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Sarbart Co I lege ILibrarg 




I'kUM l-HE GIFT OF 

ALEXANDER COCHRANE 

OF BOSTON 



FOR BOOKS ON SCOTLA^TD AND 
SCOTTISH LITERATi;aK 




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PARTICK— PAST AND PRESENT 



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PARTICK-PAST 
AND PRESENT 



By 

CHARLES TAYLOR 



GLASGOW AND EDINBURGH 

WILLIAM HODGE & COMPANY 
1903 



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^ 



iu^<\x\.:i"\.^ 







PKINTBD BV WILLIAM HODGB AND CO., GLASGOW AND EDINBURGH 



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Dedicated to 
PROVOST WOOD 

AND THE 

MAGISTRATES AND COMMISSIONERS 

OF PARTICK 

A SOUVENIR OF THE BURGH ATTAINING 

ITS JUBILEE 



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CONTENTS 

Roman Period, i 

Reformation Times, lo 

The Mills of Partick, 17 

The Village, 30 

Bits of Old Partick, 43 

Old Partick Inns, 54 

Old Partick Institutions, - - - - 64 

Social and Religious Life of Old Partick, 74 

The Burgh, 85 

Victoria Park, 96 

Shipbuilding, no 

Moral and Religious Effort, - - - 118 

Educational, 129 

New Partick, 144 

Old Partick Men, 154 

Appendix, 161 

Index, 175 



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LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



Alexander Wood, Esq., Provost of Partiok, 

1902, Froniispiece 

YoRKHiLL House, facing page 5 



Portion of Clyde in 1654, - - - - 

Regent Mills, 

Old Bridge and Bishop Mill, Partick, • 
Granny Gibb's Cottage, and Sawmill 

Ferry Road, - 

Old School of Partick, - . . - 

Partick Dead Bell, 

Fossil Grove, Victoria Park, 
OiJ> U.P. Church, Byars Road, • 



II 

23 
45 

61 
67 
83 

lOI 
131 



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PREFACE 

It is over twenty -five years since the 
late Mr. James Napier published his 
'* Notes and Reminiscences of Old Par- 
tick," and the volume, being now out of 
print, is rarely to be met with, except 
in the possession of private collectors. 
Mr. Napier, who knew the history of 
his birthplace well, brought his work 
down to the sixties and seventies of last 
century, and there are many alive who 
still remember the quiet and suburban 
aspect of this western suburb at that 
period, and who may have witnessed its 
rapid extension in more recent times to 
the present year when the burgh attains 
its jubilee. 

In these circumstances I have deemed 
the present a fitting opportunity to issue 
xiii 



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PREFACE 

the following chapters, in which I have 
endeavoured, in a general manner, to sum- 
marise the main features of Mr. Napier's 
work, and bring his history down to the 
present time. What threads of the his- 
tory of Partick I may have left aside 
may perhaps be taken up at some other 
time by a future historian, and weaved 
into the web of the further history of 
the burgh. 

Readers who may desire to possess a 
further knowledge of any of the various 
subjects herein mentioned, are referred 
to the following authorities : — ** Napier's 
Notes and Reminiscences of Partick," 
Glasgow Regality Club Papers, Glasgow 
Protocols, Baker Incorporation Records, 
United Secession Church Records, Govan 
Parish Records, Govan School Board 
Records, Transactions of the Philosophical, 
Geological, and Archaeological Societies of 
Glasgow, Historical Sketches of Dowanhill 

Church by the late Rev. T. M. Lawrie, 
xiv 



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I 



PREFACE 

and Reminiscences of Partick by the Rev. 
Henry Anderson. 

My thanks are due to Mr. W. G. Smeal, 
Mr. F. T. Barrett, Mr. John IngHs, Mr. 
James Donaldson, and others, for the help 
I have received in verifying many facts 
and dates regarding the history of ■* Partick, 
Past and Present " ; and to my friend, Mr. 
John Aitken, photographer, Partick, for 
the photographs he has supplied me with 
to illustrate the volume. 

C. T. 

Partick, Aprils 1902. 



XV 



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PARTICK-PAST AND PRESENT 

ROMAN PERIOD 

On the north-east bank of the Kelvin, and 
just overlooking its junction with the 
Clyde, there stands Yorkhill House on the 
extreme western portion of the Overnew- 
ton estate. In early spring and summer 
the house and its surroundings still possess 
a faint shadow of their former sylvan 
beauty, and are reminiscent, in a frag- 
mentary way, of how Dumbarton Road 
was adorned on either side, all the way 
from Glasgow to Partick, some eighty or 
ninety years ago. 

Built about the year 1805, Yorkhill 
House was till 181 3 occupied by its 
owner, R. F. Alexander, a Glasgow 
merchant, when it was sold to Andrew 



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PARTICK— PAST AND PRESENT 

Gilbert, whose niece became the wife of 
John Graham Gilbert, the celebrated 
painter. Mr. Graham Gilbert, who con- 
tinued to reside here till his death in 
1866, was a collector as well as a painter 
of pictures, and Glaswegians will remem- 
ber with gratitude that the entire collec- 
tion was bequeathed by his widow to 
the Corporation of the City of Glasgow, 
and now forms part of the treasures 
which adorn the walls of the Corporation 
Gallery of Art. The year after Mr. 
Gilbert's death some workmen, while 
engaged trenching ground for a new 
garden on the Yorkhill estate, came upon 
a variety of Roman remains. Among 
these were a few coins, one of which 
bears the image and superscription of the 
Roman Emperor Trajan, who reigned 
from A.D. 98 to A.D. 117. The coin is of 
brass, and, though it had lain embedded 
in the soil for at least 1600 years, is still 
in a state of good preservation. These 



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ROMAN PERIOD 

remains were, by permission of Mr. D. 
M. Crerar - Gilbert, exhibited in the 
Bishop s Palace collection of antiquities 
in the Glasgow Exhibition of 1888, and 
again in the Exhibition of 1901. They 
included — 

Coin — Great brass of Trajan. Obverse, a lau- 
reated head of that Emperor in profile to the right : 
inscription (translated) — "To the Emperor Caesar 
Nerva Trajan Augustus Germanicus, Dacicus, High 
Priest, invested with Tribunitian power." Reverse, 
much corroded, but a draped female figure can be 
faintly traced sitting on a chair, and looking to 
the left, holding a garland. 

A bronze coin, much worn. 

Silver coin. 

Bronze or copper coin, both sides quite flat 

One large thumb ring in bronze. 

A small quantity of wheat.* 

Eleven fragments of four separate vessels. 

Six fragments of glass, part of a small vase. 

The discovery of these remains may be 
assumed as fair evidence that Romans 
really lived on the site of Yorkhill grounds, 
and ai-e certainly the first recorded " find *' 

* Wheat did not then grow in Caledonia, and would have to 
be imported. 

3 



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-Itt'.t:; — .\-^t .i-x:^ present 

^J-.i^ -::i:r:rr :f rie city of 

\. 

-' — u. - - r-rr.Ui^ Tnip of this 

\ '."scr^^-irz*-! Tr :ne Egyptian 

"- ~r "^: -nr- . *.:r. ifc^ a local 

- "^ '^z irxir. wrile the 

,. .r.^ .-ciii.:r ic Vanduara 

.. j..--*_ r^ ^^_^*-n: ct Cale- 

. . . - rrn::^-^ blank. It 

. r T- j..^ -"^ Vrr-ifnZ outpost 

r-r -*r^7^fr camp at 

- r..-- ,:vwi.'^ vdr rie latter 
r . ^ : rrti Jlyie. or by 

.,- »o' vr.jch branched 

- . . -r. ani is still recog- 
T r ^^rrr. nsjnie of Cause- 

-- '^ T^-ve is more than 

^ **^^^c^^ -camp was 

^ » "^ -^r^r.^w rr£?eC3yde 



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PARTICK— PAST AND PRESENT 

in the immediate vicinity of the city of 
Glasgow. 

Referring to a curious map of this 
country constructed by the Egyptian 
geographer, Ptolemy, a.d. 150, a local 
antiquarian points out that, while the 
well-known Roman station at Vanduara 
(Paisley) is indicated, the region of Cale- 
donia at Yorkhill is a complete blank. It 
may have been that the Yorkhill outpost 
was subordinate to the larger camp at 
Paisley, and communicated with the latter 
by means of the ford in the Clyde, or by 
the vicinal military way which branched 
off from the main line, and is still recog- 
nised under the modern name of Cause- 
wayside, an old street in Paisley. 

The idea of the outpost is more than 
probable, for the Paisley camp was 
intended to guard the shallow of the Clyde 
opposite the line of the Antonine wall, 
which, in its westward course, comes 
very near the brink of the river, the 
4 



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ROMAN PERIOD 

Yorkhill outpost on the opposite side 
guarding the mouth of the Kelvin. The 
garrison at Yorkhill was probably com- 
manded by a centurion, and composed 
of picked soldiers for outpost duty. It 
may be asked, however, why place 
a fort so far within the Antonine 
wall, which afforded ample protection 
from the inroads of the natives in 
this northern Roman province? The 
answer is, that at the time the coin of 
Trajan found at Yorkhill was struck, and 
the probable erection of the castellum on 
that commanding spot, the military curtain 
which connected Agricola's row of forts 
between the Clyde and the firth had not 
been constructed. The space between 
these forts — about two miles — was there- 
fore quite open, and afforded opportunity 
for the fierce hostile natives to make 
sudden raids into the Roman district. It 
was not till the time of Antoninus Pius, 
two reigns later than Trajan, that these 
S 



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PARTICK— PAST AND PRESENT 

openings between the forts were closed 
by the great rampart and fosse which 
became known as the Antonine wall. The 
large camp at Paisley owed its origin to 
the same circumstance, and was continued 
till a late period of the Roman occupation 
to overawe the warlike people of a wide 
range south and west. 

When the Romans effected a landing on 
our island, and had pushed their way 
northwards to Caledonia, great military 
roads were constructed throughout the 
country, and two walls or lines of defence 
were built, one between the Forth and the 
Clyde, the other between the Solway and 
the Tyne. One of these great roads, 
starting from the place now known as 
Carlisle, passed in a northerly direction 
through what to-day we call Carstairs, 
Carluke, Motherwell, Tollcross, and Park- 
head to Glasgow Cross. At this point 
one great road continued westward, 
following the Clyde, and, skirting the 



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ROMAN PERIOD 

edge of the Yorkhill outpost, crossed 
the Kelvin by a ford or bridge, and 
followed the Clyde to Dumbarton. 
This road made a convenient military 
way, protected on the north by the ram- 
part or wall between the Forth and 
Clyde, traces of which are still visible 
at Castlehill, Bearsden, Croy, Barrhill, 
and DuUatur, and by which direct and 
safe communication could be kept up 
towards the south, and, if need be, to 
Rome itself. It was not enough to 
depend merely on the protection of the 
wall itself; every available point was 
fortified, not only on the line of the 
wall, but also on the south side of it, for 
again and again the northern tribes broke 
through and pushed themselves south- 
wards. Ultimately the Roman legions, 
annoyed at these incessant attacks, with- 
drew to the southern barrier which they 
had erected. 

In the latter end of the fourth century 
7 



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PARTICK— PAST AND PRESENT 

the Romans once more invaded and 
occupied the country between the northern 
and southern walls, and the old work of 
ceaseless inroads by the natives of the 
north again began. The Caledonians, 
perpetually on the watch for an oppor- 
tunity, again and again ravaged the 
southern districts, and returned to their 
mountain fastnesses laden with plunder. 
The time, however, came when, the 
Roman Empire falling into decay, the 
soldiers were required for her own defence 
against the fierce barbarians who, issuing 
in prodigious swarms from the frozen 
regions of the north, rolled their living 
tides over the sunny plains of southern 
Europe. The last of the legions was 
recalled, and the Roman soldiers who 
manned the rampart, or paced the vallum, 
or guarded the fort were never again seen 
on Scottish ground. Their departure was 
so sudden that in many cases they were 
unable to carry away their possessions^ 
8 



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ROMAN PERIOD 

altars, stones, vessels, implements, and 
even sums of money were hid in the 
ground, as if they expected soon to 
return. 

The Romans had left our country, but 
they left a deep and lasting impression 
of themselves behind. They taught our 
rude progenitors how to make roads, 
build bridges, and cultivate soil. The 
permanent occupations of the soldiers of 
some station or fort attracted peaceably- 
disposed natives, who in many cases 
intermarried and formed the nucleus of 
small villages, which have in time grown 
to be important towns — thus we have 
Paisley, Crawford, Lanark, Castlecary ; 
and it is not too much to assume that, 
if there was no village at Partick before 
the Romans converted Yorkhill into a 
station, there would soon rise up a village 
on the banks of the Kelvin, and close to 
the Roman fort for protection. 



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REFORMATION TIMES 

At the beginning of the Roman invasion 
the original tribes of North Britain were 
divided into independent factions, each 
governed by its petty chief or king, and 
each at war with its neighbour. A new 
foe, however, had made its appearance, 
and a tacit bond of union was formed 
among the Caledonian tribes against this 
enemy, to be maintained so long as the 
invaders were in the country. Their 
departure was but the signal for fresh 
invasions by Saxons and Normans, who 
brought with them new habits, new laws, 
new forms of government ; and then 
sprang up a series of petty kingdoms, 
of which Clydesdale or Strathclyde formed 
one. 

During the next five hundred years 

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REFORMATION TIMES 

Scotland, as a kingdom, was being ham- 
mered into shape, but we have no trace 
of what part, great or small, Partick 
played in this great epoch. There is 
no mention of the name till the 7th July, 
1 1 36, when David, King of Scotland, **the 
sair sanct to the crown," granted lands at 
" Perdyec " to the church of St. Kentigern 
in Glasgow. In 1152 Herbert, Bishop 
of Glasgow, granted by charter to the 
church at Glasgow lands in Partick and 
adjacent islands ** between Guvan and 
Perthic." One of these " inches *' or 
islands parted the waters of the Clyde, 
at the mouth of the Kelvin, and was 
called the '' Water Inch " ; another was 
further down and was named *' Whyt 
Inch," from which the western district 
of Partick, "Whiteinch," has its name. 

In 1277 the grant of wood by the lord 

of Luss for the repairs of the church at 

Glasgow is dated at Partick, where he 

was no doubt on a visit to the Bishop 

II 



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PARTICK— PAST AND PRESENT 

of Glasgow, who had a manor or castie 
at Partick. The lands referred to in the 
grant by King David in all probability- 
included the Partick mill, which was 
called for many a day the "Archbishop's 
mill" or ''Bishops mill." In 1483, in a 
charter disposing of certain lands, Partick 
once more appears, and in 1555 it is again 
mentioned in a charter to John Stewart, 
fifth Provost of Glasgow. In the tenth 
century a man named Craig, who was 
employed in the Partick mill, was re- 
buked for non-attendance at the kirk on 
the Sabbath day ! 

In these several notices the name 
''Partick" is never found in the modern 
spelling, but in various forms, such as 
Perdyec, Perthic, Perthwick, Perthik, and 
Partic. From the middle of the tenth 
century it has slowly assumed a more 
definite form, finally compelled by general 
use into its present spelling. Much in- 
quiry has been made, much speculation 

12 



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REFORMATION TIMES 

advanced, and many answers offered as 
to the origin and etymology of the name 
of Partick, but without any definite con- 
clusion. 

In saying that the Bishop of Glasgow 
had a residence or manor-house (which, 
however, is not to be confused with the 
old Castle of Partick),, we have the 
authority of the author of ** Parochiales 
Scotiae." He says, ''The bishops had a 
residence in Partick before 1277. In 
1362 the compromise of a dispute between 
the Lord Bishop and his chapter took 
place at the manor-house of Perthic." 
In 1508 James Beaton, Bishop-elect of 
Galloway, being elected to the Arch- 
bishopric of Glasgow, continued to use 
the manor - house of Partick as one of 
his residences, but on the breaking out of 
the Reformation in 1560 he wisely retired 
to France, carrying with him all the 
records, writs, charters, crucifixes, chalices, 
candlesticks, etc., of the Cathedral of St. 
13 



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PARTICK— PAST AND PRESENT 

Mungo. These he retained till his death 
in 1603, when he bequeathed them to the 
Scots College in Paris. Napier, in his 
** History of Partick," says, '*We have 
read that the Bishop secreted the sacred 
relics belonging to the Cathedral in the 
meal mill in Partick till an opportunity 
was afforded him of removing them, with 
himself, to France, and it is said that he 
fled from his manorium in Partick." 

It seems rather strange that no trace 
or vestige is left of this bishop's manor 
or castle. An old record says **that it 
is supposed to have stood on the bank 
which overlooks the junction of the Kelvin 
and the Clyde." There did stand, in the 
early part of last century, on the west 
bank of the Kelvin, and just about where 
to-day the North British Railway passes 
over it, the ruins of an old building which 
some authors have called the Bishop's 
Castle. Chalmers, in his " Caledonia," 
says that ** Archbishop Spottiswood, who 
14 



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REFORMATION TIMES 

greatly repaired our Cathedral and the 
archiepiscopal palace, also built in 1611 
a castle at Partick, to serve as a country 
seat for the archbishops, as one of his 
castles had been destroyed at the Reforma- 
tion." In saying this, however, he is now 
found to have been mistaken. Laurence 
Hill has shown, beyond doubt, in his 
*' Hutchesoniana," that the ruin popu- 
larly known as the Bishop's Castle was 
erected by no bishop at all, but by a 
man now well remembered for his phil- 
anthropy, George Hutcheson of Lambhill, 
one of the founders of the Hutcheson 
Hospital, though it is not improbable that 
the site, or even some of the stones of 
the old manor-house belonging to the 
bishops, may have been utilised by George 
Hutcheson. 

The original contract and specification 

for building this castle between George 

Hutcheson of Lambhill and William 

Miller, mason in Kilwinning, dated 9th 

IS 



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PARTICK— PAST AND PRESENT 

and 14th July, 161 1, was, by permission 
of Dr. W. H. Hill, exhibited at the 
**01d Glasgow" Exhibition of 1894. 
It is endorsed — " Contract betwix me 
and ye masoun in Kilying anent the 
bigeing of the House of Particle," 
the standard of measurement being 
stipulated to be *'the said Georges awin 
fute." The castle existed as an abode 
till about the year 1770, but in 1783, 
being roofless and in ruins, its hoary old 
stones were appropriated by the laird of 
the neighbouring farm of Merkland, who 
doubtless found that time convenient to 
build to himself a new house. All traces 
of manor-house, castle, or farm are now 
entirely gone. 



16 



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THE MILLS OF PARTICK 

Looking to the great natural advantages 
of an unlimited water supply, it is no 
matter of surprise that many, many years 
before the Reformation Partick should 
have been proud of her mills ; indeed, 
it is more than probable that, with the 
grant of land to the See of Glasgow, 
King David did not forget to include 
in the royal charter the gift of at least 
one meal mill. In the rental book of 
Cardinal Beaton, a.d. 1517, there occurs 
the following entry : — *' Eodem die, 
Donald Lyon entallit in the new walk- 
myll off Partik in the new towne/' In 
the margin Partick is spelled "Partyk.". 
The aforesaid Donald Lyon was probably 
the father of Archibald Lyon of the Clay- 
slap Mills. 

B 17 



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PARTICK— PAST AND PRESENT 

Cleland, in his " History of Glasgow," 
writes : " Before the Reformation the 
bakers of Glasgow were in use to grind 
at the town mills at Partick, and also 
at a small mill which then belonged to 
the Archbishop, and subsequently to 
the Crown. 

" The mill belonging to the Church 
was situated a little to the east of the 
town's mill, and had nearly gone into 
decay. These mills, being of small 
dimensions, were barely sufficient to 
supply the inhabitants, and by no means 
capable of producing an extra supply on 
an emergency. 

** In the year 1568 the forces of the 

Regent Moray, who successfully opposed 

those of Mary Queen of Scots at the 

battle of Langside, were quartered at 

Glasgow and neighbourhood. On this 

occasion the bakers were called upon 

for an extraordinary supply of bread for 

the troops, which they accomplished by 
18 



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THE MILLS OF PARTICK 

uncommon exertion in bruising and bolting 
grain, not only in the mills, but also in 
their own houses, so mueh to the satis- 
faction of the Regent, that he gave them a 
grant of the Archbishop's Mill, which had 
now become the property of the Crown, 
and a piece of land adjoining it, which was 
annexed to the royalty of Glasgow in the 
first session of the first Parliament of 
Charles IL The Regent, returning to 
Glasgow and offering up public thanks for 
his victory, expressed his obligations to the 
Magistrates, Council, and heads of corpora- 
tions for their fidelity and bravery, arid 
desired to know if in return he could be of 
any service to the Corporation, Matthew 
Fawside, Deacon of the Incorporation of 
Bakers, with an eye to the prosperity of 
his craft, informed the 'Good Regent' 
that, if he had no objections, a grant of 
the mill at Partick to his Incorporation 
would be considered a public benefit 
The Regent was as good as his word, 
19 



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PARTICK— PAST AND PRESENT 

and a grant of the mill and certain lands 
was given." 

For many years this story of Cleland*s 
has been a tradition among the B^ker 
Incorporation of Glasgow, but from time 
to time doubts regarding it have been 
expressed, till at last the tradition dis- 
appears before well-authenticated proofs. 
In an interesting paper read before the 
Glasgow Archaeological Society, Mr, 
James White claims to show conclusively, 
first, that the mill of Partick (now the 
Bishop Mills) was the Bishop's Baronial 
mill; second, that the New Walk Mill of 
Partick in the Newton of 1517 was 
changed into Archy Lyon's Mill, and 
latterly named Clay slap Mills ; third, that 
the ancient wheat mill was built by the 
Bakers after they got the right and ground 
on which to build, and is now known as 
Regent Mills ; and, fourth, that the Walk 
Mill of Partick is now the Scotstoun 

Mills. 

ao 



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THE MILLS OF PARTICK 

Among the titles in possession of the 
Bakers* Incorporation is a disposition 
dated 5th October, 1653, ^Y ^^e Deacon, 
with the consent of the masters and others 
interested, proceeding on the narrative 
that "the disponers intended to erect 
another wheat mill on the water of Kelvin; 
and in order to raise funds for that purpose, 
they dispone to John Glen and Bessie 
Gray, his spouse, one * mill-day' of the 
mill acquired by them from the heirs of 
William Fawside." 

From 1653 to 1828 the mill was carried 
on, repaired, and altered. In 1828 exten- 
sive alterations again took place, and 
the mill continued to prosper till 1886, 
when it was burned down. The old 
foundation stone, however, was recovered. 
The plate, now preserved in the Regent 
Mills, has on one of its sides the inscrip- 
tion which we give on the following 
page :— 



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PARTICK— PAST AND PRESENT 

By the favour of Almighty God. 

This Compartment or Division of the Mills of 

Partick, belonging to 

The Incorporation of Bakers in Glasgow, 

Being now to be rebuilt on the Site of 

The "Ancient Quheite Mill of Partick," 

Donated in the Year 1568 

by 

His Highness, James, Earl of Moray, Regent 

of Scotland, to 

The Bakers of Glasgow, 

In reward for their Zeal in the cause of the 

Protestant Reformation, and 

For their spirited and well-timed assistance to 

him and his Forces 

At the eventful and decisive Battle of Langside, 

This foundation stone was laid by 

William Smith, Esq., late Lord Provost of 

Glasgow, 

And a Member of this Incorporation, 

On the 23rd day of May, 

Anno Domini 1828, 

In the ninth year of the R^ign of our 

Most Gracious Sovereign, 

George The Fourth, 

In presence of the Deacon, Collector, Master 

Court, and Building Committee, 

And also in presence of 

A number of the other Members of the 

Incorporation ; 

Which undertaking 

May the Supreme God 

Bless and Prosper. 



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A 



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THE MILLS OF PARTICK 

On the other side of this plate is a list of 
the office-bearers of the Incorporation in 
1828. 

By 1884 new methods of making flour 
had come into vogue, and unless the 
Incorporation of Bakers were prepared to 
throw out all the old machinery and intro- 
duce new rollers, they would have to face 
an increasing loss in working their mill, so 
they wisely resolved to let the mill, in which 
they were successful. At the fire, how- 
ever, two years afterwards, it was agreed 
to dispose of the site to the present 
proprietors. The foundation stone of the 
previous mill, with the contents of the 
bottle deposited therein, was re-deposited 
in the stone of the new Regent Mills by 
Mr. John Ure, an old deacon of the 
Incorporation, and an ex- Lord Provost of 
Glasgow, to whom the Bakers had feued 
the site of the old mill, and by whom 
the present stately-looking buildings were 
erected. Some idea of the difference 
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PARTICK— PAST AND PRESENT 

between "a day's milling" at the mill in 
1653 ^^^ **3. day's milling" to-day may 
be gathered from the fact that the present 
output of the Regent Mills is 1000 bolls of 
wheat per day. 

Milling at Partick seems at first to have 
been lucrative to the Bakers' Incorpora- 
tion, for in addition to their mill at Bun- 
house they next acquired the Clayslap 
Mills. These mills were situated on the 
Kelvin, in what is now known as the 
West-end Park, and opposite the Uni- 
versity. They were in existence in I5i7f 
and were long known as "Archy Lyon's 
Mills." In 1577 they passed into the 
possession of the Corporation of Glasgow, 
but were again sold to the Bakers' Incor- 
poration on the 7th May, 1771. The titles 
included "all and haill that mill situated 
on the water of Kelvin, of old called 
Archibald Lyon's mill, with the mill, 
houses, yard, and piece called Shillhill 
belonging to the same, with the ditch, 
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THE MILLS OF PARTICK 

aqueduct, dam and inlair, passages, ser- 
vices, ways and haill pertinents lying 
within the Lordship, Barony and Regality 
of Glasgow, and Sheriffdom of Lanark ; as 
also all and haill that rood of land or 
thereby acquired by the Magistrates and 
Council of the said city from John Craig, 
portioner of Nethernewton, being part of 
the said land of Nethernewton, which lies 
adjacent to the Malt or Meal Milne and 
Waukmilnes, and other lands belonging to 
the said city of Glasgow." 

After remaining in the hands of the 
Bakers' Incorporation for 103 years, the 
Clay slap Mills were again conveyed to 
the Magistrates of Glasgow for the sum 
of ;^i3»5oo. They were ultimately taken 
down in the laying-out of Kelvingrove 
Park, the only vestige of the name left 
to-day being the small portion of the old 
road which led down from Dumbarton 
Road to the mills, called the Clayslaps 
Road. 

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PARTICK— PAST AND PRESENT 

On the west bank of the Kelvin— the 
Partick side — and just opposite the 
Regent Mills, stand the Scotstoun Mills. 
Originally the mills were divided into 
two, the Wauk Mill and the Wee Mill, and 
they received their new name when the 
Scotstoun family became the proprietors. 
These mills have from time to time 
undergone many changes, enlargements, 
and improvements, till the present five- 
storeyed and well-constructed edifice was 
finished and fully equipped for the 
requirements of the firm, which, we are 
told, averages some 4000 bolls of grain 
per week. 

"The Bishop's Mill'* stands on the 
east side of the Kelvin, a little below 
the Regent Mills. This mill, Mr. James 
White maintains, was the Mill of Partick, 
otherwise known as the Archbishop's 
Baronial Mill, and was supposed to have 
been built before 1136, and in all 
probability was included in the lands 
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THE MILLS OF PARTICK 

granted by King David to the city 
of Glasgow. 

When, in 1571, the Castle of Dum- 
barton was taken by Captain Crauford 
he received as his reward a gift of the 
mill of Partick, one of the most valuable 
possessions of the Cathedral in those 
days, and by far the largest payer to the 
Cathedral in the old victual payment. In 
return Crauford granted a bursary to the 
University in 1576, and in 1577 he 
enlarged the old bridge at Partick which 
crossed the Kelvin at his mill. The 
Bishop of Glasgow, however, still hungered 
after his mill, and besought Crauford to 
give it up. So warmly did the Bishop 
press his suit that Crauford actually gave 
way in April, 1599, and formally re- 
conveyed the mill to his lordship. 

Early in 1608 the city of Glasgow found 

itself in debt, and the only way out of it 

seemed to be to get a monopoly of the mills. 

The whole city. Dean of Guild, merchants, 
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PARTICK— PAST AND PRESENT 

and others, therefore loyally agreed to be 
thirled in that year; but when the city 
leased the mills they were not allowed 
to multure from the tenants grinding at 
the mill 

Bishop's Mills represent what are 
known as the old mills of Particle^ and, 
as recorded above, have existed for many 
centuries in one form or another. The Slit 
Mills, which were situated on the east side 
of the Kelvin, and exactly opposite where 
the castle stood, were constructed about 
the year 1738, for the purpose of slitting 
and grinding iron- Napier, in his history, 
says, "The Slit Mills were, shordy after 
1780, converted into grain mills. A 
great portion of them was burned in 
181 5, and immediately rebuilt" Latterly 
they were more advantageously used as 
a shipbuilding yard. From Kelvindale 
to Kelvin-mouth the banks of the Kelvin 
at one time literally bristled with mills — 

paper mills, flint mills, snuff mills, risp 
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THE MILLS OF PARTICK 

mills, wheat mills, barley mills, and slit 
mills; a worthy neighbourhood of mills 
it was in the olden days, and a set of 
worthies the millers. 

In the Incorporation records of 30th 
January, 1680, we note that, as a warning 
against the drinking habits of the village, 
it was enacted " that no freeman go out of 
the mills with any of the miliars the time 
the mills are going, to drink in ale-houses, 
under the pain of ;^20 Scots." In 1754 
"William Watson, one of the millers at 
Partick, was fined, by having his wages 
reduced from id. stg. to ^d. per load of 
wheat grinded, for allowing the gudgeon 
of the nether mill wheel to become over- 
heated for want of creash and oyle, 
whereby the axle-tree took fire." 



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THE VILLAGE 

Dr. Strang, in his most delightful 
volume on "Old Glasgow Clubs," thus 
describes the village of Partick in the 
early days of the nineteenth century : — 
" Among the many rural villages which at 
one time surrounded Glasgow, perhaps 
none surpassed Partick in beauty and 
interest. Situated on the banks of a 
limpid and gurgling stream which flows 
through the centre, and beautified as of 
yore with many fine and umbrageous trees, 
and above all ornamented with an old 
hoary castle, with whose history many 
true and many more fabulous tales were 
associated ; and when to these were added 
its dozen or two comfortable, clean 
cottages, and its picturesquely planted 
mills, historically linked with the generous 
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THE VILLAGE 

gift of the successful opponent of the 
lovely Mary at Langside, all combined to 
render the locality one of the most 
favourite of suburban retreats. It was, in 
fact, the resort of every citizen who 
enjoyed a lovely landscape, an antiquarian 
ramble, or a mouthful of fresh air. At 
that time there was only a straggling 
house or two on the one side of the 
turnpike road from Anderston to the 
Crow Road. Particle was then truly in 
the country. Its thatched and white- 
washed cottages, with its ruinous castle, 
were such as to evoke the admiration of 
every tasteful limner, and its river, while it 
suggested a theme for the poet s lyre, 
offered at the same time an attraction for 
the angler's rod." 

That was in the year 1810. For many 
years thereafter, however, Partick pos- 
sessed its ** village " aspect, as may be 
seen from Dr. Andrew Macgeorge s sketch, 
dated 1827, of Yorkhill estate. Old Dum- 
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PARTICK— PAST AND PRESENT 

barton Road, and the old Bunhouse 
Tavern. Twenty years later Fairbairn's 
pencil shows us Old Particle Bridge, with 
the stepping-stones over the Kelvin, 
and the Clyde at the Kelvin mouth, while 
later still the drawings of Old Particle by 
the late William Simpson, in ** Glasgow 
in the Forties," give point to all that Dn 
Strang has to say of the suburban beauty 
of Particle in the olden time. 

In those days there were no tramways, 
no railways, no subways, and no passenger 
boats plying to and from Glasgow. Com- 
munication with the city was maintained 
with becoming dignity by omnibus every 
few hours,, the fare being fourpence. It 
is curious to note that throughout the 
suburbs of Glasgow Partick struck the 
first blow at the peace and quietness of a 
rural Scottish Sabbath-day. She was 
foremost in running an omnibus to 
Glasgow! The story goes that a number of 
gentlemen resident in Partick, who were 
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THE VILLAGE 

connected with different religious denomi- 
nations in Glasgow, clubbed together to 
run an omnibus to and from the city every 
Sunday. The omnibus was hired for a 
fixed sum for a certain period, and as the 
money was paid in advance, tickets were 
issued in accordance with the amounts 
subscribed for, the contract obliging the 
contractor to run the 'bus in all weathers, 
passengers or no passengers. At the 
same time the driver was prohibited from 
taking up chance ** fares" by the way, so 
that our worthy forefathers salved their 
consciences in the knowledge that so long 
as no money changed hands on the 
Sabbath-day there was no harm done. 
They further whitewashed themselves in 
the eyes of the straiter-laced by making 
ample provision for the attendance at 
church of both driver and guard. Further, 
the outside of the conveyance was dis- 
figured in a way that would have lacerated 
the dainty feelings of present-time adver- 
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PARTICK— PAST AND PRESENT 

tisers. In those days there were, of 
course, no advertisements either inside or 
outside 'buses, but this particular coach 
carried, in a shamefaced sort of way no 
doubt, a huge board with the legend, 
painted in offensively large letters, ^* For 
Church," displaying thereby, like some of 
our present-day charity organisations, an 
eager zeal, if worldly desire, to profess 
itself purely undenominational. But then 
in those days the word *' Church " had not 
the same easy adaptability it has acquired 
in our own time. 

The late Rev. T. M. Lawrie, of Dowan- 
hill church, tells us, in his Reminiscences, 
that he had a distinct recollection of the late 
Dr. King of Glasgow writing him in the 
year 1847, ** to inquire if lodgings could be 
got in Particle as summer quarters for 
himself and his family," so rural and 
salubrious did Particle then seem to be. 
One could hardly imagine a minister, or 
anybody else for that matter, spending his 
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THE VILLAGE 

month's holidays amid the smoke and din 
of the Particle of to-day. 

The Rev. Henry Anderson, who came 
to Particle in 1844, says, in his *' Notes of 
a Pastorate of Fifty Years," that '*the 
Gilmorehill of these days was a small 
estate with a country house. There was 
a quarry where the grass grows in front 
of the Western Infirmary and near that 
palatial structure, the University. There 
was also a quarry on the south side, right 
opposite, which gave the name of Quarry 
Land to the buildings there. The houses 
between Wallace Place and Church Street, 
and those similar on the south side, with 
their lower roofs of two storeys, are a 
specimen of the comfortable dwellings of 
these days. There were some in Bridge 
Street, Kelvin Street, and the Old Dum- 
barton Road, to the foot of Orchard 
Street; also along the Dumbarton Road 
to the east side of Orchard Street. The 
porter lodge of Dowanhill House was 
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PARTICK— PAST AND PRESENT 

west of Wallace Place. There was a 
boundary wall to StewartviUe House 
porter lodge ; then another to Muirpark 
porter lodge, where the old trees were, 
and the crows and their nests." 

Dowanhill House and the houses 
referred to by Mr. Anderson between 
Wallace Place and Church Street still 
remain, but StewartviUe House and Muir- 
park House are now only remembered in 
the names of the streets called after them. 
StewartviUe House was then occupied 
by Mr. Campbell, of the firm of Messrs. 
J. & W. Campbell & Co., of Glasgow ; 
and Muirpark House was built and 
occupied by Mr. Thomas Muir, who 
named the mansion after himself. Mr. 
Muir was a practical philanthropist, and 
interested himself very much in the 
welfare of the poorer villagers of Partick. 
He was a member of the Unitarian 
Church of Glasgow. 

On one occasion, at least, we are told 
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THE VILLAGE 

the master of Muirpark House received 
as his guest Joseph Hume, but as this 
visit was of a purely private nature no 
record has been handed down to us of 
what may have passed between the 
economist and the philanthropist on that 
memorable day. 

The year 1820 will not be soon 
forgotten by the descendants and disciples 
of the Radicals of that troublous time, 
for it was in that year that James Wilson, 
weaver, of Strathaven, was tried for treason, 
and Thomas Muir of Muirpark was one 
of the jury that sentenced him to be 
hanged. 

To illustrate the growth of the village 
and burgh during the past eighty years, 
the census returns for that period are 
subjoined : — 



In 1820 the 


populatii 


on 


was 1,23s 


n 1834 


»i 


V 


1,842 


„ 1841 


M 


M 


3»i84 


» 1851 


» 


» 


S.043 


., 1861 


11 

37 


t> 


10,917 



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PARTICK— PAST AND PRESENT 



In 1871 


the population was 17,693 


„ 1881 


» , i> 


33i962 


„ 1891 


» » 


36.538 


„ 1896 


» >i 


45.525 


„ 1897 


Ji » 


47,800 


„ 1901 


99 99 


54.274 



Prior to the development of shipbuild- 
ing and other trades in Partick, and the 
migration of city people in search of 
western suburban residences, the life of 
the village was peaceful and quiet, the 
villagers pursuing their several callings as 
millers, masons, weavers, tailors or farmers 
in uneventful monotony. Sixty years ago 
there was but one doctor, while two bakers 
and one butcher had little ado to supply 
the daily wants of the villagers. In the 
matter of weekly half-holidays the butcher 
was ahead of the times by nearly half-a- 
century and more, as he seemed to think 
little of shutting shop for half-a-week at 
a time, and so forcing his customers into 
unwilling abstinence, or maybe to trudge 
all the way to the city for their necessaries. 
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THE VILLAGE 

In Edinburgh at the present day (1902) 
there is a rudimentary attempt to rouse 
the town at half-past five by means of a 
doleful tolling of the Tron Kirk bell! 
The engaging simplicity of the magistrates 
of our ancient neighbour will in no degree 
be lessened when we here record the fact 
that in the early days of Particle the 
inhabitants of the village were awakened 
half-an-hour earlier by sound of drum. 
At nine p.m. the peaceful villagers 
were warned in like manner by Sandy 
(Alexander Stewart) and his drum that 
it was time to go to bed. All public 
matters, such as sales of property or 
goods, or when the bakers had their pies 
ready, or the butcher his meat cut up, 
were intimated by ringing the village bell. 
At a later date the drum and bell were 
reinforced by the addition of a bugle, 

Sandy's beat, night and morning, was 
east from his house, down the knowe, 
over the bridge and back, up Bridge 
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PARTICK— PAST AND PRESENT 

Street and East Dumbarton Road to the 
Mile Road, returning to Dowanhill Avenue, 
and home by what was then known as 
Cooperswell Road. One night in the 
month of October, 1828, Sandy started 
on his usual round at 9 o'clock. Meeting 
some friends, however, at the end of the 
bridge, the entire company, of course, 
immediately adjourned to the nearest inn 
for refreshment suitable to the occasion. 
" Forbes Mackenzie " was not yet, and 
it was one o'clock in the morning before 
Sandy resumed his drum and sticks, 
which he forthwith used with unwonted 
vigour. The rattle of the drum roused 
Joe Duff, the bugler, who instantly sprang 
from bed, dressed, and sallied forth, bugle 
and all, so that the sleeping village was 
soon alive with little crowds of lads and 
lasses hurrying to the Pointhouse Ferry, 
en route for the silk factory at Govan. 
Then, after the poor ferryman had been 
knocked up, the mistake was discovered, 
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THE VILLAGE 

and it is said the whole of Partick 
''slept in" that morning. 

The post-boy in Partick in 1831 was 
John Inglis, who is still alive. Bom 
in Partick in 18 19, where his father was 
a weaver, John received a good educa- 
tion in the village school, which then 
stood in Kelvin Street. The letter- 
bag for Partick and district was handed 
in every morning at one o'clock from 
the Glasgow and Dumbarton post-gig 
to the toll -keeper at Sandyford toll, 
and called for by the young postman at 
7 a.m. Eighteen letters were considered 
a good delivery for the district, which 
included Partick, Balshagray, JordanhiU, 
Scotstounhill, and Yoker. All letters 
were paid for in cash before delivery, a 
letter from London costing is. i^d., from 
Edinburgh 8^d., from Kilmarnock 7^d., 
Glasgow 2d. Letters beyond the village 
of Partick were charged id. a mile — 
a marked contrast, certainly, to Mr. 
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PARTICK— PAST AND PRESENT 

Henniker-Heaton's postal triumph of to- 
day. 

At that time a favourite paper with 
Partick people was the Saturday Posty 
price 7d. per copy, and on Saturday 
evening seven friends would club one 
penny apiece in old Inglis' house for a 
copy of the paper with all the week's 
news. John was the messenger, and 
was invariably bid **to be back quickly." 
The plan he adopted to help his speedy 
return was to " ca* the gir' " from start 
to finish, which, of course, ensured at 
least a trotting pace all the way. 

In 1833 Inglis' father removed to Glas- 
gow, where John was apprenticed to a 
firm of engravers and lithographers in the 
Trongate, in whose service he remained 
for the long period of fifty -seven years. 



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BITS OF OLD PARTICK 

With few exceptions the last vestiges of 

old historical landmarks in Partick have 

passed away. In a former page we 

mentioned the old Castle which stood 

on the banks of the Kelvin, immortalised 

by Hugh Macdonald in his " Rambles 

round Glasgow.'* 

Lo ! Partick Castle, drear and lone, 
Stands like a silent looker-on 

Where Clyde and Kelvin meet. 
The long, lank grass waves o'er its walls. 
No sound is heard within its halls 
Save noise of distant waterfalls 

Where children lave their feet. 

One bit of Old Partick — the ancient 
bridge across the Kelvin, moss-grown 
and hoary — has at last given way to the 
ruthless hand of modernity and improve- 
ment, and is now no more. Whether this 

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PARTICK— PAST AND PRESENT 

was the first bridge thrown over the river 
at that spot we cannot tell, though one 
may well imagine some rude structure of 
wood giving place in ancient days to the 
stone arches of the old bridge. When 
or by whom the bridge was founded 
it is impossible to say, but this we know 
that in 1577 it was repaired and enlarged 
by Captain Thomas Crawford of Jordan- 
hill, a Provost of Glasgow. In Crawford's 
** History of the Shire of Renfrew," we 
are told that he ** built a great part of 
the bridge of Partick over the river 
of Kelvin, consisting of four arches, on 
which are his name and arms, and the 
following inscription : — 

He that by labour does any honestie, 

The labour goes, the honour bides with thee ; 

He that by treason does any vice also, 

The shame remains, the pleasure soon a' goes." 

When the bridge was removed in 1895 
by the Caledonian Railway Company, to 
make way for the present iron structure, 

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BITS OF OLD PARTICK 

the memorial and other stones were placed 
in the Kelvingrove Museum for preser- 
vation. 

Crossing the bridge to the north 
or Particle side, and turning westwards 
along Castlebank Street, we come to a 
small street or lane which runs up to 
Dumbarton Road called Kelvin Street 
(formerly named the " Goat "), and a bum 
ran down the side of it to the Kelvin. 

At the foot of the street and facing 
Castlebank Street stood an old building 
— a two-storey thatched house, part of 
which still stands — known as the old 
Police Oflfice; and next to it, on the 
same side of the street, may be seen 
to-day the old Quakers' Burying 
Ground. A square plot of ground, 
simple, unadorned, and enclosed by a 
stone wall, it was granted to the Society 
of Friends of Glasgow for a burying place 
on 19th June, 1733, by William Purdon, 
portioner in Partick, and, by the usual 
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PARTICK— PAST AND PRESENT 

irony of fate, the first person buried in the 
ground was this same William Purdon's 
wife, known in the village as "Quaker 
Meg." Burials were made in this graveyard 
up till nth December, 1857, when they 
were discontinued. The future historian of 
this strange and fast disappearing sect will 
find some interesting data in the list of 
interments in this same ground, now in 
possession of the Society of Friends of 
Glasgow. A Quaker's funeral being a 
kind of show for the villagers, the walls 
were usually crowded by men, women, 
and children, who did not always observe 
an edifying or even respectful silence 
during the interment. The Society of 
Friends have now granted the property, 
in perpetuity, to the Commissioners of 
the burgh of Partick, to enable them 
to utilise a portion of it in effecting an 
improvement in the line of street, on 
condition that they keep what remains 
of it in good order, and that the sum of 
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BITS OF OLD PARTICK 

IS. be paid annually to the Friends' 
Society of Glasgow. 

The family of Purdons were great 
folks in Partick in olden days ; they 
'* owned siller and land forbye." One 
of them in 1790, along with other two 
Partick bodies named William Robb 
and Allan Craig, granted the land 
in Kelvin Street for the building and 
playroom of the old subscription school. 
The original title-deed is subscribed on 
23rd June, 1790, and gives not only a 
list of subscribers, but instructions regard- 
ing trusteeship, selection of schoolmaster, 
and the kind of education to be given 
to the children. Here for many years 
before the days of School Boards the 
youth of Partick were duly instructed in 
'* the English language, writing, and 
arithmetic '* ; and it speaks much for the 
excellence of the training given in this 
school that the neighbouring farmers and 
gentry sent their children to the old 
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PARTICK— PAST AND PRESENT 

subscription school to receive their first 
elements of education. Indeed, there are 
not a few in the Partick of to-day, not 
to mention those who have gone to other 
lands, whose memories of happy youth and 
school companionship still cling to the spot 
where the old school once stood 

One bit of Partick linking the past 
with the present is the old U.P. Church 
at the corner of Byars Road and Dum- 
barton Road, though prior to the year 
1824 there were no churches or places 
of worship of any kind in the village. 
Members of the Established Church, who 
are usually steady church-goers, crossed 
the Clyde at the ferry, and worshipped 
in Govan Parish Church. During the 
great frosts of 1784 and 1826 zealous 
church folks and others were able to 
cross the frozen Clyde on foot. Many 
of the villagers belonged to the Relief 
Church, and were ministered to in Ander- 
ston by Dr. Struthers, a great and learned 
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BITS OF OLD PARTICK 

preacher, whose ** History of the Relief 
Church" is a tribute to his scholarship 
and piety. The adherents to the United 
Secession cause attended Dr. Mitchell, 
Cheapside Street, Anderston, while the 
"Auld Lichts" walked to East Campbell 
Street, Glasgow, and occasionally to 
PoUokshaws. 

Attempts were made by the Baptists and 
then the Congregationalists of Glasgow 
to plant missions in the village, but the 
stations had ultimately to be given up. 
In 1823 a meeting of the villagers was 
held with the view of receiving a regular 
supply of religious ordinances, and a peti- 
tion, signed by 142 persons, was sent to 
the United Secession Presbytery of Glas- 
gow, and the prayer of it was granted. Next 
year another petition was granted, that 
"the persons worshipping in the Mason 
Lodge, Partick, be received into the 
fellowship of the church" under the name 
of the United Secession Church of Partick. 
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PARTICK— PAST AND PRESENT 

Their next step was to build a church, 
and a site was secured in 1824 at the 
corner of Byars Road, and the present 
building erected. On the ist December, 

1825, the congregation met to elect a 
minister, when they unanimously chose a 
Mr. Ebenezer Halley of Kinross, who, 
however, declined the call. Next year, 

1826, another meeting was held, and a 
call presented to the Rev. John Skinner 
of Auchtermuchty. The call was accepted, 
and the ordination took place on loth 
April, 1827. The following is the excerpt 
from the Glasgow Presbytery record: — 

"The United Associate Presbytery of Glasgow 
met, etc. Adjourned constituted to the church. 
Mr. Shoolbraid, after prayer and praise, preached 
from James i. 21, last part, 'Receive with meekness 
the engrafted word which is able to save your souls.' 
Mr. Wilson, who was appointed to preside in the 
ordination of Mr. Skinner, stated the design of the 
meeting, and recapitulated the steps which had 
been taken previous to the appointment of the 
ordination. The questions of the formula were 
proposed to Mr. Skinner, and to all of them he 
returned satisfactory answers. The congregation 

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BITS OF OLD PARTICK 

expressed their adherence to the call in the usual 
form, and he was then, by prayer and fasting, with 
the laying on of the hands of the Presbytery, set 
apart to the office of the holy ministry and the 
pastoral charge of the Associate Congregation of 
Partick. Prayer being ended, the members of the 
Presbytery gave him the right hand of fellowship, 
after which suitable exhortations were addressed to 
him and to the congregation. Public worship was 
then concluded with prayer and praise and pro- 
nouncing the blessing." 

Mr. Skinner laboured in this church for 
twelve years, thereafter going to America, 
where he died in 1864. His successor, the 
Rev. T. M. Lawrie, says in his ''Sketches" 
that Mr. Skinner was ** a braw man, 
handsome, aristocratic in look and bear- 
ing." The late Dr. Joseph Brown, who 
knew Mr. Skinner, says, ** He was a 
very well-favoured man, very much the 
gentleman, and highly polished in his 
address." 

Mr. Lawrie was ordained to the pas- 
torate of the Partick church on 3rd March, 
1 84 1. Here he preached till November 4, 
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PARTICK— PAST AND PRESENT 

1866, when the new church of Dowan- 
hill was opened, where he ministered 
till his death in 1895. In his jubilee 
address, given in 1890, he said, speaking 
of his first church in Partick, " The 
building itself was a curiosity in its way. 
The congregation occupied only the 
gallery. The open space between the 
galleries was floored over and fitted up 
with pews, while the underground area 
was utilised, partly as a joiner's shop and 
partly as a hall for religious meetings and 
for our Sabbath schools. We worshipped 
in that upper room for five or six years, 
but the place became too strait for us, and 
we set about enlarging it. The floor of 
separation was removed, and the whole 
edifice converted into a church, such as it 
remains at this day." The church was 
called the United Secession Church of 
Partick till the union of this body with the 
Relief Church in 1847, when the name 
** United Presbyterian Church " was given 
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to the new denominatioru This old 
church was demolished so lately as 
December of last year (1901). At the 
time the first Secession Church was 
built in Partick a number of the Relief 
adherents formed themselves into a con- 
gregation and built a church ; indeed, both 
churches were built simultaneously and 
finished within a few weeks of each other. 
After the Union of 1847 the one church 
was called the East U.P. Church and the 
other the West or Newton Place U.P. 
Church. 



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OLD PARTICK INNS 

If in the year 1824 Par tick, with a 
population of over one thousand souls, 
was void of church or mission -hall, the 
finger of scorn could not be raised against 
it in the matter of houses where " paying 
guests " were received, for we are told 
that in and around this little hamlet there 
were no fewer than seven public inns or 
ale - houses ! Beginning with " Granny 
Gibbs*' at the outside of the village, 
there was the **01d Inn," which stood 
near the foot of Kelvin Street, in Castle- 
bank Street ; the ** Old Masons* Lodge 
and Inn," the principal inn of the village ; 
the **Ark," which stood at the north- 
west entrance to the old bridge, and the 
** Bridge-end Inn," which stood on the 
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OLD PARTICK INNS 

opposite side of the road; the **01d 
Bun and Ale House," situated on the 
Old Dumbarton Road, near the Bun- 
house mills ; and the " Old Wheat Sheaf 
Inn,", at the top of the brae on the road 
from Partick to Glasgow, at the comer 
of the Clayslaps Road. Strictly speaking, 
the **Bunhouse" and the "Old Wheat 
Sheaf" were outwith the recognised 
boundary of Partick, and were perhaps 
on that account better patronised than 
others lying nearer the homes of their 
patrons. The Rev. Mr. Leishman, in his 
article in the Statistical Account, says 
that the **inns and ale-houses of Govan 
and Partick were so numerous as to form 
a great moral nuisance ; their pestiferous 
effects on the health and virtuous habits 
of the people were only too apparent." 
Mr. Leishman was minister of Govan, 
and we may take it that he knew what 
he was writing about. 

The "Old Wheat Sheaf Inn," swept 
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PARTICK— PAST AND PRESENT 

away during the operations of the Glas- 
gow City Improvement Trust a few years 
ago, was a quiet, old-fashioned ale-house, 
and occupied a favoured spot amid the 
delightful green dells of the Kelvin, and 
seemed a natural resting-place for travel- 
lers to and from Glasgow. 

Another well-known and much -fre- 
quented tavern, the "Old Bun and Ale 
House," stood in front of the old Bun- 
house mill, and belonged to the Bakers* 
Incorporation of Glasgow, about half-way 
down the hill, on the right-hand side of 
the Old Dumbarton Road. Over the 
door was the date 1695, with a repre- 
sentation of the implements of the baker's 
trade. In 1849 the building had fallen 
into such decay that the Dean of 
Guild Court condemned it as dangerous 
to the lieges, and had it demolished 
forthwith. On the south-east corner of 
the new building is a tablet bearing 
the legend — ** Bunhouse was rebuilt 1850, 
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OLD PARTICK INNS 

John Forrester, Deacon; Peter M*Arthur, 
Collector." 

Dr. Strang, in his *' Glasgow Clubs," 
tells us that, ** between the year iSioand 
1830, there existed and flourished an old 
club called the * Partick Duck Club,* which 
met on Saturday afternoons in the old 
Bunhouse Tavern. One of its most 
popular presidents was a Mr. M*Tyre or 
MacTear ; so frequently did he attend 
and do the honours at the * Duck Club,' 
and so fond was he of ducks redolent 
with sage and onions, served with . Par- 
tick peas, and done to a turn by the 
landlady of the inn, that a local poet 
said — 

'The fowls of Partick used to ken him. 
It's even been said they used to name him. 
The ducks they quacked through perfect fear, 
Crying, "Lord, preserve us, there's MTear."' 

" And no wonder," continues Dr. Strang, 
** for no sooner was the rubicund beak of 
the worthy convener espied by the blue 
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PARTICK— PAST AND PRESENT 

and white swimmers of the mill - dam 
than it was certain that the fate of those 
now disporting would become, ere another 
Saturday, that of their late jolly com- 
panions, who at that moment were suffer- 
ing martyrdom at the auto-da-fe in the 
kitchen of the Bunhouse. 

** Though the ducks, as may reasonably 
be supposed, quacked loudly in anticipa- 
tion of their coming fate, yet the convener, 
having no sympathy with anything akin 
to the melting mood except what was 
produced by the sun's summer beams, 
was deaf to pity," M'Tear seems not 
only to have been chief enemy to the 
Partick ducks, but also chief lode-star to 
the Duck Club, for with his disappear- 
ance the Saturday feasts in the Bunhouse 
came to an end. 

Prior to the erection of the Trades* 

Hall in Glassford Street, Glasgow, the 

meetings of the Bakers' Incorporation 

were held in halls, in hospitals, even in 

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OLD PARTICK INNS 

bakehouses, long before local authorities 
had the right to pry among the sacks, 
sometimes at the Partick mill, and not 
infrequently at the *' Bun and Yill House." 
Items of business were here considered, 
and accounts paid, accompanied by refresh- 
ments, charged against the Incorporation 
under the convenient heading of "expenses 
at a meeting," of which the following are 
specimens : — 

13 Nov 1776. Spent with masters and com- * «« ». 
mittee qualifying millers, -090 

„ „ „ Cash to millers for drink at 

qualifying, - - -030 

2 May 1778. Paid at a meeting of deacon 
and masters consulting 
about making a mill at 
Clayslaps, - - - o 15 7 

Besides owning a public - house, the 
bakers of Glasgow possessed, of all things 
in the world, a pear tree, which they 
thoughtfully rented to the highest bidder. 
Referring to the balance sheet of 1788, 
we find that the sum of 3s. 4d. is set 
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PARTICK— PAST AND PRESENT 

down against expenses for refreshments 
at the *' shaking of the pear tree." 

At the Partick end of the old bridge 
there were two inns — **The Ark" and 
the *' Bridge-end Inn." In 1790 the tenant 
of the **Ark" was a man called James 
Lapsley, who had the good sense to 
bequeath ;^io to help the subscription 
school in Kelvin Street. Napier says 
that James Lapsley "was long held in 
remembrance for his romancing propen- 
sities, his wife confirming them by, * It's 
a gude's truth, James Lapsley.*" James, 
on one occasion, was telling some of his 
customers a remarkable story, for the 
truth of which he referred to his wife 
for corroboration. She had been in the 
kitchen, and returning to the room at the 
critical moment was appealed to in the 
usual formula, to which she instantly 
responded with, '* It's a gude's truth, 
James Lapsley ; but what was you 

speaking about?" Before the old bridge 
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OLD PARTICK INNS 

was widened a pontage used to be levied 
on cattle passing to certain fairs. The 
last man to collect these dues was one 
Matthew Semple, who lived in this same 
inn. 

Seventy years ago one of the most 
popular of the Partick inns was old 
'* Bridge-end Inn " ; and more weddings, 
balls, and dinner parties were held in this 
place than in all the other inns together. 
Widow Craig, the mistress of this famous 
inn, was a comely, motherly specimen of 
the old-time hostess, and prided herself on 
the spotless cleanliness of her house no 
less than on her catering. She was keenly 
alive to the fame of the "Bunhouse," 
and vied with her rival in the excellence 
of her dinners of duck and green peas. 
There was the '*01d Inn" in Castlebank 
Street and the old '* Masons' Lodge and 
Inn," but both have succumbed to the 
destroyer, though the last-named house 
will be remembered by the " Merry 
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PARTICK— PAST AND PRESENT 

Masons " as the lodge room of their late 
brethren of Partick. 

On the south side of the Dumbarton 
Road and a little to the east of the 
Sawmill Road there stood, so late as 1896, 
one of the very oldest of Partick land- 
marks, "Granny Gibbs Cottage." In 
olden times it was much frequented by 
West Highland drovers, who rested there 
with their cattle or sheep on the way to * 
the Glasgow markets. In these days 
there were no ships, no steamers, and 
no railways, so everything perforce was 
brought to Glasgow by carrier or drover- 
Monday was market day, and many a toil- 
worn and weary drover arrived at the 
cottage on Saturday with his flock of 
sheep, which were carefully enclosed in 
Granny Gibb's pen till the dawn of 
Monday, for Granny was a strict Sabba- 
tarian and would allow no person to come 
or go on the Sabbath-day. Many of her 

customers resented this interference and 
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OLD PARTICK INNS 

sometimes insisted on setting out for 
Glasgow on Sabbath evenings, but Mrs. 
Gibb was obdurate and enforced her law 
with impartial vigour. Indeed, the wags 
and other easy-minded people of the day 
used to say that it was due to the strict 
Sabbatarianism of Granny Gibb that the 
market day of Glasgow was changed from 
Monday to Wednesday. 

Granny Gibb s husband was a vintner 
of Partick, who built the old cottage in 
1796. After his death Mrs. Gibb removed 
to a tavern near Partick Cross, but in a 
year or two returned to her cottage, where 
she died. The cottage served its day 
exactly one hundred years, and on its site 
is now a modern tenement of houses, 
known as numbers 671 to 673 Dum- 
barton Road, 



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OLD PARTICK INSTITUTIONS 

Board schools and old - age pension 
schemes were unknown to our forefathers 
in Partick, yet they were careful to see 
that the young were wisely educated and 
the old tenderly cared for. Besides the 
subscription school in Kelvin Street, 
there was another school established in 
the village called the Mission House 
School, and by means of it hundreds of 
Partick children obtained the advantages 
of a fair education. Many poor boys, 
besides, were, by means of this Mission, 
placed in situations and circumstances 
from which they rose to good positions 
in life. According to the constitution of 
this society, its object was to educate 
children whose parents were not able to 
pay the fees charged in ordinary day 
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OLD PARTICK INSTITUTIONS 

schools. The branches of education 
taught were reading, writing, and arith- 
metic, the Bible, and the Shorter 
Catechism ; and it has been said that 
no public efforts on behalf of the youth 
of Partick effected such an amount of 
good as this school. 

The points aimed at in the education of 
the young at the Mission School were 
primarily sound intellectual and moral 
training, and solid religious instruction — 
a curriculum that would be very hard to 
beat in primary schools of our own 
day. '* I am sure," says the Rev. Henry 
Anderson, "Scotsmen have not been 
dwarfed in their intellect and energy 
by any religious instruction they received 
from the Bible and the Shorter Catechism. 
The fear of the Lord is the beginning 
of wisdom, and I hope the wisdom of our 
schools will never want that true begin- 
ning. Our School Board deserves our 
thanks for carrying out this religious in- 
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PARTICK— PAST AND PRESENT 

struction." The same writer, contrasting 
the education of olden times with that 
given to-day, asks, *' What are the results 
from the great advantages children enjoy 
now? I was once going to Dunfermline 
to preach, and at North Queensferry two 
persons came into the compartment. 
Their conversation was about schools. I 
ventured to put in a word, being then 
in the School Board for the fourth period, 
and asked, what effect this new system 
had compared with the old system ? The 
answer was, *Well, I think the children 
are just learning impudence.' I answered, 
* That is a heavy indictment' " 

The religious part of the work done by 
this ''Mission House School" is now 
carried on successfully by the M'CoU 
Mission of Partick, while the secular part 
of the education of the young fell into line 
with the other schools under the Govan 
School Board. 

Another old institution, or rather indi- 
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Old School of Partick. 



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OLD PARTICK INSTITUTIONS 

vidual, of Particle who directed the minds 
and lives and often the destinies of many 
young people was William Galbraith, a 
simple-minded, kind-hearted man, with a 
strong affection for young people. William 
was a weaver, and his shop a favourite 
rendezvous for boys, who used to love to 
listen to the teachings of the kindly man. 
By and by the honour fell to him of 
establishing the first Sabbath evening 
school in his native place, and there single- 
handed he laboured lovingly and long 
among some of the roughest boys and 
girls of the village. The experiment and 
success of the Sabbath evening school was 
followed by the opening of Sabbath morn- 
ing meetings, and later by the starting of 
the Sabbath Morning School Library, the 
first of any kind in Partick. 

Passing from youth to old age, it is 

interesting to know that in 1758 a number 

of persons residing in and about Partick 

associated themselves into a friendly society 

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PARTICK— PAST AND PRESENT 

called the " Partick Community." In 1804 
Its articles and regulations were revised, 
and its boundaries limited to one and 
a-half miles from the old Bridge of 
Partick. Article 8 stipulated that 

Every member of the community who is clear in 
their books, and who has been at least one year a 
member, shall, upon his falling into sickness, or any 
other bodily ailment which shall render him in- 
capable of following his daily occupation, be entitled 
to four shillings sterling weekly while in that situa- 
tion. Superannuated members, viz., such as by 
reason of old age, or other infirmities, are not able to 
support themselves, though they may work a little, 
shall be entitled to one shilling and sixpence weekly 
while in that situation ; but if they fall into sickness 
or distress, so as to confine them to their bed, in 
that case they shall be entitled to four shillings 
sterling weekly while they continue in that situation. 
And on the death of any member taking place who 
resides within the bounds of the officer's warning, and 
application being made to the managers either before 
or within ten days after the interment of such member 
by his widow or relations, they shall be paid one 
guinea towards defraying the expense of that 
member's funeral. And the widows of free members, 
while they continue such, and of a good character, 
shall have paid them thirty shillings sterling annually ; 
but if there should be more than fourteen widows 
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OLD PARTICK INSTITUTIONS 

upon the community at one time, in that case 
they shall receive the annual aliment of twenty-one 
pounds sterling equally among them. And it is speci- 
ally provided that in case of any member being badly, 
or otherwise entitled to aliment, whose residence is 
without the bounds of the officer's warning, his rela- 
tions, or him, shall be allowed six weeks (and those 
forth of Scotland six months) to transmit their appli- 
cations, upon which the supply aforesaid shall be 
remitted them the same as if they had been within 
the boundaries ; provided always a certificate be pro- 
duced (signed by the minister and two elders of the 
parish where such applicants reside) that he or they 
are in the situation set forth in the application, and 
are of an honest character and reputation. And all 
the aforesaid aliments, when applied for as said, are 
cheerfully to be paid without making the unreason- 
able distinction of poor or rich members or widows. 
Declaring always that no member who did not, or 
member's widow whose husband did not pay his 
quarter accounts, and all other dues to the com- 
munity, for at least the space of one year after his 
entry thereto, or was in arrears at his death, shall not 
be entitled to the foresaid aliment. Applicants 
always paying postage of letters and all other inci- 
dental charges. 

We have been favoured with a copy of 

the original charter of this society. It 

runs as follows: — 

Know all men, by these presents, that we, James 
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PARTICK— PAST AND PRESENT 

Robertson, shoemaker in Partick; George Park, 
meal merchant there; John Nisbet, mason there; 
John Craig, smith there; Thomas Miller, tailor 
there; John Purdon, weaver there; Robert M'Indoe, 
weaver there; Robert Miller, shoemaker there; 
Henry Comer, flesher there ; Andrew Smith, school- 
master there; Wm. Wilson, smith there; James 
Robertson, weaver there; John Fleming, weaver 
there; John Purdon, of Bridge-end there; James 
Colquhoun, tailor there; David Carse, tailor there; 
James Purdon, farmer there ; James Fleming, servant 
there; Wm. M*Culloch, tailor there; John Petterson, 
farmer in Whiteinch; James Jackson, farmer there; 
Robert Algie, farmer in Easter Scotstoun; Wm. 
Purdon, farmer in Sandyford ; Archibald Dick, 
weaver in Byars; Robert Johnston, farmer there; 
and Matthew Montgomery, farmer, Balshagray, — 
Considering the good and well of the poor, and the 
other good and worthy consequences which attend 
friendly association, have associated and hereby 
associate ourselves into a friendly community, and 
bind and oblige us, and each of us, strictly to fulfil 
and perform the rules and articles underwritten, 
which we have calculated for the order of our said 
community, namely, that there be a Preses or overs- 
man chosen yearly upon the last Friday of June, 
by voice of the whole Society; that there be six 
masters chosen yearly upon said day, three by the 
Preses and the other three by the community, who 
with the Preses are to represent the community; 
that whether the Preses be chosen in the town or 
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OLD PARtiCK INSTITUTIONS 

in the country, he shall be obliged to choose part 
of his masters in the town, part in the country. 
That there be a collector chosen yearly upon said 
day by voice of the whole Society; that none be 
admitted freemen, but by the authority of the Preses, 
and plurality of the masters ; that each freeman pay 
into the common box one shilling sterling yearly, 
at the time and by the proportions following, to 
wit : — Three shillings scots, quarterly, beginning the 
first quarter's payment upon the last Friday of Sep- 
tember, and so to continue upon the last Friday of 
each third month thereafter ; that each freeman pay 
into the common box one shilling sterling for each 
apprentice he has; that each freeman pay all his 
quarters' accounts at the expiration of each year, 
otherwise to have no vote, and if it happens that 
any of the members of the said community shall 
not pay up their quarters* accounts for a course of 
a year, then, and in that case, upon him or them 
paying up all bygone dues shall be received again 
into the said community. 

That no freeman curse or swear in presences (sic) 
of the Preses and masters under a penalty of 6d. 
sterling, to be paid into the common box for each 
transgression. That whoever be chosen Preses the 
common box shall not be removed from Partick, 
and if the Preses do happen to live at any place a 
considerable [distance] from Partick, then and in 
that case he shall be obliged to depute one in his 
place, at, or near to, the town so as he may be 
easily got when wanted; that a clerk and officer 
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PARTICK— PAST AND PRESENT 

be chosen yearly by voice of the community, and 
that what indentures betwixt any of the members 
of the community and apprentices and journeymen 
shall be wrote by the clerk of the said Society; 
and this year we chose by plurality of votes the 
above James Robertson, shoemaker, Preses; and 
the above designed George Park, John Nisbet, 
John Craig, Thomas Miller, John Purdon, and John 
Petterson, masters; and the above designed Robert 
M'Indoe, collector; as also the above designed 
Andrew Smith, clerk; and Wm. M'CuUoch, officer; 
and lastly we consent to the registration hereof, ad 
futuram rei tnemoriam^ in judge books competent 
for that effect and constitutes. 

In witness whereof these presents written on 
stamped parchment by the above Andrew Smith, 
clerk, are subscribed by us at Partick, this isth 
day of August, one thousand seven hundred and 
fifty-eight years before these witnesses, James Hill, 
weaver in Partick, and John Miller, shoemaker 
there. 

[Here follow twenty-six signatures.] 

The copy of the articles and regulations 
before us vsras printed in 1804, and it gives 
the names of the office-bearers, among 
whom is Robert Hill, the officer. ''Roberts 
great days," says Napier, "v^rere the days 
when the deacon or preses or office- 
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OLD PARTICK INSTITUTIONS 

bearers were elected. After the election 
the whole society marched in procession to 
the house of the newly-elected deacon. 
In front went the village drummer, making 
a great noise, and giving warning to the 
villagers to look out for the new deacon. 
After the drummer came Robert Hill, the 
officer, with the society's box slung over 
his back. Next followed the late and 
new deacon, followed by the other mem- 
bers. It was always expected that the 
new deacon would do the honours of the 
day, and keep up the credit of the 
society." 

The Partick Community has long ceased 
to exist, but the charter, collecting-book, 
and box are still in existence, and are 
now in the possession of Mr. Rait, Par- 
tickhill, through whose kindness we have 
been enabled to give a copy of the char- 
ter. A copy of the rules will also be found 
printed in full in the Appendix. 



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SOCIAL AND RELIGIOUS LIFE 
OF OLD PARTICK 

To appreciate the social and religious life 
of the village in olden times, we must 
imagine ourselves spending a year in 
Particle. With the close of the last day 
in December, things were put past for 
the year; all local and out -door work 
was suspended, houses were white-washed 
and cleaned, people went to bed before 
twelve o'clock, and, indeed, it was con- 
sidered unlucky not to be in bed before 
the New Year came in. On New Year's 
morning first -footing began, and to visit 
a friend empty-handed was to wish him 
ill-luck during the coming year. On 
giving or receiving a refreshment, it was 
part of the programme of good wishes 
for the year **to tak' it a' oot." During 
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SOCIAL AND RELIGIOUS LIFE 

the day neighbours and friends in the 
village exchanged complimentary visits, 
and in the evening family reunions took 
place. Sons and daughters who worked 
from home, or if married in the village 
and had families, all gathered under the 
paternal roof, and spent the evening in 
the old home with song and story and 
innocent fun and frolic. There were 
exceptions, of course, to these festivities, 
though Mr. Skinner, in 1 831,, in his 
cautiously- and charitably -worded state- 
ment to the Glasgow Presbytery on the 
social, moral, and religious life of the 
people under his charge, while lamenting 
cases of intemperance in Partick, con- 
sidered that, in proportion to the popu- 
lation of the village, these cases were 
not more numerous than in other villages. 
Indeed, the respectability, quietness, and 
good behaviour of the majority of the 
Partick people amply turned the scale 
against these isolated cases. Attendance 
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PARTICK— PAST AND PRESENT 

at religious ordinances in church were 
regular, and family worship was maintained 
by large numbers of his people morning 
and evening, and on Sabbath-days. 

'* Sixty years ago," says James Napier, 
"any person passing through the village 
at nine o'clock, either morning or evening 
of a Sabbath day, would never be out 
of hearing of the psalm -singing of the 
different families at family worship." 

After the New -Year festivities were 
over, people settled down again to work 
at the mills, the looms, and the neigh- 
bouring farms, till the next cessation 
from labour, the spring Fast -day. 

Partick, along with Glasgow and other 
places in Scotland, had two Fast -days 
each year, one in spring and the other 
in autumn. These days were strictly 
kept as a Sabbath-day — all labour was 
suspended, all shops and schools closed. 
In 1837, when three denominations were 
represented in the village, forenoon and 
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SOCIAL AND RELIGIOUS LIFE 

afternoon services were held in all the 
churches on the Fast-day, and were well 
attended. Tokens of admission to the 
sacramental table on the following Sunday- 
were usually distributed on that day. In 
1844, when the Free Church had found 
a footing, and called the Rev. Henry 
Anderson, he said, **Our Fast-days were 
looked upon as great days, just as the 
great day of atonement. The attendance 
on a Fast-day was like a Sabbath. There 
was an elder from Renfrew who some- 
times came up to assist the elders, who 
said our Fast-days in Partick were great 
times." 

Fast -days in olden times were not 
always necessarily connected with sacra- 
mental occasions. Public Fast -days on 
particular events have been publicly and 
nationally proclaimed, and in 1832 (March 
21) a public fast, a day of humiliation and 
prayer, was authorised to be held on 
account of the violence of the plague of 
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PARTICK— PAST AND PRESENT 

cholera throughout the country. The 
Particle churches observed this Fast-day, 
although the Secession and Relief congre- 
gations said that, while they did not 
acknowledge the king's authority in 
spiritual affairs, yet that on the ground 
of the aspect of Divine Providence, and of 
the people's being prohibited pursuing 
their worldly employments on the day 
appointed by the Government, the day 
would be observed as a day of fasting and 
humiliation. 

It is interesting to note in this protest 
the difference between an *'Auld Licht" 
and a *' New Licht." An "Auld Licht" 
dissenter recognised the right of the nation 
to proclaim a "fast," and the raison detre 
of the Established Church of Scotland ; 
the '*New Licht" dissenters (United 
Secession and Relief Churches) recognised 
no kingly authority to proclaim fasts, and 
that no Church should be established by 
law. 

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SOCIAL AND RELIGIOUS LIFE 

During the scourge of cholera in 1832, 
Partick was much affected. Consequently 
all coming and going, or visitation of 
friends and families, was suspended, and 
a death-like stillness possessed gentle and 
simple, weaver and miller, young and old. 
A short time before the outbreak of the 
cholera a brass band had been established 
in the village, and had been of great 
service at public gatherings, processions, 
Reform Bill agitations, and the like. One 
night, during the height of the plague, to 
the horror of the stricken villagers, the 
band paraded the streets with the innocent 
hope of cheering up their kinsfolk and 
friends. The playing was continued every 
alternate night, and some superstitious 
people, noting that the cholera disappeared 
very soon thereafter, suggested that the 
brass band had played the plague away. 

In the month of July, Partick people 
observed the Glasgow Fair as a holiday 
time, but Cook's excursions to London and 
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PARTICK— PAST AND PRESENT 

elsewhere being then unknown, and coast 
residences not yet in vogue, Partick 
bodies were very well content to stop at 
home and spend their holidays among 
themselves. 

From time to time travelling shows 
visited the village, and lads met their 
lasses around some of the wells in the 
summer evenings, or by the banks of the 
Kelvin or Clyde, while balls and weddings 
were mostly held in the winter time. 

Eighty years ago all the villagers of 
Partick were known to each other, and 
much neighbourly kindness was mani- 
fested. Every family had a good-sized 
garden attached to its house, and many 
people kept their own cow. These all fed 
in one part of the meadow, and were 
looked after by a cowherd, who was some- 
thing of a musician, for we are told that he 
summoned his charges in the morning by 
a rousing blast on his horn. 

The habitations of the villagers for the 
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SOCIAL AND RELIGIOUS LIFE 

most part consisted of a "but and a ben," 
with the byre at the back or end of the 
house. 

The weavers in Partick were, like the 
weavers in most other Scotch villages and 
towns, great Radicals, and deeply inte- 
rested in all political movements, especially 
Reform Bills. Indeed, so keen for the 
fray was one young fellow that he was only 
restrained by the persuasion of his mother 
from joining the fight at Bonnymuir. 

Few have ever heard of a Tory weaver, 
yet history records this wonderful specimen, 
and from no less a village than Partick. 
He gloried in the punishment of the 
Radicals of 1822, and walked all the way 
to Stirling to witness the execution of 
Baird and Hardy. 

Rents were paid at Candlemas and 
Lammas, when it was customary for the 
lairds, who factored their own property in 
those days, to entertain their tenants with 
some suitable refreshment The last 
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PARTICK— PAST AND PRESENT 

Friday in March was observed by the 
Masons as their annual parade day, a 
great event for the lads and lasses of 
the village. Another great feast in the 
village was the Deacon of the Bakers' 
election day, usually held at the beginning 
of August. In this event the villagers 
were ever eager to show their interest, 
and used to discuss for days beforehand 
the chances of their favourites. 

At the time of which we are writing 
the only men who could securely tie the 
marriage knot were the ministers and 
clergy, and as there were then no 
clergymen resident in Partick, betrothed 
ones to complete their happiness had 
perforce to make their way to the 
minister s house either at Govan or Ander- 
ston. After the ceremony the party quickly 
returned to the village and duly celebrated 
the occasion in feasting and fun. The 
day after the wedding, which constituted 

the honeymoon, was usually spent in 
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SOCIAL AND RELIGIOUS LIFE 

Glasgow, and on the Sabbath-day follow- 
ing the new couple were carefully ** kirked " 
in the parish church, and let us hope lived 
happy ever after. 

One of the most dismal duties of the 
bellman was to announce the death of a 
villager by the ringing of the Dead Bell. 
After this had been duly done, he had 
next to open the door of each house, 
requesting at the same time **the favour 
of your company to attend the funeral of 
A. B., to-morrow, at two o'clock." The 
interments usually took place at Govan or 
Anderston, the coffin being carried on 
spokes all the way to the churchyard. 
The Dead Bell of Partick, dating from 
1726, was for many years lost sight of 
till discovered in Edinburgh by a Paisley 
gentleman, when it was presented to the 
Partick Curling Club, in whose possession 
it now is. The drinking habits so common 
long ago at funerals in Partick and else- 
where have now happily passed away, as 
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PARTICK— PAST AND PRESENT 

well as the free tables for refreshments 
that were usually set both outside and 
inside the house in which the deceased 
lay. 

From the autumn Fast-day to the New 
Year there was no break in outdoor or 
indoor labour, and Christmas was utterly 
unknown in Partick till a very recent 
date. 



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THE BURGH 

The forces that make for peace seemed 
to be signally present in the Partick of 
1838, for her records show that, with a 
population of nearly 2000 souls, she had 
little need even for the service of the 
solitary policeman who seemed proud to 
be her sole guardian. But those were 
halcyon days indeed, soon to become a 
memory only, for in 1843 disturbers of 
the peace and other lawless characters had 
grown so rank that the ** one-man force" 
had frequently to summon aid from the 
neighbouring station of Anderston to 
watch and even patrol the village. 

The next step on the road to local 

government was taken in 1846, when a 

number of the well-to-do villagers and 

residenters agreed to erect a few lamps at 

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PARTICK— PAST AND PRESENT 

suitable places to light the roads and 
streets in the winter time. The cost was 
defrayed by voluntary subscription, and 
the management of affairs was left in the 
hands of a committee. With the forma- 
tion of this committee we have the 
beginning of the burgh of Partick. The 
committee soon had plenty of other work 
thrust upon it in the form of complaints as 
to nuisances, smells, and bad drainage. 
These matters were also aired in the 
Glasgow newspapers, and meetings were 
held in the school-room in 1851 and 
1852, the outcome of which was the 
drawing up of a petition to be presented 
to the Sheriff that Partick and neighbour- 
hood be constituted a populous place, 
that it should adopt the General Police 
Act of Scotland, and that the Sheriff call a 
public meeting to be held in the Free 
Church school of all householders of ;^io 
rent and upwards who resided within the 

proposed boundaries of the burgh. This 
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THE BURGH 

meeting was held on the 17th June, 1852, 
and on that date the burgh was formed, 
and the following gentlemen there and 
then elected Commissioners : — 

David Tod, Iron Bank. 
John Buchanan, Dowanhill. 
Robert Patterson, Partickhill. 
Moses Hunter, Hamilton Crescent. 
John Walker, Jun., Castle Bank. 
A. C. Shank, Turnerfield. 
James Napier, Hamilton Place. 
Robert Kay, Partickhill. 
John White, Scotstoun Mills. 
George Richmond, Partickhill. 
David Ralston. 

Three of these were then chosen as 
magistrates, viz., David Tod, John 
Buchanan, and Moses Hunter, the first- 
named being Provost. The newly-elected 
commissioners had a wholesome know- 
ledge of what was expected of them ; no 
promises were made, no guarantees given ; 
but they knew their first objective, and 
courageously seized the pestilent hydra with 
an iron hand. So effectively did they and 
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PARTICK— PAST AND PRESENT 

their successors work that with an ever- 
increasing population the death-rate was 
rapidly decreasing. For example, in 1852, 
the date of the raising of the burgh, the 
population was 5000 and the death-rate 
34 per 1000. In 1872, with 17,000 
inhabitants, the rate had fallen to 21, and 
in 1896 there were 45,000 people within 
the burgh, while the mortality had been 
reduced to 13 per 1000. At the present 
day Partick stands about the lowest in the 
mortality tables of Scotland, as may be 
seen from the following figures : — Glasgow, 
213 per 10,000; Perth, 184; Dundee, 
199 ; Paisley, 196 ; Aberdeen, 184 ; 
Greenock, 196; Edinburgh, 192; and 
Leith, 186. The health of Partick should 
show even better results when the new 
sewage scheme is carried out, however 
expensive it may be. Indeed, the ques- 
tion of rational expense need never be 
discussed when the welfare of a com- 
munity is at stake, and there is no such 
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THE BURGH 

thing as a cheap municipal blessing; 
There seems little doubt also that the 
introduction of the Glasgow Loch Katrine 
water service had a great deal to do with 
the decline in the mortality rate, as prior 
to that time the burgh drew its chief 
supply from the Kelvin. Often, however, 
when the river was in flood the water was 
totally unfit for domestic purposes, awid as 
the water of the public and private wells 
was little better, and indeed often 
dangerous, the little community was sorely 
stressed from time to time. 

Fifty years ago a quartette of burns 
coursed freely around and through the 
village, but instead of purifying the air 
with limpid waters, they were little better 
than so many open sewers, and a fruitful 
source of epidemic to the young burgh. 
One of these bums ran alongside the Crow 
Road; 'another, called Hay Burn, skirted 
the west side of Partickhill, both falling 
into the Clyde; a third, passing down 
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PARTICK— PAST AND PRESENT 

the east side of Partickhill, crossed the 
Dumbarton Road, and found its way to 
the Kelvin; and the fourth came from 
the east of Dowanhill, and, falling into 
the Kelvin near the Old Bridge, was 
called the Brewster Burn. These have 
all now been covered over, and form 
part of the sewage scheme of the 
burgh. 

Like the sensible men they were, the 
newly-elected burgh commissioners were 
content to hold their first meetings in a 
humble room in Dumbarton Road. They 
next held their deliberations in the Police 
Buildings, and since 1872, when the 
buildings were erected, in their own Burgh 
Chambers. The following are the names 
of the gentlemen who have occupied the 
Provost's chair : — Messrs. Tod, White, 
Robinson, Arthur, Hunter, Thomson, 
Ferguson, Kennedy, Sir Andrew MacLean, 
Caird, and Wood. The first burgh 
treasurer was Mr. Paisley, and he was 
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THE BURGH 

succeeded by Mr. George Wilson, who 
died in December of last year. 

Up till 1874 the villagers were happy 
in the use of oil as an illuminant, but 
the new commissioners were not content 
to travel in the old rut, and they very 
readily availed themselves of the benefits 
offered by the Partick, Hillhead, and 
Maryhill Gas Company to introduce the 
new light into the little burgh. In 1891 
this company was taken over by the 
Glasgow Corporation. 

Communication with the city by tram 
was established in 1872 from the Cre- 
scents to Whiteindh terminus. 

From time to time negotiations have 
been carried on between the Corporation 
of Glasgow and the burgh of Partick 
with a view to amalgamation, but up 
to the present time the attempts have 
only resulted in heaping expense on both 
corporations. 

The following were the terms submitted 
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PARTICK— PAST AND PRESENT 

at last conference by the Glasgow Cor- 
poration : — 

1. The present area of the burgh of Partick (sub- 
ject to any slight adjustment of boundaries which 
may be mutually agreed to) shall be divided into 
two wards, each having three representatives. 

2. The ratepayers in Partick shall be entitled to 
a deduction of 20 per cent, from the city and police 
rates for five years from unification. 

3. The Corporation shall, within three years from 
unification, provide suitable public baths for Partick. 

4. The burgh buildings, police buildings, eta, in 
Partick shall be retained for municipal and public 
purposes. 

5. A Police Court shall continue to be held in 
Partick. 

6. The burgh officials shall, in so far as not con- 
tinued by the city, be allowed compensation, in terms 
of the Boundaries Commissioners' report, or as other- 
wise arranged. 

7. The committee explamed that the policy of the 
city was to pave all streets on which the traffic was 
heavy, and that they have no doubt that the Dum- 
barton Road would be paved if it came under the 
jurisdiction of the city, but that in the meantime 
they could not undertake to pave that road and the 
portions of Crow Road and Byars Road referred to 
without further consideration. 

8. If the Commissioners can now condescend upon 
any specific piece of ground for an open space which 

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THE BURGH 

they consider suitable, and which might be purchased 
at a moderate price, the Corporation committee would 
be prepared to consider it. 

9. The differential rate in the city on rents under 
;£'io shall be extended to Partick, and that the water 
and gas rates and arrangements as to stair-lighting 
shall be the same in Partick as in the city. 

10. The special sewer rates in the several drainage 
districts in the burgh shall continue to be levied 
till the capital sums expended in the construction 
of such sewers remaining unpaid at the date of 
unification have been repaid — provision being made 
that owners who may build and take advantage of 
the sewers in the burgh before repayment of such 
capital expenditure shall pay a reasonable sum for 
the use of said sewers, and relief from such sewer 
rates being given to owners who have, at their own 
expense, formed sewers, or have paid for an agreed-on 
number of years for the existing sewers. 

11. As regards the lighting of private streets, the 
arrangements which exist in Glasgow shall apply to 
Partick, but that the position of certain private 
streets under the Burgh Police Act, 1892, should 
be further considered. 

12. The city shall take over the debts, obligations, 
and contracts of the Commissioners. 

13. The city shall take over all streets and pave- 
ments taken over by the Commissioners before 
annexation, or which the Commissioners may then 
be under agreement or obligation to take over. 

14. All rates and assessments payable by the rate- 

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PARTICK— PAST AND PRESENT 

payers of Partick may be paid therein, and that the 
local collector, in conjunction with the Partick repre- 
sentatives, shall have power to deal with the appeals 
in the same way as the city collectors. 

15. In the event of an arrangement being arrived 
at between the city and burgh, and being approved 
by the ratepayers in Partick, the terms agreed upon 
shall be embodied in a bill. 

16. The deputation explained that there was no 
access between the Partickhill portion of the burgh 
and the Crow Road district, and asked that the 
Corporation should undertake, in the near future, 
to provide such an access. The committee explained 
that that was a proposal they could not in the 
meantime bind themselves to undertake, but they 
would endeavour to deal with the matter, if possible, 
in the event of annexation taking place. 

It was agreed that the deputation should 
consult their Commissioners regarding the 
suggested arrangement, and thereafter 
communicate their decision. 

The terms are similar to those offered 
in 1897, with the exception that no pro- 
vision is made for divisional management 
of the city. 

Comparing the statistics of 1838 with 
^those of the present day, instead of one 
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THE BURGH 

policeman we have i chief constable, i 
superintendent, 2 inspectors, 3 detectives, 
8 sergeants, 60 constables, and the popu- 
lation we find has leapt from 2000 to 
54,274, while the valuation of the burgh 
is represented by the magnificent sum of 
;^298,2ii. Of hackney carriages there 
are 18, of public-houses 41, of licensed 
grocers 25, besides 4 brokers and 12 
chimney sweeps. There is also an 
efficient fire brigade consisting of one 
superintendent and eighteen men. In 
1 90 1 there were no fewer than 2083 
offences reported to the police, and the 
fire brigade responded to 132 calls. 

The commissioners have just erected 
electricity works and refuse destructors at 
a cost of ;^6o,ooo. These were opened 
February 19, 1902. 



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VICTORIA PARK 

The fine British principle that "all work 
and no play makes Jack a dull boy" 
seems to be well understood by the 
provost and magistrates of Partick, for 
their first care in this direction has been 
to provide ample playground for the young 
folks of the town. Meadowside Park, 
lying between Hayburn and Merkland 
Streets, was purchased from Sir William 
Hozier and the Railway Company at a 
cost of over ;^5ooo, and formally opened 
by the provost and magistrates on 30th 
November, 1896. The grounds are taste- 
fully laid out with flowers, plants, and 
shrubs, and one corner is well provided 
with swings and other amusements dear 
to the hearts of the little ones. 

In the matter of recreation — tempered 
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VICTORIA PARK 

with muscular development — the police- 
men have not been forgotten, for mainly 
through the exertions of Captain Cameron 
of the police force, a handsome gym- 
nasium was erected in 1897, a little to 
the east of the recreation grounds, at a 
cost of about ;^iooo. Though primarily 
for the use of the police force, the 
gymnasium has been generously thrown 
open to all the young men of the burgh — 
a privilege they have not been slow to 
take advantage of. 

Another great breathing space, the 
** Victoria Park," so named by consent of 
Her late Majesty Queen Victoria in 
honour of her jubilee, was opened on 2nd 
July in that memorable year (1887). 
Since 1867 it had been a dream of the 
Partick municipal authorities and local 
philanthropists to provide the people of 
Partick and neighbourhood with a suitable 
park, and after due deliberation the com- 
missioners in 1885 entered into negotia- 
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PARTICK— PAST AND PRESENT 

tions with Mr. James Gordon Oswald, of 
the Scotstoun estate, for certain lands 
lying in the western part of the burgh 
near Whiteinch. At first it was arranged 
that 30 acres of this land should be feued, 
but latterly it was thought advisable to 
include over 16 acres in an easterly 
direction, making the park in all half-a- 
mile long by 250 yards broad. The 
terms were considered favourable, viz., £$ 
per acre per annum for the first ten years, 
and jC^o per acre per annum thereafter in 
perpetuity. 

The work of laying out the park was 
commenced in 1886, and provided work 
for a great many of the unemployed 
during that year of trade depression. 
From first to last nearly ;^40oo was 
distributed in wages in the making of 
carriage drives, walks, and lakes. The 
old Whiteinch quarry, lying conveniently 
within the area of the park, supplied both 
the soft whinstone for the bottoming and 
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VICTORIA PARK 

the sharp whinstone for metalling the 
drives and walks. 

At the eastern end of the park, in 
Balshagray Avenue, is the principal gate- 
way, and to the credit of the ladies of 
the burgh it should be recorded that the 
cost of the structure (;^2cx>) was entirely 
raised by them in voluntary subscriptions. 
On the centre of the shaft of the outer 
pillars is a medallion of Her Majesty, 
with the words ** Queen's Jubilee " ; on the 
inner shafts are the burgh arms, and the 
motto " Industria Ditat." A centre of 
attraction in the park is the artificial lake, 
about four acres in extent and three feet 
deep. In the summer time it is in high 
favour for model yacht racing. From the 
west end of the park, where the ground 
gently rises, a good view of the surround- 
ing country can be had, and immediately 
behind the little eminence is the quarry 
containing the famous " Fossil Grove." 

The occasion of the opening of the Park 
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PARTICK— PAST AND PRESENT 

on 2nd July, 1887, was observed as a 
general holiday in the town, the procession 
from the Burgh Hall including the 
provost, magistrates, and commissioners, 
the local corps of 1st L.R.V. and 6th 
L.R.V., the burgh police force, the fire 
brigade, and employes from the various 
shipyards and works in the neighbourhood, 
Foresters, Gardeners, Free Masons, and 
Shepherds. The products of the Scots- 
toun mills were shown in the procession ; 
and on a specially-fitted lorry was given a 
representation of flour-milling by hand as 
practised by our forefathers, while an 
attempt was made to depict the process 
mentioned in Scripture of **two women 
shall be grinding at the mill." On 
entering the Park the procession made its 
way to the platform at the west end, 
where Sir Andrew Mac Lean, Provost of 
Partick, in the course of a few remarks, 
declared the Park open, wishing the 

inhabitants pleasure in the use of the new 
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VICTORIA PARK 

acquisition to the burgh, and hoping it 
would be a thing of beauty and a delight 
for generations to come. Other speakers 
followed, and the proceedings were 
brought to a close by the singing of the 
National Anthem. In the evening the 
shops, houses, streets, and buildings in 
and around the burgh were brilliantly 
illuminated in honour of the event. 

The " Fossil Grove ** already referred to 
has attracted the attention of a number of 
geologists, and a paper on the subject was 
read before the Geological Society of 
Glasgow on 12th April, 1888, from which, 
with the Society's permission, the following 
excerpt is taken : — 

On the north side of the Dumbarton Road, near 
Whiteinch and Partick, there is to be seen in the 
Lower Balshagray grounds a small ridge or knoll 
running east and west, crowned by a group of 
stately trees rising above the level tract of land, 
which here to the north bounds the river Clyde, its 
height above the present sea-level varying from 20 to 
25 feet. The ridge is composed in its upper part of 
beds of intrusive dolerite, which are here seen to be 

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PARTICK— PAST AND PRESENT 

intercalated with carboniferous sandstones and shales, 
the igneous rock being traceable westwards for nearly 
two miles, when it again disappears under the 
overlying strata of the district. The knoll now lies 
within the area of ground rented by the burghs 
of Partick and Whiteinch as a public park, and is at 
its south-western extremity. In former years a 
quarry had been opened in the upper bed of dolerite, 
the rock being used for macadamising purposes on 
the neighbouring roads. Since it came into the hands 
of the Partick and Whiteinch Commissioners a great 
deal of work had been expended in dressing up and 
planting the rocky slopes of the old quarry; and 
while employed last winter in cutting a road along 
the hollow of the quarry, the workmen exposed the 
strata in which a number of fossil trees were found to 
be embedded. These strata underlie the upper bed 
of dolerite now largely quarried away, and consist 
of gray sandy shales, flaggy sandstones, and dark 
carbonaceous shales, in the bottom of which the 
erect stems of the fossil trees are seen to be rooted. 
When the workmen came upon the upper end of the 
stems the excavation was carefully continued down- 
wards until both trunks and roots of five large trees 
were laid bare. Four of these stand close to each 
other, the fifth and largest being some distance apart 
at the western end of the excavation. It is very 
probable that other tree stems exist in the immediate 
proximity, as the sandstones and shales are found to 
be continuous on either of the sides of the cutting 
for the roadway, those on the north side being seen 

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VICTORIA PARK 

to extend under the overlying dolerite, which has 
here not been quarried away. Other five trees 
have recently been exposed standing near the others, 
besides two prostrate stems, which are seen lying 
across the section in the cutting. 

The geological horizon of the group of strata in 
which these trees are found lies in the middle and 
lower divisions of the Fossil coal and ironstone series, 
and which extends from this point eastwards under 
the city boundaries, where it underlies the Millstone 
Grit and Upper Coal measures, the beds in question 
being some 500 fathoms under the Upper Red 
Sandstone, which lies over the higher beds of the 
Lanarkshire coal-field. 

The occurrence of erect stems of fossil trees, 
apparently on the same geological horizon as those 
above mentioned in the old quarry at Victoria Park, 
has been formerly recorded from several localities to 
the north-west of Glasgow. The most recent was the 
discovery in the Gilmorehill quarry, where six erect 
stems, standing close together, were exposed in the 
year 1868 during the working of the sandstone for the 
new buildings of the University. The strata in which 
they were found were identical in character with 
those seen in Victoria Park quarry. As a notice of 
the strata of the Gilmorehill quarry, and of the erect 
fossil trees found there and at other localities within 
this district, formed the subject of a paper read to this 
Society by one of the authors twenty years ago 
(Transactions, vol. iii., 1869), it is unnecessary to 
repeat what is there stated regarding either this group 

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PARTICK— PAST AND PRESENT 

of strata, its geological horizon, or its fossils, beyond 
the following short quotation where mention is made 
of the trees : — In the working of the upper bed of 
sandstone the quarrymen came upon the erect stumps 
of five or six large fossil trees. They appeared to be 
Sigillaria, and measured from 20 inches to 2 feet 
in diameter. They seem to have been broken or to 
have decayed to within a few inches of the ground, 
and were composed of shaly sandstone, similar to the 
surrounding rock. The trees stood some three or 
four feet apart, and the roots of the one were seen in 
some cases interlacing with those of the others. 
While the remains of this old forest of the coal period 
were allowed to stand they formed a very interesting 
object in the quarry, but they were ultimately 
removed in the working of the sandstone. Remains 
of large erect stumps of fossil trees from this neigh- 
bourhood are recorded in the writings of Dr. 
Buckland, Mr. Smith of Jordanhill, and Mr. John 
Craig, mineral surveyor. Dr Buckland states, in his 
"Anniversary Address to the Geological Society of 
London," 1840 : — " At Balgray, three miles north of 
Glasgow, I saw in the year 1824, as there still may 
be seen (1840) an unequivocal example of the stumps 
of several stems of large trees standing close together 
in their native place in a quarry of sandstone of the 
coal formation." These trees have now all been 
removed, but their position was, we believe, nearly on 
the same geological horizon as the trees found in the 
sandstone of the Gilmorehill quarry. It is therefore 
interesting to find them scattered over a considerable 
tract of country. 

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VICTORIA PARK 

What we shall now endeavour to notice further 
regarding the new discovery at Victoria Park will 
be some of the more local conditions that the section 
presents and the proofs it affords of the great 
antiquity of the strata. There is nothing abnormal, 
however, in this section as to the conditions under 
which the trees originally existed. They evidently 
formed a portion of one of those widely-extended 
coal forests which, over this district, flourished on 
this horizon in Lower Carboniferous times. In the 
strata underlying and overlying the beds containing 
the fossil trees, we have clear evidence that this 
region was then one of the gradual and slow depres- 
sions which probably extended over the whole area 
of our coal-fields, and also over much of the country 
beyond. There is also further evidence that this 
general depression continued until more than 3000 
feet of strata were deposited above the particular 
horizon in which these trees now lie. The evidence 
for this assertion, as to the great accumulation of 
strata and the downward movement of the beds, is 
revealed by the nature of the strata themselves. 

It is now generally admitted by geologists that all 
our beds of free or cherry coal, whether thick or 
thin, were derived from growths of vegetation which 
flourished on the tracts of land where these coal-beds 
now exist. On the other hand, the strata of sand- 
stone, limestone, and shale which alternate with these 
coal-beds, as clearly attest, in their contained fossils, 
what were the conditions, lacustrine or marine, under 
which their sediments were deposited. The coal-beds 

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mark the periods of former land surfaces, during 
which the underlying crust remained stationary, whilst 
the sedimentary strata mark the periods of depression 
when the land went down under water, either of lakes 
or of the sea. 

It may be interesting here to note the often-repeated 
occurrence of old land surfaces which exist, in the 
form of coal-beds, in the Possil group of strata lying 
between the horizon of the Lower and Upper Marine 
of Limestones near Glasgow. In the Gilmorehill 
quarry already referred to, seven seams of coal were 
exposed in a thickness of 70 feet of strata. Mr. 
James Duncan of Twechar has sent us journals of 
bores put down through the same group of strata 
further to the east, in the Kelvin Valley, near Kilsyth, 
which show at least forty seams of coal, occupying 
horizons in the strata which lie under the upper or 
Arden limestone of the district; and over that, in 
descending series, of the Garibaldi ironstone, which 
is also worked in the Jordanhill and Knightswood 
pits, in the neighbourhood of the Victoria Park, the 
distance, or thickness of strata between the limestone 
and ironstone, being 207 fathoms, or 1242 feet. 

The seams of coal are generally thin, but several 
have been found of workable thickness within the 
district, such as the Shirva coal, which runs from 
5 to 6 feet thick in the neighbourhood of Kirkin- 
tilloch and Kilsyth, and which is there worked along 
with other of the thinner seams. The whole of these 
beds of coal indicate periods of repose, of longer or 
shorter duration, in which the land remained station- 

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VICTORIA PARK 

ary, but they likewise mark as many periods of 
subsidence, when the land went down. When both 
are looked at and considered together, they represent 
a very lengthened period of time, as the Fossil group, 
which, it must be remembered, only forms the lower 
division of the 3000 feet of coal measures formerly 
mentioned, once lay, we have every reason to believe, 
over the horizon of the trees now exposed in the 
quarry at Victoria Park. There is, however, a fur- 
ther period of time represented by the above section 
— ^the period required for the denudation of the whole 
of the coal measures which once lay over these beds 
-in this district. Which of these periods was the 
longest, that represented by the slow growths of 
numerous coal seams and 3000 feet or thereby of 
various intercalated sedimentary strata, or that during 
which the whole of this amount of strata has been 
removed by denudation, after the elevation of the 
region above the present sea-level? We are afraid 
that none of these points will ever be satisfactorily 
determined, as the periods of deposition and that 
of denudation seem each so great as to lie almost 
beyond the grasp of the human mind. 

Of the ten trees which have now been exposed at 
Victoria Park only the lower portion of the stems and 
the roots nearest to them have been preserved. One 
of the stems is, as already mentioned, much larger 
than any of the other nine, and stands apart in the 
western end of the excavation. It is of an oval form, 
and measures across the stem, which has decayed to 
near the level of the roots, about 4 feet by 3 feet in 

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diameter. The other trees, which have their stems 
preserved to heights of from a to 3 feet above the 
roots, have diameters varying from 20 inches to 
nearly 3 feet, about the same size as the Gilmorehill 
trees. They are seen to have been buried near their 
roots in a dark carbonaceous shale, containing numer- 
ous fragments and impressions of plant remains. A 
more arenaceous shale of lighter colour surrounds the 
upper portion of the stems. It may be here noted 
that the heights to which the stems have been pre- 
served were in all probability determined by the depth 
of sediment which had accumulated around their 
bases ere the trees themselves had decayed down- 
wards to their present level. Above this level the 
strata in the quarry were found to be quite continuous 
over the upper ends of the stems. 

The erect stems of some twelve or fourteen fossil 
trees belonging to the Lower Carboniferous Period, 
which were discovered by Mr. E. A. Wunsch, F.G.S., 
in a coast section in the Island of Arran, where they 
had grown on two or three distinct horizons, had the 
lower portion of their stems entombed in beds of 
volcanic ash, which determined the heights to which 
they were afterwards preserved. In a paper by Mr. 
Wunsch, with a diagrammatic sketch showing the 
trees in position (Transactions, vol. ii., p. 98), he says, 
" The height of the trunks is limited by the thickness 
— about 3 feet — of the enveloping bed of ash, in 
which they seem to have been buried suddenly. At 
the same time numerous branches must have been 
broken off, and covered up by the ash around the 
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VICTORIA PARK 

steins of the trees." We are inclined to believe that 
the preservation of erect stems of trees in any strata in 
which they may be found is always due to the material 
having been accumulated around their bases ere the 
trees themselves had decayed down to the levels at 
which their stems are now found standing. These 
stems, it must be remembered, generally existed as 
hollow moulds, which only represented the external 
form and the surface markings on the trees, but not 
the wood itself j this having decayed in most instances 
ere their interiors became filled with the sandstone or 
shale, as the case may be, which now forms what are 
known as " casts " of the stems. 



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SHIPBUILDING 

Whether it be true or not that Glasgow 
has flourished by the preaching of the 
Word, it is certainly an ascertained fact 
that it has largely increased and flourished 
by the deepening of the Clyde. It might 
have had extensive factories and vast 
mineral fields in its immediate vicinity, 
but even with these it would never have 
risen to be the second city of the 
Empire without free access to the ocean. 
Thanks, however, to the energy and 
enterprise of the citizens of old Glasgow 
and the Clyde Trust, their labours 
in providing for shipping enterprise 
have been amply rewarded. Though 
history cannot tell us when the Clyde 
was first navigated, it was certainly sailed 

upon, and probably fished, long before 
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SHIPBUILDING 

the Roman invasion, and undoubtedly 
the ancient Caledonian paddled his canoe 
on convenient reaches of the river. 

During dredging operations in 185 1 an 
oak-trunk canoe was found on the north 
bank of the Clyde, near the mouth of 
the Kelvin, measuring 12 feet, with a 
breadth of 2 feet, and a depth of i foot 
10 inches. Early in the following year 
another was unearthed at Clydehaugh 
from its bed of finely - laminated sand, 
12 feet below the surface, and about 
25 feet from the lip of the ancient channel 
of the stream. It also is formed out of 
an oak trunk, and measures 12 feet by 
2 feet 5 by 2 feet 6 inches." About mid- 
way between the bow and stern there is 
a small rest for the end of a transverse 
seat. This rest has just been left as a 
projection by the savage when scooping 
out the boat, and forms an integral part 
of the gunwale. The breadth of the 
seat has been 4^ inches. This canoe 
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PARTICK— PAST AND PRESENT 

differs from the others in the formation 
of the stern, which, in these, was shut 
in by a movable board, placed in ver- 
tical grooves down the sides of the 
vessel, and fixed in a horizontal one 
across the bottom, to enable the canoe- 
men to draw it out when ashore, and 
run off the water shipped instead of 
canting her. But in this Clydehaugh 
specimen both ends of the tree have 
been left uncut — that is to say, the 
artificer has economised the tree, and 
dispensed with the movable board by 
fashioning a permanent stern out of the 
root. The bow is not unlike that of 
the ordinary fisherman's coble, and has 
a snout-like appearance without any cut- 
water, as in some of the other specimens. 
In the same year, and within 50 yards 
of the same place, a second canoe was 
discovered, considerably smaller, though 
not so well preserved. Its length is 14 
feet 10 inches, breadth 2 feet, and depth 
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SHIPBUILDING 

14 inches. The oak from which it has 
been fashioned has been about 4^ feet 
in circumference, and in general appear- 
ance it resembles the one previously 
unearthed, except that the stern is open, 
with the usual groove for a vertical board. 
One remarkable circumstance connected 
with this canoe is that there was found 
lying under the stern a thin piece of lead 
8 inches long by 5 inches broad, and 
perforated with holes for pegs or nails. 
These holes are square. It would seem 
as if this plate had been fixed on the 
bottom of the boat, but for what purpose 
we know not. Not long afterwards three 
more canoes were dug out from Clyde- 
haugh, ja few yards from where those 
above mentioned were found. They 
were lying in the same extensive bed 
of laminated sand, at a depth of about 

15 vertical feet. One was much decayed 
and damaged, but the remaining two are 
in excellent preservation. When first 

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PARTICK— PAST AND PRESENT 

seen both were lying flat in the sand, 
as if they had sunk in smooth water, 
and been gradually silted up. The prow 
of the largest — probably a war canoe of 
the tribe — was pointing to the north-west, 
in the general direction of the river; the 
smaller one, which is not unlike a punt 
to it, was a few feet astern, and lay as 
if she had been drifting down the stream 
broadside on when she sank. The largest 
of these antique boats has something of 
grandeur in her proportions ; she is not 
at all crank, but broad and substantial, 
and is 14 feet long, 4 feet i inch broad, 
and I foot 11 inches deep. There is 
evidence in the construction of this canoe 
that the natives had got beyond the 
paddling stage, for we find two horse- 
shoe knobs, with the concave facing the 
bow, at a convenient distance from the 
seat, as if for the rowers to rest their 
feet in. The craft is also supplied, at 
the bow end, with an oaken plug about 
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SHIPBUILDING 

a foot long and as thick as a man's wrist 
The plug was in place when the canoe 
was unearthed, but to guard against its 
loss the fashioners seem to have tethered 
it to the canoe by a thong passed through 
an eye at the top. This hole in the 
bottom would no doubt serve the double 
purpose of running off the water shipped 
when afloat, and of sinking her when 
the knowledge of her whereabouts was 
more desirable to her owners than their 
enemies. 

The smaller canoe is lo feet long, 
3 feet 2 inches broad, and i foot deep. 
It also is formed of a single oak ; sharp 
at both ends, and well scooped out. 
This little canoe seems to have met 
with an accident, for on one of the sides 
there is a piece of wood about a foot 
square very neatly fitted over a hole 
secured by four wooden pegs, and the 
whole made water-tight by the help of 
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PARTICK— PAST AND PRESENT 

and closed, and, like the larger one, the 
sides of the little vessel are perforated 
by a series of holes. 

At the mouth of the Kelvin, and near 
the spot where the canoes were found, a 
shipbuilding firm was founded by Messrs. 
Tod & McGregor in the year 1835, and 
in 1838 they built the Royal Sovereign 
and the Royal George^ both iron steamers. 
David Tod, the senior partner of the 
firm, was born in Scone, Perthshire, in 
1796, and died at Partick in 1859. The 
firm was amalgamated with that of Messrs. 
D. & W. Henderson & Co. in 1873. On 
the opposite bank of the Kelvin stood 
the Pointhouse inn, ferry, and lands, now 
the site of Messrs. A. & J. Inglis' ship- 
building yard, founded in 1847. Long 
ago the lease of the Pointhouse inn carried 
with it the right to the ferry, but in those 
days "land values" were not of much 
account, for in 1782 the house, land, ferry, 

boats and all were offered for sale at the 
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SHIPBUILDING 

upset price of ;^4CX)! Subsequently the 
land was parcelled out in lots, and fetched 
no less than ;^ 14,000 — the ferry becom- 
ing the property of the Clyde Trustees. 
Besides the shipbuilding firms already 
named, those of John Reid & Co., Ritchie, 
Graham & Milne, and Barclay, Curie & 
Co. have not been behind in extending 
the fame of the Clyde. 



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MORAL AND RELIGIOUS 
EFFORT 

Touching the religious life of Partick 
and the influence of the Established 
Church of Scotland in the twenties of 
last century, one would have expected 
the State Church to lead the way in so 
elementary a matter as the possession of 
a building of some sort, and a duly 
ordained minister for the observance of 
its ordinances. Instead of this, however, 
the members and adherents of the Church 
of Scotland were content to travel, as we 
have already said, to Govan, to Anderston, 
and even all the way to Glasgow, Sabbath 
after Sabbath until the year 1834, when an 
extension church was opened in Partick, 
though the congregation had to wait for 
two years before it was erected into a 
quoad sacra charge. 

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MORAL AND RELIGIOUS EFFORT 

The present pastor, the Rev. John 
Smith, B.D., ordained in 1881, ministers 
to a congregation of 1 500, takes a notable 
interest in educational matters, and has 
been for many years chairman of Govan 
School Board. Another quoad sacra 
charge was erected in 1861, and is 
ministered to by the Rev. W. Ross, 
B.D. The membership is. 1200. 

The congregation of Hyndland Church 
did not always worship in the handsome 
structure they now occupy, for we are 
told that the late Dr. Service first 
preached to his people from the pulpit 
of an iron building. Dr. Service was 
succeeded by the present pastor, the Rev. 
Henry Grey Graham. Whiteinch Parish 
Church dates from 1873, and its minister, 
the Rev. David Ness, M.A., was ordained 
in 1894. 

In 1900 the membership of the 
Established Church had reached such 

proportions that the authorities of Govan 
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PARTICK— PAST AND PRESENT 

Parish Church, in self-defence almost, 
actually built and staffed a little church in 
Rosevale Street, without hope of reward 
of any kind beyond the saving of souls. 

As in duty bound, we have given the 
place of honour in these humble records to 
the Church of the country, though it was 
by no means the first to carry the consola- 
tions of religion to the people of Particle. 
That distinction belongs to the Secession 
Church and the Rev. John Skinner, who 
was ordained to the charge in 1827, where 
he continued a long and successful ministry 
till the year 1840. His successor, the 
Rev. T. M. Lawrie, of Byars Road 
Church, spent half-a-century among his 
flock, attaining his jubilee on 31st March, 
1890, when he was presented with a hand- 
some gift of silver plate and a cheque for 
1 300 guineas as a tribute of affection from 
his people. He died in 1895, and was suc- 
ceeded by the Rev. Wm. Dickie, M.A. 

Dowanhill Church, built in 1886 at a 
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MORAL AND RELIGIOUS EFFORT 

cost of ;^ 1 2,000, has long been known for 
its missionary enterprise, and can point to 
Victoria Park United Free Church as one 
of its most successful offshoots. Another 
branch of Dowanhill is to be found in 
Kelvin Street, where mission services have 
been carried on for some years. The 
membership of Dowanhill Church numbers 
1000 at the present time. 

When Mr. Lawrie left the old church at 
Byars Road for Dowanhill, a number of 
the older members remained to encourage 
his successor the Rev. Mr. Gibson, and 
a few friends secured the old build- 
ing with the view of converting it into 
a regular charge. The effort was success- 
ful, for in a few years Mr. Gibson had 
gathered around him a large and increasing 
congregation, which was later ministered 
to by the Rev. Robert Primrose and the 
Rev. Mr. Macfee. 

During Mr. Macfee's ministry an appeal 

was made for funds for the erection of a 
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PARTICK— PAST AND PRESENT 

new church, and so readily did the people 
respond that in February, 1899, the 
church, which had cost in site and building 
about ;^8ooo, was opened for public 
worship. The following year Mr. Macfee, 
in consequence of ill-health, resigned the 
charge and was succeeded by the Rev. Mr. 
Mackay, the present minister. 

In the year 1827, when the first 
Secession Church of Partick was being 
built, the residenters of the village who 
belonged to the Relief church likewise 
resolved to have a building for themselves. 
The churches proceeded apace, and were 
finished about the same time. The Rev. 
Mr. Ewing was the first minister of this 
church. He died in 1837, and was 
succeeded by the Rev. R. Wilson, John 
M'Coll, and M'Ewan Morgan. 

The original building was taken down 

in 1865, and the present church built in 

its place. The present pastor is the 

Rev. J. T. Burton. This church, known 

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MORAL AND RELIGIOUS EFFORT 

as the Newton Place United Free, has. 
distinguished itself for many years in 
mission work amongst the poor of Partick. 
At the time of the Disruption those 
who had separated from the State Church 
formed themselves into a little congrega- 
tion, and held their services in the 
Masons' Hall, Dumbarton Road. There 
they worshipped till 1844, when the new 
church was opened. The building was 
in the Canonmills style, with clerestory 
windows. The vestry and session house 
were on the right and left respectively of 
the pulpit, and there being no hall the 
classes were taught in the church. In 
September of the opening year (1844) ^^^ 
Rev. Henry Anderson, chosen from among 
the probationers, was ordained to the 
pastorate and continued successful labours ' 
for half-a-century and more. On the 
occasion of his jubilee, his congregation 
presented him with an illuminated address, 
a silver salver, and a cheque for ;^4i4. 
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PARTICK— PAST AND PRESENT 

He was succeeded in the charge by 
the Rev. David Young, ordained 4th 
February, 1898. 

In i860 the church was again rebuilt, 
the congregation in the meantime finding 
accommodation in the schools, of which 
there were two — one built in 1846, the 
other in 1850. On the advice of H.M. 
Inspector these schools were transferred to 
the Govan Parish School Board in 1874. 

Partick Free High Church was opened 
in the year 1869, and the Rev. Dr. 
Bremner, the pastor, is a member of the 
Govan School Board, and one of the 
clerks to the United Free Presbytery of 
Glasgow. 

Whiteinch charge, under the Rev. Mr. 
Coutts, and Broomhill, under the Rev. 
James Henderson, M.A., were in 19CX) 
opened under the late Free Church 
Extension Scheme. 

For some years the Congregational 
Church has had a small following in 
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MORAL AND RELIGIOUS EFFORT 

the burgh, but in view of the rapid 
extension of the town and a probable 
increase in the membership, the first 
portion of a prospective church was 
erected in 1900 in Balshagray Avenue, 
where public worship is held under the 
Rev. James Bell. 

Dowanhill United Free Church, the 
pastor of which is the Rev. Mr. Wallace, 
was a territorial charge erected by 
Kelvinside Free Church in 1878. 

In 1868 the authorities of Claremont 
Street (Finnieston) Wesleyan Methodist 
Church rented St. Mary's Hall, Dumbarton 
Road, where they remained for four years. 
They then removed to the Good Templars* 
Rooms in Douglas Street. In 1876 they 
accepted an offer to have built for them, 
on a five-and-a-half years' lease, the brick 
church in Crawford Street, now in the 
possession of Govan Parish Church. On 
the expiry of the lease they were enabled, 
by the help of the late Thomas M'MiUan, 
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PARTICK— PAST AND PRESENT 

to build a church on their own account 
in Dumbarton Road, where, besides the 
church, they have also a well-equipped 
school. 

In 1845 the Roman Catholics acquired 
a property in Bridge Street, where they at 
present worship, pending the completion of 
the new church at Partickhill, where a 
large area of ground has been secured. 
The new buildings, when completed, will 
form an entire block, bounded by Hyndland 
Street, Wood Street, Dowanhill Street, 
and Clarendon Street. The site of the 
church is at the north-west corner, that 
is, at the corner of Hyndland Street and 
Wood Street, or, as it is presently called, 
Dowanvale Terrace. The principal door- 
way will be in Hyndland Street, and the 
presbytery or manse will be situated at 
the corner of Hyndland and Clarendon 
Streets, while the whole of the frontage 
to Dowanhill Street will be occupied with 

the schools. There will, of course, still 
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MORAL AND RELIGIOUS EFFORT 

remain a considerable portion of unoccu- 
pied ground in the centre available for 
use from time to time. The designs for 
the church are by Messrs. Pugin & Pugin 
of London, the first ecclesiastical architects 
in the kingdom. The style is Gothic, and 
includes the usual nave and aisles, with 
choir stall above the chancel. Accommo- 
dation is provided for lOCK) worshippers. 
The presbytery adjoins the church; and 
the schools close by, without any pre- 
tentions to architectural beauty, will be 
thoroughly modern in every detail and 
provide space for 1200 scholars. There 
is also a mission at Partickhill, where 
services are held on Sundays and week- 
days by the clergy of St Peter's, Bridge 
Street. 

The Partick and Hillhead Sabbath 
School Union, founded in 1872, reports 
that, for the moral and religious welfare 
of the young, the several churches of all 

denominations in the burgh had each 
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PARTICK— PAST AND PRESENT 

made every effort to cope with the work 
laid to their charge. At fifteen Sabbath 
Schools held in the burgh, a staff of 440 
teachers had the oversight of 4700 scholars. 
The Salvation Army, Gospel Brass Band, 
and Temperance Association are active 
agencies for good in their own way in 
the burgh; while the Young Men's 
Christian Association, founded in 1881, 
seeks the ** religious, moral, intellectual, 
social, and physical improvement of the 
young men of Partick and Whiteinch." 



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EDUCATIONAL 

The first School Board for Govan Parish, 
which includes the district of Partick, was 
elected loth April, 1873, ^^^ ^it the first 
meeting of the Board Mr. Alexander 
Stephen was appointed chairman and Mr. 
John A. Craigie clerk. The old school 
in Kelvin Street was then taken over by 
the Board and put under inspection. In 
February, 1874, the Partick Free Church 
School was next taken over and enlarged, 
and in the following year Rosevale Street 
School was completed by the Board. In 
1877 Whiteinch School was opened, and 
in the same year the old Partick Academy 
changed hands and became Church Street 
School, giving accommodation for 2949 
children. 

In 1873 the following resolution was 
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PARTICK— PAST AND PRESENT 

adopted by the Board : — '* That in ordi- 
nary circumstances religious instruction, 
in accordance with the use and wont of 
the late parochial schools, shall, subject 
to the Education Act of 1872, be given 
in all the schools under the supervision of 
the Board, and the Bible and Shorter 
Catechism be made use of for the purpose 
of such instruction." In addition to the 
ordinary branches of education taught, 
music, drawing, drill, needlework, cooking, 
and evening classes for lads and girls 
above twelve years of age were added. 

The teachers at the various schools 
were — Mr. John Blane, Whiteinch; Mr. 
John Hastie, Rosevale Street; Mr. Wm. 
Bissett, Anderson Street; and Mr. E. E. 
M'Donald, Church Street. 

In 1 88 1 Mr. Alex. Stephen, with the 
view of encouraging the study of the 
higher subjects of education in public 
schools under the School Board of Govan, 
and to help certain scholars on leaving 
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EDUCATIONAL 

the school to complete their education at 
the University, offered to the Board the 
sum of ;^iocK), the interest of which would 
be known as the ** Alexander Stephen 
Bursary." Needless to say, the Board 
readily accepted Mr. Stephen's gift, and at 
the first examination of pupils, held in 
1 88 1 by Dr. Morrison, the name of 
Robert Kilgour stood highest for Govan, 
and Charles S. Maclean for Partick. 

Following the rapid growth of the 
burgh, the School Board in 1882 were 
again faced with the problem of supplying 
fresh accommodation, and after futile 
negotiations with the directors of the 
Partick Academy in Annfield Terrace, a 
suitable site was found in Hamilton 
Crescent. Here a school was built at 
a cost of ;^i8,ocxD, capable of classing 
1000 children. On 27th May, 1887, the 
establishment was opened with great 
ceremony by Mr, Craig Sellar, M.P. 

At the instance of H.M. Inspector the 
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PARTICK— PAST AND PRESENT 

buildings in Anderson Street were vacated 
and the school removed to Stewartville 
Street, where a site had been acquired 
by the Board at a cost of £3347, the 
school and its equipments costing ;^ 16, 620 
for the accommodation of 1500 scholars. 
The buildings were completed in 1893, 
Mr. J. Parker Smith, M.P., presiding at 
the opening ceremony. 

In 1892 additions were made to White- 
inch School, in order to bring it more 
into line with the needs of the time. 

The Rev. Dr. Bremner, of Particle Free 
High Church, was chairman of the Board 
from 1 89 1 till 1897, when he was suc- 
ceeded by the Rev. John Smith, B.D., 
of the Parish church. 

The next great step in the march of 
education was the opening of Dowanhill 
School, by Lord Balfour of Burleigh, on 
2nd April, 1896. As it has been the 
most costly, it is undoubtedly the most 
important establishment under the Board. 
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EDUCATIONAL 

The site was acquired from the Dowanhill 
Estate Company, and extends to 8481 
square yards, of which 3944 yards are 
in the four streets surrounding the build- 
ing, the cost being los. per square yard. 
Outstanding features of this school are 
the large and open playgrounds, with 
ample covered play-sheds under the front 
of the main building, and the large open 
hall on the ground-floor, from which 
class-rooms open out on either side. It 
is a three-storey building, and is heated 
and ventilated by the latest mechanical 
appliances. The accommodation is for 
1579 children, and at present there is an 
attendance of 1000. The cost, including 
janitor s house, but exclusive of site, 
sewers, etc., was ;^I9,624 is. 9d. 

In the course of his remarks at the 
opening ceremony. Lord Balfour said — 
"That was the first occasion on which 
he had attended such a function as the 
representative of the Educational Depart- 
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PARTICK— PAST AND PRESENT 

ment for Scotland, and it was an occasion 
he would long remember. He did not 
think that there was any other district 
in Scotland which could with greater 
propriety claim the first visit from the 
Minister of Education, because they were 
equalled by few, and certainly excelled 
by none, in the magnitude and complexity 
of the problems which they presented for 
solution. The circumstances of the district 
were in many respects special and remark- 
able. There had been a rapid growth 
of population, scarcely, perhaps, equalled 
anywhere else. He supposed that early 
in the century Govan was a peaceful 
village, remote from active industry ; it 
was now a busy adjunct to the most 
populous centre of Scotland, and although 
close to the life of that city, it possessed 
some special activities and special interests 
of its own. He did not venture to say 
anything upon questions of boundaries 
which might arise hereafter, but, however 
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EDUCATIONAL 

these might stand, there was no question 
that in what they had now to administer 
they had great and special interests under 
their charge. There was one peculiarity 
in Govan : that it was probably the largest 
parochial organisation in Great Britain. 
It combined the characteristics of an urban 
population with many of the arrangements 
of a parish; but a parish with lyy^ooo 
inhabitants was something out of the 
common. They were not of the city, and 
yet they were not of the country, but they 
stood alone. In their educational work 
he thought they might claim to have met 
successfully the difficulties presented by 
the increase of population. They did not 
exhaust their efforts upon particular 
schools, but they were alive to the 
necessity of providing for the poorest 
localities as liberally as for the more 
favoured." 

Thornwood School, opened on 2nd 
November, 1900, by Sir Henry Craik, 
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PARTICK— PAST AND PRESENT 

occupies a site of 7056 square yards, 
purchased from the late Mr. Peter 
Hutchison at los. per square yard. The 
school buildings, estimated to cost 
;^ 1 8,940, occupy practically the centre 
of a square, and, like Dowanhill School, 
are bounded by four streets, giving a free 
and open space to the school in addition 
to the large playgrounds. The front 
playground is set off with rows of trees, 
encircled with neat iron railings. The 
main building, three storeys in height, 
with accommodation for 1348 scholars, 
is built of Locharbriggs red stone, 
and is simple and uniform in its style 
of architecture. The basement floor of 
the school contains laundry, manual 
instruction workshop, heating ducts, 
chambers, etc. The janitor's house is 
on the ground floor level, and on this 
level the school proper commences, with 
separate entrances for boys, girls, and 
infants, where, occupying the middle 
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EDUCATIONAL 

portion of the buildings, there is a large 
central hall. This hall is open through 
the entire height of the building, and is 
spanned on the upper floor by a neat 
bound roof, filled in with glass for lighting. 
There are also on each floor open 
balconies, supported by ornamental canti- 
levers, round the four sides of the hall. 
These balconies give access from the 
various floors to the class-rooms of the 
several departments. At either end of 
the hall are spacious open staircases ; and 
on the half-landings, the cloak-rooms and 
teachers' rooms are placed alternately. 
Electric bells and speaking tubes from 
the central hall and headmaster's room 
communicate with the various floors, these 
special features forming a useful adjunct to 
the satisfactory working of the school. 
The various class-rooms have been 
supplied with furniture and appliances of 
the best type. The heating and ventilat- 
ing arrangements are on the propulsion 
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PARTICK— PAST AND PRESENT 

system. The temperature is raised by- 
propelling fresh air, filtered through a 
specially prepared hair screen over steam- 
heated coils placed in the shafts leading 
to the several classrooms. This arrange- 
ment allows of each room being inde- 
pendently heated. A large air propeller 
is driven by a gas engine, which also 
drives grindstone, etc., for the manual 
instruction workshop. In the laundry, 
fitted for sixteen girls, the boiling and 
drying are done by steam. 

There are at present (1901) twenty- 
five schools under the Govan School 
Board, seven of which are in Partick, 
giving accommodation for over 8000 
scholars, all of which are in full occupation, 
with the exception of Anderson Street in 
Partick, in which a class-room or two 
are used occasionally only for manual 
instruction of pupils in the neighbouring 
schools. 

In March, 1895, the question of the 
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EDUCATIONAL 

supply of free books to children attending 
public State-aided schools having received 
much attention in the district, and been 
debated in and out of the Board, a 
memorial was submitted to Sir George O. 
Trevelyan, then Secretary for Scotland, 
praying for an increase of 15 per cent, 
to the imperial grant in relief of fees, 
and that the supply of school books free 
of charge to the pupils be made a con- 
dition of sharing in the grant. The 
prayer of the petition was not granted, 
but in terms of a resolution subsequently 
adopted by the Board, it was agreed to 
supply free books to children whose 
parents declared themselves unable to 
purchase the books for them. 

Great strides have been made in advance 
in respect of higher-grade education in 
Partick, secondary departments having 
been established in Hamilton Crescent, 
composed partly of free and partly of 
fee-paying scholars. 

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PARTICK— PAST AND PRESENT 

Without doubt, the most important 
educational event of the period just closing 
is to be found in the appearance of the 
Code of 1899, with the radical and, on 
the whole, salutary changes it effected in 
the mechanism of our educational system. 
Circulars issued by the Department during 
the preceding year had prepared managers 
and teachers for some of the more import- 
ant new provisions of the Code, notably 
those relating to the merit and labour 
certificates, the mode of inspection, and 
the institution of the higher-grade depart- 
ments. Without discussing the Code in 
detail, it may be said generally that the 
changes introduced by it have been 
accepted by all competent judges as pro- 
ceeding on sound educational principles, 
and have therefore been most cordially 
welcomed It may be interesting to 
enumerate some of them : standards are 
abolished and scholars are promoted from 
class to class according to their individual 
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EDUCATIONAL 

attainments. Perfect freedom, within cer- 
tain necessary limits, is given to teachers 
in the organisation of the schools and 
the classification of the scholars, provided 
always that the standard of the merit 
certificate is kept steadily in view as the 
end to be reached by every scholar, and 
that all the work of the school is so 
arranged as to lead naturally, and by 
carefully graduated stages, up to that 
point. Formal examination by H.M.I, 
is abandoned ; the inspector may visit a 
school at any time, and may then examine 
any class in the work it professes, in 
order to test its efficiency. Payment by 
results finally disappears, and inclusive 
slump-sum grants are substituted for the 
multiplicity of separate payments which 
formerly obtained. Advanced departments 
are recognised for scholars who have 
obtained the merit certificate, and in these 
grants of 50s. per head may be earned. 
Higher - grade departments, in which 
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PARTICK— PAST AND PRESENT 

science, commercial, classical, and other 
special courses of higher instruction may 
be followed, are provided for. The labour 
certificate examination is substituted for 
a pass in Standard V. as the qualification 
for leaving school to enter upon employ- 
ment. The teaching of drawing is made 
compulsory in the case of girls as well 
as of boys. No certificated teacher must 
have more than sixty scholars habitually 
under his charge. In addition to these 
there are many minor changes. 

The Board carefully considered the 
Code, and while they welcomed it as 
designed to improve the conditions under 
which the work of the schools was con- 
ducted, and fitted to promote educational 
efficiency, they deemed it their duty to 
suggest to the Department modifications 
in certain details. They observed that, 
while the undoubted effect of the Code 
would be to increase the cost of carrying 

on the work of the schools, the grants 
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EDUCATIONAL 

offered would not equal those which their 
schools had been earning under former 
Codes, and they strongly urged the 
Department to increase the rates of pay- 
ment They also deprecated an immedi- 
ate and rigid application of the rule 
forbidding a certificated teacher to have 
more than sixty scholars under his or 
her charge, but the Department declined 
to make any concession on either point 

The Board do not look for great and 
immediate educational progress to follow 
the introduction of the New Code, but 
they expect that ultimately it will help 
to produce improved results. After all, 
the teacher must remain the most potent 
factor in the success of any system that 
may be devised, and the new Code is 
to be unreservedly commended in so far 
as it unfetters the teacher and increases 
his personal responsibility. 



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NEW PARTICK 

The grounds of Gilmorehill, on which the 
University of Glasgow now stands, were 
originally known as the lands of Particle, 
and the boundary line of Glasgow and 
Partick passes between the University 
and the Western Infirmary. On the 
summit of the hill stood old Gilmorehill 
House, occupied by Mr. Matthew Boyle, 
and here the present building was erected 
in 1870-71. The University of Glasgow 
was founded in the year 145O, through 
the influence of William TurnbuU, who 
was Bishop of Glasgow at that time, 
and who obtained a bull from Pope 
Nicholas V. conferring money privileges 
on it. In 1460 the University received 
as a bequest from James First, Lord of 
Hamilton, a site in the High Street of 
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NEW PARTICK 

Glasgow, together with four acres of 
adjacent land. The fortunes of the Uni- 
versity seem to have ebbed and flowed 
for many years, till 1 560, when they were 
reduced to the lowest straits, partly 
through the poverty of the University 
and partly through the disturbed condi- 
tion of the country. 

In the seventeenth and eighteenth cen- 
turies fortune once more shone, and 
numerous donations from the Crown and 
private individuals, of land, money, and 
books put the College authorities in pos- 
session of means to extend their buildings 
and teaching staff. For over four hun- 
dred years the Old College of Glasgow 
continued in the buildings which stood in 
the High Street, till compelled through 
the life and commerce of the city drifting 
westwards to remove to Gilmorehill. In 
1864 the old grounds and buildings 
were disposed of to the City of Glasgow 
Union Railway Company for the sum of 
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PARTICK— PAST AND PRESENT 

;^icx),ooo; to this was added a grant 
of ;^ I GO, GOO from the City of Glasgow, 
and a grant of ;^ 120,000 from the Govern- 
ment, enabling the University authorities 
to purchase the grounds of Gilmorehill 
and erect the present substantial pile of 
buildings, from designs by Sir G. Gilbert 
Scott. In 1870 the buildings were opened 
by the Prince of Wales (now Edward 
VIL). 

The style of the architecture is mainly 
early English, and the ground plan is that 
of a rectangle, 600 ft long and 300 ft. broad 
The buildings had a handsome addition 
made to them in 1884, when the Bute 
Hall was erected, the gift of the late 
Marquis of Bute. In the same year 
there was added the Randolph Hall, 
the gift of Mr. Charles Randolph, 
shipbuilder. During the past few years 
the old gateway which stood at the 
entrance to the Old College, High Street, 
was taken down and rebuilt by the late 
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NEW PARTICK 

Sir Wm. Pearce of Govan, as an entrance 
to the University, in University Avenue. 
The spire has also been completed, and 
a Students' Union erected. 

Many famous men have adorned the 
professors' and principals' chairs during the 
past four hundred years. Adam Smith, for 
example, the author of "The Wealth of 
Nations"; Andrew Melville, the Reformer; 
Robert Baillie, the theologian ; John 
Caird, the divine ; Lord Kelvin, scientist. 
Attached to the University is the Hun- 
terian Museum, containing an interesting 
collection of antiquities. 

Within the bounds of the burgh of 
Particle, and next to the University, stands 
the Western Infirmary. As the city of 
Glasgow increased in population it was 
found that the accommodation of the Old 
Royal Infirmary had become totally inade- 
quate to the demands made upon it, and it 
was deemed necessary to erect another. 
For this purpose the University contri- 
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PARTICK— PAST AND PRESENT 

buted the sum of ;^30,ooo to purchase 
the ground and erect the buildings. 

The foundation stone was laid on the 
loth August, 187 1, and by 1873-74 the 
undertaking had so far progressed that 
a dispensary for outdoor and infancy wards 
for indoor patients were opened. Since 
that date, and through liberal donations, 
the buildings have from time to time been 
enlarged and improved. The grounds 
cover an area of 10 acres, and the total 
cost of the site and buildings now amounts 
to over ;^ 1 3 5,000. 

Immediately to the west of the entrance 

to the Western Infirmary is Anderson's 

College and Medical School. This is a 

western extension of what has been known . 

as the Old Anderson College of Glasgow. 

John Anderson, son of the Rev. James 

Anderson, of Roseneath Parish Church, 

was born in 1726, and educated at the 

University of Glasgow. At twenty-nine 

years of age he was appointed Professor of 
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NEW PARTICK 

Oriental Languages, and two years later 
Professor of Natural Philosophy, opposite 
which title his name appears in Jones* 
first Glasgow Directory, published in 1 787. 
At his death he bequeathed his estate 
to found a school to be called by his name. 
In 1829 buildings were acquired in George 
Street, Glasgow, and the school, which 
at least one of its pupils helped to enlarge, 
soon became famous, for it was here 
that Dr. David Livingstone, explorer and 
missionary, obtained his medical training. 
A few years ago the extension in Particle 
was agreed upon, and the present build- 
ings were erected at a cost of about 
;^5ooo. They are convenient for students 
and professors who attend the University, 
and there is a full equipment of laboratory, 
museum, library, reading-room, and class- 
rooms. 

Westward the course of Glasgow seems 
to make its way, and though it has not 
formally annexed Particle, it certainly has 
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PARTICK— PAST AND PRESENT 

enlarged it, as each year sees an increase 
of city people in search of houses. 
Twenty-five years ago Partickhill had no 
buildings on it from Hyndland Street to 
Hamilton Crescent, save Muirpark House 
and Stewartville House, and to the top 
of the hill nothing could be seen but 
luxuriant pasture land, with the summit 
crowned with beautiful trees. Hyndland 
Road, at one time a favourite walk on a 
summer evening to see the sun setting 
over Goatfell and enjoy the breeze from 
the Kilpatrick Hills, is now a densely 
populated district. A few years ago 
the west end of Partick terminated at 
Meadowbank Crescent, where the Cale- 
donian Railway crosses the Dumbarton 
Road ; to-day, the extension of houses is 
projected a mile or more westwards, and is 
now beyond the Whiteinch Burn, the 
western boundary of the burgh. Broom- 
hill, with its drive, terrace, and avenue, 
and select appearance, is being gradually 
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NEW PARTICK 

hemmed in with tenements and buildings of 
all kinds. Thorn wood Hill, too, where for 
many years the residence of Mr. Perston 
stood, and which was only recently taken 
down, is becoming the prey of the builder. 
From the top of this hill, and looking 
towards the north, we can see the entire 
range of the Kilsyth Hills from east to 
west, Campsie Glen, and Campsie Fells to 
Dungoin. Ben Venue and the adjacent 
Loch Katrine *'bens" stand out boldly in 
the open space as the eye travels westward 
towards the Kilpatrick Hills, with Bears- 
den and Castlehill lying in the hollow 
between. To the west we have the entire 
stretch of the valley of the Clyde — from 
Partick and Whiteinch through the estate 
of Jordanhill and Scotstounhill, to Dal- 
muir, Bowling, and Dumbarton. South- 
wards, the eye can discern Renfrew, 
Elderslie, Paisley, Goatfell, and Gleniffer 
Braes, with Barrhead, Neilston, and its 
Pad standing clear against the horizon ; 
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PARTICK— PAST AND PRESENT 



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and to the east, Eaglesham and Cathkin 

Hills, with the whole stretch of suburban 

Glasgow lying between, from Ruthergleri 

to Craigton Cemetery, and from PoUok- l\ 

shields to PoUok estate. Without hesita- j- 

tion, it can be said there is not a more ; * 

healthy place around Glasgow than the 

top of Thornwood, and there is no place : ' 

where a finer range of scenery around our j ; 

city can be had. \ , 

The Crow Road, with its green fields v 

on either side ; Balshagray Avenue and ; 

its mansion house built in 1641, and [ 

the old beech trees, are year after year 
passing away and giving place to churches, 
villas, and tenements. Indeed, when the 
area of ground immediately to the west of i 

the North British and Caledonian Railways \ 

is built over, the burgh of Partick will 
be one large city and the largest burgh in 
the world. j 

No suburb around Glasgow is so well '| 

supplied with the means of communication 

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NEW PARTICK 

with the city as Partick. The North 
British Railway runs 140 trains to the 
city daily ; the Caledonian, 70 ; the Sub- 
way 270 cars; and the Tramway, 240; in 
all 650 conveyances to Glasgow every day, 
and for eighteen hours a day, making 
an average of about one conveyance every 
two minutes, at a cost of i^. Fifty years 
ago an omnibus was run to Glasgow every 
three hours, and the fare was fourpence. 
Regular communication is also established 
with the city by the Clutha steamers, 
plying between Stockwell Bridge and 
Whiteinch. 



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OLD PARTICK MEN 

A FEW notes on some of the men who, 
in their day, were long held in esteem 
by the residenters of Partick may not be 
uninteresting, James Napier, a member 
of the Philosophical Society of Glasgow, 
and for many years prominently identified 
with industrial chemistry, was born at the 
foot of Kelvin Street, Partick, on 29th 
June, 1 8 10, his father being a hand-loom 
weaver in humble circumstances. Unable 
to give their son more than a scanty 
education, Napiers parents apprenticed 
the lad at an early age to a calico printer 
in the neighbourhood. He very soon, 
however, felt the need of more learning, 
and was swift to take advantage of the 
evening classes in the village school. 
There he so earnestly applied himself to 
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OLD PARTICK MEN 

his studies that in a very short time he 
absorbed all there was to learn, saved 
money, and at the early age of twenty- 
one, with an income of 13s. per week, 
heroically entered the bonds of matrimony. 
Falling into bad health, however, he gave 
up his situation, and, applying himself to 
the study of chemistry and metallurgy, he 
found employment in several places where 
his energies and abilities were appreciated 
and amply rewarded. In 1852 he returned 
to Partick, then growing into a populous 
suburb, and, interesting himself in its 
sanitary and other affairs, was one of 
the men who led the movement which 
resulted in its erection to the dignity 
of a burgh. Mr. Napier in his leisure 
time wrote and published his ** Notes 
and Reminiscences of Partick," "Ancient 
Workers in Metals," "Old Ballad Folk- 
Lore," and many articles of scientific 
and commercial interest in various maga- 
zines ; in all, the several books and articles 
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PARTICK— PAST AND PRESENT 

from his pen number thirty- two. He died 
at Bothwell on ist December, 1884. 

Two years before the village of Particle 
had been formed into a burgh, James 
Paterson, born in Paisley in 1827, estab- 
lished himself in the village as a medical 
practitioner, where his skill and the love 
of his profession soon brought him to the 
notice of a wider circle than his patients- 
Among the first appointments the newly- 
elected burgh officials had to consider was 
that of a reliable medical officer, but with 
Dr. Paterson in their midst they had not 
far to seek. The post was assigned to 
him, and he did not betray the trust For 
fifty years he not only went out and in 
as a friend and medical adviser of rich 
and poor, but with rare and fine tact he 
kept himself in touch with the growth of 
the burgh, and its varied wants, to keep 
it in the best of sanitary and medical 
health. He was not only a scholarly, 
but an intensely religious man, and was 
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OLD PARTICK MEN 

elected an elder of Dowanhill Church in 
1866. Dr. Patersons figure was familiarly 
known and respected for many years in 
Partick, and many who knew him cherish 
his memory as that of one, who, through 
an honourable life of well-doing, attained 
the perfect day which the wise man says 
is the end of the just. He died on the 
1 6th November, 1900, and was buried in 
Sighthill Cemetery. 

Two days before the death of Dr. 
Paterson there also died another well- 
known old Partick man. Sir Andrew 
Mac Lean. Sir Andrew was born in 
Renfrew in 1828, and as a boy entered 
the service of Barclay, Curie & Co., of 
Whiteinch. With energy, precision, and 
rare tact he soon raised himself in the 
esteem of his employers, who admitted 
him to a share in the business he so 
greatly helped to develop. For many 
years he was connected with St. Mary's 
Parish Church, Partick, and took a great 
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PARTICK— PAST AND PRESENT f 

interest in the formation and prosperity ; ■ 

of.Whiteinch Parish Church, but was not l\ ] 

neglectful of other churches and philan- ! ^ t 

thropic associations in the burgh. He ; : j 

was buried in Sighthill Cemetery on 17th ; ! :[ 

November, 1900. j , ;; 

Just as the year 1901 was about to I t 

close, Partick lost another old ** stalwart" 1 ' 

in Mr. George Wilson, who had dis- 1 : f 

charged the duties of treasurer and / \: 

chamberlain for seventeen years. Mr. j ; 

Wilson, who in early days was interested j i " 

in the shawl trade in Glasgow, took j 1 1 

I ^'' 

i ', 

i \\ 



up his residence in Partick some fifty 

years ago, where he interested himself 

much in the affairs of the burgh, became 

a Commissioner, and ultimately a Bailie. 1 i 

Up to the year 1884 the finances of 

the burgh were administered by Mr. 

Gavin Paisley, of the Union Bank there, 

and at his death Mr. Wilson was asked 

to take over his duties ; this he did, along 

with his own work as agent for the 



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OLD PARTICK MEN 

Commercial Bank in Partick. Mr. Wilson 
was not only interested in his own special 
work, but was an elder in Newton Place 
U.F. Church, and was connected with all 
the various social and other clubs and 
organisations of the burgh. He died on 
28th December, 1901, in his seventy-first 
year. 



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APPENDIX 



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itaiimnt ■■ miim-i'>tfiei 



j-^f-^i^' 



ARTICLES AND REGULATIONS 

OF THE 

PARTICK COMMUNITY 

PREAMBLE 

A Considerable number of persons, residing in 
and about Partick, observing the good and worthy 
consequences which attend friendly association, Did, 
in the year One thousand seven hundred and fifty- 
eight years, associate themselves into a FRIENDLY 
COMMUNITY ; which Community has subsisted to 
the present time, under different Articles and R^u- 
lations. But as no human institution can possibly 
be supposed to have arrived at such a degree of 
perfection as not to admit of farther improvement; 
and as it must appear obvious, from the changeable 
nature of all things in this hfe, that alterations and 
amendments will often be found necessary, even in 
the wisest of institutions ; accordingly we, the mem- 
bers of the Partick Community, considering that 
some alterations and amendments are necessary in 
our present Articles and Regulations, agree, by 
plurality of votes, that from and after the first 
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PARTICK— PAST AND PRESENT ; 

Friday of May, 1804 years, the following shall be 
the Articles and Regulations of said Community: — 

I. Boundaries of the Community, — As this Com- 
munity had its original rise in Partick, so it likewise \ 
takes it name from it, which is hereby declared to ; 
be PARTICK COMMUNITY. The boundaries I 
of the Community shall extend to all that part of « 
Govan Parish, which lies on the north side of the i 
river Clyde, and no farther in that direction. They \ 
shall likewise extend to the distance of one mile i 
and a half from the Old Bridge of Partick, and no { 
farther in all other directions ; and these boundaries, j 
as now described, are hereby declared to be the circle ; 
and extent of the Officer's warning. 1 



II. Terms of Admission. — No person can be 
admitted a member of this Community who does \ 
not reside within the bounds mentioned in Article » 
first; nor can any person be admitted a member 
who is above the age of 40 years, or who is under 
14 years of age; and must be of a good moral t 
character, free of bodily trouble, of a healthy con- 
stitution, and in a visible way of supporting them- 
selves. Every person, upon his admission, shall pay { 
five shillings sterling, to be applied to the funds; j 
also, fourpence to the Clerk, and twopence to the t 
Officer, and four shillings yearly of quarter accounts, | 
payable, one shilling quarterly. Members must pay \ 
their quarter accounts, and other dues payable by j. 
them, in twelve months. And in case any members j 
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ARTICLES AND REGULATIONS 

neglect to pay their said dues, at the respective 
terms above specified, they shall forfeit all right or 
title they had in the Community, and have their 
names erased from the roll of members. And in 
order that quarter accounts and other dues be regu- 
larly paid into the Community, it is hereby declared, 
That no member, who is not clear in the Com- 
munity's books when he is taken badly, shall be 
entitled to any benefit from the funds, until after 
the next quarterly meeting (as the Collector can 
only receive quarter accounts at the quarterly meet- 
ings); but upon his then paying up his arrears, 
and making himself clear in the books, he shall be 
entitled from that date. And all members who have 
not paid up their quarter accounts and other debts 
due by them to the Community, by five o'clock on 
the day of election, they shall lose their vote at said 
election. Every member shall receive a printed copy 
of the Community's Articles, upon paying for the 
same. 

III. Time and manner of Electing Managers^ and 
their Powers, — The Managers of the Community 
shall consist of a Preses, seven Directors, and a 
Collector, who shall be chosen annually on the first 
Friday of May, at the School-house in Partick, after 
the following manner: The whole seven Directors 
or Masters of the preceding year shall be put into 
one leet and be presented to the Community on the 
day of election, when the roll being called over and 
votes marked, he who hath the majority of votes 

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PARTICK— PAST AND PRESENT 

shall be declared duly elected Preses for the ensuing 
year ; and shall immediately choose three Directors, 
one of whom to be resident at the time in Partick 
or neighbourhood; another to be resident at the 
time in Govan or neighbourhood; and the third in 
Anderston or neighbourhood. And the Community 
shall choose other four from among their number 
by majority of votes, without respect to their place 
of residence, provided that they be within the bound- 
aries. They shall then, in like maimer, choose a 
Collector from among the community at large, and 
he who hath the majority of votes shall be declared 
duly elected, and shall vote and act in conjunction 
with the Preses and Directors in all affairs of the 
Community; the old Preses and old Collector shall 
sit as Directors for the year, without being voted 
upon; all the above Managers may be re-elected 
except the Preses and Collector, whose offices cannot 
be held two years successively. All the Directors, 
except the Preses, may be chosen though absent 
from the election ; and members, though absent, 
may send their vote by proxy for a Preses. The 
Preses shall always preside at the meeting, and shall 
have the casting vote in all cases of parity. And as 
often as. he shall see it necessary for the management 
of the Community's affairs, shall call a meeting of 
the Directors, whom, after being duly warned by the 
Officer, if only three shall meet, they are declared 
to be a quorum, and shall proceed in the Com- 
munity's affairs. And in case of the death of the 
Preses, the immediately preceding one shall succeed ; 
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ARTICLES AND REGULATIONS 

and, in the like event, the same rule with respect 
to the Collector; and in case of the death of any 
of the Directors, one shall be chosen in his place 
by the surviving Managers. The Collector shall 
gather in, uplift, and disburse the Community's 
money as he shall be directed by the Treses and 
Managers ; and shall keep an exact account of his 
intromissions and disbursements, and at the end of 
his year in ofi^ (or at any other time, if required 
so to do), shall make up his accounts, and lay them 
before the Managers for their inspection, when, if 
they be found just, he shall be relieved from his 
trust, and his accounts entered in the Community's 
records. 

IV. Management of the Community s Funds, — All 
the books, bonds, and bills belonging to the 
Community shall be kept in their chest, under 
three locks and keys, one of the keys to be kept 
by the Preses, the other two at his disposal; one 
to be given to one of the Directors chosen by him, 
the other to one of the Directors chosen by the 
Community. The Preses shall always have charge 
of the Community's chest ; but it shall not be 
allowed to be carried out of the village of Partick. 
The Managers shall not lend out any of the 
Community's money, without having two sufficient 
cautioners joined with the borrower's, either in a 
bill or bond ; which cautioners shall not be connected 
with the principal in any trade or copartnery ; and the 
bon-ower shall have fourteen days' warning, at least, 
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PARTICK— PAST AND PRESENT 

before any demand be made upon him ; and one 
person shall not be received into two different 
vouchers as a security. And it is hereby expressly 
declared that the expense of any law-suit or diligence 
for recovering the Community's funds, or for any 
other cause or matter relating to the Community's 
afifairs, shall be paid out of their funds. 

V. Clerk and Officer. — The Community shall have 
a Clerk and Officer, who may be annually chosen on 

\ the day of election, or remain in office during the 

Community's pleasure. The Clerk, or his depute, 

shall attend not only the general meetings to mark 

the votes, but shall also attend all meetings of the 

Managers, to record the Community's affairs, and fill 

up their books, for which he shall have an annual 

salary of one pound sterling, out of the Community's 

funds, and fourpence from each new entrant. The 

Officer shall be under the direction of the Preses and 

L Managers, for attending all their meetings; and, as 

y often as it is necessary, warning all the members 

i residing within the Community's boundaries, for 

* which he shall have an annual salary of fifteen 

shillings sterling out of their funds, and twopence 

for each new entrant ; but neither he nor the Qerk 

shall have any vote in the court of Managers. 

VI. Penalties and Forfeitures, — If any member 
refuses to accept of the office of Preses when duly 

; elected by the Community, he shall pay a fine of 

five shillings. And if any member shall refuse to 
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ARTICLES AND REGULATIONS 

act as Collector, or Director, when chosen, he shall 
pay a fine of two shillings and sixpence. And any 
member who shall curse or swear by the name of 
God, or raise disturbance at any of the Community's 
meetings, shall be fined in one shilling for each fault ; 
and if at a general meeting shall, besides, be deprived 
of voting, or being voted upon, at said meeting. And 
if any member be convicted of upbraiding any other 
member for receiving his aliment from the Community 
when justly entitled, the member so offending shall be 
fined in two shillings and sixpence for each ofifence. 
All the above fines to be applied to the funds of the 
Community. 

If any member be proven guilty of having embezzled 
any of the Community's funds, or of keeping up any 
quarter accounts entrusted to his charge, the offender 
in both such cases shall have his name erased from 
the roll of members, and be expelled the Community, 
never to be again admitted a member. 

And if any member be proven guilty of giving in a 
false proxy — viz., of using any member's vote for a 
Preses without said member's consent being asked 
and given, the said offender shall be fined in five 
shillings for each offence, to be applied to the 
funds. 

Every Manager (or the Clerk without substituting 
another) absenting from any meeting, being duly 
warned, or not attending within an hour after the 
time appointed for said meeting, shall be fined in 
sixpence, to be applied towards defraying the expense 
of said meeting ; and the Collector, in their absence^ 
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PARTICK— PAST AND PRESENT 

is empowered to lay out such fines for them, which 
they shall at their next meeting, and before proceeding 
to any business, re-emburse to him. No excuse will 
be sustaiired for absentees but personal or family 
distress. Members refusing to pay any of the above 
fines (when justly due them) shall have no privilege 
whatever in the Community till they comply there- 
with. 

VII. Members Imposing upon the Community. — 
Every person applying for admission as a member 
of the Community must appear personally before 
the Managers at one of their meetings, when they 
are to judge of his fitness for a member, and accept 
or reject him accordingly. But should any person 
get admitted as a member who is afterwards found 
not to have had the qualifications for a member, 
as required in Article second, upon the same being 
proven, he shall be expelled the Community, and 
forfeit what entry-money, quarter accounts, &c., he 
may have paid thereto. And if any members are 
suspected of imposing upon the Community, by 
feigning themselves sick, or worse than they really 
are, the Managers are to call a Physician or Surgeon 
to inspect them ; and if such members are thereby 
found to be impostors, their names shall be erased 
out of the roll of members, never to be again 
admitted. And any member who had the immediate 
cause of bringing trouble or distress on himself by his 
own misconduct in any manner of way shall have no 
title to any aliment out of the funds of the Community 
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ARTICLES AND REGULATIONS 

<luring the time of his said trouble or distress ; and 
the Managers shall give no supply for the time to a 
member of that character. No apph'cation is to be 
made until the eighth day after the member is taken 
badly, and then one week's aliment is become due, 
and is immediately to be paid conform to the eighth 
Article of the Community. 

VIII. Members entitled to Aliment^ and how much, — 
Every member of the Community who is clear in 
the books, and who has been at least one year a 
member, shall, upon his falling into sickness, or any 
other bodily ailment which shall render him incap- 
able of following his daily occupation, be entitled 
to four shillings sterling weekly while in that situa- 
tion. Superannuate members, viz., such as by reason 
of old age or other infirmities, are not able to support 
themselves, though they may work a little, shall be 
entitled to one shilling and sixpence weekly while 
in that situation; but if they fall into sickness or 
distress, so as to confine them to their bed, in that 
case they shall be entitled to four shillings sterling 
weekly while they continue in that situation. And 
on the death of any member taking place who resided 
within the bounds of the Officer's warning, and appli- 
cation being made to the Managers, either before or 
within ten days after the interment of such member 
by his widow or relations, they shall be paid one 
guinea towards defraying the expense of that mem- 
ber's funeral And the widows of free members, 
while they continue such, and a good character, shall 

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PARTICK— PAST AND PRESENT 

have paid them thirty shillings sterling annually ; but 
if there should be more than fourteen widows upon 
the Community at one time, in that case they shall 
receive the annual aliment of twenty -one pounds 
sterling equally among them. And it is specially 
provided that, in case of any member being badly, 
or otherwise entitled to aliment, whose residence is 
without the bounds of the Officer's warning, his 
relations, or him, shall be allowed six weeks (and 
those forth of Scotland six months) to transmit their 
applications, upon which the supply aforesaid shall 
be remitted them the same as if they had been 
within the boundaries : provided always a certificate 
be produced (signed by the Minister and two Elders 
of the parish where such applicants reside) that he 
or they are in the situation set forth in the applica- 
tion, and are of an honest character and reputation. 
And all the aforesaid aliments, when applied as said 
is, are cheerfully to be paid without making the 
unreasonable distinction of poor or rich in members 
or widows. Declaring always, that no member who 
did not, or member's widow whose husband did not 
pay his quarter accounts, and all other dues to the 
Community, for at least the space of one year after 
his entry thereto, or was in arrears at his death, 
shall not be entitled to the foresaid aliment. Appli- 
cants always paying postage of letters and all other 
incidental charges. 

IX. Visiting of Members, — Every member residing 
within the bounds, applying for aliment, shall be 
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ARTICLES AND REGULATIONS 

visited by two of the Managers periodically, as the 
Preses shall direct ; and the aforesaid weekly aliment 
shall be stopped or continued according to the report 
of the visitors, whereof the Managers are to judge. 

X. Stock of the Community, — The Managers for 
the time being shall not allow the stock or fund of 
the Community to decrease below the sum of One 
Hundred and Fifty Pounds sterling, without calling 
a general meeting of the members to decide upon 
the propriety of raising their quarter accounts, or of 
decreasing their weekly aliments, in such a manner 
as to keep up the said stock or fund. 

XI. Powers reserved to General Meetings, — All the 
aforesaid Articles and Regulations shall be subject 
to the Community, to make what alterations or farther 
acts and regulations they shall think proper for the 
good thereof; but they shall by no means alienate 
the funds from the friendly purposes for which they 
were originally instituted: neither shall any act or 
alteration henceforth pass into a law, till it be 
approved of by the majority of a meeting of the 
Community, the whole being previously warned for 
that purpose by the Officer and Glasgow news- 
papers. 

And in case any dissension shall arise in the 
Community that may tend to its prejudice or threaten 
its dissolution, upon an application from any three 
members the Preses shall call a general meeting as 
above ; and the affair being laid before them, it shall 

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PARTICK— PAST AND PRESENT 

be determined by a majority of votes, which shall be 
final in all such cases. And all the meetings of the 
Community shall be held at some convenient place 
within the village of Partick. 



PRESENT OFFICE-BEARERS. 

George Monteith, Preses. 

James Craig, jun., 

James Purdon, 

John Gibson, 

David Aitkenhead, y Directors. 

David Dreghorn, 

William Bennie, 

John Hamilton, 

John Bain, Collector. 

John Jack, late Preses. 

William Galbreath, late Collector. 

John Brownlie, Clerk. 

Robert Hill, Officer. 



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INDEX 



Anderson, Rev. Henry, 35, 65, 

lly 123- 

Anderson's College, 148. 
Annexation with Glasgow, 91. 

Bakers' Incorporation of Glas- 
gow, 18, 21, 23, 29, 59. 
Balshagray Avenue, 152. 

Mansion, 152. 

Bell of Partick, 83. 
Bishop's Castle, 11 -15. 

Mill, 12, 20, 26. 

Bridge of Partick, 44. 
Bridge-end Inn, 60, 61. 
Broomhill, 150. 
Bugler of Partick, 40. 
Burgh „ 85.95. 

Burns „ 89. 

Canoes found at Partick, iii. 
Castle of Partick, 43. 
Cholera in „ 79, 
Churches of „ 1 19-127. 
Clayslap Mills, 20, 24, 25. 
Cleland, Dr., 18. 

Dead Bell, 83. 
Death-rate, 88. 
Dowanhill Church, 121. 

House, 36. 

School, 132. 

Drummer of Partick, 39. 



Electric Works in Partick, 95. 
Established Church „ 119. 

Fossil Grove in Partick, loi. 
Free Churches „ 123-125. 

Galbraith, William, 67. 
Grannie Gibb's Cottage, 62. 
Gymnasium, 97. 

Hamilton Crescent School, 131. 

Lawrie, Rev. T. M., 34, 51, 120. 

M'COLL Mission, 123. 
M*Donald, Hugh, 43. 
MacLean, Sir Andrew, 157. 
Meadowside Park, 96. 
Mills at Partick, 12, 17-27. 
Muirpark House, 36. 

Napier, James, 14, 28, 76, 154. 
New Partick, 144-153. 

Old Bun and Ale House, 56, 59. 

Inn, 54. 

Masons' Lo^ge and Inn, 54. 

Wheat Sheaf Inn, 55. 

Partick Academy, 131. 

Bishop's Castle, 11-15. 

Brass Band, 79. 

Bridge, 27, 44. 

Bugler, 40. 



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INDEX 



Partick Burgh, 85-95. 

Bums, 89. 

Castle, 16, 43. 

Communication with Glas- 
gow, 153. 

Partick Community, 68, 163. 

Curling Club, 83. 

Churches, 119. 

Dead Bell, 83. 

Death-rate, 88. 

Drummer, 39. 

Duck Club, 57. 

Electric Works, 95. 

Fifty Years ago, 35, 74. 

Fossil Grove, 101-109. 

Gas Company, 91. 

Gymnasium, 97. 

Inns, 54-63. 

Mills, 12, 17-27. 

Old Institutions, 64. 

Old Landmarks, 43, 45, 46, 

47, 48, 62. 

Partick Old Residenters, 154. 

Origin of name, 12. 

Park, 97. 

Population, 37, 38. 

Post-boy, 41. 

Provosts, 90. 

Roman occupation, i, 9. 

Relief Church, 52. 

Sabbath School Union, 128. 

Schools, 129. 

Sewage Scheme, 90. 

Secession Church, 49, 120. 

Shipbuilding, 116. 

Statistics, 88, 95. 

. Terms of Annexation with 

Glasgow, 91. 

Partick Village, 30, 39. 



Partick Weavers, 81. 
Paterson, Dr. James, 156. 
Pointhouse Ferry, 116. 

Quakers' Burying Ground, 45. 

Reformation Times, 10. 
Relief Church, 52. 
Religious life in Old Partick, 76-^8. 
Regent Mills, 18, 19, 21-24. 
Roman Catholic Church, 126. 

Occupation of Partick, i, 9. 

Road, 6. 

Wall, 7. 

Schools of Partick, 129. 

Scotstoun Mills, 20, 26. \ 

Secession Church, 49. 

Shipbuilding, no- 11 7. 

Skinner, Rev. John, 50. ^ 

Social life in Old Partick, 74. 

Statistics, 88, 95. 

Stewartville House, 36. 

Stephen Bursary, 131. 

Strang, Dr., 30, 31, 57. | 

Subscription School, 47. 

Thorn WOOD Hill, 151. I 
School, 135. I 

University of Glasgow, 144-147. ' 

Victoria Park, 97. | 

Village of Partick, 30. I 

Weavers of Partick, 81. 
Western Infirmary, 147. 
Whiteinch, Origin of name, 11. 
Wilson, George, 158. 

YORKHILL House, I. 
Roman Fort on, 1-9. 



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