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4 February 8 August 1851- 




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N.B. — THE Figures at the beginning of the line, correspond with the "N* at the 
foot of each Paper ; and the Figures at tite end of the line, refer to the MS. Paging 
of the Voltmes arranged for The House of Conmom. 



Danish Possessions on the Coast of Africa: 

[1298.] Convention between Her Majesty and the King of Denmarkf for the Cession of the 
Danish Possessions on the Coast o( Africa to Chreat Britain, signed at London 
17 August 1860 - •... p. I 

Dominica : 

[1296.] Treaty of Peace, Amity, Commerce and Navigation between Her Majesty and 
the Dominican Republic, with an additional Article thereunto annexed, signed 
at Santo Domingo, 6 March 1850 -.---,.7 


[1297.] Convention between Her Majesty and the King of Chreece, for the Settlement 
of British Claims upon the Ureeh Government, signed at Athens, 18 July 
1860 17 

Netherlands : 

[1349.] Convention of Navigation between Her Majesty and the King of the Netherlands, 
additional to the Treaty of 27 October 1837, signed at London, 27 March 
1861 23 

Sardinia : 

[1300.] Convention of Navi^tion between Her Majesty and the King of Sardinia, 
additional to Uie Treaty of 6 September 1841, signed at London, 23 January 
1851 29 

[1347.] Treaty of Commerce and Navigation between Her Majesty and the King of 
Sardinia, signed at Zondbn, 27 February 1861 - - - * - 35 

Spain and Rome : 

[1388.] Concordat between the Queen of Spain and the Court of Rome, signed at Madrid, 
16 March 1861 ---------.-49 

Sweden and Norway : 

[1299.] Convention between Her Majesty and the King of Sweden and Norway, for the 
Reflation and Improvement of the Communication by Post between Great 
Britain and Sweden and Norway, signed at London, 24 August 1860 - 73 

VoLr LVII.— Sess. 185U {continued) 

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Protestant Cbapd at Florence : 
[1354.] Correspondence respecting the British Protestant Chapel at Florence - p. 97 

Greece (M. Pacifico) : 

[1415.] Correspondence respecting the Mixed Commission appointed to investigate the 
Claims of M. Pacifico upon the Government of OreecCj in regard to the Loss 
of Documents connected with his Claims upon the Portuguese (^vemmenty 105 

Netherlands : 

[1385.] Laws of the Netherlands Government relaxing Restrictions on Trade with Holland 
and her Colonial Possessions - - - - . - - -129 

[1363.] Correspondence reacting the Afiairs of M&me, 1849 - * - ~ 149 

Protestants in Turkey : 
[1392.] Correspondence respecting the Condition of Protestants inTurhey, 1841-1851, 271 

Turkey : 

[1350.] Despatches from Her Majes^'s Ambassador at Constantinople, communicating 
the Tariff settled between weat Britain and Turkey on 31 October 1850, to 
be in force from 1 January 1847 to 13 March 1855 - - - - 381 

Light Dues : 

[1320«] Correspondence respecting the Light Dues levied on the Shipping of the United 
States i(i the United Kmgdom -------- 409 

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Signed at London, August 11, 1850. 

Presented to both Houses of Parliament by Command of Her Majesty. 




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Convention between Her Majesty and the^. King of 
Denmark, for the Cession of the Danish|Possessions 
on the Coast of Africa to Great Britain. 

Signed at London, August 17, 1850. 

[Ratifications exchanged at London, September W, 1850.] 

HIS Majesty the King of Denmark 
having offered to cede to Her Majesty 
the Queen of the United Kingdom of 
Great Britain and Ireland, all the forts 
and possessions belonging to the Crown 
of Denmark, situated on that part of 
the coast of Africa which is called the 
Gold Coast or the Coast of Guinea; 
and Her Britannic Majesty having 
resolved to accept that offer ; then* said 
Majesties have named as their Plenipo- 
tentiaries to conclude a Convention for 
carrjdng such cession into effect, that 
is to say : — 

Her Majesty the Queen of the United 
Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, 
the Right Honourable Henry John, 
Viscount Palmerston, Baron Temple, 
a Peer of Ireland, a Member of Her 
Britannic Majesty's Most Honourable 
Privy Coimcil, a Member of Parlia- 
ment, Knight Grand Cross of the Most 
Honourable Order of the Bath, and 
Her Britannic Majesty's Principal 
Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs; 

And His Majesty the King of Den- 
mark, the Count Frederick Detlev de 
Reventlow, his Privy Councillor of 
Conferences and Chamberlain, Grand 
Cross of the Order of Dannebrog with 
the decoration of the Silver Cross, and 
Commander of the Order of St. Bento 
d'Aviz of Portugal, His Danish Ma- 
jesty's Envoy Extraordinary and Minis- 
ter Plenipotentiary to Her Britannic 
Majesty ; 

Who, after having communicated to 
each other their respective full-powers, 
found in good and due form, have 
agreed upon and concluded the follow- 
ing Articles :— 


DA Hans Majestset Kongen af Dan- 
mark har tilbudet at afstaae til Hendes 
Majestaet Dronningen af det Forenede 
Kongerige Storbritanien og Irland aUe 
Forter og Besiddelser som tilhore den 
Danske Krone paa den Deel af den 
Afirikanske Kyst som er kaldet Guld 
Kysten eller Kysten af Guinea ; og da 
Hendes Storbritaniske Majestset har 
besluttet at tage imod Tilbudet saa 
have Deres Majestaeter, for at afslutte 
en Convention, ved hvilken en saadan 
A&taaelse fuldbyrdes, udnaevnt til 
Deres Befiildmaegtigede, nemlig : — 

Hendes Majestset Dronningen af det 
Forenede Kongerige Storbritanien og 
Irland, den meget haederlige Hendrik 
Johan, Viscount Palmerston, Baron 
Temple, Pair af Irland, Medlem af 
Hendes Majestaets meest haederlige 
geheime Raad, Medlem af Parlamentd;, 
Storkors af den meest haederlige Orden 
af Bath, og Hendes Majestsets forste 
Statssecretair for de udenlandske 

Og Hans Majestaet Kongen af Dan- 
mark, Frederik Detlev Greve af Re- 
ventlow, Hans Geheimeconferents- 
raad og Kammerherre, Storkors af Dan- 
nebrog og Dannebrogftmand, og Com- 
mandeur af den Portugisiske St. 
Bento d'Avis, overordentlig Gesandt og 
beftddmaegtiget Minister ved det Stor* 
britaniske Hof ; 

Hvilke, efter at have meddeelt 
hinanden deres Fuldmagter, og fundet 
dem i god og tilborlig Form, have 
vedtaget folgende Artikler : — 

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In consideration of the sum of ten 
thousand pounds sterling, to he paid 
hj Her Majesty the Queen of the 
United Kingdom of Great Britain and 
Ireland to His Majesty the King of 
Denmark^ on the exchange of the rati- 
fications of the present Convention, His 
Danish Majesty cedes to Her Britannic 
Majesty, to be possessed by Her Britan- 
nic Majesty, her heirs and successors, 
in ftill property and sovereignty, all the 
forts belonging to the Crown of Den* 
mark, which are situated on that part 
of the coast of Africa called the Gold 
Coast or the Coast of Guinea, and 
which comprise Fort Christiansborg, 
Fort Augustaborg, Fort Fredensborg, 
Fort Kongensteen, and Fort Prindsen* 
steen, with their appurtenances and all 
the guns and stores contsdned therdn ; 
together with all other possessions, 
property, and territorial rights what* 
ever belonging to His Danish Majesty 
on the said coast* 


Som en Folge af den Sum af Ti 
Tusinde Fund Sterling, som ved Ud- 
vexlingen af Ratificationeme af na^v 
vaerende Convention, skal erlaegges af 
^endes Majestst Dronningen af det 
Forenede Kongerige Storbritanien og 
Jrland, til Hans M^estaet Kongen af 
Danmark, afstaaer Hans Danske Mar 
jestaet til Hendes Storbritaniske Majes- 
taet, Hendes Arvinger og Eftenolgere, 
til fiild Eiendom og Souverainitet alle 
Forter, som tilhdre den Danske Krone 
paa den Deel af den Afrikanske Kyst 
som er kaldet Guld Kysten eller Kysten 
af Guinea, nemlig: Fort Christians- 
borg, Fort Augustenborg, Fort Fre- 
densborg, Fort Kongensteen, og Fort* 
Prindsensteen, med deres Tilhorende 
samt Kanoner og Ammunition; tilli- 
gtemed alle andre Besiddelser, Eien* 
domme, og tenitoriid Rettighieder af 
hvilken-'Somhelst Bedkaffenbed, som 
tilhdre Hans Majesteet Kongen ef Dan« 
mas^ paa ovenncevnte K^st. 


The present Convention shall be 
ratified, and the ratifications shall be 
exchanged at London as soon as pos- 

In witness whereof the respective 
H^potentiaries have signed the pre- 
sent Convention, and have affixed 
thereto the seals of their arms. 

Done at London, the seventeenth 
day of August, in the year of om: Lord 
one thousand eight hundred and fifty. 



N^rvserende Convention, skal ratifi- 
ceres, og Ratificationenie udvexles i 
London snarest muligt* 

Til Bekraeftelse herpaa hsLve de to 
ovennaevnte Befuldnwgtigede unddr- 
skrevet denne Convention, og paatry 
samme deres Vaaben-S^L 

Givet i London, den sj^tende 
August, efter Guds Byrd Aar Eet 
Tusinde Otte Hundrede og Halvtred- 


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Signed at Santo Domingo, March 6, 1850. 

Presented to both Houses of Parliament by Command of Her Majesty. 



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Signed at SimU Domingo ^ March &, 1850. 

IRatifications exchaaiged at Santo DommgOy September 10^ 1850.] 

In the Name of the Most Holy Trinity. 

HER Majesty the Qaeen of the 
Uaited Kingdom of Great Britain and 
Ireland, and the Plfesident of the Do- 
minicaii Republic, being desirous to 
consecrate the formal recognition of 
the independence of the same, and to 
eoDclude a Treaty of Peace and Friend- 
ship, and to regulate thereby the com- 
mercial intercourse between the domi- 
nions and subjects of Her Majesty and 
the territories aad citizens* of the Re- 
public^ they have for this purpose 
named as their respective Plenipoten- 
tiaries, that is to say : 

Her Majesty the Queen of the United 
Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, 
Sir Robert Hermann Schomburgk, 
Knight, Doctor of Philosophy,. Knight 
of the Royal Prussian Order of 
the Red Eagle; of the Royal Saxon 
Order of Merit; of the Legion of 
Honour of the French Republic ; Her 
Consul to the Dominican Republic ; 

And the President of the Dominican 
Republic^ Senor Joa6 Maria Medrano, 
Minister Secretary of State for the 
Departments of Police and the Interior, 
and charged with those of Justice, 
Public Instruction, and Foreign A£&irs; 

Who, after having communicated to 
each other their respective full-powers, 
found in good and due form, have 
agreed upon and concluded the follow- 
ing Articles :— • 

[183] B 

En el Nombre de la Santiaima Trinidad. 

DESEANDO el Presidente de la Re- 
p6blica Dominicana, y Su Majestad la 
Reyna del Reyno Unido de la Gran 
Bretafia 6 Irlanda, consagrar el recono- 
cimiento formal de la independencia de 
aquella, y coDcluir un Tratado de Paz 
y Amistad, en el que se regulen las 
relaciones coraerciales entre los terri- 
tories y ciudadanos de la Repubh'ca, y 
los dominies y subditos de Su Majestad, 
ban nombrade can eate olycto sus res- 
pectivos Plenipotenciarios, d saber: 

El Presidente de la Republica Domi- 
nicana, al Se&or Jos^ Maria Medrano, 
Ministro Secretario de Estado y de los 
Despachos del Interior y Policia, encar- 
gado de las Carteras de Justicia, In- 
struccion Publica, y Relaciones Este- 
riores ; 

Y Su Majestad la Reyna del Reyno 
Unido de la Gran Bretana 6 Irlanda, A 
Sir Robert Hermann Schomburgk, 
Caballero, Doctor de Filosoiia, Cabal- 
lero de la Real Orden Prusiana del 
Aguila Roja ; de la Real Orden Sajona 
del Merito ; de la Orden de la Lejion 
de Honor de la Republica Francesa; 
Consul suyo cerca de la Republica 

Quienes, habiendose comunicado 
mutuamente sus respectivos plenos- 
poderes, y halladolos en buena y debida 
forma, han acordado y concluido los 
Articulos siguientes : — 

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There shall be perpetual peace and 
friendship between Her Majesty the 
Queen of the United Kingdom of Great 
Britain and Ireland, her heirs and suc- 
cessors, and the Dominican Republic, 
and between their respective subjects 
and citizens. 

Habrd perpetua paz y amistad entre 
la Republica Dominicana y Su Majestad 
la Reyna del Reyno Unido de fa Gran 
Bretana 6 Irlanda, sus herederos y 
sucesores, y entre sus respectivos ciuda- 
danos y subditos. 


There shall be reciprocal freedom of 
commerce between the British domi- 
nions and the Dominican Republic. 
The subjects of Her Britannic Majesty 
may reside in and trade to any part of 
the territories of the Republic, to which 
any other foreigners are or shall be 
admitted. They shall enjoy full pro- 
tection for their persons and properties. 
They shall be allowed to buy from and 
to sell to whom they like, without being 
restrained or affected by any monopoly, 
contract, or exclusive privilege of sale 
or purchase whatever; and they shall 
moreover enjoy all other rights and 
privileges which are or may be granted 
to any other foreigners, subjects or 
citizens of the most favoured nation. 

The citizens of the Dominican Re- 
public shall, in return, enjoy similar 
protection and privileges in the domi- 
nions of Her Britannic Majesty. 


Habrd reciproca libertad de comercio 
entre la Republica Dominicana y los 
dominios Britdnicos. Los ciudadanos 
de la Republica Dominicana podran 
residir y comerciar en cualquier punto 
de los dominios de Su Majestad Bri- 
tinica, en que los demas estranjeros son 
6 serdn admitidos. EUos gozaran de 
entera proteccion en sus personas f 
propiedades. Podrdn comprar y vender 
de quien y k quien gustaren, sin ser 
restrinjidos 6 afectados por ningun 
monopoUo, contrato, o esclusivo privi- 
legio de compra 6 venta alguna ; y dis^ 
frutardn ademas de todos los otros 
derechos y privilegios que hayan side 6 
scan concedidos & cualesquier otros 
estranjeros, subditos 6 ciudadanos de la 
nacion mas favorecida. 

Los subditos de Su Majestad Bri- 
tdnicagozardn, enretorno, de una pro- 
teccion y privilegios semejantes en los 
territories de la Repdblica. 


No tonnage, import, or other duties 
or charges shall be levied in the Domi- 
nican Republic on British vessels, or on 
goods imported or exported in JBritish 
vessels, beyond what are or maybe levied 
on national vessels, or on the like goods 
imported or exported in national ves- 
sels, to and from the open ports; and 
in like manner, no tonnage, import, or 
other duties or charges shall be levied 
in the British doftiinions on vessels of 
the Republic, or on goods imported or 
exportfid in those vessels, beyond what 
are or may be levied on national vessels, 
or on the like goods imported or ex- 
ported in national vessels to or from 
the ports open to commerce; without 
prejudice whatever to the coasting 
trade, which remains exclusively re- 
served to national vessels of each of the 
two Contracting Parties. 


No se impondrdn en los dominios 
Britdnicos i los buques de la Repdblica, 
ni a los generos importados 6 esporta- 
dos en buques Dominicanos, derechos 
de tonelada, importacion, u otros dere- 
chos 6 cargas, mayores que los que se 
imponen 6 se impusieren d los buques 
nacionales, 6 d iguales generos impor- 
tados 6 esportados en buques^ nacionales 
en y de los puertos habilitados. Y del 
mismo mode no se impondran en la 
Republica Dominicana d los buques 
Britdnicos, ni a los generos importados 
6 esportados en dichos buques, derechos 
de tonelada, importacion, u otros dere* 
chos 6 cargas, mayores que los que se 
imponen 6 se impusieren d los buques 
nacionales, 6 d generos iguales importa- 
dos 6 esportados en buques nacionales 
en y de los puertos habilitados; sin 
perjudicar de ningun mode el cabotage, 
que se conserva esclusivamente d los 
buques nacionales de cada una de las 
dos Partes Contratantes. 

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P|Merchandize or goods coming from 
the British dominions in any vessel, or 
imported in British vessels from any 
country, shall not be prohibited by the 
Dominican Republic, nor be subject to 
higher duties than are levied on the 
same kinds of merchandize or goods 
coming from any other foreign country, 
or imported in any other vessels. 

AH articles the produce of the Re- 
public may be exported therefrom by 
British subjects and British vessels, on 
as favourable terms as by the subjects 
or citizens and vessels of any other 
foreign country. 


Las mercancias 6 generos procedentes 
del territorio de la Reptiblica Domini* 
cana, en cualquier buque, 6 importados 
en buques Dominicanos de cualquier 
pais, no serdn prohibidos por la Grran 
Bretana, ni estar4n sujetos a mayores 
derechos que los que se cobran en igual 
clase de mercancias 6 generos proce* 
dentes de cualquier otro pais esti*aa* 
jero, 6 importados en cualquier otro 

Todos los articulos productos de la 
Gran Bretana podrdn ser esportados de 
ella por ciudadanos y buques l)omini- 
canos en terminos tan favorables como 
por subditos 6 ciudadanos y buques de 
cualquier otro pais estranjero. 


The protection of the G<yvemment 
of the Republic shall be afforded to all 
British vessels, their officers and crews. 
If any such vessels should be wrecked 
on the coast of the Republic, the local 
ftuthorities shall succour them, and 
diall secure them from plunder, and 
shall cause all articles saved from the 
wreck to be restored to their lawful 
owners. The amount of salvage dues 
in such cases shall be regulated, in case 
of dispute, by arbitrators chosen by both 


£1 Gobiemo de la Gran Bretana pro- 
tejerd d todos los buques Dominicanos, 
i, sus oficiales y tripulaciones. Si cual- 
quiera de los tales buques naufragare 
en la costa de la Graii Breta&a, las 
autoridades locales les presteran socorro, 
y los pondran al abrigo del pillaje, y 
haran que todos los articulos que se 
salvaren del naufragio scan devueltos & 
sus duenos legitimes. El importe de 
los derechos de salvamento en seme- 
Jantes cases serd determinado, case de 
disputa, por arbitros nombrados por 
ambas partes. 


It being the intention of the two 
Contracting Parties to bind themselves 
by the present Treaty to treat each 
other on the footing of the most fa- 
voured nation, it is hereby agreed 
between them, that any favour, privi- 
lege, or immunity whatever, in matters 
of commerce and navigation, which 
either Contracting Party has actually 
granted, or may hereafter grant, to the 
subjects or citizens of any other State, 
shall be extended to the subjects or 
citizens of the other Contracting Party, 
gratuitously, if the concession in favour 
of that other State shall have been gra- 
tuitous, or in return for a compensation 
as nearly as possible of proportionate 
value and effect, to be adjusted by 
mutual agreement, if the concession 
shall, have been conditional. 


Siendo la intencion de ambas Partes 
Oontratantes la de sujetarse por el 
presente Ti-atadb k tratarse una a otra 
sobre las bases de la nacion mas favore- 
cida, se conviene por este entre ambas, 
en que todo favor, privilegio, 6 inmuni- 
dad cualquiera, en materia de comercio 
y navigation, que cualquiera de ambas 
Partes Contratantes tiene concedido 
actualmente, 6 concediere en adelante, 
A subditos 6 ciudadanos de otro estado, 
se estienda y aplique k los subditos d & 
los ciudadanos de la otra Parte Contra- 
tante, gratuitamente, si la concesion 
hecha en favor de aquel otro Estado 
fuere gratuita, o para corresponder a 
una compensacion aproximativa del 
valor proporcional y efecto que mutua- 
mente se convenga, si la concesion 
hubiere side condicionah 

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Each Contracting Party may appoint 
Consuls for the protection of trade, to 
reside in the dominions or territories of 
the other; but no such Consul shall 
enter upon the exercise of his functions 
until he shall have been approved and 
admitted, in the usual form, by the Go- 
vernment of the country to vehich he 
is sent. 

The Diplomatic Agents and Consuls 
of each of the two Contracting Parties, 
residing within the dominions or terri- 
tories of the other, shall enjoy the same 
rights, immunities, privileges, and ex- 
emptioHS which are or may be granted 
to the Diplomatic Agents or Consuls^ 
of equal rank, of the most favoured 

Cada una de las Partes Contratantes 
podrd nombrar Consules para la protec- 
cion del comercio, y residir en los 
territorios 6 dominios de la otra ; pero 
ningun Consul empezard & desempenar 
sus funciones hasta haber side aprobado 
y admitido, en las formas acostumbradas, 
por el Grobiemo del pais at que es 

Los Agentes Diplomaticos y Consules 
de cada una de las dos Partes Contra- 
tantes residentes en los territorios 6 
dominios de la otra, gozaran de los 
mismos derechos, inmunidades, privi- 
legios, y exenciones que son concedidos 
6 que se concedieren & los Agentes 
Diplomaticos 6 Consules de igual range 
de la nacion mas favorecida. 


The subjects of Her Britannic Ma- 
jesty, residing in the Dominican Re- 
public, shall not be disturbed, perse- 
cuted, or annoyed on account of their 
religion, but they shall have perfect 
liberty of conscience therein, and exer- 
cise their creed either within their own 
private houses or in their own particular 
chapels. Liberty shall also be granted 
to them to bury in burial-places, which 
in the same manner they may freely 
establish aud maintain, such subjects of 
Her Britannic Majesty who may die in 
the territories of the said Republic. In 
like manner the citizens of the Domi- 
nican Republic shall enjoy^ within all 
the dominions of Her ^Britannic Ma- 
jesty, a perfect and unrestrained liberty 
of conscience, and shall be allowed to 
exercise their religion, publicly or pri- 
vately, within their own dwelling-houses, 
or in the chapels and places of worship 
appointed for that purpose. 


Los subditos de Su Majestad Bri- 
tanica residentes en la Republica Domi- 
nicana, no serdn inquietados, perse* 
guides, ni molestados por razon de su 
relijion ; mas gozardn de una perfecta 
libertad de conciencia en ella y en el 
ejercicio de su creencia, en sus propias 
casas 6 capillas particulares. Tambien 
serd permitido enterrar H los sub* 
ditos de Su Majestad Britdnica que 
murieren en los territorios de dicha 
Repiiblica, en sus propios cementerios, 
que podrdn del mismo modo libremente 
establecer y entretener. Asi mismo, 
los ciudadanos de la Republica Domi-* 
nicana gozardn en todos los dominios 
de Su Majestad Brit£nica, de una 
perfecta e ilimitada libertad de concien* 
cia, y del ejercicio de su relijion, 
publica 6 privadamente, en las casas de 
su morada, 6 en las capillas y sitioB de 
culto destinados para el dicho fin. 


Slavery being perpetually abolished 
in the Dominican Republic, and having 
been already declared by her an act of 
piracy punishable with the pain of 
death, the Dominican Republic engages 
to permit any British vessel of war 
whicli may be furnished with special 
Instructions under the Treaties between 
Great Britain and foreign Powers, and 
with the formalities as are provided for 
in such cases by the said Treaties re- 
lative to the prevention of the infamous 


Siendo perpetuamente abolida la 
esclavitud en la Republica Dominicana, 
y estando yd el trafico de esclavos 
declarado por ella como acto de pira* 
teria, que se castiga con el ultimo 
suplicio ; la Republica Duminicana se 
obliga a permitir a aquellos buques 
de guerra Britanicos que estuvieren 
provistos de las Instrucciones especiales, 
segun los Tratados entre la Gran 
Bretana y las Potencias estranjeras, 
y con las formalidades y en los cases 

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Slave Trade, to visit any vessels sailing 
under the Dominican flag which maj, 
on reasonable grounds^ be suspected of 
being engaged in this vile trade in 
slaves; it being understood that the 
distances and places between which the 
right of visit shall be exercised, as 
moreover expressed in the Treaties with 
other Powers for Cuba and Porto Rico, 
shall likewise refer to the same distance 
of twenty leagues from the coasts of 
the Dominican Republic; and if by the 
result of the visit it should appear to 
the officer in command of such British 
vessel of war, that the suspicions which 
led thereto are well grounded, the ves- 
sel shall be sent without delay to the 
port of Santo Domingo in the Domi- 
nican Republic, and shall be delivered 
up to the local authorities to be pro- 
ceeded against according to the laws of 
the Republic. 

It is understood that the present 
Article shall not be extended to other 
cases which might occasion detentions 
and inconveniences to the Dominican 
vessels in their voyages and commercial 
enterprises, during which, on the con- 
trary, they are authorized to expect 
protection and assistance ; hence, if the 
case should arise, which however is not 
to be supposed, that the Dominican 
Republic should consider to receive 
by this concession any vexatious moles- 
tations, it rests with her to withdraw it, 
after having given a year previous due 
notice thereof. 

previstos por dichos Tratados relativos 
& impedir el infameTraficode Esclavos, 
visitar los buques que naveguen bajo el 
pabellon Dominicano que puedan, con 
fundado motivo, ser sospechados de 
ocuparse en tan infame trafico ; enten- 
diendose que el derecho de visita se 
ejercerd ademas de las distancias y 
lugares espresados en los Tratados con 
otras Potencias para las Islas de Cuba y 
Puerto Rico, tambien & la misma dis- 
tancia de veinte leguas de las costas de 
la Republica Dominicana; y si el 
resultado de la visita presentdre al 
oficial comandante del buque de 
guerra Britdnico, que las sospechas 
que dieron lugar d ella estan bien 
fundadas, el buque sin dilacion sera 
enviado al puerto de Santo Domingo, 
en la Republica Dominicana, y entregado 
d las autoridades locales para que se 
proceda contra ^1 conforme d las leyes 
de la Republica. 

Estd entendido que el presente Arti- 
culo no serd estensivo k otros cases que 
puedan ocasionar tardanzas y grava- 
menes a los buques Dominicanos en sus 
viajes y empresas comerciales, cuando 
por el contrario deben esperar toda 
asistencia y proteccion ; per6, si como 
no es de suponer, Uegare el case de que 
la Rep6blica Dominicana creyere recibir 
por esta concesion alguna molestia veja* 
toria, quedard por el mismo hecho habil 
para retiraria, haciendo con antelacion 
de un alio la debida notiflcacion. 



In order that the two Contracting 
Parties may have the opportunity of 
hereafter treating and agreeing upon 
such other arrangements as may tend 
still further to the improvement of 
their mutual intercourse, and to the 
advancement of the interests of their 
respective subjects anil citizens, it is 
agreed that the present Treaty shall 
remain in force and vigour for the term 
of ten years from the date of the ex- 
change of the* ratifications; and either 
of the Contracting Parties shall have 
the right of giving to the other Party 
notice of its intention to terminate, at 
the expiration of the said ten years, the 
stipulations relating to commerce and 
navigation, which shall cease to be 
binding after ten years; and all those 
that relate to peace and amity shall 
remain obh'gatory to both nations. 

A fin de que ambas Partes Contra* 
tantes pueden tener ocasion en adelante 
de tratar y convenir cualquier otro 
punto que pueda tender d mejorar 
todavia mas sus mutuas relaciones y 
adelantaniiento de los intereses de los 
ciudadanos y subditos respectivos, se ha 
convenido que el presente Tratado per- 
manecerd en su fuerza y viji^or por el 
termino de diez afios, contados desde la 
fecha del canje de las ratiticaciones ; 
teniendo cualquiera de las Partes Con* 
tratantes el derecho de hacer d la otra 
la notificacion de su intencion de ter- 
minar, al vencimiento de dichos diez 
anos, las estipulaciones relativas d co- 
mercio y navegacion, que quedardn sin 
efecto, trascurridos los diez anos ; y en 
todo lo relative d paz y amistad, per- 
manecera obligatoriod ambas naciones. 

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The present Treaty shall be ratified, 
and the ratifications shall be exchanged 
at Santo Domingo within the space of 
eight months, to be accounted from the 
date of this Treaty, or sooner, if such 
be possible. 

In witness whereof the respective 
Plenipotentiaries have signed the same, 
and have affixed thereto the seals of 
their arms. 

Done at Santo Domingo, the aixth 
day of March, iu the year of our Lord 
one thousand eight hundred and fifty. 


£1 presente Tratado serd ratificado, 
y las ratificaciones eanjeadas en Santo 
Domingo dentro del termino de ocho 
meses, 6 antes si fuere posible, contados 
desde la fecha de este Tratado. 

En £6 de lo cual los respeetivos 
Plenipotenciariofi lo han firmado, y 
sellado con los seUos de sus armaa. 

Hecho en Santo Domingo, el sexto 
dia de Marzo^ en el ano de Gracia de 
mil ochocieutos y cincuenta. 



As the circumstances of the existing 
war with the Haytiaa nation might 
oblige the Dominican Republic to recur 
to extraordinary measures, it is specially 
understood and agreed between the 
two Contracting Parties, that the Domi- 
nican Republic shall have perfect liberty 
of making, during the same, such laws 
as may place her in a state to secure her 
defence, notwithstanding the stipula- 
tion contained in Article II that the 
subjects of Her Britannic Majesty shall 
not be restrained or affected by any 
monopoly, contract, or exclusive privi- 
lege of purchase or sale ; and as her dis- 
position is constant to attract and pro- 
tect commerce, it does not enter in her 
views to adopt any measures of limiting 
it, except in the case that the existing 
war should continue. 

The present Additional Article shall 
have the same force and validity as if it 
were inserted, word for word, in the 
Treaty signed this day, and shall be 
ratified at the same time. And in 
consequence of the exception it con- 
tains, it is equally understood that the 
sanction or disapprobation of the Treaty 
is specially reserved to Her Britannic 


Las circunstancias de la giierra actual 
eon la nation Haytiana pudiendo obligar 
4 la Republica Dominieana £ recurrir & 
medidas extraordinarias, esta especial^ 
mente entendido y establecido entre 
las Partes Contratantes, que la Repu- 
blica Dominieana tendrA entera libertad 
de hacer durante ella tales leyes que la 
pongan en estado de defensa, no ob- 
stante la estipulacion contenida en el 
Articulo II con respecto a no poder los 
subditos de Su Majestad Britanica set 
restrinjidos 6 afectados por ningun 
monopolio, contrata, 6 exclusivo pri- 
vilegio de compra 6 venta alguna; y que 
siendo constante su disposiciou k atraer 
y protejer el comercio, no entra en sus 
miras la adopcion de niuguna medida 
para coartarlo, sino en caso de Ja con- 
tinuacion de la guerra actual. 

El presente Articulo Adicional tendri 
la misma fuerza y efecto como si hubiese 
sido inserto, palabra por palabra, en d 
Tratado firmado hoy, y serd ratificado 
al mismo tiempo. En consecuencia de 
la escepcion que contiene, esta igual- 
mente entendido que la sancion 6 
desaprobacion del Tratado queda espe- 
cialmente reservada d Su Majestad Bri- 

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In testimony whereof the Under* En testimonio de lo cual Ids abajo 

signed have, in virtue of their full- firmados^ en virtud de sus plenos- 

powers, signed and sealed the present poderes, han firmado y seliado el pre- 

Article. sente Articulo. 

Done at Santo Domingo, the sixth day Hecho en Santo Domingo, el sexto 

of March, in the year of our Lord one dia de Marzo, en el afio de Gracia de 

thousand eight hundred and fifty. mil ochocientos cincuenta. 


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Signed at Athens, July 18, 1850. 

Presented to both Houses of Parliament by Command offfer Majesty. 



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Convention between Her Majesty and the King of 
Greece, for the Settlement of British Claims upon 
the Greek Government. 

Signed at Athens^ July 18, 1850. 

[Ratifications exchanged at Athens, December 9, 1850.] 

THE Government of Her Britannic LE Gonvemement de Sa Majesty 
Majesty and the Government of the Britannique et le Gouvernement de 
King of Greece having accepted the Sa Majesty Hell^nique ayant accepts 
good offices of the Government of les bons offices du Gouvernement 
France, with a view to the adjustment Fran^ais, en vue de terminer certains 
of certain differences which had arisen diff(^rends qui s'^taient flev^s entre le 
between the Governments of Great Gouvernement de la Grande Bretagne 
Britain and of Greece, a draft of a et celui de la Gr^ce, un projet de Con- 
Convention to be concluded between vention k conclure entre la Grande 
Great Britain and Greece for the settle- Bretagne et la Gr^ce pour Tarrange- 
ment of those differences was prepared ment de ces diffierends avait ^t6 pr^par^ 
in London, and was sent out from Si Londres, et exp^die le 19 Avril, pour 
thence on the 19th April, to be pro- 6tre propose au Gouvernement Grec 
posed to the Greek Government by par le Pl^nipotentiaire de France k 
the French Plenipotentiary at Athens, Athtees, et 6tre sign^ par le Pl^nipo- 
and to be signed by the British Pleni- tentiaire Anglais, s'il eut ^t^ accept6 
potentiary, if agreed to by the Govern- par le Gouvernement Grec. Bien que 
ment of Greece. And although the le cours des ^v^nemens ait amen^ le 
course of events has led .to an actual r^glement de quelques-uns des points 
settlement of some of the matters to auxquels ce projet de Convention avait 
which that draft of Convention re- rapport avant qu'il ait pu arriver k 
lated, before the draft could reach Ath^nes, il reste, cependant, quelques 
Athens, there remain, nevertheless, unes des stipulations du projet propose 
some of the stipulations of that pro- qui sont encore applicables k la solution 
posed draft which are still applicable to de plusieurs questions pendantes ; et 
the settlement of some of the questions comrae le Gouvernement de Sa Majestd 
at issue ; and as the Government of Britannique et le Gouvernement de Sa 
Her Britannic Majesty and the Go- Majesty Hell^nique d^sirent ^galement 
vemment of His Hellenic Majesty are que les diffierends qui se sont Aev68^ 
equally desirous that the final settle- entre eux soient d^finitivement terming 
ment of their differences should take au moyen des bons offices du Gou- 
place by means of the good offices of vemement Fran9ais, ils ont mutuelle* 
the Grovernment of France, they have ment consenti k appUquer les stipula- 
mutually agreed to apply the stipula- tions du projet d-dessus mentionne au 
tions of the above-mentioned dralft to r^glement des points qui restent encore 
the settlement of those matters which en suspens. 
yet remain to be adjusted. 

For this purpose Her Britannic Dans ce but le Gouvernement de Sa 

•Majesty has appointed the Right Majesty Britannique a nomm^ le Trfes 

Honourable Thomas Wyse, Member Honorable Thomas Wyse, Membra du 

of Her Britannic Majesty's Most Tr^s Honorable Conseil Friv^ de Sa 


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Honourable Privy Council, and Her 
Majesty's Minister Plenipotentiary to 
His Majesty the King of Greece ; and 
His Hellenic Majesty has appointed 
M. Londos, Senator, Minister of the 
King's Household and of Foreign Re- 
lations, Knight Commander of the 
Boyal Order of the Saviour, Grand 
Cross of the Order of St. Michael of 
Bavaria* Grand Gross sif the Legion of 
Honour ; 

Who, having mutually, exchanged 
their full-powers, have, in the presence 
of M. Edward Thouvenel, Envoy Ex- 
traordinary and Minister Plenipoten- 
tiary of the French Republic to His 
Majesty^the King of Greece, Officer of 
the National Order of the Legion of 
Honour, agreed upon and concluded 
the following Articles : — 

Majeste, Minlstre PMnipotentiaire de 
Sa Majesty pres de Sa Majesty le Roi 
de Grfece; et le Gouvemement de Sa 
Majest6 Hell^nique a d^sign^ M. Lon- 
dos, Senateur, Minlstre de la Maison 
du Roi et des Relations Ext^rieures, 
ChevaUer en Or de TOrdre Royal du 
Sauveur, Grand-Croix de TOrdre de 
St. Michel de Bavi^re, Grand-Croix 
xle la L%ion d'Honneur ; 

vQui, ^prks avasr jonutuellement 
^change leurs pleins-pouvoirs, ont, en 
pr&ence de M. Edouard Thouvenel, 
Envoyd Extraordinaire et Ministre P16» 
nipotentiaire de la R^pubUque Fran- 
faise pr6s de Sa Majesty le Roi de 
Gr^, Officier de POrdre National de 
la Legion d'Honneur, accepts et arrfit^ 
les Articles suivans :— 


All the demands made on the Go- 
vernment of Greece in Mr. Wyse's note 
of the 17th of January, 1850, are ac- 
knowledged by the British Government 
as havii^ been 'satisfied, with the ex- 
cation of the claim arising out of the 
loss by M. Pacifico of certain docu- 
ments relating to money claims which 
he had to establish against the Portu- 
guese Government ; and His Hellenic 
M^esty engages to make good to M. 
Pacifico any real injury {prejudice re'el) 
which, upon a full and fair investigation, 
it shall be proved that he has sustained 
by the destruction or loss of those 


Toutes les demandes pr&ent^es bu 
Gouvernement de la Grace dans la note 
de Mr. Wyse du 17 Janvier, 1850, sont 
reconnues par le Gouvernement de la 
Grande Bretagne comme ayant 6t6 
satisfaites^ k Texception de la reclama- 
tion provenant de la perte faite par M. 
Pacifico de certains documens relatifs k 
des r^lamations p^cuniaires qu'il avait 
k faire au Gouvernement Portugais. 
Le Gouvernement de Sa Majesty Hell6- 
nique s'engage h indemnifier M. Pacifico 
du prejudice rdel qu^apr^s une enqufite 
complete et de bonne foi il serait prouviS 
qu'il eut souffert k raison de la destruc- 
tion ou perte de ces documens. 


For the purpose of conducting the 
investigation mentioned in the fore- 
going Article, it is agreed between the 
Contracting Parties tiiat two arbiters, 
with an umpire to decide between them 
in case of di£ference, shall be appointed 
by the joint concurrence ofthe Govern- 
ments of France, of Gneat Jiritain, and 
of Greece^ and that this Commission of 
Arbitration «hall report to the British 
and Greek Governments whether ai^, 
and if any, wliat amount of real injury 
has beeaa .axistaified by M. Pacifise by 
reason of the alleged loss of the docu- 
ments mentioned in the foregoing 
Artide; ssid the amount «o n^orted 
Acdl be the Mdount whidb M. Pacific 
k to veosive &am ihid Greek Govem- 


Dans le but de proc^der k I'enqudte 
sus-mentionn^^ il est convenu entre les 
Parties Contractantes que deux arbitre^ 
avec un surarbitre pour d^der entre 
eux en cas de contestation, seront 
nonun^s par le concouis des Gouvema- 
mens de la France^ de la Grande 
Bretagne, et de la Gr^ce. Cette Com- 
misdon d' Arbitrage rapportesa au Gon^ 
vem^nent Britannique et au Gou- 
vernement HeMoioue^ dans le cas x^ 
ce serait> quel est le montant du |ua^ 
judioe r^el soufibrt par M. iPacifico li 
raison de k perte all^u^ des docu* 
mens mentionn^ dans TArticle ftS^ 
c^ent. La somme ^DDnsign^ dans ce 
BSff^ort sera ceUe que .M. PadfiflO 
xe^aevmdu Gouvernement Gbrac 

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In consideration of the engagements 
taken by the Government of His 
Hellenic Majesty by the preceding 
Articles I and II, the Government of 
Her Britannic Majesty engages that 
immediately upon the ratification of 
the present Convention by His Hellenic 
Majesty, the sum of 150,000 drach- 
mas, which has been placed in deposit 
by the Greek Grovemment to answer 
the result of an investigation of the 
above-mentioned claim of M. Pacifico, 
shall be restored to the Government of 
His Hellenic Majesty. 

En consideration des engagemens 
pris par le Gouvemement de Sa Majestd 
Hell^nique dans les Articles pr^c^ens 
I et II, le Gouvemement de Sa Ma- 
jeste Britannique promet qu'imm^di^ 
atement apr^s la ratification^ de la 

?r6sente Convention par Sa Majesty 
lell^que, la somme de 150,000 
drachmes dipos6e par le Gouvemement 
Grec pour r^pondre du r&ultat de 
Tenqit^te sur les reclamations pr^cit^es 
de M. Pacifico, sera restitute au Gou* 
vemonent de Sa Majesty Helienique. 


The claims of the British Govern- 
ment relative to the Loan guaranteed 
bjr the Three Powers, and relative to 
the Islands of Sapienza and Cervi, are 
^u^luded fi*om the opei*ation of the 
pEBesent Convention. 


Leg Exclamations du Gouvemement 
de St MajiestX Britannique relatives k 
VEmffnmt garanti par les Trois Puis* 
samcee^ et anx Ues de Sapienza et Cervi^ 
sQnt exduaa de la pr^ente Convention. 


The present Convention shall be 
ratified, and the ratifications thereof 
shall be exchanged at Athens as soon 
as possible. 

In witness thereof the respective 
Plenipotentiaries have signed the pre- 
sent Convention, and have affixed the 
seals of their arms. 

Done at Athens, the ^th July, 1850. 

(Signed) THOS. WYSE. (L.S.) 



La pr&ente Convention sera ratifi^e, 
et les ratifications en seront echangees 
k Ath^nes aussitdt que possible* 

En foi de quoi les Pl^nipotentiaires 
respectifs ont sign^ la pr^ente Con- 
vention, et y ont apposi le cachet de 
leurs armes privies. 

Fait k Ath^nes, le -^ Juillet, 1860. 

(Sign^ THOS. WYSE. (LS.) 
A. LONDOS. (L.S.) 

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Signed at London, March 27, 1851. 

Pretented to both Houses of Parliament by Command of Her Mt^ettjf. 



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Convention of Navigation between Her Majesty and the 
, King of the Netherlands, additional to the Treaty of 
October 27, 1837. 

Signed at London^ March 27, 1851. 

[Ratifications exchanged at London^ April 16, 1851.] . 

HER Majesty the Queen of the 
United Kingdom of Great Britain and 
Ireland, and His Majesty the King of 
the Netherlands, being desirous of 
extending further the reciprocal privi- 
leges of navigation conferred on the 
slups of the two countries respectively 
by the Treaty of Commerce and Naviga- 
tion between Her Britannick Majesty 
and His Majesty the King of the 
Netherlands, which was signed at the 
Hague on the 27th of October, 1837, 
have appointed as their Plenipotentia- 
ries to conclude a Convention for that 
purpose ; that is to say : 

Her Majesty the Queen of the United 
Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, 
the Right Honourable Henry John 
Viscount Palmerston, Baron Temple, 
a Peer of Ireland, a Member of Her 
Britannick Majesty's Most Honourable 
Privy Council, a Member of Parliament, 
Knight Grand Cross of the Most Ho- 
nourable Order of the Bath, and Her 
Britannick Majesty's Principd Secretary 
of State for Foreign Affairs; and the 
Right Honourable Henry Labouchere, 
a Member of Her Britannick Majesty's 
Most Honourable Privy Council, a 
Member of Parliament, and President 
of the Committee of l*rivy Council for 
Affairs of Trade and Foreign Planta- 
tions ; 

And His Majesty the King of the 
Netherlands, His Excellency Grerard 
Count Schimmelpenninck, Minister of 
State, Commander of the Royal Order , 
of the Netherland Lion, Knight of the 
Royal Order of Frederick of Wurtem- 
berg. Envoy Extraordinary and Minis- 
ter Plenipotentiary of His Majesty the 
King of the Netherlands at the Court 
of Her Britannick Majesty ; 



HARE Majesteit de Koningin van 
het Vereenigd Koningryk van Groot 
Brittanje en lerland, en 2yne Majesteit 
de Koning der Nederlanden, verlan- 
gende verder uittebreiden de weder- 
keerige voorregten van scheepvaart, 
toegestaan aan de schepen der beide 
Landen respectivelyk by het Traktaat 
van Handel en Scheepvaart tusschen 
Hare Brittannische Majesteit en Zyne 
Majesteit den Koning der Nederlanden, 
welk geteekend is te s'Gravenhage op 
den 27 October, 1837, hebben tot 
hunne Gevolmagtigden, om ten dien 
einde eene Overeenkomst te sluiten, 
benoemd ; te weten : 

Hare Majesteit de Koningin van het 
Vereenigd Koningryk van Groot Brit- 
tanje en lerland, den Hoog Geboren 
Heer Henry John Burggra^ Palmer- 
ston, Baron Temple, Pair van lerland. 
Lid vanHarerMajesteits meest eervoUen 
Geheimen Raad, Lid van het Parle- 
ment, Ridder Groot Kruis der zeer 
eervoUe Orde van het Bad, en Harer 
Brittannische Majesteits Voornaamsten 
Secretaris van Staatvoor Buitenlandsche 
Zaken ; en den Hoog Edel Gestrenge 
Heer Henry Labouchere, Lid van 
Harer Brittannische Majesteits meest 
eervoUen Geheimen Raad, Lid van het 
Parlement, en Voorzitter der Commissie 
van den Geheimen Raad voor de Zaken 
van Handel en Kolonien; 

En Zyne Majesteit de Koning der 
Nederlanden, Zyne Excellentie Jonkheer 
Gerrit Graaf Schinmielpenninck, Mi- 
nister van Staat, Kommandeur der Ko- 
ninklyke Orde van den Nederlandschen 
Leeuw, Ridder van de Koninklyke 
Frederiks Orde van Wurtemberg, 
Buitengewoon Gezant en Gevolmag- 
tigden Minister van Zyne Majesteit den 
Koning der Nederlanden by Hare 
Majesteit de Koningin van Groot Brit- 

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Who, after having communicated to 
each other their respective fiill powers, 
fomid in good and due form, have 
agreed that for and in heu of the Second 
and Third Artidea of the ahore-m^i- 
tioned Treaty, the following Articles 

Welke, na elkander hunne weder- 
zydsche volmagten, die in goeden en 
behoorlyken vorm zyn bevonden, te 
hebben medegedeeld^ overeengekomen 
zyn, dat voor en in plaats van Artikeloa 
II en III van het bovengemdd Trak- 
iBttty de volgende ArtikaleiL zullen 
worden gesteld : 


No duties of tonnage^ harbour^ light- 
house, pilotage, quarantine^ or other 
similar or corresponding duties, oi 
whatever nature or under whatever de- 
nomination, shall be imposed in the 
ports of either country upon the vessels 
of the other country, from whatever 
port or place arriving, which shall not 
be equaUy imposed in the like cases on 
national vessds ; and in neither coun- 
tiy shall any duty, chaise, restriction, 
or prohibition, be imposed upon, nor 
any drawback, bounty, or allowance, 
be withheld from, any goods imported 
into or exported from such coimtry in 
vessds of the o&er, whidi shall not be 
equally imposed upon or mthhdd from 
such goods, when so imported or ex- 
ported in national vessels. 


Geene tonnen, haven, baken, loods, 
quarantaine gelden, of andere soort- 
gelyke of daarmede overeenkomende 
regten, van welken aard of onder welke 
henaming ook, zullen in de havens van 
een der beide landen gelegd worden op 
de schepen van het ander land, om 
het even van wdke haven of plaats 
aankomende, welke niet gelykelyk in 
dezelfde gevallen op nationale schepen 
gelegd zullen worden ; en in geen der 
beide landen zal eenig tegt, ongdd, 
beperking of verbod gelegd worden op^ 
noch eenige teruggave van regt^i^ 
premie, of korting onthouden word^i 
aan eenige goederen ingevoerd in of 
uitgevoefd van, zoodanig land, in de 
sdiepen van het anderen, wdk niefe 
gelykelyk geli^d zal worden op, of 
oQthouden wordai aaa zoocknige 
goederen, wanneer dezelve alzoo in 
of uitgevoerd worden met nationale 


An vessels which, according to the 
laws of Great Britain^ are to be deemed 
British vessels, and all vessels which, 
according to the laws of the Nether- 
lands, are to be deemed Netherland 
vessels, shall, for the pxuposes of this 
•Convention, and of the said Treaty of 
the 27th of October, 1837, be deemed 
British vessels and Netherland vessels 


AUe schepen^ die volgens de wetten 
van Groot Biittanje moet^i wordea 
beschouwd Britsche schepen te zyn» 
en alle schq>en, die volgens de wetten 
van Nederland moeten beschouwd 
word^i Nederlandsche schepen te zyn, 
zullen, voor zoover de toepassing vaa 
deze overeenkomst en van het voor- 
noemd Traktaat van 27 October, 1837, 
betreft, gehouden worden voor Britsche 
schepen en Nederlandsche sche]>en 


If any Act idiould hereafter be passed 
bythe L^;isbture of ather country,by 
whidi anyofthepiivii^pes in regard to 
nangation and commerce wfaidi are 
iBspectiTely conceded by the British 
Actof Parliament of tile 12th and 13th 
Vfctoria, cap. 29, and by the Netiier- 
land Law of tibe 8th of August, 1850, 
should be withdrawn, then and in sudx 


Indi^i eenige Wets-bepaling in het 
vervolg door de wetge^ng van een der 
beide knden mogt worden daai^steld, 
waardoor een of meerdere der voor- 
regten, met betrekking tot Handel ^n 
Scheq)vaart, welke respectivelyk by de 
Britsche Akte van Parlement van 12 
13 Victoria, t»p. 29, en by de 


Nederlandsche wet van 8 Augustus, 

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case, either of the High Contracting 1850, worden toegestaan^ mogten 
Parties shall be at liberty to terminate worden ingetrokken, alsdan, in zood- 
the present Convention, on giving to anig geval, zal het elke der Hooge 
the other six weeks' notice of its wish to Contracteerende Partyen vry staan, om 
that effect de tegenwoordige Overeenkomst te 

doen ophouden, mits aan de andere, 
zes weken te voren, van derzelver ver- 
langen dienaangaande kennis te geven. 


The present Convention shall be De tegenwoordige Overeenkomst zal 

considered as additional to the above- wcxrdenbeschouwd als bjrvoegsel tot het 

mentioned Treaty of the 27th of Oc- voomoemd Traktaat van 27 October, 

tober, 1837^ and shall have the same 1837^ en zal van gelyken duur zjm als 

duration as that Treaty, unless in the evengemeld Traktaat, ten zy in het geval 

case provided for by Article III preced- by het voorgaande Artikel III voorzien. 

ing. It shall be ratified, and the rati- Dezelve zal worden bekrachtigd, en 

&»tions shall be exchanged at London de bekcachtigingen znllen worden 

w soon as may be within the space of uitgewisseld te Londen zoodramogelyk, 

ftur weeks from the date of its signar binnen den tyd van vier weken, van 

tore. af den dag derzelver onderteekening. 

In witness whereof the respective In ocNrkonde waarvan de weder- 

Plenipotentiaries have signed the same, zydsche Gevolmagtigden dezelve 

and have a£Sxed thereto the seals of hebben ondcrteekend, en het zegel 

their arms. himner wapenen daarop gesteld. 

Done at London, the twenty-seventh Gedaan te Londen, den zeven en 

day of March, in the year of our Lord twintigsten Maart, in het jaar Onzes 

one thousand eight hundred and fifty- Heeren achttien honderd een en vyftig. 




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Signed at London, January 23, 1851. 

Presented to both Houses of Parliament by Command of Her Majesty, 




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Convention of Navigation between Her Majesty and 
the King of Sardinia^ additional to the Treaty of 
September 6, 1841. 

Signed at London, January 2Z, 1851. 

[Ratifications exchanged at London^ February 3, 1851.] 

HER Majesty the Queen of the SA Majesty la Reine du Royaume 

United Kingdom of Great Britain and Uni de la Grande Bretagne et dlrlande, 

Ireland, and His Majesty the King of et Sa Majesty le Roi de Sardaigne, 

Sardinia, heing desirous of extending d&irant donner plus d'^tendue aux pri- 

further the reciprocal privileges of vil^ges r&iproques de navigation ac- 

navigation conferred on the ships of cordis respectivement aux navires des 

the two countries respectively hy the deux pays par le Traits de Navigation 

Treaty of Navigation between Her entre Sa Majesty Britanniqueet Sa Ma- 

Britannick Majesty and His Majesty jestd le Roi de Sardaigne, qui a ^td sign6 

the King of Sardinia, which was signed Si Turin le 6 Septembre, 1841, ont 

at Turin on the 6th of September, nomm^ en quaUt^ de Pl^nipotentiaires 

1841, have appointed as their Pleni- pour conclure une Convention ^ cet 

potentiaries to conclude a Convention eflFet, savoir : 
for that purpose ; that is to say : 

HerMajestytheQueen of the United Sa Majesty la Reine du Royaume 
Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Uni de la Grande Bretagne et d'Irlande, 
the Right Honourable Henry John le Tr^s Honorable Henri Jean Vicomte 
Viscount Palmerston, Baron Temple, Palmerston, Baron Temple, Pair d'lr- 
a Peer of Ireland, a Member of Her lande, Membre du Tr6s Honorable Con- 
Britannick Majesty's Most Honoiutible seil Priv^ de Sa Majesty Britannique, 
Privy Council, a Member of ParUament, Membre du Parlement, ChevaUer Grand- 
Knight Grand Cross of the Most Ho- Croix duTr^s Honorable Ordredu Bain, 
nourable Order of the Bath, and Her et Principal Secretaire d'Etat de Sa 
Britannick Majesty's Principal Secretary Majesty Britannique pour les Affaires 
of State for Foreign Affairs; and the Etrang^res; etleTr^s Honorable Henri 
Right Honourable Henry Labouchere, Labouchere, Membre du Trte Hono- 
a Member of Her Britannick Majesty's rable Conseil Priv^ deSa Majesty Bri- 
Most Honourable Privy Council, a tannique, Membre du Parlement, et 
Member of ParUament, and President President du Comity du Conseil Priv^ 
of the Committee of Privy Council for pour les Affaires de Commerce et des 
Affairs of Trade and Foreign Planta- Colonies ; 
tions ; 

And His Majesty the King of Sar- Et Sa Majesty le Roi de Sardaigne, 

dinia, the Sieur Victor Emmanuel le Sieur Victor Emmanuel Taparelli, 

Taparelli, Marquis d'Az^ho, Com- Marquis d'AzegUo, Commandeur de 

mander of His Religious and Military Son Ordre Religieux et Militau'e des 

Order of Saint Maurice and Saint Saints Maurice et Lazare, Commandeur 
Lazarus, Commander of the Legion of de la L^on d'Honneur, Officier de 

Honour, Officer of the Order of Leo- TOrdre de Lipoid de Belgique, Son 

pold of Belgiimi, His Envoy Extraor- Envoy^ Extraordinaire et Ministre 

dinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to Pl^ipotentiaire auprte de Sa Majesty 

Her Britannick Majesty ; Britannique ; 

Who, after having communicated to Lesquels, aprte s'6tre r^iproquem^it 
each other their respective Full Powers, communique leinrs Pleins Pouvoirs re- 
found in good and due form, have spectifs, trouvds en bonne et due forme, 
agreed that for and in heu of the Furst sont convenus que pour et au lieu des 
and Second Articles of the above- Articles I et II du Traits susmentionn^, 
mentioned Treaty, the following Arti- on substituera les Articles suivans : 
cles shall be substituted : 

[67] B 

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No duties of tonnage, harbour, light- 
house, pilotage, quarantine, or other or 
similar or corresponding duties, of what- 
ever nature or nnder whatever denomi- 
nation, shall be imposed in the ports of 
either country upon the vessels of the 
other country, from whatever port or 
place arriving, which shall not be 
equally imposed in the like eases on 
national vessels; and in neither country 
shall any duty, charge, restriction, or 
prohibition, be imposed upon, nor any 
drawback, bounty, or allowance, be 
withheld from, any goods imported into 
or exported fipom such country in ves- 
sels of the other, which shall not be 
equally imposed upon or withheld from 
such goods, when so imported or ex- 
ported in national vessels. 

Aucun droit de tonnage, de port, de 
phare, de pilotage, de (]^uarantaine, ou 
autres droits semblables ou ^quivalens, 
de quelque nature ou sous quelque 
denomination que ce soit, ne sera im- 
post dans les ports de chacun des deux 
pays sur les navires de Tautre nation, 
arrivant d'un port ou endroit qud- 
conque, qui ne sera pas ^alement im- 
post en pareil cas sur des navires 
nationaux; et dans chacun des deux 
pays aucun droit, charge, restriction, 
ou prohibition, ne sera impost, ni 
aucun rembouraement de droit, prime, 
ou avantage, ne sera refds^ h aucone 
marchandise imports dans ou export^ 
de ces m^es pays sur des navires de 
Tautre, qui ne soit ^alement impost 
sur ces mSmes marchttudises, ou refbs€ 
it ces mSmes marchandises, imports oa 
exports sur des navires nationaux. 


All vessels which, according to the 
laws of Great Britain, are to be deemed 
British vessels ; and all vessels which, 
according to the laws of the Kingdom 
of Sardinia, are to be deemed Sar- 
dinian vessels, shall, for the piuposes of 
this Convaition, and of the said Treaty 
of the 6th September, 1841, be deemed 
British vessels and Sardinian vessels 


Tons les navires qui d'aprSs les lois 
de la Grande Bretagne sont consid6^s 
comme navires Anglais, et tons les 
navires qui d'apr^sles lois du Royaume 
de Sardaigne sont consid6rds comme 
navires Sardes, seront, quant aux effets 
de la presente Convention, ainsi que 
du Traits du 6 Septembre, 1841, cit^ 
plus haut, d^la^s respectivement 
navires Britanniques et Sardes. 


The present Convention shall be 
considered as additional to the above- 
mentioned Treaty of the 6th Septem- 
ber, 1841, and shall have the same 
duration as that Treaty. 
' It shall be ratified, and the ratifica- 
tions shall be exchanged at London as 
soon as may be within the space of 
two months from ihe date of its 

In witness whereof the respective 
Plenipotentiaries have signed the same, 
and have affixed therdo the seals of 
their arms* 

Done at London^ the twenty-third 
day of January, in the year of Our 
Lcnrd one thousand eight hundred and 



(L.S.) V. E. AZEGUO. 


La presente Convention sera con- 
sid^r^e comme additionnelle au Traits 
prfeit^ du 6 Septembre, 1841, et aura 
la meme dur^e que ce Traits. 

Ella sera ratifi^e, et les ratifications 
en seront ^hang^ k Londres leplus tdt 
possible dans le terme de deux mois k 
compter du jour de la signatm^. 

En foi de quoi les Fl^nipotentiaires 
respectife Tont sign^ et y ont appose 
les cachets de lexurs armes. 

Fait h Londres, le vingt-trois Janvier, 
Tan de Gr&ce mil huit cent dnquante 
et un. 



(L.S.) V. E. AZEGUO. 

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Signed at London, February 27, 1851. 

Pretented to both Houses of Parliament by Command of Her Majesty. 

April 1851. 


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Treaty of Commerce and Navigation between Her 
Majesty and the King of Sardinia. 

Signed at London, February 27 ^ 185L 

[Ratifications exchanged at London, April 8, 1851.] 

HER Majesty the Queen of the SA Majesty la Reine du Royaume 

United Kingdom of Great Britain and Uni de la Grande Bretagne et d'Irlande, 

Ireland, and His Majesty the King of et Sa Majesty le Roi de Sardaigne, 

Sardinia, being desirous of giving to dfeirant donner aux relations commer- 

the commercial relations between the ciales entre les pays que la Providence 

countries which Providence has placed a places sous leur tutelie, tout le 

under their care, the utmost possible d6veloppment dont elles sont suscep- 

development; and being persuaded that tibles, et persuad^es qu'un but aussi 

this desirable object can be obtained utile ne saurait ^tre atteint qu'en faisant 

only by removing every impediment to disparaitre tons les obstacles qui peu- 

commerce and navigation ; they have vent entraver le commerce et la navi* 

resolved reciprocally to secure to their gation, ont r^solu d'assurer r^cipro- 

respective subjects, by means of a quement, par un Traits, dans toute leur 

Treaty, the full extent and consequence ^tendue et dans toutes leurs cons^quen- 

of the benefits resulting fix)m the two ces k leurs populations, les bienfaits 

legislative acts respectively passed in d6rivant des deux actes l^gislatifs 

England on the 26th of June, 1849, adopt^s Tun en Angleterre le 26 Juin, 

for the amendment of the Navigation 1849, pour la modification de I'Acte de 

Laws, and in the Sardinian States on Navigation, et Fautre dans les Btats 

the 6th of July, 1850, for the abolition Sardes, le 6 Juillet, 1860, pour TaboU- 

of differential duties. For this purpose tion des droits diflFerentiels. A c^t 

they have named as their Plenipo- effet elles ont nommd leurs Pldnipoten- 

tentiaries, that is to say : tiaires, savoir : 

Her Majesty the Queen of the Sa Majestd la Reine du Royaume 

United Kingdom of Great Britain and Uni de la Grande Bretagne et dlrlande, 

Ireland, the Right Honourable Henry le Tr^s Honorable Henri Jean Vicomte 

John Viscount Palmerston, Baron Palmerston, Baron Temple, Pair d'lr- 

Temple, a Peer of Ireland, a Member lande, Membre du Tr^s Honorable Con- 

of Her Britannic Majesty's Most seil Privd de Sa Majesty Britannique, 

Honourable Privy Council, a Member Membre duParlement, Chevalier Grand- 

of Parhament, Knight Grand Cross of Croix duTres Honorable Ordredu Bain, 

the Most Honourable Order of the et Principal Secretaire d'Etat de Sa 

Bath, and Her Britannic Majesty's Majeste Britannique pour les Affaires 

Principal Secretary of State for Foreign Etrang^res ; et le Tr^ Honorable Henri 

Affairs ; and the Right Honourable Labouchere, Membre du Tr^s Hono- 

Henry Labouchere, a Member of Her rable Conseil Prive de Sa Majesty Bri- 

Britannic Majesty's Most Honourable tannique, Membre du Parlement, et 

Privy Council, a Member of Parlia- President du Comity du Conseil Priv^ 

ment, and President of the Committee pour les Affaires de Commerce et des 

of Privy Council for Affairs of Trade Colonies ; 
and Foreign Plantations ; 

And His Majesty the King of Sardinia, Et Sa Majesty le Roi de Sardaigne, 

the Sieur Victor Emmanuel Taparelli, le Sieur Victor Emmanuel Taparelli, 

Marquis d'Azeglio, Commander of His Marquis d'Azeglio, Commandeur de 

Religious and Military Order of Saint Son Ordre Rehgieux et Militaire des 

Maurice and Saint Lazarus, Com- Saints Maurice et Lazare, Commandeur 
[96.] B 

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mander of the Legion of Honour, Of- 
ficer of the Order of Leopold of Bel- 
gium, His Envoy Extraordinary and 
Minister Plenipotentiary to Her Britan- 
nic Majesty ; 

Who, after having communicated to 
each 0ther their respective ftill powers, 
found in good and due form, have 
agreed upon the following Articles : 

de la Legion d'Honneur, Officier de 
rOrdre de Leopold de Belgique, Son 
Envoyd Extraordinaire et Ministre 
Pl^nipotentiaire auprfes de Sa Majesty 
Britannique ; 

Lesquels, aprfes s'fitre r^ciproquement 
communique leurs pleius pouvoirs re^ 
pectifs, trouves en bonne et due former 
sont convenus des Articles suivans: 



There shall be reciprocal liberty of 
commerce between all the dominions 
of the two High Contracting P^ies ; 
and the subjects of each of them shall, 
throughout the whole extent of the 
territories of the other, enjoy the same 
rights, privileges, liberties, favours, 
immunities, and exemptions, in matters 
of commerce, which are or may be 
enjoyed by native subjects. 

II y aura liberty reciproque de com- 
merce entre tons les ^tats des deux 
Hautes Parties Cbntractantes ; et les 
sujets de chacune d'elles, dans toute 
Textension des territoires de Tautre, 
jouiront des m^mes droits, privileges, 
libert^s, feveurs, immunites, et exemp- 
tions, en matiere de commerce, doijt 
jouissent ou jouiront les nationaux. 


All merchandize and articles of com- 
merce, the produce or manufacture 
either of the Kingdom of Sardinia or 
of any other country, which are or may 
be legally importable into the ports of 
the United Kingdom of Great Britain 
and Ireland, its colonies and posses- 
sions, in British vessels, may likewise 
be imported into those ports in Sardi- 
nian vessels, without being liable to 
any other or higher duties, of whatever 
denomination, than if such merchan- 
dize or productions were imported in 
British vessels ; and reciprocally, all 
merchandize and articles of commerce, 
the produce or manufacture either of 
the United Kingdom of Great Britain 
and Ireland, its colonies and posses- 
sions, or of any other country, which 
are or may be legally importable into 
the Kingdom of Sardinia in Sardinian 
vessels, may likewise be imported into 
tliose ports in British vessels, without 
being liable to any other or higher 
duties, of whatever denomination, than 
if such merchandize or productions 
were imported in Sardinian vessels. 

The said reciprocal equality of treat- 
ment shall take effect without distinc- 
tion, whether such merchandize come 
directiy from the place erf origin^ or 
ftom any other place. 


Toutes les marchandises et objets d» 
commerce, soit productions du sol ou 
de I'industrie du Royaume de Saiv 
daigne, soit de tout autre pays, domt 
Timportation dans les ports du Roy- 
aume Uni de la Grande Bretagne et 
d'Irlande, ses colonies et possessions^ 
est ou sera l^galement permise sur des 
hatimens Britanniques, pourront ^gele^i^ 
ment y 6tpe import^es sur des b^timens 
Sardes, sans Stre assujetties k d autres 
ou a de plus forts droits, de quelque 
denomination que ce soit, que si les 
m^mes marchandises ou productions 
avaient ^t^ import6es sur des b^timens 
Britanniques; et r^ciproquement, toutes 
les marchandises et objets de commerce, 
soit productions du sol ou de Tindustrie 
du Royaume Uni de la Grande Bre-^ 
tagne et d'Irlande, et ses colonies et 
possessions, soit de tout autre pays, 
dont rimportation dans le Royaume 
de Sardaigne est ou sera l^galement 
permise sur des b&timens Sardes, pomiw 
ront ^galement y ^tre import^es sw 
des b&timens Briteinniques, sans ^tre 
assujetties k d'autres ou k de plus forts 
droits, de quelque denomination que ee 
soit, que si les m^mtes marchandises oa 
productions avaient ^ import^ sop 
des b&timens Sardes. 

Cette egalite de traitement r^cip^roqua 
sera appliqu^e indistinctement, soit que 
oes marchandises arrivent direotemeot 
de Tendroit de production, soitqu'dhui 
arrivent d'un autre endroit qij^coi^ 

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The same reciprocal equality of 
treatinent shall take effect in regard to 
all that concerns exportation and tran- 
sit, without distinction as to origin or 
destination ; and also in regard to boun- 
ties, facilities, and drawbacks, which are 
or may hereafter be granted by the 
l^islation of the two countries. 

La mfime ^gaht^ de traitement r^i- 
proque aura lieu pour tout ce qui a 
trait aux exportations et transits, sans 
distinction de provenance ou de destina^ 
tion, et pour tout ce qui a ^gard aux 
primes, facilites, et drawbacks que la 
legislation des deux pays a ^tablis» ou 
pourrait 6tablir par la suite. 


Her Majesty the Queen of the United 
Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland 
engages that the commerce of Sardinian 
subjects in the dominions of Her Bri- 
tannic Majesty shall not suffer any 
interruption, nor be in any manner 
affected by any monopoly, contract, or 
exclusive privilege of sale or purchase, 
BO that Sardinian subjects shall have 
ftdl and entire liberty to sell and buy 
^rherever they may think fit, and in 
any ipanner which may be deemed con- 
yenient by the seller or buyer, and 
without being subject to any prejudice 
in consequence of any such monopoly, 
contract, or exclusive privilege of sale 
or purchase; and His Majesty the 
King of Sardinia engages that a Hke 
freedom from restraint in regard to sale 
and purchase shall be enjoyed by Bri- 
tish subjects in the Sardinian domi- 
nions ; the existing Crown monopolies 
of tobacco, salt, gunpowder, ball and 
shot, and playing cards, being excepted. 


Sa Majesty la Reine du Royaume 
Uni de la Grande Bretagneetd'lrlande 
prend Tengagement que le commerce 
des sujets Sardes dans les Etats de Sa 
Majesty Britonnique ne subisse aucune 
interruption, ou ne puisse en aucune 
mani^re 6tre atteint par le fait de quel- 
que monopole, contrat, ou privilege 
exclusif de vente ou d'achat quelcon- 
que, de mani^re k ce que les sujets 
Sardes aient faculty pleine et entifere 
de vendre ou d'acheter partout oil il 
leur plaira, et en toutes formes jug^es 
plus convenables par le vendeur ou 
I'acheteur, et sans fitre obliges de subir 
aucune consequence de quelque mono- 
pole, contrat, ou privilege exclusif de 
vente ou d'achat ; et Sa Majest6 le Roi 
de Sardaigne s'engage k ce que sem- 
blable affranchissement de toute g^ne 
relative aux ventes et achats soit garanti 
aux sujets Britanniques dans les Etats 
Sardes, k Texception des monopoles 
actuels dela Couronne de tabac, de sel, 
de poudre, de plombs de chasse et de 
guerre, et de cartes k jouer. 


No duties of tonnage, harbour, light- 
house, pilotage, quarantine, or other 
similar or corresponding duties, of what- 
ever nature or under whatever denomi- 
nation, levied in the name or for the 
profit of the Government, public fimc- 
tionaries, communes, corporations, or 
establishments of whatever kind, shall 
be imposed in the ports of either 
country upon the vessels of the other 
country, from whatever port or place 
arriving, which shall not be equally 
imposed in the hke cases on national 
vessels; and in neither country shall 
any duty, charge, restriction, or prohi- 
bition, be imposed upon, nor any draw- 
back, bounty, or allowance, be with- 
held from, any goods imported into or 
exported from such country in vessels 


Aucun droit de tonnage, de port, de 
phare, de pilotage, de quarantaine, ou 
autres droits semblables ou dquivalens, 
de quelque nature ou sous quelque 
denomination que ce soit, per5u au 
nom ou au profit du Gouvernement, 
des fonctionnaires publics, des com* 
munes, corporations, ou ^tabhssemens 
quelconques, ne sera impost dans les 
ports de chacun des deux pays sur les 
navires de Tautre nation, arrivant d'un 
port ou endroit quelconque, qui ne sera 
pas ^galement impost en pareil cas sur 
des navires nationaux ; et dans chacun 
des deux pays aucun droit, charge, 
restriction, ou prohibition, ne sera im- 
post, ni aucun remboursement de droit, 
prime, ou avantage, ne sera refus^ k 
aucune marchandise import^e dans oil 

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of the other, which shall not be equally exports de ces m^ined pays itop des 

imposed upon or withheld from such 
^ods, when so imported or exported 
m national vessels. 

narires de Tautre^ qui lie Mh^ ^de- 
ment impost sur ces mSmed mar- 
chandises, ou refuse k ces m^es 
marchandises, import^ ou export^a 
sur des navires nationaux. 


All vessels which according to the 
laws of Great Britain are to be deemed 
British vessels, and all vessels which 
according to the laws of the Kingdom 
of Sardinia are to be deemed Sar- 
dinian vessels, shall, for the purposes 
of this Treaty, be deemed British ves- 
sels and Sardinian vessels respectively. 


Tons les navires qui d'apr^ les loifi 
de la Grande Bretagne sont consid^^ 
comme navires Anglais, et tons les 
navires qui d'apr^s les lois du Royaume 
de Sardaigne sont consid^r^s comme 
navires Sardes, seront, quant aux effete 
du pr^ent Traits, d^clarfe respective- 
ment navires Britanniqueset Sardes. 


In all that regards the stationing, 
the loading, and unloading of vessels 
in the ports, basins, docks, roadsteads, 
harbours, or rivers of the two countries, 
no privilege shall be granted to national 
vessels* which shall not be equally 
granted to vessels of the other country; 
the intention of the Contracting Parties 
being that in this respect also, the 
respective vessels shall be treated on 
the footing of perfect reciprocity. 


En tout ce qui conceme le placement 
des navires, leur chargementetd&harge- 
ment, dans les ports, bassins, do<^8> 
rades, h&vres ou rivieres des deux ^tats, 
il ne sera accord^ aucun privilege aux 
navires nationaux, qui ne le soit ^gal6- 
ment k ceux de Tautre ^tat ; la volont€ 
des Parties Contractantes ^tant que, 
sous ce rapport aussi, les bdtimens 
respectifs soient trait^s sur le pied 
d*une parfaite reciprocity. 


The vessels of each of the two 
countries shall be at liberty either to 
discharge the whole of their cargo at 
one of the ports of the dominions 
of the other Contracting Party, or to 
discharge part of their cargo at one 
port, and then to proceed with the 
remainder to other ports of the said 
dominions, according as the captain, 
proprietor, or other person duly au- 
thorized to act in the port as agent for 
the vessel and cargo, shall consider 


Les b^timens de Tun des deux ^tats 
pourront decharger en totality leur 
cargaison dans un des ports des ^tats 
de Tautre Haute Partie Contractante, 
ou decharger une partie de leur car- 
gaison dans un port, et se rendre 
ensuite avec le reste dans les autres 
ports du m6me ^tat, selon que le 
capitaine, le propri^taire, ou telle autre 
personne qui serait d&ment autorisfe 
dans le port h agir dans Tint^r^t du 
b&timent ou de la cargaison, le jugera 


It is expressly understood that the 
preceding Articles do not apply to the 
coasting trade, which each Contracting 
Party reserves to itself, and shall regu- 
late according to its own laws. 


If any vessel of war or merchant 
vessel of either of the two countries 


II est express^ment entendu que les 
Articles pr^c^dens ne sont pas appli- 
cables an commerce de cabotage, que 
chaque Partie Contractante se reserve k 
elle-m6me, et r^glera d*aprfes ses pro- 
pres lois. 


S'il arrivait que quelque vaisseau de 
guerre ou navire marchand de Fun des 

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shqukl be wrecked upon the coasts of 
the other, such vessel, or any parts 
iher^f, and all furniture and appi^rte- 
.nances beloDtging thereunto^ as well as 
all goods and merchandize which shall 
be saved therefroin, or the proceeds 
thereof, if sold, shsJl be faithfully re* 
stored to the proprietors or to their 
agents, on being claimed by them. In 
case there should be no such proprie- 
tors or agents upon the spot, the said 
articles and goods, or the proceeds 
thereof, as well as all the papers 
found on board of any such vessel, 
shall be delivered to the British or 
Sardinian Consul in whose district 
the wreck shall have taken place ; and 
such Consul, proprietors, or agents, 
shall not be called upon to pay any 
charge but the expenses incurred in 
the preservation of the property, and 
the rate of salvage which would be 
equally payable in the like case of a 
wreck of a national vessel. The goods 
and merchandize saved from the wreck 
shall not be subject to the established 
duties, unless cleared for consumption. 


In all that relates to duties of cus* 
toms and of navigation, the two 
High Contracting Parties engage that 
any privilege, favour, or immunity 
which either of them may grant to any 
other Power, shall be also and at the 
same time extended to their respective 
subjects, gratuitously, if the concession 
in favour of that other State shall have 
been gratuitous, or on giving a com- 
pensation as nearly as possible of 
equal value and effect, to be ad- 
justed by mutual agreement, if the 
concession shall have been conditional. 

It is however expressly agreed, that 
the reductions in the duties of customs 
which have been conceded by Sardinia 
to Belgium by the Treaty concluded 
with that Power at Turin on the 24th 
of January, 1851, and which are speci- 
fied in the Table annexed to the present 
Treaty, shall, from and after the 1st 
of June, 1851, be extended to Great 
Britain, in compensation for the ad- 
vantages granted to Sardinia by the 
present Treaty. 

deux Etats fit naufrage sur les c6teft 
de I'autre, ce Mtiment, ou ses parties^ 
ou debris, ses agr^s et tous les objets 
qui y appartiendront, ainsi que tous le» 
effete et marchandises qui en auront 
6t6 sauv^s, ou le produit de leur vente, 
en seront iid^lement rendus aux pro- 
pri^taires ou h leurs ayant-droit, sur 
leur reclamation, Dans le cas oil 
ceux-ci se trouveraient absens, les dits 
objets, marchandises, ou leurs produits, 
seront consign^, ainsi que tous les 
papiers trouv^s h bord de ce bfttiment, 
au Consul Britannique ou Sarde, dans 
le district duquel le naufi'age aura eu 
lieu ; et il ne sera exige, soit du Consul, 
soit des propri^taires ou ayant-droit, 
que le payement des d^penses pour la 
conservation de la propri^t^, et la taxe 
du sauvetage qui serait ^galement 
pay^e en pareille circonstance par un 
b^timent national. Les marchandises 
et effete sauv^s du naufi:age ne seront 
assujettis aux droits ^tablis qu'autant 
qu'ils seraient d^clar^s pour la consom- 


En tout ce qui conceme les droite de 
douane et de navigation, les deux 
Hautes Parties Contractantes s'obligent 
et s'engagenl que tout privilege, faveur, 
ou immunity que chacune d'elles 
viendra k accorder k tout autre Etat, 
sera aussi, et a I'instant, ^tendu k leurs 
sujete respectifs, gratuitement, si la 
concession en faveur de Tautre Etat est 
gratuite, ou en donnant une compen- 
sation autant que possible de valeur et 
effet Equivalent, k fixer de commun ac- 
cord, si la concession est conditionnelle. 

II est toutefois expressEmentconvenu, 
que les r^uctions de douane accord^es 
par la Sardaigne k la Belgique, dans le 
Traits conclu avec cette Puissance h 
Turin le 24 Janvier, 1851, et qui se 
trouvent spEcifiEes dans le Tableau an- 
nexi au present Traits, seront, k partir 
du ler Juin, 1851, Etendues k la 
Grande Bretagne, en compensation des 
avantages accordfe k la Sardaigne par 
le present Traits. 



Each of the High Contracting Parties Chacune des Hautes Parties Con- 
shall have the right to name Consuls tractantes aura le droit de nommer des 
for the protection of trade, to reside Consuls pour la protection du com- 
within the dominions and territories of merce^ afin de r^sider dans les Etate ou 

Digitized by 



fheother Party ; andtheConsulswhomay 
be 110 appointed shall enjoy, within the 
ftnitories of each Party, all the privi- 
)eges,exemptions,and immunities which 
are or may be granted in those terri- 
tories to agents of the same rank 
and character appointed by or autho- 
rised to act for the Government of the 
most favoured nation. 

Before any Consul can act as such, 
he must, however, in the usual form 
be approved and admitted by the 
Government of the country to which 
he is sent ; and each of the two High 
Contracting Parties shall have the 
right to except from the residence of 
Consuls, any particular places which 
either of them may judge proper to be 

territoires de Tautre Partie; et les Con- 
suls qui seront nomm^ ainsi jouiroat, 
dans le territoire de chaque Parties ^ 
tons les privileges, exemptions, et im- 
munit^s qui sont ou peuvent fitre ae- 
cordis dans ces ^tats aux agens (hi 
mSme rang et caract^re nomm^ ou 
autoris^ par le Gouvernement de la 
nation la plus favoris^e. 

Avant que quelque Consul puiss^ 
agir comme tel, il devra Stre approUv^ 
et admis, dans les formes usit^s, par le 
Gouvernement aupi*^s duquel il est en- 
voy^; et chacune des Hautes Parttes 
Contractantes aura la faculty d'ex- 
cepter de la rfeidence des Consuls, teb 
endroits sp^iaux que chacune d'elles 
pourra juger k propos d'excepter. 


The subjects of each of the High 
Contracting Parties may freely dispose 
by will, donation, or otherwise, of all 
the property which they may legally ac- 
quire and possess in the territories of the 
other; and their lawful representatives, 
although subjects of the other Con- 
tracting Party, may succeed to such 
property either by will or ab intestato, 
and may, in due course of law, take pos- 
session of the same, either in person, 
or by persons acting on their behalf; 
and they may dispose of the same at their 
pleasure, paying only such imposts, 
taxes, or duties, as the inhabitants of 
the country in which such property is 
situated, are liable to pay in similar 

In case of the absence of representa- 
tives, the same rule shall be observed 
as is prescribed in the like case, with re- 
gard to the property of natives of the 
country, until the owner shall have 
made the necessary arrangements for 
taking possession of the property. 

If any dispute should arise between 
different claimants with respect to the 
right which they may have to the 
property, such disputes shall be deci- 
ded by the judges according to the 
laws of the country in which the pro- 
perty is situated, and without further 
appeal than is provided for by those 


The subjects of either of the two 
High Contracting Parties residing in 
the dominions of the other, shall have 


Les sujets de chacune des Hautes 
Parties Contractantes poiuront disposw 
librement par testament, donation^ oU; 
autrement, de tons les biens qii'ilft 
auraient pu acqu^rir et poss^der 16- 
galement dans les Etats de Pautre; et 
ceux qui les reprdsentent d'apr^s les 
lois, quoique sujets de Tautre Partie 
Contractante, poiu'ront hunter de ce& 
propri^t^s, soit par testament, soit ah 
intestatOy et ils pourront, dans les^ 
termes fixds par la loi, en prendre po^ 
session par eux-m6mes ou par des per- 
sonnes agissant en leur nom; ils en 
disposeront k leur gr^, en payant seule* 
ment les impositions, taxes ou droits 
auxquels seraient, en semblable casj 
assujettis les habitans du pays ou les 
propridtds existent* 

Dans le cas d'absence des h^ritiers, 
on devra suivre la m^me r^gle qui, en 
semblable cas, est prescrite k regard 
des propri^t^s des natifs du pays, 
jusqu'^ ce que les ayant-droit aient 
fait les arrangemens n^cessaires pour en 
prendre possession. 

Si des contestations s'^levaient entre 
les divers postulans au sujet du droit 

Ju'ils auraient k ces propriet^s, elles 
evront ^tre r^solues par les juges sui- 
vant les lois du pays oii les propri^t^s 
sont situ^es, et sans autre appel que 
celui pr^vu par les mfimes lois. 


Les sujets de I'une des Hautes Par- 
ties Contractantes rfeidant dans les 
€tats de Pautre seront respectivement 

Digitized by 


the same liberty as natives to manage 
their own affairs themselves, or to com- 
mit them to the management of any 
other . persons, as brokers, factors, 
agen&, or interpreters ; they shall 
not be restrained in their choice, and 
shall not be obliged to pay any salary 
or remmieration to any person whom 
they shall not choose to employ in 
those capacities : buyers and sellers 
being at perfect liberty to bargain to- 
gether, and to fix the price of any 
goods or merchandize imported or des- 
tinerf for exportation ; on condition of 
observing the regulations and the cus- 
toms laws of the country. 

libres de r^gler comme les nationaux 
leurs affaires par eux-m6mes, ou de les 
confier aux soins de toute autre per- 
Sonne, telle que courtiers, facteurs, 
agens, ou interprfetes ; ils ne pormront 
Stre contraints dans leur choix, et ils 
ne seront tenus h payer aucun salabe 
ni aucune retribution k ceux , qu'ils 
n'auront pas jug^ h propos d*^empmyer 
h cet effet : ^ant absohiment facultatif 
aux vendeurs et acheteurs de con- 
tractcr ensemble leur mafch^ et de 
fixer le prix de toutes denr^ <m mar- 
chandises import^es ou destin^ a 
I'exportation, sous la condition de wm 
conformer auy r^glemens et aux lois 
de douane du pays. 


The stipulations of the present Treaty 
shall be substituted for the stipulations 
©f the Treaty between the two High 
Contracting Parties signed at Turin on. 
the lOtk of September, 1841, as well 
as of the Convention additional to that 
Treaty, which was signed at London 
«D the 23rd of January, 1851. 

The present Treaty shall be in force 
for twelve years from the date of the 
exchange of the ratifications thereof; 
and further, until the end of twelve 
months after either of the two Con- 
trasting Parties shall have given notice 
to the other of its intention to termi* 
uste the same ; each of the Contract- 
ing Parties reserving to itself the right 
of giving such notice to the other at 
the end of the said term of twelve 
]|Gears, or at any subsequent time. 


Les stipulations du present Traitd 
remplaceront ceUes du Traite entre 1^ 
deux Hautes Parties Contractanteg 
conclu Jt Turin le 10 Septembre, 1841,. 
ainsi que de la Convention additionneUe 
k ce Traite, qui a 6t4 sign^e k Londres 
le 23 Janvier, 1851. 

Le present Traits sera en vigueur 
pendant douze ans k compter de la 
date de T&hange des ratifications, et 
au del^ de ce terme jusqu'^ Texpira* 
tion de douze mois apr^s que Tune 
des deux Parties Contractantes aura 
annonce a Tautre son intention de la 
faise cesser; chacune des Parties se 
reservant le droit de faire k Tautre une 
telle declaration au bout des douze aoH 
susmentionnes, ou k toute date ult4* 


The present Treaty shall be ratified, 
and the ratifications shall be exchanged 
at London as soon as may be within 
the space of two months from the date 
q£ lia signature. 

In witness whereof, the respective 
Plenipotentii^es have signed the same, 
and have affixed thereto the seals of 
their arms. 

Bone at London, the twenty-seventh 
day of February, in the year of our 
Lord one thousand eight hundred and 





Le present Traits sera ratifi^, et les 
ratifications en seront ^chang^es k Lon- 
dres le plus tot possible dans Tespace 
de deux mois, k compter du jour de la 

En foi de quoi les Pl^nipotentiaires 
respectifs I'ont sign^, et y ont appos^ 
le cachet de leurs armes. 

Fait a Londres, le vingt-sept F^vrier, 
Fan de gr&ce mil huit cent cinquante et 



(L.S.) V. E. D'AZEGLIO. 

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Au Traits entre la Orande Bretagne et la Sardaigne^ sign^a Londres, le 

27 Fevrier, 1851. 

Tableau des Reductions du Tarif de Dauanes parties dans le TraiU entre la 
Sardaigne et la Belgiquey signd a Turin, le 24 Janvier, 185L 

(a.) Zinc; en plaques, en barres, ou en saumons (toutenagues); zinc laming: 
i^uction de moiti^ des droits actuels. 

(6.) Cuivre; en pains, en rosettes, en fonds de chaudi^re, en plaques ; cuivre 
ouvre et non ferr^: mSme reduction, 

(c.) Fer; fonte ouvr^ simple, coussinets pour chemins de fer, fr. 8 00 au 
lieu de fr, 15*00 les 100 kil.; fonte gamie d'autres m^taux, fr. 12'00 au lieu de 
fr. 25'00; fer de premiere fabrication, rails, fr. 10*00 au lieu de fr. 1 6*00; de secoAde 
fabrication, fr. 1500 au lieu de fr. 3000; garni d'autres m^ux, fr. 2000 au lieu 
de fr.4000; ancres, canons, fr. 10*00 au lieu de fr. 20*00; instrumens propres aux 
arts m^caniques, fr. 12*50 au lieu de fr. 25,00; clous de toute esp^ce, chevilles, 
etc., fr. 12*50 au lieu de fr. 25*00 et de fr. 7000; machines et m^caniques, 
fr. 500 au lieu de fr. 10*00; faux, faucilles, ou serpettes, fers k repasser, etc 
fr. 12*50 au lieu de fr. 25*00 ; enclimies, massues, socs de chamie, fr. 1000 au 
lieu de fr. 20*00 ; ressorts de voiture et similaires, fr. 30*00 au lieu de fr. 60*00; 
vis de fer de toute esp^e, fr. 12*50 au lieu de fr. 25*00 ; fils de fer, fr. 10*00 au 
lieu de fr. 2000 par 100 kil. 

(rf.) Armes blanches de toute esp^ce: reduction de moiti^. Canons de fusils 
de chasse, fr. 100 au lieu de fr. 2*00 la pitee; canons de pistolets, fr. 0*35 au lieu 
de fr. 0'7.^> la pi^ce. 

(e.) Verres et cristaux ; miroirs de toute dimension non rnont^, fr. 25*00 
au lieu de fr. 6000 les 100 kil. ; cristaux de toute esp^ce, fr. 1500 au lieu de 
fr. 4000 par 100 kil. ; glaces et verres k vitre, fr. 15*00 au lieu de fr. 2500 par 
100 kil. ; verres ouvres de toute esp^ce, fr. 15*00 au lieu de fr. 18*00 par 
100 kil.; bouteilles d'un litre et au-dessus, demi-bouteilles, damejeannes sans 
distinction de capacity, bouteilles nomm^es /ewcAi, reduction de moiti^. 

(/.) Porcelaine en couleur, ou dor^e, fr. 3000 au lieu de fr. 50*00 ; blanche, 
fr. 2500 par 100 kil. ; poterie de terre ordinaire, fr. 300 au lieu de fr. 4*00 par 
100 kil.; faience en ouvrages divers: blanche, fr. 8*00 au lieu de fr. 12*00; 
peinte, dor^e, ou colorize, fr. 12*00 au lieu de fr. 2000. 

{g.) Papier de pSlte de couleur et blanc de toute quality, fr. 30*00 au lieu 
de fr. 50*00 par 100 kil. ; colori^ ou dor^, fr. 40*00 au lieu de fr. 65*00; imprim^, 
dessin^ ou peint pour tenture, fr. 5000 au lieu de fr. 100*00 ; brouillard, fr. 20*00 
au lieu de fr. 50 00 ; gi-ossier, pour enveloppes, fr. 10*00 au Ueu de fr. 2000. 

(A.) Livres, en feuilles ou brochfe, fr. 30*00 au lieu de fr. 50*00 par 100 kil. ; 
relics en carton, etc., fr. 6000 au lieu de fr. 10000. 

(i.) Sucre raffing de toute espfece, fr. 2500 au lieu de fr. 45*00 les 100 kil. 

Ij.) Cuirs et peaux prepar^es, fr. 66*66 au lieu de fr. 100*00 ; peaux 
chamois^es, fr. 75 00 au lieu de fr. 15000. 

(/f.) Fils de laine ou de poil quelconque, blancs ou naturels, fr. 0*60 au 
lieu de fr. 1*10 le kil. ; teint, fr. 0*80 au lieu de fr. 1*60. 

(Z.) Tissus de laine foulfe et drapes ou non, de la valeur de 10 fr. par m^tre 
et au-dessus, y compris les similaires, tels que casimirs, etc., fr. 3*00 le kil. au 
lieu de fr. 3*30, avec suppression des 10 pour cent i la valeur ; de moins de 
10 fr. par mfetre, fr. 2*00 au lieu de fr. 4*50; tapis et couvertures de bourre de 
laine, lambeaux et lisiferes de drap, fr. 1*00 au lieu de fr. 2*00 le kil. ; de toute 
autre quality, fr. 100 au lieu de fr. 3*00. 

(m.) Lin teill^ ou peign^ : reduction de moitid 

(n.) Fils de lin et de chanvre, de toute qualite : mSme reduction. 

(o.) Tissus de lin et de chanvre, de toute quality, &rus ou blanchis, mSme 
melanges de coton ou de laine, croises ou autrement ouvragfe, ^rus, blanchis 
ou m^ang^s de blanc : m^me r^uction ; dentelles de toutes qualites : m§me 

(jp.) Fils de coton, infi^rieurs au No. 20, fr. 0*20 au lieu de fr. 0*90 ; du 

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No. 20 au No. 40, fir. 0-40 au lieu de fr. 0*90 ; du No. 40 au No. 60, fr. 0-60 au 
lieu de fir. 0*75 ; d'un No. sup^rieur, fir. 0*76 ; retore de toute quality, fr. 0*75 au 
lieu dc fir, 1*20 ; blanchis ou teints^de toutCvqualite, fi-.O'SO au lieu de i'r. I '80. 

(q.) Tissus de coton, infime mflangfe de fil ou de laine, unis, croises, ou 
autrqpeut Quyra^s, ^^crvis, blanchis, en couleurs ou teints, imprimfe, &c. : 
r&iuction de moitie. .- . 

(r.) Morue : reduction de 25 pour cent. 

Le droit h, la sortie sur les marchandises suivantes dirigces des Etats 
Sarrffes Ters Ife Belgique sera r^uit, savoir : 

Celui sur les soies gr^ges, k ft*. 1*50 ; celui sur les peaux brutes d'agneaux, 
k fr. 15*00 ; sur les peaux de chevreaux, k fr. 30 00. 




To the Treaty between Great Britain and Sardinia, siyned at London^ 

February 27, 1851. 

Table of Reductions in the Tariff of Customs stipulated by the Treaty between 
Sardinia and Belgium, signed at Turin, January 24, 1851. 

(a.) Zinc; in plates, in bars, or in pigs (mixed with other metal, toutenagues); 
rolled zinc : a reduction of half the present duties. 

(6.) Copper ; in cakes, rose ' copper, copper boilers ; in plates, copper 
wrought, and not tinned (nonferr^): the same reduction. 

(c.) Iron; plain castings {fonte ouvr^e simple) ^ chairs for railways, fr. 8*00 
instead of fir. 15 00 the 100 kilogrammes; castings mounted with other metals, 
fr. 1200 instead of 25*00 ; wrought ironof first manufacture, rails, fr. 1000 instead 
of 1 600; of second manufacture, fi*. 1 5*00 instead of 30'00 ; mounted with other 
metals, fr.2000 mstead of 40-00; anchors, cannon, fr. 10-00 instead of 20-00; 
implements for the mechanical arts, fi*. 12-50 instead of 25-00 ; nails of all kinds, 
spiKes, &c., fir. 12-50 instead of fr. 25-00 and fir. 70-00 ; machines and machinery, 
fi*. 5-00 instead of 10-00; scythes, reaping-hooks, or pruning-knives, smoothing 
irons, &c., fr. 12'50 instead of fi*. 25-00 ; anvils, hammers, ploughshares, fir. 1000 
instead of 20-00 ; carriage-springs, and the like, fr. 30-00 instead of fr. 6000 ; 
iron screws of all kinds, fr. 12*50 instead of fi*. 2500 ; iron wire, fi*. 10*00 instead 
of fr. 20:00 the 100 kilogrammes. 

(rf.) Steel arms of all kinds: reduction of half; barrels of fowling-pieces, 
fr. 1-00 instead of fr. 2*00 ; barrels of pistols, fr.0-35 instead of fr. 0*75 each. 

(e.) Mirrors and flint-glass ; looking-glasses of everj'^ dimension, not in 
frames, fr. 25-00, instead of 60-00 the 100 kil. ; flint-glass of all kinds, fr. 1500, 
instead of fr. 40-00 the 100 kil. ; plate glass and window glass, fr. 15*00 instead 
of fr. 25-00 the 100 kil.; wrought glass {verres ouvr^s) of all kinds, fr. 15*00 
instead of fr. 18*00 the 100 kil. ; bottles containing one litre and upwards, half- 
bottles, demi-johns of all sizes, bottles called fiaschi : a reduction of half. 

(/.) Porcelain, coloured or gilt, fr. 3000 instead of fr. 50*00 ; white, 
fr. 25.00 the 100 kil. ; common earthenware, fr.3'00 instead of fr. 400 the 100 
kil.; delft ware {faience) of various kinde ; white, fr. 8*00 instead of fr. 1200; 
painted, gilt, or coloured, fr. 12*00 instead of fr. 2000. 

(jr.) Paper, colom^d in the pulp, or white, of all qualities, fr. 30*00 instead 
of fr. 5000 the 100 kil. ; coloured or gilt, fr. 40-00 instead of fr. 65*00; printed, 
ornamented, or painted, for hanging, fr. 5000 instead of fr. 100-00; blotting, fr, 
20-00 instead of fr. 50*00 ; coarse, for packing, fr. lO'OO instead of fr. 20'00. 

(A.) Books, in sheets or stitched, fr. 3000 instead of fr. 5000 the 100 kil.; 
bound in boards, &c., fr. 60-00 instead of fr. 10000. 

(t.) Refined sugar of all kinds, fr. 25'00 instead of fr. 45-00 the 100 kil. 

Digitized by 



(j.) Leather and prepared skins, fr. 66' 66 instead of fr. 100*00 ; shgmoyed 
skins, fr. 75-00 instead of fr. 15000. 

(k.) Yam of wool or hair of any kind, white or natural, fr. 060 infftead of 
1-10 the kil. ; dyed, fr. 0-80 instead of fr. 1-60. 

(Z.) Tissues of wool milled and dressed {foul6s et drapds)^ ot not, of the 
value of 10 fr. the metre and upwards, including similar articles, such as 
cassimeres, &c., fr. 3*00 the kil. instead of fr. 3'30, suppressing, moreover, the 
10 per cent, ad valorem; of less value than 10 fr. the metre, 2*00 instead of 
4-50 ; carpets and coverlids of reftise of wool, scraps and list of cloth, fr. I'OO 
instead of fr. 2*00 the kil. ; of any other quality, fr. 1*00 instead of fr. 300. 

(m.) Flax, carded or combed {teilU ou peigne) : a reducticm of half. 

(n.) Yarn of flax or hemp, of any quality ; the same reduction. 

(o.) Tissues of flax and of hemp, of any quality, bleached or unbleached; 
also mixed with cotton or wool, twilled (croises) or otherwise wrought, unbleached, 
bleached, or mixed with white : the same reduction. Lace of any quality : the 
same reduction. 

(p.) Cotton yam, inferior to No. 20, fr. 020 instead of fr. 0*90 ; from 
No. 20 to No. 40, fr. 0-40 instead of fr. 090 ; from No. 40 to No. 60, fr. 060 
instead of 0*75 ; of a higher No. fr. 0'75 ; twists of any quality, fr, 075 instead 
of fr. 120 ; bleached or dyed, of any quality, fr. 0*80 instead of 1-80. 

(5.) Tissues of cotton, also mixed with flax or wool, simple, twiUed {craises)^ 
or otherwise wrought, unbleached, bleached, in colour or dyed, printed, &c. : a 
reduction of half. 

(r.) Cod-fish: a reduction of 25 per cent. 

The duty on the exportation of the following articles from the Sardinian 
dominions to Belgium, shall be reduced as follows: 

Upon raw silk, to fr. 1'60; upcm raw lamb-skins, to fr. 15*00; upon 
kid-skins, to fr. 30-00. 


Declaration made on the exchange of the Ratificaiiom of the freceding Treaty. 


IN proceeding to the exchange of 
the ratifications of the Treaty of Com- 
merce and Navigation between Her 
Majesty the Queen of the United 
Kingfdom of Great Britain and Ireland, 
and His Majesty the King of Sardinia, 
which was signed at London on the 
27th of February, 1851, the Under- 
signed, Plenipotentiaries of Her Britan- 
nic Majesty and of His Majesty the 
King of Sardinia, have received the 
commands of their respective Sove- 
reigns to declare as follows : 

The Ionian Islands being unda* the 
protection of Her Britannic Majesty, 
the subjects and vessels of those islands 
shall enjoy, in the dominions of His 
Majesty the King of Sardinia, all the 
advantages which by the above-men- 
mentioned Treaty are granted to the 
subjects and vessels of Great Britain, 


EN proc^dant k T^change des rati- 
fications du Traits de Commerce et 
de Navigation entre Sa Majeste la 
Reine du Royaume Uni de la Grande 
Bretagne et dlrlande, et Sa Majesty le 
Roi de Sardaigne, qui a Hi si^^ & 
LcMidres le 27 F^vrier, 1851, les bous- 
sign€s, Pl^nipotentiaires de Sa M^esti^ 
Britannique et de Sa Majest6 le Roi 
de Sardaigne, ont regu les ordres de 
leurs Souverains respectife Jt declarer 
ainsi qu'il suit: 

Les lies loniennes se trouvant sous 
la protection de Sa Majesty Britan- 
nique, les sujets et les navires de ces 
iles jouiront, dans les ^tats de Sa 
Majesty Sarde, de tons les avantages 
qui sont accord6s par le Traits sus- 
mentionn^ aux sujets et aux navires 
de la Grande Bretagne, ausaH6t que le 

Digitized by 



as soon as the Government of the Gouvemement des Hes loniennes sera 

Ionian Islands shall have agreed to convenu d'accorder anx sujets et aux 

grant to the subjects and vessels of navires de Sa Majeste Sarde les mimes 

His Sardinian Majesty the same ad- avantages qu'il accorde dans ces iles aux 

vantages which are granted in those sujets et aux navires de Sa Majest6 Byi- 

islands to the subjects and vessels of tannique; bien entendu, toutefois, que 

Her Britannic Majesty ; it being under- pour prevenir des abus^ tout navire 

stood^ that in order to prevent abuses, lonien qui sera dans le cas de r^clamer 

every Ionian vessel claiming the benefits les bienfaits de ce Traits sera muni 

of that Treaty shall be famished with d'une patente sign6e par le Lord Haut 

a patent signed by the Lord High Commissaire, ou par celui qui le repre- 

Commissioner, or by his representative, sente. 

The ratifications of the Treaty of Les ratifications du Traits du 27 

the 27th of February, 1851, are ex- F^vrier, 1851, sont ^changdes sauf la 

changed subject to the above Declara- Declaration sus-mentionnde. 

Done at London, the eighth day of Fait a Londres, le huit Avril, 1851. 
April, 1851- 



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> a 

58 o 

2 ^ 

o - 

a . 


I » 
5^ § 





• w 



a 2 
»- 3 

s* ^ 


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Signed at Madrid, March 16^ 1851. 

Presented to both Houses of Parliament by Command of Her Majesty. 

Julys, 1851. 



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.' • \ 

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Concordat between Spain and the Court of Rome* 

Lord Howden to Viscount Palmerston. — {Received May 23.) 

My Lord, Madrid, May 16, 1861. 

IN my despatch of the 24th December last, I informed your Lordship that 
a Concordat was in progress of negotiation between the Courts of Madrid and 
Rome. This document has now been officially promulgated in the Madrid 
Grazette of the 12th instant, of which I have the honour herewith to transmit 
two printed copies and a translation. 

I have, &c. 
(Signed) HOWDEK 


Concordat between Spain and the Court of Rome, of March 16, 1861. 

Concordato celebrado entre Su Santidad y Su Magestad Cat6lica,firmado en Madrid 
el 16 de Marzo, 1851, y ratificado por Su Magestad enl de Abril, y por Su 
Santidad en 23 del mismo. 

DESEANDO vivamente Su Santidad el Sumo Pontifice Pio IXproveeral bien 
de la religion y a la utilidad de la Iglesia de Espana con la solicitud pastoral con 
que atiende A todos los fieles Catolicos, y con especial benevolencia & la inclita y 
devota nacion Espaiiola ; y poseida del mismo deseo Su Magestad la Reina Cat6- 
lica Doiia Isabel II por la piedad y sincera adhesion a la Sede Apostolica, here- 
dadas de sus antecesores, han determinado celebrar un solemne Concordato, en 
el cual se arreglen todos los negocios eclesiasticos de una manera estable y 

A este fin Su Santidad el Sumo Pontifice ha tenido a bien nombrar por su 
Plenipotenciario al Excelentisimo Seiior Don Juan Brunelli, Arzobispo de Tesa- 
lonica, Prelado dom^stico de Su Santidad, Asistente al Solio Pontificio, y ISTuncio 
Apostolico en los Reinos de Espana con facultades de Legado a latere ; y Su 
Magestad la Reina Catolica al Excelentisimo Seuor Don Manuel Bertran de 
Lis, Caballero Gran Cruz de la Real y distinguida orden Espaiiola de Carlos III, 
de la de San Mauricio y San Lazaro de Cerdena, y de la de Francisco I de 
Napoles, Diputado a Cortes, y su Ministro de Estado : 

Quienes, despues de entregadas mutuamente sus respectivas plenipotencias, 
y reconocida la autenticidad de ellas, han convenido en lo siguiente : — 

Articulo I. La religion Catolica, Apostolica, Romana, que con exclusion de 
cualquiera otro culto continua siendo la unica de la nacion Espauola, se conser- 
vara siempre en los dominios de Su Magestad Catolica con todos los derechos y 
prerogativas de que debe gozar segim la ley de Dios y lo dispuesto por los 
sagrados Canones. 

II. En su consecuencia la instruccion en las universidades, colegios, semi- 
narios y escuelas publicas 6 privadas de cualquiera clase, sera en todo conforme 
& la doctrina de la misma religion Catolica, y a este fin no se pondrd impedimento 
alguno d losr Obispos y demas Prelados diocesanos encargados por su ministerio 
de velar sobre la pureza de la doctrina de la fe y de las costumbres, y sabre la 
educacion religiosa de la juventud en el ejercicio de este cargo, aun en las 
escuelas pubUcas. 

in. Tampoco se pondrd impedimento alguno d dichos Prelados ni A 
los demas sagrados Mmistros en el ejercicio de sus funciones, ni los moles* 
tar£ nadie hajo ningun pretexto en cuanto se refiera al cumplimiento de 
[179] B 

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les debercs de su cargo ; antes bien cuidardn todas las autoridades del 
reino de guardarles y de que se les guarde el respeto y consideracion 
debidos, segun los divinos preeeptos, y de que no se haga cosa alguna 
que pueda causarles desdoro 6 menospreeio. Su Magestad y su Real 
Gobiemo dispensaran asimismo su poderoso patrocinio y apoyo a los Obis- 
pos en los casos que le pidan, principalmente cuando hayan de oponerse d la 
malignidad de los hombres que intenten pervertir los dnimos de los fieles y 
corromper sus costumbres, 6 cuando hubiere de impedirse la publicacion, intro- 
duccion, 6 circulacion de libros malos y nocivos. 

IV. En todas las demas cosas que pertenecen al derecho y ejercicio de la 
autoridad eclesiastica y al ministerio de las ordenes sagradas, los Obispos y el 
Clero dependiente de ellos gozardn de la plena libertad que establecen los 
sagrados Canones. 

V. En atencion d las poderosas razones de necesidad y convenieneia que 
asi lo persuaden, para la mayor comodidad y utilidad espiritual de los fieles, se* 
hara una nueva division y circunscripcion de Diocesis en toda la Peninsula -f 
islas adyacentes. Y al efecto se conservaran las actuales Sillas metropolitanas 
de Toledo, Burgos, Granada, Santiago, Sevilla, Tarragona, Valencia, y Zaragpza^ 
J se elevara a esta clase la sufraganea de Valladolid. 

Asimismo se conserraran las Diocesis sufraganeas de Almeira, Astorga^ 
Avila, Badajoz, Barcelona, Cddiz, Calahorra, Canarias, Cartagena, Cordoba, 
Coria, Cuenca, Gerona, Guadix, Huesca, Jaen, Jaca, Leon, L^rida, Lugo, 
Malaga, iVjallorca, Menorca, Mondofiedo, Orense, Orihuela, Osma, Oviedo, 
Palencia, Pamplona, Plasencia, Salamanca, Santander, Segorve, Segovia, 
Sigiienza, Tarazona, Teruel, Tortosa, Tuy, Urgel, Vich, y Zamora. 

La Diocesis de Albarracin quedari unida a la de Teruel ; la de Barbastro 
d la de Huesca ; la de Ceuta a la de Cadiz ; la de Ciudad-Rodrigo a la de 
Salamanca ; la de Ibiza a la de Mallorca ; la de Solsona & la de Vich ; la de 
Tenerife a la de Canarias, y la de Tudela a la de Pamplona. 

Los Prelados de las Sillas a que se reunen otras anadiran al titulo de 
Obispos de la Iglesia que presiden el de aquella que se les une. 

Se erigiran nuevas Diocesis sufraganeas en Ciudad-Real, Madrid, y Vitoria* 

La Silla episcopal de Calahorra y la Calzada se trasladara 4 Logrono ; la 
de Orihuela a Alicante, y la de Segorve a Castellon de la Plana, cuando en 
estas ciudades se hallc todo dispuesto al efecto y se estime oportuno, oidos los 
respectivos Prelados y Cabildos. 

En los casos en que para el mejo servicio de alguna Diocesis, sea necesario 
un Obispo auxiliar, se proveerd a esta necesidad en la forma candnica acostum- 

De la misma manera se estableceran Vicarios-Generales en los puntos en 
que con motivo de la agregacion de Diocesis prevenida en este Articulo, 6 por 
otra justa causa se creyeren necesarios, oyendo a los respectivos Prelados. 

En Ceuta y Tenerife se estableceran desde luego Obispos auxiliares. 

VI. La distribucion de las Diocesis referidas, en cuanto a la dependencia 
de sus respectivas Metropolitanas, se hard como sigue : 

Serdn sufraganeas de la Iglesia Metropolitana de Burgos, las de Calahorra. 
6 Logrono, Leon, Osma, Palencia, Santander, y Vitoria. 

De la de Granada, las do Almeria, Cartagena, 6 Murcia, Guadix, Jaen, y 

De la de Santiago, las de Lugo, Mondonedo, Orense, Oviedo, y Tuy. 

De la de Sevilla, las de Badajoz, Cddiz, Cordoba, 6 Islas Canarias. 

De la de Tarragona, las de Barcelona, Gerona, L^rida, Tortosa, Urgel, 
J Vich. 

De la de Toledo, las de Ciudad-Real, Coria, Cuenca, Madrid, Plasencia, y 

De la de Valencia, las de Mallorca, Menorca, Orihuela 6 Alicante, y 
Segorve 6 Castellon de la Plana. 

De la de Valladolid, las de Astorga, Avila, Salamanca, Segovia, y Zamora. 

De la de Zaragoza, las de Huesca, Jaca, Pamplona, Tarazona, y Teruel. 

VII. Los nuevos limites y demarcacion particular de las mencionadas 
Diocesis se determinaran con la posible brevedad y del modo debido {seroatis- 
servandis) por la Santa Sede, 4 cuyo efecto delegare en el Nuncio Apost61ico en 
estos reinos las facultades neccsarias para llevar d cabo la expresada demarca-^ 
eion, entendi^ndose para ellt> {cottatis consiliis) con el Gobiemo de SQ' 

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VIII. Todos los RR. Obisposy etis Iglesiias reconocerin la.dependencia 
can6nica de los respectivos Metropolitanos, y en su virtud eesar&n las exe&- 
eiones de los Obispados de Leon y Oviedo. 

IX. Siendo por una parte necesario y urgente acudir con cl oportuno 
remedio a los graves inconvenientes que produce en la administracion eclesids^^ 
tica el territorio diseminado de las cuatro Oidenes Militates de Santiago, 
Calatiava, Alcantara, y Montesa, y debiendo por otra parte conservarse cuida- 
dosamente los gloriosos recuerdos de una institucion que tantos servicios ha 
hecbo 4 la Iglesia y al Estado, y las prerogativas de los Reyes de Espafia comb 
Grandes Maestres de las expresadas.Ordenes por concesion apost61ica, se design 
nara en la nueva demarcacion eclesifetico un detenninado numero de pueblog 
que formen coto redondo para que ejerza en ^1 como hasta aqui el Gran Maestre 
h, jurisdiccion eclesi^tica con entero arreglo a la expresada concesion y Bulas 

El nuevo territorio se titularfi Priorato de las Ordenes Militares, y el 
Prior tendra el cardcter episcopal con titulo de Iglesia in partibus. 

Los pueblos que actualmente pertenecen & dichas Ordenes Militares, y no 
se incluyan en su nuevo territorio, se incorporaran 4 las Diocesis respectivas. - 

X. Los M. RR. Arzobispos y RR. Obispos extenderdn el ejercicio de 
su autoridad y jurisdiccion ordinaria fi todo el territorio que en la nueva 
eircunscripcion quede comprendido en sus respectivas Diocesis; y por con- 
siguiente los que hasta ahora por cualquier titula la ejercian en distritos 
enclavados en otras Diocesis cesardn en ella. 

XL Cesardn tambien todas las jurisdicciones privilegiadas y exentas, cuales- 
quiera que scan su clase y denominacion, inclusa la de San Juan de Jerusalen« 
Sus actuales territories se reuniran a las respectivas Diocesis en la nueva 
demarcacion que se hara de ellas segun el Articulo VII, salvas las exenciones 
siguientes : 

1 . La del Pro-Capellan Mayor de Su Magestad. 

2. La Castrense. 

3. La de las cuatro Ordenes Militares de Santiago, Calatrava, Alcantara, 
y Montesa, en los terminos prefijados en el Articulo IX de este Concordato. 

4. La de los Prelados regulares. 

6. La del Nuncio Apostolico pro tempore en la iglesia y hospital de ItaIiaiM>s 
de esta Corte. 

Se conservar&n tambien las facultades especiales que corresponden d la 
Comisaria General de Cruzada en cosas de su cargo, en rirtud del Breve de dele- 
gacion y otras disposiciones apostolicas. 

XII. Se suprime la Colecturia General de espolios, vacantes y anualidades> 
quadando por ahora unida a la Comisaria General de Cruzada la comision para 
administrar los efectos vacantes, recaudar los atrasos y sustanciar a termmar 
los negocios pendientes. 

Qu^d^ asimismo suprimido el Tribunal Apostolico y Real de la Gracia del 

XIII. El Cabildo de las iglesias catedrales se compondrd del Dean, que 
ser4 siem'pre la primera Silla post pontijicalem; de cuatro Dignidades; a saber: 
la de Arcipreste, la de Arcediano, la de Cbantre y la de Maestrescuela, y 
ademas de la de Tesorero en las Iglesias metropolitanas, de cuatro Can6nig03 
de oficio ; d saber : (^1 Magistral, el Doctoral, el Lectoral, y el Penitenciario, y 
del niimero de Canonigos de gracia que se expresan en el Articulo XVII. 

Habra ademas en la Iglesia de Toledo otras dos dignidades con los tftulos 
respectivos de Capellan Mayor de Reyes y Capellan Mayor de Muz6rabes ; en la 
de Sevilla la dii»nidad de Capellan Mayor de San Fernando ; en la de Granada 
la de Capellan Mayor de los Reyes Catolicos, y en la de Oviedo la de Abad de 

Todos los individuos del Cabildo tendrdn en igual voz y voto. 

XIV. Los Prelados podrfin convocar el Cabildo y presidirle cuando lo crean 
conveniente: del mismo mode podrdn presidir los ejercicios de oposicion 4 

En estos y en cualesquiera otros actos, los Prelados tendrin siempre el 
asiento preferente, sin que obste ningun privilegio ni costumbre en contrario, y 
se les tributar^n todos los homenajes de consideracion y respeto que se deben 
& su sagrado caracter y a su cualidad de cabeza de su Iglesia y Cabildo* 

B 2 

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Cuando presidan tendran toz y vote en todos los asuntos que no les seftn 
directamente personales, y su vote ademas serIL decisivo en caso de empate. . 

En toda eleccion 6 nombramienta de personas que corresponda al Cabildo 
tendrd el Prelado tres, cuatro 6 cinco votes, segun que el niimero de los capitu- 
lares sea de 16^ 20^ 6 mayor de 20. En estos easos^ cuando el Prelado no asista 
al Cabildo, pasara una comision de ^1 & recibir sus votos. 

Cuando el Prelado no presida el Cabildo, lo presidira el Dean. 

XV. Siendo los Cabildos catedrales el Senado y Consejo de los M. RR, 
ArzobispoB y RE. Obispos, seran consultados por estos para oir su dictdmen 6 
para obtener su consentimiento^ en los t^rminos en que atendida la variedad 
de los negocios y de los casos esta prevenido por el derecho canonico, y 
especialmente por el Sagrado Concilio de Trento. Cesard por consiguiente 
desde luego toda inmunidad^ exencion^ privilegio^ uso 6 abuso que de cualquier 
modo se haya introducido en las diferentes iglesias de Espana en favor de los 
mi&onos Cabildos con perjuicio de la autoridad ordinaria de los Prelacies. 

XVI. Ademas de les Dignidades y Canonigos que componen exdusiva- 
mente el Cabildo^ habrd en las iglesias catedrsdes Beneficiados 6 Capellanes 
asistentes con el correspondiente numero de otros ministres y dependicntes. 

Asi los Dignidades y Canonigos, come les Beneficiados e Capellanes, 
aunque para el mejor servicio de las respectivas catedrales se hallen dividides 
en Presbiterales, Diacenales, y Subdiaconales, deberan ser todos presbiteros, 
segiin lo dispuesto por Su Santidad ; y los que no lo fuesen al tomar pesesien 
de sus beneficios, deberan serlo precisamente dentro del aiie, bajo las penas 

XVn. El numeros de capitulares y beneficiados en las iglesias metropoli- 
tanas sera el siguiente : 

Las iglesias de Toledo, Sevilla, y Zaragoza tendrdn 28 Capitulares, y 24 
Beneficiados la de Toledo, 22 la de Sevilla, y 28 la de Zaragoza. 

Las de Tarragona, Valencia, y Santiago, 26 Capitulares y 20 Beneficiados ; 
y las de Burgos, Granada y Valladolid, 24 Capitulares y 20 Beneficiados. 

Las iglesias sufraganeas tendran respectivamente el numero de Capitulares 
y beneficiados que se expresa k continuacion : 

Las de Barcelona, Cddiz, Cordoba, Leon, M4Iaga y Oviedo tendran 20 
Capitulares y 16 Beneficiados. Las de Badajoz, Calahorra, Cartagena, Cuenca, 
Jaen, Luge, Palencia, Pamplona, Salamanca, y Santander 18 Capitulares y 14 
Beneficiados. Las de Almeria> Asterga, Avila, Canarias, Cuidad-Real, Coria, 
Gerena, Guadix, Huesca, Jaca, L6rida, Mallerca, Mendenedo, Orense, Orihuela, 
Osma, Plasencia, Segerve, Segovia, Sigiienza, Tarazona, Teruel, Tertosa, Tuy, 
Urgel, Vich, Vitoria, y Zamera, 16 Capitulares y 12 Beneficiados. 

La de Madrid tendrd 20 Capitulares y 20 Beneficiados, y la de Menorca 12 
Capitulares y 10 Beneficiados. 

XVIII. En subregacien de los 62 beneficios expresados en el Cencerdato 
de 1763 se reservan 6 la libre provision de Su Santidad la dignidad de Chantre 
en tedas las iglesias metropolitanas y en las sufragdneas de Asterga, Avila, 
Badajoz, Barcelona, Cadiz, Ciudad-Real, Cuenca, Guadix, Huesca, Jaen, Lugo, 
M^aga, Mendenedo, Orihuela, Oviedo, Plasencia, Salamanca, Santander, Sigii- 
enza, Tuy, Vitoria, y Zamora ; y en las demas sufraganeas una canengia de las 
de grisMjia que quedarA determinada per la primer provision que haga Su 
Santidad. Estos beneficios se conferirdn con arreglp al mismo Concordato. 

La dignidad de Dean se proveer& siempre por Su Magestad en tedas las 
iglesias y en cualquier tiempo y forma que vaque. Las Canongias de oficio se 
proveer^n, previa oposicion, por les Prelades y Cabildos. Las demas dignidades y 
canongias se proveerdn en rigorosa altemativa por Su Magestad y los respec- 
tivos Arzobispos y Obispos. Los beneficiados 6 capellanes asistentes se nom- 
brardn altemativamente por Su Magestad y los Prelades y Cabildos. 

Las prebendas, canongias, y beneficios expresados que resulten vacantes por 
resigna 6 por promocion del poseedor d etro beneficio, no siendo de los reservados 
d Su Santidad, seran siempre y en tedo caso provistos per Su Magestad. 

Asimismo lo serdn los que vaquen sede vacante, o los que hayan dejado sin 
proveer los Prelades a quienes correspondia preveeriios al tiempo de su muerte^ 
traslacion 6 renuDcia. 

Corresponderd asimismo a Su Magestad la primera provision de las digni-, 
dades, canongias y capellanias de las nuevas Catedrales y de las que se 
anmenten en la nueva Metropolitani^. de Valladolid, d excepcion de las reser* 

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Vacks^Su Santidadyde las canongias de oficio que se proveeran como de 

En todo caso los nombrados para los expresados beneficios deberdn recibir 
la institucion y colacion canonicas de sus respectivos ordinaries. 

XIX. En atencion a que, tanto per efecto de las pasadas vicisitudes, como 
por razon de las disposiciones del presente Concordato, ban variado notable- 
mente las circunstancias del clero Espatiol, Su Santidad por su part^ y ^u 
Mag6stad la Eeina por la suya, eonvienen en que no se conferird ningunk 
dignidad, canongia 6 beneficio de los que exigen personal residencia a los que 
por razon de cualquier otro cargo 6 comision esten obligados a residir continua- 
mente en otra parte. Tampoco se conferira alos que esten en posesion de algun 
beneficio de la clase indicada ninguno de aquellos cargos 6 comisiones, a no ser 
que renuncien uno de dichos cargos 6 beneficios, los cuales se declaran por con- 
fiecuencia de todo punto ineompatibles. 

En la Capilla Real sin embargo podrd haber ha^ta seis prebendados de las 
iglesias catedrales de la Peninsula ; pero en ningun caso podran ser nombrados 
los que ocupan las primeras Sillas, los Candnigos de oficio, los que tienen cura 
de almas, ni dos de una misma iglesia. 

Respecto de los que en la actualidad y en virtud de indultos cspeciales 6 
generales se hallen en posesion de dos 6 mas de estos beneficios, cargos 6 
comisiones, se tomaran desde luego las disposiciones necesarias para arreglar 
su situacion d lo prevenido en el presente Articulo, segun las necesidades de la 
Iglesia yla variedad de los cases. 

XX. En sede vacante, el Cabildo de la iglesia metropolitana 6 sufra- 
gdnea en el termino marcado y con arreglo d lo que previene el Sagrado Con- 
cilio de Trento, nombrard un solo Vicario Capitular, en cuya persona se refundira 
toda la potestad ordinaria del Cabildo sin reserva 6 limitacion alguna por parte 
de el, y sin que pueda revocar el nombramiento una vez hecho ni hacer otro 
nuevo ; quedando per consiguiente enteramente abolido todo privilegio, use 6 
costumbre de administrar en cuerpo, de nombrar mas de un Vicario 6 cual- 
quiera otro que bajo cualquier concepto sea contrarie 4 lo dispuesto por los 
sagrados Canones. 

XXI. Ademas de la Capflla del Real Palacio se conservardn : 

1. Lade Reyes yla Muzdrabe de Toledo, y las de San Fernando de 
Sevilla y de los Reyes Catolicos de Granada. 

2. Las Colegiatas sitas en capitales de provincia donde no exista SiUa 

3. Las de patronato particular cuyos patronos aseguren el exceso de gasto 
que ocasionara la colegiata sobre el de iglesia parroquial. 

4. Las colegiatas de Covadonga, Roncesvalies, San Isidro de Leon, 
Sacromonte de Granada, San Ildefonso, Alcald de Htenares, y Jerez de la 

6. Las catedrales de las Sillas episcopates que se agreguen a etras en virtud 
de las disposiciones del presente Concordato se conservaran como colegiatas. 

Todas la demas Colegiatas, cualquiera que sea su origen, antigiiedad y 
fundacion, quedardn reducidas cuando las circunstancias locales no lo impidan 
d iglesias parrequiales con el numero de beneficiados que ademas del pdrroco 
se contemplen necesarios, tanto para el servicio parroquial, como para el 
decoro del culto. 

La conservacion de las capillas y colegiatas expresadas deberd entenderse 
siempre con sujecion al Prelado de la Didcesis d que pertenezcan y con deroga- 
cien de toda exencien y jurisdiccien vere d quasi nullius que limite en lo mas 
minimo la nativa del ordinario. 

Las iglesias colegiatas serdn siempre parrequiales, y se distinguirdn con el 
nombre de parroquia mayor, si en el pueblo hubiese otra u etras. 

XXII. El Cabildo de las colegiatas se cempendrd de un Abad presidente, 
que tendrd aneja la cura de almas, sin mas autoridad 6 jurisdiccien que la 
directiva y econdmica de su iglesia y Cabildo ; de dos Candnigos de oficio con 
los titulos de Magistral y Doctoral, y de echo Candnigos de gracia. Habrd 
ademas seis beneficiados d capellanes asistentes. 

XXIII. Las reglas establecidas en los Articules anterieres, asi para la 
prevision de las prebendas y beneficios 6 capellanias de las iglesias catedrales, 
como para el regimen de sus Cabildes, se d)8ervarlai puntuaJmente en todas 
8ns partes respe^^ de las iglesias colegiatas. 

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XXrV. A fin de que en todos los pueblos del reino se atienda etfn >t 
esmero debido al culto religiose y a todas las necesidades del pasto espiritua}, 
Tos M. RR. Arzobispos y RR. Obispos procederiln desde luego a forma un nuevo 
arreglo y demarcacion parroquial de sus respectivas Diocesis, teniendo en 
cuenta la extension y naturaleza del territorio y de la poblacion y las demas 
circunstancias locales, oyendo a los Cabildos Catedrales, a los respectivos 
Arcipredtes y a los Fiscales de los Tribunales eclesi4sticos, y tomando por 
su parte todas las disposiciones necesarias k fin de que pueda darse por concluido 
y ponerse en ejecucion el pricitado arreglo, pr^vio el acuerdo del Gobierno de 
Su Magestad, en el menor t^nnino posible. 

XXV. Ningun Cabildo ni corporacion eclesiastica podra tener aneja la 
cura. de almas, y los curatos y vicarias perp^tuas que antes estaban unidas 
pleno jure a alguna corporacion, quedaran en todo sujetos al derecho comun, 
Los Coadjutores y dependientes de las parroquias y todos los eclesi^sticos 
destinados al servicio de ermitas, santuarios, oratorios, capillas publicas 6 
iglesias no parroquiales depender£n del cura propio de pu respectivo territorio, 
y estaran subordinados d ^1 en todo lo tocante al culto y funciones religiosas. 

XXVI. Todos los curatos, sin diferencia de pueblos, de clases ni del tiempo 
en que vaquen, se provecrdn en concurso abierto con arreglo A lo dispuesto por 
el Santo Concilio de Trento, formando los ordinarios ternas de los opositores 
aprobados y dirigi^ndolas d Su Magestad para que nombre entre los propues- 
tos. Cesard por consiguiente el privilegio de patrimonialidad y la ^xclusiva <5 
preferencia que en algunas partes tenian los patrimoniales para la obtencion de 
curatos y otros beneticios. 

Los curatos de patronato eclesiastico se proTeerdn nombrando el patrono 
entre los de la terna que del moda ya dicho formen los Prelados, y los de pa* 
tronato laical nombrando el patrono entre aquellos que acrediten haber sido 
aprobados en concurso abierto en la Di6cesi8 respectiva, senalandose d los que 
no se hallen en este caso el termino de cuatro meses para que hagan constar 
haber sido aprobados sus ejercicios hechos en la forma indicada ; salvo siempre 
el derecho del Ordinario de examinar al presentado por el patrono si lo estima 

Los Coadjutores de las parroquias serdn nombrados por los Ordinarios 
pl'^vio exdmen sinodal. 

XXVII. Se dictaran las medidas convenientes para conseguir, en cuanto 
sea posible, que por el nuevo arreglo eclesiastico no queden lastimados los 
derechos de los actuales poseedores de cualesquiera prebendq^, beneficios, 6 
cargos que hubieren de suprimirse d consecuencia de lb que en 6\ se 

XXVIII. El Gobierno deSu Magestad Catdlica, sin perjuicio de establecer 
oportunamente, pr^vio acuerdo con la Santa Sede, y tan pronto coma las cir- 
cunstancias lo permitan, Scminarios generales en que se d^ la extension conve- 
niente a los estudios eclesidsticos, adoptara por su parte las disposiciones 
oportunas para que ce creen sin demora Seminarios conciliares en las Didcesis 
donde no se hallen establecidos, k fin de que en lo sucesivo no haya en los 
dominios Espanoles iglesia alguna que no tenga al menos un Seminario suficiente 
para la instruccion del clero. 

Seran admitidos en los Seminarios, y educados e instruidos del modo que 
establece el Sagrado Concilio de Trento, los jovenes que los Arzosbispos y 
Obispos juzguen conveniente recibir segun la necesidad 6 utilidad de las 
Diocesis ; y en todo lo que pertenece al arreglo de los Seminarios, 4 la ense* 
nanza y d la administracion de sus bienes, se observaran los decretos del mismo 
Concilio de Trento. 

Si de resultas de la nueva circunscripcion de Didcesis quedasen en algunas 
dos Seminarios, uno en la capital actual del Obispado, y otro en la que se le ha 
d6 unir, se conservarAn ambos, mientras el Gobierno y los Prelados de comun 
afeuerdo los consideren utiles. 

XXIX. A fin de que en toda la Peninsula haya el niimero suficiente de 
Ministros y operariosevangelicos de quienes puedan valerse los Prelados para 
hacer misiones en los pueblos de su Diocesis, auxiliar & los Pfirrocos, asistir d 
Ids enfermos y para otras obras de caridad y utilidad publica, el Gobierno de Su 
Magestad, que se propone mejorar oportunamente los colegios de misiones para 
UUramar, tomard desde luego las disposiciones convenientes para que se 
establezcan donde sea necesario^ oyendo pr^viamente.d los Prelados diocesa^ios^ 

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easas y congregaciones religiosas de San "Vicente Paul, San Felipe K'eri, j otra 
6rden de las aprobadas por la Santa Sede, las cuales serviran al propio tiempo 
de lugares de retire para los eclesi^ticos, para hacer ejercicios espirituales y 
para otros usos piadosos. 

XXX. Para que haya tambien casas religiosas de mugeres en las cuales 
puedan seguir su vocacion las que sean Uamadas a la vida contemplativa y a la 
activa de la asisteneia de los enfermos, ensenanza de ninas y otras obras y 
ocupaciones tan piadosas como utiles d Jos pueblos, se conservara el instituto de 
las Hijas de la Caridad, bajo la direccion de los Cl^rigos de San Vicente Paul, 
procurando el Gobiemo su fomento. 

Tambien se conservaran las casas de religiosas que a la vida contemplativa 
reunen la educacion y ensenanza de las ninas u otras obras de caridad. 

Respecto a las demas ordenes, los Prelados ordinarios, atendidas todas las 
cirqunstancias de sus respectivas Diocesis, propondran la^s casas de religiosas 
en que convenga la admision y profesion de novicias y los ejercicios de en» 
senanza 6 de caridad que sea conveniente establecer en ellas. 

No se procedeni a la profesion de ninguna religiosa sin que se asegure 
antes su subsistencia en debida forma. 

XXXI. La dotacion del M. R. Arzobispo de Toledo sera de 160,000 rs. 

La de los de Sevilla y Valencia de 150,000- 

La de los de Granada y Santiago de 140,000. 

Y la de los de Burgos, Tarragona, Valladolid, y Zaragoza de 130,000. 

La dotacion de los RK Obispos de Barcelona y Madrid sera de 
110,000 rs. 

La de los de Cadiz, Cartagena, Cordoba y Malaga de 100,000. 

La de los de Almeria, Aviia, Badajoz, Canarias, Cuenca, Gerona, Huesca, 
Jaen, Leon, Lerida, Lugo, Mallorca, Orepae^ Oviedoy Palencia, Pamplona^ 
Salamanca, Santander, Segovia, Teruel, y Zamora, de 90,000 rs. 

La de los de Astorga, Calaborra, Ciudad-Real, Coria, Guadix, Jaca^ 
Menorca, Mondonedo, Orihuela, Osma, Plasencia, Segorve, Siguenza, Tarazon% 
Tortosa, Tuy, Urgel, Vich, y Vitoria, de 80,000 rs. 

La del Patriarca de las Indias, no siendo Arzobispo u Obispo propio, de 
160,000, deduciendose en su caso de esta cantidad cualquiera otra que por via 
de pension eclesiastica 6 en otro concepto percibiese del Estado. 

Los Prelados que sean Cardenales disfrutaran de 20,000 rs. sobre su 

Los Obispos auxiliares de Ceuta y Tenerife y el Prior de las ordenes 
tendran 40,000 rs. anuales. 

Estas dotaciones no sufriran descuento aJguno ni por razon del coste de 
las bulas que sufragard el Gobierno, ni por los demas gastos que por estas 
puedan ocurrir en Espana. 

Ademas los Arzobispos y Obispos conservaran sus palacios y los jardines, 
buertas 6 casas que en cualquiera parte de la Diocesis hayan estado destinadas 
para su uso y recreo y no hubiesen sido enagenadas. 

Queda derogada la actual legislacion relativa a espolios de los Arzobispos 
y Obispos, y en £u consecuencia podran disponer libremente, segun les dicte su 
conciencia, de lo que dejaren al tiempo de su fallecimiento, sucedi^ndoles 
abintestate los herederos legitimes con la misma obligacion de conciencia: 
exceptuanse en uno y otro caso los omamentos y pontificales que se conside- 
raran como propiedad de la mitra y pasaran 4 sus sucesores en ella. 

XXXII. La primera Silla de la iglesia catedral de Toledo tendra de 
dotacion 24,000 rs. : las de las demas iglesias metropolitanas 20,000 : las de 
las iglesias sufraganeas 18,000, y las de las colegiatas 16,000. 

Los Dignidades y Canonigos de oficio de las iglesias metropolitanas 
tendran 16,000 rs. ; los de las sufr&neas 14,000; ylos Canonigos de oficio de 
las colegiatas 8000. 

Los demas Can6nigos tendran 14,000 rs. en las iglesias metropolitanas; 
12,000 en las sufraganeas ; y 6,600 en las colegiatas. 

Los b^neficiados 6 capellanes asistentes de las iglesias metropolitanas 
tendran 8000 rs. ; 6000 los de las sufragdneas ; y 5000 los de las colegiatas. 

XXXIII. La dotacion de los curas en las parroquias urbanas sera de 3000 
A 10,000 rs. ; en las parroquias rurales el minimum de la dotacion serd de 2,200. 

Los Coadjutores y Economos tendran de 2000 a 4000 rs. 

Digitized by 



Ademas^ los curas propios, y ^en su case los Coadjutores, dii^rutaran las 
casas destinadas a su habitacioh y los Tiuertos 6 h^redades que no se hayan 
enagenado^ y que son conocidos con la denominacion de iglesarios, mansos^ 
d otras. . . . 

Tambien disfrutarah los curas propios y sus Coadjutores la parte que les 
corresponda en los detechos de estola y pie de altar. 

XXXIV. Para sufragar los gastos del culto tendran las iglesias metropo- 
litanas anualmente de 90 a 140,000 rs.; las sufraganeas de 70 k 90,000, y las 
colegiatas de 20 k 30,000. 

Para los gastos de administracion y extraordinarios de visita tendran de 20 
4 80,000 rs. los metropolitanos, y de 16 a 20,000 los sufragdneos. 

Para los gastos del culto parroquial se asignara d las iglesias respectiras 
una cantidad anual que no bajara de 1000 rs., ademas de los emolumentos 
eventuales y de los derechos que por ciertas funciones esten fijados 6 se fijaren 
para este objeto en los aranceles de las respectivas Di6cesis. 

XXXV. Los Seminarios conciliares tendran de 90 a 120,000 rs. anuales, 
segun sus circunstancias y necesidades. 

El Gobierno dc Su Magestad proveera por los medios mas conducentes 
la subsistencia de las casas y congregaciones religiosas de que habla el 
Articulo XXIX. 

En cuanto al mantenimiento de las comunidades religiosas se observari 
lo dispuesto en el Articulo XXX. 

Se devolveran desde luego y sin demora d las mismas, y en su represen- 
tacion k los Prelados diocesanos en cuyo territorio se hallen los conventos 6 se 
hallaban antes de las ultimas vicisitudes, los jbienes de su pertenencia que estan 
en poder del Gobierno y que no ban sido enagenados. Pero teniendo Su 
Santidad en consideracion el estado actual de estos bienes y otras particulares 
circunstancias, a fin de que con su producto pueda atenderse con mas igualdad 
a los gastos del culto y otros generales, dispone que los Prelados, en nombre 
de las comunidades religiosas propietarias, procedan inmediatemente y sin 
demora k la venta de los expresados bienes por medio de subastas publicas 
hechas en la forma canonica y con intervencion de persona nombrada por el 
Gobierno de Su Magestad. El producto de estas ventas se convertira en 
inscripciones intransferibles de la Deuda del Estado del 3 por 100, cuyo 
capital 6 intereses se distribuiran entre todos los referidos conventos en 
proporcion de sus necesidades y circunstancias para aterider a los gastos 
indicados y al pago de las pension^s de las religiosas que tengan derecho k 
percibirla?, sin perjuicio de que el Gobierno supla como hasta aqui 16 que fuere 
necesario paja el completo pago de dichas pensiones hasta fallecimiento de las 

XXXVI. Las dotacioncs asignadas en los Articulos anteriores para log 
gastos del culto y del clero, se entenderan sin perjuicio del aumento que se 
pueda hacer en ellas cuando las circunstancias lo permitan. Sin embargo^ 
cuando por razones especiales no alcance en algun caso particular alguna de las 
asignaciones exprcsadas en el Articulo XXXIV, el Gobierno de Su Magestad 
proveera los convcniente al efeeto ; del mismo modo proveera a los gastos de las 
reparaciones de los templos y demas edificios consagrados al culto. 

XXXVII. El importe de larenta que se devengue en la vacante de las Sillas 
episcopales, deducidos los emolumentos del Economo que se diputara por el 
Cabildo en el acto de eligir al Vicario Capitular, y los gastos para los reparos 
precisos del palacio episcopal, se aplicara por iguales partes en beneficio del 
Seminario conciliar y del nuevo Prelado. 

Asimismo de las rentas que se devenguen en las vacantes de dignidades, 
canongias, parroquias, y beneficios de cada Diocesis, deiucidas las respectivas 
cargas, se formara un cumulo 6 fondo de reserva a dLsposicion del Ordinario 
para atender a los gastos extraordinarios 6 imprevistos de las iglesias y del 
clero como tambien & las necesidades graves, y urgentes de la Diocesis. Al 
propio efeeto ingresara igualmehle en el mencionado fondo de resetva la can- 
tidad, jeorrespondiente a la duod^cima parte de su dolacion anual que'satisfaian 
por un^ vez dentro del primer aiio los nuevamente nombrados para prebendas^ 
curatos y otros beneficios ; debiendo por tanto cesar todo otro descuento que 
por cualquier concepto, uso, disposicion, 6 privilegio, se diciese anteriorinente. 

. XXXVin. Los fondps con que ha de atenderse k la dotacion del culto y 
del clero serdn: . . 

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1. El producto de los bienes devueltos al clero por la Ley de 3 de Abril de 
1845. ... . . 

2. El producto de las limosnas de la Santa Cruzada. 

3. Los productos de las Encomiendas y Maestrazgos de las cuatro Ordenes 
Militares vacantes y que vacaren, 

4. Una imposicion sobre las propiedades rusticas y urbanas y riqueza 
pecuaria en la cuota que sea necesario para completar la dotacion, tomando en 
cuenta los productos expresados en los pirrafos 1, 2, y 3, y demas reritag que 
en lo sucesivo y de acuerdo con la Santa Sede se asignen para ese objeto. 

El clero recaudara esta imposicion percibi^ndola en frutos, en especie 6 en 
dinero, pr^vio concierto que podra celebrar con las provincias, con los pueblos, 
con las parroquias 6 con los particulares ; y en los cases necesarios serd auxi^ 
liado por las autoridades pfiblicas en la cobranzade esta imposicion, aplicandp 
al afecto los medios establecidos para el cobro de las contribuciones. 

Ademas de devplverdn & la Iglesia desde luego y sin demora todos los 
bienes eclesiasticos no comprendidos en la expresada Ley de 1846, y que todavfa 
no hayan sido enagenados, inclusos los que restan de las comunidades religiosas 
de varonesi Pero atendidas las circunstancias actuales de unos y otros bienes, 
y la evidente utilidad' que ha de resultar a la Iglesia, el Santo Padre dispone 
que su capital se convierta inmediatamente y sin demora in inscripciones 
intransferibles dela Deuda del Estado del 3 por 100, observandose exactamente 
la forma y reglas establecidas en el Articulo XXXV, con referencia d la venta 
de los bienes de las religiosas. 

Todos estos bienes serdn imputados por su justo valor, rebajadas cuales* 
quiera cargas para los efectos de la disposiciones contenidas en este Articulo. 

XXXIX. El Gobierno de Su Magestad, salvo el derecho propio de los 
Prelados diocesanos, dictard las disposiciones necesarias para que aquellos entre 
quienes se hayan distribuido los bienes de las capellanias y fundaciones piadosas 
aseguren los medios de cumplir las cargas a que dichos bienes estuvieren 

Iguales disposiciones adoptara para que se cumplan del mismo modo las 
-cargas piadosas que pesaren sobre los bienes eclesiasticos que han sido enage- 
nados con este gravamen. 

El Gobierno respondera siempre y exclusivamente de las impuestas sobre 
los bienes que se hubieren vendido por el Estado libres de esta obligacion. 

XL. Se declara que todos los expresados bienes y rentas pertenecen en 
propriedad k la Iglesia, y que en su nombre se disfrutaran y administrardn por 
el clero. 

Los fondos de Cruzada se administrardn en cada Diocesis por los Prelados 
diocesanos, como revestidos al efecto de las facultades de la Bula para aplicarlos 
segun esta prevenido en la iiltima proroga de la relativa concesion apostdlica, 
salvas las obligaciones que pesan sobre este ramo por convenios celebrados con 
la Santa Sede. El modo y forma en que debera verificarse dicha administra- 
cion se fijara de acuerdo eritre el Santo Padre y Su Magestad Catdlica. 

' Igualmente administraran los Prelados diocesanos los fondos del indiilto 
cuadragesimal, aplicandolos d establecimientos de beneficencia y actos de caridad 
en las Diocesis respectivas, con arreglo & las concesiones apost^licas. 

Las demas facultades apostolicas relativas d este ramo y las atribuciones 
d ellas consiguientes se ejerceran por el Arzobispo de Toledo en la extension y 
forma que se determinara por la Santa Sede. 

XLI. Ademas la Iglesia tendra el derecho de adquirir por cualquier titulo 
legitime, y su propiedad en todo lo que posee ahora 6 adquiriere en adelante 
sera solemnemente respetada. Por consiguiente en cuanto d las antiguais y 
nuevas fundaciones edesiasticas no podrd hacerse ninguna supresion 6 union sin 
la intervencion de la autoridad de la Santa Sede, salvas las facultades que com- 
peten a los Obispos sfegun el Santo Concilio de Trento. 

XLII. En este supuesto, atendida la utilidad que ha de resultar a la 
religion de este convenio, el Santo Padre, a instancia de Su Magestad Catdlica, 
y para proveer a la tranquilidad publica, decreta y declara que los que durante 
las posadas circunstancias hubiesen comprado en los dominios de Espana bienes 
eclesiasticos, al tenor de las disposiciones civiles a la sazon vigentes, y esten en 
posesian de ellos, y los que hayan sucedido 6 sucedan en sus derechos d dichos 
compradbres, no serdn molestados en ninguntiempo ni manera por Su Santidad 
ill por los Sumos Pontifices sus sucesores : antes bien, asi ellos como sus causa* 


Digitized by 



habientes^ disfhitardn segura y pacificamente la propiedad de dichos bienes y sus 
emolumentos y productos. 

XLIII. Todo lo demas perteneciente & personas 6 cosas eclesiasticas, sobre 
lo que no se provee en los Articulos anteriores, serd dirigido y administrado 
segun la disciplina de la Iglesia candnicamente vigente. 

XLIV. El Santo Padre y Su Magestad Cat6lica dedaran quedar salvas 6 
ilesas las Reales prerogativas de la Corona de Espafia en conforraidad a los 
Convenios anterionnente celebrados entre ambas Potestades. Y por tanto^ lofe 
referidos Convenios, y en especialidad el que se celebrd entre el Sumo Pontifice 
Benedicto Xiy y el Rey Cat61ico Fernando VI, en el ano 1763, se declaran 
confirmados y seguiran en su pleno vigor en todo lo que no se altere 6 modifiqne 
por el presente. 

XLV. En virtud de este Concordato se tendrto por revocadas, en cuanto 
A 61 se oponen, las leyes, ordenes, y decretos publicados hasta ahora, de cualquier 
modo y forma en los dominios de Espana, y el mismo Concordato regird para 
siempre en lo sucesivo como ley del Estado en los propios dominios. T p<Mr 
tanto una y otra de las Partes Contratantes prometen por si y sus sucesores la 
fiel observancia de todos y cada uno de los Articulos de que consta. Si en lo 
sucesivo ocurriese alguna dificultad, el Santo Padre y Su Magestad Catolica se 
pondrdn de acuerdo para resolverla amigablemente. 

XLVI y ultimo. El cange de las ratificaciones del presente Concordato se 
terificard en el termino de dos meses, 6 antes, si fuere posible. 

En fe de lo cual, Nos los infrascritos Plenipotenciarios hemos firmado el 
presente Concordato, y selladolo con nuestro propio sello en Madrid^ i 16 y 
de Marzo de 1861. 


Arzobispo de Tesaloniccu 


Concordat concluded between His Holiness and Her Catholic Majesty, signed at 
Madrid on the IQth of March, 1851, and ratified by Her Majesty on the 1st 
of April, and by His Holiness on the 23rd of the same month. 

HIS Holiness the Supreme Pontiff Pius IX, desiring fervently to provide 
for the good of religion and the utility of the Spanish Church, with that 
pastoral solicitude which he evinces towards all faithful Catholics, and with 
especial benevolence to the illustrious and devout Spanish nation ; and Her 
Catholic Majesty Isabella II, with that piety and sincere adhesion to the 
Apostolical See which she has inherited from her ' ancestors, have determined 
to conclude a solemn Concordat, in which all ecclesiastical affairs will be 
arranged on a stable and canonical footing. 

For this object His Holiness the Supreme Pontiff has thought fit to name 
as his Plenipotentiary, his Excellency Don Juan Brunelli, Archbishop of Thes- 
salonica, Domestic Prelate of His Holiness, Assistant to the Pontifical Throne, 
and Apostolical Nuncio in the Kingdom of Spain, with the faculty of Legate a 
latere; and Her Catholic Majesty, his Excellency Senor Don Manuel Bertran de 
Lis, Kniglit Grand Cross of the Royal and distinguished Spanish Order of Charles 
III, of that of St. Maurice and St., Lazarus of Sardinia, and of that of Francis I 
of Naples, Deputy to the Cortes, and her Minister of State: 

Who, after delivering mutually their respective credentials, and the au- 
thenticity of them having been recognised, have come to the following 

Boman Catholic Article I. The Roman Catholic Apostolical Religion, which, to the ex- 

Religion to be main- elusion of every other form of worship, contfames to be the sole religion of the 
tained in Spain, to Spanish nation, will for ever be maintained in the dominions of Her Catholic 
^eA other fonn of Majesty, with all the rights and prerogatives which it ought to enjoy according 
Wortliip. tp the law of God and the sacred canons. 

Digitized by 


II. Consequently, the system of instruction in the universities, colleges, All education to b# 
seminaries, and public or private schools, will be in conformity with the doctrine ^^^^ ^^^d^n- . 
of the said Catholic religion, and no impediment whatever shall be placed in cesan Prelates, 
the way of those Bishops and Diocesan Prelates charged by their oflSce to 

watch over the purity of the faith and morals, and in the exercise of this 
office to watch over the religious education of youth in the public schools. 

III. Nor shall any impediment be placed in the way of the said Bishops and other 
Prelates and other sacred Ministers in the exercise of their fanctions, nor shall ^acred Minlstere to 
they under any pretext whatever be molested in the discharge of their duties; ^eniment in^dkl 
on the contrary, all the authorities of the kingdom shall provide for their pro- charge of their 
tection, and see that due respect and consideration be observed towards them, duties, 
according to Divine precept, and that nothing bo done causing contempt in 

any way. Her Majesty and her Royal Government will likewise dispense their 
powerful patronage and support to the Bishops, in cases which require it, prm- 
cipally when they have to place themselves in opposition to the malignity of 
those who try to pervert the minds of the faithful and corrupt their manners, 
or when they have to prohibit the pubUcation, introduction, and circulation of 
bad and hurtful books. 

IV. In everything else belonging to the right and exercise of ecclesiastical The Clergy to har* 
authority, and to the ministry of its sacred orders, the Bishops and dependant full liberty accord- 
Clergy will enjoy the full liberty established by the sacred canons. "^^ to the Canons 

^J ^ J •' ^^ as to the right and 

exercise of flcclesi- 
astical Authority. 

V. On account of powerful reasons of necessity and propriety, and for the New Division and 
greater convenience and spiritual advantage of the faithful, a new division and Circumscription of 
circumscription of the dioceses in the Peninsula and adjacent Islands will be made. Spanish Dioceses., 
To this effect, the present metropoUtan sees of Toledo, Burgos, Granada, Santiago, 

Seville, Tarragona, Valencia, and Zaragoza, will be maintained, and the suflra- 
ganship of Valladolid will be raised to the above class. In like manner will be 
maintained the suffragan dioceses of Almeria, Astorga, Avila, Badajoz, Barce- 
lona, Cadiz, Calahorra, the Canaries, Cartagena, Cordova, Coria, Cuenca, Gerona, 
Guadix, Huesca, Jaen, Jaca, Leon, Lericla, Lugo, Malaga, Majorca, Minorca, 
Mondoiiedo, Orense, Orihuela, Osma, Oviedo, Palencia, Pamplona, Plasencia, 
Salamanca, Santander, Segorve, Segovia, Sigiienza, Tarazona, Teruel, Tortosa, 
Tuy, Urgel, Vich, and Zamora. 

The diocese of Albarraciu will remain united to that of Teruel ; that of 
Barbastro to Huesca; that of Ceuta to Cadiz; that of Ciudad Rodrigo to 
Salamanca ; that of Iviza to Majorca ; that of Solsona to Vich ; that of 
TenerifTo to the Canaries ; and that of Tudela to Pamplona. 

The Prelates of those sees to which others are united, will add to the title 
of Bishops of the Church over which they preside, that of the one united. 

New suffragan dioceses will be erected in Ciudad Real, Madrid and 

The episcopal see of Calahorra and Calzada will be translated to 
Logrono ; that of Orihuela to Alicante ; and that of Segorve to Castellon de la 
Plana; when everything is arranged in these towns, and it is deemed opportune, 
after consulting the respective Prelates and Chapters. 

In those cases where, for the better service of some diocese, an auxiliary 
Bishop is necessary, this want shall be supplied in the usual canonical manner. 

In the same way Vicars-General will be appointed where, by reason of 
the aggregation of dioceses mentioned in this Article, or for any other just 
cause they may be thought necessary, after consulting the respective Prelates. 

In Ceuta and Teneriffe auxiliary Bishops will be appointed as soon as 

VI. The distribution of the above-mentioned dioceses as regards their Distribution of Dio- 
dependence on their respective metropolitan sees will be as follows : — ceses as regards dc- 

Sufiragans of the Metropolitan Church of Burgos, will be those of penden^onMetro. 
Calahorra or Logrono, Leon, Osma, Palencia, Santander, and Vittoria. P^"*^ ^* 

Of Granada, those of Almeria, Carthagena, or Murcia, Guadix, Jaea Sad 


Digitized by 



Of SajitiagQ, those of Lugo, Moudonedo, Orense, Oviedo, and Tujr. 

Of Seville, thoseH)f Bada^joz, Cadiz, Cordova, and the Canary Isles. 

Of Tarragona, those of Barcelona, Gerona, Lerida, Tortosa, Urgel, and 

Of Toledo, those of Ciudad-Real, Coria, Cuenca, Madrid, Plasencia, and 

Of Valencia, those of Majorca, Minorca, Orihuela or Alicante, and 
Segorve or Castellon de la Plana. 

Of Valladolid, those of Astorga, Avila, Salamanca, Segovia, and Zamora. 

Of Saragossa, those of Hnesca, Jaca, Pamplona, Tarazona, and Teruel. 

The new tnd parti- VII. The new boundaries and particular demarcations of the above dioceses 

cular Demarcations will be determined in the shortest possible time and in due form {servatis ser- 
ftF^^^^^ *® ^ vandi8)hy the Holy See, for. which purpose the Apostolical Nuncio in this king- 
ai potsible'bT'^ ^^^ ^^^ ^ furnished with all the necessary powers to determine the said 
Ho^See« demarcation, on an understanding (collatis consiliis) with the Government of 

Her Majesty. 

Churehw to^^ VOL All the Bishops and their churches will recognize the canonical 

canlraicdly depen- dependence on their respective metropolitans, in virtue of wliich, the 
dent on their res- exemptions of the Bishopries of Leon and Oviedo will cease to exist, 
pective Metropoli- 

Establish f ^^' ^* ^^^? ^^ *^^ ^^® ^^^^ necessary and urgent to apply a suitable 

Priorate of ^the four remedy to the serious inconveniences whfeh are produced in the ecclesiastical 
Military Orders of administration by the widely diffused territcwry of the four Military Orders of 
Santiago, Calatrava, Santiago, Calatrava, Alcantara, and Montesa, and on the other hand, it being 
MaateM*' ^^ necessary to preserve the glorious recollection of an institution which has 
rendered such service to the Church and State, as well as the prerogatives of 
the Kings of Spain as Grand Masters of those orders by Apostolical conces- 
sion ; a certain territory forming a circular district will be designated in 
the new ecclesiastical demarcation, in order that the Grand Master may 
exercise as heretofore his ecclesiastical jurisdiction in entire concurrence with 
the said concession and Pontifical bulls. 

The ne>v district will be styled Priorate of the Military Orders, and the 
prior will hold the episcopal character with the title of a Church in 

Th<5 territory which now belongs to the said Military Orders, and is 
not included in the new, will be incorporated in the respective dioceses. 

Anthorityand juris- ^' T^® ArchbishoDS and Bishops will extend the exercise of their autho- 

diction of Prelates rity and ordinary jurisdiction to the whole district which in the new circum- 
to extend through scription is comprehended in their respective dioceses ; and consequently, those 
the whole of their ^j^q ^jp ^q jj^^ present moment, by whatever title exercised that jurisdiction in 
districts included in other dioceses^ will cease to do so. . 

All priyileged and XI. All privileged and exempted jurisdictions of whatever class or deno- 

exempted jurisdic- minatiou, including that of St. John of Jerusalem, will cease. Their actual 
tions to cease. territories will be united to the respective dioceses in the new demarcation 

which is to be made according to Article VII, reserving the following 

exemptions : 

1. That of the superior Pro-Chaplain of Her Majesty. 

2. That of the Castrense (Military Chaplainships). 

3. That of the four Military Orders. of Santiago, Calatrava^ Alcantara^ and 
Montesa, according to the terms fixed by Article IX of this Concordat. 

4. That of the regular prelates. 

5. That (Jf the Apostolical Nuncio pro tempore in the church and hospital 
of Italians in this Capital. 

The necessary powers for the affairs belonging to the Commissary- 
General of the Crusade will likewise be maintained, in virtue of the delegating 
brief and other apostolical provisions. 

Digitized by 



XII. The oflSce of Collector-General for the property of deceased prelates, omce of Collector- 
whether from vacant Sees or annmties, will be suppressed, that 6ffice becoming General of propery 
united to liie Commissary-General of the Crusade for the administration of jates; and^theTri- 
property become vacant, for collecting arrears, and supporting and terminating bunal of Grace and 

pending causes. Excusado are sup. 

In like manner the Apostolical Royal Tribunal of Grace and Excusado ^^^^^^ 
[exemption from paying tithes] shall be suppressed.' 

XIII. The chapter of the cathedral churches will be composed of the Composition of the 
dean, who shall always have the first stall post pontificalem ; of four dig- 9^^^^/^ ^f Cathe- 
nitaries, namely: the arch-priest, the archdeacon, the precentor, and the p^^wers o7 Prelates 
schoolmaster ; and besides the treasurer in metropolitan churches, of in regard to Chap- 
fout official canons, namely : the prebend, doctor of divinity, the reading ters. 

canon, and the penitentiary, and of a certain number of canons non-official, 
as laid down in Article XVII. 

Besides which thei'e will be, in the church of Toledo, two other digni- 
taries, with the respective titles of Superior Chaplain of Kin2:s, and Superior 
Chaplain of Muzarabes ; in that of Seville, the dignitary of Superior Chaplain of 
San Fernando ; in that of Granada, that of Superior Chaplain of the Catholic 
Kings ; and in that of Oviedo, that of Abbot of Covadonga. 

All the members of the chapter will have equal voice and vote. 

XIV. The prelates may convoke a chapter, and preside over it whenever 
they deem necessary ; in the same way they may preside over the proceedings 
for electing to prebouds. 

In these and other cases, the prelatoi will have the seat of honour, what- 
ever privilege or custom may be opposed to it, and all due homage will be 
be rendered to them in their capacity of head of the church and chapter. - 

When they preside they will have voice and vote in every affair not 
directly personal, and they will have the casting vote- 
In every election or nomination of persons belonging to the chapter, the 
prelate shall have three, four, or five votes, according to whether the number 
of the members^ be sixteen, twenty, or more. Jn these cases when the prelate 
does not assist at the chapter, a commission formed to receive his votes. 
When the prelate does not preside, the dean will do so. 

XV. The senate and council of the Archbishops and Bishops, being the 
cathedral chapters, these will be consulted by them, in order to hear their 
decision, or obtain their consent, in the terms in which, by reason of the 
multifarious cases, they are laid down by canonical law, and more particularly 
by the Holy Council of Trent. Consequently, from this time henceforth, every 
immunity, exemption, privilege, use, or abuse which has been in any way intro- 
duced into the different chiirches of Spain in favour of those chapters, to 
the prejudice of the ordinary authority of the prelates, will now cease. 

XVI. Besides the dignitaries and canons which compose exclusively 
the chapter, there will be in cathedral churches beneficiaries or assistant 
chaplains, with the corresponding number of other ministers and dependents. 

The dignitaries and canons, as well as the beneficiaries or chaplains, 
although for the better service of the respective cathedrals they are divided 
into presbyterial, diaconal, and sub-diaconal, ought to be all presbyters, 
in accordancie with the directions of His Holiness, and those who are not Pres- 
byters on taking possession of their benefices, shall become so within the year, 
under canonical penalties. . , 

XVII. The number of members of a chapter and beneficiaries in the Numbers of Mem- 
metropolitan churches will be the following :— ^^ c£^^« ^j^ 

The churches of Toledo, Seville, and Saragossa shall each have 28 members Benefidan Jin Me- 
of chapters (capitular^ ; and Toledo 24 beneficiaries; Seville 22,and Saragossa 28. tropoUtan and Suf- 

The churches oi Tarragona, Valencia, and Santiago, 26 capitulars and ^^^^^ Chuwhci. 
20 beneficiaries; Burgos, Granada, and Valladolid, 24 capitulars, and 20 

Tb6 suffragan churches will have respectively the number of capitulars 
and beneficiaries as follows: — ' ' 

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Barcelona, Cadiz, Cordova, Leon, Malaga, and Gviedo, 20 capi- 
tulars and 16 beneficiaries; Badajoz, Calahorra, Cartagena, Cuenca, 
Jaen, Lugo, Palencia, Pamplona, Salamanca, and Santander, 18 capitulars 
and 14 beneficiaries; Almeria, Astorga, Avila, the Canaries, Ciudad-Real, 
Coria, Gerona, Guadix, Huesca, Jaca, Lerida, Majorca, Mondonedo, Orense, 
Orihuela, Osma, Plasencia, Segorve, Segovia, Siguenza, Tarazona, Teruel, 
Tortosa,Tuy, Urgel, Vich, Vittoria, and Zamora, 16 capitulars and 12 bene-- 

That of Madrid will have 20 capitulars and 20 beneficiaries; and 
Minorca 12 capitulars and 10 beneficiaries. 

Patronage of the XVTII. In lieu of the 52 benefices mentioned in the Concordat of 1753^ 

Pope in Spanish the dignity of Precentor is reserved for the free gift of His Holiness in all 

Churches, Metropo- the metropolitan and suffragan churclies of Astorga, Avila, Badajoz, Bar* 

pSro^'^e^oMhe^''' celona, Cadiz, Ciudad-Real, Cuenca, Guadix, Huesca, Jaen, Lugo, Malaga, 

Crown.^^^ ^ Mondonedo, Orihuela, Oviedo, Plasencia, Salamanca, Santander, Siguenza, 

Tuy, Vittoria, and Zamora ; and in the other suffragan churches one unoflScial 

canonry is reserved, which will be determined on the first occasion by His 

Holiness. These benefices will be conferred according to the said Concordat. 

The dignity of Dean will always be conferred by Her Majesty in all 

churches, at whatever time and in whatever form they become vacant. The 

official canons will be appointed through candidateship by the prelates and 

chapters. The other dignitaries and canons will be appointed in rigorous 

alternation by Her Majesty and by the respective Archbishops and Bishops. 

The beneficiaries and assistant chaplains will be named alternately by Her 

Majesty and the prelates and chapters. 

The prebends, canonries, and benefices vacant by resignation or promotion 
of the possessor to another benefice not belonging to those reserved for His 
Holiness, will be for ever in the gift of Her Majesty. 

To Her Majesty will likewise belong those which become vacant, sede 
vacante, or those which the prelates who should have appointed to the same 
may have left unfilled at the time of their death, translation, or resignation. ,.j 
To Her Majesty will likewise belong the first appointment of dignitari^ 
canonries, and chaplainships of the new cathedrals, and of those which npiay 
be augmented in the metropolitan see of Valladolid, with the except!^ of 
those reserved for His Holiness, and of the official canonries to be filled up as 

In every case those named must receive the institution and canonical 
collation from their respective ordinaries. 

No Dignity, XIX. Seeing that by reason of past vicissitudes, as well as by reason of 

Canonry or Bene- the provisions of the present Concordat, there has been a notable change ia 

fice to be conferred j|-^^ circumstances of the Spanish clergy. His Holiness on his part, and Her 

EicepUons?^ ^" ^ Majesty the Queen on her part, agree that no dignity, canonry, or benefice 

requiring personal residence, shall be conferred on those who, by reason of 

some other office or commission, are obliged to reside elsewhere. Nor shall 

any of those offices or commissions be conferred on those who hold any bene* 

fice of the class indicated, unless they renounce one of those offices or benefices, 

thereby declaring such a tenure altogether incompatible. 

In the royal chapel, nevertheless, there may be as many as six prebends 
of the cathedral churches of the Peninsula, but in no case can those who 
occupy the first sees, the official canons, or those who have the cure of sools^ 
nor two of one church, be named. 

With regard to those who in virtue of special or general favours are in 
possession of two or more of these benefices, offices, or commissions, the neces- 
sary steps will be taken to regulate their situation on the basis of the 
present Article, as well as according to the necessities of the Church and the 
variety of the cases. 

Nomination of a XX. In a vacant see, the chapter of the metropolitan or sufiragan chnrdi 

"Capitular Vicar" wilhin a fixed term and according to the rules of the Sacred Council of Trent, 
in a Tacant See. y^i\\ name a single capitular vicar, in whose person will be vested all the 
ordinary power of the ch'apter, without reserve or limitation what- 
ever on its side, and without b€4ng ^ble to revoke the nomination once 

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made, or nominate another ; any privilege, usage, or custom, therefore, to the 
contrary being abolished, whether to administer in a body, to name more than 
one vicar, or anything else contrary to the sacred canons. 

XXI. Besides the chapel of the Royal Palace, will be continued : — Certain Chapels 

1. That of the Kings and the Muzarabe of Toledo, and those of San and Collates to 
Fernando of Seville, and of the Catholic Kings of Granada. ^^ maintained. 

2. The coUegiates situated in the capitals of provinces where no episco- 
pal see exists. 

3. Those collegiates of private patronage whose patrons become surety 
for the excess of expenses of the collegiate over the parochial church. 

4. The collegiates of Covadonga, Roncesvalles, San Isidro de Leon, 
Sacromonte de Granada, San Ildefonso, Alcala de Henares, and Jerez de ]a 

5. The cathedrals of episcopal sees, which are united to others in virtue 
of the provisions of the present Concordat, will be maintained as collegiates. 

All the collegiates, whatever be their origin, antiquity or foundation, vrill 
T)e reduced, when local circumstances do not prevent it, to parochial churches, 
with the number of incumbents considered necessary for the service and 
decorum of worship. 

The maintenance of the chapels and collegiates must be always subject to 
the approval of the Prelate of the diocese to which they belong, free from all 
exemption and jurisdiction vere o quasi nullius which may limit in the slightest 
degree the original j urisdiction of the ordinary. Collegiate churches will sJways 
be parochial, and will be distinguished by the name of superior parish, if there 
are one or more in the parish. 

XXII. The chapter of collegiates shall be composed of the presiding Abbot, Composition of the 
who will have the cure of souls, vsdthout other authority or jurisdiction than the Chapters of Colle- 
direction and economy of his church and chapter, of two official canons with f^^^' 

the title of prebend and doctor, and eight unofficial canons* There will be 
besides six beneficiaries or assistant chaplains. 

XXin. The rules laid dovra in the preceding Articles for the manage- 
ment of prebends and chaplainships of cathedral churches, will be punctually 
observed with respect to collegiate churches. 

XXIV. In order that due attention be paid in all parts of the kingdom 
to religious worship, and to all the requirements of spiritual teaching, the 
Archbishops and Bishops will proceed to form a new regulation and demarca- 
tion of their several dioceses, taking into consideration the extent and nature 
of the territory and population, and other local circumstances, consulting the 
cathedral chapters, the respective Prelates and the Fiscals of the ecclesiastical 
tribunals, and taking, on their part, all the necessary steps to conclude and put 
into execution the aforesaid regulation with the least possible delay, after 
receiving the sanction of Her Majesty's Government. 

XXV. No chapter or ecclesiastical corporation can have the cure of No Chapter or Ec- 
fiouls, and the curacies and vicarages which before were united pleno Jure, desiastical Corpo- 
to some corporation, will remain subject to the common law. The coadjutors cureof souls^^C^! 
and dependents of the parishes, and all ecclesiastics destined for the service of tain Ecclesiastics to 
hermitages, sanctuaries, oratories, public chapels, or non-parochial churches, be subordinate to 
will be subject to the curate of their respective territory ; and will be sub- *^® Curate of their 
ordinate to him in everything appertaining to religious functions. respective territory. 

XXVI. All curacies, without any distinction as to population, as to classes, How Curacies are to 
or as to the period at which they become vacant, will be filled up by election be filled ui^. 
among candidates, according to the provisions of the Holy Council of Trent ; 

for which purpose, the ordinaries will form lists containing each three names of 
the approved candidates, and send them to Her Majesty, in order that she 
may appoint one of them. The privilege of patrimonium^ and the exclusive 
preference which the patrimom'al ecclesiastics enjoyed in some places for 
obtaining curacies and other benefices, will consequently be done away with. 
The coracies of ecclesiastical patronage will be filled up by the patron 

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appointing one of the three candidates contaired in the list formed by the 
prelates in the manner above alluded to, and those of lay patronage^ by the 
patron appointing one from among those who may prove that they have been 
approved as candidates in their respective dioceses; and to those not possessing 
this requisite, a period of four months will be fixed, within which they must 
prove that their exercises, made in the proper form, have been approved; 
always rcserv ing to the ordinary his right of examining the candidate pre- 
sented by the patron, if he thinks proper to do so. 

The coadjutors of parishes will be appointed by the ordinaries, after a 
previous synodical examination. 

Measures to be XXVII. Proper measures will be taken to obtain as far as posaWe 

taken not to injure that the rights of the present possessors of any prebends, benefices, or charges 
the Rights of pre- which are to be suppressed, according to the new ecclesiastical arrangement, 
?AUdS"S.n:' ^ ^ot i^J'^red by the same. 

fices to be sup- 
pressed. XXVIII. Her Catholic Majesty's Government, besides establishing in 
Seminaries to be proper time, after previous agreement with the Holy See, and as soon as 
Estoblished for the circumstances will permit, general seminaries, in which the proper extension 
wstruction of the gj^g^jj ^ye given to ecclesiastical studies, will take, on its part, proper steps 
^^^* for the immediate creation of conciliar seminaries in those dioceses where 
they do not exist, in order that there be in future, in the Spanish dominions, 
no cathedral whatsoever which does not possess at least one seminary sufficient 
for the instruction of the clergy. 

All young scholars whom the archbishops and bishops may think expe^ 
dient to receive, according to the necessity or advantage of their dioceses, will be 
admitted at the seminaries, and educated and taught there in the manner 
established by the Holy Council of Trent ; and in everything connected .with 
the regulations of seminaries, the instructions given in the same, and the admin- 
istration of their property, the decrees of the aforesaid Council of Trent will be 

Should it so happen that, in consequence of the new division of dioceses, 
some of them should have two seminaries, the one in the present capital of 
the bishopric, and the other in the capital which is to be united to it, they 
shall be both maintained so long as the Government and the prelates of a com- 
mon accord may consider them useful. 

Priests and Evan- XXIX. In ordcr that there be throughout the Peninsula a suffiient 

Kelical labourers to number of priests and evangelical labourers, to be employed by the prelates for 

be appointed to j}^^ purpose of preaching as missionaries among the population of their diocese, 

arieT and to^^isit assisting the curates, attending the sick, and for other objects of charity and public 

the sick, &c. Utility, Her Majesty's Government, who intend to make proper improvements 

in the Colleges of Missionaries for the Colonies, will at once adopt the proper 

measiu*cs for establishing, where they may be required, and af^er previous 

consultation with the diocesan prelates, convents, and religious congregations 

of St. Vincent de Paul, St. Felipe Neri, and other religious orders 

approved of by the Holy See, which will at the same time serve as 

places of retirement for ecclesiastics to perform their spiritual exercises, and for 

other pious uses. 

Reliprious Houses XXX. In Order that there may also be religious houses for women, in which 

^r Women, and jj^^g^ y^Yio are Called to a contemplative life, or to the active attendance on the 
•erred? *' ^ ^^^^' ^^^^^ instruction of girls, and other works and occupations as pious as tliey are 
useful to the people, may follo\y up their vocation, the institute of the 
Daughters of Charity, under the direction of the priests of St. Vincent 
de Paul, will be preserved, and the Government will attend to its encourage- 

The convents of nuns who, besides being devoted to a contemplative life; 
are entrusted with the education and instruction of girls, or other charitable 
objects, shall also be preserved. 

With regard to all other religious orders, the ordinary prelates, taking; 
into consideration all the circumstances of their respective dioceses, will pro- 
|>ose convents of nuns in which it may be thought expedient to allow the 

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admission and profession of novices, as also the exercises of instruction or of 
charity wliich it may be advisable to establish in them. 

No nun will be allowed to pronounce her vows without her means of 
subsistance having been previously provided for her in due form. 

XXXI. The salary of the Most Reverend Archbishop of Toledo will Salaries of the 
be 160,000 reals (1600/.) a-year. Archbishops and 

The salaries of the Archbishops of SeviHe and Valencia, wiU be 150,000 f^J'^'PtLir^'^ri^^ 

reals (1500Z.) a-year. Jro^nyfiLdKey 

Those of the Archbishops of Granada and Santiago 140,000 reals (1400/.) die intestate, it is to 

a-Vear. belong to their legi- 

And those of the Archbishops of Burgos, Tarragona, Valladolid, and *"»ate heirs. 
Saragossa, 130,000 reals (1,300/-) a-year. 

The salary of the Reverend Bishops of Barcelona and Madrid will be 
110,000 reals (1,100/. )a-year. 

That of the Bishops of Cadiz, Carthagejia, Cordova, and Malaga, 100,000 
reals (1,000/.) a-year. 

That of the Bishops of Almeria, Avila, Badajoz, the Canaries, Cuenca, 
Gerona, Huesca, Jaen, Leon, L^rida, Lugo, Majorca, Orense, Oviedo, Pa- 
lencia, Pamplona, Salamanca, Santander, Segovia, Teruel, and Zamora, 90,000 
reals (900/.) a-year. 

That of the Bishops of Astorga, Calahorra, Ciudad-Real, Coria, Guadix, 
Jaca, Minorca, Mondonedo, Orihuela, Osma, Plasencia, Segorve, Sigiienza, 
Tarazona, Tortosa, Tuy, Urgel, Vichy and Vittoria, 80,000 reals (800/.) 

The salary of the Patriarch of the Indies, not being himself an archbishop 
or a bishop, will be 150,000 reals (1500/.) a-year, from which sum, any 
pension or allowance whatever which he might receive from the State will be 

The Prelates who are Cardinals will have an extra allowance of 20,000 
reals (200/.) a-year. 

The Auxiliary Bishops of Ceuta and Teneriflfe, and the Prior of the 
Orders, will have a salary of 40,000 reals (400/.) a-year. 

No reduction will be made from the aforesaid salaries, either on account of 
the expense of bulls, which will be paid by the Government, nor of any other 
expenses which may be incurred in Spain for the same. 

Moreover, the Archbishops and Bishops will keep their palaces, together 
with the gardens, orchards, or houses, which, in any part of the diocese may 
have been destined to their own use or recreation, and which have not been 

The present legislation respecting private property left by Arch- 
bishops and Bishops is hereby annulled; and consequently these Prelates 
will be allowed freely to bequeath, according to the dictates of their conscience, 
any property they may possess at the time of their death, and in case of their 
dying intestate, such property will belong to their legitimate heirs, under the 
same obligation of conscience : with the exception, in both cases, of oma-. 
ments and officiating robes, which will be considered as belonging to the 
mitre, and transmitted to their successors in the same. 

XXXII. The first stall of the Cathedral Church of Toledo will have a Salaries of persons 
salary assigned to it of 24,000 reals (240/.) a-year : those of the other composing Chapters 
MetropoUtan Churches 20,000 reals (200/.): Those of suffragan churches ColStes^ 
18,000 reals (180/.) ; and those of collegiates 15,000 reals (^150/.) a-year. ^ 

The dignitaries and official canons of metropohtan churches will 
have a salary of 16,000 reals (160/.); those of suffi-agan churches 14,000 
reals (140/.); and the official canons of collegiates 8000 reals (80/.) 

All other canons will have a salary of 14,000 reals (140/.) in metropo- 
litan churches ; 12,000 reals (120/.) in suffragan churches ; and 6,600 realg 
(66/.) in collegiates. 

The incumbents or assistant chaplains of metropolitan churches will have 
8000 reals (80/.) ; these of suffragan churches, 6000 reals (60/.) ; and thofie of 
collegiates 3000 reals (30/.) a-year. 

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Salaries and allow- ' XXXIIF. The salary of curates in town parishes wUl be of from 3000 
ances of Curates, ^^ 10,000 reals (from 30Z. to 100/.); in rural parishes the minhnum of the 

Coa^utors, and ^^^^y ^^.^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^ ^ 

Coadjutors and vicars will have a salary of from 2000 to 4000 reals 

The curates of Parishes, or their coadjutors, will besides take possession 
of the houses destined for their abode, as well as of the orchards or gardens 
belonging to them, which have not been sold, and are known under the name 
of *^ Iglesarios," ^' Mansos,'' &c. 

The curates and their coadjutors will also receive the proportionate part 
due to them of the ^* Estola " and altar fees. 

Allowances to XXXIV. To defray the expenses of public worship the metropolitan 

Churches to defray churches will have a yearly allowance of from 90,000 to 140,000 reals (from 

expenses of Public ggoz. to 1400/.) ; suffragau churches, from. 70,000 to 90,000 reals (from 7001. 

""" P' to 900Z.); and coUegiates from 20,000 to 30,000 reals (from 200/. to 


For the expenses of administration and the extraordinary ones of visit- 
ing, the metropolitan prelates will have an allowance of from 20,000 to 
30,000 reals (from 200/. to 300/.) ; and the suffragan, from 16,000 to 20,000 
reals (from 160/. to 200/.) a-year. 

For the expenses of the parochial worship, a yearly sum, never under 
1000 reals (10/.^ will be assigned to the respective churches, besides those 
eventual emoluments and fees, which are already or may be hereafter established 
on certain ceremonies, by the tariffs of the respective dioceses. 

AllowancestoSemi- XXXV. The conciliary seminaries will have a yearly allowance of from 

naries, religious 90,000 to 120,000 reals (from 900/. to 1200/.), according to their circumstances 

edTn AttTxix""' ^^^ necessities. 

Disposal of Pro- Her Majesty's Government will provide, by the most expedient means, 

perty belonj^ing to for the subsistence of the religious houses arid congregations mentioned in 

Convents which is Article XXIX. 

Government ° ^^ ^^ ^ *^^ maintenance of religious communities, the prescriptions con- 

tained in Article XXX will be observed. 

All property belonging to convents or religious houses now in the 
hands of Government, and which has not been disposed of, will be immediately 
and without loss of time, returned to them, or to their representatives 
the diocesan prelates in whose district the respective convents are or were 
situated before the recent vicissitudes. But His Holiness, taking into conside- 
ration the present state of such property, and other especial circumstances, 
and in order that the expenses of public worship and other general ones, may 
be more regularly covered with the produce of that property, has determined 
that the prelates, in the name of the religious commimities to which the 
property may belong, shall immediately and without delay, proceed to the sale of 
the same by public auction, made in the canonical form, and with the intervention 
of a person appointed . by Her Majesty's Government. The produce of these 
sales will be invested in the Government three per cent, stock not 
transferable, the capital and interest of which will be distributed amongst 
all the aforesaid convents, in proportion to their necessities and circumstances, 
therewith to meet the above-mentioned expenses, and for the payment of the 
pensions of those nuns who have a right to them. Should any sum be required 
for the full payment of these pensions, the Government will grant the same as 
it has hitherto done, until the decease of the pensioners. 

XXXVI. It wiU he understood that the allowances fixed in the foregoing 
articles, for the expenses of public worship and the clergy, are liable to be 
increased when circumstances may permit. However, if for some special 
reason, any of the allowances expressed in Article XXXIV be not sufficient 
in some particular case to cover the expenses they are intended to meet, Her 
Maiesty's Government will furnish the sum which may be required ; and it 
win also provide for the expenses of repairs of churches and other buildings 
destined for public worship. 

Digitized by 



XXX VJI. The amount of revenue bebnging to any episcopal see during. Digpoaal of Re- 
its vacancy, will be equally distributed by giving one half to the conciliary \enues of Biahop- 
seminary and the other half to the new prelate, gSler deduction of the emolu- &^ ^hiUt^vawmt^^ 
ments due to the administrator, who will be elected by the chapter in the act *^* ^ * * ^*^" * 
of appointing the capitulary vicar, and any expenses which may be incurred 
for indispensable repairs to the Bishop's Palace. 

The revenue w^hich may become due during the vacancy of deaneries, 
canonries, parishes, and benefices of every diocese, after deduction of their 
respective obligations, will be destined to form a reserve fund at the disposal* 
of the ordmary, to meet the extraordinary and unforeseen expenses of the 
churches and the clergy, as well as any grave and urgent necessity' of the 
diocese. For the same purpose, • all newly appointed prebendaries, curates, 
and other beneficiaries, shall pay into the aforesaid reserve fund, once for 
^1, and within the first year of their appointment, a sum equal to the twelfth 
part of their yearly salary: and consequently any other discount hitherto 
made to the salary of these ecclesiastics, under whatever pretext, usage, or 
privilege, will cease. 

XXXVIII. The funds for defraying the expenses of public worsliip and Funds for de- 

the clergy will be : fraying the ex- 

ist. The produce of the property returned to the clergy by the Law of ^orshi^'^ard'^^^^ 
the 3rd April, 1845. Cle^y!^ *" ^ 

2nd. The produce of the alms for the holy crusade. 
3rd. The produce of the comnianderies and Maestrazgos of the four 
military orders, which are or may become vacant. 

4tn. An impost on landed property of every description and on cattle, to 
the amount which may be required to meet the full amount of the above- 
mentioned expenses, after having taken into account the produce specified in 
the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd paragraphs, and any other revenue which may in 
future, and on agreement with the Holy See, be assigned for this object. 

The clergy will collect tliis impost, and receive it either in kind, merchan- 
dize, or in cash, according to a previous arrangement which it may have come 
to with the respective provinces, villages, parishes, or private individuals ; and 
if necessary, the public authorities will afford to it the proper assistance for 
the collection of this impost, employing, in this case, the same means of coercion 
which are established for the collection of the public taxes. 

Moreover, all ecclesiastical i)roperty not comprised in the aforesaid Law 
of 1845, which has not yet l>een disposed of, including the remainder of the 
property belonging to the reliigious communities of monks, will be immediately 
and without delay returned to the church. But, in consideration of the 
present circmnstances of these two sorts of property, and of the evident utility 
which the church will derive therefrom, the Holy Father has determined that 
the capital of that property be immediately and without delay, invested in 
Government three per cent, stock, not transferable, strictly observing the form 
and rules established in Article XXXV, with reference to the sale of property 
belonging to nuns. 

All this property will be calculated at its exact value, after deduction of 
any charges to which it may be subjected, in order to carry into effect the 
provisions of the present Article. 

XXXIX. Her Majesty's Government, without encroaching upon the right Government to com- 
which belongs to the Diocesan Prelates, will adopt proper measures for pel Persons to give 
compelling those persons amongst whom the property of ecclesiastical benefices P^op^^ security for 
and pious foundations may have been distributed, to give proper security SonT^entidLd^oif*^ 
for the payment of such obligations as may be entailed upon that property. ' Church Property 

Similar measures will be adopted by the Government to secure likewise whichhas beensold. 
the payment of the pious charges which may be entailed upon the ecclesiastical 
property which has been sold under this condition. 

The Government will always and exclusively be answerable for those 
obligations entailed upon property which has been sold by the State free from 
such condition. 

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Afltot* property -^^* It is hereby declared that all the above-mentioned property and 

and re^nue revenue belong to the Church, and that in its name they will be enjoyed and 

beWiAf to administered by the clergy. 

the Cl«>OT» ^^^ a8 The funds of the crusade will be administered in every diocese by the 

don thereof. "**^*'^*" Diocesau Prelates as invested for this purpose with the power granted to 
them by the Bull for the distribution thereof, as prescribed in the la^ pro- 
rogation of the respective apostolical concession, and without prejudice to the 
obligations imposed on these funds by conventions concluded with the Holy 
See. The manner and form in which the aforesaid administration is to be 
carried on will be mutually agreed upon by the Holy Father and Her Catholic 

The Diocesan Prelates will likewise administer the funds of the *^ Indulto 
Cuadragesimal'^ (Lent Dispensations), and apply them to the charitable 
establishments, and to acts of charity in their respective dioceses, according to 
the Apostohcal concessions. 

The other Apostolical powers relative to this branch, and the attributes 
annexed to them, will be exercised by the Archbishop of Toledo, to the 
extent and in the form which will be determined by the Holy See. 

XLI. Moreover the Church will hav^ the right of acquiring property 
under any legitimate title, and the property it now possesses, as well as that 
which it may hereafter acquire, will be solemnly respected. Consequently, no 
suppression or union will be made with regard to ancient and new ecclesiastical 
foundations, without the intervention of the authority of the Holy See, 
excepting the powers which belong to Bishops according to the Holy Council 
of Trent. 

Persons who have XLH. Therefore, taking into consideration the advantage which religion 

purchased Church must derive from the present Convention, the Holy Father, at the request of 
Property not to be Her Catholic Majesty, and for the purpose of securing public tranquillity, com- 
distorbed in the mands and declares that no persons who of late years have purchased eccle- 
?he^sam°^.^^™^° ^ siastical property in the dominions of Spain, according to the civil laws at 
present in force, and hold it in their possession, nor those who have inherited or 
may inherit the rights of the aforesaid purchaseirs, will ever and in any way 
whatsoever be disturbed, either by His Holiness or by the Supreme Pontiffs his 
successors; and that so far from it, both the aforsaid purchasers and their 
successors will securely and peaceably enjoy the possession of the above-men- 
tioned property and its emoluments and produce. 

Everything not XLHL Every other thing belonging to ecclesiastical persons or institutions, 

enumerated to be which has uot been provided for in the foregoing Articles, will be directed and* 
cordin^^^tTthrdis- administered according to the discipline of the Church now canonically in 

cipline of the lOrCC. 


Royal Prerogatives XLIV. The Holy Father and Her Catholic Majesty hereby declare that the 

of the Crown of royal prerogatives of the Crown of Spain are to remain untouched and unim- 

Spain to remain un- paired, according to the conventions previously concluded between the two 

touched and unim- Powers. And, therefore, the aforesaid Conventions and especially the one 

^^^^^ ' which was concluded between the Supreme Pontiff Benedict XIV, and the 

Catholic King Ferdinand VI, in the year 1753^ are hereby confirmed and will 

continue to be in full force in everything which is not altered or modified by 

the present Convention. 

All Laws, Orders, XLV. In \irtue of this Concordat, all laws, orders, and decrees published 

and Decrees to be ^p ^ ^^^ present day, in any manner or form whatsoever in the dominions of 

considered null and ^^ . .,/^, -j j "^ n j -j • n • x t.- i, v ^ 

void in Spam, in all Spain, Will be Considered as null and void, m all pomts which may be contrary 
piiats which may to the same Concordat, which is to be now and for ever in force as a law of the 
be contrary to this State in the aforesaid dominions. And, therefore, both Contracting Parties 
Concordat. promise, for themselves and for their successors, the faithful observance of aH 

and every one of the Articles therein contained. Should any difl&culty arise in 
future, tne Holy Father and Her Catholic Majesty will come to an under- 
standing for the purpose of giving to it an amicable solution. 

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XLVI and last. The exchange of the ratifications of the present Concordat 
ynH take place within the period of two months, or sooner if possible. 

In testimony whereof we, the undersigned Plenipotentiaries, have signed 
the present Concordat, and affixed our own seal to it, in Madrid^ this 16th day 
of March, 1861. 


Archbishop of Thessalonica. 

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Signed at London, August 24, 1850. 

Presented to both Houses of Parliament hy Command of Her Majesty. 


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Convention between Her Majesty and the King of 
Sweden and Norway, for the regulation and improve- 
ment of the Communication by Post between Great 
Britain and Sweden and Norway. 

Signed at London, August 24, 1850. 

[Ratifications exchanged at London, November 22, 1850.] 

HER Majesty the Queen of the Hennes Majestat Drottningen af 
United Kingdom of Great Britain det fdrenade Konungariket Stor- 
and Ireland, and His Majesty the britannien och Irland, och Hans 
King of Sweden and Norway, beinp; Majestat Konungen af Sverige och 
desirous of giving additional facili- Norrige, lifvade af en omsesidig 
ties to the communication by Post onskan att ytterligare underlatta 
between their respective dominions, postforbindelsen emellan deras re- 
have resolved to conclude a Conven- spektiva lander, hafvafor godt funnit, 
tion for that purpose, and have att, till vinnande af detta andam&l, 
named as their Plenipotentiaries, afsluta en Convention, och hafva 
that is to say : — utnamnt deras Befullmagtigade Om- 

bud, nemli^en : — 

Her Majesty the Queen of the Hennes Majestat Drottningen af 
United Kingdom of Great Britain det fdrenade Konungariket Stor- 
and Ireland, the Right Honourable britannien och Irland, den Hdgt 
Henry John Viscount Palmerston, Arade Henry John Viscount Pal- 
Baron Temple, a Peer of Ireland, a merston. Baron Temple, Pair of 
Memberof Her Britannick Majesty's Irland, Ledamot af Hennes Stor- 
Most Honourable Privy Council, a britanniska Majestats Hogst Arade 
Member of Parliament, Knight Geheime Conseil, Ledamot af Par. 
Grand Cross of the Most Honour- lamentet, Storkors af den Hogst 
able Order of the Bath, a.nd Her ^^ade Bath Orden, och Hennes 
Britannick Majesty^ Prmcipal be- Storbritanniska Majestats Fdrste 
cretary of State for Foreign Affairs; Statssekreterare for Utrikes aren- 
T± M^rnll «n^lT.TnfVw^ d^ma; och den Hogt Arade Ulick 
?ril.^«TL^n tJnl^^^^^^^ Jo»^« Marquis och'larl af Clanri- 
?rJw R«r?n in,?rhm if Z ^^rde, och Barou Dunkellin i Irland, 
^wr^' K^nl-Hnn, riti of fh! B^rou SomcrhiU af det fdrenade 
nn J!h K^n^§or*. M.^Sr nf H^r Konungariket, Pair af det fdrenade 
United Kingdom a Member of Her Konunlariket Ledamot af Hennes 

lTl^^y'c^^i:^.fTZ Storbrifanniska Majestats Hdgst 
Most Illustrious Order of St. Pat- f^^^ Geheime Conseil, Riddare af 
rick. Lord Lieutenant of the County den mest Beromda St. Patricks 
of Galway, Vice- Admiral of the Orden, Lord Lieutenant iGrefskapet 
Coast of Connaught. Colonel of the Galway, Vice-Amiral for Kusten af 
Galway Militia, Her Britannick Ma- Connaught, Ofverste for Galway 
jesty's Postmaster-General ; Milis, Hennes Storbritanniska Ma- 
jestats General Postdirektdr ; 
And His Majesty the King of Samt Hans Majestat Konungen 
Sweden and • Norway, the Sieur af Sverige och Norrige, Dess Kam- 
John Gothard, Baron de Rehausen, marherre, Dess Envoy6 Extraordi- 
His Chamberlain, Commander of naire och Ministre Pl^nipotentiaire 
the Order of St. Olaf, and Knight hos Hennes Majestat Drottningen 
of the Order of the Polar Star, His af Storbritannien och Irland, Corn- 
said Majesty's Envoy Extraordinary mendeuren af Dess St. Olafs Orden. 

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and Minister Plenipotentiary at the 
Court of Her Britannick Majesty ; 

Who, after having communicated 
to each other their respective full- 
powers, found in good and due form, 
nave agreed upon and t^oncloded 
the following Articles :— 

Riddaren af Dess Nordstjerne Orden, 
Walborne Friherre John Gothard 
von Rehausen ; 

Hvilka^ efter att hafva utvexlat 
deras omBesidiga, i godt och beho- 
rigt skick befunna, fuUmakter, 
ofverenskommit -om och afslutat 
foljande Artiklar :— 

A. — Sweden. 

A. — Sverige. 


As there is at present no direct 
communication by means of packet- 
boats between the harbours of the 
United Kingdom and those of Swe- 
den, it is agreed that the British 
Post Office shall make use of the 
right of exchanging closed mails 
between the British and Swedish 
Post Offices in transit through 
Denmark, on the conditions stipu- 
lated in Article IX of the present 

The transmission of the corres- 
pondence shall take place twice a 
week by means of the steam-boats 
carryino^ on the packet service be- 
tween London and Hamburgh^ so 
long as the Government of the 
United Kingdom shall deem it ex- 
pedient to maintain that communi- 


D& for narvarande ingen ome- 
delbar post&ngfartygs forbindelse 
ager rum emellan Storbritanniska 
och Svenska hamnar, ar det ofver- 
enskommet, att Storbritanniska 
Post Styrelsen skall begagna rattig- 
lieten att utvexla slutna sackar 
emellan Storbritanniska och Svenska 
Post Styrelserna, i transito genom 
Danmark, p& de uti Artikel IX af 
narvarande Convention faststallda 

Brefvexlingen skall befordras 
tvanne g&nger i hvarje vecka med 
de emeuan London och Hamburg 
g&ende postS^ngfartyg, s& lange det 
lorenade Konungari^ets Regering 
finner andam&lsenligt att denna 
forbindelse underh&lla. 


Hie exchange of tnails shall take 
place on the part of the United 
Kingdom, by •the Post Office in 
Loodon, and on the part of Sweden, 
l>y the Swedish Post Office at Hel- 
singborg ; but other offices may be 
fix^ upon for the exchange of cor- 
respondence, *when such a meamire 
shall be deemed expedient by the 
two Post Offices. 


Utvexlingen af postsackame 
skall forsigg&, & det toreuade Ro- 
nungarikets sida, genom P<5st Kon- 
toret i London, och & Sveriges sida 
genom Svenska Post Kontoret i Hel- 
singborg ; men andra Post Kontor 
kunna afven bestammas for utvex- 
lingen af correspondencen, d& sSdan 
fitgard af bSda Post Styrelserna 
anses andamSlsenlig. 


In addiijon to the regular ^on- 
veyaAce meBtioDed in the preceding 
Articles, the Post Office of the 
United Kingdom and the Post Office 
of Sweden shall forward to each 
aether reciprocally^ by means of 
ftwate vessels plying between die 


Utom det i foreg&ende Artiklar 
onmamnda regdbundna postbefor- 
dringssatt, skola afven Storbritan* 
niska samt Svenska Post Styrelsev- 
ea, raedelrt privata fartyg, som g& 
en»ellan de bida landenia, tillstana 
hvaraadra alia de bref, hvilka 

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two countries, any letters which 
parties may wish to have for- 
warded by such opportunities. 

The gratuities due to the nias-> 
ters of such vessels for the convey- 
ance of those letters shall be paid 
to them by either Post Office, ac- 
'Cording to the regulations in force 
in each country. 

With regard to thecorrespondence 
forwarded by private ships, it is 
agreed that the postage due to either 
Post Office for the transmission of 
such letters, shall be levied by each 
Office, respectively, on the posting 
and delivery of the letters. 

onska sanda. 

med sidan lagenhet 

Den ersattning, som for befor- 
drandet af dessa bref tlllkommer 
skeppsforarne, skall till dem af 
vederborande Post Styrelse utbeta^ 
las, efter de i hvardera landet gS- 
lande stadgar. 

Med afseende & den medelst pri- 
vata fartyg befordrade brefvexlin- 
gen, ar det ofverenskommet, att det 
hvarje Post Styrelse for befordrandet 
af s&dana bref tillkommande porto, 
skall af densamma vid brefvens in 
och utlemnatKie uppb«ras. 


The correspoiwience of every de- 
scription which the two Post Offices 
may forward to each other recipro- 
cally, shall be inclosed at the Office 
from which it is forwardled, in sealed 
bags, and shall be accompanied by 
a letter-bill, in which the particulars 
of eaoh dispatch so forwarded shall 
be specified, and the safe arrival of 
which shall be acknowledged each 
time by the Office to which s»ch 
bags are sent. 

These letter -bills and receipts 
shall be in accordance with forms 
to be agreed upon from time to time 
between the two Post Offices. 


Hvarje slags brefvexliag, som <ie 
b&da rost Styrelserna tillsanda 
hvarandra, skall vid det Post Kob- 
tor, hvarifr&n dea afg&r, inpackas t 
slutna sackar och &tfoljas af en bref- 
karta med specificerad ^ipp^ift p& 
inneh&llet af hvarje sandning, hvil- 
kens rigtiga emottagaode bor hvarje 
g&ng erkiinnas af dU Post Kontor, 
till hvilket s&daoa saokju: aro a£- 

Dessa brefkartor och quittenser 
skola vara ofverensstammande med 
de formular, om hvilka de b&da 
Post Styrelserna tid efter annan 6f- 


The postage of letters originating 
in the TJnited Kingdom ana addres« 
sed to the Kiagdom of Sweden, and 
reciprocally, uie postage of letters 
originati ng in Sweden and addressed 
to the United Kingdom, may be 
wholly prepaid, or the letters may be 
sent wholly unpaid, at the option of 
the sender. Prepayment, however, 
if made, must be made for the whole 
of the distance which the letter has 
to go, and prepayment for a part 
only of the -distance will not be per* 

The stipulations contained in this 
Article do not apply to letters trans- 
mitted between the two countries 
by private ship. Such letters shall 
be forwarded -under the regulations 
laid dowa in Article III. 


Portot £5r bref, som afsaadas fr&o 
det forenade Konungariket och 
adresserastill KonungariketSverige, 
och omvandt, portot for bref, af- 
saoda friai Sverige och adreaserade 
till det forenade Konungariket, kan, 
efter afsandarens onskaa, antingen 
betalas belt och h&llet, eUer ock 
kunna brefven sandas belt och kSllet 
obetaldta. Om frankering ^ker, 
m&ste densamma dock aga rum far 
hela vagen, som brefven befordraSy 
och frankering for blott ^a del af 
vagen ar ej til^ten. 

De uti denna Artikel inneh&llna 
foreskrifter skola dock icke tillampas 

{)& bref befordrade emellan de tvanne 
anderna medelst privata fartyg. 
S&daaa bref befordras under iaktta- 
gaade af de ^ Artikel 111 gi&a 

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With regard, however, to regis- 
tered letters, there shall be no 
option as to prepayment, and the 
postage of those letters shall always 
be paid in advance, including not 
only the ordinary postage to the 
place of their destination, but also 
any additional postage to which 
letters of this class may be liable, 
according to the regulations of the 
country from which they are sent. 

Med afseende & rekommenderade 
bref skall dock intet val af frank- 
eringssatt kunna H^a rum; utan 
portot af dessa bref stall alltid forut 
erlaggas, innefattande 8& val det 
allmanna portot till bestammelse 
orten, som afven de ytterligare 
afgifter, hvilka enligt stadgarne i 
det land, hvarifr&n brefven afg&, 
bora dylika bref drabba. 


Letters originating in the United 
Kingdom and addressed to Sweden, 
shall be subject to an uniform 
British rate of six pence for each 
single letter, not exceeding the 
weight of half an ounce British, and 
so on, according to the scale of pro- 

fression laid down in Article X 

A similar British rate of six pence 
on each single letter shall be 
charged on all letters originating in 
Sweden, and addressed to the 
United Kingdom. 


Bref, afsanda fr&n det forenade 
Konungariket och adresserade till 
Sverige, skola underkastas ett lik- 
formigt Storbritanniskt porto af sex 
pence for hvarje enkelt bref, som 
icke vager ofver ett halft uns Stor- 
britannisk vigt, och 8& vidare, i 
enlighet med den i efterioljande Arti- 
kel X faststallda progressiva porto- 

Ett enahanda Storbritanniskt 
porto af sex pence for hvarje enkelt 
bref, skall erlaggas af alia bref, som 
afsandas fr&n Sverige och adresseras 
till det Forenade Konungariket. 


Letters originating in the United 
Kingdom and addressed to Sweden, 
as well as letters originating in 
Sweden and addressed to the United 
Kingdom, shall be subject to an 
uniform Swedish inland rat« of three 
pence for each single letter not ex- 
ceeding the weight of half an ounce, 
British weight, or one loth Swedish 
weight, and so on, according to the 
scale of progression laid down in 
Article X hereinafter. 

When the letters are conveyed 
across the Sound between Elsineur 
and Helsingborg, they shall be sub- 
ject, in addition to the above rate, 
to a Swedish rate of one penny the 
single letter, for sea-conveyance be- 
tween those places. 


Bref, afsanda fr&n det forenade 
Konungariket, och adresserade till 
Sverige, afvensom bref, afsanda fr&n 
Sverige, och adresserade till det 
forenade Konungariket, skola under- 
kastas ett likformigt Svenskt land- 
porto af tre pence for hvarje en- 
kelt bref, som icke vager ofver ett 
halft uns Storbritannisk vigt, eller 
ett lod Svensk vigt, och s& vidare, 
enligt den i efterKljande Artikel X 
faststallda progressiva portotabell. 

Nar brefven befordras ofver Sundet 
emellan Helsingor och Helsingborg, 
skola de, utom ofvannamnde porto, 
vara underkastade ett Svenskt porto 
af en penny & hvarje enkelt bref, 
for sjotransporten emellan dessa 


In addition to the British and 
Swedish rates mentioned in Articles 
VII and VIII, the letters shall be 
subject, when sent through Den- 
mark, to a rate of four pence the 


Utom de Storbritanniska och 
Svenska porton, omnamnda i Artik- 
larneVII och VIII, skola brefven, nar 
de sandas genom Danmark, under- 
kastas ett porto af fyra pence for 

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single letter, being the Danish tran- 
sit postage for conveyance through 
Denmark. The British Post Office 
shall account to the Danish Post 
Office for this transit rate of four 

A further rate of one penny the 
single letter, shall be charged upon 
letters for their transmission be- 
tween Elsineur and Helsingborg, 
being the rate payable to Denmark 
for the conveyance of the corres- 

SDndence across the Sound. The 
wedish Post Office shall account 
to the Danish Post Office for this 
Danish sea-rate of one penny. 

hvarje enkelt bref, utgorande Danska 
transito portot for befordrandet 

fenom Danmark. Storbritanniska 
^ost Styrelsen skall kreditera den 
Danska for detta transito porto af 
fyra pence. 

Ett ytterligare porto af en penny 
skall erlaggas & nvaije enkelt bref 
for dess befordrande emellan Hel- 
singor och Helsingborg, utgorande 
det porto, som tillkommer Danmark 
for ofverforandet af brefvexlingen 
ofver Sundet. Svenska Post Styrelsen 
skall kreditera den Danska for 
detta Danska sjoporto af en penny. 


With respect to letters above the 
weight of a single letter, which is 
fixed at half an ounce in the United 
Kingdom, and atone loth in Sweden, 
the two Post Offices shall employ 
the scale of progression now in 
operation in the United Kingdom, as 
follows : viz.. 

For every letter not exceeding 
half an ounce, one rate ; 

Above half an ounce, but not ex- 
ceeding one ounce, two rates ; 

Above one ounce, but not ex- 
ceeding two ounces, four rates ; 

Above two, but not exceeding 
three ounces, six rates ; 

Above three, but not exceeding 
four ounces, eight rates ; 

And so on ; two rates being added 
for every ounce, or fraction of an 
ounce^ beyond the first ounce. 


Med afseende & bref, som ofver- 
stiga vigten af ett enkelt bref, 
hvilken ar bestamd till ett halft uns 
i det forenade Konungariket, och 
till ett lod i Sverige, skola b&da 
Post Styrelserna tillampa den nu i 
det forenade Konungariket gallande 
progressiva portotabell, p& satt som 
foljer: nembgen, 

For hvarje bref, som ej vager ofver 
ett halft uns, enkelt porto ; 

Ofver ett halft, men icke mer an 
ett helt uns, dubbelt porto ; 

Ofver ett, men icke mer an tvanne 
uns, fyra dubbelt porto ; 

Ofver tvanne, men icke mer an 
trenne uns, sex dubbelt porto ; 

Ofver trenne, men icke mer an 
fyra uns, &tta dubbelt porto ; 

Och s& vidare, med tillagg af 
dubbelt porto for hvarje uns eller 
br&k af ett uns utofver det f orsta. 


The two Post Offices shall mutu- 
ally account to each other for the 
portion which is due to each of the 
postage of the correspondence for- 
warded to them, both for that of 
the letters which are not prepaid, 
and for that of the letters which 
are prepaid. 

As to registered letters, it is 
agreed that each Post Office shall 
retain the extra postage which shall 
have been charged by it, in con- 
formity with the stipulations of 
Article YI, so that the surplus shall 
not give rise to any account be- 
tween the two Post Offices. 


De b&da Post Styrelserna skola 
omsesidigt kreditera hvarandra for 
den andel af portot, som tillkommer 
dem hvardera for den till dem 
befordrade brefvexlingen af s& val 
frankerade som ofrankerade bref. 

Hvad rekommenderade bref ang&r^ 
ar det ofverenskommet, att hvarje 
Post St)rrelse skall tillgodonjuta det 
extra porto, som af densamma 
blifvit upburet, enligt stadgandet i 
Artikeln V I, s&attofverskottet ej skall 
foranleda n&gon afrakning emellan 
de b&da Post Styrelserna. 

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When letters are not conveyed 
direct between the United King- 
dom and Sweden, or transmitted 
between those countries through 
Denmark, but are forwarded by me 
way of any other foreign country, 
they must be treated as letters sent 
in transit to and from such other 


D& bref icke aro direkte befordrade 
emeHan det forenade Konungariket 
och Sverige, eller emellan dessa 
lander ofver Danmark^ utan aaada 
genom nSgot annat friimmande land» 
skofa de behandlas s& som bre^ 
sanda i transito till eller fr&n andra. 
sSdana lander. 


The rate of transit postage to be 
taken by the Post Office of the 
United Kingdom on letters posted 
in or addressed to Sweden, and con- 
veyed direct, or through Denmark, 
and passing through the United 
Kingdom to or from any British 
colony or possession, or to or from 
foreign countries, shall be that 
whicS is now, or which shall here- 
after be taken upon letters between 
the United Kingdom and such 
colonies and foreign countries re- 
spectively, in addition to the postage 
which is to be charged between 
the United Kingdom and Sweden, 
namely, the rate of six pence sterling 
the half-orunce, and so on, according 
to the scale of progression laid down 
in Article X. The colonial or 
foreign rate, however, is to be cal- 
culated from the port of departure, 
or to the port of arrival of the 
packet. When the letters are sent 
through Denmark, they shall be 
subject to a further rate of four 
pence the half-ounce, and so on, 
according to the scale of progres- 
sion laid down in Article X, being 
the postage which is to be paid to 
Denmark lor their conveyance over 
the Danish territory. 

When such transit letters are not 
conveyed either direct between the 
United Kingdom and Sweden, or 
through Denmark, but are forwarded 
by the way of any other foreign 
country, they must be treated as 
letters sent in transit to and from 
such other countries. 


Det transito porto, som det fore* 
nadeKonungarikets Post Sty relse har 
att sig tillgodoherakna for bref, som, 
afsanda fr&n Sverige eller dit adres- 
serade, och befordrade direkte, eller 
genom Danmark, transitera genom 
det forenade Konungariket till eller 
frii:i ndgon Storbritannisk coloni 
eBer besittning, eller till eller fr&n 
frammande lander, skall vara lika 
mcd det, som nu utg&r, eller fram- 
deles kommer att utg& for bref emel- 
lan det forenade Konungariket och 
namnda colonier och frammande 
lander, hvartill kommer det porto, 
som erlagges emellan det forenade 
Konungariket ochSverige, nemligen, 
sex pence sterling for ett halft una, 
och s& vidare, enligt den i Artikeln X 
faststalkla progressiva porto tabelL 
Detta colonial eller frammande porto 
beraknas likval endast till eller fr&n 
den hamn, till eller fr&n hvilken 
packetb&ten ankommer eller afg&n 
Nar brefven sandas ofver Dan* 
mark skolade underkastas ett ytter- 
ligare porto af fyra pence for hvarje 
halft uns, och s& vidare, enligt den i 
Artikel X faststallda progressiva 
porto tabell, hvilket porto utgor den 
afgift, som skall erlaggas till Dan- 
mark for brefvens befordrande ofver 
Danska omrSdet. 

Nar s&dana transito bref icke aro 
befordrade antingen direkte emellan 
det forenade Konungariket och 
Sverige, eller genom Danmark, utan 
aro sanda genom n&got annat fram* 
ma[nde land, skola de behandlas s& 
som bref sanda i transito till diler 
fr&n s&dana lander. 



In addition to the rates specified Utom de i fbreg&ende Artikeln 

in the preceding Article, the transit specificerade porton, skola dess^ 

letters therein mentioned shall be transito bref underkastas det Sven- 

subject to the Swedish inland rate ska land portot af tre pence for 

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of three pence for every single letter, hvaije enkelt bref» samt ett jrtter- 

and to a further rate of two pence ligare porto af tw& pence for fort- 

for conveyance between Elsineur skafTandet emellan Helsingor och 

and Helsingborg, when the letters Helsingborg, d& brefven s&lunda 

are so transmitted. befordras. 


The transit rate of postage to be 
charged by Sweden upon letters to 
or from the United Kingdom, or on 
letters passing through the United 
Kingdom to and from the British 
colonies or possessions, from and to 
those foreign countries with which 
the British Government has made, 
or shall hereafter make arrange- 
ments for a mutual reduction of 
postage, shall be the uniform rate 
of three pence sterling for every 
single letter of half an ounce, and 
so on, according to the scale of 
progression laid down in Article X, 
when such letters shall pass through 


Det transito porto, Sverige har att 
upbara for bref till eller fr&n det 
forenade Konungariket, eller for 
bref, som befordras genom det fore- 
nade Konungariket till och fr&n 
Storbritanniska colonier eller besitt- 
ningar, fr&n och till de lander, med 
hvilka Storbritanniska Regeringen 
har trafFat eller kommer att fram- 
deles trafFa ofverenskommelse om en 
omsesidig porto nedsattning, skall 
vara ett likformigt porto af tre 
pence sterling Tor hvarje enkelt bref 
om ett halft uns vigt, och s& vidare 
enligt den i Artikeln X faststallda 
progressi^fa portotabell, nar s&dana 
bref befordras genom Sverige. 


The prepayment of the foreign or 
colonial postage for letters between 
Sweden and British colonies or 
foreign countries, which are to be 
conveyed by means of regular pac- 
kets departing from or arriving at 
the ports of the United Kingdom*, is 
in some cases optional, and in others 

After the exchange of the ratifi- 
cations of the present Convention, 
the British Post Office shall com- 
municate to the Post Office of 
Sweden a list of all those countries 
and places to or from which prepay- 
ment of postage is at present op- 
tional ; and a list of all those 
countries and places to or from 
which prepayment of postage is at 
present compulsory. Such lists 
shall also show the single rates of 
postage to be taken upon letters 
from the port of departure or to the 
port of arrival of the respective 
packets, including the British inter- 
national rate between the United 
Kingdom and Sweden, the Danish 
transit rate, and the internal colonial 
rate. The lists shall also show the 
days on which the several mails are 
made up in London. 

The British Post Office shall from 
time to time communicate to the 
Swedish Post Office any changes 


Franker! ng med afseende & det 
frammande eller colon iala portot for 
bref emellan Sverige och Storbritan- 
niska colonier eller frammande lan- 
der, hvilka afsandas medelst packet 
b&tar, som regelbundet afg& ifr&n 
eller ankomma till det forenade 
Konungarikets hamnar, ar i vissa 
fall frivillig och i andra tvungen. 

Efter utvexlingen af ratificatio- 
nerna & n'arvarande Convention skall 
Storbritanniska Post Styrelsen med- 
dela till Svenska Post Styrelsen en 
lista p& alia de lander och stallen, 
till eller fi&n hvilka frankering for 
det narvarande ar frivillig ; samt en 
lista p& alia de lander och stallen till 
eller fr&n hvilka frankering ar for 
det narvarande tvungen. Dessa 
listor skola afven utvisa det enkla 
porto, soni skall erlaggas af bref, 
fr&n eller till den hamn fr&n eller till 
hvilken packet b&tarne arg& eller 
ankomma, innefattande det Stor- 
britanniska internationala portot 
emellan det forenade Konungariket 
och Sverige, det Danska transito 
portot och det inlandska coloniala 
portot. Listoma skola afven utvisa 
de dagar & hvilka de olika poster na 
expedieras i London. 

Storbritanniska Post Styrelsen 
skall, tid efter annan, meddela till 
Svenska Post Styrelsen hvarje for- 

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which may heveafter take place in 
dieee respects* 

The Britisk and fiiRrediftk Post 
Offices shail account to each other 
for the portion due to each of the 
rates on the transit letters men- 
tioned in this Article. 

&ndring,sora faadanefter kan komnui 
att aga rum i dessa alseenden. 

Stor'britaiiniska och Svenska Post 
Styr^serna skola omsesidigt kredi* 
tera hvarandra for den andel af 
portot, som tillkommer hvardera for 
de i denna Artikel omnamnda tran- 
sito bref. 


' His Majesty the King of Sweden 
and Norway engages to grant to 
the Post Office of the Unit^ King- 
dom the transit through the Swe- 
dish territory, in ■closed mails, of 
the correspondence between the 
United Kingdom, the British colo- 
nies and possessions on the one 
hand, and those foreign countries 
on the other, which have made or 
shall hereafter make Conventionfis 
with the British Government for the 
mutual reduction of postage, at the 
rate of six pence sterling for every 
ounce, net weight, for letters, and at 
the rate of one penny sterling for 
every newspaper or printed paper. 

The particulars of each mail shall 
be specified in the letter-bill which 
will be furnished by the British 
Post Office to the Swedish Post 


Hans Majestat Konungen af 
Sverige och Norrige forbinder sig 
att medgifva det forenade Konun- 
garikets rost Styrelse forsandning^n 
i slutna sackar genom det Svenska 
omrfidet af brefvexlingen emellan 
det fSrenade Konungariket, de Stor- 
britanniska colonierna och besittnin^ 
game, & ena sidan, samt de f ram- 
ma ide lander, §, den andra, som 
hafVa afslutat eller komma att med 
Storbritanniska Regeringen afsluta 
fbrdrag ang&ende omsesidig nedsatt- 
ning af porto emot en afgift af sex 
pence sterling for hvarje uns netto 
vigt, for bref, och en penny sterling 
for hvarje tidning eller tryckt blad. 
Inneh&Uet af hvarje postsack skall 
specificeras i den bref karta, som 
kommer att meddelas af Storbritan- 
niska PostStyrelsen till den Svenska. 


It is however agreed, that the 
stipulations in regard to the Swedish 
transit rate, contained in Articles 
XV and XVII, shall not apply to 
letters between the United King- 
dom and Norway passing through 

The terms upon which these letters 
shall be transmitted through Swe- 
den, shall be arranged between 
the Post Offices of Sweden and 
Norway. No separate charge for 
transit postage shall be levied by 
Sweden on such letters; but the 
uniform rate of six pence, the post- 
age fixed by Articles XXXI and 
aXXVII, for the Norwegian rate, 
shall cover any charge that may be 
due to Sweden on account of the 
expense of conveyance through the 
Swedish territory. 

It is also agreed that newspapers 
transmitted between the United 
Kingdom and Norway through 
Sweden, shall be exempt from any 
Swedish transit rate of postage. 


Det ar likval ofverenskommet, att 
de uti Artiklarne XV och XVH, med 
afseende & Svenska transito portot 
inneh&llna bestammelser icke skola 
tillampas k bref emellan det forenade 
Konungariket och Norrige, forsanda 
genom Sverige. 

De vilkor, hvarft dessa bref skola 
befordras genom Sverige, skola up- 

foras emellan Svenska och Norska 
^ost Styrelsema. Intet sarskildt 
transito porto skall upbaras af 
Sverige a s&dana bref; men det 
likformiga portot af sex pence, fast- 
stalldt i Artiklarne aXXI och 
XXXVII for Norrige, skall betacka 
hvarje afgift, som bor erlaggas till 
Sverige for kostnaderna vid befor- 
drandet af brefven genom Svenska 

Det ar afven ofverenskommet, att 
tidningar forsanda emellan det fore- 
nade Konungariket och Norrige 
genom Sverige skola vara fritagna 
wr hvaije Svenskt transito porto. 

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No charge stall be made by the Hvarken den Stoi-britannlska ellet 

British Post Office, nor by the den Svenska Post Styrelsen skall 

Swedish Post Office, on newspapers upbara n&got porto for de uti det 

published. and duly stamped in the forenade . Konungariket utkom- 

United Kingdom, and addressed to mande, behorigen stamplade, tidnin- 

Sweden, when conveyed direct by gar, som aro adresserade till Sverige, 

pex^ket-boat between the United Bar de befordras med packet b&tar 

Kingdom and Sweden ; and' con*- direkte eroellan det forenade Ko- 

Tersely, newspapers published in nun^ariket och Sverige; ocb om- 

Sweden in the language of that v§ndt, de i Sveiige p& Tandets spr&fc 

country, and addressed to the utkommande tidningar, som aro^ 

United Kingdom, shall> when con- adresserade till det forenade Konun- 

Teyed between Sweden and the gariket,skola, nardefortskafTasmedT 

United Kingdom direct by packet- packet b&tar direkte emellan Sverige* 

boat, be forwarded by the Swedish och det forenade Konungariket, 

Post Office without charge ; and no blifva af Svenska Post Styrelsen* 

rate of postage shall be levied upon fritt befordrade, och skola af den- 

them by the British Post Office. Storbritanniska icke med n&got 

porto belaggas. 

When such newspapers are con- Nar s&dana tidningar fortskaffas 

veyed direct by private ship, the med privata fartyg, skall den afgift, 

charge to be made in Sweden shall som Sverige har att upbgra, icke 

HDt exceed one penny sterling for ofverstiga en penny sterling for 

each new^aper; and the charge to* hvarje tidkiing ; och den afgift, som 

be made in the United Kingdom on i det forenade Konungariket upbares 

each newspaper conveyed direct by & hvarje tidning, som befordrasf 

private ship* shall be one penny on direktemed privata fartyg, skall vara/ 

ite dispatch from, and thesamd sum en penny vid afsandningen fr&n och 

an its delivery in, the United King* samma belopp vid aflemnandet till 

dom. det forenade Konungariket. 

No postage shall be charged Hvarken den Storbritanniska eller 

either by the British or Swedish den Svenska Post Styrelsen skall; 

Post Offices on their own account, for egen rakning, upbara nSgot 

upon these newspapers, when sent porto for tidningar, nar de befordras 

by packet-boat and transmitted med packet-b&t och sandas genom 

through Denmark, but they shall be Danmark ; men de skola underkas- 

subject to the transit postage pay- tas det Danmaik tillkommande 

able to Denmark, for their convey- transito porto for deras fortskaf- 

ance through the^ territory of that fande genom namnde lands omr&de, 

country ; and such transit postage och f&r s&dant transito porto ick«* 

shall not exceed a; rate of one penny ofverstiga en penny for hvarje tid- 

fi»r each new^paper^Jn accoixlaiiQe ning i enlighet med den bestara- 

withi the stipulation contained in meke, som inneh&lles i Artikeln) 

Article XVll of the Postal Gonven- XVI 1 af Post Conventionen emellan 

tion between the United Kingdom det forenade Konungariket och Dan- 

and Denmark, of the 26th of June, mark, af den 26te Junii, 1846* Hans 

1846. His Majesty the King of Majestat Konungen af Sverige och 

Sweden and Norway engages that Norrige fSrbinder sig att l&ta Sven- 

the Post Office of Sweden shall ska Post Styrelsen upbara detta 

collect this transit postage, both on transito porto s& val k afsanda som 

the newspapers sent, and upon those & emottagna tidningar och att kre^ 

received* and shall account for the ditera Danska Poht Styrelsen fSr 

same to the Danish Post Office, on. detsamma, & Storbritanniska Post 

behalf of the British Post Office, Styrelsens vSgnar. 

Her Britannic Majesty, however, Hennes Storbritanniska Majestat 

jreserves to herself the right of forbeh&Uer sig dock rattigheten att 

causing the Danish transit postage l&ta upbarandet af Danska transito 

on newspapers to be collected by portot & tidningar verkstallas af 

the British Post Office, if the Danisn Storbritanniska Post Styrelsen, om 

Government should at any time de- Danska Regeringen vid n&gon tid- 

cline to concur in the arrangement punktvoreobenagenattdeltagaiden 

made by tbiid and the fbUawing; ofverenskommelse^ som ar upgjord 


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Article for the collection of such i denna och fSljande Artikel, med 
transit postage by the Swedish Post afseende & Svenska Post Styrelsens 
Office. upbarande af detta transito porto. 


The Swedish Post Office shall pay 
to the British Post Office, for transit 
postage and sea-conveyance of 
newspapers, the sum of one penny 
for each newspaper originating in 
Sweden and addressed to parts 
abroad, and vice versd, when for- 
warded through the United King- 
dom ; and in addition to the above 
rate, the Swedish Post Office shall 
reimburse the British Post Office 
any rate of postage payable by the 
latter office to foreign countries for 
the transmission of newspapers 
through their territories. 

When such newspapers are trans- 
mitted by way of Denmark, they 
shall be subject to the additional 
rate of transit postage payable to 
Denmark for their conveyance 
through the territory of that 
country, as mentioned in Article 
XIX, preceding; and the Post 
Office of Sweden shall collect this 
transit postage, both on the news- 
papers sent and upon those received, 
and shall account for the same to 
the Danish Post Office on behalf of 
the British Post Office. 


Svenska Post Styrelsen skall er- 
lagga till den Storbritanniska, for 
transito porto och fortskaffande 
ofver sjon af tidningar, ett belopp af 
en penny for hvarje tidning, som 
utkommer i Sverige och afsandas 
till utrikes orter, och omvandt, nar 
s&dana tidningar befordras genom 
det fbrenade Konungariket ; och 
utom ofvannamnde porto skall Sven- 
ska Post Styrelsen &tergalda Stor- 
britanniska Post Styrelsen hvarje 
porto, som den sednare ager att 
erla^ga till frammande lander for 
befordrandet af tidningar genom 
deras omr&den. 

Nar s§dana tidningar fSrsandas 

fenom Danmark, skola de under- 
astasdet ytterligare transito porto, 
som tillkommer Danmark for deras 
befordrande genom detta lands om» 
r&de, s& som namndt ar uti fore* 
g&ende Artikeln XIX ; och Svenska 
rost Styrelsen skall upbara detta 
transito porto sS. val for afsanda som 
for emottagna tidningar och kredi- 
tera Danska Post Styrelsen for 
detsamma & Storbritanniska Post 
Styrelsens vagnar. 


It is further agreed, that in re- 
gard to newspapers forwarded from 
the United Kingdom to Sweden, or 
from Sweden to the United King- 
dom, the following conditions shall 
be observed; viz., 

1. They shall be sent in bands, 
or covers open at the sides, so that 
they may be easily examined. 

2. The preceding stipulations 
shall not in any way invalidate the 
right of either of the Contracting 
Parties to refuse to convey or to 
deliver any newspapers, with re- 
spect to the publication and circula- 
tion of which its laws and ordi- 
nances have not been complied with. 


Det ar ytterligare ofverenskom- 
met, att med afseende & tidningar, 
som forsandas fr&n det forenade 
Konungariket till Sverige eller fr&n 
Sverige till det fbrenade Konunga« 
riket, foijande vilkor skola iaktta- 
gas, nemlingen: 

1. De skola vara forsedda med 
korsband eller omslag, som aro opna 
] sidorna, att de latt kunna under- 

2. Ofvanskrifnabestammelser sko- 
la p& intet satt inskranka n&gondera 
af de Contraherande Parternas ratt 
att vagra befordrande och utlem- 
nande af de tidningar, med afseende 
& hvilka lagarne och forfattningarne 
for deras utgifvande och kringspri- 
dande ej blinrit iakttagna. 


Accounts showing the results of 
the mutual transmission of corre- 
spondence shall be made out by 


Vid slutet af hvarje quartal skola 
liquider de b&da Post Styrelsema 
emellan uprattas, som utvisa resul- 

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each of the two Post Offices at the 
end of every quarter; and those 
accounts having been examined, 
compared, and settled by the two 
Offices, the balance thereof shall 
without delay be paid, in British 
currency, by that Office which shall 
be found to be indebted to the 


Dead letters and newspapers 
which from whatsoever cause cannot 
be delivered, shall be mutually re- 
turned every month, for the same 
amount of postage which was origi- 
nally charged upon them by the 
sending Post Office. 

And letters misdirected or mis- 
sent shall, in like manner, be reci- 
procally returned, without delay, on 
the same condition. 

Lastly, letters addressed to per- 
sons who have changed their resi^ 
dence, whatever be the origin of 
such letters, shall be returned 
charged with the same rate of 
postage which should have been 
paid by the parties to whom they 
are addressed. 

tatet af hela bref forsandningen ; och 
sedan dessa blifvit af b&da Post 
Styrelserna profvade, jemforde och 
godkande, skall det upkommande 
saldot genast, uti Storbritanniskt 
mynt, godtgoras af den Post Sty- 
relse, som befinnes vara skyldig den 


Outlosta bref och tidningar som, 
af hvilken orsak som heist, ej kun- 
nat utlemnas, skola en gS^ng i hvarje 
mS.nad omsesidigt §.tersandas emot 
&terstallande af samma porto belopp, 
hvarmed de ursprungligen varit 
belastade af det Post Kontor, som 
dem afsandt. 

Origtigt adresserade eller origtigt 
sanda bref skola genast fr&n b&da 
sidor &tersandas p& samma vilkor. 

Slutligen, skola bref, adresserade 
till personer, som ombytt vistelse 
ort, dessa bref m& komma hvarifr&n 
som helst» dtersandas^ hvarvid det 
porto beraknas, som af adressaterne 
bordt erlaggas. 

B. — Norway. 

B. — Norrige. 


As there is at present no direct 
communication by means of packet- 
boats between the harbours of the 
United Kingdom and those of Nor- 
way, it is agreed that the British 
Post Office shall make use of the 
right of exchanging closed mails 
between the British and Norwegian 
Post Offices, in transit through 
Denmark and Sweden, on the condi- 
tions stipulated in Article XXXII 
of the present Convention. 

The transmission of the corres- 
pondence shall take place twice 
a* week, by means of the steam- 
boats carrying on the packet service 
between London and Hamburgh, so 
lon^ as the Government of the 
United Kingdom shall deem it expe- 
dient to maintain that communica- 


D& for narvarande ingen omedel* 
bar post&ngfartygs-forbindelse ager 
rum emellan btorbritanniska och 
Norska hamnar, ar det ofverens- 
kommet, att Storbritanniska Post 
Styrelsen skall begagna rattigheten 
att utvexla slutna saekar emellan 
Storbritanniska och Norska Post 
Styrelserna, i transito genom Dan* 
mark och Sverige, p& de uti Artikel 
XAXII af narvarande Convention 
faststallda vilkor. 

Brefvexlingen skall befordras 
tvanne g&nger i hvarje vecka med 
de emellan London och Hamburg 
g&ende post&ngfartyff, s& lange det 
forenade Konungarikets Regering 
finner andamS.lsenligt att denna for- 
bindelse underh&lla. 

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The exchange of mails shall take 
d|ace OQ the part of the UDited 
Kingdom by the Post Office in Loa«- 
don ; and on the part of Nprway, 
during that period of the year whea 
the communication by post between. 
Norway and foreign countries is 
carried on by the steam - packets 
which run between Denmark and 
Norway, by the Post Office at San- 
desund; and during the remaining 
period of the year, when the Nor- 
wegian mails to and from foreign 
countries are sent through Sweden, 
»fi the Post Office of Swinesuud, as 
may be agreed upon between the 
Post Offices of the United King- 
dom and of Norway; but other 
offices maybe fixed upon for the ex- 
change of correspondence, when 
such a measure shall be deemed 
expedient by the two Post Offices. 


Utvexlingen af posta£ickarne skall 
forsigg^, K det forenade Kon^n^ 
garikets sida, geoiDm Post Kpntoret 
i London; och, & Norriges sida, 
under den del af &ret, ndr post-fSr* 
bindelaen emellaa Norrige och franv- 
mande lander underh&lles medekt 
&ngb&tarne, som g& emcllan Dan- 
mark och Norrige, genom Post Kon- 
toret i Sandesund; och under den 
ofriga delen af &ret, d& Norska 
posten till och fr&n frammande lan>* 
der befbrdras ofver Sverige, genotai 
Post Kontoret i Svinesuod, efter 
hvad som kan ofv«ren8kx)mmas> 
emellan Storbritanniska och Norskai 
Post Styrelserna ; men andra Post. 
Kontor kunna afven bestammas for 
utvexlingen af correspondencen, d& 
s&dan &tgard af t^a Post Styrel- 
serna anses andam&laenlig. 


In addition to the regular con- 
veyance mentioned in the preceding 
Articles, the Post Office of the 
United Kingdom and the Post Office 
of Norway, shall forward to each 
other reciprocally, by means of 
private vessels plying between the 
two countries, any letters which 

Earties may wish to have forwarded 
y such opportunities. 
The gratuities due to the masters 
of such vessels for the conveyance 
of those letters shall be paid to them 
by either Post Office, according to 
the regulations in force in each 

With regard to the correspond- 
eCMce forwarded by private ship, it 
ia agreed that the postage due to 
either Post Office for the transmis* 
aion of such letters, shall be levied 
by each Office,, respectively, on the 
posting and delivery of the letters^ 


Utom det i foregS.ende Artiklar 
omnamnda regelbundna postbefor- 
dringssatt, skola afven Storbritan^ 
niska samt Norska Post Styrel- 
serna, medelst privata fartyg, som 
gS. emellan de b&da landerna, till- 
stalla hvarandra alia de bref, hvilka 
vederborande med s&dan lagenhet 
onska sanda. 

Den ersattning, som for befor- 
drandet af dessa bref tillkommer 
skeppsforarne, skall till dem af 
vederborande Post Styrelse utbeta- 
las, efter de i hvardera landet gal- 
lande stadgar. 

Med afseende & den medelst pri- 
vata fartyg befordrade brefvexlia- 
gen, ar det ofverenskommet, att det 
hvarje Post Styrelse for befordran- 
det af s^ana bref tillkom'mande 
porto, skall af densamma vid bref- 
v^is in och utlamuande upbaras^ 


The correspondence of every de- 
scription which the two Post Offices 
may forward to each other recipro- 
cally,, shall be inclosed at the Office 
Qtxn which- it is forwarded, in 
aeakd bags, and shall, be accom- 
paoied. by a letter-bill, in which the 
particulars of each- dispatch so for*- 
warded shall be specified, and the 


Hvarje slags brefvexling, som de 
b&da Post Styrelserna tillsanda 
hvarandra, skall vid detPost Kontor, 
hvarifr&n dea afg&r, inpackas i 
slutna saekar, och &tfbljas af en 
brefkarta med specificerad,upgift 
p& inneh&llet af hvarje sanHning, 
hvilkens rigtiga emottagande bor 
hvarje gSng erkannas af det Post 

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safe arrival of which shall be ac- 
knowledged each time by the Office 
to which such bags are sent. 
' These letter-bills and receipts 
«hall be in accordance with forms 
to be agreed upon from time to time 
between the two Post Offices. 


The postage of letters originating 
in the United Kingdom and ad- 
dressed to Norway, and reciprocally, 
the postage of letters originating 
in the Kingdom of Norway and 
addressed to the United Kingdom, 
may be wholly prepaid, or the letters 
may be sent unpaid, at the option 
of the sender. Prepayment, how- 
ever, if made, must be made for the 
whole of the distance which the letter 
has to go, and prepayment for a 
part only of the distance will not be 

The stipulations contained in this 
Article do not apply to letters trans- 
mitted between the two countries 
by private ship. Such letters shall 
be lorwarded under the regulations 
laid down in Article XXVI. 


With regard, however, to regis- 
tered letters, there shall be no option 
as to prepayment, and the postage 
of those letters shall always be paid 
in advance, including not only the 
ordinary postage to the place of their 
destination, but also any additional 
postage to which letters of this 
class may be liable, according to the 
regulations of the country from 
which they are sent. 


Letters originating in the United 
King^domand addressed to Norway, 
shall be subject to an uniform 
British rate of six pence for each 
single letter not exceeding the 
weight of half an ounce British, and 
so on, according to the scale of pro- 
gression laid down in Article 
XXXIII hereinafter. 

A similar British rate of six pence 
on each single letter shall be charged 
on all letters originating in Norway 
and addressed to the United King* 

Kontor, till 
aro afsanda. 

hvilket s&dana sackar 

Dessa brefkartor och quittenser 
skola vara ofverensstammande med 
de formnlar, om hvilka de b&daPqst 
Styrdserna, tld efter annan,6fverens- 


Portot for bref, som afsSlndas 
fr&n det forenade Konungariket och 
adresseras till Norrige, och omvandt, 
portot for bref afsanda fr&n Konun- 
gariket Norrige och adresserade till 
det forenade Konungariket, kan, 
efter afeandarens onskan, antingen 
betalas helt och h&llet, eller ock 
kunna brefven sandas helt ock h&Uet 
obetaldta. Om frankering sker, 
m&ste densamma dock aga rum fSr 
hela vagen, som brefven befordras, 
och frankering for blott en del af 
vagen ar ej till&ten. 

De uti denna Artikel innehllllna 
foreskrifter skola dock icke tillam- 
pas p& bref, befordrade emellan de 
b&da landerna medelst privata fartyg. 
SSdajia bref befordras under iaktta- 
gande af de uti Artikeln XXVI 
gifna bestammelser. 


Med afseende & rekommenderade 
bref skall dock intet val af franke- 
ringssatt kunna &ga rum, utan por- 
tot af dessa bref skall alltid forut 
erlaggas, innefattande s& val det 
allmanna portot till bestammelse- 
orten, som afven de ytterligare af- 

Sfifter, hvilka enligt stadgarne i det 
and. hvarifr&n brefven afgH, bora 
dylika bref drabba. 


Bre^ afsanda fr&n det forenade 
Konungariket och adresserade till 
Norrige, skola underkastas ett lik* 
formigt Storbritanniskt porto mf 
sex pence for hvarje enkelt bref, 
som icke vager ofver ett halft uns 
Storbritanni^ vigt, och s& vidare^ i 
enlifi'het med oen i efterfoljande 
Artikeln XXXI 1 1 faststalda pro- 
gressiva portotabelL 

Ett enahanda Storbritanniskt 
porto af sex pence for hvarje enkelt 
bref, skall erlaggas af alia bref, som 
afsandas fr&n Norrige och adresseras 
till det forenade Konungariket. 

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Letters originating in Norway 
and addressed to the United King- 
dom, as well as letters originating 
iti the United Kingdom and a(t> 
dressed to Norway, shall be subject 
to an uniform Norwegian rate of 
six pence for each single letter, not 
exceeding the weight of half an 
ounce British weight, and so on, 
according to the scale of progression 
laid down in Article XaXUI here- 


Bref afsHnda fr&n Norrige, och 
adresserade till det forenade Konun- 
gariket, afvensom bref afsanda fr&n 
det forenade Konungariket och a« 
dresserade till Norrige, skola under- 
kastas ett likformigt Norskt porto 
af sex pence, for hvarje enkelt bref, 
som icke vager ofver ett halft uns 
Storbritannisk vigt, och s& vidare, 
enligt den i efterfoljande Artikeln 
XXXllI faststalda prbgressiva 
porto tabell. 


In addition to the British and 
Norwegian rates mentioned in Ar- 
ticles aXX and XXXI, the letters 
shall be subject, when sent through 
Denmark and by steam-vessels to 
and from Norway, to a rate of four 
pence the single letter, being the 
Danish transit postage for convey- 
ance through Denmark. 

The British Post Office shall 
account to the Danish Post Office 
for this transit rate of four pence. 

When the letters are sent through 
Sweden by way of Denmark, they 
shall be subject to a further rate of 
two pence for each single letter, for 
their transmission between Elsi- 
neur and Helsingborg, being the 
rate payable to Sweden and to Den- 
mark for the conveyance of the 
correspondence across the Sound. 

The Norwegian Post Office shall 
account to the Post Offices of Swe- 
den and Denmark for the postage 
of one penny due to each respec- 
tively as its portion of such rate. 

According to the stipulations con- 
tained in Article XVIII of this' 
Convention, the terms for the con- 
veyance of the Norwegian corres- 
Sondence through the territory of 
weden, will be a matter of special 
arrangement between the respective 
Post Offices of Sweden and of Nor- 
way; and no higher charge than the 
rates above mentioned shall be 
levied upon letters originating in 
the United Kingdom and addressed 
to Norway, or upon letters origi- 
nating in Norway and addressed 
to the United Kingdom, when such 
letters pass through Sweden. 


Utom de Storbritanniska och 
Norska porton, omnamnda i Arti- 
klarne XXX och XXXI, skola 
brefven, nar de sandas genom Dan- 
mark, och medelst S^ngb^tar till och 
ifr&n Norrige, underkastas ett porto 
af fyra pence for hvarje enkelt bref, 
utgorande Danska transito portot 
for befordrandet genom Danmark. 

Storbritanniska Post Styrelsen 
skall kreditera Danska Post Styrel- 
sen for detta transito porto af fyra 

Nar brefven sandas genom Sverige 
ofver Danmark, skola de underkastas 
ett ytterligare porto af tv& pence for 
hvarje enkelt bref, for befordrandet 
emellan Helsingor och Helsingborg, 
utgorande den afgift, som skall be- 
talas till Sverige och Danmark for 
befordrandet af brefvexlingen ofver 

Norska Post Styrelsen skall kre- 
ditera Svenska och Danska Post 
Styrelserna for portot af en penny, 
utgorande hvarderas andel af 
namnde afgift. 

I enlighet med bestammelsema 
inneh&llna uti Artikeln XVIII af 
denna Convention, skola vilkoren 
for befordrandet af Norska bref- 
vexlingen genom Svenska omr&det 
blifva fbrem&l for en sarskild ofver- 
enskomraelse emellan Sveriges och 
Norriges Post Sty reiser ; och ingen 
hogre afgift an de ofvannamnda 
porto - befoppen skall erlaggas af 
oref, afsanda fr&n det forenade 
Konungariket och adresserade till 
Norrige, eller omvandt, af bref, 
afsanda fr&n Norrige och adresse- 
rade till det forenade Konungariket, 
nar s&dana bref befordras genom 

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With respect to letters above the 
weight of a single letter, which is 
fixed at half an ounce British 
weight, the two Post Offices shall 
employ the scale of progression now 
in operation in the United Kingdom, 
as follows: viz., 

For every letter not exceeding 
half an ounce, one rate. 

Above half an ounce, but not ex* 
ceeding one ounce, two rates. 

Above one ounce, but not ex- 
ceeding two ounces, four rates. 

Above two, but not exceeding 
three ounces, six rates. 

Above three, but not exceeding 
four ounces, eight rates. 

And so on, two rates being added 
for every ounce, or fraction of an 
ounce, beyond the first ounce. 


Med afseende & bref, som ofver- 
stiga vigten af ett enkelt bref, hvil- 
ken ar bestamd till ett halft uns i 
det fbrenade Konungariket, skola' 
b&da Post Styrelserna tillampa den 
nu i det forenade Konungariket 
gallande progressiva portotabell, 
p& satt som foljer, nemligen : 

For hvarje ^ref, som ej vager 
ofver ett halft uns, enkelt porto ; 

Ofver ett halft, men icke mer an 
ett belt uns, dubbelt porto ; 

Ofver ett, men icke mer an tvanne 
uns, fyra dubbelt porto ; 

Ofver tvanne, men icke mer an 
trenne uns, sex dubbelt porto ; 

Dfver trenne, men icke mer Hn 
fyra uns, &tta dubbelt porto ; 

Och s& vidare, med till^lgg af 
dubbelt porto fSr hvarje uns eller 
br&k af ett uns, utofver det forsta. 


The two Post Offices shall mutu- 
ally account to each other for the 
portion which is due to each, of the 
postage of the correspondence for- 
warded to them, both for that of 
the letters which are not prepaid, 
and for that of the letters which are 

As to registered letters, it is 
agreed that each Post Office shall 
retain the extra postage which shall 
have been charged by it, in con- 
formity with the stipulations of 
Article XXIX, so that the surplus 
shall not give rise to any account 
between the two Post Offices. 


De b&da Post Styrelserna skola 
omsesidigt kreditera hvarandra for 
den andel af portot, som tillkommer 
dem hvardera fcjr den till dem befor- 
drade brefvexlingen, af s& val fran- 
kerade som ofrankerade bref. 

Hvad rekommenderade bref an- 
ff&r, ar det ofverenskommet, att 
hvarje Post Styrelse skall tillgodo- 
njuta det extra porto, som af den- 
samma blifvit upburet, enligt stad- 
gandet i Artikeln XXIX, s& att 
ofverskottet ej skall foranleda n&gon 
afrakning emellan de b&da Post 


When letters are not conveyed 
direct between the United Kineaom 
and Norway, or transmitted be- 
tween those countries through Den- 
mark and Sweden, but are for- 
warded by the way of any other 
foreign country, they must be treated 
as letters sent in transit to and 
from such other countries. 


D& bref icke ftro direkte befor- 
drade emellan det fbrenade Konun- 
gariket och Norrige, eller emellan 
dessa l&nder genom Danmark och 
Sverige, utan sanda genom n&got 
frS.mmande land, skola de behandlas 
s& som bref, sanda i transito till 
eller fr&n andra s&dana Under. 



The rate of transit postage to be Det transito porto, som det fore- 
taken by the Post Office of the nade Konungarikets Post Styrelse 

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United Kingdom on letters posted in 
or addressed to Norway, and con- 
veyed direct, or through Denmark 
or Sweden, and passing through 
the United Kingdom to or from any 
British colony or possession, or to 
or from foreign countries, shall be 
that which is now, or which shall 
hereafter be taken upon letters be- 
tween the United Kingdom and 
such colonies and foreign countries 
respectively, in addition to the post- 
age which is to be charged between 
the United Kingdom and Norway, 
namely, the rate of six pence sterling 
the half-ounce, and so on, according 
to the scale of progression laid 
down in Article XXXIIL The 
colonial or foreign rate, however, is 
to be calculated from the port of 
departure, or to the port of arrival 
of the packet. When the letters 
are sent through Denmark, they 
shall be subject to a further rate of 
four pence the half-ounce, and so 
on, according to the scale of 
progression laid down in Article 
XXXIII, being the postage which 
is to be paid to Denmark for their 
conveyance over the Danish terri- 

When such letters are sent through 
Sweden by way of Denmark, they 
shall be subject to a further rate of 
two pence for every single letter, for 
their conveyance between Elsineur 
and Helsingborg, if so transmitted. 

When such transit letters are not 
conveyed either direct between Nor- 
way and the United Kingdom, or 
through Sweden or Denmark, but 
are forwarded by the way of any 
other foreign country, they must be 
treated as letters sent in transit to 
and from such other countries. 

har att sig tillgodoberakna for bref, 
som, afsanda fr&n Norrige eller dit 
adresserade, och befordrade direkte, 
eller genom Danmark och Sverige, 
transitera gencnn det forenade Ko- 
nungariket, till eller fr&n n&gou 
Storbritannisk coloni eller besitt- 
ning, eller till eller fr&n frammande 
lander, skall vara lika med det, som 
nu utg&r, eller framdeles kommer 
att utga, for bref emellan det fore- 
nade Konungariket och namnda 
colonier och frammande lander^ 
hvartill kommer det porto, som 
erlagges emellan det fferenade Ko- 
nungariket och Norrige, nemligen, 
sex pence sterling for ett halft uns, 
och s& vidare, cmigt den i Artikeln 
XXXIII, faststaUda progressiva 
porto-tabell. Detta colonial eller 
frS^mmande porto beraknas likval 
endast till eller frin den hamn, till 
eller fr&n hvilken packet bS.ten an- 
kommer eller afg&r. Nar brefven 
sandas ofver Danmark, skola de 
underkastas ett ytterligare porto af 
fyra pence for hvarje halft uns, och 
sk vidare, enligt den i Artikeln 
XXXIII, faststallda progressiva 
porto tabell, hvilket porto utgor den 
afgift, som skall eriaggas tHl Dan- 
mark ftJr brefvens befordrande ofver 
Danska omr&det. 

Nar s&dana bref sandas genom 
Sverige ofver Danmark, skola de 
underkastas ett ytterligare porto af 
tv& pence & hvarje enkelt bref, for 
deras befordrande emellan Helsing- 
dr och Helsingborg, om brefven 
sftlunda fortskaflfas. 

Nar sddana transito bref jcke &ro 
befordrade, antingen direkte emellan 
Norrige och det forenade Konun- 

fariket, eller genom Danmark och 
verige, utan aro sanda genom n&got 
annat frammande land, skola de 
behandlas s& som bref sanda i tran- 
sito till eller fr&n sSdana lander. 


In addition to the rates specified 
in the preceding Article, the transit 
letters therein mentioned shall be 
subject to the uniform Norwegian 
rate of six pence for every single 
letter ; and, as stipulated by Article 
XXXII preceding, no higher charge 
shall be levied for the conveyance 
of such letters when transmitted 
through the Swedish territory. 


Utom de i fbregiende Artikel 
specificerade porton, skola de deru- 
tmnan namnda brefven underkastas 
det likformiga Norska portot af 
sex pence for hvarie enkelt bref; 
och, s& som best&mdt ar genom den 
fbreg&ende Artikeln XXXII, skall 
ingen hogre afgift upbaras for befor- 
drandet af s&dana bref, nar de af- 
sandas genom det Svenska omr&det. 

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The prepayment of the foreign 
or colonial postage for letters be- 
tween Norway and British colonies 
or foreign countries, which are to 
be conveyed by means of regular 
packets departing from or arriving 
at the ports of the United King* 
dom, is in some cases optional, and 
in others compulsory. 

After the exchange of the ratifi- 
cations of the present Convention^ 
the British Post Office shall commu- 
nicate to the Post Office of Norway, 
a list of all those countries and 
places to or from which prepayment 
of postage is at present optional; 
and a list of all those countries and 
places to or from which prepayment 
of postage is at present compulsory* 
Such lists shall also show the single 
rates of postage to be taken upon 
letters from the port of departure or 
to the port of arrival of the respec- 
tive packets^ including the British 
international rate between the 
United Kingdom and Norway^ the 
Danish transit rate, and the internal 
colonial rate* The lists shall also 
show the days on which the several 
mails are made up in London* 

The British Post Office shall from 
time to time communicate to the 
Norwegian Post Office any changes 
which may hereafter take place in 
these respects. 

The British and Norwegian Post 
Offices shall account to each other 
for the portion di^ to each of the 
rates ott the transit letters men^ 
tinned in this Article. 


Frankerinff med afseende & det 
fr&mmande eller coloniala portot for 
bref emellan Norrige och Storbri- 
tfimniska colonier eller frammande 
lander, hvilka afsandas medelst 
packet b&tar, som re^elbundet afg& 
fr&n eller ankomma till det forenade 
Konungarikets hamnar, ar i vissa 
fall frivillig^ och i andra tvun^en* 

Efter utvexlingen af ratincatio- 
nerna & narvarancfe Convention, skall 
Storbritanniska Post Styrelsen med« 
dela till Norska Post Styrelsen en 
lista p& alia de lander och stallen, 
till eller fr&n hvilka frankering for 
det narvarande ar frivillig; samt en 
lista p& alia de lander och stallen^ 
till eller fr&n hvilka frankering ar 
for det narvarande tvungen. Dessa 
listor skola afven utvisa det enkla 
porto^ som skaU erlaggas af bref till 
eller fr&n den hamn, till eller fr4n 
bvilken packet b&tarne ankomma 
eller afg&, innefattantle det Storbri- 
tanniska internationala portot emel- 
lan det (orenade Konungariket ock 
Norrige^ det Danska transito portot 
och det inlandska colonial portot. 
Listorna skola ^fven utvisa de dagar 
& hvilka de olika postema expc* 
dieras i London. 

Storbritanniska Post Styrelsen 
skall, tid efter annan, medcfela till 
Norska Post Styrelsen hvarje 
forlUidring, sc^a hadanefter kan kom- 
ma att aga rum i dessa afseenden, 

Storbritanniska och Norska Post 
Styrelsema skola omsesidigt kredi- 
tcra hvarandra for den andel sS 
portot, som tillkommer hvardera for 
de i denna Artikel omnamnda tran- 
sito bref. 


No cbarge shall be made by the 
British Post Office, nor by the Nor- 
wegian Post Office, on newspapers 
published and duly stamped in the 
United Kingdom, and addressed to 
Norway, when conveyed direct by 
packet-boat between the United 
kingdom and Norway; and con- 
versely, newspapers published in 
Norway, in the language of that 
country, and addresseS to the United 
Kingdom, shall, when conveyed be- 
tween Norway and the United King- 
dom, direct by packet-boat, be fc^- 
wMrded by the Norwegian Post 


Hvarken den StcNrbritanniska eller 
den Norska Post Styrelsen skall 
upbara n&got porto for de uti 
det forenade Konungariket utkom- 
mande, behorigen stamplade, tidnin- 
gar som aro adresserade till Norrige, 
nar de befordras med packet-b&tar 
direkte emellan det forenade Konun- 
gariket och Norrige ; och omvandt, 
de i Norrige p& landets spr&k utr 
k<mimande tidningar, som adres-' 
serade till det forenade Konungari- 
ket, skola, nar de fortskaifas med 
packet b&tar direkte emellan Norrige 
och det forenade Konungariket^ 

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Office without charge, and no rate 
of postage shall be levied upon them 
by the British Post Office. 

When such newspapers are con- 
veyed direct by private ship, the 
charge to be made in Norway shall 
not exceed one penny sterling for 
each newspaper ; and the charge to 
be made in the United Kingdom on 
each newspaper conveyed direct by 
private ship, shall be one penny on 
its dispatch from, and the same sum 
on its delivery in, the United King- 

No postage shall be charged either 
by the British or Norwegian Post 
Offices, on their own account, upon 
these newspapers, when sent by 
packet-boatand transmitted through 
Denmark, but they shall be subject 
to the transit postage payable to 
Denmark for their conveyance 
through the territory of that country ; 
and such transit postage shall not 
exceed a rate of one penny for each 
newspaper, in accordance with the 
stipulation contained in Article XVII 
of the Postal Convention between the 
United Kingdom and Denmark, of 
the 26th of June, 1846. His Majesty 
the King of Sweden and Norway 
engages that the Norwegian Post 
Office shall collect this transit post- 
age, both on the newspapers sent 
and upon those received, and shall 
account for the same to the Danish 
Post Office on behalf of the British 
Post Office. 

Her Britannic Majesty, however, 
reserves to herself the right of caus- 
ing the Danish transit postage on 
newspapers to be collected by the 
British Post Office, if the Danish 
Government should at any time 
decline to concur in the arrange- 
ment made by this and the follow- 
ing Article for the collection of such 
transit postage by the Norwegian 
Post Office. 


The Norwegian Post Office shall 
pay to the British Post Office for 
transit postage and sea-conveyance 
of newspapers, the sum of one penny 
for each newspaper originating in 
Norway and addressed to parts 
abroad, and vice versd, when for- 
warded through the United King- 
dom ; and in addition to the above 

blifva af Norska Post Styrelsen 
fritt befordrade, och skola af den 
Storbritanniska icke med n&got 
porto belaggas. 

Nar s&dana tidnin^ar fortskaffas 
med privata fartyg, SKall den afgift, 
som Norrige har att upbara, icke 
ofverstiga en penny sterling for 
hvarje tidning ; och den afgift som i 
det forenade IConungariket upb'ares 
& hvarje tidning, som befordras 
direkte med privata fartyg, skall 
vara en penny vid afsdndningen 
fr&n, och samma belopp vid atlem- 
nandet till det forenade Konunga- 

Hvarken den Storbritanniska eller 
den Norska Post Styrelsen skall, 
for egen rakning, upbara n&got porto 
for tidningar, nar de befordras med 
packet-b&t och sandas genom Dan- 
mark; men de skola underkastas 
det Danmark tillkommande transito 
porto for deras fortskaffande genom 
namnde lands omr&de, och f&r s&dant 
transito porto icke ofverstiga en 
penny for hvarje tidning, i emighet 
med den bestammelse, som inne- 
h&Ues i Artikeln XVH af Post Con- 
ventionen emellan det forenade Ko- 
nungariket och Danmark, af den 
26te Junii, 1846. Hans Majestat 
Konungen af Sverige och Norrige 
fSrbinder sig attl &ta Norska Post 
Styrelsen upbara detta transito 
porto, s& val Sl afsanda som & emot- 
tagna tidningar, och att kreditera 
Danska Post Styrelsen f5r detsam* 
ma, & Storbritanniska Post Styrel- 
sens vagnar. 

Hennes Storbritanniska Majestat 
forbeh&Uer sig dock rattigheten att 
l&ta upbarandet af Danska transito 

gortot & tidningar verkstallas af 
torbritanniska Post Styrelsen, om 
Danska Regeringen, vid n&gon tid- 
punkt, vore obenagen att deltaga i 
den ofverenskommelse, som ar up- 
gjord i denna och fbljande Artikel, 
med afseende & Norska Post Sty- 
relsens upbarande af detta transito 


Norska Post Styrelsen skall er- 
lagga till den Storbritanniska, for 
transito porto och fortskaffande 
ofver sjon af tidningar, ett belopp 
af en penny for hvarje tidning, som 
utkommer i Norrige och afsandes 
till utrikes orter, och omvandt, nSr 
s&dana tidningar befordras genom 
det forenade Konungariket ; och 

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rate, the Norwegian Post Office 
shall reimburse the British Post 
Office any rate of postage payable 
by the latter Office to foreign coun- 
tries for the transmission of news- 
papers through their territories. 

When such newspapers are trans- 
mitted by way of Denmark, they 
shall be subject to the additional 
rate of transit postage payable to 
Denmark for their conveyance 
through the territory of that country, 
as mentioned in Article XXXIX, 
preceding; and the Post Office of 
Norway shall collect this transit 
postage, both on the newspapers 
sent, and upon those received, and 
shall account for the same to the 
Danish Post Office on behalf of the 
British Post Office. 

utom ofvannSmnde porto, skall Nor- 
ska Post Styrelsen &tergalda Stor- 
britanniska Post Styrelsen hvarje 
porto, som den sednare ager att 
erlagga till frammande lander for 
befordrandet af tidningar genom 
deras omr&den. 

Nar sS^dana tidningar forsandas 

fenom Danmark, skola de under- 
astas det ytterligare transito porto, 
som tillkommer Danmark for deras 
befordrande genom detta lands om- 
r&de, s& som namndt ar uti fore- 
g&ende Artikel XXXIX ; och Nor- 
ska Post Styrelsen skall upbara 
detta transito porto s& val for afsan* 
da som for emottagna tidningar, och 
kreditera Danska Post Styrelsen for 
detsamma & Storbritanniska Post 
Styrelsens vagnar. 


It is further agreed, that in regard 
to newspapers u)rwarded from the 
United Kingdom to Norway, or 
from Norway to the United King- 
dom, the following conditions shall 
be observed; viz., 

1. They shall be sent in bands, 
or covers open at the sides, so that 
they may be easily examined. 

2. The preceding stipulations 
shall not in any way invalidate the 
right of either of the Contracting 
Parties to refuse to convey or to 
deliver any newspapers, with re- 
spect to the publication and circu- 
lation of which its laws and ordi- 
nances have not been complied with. 


Det ar ytterligare ofverenskom- 
met, att, med afseende & tidningar, 
som forsandas fr&n det forenade 
Konungariket till Norrige, eller fr&n 
Norrige till det forenade Konun- 
gariket, fbljande vilkor skola iakt- 
tagas, — nemligen : 

1. De skola vara forsedda med 
korsband eller omslag, som aro opna 
i sidoma, att de latt kunna under' 

2. Ofvanskrifna bestammelser 
skola p& intet satt inskranka n&gon- 
dera af de Contraherande Parternas 
ratt at vagra befordrande och utlem- 
nande af de tidningar, med afseende 
& hvilka lagarne och forfattningarne 
for deras utgifvande och kringspri- 
dande ej blinrit iakttagna. 


Accounts showing the results of 
the mutual transmission of corres- 
pondence shall be made out by each 
of the two Post Offices at the end 
of every quarter; and those ac- 
counts having been examined, com- 
pared, and settled by the two Offices, 
the balance thereof shall, without 
delay, be paid in British currency, 
by that Office which shall be found 
to be indebted to the other. 


Vid slutet af hvarje quartal, skola 
liquider, de b&da Post Styrelserna 
emellan, uprattas, som utvisa resul- 
tatet af hela brefforsandningen ; och 
sedan dessa blifvit af baaa Post 
Styrelserna profvade, jemforde och 
godkande, stall det upkommande 
saldot, uti Storbritanniskt mynt, 
genast godtgoras af den Post Sty- 
relse, som befinnes vara skyldig den 

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Dead letters and newspapers, 
which from whatsoever cause cannot 
be delivered, shall be mutually re- 
turned every month for the same 
amount of postage which was oriei- 
Bally charged upon them by the 
sending Post Office. 

And letters misdirected or mis* 
sent shall, in like manner, be reci- 
procally returned, without delay^ on 
the same condition* 

Lastly, letters addressed to per- 
sons who have changed their resi- 
dence, whatever be the origin of 
such letters, shall be returned, 
charged with the same rate of post- 
age which should have been paid 
by the parties to whom they are 


Outlosta bref och tidningar, som, 
af hvilken orsak som heist, ej kun- 
nat utlemnas, skola en g&ng i hvarje 
m&nad omsesidigt &tersandas, eroot 
&terstal]ande af samma porto belopp, 
hvarmed de ursprungligen varit 
belastade af det Fost Kontor, som 
dem afs&ndt. 

Origtigt adresserade eller origtifft 
siinda bref skola genast fr&n b&da 
sidor &ter8&ndas p& samma vilkor. 

Slutligen skola bref, adresserade 
till personer, som ombytt vistelse 
ort, dessa bref m& komma hvarifr&n 
som heist, &tersandas, hvarvid det 
porto beraknas, som af adressaterna 
bordt erlaggas. 

C. — ^Joint Stipulations. C. — Samfalda Bestammelser. 


The present Convention is con- 
doded for an indefinite period. It 
riiall come into operation on the 
let of January, 185L 

It cannot be annulled by either of 
the respective Governments, except 
after the expiration of a notice of 
at least six months given to the 
other Government. 


Denna Convention ar afslutad p& 
obestamd tid Den skall trada i verk 
stallighet den Ista Januarii^ 1851. 

Den kan icke uphafvas genom 
endera af Regeringarne, utan att 
denna minst sex m&nader forut s&- 
dant officielt tillkannagifvit for den 


The form in which the accounts 
mentioned in Articles XXII and 
XJLII precediig are to be made up, 
amd all other matters of detail and 
regulation which are to be arran^d 
by mutual agreement for ensurmg 
the execution of the stipulations con- 
tamed in the present Convention, 
shall be settled between the Post 
Offices of the United Kingdom of 
Great Britain and Ireland and of 
Sweden and Norway, as soon as 


Den form, hvaruti de uti fore- 
g&ende Artiklar XXII och XLH 
omnamnda liquider skola upgoraa, 
Hfvensom alia andra amnen rorande 
detaljer och reglering, hvilka genom 
omsesidig ofverenskommelse bora 
upgoras for verkstallandet af de uti 
nILrvarande Convention inneh&llna 
stadganden^ skola Caststallas emellan 
det forenade Konungariket Storbri- 
tanniens och Irlands samt Sveriges 
och Norriges Post Styrelser, s& snart 

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possible after the exchange of the 

It is also agreed that the measures 
of detail and regulation mentioned 
in the present Article may be modi- 
fied by the Post Offices of Great 
Britain and of Sweden and Norway, 
whenever, by mutual consent, those 
Offices shall have decided that such 
modifications would be beneficial to 
the Post Office service of the respec- 
tive countries. 

som mojligt, efter utvexlandet af 

Det ar afven ofverenskommet, att 
de uti narvarande Artikel omnamn- 
da detalj-och refflerings-dtgarder 
kunna fbrandras af Storbritanniska 
samt Svenska och Norska Post 
Styrelsema, nar som heist dessa 
Styrelser, genom omsesidigt med- 
gifvande, hafva funnit, att s&dana 
forandringar aro fordelaktiga for de 
respektiva landernas Post verk. 


The present Convention shall be 
ratified, and the ratifications shall 
be exchanged at London within 
three months from the date hereof. 

In witness whereof the respective 
Plenipotentiaries have signed the 
same» and have affixed thereto the 
seals of their arms. 


Narvarande Convention skall ra- 
tificeras^ och ratificationema deraf 
skola utvexlas i London, inom en 
tid af trenne m&nader efter under- 

Till yttermera visso hafva de 
omsesidiga Befullmaktigade Ombu- 
den narvarande Convention under- 
teknat, och med deras skoldemar- 
ken farsett. 

Done at London, the twenty- Som skedde i London, den tjugu- 
fourth day of August, in the year of Qerde Augusti, &r efter Christi bord, 

our Lord one thousand eight hun- 
dred and fifty. 

(L.S.) J. G. V. REHAUSEN. 

ett tusen atta hundra och femtio. 

(L.S.) J. G. V. REHAUSEN, 

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Presented to the House of Commons^ by Command of Her Majesty ^ in 
pursuance of their Address of May 5, 1851. 


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BETURN to an Address of the Honourable House of Commons, dated May 5> 1651 ; 


** Copies or Extracts of any Correspondence, in the present year, between 
Her Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for Foreign Afifairs and 
Her Minister at Florence, on the subject of certain Charges brought 
by the Tuscan Government, to the effect that the British Chapel at 
Florence (or otherwise a certain Chapel connected with Protestant 
worship there) has been conducted with a view to making Proselytes 
to Protestant worship." 

No. 1. 
The Hon. P. C. Scarlett to Viscount Palmerston. — {Received January 28.) 

My Lord, Florence , January 20, 1851. 

A CHARGE has been brought against the British Protestant Church at 
Florence by the Tuscan Government, of having been in the practice of teaching 
Tuscan subjects the doctrines of the Protestant faith in the Italian language, 
and of adopting other practices specified, contrary to the ecclesiastical regula- 
tions and laws of Tuscany. 

I have the honour to inclose a copy of a note I received on this subject 
from the Duke of Casigliano, and of my reply to that note, which last contains 
a refutation of those accusations, grounded on a letter, a copy of which I also 
inclose, which has been addressed to me by the Church Vestry at Florence, by 
which your Lordship will be convinced that there has been no sort of foundation 
for making the accusation. 

Since sending my reply to his Excellency I have been informed both by liim 
and by Signor Landucci, that the explanation I have aflforded appears satisfactory, 
and that it is possible the Tuscan Government may have been misinformed by 
their own authorities. 

Your Lordship will observe that it is now the custom for the police to 
attend inside the church on Sunday. 

The Duke of Casigliano stated to me in conversation, that orders had come 
from the Prussian Mission at Rome to sanction the Tuscan Government in pro- 
hibiting the pastor of the Swiss Church at Florence from preaching in Italian 
to Tuscan subjects who have for some time been accustomed to frequent that 
church, and the practice in future, he said, would be forbidden. 

I have &c. 

Inclosure 1 in No. 1. 
The Duke of Casigliano to the Hon. P. C. Scarlett. 

M. le Charge d'Afiaires, Florence, le 9 Janvier, 1861. 

LE Representant de Sa Majeste Britannique k Florence demanda en 1838 
au Gouvernement Grand-ducal la permission d'ouvrir sous sa protection un 
oratoire priv^ pour servir k Texercice du culte Anglican. Le Gouvernement 
Toscan adh^ra k la demande avanc^e par Monsieur le Ministre d'Angleterre, k la 
condition cependant, que cet oratoire fiit enti^rement et exclusivement prive ; ce 
qui 6tait d^ailleurs la consequence toute naturelle du droit public existant en 
Toscane, ou il y a une religion de TEtat prot^g^e par lui. 

A present le Gouvernement Grand-ducal a 6t6 inform^ que dans Toratoire 
Anglican situ^ '^ Via del Maglio," on accorde librement Tacc^s k tons ceux qui 
veulent y intervenir, et Ton sait mfime qu'on y a introduit I'usage de feire des 
pri^res et de lire des cat^chismes en langue Italienne. Beaucoup de Catholiques, 

[152] B 

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sujets Toscans, y pilisent des principes et des sentimens contraires a la religion 
dominante^ et ils s'en font publiquement les propagateurs. 

Le Gouvernement Toscan sent profond^ment le devoir de ne pas tol^rer un 
semblable abus, et de s'opposer h, un etat de choses qui, combing avec d'autres 
eflforts essay^s dans le m6me sens et avec le m^me but, amdnerait infailliblement 
I'affaiblissement de la religion Catholique en Toscane, 

C'est pourquoi, M. le Charg^ d'AflFaires, je crois devoir vous signifier, qu'en 
se prolongeant I'abus que je vous ai signal^, le Gouvernement Grand- ducal est 
d^id^ k prendre toutes les mesures qui seront n6cessaires pour empecher les 
sujets Toscans d'intervenir aux c^r^monies religieuses de I'oratoire Anglican. 



M. le Charg^ d' Affaires, Florence y January 9, 1851. 

HER Britannic Majesty's Representative at Florence applied to the Grand 
Ducal Government in 1838 for permission to open under his protection a private 
chapel for the purposes of Anglican worship. The Tuscan Government com- 
plied with the request of the Minister of England, on the condition, however, that 
this chapel should be wholly and exclusively private, which was moreover the 
natural result of the public law of Tuscany, in which there exists a State 
rehgion protected by the State. 

The Grand Ducal Government has now been informed that in the Anglican 
chapel in the Via del Maglio, all those who desire to take part in the service 
are freely admitted, and it is even known that the custom of praying and 
catechizing in the ItaUan language has been introduced there. Many Catholics, 
Tuscan subjects, imbibe there principles and sentiments contrary to the domi- 
nant religion, and publicly propagate the same. 

The Tuscan Government is deeply sensible of the duty of not tolerating 
such an abuse, and of opposing a state of things which, combined with other 
efforts made of the same character and with the like object, would infalUbly lead 
to the weakening of the Catholic religion in Tuscany. 

Accordingly I deem it my duty to acquaint you, M. le Charg^ d'Affaires, 
that if the abuse which I have pointed out to you is continued, the Grand Ducal 
Government is resolved to adopt all the measures which shall be necessary to 
prevent Tuscan subjects from taking part in the reUgious ceremonies of the 
AngUcan Chapel. 

Receive &c. 

Inclosure 2 in No. 1. 
The Hon. P. C. Scarlett to the Duke of Casigliano. 

M. le Ministre, Florence, January 16, 1851. 

I HAVE delayed until now to reply to your Excellency's note of January 9, 
relating to the charges brought by the Tuscan Government against the British 
Protestant Church at Florence, for supposed interference with the religion of the 
State, by the adoption of certain practices specified in your Excellency's commu- 
nication to me, and alleged to have been sanctioned by that estabUshment. 

I had the honour in conversation to observe to your Excellency that I 
apprehended it would be foimd, on due investigation, that the accusations 
advanced were groundless and erroneous, and that the Tuscan Government had 
been deceived and misled in this matter to the prejudice of the British Church in 
this city. 

In this belief I was not mistaken, and I have much satisfaction in inclosing 
to your Excellency the accompanying statement drawn up by the Committee 
appointed for the management of the English Church, to whom I forwarded a 
copy of your Excellency's note. 

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In this statement, signed by the Secretary of the Committee, and addressed 
to me, e\rery point in your Excellency's note has been answered seriatim, either 
by a direct denial of the facts imputed, or by an explanation which cannot but 
prove satisfactory to the Tuscan Government. 

It appears from this document, that neither prayers, preaching, or teaching 
in the Italian language has ever been resorted to, nor in any other language, with 
reference to Tuscan subjects. That no Tuscans have either been invited to 
enter, or encouraged to frequent, the Protestant Church, excepting the police 
authorities sent there by the Tuscan Government ; and I am further authorized 
to state, that no Protestant books have ever been translated, printed, or circulated 
among Tuscan subjects with the sanction of the church in question. 

Such being the state of the case, I trust your Excellency and the Tuscan 
Government will entertain the same conviction as I do myself, that the charges 
which have been brought against the EngUsh Church have no real foundation, 
and must have been caused by some confusion and misunderstanding of the 
truth, as I feel convinced that it is and always has been the sincere desire of 
that religious institution to conform entirely to the regulations required by the 
Tuscan Government, from which it has never deviated. 

I seize this occasion, &c. 


Inclosure 3 in No. I. 
lite Protestant Church Vestry to the Hon. P. C. Scarlett. 

Sir, Florence^ January 14, 1851. 

I HAVE the honour to acknowledge your communication of the 13th 
instant, giving cover to a letter addressed to yourself from the Minister of Foreign 
Affairs to the Tuscan Government of the 9th idem, and to inform you that 
having laid the same before the Select Vestrj^ of the British Protestant and 
Episcopal Churcli at Florence, I am instructed to reply in the following terms. 

2. It is their wish on the present occasion to furnish you with such full 
information as, when communicated to the Tuscan Government, shall altogether 
disabuse that Government of the apprehension, founded upon groundless infor- 
mation, that there has been or that there now exists any endeavour whatever, 
either in the public services of the church, or in and by the private instructions 
and catechizing of the young people in the congregation, to interfere with the 
State reUgion of Tuscany, or to lead Tuscan subjects to embrace Protestant 

3. The Select Vestry see no better method of giving a full and convincing 
proof of the sincerity of this declaration than by a distinct denial, seriatim, of the 
allegations upon this head contained in the letter of the Tuscan Minister of 
Foreign Affairs. 

I. No custom has been introduced '* On y a introduit I'usage de faire 
of making prayers or reading cate- des pri^res et de lire des cat^chismes 
chisms in the Italian language. No en langue Ilalienne." 

language has been used in the church 
ministrations save the English. 

II. The supposition, therefore, is "Beaucoup de Catholiques, sujets 
wholly without foundation that Tuscan Toscans, y puisent des principes et des 
subiects could by possibiUty be imbued sentimens contraires k la rehgion domi- 
with sentiments contrary to the domi- nante, et ils s'en font publiquement les 
nant religion of Tuscany by the Eng- propagateurs." 

lish services and ministrations which 
are held in the British Protestant 
Chuch, or that the most remote in- 
ducement of such a nature is held out 
to them by services wholly unintelli- 
gible to them. 

III. In replying to this allegation, it " On y accorde librement Facc^ k 
is necessary to go into some details. tous ceux qui veulent y intervenir." 

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No one is admitted into the body of the church who does not pay for his 
seat, and the Select Vestry are consequently enabled to declare that, to the best 
of their knowledge, there is not a single Tuscan Roman Catholic among the 
number of those who occupy seats in the body of the church ; a gallery is set 
apart for servants and poor people who cannot pay for seats. 

It is but very rarely that an Italian has been seen to enter ; so very seldom, 
that the church officers merely regarded such as persons sent by authority to 
ascertain whether any objection could be taken to the services. 

An instance of this nature occurred on Sunday last, the 12th instant; on 
that occasion the parties were questioned, and upon declaring themselves to be 
police officers acting under authority, no objection was made to their entry. 

4. The Select Vestry have already mentioned that it is their object to give 
such full information as shall be calculated wholly to remove the apprehensions 
under which the Tuscan Minister for Foreign Affairs framed his letter of the 
9th instant, and they feel assured that the sincerity with which they have met 
the allegations contained in it and entirely disproved them, will be attended 
with the returning confidence of the Grand Ducal Government, who will at once 
perceive that the permission to build a church and to celebrate divine worship 
according to the Protestant religion for the benefit of their countrymen, has not 
been abusjpd to other purposes. 

I have &c 
(Signed) ' C. WEBB SMITH, Secretary. 

No. 2. 
Viscount Palmerston to the Right Hon. R. L. Sheil. 

Sir, Foreign Office^ February 3, 1851. 

I HAVE received Mr. Scarlett's despatch of the 20th ultimo, in- 
closing copies of a correspondence with the Duke of Casigliano, respecting an 
unfounded accusation brought by the Tuscan Government against the parties 
concerned in the management of the affairs of the British Chapel at Florence ; 
that they conducted the services in that chapel in a way calculated to alienate 
the minds of Tuscan subjects from the Roman CathoUc faith. 

I have to instruct you to say to the Duke of Casigliano, that Her Majesty's 
Government trust that this correspondence will show the Tuscan Government 
that they ought not to place too impUcit reliance on the secret information which 
may reach them ; and you will also say, that though the papers inclosed in Mr; 
Scarlett's despatch are satisfactory to Her Majesty's Government, as showing 
that the British residents at Florence have strictly complied with the conditions 
on which permission was given for the establishment of a Protestant chapel, yet 
Her Majesty's Government cannot disguise the painful impression which they 
have received from the intolerant spirit which is manifested in the Duke of 
Casigliano's communication, and which affords so remarkable a contrast with the 
Uberal and enlightened system which prevails in the United Kingdom in regard 
to the exercise of religious beUef. 

You will give a copy of this despatch to the Duke of Casigliano. 

I am, &c. 

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The Loss of Documents connected with his Claims upon 
the Portuguese Government 

Presented to the House of Commons by Command of Her Majesty. 

August 7, 1851. 



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I* Mil ilddiiiglDii toiM* FIcifiaof • ^ • • 

2. M. Pacifico to \^scount Palmerston • • 

One Inclosure. 
d. \^scount Palmerston to Mr. Wyse 

4. Viscount Palmerston to the Marquis of Nonrariby 

5. The Marquis of Normanhy to Viscount Pahnerston 

6. Mr. Wyse to Viscount Pahnerston • • • • 
I 7. Mr. Addington to Mr. Camphell Johnston 

8. M. Pacifico to Mr. Addii^g^tei •» .^ 

One Inclosure. 

9. Lord Stanley of Alderley to Mr. Camphell Johnston 

10. Mr. Camphell Johnston to Jjord Stanley of Alderley 

11. Viscount Palmerston to the Marquis of Nomaidiy 

12. M. Pacifico to Mr. Addington 

One Inclosure. 
Id. Mr. Addington to Mr. Pacifico •• •• 

14. M.. Fliciraatd,inuJLl<ingfiMr .. .... 

15. Mr. Addington to Mr. CampBelT Johnston • • 

16. M. de Marescalchi to Viscount Palmerston •• 

17. Viscount Palmerston to M. de Marescalchi 

18. Mr. Addington to M. Pacifico 

19. Mr. Addmgton to M. Pacifico . • 

20. M. Pacifico to Mr. Addington 

21. Mr. Camphell Johnston to Viscount Palmerston 

One InclMOM^ 
2SL Tbcountfldfaiersfon tijMn Campbd^JbhoBtaxr 
28. Viscount Palmerston taMc Wjm; «« •« . 

24* Mr. Wyse to Viscount Palmerston « • • • 

One Inclosure. 

25. Mr. Wyse to Viscount Fdmerston •• ••' 

Three Inclosures. 

26. M. Pacifico to Viscount Palmerston . • 

27. Mr. Addington to M» Pacifico • • • • 


September 26, —— 


October 7, 


October 8, 



October 7, 


October 80, 


October 80, •— 






.. January 7» 1851 14 

.^ Jbiuary IC|.— 14 

• . January 14, 15 
.. January 14, — r- 1^ 
.. January 16,— 15 

January 16, 15 

January 28,—— 16 

January 29,—— 16 

.• May 9,— 16 

.. May 23;—- 20 

^ May 24, 20 

• • June 5,—— 21 




.. July 28,— 22 

• . August I,— 28 

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CoiTBq)ondence Tespectin^ the Mixed Commission which 
met «t li^bon in 1851, to investigate the Claitts of 
M. Padfico upon the <jrovemm«it of Greece, m 
regard to the Ijoss of Documents connected with his 
Ckans npoa the Bortnguese Government. 


Mr. AddJtngtcfn to M. Vacijico. 

^j Ffyrdgn Office^ September 17, 185ft. 

I AM directed by Viscount Pabnerston to request that yoia will send 
faim a detfcailed statauent, showiog wliat were th^ documents whidh yoa 
lost l)j &e attack cm yaur lK)use st Athens; and explaining in wliaA 
manner, and for what reasons, the loss of any of those documents jprrevents 
you from establishing any claims which you may have upon the Govern- 
ment ^ lV»rt]:|gaL 

I have, &c. 
<Sig«ed) H. U. ADDINGTON. 

No. 5. 
33r. Pacifico to Viscount Palmerston. 

10, Bury Street^ St. Mary AxCj 
Sir, September 26, 1850. 

IN reply to your letter dated Sejxtember 1850, requesrting, by direction 
of Viscount Palmerston, sl description of the documents lost by the attack 
on my house at Atbens, and jin explanation of l^e reasons why that loss 

frevents me frcooa establishing my claims upon tkeOovemment of Portugal; 
regret to say, that upon that occasion the destruction of my papers was 
so complete, that of many of them relating to my claims upon the Govern- 
ment of P(H:d;ugal, nothiji^ remains which can enable me to recollect 4x 
state to his Lordship their precise nature or contents. Of some of them, 
however, a catalqgue or short statemait was fortunately picked up soon 
after the attack, which was subsequently shown to and verified by the 
Attorney-General of His Majesty the King of Greece, and a copy of it was 
afterwards transmitted by me on rtie 9th September, 1847, to Sir Edmund 
Lyons, the Minister of Her Britannic Majesty at Athens. The account 
contained in that catalogue, of the nature and contents of die lost papers, 
is, I am sorry to say, <?he faflest and most accurate which I am now^ either 
from recollection, or from any materials in my possession, able to furnish, 
and I therefore inclose and beg leave to refer his Lordship to a copy of it 
for a description of the documents in question. I would at the same time 
beg the favour <rf your inibtming ViscoEant Paimerston that in the year 
1834^ a detailed and particular Btatement of my claims wfoia <Aie Portug^iese 
Government, and di dbe documents in s«ppoirt of them, was drawn up and 
verified by me befeie a civil jwige at Faro, m Portugal, duly evidenced 
by witnesses, and a judicial vmitenoe pronoonoed in my favour, in con- 
formity with flie iaw« cC PorfaigaJ; and that I have written for, awl 
expect t© receive a certified copy of that statement, in the course'of three 
[216] B 2 

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or four weeks ; when received I would ask permission to lay it, together 
with any further information or explanation it may suggest to me, before 
his Lordship. 

With regard to the reasons why, and the manner in which the loss of 
these documents prevents me from establishing my claims upon the 
Portuguese Government, his Lordship will perceive even from the imper- 
fect description given in the inclosed catalogue, that the papers which 
were destroyed comprised ministerial orders, certificates, receipts, and 
other vouchers for official duties performed, money expended, and 
liabilities incurred on behalf and at the instance of the Government of 
Portugal, and of valuations of losses sustained in their service; and also 
of the Consular archives, which remained in my hands as a security for 
what was due to me from that Government. Of the various claims there 
referred to, the lost documents constituted almost the only evidence, and 
their loss has now been officially reported, and has become fully known to 
the Portuguese Government. Without them it would of course under 
these circumstances be impossible for me to support, with the necessary 
proof, the demands which I feel justly entitled to make upon the Govern- 
ment of Portugal, and I fear that without such proof there is little 
disposition on their part to discharge the amount now due to me. In 
short, this unfortunate destruction of my papers has compelled me to trust 
for the recognition of my claims to the uncertain recollection of their 
reality and justice which may rest in the minds of those parties in con- 
nexion with the Portuguese Government, to whose notice they have been 
brought from time to time, and has reduced me to the necessity of sup- 
plicating as a favour, a settlement which I might otherwise have sougnt 
as a matter of right. 

I am, &c. 

Inclosure in No. 2, 

Statement of Documents relating to the Claims of the Chevalier David 
Pacijico, on the Portuguese Government. 

FOUR documents under this head (1828), namely — 

For the loss of four commanderies which I had held 
in the Alemtejo for three yearg, as there are documents 
to prove, and which were confiscated by Don Miguel's 
authorities, because I had done good to all the Liberal 
emigrants, as is proved by the document No. 1, which I 
forwarded to the General Cortes of the Portuguese nation 
on the 24th December, through Senhor Paul Midosi, a 
Deputy of that Legislative Body, the said losses, together 
with the interest thereupon at 5 per cent., amounting to - 48,000 000 

Judicial decision of February 13, 1834, delivered in the 
town of Faro. 

Pillage of my house at Mertola, and of my com 
warehouses, which took place in 1833, when the Liberal 
troops entered that town, and afterwards retreated from it; 
the said loss, together with the interest thereupon, up to 
this day's date, amounting to - - - - - 1,700 000 

Twenty-five documents. 

Rent of two houses at Gibraltar, provided with 
all necessary furniture, one of which was occupied by the 
late Archbishop Ataite and his suite, and the other by 
the whole of the Liberal emigrants, amounting to 120,000 
reis per mensem for each house, and the interest thereupon 
up to this day's date — that is to say, for three years and a 
half * 18,144 000 

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Five documents and receipt. 

For muskets given to Colonel Almeidas for the defence 
of OlhSo, as is proved by the Baron de Faro's receipt, 
amounting, together with interest up to this day's date, to - 1,200 000 

Three documents, Nos. 120, 121, 149. 

For arrears of my salary, and on account of Her 
Most Faithful Majesty's Government having kept me in 
that state without any decision on my case, and in order 
to restore me to my former position, and to pay me all my 
indemnities and salary, which the financial agency of London 
kept back from me without reason, as is proved by the letter 
from that agency, dated 24th March, 1844, unjustly pre- 
tending that I had given a receipt in full to Her Most 
Faithful Majesty's Grovernment, and therefore only paying me 
197/. 14.S. 3d. on account of my salary ; on which account I 
consider myself, according to the laws of humanity and the 
laws of nations, entitled to the full payment of my salary, 
amounting, for the said three years, up to December 31, 1844, 
at the rate of one conto and 200,000 reis per annum (and 
not to the end of 1842), with its proper interest, according to 
the exchange of this place, to . - • . 4,032 000 

Two certificates. 

For two years' service in the war of the Algarves, 
with the division of operations, in the capacity of paymaster 
and commissary of the said division, according to the British 
tariff 2,800 000 

As is proved by the documents and despatches of the 
Viscount Sa da Bandeira, dated May 25, 1844. 

For Bay voyage from Lisbon to Genoa, and from 
Genoa to Greece, by order of Her Majesty's Government, 
in order to carry on the Portuguese Consulate-General 
in Greece, in the same way as Her Most Faithful Majesty's 
Government have paid the expenses of M. Vidal, of M. 
Joachim Barassor Ferrera, and others ; and I have in my 
possession an order from the very excellent nobleman, the 
Marquis de Loul6, Minister at that period, to undertake that 
voyage at the expense of Her Most Faithful Majesty's 
Government, amounting to 1550 Spanish tallaris, with 
interest for five years at 12 per cent., according to the rate 
of interest of the Royal Bank of this country (Athens), 
which added to the sum of 1 conto of reis for my return to 
Lisbon, makes a total of - • - - - 3,160 000 

Four documents. 

Expenses of the chancery of the Consulate-General in 
1842, according to the accounts sent in to the Minister for 
Foreign Affairs, amounting, for the four quarters to - - 94 915 

For two protests by the London Agency on my bills 
drawn for the payment of my salary, as is proved by the 
said protests, and for the exchange and re-exchange paid 
to M. A. Malandrinos and Co., and to Th. Ralli - - 134 400 

Total - - 94,645 315 

The above sum amounts to 94 contos, 645,315 reis, making in pounds 
sterling, at the exchange of 54 pence for 1000 reis, the sum of 21,295Z. Is. 4:d. 


Athens, December 21, 1844. 

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Viscount Palmerston to the Right Hon. T. Wyse. 

Sir, Foreign Office, October 7, 1850. 

1 HAVE to instruct you to propose to the Greek Government, that 
the investigaticm respecting the claims which TM. P^cifico alleges that im 
has upon the Portuguese Government, Jbhe documents reJating to wliic3i 
were lost or <teatro3F^ during the attads: on liis liouse Bt JLtfaeafi, should 
take j^ce at Lisbon ; and if the Greek Govermn^it have no olgecfion to 
this proposal, you will request them to name £l Comnussioner for lihe 
purpose of carrying the proposed investigation into efieot. 

I Am,&c. 

Viscount Palmerston toihe Marqmis ^ Nmmimnlsf. 

My Lord, Foreign Office, Odtobeor 8, 1850. 

I HAVE to instruct your Excelleney to propose to the French 
Government, that theinviestigation j-espectii:^ the claims whidi M. Fa^oifico 
alleges that he !has mpon the Fortuguefie Governmeoit, j£he documents 
iselatii^ to whlcTi were lost or destrojred during tlie attack on Kis liottfie ai 
Atliens, sTiould take place at Lisbon ; and if the French Gouernment "have 
no objection to that pvoposal,your Ebio^eecy^ifl requevt likfem tostame a 
Commissioner for the purpose t>f carryng )bhe pn^poned investiigalfaicsi >kitK> 

1 2MB, %BC. 

^Sii^ed) FALMEnSTON. 

No. S. 

The Marqms tcf l^ormmi^ to Viscmmt ^ahnerslon. — \Recfeivei 


My Lord, Pmris, QdoUr AQ, 1S30. 

IN confownity -with your Lerdsiiip's instnictionB ^osftaifted in yoiir 
despatch of the 8th instant, I proposed to General de Liflwtte <<h«t^flwe 
investigation respecting the claims which M. Facifico alleges that he has 
upon the Fortuguese Government, the documents rdathig to which were 
lost or destroyed ^during the Attack on bis house .at Athens, admuid take 
place at Lisbrni. General <de Lahitte cotm^pletely loanonrrod in the cocn- 
n^nience of such a course, but .added tbait he had Jimnself proposed it to 
your Lordship some weeks sikiice;, through M. Drouynnie Lhuys ; that he 
nad there stated that the Greek GoMermneitt amented to that fom of 
proceeding, and would name their Gonsui-G'eneral at C^iorto; he himsdf 
intended to nominate M. B6clard, tlie First Secnotary a&i Jjegation at 
Lisbon* Therefore, the General says, all that now remains is for your 
tuordship to name an. English Cixnmissioner. 

I have, &c. 
(Sigiied) KOBICANBY. 

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No. 6. 

The Right Hon. T. Wyse to Viscount Palmerston. — {Received October 19.) 

My Lon^ Athens y October 7, 1850. 

I HAVE the honour to inclose to your Lordship a copy of a letter 
Itom M. Dfelyamii, His Hiellenic Majesty's Minister for Foreign Affairs^ 
of the ^th ultimo, communicating for the information of your Lordship^ 
tftat, pursuant to the Convention lately signed between, the Plenipo- 
tentiariea of Great Britain and Greece, His Hellenic Majesty's Govemmenti 
had named Mr. O'Neill, his Consul-General at Lisbon, to act as his agent, 
COTTCurrently with the agents^ who shall be appointed by Great BHtain 
and France, in coming to a diefinitive decision as to what losses M. FacificcB 
may have suffered by the destruction of papers and documents in the 
attack on his house at Athens^ establishing, as he states, certain pecuniary 
claims of his on Portugal. 

I h»ve, &c. 
(Signed) THOS. WYSE. 

Inclosure in Tfo. 6. 
M. Delyannito ifie Right Hon: T. Wyse. 

BioiiBieiu^ AthiwBS^ le ^ Septasmbra, 1B50. 

CONFORMEMENT aux Artirfey T etH de la Convention conclhe? 
^ Ath^nes le ^^Avril de Tannic courante, entre Pes Pl^nipotentiaires 
pespectifs de la Grfce et de Fa Grande Bi*etagne, le Gouvernement du Roi^ 
a nommiS ML O^Neill, son Gbnsul-G^n^ral' ^ Eisbonne, son Commissairej 

Sour que, d'accord* avec tes detrx antres personnes que* le Gouvernement 
e Sa Majesty Britannique et celtri de Ik R6pubKque Pran9aise auraient* 
d^sign^s, if poisse proc^der k Parrangement d^finitif des reclamations 
form^es, dans le tems, contre le Gouvernement Grec pour la perte de 
certains^ titreff au mo5ren desquefe Ib-SieurD. Pacifico^ pr^tendfisritr ponvoir 
feure valoir des r^claraatrons p^cuniaires k la charge* du Tr^sor Pbrtugaisrs 
En vous priant, Monsieur, de' voufoi'r bien porter k Ik connaissancs' 
dcrsa Seigneurie lie Vicomte Palm^rstom ce qui pr6cdde, le saisis, &e. 

(Sign6) P. DEEYANWr. 

Bfo. X 
Mr., Addmgjion ta Mr^ Campbdi Jiihtstmu. 

^SxHr Foreign. Office^ October 30,, VSSfi. 

I AM directed by Viscount Pabnerston to^ acknowledge the i^eeij^ 
air jour letiter q£ tiie 10th instant,, offexdng jmxt seiivieeft> to act on behalfi 
oi Her Ms^sa^'m Gavemment,^ in: mveatigating the claims^ made h^ 
M. Paisifieo' against the Gred£ Govexnocient^ on acceuat of tba destructioai^ 
dniring tile* attack npon^ hia^hooM at Athena in 1847, (i£ some deciunaHteb 
iphieh^ eonstitoted thepFOofe q& eerliain^ die&te allegedLta^ be Axsb to- him b^ 
tfue^ G<w«Riinienft of Portugal ; and* I am directed by Lainl PalmieBston to) 
ininmK you tfaart hs: ia; r«ady to appoint ^u to^be: the Btifitah Member oft 
the Mixed Connrnasionwhictr is to meeli^at Liabomfei! thepur^osftsof tiuat 
investigation^ and whish; ifr to be eompeaed of Gommisftiftnenh oil the part 
of Qieat;Britaki,.Fiaa6«^aiid Greece. 

I am to add that the French and Greek CdsnmkneBflili^ haara already 
been appointed, and are at Lisbon. 

(Signed> H. IL.ADDINGTOR. 

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No. 8. 

M. Pacifico to Mr. Addington. 

10, Bury Street, St. Mary Axe, 
Sir, October 30, 1850. 

I HAVE now the honour to transmit to you a certified copy of the 
proceedings in the Court of Faro, in Portugal, to which reference was 
ijiade in my letter to you of the 26th September, as also a notarial 
translation of the same. I will thank you to have this document laid 
before Viscount Palmerston. 

As the inclosed is the only certified copy of these proceedings in my 
possession, I would beg the favour of its being returned to me when his 
Lordship shall have quite finished with it. 

I have, &c. 

Inclosure in No. 8. 

Minute of Proceedings in the Court of Faro. 

Stamps. Public form. 

IN the year 1834, Court of General Jurisdiction of Faro, process of 
proof. Prover, David Pacifico ; notary, Gomes. 

In the year of the birth of our Lord Jesus Christ 1834, on the 7th day 
of the month of February of said year, at this city of Faro, in my notarial 
office,^ I formalized the petition hereafter following, for the making known 
whereof I have drawn up this act of formalization ; and I, Jos6 Joaquim 
Gomes, have written out and signed the same. 

JozE Joaquim Gomes. 

Your Honour, David Pacifico, residing at this city, saith that he is 
desirous to prove in this court that he, the petitioner, since the year 1812, 
has resided in this kingdom, carrying on business, and established at the 
city of Lagos, in the Kingdom of Algarve, where he is possessed of real 
estates. That in the year 1822, he, the petitioner, was privileged in this 
kingdom by the British Court of Conservancy, under a patent from His 
Majesty Don John VI. That the petitioner, having business in the city of 
Mertola, was at that city on the arrival of the liberating troops there, 
which took place in July last year. That when the said troops and the 
loyal inhabitants retired from the aforesaid city, the petitioner likewise 
withdrew, and thus lost his business, moveables, and corn stores, and 
among them his certificate of British privilege. That the petitioner has 
rendered some services to the cause of liberty, one of which was his having 
supplied arms for the defence of the city of OlhSo, and having also 
rendered every personal service in his power. That the petitioner is arid 
always has been a decided Constitutionalist, on which account he has 
sustained great losses in his business and property ; besides which he has 
afforded material aid to the emigrants who were in Gibraltar at his house 
by order of His Majesty Dom Pedro ; he therefore prays your Honour to 
be pleased, on sufficient evidence being produced, to legalize the present 
proofs by a judgment, the said act of proof being delivered to the prover, 
and copied at the notarial oflBce, and you shall receive thanks. 

On distribution thereof, let the proof be received. 

Mascarenhas Bacalhao. 

Distributed to Gomes Barboza. 

I certify that I notified to the prover, David Pacifico, to name his 
witnesses whom he intends to produce in this his act of proof, which I 

-Faro, February 12, 1834. Jose Joaquim Gomes. 

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I certify that by the prover, David Pacifico, were named as witnesses 
the following parties, viz., Cypriano Jos6 Ferreira da Palma, Jos6 Alex- 
andre Pinto, and Joaquim Antonio Nogueira, all emigrants at this city; 
for the making known whereof 1 have passed these presents, which I have 

* Faro, February 12, 1834. Jose Joaquim Gomes. 

I, Bartholemew Jos6 Mascarenhas de Fiffuerido e BacalhSto, judge in 
the law of this city of Faro and district thereof, for Her Most Faithful 
Majesty Dona Maria II, whom God preserve, &c., do order the notary 
who has passed these presents, or another, in case of his hindrance, to 
notify to the witnesses underneath signed, that they are to depose respect- 
ing the tenor of the petition of the prover, David Pacifico, on the day that 
shall be signified to him, which they are to comply with. 

Faro, February 12, 1834. 

And I, Jos6 Joaquim Gomes, have drawn up the same. 

Mascarenhas Bacalhao. 
Cypriano Jose Ferreira da Palma. 
Jose Alexandre Pinto. 
Joaquim Antonio Nogueira. 

I certify that I notified to Cypriano Jos6 Ferreira da Palma to 
depose in the present act of proof on the part of the prover, David Pacifico. 
Faroy February 12, 1834. Jose Joaquim Gomes. 

I certify that I notified to Jos^ Alexandre Pinto to depose in the pre- 
sent act of proof on the part of the prover, David Pacifico. 

Faro, February 12, 1834. Jose Joaquim Gomes. 

I certify that I notified to Joaquim Antonio Nogueira to depose in 
the present act of proof on the part of the prover, David Pacifico. 

Faro, February 12, 1834. Jose Joaquim Gomes. 

On the 12th day of the month of February, 1834, at the city of Faro, in 
my notarial office, was present the Examiner of this court, Antonio Joaquim 
de Barboza, and by him were examined and interrogated the following 
witnesses ; and in testimony of the whole thereof I liave drawn up this 
act. I, Jos6 Joaquim Gomes, have written the same. 

Isi Witness. — Cypriano Jos6 Ferreira Palma, baqhelor, clerk to the 
municipality of the city of Mertola, at present residing in this city as an 
emigrant, aged 48 years, a little more or less, as he declared. Witness 
sworn on the Holy Gospels, which were presented to him by the said 
examiner, and upon which he laid his right hand and promised to declare 
the truth as to what he might know, and should be interrogated, &c., 
according to custom. He said nothing more; and being questioned 
respecting the tenor of the allegations of the petition of the prover, David 
Pacifico, he said, on the first, that he knows it to be true that the said 
prover, since the year 1812 till the present time, has been for the greater 

Eart of the time occupied in his business in this Kingdom of Algarve, 
aving been established in the city of Lagos, where, to his knowledge, he, 
the said prover, possessed real estates ; and he said no more on this point. 
And on the second allegation he said, that for the same reason he 
knows, and there is no doubt that the said prover, in the year 1822, held a 
British privilege in this kingdom by a patent from His Majesty Dom 
Pedro VI ; and, moreover, that he the witness himself has had the same 
privilege in his hands. And he said nothing more on this point. 
And on the third allegation he said, that for the same reason he knows 
the said prover carried on his business at the city of Mertola, he being in 
the said city on the arrival there of the liberating troops, which occurred 
in July last year, where he rendered services to the cause of legitimacy, 
having many Liberals quartered in his house, all of whom he enter- 
tained with generosity and urbanity. And he said no more. And 


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OB the fburth alle^atioa he said, that he also knoKva. for. the aame 
reason, that the said prover, whea the said* troops retired with, the loy^ 
inhaJbitaats of the aforesaid city of M^rtola, also withdrew^ ia order iiot.ta> 
incuv the danger of being exposed to the fiiry of the rebels ;, and. he im 
certain that, on the said retreat, he lost his business, his moveables, and 
corn stores which he had there, and among, the rest his. certificate of 
naturalization, for he was only able to save his person, as was the case 
also with the other inhabitants. And he said no more oa this head. 
And* asrespeets the fifth allegation he said,, that he is also sure,, and it 
is true, that the said prover has rendered great services to the cause oC 
liberty, one of those services being, that he supplied muskets which, he 
ordered from Gibraltar, and delivered to the inhabitants dEOIMo for tha 
defence of that town, where he remained a considerable time^ giv'mg all 
his personal services oa occasion of the important crisia at that city*. 
And he said nothing more on this head. And om the si^itk allegation 
he said, that for the same reason he knows the said prover has 
always been and still is, a decided Confititutionalist ; and he is sure 
that on this account he* has sustained many severe losses in his business 
and property, inasmuch as he did a large business in the sale of commen- 
dams and tithes with the late Simao Naburro of the city of Mertola, 
and now with his heiress, Dona Felicidade Augusta de Mello Garrido, 
of the same city ; but on his proceeding to settle accounts with the 
said heiress, she never would come to any settlement, because he was a 
zealous Constitutionalist, and she was extremely devoted to the cause o£ 
the rebel*; and it is likewise true that the said prover,, besides all this, 
rendered important benefits to the emigrants who were at Gibraltar, by 
advancing them money, and by order of His Majesty Dom. Pedro lodging 
them at his house ; and he said nothing more oil this last, point. And 
signed, together with the said examiner this his deposition,, which being 
read to him, he ratified what he had declared, which I certify. I, Jose 
Joaquim Gomez have drawn up the same^ 


CYPBiAJsa Jose gwBBBua FAjyacA. 

2nd Witness. — Jos6 Pinto, bachelor, a native of the city of LoulS, 
serving in the national battalion of Villa Reale de Santo Antonio, aged 
above 26 years, by his statement, witness sworn, &lc.^ said in^ reference to ther 
firsts that he knows it to be tirue that the said prover, siiaee the yeaK 
1822 till the present year, has. been for the greater part of the timei^ 
occupied in his business in this kingdom, having been established at the 
city of La^os in this Kingdom of Algarve, where, to his knowledge, he 
the said prover possesses real estates. And he said nothing more oa thi&b^ 
point* And on the second allegation he said, that he alao knows it to be: 
true that the said prover, in the year 1^21^ held a British privilege in thi£k 
kingdom, by a patent from His Majesty Dom Joha YI, and moreover that 
he, the witness, had. seen the said patent* And he said nothing more oh 
this point. And to tiie third allegation he said, that he also knows it to be^ 
true that the said prover carri^ on business at the city of Mertola^. he 
being at the said city on the arrival of the liberating troops, whicfau 
occurred in July last year. And he said no more on this- head« And 
on the fburth allegatioa he said, that he knows to a* certainty, that 
the said prover, when the aforesaid troops and loyal inh€d)itaBts withdvewr 
from the above-mentioned city, also withdrew, and oa. this occasion k)fi# 
his business, mpveaJ^les, and com stores^ and ameiig the rest his certificates 
of naturalisation^, or British privilege, fer he, as wdl as the other inhabit- 
antS) was only able to sa^e his person. And he said nothing move oa this: 
point.. And asr respects, the fifth allegation he said, that for the samas 
reason, he: knows that the said prover has rendered services to the eaufle- 
of liberty, one of these services being, tha* he suj^lied part of tha 
muskets to the inhabitants of OlfaSLo for its defetiie^ giving also nisperaonid 
services. at that city.. And he said nothing more on this pairiicular. And 
on. the. sixth aUegatien he said, tiiat he knows from having witnessed 
it<|. that the saidi prover always has been, and still is, a sealous Coiw 
stitutionaUst^ and on that account has suflfered great losses in^ his^ 
business and property; and besidesi this, the said prover rendered 

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important benefits to all the Portuguese emigrants, he the witness bein|^ 
one of them, many of whom were lodged at the house of the said prover in 
Gibraltar, the latter ^by order of Dom Pedro, supplying them with all the 
requisites and necessaries, and advancing them money; and iie said 
nothing more on this last point; and together with the said examiner 
signed this his deposition, which on being read to him he ratified. And 
I, Jos5 Joaquim Gomes, have drawn up the same. 


Jose Alexanbre Pinto. 

Registration.— On the l^th February, 1834, at this city of Faro, and 
in the dwelling-house of Joaquim Antonio Nogueira, Whither I, the notary, 
repaired, accompanied by the examiner of this court, Antonio Joaquim 
Barboza, the following witness was examined and interroo^ated by the said 
lexaminer, and in testimony of the whole thereof I have drawn up this act 
of registration, and I, Jos6 Joaquim Gomes, have written the same. 

3rrf WHmtss, — Joaquim Antonio Nogueira, married a native of Beija, 
and at present an emigrant at this city, aged 33 years., a little more or 
less, according to his statement, the witness sworn, &c., said, in reference 
to the first allegation, that he knows to a certainty, that the said prover, 
since the year 1812 up to the present year, has resided for nearly the 
greatest part of that time in this kingdom, carrying; on business and 
established at the city of Lagos, in the Kingdom of Algarve, where it is 
Baid he possesses some xeaf property ; and he said nothing more on this 

eoint. And on the second allegation he said, that for the same reason he 
nows that the said prover had the privilege of a British subject in this 
kingdom/by 7)atent of the King Dom John .VI, this being in the year 1822; 
and he said nothing more on this point. And on the rtirrd he said, that 
there is no doubt that the said prover had business at the city of Mertola, 
and wasat .the iuiid^uty on xxuiasion £kf the arrival of the liberating troops, 
which was in July last year ; and he said no more on this head. And on 
the fourth he said, that he also knows it to be true and a known fact, 
that when the said troops and loyal inhabitants of the said city of Mertola 
withdrew, the aforesaid prover likewise left the place, losing on that occa- 
sion all his business, moveables, and goods, among which was his certifi- 
cate df British privilege, since he, as well as the other inhabitants, could 
fonly «a:¥e their jperaons ; and he said nothing more on this matter. And 
as vespeote 4he fifth allegation he said, tba^ it is the fact and true, that 
4Jie said f^over has rendered great services in the cause of liberty, one of 
Wbkh was loathe «crpp]ied certain quantitires of muskets to the inhadlMt- 
ants of the city ^f OlhSo for their defence, the said prover being then at 
that place, rendering his personal swvices on all occasions ; and on this 
point ihe said nothing mocie. And as to the sixth he said, that he knows 
for certain, that the said prover always was and still is a staunch Consti- 
tutionalist, and on that account has sustained heavy losses in all his 
ofiBces and properties ; besides which, by order of Dom Pedro, he rendered 
many services to the Portuguese emigrants who were at Gibraltar fre- 
quenting his^ause, iDy minisisemng to their necessities and hy advancing 
them money ; and he said nothing more on this last matter ; and signed, 
with »lJie said examiner, ♦bis his deposition, which having been read to 
him, he said W2» in ooivformity with what he had stated. And I, JoB^ 
Jeaq«im Gomes, have drawn up the same. 

Joaquim Antonio Nogdbira. 

On the 13th February, 1834, at this city of Fajio, I finished these acts 
at my notarial office, and reported them as concluded to the judge in the 

Bartholomew Joze Mascarenhas de Figuerido e Balcahao. 

In witness whereof I have drawn up this Act, and I, Jos6 Joaquim 
Gomes, have written the same. 

C 2 

Digitized by 



On view of the depositions of the witnesses, I do by sentence pro- 
nounce the present proof to be valid, to which end I therein interpose my 
authority and judicial decree, the prover to pay the costs. 

Faro, February 13, 1834. 

Bartholomew Jose Mascarenhas de Figuerido e Bacalhao. 

On the 13th February, 1834, at this city of Faro, and at the residence 
of the municipal judge, Bartholomew Jos6 Mascarenhas e Bacalhao, whither 
I, the notary, proceeded, were delivered to me there by him these acts 
with the judgment overleaf, which he ordered to be executed and observed 
as therein contained and declared ; and in testimony of the whole thereof 
he ordered this act to be drawn out; and I, Jos6 Joaquim Gomes, have 
written the same. 

I certify that I notified to the prover, David Pacifico, the whole of the 
tenor of the judgment overleaf, which I read to him and he was apprized 

Faro, February 13, 1834. Joze Joaquim Gomes. 

And the same having been copied, I collated it with the original, to 
which I refer. 

Faro, August 31, 1850. 

And 1, Joze Joaquim da Costa Lami, notary of minutes at this city of 
Faro, and in the court of law thereof, have written and signed the same as 
a public copy. In testimony of the truth, notarial sign, 1836. 

The notary, 

Joze Joaquim da Costa Lami. 
And collated by me, 

Joze Joaquim da Costa Lima. 

No. 9. 
Lord Stanley of Alderley to Mr. Campbell Johnston. 

Sir, Foreign Office, November 20, 1850. 

I AM directed by Viscount Palmerston to transmit to you herewith* 
for your information, copies of two letters* which his Lordship has received 
from M. Pacifico, inclosing a statement of his alleged claims on the 
Government of Portugal ; and I am to request that you will communicate 
the inclosed papers to your French and Greek colleagues. 

I am, &c. 

No. 10. 
Mr. Campbell Johnston to Lord Stanley of Alderley. 

19, Great Cumberland Place^ 
My Lord, November 21, 1850. 

I HAVE the honour to acknowledge the receipt of your Lordship^s 
letter of the 20th instant, together with its inclosures, and in compliance 
with the instructions of Viscount Palmerston shall communicate those 
papers to my French and Greek colleagues in the Commission of arbitra- 
tion about to meet at Lisbon. 

I am, &c. 
(Signed) P. F. C. JOHNSTON. 

* Nos. 2 and 8. 

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No. 11. 
Viscount PcUmerston to the Marquis of Normanhy. 

(Extract.) Foreign Office, December 3, 1850. 

I HAVE to instruct your Excellency to inform General de Lahitte 
that Her Majesty's Government have appointed Mr. Patrick Francis 
Campbell Johnston to be the British Member of the Mixed Commission 
which is to meet at Lisbon, in order to investigate the claims made by 
M. Pacifico against the Greek Government, on account of the destruction 
during the attack upon his house at Athens, of some documents which 
constituted the proofs of debts alleged to be due to him by the Government 
of Portugal. 

Mr. Johnston is ready to proceed immediately to join the French and 
Greek Commissioners at Lisbon, but Her Majesty's Government have 
been obliged to postpone his departure, because the ratifications of the 
Treaty for the settlement of the differences between Great Britain and 
Greece, which was signed by Mr. Wyse and M. Londos, in the presence 
of the French Charg6 d' Affaires, on the 18th of July last, have not yet 
been exchanged. 

No. 12. 

M. Pacifico to Mr. Addington. 

10, Bury Street^ St. Mary Axe, 
Sir, December 31, 1850. 

I HAVE the honour to transmit to you another document, as also 
a notarial translation thereof in support of my claim against the Greek 
Government, and will thank you to have the same laid before Viscount 

I have, &c. 
(Signed) D. PACIFICO. 

Inclosure in No. 12. 
Affidavit of Senhor Paulo MidosL 

(Translation.) Lisbon, November 4, 1850. 

PAULO MIDOSI, Councillor of Her Most Faithful Majesty, whom 
God preserve, &c. 

By the present I attest and certify, that in the year 1838, being a 
deputy to the Cortes for the Electoral Circle of Vizeu, M. David Pacifico 
delivered to me, at that time, a petition supported by various documents, 
with details, concerning the sequestration which the authorities, in the 
name of Dom Miguel, had laid upon various inclosures, the property of 
the said M. Pacifico; and the value whereof he entreated the Cortes 
should be paid to him as indemnity, in cash, in the same manner as had 
been done for other creditors of like character, and not in inscriptions of 
the public debt, as the Government had determined. Besides which the 
same gentleman also required, that in consideration of the well-known 
services he had rendered the adherents of the Liberal party who supported 
the cause of Dom Pedro IV, of revered memory, sometimes furnishing them 
assistance, sometimes sheltering them in his house at Gibraltar, and further 
risking his own life at times, while the civil war continued ; that he should 
be paid also in cash, the amount of divers inscriptions of the national 
debt delivered for the Marine Department. All which, according to the 
best of my recollection, I certify was the truth, the said petition not 
obtaining a decision in the Legislature of that year, nor in the following in 
1839, in which I was again elected a deputy for the Electoral Circle of 

Digitized by 



Lisbon, the decision being reserved to be taken into consideration with the 

feneral measures which were then projected for that class of creditors, 
.nd for the truth of all that is stated, the present being desired of me, I 
have passed and signed it, to set forfti the same, where requisite. 


No. 13. 
Mr. Addington to M. Baxaffico. 

Sir, Foreign Office, January 7, 1851. 

I AM directed by Viscount Palmerston to inform you that the 
Governments of Ccreat Britain, France, and Greece, have respectively 
appointed Commissioner^ who are to meet at Lisbon, in order to investL^ate 
the claims made by you against the Gxeek Government, on account of tlie 
loss of some documents which were destroyed or carried away tiuring ike 
attack upon your house at Athens, aad which constituted the prodfs 
requisite to establidi certain debts alleged to be due to you by the Govern- 
ment of Portugal. 

I am at the same time to acquaint you, that Lord Palmerston has 
communicated to the British Commissioner, for the-ceBStderatieR-ef -biBftself 
and of his French and Greek colleagues, those statements of your claims 
which were contained in your letters of the 26th of September, of the 30th 
of October, and of the 31st of December last ; and I am to state to you 
that it will be necessary <erther that you should proceed to Lisbon yourself, 
or that you should empower some person there to act for you, for other- 
wise the Commissioners will Imve no adequate means of pursuing their 
inquiry respecting the value of your lost documents. 

9 aa, ifoc. 
(Signed) H. m. ADMNGWm 

No. 14. 

M. Poci^ io Mr^ Addingio3u 

10, Bmry Street^ Saint Mary Axe^ 
Sir, January 10, 1851. 

1 HAVE the honour to adknowT^edge ^e receipt of your letter of the 
7th instant, apprising me by direction of Viscount Palmerston, that the 
Governments of Great Britain, France, and Greece, had respectively 
appoinrbed Commissfoners who are to meet a* Lidbon in -©rder t© investi- 
gate the claims made by me against the Greek Governnaeot, on-acwouiMt»af 
the documents destroyed or carried away during tbe attack ^©n any Ihouse 
at Athens, and which constituted ihe proofs requisite *© -e^aJbliA :my 
claims upon Portugal, and also apprizing me <Jh«t it will be neeegsany 
^ther that I shottld proceed to Lfsbon myself, or that I >idioi^ ^otnpower 
some person there to act for me, m order to f ornieh the necjessory mfetana- 
tion to enable the CoDamissioners to proceed with the inquiry. 

In reply to this communicaticn I beg to request *bat yen ^iJl be WS&A 
enough to inform V4scount Palmerston, tiiat i amappPciiOTsivae i obaS te 
unable to proceed to Lisbon for the purposes of this inquiry^ jowing to siy 
impaired sta^ of lieaMi. And that sbould I te inca^citated drom Abfs 
<^ause from proceeding there, I will then depute a icoiwpe*wit peroon 4d 
represent me in Li^feKM), and to furnish the Toquieike iirformatioa to 4te 
Commissioners for<!arrying out the object ctftheCommtfi^cm. 

I beg to solicit the favour that ycm w>ill inform ine l^e fMrcAifll]^ iSaod 
*flie Commissioners will meet m Lisbon, in order tJiat i may be ppqp«.nfl 
in this vBLfMer. 

?«have, &c. 
(Sigwetf) ^THfflE iCMfiVAgLHEE (B. FJtfMFlOO. 

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No. 15. 
Mr. Addiagtou ta Mr. Campbell Johnston. 

ir, Foreign Office, Janiuiry 14, 1851. 

WITH reference to Lord Stanley's Tetter to you of the 20th of 
November last, I am directed by Viscount Palmerston to transmit to you, 
for communication to your French and Greek colleagues in the Mixed 
Commission at Lisbon^ at further letter which his Lordship has received 
from M. Pacifico, inclosing a certificate attested by M. Paulo Midosi, 
relative to a petition which he received from M. Pacifico in 1838, for 
presentation to the Portuguese Cortes. 

I am, &c. 
(Signed) H. IT. ADDINGfTON. 

No. 16. 
M. de Marescalchi to Viscount Palmerston. 

My Lord, Londres, le 14 Janvier, 1851. 

JE suis charge par aaon Gouvernement de porter k votre connaissance 
le choix qu'il. a fait de M. B^clard^ Secr6taire de la Legation de France k 
Lisbonne, pour prendre part comme surarbitre aux travaux de la 
Commissfon Mixte charg^e de v^rifiier les reclamations dti Sieur Pa.cifico. 

M. B^clard a ddjd. reqxx k cet effet les pouvoirs et les instructions 

Je saisis, &e. 

No.. IX 
Viscount Palmerston to M. de Marescalchi. 

Siir^ Foreign Office, Jcmuary 16, 1851. 

I HAVE the honoor to acknowledge the receipt of your letteir of 
the- Mth instant^ stating that the French Government Has appointed 
M. B6clard, the Secretary of the French Legatioii at Lisbon, to act as 
impire in the: Mixed Commisaion which is to meet at Lisbon for the 
inYeattiga^feian of M. Pacifico's claims. 

I have to sterte to you that Her Majesty's Grovemment do not object 
to the French member of that Commission being considered as umpire, 
but it appears to Her Majesty's Government to be desirable that he should 
constantly attend the meetings of the other two CommissicHiers, as snch 
an arrangement wiU save time,, and render the business of tbe Commissiofli 

I am, &c. 

No. 18. 
Mr. Addington to M. Pacifico. 

Sir, Foreign Office, January 16, 1851. 

F HAVE laid' before Viscount Palmerston your letter of the lOtll 
inakant^ stating- that yoa will be ready, either trough wbl agent or in 
penso«9 to< lay before me Mixed Commission which is to meet at List>on 
lorn the ifivestigation of your claims upon Greece, such inforaKstioBr s» 
that Commiasion may require from you ; and in answer to yoHr request 

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to be informed when the Commissioners are likely to begin their inquiry, 
1 am directed by Viscount Palmerston to state that they will in all proba- 
bility be ready to open the Commission in the beginning of next month. 

I am^ &c. 
(Signed) H. U. ADDINGTON. 

No. 19. 
Mr. Addington to M. Pacifico. 

Sir, Foreign Office, January 28, 1851. 

WITH reference to your letter of the 10th instant, stating that if 
you should be unable to appear in person before the Mixed Commission 
at Lisbon, you would depute a competent agent to furnish the Commission 
with the requisite information respecting your claims, 1 am directed by 
by Viscount Palmerston to request that you will enable him to inform 
Mr. Johnston, the British Member of the Mixed Commission, whether you 
are about to proceed to Lisbon, and, if not, who is the person whom you 
have deputed to represent you. 

I am at the same time to inform you that Mr. Johnston sailed for 

Lisbon on the 27th instant. 

1 am, &c. 
(Signed) H. U. ADDINGTON. 

• No. 20. 

M. Pacifico to Mr. Addington. 

10, Bury Street, Saint Mary Axe, 
Sir, January 29, 1851. 

I BEG leave to request that you will inform Viscount Palmerston, 
in reply to your communication of yesterday's date, that I am prevented 
by illness from appearing in person before the Mixed Commission at 
Lisbon, appointed for the purpose of investigating my claims upon Greece, 
and that in consequence thereof I have deputed my nephew, Mr. Abraham 
de Moses Hassan, to proceed to Lisbon, and on my behalf to appear 
before the Commissioners and to lay before them the necessary informa- 
tion and evidence in support of my claims. 

I have given to Mr. Abraham de Moses Hassan a power of attorney 
for the above purpose, and furnished him with my solemn declaration in 
writing, showing the manner in which my claims have arisen, and also 
all necessary instructions for his guidance. 

I presume the certified copy of the proceedings taken in the Court at 
Faro, forwarded by me to you on the 30th day of October last, has been 
placed in the hands of Mr. Johnston, the British Commissioner. 

In conclusion, I have to add that Mr. Hassan sailed for Lisbon on 
the 27th instant. 

I have, &c. 

No. 21. 

Mr. Campbell Johnston to Viscount Palmerston. — (Received May 15.) 

My Lord, Lisbon, May d,lS51. 

I HAVE the honour to forward to your Lordship a report unani- 
mously agreed to and signed by the three Commissioners nominated by 
the Governments of Great Britain, France, and Greece, to investigate 
certain claims made by M. Pacifico against the Greek Government, on 

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account of the loss of some documents which constituted the proofs 
of certain debts alleged to be due to him by the Portuguese Government. 

The Greek Commissioner will send by the present occasion to his 
Government a duplicate of the report in English, which has been signed 
and sealed by my two colleagues and myself, and it will be accompanied 
by a French translation, to which, however, I did not think it necessary 
to attach my signature, nor to recommend M. B6clard to do so. 

The French Commissioner will likewise transmit for the information 
of the Government of France, a correct copy of the report, to which he 
bas annexed a translation. 

I need scarcely inform your Lordship that the most honourable 
feelings have been displayed by my colleagues throughout this 

I have, &c. 

Inclosure in No. 21. 
Report of the Commissioners of Inquiry. 

BY a Convention signed at Athens on the 18th of July, 1850, between 
Her Britannic Majesty and His Hellenic Majesty, it was agreed and con- 
cluded that all the demands made on the Government of Greece in a note 
of the 17th January, 1850, having been satisfied, with the exception of the 
claim arising out of the loss by M. Pacifico of certain documents relating 
jto money claims which he had to establish against the Portuguese Govern- 
ment, His Hellenic Majesty engaged to make good to M. Pacifico any 
real injury (prejudice r^el) which, upon a full and fair investigation, it 
;Bhould be proved that he had sustained by the destruction of those docu- 

For the purpose of conducting the investigation it was further agreed 
between the Contracting Parties, that two arbiters, with an umpire to 
decide between them in case of difference, should be appointed by the 
joint concurrence of the Governments of France, of Great Britain, and of 
Greece, and that this Commission of Arbitration should report to the 
British and Greek Governments whether any, and if any, what amount of 
real injury had been sustained by M. Pacifico,' by reason of the alleged 
loss of the documents mentioned ; and the amount so reported should be 
the amount which M. Pacifico is to receive from the Greek Government. 

In accordance with the above-mentioned Convention, the Government 
of France appointed M. L6on B^clard, Secretary of the Legation of France 
at the Court of Lisbon, Commissioner and Umpire; Her Britannic 
Majesty's Government nominated Mr. Patrick Francis Campbell Johnston, 
British Commissioner; and His Hellenic Majesty's Government named 
Mr. George Torlades O'Neill, Consul-Greneral for Greece at Lisbon, as their 

The Commission, consisting of these three Members, assembled and 
met together at Lisbon in February 18^1, and proceeded to investigate a 
list of claims dated Athens, December 21, 1844, and which was inclosed 
in a letter addressed to Her Britannic Majesty's Principal Secretary of 
State for Foreign Affairs by M. Pacifico on the 26th September, 1860. 

^ This list purported to be a statement of documents destroyed at 
Athens on the 4th April, 1847, relating to the claims of M. Pacifico on the 
Portuguese Government ; and a copy of it, authenticated by the signatures 
of the three Commissioners, is appended to this report. 

The Commissioners, in order to facilitate the inquiry, have numbered 
the claims in that list, and divided them into two classes : 

1st. Those which relate to losses sustained, and services rendered, by 
M. Pacifico during the civil war in Portugal ; 

2ndly. Those which relate to claims for salary, expenses, voyage to 
Greece from Portugal, while holding the office of Consul-General of Portugal 
in Greece. 

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The Commissioners, in tbe prosecution of their duties, have endear 
voured to ascertain whether among those claims there were any which 
had not been defeated by the loss of documents carried away or destroy^ 
during the sacking of M, Pacifico's house at Athens, and which can thereto- 
fore still be as well established by means of official documents or records 
now existing in the public offices in Portugal. 

The Commissioners have now the honour to report that they have 
discovered in the Archives of the Cortes at Lisbon a petition addressed by 
M. Pacifico to the Chamber of Deputies in 1839, and presented in the same 
year by one of its Members, accompanied by a voluminous body of docu- 
ments to prove his alleged losses, in which petition M. Pacifico prays fop 
compensation for his sufferings. 

The Commissioners are satisfied from inquiries which they established 
at great length and much difficulty, that the various pertificates and 
papers attached to that petition are the originals or certified copies of the 
most important documents alleged to have been destroyed at Athens. 

That petition has not yet been disposed of by the Chamber of Depu* 
ties, M. Pacifico appearing to have taken no steps since its presentatiou 
in 1839, either by himself or his agents, to cause it, together with the 
accompanying documents, to be taken into consideration and decided by 
that Assembly. 

With reference to M. Pacifico's claims in regard to the destruction of 
any documents connected with his salary and other expenses during the 
time he held the office of Consul-General of Portugal in Greece, the Com- 
missioners are of opinion that they have not been prejudiced by any such 
loss, and that he is still able to establish his rights, if well founded^ 
against the Portuguese Government. 

The Commissioners having now stated their unanimous opinion on 
the above-named points, beg to add that almost all the losses of property, 
represented by documents alleged to have been destroyed at Athens, took 
place between the years 1828 and 1834, and that M. Pacifico appears to have 
taken no steps, although constantly in Portugal between the years 1834 and 
1839, to assert his rights and claims in a legal manner ; nor does it appear 
that any application was ever made by him to the British Minister at 
Consular authorities in Portugal, to support his right? or to redress his 

Under all the circumstances of this case, and taking info considerate 
tion the possibility that a few documents of no great importance may 
have been lost when M. Pacifico's house at Athens was pillaged, and tBie 
expenses he has incurred during this investigation^ the Commissioners 
think he is entitled to receive from the Government of Greece the sum oif 
1501. for the injury he has received. 

The Commissioners cannot conclude their report without taking this 
opportunity of stating that the utmost cordiality and unanimity of senti- 
ment has accompanied every step they have collectively taken in this very 
important investigation, and they trust the result of this Commission wiU 
prove an additional link in the friendly relations which subsist betweeii 
Great Britain and France, and that the Portuguese and Greek Govenr^' 
ments will feel that England has had but one object in view in this inquiry* 
Qamely» a fair, impartial, and honest solution of a difficult question. 

In witness whereof, the two Commissioners and the Commissioner and 
Umpire have signed this report, and affixed to it their respective seals. 

lAsboriy May 5, 1851, 




Statement of Documents relating to the Claims of the Chevalier David Pacific 

on the Portuguese Government. 

FOUR documents under this head (1838), namely — 
1st Class. For the loss of four commanderies which I 
had held in Alemtejo for three yearS| as there are documents 

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to prove, and which were confiscated by Dom Miguel's 
authorities, because I had done good to all the Liberal 
emigrants, as is proved by the document No. 1, which I 
forwarded to the General Cortes of the Portuguese nation 
on the 24th December, through Senhor Paul Midosi, a 
Deputy of that Legislative Body, the said losses, together 
with the interest thereupon at 5 per cent., amounting to - 48,000 000 

Judicial decision of February 13, 1834, delivered in the 
town of Faro. 

1st Class. Pillage of my house at Mertola, and of my 
corn warehouses, which took place in 1833, when the Liberal 
troops entered that town and afterwards retreated from it ; 
the said loss, tc^ether with the interest thereupon, up to this 
day's date, amounting to • • - - - 1,700 000 

Twenty-five documents. 

1st Class. Rent of two houses at Gibraltar, provided 
with ^W necessary furniture, one of which was occupied by 
the late Archbishop Ataite and his suite, and the other by 
the whole of the Liberal emigrants, amounting to 120,000 
ireis per mensem for each house, and the interest thereupon 
up to this day's date — that is to say, for three years and a 
balf - - - 18,144 000 

. Five documents and receipt. /' 

1st Class. For muskets given to Colonel Almeidas for 
the defence of OlhSo, as is proved by the Paron de Faro's 
receipt, amounting, together with interest up to this day's 
date, to -.....• 1,200 000 

Three documents, Nos. 120, 121, 149. 

2Dd Class. The arrears of my salary, and on account 
of Her Most Faithful Majesty's Government having kept me 
in that state without any decision on my case, and in order 
to restore me to my former position, and to pay me all my 
indemnities and salary, which the financial agency of London 
kept back from me without reason, as is proved by the letter 
from that agency, dated 24th March, 1844, unjustly pre- 
tending that I had given a receipt in full to Her Most 
Faithful Majesty's Government, and therefore only paying me 
J97/. 14s. dd. on account of my salary ; on which account I 
consider myself, according to the laws of humanity and the 
laws of nations, entitled to the full payment of my salary, 
Amounting, for the said three years, up to December 31, 1844, 
»t the rate of one conto and 200,000 reis per annum (and 
not to the end of 1842), with its proper interest, according to 
the exchange of this place, to « . . » 4,032 000 

Two certificates. 

1st Class. For two years' service' in the war of the 
Algarves, with the division of operations, in the capacity of 
paymaster and commissary of the said division, according to 
the British tariflf ... ... 2,800 000 

As is proved by the documents and despatches of the 
Viscount Sd da Bandeira, dated May 25, 1844. 

2nd Class. For my voyage from Lisbon to Genoa, and 
from Genoa to Greece, by order of Her Majesty's Govern- 
ment, in order to carry on the Portuffuese Consulate^General 
'in Greece, in the same way as Her Most Faithful Majesty's 
Government have paid the expenses of M. Vidal, of M. 


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Joachimo Barassor Ferrera, and others ; and I have in my 
possession an order from the very excellent nobleman, the 
Marquis de Loul^, Minister at that period, to undertake that 
voyage at the expense of Her Most Faithful Majesty's 
Government, amounting to 1550 Spanish tallaris, with 
interest for five years at 12 per cent., according to the rate 
of interest of the Royal Bank of this country (Athens), 
which added to the sum of 1 conto of reis for my return to 
Lisbon, makes a total of - - - - - 3,160 000 

Four documents. 

2nd Class. Expenses of the chancery of the Consulate- 
General in 1842, according to the accounts sent in to the 
Minister for Foreign Affairs^ amounting^ for the four quarters, 
to - . . . . - - - 94 915 

2nd Class. For two protests by the London Agency on 
my bills drawn for the payment of my salary, as is proved by 
the said protests, and for the exchange and re-exchange paid 
to M. A. Malandrinos and Co., and to Th. Ralli - - 134 400 

Total . - 94,645 315 

The above sum amounts to 94 contos, 645,315 reis, making in pounds 
sterling, at the exchange of 54 pence for 1000 reis, the sum of 21,2952. Is. 4d. 


A true copy. 



Lisbon^ May 5, 185L 

No. 22. 
Viscount Palmerston to Mr. Campbell Johnston. 

Sir, Foreign Office, May 23, 1851. 

I HAVE received your despatch of the 9th instant, inclosing the 
report of the Mixed Commission which has sat at Lisbon for the investi- 
gation of the remaining claims of M. Pacifico upon the Government of 

I have the satisfaction to inform you that Her Majesty's Government 
have entirely approved your conduct in the performance of the duties 
with which you have been charged as British Commissioner in this 

Her Majesty's Government have had no other object in view in 
regard to this matter than to ascertain what was just and true, and they 
are perfectly satisfied that the report of the Commissioners is in full 
accordance with truth and justice. 

I am, &c. 

No. 23. 

Viscount Palmerston to the Right Hon. T. Wyse. 

Sir, Foreign Office, May 24, 1851. 

^ I TRANSMIT herewith copies of a despatch and its inclosures 
which I have received from Mr. Campbell Johnston, transmitting the 
report of the Mixed Commission which has sat at Lisbon for the investi- 

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gation of the remaiDing claims of M* Pacifico upon the Government of 

You will learn from this report that the Commissioners have stated 
it to be their opinion^ that M. Pacifico is entitled to receive from the 
Government of Greece the sum of 150/.; and in conformity with the 
terms of Article II of the Treaty between Great Britain and' Greece, of 
the 18th of July, 1850, I have to instruct you to apply to the Hellenic 
Government to pay you that sum on account of M. Pacifico, 

I am, &c. 

No. 24. 

The Right Han. T. Wyse to Viscount Palmerston. — {Received June 19.) 

My Lord, Athens, June 5, 1851. 

I HAVE the honour to inclose a copy of a note, in which, in 
obedience to the instructions contained in your Lordship's despatch of 
the 24th ultimo, I have applied to the Greek Government to pay me 
1501. on account of M. Pacifico. 

I have, &c. 
(Signed) THOS. WYSE. 

Inclosure in No. 24. 

The Right Hon. T. Wyse to M. Pdicos. 

Sir, Athens, June 4, 1851. 

THE Mixed Conmiission which has sat at Lisbon for the investiga- 
tion of the remaining claims of M. David Pacifico upon the Government 
of Greece having terminated the inquiry, and unanimously come to the 
opinion, as appears from their joint report, that M. Pacifico is entitled to 
receive from the Greek Government the sum of 150/., I am instructed by 
Viscount Palmerston, Her Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for 
Foreign Affairs, in conformity with the terms of Article II of the Treaty 
between Great Britain and Greece, 6f the 18th of July, 1850, to apply to 
the Hellenic Government to pay me that sum on account of M. Pacifico. 

I have, &c. 
(Signed) THOS. WYSE. 

No. 25. 
The Right Hon. T. Wyse to Viscount Palmerston. — {Received June 28.) 

My Lord, Athens, June 18, 1851. 

I HAVE the honour to inclose to your Lordship copy of a note of the 
ij^th instant, from M. Paicos, in reply to mine of the 4th instant, placing 
at my disposal, for M. Pacifico, the sum of 150/., pursuant to the award 
of the joint Commission lately met at Lisbon. 

I have also the honour to inclose copies of my reply to M. Paicos, 
and of the receipt which I have given to the Central Treasurer of the 
Greek Government. 

The 150Z. has been paid by the Greek Government at par, that is, at 
the rate of 28 drachms 12 leptas the pound sterling, so that the sum which 
I have actually received is 4,218 drachms ; and I now respectfully await: 
your Lordship's instructions as to the application of the same. 

I have, &c. 
(Signed) THOS. WYSE. 

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Inclosure I in No. 25. 
M. Pdicos to the Right Hon. T. Wyse. 

Monsieur^ Athenes, la -^ Juin^ 1851. 

EN r^poDse 4 Poffice que yous m'avez fait Thcmneur de m'adresser 
sous ]a date du 4 Juin, j'ai Phoimeur de vous pr^venir que la somme de 
ISOlivres sterling, qui, aux termes du rapport en date du 5 Mai dernier, de 
la Ck>mmis8ion Alixte de iiisbonne, doit 6tre pay6e k M. Pacifico, est & 
votre disposition entre les mains du Caissier Central, qui a ddj4 reju 
Pordre de la remettre, sur votre re9U, k la personne que vous chargeriez 
de la toucher. 

Agr^ez, &c. 
(SigBii^) , A. PAICOS. 

Inclosure 2 in No. 25. 

The Right Hon. T. Wyse to M. Pdicos. 

Sir, Athens, June 18, 1851. 

I HAVE the honour to acknowledge the receipt of your note of the 
•x'^th instant, and to inform you that, in accordance witn its contents, I 
have received from the Central Treasurer of the Greek Government the 
sum of 4,218 drachms, in payment of the «um of 150/. awarded to M. 
PacificQ by the Mixed Commission which sat at Lisbon to investigate the 
claims of that gentleman, in conformity with thet^tns of the Convention 
between Great Britain and Greece, of the 18th July, 1850. 

I have, &c. 

Inclosure 3 in No. 25. 

Athens, June 18, 1851. 

THE Undersigned, Her Britannic Majesty'is Minister Pleuipotentiaiy 
to His Majesty the King of Greece, has received from the Central Treasurer 
of the Greek Government, the sum of 4,218 drachms, in payment of the 
1502. sterling awarded to M. Pacifico by the Mixed Commission which sat 
at Lisbon to investigate the claims of that gentleman, in conformity with 
the terms of the Convention between Great Britain and Greece, of the 
18th July, 1850. 

(Signed) THOMAS WYSE. 

No. 26. 
M. Pacifico to Viscount Palmerston, 

My Lord, 15, Bury Street, St Mary Axe^ July 28, 1851. 

A CONSIDERABLE time having elapsed since the Commiasionera 
appointed by the Governments of Great Britain, France, and Greece, met 
at Lisbon to investigate my claims against the Greek Gorernment, and 
concluding that they have terminated their labours^ I b^ most respect* 
fally to inquire of your Lordship if the Commissioners have made their 
report on the subject referred to, and if so» the nature of the same. 

I have, &c. 
(Signed) D. PACIFICO. 

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No. 27. 

Mr. Addington to M. Pacifico. 

Sir, Foreign Office ^ August 1, 1851 • 

I AM directed by Viscount Palmerston to acknowledge the receipt o 
your letter of the 28th ultimo, inquiring the result of the investigation 
which has taken place at Lisbon with regard to your claim upon the 
Government of Greece, in regard to the loss of documents connected with 
your claims upon Portugal ; and I am to transmit to you a copy of the 
report of the three Commissioners who were appointed by the Govern- 
ments of Great Britain, France, and Greece, respectively, to examine those 

I am also directed by Viscount Palmerston to transmit to you the 
accompanying cheque on Messrs. Drummond for the sum of 150/., which 
sum has been paid by the Greek Government to Her Majesty's Minister 
at Athens, in ccmformity with the recommendation contained in the report 
of the three Commissions. 

1 have to request that you will send me a receipt for the inclosed 

I hav^, &c. 
(Signed) H. U. ADDINGTON, 

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« s 

s « 
o •• 





8 'S' 


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Presented to the House of Commons by Command of Her Majesty, in pursuance 
of their Address of June 12, IS51. 



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1* From Sir Edward Disbrowe •• 

^* ff tf •••• •• •• •• 

3, From Sir James Turing 
Five Inclosures. 

1. A, — Law respecting the abolition of Differential Duties on Ship- 

ping, Reduction of Duties on Ship-building materials, and Regu- 
lations of the Trade to and from Netherknd Colomes and Pos- 
sessions •• •• •• «• •• •• 

2. £. — Law respecting Repeal of Navigation Dues on the Rhine and 

Yssel, and the repeal of Transit Duties 

3. C> — ^Law repealing the interdiction on Vessels built abroad from 

navigating under Dutch Registers 

4. General Law of August 26, 1822, modified according to Law 

J^ltt* 2jL •• •• •• •• •• •• 

5. Law of June 19, 1845, modified according to Law Litt. A. 




1850 3 

















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RETURN to an Address of the Honourable the House ef Commons, dated June 12, 18SI ; 

A CJopy of any Law passed or Regulations made by the Grovemment 
of the Netherlands, relaxing the Restrictions on Navigation in the 
intercourse with Holland or her Colonial Possessions." 

Sir Edward Disbrowe to Viscount Palmerston. — {Received August 8.) 

My Lord, The Hague, August 6, 1850. 

I HAVE the satisfaction to inform your Lordship that the bills 
regulating the Navigation Laws of this country passed the First Chamber 
this morning, the numbers being 30 for and 2 against. 

I have, &c. 
(Signed) E. C. DISBROWE. 

No. 2. 

Bir Edward Disbrowe ta Viscount Palmerston. — (Received August 11.) 

My Lord, The Hague, August 9, 1850. 

I HAVE the great satisfaction of informing you that the King of the 
Netherlands has sanctioned the Navigation Laws, which will be published 
in the oflBcial Qazette to-morrow or Monday. 

The laws will come into operation on the 10th or 15th September in 

A decree will be immediately promulgated for carrying out the 
measures in the East Indies, and it is to be hoped that they will be in 
operation in that hemisphere before the 1st of January next. 

1 have, &c. 
(Signed) E. C. DISBROWE. 

No. 3. 
Sir James Turing to Viscount Palmerston. — {Received September 19.) 

My Lord, Rotterdam, September 6, 1850. 

I HAD the honour by my despatch of the 9th August last, to 
acquaint your Lordship with the adoption of various laws by the two 
Legislative Chambers, and 1 have now to state that the Royal sanction 
having been likewise obtained, this Government has announced that the 
laws in question are to come into operation on the 15th of the present 

I accordingly do myself the honour now to wait on your Lordship 
with translations of the laws alluded to, namely : 

Law Liu. A. — Abolition of differential duties on shipping, reduction 
of duties on fillip-building materials, ^^^ regulations of the trade to and 
from the Netherland colonies and possessions. 

[188] B 

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Law Litt. B. — Abolition of the Navigation dues on the Rhine and 
Yssel, and of all transit duties. 

Laiv Liu. C. — ^Repeal of the laws prohibiting ships built abroad from 
navigating'under Netherland licences or registers. 

Oeneral Law of August 26, 1822 (State Gazette, No. 38), modified 
according to Law Litt. A, relative to the interest of Netherland shipping. 
Law of June 19, 1845 (State Gazette, No. 28), modified according 
to Law Litt. A, for the regulation of Netherland shipping. 

' Wishing to put your Lordship in early possession of these documents, 
I forward the present translations, and shall do myself the honour to 
transmit the duplicates in the course of a few days. 

I have &c. 
(Signed) ' JAS. H. TURING. 

Inclosure 1 in No. 3. 
Law Litt. A. 

Respecting the abolition of regulations by which privileges are 
granted to the Netherland flag above the foreign ; the reduction of impnort 
duties on Ship-building materials ; and fixing certain regulations respecting 
the trade ana navigation in the Colonies and Possessions of the Kmgdom 
in other parts of the world. 

(Translation.) [Augt^t 8, 1850.] 

WE, William III, by the grace of God, King of the Netherlands, 
Prince of Orange-Nassau, Grand Duke of Luxemburg, &c. &c. &c., to all 
who shall see or hear this read, greeting ! Make it known. 

Having taken into consideration the necessity to repeal the dif- 
ferent regulations contained in the Laws of 19th June, 1845 (State Gazette, 
No. 28) and 26th August, 1822 (State Gazette, No. 38), and also that the 
interest of Netherland ship-building requires a reduction of the duties levied 
on the import of the principal ship-building materials, conformably to the 
Law of 19th June, 1845 (State Gazette, No. 28) ; and lastly, that in combi- 
nation with the above, a necessity exists for legal regulations relative to 
the trade and shipping in the colonies and possessions of the Kingdom in 
other parts of the world : 

We, after having heard our Council of State, and in concert with the 
States-General, have thought proper to decree : 

Article 1. At the close of Article 3, § 1, of the Law of 19th June, 
1845 (State Gazette, No. 28), the following is to be added : 

. ** Similar freedom is granted by us, if the import takes place by 
of vessels those States which 

" a. Place the Dutch flag on the same footing with the national one 
trading to and from their own ports (coasting trade and fisheries excepted) ; 

*' 6. Which place the Dutch flag on the same footing with the national 
one trading to and from their colonies, if they possess any ; and 

'* c. Which do not levy other differential duties to the disadvantage of 
the produce of the Netherland colonies, or to the prejudice of prcSiuce 
imported from other parts of the world, from Netherland ports, than those 
which are levied in favour of the produce of their own colonies, when 
imported direct." 

Article 2. The words " by Dutch vessels,*' contained in Article 3, 
§§ 4 and 14 of the Law of 19th June, 1845 (State Gazette, No. 28), are 

Article 3. Articles 4 and 5 of the Law of 19th June, 1845 (State 
Gazette, No. 28), are abolished.* 

♦ The regulations above abolished were the following : — 

** Article 4. ^11 articles imported or exported by sea, under Dutch flag, are subject to a reduction 
of 10 per cent, on the import or export duties, excepting those to which by the Tariff itself, any 
special farour, if imported under Dutch flag, is grants. On the duties on wheat, rye, spelter, buck- 

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Article 4. The Tariff of duties added to the Law of 19th June, 1845 
(State Gazette, No. 28), is to be modified, by omitting the articles enume- 
rated sub Litt. A, and by inserting the articles under Litt. B, as 
mentioned hereafter. 

Tariff A. — Repealed Regulations of the Law of June 19, 1845. 

(State Gaxette, No. 28.) 






f. c. 



1 76 


^^*.— Pot-ashes, pearl-ashes (1) 




By Netherland vessels 

Weed-ashes and soda . . . . 







By Netherland vessels 




Manujkctory and Steam-Bngines (2) 


6 per cent. 


Yams of Hemp f Flaxy or Tow: — 

('able, rope, and sail-yam, and all other yams, spun on 

the small yard 


3 00 


Spirits, — Rum, arrack, and liquors on cask, by Netherland 





j€osm •• •• .. 




Jffemp (not heckled) . . 
By Netherland vessels 







Timber. — All sorts of timber for ship and house-building with 

unbroken bulk from Norway, Sweden, the Baltic, and 

Russia, not sawed (8) 




All sorts of timber for ship and house-building with un- 

broken bulk from Norway, Sweden, the Baltic, and 

Russia, whether sawed, not entirely sawed, or not 

sawed . • . • . . t . 


1 50 


With broken bulk, or from other parts, all (4) kinds of 

sawed timber not specifically rated 


2^ per cent. 


With broken bulk or from other parts, all kinds of timber 

entirely sawed or not sawed 

Cubic Ell 

1 50 


Hides^ — Skins and leather, all unprepared hides not specifically 
rated, whether fresh, salted, or dried, imported direct 

from ports in South America . . ... 
Skms and leather from other parts . . 


^ per cent. 



1 per cent. 


By Netherland vessels 


^ per cent. 


Iron, — Cast in rough blocks or pieces, the so-called slabs for 

ballast; also ore and forged, staff, bar, sheath, and 

plate iron, and rails for railroads 
By Netherland vessels 


1 per cent. 



i per cent 


Iron-ware and utensils cast, forged, mould, flattened, ships' 

anchors, included 


6 per cent. 


Cotton. — Not fepun 


, 50 


By Netherland vessels 




Coals (Pit>. — Dust or measured (5) coals 

10 Mud 

1 50 


Large or scale coals 


2 00 


Without any specification imported by sea or along the 

rivers and canals by Netherland vessels . . 




wheat, barley, malt, and oats, imported by Netherland vessels^ a reduction of 2f. per last (of 30 muds) 
is granted. 

** Article 5. The reduction or exemption of duty stipulated by law in the Tariff in favour of 
Netherland vessels, is enjoyed for all goods imported or exported by sea in vessels possessed of Dutch 

Digitized by 


Copper — Beaten or flattened (excepting that which is spe- 
cifically rated), round or square, and also the hasons 
and kettles as they leave the mill, plates and sheathing 
for coppering ships, copper wire, and copper nAila 

Currants — By Netherland vessels from ports in the Medi- 

Manufacturei — Linens and stuffs of hemp, flax, and tow — 

Oil — Olive oil hy Netherland vessels from ports in the 

Bergamot, lemon, and other scented oils from ports in the 

Mediterranean, and imported hy sea, in hrass or tin 

hottles containing not less than 10 pounds 
Ofl of orange blossom (oleum neroli) imported in the 

natural etate and not prepared to be used as scent . . 

Raisins — ^By Netherland vessels from ports in the Mediter- 

Zinc — Flattened, also wire and na.h 

j^i^p— Molasses (unprepared) imported direct by Netherland 
vessels from ports beyond Europe 

Molasses (miprepared) ioaported from other parts, also 
prepared molasses, kitchen treacle, and all other 
kinds of syrup 

i$f^«vr^-Raw, formed and clayed (8) 
By Netherland vessels 

Tobacco — Cigars from ports in Europe , . 
From other parts . . 

Tea (9) — Imported direct from ChiR& or tlie East Indian 
possessions with unbroken bulk^Boliea and coarse 

All other sorts .. 

By Netherland vessels — Bohea and coarse Congou 

All other sorts , . 

From other parts or with broken bulk — ^Bohea and coarse 

All other sorts . . 

Tow — ^Ropes or ship's riggisg and all other kind of tow 

F^ — ^By Nelherland vessels from ports in the Mediterranean 
or Portugal . . 

Fi*uit — All kind of fresh and dried fmit not opecifieally rated 
by Netherland vessels . . 

Wine — in casks by Netherland vessels 

Seed — Cole, rape, linseed, vetches, and hemp seed, and all other 
oil seeds not specially enumerated, by Netherland 

SaU (10) — Raw, imported by sea 
By Netherland vessels 
Imported by land 

Svifhur — Unrefined, by Netherland vessels from ports m the 






















f. c. 

4 00 


1 00 

1 per o^t. 
1 per cent. 


1 50 

3 00 
10 00 

1 00 

40 00 
30 00 

18 00 

34 00 

7 00 

18 00 

27 00 
51 00 

6 00 


1 peroent. 


1 00 

2 00 
2 00 





















Digitized by 


Explanatory Remarks on Tariff A. 

1 . Under this head are also included all kinds of Ashes not specifi- 
cally enumerated, such as are derived from wood, or plants, or calcined 
ashes, such as straw-ashes, vine-ashes, and such like. 

2. It is reserved to the King to admit, free of duty, Machinery of 
recent invention, or such which is not manufactured in this country, when 
it is required for the interests of industry, ship-building, or agriculture. 

3. Under this head are included Deals imported with unbroken bulk 
from Sweden, Russia, the Baltic, and Norway, of not less than 5 inches 
thick, 30 inches broad, and 4 ells long. By "unbroken bulk " is meant 
wherever half of the capacity of the vessel, as stated in the certificate 
of measurement for the tonnage duty, is loaded with timber. 

The duty is to be paid for the full tonnage stated in the certificate of 
measurement, whether the cargo consists only partly of timber, or even if 
there be timber on deck. 

In case of mixed cargoes, such as of sawed and not sawed timber, 
the principle of levying duty for the full tonnage of the ships will be 
applied as follows: The existing amount of tons of sawed timber will be 
deducted from the number of tons stated in the certificate of measure- 
ment, and the difference considered to be the cargo of unsawed timber. 
All this, over and above the payment of duty, according to the regula- 
tions in the Tariff for such goods as form part of the cargo besides the 
timber for ship and house-building. 

4. Under this head can be included Deals of which the floors and huts 
on the rafts are made, but in no other proportion than of 4 cubic ells for 
every 100 cubic ells which the raft measures., 

5. See the law on Pit Coals. It is reserved to the King to s^nt 
freedom or reduction of duties on coals imported by way of land along a 
prescribed route, for the interest of the inhabitants on the frontiers. 

6. For dust or measure coals 10 mud, for scale coals 1000 lbs. 

7. By the roll is understood a roll of 42 ells or less ; measuring more 
than that, it will be considered a double roll, and double the duty, 1 fl., will 
be paid accordingly. 

8. Tare for Sugar. Imported in boxes from Havana, 13 p^r cent. ; in 
boxes from Rio Janeiro, ^Pernambuco, East India, 18 per cent; in boxes 
from other parts, 15 percent.; in casks, 14 percent; in leather, mats, 
baskets, or linen, and such like packages, 5 per cent. (5 of said packages, 
if possible, always to be weighed together); in kanassers and kranjangs, 10 
per cent: all gross weight. 

9. Tare of Tea. Of ordinary tea-chests weighing 55 Netherlaad 
lbs. and above, 18 per cent.; ordinary tea-chests weighing less than 
55 lbs., 25 per cent On entering tea coming direct from China or the 
Netherl and East Indian possessions, the original manifest or other ship's 
or lading documents, sufficiently showing the origin of the cargo, must be 
exhibited to identify the cargo; and the functionaries can also claim a legal 
declaration by the captain, mate, and part of the crew. 

As tea, Bohea or coarse Congou, can only be admitted such tea which 
is imported unmixed, in whole chests (of about 180 to 200 Netherland lbs., 
and without being packed or incased in smaller chests or packages). 

As coarse Congou, is not to be admitted such tea, which, althongfh 
being in whole chests, has at the time of entry a value of 2f. per 
Netherland pound or above^ according to the current price of the day 
in this country; and is liable to seizure, all tea entered as coarse Congou, 
when it has less value than 2f. per Netherland pound, including the 
augmentation and restitutions specified by Article 263, and as per general 
law of import, export, and transit, and excise duties, and in conformity 
with the regulations thereof, in as far as they are applicable to this case. 

10. See the law on Salt. 

On importing pickle, the salt therein contained will be reduced in 
pounds according to the Netherland hydrometer and in compliance with 
the existing or afterwards to be made regulations in the excise law oa 
salt, and be subject to the same duties as the raw salt. 

References. — ^Bohea tea. Congou tea, see Tea. Cinders, see Pit Coals. 

Digitized by 



Tariff B. — New Regulations. 




Ashes — Pot and pearl-ashes (I)., .. 
Weed-ashes and soda 


f. c 


Manufactory and Steam-Engines 


1 per cent. 


Yarns, of Hemp , Flaxy and Tow: — 
Cable, and rope and sail-yam 
Twine and all other yams, spun on the small yard 


1 00 
3 00 






Hemp — (not heckled) . . 




unbroken bulk, unsawed (2) . . 
Sawed . . 
For ship and house-building, not specifically enumerated, 

unsawed (3) 
Sawed .. 


Cubic ell 


1 50 

1 per cent. 
1 50 



Hidesy Skins, and Leather : — 

All hides (unprepared), either fresh, salted, or dried, not 
specifically rated 


\ per cent. 

. Free 

Iron — Cast, in rough blocks or pieces ; likewise the so-called 
slabs for ballast and ore ; forged, staff, bar, band, and 
sheath iron, and rails for railroads ... 

Iron-ware and utensils (cast, forged, beaten or flattened), 
not specifically rated . . 

Iron-ware and utensils, ships' anchors, chains, and capstans 



1^ per cent. 

6 per cent. 
1 per cent. 



Cotton — Not spun 




Coais — Pit, including cinders (4) 




Copper — Beaten or flattened (excepting that which is specifi- 
cally rated), round or square ; likewise the basons and 
kettles as they leave the mill, and wire 
Beatened or flattened, plates and sheaths of yellow and red 
copper for sheathing ships' bottoms, bolts, and nails. . 


4 00 
1 00 


Manufactures — Linen and Stuffs of Hemp, Flax, and Tow : — 
Sail-cloth (6) 




OH — Bergamot, lemon-oil, oil of orange-blossom {oleum neroli), 
and all other scented oils, in as far as imported in 
their natural state, and not prepared to be used as 
scent • • . . • • . • ' . . 


1 per cent. 


Zinc — Flattened (excepting that which is specifically rated), 
likewise wire 
Plates and sheaths for coppering ships, also nails 


1 50 


Syrup — Molasses (unprepared), by which is only to be under- 
stood those obtained from the cane after the first 
crystallization (6) . . 
Molasses (prepared and all other unprepared), kitchen and 
all other treacle 


3 00 
10 00 


Sugar — Raw, formed and clayed (7) 




Tbftacco— Cigars 


40 00 


7Va(8) .. 


20 00 


Toip— Ropes, ships' rigging, and all other rope work 


2 00 


5a^— Raw(9> 




Digitized by 


Explanatory Remarks on Tariff B. 

1. Under this head are included all kinds of Ashes, not specifically 
enumerated, such as are derived from wood, or plants, or calcined ashes, 
such as straw-ashes, vine-ashes, and such like. 

2. Under this head are included Deals imported with unbroken 
bulk from Sweden, Russia, the Baltic, and Norway, of not less than 
5 inches thick, 30 inches broad, and 4 ells long. By '' unbroken 
bulk,'* is meant whenever half of the capacity of the vessel, as stated 
in the certificate of measurement for the tonnage-duty, • is loaded with 
timber, duty is to be paid for the full amount of tonnage stated in the 
certificate of measurement, whether the cargo consists only partly of 
timber, or even if there be timber on deck. In case of mixed cargoes, 
such as of sawed and unsawed timber, the principle of levying duty for 
the full tonnage of the ships will be applied as follows: the existing 
amount of the tons of sawed timber will be deducted from the number of 
tons stated in the certificate of measurement, and the difference considered 
to be the cargo of unsawed timber. 

3. Under this head are included deals of which the floors and huts 
are made on the rafts, but in no other proportion than of 4 cubic ells per 
every 100 cubic ells which the raft measures. 

4. See the law on Pit Coals. On entering measure-coals the standard 
measure is by mud ; for scale-coals by pounds. 

5. By the Roll is understood a roll of 42 ells or less ; measuring 
more it will be considered a double roll, and duty at 60 cents paid 

6. At the entry, the nature of the Molasses must be stated. 

7. Tare for Sugar. Imported in boxes from Havana, 13 per cent. ; 
in boxes from Rio Janeiro, Pernambuco, East India, 18 per cent.; in 
boxes from other parts, 15 per cent; in casks, 14 per cent.; in packages 
of leather, mats, baskets, linen, and such like, 5 per cent, (five of such 

Eackages always if possible to be weighed together ) ; in kanassers or 
ranjangs 10 per cent.: all gross weights. 

8. Taro of Tea. Of ordinary tea-chests weighing 55 Netherland 
pounds and above, 18 per cent.; of ordinary tea-chests weighing less 
than 65 Netherland pounds, 25 per cent. 

9. See the law on Salt. On importing pi kle, the salt therein con- 
tained will be reduced to pounds, according to the Netherland hydrometer, 
and according to the still-existing or afterwards to be made regulations 
in the excise law on salt, and must be entered as such. 

Twine — see Yarn. 
Bohea tea — see Tea. 
Bolts (copper) — see Copper. 
Congou tea — see Tea. 
Chains (ships^) — see Iron. 
Cinders — see Pit Coals. 
Capstans (ships') — see Iron. 

Article 5. In the existing colonial, import, export, and transit duties, 
no alteration is to be made than by legal enactment. 

The Governor-General has power only in cases of emergency, to 
modify temporarily the duties. Of such modification immediate notice is 
to be given to both the Chambers of the States-General. 

Article 6. The flags of such States which comply with the conditions 
enumerated in Article 1 of this Law, are placed on the same footing with 
the Dutch flag in the colonies and possessions of this kingdom in other 
parts of the globe. The above exemption does not apply to the coasting 
trade in Netherland India. 

Netherland vessels only, and vessels belonging to ports in Netherland 

Digitized by 



India, as also the native vessels enjoying eqnality with the above vessels, 
are entitled to carry on the coasting trade in Nethertand India, as exer- 
cised according to the existing regulations. 

ArticTe 7. By Chapter 25 of the of 26th August, 1822 (State 
Gazette, No. 3S), the following modifications are to be inserted: — 

Article 292 is to be read as follows : 

*'On all vessels which after the p3riod mentioned in Article 1, enter or 
leave this kingdom, either by sea or along the marshes between the 
islands and the coasts of Kriesland and Groningen, a duty is to be paid 
ttnder the designation of tonnage-duty, calculated on the number of tons 
which the vessels are measured at. 

" Every ton is to be calculated at the rate of 1000 Netherland lbs., 
represented by one cubic and a half of the Netherland ell. 

*' The tonnage duty is to be 45 cents per ton at the first outward clear- 
ance, and a like sum at the first arrival in each year, from 1st January to 
31st December/' 

Articles 293, 294, 295 are repealed. 

Article 298 is repealed. 

Article 299 is to be read as follows : 

"The owners, skippei-s or commanders of vessels subject to tonnage 
duty are under oblio-ation to have them measured by functionaries thereto 
expressly appointed at the port where the vessels may be laying at the 
time when such metage is necessary.** 

Article 301 is to be read as follows : 

" The Meter has to provide the skipper or commander with a certificate 
of measurement dul^ signed in duplicate, containing besides the descrip* 
tion of the flag under which the vessel navigates, and all that is further 
necessary to identify the vessel, the length, width, depth, and number 
of tons." 

Article 305 is to be read as follows : 

"On exhibiting the certificate of measurement at the office of the 
collector at the port, the payment of the tonnage-duty is to be made ia 
conformity, after the calculation shall have been found to be correct, in 
exchange for a tonnage register, expressing receipt of the payment, the 
name of the port, and date of certificate (vf measurement. 

" Each payment, together with the date of the year, has to be inserted 
in the certificate of measurement, which is always to be returned to the 
parties interested, until the clay of expiry, and then be returned in order 
to be repealed, on exhibiting the new certificate of measurement, issued as 
per Article 303. At the first payment, the duplicate of the certificate of 
measurement must be returned, and kept at the collector's office." 

Article 306 is to be altered as follows : — ** At each new payment of the 
tonnage-duty the previous tonnage register is to be annuUecL" 

Article 8. We reserve to ourselves the right of retaliation on vessels of 
those nations where the Netherland vessels or the goods imported or 
exported by Netherland vessels are subject to higher duties or charges (of 
whatsoever denomination) than the national ships, or the goods of the 
same description imported or exported by national ships, or where the 
import or export of any goods permitted by national ships are prohibited 
to Netherland vessels, whenever circumstances may render such measures 
necessary, and shall be deemed to be desirable for the interest of Nether- 
land trade and shipping, either by refusing to vessels of said nations 
admission of certain articles, whether by subjecting said vessels to a 
higher tonnage duty, or the goods imported by the same to higher import 
duties, but always in such degree that in the application of such retaliation^ 
as much as possible absolute reciprocity be maintained. 

Article 9. The day oa which the present is to come into operation 
will be further fixed. 

Digitized by 



Litt. B. — Law respecting the Repeal of Navigafion Dues on the Shine and 
Ys&elf and the Repeal of Traaisit Duties. 

We, William III, Uc. [Augmt% 1850J 

To all who shall see, &c. 

HAVING taken into consideration that the necessity exists to repeal 
navigation dues on the Rhine and Vssel, and likewise to repeal the transit 
duties : 

So we, after having heard our Council of State, and in concert with 
the States-General, have thoug'ht proper to decree : 

Article 1. The navigation dues regulated by Tariff B and C of the 
Convention concluded on the 31 st March, 1831, between the States on the 
borders of the Rhine, and established by Royal Decree of 28tih J^ne, 1831 
(State Gfizette, No. 19), as well as of the water-tolls on the Guelderland 
Yssel, established by Royal Decree of 14th May, 1835 (State Gazette, 
No. 20), are repealed. 

We reserve to ourselves to bring said duties again in operation with 
regard to the vessels of those States which may treat the Dutch flag in 
this respect less favourably than the national one. 

Article 2. At the same time all transit dues are repealed. 

Article 3. We reserve to ourselves to make such regulations 
respecting the transit of salt as shall be necessary to prevent the evasion 
of the excise on salt. 

Article 4. The day on which this Law is to come into operation will 
be further fixed. 

Enclosure 3 in No. 3. 

Litt. C. — haw repealing the inter die f dan an messels buUt abroad^ from 
navigating under Dutoh Registers. 

We, William III, &c. [August 8, 1850,] 

To all who shall see, &c. 

HAVING taken into consideration that the necessity exists to grant 
also to vessels built abroad Dutch ships' registers, so we, after having 
heard our Council of State, and in concert with the States- General, have 
thought proper to decree : 

Articlel. Both the last sentences of Article 2 of the Law of 14th March, 
1819 (State Gazette, No. 12), as well as the words, *'and not Jiavigating 
under a foreign flag," contained in Article 3, 2°, vof the same Jaw, are 

* Both the repealed phrases of Article 2 were of the following import:— 

" Registers will only be granted to vessels built and fitted out in this country, with the exception, 
however, of vessels built abroad, wKioh, previous to the promulgation of the presentLaw, had Stained 
Netherland registers. 

'* We reserve to ourselves to grant registers to vessels huilt abroad, in as far as soch may be for 
the interest of the trade and shipping, and provided the same sbimp and registration dues shall have 
been imid in this kingdom for such vessels, although bought abroad, as if they had been bogght within 

The modified Article 3, 2%^is now to be read as folloirs: 

«< 2*^. All Nrtherland inhabitants which have had for the space of one year at least their fixed 
I in this kingdom^ altlioughrthc^y be at ihe same time' aubjeels: of.a.£oreign Stifte*'* 

C 2 

Digitized by 



Article 2. At the close of Article 8 of the same law, the following 

phrase is to be added : .^ n i i^ i 

*^ On demanding a first Nethferland certificate for a vessel built 
beyond this kingdom or its colonies, the above-mentioned owner's warrant, 
before the register can be granted, must be furnished with a proof (rf 

*^ The duty to be paid for this is 4 per cent, of the value, over and 
above the amount which is stipulated by the law for registration of all 
other cases, which for that purpose, conformably with the instructions of 
Article 10 of the Law of June 16, 1832 (State Gazette, No. 29), must be 
expressed by the applicants at the foot of the above warrant. 

^' If the functionaries charged with levying the registration duty are 
not satisfied with this declaration, it will be left to the decision of three 
arbiters, of whom one is to be appointed by the owners of the vessel, the 
second by Government, and the third by both last-mentioned, or in case of 
difference of opinion, by the President of the District Court of Justice. 

^* Article 56 of the Law of 22 Frimaire, year VII, is in this case not 


" The charges of valuation are for account of the owner or jomt-owners, 
in case the determined value shall exceed the declared value by at least 

** The amount of the above-named duty will be revised at the same 
time as the Tariff" of Import and Export Duties.'' 

Article 3. The day on which, &c. 

Inclosure 4 in No. 3. 
General Law of August 26, 1S22. 

(State Gnzette, No. 38.) 

Revised according to Law, Litt. A, of August 8, 1850. respecting the 
regulation of the Interest of Netherland Shipping. 

Chapter XXV. — Of the Tonnage Duty of Sea- Vessels*. 

Article 292 (Article 292 before, but now modified), of all vessels 
entering or leaving this kingdom after the period fixed in Article 1, by 
sea or along the marshes between the islands and the coasts of Friesland 
and Groningen, a duty will be levied under the denomination of tonnage 
duty, calculated according to the number of tons which the vessels 

Every ton will be equal to 1000 Netherland pounds, represented by 
one and a half cubic of the Netherland elL 

The tonnage duty is 45 cents per ton, at the first outward clearance, 
and a like sum at the first entry of each year (from 1st January to the 
31st December). 

Article 293 (the same as before Article 296). Free of tonnage duty 
are: — 

1. Netherland vessels, in as far and as long as they are only used 
for the fresh fisheries, the large fisheries or herring fisheries, the Haberdine 
fisheries, and the whalefisheries, including those of Davis Straits, and also, 
as long as we shall consider it necessary, those which are trading to and 
from the Coast of Guinea. 

2. Netherland vessels leaving the kingdom,* laden only with turf and 
coals, and entering again in ballast. 

Entering with cargo, the inward tonnage-duty is to be paid. 

3. All vessels putting in to lie-to for orders, through stress of weather, 
or to winter, without entirely or partly breaking bulk, or taking cargo, 
and with reservation or intention of the commander to leave again with 

* With a new order of articles, and with reference to the former articles now either altered or 

Digitized by 



unbroken cargo ; and it will not be considered having broken bulk if. aome 
goods have to be landed for a short time, for repairs of the vessel, or for 
purifying the goods, or such like^ as is before mentioned in Chapter 4, 
neither the discharge or sale against payment of the duty and excise of 
goods spoiled or heavily damaged^ during the voyage, except on a written 
permission of the Director of Customs. 

We reserve, however, to ourselves to extend this freedom on foreign 
vessels lying-to, no further than to vessels belonging to kingdoms, states, 
or ports, when to Dutch vessels, in similar case, a like or similar freedom 
is or wiU be granted. 

4. Vessels used as pilot-boats, and only as such. 

Article 294 (same contents as before Article 297). Coasting trade, 
mentioned in Chapter 17, does not subject Dutch vessels employed in that 
trade to tonnage-duty, but a bond may be required, the same as on inland 
permits when the vessels leave, to prevent that under pretence of coasting 
trade, a sea voyage to any port beyond the kingdom be undertaken. 

Article 295 (before Article 299, now modified). The owners, skippers, 
or commanders of vessels subject to tonnage-duty, must cause them to be 
measured by functionaries appointed expressly for that purpose, at the 
ports where the vessels are at the time when such is required. 

Article 296 (the same as Article 300 before). Fractions less than a 
quarter of a cubic ell are not to be reckoned at the measurement, those of a 
quarter ell and above are reckoned for half an ell. 

Article 297 (before Article 301, now modified). The meter has to 
provide the skipper or commander with a duly signed certificate of 
measurement in duplicate, showing over and above the flag under which 
the vessel navigates, and what is further necessary to identify the same, 
the length, width, and depth, and the number of tons. 

Article 298 (the same as before Article 302). Owners, skippers, or 
commanders of vessels can claim within three times twenty- four hours 
after the issue of the certificate of measurement, a remeasurement by two 
other functionaries or two impartial arbitrators. 

Article 299 (same contents as before Article 303). The certificates of 
measurement are no longer of value than two years after the date of 
issue. When after the termination of this period the Dutch vessels make 
their first voyage outward, or the foreign vessels enter inward, a remea- 
surement shall have to take place, and in conformity of the result thereof, 
a new certificate of measurement will be granted. 

Article 300 (same contents as Article 304 before). Every functionary 
charged with the measurement is qualified, and in case of suspicion of breach 
of faith, obliged to verify by remeasurement or in any other way, all former 
measurements done by others when the vessels are empty, without any 
expense to the commander, and in case of difference, to note the same on 
the certificate of measurement. In case of a larger room, the excess will 
have immediately to be supplied for as many times as previous payments 
have taken place on the certificate of measurement. 

The right granted to owners, skippers, or commanders, by Article 
298, applies equally to such verifications. 

Article 301 (before Article 305, now modified). On exhibiting the certi- 
ficate of measurement at the office of the comptroller at that port, the 
payment of the tonnage-duty must be made accordingly, after having 
Ibund the account to be correct, in exchange for a tonnage register, 
showing receipt of the payment and mentioning the date of entry and the 
date of the certificate of measurement. 

Every payment and also the date of the year has to be mentioned 
on the certificate of measurement, which always must be returned to the 
applicants, until it has become due, and be handed over to be repealed on 
exhibiting as before, the new certificate of measurement issued as per 
Article 299. At the first payment the duplicate of the certifi(?ate of 
measurement must be returned and deposited at the office of the 

Article 302 (before Article 306, ilow modified). At every new payment 
of the tonnage-duty the former tonnage register must be repealed. 

Digitized by 



Article 903 ^the same as before Article 307). No vessels subject *o 
tODHftge-duty will be -cleared outward or entitled to positive or 'Oegaitiye 
acts of settlement, than after proof of the payment of tonnagc-duty, by 
eschibiting the certificate of tneasurement and tonnage register at tbe 
public office, where -the same, in proof thereof, must be signed. 

Article 304 (same as before Article 306). The above signedoertlficates 
ctf measurements and tonnage-registers most always remain on board 
of outgoing ships, to be exhibited on their demand to the searching offioers, 
under a penalty of 25fl. to be paid by the captains. 

Article 305 (the same as before Article 309). On total absence of said 
documents, or when they are found not to belong to the ship, the captain 
shall have to pay a penalty of Ifl. per every ton which the vessel measures 
over and above the payment of what is due, for which latter the vessel 
may, if necessary, be detained. 

Article 306 (the same as Article 310 before)* Vessels in ballast, which 
on their arrivail are still indebted for any part of the duty, may be 
detained for the tonnage-duty, and until such payment shall have taken 
place or security have been given for the same. 

Inclosure 5 in No. 3. 
Law of June 19, 1846. 

(State Gazette, No. ^.) 

By which a new Tariff of Import, Export and Transit Duties is esta-; 
blished (modified after the Law, Litt. A^ of August 8, 1850, for the regu- 
lation of Netherland Shipping). 

We, William II, &c. 
To all who shall see, &c. 

Having taken into consideration the necessity to revise the Tariflf of 
Import, Export and Transit Duties : 
So We, after having heard, &c. 

General Regulations. 

Article 1. Of all goods which are imported or exported, or passing 
transit, and which are not expressly exempted from duty, the import, 
export or transit duties are to be paid according to the Tariff added to 
this Law. 

Of the goods not named in the Tariff, and Which by their nature 
cannot be classified under the enumerated Articles, is to he paid on the 
import, 1 per cent, transit -j^th per cent, of the value, or 10 cents per 
lOOlbs., at the option of the importer. Such goods are free of export 

Article 2. We reserve to ourselves in certain cases to raise or to 
reduce for the interest of trade or industry, the import, export, and transit- 
duties, and also the fixed duty and the navigation dues, and even to repeal 
entirely or make restitution of the transit, fixed and navigation dues. 

With reference to the regulations to which the above reservation 
applies, notice will have to be given to the States-General within thirty 
days after the opening of the first following session, accompanied by .a 
project of law relative thereto. 

Should such regulations be necessary in urgent circumstances, during 
a session of the States-General, the projected law will be presented in the 
course of the same session* within thirty days after the date of our decree. 

If the projected law is not accepted by the States-General, the regula- 
tions made by us retain their power of law till the twentieth day included 
from the day on which the law has been rejected. 

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Respecting Freedom and Exemption. 

Article 3. Over and above the articles which by the Tariff itself have 
freedom of import, export, or transit duties, are further exempted therefrom 8 

A. At the import : 

$ 1. The produce of the ultramarine possessions of the kingdom 
(with the exception of refined sugar, molasses, and tea), imported with 
unbroken bulk, and in Dutch vessels, direct from there, provided the origin 
thereof be proved, and that in said possessions the fixed export duties of 
that produce have been paid. Similar freedom will be also granted by us 
when that importation takes place by vessels of those States which 

a. Place the Dutch flagon the same footing as the national one trading 
to and from their own ports (coasting trade and fisheries excepted) ; 

b. Place the Dutch flag on the same footing as the national one trading 
to and from their colonies, if they possess any colonies ; and which 

c. Levy no other differential duties to the prejudice of the produce of 
Dutch colonies, or to the prejudice of the import of produce from other 
parts of the world out of Netherland ports, than those which are levied in 
favour of the produce of their own colonies and the direct importation 

§ 2. fl. Goods returned from the ultramarine possessions of t!ie 

b. Goods of admitted Dutch origin, which are returned unsold from 
foreign markets. 

e. All goods which, after having been exported, are reimported from 
ports where the same, on acc^ount of prohibition or in consequence of a 
considerable increase of import duties, unknown in this country, during 
the export, have either not been admissible, or not admissible witbcmt 
considerable loss. 

As far as regards the articles above enumerated under b and c, this 
freedom is subject to the condition that the same reimport shall take place 
within two years after the goods have left this country. 

The duties paid on the export of such goods will also be returned* 

The al>ove, nevertheless, only applies to cases where the fact and the 
identification of the goods can be sufficiently proved. 

This freedom and restitution of duties cannot be granted to goods in 

§ 3. Instruments used for rafts (including cables), which are im- and 
re-imported as used articles, provided at the import, on exhibiting an 
inventory at the office of discharge, this use be proved to the satisfaction 
of the custom-house. 

B. At the export: 

$ 4. Goods which are transmitted to the ultramarine possessions of 
the kingdom, under the needful measures of security respecting the desti- 
nation ; and with the exception of the articles glass-dust, ofial for glue, 
ashes, son p-boilers' and salt-refiners' ashes. 

By this regulation no breach is made on the prohibition of the export 
of certain goods stipulated by the Tariff. 

C. At the import and export : 

§ 5. Ammunition, provisions, and other necessaries, which are sent 
by or on account of the Department of War, to our armies or fortresses, 
occupied by the same, or which are returned from there. 

By the Department of Finance the thereto- required free passes will 
be granted. 

§ 6 The victuals and ship's stores which are furnished for the service 
of our ships of war and transports, or to ships employed in fishings ^f 
merchant-ships, to be determined by the first functionary at the port or 
loading, in proportion to the number of souls on board and to the nature 
and length of the voyage ; provided the provisions for the use of the ships^ 
then on board of vessels inward bound, are given up and admitted as 
such by the custom-bouse, provided that they remain on board. 

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These goods enjoy also freedom of excise with exception of what in 
the special laws of excise is or afterwards shall have been determined 
with regard to the restitution of excise on goods exported to other 

The duties and excise must be paid on every excess which is found on 
board the vessels on entering, tinless when the same are housed in a 
Government warehouse till the departure of the vessel, or when for the 
satisfaction of the custom-house, a proper bond be given against all 
change of destination or unloading, and likewise until permission shall 
have been given for the goods to remain on board. 

§ 7. All goods which are exported for account of the Government, to 
the ultramarine possessions of the kingdom, or to our squadron or men- 
of-war, being abroad, or are imported from thence into the kingdom. 

The requisite free passes will be granted thereto by the Department 
of Finance, on demand of the Department of Colonies and Marine. 

§ 8. The goods belonging to our Ambassadors at foreign Courts, and 
which are exported for the first time. 

With respect to the goods belonging to Ambassadors of foreign 
Courts residing in this country, similar freedom of duties and excise 
will be granted to them as is or will be granted to the goods of our 
Ambassadors by those Courts. 

To enjoy this freedom, free passes are given by the Department of 
Finance, and the holders thereof have to fulfil certain formalities which 
are prescribed by the laws for levying the duties and excise. 

§ 9. The horses and carriages employed for foreign travelling in 
entering as in leaving the country by land or by sea ; provided always 
those regulations taken by us to prevent fraud, and also the common luggage 
which travellers carry for their own use, in distinction of articles of trade. 

§ 10. Removal of house-furniture, respecting which we reserve to 
ourselves to determine what maybe considered to rank under the following 

§ 11. Horses, oxen, sheep, pigs, and other cattle, which are taken to 
pasture by Dutch inhabitants on their lands out of the kingdom, but 
situated on the frontiers of the same, or from neighbouring lands on the 
frontiers of the kingdom. 

For them grazing- permits will be granted, under bond for the amount 
of the duties for the reimport or export before the close of every year, and 
' subject to the requisite precautions for the identification of the imported 
or exported cattle. 

With regard to the grazing cattle which from time to time or every 
' evening return to the stables, to return to pasture, special regulations are 
made by the custom-house for the interest of agriculture, and to prevent 

§ 12. Fruit of trees or fields, and plants raised on grounds on the 
frontiers of the kingdom, within adistance of 5,500 ells from the limit, and 
in use by Dutch inhabitants, the seeds and manure for the cultivation of 
those lands, as well as the carriages and boats necessary for the transport 
of the same. This exemption is only granted on condition that the import 
and export always takes place between sunrise and sunset, and. in the 
ordinary season of the harvest, or of the gathering of every kind of 
produce; and, further, that the possession or use of aforesaid lands be 
annually proved at the respective offices, by a declaration of the receiver 
of taxes, where the aforesaid lands are registered, or by a duly registered 
contract of lease. 

The exemption of duties named in this and the former paragraph will 
also be granted (subject to the above conditions) to inhabitants of 
neighbouring States who have in use lands on the frontiers of the 
kingdom, and within the same distance from the limit as before stated, 

{)rovided the Dutch inhabitants enjoy similar freedom on entering and 
eaving the territory of neighbouring States. 

§ 13. Ballast, consisting of brickdust, sand, and such like stuifs, having 
' no value for trade ; and, further, all ballast of iron or stone which rema'ms 
on board the ship. 

§ 14. Goods landed from sea and transshipped in other vessels at the 
first clearance-office, on a previously written permit of the acting 

Digitized by 



functionary higher in rank than the collector, for the purpose of being 
exported along the same route, either immediately or after a temporary 
housing, on the footing as is granted by Article 3 of the Law of 
31st March, 1828 (State Gazette, No. 10). 

Respecting the Calculation of Duties. 

Article 4. Duty is paid in proportion to the quantities really imported, 
exported, or transported, in such a manner, however, that in calculating 
the amount of duty due for the entered or existing quantity or value, the 
subdivisions of the pound, kop, kan, cubic palm, and florin, are considered 
to be a full pound, kop, kan, cubic palm, and a whole florin. The 
subdivisions of cents, which may be the product of the calculation of 
duty on the entered or existing quantities or value, are taken as whole 

Article 5. The importer will have the choice to pay transit duty on 
all goods (horses, cattle, and fisli excepted) of which the transit duties are 
levied in the Tariff according to the value, the number, or the measure, 
according to that standard measure, or the weight at 10 cents per 100 lb., 
provided this be settled at the time of entry. 

Article 6. Import, export, or transit duty for each document for 
which any duty is to be paid, will be in no case less than 5 cents, the 
quantity or value imported, exported, or transported, being ever so small. 

Of Tare. 

Article 7. No tare is to be given on transit of all goods on which 
duty is paid by the weight, but for which no tare is fixed in the Tariff*; at 
the importation or exportation, the tare will be paid as foUov^s : 

For all casks, cases, &c., made of wood, 15 ot 100 lb. gross weight. 

For all packages of leather, mats, baskets, kanassers or linen^ and 
such like, 8 oi 100 lb. gross weight. 

Article 8. In case the importers are not satisfied with the tare fixed 
by the Tariff*, or by the previous Article, they can pay the tare according to 
the net weight of the goods, in such a way as it will be settled by the 
functionaries, at the expense of the importers. 

In case there are a great number of casks and cases of the same size, 
the tare of the goods can be fixed by weighing a part of the empty casks, 
cases, &c., to be pointed out by the functionary, and the tare for the whole 
quantity will then be reckoned according to the average weight. 

In case of mixed packages, and if the duty on one part of the goods 
is to be paid by the weight, and the other by the value, the net weight of 
the first can be taken by the functionaries at the expense of the importers, 
according to the result of which duty then is to be paid. 

Article 9. For all liquids free of excise, rated by the measure, and not 
being stipulated in Article 122 of the General Law of 26th August, 1822 
(State Gazette, No. 38), on importation by sea, a reduction will be granted 
for leakage as follows : 

Commg from England, Embden, Bremen, Hamburgh, and the Lower 
Baltic, also from France, Belgium, Spain, Portugal, on this side of the 
Straits of Gibraltar, 6 per cent. ; from other parts, imported by sea, 12 
per cent. 

Article 10. If the importers think that the reduction for leakage fixed 
in the previous Articles be not sufficient, or if they should assert a claim 
to a reduction in those cases in which the law does not grant it, they will 
be at liberty to pay duty according to the existing quantity, which at their 
expense will be determined by the functionaries. 


Digitized by 



\Jj jLTttfUW* 

Article 11. We reserve to ovnebreB to noAify Ihe t-^galaiioM 4)f tiie 
existing laws with regard to the formalities respectin|^ the ^oods entered 
for transit, in cases when suck will be more cooveQient for the trade^ 
reserving the regulations for the payment of import duties. 

RofBdRng ffce ]Zapaa2 cf former tjum. 

Article IS. At i^e period "wlnenthis Lkw ^qxA i^e thcKiinto !ipp6i%aift«- 
lagTarilTsiall come into operation, Article 5 of th© Law of Atirast ^ 
1*^ (State Gazette, No. 38) ; the La^ of Augtrst 26, 18B8 (State GhazeMe, 
No. 39) ; January 8, 1824 (State Gazette, No. 5); January 10, 1825 <9fc«*e 
Gazette, No. 4) ; March 24, 1826 (State Gazette, No. 14) ; April 11, 1827 
rState Gazette, No. 1«3 ; March SI, 1828 ^tate GMette,l?o. 11} -, Decem- 
ber 124, lf?28 (State Gaxette, No, 85) i June 1, 1890 (State Ctewftte, Nn. 1^ 
Jane 9,1831 (State Gazette, No. 15) ; MidtheLaie of l*ay 81,lB«S?Sbte 
Oazette, No. "24), wiH "be wjpealed. 

Order and command that this shaTl be priirted in the State Oftzeitci, 
iuid that all ministerial departments, authorities, boards, and function- 
aries wliomsoerer it concerns, &baTl attend to the ^rtrict execation thereof. 

Given at the Hague^ tihis 19th July, 1845. 

(Signed) -WILLIAM. 

Digitized by 


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o •• 



X7i ^ 




►-• p^ 




a.(n ^ 









S3 3. 

no ^"^ 



w p 













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Presented to the House of Commons by Command of Her Majesty. In pursimnc • 
of their Address of the \Ath of April, 1851. 



[y'3 fc3 1 

Digitized by 


Digitized by 




Subject. P^ 

!• Mr. Freeborn .. 


8^ 1849 

Tranquil state of alfiiirs. Excom- 
munication published by the Pope 
Communication from Provisional 


2m ft 9t • • • • 




•• f» )9 • • • • 


Proclamation suppressing temporal 

power of the Pope 
Speech of Signer Armellini respect- 

2 ^ 

4. 91 j9 •• •• 


ing relations with Foreign Powers 


6. To Mn Freeborn 



Approving the course which he has 


6. Mr. Freeborn •• 


Protest of Roman Government 
against the movements of Nea- 
politan troops . • 


/• 99 |> • • • . 


State of Rome. Feelings as regards 
the Pope 


8, Lord Normanby 


I 1. 

Has communicated to the Nuncio 
despatch of March 27 . . 


9. Sir George Hamilton . . 


Disturbance at Ancona . . 


10. Mr. Freeborn .. 


Disturbances apprehended at Rome 


11* Lord Normanby 


Intention of French Government 
to send troops to Italy . . 


12. 9, 99 •• 


Conversation with M. Drouyn de 
Lhuys respecting French inter- 
vention in Italy . . 


13. M. Drouyn de Lbnyg to 


Explanations respecting French 

Admiral Cecille. 

expedition to Civita Vecchia . . 


14. Mr. Buchanan . . 


Has communicated to Count Nes- 
selrode 8 despatch of March 27 
to Lord Normanby 


15. Sir George Hamilton .. 


State of Ancona . . 


16. „ 


Mr. Petre instructed to call atten- 
tion of Roman Government to 
state of Ancona . . 


1 /• tf ft • • 


Stale of Ancona . . 


18. .» n •• 


Disembarkation of French troops at 
Civita Vecchia . . 


19. Mr. Temple . . 


French and Neapolitan intervention 
in Roman affairs 


20. ToSirCreorgeHamflton 



Approving instruction to Mr. Petre 
respecting Ancona 


21. Lord Normanby 


Proceedings in Assembly respecting 
resistance to French troops at 
Rome . . 


22. y, n • • 


Letter from the President to General 
Gudinot . . 


23. Mr. Freeborn .. 


French attack on Rome . . 


24. Sir George Hamilton . . 


No works of art sold at Florence 
or Rome 


25» tt n •• 


Intelligence from Rome and Ancona 


26. Admiralty 


Arrangements for protection of 
British interests at Ancona • • 


27. Sir George Hamilton .. 


Intelligence from Ancona 


28. Mr. Freeborn .. 


Preparation for attack and defence. 
Neapolitan troops. Works of art 


29. n >, . . . . 


British subjects in Rome. . 


80. . To Lord Normanby . . 


That General Gudinot may protect 
British subjects at Rome 


81. Lord Normanby 


Hope of a peaceable arrangement 
of H Oman affairs 


32. „ „ 


Telesrraphic despatch from Rome . 


83. Prince Scbwarsenberg 

April 29, 1 

Explanations as to Austrian inter- 

to Count Colloredo. 



a 2 

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34. Lord Nonnanby 

. • 

May 17. 1849 

35. Mr. Preebom . . 

36. Sir George Hamilton 


37. „ 

38. Admiralty 


39. ,t ,» •• 

40. tf ff • • 


41. ^ ff •• 


42. o 9t •• 


43. To Admiralty . . 


44. Sir George Hamilton 


45. Mr. Freeborn . . 

46. Mr. Temple . . 

47. Mr. Freeborn . . 

48. Mr. Temple . . 


49. Mr. Freeborn . . 


50. Sir George Hamilton 



52. Admiralty 

June 8, 

58. Mr. Magenis 
54. Mr. Bingham 

55. 9y ,9 

66. Mr. Temple 
57. Mr. Freeborn 

58. Lord Normanby ^ 

59. To Lord Normanby . . 

60. Mr. Magenis . . 

61. Lord Normanby 

62. »9 9> • • 

63. Sir George Hamilton . • 

64. Mr. Magenis 

65. Lord Normanby 

66. Mr. Freeborn . . 

67. n »» 

68. Sir George Hamilton 

69. ff „ 

70. „ „ 
7L Mr. Temple .. 

72. Admiralty 

73. Sir George Hamilton • • 

74. Lord Normanby 

75. To Lord Normanby •• 

76. LordKormanby 

78. Mr. Freeborn .. 

79. Admiralty 




May 31, 

June 2, 










July 2, 



June 23, 



of British 

Respecting protection 
residents at Rome . . . . 22 

British subjects in Rome . . 22 

Operations of Austrians at Bologna 
and Ferrara . . . . . . 22 

Operations at Bologna . . 22 

Proceedings of Her Majesty's ship 

*' Spartan" at Venice and Ancona 23 
Intelligence from Roman States . . 24 
Commander Key's report of state 
of affairs at Rome . . . . 28 

Further report from Commander 

Key 31 

Further report from Commander 

Key 38 

Approving Commander Key's pro- 
ceedings 33 

Bologna surrendered to Austrians 

on the 16th of May . . 34 

State of affairs at Rome . . . . 34 

Intelligence from the Roman States. 35 
Defeat of the Neapolitans at Velletri 35 
Retreat of Neapolitto army from 

Roman States . . . . 3t> 

Evacuation of Roman territory 

by Neapolitans . • . . • . . 36 
Austrian troops sent to Roman 

frontier 36 

Bombardment of Ancona . • 37 

Report from Comniander Key re- 
specting French proceedings at 
Rome . . ' . • . • 37 

Austrian intentions as to operations 

in Roman States . . • . 38 

French attack on Rblne . . . . 38 

Ditto 38 

Arrival of Spanish troops at Gaeta 39 
Convention between Roman Gro- 
vemment and M. Lesseps disre- 
garded by General Oudinot , . 39 
Last news from Rome 40 

Respecting renewal of French ope- 
rations agalAst Rotne . . . . 41 
Blockade of Ancona . . • • 41 

Intelligence from Rome . . •• 42 

Intentions of French Government 

after occupation of Rome 1 . 42 
Ancona still holds out . . . . 42 

Answer given to French Minister 
by Prince Schwarsenberg respect- 
ing Austrian intentions • . 42 
Operations of the siege of Rome . 43 
French operations agkinst Rome. . 43 
Attack upon Rome. Summons of 

General Oudinot, and reply . . 43 
Intelligence from Ancona . . 49 

Siege operations at Ancona . . 50 
Surrender of Ancona . . 50 

Movements of Spanish and Neapo- 
litan troopd.' French operations 

at Rome .. 51 

Comnumder Key's report of pro- 
ceedings at Rome . . 51 
Consul Moore's mediation at 

Ancona . . . . . • 52 

Causes of difficulty' in capture of 

Rome 52 

As to the terms on which the Pope 
might return to Rtaie; and the 
views of the French Government 53 
M. Drouyn de Lhujrs to come to 

England on Roman affairs . . 54 

Latest intelligence from Rome • • 54 

Attack on Rome . . . . • • 54 

Report from Commander Key of 

affairs at Rome . . . . 55 

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SO. To Lord Ponsonby . . 

81. Lord Normanby 

83# To Lord Ponsonby . . 

84. Mr. Freeborn . 

85. Lord Normanby 

86. Mr. Temple . . 

87. Lord Normanby 

88. Mr. Freeborn • • 

89. M. Drouyn de Lbuys . • 

90. To Lord Normanby . . 

91. Lord Normanby 

92. Mr. Freeborn . . 

93. To Mr. Freeborn 

94. ToSirQeorgeHamiUon 

95. Lord Normanby 

96. Sir George Hamilton . . 

97. Lord Ponsonby 

98. Sir George Hamilton . . 

99. Mr. Freeborn.. 

100. Sir George Hamilton . . 

101. Prince Schwarzenberg 

to Count Colloredo 

102. To Lord Normanby . . 

103. Admiralty 

104. Lord Normanbv 

105. „ „ 

106. Mr. Freeborn . . 
1U7. 9t )) . . 

108. „ „ .. 

109. Sir George Hamilton. 

110. Admiralty .. 

111. Mr. Freeborn.. 

112. Admiralty 

lis. Mr. Temple .. 

114. Mr. Freeborn . . 

115. Mr. Temple .. 

116. Admiralty 

117. Mr. Temple .. 

1 1 8. » ff 

119. Mr. Freeborn.. 

July 10» 1849 














Aug. 7, 







Sept. 1, 

Aug. 23, 

Sept. 3, 




Subject. Page 

As to advice to be given by Aus- 
tria to tbe Pope . . . . 56 

Frencb troops have entered Rome 56 

Satisfaction of French Government 
at British communication to 
Vienna on Roman affairs . . *56 

That Austria should recommend 
the Pope to maintain Constitu- 
tion . . . . . . . . 56 

Occupation of Rome by French 
forces. Refugees . . 57 

As to policy to be observed by the 
Pope on returning to Rome . . 58 

Surrender of Rome. Deputation 
from Bologna to the Pope . . 59 

Intentions of French Government 
towards the Pope . . . . 59 

Proclamations by Generals Gudinot 
and Rostolan . . . . . . 60 

Intentions of French Government 
respecting reforms in Roman 
Government . . * . . . . 63 

Copies of Memorandum of 1831 • 64 

Pope's authority re-established at 
Rome on 13th' July . . 64 

Inclosing Pope's Allocution of 
April 20 64 

Disapproving his having given pass- 
ports to refugees . . 84 

Transmitting copv of despatch to 
Mr. Freeborn (No. 93.) . . 84 

Conversation with M. de Tocque- 
ville respecting Roman affairs . . 84 

Attempts to capture Garibaldi . . 85 

Conversation with Prince Schwarz- 
enberg on Roman affairs . . 85 

Movements of Garibaldi's band . . 85 

Pope's proclamation. Re-establish- 
ment of tribunal of Vicar- 
General . . 86 

Movements of Garibaldi's band . . 88 

Austrian views on Roman affairs . 88 

As to the re-establishment of Vi- 
cariat-General at Rome . 

State of affairs at Rome . . 

Communication made to M. de 
Tocqueville respecting re-estab- 
lishment of Vicariat-General at 

Pope has consented to establish 
the Code Napoleon 

Commission of Cardinals instituted 
by General Gudinot 

Dismissal of employes. Regulation 
respecting Republican paper-cur- 
rency .. 

Respecting passports given by him 
to refugees 

Escape of Garibaldi 

Intelligence from Rome . . 

Notification respecting property of 
the Inquisition . . 

Report from Commander Key re- 
specting affairs at Rome 

Expected arrival of the Pope 

Proclamations of Generals Gudinot 
and Rostolan . . . . . . 104 

General Gudinot fails in endea- 
vouring to persuade Pope to return 
to Rome . . 

Report from Commander Key on 
affairs of Rome . . 

Arrival of the Pope at Portici . . 

Benediction given by the Pope at 
Naples . . 

Proclamations of the Pope and 
Cardinals 109 












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TAfiXB OS C0imNX8« 


120. Sir George Hamilton 

121. Mr. Freeborn 

122. Sir George Hamilton, 
18S. Mr. Freeborm 
124. Mr. Temple •• 

• • 

Oct. 6, 1649 
Nov. 17, 


• • 


• • 

Dec. 11, 

Subject. Pag« 

State of public feeling in Home . . 114 
Neapolitan refugees sent out of 

country .. .. •• •« 114 
Change in Pope's intention to return 

to Rome 115 

Proclamations by Generals Rostolan 

and Baraguey d'Hilliers .« US 

Spanish troops have evacuated 

Roman SUtes 116 

Digitized by 


RETURN to an Address of the Honourable House of Commons, dated April 14, 1851 ; 


Ccqpies or Extracts of any Correspondence between the British Government 
and any Embassies or Agents of the British Grovemment Abroad^ and 
between the British Government and any Foreign Governments, concerning 
the Affairs of Rome, during the year 1849/' 

No- 1. 

Mr. Freeborn to Viscount Palmerston. — {Received February 12.) 

(Extract.) Rome, January 8, 1849. 

IT is my duty to inform your Lordship that tranquillity continues, 
except on the confines of the Neapolitan territories, wnere troops have 
been sent. 

His Holiness has been induced to issue an excommunication against 
all parties connected with the National Assembly ; but this step has not 
disturbed public tranquillity. 

No. 2. 

Mr. Freeborn to Viscount Palmerston. — {Received February 12.) 

My Lord, Rome, February 2, 1849. 

I HAVE the honour to report to your Lordship that on the 31st 
ultimo, by invitation of Monsignor * * * through the channel of 
the Under Secretary of State, I waited on the former at the Quirinal, 
who requested me, in his own name and that of the other Ministers 
of the Provisional Government, to communicate to Her Majesty's Govern- 
ment the following : — 

*' That the Ministers had lost no occasion of assuring His Holiness 
that they were not only ready, but anxious to place into the hands of His 
Holiness all the power they held, provided His Holiness would return as 
a Constitutional Sovereign, and unaccompanied by the * Camarilla ' at 

'^ That the present Government would make no opposition either to 
English or French intervention, but that no means would be left untried 
to repulse any other armed intervention. 

" That they considered the conduct of the Neapolitan Government as 
highly reprehensible in giving countenance and assistance to the for- 
mation of an army in the Kingdom of Naples, with the avowed intention 
of* invading the Roman States. 

** That the present Government should consider any army, of what- 
ever nation, marching into the Roman States from the Neapolitan terri- 
tories, as a Neapolitan army ; and that orders had been given to General 
Garibaldi to invade the Kingdom of Naples in the event of the Roman 
States being invaded. 

" That the present Provisional Government considered the means now 
adopting at Gaeta in attempting to reinstate His Holiness through the 
means of reaction and civil war, to be acts of inhumanity, tending only to 
exasperate the people and alienate them from His Holiness, as well as to 
ui^e them on to the resolution of establishing a Republic in order not to 
submit to the government of the Sacred College and Jesuits. 

'* That the flight of His Holiness and persevering refusal to receive a 
deputation, the sole object of which was to produce a reconciliation 
between His Holiness and his subjects, had induced the people to unite 

[168] B 

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for the purpose of forming a new Government, and had compelled the 
Provisional Government to make great pecuniary saerrfices to prepare an 
army of defence against Austrian and Neapolitan intervention. 

*'That the reproach of the Roman States being governed by a faction 
was not founded on facts, which the number of votes (about one*sixth ^f 
the population) for the Costituente Romana fuUy demonstrated." 

Tne above^ my Lord, to the best of my recollection, are the words of 
Monsignor # # ♦ 

I now beg leave to inform your Lordship that the Swiss auxiliary 
troops at Bologna, about 1500 men, had received orders from His Holiness 
at Gaeta, to join General Zucchi at Ponte Corvo, but in consequence of 
the remonstrances and menaces of the population at Bologna and in the 
Romagna, General Latour, their commanding officer, has consented to 
remain at Bologna, but he states that he will not permit his brigade to 
fight against troops under the Papal flag. 

The Deputies of the Costituente Romana will meet at the Capitol on 
the 5th instant. 

T have, &c. 

No. 3. 

Mr. Freeborn to Viscount Palmerston. — (Received February 18.1 

My Lord, Romej February 9, 1849. 

I HAVE the honour to report to your Lordship that after a pro- 
longed debate, and notwithstanding the opposition of about twenty of the 
most talented Deputies of the National Assembly, the temporal power of 
the Pope has been suppressed as per inclosed decree and translation, by a 
majority of 138 out of 143 members, and the ^^ Repubblica Romana '^ 
declared by a majority of 120 members out of 143 present. 

I have, &c. 
(Signed) JOHN FREEBORN, / 

Inclosure I in No. 3. 

Decree Proclaiming the Roman RepubKc. 

Assemblea Costituente Romana. 

Decreto Fondamentale. 

Art. 1. XL Papato h decaduto di fatto e di diritto dal govemo 
temporale dello Stato Romano. 

2. II Pontefice Romano avrk tutte le guarentigie necessarie per la 
indipendenza nell' esercizio della sua potest^ spirituaTe. 

3. La forma del Go verno della Stato Romano sari la Democrazia pura^ 
e prenderi il glorioso nome di Repubblica Romana. 

4. I^a Repubblica Romana avri col resto dltalia le relazioni che esigge 
la nazionaliti comune. 

9 FebrarOf 1849, 1 ora del mattino. 

II Presidente, 
(Firmato) G. GALLETTI. 

I Segretarj, 
(Firmato) Giovanni Pennacchi. 

Ariodante Fabretti. 
Antonio Zambianchi. 
QuiRico Filopanti Barilli. 

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RoBMA CoBstitumU Aasemhty. 
Fundameatal Decree. 

Art. 1. THE temporal power of the Popedom is snppressed de fatto 
iMBtA dtjure in the Roman States. 

2. *rht Roman Pontiff will have all the necessary guarantees in the 
independent exercise of the spiritual power. 

3. The form of the Government in the Roman States will he a pure 
Democracy, and will take the glorious name of the ^' Repubblica 

4. The Roman RetraWic will have wKJi the rest dT Italy such relationB 
as the common nationality requires. 

BiXnruary 9, 1849, 1 ^'clock a.m. 

The President, 
(Signed) O. OALLETTI. 

The Secretaries, 
(Signed) Giovanni Pennacchi. 

Ariodante Fabretti. 
Antonio Zambianchi. 


No. 4. 
Mr. Fteehom to Viscount Palmerston. — {Received March 5.) 

(Extract.) Rome, February 19, 1849. 

I HAVE the honour to transmit herewith an extract and translation 
of jL speech made by Signer Armellini, one of the members of the Executive 
Government, at the National Assembly, on the 13th instant. 

I feel it my duty at once to state that the assertions of Signor 
Armellini are not founded on facts. 

With the late Provisional Government my communications were 
limited to one or two representations on a commercial affair connected 
with the interest of a British subject at Civita Vecchia, and a misunder- 
atModin^ between the officers of the ^'Bulldc^" and the authorities at 
<^vita Vecchia. It so happens that up to the present day I have had no 
occasion whatever to communicate with any Minister connected with the 
present Government, and I have refused to accept all personal invitations 
to attend to discussions^ &c. 

Inclosure in Na 4. 
Extract of the Speech of Signor Armellini on the ISth February y 1849. 

ABBIAMO anche delle relazioni officiose, e piCi che tali riguardo alia 
Francia per mezzo della Ambasciata Francese che era accreditata in 
Roma. Hanno veduto i vostri stessi occhi dalP Accademia di Francia 
solemnizzata, e festeggiata la proclamazione della nostra Repubblica con 
una aolenne illuminazione della villa, loro re&ddensa, fatto che parla molto 
della simpatia della Repubblica Francese sentita verso la Repubblica 
Romana sua sorella. 

Le relazioni ooUa Gran Brettagna parimenti sono tali da soddisfarci. 

Siamo in continui rapporti con quell' unico Rappresentante che d in 
Roma, ciod, il Console Freeborn. Torno a dire le partecipazioni che 
abbiamo da questo Agente Consolare in Roma relative al Ministero 
Britannico sono sempre soddisfacenti ; e non troviamo che buono Taspetto 
in cui d preso il nostro Governo, e in cui sono presi tutti l movimenti degli 
Stati Romani, dalP In^hilterra per ci6 che precede e prepar6 la 
proclamazione della R,epubblica. 


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WE have also oflScious relations, and more than officious relations 
with France, through the medium of the French Embassy which was 
accredited in Rome. You have seen with your own eyes that the French 
Academy celebrated the proclamation of our Republic with a solemn 
illuniination at the villa of their residence ; a fact which speaks much fp|* 
the sympathy which the French Republic feels towards the Roman sister 
Republic. ; 

The relations with Great Britain are also satisfactory. 

We are in continual communication with the only Representative in 
Rome, i.e., Consul Freeborn. I repeat that the communications {partecir 
jpazioni) which we have from the said Consular Agent in Rome relating to 
the English Ministry are always satisfactory; and we cannot but b^ 
gratified with the light in which England regards our Government and 
the movements of the Roman States which preceded and prepared the 
proclamation of the Republic. 

No. 5. 
Mr. Addington to Mr. Freeborn. 

Shr, Foreign Office, March 12, 1849. 

I AM directed by Viscount Palmerston to acknowledge the receipt of 
your despatch of the 19th ultimo, stating the course which you nave 
felt it to be your duty to pursue under the circumsts^nces therein 
mentioned ; and I am to state to you that that course is quite right. 

I am, &c. 
(Signed) H. U, ADDINGTON. 

No. 6. 
Mr. Freeborn to Viscount Palmerston. — (Received March 15.) 

My Lord, Rome, March 1, 1849. 

I HAVE the honour to transmit you herewith copy and translation 
of a letter addressed to me by the Minister for Foreign Affairs of the 
present Roman Government, accompanied by a letter addressed to the 
Minister of Foreign Affairs of His Majesty the King of Naples. 

Your Lordship will be pleased to observe that it is a protest from.:thc 
Roman Government to the Neapolitan Government, in consequence of the 
menacing attitude of the Neapolitan troops on the frontier, and suggest- 
ing at the same time the propriety of giving explanation, and granting 
satisfaction for the entrance of the small body of Neapolitan troops in the 
Roman States. I have, &c. 


Inclosure 1 in No. 6, 
The Minister for Foreign Affairs of the Roman Republic to Mr. Freeborn. 


Sir, JRome, February 27, 1849. 

THE Undersigned, Minister for Foreign Affairs of the Roman 
Republic, considers it as a duty to inclose nerewith a copy of a note 
adaressed to the Neapolitan Government, requesting your attention to the 
Bame, and calling also the attention of your Government. 

The Undersigned, &c. 

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Inciosure 2 in No. 6« 

The Minister of Fdreign Affairs of the Roman Republic to the Minister of - 

Foreign Affairs of Naples. 

Eccellenza, Roma, li 26 Febbrajo, 1849. 

MI k d'uopo ravvertirla, che Pingrossamento delle reali truppe 
Napoletane sui nostri eonGni eccita la giusta diffidenza del Governo della 
Repubblica, i cni atti non ban potuto in nessuna guisa autorizzare quell' 
accumulamento di forze. La presenza del General Zuccbi^ palesemente 
ostile alia Repubblica, e gli uomini che nelle frontiere stesse ei \k 
ragranellando coli'intento palese di spingerli contro di noi, apcrescono 
i dubbj di questo Governo suUe intenzioni^ che pu6 nudrire a suo riguardo 
quello di Napoli. Nel giorno 20 del corrente poi 6 accaduto un fatto che 
avrebbe potuto dar luogo a terribili conseguenze, se all' amore di libert^,- 
che anima i popoli della Repubblica^ non fosse indissolubilmente congiunto 
Pamore d'ltalia. Nel giorno di cui le accenno, un corpo di cento s5ldati 
Napoletani entrava nel nostro suolo, volgeva sospette interrogazioni a 
quanti incontrava suUo stato delle nostre truppe ; quindi si ritraeva al di 
1^ di quel limiti, che non avrebbe mai dovuto varcare. Quel fatto poteva 
eccitare fiere rappresaglie^ se, come toccai, Tamore d'ltalia non ardesse 
nel cuore di quanti vivono sul nostro suolo, e se il pensiero che Italian! 
erano gli entrati, temprato non avesse i subiti sdegni, che quelle violazione 
del territorio nostro avea suscitati. 

A prevenire i futuri conflitti perd, che potrebbero seguire, ad allon- 
tanare i pericoli di una guerra che farsi non deve che col nemico d'ltalia, 
il Governo della Repubblica le volge queste rimostranze, e attende col 
mezzo suo uno schiarimento per quanto ^ occorso, e quella giusta soddis- 
fazione, che niun Governo di Europa sa negare omai p\ik a un popolo 

Voglia ella ioterporsi presso il suo Governo, onde <5orroborare TeflB- 
6acia di queste rimostranze, e si degni di credermi come colla piCi alta 
stima mi rassegno^ 

II Ministro degli Affari Esteri. 


Excellency, jRome, February 26, 1849. 

* IT becomes necessary for me to inform you that the increase of 
Neapolitan troops upon our frontiers excites the just distrust of the 
Republican Government, whose conduct has not been such as to authorize 
in any way a similar accumulation of forces. The presence of General 
Zucchi; openly hostile to the Republic, and of the men that he collects on 
the frontiers with the evident object of directing them against us, increases 
the doubts entertained by the Government of this country with respect to 
the intentions of that of Naples. On the 20th instant an event took place 
which mi^ht have brought about terrible consequences, if the love of 
liberty which animates the people of the Republic were not indissolubly 
united with the love of Italy. On the day which I have mentioned, a body 
of one hundred Neapolitan soldiers entered our territory and made bus- 
picious inouiries of every one they met as to the state of our troops, 
retiring suDsequentl]^ beyond those limits which they ought never to have 
passed. This deed might have excited fierce reprisals, if, as I have observed, 
the love of Italy did not animate the hearts oi the inhabitants of our soil, 
tempering the (juick indignation occasioned by the violation of territory, 
with the reflection that the aggressors were Italians. 

To prevent all future conflict, and to avoid the dangers of a war 
which ought to be waged only against the enemy of Italy, the Govern- 
ment of the Republic addresses these remonstrances to you, and eiKpects 

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through you an explanation of what has happened, and that just satisfiax^tion 
which no European Government oan deny ta mb outraged people. 

Have the goodness to use your influence with your Government in 
order to stmgthen the efficacy of these renumstrances, and b^eve 
me, &c. 

*Ilie Minister of Foreign Affairs. 

Mr. Freeborn to Mr. Bidw^.-^{Recew€d April 2^ 

(Extract.) Rome, March 23, 1849. 

ROME is perfectly tranquil and nothing is now attended to but 
arms, money, and men. 

If no intervention takes plaoe from Naples, the peace of Rome wUl 
Aot be disturbed ; if it does, tike conseqiiiences will be serious, as rea/ction, 
civil war and all its horrors, must be the result. Although a Republic 
is an unfortunate form of Government, I must say in justice to the present 
Ministers, that their conduct is exemplary; that of the people more 
BO; order and obedience to the laws is the order of the day, and the people 
l^ve not lost their attachment to His Holiness. 

No. 8* 

T%e Marquis of Narmanhy to Viscount Palmerston. — (Rwdberf April 2.) 

(Extract.) Paris, April 1, 1849. 

I HAVE this day communicated to the Nuncio your Lordship's 
despatch of March 27.* 

No. 9. 
Sir George Hamilton to Viscount Pdlmerston. — (Received April 17.) 

^Extract.) Florence, April 6, 1849. 

I HAVE received a letter from Her Majesty's Consul at Ancona, 
giving a dreadful account of the state of that town. I have the honour 
to inclose it for your Lordship's information. 

Indosure in No. 9. 
Consul Moore to Sir Oecrge Hcmilton. 

(Extract.) Jncomm, Aprti 3, 1849. 

ON the 80th ultimo we received the ftews of the defeat of the 
Sardinian army by the " Bologna 'Gaaertte.'' The town was thrown into 
great excitement, and an iirforiated mob rushed into aill the coffee-houses 
and public places and tore up the newspapers^ and assaulted^ stabbed, 
amd mturdered |)eonle, right and left, who happened to be reading the 
news. Five were killed: among^ them the Marquis Nembrini, in the 
reading-Tomn of the Casino. Since then murders have continued at an 
averageof thwe per vlay. in the list of s*q)erior persons staW>ed stands the 

* See Papers respecting the Affairs of Italy, 1849. Part IV, No. 243. 

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Secretary-General of the Government (Valorani). On the 1st instant* at 
3 P.M., he was fired at and missed^ but a stiletto took effect in the 
abdomen. This occurred in a public part close to the town gates. A 
great many of the murderers are well known, but no one dares to arrest 
them. Neither the police nor civic guard will act. The Sardinians will 
have nothing to do with it, and this is the only force we could look to for 

The reply to all applications is, who will be the first to venture? 

The Governor of the town is gone to Rome. 

The Belgian Consul quitted the town yesterday* morning, and left 
his Consulate under my charge. 

The Sardinian squadron must I presume leave us in a few days^ 
which win not mend our position. 

The troops and volunteers sent to the Romagna against the Austrians 
returned yesterday, and I fear they will prove another element of discord 
for the town. 

A small French brig-of-war has just entered our harbour from 
Toulon for Trieste. She has saluted our Roman Republican flag, to the 
great satisfaction of the population. 

No. 10. 

Mr. Freeborn to Viscount Palmerston.-^^Received Jpril 17.) 

My Lord, Rome, April 6, 1849. 

YOUR Lordship will have learned l^ my despatches preceding this 
which I have had the honour to address to you, that the tranquillity of 
this city had not been materially disturbed, and that the laws had been 
carried out with moderation on the part of the Government and obediexice 
on the part of the people. 

With regret I have now to report to your Lordship that since the 
intelligence has been received of the defeat of the Piedmontese army, a 
spirit of reaction, and to a considerable extent, has shown itself, fa«it 
which the Government has hitherto succeeded in keeping down. I fear, 
however, that civil war is rapidly approaching, and which may be 
productive of serious and sanguinary conflicts. 

I have not failed to give my best advice at this critical time to moat 
of the English families residing here for their amusement; consequently 
if any untoward occurrence should happen, and thereby their lives and 
property placed in jeopardy, they have only to blame themselves for 
remaining here. 

1 have, &c. 

No. 11. 

The Marquis of Normanby to Viscount Palmerston. — (Received April 17.) 

My Lord, Paris, April 16, 1849. 

M. ODILON-BARROT has this day demanded from the Assembly 
a credit of 1,200,000 francs, to enable the Government to give effect to the 
intimation of the Assembly, that in case circumstances should sl&em to 
require it, they should occupy some portion of the Italian territory. No 
details were given in the report ; but it is understood that Civita Vecchia 
is the destination of the expedition. 

The Minister asked that the urgency of the proposition should be 
voted, and that it should be immediately referred to a Commission. Both 
these propositions were adopted, and the members adjourned to the Bureaux 
ta name the Commission, who it is expected will make its report thas 

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afternoon; but as there will not probabijr be time to «end anything 
further by the mail train, I close this despatch and send it by common 

T have, &c. 
(Signed) NORMANBY. 

No. 12. 
The Marquis of Narmanby to Viscount Palmerston. — {Received April 20.) 

(Extract.) Paris, Apnl 19, 1849. 

IT appears that the conferences at Gaeta led to a determination on 
the part of the other Catholic Powers to proceed at once to restore the 
Pope by foreign intervention ; the part proposed for France^ in conjunc- 
tion with the othei:s, was that which she has now assumed, independent 
of any engagements, namely, to send an expeditionary force to, Ci vita 

Some weeks since it appears that Austria had conveyed an intima- 
tion to France, that if this Government chose to go alone to Civita Vecchia, 
she would not object to it, reserving of course the same freedom of action 
for herself upon other points. The different plans proposed at Gaeta 
appeared to the French Government objectionable or impracticable ; they 
were likewise informed that the Austrians were upon the point of entering 
Tuscany, and had declared that the military road there being through 
Bologna, they should re-establish in that city the authority of the Pope. 

The question which had been under discussion between the Repre- 
sentatives of the two Governments at Gaeta thus assumed a practical 
shape. The Austrians professed to restore the Pope without any con- 
ditions, whilst France did not pretend to dictate conditions to His 
Holiness, but to make the offer of her assistance dependent upon his 
being ready to carry out those administrative reforms which had 
been proposed eighteen years since, and also to confirm those Constitu- 
tional institutions which the present Pope had previously granted of his 
own freewill: and it was thus to secure to the Romans that improved 
Government which it was thought would be much endangered, should the 
Pope be left by Austria to the one-sided counsels of the violent reac- 
tionary party, that this expedition had been hurried forward, in order that 
this French force should arrive at Civita Vecchia before the Austrians 
could march upon Rome. 

I told M. Drouyn de Lhuys that the object which the French Govern- 
ment professed to have in view, — the restoration of the Pope under an 
improved form of Government, was precisely that which I had always been 
instructed to state was also that of Her Majesty's Government, though, 
for reasons which I had then explained to him, we had not wished to take 
any active part in the negotiations. I had also expressed our desire that 
France, sharing our feelings on the subject, should not decline to parti- 
cipate in the negotiations. It certainly had been to the influence of diplo- 
matic concert, and not to active intervention, that we had looked, our great 
desire being that the Pope should be restored by the spontaneous action 
of his subjects. 

. No. 13- 

Af. Drouyn de Lhuys to Admiral C^cille. — (Communicated to Viscount 
Palmer ston by Admiral C^cille, April 21.) 

M. VAmiral, Paris, le 19 Avril, iS49. \ 

f?!lBf J*AI rhonneur de vous envoyer ci-joint copie de deux d^pSches que je Viens 
d*^crire, Tune au Charg^ d' Affaires de France a Vienne, Pautre knotre Amba8$ar. 
deur aupr^s du St. P^re et a notre Envoy^ aupr^ de la Cour de Naples, pour 
Ipor faire conndtre les motifs et le but de I'exp^ditipn qui va partir pour Civita ; 
Vecchia sous le commandement de M. le General Gudinot. Je vous prie de 

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vouloir bien en donner lecture k Lord Palmerston. Nous ne doutons pas que 
le Gouvemement Britannique n'apprecie comme il convient une determination 
dont Tobjet est tout h la fois de maintenir, autant qu'il d^pendra de nous, 
P^uilibre politique, de garantir rind^pendance des Etats Italiens ; d'assurer aux 
populations Romaines un regime libdral et r^gulier ; et de les preserver des 
dangers d'tine reaction aveugle, aussi bien que des fureurs de Tanarchie. 

Agrfez, &c. 


M. I'Amiral, Paris, Apnl 19, 1849. 

I HAVE the honour to send you herewith copies of two despatches which 
I have just written, one to the Charge d* Affaires of France at Vienna, the other 
to ^ur Ambassador to the Pope and to oin* Envoy at the Court of Naples, to 
communicate to them the reasons and the object of the expedition which is about 
to depart for Oivita Vecchia under the command of General Oudinot. I request 
you to have the goodness to read them to LoM Palmerston. We doubt not that 
the British Government will duly appreciate a determination, the object of which 
is at once to maintain, as far as shall depend on us, the balance of power, to 
guarantee the independence of the Italian States; to secure to the Roman people 
a liberal and regular system of administration ; and to preserve them from the 
dangers of a blind reaction, as well as from the frenzy of anarchy. 

Receive, &c. 

Inclosure 1 in No. 13. 

M. Drouyn de Lhuys to M. de la Cour. 

Monsieur, Paris, 17 Avril, 1849i 

^ LES ^v^nemens accomphs avec tant de rapidity depuis quelques semaines 
dans le Nbrd de Tltalie ; les mouvemens op^r^s par I'armee Autrichienne h, la suite 
de la lutte si courte contre Tarmee Pi^montaise; Tintehtion hautement annonc^e 
jpar M. le Prince de Schwarzenberg, d'intervenir dans toutes les contrdes de la 
Peninsule voisines de la Lombardie ; enfin la d^ib^ration m6me de la Conference 
de Gaete, qui n'a cru pouvoir se rallier k aucune des idees sugg^r^es par nos 
Pl^nipotentiaires : toutes ces circonstances nous ont fait penser que la France, 
pour conserver dans le r^glement des affaires de TltaUe Centrale, la part 
d'infliience qui lui appartient legitimement et dont la conservation est essentielle 
au inaintien de I'^quilibre politique, devait prendre une attitude plus prononc^e. 
Le Gouvefnement de la RiSptiblique s'est r^solu k envoyer k Civita Vecchia* un 
corps de troupes command^ par M. le G^n^ral Oudinot ; notre pens^e en nous 
avoidant Jt cette mesure n'a 6t6 ni d'imposer aux populations Romaines ,un 
regime que leur volonte libre aurait repouss^, ni de contraindre le Pape a adopter, 
Idrsqu'il sera rappel^ k Texercice de sa puissance, tel ou tel syst^me de Gouveme- 
ment. - Nous avons cru, nous croyons plus que jamais, que par la force des 
choses, par Veffet de la disposition naturelle des esprits, le regime qu'a fond^ h 
Rome la Revolution de Novembre dernier est destin^e k succomber bientot, et que 
le peuple Romain se replacera sous Tautorite du Souverain Pontife, pourvu qu'on 
le rassure contre les dangers d'une reaction ; mais nous croyons ^galement, et k 
cet egard surtout, vous le savez, notre langage n'a jamais vari^, nous croyons 
que cette autorit^ ne jettera de fortes racines, ne s'affermira contre de nouveaux 
orages, qu'ii Taide d'institutions qui pr^viennent le retour des anciens abus dont 
Pie IX avait avec un si g^n^reux empressement commence la reforme. 

FaciUter un rapprochement qui s'opdrerait sur* de telles bases, donner au 
Saint P^re et Jt tous ceux qui, soit h Rome, soit h Gaete, sont dispose k y coop^rer, 
Tdppui dont ils peuvent avoir besoin po.ur surmonter les obstacles suscit^s par 
des pretentions exag^rdes ou par de mauvaises passions, tel est le but que nous 
avons assigne k notre. Qxp^dition. 

-M. le Prince de Schwarzenberg comprendra, j'en ai la conviction, qu'aprfes 
avoir .pris Timportante determination que j'ai Thonneur de vous annoncer, nous 

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n^ayons pas voulu en compromettre les chances de succ^s par les retards 
qu*aurait entrain^s une communication pr^alable feite k la ConfiSrence de Gaete. 
La marche rapide des ^v^nemens nous interdisait toute temporisation, Au 
surplus, nos intentions ne sont pas equivoques, et ne peuvent etre suspects. 
Ce que nous voulons c*est que le Saint P^re en rentrant k Rome, s'y trouve 
plac^ dans une situation qui, tout k la fois satisfeisante pour lui et pour son 
peuple, garantisse Tltalie et I'Europe centre de nouvelles perturbations, et ne 
porte atteinte ni h T^quilibre politique ni k I'ind^pendance des Etats Italiens. 
Les moyens auxquels nous avons recours sont, si je ne me trompe, les plus 
propres k atteindre ce but. lis doivent done obtenir I'approbation de tons les 
amis de Tordre et de la paix. 

Nous ne verrons pas sans regret que TAutriche, k qui Toccupation d'une 
partie consid6»ble de la Haute Italic, et la victoire r^cemment remport^ suf 
les Pi^montais> assurent d^ja une si grande part d'influence dans la Peninsule, 
cr6t devoir, comme elle Pa plus d'lme fois indiqu^, se procurer par roccupation 
de Bologne, un gage nouveau qui, bien inutile pour elle au point de vue des 
interfits s^rieux, ne servirait qa'k inqui^ter et k exciter les esprits. 

Affr^ez &c 
(Sign6) ' E. DROUYN DE LHUYS. 


Sir, Pari^, April 17, 1849. 

THE events which have occurred so rapidly within some weeks in the 
North of Italy; the movements which have been eflFected by the Austrian army 
after its very short contest with the Piedmontese army; the intention distinctly 
announced by Prince Schwarzenberg of interfering in all the countries of the 
Peninsula adjoining Lombardy ; and lastly, the decision even of the members of 
the Conference of Gaeta, who did not think that they could agree to any of the 
plans suggested by our Plenipotentiaries : ail these circumstances have led us 
to think that, in order to retain in the regulation of the affairs of Central Italy 
the share of influence which legitimately belongs to France, and the preservation 
of which is essential to the maintenance of the balance of power, France ought 
to assume a more decided attitude. The Government of the Republic 
has resolved to send to Civita Vecchia a body of troops commanded by 
General Oudinot. Our intention in deciding on this measure has been neither 
to impose on the Roman people a system of administration which their free 
will would have rejected, nor to constrain the Pope to adopt, when he shall 
be recalled to the exercise of his power, this or that system of Government. 
We thought, we more than ever think, liiat by the force of events, by the effect 
of the natural disposition of men's minds, the system of administration which 
the Revolution of last November has estabUshed at Rome is destined soon to 
fall, and that the Roman people will place themselves again under the authority 
of the Sovereign Pontiff, provided they are secm-ed against the dangers of a 
reaction. But we nevertheless think, and in this respect especially you know 
our language has never varied, that that authority will not take strong root, and 
can only strengthen itself against fresh storms, by the help of institutions which 
may prevent the return of the old abuses, the reform of which Pius IX had 
with such generous zeal begun. 

To facilitate a reconciliation which would be effected on such grounds, to 
give to the Holy Father and to all those who, whether at Rome or at Gaeta^ 
are disposed to co-operate therein, the assistance which they may require to 
surmount the obstacles raised by exaggerated pretensions or by evil passions, 
such is the object which we have assigned to our expedition. 

Prince Schwarzenberg will understand, I am convinced, that after having 
taken the important decision which I have the honour to announce to you^ 
we have not wished to risk the chances of its success by the delay which 
a preliminary communication made to the Conference of Gaeta would have 
caused. The rapid progress of events made it impossible for us to temporize. 
Moreover, our intentions are unequivocal and cannot be suspected. What we 
wish is, that the Holy Father on re-entering Rome may find himself placed in 
a situation which, while it is satisfactory to him and to his people, may at the 
same time preserve Italy and Europe from fresh disturbances, and may not 

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interfere either with the balance of powesr or the independence of the Italian 
States. The means to which we have recourse are, if I am not mistaken, the 
fittest to attain that end. They ought then to meet with the approbation of all 
friends of order and of peace. 

We should not without regret see that Austria, to whom the occupation of 
a considerable part of Upper Italy and the victory recently obtained over the 
Piedmontese secure already so large a share of influence in the Peninsula, should 
think proper, as she has more than once intimated, to prociu'e for herself 
by the occupation of Bologna, a fresh security which, however useless to her 
with regard to serious interests, would serve but to disquiet and to excite men's 

Receive &c. 
(Signed) ' E. DROUYN DE LHUYS. 

Inck)sure 2 in No. 13. 
,M. Drouyn de Lhuys to M. d^Harcourt and M. de Rayneval. 

Monsieur, Paris, 18 Avril, 1849. 

LA determination que vous annon^ait une d^peche du 15 de oe mois est 
eaSsL arr^tee, et va recevoir son execution. Un vote de TAssembl^ Nationale, 
rendu h la suite d'unc discussion solennelle, ayant ouvert au Gouvemement de 
la Bepublique les cr^ts dont il avait besoin li cet effet, un corps de troupes 
commande par le General Oudinot sera dirig^ sans retard sor Civita Vecchia. 
La pens^ du Gouvemement de la R^pubUqae, en se d^idant k cette mesure, n'a 
ib6 ni d'imposer aux populations RomaiQes un r^me que leur volont^ libre 
aurait repouss^, ni de conlraindre le Pape k adopter, lorsqu'il sera rappd€ k 
Texercice de sa puissance teniporelle, tel ou tel syst^me de Gouvemement. 
Nous avons cru, nous CToyons plus que jamais, que par la force des choses, par 
suite de kt disposition naturelle des esprits, le r^ime qu'a fonde k Rome la Revo- 
lution du mois de Novembre est destine k suocomb«r bi^at6t ; tjue le peuple 
Bomam, pourvu qu'on le rassure contre les dangers dune ruction, se replacera 
avec empressement sous Tautorit^ du Souverain Pontife ; et que Pie IX, rentrant 
dans ses Etats, y rapportera la politique g^6reuse, 6clair^e, lib^nJe, dont il s'est 
nagu^res montr^ anim^. Faciliter un rapprochement qui s'op6rerait dans un 
par^l esprit, donn^ au St. P6re et k tons ceux qui, k Ga^ oomme k Rome, 
sont disposes k coopArer, I'appm dont ils peuvent avoir besoin pour surmonter 
les obstacles suscit^s dans I'un ou Fautre sens par des influences exagdr^s ou de 
mauvaises passions^ tel est le b«t que nous avons asdgnd a noitre exp^tion. 
VeuiUez, en annon^ant, de cotioert avee M. de Rayneval, k M. le Cardhml Anto- 
nelli, le depart de la division command^e par M. le G^n^ral Oudinot, lui bien 
expliquer Tobjet et la pod:6e de la resolution que nous venous de prendre. II 
comprendra que, pour se mettre en, 6tax d'en profiter, le Saint Pfere doit se h&ter 
de pubUer un maniferte, qui, en garanti^sant aux populations des institutions 
lib^rales et conformes k kur voeu oomme aux n^cessites des temps, fasse tomber 
toutes les resistances. Ce manifeste, paraissant au moment meme oh nos forces 
se montreraient sur les o6tes des Etats de I'S^lise, serait le signal d'une concilia- 
tion qui ne laisserait en dehors qu'un bien petit nombre de mdcontens. Vous 
ne sauriez trop insister sur TutiUte, sur la n^cessite m^me, d'un pareil acte. 

II vous sera facile de faire comprendre aux membres de la Conference de 
Gaete que, si nous n'avons pas cru devoir attendre pour agir, le resultat des 
deliberations de cette Conference, c'est parceque lamarche rapide des evenemens 
ne nous le permettait pas. Ce que nous desirous c'est que le St. Pere, en 
rentrant k Rome, se trouve place dans une situation, qui, tout k la fois satis- 
faisante pour lui et pour son peuple, garantisse Tltalie et T Europe contre de 
nouvelles pertiu-bations, et ne porte atteinte ni k Tequilibre pohtique ni a Tinde- 
pendance des Etats Itahens. Les moyens auxquels nous avons recours sont, si 
je ne me trompe, les plus propres k atteindre ce but. lis doivent done obtenir 
Fapprobation de tons les amis de Tordre et de la paix. 

Agreez, &c. 


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Sir, Paris, April 18, 1849. 

THE determination announced to you in a despatch of the 15th instant 
is at length taken and is about to be carried into execution. A vote of the 
National Assembly, passed at the close of a solemn discussion, having provided 
the Government of the RepubUc with the funds which it required for that 
purpose, a body of troops commanded by General Oudinot will be dispatched 
without delay to Civita Vecchia. The idea of the Government of the Republic, 
in deciding upon this measure, has not been either to impose upon the Roman 
people a system of administration which their free will would have rejected, 
or to compel the Pope, when he shall be recalled to the exercise of his temporal 
power, to adopt such or such system of Government. We have thought, we 
think more than ever, that by the force of circumstances, and in consequence 
of the natural disposition of men's minds, the system of administration which 
was founded at Rome by the Revolution of November is destined shortly to fall; 
that the Roman people, provided it is reassured against the dangers of a 
reaction, will readily replace itself under the authority of the Sovereign Pontiff; 
and that Pius IX, on returning to his dominions, will carry back thither the 
generous, enlightened, and liberal policy with which he has lately shown himself 
to be animated. To facilitate a reconcihation which should be carried out in 
such a spirit, to furnish the Pope and all those who, at Gaeta as well as at 
Rome, are disposed to contribute thereto, with the support which they may 
require in order to surmount the obstacles raised in one sense or the other by 
exaggerated influences or by evil passions, such is the object which we have 
assigned to our expedition. Have the goodness, when announcing, in concert 
with M. de Rayneval, to Cardinal Antonelli, the departure of the division com- 
manded by General Oudinot, clearly to explain to him the object and the bearing 
of the resolution which we have now adopted. He will understand that in order 
to place himself in a position to profit by it, the Pope must hasten to pubUsh a 
manifesto, which, by guaranteeing to the people Uberal institutions in conformity 
with their wishes as well as with the necessities of the times, shall cause the 
overthrow of all resistance. This manifesto, appearing at the very moment 
when our troops would show themselves on the coasts of the States of the 
Church, would be the signal for a reconciliation from which only a very small 
number of malcontents would be excluded. You cannot insist too strongly upon 
the utility of, or the necessity even which exists for, such a document. 

It will be easy for you to make the members of the Conference of Gaeta 
understand that if we have not thought fit to wait for the result of the delibera- 
tions of that Conference before resorting to action, it is because the rapid progress 
of events did not allow us to do so. What we desire is, that the Pope, on 
returning to Rome, shall find himself in a position which, at once satisfactory for 
himself and for his people, shall secure Italy and Europe from new commotions, 
and shall not prejudice either the balance of power or the independence of the 
Italian States. The means to which we have recourse are, if I do not deceive 
myself, the best calculated for the attainment of this object. They must conse- 
quently meet with the approbation of all the friends of order and of peace. 

Receive &c. 
(Signed) ' E.' DROUYN DE LHUYS. 

No- 14. 
Mr. Buchanan to Viscount Palmerston. — {Received April 23.) 

(Extract.) St. Petersburgh^ April 11, 1849. 

I HAVE made Count Nesselrode acquainted with the concluding 
paragraphs of your Lordship's despatch to Lord Normanby*, dated the 
2?th ultimo, on the subject of the negotiations which are about to be 
entered into with a view to re-establishing the authority of the Pope at 

* See Papers respecting the Affiiirs of Italy, 1849. Part IV, No. 243. 

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No. 15. 

Sir Oiorge Hamilton to Viscount Palmerston. — {Received April 30.) 

My Lord, Florence, April 22, 1849. 

. THE details I daily receive from Aneona of the atrocities committed 
are hardly credible, and such as appear to stain no other European city. 
The Roman Government seem to have abandoned all intention of inter- 
fering to crush the robbers and assassins by arrest and punishment, and 
the life of Her Majesty's Consul is menaced and seems really in danger. 

The average number of daily murders is six or eight ; last Sunday 
there were ten victims, of whom one gentleman was murdered on the 
French Consul's staircase, another on the flat above him, and a third close 
to the Consul's house. The rage of the assassins appears chiefly directed 
against persons of respectability supposed to entertain principles opposed 
to the Revolutionary Government. 

I have been requested by some of the English inhabitants to apply for 
a ship of war to protect them, but I fear that Sir William Parker would 
not be enabled to comply with their wishes. 

I think it my duty to make your Lordship acquainted with this sad- 
state of affairs at Aneona, in case Her Majesty's Government should think, 
fit to order a man-of-war to proceed there to protect English interests. 

I have, &c. 

No. 16. 

Sir George Hamilton to Viscount Palmerston. — (Received May 4.) 

(Extract.) Florence, April 25, 1849. 

WITH reference to my despatch of the 22nd instant, I have the honour 
to inclose herewith a letter which I have received from Her Majesty's 
Consul at Aneona, which informs me that an Irish friar, named O'Kelleher, 
greatly respected by all the English residents at Aneona, had been shot 
under the windows of the Russian Consul, and that the life of an 
Englishman had been threatened for calling the guard to the aid of the 
dying friar. ' 

Under these circumstances I have thought it my duty to instruct 
Mr. Petre to bring these lamentable circumstances under the notice of the 
Roman Government, more particularly as the most culpable apathy seems 
to prevail on their part in attempting to repress the assassinations which 
hourly occur. 

Inclosure in No. 16. 
Consul Moore to Sir George Hamilton. 

(Extract.) Aneona, April 21, 1849. 

YESTERDAY morning we were again horrified by another list of 
murders during the evening of the 19th, and amongst them Father O'Kel- 
leher, an Irish friar. He was shot dead under the Russian Consul's win- 
dows, who saw him expire and heard his last groan without the power of 
rendering him any aid, though the dyin^ man looked imploringly up at 
the windows of this house where the ladies of the family were also assem- 
bled, and to whom he was father confessor. His body was removed in a 

This event has cast great gloom over all the English, as the poor 
murdered man was intimate with us ' all, and as for my house he had the. 
full run of it all times. 

An Englishman for calling the guard to the aid of the dying friar is 
now threatened. It appears wnen a victim is doomed, his executioner (one 

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or more) is at the same time named. As yet the Governor has done 
nothing to stay this torrent of human blood. He wrote to me yesterday 
to say ne was still exerting himself to combine a general plan *^ per estir- 
pare questa piaga si dolorosa che tanto disonora la citti di Ancona ed i 
santi principi della liberty/' but if he were unsuccessful he should give in 
his resignation. 

It is said two commissaries arrived yesterday from Home, and that 
they addressed the Circoli on the present terrific state of things. I believe 
no murders took place last night. Very few persons are to be seen out of 
doors at any hour. It is even dangerous to look out of a window. Several 
have been shot at when doing so, but none wounded, though one received 
a bullet through his cap. 

No. 17. 

Sir George Hamilton to Viscount Palmerston. — {Received May 6.) 

(Extract.) Florence, April 28, 1849. 

I AM sorry to inform your Lordship that the reign of terror continues 
at Ancona. The lives of the captains of two English merchant-vessels are 
threatened — they dare not leave their ships. 

No. 18. 

Sir George Hamilton to Viscount Palmerston. — (Received May 6.) 

(Extract.) Florence, April 28, 1849. 

T HAVE the honour to inform your Lordship that intelligence has 
reached Florence of the disembarkation of 8000 or 9000 French troops, 
under the command of General Oudinot, at Civita Vecchia. No opposition 
was oflTered to the landing of the troops, who were well rec^ved. 

No. 19. 
The Hon. W. Temple to Viscount Palmerston. — {Received May 7.) 

(Extract.) Naples, April 27, 1849. 

THE French force, which has been ordered to embark at Toulon and 
Marseilles, amounting, it is said, to 5000 or 6000 men, are I am told 
expected to arrive shortly at Fiumicino, at the mouth of the Tiber, from 
which it would appear that they are intended to march upon Rome. 

Admiral Baudin has received orders to remain in this neighbourhood 
for the present with his squadron, which consists of five sail of the line, 
four of which are in the Bay of Naples and one at Gaeta, and five 

Admiral Sir William Parker left Naples on the 8th instant for Malta, 
leaving the '' Howe** and the *' Spitfire'' steamer here ; and Admiral Baudin 
was to remain till the 14th instant, as he was waiting for the arrival of a 
9tore-ship which was to join him from Toulon. In the meantime, how- 
ever, the letter carried by the *^Caton'' to Palermo gave rise to the proposal 
of the Palermitans to submit, which detained the Admiral some time • 
longer until the result was ascertained; and now this expedition from 
France in support of the Pope will cause him to prolong his stay on this 

Neapolitan troops to the amount of about 12,000 men are collected on 
the frontier^ ready to act in case they should be required to advance on 

The members of the Diplomatic Body who are occupied with the 
ataiTB of the Pope, are assembled now at Gaeta. 

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Viscount Palmerston to Sir George Hamilton. 

Sir^ Foreign Office, May 9, 1849. 

IN reply to your despatch of the 25th ultimo, I have to acquaint 
you that I approve of your having instructed Mr. Petre to call the 
attention of the Roman Government to the state of affairs at Ancona. 

I am, &c. 

No. 21. 

The Marquis of Normanby to Viscount Palmerston. — (^Received May 10.) 

(Extract) Paris, May 8, 1849. 

THE excitement in the Assembly yesterday, as soon as the nature of 
the news from Rome became known, was very great. All the facts were 
assumed upon the authority of private letters ; but it was evident there 
was so general a dissatisfaction and uneasiness, that it was impossible 
to maintain the reserve which, under other circumstances, the imperfect 
state of information would well have justified. The Ministers therefore 
consented to the appointment of a Commission to examine in to the instruct 
tions given by them to the General. The composition of this Commission 
was hostile, and the report was such as might in consequence have been 

No. 22. 

The Marquis of Normanby to Viscount Palmerston, — {Received May 10.) 

My Lord, Paris, May 9, 1849. 

I HAVE the honour to inclose to your Lordship a number of the 
" Constitutionnel," containing the copy of a letter addressed by the Presi- 
dent of the Republic to General Oudinot, with reference to the operations 
of the French forces in the Roman States. 

I have, &c. 
(Signed) NORMANBY. 

Inclosure in No. 22. 
The President of the French Republic to General Oudinot. 

Mon cher G^n^ral, Eh/see-National, 8 Mai, 1849. 

LA nouvelle t^l^graphique qui annonce la resistance impr^vue que 
vous avez rencontr6e sous les murs de Rome m'a vivement pein^. J'esp6- 
rais, vous le savez, que les habitans de Rome, ouvrant les yeux k ^evidence, 
recevraient avec empressement une arm6e qui venait accomplir chez eux 
une mission bienveillante et d6sint6ress6e. II en a 6t6 autrement : nos 
soldats ont 6t6 re9us en ennemis ; notre honneur militaire est engag^ ; je 
ne soufFrirai pas qu'il regoive aucune atteinte. Les renforts ne vous 
manqueront pas. Dites Jt vos soldats que j'appr^cie leur bravoilre, que je 
partage leurs peines, et qu'ils pourront toujours compter sur mon appui 
et sur ma reconnaissance. 

Recevez &c. 

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My dear General, Elys^e National^ May 8, 1849. 

THE telegraphic intelligence which announces the unlooked-for resistance 
which you have encountered under the walls of Rome has affected me greatly. 
I hoped, as you know, that the inhabitants of Rome, opening their eyes to 
evidence, would eagerly receive an army which amved for the purpose of 
effecting as regards them a kind and disinterested task. The result has been 
different : our soldiers have been received as enemies ; our military honour is 
involved ; I will not allow that it should sustain any damage. Reinforcements 
shall not be wanting to you. Tell your soldiers that I appreciate their bravery, 
that I share their toils, and that they can always reckon upon my support and 
upon my gratitude. 

Receive, &c. 

No. 23. 
Mr. Freeborn to Viscount Palmerston. — (Received May 11.) 

(Extract.) Rome, May 1, 1849. . 

I HAVE the honour to report to yo\ir Lordship that yesterday at 10 a.m. 
the city gates, *' Porta Cavallegieri " and '^ Porta St. Pancrazio," both within gun- 
shot of St. Peter's, were attacked by the advance guard of about 5000 men of 
General Oudinot's force, consisting of 9000 men, and after a severe conflict 
of about six hours, were repulsf^d with great loss on the part of the French. 
As far as I can learn, about 350 of the French have been made prisoners, and 
amongst them 12 or 13 officers of rank, about 400 killed and wounded in 
proportion; on the whole, I am of opinion about 1200 men hors de combat. 
At 5 o'clock P.M. the fire had ceased. 

It is superfluous to say that the French behaved with great bravery, but 
they were met by men equally brave ; in short the conflict was desperate. On 
the part of the Romans not more than 3000 were engaged, part in the open 
field and part behind the barricades, in which they were assisted by the mass of 
the population, including the women. The Romans had a reserve of about 
10,000 men between regular troops and volunteers that were not allowed to act, 
in order that they might be fi^sh to meet the remainder of General Oudinofs 
body of troops, if necessary; the Romans have lost 18 officers and about 200 
men placed hors de combat; amongst them about 40 students, sons of the most 
respectable families in Rome. 

It would appear, my Lord, fi'om what I have been able to learn, that 
General Oudinot calculated on the reactionist party in the city, but not an 
individual made his appearance, for this reason, that the mass of the people 
are ill-disposed to the restoration of the Ecclesiastical Government. 

It was expected that the attack would be renewed this morning, as the 
French are encamped about three miles from the city, but as yet no second 
attack has taken place. Immense preparations are making, barricades are 
Jforming in the streets, and every means of defence adopted by a population of 
160,000, and about 15,000 between regular troops and volunteers; consequently 
great loss of life must ensue, and destruction of property. All the neighbouring 
towns are sending in reinforcements. 

It is my duty to state to your Lordship that anarchy has not existed in the 
city of Rome, and that crime has diminished.. 

I have not failed to afford every protection in my power to the EngVsh in 
Rome, by receiving part in my house, and by oflfering them an asylum at a 
neighbouring hotel, under the immediate protection of a strong body of Civic 
Guard which was granted to me in the most courteous manner by the Roman 

I have called a meeting of the Consuls of foreign Powers at this Consular 
residence ; the result has been that we have oflfered our services to the Munici- 
pality of Rome, should they be required, when by our interference we may save 
effusion of blood and destruction of property. 

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No, 24. 
Sir Oeorge Hamilton to Viscount Palmerston. — (Received May 10.) 

(Extract.) Florence, May 2, 1849. 

I SEE in to-day's newspapea^s^ that Lord Lansdowne has been que^oned 
in the House oi Lords rdative to i^e reported sale of woi^ of art at Florence 
nod at Rome. 

I have the honour to inform your Lordship that no sale whatever of any of 
the contents of the public collections at Rome or Florence has tak^a place. 

No. 25. 
Sir George Hamilton to ViscowfU Palmerston. — (Received May 11.) 

My Lord, Florence^ May 3, 1840. 

THE telegraph from Marseilles to Paris will have Airnished your Lordship 
with so much more recent intelligence of the French ^cpedition to Civita 
Vecchia than I can give you from hence, that I have hitherto abstained from 
addressing your Lorddiip on that subject. 

Prom the accounts of the state of Rome given by travellers arriving from 
that city, it would appear that if the French Government counted upon a great 
reaction in favour of the Papal Government which should manifest itself as soon 
as the French troops touched the Roman soil, they have been much deceived, 
as no such reaction has taken place, at least in Rome, where a hatred of Priestly 
Government seems to be deeply rooted in the minds of the great mass of the 

Hie Romans a^^pear determined to resist ; and a report reached Florence 
yesterday evening, that the French had been obliged to retire after a conflict in 
the neighbourhood of Rome, in wUch they sustained considerable loss. 

I do not understand that there is much objection to the Pope personally 
among the Romans, but the dislike of the cardinals and priests is unbounded, 
and the palaces of some of the nobles, particularly the Doria and Borghese 
Palaces, are threatened with destruction. 

Ancona has been placed in a state of siege^ and the Government seem to 
be taking some measures to arrest the murderers who infest that city. 

I have, &c. 

No. 26. 

Tke Secretary to tke Aimindty to Mr. AMmgUm. 

Sir, Admiralty y May 10, 1849. 

I AM oonmanded by my Lords Comtnissioners of the Admiralty to send 
yoa herewith, fin: the information of Yiscoimt Palmerston, cc^es of a letter 
from Vice- Admiral Sir WilHam Parker, dated the 1st instant, with its indo- 
aures, rqportin^ the arrangemraits he has maide for the protection of British 
lirterestB at Anoona and other j^aces in the Adriatic, moA, that the Santiiiiao 
squadron had proceeded to Genoa. 

I am, &B. 
^Sfigned) W. A. B. HAMILTON. 

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Inclosure 1 in No. 26. 
Vke-Admiral Sir W. Parker to the Secretary to the Admiralty. 

Sir, '' Caledonia/' Malta, May 1, 1849. 

I HAVE this instant received Mr. Ward's letter of the 18th April, 
conveying the directions of the Lords of the Admiralty that a ship may 
be sent to Ancona for the protection of British trade. It is my intention to 
dispatch the ''Frolic" there to-morrow. The inclosed extract of a commimi- 
cation which I received only five days ago from Captain Symonds, will in the 
meantime apprize their Lordships that the *' Spartan " was on the 19th ultimo 
at Ancona, and that no danger to British residents was then apprehended. The 
*' Racer" had not at that date joined the " Spartan.*' Captain Symonds will 
consequently return to Trieste and remain there until apprehensions for the safety 
of Her Majesty's subjects are removed, or until I can send the ** Ardent " or 
" Sharpshooter" to Venice, which I trust will be in accordance with their 
Lordships' directions contained in Mr. Ward's letter of the 8th ultimo. 

The Sardinian squadron has I beheve left the Adriatic. One frigate and 
five steamers anchored for a couple of days in Valletta Harbour on their way 
to Genoa, and the frigate bearing Admiral Albini's flag appeared off this port 
on the 28th of April, when she had communication by boat with the Sardinian 
ships which were then inside the harbour. The whole have since proceeded to 
their destination. 

I have, &c. 
(Signed) W. PARKER. 

Inclosure 2 in No. 26. 
Captain Symonds to Vice-Admiral Sir W. Parker. 

(Extract.) '^ Spartan,'' Ancona, April 19, 1849. 

I ARRIVED here this morning at 8 a.m., and have just communicated 
with Mr. Moore, our Consul here. 

This place seems in a melancholy state : murders have occurred in the 
open day ; but they seem to have limited these atrocities to themselves ; and as 
there are six Enghsh vessels here I see no cause of alarm to British subjects, 
which amount to four families. 

The French steamer *' Brazier/' that was stationed here, has left for 

The "Agile,'* French brig-of-war, is coming here. 

I hear nothing of Vice-Admiral Albini's squadron, and have seen nothing, 
although I have twice crossed the gulf. 

No. 27. 
Sir George Hamilton to Viscount Palmerston.— (Received May 15.) 

My Lord, Florence, May 5, 1849. 

WITH reference to the state of Ancona I have received advices from that 
town that the state of siege is maintained. Arrests continue to be made, and 
persons are searched in the streets for prohibited arms. 

On the 2nd instant the French Consul was summoned to appear before the 
Governor and chief oflScers, and then informed that if the two French war- 
steamers did not quit those waters they sunk. 
The two steamers are preparing to leave at once. 

I have, &c. 

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No. 28. 
Mr. Freeborn to Viscount Palmerston. — (Received May 15.) 

My Lord, Rome, May 5, 1849. 

IN my despatch dated the 1st instant, I had the honour to report 
to your Lordship the attack and retreat of the French troops under the com- 
mand of General Oudinot, who I am informed proposes to make a second 

I now beg leave to inform your Lordship that the advance guard of the 
Neapolitan troops, about 15,000 men, has reached Albano, fifteen miles from 

The preparations for defence are on a large scale, and I regret to say that 
in doing this great destruction of property has taken place ; all the villas, trees, 
&c., near the approaches to the town gates, have been blown up and cut down. 
The English chapel, I fear, will meet the same fate, and the military authorities 
are placing cannon on the churches. I also fear that the splendid palaces of 
Princes Dona, Borghese, &c., will meet the same fate ; in short there is every 
appearance of immense loss of life and property, as the populace and troops are 
filling the houses with paving stones, &c., determined (as they state) to resist 
the return of the Ecclesiastical Government. 

The Republic of course must succumb under such force ; but I must in 
justice say, that the men in power have, under all the circumstances, shown 
courage and moderation. 

On the 30th instant Vice-Consul Lowe, at Civita Vecchia, sent me a 
despatch brought by the '^ Spitfire" from Naples, which has never reached me, 
and I am still without any particular instructions. 

No works of art have either been secreted or offered for sale ; on the con- 
trary, they have been restored, preserved and protected. 

I have, &c. 

No. 29. 
Mr. Freeborn to Viscount Palmerston. — {Received May 15.) 

(Extract.) Rome, May 5, 1849. 

IN my despatch dated the 6th of April, I had the honour to inform 
your Lordship that I had recommended the English residing in Rome to quit 
the city. This advice I repeated daily , but it was treated with ridicule and 

The attack upon the city by the French caused alarm, but the approach of 
the Neapolitan army has struck a panic ; I aUow not without cause, as much 
mischief must ensue fi*om such troops. 

I have been assailed by all sides and at all hours by the British visitors and 
residents to obtain permits for them to quit the city, declared to be in a state of 
siege. I have not failed to exert myself both by personal and written appUca- 
tions to procure for them the means of departure, but the military authorities (in 
whose hands all power is vested) refused to allow horses to quit the town. 
However I am happy to say that my laborious exertions have enabled numerous 
families to quit. 

No. 30. 

Viscount Palmerston to the Marquis ofNarmanby. 

My Lord, Foreign Office, May 16, 1849. 

I HAVE received a despatch firom Mr. Freeborn, the British Consular 
Agent at Rome, dated the 5th instant, stating that he apprehends that great loss 
of life and destruction of property will ensue upon the approach of the 


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Neapolitan troops to Rome ; and I have to direct yout Excellency to request that 
the French Government will give instractions to General Oudinot to afford 
protection to British subjects at Rome. 

I am, &c« 

No. 31. 

The Marquis of Normanby to Viscount Palmer ston. — {Received May 17.) 

My Lord, Pom, May 16, 1849. 

THE French Government have received letters from Rome to-day, which 
incline them to hope that the affairs of that city will be peaceably arranged, in 
consequence of an appeal likely to be made to the French General for his 
amicable intervention between the people and the Pope. 

I have, &c. 
(Signed) NORMANBY. 

No. 32. 

The Marquis of NormarAy to Viscou/tit Palmerston. — {Received May 18.) 

My Lord, Paris, May 17, 1849. 

I INCLOSE a copy of a telegraphic message which arrived yesterday 
afternoon, and confirmed what M. Drouyn de Lhuys had previously anticipated 
as to tiie renewed desire on the part of the de facto Government of Rome to put 
itself in communication with the Commandant of the French Forces, and 
endeavour to obtain through his means better terms for the Roman people than 
if obliged to submit imconditionally upon the advance of the NeapoUtans and 

I have, &c. 
(Signed) NORMANBY. 

Inclosure in No. 32. 

Telegraphic Message. 

Paris, le 16 Mai. 

LE Gouvemement vient de recevoir la d^pfiche tel^graphique suivante, du 
Contre-Amiral Tr^ouart, en date de Toulon, le 16 Mai au matin : 

*' Je suis parti avant-hier h, sept heures du soir de Civita Vecchia, oil le bruit 
courait, d^s la veille, que deux envoyfe Romains, porteurs de paroles d'accom- 
modement, s'^taicnt rendus k notre quartier-gen^ral. Ces bruits m'ont ^t^ 
confirmds par une lettre du G^n^ral-en-chef du 13 au soir, de Castel di Guido : 

" * T)6jk des propositions s6ieuses de soumission me sont fiiites.' 

^' J'arrive h Toulon avec le ' Labrador' et le ^ San^/ pour les faire concourir k 
plus t6t possible au transport des nombreux chevaux qui sont dirig^s sur Civita 


Paris, May 16. 

THE Government has just received the following telegraphic despatch from 
Rear- Admiral Tr^houart, dated Toulon, the 16th of May in the morning: 

" The day before yesterday, at seven in the evening, 1 left Civita Vecchia, 
where it was reported, since the previous evening, that two Roman Envoys, 
bearers of proposals for an agreement, had proceeded to our head-quarters. 
These reports were confirmed to me by a letter from the ^General-in-chie^ dated 
the evening of the 13th, ficom Castel (fi Guido. 

^ '' Already aerious propoaals of submissioii are made to me.' 

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**I come ta Toulon with the ' Labradcur' and * Le San^' itf order tbjtf they 
may assist as soon as poesibte in the conveyance of the numerous horses on thdur 
way to Civita Vecchia." 

No- 33. 

Pfwee Sckwarzenherg to Count CoUoredo. — (Comfmmmated to Viscount 
Pahmrston by Count CoUoredo, Mey 17.) 

M. le Comte, Vimne^ le 29 Amil, 1849. 

LE Gouvemement dc TEmpereur a transmis an Mar6chal Comte Radetzky 
^ordre de feire eatrer des troupes tant en Toscane que dans les Legations. 

En nous d^cidaat k prendre cette mesiu^, nous n'avons fait que nous 
rendre k I'appel qui nous a 6t6 adresse dans ce but de la part du Grand Due de 
Toscane comme de la part du Saint Pfere, ce dernier aj^ant k la fois eu recours k 
rintervention armfe de la France, de FEspagne, et de Naples. 

Le but de notre intervention n'est autre que le r^tablissement des Gou- 
vememens legitimes et de Tordre 16gal. D^s que ce but aura et^ atteint, et il le 
sera bient6t, nous I'esp^rons, graces au concours de la partie saine des popula- 
tions, nos troupes se retireront. 

Quant k Tintervention dans I'Etat de TEglise, nous aurions d^sir^ qu'il 
nous eftt 6t^ pennis d'attendre que les arr^t^s de laConfiSrence de Gaete, tout en 
mettant en relief Taccord existant entre les Puissances dont le Saint P^re a 
sp^cialement T6clamd le concours, eussent apport^ k leur action de Tensemble et 
de I'unit^. 

La France ayant pris le parti de devancer par Texp^dition de Civita Vecchia 
les arr6tes de la Conf6rence, nous n'en esperons pas moins que le but vers lequel 
tendront ses eflForts isoMs se confondront avec celui que les Quatre Puissances 
avaient 6t6 appel^es k poursuivre de commun accord. 

Nous ne voulons, pour notre part, que remplir les voeux du Saint P^re, 
identiques k ceux du monde civilis^, en coop^rant dans la limite de nos faculty 
k rendre au Chef de I'Eglise Universelle, sa liberty et son ind^pendance, que les 
peuples Catholiques ne sauraient voir avec indiflfi^rence confisqu^e au profit d'un 

£arti anarchiste. La France, en dernier analyse, ne saurait vouloir autre chose, 
►^s-lors, j'aime k le croire. Taction des deux Puissances, tout en ayant Tair 
d ob^ k des impulsions divei^entes, n'am^nera point de conflit entre elles, et 
aboutira au contraire k des r&ultats ^galement profitables au bien-etre des 
peuples de Tltalie Centrale, comme k la cause de I'ordre gdn^ral. 

Je vous prie, M. le Comte, de donner lecture de cette d^p6che k M. le 
Principal Secretaire d'Etat. 

Recevez, &c. 


M. le Comte, Vienna, April 29, 1849. 

THE Government of the Emperor has sent to Marshal Count Radetzky, 
orders to advance troops as well into Tuscany as into the Legations. 

In deciding upon this measure we have only responded to the demand which 
has been addressed to us to this effect on the part of the Grand Duke of Tus- 
cany, as well as on the part of the Holy Father, the latter having at the same 
time applied for the armed intervention of France, Spain, and Naples. 

The object of our intervention is no other than the reestablishment of the 
legitimate Governments and of legal order. Whenever this object shall have 
been attained, and, thanks to the cooperation of the sane portion of the popula- 
tion, it will be so we hope shortly, our troops will retire. 

As regards the intervention in the State of the Church, we could have 
wished to have been allowed to wait until the decisions of the Conference of 
Gaeta, while placing in relief the agreement existing between the Powers whose 
support tfife Holy Father has especially claimed^ had given to their endeavours 
combination and uniformity. 

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France having decided by the expedition to Civita Vecchia, to act in advance 
iof the decisions of the Conference, we do not the less hope that the object at 
which her isolated efforts aim, will prove to be the same as that which the Four 
Powers had been called upon to effect by common action. 

For om* part we only wish to comply with the wishes of the Holy Father, 
identical with those of the civilized world, by cooperating within the limits of our 
means^ to restore to the Chief of the Universal Church his liberty and indepen- 
dence, which Catholic populations cannot with indifference see destroyed to the 
advantage of an anarchistical party. France* if we examine it well, can have no 
other object; I therefore willingly believe that the measures of the two Powers, 
while they may appear to be dictated by different impulses, will not bring about 
any conflict between them ; but, on the contrary, will lead to results equally 
conducive to the well-being of the people of Central Italy and to the cause of 
general order. 

I beg you, M. le Comte, to allow the Principal Secretary of State to read 
this despatch. 

JvCcent &Ca 

No- 34. 
The Marquis of Normanby to Viscount Palmer ston. — {Received May 18.) 

(Extract.) Paris, May 17, 1849. 

I RECEIVED this morning by post your Lordship's despatch of yesterday's 
date, respecting the position of the English residents at Rome. I have since 
spoken to M. Drouyn de Lhuys on the subject, and he has promised to commu- 
nicate at once with General Oudinot as to the protection to be extended to 
British subjects. 

No. 35. 
Mr. Freeborn to Viscount Palmerston. — {Received May 19.) 

(Extract.) Rome, May 9, 1849. 

I BEG leave to inform your Lordship that out of 150 British subjects who 
were in Rome when it was attacked by the French troops, only 10 remain, who 
I trust will leave to-morrow. 

No. 36. 
Sir George Hamilton to Viscount Palmerston. — {Received June 12.) 

(Extract) Florence, May 11, 1849. 

I HAVE the honour to inform your Lordship that the Austrians com- 
menced the bombardment of Bologna on the 8th instant, which continued 
during the day, and it recommenced on the 9th at midday. 

Her Majesty's Consul writes to me from Ferrara, that 5000 Austrians 
Jiave summoned that city to surrender and recognise the Pope. 

No. 37. 

Sir George Hamilton to Viscount Palmerston. — {Received May 21.) 

(Extract.) Florence, May 12, 1849. 

BOLOGNA still holds out, and the bombardment continues at intervals. 
A good deal of skirmishing has taken place attended with loss of life on 
both sides. 

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The Secretary to the Admiralty to Mr. Addington. — (Received May 23-) 

Sif^ Admiralty, May 21, 1849. 

I AM commanded by my Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty to send 
you herewith, for the information of Viscount Palmerston, copies of a letter 
from Vice-Admiral Sir William Parker, dated the 8th instant, and of its inclo- 
sures from the Captain of Her Majesty's ship ** Spartan," reporting his 
proceedings in visiting Venice and Ancona. 

I am, &c. 
(Signed) W. A- B. HAMILTON. 

Inclosure 1 in No. 38. 
Vice-Admiral Sir W. Parker to the Secretary to the Admiralty. 

Sir, " Caledonia/' Malta, May 8, 1849. 

BE pleased to acquaint the Lords of the Admiralty that Her Majesty's ship 
*' Spartan'' arrived here last night from the Adriatic. 

I inclose for their Lordships' information the copy of a letter from Captain 
Symonds, reporting the result of his visit to Venice and Ancona. 

The '"Racer" was left at the former port; and their Lordships will have 
learnt from my letter of the 1st instant, of my intention to dispatch the '' Frolic** 
for the protection of British subjects at Ancona, whither she proceeded on the 
following day, and I hope by this time has reached her destination. 

I have, &c. 
(Signed) W. PARKER. 

Inclosure 2 in No. 38. 
Captain Symonds to Vice-Admiral Sir W. Parker. 

(Extract.) '' Spartan,'' at sea, April 27 y 1849. 

I ARRIVED at Ancona on the 26th of April, where I remained twenty- 
four hours, at the pressing instance of Her Majesty's Consul. 

Threats having been issued against him, which might have been founded, I 
waited on the Governor and most energetically called upon him to protect Her 
Britannic Majesty's Consul and British subjects from the outrages existing in 
Ancona, and demanded the arrest of a gang of assassins who, amongst numerous 
atrocities, murdered an Irish Carmehte monk in open dayhght. He satisfied 
both the Consul and myself as to the security of British residents and property ; 
these atrocities being confined to those who had made themselves politically 
odious to the dominant faction. He promised me to arrest the gang in question 
during the night which the Consul informed me this morning had been done. 
Her Britannic Majesty's Consul made no request to me to remain longer at 
Ancona. I offered on two occasions to remove him or any other British resident 
who might think themselves in danger at Ancona. 

An Austrian squadron of two frigates, with a Vice and Rear-Admiral's flag 
flying, two sloops, and a steam-vessel, were at Pisano when I passed on the 
morning of the 24th instant \ the position of the blockading squadron I have 
before detailed. 

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No. 39. 

The Secretary to the AdmiraUy to Mr. Addington. 

Sir, AdmiraUy, May 22, 1849. 

I AM commanded by my Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty to send 
you herewith for the inwrmation of Viscount Palmerston, a copy of a letter 
from Vice-Admiral Sir William Parker, dated the 6th instant, with its 
inclosures in original relative to the proceedings of the French forces in the 
Roman States. 

I am, &c. 
(Signed) W. A. B. HAMILTON. 

inclosure 1 in No. 39. 
Vtce-Admiral Sir TV. Parker to the Secretary to the Admiralty. 

(Extract.) ^' Caledonia,'' Malta^ May 6, 1849. 

BY the accompanying reports from Captain Sir James Stirling, of Her 
Majesty's ship *' Howe/' and Lieutenant Willes, commanding the '' Spitfire,'' 
the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty will learn the particulars of the 
disembarkation of the French expedition from Toulon, at Civita Veochia, on the 
25th ultimo, and their subsequent proceedings up to the 28th April, since which 
the French Consul at Malta has received information from the captain of the 
French steam-packet which arrived yesterday from Italy, that the division of the 
army under General Oudinot, when about to enter the gates of Rome, met 
with a severe check, which obliged them to retreat with considerable loss. 

Inclosure 2 in No. 39. 
Captain Sir James Stirling to Vice-Admiral Sir W. Parker. 

(Extract.) '* Howe,'' Naples, May 2, 1849. 

TH£ mail from Rome on the 28th ultimo brought authentic intelligence 
of the arrival of the French expedition at Civita Vecchia. It brought also 
copies of General Oudinot's address to the army prior to its embarkation at 
Marseilles^ and of his proclamation to the inhabitants. 

Upon his landing on tbe Roman territory, it aj^eared to Mr. Temple and 
to myself that it was expedient to send the *' Spitfire'^ to Civita Vecchia, for 
the double purpose of obitaining accurate information, and of affording to British 
subjects in that quarter an opportunity to escape from the scene of military 
Guperations. I accordingly dispatched Lieutenant Willes on the evening of 
the 28th. 

At 10 A.M. of yesterday, the ** Spitfire'* returned to this anchorage ; and I. 
have the honour herewith to transmit Lieutenant Willes's report. 

The ** Spitfire" is in quanuitine* and probably will not be released before 
the end of the week. 1 have learnt, however, from Lieutenant WiFlee, that there 
is no present prospect of communications being opened between Civita Vecchia 
and Home; and in &ct that no oae is permitted to quit the latter city. It 
seems therefore at present usdess to send the ^' Spitfire'^ back to remain at 
Civita Vecchia for the reception of British subjects. 

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Inclosurc 3 in No. 39. 
Proclnmation of General OudmoL 

Civita VeccUay 24 A'priUj 1849- 

IL Govemo della Repubblica Francese, animato da spirito liberale, dichiara 
dover rispettare il voto della maggioraUza delle popolazioni Romane, e di venire 
amichevolmente nello scopo di mantenere la sua legittima influenza, h deeiso 
ancora di non imporre a queste popolazioni alcuna forma di Govemo che non 
sia da esse bramato. 

Perci6 che concerne il Govematore di Civita Vecchia, sarJt conservato in 
tutte le sue attribuzione, e il Governo Francese prowedera airaumento delle sue 
spese derivanti dall' accrescimento del lavoro che produrrk il corpo di spedizione. 

Tutte le derrate, tutte le requisizioni necessarie al mantenimento del corpo 
di spedizione saranno pagate a moneta contante. 

II Ce^o Squadrone, Aiutante di Campo del Comandante in capo. 

(Firmato) ESPIRANO. 


Civita Vecchia, April 24, 1849. 

THE Government of the French Republic, animated by a liberal spirit, 
declares that the wishes of the majority of the Roman people should be respected, 
and that it comes as a friend, with the view of maintaining its legitimate influ- 
ence ; it is moreover resolved not to impose on this population any form of 
Government which is not desired by it. 

Touching the Governor of Civita Vecchia, he shall be maintained in all his 
powers, and the French Government will provide for the increase of his expenses, 
arising from the additional labour which the corps of the expedition may 

AH provisions and requisitions necessary for the maintenance of the expedi- 
tion shall be paid for in ready-money. 

The Chief of the squadron, aide-de-camp of the Commander-in-chief, 

(Signed) ESPIRANO. 

Inclosure 4 in No. 39. 
Proclamation of General Oudinot. 

Abitanti degli Stati Romani, Civita Vecchia^ Aprile, 1849. 

IN presenza degli avvenimenti che agitano I'ltalia, la Repubblica Francese 
ha risoluto di mandare un corpo d'armata sul vostro territorio ; non per difen-* 
dere il Govemo attuale che non ha riconosciuto, ma per frastomare dalla patria 
vostra immense sciagure. 

La Francia non pretende assumere il diritto di rigolare gli interessi i quali 
0Dno essenzialmente quelli delle popolazioni Romsme, ma che perd nello insieme 
generale, sono collegati con quelli di Europa intiera non che di tutto il mondo 

La Francia ha creduto che in virtu della sua posizione a*a piii ^cial-^ 
mente chiamata ad intervenire onde facilitare lo stabilimento di uno stato di 
cose ugualmente opposto agli abusi per giammai distrutti dalla generositi 
dell' iUustre Pio IX ed al anarchia di questi ultimi tempi. 

La bandiera che io vengo id inalberare suUa vostra riva fe bandiera della 
pace, deir ordine, della conciliazione, della vera liberty. 

Intomo ad essa si raduneranno tutti quelli che vorranno concorrere 
Itll' adempimento di questa santa e patriotica impresa. 

II Generale Comandante in capo, 



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Inhabitants of the Roman States, Civita Vecchia, April 1849. 

IN consequence of the events by which Italy is agitated, the French Repub- 
lie IS resolved to send an army to your territory, not to defend the existing 
Government, which it has not recognised, but to ward off fearful evils from your 

France does not pretend to assume a right to regulate interests which arc 
essentially those of the Roman people, but which, nevertheless, taken in their 
general bearings, are connected with those of all Europe, and even of the entire 
Christian world. 

France has felt that, by virtue of her position, she is more especially called 
upon to interfere in order to faciUtate the establishment of a state of things which 
is equally opposed to the abuses for ever destroyed by the generosity of the 
illustrious Pio IX, and to the anarchy of the recent times. 

The flag which I have just now planted upon your shores is the flag of peace, 
order, conciliation, and true hberty. 

All those will gather around it who are desirous of co-operating in the 
accompUshment of this holy and patriotic endeavour. 

The Greneral, Commander-in-chief, 

Inclosure 5 in No. 39. 

Address of General Oudinot to the Army^ 

MarsigliOy 20 Aprile, 1849. 

IL Presidente della Repubblica viene a confidarmi il comando in capo del 
corpo di spedizione nel Mediterraneo. 

Quest' onore imporre di grandi doveri ; il vostro patriottismo m'aiuterk a 

II Governo risoluto a mantenere ovunque la nostra antica e legittima 
influenza, non ha voluto che i destini de popoh Italiani possano essere in balia 
d'una Potenza straniera e di un partito in minority. 

EgU ci confida la bandiera della Francia, per piantarla nel territorio Romano, 
come una eclatante testimonianza della nostra simpatia. Soldati di terra e di 
mare, figli della medesima famiglia, yoi metterete in comune i vostri attacca- 
menti ed i vostri sforzi. Questa fraternity vi farJi sopportare con gioia i disagi, 
le privazioni, le fatiche nella terra ove voi andate a discendere : voi riconoscerete 
tutto il passato dei monumenti e delle ricordanze che stimoleri potentemente il 
vostro istinto di gloria. L'onore militare comanda tanto la i^sciplina che il 
coiraggio : non li obliate giammai. 

I vostri padri hanno avuto il raro privilegio di fare amare teneramente il 
nome Francese o vunque essi hanno combattuto. i 

Voi rispetterete le proprieta e gli usi delle popolazioni amiche. E nell' 
interesse di tutelare tali cose che il Governo ha prescritto che le spese dell' 
armata venissero pagate in contante. 

Voi prenderete in ogni occasione per regola di condotta questi principi di alta 
morality. Con le vostre armi, col vostro esempio, voi farete rispettare la dignity 
dei popoli : ella soffre egualmente colla licenza e col dispotismo. L'Alta ItaUa ci 
dovra cio che la Francia ha saputo acquistare pero e medesima Tordine, la liberty. 



MarseUles, April 20, 1849. 

THE President of the RepubHc has intrusted to tne the chief command of 
the expedition to the Mediterranean. 

• Talis honour imposes on me important duties ; your patriotism will help me 
to fulfil them. 

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The Government being determined to maintain everywhere our ancient 
and legitimate influence, will not allow the destinies of the people of Italy to be 
in the hands of a foreign Power and of a party which is in a minority, 
r It intrusts to us the banner of France, to be planted in the Roman territory, 
in marked testimony of our sympathies. Soldiers and sailors, sons of the same 
&mily, you will unite your attachments and your efforts. This fraternity will 
enable you joyfully to bear with discomforts, privations, and fatigues, in the 
land where you are about to disembark ; you will see there those monuments 
and recollections of the past, which will powerfully stimulate your instinct of 
glory. Military honour commands obedience as well as courage : never forget 
them ! 

Your fathers have had the rare privilege of making the French name tenderly 
loved wherever they have fought. 

You will respect the property and the usages of friendly populations. 
With the object of protecting these interests, the Government has conmianded 
that the expenses of the army be paid in ready-money. 

On all occasions you will make these principles of high morality the rule of 
your conduct. With your arras and your example you will make the dignity 
of nations respected ; it suflfers equally by licentiousness and despotism. Italy 
will owe to us what France has been able to acquire ; order and liberty are 


Inclosure 6 in No. 39. 
Lieutenant Willea to Captain Sir James Stirling. 

Sk, '' Spitfire;' Naples, May 1, 1849. 

IN pursuance of your directions I arrived in Her Majesty's steam-vessel 
under my command at Civita Vecchia at 4 p.m. of the 29th ultimo, and 
immediately delivered Mr. Temple's despatches to Mr. Lowe, Her Majesty's 
Vice-Consul at that place. 

I found there three French war-steamers and two transports, the French 
and Roman flags hanging together on the citadel. 

It appears that on the morning of the 24th the French steam-frigate 
" Panama" arrived there with an aide-de-camp of the French General, Oudinot, 
thie commander of the Mediterranean Expedition, who stated that the General 
intended landing a large force immediately ; that if a shot was fired at them, he 
would lay the city imder a heavy contribution. 

ITie Governor refused to allow them to land, but requested twenty-four' 
hours to deliberate, which was refused. On the following day a council of war 
having decided on not resisting the landing, a deputation went off to the French 
ship with that answer. The troops immediately commenced their disembarkation 
from eleven steamers, two frigates, and two transports ; and as far as I can 
ascertain, the total force was about 8000 infantry, a few cavalry, and 12 field- 
guns, the greater part encamping round the walls of the city. 

Immediately they were all landed. Admiral Trdhouart, who commanded the 
naval part of the expedition, returned to France with eight steamers and two 
frigates ; and it was stated that they were expected on their return with 5000 
men of all arms. 

The transports have been landing, and are still landing, large quantities of 
provisions, baggage, waggons, &c., and the camp equipage was declared to be in 
the most perfect state, giving the inhabitants the idea that it was decidedly an 
vmy of occupation. 

Civita Vecchia is in actual possession of the French, a colonel being the 
Governor de facto. All the regular troops have been disarmed ; the city is given 
out to be in a state of siege, the French troops behaving uncommonly well, and 
the inhabitants generaUy showing a most perfect indifference to the passing 

A Sardinian steamer, with 400 Lombard emigrants, who had been invited 
to Rome to assist in its defence, were refused admittance into the port of Civita 
Vecchia the day after the French arrived. 

£ 2 

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The Roman Governor wa6 arreeCed aiid put in prison a few houis hektte we 
sailed yesterday^ for an alleged breach of fiaath in carrying on a political: 

It was my intention to have proceeded to Rome immediately on my arrival^ 
thinking I should obtain much more information in a few hours there of what 
was going on than in correspondence with Mr. Freeborn ; but I considered the 
state of affairs made it too ha2ardous. 

It appears that on General Oudinot landing he immediately sent forward 
envoys to Rome ; and Mazzini stated to the House of Assembly there that cm 
asking them to explain what was the motive and object of sending an armed 
force to occupy a part of the territory of the RepubUc, they answered : that, 
the first motive was to preserve the Roman State from an Austrian invasion 
which was then being meditated and prepared ; that the second was to know' 
precisely what the sentiments of the people were as to the form of Grovenrment 
iiiey thought most suitable to them^ and to seek to promc^ a pefect reCc»W 
ciliation between Pius IX and the Roman population. 

The Assembly, who were in a great state of alarm and agitation, refused 
this explanation^ and decided on resisting. 

The Triumvirate then sent down the Minister for Foreign A&irs to Civita/ 
Vecchia, who had an interview with General Oudinot, from whom he received Wk 
other explanation than those given at Rome. 

The vanguard of the French army immediately commenced their march on 
Rome, and by the 28th ultimo the whole, except a few hundreds to garrison 
Civita Vecchia, had proceeded in the same direction ; and the latest accounts state 
they had arrived within a short distance of the Holy City. 

In the meantime a great many outward preparations have been made to 
resist the French entry into Rome. The bridges are reported to be destroyed, 
several of the chief buildings undermined, &c., but this latter requires 

I could not discover whether there is any great feeling among the people 
in fevour of the Pope, as there is such perfect indiflference among the people at 
Civita Vecchia ; but there is such a scarcity of money in the capital, that com 
is at 35 per cent, premium ; so it is generally thought that the Pope's return 
is the only remedy for this alarming evil. 

The latest accounts from Rome are of the 26th ultimo. At that time it was 
given out that the city would be defended to the last, and every preparation- 
was being made for that purpose, the general impression being that the Austrian 
and Neapolitan troops were acting in concert with the French ; but the fact of 
18,000 Austrians having arrived at Carrara and Massa, together with the French* 
statement to the contrary, medies that idea absurd. 

I waited at Civita V'ecchia until 5*30 p.m. of yesterday, hoping to rereivet 
despatches from Mr. Freeborn, and I then left for this place according to your 

I beg to inclose the proclamation of the General4n-chief, as well b& sl 
declaration to the people of Civita Vecchia. Nothing had been heard of any 
ill-treatment towards the English, many of whom had left for other places. 

I have, &c. 
(Signed) GEO. WILLES. 

No. 40. 
T%e Secretary to the Admiralty to Mr. jMdington. 

Sir, Admiralty, May 22, 1849. 

I AM commanded by my Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty to send* 
yon herewith, for the information of Viscoimt Palmerston, a tetter from Com^ 
mander A. C. Key, of Her Majesty^s steam-vessel " Bulldog," dated the lOdl 
May, reporting his proceedings, and relating to the state of affairs in the Romaic 

. , I am, &c. 

(Signed) W. A. B. HAMTLTOBL 

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Inclosure in No. 40. 

Commander Key to Vice-Admiral Sir W. Parker, 

''Bulldog,^' Palo, May 10 (finished at 
Sir, Civita Vecchia, May 12), 1849. 

ACCORDING to your order of the 2ad ultimo I arrived at Civita Vecchia 
on the morning of the 6th, and there obtained the following information^ the 
truth of which I have since confirmed. 

2. You are already acquainted with the movements of the French army up 
to the 28th. On the morning of the 29th, General Oudinot, who was then 
encaaiped at Maglianella, about five miles from Rome, ordered the advanced 
guard (consisting of 5,600 men with two field-pieces) to approach the city, 
conceiving that he had merely to show his intention of attacking, and the gates 
would be opened for his admittance. They advanced towards the Porta Caval- 
legieri and St. Pancrazio, the principal force appearing before the former, 
which, is the strongest and most easily defended point of the city ; when near 
the walls, Garibaldi, who was lying in ambush with about 2000 troops on the 
right flank of the French, surrounded a detachment of them and captured at 
<?ne' stroke 268 prisoners. As the French approached the Porta Cavallegieri, 
a masked battery opened fire on them, and voUies of musketry poured from the 
walls ; the French brought up their two field-pieces, and attacked the walls with 
unflinching courage ; all, however, was unavailing against so strong a position, 
and after attempting to scale the walls with spike-nails, and having between 
300 and 400 men put hors de combat, they were compelled to retreat, with a 
loss in killed, wounded, and taken prisoners of upwards of 600 men. The 
General then withdrew his force to Palo, to await reinforcements from France. 

3. In this position I found them on my arrival at Civita Vecchia on May 
6th,. part of the reinforcement having been just landed from the squadron under 
Rear- Admiral Tr^houart. 

4. Having been informed that owing to the preparations that were being 
made for resistance at Rome, the English residents had great difficulty in 
quitting it, I deemed it my duty to go there to endeavour to extricate them 
before a second attack was made. For this purpose I went in the ^' Bulldog,'' the 
same afternoon to Palo, and leaving her at that anchorage, proceeded by land early 
on the 7th to Rome, having obtained permission from General Oudinot to pass 
through his advanced posts. Arriving at Rome I found the gates barricaded 
and fortified, the walls of the city much strengthened, and every appearance of a 
determination to make a vigorous resistance. 

5. I went without loss of time to the Triumvirate; acquainted Mazzini that I 
had come to assist the British residents in leaving Rome, and requested him to 
aid me in doing so. He showed every disposition to do all in his power for the 
benefit of our countrymen, but said that the impediment was purely a military 
one : the horses required for posting are the property of Government, and the 
loss of those which would be required to take away the foreigners would con- 
siderably weaken them ; also, that if foreigners were permitted to go to Civita 
Vecchia, information would be conveyed to the French, and the horses fall into 
their band& This was reasonable; but on my showing him how unwise it 
would be to detain foreigners in Rome at this moment, and how little their 
cause could suffer from the information conveyed, I obtained permission for 
fOTeigners to leave Rome in any direction, wilii private or hired horses, and! 
guaranteed that the horses should not be detained by the French army. Within 
two days nearly all who were anxious to leave were gone — those remaining 
doing so firom their own dilatoriness, or possessing property from which they 
would not separate. This property was consid^able, but the Triumvirate 
promised to take it under their special protection. 

6. On the afternoon of the 7th the Roman Government decided on releasing 
ikm Fiiench prisoners. They were brought out. in the streets, and received with 
every mark of good feeling by the people, who cheered them, gave them food^ 
and showed them round St Peter's and the monuments ; the French, in return, 
saying that they had been deceived, having entered the Roman territory with 
the idea that they were to join the RomauB against the Austrians and Neapoli* 
t^p^ They were then*penmtted to return to their own head-quarters. 

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7. On the morning of the 8th I went to Albano, the head-quarters of the 
Neapolitan army, to obtain a promise from the General commanding to protect 
the British, in case he should take Rome by assault. 

8. 1 found the army (which consisted of about 14,000 men, with upwards of 
40 pieces of artillery) occupying Albano and Velletri, with the mclosed 
coimtry — the King commanding in person. On making known the obj^ 
of my visit, through General CaselU, the second in command^ His Majesty 
expressed a wish to see me. I repeated my request to His Majesty, who in the 
most cordial manner promised his especial protection to the EngUsh, if the 
contingency I referred to should arise. I specified the part of the town in 
which their property was situated. His Majesty then showed much anxiety 
to become acquainted with the movements of the French army and to learn the 
particulars of their repulse. I informed him as far as I felt myself at liberty 
to do. He evidently was entirely ignorant of their intentions as well as of the 
position of the Romans, and I received the impression that His Majesty was 
not at present meditating an attack on Rome, but had sent to the French 
General to persuade him to act in concert with him. The people at Albano^ 
though not RepubUcans, are much dissatisfied with the Neapolitans, who have 
enforced the cry of *^ Viva il Re !" everywhere, and imprisoned many who were 
suspected of being averse to the intervention. 

9. I returned to Rome the same afternoon and again went to Mazzini to 
repeat my request for protection of the British property which must unavoidably 
remain in Rome. He, after assuring me of its safety from all within the walls, 
.asked me my opinion of their prospects. I could not then refrain from stating 
unoflicially what I thought might save bloodshed if acted on. I answered that 
it seemed to me madness to think of resisting ; that it was evident that Rome 
must fall, either to the French at once or to the CathoUc Powers combined ; that 
now was the moment to treat with the French alone, and that this moment 
would soon pass, as the French having received a check, they would not be satis- 
fied until they obtained possession of Rome ; delay on their part to attack or on 
that of the Romans to treat would increase the probability of a combination of 
the Catholic Powers, in which case, the Romans might rest assured that the old 
form of Government would be imposed upon them ; that at present they had 
saved their honour and were enabled to treat with the French alone, with even 
greater advantage than they had previously possessed ; in fact I used every 
argument to convince him of the folly of resistance. Mazzini replied that they 
had great confidence in the good feeling of the French people towards them, and 
that on the arrival of the news in France of the real object of the expedition, a 
violent reaction would take place in their favour ; that a combination of many ■ 
Powers was more likely to defeat the object in view than to obtain it, and 
showed evidently that Avezzana and he (who are now the actual leaders of the 
Romans) are determined to hazard this last venture : it is their last in Italy ; 
for when Rome surrenders all is over with them. 

10. The general feeling among the Roman people appears to be in favour of 
making terms with the French, as they show no objection to the return of the 
Pope, but great repugnance to an Ecclesiastical Government. The leaders keep 
up their determination to resist by means of their recent successes, by a pronaise 
of assistance from Bologna and the provinces, and by encouraging the feeling 
against the priests, assuring the people that the return of the Pope can only 
take place with the old system of a spiritual administration. 

11. On the morning of the 9th I left Rome for Palo, and found the 
advanced guard of the French at Castel di Guido (twelve miles from Rome) . 
Reinforcements had arrived from France which completed the army to about 
16,000 men, including 1500 cavalry, 26 field-guns and 6 heavy siege-pieces. On 
the morning of the 10th the main body advanced from Palo to Castel di Giiido, 
and it was the intention of General Oudinot to follow with the rear-guard on 
the 12th, and to assault the city with all his force without loss of time. I ima- 
gine also that he has signified to the King of Naples his intention of attacking on 
a certain day, so that without a combined operation, a simultaneous advance 
may take place. 

12. M. Rayneval, the Minister of France at Naples, arrived at Palo to 
confer with General Oudinot on the 9th, and on the 10th, as I intended to pro- 
ceed to Civita Vecchia,. I conveyed him from Palo to that place. 

13. On the evenmg of the 10th about 2000 more troops arrived at Civita 

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Vecchia in two steamers and a transport ; they disembarked on the following 
morning and encamped outside the town. 

14. The present position of the respective forces appears to be as follows ; 
The Romans are prepai*ed to defend the city against all attacks, with a 

decided animosity against the Neapolitans, but with no ill-will towards the 
French. They have about 30,000 armed men in the city, and Garibaldi with 
about 6000 hovering about the right and rear of the Neapolitans (these numbers 
are uncertain). 

The Neapolitan army at Albano and Velletri are in great fear of Garibaldi^ 
and veiy anxious to join their forces with the French. 

The Spaniards have landed 40 men at Terracina. 

The French are now advancing with their whole force on Rome, which will 
consist, when all have joined the Greneral, of about 1 4,000 men ; aboiit 2000 
more are at Fiumicino, who will march up the left bank of the Tiber to make a 
diversion in that direction. 

I think it is probable that the attack will take place about the 18th May, 
and as there are many parts of the walls where half-an-hour's cannonading would 
completely demolish them, the French will enter the town with ease; and 
although the streets and houses are well barricaded, but little resistance will be 
made when once they have obtained possession of one or two strong points in the 

1 5. At Palo the French flag is hoisted alone on the castle ; at Civita Vec- 
chia it still floats on the same staff* as the Italian tricolour. No attempt to 
replace the Pope's arms or to restore his authority has been yet shown by the 
French, and they do not appear to be in the slightest degree aware of the object 
they have in view in their present occupation of the Roman territory. 

16. Three days after the occupation of Civita Vecchia a priest arrived from 
Gaeta to take on himself the Government of that place in the name of His 
Holiness the Pope ; he was sent back to Gaeta. 

I have, &c. 
(Signed) A. COOPER KEY. 


The Secretary to the Admiralty to Lord Eddisbury. 

My Lord, Admiralty, May 27, 1849. 

I AM commanded by my Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty to trans- 
mit to you herewith, for the information of Viscount Palmerston, the copy of a 
letter jfrom Commander C. Key, of Her Majesty's steam-sloop '' Bulldog/'^ 
addressed to Vice-Admiral Sir WilUam Parker, respecting the French expedition 
against Rome. 

I am, &c. 
(Signed) W. A. B. HAMILTON. 

Inclosure in No. 41. 
Commander Key to Vice-Admiral Sir W. Parker. 

Matta, Head-Quarters of the French-Italian Army, 
Sir, May 17, 1849. 

ON the 13th ultimo I left Civita Vecchia for Palo in Her Majesty's ship 
'^ Bulldog,'' to be in a position to obtain more certain information concerning 
the movements of the French army ; I found the head-quarters had removed to 
Castel di Guido, and a^ nothing could be ascertained in Palo, I proceeded at once 
to the vicinity of the head-quarters. 

The main body of the army, under General Regnault, the second in com- 
naand, was then at Maglianella ; a body of about 4000 were advancmg up the 
right bank of the Tiber ; and 2000 were detached to reconnoitre m the vicinity 
of the Ponte MoUe (on the Florence road). 

On the morning of the 15th, M. Lesseps, an Envoy from France, passed 

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tiirough the camp on the way to Rome. At 9 a. m. the army advanced, and on 
that and the following day took up a position within about a league of the walls 
of Rome, the whole being formed in three brigades, as follows : 

The 1st Brigade, under General Moli^re, on the right bank of the river, 
about three miles from Rome. 

The 2nd Brigade, under General Le Vaillant, about one and a-half mile to 
the left of the 1st, and two miles from Rome, on the Via di Porta Portese. 

The 3rd Brigade, under General — — , about three miles to the left of 
the 2nd, and two miles from Rome, just on the right side of the Civita Vecchia 

The head-quarters at Corviale, about one and a-half mile in rear of the 2nd 

Each brigade consists of about 6000 men of all arms, with six pieces 
of artillery (four French 8-pounders and two 24-pounder howitzers), six 
24-pounder siege-pieces are at Maglianella, • waiting for horses from Civita 

The reconnoitering party at Ponte MoUe ascertained that one arch of the 
bridge is broken, and that 2000 troops from the provinces had passed and 
entered Rome a few hours before their arrivaL 

M. Lesseps has sent word from Rome, that there is but httle chance of 
being able to effect a peaceable arrangement; they are, or appear i6 be, 
unanimous in their determination to resist, and are daily strengthening their 

General Oudinot, meanwhile, does not appear to be awaiting the result of 
M. Lesseps' mission. 

He is causing a bridge to be constructed at Fiumicino, which when ready 
will be towed up the river by a small steamer and thrown across, about one and 
a-half mile below Rome ; of this he is in hourly expectation, and also of two 
84-pounders and four 32-pounders which are being disembarked from the steam 
squadron, and which the General intends to be worked up by a party of seamen 
to assist in breaching the walls. 

It is impossible to say with any degree of certainty what is the General's 
plan of attack, although it is evident that he has fixed it in his own mind 

The weak part of the wall is on the east side, and there an entrance might 
be easily effected ; but the General is anxious not to act or appear to act with 
the NeapoUtans, who if they attack will do so on that side. It therefore 
appears probable that if hostiUties are inevitable, the breach will be made between 
tha Port^ Portese and Porta San Pancrazio, on the west side : and a brigade 
crossing the river mj^r attack near the Porta San Paolo. 

The French army having continually received reinforcements from France 
consists now of nearly 20,000 men. 

Tbe lii^ at present is very much extended, and a watchful and disciplined 
enemy within the walls might cut off and destroy the 3rd Brigade ;. but G^eral 
Oudinot has confidence in the inexperience of the Romans, and wishes to 
deceive them regarding his intentions. 

I cannot speak too highly of the conduct of the French soldiers towards the 
inhabitants of the cduntry. Every article of food is strictly paid for, and their 
behaviour has engendered a very kindly feeling for them in the people with 
whom they have had intercourse. 

I have been ever received with the greatest courtesy and attention by 
General Oudinot, who has shown a wish to give me every information concern- 
ing the detail of the French army, which appears to me to be admirable in every 

The Neapolitans remain at Albano. 

I have, &c. 
(Signed) A. COOPER KEY. 

P. S. — May 17, 6 p. m. An hour ago M. Lesseps arrived firom Borne and 
brought information to the General Oudinot, of which the result was an armis- 
tice; and it is now announced that the Triumvirate have resigned and that Rooie 
is to be delivered to the French. 

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No. 42. 

The Secretary to the Admiralty to Mr. Addington. 

Sir^ Admiralty, May 28, 1849. 

I AM commanded by my Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty to send 
you herewith, for the information of Viscount Pahnerston, a copy of a letter 
addressed by Commander Key, of Her Majesty's steam-sbop ''Bulldog/' to 
Vice-Admiral Sir W. Parker, dated the 21st instant, reporting the proceedings 
of the French army near Rome. 

I am, &c. 
(Signed) W. A. B. HAMILTON. 

Inclosure in No. 42. 
Commander Key to Vice-Admiral Sir W. Parker. 

Sir, ''Bulldog;^ Civita Vecchia, May 21, 1849. 

THE armistice which I mentioned in my letter of May 17, as having been 
established between the Romans and French troops, continued until midnight on 
Saturday, when a refusal having been sent from the Roman Assembly to the 
teirms . proposed by M. Lesseps, the armistice was denounced by General 
Qudinot and hostilities were nominally resumed, although negotiations still' 

The outline of the proposal drawn up by M. Lesseps is as follows : 

1 . The Roman States claim the protection of the French Republic. 

2. The Roman people have fiill right to decide on the form of their 

3. Rome will receive the French army as brothers. 

The service of the city to be performed conjointly with the French troops. 
The Roman civil and military authorities will continue to perform their functions 
according to their attributes. 

The following answer was given by the Committee appointed to treat with 
the French Envoy: 

**The National Assembly regrets that it is not in its power to accept 
the proposed terms, and cor^des to the Triumvirate the duty of explaining 
the motives of the refusal, and also of taking such measures as may faciKtate a 
better understanding between the two Republics." 

These motives are not yet made public, but they are believed to be that the 
French insist on the exclusion of foreigners in having a voice in deciding on the 
form of Government. 

Bologna having surrendered to the Austrians will probably influence the 
Romans in bringing the negotiations to an early close, according to the intention 
expressed in the answer of their Committee. 

The French will no doubt have possession of Rome either by treaty or 
assault before the end of the week. 

It is positively stated that the Neapolitan army, commanded by the King 
in person, has retired from Albano to Velletri. 

I have, &c. 
(Signed) A. COOPER KEY. 

No. 43. 
Lord Eddisbury to the Secretary to the Admiralty. 

Sir, Foreign Office, May 28, 1849. 

I HAVE laid before Viscount Palmerston your letter of the 22nd instant, 
inclosing a copy of a despatch dated the ^th instant, from Commander Key of 
Her Majesty's ship ^^ Bulldog," reporting his proceedings in the Roman States 
up to the 12th instant; and I am to request that you will state to the Lords 


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Commissioners of the Admiralty, that Viscount Palmerston considers that 
Commander Key's exertions for the safety of British subjects and property, as 
reported in his despatch, were highly praiseworthy. 

I am, &c. 
(Signed) EDDISBURY. 

No- 44. 
Sir George Hamilton to Viscount Palmerston. — {Received May 28.) 

(Extract.) Florence^ May 19, 1849. 

I HAVE the honour to inform your Lordship that Bologna surrendered to 
the Austrians on the 16th instant, and I am happy to add that the town has 
received little injury, and great moderation has been shown by the troops on 
taking possession. 

No. 45. 

Mr. Freeborn to Viscount Palmerston. — {Received May 28.) 

(Extract.) Rome, May 19, 1849. 

I HAVE the honour to inform your Lordship that M . Lesseps, the Frendi 
Commissary appointed by the French Government, arrived here on the 16tii 
instant. M. Lesseps had not been three hours in Rome before he clearly ascer- 
tained that the French Government had been deceived by the rqiresentation 
made by the French and several other Diplomatic Agents, as to the spirit of the 
people, and the determination as well as the means of the garrison and people 
to make a formidable resistance. This, my Lord, corresponds with what 1 have 
had the honour so frequently to report to your Lordship. 

I left my card on M. Lesseps as a complimentary attention only, but that 
gentleman requested to have a conference with me, to which I acceded, pro- 
vided it was to be considered as personal and not official. This point agreed 
upon, I waited upon M. Lesseps, who requested me as an impartial witness of 
the real state of affairs, to commimicate my observations to him. This I did, 
and the substance of my communication was, that I did not think the people in 
general were attached to a RepubUcan form of Government, but that an immense 
majority were very averse to that of His Holiness Pius IX, who had called aa 
intervention of Neapolitans and Austrians ; therefore nothing but a powerAil 
army can restore the Pope, and when that is accomplished, the occupation 
must be permanent, and at the expense of the invading army, as the financial 
resources of this coimtry are exhausted. 

M. Lesseps at once showed me a letter he had addressed to General Gudinot, 
recommending cessation of hostilities, which was agreed upon by General 
Oudinot. A few days of tranquillity has thereby been obtained. The Romans 
however had no sooner relieved themselves for a time of the French, than a 
spontaneous movement took place, and about 12,000 troops, 3000 volunteers, 
and 20 pieces of artillery, left Rome the same day to attack the Neapditan army 
at Albano (sixteen miles from Rome) under the immediate command of the 
King of Naples. His Majesty embarked at Porto d'Anzio on board a steamer 
to Gaeta ; and the N^tpolitan troops, without waiting for the attack, retreated 
to Velletri, where they are followed by General Rosselli and General Garibaldi. 
Up to the morning of yesterday the Roman army had not taken up its position, 
but intelligence is hourly expected that a sanguinary conflict has taken place : 
more bitter enemies never met. 

I have the honour to transmit herewith a note of the strcngth of the city 
prepared to oppose any attack. The strength, however, has been concentrated 
at the expense of Bologna, which was left without troops or artillery, and must 
have succumbed ere this to the attack of the Austrians. The intelUgence from 
that city, of loss of life and property, has produced exasperation at Rome and 
in the provinces, and every exertion i3 making to march to its relief. 

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Inclosure in No. 45. 

Note of the means of Defence in the City of Rome. 

1st Division^ commanded by General Garibaldi^ composed of troops 

well armed - - - - - - - 89400 

2nd Division^ commanded by General Galletti, as above - - 4^100 

3rd Division^ commanded by General Rosselli, as above - - 5,500 

4th Division, commanded by Colonel Mezza Capa - . - 3,600 

Reserve, all troops ------- 6,500 


Popcdation, armed with double-barrelled guns • «. . 4/X)0 

Ditto, with knives and pikes - - . - - - 40,000 

National Guard, well armed ------ 10,000 

Total - - - 77,100 

N.B. — Forty field-pieces. 

Of the above, ]4>000 and 20 pieces of artillery have left Rome to attack tiie 
Neapolitan army, of about the same number. 
Rome, May 19, 1849. 

No. 46. 
TTic Hon. W. Temple to Viscount Palmerston. — (Received May 31.) 

(Extract.) Naples, May 20, 1849. 

I HAVE just seen a letter from Rome of the 18th instant On the 1 7th a 
suspension of hostilities was made knovm. On the 16th at 8 p.m., 12,000 
Romans marched to attack the Neapolitans, who were supposed to be entrenched 
at Albano. 

No. 47. 
Mr. Freeborn to Viscount Palmerston. — {Received May 31.) 

(Extract.) Rome, May 23, 1849* 

IN my despatch dated the 19th instant I had the honour to report 
to your Lordship that a division of the Roman army had marched out to attack 
the Neapolitan army under the command of His Majesty, consisting of about 
16,000 men, Swiss, Spaniards, and Neapolitans. His Majesty did not wait for 
the attack at Albano, but retreated upon Velletri, a strong position. The 
Roman army, consisting of about 12,000 men, most of them irregular troops, 
attacked the position with so much vigour and bravery for nine hours, that the 
Neapolitans considered it prudent to retreat during the night. This victory of 
the Romans has gained for them the respect of the French army, and conse- 
quently placed the Roman Government in a better position; and as the cessation 
of hostilities still continues, it is to be hoped that a pacific arrangement will 
take place. The greatest obstacle will be to overcome the spirit of the people, 
who, flushed with success, are ill-disposed to the occupation of the city by any 
foreign Power, and it may be admitted that the Government has the means 
of defending itself against a secondary Power. 

The city is surrounded by an army of from 25,000 to 30,000 men with 
artillery, battering-guns, &c., sufficient in my opinion to occupy the city, but 
not without great loss of life and destruction of property. In justice to the 
French army, I must say that its conduct has been most exemplary. 

Since writing the preceding I have been informed that the Neapolitans are 
collecting an army to attack General Garibaldi, from which it would appear that 
the former have not evacuated the Roman territory. 


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No. 48. 
T%e Hon. W. Temple to Viscount Palmerston. — {Received June 1.) 

(Extract) Naples, May 24, 1849. 

THE semi-official journal, the " Tempo," announced yesterday that the 
King of Naples had returned to Gaeta, and the army had taken up a position 
on the extreme frontier of the kingdom, after having executed a brilliant 

The reason given for this retreat is, that when the King, who had but a small 
force at his disposal, having waited in vain for the arrived of the Spanish force 
upon which he had Teckoned, was assured that a truce had been concluded 
between the French and the Romans, he was obliged in consequence of the 
serious events which might ensue from the present state of things, to concentrate 
his forces upon his own frontier. It is stated, moreover, that this retreat was 
^ected without the loss of a single prisoner or of any baggage. 

It appears that after the Neapolitans had been driven from the position 
.which they had occupied before Velletri on the 19th, they quitted that town at 
3 o'clock on the morning of the 20th, and retreated with precipitation, pursued 
by a comparatively smaU Roman force who followed them to their frontier. 

A private letter from Mola di Gaeta, of the 22nd, says that the King made 
his entry into Gaeta on Monday. 

It must be remembered that the King undertook the expedition into the 
Roman States without any previous concert with the French, being desirous of 
replacing the Pope at Rome without conditions, and expecting to be received 
there without any serious opposition. 

No. 49. 
Mr. Freeborn to Viscount Palmerston. — (Received June 4.) 

(Extract.) Borne, May 25, 1849. 

I HAVE the honour to communicate to your Lordship that the Roman 
territories have been evacuated by the Neapolitan troops. General Garibaldi 
has received orders to remain with a division of the Roman army on the 
frontiers to watch the movements of the Neapolitan army, who marched forty- 
two miles in eleven hours, and thus saved its artillery. 

General Rosselli, who commanded the Roman division, is expected with 
about 7000 men to return to the capital this evening ; and preparations for 
defence of any attack fix)m the Austrians are making with vigour and activity. 

The army of General Oudinot surrounds the town. 

M- Lesseps has left his residence in this city for the camp. 

The city enjoys perfect tranquillity, although the citizens are suffering from 
requisitions of every description. 

No. 50. 

Sir George Hamilton to Viscount Palmerston. — {Received June 4.) 

(Extract) Florence, May 27, 1849. 

BARON D'ASPRE informed me that he was going to send 10,000 or 
12,000 men to Foligno, and to occupy some points on the Roman frontier, 
particularly one which commands the road to Ancona, to which place an 
Austrian force has already proceeded. 

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No. 51. 

Sir George Hamilton to Viscount Palmerston.— (Received June 6.) 

(Extract.) Florence, May 29, 1849. 

BARON D'ASPRE informs me that Ancona has been bombarded for two 
days by the Austrian forces^ and is blockaded by the Austrian squadron. 

No. 52. 

T%e Secretary to the Admiralty to Mr. Addington. 

Sir, Admiralty^ June 8, 1849. 

I AM commanded by my Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty to send you 
herewith, for the information of Viscount Palmerston, a copy of a letter addressed 
by Commander Key, of Her Majesty's steam-sloop *' Bulldog/' to Vice- Admiral 
Sir William Parker, dated Civita Vecchia, the 1st instant, relative to the 
proceedings of the French army near Rome. 

I am, &c. 
(Signed) J. PARKER. 

Inclosure in No. 62. 
Commander Key to Vice-Admiral Sir W. Parker. 

(Extract.) '' Bulldog,'' Civita Vecchia, June I, 1849. 

SINCE the date of my last letter no alteration has taken place in the 
position of the French army: negotiations have been continued by M. Lesseps, 
and hostile preparations apparently proceeded with by the General ; but 
evidently no decided step was contemplated before the arrival of fresh instructions 
from Paris. . 

The policy of the Romans has not been so undecided. After various fruit- 
less attempts on the part of the French Envoy to persuade the Romans to * 
admit General Oudinot and his army within, the gates of Rome, on the faith of 
the three Articles at first proposed, he consented (on the 24th ultimo) to add a 
fourth Article, to this eflPect : *' The French Government guarantee to preserve 
the territory occupied by their army from foreign invasion." This met with no 
better success. The Triumvirate say that the only terms on which they will 
allow the French army to occupy Rome, are, *' a full recognition of the Roman 
Repubhc, and a promise to assist in the defence of the Roman States." When 
this is ratified by the French Government, their gates will be opened.' With 
reference to the second Article proposed by M. Lesseps, they state that the 
Roman people have already pronounced on their form of Government, and that 
the present form, the Republic, was unanimously selected by the inhabitants of 
the whole State, on an appeal being made to their unbiassed judgment. 

The Romans are evidently aware that nothing decided wUl be attempted 
by the French until the opinion of the new National Assembly is ascertained ; 
and they are so elated with the retreat of the King of Naples to his own domi- 
nions, which they imagine they caused, and to which they certainly did contri- 
bute, that their confidence in their own strength has passed all reasonable 

The malaria fever has already made its appearance in the French army ; 
and the season is now close at hand when their present position will be unten- 
able. If therefore an immediate attack is not decided on, they will be com- 
pelled to retire to the Albano Hills — the only healthy spot in the neighbourhood, 
and then transfer the base of their operations to Porto d'Anzio. For this 
General Oudinot has already made a reconnoissance. 

June I, P.M. — A French steamer of war has just arrived frotn Toulon, 
bringing a telegraphic despatch from Paris for General Oudinot, of which I do 
not know the purport 

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During my last visit to Rome on the 26th ultimo, I made every inquiry 
among people of all opinions and all classes, to ascertain if the reports concern- 
ing the destruction of the monuments and the sale of works of art had any 
foundation^ and I could not discover that any instance of the kind had 

The Austrian army is before Ancona, and is said to be on the point 
of attacking. 

No. 53. 
Mr. Magenta to Viscount Pahnerston. — {Received June 11.) 

(Extract.) Vienna, June 5, 1849. 

IN the course of our conversation I learned from Prince Schwarzenberg 
that it was not intended that the Austrian troops should advance further towards 
Rome than Ancona. He said that that place was closely invested by land and 
by sea by the Austrian forces ; and added in reply to my inquiry if they meant 
to move towards Rome, that with the capture of Ancona their mission was 
ended ; '* notre rtle est fini." 

No. 54. 
The Hon. R. Bingham to Viscount Palmerston. — (Received June 11.) 

My Lord, Turin, June 6, 1849. 

IT appears from telegraphic intelligence received this morning from Genoa, 
that the French had commenced the attack against Rome ; that they had taken 
the Villa PamfiU and the Porta del Popolo ; and that the Government were 
preparing to come to terms for a capitulation. 

I hav6 &c 
(Signed) ' RICH. BINGHAM. 

No. 55. 
The Hon. R. Bingham to Viscount Palmerston. — (^Received June 12.) 

My Lord, Turin, June 7, 1849. 

I HAVE the honour to transmit to your Lordship herewith an extract from 
a letter dated Civita Vecchia, the 4th instant, which has been communicated 
to me from a source upon which I can rely, and wbich confirms the telegraphic 
inteUigence which I forwarded yesterday to your Lordship in my despatch 
of yesterday's date. 

I have, &C. 
(Signed) RICH. BINGHAM. 

Inclosure in No. 56. 
Extract from a Letter communicated to the Hon. JR. Bingham. 

CXvita Vecchia^ June 4, 1849. 

rr now seems that the French commenced hostilities against Rome at day- 
light yesterday, and that they have occupied all the positions which command the 
city, and that this was effected without severe loss on the part of the French in killed, 
but that they have had a great many of their men wounded ; this is admitted by 
the French Admiral, who has had official reports of the affair. This morning 
214 Roman prisoners (taken yesterday at the Villa Pamfili Doria), of whom 
seven officers and three women, arrived and were shipped immediately on board 

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of the '^ Vfloce," French steamer, which steamed away with them at 6 a. m. for 
Corsica. It is also stated that the French made a very strong assault at the 
Ripetta, hut without success, and that the loss on both sides has been very great 

No. 56. 
The Hon. W. Temple to Viscount Palmerston. — {Received June 12.) 

My Lord, Naples, May 31, 1849. 

A CORPS of Spanish troops consisting of between 5000 and 6000 men, 
have arrived at Qaeta, where they landed on the 27th instant, and arc encamped 
in the vicinity of the town. 

This force is under the command of Lieutenant^General Don Ferdinando 
Cordova, and consists of eight battalions of infantry, three baitteries of artillery, a 
company of engineers, and a squadron of cavalry. 

The squadron which conveyed these troops consists of six steamears, om 
frigate, two corvettes, and a smaU schooner, which are at present anchored in tJui 
harbour of Graeta. 

In addition to these tro(^ 4000 men are said to be ready to embark for 
this country. 

No plan of oparations seems as yet to have been decided upon, and in the 
meantime the Neapolitan troops are stationed along the frontier, and tho 
Spaniards remain encamped at Gaeta. 

I have, &c 
(Signed) W, TBMPLE. 

No. 57. 
Mr. Freeborn to Viscount Palmerston. — {Received June 12.) 

(Extract.) Rom£, June 2, 1849. 

I HAVE the honour to transmit herewith a printed document and transla- 
tion of a Convention entered into between the Roman Government and M. de 
Lesseps, Minister Plenipotentiary of the French Republic, relative to a question 
that had long been agitated, as to the position to be occupied by the French 
army under the command of General Oudinot. This document had been made 
public early yesterday morning, and produced tranquillity and satisfaction on 
the minds of the people. 

It appears, however, from a subsequent document herewith transmitted^ 
that General Oudinot has refused to give his sanction to the Convention, and 
JL de Lesseps in consequence has left Rome and returned to France. 

Inclosure 1 in No. 57. 
Convention between the Roman Constituent Assembly and M. de Lesseps. 

I. L'APPOGGIO della Francia 6 assicurato alle popolaziom delli Stati 

Esse considerano Tarmata Francese come un armata amica che viene a 
concorrere alia difesa del loro territorio. 

II. Daccordo col Govemo Romano e senza immischiarsi affatto nell' ammi- 
nistrazione del paese, Parmata Francese prenderJi gli accantonamenti estemi 
convenevoli tanto per la difesa del paese che per la salubritk delle truppc. 

Le comunicazioni saranno libCTe. 

III. La Repubblica Francese garantisce oontro ogni ktraiuone itraniera il 
territorio occupato dalle sue tnippe. 

IV. Resta inteso che il presente accomodamento sarit sottomesso alia ratta- 
flca dd tSovcmo tiefHa R epubb i lca Fiances e. 

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V. In nessun caso gli effetti del presente accomodamento potranno cessare 
che 15 giomi dopo la comunicazione officiale della non rattifica. 

Fatto a Roma e al quartiere-generale dell' armata Francese in triplo esem- 
plare, il 31 Maggio, 1849, a 8 ore della sera. 

II Ministro della Repubblica Francese in Missione, 



I. THE support of France is assured to the people of the Roman States. 

They will consider the French army as a friendly army come to co-operate 
in the defence of their territory. 

IL The French army, with the consent of the Roman Government, and 
without interfering at all in the administration of the coimtry, will take up sucb 
cantonments out of the city (estemi) as suit the defence of the country and the 
health of the troops. 

Commimications will be free. 

III. The French Republic guarantees those parts of the territory occupied 
by its troops from all foreign invasion. 

IV. It is understood that the present Treaty is to be submitted to the ratifi- 
cation of the Government of the French Republic. 

V. In no case can the force of the present Convention cease until fifteen 
days ajfter the official announcement of its non-ratification. 

Done at Rome, and at the head-quarters of the French army, in triplicate. 
May 31, 1849, 8 o'clock p.m. 

The Minister of the French Republic in Mission, 


Inclosure 2 in No. 57. 
Appeal to the Romans by the TViumvirs. 


Citizens, Rome ^ June 1, 1849. 

= NOT only has General Ou^ot refused to sanction the Convention entered 
into between us and the Envoy of France, but he declares the truce as broken, 
and that he is at liberty to assail the city. 

We delay until to-morrow to give the particulars. Whatever may be the 
result, the Romans will do their duty, we ours, God and the people have given 
us once a victory against the man who menaces us ; God and the people will 

gain another. 

The Triumvirs, 
(Signed) C. ARMELLINI. 


No. 58. 

The Marquis of Normanby to Viscount Palmerston. — {Received June 12.) 

(Extract) Paris, June 11, 1849. 

THE last news from Rome was that of the ^ recommencement of the attack 
by. the French army, and the success of its operations in all the positions outside 
the walls. 

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No. 59. 
Viscount Palmerslon to the Marquis of Normanby. 

My Lord, Foreign Office, June 12, 1849 

I HAVE received your Excellency's despatch of the 1 1th instant, from 
which it appears that the French army had renewed its hostile operations 
against Rome. 

I have to state that Her Majesty's Government very much regret that a 
comhination of circumstances should have rendered it necessary in the opinion 
of the French Government, to order the commander of their expedition to force 
an entrance into Rome ; Her Majesty's Government hope, however, that it may 
turn out that the miUtary occupation of that city will have been eflFected with 
a less effusion of blood, with a less loss of life, and with a less destruction 
of property, than many persons have anticipated as likely to be the result 
of a capture by assault. 

Her Majesty's Government will, however, feel much interest in knowing 
what are the views of the French Government as to the course which they intend 
to pursue when their troops shall be in the occupation of Rome ; and Her 
Majesty's Government conclude that the French Government continue to think, 
as they have hitherto done, that the reconciliation which it is their object to 
effect between the Pope and the Roman people, ought to be founded on the 
basis that the Pope should maintain substantially the Representative Constitu- 
tion which he granted last year to his States, and that there should be a real 
and effectual separation between the temporal and spiritual power of the Pope 
as Sovereign of the Roman States. 

I am, &c. 

No. 60. 
Mr. Magenis to Viscount Patmerston. — {Received June 13.) 

(Extract.) Vienna, June 8, 1849. 

I HAVE the honour to transmit herewith copy of a note dated the 
7th instant, from Prince Schwarzenberg, notifying the blockade of Ancona by 
the naval forces of His Imperial Majesty. I have answered that note by a simple 
acknowledgment of its receipt, and by the assurance that I. would lose no time 
in complying with its request to bring this measure to the knowledge of Her 
Majesty's Government. 

Inclosure in No. 60. 
Prince Schwarzenberg to Mr. Magenis. 

Vienne, ce 7 Juin, 1849. 

LE Soussign^, President du Conseil, &c., a I'honneur de prevenir Mr* 
Magenis, &c., que le port d' Anc6ne a 6te mis en ^tat de blocus effectif par les 
b4timens de guerre de Sa Majesty Imp^riale et Royale Apostolique, et que ce 
blocus, vA les operations offensives dingoes en mfime temps centre cette vUle du 
cdt^ de la terre, doit 6tre consid&6 comme veritable si^e. 

Ce blocus n'ayant pour objet que de coop^rer au r^tablissement du pouvoir 
legitime dans les Etats de I'Eglise, il s'ensuit qu'il sera lev^ d^s que ce but aura 
ii6 atteint. 

En priant Mr. Magenis de vouloir bien porter cette mesure k la connaissance 
de son (jk)uvemement, le Soussign^, &c. 



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Vienna, June 7, 1849. 

THE Undersigned, &c., has the honour to inform Mr. Magenis, &c., that the 
port of Ancona has been placed in a state of effective blockade by the ships of 
war of His Imperial and Royal Apostohc Majesty, and that this blockade, con- 
sidering the offensive operations carried on at the same time against the city on 
the land-side, must be looked upon aa a real siege. 

This blockade having no other object than that of co-operating in the 
re-establishment of the legitimate power in the States oi the Church, it follows 
that it will be raised as soon as that object shall have been attained. 

Requesting Mr. Magenis to have the goodness to bring this measure to tlii 
knowledge of his Government, the Undersigned, &c, 


No. 61. 
The Marquis of Normanby to Viscount Pahnerston.— {Received June 15.) 

(Extract.) Parisy June 14, 1849. 

THE French Government have this morning received news from Rome of 
the 8th instant, but only that the operations of the siege were proceeding 
regularly ; and all those measures I know to have been taken by General Le 
Vaillant, the Commander of the Engineers there, with a view to ensure the 
capture of the city with the least possible loss of life or destruction of 

No. 62. 
The Marquis of Normanby to Viscount Palmerston. — {Received June 16.) 

My Lord, Paris, June 15, 1849. 

I THIS morning commimicated to M. de Tocqueville your Lordship^s 
despatch of the 12th instant, upon the affairs of Rome. 

M. de Tocqueville completely adopted as their intended line of conduct the 
conclusions to which your Lordship had come as to the consequence of their 
entrance into Rome ; that their firet care would be to secure the constitutional 
liberties of the Romans as ah-eady granted by the Pope, and to take care that his 
authority should not be re-established on that arbitrary footing which had 
formerly been foimd inconsistent with the good government of the people. ^ 

I have, &c. 
(Signed) NORMANBY. 

No. 63. 
Sir George Hamilton to Viscount Palmerston. — {Received June 16.) 

(Extract.) Florence, June 8, 1849. 

ANCONA still holds out against the Austrian forces. 

No. 64. 

Mr. Magenis to Viscount Palmerston. ^{Received June 18.) 

(Extract.) Vienna, June 9, 1849. 

THE French Charg^ d' Affaires has been instructed by his Government to 
ask for explanation from the Imperial Cabinet as to their intention respecting 
Austrian intervention in the Papal States. These instructions were addressed 

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to M. de la Cour by M. Droujm de Lhuys^ the late Minister for Foreign 
AiS^irs in France. 

Prince Schwarzenberg repeated to M. de la Cour the assurance which he 
gave me, as reported in my despatch of the 5th instant, that it was not the inten* 
tion of the Austrian Government that their troops should go beyond Ancona. 

No. 65. 

The Marquis of Normanby to Viscount Palmer ston. — {Received June 19.) 

(E3rtract.) Paris, June 18, 1849. 

I INQUIRED of M. de Tocqueville this morning the latest news from 
Rome. He said that up to the 13th, which was their latest date, the operations 
of the siege went on very regularly; that by the detailed report it appeared that 
there had not been a bomb thrown into the town, and they treated it with as 
much forbearance as they would a French town in the power of insurgents. 

No. 66. 
Mr. Freeborn to Viscount Palmerston. — (Received June 19.) 

(Extract.) Rome, June 8, 1849. 

WITH reference to my despatch dated the 2nd instant, I have the honour 
to report to your Lordship that General Oudinot on Sunday the 3rd instant, at 
3 A.M., attacked the outposts of the Roman army, who, not expecting the 
attack before Monday, lost 230 prisoners, who were taken by surprise. This 
brought on a general engagement that lasted sixteen hours; the French, 
however^ could not approach the walls of the town. About 800 men of 
the Roman army were put hers de combat, and the French must have lost a 
greater number, having been exposed for some hours to grape-shot from the 
walls. The Romans charged them with the bayonet seveiul times with great 
bravery. The French have the advantage in the perfection of their arms and 
superior talent of their officers ; the Romans, however, have established their 
reputation as staunch troops. Partial attacks have been daily continued up to 
the present hour with great loss on the part of the French. As far as I can 
judge from the information I have received I am of opinion that between 
wounded, killed and the malaria fever, at least 3000 men of the French army 
must have been placed hors de combat. 

The Roman troops and the volunteers, with a large mass of the people, are 
preparing for a vigorous resistance, and I feel convinced that the city cannot 
be taken except at a great sacrifice of life. 

The city must of course succumb, and probably in a few days, in which 
case I hope it may be by capitulation, and not by assault. 

Very little damage has been done to the city by shells thrown into the town; 
but damage to a great extent has been done by order of the Military Roman 
Commission, in the destruction of houses, both outside and inside the town, 
to prevent approach to the barricades and batteries. 

No. 67. 
Mr. Freeborn to Viscount Palmerston. — (Received June 27.) 

(Extract.) JRome, June 16. 1849. 

IN my despatch dated the 8th instant I had the honour to report to 
your Lordship that the French army had suffered a serious check on me 3rd 
instant in attempting to approach the walls of this city. 

Severe fighting has been continued ever since, with great loss on both sides. 
Several sallies have been made by the Romans, in which they have shown more 


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bravery than military skill, and their officers fall under the rifles of the French 
African sharpshooters ; the Romans are unprovided with these arms. On the 
12th instant General Oudinot sent in to the National Assembly and other 
Roman authorities a summons to suirender and to receive the French as friends 
of order and liberty. This document I beg leave to transmit herewith, by which 
your Lordship will perceive that that proposition was rejected. 

In consequence of the refusal a regular attack upon the city was com- 
menced the following morning with battering guns and bomb-shells, which con- 
tinues up to the present moment with little occasional intermission. 

The edifices that have suffered are the hospitals, churches and palaces, and 
the " Bourg*' of Trastevere- 

In the course of a few days part of the walls will be sufficiently battered 
to open a wide breach, when of course an efibrt will be made to take the city 
by assault. 

Inclosure in No. 67. 

Summons of General Oudinot and Reply sent to him. 

Repubblica Romana. In nome di Dio e del Popolo. 

IL Generale Oudinot mandava jersera per un suo parlamentario I'unito 
indirizzo airAssemblea Costituente Romana, al Triumvirate, al Generale in 
capo, e al Generale della Guardia Nazionale. 

Quartier Generate di Villa Panfili^ li 12 CHugno, 1849, 
5 ore pomeridiane. 
Signor Generale, 

Gli eventi della guerra hanno, come lei sa, condotta I'armata Francese alle 
porte di Roma. 

' Nel caso che I'ingresso della cittk continuasse ad esserci chiuso, mi vedrei 
costretto d'impiegare immediatamente tutti i mezzi di azione che la Francia ha 
posti nelle mie mani. 

Prima di ricorrere a cotal terribile necessity, tengo a dovere di fare un 
ultimo appello ad un Popolo che non puole avere verso la Francia i sentimenti 
d'un Popolo nemico. 

L'armata Romana vorrJi, non v'6 dubbio, al pari di me, risparmiare 
sanguinose rovine alia Capitale del mondo Cristiano. 

Con questa convinzione, la pr^o, Signor Gtenerale, di dare all' incluso 
Proclama la piu pronta publicitJi. 

Se dodici ore dopo che gli sark consegnato questo dispaccio, una risposta 
corrispondente alle intenzioni ed air onore della Francia, non mi 6 pervenuta, 
mi vedro costretto di dare alia Piazza Tattacco di forza. 

Gradisca^ Signor Generale, la sicurezza de' miei distintissimi sentimenti. 
n Generale Comandante in capo TArmata Francese del 
Mediterraneo, Rappresentante del Popolo. 


Al Signor Generale Comandante in capo PArmata Romana, Roma. 

Dal Quartier Generale di Villa Panfili, li 12 Giugno, 1849. 
5 ore pomeridiane. 
Abitanti di Roma ! 

Non venivamo per recarvi la Guerra. Siamo venuti ad appoggiare fi» 
voi Tordine, colla Libert^ Le intenzioni del nostro Govemo sono state mal 

I lavori dell^ assedio ci hanno condotti sotto alle vostre mura. 

Fin' adesso, non abbiamo voluto rispondere che di lungi in lungi, al fuoco 
delle vostre batterie. Ci awiciniamo air ultimo istante ove le necessity della 
guerra scoppiano in terribili calamity. 

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Risparmiatele ad una citt^ ripiena di tante gloriose memorie. 
Se persistete a rispingerci, a voi soli incomberk la risponsabilit^ d'irreparabili 

II Generale in capo, Rappresentante del Popolo, 


Al Signor Generale comandante TArmata Romanb, Roma. 

A tali intimazioni^ ecco come risposero i corpi costituiti ai quali furono 

Risposta delV Assemblea Costituente Romana. 

L'Assemblea Constituente Romana vi fa sapere, in risposta al vostro 
dispaccio di ieri, che avendo conchiuso una Convenzione dal31 Maggio, 1849, in 
poi col Signor de Lesseps, Ministro Plenipotenziario della Repubblica Francese, 
Convenzione che egli conferm6 anche dopo la vostra dichiarazione, essa deve 
considerarla come obbligatoria per le due parti, e posta sotto la salvaguardia del 
diritto delle genti fino a che sia ratificata o respinta dal Govemo Francese. Egli 
^ perci6 che PAssemblea deve riguardare come ima violazione di questa Conven- 
zione ogni ostilit^ ripresa dal detto giomo in poi dall* armata Francese, ed ogni 
altra ostilit^ che si vonA riprendere prima che le si comunichi la risoluzione 
del vostro Govemo su questo proposito, e prima che sia spirato il termine 
pattuito neir armistizio. 

Voi domandavate, Grenerale, una risposta analoga alle intenzioni ed all' onore 
della Francia. Ma nulla vi ha di piu conforme alle intenzioni ed all' onore della 
Francia quanto la cessazione d'una violazione flagrante del diritto delle genti. 

QuaJi siano per essere gli efietti di una tale violazione, il popolo Romano non 
pu6 esseme responsabile. Egli 6 forte del proprio diritto ; 6 deciso a mantenere 
le Convenzioni che Pattaccano alia vostra nazione ; si trova soltanto costretto dalla 
necessity della propria difesa a respingere ogni ingiusta aggressione. 

Gradite, Generale, i sentimenti della mia alta stima e cousiderazione. 

Roma, dalla sala dell' Assemblea Constituente, 13 Giugno, 1849, a due ore 
del mattino. 

(Firmato) I Presidente, GALLETTL 

I Segretari, A. Fabretti. 
G. Pennachi. 
G. CoccHi. 

n Generale Comandante della Guardia Nazionale Romana rispose. 

Signor Generale, 

II Trattato, del quale si attende ratifica, assicura questa tranquilla citti!i da 
ogni disastro. 

La Guardia Nazionale destinata a mantenere I'ordine ha il dovere di secon- 
dare le risoluzioni del Grovemo, ed a questo dovere adempie volenterosa e zelante 
senza curare disagio o fatica. 

La Guardia Nazionale ha mostrato non ha guari nell' accompagno de' 
prigionieri le sue simpatie per la Francia, ma ha pure mostrato in ogni incontro 
che sopra tutto le ^ a cuore la propria dignity, I'onore di Roma. 

Ogni infortunio alia Capitale del mondo Cattolico, alia citta Monumentale 
non potrebbe mai attribuirsi ai pacifici cittadini costretti a difendersi, ma 
solamente a chi ne avesse provocata Taggressione. 

Gradite Signor Generale la mia distinta cousiderazione. 

Roma, 13 Giugno, 1849, ore 3 antimeridiane. 

(Firmato) STURBINETTI, Generale della Nazionale, 

Rappresentante del Popolo. 
Signor Oudinot di Reggio, Comandante in capo , 

TArmata spedizione nel Mediterraneo. ISfe.^^tAJ 

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H Oenerale in Capo delV Armata della Repubblica Ramana. 

Cittadino Generale, 

Una fatality, induce ora a combatter fra loro le armate di due nazioni 
Repubblicane che destini migliori le avrebbero invece unite a combattere i loro 
nemici comuni ; giacch^ i nemici dell' una non possono non esser nemici ancora 
dell' altra. 

Noi non c'illudiamo ; e percid ci opporremo con tutt' i mezzi possibili a 
chiunque abbatte le nostre istituzioni. D'altronde non sono che i bravi quelli che 
sono degni di stare a petto dei soldati Francesi. 

Riflettendo poi che v' k uno stato di vita pegTuomini peggiore che morte ; 
se la guerra che si fate arrivasse a porci in questo stato, meglio sarJi chiuder per 
sempre gii occhi alia luce, che vedere le interminabile oppression! e miserie della 
nostra patria. 

Vi desidero salute ed auguro fratellanza. 

Roma, li 13 Giugno, 1849. 

(Fumato) ROSELU. 

Al Cittadino Generale in capo dell' Armata Francese. 

H Tnumvirato rispose. 

Abbiamo I'onore di trasmettervi la risposta dell' Assemblea alia vostra 
comunicazione del 12. 

NOI non tradiamo mai le nostre promesse. Abbiamo promesso difendere, 
in esecuzione degli ordini delFAssemblea e del Popolo Romano, la bandiera della 
RepubbUca, I'onore del paese, e la santiti della Capitale del mondo Cristiano. E 
manterremo la nostra promessa. 

Gradite, Generale, I'assicurazione della nostra distinta considerazione. 
Roma, 13 Giugno, 3 del mattino. 

I Triumviri, 


Queste sono le risposte degli eletti del popolo. II popolo dark coi fatti la 
sua. Viva la Repubblica ! Viva I'ltalia ! 
Roma, 13 Giugno, 1849. 

I Triumviri, 



HepubHc of Rome. In the name of God and the People. 

GENERAL OUDINOT sent the inclosed yesterday evening by a flag of 
truce, addressed to the Roman Constituent Assembly, to the Triimivirate, to the 
General-in-chief, and to the General of the National Guard. 

Head-Quarters, Villa Panfiliy 
General, •'wne 12, 1849, 5 o'clock p.m. 

The events of the war as you know have led the French anny to the gates 
of Rome. 

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If the entrance to the city remam closed, I shall find myself compelled to 
employ immediately all the means of action which France has placed in my 

Prerious to having recourse to such a dreadfiil necessity, I consider it my 
duty to make a last appeal to a people who cannot have towards France the 
feelings of a hostile people. 

The Roman army will doubtless desire as much as I do to save the capital 
of the Christian world from sanguinary destruction. 

With this conviction I will request you, General, to give the earliest 
pubUcity to the inclosed proclamation. 

If within twelve hours after this despatch is delivered to you I do not receive 
a reply in correspondence with the intentions and honour of France, I shall feel 
myself compelled to attack the place. 

Accept, &c. 

The General. Commander-in-chief of the French Army of the 
Mediterranean, Representative of the People, 


To the General Commander-in-chief of the Roman Army, Rome. 

Head' Quarters, Villa Panfili, 
Inhabitants of Rome, June 12, 1849, 5 o'clock p.m. 

WE are not come to bring you war. We are come to support order witlr 
liberty amongst you. The intentions of our Government have been mis- 

The works of the siege have brought us to your walls. 

Hitherto we have been unwilling to respond to the fire of your batteries, but 
at long intervals. We are approaching the last moment in which the necessities 
of war burst forth into terrible disasters. 

Do not bring them upon a city full of so many glorious recollections. 

If you persist in opposing us, on you alone will remain the responsibility of 
irreparable evils. 

The General-in-chief, Representative of the People, 


To the General in command of the Roman Army, Rome. 

To these intimations the following repUes were made by the constituted 
bodies to whom they were addressed : 

Reply of the Roman Constituent Assembly. 

THE Roman Constituent Assembly informs you, in reply to your despatch 
of yesterday, that having concluded a Convention on the 31st May, 1849, with 
M. Lesseps, Minister Plenipotentiary of the French RepubUc — a Convention con- 
firmed by him even after your declaration, — it must be considered as binding on 
both parties and placed under the safeguard of the right of nations, until it be 
ratified or rejected by the French Government. The Assembly must therefore 
regard as a violation of this Convention all hostiUty resumed from that day 
forwards by the French army, and all other hostility which it may be desired to 
resume before the resolution of your Government be commimicated to it with 
reference to this subject, and before the expiration of the term stipulated in the 

You demanded. General, a reply in correspondence with the intentions and 
honour of France. There is nothing more conformable to the intentions and 
honour of France than the cessation of a flagrant violation of the rights of 

Whatever may be the results of such violation, the Roman people cannot 
be responsible. It is strong in its own right ; it is determined to maintain the 

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treaties which hind it to your nation ; it feels itself simply compdled by the 
necessity of self-defence to repulse every unjust aggression. 

Accept, &c. 

Rome, from the Hall of the Constituent Assembly, June 13, 1849, 

2 o'clock A.M. 

(Signed) GALLETTI, President. 

A. Fabretti, 
G. Pennachi, 
G. CoccHi, Secretaries. 

Reply of the General Commanding the Roman National Guard. 
General, • 

THE Treaty whose ratification is expected secures this tranquil city from 
every disaster. 

The National Guard intended to maintain order is intrusted with the duty 
of seconding the resolutions of Grovernment ; and it fulfils this duty willingly 
and with zeal, without fearing trouble or fatigue. 

The National Guard has recently shown its sympathies for France in the 
case of prisoners, but it has also shown on every occasion that it prizes above 
every consideration its own dignity and the honour of Rome. 

Every calamity to the capital of the Catholic world, to the city of monu- 
ments, must be attributed not to the peaceful citizens compelled to defend 
themselves, but solely to the party who brought on the aggression. 

Accept, &c. 

Rome, June 13, 3 o^ clock p.m. 


General of the National Guard, Representative of the People. 
M. Oudinot de Reggio, Commander-in-chief of the 

Armed Expedition to the Mediterranean. 

Reply of the GeneraUin-chief of the Army of the Roman Republic. 

Citizen General, 

A FATALITY now leads the armies of two Republican nations to fight 
against each other, whom a better fate would have rather united to fight 
against their common enemies, for the enemies of the one could not but be the 
enemies of the other. 

We do not deceive ourselves ; and therefore we will oppose with every 
possible means all who would destroy our institutions. Moreover, it is only 
brave men who are worthy of fighting against the soldiers of France. 

And when we consider that there is a condition of life far worse than 
death, if the war which you bring upon us should tend to place us in such a 
condition, it would be better to close our eyes to the light for ever, than to see 
the endless oppression and misery of our country. 

I wish you health and fi-atemity. 

Rome, June 13, 1849. 

(Signed) ROSELLI. 

To the Citizen General in chief of the French Army. 

Reply of the Triumvirate. 

WE have the honour to forward to you the reply of the Assembly to your 
communication of the 12th. 

We never betray our promises. We have pronaised, in fu^lment of the 
orders of the Assembly and of the Roman people, to defend the honour of tlie 

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• KcpubKc, the honour of the country, and the holiness of the capital of the 
Christian world; and we will maintain our promise. 
^ Accept, &c. 

Rome, June 13, 3 o'clock a.m. 

The Triumvirs, 


These are the replies of those whom the people has chosen. The people 
will reply by its deeds. Long live the Republic ! Long live Italy ! 
Rome, June 13, 1849. 

The Triumvirs, 


No. 68. 

Sir George Hamilton to Viscount Palmer ston. — {Received June 21.) 

.My Lord, Florence, June 13, 1849. 

I HAVE the honour to inclose herewith to your Lordship copy of a letter 
: which I have received from Her Majesty's Consul at Ancona, who, at the 

request of General Coimt de Wimpffen, commander of the Austrian forces, has 
'been employed in a negotiation with the Grovemor of Ancona for the surrender 

of that town, in order to avoid the horrors to which it may be exposed if taken 
iby assault. Although Mr. Moore has been extremely active in his endeavours 

to bring about a capitulation, he has not hitherto been successful^ but from the 
. tenour of his letter received to-day, more sanguine hopes may be entertained as 
. to the result. 

i Mr. Moore speaks in high commendation of the conduct of Commander 
' Vansittart of Her Majesty's ship " Frolic," whose exertions are indefatigable in 

accommodating and receiving on board English and foreigners who have sought 

refuge under the British flag. 

I have &c 

Inclosure in No. 68. 
Consul Moore to Sir George Hamilton. 

Sir, Ancona, Casino Bansa, June 10, 1849. 

YESTERDAY at 6 p.m. the Austrians opened a heavy fire against the 
r Italian batteries, and I understand to-morrow the strongest attack will be made, 
when it is expected all the Austrian heavy artillery will be in position. 

i do not know the effect produced by yesterday's fire, as I am writing at 
5 A.M., and I must take this letter at once to the Austrian head-quarters, where 
I will add a postscript if there be anything new. However I received a letter 
yesterday from the Governor of Ancona, previous to the fire, in which I trace 
symptoms of a capitulation. He finishes a paragraph thus : '^ As far as it is 
allowed by my duties towards the Roman RepubUc, and by the principles which 
I conscientiously profess, I shall take advantage of the generous offers which 
^you make in favour of this city and of its inhabitants." 

It would be a matter of great congratulation to me if I could prevent 
further bloodshed and destruction. Should we hear of the fall of Rome^ I trust 
Ancona would then surrender. 

The two remaining relatives of the Pope left in Ancona, I succeeded in 
getting out of town yesterday, as a pressing express from Gaeta on the subject 
reached Marshal de Wimpffen yesterday. 

I must bear my testimony to the activity displayed on this occasion (as on 
all others) by Commander Vansittart, of Her Majesty's sloop " Frolic," whose 


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exepHoBS are indefetigable and 1i»e3K)nd praise. The very great ineonvemenee 
that himself and officers have subjected themselves to ia accommodating efi 
board those English and foreigners who have sought refuge there, deserves 
great commendation. 

I have, Jkc. 
(Signed) GEO. MOORE. 

No. 69. 

Sir Greorffe Hamilten to Visconnt Patmerston. — (Received June 27.) 

(Extract.) jRorence, Jmte SO, 1849. 

I FORWARD to your Lordship the accompanying letter from Her 
Majesty's Consul at Ancona which has just reached me. 

Inclosure in No. 69. 
Consul Moore to Sir George Hamilton. 

(Extract.) '^ Frolic,^ of Ancona, June 15, 1849. 

ON the 12th instant the French war-steamer " Pluton'* arrived from Venice 
Siod Trieste; She is still here. 

On this same day there was a smart engagement between the Austriaa 
Rifles and the Italians in the outworks of the lunette. Many must have £dleii 
on both sides» but the high wheat prevented us seeing the casualtieak Neither 
party will acknowledge its losses. It is generally supposed the Acestrians have 
1000 men hor9 de combat; perhaps 600 would be nearer the mark; I mesa 
altogether since the commencement. 

The resistance in town is becoming most determined, and they declare tbttt 
should the town be taken, the troops will retire to the citadel. IV^my buildiiigs 
in town have suffered much. 1 regret to say several Austrian shells have 
reached the hospital, and one sick man was earned, bed and all, to tke 
foundations of the building, where the body remains buried. 

On the 13th two envoys were sent from town through Commander Van- 
sittart to remonstrate with the Marshal. The sick and mad have been all 
removed fitnn the Hospital to the Town Hall. 

This morning I went to reconnoitre some English property situated in the 
midst of the two fires, when I was driven back with only hatf my mission accom- 

The prolongation of this siege is a sad evil both for town and country; 
and to communicate with my ships I am obliged to pass daily one quarter of a 
mile, both ways, exposed to shot and shell. 

I6th. — Yesterday evening and during the night the Austrians poured into 
the citadel and town a quantity of shell and rockets. 

1 just hear a brisk fire of musketry. Marshal Wimpflen informs me the 
Austrians have taken Urbino, after some resistance from Pianciani's corps. 

No. 70. 
Sir George Hamilton to Viscount Palmerston.— (Received June 29.) 

My Lord, Florence, Jme 21, 1849. 

I HAVE just been informed by Field-Marshal Baron d*Aspre that the 
town of Ancona has capitulated. 

The Imperial troops are to occupy the fortress, the gates of the town, and 
all military points ; and the Roman troops of the line and the National Guards 
are to be disarmed. 

A general amnesty has been granted for political oflences. 

I have, &c. 
(Signed) GEORGE B. HAMILTON.. . 

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No, 71. 
The Him. W. TmpU to Visctmnt Palmerstou.^Received Jume 29.) 

OBxtnct) Noflesy Jum 14, 1849. 

THE Spanish corps n^hich lately landed at Gaeta^ and is destined to assist 
in the restoration of the Pope, haidng reedved from the Neapolitan Govermnent 
a supply of mules for its artillery and of horses to mount its sta^ has proceeded 
to Terracina* where it is now quartered; and a ship has also heen sent to Terra- 
dna from Naples with a supply of provigions, from the want of which the 
Spanish troops had suffered much inconvenimice on their first arrival there. 

A part of the Neapolitan army has also advanced from the frontier to 
Frosinona General Niinziante, accompanied by a Spanish officer, has lately 
visited General Ou(&noL 

I understand that General Oudinot has always expressed his kitentioa of 
acting sepiurately, as France does not agree with the other Catholic Powers upon 
the principle of their intervention ; he therefore objects to any other troops 
joining him in the attack upon Rome ; but he by no means wishes to prevent 
the occupation by them of the Roman territory. It is presumed, therefore, that 
if the Neapolitan and Spanish troops advance, it will be in the direction of the 
eastern side of Rome» and that they will place themselves in communication 
with the Austrian, rather than with the French forces. 

The latest accounts from Civita Vecchia are of the 12th instant, and state 
that the French had established their breaching batteries within 150 yards of 
the walls to the south of Porta San Pancrazio, and were to commence their 
attack on the 14th instant. 

M. de G^iiroeHes «ad M. de ki Tour d'Attvergue had arrived from France 
and were gone to the camp ; and it was said that the former was the bearer of 
an ultimatum to be proposed to the Remana 

The French had been throwing shells into the town since the 5th, destroy- 
ing chie% the hotises of the Trasteverini. The Government had however 
ta&en measures to lodge the women and children whose houses had been 
destroyed, in the palaces of those who had left Borne, taking care, however, to 
lock up the irooms coottaining the pictures and other valuable property. 

By the kstaaottonts, Anoona still held out 

No. 72. 

The Secretary to the Admiralty to Mr. Addington. 

Sir, Admiralty, June 29, 1849. 

I AM commanded by my Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty to send 
you herewith, for the information of Viscount Palmerston, a copy of a letter 
addressed by Commander Key, of Her Majesty's steam-sloop "Bulldogs" to 
Vice- Admiral Sir W. Parker, dated CSvita Vecchia, the 21st instant, relative to 
proceedings of the French before Rome. 

I am, &c. 
(Signed) J. PARKER, 

Indosmre in No. 72. 
CommmAer Ke^ io Viee-Adamal Sir W. Parker^ 

Sir. '« BaOdog;' CwUa Vecchia, June 2S , 1849. 

THE French army have continued their ^siege operation mder the waUs of 
Rome without intermission since my last letter. 

On the 12th three batteries were in position in the second parallel, directed 
against the salient angle of the wsflls, to the ri^t df Porta Pancrazio, at the dis- 
tance of about 130 yards each, consisting of foiu: 1 6-pounders and two 24-pounders^ 


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with three 8-inch mortars in the rear of the right hattery. General Oudinot 
then wrote a final address to the Romans, calling on them to save Rome from 
destruction, by admitting his army within the city. They refused. On the 
morning of the 13th he opened fire on the walls, and by the 16th had succeeded 
in destroying the upper part of them, to about one-fourth from the top, when 
they found that their guns would not damage them below that, owing to some 
rising ground intervening. It was therefore determined to continue their works' 
and construct a third parallel, in which to place a battery within fifty yards of. 
the walls ; this was completed on the 20th, twelve guns being in position. The 
Romans keep up a constant fire on the trenches of shot and shell, not causing a' 
severe loss, but sufficient to retard the works and harass the French soldiers 
unceasingly. On the 16th the Romans made a sortie with 200 men, for the 
purpose of regaining possession of Ponte MoUe ; they were driven back by 700 
men, leaving 50 or 60 dead. 

The French have cut oflFthe water that enters Rome by aqueducts on the; 
north and west side, to deprive the inhabitants of the use of the mills that are 
worked by it. 

They have destroyed the Ponte Salara across the Amo, and endeavour to 
prevent provisions from entering the town ; this they can hardly effect, as the 
south side, towards Tivoli and Albano, is entirely open. 

The fever caused by the malaria is not on the increase ; indeed I believe 
the health of the troops is improving, but the fatal season is close at hand. 

Reinforcements from France have completed the army to 30,000 men, with 
thirty heavy siege-guns and forty pieces of field artillery. 

I have, &c. 
(Signed) A. C. KEY. 

No. 73. 
Sir George Hamilton to Viscount Palmerston. — {Received June 30.) 

(Extract.) Florence, June 22, 1849. 

I HAVE received a letter this morning from Her Majesty's Consul at 
Ancona, in which he informs me that he was the only mediator between the 
Austrian General and the Municipality of Ancona, on the occasion of the capitu- 
lation, which after many difficulties took place at 4 o'clock on the morning of 
the 19th instant. 

No. 74. 
The Marquis of Normanby to Viscount Palmerston. — (Received July 3.) 

(Extract.) Paris, July 2, 1849. 

.M. DE TOCQUEVILLE communicated to me this morning a copy of a 
despatch he had received from M. de Courcelles. 

M. de Courcelles states that the difficulty which the French army has expe- 
rienced in bringing the capture of Rome to a speedy conclusion, has entirely 
arisen from their determination to abstain, if possible, from any mode of attack 
which should put in peril the lives of peaceably inhabitants, or lead to the 
destruction of monuments and works of art. 

M. de Tocqueville mentioned to me that General Bedeau had left Paris 
yesterday for the army before Rome* 

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No. 75. 
Viscount Palmerston to the Marquis of Normanhy. 

(Extract.) Foreign Office, July 3, 1849. 

MUCH allowance is necessarily to be made for the feelings of national pride 
which impel the French Government, after repeated checks, to aim at military 
success in their operations against Rome; but it is to be hoped that they will not 
push those operations further than may be necessary for the assertion of their 
miUtary superiority, and that those operations will be conducted in the manner, 
likely to keep within the narrowest bounds effusion of blood, loss of life, and 
destruction of property and injury to works of art. 

With regard to the intentions of the French Government as to the course 
which they mean to pursue when they are in possession of the city, Her 
Majesty's Government are glad to find that your Excellency has been formally 
assured that those intentions are the same as the views originally explained by 
the French Government before their expedition sailed for Civita Vecchia. 

But difficulties of an opposite kind will have to be encountered in carrying, 
those views into effect. On the one hand, the Pope, misguided by the persons, 
who now surround him, declares that he will not return to Rome shackled by 
any conditions, and that he will not be restrained in his sovereign power by any 
Constitutional institutions ; on the other hand, the Romems, both of the city and. 
of the provinces, having once got free from the oppressions of Priestly govern- 
ment, announce their determination never again to submit to the yoke which, 
has so long pressed upon them ; and it seems but reasonable to suppose that 
even if the former order of things could be re-established in the Roman States. 
by overruling military force, the people would continue to submit to it only as 
long as that overruling force continued to be present, and that upon the retire- 
ment of such force another outbreak would take place. 

Considerations, therefore, of sound poUcy as connected with the future 
tranquillity of Italy, as well as a regard for justice, should lead foreign Powers 
to wish that the Pope might be brought to acquiesce in an arrangement which, 
while it reinstated him in his position of temporal and ecclesiastical authority at 
Rome, should give to his subjects for their civil and political rights, those 
guarantees which nothing but a Representative Constitution could afford. But 
for that purpose those influences which now urge him to aim at a different end 
must be controuled or be exerted in a different direction. 

Among the influences which now guide the Pope, that of Austria must be 
supposed to be the chief, because it is probably upon Austria that the Pope 
principally reckons for military assistance to reinstate him at Rome, and it 
would seem therefore that it would be desirable for the French Government to 
enter into communication with the Government of Austria with a view of 
inducing that Government to counsel the Pope to consent to secure to his 
subjects such an arrangement as that which I have described. And in the 
meantime instructions will be sent to Her Majesty's Ambassador at Vienna to 
recommend strongly to the Austrian Government to give such advice at 

If the Pope should be brought to agree to such terms, and if the Romans 
should consent to receive him back upon such conditions, the detailed execution 
of such an arrangement would require indeed to be vigilantly watched by the 
mediating Powers, in order that there might be no want of good faith in carrying 
it out ; but the European embarrassment would be at an end as soon as such an 
agreement between the Pope and his subjects had been come to. 

But in a matter so difficult and at the same time so important, failure as well 
as success must be provided for ; and Her Majesty's Government, therefore, are 
desirous of knowing what are the views of the French Government as to the course 
which they contemplate pursuing in the event of such an arrangement as that 
above mentioned being refused either by the Pope or by the Romans, or by both. 
It is evident that either of these three contingencies would create a state of things 
pregnant with results of general and European importance ; and Her Majesty's 
Government would be glad to be informed what are the views which the French 
Government have formed to themselves thereupon* Her Majesty's Government 
are not at present in a condition to express any formed opinion on these matters. 

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beyond observing that a prolonged occupation of the city or territory of Rome 
by the troops of any foreign Power ivould be, with regard both to its principle 
and its consequences, a thing much to be deprecated ami greatly to be avoided. 

No. 76. 
7%€ Marquis of Nwmasihy io VucamU Pahnerstmi. — (R^cewed July 4«) 

(Bitmct) Pnris, July 3, 1649. 

THE conduct of the expedition may, the French Government admit, have 
naturally varied according to the force of unforeseen circumstances, but the French 
Government have neither now nor at any former period had any separate inteiest 
to secure. Whatever diflFerence of opinion there may have existed between Her 
Majesty's Government and that of the Republic as to the best means of effecting a 
common object, they only desire such a solution of the Roman question as has b^n 
counselled at various periods and to different parties by Her Majesty's Govemr 
metft, namely, the restoration of the Government of the Pqpe with Constitutional 

As the misrepresentations of these views and their conduct seem to the 
French Government to assume almost every day a new shape, they have thought 
it desirable that Her Majesty's Ministers should have daily access to the most 
complete information as to every stage of an affair in which they have nothing 
to conceal, and with such intention they have been glad to combine the appoint- 
ment as Embassador to London of a person who has occupied so distinguished 
a post as M. Drouyn de Lhuys in the councils of the Republic. 

No. 77. 
TOe Mar^tds of Normanby to Viscount P aimer ston* — {Received July 4.) 

My Lord, Paris, July 3, 1849. 

SINCE writing my other despatch of this day's date I have been down to 
the Assembly, where a telegraphic despatch had just been read, which had 
arrived this afternoon from M. de CourceUes, of the date of the 1st instant, from 
Civita Yecchia, to the effect that the Constituent Assembly had required the 
Triumvirs to propose a capitulation, and that the Municipality were at that 
moment at the camp of General Oudinot, empowered to treat as to the conditions. 

The Decree of the Constituent Assembly was of the 30th of June. The 
despatch was of the 1st instant from Civita Vecchia, where M. deCourcelles had 
gone to meet M. d'Harcourt and M. de Rayneval. 

I have, &c. 
(Signed) NORMANBY. 

No. 78. 
Mr. Freeborn to Viscount Palmerston. — (Received July 4.) 

My Lord, Rome, June 2% 1849, 3 p.m. 

I HAD the honour to address a despatch to your Lordship on the 16th 
instant, in which I reported to your Lordship thsi the bombardment of this 
city had commenced on the 13th instant, which s}stem of attack continues. 

On the 2l8t, the gates of Portese, St. Panorazio, Cavallegieri, and Popolo, 
were simultaneously attacked^ and attempts were made to mount the breach 
between Porta Portese and Porta St. Pancrazio; these attempts, however, 
had more the appearance of a reconnaissance to cover the real intention, 
which was that of throwing in about 400 men into a strong position c^led 
"Villa Barbwini;" in this they succeeded. At 4 a.m. on the 22nd, the drums 
bait, calling together the National Quard for tiie objedt of keq>iiig older in the 

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city when the troops and people defended the walls. At 10 a.m* the bells of th^ 
ci^ soanded the alarm, and the people fashed to the walls, but the FVench did 
not continue the attack. During this period of great anxiety, order was kept m 
the town, although the streets were open to any attempt on the part of thi 
reactionists, if they actually existed, to any extent* 

On the 23rd, during the whole ol the day balls have been thrown into the 
town, whilst the skirmishing continues on the walls. During the preceding 
night about 300 shells and rockets have been thrown into the town, causing the 
death of several persons, and producing considerable damage to houses, palaces, 
and churches. Trastevere has suffered the most. 

This morning the Secretary of the Commission of Finances called upon njQ, 
when I took advantage of the occasion to give him a copy of my letter dated 
the 29th of April, in which, in the name of the foreign Consuls I offered our 
services to the Municipality, if they would be rendered useful in saving tht 
dty from the horrors of an assault or the consequences of a continued bcmi* 
bardment. In sdbort I told this gentleman to onnmunicate to the Municipality 
that I was ready to do anything in my power, provided it would not compromist 
the neutrality of Her Britannic Majesty's Government. 

No. 79. 
T%e Secretary to the Admiralty to Mr. Addington. 

Sir, Admiralty , July 9, 1849. 

I AM commanded by my Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty to send 
you herewith, for the information of Viscount Palmerston, a copy of a letter 
dated the 2nd July, from Commander Key of Her Majesty's steam-vessel 
'^ fiulldog," relating to the state of affairs at Rome. 

I am, &c. 
(Signed) J. PARKER. 

Indosure in No. 79. 
(hmraander Key to Vice-Admiral Sir W. Parker. 

Sir, '' Bulldog/' Oivita Vecchia, July 2, 1849. 

SINCE the French obtidned possession of the breach as I mentioned in a* 
private letter to you of June 22nd, they have been occupied in strengthening and 
arming the work which they had constructed inside it. The Romans kept up 
such a constant and well-directed fire from the batteries which commanded this 
work, that General Oudinot deemed it advisable to dislodge them by artillery 
before attempting to advance. 

On the 28th he opened fire on them from thirty-five pieces which he had 
estabUshed at the breach; by the evening of the 29th he had effectually silenced 
the Roman guns, and on the following morning advanced on and carried at the 
point of bayonet a bastion on his left, from which he had received most annoy- 
ance. After killing 250 of the Romans, making 130 prisoners, and spiking \Z 
guns, the French retired to their original position at the breach, not deeming it 
advisable to hold the bastion, as it was commanded by many points in possession 
of the Romans. 

On the evening of the same day (June 30th) the National Assembly in 
Rome came to the following liesolutian : 

" In the name of God and the people. The Constituent Assembly declare 
that fcu*ther resistance is impossible. The Assembly will sit in perman^ncet 
The Triumvirate is charged with the execution of the present decree.'' 

This was sent to General Oudinot with a request for a suspension of hostilir, 
ties^ and at the same time a deputation of the municipality of the city arrived ai 
the head -quarters of the French army. 

It is the universal belief that Rome will be entered peaceably without delay. 

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M. Courcelles, the successor to M. Lesseps, who has been waiting at Civita 
Vecchia until his powers might be called into action, has gone to the head- 
quarters under the walls of Rome. I have, &c. 

(Signed) A. COOPER KEY. 

No. 80. 
Viscount Pcdmerston to Viscount Ponsonhy. 

My Lord, Foreign Office, July 10, 1849. . 

I HEREWITH transmit to your Excellency, for your information, a copy of 
a despatch* which I have received from Her Majesty's Ambassador at Paris, on .the 
present state of affairs at Rome- I likewise inclose a copy of an instruction! which 
I have addressed to the Marquis of Normanby in reply, expressing the opinipn 
that it would be desirable for the French Government to enter into communi* 
cation with the Government of Austria with ar view of inducing that Government 
to counsel the Pope to secure to his subjects an arrangement which, while it 
reinstated him in his position of temporal and ecclesiastical authority at Rome, 
should give to those subjects for their civil and political rights, those guarantees 
which nothing but a Representative Constitution could afford. Your Excellency 
will take every fitting opportunity strongly to recommend to the Austrian 
Government to give such advice at Gaeta. 

I am, &c. 

No. 81. 
The Marquis of Normanby to Viscount Palmerston. — {Received July 10.) 

(Extract.) Paris, July 9, 1849. 

A TELEGRAPHIC message, of the date of the 5th of July, from Rome, 
announces the occupation of the city by the French troops, to whom the Castle 
oi St. Angelo had been given up. 

The nomination of General Rostolan as Governor, and of General Sauvan 
as '* Commandant de la Place," arc reported, but no mention is made of the 
terms of the capitulation, or whether the Constituent Assembly still continue their 

No. 82. 

The Marquis of Normanby to Viscount Palmerston. — {Received July 10.) 

(Extract.) ... paris, July 9, 1849. 

THE French Government have heard with much satisfaction the com- 
munication which your Lordship states yourself to have made to the Austrian 
Government upon the advice which it would be so desirable should be. given 
from Vienna as to the conduct of the Pope at the present crisis. 

No. 83. 
Viscount Palmerston to Viscount Ponsonby. 

r , 

My Lord, Foreign Office, July 13, 1849. 

WITH reference to my despatch of the 10th instant, transmitting a 
Qopy of an instruction which I had addressed to the Marquis of Normanby oji 
the affiiirs of Rome, I have to instruct you to request the serious attention of the 

• No. 74. t No. 75. 

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Austrian Cabinet to those afiairs. It seems to Her Majesty's Government, 
from the information which has reached them from various sources, that while 
on the one hand the great majority of the people of the Roman States feel 
an invincible repugnance to submit themselves again to Priestly government, 
they would, on the other hand, have no insurmountable objection to receive 
the Pope as their temporal Sovereign, provided they were secured in their 
civil and political interests by such a Representative Constitution as that which 
the Pope gave to his subjects last year. But if the Pope takes his stand 
upon the grounds laid down in his Allocution of the 20th of April, and 
refuses to maintain the Constitution, and objects to a separation of the tem- 
poral administration of the State from the spiritual authority of the Church, 
it is evident that one of two things must happen, either that the Pope 
must be restored to his former power in Rome by the force of foreign arms, 
or that he must abandon all hope of returning thither. 

A restoration of the Pope to his former unlimited authority by the force of 
foreign arms, setting aside the injustice of such a measure in point of principle, 
could only be looked upon as a temporary arrangement. The grievances and 
abuses which would accompany such a restoration would now be far more forcibly 
felt by the Roman people than they were at a time when the Romans considered 
such abuses as their natural inheritance, and when they never had known a 
better state of things with which to compare them ; but now that the Romans 
have been for many months free from the evils of their former Government, a 
return to those evils would produce infinitely greater discontent than that which 
has up to this time existed. It is evident, therefore, that in such a case, tran- 

auillity would last only as long as the presence of a sufficient foreign force kept 
own the discontents of the people, and that whenever that foreign force was 
removed, renewed disturbances would break out ; and such a state of things 
would not be productive of that tranquillity which the Austrian Government 
must naturally wish to see established in Italy. 

On the other hand, if it should not be practicable so to reconcile the Pope 
and his subjects, as that the Pope might be enabled to return to Rome, it is 
possible that a Republican form of Government may take root in the Roman 
States, and such an order of things would probably not be that which Austria 
would wish to see prevail in Central Italy. 

For these reasons Her Majesty's Government are desirous of engaging 
the Austrian Govemmeat to exert that influence which it is known to possess 
over the Papal Councils, in order to persuade the Pope to maintain the Con- 
stitutional concessions which he made to his subjects last year, and thus to pave 
the way for his resumption of the Papal Throne. 

You will read this despatch to Prince Schwarzenberg and you will give 
him a copy of it. I am, &c. 


No. 84. 
Mr. Freeborn to Viscount Palmer ston. — {Received July 14.) 

(Extract.) Rome, July 4, 1849. 

ON the night of the 29th a partial bombardment took place, and many 
shells fell ; the only British subject, however, wounded, was Mr. Wyatt, the 
sculptor, but I am happy to say slightly. During this bombardment the French 
troops approached the batteries on the second line of defence through the 
medium of covered trenches; the Roman troops were taken by surprise, and 
recoiled for about fifty paces, and then returned, attacking the French with 
vigour. A severe conflict followed, which continued for about nine hours : the 
batteries remained in the hands of the French, which cost them the loss of 800 
men between killed and wounded ; the Romans lost about the same number, 
and more, about 400 prisoners. The engagement terminated by all the 
positions being given up to the French. From the landing of the French at 
Civita Vecchia up to the present day, the loss on the part of the Romans^ 
between killed, wounded, and prisoners, cannot be less than 4000 men. 

On the 30th, at a late hour, the Municipality sent a deputation to General 
<)udinot to propose terms of capitulation; the conditions were rejected by 

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General Oudinot, who oflfered an ultimatum, giving no guairahtce whatever, 
except that of offering the *' protection of the honour and liberal principles of 
.the French Republic'' This ultimatum was rejected by the Municipality pro- 
testing against the occupation of the city of Rome by the French troops, addii^ 
that the gates were opened and that no further resistance would be made by 
the military ; throwing upon the French Government all responsibiUty if a 
collision should take place between the people and the French troops. 

The city was occupied yesterday, and I am happy to say no collision took 
.place, although there was some provocation on the part of the people, who 
4?eceived Grcneral Oudinot with partial hisses and groans. 

General Garibaldi has quitted Rome with the free corps amounting to 
about 4000 men ; and the troops of the line leave the city in number aboid; 
,6000, in the course of the day, to occupy Rieti and Temi. 

In consequence of General Oudinot entering the city of Rome as a 
teonqueror, without preceding this act by a proclamation, compromised persons 
are in great alarm, and immense numbers have already left the city vvithout 
being molested by the French. At the earnest request of the Pro-Secretary of 
^tate for Foreign Affairs, the Municipality, and the police, I have furnished 
Jabout 500 individuals with passports for England — the last refuge for the unfor- 
/tunate. These unhappy people have implored this protection even on their 
;kaees, and therefore, on the score of humanity, I could not resist their supplica- 
tions ; consequently I trust your Lordship will not disapprove of this act erf 
mine, although not authorized by my instructions. 

No. 85. 
The Marquis of Normanby to Viscount Palmerston. — {Received July 17.) 

(Extract.) Paris, July 16, 1849. 

YOUR Lordship, in your despatch to Lord Ponsonby of the 13th instant, 
.evidently contemplates the establishment of such Representative institutions as 
would fulfil the functions of a regular Constitutional Government. Should the 
forcible reasons which are there given why Austria should desire the permanent 
establishment of a Government in Central Italy, which should realize the just wishes 
of the people, and thereby avert future commotion, produce such an impression om 
the Austrian Government as to induce them to urge advice in that spirit upon the 
Pope and his counsellors at Gaeta, I cannot doubt that the French Government 
would not only sympathize in such a result, but, secured of the co-operation of 
Austria, be anxious to bear a part in bringing it about, and risk all other oppo- 
sition for that object. But they are acting under the conviction not only that 
no concessions to that extent could be obtained voluntarily from the Pope, but 
that Austria, as well as Spain and Naples, would support His Holiness in 
opposition to the demand. France has therefore to consider her own peculiar 
position fiom the very outset. 

If England gives advice consistent with her disinterested desire for the 
progress of rational liberty, then if her advice is taken she has the credit and the 
satisfaction of having acted up to her principles, and if it is disregarded, it is 
consistent with her known habits of non-interference, to consider that she retires 
from the affair without discredit. But France has 30,000 men at Rome, whom 
she cannot long leave there without inconvenience to herself and uneasiness tp 
others. Yet if she were to propose to the Pope to establish a regular Constitu- 
tional Government, and His Holiness, in his present disposition, to refuse, the 
French must then either at all risks continue an indefinite military occupation 
of Rome, or they must make way for the Austrians to restore the Pope on his 
own terms, or they must attempt to found there some independent Govemmeirf; 
on the supposed wishes of the people. 

This latter alternative would be most consistent with the popular origin of 
their own Government ; but independent of the opposition which such propa- 
gandism would excite in many quarters, it is evident that the materials for such 
»n impromptu creation would be wanting. It will for some time be a 
disputed point with how much goodwill the population of Rome submitted to 
fhe dictation of the Triumvirs; but the rule of the Triumvln^ the chair ^ 

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the Assembly, the command of the troops, and the direction of the barricades^ 
were all in the hands of those who is foreigners could have no share in the 
future government of the country. As to the two other alternatives, pacific as 
is the present spirit of Frsince, she ooiild not suboAt to aband^ Rome for 
Austria there to carry out her own objects, and Austria could not submit to the^ 
objectless ccmtinuation of French occupation. It would seem, therefore, that it is 
iirorth while to consider how &r it Wotild be nXi advaott^ to reVert ti% the aUite of 
tilings which existed at the time of the first '' Consultit/' almost at the last momefril 
at which Roman affairs were not swayed by extraneous revohitiooary influences* It 
is true that the Pope and bis people would now again meet with all enthusiasm lost 
and much experience gained, and this might enable one the better to examine 
how far the administrative reforms which His Holiness is ready to promise 
might in practice assume the character of constitutional guarantees. I under- 
stand that large concessions would be offered as to the control over the finances 
to be given to the municipalities in coi^unctioii with the Consults. Such provi- 
sions, like any others, may be obliterated or perverted in careless or corrupt 
hands, but history affords many examples where such institutions, more certainly 
than any written constitution, contained the germ of civil liberty. If in addi- 
tion the code is purified and the independence of the judges established, one 
can easily foresee that when the people by such means have been prepared for 
further progress, the change may be eflfected at some moment more favourable 
tiian the present. 

No. 86. 
The Hon. W. Temple to Viscount Palmersion.- — (Received July 17.) 

My Lord, Naples, July 5, 1849. 

THE news of the surrender of Rome to the French forces was received on 
the 3rd instant, and on the following day Colonel Nigel arrived at Gaeta, having 
been charged by .General Oudinot to present the keys of Rome to His Holiness. 

His Sicilian Majesty having left Gaeta for Naples on that day, Colonel Nigel 
followed His Majesty to this capital, having been also charged by General 
Oudinot to communicate to him the occupation of Rome by the French 

A deputation consisting of seven of the principal inhabitants of Bologna 
has arrived at Naples by the way of Leghorn, and were yesterday released from 

The object of their mission is to pay their respects to the Pope, and to 
express their hope that His Holiness will confirm to his subjects the liberal 
institutions which he had conferred upon them. 

It is very doubtful, however, whether the Pope will be inclined to receive 
the deputation. 

Garibaldi had left Rome with about 4000 men, but It is uncertain which 
direction he has taken. 

The Spanish division has marched upon Velletri to be ready to oppose him 
should he advance towards the Neapolitan frontier. 

I have, &c. 
(Bigned) W. TEMPLE. 

No. 87. 
The Marquis of Nammnby to Viscount Palmerston. — (Received July 18.) 

(Extract) /Vm, /idy 17, 1849/ 

FRANCE will not exact any conditions firom the Pope as the price of hfe* 
entrance to Rome, but her efforts will all be directed to have an understanding 
^ith him, probably commenced at Gaeta and matured at Rome^ that the Roman 
people shall in improved inirtitutions and in advance towards self-govemmrat 
fyid reason permanently to remember with no hostile feeling French intervention 
in their affairs. 

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No. 88. 
Mr. Freeborn to Viscount Palmerston. — {Received July 19.) 

My Lord, Rome, July 5. 1849. 

T HAVE the honour to transmit herewith a proclamation issued by General 
Oudinot, dated the 4th instant, and another proclamation issued by General 
Rostolan, dated the 5th instant. I have, &c. 


Inclosure 1 in No. 88. 
Proclamation of General Oudinot. 

Abitanti di Roma, 

L'ARMATA inviata dalla Repub- 
blica Francese sul vostro territorio ha 
per scopo di ristabilirci Tordine e la 

Una minority fazziosa o traviata, ci 
ha costretti di dare Tassalto alle vostre 
mure. Siamo padroni della piazza; 
adempiremo la nostra missione. 

In mezzo alle prove di simpatia 
che ci hanno accolti, alcune vocifera- 
zioni ostili si sono scopplate e ci hanno 
forzati ad una immediata repressione. 

I cittadini dabbene, ed i veri amici 
della iibertSi ripiglino fiducia. I nemici 
deir ordine e della society siano bene 
informati che se delle manifestazioni 
oppresive, provocate da una fazzione 
straniera si rinnuovassero, sarebbero 
punite con tutto rigore. 

Per dare alia sicurezza pubblica 
delle positive garanzie prendo i se- 
guenti dispositivi. 

Prowisoriamente, tutt' i poteri sono 
concentrati nelle mani dell' autoritk 
militare. Questa domanderk subito 
il concorso del manicipio. 

L'Assemblea e il Govemo di cui il 
regno violente ed oppressivo ha comin- 
ciato coir ingratitudine e finito con un 
grido air armi contro una nazione 
arnica delle popolazioni Romane, non 
esistono piu. 

I circoli politic! ed associazioni 
politiche sono vietati. 

Ogni individuo non militare, arres- 
tato portatore di armi visibili o nascoste, 
8ar& immediatemente tradotto dinanzi 
al consiglio di guerra. 

SarSt lo stesso per ogni individuo 
militare che facesse uso delle sue armi. 

Ogni pubblicazione col mezzo della 
stampa, ogni affisso non permesso 
dall' autorit^ militare^ sono prowiso- 
riamente vietati. 

bien et les vrais 
reprennent con- 

Habitans de Rome, 

L'ARMEE envoy^e par la Repub- 
lique Fran9aise sur votre territoire a 
pour mission d*y r^tablir Tordre et la 

Une minority factieuse ou ^gar^e 
nous a contraints de donner Tassaut k 
vos remparts. Nous sommes mattres 
de la place. Nous accompUrons notre 

Au milieu des t^moignages de sj^n- 
pathiequi nous ontaccueillis, quelques 
clameurs hostiles se sont fait entendre 
et nous ont forc& a une repression 

Que les gens de 
amis de la liberty 
fiance. Que les ennemis de Tordre 
et de la socii^t^ sachent que si des 
manifestations oppressives provoqu^es 
par une faction ^trangfere se renou- 
velaient, elles seraient rigoureusement 

Pour donner k la s^curit^ publique 
des garanties positives, j'arrSle les 
dispositions suivantes. 

Provisoirement, tons les pouvoirs 
sont concentres entre les mains de Tau* 
tonti militaire. Elle fera imm^diate- 
ment appel au concours de Tautorit^ 

L* Assemble et le Gouvernement 
dont le regne violent Qt oppressif a 
commence par I'ingratitude et a fini 
par un appel k la guerre contre une 
nation amie des populations Romaines, 
cessent d^exister. 

Les clubs et les associations politi* 
ques sont fermcs. 

Tout individu non militaire arrets 
porteur d*armes, ostensihles ou cachees, 
sera immediatement traduit en conseil 
de guerre. 

II en sera de m^me de tout individu 
militaire qui fera usage de scs armes. 

Toute publication par la voie de la 
presse, toute affiche non autoris^Q 
par la autoritd militaire^ sont provi-i* 
soirement interdites. 

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' I delitti contro le persoDe e le pro- Les dflits centre les personnes et 
'J)rietJt saranno giustiziabili dai tribunali les propri^tes sont jiisticiables des 
militari. tribunaux militaires. 

- 11 Generale di Divisione Rostolan h Le G^ii^ral de Division Rostolan est 
notninato a Govematore di Roma. nomm^ Gouvemeur de Rome. 

II Generale di Brigata Sauvan h Le G^n^ral de Brigade Sauvan est 
nominato a Coraandante della Piazza. nommd Commandant de la Place. 
^ II Colonel lo Sol 6 nominato a Le Colonel Sol est nomme Major de 
Maggiore di Piazza. la Place. 

Romay li 4 Luglioy 1849. Rome, 4 Juillety 1849. 

n Generale Comandante in capo, 


inhabitants of Rome, 

THE army sent to your territory by the French Republic, has for its object 
the re-establishment, of order and security. 

A factious or mistaken minority has compelled us to assault your ramparts. 
We are masters of the place. We will accomplish our object. 

In the midst of the manifestations of sympathy by which we have been 
received, some hostile clamours have been heard, and have compelled us 
immediately to repress them. 

Let well-disposed people and the true friends of liberty resume confidence. 
Jjet the enemies of order and of society be aware that if any disposition is again 
$hown by a foreign faction to re-establish a system of oppression, it will be 
rigorously punished. 

For the purpose of fully ensuring public safety, I lay down the following 
rules: — 

Provisionally, all power is concentrated in the hands of the military 
authority. It will immediately apply for the concurrence of the municipal 

The Assembly and the Government whose violent and oppressive reign 
commenced in ingratitude and has terminated in an appeal to arms against a 
nation friendly to the Roman people, no longer exist. 

The clubs and political associations are closed. 

Every non-military individual arrested with arms on his person, either 
displayed or concealed, will be immediately made over to the Council of War. 

Every military person who shall make use of his arms, will be treated in 
the same way. 

All publications by means of the press, all placards not authorized by the 
military authority, are provisionally forbidden. 

Offences against persons and property are cognizable by the military 

The General of Division Rostolan is named Governor of Rome. 

The General of Brigade Sauvan is named Commandant of the place. 

The Colonel Sol is named Major of the place. 

Rome, July 4, 1849. 

The General Commanding in chief, 

Inclosure 2 in No. 88. 
Proclamation of Oeneral Rostolan. 

Abitanti di Roma, Habitans de Rome, 

IL Generale Commandante-in-capo LE G^n^ral Commandant-en-chef 

PArmata Francese mi ha nominato a rArmeeFran9aise, m'anommdGouver- 

Govematore della vostra cittJu neur de votre cit^. 

Vengo a questo postocoirintenzione J'arrive k cette position avec Pin* 

ben precisadi secondare energicamente, tentionbien arrStee de seconder dner* 

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jeon tatti i meztsi del imo potere; le .^u^nwt par tous les meyais ea moa 
jnlsare gi^ prcse dal Generaie-in-cftpo pouvoir^ les mesures dej^ prises par li 

per assicurare la Tostra quiete; per 
.prote^ere le voetre persone, le vo8tre 

Prendo i seguenti dispositivi: 

Da oggi in poi : 

1. Ogni assemhramento suUe vie 
pubbliche S interdetto, e sara sciolto 
coUa forza. 

2. La Ritirata sark suooataalle nove 
pomeridiane. La,circolazione nella citt^ 
cessera alle nove e mezzo. A quelPora 
i luoghi di riunione saranno chiusi. 

3. I circoli politici che nonostante il 
proclama del Generale-in-capo, non 
Ibssero gi^ chiusi, io saranno col mezzo 
della forza, e i proprietarj o conduttori 
dei luoghi dove detti circoli esistessero 
sarebbero perseguitati con tutto rigore. 

4. Ogni violenza, ogni insulto contro 
i nostri soldati, o contro le persone che 
hanno con essi amichevoli relazioni, 
ogni impedimento recato alPapprovi- 
gionamento verrano immediatamente 
puniti con modo esemplare. 

5. Potranno soltanto liberamente per 
coirere la cittk nella notte i medici ed i 
pubblid funzionarj. Questi dovranno 

G^n^ral-en-chef pour assurer rotat 
tranquillity, pour prot^r voa ]per« 
sonnes et tos prc^ri^t^. 

J'arr^te lea dispositiong suivaotes : 

A dater de ce jour : 

L Tout rassemblement but la Toie 
publique est interdit, et sera dissip^par 
la force. 

2* La Retraite sera battue k 9 heures 
du soir. La circulation dans la ville 
cessera a 9 heures et demie ; k cette 
m6me heure tous les lieux de reunion 
seront ferm^s. 

3. Les clubs, qui, contrairement k 
la proclamation du G^n^ral-en-chef, 
n'auraient pas encore 6t6 ferm^s, le 
seront par la force, et les poursuites kf 

{)lus rigoureuses seront exerc^es contre 
es proprietaires des lieux oii lis se 

4. Toute violence, toute insulte 
envers nos soldats ou envers les per- 
sonnes qui communiquent amicalement 
avec eux, toute entrave apport^e i 
I'approvisionnement de nos troupes, 
seront sur-le-champpunis d'une maniere 

5. Pourront seujs circuler librement 
pendant la nuit, les m^ecins et les 
fonctionnaires publics. lis devront 

essere muniti d'un lascia-passare firmato elors Stre porteurs d'un laissez-passer 

dall'autont^ miiitare e si faranno ac- 
eompagnare di fazione in fazione fino ai 
luoghi ove dovranno renders!. 

Abitanti di Roma ! Voi volete For- 
dine, io saprd garantirvelo% Coloro che 
sognassero di prolungare la vostra op- 
pressione, troverebbero in me una 
severity infles^bile. 

d^livrd par les autorites militaires, et 
lis se feront accompagner de poste en 
poste jusqu'aux lieux oil ils auront k se 

Habitans de Rome! vous voulez 
I'ordre et je saurai vous le garantih 
Ceux qui rSveraient plus longtemps 
votre oppression trouveront en moi une 
s^v^rite inflexible. 

Rome, le .5 Juillet, 1849. 

Roma, ft Luglioy 1849. 

II General di Divisione Governatore di Roma, 
(Firmato) ROSTOLAN. 


Inhabitants of Roine» 

THE General Commander-in-chief of the French army has named me 
Governor of your city. 

I assume that office with the firm determination of carrying out energetically 
by all the means in my power the measures already taken by the General-in- 
chief for insuring your tranquillity^ for protecting your persons and your 

I lay down the following rules : 

From this day — 

L All assemblages in the public thoronghferes me prohiWted, and will 1)6 
dspefrsed by force. 

►^ 2. The retreat will be beaten at 9 in the evening. At half-past 9 ^ptogie- 
shall cease to move ttbout in the streets^, at tbat ssne tiour tfi pliceg o£ 
meeting shall be dosed. 

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3. The clubs, which contrary to the proclamation of the General-m-chief 
may not yet have been closed, shall be so by force, and the most rigorous 
measures will be adopted against the owners of the places where they may 
be held. 

4. Every act of violence, every insult shown to our soldiers or towards the 
persons who may be in friendly intercourse with them, every impediment t^ 
supplying our troops with provisions, will be forthwith punished in an exemplary 

&. Medical men and public ftmctionaries will alone be at liberty to move 
about during the night. They must then be the bearers of a pass granted bj 
the military authorities, and they will apply for the attendance ^ an escort ftoat 
post to post as far as the place to which they shall be proceeding. 

Inhabitants of Rome, you wish for order, and I will insure it to you. 
Those who might dream of further oppressing you, will find in me an inflexible 

Romcy July 5, 1849. 

The General of Division, Governor of Rome, 
(Signed) ROSTOLAN, 

No. 89. 
M. Drouyn de Lhuys to Viscount Palmerston. 

(Extrad;.) Hertford House, 19 Juillety 1849. 

A LA veille de la discussion qui doit s'ouvrir dans le Parlement au sujet 
des affaires de Rome, je crois convenable et utile de vous rappeler que dans les 
d^pfiches de M. de Tocqueville, dont j'ai eu Thonneur de vous donner lecture, 
le Gouvernement Frangais exprime maintefois la ferme intention "d'assurer 
aux Etats Romains les reformes n^cessaires et des institutions lib^rales sdrieuses'* 
. . . • qu'il mande k ses Pl^nipotentiaires k Gaete, " que la Rdpublique a k 
droit de s'attendre k ce que les conditions n^cessaires k Texistence d'un Gouverne- 
ment v^ritableraent liberal et digne des lumi^res du si^cle, ne soient pas 
Tefus^es" .... qu'enfin il m'informait demiferecnent, *'que tous ses efforts 
tendent aujourd'hui k obtenir du Saint Si6ge des mesiu'es de concihation et des 
reformes lib^rales, sans lesquelles il lui parait impossible d'espdrer la pacification 
durable des Etats de PEglise." 


Hertford House, July 19, 1849. 
ON the eve of the discussion which is about to commence in Parliament 
on the subject of the affairs of Rome, I think it proper and useful to remind 
you that in M. de Tocqueville's despatches, whidi 1 have had the honour to 
read to you, the French Government repeatedly expresses its firm intention " of 
securing to the Roman States the necessary reforms and really liberal institu- 
tions ;" that it informs its Plenipotentiaries at Gaeta, " that the Republic is 
intitled to expect that the conditions requisite for the existence of a Govemmeiit 
truly liberal and worthy of the enlightened character of the age, should not be 
refused;" that finally, it informed me not long since, "that the tendency 
of all its efforts is to obtain from the Holy See measures of conciliation anjd 
Bberal reforms, without which it seems to it impossible to look for the lasting 
pacification of the States of tlie Church." 

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No. 90. • , 

Viscount Palmerston to the Marquis of Normanby. 

(Extract.) Foreign Office, July 20, 1849. . 

AS M. de Tocqueville alluded to the memorandum which the Repre- 
sentatives of the Five Powers at Rome presented in 1831 to the Cardinal 
Secretary of State, advising the Roman Government to adopt certain adminis- 
trative reforms, and as M. de Tocqueville may not perhaps have a copy of that 
paper at hand, I transmit to your Excellency herewith two printed copies of it*. 

No. 91. 
The Marquis of Normanby to Viscount Palmerston, — (Received July 21.) 

My Lord, Paris, July 20, 1849. 

M. DE TOCQUEVILLE has just read to me a telegraphic despatch of 
the date of the 1 6th, from Civita Vecchia, which states that in consequence of a 
demonstration on the part of the people of Rome, the authority of the Pope 
bad been proclaimed and re-established on the 13th, amidst every demonstettion 
of enthusiasm from the mass of the population. 

The despatch further reports that the best understanding continues to 
prevail between the French troops and the citizens of Rome, 

I have, &c. 
(Signed) NORMANBY. 

No. 92. 
Mr. Freeborn to Viscount Palmerston. — {Received July 23.) 

My Lord, Rome, July 14, 1849: - 

1 HAVE the honour to acknowledge receipt of your Lordship's despatch 
desiring me to send copy of the Allocution of Pio IX, dated the 20th April, 
which appeared in Nos. 23, 24, and 25 of the Bologna journal '*^ Vera Liberta.*' 

In consequence of all the clubs and reading-rooms being shut up by order 
of the police, it will be difficult to obtain, but I will exert myself in procuring it 

In the meanwhile to save time I transmit herewith translation in French, 
from the Latin original, which I had placed in the archives of the Consulate ns 
a record. 

I have, &c. 

Inclosure in No. 92. 
Allocution of Pope Pius IX of Apnl 20, 1849. 

[Original of the Allocution sent by Mr. Freeborn.] 

Venerabiles Fratres. 

QUIBUS, quantisque malorum procellis sunmio cum animi nostri dolore 
Pontificia nostra ditio, omnisque fere Italia, miserandum in modum jactetur ac 
perturbetur, nemo certe ignorat, venerabiles fratres. Atque utinam homines 
tristissimis hisce rerum vicibus edocti aliquando inteUigant, nihil ipsis perni- 
ciosius esse posse, quam a verilatis, justitiae, honestatis et religionis semitis 
deflectere, ac nequissimis impiorum consiliis acquiescere, eorumque insidiis, 
iraudibus et erroribus decipi atque irretu-i ! Equidem universus terrarum orbis 
probe noscit, atque testatur, quae quantaque fuerit patemi atque amantissimi 
animi nostri cura solhcitudo in vera solidaque Pontificiae nostras ditionis populo- 

* Presented to rarl'ament in 1848. 

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rum utilitate, tranquillitate, prosperitate procuranda, et quis tante nostras indul- 
gentiae et amoris fructus extiterit. Quibus quidem verbis callidissimos tantorum 
malorum artifices dumtaxat damnamus, quin uUam maximse populorum parti 
.culpam tribuere vfelimus. Verumtamen deplorare cogimur, muitos etiam e 
.populo ita misere fuisse deceptos, ut aures suas a nostris vocibus ac monitis 
avertentes, illas fallacibus quorumdam magistrorum doctrinis praebuerint, qUi 
relinquentes iter rectuniy et per mas tenehrosas ambuladtes* eo unice spectabant, 
jjt imperitorum praesertim animos mentesque magnificis falsisque promissis in 
fraudem et in errorem inducerent, ac plane compellerent. Omnes profectb 
norunt, quibus laudum praeconiis fuerit ubique concelebrata memoranda ilia et 
amplissima venia a Nobis ad familiarum pacem, tranquillitatem, felicitatemque 
procurandam concessa. Ac neminem latet, plures ea venia donates non solum 
suam mentem vel minimum baud immutasse, quemadmodum sperabamus, verum 
etiam eorum consiliis et molitionibus acrius in dies insistentes nihil unquam 
inausum nihilque intentatum reliquisse, ut civilem Romani Pontificis Principatum, 
. ejusque re^men, uti jamdiu machinabantur, labefactarent et funditus everterent, 
ac simul acerrimum sanctissimae nostrae religioni bellum inferrent. Ut autem id 
facilius consequi possent, nihil antiquius habuere, quam multitudines in primis 
QonvQcare, inflammare^ casque assiduis magnisque motibus agitare, quos vel 
qostrarum concessionum praetextu continenter fovere, et in dies augere summer 
; pjBre sj:udebant. . Hinc concessiones in ipso nostri Pontificatus initio a Nobip 
ultrp ac libenter datae non solum optatos fructus baud emittere, sed ne radicejs 
quidem agere umquam potuere, cum peritissimi fraudum architecti iisdem con,- 
cessjonibus ad novas conqitandas agitationes abuterentur. Atque in hoc vestro 
consessU) venerabiles fratres, facta ipsa vel leviter attingere, ac raptim com,- 
memorare ea sane mente censuimus, ut omnes bonae voluntatis homines clare 
aperteque cggnoscant, quid Dei et humani generis hostes velint, quid optent, 
quidque ipsis in animo semper fixum destinatumque sit. 

Pro singular! nostro in subditos aflfectu dolebamus, ac vehementer angeba- 
mur, venerabiles fratres, cum assiduos illos populares motus tum publicse 
tranquillitati et ordini, tum privatae familiarum quieti ac paci tantopere adversos 
videremus, nee perferre poteramus crebras illas pecuniarias coUectas, quae variis 
nominibus non sine levi civium incommodo et dispendio postulabantur. Itaque 
mense Aprili anno 1847 per publicum edictum nostri CardinaUs a publicis negft- 
tiis opines monere baud omisimus, ut ab ejusmpdi popularibus conventibus et 
largitionibus sese abstinerent^ atque ad propria pertractanda negotia animum 
mentemque denuo converterent, omnemque in nobis fiduciam. coUocarent, ac pro 
certo haberent paternas nostras curas cogitationesque ad publica commoda 
coniparanda unice esse conversas, 4uemadmodumjampluribus ac luculentissimis 
argumentis ostenderamus. Verum salutaria hsec nostra monita, quibus tantos 
pppimlares motus compescere, et populos ipsos ad qidetis et tranquillitatis studia 
. pevocare nitebamur, pravis quorumdam hominum desideriis et machinatiqnibus 
vehementer adversabantur. Itaque indefessi agitationum auctores, qui jam 
alteri ordinationi jussu nostro ab eodem Cardinali ad rectam utilemque populi 
educationem promovendam editae obstiterant, vix dum monita ilia nostra nove- 
runt, baud destitere contra ipsa ubique inclamare, et acriori usque studio incautas 
multitudines commovere, eisque callidissime insinuare ac persuadere, ne illi 
tranquillitati a nobis tantopere exoptatae se umquam dare vellent, cum insidio- 
sum in ea lateret consilium, ut populi quodammodo indormirent, atque ita in 
posterum duro servitutis jugo facilius opprimi possent. Atque ex eo tempore 
plurima scripta typis quoque edita, atque aoerbissimis quibusque contumeliis, 
conviciis, minisque plenissima ad nos missa fuere, quae oblivione sempiterna 
obruimus, flammisque tradidimus. Ut autem inimici homines fidem aliquam 
fitoei^nt falsis pdriculis, quae in populum impendere clamitabant, baud refolmi- 
darunt mentitae cujusdam conjurationis, ab ipsis apposite excogitatae, rumorem 
, ac metiun in valgus spargere, ac turpissimo mendacio vociferari, ejusmodi conju- 
rationem initam esse ad urbem Romam civili bello, caedibus ac funeribus ftmes- 
tandam^ utnovis institutionibus penitus sublatis atque deletis^ pristipa gubernan^i 
forma iterum revivisceret; Sed hujus falsissimae conjurationis praetextu inimici 
homines eo spectabant, ut populi contemptum, invidiam, furorem contra quos- 
dam lectissimos quoque virps virtute, religione praestantes, et ecolesiastica etiaoi 
dignitate insignes nefarie commoverent atque excitarent. Probe nostis^ in hoc 

* Pro?, c. ii, V. 13, 


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rerum ssstu civicam militiam faiase propositam, ac tanta celeritate ooUectam, nt 
rectae illius institutioni et disciplinae oonsuli minime potuerit. 

Ubi primum ad publicse administrationis prosperitatem magis magisqae 
procurandam opportunum fore censuimus Status C>onsultationem instituere, 
mimici homines occasionem exinde statim arripuere, ut nova Gubemio vulnera 
imponerent ac simul effioerent, nt hujiismodi institutio, quae publicis populorunt 
rationibus magnse utilitati esse poterat, in damnum ac perniciem cederet. Bt 
quoniam eorum opinio impune jam invaluerat, ea institutione et Pontificii regiminiB 
indolemacnaturam immutari,et Nostram auctoritatem Consul torumjudicio subjici, 
ideirco eo ipso die quo ilia Status Consultatio inaugurata fuit^haud omisimus turbn- 
lentos quosdam homines, qui Consultores comitabantur gravibus severisque verbis 
fierio monere, eisque verum hujus institutionis finem clare aperteque manifestare. 
Verum perturbatores numquam desinebant deceptam populi partem majc^e 
usque impetu solUcitare, et quo facilius asseclai'um numerum habere et augere 
possent, turn in Pontificia nostra ditione, tum apud exteras quoque gentes insigni 
prorsus impudentia atque audaciaevulgabant, eorum opinionibus et consiiiis nas 
plane assentire. Memineritis, Venerabiles Fratres, quibus verbis in nostra Conk 
sistoriali Allocutione die 4 mensis Octobris anno 1847* ad vos habita universes 
populos serio commonere et exhortari hand omiserimus, ut ab ejusmodi vetera- 
torum fraude studiocissime caverent. Interim vero pervicaces insidiarum at 
agitationem auctores, ut turbas metusque continenter alerent et excitarent, mende 
Januario superioris anni incautorum animos inani extemi belli rumore territa- 
bant, atque in vulgus spargebant, bellum idem mtemis conspirationibus et mali- 
tiosa Gubemantium inertia foveri ac sustentatum in. Nos ad tranquillandoB 
animos, et insidiantium fallacias refellendas nulla quidem interposita mora die 
10 Februarii ipsius anni voces ejusmodi omnino falsas et absurdas esse declara- 
vimus illis nostris verbis, quae omnes probe conoscunt, Atque in eo tempore 
carissimis nostris subditis, quod nunc Deo bene juvante eveniet, praenuntiavimud, 
fliturum scilicet, ut innumerabiles filii ad communis omnium fidelium Patris 
domum, ad Ecclesiae nempe Statum propugnandum convolarent, si arctisi^iiia 
ilia grati animi vincula, quibus ItaUae Principes, populique intime inter t9e 
obstringi debebant, dissoluta fuissent, ac populi ipsi suorum Principum sapieH- 
tiam, eorumque jurium sanctitatem vereri, ac totis viribis tueri et defendeife 

Etsi vero nostra ilia verba nuper commemorata tranquillitatem brevi 
quidem temporis spatio iis omnibus attulere, quorum voluntas continuae 
adversabatur purturbatieni, nihil tamen valuere apud infensissimos Ecclesiae, 6t 
humanae societatis hostes, qui novas jam turbas, novos tumultus concitaverant, 
Siquidem calumniis insistentes, quae ab ipsis, eorurave sirailibus contra Reli- 
giosos Viros divino ministerio addictos, et bene de Ecclesia meritos disseminatae 
fiierant, populares iras omni impetu adversus illos excitarunt atque inflamma- 
runt. Neque ignoratis, Venerabiles Fratres, nihil valuisse nostra verba ad 
populum die 10 Martii superioris anni habita, quibus religiosam illam familiam 
ab exilio et dispersione eripere niagnopere studebamus. 

Cum inter haec notissimae illae rerum pubhcarum conversiones in Italia et 
Europa evenirent, nos iterum Apostolicam nostram attollentes vocem die 
30 Martii ejusdem anni baud omisimus universos populos etiam atque etiam 
monere, hortari, ut et Catholicae Ecclesiae hbertatem vereri, et civilis societatis 
ordinem tegere, et omnium jura tueri, et sanctissimae nostrae religionis praecepta 
exequi, et in primis Christianam in omnes caritatem exercere omnino studerent, 
quandoquidem si haec ipsi agere neglexissent, pro certo haberent, quod Deas 
ostenderet, se populorum dominatorem esse. 

lam vero quisque vestrum plane noscit quomodo in Italiam Constitutionarii 
regiminis forma fuerit invecta, et quomodo statutum a nobis die 14 Martii 
superioris anni nostri subditis concessum in lucem prodierit. Cum autrai 
implacabiles publicae tranquiUitates et ordinis hostes nihil antiquius haberent^ 
quam omnia contra Pontificium Gubemium conari, et populum assiduis motibuB, 
suspicionibus exagitare, tum qua scriptis in lucem editis, qua circulis, qua 
societatibus, et aUis quibusque artibus numquam intermittebant Gubemium 
atrociter calumniari, eique inertiae, doli et fraudis notana inurere, licet Gubemium 
ipsum omni cura et studio in id ineumberet, ut statutum tantopere exoptatum 
majore, qua fieri posset, vulgaretur celeritate. Atque hie universe terrarum orb! 
manifestare volumus eo ipso tempore homines illos in suo constantes proposito sub- 
vertendi Pontificiam ditionem, totamque Italiam nobis proposuisse non jam Consti* 

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tBtionis^ sed Reipublicae prodamationem, yelnti uniciim turn nostras, turn Ecclesise 
Status incolumitatis perfbgium atque praesidium. Subit adhuc noctuma ilia hora^^ 
et versantur nobis ante oculos quidam homines, qui a fraudum architectis misere 
iUuai ac decepti illorum ea in re causam agere, atque eamdem reipublicae pro- 
clamationem nobis proponere non dubitabant. Quod quidem, prarter innumera 
alia et gravissima argumenta, magis magisque demonstrate novarum institutionimi 
petitiones et progressum ab hujusmodi hominibus tantopere prsedicatum eor 
unioe spectare, ut assiduae foveantur agitationes, ut omnia justitiae, virtutis, 
honestatis, religionis prineipia usquequaque penitus tollantur, atque horrendum 
et luctuosissimum^ ac vel ipsi natural! rationi et jurimaxime adversum Soctalimrdy 
\ft\ etiam Commtmismi, uti appellant, systema cum maximo totius bumanae 
societatis detrimento et exitio quaquaversus inducatur^ propagetur, ac longe 
lateque dominetur. 

Sed quamvis h^ec teterrima conspiration vel potius haec diutuma conspbratia- 
num, series clara esset et manifesta, tamen, Deo sic permittente, midtis illorum fuit 
ignota, quibus conununis tranquillitas tot sane de causis cordi summopere esse 
debebat. Atque etsi indefessi turbarum moderatores gravissimam de se suspi- 
cionem darent, tamen non defuere quidam bonae voluntatis homines, qui amicam 
iUis manum praebuere, ea forsitan spefreti fore, ut eos ad moderationis et justitiae 
semitam reducere possent. 

Interim belli clamor per universam Italian extemplo pervasit, quo Ponti- 
ficiae Nostrae ditionis subditorum pars commota atque abrepta ad arma convolavit, 
ac Nostrae voluntati obsistens ejusdem Pontificiae ditionis tines praetergredi voluit. 
Nostis, Venerabiles Fratres, quomodo debitas tum Summi Pontificis, tum Supremi 
Principis partes obeuntes injustis illorum desideriis obstiterimus, qui Nos ad illud 
bellum gerendum pertrahere volebant, quique postulabant, ut inexpertam juven- 
tutem sabitario modo collectam, ac militaris artis peritia et disciplina numquam 
excultam, et idoneis ductoribus bellicisque subsidiis destitutam ad pugnam, id est 
ad certam caedem compelleremus. Atque id a Nobis expectebatur qui licet 
immerentes inscrutabili Divinae providentiae consilio ad Apostolicae Dignitatis fasti- 
gium evecti, ac vicariam Christi Jesu hie in terris operam gerentes a Deo, qui est 
auctor pacis, et amator caritatis, missionem accepimus, ut omnes populos, gentes, 
nationes pari patemi amoris studio prosequentes, omnium saluti totis viribus 
consulamus, et non jam ut homines ad clades mortemque impellamus. Quod si 
quicumque Princeps nonnisi justis de causis bellum aggredi numquam potest, 
acquis tam consilii, et rationis expers umquam erit, qui plane non videat, 
Catholicum orbem merito atque optimo jure longe majorem justitiam, graviores- 
que causas a Romano Pontifice requirere, si Pontificem ipsum alicui bellum 
indicere et inferre conspiciat ? Quamobrem Nostra Allocutione die 29 Aprilis 
superiori anno ad Vos habit a palam publiceque declaravimus, Nos ab illo bello 
onmino esse alienos. Atque eodem tempore insidiosissimum profecto munus tum 
voce, tum scripto Nobis oblatum, ac non solum Personae Nostrae vel maxime 
injuriosum, venun etiam Italiae pemiciosissimum repudiavimus, rejecimus, ut 
scilicet Italicae cujusdam Reipublicae regimini praesidere vellemus. Equidem 
singulari Dei miseratione gravissimum loquendi, monendi, hortandique munus a 
Deo ipso Nobis impositum implendum curavimus, atque adeo confidimus. Nobis 
illud Isaiae improperari non posse : V(e mihi quia tacui. Utinam vero patemis 
Nostris vocibus, monitis, hortationibus suas Nostri omnes filii praebuissent 

Memineritis, Venerabiles Fratres, qui clamores, quique tumultus a tur- 
bulentissimae factionis. hominibus excitati fuere post Allocutionem a Nobis nunc 
commemoratam, et quomodo civile Ministerium Nobis fuerit impositum Nostris 
quidem consiUis, ac principiis, et Apostalicae sedis jurisbus summopere adversum. 
Nos quidem jam inde infelicem ItaUci belli exitum fiiturum animo prospeximus, 
dum unus ex illis Ministris asserere non dubitabat, bellum idem. Nobis licet invitis 
ac reluctantibus, et absque Pontificia benedictione, esse duraturum. Qui quidem 
Minister gravissimam Apostolicae Sedi inferens injuriam baud extimuit proponere 
dvilem Romani Pontificis Principatum a spirituaii ejusdem potestate omnino esse 
separandum. Atque idem ipse baud multo post ea de Nobis palam asserere non 
dubitavit, quibus Summum Pontificem ab humani generis consortio ejiceret 
ijoodammodo et dissociaret. Justus et misericors Dominus voluit nos humiliare 
sub potenti manu ejus, cum permiserit, ut plures per menses Veritas ex una 
parte^ mendacium ex altera acerrimo inter se dimicarent certamine, cui attulit 
finem novi Ministerii electio, qaod poetea alteii locum cessit, in quo ingeni 

K 2 

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aiis cum peculiaritum publici Ordmis tutandi, turn legum observandarum studio 
erat conjuncta. Verum ef&senata pravarum cupiditatum licentia et audacia in 
dies caput altius extollens longe grassabatur, ac Dei hominunique hostes diutuma 
ac sseva domihandi, diripiendi, ac destruendi siti incensi nihil jam aliud optabant, 
quam jura quaeque divina et humana subvertere, ut eorum desideria possent 
explere. Hinc machinationes jamdiu comparatae palam publiceque emicuere, et 
viae humano sanguine respersae, et sacrilegia numquam satis deploranda com- 
missa, et inaudita prorsus violentia in Nostris ipsis Quirinalibus ^dibus infando 
ausu Nobis illata. Quocirca tantis oppressi angustiis cum ne dum Principis, sed 
ne Pontificis quidem partes libere obire possemus, non sine maxima animi Nostri 
amaritudine a Sede Nostra discedere debuimus. Quae luctuosissima facta in 
publicis Nostris protestationibus enarrata hoc loco iterum recensere praeterimus, 
ne funesta illorum recordatione communis noster recrudescat dolor. Ubi vero 
seditiosi homines Nostras illas noverunt protestationes, majore furentes audacia, 
et omnia omnibus minitantes nulli neque fraudis, neque doli, neque violentie 
generi pepercerunt, ut bonis omnibus jam pavore prostratis majorem usque teiv 
rorem injicerent. Ac postquam novam illam Gubemii formam ab ipsis Giunta di 
Stato appellatam invexere, ac penitus sustulerunt duo Consilia a Nobis instituta, 
totis viribus allaborarunt, ut novum cogeretur Consilium, quod Constituentis 
Roman(B nomine nuncupare voluerunt. Refugit quidem animus, ac dicere 
reformidat quibus quahtisque fraudibus ipsi usi fuerint, ut ejusmodi rem ad 
exitum perducerent. Hie vero baud possumus, quin meritas majori Pontifidae 
ditionis magistratuum parti laudes tribuamus, qui proprii honoris et officii memores 
munere se abdicare maluerunt, quam uUo modo manum open admovere, quo 
eorum Princeps et amantissimus Pater legitimo suo civiU Principatu spoliabatur. 
lUud tamdem consilium fuit coactum, et quidam Romanus Advocatus vel in ipso 
suae primae orationis exordio ad congregatos habitae, omnibus clare aperteque 
declaravit, quid ipse cunctique alii sui socii horribilis agitationis auctores 
6entirent, quid vellent, et quo spectarent. Lex, ut elle inquiebat, moralis 
progressus est imperiosa et inexorabiliSy ac simul addebat, sibi, ceterisque jamdiu 
in animo fixum esse, temporale Apostolicae Sedis dominium ac regimen 
funditus evertere, licet modis omnibus eorum desideriis a Nobis fiiisset 
obsecundatum. Quam dedarationem in hoc vestro consessu commemorare 
voluimus, ut omnes intelligant pravam hujusmodi voluntatem non conjectura, 
aut suspicione aliqua a Nobis turbarum auctoribus fuisse attributam, sed 
cam universo terrarum orbi palam publiceque ab iilis ipsis manifestatam, q.uo8 
vel ipse pudor ab eadem proferenda declaratione revocare debuisset. Non 
liberiores igiturinstitutiones,non utiUorem publicaeadministrationis procurationem, 
non providas cujusque generis ordinationes hujusmodi homines cupiebant, sed 
civilem Apostolicae Sedis principatum, potestatemque impetere, convellerc, ac 
destruere omnino volebant. Ac ejusmodi consilium, quantum in ipsis fuit, 
ad exitum deduxerunt illo RomarKB, uti vocant, Constituentis decreto die 
9 Februarii hujus anni edito, quo nescimus, an majori injustitia contra jura 
Romanae Ecclesiae, adjunctamque illis Apostolici obeundi muneris libertatera, vel 
majori subditorum Pontificiae ditionis damno et calamite, Romanos Pontifices a 
tetnporali Gubiemo tum jure tum facto decidisse declararunt. Non levi quidem 
mcerore ob tam tristia facta confecti ftiimus, Venerabiles Fratres, atque ulud in 
primis vel maxime dolemus, quod Urbs Roma Catholicae veritatis et unitatis 
centrum, virtutis ac sanctitatis magistra per impiorum ad eam quotidie conflu- 
entium hominum operam, omnibus gentibus, populis, nationibus tantorum 
malorum auctrix appareat, Verumtamen in tanto animi Nostri dolore pergratum 
Nobis est posse affirmare, longe maximam tum Romani Populi, tum aliorum 
Pontificiae Nostrae ditionis populorum partem Nobis et Apostolicae Sedi con- 
stanter addictam a nefariis illis machinationibus abhomiisse, licet tot tristium 
eventuum spectatrix extiterit. Summae quoque consolationi Nobis fuit £pisco- 
porum, et Cleri Pontificiae Nostrae ditionis sollicitudo, qui in mediis perioulis, et 
omne genus difficultatibus ministerii et officii sui partes obire non destiterunt, ut 
populos ipsos qua voce, qua exemplo a motibus illis, nefarUsque factionis consiliis 

Nos certe in tanto rerum certamine atque discrimine nihil intentatum relin- 
quimus, ut pubhcae tranquilUtati et ordini consuleremus. Multo enim tempore 
antequam tristissima ilia Novembris facta evenirent, omni studio curavimus, ut 
Helvetiorum copiae Apostolicae Sedis servitio addictae, atque Nostris Provinciis 
degentes in urbem deducerentur, quae tamen res contra liostram volimtatem ad 

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exittim minime fiiit perducta eorum opera, qui mense Majo Ministronim munere 
■fungebantur. Neque id solum, verum etiam ante illud tempus, nee non et postea 
torn publico praesertim Romae ordini tuendo, turn ioimicoruin hominum audacis 
comprimendae curas Nostras convertimus ad alia militum praesidia comparanda^ 
quae, Deo ita pennittente, ob reram ac temporuin vicissitudines Nobis defuere. 
Tandem post ipsa luctuosissima Novembris facta baud omisimus Nostris litteris 
die quinta Januarii datis omnibus indigents Nostris militibus etiam atque etiam 
inculcare, ut religionis et militaris honoris memores juratam suo Principi fidem 
custodirent, ac sedulam impenderent operam, quo ubique tum publica tranquil* 
litas, tum debita erga legitimum Gubernium obedientia ac devotio servaretur. 
Neque id tantum, verum etiam Helvetiorum copias Romam petere jus?imus, 
quae huic Nostra voluntati haudquaquam obsequutae sunt, cum praesertim 
supremus illarum Ductor in hac re baud recte atque honorifice se gesserit. 

Atque interim factionis moderatores majore in dies audacia et impetu opus 
urgentes tum Nostram Personam, tum alios qui Nostro adhaerent lateri horrendis 
cuj usque generis calumniis et contumeliis lacerare non intermittebant ; ac vel 
ipsis Sacrosancti Evangelii verbis et sententiis nefarie abuti non dubitabant, ut in 
vestimentis ovium, cum intririsecus cint lupi rapaces, imperitam multitudinem 
ad prava quaeque eorum consilia et molimina pertraherent, atque incautorum 
^mentes falsis doctrinis imbuerent. Subditi vero temporali Apostolicae Sedis 
ditioni, et Nobis immobili tide addicti merito atque optimo jure a Nobis exposce- 
bant, ut eos a tot gravissimis, quibus undique premebantur, angustiis, periculis, 
calamitatibus, et jacturis eriperemus. Et quoniam nonnuUi ex ipsis reperiuntur 
qui nos veluti causam (innocuam licet) tantarum perturbationum suspiciunt, 
iccirco isti animadvertant velimus, Nos quidem ut primum ad Supremam Apos- 
tolicam Sedem evecti fuimus, patemas Nostras curas et consilia, quemadmodum 
-supra declaravimus, eo certe intendisse ut Pontificiae Nostrae ditionis populos 
-omni studio in meliorem conditionem adduceremus, sed inimicorura ac turbulen,- 
torum hominum opera factum esse, ut consilia ilia Nostra in irritum cederent, 
conira vero factiosis ipsis, Deo pennittente, contigisse, ut ad exitmn perducere 
.possent quae a longo ante tempore moliri ac tentare omnibus quibusque maiitiae 
artibus numquam destiterant. Itaque id ipsum, quod jam alias ediximus, hie 
uteriim repetimus, in tam gravi scilicet ac luctuosa tempastate, qua univei:sus 
fere terrarum orbis tantopere jactatur, Dei manum esse agnoscendam, Ej usque 
vocem audiendam, qui ejusmodi fla^ellis hominum peccata et iniquitates punire 
solet, ut ipsi ad justitiae semitas redire festinent. Hanc igitur vocem audiaqt 
qui erraverunt a veritate, et derelinquentes vias suas convertantur ad Dominum ; 
audiant etiam illi, qui in hoc tristissimo rerum statu magis de privatis propriis 
commodis, quam de Ecdesiae bono, et rei catholicae prosperitate solUciti sunt, ac 
meminerint nihil prodesse homini si mundum universum lucretur^ animce vero sua 
detrimentum patiatur; audiant et pii Ecclesiae filii, ac praestolantes in patientia 
saiutare Dei, et majore usque studio emundantes conscientias suas ab omni 
inquinamento peccati, miserationes Domini implorare, Eique magis magisque 
placere, ac jugiter famulari contendant. 

Atque inter haec Nostra ardentissima desideria baud possumus eos non 
monere speciatim et redarguere, qui decreto illi, quo Romanus Pontifex omni 
civilis sui imperii honore ac dignitaie est spohatus, plaudunt ac decretum idem 
ad ipsius Ecclesiae libertatem felicitatemque procurandam vel maxime conducere 
asserunt. Hie autem palam publiceque profitemur, nulla Nos dominandi cupi- 
ditate, nullo temporalis Principatus desiderio haec loqui, quandoquidem Nostra 
indoles et ingenium a quavis dominatione profecto est alienum. Verumtamen 
officii nostri ratio postukt, ut in civili Apostolicae sedis principatu tuendo jura 
possessionesque Sanctae Romanae Ecclesiae, atque ejusdem sedis libertatem, quae 
cum totius ecclesiae libertate et utilitate est conjuncta, totis viribus defendamus. 
Et quidem homines, qui commemorate plaudentes decreto tam falsa et absurda 
affirmant, vel ignorant, vel ignorare simulant, singulari prorsus Divinae Provi- 
dentiae consiUo factum esse, ut Romano Imperio in plura regna, variasque diti^ 
ones diviso, Romanus Pontifex, cui a Christo Domino totius Ecclesiae regimen 
et cura fiiit commissa, civilem principatum hac sane de causa haberet, ut ad 
ipsam ecclesiam regendam, ejusque unitatem tuendam plena ilia potiretur Uber- 
tate, quae ad Supremi Apostolici ministerii munuS' obeimdum requiritur. Nam- 
que omnibus compertum est, fideles populos, gentes, regna numquam plenam 
fiduciam, et observantiam esse praestitura Romano Pontifici, si ilium aUcujus 
Principis, vel Gubemii dommio subjectum, ac minime Uberum esse conspicerent. 
Si quidem fideles populi, et regna vehementer suspicari> ac veieri nunqoam 

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desinerent, ne Pontifex idem sua acta ad illius Prineipis^ vel Gubemii, in cujus 
ditione, versaretur, voluntatem conformaret, atque iccirco actis illis hoc pra&- 
textu saepius refragari non dubitarent. Et quidem dicant vel ipsi hostes civilis 
Principatus Apostolicse Sedis, qui nunc Romee dominantur^ quanam fiducia, et 
observantia ipsi essent excepturi hortationes, monita, mandata, constitutiones 
Summi PonthScis, cum ilium cujusvis Principis, aut Gubernii Iraperio subditum 
esse cognoscerent, praesertim vero si cui subesset Principi, inter quern et Roma- 
nam ditionem diuturnum aliquod ageretur bellum ? 

Interea nemo non videt qxiibus quantisque vulneribus in ipsis Pontificiae 
ditionis region^bus immaculata Christi sponsa nunc afficiatur, quibus vinculis, 
qua turpissima Bervitute magis magisque opprimatur, quantisque angustiis visi- 
bile illius caput obruatin*. Ecquis enim ignorat, nobis communicationem cum 
urbe Roma, illiusque nobis carissimo Clero, et universo Pontificiae ditionis Epis- 
copatu, ceterisque fidelibus ita esse praepeditam, ut ne epistolas quidem, de 
ecclesiasticis licet ac spiritualibus negotiis agentes, vel mittere, vel accipere 
libere pos^imus? Quis nescit, Urbem Romam principem Catholicse Ecclesiae 
Sedem in praesentia pro dolor ? silvam frementium bestiarum esse factam^ cum ea 
omnium nationum hominibus redundet, qui vel apostatae, vel haeretici, vel Cbm- 
munismi uti dicunt, aut Socialismi magistri, ac summo contra catholicam veritatem 
odio animati tum voce, tum scriptis, tum aliis quibusque modis omnigenos pesti- 
feros errores docere, disseminare, omniumque mentes et animos pervetere conan- 
tur, ut in urbe ipsa, si fieri umquam posset Catholica religionis sanctitas et 
irreformabilis fidei regula depravetur ? Cui jam notum, auditumque non est, 
in Pontificia ditione ecclesiae bona, reditus, possessiones ausu temerario 
et sacrilego occupatas, augustissima templa suis omamentis nudata, religiosa 
Ccenobia in profanes usus conversa, Virgines Deo sacras vexatas, lectissimos, 
atque integerrimos ecclesiasticos, religiososque viros crudeliter insectatos, in vin- 
cula conjectos, et occisos, sacros clarissimos antistites vel ipsa Cardinalitia digni- 
tate insignes a propriis gregibus dire avulsos, et in carcerem abreptos 1 Atque 
baectanta facinora contra ecclesiam, ejusquejura, libertatem admittuntur tum in 
Pontificiae ditionis locis, tum alibi, ubi homines illi, vel eorum similes dominantur, 
eo scilicet tempore ; quo iidem ipsi libertatem ubique proclamant, ac sibi in votis 
esse confingunt, ut suprema Summi Pontificis potestas a quovis prorsus vinculo 
expedita omni libertate fruatur. 

Jam porro neminem latet in qua tristissima ac deploranda conditione caris- 
simi nostri versentur subditi eorumdem hominum opera, qui tanta adversus 
ecclesiam flagitia committunt. Publicum enim aerarium dissipatum exhaustum, 
commercium intermissun ac pene exstinetum, ingentes pecuniae simimse optima- 
tibus viris aliis(iue impositae, privatorum bona ab illis, qui se populorum rectores 
et effraenatarum cohortium ductores appellant, direpta, bonorum, omnium treme- 
facta libertas, eorumque tranquillitas in summum discrimen adducta, ac vita ipsa 
sicarii pugioni subjecta, et alia maxima et gravissima mala ac damna, quibus 
continenter cives tantopere affliguntur atque terrentur. Haec scilicet sunt illius 
prosperitatis initia, quam summi Pontificatus osores Pontificiae Ditionis populis 
annunciant atque promittunt. 

In magno igitur et incredibili dolore, que ob tantas tum ecclesiae, tum ponti- 
ficiae nostrae ditionis populorum calamitates intime excruciabamur, probe 
noscentes officii nostri rationem omnino postulare, ut ad calamitates ipsas amo- 
vendas ac propulsandas omnia conaremur, jam inde a die quarta Decembris 
proximi superioris anni omnium principum, et nationum opem, auxiliumque 
implorare, et exposcere baud omisimus. Ac nobis temperare non possumus, 
quin vobiscum, venerabiles fratres, nunc communicemus singularem illam conso- 
lationem, qua affecti fiiimus, cum iidem Principes, et populi, etiam illi qui 
Catholicae unitatis vinculo nobis minime sunt conjuncti, propensissimam eorum 
erga nos voluntatem luculentis sane modis testari ac declarare studuerint. Quod 
iquidem dom acerbissimum animi nostri dolorem mirifice lenit atque solatur, magis 
magisque demonstrat quomodo Deus ecclesiae suae sanctae semper propitius 
adsistat. Atque in earn spem erigimur fore, ut omnes intelligant, gravissima 
ilia mala, quibus in hac tanta temporum asperitate populi, ac regna vexantur, 
^ sanctissimae nostrae religionis contemptu suam duxisse originem, nee aliunde 
solatium ac remediom habere posse, quam ex divina Christi doctrina^ ejusque 
sancta ecelesia, quae virtutum omnium foecunda parens et altrix, atque expultriz 
'idtioram, dum homines ad omnem veritatem ac justitiam instituit, eosque mutua 
cifitate cooMringit, publico civilis societatis bono> et ordini mirandwn in modum 
MiMiiilit ao ppospieit^ 

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Postquam vero omnhim Principum opem imploravimus, ab Austria, qxat 
Pontificae nostrse ditioni ad Septentrionem finitirna est, auxilium eo sane 
libentius eflSagitavimus, quod ipsa non solum temporali Apostolicae Sedis 
dominio tuendo egregiam suam semper operam navaverit, verum etiam quod 
nunc ea profecto spes efFulgeat fore, ut ab illo Imperio juxta ardentissima nostra 
desideria, justissimasque nostras postulationes notissima quaedam eliminentur 
principia ab Apostolica Sede perpetuo iraprobata, ac propterea inibi Ecclesia in 
Buam restituatur libertatem cum maximo illorum fidelium bono atque utilitate. 
Quod quidem dum non mediocri animi nostri consolatione significamus, plane 
non dubitamus, qui n id vobis non leve aflferat gaudium. 

Idem auxilium a Gallica Natione expostulavimus, quam singulari patemi 
animi nostri benevolentia et eflFectu prosequimur, cum illius Nationis Clerus, 
populusque fidelis omnibus quibusque filialis devotionis et observantiae signifi- 
cationibus nostras ealamitates et angustias lenire ac solari studuerit. 

Hispaniae quoque opem invocavimus, quae de nostris angustiis vehementur 
anxia atque sollicita alias Catholicas nationes primum excitavit, ut filiali quodam 
foedere inter se inito communem fidelium Patrem ac Supremum Ecclesis 
Pastorem in propriam sedem reducere contenderent. 

Hanc denique opem ab utriusque Siciliae Regno efilagitavimus, in quo 
hospitamur apud illius Regem, qui in veram solidamque suorum populorum 
felicitatem promovendam totis viribus incumbens tanta religione ac pietate 
refulget, ut suis ipsis populis exemplo esse possit. Etsi vero nullis verbis 
exprimere possimus, quanta cura et studio idem Princeps eximiam suam filialem 
in nos devotionem omnium oflSciorum genere, et egregiis factis assidue testari, 
et confirmare laetatur, tamen praeclara ejusdem Principis in nos merita nulla 
unquam delebit oblivio. Neque taciti uUo modo praeterire possumus pietatis, 
amoris et obsequii significationes, quibus ejusdem Regni Gierus, et populus nos 
prosequi nunquam destitit, ex quo Regnum ipsum attigimus. 

Quamobrem in cam spem erigimur fore, ut, Deo bene juvante, Catholicas 
illae gentes Ecclesiae, ejuscjue Surami Pontifices conjmimis omnium fidelium 
Patris cHusam prae oculis habentes ad civilem Apostolicae Sedes Principatum 
vindicandum, ad pacem et tranquillitatem subditis nostris restituendam 
quamprimum accurrere properent, ac futurum confidimus, ut Sanctissimae 
nostras religionis, et civiles societatis hostes ab urbe Roma, totoque Ecclesiae 
statu amoveantur. Atque id ubi contigerit, omni certe vigilantia, studio, 
contentione a nobis erit curandum, ut illi omnes errores, et gravissima 
propulsentur scandala, quae cum bonis omnibus tam vehementer dolere 
debuimus. Atque in primis vel maxime allaborandum, ut hominum mentes ac 
voluntates impiorum fallaciis, insidiis et fraudibus miserandum in modum 
deceptae collustrentur sempitemae veritatis lumine, quo homines ipsi funestissi- 
mos erroi'um et vitiorura fructus agnoscant, atque ad virtutis, justitiae et 
religionis semitas amplectendas excitentur et inflammentur. Oplime enim 
noscitis, Venerabiles Fratres, horrenda ilia et otnnigena opinionum monstra, 
quae ex abyssi puteo ad exitium et vastitatem emersa longe jam lateque ciun 
maximo religionis, civilisque societatis detrimento invaluere, ac debacchantur. 
Quas perversas pertiserasque doctrinas inimici homines seu voce, sen scriptis, 
seu publicis spectaculis in vulgus disseminare numquam intennittunt, ut effrae- 
nata cujusque impietatis, cupiditatis^ libidinis licentia magis in dies augeatur et 
propagetur. Hinc poro illae omnes ealamitates exitia et luctus, quibus humanum 
genus, ac universus fere terrarum orbis tantopere est funestatas et funestatur. 
Neque ignoratis cujusmodi bellum contra sanctissimam nostram religionem in 
ipsa quoque Italia nunc geratur, quibusque firaudibus et machinationibus teter- 
rimi ipsius religionis et civilis societatis hostes imperitorum praesertim animod a 
fidei sanctitate, sanaque doctrina avertere, eosque aestuantibus increduUtatis 
fiuctibus demergere atque ad gravissima quaeque peragenda facinora compellere 
cpnentur. Atque ut faciUus eorum consiHa ad exitum perducere, et horribiles 
cujusque seditionis et perturbationis motus excitare ac fovere possint haereticorum 
hominimi vestigiis inhaerentes, suprema Ecclesiae auctoritate omnino despec^, 
plane non dubitant Sacrarum Scripturarum verba testimonia, sententias private 
proprio, pravoque sensu invocare, interpretari, invertere, detorquere, ac per 
sununam impietatem sanctissimo Christi nomine nefistrie ab^ non ir^formidwt* 
Neque eos pudet palam publiceque asserere^ turn cujusque sanctissimi juramenti 
violatiDnem, txun quamlibet scelestam, flagitiosamque actionem ^^mpttemfe ipsi 
imtufise kgi lepognantem non solum baud v dsse dmprgbaiidain> iftjxaa^ etmta, 

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onmino licitam^ summisque laudibus efferendam quando id pro patriae amore, ut 
ipsi dicunt, agatur. Quo impioac praepostero argumentandi genere ab ejusmodi 
hominibus omnis prorsus honestas, virtus, justitia penitus toUitur, atque nefanda 
ipsius latronis et sicarii agendi ratio per inauditam impudentiam defenditur et 
commendatur. t 

Ad ceteras innumeras fraudes, quibus Catholicae Ecclesise inimicicontinenter 

utuntur, ut incautos prsesertim et imperitos ab ipsius Ecclesiae sinu avellant et 

abripiant acerrimae etiam, ac turpissiraae accedunt calumniae, quas in Personam 

Nostrum intendere et cominisci non erubescunt. Nos quidem nuUis licet Nostris 

meritis lUius hie in terris vicariam gerentes operam, qui cum malediceretur non 

maledicebatf cum pateretur non comminabatur, acerbissima quaeque convicia in 

^mni patientia, ac silentio perferre, et pro persequentibus, et calumniantibus 

•Nos orare numquam omisimus. Verum cum debitores siraus sapientibus, e|; 

insipientibus, omniumque saluti consulere debeamus, baud possumus, 

praecavendam praesertim infirmorum offensionem, in hoc vestro consessu a nobis 

rejiciamus falsissimam illam, et omnium teterrimam calumniam, quae contra 

personam humilitatis nostrae per recentissimas quasdam ephemeridas est evulgata. 

Etsi vero incredibili horrore affecti fuimus ubi illud commentum legimus, quo 

inimici homines nobis, et Apostolicae Sedi grave vulnus inferre commoliuntur, 

tamen nuUo modo vereri possumus, ne ejusmodi turpissima mendacia vel leviter 

offendere queant supremam illam veritatis Cathedram, et nos, qui nullo meri- 

torum siiffragio in ea collocati sumus. Et quidem singulari Dei misericordia 

divinis illis nostri Redemptoris verbis uti possumus Ego palam loquutus sum 

.mundo . . . . et in occulto loquutus sum nihil. Atque hie, venerabiles fratres, 

opportunum ducimiis iea ipsa iterum dicere et inculcare, quae in nostra praesertim 

Allocutione ad vos die 17 Decembris anno 1847 habita declaravimus, inimicos 

scilicet homines, quo facilius verain germanamque catholicae religionis doctrinam 

corrumpere, aliosque decipere, et in errorem inducere queant, omnia comminisci, 

omnia m'oliri, omnia conari, ut vel ipsa Apostolica Sedes eorum stultitiae particeps 

et faiitrix quodammodo appareat. Nemini autem ignotum est, quae tenebri- 

cosissimae, aequo ac perniciosissimae societates, et sectae a fabricatoribus mendacii, 

et perversorum dogmatum cultoribus fuerint variis temporibus coactae, et insti- 

tutae, ac variis nominibus appellatae, quo eorum deliramenta, systemata, molimina 

in aliorum animoi? tutius instillarent, incautorum corda corrumperent, ac latissi- 

mam quibusque sceleribus impune patrandis viam munirent. . Quas abominabU® 

perditionis sect^ non solum animarum saluti, verum etiam civilis societatis bono 

et tranquillitati vel maxime infestas, atque a Romanis Pontificibus Decessoribus 

Nostris damnatas Nos ipsi jugiter detestati sumus, ac Nostris Encyclicis Litteris 

die 9 Novembris anno 1846 ad universos Ecclesiae Antistites datis condemna- 

viinus, et nunc pariter suprema Nostra Apostolica auctoritate iterum damnamus, 

prohibemus, atque proscribimus, 

At hac Nostra Allocutione baud sane voluimus vel omnes errores enume- 
rare, quibus populi misere decepti ad tantas iinpelluntur ruinas, vel singulas 
percensere machinationes, quibus inimici homines, et catholicae religionis perni* 
ciem moliri, et arcem Sion usquequaque impetere, et invadere contendunt, 
Quae hactenus dolenter commemoravimas satis superque ostendunt ex perversis 
grassantibus doctrinis, atque ex justitiae et religionis contemptu eas oriri calami- 
tates et exitia, quibus nationes, et gentes tjintopere jactantur. Ut igitur tanta 
amoveantur damna, nullis neque curis, neque consiliis, neque laboribus, neque 
vigiUis est parcendum, quo tot perversis doctrinis radicitus evulsis, omnes. intelli- 
gant, veram solidamque felicitatem virtutis, justitiae, ac religionis exercitio inniti. nobis, et vobis, atque alUs venerabilibus fratribus totius Catholici orbis 
Episcopis summa cara, studio, contentione in primis est allaborandum, ut fideles 
populi ab venenatis pascuis amoti, atque ad salutaria deducti, ac magis in. dies 
enutriti verbis fidei et insidiantium hominum fraudes et fallacias agnoscant, 
devitent, ac plane intelligentes, timorem Domini bonorum omnium esse fontem^ 
et peccata atque iniquitates provocare Dei flagella, studiant declinare a malo, et 
fiicere bonum. Quocirca inter tantas angustias non levi certe laetitia perfiin- 
dimur, cum noscamus quanta animi firmitate et constantia Venerabiles Fratres 
catholici orbis Antistites Nobis, et Petri Cathedrae firmiter addicti ima cmn 
obsequente sibi Clero ad Ecclesiae causam tuendam, ejusque libertatem propu- 
gnandam stretme connitantur, et qua Sacerdotali cura et studio omnem impeti-. 
dant operam, quo et bonos magisque in bonitate confirment, et errantes ad justi- 
tiae semitas reducant^ et pervieaces. religioniB hostes turn voce> turn scriptis 

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redarguant atque refellant. Dum autem has meritas debitasque laudes ipsis 
Venerabilibus Fratribus tribuere laetamur, eisdem animos addimus, ut divino 
auxilio freti pergant alacriori usque zelo ministerium suum implere, ac praeliari 

Jraelia Domini, et exallare vocem in sapientia et fortitudine ad evangelizandam 
erusalem, ad sanandas contritiones Israel. Juxta haec non desinant adire cum 
fiducia ad thronum gratiae, ac publicis, privatisque precibus insistere, et fidelibus 
populis sedulo inculcare, ut omnes ubique pcenitentiam agant, quo misericordiam 
a Deo consequantur, et gratiam inveniant in auxilio opportuno. Nee vero 
intermittant viros ingenio, sanaque doctrina praestantes hortari, ut ipsi quoque 
sub eorum et Apostolicae Sedis ductu populorum mentes illustrare, et serpentium 
errorum tencbras dissipare studeant. 

Hie etiam carissimos in Christo Filios Nostros Populorum Principes et 
Rectores obtestamur in Domino, atque ab ipsis exposcimus ut serio ac sedulo 
considerantes quae et quanta damna ex tot errorum ac vitiorum coUuvie in 
civilem societatemredundent, omnicura, studio, consilio in id potissimum incum- 
bere velint, ut vertus, justitia, religio ubique dominentur, ac majora in dies 
incrementa suscipiant. Atque universi populi, gentes, nationes, earumque 
Moderatores assidue ac diligenter cogitent et meditentur, omnia bona in justitiae 
exercitio consistere, omnia vero mala ex iniquitate prodire. Ciquidem jtistitia 
elevat gentem, mtseros autem facit populos peccatum* 

Antequam autem dicendi finem faciamus, baud possumus, quin gratissimi 
animi ndstri sensus illis omnibus carissimis atque amantissimis filiis palam pub- 
liceque testemur, qui de Nostris calamitatibus vehementer solliciti singulari 
prorsus erga Nos pietatis efFectu suas Nobis oblationes mittere voluerunt. Etsi 
vero piae hujusmodi lai^itiones non leve Nobis afFerant solatium, tamen fateri 
debemus, paternum cor Nostrum non mediocri angi angustia, cum summopere 
timeamus, ne in tristissima hac rerum publicarum condilione iidem carissimi filii 
suae in Nos caritati nimium indulgentes largitiones ipsas proprio etiam incommodo 
ac detrimento facere velint. 

Denique, Venerabiles Fratres, Nos quidem investigabilibus sapientia? Dei 
consiliis, quibus gloriam suam operatur, plane acquiescentes ; dum in humilitate 
cordis Nostri maximas Deo agimus gratias, quod Nos dignos habuerit pro nomine 
' Jesu contumeliam pati, et aliqua ex parte conformes fieri imagini Passionis Ejus, 
parati sumusin omni fide, spe, patientia, et mansuetudine acerbissimos quosque 
mbores, aerumnas perferre, atque ipsam animam Nostram pro Ecclesia ponere, si 
per Nostrum sanguinem ipsius Ecclesiae calamitatibus consulere possemus. In- 
terim vero, Venerabiles Fratres, ne intermittamus dies, noctesque assiduis fervi- 
' disque precibus divitem in misericordia Deum humiliter orare et obsecrare, ut 
per merita Unigeniti Filii sui omnipotent! sua dextera Ecclesiam suam sanctam 
a tantis, quibus jactatur procellis, eripiat, utque divinae suae gratiae lumine 
omnium errantium mentes illustret, et in multitudine misericordise suae omnium 
praevaricantium corda expugnet, quo cunctis ubique erroribus depulsis cunctis- 
'que amotis adversitatibus, omnes veritatis, et justitiae lucem adspiciant agnoscant 
•atque occurrant in unitatem fidei, et agnitionis Domini Nostri Jesu Christi. 
-Atque ab Ipso, qui facit pacem in sublimibus, quique est pax nostra, suppli- 
citer etiam eXposcere numquam desinaraus, ut malis omnibus, quibus Christiana 
•respublica vexatur, penitus avulsis, optatissimam ubique pacem, et tranquillita- 
' tern facere velit. Ut vero facilius annuat Deus precibus nostris suffragatores 
*apud Eum adhibeamus, atque in primis Sanctissimam immaculatam Virginem 
Mariam, quae Dei mater, et nostra, quaeque mater misericordioe, quod quaerit 
invenit, et frustrari non potest. Suffragia quoque imploremus Beati Petri Apos- 
tolorum Principis, et Coapostoli ejus Pauli, omniumque Sanctorum coelitum, qui 
jam facti amici Dei cum ipso regnant in coelis, ut clementissimus Dominus, 
eorum intervenientibus mentis ac precibus, fidelem populum ab iracundiae suae 
terroribus Kberet, semperque protegat, ac divinae suae propitiationis abundantia 

Venerable Brothers, 

NO one assuredly is ignorant with what terrible storms our Pontifical 
'States and almost the whole of Italy are, to the extreme grief of our soul, 
^miserably tossed and agitated. And would that men, taught by these most 

♦ Prov. c. xiv. V. 34. 


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lamentable revolutions, may at last understand that nothing can be more 
pernicious to themselves than to diverge from the paths of truth, justice, virtue, 
and religion, and to acquiesce in the detestable counsels of the impious, and to 
be deceived and entangled by their machinations, frauds, and errors 1 Indeed, 
the whole world well knows and testifies how great was the solicitude which was 
felt by our paternal and most loving heart in providing for the true and solid 
profit, tranquillity, and prosperity of our Pontifical States, and what was the 
fruit reaped by that our great indulgence and love. Yet by these words we 
only condemn the crafty workers of these great evils, without desiring to 
attribute any blame to the majority of the people. Nevertheless, we are 
obliged to lament that many even of the people have been so miserably 
deceived, that, turning away their ears firom our words and admonitions, they yield 
themselves to the fallacious doctrines of certain teachers, who, leaving the right 
way and walking by dark ways (Prov. ii. 13), minded this only, that by magni- 
ficent and false promises they might lead onwards and drive headlong the minds 
and hearts especially of inexperienced men, into fraud and error. All assuredly 
know with what transports of applause that memorable and ample amnesty was 
everywhere celebrated granted by us which was to secure the peace, tranquillity^ 
and happiness of families. Nor is any one ignorant that several of those who were 
favoured by that amnesty not only did not fulfil our expectations, by making the 
least change in their minds, but that carrying on their designs and machinations, 
with daily increasing vehemence, there was nothing they did not dare, notihing 
they did not attempt, in order (as they had long plotted) to undermine wid 
utterly to overthrow the civil sovereignty of the Roman PontiflFand his Govern- 
ment, and at the same time carry on a most bitter warfare against our most holy 
religion. But that they might the easier achieve this, they took especial care in 
the first place to call together the multitudes, to influence and agitate them hy 
great and incessant movements, which, even taking advantage of our conces- 
sions as a pretext, they studied with their utmost power constantly to foment, 
and day by day to increase. Hence the concessions freely and willingly granted 
by us in the very beginning of our Pontificate, not only could never yield ihe 
wished-for fruits, but could not even take root, because those crafty architects 
of deceit abused the same to the exciting of new agitations. And these fitcts, 
Venerable Brothers, have we deemed it fit briefly to touch upon, and rigidly to 
review with this intention, that all men of good-will may clearly and openly 
know what the enemies of Grod and of the human race intend and desire, and 
what they have always fixed and detennined in their minds. 

Our singular affection towards our subjects. Venerable Brothers, made us 
feel vehement grief and distress, when we perceived that those constant popular 
movements were so adverse both to public tranquillity and order, and also to the 
private quietness and peace of families ; nor were we able to endure those 
frequent pecuniary collections which were demanded on various pretexts, not 
without great inconvenience and expense to the citizens. Therefore, in the 
month of April 1847, by a public edict of our Cardinal Secretary of State, we 
admonished all to abstain from such popular assemblages and subscriptions, and 
again to direct their minds to their own affairs, to repose all confidence in 
us, and to feel assured that our paternal cares and anxieties were alone directed 
to provide for the public good, as we had already shown by many most evident 
proo&. But these our salutary admonitions, whereby we endeavoured to 
calm these great popular movements, and to recal the people themselves to 
pursuits of peace and tranquillity, were exceedingly opposed to the bad de^res 
and machinations of certain men. Accordingly, those unwearied authors of 
agitation, who had already resisted another edict, issued by our order by the 
same Cardinal, for promoting the good and useful education of the people^ 
were scarcely aware of our admonition, when they began everywhere to exclaiai 
against it, and with a more embittered zeal to agitate the incautious multitudes^ 
and most craftily to insinuate, and to persuade them never to yield themselves 
to that tranquillity which we so much desired, as there lay hid under it an 
insidious design of lulling the people to sleep, so that hereafter they might the 
more easily be oppressed by the hard yoke of slavery. And from that time 
numerous writings, even in print, filled with all sorts of most bitter contumelies, 
reproaches and threats, were sent to us, whidi we have buried in eternal obfivion 
aiKi committed to tiie flames. But that our enemies might procure some belief in 
those false dangers which they loudly declared were impending on the people, they 

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ventured to scatter abroad a rumour and fear of a certain pretended conspiracy 
forged and got up by themselves, and to vociferate, by a detestable &lsehood> 
that such conspiracy was entered upon with the object of devastating the city of 
Rome with civil war, assassinations and carnage ; that the new institutions being 
altogether taken away and destroyed, the old form of government might again 
be revived. But by the false pretext of this conspiracy, our enemies had the 
intention wickedly to excite and provoke the contempt, jealousy, and fiiry of the 
people against certain most illustrious men, eminent for their virtue and religion, 
and also of exalted ecclesiastical dignity. You are aware that in the midst of 
this tumult of affairs the Civic Guard was proposed, and assembled with such 
celerity that provision could by no means be made for its proper institution and 

When first, for the greater furtherance of the prosperity of the public ad- 
ministration, we deemed it convenient to institute a Council of State, our 
adversaries immediately seized on the opportunity of inflicting new wounds on 
the Grovemment, and at the same time of contriving that such institution, which 
might have been of great utility to the public interests, should turn out to their 
loss and detriment ; and since the notion had now prevailed with impunity, that 
by that institution both the character and nature of the Pontifical Government 
was changed, and our authority subjected to the judgment of the Consultors, we, 
therefore, on the very day that the Council of State was inaugurated, did not 
neglect seriously to admonish with grave and severe words certain turbulent men 
who accompanied the Consultors, and clearly and openly to manifest to them the 
true end of this institution. But the factious did not cease with yet greater 
impetuosity to agitate the deluded part of the people, and in order that they 
might the more easily gather together and increase the number of their followers, 
they did, with signal shamelessness and audacity spread abroad, both in our own 
Pontifical States and also in foreign nations, the assertion that we entirely 
assented to their opinions and designs. You remember. Venerable Brothers, 
with what language, in oiu* Consistorial Allocution pronounced before you on 
October 4, 1847, we seriously admonished and exhorted the people most 
vigilantly to be on their guard against the perfidy of these traitors. Meanwhile, 
however, the obstinate authors of plots and agitations, in order that they might 
continually feed and excite fears and disturbances, did in the January of last 
year alarm the minds of the incautious by an idle rumour of foreign war, and 
spread it abroad among the people that the same war would be fomented and 
sustained by domestic machinations and the malevolent inertness of the rulers. 
In order to tranquiUise the public mind and repel the insidious schemes of the 
traitors, we without any delay did on the 10th of February in the same year 
declare that those rumours were altogether fiilse and absurd, in terms which 
every one knows. And at that time we warned our most dear subjects of what 
will by God's help now take place, namely, that it would come to pass that innu- 
merable sons would fly to defend the house of the common Father of all the 
Faithfol, that is to saj , the States of the Church, if those most stringent bonds of 
gratitude, whereby the Princes and people of Italy ought to be intimately boimd 
to each other, should come to be dissolved, and the people themselves forget to 
reverence the wisdom of their Princes and the sanctity of their rights, and to 
maintain and defend the same with all their force. 

Although, however, these words of ours just alluded to brought tranquillity 
for a short interval of time to all those whose wills were opposed to continudi 
disturbance, still they prevailed nothing with the irreconcileable enemies of the 
Church and of human society, who had already excited new agitations and 
new tumults. Forasmuch as, insisting on the calumnies which by them and 
by those hke them had been disseminated against reUgious men devoted to 
the divine ministry, and deserving well of the Church, they excited and in- 
flamed the popular fury with all its violence against them. Nor are you 
ignorant. Venerable Brothers, that those words were of no avail which we 
addressed to the people on the 10th of March last year, wherein with great efforts 
we endeavoured to rescue that religious family from exile and dispersion. 

And as, whilst all this was going on, the revolutions so well known to 
all, broke out in Italy and throughout Europe, we once more, lifting up our 
ApostoKc voice on the 30th March of the same year, did not neglect again 
and again to admonish and exhort all nations that they should both study to 
respect the Hberty of the Catholic Church and to protect the order of civil 


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scciety, and to follow up the precepts of our most holy religion, and above all 
to exercise Christian charity to all men, since if they neglected to do this, they 
might hold it for certain that God would show that He was the Ruler of the 

To proceed : every one of you knows well how the form of Constitutional 
Government was brought into Italy ; and how a statute granted by us to our 
subjects was published on the 14th of March last year. But as the implacable 
enemies of public tranquillity and order had nothing so much at heart as to 
attempt everything against the Pontifical Government, and to agitate the people 
by constant movements and suspicions, they never ceased, whether by published 
writings, or clubs, or associations, or other acts of whatever kind, atrociously to 
calumniate the Government, and to fix on it the mark of inertness, of deceit 
and fraud, although the Government itself was applying with all care and dili- 
gence to this object, that the Statute, so much longed-for, might be put into 
operation with as much celerity as possible. And here we desire to publish to 
the whole world that at that very time, those men, persevering in their design of 
subverting the Pontifical dominion and the whole of Italy, proposed to us the 
proclamation, no longer of a Constitution, but of a RepubUc, as the only refuge 
and defence both of our own safety and of the Ecclesiastical State. That 
nocturnal hour is still present to our mind, and we have before our eyes certain 
men who, miserably deluded and deceived by the architects of deceit, did not 
hesitate to take part in that affieiir, and to propose to us the proclamation 
of a Republic. Which indeed, in addition to numberless other most weighty 
arguments, demonstrates that the petitions for new institutions and the projects 
so loudly vaunted by men of such sort, have no other object in view than to ' 
foment incessant agitation ; that all the principles of justice, virtue, honour, and 
religion may be everywhere totally swept away, and the horrible and most 
lamentable system wluch they style Socialism or Communism^ entirely adverse 
as it is even to reason and the law of nature, may, to the greatest detriment and 
ruin of the whole of human society, in all directions, be spread and propagated,, 
and prevail everywhere. 

But although this most abominable conspiracy, or rather this daily series 
of conspiracies, was clear and manifest, still, by the permission of God, it was 
unknown to many of those, who ought indeed, for so many causes, to have had 
the common tranquillity at heart. And although the unwearied authors of 
disturbances acted most suspiciously, still there were not wanting certain 
well-meaning men, who held out a friendly hand to them, resting probably on 
the hope that they might be able to bring them back to the path of moderation 
and justice. 

Meanwhile a cry of war suddenly pervaded the whole of Italy, which 
excited and carried away a part of the subjects of our Pontifical dominions, who 
flew to arms, and resisting our will, desired to cross the frontiers of the Pontifical 
States. You know, Venerable Brothers, how in fulfilment of the duties both 
of a Sovereign Pontiff and Prince, we resisted the unjust desires of those men. 
who sought to drag us on to wage that war, and who demanded that an inexpe- 
rienced band of youths, recruited in a hasty manner, devoid of all practice in the 
military art, undisciplined, and destitute of capable leaders and munitions of 
war, should be sent forth by us to the combat, that is, to certain slaughter. 
And this was demanded of us, who, having been raised, although unworthy, by 
the inscrutable counsels of Divine Providence to the height of Apostolical 
dignity, and who, exercising here on earth the Vicariate of Jesus Christ, who is 
the author of peace and lover of charity, have received the mission to embrace 
all peoples, nations, and tribes with the equal zeal of paternal love, and to con- 
sult with all our power for the salvation of all, and not to drive men to carnage 
and death. But if no Princes whatsoever can undertake a war, except for just 
reasons, who can there be ever so devoid of judgment and reason as not clearly 
to perceive, that the Catholic world would have the amplest right to demand on 
the part of the Roman Pontiff a much higher justice, and more weighty reasons, 
if it saw the Pontiff hiipself declare or wage war against any one ? Wherefore, 
in our allocution delivered to you on April 29th of last year, we openly and 
publicly declared that we had nothing whatsoever to do with the war. And 
at the same time we repudiated and rejected a most deeply insidious proffer 
which was made to us, both in writing and by word of mouth, a proffer not only 
most injurious to our person, but also most pernicious to Italy; namely, that we 

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should consent to pieside over the Government of a obtain '' Republic o( 
Italy.'" Thus, by the singular compassion of God, we indeed sought to fulfil 
that most weighty oflSce laid before us by God himself, of speaking, of admo- 
nishiDg, and ot exhorting, and we accordingly trust that that reproach of Isaiah 
cannot be brought against us: " Woe is me^ because I have held my peace, ^^ 
(Is. vi. 5.) But would that all our children had lent an ear to our paternal 
words, admonitions, and exhortations ! 

You remember, Venerable Brothers, what clamours and tumultswere excited 
by most turbulent and factious men, after the allocution we have just mentioned, 
and how a civil Ministry was imposed upon us, utterly adverse both to our 
views and principles, and also to the rights of the Apostolic See. We indeed 
foresaw in our mind that the issue of the Italian war would be xmfortunate, when 
one of those Ministers did not hesitate to declare that the same war would last, 
even in spite of our unwillingness and resistance, and without the Pontifical 
blessing. And that Minister, doing a most grave injury to the Apostolic See, 
did not fear to propose that the civil sovereignty of the Roman Pontiff should 
be altogether separated from this spiritual power. Not long afterwards the self- 
same man ventured openly to assert things of us which would in a manner cast 
the Supreme Pontiff out of the society of the human race, and dissever him 
therefrom. Our just and merciful Lord willed to humble us under His mighty 
hand, when He permitted that for many months truth on this part, and false- 
hood on that, should contend in a fierce conflict with each other ; an end was 
put to this by the election of a new Ministry, which afterwards was displaced 
by another, in which the praise of talent was united to a special zeal both for 
the preservation of pubUc order and for the observation of the laws. But the 
unrestrained license and audacity of bad passions, raising its head higher and 
higher every day, pursued its career of destruction, and the enemies of God 
and of man, inflamed with a lasting and savage thirst of domineering, devastating, 
and destroying, were longing now for nothing else than to subvert all laws, 
divine and human, in order that they might satiate their desires. Hence, the 
machinations which had long been prepared beforehand, burst out openly and 
publicly, the streets were sprinkled with human blood, sacrileges never suffici- 
ently to be deplored were committed, and unheard-of violence in our very 
Quirinal Palace, done with profane daring to ourselves. 

Since, therefore, under the oppression of such great difficulties we could not 
freely discharge the duties of a Pontiff, much less of a Prince, we felt it our 
duty, not without great bitterness of mind, to depart from our See. We abstain 
from again recapitidating those most lamentable events, related in our public pro- 
testations, lest our general grief be renewed by their mournful remembrance. 
But when the seditious knew of our protestations, they were infuriated with 
greater audacity, and making all sorts of menaces against all, they spared no 
kind of fraud, or deceit, or violence more and more to terrify all the good who 
were already prostrated with fear. And after they had introduced that new form 
of government, called by themselves Giunta di Stato, and had altogether done 
away with the two Councils instituted by us, they laboured with all their power 
to assemble a new Council, which they chose to call by the name of the Roman 
Constituenc. The mind shrinks from stating the magnitude and number of the 
frauds which they made use of to bring this matter to an issue. But here we 
cannot refrain from giving just praises to the greater part of the magistrates of 
the Pontifical States, who, mindful of their own honour and duty, preferred to 
resign their office rather than in any way to lend a hand to the work by which 
their Prince and most loving Father was being spoiled of his legitimate civil 
sovereignty. But that Council was at length brought together, and a certain 
Roman advocate, in the very beginning of his first speech delivered to those who 
were assembled, clearly and openly declared to all the thoughts, wishes, and 
views of himself and his companions, the other authors of this horrible agita- 
tion. *' The law,'^ said he, '* of moral progress is imperious and inexorable.'* 
And he at the same time added that himself and the rest had long had it fixed 
in their minds to overturn from its foundation the temporal dominion and 
government of the Holy See, even though their desires had been in every way 
seconded by us. And this declaration we desire to commemorate in your 
Assembly, that all may understand that such perverse intention was not attri- 
buted by us to the authors of the disturbances from any conjecture or suspicion, 
but that it was openly and publicly manifested to the whole universe by them- 

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selves, whom shame itself ought to have deterred from making such a declara- 
tion. It was not, then, more liberal institutions, nor a more advantageous 
system of public administration, nor wise regulations of whatever kind, which 
these men were seeking after, but what they wished was, to attack, to tear up by 
the roots, and utterly to destroy the civil sovereignty and power of the Apofik 
tolic See. And this design, so far as depended on themselves, they brought to a 
conclusion by that decree of the Roman Constituent (as they call it) published on 
February 9th of this year, in which, we know not whether with greater injustice 
to the rights of the Roman Church, and the liberty of fulfilling of the Apostolic 
OflSce thereto appertaining, or with greater loss and calamity to the sub- 
jects of the Pontifical State, they declared that the Roman Pontiffs had fiUlen 
from temporal dominion both in law and in feet. With no slight sorrow, Vene- 
rable Brothers, did such deplorable events overwhelm us, and for this above all 
do we chiefly grieve, that the city of Rome, the centre of Catholic truth and 
unity, the mistress of virtue and holiness, doth by means of the impious men 
who are daily flocking thither, appear to all people, nations, and tribes, to be 
the author of such calamities. However, in the midst of such our great grief of 
heart, it is most grateful to us to be able to afiirm that by far the greatest part 
both of the Roman people and of the other inhabitants or our Pontifical States 
remain constantly attached to us and to the Apostolic See, and have abhorred 
those neferious machinations, though they have been spectators of so many dis- 
astrous events. We have also found the greatest consolation in the solicitude of 
the Bishops and Clergy of our Pontifical States, who in the midst of dangers and 
difficulties of every kind, have not ceased to discharge the duties of their 
ministry and office, in drawing aside the people, both by word and example, from 
those agitations and wicked designs of factious men. 

We, certainly, in the midst of such a crisis and stru^le, left nothing unat- 
tempted to provide for the public tranquillity and order. For a long time before 
those most deplorable events of November took place, we made every effort 
that the Swiss forces in the service of the Apostolic See, and quartered in our 
provinces, should be brought to the city; but this matter, contrary to our inten- 
tions, was not carried into execution, in consequence of the resistance of those 
who in the month of May held the office of Ministers. Nor was that all, but 
even before that time, as well as after, we directed our attention to assemble 
other military forces, both for the preservation of public order, especially at 
Rome, and for restraining the audacity of our enemies ; but these, God so 
permitting it, failed us, in consequence of the vicissitudes of the circumstances 
and times. Lastly, after the most mournful events of November, we did not 
neglect, in our letters dated January 5th, again and again to inculcate on all our 
native-bom soldiers to keep their sworn faith to their Prince, mindful of religion 
and of military honour, and diligently to endeavour everywhere to maintain 
public tranquillity as well as due obedience and devotion to the legitimate 
Government. We further ordered our Swiss troops to march to Rome, but they 
did not obey our orders, as, above all, the Commander-in-chief of those forces did 
not in this business conduct himself lightly or honourably. 

And meanwhile the chiefs of the faction, pursuing their work with daily 
increasing audacity and vehemence, did not cease to lacerate our person and 
those who are attached to us, with horrible calumnies and contumelies of every 
kind, and they did not hesitate wickedly to abuse the very words and sentences 
of the Most Holy Gospel, in order that coming in the clothing of sheep, though 
inwardly they are ravening wolves, they might lead the ignorant multitude into all 
their perverse designs and machinations, and might imbue the ears of the incautious 
with false doctrines. But the subjects who remained attached with immoveable 
fidelity to us, and to the temporal dominion of the Apostolic See, i-easonably 
and justly demanded of us that we should deliver them from those many most 
grievous difficulties, dangers, calamities, and losses, with which they were sur- 
rounded on every side. And since some are to be found amongst them who 
consider us as the cause (however innocent) of such great agitations, we would 
desire them to observe that we indeed, the moment we w«e raised to the 
Supreme Apostolic See, certainly directed oxu' paternal anxieties and views, as 
we have above declared, to this end, that we shonld bring, by all our efforts, the 
people of our Pontifical States into a better condition ; but that it came to pass, 
by the means of turbulent adversaries, that those views of ours were disap« 
pointed, whilst, on the other hand, God so permitting it, the seditious themselves 

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were enabled to 'bring to oompletion the projeets yfhieh for a long time previ- 
ously they had never ceased to plot and to essay with all the arts of wickedness. 
Therefore, what we have already elsewhere said, the same we now repeat^ 
to wit, that in this grievous and deplorable tempest wherewith almost the whole 
world is so shaken, the hand of God is to be acknowledged, and His voice to be 
heard, Who is wont with such scourges to punish the sins and iniquities of men 
that they may hasten to return to the paths of justice. Let them therefore hear 
His voice who have strayed from the truth, and leaving theu* own ways, let them 
be converted to the Lord ; let those also hear it who in this most lamentable 
state of affairs are more solicitous for their private interests than for the good of 
the Chmtjh and the well-being of Catholicity, and let them remember that it 
will not profit a man, '* if he gain the whole world, and lose his own soul ;" 
let also the pious sons of the Church hear it, and waiting with patience for 
the salvation of God, and with greater zeal every day cleansing their con- 
sciences from all defilement of sin, let them strive to implore the mercies of the 
Lord, and more and more to please Him, and continually to serve Him. 

And in the midst of these our ardent desires we cannot but specially 
admonish and reprove those who applaud that decree whereby the Roman 
Pontiff has been deprived of all the honom* and dignity of his civil power, and 
who assert that the same decree is even very conducive to the furtherance of the 
liberty and happiness of the Church itself. But here we openly and publicly 
declare that we say not these things from any desire of domination, or any long- 
ing after temporal sovereignty, seeing that our disposition and frame of mind is 
altogether alien from any spirit of domination. Nevertheless, the duty of our 
office requires, that in maintaining the civil sovereignty of the Apostolic See, we 
defend with all our might the rights and possessions of the Holy Koman Chm-ch, 
and the liberty of the said See, which is conjoined with the liberty and advan- 
tage of the whole Church. And those men truly, who in their applause of the 
aforesaid decree, assert things so fialse and absurd, are either ignorant or pretend 
to be ignorant that it came to pass by a most singular counsel of Divine Provi- 
dence, that when the Roman Empire was divided into several kingdoms and 
various states, the Roman Pontiff, unto whom was committed by Christ the 
Lord the government and care of the whole Church, had a civil sovereignty for 
this reason assuredly, that in order to rule the Church and to maintain its unity, 
he might enjoy that plenitude of liberty which is required for the discharge of 
the office of the Supreme Apostolic Ministry. For it is manifest to all, that the 
people, nations, and kingdoms would never accord to him their fiill confidence 
and obedience if they perceived that he was subject to the dominion of any 
Prince or Government, and by no means in the possession of his liberty. The 
faithful people and kingdoms would never cease vehemently to suspect and to 
fear lest the same Pontiff should conform his acts to the will of the Prince or 
Government in whose State he was sojourning, and therefore would not hesitate 
on this pretext, often to oppose his acts. And indeed let the very enemies of the 
civil sovereignty of the Apostolic See, who now rule at Rome — let them say with 
what confidence and obedience they themselves would receive the exhortations, 
admonitions, mandates, and constitutions of the Sovereign Pontiff, if they knew 
him to be subject to the will of some Prince or Government, but especially if he 
were subject to any Prince, between whom and the Roman State any prolonged 
war was being carried on ? 

Meanwhile there is no one who does not see with how many grievous 
wounds the Immaculate Spouse of Christ is now assailed in the very regions of 
the Pontifical State ; with what chains, with what most shameful servitude she 
is more and more oppressed, and with what difficulties her visible Head is over- 
whelmed. For who is ignorant that our communications with the city of Rome 
and with its clergy, most dear to us, and with the whole episcopate and the 
other faithful of the Pontifical dominion, has been so obstructed, that we cannot 
freely send or receive even letters, although treating of ecclesiastical and spiritual 
affairs? Who knows not that the city of Rome, the principal See of the 
Catholic Church, is at present — O sorrowful ! — ^made a forest of roaring wild 
beasts, since it is filled with men of all nations, who being either apostates, or 
heretics, or adherents of the so-odled Communism or Socialism^ and animated with 
extreme hatred against the Catholic truth, do both by writings and every other 
means, endeavour to teach and disseminate all kinds of pestiferous errors, and 
to pervert the minds and hearts of all, so that in the very city itseli^ if it were 

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possible, the holiness of the Catholic religion, and the unchangeable rule of 
faith may be depraved ? Who knows not, or has not heard, that in the Ponti- 
fical State, the goods, revenues, and possessions of the Church have been seized 
with rash and sacrilegious daring, the most august churches stripped of their 
ornaments, the monasteries turned to profane uses ; the virgins consecrated to 
God harassed ; the most virtuous and distinguished ecclesiastics and religiouis 
cruelly persecuted, put in chains, and slain ; the sacred and most illustrious 
Bishops, even those invested with the dignity of the Cardinalate, violently 
dragged away from their flocks and thrown into dungeons ? 

And these assaults against the Church, her laws and liberty, are done both 
in the Ponti6cal States and in other countries wherever these men, or men like 
them, hold sway, at the very time when the same persons are proclaiming 
liberty in all directions, and pretend that it is their desire that the Supreme Pontift 
should be altogether freed from all shackles, and enjoy entire liberty. 

Further, it is manifest to all men in how miserable and deplorable a condi- 
tion our most dear subjects are placed by means of the same men who are 
committing such flagitious crimes against the Church. For the public treasury 
is wasted and exhausted ; commerce interrupted and nearly annihilated ; vast 
sums of money levied on the principal citizens and others ; the goods of private 
persons robbed by those men who call themselves the chiefs of the people, and 
commanders of lawless bands ; the liberty of all good men disturbed, and their 
seciuity extremely endangered, and their very life subjected to the assassin's 
dagger ; and other very great and grievous evils and losses, whereby continually 
the citizens are so aflBicted and terrified. These, forsooth, are the beginnings of 
that prosperity which the haters of the Sovereign Pontificate announce and 
promise to the people of the Pontifical States. 

Therefore, amidst the great and incredible grief wherewith we were in our 
inmost heart tormented, because of the great calamities of the Church and of 
the people of our Pontifical States, we, well knowing that the duty of our oflSce 
demanded by all means that we should make every eflfort to remove and drive 
away those calamities, neglected not, as early as the 4th of December last year, 
to implore and solicit the aid and assistance of all Princes and nations. And 
we cannot refrain, Venerable Brothers, from communicating to you at this 
moment, the singular consolation which we received, when the said Princes, and 
even those nations which are in nowise united to us in the bonds of Catholic 
unity, studied in the most striking manner indeed to testify and declare their 
most eager good-will towards us. Which thing, indeed, while it most wonder- 
fully soothes and consoles the very bitter grief of our heart, doth more and 
more demonstrate how God is always watching propitiously over His Holy 
Church. And we are encouraged to hope that it will come to pass that all shall 
understand, that those most grievous evils wherewith, in these times of great 
severity, people and kingdoms are troubled, have derived their origin from the 
contempt of our Most Holy Religion, nor can obtain remedy and consolation 
from any other source but from the divine doctrine of Christ, and from His 
Holy Church, which being the fruitful parent and nurse of all virtues, and the 
expeller of vices, whilst she forms mankind to all truth and justice, and binds 
them together unto mutual charity, doth, after a most admirable manner, consult 
and provide for the public good and order of civil society. 

But after having implored theassistance of all Princes, we more willingly sought 
for succour from Austria, which country is the nearest to our Pontifical States on 
the north, for this reason, that she not only has always displayed the most 
distinguished zeal in defending the temporal dominions of the ApostoUc See, 
but ako that there is now assuredly ground to hope that according to our most 
ardent wishes and most just demands, certain well-known principles, ever disap- 
proved of by the Apostolic See, will be abandoned by that empire, and that the 
Church in those parts will consequently be restored to her liberty, to the great 
good and advantage of the faithfiil who dwell therein. And whilst we intimate 
this, with no ordinary feelings of consolation in our own heart, we doubt not but 
that it will give no shght joy to yourselves. 

We demanded the same assistance from the French nation, for whom a 
singular kindness and affection is entertained by our paternal heart, since the 
clergy and faithful people of that nation stuped by all manner of manifes* 
tations of filial devotion and observance, to assuage and console our calamities 
and anguish. 

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We also called for assistance from Spain, a country which being deeply 
anxious and solicitous on account of our troubles, first roused other Catholic 
nations to enter on a certain filial compact with each other to strive to bring 
back to his own See the common Father of the Faithful and Supreme Pastor of 
the Church. 

Lastly, we sought for this help fi-om the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, in 
which we are hospitably entertained by its King, who, endeavouring with all his 
power to promote the true and solid happiness of his people, shines forth with 
such religion and piety, that he may furnish an example to his own subjects.* 
But, although by no language can we express with what care and zeal the afore- 
said Prince dehghts to testify and confirm his singular filial devotion towards us 
by all manner of good oflSces and noble acts, still no forgetfulness shall ever 
obliterate the illustrious deserts of that Prince towards us. And in nowise can 
we pass over in silence the marks of piety, affection, and dutifiilness with which 
the clergy and people of the same kingdom have never ceased to attend us, from 
the moment when we entered the territory. 

We are therefore encouraged to hope that it will come to pass, by God's 
assistance, that those Catholic nations, having before their eyes the cause of the 
Church and of its Supreme PontiflP, the common Father of all the Faithful, will 
make all speed to vindicate the civil sovereignty of the Apostolic See, and to 
restore peace and tranquillity to our subjects; and we are confident that the 
enemies of our most holy religion and of civil society will be driven away firom 
the city of Rome and from the whole State of the Church. Whenever that shall 
take place, it will be our part certainly with all vigilance, zeal, and soUcitude to 
drive away all those errors and grievous scandals, which in common with all 
good men, we are bound so vehemently to deplore. And in the first place, 
must it chiefly be cared for, that the minds of men, deceived after a miserable 
manner by the lies, insidious devices, and frauds of the impious, may be illumi- 
nated with the light of eternal truth, whereby the men themselves may be excited 
and inflamed to embrace the paths of virtue, justice, and religion. For you well 
know, Venerable Brothers, those horrible and monstrous opinions of all kinds, 
which, emerging firom the bottomless pit for ruin and devastation, have prevailed 
and are now raging far and wide, to the heavy detriment of religion and civil 
society. Which perverse and pestilent doctrines the enemies are never ceasing, 
wbether by word, or writing, or pubUc spectacles, to disseminate among the 
vulgar, in order that the unbridled Kcentiousness of all kinds of impiety, cupidity 
and lust, may daily more and more be increased and propagated. Hence truly 
have arisen all those calamities, destructions, and woes which the human race 
almost over the whole globe have had so heavily to mourn and are still 

Nor are you ignorant what description of war is now being waged even in 
Italy itself against our most holy reUgion, and with what detestable frauds and 
machinations the enemies of religion and of civil society are endeavouring to 
draw away the minds, especially of the ignorant, from the sanctity of the Faith 
and sound doctrine, and to plunge them into raging floods of infidelity, and to 
drive them to accomplish all sorts of most frightfiil crimes. And that they 
may be enabled the more easily to bring their designs to an issue, and to excite and 
ferment all the horrible agitations of sedition and disturbance, treading in the 
steps of the heretics and altogether despising the supreme authority of the 
Church, they in nowise hesitate to appeal to, interpret, invert, and distort in 
their own private and erroneous acceptation, the words, testimonies, and sen- 
tences of the sacred Scriptures, and they fear not with extreme impiety, wickedly 
to abuse the most holy name of Christ. Nor are they ashamed publicly and 
openly to assert that the violation of any oath, however solemn, and the commis- 
sion of any flagitious and detestable actions whatsoever, even if repugnant to the 
law of nature itself, is not only not to be condemned, but is even altogether lawful, 
and to be extolled with the highest praises, when the same is done for the love of 
country, as they say. By which impious and perverse mode of arguing, all 
honour, virtue, and justice is by this class of men utterly swept away, and the 
abhorred principles of action of the very robber and assassin are with unheard-of 
shamelessness maintained and commended. 

Besides the other innumerable frauds which the enemies of the CathoUc 
Church continually use that they may tear away and carry off the ignorant 

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and incautious especially from the bosom of the Church itself, there are added 
most bitter and odious calumnies, which they do not blush to invent, and 
therewith to assail our person. We indeed, holding, though by no merits of our 
own, here on earth the vicariate of Him who when he was re^riledt did not revile; 
when He suffered, did not threaten^ have never neglected to bear all the bitterest 
calumnies with all patience and silence, and to pray for those who persecute and 
calxmmiate us. But since we are debtors to the wise and to the foolish, and 
are bound to consult for the salvation of all, we, in order to avoid giving 
offence, especially to the weak, cannot refrain in this your Assembly from 
repelling that most M&e and odious calumny of all which has been published 
in some very recent pap^s against the p^son of our humility. But althoH^ 
we felt incredible horror when we read tnat hbel, whereby the enemies seek to 
inflict a grievous wound upon us and the Apostolic See, still we can in no wise 
foar that such odious &lsehoods can do even a slight mischief to that Supreme 
Chair of Truth, or to us, who by the help of no merits of ours have been {daced 
therein. And indeed by the singular mercy of God, we are enabled to use those 

divine words of our Redeemer — '^ I have spoken openly to the world and 

in secret I have spoken nothing.^' And here. Venerable Brothers, we judge it 
convenient again to repeat and inculcate thoee very things which we declared 
especially in our Allocution delivered to you on December 17th in the year 
1847, namely, that our enemies, that they may be able the more easily to 
corrupt the true and genuine doctrine of the Catholic religion^ and to deceive 
ethers and to lead them into error, devise aU maimer of falsehoods, try all 
mtanoeuvres and endeavours, in order that even the very Apostolic See may 
appear in some sort to partake in and to &vour their madnesa. But no one la 
ignorant what most pernicious sects and societies, lurking in darkness, have 
been at different times got together, instituted, and variously denominated by 
the workers of falsehood and the propagators of perverse opimons, by the 
sieans of which they might the more safoly instil theu* extravagances^ systems, 
and machinations into the minds of others, might corrupt the incautious^ and 
qpen oxA a most broad path for the commission of all manner of crimes with 
nnpunity. Which abominable sects of p^dition^ utterly hostile not only to the 
salvation of souls but also to the good and tranquiUity of chril society, and 
condemned by the Roman Pontiffs our predecessors, we ourselves have con- 
stantiy detested, and by our Encyclic Letter dated November 9th in the year 
1846, and addressed to all the Bishops of the CathoUc Church, we naire 
condemned, and do now in Uke manner, by our Supreme Apostolic authority^ 
again condemn, prohibit, and proscribe. 

But in this our Allocution we have assuredly not intended either to 
enumerate all the errors by which the people, being miserably deceived, are 
driven to such ruin, or to go over all the machinations whereby the enemies 
are stirring to devise mischief to the Catholic reUgion and to assault and invade 
to the uttermost the citadel of Sion. The matters which we have so far 
sorrowfolly commemorated do manifest sufficiently, and more than sufficiently, 
that these calamities and disasters with which nations and people are so cruelly 
agitated, spring from the progress of perverse doctrines and from the contempt of 
justice and religion. In order, therefore, that such great evils may be removed, 
it is necessary that neither pains, nor coimsels, nor labours, nor watchings be 
spared, to the end that these many perverse doctrines being plucked up by the 
roots, all may understand that true and solid happiness rests upon the exercise 
of virtue, justice, and religion. So that both we ourselves, and you, and our 
other Venerable Brothers, the Bishops of the whole Catholic world, must above 
all things labour with extreme care, zeal, and perseverance, that the faithful 
people n^ be removed from poisoned pastures, and led to those that are 
salutary; and that being daily more and more nourished with the words of 
fiuth, they may both perceive and avoid the frauds and fallacies of insidious 
men ; and plainly understanding that the foar of the Lord is the fountain of aU 
good things, and that sins and iniquities j»*ovoke the scourges of God, they may 
study with all care to decline from evil and to do good. For which reason, m 
the midst of such anguish, certainly no sUght joy is diffused over our mind 
when we observe with what finnness of mind and constancy our Venerable 
Uro&em, the Bishops of the Catholic world, firmly attached to us and to the 
Chairof Peter, along with their dutifril clergy, do strenuously labour to maintain 

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tbe cause of iAie Cbinrdi aod to defend ite libeiiy ; and with What priestly e$M 
and zeal they bestow all their pains^ that they may both more and moiB cotifirm 
the good in their goodness, and may bring back wanderers to the ways of 
justice, and may reprove and confute, both by word of mouth and by wiith^> 
the obstinate enemies of rehgion. But whilst we rejoice to pay these due and 
merited praises to those venerable brothers, we encourage them, that trusting on 
the Divine assistance, they may proceed even with more and more cheerful zeal 
to fulfil their ministry, and to fight the battles of the Lord, and exalt their 
voice in wisdom and strength, to evangelize Jerusalem*and to heal the sorrows 
of Inaei. Fmihennore, let them not cease to approach the throne of Grade 
with confidence, and to persevere in pablic and private prajrer, and sedulously 
to inculcate to the fiiithful peo|de that they all everywh^e be penitent, in order 
thstt they may obtain merey £rom the Lord and ftid grace in the cqpportane: 
season. Nofr let them neglect to exhort men who excel in abilities and in sooad 
doctrine, that they also may study, under thdr guidance and that of the Apoe* 
tohc See, to oilight^i the minds of the people, and to dissipate the darkness of 
the errors that are creeping on. 

Here, also, we beseech in the Lord, and demand of our most dear soqs in 
Christ, the Princes and Rulers of peoples, that, seriously and sedulocnly con* 
sidering the number and magnitude of the evils which redound upon civil 
society from such a mass of errors and vices, they may apply themselveB with 
all care, zeal, and prudence, above all to this oligect, that virtue, justice and 
religion, may everywhere prevail, and receive more increase day by day. And 
let all peoples, nations and tribes, and their rulers, assiduously and doligently 
consider and reflect that all good things consist in the ^cercise of justice, but 
that all evil things proceed from iniquity. For ^^ justice exalteth a nation^ hut 
sim maketk naiiims mwcroJfc."— (Prov. xiv. 34.) 

Bat before we make an end of speaking, we cannot refrtdn firom openly and 
publicly testifying our feelings of great gratitude to all those our most loving 
and dear children who, being vehemently solicitous regarding our calamities^ 
chose with a truly singtdar and affectionate piety towards us, to send us their 
offerings. Although, however, this pious Uberality imparts to us no shght con- 
solation, still we must confess that our paternal heart is affected with no ordi- 
nary distress, since we exceedingly fear that in this most lamentable state of 
public affairs our aforesaid most dear children, indulging their love for us over- 
much, are willing to make those gifts even to their own loss and detriment. 

Lastly, Venerable Brothers, entirely acquiescing in the impenetrable 
counsels of the wisdom of God, whereby He works His glory, whilst in the 
humiUty of our heart we offer up the greatest thanks to God for having 
judged us worthy to suffer reproach for the name of Jesus, and to be made in 
some measure conformable to the Image of His Passion, we are ready in all faith, 
hope, patience, and meekness, to endure all bitterest labours and pangs, and to 
lay down our life itself for the Church, if by omr blood we might be able to 
remedy the calamities of the Church itself. But in the meantime. Venerable 
Brothers, let us not intermit day and night, with assiduous and fervent prayer, 
humbly to pray of God rich in mercy, and to entreat of Him, that through the 
merits of His only-begotten Son, He may by His almighty arm deUver His 
Holy Church from those great storms by which it is agitated ; and that by the 
illumination of His divine grace He may enlighten the minds of all who go 
astray, and in the multitude of His mercy may vanquish the hearts of all the 
rebellious, that, ail errors everywhere being driven away, and all adversities 
removed, all men may perceive and acknowledge the Ught of justice and truth, 
and may run in the imity of the faith and of the knowledge of our Lord Jesus 
Christ. And of Him, who maketh peace in high places, and who is our peace, 
let us never neglect supphantly to entreat, that aD the evils whcrowith the 
Christian Republic is trouUed, being utterly rooted up. He may drign everywhere 
to establish the peace and tranquilHty so ardently longed for. But tlmt Gkid may 
more readily grs^ our prayers, let us hove recourse to intercessors with Him, 
and above cdl, to the Most Holy and Immaculate Virgm Mary, who^ being the 
Mother of God, and our Mother, and the Mother of Mercy, finds what She 
seeks, and cannot be disappointed. Let v& also implore the suffrages of the 
Biased Peter, Prince of the Apostles, and of his fdlow Apostle Paul, and of all 
the Saints in heaven, who^ bdiur made friends of God, now re^ with him is 


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heaven, that the most merciful Lord, by the intervention of their merits and 
prayers, may deUver the faithful people from the terrors of His anger, and may 
always protect them> and make them joyful with the abundance of His Divine 

No. 93. 
Viscount Palmerston to Mr. Freeborn. 

Sir, Foreign Office, July 23, 1849. 

I HAVE received your despatch of the 4th instant, reporting that the 
French army under General Oudinot had obtained possession of the city of 
Rome, and that you had thought proper to give your passport, as a British 
Consular Agent, to about 500 individuals not British subjects, to come to 
England, although, as you admit, you were not authorized by your instructions 
to grant such passports. I have now to state to you that as a general rule, no 
British oflScer abroad should give a British passport to a foreigner, because no 
passport is necessary to enable a foreigner to land in England ; and a British 
officer has no right to require^ by his passport given to a foreigner travelling 
abroad, that facilities and protection should be affi)rded to such foreigner by the 
authorities of foreign countries. A British officer has a right to reqmre such 
facilities and protection for British subjects, and therefore he may give to British 
subjects a passport, which is a document making that request. 

It is indeed permissible for a British officer abroad in very special cases to 
give a passport to a foreigner, in order to save him from some great and imminent 
personal danger. But in the present case it does not appear what imminent 
or great personal danger threatened those 500 persons to whom you gave 
passports. I cannot therefore approve of your having without any necessity (as 
far as hitherto appears) encouraged and aided 500 foreigners to come to 
England, where they will probably on their arrival be destitute of any means of 

I am, &c. 

No. 94. 
Viscount Palmerslon to Sir George Hamilton. 

Sir, Foreign Office, July 24, 1849. 

I INCLOSE, for your information, a copy of a despatch which I have 
addressed to Mr. Freeborn on the subject of his having granted passports for 
England to a large number of persons not British subjects, who had taken part 
in the late events at Rome. 

You will furnish Mr. Petre with a copy of my despatch to Mr. Freeborn. 

I am, &c. 

No. 95. 
The Marquis of Normanby to Viscount Palmerston. — {Received July 24.) 

My Lord, Paris, July 23, 1849. 

I COMMUNICATED to M. de TocqueviUe one of the printed copies 
forwarded by your Lordship of the representation made to the Roman Govern- 
ment by the Allied Powers in 1831, advising it to adopt certain reforms and 

M. de TocqueviUe had already had his attention called to this document, 
and felt that it contained the sort of arrangement which it would at once be 
desirable, and he hoped practicable to effect. 

He took this opportunity of again repeating what he had said to me upon 
former occasions, that though England, for reasons given by yoiu* Lordship, had 
declined to take an active part in the present negotiations when invited by the 
Pope, he hoped she would nevertheless in some shape give to such an arrange- 

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ment as she had formerly wished to see effected, the moral support of her advice 
and counsel either at G^ta or at Rome. The active interest she might show 
upon this subject would be an additional security that whatever reforms were 
promised would be sincerely executed. 

I have, &c. 
(Signed) NORMANBY. 

No. 96. ^ 
Sir George Hamilton to Viscount Palmerston. — {Received July 25.) 

My Lord, Florence, July 17, 1849. 

WITHIN the last few days General Oudinot's aide-de-camp has arrived from 
Rome to state to General d'Aspre, the Austrian Commander-in-chief at Florence, 
that it was the intention of the French General to send a body of troops from 
Rome in pursuit of Garibaldi and his troops, and to request General d'Aspre to 
co-operate with the French to prevent his escape. 

General d'Aspre in consequence gave orders to the division of his army at 
Perugia to afford the French any assistance they might require for this object. 

Accounts reached Florence yesterday that Garibaldi was on the point of 
entering Orvieto on the 15th instant, from which place most of the inhabitants 
had already fled. 

I have, &c. 

No. 97. 

Viscount Ponsonby to Viscount Palmerston. — {Received July 28.) 

(Extract.) Vienna, July 21,1 849. 

IN obedience to your Lordship's directions I read your instructions of the 
13th instant to the Prince Schwarzenberg, and sent him a copy. The Prince 
will reply through the channel of Count Colloredo. 

I will report the substance of what his Highness said to me. He objected 
positively to subjecting the return of the Pope to any engagement to establish 
a constitution, and he repeated to me what be had said upon that point to Mr. 
Magenis, to the effect that the Pope would not under such an arrangement be 
allowed to continue in Rome, but would be driven from thence by the manoeuvi*es 
of the same party that had dispossessed him before of all authority. 

I asked if there would be any objection to an engagement being entered into 
by the Pope to confide to laymen the administration of Civil Government? The 
Prince said that might be done ; and he subsequently added, that in his opinion 
the adoption of principles and substance set forth in the Memorandum of 1 83 1 
would be satisfactory. Your Lordship is well acquainted with the memo- 

I asked the Prince if he could tell me what the French intended to do 
respecting the occupation of Rome. He replied that he did not know their 
plans, but that he wished them to remain there. I observed that the French 
had declared they could not occupy Rome with a small force, and that if they 
should continue the occupation it must be with a large one. His Highness 
denied that a large force would be necessary. 

No. 98. 
Sir George Hamilton to Viscount Palmerston. — {Received August 1.) 

My Lord, Florence, July 24, 1849. 

GARIBALDI with his band amounting to about 5000 men, of whom 700 
are cavalry, are moving from place to place on the Tuscan frontiers near Orvieto 
and Monte Puldano, and levying contributions on the towns and villages. 

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Baron d*Agpre informed me yesterday evening that he thought GaribaliK 
was now surrounded by the Austnan troops, but from the daring character of 
the man and the facilities afforded by the nature of the cotmtry, his escape by 
sea is not considered improbable. 

I have, &c. 

No. 99. 
Mr. Freeborn to Viscount Palmerston. — {Received August 3.) 

(Brtmct.) Rme, July 24, 1849. 

I HAVE the honour to transmit under envelope the •'Giomale <fi Roma/' 
No. 14, dated, the 2 1st instant, containing the proclamation of Prus IX, and 
the order of General Oudinot, authorizing the action of the Vicar-General% 

This tribunal places in the hands of the dergy extraordinary powers almost 
independent of His Holiness. The Vicar-General is the accuser, prosecutor, and 
judge, and all under secret evidence. 

Indosure 1 in No. 99. 
Proclamation of Pope Pius IX. 

Pius PP. IX, ai suoi amatissimi sudditi. 

IDDIO ha levato in alto il suo braccio, ed ha comandato al mare tempestoso 
dell' anarchia e dell' empiet^ di arrestarsi. Egli ha guidato le armi Cattoliche 
per sostenere i diritti della imianit^ conculcata, della fede combattuta^ e quelli 
della Sante Sede e della nostra sovranit^ Sia lode etema a Lui, che anche in 
mezzo alle ire non dimentica la misericordia. 

Amatissimi sudditi, se nel vortice delle spaventose vicende il nostro cuore 
si h saziato di afianni sul riflesso di tanti mali partita dalla Chiesa, dalla religione 
6 da voi ; non ha per6 scemato Taffetto col quale vi amd sempre e vi ama. Noi 
afirettiamo co' nostri voti il giorno che ci conduca di nuovo fra V(h ; eallorquando 
sia giunto, noi torneremo col vivo desiderio di apportarvi conforto, e con la volenti 
di occuparci con tutte le nostre forze del vostro vero bene, appUcando i difficili 
rimedii ai maU gravissimi, e consolando i buoni sudditi, i quali, mentre aspettano 
quelle istituzioni che appaghino i loro bisogni, vogliono, come noi lo vogliamo, 
veder guarentita la liberty e la indipendenza del Sommo Pontificato, cosi 
necessaria alia tranquillity del mondo Cattolico. 

Intanto pel riordinamento della cosa pubblica andiamo anominare una Com- 
missioner che mimita di pieni poteri, e coadjuvata da un Ministero, regoh il 
Govemo dello Stato. 

Quella benedizione del Signore, che vi abbiamo sempre implorata anche da 
voi lontani, oggi con maggior fervore la imploriamo, affinch^ scenda copiosa sopra 
di voi : ed h grande conforto all' animo nostro lo sperare, che tutti quelli die 
vollero rendersi incapaci di godeme il frutto pe* loro traviamenti, possano 
esseme fatti meritevoli merc^ di un sincero e coetante rawedimento. 

Datum Cajetae, die 17 Julii, 1849* 



Pius IX to his ttosi beloved sttl:()ects, 

GOD hath lifted his arm on high, and hath commanded the stormy sea of 
anardiy and inqpftety to cease. He hath guided the Catholic arms to suakaiii the 
rights of faumaoity trodden under foot, of &ith fought agafaist, and those of the 
Holy See ud of our sovereignty. Eternal praiee be to Him who even in the 
midst of undi dotk Boi forget iaerqy« 

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My beloved subjects ! If in the whirl of frightful events our heart has been 
overwhelmed with grief in reflecting on the many ills suffered by the Church, by 
religion, and by you, it has not fs^ed in the love which it always bore to you, 
and still bears you* Our prayers hasten the day which shall bring us again 
among you, and when it arrives, we shall return with the strong desire to bring 
you comfort, and with the wish to use all our strength for your service, by 
applpng difficult remedies to the most serious ills, and by consoling those good 
subjects, who, while they expect institutions which shall satisfy thdr desires, wish^ 
as we do ourselves, to see secured the Uberty and independence oi the Supreme 
Pontificate, so necessary to the tranquiUity of the Catholic world. 

In the meantime, in order to the restoration of the public State, we are about 
to nominate a Commission, which, being provided with full-powers and aided by 
a Minister, shall regulate the government of the State. 

That blessing of the Lord which we have always implored* even when &r 
from you, we now implore with greater fervour, tliat it may descend in fiill 
measure upon you, and it is a great comfort to our spirit to hope that all those 
who were resolved to become incapable of enjoying the fruits thereof by their 
errors, may be made worthy of it by a sincere and constant repentance. 

Dated at Gaeta, July 17, 1849. 

PIUS IX pp. 

Indosure 2 in No^ 99. 
General Oudinot to the Vice^Gerant cfRome. 

Monseigneur, Au Quartter-GAiA'al de Rome^ le IS Juillet, 1849. 

LE cours ordinaire de la Justice €tait interrompu depms plusieurs mois. 
C'est i un tel etat de choses, aussi nuisible aux int^rdts de la population 
Bomaine qu'^ ceux de la morale publique, que Tordonnance du Commissaire 
G^n^ral de Grace et Justice a voulu porter remMe. 

A Sa Saintetd seule il appartenait de fixer les limites des jurisdictions, et 
j'ai d^ ne prendre que des mesures tr^ provisoires, afin de laisser toute 
liberty d'action h TAdministration que le Saint-P^re ne tardera pas k instituer. 
II a d'ailleurs 6t^ convenu que les causes qui ressortissent des tribunaux eccM- 
siastiques seraient r&erv^es. 

U r^sulte de Ik, Monseigneur, que les droits de votre jurisdicticm ne peuvent 
£(re attaqu^s, et je serai le premier k les d^fendre centre tons les empiltemens 
quipourraient dtre tenths. 

Veuillez, &c. Le G^n^ral en chef, 



Sir, Head' Quarter 8y Rome^ July 18, 1849. 

THE ordinary course of justice was interrupted for several months. The 
object of the ordmance of the Commissary -General of Grace and Justice has 
been to apply a remedy to such a state of things, which was equally injurious to 
the interests of the Roman population and to those of public morals. 

It appertained to His Holiness alone to fix the limits of the jurisdiction, 
and I could only take very provisional measures in order to leave entire fi*eedom 
of action to the Administration which the Holy Father will establish without 
delay. It has, moreover, been agreed that causes depending on the ecclesiastical 
tribunals should be reserved. 

It follows firom thence, Sir, that the rights of your jurisdiction cannot be 
assailed, and I shall be the first to maintain them against all the attacks whicli 
may be attempted against them. 

Be pleased, &c. 

The General in chief, 


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No. 100. 
Sir George Hamilton to Viscount Palmerston. — {Received August 3,) 

(Extract.) Florence^ July 26, 1849. 

I HAVE learnt from Baron d'Aspre that Garibaldi and his band have 
escaped into Romagna. 

No. 101. 

Prince Schwarzenberg to Count Colloredo. — {Communicated to Viscount 
Palmerston by Count Colloredo, August 3.) 

M. le Comte, Vienne, le 27 Juillet, 1849. 

LORD PONSONBY, d'ordre de son Gouvemement m'a donn^ lecture et 
copie d'une d^pfiche portant la date du 13 Juillet dernier, dont vous trouverez 
ci-jointe copie, et par laquelle ie Principal Secretaire d'Etat engage le Gou- 
vemement de I'Euiperenr k user de son influence sur les Conseils du Souverain 
Pontife pour que Sa Saintet^ se decide k maintenir les concessions constitution- 
nelles qu'elle avait faites Tannee demi^re, et k se preparer ainsi les voles pour 
reprendre Texercice du pouvoir souverain. 

II y a deux ans que Lord Palmerston s'adressa ^galement au Cabinet de 
Vienne dans le but de Tinviter k faire parvenir aux diff(^rens Gouvememens 
Jtaliens des conseils tendant k les encpurager d'entrer franchement dans la voie 
des r^formes r^clam^es par la voix publique. Depuis cette ^poque les voeux que 
Lord Palmerston 6non9ait alors pour Tltalie ont 4t6 remplis en ce que.le 
systeme Repr&entatif a ^t^ introduit dans la plupart des Etats qui composent la 
P^ninsule. Les esp^rances toutefois que sa Seigneurie rattachait k ce change- 
ment important ne se sont malheureusement pas realisees au meme degr^. 
Le mdcontentement g^n^ral que Lord Palmerston signalait dans sa d6p6che du 
12 Aoftt, 1847, et qu'il s'attendait k voir cesser d^s Tintroduction des r^formes 
qu'il conseillait, n*a fait que s'accroitre apr^s une 6poque bien courte d'exalta- 
tion factice et de diSmonstrations plus bruyantes que sincferes, et le rel^chement 
de tons les liens de Tordre public a et^ suivi de pr6s du terrorisme de la 
demagogic la plus effr^n^e. Les Princes qui les premiers avaient accord^ k 
leurs pays des garanties Constitutionnelles, ont 4t6 les premieres victimes des 
vicissitudes de la popularity. En r^sum^, Thistoire d'ltalie pendant les deux 
derni^res ann^es a prouv^ une fois de plus, que pour faire jouir un peuple des 
bienfaits de la liberty il ne suffit pas de le doter d'institutions lib^rales, mais 
qu'il faudrait avant tout possdder Tart de lui inspirer ce profond respect des loix 
et de Tautorite et cet esprit public qui constituent la puissance de I'Angleterre, 
et qui font de ce pays k juste litre I'objet de I'envie et de Tadmiration des autres 

. Ayant k peine triomph^ des attaques combin^es de presque tous les Etats 
Jtaliens agit^s par la Revolution, I'Autriche a 6t6 appel^e k concourir par. ses 
armes a ddlivrer T Italic Centrale du joug odieux de Panarchie qui la d^soiait. 
En accomplissant cette mission, T Autriche a satisfait k un devoir en mfime temps 
qu'elle a exerc^ un droit. Elle a satisfait k un devoir. en ce qu'un int^r^t 
majeur de ses peuples dont la grande majority professe la religion Catholique, lui 
commandait de sauvegarder la liberte et I'ind^pendance du chef de cette ^glise ; 
elle a exerc^ un droit, puisque le soin de sa propre conservation Tautorisait k 
r^primer dans un pays limitrophe la flagrante anarchic dont le d^ordement ayait 
port^ dans ses propres provinces, nagu^res si florissantes, la devastation et toutes 
les horreurs de la guerre. 

Quant k la reorganisation de I'Etat de TEglise ou son intervention a concouru 
k faire cesser le r^gne de la terreur, I'Autriche compte s'en tenir aux maximcs 
developp^es dans la d^p^che Anglaise du 12 Aoflt, 1847. En y etablissaht que 
chaque Grouvemement a incontestablement . le droit d'op^rer telles reformes et 
ameliorations qu*il juge de nature k seconder le bien-Stre du peuple confie k ses 
soins, Lord Palmerston a pose un principe auquel nous adherens pleinement. 
Aueei^ considerons-nous le Souverain Pontife comme enti^mentlibre de s'lureter 

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en pareille mati^re k tel parti que lui dictera sa conscience et la saine apprecia- 
tion des v^ritables intdrSts et besoins de son peuple. Nous ne nous reconnais- 
sons pas le droit d'imposer li Sa Saintet^ des conditions quelconques, tout comme 
nous ne nous croyons pas autorises k Tempficher de profiter des le9ons de 
Texperience. Pie IX, k nos yeux, est le seul juge competent de la question de 
savoir si son devoir et le vrai bien de son peuple Tobligent k rentrer exactem^it 
dans les mfimes voies qui, en livrant Tautorit^ souveraine sans defense aux 
attaques de ses ennemis acham^s, ont fatalement valu Pexil au Pape, et k ses 
sujets une affreuse anarchic. Appeles toutefois k ^noncer notre opinion, nous 
n avons pas laiss^ ignorer au Saint P^re quels sont les voeux que nous fonnons 
pour Tavenir de son pays. II s'entend que PAutriche pas plus que Pie IX lui- 
m^me, ne saurait vouloir du retour a d'anciens abus ni du r^blissement 
d^institutions surann^es qui, loin d'offrir des garanties k I'ordre et k la liberty, 
seraient plut6t de nature k compromettre de nouveau Tun et Tautre. Nous 
d&irons avant tout, comme Puissance limitrophe, voir ^tabli dans TEtat de 
FEglise un Gouvernement r^ulier qui respecte et sache faire respecter les loix 
intemationales, et avec lequel il y ait moyen de vivre en paix. Nous voudrions 
^galement y voir les libert^s politiques se d^velopper graduellement sous I'^ide 
d'une autorit^ forte et entour^e du respect general. L'ind^pendance du Souverain 
Pontife, d'un c6t6, et de Tautre un regime sage et liberal k introduire dans ses 
Etats ; voil^ deux int^rfits auxquels nous attachons une importance dgale. Nous 
pensons qu'il y aurait moyen de les concilier, en prenant pour base de la reor- 
ganisation des Etats de TEglise, les conseils que les Puissances avaient de 
commim accord offerts k Gr^goire XVI par le Memorandum du 21 Mai, 1831. 
Dans ce travail, Padmissibilit^ des laiques k tons les emplois civils et militaires 
etait ^noncee; P^tablissement sur une large base de hbert^s communales et 
provinciales si propres k initier un peuple k la vie publique ; la creation enfin 
d'une Junte Centrale, avaient et^ conseillfe. Nous pensons que des insti- 
tutions de ce genre plus ou moins modifi^es, selon les circonstances, tout en 
^ant de nature k manager k Pie IX une attitude qui ne renieroit pas son pass^ 
pas plus qu'elle ne compromettrait son avenir, m^riteraient encore aujourd'hui les 
suffrages des hommes vraiment ^clairfe et sinc^rement d^voufe k leur patrie. 

Je prie votre Excellence de donner k M. le Principal Secretaire d'Etat 
communication et copie de cette depfeche. 

Recevez &c 


M. le Comte, Vienna, July 27, 1849. 

LORD PONSONBY, by order of his Government, has read to me and 
has given me a copy of a despatch dated the 13th of July last, of which you 
will find 8 copy annexed, and by which the Principal Secretary of State requests 
the Government of the Emperor to exert its influence over the Councils of the 
Sovereign Pontiff, in order that His Holiness may decide on maintaining the 
constitutional concessions which he had adopted last year, and thus prepare the 
way for the resumption of the exercise of the sovereign power. 

Two years ago Lord Palmerston, in like manner, applied to the Cabinet of 
Vienna for the purpose of proposing to it to offer to the various Governments 
of Italy advice tending to encourage them frankly to enter upon those reforms 
demanded by the voice of the public. Since this period the desires which Lord 
Palmerston then expressed with regard to Italy have been Mfilled, in that the 
Representative system has been introduced into the greater part of the States 
which compose the Peninsula. Nevertheless, the hopes which his Lordship 
founded on this important change have unfortunately not been realized to the 
same extent. The general dissatisfaction which his Lordship pointed out in his 
despatch of the 12th of August, 1847, and which he expected to see cease upon 
the introduction of the reforms which he advised, has only increased after a very 
short period of factious exultation and of demonstrations more noisy than 
sincere, and the relaxation of all the ties of public order has been closely foUowed 
by the terrorism of a demagogy perfectly uncontrolled. Those Princes who 
were the first to grant to their country Constitutional guarantees have been the 
first victims of the vicissitudes of popularity. In shorty the history of Italy 


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during the last two years has proved oaee more^ that in ord^ to make a peppfe 
enjoy the benefits of liberty^ it does not suffice to endow them with liberal 
institutioDS, but that it is neoessary before everything to possess the art of 
inspiring them with that profound respect for laws and authority, and witii 
that public spirit, which constitute the power of England, and which justly 
make that country the object of the envy and of the admiration of other nations. 

Hardly had Austria triumphed over the comlMned attacks of nearly all the 
Itahan States agitated by the Revolution, when she was called upon to assist by 
her arms iu deUvering Central Italy from the odious yoke of anarchy whick 
desolated it. In accomplishing this mission, Austria has fulfilled a duty, at the 
same time that she has exercised a right. She has fulfilled a duty, since an im- 
portant interest of her people, of whom the great majority profess the Catholic 
reUgion, required her to protect the liberty and the independence of the Head of 
the Church. She has exercised a right, since the care of her own pres^vatioa 
authorized her to repress in a neighbouring State the flagrant anaraiy, the out- 
break of which had carried into her own provinces, lately so flourishing, 
devastation and all the horrors of war. 

As to the re-organization of the State of the Church, in which ter interven- 
tion has helped to put a stop to the reign of terror, Austria reckons on 
adhering to the maxims developed in the English despatch of the 12th a£ 
August, 1847. By asserting iu that despatch that each Government has incon- 
testibly the right of carrying out such reforms and improvements as it considers 
of a nature to promote the well-being of the people entrusted to its care, Lord 
Palmerston has laid down a principle to which we fully adhere. Accordingly, 
let us consider the Sovereign Pontiff as entirely free to take in such a matter 
whatever side his conscience and the sound appreciation of the true interests 
and wants of his people shall dictate to him. We do not recognise in ourselves 
the right to impose any conditions whatever upon His Holiness, any more than 
we consider ourselves authorized to prevent him from profiting by lessons of 
experience. Pius the IXth, in our opinion, is the sole competent judge of tl» 
question whether his duty and the true welfare of his people require him to 
return precisely to the same course which by yielding without resistance the 
sovereign authority to the attacks of his exasperated enemies, brought exile 
fatally upon the Pope, and fearful anarchy upon his subjects. Nevertheless^ 
called upon to pronounce our opinion, we have not allowed the Holy Father 
to remain ignorant of the wishes we entertain for the future state of his country. 
It is clear that Austria, no more than Pius JX himself, could not desire a 
return to former abuses, or the re-establishment of superannuated institutions, 
which, so far from offering guarantees for order and liberty, would rather be of 
a nature to compromise afresh both one and the other. We desire especially, 
as a neighbouring Power, to see established in the State of the Church a regular 
Government, which shall respect, and cause to be respected, international laws, 
and by which it would be possible to live in peace. We should desire likewise 
to see political Uberties gradually developing themselves there under the pro- 
tection of powerful authority, sustained by general respect. The independence 
of the Sovereign Pontiff on the one hand, and on the other the introduction of 
a wise and liberal administration into its States, are two interests to which we 
attach equal importance. We think the means of reconciling them might be 
foupd, by taking as the basis of the reorganization of the States of the Church, 
the QQunsels which the Powers by common consent offered to Gregory XVI by 
the Memorandum of the 2l8t May, 1831. In this document the admissibility of 
the laity to all civil and miUtary employment was laid down ; the establishment 
on a broad basis of communal and provincial liberties, so well adapted to 
initiate a people into public life ; lastly, the creation of a Central Junta, were 
recommended. We consider that institutions of this kind, more or less modified 
according to circumstances, at the same time that they were calculated to 
ensure to Pius IX a position not inconsistent with what had passed, or fettering 
him inconveniently as r^ards the future, would even now be worthy of the 
approbation of men truly enlightened, and sincerely devoted to their country. 

I request your Excellency to communicate this despatch to the Prindpai 
Secretary of State^ and to give him a copy of it. 

I have, &c 

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Na 102^ 

Vtscotmt Palmerston to the Marquis of Normanhf. 

My Lord, Foreign Office, August 7, 1849. 

I TRANSMIT herewith extracts of letters which I have received from Mr. 
Petre and from Mr. Freeborn, explaining the nature of the functions exercised 
by the Vicar-General at Rome, whose office it appears was about to be restored 
to activity. 

I have to instruct your Excellency to explain to the French Minister iot 
Foreign Affairs the real character of the office i|i question, the reestablishmeot of 
which seems calculated to create great discontent among the people of the Roman 

M. Drouyn de Lhuys read to me some days ago a despatch addressed to 
him by M. de Tocqueville, upon the affairs of Rome. The substance of that 
despatch was, that the French Government finds great difficulty in persuading 
the Pope to adopt a liberal policy on his return to Rome : and that there seems 
reason to suppose that the utmost extent of improvement to which he could be 
prevailed to go, would consist in the measures recommended as long ago as 1831 
by the Five Powers, in the memorandum submitted to the late Pope. Those 
measures would chiefly consist in the maintenance of municipal councils ; in the 
creation of provincial councils; and in the establishment of some central body at 
Rome as a council to be consulted on measures on which their opinion might 
be asked, but not to legislate or to originate measures ; and to perform besides, 
the duties of auditing the pubUc accounts: and the French Government 
expressed a wish to have the co-operation of Her Majesty's Government in urging 
such an arrangement upon the Pope. 

I said in reply to M. Drouyn de Lhuys, that as the British Government 
has not yet established diplomatic relations with the Government of Rome, we 
have no means at present of tendering advice on such matters to the Pope, but 
that I much feared that such a limited arrangement as that described in the 
despatch which he had read to me, would fall short of the necessities of the case, 
aoxd would not lay the foundation for contentment among the Roman people, and 
for permanent harmony between them and their Sovereign. 

I said that the thing which is essentially requiied for future tranquillity in 
the Roman States, is some good and valid security against a return of those 
intolerable abuses which Priestly Government had created and m intained, and 
that it seemed to me that such security could only be found in a Representative 
and Legislative Assembly and in a well-regulated freedom of the press, and a 
bond fide separation of the temporal from the spiritual administration; in short, 
in such a constitution as the Pope had granted to his subjects in the Funda- 
mental Statute of the 14th of March, 1848^ 

I said that the desire of the Pope arbitrarily to abrogate that Constitution 
on his return to Rome, is a stroi^ indication that he is acting under the influ- 
ence of persons who aim at reestablishing the old state of things, and that the 
municipal and provincial councils and the Central Consulta di Stato, appeared to 
me to be very insufficient barriers against the execution of such designs. 

The revival of the authority of the Court of the Vicar-General seems much 
to confirm the apprehensions which I expressed to* M. Drouyn de Lhuys. 

I am, &c. 

Inclosure 1 in No. 102. 

Extract of a Letter from Mr. Petre. 

Rome, July 25, 1849. 
GENERAL OUDINOT has addressed a letter to the Vice-Gerant of 
Rome, in which he telle him that any laeasupes-takeR by General Oudinot for 
the ordinary course of justice are only provisional, in order tbat full liberty 
of action may be left to the Administration which the Holy Father will not 
delay to institute, and that questions belonging to ecclesiastical tribunals are 

N 2 

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expressly reserved ; that therefore the rights of the Vice-Gerant's juriscKction 
cannot be impugned ; and that he, General Oudinot, will be the first to defend 
those rights against all encroachments. The Vice-Gerant, always an archbishop^ 
is the chief functionary under the Cardinal Vicar. The tribunal of the Vicariato 
has power unbounded : the Cardinal Vicar, as a reformer of morals, extends his 
authority over the affairs and transactions of private life ; but it is amongst the 
lower classes chiefly that the inferior officers of this tribunal, in unison with the 
inferior assisting clergy, those under the curates, can exert their power. If 
General Oudinot had written to the Inquisition in the same sense as he has 
written to the Vice-Gerant it would have passed over without much notice, for 
the Inquisition has, in Rome, for a long course of years, but very rarely, if ever, 
used its power except to punish the excesses of the clergy by imprisonment more 
or less rigorous. When the late Government opened the Inquisition, none, I 
believe, but a few priests were found there and in its house of detention at 
Cometo. One was an Abyssinian, who some years ago forged letters from the 
Pasha of Egypt to the Pope, was made a bishop, obtained a good sum of money 
from the Propaganda and various rich Chm-ch ornaments, but the imposture 
was discovered and he was imprisoned for life. 

Inclosure 2 in No. 102. 
[Letter from Mr. Freeborn, see No. 99.] 

No. 103. 

The Secretary to the Admiralty to Mr. Addington. 

Sir, Admiralty y Augmt 7, 1849. 

I AM commanded by my Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty to send 
you herewith, for the information of Viscount Palmerston, a copy of a letter 
from Vice- Admiral Sir William Parker, dated the 25th ultimo, transmitting a 
copy of a despatch from Lieutenant Willes of Her Majesty's steam-vessel 
'* Spitfire," reporting the latest intelligence of the state of affairs at Rome and 
Civita Vecchia. 

I am, &c. 
(Signed) W. A. B. HAMILTON. 

Inclosure 1 in No. 103. 

Vice-Admiral Sir W. Parker to the Secretary to the Admiralty. 

Sir, '' Caledonia;' Malta, July 25, 1849, 10 a.m. 

I TRANSMIT, for the information of the Lords Commissioners of the 
Admiralty, the copy of a letter which I have this instant received from Lieu- 
tenant Willes of Her Majesty's steam-vessel " Spitfire," conveying the latest 
intelligence of the state of affairs at Rome and Civita Vecchia. 

I am also informed by Captains Codrington and Baynes, under date of 
20th July, that everything is perfectly quiet at Genoa and Leghorn. 

I have, &c. 
(Signed) W. PARKER. 

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Inclosure 2 in No. 103, 
Lieutenant Willes to Vice- Admiral Sir W. Parker. 

Sir, '' Spitfire;' Civita Vecchia, July 21, 1849. 

IN pursuance of orders from Captain Martin of Her Majesty's ship 
*' Prince Regent," I beg to inform you of the events that have passed since my 
arrival here on the 15th instant. 

The Papal flag (white) was rehoisted here under a salute of 100 guns 
on the 15th, and by order of General Oudinot a public thanksgiving was 
offered up for the restoration of the Papal authority. The troops and sailors 
from the different steamers were reviewed on the public square by Rear- Admiral 
Tr^houart ; there was not on the part of the people the sUghtest manifestation 
of joy on the occasion, the illumination only taking place in the public 

Rear- Admiral Tr^houart is still here with his flag in the ''Labrador," a 
large troop-steamer, with the steamers, &c., mentioned in the inclosed return. 

A troop-steamer arrived on the 17th with about 200 or 300 infantry, which 
I am given to understand arc convalescents from Bastia, 

The French Envoy, M. Courcelles, left on the 15th for Gaeta with the 
news of the restoration of the Papal power, and another large French steamer 
arrived yesterday with 300 or 400 troops, a few horses, and munitions of war. 

About 700 or 800 Lombard refugees are still in this city in the greatest 

I have visited Rome, tracing the French works up to their last parallels 
on the Monte Gianicolo, and also to witness what damage had been done 
to the city, and I was glad to find that except on the Monte above named 
and its immediate neighbourhood, it does not bear the slightest sign of having 
been besieged and attacked by a large army. 

A few shell, no doubt, fell in other parts of the town accidentally, and 
indeed I saw the marks, one in the Prussian Minister's house on the Capitol Hill, 
and another on the city side of Ponte Sisto, 

The Roman Government themselves have caused the destruction of a good 
deal of property, viz., immediately outside the Porta Cavallegieri, round the 
Castle of St. Angelo and the city side of the Porta St. Angelo, where a great 
many houses have been razed to give the guns in the Castle room to play. 

The Villa Borghese is totally destroyed, no doubt, with the view of pre- 
venting the French from getting protection from the batteries erected on the 
Monte Pincio. From the Porta del Popolo to the Porta Maggiore, the garden 
walls or any houses that might be near the wall of the city have been knocked 
down, which appeared an useless destruction, as the wall in this part is only 
one in name, and might have been carried at the point of the bayonet at any 

The Papal flag (white and yellow) was rehoisted on the 15th, and is still 
flying on the Capitol Quirinal, but the French flag predominates in Rome as far 
as numbers are concerned. 

Everything is exceedingly quiet and orderly ; the French troops, which to 
the number of 18,000 are in the city; conducting themselves in the most orderly 
manner ; they are quartered in the public buildings, entrance-halls of private 
palaces, even the ruins of the Colisseum are devoted to a large number of 

The remainder of the French army I am given to understand is quartered 
at Albano, &c. 

The chase of Garibaldi has been given up, and he is supposed to have 
taken refuge in the mountains. 

It would appear certain that the army intend remaining some time longer 
in the city, as they have advertised for contract tenders to supply the troops 
with provisions for the mouths of August and September. Mazzini escaped 
from this place on the 1 5th in a steamer. 

I had great difficulty in finding what was the outward feeling of the people 
at the thanksgiving offered up on the restoration of the Papal authoritv at Rome. 
On the 15th, 18,000 French troops were drawn up on the Piazza of St. Peter's, 
General Oudinot went in state to the '' Te Deum ;" and at least 30,000 people 

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assembled there ; St. Peter's was illuminated, and the whole city showed a most 
magnificent appearance, but it seems very doubtful if there was any feeling for 
Pio IX. The French General himself was very well received. 

There is a panic among the people about the {Republican paper-money. 
Silver is at 26 per cent, premium. The fear is that the new Government 
(when it comes) will dishonour it ; thousands will then be ruined ; many shpfs 
have already shut up rather than deal with it, and several intelligent people 
assured me that there was nothing more likely to cause a fre^h outbreak among 
the people than this act, should it be carried into effect. 

I have, &c. 
(Signed) G. WILLES. 

P. S. — 22nd July. Another large French troop steamer has just arrived 
and anchored in the outer roads. 

G. W. 

No. 104. 

The Marquis of Normanby to Viscount Palmerston. — {Received August 10.) 

(Extract.) Paris, August 9, 1849. 

I SAW M. de Tocqueville yesterday morning upon the subject of that 
portion of your Lordship's despatch of the 7th instant which related to the 
information received from Mr. Petre and Mr. Freeborn, as to the re-establish- 
ment of the tribunal of the Vicar-General. I entered into a detail of the odious 
nature of tbe functions of that officer, as stated in these rep(»rts, and as confirmed 
by my own recollections. 

No. 106. 
The Marquis of Normanby to Viscount Palmerston.— {Received August 13.) 

My Lord, Paris, August 12, 1849. 

THE only news of importance received from Rome is a telegraphic message 
announcing that the Pope had consented to proclaim the '^ Code Napoleon" as 
the established law of the land. 

This will be an important amelioration of a practical character upon a point 
where reform was most required. 

This must have been subsequent to those edicts issued by the Governmental 
Commission at Rome of a less satisfectory character which appear in the public 

I have, &c. 
(Signed) NORMANBY. 

No. 106. 
Mr. Freeborn to Viscoimt Palmerston. — (Received August 13.) 

(Extract) Rome, August 2, 1849. 

I HAVE the honour to transmit the '^Giomale di Roma'' of the 1st instant, 
by which your Lordship will see that the Commission, of three Cardinals have 
received the temporal power from the hands of General Oudinot: Cardinal 
Altieri^ Cardinal Vannicelli, who was Legate at Bologna, and Cardinal Delia 
Genga, who wa/» Legate at Pesaro. 

The Spaniards are receiving reinforcements of men and field-pieces. Gady 
baldi's is now in ihe vicinity of Pesaro. 

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Inclosure 1 in No. 106. 

Circular of General Oudinot to the Commissaries General of the Interior, Finances, 
Grace and Justice, and Public Works. 


SUA SANTITA, nello scopo di prov- 
vedere al riordinamento degli Stati 
Pontificj, si degnb nominare una Com- 
missione Govemativa, la (juale, munita 


SA SAINTETE, dans le but de 
pourvoir k la reorganisation des Etats 
Pontificaux, a daign6 nominer une 
Commission Grouvernementale, qui. 

di pieni-poteri, risieder^ in questa ca^- munie de pleins-pouvoirs, fera sa r^si- 
pitale. Essa h composta degli Eminen- denoe dans la capitale. Elle est com- 

tissimi signori Cardinali Gabriele della 
Genga-Sermattei, Luigi Vannicelli-Ca- 
soni, e Lodovico Altieri. Questa Com- 
missione, la quale h incaricata di for- 
mare un Ministero, 6 giunta in Roma. 

L'alta missione di cui k investita, 
mi permette di rimettere al Governo 
Pontificio i poteri che gli awenimenti 
della guerra avevano momentanea- 
mente concentrato nelle mie mani. Nel 
momento che cessano le mie relazioni 
di servizio con voi, io sento, o Signore, 
il bisogno d'attestarvi la mia riconos- 
cenza pel concorso attivo, ed al tempo 
stesso illuminato, che vi siete com- 
piaciuto di accordarmi nella direzione 
degli afFari. 

Le mie relazioni con voi mi lasceran- 
no, o Signore, preziose rimembranze, 
dacchfe voi in un posto difficile ed in 
gravi circostanze avete reso ogni pos- 
sibile servigio. 

Ricevete, &c. 

posee de leurs Excellences les Cardi- 
naux Grabriel della Genga-Sermattei, 
Louis Vannicelli-Casoni, et Ludovic 
Altieri. Cette Commission, qui est 
chargee de former un MinistSre, vient 
d'arriver a Rome. 

La haute mission dont elle est in- 
vestie me permet de remettre au Gou- 
vernement Pontifical des pouvoirs que 
les ^v^nemens de la guerre avaient 
momentandment concentre dans mes 
mains. Au moment oii vont cesser 
mes relations de service avec vous, 
Monsieur, j'^prouve le besoin de vous 
t^moigner ma reconnaissance pour le 
concours k la fois actif et ^clair^ que 
vous avez bien voulu m'accorder dans 
la direction des affaires. 

Mes relations avec vous, Monsieur, 
me laisseront de pr^cieux souvenirs, et 
vous avez rendu, dans un poste difficile, 
pendant de graves circonstances, tons 
les services qu'il dtait possible de 

Recevez, &c. 
Le G^ndral en chef, 


HIS Holiness, with the view of providing for the reorganization of the 
Pontifical States, has been pleased to name a Commission of Government, 
which, furnished with full-powers, will reside in the capital. It is composed 
of their Excellencies the Cardinals Gabriel della G«nga-Sermattei, Louis 
Vannicelli-Casoni, and Ludovic Altieri. This Commission, which is charged 
with the formation of a Government, has arrived in Rome. 

The important duty with which it is entrusted admits df niy resigning to 
the Pontifical Government the powers which the events of war had for a time 
concentrated in my hands. On the cessation of my official relations with you, 
I feel it necessary. Sir, to express to you my thanks for the co-operation, at 
once active and enlightened, which you have had the goodness to affi^rd me in 
the management of affairs. 

My rdations with you. Sir, will be precious in my remembrance, and you 
have rendered in a difficult post and under serious circumstaikces, all the servioeB 
wfaieh it was possible for you to afford. 

Receive, &e. 
The General in chief, 

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Inclosure 2 in No. 106. 
Notification of the Government Commission. 

La Cominissione Govemativa di Stato, in nome di Sua Santitk Pio Papa IX, 
felicemente regnante, a tutti I sudditi suo temporale dominio. 

LA Prowidenza Divina ha sottratto dal vortice tempestosissimo delle piii 
cieche e nere passioni, col braccio invitto e glorioso delle armi Cattoliche, i 
popoli di tutto lo Stato Pontificio, ed in modo speeiale quello della citt^ di 
Roma, sede e centro della religione nostra santissima. Quindi fedele il Santp 
Padre alia promessa annunciata col suo venerato Motu proprio dato da Graeta 
il 17 del prossimo passato mese, ci manda ora fra voi con pieni poteri onde 
riparare ne'migliori modi, e quanto piii presto sar^ possibile, ai gravi danni 
arrecati dall' anarchia e dal despotismo di pochi. 

Nostra prima cura sark quella che la religione e la morale siano rispettate 
da tutti come base e fondamento di ogni convivenza sociale ; che la giustizia 
abbia il suo pieno e regolare corso indistintamente per cmscimo ; e che Tammi- 
nistrazione della cosa pubblica riceva quell' assetto ed incremento, di cui v* ha 
tanto bisogno dope Tindegna manomessione fattane dai demagoghi senza senno 
e senza nome. 

A conseguire questi importantissimi risultati, ci gioveremo del consiglio di 
persone distinte per la loro intelligenza e pel loro zelo, non meno che per la 
comune fiducia che godono, e che tanto contribuisce al buon esito degli affari. 

Richiede poi il regolare ordine delle cose, che a capo de' rispettivi Ministm 
vi sieno uomini integri e versati nel ramo cui dovranno attendere con ogni 
alacrity ; egU ^ quindi che nomineremo quanto prima chi presieda agU affari 
Intemi e di Polizia, a quelli della Giustizia, alle finanze, alle armi, non che ai 
lavori pubblici e commercio; restando gli affari esteri presso TEminentissimo 
Cardinale Pro-Segretario di Stato, che, durante la sua assenza, avr^ in Roma un 
Sostituto per gli affari ordinaij. 

Rinasca cosi, siccome speriamo, la fiducia in ogni ceto ed ordine di persone, 
mentre il Santo Padre nel suo animo veramente benefico si occupa di prowedere 
con quei miglioramenti, e con quelle istituzioni che sieno compatibili colla sua 
dignity e potest^ altissima di Pontefice Sommo, colla natura di questo Stato, la 
di cui conservazione interessa tutto il mondo CattoUco, e co' bisogni reali de' suoi 
amatissimi sudditi. 

Roma, dalla nostra residenza del Palazzo Quirinale, il 1 Agosto, 1849. 



. THE Governing Commission of State, in the name of His Holiness Pope 
Pius IX, happily reigning, to all the subjects of his temporal dominions. 

Divine Providence, by the aid of the unconquered and glorious Catholic 
arms, has withdrawn the inhabitants of the whole Pontifical States from the 
stormy torrent of the blindest and darkest passions ; and more especially the 
people of the city of Rome, the seat and centre of our most holy reUgion. 
Wherefore the Holy Father, faithful to the promise announced by his revered 
motuproprio, dated at Gaeta on the 7th of last month, now sends us among you, 
with full-powers to repair in the best manner, and as speedily as possible, the 
serious ills which have been caused by anarchy and the despotism oi a few. 

It shall be our first care that religion and morals be respected by all as the 
basis and foimdation of every social State ; that justice shall have its full and 
regular course for all indiscriminately ; and that the Administration of the State 
may take the attitude and increase, which it wants so much after having been so 
unworthily debased by senseless and nameless demagogues. 

And in order to obtain these most important results we shall employ the 
advice of persons distinguished for their intelligence and zeal, as well as for the 
general confidence which they enjoy, and which contributes so greatly to the 
success of affairs. 

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The regular order of things requires that at the head of the respective 
Ministries men of integrity be placed^ versed in the branch of affairs to which 
they shall attend with all diligence ; it is therefore necessary that we nominate 
as soon as possible persons to preside over Internal Affairs and those of Police, 
those of Justice, the Finances, Arms, Public Works, and Commerce ; Foreign 
Affairs remaining under the direction of his Eminence the Cardinal Pro-Secretary 
of State, who shall have in Rome, during his absence, a substitute for ordinary 

Confidence, we hope, will thus revive in every condition and order of 
persons, whilst the Holy Father in his truly beneficent mind is occupied with 
providing such improvements and institutions as are compatible with his dignity 
and very high power as Supreme Pontiff, with the nature of this State, whose 
preservation is of interest to the whole Catholic world, and with the real wants 
of his most beloved subjects. 

Rome, from our residence in the Quirinal Palace, August 1, 1849. 



No. 107. 
Mr. Freeborn to Viscount Palmerston. — (Received August 12.) 

(Extract.) Rome, August 4, I8i9. 

I HAVE the honour to transmit herewith, notification from the Govern- 
ment Commission, dated the 2nd instant, relating to the ^' employes ;" 

Notification regulating the value of the Republican paper currency, reduced 
firom the nominal value of 100 to 65. 

The commercial establishments here suffered severely, but most of aU the 
French commerce. 

Inclosure 1 in No. 107. 
Notification of the Government Commission relating to Employtfs. 

A PROWEDERE per intanto al regolare corso della giustizia civile, 
criminale, ed amministrativa, non che al legitlimo esercizio degli impieghi che vi 
hanno relazione, si ordina como segue: 

1. Leleggie le disposizioni qualunque emanate dal 16 Novembre, 1848, 
sono nuUe c di niun effetto. 

2. La rinnovazione delle iscrizioni ipotecarie resta per6 sospesa, finchfe sia 
proweduto al tempo e modo di eseguirla. 

3. I tribunali Pontificii esistenti nella suddetta epoca sono ripristinati. 
Cessano gU altri che derivano dal potere illegittimo. 

4. Gr impiegati dimessi, per non avere aderito al Govemo intruso, tornano 
immediatamente ai loro officii. Cessano tutti gli altri che furono nominati dal 
16 Novembre, 1848, in poi ; e quelli i quali avessero aderito, o fossero stati 
promossi, rimangono e tornano respettivamente per ora al posto che prima 
oocupavano, quante volte non se ne fossero resi immeritevoU per altre positive 

5. VenA inoltre instituito un consiglio di censura per conoscere le qualitJi e 
la condotta degrimpiegati Civili in ogni ramo, onde proporre alia definitiva 
sanzione sovrano il personale attuale dei dicasteri di tutto lo Stato. 

' 6. Per Pandamento delle Amministrazioni comunali, i Presidi delle Province 
noxnineranno prowisoriamente delle apposite Commissioni, rimanendo disciolti 
gli attuali Municipj. 

7. La presente notificazione avrit il suo pieno effetto in tutto lo Stato, non 
ostante qualsivogUa disposizione emanata in contrario. 

Roma, dalla nostra residenza nel Palazzo Quuinale, li 2 Agosto, 1849. 



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IN order to provide for the present for the regular course of civil, criminal 
and administrative justice^ as well as the legitimate exercise of the functions 
relative thereto, it. is ordered as follows : 

1. All laws and regulations whatever issued from the 16th November, 
1848, are null and of none effect. 

2. The renewal of mortgage-deeds {iscrizioni ipotecarie) remains suspended 
until provision shall be made as to the time and manner of carrying it into 

3. The Pontifical tribunals which were in existence at that period are 
reinstated ; those which were instituted by the illegitimate power shall cease. 

4. All functionaries dismissed for non-adherence to the intrusive Govern, 
ment shall forthwith return to their offices. All others who have been nomi- 
nated from th^ 16th of Noverabw until now, shall retire, and those who may 
have adhered or have been promoted, shall remain in and rettim respectively 
from this time to the position which they held previously, wherever they have 
not rendered themselves unworthy by other positive causes. 

5. There shall also be instituted a Council of Investigation (Centra) in 
order to ascertain the qualifications and behaviom* of civil employes in every 
branch, in order to lay before the Sovereign for the pm-pose of definitive 
sanction, the statement of the persons employed in the offices throughout the 

6. For the purpose of carrying on the Provincial Administration, the Presi- 
dents of the provinces shall provisionally nominate Commissions respectively, 
the existing Town Councils being abolished. 

7. The present notification shall be in full force throughout the State, not- 
withstanding any provision whatever issued to the contrary. 

Rome, from our residence in the Quirinal Palace, August 2, 1849. 



Inclosure 2 in No. 107. 
Notification of the Government Commission relating to the Paper Currency. 

LA nullity delle leggi ed atti dei sedicenti Govemi Provvisorio e RepubbU* 
cano, porterebbe seco la nullitJl della carta monetata da essi posta in circolazione^ 
per aver mezzi di sostenersi nella loro usurpazione, e neUa pii sconsigliata e 
fatale resistenza. 

Commosso pero Tanimo del Santo Padre dal riflesso che I'assoluto aniralli^ 
mento pregiudicherebbe molti onesti cittadini, e porterebbe seco la rovina di una 
quantitk di famiglie, specialmente della classe piii iiadigente e de' negozianti ; p&c 
conciliare le viste di equitk con le circostanze nelle quali trovasi e si troveri^ 
TErario, riservandosi di prowedere altresi al bisogno del commercio con la 
circolazione di sufficiente specie monetaria, ha cmlinato di djsporre quanto 

1. Restano confermati, e conseguentemente ne continuerk il corso coattivo, 
tutti i boni del tesoro fino alia serie lettera O inclusivamente, dei quaJi Sua 
Santit^ aveva autorizzato Temissione, 

2. Vengono poi riconosciuti e garantiti tutti gU altri Boni successivamente 
emessi dai sedicenti Govemi Provvisorio e Repubblicano, per la tang^te del 
sessantacinque per cento de loro valor nominale. 

Ad evitare qualunque inconveniente nella calcolazione del valore riconosduto 
dei Boni e delle frazioni che ne derivano, si dichiara il valore dei medi^mod medi^ 
ante la sottoposta tariffa. 

3. II Govemo prowederk il piii presto possibile al ritiro dei boni ed alia 
loro riduzione e concambio con altri di forma regolare, e con le cautele 
necessarie ad ispirare la plena fiducia nel pubblico e nel commercio, o con la 

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sostituzione di valori metallici per quanto le circostanze lo permetteranno senza 
fgc3m sagrifizii. 

4. Le carte monetate emesse da province o comuni, potranno continuare 
il loro corso nei rispettivi luoghi sotto le relative garanzie e senza responsabilitil 
del Govemo ; il quale vi porter^ la sua sorveglianza per quanto solo riguarda la 
pubblica indennit^. 

Tariffa mdicante U valore nominale e quello riconosciuto de^ Boni contemplati 
neir Art 2 della presents Notificazione. 



Sc. 100 




















Sc. 65 















15 5 

10 5 

06 5 

Roma, della nostra residenza del Quirinale, il 3 Agosto, 1849. 




THE annulment of the laws and acts of the self-styled Provisional and 
Republican Government would carry with it the annulment of the pc^r- 
currency, which they have circulated with the object of procuring means to 
maintain themselves in their usurpation and their most unadvised and &tal 

But the heart of the Holy Father being moved by the consideration that 
the absolute annulment might be injurious to many honest citizens, and might 
cause the ruin of a number of families, especially those of the poorer and trading 
classes, in order to reconcile the views of equity with the circumstances in which 
the treasury is and will be placed, reserving to himself also to provide when 
required for the necessities of trade by the circulation of a sufficient amount of 
specie, has commanded the following arrangements to be made: 

1. All the Treasury bonds up to letter O inclusive, the issue of which has 
been authorized by His Holiness, are confirmed, and consequently the circidatioa 
of the same shall continue to be obligatory. 

2. All the other bonds successively issued by the self-styled Provisional 
and Republican Government are also recognised and guaranteed for the amount 
of 65 per cent, of their nominal value. 

In order to prevent inconvenience in calculating the recognised value of the 
bonds and of the parts of the same, the amount is declared in the following tariff. — 

3. ITie Government will provide as early as possible for the withdrawal of 
the Bonds, and the reduction and exchange of the same for others of a regular 
form, and with the precautions necessary to inspire full confidence in the public 
and in commerce, or by substituting specie, so far ££ circumstances shall permit 
without making serious sacrifices. 

4. Paper-money issued by the provinces or districta may continue to 
circulate in the respective places under their relative guarantees, and without 
responsibility on the part of the Government, who shall superintend solely in so 
far as regards the public security. 


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Tariff showing the nominal and recognised values of the Bonds mentioned in 

Art. 2 of this Notification. 



Sc 100 




















Sc 65 00 

32 60 

13 00 

6 50 

S 25 











Rome^ from our residence of the Quirinal, August 3, 1849. 



No. 108. 
Mr. Freeborn to Viscount Palmerston. — {Received August 12.) 

My Lord Rome, August 4, 1849. 

I HAVE the honour to acknowledge receipt of your Lordship's despatch 
dated 23rd ultimo, conveying your Lordship's disapproval at my having 
granted 500 passports to foreign refugees, which disapproval I deeply regret. 
I will not dwell on the very painful situation I was placed in at the time, assailed 
as I was by all parties, who openly stated that these refugees were in imminent 
peril, a fear that was natural they should entertain, when they saw the French 
troops enter en m^isse, not preceded by any condition or even promise to respect 
the fives of those who had defended the city. Some provocation had been given 
to the French troops by the people ; happilv the forbearance and discipline of 
the troops prevented a collision, but the sullen demeanour of the people might 
have produced it, and then what would have become of the said refugees ? In 
the midst of the confusion and dismay by the occupation of the city, I certainly 
omitted to take a declaration from the applicants that they considered their 
being in danger. I must therefore beg of your Lordship to rely on the veracity 
of my assertion that such were their verbal declarations, and I at the time con- 
sidered them in imminent peril. I take the liberty of stating that I have declined 
receiving any fee of oflSce on the passports above alluded to, and I afforded pecu- 
niary aid to several distressed refiigees from a charitable fund made up by me 
and by some of my personal friends. 

I have only to add that I was not singular in giving my aid to the refngees 
to leave Rome; the other Consuls, moved by a sense of humanity, did the same, 
inasmuch that 3000 passports were granted by the American, Swiss, Bavarian, 
and Sardinian Consuls. As to the 500 going to England I can take upon 
myself to give a decided opinion that not more than one-tenth will actually go 
there, and of those who do go, by far the greatest number are young men belonging 
to the most respectable &milies in Italy, having ample means of subsistence. 

I have &c 
(Signed) ' JOHN FREEBORN. 

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No. 109. 

Sir George HamUtan to Viscount Palmerston. — {Received August 15.) 

My Lord, Florence, August 7, 1849. 

I HAVE the honour to inform your Lordship that Garibaldi has escaped, 
with his wife, and has embarked at Cesenatico, near Rimini. Several boats fall 
of his troops have been taken, the rest have been dispersed. 

I have, &c. 

PS. — An official report appears in the ''Tuscan Gazette" this morning, 
which states that Garibaldi having been pursued by Austrian vessels, had been 
forced to re-land at Vaiano. 

No. 110. 

The Secretary to the Admiralty to Mr. Addington. 

Sir, Admiralty, August 20, 1849. 

I AM commanded by my Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty to send 
you herewith, for the information of Viscount Palmerston, a copy of a letter 
from Vice- Admiral Sir William Parker dated the 7th instant, containing the 
latest intelligence from Rome. 

I am, &c. 
(Signed) W. A. B. HAMILTON. 

Inclosure 1 in No. 1 10. 
Vice-Admiral Sir W. Parker to the Secretary to the Admiralty. 

(Extract.) " Caledonia,'' Malta, August 7, 1849, 

I INCLOSE a letter from Lieutenant Willes, of the '' Spitfire,'' by which 
it appears that tranquillity has been restored at Rome, and that the Pope has 
empowered a Commission of three Cardinals to reestabhsh his temporal authority. 

Inclosure 2 in No- 1 1 0. 
Lieutenant Willes to Vice-Admiral Sir W. Parker. 

Sir, " Spitfire,'' Civita Vecchia, August 2, 1849. 

1 HAVE the honour to report to you that since the 22nd ultimo the 
French force has been increased only by the arrival of one troop-steamer, con- 
veying about 200 infantry, a few horses, shot, shell, guns, and other munitions 
of war ; the former have all marched towards Rome, the latter are being stored 
in the fleet here. The ** Cacique" steam-frigate left for Toulon yestercfity, con- 
veying a few troops, apparently invalids. 

Uome remains perfectly tranquil ; the Pope has appointed a Commission 
composed of the three Cardinals Altieri, Vannicelli, and Delia Genga, who are 
empowered to form a Ministry and restore his temporal authority. 

Their first care should be an arrangement with regard to the paper-money 
issued by the Republican Government, which appears the most difficult and 
dangerous subject to arrange ; the panic about it, since the faHl of Rome, has 
done an immense deal of harm to trade in general. 

The Papal arms were to be replaced on the Capitol yesterday by General 

I have, &c. 
(Signed) G. WILLES. 

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No. UL 
Mr^ Hreebom t^ Vieeouni PtUmmston. — {ReeeiMd Autgiast 3i.) 

(Extract.) Rouney August 18^ 1S49l 

I HAVE the honour to transmit liereviidi an order iiom the P)*o-Minister 
of finance to all parsons holding property belonging to the lioljr InqoisU 
tion, to restore it^ and to recognize the '^ ConunissaiaD Gencsalfi" of Uiat 
institution as its agent. 

Monfiignor SavelU^ & priest, has been nominated Minister of the *' Intemo " 
and chief of the police ; the French authorities refiise to permit his acting in 
the second capacity, except in cases not pohtical> and the Monsignere insists on 
acting in both, the consequence of which is, l^at there is no authority to regulate 
the aSairs in t he provinces ; but it is hoped that the poUce may remaia in the 
hands of the French, who have liberated a number of persons illegally arrested 
by the Roman police. 

Inclosure in No. IIL 

Notification respecting the Property of the Inquisition. 

Mimstero delle J^nimae; 
Roma, U 14 Agesto, 1849. 

IN seguito della domanda avanzata per parte del Reverendissimo Padre 
Commissario Generale, e del Signer Avvocato Fiscale del St. Offizio in assenza 
di quell' lUustrissimo e Reverendissimo Monsignor Assessore, si h ordinato da 
questo Ministero, che tutti 1 beni spettanti alia Pia Casa di detto St. OflSzio 
posti nello Stato Pontificio, dei quali erasi appreso il possesso dal Ministero delle 
Finanze per decreto dell' abolito Govemo dei 2 Marzo decorso, vengano restituiti 
alia ripetuta Pia Casa, e tornino immediatamente sotto I'amministrazione de' 
suoi rappresentanti legittimi. 

Con questo pubblico awiso viene revocata qualunque diflSdazione emanta, 
e ciascuno riconoscer^ in assenza del sullodato Monsignor Assessore i sunnomi- 
nati Reverendissimo Padre Commissario Generale ed Awocato Fiscale del 
St. Oflizio per tutti gU eflfetti di ragione. 

n Pro-]VCnistro, 
(Firmato) ANGELO GALLI. 


Department of Finance^ 
Rome, August 14, 1849. 

IN consequence of the demand made by the Commissary-General and the 
Advocate-Fiscal of the Holy Inquisition in the absence of its administcator 
(Assessore), it is ordered by this Department, that all property belonging to the 
Holy Inquisition in the Pontifical States, and which the Minister of Finance of 
the late Government, by Decree of the 2nd March had taken possession of , is to 
be immediately restored, and placed under the administration of its legitiiiiato 

By this public notice all citations or writs are revoked, and the authority, 
of the above-mentioned Commissary-General and Fiscal is solely to be ackaow- 
ledged as legal during the absence of the administrator (Afisessore). 

The Pro-Minister, 
(Signed) ANGELOi GM.LL 

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No. 112. 

T%e Secretary to the Admiralty to Mr. Addington. 

Sir, Admiralty, September 1, 1849. 

I AM oommaiided by my Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty, to send 
you herewith for the information of Viscount Palmerston, a copy of a letter 
addressed by Commander A. C. Key, of Her Majesty's steam-sloop '^ Bulldog/' 
to Vice- Admiral Sir William Parker, dated the 22nd of last month, relative to 
the state of affieors at Rome. 

I am, &c» 
(Signed) W. A. B. HAMILTON. 

Inclosure in No. 112. 
Commander Key to Vice-Admiral Sir W. Parker. 

(Extract.) ^'Bulldog'' Civita Vecchia, August 22, 1849. 

THE proceedings of the Frwch in Rome since my arrival at Civita Vecchia 
offer but little of interest. 

General Oudinot has been recalled from the command of the army, which 
on his departure will devolve on General Rostolan, the next in seniority. It is 
General Oudinot's intention to proceed to Naples before his return to Paris^ and 
it is said that he leaves Rome to-day. 

Ttke Triumvirate of Cardinals who now execute the temporal functions of 
the Pope, have shown so decided a tendency to return even to the system of 
Government which existed before the present Pope's election, that the Roman 
people are beginning to look on the French as their only hope, and their 
intercourse with them is gradually becoming more cordial. 

The most obnoxious acts of the Ecclesiastical Triumvirate are, the decree 
reducing the value of the paper money, and the re-establishment on the ancient 
basis of the Inquisition and Vicar's Tribimal, which though nominally only for 
breaches of ecclesiastical law, are used to punish political offenders; and an order 
lately issued, to restore all property which formerly belonged to their establidi*- 
ments will render them as powerfiil as before. In fact the little that has been 
done since the return of the Papal authority does not show a symptom of a 
return to a Constitutional form of Government, or a relaxation of the old 
Gregorian ecclesiastical system. 

I am informed that the detestation of the Cardinals and priests and a dread 
of their return to power is openly expressed by the Roman people of all classes ; 
but they do not show any dislike to the restoration of the Pope's temporal 
authority, if unaccompanied by them, and of this His Holiness is kept in 

No. 113- 
The Hon. W. Temple to Viscount Palmerston. — {Received September 4.) 

(Extract.) Naples, August 23, 1849. 

IT is now stated as positive that the King and Queen of IN'aples will leave 
Gaeta for this capital about the 8th September, and that the Pope will also 
accompany them, but fix his residence at Portici for some time, after which he 
may visit Benevento ; but all this is imcertain. No time is mentioned for the 
return of His Holiness to Rome. 

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No. 114. 
Mr. Freeborn to Viscount Palmerston. — {Received September 4.) 

(Extract.) Rome, August 26, 1849. 

I HAVE the honour to transmit herewith proclamation from General 
Oudinot, dated 23rd August, announcing his recall ; Proclamation from his 
successor, General Rostolan. 

The tribunals of the Inquisition and of the Vicar-General are restored and 
acting; and an extraordinary Commission,as per notification herewith transmitted, 
has been appointed to proceed against all oflTenders, even those whose prosecu- 
tions were suspended by Pius IX. 

Inclosure 1 in No. 114. 
Proclamation of General Oudinot. 


1. L'ORDINE e la tranquilUt^ non 
sono stati turbati un solo istante dal 
giomo che la vostra citt^ fu occupata 
dall' armata Francese. 

2. n Governo Temporale del Sommo 
Pontefice vi 6 stato ristabilito coll' ap- 
plause universale. 

3. Giusti ammiratori della disciplina 
de' nostri soldati, voi date loro in ogni 
circostanza, le prove di un affezione la 
di cui origine k del pari onorevole per 
essi e per voi. 

4. L'accordo il piu perfetto regna fra 
i militari d'ogni grado e la popolazione 
ck)si in Roma come negli accantonar- 

6. I nostri voti e le nostre speranze 
attendevano tali risultati. 

6. Col preservarvi dalle reazioni po- 
Utiche noi abbiamo nel tempo stesso 
oorrisposto al nostro dovere ed ai nostri 

7. Le vostre simpatie sono una ri- 
cotnpensa di cui conosciamo tutti il 
valore, e ch'io stijno singolarmente. 

8. Sento nel cuore il bisogno di rin- 
novarvene I'assicurazione nel momento 
che la mia missione negli Stati Pontificj 
sta per cessare. 

9. Rientrerd in Francia, vi conser- 
ver6 sempre la memoria degli evident! 
attestati di fiducia e di stima che mi 
avete dato. 

10. Nessuno pud sapere quel che gU 
6 riseryato nelV awenire : ma conosco 
che i miei sentimenti per voi sono inal- 

,11. RingraziolaProwidenzadiaver- 
mi data una momentanea influenza so* 
vra i vostii destini. 

12. lo benedirb nuovamente il Cielo 
se pria che finisca la mia vita mi sar^ 
permesso ancora di contribuire alia pros- 

Habitans de Rome, 

L'ORDRE et la tranquillity n'ont 
pas, vous le.savez, ^t^ trouble un in- 
stant depuis que votre ville est occup^e 
pas Tarmfe Francjaise. 

Le Gouvemenient Temporel du Sou- 
verain Pontife y a ^te r^tabh aux acda- 
mations gdn^rales. 

Justes appr^ciateurs de la discipline 
de nos soldats, vous leur donnez en 
toute occasion, des preuves d'un at- 
tachement dont la source est ^galement 
honorable pour eux et pour vous. 

L'accord le plus parfait r^gne k Bonie 
ainsi que dans les cantonnemensi entre 
les militaires de divers grades et les 

Ces r&ultat^ sont conformes k nos 
voeux et k nos esp^rances. 

En vous pr&ervant des reactions po- 
litiques, nous avons ob^i k nos devoirs 
aussi bien qu'k nos sentimens. 

Vos sympathies sont une recompense 
dont nous comprenons toute la valeur 
et que j'appr^cie particuliferement. 

J'dprouve le besoin de vous en rfit^- 
rer Tassurance au moment mis- 
sion dans les Etats Pontificaux touche 
k sa fin. 

Je vais rentrer en France. J'y con- 
serverai toujours le souvenir des Pla- 
tans t^moignages de confiance et d'es- 
time que vous m'avez donnas. 

Nul ne peut pr^voir ce que Tavenir 
lui reserve : mais je sais que mes senti- 
mens pour vous sont inaltdrables. 

D6jk j'ai remerci^ la Providence de 
m'avoir donn^ une influence momen- 
tan^ sur vos destinies. 

Je b^nirai le Ciel de nouveau si avant 
la fin de ma vie, il me permet de con- 
tribuer encore k la prosp^rit^ et & la 

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perita e grandezza di un paese che ha grandeur d'un pays qui a les plus puis- 
titoli potentissimi alia mia divozione ed sans droits k mon d^vouement et ^ ma 
alia mia riconoscenza. reconnaissance. 

Roma, 23 Agosto, 1849. Rome, le 23 AoAt, 1849. 

II Generale in Capo, 

Inhabitants of Rome, 

ORDER and tranquillity have not as you know been for a moment inter- 
rupted since the occupation of your city by a French army. 

The temporal Government of the Sovereign Pontiff has been reestablished 
amidst general acclamation. 

Duly appreciating the discipline of our soldiers, you afford them on all occa- 
sions proofs of attachment, the source of which is equally honourable to them 
and to yourselves. 

The most perfect concord prevails in Rome as well as in our cantonments, 
between the soldiery of different ranks and the people. 

These results are in conformity with our wishes and our expectations. 

In preserving you from political reactions we have complied with our duty 
and also with our sentiments. 

Your sympathies are a recompence of which we understand the full value, 
and which I especially appreciate. 

At the time when my employment in the Pontifical States is drawing to a 
dose I feel it necessary to repeat to you this assurance. 

I am about to return to France. There I will always retain the recollec- 
tion of the striking proofe of confidence and esteem which you have bestowed 
upon me. 

No one can foresee what the future has in store for him, but I know that 
my sentiments towards you are unchangeable. 

I thank Providence for having granted me a momentary influence over your 

I shall again bless Heaven, if, before the end of my life, it allows me stiU 
further to contribute to the prosperity and the grandeur of a country which has 
the strongest claims on my devotion and on my gratitude. 

Rome, August 23, 1849. 

The General in chief, 

Inclosure 2 in No. 114. 
Proclamation of General Rostolan. 

Romani I Habitans de Rome I 

1. DUE mesi indietro la vostra cittk IL y a deux mois votre cit6 lan- 
languiva sotto la duplice oppressione guissait sous la double oppression de la 
del terrore e dell 'anarchia. terreur et de Panarchie. 

2. Le truppe Francesi sono entrate in Les troupes Fran^aises sont entr^s 
Roma. Esse non hanno veduto in voi dans Rome. Elles n'ont vu en vous 
che amici : I'ordine e la tranquillity que des amis : Pordre et la tranquillity 
sono stati ristabiliti, e bentosto la ban- ont ^t6 r^tablis, et bientot le drapeau 
diera del Sommo Pontifice ha svento- du Souverain Pontife a flotte sur les 
lato suUe mura della Capitale salutata murs de la Capitale, salu^ par vos 
da voi con entusiasmo come pegno di cris d'enthousiasme comme gage d'un 
migliore awenire. meilleur avenir. 

3. Da quel tempo Tarmata non ha Depuis ce temps, Tarm^ n'a cess6 
cessato di dare Tesempio della modera- de donner Texemple de la moderation, 
zione, della giustizia, della generosity, de la justice, de la g^n^rosit^. 

4. Questa condotta de' nostri soldati Cette conduite de nos soldats sera 
sar^ per voi Pespressione la meno dub- pour vous Texpression la moins ^quivo- 
biosa del sentimenti e della simpatia que des sentimens et des sympathies 


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della Francia per il Sommo Pontefice e de la France pour le Souverain Pontife 

per la popolazione degli Stati Romani. et pour le peuple des Etats Romains. 

5. Chiamato oggialcomandoincapo Appel^ anjoard^hai au commande- 
deir armata, io mi faccio una gloria di ment en chef de rarmfe, je me glorifie 
continuare la nobile impresa da lei cosi d'avoir h continuer la noble tkche si bien 
bene cominciata. commenc^e par elle. 

6. Nell' esercizio delle mie funzioni di Pendant la dur^e de mes fonctions 
Govematore di Roma io ho potuto comme Gouverneur de Rome, j'ai pu 
apprezzare Tamore che nutrite per il appr^cier I'amour que vous portez k 
vostro Sovrano, ed il rispetto che avete votre Souverain, le respect que vous avez 
per le sue virti. Io ho potuto conos- pour ses vertus. J'ai pu connail^e vos 
cere le vostre speranze. I miei sforzi d^sirs, vos esperances. Mes efforts ten- 
saranno incessantemente diretti a rea^ dront sans cesse h, la realisation de vos 
lizzare i vostri voti. II mio piii bel voeux. Mon plus beau titre de gloire 
titolo di gloria sar^ quello di essere sera d'avoir 6t6 choisi pour poursuivre 
state presoelto a continuare I'opera Toeuvre de bienveillance que le Gou- 
benevola, che il Govemo Francese ha vernement Fran^ais a entreprise pour 
intrapresa per la felicity e prosperity votre bonheur et votre prosperity, 

Roma, 24 Agosto, 1849. Rome, le 24 Aoiit, 1849. 

II Generale in Capo, 

(Firmato) ROSTOLAN. 

Inhabitants of Rome, 

TWO months ago your city was languishing under the twofold opprei^ion of 
tefror and of anarchy. 

The French troops entered Rome. They saw in you only friends ; order 
and tranquillity were restored, and presently the standard of the Sovereign 
Pontiff waved over the walls of the capital, saluted by your enthusiastic cries as 
the pledge of a better futurity. 

Since that time the army has not ceased to offer an example of moderation, 
of justice, and of generosity. 

This conduct of our soldiers will manifest to you, in the least equivocal 
manner, the sentiments and the s)ntnpathies of France for the Sovereign Pontiff 
and for the people of the Roman States. 

Called at the present time to the chief command of the army, I exult in 
haying to carry on the noble work which it has so well commenced. 

Curing the continuance of my functions as Governor of Rome I have been 
able to appreciate the love which you bear to your Sovereign, the respect which 
you entertain for his virtues. I have been able to know your hopes. 

It will always be the object of my efforts to realize your wishes. My fair- 
est claim to glory will be that I have been chosen to carry out the work of 
benevolence which the French Government has undertaken for your happiness 
and your prosperity. 

Rome, August 24, 1849. 

The General in chief, 
(Signed) EOSTOLAN. 

Inclosure 3 in No. 114. 

Notification of the Government Commission respecting proceedings against of enders. 

LE enormitJt dei delitti ed attentati commessi principalmente contro la 
nostra santa religione ed i suoi ministri, contro la maest^ del Sovrano, e contro 
la pubbUca e privata sicurezza, in paaticolare durante I'epdca luttuosa della 
ribellione e della sowersione di ogni ordine pubblico negli Stati della Chiesa, e 
maggiormente in questa capitale, reclama altamente tutta Tattenzione del 
Govemo. Continue e fondate sono le querele che da ogni parte si sollevano; 
perch^ tuttora impuniti rimaiigono cotali misfatti, mentre in molti casi anche 
gravissimi o non si h affatto proceduto da verun tribunale, o non si k pertato 

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ixiai a tennine il gindizio. Infiniti sono stati i danni che ne sono derivati^ e 
tuttavia ne derivano all' ordine pubblico, alia morale^ ed agrinteressi de' privati, 
n^ senza una manifesta violazione di giustizia si potrebbe lasciar pii!l a lungo di 
ripararti. A quest' effetto la Commissione govemativa xii Stato ordina quwto 

E instituita una Commissione per la direzione de' process! da iniziarsi o da 
proseguirsi a carico degli autori e de' complici de' delitti ed attentati suddetti, 
composta d'imparziali e sperimentati giureconsulti. Questa Commissione 
prevalendosi dell' opera di abiU processanti &r^ riassumere e oompire spedita^ 
mente i processi giacenti od incompleti, ed iniziare con pari soUecitudine quei 
che non furono ancora introdotti. 

II Ministro dell Intemo e di Polizia unitamente a quelle di Grazia e 
Giustizia sopraintenderanno per la parte cfae riguarda il rispettivo loro officio 
alia esatta esecuzione di quanto viene superiormente prescritto. 

Roma, data dalla nostra residenza del Quirinale a di 23 Agosto, 1849. 




THE enormous crimes and offences committed chiefly against our holy 
religion and its ministers, against the majesty of the Sovereign, and against 
private and public safety, especially during the mournful period of the rebellion 
and of the subversion of all public order in the States of the Church, and, above 
all, in this capital, loudly call for all the attention of the Government. Con- 
stant and well-founded complaints arise on all sides, because these misdeeds 
remain unpunished ; while in many cases, and those most serious, «ther they 
have not been prosecuted before any court, or the trial has not been carried to a 
termination. This has given rise and still gives rise to very serious injury to 
public order and to morality, and to the interests of individuals, and it is not 
possible to delay the remedy any longer without a manifest violation of justice. 
With this object the Governing Commission of State orders as follows : 

A Commission is instituted for the management of the trials which are to be 
begun or continued against persons guilty of the above crimes and offences and 
their accomplices, to be composed of impartial and experienced lawyers. This 
Commission, availing itself of the aid of skilful practitioners, shall cause pending 
and incomplete suits to be resumed and speedily completed, and with like 
diligence shall initiate such as are not yet commenced. 

The Minister of the Interior and of Police, together with the Minister of 
Grace and Justice, shall, in the part which appertains to their office respectively, 
see to the exact execution of what is above directed. 

Rome, given at our residence in the Quirinal, August 23, 1849. 



No. 115. 
The Hun. W. Temple to Viscount Palmerston — {Received September 12.) 

My Lord, Naples^ September 3, 184^. 

GENERAL OUDINOT, who has been staying for a few days at Naples, 
embarked this morning on board the French steamer of war "Labrador," which 
will convey him to JMarseilles on bis way to Paris. 

The General, on leaving Home, had proceeded to Gaeta for the purpoae of 
urging the Pope to return to Rome and take upon himself the Government of 
the Papal States, instead of entrusting it to a Commission. 

The General haw^ver failed in persuading His Holiness to adopt this 
coarse. He then came on to Naples where a steamer was w^tiog tox him to 
take him back to France. 

P 2 

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The Pope and Their Sidlian Majesties are expected to leave • Gaeta to- 
morrow morning at 8 o'clock, and will proceed to Porticii where the Pope will 
take up his residence for the present in the royal palace which has been prepared 
for the reception of himself and suite. Their Majesties will take up their resi- 
dence at Naples, and will be present to assist at the ceremony of the " Piedi- 
grotta," which takes place annually on the 8th of September, and for which 
preparations are now making. I havei &c. 

(Signed) W. TEMPLE. 

No. 116. 
The Secretary to the Admiralty to Mr. Addington. 

Sir, . Admiralty, September 13, 1849. 

I AM commanded by my Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty to send 
you herewith, for the information of Viscount Palmerston, a copy of a letter 
from Commander Key, of Her Majesty's steam-vessel '* Bulldog," dated the 1st 
instant, relating to the state of affairs in the Roman States. 

I am, &c. 
(Signed) W. A. fl. HAMILTON. 

Inclosure in No. 116. 
Commander Key to Vice-Admiral Sir W. Parker. 

(Extract.) Rome, September 1, 1849. 

SINCE the transfer of the command of the French troops to General 
Rostolan, more cordiality is visible in the intercourse between his soldiers and 
the Romans. This is attributed in a great measure to a letter addressed by the 
President of the French Republic to M. Ney, the Envoy of France at Graeta. 
This letter, at the request of the Cardinals, has not been published, but its 
contents are generally known. It is interesting, being the first document 
which has emanated from the French Government in which their intentions 
regarding the Papal States are intelligibly expressed. The General-in- chief has 
likewise personally gained the confidence of the Roman people, by assuming 
a higher tone in his commimications with the Papal Government, and by having 
when inspecting the prisons, insisted on the release of several persons who were 
in confinement for slight political offences. He has stated in a late proclamation^ 
that he is making arrangements for a *^ more complete occupation*' of Rome 
than was first contemplated, and it does not appear that the withdrawal of any 
part of the army will take place. 

The Spaniards are retiring towards the Neapolitan frontier. A detachment 
of 4000 men have been until lately quartered at and in the neighboiu*hood of 
Rieti, and others at the principal towns between that place and Velletri. It is 
said that they now intend to estabhsh their head-quarters at Frosinone. 

No. 117. 
7%e Hon. W. Temple to Viscount Palmerston. — {Received September 20.) 

My Lord, Naples, September 8, 1849. 

HIS Holiness the Pope left Gaeta on the morning of the 4th instant, 
accompanied by His Majesty the King of Naples, on board the steamer 
*' Tancredi," and arrived at Portici at about 2 o'clock of the same afternoon. 

Her Majesty the Queen followed in another steamer with the royal children, 
but proceeded directly to the Royal Palace at Naples, where the King joined 
her after having conducted the Pope to Portici. 

The sailing-vessels of the Spanish squadron had left Gaeta previously 
and were anchored near Portici to salute the Pope on his arrival. 

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The Spanish steamers, together with the French steamer ^^Vauban," left 
Gaeta at the same time with the '' Tancredi/' and attended on the Pope during 
the passage. 

The Papal flag was hoisted on the steamer which carried His Holiness, and 
on passing the ships of war and the forts was saluted by them. Her Majesty's 
ship *' Prince Regent" being the first that was passed, began the salute, and the 
Pope and the King expressed themselves gratified with the attention. 

On the 6th instant the Pope came to Naples, and performed mass at the 
cathedral, after which he gave his benediction to the people assembled in fix)nt 
of the church. 

On the 7th instant the Pope received at Portici the members of the Diplo- 
matic Corps accredited to the Court of Rome, and afterwards those accredited to 
this Court who had expressed their desire to pay their compliments to him on 
his arrival in the vicinity of Naples. 

His Holiness appeared much pleased with the attention, and expressed his 
satisfaction at the beauty and comfort of the residence which had been provided 
for him by His Sicilian Majesty. 

His Holiness, before leaving Gaeta, conferred upon Her Majesty the Queen 
the gift of the Golden Rose, which was presented to Her by Monsignor Stella,, 
appointed for that purpose, in the private oratory of the Royal residence at 

I have, &c. 
(Signed) W. TEMPLE. 

No. 118. 
The Hon. W. Temple to Viscount Palmerston. — {Received {September 26.) 

(Extract.) Naples, September 17, 1849. 

THE Pope came into Naples yesterday morning, and after performing 
mass in the Chapel Royal, appeared at 12 o'clock on the balcony of the Palace, 
attended by some of the Cardinals and other ecclesiastics, when he gave his 
benediction to the people assembled in the large area in front of the Palace. 
After the ceremony was over. Their Sicilian Majesties appeared also, and as well 
as His Holiness were cheered by a number of persons in front of the Palace. No 
soldiers were present on the occasion, and order was preserved by the police. 

Previous to the ceremony a pistol went off accidentally, but without doing 
mischief. The person upon whom it was found was immediately conveyed to 
prison, as was also another individual upon whom a hand grenade was found. 
It is difficult to understand the object which these persons had in carrying 
these offensive weapons, as from the position of the parties and their distance 
from the balcony, no injury could have been inflicted on His Holiness or the 
Royal party. 

No conftision occurred, and after the ceremony was over the multitude 
retired in the most orderly manner. 

No. 119. 
Mr. Freeborn to Viscount Palmerston. — {Received October 1 .) 

(Extract.) Rome, September 20, 1849. 

I HAVE the honour to transmit herewith translation of a proclamation 
issued by Pius IX, dated 12th September, 1849, in which His Holiness conunu- 
nicates to his subjects his intentions towards them, and the notification from the 
Cardinals representing His Holiness. 

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Indosure 1 in No. 119. 
Notification of the Chvemment Commission. 

LASantit^di nostro Signoire mos^ all'aspetto delle circonstanze da cm 
rimane attenuata in parecohi de' suoi amatissimi sudditi la reitk da essi contratta 
B»l paartecipare alle turboknze politiche^ le qnali tanto afflissero di Tecente gli 
Stati Pontifig, e desidaK>sa di mostrare sempre piu la benignity dell' antmo euo 
veraraente paterao, usando del suo pieno potere a beneficio di tanti traviati, 
forse piu sedotti che seduttori, ci ha ordinate di render noto nell' Angusto suo 
nome quanto si ^ d^nata disporre in analogia air Articolo 6 del sovrano suo 
motu-proprio date da Napoli il 12 del corrente. 

In essecuzione pertanto dei venerati comandi della Santit^ Sua ci rendirano 
soUeciti di pubblicare, a t^mini della espressaci mente sovrana, le seguenti 

A coloro che presero parte alia teste cessata rivoluzione negli Stati Pontificii 
d concesso per degnazione sovrana, il perdono in quanto alia pena che sarebbe 
loro dovuta in consegnenza dei delitti politici di cui si sono resi responsabili. 

Da questa grazia sono eschisi 

I Membri del Govemo Prowisorio : 

I Membri dell' Assemblea Costituente che hanno preso parte alle delibera- 
zioni dell' Assemblea stessa : 

I Membri del Triumvirato e del Govemo della Repubblica : 

I Capi de' Corpi Militari : 

Tutti quelli che avendo goduto del beneficio dell' amnistia altra volta accor- 
data da Sua Santita, mancando alia data parola di onore hanno partecipato alii 
passati sconvolgiraenti negli Stati della Santa Sede : 

Coloro i quali oltre i delitti politici si resero responsabili di deUtti comuni 
contemplati dalle vigenti leggi penali. 

Col presente perdono non s'intende assicurare la permanenza negl' impieghi 
govemativi, provinciali e municipali, a tutti quelli che per la loro condotta nelle 
trascorse vicende se ne fossero resi immeritevoli. Questa riserva h appUcabile 
ai miUtari ed impi^ati d'ogni amia. 

Dalla nostra residenza al Quirinale, questo di 18 Settembre, 1849. 




HIS Holiness our Lord being moved by a consideration of the circumstances 
which in the case of many of his beloved subjects palUate the wickedness of their 
participation in the political dirturbances which have recently -so deeply afflicted 
the Pontifical States, and always more and more anxious to display the benignity 
of his truly paternal heart, employing his full-power for the good of so many 
erring persons, perhaps rather misled than misleading, has commanded us to 
make known in his august name, what he has vouchsafed to determine in reference 
to Article 6 of his sovereign motuproprio dated at Naples the 12th instant. 

In pursuance, therefore, of the venerated commands of His Holiness, we 
hasten to publish^ as declared to us in his sovereign .resolutions, ihe following 
regulations : — 

The beneficence of the Sovereign grants pardon to those who took part in 
the revolution of the Pontifical States, now ceased, so far as relates to the 
punishments which would be due to them in consequence of the political offences 
for which they have become responsible. 

tFromthis pardon the following persons are excluded : — 

The members of the Provisional Government ; 

The members cf the Constituent Assembly who have taken part in the 
ddiberations of the said Assembly ; 

The members of the Triumvirate and of the Government of the Republic; 

The heads of the military bodies ; 

All those who, having enjoyed the benefit of the anmesty formerly granted 
by His Holiness, violatittg-ihttir ^racd ^ boAour given, haive shared in the late 
disturbances in the Holy See ; 

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Those who, in addition to political crimes, have become responsible for 
ordinary pfiences within the jurisdiction of penal laws in force, 

TTiis pardon is not intended to assure a continuance in their administrative, 
provincial and municipal employments, to all those who may have, by their con- 
duct in the passed events, rendered themselves unworthy of the same. This 
icsa*vation is applicable to military and other functionaries of every kind. 
From our residence in the Quirinal, this 18th dav of September, 1849. 


Inclosure 2 in No. 119. 
Proclamation of Pope Pixis IX. 

Pius PP. IX, a' sQoi amaiissimi sudditL 

NON appena le valorose armi delle Potenze Cattoliche, le quali con vera filkl 
devozione concorsero al ristabilimento della piena nostra liberty e indipendenza 
nel GovoTio dei temporal! dominl della Santa Sede, vi liberarono da quella 
tirannide che in mille modi vi oppriraeva, non solo innalzammo inni di ringra- 
ziamento al Signore, ma fiimmo eziandio solleciti di spedire in Roma una Com- 
missione Governativa nella persona di tre ragguardevoli porporati affinchfe in 
nostro nome riprendesse le redini del civile reggimento, e coll' ajuto di un 
ministero si awisasse, per quanto le circostanze il comportassero, a prendere 

auelle prowidenze, che sul momento erano reclamate dal bisogno dell' ordine^ 
ella sicurezza e della pubblica tranquillity. E con egual sollecitudine ci occu- 
pammo a stabilire le basi di quelle istituzioni, che, mentre assicurassero a voi, 
dilettissimi sudditi, le convenienti larghezze, assicurassero insieme la nostra 
indipendenza, che abbiamo obbligo di conservare intatta in faccia all' universo. 
Laonde a conforto de' buoni che tanto meritarono la nostra speciale benevolenza 
e considerazione; a disinganno de' tristi e degl' illusi, che si prevalsero d^8 
nostre concessioni per rovesciare I'ordine sociale; a testimonianza per tutti di 
non aver noi altro a cuore se non la vostra vera e soMda prosperity, di nostro 
moto propria, certa scienza e con la pienezza della nostra autoritk abbiamo 
risoluto di disporre quanto siegue. 

Art. P. Viene istituito in Roma un Consiglio di Stato. Questo dar^ il suo 
parere sopra i progetti di legge prima che siano sottoposti alia sanzione sovrana ; 
esaminer£ tutte le quistioni piil gravi di ogni ramo della pubblica amministra^ 
rione, sulle quaR sia richiesto di parere da noi e dai nostri Ministri. 

Un' apposita legge stabilirJt le quality e il numero dei Consiglieri, i loro 
doveri, le prerogative, le norme delle discussioni e quant' altro pu6 concerne il 
retto andamento di sj distinto Consesso. 

2. Viene istituita un Consulta di Stato per la Finanza. Sar^ essa intesa 
snl preventivo dello Stato, e ne esaminerJi i consuntivi, pronunciando su- i mede^ 
simile relative sentenze sindacatorie; dark il suo parere suUa imposizione dei 
nuovi dazl o diminuzione di quelli esistenti, sul modo migliore di eseguime il 
riparto, su i mezzi piii efficaci per far rifiorire il commercio, ed in genere su tutto 
ci6 che riguarda gl' interessi del pubblico tesoro. 

I Consultori saranno scelti da noi su note che ci verranno presentate dai 
Consigli provinciali. II loro numero verrk fissato in proporzione dette provincie 
dello Stato. Questo numero potrJl essere accresciuto con una determinata addi- 
zione di soggetti che ci riserbiamo di nominare. 

Un* apposita legge determinerii le forme delle proposte dei Consultori, le 
loro qualitk, le norme della trattazione degli affari e tutto ci6 che pu6 efficace* 
mente e prontamcnte contribuire al riordinamento di questo importantissimo 
ramo di pubblica amministrazione. 

3. La istituzione de' Consigli Provinciali k confermata. I Consiglieri 
saranno scelti da noi sopra liste di nomi proposti dai Consigli comunaK. 

Que^ti tratteranno gl' interessi locaH della provincia ; le spese da fersi a 
carico di essa e col di lei concorso: i conti preventivi e consuntivi deU' interna 
amministrazione : tale amministrazione poi sar^ esercitata da una commissione 
amministrativa che verrit scelta da ciascun Consiglio Ptovmciale sotto la sua 

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Alcuni membri del Consiglio Provinciale saranno prescelti a far parte del 
Consiglio del Capo della provincia per coadiuvarlo nell* esercizio della vigilanza 
che gr incombe su i Municipi. 

Un' apposita legge determinera il modo delle proposte, le qualitk ed il 
numero de' Consiglieri per ogni provincia, e, prescritti i rapporti che debbono 
conservarsi fra le amministrazioni provinciaU ed i grandi interessi dello State, 
stabUir^ questi rapporti, et indicherk come fin dove si estenda su di quelle la 
superiore tutela. 

4. Le rappresentanze e le amministrazioni mtmicipali saranno regolate 
da piii large francbigie che sono compatibili cogl' interessi locali dei comuni. 

La elezione dei consiglieri avrk per base un esteso numero di elettori, avuto 
principalmente riguardo alia propriety. 

Gli eligibili, oltre le qualitk intrinsecamente necessarie, dovranno avere un 
censo da determinarsi dalla legge. 

I capi delle magistrature saranno scelti da noi e gli anziani dai capi deUe 
provincie sopra terne proposte dai'Consigli comunali. 

Un* apposita legge determinerJt le quality ed il numero dei consiglieri comu- 
nali, il modo di elezione, il numero dei componenti le magistrature: regolerit 
Tandamento dell' amministrazione coordinandola cogrinteressi delle provincie. 

5. Le riforme ed i miglioramenti si estenderanno anche all' ordine giudiziario 
ed alia legislazione civile, criminale ed amministrativa. Una Conunissione da 
nominarsi si occuperk del necessario lavoro. 

6. Finalmente, propensi sempre per inclinazione del nostro cuore patemo 
alia indulgenza ed al perdono, vogliamo che si dia luogo ancor questa volta a 
tale atto di clemenza verso quel traviati che furono strascinati alia fellonia ed 
alia rivolta dalla seduzione^ dalla incertezza e forse ancora dalla inerzia altrui. 
Avendo d'altronde presente ci6 che reclamano la giustizia, fondamento dei regni, 
i diritti altrui manomessi o danneggiati, il dovere che c'incombe di tutelarvi dalla 
rinnovazione dei mali cui soggiaceste, e I'obbligo di sottrarvi dalle pemiciose 
influenze de' corrompitori d'ogni morale e nemici della cattolica religione, che, fonte 
perenne d'ogni bene e prosperity sociale, formando la vostra gloria, vi distingueva 
per quella eletta famiglia favorita da Dio co' particolari suoi donij abbiamo 
ordinate che sia a nostro nome pubbhcata un' amnistia della pena incorsa da 
tutti colore, i quali dalle limitazioni, che verranno espresse, non rimangane 
esclusi da questo benefizie. 

Sono queste le disposizieni che pel vostre ben essere abbiamo creduto 
innanzi a Dio di dover pubblicare, e che, mentre sono compatibiU con la nostra 
rappresentanza, appiene ci convincono peter produrre, fedelmente eseguite, quel 
buen risultate che forma Tonesto desiderie dei saggi. II retto sentire di egnun 
di voi che auela maggiormente al bene in preporzione de' sofierti afiistnni ne 
porge a noi un' ampia guarentigia. Ma collochiame principalmente tutta la 
nostra fiducia in Dio di quale, anche in mezzo al giuste sue sdegno, non dimentica 
la sua misericordia. 

Datmn Neapeli in suburbane Portici, die 12 Septembris, 1849, Pontificatus 
nostri 4. 



Pius PP. IX, to his well-beloved subjects. 

THE valiant armies of the Catholic Powers, which rushed with true filial 
devotion to the re-estabUshment of our fiill liberty and independence in the 
government of the temporal dominions of the Holy See, had no sooner freed you 
from the tyranny which oppressed you in a thousand ways, than we raised hymns 
of thanksgiving to the Lord, and lost no time in sending to Rome a. Govern- 
ment Commission, consisting of three distinguished Cardinals to resume the 
reins of civil rule in our name, and, with the assistance of a Ministry to take 
such measures as were suited to the circumstances, and were immediately 
required for the preservation of order, safety, and pubUc tranquillity. 

With equal haste we occupied ourselves with establishing the basis of such 
institutions, as, whilst they might secure proper liberty to you, our well-beloved 
subjects, might also insure to us that independence which it is our duty to pre- 
serve intact before the universe. Therefore, to comfort the good who have so 

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well deserved our special benevolence and consideration^ to undeceive the 
wicked and ]tbe deluded who made use of our concessions to overturn social 
order ; and as a testimony to every one that we have nothing at heart more than 
your true and solid prosperity, we have resolved of our own will, certain know- 
ledge, and in the fulness of our authority, to order as follows : 

Article 1. A Council of State is instituted in Rome. It will give its 
opinjion on proposed laws before they are submitted to the sovereign sanction, 
it will examine all the most important questions in every branch of public 
administration, upon which its opinion may be requested by us and by our 

A suitable law will determine the quality and the number of councillors, their 
duties, their prerogatives, the form of their discussions, and whatever else may 
concern the right operation of so distinguished an Assembly. 

2. A Council of State for the Finances is instituted. It will be consulted 
wi:th respect to the State Estimates, and will examine into the disbursements, con- 
cerning which it will make suitable reports as auditors : it will give its opinion 
with regard to the imposition of new taxes or the diminution of existing ones, 
the best mode of distributing them, the most efficacious means of restoring 
commercial prosperity and upon everything relative to the interest of the public 

The Councillors will be chosen by us from lists presented by the Provincial 
Councils. Their number will be fixed in proportion to the provinces of the 
State. This number may be increased by a limited number of individuals whose 
nomination will be reserved to us. 

A suitable law will determine the form of the proposals of the Councillors, 
their qualifications, the rules for their management of business, and everjrthing 
which may efficaciously and speedily contribute to the reorganization of this most 
impprta^it branch of public administration. 

3. The institution of Provincial Coimcils is confirmed. The Councillors 
will be chosen by us from lists of names proposed by the Communal Councils 
(municipalities). They will consider the local interests of the province ; the 
expenses which are wholly or in part chargeable upon it, the estimates and 
disbursements of the internal administration, which shall be exercised by an 
administrative Commission chosen by each Provincial Council under its own 

Some members of the Provincial Council will be chosen to form part of the 
Council of the Head of the province, in order to assist him in his duty of watching 
over the Municipalities. 

A fitting law will determine the manner of making propositions, the 
qualifications and the number of the councillors for each province, and having 
determined on the relations to be maintained between the provincial adminis- 
trations and the grand interests of the State, it will establish these relations, and will 
determine the nature and extent of superior authority to be exercised over them. 

4. The Municipal representations and administrations will be regulated 
by the most extended iranchi&e compatible with the local interests of the com- 
munes. The election of the councillors will have for basis an extensive numbei^ 
of electors, regard being principally paid to property. Persons to be elected 
(in addition to their personal qualification) must have an amount of property to 
be established by the law. 

The heads of the magistracy will be chosen by us, and the ancients by the 
heads of the provinces, from hsts of three names proposed by the Communal 

A fitting law will determine the requisites and number of the C!!ommunal 
councillors, the mode of election, and the number of the magistrates, and will 
r^ulate the course of administration with respect to the interests of the 

5. The reforms and ameliorations wiU extend also to judicial order, and 
cml, criminal, and administrative legislation. A commission will be named to 
undertake this necessary work. 

6. Rnally, inclined as we always are by the disposition of our paternal 
heart to indulgence and pardon, we desire that an act of clemency may once 
more be practised in favour of those misguided people who were led into crime 
and revolt by the seductions, the uncertainty, and perhaps too by the inactioti 
of others. 


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CoBsidarina^, on tibe oAwr hand, what is iio^piicd bj jvstkw^ flio feondatkn 
of kingdoms, remembcRDg the rights of others assailed or ktjnivd, our duly to 
protect you from a leoewal of the evfls to whidi you have been subject, and to 
withdraw you fixxn the pendcious infiuenceof &e corraptors of mcnulity and the 
enemies of the CatiM^ rdigbn, which as a lasting fount of every good and 
all social prosperity, fanned yoor glory and Astinguished you as the elect fitmily 
&voured by God with his peculuor gifts, we haTe commanded tint an amnesty be 
published in our name, remkting the pnmshment incurred by aU those who are 
not excluded from such a bene^ by Umitatioos which wfll be made knows. 

Such are the dispositions which for your welfare we have thought it our 
duty before God to publish, and whilst they are compatible wkh oar represent- 
ation, will, we are iully cooTinced, if fei<^iiil]y executed, produce ^at good 
result which forms the honest wish ef good men. Ther^ht fte&ig of every one 
of you wlio desires welfinre in proportion to the sufiermgs he has gone through, 
affords us ample guarantees tiwt it will be so. But we priodpally flace our trust 
in God, who, even in the midst of his just wraith, is not mtmrndful of his mercy. 

Dated at Pcntici, near Naples, September 1% 194% the 4th year of our 

<Sgned> PiUS P. DL 


Sir George HymtUam to ViseemU Pakmsr§itm.—ifi€m0e4 Oetaker 16.) 

(Extract) Florence, OoMer 6, L849. 

ALTHOUGH any report that I may make to your LordiAip on the state 
of affairs at Rome has the disadvantage of resting on hearsay intelligence, yet 
having seen Komans of high rank as well as trawell^ lately arrtv€d from tlience, 
and finding that their accounts agree unfortunately but too well in en uaftrfom?- 
able representation of the aspect of things in general in the Ronum States, I do 
not hesitate to communicate to your Lordship these accounts. 

It is universally represented to me that the greatest discontent pveivails at 
Rome, and although the character of the Pope, so remarkable for personal piety, 
is respected, yet all enthusiasm and even interest in his cause has ceased to 

This indifference has greatly augmented since the arrival of the Cardinal 
who new form the governing Junta at Rome. Every act of tlieirs has shown the 
strongest tendency to retrograde principles and to the adoption of the abuses of 
the old priestly rule. The Inquisition has been restored lor clerical offences in 
all its former power. little lK>pe is entertained of the adoption of mxy uselul 
rdbrms in the government of the Legations. 

This is a melancholy prospect of the future. No immediate remedy seems 
at hand. The Pope is now undoubtedly swayed by entirely opposite principles 
to those formerly entertained by him. From being too hasty and energetic a 
reformer he is supposed to have become opposed to any changes, aiHl to C6\m^ 
tenance the ancient hierarchical absolutism. 

Many of the Catholic clergy in this country look forward with apprehension 
to the ulterior effects of this state of things on the intereste of theur religion, and 
do not hesitate to express this opinion. 

No. 121. 

Mr. Freeborn to Viscount Palmerston. — (Received November 27.) 

(Extract.) Rome, November 17, 1849. 

I HAV]^ the honour to rq)ort to Lordship that the Neapolitan refugees 
who have resided here for some moi^hs^ have he&n sent out q£ the countiy. 

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No. 122. 

JSUr GsQ9rge HMTiiiUon te Viscount Pulmerston. — {Recewcd December I.) 
(Extract.) Florence, November 23, 1849. 

MY news from Rome to-day is very unsatisfactory with reference to the 
intentioQS trf His Holiness, who appears to have deferred for the present all idea 
of returning to Rome. The state of affairs in France is given as a reason tat Hm 
Pope'ii plans. 

No. 123. 

Mr. fyeAom io Visoovrnt PaJmersttm." — {Receked December 7.) 

(Extract.) Rome^ November 24, 1849. 

I HAVE the honour to transmit herewith copy of a proclamaticm addressed 
tp the Romans by Uie late Froaoh Commander4n-diief« General Rostolao. 

Z also transmit herewith lui order of the day dated 20th instant, addressed 
by General Baragney d'Uilliers to the French troops. 

Inelosure 1 in No. 123. 

Proclamation issued by General Rostolan. 

Habitans de Rome, Rome, le 20 Novembre, 1849. 

LE Gouvernement Fran^ais m^accorde le rappel que j'ai sollicit^, et je 
remets aujourd'hui le commandement de Tarm^e k M. le G^n^ral de Division 
Baraguey dUilliers, envoye pour me remplacer. En arrivant parmi vous 
comme Gouverneur de Rome, j'ai pris rengagement de vous soustraire k la 
violence et k Fanarchie qui pesaient sur vous. J'ai la satisfaction, en quittant 
la capitale, d y laisser Tautorite du Souverain Pontife rdtablie, Tordre raffermi, 
les personnes prot^g^es, les lois respect^es. Mon but a 6t6 atteint. 

Votre amour pour le Souverain Pontife, votre reconnaissance envers 
Parm^e, ont rendu ma tAche facile. II m'est doux d'espdrer que vous en serez 
bient6t r&ompens&, et que vous touchez au terme d'une p^nible anxi^t€. 
Quant h moi, le temps que j'ai passe parmi vous, le bien auquel j'ai pu concourir, 
les t^moignages d'estime que j'ai recueillis, seront les plus precieux souvenirs 
de ma longue carrifere. Mes voeux les plus ardens accompagneront mon succes- 
seur dans raccomplissement de la mission que lui est confix. Je n'ai plus 
tfautre ambition que de les voir se realiser. 

Le Gdn^ral en chef, 
(Sign^) ROSTOLAN. 

(Translatian ) 
Inhabitants of Rome, Rome^ November 20, 1849. 

THE French Government grants me the recall which I have solicited, and 
I this day yield the command of the army to the General of Division, Baraguey 
d'Hilliers, who has been sent hither to take my place. On my arrival amongst 
you as Governor of Rome^ I undertook to deliver you from the violence md 
anarchy which weighed you down. I have the satisfaction, in quitting the 
capital, to leave the authority of the Sovereign Pontiff re-established in it, order 
consolidated, persons protected, laws respected. My object has been attained. 

Your love for the Sovereign Pontiff — your gratitude to the army-^have 
rendered my task an easy one. I indulge in the sweet hope that you will soon 
receive your recompense, and that you approach the conclusion of your painful 
anxiety. As for me, the time which I have passed amongst you, the good which 
I have been able to aid in effecting, the testimonials of esteem which I have 
received, will be the most precious souvenirs in my long career. My most 
ardent vows will accompany my successor in the accomplishment of the mission 
entrusted to him, and my only ambition will be to see them realized. 

(Signed) ROSTOLAN. 

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Inclofiure 2 in No. 123. 
Order qf the Day addressed to the French Troops by Oeneral Baraguey (TSRttiers. 

Soldato, Rome, le 20 Novembre, 1849. 

VOUS tees les digues en&ns de cette Ann^ dltalie dont la globe fiit 

Vous avez triomphe de ranarehie par yotre courage. Vous ^nnez les 
populations Romaines par voire discipline. 

La France est fi^ de vous. Voire t&che n'esi pas acoomplie, mais la 
patience ne vous manquera pas plus que la valeur ne vous a &ii d^fimi ; oe sont 
les gages de succes. 

,.. Appel^ k llionneur de vous commander, je vous demande d'avoir confianoe 
en moi^ comme j'ai confiance en vous, et si^ contre toute attente, vous aviez encore 
k luttCT pour la gloire de voire pays, je vousreirouverais, j'en suis certain, ce que 
vous avez 6t6 sous les murs de Rome. 

Payons un juste tribut d'^oges au brave et digne G^n&ul que vous perdez» 
sa brillante valeur dans les combats, son noble caract^ sont appr^i^s du Pr6- 
sident de la R^publique, si jaloux de la gloire de la France et de I'honneur de ses 

Le G^n^ral Commandani-en-chei^ 


Soldiers, Rome, November 20, 1849. 

YOU are the worthy children of that Army of Italy whose glory was 

You have triumphed over anarchy by your courage. You astonish the 
Roman people by your discipline. * 

France is proud of you. Your task is not accomplished, but your patirace 
will be equal to your courage ; this is the pledge of success. 

Summoned to the honour of commanding you, I demand your confidence, 
as I grant you mine ; and if, contrary to all expectation, you should again have 
to contend for the glory of your country, I would again find you, I am oertaii^ 
what you have been under the walls of Rome. 

Let us pay a just tribute of commendation to the brave and worthy General 
whom you are losing ; his brilliant valour in the fight, his noble character, are 
appreciated by the rresident of the Republic, who is so jealous for the glory of 
France and for the honour of her arms. 

The General Commanding in chid^, 

No. 124. 
TTle Hon. W. Temple to Viscount Pdlmerston. — {Received December 20.) 

My Lord, Naples, December 11, 1849. 

THE Spanish troops have ^nbarked at Terracina and have evacuated the 
Roman Stat^ in conformity with the decision of the Spanish Government. 

M. de Courcelles left Naples for Rome on the 3rd instant, on his retuhi to 
Paris, the state of his health not having allowed him to embark in the same 
steamer which conveyed General Rostolan to Toulon. 

General Baraguey d'Hilliers is about to leave Naples to resume the 
command of the Frendi forces in the Roman States ; but it does not appear that 
the Pope has fixed any period for his return to his capital. 

I have, &c. 
(Signed) W. TEMPLE. 

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Presented to the House of Comrnxms in pursuance of their Address of 

March 27, 1861. 


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I 1 

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1. To Viscount Fonsonby. • 
%. Chevalier Buosmi 

3. To Viscount Ponsonby. . 

4. To Chevalier Bjmsen , . 

5. Viscount Ponsonby 

«• 9# 9> • • ' 

8. Mr. Bankhead . . 


10. To Sir Stratford Canninf 

1 1 . Earl of Westmorland . . 

12. To Sir Stratford Canning 

13. Sir Stratford Canning . 

14. 99 »> • • 

15. To Sir Stratford Canning 

1 6. Sir Stratford Canning . . 

17. Earl of Westmorland .. 

18. To Sir Stratford Canning 

19. Sir Slaratford Canning . . 

20. „ w .. 

21. ^ 99 . , 

22. Consul Wood .. 
'2X 9, » .. 

24. „ ,9 .. 

*i5. 9» ». .. 

26- Consul-General Rose to 
- Sir Stratfurd Canning 

27. To -Con&ul-General Rose 

28. To Consul Wood 

29. To Sir Stratford Canning 
d&. CoBsul Wood . . 

Feb. S, 1841 
July 15, 









20, 1843 


April 5, 












May 3, 

Mar. 2)3, 














a 2 


Protestant Church at Jerusalem . . 1 

Wishes of King of Prussia as to Pro- 
testants in Turkey .. «« 2 

As to the Recognition of Protestants 
in Turkey . , . , . . 5 

Copy of despatch to Lord Ponsonby 
of July 26 .6 

Hopes to get Firman for Church .« S 

Fears Porte will not grant the Firman 5 

Refusal of Firman for Church . . 7 

Viscount Ponsonby 's note to Porte 
of October 11 8 

Hopes of getting a Firman . . 8 

To apply for permission to biuld a 
Church at Jerusalem . . . . 8 

Prussian Mmister will co-opesate-witli 
Sir Stratford Canning respecting 
Church . . . . , . 9 

Prussian Minister will co-operate 
with him . . . . . . 9 

No progress' fn obtaining Firman . . 10 

Communication with Prussian Mi- 
nister and Sarim Effendi . . 10 

To make a fresh application to the 
Porte raapecting Jerusalem build- 
ings .. 10 

As to steps to be taken with the 
Porte .. .. .. .. 11 

Communications with Prussian -Go- 
vernment respecting Church . . 1 1 

Copy of Lord Westmorland's dea- 
patclh of January 10 . . 12 

Conversation with Bifaai Pasha . . 12 

Note and Memorandum sent to 
Rifoat Pasha .. .. 1) 

The Porie has referred to Pasha of 
Seyda. Protestant burial-ground 
at Jerusalem «. .. .. 18 

Secession of Hasbeyans from Greek 
Church .. .. ,. 14 

Hasl)eyan Protestants .. .. 18 

Violence used towards Hasbeyan 
Protestants . . . . 18 

Steps taken in behalf of Hasbejaa 
Protestants . . . . , . 20 

Respecting Hasbeyan Protestants 26 


Instructions with reference to the 
late conversions in Hasbeya . . 28 

Instructions with referenoe to 'the 
conversions in Hasbeya . . 28 

Instiuctions te Colonel Rose and 
Mr.' Wood .. .. 29 

Communications with Patriarch 
respecting convert* . . . , 29 

Communication to Pasha respecting 
converts . . . , . . • . 32 

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82. Consol-General Rose • « 

83. To Sir Stratford Canning 

84. Mr. Buchanan • • 

85. Consul-General Rose . . 

S6. Consul Wood 

37. To Consul Wood 

88. To Sir Stratford Canning 

89. Mr. Buchanan • « • « 

40. To Sir Strafford Canning 

41. Sir Stratford Canning • • 

42. ff §f « • • • 

43. ff ^ • • • • 


45. To Sir Stratford Canning 

46. Sir Stratford Canning . • 

47. 99 99 99 • . • • 

48. To Sir Stratford Canning 

49. Sir Stratford Canning • • » . 

50. To Sir Stratford Canning 

51. Sir Stratford Canning •• 

52. To the Hon. H. R. Wellesley. . 

53. The Hon. H. R. Wellesley . . 

54. ff »»•••• 

55. To the Hon. H. R. WeUesley . . 

56. The Hon. H. R. Wellesley . . 

57. 99 #9 • • 

58. To the Hon. H. R. Wellesley. . 

59. To Chevalier Bunsen • * • * 

60. Chevalier Bunsen •• 

61. To the Hon. H. R. Wellesley. • 

62. The Hon. H. R. Wellesley . . 

63. To the Hon. H. R. Wellesley. . 

64. 99 99 • . . • 

65. The Hon. H. R. Wellesley . . 

66. 99 9) • . 

67. To Lord Cowley 

68. The Hon. H. R. Wellesley • • 

69. To Lord Cowley 

70. Lord Cowley «• 




Dec 20, 











1 5, 







18, 1846 





























May 7, 

June 80, 

Subject. Page 

His proceedings in respect to Has- 
heyan converts . . . . . . 84 

Communications with Russian Go- 
vernment respecting religious dif- 
ferences in Hasbeya . . . . S5 

Conversation with Uount Ncsselrode 85 

Capudan Pasha's interference to 
prevent oppression of converts • . 36 

Commission sent to Hasbeya . . 86 

Not to interfere in questions con- 
nected with missionary operations 37 

Memorial respecting Church at 
Jerusalem .• .. .. 37 

Has communicated to Count Nessel- 
rode instructions to Mr. Wood . • 40 

Copy of Mr. Buchanan's despatch of 
March 16 40 

Receipt of instructions respecting 
Church at Jerusalem . . 40 

Interview with Shekib Effendi re- 
specting Church . . . . 40 

Memorandum from the Porte . • 41 

Copy of Firman for the Church . . 41 

Satisfaction at his success in regard 
to the Firman . . 42 

Measures of the Patriarch towards 
dissident A rmeniai^s .. •• 48 

Persecution of the Armenians . . 44 

To communicate with Patriarch re- 
specting persecution of Armenians 46 

Steps taken in favour of the Arme- 
nian dissidents . . . . 47 

Satisfaction at his success in behalf 
of Armenians .. ..51 

Protestant Armenians have declared 
themselves a separate Church . . 51 

Memorial from Free Church of 
Scotland . . • . . . 55 

Steps to be taken in favour of Arme- 
nians « . . . . . . . 56 

Communication with the Porte and 
from American missionaries re- 
specting the Armenians . . 61 

To interfere in behalf of the Arme- 
nian Protestants . . 64 

Favourable disposition of Porte to- 
wards the Armenians . . . . 64 

Memorandum from Porte respecting 
Armenians . . . . . . 65 

To thank Porte for measures in 
favour of the Armenians . . 66 

Copy of Memorandum respecting 
Armenians . . . • 66 

Answer respecting the Porte's Me- 
morandum . . • . • . 67 

To concert with Prussian Minister 
measures in behalf of the Arme- 
nians . . . . * . . . . 70 

Vizierial letter respecting Armenians 
at Nicomedia .. .. .. 70 

To press recognition of Armenian 
Protestants .. .. .. 71 

For report on tenets of Armenian 
Protestants .. .. 71 

Communications with Porte respect- 
ing Armenian and Hasbeyan Pro- 
testants 72 

Despatch from Aali Eflendi to 
Prince Callimachi respectmg Ar* 
menians • • • . . . 76 

To thank Porte for instructions in 

favour of Hasbeyan Protestants . . 78 
Letter from Armenians. Comma* 

nications with Porte . . . . 78 

Approving his language to the Port e €0 
Keport on religious tenets of Arme- 
nian Protestants • • • • 80 

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71. Lord Cowley 

72. To Lord Cowley 
78. Lord Cowley . . 

74. To Lord Cowley 

75. Lord Cowley . . 

76. To Lord Cowley 

77. Lord Cowley .. 

78. Consul Wood 

79. Lord Cowley 

80. Mr. Alison 

81. Sir Stratford Canning 

82. To Sir Stratford Canning 

83. Sir Stratford Canning 

84. To Sir Stratford Canning 

85. Sir Stratford Canning 

86. To Sir Stratford Canning 

Nov. 19, 1847 

Dec. 13, 


Jan. 4, 1848 

Dec. 16, 1847 

Jan. 12, 1848 
Dec. 29, 1847 

Jan. 8, 1848 
Feb. 16, 

April 2, 
Nov. 18, 1850 

Dec. 11, 
Nov. 26, 
Dec. 24, 
Jan. 3, 1851 


Vizierial letter in favour of Arme- 
nian Protestants 

Satisfaction at Vizierial letter 

Vizierial letters sent to provinces in 
favour of Protestants 

Letters from Archbishop of Canter- 
bury, Bishop of London, and Che- 
valier Bunsen 

Instruction to Consuls respecting 

Approving instruction to Consuls . . 

Communications with American Mis- 
sionaries and Protestants. De- 
spatch from Trebizond . . 

Protestants in Hasbeya 

Despatch from Erzeroom respecting 

Despatch from Consul at Brussa 

Application to Porte in favour 

Approving the above 

Firman in favour of Protestants 

Satisfaction at Firman 

Thanks from Protestants 

Satisfaction at the above . . 










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Correspondence respecting the Condition of Protestants 

in Turkey. 

Viscount Palmerston to Viscount Ponsonby. 

My Lord, Foreign Office, February 8, 1841. 

I TRANSMIT to yoiu- Excellency a copy of a letter from Sir Thomas Baring, 
from which it would appear that the Society for Promoting Christianity among 
the Jews having been made acquainted in 1837 with the failure of your Excel- 
lency's endeavours to obtain the formal sanction of the Porte to the erection of 
a Protestant chapel at Jerusalem, adopted a suggestion which I made to them 
at the time, and acquired the means of celebrating religious worship 
at Jerusalem without exposing themselves to the interference of the Turkish 
authorities. The Society now wish that advantage should be taken of the pre- 
sent state of affairs in the Levant to obtain from the Porte a formal assent to 
the establishment of a Protestant chapel at Jerusalem, and to the registration 
of such chapel in the name of the Rev. J. JS^icolayson, on beh^ of the 

There can be no doubt that a compliance by the Porte with this request 
would afford very great pleasure to the public in this country, for there is a 
strong and general feeling here, which is becoming daily more and more preva- 
lent, that considering the deep obligations conferred upon the Porte by Christian 
Powers during the last twelve months, the Porte ought to permit the Christian 
worship to be openly performed in the city of Jerusalem. 

I leave it to your Excellency's judgment and discretion to take such steps 
as you may think best calculated for the accomplishment of this object, but it 
is a matter in which Her Majesty's Government take a deep interest, and in 
which they are extremely anxious to succeed. 

I am, &c. 
(Signed) PALMERSTOM". 

Tnclosure in No. 1. 
Sir T. Baring to Viscount Palmerston. 

My Lord, Stratton Parky Winchester, February 1, 1841. 

AS President of the London Society for Promoting Christianity amongst 
the Jews, I have been requested by its Managers to again address your Lord- 
ship upon the subject of the Episcopal Chapel at Jerusalem. 

If not in the recollection of your Lordship, it cannot fail to be still in the 
grateful remembrance of the whole body of the Society that upon an application 
made to your Lordship in the year 1837 to send out instructions to the British 
Resident at the Egyptian Court to obtain permission for the erection of a chapel 
and suitable buildings for the missionaries, it met with the most prompt 
and cordial acquiescence, and a despatch was immediately forwarded to Colonel 
Campbell, the then Consul-General at Alexandria, directing him to apply in the 
name of His Britannic Majesty's Government for the permission required. 
Your Lordship was at the same time pleased to inform me as President that 
instructions had likewise been transmitted to the British Ambassador at Con- 
stantinople to support the views of the Society in case -of any difficulty arising 
from that quarter. 

[153] B 

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From circumstances, — causes whereof will at once be apparent to your 
Lordship, and need not therefore be stated, as well as from some peculiarities 
in the Turkish law mentioned at the time, the plans of the Society failed of 
being carried into effect in the manner first contemplated ; but, encouraged by 
your Lordship's advice, the Managers of the Society have continued to prose- 
cute their design as far as the Turkish law would permit, and under the sanction 
of the Ar6hbishop of Caiiterbury and Bishop of London, have now an ordained 
mmister in the person of the Rev. J. Nicolayson, oflSciating at Jerusalem. 

The Sultan's authority having through the success of the Allied Powers 
and your Lordship's instrumentality been re-established in Syria, and Jerusalem 
restored to the Ottoman Empire, the Society earnestly hope Jthat your Lordship 
will be pleased, as a grateful acknowledgment to Providence for the success of 
your able negotiations, and the skill and intrepidity of the agency employed to 
carry the weU-planned measures into effect, to promote the erection of a monu- 
ment of national gratitude by interceding with the Porte, and by making use 
of the influence now in your hand, to procure a firman for the complete accom- 
plishment o£ the object"^ contemplated, and for the Sultan's permission to have 
the property registered in the name of the Eev, J- Nicolaywn, to be held by 
him in behalf of the Society. 

I bave^ &a 
(Signed) T. BAEING. 

No. 2. 
The Chevalier Bunsen to Viscount PulmeraUm. 

LondreSy ce 15 Juillet, 184L 

LE Soussigne, Envoyd Extraordinsure de Sa Majesty le Roi de Prusse, en 
nisaion sp^dale pr^ la Cour Britannique, a 6t6 charge da Roi son auguste 
maltre, de faire k «a Seigneurie le Vicomte Palmerston, Secretaire d'Etat de Sa 
Majesty Britannique pour les Affaires Etrang^res, la communication suivante. 

Le R<H, m6 pwr la position actuelle, nouveUe et unique dans Thistoire, des 
Puissances Chr^tiennes vis-i-vis de la Porte Ottomane, desirant contribuer de 
Ba part, de la mani^re la plus efficaoe et la plus durable, k I'am^lioration perma- 
nente du sort des Chretiens dans I'Empire Turc, et souhaitant en m6me temps 
de voir se resserrer toujours plus ^roitement les liens d'amiti^ et de confiance 
entre les deux Couronnes et les nations soumises St leur sceptre, a r^solu d'in- 
viter, par Tenvoi d'ane mission sp^ciale, le Grouvernement Britannique k une 
union intime des deux Puissances, ayant un but tout pacifique, et un objet 
li^ intimement avec les int^rets les plus chers et les plus sacr^s des deux nations 
et de rhumanit^ en entier. 

Ce but est principalement d'obtenir de la Porte Ottomane, par le moyen 
de n^ociations communes k Constantinople, la reconnaissance de I'Eglise Pro- 
testante en Turquie, comme d'une corporation religieuse, k Tinstar des cor- 
porations existantes des Latins, des Grecs, des Arm^niens, et d'autres sem- 
blables, de mani^re que les Chretiens, sujets de la Porte, et r^sidens appartenant 
aux Eglises nationales des deux pays, soient autoris^ k se constituer partout 
en communaut^ et agir conform^ent a ce titre, c'est-a-dire, k acqu^rir dea 
propriety comme personnes moroles, k batir des eglises, St avoir des ^v^ques 
et autres fonctionnaires eccl^siastiques, k recevoir ceux qui pourraient venir 
se joindre k eux, et en general de faire toutes les actions legates d'une soci^te 

Cette reconnaissance mettrait done les membres des deux Eglises natio- 
nales en Turquie simplement au pied des communaut^s Chrdtiennes, qui, 
constitutes en corps de nation, y jouissent d^ja d'une telle reconnaissance 
legale : parite de position, ^galement reclam^e, dans le nu)ment actuel, par la 
position politique et religieuse des deux grandes Puissances Protestantes en 
Europe, et par les dii^>ositions gen^rales du Hatti-Sch^rif de Gulhand et les 
airangemens recens pour les communaut^s Chr^tiennes existantes en Palestine 
et en Syrie. 

La Palestine, au centre de laquelle T^glise nationale de I'Angleterre 
possMe d^jk un dtablissement religieux naissant, est Tobjet principal des soins 

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de Sa Majesty dans TexeGutioii du prqjet & laqu^le eUe invite le Gouvemement 

Mais il n'est pas da toot dans les intentions de Sa Majesty le Roi, de pro- 
poser en aucune mani^e des d-marches ayant pour bfot de procurer k la 
eommunaut^ Protestante une part quelc(»ique aox ^tablissemens des autres 
^lises Chretiennes, et aux privileges locanx, en possessicm desquels celles«ci se 
tnmvmt^ comme nomm^m^it an Saint S^pukhre et aux autres lieux saints de 
la Palestine. 

A c6t^ de oette reconnaissance de la commnnante Protestante^ comme 
telle, Sa Msr^est^ desire se joindre etroitement k I'Angleterre, pour assurer aux 
fiujets des (teux Couronnes en g^n^ral, sans aucune distinction religieux^ la 
veritable jouissance de cette protection des personnes et des propri^t^s, que le 
Hatti-Schi^rif de Gulhan^ promet ^alement k tons les babitans de la Turquie, et 
1^ leur procurer toutes les facitites pour r^sider et se fixer dans le pays. 

Sa Majesty, en laissant avec une confiance ilUmit^ an Gouvemement 
Britannique le choix des moyens qu'il jugera les pins convenables pour 
atteindre ces objets, declare d'avance qu'elle se joindra volontiers k toutes les 
mesures et d-marches qui puissait seconder la n^ociatimi, et qui soient propres 
k elargir et k afFermir la base de la protection des int^rMs Cbr^tiens dans 
TEmpire Ottoman, et par cela mdme aider la cause de la veritable civilisation 
et le vrai bien-£tre de Tbumanite. 

Le principe d'une telle cooperation admis, Sa Majesty attendra du 
Gouvemement Britannique la communication des instructions qu'il donnera k 
ce sujet k TAmbassade Anglais pr^s la Porte Ottomane, pour faire parvenir 
des ordres analogues k scm Ministre k Constantinople. 

Sa Majesty se plait k esp^rer, que la proposition que par Twgane du 
Soussign6 elle vient de faire au Gouvemement Britannique, proposition qui 
n'implique aucune demande de privileges exclusifs ou de prerogatives, soit 
politiques ou religieuses, qui ne blesse les int^rets legitimes d'aucune autre 
Puissance et d'aucune autre confession Chretienne, et qui promet les r^sultats 
les plus satisfaisans pour le d^veloppement paisible de la civilisation et pour les 
intdrets r^unis de la science, de I'industrie et du commerce, enfin pour le main- 
tien de la paix g^n^rale, condition de la jouissance de tons ces bieufaits, trouvera 
aupres du Gouvemement de Sa Majeste Britannique un accueil favorable, 
conforme aux sentimens de d6sinteressement, d'amitie et de confiance qui Font 

Le Soussigne s'estime heureux d'avoir ^t^ choisi par le Roi son auguste 
maitre, k Stre Torgane d'une telle mission de paix et de confiance aupres de Sa 
Seigneurie le Vicomte Palmerston, au moment m^me ou I'oeuvre de la solution 
pacifique de la question Turque et de la pacification de FEurope, basee sur le 
Traite k jamais memorable du 15 Juillet, vient d'etre couronn^ d'un suco^s 
tjomplet, et il saisit, &c. 

(Sign^) BUNSEN. 


London, July ]6, 1S6U 
THE Undersigned, Envoy Extraordinary of His Majesty the King of 
Prussia, on a special mission to the British Court, has been commanded by the 
King his august master to make the following conununication to Yiscount 
Palmerston, Her Britannic Majesty's Secr^ary of State for Foreign Affidrs. 

The King, induced by the present attitude, both novel and singular in his- 
tory, of the Christian powers towards the Ottoaoaan Porte, and being desirous of 
contributing on his part in the most efficacious and lasting manner towards the 
permanent amelioration of the condition of the Christians in ilie Turkish 
Empire, and wishing at the same time to see still more closely cemented the ties 
of friendship and of confidence betwecai the two Crowns and the nations subject 
to their sceptre, has determined by a Special Mission to invite the British 
Government to a close union of the two Powers, having solely a pacific object, 
and one intimately allied to the dearest and most sacred interests of the 
two nations, and of humanity in general. 

This object is principally to obtain from the Ottoman Porte, by means of 
joint negotiations at Constantinople, the recognition of the Protestant Church 


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in Turkey as a religious corporation^ similar to the existing corporations of Latins, 
Greeks^ Armenians^ and others of the same kind^ so that Christians^ subjects 
of the Porte and residents belonging to the National Churches of the two 
countries^ may be authorized to form themselves everywhere into communities^ 
and to act in conformity with this title ; that is to say, to acquire property as 
persons duly recognized, to build churches, to have bishops and other ecclesias* 
tical functionaries, to admit those who may seek to join them, and generally 
to perform all the legal acts of a recognized society. 

This recognition, then, would place the members of the two j^ational 
Churches in Turkey simply on the same footing as the Christian communities^ 
iwhich, constituted as national corporations, already enjoy there such a legal recog* 
nition ; a similarity of position alike required in the present moment by the 
political and religious position of the two great Protestant Powers in Europe, 
and by the general dispositions of the Hatti-Scherijff of Gulhan6, and the recent 
arrangements for Christian communities existing in Palestine and in Syria. 

Palestine, in the centre of which the National Church of England already 
possesses a rising religious establishment, is the principal object of the soli- 
citude of ilis Majesty in the execution of the project to which he invites the 
British Government. . 

But it is not at all the intention of His Majesty the King in any way to 
propose that steps should be taken with the object of acquiring for the 
Protestant community a share in the establishments of other Christian Churches, 
or in local privileges of which the latter may be in possession, as, for instance, 
the Holy Sepulchre, and other holy places in Palestine. 

In addition to this recognition of the Protestant community, as such. His 
Majesty is desirous of associating himself closely with England, in order to 
secure to the subjects of the two Crowns in general, without any religious dis- 
tinction, the true enjoyment of that protection of persons and properties which the 
Hatti-Scheriff of Gulhan^ promises equally to all the inhabitants of Turkey, and 
to procure for them all facilities for residing and settling in the country. 

His Majesty, leaving with unlimited confidence to the British Government 
the choice of the means which it may judge best fitted for attaining these 
objects, declares beforehand that he will willingly unite in all measures and 
steps which may advance the negotiation, and which may be calculated to enlarge 
and strengthen the basis of the protection of Christian interests in the Ottoman 
Empire, and thus assist the cause of true civilization, and the real well-being of 
the human race. 

^rhe principle of such a co-operation admitted. His Majesty will await 
the communication of the instructions which the British Government shall 
give on this subject to the English Ambassador at the Ottoman Porte, in order 
to convey similar instructions to his Minister at Constantinople. 

His Majesty indulges the hope that the proposal which he has just made, 
through the medium of the Undersigned, to the British Government, a pro- 
posal which implies no demand for exclusive privileges or for prerogatives 
either political or religious ; which does not wound the legitimate interests of 
any other Power or of any other Christian profession ; and which promises the 
most satisfactory results for the peaceful development of civilization, and for the 
combined interests of science, of industry and of commerce ; in short, for the 
Inaintenance of the general peace, a state of things requisite for the enjoyment 
of all these benefits ; will be favourably received by the Government of Her 
Britannic Majesty, in conformity with the sentiments of disinterestedness, of 
friendship, and of confidence which have inspired it. 

The Undersigned considers himself fortunate in being chosen by the King 
his august master to be the organ of such a mission of peace and confidence to his 
Excellency Viscount Palmerston, at the very moment when the work of the 
pacific solution of the Turkish question, and of the pacification of Europe, 
founded upon the ever-memorable Treaty of the 16th of July, has just been 
crowned with complete success, and he has the honour, &c. 

(Signed) BUNSEN, 

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No. 3. 

Viscount Palmerston to Viscount Ponsonhy. 

My Lord, Foreign Office^ July 26, 1841. 

I TRANSMIT to your Excellency herewith a copy of a note which 
I have received from the Chevalier Bunsen, who has been sent to this 
country on a special mission by the King of Prussia, to explain His 
Majesty's views as to the means of improving the condition of the Christian 
population in the Ottoman Empire, and to endeavour to obtain the co-operation 
of Her Majesty's Grovernment in procuring the recognition of the Protestant 
Church in Turkey. 

I have to acquaint your Excellency that the Government of Her Majesty 
Adopts with great earnestness the plan proposed by the King of Prussia^ as 
detailed in the inclosed paper, for affording to European Protestants encourage- 
ment to settle and purchase land in the Turkish dominions ; and for securing to 
Protestants, whether native subjects of the Porte or foreigners who have settled in 
Turkey, securities and protection similar to those which Christians of other deno- 
minations enjoy. I have therefore to instruct your Excellency to communicate 
immediately upon these matters with the Prussian Charg^ d' Affaires at Constan- 
tinople, and to take without delay, in concert with him, such steps as may 
appear to your Excellency and to the Prussian Charg^ d' Affaires best calculated 
to obtain from the Porte arrangements by which these objects may be secured. 

Her Majesty's Government feel great interest in this matter, and they hope 
and trust that your Excellency's negotiations thereupon may be successful. 

I am, &c. 

No. 4 

Viscount Palmerston to the Chevalier Bunsen. 

Sir, Foreign Office^ July 80, 1841. 

I HAVE the honour to transmit to you herewith, for the information of 
your Government, a copy of an instruction which I have addressed to Her 
Majesty's Ambassador at Constantinople, communicating to his Excellency a 
copy of your note of the 15th instant, and instructing him to co-operate with 
the Prussian Oharg6 d' Affaires at Constantinople for the attainment of the 
objects therein referred to. 

I am, &c^ 
(Signed) PALMEESTOK". 

No. 6. 

Viscount Ponsonby to Viscount Palmerston. — {Received September 30.) 

(Extract.) Therapia, September 8, 1841. 

I EXPECT to succeed in obtaining a firman to authorize the erection of a 
Protestant church at Jerusalem. I wiU report, when the affau* is terminated, 
the steps I have taken. 

No. 6. 

Viscount Ponsonby to Viscount Palmerston. — (Received October 8.) 

(Extract.) Therapia, September 15, 1841. 

IN obedience to your instructions, I have had commimication with bis 
Excellency the Prussian Envoy, on the subject of establishmg Protestant 
churches in this country ; and his Excellency has had an interview with the 

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Minister for Foreign Affairs, of which he has been good enough to give me an 
account in a letter which I inclose for your information. 

Since the above-mentioned interview took place, I have learned from others 
whom I employed to further the measure, that nothing more will be obtainecl 
than an imavowed permission from the Ottoman Ministers for us to build an 
English church at Jerusalem, and a promise that they (the Ministers) will order 
the Turkish authorities (including the Cadi) at Jerusalem not to oppose our 
erecting it, but on condition that the fabric shall be modest and unostentatious 
in appearance and dimensions, and not calculated to attract attention. I hope 
to have this promise in writing. The Porte will not, I fear, grant any firman. 

If we do obtain these things, I am certain we shall ere long be enabled 
thereby to do all we can reasonably desire as to the establishment of Protestant 
churches generally. 

I presume Her Majesty's Government would not attempt to force the will 
of the Porte on a matter connected with the religious feelings of the Turks. 

Inclosure in No. 6. 
Count Kcenigsmark to Viscount Ponsonby. 

M. le Vicomte, Ce Dimanche, 12 Septembre. 

JE sors dans ce moment de chez Rifaat Pacha, k qui j'ai parl^ dans le sens 
que nous etions convenus hier sur Taffaire en question. 

J'ai trouv^ en g^n^ral ce Ministre assez bien dispose. II m'a dit en r^sum^ 
que la Porte ne s'^tait jamais m^l^e des etrangers r^sidans dans T Empire 
Ottoman, et qu'elle ne s'en mfelerait pas dor^navant, de sorte que les sv^eis 
Protestans des Puissances amies pourraient se Uvrer ici aussi bien aux pratiques 
de leur culte que le faisaient les Catholiques et Grecs strangers, et que leurs 
cimeti^res, leurs h6pitaux, et leurs autres ^tabUssemens reUgieux seraient ^ale- 
ment respect^s ; qu'il ^tait contre les preceptes de la reUgion Musulmane de 
permettre ouvertement la construction de nouvelles ^glises ; mais en s'exprimant 
ainsi, Rifaat Pacha donnaitk entendre que nous Protestans nous pourrions etablir 
partout des chapelles dans ou k c6t^ de nos hotels d'Ambassade ou de L^atioa, 
dans ou k c6t^ des habitations de nos Consuls et Agens, soit ici soit ailleurs. 

VA le petit nombre de Protestans qui se trouvent actuellement en Turquia, 
ces chapelles sufRraient certes pour le commencement. 

Le Ministre Turc ajouta qu'il n^ avait pas jusqu'^ present des Rayaa 
Protestans ; mais que si des families AUemandes ou autres de ce rit voulaient 
^migrer en Turqute et devenir sujets de Sa Hautesse, ainsi que les Juifs 
d'Espagne Tavaient fait dans le temps, la SubUme Porte, k ce qu'il croyait, les 
recevrait volo&tiers et leur assurerait d'avance le libre exercice de leur culte 
et la jouissance enti^re des dispositions de la declaration de Gulhan^, et par 
•consequent la faculty de batir des ^gUses, d'acheter des terrains, &c. 

La solution de la question ainsi posee ne donnerait, en v6rite, aux Cours 
d'Angleterre et de Prusse, que le droit d une protection officieuse das ^glises 
Protestantes form^es par des sujets Ottomans, mais k cette exception pr^s, elle 
s'approcherait assez aux propositions que M. Bunsen a consignees dans la note 
qu'il a eu Thonneur de presenter le 16 Juillet k Lord PalmerstpQ^ et que sa 
Seigneurie a nemis k votre ExcelleiMje par sa d^ptehe en date du 26 Juillet 


M. le Vicomte, Sunday, September 12, 

I AM just returned from Eifkat Pasha, to whom I spoke in the sense agreed 
upon by us yesterday, with respect to the matter in question. 

I found that Minister, upon the whole, suflSciently well-disposed. He said 
to me, in a few words, that the Porte had never interfered with foreigners 
residing within the Ottoman Empire, and that it would not meddle with them 
for. the fhture, so that the Protestant subjects of friendly Powers would be as free 
to practise their religion as were the Catholics and foreign Greeks ; and that their 

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burial-grounds, hospitals, and other jeUgious establishments would be equally 
respected; that it was contrary to the precepts of the Mahometan religion 
openly to permit the construction of new churches ; but whilst he thus 
expressed himself, Eifaat Pasha gave it to be understood that we Protestants 
are at liberty everywhere to establish chapels within or adjoining to the resi- 
dences of the Embassy or Legation, within or adjoining to the houses of our 
Ckmsuls and Agents, either here or elsewhere. 

Considering the small number of Protestants who are at present in Turkey 
those chapels would certainly suffice for a beginning. 

The Turkish Minister added that as yet there were no Protestant Rayas, 
but that if German families or others of that creed chose to emigrate to 
Turkey and to become subjects of His Highness, as the Spanish Jews had at 
one time done, the Sublime Porte, as he conceived, would willingly receive them, 
and would secure to them beforehand the free exercise of their religion and the 
complete enjoyment of the pijovisions of the Declaration of Gulhan^, and con- 
sequently the right to build churches, to buy land, &c. 

The question being settled in this manner would, in truth, only give to 
the Courts of England and of Prussia a right of protecting unofficially the 
Protestant churches established by Ottoman subjects^ but with this exception^ 
it would nearly meet the proposals which M. Bunsen has made in the note 
which he had the honour to present on the 15th of July to Lord PalmerstcHV 
and of which his Lordship forwarded a copy to jojxr Excellency in his despatch 
dated the 26th of July last. 

Na 7. 
Viscount Ponsonby to the Barl of Jberdeen.^^Rec9ived November 1.) 

(Extract.) Therapia, October 7, 184L 

I HAD a final interview with Rifaat Pasha this day, at which I renewed 
till the arguments in support of the demand for permission to build a church at 

The Pasha will send me an official note on the 9th, containing his reply 
to what 1 have said on the subject, and containing the refusal of the demand. 

The Ottoman Ministers are not personally adverse to what has been askedv 
but they are overruled by their fears of some Ulemas in the Council, having the 
Sheik-ul-Islam at their head. 

T spoke very strongly to Rifaat. I pointed out to him the risk the Porte 
incurred of giving offence to Her Majesty's Government, by denying to them 
that which had been ^^nted to others. I told him he was in error when he 
denied our right, and I claimed it not only on the grounds set forth in my 
official note, but specifically in addition in right of the most ancient of our 
capitulations. His Excellency did not exactly know the fact L alluded to, for 
which reason. I will send another note inclosing the XVII 1th Article of the 
Capitulation signed in the reign of Sultan Mehemed, which is as follows : 

'* XVIII. That all the capitulations, privileges, and articles granted to the 
French, the Venetians, and other Princes who are in amity with the Sublime 
Porte, having been in like manner through favour granted to the English, by 
virtue of our special command, they shall be always observed, according to the 
form and tenor thereof, so that no one in future do presume to violate the same, 
and act in contravention thereof.'* 

I maintained that we have a right founded on treaty, that all the privileges 
of every kind granted to the French should be considered as belonging equally 
to us, and that to refuse them to us might possibly be considered an insult. 

His Excellency said it was no insult. I replied that unfortunately it did 
not depend upon the opinion of his Excellency, and that Her Majesty's Govern- 
ment might think it an insult. Our conversation was perfectly amicable 
in tone, and it was evident that the Pasha would readily consent to the demand 
made, if he had power to do so. 

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Ko. 8. ■ ' 

Mr. Bankhead to the Earl of Aberdeen. — {Received November 1 .) 


(Extract.) Therapiay October 11, 1841. 

IN reference to Lord Ponsonby's despatch, of the 7th instant, I have the 
honour to transmit to your Lordship the copy of a note addressed by him 
to his Excellency Rifaat Easha. 

Inclosure in No. 8. 
Viscount Ponsonby to Rifaat Pasha. 

Therapia, October 11, 1841. ' 

THE Undersigned, Her Britannic Majesty's Ambassador Extraordinary 
and Plenipotentiary to the Sublime Ottoman Porte, has the honour to call the 
attention of his Excellency Rifaat Pasha, Minister for Foreign Affairs, to the 
following Article contained in the ancient Capitulations between Great Brita n 
And the Ottoman Empire, agreed upon and established by Sultan Mehemet : 

Article XVni. — " That all capitulations, privileges, and articles granted 
to the French, Venetian, and other Princes who are in amity with the Sublime 
Porte, having been in like manner, (through favour granted) to the English by 
virtue of our special command, the same shall always be observed, according 
to the favour and tenor thereof, so that no one in future do presume to violate 
the same, or act in contravention thereof." 

The Undersigned conceives it impossible for his Excellency the Minister 
for Foreign Affairs to entertain any doubt, after having read the above-cited 
Article, that the Government of Great Britain is entitled by right to enjoy 
every privilege enjoyed by the French and others ; and the Undersigned thinks 
it unnecessary to point out to his Excellency the direct and clear application of 
it to the affair of the church. 

It remains for his Excellency to consider what may be the consequences of 
a violation by the Sublime Porte of its Treaties with Great Britain. 

The Undersigned, &c. (Signed) POKSONBY. 

No. 9. 
Mr. Bankhead to the Earl of Aberdeen. — {Received December 8.) 

(Extract.) Pera, November 17, 1841. 

I LEARNT to-day from a source upon which I have every right to place 
confidence, that the wish so often expressed by Her Majesty's Government, for 
permission to build a church at Jerusalem is not unlikely to be gratified ; 
but some delay must take place before the question can be discussed 
with much prospect of success in the Council. 

The Prussian Chargd d' Affaires gave me a despatch to read from his 
Government in which BGis Prussian Majesty's earnest desire for the success of 
this measure is expressed, and M, de Wagner is instructed to give his assistance 
to Her Majesty's Embassy for its final accomplishment. 

I have &c 

No. 10. 
The Earl of Aberdeen to Sir Stratford Canning. 

Sir, Foreign Office, March 20, 1843. 

HER Majesty's Government have had under their consideration several 
despatches wluch have recently been received at this office from Her Majesty's 

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Consul-General in Syria, as well as from Her Majesty's Consul at Jerusalem, 
respecting the conduct of the Turkish authorities at Jerusalem and Beyrout, 
with regard to the Protestant church at Jerusalem, the erection of which, after 
having been for some time tacitly permitted by the Turkish authorities, has at 
length been abruptly and somewhat arbitrarily stopped. 

Although that building had certainly been commenced without the express 
authority of the Porte, which had always declined granting a formal permission 
for that object, yet, as it had been stated to Her Majesty*s Government by Her 
Majesty's Ambassador at Constantinople (as appears from a despatch dated 
September 16, 1841), that he had reason to suppose that, provided the 
fabric should be modest and unostentatious in appearance and should form part 
of the Consular residence, no obstruction would be thrown by the Turkish autho- 
rities in the way of its erection ; and as that building had not for many months 
been opposed or obstructed. Her Majesty's Government had certainly hoped 
that the further prosecution of it might and would have been allowed. 

Her Majesty's Government stiU entertain a hope that, on a temperate 
representation of their wishes being made to that effect, the Turkish Govern- 
ment maybe induced to permit the building to be recommenced, and to continue 
without further interruption. 

I have therefore to desire that your Excellency will bring this subject under 
the consideration of the Turkish Minister for Foreign Affairs ; that you will 
represent to him the disappointment which has been felt at the sudden interrup- 
tion of the work, after having been so long permitted by the Turkish authorities 
at Jerusalem ; and that you will request the Turkish Minister to convey such 
orders to the Pasha of Jerusalem as shall empower him to authorize the recom- 
mencement and unobstructed prosecution of the building. 

I hesitate to instruct your Excellency to demand from the Porte a formal 
firman for the above object, because it appears to me that it might not be 
prudent to risk a repetition of the positive reftisal which has been already given 
by it more than once to such a proposition ; but I willingly leave it entirely 
to your Excellency to act in this matter according to your own judgment, and 
the knowledge which you may possess or be able to acquire of the feelings of 
the Sultan and his principal Ministers on this point at the present moment. 

Provided permission to proceed with the church be attained, and the risk 
of further interruption removed, the manner of accomplishing that object is of 
less importance. 

Your Excellency will not fail to communicate with the Prussian Minister 
on this subject, and to take such measures, in concert with him, as may appear 
most likely to prove successful. 

I am, &c. 
(Signed) ABEEDEEN. 

No. 11. 
The Earl of Westmorland to the Earl of Aberdeen. — {Received April 4.) 

My Lord, Berliriy March 29, 1843. 

I COMMUNICATED to Baron BiQow your Lordship^s instructions to 
Sir Stratford Canning, upon the subject of the Protestant Church at Jerusalem, 
of which he entirely approved; and he has given similar directions to 
M. de le Coq^ who proceeds to-morrow to his destination as Prussian Minister 
at Constantinople. 

I have &c 
(Signed) ' WESTMORLAND. 

No. 12. 

The Earl of Aberdeen to Sir Stratford Canning. 

Sir, Foreign Office, April 5, 1843. 

TTITH reference to my despatch to your Excellency of the 20 th 
ultimo, respecting the interruption offered by the Turkish authorities to the 


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liiril<iiti§' of the Protestatft (*tirdi at Jerosalefm, I tramimt to ytra herewlQi for 
your infbrmation a copy of a despatch from Her Majesty's Mmister at Beifia, 
reporting that ttie Prussian Minister at Constantinode wiH receive similtt 
instructions to those contained in my despatch to your Excellency. 

I am, &c 

(Sigaed) ABERDEEN. 

Fo. IS. 
Sir Stratford Cmninff to l^e Emi &f Aberdeen. -^(Received May 7.) 

My Lord^ Cknstantimaple^ April 18, 184S*. 

SOME time before the receipt of your Lordship's instruction of the 20th 
ultimo^ I had endearoured hy confidential means to obtain the revocat&m 
of the order by nrhich the construction of the Protestant Episcopal church Hi 
Jerusalem has been suspended. I had so far succeeded as to receive an 
assurance that the Sultan would not object to issue the desired firman, provided 
the consent of the Mufti were obtained, and also a promise that the Mufti 
should be requested to give his consent ; but 1 have found it impossible to 
make any further progress in the affair. Uo refttsal has been yet declared; 
but my endeavours to procure a satisfactory result are silently evaded, an4 
I can only cherish a fisiint hope that the communication of your Lord^p^ 
instructions to Sarim Effendi, whenever a convenient opportunity may occw, 
win be attended with more effect. 

I have S^ 
(Signed) ' Sf RATPORI> CAHKIFa. 

No. 14. 
Sir Stratford Canning to the Earl of Aberdeen. — (Received May 23.) 

(Extract.) Constantinople, May I, 18^. 

THE Prussian Chaig^ d' Affaires has communicated to me a despatch from 
M. de Billow respecting the church at Jerusalem, and expressive of a wish to 
obtain permission from the Porte for the completion of that edifice. I told 
Count de Portalds that I had similar instructions from your Lordship. I ex- 
plained to him the course which I had hitherto pursued, and declared my 
readiness to co-operate with him for the accomplishment of the object in 
question. He said, with reject to taking any simultaneoue step^ that be shoidd 
prefer waiting for the arrived of M. le Coq, who was already on the road, and 
might be expected within a few days. 

As so<m as that minister arrives I shall not fail to comasunieate mtk him 
v^pon the subject. 

I sent Mr. Alison to Sarim Efitendi again this morning. According to 
present appearances, it would seem that a firman is out of the question^ and 
that a permission from the Porte to go on with the building is not l^iLely to 
be yielded without much c{>position. 

Ho. 15. 

7%e Earl of Aberdeen to Sir Stratford Canning. 

(Extract.) Foreign Office, October 4, ISASf. 

WTTB. reference to previous corremondence on the aubject of the IW- 
festant church aliready begun at Jeijasafem, and the recent suspension of its 

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farther erection by the Turkish authorities at that place^ I have to inform your 
Excellency that I have received informaiiion of a very positive nature from the 
Prussian Minister at this Court, to the eflRect that the allegation put forward by 
the Turkish authoritiM that the ground oil wbidi tlM buiidiiig was carrying on 
was vakoof, is unfounded. 

It appears that during the recent possession of Jerusalem by the Egyptiaijs, 
an Armenian bought that ground as an alienable vakoof, having originally -be^ 
loured to a church of Jacobites ; tad that be veBcid it openly and, as permitted 
1^ Ukw, to Mr. Nicolaysoflu 

Mr. STiealayBon, I und^nrtand, will proceed to Constaatinopie with all the 
papers necefisarv to prove this hjtt. 

It is intended to surroimd the ehureh by buildiBga which will £or«i ib part 
the Prussian Consulate; the British Consular residence lieisg also contiguous to 
those buildings on one side. 

Thus the church will have the character of a Consular chapel, and having 
this character. Her Majesty's Government are unwilling to suppose that the 
Turkish Government will offer any further opposition to its erection; on the 
contrary, they trust that the desired firman will be granted for its continuation. 

Your Excellency will lay these circumstances before the Porte, and again urge 
them to give their consent to the* resumption of the suspended buildings, by 
issuing a firman to that effect, and despatching the necessary instruction for 
that purpose to their authorities at Jerusalem. 

^o. IS. 

Sir Stratford dummg to the Earl of Jberdeen.^Remved Duemlker 2i*) 

(Extract.) Constantinople, December 1, 1843. 

THE receipt of your Lordship's instructions respecting the c^ur<^ at 
Jerusalem, the Prussian Minister's communication of similar instructions 
addressed to him, and the arrival of Mr. Nicolayson, have induced me to waive 
every other consideration, and to prepare for a strenuous endeavour to overcome 
the Porte's objections to a completion of tJie sacred edifice. The grounds upon 
which our demand is now to be placed appear to open a better prospect 
of success. The proposed connexion of the church with the dwelling- 
houses assigned to the British and Prussian Contois, oi|gfat to Oftn/ke powerfully 
in favour of a satis£a.ctory arrangement. 

No. 17. 

The Maori oi We^trnwrlamA to ihe Earl 4^ Merdom^^iBiceimt Jmuarf 16.) 

(Extract.) Berlin, Jantuiry 10, 1844. 

I READ Sir Stratford Canning's despatch of December 1, to Baron Biilow, 
who desired me to assure your Lordship of the interest which the King of 
Prussia continued to take in the ^deavour to obtain the object for which Her 
Majesty's Ambassador seemed determined to use every exertion, and which he 
still hoped by his renewed efforts would W ieMrad* 



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2Jo. 18. 
The Earl of Aberdeen to Sir Stratford Canning. 

Sir, Foreign Office, January 20, 1844. 

I COMMUNICATED to Lord Westmorland a copy of your Excellency's 
despatch of the Ist of December, stating the course which you propose to adopt 
in execution of my instruction of the 4th of October, respecting the Protestant 
church at Jersualem ; and I inclose for your Excellency's information a copy 
of a despatch from his Lordship, containing an account of his interview with 
the Prussian Minister on the subject of your despatch. 

I am, &c. 
(Signed) ABERDEEN. 

No. 19. 
Sir Stratford Canning to the Earl of Aberdeen. — (Received February 8.) 

(Extract.) Constantinople, January 16, 1844. 

WITH the concurrence of the Prussian Minister, and after communicating 
fully with Mr. Nicolayson, who is still here, I have applied to Eifaat Pasha in 
favour of the interrupted buildings and Protestant church at Jerusalem. I have 
taken care to bring the matter before him in the point of view recommended 
by your Lordship's late instructions. His Excellency admits that our demand 
is less objectionable in its present shape, and has engaged to talk it over with 
the Grand Vizier and the other members of the Council. He nevertheless 
foresees much difficulty, and advises another postponement. 

As I see no sufficient reason for acquiescing in this suggestion, I shall 
graduaUy press the subject to a decision. 


Sir Stratford Canning to the Earl of Aberdeen. — {Received February 28.) 

(Extract.) Constantinople, February 1, 1844. 

THE question of the suspended buildings at Jerusalem, notwithstanding 
the advantageous position in which it is now placed, is still an object in regard 
to which I feel it necessary to proceed with care and circumspection. 

Mr. Alison is to wait upon the Pasha to-morrow morning with the letter 
and statement, of which copies are herewith inclosed, and it is to be hoped 
that the general disposition of the Turkish Ministers will be soon sufficiently 
ascertained to determine by what further and more ostensible steps the question 
may be most effectually advanced. 

Inclosure 1 in S"o. 20. 

Sir Stratford Canning to Rifaat Pasha. 

Pera of Constantinople, January 31, 1844. 
IT is in pursuance of my previous conmiunication that I send your Excel- 
lency the accompanying memorandum. By placing the application, which I 
have been instructed to renew, on its true grounds, I hope to remove any shadow 
of doubt, and motive of objection. Your Excellency's just and candid mind will 

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not fail to appreciate the merits of the question^ and I cannot refrain from 
pressing it most earnestly to a favomttble decision. At the same time, I have 
the honour to offer the assmance of my highest consideration. 

(Signed) STRATFORD CAimiKG. 

Inclosure 2 in No. 20. 
Memorandum respectiny Suspended Buildings at Jerusalem. 

THIS question to which the English not less than the Prussian Government 
attaches so much importance is again by special instruction brought under the 
candid consideration of the Porte. The difficulties and misrepresentations, 
which have. been hitherto interposed so as to interrupt the happy settlement of 
this matter, and to give rise to misconceptions of the intentions of the British 
Government, will, it is evident, be set aside by the following statement. 

The place of worship in question is intended to form part of the buildings 
of the British and Prussian Consulates at Jerusalem, and indeed, when com- 
pleted, cannot be distinguished, from without, as otherwise. It is a chapel 
attached to a consular establishment to serve as a place of worship, and is 
wholly contained within it. 

Lord Aberdeen in his despatch says that " bearing this character. Her 
Majesty's Government are unwilling to suppose that the Turkish Government 
will offer any further opposition ; on the contrary, they trust that the desired 
order will be granted for the continuation of its erection. You will therefore 
lay the circumstances befere the Porte, and again urge them to give their con- 
sent, and to dispatch the necessary orders on the subject to the authorities at 

The absence of Protestant sectarians among the Rayas of the Porte, and 
the well-known principles of Great Britain, which prevent her from meddling 
with the religious belief of others, are of themselves sufficient proofs of the un- 
obtrusive character of this building. If, under this aspect, any words were 
necessary, these circumstances alone, united with the candid explanation above 
given, would render them still less so. 

The British Government has at all times and on all occasions endeavoured 
to afford the Sublime Porte proofs of the sincerity and uprightness of her inten- 
tions, and acting always on the same principle, she does not now hesitate to ask 
with confidence what is important to her as connected with sacred associations, 
and what is neither against the laws, no^ prejudicial to the interests of a friendly 

No. 21. 
Sir Stratford Canning to the Earl of Aberdeen. — (Received May 22.) 

(Extract.) Constantinople, May 3, 1844. 

ON further communication with Rifaat Pasha respecting the Protestant 
church at Jerusalem, his Excellency has informed me definitively that the 
Council is not prepared to reconsider its former unfavourable decision, but that 
enquiries have been addressed to the Pasha of Seyda, with reference to the 
buildings proposed to be erected at Jerusalem for the eventual accommodation 
of the British and Prussian Consuls, and that in the event of Assaad Pasha's 
returning a satisfactory answer, no objection wiU be made to a resumption of 
the interrupted works, it being understood that whatever part of the buildings 
may hereafter be used as a consular chapel, it will be so circumstanced as not 
to attract obtrusively the public attention. 

I am happy to add, that agreeably to my request, orders wiU be given to 
secure Her Majesty's Consul at Jerusalem in the possession of the small plot of 
ground which he purchased several years ago, under the sanction of the Egyp- 
tian Government, as a place of burial for British subjects, and to empower him 
to surround it with walls. 

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No- 22. 
Comwl Wood to the Earl of Aberdeen. — (Received May 13.) 

(Extract.) Damascus, March 23, 1844. 

I HAVE the honour of submitting respectfully to your Lordship's perusal 
copy of my report (Inclosure under So. 1) to Her Majesty's Ambajssador, 
respecting the secession of about one hundred and fifty Greeks from their faith 
in behalf of the English church. 

Although it is evident that no British subjects were connected with the 
elboye incidents^ the secedcrs have judged it neceosary, nevertheless, to address 
two memorials to this Consulate (Inclosures Ifos. 2 and 8), with the hope of 
procuring its support and protection in case the Turkish, authorities interfered 
With them. 

As such an erent could not fail to rouse the susincion and jealousy of the 
local, foreign, and native ecclesiastical authorities, 1 deemed it most prudent ta 
Mx>id makmg any reply to these memorials. 

Under such circumstances, I had no aHematrre but to address a remon- 
strance (Inclosure No. 4) to AaB Ftaha couched in terms to correspond wiA 
the spirit betrayed by the authorities ; disavowing our connexion with the 
secession of the Greeks, and disclaiming any pretension to protect them. 

At the same time I endeavoured to persuade Aali Pasha, at a subsequent 
personal interview, that it was immaterial whether the Eayas of the Porte 
belonged to the English, Greek, Roman, or French Catholic Church, so long 
as they paid their taxes, and remained &ithful and submissive to her, winch 
was a precept strongly inculcated by Christianity. 

It became an earnest object with me to appease the excitement created, 
and to remove the fears and suspicion of the Turkish, foreign, and ecclemastieal 
authorities, in order to prevent any exaggerated reports of the matter from 
Ipeadrntg the capital ; at the same lame that I endeavoured to screen <he 
seceders from acts of severity, the dictates of jealousy and intolerance, by 
disclahning any pretension to protect them. A contrary declaration, by 
destpojing confidence, would have produced a contrary result; and I would fain 
hope that the line of conduct I prescribed to myself, has materially tended te 
lessen the importance that was universally attached to it, and with it the 
consequences that wquld have necessarily followed. 

inclosure 1 in ISTo. 22. 
Consul Wood to Sir Stratford Canning. 

(Extract.) Damascus^ March 18, 1844. 

I HAVE the honour to acquaint yeur Excellency with an incident that has 
lately occurred at Hasbeya, and which has created considerable excitement both 
here and elsewhere. 

The Haradj, or Capitation Tax, paid originally by the Christian iahabi- 
laata of that district, ameunting to 7,620 piastres^ wafi, according to an old 
custom, included in the tribute le^ed from l^en^ and continued so until the 
late Defterdar, Faik Efiend^ thought proper to increase it to about 22^00 
l^yastres, taking caste, hewever, to ^duct the 7,620 piastres from the sum total 
of the annual tribute. 'C^ this airangement being disregarded by his successoj^ 
the present Defteordar, whe denanded and endeavoured to extort from tfaem 
Ibolh sums, the Grreek Bishop fumislied them with a letter to Faik Effendi, 
■etnally at Beyrout, soliciting fr^ instractions to his fiscal i^fficers to adhei^ 
to the rule laid down by himself. 

I am not acquainted with the reception the deputtttian with dye Bishop's 
letter met from 1^ Eff^di^ but it w<Mild a|f)ear the nieiiibers timt ooiii{)Qsed it 
liad irecottwe to the American mbaion at Beyrout for the prc^pagatioii of the 
Gk>^el, which supplied them, it is rq^orted, though I am i^norai^ Ujpon what 
antbwitf, with 25 piscaes (llOl), together with a number of vdigious diooke^ 
with which they retunied to their district, abjuring pub&df t^eir fitkt^ aaddo^ 
daring themselves members of the Engli^ Church. 

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After some fruitless attempts of iihe Bishop, and of the rest of the Greek 
community, to divert them from their purpose, the former acquainted the 
patriarch of Damascus with what had occurred, at the same time that the Go- 
vernor, Emir Saad-el-Deen, apprized the local Government of it, in order to 
free himself of any responsibility, in case the dissensions that this event hadl 
erelated in the odliodox Greek Ghnrdi of Hasbeya degenerated into more 
seriotn disturbanees. Several aciinuMaaos messa^s passed in oDnteqoenoe W 
tweeir the Pstriarcb and the Turkish aotbarities, who mutually reprcNadied eacb 
othar — ^the former with ihe exoesaave bnrd^ imposed upon bis flock, and tfa» 
latter with the little power lie seemed to possess over thesft. 

The matter appeared, however, of »afl|cie»t ioaipcirtattee to AaU P«dw 
to Mihorize its being made the subject of warm discussion isi his Ooundl^ 
composed of hi» Excellency and Kahyia, (rf Kara Aali Pasha, the Emir^el-Hadj, 
tbe Sonra Eminy, the Deft^dar and Buleiman Effendi — this latter of whom 
argved that it was singular, at the very moment the British Government -were 
earnestly asking of tl»e Porte rdigit)us toleration in bdbalf of her Rayas, that 
British subjects should be found in these parts converting them to the' British 
Church, and endeavoured to explain^ on this assumption, the secret motires, 
which had instigated Her Majesty's G<yvemment to it ; upon which Karably 
Paaha proposed to have recourse to measures of force to compel the Gredbs 
who had abjured their faith to return to it, which his Excellency overruled, and 
decided iustead to address Asswl Pasha on the subject, and to seek explanations 
from him with respect to the supposed connexion or infterference of the foreign 
agents w th^ subjects m the seces»on of the JSayas of the Porte from a churdi 
lecogniaed by hen 

In the interval, the seceders, a|q[>rdien3ive of the consequences to them* 
selves of the step they had taken at Beyrout, addressed me a memorial (a 
translati<m of wMdi I have the honour of indosing herewith), which having re* 
mained without any acknowledgment from me, was followed by another, 
which also, from various cogent considerations, remained without a reply. 

The Greek Patriardi, on the other hand, dreading tiie effects of a division 
in his dmrdi, called on me to ask for explanations, which gave me the oppor- 
txmity of asauring his Eminence that he may rest satisfied the servants of Her 
Majesty *s Government in Syria had it for nde never to interfere in the religiow 
affiurs or dissensions of the peo{de, and that he may therefore consider as a 
laalicions misrepresentation anything said or advanced wfaidi identified them 
with transactions of die nature he complained of. 

It is however with deep regret I venture to state very respectfully to 
your Ex4;dlency that all my efforts to appease the excitement which the seces* 
sion of 150 Greeks from their church has created against us have hitherto 
proved ineffectual, on account of the suspicion and jealousy to which this event 
has given rise in the breasts of the Turkish, foreign, and ecclesiastical authori- 
ties, and of the people at large, who believe, or feign to believe, that we are 
favourable to proselytism, inasmuch as it may facilitate hereafter the invasion of 
this country — an assertion which is studiously circulated by those who are 
anxious to witness the subversion of British influence in Syria, and which it is 
to be presumed will be repeated in the reports of the Turkish and foreign 
agents to their re^ective Governments. 

After maturely weighing the mischievous consequences to us both here and 
elsewhere, under present circumstances, of so groundless an imputation, I 
^emed it my duty to address a remonstrance to his Excellency Aali Pasha^ 
disavowing in the most formal manner the supposed connexion of British sub- 
jects with the peculiar transaction of Hasbeya, with the more hnmediate view, 
however, of rendering him more cautious and circumspect in the mamier, tone, 
and i^irit he writes to the Porte respecting it by to-day*B conveyance. 

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Inclosure 2 in No. 22. 
Memorial of Orthodox Greeks of Hasheya. 


YOUR servants, a hundred of the inhabitants of Hasbeya, have the 
honour to state that, after a strict examination and constant reading of the 
sacred books, which are the guides of every Christian for the salvation of he 
soul, that is, the books of the missionaries of the Gospel, we proceeded to 
Beyrout about ten days ago, and had the honour of receiving a number, of 
books for the purpose of opening schools for the teaching of our children, that 
they may return to their primitive faith ; and we, the hundred individuals; so 
soon that we saw that by these means we could save our souls, every, one of us 
embraced this law (faith), and abandoned that of the Greeks; but on our 
arrival at Hasbeya, the Greek community, their bishop, priests, and notables, 
flew upon us with the intention of causing us to return to error and perdition. 
We did not return, however, and on this becoming evident to them, their 
bishop wrote to the Patriarch of Damascus, accusing us of having separated 
ourselves from their congregation, and of having become English (of the 
English Church), in order that the English may through us enter (invade) 

They have likewise accused us of entertaining the above intention to Emir 
Saad-el-Deen and Ibrahim EflFendi, belonging to the Defterdar, stating more- 
over to the Emir that he will be greatly blamed by the Porte ; and probably 
they have caused him and Ibrahim Effendi to write to the local Government, to 
persuade us or violently force us to return to their congregation. 

• We, your slaves, have no support or aid but what we derive from the 
countenance you may give us ; as Rayas of the Sultan we are bound to pay 
to the Treasury the tribute asked of us, and have, moreover, paid already a 
third of the taxes ; we can have, therefore, no other object but the salvation of 
our souls. We are emboldened, in consequence, to throw ourselves at your 
Excellency's threshhold, seeking an asylum and your countenance, together 
with a letter to Emir Saad-el-Deen, directing him to govern us in our temporal 
matters, but not to interfere with us in our spiritual ones. 

We have become your slaves, and wiU offer our prayers for you : we expect 
our deliverance at your hands, as well as the prevention of any injury to us 
from the Government. Were . they to cut us up like tobacco, we would not 
return our souls to perdition. Gain, therefore, the prayers of ourselves and of 
our families ; and as we have become the bought slaves of your Government, 
all repetitions become superfluous. 

From your Slaves, 

The 100 Inhabitants of Hasbeya. . 

Inclosure 3 in No. 22. 

Second Memorial of Orthodox Greeks of Hasbeya. 


AFTER kissing your honoured hands, and offering our prayers for your 
eternal preservation, we represent that we have already addresssed you pre- 
viously, acquainting you with our having had the honour of embracing the 
English faith, as well as with what had occurred to us, but up to the present 
date we have not received any reply : in consequence, we have taken the liberty 
of wilting to yoii the present memorial, in order that you may be pleased to 
honour us with an answer. Your Excellency under all circumstances is bound 
to benefit your slaves. 

We, who are now in number 160, have paid our share of the taxes, and 
we beg of you therefore to give us your countenance, &c. 

Your Servants of Hasbeya, 

Of the Community of the Gt>spel. 

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Inclosure 4 in No. 22. 

Consul Wood to Aali Pasha. 

(After the usual Compliments.) March 17, 1844. 

IT would be as useless as it would be contrary to the frankness of our 
friendly relations, were I to pretend ignorance of the transaction of Hasbeya, 
which has created here and elsewhere so much excitement, jealousy, and 

The secession of about 1 60 Greeks of that district from their creed, in 
favour of the English Church, the public voice attributes to the agency of 
British subjects and ser\'^ants ; and on these slender grounds it has been made 
the subject of earnest discussion in your Excellency's councils, and of a 
communication to his Excellency Assaad Pasha. 

Had your Excellency done me the honour of asking me an explanation 
in the first instance, I should have gladly availed myself of the opportunity 
thus afforded me, to have given your Excellency an unreserved and a positive 
assurance, as I give it now, that, not only none of Her Majesty's subjects are 
in any manner connected with the secession of the Gree^ of Hasbeya from 
their faith, but that it is likewise a general rule with the servants of Her 
Majesty, never to interfere with the religion of the inhabitants of the country 
wherein they reside. 

* After the many unequivocal proofs that the British Agents have given to 
the officers of the Sublime Porte of their sincere wish to see the interests of 
the Turkish Government consolidated in Syria, it cannot but be painful to 
them and to me to see ourselves unjustly identified with an affair with which 
we disavow, in the most formal manner, every connexion ; and, indeed, if the 
fiscal officers of the Porte will be pleased to take into their consideration the 
many heavy taxes that are paid by the Eayas of Hasbeya, they will there 
find the real cause of their despair, which has pushed them even to the abjura- 
tion of their faith, through the medium of persons who are by no means British 

Your Excellency is perfectly well aware that there are many Protestant 
countries in Europe besides England, the same as there are many nations in Asia 
and Africa besides Turkey which profess Islamism. I beg, then, to ask your 
Excellency what would the Mushirs of the Porte say, were we to accuse 
them of any act committed against us by a subject of the Emperor of Morocco, 
merely because the offender happened to be, like themselves, of the Mahommedan 
faith? Assuredly they would be astonished, if not indignant, at such an 
accusation. Her Majesty's Agents in Syria have, therefore, an equal right to 
know by what process they are made responsible for, and are accused with, the 
acts of the subjects of other and independent States ? Those only who have 
come to such a conclusion can best explain it : for my part, I confess I cannot 
understand it, and only see in it the unworthy attempts of some to undermine 
the respect and consideration the Syrians owe my Government from sentiments 
of gratitude : to effect which, and in order to create suspicion, they have more 
than once imputed to us, as they impute to us in this instance, a secret wish to 
favour proselytism with the object of increasing our influence in these parts* 

To these groundless imputations, with which I became first acquainted by 
your Excellency's predecessors, I have often replied, as I now do, that the 
high position enjoyed by Great Britain, in consequence of her large armies 
and fleets (and which were but so recently and effectively employed in these 
provinces for the interests of the Sultan) render her as independent of, as she 
is indifferent to, the negative and useless influence, which unreflecting people 
imagine she is anxious to derive from a few proselytes. 

Such puerile insinuations and unfounded charges against a Government 
which has invariably used its best efforts for the weU-being of the Turkish 
Empire and the prosperity of its people, are unworthy of every consideration. 
At the same time as the peculiar transaction of Hasbeya has created an unusual 
degree of excitement, jealousy, and suspicion injurious to the British Agents and 
subjects residing in tins country, it behoved me to make this unreserved com- 
munication to your Excellency, in the hope you will be pleased, confoimablj 
to your often repeated friendly sentiments, to make use of its contents in the 


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manner your Excellency may judge most expedient for the removal of those 
erroneous impressions gratuitously entertained by some individuals. 

Finally, it would be superfluous for me to declare to your Excellency that, 
whatever may be the religious sentiments of the Rayas of the Porte, thjey art 
not under British protection, although Her Majesty *s Government do wish moat 
ardently to see them happy and prosperous under their legitimate rulers, &c. &c 

(Signed) EICELtRD WOOD. 

Uo. 25. 

Consul Wood to the Earl of Aberdeen.-^Received July 4.) 

(Extract.) Dammseus^ May 29^ 1841. 

WITH Tefef ence to my despstch of the 28rd of March, I have the 
imvour to state that Aali Pasha has informed me personally that the Porte haid 
written to him to demand explanations req>eeting the recent secession of the 
Greeks of Hasbeya from their church. 

The very friendly manner in which the communication was made to um 
having led me to the conclusion that his Excellency was now disposed to afford 
such further explanations to his Government relative to that transaction as wonli 
satisfy it that it was wholly devoid of any political importance; and being 
ftware besides how much it depended upon him to remove anj doubts and sus« 
picions which it might still entertain thereon, and induce it to take a Just and 
a reasonable view of it, I availed myself of so favourable an opportunity te 
repeat my assurances to his Excellency, that Her Majesty's subjects in th«e 
parts were totally unconnected with the spontaneous secession in question, which 
I endeavoured to trace to the recent attempt made to increase the already 
excessive taxation which pressed upon that district : — a fact with which he was 
not only acquainted, but had even predicted that it would create trouble and 
vexation to him. 

I have, therefore, every reason to believe that the reply of his ExceUenej 
to his Government will be of a nature to appease its apprehensions, and to 
reconcile it more easily to the late change in the religious sentiments of some 
of its Rayas. 

No. 24. 

CoTtsul Wood to the Earl of Aberdeen. — {Received August 2.) 

(]&Ltract.} Damascusy July 5, 1844« 

IT is with some hesitation that I again dare venture to address yoor 
Lordship on the professing Christian Protestants of Hasbeya, which I would 
have willingly deferred had not recent circumstances connected with them in- 
duced me to intervene indirectly to prevent their recurrence. 

On the 22nd instant, I received a communication from Dr. Van Dyke, 
attached to the American mission, from the Hasbeya to the effect that, almost 
immediately after the return of the Emir from Damascus, about 150 
armed in^viduals, headed by a Druse, a Maronite and a Greek, had 
proceeded to the several dwellings of the seceders and had threatened to shoot 
them unless they returned forthwith to their ancient faith, and containing 
besides such other allegations as appeared to me to implicate greatly the Prinee 

The bearer of Dr. Van Dyke*s letter being himself one of the number of 
those who had been menaced and ill-treated, I requested him to make a written 
deposition of the facts, which formed the subject of the complaint referred to 
me : and I have tiie honour of submitting to your Lordship's perusal a translai- 
tron (Inclosure No. 1) in exculpation of the Emir, who does not appear to 
deserve ihe imputations cast upon him. 

The convTCtton however that unless something was effected to discourage 
^e first indications' #f a persecution of iiie seceders bv their own relatives and 
coantrymen at the instigation perfaapa of the Greek clergy, open violence and 

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iked oompukfM jfettiy finally Mkifw, indoeed ine to msk Michftel MusAmJc^ 
a&ieiMl of the Enur, to write to him 4t letter (Inckwiira ^o« 2.) 

Tlie Count de Portal^ Prusskn Secr^iaiy of Legation at Constantamc^Ie, 
who haj^ned to be at fiasbeya at the time of its receipt^ has since informed 
me that it had produced the desired effect. 

The Count has^ moreover, informed me that he has del)enniiied en pro- 
ceeding to Constantinople to make his report on the IVotestantsof Ha^eya tothe 
Brussian Minister there pre^ous to his return to Berlin* 

I gave him every assurance that, although I was &a: from deeming myself 
authorized to grant British protection to a community of Protestants, subjects 
of the Porte, I would nevertheless e&ert all the means in my power to protect 
them from persecution and violence. 

Aali Pasha's instructions to the Emir, previous to his departure for his 
disiriet^ were that he should call on the Grreek Patdardi Mud appease h^m ; 
aiui ihat be shcteld keep the people quiet. 

incloBure 1 in ISo. 21. 

Depesiiion «/ Nicoia Hudah. 
(Translation.) June «7, IM4. 

ON" the day of the arrival of Emir Saad-el-Been at Hasbeya^ Tanus-el- 
Hadad of H^yi in Lebanon, in the service of the Rev. Mr. Smith, and Shehin 
Gabrin of Hasbeya, one of the Protestant community, waited upon him, and 
fDund him with the notables of the place. The conversation having turned on 
what had occurred to the Emir at Damascus on the part of the Government, he 
(the Emir) said to the assembly that he had given the Pasha and the Kahyia 
to understand that some of the people had, on account of the oppression which 
tibey had experienced, sold their religion and had become English. Shehin 
Gabrin replied : •* Is it your wish to make us a proverb ? for we have not changed 
our religion for the sake of money, but for love of it.'' 

After four or five days. Dr. Van Dyke of the American Mission, and Potros 
el Bostoni, of Beyrout, arrived and witnessed the enmity of the other sects to 
the Protestant community. They repaired in consequence to the Emir, and 
asked to know whether he had instructions from the Government or from Aali 
Pasha to coerce its members, to which he replied that he had no such orders 
from any one, neither was he inimical to them, but that on the contrary Mr. 
Wood had recommended them to him, and how could he therefore be against 

On the following day a quarrel ensued between Daoud Sabha, one of the 
seceders, and some of the people, who struck and wounded him. He and his 
son complained of it to the Emir, who, on causing the delinquents to be 
brought to him in order to punish them, the new notables of the place came 
and liberated them. After this occurrence the sons of Shehin Assaf assembled 
in the market-place with one himdred individuals, and seized me without cause, 
to show to the members of the Protestant community that they could ill-treat 
them without any one's protecting them. 

Subsequently, Sheik Joussef Zeloum, a Druse, Abou Hamid Ghorrah, a 
Greek, and Joussef el Hadg, a Maronite, went successively with the above 
armed crowd to lAie dwellings of the several seceders, and gave them each to 
understand that such as would not voluntarily return to their former creed 
gbould be compelled to do so by force ; and that they would kill them. Ac- 
cording to my knowledge, up to the present period the Emir is neither connected 
with this transaction, nor is it in pursuance of his orders. 

Inclosure 2 in ]No. 2%. 

Michael Mushaka to the Emir Saad-dJJieefu 

(Tmnslation.) ZtanioMt^, My 27, 1B44. 

IflL WOOD .haSfthisdagr reoeuredA letter from. Dr. V}$mJ)wk^ A mm Titian 
physician, acquainting him with the violence and abuse ubm itewvdB tte 


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membdrs of the Protestaiit community of Hasbeja, and this after your arrival 
there : Istly, by your applying to them the epithet of dogs, and accusing ihesA' 
of having sold their religion for money (which, however, we can never credit) ; 
2ndly, by their ill-treatment by some of the people whom you have not 
punished, and against whom you have not protected them ; Srdly, by reason of 
the armed assembly composed of Christians and Druses, and headed by Joussef 
Zaloum Abou Hamoud Ghorrah and Joussef el Hadg, who have paid nocturnal 
visits to the several members of the Protestant fraternity for the purpose of 
obliging them forcibly to return to the Greek Faith. 

Mr. Wood was greatly surprised on receiving the above information, which 
implicates you likewise in his mind, in spite of his firm reliance on your sound 
judgment in such matters ; for, how can it be possible that you should have 
allowed such proceedings, so contrary to justice and to the " Tanzimat-el- 
Hairiy6" to have taken place at the very moment that the Great Powers are 
striving to remove every kind of oppression and violence in affairs of religion, 
and to establish that liberty and that toleration which permits every one to 
follow the dictates of his conscience in what regards his faith, and which they 
have but so Recently obtained from the Sublime Porte. In the supposition even 
that you were ignorant of the violence of these individuals, I must beg to ask 
how you could have allowed them to escape unpunished after it had come to 
your knowledge? 

It would not be out of {dace here to inform you, that the late secession 
of the Greeks from their creeds has been already noticed in the German papers, 
which will make it known to all the nations of Christendom ; in what sense will 
they speak of you, therefore, so soon as Dr. Van Dyke reaches Beyrout and gives 
publicity to the violence complained of, and which has been committed almost 
in your presence ? Whereas you were hitherto known to them as a person of 
great intelligence, and of a conciliatory but firm character, and represented as 
such by them. WiU you sacrifice willingly your good repute and assimilate 
yourself to the barbarous country Governors of old ? This cannot fail to injure 
you greatly in the estimation of the European nations, who will see in it your 
inaptitude for holding henceforward places of high trust. 

My Lord, pay attention to this; remove all causes of disorder and violence, 
and above all let your Rayas be all equal in your sight ; neither peimit that 
any dissensions should spring up from causes of religion, with which you can 
have no connexion in your civil capacity ; but in case you are unable to prevent 
the afore-stated individuals from committing excesses and violence in future, it 
is extremely easy to procure for you orders for their arrest and translation to 
this city to receive the punishment they have drawn upon themselves. 


N^o. 25. 
Consul Wood to the Earl of Aberdeen. — (Received September 11.) 

(Extract.) Damascus, August 3, 1844. 

IN continuation of my despatch, of the 5th of July, relating to 
the Greeks, who had seceded from their own Church, and had united themselves 
to the Church of England, I have the honour to state that the incessant 
intrigues of the Greek clergy and others having brought about a state of 
things in Hasbeya dangerous to every individual member of the Protestant 
community, whose lives were publicly menaced, sentiments of humanity no 
less than the personal interest I naturally take in their happiness and well- 
being, induced me, on the receipt of the llev. Mr. Smith's letters, (of which I 
have the honour to inclose extracts under Nos, 1 and 2) conveying to me the 
peril of their position, to seek a private interview with the Pasha, which resulted 
in the transmission of a. peremptory order (Inclosure No. 3) to the Emir Saad- 
el-Deen to prevent further violence from being offered to them by the Greeks 
of Pasbeya, and those of Zahleh, Rasheya, and Keefeir, who had repaired to 
the former place, with the intent of forcing or persuading them to return to 
their old creed, and in the express deputation of an oflScer to examine into 
the whole matter. 

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I have likewise, addressed the Emir on the subject (Inclosure No. 4) 
whose replies (Nos. 5 and 6) I venture respectfully to submit the more readily 
to your Lordship, as they are not only corroborated by Mr. Alison's opinion, 
formed on the spot, that the persecution and violence complained of were not 
of the alarming nature they were deemed in the first instance, but as a further 
evidence of the strict injunctions of the authorities to prevent their recurrence 
in future. 

But in order to give more effect to the order of the Pasha, which extreme 
bigotry might have set aside, I have waited on the Greek Patriarch, and, after 
some observations from me, he was persuaded to address a patriarchal letter 
(No. 7) to the Greeks and their clergy, to abstain henceforward from molesting, 
in any manner whatsoever, the converts, with whom they were to live in peace 
and harmony according to the spirit and precepts of their Church. 

The object of the above orders was to empower the Emir, on the one hand, 
to act more energetically, and to enjoin the Greeks, on the other, to conduct 
themselves peaceably and friendly towards their seceded countrymen. 

' Your Lordship will be pleased to learn with satisfaction that both the 
Pasha and the Emir have given me every private and formal assurance, that 
they will exert their utmost efforts, as far as circumstances and their positions 
will allow, to protect these poor converts from violence ; and the only incident, 
therefore, that gives me some cause for apprehension is the direct and injudi- 
cious interference of other parties, in the hope of either bringing about their 
recantation, or of affording them protection. 

The Russian Consul-General of Beyrout has sent his dragoman to 
the authorities of Damascus to persuade them to assist the Greek Patriarch in 
recovering his lost flock : the Prussian Consul-General has addressed another 
letter of a different purport. 

P.S. — Since writing the above, I have heard it reported that the seceders^ 
in number about forty, had left Hasbeya and had withdrawn to Beyrout. 

Inclosure 1 in No. 25. 
The Rev. E. Smith to Consul Wood. 

(Extract.) Hasbeya, July 12, 1844. 

THE interest you have expressed in the religious affairs of Hasbeya, and 
the important aid you have already rendered to the cause of religious liberty, 
have emboldened me to bring the subject once more before you. 

For a week after the arrival of your letter, the Emir Saad-el-Deen was in 
the Halet, and our friends had comparative quiet. The Greek clergy were 
indeed going around to their houses every day, and using all their influence to 
induce them to return; but of this, of course, no one had any right to complain. 
As the result, some ten or a dozen, who had been playing the hypocrite from the 
beginning, returned to the Greek Church. 

The Emir arrived on Sunday last, and on Monday I had a long interview 
with him, in which he made me all the promises I could wish for, and he has 
done the same once since to my native assistant, whom I had occasion to send' 
to him. But I am sorry to say, that instead of our friends experiencing any 
actual relief, their condition has been grovdng worse daily. The abusive 
language heaped upon them in the streets is intolerable. They are daily 
threatened with death. Hamady Ghorrah's party of Greek young men, has 
begun again to go round to their houses, not armed indeed, but in a manner 
to intimidate, and thus induce them to go back to the Greek Church. One 
man used such abusive language to the daughters of two or three of our 
most respectable men, that they complained to the Emir. He imprisoned 
the culprit for half an hour, but the whole thing passed off in a way to exas- 
perate instead of intimidating our enemies ; and yesterday one of the men who 
goes with this letter, was beaten near the palace, and when complaint was 
made, the culprit, who was a son of Shehin Daun and is more violent than any 
body else,' was not even blamed. At the same time, my assistant, who is an 
English prot^g^, in visiting a family of our friends, was suddenly surrounded by 

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a eompBxy of j&vaagimesLj yfin^ as aftberwards appeared, liad detefitdtted io stab 
faim mith a kbai^iaa:^ vMctx one <rf ikem. wore, but he disarmed them by his 
mihlness and m, aerioos exhartatktt niiich he gave them for about half an hour. 

In these circumstenoes I need hardly say, that the Prc^staHts here are 
dnly ofeaid ct Tioknce. Thar present ^ofidition ikej will not enduw^ and they 
dband wady^ if relief does iiot come, to move off in a body. And you wiQ 
readily see that all my advice which has been strongly given so long, as 
tfaeone was tcay chaaee of its beiag aoc^ted, that they should ujdiold the Emir's 
Qkyrarmnent^ is of no avail. Of all this I have informed the £^r, »nd begged 
libatOitadQesoaae steps which should' keep their enemies in check: whidihe 
ra^giit easily io by nraking«n example of one or two offenders, and by showing 
tbe sonoe respedt io the Ptotestant chiefs as to those of the ^^er sectsi which I 
am told is not mm the case ; but tki^s daily gxH)w worse. 

in writing tiiis i» you it is my wisb not to make the 'Eamr an en^ny . My 
slqpfposition is^ that he has secret orders of such a, natuM^ that an uDoficial 
communicatkm frma you is not enoi^h to induce him to take any other thaa 
Mb p»seint oMirse. My hope is timt you may be able to send him such official 
GttumunkatiJOQ as idiall embolden him to a<^ not in the way of podtive prolec- 
ti<m^ but of dispensii^ equal justice and ke^ng 4he lawless in check. Our 
fiteiids here are imiti^g your answer, if it is not auch 4is to relieve them, they 
win move away. Inquiries have been already sent off for a place. But I need 
no^ isay that this wmild be a great oalamity, aod attended with suffering as 
many of them are poor. 

(Signed) E. SMITH. 

Inclosure 2 in No. 25. 
The Rev. K ^mith to Consul Wood. 

(Extract.) Hasbeya, July 16, 1844. 

I WROTE you on the 12th by two messengers, who have not yet returned. 
Since then events have occurred which I deem of importance to communicate. 

Yesterday some twenty or thirty horsemen arrived from Zahleh, Rasheya 
' and Keefeir, sent by the Patriarch to restore the seceders to the Greek church. 
They were unarmed, and profess to have come only to use means of persuasion. 
All of them at first dismounted at the house of Shehin Gabrin, the head of Ae 
seoeders, and then divided themselves wnong the houses of a few of the other 
leading men, but these, having previous notice of their coming, had absented 
themselves, fearing the inconyenieikce and expense of harbouring them for the 
several weeks which they threatened to stay, untess they accomplished their 
purpose sooner. 

In the evexong our friends went in a body to the Emir, to ask him to 
remove from tiieir houses these persons, who had thus quartered themselves 
upon them. The Emir yielded to their request; but on sending out his orders^ 
found the young men's party rising in arms to resist him and cut off the 
seoeders, and the town was ^ <^ice in great comm<»tion. The Emir immediately 
£whade our Aiends to leave the palace, and sent for me. On my arrival, he 
declared that the town ^las in rebellion, and havii]^ no means of quelling the 
rrot, he had assembled his £Eimily, and had determined to throw down the reins 
of government and leave the next morning. He justified our friends from all 
biame, and was loud in reproaching t^eir enemies, but what to do he confessed 
be knew not. It was a moment of no Httle anxiety. But at this juncture iS^ 
Qmse Sheiks, Amin Sbems and Mahommed Keis appeared, and with a generosity 
fOeSi order I shall never forget, threw themselves into the brea(di, and dedared 
t^iat their own blood should be shed before a single Protestant shcadd be touched 
by (their enemies. This seemed to give the Emir confidence ; his orders took 
effiect, and tiie tcwn^iraa soon quieted. I wi^ to<^ll your attention particularly 
to thBtnoUe conduct K)f the Druse Sheiks; for I believe it was the union ^ 
ti»ir inllaence with that «of the Emir whidi sa;ved nis. That this friend^ dis^ 
pusition of thdrs shoidd be enoour aged, is of great knportiuice. Nothii^ could 
encourage it so much as a fetter from yourseUto th^n,'Oommending their oon-^ 
diirtin tfaus aupgporling <the Enures aubhonity, 4MEidK)ne to the £niir waooMieBd- 

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mg ism to restore them more- fyij to }n& conftcKeirea Sitch a vtej^ would at 
once Irreak down the young m^n^ V^^Jf ^^^^^ ^ ^^^ t^ great insf rament of 

To-day ike town bae Been tolerably quiet again, but the people from 
Zahlei, &e,, are still here, and what they^ wiH finally do is not yet known. Bfr. 
Thompson will keep 3rou informed. He has arrived to-day fuid wiH take my 

phice, while I return to Beyrout. 

(S^nedJ B. SBIITH.^ 

WiMieriel Letter to Emwr Seufd-^hDeefL 

(Translation.) Damascus y July 17, 1844. 

THE Bayas, who have recently become members of the Protestant 
Church, have presented a memorial to us, complaining of the conduct of the 
Greeks of Hasbeya, who are persecuting and molesting them for having 
separated 'themselves from their creed ; and that, in particular,, a Greeks by 
name Giorgios Ghorrah, has formed a party of his own» sect, at the head 
of which he has placed himself, and has given them authority to ill-treat all 
such who have become Protestants. They further state that they (the menio* 
rialists) are also the loyal subjects of the Porte, to which they pay the tribute 
and taxes demanded of them, and re<^est therefore that justice may be done 
them,, that they may be protected against violence, and that they may be 
allowed to live in peace, in order to attend to their several avoijations aitd 
aflGsdrs. The foregoing forms the contents of their petition. 

We have, in consequence, issued this our order to you, and of which 
Eustum ESendi is the special bearer, that jou may examine into the violent 
proceedings of the Greeks, at the instigation of the said Georgios Ghorrah, 
towards the seceders. In the event that the complaint be correct, you must 
know that any violence or molestation from one set of Eayas towards, another, 
be it on account of the reason stated above, or from any other motive what- 
soever, is contrary to the Imperial will and to our own wishes, and that it is 
impossible for us to permit it, under any consideration whatever. 

You are called upon, therefore, to give me minute explanations therepn, 
and if it be true that one llaya molests another, you must prevent it effec- 
tively and efficaciously, and inform us of the name of the offender, the cause, 
and in what manner the assault was made, that after an examination into it, 
we may issue the ^oper orders for the punishment of the culprit. 

Although those who may have changed their faith have deviated from the 
path of their forefathers, yet this matter eiitt only be- taken cognizance of by 
the Sublime Porte, and it does not absolutely appertain to the Rayas to punish 
each other. You are therefore bound to lunder and prevent them from such 
harsh proceedings, which are contrary to the Imperiisd will; for all are the 
subjects of the Sublime Porte, and you are, in consequence, obliged to deal 
with them all as heretofore. Inform us of these occurreiTces in 4^taU and w^h. 
exactness, and pay y^ strict attention to these presents. 

OU S,) AMi B?ZA. 

Indosmre 4 m Nob 95^ 
Ouumt Wooi to Emit SMtt^el-Iken. 

(^andfttioB.) Dama,MiaiJM» 17, ^8A4» 

I HAVE to inform you that Nicola Haslab ami IbtliLei-Hottri, of 

the community of professing Christian Protestapts of H^beya, have eome here 

to complam of the violence used towards them by the Greelusi. 
Firit, By taking away some of their fttms^; 
Secondly, By cursing and swearing at them, thehr hf^rems, Mid daH^krs, 

when going to divine service ; 

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Thirdly, By striking one of them, Halil-el-Houri, under your palace ; and 

Fourthly, By ill-treating and using improper language towards them and 
their ministers, and by deputing an individual to kill one of the teachers. 

The chief abettors of these proceedings are Giorgios Ghorrah and the 
sons of Shehin Asseff. After Michael Muslmka had written to you to prevent 
the ill-treatment of the Protestants, the Druses and Maronites ceased their 
persecution, and conducted themselves with civility towards them, but Giorgios 
Ghorrah assembled and headed an armed crowd, commanded by Boulouk 
Bashis (officers), and assumed the power of giving directions, and of doing 
whatever he pleased, 

I was not only surprised to hear the foregoing statement, but was also 
astonished that you should have permitted such proceedings to have occurred 
under your very palace, which would lead one to suppose that you either 
connived at them, or were too weak to punish the daring offenders, who have 
thus disregarded the respect that is due to your official character. Tour 
weakness and their presumption may cause you vexation hereafter. 

You are already acquainted with the representations made to the Sublime 
Porte by the Great Powers in behalf of religious toleration, and with the 
Imperial assurance to them that no one should be molested for his religion ; 
besides which sufficient explanations have been given by his Excellency the 
British Ambassador to Rifaat Pasha and the Greek Patriarch on the secession 
of the Greeks at Hasbeya. 

I have likewise received to-day a leftter from Colonel Rose respecting the 
ill-treatment of the seceders, which he has some difficulty in believing, seeing 
that you are the Governor of the district wherein it has occurred, unless, 
indeed, it be with your secret connivance ; otherwise he must conclude that 
you are not in a position to administer to the people confided to your care, or 
cause justice to be dispensed equally to all. Colonel Rose has thus seen 
himself forced to represent this state of things to the Capudan Pasha, more 
especially as the Foreign Powers are resolved on denouncing and preventing 
any occurrence, which tends to check religious toleration. 

. I have consequently thought it necessary to address you on this subject, 
in order that you may prevent and hinder violence and persecution in matters 
of religion by the punishment of the offenders, in accordance with the duty 
which devolves on you to protect all Rayas equally, of whatever denomination. 
But, in case you are unable tQ chastise Giorgios Ghorrah, or others of the 
culprits, inform me of it, that I may ask of the local Government their arrest, 
translation hither, and punishment. 

I shall have the honour of waiting on his Excellency Aali Pasha, to speak 
to him on this matter, that he may remove all such causes of molestation and 
violence as might lead to quarrels and strife. 


Inclosure 5 in Ifo. 25. 
Emir Saad-el-Deen to Consul Wood. 


(After Compliments.) Hasbeya, July 18, 1844. 

I HAVE had the honour to receive at a propitious hour the letters of 
your Seignieurie, the one in reference to the representations made by Nicola 
Haslab and Halil-el-Houri, and the other relating to the visit of Mr. Alison, and 
I have understood all that you were pleased to address to me. 

In regard to Mr. Alison, he has honoured our place, and we have had some 
conversation together, for I am always anxious to do whatever may be agree- 
able to you and to assist your Excellency (your Seigneurie) in every thing 
that you may desire, to the utmost of my power and means, particularly when 
my doing so may be pleasing to your magnificent Government. I need say 
no more, for your own heart knows more of my sentiments than I can express. 

Respecting the individual who insulted the daughters of Nicola Haslab, I 
imprisoned him, but on examination, finding that the whole complaint was 
futile, I authorized his liberation. As to Halil-el-Houri, I never heard ainything 
about his afifair until the receipt of your letter. 

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Rest assured that with the influence of my superiors, and with your good 
offices, I will content all parties, and leave no room for complaint from any of 
them ; and should there ever be any the slightest difference in my bearing 
towards them, your wisdom and sagacity will indicate to you from what it 
might arise. All are the subjects of my Effendi, and it behoves me to dispense 
equal and impartial justice to each and every one of them, &c. &c., 


Inclosure 6 in Ifo. 26. 
Emir Saad-el-Deen to Consul Wood. 


(After Compliments.) July 19, 1844. 

THE letter you were pleased to address to us, reached us at a propitious 
moment, and we have perfectly understood all the explanations you have given, 
ufi respecting the necessity of treating with equality the Protestants and Greeks 
of Hasbeya, and of hindering the Greeks from ill-treating the Protestants, in 
accordance with the agreement of the great Powers with the Porte for the 
prevention of all violence and persecution in matters of religion, by which every 
one acquires the full liberty of following his conscience in regard to his faith. 

Under the same date, we had the honour of receiving a strong buyu. 
ruldi from his Excellency Aali Pasha delivered to us by Mahommed Shekir 
Effendi on this subject, to prevent every violence and vexation to the Protest- 
ants ; and in obedience to his Excellency's orders and your statement and wishes, 
we published forthwith his buyuruldi to us, and ordered everybody to con- 
duct themselves properly and in conformity thereto. 

It is assuredly my duty to reflect seriously on matters of administration, to 
preserve equality among the people, and to protect them without making any 
distinction between them. If it pleases the Almighty, therefore, we will hinder, 
all causes that may give rise to disagreements between individuals of whatever 
nation they may be ; and in case anything occurs to require punishment, we are 
either to represent it immediately to the Government, or to proceed to the 
chastisement of the offender, according to his deserts, but that in case it is of 
no importance, purely accidental, or arising from ignorance, we are then to 
punish the culprit summarily, and as much as circumstances will allow, without 
troubling his Excellency with it. Being an obedient servant of the Government, 
we are bound at all times to administer matters in a way to secure the tran- 
quillity of the people of these parts, without evincing any, the slightest, parti- 
ality for any one, agreeably to the high pleasure of his Excellency and your 
wishes ; for we know this to be your desire for our own sake, &c. &c. 


Inclosure 7 in No. 26. 
The Patriarch of Damascus to the Greeks of Hasbeya. 

(Translation.) Damascus, July 20, 1844. 

WE have been informed that certain persons among you have interfered, 
and have used acrimonious language towards some of those who have embraced 
the Protestant religion, more particularly on the arrival of some of my flock 
from Zahleh, who came for the pui-pose of restoring peace and harmony among 
you, according to your local usages, and in order to remove all such feelings 
as may arise from interested motives, and to restore love and purity into the 
hearts of the people. We were excessively grieved, however, on learning those 
things ; which proceeded from the insulting and virulent language which has 
been used, as foreign to the spirit of the C!hurch and to the preaching of charity; 
because our ancient orthodox and holy Church, founded upon the basis of the 
Apostles and Prophets, has never had, from the days of the holy Apostles up to this 
period, recourse either to force or to the sword for gaining people unto the faith. 

It is true that the Church, strong in itself in simpleness of heart and 
purity of intention, acts in this spirit towards all other creeds and nations who 


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itetum to it. But in ilie si^ne matiner as the holy AposrUesi drew m<!n id the 
teligion of Christ by the purity of evangelical teaching, and by their good and 
virtuous deeds and moral propriety, which is like unto the transcendent splen- 
dour of the light, 60 also did our fathers act, and let us also conduct ourselves 
with the same decorum. If it be, therefore, your object to bring over your 
brethren to their original faith and to the bosom of their benevolent mother.^ 
you must behave towards them with kindness and love, so that by their retura 
to you in love and the spirit of the Gospel, ye may gain both them and the 
approbation of God, and be likened unto the Saints, bearing fruit unto 

Our demand therefore is, that ye communicate these words that we write uuto 
you to each other, and reflect upon them, and that ye obviate altogether all causes 
of scandal, not only among men but also among the women and children, not only 
in the streets but also in the houses whether the inmates be present or absent. 
In short, you are to treat them with brothers' love, which is agreeable both to the 
Lord and to us, for you are bound to act thus towards them, namely, not to 
give them any cause whatever for irritation, because you will thus be con- 
demned by your own conscience and by the Most Holy, and ye will also smffer 
the blame of men. Every man is accountable to God for his own actions in 
tibe Day of Judgment, and he will receive the wages thereof, be they good or 
had. If, therefore, every man is to be tried for his actions, and to be rewarded, 
accordingly, it follows that no man will be accountable for the deeds of anotha:, 
nor will he be punished for them ; but every one is bound to labour in all 
things which are pleasing unto Gx>d, and he will himself derive the benefit 
thereof, both in this world and in the world to come, and to abstain from all 
things that concern him not, in order not to hear that which pleaseth him not. 
We,- therefore hope that ye will act according to our directions, and keep our 
injunctions that we may always pray unto the Most High God to preserve and 
keep you, &c. 

No. 26. 

Consul-General Rose to Sir Stratford Canning. — {Received in London, Sept. 11.) 

(Extract.) Beyrout, July 25, 1844. 

I HAVE the honour to state to your Excellency, that on the 15th instant, 
the Rev. Mr. Whiting, an American Missionary, came to me and informed me 
that the Rev. Mr. Smith, who is now at Hasbeya in charge of the seceders 
from the Greek Antiochian Church, had requested him to call on me without 
delay, and represent to me the critical position of himself and the seceders. 

Mr. Whiting then handed to me an extract of a letter from Mr. Smith, a 
copy of which I have the honour to inclose to your Excellency. 

I said to Mr. Whiting, that a case of oppression of Christians at Hasbeya 
had been clearly proved; that, in strict conformity with my previous c<mduct, 
I should now act with due energy in protection of Christianity and the rights 
of humanity, and that I should instruct Her Majesty's Consul at Damascus in 
that sense, to make the necessary representations to the Emir Saad-el-Deen, 
Governor of Hasbeya. 

I, without loss of time, inclosed to Mr. Consul Wood the exfa-act of the 
letter from Mr. Smith, and wrote to him as follows. 

" I beg to inclose to you a paper given to me by Mr. Whiting, who is in 
much distress at the state of the converts in Hasbeya. It is clear that the 
Emir Saad-el-Deen ia either acting under secret instructions or has been 
bribed ; but whatever be his motives we, as British functionaries, have a right 
to call upon him to treat Syrians under his care and government with humanity 
and justice. Our eariy instructions justify us in doing this; and the promises 
made to Her Majesty's Ambassador by the Sultan this year, as stated in His 
Excellency Sir Stratford Canning's circular, justify us on calling on the Emir, 
Saad-el-Deen, as an authority of the Porte, to fulfil his Sovereign's engage- 
ments as stated in that circular. 

/^In the sense of these observations^ and knowing from the kindnepa 

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and Immamtj wliieh you already displayed in the affitir of Hasbeya^ that yon 
will do what ifi best^ I beg yoa to make a representation to the Emir Baad-el- 
Deen directly^ or to the Pasha, on this subject. 

'^ You ivill see that a positive ease of insult to a Christian, and oppression 
of a Christian are stated by a most respectable person. I think that the Emor 
Saadr-el-Deen should be held responsible for sanctioning such outrages. 

^^ You are quite at liberty -to make me of my name, and it wouhl be better 
that you should do so ; and pray inform tiiese functionaries, that if I hear 
another case of persecution or outrage sanctioned by the Emir Saad-el-Deen, 
I shall make a special report of the Emir Saad-el-Deen to Her Majesty's 
Ambassador, and complain, moreover, to the Capudan Pasha, emphatically of 
the Emir Saad-el-Deen's disobedience of the orders of his Sovereign, namely, 
that he wishes all classes of his subjects to be treated with justice and 

Your Excellency will perceive by the tenor of this, and my previous 
despjatches relative to matters at Hasbeya, that whilst I have thus fally carried 
out the intentions of the Earl of Aberdeen that there sliould be no interference 
with the faith of the Christian sects in Syria, I have also given full effect to the 
humane instructions of Her Majesty's Government, and of your Excellency ii^ 
favour of humanity and justice. 

Promise of protection, in the event of conversion, is very different from 
defence of converts against persecution. It only now rests with the secedets 
at Hasbeya to render their conversion a fait accompH. 

Our position, therefore, as regards the seceders at Hasbeya is perfectly 
good and defensible, — that is, entire non-interference in favour of conversion, 
and, secondly, defence of the seceders, on the same principle of justice and 
humanity which has been exercised in fevour of all other Syrians without 
regard to their creed or persuasion. 

Indeed, the most bigotted would find it difficult to blame a Protestant 
officer for exercising those good offices in favour of Protestant Syrians, which 
he has often and so effectually brought into action for the benefit of all the 
other sects in Syria^ — Christians of all sects, Mussulmans, Metualis, Jews, 
and others. 

Mr. Consul Wood having asked my opinion, I thought it fair towards him 
to express my entire approved of the steps he had takexL in protection of the 
Hasbeya converts against opjj^ession. 

Inclosure in ISo. 26. 

The Rev. E. Smith to the Rev. Mr. Thomson.. 

(Extract.^ • Hasbeya, Jvly 11, 1844. 

WHEN I wrote by Butrous, I expressed the apprehension that the result 
of this week would be of great moment. Our circumstances are now more 
critical than ever, and I am at a loss to know what to do. 

I had a long interview with the Enjir pn Monday, and Abu Besharah has 
seen him once since. No one could speak fairer, or promise better than he. 
But in fact our friends have experienced no relief from his return. Their 
enemies have become bolder. The abuse heaped upon them is constant, and 
instances have occurred even in the palace. Threats of extermination 4re made 
openly, not excepting myself. Yesterday, indeed, a mah who had abused the 
daughters of two or three of our most re^)ectable men was imprisaned, but for 
not more than an hour and in a way to make no impression. To-day, one of 
our most respectable men was beaten near the entrance of the palace, and when 
he made complaint, though actually wounded, the culprit was not even blamed. 
The condition to which they are reduced is insufferable. Indeed, I am in daily 
expectation that blood will be shed, and I have addressed a note to that effect to 
the Emir ; but he does nothing except give me poiite woids and fair promise. 

The stability of our friends in these circum^taaaoes is wonderful. As nearly 
as I can ascertain, the whole number that has left is not orer twenty. The zeai, 
of many, especially the women, is daily increasing. But they will not remain in 
Hasbeya in their present state- of degradation &nd danger. Nor do I believe 

E 2 

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they can remain without an official communication from some one of the Pro- 
testant Consuls to the Emir. This will give him a safe basis to act upon^ if he 
is waiting for that ; or will make him feel obliged to act, if he is reluctant. 

Now what I beg of you is, that immediately on receiving this you will go 
to Beyrout, and seek an interview with the English and Prussian Consub- 
General. My hope is that they may have received instructions to act. At any 
rate, you will get their advice. Pray be as expeditious as possible, for every 
hour in our present circumstances is of great moment. 

No. 27. 
T7h€ Earl of Aberdeen to ConsuUGeneral Rose. 

(Extract.) Foreign Office, September 19, 1844. 

I HAVE received your despatch of the 10th ultimo, with its several 

With reference to one of those inclosures, namely, your despatch of July 26, 
to Sir Stratford Canning* on the subject of the protection which, in consequence 
of the appeal made to you on the part of the American Missionary, Mr. Smith, 
you had thought it right to afford to the Protestant converts from the Greek 
faith in the Hasbeya and adjoining districts, T have to inform you that Her 
Majesty's Government perfectly approve of your affording general and efficient 
protection to all Christians in Turkey who may appeal to you against the 
oppression of the Mussulman authorities of the Porte. But in admitting the 
propriety of acting upon this general principle. Her Majesty's Government 
particularly desire that aU Her Majesty's Agents should observe the utmost 
discretion both with regard to carrying interference with the Mahommedan faith 
beyond due bounds, and to appearing to give official support to those efforts 
which American and other missionaries are now making in the Ottoman 
territories to draw off the votaries of other Christian sects to Protestantism. 

Abstractedly Her Majesty's Government would naturally desire to see the 
tenets of the Anglican Church embraced by persons of all faiths, whether 
Mahommedan, Greek, or other. But it would be highly injudicious and improper, 
and not a little hazardous for the peace of the world, were Her Majesty's 
Government to govern their own actions, or to permit British official Agents to 
govern theirs, by this principle. Such a mode of proceeding could scarcely fail 
to excite the active hostility of all other religions and sects. 

You will therefore carefully abstain from any act which might be construed 
into giving support or countenance to the conversions from the Greek faith to 
Protestantism which foreign Missionaries in Turkey are now labouring with 
injudicious zeal to effect ; but you will at the same time not relax your exertions, 
whenever they can be properly employed, in protecting Christians from 
Mahommedan persecution. 

No. 28. 

The Earl of Aberdeen to Consul Wood. 

(Extract.) Foreign Office, September 19, 1844. 

I HAVE received your despatch of the 3rd ultimo, together with its 
several inclosures, on the subject of the protection which, in consequence of the 
appeal made to you by the American missionary, Mr. Smith, you had thought 
it right to afford to the Protestant converts from the Greek Faith in the Hasbeya 
and adjoining districts. I have to inform you that Her Majesty's Government 
perfectly approve of your affording general and efficient protection to all Chris- 
tians in Turkey who may appeal to you against the oppression of the Mussulman 
authorities of the Porte. But in admitting the propriety of acting upon this 
general principle. Her Majesty's Government particularly desire that all Her 
Majesty's Agents should observe the utmost discretion both with regard to 

* See No. 26, page 26. 

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carrying interference ^ith the Mahommedan faith beyond due bounds, and to 
appearing to give oflBcial support to th6se efforts which American and other mis- 
sionaries are now making in the Ottoman territories to draw off the votaries 
of other Christian sects to Protestantism. 

Abstractedly her Majesty's Government would naturally desire to see the 
tenets of the Anglican Church embraced by persons of all faiths, whether 
Mahommedan, Greek, or other. But it would be highly injudicious and improper, 
and not a little hazardous for the peace of the world, were Her Majesty's 
Government to govern their own actions, or to permit British official agents to 
govern theirs, by this principle. Such a mode of proceeding could scarcely fail 
to excite the active hostility of all other religions and sects. 

You will therefore carefully abstain from any act which might be construed 
into giving support or countenance to the conversions from the Greek faith to 
Protestantism which foreign missionaries in Turkey are now labouring with 
injudicious zeal to effect; but you will at the same time not relax your exertions, 
wherever they can be properly employed, in protecting Christians from Mahom- 
mean persecution. 

No. 29. 
The Earl of Aberdeen to Sir Stratford Canning. 

(Extract.) Foreign Office, September 20, 1844. 

I HAVE to state to your Excellency that Colonel Rose transmitted 
to me a copy of his despatch . to your Excellency, of the 26th of July, 
respecting the Protestant converts in the Hasbeya ; and I now inclose, for your 
Excellency's information, a copy of a despatch which I have in consequence 
addressed to him. 

I have addressed a despatch in the same terms to Her Majesty's Consul at 

m. 30. 

Consul Wood to the Earl of Aberdeen. {Received November 5.) 

(Extract.) Damascus, September 11, 1844. 

WITH reference to my report, of the 3rd of August, relative to the 
Hasbeyan conversion, I dare venture very respectfully to subjoin an extract of 
the Rev. Mr. Thomson's letter to me, Inclosure under No. 1, as a further 
evidence of the violence and persecution to which the converts were unhappily 
subjected ; and which compelled them finally to abandon their homes and to 
wander in the adjoining districts. 

Previous to the accomplishment and execution of the plans of the 
Hasbeyan Greeks against the seceders, I had endeavoured to counteract 
them by measures, which, as they emanated principally from the Turkish 
authorities themselves, ought to have been efficacious in their result, and would 
perhaps have been so but for the secret encouragement held out to the perse- 
cutors by other parties to persevere in a conduct that corresponded so weU with 
their personal religious feelings. 

In addition to this, the unabating intrigues of the Greek clergy, the over- 
bearing conduct of the young men of Hasbeya, the arrogance of their own 
elected chiefs, who did not scruple to convey to me their intention of annihi- 
lating and destroying the seceders if they ever returned as Protestants, the 
prolonged absence of the Pasha with all the disposable troops in the Hauran^ 
and the more than ordinary weakness of the Einir whose personal attendants 
have even joined in a religious question, the adverse party leaving me no other 
means of staying the current of events against the converts than by an appeal 
to the Head of the Greek Church in Syria, I sought and obtained an interview 
with the Patriarch. 

To all his observations I implied that Her Majesty's Government having 

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received an assurance from the Sukan that ChriBtians should not be molestdd 
on account of their religion, 1 could not remain a passive spectator of the 
violence of the Hasbeyans towards the converts ; that the Christians of all 
denominations having availed themselves largely of the influence of the Briti^ 
Consulate to ameliorate their civil condition in this Pashalic, I witnessed now 
with great pain their ingratitude and the ill use they were making of the very 
freedom which they owed to it ; that if they were desirous that that influence 
should still be exercised to their advantage, they must give better proofs than 
hitherto of their being worthy of it ; that his Eminence must be aware that if 
this Consulate has hitherto abstained from pursuing severe measures against the 
persecutors, it was in consequence of the confidence it placed in him that he 
would exert his utmost efforts in putting a stop to the state of things which 
formed the subject of my complaint ; but that if I was deceived in my hopes 
and the Hasbeyans did carry into execution their threat of killing their seceded 
countrjnnen on their return, I should then deem myself justified in exerting 
myself to bring the assassins to an exemplary and an ignominious punish- 
ment ; and that in short, as the upholding of the principle of religious 
toleration in Syria had always formed one of the most gratifying tasks 
of Her Majesty's servants in this country, nothing would afford them 
greater satisfaction than to see his Eminence enlist in a cause so worthy of his 
character and position, but that if he espoused the opposite side he may rest 
assured beforehand that however I might regret it, I should not shrink from the 
contest, though he must assume alone the whole of the responsibility of the 
consequences that might attend it. 

My first language to the Patriarch was not altogether without some eftec^ 
for he addressed immediately a strong letter to the Hasbeyan Greeks, enjoining 
them to change their conduct and to use moderation, otherwise he would with^ 
draw from their cause and leave them to their fate. 

But it became important to show that the question is not only a religious 
but also a civil one. The Hasbeyans now stand accused of insubordinati(« 
and even of rebellion, inasmuch as with arms in their hands they forced the 

1st, To dismiss the cadi or judge, and appoint one of their choice. 

2nd. To replace some other petty public ofiicers by such as were pointed 
out by them. 

3rd. To consent to the banishment of the family of Shaheen. 

4th. To limit his power of punishment to the mere execution of the 
sentences of the popular elected cadi, and 

6th. To leave the collection of the taxes to officers named by them. 

Besides these proceedings, they have armed themselves to the numlber of 
1000, have adopted a standard, have elected sheiks from among themselves to 
the prejudice of the feudal ones, and have given to this form of Government tiie 
name of the ^^ Meshika," or the Government of Elective Sheiks. 

The authorities of Damascus, which were at first somewhat reluctant to 
interfere with energy in the matter so long^ as it was confined to a religions 
•dispute between Christians, are no longer disposed to remain quiet spectatcn 
of innovations, the ultimate pernicious consequences of which they have dearly 
seen ; and they have promised me, therefore, to intervene with firmness, and to 
adjust the affair in a few days. To this effect they have already invited the 
feudal chie& to Damascus to ascertain from them the £acts connected with it. 

Inclosure in No. 30. 
The Rev. Mr. Thomson to Consul Wood. 

(Extract) Akeih, August 1844. 

I SHALL offer no apology for intruding upon your time and patience, as I 
know you feel interested in the business which calls for this letter. You have been 
kept informed as to the progress of matters in Hasbeya by Mr. Smith up to 
ttie time when he left ; since then several things of importance have occurred 
which I shall endeavour to state as briefly as possible. The deputation from 
Zahleh continued to pursue the same oppressive course towards the Protestants 
viiich they at first conamenced, until the buyuruldi from the Pasha arrived. 

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This seemed to check their operations, and in a day or two they left. The same 
course, however, was still continued by the priests of Hasbeya, aided by the 
Bociety of young men and countenanced by the Emirs. The confusion in the 
place was beyond description, nor could any people in the world long endure the 
intolerable annoyances to which the poor Protestants were exposed night and 
day. My health having suffered from the heat, confinement, and anxiety, I set 
off for a ride on the mountains on Monday morning, the 29th ultimo. I went 
by way of Banias, to a village called Jiblatta, which I reached about 9 o'clock 
Monday night. At midnight a messenger reached me from Shaheen, the head 
of our people, stating that after I left, the young men had risen in arms, camped 
^ut on the hills, and sent a written order to Shaheen to leave the place by the 
*^ Asser," or they would kill him. Shaheen implored me to return immediately, 
or matters would end in bloodshed. In a few minutes I was on horseback, and, 
by riding hard all night, reached Hasbeya about 9 o'clock in the morning. 
I found the place almost deserted. When I called upon the Emir Saad-el-Deen 
he gave me the following account. In the morning after I left, a Moslem from 
Beyrout, sent to collect debts, went into the market and demanded payment of 
a small sum from one of the leaders of the young men. The man refused to 
pay, a quarrel arose ; the Christian cursed the Moslem, his religion, Mahommed, 
the Sultan, &c., &c. The Moslem complained to the Emir, who called the man, 
and (as he told me), cursed him and his father and his religion, and ordered him 
to prison. The man he would not go, fled out of the palace, gave the 
alarm, the shops were instantly shut, and they mounted to the top of tlie hill 
where they encamped. The first thing they did was to w rite an order to Sha- 
heen to leave the place before the ^' Asser," or they would kill him. At the 
same time they sent word round to the rest of the Protestants, that if they ac- 
companied Shaheen they would waylay them and murder them on the road. 
Shaheen sent off the messenger for me, and then went to the Emir, who told him 
he must go. He then went and shut up his establishments, which he had farmed 
of the Government, and delivered the keys to the Emir, and bid him farewell. 

The young men then drew up five demands, and sent them down to the 
Emir to accept and seal, as the conditions upon which they would return. The 
first required the banishment of Shaheen. The second demanded the deposition 
of the Moslem cadi and the appointment of one of their party. The third re- 
quired that the Secretary and Saraf should be of their party. The fourth that 
they should pay their debts and taxes (and without " hawalies," I believe). The 
fifth demand was, that if any thing happened requiring the interference of the 
Emir, he should not do any thing before the individual was tried and committed 
before their cadi. About this fifth demand there is a difference of statement ; 
one is, that the Emir should not punish at all, but that the young men would do 
it themselves. I give it above as I understood it. The Emir told me that he 
accepted and signed these demands. 

The Protestants, as soon as the others took arms, fled to the house of 
Shaheen, not knowing what to expect. When the order came to Shaheen to 
leave, they all resolved to stick together come what might. As the day 
advanced, and it became certain that all the Protestants would leave, the Emir 
and the sober part of the old men became alarmed, and sent word to Shaheen 
not to go until 1 got back ; but as he had been ordered to go, first by their 
written command, and with the threat of death annexed, and, secondly, by 
the first demand as above, which had been sealed by the Emir, and as the 
young men had not retracted their threat, and stood over his head in arms, he 
reslved to go. The other Protestants having sent out spies to see that the roads 
were safe, also left the place, some by one road, some by another, and united 
together on the mountains towards Bumarieh. The Emir blamed the Protest- 
ants for going, and said they had nothing to apprehend ; but they very naturally 
say, what security have we if we remain ? the first demand banishes our chief 
man, who alone can manage our affairs; the second puts a cadi over us, who 
has become our enemy; and the fifth ties up the hands of the Emir from 
protecting us, even if he were disposed to do so. The facts of this statement I 
had from the Emir himself before many witnesses, and as it agrees with what I 
heard from our own people, I suppose it to be substantially correct. 

I told the Emir, that I had not called to lodge any complaints, but to bid 
hhn farewell. That I had nothing to say on the part of the Protestants, not 
having seen them. I called him and all persons present to bear witness that * 

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whatever consequences might result from this business, we had no share in the 
responsibilities incurred ; the whole affair had taken place in my absence, with- 
out my knowledge or advice. To which they all assented. I then told them 
that we had come to Hasbeya to be the religious teachers of this people, at 
their urgent and persevering request, and at great inconvenience to ourselves, 
^ow the people had been driven out, we should go with them ; if they returned 
' and requested us to come with them, we should do so. They all assured me we 
should be most welcome ! Indeed the Emir appeared to be very uneasy, if 
not alarmed, at the aspect of affairs. 

I packed up and started at 11 o'clock to join the company of Shaheen, 
which I reached at daybreak, on a mountain above the Litany, on the 
road towards Muktara. They were nearly dead with cold and hunger. I had 
brought some bread with me, which they devoured like locusts. We reached 
Muktara after dark, and were nobly entertained by Sheik Said. He entered 
warmly into the cause of these poor people. Here also I met the Sheiks of the 
houses of Shems and Keis, who so nobly protected our people on a former 
occasion. I arrived in Abeih the next evening, and leaving the people here 
and at Aaitah with Mr. Whiting, went down to Beyrout, where I met Mr. 
Alison, Count Portal^s, Colonel Rose, and M. Wildenbruch, who all took 
a deep interest in this persecuted people. At the request of Count PortaUs 
I gave him a statement something like this, to lay before his Ambassador 
at Constantinople. Colonel Rose requested to take a copy of it, and per- 
haps you will receive a communication on this subject from him. AU. 
unite in the opinion that these people must be returned to their homes as 
soon as possible, and all agree that you are the individual to secure this im* 
portant end. 

I do most sincerely beg your pardon for troubling you with so long a letter, 
but I write in a hurry, and besides do not possess the faculty of condensing. 

I cannot express the half of the handsome things which I hear said in. 
reference to the part which you have taken in this contest for the establish* 
ment of the noblest principle which adorns the legislation of our age ; but you 
need no richer record than the proud consciousness of standing first in such 
a cause. 

(Signed) W. M. THOMSO]!?". . 

No. 31. 
Consul Wood to the Earl of Aberdeen. — (Received November 6.) 

My Lord, Damascus, October 9, 1844. 

IS continuation of my report of the llth of September, I have 
the honour to state that two letters were lately addressed by the Capudan Pasha 
and the Russian Consul-General of Beyrout to Aali Pasha, having reference to 
the Hasbeyan question. 

The suggestion of the former to the Pasha of Damascus, that instead . 
of punishing those who were using their utmost efforts to effect the 
recantation of the converts, they deserved his countenance that they 
may better accomplish their purpose, and the menaces of the latter, supported 
by the unreserved declaration that he would protest against every pro- 
ceeding which tended to the humiliation of the Hasbeyan Greeks, and to the 
consequent encouragement of the professing Christian Protestants, coupled 
with the subtle intrigues of the Patriarch, leaving me no longer any room to 
doubt that, unless some very efficacious steps were immediately taken further 
complications would ensue, which would retard and even render altogether 
doubtful the return of the converts to their homes, I determined upon coming 
to an immediate understanding with his Excellency on the subject, and for which 
purpose I waited upon him on the 25th ultimo. 

After recapitulating to his Excellency all the circumstances connected with 
their expulsion, and with the unjustifiable and even rebellious proceedings of 
their rivals, I obtained his permission to convey to him frankly and without 
reserve the observations I had to make. I then stated that, as Governor- 
General of this Pashalic, his Excellency either did or did not possess the 

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means of protecting equally all the Rayas of the Porte ; that if he did possess 
them, hut would not use them in hehalf of the expelled converts, I must then 
consider him as their real though indirect persecutor ; in which case, however 
I may regret it, still my duty would impose upon me the disagreeable task of 
representing him as such to Her Majesty's Ambassador ; and that if he pleaded 
weakness as the cause of his lack of firmness in the matter, I should deem 
myself equally justified in apprizing the same authority that the interests of the 
Sultan were sacrificed in this province by the feebleness of him to whom they 
were entrusted. That in the former case. Her Majesty's Representative would 
not fail to look upon his conduct as a direct contravention of the assurance 
of the Sultan that Christians should not be persecuted on account of their 
religion in the Ottoman dominions ; and in the latter it would remain with his 
Government to consider whether it would permit its interests to be sacrificed 
any longer in his hands ; but that in both cases the result could not but be 
injurious to him personally. 

After a minute's silence, his Excellency replied, with apparent candour, 
that, notwithstanding the perplexity of his position, caused by the letters of the 
Capudan Pasha and the Russian Consul-General as well as the representations 
of the Patriarch, he would, nevertheless, adopt such measures as would be 
deemed satisfactory. 

I answered that we owed in a great measure the embarrassment of our 
relative positions to the weakness and want of energy of the Emir Saad-el-Deen, 
Governor of Hasbeya; that his Excellency should depute Sheik Mahommed 
Keiss, one of the feudal chiefs of that district, with a letter to the expelled con- 
verts, inviting them to return forthwith, and whom he should accompany back 
to their homes and families while Hasbeya was yet in the occupation of the 
Government troops. 

His Excellency having readily acceded to the foregoing proposals, he 
directed his Kahyia in my presence to put them forthwith into execution in 
concert with the dragoman of the Consulate ; and Emir Halil and Mahommed 
Keiss have already left, in consequence, Damascus, — the former for Hasbeya 
with troops and with the converts that were in this city, and the latter for Le- 
banon to accomplish his mission, and to deliver the Pasha's latter (Inclosure 
H"o. 2) to the poor fugitives. 

I may venture, therefore, to announce very respectfully to your Lordship 
the present favourable termination of this question, which, after pending for 
several months, was in danger of becoming more and more complicated from 
the unabating intrigues of all those parties whose religious sentiments or poli- 
tical views rendered them averse to the introduction of a purer faith. 

Inclosure 1 in No. 31. 
Halil Pasha to Aali Pasha. 

(After the customary Compliments.) 

SOME of the Christian Rayas of HAsbeya having embraced the Pro- 
testant religion through the medium of designing men, the greater part of 
them have been made to return to their former creed by the Patriarch, who con- 
veyed to them his advice through some of the notables of that district. Actually 
only twenty of them pretend to be Protestants ; but as it has been reported that 
your Excellency intended to punish those who had used their utmost efforts to 
bring about their return to their Church, and had already ordered their impri- 
sonruent and punishment, they labour naturally under great fear and appre- 

This has filled me with great astonishment, as those who have undertaken to 
cause their return to their Church deserved in return encouragement and mild- 
ness. It may be, however, that the report has been put in circulation by some 
evil-doers with the view of intimidating the Rayas, and of preventing them 
thereby to aid in the recantation of the seceders. 

I have deemed it, therefore, expedient to write to you by way of suggestion, 
that you may be pleased to give such orders as may tranquillize and reassure the 
Rayas, and rectify and remove the above reports; at the same time that those 


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irho put ttiem in wcttlation rfiouia he found and punished. You ougM to 
countenance the Patriarch aaid those jAio are working for their return, that they 
may thus have the means of doing it more effectuafly. 

Inclosure 2 in No. 31. 
AuK Pasha to (he absent Professing Christian Protestants. 

flVandation.) Octoler 2, 1844. 

Wis have issued this our order, worthy of obedience, to all such aa h«?e 
fled from Hasbeya and are now residing at the village of Abeyie, that ye mi^ 
know that it having come to our knowledge at the present date that you have 
abandoned your native place of Hasbeya, and have taken up your abode m 
Abeyie, we were greatly surprised at it ; for the tranquillity and well-being of 
the llayas forms one of the especial Imperial cinnmands and wishes : we have^ 
in consequence, addressed you this our ordinance by the hand of one of ib» 
noblest sheiks. Sheik Mahommed Keiss, may his glory increase, that ye may^ on 
his arrival and on your being made acquainted with it, expel from your minds 
all doubt and apprehension, and remain tranquil and reassured, and return 
forthwith to your native place, and assume in fuU repose and peace of mind 
your occupations and vocations. 

Be not troubled or perplexed on any aocoimt whatever, but return imme- 
diately to Hasbeya with the aforestated Sheik Mahommed Eeiss, And with the 
grace of the Almighty ye will experience all that is pleasing to you of tranquil- 
lity and repose of mind in your country. Do not delay an hour your return to 
your homes. Know je this and pay ye to it the greatest attention. 

(L. S.) (Signed) AAM RIZA. 


Consul-General Rose to the Earl of Aberdeen. — {Received Deoemker 5.) 

(Extract:) Beyrout, October 28^, 164-4. 

I HAVE the hornmr to acknowledge the receipt of your Lordship^s dei^a^Nsh 
of the 10th ultimo, and I beg to say, miiii great vespect, thaA; I shall strictiy obey 
the instructions which it contains. 

I trust that I may be permitted to observe that the prudent and just 
views expressed in that despatch, provide fuHy for iihe two matters to be dealt 
with, that is, that the faith of other sects should not be interfered with, and, 
secondly, that the rights of humanity ^ould be protected in countries where 
unfortunately they are only too often trespassed on. 

When the conversions st Hasbeya were first talked of here, the circumstance 
that the dissidents had first addressed themselves to Bishop Alexander, and 
that ignorant people in this country confound American with British sul^ects 
on account g£ the similarilty «f language and fanth, induced me to make 
communications in the sense ^ your Lovdship's instructi^ons to some of mry 
colleagues and such <i4iher parties whose a^ttention might bsvie been awakened 
by the report that British 43ttl^*eetB weve ^^oncem^d in the coDTersioin at 

I informed these paiiies not only that British subjects had had nothing 
whatever to do with those mattens, hut that moreover as fecr 8« myself «r Her 
Majesty^ servants were cotncemed, they, Britisb subjects, would never interfece 
in any way with the religious belief of any faith in Syria. I instanced in j^raeiP 
of this that Bishop Alexaoider had itcSiifled to enter into any jcommunieatlon 
with the dissidentH, when they e9Ci;nressed !a ^ish to become converts to iw 
Church. I also added, in further ^pnouf >of the istridt system of von-dnteiwentimi 
ol)served by British agent^ that soffoe of rthe Hasbeya converts Jiad pmentod 
themselves to Mr. Consul Moored ^CemoeUier at theConBular Office, before tbo^ 
addressed themselves to the ADMriean Missionaries, and declared 'their mmh to 
beoome membei»<tf (the Aq^MH Chmtch.; landl observed ithat tiiiBipeieim mm 
80 well ^wave ^ tik/^^^aSMm iblleved rhgr^ 2fe. A&oDre and myself in cttese madlbem, 

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and of the positive refusal which we had always given to listen to or entertain 
similar requests, that without even consulting either Mr, Moore or myself, he 
had rejected the application of the Hasbeya converts. 

I al^ tdd Assaad Padia in writings that no British guly'ect was c(meemed 
in the conversions at Hasbeya; that on the contrary, Bishop Alexander had 
rejected the application of some Greeks to be members of the Protestant £wth ; 
and my letter to the Kev^ Mr. Smithy which was so clear ou this point, I have 
already had the honour to submit to your Lordship. 

To the Sheiks of the converts, who with the American Missionary, the Rev. 
Mr. Thomson, and two or three of his co-religionists, visited me at Brumana: 
I stated explicitly, that any interest which had been used or would be used 
in their favour by Mr. Wood or myself,, was solely to be attributed to the 
oppression of which they had been the victims, of which oppreesion one unde- 
niable proof was, that they stood before me fugitives from their native town, 
without resources, and separated from their wives, children^ and relatives ; but 
that neither Mr. Wood nor myself had anything whatever to di) with the eon- 
version^ and could not enter into any discussion or conversation with them (the 
converts) on that matter, or any question of dogma or change of belief; that 
Her Majesty's servants having advocated the rights of humanity ki fevour of 
Christians of all sects, Jews, Mahommedans, Druses, and Anzaries, we felt that we 
cookl not refuse the same measure of benevolent assistance to such Christians 
as had been oppressed at Hasbeya ; finally, that oppression having once ceased, 
all advocacy of them would cease alsou 

As regards the conversions at Hasbeyii^ it is only fair to say that, although 
the American Missionaries had formerly a school at Hasbeya, and had distri-*^ 
buted books to its inhabitants, yet the declaration of the conversion appears to 
have been entirely on the part of the inhabitants. For they sought first Bishop 
Alexander, and them the American Missionaries. 

1^0. 33. 

The Earl of Aberdeen to Sir Stratford Canning. 

(Extract.) Foreign Office, December 20, 18444 

AS the Russian Crovemment have expressed an earnest desire that English 
authorities should be instructed to abstain from taking any part in the conver- 
sion of members of the Greek church to the Protestant faith, so, on the part of 
Her Majesty's Government, I have conveyed to the Russian Government, 
through Baron Brunnow, an equally explicit desire that the Russian Consul 
General should be restrained m his over zealous exertions in favour of his 
co-religionists in Syria. 

I tru t that by such mutual forbearance we may succeed in allaying the 
agitation which has been excited by injudicious zeal on both sides in that 
quarter, and that we may once more establish between our Consular agents 
that harmony which, in sach a country as Syria especially, Is so indispensable 
for inspiring respect, and creating confidence, amongst the Turkish authorities 
and population. 

No. 34. 

Mr. Buchamin to the Earl of Aberdeen. — {Received December 27.) 

(Extract,) St. Petersburgh, December 10, 1844. 

IN conformity with yonr Lordship*s directions, I placed in the hands <rf 
Count Nesselrode the copy of your Lordship's instructions to Consul-General 
Rose with which his Excellency was much pleased. In requesting me to thank 
your Lordship for the communication of your despatch, he added that he would, 
on his side, send similar instructions to the Russian Agents in Syria, and we 
might, therefore, hope that questions of this nature would not occasion any em- 
bamassment in future. 

F 2 

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No. 35. • 

Consul'Oeneral Rose to the Earl of Aberdeen — {Received February S.) 

(Extract.) Beyrouth January 9, 1845. 

I HAVE the honour to inclose to your Lordship a translated copy of the 
letter which the Capudan Pasha promised me that he would write to Aali Pasha 
to request that he would take measures to prevent further oppression of the 
converts at Hasheya. 

The letter is a very sensible and just one, and is aU that can be deemed 
necessary. The Capudan Pasha behaved with much courtesy in the matter. 

Thus my observations on the matter of Hasbeya, which were strictly 
according to the instructions jfrom yout Lordship, have procured from the Porte's 
representative and Capudan Pasha a full recognition of the legitimacy and 
justice of the intervention of Her Majesty's servants in the affair of Has- 
beya, both in word and in writing. This is the more gratifying, because Mr. 
Wood has clearly proved that the Capudan Pasha, alarmed by misrepresen-' 
tations, had shown much hostility in the matter of Hasbeya; and I was a 
witness of his jealousy in this matter. 

The steadiness with which I have maintained the position that Her 
Majesty's servants only interceded against oppression, and for the maintenance 
of the most important privileges of the Sovereign— his right to preserve the 
public peace and the personal security of all his subjects, and the declarations 
that we had nothing to do with conversions ; that I did not intercede in any 
way whatever for the converts at Hasbeya, because they were Protestants ; 
these facts have proved, I trust, to the Turkish authorities here that they had 
nothing to fear politically from British religious sympathies for their Protestant 

Inclosure in Ifo. 35. 

The Capudan Pasha to the Pasha of Damascus. 

AS we have heard from some part that aggression and insult are showed 
on the part of the rest of the Rayas to the Rayas of the Sublime Porte, who 
are actually of the Protestant religion, from the inhabitants of the districts 
of Hasbeya and Rasheya, and as the said persons, even were they Protestants, 
are also Kayas of the Sublime Porte, it is not lawful to do them harm nor 
to insult them, but to protect and defend them, according to the high justice of 
the Sublime Porte. 

Therefore, let your high endeavours on this subject, be used according to 
your justice, in order to procure for them their tranquillity of mind, and that 
there should be no injury done to them on the part of any body, as long as the 
said persons are in the way of submission and let the necessary protection and 
security be executed on their behalf, like all the other Eayas. 

For this purpose we have written the present ; and after it shall reach 
the knowledge of your Mushirship, it will be in every way dependent on your 

(L. S.) HALH.. 

No. 36. 

Consul Wood to the Earl of Aberdeen^ — {Received February 8, 1845.) 

My Lord, Damascus, December 19, 1844. 

I HAVE the honour to transmit to your Lordship copy of my report 
to Her Majesty^s Ambassador at Constantinople relative to the affairs of 

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Hasbeya, and to the establishment of "Meshikas," or the Government of 
elective Sheiks in several of the districts of Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon, under 
the auspices of the Greek clergy. 

I llftV6 &C 

(Signed) ' RICHARD WOOD- 

Inclosure in No. 36. 
Consul Wood to Sir Stratford Canning. 


I HAVE the honour to state, that in consequence of the conununi* 
cations made to me by the authorities of Damascus relative to the question 
of Hasbeya and the Emir Halil, it was agreed that a Commission should be 
named to ascertain on the spot the exact wishes of the rival parties in regard 
to their Governor with the \aew to the adoption of such other ulterior measurea 
as would satisfy them and appease their mutual irritation. 

After the departure of the Commissioners, however, and previous to the 
receipt of their report, Halil Pasha renewed his remonstrances and threats in a 
letter which he addressed to Aali Pasha, wherein he insisted on the recall of 
Emir Halil, and the appointment of a Turkish officer in his room. 

His Excellency was pleased, in acquainting me with this fresh embarrass- 
ment, to express a request that I would give him my opinion with regard to 
the line of conduct he should pursue. 

I replied, that with regard to the nomination of a Turkish officer, 
I should abstain from giving any opinion, as I wished to be free to act 
according to circumstances, should they render my intervention necessary 
hereafter ; for, as I felt certain that without a strong force to support his 
authority (and which would consume the revenues of the district) he must 
necessarily side with the strongest party to maintain himself, I would not 
become the indirect means of oppression to the weaker, which alone deserved 
our sympathy ; but that I had no objection to offer to the appointment of an 
Emir, particularly should his Excellency's choice fall on Emir Ahmet, the 
nephew of Emir Halil. 

The Pasha adopted my suggestion in favour of the former Emir. 

m. 37. 
The Earl of Aberdeen to Consul Wood. 

(Extract.) Foreign Office, February 20, 1846. 

I HAVE to repeat my injunction that you should abstain for the future 
from all interference whatever in questions connected with the operations of 
any missionary societies for the conversion to any form of worship of the inha- 
bitants of the district in which you reside. 

m. 38. 
The Earl of Aberdeen to Sir Stratford Canning. 

Sir, Foreign Office, March 20, 1845^ 

THE memorial, of which the inclosed is a copy, was presented to me the 
day before yesterday by a numerous deputation, and is signed in the original 
by the Archbishop of Canterbury and above fifteen thousand other persons of 
various stations in society. 

The object of it, as your Excellency will perceive, is to induce Her Ma» 
jesty's Government to renew their exertions with the Porte to obtain a firman 
from the Sultan authorizing the completion of the building designed for a 
Protestant Church at Jerusidem. 

The last report which I received from vour Excellency on this subject is 
contained in your despatch of the 3rd of May of last year, and fnm 

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tlutt despatcli it appeared that the consent of the Turkish Oovemment to the 
resumption oi the works would depend on the report which the Pasha of Saida 
had been called upon to furnish with reference to the buildings proposed to be 
erected at Jerusalem for the accommodation of the British and Prussian Con- 
sulates^ among which ihe chapel be included. 

i have to desire that your Excellency will now ascertain from the Turkish 
Government whether the report in question has been received from Syria, and 
the course which in that case the Porte is prepared to take on this matter. 

In the event of any further hesitation beiug shown by the Porte to grant 
the necessary permission for the resumption and completion of the works, your 
Excellency will call the attention of the Turkish Ministers to the inclosed 
memorial, and take such further measures as may appear to you best calculated 
for giving effect to the wishes expressed in it. 

. You will at the same time express the earnest hope of Her Majesty's 
GkWemment that no further impediment may be opposed to the completion 
ot^Vb^ buildings, and that the Porte will no longer object to grant the formal 
sanrelfon of a firman for that purpo3e. 

(Signed) ABEBDEEET. 

Indosure in No. 3& 

Memorial respecting Protestant Church at Jerusalem. 

To the Right Honourable the Earl of Aberdeen, K. T., &c., &c., tec., Her 
M^esty's Principal Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs. 

The Memorial of the Undersigned Members and Friends of the London So- 
ci^ for Promoting Christianity amongst the Jews 


THAT it is with feelings of painful regret, that this Society ate 
coBi{>elk4 to address youar Lordship upcMa a subject deeply affecting the w«il* 
being of the Church of England in the East, as well as her honour and dignity 
before the Oriental churches, and in the eyes of Europe. 

That this Society was established in one thousand eight hundred and nine, 
for the purpose of spreading the gospel amongst the Jewish people ; that it is a 
Society composed of many thousand persons, with nearly one thousand auxiliary 
societies in Her Majesty's dominions ; that its funds amount to twenty-six thou- 
sand pounds per annjim; that his Grace the Archbishop of Canterbury it 
patron, and most of the bishops of the Church of England and Ireland, as well 
as a large number of peers and members of Parliament vice-patrons and vice 
presidents. So long ago as in the year one thousand eight hundred and t^^enty 
the Society commenced a mission at Jerusalem, which loss been invariably con- 
duoted with the strictest deference and obedience to the existing Government 
of the country, and continued, amidst many trials and difficulties incident to 
the undertaking, to enjoy immolested, both imder the Ottoman and Egyptian 
Governments, for many years the pririiege of ende»^Fo«ring to promote the 
spiritual and temporal welfare of God's ancient people in that holy city. In 
the year one thousand eight hundred and thirty seven, the Society, in order 
to give greater stability and permanency to the mission, appointed at its 
head a clergyman, specially ordained for that office by the Lord jSishop of Lon- 
don, and associated with him a medical gentleman, whose professional services 
for the relief both (^ the suffering Jews and the inhabitants generally led to 
an kicreased intercourse and good feeling between the missionaries and all 
clMses of pec^le in Jerusalem. 

in the year one thousand eight hundred and forty one his Grace the Arch- 
bi^boip of Canterbury, .with the license of Her Majesty and under the authority 
of the act of the fifth Victoria, chapter six, consecrated the Reverend Michael 
S^omon Alexander, a Bishop of the United Church of England and Ireland, to 
reside at Jerusalem, with spiritual jurisdiction over the English clergy and others 
inr'M^im with the Church, together with German clergymen or^iined by the 
^W#> ihvpughottt Palestine, /^yria^, CSialdea^ ^4gypt> ^nd Abjasinia, his chief 

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missionary care being dirQcted to the conversion of the Jews to Christianity. 
For the purposes also of promoting education a college was to be established, 
under the superintendence of the bishop. This important step wae taken at the 
suggestion and with the concurrence and hearty co-operation of His Majesty the 
King of Prussia^ who contributed the munificent sum of fifteen thousami pouvis 
towards the permanent income of the Bishop. 

T^us encouraged, both at tome and abroad, by the highest patronage, tfce 
Society urged fbrward with increased exertions the erection of a church for the 
performance of divine service, and buildings for the accommodation of the Bishop 
and missionaries^ which they had, at very considerable "expense, abeady com- 
menced upon a piece of ground purchased for the purpose. The erection of a 
church has since acquired additional importance from the need of a place of 
^orsh^ for the numbers of English and foreign Protestants who now frequent 
the holy city. 

Having a, letter commendatory from his Grace the Archbishop of Canter- 
bury, the Bii^op of Jerusalem proceeded — with the prayers and best wishes of 
the ffieftds of Israel — to take <; har g e of his saered trust. The reception he 
met with upon his arrival, which was insured by the marked countenance and 
protection afforded by Her Majesty's Government, and the respect he has at all 
times and upon all occasions received from the heads of other Christian 
Churches, as well as from the inhabitants of Jerusalem generally, consisting f 
so great a variety of differing sects, is the best evidence not only of ':^ unobjec- 
tionable nature of the mission, but of the sound judgment ana discretion with 
which the holy functions of the Bishop have been exercised. The valuable 
services of the eminent physician Doctor Macgowan, who accompanied the 
Bishop, his piety, professional skill, and compassionate feelings for suffering 
humanity, have greatly contributed to the Tiarmony and kind feeling subsisting 
at this time between the missionaries and the people of Jerusalem. 

Taking all these circumstances into their consideration, the Society most 
dee^y regrets that whilst the Greeks, Roman Ga*h<rfics, Armenians, and other 
minor sects of Christians, enjoy the permission to worship God in their respec- 
tive temples, and whilst no privilege is withheld on the representations of 
French mi Russian diplomacy, the pure reformed religion df the Briti^ nation, 
to whom under God Turkey is indebted for the recovery of Syria, should be 
alon^ proscribed, and her Protestant children alone denied the possession c(f e 
consecrated building for the servioe of God, Mid esipecially thait jpecognition of 
the Protestant faith whioh is indispensable to insure proteclicui. 

Satisfied that the impediments, from whatever cai»e lor source they laay 
ihave arisen, wiU be immediately a^d effectually overruled by your ]i/Offdship}s 
interposition, through the agency of Her Majesty's Ambassador to the Octomao 
Government, and confident that your Lordship does not view with indifferenoe 
an object enjoying such august patronage, so dear to many thousancb of the 
members of the Church of Snglaud, and so important from ite general bearing 
on Christian missions and its jntluenee on the Chui!Qhes of the £aat, and wi& 
the success of which fc^eign nations consider t^e dignity axkd interesto of 
England to be so nearly connected, the Society ieamestly enitreat of your 
Lordship to send such instructions to that able and distinguished representative 
of the British Crown, 6ir Stratford Caoniog, >as shall enable him to prefer the 
necessary representation of the case to the Turkish Government, and obtain 
from the Sultan a firman authorizing the completion of the buildings upon 
which so much money has been already expended, and which have excited such 
general and intense interest. A strong proof of this interest is afforded by 
the fact that an EngHsh lady has undertaken to complete the church, and 
endow it with an income of one hundred pounds per annum for a pertnan^t 
minister, as well as to contribute the sum necessary to fonn a fund ipr keefong 
"flie dhurch in repair. 

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m. 39. 
Mr. Buchanan to the Earl of Aberdeen. — (Received April 3.) 

My Lord, 8t. Petersburgh, March 18, 1845, 

I HAVE allowed Count Nesselrode to read the instruction which your 
Lordship addressed to Her Majesty's Consul at Damascus on the 20th Fehruary, 
directing him to abstain in future from all interference whatever in questions 
connected with proselytism within his district. 

The Vice-Chancellor, in thanking me for the communication, expressed 
his complete satisfaction with the terms of your Lordship's despatch, which 
would do much, his Excellency said, towards promoting the tranquillity which 
the Imperial Government desired to see established in Syria. 

I have Sec 

No. 40. 
The Earl of Aberdeen to Sir Stratford Canning. 

Sir, Foreign Office, April 5, 1845. 

I INCLOSE for your Excellency's information a copy of a despatch from 
Mr. Buchanan, reporting his having communicated to Count Nesselrode my 
despatch to Mr Consul Wood of the 20th February, respecting his inter- 
ference in the aflFairs of the Hasbeya, of which a copy was transmitted to 
your Excellency in my despatch of that day. 

I am, &c. 
(Signed) ABERDEEN. 

No. 41. 

Sir Stratford Canning to the Earl of Aberdeen. — {Received May 6.) 

My Lord, Constantinople^ April 17, 1845, 

I HAVE received your Lordship's instructions relating to the suspended 
buildings at Jerusalem, and shall avail myself with much pleasure of the 
first favourable opportunity to resume my discussions with the Porte upon 
that subject, hoping that the reasonable demand of Her Majesty's Government 
will be at length complied with, and the expectations of the mmierous sub- 
scribers of the memorial annexed to your Lordship's despatch eventually 

I need not assure your Lordship that it will afibrd me the liveliest gratifica- 
tion to be the humble instrument under Providence of accomplishing an object 
which has been too long opposed, and which can never be indiflterent to mem- 
bers of the Protestant Church. 

I have, &c. 

No. 42. 

Sir Stratford Canning to the Earl of Aberdeen. — {Received June 5.) 

My Lord, Constantinople, May 20, 1846. 

I HAVE long felt so deeply the failure of my exertions on behalf of the 
Protestant church at Jerusalein, that the receipt of your Lordship's instruction, 
authorizing me to renew them in terms which imply a serious perseverance on the 
part of Her Majesty's Government, afforded me the liveliest gratification ; nor 
should I have lost a moment in acting on that instruction, had I not thought that 
the delay of a few days would enable me to renew the subject with more advantage 
and better hope. At an interview which I had with the Turkish Minister for 
Foreign Affairs this morning, I communicated the substance and read the con- 
cluding passage of your Lordship's instruction, endeavouring at the same time to 

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convey to his Excellency's mind a just idea of the very important memorial 
which accompanied it, and also of the painful impression which the Porte's ill- 
grounded reluctance to comply with a request, as reasonable as it is natural, 
had of late produced in^Englaiid. I must do Shekib Effendi the justice to say^ 
that he received my communication with interest, and listened to my arguments 
with deference. He made no attempt to defeat my application by referring to 
the Pasha of Saida's report, and requested that I would bring the matter under 
his more deliberate consideration in the form of a note. With this invitation 
I propose to comply, and your Lordship may depend upon my sparing no pains 
to overcome whatever obstacles the Turkish Ministry or the local authorities 
may still oppose to the grant of a firman for building the intended edifice. 

I have Sea 

No. 43. 
Sir Stratford Canning to the Earl of Aberdeen. — {Received September 24.) 

My Lord, Constantinople^ September 3, 1845. 

I HAVE the honour to transmit to your Lordship a copy of a note or 
memorandum addressed to me by the Sublime Porte, announcing the promised 
firman for the erection of a Protestant church together with that of the other 
suspended buildings at Jerusalem. The firman is not quite ready for trans^ 
mission by the present messenger, but I hope to have the satisfaction of for- 
warding a translation of it to your Lordship by the next opportunity. 

1 have, &c. 

Inclosure in No. 43. 

Memorandum from the Porte to Sir Stratford Canning. 
(Translation.) 29 Shaban, 1261. September 2, 1846. 

ALTHOUGH certain internal difficulties and obstacleshave hitherto retarded 
the granting of your Excellency's request for the erection of a place where 
British Protestants visiting Jerusalem might perform their worship, as admitted 
also by your Excellency ; in conformity, however, with the strong relations of 
friendship between Great Britain and the Sublime Porte, and more particularly 
in conformity with the constant desire of His Imperial Majesty to confirm the 
special relations of amity and good understanding between him and Her Majesty 
the Queen, it has been endeavoured to remove those difficulties in as favourable 
a manner as possible, and His Majesty has granted his royal permission for the 
erection of a special place of worship for the performance of Protestant rites 
within the British Consular residence in Jerusalem, according to the conditions 
set forth in the proposal lately given in by your Excellency. 

His Majesty hopes that, as your Excellency will feel persuaded that this 
circumstance afibrds an express proof of the high consideration entertained by 
him for your illustrious Government, Her Majesty the Queen will appreciate 
the royal endeavour to grant your Excellency's request ; and in begging your 
Excellency to announce and convey to your- Court a copy of the Imperial grant, 

I avail, &c. 

No. 44. 
Sir Stratford Canning to the Earl of Aberdeen. — {Received October 3.) 

(Extract.) Constantinople, September 16, 1846. 

INCLOSED herewith is an English translation of the Sultan's firman 
permitting the erection of a Protestant place of worship at Jerusalem.^ I have 
addressed the original to Her Majesty's Consul in that city, and retun in thiB 
Embassy an exact copy of it legalized according to Turkish forms. 


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Your Lordship will obeerve tiiait aecolrding to the terms of the firman, it is 
understood that the church is to be situated in cosmexion with the Con»ilar 

This condition was anticipated in your Lordship's instructions, 
I cannot in justice dismiss the subject without acknowledging the valuable 
assistance which I have received from Mr. AlisoB, and also from Mr. Frederic 
Pisani, in the long course of my endearours to execute your Lordship's instruc- 
tions respecting it. 

Inclosure in K"o. 44. 
Firinun addressed to the Walee of Saida, the Governor of Jerusalem, and others. 


IT has been represented both now and before, on the part of the British 
Embassy residing at my Court, that British and Prussian Protestant subjects 
visiting Jerusalem, meet with diflSculties and obstructions, owing to their not 
possessing a place of worship for the observance of Protestant rites, and it has 
been requested that permission should be given to erect, for the first time, a 
Special Protestant place of worship within the British Consular residence at 

Whereas it is in accordance with the perfect amity and cordial relations 
existing between the Government of Great Britain and my Sublime Porte, 
that the requests of that Government should be complied with as far as possible; 
and whereas, moreover, the aforesaid place of worship is to be within the 
Consular residence, my royal permission is therefore granted for the erection 
of the aforesaid special place of worship within the aforesaid Consular resi- 
dence, and my Imperial orders having been issued for that purpose, the 
present decree containing permission has been specially given from my 
Imperial divan. 

When, therefore, it becomes known unto you, Walee of Saida, Governor 
of Jerusalem and others as aforesaid, that our royal permission has been 
granted for the erection, in the manner above stated, of the aforesaid place of 
worship, you will be careful that no person do in any manner whatever oppose 
the erection of the aforesaid place of worship in the manner stated, and you 
will not act in contravention hereof; for which purpose my Imperial Firman 
is issued. 

On its arrival, you will act in accordance with my Imperial firman issued 
for this purpose, in the manner aforesaid. Be it thus known to you, giving 
full faith to the Imperial cypher. 

Written in the first day of the Bamazan, 1261. (September 10, 1845.) 

^Q. 15. 
The Earl of Aberdeen to Sir Stratford Canning. 

(Extract.) Foreign Office, October 6, 1845. 

THE success which has attended your Excellency's endeavours to 
overcome the reluctance of the Porte, to permit the completion of the 
Protestant church at Jerusalem, and which is recorded in your deiqiatches, 
of the 3rd and 16th of September, has afforded much gratification to Her 
Majesty's Government, and they are fiiUy sensible that this result must in great 
measure be attributed to your Excellency's zealous and unremitting exertions. 
I gladly remark also the mention made by your Excellency of the assistance 
which jou have received in this matter from Mr. AUson, the Oriental Secretary, 
and from Mr. Frederick Pisani. 

Y©u* ETCellency will take an early opportunity to intimate to the Sultan 
Jihat HejrMioesty'a Government look upon the present a^ of condescension 
^ th^ part of Hifl Highness^ as deriving additionfd valu/e from the giM^eious 
pan^r ia which it wae perfonmed. 

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Ko. 46. 
Sir Stratford Canning to the Earl of Aberdeen. — {Received April 1.) 

(Extract.) Constantinople^ March 18, 1846. 

I HAVE much satisfaction in forwarding the translation inclosed herewith, 
of a proclamation which has lately been published by the Sultan's command^ 
and, what is unusual, printed for general circulation not only in the Turkish, 
but also in the Greek and Armenian languages. Your Lordship will observe 
that the principles thus proclaimed in the Sultan's name, after they had been 
adopted by the Supreme Council of Justice, are highly advantageous to all 
classes of the population in this empire, and considering the symptoms of real 
amendment which have lately appeared in the language and proceedings of the 
Turkish authorities, I venture to hope that, if not carried at once into complete 
eflTect, they will at least not remain, as but too often has been the case hereto- 
fore, a dead letter, neglected by some and defied by others. 

It is agreeable to me, and it can hardly be otherwise to your Lordship, to 
find that British influence has not been without a share in producing this 
improvement. The information, which I am in the habit of conveying to the 
Council, as circumstances require or enable me to do so, appears to attract 
attention, and to occasion a gradual adoption of remedial measures. 

Within the last few days I have had the good fortune to rescue from prison 
and other modes of persecution, a number of Armenians who had incurred the 
penalty of a formal exconmiunication, with aU its barbarous consequences, by 
embracing and professing Evangelical opinions at variance with the discipline 
or dogmas of their Church. In performing this act of humanity, I have endea- 
voured neither to encourage the missionaries — from whom tli^ Protestant 
converts derive their new persuasion- — nor to afltord the Armenian spiritual 
authorities any cause of complaint ; and, to judge from the assurances of the 
former, and from the communications of the latter, represented by their 
Patriarch, I am entitled to hope that my efforts have not been unsuccessful. 

A change of no trifling extent and importance is manifestly working in 
the Armenian Church; a considerable and growing number of its members 
have learnt that it is a duty to read the Gospel, and to renounce everything 
which will not stand the test of a reference to its precepts; Of these but few 
are as yet prepared to make an open profession of their faith ; but while the 
more courageous stand forward and brave the censures of their hierarchy, many 
hundreds are believed to look forward in secret to the time when they maj 
declare their opinions without prejudice to their temporal interests. The same 
period which realizes that cherished hope, will probably witness the recog- 
nised establishment of the Protestants in Tur