of the Church 
of England, and hates the ministers thereof, was put into the 
grave in the churchyard of Beeston the i6 th day of September 
without minister or any but factious persons like himselfe, 
which is heere set downe to his shame to posterity. 

" 1614-15 (Nassington, Nhants). Jeane Burton was buried the 7 th 
of Februarie by moone light about two a clock in the morning 
dying in childebed but not trimmed. 1 

"1619 (Albrighton, Salop\ Aug 20. Izable Keames of the Park Syde, 
wyddowe, diceased the i8 th day of August, and was buryed in 
the hall orchyard neere unto the church wall upon the west 
side thereof, the 20 th day of August, Anno Dom 1619, being 
an excommunicated person. 

" 1642 (Stock, Essex], 7 May. Elizabeth the d. of Thomas Wood (an 
Annabaptisticall and factious Separatist) and Eleanor his wife 
(the grave being ready made) was (by the companie that 
came with the childe) interred and layd into the ground before 
the minister came : and without praiers, or the righte of 

1 The expression "not trimmed" is a puzzle, and it seems scarcely worth 
while to guess at an explanation. 



BURIALS 109 

Christian buriall according to the order of the Churche of 
England on Satterday." 

The supposed liberty of conscience and freedom of 
worship under the Commonwealth is a baseless fable. Pres- 
byterians and Congregationalists united in denying every 
kind of freedom to Romanists, Episcopalians, Unitarians, and 
especially to Quakers. To this the burial registers occasionally 
bear witness : 

" 1653 (Hackness, Yorks). Richard Cockerell dyed on Wednesday 
the xiiij th day of September and was buryed the next day being 
Thursday and there was many of them they call Quaker at his 
buryall. And Mr. Prowde did exhorte and argue with them at 
the Grave and they held out that that work wch they had in 
them was not wrought by the word wch I was sorry to heare 
but they sayd they made use of the word only to try whether it 
were right or not. 

" 1656 (Ibid.). George Watson dyed the xij th day (July) and was 
buryed the next, beinge of the Quakers Sect and many of 
them were at his buryall but M r Prowde was not called to 
bury him, and after they see him buryed they wente away. 

"1658-9 (Wing, Rutland). William Sharp the younger (comonly 
called William Sharp) at the Townes End who was a whither 
witted sectary and a separatist from own congregacion, having 
languished a great while neglected of his owne wife and 
children at last died miserably soe far in dett that all his goods 
would not near make satisfaction. He died the 26 and was 
buried the 28 of February 1658. 

" 1677 (Bishop Middleham, Durham\ Jan. 31. Isabell, wife of 
Francis Williamson, was buried at 2 of the clock in the morn g . 

"1679. (Waterbeach, Cambs), 10 Dec. Francis Wilson, excomuni- 
cated, buried in his orchard. 

" 1695-6 (Thornton, Bucks). Francis Colman dyed March 3 d but 
was not buryed in this paresh bee. he dyed excomunicate, and 
was fetch by some Anabapt. brethren to a Burying place of 
theirs at Stony Stretford. 

"1703 (Corby, Nhants). Thomas Seamark informed me y e one 
William Faukiner was buried in an orchard belonging to 
Emanuel Boone on y e 17 th of Octob r 1703. 



no PARISH REGISTERS 

" 1704 (Bourton-on-the- Water, Gloucestershire). W m Wickser's wife, 
of Layborough, was buried in Widow Green's orchard at Lower 
Slaughter (a chapelry to Bourton) March 5. 

" 1726 (Breads all, Derbyshire}. Mary Daughter of Edward Wheat- 
croft died in January being under sentence of Excommunication 
and as I heard was interred y e 23 d of y e same month. 

"1741 (Spratton, N'hants), Dec. 10. Mary y e wife of William 
Lansbury the younger being dipd and dying a profess'd 
Anabaptist was interr'd without y e office of y e Burial Service a 
little before six o'clock in y e evening. 

" 1741-2 (Ibid.\ Feb. 10. John Lee y e Anabaptist teacher was in- 
terr'd without the Burial Service." 

It must not, however, be supposed that all post-Re- 
formation excommunications were on account of lack of 
conformity with the established formularies of religion, or, 
as was occasionally the case, for moral offences. Sentences 
of excommunication, as enjoined by archidiaconal courts, 
were of fairly common occurrence in connection with non- 
payment of tithes or Easter dues, or for other technical 
offences of an ecclesiastical nature. It was the attempt to 
enforce the full legal penalties involved in excommunication 
for offences of this character that gradually brought the 
whole system into contempt and secured its final disuse. 

Amongst the parish muniments of Luccombe, a retired 
village of West Somerset, hidden away amidst the combes 
of Exmoor, are two or three original forms of excommunica- 
tion, temp. Charles I. 1 According to English canon law, a 
sentence of excommunication was bound to be delivered in 
writing and under a proper seal. The most perfect of these 
documents is written on a half-sheet of foolscap lengthways, 
and has borne a large wafer seal, only the stain of which 
remains : 

" Samuel Ward doctor of divinity Archdeacon of the Archdea- 

1 These were discovered by the present writer as long ago as 1864 among a 
litter of discarded rubbish. See " Gleanings from a Parish Chest " in Andrews' 
Curious Church Gleanings (1896). 



BURIALS in 

conry of Taunton to our well-beloved the Parson Vicar or Curate 
of the parish church of Luccombe within our Archdeaconry of 
Taunton sendeth greetinge in our Lord God everlastinge. Where- 
as Walter Pugslie, Moses Pugslie, and John Anton of y e parish 
aforesaid for their manifest contempte and disobedience have been 
longe time justlie excommunicated and for excommunicate persons 
openly denounced in the face of the Church at the time of divine 
service in which dangerous estate without feare of God or shame of 
y e world they still remaine in contempte of lawe and lawful magis- 
trates. We therefore will and require yow that the next Sabath 
day or holiday ensuinge the Receipt hereof in your said parish 
Church at the time of divine service before the whole congregation 
assembled yow shall publiquely denounce those Walter Pugslie, 
Moses Pugslie and John Anton for aggravated persons and also 
then and there yow shall admonish all Christian people by virtue 
hereof that they and any of them henceforth eschewe and avoid the 
society, fellowshippe and company of the said-persons and that they 
neither eate, nor drink, buy, sell, or otherwise by any manner of 
means communicate with them, being members cut off from all 
Christian Society under the payne of excommunication by lawe in 
this behalfe provided until they shall submit themselves to be 
reconciled. And of y r doinges herein Certifie us or our Deputy the 
next court day ensuinge after fortye dayes after the denouncinge 
hereof and fayle yow not under the payne contempte. Dated 
under our Scale the three and twentye day of May Anno dom, 1628. 

" Ric: PEEKE Reg." 

It is a mere matter of surmise what had been the original 
offence of these three Luccombe parishioners, but it was prob- 
ably non-payment of tithes. The offence would have been 
stated in the original sentence. This excommunication is 
a further declaration ; for the excommunication was obliged 
to be repeated at the end of six months, provided the person 
or persons had not meanwhile purged themselves by sub- 
mission and penance, and obtained the benefit of absolution. 
The reason of the mention of the forty days was because, 
according to the law and custom of England which differed 
in this respect from all other parts of Christendom the 
civil authority in the person of the sheriff was bound to 



ii2 PARISH REGISTERS 

step in and imprison excommunicated folk, until they made 
submission, provided that the desire de excommunicata 
capiendo was expressed by the bishop or diocesan official. 
On the same Sunday whereon these three Luccombe offenders 
were denounced in their parish church, and all Christian folk 
commanded to boycott them, the like excommunication 
was read during service in the Cathedral Church of Wells, 
and on the following day the names and offences of those 
excommunicated were forwarded to the Archbishop of the 
province. 

In the neighbouring parish of Wootton Courtney, a paper 
dated ist November, 1629, is pinned into the register book, 
wherein the rector expresses in naive terms his regrets that 
he had proceeded with the excommunication of two par- 
ishioners for considerable arrears of tithes, as the fees of 
the archidiaconal officials considerably exceeded the amount 
recovered ! 

At the beginning of the first register book of Great 
Preston, Northants, is a list of twenty instances of the 
excommunications or consequent absolutions of parishioners 
between the years 1607 and 1633. Bos worth (whose Christian 
name is missing), was "decreed excommunicate the 26 of 
March and denounced in Preston church Ap. 27, 1618." 
Another Bosworth was decreed excommunicate on 24th July 
of the same year and denounced in Preston church on 9th 
August. Henry Adkins excommunicated on 27th June 
and denounced 8th July 1621, "was absolved fro the 
sentence of excom : the ix of January 1622." From 
other entries in this list, it is clear that absolutions were 
decreed by the chancellor or his surrogate; there is no 
express statement that such absolutions were afterwards 
pronounced in church, but there can be little or no doubt 
that this was the case at Great Preston. 

At the end of the second register of Bingley, Yorks, 



BURIALS 113 

are lists of persons of that parish excommunicated at the 
time of the Archdeacon's visitations in the years 1639, 1664, 
and 1682 ; the respective numbers were 24, 25, and 20. There 
are two other undated lists. 

" 1667-8 (Scatter, Linc.\ June 19. Mem. That on Septuagesime 
Sunday one Francis Drury, an excommunicate person, came into 
church in the time of divine service in y e morning, and being 
admonisht by me to be gon, he obstinately refused, whereupon y e 
whole congregation departed ; and after the same manner in the 
afternoon the same day he came againe, and refusing againe to 
goe out, the whole congregation againe went home, soe y l 
little or noe service perform'd y l day. I prevented his further 
coming in y' manner, as he threatened, by order from y e justice 
upon the statute of Q. Elizabeth concerning the molestation and 
disturbance of public preachers. W m Carrington, Rector. O 
tempora ! O mores I " 

In the register book of Alstonfield, Staffordshire, there is 
a list of " persons excommunicate in the Chancellor's Court." 
In 1678, three names are given under 23rd June, and eight 
under ist September. In the following year there are five 
persons thus named; in 1680 seven; and in 1681 three. 
The excommunicate of Alstonfield in the Archdeacon's 
Court for 1678 numbered nine, in 1679 eight, in 1680 five, 
and in 1683 twenty-nine. The respective grounds for 
excommunication are not named in these lists. 

On the inside cover of the fourth book of the registers of 
Stokesley, Yorks, which begins in 1723, are the names of four 
women " under excommunication for fornication " ; a weaver 
under like sentence in 1745 "f r refusing to pay his Easter 
Offerings to ye minister " ; and a widow excommunicated for 
contumacy in a slander case at the York Consistory Court. 
The widow in this last case was 

"publickly Declared to be Absolved from y e Sentence of 
Excommunication in y e Parish Church of Stokesley on y e 19 th of 
April, 1755, by Tho Thwaites Curate of y e s d Parish." 
8 



ii4 PARISH REGISTERS 

Christian burial was denied in very early times not only 
to the unbaptized and the excommunicate, but also to those 
who had laid violent hands on themselves. In the case, 
however, of suicides, it is expressly laid down by the canons 
under Egbert of A.D. 740, and repeated at later dates, that 
this penalty is to be incurred by those who thus act by any 
fault y thus excluding those who commit the deed in madness 
or frenzy. It was customary in England to bury suicides at 
cross roads, but not unfrequently, for charity's sake, the body 
was interred in the graveyard without ceremonial. By an 
Act of 1821, the burial of one against whom a verdict of felo 
de se had been pronounced is ordered to be within the church- 
yard between the hours of nine and twelve at night. 

The following are some selected instances of register 
entries of the burials of suicides : 

c 1556 (St. Alkmund's, Derby). Sepultus est Johannes Marriath pastor 
hujus ecclesise postquam sese laqueo videlicet funiculo minimae 
campanse suspenderat vitamque miserime finierat. Junii 14. 
Deus det aliis meliorem gratis mensuram. Nota, fregit cam- 
panam corporis gravitate et casu. 

" J 573 (Pl^asley^ Derbyshire}. [Loose leaf of an early register.] Tho. 
Maule f d hunge on a tree by y e wayeside after a druncken fitte 
April 3. Crowners queste in churche porche April 5. Same 
nighte at midd nighte burried at y e nighest crosse roades w 4 a 
stake yn him, manie peopple frome Manesfeilde. 

"1574 (Chesham, Bucks), June 30. Francis Cocker did strangle him 
selfe to death. 

"1579 (St. Anne's^ Blackfriars), Aug. 4. John Hacone infamously 
buried, for killing himselfe desperately. 

" 1594 (Ibid.). Robert Halle, servant to Jysse Cutler, who did hang 
himself, and was buried at the Thames, hard by Blackfriars 
Bridge. 

" 1597 (St. Alkmund's, Derby), Concescit fato Johannes Wooddewise, 
parvse Cestria, non sepultus, quia laqueo seipsum suspendit, 
Deus det aliis meliorem gratiam, Apr 3. 

"1597 (All-Hallows-in-the-Wall). Thomas Atkinson gentleman 
sometyme servant to the old Ladye of JPembrooke, and at this 



BURIALS 115 

present dyd belong to M r Thomas Compton, brother to the 
Lord William Compton : he was buried the iiij th day of June, 
who being sycke of a whole fever : w th a sworde in the anguyshe 
of his fytt, thrust y l into his bellye : And so ended this mortall 
lyfe in the house of wydowe Olyver, the seconde daye of June 
at night, being but newlye come thyther, theyre to lye and to 
have his being. 

" 1597 (Drypole, E. R. Yorks). Anne Ruter a singlewoman drowned 
herselfe and was buried the iiij daie of Julie on the North side 
of the church. 

" 1600 (Chesterfield). Isabell Taylor widowe drowned her selffe in a 
well and was buried vij April. 

" 1600 (Chesham, Bucks), July n. Isbell the wyfe of Thomas Border 
being greate with childe most fearfully by drowning herselfe in 
a ponde ended this present lyfe. 

"1617 (Elland, Yorks}. Thomas Gleidell generosus bur d 31 Oct, 
corpse dug up 27 Nov. Carefully viewed by 16 sworn men 
because it was noised and said by some of his covet and envious 
near relations that he had k. himselfe with his own h d un- 
touched and unwounded. 

" 1620 (St. Alkmund's, Derby]. A certayne prisoner brought unto y e 
gaole and guarded coming over the Mary bridge leapte over 
into the water and drownde himselfe, and was buried by the 
highway side close at the foote of the bridge, June 28. 

"*' 1678 (Bishop Middleham, Durhani), Oct. 20. Joseph Bowes, gent 
(being found to have laid violent hands on himselfe) was 
buried in a void place. 

" 1698 ( West Hallam, Derby shire), April 13. Katharine the wife of 
Tho. Smith alias Cutler was found felo de se by y e Coroners 
inquest and interred in y e crosse ways near y e wind mill on y e 
same day. 

" 1699 (Twyford, Derbyshire). Jacobus Kurd de Stenson bachalau- 
raus qui in aqua Trenti immersus die Veneris vicesimo tertio 
sepultus fuit Sancti Johannis Baptis die, M l . Charles Adderley 
Coroner sat upon him in Twyford Church,^ June 24. 

" 1706 (Ibid.), April 6. Quidam Gulielmus Smith Peregrinus veniens 

1 Among the Derbyshire county records are a variety of papers relative to 
inquests held by Coroner John Alderly from 1677 to 1699. A jury of twenty-four 
was always summoned ; the day of the inquest was usually Sunday, and the place of 
summons the parish church. The corpse was usually viewed in the porch. Un- 
suitable as this ancient place for holding inquests seems to modern ideas it can 



n6 PARISH REGISTERS 

a Parochia de Utoxetu suspendit seipsum apud Twyford : 
sepultus autem erat in loco vulco appellate Hailslouts. 

"1719 (Overstone, Northants\ Dec. 6. Bur. Rebecca Adams, 
widow of John Adams (who cut his own throat July 5 th last 
past and was buried at the corner ofy e hedge by y e Northfield 
closes but twice clandestinely taken away by one Stephenson a 
Surgeon at Northampton in order to be made a skeleton). 

"1719 (Bothal, Northumberland)^ 19 Feb. John Hurst, Gallow- 
house, who hanged himself with the cowband over the Ravel 
Tree. 

" 1734 (Thorpe Achurch, Whants\ Sept. 19. William Greenwood, 
a Dissenting Teacher of March in the Isle of Eley, cut his 
throat at a Publick House in our Parish, and after the Correnors 
Inquest was Bury'd behind the Church in Woollen according 
to law." 

Other burials by night are also to be found in parochial 
registers in addition to the dishonourable ones in cases of 
excommunication and suicide. Some of these were inter- 
ments by torchlight, causa honoris, as something exceptional, 
reserved for persons of distinction, or handed down by family 
tradition. Aldermen of London, who had filled the office of 
Lord Mayor, were by ancient use buried by torchlight with 
great ceremonial ; but these nocturnal funerals led to so 
much disorder that they were prohibited in the time of 
Charles I. At Westminster Abbey, Abraham Cowley in 1617, 
Joseph Addison in 1717, and George II in 1760, all had 
torchlight burials. Archbishop Hutton was buried at night, 
at Lambeth, in 1758, and John Wesley's funeral in 1791 was 
at so early an hour in the morning that lanterns and torches 
were required. The Berkeleys, of Bruton, Somerset, were 
for a long period buried at midnight in a crypt beneath the 
chancel, after a sermon had been preached in the church. 
The old custom of burying members of the Dyott family by 

be traced back in Derbyshire to the thirteenth century the palpable modern 
scandal of holding inquests in public-houses was unknown. See Dr. Cox's Three 
Centiiries of Derbyshire Annals , vol. i. pp. 79-82, 391. 



BURIALS 117 

torchlight in the vaults of St. Mary's Church, Lichfield, is 
still maintained. 

The three following register entries of the seventeenth 
century are clearly concerned with honourable burial : 

" 1609 (Harrow-on-the-Hilt), August 23 d being Wensday about sixe 
of the clocke at night dyed the right Worshipful M r William 
Gerarde and the body of the same M r Gerrard was buryed in 
the sepulchre of his father within the Churche of Harrow on 
Thursday the 24 th day of the same moneth about nyne of the 
clocke at night By one Humphrey Wiltlud. 

"1635 (Albrighton, Salop), Nov. 15. The Right Honor ble Ladie the 
Countesse of Shrewsburie was buried at this Church upon 
Twelf day at nightt, being the sixth day of January 1635. 

" 1668 (Bruton, Somerset), June 26. The Rt Honor ble Charles 
Lord Viscount Fitzharding was between 12 and one of the 
clock in the night, after a sermon preached by M r John 
Randall, then minist : of Brewton, buried in the vault in the 
Chancell in a coffin of lead." 

In two or three parishes burial in the late evening or 
night became habitual. A striking instance of this is 
Wellingborough, as shown by the following parochial entry : 

" 1737, ii April. Whereas there hath been and still is a custom 
and usage within the said Parish of Burying the Dead at the 
Houre of eight or nine at night in the winter, and somtimes 
later, which is found to be a very inconvenient and prejudicial 
custom both to the Minister and inhabitants For the putting 
an end therefore to the said custom and usage, and for the 
future good and convenience of the said Minister and Parish- 
ioners, we the Minister and majority of the Principal Inhabitants 
of the said Parish being upon due and publick notice assembled 
in vestry for that purpose, do hereby upon mature consideration 
order and require all persons within the said Parish who shall 
hereafter bury their dead in the church or churchyard of the 
said Parish that they bring their said dead hither to be 
buried from and after the day of the date of these presents 
until the feast of St. Michael the Archangel next ensuing at or 
before the hour of seven in the afternoon, and from and after 



n8 PARISH REGISTERS 

the ist Feast of St. Michael unto the Feast of the Blessed 
Virgin Mary at or before the hour of four in the afternoone." 

A fine of is. an hour was to be imposed for every hour 
after the appointed, one half to the minister and the other 
half to the poor. 

In the old days executed criminals were usually buried 
in the consecrated ground of the parish where the gaol 
stood. For the most part the burial service was used ; and 
this could scarcely have been otherwise, for the condemned 
criminal not infrequently received the Holy Communion, 
and sometimes was baptized on the eve of execution. 

"1576 (Cartmel, Lancashire). Richard Taylor was buried who 
suffered the same daye at Blacragge Bridge end for murthering 
wilfullye Richard Kilner of Witherslacke." 

In the seventeenth century the Surrey assizes were held 
at Dorking on several occasions. In 1635 two persons were 
condemned and executed ; in 1636 five, and in 1668 five. 
The registers show that all these criminals were buried in 
the parish churchyard. 

The register of Little Brickhill, Bucks, contains entries 
of the burials of forty-two criminals who were executed here 
between 1561 and 1620; it was formerly an Assize town. 
In this register occurs the entry : 

" Cecely Reves was buried the same day, burned." 

This last horrible entry requires some explanation. The 
burning for heresy, as carried out under Henry VIII and 
Mary, was not a newly invented death torture. It was a 
form of capital punishment long reserved in England for 
women who were guilty of high or petty treason. Petty 
treason included not only the murder of a master by a 
servant, or of a husband by a wife, but even a minor crime 
such as coining, for which a woman was burnt in 1721 ; so 



BURIALS 119 

that rarely a year passed by in England, down to about a 
century ago, without at least one such sickening spectacle. 
It is supposed that the last of these cases occurred in 1784 
at Portsmouth, when one Mary Bayley, for the murder of 
her husband, was condemned "to be drawn on an hurdle 
to the place of execution on Monday the eighth of March, 
and burned with fire until she be dead." The punishment 
of hanging in such cases was substituted for that of burning 
in 1790. 

The registers of St. Chad's, Shrewsbury, bear witness to 
another instance of this enforced cremation : 

"December 1647 2 3 of this month that a woman was burnt in 
the quorell for poysong her husband." 

The burial of the partly burnt remains of other women 
subjected to this horrible penalty are, to our knowledge, 
recorded both at Derby and York, and probably elsewhere ; 
but in those cases the register entry decently veiled the 
cause of death. 

At Newcastle-on-Tyne, seventeen prisoners were buried 
in the graveyard of St. Nicholas on I3th August, 1632. 

The following are a few other register entries of burials 
of executed criminals, selected almost at haphazard from 
a large number : 

"1631 (St. Mary's, Reading), Aug. ir. Bur. Symon Wilkes, gentle- 
man, executed uppon presumpson of murder, but he denied 
it to death. 

"1643 (St. Andreitfs, Holborn), July 6. Nathaniel Tomkins Esq. 
who was executed at Fetter Lane end the 5 th , being found to 
be one of y e conspirators against this City of London, was 
buried here. 

" 1679 (St. Mary's, Reading), Mar. 26. Robert Mathewe, Richard 
Fleetwood, Thomas Grinaway, John Vasey, hanged and 
buried. 

"1722 (St. Mary-le-Bow, Durham}, 30 August. Bur. James Graham, 
a felon, he was hanged y e same morning just after Bap." 



120 PARISH REGISTERS 

The following somewhat ghastly entry reminds us that 
the custom of burying in coffins is a comparatively modern 
one save among the wealthy classes : 

" 1608 (Poyning) Sussex). The xviij day of April was buried John 
Skerry a poore man that died in the place stable, and being 
brought half naked with his face bare, the parson would not 
burye him soe, but first he gave a sheete and caused him to be 
sacked therein, and they buried him more Christian like, 
being much grieved to see him brought soe unto the grave ; 
and at this time did one Thatchar dwell at the place." 

Registers and churchwardens' accounts bear frequent 
witness to uncoffined burials throughout the sixteenth and 
seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries. 

The register of Great Doddington, Northants, of 1560- 
1648, has a list of clerk's fees : 

" For bell and grave in churchyard, for a coffin i. o. 

for a man without a coffin 8d. 

for an infant without a coffin 6d." 

At Birchington, Kent, in 1638, the burial fee for "a 
coffin'd person " was 8d., and for " a noe coffin'd person," 6d. 
A Table of Duties in Shoreditch church, dated 1664, names 
8d. as the burial fee in the new churchyard without a coffin, 
and 6d. for burial in the old churchyard without a coffin. 

The wording of the Burial Service in the Book of 
Common Prayer clearly anticipates uncoffined burial. The 
word coffin is not used ; it is always " the corpse " or " the 
body," as in the rubric, " the earth shall be cast upon the 
body." In Wheatley's book on the Common Prayer, first 
issued in 1710, occurs the comment "When the body is 
stripped of all but its grave clothes, and is just going to be 
put into the grave," etc. 

In the registers of Melbourne, Derbyshire, for the year 
1663, five out of the seventeen interments are specified as 
buried in coffins. But the custom made slow progress. In 



BURIALS 121 

1698 only one burial in a coffin is named out of seventeen 
funerals, and none in 1699 out f ten - I n tne eighteenth 
century coffins began to predominate; in 1718 there were 
only two uncoffined burials out of eight. 

The Commonplace book of Mr. White Watson, of 
Bakewell (Derb. Arch. Soc. Journal, vol. xi. 159), has the 
following entry : 

" The custom of Interment in Wooden coffins (wooden Josephs) 
was on the Rev d Mr. Monks coming to reside here [He was vicar 
from 1678 to 1724]. A corps from Sheldon was brought in 
swaddling clothes, which was abolished in 1797, and was detained 
in Church until a coffin was made, and the wife then took off the 
flannel for her own use." 

The present writer has talked in the "sixties" of last 
century with more than one aged resident of Bakewell who 
remembered uncoffined burials in that churchyard, and with 
others who remembered the same in the churchyard of 
Duffield, in the same county. 

It was the custom for each parish to provide a shell or 
coffin to rest on the bier for the carrying of the corpse to 
the edge of the grave, when it was lifted out and lowered 
into the grave in its shroud, which was wrapped round with 
strips of canvas, termed swaddling clothes in the Bakewell 
entry. References to these parish coffins are not infrequent 
in early churchwarden accounts, such as Louth, 1521 and 
J 593> and St. Michael's, Cornhill, 1554. Two Yorkshire 
churches, namely those of Easingwold and Howden, still 
retain the old parish coffins. 

Various registers contain express reference to the time 
when the Act compelling registration of burials in woollen 
came in force. Thus : 

" Finedon, N'hants. On the first of August, 1678, the Act of 
Parliament for burying in Woollen came in force so that there 
is a New Book on purpose to enter Buryalls from that day. 



i22 PARISH REGISTERS 

" St. John's, Peterborough. The act for burying in woollen taking 
place August ye first, 1678, Xtianings and Marriages are 
only registered in this book, and burialls in ye New Booke pro- 
vided for ye purpose." 

The burials in woollen at Helmdon, Northants, from 1678 
to 1783, are registered in a separate book. The earliest of 
these entries are couched in phraseology, by a would-be- 
facetious minister, to throw contempt upon this extravagant 
sumptuary law. Three examples will suffice : 

" 1680, June 1 6. Thomas Shortland, the son of Thomas Shortland 
of the Parish of Helmdon, being Dead was put into a Pit-hole 
and Bury'd in the churchyard of the Town above written. 
Memorandum That within the revolution of eight days after the 
Funerall obsequays of Thos Shortland Affidavit was brought 
from a justice of Peace that the said Thomas Shortland was 
well wrapt in a shirt of wollen and was let down into his 
dormitory with that vestment about his corps to the great 
satisfaction of a Law enjoineing that Habiliment as convenient 
for the Dead. 

" 1682, December 7. Frances Pickeings widdow of the parish of 
Helmdon was then let downe into her grave made in the 
churchyard of the village aforesaid. Let the Beadle take 
notice that within 8 days after y e Funerall obseqyes of 
Frances Pickeings Affidavit was brought from a neighboring 
minister that the abovesaid Frances Pickeings was shrowded 
only in a winding sheet made of the Fleece of good Fat Mutton. 

" 1683, April 30. Betty Garland, the little Pretty daughter of Nump 
Garland was then Bury'd within that little territory of the Dead 
the churchyard of Helmdon. Noverint universi, that within 8 
days after solemn obsequays of the said Eliz. Garland Affidavit 
was brought from a neighbouring Lerite that this very 
numericall Betty Garland was well wrapt in a shrowd of 
woollen." 

The late Mr. J. E. Bailey, of Stretford, Manchester, 
made an interesting contribution to Notes and Queries 
(5th S. vi. 144) in 1876, wherein he stated that during the 
operation of the Burial in Woollen Act, the law was some- 



BURIALS 



123 



times evaded by covering corpses with hay or flowers, called 
" strewings." He cited from " the registers of an adjoining 
parish" entries of bodies, about the year 1706, " Buryed in 








v-% 



jbufieti 







vwnu 




CX 



^ 




FACSIMILE OF FIRST PAGE OF REGISTER OF BURIALS IN WOOLLEN 
LITTLEBOURNE, KENT. 



i2 4 PARISH REGISTERS 

sweet flowers only." In other cases it is said that the bodies 
were " not wounde up or Buryed savinge only in sweet 
flowers and Hay." The affidavits were made to that effect. 
Unfortunately the exact parishes where these curious and 
exceptional entries occur are not mentioned. 

The following is an example of the affidavit which had 
to be brought to the minister within eight days of the burial, 
certifying that the requirements of the law had been fulfilled. 
Bundles of these affidavits are still preserved in a few parish 
chests : 

" Elizabeth Bryant, of the parish of Radmill, in the county of 
Sussex, maketh oath, that Elizabeth Ford, of the parish of Rad- 
mill, in the county of Sussex, lately deceased, was not put in, 
wrapt up, or wound up, or buried in any shirt, shift, sheet, or 
shroud, made or mingled with flax, hemp, silk, hair, gold, or silver, 
or other than what is made of sheep's wool only; nor in any 
coffin lined or faced with any cloth, stuff, or any other thing what- 
soever made or mingled with flax, hemp, silk, hair, gold, or silver, 
or any other material contrary to the late Act of Parliament for 
burying in woollen, but sheep's wool only. Dated the 16 day of 
Jan. 1724." 

This may be appropriately followed by two examples 
of the' disregard of the Act by the higher classes, who 
regarded it rather as a tax to be paid than a law to be 
observed : 

"1603 (Rushbrooke, Suffolk), Jan. 10. The Right Hon ble Henry 
Jermyn Earl of St. Alban was buried in y e south side of y e 
Church. Because he was buried in Linnen contrary to an Act 
for burying in woolen only, therefore by order of a warrant 
from a Justice of the Peace fifty shillings was paid to the 
Informer and fifty shillings to the Poor of y e Parish upon the 
Sunday next following. 

" 1708 (Gay ton, Northants). Mrs. Dorothy Bellingham was buryed 
April 5 in Linnen, and the forfeiture of the Act payd fifty 
shillings to y e informer, and fifty shillings to y e poor of the 
parishe." 



BURIALS 125 

A mortuary, or corpse-present, had its origin in the 
idea that it was left by a man at his death to the parish 
church or priest as a recompense for forgotten or over- 
looked tithes or offerings ; it was quite distinct from any 
burial fee to rector or vicar. It became customary to 
pay as mortuary to the rector the second best animal 
owned by the deceased, the best being reserved as heriot 
for the lord of the manor. In default of a beast, the 
mortuary claimed was the second best garment. In a 
receipt roll of 1539 for the Peak jurisdiction of the Dean 
and Chapter of Lichfield (Derb. Arch. Soc. Journal, vol. xi. 
142-156), there is a list of 115 mortuaries, which vary from 
cows and oxen to tunics, super-tunics, and cloaks or coverlets. 
By an Act of 21 Henry VIII, the taking of mortuaries by 
rectors, a custom much abused, was considerably restricted, 
and only to be taken in money at a fixed rate. Ten shillings 
was the highest sum that could be levied, and that only 
when the deceased had goods to the value of 40. It was 
also forbidden to be taken on any one who was not a 
householder, or a traveller, or riot a resident in the place 
where he died. 

The rector of Rype, Sussex, coolly set this Act at defiance 
in almost every particular, as is shown by the following 
entries which he made in the parish register : 

" William Wade who died as a stranger, for whose mortuary, I, John 
Goffe, parson of Ripe, had his upper garment which was an 
olde coate, and I receaved for the same 6 s . 

"1634. I buried Alice Whitesides Feb. 22 d who being but one 
weeke in the parish of Ripe, died as a stranger, for whose 
mortuary, I, John Goffe, had a gowne of Elizabeth her 
Daughter, price ioV 

On a fly-leaf of the first register book of Stanton Lacy, 
Salop, there are entries of mortuaries of ten shillings each 
paid to the vicar in 1639, 1640 (two), 1641, and 1643 ; also of 



i26 PARISH REGISTERS 

similar mortuary fees paid in 1664, 1666, 1667, 1671, and 
1672. 

The following note appears in the register of Eaton- 
under-Heywood, Salop, beneath an entry of the burial of one 
Thos. Linley, on March 3rd, 1717, viz.: "A mortuary 2s. 
was paid for Thos. Linley by widow." In subsequent years 
there are many such entries, the amount being, in some 
instances, as much as ten shillings. 

It is asserted in Phillimore's Ecclesiastical Law and else- 
where that it is a mere vulgar error to suppose that the 
arresting of a corpse for debt was ever legal. Nevertheless 
there was at one time a general belief that this was the 
case, as is testified by several registers. The last attempt to 
carry out this odious action was as late as i6th October 181 1, 
as recorded in the Gentleman's Magazine, when a sheriff s officer 
presented a writ and seized a body from a funeral procession 
proceeding from Hoxton to Shoreditch. Here are two 
eighteenth-century register references to this outrageous and 
illegal practice : 

" 1659 (Ahtonfield, Staffs), Aug. 30. Humphrey Dakin, buried about 
2 of the clock in the night, feareing an arrest. 

" 1689 (Sparsholt, Bucks). The corpse of John Matthews, of Fawler, 
was stopt on the church way for debt August 27. And having 
laine there fower days, was by justices warrant buryed in the 
place to prevent annoyances but about sixe weeks after it was 
by an Order of Sessions taken up and buried in the Churchyard 
by the wife of the deceased." 

Demanding burial fees for a passing corpse was another 
absolutely illegal exaction, apparently claimed sometimes in 
an honest belief that it was a lawful custom. In the event 
of a corpse being carried through a parish for burial in a 
further one, the minister, clerk, and sexton not infrequently 
offered burial, and, if refused, claimed their full fees. We have 
found instances of this claim being successfully made at 



BURIALS 127 

Chelmsford, Wellingborough, Boston, Duffield, and about 
a score of other places. The following entry from the 
Godalming registers must suffice: 

" 1608, May 8. Ye lady Ford came through ye town and paid all 
duty to ye Minister Clerk and Sexton for proferring to bury 
her." 



CHAPTER VIII 
ACCIDENTS 

Deaths from various accidents The fate of Dorothy Matley Deaths 
through cold and snow Mining disasters Deaths through 
drowning Escapes from death Freaks or prodigies 

THE large majority of registers simply mention the 
name and date of each interment from the beginning 
to the end of the entries. In a minority, however, 
of cases, a brief entry is made when the death was in any 
sense unusual or caused by accident. A varied list of such 
entries, which could of course be greatly extended, is here 
set forth : 

"1562 (Dorking^ Surrey), Feb. 28. Owyn Tonny was christened ; 
who (a later hand adds) scoffing at thunder, standing under a 
beech was stroke to death, his clothes stinking with a 
sulphurious stench, being about the age of twenty years or 
thereabouts. 

"1569 (St. Peter-in-the-East, Oxford), 17 June. There was buried 
Wyllyoun Willes a householder who was by misfortune kylled 
withe the Whyle of his owne Weyne. 

"1575 (Alstonfield, Staffordshire), June 15. Thurstan Gybbe, s. of 
Eliz. Gybbe, a bastarde, slayne in falling out of a wayne by a 
blowe of a piece of woode called a sorner, bur. 

" 1578 (Kidderminster}, June 18. bd Wm sonne of Nicholas 
Bettison which perrished by a fall out of the bell seller in the 
steeple and fell through all the flowers to the ground. 

" 1579 (Loughborough, Leicestershire). Roger Shepherd, Son in 
Law to Nicholas Wollands, was slain by a lioness which was 

brought into the town to be seen of such as would give money 

128 



ACCIDENTS 129 

to see her. He was sore wounded in sundry places, and was 
buried the 26th day of August. 
" 1583 (St. Oswald's, Durham}, Dec. 2. John Mydfurthe, slayne by 

fallynge into a colepytt at Rayneton. 

" 1589 (CfosAam, Bucks]. Moris Lewys of Kynges Langeley in 

the Count, of harts pedlar being slayne in a fraye by an 

other pedlar comying togeather to this towne on the fayer even 

was buried 16 July. 

"1591 (Chesham, Bucks). Hugh Doyot slayne by a faule out of a 

cherry tree was buried 16 July. 

" 1600 (Beeston-next-Mileham, Norfolk). Thomas Threlkeld, films 
Robti Threlkeld et Emme ux., cum in flore juventatis esset 
tempore reparationis pinnaculi ejusdem Templi audaciter 
minis ascendit in summitate ejusdem et supra Le Boule et 
crucem pinnaculae, cruce autem frangente infeliciter cecidit in 
terram et confractis ossibus vivente tamen atque loquente per 
spacium duarum horarum mortuus est vicesimo nono Septembris 
et sepultus tricesimo ejusdem sequente. 

"1601 (B lakes ley, Northants). Richard Tomason fallinge out of 
a tree as he was gatheringe ivie upon the Lordes daye tooke 
his death wound and was buried the xxij day of the moneth of 
December. 

"1601 (Elland, Yorks), Decembris 12. Hewyus Smith de Eland 
in putio carbonario occisus in Hollinghey lapsu casuque terrse 
qua fuit oppressus et suffocatus. 

" 1602 (St. Mary's, Reading), July 22. Richard s. of Rich: 
Edwards, this child was killed by a blocke that fell upon him, 
which blocke was founde by the Couroners Jury to be guyltie 
of his death. 

" 1603 (Chesham, Bucks'). Elyzabeth widoe of John Atkins of 
Berkhamsted in the Count, of harts by falling out of a cherry 
tree was here buried the xii th of July. 

"1606 (Elland, Yorks). Henricus King de Cromblebotham ebrius 
amissus aqua suffocatus die dominico Decembris 7, 1606, 
inventum autem cadaver ejus in Flumine Calders Junii TI, 
et sepult. 13, 1607. 

"1608 (Elland, Yorks), Julius die 6. Johannes Marsh de Knowles 
excom. impraeviso fustis ictu occisus subito, cujus foetidum 
cadaver tentatum fuit in templo sepelire. 

" 1608-9 (/&#.), January 26. Johannes Horner de Elande senex 
tempore divinarum vespertinarum precum die dominico uxta 



130 PARISH REGISTERS 

unam partem Strangstree aqua suffocatus, cadaver autem ejus 
inventum fuit infra fontem de Brighouse die mecurii et 
insemiterio sepultum die jovis. 

" 1609 (Ibid.\ Julius. Richardus Gleedall juvenis filius spurius 
Henrici Gledall de Stainland occisus in Domo corfonaria 
(public-house) in ebritate sua, improvise ictu in caput, 
instrumento quo solent sordes a linteolis vestibus extundere. 
R. G. slain with a battel or batledore. 

" 1609 (IHd.\ September 2. Willimus Carter de Soiland cultro 
occisus Nathana Carter ipsius fratre manco ante et tune ambo 
excommunicati olim in Hibernia milite. 

" 1612 {Aston by Birminghairi). Henrie the sonne of Richard 
Blaxsiche of Erdington buried 10 Sept. who was most beastly 
and savidgelie slayne at Perrie wake by a company of lewde 
fellowes the vj day of Sept. which Henrie had one weapone 
but a walkinge staffe. 

"1614 (Elland, Yorks). Henricus f. Henrici Ransley de Narland 
aetate 12 annorum die Dominico May 29, pomeridiano tempore 
juxta Woodhouse aqua suffocatus dum Rotam puerilis curriculi 
vel carri in aquam delapsum cum fratre suo natu minore 
comprehendere conatus fuit, frater tamen junior per aquam ad 
ulteriorem ripam onirifice salvus evasit Dei beneficio. 

"1614 {Holy Trinity, Chester). John Brookes Mason who poynted 
the Steple 1610 and made many showes and pastymes on the 
steple of Trinity and also on the toppe of St. Peter's Steple as 
many thousands did witnesse, dyed 10 July and bur n July 
in the Church Yard broke his neck going downe a payre of 
Stayres by the Church. 1 

" 1623 (St. Nicholas, Ipswich}, Nov. 29, set 4 months. John Steggoll 
buried w. fallinge into ye fire was burnt to death in his mother's 
absence, his forehead w n he was taken out beinge as red as a 
cole. 

"1627 (Ibid.\ Dec. 7. Emme Wilbey daughter of Nicholas Wilbore 
was buried slaine by a brick fallinge down the chymney. 

" 1638 (Marshfield) Gloucestershire), vj die Augustij sepulta fuit 

1 Acrobatic feats on steeples, especially sliding down ropes extended from 
their summits, were not infrequent in bygone days. Both Edward vi and 
Philip were welcomed on entering London by rope-dancers' descents from the 
battlements of St. Paul's. Among other steeples similarly used may be 
mentioned those of Salisbury Cathedral, All Saint's, Derby, and St. Mary's, 
Shrewsbury. 



ACCIDENTS 131 

Katherina Stockman who as she was a stealing Apples out of 
Mr. Michaell Merediths Orchard at Okeford gent, fell downe 
from the tree beinge the sabbath day at night and brake her 
necke. 

"1654 (Lyminge, Kent), June the 3oth. Henry Rolphe haveinge 
an hott Iron ramed into his body of wch he dyed was buried. 

"1655 (St. Mary's, Reading), Dec. 15. Cathere Eldridge a servant 
and Mary Welbanck, a chield, drowned together att the second 
bridge from the Beare for want of a raile to the bridge in 
frosty weather. 

" 1656 (Lyminge, Kent). Mary the wife of Thomas Beene who 
dyed as shee was knelinge by her Bedside praying was buried 
the 7th day of Dec. 

"1659 (Hackness, Yorks). Tewsday the Third of January was an 
exceeding stormie day and dyd drive snowe verie fearsely 
and that day towardes the Eveninge Richard Dickinson's wiffe 
of Trovdale (his house standinge under the north syde of the 
hill) shee beinge in the Chamber there fell a greate drifte of 
shelfe of snowe from the hill and drave downe the House all 
but the Chimney and the next day shee was found under the 
Thatch and snowe dead and their daughter and Child that 
war in y e Chimney were saved alive and foure horses that were 
in the Stable were Laimed and Spoyled and dyed, there 
was also a waine broken : after she was buryed the Crowner 
came and she was unburyed the xxvth day of Jann. to 
be viewed, which was now as snowy and stormey as the 
Tewsday. 

" 1667 (Litcham, Norfolk). Dorothee, the wife of Richard Collison, 
being rushed downe by a Trooper's horse as she was going in 
the street, June the i6th, dyed about an houre and a half after, 
and was buryed (when the coroner had sate upon it) June the 
eighteenth. 

"1673 (St. Benedict Fink, London). April 23, was buried Mr. 
Thomas Sharrow, Clothworker, late Churchwarden of this 
parish, killed by an accidental fall in a vault, in London Wall, 
Amen Corner, by Paternoster Row, and was supposed had 
lain there eleven days and nights before any one could tell 
where he was. Let all that read this take heed of drink. 

"1692-3 (Rushbrooke, Suffolk}, Jan. i. Mr. Thomas Jermyn, son 
of y e Right Honoble Thomas lord Jermyn by Mary his wife, 
was buried in y e South side of the Isle of Rushbrooke Church. 



r 3 2 PARISH REGISTERS 

He was borne y e first day of December 1677, and was un- 
fortunately slaine at London Dec. 27, 1692, about eleven in 
ye forenoon, by ye fall of a Mast which ye Seamen were 
raising in a stormie day, he being accidentally gotten into their 
vessel. The young Gentleman was ye only survivinge heire 
male of ye Honoble family of ye Jermyns, so that in all 
appearance ye name and race ended with his life. 

"1699 (Middleton> Lancashire}. Robert Lever, Batchellor of Arts 
and Barrister at Law, son of Robt Lever of Altrington was 
stript and murdered nere High Gate, in the County of 
Middlesex the nth day and there died and Anno setatis suae 
27 and was buried 29 July. 

"1699 (Renfield, Sussex), Jan. 3. Bur? Joseph Tysehurst a Boy 
who on Whitsunday morning fell from climbing a mag pye 
nest and was smothered in a pond of mud his heels sticking 
upright. 

"1701 (Barrow and Twyford, Derbyshire). Robert Stevenson of 
Draicott, in the Parish of Wilne, died suddenly in Barrow 
Field, near to Swarkston Field ; he had a son-in-law with hiir^ 
whom he had sent before to Swarkston with his waggon and 
six poor horses or mares (going towards the Ferry), loaden 
with cheese. He was buried in Barrow churchyard, Sunday 
2oth, but died Thursday loth; I having a paper under Mr. 
Charles Adderly's hand of Derby, coroner, to bury him Quod 
vide. He sickened in Potluckland, as he came from Utoxeter 
to Twyford and so towards Swarkston. 

"1701 (Chapel-en-le-Frithy Derbyshire). Edward Green, of Dor- 
chester, was catching a young horse, which was laid to Mr. 
Adam Bagshawe, a holding them up together, an old mare of 
Mr. Richard Bagshawe, of Castleton, stroak him of the brost 
that he dyed and was buried in the churchyard the 1 5 October. 

" 1705 (Mappleton, Derbyshire). William Mawkin, a poor old man, 
being long troubled with fitts of spitting and vomiting up blood 
and being oftentimes brought very near to deaths door by these 
fitts, was att last on ye 26 of October found dead in a field not 
far from Okeover the same day that Elizabeth, wife of Rowland 
Okeover, Esq., was interred at Okeover. The said William 
Mawkin was buried at Mapleton, on Sunday, the 28th. of 
October. 

" 1707 (Ibid.\ Dec. 8. Buried George Holmes butcher Butter- 
ton in Staffordshire, who was found dead on Mapleton Calow 



ACCIDENTS 133 

on Sunday morning last, viz. Dec. 7, having been at Ash- 
bourn market on Saturday ye 6th, and being lost in a most 
violent storm of wind and rain on Saturday night. 

"1796 (Middleton Scriven, Salop). Samuel Son of Richd. and Anne 
Cork was buried Dec r . 2d. He was killed by the kick of 
a Horse, which was forfeited to the Lord of the Manor as a 
Deodand. 

"1785 (Eyam, Derbyshire). Bur. 24 May, Mary Hall killed by 
lightning while sitting in her corner chair. 

"1804 (Chelsmforct), 26 Oct. Thirteen Hanoverians, who were 
burned to death in the fire in the Spotted Dog in the backe 
Street, Chelmsford, names unknown." 

This is followed by the burial, on November 2, of another 
Hanoverian, of whom it is also said, " name unknown." A 
few particulars of this fatal disaster are given in the 
Gentleman's Magazine of that date. Chelmsford, being 
itself a garrison town and on the direct road from the port 
of Harwich to London, frequently formed a resting-place for 
moving troops. On this occasion 120 Hanoverians arrived 
unexpectedly ; they were quartered on the premises of the 
Spotted Dog, and most of them went to sleep amid straw in 
the stables. The fire broke out in the night it is supposed 
through some of the soldiers smoking. When the alarm was 
given, owing to these foreigners misunderstanding the working 
of the latch of the door, many of them failed to escape. In 
the morning the burnt remains of thirteen of the number 
were discovered, and another soldier died shortly afterwards 
from the injuries he had received. They were buried with 
full military honours. 

A highly remarkable entry in the registers of Ashover, 
Derbyshire, warrants special mention and comment : 

" 1660. Dorothy Matly, supposed wife of John Flint, of this parish, 
foreswore herself; whereupon the ground open, and she sanke 
over hed March ist; and being found dead she was buried 
March 2 d." 



134 PARISH REGISTERS 

Full particulars of this strange event are to be found in 
that curious little known treatise of John Bunyan, The Life 
and Death of Mr. Badman, which was first published in 1680. 
Instances are therein quoted of sudden judgment for false 
swearing. 

" But above all, take that dreadful story of Dorothy Matley, an 
inhabitant of Ashover, in the county of Derby. This Dorothy 
Matley was noted by the people of the town to be a great swearer 
and curser, and liar, and thief ; and the labour that she did usually 
follow was to wash the rubbish that came forth from the lead mines, 
and there to get sparks of lead ore ; and her usual way of asserting 
things was with these kind of imprecations * I would I might sink 
into the earth if it be so,' or ' I would God would make the earth 
open and swallow me up.' Now upon the 23d of March (?) 1660, 
this Dorothy was washing of ore upon the top of a steep hill, and 
was there taxed by a lad for taking of two single pence out of his pocket 
(for he had laid his breeches by, and was at work in his drawers), 
but she violently denied it, wishing the ground might swallow her 
up if she had them. She also used the same wicked words on 
several other occasions that day. Now one George Hodgkinson, of 
Ashover, a man of good report there, came accidentally by where 
this Dorothy was, and stood still a while to talk with her as she was 
washing her ore ; there stood still also a little child by her tub side 
and another a distance from her calling aloud to her to come away ; 
wherefore the said George took the girl by the hand to lead her 
away to her that called her. But behold, they had not got above 
ten yards from Dorothy, but they heard her crying for help, so 
looking back he saw the woman, and her tub and sieve, twisting 
round and sinking into the ground. Then said the man, pray to 
God to pardon thy sin, for thou art never like to be seen alive any 
longer. So she and her tub twisted round and round till they sank 
about three yards into the earth and there for a while staid. Then 
she called for help again, thinking, as she said, she would stay there. 
Now the man, though greatly amazed, did begin to think which way 
to help her : but immediately a great stone, which appeared in the 
earth, fell upon her head and broke her skull, and then the earth 
fell in upon her and covered her. She was afterwards digged up and 
found about four yards within the ground, and the boy's two single 
two pence in her pocket, but her tub and sieve could not be found." 



ACCIDENTS 135 

Deaths through cold and snow are chiefly met with in 
registers of mountainous or hilly districts. In addition to 
those here cited, other instances can be gleaned from registers 
of parishes round Exmoor, Dartmoor, and the Lake district. 

" 1614-15 (Stamford Baron, N'hants). John Madisonne being 
perished on Spittlehill in the greate snow, buried March 10. 

" 1616 (Darky Dale, Derbyshire). John the sonne of John Ward 
was buried 1 5 Dec. Perished with cold on y e moor. 

" 1638 (Ibid.). Frances the wife of Robert Haslowe was buryed 28 
Oct. Perished with colde on y e moor. 

" 1664 (Alstonfield, Staffs], Mar. 10. Anne, w. of Tho. Hill, who 
was smothered in a snowy day on Calton Moor, bur. 

" 1684 (Willesley, Derbyshire). Timothy Anderson of Ashley who 
was found starved to death with cold within this parish was here 
buryed upon the twenty sixth day of December. 

"1692 (Eyam, Derbyshire), Feb. 4. Bur. Elizabeth Trout, starved 
to death in a snow on Sir William (a hill 1200 ft. high). 

"1743 (Ibid.}, Feb. 5. Bur. Stephen Broomhead, starved to 
death in a snow, Eyam Moor. 

"1772 (Monyash, Derbyshire), 5 Feb. Buried John Alcocke 
blacksmith and Rich >d Boham. [These two men were 
starved to death in coming from Winster market on Middleton 
Moor and brought down to Mid. Boham was a baker and was 
f d he died as they were bringing him through Fr. Black- 
wall's y d on a ladder on Monday morning. They were lost 
on Sat d night 31 Jan., and found on Monday 2 Feb. 
Alcocke was dead on the entrance to Oneash farm, and Boham 
was f d somewhere on Kenslow. The f ds of the deceased were 
g ty blamed for not having been in search on the Sunday 
(Woolley MSS 6700)]." 

Considering the numbers respectively employed in various 
forms of mining, the accidental deaths in connection with 
such occupations were probably as frequent in the past as in 
the present. The following are a few of the register-recorded 
accidents of this class : 

" 1580 (Chcsham, Bucks). Richard Moreton laborer was killed in a 
chalke pitt and buried 1 7 June. 



136 PARISH REGISTERS 

" 1582 (Ibid?). John Overstreete Jr. slayne in a pitt and buried 

i Sept. 
" 1 60 1 (Burnley, Lancashire], 25 September.- Georg Spenser of 

Clyriger, slayne in a cole pitt. 
"1604 (Walsalt), August 29. Lawrence Wilcox and John Cartter 

that were killed in the Colepitt with the earth damp. 
" 1669 (Derby Pall, Derbyshire). William Hogkinson and Robert 

Sidwell were both buried 30 July, both dampt in a grove. 

[Lead mining.] 

"1673 (Ibid.). Denis Hodgkinson was dampt in a groove, buried 8 July. 
" 1677 (Allendale, Northumberland], June 1 1. Edmund Stout, a grocer 

in Easterheads, who was killed in a groove, buried in the Church. 
" 1686 (Duffield, Derbyshire], Dec. nth. Buried Matthew Harrison 

of Belper Lane, who was killed in a pit on the Gibbett Hill. 
" 1712 (Middleton, Lancashire], 5 June. Jonathan Kaye of 

Oldham p'sh killed with Damp in a pomp pitt (i.e. a well). 
"1747 (West Hallam, Derbyshire]. Joseph Mothershaw, John 

Brown, and Charles Bennet all three killed by falling in of a Pitt 

and all buried in one grave, June 7th." 

The following are examples of interments after death 
from drowning : 

"1574 (Grantchester, Cambs). Tres Norfolciences e Collegio 
Corporis Christi, viz., Johes Butler, Thomas Orolls, Robertus 
Smith, in Amne submersi ac sepulti, 17 Maii. 

" 1591 (Desborough, Northants). George Homes Schoolmayster to 
mayster Vavyser his children at Rushton rydde to desbr in 
the evening and was drowned in desbor ryver by the willowes 
closse there uppon Munday at night betwene the houres of 
vij and viij of the clocke being the viij of Nov. and 
his horse sadle and bridle was founde in the willowes closse 
uppon the friday following the xij day and so he was buryed the 
satterday following, the xiijth day. 

"1596 (Whitburn, Durham), Sep. 4. Thomas Sharppe, Thos. 
Richeson, Thomas Willkinsone of Hartlepoule, was cast away by 
a tempest of ye Sea and was buried. 

"Sep. 1 6. Thomas Hart of Hartlepoule was cast away by the sea 
and buried. 

" 1600 (Chipping, Lancashire), 15 Auguste. Isabell Gregson alias 
Parker baste daughter of Thomas Parker of Grastonlee fil Meg 



ACCIDENTS 137 

in Botland, being by misfortunat chaunce upon a heble (plank 
bridge) goinge over was drowned over a neede an ashe, beyond 
Grastonlee my fatheres late house for want of a good bridge and 
so carried them to Humphrey linne, were founde the same day 
being Wensday the iij day of Septembe the oulde bridge being 
driven dowen by a floode before. 

" 1626 ( Whitburn, Durham), July 17. bur. John Burne, of Shecles, 
beinge Casten forth of a Cobble and spent in the sea. 

" 1654-5 (Howden, Yorks). The thirteenth of ye month of January 
being Saturday at Whitgift the ferry boat unfortunately sunke 
when John Pycocke and Marmaduke Marshall of Addingfleet 
with sixe other persons were drowned three escaped. 

"1573 (Duffield, Derbyshire). April loth. Robert Randall of 
Denbigh who going from a Cockfight at Duffield and being drunk 
fell into water above Duffield bridge and was drowned. 

" 1678 (Wallingford). Will Alcorne was buried May 17. The said 
William was drowned att Shillingford Ferry by rowing over 
himself; his horse leaping out of the boat threw him into ye 
river, as was testefied by two boys y* stood on y e shore." 

The registers of sea-board parishes frequently record the 
burials of drowned mariners and voyagers. Entries from 
three such registers must suffice. The two first relate to 
the wreck of a troopship in the Bristol Channel ; each parish 
was held responsible for the burial of those cast up within 
its limits. 

"1735 (Minehead, Somerset), February 22d. Thirty-five men 

women and children in one grave, drowned. 
"February 23rd (Ibid.\ One child and 7 men and women. 
"1735 (Dunster\ Feb. 22. 19 soldiers, a boy and two women and 

two children were buried which were drown'd ye day before. 

[Their interment cost the parish ^9, 45. 9d]." 

The registers of the sea-board parish of Whitburn, 
Durham, have frequent records of death by drowning ; four 
in 1596, one in 1607, one in 1615, one in 1625, three in 1626, 
one in 1630, six Dutchmen in 1633, one in 1641, one each in 
1701, 1705, and 1708, two in 1713, one in 1715, one in 1754, five 



138 PARISH REGISTERS 

in 1756, one each in 1759, 1766, and 1777, three in 1782, two 
in 1784, two each in 1794 and 1795, and three in 1799. 

There are various eighteenth century entries of the 
burials of drowned sailors in the registers of the sea-board 
parish of Warkworth, Northumberland : six in 1728, three 
in 1754, one in 1757, one in 1762, one in 1769, seven in 1784, 
and two in 1799. 

"1784 (Long Houghton, Northumberland^ Dec. 10. 10 sailers, 

who were lost at sea in the great storm in Dec. 1784, bur. 
"1785 (Ibid.\ March 13. A mariner supposed lost in the late 

dreadful storm in Dec. last ; the body much mangled, without 

head, legs, or thighs, bur. 
"1794 (Ibid.\ Jan. 25. 3 mariners, belonging to the May-flower 

of Alemouth, lost near Dunstenborough castle in the great 

storm of 25 inst." 

Nor must a sad tragedy that occurred on fresh water in 
1635 be omitted from these register records of drowning. 
In the register book of Grasmere, Westmoreland, for that 
year, occurs this entry : 

"The 6 of Oct. these were all drowned in Windermere Water 
in one boate coming over from Hawkshead." 

The list is headed by Mr. George Wilson of Kendal, and 
this name is followed by 45 others, in addition to 

" 2 more or 3 and 7 horses, and one that escaped." 

One tradition has it that the victims were a large wedding 
party, but a more probable supposition is that it was the 
return ferry-boat from market which upset. 

In connection with this grievous disaster, it may be 
mentioned that the parish register of Hawkshead, Lanca- 
shire, is exceptionally full of accidental deaths, although 
there is no reference to the wholesale catastrophe of 1635. 
Between 1599 and 1699 there are records among the burials 
of 14 cases of drowning, 5 of suicide by hanging, 5 instances 



ACCIDENTS 139 

of found dead, I murdered person, I murderer, and 10 of 
various fatal accidents. 

Not only do registers contain fairly numerous references 
to accidental deaths, but now and again brief records of 
escape from disaster, of which two examples are appended : 

"1661 (St. Peters, Sandwich}. The i3th of October, St. Peter's 
Church fell down. That day the same year was a Sabbath 
day, there were two sermons preached there that day, and it 
fell down within six or seven hours after the people were 
gone home, presently after one quarter of an hour past eleven 
o'clock at night. Had it fell at the time when the people 
were there, the chiefest of the Town and Parish had been 
killed, and buried under the rubbish and stone and timber; 
but the Lord was so gracious as to shew a miraculous mercy 
in that judgement, for there were no man, woman or child 
killed or hurt, and very few heard it. The Rubbish was three 
fathom deep in the middle of the church, the bells underneath it. 

"1701 (Chapel-en-le-Frith) Derbyshire]. The great bell in our 
staple was taken down to be cast upon Friday, 27 June, and 
as it was coming down the pulleys broke and the bell fell to 
the ground and brought all before it. The man who was 
above to guide it was one Ezekiel Shuttleworth, a joiner in 
this town, he seeing the pulleys break could no ways keep 
himself but came after it, a ladder with himself and a little 
crosse of iron in his hand, and yet by God's great preservation 
had little or no harm. The great bell was recast at Wigan, 
6 Aug. 1701." 

The somewhat unsavoury subject of exceptional or 
monstrous births ought not to be omitted, as such entries 
occur from time to time in parish registers. A few examples 
are appended in chronological order : 

"1545 (Kehall, Suffolk). Ano regis Henrie 8, 37, in June was 
born a wonder, a monster, whose father was Richarde Baldway, 
of Kelsall, begotten in lawefull matrimonie, whiche childe from 
the sholders upwarde had growienge ij severall neks w l ij feyr- 
heds standinge upon them in licke quantite eche heade having 
mothe, nose, eies, eares, and winde pipe goyng downe in y e 



140 PARISH REGISTERS 

throte unto y e breste, whose bodye was licke the forme and 
shape of all other children, wiche was sene to many credable 
people of Kelsall. 

"1565 (Herne, Kent). John Jarvys had two woemen children 
baptized at home joyned togethee in the belly, and havynge 
each the one of their armes lyinge at one of their own shoulders, 
and in all other parts well proportioned children, buryed 
Augt 29. 

"1601 (Chipping, Lancashire}. There was xtined at our p'ishe 
chuch at Chippin the loth of December one litle small infant 
called John Parkinson sonne of Ric Parkinson borne by Jaine 
daughter of John Salbury of the Lund y l was so small in all 
proporcens saving the length as a greate mans great long 
finger the head lyke an egg in quantit. 

"1655 (Hackness, Yorks\ Grace the wyff of William Baxster 
beinge aboute three weekes before her tyme was brought in 
bedd the first day of December aboute three of the Clocke 
in the afternoone of two children. Their bellies were growne 
and joyned together from their breastes to their navells but 
their navells might be seen and their faces were together but 
the supposed man child was not soe longe as the daughter, 
in that his face reached but to the chine of the other. [The 
remainder of the long description is too unpleasant to print. 
These twins were buried on December 2.] 

"1672-3 (Hillingdon, Middlesex), March i2th. William, the Son 
of John Poker and Jane his Wife, natus, renatus, denatus 
die eodem, summa scilicet Dei miseratione tarn in puerum 
quam in parentes, cum monstrosus fuit Infans non ex defectu 
sed excessu partium, una cum conformatione aliarum haud bona. 

"1688 (Carsington, Derbyshire), September 29. Sarah Tissington, 
a poor young woman, born into the world without any hands 
or arms, yet was very nimble and active in the use of her 
feet, with which she could not only take up things from the 
ground, and play at most childish games with her play fellows 
when she was a child ; but also, when grown up, she could 
knit, dig in the garden, and do divers other services with her 
feet; she was aged 24 or 25 years, and departed this life the 
day and year aforesaid ; born and buried at Carsington. 

" 1690 (Mitcham, Surrey). Anne, the Daughter of George Washford, 
who had 24 fingers and toes, baptized Oct. 19. 

"1738 (Dorking, Surrey), May 16. Richard Madderson, aged 



ACCIDENTS 141 

29 years, and was not above three feet and three inches high ; 
but in thickness grown as much as any other person. He 
was all his life troubled with a griping distemper, of which 
he at last died very suddenly. 

"1758 (Mine/iead, Somerset). Christopher Jones who was born of 
April last without arms or legs but otherwise perfect." 



CHAPTER IX 
THE PLAGUE AND OTHER SICKNESS 

The Sweating Sickness The Plague in London In Northampton- 
shire In Derbyshire The Eyam episode Plague burial in 
Cheshire The Plague in the Midland Counties In the 
North of England In the Eastern Counties In the South and 
West The tragedy of the Dawson household The tragedy 
at Great Hampden Small-pox Inoculation Influenza 
Scarlet fever Obstruction Lithotomy The Royal Touch for 
scrofula 

I 

REGISTER entries making definite reference to the 
"Sweating Sickness" of 1551 are very rare. They 
were probably numerous in the originals*, but were 
omitted, with many other notes, for the sake of brevity, 
when the parchment transcripts were made at the end of 
Elizabeth's reign. The sweating sickness or " English 
Sweat," a remarkable form of disease, apparently quite dis- 
tinct from the plague or any kind of pestilential fever, first 
broke out in England in 1485 with dire results, killing in 
London in one week two successive Lord Mayors and six 
aldermen. It broke out again in 1507, in 1517, and in 1528. 
There was only one occurrence of it within the registration 
period, namely, the fifth and last attack which happened in 
1.551. It first appeared at Shrewsbury on I3th April, and 
after spreading to other towns in Wales and the Midlands, 
reached London, where it caused the deaths of 751 persons 
in a single week. By the end of July it ceased in London, 

went through the east of England northwards, and died out 

142 







MOMPESSON'S WELL, KYAM 



PLAGUE AND OTHER SICKNESS 143 

by the end of September. It has never, happily, again made 
its appearance. The disease began with suddenness, and was 
characterised by its extremely rapid and fatal course; it 
affected the rich more than the poor, especially those of dis- 
sipated life. 

The registers of Loughborough, Leicestershire, have the 
following entry under 1551 : 

" The sweat called New Acquaintance, alias Stoupe Knave and 
know thy Master, began 24 June." 

The registers of Uffcolme, Devon, make mention, in 
August 1551, of "The stupgallant or the hote sicknesse." 
These various names arose from the grievous way in which 
young men of fashion in full health and strength were seized 
almost in an instant. Hancock, in his Autobiography -, 
says : 

" God plagued thys realme most justly for our sinns with three 
notable plages: The first was the posting swet, that posted from 
towne to towne throughe England, and was named stop gallant, for 
hytt spared none, for ther were dauncyng in the courte at 9 a'clocke 
thatt were deadd on eleven a clocke." 

This awful sickness fluctuated to the beautiful valley of 
the Wye, Derbyshire. By the side of the marriage entries 
of the parish of Darley Dale for the year 1551 is written, 
" The sweate was this yeare." On referring to the burials, 
this note is found : 

" Nine persons were buried from the 5th of Julye till the i oth, 
which dyed of y e sweatinge sickenes." 

There are a few references to this visitation in the London 
registers. Three deaths are entered in the register book 
of St. Dionis, Backchurch, under 1551, as dying from 
this awfully sudden disorder, and eleven in the register of 
St. Antholin, headed, " In the time of y e sweating July." At 



i 4 4 PARISH REGISTERS 

St. Martin-in-the-Fields, two of the 1551 burials are followed 
by the words ex sudore. 

In Canon Bardsley's elaborate edition of the register of 
Ulverston (1886), it is stated in the introduction that the 
town was visited by the plague in 1551. It came with great 
suddenness, and though it stayed but a fortnight, its ravages 
were calculated to fill the hearts of the people with horror. 
This is all true save for the word " plague " ; for this should 
be substituted that totally different epidemic, the fearful 
Sweating Sickness. The registers do not name the epidemic, 
but the year makes it quite clear. In 1549 and in 1550 
there was but a single interment entered for the month of 
August, but in that month in 1551 the burials numbered 
forty-two. 

The name Plague, or Pestis, used to be given to almost 
any epidemic disease which resulted in considerable mortality; 
but by the time that registration began in England the term 
had begun to be chiefly applied to a specific and awfully 
fatal disease, otherwise known as Oriental, or Bubonic 
Plague. 

The plague was bad in London in 1537-9, and again 
in 1547-8. In the year 1550 parts of London were 
afflicted ; there are a considerable number of entries of 
deaths from plague in the register of St. Martin-in-the- 
Fields, beginning on 27th March. It raged with greater 
intensity in 1563-4, a thousand dying weekly, it is said, for 
several months. The first register book of St. Andrew's, 
Holborn, under date 23rd July 1563, has the entry " Here 
began the great plague." This is followed by : 

" 4 Feb. 1563-4. Here by God's mercy the plague did cease, whereof 
died in the parish this year to the number of four hundred four 
score and ten." 

This year's epidemic was also severe in the parish of 






PLAGUE AND OTHER SICKNESS 145 



St. Martin-in-the-Fields ; there are 177 burials entered in the 
register, 145 of which are followed by the word peste. In 
the register book of St. Michael, Cornhill, under 1563, there 
is an entry before nth June "The beginning of the plague 
in this p'she " ; there were 202 burials for that year, whilst 
the burials for 1562 and 1564 were 25 and 15 respectively. 
In many registers during this and later plague epidemics 
there is no specific mention of the plague, but the immense 
growth in the number of burials at once points to something 
abnormal. This is clearly shown in the following brief table, 
where the number of burials for 1562-3-4 are set forth as 
taken from the registers of six city parishes : 





Burials. 




1562 


1563 


1564 


All Hallowes, London Wall . 


15 


85 


8 


St. Antholin .... 


15 


83 


21 


St. Mary, Aldermary 


13 


128 


9 


St. Mary, Woolnoth 


15 


88 


8 


St. Nicholas, Aeon 


5 


58 


8 


St. Peter's, Cornhill 


19 


169 


18 



The registers of St. Margaret's, Westminster, show how 
grievous was the visitation in that parish. Its first record is 
on 23rd June. On 27th September 14 cases of plague 
sickness were interred. At St. James', Clerkenwell, the 
registered deaths during 1563 numbered 172, whereas the 
average about that period was only 30. 

In 1575 a plague wave passed over Europe, and made 
some impression in England. At St. Martin-in-the-Fields 
there were fifty-three deaths from plague in that year, three in 
1576, and thirteen in 1577. The registers of St. Margaret's, 
Westminster, contain plague entries from 1574 to 1583. The 

10 



146 PARISH REGISTERS 

City rector of All Hallows, London Wall, of this period, 
usually entered the cause of death in his register ; for the 
year 1575 three deaths are recorded from plague, and among 
other causes may be mentioned " surfett," fever, pining sick- 
ness, " dyed of worms," " plurysey," " strangulation and the 
stone," ague, cough, " squinancie," and " pyning sickness and 
thought taking." Comparatively mild or local outbreaks 
continued to occur right through the reign of Elizabeth. 
Thus, in this same All Hallows register, eight cases of death 
from the plague are entered in 1581, nineteen in 1582, seven 
in 1583, and threein 1585. Thirty-three deaths from plague 
are entered in the register of St. Michael's, Cornhill, for 
1582-3. 

One of London's greatest plagues culminated in 1593. 
At St Martin's-in-the-Fields, 22 burials are followed by the 
word peste in 1592, whilst the like fateful words accompany 
no fewer than 169 entries in 1593. 

The deaths in the three years preceding 1593 in the 
parish of St. Peter's, Cornhill, were 24, 28, and 17 respectively ; 
but in 1595 they rose to 83. At the end of the entries for 
that year are the following comments : 

"Thear dyed in London in all, . . . 25,886 

Of them of the plague in all, . . . 15,003 

Within the walles and liberties, . . 8598 

Without, in and out of liberties, . . 17,288 

" In a thousand five hundred ninety and three, 
The Lord preserved my house and me. 
When of the pestilence theare died, 
Full maine a thousand els beside." 

There are 64 deaths registered at St. Mary's, Aldermary, 
as occurring through the plague in 1593. Out of the 122 
burials during the same period at All Hallows, London Wall, 
65 are entered as caused by the plague. In the small parish 
of St. Christopher Stocks, there were 29 burials during that 



PLAGUE AND OTHER SICKNESS 147 

year, and against 1 5 of them " plague " is written in the 
margin. The register of St. Dionis, Backchurch, records 83 
deaths for 1 593 ; the word plague only occurs in a single 
case, but it is quite clear that this heavy roll was caused 
by some unwonted epidemic, for the average burials of the 
period were only nine a year. The death-roll of St. James 
Clerkenwell, sprang up to 330. 

There are a few definite plague deaths recorded in London 
registers for 1599, but with the accession of James I in 1603 
came another terrible outbreak, which cost the metropolis 
about 30,000 lives. The register book of St. Peter's, 
Cornhill, has the following notes at the close of the year : 

" From the 23 of December 1602 to 22 of December 

1603, buried in this parish in all: num : . . 158 

Of them of the plague . . . 87 

Buried in all this yeare both without and within 

the liberties, and in the 8 out parishes from 14 Julie 38,244 

Of them of the plague . . . . 30,578" 

The burials in the parish of St. Mary, Aldermary, in 1603, 
numbered 104; in the following year they only numbered 
12; but in 1605 the plague returned, and there were 97 
burials. All Hallows, London Wall, records the frightfully 
heavy death-roll of 245 ; in 1602 the burials only numbered 
23, and in 1604 but 20. In the parish of St. Michael's, 
Cornhill, the register enters 149 burials for 1603, most of 
whom are definitely said to have died of the plague ; in 1604 
the burials merely numbered 14. There was a like terrible 
ratio of increase in the death penalty in the parish of St. 
Mary, Woolnoth, for the burials numbered 117 in 1603, and 
only 7 in the following year. Although there is no mention 
of the plague in the register of St. Dionis, Backchurch, the 
burial roll, which averaged about 12, leapt up in this fateful 
year to 129. At St. James, Clerkenwell, the visitation was 
appalling, for the burials numbered 784 in 1603, and more 



148 PARISH REGISTERS 

than twice the number who fell during the pestilence of 1593. 
Out of these burials 336 of them occurred in the month of 
August. 

The plague raged vehemently in St Margaret's, West- 
minster, between June 1603 and September 1604. On nth 
September 1603, 20 who had died of the plague were buried, 
and 21 on 2Oth October. 

In the then thinly populated parish of Kensington the 
visitation made itself felt. The register states, under 1603, 
that "In this yeare was the great plague " ; the burials in 
1603 were 31, whilst in 1602 they were 9, and in 1605 on ty 
5. Within a few days one Richard Spervigg, his wife, three 
sons, and a daughter, were all buried. The entry as to the 
wife says : 

" Nov. 2. Alee wife of Richard Spervigg, the most thicke and 
stink'g misty day y* ever was." 

The plague continued to simmer on for several years. 
In the register of St. Michael's, Cornhill, 13 plague deaths 
were recorded in 1606, and 2 in 1607. The second serious 
plague year for London during the seventeenth century was 
1609, when the total mortality was 11,785. 

From 1609 London seems to have enjoyed an almost 
complete immunity from this epidemic. But the plague was 
reserving its forces for the year of the accession of Charles I ; 
in 1625 the mortality bounded up to over 35,000. 

"St. Afary, Aldermanbury . In the year 1625, Mr. Downing, the 
Curate of this Parish, his wife, three of his children, and the Parish 
Clerk, were victims to the plague, and the consequence was that a 
hundred names were entered in the Register from recollection." 

The burials in the parish of St. Mary, Woolnoth, for that 
year amounted to 81. In the registers of the little parish 
of St. Christopher Stocks, 33 of the deaths of 1625 are 
marked " plague." The burials for that year in the parish 



The Fearef nil Summer: 



Loncfons Calamitie, The Countries Di(coui> 

tefiCj And both their M'iferie. 

Printed by Aurhoritie in Oxford, in the laft grcai Infb<^ion of the 
Plague, 1^*5. And now reprintedVichfome Editions^ 



concealing this prclentyeerc, 1 636 
un of the grievous und^tffliBed eftate o 
of 2^-Gi Jl/c Upon Tine, with fome other vifited TO.WHCS 

01 this Kingdoms. 



By JOHN TAYLOR 




TITLE-PAGE OF " FEAREFULL SUMMER. 
FIRST PRINTED IN 1625. 



i5o PARISH REGISTERS 

of St. Dionis, Backchurch, were 103, immensely in excess of 
the average. It is noted that in eight cases they were buried 
without a coffin, denoting hasty interment, for uncoffined 
burials were only exceptional at that date in towns. The 
burials at St. Michael's, Cornhill, for 1625, numbered 33; in 
1624 they were II, and in 1626 only 10. The death-rate in 
the parish of St. James, Clerkenwell, for this year was 
appalling: the burials numbered 1120. No fewer than 557 
plague victims were buried at St. Margaret's, Westminster, 
in the one month of September 1648. 

Eleven years later came a fresh incursion of the plague 
in London, when the general mortality was 10,400. Some of 
the registers bear obvious witness to this epidemic, but it 
would be tedious to give figures illustrative of this less fierce 
epidemic of 1636. In 1637, in 1641, and again in 1647, 
the registers give proof of minor attacks, when the London 
deaths from the plague were comparatively heavy. 

After this last date there came a lull of nearly twenty 
years in the storm waves of this foul disease, which, in 
contrast to the sweating sickness, was ever most destructive 
in squalid, dirty neighbourhoods, and was so specially 
prevalent among the lower orders that it was often called the 
Poor's Plague. This long continued immunity from attack 
caused even the usual sanitary precautions of those days to 
be neglected, whilst a general carelessness and coarseness of 
living characterised the earlier years of the restoration of the 
monarchy. At length, in 1665, nature took her revenge in a 
terrific onslaught on humanity, resulting in what will ever 
be known as The Great Plague of London. The approach 
of the storm was not without its heralds. A few isolated 
cases of plague occurred in the Westminster parishes of St. 
Giles and St. Martin in November 1664, and a few occurred 
in the ensuing winter. The real outbreak began in May 
1665, and it took about six months to travel from the 



LONDON^ 

LAMENTATION. 

Ora fit admonifhment (or Gey 
and Countrey, 

Wherein is dcfcribed certainc caufes of this affli&ion and vi- 
fitationof the Plague t yeare 164.1. which the Lord hath 
been pleafrd to inflid upon us,and witliall what meanes 
muft be ufed to theLord,to gaine his mercy and favor, 
with an excellent fpirituall medicine to be ufcd 
for theprefervative both of Body and Soule. 




London,Printedby E. P. for lohn Wright Junior 

TITLE-PAGE OF "LONDON'S LAMENTATION." 

FIRST PRINTED IN 1641. 



152 PARISH REGISTERS 

western suburbs of Westminster across the city to the 
eastern suburbs of Stepney. The mortality rose from 43 
in May to 590 in June, to 6137 in July, to 17,036 in August, 
and to the appalling total of 31,159 in September, after which 
it began to decline. According to the bills of mortality, the 
total number of plague deaths in 1665 was 68,596. This 
fearful total would doubtless have been enormously increased, 
but it is estimated that about two-thirds of a population of 
460,000 fled into the country to escape the contagion. 

No thorough and reliable history of the Great Plague of 
London has yet been written. Trustworthy contemporary 
references and statements are to be found in the diaries of 
Evelyn, and of that cowardly self-lover, Pepys. As to 
Defoe's fascinating and apparently realistic Journal of a 
Citizen^ it is but a highly imaginative work of fiction, based 
upon vague recollections and untrustworthy hearsay. It 
may be well to set forth a few facts gleaned from the 
parochial registers. 

The first plague entry of 1665 in the register book of 
St. Paul's, Covent Garden, occurs on I2th April; it is distin- 
guished by the letters pla. The future cases have, for the 
most part, the full word. The plague deaths during the year 
were 219, and were thus divided: May, I ; June, 3; July, 
17; August, 43; September, 97; October, 41; November, 
II ; and December, 3. There was a slight outbreak in this 
parish in the summer of 1666, when there were 8 fatal 
cases. 

The register books of St. Margaret's, Westminster, show 
that the first burial after death from the plague in that parish 
occurred on I4th June, and from that date until the end of 
August there were upwards of 200 such interments. The 
plague-marked burials for September were 263, and for 
October, 147. In November the numbers dropped to 77, in 
December to 39, and in January, 1665-6, to 13. The total 



PLAGUE AND OTHER SICKNESS 153 

plague burials were 759, but the actual number of deaths 
was probably much in excess of this total ; for there are 
many gaps left in the registers for both September and 
October, pointing to hasty and irregular interments, intended 
to be subsequently filled up. 

Further to the west, the then sparsely populated but 
large parish of Kensington did not escape. The register 
for 1665 has 23 plague-marked entries. 

The plague took over five weeks in moving from West- 
minster to the city parish of St. Olave, Hart Street, as 
shown by the following entry : 

"1665, 24 July. May, daughter of William Ramsey, on of the 

Drap's almesmen, and y* first reported to dye of y e plague 

in this p'rish since this visitac'on ; and was buryed in y e new 
ch.yd." 

Twelve days earlier, namely, on Wednesday, I2th July, 
there had been collected in the church of St. Olave 

" Y e some of thirty-eight shillings, being y* first day apoynted to 
be kept as a day of publique humiliac'on for averting y e plague of 
pestilence." 

Between 24th July and 5th December 326 burial entries 
with the significant " P " prefixed to them, are to be noted 
in these registers. 

The registers of St. Dunstan's for this terrible year 
record 856 burials, 568 of which are t distinguished by the 
plague initial. 

Among the registers of the smaller city parishes, St. 
Dionis, Backchurch, shows a mortality for this year of 75 ; 
St. Mary, Aldermary, 97 ; St. Nicholas, Aeon, enters 27 inter- 
ments distinguished by "Plague," " Plag," or "PL" The 
parish of St. Thomas the Apostle gives a death-roll of 158 
for 1665, whilst there were but 27 interments in 1664, and 
only 13 in 1666. 



154 PARISH REGISTERS 

At St. Peter's, Cornhill, the total mortality for 1665 was 
121, and the interments are for the most .part distinguished 
by "Plague" or "PI"; in 1666 there are only 16 burials 
registered. 

The mortality was awful in the widespread parish of 
Stepney, to the east of the city; the deaths for the year 
actually numbered 6583, including 116 sextons and grave- 
diggers. 

In concluding these references to plague entries in the 
London registers it may be remarked that no registers are 
more distinct in this matter than those of St. Olave's, Hart 
Street. Six distinct visitations of the plague appear in the 
books of that parish, (i) In 1563,49 persons were buried 
in September, and 43 in October. (2) In 1578 the registers 
record the burial of 15 persons in September. 12 of whom 
died of the plague. Under 5th November occurs this 
entry : 

" Was buried Mr. John Hodgesonne woolwynder late church- 
warden of the p 1 who died before he had given up his accounts." 

(3) The third visitation occurred in 1593. Three who died 
from the plague were buried u in one pit" on I9th August. 
Of one household, a son, a daughter, and three servants died 
within a few days. (4) This parish suffered severely from 
the plague in 1603-4, especially among infants and children; 
107 burials are recorded between 24th March 1603, and 
3<Dth January 1604. (5) The next plague year, 1625, was 
yet more fatal ; there were actually 229 interments in the 
four summer months of June, July, August, and September. 
(6) The references to the great plague fear of 1665, which 
only spared 4 sparsely populated parishes out of 130 
in and around the city of London, have already been 
given. 

Several other parishes, in the vicinity of London, in 



PLAGUE AND OTHER SICKNESS 155 

addition to those already mentioned, afford record evidence 
of pestilence. 

Thus the registers of Twickenham show that 67 persons 
died of the plague in 1605, and 24 in 1615. 

Northampton, on the great north road from London, was 
for many centuries subject to a continuous stream of travellers 
passing to and fro, and hence was peculiarly liable to 
infection. In 1570 the plague broke out in the town in the 
autumn, and on I3th October the Assembly ordered all the 
infected houses to be marked on the doors with " Lord have 
mercye uppon us." The inscription was to be kept on the 
door for twenty days after any death, the visited inmates 
confined strictly to their houses, and victuals distributed at 
the public cost. This plague did not die out until the end 
of March 1579. 

Northampton took stringent precautions to prevent the 
terrible plague that visited England at the time of the 
accession of James I entering the town, including the setting 
of day and night watchmen on the south and west roads 
outside the walls. But the sickness obtained foothold in 
September 1603, an ^ after ceasing in 1604, broke out again 
yet more severely in October 1605, when nearly 500 perished. 
There was a still worse visitation in 1638, when the death- 
rate leapt up in all four parishes at an alarming rate. In 
the register-book of St. Sepulchre's for this year, the following 
entry occurs among the burials on 29th March : " Att which 
time the sickness beegan." It had run its course by the end 
of the year, for on ist January is entered : " Att which time 
the Lord bee praised the sickness ceased." In this parish the 
deaths in 1638 were 114, though the average number for the 
adjacent five years was only 18. 

The following table, compiled by the Rev. R. M. Ser- 
jeantson from the registers of the four Northampton par- 
ishes, shows the mortality during the visitations of 1578 



156 



PARISH REGISTERS 



1603, 1605, and 1638, together with the usual death 
average : 





Deaths 


Average 


Deaths 


Deaths 


Average 


Deaths 


Average 




in 


for 


in 


in 


for 


in 


for 




1578. 


5 Years. 


1603. 


1605. 


5 Years. 


1638. 


5 Years. 


All Saints . 


134 


47 


107 


411 


91 


247 


76 


St. Giles . 


21 


10 


20 


I2 3 


22 


I8 5 


21 


St. Peter . 


9 


4 


16 


26 


6 


19 


7 


St. Sepulchre 


16 


7 


88 


65 


20 


114 


18 


Total . 


180 


68 


231 


625 


139 


565 


122 



















In many cases plague is written before these burial 
entries ; in other instances /. or pest. Northampton again 
suffered heavily from the plague in 1647, when "a new peste 
house remote from the towne " was wisely provided ; but the 
registers for this period are either missing or defective. 1 

References to the spread of the plague into different parts 
of Northamptonshire are met with in various parish registers 
of the county. At Grendon, in 1603, "a stranger dyed in 
the hall close and there buried in regard of infeccon the xx th 
of November." The same register has twelve entries of 
death from the plague in 1605. 

The register of St. Martin's, Stamford Baron, the parish 
of Stamford within the county of Northampton, contains 
evidence of the grievous character of the visitation of 1604. 
No fewer than 125 names are there entered " wch departed 
by the sicknes namely the plague " ; included amongst them 
is one who was "a falconer of Burghley." It may here be 
mentioned that the same register gives sixteen deaths from 
the plague in 1642. 

1 The action of the Assembly or Town Council during all these epidemics, 
from 1578 to 1647, was for the most part vigorous and much in advance of what 
might have been expected. See Northampton Borough Records (by Rev. Dr. 
Cox), vol. ii. 233-40. 



PLAGUE AND OTHER SICKNESS 157 

Another visitation was brought about in the far north of 
the county towards the close of 1606, when the dread infection 
was brought from London, as is set forth in the registers of 
St. John's, Peterborough : 

"1606, Dec. 1 6. Henry Renoulds was buryed Henry came from 
London, where he dwelt, sicke of the plague and being 
receyved by William Browne died in his house. The saide 
William soon after fell sicke of the plague and died and so did 
his sonne, his daughter, and his servant : only his wyfe and her 
mayde escaped with soars. The plague brought by this means 
to Peterburgh continued there till September following." 

When the plague was raging in the county town in 1638, 
it spread from Northampton to the retired village of Wold. 
Under that year occurs the register entry : 

"At this tyme the plague was in the towne : of wch there dyed 
1 8, not such a moneth (April-May) to be seen in all this Booke, 
but it pleased Almightie God to turne from wrath to mercie so y* 
there did no one dye for a long tyme after blesed be his name. 

" 1638, 24 Sept. Ann Rendall a poor woman who did attend on y e 
infected was buryed." 

In the neighbouring parish of Holcot there was a grievous 
visitation in the same year ; the register shows that the death 
rate, which averaged seven about that period, rose to sixty. 

The Great Plague of London, 1664-5, was reflected in 
different parts of Northamptonshire. At Barton Seagrave, 
in 1665, seven members of the household of John Norton 
died of the plague ; after the sixth entry follows : 

" God of his mercy sanctify this sad Providence and remove it 
fro among us if it bee thy will ! (Even now) Elizabeth Crue (nurse 
at John Norton's) dyed and was buryed Novemb 13 th 1665. Note. 
Here through y e infinite (and never to be forgotten) mercy of 
O r God y e plague was stayed." 

In the small parish of Yardley Hastings, 60 burials from 
the plague are entered between 5th June and 3rd January, 



158 PARISH REGISTERS 

1665. Then occurs, " Mary Brown died naturally not of 
this distemper." 

Considering its breezy elevation, natural drainage, and 
great distance from all port contamination, the small county 
of Derby seems to have been exceptionally subject to 
plague visitation, according to register testimonies, during 
the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. At a much 
earlier date, this county probably suffered more severely 
from the horrors of the Black Death of 1349 than any 
other part of the kingdom. The episcopal registers at 
Lichfield yield appalling proof of the deadly character of 
this scourge so far as the clergy were concerned. The Derby- 
shire benefices at that period subject to episcopal institution 
numbered 108. The average annual number of institutions 
to these benefices throughout the century was seven ; in 
1346 they numbered four, in 1347 two, and in 1348 eight ; 
but in 1349 the number leapt up to sixty-three, and in the 
following year to forty-one. Seventy-seven beneficed priests 
of Derbyshire (more than two-thirds of the whole number) 
died in that one dread period, and twenty-two more resigned. 
Nor were the regular clergy more fortunate ; the abbots of 
Beauchief, Dale, and Darley, the prior of Gresley, the prior 
of the Derby Dominicans, and the prioress of Kingsmead 
were among the victims. If death thus seized upon the 
beneficed clergy and on the superiors of religious houses, it is 
reasonable to suppose that the parochial chaplains, and the 
ordinary canons, monks, nuns, and friars, suffered at least 
as badly. It is by no means unlikely that the rest of the 
population died off in a like proportion, and that two-thirds 
of the inhabitants of this county were swept away within a 
twelvemonth. 1 

A highly interesting and exceptionally full fourteenth- 

1 See Preface to vol. iv. of Dr. Cox's Churches of Derbyshire for fuller 
particulars. 



PLAGUE AND OTHER SICKNESS 159 

century chartulary of the chantries pertaining to the church 
of Crich, Derbyshire, shows the ravages that took place in 
1349 in the single household of the Wakebridges of Wake- 
bridge, one of the most wealthy and healthily situated in 
the whole county. The calendar of obits observed by the 
chantry priests of 1350 foundation shows that Sir William 
de Wakebridge, the founder, buried in 1349 a brother on 
1 7th April, a sister-in-law on 28th May, a second brother on 
1 5th June, a third brother on nth July, his father and a sister 
on 5th August, and his wife and a second sister on nth 
August. 

The earliest parochial register of Derbyshire of a plague 
death occurs in the first register book of Darley Dale; this 
parish was visited by the plague in the spring of 1558. 

"1557-8. Agnes Buxton dyed of y e plague and was buried the 

i st March. 
" 1558. Alice Stafford dyed of y e plague and was buryed 14 th 

April." 

There are five other like entries during April. 

During the years 1592-3, Derby suffered most grievously. 
The following entries occur in the first register book of 
All Saints : 

" 1592, Sept. Ricus films Willmi Sowter Sep 31 die ex peste. The 
Plauge began in Darby in the house of William Sowter 
bootcher, in the parishe of All Sts in Darby, Robertt Woode 
Ironmonger and Robertt Brookhouse y e Tanner beinge then 
bayliffes, and so continued in the Towne the space of 12 
moneths at y e least as by the Register may appeare. 

" I 593) Oct. 2 9- About this tyme the plauge of pestilence, by the 
great mercy and goodness of almighty god, stayed past all 
expectacions of man, for it ceased upon a sodayne at what time 
it was dispersed in every corner of this whole parishe, there 
was not two houses together free from it, and yet the Lord had 
the angell stey as in David's tyme, his name be blessed for ytt. 
Edward Bennett, minister." 



160 PARISH REGISTERS 

This register book shows how very destructive the plague 
was in the house where it first occurred. Richard Sowter's 
death on 3ist September was followed by that of his mother, 
Alice, on 25th November, by his brother and sister, Edward 
and Maria, on 2pth November, by his brother John on 
5th December, and by his father, William, on 8th December. 
There are 255 entries of plague death in this parish from 
September 1592 to October 1593. The registers of St. 
Alkmund's record 91 plague deaths during the like period, and 
those of St. Michael's 21 ; whilst those of St. Peter's and St. 
Werburgh's, though not specifying the cause, record 50 and 
57 deaths respectively, the average in each case for the five 
adjacent years being only five. 

In 1637 there are 59 plague deaths entered in All Saints' 
registers and 9 in those of St Alkmund. The registers 
of St. Peter's record 16 deaths from the like cause in 
1586, and 63 in 1645 ; in the latter year it is stated that "the 
plague was in Darby and the assizes kept in Fryers Close." 
Hutton, the entertaining but imaginative historian of Derby, 
gives a graphic account of the condition of Derby during the 
plague of 1665, which, he says, visited this town at the same 
time that it devastated London. Had he referred to the 
register books of the five old parishes of Derby, he would 
have been saved from this bad blunder ; the death rate for 
that year was normal throughout the town. 

Chesterfield was severely visited in 1586-7. After a 
burial on 7th October, 1586, it is written in a later hand on 
the margin of the register " Here began the great Plague 
in Chesterfield." From this date up to November 1587 the 
deaths very far exceeded the average. The visitation carried 
off whole households. Of a family named Harry, Humphrey 
and Robert, sons of Robert, were buried on 24th October, 
1586; Robert himself, and Elizabeth his servant, on 3Oth 
October; Jane, Robert's wife, on 2nd November; John, son 



PLAGUE AND OTHER SICKNESS 161 

of Nicholas Harry, on I2th November; and Nicholas on 25th 
November. 

The Chesterfield register for October 1603 has, in a 
parenthesis, the words, " Plague at Brimington." Briming- 
ton was then a township and chapelry of Chesterfield. In 
Dr Pegge's Collections at the College of Arms (vol. iv.) there 
is a reference to this severe visitation. He says that at that 
time " Goodacre bridge was pulled down to prevent com- 
munication, and never rebuilt " ; the victims were buried at 
Brimington. 

The same register book has a marginal note, after a 
burial on 2/th February 1608-9, to tne following effect: 
" Here began the latter Plague in Chesterfield. I Plague in 
1586." Judging, however, from the actual entries of burial, 
this visitation was not nearly so serious as its predecessor. 

The township of Belper, Derbyshire, was a mere chapelry 
of the widespread parish of Duffield until the nineteenth 
century. The ground round the ancient thirteenth-century 
chapel was not consecrated for burial until 1793. But the 
chapel yard had been largely used for burial in a time of 
dire necessity at a much earlier date. In 1609 tne plague so 
grievously afflicted the then small population of Belper, that 
between ist May and 3<Dth September 53 persons died of the 
plague and were interred by the chapel. The following Latin 
entry, giving their names, is taken from the Duffield register: 

"Insuper hoc anno 1609 a primo die Maii usque de ultimo Sep- 
tembris omnes quorum nomina hie conscribuntur mortui sunt de 
Plaga apud Belpare et eorum corpora juxta capella ibm humantur. 
Videz. Ux. Johis Bullivant cum due-bus pueris, Alicia Taylor, Eliza- 
betha Berdesley, Willm Streyte, Willm Berdesley, Thomas Berdesley 
curn filiis suis, Hugo Ashberie et ejus filiis, Radus Martyn, Willm 
Martyn, Jones Jackson et ux. ejus cum duobus pueris, ux. Willm 
Berdesley cum Pedlere (sic), Alicia Berdesley, Thomas Robynson, 
Johes Nieson et ux. ejus, Anna Myllners, Vid. Collier cum puero, 
Thomas Belye et ux. ejus cum puero, mater Thome Berdesley cum 
ii 



162 PARISH REGISTERS 

puero, ux. Willm Ryley, Johes Browne et ux. ejus, Johes Peate et ux. 
ejus cum duobus pueris, Thomas Birkynshawe cum famulo et puero, 
ux. Thome Banforth, ux. Anthonii Fletcher cum puero, Willm Clewes 
cum puero, Georgius Brinckshawe, Arthurus Cleton et ux. ejus, 
Willm Potter, Johes Hardwycke in numero Quinquegint' tres." 

This visitation of 1609 can also be traced, though to 
nothing like so grave an extent, in the registers of other 
parts of Derbyshire. Thus at Dronfield there is the entry 
of the death from plague of William Townsend, curate of 
Holmesfield, who was buried on 24th March, 1608-9, m 
the chapel-yard of that hamlet. 

The famous story of the plague in the retired Derbyshire 
village of Eyam has been so graphically told in prose by 
William Wood in his History of Eyam (first published in 
1843), which has passed through numerous editions, and has 
also been so well sung in the poetry of Mary Howitt, that 
only a brief register summary of this extraordinarily virulent 
attack need be here attempted. Eyam was a village of some 
350 inhabitants in a hollow of the Derbyshire hills, with no 
resident doctor, but two ministers. The one was the rector, 
the Rev. William Mompesson, a young man of 27, with a 
wife and two children ; the other was the Rev. Thomas 
Stanley, a rector under the Commonwealth, ejected for non- 
conformity in 1662. Both of them played heroic parts 
during the epidemic. 

The first victim was George Vicars, who is said to have 
received the fatal infection in a box of tailor's patterns from 
London. The register shows that he was buried on /th 
September, 1665. The next victim was Edward Cooper, 
who was buried on 22nd September, and there were four 
other interments from the like cause later in the month. In 
October the numbers had grown to 23 ; the plague deaths 
during the next six months fluctuated from four to nine. The 
total of those who had perished from the pest up to the 



PLAGUE AND OTHER SICKNESS 163 

beginning of June, 1666, was 77. This number out of 
a population of about 350 was sufficiently grievous; but 
the fury of the plague then broke out with renewed vigour, 
claiming 19 victims in June, 56 in July, and 77 in August ; 
by the end of this last month nearly four-fifths of the inhabi- 
tants had been swept away. During the latter part of June 
the little churchyard perforce closed its gates ; funeral rites 
were no longer read, no one thought of coffin or shroud, 
and the dead were hastily hidden out of sight in some 
shallow grave or hole dug in the fields or in the gardens 
round the cottages. The plague then began to slacken, in 
fact there were but few fresh victims to be found ; never- 
theless 24 died of the pest in September. This left but a 
total population of 45, and out of that small total 14 more 
perished in the beginning of October. The last victim was 
buried on October n, and then at last it might be said that 
the plague ceased, after having slain fully five-sixths of the 
inhabitants. 

If it had not been for the authority of Mompesson, to 
which the inhabitants bravely assented, the plague would in 
all probability have spread to many of the surrounding 
parishes. A boundary line was drawn round the village, 
about half a mile in circuit, and marked by various familiar 
objects, beyond which no one was to go. One of the August 
victims was Catherine Mompesson, the rector's wife, but 
the rector himself, as well as his maid-servant, escaped the 
infection. In 1669 Mompesson left Eyam for the rectory 
of Eakring, Notts, where he married again and died in 
1708. 

Let the ground round the village be honoured and 
hallowed, says the historian of Eyam, for there 

' ' The dead are everywhere ! 

The mountain rich ; the plain ; the woods profound ; 
All the lone dells, the fertile and the fair, 
Are one vast burial ground." 



PARISH REGISTERS 

One of these plague burial places, a quarter of a mile from 
the village, known as Riley Grave Stones, is on the steep 
slope of a hill in the middle of a field, and is surrounded by a 
stone wall. Here are various simple tombstones to the 
memory of the Hancock and Talbot families, who were laid 
to rest in shallow graves. These tombstones were renovated 
in 1890 by Sir H. J. Burford-Hancock, Governor of Gibraltar. 

There are various known sites of plague burials in fields 
and gardens up and down England, but very few of them 
are marked by gravestones. Just over, however, the borders 
of Derbyshire, on the high ground in Cheshire, south of 
Lyme Park, and near to the noted pre-Conquest Bow Stones, 
is another group of tombmarked plague burials, the victims 
of an outbreak of 1 646. Three of these gravestones are to 
as many members of the Blakewall family who died on 
26th July, 1646. Two others are to John Hampson and 
his wife and three children, and to Elizabeth Hampson ; 
the following couplet is on the last of these : 

" Think it not strange my bones ly here 
Thine may ly thou knowest not where." 

These inscriptions are set forth in Earwaker's History of 
East Cheshire (ii. 314), but we noticed, during a recent visit, 
that some of the lettering has disappeared. These graves 
are in the parish of Taxal ; the registers between 1644 and 
1651 are defective. 

The Midland Counties have numerous register references 
to epidemics in addition to those given with some detail as 
to Northamptonshire and Derbyshire. The following must 
be taken as a selection : 

"Walsall, Staffordshire, was visited with the plague in 1603. 
The first death from this epidemic was one ' Richard Smyth that 
died of plague,' who was buried on 3oth October 1603. In the 
following month there were four plague deaths ; and in January, 
February, and March 1603-4, eleven such deaths are entered." 



PLAGUE AND OTHER SICKNESS 165 

The registers of St. Chad's, Shrewsbury, contain the 
following entry: 

" 1650. June The Plaige began in Shrowsbure the 12 th June 
in Fronkwell at John Pounds hoose Thomas Heayes Esq r 
Maior of Shrewsbury." 

The registers of Little Marlow, Buckinghamshire, have 
the following entry under the plague year of 1621 : 

" Mary, the wife of William Borlase, July 18, a gratious ladye she 
was, dyed of the plague, as did 18 more." 

At Stoke Pogis, for the same year, seven burials are 
entered as dying of the plague in June and July. 

The registers of Lavendon, Bucks, show that the plague 
of 1665 raged in that parish with great severity; the number 
of burials that year were 66, whereas the average of the 
seven preceding years amounted only to ten. 

The visitation of the plague at Newport Pagnell, Bucks, 
in 1666, was very terrible. The registers show that the 
burials for the whole of 1665 amounted to 37, but in 1666 
the total was 697. The worst month was July, when 257 
interments are recorded. A contemporary writer, in a letter 
of 20 August, 1666, said that "Newport Panell, tho a 
considerable markett towne is not left above betwixt 7 and 
800 peoples." 

It is stated in the registers of Ramsey, Hunts, that 400 
people died of the plague in 1665. The infection is said to 
have come from London in some cloth for a new coat. 

The registers of Durnford, Gloucestershire, show that 
there was a visitation in this parish in 1627, when the 
deaths, which had averaged six in the last ten years, 
increased to twenty-six. Three of the interments are 
described as sepultus in campis^ and two as sepultus in 
clauso ejus. 



1 66 PARISH REGISTERS 

At the end of the first volume of the registers of East 
Retford, Notts (1573-1653), is the following recipe for the 
plague : 

" In y e time of a plague let y e person either infected or fearfull 
of y e infection take a penny worth of dragon water, a penworthe of 
oyle olive, Methradate i d , and treacle i d . Then take an onion, and 
fill it full of pepper when you scraped it, y u roast it ; and after y* 
put it to y e liquor and strain and drink it in y e morning, and if you 
take y e same at night lay soap and bay salt to your feet and sweat 
upon it, and with God's blessing you shall recover. 

" THO. GYLBY, Vic." 

The registers of the north of England bear emphatic 
testimony to the fierceness of the attacks of pestilence 
both in the larger and smaller towns, as well as in certain 
villages. 

The mortality in 1579 at Newcastle-on-Tyne was very 
great. The municipal authorities wrote to the bailiffs of 
Yarmouth that the plague had carried off about 2000 persons 
between May and Michaelmas, and they warned them to 
refrain from sending vessels for coal. In 1588-9 there was 
another attack of this terrible scourge, when between May 
of the former year to ist Jan 1588-9, 1727 died, as recorded 
in the registers of St John's. 

"Died in this moneth, december, M r William Selbye maior, 
and John Wilson sheriffe, 1 1 persons in the plage ; so that in all 
which hath died before this daye, being the firste of Januarie, in 
this towne, it is counted by all the records, in number to be in all 
1727 persons, wherof iij hundred and 40 persons in St John's; 
5 hundred and 9 persons at the chapell, iij hundred at Alhalowes, 
iiij hundred at St Andrews . . . and one hundred and iij persons 
at St Nicholas," 

The disease was again rampant at Newcastle in 1597-8, 
at the time when it was also raging in Cumberland and 
Westmorland, as well as at Durham and Darlington. In 



PLAGUE AND OTHER SICKNESS 167 

1604 there were 100 burials of the pest registered at All Saints, 
about 20 in 1609, and 160 between April and December 1610. 
The numbers of pest deaths also corresponded with those 
of All Saints during these years. In 1625 there was a 
severe but less fierce outbreak in Newcastle, Gateshead, and 
Barnard Castle. 

After a pause of about ten years the plague returned 
with intensified virulence in 1636. Fen wick, the religious 
merchant of Newcastle of those days, wrote " Hast thou 
forgot how lord God spake to thee in that great plague 
Anno 1636, when there died in half-a-yeare about seven 
thousand which made thee almost desolate, thy streets 
growne greene with grasse, thy treasure wasted, and thy 
trading departed as thou never yet recovered it." 

Nor is there any exaggeration in this estimate; the 
actual registers of the town record 5552 deaths in some 
eight or nine months, and in these pestilences there were 
always very many deaths unregistered. The perfectly 
awful character of this visitation is obvious when it is 
recollected that the population of Newcastle at this date 
must have been under twenty thousand. 

The registers of Ravenstonedale contain no express 
mention of the plague, but the presence of the epidemic in 
certain well-known plague years is amply shown by the 
burial registers. The mortality was abnormally high in 1579, 
1588, and 1597 ; whilst in 1623 the death rate was grievous. 
The interments in the last of these years (and three months 
went unrecorded) numbered 48, which is 33 above the 
average of that period. 

In 1589 the plague broke out in Durham. In the 
register of St. Oswald's, the first two pest entries relate to 
the family of Masterman : 

"Sept. 20. Robert Maysterman and hys wyffe Margarete Mayster- 
man, of the plage. 



i68 PARISH REGISTERS 

" Sept. 20. Adam M r man and iiij of hys systeres buryed of y e plage 
y e 26, 27, 28, 29 of September." 

Against fifteen interments during October and November 
is the word " plague " written. 

There is the following reference to the 1603-4 plague at 
Durham in the registers of St Giles' of that city : 

"Anne Ourd, wyffe of Christopher Ourd, bur. 25 Jan. So all 
the hole household dyed in the vicitacion at this time, and so y e 
plague ceased." 

Under the year 1644 is the following entry in the 
register of Eaglescliffe, co. Durham : 

" In this yeare there died of the plauge in this towne one and 
twenty people ; they are not all buried in the churchyard, and are 
not in the Register." 

Cumberland and Westmorland, though abounding in 
natural drainage, abundant water supply, and apparently 
with everything tending towards health, were as much 
devastated by pestilent epidemics as the overcrowded towns. 

The Hawkshead registers have an entry, under Nov- 
ember 10, 1597, of a "pestilent sickness" brought into the 
parish by one " George Barwicke," of which 38 of the 
inhabitants died. 

Notes in the Penrith register state that the " Plague was 
in Penrith and Kendal in 1554," that there was "a sore 
plague in newcastle, durrome and Dunston in the yere of 
our lord god 1597," and that it raged in 1598 in Kendal, 
Penrith, Carlisle, Appleby, and other places in Cumberland 
and Westmorland. At Penrith it broke out on 22nd 
September 1597, and continued till I3th December 1598. 

"1597. 27th day of September Andrew Hodgson a foreigner was 
buried. Here begonne the plague (God's punishment in 
Penrith). All those that are noted with the P. dyed of the 
infection, and those noted with F. were buried on the fell." 



PLAGUE AND OTHER SICKNESS 169 

On 27th May, there were 13 plague burials, on nth 
August 17, and on 2nd September 22. The fateful letter 
P is appended to 608 interments, and of these 213 are 
also marked with F, denoting burial on the fell ; but probably 
the registers do not include many buried in their own 
gardens and elsewhere. An old inscription in the church, 
renewed in recent years in brass, states that those that died 
of the plague in 1 597-8 were : 

"Penrith 2260, Kendal 2500, Richmond 2200, and Carlile 
1196." 

It has been suggested that these numbers include all 
within the particular rural deaneries. The whole district 
was grievously visited at this period. At Greystoke the 
average mortality of the parish rose from 45 to 182 in 1597. 
The Edenhall register also shows a great mortality. Gosforth 
leapt up from a death average of 13 to 56 in 1596, and 
ii6in 1597; Kirk Oswald from 10 in 1597 to 51 in 1598; 
Crosthwaite from an average of about 30 to 267 in 1597, 
and 84 in 1598; and Kirkby Lonsdale from an average 
under 50 to 82 in 1597, and no in 1598. 

It should also be mentioned that the Penrith registers 
show that the normal number of deaths in the sixteenth 
century was about 50; but that in 1556 and 1557 it rose 
to 105 and 196 respectively; whilst in 1587 and 1588 it 
rose to the still far graver rates of 203 and 592. 

A few instances of the pestilence entries must be given 
from the registers of the great county of Yorkshire. 

The presence of the plague at Kirkburton is clearly 
indicated, although the word does not occur. In 1557 from 
January to end of September there were 64 deaths, but in 
1558, during the same months, there were 164 deaths. 

Nor is there any explicit mention of plague in the 
registers of Howden ; yet it is clear that the town suffered 



170 PARISH REGISTERS 

very severely in 1579. The deaths during May, June, and 
July in 1577 were 23, in the following year 25, and the like 
number in 1580; but in 1579 they leapt for that period 
to 127. 

The great pestilence of 1603 spread northwards in 1604. 
It caused 3512 deaths in the city of York during the latter 
year, being most severe in August and September. The 
markets were stopped, the minster and minsteryard closed, 
and the infected sent to Hob Moor and Horsefair, where 
wooden booths were erected for their reception. The 
registers of St Martin's, Micklegate, show 9 deaths in 1602, 
and n in 1603; but the interments for 1604 amounted 
to 68. 

The Patrington register for 1637 records 38 interments, 
2 1 of which were e peste aut suspecti. 

Two instances from the Lancashire registers, one town 
and the other country, must suffice to illustrate the plague 
entries of that county. The following occurs in the register 
of Whittington : 

"From 19 th December, unto 4 th November, 1617, it pleased 
God to visit Whittington with a contagious sickness, within which 
time there was sicke in this parish about two hundred, in which 
time there deceased [here follow their names, the average mortality 
for a year being under ten]." 

The number of burials recorded in the registers of the 
parish church of Preston, from nth of November 1630 to the 
like date 1631, is a little over eleven hundred; the average 
number of the burials for several previous years was about 
eighty per annum. A contemporary diary states that the 
plague in Preston and the immediate neighbourhood "so 
raged in 1630 that the town was depopulated and corn 
rotted upon the ground for want of reapers." 

The piteous entries of the Cheshire register of Malpas, 
with regard to the visitation of 1625, are cited below. With 



PLAGUE AND OTHER SICKNESS 171 

regard to this county it may be further stated that between 
9th October 1605 and I4th August 1606 the Stockport 
registers record the burials of fifty-one persons who died of 
the plague. 

Although there were various outbreaks of pestilence 
in such places as Colchester. Harwich, Norwich, Yarmouth, 
Lynn, and Wisbeach, the Eastern Counties have fewer 
register records of plague, so far as our experience goes, 
than other parts of the kingdom. At Chipping Ongar, in 
1574, the interment of 

"Thomas, a stranger, Surgeon of London buried 28 July," 

and nine others during that year, are bracketed together as 
" Died of the Plague." 

Within ten miles round Boston the plague prevailed 
during the latter part of Elizabeth's reign, as is shown 
by the registers of Leake Frampton, and Kirton. 

An entry of the year 1592 in the register of Holt, 
Norfolk, records that 

" A greate plage wch beganne the 4 of Auguste continnued unto 
y e 26 of Feb. folio winge." 

The average annual burials at that parish were 6 ; but in 
those seven months they amounted to 64. 

The plague of 1665 reached Ipswich in September. In 
the registers of St Nicholas, the first plague death is entered 
on 1 3th September. Seven more plague deaths are entered 
in that month, and fourteen more before the end of the year. 
In 1666 there were seven plague entries in the same 
registers. 

Evidence can be obtained, though by no means always 
from the parochial registers, of plague attacks during the 
sixteenth and seventeenth centuries at almost every seaport 
of the kingdom, small or large; a fact which materially 



T 7 2 PARISH REGISTERS 

helps to prove that the true plague, unlike the sweating 
sickness, was not of indigenous development. The great 
ports of Southampton and Plymouth, as well as the smaller 
ports of Cornwall and the Bristol Channel, were all subject 
to these severe epidemics. The following are some of the 
less known register references to the plague of the south and 
west of England. 

The register of Cranbrook, Kent, formerly an important 
centre of the woollen trade, half-way between Maidstone and 
the old Cinque Porte, contains a long entry relative to a late 
Elizabethan visitation : 

"In this year following, 1597, began the great plague in Cran- 
brook, the which continued from April the 7 th aforesaid to July 13, 
1598. i st it was observed that before this infection that God, 
about a year or two before, took away by death many honest and 
good men and women. 2. That the judgment of God for sin was 
much before threatened, especially for that vice of Drunkeness 
which abounded here. 3. That this infection was in all quarters of 
this Parish except Hartly quarter. 4. That the same begun in the 
house of one Brighteling, out of which much thieving was committed, 
and that it ended in the house of one Henry Grynnock, who was a 
pott companion, and his wife noted much for incontinence, which 
both died excommunicated. 5. That this infection gott almost 
into all the Inns and Suckling Houses of the Town, places then of 
much misorder, so that God did seem to punish that himself which 
others did neglect and not regard. 6. Together with this infection 
there was a great dearth at the corne time, which was cause also of 
much wailing and sorrow. 7. This was most grievous unto me of 
all, that this judgment of God did not draw people unto repentance 
the more, but that many by it seemed the more hardened in their 
sin. 

" Now also this year others of the plague who were buried near to 
their several dwellings, because they could get none to carry them 
into the Church, for it was the beginning of this infection, so that 
none would venture themselves. The certain day of their burials 
one could not learn." 

The registers of All Saints. Maidstone, show that the 



PLAGUE AND OTHER SICKNESS 173 

town suffered severely from the plague of 1603 ; the word 
" plague " is attached to no fewer than 1 36 names within nine 
months, though the round annual death-rate was under sixty. 

The plague appeared in Chislehurst, Kent, in 1603; the 
deaths, which previously averaged about ten a year, reached 
a total in that year of sixty-three. 

In 1603 there was a most grievous visitation of the 
plague at Dorking. There were 108 interments recorded in 
the parish registers ; many were buried in gardens or fields. 

There was also high mortality at Strood, Kent, in 1603 ; 
the registers show 44 burials during that year, though the 
average yearly mortality of the period was only fourteen. 
In May 1609 

"Morgan his wife and 2 children the same weeke, all of the 
pestilence." 

During the year 1550 no fewer than 70 persons were 
buried at Minehead, Somerset ; the annual average of inter- 
ments at that time was under 20. In 1597 there is an entry 
to the effect that " ye blouddye flux raged in this year " ; 
there were 57 interments. The plague was bad again in 
1645, when about five times the average number of burials 
took place. There was another visitation in 1652. 

The adjoining town of Dunster suffered grievously from 
the plague in 1645. It was in May of that year that Charles I 
sent the Prince of Wales, then a boy of fifteen, to Dunster 
Castle " to encourage the new levies." The Prince had just 
been driven from Bristol by the plague, and the court was 
not aware, as Clarendon tells us, that it was raging just as 
hot in Dunster town immediately under the castle walls. 
Clarendon's statement is strikingly confirmed by the parish 
registers, which show that there were actually eighty inter- 
ments in the single month of May. 

There was most terrible mortality from the plague at 



174 PARISH REGISTERS 

Totnes in 1590 ; the registers of that year yield the following 
evidence : July out of 42 interments, 36 of plague ; August 
out of 8 1, 80 ; September 39, all of plague ; October 37, all 
of plague ; November 25, 24 of plague ; December 19, all of 
plague. There were a few cases in January and one in 
February, yielding a total of 246 plague deaths. No sooner 
had the disease died out in Totnes than it began in Tiverton, 
where the registers show that the deaths from plague and 
other causes between March 1591 and March 1592 were 551, 
or about one in nine of the population. 

Redruth, Cornwall, had a severe visitation in 1591-92. 
The register for 1591 notes that 

"The Plage began Aug. n." 

A further entry on nth November 1592 states that 
" The Plage ceased." 

Twenty-seven deaths are entered for the single month of 
June, whereas the annual death-rate about that period was 
under ten. 

The Plymouth registers prove that the town endured a 
terrible plague visitation in 1626, when 1600 fell victims to 
the epidemic. 

The plague broke out somewhat severely at Basingstoke, 
Hants, in 1666, in which year 46 burials are registered as its 
victims. But the number was higher than this, for the 
Churchwardens' Accounts state that " The plague broke out 
at Basingstoke in 1666, and there are upwards of eighty 
knells recorded." 

The Godalming, Surrey, registers show that there were 
thirty-four deaths from the plague in that parish in 1666; 
some of the victims are entered as " buried in ye garden." 

Two household plague tragedies demand distinct notice. 
In 1625 there was a grievous visitation of the plague at 



PLAGUE AND OTHER SICKNESS 175 

Bradley, in Malpas parish, Cheshire. The sweeping out of 
the whole family of Dawson as recorded in the Malpas 
register is characterised by the dreadful and unique incident 
of a dying sufferer digging his own grave: 

"Thomas Jefferie, servant to Thomas Dawson, of Bradley, 
buryed the loth daye of August, in the night, he died of the 
plague. 

" Richard, the sonne of Thomas Dawson of Bradley (that dyed of 
the plague) buryed the i3th daye of August, in the night, 1625, 
nihil. 

"Raffe Dawson, sonne of the aforesayed Thomas, came from 
London about 25th Jul last past, and beinge sicke of the plague 
dyed at his father's house, and soe infected the sayd house and was 
buryed, as is reported, neare unto his father's house. 

" Thomas Dawson, of Bradley, died of the plague, and was buryed 
th' 1 6th daye of August at 3 of the clocke, after midnight, nihil. 

" Elizabeth, the daughter of the aforesayed Thomas Dawson, 
died of the plague of pestilence, and was buryed the 20th daye 
August. 

"Anne, the wyffe of John Dawson, sonne of the aforesayd 
Thomas Dawson, died of the plague of pestilence, and was buryed 
the 2oth of August. 

"Richarde Dawson (brother to the above named Thomas Dawson 
of Bradley) being sick of the plague and perceyving he must die at 
yt tyme, arose out of his bed, and made his grave, and causing his 
nefew, John Dawson, to cast some strawe into the grave, which was 
not farre from the house, and went and layed him down in the sayd 
grave, and caused clothes to be layd uppon, and soe dep'ted out of 
this world ; this he did because he was a strong man and heavier 
than his said nefew and another wench were able to burye ; he died 
about the 23d of August, 1625. Thus much he did I was 
credibly tould. 

" John Dawson, sonne of the above named Thomas, came unto 
his father, when his father sent for him, beinge sicke, and haveing 
layd him down in a dich, died in it the 2gth daye of August, 1625, 
in the night. 

" Rose Smyth, servant of the above named Tho: Dawson, and last 
of yt household, died of plague, and was buryed by Wm Cooke 
the 5th daye of September near the sayd house." 



176 PARISH REGISTERS 

The plague tragedy at Great Hampden is still more 
pathetic than that at Bradley, Cheshire, inasmuch as the 
register entries are written by the rector himself, the husband, 
father, cousin, or master of the victims. Robert Lenthall, a 
relative of the Speaker of that name, became rector of Great 
Hampden in 1643. By his wife Susanna, he had two 
children, Adrian and Sarah. Shortly after the plague 
horrors of 1647 Robert Lenthall left Great Hampden, 
married a second time, and died rector of Barnes, Surrey, in 
1658. 

"1647. N.B. My daughter Sarah Lenthall was buried y e eleventh day 
of August An: supra, she came fro' London to Wickham and 
on y e Saturday only to see us and so to returne y e morrow in 
y e afternoone to Wickham againe, but then fell sick and on 
Wednesday morning following being y e nth of August about 
an houre before Sun rise dyed of y e sickness, and so in y e 
Evening we buried her in y e meade called y e Kitchenmeade 
by y e hedgeside as you go downe into it on yo r left hand, a 
little below y e pond at y e enterance into y e meade ; she was 
aged 14 yeares, eleven moneths and seaventeene dayes had 
she lived to Bartholomew day she had bin full 15 yeares of 
age. 

" Susanna Lenthall my wife dep'ted this life Thursday evening 
about 8 a clock y e 26 of August, she died of y e sicknes com- 
fortably and in peace and was buried August y e 27 by hir 
daughter Sara. 

" John Gardiner a child yt lived in my house died of y e sick- 
nes and was buried August y e 29th. 

"Adrian Lenthall my sonne a hopefull yong man and were one 
and twenty yeares of age dep'ted this life of y e sicknes, Thurs- 
day morning a little before day breake and was buried at y e 
head of his sister Sarah's grave y e same day, being y e 2d of 
Septemb. 

"My cosen John Pickering a lad about 13 yeares of age, 
dying of ye sicknes, was buried the 25 of Septembr. 1647. 

"ROBERT LENTHALL, Rector" 

Small-pox is now and again named in parish registers. 



PLAGUE AND OTHER SICKNESS 177 

"1667 (Alstonfield, Staffs'), April 13. Tho. and Eliz., 2 children of 
Thos. Stones, jun r , who died of the small poxe, and wer both 
hurried in one grave." 

The small-pox broke out with much severity at Basing- 
stoke in 1714, when the registers show that out of 76 burials 
during that year 5 2 died from this malady ; among the 
victims was Mr. John Davies, the mayor. There was another 
severe outbreak in this town in 1781. 

" 1799 (Sandon, Essex). William the son of Samuel Raven, by 
Sarah his wife, was half baptized at home (being ill and 
apprehended in danger of catching the smallpox if brought 
to the church), Nov. 2oth 1798. Received into the congre- 
gation June 2d 1799." 

Inoculation was introduced into England by Lady Mary 
Wortley Montagu early in the eighteenth century, but it was 
bitterly opposed for many years, especially by the clergy. 
The following entries occur in the burial register of Long 
Barton, Dorset : 

" 1770. June 7 James Noake ; June 28 Alice Noake his wife; July 
1 6 Robert Stayner, a child; July 20 Charles Stayner, his 
brother. NB. These four last dyed of the small pox, catch 'd 
in the natural way, and during James Noake's Distemper, 
many children and grown persons in the Parish were innoculated 
(the first time this Method was introduc'd here) and all did 
well, 

"Note that in the year 1776 the small Pox was very epidemi- 
cal both at Sherborne and in the Country, when the Innoculation 
of that Distemper was introduced a 2d time into the Parish, and 
many Persons were innoculated here by the Sherborne Apoth- 
ecaries, with good success, at 55. 3d. a head." 

It does not appear that inoculation was by any means 
always successful ; it was sometimes fatal. Two deaths 
from small-pox are entered in this same Dorsetshire register 
under 1780. 
12 



i;8 PARISH REGISTERS 

The Italian name of" influenza " for an epidemic ague first 
came into England in 1743, and the casual use of the term 
became more general during the epidemic of 1762. With 
the severe epidemic of 1782, the Italian title became a fairly 
settled term in this country and was formally adopted by 
the College of Physicians. In that year a swift brief wave 
of catarrhal fever swept over the British Isles. It was 
most prevalent in May, June, and July, and affected from 
three -fourths to four -fifths of the adult population, but 
with very few fatal results. As the mortal cases were so 
exceptional, it is not surprising to find this epidemic for the 
most part ignored in the registers. There is, however, one 
interesting reference to it in a Shropshire parish : 

"1782 (Selattyn^ Salop}. This year being remarkable for Cold 
and Wett about Springtime, Much against the Farmers 
Concerns in General, which bro't on an Disorder, of the 
nature of a violent Cold, which raged so general thro' 
both England and Wales and all European Countries, which 
in England was commonly called the Influenza, and which 
happily was not very mortal. There was scarcely one escaped 
this distemper." 

In 1763 there were thirteen interments of infants at 
Albrighton, Salop. After the last of these entries, it is 
remarked in the register : 

" The Scarlet Fever carried off many Infants this year." 

References to surgery in registers are highly exceptional. 
The following is the pathetic entry of an early instance of 
the serious operation of lithotomy made by the hand of the 
patient : 

"1630 (Hunstanton, Norfolk). Hoc anno vij die August Robtus 
Burward vicarius de Hunstanton versus Londinum iter arripuit, 
et post sex Hebdomodas in quibus Chirurgum ibi expectaverat, 
xxij die Octobris inter horas x et xj ante meridiem pro calculo 
in vesica incisus fuit par M a Mullins; et admiranda Dei 



PLAGUE AND OTHER SICKNESS 179 

misericordia bonitate et auxilio suffultus patienter admodum 
sciosuram suetinuit; post xvj Hebdomodas feliciter fere 
sanatur, et tandem xvj die Februarii felici ac prospero itinere 
ad Hunstanton revertitur. Deo optimo maximo sunt gratise 
ingentes. Amen." 

The vicar did not, however, live for many months to 
enjoy his restored health, for in the following year this entry 
occurs in the register : 

"1631. Robertas Burward sepultus erat July 3d." 

The custom of the royal touch for curing scrofula or the 
King's Evil has been traced back to the times of Edward the 
Confessor. The Ceremonies for the Healing of them that be 
diseased with the Kings Evil> as they were practised in the 
time of King Henry vn were printed by Mr. Hills in 1686 
for the use of James II " in his houshold and chappel." The 
old Latin form of Prayers at the Healing continued to be 
printed in the Latin version of the Prayer Book as late as 1759. 
This practice of touching for the King's Evil was much 
resorted to by Charles I ; but it prevailed to a still more 
astonishing extent after the Restoration. Between 1660 and 
1682 no fewer than 92,107 persons, chiefly children, were 
touched for this disease by Charles II. Certificates were 
usually expected from the parish minister and wardens to the 
effect that the person had not previously been touched. 
Part of the ceremony consisted, according to the rubric, in 
the King " crossing the sore of the sick person with an Angel 
Noble ; and the sick person to have the same angel hanged 
about his neck, and to wear it until he be full whole." The 
temptation of obtaining a piece of gold caused not a few to 
strive to be touched on various occasions. 

The Merstham, Surrey, register contains the following 
list of certificates granted by the rector and wardens 
between 1673 ancl 1680: 



To the Kings mofl Excellent Majefty, 

The -Humble 

PETITION 

Of divers hundreds 

of the Kings poore Subje&s, 

<Affl.<5ted with that grievous Infirmicie, 
CALLED 

The Kings Evill. 

Of which by his Majefties abfence they 

have no possibility of being cured, wanting all 
meanes to gaine acceffeto his Majefty, by reafon 
f His abode at OXFORD 




London, Printed for fobn Wilfyifon. 
JF^r.io. *Awu>Dom* 1643, 



TITLE-PAGE OF PETITION TO CHARLES I AS TO THE 
KING'S EVIL. 



PLAGUE AND OTHER SICKNESS 181 

" Certificate to his Ma ty about touching for ye Evill signed by y e 
Rector and Churchward: of Merstham. 

"To Prudennye daugtre of Will: Lovell Octob: 6 (16)73. 

" To Elizabeth Richardson daugter of Eliz. Richardson Widdow 
Mar. 9 73. 

" To Thomas Deane y e sonne of Sam: Deane, Nov. 8 1674. 

"To Nicholas Cooper ye sonne of John Cooper, Dec. 4 
1674. 

"To George Palmer ye son of William Palmer Mar. 5 1676-7 
ye Father and his sonne Harry touched before. 

"To John Stanley, Labourer, Feb. 27 1677-8. 

"To Matthew Harbour April 11 1678. 

"To Jane Buckner spinster April 6 1680. 

" RICH LEWIS, Curate " 

There are similar entries in other registers of about this 
period, as at St. Mary's, Bridgwater. The applicants 
eventually became so numerous that Charles II issued a 
proclamation on Qth January 1683-4 appointing the times 
when the touch would be administered, insisting on each 
applicant bringing a certificate signed by his minister and 
one or both wardens " testifying according to the truth " that 
this was the first application, and ordering all ministers and 
wardens to keep a register of all certificates they shall from 
time to time give. In the Churchwardens' Accounts of 
Stanford-in-the-Vale and Marlborough are entries of pay- 
ment for the King's declaration as to the Order of 
Touching. 

After this proclamation entries as to certificates are 
naturally more frequent in the registers, from which the 
following are selected : 

" 1684-5 (Ecdestott) Lancashire)^ March 21. A Certificate given to 
John Brindle For being touched by his Majesty for ye K. Evil. 

"1685-6 (Ibid.\ March 31. A Certificate given to Jane Hawet of 
Writtington for being touched for ye Kings Evil. 

" 1685 (Hambledon, Bucks], 17 May. Mary Wallington had a certificate 
to goe before the King for a disease called the King's Evil, 




At the Court at WHITEHALL 

The Ninth of January i 6 8 ?. 



Lord I(ttpet 
Lord Trt\y Seal 
Duke o/Ormond 
Duke of Beaufort 
Earl of Oxford 



Mr. Secretory Jenkins 

Mr. atncellourofthe Exchequer 

Mr. 



Mr. 



phin. 




The Kings mod Excellent Majefty, 
Earhf Huntingdon Eir/o/Bathe 

Er/o/"Bridgewater Earl of divert 

Earl of Peterborrow Earl of Nottingham 

r/<,/Chefterfield Earl of Rochtder 

Earl of Clarendon ^j fa Lor^i/hp of London 

Hereas by the Grace and Bldbng of God, the Kings and Queens of this Realm by 
many Ages pad.have had the happinefs by their Sacred Touch, and Invocation of the 
Name of God, to cure thofcwhoaie afflicted with the Difeafe called the Kings- 
Evil ; And His Majefty in no left mcafure than any df- His Royal Predeceflors ha- 
ving had good fuccefs therein, and in His mod Gracious and Pious difpofition, be- 
ing as ready and willing as any King or Queen of this Realm ever was in any 
thing to relieve the diftrefles and neceflititfs of His good Subjects ;. Yet in His 
Princely Wifdom forcfeeing that in this(as in aJl other things)Ordcr is to be obferved 
and fit times are neceflary to be appointed for the performing of this great work of 
Charity, His Majefty was therefore this day pleafedto Declare in Council His Roy- 

al Will and Pleafure to be, That ( in regard heretofore the ufual times of pre- 

fenting fuch perfons for this purpofe have been prefixed by His Royal Predeceflors ) 

the times of Publick Healings flial! from henceforth be from the Feaft of AH Saints, commonly called AUMBon*tlit t 
till a week before ttrifinuu : and after Ckriftntiu until the Firft day of March, and then to ceafe till the faftion Week, 
being times mod convenient both for the temperature of the feafon, and in refpect of Contagion which may happen 
in this near accefs to His Majeftics Sacred Perfon. And when His Majefty fhall at any time think fit to go any Pro- 
grcfs, He will be pleafed to appoint fuch other times for Mealing as fhall be mod convenient : And His Mijefty doth 
hereby accordingly Order and Command, That from the time "of Publifliing this His Majcfties Order, none pre- 
fumcto repair to His Ms jefties Court to be Healed of thefaid Difeafe, butonely at, or within the times for that pur- 
pofe hereby appointed as aforefaid. And His Ma/edy was further pleafed to Order, That all fuch as hereafter fliall 
come, or repair to the Court for this purpofe, fliall bring with them Certificates under the Hands and Seals of~the 
Parfon, Vicar, or Minider, and of both or one of the Churchwardens of the refpectivc Parifbes where they dwell, 
and from whence they come, tedifying according to the truth, That they have not at any time before been touched 
byHisMajefty to the intent to be healed of that Difcafe. And all Miniders and Cfiurcliwardens are hereby requi- 
red to be very careful to examine into the truth before they give fuch Certificates, and alfo to keep a Regifter of all 
Certificates, they fliall from time to time give. And to the end that all His Majefties Loving Subjects may the better 
take knowledge of this His Majedies Command, His Ma jedy was pleafed to' Direct, That this His Order be Read pub- 
lickly in all Parifli-Clnwches, and then be artixt to fome confpicuous place there ; And that to that end the fame 
be Printed, and a convenient Number of Copies fcnt to the mod Reverend Fathers in God, the Lord Arch Bifliop 
of frnttrlurj, and the Lord Arch Bjfliop of York, who are to take care that the fame be didributed to all Pariflicj 
within there refpcctivc Provinces. 

PHI. LLOYD. 

L OH V 2 

Printed by the Afligns of John Biff Deceas'd : And by Hem-y HiOs^nA Tlxmt* Ntu>comi> t 
Printers to the Kings mod Excellent Maiedy. 1^83 

PROCLAMATION AS TO TIMES FOR "TOUCHING," 1683. 



PLAGUE AND OTHER SICKNESS 183 

" 1686-7 (Meastiam, Derbyshire}. Katherine Brooks that she might be 
touched for the King's Evil had certificate, March 2d 1686-7. 

" 1767 (Alrewas, Staffs). Edward Hall, who was touched and cured 
by his Majesty King Charles n for the King's Evil, was 
buried Jan. igth, aged no years." 

The registers of Blakesley, Northants, mention that two 
persons went, in 1683, "to London to be touched of the 
King's eyil." 

In the second book of the registers of Hargrave, 
Northants (1683-1756), is written : 

" A Register containing the names of the Persons that have been 
touch'd by his Majesty to the intent to be healed of the Disease 
called the Kings Evil in the Parish of Hargrave." 

This " register " contains, however, only two names whc 
were thus touched in February 1683-4, namely, Philip and 
Amy Cannard. 

James II touched above 5000 persons during a single 
progress of the year 1687. William III positively refused to 
touch patients, the custom being distasteful to him on the 
score of expense as well as on that of superstition. His 
refusal was taken in certain quarters as a proof that he was 
no rightful King. Queen Anne's ministers thought it politic to 
revive the use, and the Gazette of I2th March 1712 officially 
announced the appointed time of touching. Dr. Johnson, 
when a child, was amongst those then touched by Queen 
Anne. The custom finally died out with the advent of 
George I, "who believed in little or nothing." 



CHAPTER X 
HISTORICAL 

Arrival of King Philip Marian burnings Funeral of Mary Queen 
of Scots The Armada Elizabethan martyrs Levies on the 
clergy Border warfare Historic entries at Youlgreave 
Victories of Van Tromp, 1639 Dewsbury registers The Great 
Civil War Casualties in Northamptonshire, Derbyshire, etc. 
Register irregularities caused by the war Tamworth registers 
The Protestation and the Covenant The death of the 
Protector and of his Relict The Restoration Rye House Plot 
Death of Charles n and accession of James n Monmouth's 
rebellion The Prince of Orange 

IF the vast store of national muniments at the Public 
Record Office were to be destroyed and all libraries burnt, 
the leading facts of English history since 1538 could 
be gleaned from the parish records. Various interesting 
incidents connected with the close of the reign of Henry VIII 
and of the successive reigns of his three children have been 
already set forth in the extracts from the Much Wenlock 
registers. 

Philip landed at Southampton in July 1554 ; the following 
entry must refer to the later arrival at the Metropolis : 

" X 554 (Trinity the Less, London]. Alice Meleche the daur of John 
Meleche xyened being the daie that Kinge Phillipp came from 
beyond the seas and landed att Greenwich att five o'clock att 
night." 

There are one or two register references to the cruel 
burnings for religion under Queen Mary. 



HISTORICAL 185 

"1556 (All Saints, Derby}, Aug. i. A poor blinde woman called 
Joan Waste of this parish, a martyr, burned in Windmill 
Pit. 

"1558 (Richmond, Yorks). Richard Snell b'rnt, bur. 9 Sept." 

The funeral of Mary Queen of Scots secured an entry at 
Peterborough : 

" 1587 (Cathedral Church of Peterborough). The Queene of Scots was 
most sumptuously buried in the cathedral church of Peterburgh, 
the first day of August, who was for her deserts beheaded at 
Fotheringay about St. Paules day before. 

" Anthony More, one of the children of the Queens Majesties 
kitchen, w ch followed at the Funerall aforesaid of the Queen of 
Scots was buryed the iii day (of August)." 

The Armada entered the Channel ipth July 1 588 ; suffered 
in a series of engagements during that month ; and retreated 
northward in August and September, enduring much further 
loss from storms. 

" 1588 (St. Oswald's, Durham). Upon munday beinge the xijth day 
of August, the Right honorable earle of Huntington, lord presy- 
dent under O r most gracyous sufferayne lady quene elyzbethe, 
caused a generall muster to be upon spenymore of all persons 
within thage of xvj and Ix yeares, onely within the bysshopryke, 
and no further, where weare assembled on Spenymore y e same 
day to y e full number of xl thowsande men, redy to serve 
hyr majesty when the shuld be called, whom god preserve 
longe to rayne over us, a mother in Israeli. Amen. 

"1588 (Earl Framingham, Norfolk}. The 19 of Nov. was a day 
of Thanksgiving to God for the great and wonderful Overthrow 
of the Spanish Navy which came to fight the Pope's Battle 
against this Island for their Gospel, at which overthrow the 
very enemies were so astonished that some of them said Christ 
had become a Lutheran, and all that saw it did say that it was 
the Lord's Work, so this day was appointed by our Church to be 
spent throughout the realme, in preaching and praying, singing 
of psalms, and giving thanks for a thankful memorial of the 
Lord's merciful mercies yerelie." 



1 86 PARISH REGISTERS 

In the spring of the year 1589, being the year after the 
destruction of the Armada, a boy was baptized at Dunster, 
on the Somerset coast, under the name- Victorie. 

The registers of St. Oswald's, Durham, contain a 
vehemently worded entry as to the butchery of four Roman 
Catholic priests in 1590: 

"May 27 Duke ^ rSemynaryes ^ ,were hanged and 

Hyll I ... (papystts I to hyr quartered at 

Kogge I M trators j majestye j Dryburne for there 

HolydayJ Und rebelles J I horryble offences" 

It will scarcely be credited that the " horryble offences " of 
these four English priests consisted in the simple fact that, 
being subjects of the Queen and ordained priests of the 
Roman Church, they remained in their own country to 
minister to their co-religionists. This offence, under the 
Statute of 27 Elizabeth, subjected them to the disgusting 
capital penalties of high treason. 1 

The long-continued rebellion of the Earl of Tyrone in 
Ulster, towards the end of Elizabeth's reign, is mentioned 
in at least one English register : 

" 1595 (Aston-by- Birmingham}. This tyme there was a great 
goinge into Ireland against the Earl of Tyrone the clergey 
payed deerly. It cost the Vicar of Aston xx marks." 

The petty raids of the Border warfare are well illustrated 
in the following graphic extracts of 1601-2 from the 
Penrith registers : 

" March 2d. About two of the Cloke at the fare end of 
Plumpton Wall in Bowman Gill was one James Atkinson of 

1 See Challoner's Missionary Priests (ed. 1878), i. 169-70. When dwelling 
on the scandals of the Marian persecutions, those under Elizabeth are usually 
forgotten by our historians. During the latter's reign 127 priests, 53 laymen, 
and 3 women suffered violent deaths solely for their religion : see an article in 
the Church Quarterly Review, vol. viii., on "The Elizabethan Martyrs." 



HISTORICAL 187 

Killington, a Carrier, in coming from Carlisle robed of three carriage 
horses and vij p. in moneye. 

"March i8th. The night last was Branton and Gillisland spoiled 
by Scotts thiefs and their goods taken with prisoners. This tyme 
was great spoiling and robing in this countrie, especiallie in 
Cumberland, burning in Gillisland and other places. 

"March 23d. At night was Richard Wood of Plumton spoiled 
by thiefs and he taken prisoner into Scotland. This tyme such 
watching in Penrith in the night as was not a hundreth yeres 
before, fiftie watchers neightlie. 

" March 29th. This daye was Corbie spoiled by the Borderers, 
and one George Salkeld killed by them. 

"April 3d was the Town dyke at the Overside of Penrith 
newly casten againe by the townsmen for the defence of the town 
and invasion of the Borderers who do threat the same. 

"April 5th. At night was Casel Carrocke spoiled by the in- 
currate of pirates, borderers, thiefs, and murtherers." 

The registers of Youlgreave, Derbyshire, contain a variety 
of historical notes as to the opening years of the seventeenth 
century. 

" 1 60 1 -2. Uppon the 8th day of this moneth of Februarii being 
Septuagessima was the conspiracy by the Earles of Essex, 
Rutland, and Southampton with their confederates in London. 
" Upon the i9th day being thursday, Essex and Southampton 
were arraigned at Westminster and found guilty by the peiares 
of this land for high treason. 

"The 25th day of the said moneth of Feb. being the first day 
of Lent, was Robert earle of Essex executed within the town 
of London. 

"March 23. Our most gracious soveraigne Lady Elizabeth 
quene of Englande, France, and Ireland, departed this 
lyffe upon Wednesday, after she had reigned most peacablye 
44 yeares, 4 moneths, 1 1 daies. 

" 1603, March 29. James King of Scotland was proclaimed Kinge 
of England, France and Ireland at Baunkewill (Bakewell) 
uppon Monday. Whom the Lord preserve. 
And a gallant King and Queen 
Was they and happy in their Reigns." 



i88 PARISH REGISTERS 

In May and June 1616, there are the entries in the 
register of St. Oswald's, Durham, of seven recusants (all 
women) choosing their abode in accordance with a per- 
secuting statute of that period. 

The following is an example : 

"Memorandum that I Margret Swinburne the wif of Thomas 
Swinburne Esquier of the parish of St. Oswaldes in the city of 
Durham have delivered my nam and presented myself accordinge 
to a statute provided for conffirminge of recusantes within the 
compas of five myles, and chuse for my aboad my now dwelling 
house in Elvet aforesaide. 

" MARGRET SWINBURNE " 

The clerk who entered the registers of Dewsbury for the 
month of February 162526 seems to have been anxious 
to air his learning and power of calculation. After writing 
in the margin that 

"Ouse Bridge at Yorke was broken downe sixtie and tew years 
synce," he continues : " Februarye. Edmonde son of John Hage of 
Oscote baptised y e seconde day beinge Thursdaye and Candlemas 
daye 1625 and y e same Coronation daye of Kynge Charles An 
Dni dicte : from y e worldes creation 5575 : Noahe floude 3919. 

" James son of James Pickerde baptised yt day. Synce Yorke 
was built 2592 : and Yorke Minster built 697 : and Londoun was 
built 2734 : Caroli regis, etc., primo. 

"A yonge childe being a daughter not baptised of Edwarde 
Walter and Marye Claytoun basseborne buried ye vjthe daye. 

"An ^Etatis Caroli regis Novemb. 19-24. A conquesto 
Anglia 558: and synce ye Israelites departed out of Egypte 

3553- 

" Myles Cooke and Issabell No well married ye xijth day beinge 

Sondaye Sexagesima or Sonday before Shrove Sondaye An Dni 
1625 : An regis dni dicto primo: a mundi creatione 5575 : synce 
y e begininge of Quene Elizabethe her raigne 68." 

The victories of Van Tromp obtain register notice. Van 
Tromp took two Spanish fleets, off the Downs, in 1639, 
namely, on i6th September and 2ist October. 



HISTORICAL 189 

"1639 (Wadhurst t Sussex). Exit annus 1639. This yeare was 
the great sea Battell (Van Tromp's action) neare unto Dover, 
betwixt the mighty Armado of Spaine riding near our Coasts 
neare Deale, and the Hollanders, wherein the mighty Armado, 
consisting of great shippes, was vanquished by the Hollanders. 
The winter was exceeding windy and tempestuous, and there- 
fore there was much shipwreck." 

The Great Civil War of the seventeenth century naturally 
left considerable traces of its ravages and disturbances 
among the entries of the parochial registers throughout the 
greater part of the kingdom, more particularly in the 
districts where the conflicts or skirmishes were the most 
constant. 

The county of Northampton was specially involved in 
the strife. At the outbreak of hostilities between the King 
and the Parliament in 1642, Northampton was held as a 
garrison for the latter under Lord Brooke. In January 
1642-43 the registers of St. Sepulchre's record the burial 
of "Robert Hutchins, a souldear." In May 1643 there is 
the burial entry of " A souldear who died out of goodman 
Hilton's house." In October of the same year there was a 
midnight skirmish of royalists under Prince Rupert before the 
north gate close to St. Sepulchre's. As a result there are 
five burial entries of slain soldiers. In the following year 
there are several like entries, particularly about the date 
of the battle of Cropredy Bridge, which was fought on 
2Qth June. Sir William Waller, the Parliamentary general, 
marched to Towcester on /th July, and arrived at Northamp- 
ton on 4th July with 7000 horse and foot 

" 1 644. A canoneere of S r William Waller buried the 3d of 
July. 

"A souldier buryed from Richard Letts, buryed the nth day 
of July. 

" Major Hobson was buryed from Valentine Roberts the 
1 3th day of July. 






1 90 PARISH REGISTERS 

" A souldier from Robert Harris was buryed the i8th day 
of July." 

The decisive battle of Naseby was fought on I4th June 
1645. On the following day " Robert Harris, souldier under 
Major Huntington," was buried at St. Sepulchre's. From 
that date up to the middle of July thirteen other soldiers 
found burial in this churchyard, several of whom were " un- 
known by name." An entry in the All Saints' register 
under date 2Qth June 1645 states that "This month thirty 
comon souldiers sepult. fuit." Doubtless many of the 
severely wounded at the great fight at Naseby were brought 
into Northampton and there died. Sir Edward Littleton, 
a devoted royalist, who was wounded and taken prisoner, 
was buried at St. Sepulchre's on I9th June, and Sir Thomas 
Dallison, an officer of Rupert's brigade, at St. Giles' on 
2Oth June. The All Saints' registers record the burial of 
Captain Bush (an officer of Cromwell's own regiment of 
horse), and a cornet on i6th June. In the same registers 
are the burials of Captain Potter on 2/th June, and of 
Captain Cooke on 29th June. Captain Potter was one of 
the two ''Commissioners of Parliament residing in the 
Army " ; Captain Cooke was " Commissary General of Horse 
provisions" in the Parliamentary army. In the letter of 
Mr. Thomas Herbert (the other Parliamentary Commis- 
sioner) to Mr. Speaker Lenthall describing the battle, the 
dangerously wounded condition of both these captains is 
mentioned. 

In the course of the following July, Cornet David, two 
soldiers, and a "clarke of the band," were buried in All 
Saints' churchyard, and Captain Brampton Feme at St. 
Sepulchre's. 

The following are amongst other burial entries in different 
parts of the county of Northampton which were apparently 
due to the Civil War disturbances : 



HISTORICAL 



191 



Cotterstoc 
Helmdon 


1043 



Collyweston 


1644 


Daventry 


1644-5 


Collyweston 


1645 


Daventry 
Fotheringhay 


1645 
1646 


Etton 


1648 



Edward Spratton was buried the 2 day of Jeune, 
who was slain at Mr. Norton's gates the same 
day. 

Mr. Thorntone, a quarter-master of the Kinges 
Majestic 5 armie was buried the firste daye of 
December. 

Gowen Barnes, a Drummer from London, White- 
chappell, buried May i8th. 

March 18. Humfree Bayliss, Quarter Master to 
Sir Wm. Compton, buried. 

Thomas Boivill, a wounded souldier, dyed and 
was buried Sept 22. 

Nov. 28. Edward Wilkesson a souldier, buried. 

Gulielmus Preston occicus a milite quodam, sepult. 
29 November. 

Edward Rossiter by a shott from Woodecroft 
House received two wounds whereof he pre- 
sently dyed June the 5 and on the 8th day of 
the same was buryed at Etton. 

Between 1645 and 1650 William Ponder signs the 
Courteenhall, Northants, register as " Rector." This has 
been crossed out by a successor in every instance, and the 
word " Intruder" substituted. 

Derbyshire was another midland county much involved 
in the turmoils of the Civil War period. The entries in the 
register of the great church of All Saints, Derby, are of much 
interest; partial and blundering quotations have been set 
forth in Burn's work : 

" 1642. The 22 of this August errectum fuit Notinghamie Vexillum 
Regale. Matt. xii. 25. 
Oct. Bat at Kinton (Edgehill) 23 day. 
Nov. Bat. at Branford (Brentford) 12 day. 
" 1642-3, Jan. Bat at Swarston Bridge 5 day. 

Ashbie ye 17. 

Feb. ii. Sep. William Parker, souldier under Cap: Sanders. 
March. The 2oth day ye Hon. Lord Brooke slaine at y e 
Siege against Lichneld Close. It was yielded up 
5th day. 

Ye i Qth day the battell at Stafford, E. of North- 
ampton was slaien. 
" 1643, April- The 8 day Prince Rupert Besieged y e Close at Lich- 



192 PARISH REGISTERS 

field wch was valiently mentained till ye 21 and ye took ful 
quarters and with great honor marcht away. 

June 4. The body of Lord Erie of Northampton formerly 
slayne at Stafford was now buried in the-familie vault belonging 
to the Honble house of the Lord Cavendish Erie of Devon, 
wch there now lyeth Elizab. Countess Shreusbi and William 
Erie of Devon." 

The Earl of Northampton was killed at the battle of 
Hopton Heath, near Stafford, ipth March 1643. The 
young Earl requested that he might have the dead body of 
his father, but it was refused. Sir John Cell's account of 
the transaction is as follows : 

"Within three days came a trumpeter to Colonel Gell, 
from my young Lord of Northampton for his father's dead 
body, whereupon he answered, if he would send him the 
drakes which they had gotten from their dragoons, and pay 
the chirurgeons for embalming him, he should have it ; but 
he returned him an answer, that he would doe neither th' one 
or th' other ; and soe Colonel Gell caused him to be carried 
in his company to Derby, and buried him in the Earl of 
Devonshire's sepulchre in All Hallow's Church." 

The rector of Brailsford was another Derbyshire clergy- 
man who used the parish register for brief memoranda as to 
the events of the times. 

" 1648. Memorandum. C. R. began his R. 1625 March 27 ; set up 
his standard at Nottingham 22 Aug. 1642. Beheaded at 
Whitehall 1648, Jan. 30. L d Capell, Baron of Hadham, 
beheaded at Westminster, March 9. A dear year ; oatmeale in 
the north at 3d. per pound; wheate, Winchester measure, at 
i8d. a hoope, viz. at 2. 16. 6. per load. 

"1650. Memorandum. Gen. Cromwell went into Scotland this 
year. 

" Car. 2 d coronatus Scotia Sconise juxta Johnston. Sermon 
preached by Mr. Robt. Douglas, minister at Edinburgh, 
moderator of ye Commission of ye generall assembly. 2 Kings 
ii. 12, 17. 



HISTORICAL 193 

1651. Mr. Love | beheaded 22 A t 
Mr. Gibbons J 

The battell of Worcester 3 Sept. 

James Stanley, E. of Darby, beheaded at Boulton in 
Lancestyre, and Captain John Benbow at Shrewsbury, 
15 Oct. Sir Timothy Fetherston beheaded at Chester 
22 Oct." 

The register book of Coton-in-the-Elms, in the south of 
the county, has one remarkable entry as to the great strife : 

"In 1643 Philip Greensmith a soldier was executed upon a 
Tree at the green of Coton for deserting his colours, March 3ist. 
The Tree dyed by degrees." 

There were various troubles in Longford parish, about 
half-way between Derby and Ashborne, in 1645 : 

"The 1 4th day of August there were two soldiers killed, y e one 
at Alkmanton pistolled with two bullets in at ye backe and out at 
ye belly, his name as it said was George Harris borne in Bucking- 
hamshire in a towne called Grimston. 

" At the same time was buried William Savage a souldier slaine at 
Hungrey Bentley hee was killed with a sword wherewith he had 
many thrusts, buried the said i4th of August. 

" John Malley was attacked and had his house broken in sundry 
places by souldiers the first of November in the night, and because 
they could not get in and he would not yeild they shot him with a 
sluge into the head and soe died, and was buried the 2 d day of 
November." 

The following entries pertaining to the Parliamentary 
strife occur in the parish registers of North Wingfield : 

" 1643, I 3 Dec. Ann Clay, and John Platts two souldiers was 

buried. 
" 1644, 24 Aug. Thomas Slye being a parliament souldier was 

buried. 

" 1645, 6 Dec. Patrick Turrie a souldier being sleane was buried. 
" 1645-6, 23 Feb. Thomas Robin a souldier being a Scotish man 

was buried. 
8 March. ... a souldier of the Scotts armie was buried." 



194 PARISH REGISTERS 

North Wingfield is the adjacent parish to South Wing- 
field ; the celebrated Wingfield Manor House, now a fine 
ruin, stood in the latter parish. It was strongly fortified, 
and formed a centre of petty warfare until dismantled by 
order of the House of Commons in June 1646. It was 
originally held by the Parliament, but in December 1643 
was successfully stormed by the Royalists. It was 
recaptured, after a long siege, by Sir John Cell for the 
Commonwealth, in July 1644. In 16456 Derbyshire suffered 
much from having the Scotch army quartered within its 
limits, the inhabitants being bound to find them free quarters 
and horses. 

On 1 8th August 1648 came the rout of the great royalist 
army of the Scots, under the Duke of Hamilton, at Preston. 
The defeated cavalier forces disbanded themselves in Derby- 
shire, dispersing in various directions. Large numbers of the 
infantry were arrested when vainly endeavouring to conceal 
themselves amidst the hills and dales of the wild Peak 
district. One of the most terrible episodes of the strife in 
the Midlands was the sickening event in the church of 
Chapel-en-le-Frith, which brought undying shame on all 
concerned in this monstrous act of wanton overcrowding. 
The incident is thus described in the parish register : 

"1648, Sept. ii. There came to this town of Scots army led by 
Duke Hambleton, and squandered by Colonell Lord Cromwell, 
sent hither prisoners from Stopford under the conduct of 
Marshall Edward Matthews, said told 1500 in number, put 
into y e church Sept. 14. They went away Sept. 30 following. 
There were buried of them before the rest went 44 prisoners, 
and more buried Oct. 2 who were not able to march, and the 
same day y r died by the way before they come to Cheshire 
10 and more." 

The register book of the old town of Bruton, Somerset, 
contains the following rhymed account of the successful 



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HISTORICAL 195 

repulse of a Parliamentary force on 23rd February 1642-3. 
In honour of this event it was customary to ring the church 
bells on the eve of St. Matthias for at least a century after 
the restoration of the monarchy : 

"All Praise and thanks to God still give; 
For our deliverance Mathias Eve, 
By his great power wee put to flight, 
Our rageing foes that Thursday night, 
Who came to Plunder, Burne, and Slay f 
And quite consume us ere the day. 
Thus he our feeble force supplide : 
In weakness most he's magnifide 
Serve god with fear, on him depend 
As then, soe ever, he will defend." 

A few other historical references to the days of the 
Commonwealth struggle may be cited from other parts of 
the country. The East Riding parish of Burton Fleming 
has the following register entry in 1642-3 : 

"The Quene Majesty did lie at north burton with her army 
the 3 d of March." 

Queen Henrietta Maria landed at Bridlington Quay from 
Holland on 22nd February 1642-3, and from thence pro- 
ceeded to York, where she arrived on Qth March. 

Later references to the strife in Yorkshire of this year 
occur in the registers of St. Mary's, Beverley, for 1643 : 

"June 30. Our great scrimage in Beverley, and God gave us 
the victory at that tyme, ever blessed be God. 

" J u ty 3 Thirteen slaine men on ye King's party was buried. 

'All our lives now at y e stake, 
Lord deliver us, for Christ his sake.' 

" 1643 (Allhallows, Bread Street, London), the 6th of October was 
buried at Lawrence Poulteney's, Captain John Jackson. He 
died at Mr Gethint of his honourable wounds received at the 
fight of Newbury. Colonel Harvie, with his regiment of horse 



196 PARISH REGISTERS 

attending ; his troops, so near as they could to the place of his 
burial, and others his friends on foot, followed the bier. He 
died in the faith of the gospel. Received, i6s. 8d. 

" 1643 ( Whorlton, Durham). Mary dau. of Jude Johnson bap. 4 Feb, 
w h was the day y* all men were warned to goe against y e 
Scotts and y 4 day was y e heavens set on fire to warn all y* 
Country. 

" 1646 (Bromfield, Salop). About the midel of May nine Souldiers 
were buried. 

" 1648 (Staindropt Durham"}. William Joplin, a souldier slaine at the 
seidge of Raby Castle, was buried in the church 27 Aug 1648. 
Mem. Many souldiers slaine before Raby Castle, which were 
buried in the parke and not registered. 

" 1648-9 (Selattyn, Salop}. Charles the first, King of Great Brittain, 
France, and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, suffered Martyrdom 
upon a Scaffold before the gate of the Royall Palace of 
Whitehall in Westminster the thirtieth day of January. The 
memory of the just is blessed." 

In reading or examining parochial registers, it is not 
infrequently found that they are defective or irregular from 
about 1642 until the establishment of civil registration in 
1653. In several cases entries are made giving the reason 
for this irregularity, as is shown by the following extracts. 

In the first register book of Clinton, Northants, occurs 
this entry : 

" Mr. Utting being Curate and Register in y e time of Usurpation 
no notes is able to be found except this Regester is defective." 

There are but few entries from 1642 to 1647 in the first 
register book of North Lydbury, Salop. After the year 1643 
appears this memorandum : 

'1643 

"These years being times of wars the z 44 

Register was neglected." . .1 45 

1646 

.1647 
" Kibworth, co. Leicester. Ano Dni 1641. Know all men, that the 



HISTORICAL 197 

reason why little or nothing is registered from this year 1641 
until the year 1649, was tne ci y il wars between King Charles 
and his Parliament, which put all into a confusion till then ; 
and neither minister nor people could quietly stay at home 
for one party or the other. 

" 1643 (Burton Latimer, Northants). The three yeares following 
were most of them lost in the tyme of the warre ; w' could be 
found was incerted as appeares. Michael Swinson being then 
clerke (as hee saith) lost the notes of the names w ch hee had 
taken in paper, so that they could not be ingrafted. As of 
Baptizings, so of marriages and burials." 

There is something pathetic in the terms of the brief 
entry amid the registers of St. Bridget's, Chester 

"1643. Here the Register is defective till 1653. The tymes were 
such " 

A great contrast in length is afforded by the explanatory 
note in the registers of Maids Moreton, Bucks : 

"A.D. 1642. This year the worst of Parliaments wickedly rebelling 
against the best of Princes King Charles i ; the kingdom 
underwent most sad affliction, especially churches, whilst they 
pretended reformation, were everywhere robbed and ruined by 
the Rebells. In this Church of Moreton the windows were 
broken, a costly desk in the form of a spread eagle gilt, on 
which we used to lay Bp. Jewel's works, doomed to perish as 
an abominable idoll ; the Cross (which, with its fall, had like to 
have broke out the brains of him who did it) cut off the steeple 
by the soldiers at the command of one called Colonel Purefoy 
of Warwickshire. He carried away what he could, and, among 
other things, the Register was hid ; and for that cause is not 
absolutely perfect for divers years, tho' I have used my best 
intelligence to record as many particulars as I could come by." 

"1644 (Crosion, Lancashire). From May 20 till Feb 2 this boke 
hath bee neclected by reason of wars. 

" 1648 (Shipton, Salop). From the yeare of our Lord God 1644 unto 
the yeare of our Lord God 1648 This Register Booke was 
taken out of Shipton church and was not to be found: the 
Chest wherein it was kept being Broken up by souldiers, 



198 PARISH REGISTERS 

whereby it cometh to passe that all Burings Weaddings and 
all Children that were Baptized betwixt the yeare 1644 and 
1648 in the parish of Shipton were not herein registed." 

The Tamworth parish registers have a variety of entries 
relative to the great strife, and to the consequent change 
in matters ecclesiastical : 

"June, 1643. Towards the latter end of this month the towne and 
castle of Tamworth were taken in from the enemye by the 
Parlements for us under the command of Coll : W. Purefrey. 

"September, 1643. About the begining of this moneth MrTheoph. 
Lord was called to bee the preacher at Tamworth both by the 
Governor and Towne but was forbid to doe any servise 
publikely excepting preaching as his duty. 

"May, 1644. About the latter end of this moneth of May the 
honorable Comittee of Safety for the county of Warw : at 
Coventry sitting fixed Theophi Lord the preacher to supply the 
whole duty of the min r in Tamworth the former man that 
challenged the place to be his goeing away about 2 months 
before, and never acquainting the Towne. 

"19 June, 1646. Buried the Body of Henry son of Tho : Piccard 
of Camb : an infant, his father Thorn : was slaine by the 
enemy in Litchfield close about March last." 

The closing incidents of the life of the ill-fated Charles 
are thus noted in the registers of Carisbrooke, Isle of Wight : 

" 1648. The 6th day of September. King Charles went from the 
Castell to Newport to treat, and the last day of November he 
went from Newport to Hurste Castle to presonn cared away 
by to tropes of horse." 

The Protestation and the Covenant were two entirely 
separate matters, not infrequently confused by local his- 
torians and register students. Signatures to both of these 
formal declarations are now and again found in registers or 
among parish documents. 

The Protestation, an idea of Pym's, was an undertaking 
to defend the "True Reformed Protestant Religion," etc., 




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HISTORICAL 199 

taken by the Lords and Commons in May 1641, and sent 
out for signature throughout the country. It seems, how- 
ever, to have been only signed to any great extent in those 
parishes where the minister or squire, or both, were of 
pronounced Puritan tendencies. 

The Covenant was a solemn league, originated in 
Scotland in 1638, to oppose the projects of the king, and 
adopted in a modified form as a treaty between England 
and Scotland by the Parliaments of the former on 25th 
September 1643. It consisted of six articles, mainly 
designed for the preservation of the reformed church in 
Scotland and for the reformation of religion in England 
and Ireland (including the extirpation of both popery and 
prelacy), and also for maintaining the liberties of Parliament. 
It was ordered to be signed by all over eighteen years of 
age, and the names of those who refused to be reported to 
Parliament. 

A full record of the wordy Protestation occurs in the 
register of Appleby Magna in the midst of the entries of 
1648. To it is prefixed a list of 144 names, beginning 
with those of Sir William Joanes Knt, and Thomas Mould, 
rector : 

" The Protestation made by the house of Parliament to be taken 
of everyone from the age of 16 years and upwards. Anno Dom. 
1641, Feb. 27, I A.B. doe, in the presince of Almighty God, 
promise vow and protest to maintaine and defend, as farre as lawfully 
I may, with my life power and estate of the true reformed Protestant 
religion expressed in the doctrine of the Church of England, against 
all Popery and Popish innovations, within this Realme contrary to 
the said doctrine. And according to the duty of my Allegiance his 
Majesties Eoyal Person Honor and Estate, As also the power and 
priveledge of Parliament the lawful rights and liberties of the subject, 
and every person that maketh his protestation, in whatsoever he 
shall doe in the lawful pursuance of the same, And to my power 
and as farre as lawfully I may, I will oppose and by all good ways 
and means endeavour to bring to condigne punishment all such as 



200 PARISH REGISTERS 

shall either by force, practice, counsells, plotts, conspiracies or 
otherwise doe anything to the contrary of anything in this present 
protestation contained, and further that I shall in all just and 
honourable wayes endeavour to preserve the union and peace 
between the three kingdoms of England Scotland and Ireland, 
and neither for hope, feare, nor other respect shall relinquish this 
promise, vow, and protestation." 

The register book of Great Doddington, Northants, has 
an entry to this effect : 

" We whose names are underwritten have made the Protestation 
framed and made by the House of Commons. Antho. Warters cler." 

Then follow seven written names and forty-nine marks. 

At East Haddon, in the same county, are exactly one 
hundred signatures or marks appended in the register to the 
following declaration : 

" The Prokylation made by the Parliament the third of May 
anno domini 1641 was taken and made by all us whose names and 
marks are here under written and set doune (as was presented and 
thought fit May twentie fift Anno predicto) the twentie of June 
eodem Anno Domini 1641." 

The earliest register book of Pentrich, Derbyshire, 
contains 180 signatures and marks appended to this 
Protestation, extending over six pages. The Kedleston 
registers of the same county contain 36 signatures to the 
like protest ; though in this latter case it was not read and 
signed until July 1644. 

As to the Covenant, it was insisted on by civil and 
military authorities rather than by the ministers, and hence 
the names who signed it are seldom met with in registers. 
At Cherry Burton, Yorks, there is a registry entry of 
November 1646 to the effect that 

" All these tooke the Scottish Covenant ; under Mr. Tho. Miccle- 
thwayte." 



HISTORICAL 201 

Fifty-six names are appended. 

The death of the Protector and of his Relict both 
obtained register notice. 

A Yorkshire parish register may be cited, from among 
several others, as containing a precise record of the Protector's 
death : 

" 1658 (JKacknesS) Yorks}. His Highness the Lord Protector dyed 
the 3 day of September. And Lord Richard his sonn was pro- 
claimed in his stead in London on Saturday being the next day, 
and in Yorke and Hull upon the Tewsday then followinge." 

As a sequel to this, the actual registry entry of the burial 
of Cromwell's widow may be cited : 

" 1665 (Nbrborough, N'hants). Elizabeth, the relict of Oliver Crom- 
well, sometime Pro : of England, was buried Nov. 19." 

Elizabeth Cromwell died at the house of her son-in-law, 
John Cleypole, of Norborough, who was Master of the 
Horse to the Protector, and a member of his short-lived 
House of Lords. Cleypole was responsible for the mutilation 
of the Norborough register book, from which the entries 
between 1613 and 1646 have been torn out, as is recorded 
in the following memorandum : 

" The reason of this defect in the register was because one Mr. 
John Cleypole, a factious gentleman, then living in the parish of 
Northborough, caused the register to be taken away from mee, John 
Stoughton, then rector, for which I was by the Ecclesiastical Court 
then hoi den at St. Martin's adjudged for satisfaction the sum 
of 2. los." 

John Stoughton was rector from 1659 until his death on 
1 5th March 1695-6. 

The exuberant royalty occasionally displayed in registers 
at the time of the Restoration has now and again a sus- 
piciously time-serving flavour about it. For instance, the 
initials appended to the following outburst in the register 



202 PARISH REGISTERS 

book of Barton Seagrave, Northants, show that it was 
written by one William Henchman, who could not have 
been a churchman, and who had been content to accept 
the living at the hands of schismatics in 1657 ! 

" Memorandum in perpetuum. King Charles y e second (after 
twelve years exile) was (by a miracle of mercy) restored unto his 
three kingdoms (his undoubted right) May 29, 1660. Soli Deo 
gloria. W. H." 

The following, from the register of St. Chad's, Shrews- 
bury, has a more genuine ring : 

" 1660, May i. King Charles the second entered London one ye 

29 of this instant May after 16 yeares exile and in the 12 yeare 
of his raine it being the day one wich he was borne and the 

30 yeare of his age which day is yearly to be observed in memory 
of his Majestie's happie restoration whom god grant long to 
raine. A blessing to his Church and victorious over his 
enemies. 

"1661 (Tamworth\ April 23. Coronation of our Dread Soveraigne 
Lord Charles the Second of England, Scotland, France, and 
Ireland, King Defender of the Faith whom God long preserve." 

The register of Portsmouth parish has an elaborate 
and illuminated entry of the marriage of Charles II 
with " the most illustrious Princesse Dona Catarina, Infanta 
of Portugall." They were married at Portsmouth by the 
Bishop of London on 22nd May 1662. 

John Wiseman, vicar of Rowington, Warwickshire, 
ejected during the Commonwealth, on returning to his 
benefice in the autumn of 1662, wrote in the registers : 

" By usurped Authority these many yeares wasted wrongfully out 
of my liveinge." 

After entering a baptism on March I4th 1662-3, he added : 

"Thus farr for halfe a yeare upon my returning to my place 
againe wrote by me 

"JOHN WISEMAN, Vicar of Rowington " 



HISTORICAL 203 

The Rye House Plot is commemorated in the following 
entry : 

" 1683 {Bamburgh, Northumberland], September 9, being y e 
thanksgiving day for y e preservation of our gracious king his 
dearest brother -from y e bloody conspiracy of y e fanaticks and 
non-conforming ministers now in hold as being of y e 
conspiritors. . . ." 

There is at least one ill-judged register panegyric on 
Charles II, the most selfish and sensual of our kings ; it is set 
forth in the parochial records of Chapel-en-le-Frith : 

" Upon Friday, ye sixth day of this month, did our most gracious 
and sovereign Lord King Charles y e 2 d of ever-blessed memory 
depart this life, having reigned six and thirtie years and a weeke, 
to y e getting himself great honour and love, both in foreign parts 
and at home, for he very much endeavoured y e establishment of 
peace, justice, and piety, and by his wisdom was much prevalent 
therein. England did (as indeed there was great cause) very much 
bewail and lament y e death and loss of soe gracious a king. After 
his death y e Imperial Crowne of England did lineally descend to 
his royale Highness James, Duke of York and Albaine, brother to 
y e late King, who was crowned King of England, etc., upon St. 
George's day being 23 d of April, 1685." 

The Duke of Monmouth's rebellion of 1685 has left its 
stamp on the parish registers of Taunton, where he was 
proclaimed King on 2Oth of June. He was defeated at 
Sedgemoor, near Bridgwater, on 6th July, and beheaded on 
Tower Hill on I5th July. Judge Jeffreys began his infamous 
" Bloody Assize " at Taunton in the following August. The 
registers of St. Mary Magdalene's were much interrupted 
by the rebellion during June. Two soldiers were buried in 
July 1685; " a King's soldier" and "two Rebel soldiers" in 
August ; in September four rebels were executed, six rebel 
soldiers and one king's soldier buried ; and in October, 
November, and December, and up to April 1686, are numerous 
like entries. 



204 PARISH REGISTERS 

In the burial register of the parish of St. James, Taunton, 
the following entries occur under 1685 : 

" July 9 was buried John Gotnell, executed, for treason against 
his majesty. 

"The same day was buried John Birges, executed for treason 
against his majesty. 

" The 9 day, was executed John Grinslade, for treason against 
his majesty, but buried the 10 day of July, in the year 1685." 

These entries are followed by those of six others executed 
on 9th of July, but buried on the loth. These nine persons 
were probably part of the nineteen executed by Colonel 
Kirke on the Cornhill, under martial law, on his arrival from 
Sedgemoor on Thursday, the 9th July. 

Judge Jeffreys caused nineteen others to be executed on 
3Oth September 1685. The burials of two of these are entered 
in the registers of St. James' on ist of October, and of one 
on 2nd of October. 

The advent of the Prince of Orange also obtained register 
notice : 

" 1688 (Wadhurst, Sussex), Nov 4. The Prince of Orange invaded 
England and landed at Torbay nigh to Dartmouth. 

"Feb. 13 th . William and Mary were proclaimed King and Queen of 
England : a thanksgiving day for deliverance from papacy and 
arbitrary power." 

The following is the last historical entry for which space 
can be found : 

"1697 (St. Mary Magdalene^ Canterbury^ October ye ... the 
Peace betwixt England and France was proclaimed with drums 
and trumpet. Ed. Beverton Mayor." 



CHAPTER XI 
STORMS, FROSTS, AND FIRES 

Storm of 1606-7 The Snowstorm of 1614-15 Later seven- 
teenth century storms The frost of 1 683-4 " The great 
storm" of 1703 A late snowstorm Aurora Borealis of 1716 
Earthquakes Other eighteenth - century storms The 
Cherry Burton register Eclipses Comets Fires The 
Great Fire of London 

STORMS, frosts, fires, and other unusual natural occur- 
rences, such as eclipses, comets, and meteors, are 
occasionally recorded in parish registers. The follow- 
ing are selected examples : 

" 1606-7 (Barnstaple^ Devon}. In the 2oth day of Januarie there was 
suche a mightie storme and tempeste from the river of Barnstaple 
with the comminge of the tyde, that y t caused much lose of 
goods and howses to the valewe of towe thousand pownds, 
besyde the death of one James Froste, and towe of his children, 
the which his howse fell downe upon them and killed them. 
This storme began at 3 of clocke in the morninge and continued 
tyll 12 of clock of same daye. Per me Robte Langdon, 
Clarcke, teste. 

" 1606-7 (Ibid.). In the year of o r Lord God 1607, in Januarie, the 
river of Barnstaple was so frozen that manye hundred people 
did walke over hande in hande from the Bridge unto Castell 
Rocke with staves in ther hands as safe as they could go on the 
drye grounde, being y e very same moneth the floud was. 

" teste ROBTE LANGDON, Clarck of Barum 

" 1607 (Boughton, Northants). This yeare (1607) on the tuesday in 
Whitson weeke there fell such a hayle storme that it brake the 

strawe of the rye then growinge in the bridge Fielde that it 

205 



206 PARISH REGISTERS 

coulde not growe to the greate losse of all the inhabitants and 
did little hurt in any fielde but this, the hailstones were generally 
3 inches about, some cornerde and some flatt like fygges. God 
grant us repentance." 

Towards the end of January 1614-15 there began a series 
of heavy snowstorms throughout England, which continued, 
without any long pauses, until the middle of March. The 
fullest and most remarkable of the register entries of this 
series of storms are those of Yorkshire and Derbyshire. 

In the register book of Beeston-next-Mileham, Norfolk, 
there is a very long entry recording this great snow, which 
began on 2ist of January 1614-15, and did not begin to 
melt away until the i6th of the following March. Three 
men were found dead in the open fields. 

" (Framlingham, Suffolk). The 2ist of Januarie Ano 1614 ther was 
sutch a Water at the Mill Bridge as the like was never scene 
in any man's time then lyveynge, and the next daye began the 
great Snowe, wch laye full seaven weekes. 

"(Almandbury, York). In this year 1614-15 so great a fall of snow 
as was not known in the memory of any living ; far exceeding 
that in 1540 in magnitude and duration; in which many 
travellers as well as inhabitants at Saddleworth perished. 

" (Alstonfield, Staffs), Jan 20: 1614-15. The great Snow began to 
fall, and so continued increaseing the most dayes until the 12 
of March. 

" ( Morley, Derbyshire], March 12 (1614-15), ye great snow broke 
wch had continewed from Friday seaven weakes before. 

" Note. This yeare after the great Snowe followed a great 
Drought which continued the most part of Soumer." 

" ( Youlgreave, Derbyshire). A Memoriall of the Great Snow 

Beginninge This year 1614-5 J an - L & began the greatest 

Jan. 1 6. snow snow (sic) which ever fell uppon the earth, 

within man's memorye. It covered the earth 

An elne deep fyve quarters deep upon the playne. And for 

uppon the heaps or drifts of snow, they were very deep ; so 

playne ground, that passengers both horse and foot, passed 



STORMS, FROSTS, AND FIRES 207 

over gates, hedges and walles. It fell at 10 

severall tymes and the last was the greatest, to 

the greate admiration and feare of all the land, 

East, West, for it came from the fowre p ts of the world, so 

North, South, that all cuntryes were full, yea the South p te as 

March 12. well as these mountaynes. It continued by 

daily encreasing until the i2th day of March 

(without the sight of any earth, eyther uppon 

hilles or valleyes) uppon w h day (being the 

Sabboth. Lorde's Daye) it began to decreasse ; and so by 

little and little consumed and wasted away, till 

End 28 Maii. the eight and twenty th day of May for then all 

the heapes or drifts of snow were consumed, 

except one uppon Kinder's Scowt, w h lay till 

Witson week and after." 

" Hynderances and Losses in this Peake Cutry by the 
Snowe Abovesayd 

" i. It hyndered the seed tyme. A very cold spring. 

" 2. It consumed much fodder (multitude of sheep, cause, con- 
tinuance of cold wether). 

" 3. And many wanted fewell ; otherwyse few were smothered in 
the fall or drownded in the passage ; in regard the floods of water 
were not great though many. 

' The Name of our Lord be Praysed.' 

" The spring was so cold and so late that much cattell was in 
very great daunger and some dyed. 

" There also fell ten lesse snowes in Aprill, some a foote deep, 
some lesse, but none continued long. Uppon May day, in the 
morning, instead of fetching fflowers, the youthes brought in flakes 
of snow, w h lay above a foot deep uppon the moores and mountaynes. 
All these aforesayd snows vanished away and thoed with little or no 
rayne." 

" 1615 A Dry Summer 

" There was no rayne fell uppon the earth from the 25th day 
of March until the 2nd day of May, and there then was no shower ; 
after which there fell none tyll the i8th day of June, an then there 
fell another ; after y* there fell none at all tyll the 4th day of August, 
after which tyme there was sufficient rayne uppon the earth; so 
that the greattest p l of this land, specially the south p ts were burnt 



208 PARISH REGISTERS 

upp, both corne and hay. An ordinary Burner load of hay was at 
2 K. and little or none to be got for money. 

" This p l of the peake was very sore burnt upp, only Lanki- 
shyre and Cheshyre had rayne ynough all the Sumer; and both 
corne and hay sufficient. 

" There was very little rayne fell the last winter, but snow onely." 

Other storms of the seventeenth century are occasion- 
ally commemorated. 

"1617 (Elton, Northants). About the 25 of February it began and 
continued snowing until the sixth day at night of March. And 
the summer before was great store of Rayne and floode. 

" H. MAPLESDEN, Curate " 

The registers of Castle Church, Stafford, have the follow- 
ing entry under 1621 : 

"The windy Thursday was 21 March 1593, and the windy 
Monday was 28 Jan. 1627." 

" 1655 (Howden, Yorks). This yeare in ye Moneth of August fell a 
great Raine wherr in some places the waters exceeded their 
Boundes swept away much Hay some Corne, and other Hay 
corrupted by the unseasonable Season (y e like scarce memor- 
able). It enlarged the price of Corne yet in mercie ye Lord 
comunicates above our deserts his Blessings towards us. 

" 1655 (Ibid.). In y e moneth (December) ye River Ouze was (in 
some places) soe frozen yt at Langrick and also betweene 
Aersmouth and Booth people went over on y e Ice yet not 
much Snow. 

" 1660 (Hackness, Yorks). Be it remembered that the Eight day of 
December in the Eveninge aboute Fower or five of the Clocke 
there began to arise a great storme of winde and raine and Mr. 
Chapman and myselfe were comeinge from Scarbr. then but the 
storme was soe forceable that we were faine to turne backe and 
lye at Scarbr. that night, but the storme of the winde did waxe 
more forceable in soe much that it unbuyred many houses of 
Thatch, blew downe many windmills and Trees in Orchards 
and other places and continued untill abowte one of the Clocke 
in the night. It may well be called the greate windy Satterday 
night for noe man liveinge never sawe such a winde many hay 



STORMS, FROSTS, AND FIRES 209 

Stackes and Corne Stackes I beleive were blowne downe at that 
time. JOHN RICH 

" 1662 (Tas/ey, Salop), Dec. 16. John son of John Craffe and Ann, 
of the p. of Morvell, was bap. here, there being a great flood 
that day, soe that they could not goe to their parish Church. 

"1673 (& WerburgttS) Derby\ July iQth, being Sabbath day at night, 
there was a great Floud. The water was two Foot high in the 
middle ally, it weare masured, so that it came into Cheasts and 
wett all the writings. Such a Flood was not known in our 
agge before. 

"1676-7 (Darky Dale ; Derbyshire). A great frost which began at 
Martimas 1676 and continued till January 3, 1677. Ye 
Derwent was actually frozen, and att ye dissolving of the frost a 
great flood, and incredible quantities of ice was brought out on 
the water banks into tollerable inclosed grounds, and up to 
the churchyard steps. 

" THOMAS MOSSLEY, Rector " 

The frost of 1683-84 was one of terrible severity; the 
forest trees were split ; most of the hollies were killed ; myriads 
of birds perished ; and the Thames was frozen over from 
December to 4th of February. 

"1683 (Wing, Rutland}. This yeare the longest and the sharpest 
frost that ever was knowne. All things whatever that had any 
moistnes in them were frozen both within dores and without 
for a long while together. 

" Ubley, Somerset. In the yeare 1683 was a mighty great frost, the 
like was not scene in England for many ages. It came upon a 
very deep snow, which fell immediately after Christmas, and it 
continued untill Ladyday. The ground was not open nor the 
snowe cleane gone off the earth in thirteene weeks. Somm of 
the snow remained at mindipe (Mendips) till midsummer. It 
was soe deepe and driven with the winde against the hedges 
and stiles, that the next morning after it fell men could not 
goe to their grounds to serve their cattell without great danger 
of being buried, for it was above head and shoulders in many 
places and some it did burie did betooken the burieing of 
many more which came to pass before the end of the yeare ; 
but in a few days the frost came soe fearce, that people did goe 



210 PARISH REGISTERS 

upon the top of it over wals and stiles as on levell ground, not 
seeing hardly where they was, and many men was forced to keep 
their cattell untill the last, in the same ground they was in at 
first, because they could not drive them to any other place, and 
did hew the ice every day for water, by reason of the sharpness 
of the frost and the deepness of the snow. Som that was 
travelling on mindipe did travell till they could travell no 
longer, and then lye down and dye, but mortality did prevail 
most among them that could travell worst, the sharpness of the 
season tooke off the most parte of them that was aged and of 
them that was under infirmities, the people did die so fast 
that it was the greatest parte of their work (which was appointed 
, to doe that worke) to burie the dead ; it being a day's work for 
two men, or two days' work for one man to make a grave. It 
was almost as hard a work to hew a grave out in the earth, as 
in the rock, the frost was a foot and halfe and two foot deepe 
in the dry earth, and where there was moisture and watter did 
runn, the ice was a yard or fower foot thick, in soe much that 
y e people did keepe market on the River at London : * God 
doth scatter his ice like morsels, man cannot abide his cold.' 
Psalme 147, 17. 

" 1683-4 (Holy Rood, Southampton}. This yeare was a great Frost, 
which began before Christmasse, soe that y e 3rd and 4th dayes 
of this month February y e River of Southampton was frossen 
all over and covered with ice from Calshott Castle to Redbridge, 
and Tho: Martaine ma r of a vessell went upon y e ice from 
Beray near Marshwood to Milbrook-point. And y e river at 
Ichen Ferry was so frossen over that severall persons went 
from Beauvais Hill to Bitterne Farme, forwards and backwards. 

"1683 (Barrow, Derbyshire). Mem d that the great frost begun in 
November, and lasted about 13 weeks, ending in February." 

The following comprehensive entry as to the storms of 
the end of the seventeenth and beginning of the eighteenth 
century occurs in the register of Donington, Shropshire : 

" 1696, Feb. 7th. Wee had then a most Violent Storm or rather a Sort 
of Hurricane, wch blew West and N. West ; it blew down 2 
Barns at ye parsonage of Donington and did great spoyls in 
most Towns of England, the Cathedral of St. Chad at Lich field 
received great Damage, neare 1000 loss; 3 young men were 



STORMS, FROSTS, AND FIRES 211 

killed at Pepperhill by the Falling Chymneys, and many lost 
their Lives in other places. 

" 1700, Feb. 5th and 6th. Wee had great Winds, and very violent 
from ye same quarter, wch did much Damage. Ye like again 
on Xmas Day, 1701, which also did much hurt." 

The Great Storm of November 26-27, I 7O3> which devas- 
tated England, destroying the Eddystone lighthouse and 
doing incalculable damage in a few hours, is commemorated 
in several registers. We can only quote from two : 

"1703 (St. Mary Magdalene, Canterbury). Memorandum : That in 
ye yeare 1703 there hapened in y e month of November on' 
ye 26 day a mighty dreadful tempestious wind which there has 
not bin ye like in oure age. 

"1703 (Sf. Oswald, Durham). Mem d that on y e 27th Nov 1703 
was y e greatest hurricane and storme that ever was known in 
England ; many churches and houses were extreamley shattered 
and thousands of trees blown down ; thirteen or more of her 
Majestyes men of war were cast away and above two thousand 
seamen perished in them. N.B. the Storme came no further 
north than Yarmouth." 

There was an exceptionally late and heavy fall of snow 
in many parts of England in 1713 : 

" 1713 (Lowick, Northants\ April 13 being y e Munday after Easter 
week there fell a great snow and lay all night and hung on y e 
trees next day as at X'mas." 

The celebrated Aurora Borealis of March 1716 extended 
from the west of Ireland to the confines of Russia. 

" 1715-16 {Chapel-en-le-Frith, Derbyshire), Feb. i. On that day there 
was an extreme wind. It blew the weathercock off the steeple 
and brake it in pieces, and a great Ash down in the Church- 
yard ; with vast great loss to most people in their houses, some 
being blown downe. 

"Upon the 3oth day of March, 1716, between the hours 
of nine and twelve at night, there appeared in North and 
Northwest a strange sort of light in the air ; it streamed up 



212 PARISH REGISTERS 

like unto long picks, of a large bigness, some black, some the 
colours of the rainbow, some a whitish colour, and at last it broke 
into flashes like lightening or smoke, as if it had been smoke of 
guns, as fast as you could clap your hands, very terrible to 
behold. It lasted so for the space of an hour, and then turned 
to streams again. It happened to be so the year before within 
one day of the same time of month, but was no lightning at 
that tyme, but was far lighter the year before, for there were 
several who could read in a book at that time of night. I have 
seen it myself several nights besides, but not so violent as it 
was these two nights, but could never hear from any what the 
cause could be." 

Earthquakes are occasionally named : 



"1727 (St. PancraS) Exeter). On the iQth of Tully between foure 
and five of the clocke in the morning, all the houses in Exeter 
did shake with an Earthquake that people shake in their beds 
from one side to the other, and was al over England, and in 
some places beyond sea, but doed but little damage : tis of a 
certain truth. 

" 1750 (Rothwell, Northants}. On Sunday Sept. 3oth We were 
terribly alarmed with a violent shock of an earthquake. It was 
felt at this Town about half an hour past twelve at noon. I 
was at that time administering the Holy Sacrament, and was 
with the whole Congregation in the greatest surprise. Its 
first approach was heard like a mighty wind, or rather the 
driving of many coaches. The motion was from S.W. to N.E. 
The continuance was as near as I could judge about half a 
minute and was very dreadful and awful. The earth was 
sensibly perceived to heave under our feet. The church 
tottered to its Foundation, and the east window shook most 
violently, as if it was all coming down and from the Roof, 
which we thought was falling on us, we heard dreadful 
crackings three or four times as if great prodigious weights 
were flung upon it. In Fear and Trembling we expected 
instant Death either by being crushed under the ruins of the 
church or else that we should have been swallowed up alive : 
but as Almighty God directed, no harm happened unto us. 
They who were in the Churches or Houses were more sensibly 
affected and felt it most than those who were walking. It 



STORMS, FROSTS, AND FIRES 213 

was felt in the Neighbouring Towns of Northamptonshire and 
Leicestershire. THOMAS BARRETT, Vicar" 

The following are among other eighteenth-century storms 
named in registers : 

"1746 (Hunton, Kent). On Midsummer day this year happened 
the greatest storm of Thunder and Lightening Wind and Rain 
yt was ever known in the memory of man. 

"1749 (Baslow, Derbyshire), Augt. 2zd. The same night was the 
most terrible for lightning, thunder, and rain there was ever 
known in this age. 

"1763 (Hunton, Kent). On nineteenth day of August this year 
happened a much greater storm of Thunder Wind Hail and 
Rain than in the year forty six. The hailstones bein Six and 
Seven Inches round. 

"1767 (Askham, Westmoreland}. Memorandum that in the night 
between Jan. y e loth and nth there happened the greatest 
fall of snow I ever remember ; the snow was so deep that I 
could not go to Church, Jan. the nth being Sunday, an 
accident that never happened to me before in the course of 
my ministry, and I am now in the forty-eightte of it. 

" WILLIAM M'!VER, vicar of Askham 

" 1795 (Frees, Salop), February. The largest Flood and the severest 
Frost that has been ever known by the oldest inhabitant, 
Mr. Morleton." [The great frost of 1794-5 lasted from 
24 Dec. to 24 Feb.] 

"1807 (Eaton-under- Hey wood, Salop), 22nd July. A most awful 
and tremendous storm of Thunder, Lightning, Hail and Rain. 
Hail fell in this neighbourhood 4 to 5 inches in length 
resembling broken ragged Ice. The wheat cut off at the 
heads, windows destroyed, everywhere the Hail could reach. 
Fruit and Gardens nearly destroyed. In short It was an 
awful visitation ; may it ever be remembered in this neigh- 
bourhood. RD. FLEMING A.B., at that period Curate " 

The Cherry Burton, E. R. Yorks registers contain 
several noteworthy entries towards the close of the seven- 
teenth century : 

" 1684. On the 12 of November were scene two sunns in the 



2i4 PARISH REGISTERS 

Firmam' betwixt twelve and one of the clock att Bps 
Burton. 

"1687-8. Memorandum upon Sunday Febr: i2th there happened 
about halfe a quarter before foure in ye afternoone, after 
sermon, a sudden violent pulsation, or as it were a Mighty 
Thump in ye earth tht is a kind of earthquake, tht resembled 
the report of a cannon, w th some noise before and after, and 
causing the earth and the buildings thereon to shake, but it 
lasted but a moment in this place. Ita testor. Cherryburton, 
Febr: 12, 1687. JOHN JOHNSON R r ibid. 

" 1692. Decemb. 8th (which was the day of y e Death of the second 
squire) about 2 a clocke in y e night was a violent Tempest of 
Wind whc overthrew y c Chantry Helmes and the Chymnez 
of y e Lodging parlour of the parsonage house, whc was rectifyed 
the July following. JOHN JOHNSON Rector 

" 1696. In February or March were scene Two sons in y e morning 
Tide by 2 Inhabitants." 

Eclipses are occasionally mentioned in registers : 

" T 597 (& Nicholas, Newcastle). Darke Satterday was 25 Feb. 

1597- 
"1652 (Brignal, Yorkshire), Mar. 29. The darke Monday the 

sunn beinge eclipsed 10 in 12 that is ten parts in twelve 

darkened, so that th day seemed as twilight. 
" 1699 (St. Andrew, Newcastle), Sep. 13. The Sun and the Mune 

was in the clips betwixt nin and ten in the morning and was 

darkish about three quarters of a hour." 

The mention of Comets or Meteors also occurs from time 
to time, of which the following entries are examples : 

" 1618 (Morley, Derbyshire). Memorand. that this yeare Novemb. 
the 25th and for three weekes after, the blazing starre ap- 
peared in the East and did retrograde. January the nth 
the Whitehall was burned and Queen Anne died the spring 
followinge. 

"1662 (Hackness, Yorks). Be it remembered that on Thursday 
the xxxth of October I went to my doore aboute brake a day 
and to my thinkeinge y* did lighten and I looked towarde the 
weste and there I beheld a Blazeinge Starr that blazed out 



STORMS, FROSTS, AND FIRES 215 

with a longe fiery blazeing streame and somewhat thicke and 
broade at the end thereof and continued not longe but wasted 
away. JOHN RICHARDSON 

"(Crowhurst, Sussex]. A Blazeing starre appeared in y e Kgdom in 
ye yeare 1680, it did first shew itselfe loth of December y* yeare 
80 which did stream from y e South west to y e middle of 
y e heavn broader y n a Raine Bow by farre and continued till 
y e latter end of February." 

The following are a few of the register entries relative 
to disasters by fire : 

"1612 (Barnstapk) Devon], In the yere of O r Lorde God 1612, 
in the 5th day of the monethe of Auguste was the towne of 
Teverton burned the second tyme with fyer to the number 
of 260 dwellynge houses. Mr. Pentecost Doddridge, Mayor of 
Barnstaple. ROBT. LANGDON, Clarcke 

"1615 (Howden, Yorks). Pity y* sad accident upon Saturday the 
fift of this moneth happened at Fockerthrop in y e house of 
Francis Blancherd, husbandman, being himselfe his wife and 
two sons at Holden Market one at home and some neighbour 
servant came to fetch fire (ye wind southward), it seemed 
some sparke scattered in ye dunghill kindled in ye straw as- 
cended the barne and dwelling house being remote from 
help, it consumed there his substance (oh hevie returne) the 
Lord in mercie divert the judgements our sins soe much 
deserve. 

"1647 (Bruton, Somerset): 

By furious flames this i3th day of August 
Brewton was like to be consumed to dust, 
But God in mercy quenched the flames indeed 
As then, so always hees our help at need. 

" 1665 (Newport , Salop]. Memorandum that on Friday in the 
afternoone, beinge the 19 day of May, Anno 1665, happened 
a sudden furyous fire, which began in the house of Richard 
Shelton, a smith, then livinge at the Chitlop, which by Saturday 
noone following were burned out of habitation about 162 
families, besides the better part of 10 more houses puld to 
pieces and much prejudiced. Tho. Munk. Newport sin no 
more, lest a worst punishment befall the. The losse to New- 
port wase 30,000 pounds. T. MILLINGTON " 



2i6 PARISH REGISTERS 

There is an incidental reference to the Great Fire of 
London in the registers of All Hallows, Bread Street : 

" 1667, June 19, was born and christened Michael, Son of Michael 
and Phebe Pyndar; but, by reason of the dreadful fire, was 
born in Coleman Street, in Sir William Bateman's House, 
where many of this parish for some time inhabited." 

It would appear from this entry that Sir William 
Bateman was one of the many charitably disposed citizens 
who put his mansion at the disposal of the houseless. 

The church of St. Dionis Backchurch was one of the 
many destroyed by the fire. The following are two of 
several records of interment in the ruins : 

"1667-8, Jan. 10. Mr. Francis Tryon was buried in the ruins of 
the chansel. Mrs. Martha Bennett, wife of Mr. John Bennett, 
Pewterer, that dwelt in the parish at the time of the great fire, 
dyed the seaventeenth day of May, and was buried in the ruines 
of the Chansell the twentieth day of May. 

" Mr. Thomas Stenhouse, Apothecary, an Inhabitant in the 
] Parish at the time of the said fire, dyed the thirteenth day of 
June, and was buried in the ruines of the Church, in the body 
or middle part of the Church the fourteenth day of June. 

"1729 (Bozeat, Northants). Be it known to succeeding ages that 
Tuesday the ninth day of September Anno 1729 a suddain and 
violent fire broke out in the Parish of Bozeat about two of the 
clock afternoon, at one Widow Keech's, who was baking upon 
the hearth in a poor house amongst the churchyard houses, 
which in the space of three or four hours (with a strong wind) 
consumed fourty one Dwelling houses, besides all outbuildings 
(not five shillings worth of useful Timber saved). Four farms 
were burnt with full crops of Harvest and great quantitys of 
Household Goods. The Bell-frames were twice on Fire. The 
whole loss amounting to near Four Thousand Pounds. Blessed 
be God there were no lives lost, nor anybody hurt amidst so 
great danger. And whereas the Vicarage House was burnt 
with the Register Book, Thomas Drake, present a new one." 



CHAPTER XII 
OLLA PODRIDA 

Penance for incontinency and slander Penance for marrying 
deceased wife's sister Tollesbury font inscription Flesh 
in Lent Butchers' recognisances Number of communicants 
Altar wine Benefit of clergy Witches Gipsies 
Parochial whippings Records of exhibitions Tithing notes 

UNDER this heading are gathered together a consider- 
able variety of subjects which occur with greater or less 
frequency in parish registers, but which could not 
readily be included in any of the previous chapters. 

Penance of a public character by no means came to an 
end with the Reformation. Its prevalence during Elizabethan, 
Stuart, and post-Restoration times depended largely on the 
vigour with which the archdeacon and his officials carried 
on their duties. For the most part the archidiaconal courts 
were held with regularity, and the churchwardens urged to 
make due presentments. On conviction for divers of the 
less serious offences, such as non-payment of tithes or Easter 
dues, or for the non-observance of Sundays or Saints' Days, 
offenders were admonished, and if obstinate excommuni- 
cated ; but in such cases absolution and discharge could 
usually be obtained on payment of a fine. In proved cases 
of slander and of incontinence, humiliating public penances 
were, however, as a rule exacted. The ordinary penance for 
such offences was the standing in church during service time 

(and occasionally also in the market-place) and reciting a 

217 



218 PARISH REGISTERS 

form of confession. In the eighteenth century the custom 
prevailed in London diocese, and probably elsewhere, of 
penance for slander taking place in the vestry, immediately 
after morning prayer, when the offender confessed and asked 
pardon of the slandered person in the presence of minister 
and wardens and a select number of other witnesses. The 
white -sheet penance before the whole congregation was 
reserved for incontinence. Among the later Essex cases of 
this form of penance of which records remain, may be 
mentioned Danbury, 1731; Boreham, 1755 ; and Coggeshall, 

1764.' 

It is satisfactory to find, as the result of considerable 
research, that men as well as women underwent, from time 
to time, the sheet penance for incontinence. It is of no 
small interest to note that a man did public penance in 
Ashingdon church, Essex, in 1717, for the now civilly 
legalised sin of marrying his deceased wife's sister. 

The following are a few of the more remarkable register 
entries as to penance. 

John Browne for incpntinency was ordered, on I4th 
February 1572-3 : 

" On the next marquet day at Aveley in the countie of Essex to 
stand in the same marquet in a whitt shete and a rodd in his hand 
penitently and to desire the people to pray for him." 

"1597 (Croydon, Surrey). Margaret Sherioux was buried 2 3d June. 
She was enjoined to stand iij market days in the town and iij 
Sabeathe dayes in the church, in a white sheete, with a paper 
on her back and bosom, showing her sinne. . . . She stood 
one Saturday and one Sunday and died the nexte. 

" 1677 (Scatter, Lincoln), May 27. Johanna Johnson absolved from 
the sentence of excommunication and did her penance yt day 
and the 2Qth of May following for committing fornication with 
one Rob* Knight of Morton in the parish of Gainsburgh. 

"1682 (Cherry Burton, Yorks). Anne Baker did pennance March 

1 See Dr. Cox's " Ecclesiastical History of Essex," in Viet. Co. Hist, of Essex, 
vol. ii. pp. 41-2, 75, etc. 



OLLA PODRIDA 219 

26: publickly. The said Anne Baker layd a Foundation of the 
Towne Stocks which was seven pounds payd by John Findon 
of Hutton Cranswicke, who was supposed to have gott the said 
Anne Baker with child, and was fined seven pound by Mr. 
John Ertoffe and Mr. Toby Hodson, Justices. 

''1699 ( Culworth) Nhants}. Memorandum. Upon ye 25 of Febr. 
Marg' Tyler of this Parish did perform penance according 
to y e following order. 

An Order of Penance 

to be performed by Margaret Tyler of Culworth in y e County 
of Northton as follows : 

"Thes cl Marg. Tyler shall upon y e Sunday next after y e divine 
service stand before y e minister's Reading Desk appareld in a 
white sheet from head to foot and in y e presence of y e congre- 
gation there assembled make her confession as follows : Good 
People, I confess I have grievously offended Almighty God by 
falling into ye foul sin of Fornication and thereby given an evil 
example to my neighbours for wch I am most heartyly sorry and 
do earnestly beg pardon of Almighty God and of all others that 
I have offended by this my evil example and I do promise (by 
y e grace of God) never to offend in y e like again. And I do also 
promise before God and this congregation to live herafter more 
soberly and godly in all other respects as a good Christian ought 
to do. And that I may perform my vows and promises made 
before this congregation, I do most earnestly desire y or prayers." 

On Sunday, 6th April, John Bradley and May White 
performed public penance in the same church, and an entry 
is made in the register that the order and the certificate were 
the same as in the case of Margaret Tyler. 

"1717 (Sutton Vallence, Kent\ Nov. 25. Eliz. Stace did public 
penance for ye foul sin of adultery committed with Tho. 
Hutchins jun r , in Sutton Vallence church, as did Anne 
Hynde for y e foul sin of fornication committed with Tho. 
Daws. SA. PRAT, Vicar 

"1725 (Roxby, Lincoln}. Memorandum. Michael Kirby and Dixon 
Ukel had two bastard children, one in 1725, y e other in 1727, 
for which they did publik Penance in our P'ish Church Feb. 
y e 25th, 1727, for adultery. 



220 PARISH REGISTERS 

" 1728 (Uxbridge, Middlesex). N.B. On July 7, Unity Winch did 
penance at morning service for May 26. [On the 26 of May 
is an entry of the baptism of the illegitimate child of Unity 
Winch.] 

" 1740 (North Aston, Oxon). Memorandum that Mr. Cooper sent in 
a form of penance by Mr. Wakefield, of Deddington, that 
Catherine King should do penance in y e Parish Church of 
North Ashton, y e sixth day of March, and accordingly she 
did. Witness, William Vaughan, Vicar. Charles May, John 
Baillis, Churchwardens. 

"1785 (Caundle Bishop, Dorset). On Sunday, the 23 day of 
October, Susannah Philips, who lives near Colonel Bridge in 
this parish of Bishop's Caundle, did Penance in this Church, 
by standing during the whole time of Divine Service near the 
Reading Desk, in a white Linen Sheet, and immediately after 
the Second Lesson repeating words after the Minister to the 
following effect. ..." 

[The words are not given ; the baptismal register records the 
baptism on 2ist March 1788, of "Job, bastard son of Susana 
Philips."] 

As to nineteenth-century instances of white-sheet pen- 
ance up to about 1850,866 Vaux's Church Folk-lore (1899), 

PP- 173-8. 

The inscription on the font of Tollesbury, Essex, affords 
remarkable evidence of the heavy fine of $ paid by way of 
penance to avoid prosecution in the ecclesiastical courts. 

The small octagonal font of this church bears round the 
margin of the bowl, in very distinct lettering, what is surely 
the quaintest font inscription in all Christendom : 

"Good people all I pray take care, 
That in ye church you do not swear, 
As this man did." 

An entry under the baptisms in the parish register explains 
this strange distich : 

"1718, August 3oth. Elizabeth, daughter of Robert and Eliza Wood, 
being ye first childe whom was baptized in the New Font 



OLLA PODRIDA 221 

which was bought out of five pounds paid by John Norman, 
who some few months before came drunk into the church and 
cursed and talked loud in the time of Divine service, to pre- 
vent his being prosecuted for which he paid by agreement the 
above said five pounds. Note that the wise rhymes on the 
font were put there by the sole order of Robert Joyce then 
churchwarden." 

" The Table of the Vigils, Fasts, and Days of Abstinence," 
together with " The days of Fasting or Abstinence," includ- 
ing all the Fridays in the year, as set forth in the Book of 
Common Prayer, are well known. But the great majority of 
even well-informed people appear to be ignorant of the way 
in which these tables were enlarged and strengthened by 
Act of Parliament in 1562 (5 Eliz. cap. v, sees. 14 to 23). By 
this Act persons were forbidden to eat flesh not only on 
Fridays, and at such seasons as the " Embering Days " and 
Lent, but also on Wednesdays and Saturdays. Offenders 
were liable to a fine of 3 or three months' imprisonment, 
and any householder permitting flesh-eating on his premises 
to a fine of 403. The fines were to be divided into three 
parts : one for the crown, another for the informer, and the 
remaining third for the use of the parish wardens. Provision 
was made whereby dispensations could be granted to any one 
of the rank of a lord of parliament for 26s. 8d., to a knight 
or his wife for 133. 4d., and to all others for 6s. Sd. Licences 
to eat certain white meats could be granted by curates to 
sick parishioners ; 4d. was to be paid to the curate, and he was 
to enter the licence in the church book. If such a licence 
was granted to one not genuinely sick, the minister was 
liable to a fine of five marks. 

Butchers were bound under recognisances not to kill, 
dress, or permit to be eaten any flesh in Lent, on any fish- 
days appointed by law to be observed, or on any Fridays. 
A proclamation to this effect was issued as late as 29th January 
1660 by Charles II. But from Elizabeth's days onward 



222 PARISH REGISTERS 

certain butchers obtained licences to kill for the sick and 
infirm in large towns. 

The legal obligation, as distinct from that of the Church, 
of abstaining from meat was enforced by various statutes. 
In 1687 abstinence from meat was enjoined during Lent by 
royal proclamation, but it was advertised in the London 
Gazette that an office was opened in St. Paul's Churchyard 
where licences to eat flesh in any part of England could be 
obtained on condition of giving alms to the poor! After 
the revolutions of 1688 these statutes remained a dead 
letter, but they were not repealed until 1863. 

It will be noticed that several of the following register 
extracts are of the year 1632-33, when Laud's vigorous 
actions doubtless drew attention, inter alia, to the statute 
of 1560. 

On the fly-leaf of the first register of St. Margaret's, 
Westminster, entry is made of licences to eat meat during 
Lent 1568, 1569, and I57O, 1 and of licences to butchers to kill. 

" Lycens gyven and made of whom and to whom for eatyng of 
flesh in y e tyme of Sycknes y e vj day of March 1568. 

1. Fyrst Wyllyam Stan ton Nedborow y e xxvjth of February. 

2. It. Wylliam Worlye, yoman of y e garde y e ij d of Marche. 

3. It. Thomas Lyghton gentylman iij d of marche. 

4. It. Lawrence Griffyn the vjth daye of marche a p'dicto. 

5. It. to Thomas Payne one of y e garde y e xijth daye of 

March. 

6. It. to Margerye Spenser, wyffet to Willm Spenser y e ; ij d 

of Marche. 

7. It. to Richarde Jordan y e xxth daye of marche a Lycens. 

" Lycense gyven for eating of Fleshe in the tyme of Sycknes the 
vijth daye of February a 1569. 

First Ralfe Cannocke a license to kill from my lord keeper the 

vijth daie of Februarie. 

It. Richard Hodges licensed by my lord of Canterbury ye 
ixth Februarie. 

1 Cited from Burke's Key to Parish Registers. 



OLLA PODRIDA 223 

It. Willm Moore and Elizabeth his wief ye xvijth of Februarie. 

It. Robt Bowmont and Agnes his wief ye xvth of Februarie. 

It. of Willm Smethe the xvijth of Februarie. 

It. of Willm Clerke the xxth of Februarie. 

It. of Margaret Stynte the xxij of Februarie. 

It. of John Thrushe the vth of Marche. 

It. of Willm Maddocke the viijth of Marche. 

Barnes A lycense to kill from my lord of Leicester the laste 
daye of Januarie 1569. 

It. Willm Lyngard the xiijth daie of marche. 

It. Rychard Preist the xxth daie of marche. 
" Licens gyven to eate fleshe in tyme of sicknes for this lent 
tyme A 1570. 

Mystres Margaret Staunton licensed by the phisition and the 
Curate the xxijth daie of Februarie. 

Mr. Richard Preist and his wief are licensed to eate fleshe by 
my lord of Canterbury the iiij day of Marche 1570. 

Richard Jordayne licensed by the Curate the ij d of Marche. 

Ralfe Cannock licensed by my lord keeper the iiijth of Marche. 

John Barnes licensed to kill fleshe by therle of Lecester the 
iiijth of Marche an predicte. 

betterys Hutton licensed by the Curate the xiijth of Marche. 

Elizabeth Bacheler lycensed by the Curate the xjth of Marche. 

Willm Hudson and Agnes his wief licensed the xvjth of 

Marche. 
''1590 (Colly Weston, N'hants). Zecharie Hunt the parson of 

Colliweston made a lycence to Mr. Roger Dale Gentleman 

and to Elizabeth his wife and to Mr. Frauncis Bullington to 

eate flesh for the time of lent for Wednesdays, Fridaies, saterdaies 

and other fasting dayes during the time of their sicknesses and 

diseases according to the statute in y l case provided dated the 

xxij of March. 
"1591 (Westerham, Kent\ n March. Memorand that Thorn 

Ringe Curate of Westerham grants to John Daulinge sen r Gent 

a lycense to eat Fleshe for viij days by reason of his sickness 

and impotency. 
" 1618 (St. Mary's, Leicester]. License to Lady Barbara Hastings to 

eat Flesh in Lent on account of her great age. 
" 1619 (NeuoingtoHi Surrey). I, James Fludd D.D., and Parson of the 

Church of St. Mary, Newington, do give license to Mrs. Anna 

Jones of Newington, the wyfe of Evan Jones, Gent., being 



224 PARISH REGISTERS 

notoriously sick, to eat flesh this time of Lent during 
the time of sickness only, according to law in that 
case provided; videl. in the 5 Eliz. and i Jacob, c. 29, 
provided alwaies that during the time of her sickness she 
eat no beef, veall, porke, mutton, or bacon. In witness 
whereof we have hereunto set our hand and seal. Dated 8 
March. 

" 1632 (Bougkton-undtr-Blean, Kent). M d that upon ixth of August 
was granted a licence to Dame Elizab: Routh wife of 
Sir John Routh of this pish in respect of her sicknesse and 
bodilie innrmitie to eat flesh according to a statute made to 
that purpose in quinto Elizabethe." 

The register book of North Curry, Somerset, records 
a licence "to eat flesh this Lente" granted in 1632-33 by 
the vicar to Mrs. Johan Conock, "a gentlewoman of about 
90 years of age." 

"1633 (Wedmore, Somerset), March i. Whereas upon my own 
certaine knowledge my wife lying now in childbed is very weak 
and sicke, and by eating of fish she may very much if not 
altogither endanger her life : I Martin Law being Vicar of the 
said parish of Wedmore doe as in me lyeth lycence and 
authorise her to eate flesh according to the forme and effect of 
the Statute in that case provided. 

(Bromfield) Salop), Mar. 22. A license for eating of fleashe 
granted to S r Charles Foxe Kt, and registered Mar. 29. 
His testibus, Wm. Jennings gar r , John Wigley. 

(Gayton, Nhants). Mem d that upon the 22d of March 
Anno dom 1632 was a license granted by me John Marks, 
Parson of Gaiton, to the Lady Marie Samwell, in respect of the 
weakenes of her body and present sicknes, to eate flesh for 
the space of eight dayes. And the same againe renewed 
March the 3oth 1633. 

"1633 (St. Alkmuntfs, Derby), 19 March. Whereas Katherine 
y e wyfe of Nathanael Bate of Little Chester, being great with 
child (and by reason of health) infirm and weak, and therefore not 
able to feed upon fish meats without apparent damage (as I am 
credibly informed) I doe therefore by these presents permitt (so 
farr forth as by the statutes of the kingdom I may) unto y e 
said Katherine Bate to provide for herself, and to feed upon 



OLLA PODRIDA 225 

such flesh meatts, as by the said statute are licensed, in this case 
during all y e time of her sicknesse and noe longer. In witnesse 
whereof I have hereunto set my hand. H. Coke, Minister and 
Preacher of the Word of God in the Parish of St. Alkmund's 
aforesaid. Test. Thomas Nash." 

During this same Lent the vicar of St. Alkmund's 
granted another licence to 

"John Bullock, of Darleigh Abbey Esquier, something diseased 
and for y e present not safe to feed upon fishe, to feed upon flesh 
meate according to the direction of his phisition." 

Nicholas Andrewes, vicar of Godalming, granted a licence 
in February 1639 to Frances Porter, 

"who now lyeth in childbedd sick to eat flesh for and during y e 
time of her present sickness." 

The following is an undated entry in the register book of 
Knodishall, Suffolk ; it is probably of the year 1632-33 : 

"Whereas Mr. Arthur Jenney, Esq., of Knotshall, & his wife 
Anne beinge trubled wth sicknes, he wth ye Tissecke [consumption] 
& she beinge bige wth child, soe that they are not able to eate salte 
fishes continually, I, James Johnson, Minister of ye parishe a bove 
sayd, accordinge to ye statute in tht cause pvided, have granted 
them to eate some fleshe for ye recoverie of there health, wch 
libertie was granted to them ye beginge of Lent. If sayd not yet 
recovered, the: desier to have ye same libertie continued to them 
still wch. I willingly doe conferme with ye assisstance of one of ye 
Church wardnes as ye statute directeth mee, March loth. 
"JAMES JOHNSON, Minister 
" HENRY MAWLINGE, Church wardinge " 

It is not often in registers that we find any reference to 
the number of either Celebrations or Communicants, though 
information on both these points can occasionally be gleaned 
from Churchwarden Accounts. 

In the register, however, of St. Michael le Belfry, York, 
'5 



226 PARISH REGISTERS 

there are four pages of Elizabethan date yielding interesting 
particulars. These passages, which extend from 1572 to 
1578, are thus prefaced: 

"The number of communycantes at penthicoste, 1572, w'thin 
the p'ishe church of St. Michaels als Befram, examyned before, 
according to L. Archbushope of York his graces enjunctyons in 
that behalf commanded. 

" In p'mis Mr. will'm Allen et uxor, Item gartred hall, Vidua 
Faile et Edmonnde Fale, uxor smyth, Mr. James Stocke et uxor, 
Marty ne Wayte." 

There were also Celebrations that year on the feast of 
St. John Baptist, with 12 communicants; on the Sunday 
before Michaelmas, with 12; on Sunday, 9th November, 
with 7 ; on Christmas Day, with 26 ; on " Newyeares Day," 
with 12 ; and on the Purification, with 16. There are seven 
Celebrations entered for 1573, five for 1574, two for 1575, 
and two each for 1576, 1577, and 1578. In all these cases 
the names of the communicants are entered. It is scarcely 
possible to think that these lists are complete, for in no 
single year is an Easter Communion recorded. 

" 1620 (Bake-well, Derbyshire}. The whole number of Communicants 
at Morning Prayer first on Easter Day 282. Eodem die at 
y e latter Prayer 132 : Total, 419. 

"1682 (Hillingdon, Middlesex). This year on Easter Day and Low 
Sunday 300 persons received the Comunion, alarmed to their 
duty by an order from Henry, Lord Bishop of London." 

In the reign of Queen Anne, the Holy Communion was 
administered six times a year at North Wingfield, Derby- 
shire namely, on Palm Sunday, Good Friday, Easter Day, 
Midsummer, Michaelmas, and on the Sunday before Christmas 
Day. The actual amount collected at each Communion is 
sometimes entered in the register ; the total for a year and 
a half only amounted to i, 1 6s. id. 

The following unhappy entry at the end of a register 



OLLA PODRIDA 227 

book of Clunbury, Salop, helps to explain the large amount 
of wine occasionally provided for the Communion : 

" Mr. Parry has agreed with the Parishioners of Clunbury to 
take instead of the spare wine at the Sacrament ten quart Pottles 
of good Port wine annually to be delivered to him in every 
year at Easter the Parish Clerk to have the Pottles. 

"Easter Day, 1808" 

The singular custom, known as Benefit of Clergy, whereby 
not a few lives were mercifully saved at a period when 
capital punishment was hideously common, is too well 
known to require any explanation. A remarkable instance 
has been already cited in the third chapter, wherein a lad 
of eighteen, in 1541, failed to escape the gallows for 
thieving ; for, though he pleaded privilege of clergy, it 
was found he could not read. The following is another 
register entry, which shows how three condemned prisoners 
were saved by a knowledge of letters : 

"1601 (Penrith\ Jan. 27. A Jayle deliverie at Carliell when 
7 prisoners condemned, whereoff foure were executed at 
Herrabie, viz : Ebbies Arch and Arche Armestrone als 
Wiskrills, Scottsmen, one Burthorne and one Nicolson, and 
three saved by the booke." 

That dark page in the story of English superstition, 
when witchcraft was believed to be a reality, demanding 
the severest punishment, receives abundant illustration in 
parochial registers. In mediaeval days witchcraft was re- 
garded as an offence against the Church, and was only 
punishable by the ecclesiastical courts ; but the superstition 
throve amazingly in post-Reformation days. The first penal 
statute against witches was in 1541, but it was repealed 
under Edward VI. Early in Elizabeth's reign public opinion 
was roused against witches by the strenuous preaching of 
Bishop Jewell, with the result that a new and severer 
statute became law in 1564, and was rigidly enforced, 



228 PARISH REGISTERS 

under which many hundreds of imaginary witches suffered 
death. Eleven witches and wizards were executed at 
Lancaster in 1612, and several more condemned to the 
pillory. Nine women were the victims of this cruel law 
at Leicester in 1616. It was not, however, until the days 
of the Commonwealth that the full rage of ignorant fury 
against witches broke out; in Suffolk alone during a single 
year sixty persons were hung for witchcraft Between 
1649 and 1685 there were over three hundred trials of 
witches throughout England. After the revolution of 1688 
the superstition began to steadily lose ground, but as late 
as 1716 Mrs. Hicks and her daughter, a child of nine, 
were actually hung at Huntingdon " for raising a storm of 
wind by pulling off their stockings, and making a lather 
of soap in a basin in league with the devil " ! The odious 
Elizabethan statute was not repealed until 1736. 

It should be noted that the Church did not surrender 
her claim to deal with witchcraft in consequence of statutory 
enactments. 

In the parish register of Hart, Durham, there is a curious 
entry, under 2Oth July 1582, as to the action taken by the 
Chancellor of the diocese against Allison Lawe, of Hart. 
She was declared to be " a notorious sorcerer and enchanter," 
and was sentenced to do penance once in the market-place 
at Durham, " with a papir on her head," once in Hart church, 
and once in the church of Norton. 

The following occur among other register entries relative 
to witches and witchcraft : 

" 1602 (Howdeti) Yorks). Eliz. a wich died at Knedlington 
xx August. 

" 1630 (St. Mary's, Reading), Jan. 10. Bur Kattren Roose, appre- 
hended for a wich. 

" 1650 (St. Andrew's, Newcastle), 21 August. Thes partes her under 
named were executed in the Town Mor for wiches. Mathew 



Hbpkiijs "Wiick Fmcie*. General! 



3 Rscke ittincCrawrte 




THE FRONTISPIECE OF MATTHEW HOPKINS' "DISCOVERY OF WITCHES,' 

1644 



OLLA PODRIDA 229 

Bonmer, Isabel Brown, Margrit Maddeson, Ann Watson, 
Ellenor Henderson, Ellenor Rogers, Elsabeth Dobson, Mrs. 
Elisabeth Anderson, Jane Hunter, Jane Koupling, Margrit 
Brown, Margrit Moffit, Kattren Welsh, Aylles Hume, and 
Marie Pootes. The same day, prisoners executed on the town 
mor belonging to the hy Kastel were hanged nine thieves, and 
Jane Martin for a wich, the myllers wif of Chattin. 

"1691 (Holy Island], Bur 16 July William Cleugh bewitched to 
death. 

" 1699 (Coggeshall, Essex\ Dec. 27. The Widow Comon, that was 
counted a witch, was buried." 

The death of this poor creature was probably the result of 
the repeated gross violence to which she had been subjected. 
The following occurs in Archdeacon Bufton's diary : 

" 1699, July 13. The widow Comon was put into the river to see if 
she would sink, because she was suspected to be a witch, and 
she did not sink but swim." 

This cruelty was repeated twice again ere the month 
closed, namely, on July iQth and 24th, with the like result in 
each case. 

An Act was passed in 1530 "concerning Outlandish 
People calling themselves Egyptians . . . using no craft 
for merchandise, but deceiving people, that they by Palm- 
istry can tell men's and women's fortunes and so cheat 
people of their money and commit many heinous felonies 
and robberies." It was therefore enacted that such persons 
should be henceforth excluded from the realm, and that 
those already here should depart within sixteen days or 
forfeit their goods. In 1554 a further Act was passed 
making it felony for a gipsy to remain in the kingdom after 
twenty days from the proclamation of the Act ; but a proviso 
was made for such " Egyptians as shall leave that naughty 
idle and ungodly life," and serve some honest householder. 
A statute of Elizabeth, 1563, was most cruelly severe; by 



230 PARISH REGISTERS 

its provisions it became a capital felony " to continue for one 
month in any company or fellowship of vagabonds commonly 
called Egyptians." This law was not repealed until 1783, 
when it was rightly styled " a law of excessive severity." 

" 1592 (St. Nicholas, Durham), 8 Aug. Simson, Arington, Fether- 
stone, Fenwicke, and Lancaster, were hanged for being 
Egyptians." 

It is pleasant to find that the registers bear testimony to 
the fact that not a few of the clergy were more merciful than 
the law, and were ready to administer Christian rites to these 
wandering " Egyptians." 

"1564 (Lanchester, Durham}. William the son of an Egiptian bap. 

19 Feb. 

" 1576 (Swainszuick, Somerset). John Phillip, the sonn of John 

Phillip, an Egiptian, was heere baptized the loth daie of 

Maie. 
" 1581 (Loughborough, Leicestershire). Margaret Bannister, Daughter 

of William Bannister, going after the manner of roguish 

Aegyptians, was baptized the 2d of April. 
" 1687 (Camberwelt). Robert Hern and Elizabeth Bozwell, King 

and Queen of the Gipsies, bur. 2 June. 
" 1696 (Haughton, Staffs), May 8. Thomas Lovell and Hannah 

Blewitt, gypsies, married. 
" 1702 (Chapel-en-le- Frith, Derbyshire). A poor traveller, who went 

under the name of an Egiptian, was buried in the churchyard 

20 April." 

Parochial whipping was occasionally, inappropriately 
enough, entered in the registers instead of in the Church- 
wardens' Accounts. Thus in the first register book of 
Askham, Westmoreland, between a baptism and a marriage, 
is entered, under the year 1610: 

" October the 3d day was John Hurst and Jane Wachell two 
poor travellers whiped." 

The following are some later entries in the church 
registers of a like character: 



OLLA PODRIDA 



231 



"1621 (Stokeley, Yorks). John nipplaye a vagrant and a wandring 
begger of a lowe stature brown headed and somewhat bleare 
eyed aged about fiftye years was this xiiij day of Apryll openlye 
whipped at Stokesley for a wandringe begger and misdeymean- 
inge him self in his wandringe accordinge to the lawe. 




THE WHIPPING POST AND STOCKS, ALDBURY, HERTS. 

1633 (Wadhurst, Sussex), nth June. Anne Diplock was whipped 

for a rogue. 

loth Dec. John Palmer and Alice his wife were whipped for 

rogues. 

23d Dec. Thomasina Hemming, John Ballard, Margery Giles, 

Robert Spray, and John Sargent whipped. 
1637 (Bakewell, Derbyshire), 6 Nov. Thomas Tomlinson and 

Dorothy his wyfe of Wakefield or thereabout were taken 

begging at Bakewell, and whipped according to ye law, and he 

sent home. 
1672 (Croft, Yorks). Jane Bultrey, of Darlington, was seet in the 

Stoxe at Crofte and was whipt out of the Towne the 3 day of Jan. 
1698 (Brentford, Middlesex), 26 Feb. Alice and Elizabeth Picker- 



232 PARISH REGISTERS 

ing, wandering children, were whipped according to Law, and 
sent with a Pass to Shrewsbury, the place where they were born. 
" 1698 (Mentmore, Sucks). Mem d A Beggar woman of Slapton whipt 
at Mentmore 5 July." 

The Mansfield church registers are disgraced by a 
variety of these entries, signed by John Firth, vicar. It 
is difficult to understand how a clergyman possessed of a 
spark of humanity could bring himself to write out the 
account in God's House of the shameless flogging of two 
children in 1693. There are entries of the whipping of a 
man and a woman in 1680, in 1681, and in 1683. In the 
last of these years it is mentioned that the woman was 22 
and black-haired, whilst the man was "aged." There are 
various other cases, but they culminate with the following : 

"5 Dec. 1693. J onn Walker and Elizabeth Walker, two sturdy 
vagrant beggars, one of about 15 and the other about 13 yeares 
old were openly whipped at Mansfield for wandering beggars." 

Records of local exhibitions sometimes occur in old 
register books, of which two examples are appended : 

" 1568 (St. Nicholas, Durham). Mem d that a certain Italian brought 
into the cittie of Durham the nth day of June a very great 
strange and monstrous serpent in length sixteene feete, in 
quantitie and dimensions greater than a horse ; which was 
taken and killed by speciall pollicie in Athiopia within the 
Turk's Dominions. But before it was killed it had devoured 
(as it is credibly thought) more than 1000 persons, and de- 
stroyed a whole country. 

"S/. Mary Magdalene, Canterbury, December the 6, 1687. Then 
the lion was baited to death in the White Hart Yarde by dogges." 

Tithing notes of considerable interest are occasionally 
entered in registers, usually on fly-leaves at the end of the 
volumes. They are of value as illustrating the considerable 
diversity of custom when tithes were paid in kind. Space 
can only be found for one such entry, but it is the fullest 



OLLA PODRIDA 233 

and most interesting that has come to our notice. It occurs 
in the parish register of Whilton, Northants, and is one of 
the very numerous extracts kindly supplied by the Rev d R. 
M. Serjeantson : 

" The tithe of Sheep. On new years day make a tale of the sheep. 
Take every tenth fleece of what they shear of that number. In 
what they have sold out of it before shearing take a halfpenny a 
sheep. The same take for all they buy in after new years day. 
If the Person has ten sheep on new years day and they come to 
seven by the time of shearing give him three half-pence and take a 
Fleece. Out often fleeces he who pays Tithe chuses two and the 
Parson has his choice out of the rest. The same method is to be 
observed with respect to the Tithe of Lambs which is to be taken 
the nineteenth day of April. 

" Of Pigs. If there are seven, one is due, but then the Parson 
must pay three half-pence ; if there are but six, they pay six half- 
pence ; if there are twelve they pay a Pig and two halfpence. But 
the Parson is bound to keep a Boar. 

" Of Calves. If they have seven from new years day the Parson 
must have one, paying three halfpence. And as many halfpence 
are due to the Parson as they have calves under seven. They 
must keep the Tithe calf three weeks. 

" Of Cows. Take the Tithe of milk from the ipth of April counting 
the twentieth day the first of the ten: take it morning and night: leave 
off taking when the first shock of corn is cut : begin again to take it 
ten days after Harvest ends and continue to do so till new years day. 

" N.B. The Parish is bound to keep one Bull and the Parson 
another, who if he pleases may keep a Breeder besides his Bull. 

" Of Hay. Take the tenth cock of Hay and the seventh at last. All 
Farm land pays Tithe; all sow meadow and Whittom meadow: as 
also Duglake and Househorn, the Mill and all belonging to it. 
The Farm land is to be known by the Farm Balks. The Town land 
pays threepence a yard Land called Hay-silver. 

"Of Corn. Take the loth sheaf or cock of graine, Beans and Pease, 
and the seventh at last. Chuse your sheaf out of the First Shock, 
but take in the same place out of every shock in that land. 

" N.B. The two mills pay three shillings and four pence a year 
each. JOHN SPATEMAN, Rector 

" 10 June 1741" 



CHAPTER XIII 
THE DATES AND CONDITIONS OF THE REGISTERS 

The Blue Book Returns of 1833 Numerous blunders Mediaeval 
death registers Parish registers prior to 1538 The numbers 
of 1538-39 registers Transcripts ordered in 1597 and in 
1603 Grievous defects of Bishops' Transcripts exposed in 
1800 Act of 1812 Returns of 1831 Transcripts of the 
peculiars of Lichfield and Southwell Careless loss of regis- 
ters, instanced in Kent and Bucks Irregularities of entry 
Trades and occupations in London, Chesham, Lancashire, 
etc. " Sir " signifying priest Puritan names Similar 
names in one family Double names Contracted form of 
entry Birth registers Printed registers Nonconformist 
and Huguenot registers 

OFFICIAL inquiries were made of all the clergy in 
1831, as to the exact date, condition, and number of 
the parish registers in their custody. An abstract 
of their replies was published in a Blue Book issued in 1833. 
It is not generally known that the returns themselves, with 
which are frequently included fuller statements from the 
clergy, are extant at the British Museum in eight great 
folio volumes, beginning Add. MS 9,355- The dates of the 
registers given in this Blue Book and in the original returns 
are, however, by no means to be trusted; our own ex- 
perience, extending over fully forty years, is that at least 
one in five is quite wrong. In some cases registers have 
been lost or stolen since that date, but in far more instances 
the clergy, through ignorance or carelessness, blundered in 

filling up their returns, occasionally assigning an extra- 

234 



DATES AND CONDITIONS 235 

vagantly early date to the first entry, and still oftener 
overlooking older pages that had been wrongly bound up, 
or forgetting that in many instances the extant registers of 
baptisms, marriages, and deaths did not synchronise. 

According to the Parish Register Abstract of 1833 there 

were 

40 registers beginning prior to 1538 

772 in 1538 

1822 1538-58 

2448 1558-1603 

969 1603-1650 

2757 >, 1650-1700 

1476 1700-1750 
There were also between 600 and 700 of later dates. 

As to the registers said to begin prior to Cromwell's 
order of 1538, the large majority of the forty set forth in the 
Blue Book prove on investigation to be but moonshine. 
Several of the careless blunders made in 1831 and published 
in 1833 continue to be printed in recent directories and 
even in more important diocesan calendars or returns. 
Misreadings of the figure seven account for several errors. 
Thus in the case of Penkevil, Cornwall, the initial date 
of 1516, as usually set forth, proves to be 1576, and that 
of Sinnington, Yorks, 1577 instead of 1517; whilst at 
West Thorney, Sussex, the register was made to begin 
in 1530 instead of in 1570. Still more extravagant mis- 
takes, which elude explanation, are occasionally made 
at the present time, of which a single example must 
suffice. The registers of Skeffington, Leicestershire, were 
quite recently asserted and reasserted to begin in 1514; 
but a special journey of investigation, undertaken for the 
purposes of this book, proved that they do not begin until 
1590! In another country parish, which shall be nameless, 
the custodian charged 3s. 6d. for his search to ascertain 
the initial entry, and a subsequent personal visit showed 



236 PARISH REGISTERS 

that he was forty years wrong in his written and signed 
assertion ! 

There are, however, beyond doubt certain parochial 
registers which begin before 1538, but less than half the 
number named in the 1833 Blue Book. To account for this, 
it must be remembered that there is a fair amount of 
evidence to show that some of the mediaeval clergy of 
England were, at all events, in the habit of keeping fitful 
and informal registers, particularly of deaths, long before 
the sixteenth century. Thus in the highly interesting 
fourteenth-century chartulary of the chantries of Crich, 
Derbyshire, there are entries of the exact death-days of 
various members of the Wakebridge family and their 
connections from 1344 to 1368 inserted in the calendar. 1 
The twelfth-century obituary of the priory of Cistercian nuns 
at Wintney, Hants, printed by Hearne in 1729, abounds in 
entries of the death-days not only of prioresses and sisters 
of the convent, but also of a variety of benefactors both lay 
and clerical. There are also two most notable and excep- 
tionally full obituaries, extending far beyond the actual 
monastery, in connection with the Derbyshire Abbey of 
White Canons at Beauchief. 2 The records of a serious 
dispute between the parishioners of St. Helen's, Abingdon, 
and the ancient Benedictine abbey of that town, which 
came to a head in 1396, incidentally show that an exact 
register of the sixty-seven persons buried in the new ceme- 
tery of St. Helen's from its opening in 1391 had been duly 
kept. 3 

There can be little doubt that the more careful and 
methodical of England's parish priests would, if only for 
their own satisfaction and information, keep occasional 

1 Harl. MS. 3669. See Dr. Cox's Churches of Derbyshire, iv. 36-47. 

2 See Viet. Co. Hist, of Derbyshire, vol. ii. 68. 
* Viet. Co. Hist, of Berks, vol. ii. 56-7. 



DATES AND CONDITIONS 237 

records, however casually entered, of the various offices of 
the church as affecting individual parishioners. Hence it 
came about that in a few cases, when Cromwell's order came 
forth in 1538, the parish priest thought well to transcribe at the 
beginning of the newly ordered official register some of the 
recent entries from his parochial notebook. Of such definite 
transcripts, extending back for some years, there are six 
instances extant, and it is quite probable that there were 
more in the original paper register books of 1538, but such 
extraneous and unofficial matter would naturally be omitted 
for brevity's sake by the transcribers on to parchment at the 
end of the century. 

By far the most remarkable of these early instances is 
that of Tipton, Staffordshire. This register actually begins 
on 2Oth of December 1513, on which day a baptism was 
entered, and another in March 1513-14. Six baptisms are 
entered under 1514, ten under 1515, eleven under 1516, three 
under 1517, ten under 1518, and six under 1519. As to 
marriages, there were three in 1514, two in 1516, and five in 
1517. 

The second earliest parish registers are those of Altham, 
Lancashire. The oldest register consists of eight leaves of 
parchment; the top of the first page is so blackened with 
gall as to be quite illegible, but the date 1518 is supplied in 
a comparatively modern hand, and there seems no reason to 
doubt its accuracy. On the second page occurs the date 
1519, and on the third page 1520. The entries run on con- 
secutively up to 1525. On the next batch of nine leaves 
the dates 1527 and 1533 can be plainly read. The regular 
register does not begin until I596. 1 

The register book of Perlethorpe, Notts, begins : 

" The Register of all suche as have bynne Christened, maryed 
1 From information kindly supplied by the vicar, the Rev. H. H. Whittaker. 



238 PARISH REGISTERS 

and buryedj in the parish of Parlthorp Thow'sbye since the yeare 
of our Lord 1528." 

The entries for 1528 and 1529 are now illegible. 1 For 
1530, 1531, 1534, 1536, and 1537 there are two entries, and 
three each for the years 1532, 1533, and 1535. 

The registers of Carburton, Notts, begin : 

"The register book of Carburton, as have been Christened 
maried and bured in the parish of Carburton since the beginning 
of the yeare of our lord god and the five hundred twentie and 
Eight." 

There is an entry of a baptism, a marriage, and a burial 
under 1528, none in 1532, one each in 1529, 1531, and 1536, 
and two each in 1530, 1533, 1534, 1535, and 1537. 

The word " since " at the head of both of these registers 
shows that the entries were a compilation, and not entered 
year by year. 

At Elsworth, Cambridgeshire, the registers also begin in 
1528, when three baptisms are recorded, and there are about 
ten other entries prior to 1538. 

In the case of Ashperton, Herefordshire, there is at least 
one yet earlier entry, namely, of the year 1521, but in a later 
handwriting than the rest of the beginning of the register. 
Between 1530 and 1538 there are several other entries. 

Burn (1862) cites a marriage entry of 1534, and two 
baptisms of 1537 out of the register of Stoke Hammond, 
Bucks. Wolverton register, Bucks, begins with an entry of 
November 1535, and contains twenty- four entries prior to 
1 538. A recent letter of the rector of Kirton, Notts, also gives 
1 5 3 5 as the beginning of that register. Burn cites Goodworth 
Clatford as containing an entry of 1536, but no entry earlier 
than 1538 can now be found, and this is probably a misread - 

1 The Perlethorpe and Carburton registers were printed by Dr. Marshall in 
1887-88. The writer of this book saw these registers in 1869, when several 
entries now faded were legible. 






^ 




FACSIMILE OF FIRST PAGE OF TIPTON REGISTER, 1513 
(KINDLY LENT BY MR. A. i\i. BURKE) 



DATES AND CONDITIONS 239 

ing, The register of West Clandon, Surrey, begins in 1536, 
and has nine entries prior to 1538 (Burn). Parkham, Devon, 
has four marriages and two burials of the year 1537. The 
registers of Kingsbury, Warwickshire ; Snaith, Yorks ; and 
Somersal Herbert, Derbyshire, are also known to the present 
writer to begin in 1537, and this is also said to be the case 
with regard to the registers of Eling, Hunts ; Fairstead, 
Essex ; and Shrawley, Worcestershire. 

Burn also sets forth 63 entries between 1535 and the 
end of 1537 which occur in a small folio paper book of 
St. James, Garlick Hythe, London ; he states that " it is 
not the original, but a transcript (made probably in 1597) of 
apparently a genuine Register." 

This analysis reduces the forty registers of the 1833 
return alleged to be prior to 1538 to eighteen, and this 
list ought possibly to be reduced by one or two. 1 

There is, alas, no doubt whatever that there has been 
shocking carelessness with regard to the safe custody of parish 
registers since the 1831 return was compiled. There were 
at that time 772 registers beginning in 1538 : there are now, 
we believe, 656 (see Appendix II.). Allowing for mistakes in 
the exact figures of both these summaries, it appears toler- 
ably clear that about a hundred of our earliest registers 
have disappeared in the course of some eighty years. There 
are also a considerable number of registers whose first entry 
is in 1539; but they may as a rule be fairly considered as 
complying with Cromwell's order, for that order was dated 
29th September 1538, and did not reach many an out-of-the- 
way parish for several weeks ; and there would certainly be 
many sparsely populated parishes wherein there was no event 
demanding registry entering until 1539 was reached. There 
are 205 extant registers which begin in 1539 (Appendix III.), 

1 Fraser's Magazine for September 1861 has a blundering article wherein 
the names of forty-nine parishes are set forth as having registers prior to 1538 ! 



2 4 o PARISH REGISTERS 

so that the total of registers beginning at the earliest ordered 
date (including the sixteen prior to '1538), which can now 
be consulted, amounts to 877. 

By a Constitution of Convocation in the year 1597, 
transcripts of parish registers, as has been already noted in 
the first chapter, were ordered to be forwarded to the bishop 
of the diocese. Subsequent ordinances were made as to 
their punctual transmission. The Canons of 1603 provided 
for the annual forwarding to the bishop's registry of a copy 
of the registers, signed by the minister and wardens. This 
was an admirable provision, so that in the event of fire or 
other destructive accident in the parish another copy would 
supply satisfactory evidence. It was also intended to act 
as a check on any alteration, erasure, or forgery of the 
original. 

The great defect of this canon was the neglect to attach 
any fees for the transcript, either to the parish officials in 
making the copy and transmitting it, or to the bishop's 
officials for their safe storage and arrangement. The result 
has been such a scandal that Mr. Chester Waters was amply 
warranted in writing, in 1883, that "the bishop's transcripts, 
which ought to have formed an invaluable department of the 
public records, present a lamentable picture of episcopal 
negligence, parochial parsimony, and official rapacity." 

The report of the Committee on Public Records, issued 
in 1 800, revealed a grievous condition of affairs. For instance, 
there were 142 parishes in Surrey, but the registry at 
Winchester had only 20 registers for all these parishes from 
1597 to 1800. Each of these parishes ought to have 
annually sent a copy of its register for over two centuries, so 
that for this one county there was an actual deficiency of 
28,206 transcripts ! Salisbury, with 434 parishes, was in the 
habit of receiving only 9 or 10 transcripts a year, and not a 
finger was raised by bishop or registrar to secure obedience. 



DATES AND CONDITIONS 241 

In Rochester diocese, at that date, only 7 parishes out of 95 
were sending in their transcripts. The registrar of London 
diocese had the impertinence to send the following certificate 
to the Commissioners : " I hereby certify that it is not the 
custom within the Diocese of London for any return to be 
made to the Bishop's Registry of either Burials or 
Baptisms " ! 

A table was compiled from these 1800 returns in 
Grimaldi's Origines Genealogicce, from which it appears that 
the condition of affairs in several dioceses was much better 
than in those already cited. Thus, in Hereford, the whole of 
the parishes (323) were at that time making their annual 
returns, but there were none older than 1660. 

The Act of 1812 made further stringent provisions to try 
and compel the sending in of the transcripts and their due 
custody, but with indifferent results. In 1831 a Parlia- 
mentary Return was made by the several dioceses in answer 
to inquiries whether the directions of the Act of 1812 had 
been complied with in various particulars, more especially as 
to what transcripts had been sent in since 1813, and whether 
they were kept in security from fire. A table compiled from 
this return (Burn's Parish Registers ; 2d Edit. 1862, p. 203), 
shows the imperfect and insecure state of the transcripts at 
that date. In London diocese there were 192 defaulting 
parishes, in Bath and Wells 139, and in Lincoln 103. In 
twelve dioceses it was admitted that the returns were 
"subject to fire." Only one bishop (Lichfield) complied 
with the direction of the Act and made a Survey and 
Report ! 

In Mr. Phillimore's How to Write the History of a Family 
(1887) is a useful table of Bishop's Transcripts compiled 
from the two already mentioned, and giving a certain amount 
of extra information. In a few dioceses, the extant trans- 
cripts have of late years been well arranged, notably those 
16 



242 PARISH REGISTERS 

of Worcester, and to a considerable extent of Lincoln. 
Gross as has been the carelessness with regard to diocesan 
transcripts, it has been exceeded by the carelessness as to 
the actual parochial registers. At the present time the 
transcripts considerably antedate the registers in not a few 
cases, not infrequently indeed by as much as a century (see 
Appendix). 

In addition to the transcripts of registers which are in 
the keeping of diocesan officials, there were a certain number 
of parishes which never transmitted the copies into episcopal 
hands, inasmuch as they were " peculiars " attached to 
certain special ecclesiastical jurisdictions, and outside the 
control of the diocesan. There are a few cases where trans- 
cripts of such parish registers are still extant and in separate 
control. 

Dr. Cox, when cataloguing the muniments of the Dean and 
Chapter of Lichfield in 1881-3, found a large number of the 
registrar transcripts of the decanal or capitular peculiars 
scattered about in a variety of receptacles. These separate 
parchment sheets were collected and arranged in parcels 
according to the respective parishes or chapelries. The 
earlier of these transcripts were probably lost in the times of 
the Commonwealth struggle. The large majority of them 
begin about 1660. They all terminate in 1812, for the Regis- 
tration Act of that year put an end to such returns being 
made to Chapter authorities. The following is a list of these 
Lichfield peculiar transcripts, with the inclusive years, but it 
must be remembered that there are various missing years in 
all these fifty- four cases save three : 

Acton Trussell, 1659-1812; Alrewas, 1664-1812; Arley, 
1673-1812; Armitage, 1623-1812; Ashford, 1669-1812; 
Bakewell, 1614-1812; Baston, 1662-1812; Bedwall, 1678- 
1812; Berkswell, 1662-1812; Bishop's Wellington, 1614-1812; 
Breaston, 1717-1812; Buxton, 1721-1812; Becley, 1639- 



DATES AND CONDITIONS 243 

1812; Cannock, 1659-1812; Chadshunt and Gaydon, 1660- 
1812; Chapel-en-le-Frith, 1659-1812; Chorlton, 1690-1706; 
Chelmorton, 1663-1812; Colwich, 1659-1812 (perfect)', Culver- 
hall, 1791-1807; Edgbaston, 1678-1812; Edingale, 1669- 
1812; Fairfield, 1663-1812; Farewell, 1663-1812; Fradswell, 
1666-1812; Harborne, 1660-1802; High Offley, 1659-1812; 
Hints, 1659-1812; Hope, 1661-1812; King's Bromley, 1632- 
1812; Kniveton, 1675-1812 (perfect); Longdon, 1663-1812; 
Longstone, 1666-1812; Long Eaton, 1672-1810; Mavesyn 
Ridware, 1663-1812; Monyash, 1672-1812; Norton, 1659- 
1862; Pipe Ridware, 1659-1812; Frees, 1669-1812; Risley, 
1717-1812; Rugeley, 1659-1812; Sawley, 1672-1810; 
Sheldon, 1675-1810; Smethwick, 1774-1812; Stafford, St. 
Chad's, 1636-1804; Tachbrook, 1666-1810; Taddington, 
1677-1812; Tideswell, 1671-1812; Tipton, 1672-1812; 
Welford, 1638-1810; Whittington, 1663-1812; Whixall, 
1756-1812 (perfect")] Wilne, 1675-1812; Wormhill, 1686- 

I8I2. 1 

In eight of these parishes, namely, Armitage, Ashford, 
Cannock, Chadshunt, Fairfield, Farewell, Longdon, and 
Monyash, the transcripts go further back than the extant 
registers. 

At Southwell Minster there are still retained a consider- 
able number of transcripts which were sent in to that centre 
from the various peculiars of that important collegiate founda- 
tion. They are in a fragmentary state, and those that are 
of seventeenth-century date have been printed (Thoroton 
Society, Record Ser. i. 1903). The following are the isolated 
yearly returns still extant: Beckingham, 1634, 1637, 1641; 
Bleasby, 1633; Blidworth, 1638; Calverton, 1617, 1623; 
Caunton,* 1614, 1619, 1628, 1641 ; Cropwell Bishop, 1638, 
1641 ; Darlton, 1622, 1633, 1641 ; Dunham,* 1641 ; Edingsley, 

1 For missing years, see Catalogue of Capitular Muniments of Lichfield, 
1886, pp. 82-3. 



244 PARISH REGISTERS 

1638; Farnsfield, 1623; Halam, 1622, 1637; Halloughton, 
1622, 1633, 1641 ; Holme, 1623, 1625, 1628, 1638, 1641 ; 
Kirklington, 1622, 1638; Morton,* 1622-3; North Musk- 
ham, 1623, 1633, 1638 ; South Muskham, 1623 ; Norwell,* 
1638, 1641; Oxton, 1622; Ragnall,* 1623; Southwell, 
1633, 1641 ; Upton,* 1633, 1638; Woodborough, 1623, 1627, 
1637-8, 1640. In the nine parishes, out of these twenty-four, 
which are marked with an asterisk, the transcripts are of 
earlier date than the extant parish registers. 

The pitiful carelessness shown by the clerical custodians 
of parish registers in the past, and their loss in comparatively 
recent days, can be proved in every diocese and county. It 
must suffice to draw attention to two strong proofs of this 
on a large scale. 

Among the manuscripts of the Society of Antiquaries is 
a volume (No. clxxx.) containing a considerable number of 
genealogical or family extracts from various Kent parishes, 
which were transcribed in the year 1726. It is stated in each 
case when the register began, and it appears that out of 
these twenty-six parishes, eight have since lost their first 
register book, which covered in each case about a century, 
beginning in the reign of Elizabeth. The parishes are 
those of Capel, Ditton, Horton Kirby, Leigh, Luddesdown, 
Nettlestead, Sele, and Stock. 

Not only were losses and destruction of parish registers 
frequent throughout the eighteenth and early part of the 
nineteenth century, but this gross indifference as to their 
custody continued for some time after the official returns of 
1831 were compiled thus disproving the expectation that 
the issue of that important Blue Book would naturally check an 
admitted evil. Take, for instance, the county of Buckingham. 
Lipscombe's good history of that shire, issued in 1847, 
shows, when compared with present returns, that no small 
number of early register books disappeared during the second 



DATES AND CONDITIONS 245 

half of the nineteenth century. First register books, mostly 
of sixteenth century date, have been lost, since Lipscombe 
wrote, in the parishes of Beaconsfield, Bow Brickhill, 
Broughton, Chetwode, Denham, Foxcote, Haddenham, 
Great Linford, North Marston, Olney, Shenley, and 
Wyrardisbury. 

It is by no means unusual to find gaps and irregularities 
in the continuity of registers at times other than the great 
Civil War, to which attention has already been called at some 
length. The following entry accounts for one of these breaks. 

At the archidiaconal visitation at Northampton, on loth 
October 1577, it was presented that the vicar of St. 
Sepulchre's 

" will not kepe the booke of christenyngs weddings and buryenges 
because the churchwardens will not bringe the names of them y* be 
christened wedded and buried and because they will not bringe 
him the booke and putt it unto his hands." 

The archdeacon ordered the vicars to duly keep the 
register for the future. A reference to St. Sepulchre's 
registers shows a gap from 1574 to 1577. 

Irrespective of the incalculable value of registers for 
genealogical and legal purposes, and the historical and enter- 
taining information contained in their manifold notes, it will 
also be found that the dryest of them, which may lack even 
a line of interpolation or a single descriptive passage from 
beginning to end, will often yield no small amount of local 
knowledge to the intelligent inquirer, particularly as to the 
past trades and occupations of special localities. 

The London registers are of particular interest in this 
respect, and afford abundant proof of how particular trades 
pervaded special localities in the sixteenth century. Thus, 
the registers of St. Mary Woolnoth show that this was the 
quarter of the city where the goldsmiths congregated. Three 



246 PARISH REGISTERS 

out of five infants baptized in this parish in 1538 were the 
children of goldsmiths. In 1539 eight such children were 
baptized, in 1540 nine, in 1541 six, and in 1542 ten. 

So far as the occupation of those registered are concerned, 
one of the most interesting and varied of the city parishes 
is that of St. Mary's, Aldermary, where tailors and skinners 
largely predominated. The following occur between the 
years 1558 and 1594: 

Merchant tailors, 128 Baker, i 

Skinners, 63 Chandler, i 

Clothmakers, 35 Bowyer, i 

Draper, 1 9 Clarke (parish), i 

Dyer, 7 Cloakmaker, i 

Shoemaker, 7 Cordwainer, i 

Taylor, 6 Fustian dyer, i 

Gentleman, 5 Gentlewoman, i 

Haberdasher, 5 Grocer, i 

Barber surgeon, 4 Husbandman, i 

Physician, 4 Innholder, i 

Cobbler, 3 Minister, i 

Mercer, 3 Parson, i 

Scrivener, 3 Sergeant, i 

Barber, 2 Silkman, i 

Cook, 2 Silkweaver, i 

Embroiderer, 2 Shearman, i 

Knight, 2 Vintner, i 

Pewterer, 2 Yeoman, i 
Sexton, 2 

The trades or occupations of those entered in the register 
book of the small town of Chesham, Bucks, extending from 
1538 to 1636, are frequently given. Shoemakers then, as 
now, after setting aside servants and labourers, were the 
most numerous, obtaining their leather from local tanners 
and curriers. The glovers, no longer extant at Chesham, 
were also numerous three centuries ago, and next to them 
the tailors and weavers. The woodenware industry (the 



DATES AND CONDITIONS 



247 



turners, shovelmakers, and trenchermakers of the register) is 
still one of the most important in the little town, but dyers, 
tanners, curriers, and cutlers have passed away. The 
following list of trades or occupations of the parishioners set 
forth in the register book is taken from Mr. Pegge's annotated 
transcript published in 1904: 



Shoemaker, 23 


Cutler, 3 


Carter, i 


Tailor, 19 


Dyer, 3 


Clothworker, i 


Weaver, 19 


Joiner, 3 


Cooper, i 


Glover, 17 


Mason, 3 


Haberdasher, i 


Wheelwright, 15 


Schoolmaster, 3 


Innholder, i 


Tanner, 12 


Bailiff, 2 


Ironmonger, i 


Smith, ii 


Banker, 2 


Mercer, i 


Butcher, 7 


Currier, 2 


Pedlar, i 


Carpenter, 7 


Glazier, 2 


Physician, i 


Malster, 7 


Meretrix, 2 


Ropemaker, i 


Miller, 7 


Midwife, 2 


Salter, i 


Collarmaker, 6 


Painter, 2 


Sawyer, i 


Tilemaker, 6 


Pinner, 2 


Tinker, i 


Turner, 6 


Ploughwright, 2 


Trenchmaker, i 


Potter, 5 


Sayer, 2 


Vintner, i 


Shoemaker, 5 


Brewer, 2 




Baker, 4 


Bricklayer, i 





Among the less common trade names in the early registers 
of Mitcham, Surrey, may be mentioned boddice maker, 
pumpmaker, tobacco-pipe maker, jacksmith, and ashman. 

The following are among the occupations attached to 
burials in the sixteenth-century registers of Chesterfield : 
alderman, apprentice, armiger, bailiff, bellfounder, brazier, 
cardemaker, clericus, clothweaver , coverlett maker, deacon, 
fishmonger, generosus, gentlewoman, horseryder, miles, 
musicus, parson, peregrinus, paedigogus, pottigary, pre- 
dicator, presbyter, pentionarius, sirgean, tanner, and vicar. 

The vicar of Holy Cross, Canterbury, from 1698 to 1707, 
invariably entered the trade or occupation of those who 
were buried. The following are the heads of this singularly 



248 PARISH REGISTERS 

varied list: alehouse keeper, barber, bayly, beggar, black- 
smith, brewer, bricklayer, broomeman, butcher, carpenter, 
carrier, chirurgeon, clerk, cobbler, collarmaker, comber, 
cordwinder, counsellor, doctor, dyer, featherbed-driver, 1 
fellmonger, flaxdresser, fruiterer, fuller, gaol-keeper, gardener, 
gentleman, glazier, glover, gluemaker, grocer, hemp- 
dresser, hostler, huntsman, husbandman, innholder, joiner, 
keeper, labourer, lay clerk, malster, mason, miller, milliner, 
millwright, minister, nurse, merchant, officer, paper- 
maker, parish clerk, postman, potter, salesman, saltfish-man, 
sawyer, seaman, seamstress, sexton, shoemaker, shearman, 
silkweaver, soldier, solicitor, spinner or spinster, tailor, 
tanner, tinker, turner, upholsterer, victualler, washerwoman, 
wheelwright, wigmaker, weaver, woolcomber, and woollen 
draper. 

In a good essay on the general characteristics of the 
parochial registers of Lancashire, and of the varied informa- 
tion that may be gleaned from them, which appeared in 
Memorials of Old Lancashire (1909), Mr. Brierley says :- 

" Many glimpses of the trades practised in the various 
parishes are furnished by the registers. In Wigan we find 
" ' panner ' and ' peroterea,' in Walton * furrier/ in Liverpool 
* dishthrower/ in Ormskirk * glasseman,' in Eccleston ' dryster,' 
in Poulton and Cockerham ' saltweller,' in Croston ' salter/ 
'spooner/ l buttoner/ and 'glover,' in Upholland 'glover'' 
and ' potter/ in Eccles ' ymbroderer/ in Ribchester ' coatman ' 
and 'siever/ in Cartmel 'hammerman/ 'paperman/ and 
' woodcutter.' Of these trades, it is feared that all but the 
occupations of the ' boatman/ for the ferry at Ribchester, and 
the 'woodcutters' of the Cartmel district, who still supply 

" A word of explanation may not be out of place about the featherbed- 
driver. A driver of feathers or down placed them in a machine which, by a 
current of air, drove off the lightest to one end, and collected them by 
themselves." Hence, in Othello (Act I, sc. 3) occurs, " My thrice-driven bed of 
down." 



DATES AND CONDITIONS 249 

the wood for the charcoal burning, have disappeared. The 
registers are wonderfully rich in trade names which have 
become obsolete or obsolescent. Such are ' crateman/ 'jersey 
comber,' ' dauber ' (plasterer), ' mugman/ * bonker ' (bleacher), 
' shearman/ ' corviser ' (shoemaker), * fletcher ' (arrowmaker) 
1 pedder ' (the true form of pedlar), * thrower ' (twister), ' blow- 
man ' (iron-smelter), and 'fusterer' (saddletree maker)." 

" Lancashire, too, according to the registers, seems to have 
been famous of old for its musical tendencies, for not only 
de we find a * piper ' mentioned in almost every register in 
Poulton described as a ' droner ' but Chipping, in addition, 
boasted a * trumpeter/ Eccleston a ' blind harper/ Middleton 
a * drummer/ Croston, Cockerham, and Cartmel a ' fiddler/ 
Culcheth a ' bagpipe player/ and Wood Plympton a 
' musicus.'" 

The remarkable light thrown upon the development of 
copper mining by a German company in the High Furness 
district towards the close of the sixteenth century by the 
Coniston parish register has recently been noted by that 
careful northern antiquary, Professor Collingwood (Memorials 
of Old Lancashire, 1909). In the last years of that century a 
company of Germans, already domiciled at Keswick for a 
generation, began to work copper mines at Coniston, 
carrying the ore on pack-horses to their Keswick smelting 
house. Their names and the outlines of their history are to 
be found in the now printed registers of Coniston and 
Hawkshead. These registers show that the Germans lived 
chiefly at Monk Coniston, that they attended Coniston 
church, but were buried at Hawkshead ; that they married 
into the best yeomen families of the dales, and evidently 
intended to settle in the country of their adoption. 

" The principal family names of these Germans at 
Coniston were Clocker, Colter, Moser, Godmunt, Suck- 
mantle, Stoneparker, Ritseler, Phemcke, Plauntziner, and 



250 PARISH REGISTERS 

Puthparker ; at least these are the forms into which their 
names were turned by the pen of the village clerk. Puth- 
parker, in a more early form, was Pughbarger, probably for 
Puchberger ; there were three Balthazars and three Symons 
in different generations of this family . . . Symon Puch- 
berger was buried in the church at Hawkshead on 25th 
January 1640-1. The eldest Balthazar (as the registers tell 
us) was nicknamed * Towsie,' which gives us a picture of the 
4 towzled ' old German, or rather Austrian, for Puchberg 
is an Austrian village not far from the great mining centre 
of Eisenerz, in Styria, where perhaps the Puchbergers served 
their apprenticeship to the trade already long established in 
the Erzberg, which was then, and still is, one of the wonders 
of the Alps a mountain of solid iron ore. Plauntziver may 
imply origin from Planitzing, near Bozen, in the Tyrol ; a 
Steinberg is near Innsbruck; Klocher and Moser are not 
uncommon names in the Tyrol ; and as their chief came 
from Augsburg, it is likely that some of the men were 
drawn from the old mining districts of the Eastern Alps. 
But it is curious to find the * Black Brothers of Styria,' of 
Ruskin's early fairy tale, domiciled so long before him in his 
own township, and to think of the romantic blend of 
German and Anglicised Norse that peopled the dales three 
hundred years ago. It is to the mixture of races that much 
of the strong, intelligent character of the dalesfolk is 
owing." 

A title which is not infrequently found in early registers 
is likely to confuse those who are not used to mediaeval 
phraseology. " Syr," or " Sir," was prefixed or attached to the 
names of such priests as had not graduated at either of the 
Universities. It used to be said in old days that there were 
only three " Syrs " " Syr Kynge," " Syr Knyghte," and 
" Syr Prieste." 

Between 1539 and 1553 this title of respect occurs with 



DATES AND CONDITIONS 251 

some frequency in the registers of St. Margaret's, West- 
minster. The use of the term died out early in the reign of 
Elizabeth. It is to be found in the register of Minehead, 
Somerset : 

''1548. Sir John Richards sometymes Vicar of this parish bur. 
March 8." 

The following instances occur in the Kidderminster 
registers : 

" 1541, Oct iiij. buried of Sr John Barret preist. 

xv. Sr Nicholas write, preist. 

" 1542, Aug xxv. buried Sr Thomas Alchurch, prst. 
" 1543, April xx. buried Sir. Philip Pardoe, preist. 

,, Feb xix. buried Sir James Pirry, preist. 
"1550, Mar xxx. buried Sr William Thomyns, preist late Vicar 

of Kitherminster. 

" 1553, August the xxiij day was christned Alexander the sonne of 
Sir William Spittle, preist." 

There are also various like entries in the first register 
book of St. Dionis, Backchurch : 

" 1547, Oct 27. Syr Thomas Powell pryste buried. 

"1548, July 13. Syr Robert Johnson, parson of St. Margarettes, 

old fysh strete buried. 
July 15. Syr Thomas Barefoote, parson of thys parishe 

buried. 
" 1549, April 29. Syr William Erith, parson of S. Dennis p'ishe and 

Christiane Poole was maryed. 
" 1565 (Ibid.) Oct 1 8. Syr Peter Haryson, pryste and physysyon and 

sometyme parson of Crown land over in hamshire, in the 

Countye of Southamton." 

Another late entry of this kind occurs in the Harbledown 
register, Kent : 

" 1562, Mar. 13. S r Robert Mobery p'son preste of Hambledown 
bur." 

It is commonly supposed that the giving of Puritan 



252 PARISH REGISTERS 

names to children was a particular characteristic of the days 
of the Commonwealth. But a study of registers quite upsets 
this view, and proves that such names were for the most part 
given at earlier periods when Puritanism began to be 
aggressive. An examination of upwards of forty parish 
registers between 1640 and 1660, in a single county, merely 
reveals one name of this character. The elaborate godly 
names of some of Cromwell's troopers were, however, usually 
names assumed in adult life, and were not bestowed on them 
in baptism. The following are a few examples culled from 
baptismal registers : 

Evangelist (Shoreditch) 



Deliverance (All Sts., N'ton) 
Comfort (All Sts., N'ton) 
Joy Agayne (Daventry) 
Know God (E. Haddon) 
Repente (St. Dunstan West) 



1589 
1592 
1594 
1597 
1599 



Be Faithful (All Sts., N'ton) 
Free Gift (Chiddingley) 
Repentance (St. Sepulchre's, N'ton, 
Sighe (All Sts., N'ton) 
Faintnot (Chiddingley) 
Obedience (Wing, Rutland) 



1601 
1616 
1617 
1630 
1631 
1656 



Perhaps the most astonishing registered name is that of 
Shadrach Meshach Abednego, conferred in baptism, 3rd 
December 1777, on the son of Shadrach Meshach Abednego 
Smith, and Martha his wife, in the church of All Saints, 
Northampton. 

The confusing custom of calling children of a family by 
the same name was by no means uncommon in the middle 
ages. Of this there are various proofs in pedigrees and 
genealogical notes of days prior to parochial registration. 
Lady Alice Tyrell, of Herons, who died in 1422, left four 
sons, two of whom were named William, and the other two 
John. Protector Somerset had three sons named Edward, 
all of whom were living at the same time. In the register of 
Beby, Leicestershire, are the following entries : 

"1539, Aug. 29. John and John Sicke, the children of Christopher 

and Anne, were baptized. 
"Item, 31 Aug. The same John and John were buried. " 

Burn cites the following sentence from the burial entry 



DATES AND CONDITIONS 253 

of Mary Topp, in the register of Stockton, Wilts, but omits 
the date : 

"Tres filias reliquit superstites Johannem Seniorem juvenem 
Johannem Juniorem adolescentem, et Edwardum puerulum." 

In the early Elizabethan Survey of the Earl of Pem- 
broke's manor in Wilts, etc., three brothers of the same name 
were sons of Janet Dight, widow, and the reversion of her 
holding went to "Johanni primogenito, Johanni secundo- 
genito, et Johanni tertiogenito, filiis suis " ; in another case 
three brothers are described as "John senior, John medius, 
and John junior." 

The question of the early occurrence of more than one 
Christian name, and the time when such an occurrence 
became common, has often been discussed, more especially in 
the columns of Notes and Queries. It is usually stated that 
Henry Algernon, fifth Earl of Northumberland, who was 
born on 1 3th January 1477-8, is the earliest English instance 
of a two-fold baptismal name ; the double name appears on 
his garter plate in St. George's Chapel, Windsor. Fuller, 
the church historian, mentions that Queen Mary gave her 
own name in addition to their own Christian name to her 
godsons, so that they were called Anthony- Maria, Edward- 
Maria, etc. 

Instances of double names were exceedingly rare during 
the reigns of Elizabeth and James I. Camden, the antiquary, 
says, on this subject : 

" I can only remember now his Majesty, who was named Charles 
James, and the Prince his sonne Henry Frederic ; and among 
private men, Thos. Maria Wingfield and Sir Thomas Posthumus 
Hobby." 

Anthony Ashley Cooper, the first Earl of Shrewsbury, 
who was born in 1621, is a notable exception. In the latter 
part of the seventeenth century the custom came more into 



254 PARISH REGISTERS 

vogue, but very slowly. Thus the registers of Tamworth 
have an entry in 1680 of the baptism of Robert, the son of 
Thomas Dooley Gyp ; and at Harlington, Beds, there is the 
entry of one Anna Letitia Wingate in 1686. Broadly speak- 
ing, however, the average register contains no double names 
until the nineteenth century is reached. In the last half of 
that century the custom of two or more Christian names set 
in with such general determination that nowadays it is a 
distinct exception to find anyone, no matter what the posi- 
tion, bearing only a single name. 

We suppose Mr. Chester Waters was in earnest in citing 
the following baptism as recorded in the parish register of 
Burbage, Wilts : 

" 1781. Charles Caractacus Ostorius Maximilian Gustavus Adolphus, 
son of Charles Stone, tailor, bapt 29 April." 

Up to 1 8 12, when it was provided that all registers were 
to be kept after a set pattern, it was usual in not a few 
parishes to adopt labour-saving expedients in making the 
entries. One of the commonest forms of abbreviation was to 
use the initial letters b., m., and s., for baptism, marriage, and 
burial (sepulture). It remained for the vicar of Carburton, 
Notts, to adopt the following hieroglyphics-: 

"Note, Since 1729 the Christenings, Burials, and Marriages are 
Set together and are distinguished by these marks, viz. 1" before 
Xtnings, a Deaths head before Burials, and a pair of Claspers X 
before marriages." 

Reference has been made in the first chapter to the 
registration acts of William and Mary for the definite entry 
of the births of children who were not baptised, or at all 
events, not baptised in church, and to the general lack of 
obedience to these directions. It is quite exceptional to find 
any register entries of this nature. 

Stitched into the first volume of the registers of St. 



DATES AND CONDITIONS 255 

Mary's, Reading (which begin in 1538), are several lists of 
entries on leaves of paper thus headed : 

" The By- Register according to Actt of Parllement for 
Byrthe of those that are not baptised by the Minister of the 
Parish in the yeare of our Lord, 1695." There are five 
entries for 1696, eight for 1697, an d twelve for 1698. They 
average about ten down to 1706, and then speedily lessen. 
The entries end in 1754, many of the later years having no 
entry, and several only one. 

There is more evidence of compliance with these Acts in 
the north of England than elsewhere. The four following 
examples all occur in Northumberland. 

The parish registers of Warkworth supply birth lists of a 
few Liberi D is sentient ium Ecclesice Anglican from 1723 to 
1824 ; the three last cases are stated to have been baptized in 
the dissenting chapel. 

In the register books of Elsdon, Northumberland, there 
is a record of " The Births of Dissenters Children as attested 
by their Parents." The entries begin in 1734, and occur some- 
what fitfully down to 1819; they seldom number more than 
one a year. 

Among the registers of Edlingham is a list of " The 
Dissenters Children as they were given in by their Parents." 
It extends from 1733 to 1812. They are distinguished by 
the capital letters D. or P., the latter, we suppose, for Presby- 
terian, and the former for other forms of dissent. The 
highest number thus registered in any year was in 1744, 
when there are nine entries ; they average about three a 
year. 

The registers of Eglingham, also in the same county, 
include a record of baptisms of dissenters, headed " Chris- 
ings not chrisened in the Church." It begins in 1696 with 
six of such entries ; they numbered thirteen in 1697, seven 
in 1698, eight in 1699, fifteen in 1700, sixteen in 1701, and 



256 PARISH REGISTERS 

three in 1702. These are followed by two or three entries 
under the years 1744, 1747, 1748, 1749, 1759, 1761, 1769, 
and 1770. 

In the second register book of Moulton, Northants, 
which begins in 1689, is a short list of unbaptized children, 
or rather of families none of whose children were baptized. 
Eleven families are named ; they clearly belonged to a small 
Baptist community in the parish. 

On one of the fly-leaves of the third volume of the 
registers of North Wingfield, Derbyshire, is the following 
list of births of unbaptized Quakers: 

" Tupton. Sarah d. of George and Ellen Wright, born 6 May 

1698. 
George s. of George and Ellen Wright, born i Nov. 

1700. 
" Pilsley. George s. of George and Ellen Turpin, born i April 

1701. 
Hannah d. of Thomas and Hannah Lynam, born 4 

April 1702. 
"Tupton. Margret d. of Nicholas and Hannah Turner, born 27 

Sept. 1702. 
" Pilsley. William s. of George and Ellen Turpin, born 17 Nov. 

1703. 
" Tupton. Hannah d. of George and . . . Ashley, born 17 Nov. 

1704. 
,, Katherin d. of Nicholas and Hannah Turner, born 

21 Sept. 1705. 

Daniel s. of George and Ellen Turpin, born 29 Jan. 
1705." 

The register entries of Atworth, Wilts, continue to record 
far more births than baptisms for some little time after the 
Restoration of 1660. From 1697 to I 74 there are entries 
in a separate place in the register book of the births of 
" Annabaptistes and Quakers." The last dissenter's birth 
we noticed was in 1710. 

As to the highly commendable habit of printing carefully 



DATES AND CONDITIONS 257 

compiled transcripts of registers, which has increased by 
rapid strides during recent years, the first instance of which 
we are aware is that of the registers of Durnford, Wilts, from 
1 574 to 1650, ten copies of which were printed in 1824 by 
Sir Thomas Phillipps. 

The Harleian Society began printing a parish register 
series in 1876, and nave now issued thirty-seven volumes. 
The Parish Register Society began work in 1896, and have 
already issued upwards of sixty volumes. Special societies 
for the register printing of the counties of Lancashire, York- 
shire, Shropshire, Durham and Northumberland, Stafford- 
shire, and Surrey have also done much excellent work. Other 
societies for printing only the marriage registers have been 
formed in the counties of Buckingham, Cambridge, Corn- 
wall, Derby, Dorset, Gloucester, Hants, Hertford, Norfolk, 
Nottingham, Somerset, Warwick, and Worcester; but these 
are of limited value, and that only to mere genealogists ; 
they will prove, we fear, an impediment to the far more 
desirable issue of complete registers. Many other ex- 
cellent transcripts of whole registers have been issued by 
individuals, notably by Mr. F. A. Crisp, and by Mr. J. M. 
Cowper for Canterbury and the district. 

The result of it all is that there are now (July 1909) about 
600 parish registers in print in a fairly perfect state, the 
large majority of them covering the period from their 
beginning up to 1812, when official registration was imposed. 
These are set forth in an alphabetical list in Appendix IV, 
and for its comparative completeness we are greatly indebted 
to the admirable Key to the Ancient Parish Registers of Eng- 
land (\g&\ by Mr. A. M. Burke. 

This book is concerned in the main with Parish Registers, 
in accordance with its title, but a very brief space may as 
well be given to Nonconformist Registers. Those who 
are desirous of information under this head should consult 



258 PARISH REGISTERS 

a Blue Book, issued in 1841, entitled Lists of Non-parochial 
Registers and Records in the custody of the Registrar- 
General (Somerset House), wherein a county classification 
is observed ; also a Report on Non-parochial Registers, issued 
in 1857, wherein are enumerated those registers of the sects 
that are still in private custody. 

In a very few cases Nonconformist Registers have been 
printed. The register of Dukinfield Chapel, Cheshire, from 
1677 to 1713, was printed by Mr. J. P. Earwaker in 1887; 
it contains some interesting extraneous notes, such as the 
death of Queen Mary from small-pox on 28th December 1696. 
The Shropshire Parish Register Society printed in 1903 ten 
registers of Dissenters from different parts of the county, 
the earliest being that of the Society of Friends, Shrewsbury, 
which begins in 1657. 

The Huguenot Society, founded in 1885, has published 
several volumes of the valuable registers of Protestant 
refugees. 

The registers of the Walloon church of Norwich were 
printed in 1887-88 (vol. i. parts I and 2), and arranged 
alphabetically. The baptisms extend from 22nd June 1595 
to 22nd June 1754; the marriages from 2ist October 1599 to 
1 2th May 1611 ; the banns (annonces) from 23rd September 
1628 to 4th June 1691. 

The registers of the Walloon church of Southampton 
were printed in 1890 (vol. iv.). The Admissions a la Ste-Cene 
extend from 1568 to 1665 ; the baptisms from 1567 to 1779; 
the marriages from 1567 to 1753 ; and the deaths from 1567 
to 1722. This congregation suffered appallingly from the 
plague in 1583, when there were upwards of 70 victims. 
The registers show yet more awful results in 1604, when the 
deaths in June and July amounted to 122, though the 
average death-rate of the Walloons for the whole year of that 
period only amounted to six. 



DATES AND CONDITIONS 259 

The registers of the Walloon church of Canterbury were 
printed in 1891-98 (vol. v., three parts), under the editor- 
ship of Mr. Hovenden. The baptisms date from 1581 to 1837 ; 
the marriages from 1590 to 1747 ; and the deaths from 1581 to 
1745. There are also entries of marriage contracts from 
1580 to 1680. 

The registers of the French church of Threadneedle 
Street, London, were printed in 1896-1906 (vols. ix., xiii., 
xvi.). The entries of baptisms and marriages extend from 
1600 to 1714. 

The registers of the Church of La Patente, Spitalfields, 
were printed in 1898 (vol. xi.). The baptisms extend from 
1689 to 1785, and the marriages from 1689 to J753- 

The register of baptisms at the Dutch church at Colchester 
was printed in 1905 (vol. xii.) ; they date from 1645 to 1728. 

The register of baptisms at the French church at Thorney, 
Cambridgeshire, was printed in 1903 (vol. xvii.) ; they date 
from 1654 to 1727. 



APPENDIX I 

A LIST OF SOME BISHOPS' TRANSCRIPTS WHOSE DATES ARE 
OLDER THAN THE PARISH REGISTERS 1 



Parish. 


Register Date. 


Transcript Date. 


Abberton, Worcester .... 


1661 


1608 


Abbots Bickington ..... 


1716 


1609 


Abbots Morton ..... 


1728 


1611 


Abbotsham ...... 


J 653 


1597 


Abington, Great ..... 


1664 1608 


Abington, Little ..... 


1687 1623 


Abington Pigotts ..... 


1653 1599 


Alfrick 


1656 ion 


Anstey, West 


1653 1608 


Ashford, Devon ..... 


1700 1596 


Ashprington ...... 


1607 


1597 


Ashreigney ...... 


1653 1698 


Bampton ...... 


1653 1609 


Barnet, Chipping 
Barton (Camb.) ..... 


1678 1569 
1688 1600 


Beaford ....... 
Beaworthy ...... 


1653 1598 
1758 1602 


Berry Pomeroy ..... 


1602 1596 


Bigbury ....... 


1678 1613 


Bondleigh ...... 


1734 


1607 


Bow (Devon) ...... 


1604 


1597 


Bradstone ...... 


1654 


T6ll 


Brampford-Speke ..... 


1739 


1601 


Bredicot ...... 


1702 


1609 


Bredons'-Norton ..... 


1734 


1612 


Bricklehampton ..... 


1756 


1617 


Brinkley . . . . , . 


1684 


1600 


Broadvvas ...... 


1676 


1612 


Broome ....... 


1674 


1613 


Broughton-Hackett .... 


1761 


1609 


Bushey ....... 


1684 


1581 


Caddington ...... 


1681 


1597 


Caldecot I 1662 


1611 



1 This list is largely taken from Mr. A. M. Burke's invaluable Key to Parish 
Registers (1908), and from a Supplement to the same (1909) ; it is only intended 
to supply examples of the value of the transcripts, and is very far from being 
complete. 



261 



262 



PARISH REGISTERS 



Parish. 


Register Date. 


Transcript Date. 


Cambridge (St. Andrew the Great) . 


1635 


1605 


Carleton (Cambs.) 


1725 


1602 


Caxton ....... 


1741 


1602 


Chatteris 


1613 


1604 


Chettisham ...... 


1701 


1599 


Cotheridge ...... 


1653 


1611 


Coughton ...... 


1673 


1616 


Coveney . . . . 


1676 


1600 


Cutsdean ...... 


1696 


1634 


Daylesford ...... 


1674 


1624 


Doddington (Camb. ) .... 


1681 


1600 


Dormston . . ... 


1716 


1612 


Doverdale ...... 


1755 


1612 


Earls Cronor ...... 


1647 


1612 


Eckington ...... 


1678 


1612 


Eldersfield ...... 


1718 


1612 


Elmley Castle 


1665 


1612 


Eltisley 


1653 


IS99 


Ettington ...... 


1661 


1621 


Fleet 


1652 


1561 


Flyford Favel. ..... 


1679 


1613 


Flyford Gratton ..... 


1676 


1612 


Gamlingay ...... 


1698 


1601 


Girton (Cambs.) ..... 


1629 


1599 


Grafton Temple ..... 


l6 95 


1612 


Gransden, Little ..... 


1730 


1606 


Graveley (Cambs.) ..... 


1642 


1599 


Hampton-in-Arden .... 


1666 


1615 


Harleton ...... 


1636 


1599 


Harston (Cambs.) ..... 


1686 


1 S99 


Haslingfield ...... 


1709 


1599 


Himbleton ...... 


1 7 1 3 


1611 


Histon ...... 


i6cc 


ICQQ 


Horningsey ...... 


**OJ 

1628 


ow 
1600 


Huddington ...... 


1695 


1612 


Inkberrow ...... 


1675 


1613 


Keal East 


1708 


1562 


Kempsey . . . 


1688 


1608 


Kingston (Cambs. ) . 


1654 


1589 


Litlington ...... 


1642 


1598 


Littleport ...... 


*753 


1599 


Littleton, North 


1661 


3 

1611 


Longdon (Staffs.) 


1681 


1663 


Lulsley .... 


1 7^4. 


1622 


Madresfield ...... 


1 / j*t 
1742 


1611 


Manea . 


1708 


i6d.s 


Meldreth 


1681 


^T*D 

I 599 


Milton (Cambs ) 


T f\C\1 




I OOO 


Mitton, Lower .... 


1U yj 

1607 


160^? 


Monyash ...... 


l ^yj 
1707 


*wj 

1672 


Morden Steeple . . 


1675 


1599 


Morton Bagot ..... 


1663 


l6l4 


Naunton Beau champ .... 


A v^vy^ 

1696 


X VX^f. 

1611 


Newton (nr. Wisbeach) . . . . , 


1653 


1599 



APPENDIX I 



263 



Parish. 


Register Date. 


Transcript Date. 


Norton Lindsey ..... 


1742 


1607 


Oddingley ...... 


1661 


1611 


Offley, High 


1689 


1659 


Oldberrow ...... 


1649 


1613 


Parson-Drove ..... 




1607 




1603 


1607 


Peopleton ...'... 


-7*.? 

1632 


f* 

1612 


Piddle, Wyre 


1670 


1601? 


Powick ....... 


w / 

1662 


*p*j 

1611 


Preston-Bagot ..... 


1677 


1612 


Queenhill ...... 


1733 


1608 


Rampton (Cambs.). .... 


1674 


1599 


Rickmansworth ..... 


1653 


1570 


Rushock 


1661 


1608 


Salwarpe ...... 


1666 


1613 


Sawston ...... 


1640 


1599 


Sheldon 


1745 


i675 


Shelford, Little 


1686 


1600 


Slimbridge ...... 


1635 


157* 




l676 


1612 


Stapleford (Cambs. ) 


***/ w 

1707 


1599 


Stow (Cambs.) 


1650 


1600 


Studley 


1663 


1613 


Suckley 


1695 


1613 


Sulhampstead-Banister .... 


1654 


1613 


Tadlow ....... 


1653 


1638 


Thetford (Cambs.) 


1654 


1599 


Tibberton ...... 


1680 


1612 


Trumpington ...... 


1671 


1599 


Walden 


i6m 


iq8i 


Warwick, St. Mary .... 


**;jJ 

1651 


A ^\J A 

1611 


Waterbeach 


l6 53 


1600 


Welland 


1670 


1608 


Wellow (Notts) 


1703 


1626 


Wentworth (Cambs. ) 


1754 


1600 


Whaddon (Cambs.) .... 


1692 


1606 


Whittlesey, St. Andrew .... 


1653 


1622 


Wichenford ...... 


1690 


1599 


Wick, nr. Pershore ..... 


1695 




Wickham, West (Cambs.) 


1682 


1599 


Wilburton ...... 


1739 


1599 


Witcham ...... 


1633 


1607 


Witchford 


* 3J 

1725 


w / 

1599 


Wolford 


1654 


1612 


Wolverton ...... 


1680 


1614 


Worcester, St. Andrew .... 


1656 


1612 


,, St. Clement .... 


1694 


1609 



264 



PARISH REGISTERS 



APPENDIX II 

LIST OF PARISH REGISTERS BEGINNING IN 1538 



Abbots Langley, Herts 
Abingdon, St. Helen, Berks 

St. Nicholas, Berks 

Adelstrop, Glouc. 
Adstock, Bucks 
Akenham, Suffolk 
Aldborough, York 
Aldringham, Suffolk 
Alford, Line. 
Alfriston, Sussex 
Alkborough, Line. 
Aimer, Dorset 
Alstonfield, Staffs 
Arlesley, Beds 
Arrington, Cambs 
Ashbourne, Derby 
Ashill, Norfolk 
Ashperton, Herefords 
Ashton Steeple, Wilts 
Askham, Notts 
Aston Steeple, Oxon 
Audley, Staffs 
Avenham, Notts 
Avonwick, Yorks 
Awre, Glouc. 
Baddow, Great, Essex 
Badingham, Suffolk 
Badminton, Glouc. 
Badsey, Wore. 
Balderton, Notts 
Bale, Norfolk 
Balstonborough, Som. 
Bampton, Oxon 
Bardsey, York 
Bardwell, Suffolk 
Barford, Warw. 
Barkham, Berks 
Barking, Suffolk 
Barkway, Herts 
Barnes, Surrey 
Barney, Norfolk 
Barningham, Suffolk 
Barningham, Little, Norfolk 
Barningham-Norwood, Norfolk 
Barnstaple, Devon 
Barrington, Cambs 
Barrowby, Lincoln 
Bayford, Herts 
Beckenham, Kent 
Beddington, Surrey 



Bedfield, Suffolk 
Bedingfield, Suffolk 
Bedwin, Great, Wilts 
Beeby, Leic. 
Beeley, Derby 
Bees, St., Cumberland 
Beeston, Norfolk 
Beeston, St. Lawrence, Norfolk 
Belaugh, Norfolk 
Belbroughton, Wore. 
Belchamp, St. Paul, Essex 
Belton, Leicester 

,, Lincoln 
Bengworth, Wore. 
Berkhamsted, Great, Herts 
Berners-Roding, Essex 
Bernington. Herts 
Bessingham, Norfolk 
Betley, Staff 
Biddenden, Kent 
Binfield, Berks 
Birdham, Sussex 
Bishops Tachbrook, Warwick 
Blackawton, Devon 
Blakeney, Norfolk 
Blakesley, Northants 
Bletchingley, Surrey 
Blithfield, Staffs 
Blockley, Wore. 
Bluntisham, Hunts 
Bolingbroke, Line. 
Bothamsall, Notts 
Bovey Tracey, Devon 
Boxted, Suffolk 
Bradeley, Staffs 
Bradenham, West, Norfolk 
Bradfield, St. Clare, Suffolk 
Bradfield-Combust, Suffolk 
Brancaster, Norfolk 
Braunston, Northants 
Braunton, Devon 
Brenzett, Kent 
Brereton, Chester 
Bretforton, Wore. 
Bridford, Devon 
Bristol, Christ Church 

,, St. Nicholas 
Broadchalke, Wilts 
Broadhembury, Devon 
Brodsworth, York 



APPENDIX II 



265 



Bromley, Little, Essex 
Bromyard, Hereford 
Broome, Norfolk 
Broughton, Lincoln 

,, Church, Derby 

Buckenham, New, Norfolk 
Buckland, St. Mary, Soin. 

,, Monachorum, Devon 

West, Som. 
Bucklebury, Berks 
Buckminster, Leic. 
Budeaux, St., Devon 
Bungay, St. Mary, Suffolk 
Bures, Suffolk 

Burgh-in-the-Marsh, Lincoln 
Burlingham, St. Andrews, Norfolk 
Burnham-Westgate, Norfolk 
Burton, Cheshire 
Burton Latimer, Northants 
Burton-Fleming, York 
Bury St. Edmunds, St. Mary, Suffolk 
Bushley, Worcester 
Calne, Wilts 
Camborne, Cornwall 
Cambridge, St. Michael 
Canfield, Gt., Essex 
Canterbury, St. George 
Cantley, York 
Capel, St. Mary, Suffolk 
Carleton-in-Craven, York 
Carlton, Suffolk 
Carshalton, Surrey 
Castor, Northants 
Cawston, Norfolk 
Chaceley, Wore. 
Chaddesley Corbett, Wore. 
Chaddleworth, Berks 
Chailey, Sussex 
Chalgrove, Oxon 
Chalton, Hants 
Chalvington, Sussex 
Charles, Devon 
Charlton Kings, Glouc. 
Cheam, Surrey 
Chedburgh, Surrey 
Chelmsford, Essex 
Chelsfield, Kent 
Cherington, Warwick 
Cheriton Bishop, Devon 
Chesham, Bucks 
Chesterton, Warwick 
Chettle, Dorset 
Chetton, Salop 
Childerditch. Essex 
Chislet, Kent 
Churchstow, Devon 
Clacton, Little, Essex 
Claines, Wore. 



Clayhanger, Devon 
Claypole, Lincoln 
Cley-next-the-Sea, Norfolk 
Clifford-Chambers, Glouc. 
Clifton, Beds 

,, Glouc. 
Coleshill, Warwick 
Colkirk, Norfolk 
Colyton, Devon 
Combe Hay, Hants 
Compton, West, Dorset 
Compton-Chamberlayne, Wilt 
Compton Nether, Dorset 
Conington, Cambridge 
Cookley, Suffolk 
Coombe-Keynes, Dorset 
Coombes, Sussex 
Gorton Denham, Somerset 
Cossey, Norfolk 
Coton, Cambridge 
Cotton, Suffolk 
Courteenhall, Northants 
Cratfield, Suffolk 
Crayke, Yorks 
Craynorth, Kent 
Creake, North, Norfolk 

,, South, Norfolk 
Cropredy, Oxon 
Croxton, Cambridge 
Croydon, Surrey 
Curry, North, Somerset 
Darlington, Devon 
Dean, West, Wilts 
Depden, Suffolk 
Derby, St. Alkmund 
Dereham, East, Norfolk 
Dewsbury, Yorks 
Didbrooke, Glouc. 
Digswell, Herts 
Ditton, Fen, Cambridge 
Doddenham, Wore. 
Dodington, Somerset 
Dorking, Surrey 
Dorney, Bucks 
Down, Kent 

,, East, Devon 
Drayton-Beauchamp, Bucks 
Dun Chideock, Devon 
Dunchurch, Warwick 
Dunmow, Great, Essex 
Dunsby, Lincoln 
Dunton, Essex 
Durham, St. Oswald 
Dymock, Glouc. 
Easebourne, Sussex 
Easter Good, Essex 
Eastleach- Martin, Glouc. 
Eastwell, Kent 



266 



PARISH REGISTERS 



Eaton, Church, Stafford 
Edenbridge, Kent 
Edingley, Notts 
Edwalton, Notts 
Egleton, Rutland 
Ellingham, Norfolk 
Elmdon, Warwick 
Elmham, North, Norfolk 
Elmsted, Kent 
Evesham, All Saints, Worcs. 
Exeter, St. Petroch 

,, St. Mary- Arches 
Eydon, Northants 
Eye, Suffolk 
Eyke, Suffolk 
Eynesford, Kent 
Eyworth, Beds 
Falkenham, Suffolk 
Farlington, Hants 
Farnworth, Lane. 
Farthingstone, Northants 
Feckenham, Wore. 
Ferriby, South, Line. 
Field-Bailing, Norfolk 
Fillongley, Warw. 
Finedon, Northants 
Folke, Dorset 
Foulden, Norfolk 
Fownhope, Hereford 
Framfield, Sussex 
Frampton, Line. 
Fransham, Little, Norfolk 
Freston, Suffolk 
Frostenden, Suffolk 
Frowlesworth, Leic. 
Fryston-Monk, Yorks 
Fulbourne, Cambs 
Fyfield, Essex 
Garveston, Norfolk 
Georgeham, Devon 
Gerrans, St., Cornwall 
Gonalston, Notts 
Goodleigh, Devon 
Gosfield, Essex 
Granborough, Bucks. 
Gransden, Great, Hunts 
Gressenhall, Norfolk 
Grimsby, Great, Line. 
Gwaenysgor, Flint. 
Hackeston, Line. 
Hackford, Suffolk 
Hagley, Wore. 
Hale-Magna, Line. 
Halifax, Yorks 
Hallam, West, Derby 
Hallingbury, Great, Essex 
Hallow, Wore. 
Halton, West, Line. 



Hampstead Norreys, Berks 
Hanley Castle, Wore. 
Hannington, Northants 
Harborne, Staffs 
Harefield, Midd. 
Harpole, Northants 
Harrietsham, Kent 
Hartford, Hunts 
Hartlip, Kent 
Harworth, Notts 
Haseley, Great, Oxon 
Hatford, Berks 
Hatton, Warwick 
Heckfield, Hants 
Heddington, Wilts 
Heigham, Potter, Norfolk 
Henbury, Glouc. 
Hendred, East, Berks 
Hessett, Suffolk 
Hexton, Herts 
Heydon, Essex 

Norfolk 

Higham, Suffolk 
Highworth, Wilts 
Hinton, Cherry, Cambs 
Hinxton, Cambs 
Holme Hale, Norfolk 
Holt, Wore. 

Hoi ton, St. Peter, Suffolk 
Hooton Pagnell, Yorks 
Hopton Castle, Salop 
Horley, Oxon 
Hormead, Great, Herts 
Houghton Regis, Beds 
Hove, Sussex 
Hundon, Suffolk 
Hunstanton, Norfolk 
Hurstmonceux, Sussex 
Ickenham, Midd. 
Ilketshall, St. John, Suffolk 

St. Margaret, Suffolk 
Ingham, Suffolk 
Ipswich, St. Margaret 

,, St. Mary-le-Tower 
Irstead, Norfolk 
Just, St., in-Roseland, Cornwall 
Kelsale, Suffolk 
Kelshall, Herts 
Kelston, Som. 
Kenn, Devon 
Kenton, Suffolk 
Keswick, Norfolk 
Kilve, Som. 
Kilvington, Notts 
Kineton, Warw. 
Kingsclere, Hant 
Kingsey, Bucks 
Kingsland, Hereford 



APPENDIX II 



267 



Kingsnorth, Kent 

Kirby Bedon, Norfolk 

Kirby Cane, Norfolk 

Kirkby Lonsdale, Westm. 

Kirton, Notts 

Kislingbury, Northants 

Knowstone, Devon 

Knoyle, East, Wilts 

Laceby, Line. 

Laleham, Midd. 

Lamerton, Devon 

Lammas, Norfolk 

Landbeach, Cambs 

Laneham, Notts 

Langford, Oxon 

Langford-Budville, Som. 

Lapley, Staffs 

Laver, Little, Essex 

Lazonby, Cumb. 

Ledbury, Hereford 

Leigh, Wore. 

Leiston, Suffolk 

Lench, Rous, Wore. 

Lever ton, Line. 

Lexham, East, Norfolk 

Lighthorne, Warw. 

Lincoln, St. Margaret 

,, St. Peter-at-Gowts 

Littleham (Bideford), Devon 

Littleton, South, Wore. 

Livermere, Suffolk 

London, All Hallows, Honey Lane 
St. Antholin, 
St. Benet Finck 
Christ Church 
St. Dionis, Backchurch 
St. Lawrence, Jewry 

,, Pountney 

St. Leonard, Eastcheap 
St. Margaret, Westminster 
St. Mary, Alderman bury 
, , Bathaw 
,, le Bow 
,, Woolnoth 
St. Matthew, Friday Street 
St. Michael, Bassishaw 

,, Crooked Lane 

St. Mildred, Poultry 
St. Nicholas, Cole Abbey 
St. Pancras, Soper Lane 
St. Peter, Cornhill 
St. Stephen, Coleman Street 

Longdon, Wore. 

Longford, Derby 

Lorton, Cumb. 

Loughborough, Leic. 

Louth, Line. 

Ludgershall, Buck. 



Lugwardine, Hereford 

Lyng, Norfolk 

Maismore, Glouc. 

Manningford Abbas, Wilts 

Marbury, Chester 

Maresfield, Sussex 

Marsham, Norfolk 

Marston, Butlers, Warw. 

Martin-Hussingtree, Wore. 

Maxey, Northants 

Melton, High, Yorks 

Meon, West, Hants 

Merrow, Surrey 

Merstham, Surrey 

Messing, Essex 

Metheringham, Line. 

Micheldever, Hunts 

Milton-Ernest, Beds 

,, (Sittingbourne), Kent 

Milverton, Som. 

Molland, Devon 

Moreton-Morrell, Warw. 

Morval, Cornwall 

Navestock, Essex 

Newbottle, Northants 

Newbury, Berks 

Newington, South, Oxon 

Newton, St. Loe, Som. 

Norbury, Staffs 

Normanton, Yorks 

Norrington, Kent 

Northam, Devon 

Norton, Wore. 

Norton-juxta-Kempsey, Wore. 

Norwich, St. Clement 

St. George Colegate 
St. George Tombland 
St. Giles 

St. Martin-at- Palace 
St. Michael-at-Plea 
St. Peter Mancroft 

,, Mountergate 
St. Stephen 

Nympton, Kings, Devon 

'Oakley, Suffolk 

Ockendon, South, Essex 

Odiham, Hants 

Offenham, Wore. 

Off ham, Kent 

Ogbourne, St. George, Wilts 

Ongar, High, Essex 

Orchard-Fortman, Som. 

Ordsall, Notts 

Orford, Suffolk 

Oswaldkirk, Yorks 

Otham, Kent 

Oxburgh, Norfolk 

Oxwick, Norfolk 



268 



PARISH REGISTERS 



Packington, Great, Warw. 
Padbury, Bucks 
Parham, Suffolk 

,, Sussex 
Paston, Norfolk 
Pauntley, Glouc. 
Peasemore, Berks 
Pennard, West, Som. 
Perrot, South, Dorset 
Peterstow, Hereford 
Pick worth, Line. 
Piddletown, Dorset 
Pirton, Wore. 
Pitcomb, Som. 
Plymtree, Devon 
Polstead, Suffolk 
Pontesbright, Essex 
Pontesbury, Salop 
Poole, Dorset 
Poughill, Cornwall 
Preston, Sussex 
Priors Dean, Hants 
Privett, Hants 

Pulham, St. Mary Magdalen, Norfolk 
Pyon, Kings, Hereford 
Reading, St. Mary 
Rede, Suffolk 
Redgrave, Suffolk 
Reepham, Norfolk 
Ridware-Mavesyn, Staffs 
Rimpton, Som. 
Ripe, Sussex 
Risington, Great, Glouc. 
Rockland, St. Peter, Norfolk 
Roding, High, Essex 

,, Margaret, Essex 
Rodmersham, Kent 
Romney, Old, Kent 
Ropley, Hants 
Rossington, Yorks 
Rothwell, York 
Ruckinge, Kent 
Rushbury, Salop 
Rye, Sussex 

Ryton-on-Dunsmore, Warw. 
Saddington, Leic. 
Sancton, Yorks 
Sandford-Orcas, Dorset 
Sandhurst, Glouc. 
Sandwich, St. Mary, Kent 
,, St. Peter, Kent 

Sandy, Beds 
Saxelby, Leic. 
Saxmundham, Suffolk 
Saxton, Yorks 
Seaming, Norfolk 
Scraptoft, Leic. 
Seaton Rutland, Rutland 



Semer, Suffolk 
Sevenhampton, Wilts 
Shadingfield, Suffolk 
Shadoxhurst, Kent 
Shalstone, Bucks 
Sheepshed, Leic. 
Shelsley-Beauchamp, Wore. 
Sherborne, Dorset 
Sherwell, Devon 
Shimpling, Norfolk 
Shimplingthorne, Suffolk 
Shipton, Salop 

Shipton-under-Wychwood, Oxon 
Shobrooke, Devon 
Shocklach, Chester 
Shotesham, All Saints, Norfolk 
Shustoke, Warw. 
Skelton-by-York, York 
Slaughter, Upper, Glouc. 
Solihull, Warw. 
Somerton, Suffolk 
Southease, Sussex 
South Hill, Cornwall 
Southill, Beds 
Southolt, Suffolk 
Sowe, Warw. 
Spalding, Line. 
Spexhall, Suffolk 
Spratton, Northants 
Stanford Dingley, Berks 
Stanford Rivers, Essex 
Stanground, Hunts 
Stansfield, Suffolk 
Stedham, Sussex 
Stevenage, Herts 
Stisted, Essex 
Stockland Bristol, Som. 
Stoke, Norfolk 
Stoke Ash, Suffolk 
Stoke-by-Clare, Suffolk 
Stoke Climsland, Cornwall 
Stoke, East, Notts 
Stoke Edith, Hereford 
Stoke Fleming, Devon 
Stoke Goldington, Bucks 
Stoke Hammond, Bucks 
Stoke Severn, Wore. 
Stoke-in-Teignhead, Devon 
Stone, Bucks 
Stonton Wyville, Leic. 
Stoughton, Leic. 
Stourmouth, Kent 
Stradbroke, Suffolk 
Streatham, Surrey 
Stretton-on-the-Foss, Warw. 
Sturry, Kent 
Sutterton, Line. 
Sutton, Beds 



APPENDIX II 



269 






Sutton-by-Dover, Kent 
Sutton, Long, St. Nicholas, Line. 
Sutton-on-Lound, Notts 
Swannington, Norfolk 
Swanton Abbot, Norfolk 
Swardeston, Norfolk 
Tawstock, Devon 
Tawton, North, Devon 
Taynton, Glouc. 
,, Oxon 
Tendring, Essex 
Terling, Essex 

Terrington St. John, Norfolk 
Teston, Kent 
Thelnetham, Suffolk 
Thelveton, Norfolk 
Therfield, Herts 
Thompson, Norfolk 
Thornbury, Glouc. 

, , Hereford 

Thorndon, Suffolk 
Thorpe, Derby 
Thorpe Constantine, Staffs 
Thorpe Market, Norfolk 
Thorpe Morieux, Suffolk 
Thriplow, Cambs 
Thurgarton, Norfolk 
Thurnby, Leic. 
Thuxton, Norfolk 
Thwaite, St. Mary, Norfolk 
Tickenham, Som. 
Tickhill, Yorks 
Tilney, All Saints, Norfolk 
Tintagel, Cornwall 
Tisted, East, Hants 
,, West, Hants 
Tittleshall, Norfolk 
Tiverton-on-Avon, Som. 
Toft Monks, Norfolk 
Trimley St. Martin, Suffolk 
Trowbridge, Wilts 
Trusley, Derby 
Tunstall, Kent 
Twickenham, Midd. 
Uckfield, Sussex 
Uffculme, Devon 
Ugborough, Devon 
Upleadon, Glouc. 
Upton, Bucks 
Urchfont, Wilts 
Uxbridge, Midd. 
Veep, St., Cornwall 
Waddesdon, Bucks 
Wallop, Over, Hants 
Walsgrave-on-Sowe, Warw. 
Waltham. Kent 



Warborough, Oxon 

Wargrave, Berks 

Warmborough, South, Hants 

Warmingham, Chester 

Wartling, Sussex 

Warwick, St. Nicholas 

Wasperton, Warwick 

Wattisham, Suffolk 

Wensley, York 

Wesbury-on-Severn, Glouc. 

Westerfield, Suffolk 

Westhorpe, Suffolk 

Weston, Som. 
Suffolk 

Weston Turville, Bucks 

Wetherden, Suffolk 

Whalley, Lane. 

Wharram-le-Street, Yorks 

Whatton-in-the-Vale, Notts 

Wheatacre Burgh, Norfolk 

Wheatenhurst, Glouc. 

Whittington, Lane. 
Staffs 

Wickford, Essex 

Wickhamford, Wore.' 

Wield, Hants 

Wilbraham, Little, Cambs 

Wilby, Suffolk 

Willesborough, Kent 

Willoughby, Line. 

Wilmington, Sussex 

Wimbledon, Surrey 

Wingfield, Suffolk 

Winwick, Hants 

Wiston, Suffolk 

Witley, Great, Wore. 

Witnesham, Suffolk 

Wittenham, Little, Berks 

Woodchurch, Kent 

Woodford, Wilts 

Woodton, Norfolk 

Woolston, Great, Bucks 

Worcester, St. Helen 
,, St. Martin 
,, St. Swithin 

Worlingham, Suffolk 

Worminghall, Bucks 

Wortham, Suffolk 

Worthy, Kings, Hants 

Wouldham, Kent 

Wrington, Som. 

Wyberton, Line. 

Wye, Kent 

Wymondham, Leic. 

York, St. Olave, Marygate 



270 



PARISH REGISTERS 



APPENDIX III 



LIST OF PARISH REGISTERS BEGINNING IN 1539 



Acton, Midds. 

,, Beauchamp, Wore. 
Adisham, Kent 
Adwell, Oxon 
Aldborough, Norfolk 
Aldingham, Lanes 
Alveston, Warwick 
Areley Kings, Wore. 
Arlingham, Glouc. 
Astley, Wore. 
Aston -sub- Edge, Glouc. 
Balcombe, Sussex 
Bardfield, Little, Essex 
Barnston, Essex 
Battersea, Surrey 
Bealings, Great, Suffolk 
Beer Ferrers, Devon 
Beetley, Norfolk 
Belstead, Suffolk 
Benger, Herts 
Bentley, Hants 
Suffolk 
Besford, Wore. 
Beyton, Suffolk 
Bicester, Oxon 
Binton, Warwick 
Birchington, Kent 
Birts-Morton, Worcs. 
Blisland, Cornwall 
Boulge, Suffolk 
Bow, Midds. 
Boyton, Suffolk 
Bradfield, Berks. 
Bramfield, Suffolk 
Branscombe, Devon 
Broadway, Wore. 
Buckland, Glouc. 
Budbrook, Warwick 
Burton-on-Trent, Staffs 
Carbrooks, Norfolk 
Caston, Norfolk 
Cavenham, Suffolk 
Chadwell, Essex 
Chalfont St. Peter, Bucks 
Chalgrave, Beds 
Charlecote, Warwick 
Chicheley, Bucks 
Clifton, North, Notts 
Clyst St. Lawrence, Devon 
Coddenham, Suffolk 



Columb, St. Major, Cornwall 

Covington, Hunts 

Cropwell Bishop, Notts 

Crowle, Worcs. 

Darlaston, Staffs 

Darsham, Suffolk 

Debach, Suffolk 

Denham, Suffolk 

Dominic, St., Cornwall 

Donington Castle, Leic. 
1 Durham, Great, Norfolk 

Eaglescliffe, Durham 

Easton-Maudit, Northants 

Edensor, Derby 

Edgecott, Bucks 

Elm, Cambs. 

Elmley-Lovett, Wore. 

Emmington, Oxford 

Epping, Essex 

Exhall, Warwick 

Eynesbury, Hunts 

Farnham, Surrey 

Fenton, Line. 

Fiskerton, Line. 

Fobbing, Essex 

Fornham, St. Martin, Suffolk 

Gazely, Suffolk 

Grantchester, Cambs 
j Greenford, Midd. 

Hampton, Great, Wore. 
,, Little, Wore. 

Harwich, Essex 

Hayes, Kent 
! Headley, Hants 
! Hedgerley, Bucks 

Hemington, Som. 

Hempston, Little, Devon 

Henham, Essex 

Henstead, Suffolk 

Heveningham, Suffolk 

Heyford, Lower, Oxon 

Holland, Great, Essex 

Huggate, Yorks 

Hulcote, Bucks 

Huntingfield, Suffolk 

Ilford, Little, Essex 

Illogan, Cornwall 

Ingleby-Greenhow, Yorks 

Ipswich, St. Lawrence 
St. Nicholas 



APPENDIX III 



271 



Kensington, Midd. 

Keyne, St., Cornwall 

Kidderminster, Wore. 

Kilkhampton, Cornwall 

Kingsthorpe, Northants 

Kingston Bagpuize, Berks 

Kippax, Yorks 

Kirkham, Lane. 

Knightswick, Wore. 

Lambeth, Surrey 

Ledsham, Yorks 

Lezant, Cornwall 

Limpsfield, Surrey 

Linstead Parva, Suffolk 

Liskeard, Cornwall 

Littleborough, Notts 

London, All Hallows, Bread St. 
,, Clement, St., Eastcheap 
,, Martin, St., Ironmonger Lane 
,, Martin, St., Ludgate 
,, Nicholas, St., Aeons 

Londonthorpe, Line. 

Lowther, Weston 

Madingley, Cambs 

Marston, South, Wilts 

Marton-in-the-West, York 

Mashbury, Essex 

Milborne Port, Som. 

Milston, Wilts 

Morcott, Rutland 

Morland, Weston 

Morley, St. Botolph, Norfolk 

Moulton, Little, Norfolk 
Nantwich, Cheshire 
Northfleet, Kent 
Northwood, I. of W. 
Norton, Suffolk 
Norton, Cold, Essex 
Norwich, St. Simon and Jude 
Nunnington, York 
Ockley, Surrey 
Old, Northants 
Orton Waterville, Hunts 
Pedmore, Wore. 
Pelham, Brent, Herts 
Pentlow, Essex 
Pettistree, Suffolk 
Piddle Hinton, Dorset 
Pillerton-Hersey, Warwick 
Pulham, St. Mary, Norfolk 
Rainham, West, Norfolk 
Ravensthorpe, Northants 
Rawreth, Essex 



Redmarley-d'Abitot, Wore. 
Reed, Herts 
Ridgmont, Beds 
Ringshall, Suffolk 
Romansleigh, Devon 
Rotherfield, Sussex 
Rowley, Regis, Staffs 
Runham, Norfolk 
Ryarsh, Kent 
Scale, Surrey 
Shenfield, Essex 
Soberton, Hants 
Southam, Warwick 
Spelsbury, Oxon 
Spetchley, Wore. 
Stockton-on-Teme, Wore. 
Stowting, Kent 
Strathfieldsaye, Hants 
Sutton Courtney, Berks 
Tangmere, Sussex 
Tannington, Suffolk 
Tellisford, Som. 
Teynham, Kent 
Thorley, Herts 
Thornton Dale, York 
Thrigley, Norfolk 
Toft, Cambs 
Tunstall, Suffolk 
Waldingfield, Great, Suffolk 
Walsham le Willows, Suffolk 
Warley, Great, Essex 
,, Little, Essex 
Warsop, Notts 
Watford, Herts 
Watton, Norfolk 
Weald, South, Essex 
Wendling, Norfolk 
Weston, Herts 
Whiteacre, Nether Warwick 
Whittington, Glouc. 
Widmerpool, Notts 
Windecombe, Glouc. 
Wingerworth, Derby 
Witchingham, Great, Norfolk 
Wolverley, Wore. 
Wonersh, Surrey 
Wood-Eaton, Oxon 
Woolverstone, Suffolk 
Wootton, North, Dorset 
Yapton, Sussex 
Yardley, Worcester 
York, St. Martin, Micklegate 



272 



PARISH REGISTERS 



APPENDIX IV 

LIST OF PRINTED PARISH REGISTERS 

( The instances of Marriage entries only are not included] 



Parish. 


Years 
Included. 


By whom Printed. 


Date of 
Issue. 


Abington Pigotts, Cambs 


1653-1812 


W. G. F. Pigott 


1890 


Adderley, Salop 


1692-1812 


Sal. P.R.S. 


1904 


Addington, Surrey . 


1559-1812 


Surr. P.R.S. 


1907 


Adel, Yorks .... 


1606-1812 


Thoresby Soc., vol. v. 


1895 


Albans, St., Abbey, Herts 


1558-1689 


W. Brigg . 


1897 


Alberbury, Salop . 


1564-1812 


Sal. P.R.S. 


1902 


Albrighton, nr. Shrewsbury . i 1555-1812 


5> 


1901 


,, nr. W'hampton 


1649-1812 


5 > 5> 


1900 


Aldenham, Herts . 


1559-1659 


K. F. Gibbs 


1902 


Aldingham, Lanes . 


1539-1812 


Lanes. P.R.S. . 


1907 


Allerton Mauleverer, Yorks 


1557-1812 


Yorks P.R.S. . 


1908 


Aimer, Dorset 


1538-1812 


Par. Reg. Soc. . 


1907 


Alnham, Northumb. . . 1688-1812 


North. & Dur. P.R.S. 


1907 


Alstonfield, Staffs. . . . 1538-1812 


Staffs P.R.S. 


1902 


Alston Moor, Camb 


1700 


Robert Blair 




Asby, Westm. . . . 1657-1798 




1894 


Ashe, Hants . . . . 1606-1807 


F. W. Thoyts , 


1888 


Askham, Westm. . . . 1568-1812 


M. E. Noble . 


1904 


Askham Richard, Yorks . . 1579-1812 


Yorks P.R.S. . 


1908 


Bampton, Westm. . . . 1637-1812 


M. E. Noble . 


1897 


Banstead, Surrey . . . 1547-1789 


Par. Reg. Soc. . 


1896 


Bard well, Suffolk . 


1538-1650 


F. E. Warren . 


1893 


Barlaston, Staffs 


1573-1812 


Staffs P.R.S. 


1905 


Barnstaple, Devon . 


1538-1812 


Tho. Wainwright 


1903 


Barton-under- Need wood, Staffs 


1571-1812 ! Staffs P.R.S. 


1902-3 


Barwick-in-Elmett, Yorks 


1653-1812 


G. D. Lumb 


1908 


Baswick, Staffs 


1601-1812 


J 5 5 1 


1903 


Bath, Abbey .... 


1659-1800 Harleian Reg. Soc. 


1900-1 


Battlefield, Salop . 


1663-1812 


Par. Reg. Soc. . 


1899 


Beaumont, Essex 


1565-1678 


F. A. Crisp 


1897 


Bebington, Chester . 


1558-1701 


F. Saunders 


1897 


Bedstone, Salop 


1719-1812 


Sal. P.R.S. 


1903 


Beer-Hacket, Dorset 


1549-1812 


Par. Reg. Soc. . 


1896 


Bekesborne, Kent . 


1558-1812 


C. H. Wilkie . 


1896 


Berkeley, Glouc. 


!653-i677 


F. A. Crisp 


1897 


Bermondsey, Surrey 


1548-1608 


The Genealogist . 


vols. 
vi.-ix. 


Berwick-on-Tweed, Northum. . 


1574-1699 


Northm. & Dur. P.R.S. 


*95 


Bidston, Cheshire . 


1581-1700 


W. F. Irvine 


1893 


Billingsley, Salop . 


1625-1812 


Sal. P.R.S. 


1903 


Bingley, Yorks 


1577-1686 


Yorks P.R.S. . 


1901 


Bircham Newton, Yorks . 


1562-1743 


Rich. Howlett . 


1888 


Birchington, Kent . 


1539-1675 


F. A. Crisp 


1899 



APPENDIX IV 



273 



Parish. 


Years 
Included. 


By whom Printed. 


Date of 
Issue. 


Birkenhead, Cheshire 


1719-1812 


Lane. & Chesh. Hist. 








Soc. 


1908 


Birmingham, St. Martin . 


1554-1708 


J. Hill & W. B. Bickley 


1889 


Bisham, Berks 


1560-1812 


Par. Reg. Soc. . 


1898 


Bishop Middleham, Durham . 


1559-1812 


Northm. &Dur. P.R.S. 


1906 


Bitterley, Salop 


1658-1812 


Sal. P.R.S. Hereford 








Dioc. 


1902 


Bitton, Gloucs. 


1572-1674 


Par. Reg. Soc. . 


1900 


Blacktoft, Yorks . 


1700-1812 


Yorks P.R.S. . 


1901 


Bobbingworth, Essex 


1558-1785 


F. A Crisp 


1888 


Booking, Essex 
Bolton Abbey, Yorks 


1558-1639 
1689-1812 


J. J. Godwin 
A. P. Howes 


1903 
1895 


Bolton-by-Bolland, Yorks 


1558-1724 


Yorks P.R.S. . 


1904 


Boningale, Salop . 


1690-1812 


Sal. P.R.S. Lich. Dioc. 


1901 


Bothal, Northm. 


1678-1812 


Northm. & Dur. P.R.S. 


1901 


Boughton-under-Blean, Kent . 
Bramfield, Suffolk . 


1558-1626 
1539-1596 


Par. Reg. Soc. . 
T. G. Hill . 


1903 
1894 


Brampton, Norfolk. 


1600-1812 


A. T. Michell . 


1897 


Brantingham, Yorks . '. 
Bretforton, Wore. . 


1653-1812 
1538-1837 


Yorks P.R.S. . 
W. H. Shawcross 


1902 
1908 


Breward St., Cornwall . 


1558-1900 


T. Taylor . 


1900 


Brewood, Staffs 


1562-1812 


Staffs P.R.S. 


1906 


Brindle, Lanes 


1558-1714 


Lane. P.R.S. . 


1901 


Broad-Chalk, Wilts 


1538-1780 


A. G. Moore 


1880 


Bromfield, Salop 


1559-1812 


Sal. P.R.S. Hereford 








Dioc. 


1903 


Broseley, Salop 


I570-I75 


A. F". C. Longley 


1889-90 


Broughton, Salop . 


1705-1812 


Sal. P.R.S. Lich. Dioc. 


1900 


Brundish, Suffolk . 


1562-1785 


F. A. Crisp 


1885 


Bruton, Som. .... 


1554-1680 


Par. Reg. Soc. . 


1907 


Buckenham, Old, Norfolk 


1565-1649 


Walter Rye 


1902 


Burgh-next- Aylsham, Norfolk . 


1563-1810 


Norf. Archseol. . 


vol. ix. 


Burnley, Lanes 


1562-1653 


Lane. P.R.S. . 


1899 


Burnsall, Yorks 


1559-1812 


W. J. Stavert . 


1893 


Burton Fleming, Yorks . 


1538-1812 


Yorks P.R.S. . 


1899 


Burton Kirk, Yorks 


1541-1711 


F. A. Collins, 2 vqls. . 


j 1887, 
| 1902 


Burton, Long, Dorset 


1580-1812 


C. H. Mayo 


1894 


Bury, Lanes .... 


1590-1646 


Lane. P.R.S. . 


1898 


Buxhall, Suffolk . 


1558-1699 


Hist, of Buxhall . 


1902 


Calverley, York 


1574-1720 


S. Margerison, 2 vols. 


( 1880, 
i 1887 


Cambridge, St. Michael . 


1538-1837 


Camb. Antiq. Soc. 








xxviii. 


1891 


Canon Frome, Hereford . 


1680-1812 


Par. Reg. Soc. . 


I 95 


Canterbury, St. Alphege. 
Cathedral . 


1558-1800 
1564-1873 


J. M. Cowper 
Harl. Reg. Soc. . 


1889 
i875 


St. Dunstan . 


1559-1800 


J. M. Cowper 


1887 


St. George . 


1538-1800 





1891 


St. Mary Magdalen 


1559-1800 


55 


1890 


St. Paul 


1562-1800 


) > * . 


1893 


St. Peter . 


1560-1808 


> 


1880 



18 



274 



PARISH REGISTERS 



Parish. 


Years 
Included. 


By whom Printed. 


Date of 
Issue. 


Carburton, Notts 


1528-1812 


G. W. Marshall . 


1888 


Carlton, Suffolk 


1538-1885 


F. A. Crisp 


1886 


Castle Church, Staffs 


1567-1812 


Staffs P. R.S. . 


1903 


Caundle, Bishop, Dorset 


1570-1814 


C. H. Mayo 


1895 


Chelmarsh, Salop . 
Chelsham, Surrey . 


1556-1812 
1669-1812 


Sal. P. R.S. 
Surrey P. R.S. . 


1903 
1907 


Cherry Burton, Yorks 


1561-1740 


Yorks P. R.S. . 


1903 


Chesham, Bucks 


1538-1636 


J. W. G. Pegge . 


1904 


Chester Cathedral . 


1687-1812 


Par. Reg. Soc. . 


1904 


Chillesford, Suffolk . 


1740-1776 


F. A. Crisp 


1886 


Chillingham, Northm. 


1696 


Robert Blair 




Chipping, Lane. 


1559-1694 


Lane. P. R.S. . 


1903 


Chipstead, Surrey . 
Chirbury, Salop 


1656-1812 
1629-1812 


Surrey P.R.S. . 
Sal. P.R.S. Heref. Dioc. 


1909 
1903 


Chislet, Kent . 


1538-1707 


Robt. Hovenden 


1887 


Claverley, Salop 


1568-1685 


Sal.P.R.S.Lichf.Dioc. 




Cleobury Mortimer, Salop 


1601-1812 


Sal. P.R.S. Hereford 








Dioc. 


1904 






f 


vols. ix. 


Clerkenwell, St. James, Midds. 


I55I-I754 


Harl. Reg. Soc. . 


and xx. 

1884, 






I 


1899 


Clive, Salop .... 


1671-1812 


Sal. P.R.S. Lichf. 








Dioc. 


1902 


Clunbury, Salop 


1574-1812 


Par. Reg. Soc. . 


1901 


Clyst, St. George, Devon 


1565-1812 





1899 


Cockenham, Lane. . 


1595-1657 


Lane. P.R.S. . 


1904 


Colchester, St. Leonard . 


1670 


F. A. Crisp 




Coleby, Line. .... 


1561-1812 


Par. Reg. Soc. . 


1903 


Colne, Lane. . 


1599-1653 


Lane. P.R.S. . 




Colton, Lane. .... 


1623-1812 


A. A. Williams . 


1891 


Columb St., Major, Cornw. 


1 539- J 78o 


A. J. Jewers 


1881 


Condover, Salop 


1570-1812 


Sal. P.R.S. Lichf. 








Dioc. 


1901 


Coniscliffe, Durham 


1590-1812 


Northm. & Dur. P. R.S. 


1908 


Coniston, Lane. 


1599-1700 


Lane. P.R.S. 


1907 


Conistone, Yorks . 


1567-1812 


W. J. Stavert . 


1894 


Conway, Carnarvon 


I54I-I793 


A. Hadley . 


1900 


Cressage, Salop 


1605-1812 


Par. Reg. Soc. . 


1900 


Cropthorne, Wore. . 


I557-I7I7 


F. A. Crisp 


1896 


Croston, Lane. 


1543-1685 


Lane. P.R.S. . 


1900 


Culpho, Suffolk 


1721-1886 


F. A. Crisp 


1886 


Cundall, Yorks 


1582-1780 


H. D. Eshelby . 


1898 


Dale Abbey, Derby 


1677-1731 


Derb. Arch. Journ. 


1900 


Dalston, Camb. 


1570-1812 


J. Wilson . 


1893 


Denham (nr. Bury), Suffolk . 


1539-1850 


S. H. A. Harvey 


1904 


Denton, Durham . 


1586-1662 


J. R. Walbran . 


1842 


Dewsbury, Yorks . 


1538-1653 


S. J. Chad wick . 


1898 


Didsbury, Lane. 


1561-1757 


Lane. P.R.S. . 


1900 


Dinsdale, Low Durham . 


1556-1812 


Soc. of Antiq. of Nevv- 








castle-upon-Tyne 


... 


Doddington, Line. . 


1562-1812 


Par. Reg. Soc. . 


1898 



APPENDIX IV 



275 



Parish. 


Years 
Included. 


By whom Printed. a e o 


Donington, Salop . 


1556-1812 


Sal. P.R.S. Lichf. Dioc. 1901 


Dunham, Notts 


1654-1812 


Thoroton Reg. Soc. 


Durham, St. Margaret . 


1558-1812 


Northm. & Dur. P.R.S. 1904 


St. Oswald 


I538-I75I 


A. W. Headlam . . 1891 


,, the Cathedral . 


1609-1896 


Harl. Reg. Soc. . . , 1897 


St. Mary. 


1568-1812 


Northm. & Dur. P.R.S. 1908 


Durnford, Wilts . 


1574-1650 


Sir T. Phillipps . . 1823 


Eastham, Cheshire . 


1598-1700 


F. Sanders . . .1891 


Ebch ester, Durham 


1689-1812 


| Northm. & Dur. P.R.S. 1900 


Ecclesfield, Yorks . 


1558-1621 


A. S. Gatty . . 1878 


Eccleston, Lane. 


1603-1694 


Lane. P.R.S. . . 1903 


Edburton, Sussex . 


1558-1673 


C. H. Wilkie . . 1884 


Edgton, Salop 


1722-1812 


Par. Reg. Soc. , . 1903 


Edlingham, Northm. 


1658-1812 


Northm. & Dur. P. R. S. 1 903 


Edstaston, Salop 


1712-1812 


Sal. P.R.S. . . 1908 


Edwinstow, Notts . 


1634-1758 


G. W. Marshall . . 1891 


Eglingham, Northm. 


1662-1812 


Northm. & Dur. P.R.S. 1899 


Elland, Yorks 


1559-1640 


J. W. Clay. . . 1897 


Ellough, Suffolk . . . 1540-1812 


F. A. Crisp . . 1886 


Elmham, North, Norfolk 


1536-1631 


A. G. Legge . . 1888 


Elmsted, Kent 


1552-1812 


C. H. Wilkie . . 1891 


Elsdon, Northumb. . . 1672-1812 


Soc. of Antiq. New- 




castle-on-Tyne . 1903 


Esh, Durham .... 1567-1812 


1896 


Exeter, the Cathedral . 


1594-1813 


Dev. & Corn. Rec. Soc. j J 9 5 ~ 


Farnham, Yorks 


1569-1812 


Par. Reg. Soc. . . 1905 


Felkirk 


1701-1812 


A. N. J. Royds . . 1904 


Fewston ,, 


1593-1812 


' T. Parkinson . . 1899 


Fillongley, Warw. . 


1538-1653 


1893 


Fitz, Salop .... 


1559-1812 


Sal. P.R.S. . . 1903 


Ford 


1589-1812 


. 1900 


Fownhope, Hereford 


1538-1673 


; F. A. Crisp . . 1899 


Frodesley, Salop 


1547-1812 


; Sal. P.R.S. . . 1903 


Frodsham, Cheshire 
Frostenden, Suffolk 


1558-1812 
I538-I79I 


Edmund Jermyn . . 1908 
F. A. Crisp . . 1887 


Fryston-Monk, Yorks 


1538-1678 


Par. Reg. Soc. . . 18^6 


Fyfield, Essex 


1538-1700 


F. A. Crisp . . 1896 


Gargrave, Yorks 


1558-1812 


Yorks P.R.S. . . 1907 


Garrigill, Cumb. 


1699-1730 


C. Caine . . . 1901 


Glasbury, Brecon . 


1660-1836 


Par. Reg. Soc. . . 1904 


Godalming, Surrey . 


1582-1688 


Surrey, P.R.S. . . 1905 


Greensted, Essex . 


1558-1812 


F. A. Crisp . . 1892 


Greet, Salop .... 


1728-1812 


Sal. P.R.S. . . ! 1905 


Grimsby, Great, Line. 


1538-1812 


G. S. Stephenson . 1889 


( Irimshill, Salop 


1592-1812 


Sal. P.R.S. . . 1902 


Grinton, Yorks 


1640-1807 


Yorks P.R.S. . . 1905 


Gulval, Cornwall . 


1598-1812 


G. B. Miller . .1893 



Habberley, Salop . 



1670-1822 Sal. P.R.S. 



1906 



276 



PARISH REGISTERS 



Parish. 


Years 
Included. 


By whom Printed. 


Date of 

Issue. 


Hackney, York 


1557-1783 


Yorks P. R.S. 


1906 


Hadham, Little, Herts . 


1559-1812 


W. Minet . 


1907 


Halifax, York 


1538-1641 


W. J. Walker . 


1883 


Hallam, West, Derby . 


1538-1691 


Derb. Arch. Soc. Journ. 


1887 


Halston, Salop 


1686-1812 


Sal. P.R.S. 


1899 


Hampden, Great, Bucks . 


1557-1812 


E. A. Ebblewhite 


1888 


Hampsthwaite, Yorks 


1603-1807 i Yorks P. R.S. . 


1902 


Hamstall-Ridware, Staffs 


1598-1812 Staffs 


1904 


Hanham Abbots, Glouc. 


1584-1681 Par. Reg. Soc. . 


1908 


Hanwood, Salop 


1559-1763 Sal. P.R.S. 


1900 


Harbledown, Kent . 


1557-1800 J. M. Cowper . 


1907 


Harewood, Hereford 


1671-1812 J. H. Parry 


1900 


Harley, Salop 


1598-1812 


Sal. P.R.S. 


1902 


Harrow, Middl. 


1558-1653 


W. O. Hewlett . 


1900 


Hartshead, Yorks . 


1612-1812 


York P.R.S. 


1903 


Haslemere, Surrey . 


1594-1812 


Par. Reg. Soc. . 


1906 


Haughton, Staffs 


1570-1812 


Staffs P.R.S: 


1902 


Haughton-le-Skerne, Durham . 


1569 


Robert Blair 




fiawkshead, Lane. . 


1568-1704 


H. S. Cowper . 


1890 


Hawnby, Yorks 


1653-1722 


E. E. Thoyts . 


1890 


Hawnes, Beds 


1596-1812 


W. Briggs . 


1891 


Hay don, Line. 


1559-1649 


Par. Reg. Soc. . 


1897 


Headon, Notts 


1566-1812 


> 


1902 


Hebburn, Northm. . 


1680-1812 


Northm. & Dur. P. R.S. 


1901 


Heswall, Cheshire . 


1559-1729 


T. H. Way 


i897 


Holbeach, Line. 


1606-1641 G. G. W. Macdonald . 


1892 


Holnest, Dorset 


1589-1812 C. H. Mayo 


1894 


Hopton Castle, Salop 


1538-1812 ! Par. Reg. Soc. . 


1901 


Horbling, Line 


1653-1837 H. Peet . 


1895 


Horbury, Yorks 


1598-1812 Yorks P. R.S. . 


1900 


Hordley, Salop 


1686-1812 Sal. P.R.S. 


1908 


Horncastle, Line. . 


1558-1850 J. C. Hudson . 


1900 


Horningsheath, Suffolk . 


1559-1639 S. H. A. Harvey 


1892 


Hovvden, Yorks 


1593-1702 


Yorks P.R.S. . 


1904-5 


Huggate ,, 


1539-1812 


Par. Reg. Soc. . 


1901 


Hughley, Salop 


1576-1812 


>> ) 


1901 


Ickworth, Suffolk . 


1566-1890 


S. H. A. Harvey 


1894 


Ingleby-Greenhow, Yorks 


1539-1800 


J. Howell . 


1889 


Ingram, Northm. . 


1682-1812 


Northm. & Dur. P. R.S. 


1903 


Ipswich, St. Nicholas 


I539-I7IO 


Par. Reg. Soc. . 


1897 


St. Peter . 


1662-1700 


F. A. Crisp 


1897 


Irby-upon-Humber, Line. 


1558-1785 


,, . 


1890 


Kegidog, Denbigh . 


1694-1749 





1890 


Kelsale, Suffolk . 


1538-1812 


) J 55 


1887 


Kempsford, Glouc. . 


1653-1700 


5> 


1887 


Kenley, Salop 


1682-1812 


Sal. P.R.S. 


1902' 


Kensington, Middl. 


1539-1673 


Harl. Reg. Soc. . 


1890 


Kingston, Kent 


1558-1837 


C. H. Wilkie . 


1893 


Kinnerley, Salop 


1667-1812 


Sal. P.R.S. 


1907 


Kippax, Yorks 


1539-1812 


Yorks P. R.S. . 


1901 


Kirkburton, Yorks . 


1541-1711 


F. A. Collins 


1887 



APPENDIX IV 



277 



Parish. 


Years 
Included. 


By whom Printed. 


Date of 

Issue. 


Kirk Ella, Yorks . 


1558-1841 


Par. Reg. Soc. . 


1897 


Kirklington ,, 


1568-1812 


YorksP.R.S. . 


1909 


Kirkoswald, Cumb. 


1577-1812 


Rev. Canon Thornleigh 


1901 


Knaresdale, Northm. 


1695 


Robert Blair 




Knightwick, Wore. . 


1538-1812 


J. B. Wilson 


1891 


Knoddishall, Suff. . 


1566-1705 


Arthur T. Winn . 


1907 


Lambourne, Essex . 


1582-1709 


F. A. Crisp 


1890 


Ledbury, Hereford . 
Ledsham, Yorks 


1556-1676 
1539, 1812 


Par. Reg. Soc. . 
York P.R.S. . . 


1899 
1906 


Lee, Kent .... 


1579-1784 


L. L. Duncan . 


1888 


Leebotwood, Salop 


1547-1812 


Sal. P.R.S. 


1905 


Leeds, St. Peter . 


1572-1722 


Thoresby Soc. . 


1889 


Leigh, Lane. .... 


1559-1624 


J. H. Hanning . 


1882 


Lesbury, Northm. . 


1689-1812 


Northm. &Dur. P.R.S. 


1908 


Letheringham, Suffolk . 


1588-1812 


P. C. Rushen . 


1901 


Lewisham, Kent 


r 558-i75o 


L. L. Duncan 


1891 


Leyland, Lane. 


1656-1710 


Manch. Rec. Soc. 


1890 


Liverpool, Lane. 


1660-1673 


Henry Peet 


1873 


Llandinabo, Heref. . 


1596-1812 


J. H. Parry 


1900 


Llansannan, Denbigh 


1666-1812 


R. Ellis . 


1900 


Llantrithyd, Glamorgan . 


1571-1810 


H. S. Hughes . 


1888 


London, All Hallows, London 








Wall . 


IS59-I675 


R. Hovenden . : 


1878 


,, St. Antholin 


1538-1734 


Harl. Reg. Soc. . 


1883 


St. Botolph, Bishops-^ 
gate . . ./ 


1558-1753 


A. W. C. Hallen 


J 1886, 
(1895 


,, Charter House Chapel 


1671-1839 


Harl. Reg. Soc. . 


1892 


,, Christ Church, New- 








gate Street 


1538-1754 


5> 


1895 


,, Christopher, St., Le 








Stocks . 


1538-1781 


E. Freshfield . 


1882 


,, Dionis,St.,Backchurch 


1538-1754 


Harl. Reg. Soc. . 


1886 


,, Edmund, St. . 


1670-1812 


W. Brigg . 


1892 


,, Helen, St., Bishops- 








gate 


i575- J 837 


Harl. Reg. Soc. . 


1904 


,, Olave, St., Hart St. . 


1563 


A. Povah's Annals of 








St. Olave 


1894 


,, Lincoln's Inn Chapel 


1695-1852 


Records of Line. Inn, 








vol. ii. . 


1896 


Martin, St., In-the- 








Fields . 


1550-1619 


Harl. Reg. Soc. . 


1899 


,, Martin, St., Outwich 


1670-1873 


>j 


1905 


,, Mary, St., Aldermary 


1558-1754 




1880 


,, Paul, St., Covent 








Garden . 


1653-1837 





1906-8 


Paul, St., Cathedral. 


1697-1896 


) i 


1899 


Peter, St., Cornhill . 


1538-1774 





I877-S 


,, Temple Church 


1628-1853 


Burial Register . 


1905 


Thomas, St., The 








Apostle . 


1538-1754 


Harl. Reg. Soc. . 


1881 


Vedast, St., Foster 








Lane 


1558-1837 


j> y> 


1902-5 



2-8 



PARISH REGISTERS 



Parish. 


Years 
Included. 


By whom Printed. 


Date of 

Issue. 


London, Westminster Abbey . 


1606-1875 


Harl. Reg. Soc. . 


i875 


Longdon-on-Tern, Salop . 


1692-1812 


Sal. P.R.S. 


1902 


Longnor ,, 


1586-1812 


ji > ) 


1905 


Lowestoft, Suffolk . 


1650-1750 


F. A. Crisp 


1901 


Luffenham, North, Rutland 


1572-1812 


Par. Reg. Soc. . 


1906 


Lydham, Salop 


1596-1812 


Sal. P.R.S. 


1903 


Lydlinch, Dorset . 


1559-1812 


Par. Reg. Soc. . 


1899 


Macclesfield, Cheshire 


1572-1812 


Mace. Par. Mag. 


1886 


Madron, Cornwall . 


1577-1726 


G. B. Millett . 


1877 


Manfield, Yorks . 


1594-1812 


W. J. Stavert 


1898 


Marlow, Great, Bucks 


1592-1611 


Bucks P.R.S. . 


1904 


Marsham, Norfolk . 


1538-1836 


A. T. Miehell . 


1889 


Marshfield, Glouc. . 


1558-1693 


F. A. Crisp 


1893 


Marske-by-the-Sea, Yorks 


1569-1812 


Yorks P.R.S. . 


1903 


Maxey, Northants . 


I538-I7I3 


W. D. Sweeting . 


1892 


Melverley, Salop 


1723-1812 


Par. Reg. Soc. . 


1899 


Merstham, Surrey . 


1538-1812 




1902 

" 


Methley, Yorks 


1560-1812 


Thoresby Soc. vol. xli. 


1903 


Middleton St. George, Durham 


1616-1812 


Northm.&Dur. P.R.S. 


1906 


Middleton, Lane. 


1594-1663 


Lane. P.R.S. . 


1902 


Middleton Scriven, Salop v 


1728-1812 


Sal. P.R.S. 


1906 


Milwich, Staffs. 


1573-17" 


Staffs P.R.S. 


1904 


Monk-Hopton, Salop 


1698-1812 


Sal. P.R.S. 


1903 


Montford, Salop 


1559-1812 


> j 


1906 


Morden, Surrey 


1634-1812 


Par. Reg. Soc. . 


1901 


More, Salop .... 


1569-1812 


Sal. P.R S. 


1900 


Moreton, Essex 


I55 8 -I759 


F. A. Crisp 


1890 


Moreton-Corbet, Salop . 


1580-1812 


Par. Reg. Soc. . 


1901 


Moreton-Say ,, 


1690-1812 


Sal. P.R.S. 


1907 


Moze, Essex .... 


1551-1678 


F. A. Crisp 


1899 


Munsley, Hereford . 


1662-1812 


Par. Reg. Soc. . 


1903 


Muston, Leic. 


1561-1730 


T. M. Blagg 


1908 


Neenton, Salop 


1538-1812 


Sal. P.R.S. 


1903 


Newchurch Kenyon, Leic. 


1599-1812 


Par. Reg. Soc. . 


1905 


Newenden, Kent 


1559-1812 


J> 5J * 


1897 


Norwich, St. George Tombland 


1538-1707 


G. B. Jay . 


1891 


,, St. Michael at Plea . 


1538-1695 


T. R. Tallack . 


1892 


Oldham, Lane. 


1558-1661 


Giles Shaw 


1889 


Ollerton, Notts 


1592-1812 


G. W. Marshall . 


1896 


Olney, Bucks .... 


1665-1812 


Bucks P.R.S. . 


1907- 


Ongar, Chipping, Essex . 


1558-1750 


F. A. Crisp 


1886 


Ormskirk, Lane. 


1557-1626 


Lane. P.R.S. 


1902 


Orpington, Kent 


1560-1754 


H. C. Kinley . 


1895 


Oswestry, Salop 


1558-1630 


Sal. P.R.S. 


1904- 


Otley, Yorks .... 


1562-1812 


Yorks P.R.S. . 


1908 


Padiham, Lane. 


1573-^50 


Lane. P.R.S. 


1903 


Pakenham, Suffolk . 


1564-1766 


F. A. Crisp 


1888 


Pakington, York 


I570-I73 1 


Yorks P.R.S. . 


1900 


Parkham, Devon 


1537-1812 


Dev. & Corn. Rec. Soc. 


1906 



APPENDIX IV 



279 



Parish. 


Years 
Included. 


By whom Printed. 


Date of 
Issue. 


Peak Forest, Derby 


1678-1812 


G. W. Marshall . 


1901 


Pencoyd, Hereford . 


1564-1812 


G. J. H. Parry . 


1900 


Pennington, Lane. . 


1612-1702 


Lane. P.R.S. 


1907 


Penrith, Cumb. 


1556-1601 


G. Watson . 


1893 


Perlethorpe, Notts . 


1528-1812 


G. W. Marshall . 


1887 


Peterston - super - Ely, Gla- 








morgan .... 


1749-1812 


A. F. C. C. Langley . 


1888 


Pickhill, Yorks 


1567-1812 


Yorks P.R.S. . 


1904 


Pitchford, Salop 


1558-1812 


Par. Reg. Soc. . 


1900 


Plympton, St. Mary, Devon . 


1603-1683 


Par. Mag. . 


1 89 1, etc. 


,, St. Maurice , , 


1616-1812 




i888,etc. 


Pontesbury, Salop . 


1538-1812 


Sal. P.R.S. 


1909 


Poulton-le-Fylde, Lane. . 


1591-1677 


Lane. P.R.S. 


1904 


Prestbury, Cheshire 


1560-1636 


Lane. & Chesh. Rec. 








Soc., vol. v. . 


1881 


Priors Dean, Hants 


1538-1812 


T. Hervey . 


1886 


Ratlinghope, Salop. 


1755-1812 


Sal. P.R.S. 


1909 


Rattlesden, Suffolk . 


1558-1758 


J. R. Olorenshaw 


1900 


Ravenstonedale, Westm. . 


1571-1812 


R. W. Metcalfe . 


1893-4 


Reading, St. Mary . 


1538-1812 


G. P. Crawford . 


1892 


Redruth, Cornwall . 


1560-1716 


F. C. Peter 


1894 


Richmond, Surrey . 


1583-1720 


Surrey P.R.S. . 


1905 


Rid ware, Pipe, Staffs 


1561-1812 


Staffs P.R.S 


1905 


Rilston, Yorks 


1559-1812 


C. H. Lowe 


1895-6 


Rocester, Staffs 


1566-1705 


Staffs P.R.S. 


1906 


Rochdale, Lane. 


1582-1641 


H. Fishwick 


1888-9 


Rochester, Cathedral 


1657-1837 


Tho. Shindler 


1892 


Roos, Yorks .... 


1571-1812 


R. B. Machell . 


1888 


Rothbury, Northm. 


1658-1812 


Par. Magazine 




Rotherham ,, 


1542-1812 


John Guest . 


1879 


Rothwell, Yorks 


i53 8 -i639 


Yorks P.R.S. . 


1906 


Ronington, Warw. . 


1612-1812 


Par. Reg. Soc. . 


1899 


Rushall, Norfolk , 


1686-1812 


Records of Rushall 


1892 


Rushbrook, Suffolk 


1567-1850 


S. H. A. Hervey 


1903 


Ryton, Durham 


1581-1812 


Northm. & Dur. P.R.S. 


1902 


Saddleworth, Yorks 


1613-1800 


J. Radcliffe 


1888-91 


Sanderstead, Surrey 


1564-1812 


Surrey P.R.S. . 


1908 


Sarnesfield, Hereford 


1660-1897 


Par. Reg. Soc. . 


1898 


Scorborough, Yorks 


1653-1800 


Yorks P.R.S. . 


1901 


Selattyn, Salop 


1557-1812 


Par. Reg. Soc. . 


1906 


Shackerstone, Leic. 


1558-1630 


Leic. Arch. Soc. Trans. 








vol. xv. . 




Sheinton, Salop 


1658-1812 


Sal. P.R.S. 


1902 


Shelton, Notts 


1595-1812 


T. M. Blagg 


1900 


Sheriff Hales, Salop 


1557-1812 


Sal. P.R.S. 


1908 


Shipton ,, 


1538-1812 


Par. Reg. Soc. . 


1899 


Shrawardine ,, 


1645-1812 


Shrops. Arch. Soc. 








vol. vii. . 


1895 


Sibdon Carwood, Salop . 


1583-1812 


Par. Reg. Soc. . 


1899 


Sidbury, Salop 


1560-1812 


Sal. P.R.S. 


1901 


Simonburn, Northm. 


1681 


Robert Blair 


... 



280 



PARISH REGISTERS 



Parish. 


Years 
Included. 


By whom Printed. 


Date of 
Issue. 


Siston, Glouc. 


1576-1641 


H. B. M'Call . 


1901 


Skipton, Yorks 


1592-1812 


W. J. Stavert . 


1894-6 


Smethcote, Salop . 


1609-1812 


Par. Reg. Soc. . 


1899 


Solihull, Warwick . 


1538-1688 




1904 


Somerby (Grantham), Line. 


1601-1713 


Leic. Arch. Soc. 


* -7 W T- 

vol. v. 


Southam, Warw. 


1539-1657 


History of Southam. . 


1894 


Staines, Middl. 


1644-1694 


F. A. Crisp 


1887 


Standon, Staffs 


1558-1812 


Staffs P. R.S. 


1902 


Stanton-Lacy, Salop 


1561-1812 


Sal. P. R.S. 


1904 


Stapleford-Tawney, Essex 


1558-1752 


F. A. Crisp 


1892 


Stapleton, Salop 


1546-1812 


Par. Reg. Soc. . 


1901 


Stewkley, Bucks 


1545-1643 


R. B. Dickson . 


1897 


Stifford, Essex 


1568-1783 


F. A. Crisp 


1885 


Stirchley, Salop 


1638-1812 


Sal. P. R.S. 


1904 


Stockport, Cheshire 


1584-1620 


E. W. Batheley . 


1889 


Stoke, Essex .... 


1563-1700 


E. P. Gibson 


1881 


Stoke Pogis, Bucks 


1563-1653 


Bucks P. R.S. . 


1908 


Stokeley, Yorks 


1571-1750 


YorksP.R.S. . 


1901 


Stourpaine, Dorset . 


1631-1799 


E. A. Fry . 


1900 


Stourton, Wilts 


1570-1800 


Harl. Reg. Soc. . 


vol. xii. 


Stow, West, Suffolk 


1558-1856 


S. H. A. Hervey 


1905 


Stratford, Fenny, Bucks . 


1730-1812 


Par. Reg. Soc. . 


1906 


Stratford-on-Avon, Warw. 


1558-1812 


>j 


1897-8 


Street, Som 


1559-1762 


A. J. Jewers 


1898 


Stretton, Wilts 


1608 


Sir T. Phillipps . 




Stubton, Line. 


1577-1628 


F. A. Crisp 


1883 


Sturminster Marshall, Dorset . 


1563-1812 


Edith Hobday . 


1901 


Swainswick, Som. . 


1557-1798 


Annals of Swainswick . 


1890 


Tannington, Suffolk 


I539-I7H 


F. A. Crisp 


1884 


Tarrant Hinton, Dorset . 


1545-1812 


Par. Reg. Soc. . 


1902 


Tasley, Salop .... 


1563-1812 


Sal. P.R.S. 


1901 


Tatenhill, Staffs 


1563-1812 


Staffs P.R.S. 


1905 


Tatsfield, Surrey . 


1690-1812 


Surrey P. R.S. . 


1906 


Terrington, Yorks . . . 


1599-1812 


YorksP.R.S. . 


1907 


Thanet, St. Laurence, Kent. . 


1560-1653 


C. H. Wilkie . 


1902 


Theydon Mount, Essex . 


1564-1815 


J. J. Howard 


1891 


Thorington, Suffolk 


1561-1881 


T. S. Hill . 


1884 


Thornbury, Glouc. . 


1538-1700 


Mrs. Baldwyn Childe . 


... 


Thornford, Dorset . 


1677-1812 


Dorset Records . 


1903 


Thornhill, York . 


1580-1812 


Yorks P.R.S 


1907 


Thornton, Bucks 


1562-1812 


Bucks P.R.S. . 


1902 


Tong, Salop .... 


1629-1812 


Sal. P.R.S. 


1903 


Topcliffe, Yorks . 


1654-1888 


W. Smith . 


1888 


Toppesfield, Essex . 


1559-1650 


H. B. Barnes . 


1905 


Trentham, Staffs 


1558-1812 


Staffs P.R.S. . 


1906 


Tynemouth, Northm. 


1607-1703 


R. H. Couchman 


1902 


Uffington, Salop 


1578-1812 


Sal. P.R.S. 


1901 


Ulgham, Northm. . 


1602 


Robert Blair 




Ulverstone, Lane. . 


1545-1812 


C. W. Bardsley . 


1886 


Upholland ,, 


1600-1735 


Lane. P.R.S. . 


1905 


Uppington, Salop . 


1650-1812 


Sal. P.R.S. 


1903 



APPENDIX IV 



281 



Parish. 


Years 
Included. 


By whom Printed. 


Date of 
Issue. 


Upton, Berks .... 


1588-1711 


Par. Reg. Soc. . 


1897 


,, Cheshire 


1600-1812 


5 ) 


1900 


Walesby, Notts 


1580-1797 





1898 


Waliasey, Cheshire . 


1574-1600 


Lane, and Ches. Hist. 








Soc. 


vol. xxxv. 


Walsall, Staffs 


1570-1649 


F. W. Willmore . 


1890 


Walton, Bucks 


1598-1812 


BucksP.R.S. . 


1902 


Walton-on-the-Hill, Lane. 


1586-1663 


Lane. P.R.S. . 


1900 


Wanborough, Wilts . 


1582-1653 


Sir Tho. Phillipps 




Wanborough, Surrey 
Wandsworth ,, 


1561-1786 
1603-1787 


Surrey P.R.S. . 
J. T. Squire 


\S& 


Warkworth, Northm. 


1677-1812 


Soc. of Antiq., New- 








castle 


1897 


Warlingham, Surrey 


1653-1812 


Surrey P.R.S. . 


1903-4 


Warsop, Notts 


1539-1812 


R. J. King . 


1884 


Warton, Lane. 


1568-1669 


Par. Mag. . 


1883, etc. 


Wath-on-Dearne, Yorks . 


1598-1779 


Yorks P.R.S. . 


1902 


Weald, South, Essex 


1539-1573 


R. Hovenden 


1889 


Weddington, Warw. 


1663-1812 


Par. Reg. Soc. . 


1904 


Wedmore, Som. 


1561-1860 


S. H. A. Hervey 


1888-90 


Welford, Berks 


1559-1812 


H. M. Batson . 


1892 


Wellington, Som. . 


1683, etc. 


Humphrey's Hist, of 


fi889- 






Wellington 


\i9o8 


Wellow, Notts 


1703-1812 


G. W. Marshall . 


1896 


Wem, Salop .... 


1583-1675 


Sal. P.R.S. 


1908 


Wenlock, Much, Salop . 


I539-I5 60 


C. Hartshorne . 


1861 


Westbury, Salop 


1637-1812 


Sal. P.R.S. 


1909 


Whaddon, Glouc. . 


1674-1711 


Glouc. iv. and v. 


vol. iv. 


Whalley, Lane. 


1538-1601 


Lane. P.R.S. . 


1900 


Whitburn, Durham . 


1579-1812 


Northm. &Dur. P.R.S. 


1904 


Whitkirk, Yorks . 


1603-1700 


Records of Whitkirk . 


1892 


Whittington, Lane. . 


1538-1764 


Lane. P.R.S. . . i 1899 


,, Salop. 


1591-1812 


Sal. P.R.S. . . 1909 


Whorlton, Durham . 


1626-1812 


Northm. & Dur. P.R.S. ! 1908 


Wigan, Lane. .... 


1580-1625 


Lane. P.R.S. . .1 1899 


Wigborough, Great, Essex 


1560-1812 


F. Stephenson . . 1905 


,, Little ,, 


1586-1812 


99 


99 


Wilton, Som 


1558-1837 


J. H. Spencer . 


1890 


Winchester Cathedral 


1599-1812 


Hants P.R.S. . 


I9O2 


Windlesham, Surrey 


1677-1783 


W.Glanville-Richards. 


1881 


Winstead, Yorks 


1578-1811 


Yorks P.R.S. . 


1900 


Withington, Salop . 


1591-1812 


Sal. P.R.S. 


1904 


Woldingham, Surrey 


1765-1812 


Surrey P.R.S. . . 1906 


Womeswold, Kent . . .\ 


1574-1812 


C. H. Wilkie . . 1898 


Woolstaston, Salop . 


1601-1712 


Sal. P.R.S. . . 1899 


Wootton-Leek, Warw. . 


1685-1742 


Sir T. Phillipps . . 


Wootton, North Dorset . 


1539-1786 


C. H. Mayo . . 1877 


Worcester, St. Alban's . 


1638-1812 


Par. Reg. Soc. . . 1896 


St. Helen 


1538-1812 


J. B. Wilson . . 1900 


,, St. Peter the Great . 


1580-1850 


S. H. A. Hervey . 1903 


Worksop, Notts 


1558-1771 


G. W. Marshall . . 1894 


Worthen, Salop 


1558-1812 


Sal. P.R.S. . . 1909 



282 



PARISH REGISTERS 



Parish. 


Years 
Included. 


By whom Printed. 


Date of 
Issue. 


Woughton-on-the-Green, Bucks 


1558-1718 


Bucks P.R.S. . | 


vols. v. 
and viii. 


Wrockwardine, Salop 


1591-1791 


Sal. P.R.S., 


vol. viii. 


Wroxall, Warw. . 


1586-1612 


Records of Wroxall 


1903 


York, the Minster . 


1634-1836 


York Arch. Soc. . 


vols. i., 




o^ ^o 




11. ,111., VI. 


,, St. Martin's, Coney St. . 


1557-1812 


Yorks P.R.S. . 


1909 


,, ,, Micklegate 


1539-1653 


E. Bulmer . 


1893 


,, S. Michael le Belfry . 


1565-1778 


Yorks P.R.S. . | 


1899, 

1901 


,, Holy Trinity, Micklegate 


1586-1653 


W. H. F. Bateman . 


1893 



INDEX 



Abingdon, St. Helen's, 236 

Abington, 45, 83 

Accidental deaths , 128-41 

Acrobats on steeples, 130 

Acton Trussell, 242 

Adel, 74 

Albrighton, 55, 104, 107, 108, 117, 

Aldenham, 61, 68, 91 

Alkmanton, 193 

Allendale, 136 

Almandbury, 206 

Alrewas, 183, 243 

Alstonfield, 105, 113, 126, 128, 

177, 206 
Ambleside, 13 
Anabaptists, 109-10, 255 
Andrewes, Bishop, 55 
Appleby, 168, 199 
Appleby St. Michael, 13 
Arley, 243 
Armada, the, 105-6 
Armitage, 243 
Ashborne, 91, 100-2 
Ashby St. Ledgers, 13 
Ashford, 243 
Ashingdon, 218 
Ash over, 123-4 
Ashperton, 239 
Askham, 41, 52, 213, 230 
Aston-by-Birmingham, 73, 100-3, 

1 86 

Aston, North, 220 
Atworth, 255 
Aveley, 218 

Bakewell, 121, 226, 231, 242 
Bamburgh, 70, 203 
Banns, 82-3 
Baptism, in basins, 42 

baseborn, 54, 72-5 

according to the Directory, 36-7, 

in the font, 42 

by midivives, 56-8 

name altered, 69-70 

registers of, 39, 58 

itnusual entries, 43-6 



178 



135, 



13, 



44 



Barnard Castle, 167 

Barnstaple, 40, 73, 205, 215 

Barrow, 132, 210 

Barton, Long, 177 

Barton Seagrave, 157, 202 

Barton-under-Needwood, 104 

Basingstoke, 71, 174, 177 

Baslow, 213 

Bastards, 72-5 

Baston, 243 

Beaconsfield, 246 

Beauchief Abbey, 158, 236 

Beckingham, 243 

Becley, 243 

Bedwall, 242 

Beeston, 18, 90, 101, 108, 129 

Bekesbourne, 84 

Belper, 161-2 

Benefit of Clergy, 227 

Berkswell, 243 

Bermondsey, 90 

Beverley, St. Mary, 80, 195 

Bidding Prayer, the, 34 

Bingley, 112 

Birchington, 50, 1 20 

Birth Registers, 36, 40-1, 254-5 

Bishop Middleham, 109, 115 

Bishop Wearmouth, 57 

Bishops' Transcripts, 6, 240-4 

Bishop's Wellington, 242 

Bitterley, 104 

Black Death, the, 158 

Blakesley, 129 

Blatherwick, 44 

Bleasby, 243 

Blidworth, 243 

Bloody Assize, the, 203-4 

Bobbin, 76 

Bobbingworth, 57, 83 

Bond's Fonts and Font Covers, 42 

Border -war/are, 186-7 

Bothal, 105, 116 

Boughton, 205 

Boughton-under-Blean, 224 

Bourton-on-the-Water, no 

Bow Brickhill, 245 



283 



284 



PARISH REGISTERS 



Bow Stones, Cheshire, 164 
Bowden family, 52 
Bozeat, 216 
Bradenham, West, 18 
Bradley tragedy, 175 
Brailsford, 192 
Bramfield, 72, 82 
Breadsall, 100, no 
Breaston, 242 
Brenchley, 13 
Brentford, 231 
Brewood, 90 
Brickhill, Little, 117 
Bridgwater, 181 
Bridlington Quay, 195 
Brignal, 214 
Brimington, 161 
Brington, 20-1 
Bromfield, 196, 224 
Broseley, 74 
Broughton, 246 
Broxley, 62 
Brundish, 41 
Bruton, 117, 194-5, 2 *5 
Buckley, Long, 21, 100 
Burbage, 255 

Burghley, Lord Treasurer, 5 
Burials, 96-127 

without coffins, I2O-I 

of criminals, 118-9 

of debtors, 126 

of excommunicate, 105-10 

by night, 107-18 

noteworthy, 98-103 

in orchards, 109-10 

offered for passing corpse, 127 

of recusants, 106-8 

of suicides, 114-6 

in woollen, 8, 121-4 
Burke, A. M., Key to Registers, 2.2.2, 257 
Burning of women, 118-9 
Burnley, 77, 135 
Burstall, 101 
Burton Fleming, 50, 195 
Burton Latimer, 13, 197 
Bury St. Edmunds, St. James's, 85 
Butler, Thomas, 25-6 
Buxton, 244 
Bywell St. Peter, 104 

Camberwell, 230 
Cambrian Journal, 25 
Candover, 101 
Cannock, 243 
Canterbury, Holy Cross, 248 

St. Mary Magdalene, 204, 211, 232 

St. Margaret, 84 

St. Peter's, 40, 46 



Capel, 244 

Carburton, 238, 254 

Carisbrooke, 198 

Carlisle, 168 

Carshalton,' 20 

Carsington, 140 

Cartmel, 117 

Caundle Bishop, 220 

Celebrations, number of, 225-6 

Centenarians, 103-5 

Chadshunt, 243 

Challoner's Missionary Priests, 1 86 

Chapel-en-le-Frith, 53, 90, 132, 139, 

194, 203, 211, 230, 244 
Chelmorton, 245 
Chelmsford, 23, 50, 133 
Cherry Burton, 200, 213, 218 
Chesham, 67-8, 73, 114-5, I2 9> ^35, 

246-7 
Chester, St. Bridget's, 90, 197 

Holy Trinity, 51, 130 
Chesterfield, 73, 105, 115, 160-1, 247 
Chetwode, 246 
Chipping, 65, 136, 140 
Chipping Ongar, 171 
Chislehurst, 82, 173 
Chislet, 50 

Chittome, All Saints, 86 
Chorlton, 244 
Chrisom children, 59-63 
Christchurch, 103 
Church Broughton, 45 
Chiirching, 71 

Civil War, the Great, 20, 189-98 
Clandestine marriages, 92-5 
Clatford, 238 
Cleobury Mortimer, 104 
Clovelly, 102 
Clunbury, 57, 227 
Clyst St. George, 13 
Colchester, 171 
Colly Weston, 191, 223 
Columbs Major, St., 62 
Colwich, 243 

Communicants, number of, 225-6 
Confirmation, 69-71 
Coniston, 249 
Corby, 45, 109 
Corpses arrested for debt. 126 
Cosin, Archdeacon, 80- 1 
Coton-in-the-Elms, 193 
Cottenham, 79 
Cotterstock, 191 
Courteenhall, 191 
Covenant, the, 198-200 
Cox and Harvey's Chiirch Furniture 

42 
Cox's Churches of Derbyshire, 158 



INDEX 



285 



Cranbrook, 172 
Creatura Christi, 
Crich, 159, 236 
Criminals, burial of , 118-9 
Cromwell, Elizabeth, 201 

Oliver, 201 

Thomas, 1-3, 12 
Cropredy Bridge, battle of, 189 
Croston, 197 
Crowhurst, 215 
Croxall, 63 
Croydon, 76, 86, 218 
Culverhall, 244 
Cul worth, 219 

Dale Abbey, 94, 158 

Darley Abbey, 158 

Darley Dale, 135, 143, 209 

Darlington, 1 66 

Darlton, 244 

Daventry, 191 

Deaf and dumb, marriage of, 84-5 

Deaths through cold and snow, 135 

through mining, I35~6 

through drowning, 136-7 

through plague, 14476 

through sweating sickness, 142-3 
Debtling, 76 

Defoe's Journal of a Citizen, 152 
Denham, 246 
Derby, 158-60, 209 

All Saints, 13, 185, 191-2 

St. Alkmund, 114-5, 22 4> 22 5 
Desborough, 136 
Dewsbury, 188 
Directory, the, 7, 36, 78 
Dissenters' 1 registers, 256-60 
Ditton, 245 

Doddington, Great, 200 
Donington, 210 

Dorking, 103, 118, 128, 140, 173 
Dronfield, 39, 162 
Dry pole, 43, 107, 115 
Duffield, 121, 136-7, 161-2 
Dukinfield Chapel, 259 
Dunham, 244 

Dunster, 79, 137, 168, 173, 186 
Dunwich, St. Peter's, 14 
Durham, St. Nicholas, 230, 232 

St. Oswald, 15, 55, 100-1, 129, 166- 
7, 185-6, 1 88, 211 

St. Mary, 119 

St. Giles, 168 
Durnford, 165 
Dutton, 62 
Dymchurch, 79 

Eakring, 163 



Earls Barton, 19 

Earthquakes, 212 

Earwaker's History of East Cheshire, 

164 

Easingwold, 12 1 
Eastbourne, 44 
Eaton, 41 

Eaton-under-Heywood, 126, 213 
Eccleston, 101 
Eclipses, 214 

Eddystone Lighthouse, 211 
Edenhall, 169 
Edgbaston, 244 
Edgcumbe, Sir Piers, 4 
Edingale, 244 
Edingsley, 244 
Edlingham, 104-5, 2 5S 
Eglingham, 256 
Eling, 240 

Elizabethan martyrs, 1 86 
Elland, 24, 115, 129-30 
Elmham, North, 56, 73, 108 
Elmley Lovett, 58 
Elsdon, 256 
Elsworth, 238 
Elton, 191 
Etton, 208 
Everton (Notts), 80 
Excommunication, 105-13 
Exeter, 212 
Eyam, 104, 133, 135, 162-4 

Fairfield, 243 

Fairstead, 240 

Farewell, 243 

Farnsfield, 245 

Fasting, 221-4 

Featherbed-driver, 249 

Finedon, 121 

Fire, Great, of London, 216 

Fitz, 36 

Fleet marriages, 93-4 

Fonts and Font Covers, 42 

Forcett, 74 

Formularies, changes in religious, 25- 

3 8 

Fotheringhay, 191 
Foundlings, 63-7 
Foxcote, 246 
Fradswell, 243 
Framlingham, 206 
Framlingham, Earl, 185 
Frampton, 171 
Frosts, 205-10 

Garlick Hythe, 239 
Gateshead, 167 
Gayton, 224 



286 



PARISH REGISTERS 



Cell, Sir John, 192, 194 

German names, 249-50 

Gipsies, 229-30 

Glinton, 196 

Godalming, 126, 174, 225 

Godparents, 47-56 

Goodnestone, 56 

Grantchester, 136 

Grasmere, 138 

Grendon, 156 

Gresley Priory, 158 

Grimaldi's Origines Genealogicce, 241 

Grinton, 45 

Hackness, 44, 91, 109, 131, 140, 201, 

208, 214 

Haddenham, 245 
Haddon, East, 200 
Halam, 245 

Hallam, West, 105, 115, 136 
Halloughton, 245 
Hambledon, 181 
Hampden, Great, 65, 176 
Hanwell, 57 
Harbledown, 252 
Harborne, 244 
Harleian Society, 258 
Harlington, 255 
Harrow, 74, 117 
Hartlepool, 105 
Harwich, 171 
Hatfield Broadoak, 85 
Hathersage, 107 
Haughton, 104, 230 
Hawkshead, 138, 168, 249 
Hawsted, 41 
Helmdon, 122, 191 
Hepworth, 145 
Herne, 57, 140 
Heston, 76 
Hexham, 91 
Heyford, 104 
Hillingdon, 42, 226, 140 
Hinckley, 61 
Hints, 244 
Holcot, 157 

Holgate, Archbishop, 34 
Holme, 245 
Holnest, 43 
Holt, 171 
Hope, 244 
Hopton Heath, 192 
Hornsey, 68 
H or sham, 4 
Horton, 80 
Houghton, Long, 138 
Howden, 121, 137, 169-70, 208. 
215 



Hoxton, 126 
Hughley, 40 
Huguenot Society, 258-9 
Hunstanton, 178-9 
Hunton, 213 

Inoculation, 49 

Influenza, 178 

Inoculation, 177 

Inquests in church porch, 115 

Ipswich, St. Nicholas, 101, 130, 171 

Johnson, Dr., 183 

Kedleston, 200 
Keigham, 18 
Kelsall, 139 
Kendal, 168-9 
Kensington, 101, 148, 153 
Kib worth, 196-7 
Kidderminster, 21, 58, 128, 251 
King's Bromley, 244 
Kin^s Evil, 179, 183 
Kingsbury, 239 
Kingsmead Priory, 158 
Kirk Oswald, 169 
Kirkburton, 34, 62, 71, 169 
Kirk by Lonsdale, 169 
Kirklington, 245 
Kirton, 171, 239 
Kniveton, 244 
Knodishall, 225 

Lamport, 79 

Lanchester, 230 

Laodicea, Council of, 78 

Leake, 171 

Ledbury, 50 

Lee (Kent), 65, 92 

Leeds, 106 

Leek, 87 

Leicester, St. Martin, 84 

St. Mary, 223 
Leigh, 245 
Lenthall family, 176 
Letheringham, 72, 82 
Lewisham, 68 
Licences for marriage, 83-4 
Lichfield, St. Mary, 58 
Linford, Great, 246 
Linton-in-Craven, 105 
Lion baiting, 232 
Litcham, 131 
Lithotomy, 178-9 
Littlebourne, 173 
London, All Hallows-in-the-Wall, 51, 
64, 114, 145 

All Hallows, Bread St., 145 



INDEX 



287 



London, St. Andrew, Holborn, 119, 

144 

St. Anne, Blackfriars, 114 
St. Antholin, 143, 145 
St. Benedict Fink, 131 
St. Botolph, Aldgate, 40, 84, 90 
St. Botolph, Bishopsgate, 61 
St. Christopher Stocks, 146 
St. Dionis, Backchurch, 63, 86, 143, 

158, 216, 251 

St. Dunstan West, 64, 148, 153 
St. Gregory-by-St. Paul's, 65 
St. Helen, Bishopsgate, 61 
St. James, Clerkenwell, 145 
St. Martin-in-the-Fields, 89, 144- 

5 
St. Mary, Aldermary, 145, 153, 

246 

St. Mary, Aldermanbury, 148 
St. Mary Woolnoth, 57, 65, 145, 

15, 2 45 
St. Michael, Cornhill, 121, 145, 

150 

St. Nicholas Aeon, 64, 145-53 
St. Olave, Hart St., 55, 153-4 
St. Pancras, 74 

St. Paul's, Covent Garden, 152 
St. Peter, Cornhill, 100, 145 
Trinity the Less, 184 

Long Eaton, 243 

Longdon, 243 

Longford, 107, 193 

Longstone, 244 

Loughborough, 128, 143, 230 

Louth, 121 

Lowick, 211 

Luccombe, 110-12 

Lydbury, North, 197 

Lyminge, 97, 131 

Lynn, 171 

Maids Moreton, 197 
Maidstone, 173 
Malpas, 170-1, 175 
Malverley, 93 
Mansfield, 51, 73, 232 
Mappleton, 132 
Marian martyrs, 185 
Marlborough, 181 
Marlow, Great, 103 
Marlow, Little, 165 
Marriages, 76-95 

canonical age, 77-8 

prohibited times and seasons, 78-83 

by banns, 82-3 

by licence, 83-4 

of deaf and dumb, 84-5 

of armless woman, 85 



Marriages, in smock, 856 

civil, 87-9 

noteworthy entries as to, 90-2 

clandestine, 92-5 

Hardwicke's Act (1774), 92 
Marshfield, 87, 130 
Marston, North, 246 
Martyrs, Elizabethan, 1 86 

Marian, 183 

Matley, Dorothy, tragedy of, 133-4 
Mavesyn Ridware, 244 
Mayfair Chapel, 92 
Measham, 183 
Melbourne, 120 
Mentmore, 232 
Merstham, 51, 83, 179-80 
Methley, 56, 108 

Middleton (Lancashire), 77, 132, 136 
Middleton Scriven, 133 
Midwives, baptism by, 56-8 
Milnethorpe, 39 

Minehead, 103, 137, 141, 173, 252 
Mitcham, 43, 57, 68, 72-3, 140, 247 
Mompesson, Rev. W., 162-3 
Monstrous births, 139-41 
Montagu, Lady Mary Wortley, 177 
Monyash, 135, 243 
Morden, 74 
Morley, 206, 214 
Morton, 244 
Moulton, 257 
Mowen family, 39-40 
Moze, 38, 44 
Muskham, North, 245 

South, 245 

Naseby, battle of, 190 
Nassington, 38, 108, 240 
Nativity casting, 4 1 
Neentone, 74 
Nether Compton, 19 
Newbottle, 14 

Newcastle-on-Tyne, 166-7, 214 
Newington, 223 
Newport (Salop), 215 
Newport Pagnell, 165 
Night burials, 107-18 
Norborough, 201 
Northampton, 155-6, 189-91, 245 

All Saints, 22-3, 104 

St. Peter's, 18, 61 

St. Sepulchre's, 61 
Northampton, Earl of, 192 
Norton, 105, 244 
Norwell, 245 
Norwich, 171 

St. George's Tombland, 34, 75 
Nunney, 43 



288 



PARISH REGISTERS 



Nurse children, 67-9 
Nursted, 13 

Occupations and trades, 245-9 

Offley, High, 243 

Olney, 245 

Orlingbury, 13 

Orpington, 68 

Oundle, 36 

Overstone, 116 

Oxford, St. Peter-in-the-East, 58, 128 

Oxton, 244 

Pakenham, 70 

Parham, 107 

Parish Register Society, 257 

Parkham, 239 

Peak Forest, 94-5 

Penance, 217-20 

Penkevil, 235 

Penrith, 168-9, 186-7, 227 

Pentrich, 200 

Perlethorpe, 237 

Peterborough, 19, 42, 103, 122, 157, 

185 

Petersham, 74, 157 
Phillimore's Ecclesiastical Law, 126 
Pickenham, South, 41 
Pilgrimage of Grace, 2 
Pipe Ridware, 244 
Plague, the, 144-76 
Pleasley, 114 
Plymouth, 172, 174 
Plympton, 19 
Pole, Cardinal, 4, 50 
Poyning, 120 
Frees, 213, 243 
Preston, 170 
Preston, Great, 112 
Protestation, the, 198-200 
Puritan names, 251-2 

Quakers, 109, 257 

Ragnall, 245 

Ramsden Bellhouse, 74 

Ramsey, 165 

Ravenstonedale, 167 

Reading, St. Mary, 114, 129, 131, 

2 55 

Recusants, 106-8, 188 
Redruth, 174 
Registers (Parochial], instituted in 

England by Cromwell, 1-4 
Acts of Parliament and Canons, 

l-ii 

collecting the tax on baptisms, etc., 
10 



Registers, Stamp Act, 1 1 
early, 13 
copied, 17-9 
preservation of, 1 6 
destroyed by Jire, 2$ 
Blue Book returns of 1833, 234-5 
prior to 1538, 233-40 
monastic, 236 
gross carelessness as to custody, 240- 

6 

numbers of extant ones, 240 
transcripts ordered, 6, 241-3 
trades and occupations entered, 

246-50 

German names, 250-1 
similar names in same family, 

253-4 

Puritan names, 252 

double Christian names, 252-3 

births, 36, 40-1, 255-6 

dissenting entries, 256-8 

printing of , 257-60 
Renfield, 132 
Retford, East, 166 
Riley Grave Stones, 164 
Risley, 244 
Rochdale, 73 
Rodmarton, 16 
Rothwell, 212 
Roxby, 219 
Rugeley, 243 
Rushbrooke, 131 
Ruyton, 23 
Rye House Plot, 203 

Saddleworth, 86 

St. Milburge, 26 

St. Minver, 15 

Salehurst, 104 

Sandbeach, 90 

Sandon, 177 

Sandwich, 139 

Sawley, 243 

Scarlet fever, 178 

Scotter, 113, 218 

Sedgemoor, 203 

Selattyn, 50, 105, 178, 190 

Sele, 245 

Serjeantson, Rev. R. M., 155 

Serpent, monstrous, 232 

Sheldon, 244 

Shenley, 245 

Shipton, 140, 197 

Shoreditch, 126 

Shrawley, 240 

Shrewsbury, 142 

St. Chad's, 119, 165 
Sinnington, 235 



INDEX 



289 



Sir, for "Sir Priest," 251 

Skeffington, 235 

Slaley, 46 

Smallpox, 176-7 

Smethwick, 243 

Soberton, 78 

Somersal Herbert, 239 

South Carlton, 3 

Southampton, 172, 210 

Southwell, 245 

Sparsholt, 126 

Spratton, no 

Stafford, 208, 244 

Staindrop, 196 

Staines, 88-9 

Stamford Baron, 135, 156 

Stamp Act of 1783, II, 21, 22, 40 

Stanford-in-the-Vale, 181 

Stanley, Rev. Thomas, 162 

Stanwell, 46 

Staplehurst, 13, 17, 58 

Startforth, 50 

Staughton, Great, 78 

Stepney, 152 

Stock, 43, 109, 244 

Stoke Newington, 103 

Stoke Pogis, 68, 165 

Stokesley, 52, 107, 113, 231 

Storms, 205-13 

Stranton, 104 

Strood, 173 

Suicides, 114-6 

Sunbury, 85 

Sutton Vallence, 219 

Swainswick, 103, 230 

Sweating sickness, 1 42-3 

Sydenham, 68 

Tachbrook, 243 
Taddington, 243 
Tamworth, 198, 254 
Tarporley, 108 
Tarrant Ilinton, 71 
Tasley, 209 
Taunton, 203-4 
Taxal, 164 

Temple, foundlings of, 66-7 
Thormanby, 13 
Thorney, West, 54, 235 
Thornton (Bucks), 109 
Thorpe Achurch, 116 
Tickenhall, 21 
Tideswell, 70, 243 
Tipton, 237, 243 
Tithing customs, 232-3 
Tiverton, 174 
Tollesbury, 220 
Totnes, 174 

19 



Trades and occupations, 245-9 
Trent, Council of, 79 
Twickenham, 155 
Twyford, 115 

Ubley, 209 
Uffcolme, 143 
Upton, 244 
Uxbridge, 220 

Wadhurst, 189, 214, 231 
Wakebridge family, 155, 236 
Wallingford, 137 
Walloon churches, 258-9 
Walsall, 136, 164 
Warkworth, 105, 138, 249 
Waterbeach, 109 
Wearmouth, Bishop, 16 
Wed more, 224 
Weedon-Beck, 106 
Welford, 243 
Wellingborough, 117 
Wellington, 21 
Wenlock, Monastery of, 25 
Wenlock, 49, 86, 103 
Westerham, 223 
Westminster Abbey, 61 

St. Margaret, 12, 145-50, 222-3, 
251 

St. Giles, 150 
Weston Favell, 19 
Whipping, 230-2 
Whitburn, 136-7 
Whittington, 43, 170, 243 
Whittlesey, St. Mary, 21-2 
Whitton, 233 
Whitworth, 36, 38 
Whixall, 244 
Whorlton, 196 
Wigston, Great, 76 
Willesley, 135 
Wilne, 243 
Wilton, 76 
Wimbish, 81 
Wing, 44, 109, 209 
Wingfield, North, 193-4, 22 6, 256 
Wintney Priory, 236 
Wisbeach, 170 
Witchcraft, 227-9 
Wold, 157 
Wolverton, 239 
Wood's History of Eyam, 162 
Woodborough, 245 
Woollen, burial in, 8, 121-4 
Wootton Courtney, 112 
Wormhill, 243 
Wynne, Sir Watkin W., 25 



290 



PARISH REGISTERS 



Wynnstay, 25 
Wyrardisbury, 245 

Yardley Hastings, 157 
Yarmouth, 166, 170 



York, 170 

St. Michael le Belfry, 54, 100, 
225-6 

St. Martin's, 51 
Youlgreave, 187, 206-8 



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ENGLISH MONASTIC LIFE 
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Third Edition. With 42 Illustrations, 5 Maps, and 3 Plans 

Preface List of Manuscripts and Printed Books The Monastic Life The 
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SHRINES OF BRITISH SAINTS 
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With 28 Plates and 50 Illustrations in the text 

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By ROBERT MUNRO, M.A., M.D., LLIX, F*R,S.E. t 

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With 1 8 Plates, a Plan, and 63 Illustrations in the text 

Preface Prolegomena Forged or False Antiquities in Various Parts of the 
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THE ROYAL FORESTS OF ENGLAND 
By J. CHARLES COX, LL.D., F.S.A. 

With 25 Plates and 23 Illustrations in the text 

Early Forests The Forest Courts The Forest Officers The Beasts of the 
Forest The Forest Agistments Hounds and Hunting The Trees of the Forest 
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By CANON J. J, RAVEN, DJX, KS.A*, of Emmanuel 
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Second Edition With 60 Illustrations 

Early History The British Period The Saxon Period The Norman 
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THE DOMESDAY INQUEST 

ByADOLPHUS BALLARD, B.A., LL.B,, Town Clerk of 

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With 27 Illustrations 

Introductory The Hide and the Teamland The Vill and the Manor The 
Hundred and the Shire Sake and Soke The Magnates The Humbler Folk 
The Appurtenances of the Manor The Church The Welshmen The 
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of Frontispiece Index. 

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PARISH LIFE IN MEDLEVAL ENGLAND 

By ABBOT GASQUET, CXS*B., DJX, PH.D., D.LITT. 

Second Edition With 39 Illustrations 

List of Manuscript and Printed Authorities The Parish The Parish Church 
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*' A captivating subject very ably handled." Illustrated London Ncivs. 

" A worthy sequel to the Abbot's scholarly work on monastic life." Liverpool Post. 

" Essentially scholarly in spirit and treatment." Tribune. 



THE BRASSES OF ENGLAND 

By HERBERT W* MACKLIN, M,A*, St. John's College, 
Cambridge* President of the Monumental Brass Society 

Second Edition With 85 Illustrations 

Introductory Brasses in the Reigns of the Two First Edwards, 1272-1327 
The Golden Age of Plantagenet Rule, 1327-1399 Architectural Ornament 
Foreign Workmanship The Mediaeval Clergy of England The Lancastrian 
Period, 1400-1453 The Wars of the Roses, 1453-1485 Brasses in the Tudor 
Period, 1485-1547 Spoliation of the Monasteries The Elizabethan Revival, 
1558-1625 Brasses and Despoiled Slabs Index of Places General Index. 

"There is no volume which covers the ground so fully as this study." Birmingham 
Post. 

" Mr. Macklin writes with enviable lucidity." Standard. 

"Reveals the value of English brasses as historical documents." Westminster Gazette. 

" The illustrations are plentiful and excellent." Spectator. 



ENGLISH CHURCH FURNITURE 

By J. CHARLES COX, LL.D., RS.A., and A* HARVEY, 

M,B. 

Second Edition With 121 Illustrations 

Altars, Altar Slabs, Altar Rails, Altar Screens or Reredoses Church Plate, 
Chalice and Paten, Pyx, Cruets and Flagons, Spoons, Pax, Censers, Chrismatories, 
Altar and Processional Crosses, Croziers and Mitres, Alms Dishes, Heraldic 
Church Plate, Cuirbouilli Cases, Pewter Piscina, Sedilia, Easter Sepulchre, 
Lectern Screens and Rood-lofts Pulpits and Hour Glasses Fonts, Font 
Covers, Holy-water Stoups Alms Boxes, Offertory Boxes, and Collecting Boxes 
Thrones and Chairs, Stalls and Misericords, Seats and Benches, Pews, Galleries, 
Church Chests Almeries or Cupboards, Cope Chests, Banner-stave Lockers- 
The Lights of a Church Church Libraries and Chained Books Church 
Embroidery Royal Arms Ten Commandments General Index. 

"A mine of carefully ordered information, for the accuracy of which Dr. Cox's name 
on the title-page is a sufficient guarantee." Athenaeum. 



"This new volume fully maintains the high repute of its predecessors. Dr. Cox is 
one of our ablest ecclesiologists, and he and Mr. Harvey have collected a mass of valuable 
information of the greatest importance to antiquaries and architects. . . . There is a fine 
index of seventy-five columns, truly a pious work." The Architectural Review. 

" This volume is one of the ' Antiquary's Books ' series, and is more than worthy 
of its distinguished association. There has been an unsparing expenditure of time and 
labour upon it." Spectator. 

FOLK-LORE AS AN HISTORICAL SCIENCE 

By GEORGE LAURENCE GOMME. Clerk to the London 

County Council 

With 28 Illustrations 

History and Folklore Materials and Methods Psychological Conditions 
Anthropological Conditions Sociological Conditions European Conditions 
Ethnological Conditions Index. 

" No one will read Mr. Gomme's thoughtful treatise without being the better able 
to understand the significance of popular tales and customs." Scotsman. 

" A learned and most interesting volume. We can imagine no more fascinating subject 
for study." Daily Mail. 

" An excellent piece of work." Dundee Advertiser. 

"All will find much that stimulates thought and adds to the inherent attractiveness of 
trad ition." Athenaeum. 

ENGLISH COSTUME 
By GEORGE CLINCH, F.G.S. 

With 131 Illustrations 

Preface Introduction Prehistoric Costume Romano-British and Anglo- 
Saxon Costume Norman Costume Thirteenth Century Fourteenth Century 
Fifteenth Century Sixteenth Century Seventeenth Century Eighteenth 
Century Mediaeval and Later Garments Military Costume Ecclesiastical 
Costume Monastic, Academic, and Legal Costume Coronation and Parlia- 
mentary Robes Robes of the Orders of Chivalry, etc. Index. 

" With the assistance of admirable illustrations, Mr. Clinch has here presented a 
veritable library pageant of the dress of English men and women from the earliest age." 
World. 

"A book of uncommon excellence and absorbing interest ... a deep and safe well 
of illustration and erudition." Globe. 

" Mr. Clinch has brought together a vast amount of information, presenting it in a clear 
and interesting manner, and supplementing it with a large number of capital illustrations." 
Daily Telegraph. 

THE GILDS AND COMPANIES OF LONDON 
By GEORGE UNWIN 

With 37 Illustrations 

The Place of the Gild in the History of Western EuropeThe Frith Gild 
and the Cnihten Gild The Courts of the Bakers, Fishmongers, and Weavers 
The Adulterine Gilds The Crafts and the Constitution The Greater Misteries 
The Lesser Misteries The Fraternities of Crafts The Parish Fraternities 
The Rule of the Misteries, 1376-1384 The Incorporated Livery Company 
Halls, Liveries and Feasts Religious Observances and the Reformation Govern- 
ment of the Companies Industrial Expansion under the Tudors The Lord 



Mayor's Show Monopolies From Gild to Trade Union Survivals : Gilds of 
Transport List of Parish Gilds Transcript and Translation of the Entry in 
the Brewers' Records List of Companies keeping the Watch, 1518 List of 
Sources for the History of the Existing London Companies Index. 

"A work of well-digested and lucidly expounded learning." Scotsman. 

"We have no hesitation in saying that he has produced the best book of its kind that 
we have seen, and we heartily commend it to every student of municipal as well as Gild 
history." Athenaeum. 

" This wide subject has never previously been treated by the light of so much original 
research and so thorough a grasp of all the issues involved. It is difficult to exaggerate 
the amount and diversity of entertaining knowledge which comes to light in the story here 
unfolded." Guardian. 

THE MEDIEVAL HOSPITALS OF ENGLAND 
By MISS ROTHA M. CLAY 

With 78 Illustrations 

Preface by the Lord Bishop of Bristol Introduction Hospitals for Wayfarers 
and the Sick Homes for the Feeble and Destitute Homes for the Insane The 
Lazar-house The Leper in England Founders and Benefactors Hospital 
Inmates Hospital Dwellings The Constitution The Household and its 
Members Care of the Soul Care of the Body Hospital Funds Relations 
with Church and State Decline of the Hospitals The Dissolution of Religious 
Houses and its Effect upon Hospitals Hospital Patron Saints Office at the 
Seclusion of a Leper Tabulated List of Foundations Bibliography General 
Index. 

"The author has been over ground that has been very little studied, and she has pro- 
duced a work that is of much interest and value." Daily Mail. 

"The authoress has chosen a fresh and fascinating subject, and has been able both 
to treat it exhaustively and to make it interesting." Morning Post. 

"Miss Clay has done her work so well as to ensure that the book will become a 
standard work of reference on this most interesting subject." Bristol Times. 

These Volumes will follow 

THE PARISH REGISTERS OF ENGLAND 
By J. CHARLES COX, LL.D., F.S.A. 

HERALDRY 
By THOMAS SHEPARD 

ROMAN BRITAIN 

By JOHN WARD, F.S.A. 

CASTLES AND WALLED TOWNS OF 

ENGLAND 

By ALFRED HARVEY, M.B. 
SCHOOLS IN MEDIAEVAL ENGLAND 

By A. F. LEACH 

OLD ENGLISH INSTRUMENTS OF MUSIC 
By F. W. GALPIN, M.A., F.L.S. 

METHUEN & CO., 36 ESSEX STREET, LONDON, W.C. 



A CATALOGUE OF BOOKS 

PUBLISHED BY METHUEN 

AND COMPANY: LONDON 

36 ESSEX STREET 

W.C. 

CONTENTS 



PAGE 

General Literature, . . . 2-24 

Ancient Cities, ... 24 

Antiquary's Books, . . 25 

Arden Shakespeare, . . 25 

Beginner's Books, ... 26 

Business Books, ... 26 

Byzantine Texts, ... 26 

Churchman's Bible, . . 26 

Churchman's Library, . . 27 

Classical Translations, . 27 

Classics of Art, ... 27 

Commercial Series, . . 27 

Connoisseur's Library, . 28 
Handbooks of English Church 

History, .... 28 
Illustrated Pocket Library of 

Plain and Coloured Books, 28 

Junior Examination Series, 29 

Junior School-Books, . . 29 

Leaders of Religion, . . 30 

Library of Devotion, . . 30 

Little Books on Art, . . 31 

Little Galleries, ... 31 

Little Guides, .... 32 



PACK 

Little Library, ... 32 

Little Quarto Shakespeare, 33 

Miniature Library, . . 33 

New Historical Series, . 34 

New Library of Medicine, . 34 

New Library of Music, . . 34 

Oxford Biographies, . . 34 

Romantic History, . . 34 

School Examination Series, 35 

School Histories, ... 35 

Simplified French Texts, . 35 

Simplified German Texts, . 35 

Six Ages of European History, 36 

Standard Library, ... 36 

Textbooks of Science, . . 36 

Textbooks of Technology, . 37 

Handbooks of Theology, . 37 

Westminster Commentaries, 37 



Fiction, 37-45 

Books for Boys and Girls, 45 

Novelsof Alexandre Dumas, 46 

Methuen's Sixpenny Books, 46 



OCTOBER 1909 



A CATALOGUE OF 

MESSRS. METHUEN'S 



PUB LIC ATIONS 



In this Catalogue the order is according to authors. An asterisk denotes 
that the book is in the press. 

Colonial Editions are published of all Messrs. METIIUEN'S Novels issued 
at a price above zs. 6d., and_ similar editions are published of some works of 
General Literature. Colonial editions are only for circulation in the British 
Colonies and India. 

All books marked net are not subject to discount, and cannot be bought 
at less than the published price. Books not marked net are subject to the 
discount which the bookseller allows. 

Messrs. METHUEN'S books are kept in stock by all good booksellers. If 
there is any difficulty in seeing copies, Messrs. Methuen will be very glad to 
have early information, and specimen copies of any books will be sent on 
receipt of the published price plus postage for net books, and of the published 
price for ordinary books. 

I.P.L. represents Illustrated Pocket Library. 

PART I. GENERAL LITERATURE 



Abraham (George D.) THE COMPLETE 
MOUNTAINEER. With 75 Illustrations. 
Second Edition. DemyZvo. 155. net. 

Acatos (M. J.). See Junior School Books. 

Addleshaw (Percy). SIR PHILIP 
SIDNEY. With 12 Illustrations. Demy 
8vo. IO.T. 6d. net. 

Adenev (W. P.), M.A. See Bennett (W. H.) 

Ady (Cecilia M.). A HISTORY OF 
MILAN UNDER THE SFORZA. With 
20 Illustrations and a Map. Demy %vo. 
loj. 6d. net. 

Aeschylus. See Classical Translations. 

Ainsworth (W. Harrison). See I.P.L. 

Aldis (Janet). THE QUEEN OF 
LETTER WRITERS, MARQUISE DE 
SEVIGNE, DAME DE BOURBILLY, 1626-96. 
With 18 Illustrations. Second Edition. 
Demy 8vo. i?s. 6d. net. 

Alexander (William), D.D., Archbishop 
of Armagh. THOUGHTS AND 
COUNSELS OF MANY YEARS. 
Demy i6mo. zs. 6d. 

Alken (Henry). See I.P.L. 

Allen (Charles C.). See Textbooks of 
Technology. 

Allen (L. Jessie). See Little Books on Art. 

Allen (J. Romilly), F.S.A. See Antiquary's 
Books. 

Almack (E.) f F.S.A. See Little Books on 
Art. 

Amherst (Lady). A SKETCH OF 
EGYPTIAN HISTORY FROM THE 
EARLIEST TIMES TO THE PRE- 
SENT DAY. With many Illustrations 
and Maps. A New and Cheaper Issue 
Demy 8vo. *js. 6d. net. 

Anderson (F. M.). THE STORY OF THE 
BRITISH EMPIRE FOR CHILDREN. 
With 42 Illustrations. Cr. 8vo. zs. 



Anderson (J. O.), B.A., NOUVELLE 
GRAMMAIRE FRANCAISE, A L'USAGE 

DBS EAGLES ANGLAISES. Crown %vo. zs. 
EXERCICES DE GRAMMAIRE FRAN- 

CAISE. Cr. 8v<r. is. 6d. 
Andrewes (Bishop). PRECES PRI- 
VATAE. Translated and edited, with 
Notes, by F. E. BRIGHTMAN. M.A., of 
Pusey House, Oxford. Cr. 8z'0. 6s. 

See also Library of Devotion. 
'Anglo-Australian.' AFTER-GLOW ME- 

MORIES. Cr. %vo. 6.7. 
Anon. THE BUDGET, THE LAND 

AND THE PEOPLE. Second Edition. 

Crown 8vo. (>d. net. 
HEALTH, WEALTH, AND WISDOM. 

Crown &vff. ij. net. 
THE WESTMINSTER PROBLEMS 

BOOK. Prose and Verse. Compiled from 

The Saturday Westminster Gazette Com- 

petitions, 1904-1907. Cr. 8v0. 3.1. 6d. net. 
VENICE AND HER TREASURES. With 

many Illustrations. Round corners. Fcap. 

8v0. $j. net. 
Aristotle. THE ETHICS OF. Edited, 

with an Introduction and Notes by JOHN 

BURNET, M.A., Cheaperissue. DemySvo. 

tos. 6d. net. 
Asman (H. N.), M.A., B.D. AN INTRO- 

DUCTION TO THE HISTORY OF 

ROME. With Maps and Illustrations. 

Cr. 8v0. zs.6d. Seealso Junior School Books. 
Atkins (H. G.). See Oxford Biographies. 
Atkinson (C. M.). JEREMY BENTHAM. 

Demy 8vo. 55. net. 



sometime Demy of Mag- 



Atkinson (C. T.), M.A., Fellow of Exeter 

d, 

ge. A HISTORY OF GER- 
MANY, from 1713 to 1815. With 35 Maps 
and Plans Demy 8vo. 155. net. 



. . 

College, Oxfor 
dalen College. 



GENERAL LITERATURE 



Atkinson (T. D.). ENGLISH ARCHI- 
TECTURE. With 196 Illustrations. 
Fcap. 8v0. y. 6d. net. 

A GLOSSARY OF TERMS USED IN 
ENGLISH ARCHITECTURE. With 
265 Illustrations. Second Edition. Fcap. 
8v0. 3$. 6d. net. 

Atteridge (A. H.). NAPOLEON'S 
BROTHERS. With 24 Illustrations. 
Demy Zvo. i8s. net. 

Auden (T.), M. A. , F.S.A. See Ancient Cities. 

Aurellus (Marcus). WORDS OF THE 
ANCIENT WISE. Thoughts from Epic- 
tetus and Marcus Aurelius. Edited by 
W. H. D. ROUSE, M.A., Litt. D. Fcap. 
Zv0. 3-r. 6d. net. 

See also Standard Library. 

Austen (Jane). See Standard Library, 
Little Library and Mitton (G. E.). 

Aves (Ernest). CO-OPERATIVE IN- 
DUSTRY. Crown 8v0. 5*. net. 

Bacon (Francis). See Standard Library 
and Little Library. 

Bagot (Richard). THE LAKES OF 
NORTHERN ITALY. With 37 Illustra- 
tions and a Map. Fcap. 8v0. 55. net. 

Bailey (J. C.), M. A. See Cowper (W.). 

Be'" (R. Nisbet). THE LAST KING OF 
POLAND AND HIS CONTEMPORA- 
RIES. With 16 Illustrations. Demy 8vo. 
los. 6d. net. 

Baker (W. G.), M.A. See Junior Examina- 
tion Series. 

Baker (Julian L.), F.I.C., F.C.S. See 
Books on Business. 

Balfour (Graham). THE LIFE OF 
ROBERT LOUIS STEVENSON. With 
a Portrait. Fourth. Edition in one Volume. 
Cr. 8v0. Buckram, 6s. 

Ballard (A.), B.A., LL.D. See Antiquary's 
Books. 

Bally (S. E.). See Commercial Series. 

Barham (R. H.). See Little Library. 

Baring (The Hon. Maurice). WITH 
THE RUSSIANS IN MANCHURIA. 
Third Edition. Demy 8v0. js. 6d. net. 

A YEAR IN RUSSIA. Second Edition. 
Demy 8v0. IDS. 6d. net. 

RUSSIAN ESSAYS AND STORIES. 
Second Edition. Cr. 8v0. $s. net. 
Also published in a Colonial Edition. 

Baring-Gould (S.). THE LIFE OF 
NAPOLEON BONAPARTE. Withnearly 
200 Illustrations, including a Photogravure 
Frontispiece. Second Edition. Wide 
Royal^vo. IDS. 6d. net, 

THE TRAGEDY OF THE CAESARS: 
A STUDY OF THE CHARACTERS OF THE 

CAESARS OF THE JULIAN AND CLAUDIAN 

HOUSES. With numerous Illustrations from 
Busts, Gems, Cameos, etc. Sixth Edition. 
Royal 8vo. 10*. 6d. net. 
A BOOK OF FAIRY TALES. With 
numerous Illustrations by A. J. GASKIN. 



Second Edition. Cr. %>vo. Buckram. 6s., 
also Medium 8v0. 6d. 

OLD ENGLISH FAIRY TALES. With 
numerous Illustrations by F. D. BEDFORD. 
Third Edition. Cr. 8z>0. Buckram. 6s. 

THE VICAR OF MORWENSTOW. Re- 
vised Edition. With a Portrait. Third 
Edition. Cr. 8v0. 35-. 6d. 

OLD COUNTRY LIFE. With 69 Illustra- 
tions. Fifth Edition. Large CrownZvo. 6s. 

A GARLAND OF CpUNTRY SONG: 
English Folk Songs with their Traditional 
Melodies. Collected and arranged by S. 
BARING-GOULD and H. F. SHEPPARD. 
Demy ^io. 6s. 

SONGS OF THE WEST: Folk Songs of 
Devon and Cornwall. Collected from the 
Mouths of the People. By S. BARING-GOULD, 
M.A.,and H. FLEETWOOD SHEPPARD, M.A. 
New and Revised Edition, under the musical 
editorship of CECIL J. SHARP. Large Im- 
perial 8z'0. 5-y. net. 

A BOOK OF NURSERY SONGS AND 
RHYMES. Edited by S. BARING-GOULD. 
Illustrated. Second and Cheaper Edition. 
Large Cr. 8v0. zs. 6d. net. 

STRANGE SURVIVALS : SOME CHAPTERS 
IN THE HISTORY OF MAN. Illustrated. 
Third Edition. Cr. %vo. vs. 6d. net. 
\ YORKSHIRE ODDITIES : INCIDENTS 
AND STRANGE EVENTS. Fifth Edition. 
Cr. Svo. 2s. 6d. net. 

THE BARING-GOULD SELECTION 
READER. Arranged by G. H. ROSE. 
Illustrated. Crown 8v0. is. 6d. 

THE BARING-GOULD CONTINUOUS 
READER. Arranged by G. H. ROSE. 
Illustrated. Crown 8vo. is. 6d. 

A BOOK OF CORNWALL. With 33 
Illustrations. Second Edition. Cr. 8vo. 6s. 

A BOOK OF DARTMOOR. With 60 
Illustrations. Second Edition. Cr. 8z>0. 
6s. 

A BOOK OF DEVON. With 35 Illus- 
trations. Third Edition. Cr. 8v0. 6s. 

A BOOK OF NORTH WALES. With 49 
Illustrations. Cr. 8vo. 6s. 

A BOOK OF SOUTH WALES. With 57 
Illustrations. Cr. 8?'0. 6s. 

A BOOK OF BRITTANY. With 69 Illus- 
trations. Second Edition Cr. 8va. 6s. 

A BOOK OF THE RHINE: From Cleve 
to Mainz. With 8 Illustrations in Colour 
by TREVOR HADUEN, and 48 other Illus- 
trations. Second Edition. Cr. %vo. 6s. 

A BOOK OF THE RIVIERA. With 4 o 
Illustrations. Cr. 8vo. 6s. 

A BOOK OF THE PYRENEES. With 
25 Illustrations. Cr. 8v0. 6s. 
See also Little Guides. 

Barker (Aldred P.). See Textbooks of 
Technology. 

Barker (E.), M.A. (Late) Fellow of Mertcn 
College, Oxford. THE POLITICAL 
THOUGHT OF PLATO AND ARIS- 
TOTLE. Demy 8v0. los. 6d. net. 

Barnes (W. E.), D.D. See Churchman's 
Bible. 



MESSRS. METHUEN'S CATALOGUE 



Barnett (Mrs. P. A.). See Little Library. 

Baron (R. R. N.), M.A. FRENCH PROSE 
COMPOSITION. Fourth Edition. Cr. 
8vo. zs. 6d. Key, 3*. net. 
See also Junior School Books. 

Barron (H. M.), M.A., Wadham College, 
Oxford. TEXTS FOR SERMONS. With 
a Preface by Canon SCOTT HOLLAND. 
Cr. 8v0. 3*. 6d. 

Bartholomew (J. O.), F.R.S.E See 
Robertson (C. G.). 

Bastable (C. F.), LL.D. THE COM- 
MERCE OF NATIONS, fourth Ed. 
Cr. 8v0. zs. 6d. 

Bastian (H. Cbarlton), M.A.,M.D., F.R.S. 
THE EVOLUTION OF LIFE. With 
Diagrams and many Photomicrographs. 
Demy 8v0. -js. 6d. net. 

Batson (Mrs. Stephen). A CONCISE 
HANDBOOK OF GARDEN FLOWERS. 
Fcap. 8v0. 3*. 6d. 

THESUMMER GARDEN OF 
PLEASURE. With 36 Illustrations in 
Colour by OSMUND PITTMAN. Wide Demy 
8vo. 15$. net. 

Bayley (R. Child). THE COMPLETE 
PHOTOGRAPHER. With over 100 
Illustrations. With Note on Direct Colour 
Process. Third Edition. Demy 8vo. 
ios. 6d. net. 

Beard (W. S.). EASY EXERCISES IN 
ALGEBRA FOR BEGINNERS. Cr. 8vo. 
is. 6d. With Answers, is. gd. 

See also Junior Examination Series and 
Beginner's Books. 

Beckett (Arthur). THE SPIRIT OF THE 
DOWNS : Impressions and Reminiscences 
of the Sussex Downs, and Downland People 
and Places. With 20 Illustrations in Colour 
by STANLEY INCHBOLD. Second Edition. 
Demy 8v0. IQS. 6d. net. 

Beckford (Peter). THOUGHTS ON 
HUNTING. Edited by J. OTHO PAGET, 
and Illustrated by G. H. JALLAND. Second 
Edition. Demy 8v0. 6s. 

Beckford (William). See Little Library. 

Beeching (H. C.), M.A., Canon of West- 
minster. See Library of Devotion. 

Beerbohm (Max). A BOOK OF CARI- 
CATURES. Imperial tfo. zis.net. 

Begbie (Harold). MASTER WORKERS. 
Illustrated. Demy 8vo. "js. 6d. net. 

Behmen (Jacob). DIALOGUES ON THE 
SUPERSENSUAL LIFE. Edited by 
BERNARD HOLLAND. Fcap. 8vo. ?s. 6d. 

Bell (Mrs. Arthur G.). THE SKIRTS 
OF THE GREAT CITY. With 16 Illus- 
trations in Colour by ARTHUR G. BELL, 
17 other Illustrations, and a Map. Second 
Edition. Cr. 8vo. 6s. 

Belloc (H.) PARIS. With 7 Maps and a 
Frontispiece in Photogravure. Second Edi- 
tion , Revised. Cr. 8ve. 6s. 

HILLS AND THE SEA. Second Edition. 
Crown 8vo. 6s. 

ON NOTHING AND KINDRED SUB- 
JECTS. Second Edition. Fcap. 8vo. $s. 



ON EVERYTHING. Fcap. 8vt. 5 s. 
MARIE ANTOINETTE. With 35 Portraits 

and Illustrations. Dcmy^vo. its. net. 
THE PYRENEES. With 46 Sketches by 

the Author, and 22 Maps. Second Edition. 

Demy 8vo. ~js. 6d. net. 
Bellot(H.H.L.), M.A. See Tones(L. A. A.). 
Bennett (Joseph). FORTY YEARS OF 

MUSIC, 1865-1905. With 24 Illustrations. 

Demy 8vo. i6s. net. 
Bennett (W. H.), M.A. A PRIMER OF 

THE BIBLE. Fifth Edition. Cr. 8vo. 

2S. 6d. 

Bennett (W. H.) and Adeney (W. F.). A 
BIBLICAL INTRODUCTION. With a 
concise Bibliography. Fifth Edition. Cr. 
8vo. js. 6d. 

Benson (Archbishop) GOD'S BOARD. 
Communion Addresses. Second Edition. 
Fcap. 8vo. 3-s-. 6d. net. 

Benson (A. C.), M.A. See Oxford Bio- 
graphics. 

Benson (R. M.). THE WAY OF HOLI- 
NESS. An Exposition of Psalm cxix. 
Analytical and Devotional. Cr. 8vo. $s. 

Bernard (E. R.), M.A., Canon of Salisbury 
THE ENGLISH SUNDAY: ITS ORIGINS 
AND ITS CLAIMS. Fcap. 8vo. is. 6d. 

Berry (W. Grinton), M.A. FRANCE 
SINCE WATERLOO. With 16 Illustra- 
tions and Maps. Cr. 8vo. 6s. 

Beruete (A. de). See Classics of Art. 

Bet ham -Ed wards (Miss). HOME LIFE 
IN FRANCE. With 20 Illustrations.' 
Fifth Edition. Crown 87/0. 6s. 

Bethune- Baker (J. F.), M.A. See Hand- 
books of Theology. 

Bindley (T. Herbert), B.D. THE OECU- 
MENICAL DOCUMENTS OF THE 
FAITH. With Introductions and Notes. 
Second Edition. Cr. 8z>0. 6s. net. 

Binns (H. B.). THE LIFE OF WALT 
WHITMAN. Illustrated. Demy 8vo. 
LOS. 6d. net. 

Binyon (Mrs. Laurence). NINETEENTH 
CENTURY PROSE. Selected and ar- 
ranged by. Crown Zvo. 6s. 

Binyon (Laurence). THE DEATH OF 
ADAM AND OTHER POEMS. Cr. 8vo. 
3-y. 6d. net. 

See also Blake (William). 

Birch (Walter de Gray), LL.D., F.S.A. 
See Connoisseur's Library. 

Birnstingl (Ethel). See Little Books on Art. 

Blackmantle (Bernard). See I.P. L. 

Blair (Robert). See I. P. L. 

Blake (William). THE LETTERS OF 
WILLIAM BLAKE, TOGETHER WITH A 
LIFE BY FREDERICK TATHAM. Edited 
from the Original Manuscripts, with an 
Introduction and Notes, by ARCHIBALD G. 
B. RUSSELL. With 12 Illustrations. 
Demy &vo. js. 6d. net. 

ILLUSTRATIONS OF THE BOOK OF 
JOB. With General Introduction by 
LAURENCE BINYON. Quarto, sis. net. 
See also I.P.L., and Little Library. 



GENERAL LITERATURE 



5 



Bloom (J. Harvey), M.A. See Antiquary's 
Books. 

Blouet (Henri). See Beginner's Books. 

Boardman (T. H.), M.A. See French (W.). 

Bode(Wilhelm), Ph.D. See Classics of Art. 

Bodley (J. E. C.) THE CORONATION 
OF EDWARD VII. Demy too. 2is.net. 
By Command of the Kin?. 

Body (George), D. D. T H E S O U L ' S 
PILGRIMAGE : Devotional _ Readings 
from the Published and Unpublished writ- 
ings of George Body, D.D. Selected and 
arranged by J. H. BURN, B.D., F.R.S.E. 
Demy i6mo. 2S. 6d. 

Bona (Cardinal). See Library of Devotion. 

Bonnor(Mary L.). See Little Books on Art. 

Boon(F. C.)., B.A, See Commercial Series. 

Borrow (George). See Little Library. 

Bos (J. Ritzema). AGRICULTURAL 
ZOOLOGY. Translated by J. R. AINS- 
WORTH DAVIS, M.A. With 155 Illustrations. 
Second Edition. Cr. too. 3^. 6d. 

Botting(C. G.), B.A. EASY GREEK 
EXERCISES. Cr. too. as. 
See also Junior Examination Series. 

Boulting(W.) TASSO AND HIS TIMES. 
With 24 Illustrations. Demy too. los. 6d. 
net. 

Boulton(E. S.), M.A. GEOMETRY ON 
MODERN LINES. Cr. too. zs. 

Boulton (William B.). SIR JOSHUA 
REYNOLDS, P.R.A. With 49 Illustra- 
tions. Second Edition. Demy too. js. 6d. 
net. 

Bovill (W. B. Forster). HUNGARY 
AND THE HUNGARIANS. With 16 
Illustrations in Colour by WILLIAM PASCOE, 
12 other Illustrations and a Map. Demy 
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44 



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FICTION 



45 



Walford (Mrs. L. B.). MR SMITH. 

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THE BABY'S GRANDMOTHER. 

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COUSINS. Medium 8v0. 6d. 
TROUBLESOME DAUGHTERS. Medium 

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Yeldham (C. C). 

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DURHAM'S FARM. 



Books for Boys and Girls 

Illustrated. Crown 8vo. 31. 6d. 



THE GETTING WELL OF DOROTHY. By Mrs. 
W. K. Clifford. Second Edition. 

ONLY A GUARD-ROOM DOG. By Edith E. 
Cuthell. 

MASTER ROCKAFELLAR'S VOYAGE. By W. 
Clark Russell. Fourth Edition. 

SYD BELTON : Or, the Boy who would not go 
to Sea. By G. Manville Fenn. Second Ed. 



THE RED GRANGE. By Mrs. Molesworth. 
A GIRL OF THE PEOPLE. By L. T. Meade. 

Fourth Edition. 

HEPSY GIPSY. By L. T. Meade. a*. 6d. 
THK HONOURABLE Miss. By L. T. Meade. 

Second Edition. 
THERE WAS ONCE A PRINCE. By Mrs. M. E. 

Mann. 
WHEN ARNOLD COMES HOME. By Mrs. M. E. 

Mann. 



4 6 



MESSRS. METHUEN'S CATALOGUE 



The Novels of Alexandre Dumas 

Medium. Svo. Price 6d. Double Volumes, is. 



ACTE. 

THE ADVENTURES OF CAPTAIN PAMPHILE. 

AMAURV. 

THE BIRD or FATE. 

THE BLACK TULIP. 

THE CASTLE OF EPPSTEIN. 

CATHERINE BLUM. 

CECILE. 

THE CHEVALIER D'HARMENTAL. (Double 

volume.) is. 
CHICOT THE JESTER. 
CONSCIENCE. 
THE CONVICT'S SON. 
THE CORSICAN BROTHERS ; and OTHO THE 

ARCHER. 

CROP-EARED JACQUOT. 
DOM GORENFLOT. 
THE FATAL COMBAT. 
THE FENCING MASTER. 
FERNANDE. 
GABRIEL LAMBERT. 
GEORGES. 

THE GREAT MASSACRE. 
HENRI DE NAVARRE. 



HELENS DE CHAVERNY. 

THE HOROSCOPE. 

LOUISE DE LA VALLIERE. (Double volume.) 

is. 
THE MAN IN THE IRON MASK. (Double 

volume.) is. 
MA!TRE ADAM. 
THE MOUTH OF HELL. 
NANON. (Double volume.) is. 
PAULINE ; PASCAL BRUNO ; and BONTEKOE. 
PERE LA RUINE. 
THE PRINCE OF THIEVES. 
THE REMINISCENCES OF ANTONY. 
ROBIN HOOD. 

THE SNOWBALL AND SULTANETTA. 
SYLVANDIRE. 

TALES OF THE SUPERNATURAL. 
TALES OF STRANGE ADVENTURE. 
THE THREE MUSKETEERS. (Double volume.) 

u. 

THE TRAGEDY OF NANTES. 
TWENTY YEARS AFTER. (Double volume.) is. 
THE WILD-DUCK SHOOTER. 
THB WOLF-LEADER. 



Methuen's Sixpenny Books 

Medium Svo. 



Albanesi (E. Maria). LOVE AND 

LOUISA. 
I KNOW A MAIDEN. 

Anstey (F.). A BAYARD OF BENGAL. 
Austen (J.). PRIDE AND PREJUDICE. 

Bagot (Richard). A ROMAN MYSTERY. 
CASTING OF NETS. 
DONNA DIANA. 

Balfour (Andrew). BY STROKE OF 
SWORD. 

Baring-Gould (S.). FURZE BLOOM. 

CHEAP JACK ZITA. 

KITTY ALONE. 

URITH. 

THE BROOM SOUIRE. 

IN THE ROAR OF THE SEA. 

NOEMI. 

A BOOK OF FAIRY TALES. Illustrated. 

LITTLE TU'PENNY. 

WINEFRED. 

THE FROBISHERS. 

THE QUEEN OF LOVE. 

ARMINELL. 

Barr (Robert). JENNIE BAXTER. 
IN THE MIDST OF ALARMS. 
THE COUNTESS TEKLA. 
THE MUTABLE MANY. 

Benson (E. P.). DODO. 
THE VINTAGE. 

Bronte (Charlotte). SHIRLEY. 



Brownell (C. L.). THE HEART OF 

JAPAN. 
Burton (J. Bloundelle). ACROSS THE 

SALT SEAS. 

Caffyn (Mrs.). ANNE MAULEVERER. 
Capes (Bernard). THE LAKE OF 

WINE. 
Clifford (Mrs. W. K.). A FLASH OF 

SUMMER. 

MRS. KEITH'S CRIME. 
Corbett (Julian). A BUSINESS IN 

GREAT WATERS. 
Croker (Mrs. B. M.). ANGEL. 
A STATE SECRET. 
PE ^.GY OF THE BARTONS. 
JOHANNA. 
Dante (Alighierl). THE DIVINE 

COMEDY (Gary). 
Doyle (A. Conan). ROUND THE RED 

Duncan (Sara Jeannette). A VOYAGE 

OF CONSOLATION. 
THOSE DELIGHTFUL AMERICANS. 
Eliot (George). THE MILL ON THE 

FLOSS. 
Findlater (Jane H.). THE GREEN 

GRAVES OF BALGOWRIE. 
Gallon (Tom). RICKERBY'S FOLLY. 
Gaskell(Mrs.). CRANFORD. 
MARY BARTON. 
NORTH AND SOUTH. 



FICTION 



47 



Gerard (Dorothea). HOLY MATRI- 
MONY. 

THE CONQUEST OF LONDON. 
MADE OF MONEY. 

Qissing(Q). THE TOWN TRAVELLER. 
THE CROWN OF LIFE. 

Qlanville (Ernest). THE INCA'S 

TREASURE. 
THE KLOOF BRIDE. 

Gleig (Charles). BUNTER'S CRUISE. 
Grimm (The Brothers). GRIMM'S 
FAIRY TALES. 

Hope (Anthony). A MAN OF MARK. 

A CHANGE OF AIR. 

THE CHRONICLES OF COUNT 

ANTONIO. 
PHROSO. 
THE DOLLY DIALOGUES. 

Hornung (E. W.). DEAD MEN TELL 

NO TALES. 
Ingraham (J. H.). THE THRONE OF 

DAVID. 
LeQueux(W.). THE HUNCHBACK OF 

WESTMINSTER. 

Levett-Yeats (S. K.). THE TRAITOR'S 

WAY. 
ORRAIN. 
Linton (E. Lynn). THE TRUE HIS- 

TORY OF JOSHUA DAVIDSON. 

Lyall (Edna). DERRICK VAUGHAN. 
Malet (Lucas). THE CARISSIMA. 
A COUNSEL OF PERFECTION. 

Mann (Mrs. M. E.). MRS. PETER 

HOWARD. 
A LOST ESTATE. 
THE CEDAR STAR. 
ONE ANOTHER'S BURDENS. 
THE PATTEN EXPERIMENT. 
A WINTER'S TALE. 

Marchmont (A. W.). MISER HOAD- 

LEY'S SECRET. 
A MOMENT'S ERROR. 



Marryat (Captain). 
JACOB FAITHFUL 



PETER SIMPLE. 
:HFUL. 

Marsh (Richard). A METAMORPHOSIS. 

THE TWICKENHAM PEERAGE. 

THE GODDESS. 

THE JOSS. 

Mason (A. E. W.). CLEMENTINA. 

Mathers (Helen). HONEY. 
GRIFF OF GRIFFITHSCOURT, 
SAM'S SWEETHEART. 

Meade (Mrs. L. T.). DRIFT. 
Miller (Esther). LIVING LIES. 

Mitford (Bertram). THE SIGN OF THE 
SPIDER. 



Montresor (F. F.). THE ALIEN. 

Morrison (Arthur). THE HOLE IN 
THE WALL. 

Nesbit (E.) THE RED HOUSE. 

Norris(W. E.). HIS GRACE. 

GILES INGILBY. 

THE CREDIT OF THE COUNTY 

LORD LEONARD THE LUCKLESS. 

MATTHEW AUSTIN. 

CLARISSA FURIOSA. 

OHphant (Mrs.). THE LADY'S WALK. 
SIR ROBERT'S FORTUNE. 
THE PRODIGALS. 
THE TWO MARYS. 

Oppenheim (E. P.). MASTER OF MEN. 

Parker (Gilbert). THE POMP OF THE 

LAVILETTES. 

WHEN VALMOND CAME TO PONTIAC. 
THE TRAIL OF THE SWORD. 

Pemberton (Max). THE FOOTSTEPS 

OF A THRONE. 
I CROWN THEE KING. 

Phillpotts (Eden). THE HUMAN BOY. 
CHILDREN OF THE MIST. 
THE POACHER'S WIFE. 
THE RIVER. 



A. T. Quiller Couch). 

ITE WOLF. 



THE 



Ridge (W.Pett). A SON OF THE STATE. 

LOST PROPERTY. 

GEORGE and THE GENERAL. 

ERB. 

Russell (W. Clark). ABANDONED. 
A MARRIAGE AT SEA. 
MY DANISH SWEETHEART. 
HIS ISLAND PRINCESS. 

Sergeant (Adeline). THE MASTER OF 

BEECHWOOD. 
BARBARA'S MONEY. 
THE YELLOW DIAMOND. 
THE LOVF THAT OVERCAME. 



Sidgwick CMrs. Alfred). 

MAN. 



THE KINS. 



Surtees (R. S.). HANDLEY CROSS. 
MR. SPONGE'S SPORTING TOUR. 
ASK MAMMA. 

Walford (Mrs. L. B.). MR. SMITH. 

COUSINS. 

THE BABY'S GRANDMOTHER. 

TROUBLESOME DAUGHTERS. 

Wallace (General Lew). BEN-HUR. 
THE FAIR GOD. 

Watson (H. B. Marriott). THE AD YEN- 
TURERS. 

Weekes (A. B.). PRISONERS OF WAR. 
Wells (H. G.). THE SEA LADY. 
White (Percy). A PASSIONATE 
PILGRIM. 



Robarts Library 

due date 
May 1,1 991 



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