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fT. E. PAGE, O.H., LITT.D. 
t E. CAPPS, PH.D., LL.D. t W. H. D. ROUSE, litt.d. 

L. A, POST, L.H.D. E. H. WARMINGTON, m.a., f.b.hist.soo. 








A. L. PECK, M.A., Ph.D. 

FELLOW OF Christ's college, cambriook 


F. H. A. MARSHALL, C.B.E., Sc.D., F.R.S. 










First printed 1937 

Revised and reprinted 1945, 1955 

Revised and reprinted 1961 

Printed in Chreat BrUain 




Foreword ....... 3 

Introduction ...... 8 

Text and Translation .... 52 



Introduction ...... 43β 

Text and Translation .... 440 

Index to Parts of Animals . . . 543 

Index to Movement and Progression of 

Animals. ...... 552 

From quotations which I had seen, I had a high notion 
of Aristotle's merits, but I had not the most remote notion 
what a wonderful man he was. Linnaeus and Cuvier have 
been my two gods, though in very diiferent ways, but they 
were mere schoolboys to old Aristotle. 

Charles Darwin to 
William Ogle, on 
the publication of 
his translation of 
The Parts of Ani- 
mals, 1882. 


Α. Ε. P. and L. A. P. 


Aristotle refers to the De partibus animaliiim as an 
inquiry into the causes that in each case have deter- 
mined the composition of animals. He does not, 
hoΛvever, employ the category of causation in the 
manner normally adopted by men of science, since 
in this book causes are ahvays considered in relation 
to ends or purposes, and design is regarded as having 
had a far larger share in the origin and development 
of living structures than that allotted to necessity. 

In the Histor'ia ajiimalium the parts themselves are 
described, for although this work is to some extent 
physiological, its main object Λvas to deal with the 
anatomy of the organism. The De partibus ariimaliu?n, 
on the other hand, is almost exclusively physiological 
and teleological, and treats of the functions of the 
parts. But Aristotle's position Avas that of a teleo- 
logist only in a limited degree, for he appears to 
have taken that view of life which Bergson calls the 
doctrine of internal finality (that is to say, that each 
individual, or at any rate each species, is made for 
itself, that all its parts conspire for the greatest good 
of the Λνΐιοίε, and are intelligently organized in view 
of that end but without regard for other organisms 
or kinds of organisms). Since every organ or part 
of the body was held to have its peculiar function, 
the existence of vestigial or rudimentary organs was 
a2 3 


unrecognized. This Avas the doctrine of internal 
finality which was generally accepted until DarAvin 
elaborated his theory of Natural Selection. The 
wider doctrine of external finality, according to 
which living beings are ordered in regard to one 
another, never gained acceptance among scientific 
philosophers, and the only indication that Aristotle 
ever adopted it is furnished by a passage in \vhich 
he suggests that the mouth in Selachians is placed 
on the under surface so as to allo\v their prey to 
escape while the fish are turning on their backs 
before taking their food ; but even this he qualified 
by the suggestion that the arrangement served a 
useful end for the fishes in question by preventing 
them from indulging in the harmful habit of gluttony. 
The De partibus animalium opens with an intro- 
duction devoted to general considerations. This is 
followed by a discussion of the three degrees of 
composition, the first degree being composition of 
physical substances, the second degree, of homo- 
geneous parts or tissues, and the third, of hetero- 
geneous parts or organs. The tissues referred to are 
blood, fat, marrow, brain, flesh, and bone. After 
describing these, the organs are dealt Λvith, and a 
consideration of their respective functions, first in 
sanguineous animals (i.e. in Vertebrates), and secondly 
in bloodless animals (i.e. Invertebrates), occupies the 
remainder of the book. The account given of the 
physiology of the blood is especially interesting, and 
it is noteworthy that Aristotle understood something 
of the nature of the process of absorption whereby 
the food becomes converted into nutriment which is 
carried by the blood to all parts of the body. He 
supposed, however, that the matter derived from the 


gut passed first to the heart in the form of vapour 
or serum, and that it was there converted into true 
blood by a process of concoction. Aristotle knew 
nothing of the real nature of respiration, and he 
regarded the lungs as serving to temper the bodily 
heat by means of the inspired air. He Avas also 
entirely ignorant of the fact that the blood passes 
back to the heart and lungs after supplying the 
tissues and organs with nourishment. On the other 
hand, he fully appreciated the existence of excretory 
organs, the function of which was to remove from the 
body such substances as could not be utilized. In 
this category are included fluids such as bile, urine, 
and sweat. In the section on the gall-bladder, as 
in so many other passages in his works on natural 
history, it is truly remarkable how correct Aristotle 
is in his statements. He points out that the gall- 
bladder is not found either in the horse and ass or 
in the deer and roe, but is generally present in the 
sheep and goat. In the light of the knoAvledge that 
he possessed, therefore, Aristotle could scarcely have 
adopted a theory about this organ which has found 
expression in certain modern writings. According 
to this theory the gall-bladder is present in the sheep 
and ox because, these being ruminating animals, 
bile is only required at certain particular times when 
food passes into the intestine, Avhereas in the horse, 
which does not cheΛv the cud, but yet is constantly 
eating, food is continually passing into the intestine 
and consequently a perpetual flow of bile is desirable. 
Since the gall-bladder is present in the non-ruminating 
pig but absent in the ruminating deer and roe, it 
is obvious that this theory cannot be consistently 


It is interesting to speculate about the school of 
research workers who must have contributed in 
providing material for this and the other works on 
natural science ascribed to Aristotle — v/ho they were, 
the circumstances under Avhich they lived, and what 
manner of facilities were available for their investiga- 
tions — for it would seem certain that no man single- 
handed could possibly have acquired such a vast body 
of knowledge, hardly any of which could have been 
derived from earlier observers. Yet the work in its 
completed M'hole seems to show the mark of one 
master hand, and its uniform character and the clear 
Une of teleological reasoning that runs through it 
have been well brought out in Dr. Peck's translation. 
But putting aside its philosophical implications, the 
book consists of an attempt at a scientific record of 
all the apparently known facts relating to animal 
function. These are considered comparatively and 
as far as possible are brought into relation with one 
another. And thus, as the earliest text-book on 
animal physiology in the world's history, this treatise 
will ever make its appeal, not only to the classical 
philosopher, but to all Λνΐιο are interested in the origin 
and growth of biological science. 

F. H. A. M. 



Title. The traditional title of this treatise is not a very 
informative one. The subject of the work is, how- 
ever, stated quite clearly by Aristotle at the begin- 
ning of the second Book in these words : "I have 
already described with considerable detail in my 
Researches upon Animals what and how many are the 
parts of which animals are composed. We must now 
leave on one side what was said there, as our present 
task is to consider what are the causes through which 
each animal is as I there described it " (646 a 7 foil.). 
The title ought therefore to be " Of the Causes of the 
Parts of Animals," and this is the title actually applied 
to it by Aristotle himself (at De gen. an. 782 a 21)." 
Even so, the word " parts " is misleading : it in- 
cludes not only what we call parts, such as limbs and 
organs, but also constituents such as blood and 
marrow.* Perhaps, therefore, no harm is done by 
leaving the accepted (and convenient) Latin title 
Zoological The De partihus, as well as the other treatises 
^°^ *■ contained in this volume, forms a portion of Aris- 
totle's zoological works. The foundation of these is 
the Historia animalium, or Researches about Animals, 
in nine books (the tenth is generally held to be 

" For the meaning of Cause see note below, p. 24. 
* See note on " part " below, p. 28. 



spurious), in which observations are recorded, and 
consequent upon this are the treatises in which 
Aristotle puts forward theories founded upon these 

An animal is, according to Aristotle, a " concrete 
entity " made up of " matter " and " form." Hence, 
in the De part'ibus Aristotle treats of the causes on 
account of which the bodies- — the " matter " — of 
animals are shaped and constructed as they are, in 
general ; in the De incessu he deals specially with 
the parts that subserve locomotion. In the De anima 
he proceeds to consider Soul — the " form " of an 
animal. In the remaining treatises, of which De 
motu, included in this volume, is one, he deals Avith 
what he calls the functions " common to body and 
Soul," among which he includes sensation, memory, 
appetite, pleasure, pain, waking, sleeping, respira- 
tion, and so forth (see De sensu 436 a). The complete 
scheme is set out below : 

I. Record of observations. 
Historia animalium. 

10 (9) books. 

II. Theory based upon observations. 


De part'ibus 

De incessu 

(b) De anima 

treating of the way in 
which the ' ' matter " 
of animals is ar- 
ranged to subserve 
their various pur- 

(treating of the "form" 
of animals — the 


4 books 

1 book 



Parva naiuralia — 

De moiu ani- 

De generatione 

1 book 

5 books 

^ treating of the func- 
tions " common to 
body and Soul," and 
in particular of 
some special de- 
partments of ani- 
mal behaviour. 

The section (6) is necessary to the completeness of 
the scheme, but as it has given rise to a whole depart- 
ment of study, it is usually treated apart from the rest. 
Thus the main bulk of the zoological and biological 
works may be taken to consist of the three great 
treatises, Histcria anivialium, De partihus animalium, 
and De generatione animalium. It was these which, 
through translations made from the Arabic, were 
restored to the West by those who revived scientific 
studies at the beginning of the thirteenth century. 
Date of The late D'Arcy W. Thompson, in the prefatory 
'""'w^n.' note to his translation of H.A.,<' wrote : " I think it 
can be shown that Aristotle's natural history studies 
were carried on, or mainly carried on, in his middle 
age, between his two periods of residence at Athens," 
i.e. in the Troad, in Lesbos and in Macedonia, between 
the years 347 and 335 : and this view has recently 
received convincing support from Mr. H. D. P. Lee,*• 
who bases his argument upon an examination of the 
place-names in H..A. This is opposed to the view 
which has been current for some years past,'' that 
the zoological works belong to a late period in Aris- 
totle's life, and has important consequences for the 
reconstruction of Aristotle's philosophical develop- 

• Tfu WorL• of Aristotle translated, vol. iv., Oxford, 1910. 

» C.Q. xlii. (1948), 61 fF. 
« See W. D. Ross, Aristotle, and W. W. Jaeger, Aristotle. 



ment, which cannot be dealt with here. It may, 
however, be remarked that, as Thompson said, it 
would follow that we might legitimately proceed to 
interpret Aristotle's more strictly philosophical work 
in the light of his work in natural history. But apart 
from these considerations, the great importance of 
the zoological works is that they represent the first 
attempt in Europe to observe and describe in a 
scientific way the individual living object. 

Throughout the De partibits Aristotle endeavours to Teleology. 
provide a Final Cause " to explain the facts >vhich 
he records — some purpose which they are supposed 
to answer ; and Causes of this sort are by far the 
most common in his treatise. His outlook is there- 
fore justly described as " teleological " ; but it is 
important not to read too much into this description. 
Aristotle is never tired of telling us that Nature makes 
nothing and does nothing " without a purpose " ; 
but if we ask >vhat that purpose is we may find that 
the answer is not quite what we had expected. 
Plato's notion of the " form " tended to divert his 
attention from individuals through a hierarchy of 
successive " forms " ; but for Aristotle " form " is 
not independent of matter : form must be embodied 
in some matter, that is, in individuals. Thus we find 
all through that Aristotle cannot long keep his eyes 
from the individual wherein the form is actually 
embodied, because it, after all, is the End, the 
crowning achievement of the efforts of the four 
Causes. This outlook controls the arrangement of 
Aristotle's treatise. Since all processes of production 
are determined by the nature of the product Λvhich 
is to result from them, it is the fully developed product 
which we must first make it our business to observe, 

" The four Causes are dealt with in a separate note, p. 24. 



and when we have discovered what are its actual 
characteristics we may then go on to work out its 
Causes and to examine the processes by Λvhich it was 

Syiiojisis I give a brief synopsis and a contents-summary 
Summrry! «f the De partibus : 

Introduction : Methods. 

Composition of Substances : Three modes : 

(1) The primary substances. 

(2) The " uniform " parts. 

(8) The " non-uniform " parts. 
Consideration of (1) Hot, cold, solid, fluid. 

(2) Uniform parts : (a) fluid, (6) solid. 

(3) Non-uniform parts, as foUows : — 
External parts of animals. 

Internal parts of blooded animals. 
Internal parts of bloodless animals. 
External parts of bloodless animals. 
External parts of blooded animals (resumed), 
(a) Vivipara. (b) Ovipara. 


Book I. 

639 a 15 ch. 1 Introduction. On the Method of Natural 

Two questions propounded : 

(1) Are we to begin with the ultimate 
species and describe its characteristics, 
or with those that are common to 
many species .'' 


639 b 8 (2) (Put in three ways) : 

(a) Are we to take first the phenomena, 
and then proceed to their Causes ? 

(b) Which is the primary Cause, the 
Final or the Efficient (Motive) ? 
(Answered immediately : The 
Final ; with a reference also to the 
influence of Necessity.) 

(c) Are we to discuss first the pro- 
cesses by which the animal is 
formed, or the characteristics of 
it in its completed state ? 

Ansicer to question (2). 

We must begin with the phenomena, 
then go on to the Causes, and the forma- 
tive processes — or, in other words, the 
Final Cause concerns us first and foremost. 
This differs from the practice of the early 
philosophers, who concerned themselves 
Λvith the Material Cause, though some- 
times also with the Efficient (Motive) 
Cause. We must begin at the End, not 
at the beginning. 

640 b 17 Thus we must consider not merely the 

primary substances, but the " uniform " 
parts, which are made out of them, and 
also the " non-uniform " parts. In doing 
this, we shall be paying attention to the 
Formal Cause, which is more important 
than the Material Cause : the animal as 
a finished whole is more significant than 
the substances out of which it was made. 
640 b 30 But mere form or shape is not enough : 

" shaped matter " is not an animal. 
" Form " in its full and true sense involves 
" Soul " : " Soul " somehow is the 
animal's Efficient and Final Cause. Act- 
ually, it is not Soul in its entirety, but 



some " portion " of Soul which fulfils this 

641 b 10 Thus the universe and the living objects 

in it are the products of something 
analogous to human art : they are con- 
trolled by a Final Cause. 

642 a 1 But Necessity also has its place in the 

universe — 

not (1) " absolute " necessity 
nor (2) " coercive " necessity 
but (3) " conditional " necessity. 
These two Causes, the Final Cause and 
Necessity, set the stage for our piece. 

642 b 5 ch. 2 Criticisms of dichotomy as a method of 

classification of animals. 
644 all ch. 4 The correct method of classification is by 

groups, such as Birds and Fishes. 

644 a 23 Answer to question (1). 

We must deal with groups, not species (e.g. 
Bird, not Crane), and where a species does 
not belong to a larger group, we must deal 
with species, not individuals (e.g. Man, 
not Socrates). 

644 b 21 ch. 5 An Exhortation to the study of animals. 

645 b 1 Final summary of the Method, combining 

answers to both the original questions : 

(1) First we discuss the attributes common 
to a group ; 

(2) Then we give the explanation of them. 

Book II. 
646 a 8 ch. 1 Purpose and outline of the Treatise : Our 
subject is the causes of the parts of 


646 a 13 Three modes of composition .• 

(1) Out of the " elements " or dynameis 
(hot, cold, fluid, solid). 

(2) The uniform parts (bone, flesh, etc.). 

(3) The non-uniform parts (face, hand, 

The relation of them to each other, and 
the way in which the Causes control this 

647 a 3 Parts may be divided into : 

(a) Instrumental parts (non-uniform). 

(b) Media of sensation (uniform). 

647 a 25 The faculty of sensation has its seat in the 

heart, which is thus uniform ; but it is 
also non-uniform, as it has to do with 

647 b 10 ch. 2 The uniform parts, generally. Variations 

occur in each of them, as is illustrated by 
the example of Blood. 

648 a 20 Resumption of the Three modes of com- 

position : 

649 b 9 (1) The primary substances : meaning of 

" hot," " cold," " solid," " fluid," with 
special reference to Blood. This merges 
into a discussion of 
(2) The Uniform parts. 

Blood. Fibres. Intelligence and sensi- 
tivity, and " temperament "generally. 
651 a 20 ch. 5 Lard and Suet (forms of Blood). 

651 b 20 ch. 6 Marrow (a form of Blood). 

652 a 24 ch. 7 The Brain. 

653 b 19 ch. 8 Flesh — the " part " par excellence — 

and its counterpart. 
Bones, and their counterparts, and 
parts similar to Bone, 
ch. 10 (3) The Non-uniform parts of animals. 
(This occupies the rest of the work.) 



655 b 28 

General statement of the three organs 

indispensable to animals. 

656 a 14 


Brain. Sense-organs. 

657 a 12 ch. 11 


657 a 25 ch. 13 

Eyes, etc. (ch. 14 : Eyelashes 
and digression on Hair). 

658 b 27 ch. 16 

Nostrils (esp. the Elephant's). 

659 b 20 


660 a 14 ch. 17 


Book III. 

661 a 34 ch. 1 


661 b 27 

(Note on " the more and less.") 

662 a 16 


662 a 34 


662 b 23 ch. 2 


664 a 13 ch. 3 

Neck : 


664 a 36 

Larynx and windpipe. 

664 b 20 


665 a 27 ch. 4 

Viscera : 

Parts of Blooded Animals: 

665 b 5 


667 b 15 ch. 5 

Blood-vessels (Great Blood-vessel and 

Aorta, and generally). 

668 b 33 ch. 6 


669 b 13 ch. 7 

(Why viscera are double, and other 

remarks.) Liver and Spleen. 

670 b 32 ch. 8 


671 a 26 ch. 9 


672 b 8 ch. 10 


673 b 4 ch. 11 


673 b 12 ch. 12 

Variations in the Viscera (Liver and 



674 a 9 ch. 14 

Stomach and Intestines. 

675 b 29 



676 a 7 ch. 15 


Book IV. 

676 a 23 ch. 1 


Internal parts of Ovipara. 



676 b 16 ch. 2 

677 b 15 ch. 3 
677 b 37 ch. 4 

Gall-bladder and Bile. 



678 a 27 ch. 5 

Internal Parts of Bloodless Animals 
(Insects, Testacea, Crustacea, Cephalo- 
pods). With special reference to the 
Sepia's " ink," and the Sea-urchin's 

681 a 10 

Creatures intermediate between animals 
and plants. 

682 a 30 

682 a 35 ch. 6 

683 b 4 ch. 7 

683 b 25 ch. 8 

684 b 7 ch. 9 

External Parts of Bloodless Animals : 
Of Insects. 
Of Testacea. 
Of Crustacea. 
Of Cephalopods. 

685 b 30 ch. 10 External Parts of Blooded Animals : 

(a) Vivipara, (6) Ovipara. 

(a) Vivipara: 

686 a 6 Head and Neck. 

686 a 24 Hands and Feet and relative propor- 

tion of limbs. Beginning from Man, 
whose position is upright, there is a 
gradation of declivity in the animals, 
continuing to the plants, which are 

687 a 2 Nature 's habit in assignment of organs. 

The structure of the human hand, etc. 

688 a 12 Breast. 

689 a 4 Excretory organs. 

689 b 2 Rear parts. 

690 a 5 Hoofs, hucklebones, etc. 
690b 12 (b) Ovipara: 

690 b 18 (i) Serpents and Quadrupeds. 

692 b 4 (ii) Birds. 

695 b 2 (iii) Fishes. 



697 a 15 (c) Intermediate Creatures: 

Seals and Bats. 

697 b 27 Conclusion. 

Method of A glance at the summary will show clearly the 
BwiUon. order of subjects which Aristotle lays (ΙοΛντι in the 
first book to be followed in a treatise such as the 
one in which he is enffaged. 

First, (A) to describe the parts of animals as they 

are observed to be ; and 
then, (B) to give an account of their causes, and 

their formative processes.* 
Under (A) the order of preference is to be : €rst, 
the parts (1) common to all animals -, (2) 
where necessary, those common to a 
group of animals only ; and lastly, (3) in 
exceptional instances, those peculiar to a 
single species. 
Also, it will be seen how Aristotle ΛVorks out this 
scheme in the three books which folloAV. Before 
considering that, however, we should notice that 
Aristotle has a great deal to say about the correct 
classification of animals — or rather, against the in- 
correct classification of them. Chiefly, he inveighs 
against the method of dichotomy ; and his chief 
objection to it is a simple and effective one — that it 
does not work. It forces us to assign to each species 
one distinguishing mark, and one only (642 b 21 — 
64•3 a 24). And it cuts off kindred species from each 
other on the strength of some quite subordinate 

" De partihus is concerned chiefly with the causes and less 
* with the processes. 



characteristic (642 b 10 foil.). The right method, 
says Aristotle, is to follow popular usage and divide 
the animals up into well-defined groups such as 
Birds and Fishes." And this leads him to distinguish 
tΛvo stages of difference : 

(a) Cases in Λvhich the parts differ " by excess or 
defect " — as in different species of the same 
genus or group. 

(b) Cases in which the resemblance is merely one 
of analogy — as in different genera. 

Examples of (a) : differences of colour and shape ; 

many or few ; large or small ; 

smooth or rough ; e.g. soft and 

firm flesh, long and short bill, 

many or few feathers. 
(b) bone and fish-spine ; nail and 

hoof ; hand and claw ; scale and 

(Reff. for the above, De part. an. 644. a 1 1-b 15 ; Hist, 
an. 486 a 15-b 21. See also Gen. An. (Loeb), Introd.) 

The doctrine of differences of" excess and defect," "The more 
or, as Aristotle also calls them, of " the more and ^° '®^^• 
less," may usefully be compared with that which 
underlies the modern theory of Transformations, and 
the comparison of related forms. Indeed, Professor 
D'Arcy Thompson asserts that " it is precisely . . . 
this Aristotelian ' excess and defect ' in the case 
of form which our co-ordinate method is especially 
adapted to analyse, and to reveal and demonstrate 
as the main cause of Λvhat (again in the AristoteUan 
sense) Λve term * specific ' differences " (Gronih and 

" And of course, into Blooded and Bloodless, though there 
are, as Aristotle points out, no popular names for these 



Form, p. 726j. The co-ordinates to which he refers 
are those of the Cartesian method, on which is based 
the theory of Transformations. By means of them 
it is possible to exhibit, say, the cannon-bones of the 
ox, the sheep, and the giraffe as strictly proportionate 
and successive deformations of one and the same form. 
These deformations can be either simple elongations, 
as in the instance just cited, or they may occur 
according to an oblique or a radial system of co- 
ordinates, etc." In this way, differences of " excess 
and defe'ct " are reduced to the terminology of 
mathematics ; and it is especially interesting to 
notice this, as the phi-ase " excess and defect " itself 
had, in the Greek of Aristotle's time, a mathematical 
connexion. With it may be compared the well- 
known Platonic phrase, " the great and small." But 
this is not the place to enlarge upon such topics. *" 
ciassifiea- To return to Aristotle's classification. We find 
^tarts' that he implements his prehminary outline in the 
following Λvay : 

I. First, he treats of the parts which are found in 
many different groups of animals, and also those 
wliich are to be considered counterparts of each 
other in different groups. This corresponds to 
A (1) above. 

II. As he proceeds with this, he comes to the 
Viscera, which occur only in blooded animals." 
This provides a convenient point for embarking 
upon his second main division — corresponding 

• For details see D'Arcy Thompson, op. cit. eh. xvii. 

* The reader is referred to A. E. Taylor, " Forms and 
Numbers," in Mind, xxxv. 419 foil. ; xxxvi. 12 foil. ; D'Arcy 
Thompson, " Excess and Defect," in Mind, xxxviii. 43 foil. 

« By " viscera " Ar. means the blood-like ones only. 



to A (2) above — the parts common to a group 

of animals, and we have first : 

The Internal Parts of Blooded Animals. 

III. This is folloAved by — 

The Internal Parts of Bloodless Animals. Then, 

IV. The External Parts of Bloodless Animals. Then, 
V. The External Parts of Blooded Animals, 

which includes — 

(a) Vivipara. 
(6) Ovipara. 

(i) Serpents and Quadrupeds. 
(ii) Birds. 
(iii) Fishes, 
(c) Intermediate Creatures. 

References to exceptional instances, as to Man, 
corresponding to the division A (3) above, are of 
course to be found throughout the Avork, 

Aristotle thus works out the main lines of his 
classification. And in each instance, where possible, 
he endeavours to assign the Cause, to name the 
purpose, which is responsible for the parts as he 
describes them. This corresponds to (B) above. 

And here Aristotle is forced to admit an apparent Necessity. 
addition to his scheme of Causes. The purpose, the 
good End, the final Cause, cannot always get a free 
hand. There is another Cause, Necessity. Aristotle 
takes great care to explain what is the nature of this 
Necessity (642 a 2 foil.). It is what he calls Necessity 
" ex hypothesi," or " conditional " Necessity, the sort 
of Necessity which is implied by any final Cause 
being what it is. If a piece of wood is to be spUt 
by an axe, the axe must ex hypothesi be hard and 
sharp, and that necessitates the use of bronze or 



iron in the making of it. The same sort of Necessity 
applies in the works of Nature, for the Hving body 
itself is an instrument. It is thus the final Cause 
which necessitates the various stages of the process 
of formation and the use of such and such material. 

Another kind of Necessity, however, makes its 
appearance in Natural objects, and that is " simple " 
Necessity. The mere presence of certain things in 
a living organism entails of necessity the presence of 
others (see 6^5 b 32, 677 a 17, b 22). Some results 
follow inevitably from the very nature of the material 
used. This " simple " Necessity can therefore be 
regarded as a reassertion of themselves by the 
motive and material Causes * as against the final 
Cause. Sometimes, hoΛvever, even in circumstances 
where " simple " Necessity operates. Nature is able to 
use the resulting products to subserve a final Cause 
(663 b 22, 32, 677 a 15 ; see also the note on Residues, 
p. 32). Cf. Gen. An. (Loeb), Introd. §§ 6-9- 
Scheme of The following table Avill show at a glance the 
scheme of Animals as treated of by Aristotle in the 
De pariibus : 


A. Blooded Animals 

B. Bloodless Animals 



Viviparous quadrupeds 


Oviparous quadrupeds 
and footless animals 
(reptiles and amphi- 




" See De gen. an. 778 b 1. 





betn'een the above classes 

between land and water 

between animals and 







between quadrupeds and 






Note on the Four Classes of Bloodless Animals. — 
These, in order of increasing softness, as noted 
above, are the following (I give the Greek term, its 
literal translation, and the term which I have used 
to translate it in this volume) : 

τά ΐντομα insected animals Insects 

τά οστρακόδερμα shell-skinned animals Testacea 

TO. μαλακόστρακα soft-shelled animals Crustacea 

τά μαλάκια softies Cephalopods 

In using " Testacea " to translate τά οστρακόδερμα 
(" the animals with earthenware skins "), I use 
it in the old-fashioned sense, so as to include a 
number of shelled invertebrates, comprising Gastero- 
pods, Lamellibranchs, and some Echinoderms. It 
does not refer to the Testacea of modern zoologists, 
by whom the term is applied to the Foraminifera 
which are shelled Protozoa. The word " Ostraco- 
derms " (a transliteration of Aristotle's word) is now 
given by zoologists to a group of primitive fossil 




Technical The follo^Λ^ng notes on some of the more difficult 
**'"™^• and important of the technical terms used by Aristotle 
in the De pariibus will, I hope, help to explain my 
translation and also to give some indication of the 
background of Aristotle's thought. (A fuller account 
will be found in De Gen. An., Loeb edn.) 

Αιτία, " cause." 

I retain the traditional translation " cause," 
although perhaps in some contexts " reason " may 
be a closer rendering, but a variation in the English 
term might well produce more confusion than clarity. 
To know, says Aristotle, is to know by means of 
Causes (see Anal. post. 91 a 20). A thing is explained 
Λvhen you knoΛV its Causes. And a Cause is that 
which is responsible, in any of four senses, for a 
thing's existence. The four Causes, of Avhich two 
are mentioned very near the beginning of the first 
book (639b 11), are: 

(1) The Final Cause, the End or Object towards 
which a formative process advances, and ybr the 
sake of n-hick it advances — the logos, the rational 

(2) The Motive (or Efficient) Cause, the agent Λvhich 
is responsible for having set the process in motion ; 
it is that 6j/ which the thing is made. 

(3) The Formal Cause, or Form, which is responsible 
for the character of the course which the process 
follows (this also is described as the logos, ex- 
pressing n-hat the thing is). 

(4) The Material Cause, or Matter, out of which the 
thing is made. 



It will be seen that the first three Causes tend 
naturally to coalesce under the aegis of the Formal 
Cause, in opposition to the fourth, the Material 
Cause, a contrast which is clearly put by Adam of 
St. Victor in one of his hymns : 

effect'iva vel formalis 
causa Deus, etfinalis, 
sed numquam materia. 

Hence, of course, comes the regular contrast of 
" form " and " matter," in which, oddly enough, in 
modern usage the ΐλνο terms ha\e almost exchanged 
meanings. " Mere form," " empty form," in con- 
trast with " the real matter," are phrases Avhich 
indicate a point of view very different from that of 
Aristotle. An equally drastic reversal of meaning 
has overtaken the term " substance," as contro- 
versies on " transubstantiation," and the existence 
of the word " unsubstantial " prove. " Cause " has 
certainly been more fortunate ; but its meaning has 
been narrowed doAvn, so that " cause " now usually 
suggests the " efficient " cause only. At the same 
time, we βΙΙοΛν ourselves a \nder variety of " efficient " 
causes than Aristotle, and are more ready to admit 
actions and events or even series of actions and events. 
We have, in fact, applied Aristotle's precise termin- 
ology to the wider uses of everyday non-technical 
purposes. For Aristotle, the doctrine of the Four 
Causes provides an exhaustive and precise classifica- 
tion of the things which can be responsible for another 
thing's existence, and by the naming of them the 
thing can be completely accounted for. 

As an illustration the following Λvill serve. 
Suppose the object to be explained is an oak. The 



chronological order of the Causes is different from 
their logical one. 

(i.) The Motive Cause : the parent oak which 
produced the acorn. 

(ii.) The Material Cause : the acorn and its nour- 

(iii.) The Formal Cause. The acorn as it grew 
into a tree folloAved a process of development 
Λvhich had the definite character proper to 

(iv.) The Final Cause : the end towards which 
the process advanced, the perfected oak-tree. 


There are several places in the De partibus where, 
rather than represent λόγο? by an inadequate or 
misleading word, I have transliterated it by logos. 
This serves the very useful purpose of reminding the 
reader that here is a term of very varied meanings, 
a term Avhich brings into mind a number of correlated 
conceptions, of which one or another may be upper- 
most in a particular case. It is an assistance if we 
bear in mind that underlying the verb Xeyen', as it 
is most frequently used, is the conception of rational 
utterance or expression, and the same is to be found 
with Aoyo?, the noun derived from the same root. 
Aoyos can signify, simply, something spoken or uttered ; 
or, with more prominence given to the rationality of 
the utterance, it can signify a rational explanation^ 
expressive of a thing's nature, of the plaji of it ; and 
from this come the further meanings oi principle, or 
law, and also of definition, or formula, as expressing 


the structure or character of the object defined. 
(Note here the application of the term logos to the 
Final and Formal Causes, recorded in the foregoing 
note.) Another common meaning is seen especially 
in the use of the dative λόγω (c/". the verb λογίζομαι 
and its noun) — by reasoning, in thought, as opposed to 
fact or action. (See 640 a 32, Art is the λόγο? του 
epyov 6 avev tvJs νλη^ ', at 6i6 b 2 we read of the 
λόγο? of a process of formation such as building, and 
the λόγο? of the house which is built ; at 678 a 35 
of the λόγο? which defines the essence of something, 
and at 695 b 19 of " the λόγο? of the essence." At 
639 b 15 the " Cause for the sake of Avhich " — the 
Final Cause — is described as being a λόγο?.) 

Feveat?, " formation," or " process of formation." 
Γίγνεσθαι, " to be formed," " to go through a process 
of formation." 

These are the translations which I normally use, 
as more appropriate in a biological treatise than 
" coming into being," and the like. 

The process of formation is of course closely con- 
nected in Aristotle's thought with the doctrine of the 
Four Causes. 

Feieat? is a process which, at any rate in biology, 
results in the production of an actual object, a hving 

Γίΐ-εσι? is also contrasted Λvith οι'σί'α and φόσι?" : the 
order of things, Λνε are told, in the process of formation 
is the reverse of the oi'der in reality. For example, 
the bricks and mortar exist for the sake of the house 

" Care should be taken not to regard φΰσι.5 as meaning 
" the process of φνΐοθαι." 

Β 27 


which is to be built out of them, but they and not it 
come first in the order of time and fact. Aristotle 
sums this up by saying that what comes last in the 
process comes first in " nature " (64^6 a 25). 

Μόριον, " part." 

The term Avhich occurs in the title of the treatise 
and is traditionally rendered " part " includes more 
than is normally included in the EngUsh " part of 
the body." For instance, this Avould not normally 
be applied to blood, but the term μόρίον is applied 
by Aristotle to all the constituent substances of the 
body as well as to the limbs and organs. For him, 
blood is one of the {'wwi' μόρια. (648 a 2 ; see also 
664 a 9j 690 a 8). A striking instance of the use of 
μόριον in this sense is the phrase τά ομοιομίρη μόρια, 
which are the subject of the next following note. 

Τά ομοιομβρη μόρια, " the uniform parts." 

Τά άνομοιομ^ρη μόρια, " the non-uniform parts." 

Aristotle's application of the term μόριον to both 
these classes emphasizes the inclusiveness of its 
meaning. As examples of the " uniform " parts he 
mentions (647 b 10) blood, serum, lard, suet, marrow, 
semen, bile, milk, flesh— these are soft and fluid"' 
ones ; also bone, fish-spine, sineΛv, blood-vessel — 
these are hard and sohd ones. Of " non-uniform " 
parts he gives as examples (640 b 20) face, hand, foot. 

The relation of the " uniform " parts to the " non- 
uniform " he describes as foUoAvs (647 b 22 foil.) : 

" For the meaning of " fluid " and " solid " see below, 
p. 32. 


(a) some of the uniform are the material out of 
which the non-uniform are made (i.e. each 
instrumental part is made out of bones, sinews, 
flesh, etc.) ; 

(b) some act as the nutriment of (a) ; 

(c) some are the residue of (b) — faeces, urine. 

It is not possible to equate the two classes with the 
later division into tissues and organs, since blood, 
for instance, though " uniform," is not a tissue ; the 
term " organs," however, corresponds closely with 
Aristotle's own description — τά οργανικά μίρτ] 
(647 b 23), " instrumental parts." 

The practical difference betΛveen the two classes 
is that each of the uniform parts has its own definite 
character as a substa?ice (in the modern sense), while 
each of the non-uniform parts has its ΟΛνη definite 
character as a conformation or organ. The heart is 
the only part which belongs to both classes (647 a 25 
foil.) : it consists of one uniform part only, namely, 
flesh ; but it also has essentially a definite configura- 
tion, and thus it is a non-uniform part. 

Three stages or " degrees of composition," so far 
as biology is concerned, are enumerated by Aristotle 
(at 646 a 13 foil.). What Aristotle seems to mean, 
though he has not expressed himself quite clearly, 
is that there are three stages involved in the com- 
position of compound bodies, namely, 

(1) the δυνά/Λ6ΐ5 (see following note) ; 

(2) the uniform parts ; 

(3) the non-uniform parts ; 

and finally, of course, out of the non-uniform parts 

(4) the animal itself is composed. 


We have thus : 

(1) the simplest sorts of matter ; 

(2) the simplest organic substances compounded 
out of the foregoing (having no definite size, 
shape, or structure) ; 

(3) the instrumental parts of the body constructed 
out of the foregoing (having definite size, shape, 
and structure) ; and 

(4) the organism as a \vhole, assembled out of the 

Note. — For a description of the way in Avhich the 
term τά όμοωμίρη has caused confusion in the accounts 
of Anaxagoras's theories see Class. Qu., 1931, xxv. 34- 

This is one of the most difficult terms to render in 

The specialized meaning of 8ννάμ€ί, " potenti- 
ally," as opposed to evepyeia, " actually," is so well 
ΙίηοΛνη that there is no need to enlarge upon it here. 
Nor need I discuss the mathematical meaning of 
δνναμίί. Other meanings need some comment. 

(1) Δυνα /xts was the old technical term for what 
were later to be called σ-οίχεΐα (elements). It 
appears in the writings of the Hippocratic corpus 
and in Plato's Tiinaeus. The best example of its 
use in De pariibus is at the beginning of Book II. 
(646 a 15). The list of δννάμΐΐ<; included the sub- 
stances known as το vypov, ro ζηρόΐ', το θΐρμον, το 
φνχρόν, το ττίκρίΛ', το -γλνκν, τυ δριμν, etc., etc. Only 
the first four of these were regarded by Aristotle as 


the material of compound bodies : all the " other 
differences," he says, are consequent upon these. 

The original meaning underlying this usage of the 
term seems to have been " strong substance of a 
particular character." This would be very appro- 
priate to TO 8ρίμν, TO TTLKpov, etc. (see Uepl άρ\αίης 
ϊητρικψ). There is no notion here of the substance 
having poAver in the sense of power to affect an 
external body in a particular way. (This meaning 
developed later.) If any effect did result, it would 
be described simply as the presence of the strong 
substance, and the remedy for it Avas to " concoct " 
the strong substance or otherAvise to bring it into 
a harmless condition by " blending " it with other 

(2) As each of the substances known as δυνά /xeis 
has its own peculiar character, sharply marked off 
from the others, the meaning of " peculiar and dis- 
tinctive character " Avas naturally associated with the 
term. This seems to be its meaning in 655 b 12 : 
ίζ άΐ'αγκΊ]^ 8e ταύτα τταΐ'τα -γΐώδη καΐ στΐρίαν €χ^α την 
φνσιν οττλον yap α{'τ>^ Ενναμις. Indeed, in this mean- 
ing, δυνα/^ΐί seems to be a slightly more emphatic 
version of φνα-α, with which it is often used in con- 
junction (in Hippocrates, for instance), or in a parallel 
way as in the passage just cited. Compare also 
651 b 21, where the marroAV is asserted to be α!'/χατ05 
Tts φνσίζ, not, as some suppose, x/ys yovijs σ-π€ρματικη 
Svi'apAs. Other instances of this use of δι'ΐ'α/ζι§ will 
be found in De partibus. 

(3) From this usage it is not far to the idiomatic, 
pleonastic usage, e.g. : 

678 a 13 i) tmv ίντίρων δυνα /Ats almost = τα evTepa. 
682 h 15 ή των πτερών δύναμίζ. 



657 a 4 η των μνκτηρων δνναμί$ διφυι^?. 
This is paralleled by a similar usage of φνα-ΐζ i 

663 a 34 η των κέρατων φι'σΐϊ. 
676 b 11 η των ίντζρων φνσι.'ζ. 

(Other references for δΰι/α /xis : 640 a 24, 646 a 14, 
b 17, 650 a 5, 651 b 21, 652 b 8, 12, 653 a 2, 655 b 12, 
658 b 34. See further Gen. An., Loeb edn., Introd. 
§§ 23 if.). 

To vypov KOI Th ξηρόν, " fluid substance and solid 
substance," " the fluid and the sohd." 

These are two of the δννάμ^ί';. 

Following Ogle, I use these renderings as being 
more in conformity with the definitions given by 
Aristotle than " the moist and the dry," Avhich have 
often been used. Actually neither pair of Enghsh 
words quite expresses the Greek. Aristotle's de- 
finition of them (at De gen. et corr. 329 b 30) is this : 

" vypov is that which is not limited by any hmit of 
its own but can be readily Umited, ξ7]ρόν is that 
which is readily limited by a limit of its ΟΛνη but can 
with difficulty be hmited " — i.e. of course by a Umit 
imposed from ■without. 

He discusses the various senses in which these 
terms are used at 649 b 9 following. 

Τίερίττωμα, " residue." 

This term I have translated throughout " residue," 


as being more literal and at the same time less mis- 
leading than " excrement." " Sui'plus " would have 
been even better if the word had been a Uttle more 

" Residue " is so called because it is that which is 
left over Avhen the living organism, by acting upon 
the nutriment which it has taken, has pro\-ided itself 
>nth a sufficient supply for its upkeep. Some of the 
surplus Avill be useless material contained in the food 
from the outset, or else has been produced during 
the process of reducing the food into a condition 
suitable for its purposes in the body. The useless 
residues include the excrements. In order to appreci- 
ate the status of the useful residues the outlines of 
the processes through which the food passes must be 
kept clearly in mind. Briefly, then, the food is 
masticated in the mouth, then passed on to the 
stomach and then the heart, where it is concocted "* 
by means of heat — in other words, it is turned into 
blood, which is the " ultimate nourishment " ; and 
this, when distributed into the blood-vessels, supplies 
the body with nutrition. Generally, hoΛvever, more 
blood is produced than is necessary for the actual 
upkeep of the body, and this surplus undergoes a 
further stage of concoction, and is used by Nature 
in various ways. Marrow is a residue ; so are semen, 
catamenia, milk. Sometimes, when nutrition is 
specially abundant, the surplus blood is concocted 
into fat (lard and suet). And some of the blood, 
reaching the extremities of the vessels in which it 
travels, makes its way out in the form of nails, claws, 
or hair. The AristoteUan doctrine of residues came 
down to Shakespeare, as is shown by the passage 

• See page 34. 



in Hamlet (iii. iv.) where the Queen says to Hamlet : 

Your bedded haire, like life in excrements, 
Start up, and stand an end. 

This theory, as applied to hair, is expounded by 
Aristotle at 658 b 1 4 following, and modern biochemists 
have reason for believing that some pigmentation in 
animals, such as the black melanin of mammalian 
hair, or the yelloAv xanthopterine of the butterfly's 
wing, is physiologically a form of excretion. 

" Concoct," " concoction." 

These terms, Λvhich have already appeared in 
these notes, are used to translate ττίσσΐΐν, -ίψι^. The 
Greek words are the same as those employed to 
denote the process of ripening or maturing of fruit, 
corn, and the like by means of heat — also that of 
baking and cooking. 

Terms sometimes associated Anth these are μεταβολή 
and μίταβάλλαν. For example, at 650 a 5 we read 
that τΓβι/Ί? and μίταβολή take place δια ττ}? τον Θέρμου 
δυνά/Λ€ω5 ; and at 651 b 26, as the creatures grow 
and get " matured," the parts μίταβάλλΐΐ their 
colour, and so do the viscera. 

"Ψυχή, " Soul." 

The English ΛΛΌrd " Soul," as ν,'ύΐ be seen, over- 
emphasizes, Λvhen compared with φ^'χη, certain 
aspects of the Greek term, but it is by far the most 
convenient rendering, and I have used it in pre- 
ference to " life " or " vital principle." 

It will be useful to have an outline of Aristotle's 
general doctrine about Soul. 

The different " parts " or " faculties " of Soul can 


be arranged in a series in a definite order, so that the 
possession of any one of them implies the possession 
of all those which precede it in the list : 

(1) nutritive Soul in all plants 

(2) sentient Soul in all animals 

(3) appetitive Soul V . , 
/a( λ 4.• c 1 i 111 some animals 

(4) locomotive boul J 

(5) rational Soul in man only 

At 641 a 23 Aristotle speaks of " parts " of the 
Soul, and though he often uses this phrase, the 
description he prefers is " faculties." In the passage 
which follows (641 a 33 foil.) all except appetitive 
Soul are mentioned. Sentient Soul is mentioned 
again at 650 b 24, 667 b 23, 672 b 16. 

Aristotle raises the question whether it is the 
business of Natural science to deal with Soul in its 
entirety, and concludes that it is not necessary, since 
man is the only animal in Avhich rational Soul is 
found. Thus it is only some part or parts of Soul, 
and not Soul in its entirety, which constitute animal 

In the passage 641 a 14 following, Aristotle takes 
for granted his doctrine about Soul, which is as 
folloAvs (De anhna. Book II.). Animate bodies, bodies 
" Avith Soul in them " (έ'/χι/τχα), are " concrete sub- 
stances " made up of matter and form. In this 
partnership, of course, the body is the matter and the 
Soul is the form. Thus Soul may be described as the 
" form " or " realization " (kvTe\k\em, " actuality ") 
of the animal (cf. De part., loc. cit.). 

This statement, however, is elsewhere made more 
precise. It is possible to distinguish tivo " realiza- 
tions " of an animal ; for an animal " has Soul in it " 

Β 2 35 


even ΛνΗεη it is asleep, but its full activity is not 
evident until it is avi^ake and about its business. We 
must call Soul, then, the " first realization " of the 
animal, its Avaking life its " second realization." 
This distinction does not concern us in the Departibus. 
But an expansion of the definition is not irrelevant. 
Aristotle states that the Soul is the first realization 
of a body furnished -with organs. The priority of 
Soul over body is emphasized in the passage just 
referred to (640 b 23—64.1 a 32), and in another in- 
teresting passage (687 a 8 foil.) Aristotle maintains 
that man has hands because he is the most intelli- 
gent animal, and not, as some have said, the most 
intelhgent animal because he has hands. 

With this is connected the question whether the 
Soul is independent of the body ; though it is not 
raised in De partibus. As we have seen already, a 
^ώον is a single concrete entity made up of Soul and 
body, i.e. a certain form implanted in certain matter. 
The matter can exist, for it did exist, apart from the 
form ; and as the form that is implanted in all the 
individuals of a species is one and the same form, 
clearly it can exist apart from any one individual's 
matter — though of course its existence is not in- 
dependent of all the individuals' matter. Further- 
more, the form — the Soul — requires matter of a 
particular kind : not any sort of matter will do. 
From these considerations tΛvo conclusions seem to 
follow : (1) that transmigration is impossible : a 
human Soul cannot function in a hyena's body, any 
more than the carpenter's art can be executed by 
means of musical instruments ; (2) the Soul cannot 
function without a body at all ; cannot, we may say, 
exist (414- a 19). 



So far, so good. But Aristotle is not satisfied. 
He feels the Soul is more than that. He finds a 
loophole. There may be some " part " of Soul (the 
rational part) which is not the " realization " of any 
body. The Soul, besides being the form, the formal 
Cause, of the body, is also its final Cause, and not 
only that, but the motive Cause too of all the changes 
originated in the body (De anima 415 b 7-28), for, as 
we saw (p. 25), the three non-material Causes tend 
to coalesce into one. This independent " part " of 
Soul " comes into the body from without " (see De 
gen. an. 736 b 25 foil.) and continues to exist after 
the death of the body (see De anima 4^13 a 6, b 24 foil., 
430 a 22, etc.). All .this, however, raises problems 
not touched upon in De pariibus ; indeed Aristotle 
himself offers no solution of them. 

^^χή» Kpacris, άττόκρκτίζ, (τνντηζΐζ. 

I have indicated above, in the note on δι'να/χ.ΐ5, 
some of the older (Hippocratic) medical terminology 
of Λvhich traces are to be found in the De pariibus. 
There is no room for an adequate discussion of such 
terms and theories, and the following bare references 
must suffice. 

In the Hippocratic treatise Tlepl Βιαίτψ the theory 
is put forward that the human organism, body and 
Soul alike, is composed of fire and water (Avhich 
really consist of " the hot," " the solid," " the cold," 
and " the fluid ") — the function of fire being to cause 
motion, of Avater to provide nourishment. In ch. 35 
we have a list of the different varieties of Blend 
(κρησι,ί, συγκρτ^σι?) of fire and water Avhich may be 



found in the Soul in different individuals, and upon 
the Blend its health and sensitivity " depend. 

With these statements may be compared the 
following passages in De partibus : 

652 b 8 Some, says Aristotle, maintain that the 

Soul is file ; but it is better to say 
that it subsists in some such material. 
" The hot " is indeed the most ser- 
viceable material for the functions 
which the Soul has to perform, and 
these include nourishing and causing 

64)7 b 30 foil. Here is a reference to the different 
varieties of blood, and Aristotle tells 

us which sort of blood is αίσθητικωτβρυν 
and which animals are on that account 
φροΐ'ΐμώτΐρα (cf. 650 b 24 and 686 b 28). 
The phrase αίματος κρασί•; is actually 
used at 686 a 9- (Cf. also 650 b 29, the 
KpaaLs in the heart ; 652 b 35, the parts 
in the head are colder than the (τνμ- 
jLterpos κρασ-ις ; 669 a 11, the npaats 
of the body ; 673 b 26, its ευκρασία.) 

The term σνντηξί•;, which occurs frequently in the 
Ilept δί,αίτ)/?, is found only once in the De partibus 
at 677 a 14 — bile is said to be a residue or σίντηξί•;. 
Properly speaking, σίττηξι•; is the term applicable to 
the " colliquescence " or decay of the parts of the body 
themselves. (Cf. σίψτηγμα at De gen. an. 724 b 26 
foil. ; also arixiy^ts', 456 b 31 ; cf. also Piatt's note 
at the end of his translation oi De gen. an., onTii b27.) 
The effect of the colliquescence is to produce an 

" The adjective used is φρόνιμος. 


unhealthy άπόκρισις (abscession) — a very common 
term in Ilepl διαίτης (see chh. 58 foil, throughout). 
It occurs twice in De partibus. In both places it is 
used of a ττΐρίττωμα. At 690 a 9 the surplus earthy 
matter απ-όκρισιν λάμβανα, and forms a continuous 
nail or hoof. At 681 b 35 Aristotle speaks of the 

place where the σ-ερμυ-ική or the ττΐρίττωματικη 

άττόκρισίς is effected ; and here ά-όκρισ-ι? seems to 
mean simply " act of excretion." The meaning of 
the term seems both here and in Hippocrates to be 
specially associated with τηριττωματα., either useful 
ones, or useless and even harmful ones. A great 
deal of Περί ύιαίτιμ is taken up with suggestions for 
getting rid of harmful άττοκρίσίΐς. 

The meaning of αττόκρισι? is therefore wider than 
" excretion " or " secretion," as used in their present 
usual sense, though these are included among its 

T6 μάλλον και ήττον, " the more and less," see 
above, p. I9, and Gen. An. (Loeb), Introd. §§ 70 if. 

Translations of Aristotle's Zoology 

The history of the translation of Aristotle's works Transla- 
begins with the Nestorian Christians of Asia Minor, AristoUe's 
who were familiar Avith the Greek language as their zoological 
service-books were wTitten in it, and Ijcfore the 
coming of the Arabs they had translated some of the 
works of Aristotle and Galen into Syriac. Before 



435, Ibas, who in that year was made Bishop of 
Edessa, had translated into Syriac the commentaries 
of Theodore on the works of Aristotle. Jacob, one 
of Ibas's successors at Edessa (d. 708), translated the 
Categories into Syriac, but a much earUer version had 
been made by Sergios of Resh 'Aina (d. 536), who 
had studied Greek at Alexandria. In 765 the Nes- 
torian physician Georgios was summoned to Bagdad 
by the Cahph, and translated numerous Greek words 
into Arabic for him. By the beginning of the ninth 
century, translation was in full swing at Bagdad, 
under the CaUphate of al-Mamun (813-833), son of 
Harun-al-Rashid. The first leader of this school 
of translators was the physician Ibn al-Batriq, who 
translated the Historia animalium, the De partibus 
animalium, and the De generatione animalium into 

But it was through southern Italy, Sicily and Spain 
that the transmission of Aristotle's ΛνοΓίίί from the 
Arabic into Latin was effected. Messina had been 
recovered from the Saracens by 1060, and the whole 
of Sicily Λvas freed by 1091. Under the Norman 
kings, Greeks, Saracens and Latins lived together 
in one community, and the court was the meeting- 
ground for eminent persons of all nations and 
languages. The reconquest of Spain had begun in 
the eighth century, so that here also an opportunity 
offered for making the works of Greek science 
available in Latin. Archbishop Raymond of Toledo 
(1126-1151) and Bishop Michael of Tarazona (1119- 
1151) were the patrons of the translators, Λvho made 
Toledo the centre of their activity. One of these 
was Michael Scot. 

There is in existence an Arabic translation of 



the zoological Avorks, of which there is a ms. in 
the British Museum." It is probable that this is the 
translation made by Ibn al-Batriq, and that this 
Arabic version is the original from Avhich Michael 
Scot made his Latin translation at Toledo.'' Michael 
was, among his other accompUshments, astrologer to 
Frederick II., King of Sicily, at his court at Palermo, 
and before 1217 he had reached Toledo and was at 
ΛVΌrk there on his translations from the Arabic. His 
De animalibus (a translation of the zoological works in 
nineteen books) is one of his earliest Avorks, and two 
Mss. of it '^ contain a note Avhich gives a later Umit 
of 1220 for the work. Other evidence'^ establishes 
that it was certainly finished before 1217, and it may 
even be placed in the first decade of the century. 
It is probable that Michael had as collaborator one 
Andrew, canon of Palencia, formerly a Jew. One 
of the earliest to make use of Michael's transla- 
tions was Robert Grosseteste," Bishop of Lincoln 
(d. 1253), one of the leading Aristotelian scholars 
of the time, who quotes from Michael's version of 

" B.M.Add. 7511 (13th-14th century). This is the m3. 
referred to by Steinschneider, Die arabischen Ubersetzungen 
p. 64. as B.M. 437. I have seen this ms. 

'' Judging from the passages which Dr. R. Levy kindly 
read for me in the Arabic ms., the Latin version is a close 
translation from it. Also, the contents-preface which is found 
prefixed to Michael Scot's translation corresponds exactly 
with the preface which precedes the Arabic version in this 
MS. (see the B.M. catalogue, Catalogus codicum manuscrip- 
torum orientalium, p. 215). 

'^ One of them is ms. Caius 109, in the library of Gonville 
and Caius College, Cambridge. It is of the thirteenth 

^ See S. D. Wingate, The Medieval Latin Versions, p. 75. 

• Born at Stradbroke, Suffolk. A Franciscan, 



Oe generatione.'^ The De an'imalihus also formed the 
basis of a commentary in tAventy-six books by 
Albertus Magnus.'' This was probably written soon 
after the middle of the thirteenth century. Except 
for the portions Avhich appear in Albertus 's com- 
mentary, and the earlier part of the first chapter,<= 
Michael's version has never been printed in extenso. 
Michael died in or before 1235, and is reputed to 
have been buried, as he was born, in the loAvlands of 

About the same time, at the request of a pupil of 
Albertus, St. Thomas Aquinas (1227-1274), who re- 
quired more accurate versions for his commentaries 
on the Avorks of Aristotle, new translations, direct 
from the Greek, were being undertaken by Wilham 
of Moerbeke.'^ William was born about 1215. He 
became a Dominican, Avas confessor to Popes Clement 
IV. and Gregory X., and Avas Archbishop of Corinth. 
He acted as Greek secretary at the Council of Lyons 
in 1274. He died in 1286. The earhest dated trans- 
lation made by him is one of the De partibus animalium. 
The date 1260 occurs in a ms. of it at Florence (Fae- 
sulani 168), which also contains Hist, an., De progressu 
an., and De gen. an. This translation was made at 

Among later Latin translators of the zoological 

" According to Roger Bacon, Michael appeared at Oxford 
in 1230, bringing with him the works of Aristotle in natural 
history and mathematics. 

" Ed. princeps, Rome, 1478 ; latest ed., H. Stadler, 

« 639 a 1 — 640 a 20, printed by G. Furlani in Rivista 
degli Studi Oriental!, ix. (1922), pp. 246-249. 

<* A small town south of Ghent on the borders of Flanders 
and Brabant. 


works the names of two Greeks must be mentioned. 
George of Trebizond (Trapezuntiiis), wlio Λνα8 born 
in Crete in 1395, visited Italy between 1430 and 
1438, and was secretary to the humanist Pope 
Nicholas V., an ardent AristoteUan. George's work, 
however, was hurried and not over-exact, and he, 
together Avith his predecessors, was superseded by 
liis contemporary Theodore of Gaza, λνΐιο was born 
in Thessalonica about 1400, and was professor of 
Greek at Ferrara in 1447. In 1450 Theodore was 
invited by the Pope to go to Rome to make Latin 
versions of Aristotle and other Greek authors. His 
translation of the zoological works,'' dedicated to the 
Pope, Sixtus IV., soon became the standard version, 
and it is printed in the Berlin edition of Aristotle. 

Translations of the De gen. were made by Augus- 
tinus Niphus, of the University of Padua (1473-1546), 
and of the De gen. and De incessu by Peter Alcyonius 
(Venice, 1487-1527). The Degen. was also translated 
by Andronicus Callixtus of Byzantium (d. 1478). 
\Vith the later Latin versions we need not here 
concern ourselves, but something must be said of 
the scientific Avorkers who were inspired by Aristotle, 
and of the translations into modern languages. 

The Renaissance biologists shoAV unmistakably the Aristotle's 
difference in quality Avhich there is between Aristotle's successors. 
physics and his biology. Hieronimo Fabrizio of 
Acquapendente (1537-1619) kneAV and admired 
Aristotle's work on embryology, and what is more, 
himself carried out further important observations 
on the same subject. His brilliant successor, William 
Harvey (1578-1657), >vas a student of Aristotle, and 

" In eighteen books, excluding the spurious tenth book of 
the Historia animalium. 



much of his inspiration came from that source. 
William Harvey was the first to make any substantial 
advance in embryology since Aristotle himself. But 
this is more appropriate to the De generatione than 
to the De partihus. In other departments of study, 
hoΛvever, during the seventeenth century, the 
authority of Aristotle and the scholastic doctrine 
^vith which he was, identified were being combated 
in the name of freedom, and thus it came about that 
the zoological Λvorks also, Λvhich had been brought 
to hght by the dark ages, were alloΛved to pass back 
into oblivion by the age of enlightenment. They were 
not rediscovered until the end of the eighteenth 
century by Cuvier (1769-1832) and Saint-Hilaire 
(1805-1895) in the nineteenth. 

Modern Editions 

1. The Berlin edition of Aristotle, by Immanuel Bekker. 

Vol. i. (pp. 639-697) includes P.A. Berlin, 1831. 
1a. The Oxford edition (a reprint of the preceding). Vol. v. 
includes P.A. Oxford, 1837. 

2. One-volume edition of Aristotle's works, by C. H. Weise 

(pre-Bekker text). Leipzig, 1843. 

3. The Leipzig edition. Vol. v. contains P.A., edited and 

translated into German by A. von Frantzius. Leip- 
zig, 1853. 

4. The Didot edition. Vol. iii. includes P.A. Edited by 

Bussemaker. Paris, 1854. 

5. The Teubner edition. Edited by Bernhardt Langkavel. 

Leipzig, 1868. 

6. The Bude edition. Edited by Pierre Louis. With a 

French translation and notes. Paris, 1956. 

Translations without Text 

7. Thomas Taylor. English translation of Aristotle in ten 


volumes. Vol. vi. includes Ρ.Λ. (pp. 3-163). London, 

8. F. N. Titze. German translation of Book I. In his 

Aristoteles uber die wissenschaftliche Behandlungsart 
der Naturkunde. Prague, 1819. 

9. Anton Karsch. German translation. Stuttgart, 1855 

(second ed., Berlin, 1911). 

10. William Ogle. English translation, with notes. Lon- 

don, 1882. 

11. J. Barthelemy-Saint-Hilaire. French translation, with 

notes. Paris, 1885. 

11. WUliam Ogle. English translation, with notes (a re- 

vision of No. 10). Oxford 1911. 

12. Francisco Gallach Pales. Aristoteles: Obras com- 

pletas. Vol. X contains De partibus and De incessu 
animalium. Spanish translation, without notes. Vol. 
Ixii. of Nueva Biblioteca Filosofica. Madrid, 1932. 

Langkavel reproduces almost verbatim the Berlin 
text, together with Bekker's apparatus, to which a 
great deal of other matter has been added, including 
some of Bekker's ms. notes in his copy of Erasmus's 
edition, and some corrected reports of the readings 
of the MS. E, which Langkavel himself inspected. 
Also, there are some emendations proposed by 

Any English translator must stand very much 
indebted to the work of William Ogle, whose trans- 
lation, originally published in 1882, was revised by 
its author and republished in the Oxford series of 
translations of Aristotle in 1 911. It is not possible 
to overrate the care and exactness with which this 
piece of work was executed. I should like here to 
acknowledge my owti indebtedness to it, and I have 
had its accuracy as a model before me. With re- 
gard to style, it will be seen that I have aimed at pro- 
ducing something rather different from Ogle's version. 



The Text 

of the text. 

The Mss. The manuscript authorities cited by Bekker for the 
De partibus Λνίΐΐ be found on p. 50. 

The dates of some of the mss. as given by different 
scholars vary considerably : for details I refer the 
reader to the various catalogues, and also to L. Ditt- 
meyer's edition oi Hist. an. (Leipzig, 1907) and W. W. 
Jaeger's edition oi De an. viotu, etc. (Leipzig, 1913). 
Restoration I have relied upon the apparatus of Bekker and 
Langkavel for the readings of the Greek mss., except 
for those of Z, the oldest parts of which I have collated 
from photostats " ; and at several places I have in- 
spected the MS. itself. In some places (e.g. 663 b 17, 
685 a 2, 16) I found the reading had been defectively 
reported. It is clear that a more reliable collation of 
the chief mss. of De partibus is clearly needed. From 
a different source I have attempted to restore intelligi- 
bility to several corrupt passages \nth the aid of the 
Arabic version and the Latin version of Michael 
Scot, Avhich represent an earlier stage of the Aristo- 
teUan text than our Greek mss. Among the passages 
dealt with in this Avay are the passage at 654 b 14 
following, which has been dislocated by glosses and 
phrases imported from elscAvhere, and the remark- 
able passage about the structure of the Cephalopods 
at 684 b 22 following, Avhere considerable havoc has 
been done to the text by references to a diagram 
which were inserted at some period betΛveen the 
date of the ms. from which the Arabic version was 
made and that of the archetype of all our present 
Greek mss. I have been able to restore this passage, 
though not always the actual Greek words, by refer- 
ence to the Arabic version and Michael Scot's Latin 

" See additional note on p, 4p34. 


translation made from it. Dr. Reuben Levy has 
most kindly read this passage for me in the 13th-14th 
century Arabic MS. in the British Museum, Add. 7511. 
For these two passages, and for a good many other 
suspected places, I have consulted all the known mss. 
of Michael Scot's version which are to be found in 
this country. They are (excluding mss. Avhich contain 
merely abridgements or extracts) : 

Cambridge, Gonville and Caius College 109 
„ University Library li. 3. 16 

Dd. 4. 30 
Oxford, Merton College 278 
„ Balliol CoUege 252 
London, British Museum Royal 12. C. XV 
„ „ „ Harl. 4970 » 

All these are of the thirteenth or fourteenth 

I have inspected at test places the following three 
Mss. of William of Moerbeke's version : 

Oxford, Merton College 270 
>» Μ >» 271 

„ Balliol College 250 

William's translation was made from a MS. or mss. 
which had already been infected by the corruptions 
found in the Greek mss. which exist to-day. 

I should like here to express my thanks to the 
Librarians who so kindly made arrangements for me 
to inspect the mss. under their care. 

Where I have accepted the reading of the Berhn Scope of 
edition, I have not given any record of the ms. vari- '^ruZul!^' 
ants. These are to be found in the apparatus criticus 
of that edition and of Langkavel's edition. 

" So far as I know, this ms. has not been mentioned in any 
of the published lists of mss. of Michael Scot's De animalibus. 



I have endeavoured, except in the passage 
691 b 28 to 695 a 22 in the fourth Book, to record 
all places Avhere I have departed from the text of 
the Berlin edition, and I have given the source of 
the reading which I have adopted. Where Bekker 
himself introduced a reading different from that of 
the Mss., this is attributed to him by name. 
Punctua- I have not recorded all of the many passages in 
'°°' which I have corrected the punctuation. The text 
has been reparagraphcd throughout. 

Short bibiio- The following list includes authorities for state- 
■ nients made in the Introduction, and books Avhich 
the student of the Aristotelian zoological works and 
their history will find useful : 

C. H. Haskins, Studies in the History of Medieval Science, 

ed. 2, Cambridge, Mass., 1927. 
W. Jaeger, Aristotle (English tr. by R. Robinson), Oxford, 

L. Leclerc, Histoire de la medecine arabe, Paris, 1876. 
T. E. Lones, Aristotle's Researches in Natural Science, 

London, 1912. 
W. D. Ross, Aristotle, London, 1930. 

J. E. Sandys, A History of Classical Scholarship, Cam- 
bridge, 1908-1921. 
C. Singer, Studies in the History and Method of Science, 

Oxford, 1921. 
C. Singer, Greek Biology and Greek Medicine, Oxford, 1922. 
M. Steinschneider, Die arabischen Ubersetzungen aus dem 

Griechischen (Beiheft XII. zum Centralblatt fiir 

Bibliothekswesen), Leipzig, 1893. 
M. Steinschneider, Die europdischen Ubersetzungen aus dem 

Arabischen, in Sitzungsberichte d. kais. Akad. der Wiss., 

cxlix., Vienna, 1905. 
D'Arcy W. Thompson, Growth and Form, Cambridge, 

1917 (new ed., 1942). 


D'Arcy W. Thompson, Essay on " Natural Science " in 
The Legacy of Greece, Oxford, 1924. 

S. D. Wingate, The Medieval Latin Versions of the Aristo- 
telian Scientific Corpus, London, 1931. 

F, Wustenfeld, Die Ubersetzurigen arabischer Werke in das 
Lateinische, in Abhandlungen der k. Gesell. d. Wiss. 
zu Gottingen, xxii., 1877• 


It is a great pleasure to acknowledge here the help 
which I have received from many friends at Cambridge, 
not only by Avay of reading typescript and proof and 
by discussion, but also by the interest w'hich they 
have shown in the work and by their continuous 
encouragement. The follo\Adng have read the trans- 
lation either in whole or in part : Prof. F. M. Corn- 
ford, Professor of Ancient Philosophy ; Dr. F. H. A. 
Marshall, Reader in Agricultural Physiology (who has 
also kindly written the ForcAvord to this volume), 
and Dr. Joseph Needham, Reader in Biochemistrj^ 
I am under a particular obligation to my colleague 
Mr. H. Rackham, yvho has read the Λvhole translation 
both in typescript and in proof. I am indebted 
to Dr. Sydney Smith and a number of other friends 
for their kindness in discussing various points and 
for reading certain passages. Dr. Reuben Levy, 
Professor of Persian, has kindly read for me some 
passages in the Arabic translation of the zoological 
works. To all of these gentlemen, without whose 
aid the work could not have been carried through, 
I record my sincerest thanks. 

The present (third) edition has again been revised. 

A. L. P. 

July nth 1952 



Ε Parisinus regius 1853 (see p. 434) 

Υ Vaticanus graecus 261 

Ζ Oxoniensis Coll. Corp. Chr. W.A. 2. 7 (see p. 434) 

U Vaticanus 260 

Ρ Vaticanus graecus 1339 

S Laurentianus Mediceus 81. 1 

Q Marcianus 200 

ό Parisinus 1859 

m Parisinus 1921 

Σ Michael Scot's Latin version, from my 

θΛ\τη transcription. 

vulg. The usual reading, as in the Berlin 


Langkavel Emendations proposed by Langkavel in 
his edition. 

Ogle Emendations proposed by William Ogle 

in footnotes to his translation. 

Piatt Emendations proposed by Arthur Piatt, 

either (a) in " Notes on Aristotle," in 
Journal of Philology, 1913, xxxii. 292 
follo^\^ng, or (b) recorded by Ogle in 
footnotes to his translation. 

ρ e Λ\ /Suggestions in private communications 

T? kh ( 1^^ "^^ from Professor Cornford and Mr. 

Th(urot) Ch. Thurot, in Rev. Arch., 1867." 

Peck Emendations proposed by myself. 

" Of over 100 textual points, many being of minor import- 
ance, raised by Th., about a third had been dealt with in my 
first edition (before Th.'s work came to my notice), some of 
them more fully, by other scholars or myself. Some of Th.'s 
other suggestions have been adopted in this edition. 

The maister Cooke was called Concoction. 

Spenser, Faerie Queen 


639 a ITept ττάσαν θ^ωρίαν re καΐ μ4θο^ον, ομοίως 
τα—ζίνοτίραν re καΐ τίμίωτ€ραν, δυο φαίνονται 
τρόποι της εζεως eivai, ών την μεν εηιστημ.ην 
του τράγματος καλώς εχβι ττροσαγορζύειν, την δ' 
5 οίον παώείαν τινά. ττετταώευμενου γάρ εστί κατά 
τρόπον το Βυνασθαι κρΐναι εύστόχως τι καΧώς η μη 
καλώς άτΓοδι'δωσιν ο λέγων, τοιούτον γαρ ^η τίνα 
και τον όλως πεπαώενμενον οΐόμεθ^ eu'at, και το 
πεπαιΒεΰσθαι το δυι^ασ^αι ποιεΐν το είρημενον. 
πλην τοΰτον μεν περί πάντων ως ειπείν κριτικόν 
10 Τ£.να νομίζομεν εΐναι ενα τον αριθμόν οντά, τον δε 
περί τίνος φύσεως άφωρισμενης• ειη γαρ αν τις 
έτερος τον αύτον τρόπον τω ειρημενω διακείμενος 
περί μόριον. ώστε δηλον οτι καΐ της περί φνσιν 
Ιστορίας δει τινάς ύπάρχειν ορούς τοιούτους προς 
ους αναφερών άποΒεζεται τον τρόπον τών δεικνυ- 




There are, as it seems, t>vo Λvays in which a 
person may be competent in respect of any study or 
investigation, whether it be a noble one or a humble : 
he may have either what can rightly be called a 
scientific knowledge of the subject ; or he may have 
what is roughly described as an educated person's 
competence, and therefore be able to judge correctly 
which parts of an exposition are satisfactory and 
which are not. That, in fact, is the sort of person 
we take the " man of general education " to be ; his 
" education " consists in the ability to do this. In 
this case, however, Λve expect to find in the one 
individual the abiUty to judge of almost all subjects, 
whereas in the other case the abiUty is confined to 
some special science ; for of course it is possible to 
possess this abiUty for a limited field only. Hence 
it is clear that in the investigation of Nature, or 
Natural science, as in every other, there must first 
of all be certain defined rules by which the ac- 
ceptability of the method of exposition may be 
tested, apart from whether the statements made 



15 μ€νων, χωρίς του ττως €χ€ί ταλησ€ς, €lt€ ούτως 
€LTe άλλως, λίγω δ' οίον πότ€ρον 8et λαμβάνοντας 
μίαν εκάστην ούσίαν Trepl ταύτης ^ίορίζζΐν καθ 
αυτήν, οίον πβρί ανθρώπου φύσ€ως η λέοντος η 
βοος η και τίνος άλλου καθ^ €καστον προχίίριζο- 
μβνους, rj τα Koivfj συμβζβηκότα ττασι κατά τι 
κοινον ύποθ€μ€νους — πολλά γαρ υπάρχει ταύτα 

20 πολλοίς yeveatv ίτέροις ουσιν αλλήλων, οίον ύπνος, 
άναττνοή, αϋζησις, φθίσις, θάνατος, και προς τού- 
τοις οσα τοιαύτα των λζίπομ^νων παθών τε και 
8ίαθ€σ€ων• άΒηλον γαρ και ά8ιόριστόν ioTi Ae'yeiv 
νΰν πβρι τούτων φαν€ρ6ν δ' οτι και κατά μ^ρος 
μ€ν λ€γοντ€ς π€ρι πολλών €ροΰμ€ν πολλάκις ταύτα' 

25 καΐ γάρ Ιπποις και κυσι και άνθρώποις ύπάρχ€ΐ 
τών ζΐρ-ημένων α<αστον, ωστ€ iav καθ^ €καστον τά 
συμβββηκότα^ λβγη τι?, πολλάκις άναγκασθήσ€ται 
7Τ€ρι τών αυτών λέγβιν, οσα ταύτα μ€ν υπάρχει τοις 
ειδει Βιαφβρουσι τών ζώων, αυτά δε μη8€μίαν €χει 

30 Βιαφοράν, €Τ€ρα δ' ίσα»?• βστίν οΐς σνμβαίν€ΐ την 

639 b μ€ν κατηγορίαν €χ€ΐν τήν αυτήν 8ιαφ€ρ€ΐν δε Tjj 

κατ* ειδο? Βιαφορα, οίον ή τών ζώων πορεία' ου 

γάρ φαίνβτϋίΐ μία τώ εί'δει• διαφέρει γάρ πτήσις και 

ν€ΰσις και ^άδισι? και €ρφις. 

Διό δει μή 8ιαλ€ληθ€ναι πώς €πισκ€πτ€θν, λβγω 
6 δε πότ€ρον κοινή κατά γβνος πρώτον, ει^' ύστερον 

^ το συμβφηκότα Ogle : τών συμβφηκότων vulg. 



represent the truth or do not. I mean, for instance, 
should M'e take each single species severally by turn 
(such as Man, or Lion, or Ox, or whatever it may 
be), and define what we have to say about it, in and 
by itself ; or should we first establish as our basis the 
attributes that are common to all of them because 
of some common character which they possess ? — there 
being many attributes which are identical though 
they occur in many groups which differ among them- 
selves, e.g. sleep, respiration, groΛvth, decay, death, 
together A\-ith those other remaining affections and 
conditions Λvhich are of a similar kind. I raise this, 
for at present discussion of these matters is an obscure 
business, lacking any definite scheme. HoΛvever, 
thus much is plain, that even if Ave discuss them 
species by species, Ave shall be giving the same de- 
scriptions many times over for many different animals, 
since every one of the attributes I mentioned occurs 
in horses and dogs and human beings alike. Thus, 
if our description proceeds by taking the attributes 
for every species, we shall be obliged to describe the 
same ones many times over, namely, those Avhich 
although they occur in different species of animals are 
themselves identical and present no difference Avhat- 
ever. Very likely, too, there are other attributes, 
AA'hich, though they come under the same general 
head, exhibit specific differences ;— for example, the 
locomotion of animals : of Avhich there are plainly 
more species than one — e.g. flight, SAvimming, walk- 
ing, creeping. 

Therefore Ave must make up our minds about 
the method of our investigation and decide Avhether 
we will consider first what the whole group has in 



639b ^ ^ ^ ^ , « , « , / 

TTepl των ίδιων θ€ωρητ€ον, η καθ^ €καστον €νθυς. 

νυν γαρ ου ^ιώρισται πβρί αύτοΰ, ουδέ ye το νΰν 

ρηθησόμςνον, οίον TTorepov καθάπερ ol μαθηματικοί 

τα TTepl την άστρολογίαν Βζίκνύουσίν, οϋτω δεΓ και, 

τον φυσικον τα φαινόμενα πρώτον τά περί τα ζωα 

10 θεωρησαντα καΐ τα μέρη τά ττερί εκαστον, επειθ* 
οϋτω λέγειν το δια τι και τάς αίτια?, η άλλως ττως. 
προς δε τούτοις, επεί πλείους όρώμεν αιτίας περί 
την γενεσ',ν την φυσικην, οίον την θ^ ου ένεκα και 
την όθεν η αρχή της κινήσεως, Βιοριστεον και 
περί τούτων, ποία πρώτη και 8ευτερα πεφυκεν. 

15 φαίνεται δε πρώτη ην λεγομεν ενεκά τίνος• λόγος 
γαρ ούτος, αρχή δ' ο λόγος ομοίως εν τε τοις 
κατά τεχνην και εν τοις φύσει συνεστηκόσιν. η 
γαρ τη hiavoia η τη αισθήσει ορισάμενος 6 μεν 
Ιατρός τήν wyieiav 6 δ' οικοδόμος την οΐκίαν, 
άττοδιδόασι τους λόγους και τάς αιτίας ου ποιοΰσιν 
εκάστου, και διότι ποιητεον οϋτως. μάλλον δ' 

20 εστί το ού ένεκα και το καλόν εν τοις της φύσεως 
εργοις ή εν τοις της τέχνης, το δ' εζ ανάγκης 
ού πάσιν υπάρχει τοΐς κατά φύσιν ομοίως, εις 

" This point is resumed and decided below, 644 a 23 if., 
645 b 2 if. 

'' " Causes." See Introduction, pp. 24 IF. 

' " Formation." See Introduction, pp. 27 f. 

** i.e. tlie " final " cause. 

" i.e. the " motive " or " efficient " cause. 

' See Introduction, pp. 26 f. « Cf. 645 a 24. 



common, and afterwards the specific peculiarities ; 
or begin straightΛvay A\'ith the particular species.* 
Hitherto this has not been definitely settled. And 
there is a further point Λvhich has not yet been 
decided : should the student of Nature follow the 
same sort of procedure as the mathematician follows 
in his asti'onomical expositions — that is to say, 
should he consider first of all the phenomena which 
occur in animals, and the parts of each of them, and 
having done that go on to state the reasons and the 
causes ; or should he follow some other procedure ? 
Furthermore, we see that there are more causes '' 
than one concerned in the formation " of natural 
things : there is the Cause ybr the sake of ivhich the 
thing is formed,*^ and the Cause to vvhich the begin- 
ning of the motion is due.^ Therefore another point 
for us to decide is which of these two Causes stands 
first and which comes second. Clearly the first is 
that which Ave call the " Final " Cause — that for the 
sake of which the thing is formed — since that is 
the logos ^ of the thing — its rational ground, and 
the logos is always the beginning for products of 
Nature as well as for those of Art. The physician 
or the builder sets before himself something quite 
definite — the one, health, apprehensible by the 
mind, the other, a house, apprehensible by the 
senses ; and once he has got this, each of them 
can tell you the causes and the rational grounds 
for everything he does, and why it must be done 
as he does it. Yet the Final Cause (purpose) and the 
Good (Beautiful) ^ is more fully present in the works 
of Nature than in the vvorks of Art. And moreover 
the factor of Necessity is not present in all the 
works of Nature in a similar sense. Almost all 



ο π€ΐρωνται τταντβς σχβοον τους Λογούς avayetr, 
ου 8ieAojLterot ττοσαχώς Xiyerai το αναγκαϊον. 
νπάρχ€ί δε το μεν απλώς τοις άώίοίς, το ο eg 

25 υποθέσεως καΐ τοις iv yeveoeL πασιν ωσπερ ev 
τοις τβχναστοΐς , οΐον οΙκία και των άλλων οτωονν 
των τοιούτων, ανάγκη δε Toiavde την νλην υπ- 
άρζαι €1 €σται οικία τ) άλλο τι τέλος' και γενέσθαι 
Τ€ καΐ κινηθήναι δει τόδε πρώτον, είτα τόδε, και 
τούτον Βή τον τρόπον εφεζης μέχρι τον τέλους και 

30 ου ένεκα γίνεται εκαστον και εστίν, ωσαύτως δε 
640 a και εν τοις φύσει γινομενοις. αλλ' ό τρόπος της 
άποΒείζεως και της ανάγκης έτερος επι τε της 
φυσικής και τών θεωρητικών επιστημών, {ε'φηται 
δ' εν ετεροις περί τούτων.) η γαρ άρχη τοις μεν το 
6ν, τοις δε το εσόμενον επει γαρ TOiovh εστίν η 
6 iJytfta η 6 άνθρωπος, ανάγκη Toh^ είναι η γενέσθαι, 
αλλ' ουκ επει τόδ' εστίν η γεγονεν, εκείνο εζ 

' " Absolute," i.e. simple or unconditional necessity, 
belongs to the " eternal things," such as the heavenly bodies 
or the eternal truths of mathematics. For further details 
see Oe gen. et corr. 337 b 14 if. 

* At Met. 1025 b ff. Aristotle makes a threefold classifica- 
tion of the sciences into (a) theoretical (contemplative), 
(6) practical, (c) productive. The result of (a) is knowledge 
only, of (6) knowledge and action, of (c) knowledge, action, 
and some article or product. The three " theoretical " 
sciences are theology {i.e. metaphysics), mathematics, and 
phj'sics (natural science). In the present passage, however, 
Aristotle contrasts natural science with the " theoretical " 
sciences. This is because he is considering Nature as a 
craftsman whose craft or science belongs to the third class — 
the "productive" sciences. Our study of Nature's science 



philosophers endeavour to carry back their explana- 
tions to Necessity ; but they omit to distinguish the 
various meanings of Necessity. There is " absolute " 
Necessity," Avhich belongs to the eternal things ; and 
there is " conditional " Necessity, which has to do 
with everything that is formed by the processes of 
Nature, as Avell as A\ith the products of Art, such as 
houses and so forth. If a house, or any other End, 
is to be realized, it is necessary that such and such 
material shall be available ; one thing must first be 
formed, and set in motion, and then another thing ; 
and so on continually in the same manner up to the 
End, which is the Final Cause, for the sake of Λvhich 
every one of those things is formed and for which it 
exists. The things which are formed in Nature are 
in like case. Howbeit, the method of reasoning 
in Natural science and also the mode of Necessity 
itself is not the same as in the Theoretical sciences. 
(I have spoken of this matter in another treatise.*) 
They differ in the following Λvay.'' In the Theoretical 
sciences, we begin Λvith Avhat already is ; but in 
Natural science Λ\•ith what is going to be : thus, we say, 
Because that which is going to be — health, perhaps, or 
man — has a certain character, therefore of necessity 
some particular thing, P, must be, or must be formed ; 
not, Because Ρ is ηοΛν, or has been formed, therefore 
the other thing (health, or man) of necessity is now 

may be a " theoretical " science, but Nature's science itself 
is " productive." 

' The reasoning process in a " theoretical " science, e.g. 
mathematics, begins, say, with A, and then deduces from it 
the consequences B, C, D. In a " productive " science, 
e.ff. building, it begins with the house wliich is to he built, 
D, and %\Orks backwards through the preHminary stages 
Λvhich must be realized in order to produce the house, 
C, B, A. Cf. below, 640 a 16 ff. 

C 59 


e40a ^ ^ , „ „ , , ./ ' "s 

ανάγκης iarlv η έ'σται. οι3δ' έ'στιν et? atotov συν- 

αρτήσαί της τοιαύτης άττοδει^βω? την' ανάγκην, 

ώστ' eln^tv, βπβΐ τόδ' εστίν, οτι του εστίν, οι- 

ώρισται δε /cat Ttept τούτων ev έτεροις, και, ττοιοι? 

νπαρχ€ί και ττοια αντιστρέψει και οια τιν αιτιαν. 

10 Δει δε μη λεληθεναι και ττότερον προσήκει λέγειν, 
ωσπερ οι ττρότερον εποιοΰντο την θεωριαν, πως 
εκαστον ytVea^at πεφνκε μάλλον η πώς εστίν, 
ου γάρ τι μικρόν διαφέρει τούτο εκείνου, εοικε 
δ' εντεύθεν άρκτεον εΐναι [καθάπερ και προτερον 
είπομεν, οτι πρώτον τα φαινόμενα ληπτεον περί 

15 εκαστον γένος, είθ^ οϋτω τας αίτια? τούτων 
λεκτεον) και περί γενέσεως• μάλλον γάρ ταοε 
συμβαίνει και περί την οΙκοΒόμησιν επει τοιόνΒ 
εστί το εΐ8ος της οικίας, η τοιόν8' εστίν η οικία οτι 
γίνεται οϋτως. ή γάρ γενεσις ένεκα της ουσίας 
εστίν, αλλ' ούχ η ουσία ένεκα της γενέσεως. Βιόπερ 

20 ^ΕμπεΒοκλης ουκ ορθώς είρηκε λέγων ύπάρχειν 
ΤΓολλά τοΓ? ζωοις δια το συ/Λ)8ηναι οϋτως εν τη 
γενέσει, οίον και την ράχιν τοιαυτην εχειν οτι 
στραφεντος καταχθηναι συνέβη, άγνοών πρώτον μεν 
οτι Βεΐ το σπέρμα το συνιστάν^ ύπάρχειν τοιαυττ^ν 

^ σννισταν Piatt : σνστάν vulg. 

" Though of course this Necessity has its place in natural 
science (see 642 a 31 if.). It is, however, not the only sort 
of Necessity in Natural science, and not the paramount one. 

* See De gen. et corr. 337 b 25 if. An example of a non- 
convertible proposition is : Foundations are necessary for a 
house to be built. You cannot say, " If foundations are laid 
a house must of necessity be built," because it is not " ab- 
solutely " and always necessary that a house should be built. 

' Cf. Plato, Philebus 54 a-c. 



or will be in the future. ** Nor, in a process of 
reasoning of this kind, is it possible to trace 
back the links of Necessity to eternity, so as to say, 
Because A is, therefore Ζ is. I have, however, dis- 
cussed these matters in another work,* and I there 
stated Λvhere either kind of Necessity applies, which 
propositions involving Necessity are convertible, and 
the reasons why. 

We must also decide Avhether we are to discuss 
the processes by Avhich each animal comes to be 
formed — which is Avhat the earlier philosophers 
studied — or rather the animal as it actually is. 
Obviously there is a considerable difference betΛveen 
the two methods. I said earlier that we ought first 
to take the phenomena that are observed in each 
group, and then go on to state their causes. This 
applies just as much to the subject of the process of 
formation : here too v>e ought surely to begin Λvith 
things as they are actually observed to be Λvhen 
completed. Even in building the fact is that the 
particular stages of the process come about because 
the Form of the house is such and such, rather than 
that the house is such and such because the process 
of its formation follows a particular course : the 
process is for the sake of the actual thing, the thing 
is not for the sake of the process." So Empedocles 
was Λvrong Λvhen he said that many of the character- 
istics which animals have are due to some accident 
in the process of their formation, as when he 
accounts for the vertebrae of the backbone by say- 
ing '^ " the fetus gets tAvisted and so the backbone 
is broken into pieces " : he Λvas unaware (a) that 
the seed which gives rise to the animal must to 
*• Emped. frag. 97 (Diels, Fragmented, 31 β 97). 



€χον Βυναμίν, eW otl to ποίησαν irporepov υπηρχ€ν 
25 ov μόνον τω λόγω άλλα καΐ τω χρόνω• yevva γαρ ο 
άνθρωπος άνθρωπον, ώστ€ δια, το €Κ€Ϊνον tolovo 
etvat ή γίνί,σι,ς Toiahe συμβαίνει Tcohi. [ομοίως 
he καΐ €ττΙ των αυτομάτως ^οκουντων ytveaaat 
καθάπζρ καΐ eVt των τ€χναστών• evLa γαρ και αττο 
ταντομάτου ytVerat ταύτα τοις αττο τ€χνης, οίον 
30 ύγίζία. ων' μ^ν οΰν προϋττάρχ^ί το ποιητικον 
[δμοιον],^ οίον η* άν8ρίαντοποιητίκη , ου [yap] yt- 
νεται αντόματον. -η he τ4χνη λόγος του epγoυ ο 
aveu της ϋλης Ιστιν. καΐ τοΙς αττο τύχης ομοίως• 
ώς γαρ η τέχνη e^ei, οϋτω γίveτaιlf διό μάλιστα 
μέν λeκτeov ώς έπ€ΐ6η τοΰτ^ ην το άνθρώπω eti^ai, 
35 δίά τοΰτο ταΰτ' exei• ου γαρ evhe^eTai elvai avev 
των μορίων τούτων. el he μη, 6 τι €γγυτατα 
τούτου, καΐ η otl όλως ahvvaTov αλλω?,' η καλώς 
640 b ye ούτως, ταΰτα δ' eVeTar eirel δ έστι τοιούτον, 
την γ4ν€σιν ώhi και τοιαύτην συμβaiveιv avay- 
καΐον διό γίveτaι πρώτον τών μορίων τόδε, είτα 
τόδε. καΐ τούτον hrj τον τρόπον ομοίως εττι πάν- 
των τών φύσeι συνισταμένων. 
5 Οί μev οΰν αρχαίοι και πρώτοι φιλοσοφήσαντ€ς 

^ evia γαρ om. Ζ^. 

* tSv Ζ : τών vulg. 
3 om. ΖΚ 

* η Ζ : om. vulg. 
6 om. Ζ. 

* ομοίως (1. 27) . . . γίνίται, ex 3Iet. 1032-1034 exorta, 
olim ut vid. in marg. 640 b 4• adscripta ; inepta seclusi. 

' OTt δλωί Z^ : όλωί otl a. a. vulg. 

" i.e. the same character as the animal which it is to pro- 
duce. For dynamis see Introduction, pp. 30 if. 

* No doubt a marginal note appended to 640 b 4. 



begin with have the appropriate specific character " ; 
and (δ) that the producing agent Λvas pre-existent : 
it was chronologically earlier as \vell as logically 
earlier : in other words, men are begotten by men, 
and therefore the process of the child's formation is 
what it is because its parent Λvas a man. [Similarly 
too with those that appear to be formed spontane- 
ously, just as Λ\^th those produced by the arts ; for 
some that are formed spontaneously are identical 
with those produced by art, e.g. health. As for those 
things whose producing agent is pre-existent, e.g. the 
art of statuary, no spontaneous formation occurs. Art 
is the logos of the article without the matter. And 
similarly Avith the products of chance : they are 
formed by the same process that art Avould employ.] ** 
So the best way of putting the matter would be to 
say that because the essence of man is what it is, 
therefore a man has such and such parts, since there 
cannot be a man without them. If we may not say 
this, then the nearest to it must do, viz. that there 
cannot be a man at all otherAvise than with them, or, 
that it is well that a man should have them. And 
upon this these considerations ίοΙΙοΛν : Because man is 
such and such, therefore the process of his formation 
must of necessity be such and such and take place 
in such a manner ; Avhich is why first this part is 
formed, then that. And thus similarly with all the 
things that are constructed by Nature. 

Now those who Avere the first to study Nature in 



e40b ^ ^ 

Trept φνσ€ως rrepl της ύλι,κής ο-ρχή? και της τοι- 
αύτης αίτιας εσκόπονν, τις και ποια τις, και πώς 
€Κ ταύτης γίνεται το όλον, και τίνος κινοΰντος, οίον 
νβίκους η φιλίας η νοΰ η του αυτομάτου , της δ' 
νποκ€ΐμ€νης νλης ToiavBe rtm φυσιν βχούσης Ιζ 

10 ανάγκης, οίον του μέν ττυρος θερμήν, της δε γης 
φυχράν, και του μεν κούφην, της δε βαρεΐαν. ούτως 
γαρ και τον κόσμον γεννώσιν. ομοίως δε και περί 
την των ζώων και των φυτών γίνεσιν λεγουσιν, 
οΐον^ iv τω σώματι ρέοντος μεν τοΰ ύ'δατο? κοιλίαν 
γενέσθαι και ττασαν ύποΒοχην της τε τροφής και τοΰ 

15 περιττώματος , τοΰ δε πνεύματος Βιαπορευθεντος 
τους μυκτηρας άναρραγήναι. 6 δ' άηρ και το ύ8ωρ 
ύλη τών σωμάτων εστίν εκ τών τοιούτων γαρ 
σωμάτων συνιστάσι την φύσιν πάντες, ει δ' εστίν 
6 άνθρωπος και τα ζώα φύσει και τά μόρια αυτών, 
λεκτεον αν περί σαρκός εϊη και όστοΰ και αίματος 

20 και τών όμοιομερών απάντων, ομοίως δε και τών 
άνομοιομερών, οίον προσώπου, χειρός, ποΒός, fj 
τε τοιούτον εκαστον εστίν αυτών και κατά ποίαν 
δυνα/ζιν. ου γαρ Ικανόν το εκ τίνων εστίν, οίον 
πυρός η γης, ώσπερ καν ει περί κλίνης ελεγομεν η 
τίνος άλλου τών τοιούτων, επειρώμεθα μάλλον αν 

25 Βιορίζειν τό εΐόος αύτης η την ύλην, οίον τόν χαλκόν 

^ ότι post οίον vulg. : del. Ogle. 

" As Empedocles and Anaxagoras, Avhose attempts to 
discover the "material" and the "efficient" causes are 
mentioned a few lines below. See also Met. 983 b 6 if . 

* " Material " cause : see Introduction, pp. 24 ff. 

* " Residue " : lit. " surplus " ; see Introduction, pp. 32 S. 
" Cf. Hippocrates, Hepl διαι'ττ;?, i. 9. 

' " Parts " : see Introduction, pp. 28 £F. 


the early days " spent their time in trying to discover 
Λvhat the material principle or the material Cause ^ 
was, and Λvhat it was like ; they tried to find out 
how the Universe is formed out of it ; what set 
the process going (Strife, it might be, or Friendship, 
Mind, or Spontaneity) ; assuming throughout that 
the underlying material had, by necessity, some 
definite nature : e.g. that the nature of Fire Λvas hot, 
and light ; of Earth, cold, and heavy. At any rate, 
that is hoAv they actually explain the formation of 
the Λvorld-order. In a like manner they describe the 
formation of animals and plants, saying (e.g.) that the 
stomach and every kind of receptacle for food and for 
residue '^ is formed by the Λvater flo\ving in the body, 
and the nostril openings are forcibly made by the 
passage of the breath.** Air and water, of course, 
according to them, are the material of which the body 
is made : they all say that Nature is composed of 
substances of this sort. Yet if man and the animals 
and their parts ^ are products of Nature, then account 
must be taken of flesh, bone, blood, in fact of all the 
" uniform parts," ^ and indeed of the " non-uniform 
parts " too, viz. face, hand, foot ; and it must be 
explained how it comes to pass that each of these is 
characterized as it is, and by what force this is effected. 
It is not enough to state simply the substances out of 
which they are made, as " Out of fire," or " Out of 
earth." If we were describing a bed or any other 
like article, we should endeavour to describe the form 
of it rather than the matter (bronze, or wood) — or, at 

' " Uniform " and " non-uniform " : see Introduction, pp. 
28 IF. The distinction between " uniform " and " non-uniform " 
parts is, historically, the predecessor of the distinction be- 
tween " tissues " and " organs." 



η το ζυλον, el δε μη, την ye του συνόλου• κλίνη γαρ 
ToSe iv τωδε η τόδε TOLovde, ώστε καν 7Τ€ρι του 
σχήματος εΐη λβκτβον, καΐ ποίον την Iheav η γαρ 
κατά την μορφην φύσις κυριωτέρα της υλικής 

30 Ει μ^ν ουν τω σχτ^^ιιατι και τω χρώματι €καστον 
€.στι των re ζωών καί των μορίων, ορθώς αν 
Αημόκριτος λζγον φαίνεται γαρ οϋτως ύττολαβξΐν. 
φησί γοΰν τταντί ^ηλον elvai, οίον τι την μορφην 
εστίν ό άνθρωπος, ως οντος αύτοΰ τω τ€ σ;^ΐ7/χατι 
και τω χρώματι γνωρίμου, καίτοι και 6 τξθνεώς 

35 €χ€ΐ την αύτην τοΰ σχήματος μορφην, αλλ' όμως 
ουκ εστίν άνθρωπος. eVt δ' άδυ'νατον efvat χ^ΐρα 
όπωσοΰν 'Βιακ^ιμένην , οίον χαλκην η ξυλίνην, πλην 
641 a όμωνύμως, ώσπ€ρ τον γ€γραμμβνον Ιατρόν. ου γαρ 
Βυνησ€ται ποΐ€Ϊν το ίαυτης €ργον, ωσπ^ρ ούδ' αυλοί 
λίθινοι το εαυτών 'έργον, oiih^ 6 γ€γ ραμμένος Ιατρός, 
ομοίως δε τούτοις ουδέ των του τζθνηκότος μο- 
6 ρίων οΰδεν έτι των τοιούτων εστί, λέγω δ' οΓον 
οφθαλμός, χειρ. λίαν ουν απλώς ζ'ίρηται, και τον 
αυτόν τρόπον ωσττερ αν ει τέκτων λέγοι περί χ€ΐρός 
ζυλίνης. οϋτως γαρ και οι φυσιολόγοι τάς γβνέσεις 
και τάς αιτίας τοΰ σχήματος λέγουσιν. υπό τίνων 
γάρ έΒημιουργηθησαν δυνά/χεων; αλλ' ϊσως ο μεν 

10 τέκτων ερεΐ ττε'λεκυν η τρύπανον, ό δ' άερα και γην, 

" See Dials, Fragmented, 68 β 165. 
* i.e. the early writers on " Nature." 



any rate, the matter, if described, would be described 
as belonging to the concrete whole. For example, 
" a bed " is a certain form in certain matter, or, 
alternatively, certain matter that has a certain form ; 
so Λve should have to include its shape and the manner 
of its form in our description of it — because the 
" formal " nature is of more fundamental importance 
than the " material " nature. 

If, then, each animal and each of its parts is what it 
is in virtue of its shape and its colour, what Demo- 
critus says will be correct, since that Avas apparently 
his vicAv, if one understands him aright when he says 
that it is evident to everyone Avhat " man " is like as 
touching his shape, for it is by his- shape and his 
colour that a man may be told,^ < Now a corpse has 
the same shape and fashion as a living body ; and 
yet it is not a man. Again, a hand constituted in 
any and every manner, e.g., a bronze or wooden 
one, is not a hand except in name ; and the same 
applies to a physician depicted on canvas, or a flute 
carved in stone. None of these can perform the 
functions appropriate^o the things that bear those 
names. Likewise, the eye or the hand (or any other 
part) of a corpse is not really an eye or a hand. 
Democritus's statement, therefore, needs to be quali- 
fied, or a carpenter might as Λνεΐΐ claim that a hand 
made of Λvood really was a hand. The physiologers,* 
however, Avhen they describe the formation and the 
causes of the shape of animal bodies, talk in this 
selfsame vein. Suppose Ave ask the carver " By what 
agency was this hand fashioned ? " Perhaps his 
ansAver will be " By my axe " or " By my auger," 
just as if we ask the physiologer " By Avhat agency 
was this body fashioned } "he will say " By air " and 

c2 67 


641 a ^ ^ , , , ^ , ^ » , - 

πλην βελτιον ό τακτών ου γαρ ικανον €σται αντω 
το τοσούτον etveLV, οτι βμπβσοντος τον οργάνου 
το μεν κοίλον €γ€ν€το το δε εττίττβ^ον, άλλα διότι 
την πληγην εττοιησατο τοιαύτην, και τίνος kveKa, 
ipei την αΐτίαν, όπως τοιόνΒβ η τοιόνδε ττοτε την 
μορφην γίνηταί. 

15 Αηλον τοίνυν οτι ουκ ορθώς λεγουσι, και ότι 
λ€κτ€ον ώς τοιούτον το ζώον, και περί εκείνου και 
τι και ποιόν τι και των μορίων έκαστου,^ ωσπερ 
και περί του είδους της κλίνης. 

Ει 8η τοΰτό εστί φυχη η φνχης μέρος η μη άνευ 
φυχης {απελθούσης γοΰν ούκετι ζωόν εστίν, ουδέ 

20 των μορίων ού^εν το αυτό λείπεται, πλην τω 
σχη/Ματι μόνον, καθάπερ τα μνθευόμενα λιθοΰσθαι) , 
€1 8η ταύτα ούτω?, του φυσικού περί φνχης αν εϊη 
λέγειν και «ιδε'ναι, και ει μη πάσης, κατ* αυτό 
τούτο καθ* δ τοιούτο το ζωον, και τι εστίν η φνχη, 
•η αυτό τοϋτο το μοριον, και περί των συμβεβη- 

25 κότων κατά την τοιαύτην αύτη? ούσίαν, άλλως τε 
και της φύσεως 8ιχώς λεγομένης και οΰσης, της 
μεν ώς νλης, της δ' ώς ουσίας• και εστίν αΰτη και 
ώς η κινούσα και ώς το τέλος• τοιούτον 8ε του ζώου 

^ ΐκάστου Peck : Ικαστον vulg. 

* Or, " reason " ; see Introduction, p. 24. 

" See above, 64.0 b 26. 

• " Soul " : see Introduction, pp. 34 flF. 

* Or " motive." 



" By earth." But of the tAvo the craftsman will give 
a better answer, because he will not feel it is sufficient 
to say merely that a cavity was created here, or a 
level surface there, by a blow from his tool. He will 
state the cause" on account of \vhich, and the purpose 
for the sake of Avhich, he made the strokes he did ; 
and that will be, in order that the wood might finally 
be formed into this or that shape. 

It must ηοΛν be evident that the statements of the 
physiologers are unsatisfactory. We have to state 
how the animal is characterized, i.e., what is the 
essence and character of the animal itself, as well as 
describing each of its parts ; just as Avith the bed we 
have to state its Form.'' 

ΝοΛν it may be that the Form of any living creature 
is Soul,^ or some part of Soul, or something that in- 
volves Soul. At any rate, when its Soul is gone, it 
is no longer a living creature, and none of its parts 
remains the same, except only in shape, just like the 
animals in the story that Avere turned into stone. 
If, then, this is really so, it is the business of the 
student of Natural science to inform himself con- 
cerning Soul, and to treat of it in his exposition ; 
not, perhaps, in its entirety, but of that special part 
of it which causes the living creature to be such as it 
is. He must say Avhat Soul, or that special part of 
Soul, is ; and Avhen he has said what its essence is, 
he must treat of the attributes Avhich are attached 
to an essence of that character. This is especially 
necessary, because the term " nature " is used — 
rightly — in two senses : (a) meaning " matter," and 
(b) meaning " essence " (the latter including both 
the " Efficient "«^ Cause and the "End"). It is, of 
course, in this latter sense that the entire Soul or 



641 a ^ « , X « , , « » \ 

ητοί πάσα η φυχη η μ€ρος τι αύτης. ώστ€ και 

ούτως αν Χζκτέον eh] τω irepi φύσεως θζωρηηκω 
30 ττερί φυχης μάλλον η ττ€ρΙ της ϋλης, οσω μάλλον η 
νλη δι' €Κ€ίνην φύσις €στΙν η άνάπαλιν καΐ γαρ 
κλίνη καΐ τρίττονς το ζνλον €στίν, οτι 8υνάμ€ΐ ταΰτα 

Ά7τορησ€ΐ€ δ' άν τις €ΐς το νΰν λβχθβν €πιβλβφας, 
TTOTepov TTepi ττάσης φνχης της φυσικής βστι το 
85 €ΐπ€Ϊν η TTepi τίνος} el γαρ περί πάσης, oύSeμιa 
λeίπeτaι παρά την φνσικην ^πιστημην φιλοσοφία. 
641 b ο γαρ νους των νοητών, ωστ€ πepl πάντων η 
φυσική γνώσις αν e'ίη• της γαρ αυτή? πepι νου και 
τοΰ νοητού θεωρησαι, e'ίπep προς άλληλα, και η 
αύτη θeωpίa των προς άλληλα πάντων, καθάπ€ρ 
και πepι αΙσθήσ€ως και των αισθητών, η ούκ €στι 
5 πάσα η φνχη κινήσεως άρχη, ovSe τα μόρια άπαντα, 
αλλ' αύζησεως μεν όπερ και ev τοις φντοΐς, αλ- 
λοιώσεως δε το αισθητικόν, φοράς δ' ετερόν τι και 
ού το νοητικόν υπάρχει γάρ η φορά καΐ εν ετεροις 
τών ζώων, διάνοια δ' ουδει^ι. 8ηλον οΰν ως ον 

^ TIVOS {μορίου} Rackham. 

" i.e. qualitative change, which is the " motion " proper 
to this part of the Soul. 



some part of it is the " nature " of a living creature. 
Hence on this score especially it should be the duty 
of the student of Natural science to deal with Soul 
in preference to matter, inasmuch as it is the Soul 
that enables the matter to "be the nature " of an 
animal (that is, potentially, in the same way as a piece 
of wood " is " a bed or a stool) rather than the matter 
Λvhich enables the Soul to do so. 

In view of what we have just said, one may Λvell ask 
whether it is the business of Natural science to treat 
of Soul in its entirety or of some part of it only ; 
since if it must treat of Soul in its entirety (i.e. 
including intellect) there will be no room left 
for any other study beside Natural science — it Λνίΐΐ 
include even the objects that the intellect appre- 
hends. For consider : wherever there is a pair 
of interrelated things, such as sensation and the 
objects of sensation, it is the business of one 
science, and one only, to study them both. Now 
intellect and the objects of the intellect are 
such a pair ; hence, the same science Λvill study 
both of them, which means that there Ληΐΐ be 
nothing whatever left outside the purview of 
Natural science. All the same, it may be that 
it is neither Soul in its entirety that is the 
source of motion, nor yet all its parts taken 
together ; it may be that one part of Soul, (a), viz. 
that which plants have, is the source of growth ; 
another part, (6), the " sensory " part, is the source 
of change"; and yet another part, (c), the source 
of locomotion. That even this last cannot be the 
intellectual part is proved, because animals other 
than man have the power of locomotion, although 
none of them has intellect. I take it, then, as evident 



e41b ^ ^ / ,^, Λ » , ^ 

7T€pl ττάσης φνχης λβκτβον ovoe γαρ ττάσα φνχη 

10 φύσις, αλλά τι μόριον αντης ev η καΐ 7τΛ€ΐω. i 

Έτι δε των i^ άφαίρβσβως ovSevos οΐόν τ elvai 
την φυσίκην θ€ωρητίκήν, ζττβώτ] ή φύσις eveKa του 
ποιεί πάντα• φαίνεται γάρ, ώσπερ εν τοις τεγνα- 
στοις εστίν η τέχνη, ούτως εν αυτοις τοις πραγ- 
/χασιν αλλΐ7 τις άρχη και αιτία τοιαύτη, ην εχομεν 

16 καθάπερ το θερμον και το φνχρον εκ τον παντός. 
διό μάλλον εικός τον ονρανον γεγενησθαι ύπο 
τοιαύτης αιτίας, εΐ γεγονε, και είναι δια τοιαυτην 
αΐτίαν μάλλον η τα ζώα τα θνητά• το γοΰν τεταγ- 
μενον και το ώρισμενον πολύ μάλλον φαίνεται εν 

20 τοις ονρανίοις η περί ημάς, '^6 δ' αλλοτ αλλω? και 
ώς ετνχε περί τα θνητά μάλλον, οι 8ε των μεν 
ζώων εκαστον φύσει φασιν eiv'ai και γενέσθαι, τον 
δ' ονρανον άπο τύχης και τον αντοματον τοιούτον 
σνστηναι, εν ω από τύχης και αταξίας ουδ' ότιοΰν 
φαίνεται, πανταχού δε λεγομεν τό8ε τονΒ* ένεκα, 

25 οπού αν φαίνηται τέλος τι προς ο η κίνησις περαίνει 
μηδενός εμποΒίζοντος. ώστε eii'ai φανερον οτι εστί 
τι τοιούτον, ο 8η και καλοΰμεν φνσιν ου γάρ 8η 
6 τι ετνχεν εξ εκάστου γίνεται σπέρματος, άλλα 
τόδε εκ τού8ε, ού8ε σπέρμα το τνχον €κ του τυ- 

<• With this passage cf. Plato, PhUehus 29-30. 
'' Cf. Samuel Butler, Life and Habit, p. 134, " A hen is 
only an egg's way of making another egg." 



that we need not concern ourselves Λvith Soul in its 
entirety ; because it is not Soul in its entirety that is 
an animal's " nature," but some part or parts of it. 

Further, no abstraction can be studied hv Natural 
science, because Λvhatever Nature makes she makes 
to serve some purpose ; for it is evident that, even 
as art is present in the objects produced by art, so in 
things themselves there is some principle or cause of 
a like sort, which came to us from the universe around 
us, just as our material constituents (the hot, the 
cold, etc.) did." \\Tierefore there is better reason for 
holding that the Heaven was brought into being by 
some such cause — if we may assume that it came 
into being at all — and that through that cause it 
continues to be, than for holding the same about the 
mortal things it contains — the animals ; at any rate, 
there is much clearer eΛ"idence of definite ordering 
in the heavenly bodies than there is in us ; for what 
is mortal bears the marks of change and chance. 
Nevertheless, there are those who affirm that, while 
ever)' living creature has been brought into being 
by Nature and remains in being thereby, the heaven 
in all its glory was constructed by mere chance 
and came to be spontaneously, although there is no 
evidence of chance or disorder in it. And whenever 
there is evidently an End toΛvards which a motion 
goes forward unless something stands in its way, then 
we always assert that the motion has the End for its 
purpose. From this it is evident that something of 
the kind really exists — that, in fact, which we call 
" Nature," because in fact we do not find any chance 
creature being formed from a particular seed, but A 
comes from a, and Β from b ; nor does any chance 
seed come from any chance individual.^ Therefore 



641 b 

χόντος σώματος, άρχη άρα καΐ ποιηηκον τον e| 
30 αύτοϋ το ^e^ ου τό^ σττερμα. φύσα γαρ ταντα• 
φύεται γοΰν €Κ τούτον, αλλά μ^ην €τι τούτον 
ττροτ€ρον το ού το σπ€ρμα• yeVeat? μ^ν γαρ το 
σπβρμα, ονσια δβ το τβλος. άμφοΐν δ' έτι πρό- 
Tepov, αφ ού εστί το σπέρμα. έ'στι γαρ το 
σπέρμα 8ιχώς, ef ου τ€ και ον• καΐ γαρ άφ^ ον 
35 απηλθ€, τούτου σπέρμα, οίον ίππου, καΐ τούτον 
ο έ'σται βζ αντοΰ, οίον ορέως, τρόπον δ' ον τον 
avTOVy αλλ' έκατέρον τον €ίρημ4νον. ετι δε ^ννάμ^ι 

642 a το σπέρμα• Βύναμις δ' ώς €χ€ί προς €ντ€λ4χ€ΐαν 


ΈίσΙν άρα δυ' αΐτίαι αύται, τό θ' ου eve/ca και 
το έζ ανάγκης' πολλά γαρ γίνβται, οτι ανάγκη, 
ίσως δ' αν τι? άπορησαε ποίαν λέγονσιν ανάγκην 
β οι λέγοντβς έξ ανάγκης- των μ^ν γαρ δυο τρόπων 
ov8eT€pov οΐόν θ' ύπάρχ€ίν των Βιωρισμένων iv τοις 
κατά φίΧοσοφίαν . έ'στι δ' ev ye τοις 'έχουσι γένεσιν 
η τρίτη• λέγομβν γάρ την τροφην άναγκαΐόν τι κατ' 
ούΒέτβρον τούτων των τρόπων, αλλ' οτι ούχ οίον τ' 
avev ταύτης elvai. τοΰτο δ' έστΙν ώσπ^ρ 4ζ υπο- 
10 θέσεως• ώσπβρ γάρ evrei δει σχίζβι,ν τω ττελεκει, 
ανάγκη σκληρόν eiv-ai, et δε σκληρόν, χαλκοΰν η 

^ <.€ξ ον τό> supple\n, Σ secutus. 

" There is a reference here, which is not apparent in the 
English version, to the etymological connexion between φνσις 
(nature) and φΰ^σθαι (to grow). Cf. Met. 1014 b 16 fiF. 

* Viz. actuality is prior to potentiality. 

' These treatises are referred to again in the Politics 
(1282 b 19) and in the Eudemian Ethics (1217 b 23). The 
two modes of necessity seem to be (1) " absolute " necessity 
(mentioned here), and (2) " coercive " necessity (see Met, 


the individual from which the seed comes is the 
source and the efficient agent of that Avhich comes 
out of the seed. The reason is, that these things 
are so arranged by Nature ; at any rate, the offspring 
grows " out of the seed. Nevertheless, logically 
prior to the seed stands that of which it is the seed, 
because the End is an actual thing, and the seed is 
but a formative process. But further, prior to both 
of them stands the creature out of Λvhich the seed 
comes. (Note that a seed is the seed "of" some- 
thing in two senses — two quite distinct senses : it 
is the seed " of" that out of which it came — e.g. a 
horse — as well as " of " that Avhich will arise out of 
itself- — e.g. a mule). Again, the seed is something 
by potentiality , and Ave know Avhat is the relation of 
potentiality to actuality.* 

We have, then, these tAvo causes before us, to wit, 
the " Final " cause, and also Necessity, for many 
things come into being owing to Necessity. Per- 
haps one might ask which " Necessity " is meant 
when it is specified as a cause, since here it can be 
neither of the two modes which are defined in 
the treatises AVTitten in the philosophical manner." 
There is, howe\'er, a third mode of Necessity : it 
is seen in the things that pass through a process of 
formation ; as when we say that nourishment is 
necessary, we mean " necessary " in neither of 
the former two modes, but we mean that without 
nourishment no animal can be. This is, practically, 
"conditional" Necessity. Take an illustration: A 
hatchet, in order to split wood, must, of necessity, be 
hard ; if so, then it must, of necessity, be made of 

1015 a 20 fF.). The third he has referred to already at 
639 b 2.0. viz. " conditional " necessity. See pp. 21 f. 



σώηρουν, ούτω και CTret το σώμα όργανον [eveKa 
Τίνος γαρ βκαστον των μορίων, ομοίως oe και το 
δλον), ανάγκη άρα τοιονΒΙ eivai καΐ €Κ τοιωνοι, et 
€Κ€Ϊνο έ'σται. 

"Οτι μβν οΰν δυο τρόποι της αίτιας, καΐ Bet 

15 λ€γοντας τυγχάνξίν μάλιστα μέν άμφοΐν, €ΐ oe μη, 
π€ΐράσθαί ye ποΐ€Ϊν τοΰτο, Βηλον^ και οτι τταντ^ς οι 
τοΰτο μη ΧΙγοντ^ς ovhkv ώς etVetv Trepi φύσεως 
λεγουσιν άρχη γαρ η φύσις μάλλον της ϋλης. 
{ενιαχοΰ Be που αύτη και 'ΈμπεΒοκλης περιπίπτει, 
αγόμενος ύπ' αυτή? της αληθείας, και την ούσιαν και 

20 την φύσιν αναγκάζεται φάναι τον λογον etvat, οίον 
οστοΰν άποΒιΒούς τί εστίν ούτε γαρ εν τι των 
στοιχείων λέγει αύτο οντε Βύο η τρία ούτε πάντα, 
άλλα λόγον της μίζεως αυτών. Βηλον τοινυν οτι 
καϊ η σάρζ τον αυτόν τρόπον εστί, και των άλλων 
των τοιούτων μορίων εκαστον. αίτιον Βε του μη 

25 ελθεΐν τους προγενέστερους επι τον τρόπον τούτον, 
οτι το τί ην eii'at και το όρίσασθαι την ούσιαν ούκ 
ην, αλλ' ηφατο μεν Αημόκριτος πρώτος, ώς ούκ 
αναγκαίου Βε τη φυσική θεωρία, αλλ' εκφερόμενος 
υπ' αύτοΰ του πράγματος• επι Σ^ωκράτους Βε τοΰτο 
μεν ηύζηθη, το Βε ζητεΐν τα περί φύσεως εληζε, 

^ sic Ogle : el δε μη, δ^λόν ye ττΐφάσθαι ττοΐΐΐν vulg. 

" See Diels, Fragmented, 31 a 78. 

* " Element " : this term is normally used to denote the 
four substances, earth, water, air, fire. 

" This is probably a reference to Democritus's opposition 
to the theories of Protagoras, who held that " what appears 



bronze or of iron. Now the body, like the hatchet, 
is an instrument ; as well the whole body as each 
of its parts has a purpose, for the sake of which it 
is ; the body must therefore, of necessity, be such 
and such, and made of such and such materials, 
if that purpose is to be realized. 

It is, therefore, evident that of Causation there are 
two modes ; and that in our treatise both of them 
must be described, or at least an attempt must be 
made to describe them ; and that those Λvho fail 
herein tell us practically nothing of any value about 
" Nature," for a thing's " nature " is much more a 
first principle (or " Cause ") than it is matter. (In- 
deed, in some places even Empedocles, being led 
and guided by Truth herself, stumbles upon this, 
and is forced to assert that it is the logos Λvhich is a 
thing's essence or nature." For instance, when he is 
explaining what Bone is, he says not that it is any one 
of the Elements,** or any tΛvo, or three, or even all of 
them, but that it is " the logos of the mixture " of 
the Elements. And it is clear that he would explain 
in the same way what Flesh and each of such parts is. 
Now the reason why earlier thinkers did not arrive 
at this method of procedure was that in their time 
there was no notion of " essence " and no way of 
defining " being." The first to touch upon it was 
Democritus ; and he did so, not because he thought 
it necessary for the study of Nature, but because he 
was carried aΛvay by the subject in hand and could 
not avoid it.*' In Socrates' time an advance Avas 
made so far as the method was concerned ; but at 
that time philosophers gave up the study of Nature 

to be to you, is for you." Protagoras had emphasized the 
validity of sense-data ; Democritus denied it. 



30 ττρος be την χρησιμον aperrjv και την ττοΑιτικην 
άττέκΧιναν οΐ φίλοσοφοΰντ€ς .) 

AeLKTeov δ' όντως, οΐον otl βστι μ^ν η αναπνοή 
Tovhl χάριν, τοΰτο δε γίν€ται δια τάδε ef ανάγκης. 
η δ' ανάγκη 6τ€ μ€ν σημαίν€ί otl el €Κ€Ϊνο εσται 
το ον €V€Ka, ταΰτα ανάγκη εστίν (^oϋτωςy^ ^Χ^^**» 

35 6τ€ δ' OTL eoTLV οϋτως έχοντα και ττβφυκοτα' το 
θερμον γαρ άναγκαΐον i^ievaL καΐ πάλιν είσιεναι 
άντικροΰον, τον δ' άερα είσρεΐν τοΰτο δ' ηΒη 
642 b άναγκαΐον εστίν, του εντός δε θερμού άντικόπτοντος 
€V τη φύξει του θύραθεν άερος η ε'ίσοΒος^ καΐ η 
εζοΒος. ό μεν οΰν τρόπος ούτος 6 της μεθόδου, 
και περί ων δει λαβείν τάς αιτίας, ταΰτα και 
τοιαΰτά εστίν. 
5 II. Ααμβάνουσι δ' ενιοι το καθ^ εκαστον, δι- 
αιρούμενοι το γένος εις δυο Βιαφοράς. τοΰτο δ' εστί 
τη μεν ου paSiov, τη δε αδύνατον, ενίων γαρ εσται 

^ όντως supplevi. 
* η elaoSos om. pr. Ε. 

" " Goodness," or " virtue," is one of the chief topics 
discussed by Socrates in the Platonic dialogues. Of. 
Aristotle, Met. 987 b 1, " Socrates busied himself about moral 
matters, but did not concern himself at all with Nature as 
a whole." 

* I have not attempted, except by one insertion, to straigh- 
ten out the text of this confused account, which looks 
like a displaced note intended for the paragraph above 
(ending " realized," p. 77). If it is to remain in the text, it 
would follow at that place (after 642 a 13) least awkwardly. 
For a more lucid account of the process of Respiration see 
De resp. 480 a 16-b 5. 

" This is usually held to include Plato, on the ground that 


and turned to the practical subject of " goodness,"" 
and to political science.) 

* Here is an example of the method of exposition. 
We point out that although Respiration takes place 
for such and such a purpose, any one stage of the 
process follows upon the others by necessity. Neces- 
sity means sometimes (a) that if this or that is to 
be the final Cause and purpose, then such and such 
things must be so ; but sometimes it means (6) that 
things are as they are o'n'ing to their \'ery nature, as 
the folloΛving shows : It is necessary that the hot 
substance should go out and come in again as it 
offers resistance, and that the air should flow in — 
that is obviously necessary. And the hot substance 
within, as the cooling is produced, offers resistance, 
and this brings about the entrance of the air from 
\\ithout and also its exit. This example shoAvs hoΛV 
the method Λvorks and also illustrates the sort of 
things whose causes we have to discover. 

II. Now some AATiters *" endeavour to arrive at the 
ultimate and particular species h\ the process of 
dividing the group (genus) into two differentiae.^ 
This is a method which is in some respects difficult 
and in other respects impossible. For example : 

the method of dichotomy is used in the Sophist and Politicus. 
But the method can hardly be said to be seriously applied 
to the classification of animals in the Politicus, and in the 
Sophist it is introduced partly in a, humorous way, partly 
to lead up to the explanation of to μη όν (not-being). Either 
Aristotle has mistaken the purpose of the method (as he 
has at An. Pr. 46 a 31 fF.) or (much more probably) he is 
referring to some other writer's detailed application of it. 
See e.g. Stenzel in Pauly-Wissoica, s.v. Speusippus. 

■^ Each stage of the division gives two differentiae, which 
are treated as " genera " for the next stage of the division, 
and so on. 



642 b y , , X > V / τ t f 

Βιαφορά μία μόνη, τα δ' άλλα π€ρί€ργα, οίον νττο- 

ττουν, Βίπονν, σχιζόπουν^• αϋτη γαρ μονή κυρία. 

10 €1 δβ μιη, ταύτον πολλάκις άναγκαΐον λ€γ€ΐν. έτι 
δε προσηκ€ΐ μη διαστταν ίκαστον γ4νος, οίον τους 
όρνιθας τους μ€ν iv rfjSe τους δ' e;^ άλλτ^ διαιρέσει, 
καθάπ^ρ €χουσιν αί γ^γραμμ^ναι διαιρέσει?• εκτει 
yap του? ρ-εν μ^τά των ένυδρων συμβαίνει δι- 
Ύ)ρησθαι, τους δ' εν άλλω γ€ν€ΐ. [ταύττ] ρέν οΰν rfj 

15 ομοιότητι όρνις όνομα κείται, irepa δ ιχθνς' αλλαι 
δ' εισίν ανώνυμοι, οίον το εναιμον και το αναιμον 
€φ* εκατε'ρω yap τούτων ου κείται εν όνομα.) ειττερ 
οΰν ρηδέν των ομογενών διαστταστε'ον, τ^ ει? δυο 
διαίρεσι? μάταιος αν €Ϊη• οϋτο) γαρ οιαιροΰντας 
άναγκαΐον χωρίζ€ΐν και διασττάν των ττολυπόδων 
ycip εστί τα ρέν εν τοΓ? ττεζοΓ? τά δ' εν τοις 

20 ένυδροι?. 

III. "Ετι στ€ρησ€ΐ ρέν avay/caiov διαιρειν και 
διαιροΰσιν οι ^ιγοτομοΰντ^ς . ουκ έ'στι δέ Βιαφορα 

^ άττουν post σ;ίΐζ07Γουν vulg., del. Ogle ; fortasse [άπτερον] 
scribendum (cf. ^«. Posi. 92 a 1, Met. 1037 b 34). 

" Other groups will get broken up under several lines of 
division, as Aristotle goes on to say, and he repeats this at 
643 b 14, where he adds that " contrary " groups will get 
lumped together under a single line (and " contrariety is 
maximum ' difference,' " see Met. 1055 a 5 ff., cf. 1018 a 30). 

*' Aristotle holds that one is not enough ; see 643 b 9 ff. 
and 29 ff. 


PARTS OF ANIMALS, I. ii.-iii. 

(a) Some " groups will get only one differentia,'' the 
rest of the terms being superfluous extras," as in the 
example : footed, two-footed, cloven-footed ^ — since 
this last one is the only independently vaUd differentia. 
Other^vise the same thing * must of necessity be 
repeated many times over. 

(b) Again, it is a mistake to break up a group, as 
for instance the group Birds, by putting some birds 
in one diΛάsion and some in another, as has been done 
in the divisions made by certain A\Titers : in these 
some birds are put in with the water-creatures, and 
others in another class. (These two groups, each 
possessing its ΟΛνη set of characteristics, happen to 
have regular names — Birds, Fishes — but there are 
other groups which have not, e.g. the " blooded " 
and " bloodless " groups : there is no one regular 
name for either of these.) If, then, it is a mistake 
to break up any group of kindred creatures, the 
method of division into two ν,Λ\\ be pointless, because 
those who so divide are compelled to separate them 
and break them up, some of the many-footed animals 
being among the land-animals and others among the 

III. (c) Again, this method of tAA-ofold division 
makes it necessary to introduce privative terms, and 
those who adopt it actually do this. But a privation, as 

* i.e. all terms except the final one can be dispensed ΛνίΐΗ, 
because none of them constitutes an independent {κυρία) 
differentia ; one line of division yields one valid differentia 
and no more (c/. 644 a 2-10). 

" Cf. 644 a 5 and Met. 1038 a 32. 

• In this case, " -footed " {cf. Met. 1038 a 19 if.). But 
Aristotle does not explain how 8ίπουν is " superfluous." 



642 b ^ - , , , y w^ * 

σΎβρ-ησεως fj στερησις• ά8ννατον γαρ etoTj eii'at του 

^7) οντοζ, OLOV Trjs ατΓΟΟια? 17 του ατττερου ωσττβρ 
7ΓΤ€ρώσ€ως και ττοΒών δεΓ δε τ•^? καθόλου δια- 

25 φοράς €ΪΒη etrat• et yap /χη έ'σται, δια τι αν etTy 
των καθόλου και ου των καθ^ ζκαστον; των δβ 
διαφορών αϊ μςν καθόλου elal καΐ €γουσιν βί,'δτ], 
οίον πτ€ρόττ]ς• το μ^ν γαρ άσχιστον το δ ^(^χι- 
σμένον €στΙ 7ττ€ρόν. καΐ ποΒότης ωσαύτως τη μβν 
ΤΓολυσχώής, η Be ΒίσχίΒης, οίον τα δί^^αλα, η δ' 

30 άσχιΒης καΐ αδιαίρετο?, οίον τα μώνυχα. χαλζττον 
μέν οΰν διαλα^ειν «rat els τοιαύτας 8ιαφοράς ών 
€στιν €Ϊ8η, ώσθ' οτιοΰν ζωον iv ταύταις ύπάρχ^ιν 
και μη iv ττλ^ίοσι ταύτόν {οίον πτβρωτον και 
άπτ€ρον• €στι γαρ άμφω ταύτόν, οΐον μύρμηζ και 

35 λαμπυρίς και eTcpa τίνα), πάντων δε χαλεττώτατον 
η άΒύνατον εις τάς άντικβιμβνας} άναγκαΐον γαρ 
των καθ^ εκταστον ύπάρχ€ΐν τινι των διαφορών 

643 a ςκάστην, ωστε «rat την άντικειμβνην. el δε μη 

ivSexeTai τοις εί,'δει Βιαφερουσιν ύπάρχειν ειδό? τι 
της ουσίας ατομον και εν, αλλ' aei Βιαφοράν e^ei 
'{οίον όρνις ανθρώπου — ή διττοδ/α yap αλλτ^ και 
διάφορος• καν el εναιμα, τό αΓρα Βιάφορον, η ouhev 
5 της ουσίας το αΓρα θετίον) — el δ' ούτως εστίν, η 

^ τάς άντικΐίμΐναζ Peck : τα αντικείμενα Titze : τά άναιμα 
vulg. : τά εναντία Ogle : τά άτομα Prantl. 
* 11. 3-6 interpunctionem correxi. 

" I have not attempted to keep a consistent translation for 
•ητερόν, as Aristotle applies this term to "feathers " and to 
" wings " (of insects). 



privation, can admit no differentiation ; there cannot 
be species of what is not there at all, e.g. of " foot- 
less " or " featherless," " as there can be of " footed " 
and " feathered " ; and a generic differentia must 
contain species, else it is specific not generic. How- 
ever, some of the differentiae are truly generic and 
contain species, for instance " feathered " (some 
feathers are barbed, some unbarbed) ; and likewise 
" footed " (some feet are " many -cloven," some 
" t\vy-cloven," as in the animals with bifid hoofs, 
and some " uncloven " or " undivided," as in the 
animals with solid hoofs). Now it is difficult enough 
to arrange the various animals under such hues of 
differentiation as these, which after all do contain 
species, in such a way that every animal is included in 
them, but not the same animal in more than one of 
them (e.g. when an animal is both winged and Aving- 
less, as ants, gloΛv-worms, and some other creatures 
are) ; but it is excessively difficult and in fact im- 
possible to arrange them under the opposite Unes of 
differentiation. Every differentia must, of course, be- 
long to some species ; and this statement \vill apply 
to the negative differentiae as well as to the positive. 
Now it is impossible for any essential characteristic 
to belong to animals that are specifically different and 
at the same time to be itself one and indivisible * : it 
will ahvays admit of differentiation. (For example, 
Man and Bird are both two-footed, but this essential 
characteristic is not the same in both : it is differenti- 
ated.'' And if they are both " blooded," the blood 
must be different, or else it cannot be reckoned as 
part of their essence.) If that is so, then, the one 

' As the privative characteristic would have to be. 
" See below, 693 b 2 flF. 



643 a ^ 

μία Βίαφορά δυσιν νπάρζει•^ el δε τοΰτο, οηΛον 
OTL αδύνατον στ€ρησιν elvai ^ιαφοράν. 

"Εσονται δ' at ^ιαφοραΐ ΐσαί τοΐς άτόμοις ζωοίζ, 
€Ϊπ€ρ ατομά re ταύτα και at Βι,αφοραΙ ατομοι, 
κοινή he μτη iariv. {el δ' evBexerai VTrapxeiv^ και 

10 κοινην, ατομον he, δηλον οτι κατά ye την κοινην ev 
τω αυτω εστίν erepa οντά τω elBei ζώα. ωστ 
άναγκαΐον, el ί'διοι at ΒιαφοραΙ els άς άπαντα 
εμττίτΓτεί τά άτομα, μη^εμίαν αυτών etvai κοινην 
el he μη, eVepa οντά etV την αυτιών βahLeΐτaι.) hel 
δ' ovre το αύτο καΐ άτομον els eTepav και erepav 

16 te'vat hιaφopάv τών hιηpημevωv, ουτ els την αύτην 
eTepa, και άπαντα els ταύτα?, φανερον τοίνυν δη 
ουκ eoTi λαβείν τά άτομα εϊ^η ώs διαιρούνται οι els 
δυο hiaipouvTes τά ζώα η και άλλο οτιοΰν yevos. 
καΐ γαρ κατ^ eKeivous άναγκαΐον ισα? τά? έσχατα? 
είναι hιaφopάs τοΓ? ζωoLS πάσι τοΓ? άτόμoιs τώ 

ζοεΐ'δει. ovtos γάρ rouhe rivos γevoυs, ου hιaφopal 
πρώται τά {λευκά καΐ τά μηΥ λευκά, τούτων δ' 
εκατερου άλλαι, και oΰτωs ει? το πρόσω εω? τών 
άτο/ίΐα;ν, at τελευταιαι τεττapεs έσονται η άλλο τι 

^ 11. 3-6 interpunctionem correxi. 

* μη ύπάρχ€ΐν vulg. : corr. Titze. 

* supplevit Cornford. 

" Because it cannot fulfil the condition of admitting 
differentiation. At \vhatever stage of the division it comes 
(unless at the very end), the privative term Mill cover at least 
two species, and therefore at the next stage the dichotomists 
will have to divide it — illegitimately, as Aristotle maintains. 


differentia wiW belong to ϊλ\ό species. And if so, 
it is clear that a privative cannot be a valid 

(d) Now assuming that each species is indivisible : if 
each differentia also is indivisible, and none is common 
to more species than one, then the number of differ- 
entiae \\\\\ be equal to the number of species. (Suppos- 
ing it Avere possible to have a differentia which though 
indivisible was common ; clearly, in that case, animals 
which differed in species ΛνοηΜ be in the same di\'ision 
in virtue of that common differentia. Therefore, if the 
differentiae under which the indivisible and ultimate 
species fall are to be proper and private to each 
one, it is necessary that no differentia be common ; 
otherwise, species Λvhich are actually different will 
come under one and the selfsame differentia.) And 
we may not place one and the same indivisible 
species under two or three of the lines of diff"erentia- 
tion given by the divisions ; nor may we include 
diff"erent species under one and the same line of 
differentiation. Yet each species must be placed 
under the lines of diff'erentiation available. It is 
evident from this that it is impossible to arrive at the 
indivisible species either of animals or of any other 
group by the method of twofold division as these 
people practise it, for even on their sho\nng the 
number of ultimate differentiae must of necessity be 
equal to the total number of indivisible species of 
animals. Thus, suppose ΛΛ'e have some particular 
group of creatures whose prime differentiae are 
" pale " and " not pale " ; by that method these 
two ΛΛ -ill each give t\vo other differentiae, and so 
forth, until in the end the indivisible differentiae are 
reached : these last ones Λνϋΐ be either four in 



e43a ^ ^ , , , , / - ?x 

ττλήθος των άφ' ivos ^ίττΧασιαζο μίνων τοσαντα oe 

καΐ τα εϊ8η. 

("Εστί δ' η Βίαφορα iv rfj νλτ) το etSo?.^ ούτε 
25 γαρ avev ϋλης ουδέν ζώου μόριον, οΰτ€ μονή η 
νλη• ου γαρ ττάντως ^χον σώμα earat ζώον, ουδέ 
τών μορίων ovSev, ώσττζρ ττολλάκις eiprjTai.) 

Έτι hiaLpelv -χρη τοις iv Trj ουσία καΐ μη τοΐς 

σνμβββηκόσί καθ' αυτό, οίον βΐ rt? τα σχήματα 

hiaipoLT], OTL τα μβν 8υσΙν όρθαΐς ΐσας €χ€ί τας 

30 γωνίας, τα δε ττλείΌσιν συμβφηκος γάρ tl τω 

τρίγώνω το δυσίν όρθαΐς ισας €χ€ίν τάς γωνίας. 

"Ετι τοΐς άντικ€ΐμ€νοις διαιρεΐν {δεΓ)/ Βι,άφορα 
γαρ άλληλοίς τα,ντίΚζίμζνα, οίον λ€υκότης καΐ μζ- 
Aart'a καΐ βύθντης και καμττυλότης. iav οΰν θάτ€ρα 
Βίάφορα nj, τω άντίκειμενω δίαιρετεον, καΐ μη το 
35 μζν νβύσζΐ το δε χρώματί. ττρός δε τούτοις, τά γ' 
€μφυχα τοΐς κοινοΐς €ργοις του σώματος καΐ της 
643 b ψυχής, οίον καΐ εν ταΐς ρηθβίσαι,ς νΰν ττορευτικά καΐ 
τττηνά — εστί γάρ τα•α γ^νη οίς άμφω ύ—άρχ€ΐ καΐ 
€OTL τττηνα και άτντζρα, καθά —ep το τών μυρμήκων 

^ sic Υ : το elbos ev τ^ vXrj vulg. 
^ (δει) supplevi. 

" His point is that it is nonsensical to suppose that this 
numerical correspondence is bound to occur. 

" As at 641 a IS ff. 

« See Met. 10-25 a 30. 

^ These are enumerated in De sensu, 436 a 7 ff., and Aris- 
totle seems here to be thinking of them as grouped together 
under the several faculties — nutritive, appetitive, sensory, 


number, or some higher value of 2" ; and there will 
be an identical number of species." 

(The species is the differentia in the Matter. There 
is no animal part which exists without matter ; nor 
on the other hand is there any which is matter only, 
for body in any and every condition cannot make an 
animal or any part of an animal, as I haΛ"e often 
pointed out.*) 

(e) Again, the di\"ision ought to be made according 
to points that belong to the Essence of a thing and 
not according to its essential (inseparable) attributes. 
For instance, in making di\-isions of geometrical 
figures, it would be ^^τong to di^ide them into those 
whose angles are together equal to two right angles 
and those Λvhose angles are together greater than two 
right angles ; because it is only an attribute of the 
triangle that its angles are together equal to two 
right angles.'' 

(/) Again, di\'ision should be by opposites, 
opposites being mutually " different," e.g. pale and 
dark, straight and curved. Therefore, provided the 
tΛvo terms are truly " different," di%-ision should be 
by means of opposites, and should not characterize 
one side by ability to SΛvim and the other side by 
some colour. And besides this, di^^sion of U\-ing 
creatures, at any rate, by the functions which are 
common functions of body and soul,** such as we 
actually find done in the dixisions mentioned above, 
where animals are divided into " walkers " and 
" fliers " — for there are some groups, such as that of 
the Ants, which have both attributes, being both 

locomotive, and thought (see Be an. 414 a 38 ff.). His point 
is that the correct way to divide and classify animals is rather 
by bodily characteristics, which is what he himself does. 



yeros• — και τω αγριω και -ημ^ρω \ρυ 0€l) OLaipei- 
σθαι• ωσαύτως γαρ άν δό^ειβ ταυτά €Ϊ8η OLaipeiv' 

5 πάντα γάρ, ώς elTrelv, οσα ■ημ€ρα καΐ άγρια τυγ- 
χάνω οντά, οίον άνθρωποι, ίπποι, βθ€ς, κνν€ς ev Trj 
'IvSiKTJ, νβς, αΐγ€ς, πρόβατα' ων €καστον, et /xev 
ομώνυμον, ου Βι-ηρηται χωρίς, el δε ταϋτα iv et8et, 
ονχ οΐόν τ' eivai 8ιαφοράν το άγριον και το ημερον. 
"Ολως δ' όποιαοΰν Βιαφορα.^ jU,ta Βιαιροΰντι τοΰτο 

10 συμβαίν€ΐν άναγκαΐον. άλλα Sei πβιράσθαι λαμ- 
βάν€ΐν κατά γένη τα ζωα, ως νφήγηνθ^ οι πολλοί 
8ιορίσαντ€ς όρνιθος γένος και Ιχθύος, τούτων δ 
€καστον πολλαΐς ωρισται Βιαφοραΐς, ου κατά την 
Βιχοτομίαν. ούτω μεν γάρ ήτοι το παράπαν ουκ 
εστί λαβείν {το αυτό γάρ εις πλείους εμπίπτει 

15 διαιρέσεις και τά εναντία εις την αυττίν), τ) μία 
μόνον διαφορά εσται, και αύτη ήτοι απλή η εκ 
συμπλοκής το τελευταΐον εσται εΙΒος. εάν δε μη 
διαφοράς λαμβάνη τι? διαφοράν,* άναγκαΐον, ώσπερ 
συνδεσμω τον λόγον ενα ποιοΰντας, ούτω και την 
διαίρεσιν συνεχή ποιεΐν. λέγω δ' οΐον συμβαίνει 

20 τοις διαιρουμενοις το μεν άπτερον το δε πτερωτόν, 
πτερωτού δε το μεν ημερον το δ' άγριον, η το μεν 

^ και ΕΥ : καϊ τω vulg. 

* supplevi. 

^ όττοιανοΰν Βιαφοράν alii : όποιαοΰν Υ : διαφορά vel Βιαφορά 


■* διαφορά, λ. ES : διαφοράν λ. της διαφοράς Ρ : διαφοράς λ. 
διαφοράν Υ ; tis Peck : την vulg. 

« Cf. Plato, PoUtkus, 264 a 1. 
"* On this see Piatt, C.Q., 1909, iii. 241. 
" For διαφορά in the sense of " bifurcation " cf. Met. 
1048 b 4, Avhere he speaks of the two " parts " of a διαφορά. 
" i.e. with the preceding terms. See below, 644 a 5. 


" winged " and " ^vingless " — and by " wild " and 
" tame," " is not permissible, for this similarly would 
appear to divide up species that are the same, since 
practically all the tame animals are also found as 
wild ones : e.g. Man, the horse, the ox, the dog (in 
India **), swine, the goat, the sheep ; and if, in each 
of these groups, the Avild and the tame bear the same 
name, as they do, there is no division betΛveen them, 
Λvhile if each group is specifically a unit, then it 
follows that " wild " and " tame " cannot make a 
valid differentiation." 

And generally, the same thing inevitably happens 
whatever one single line of differentiation is taken for 
the division. The proper course is to endeavour to 
take the animals according to their groups, fol- 
loΛving the lead of the bulk of mankind, ΛνΗο have 
marked off the group of Birds and the group of Fishes. 
Each of these groups is marked οίΐ by ma?iy differentiae, 
not by means of dichotomy. By dichotomy (a) either 
these groups cannot be arrived at at all (because the 
same group falls under several divisions and contrary 
groups under the same division) or else there will be 
one differentia only, and this either singly or in 
combination ** Avill constitute the ultimate species.* 
But (b) if they do not take the differentia of the differ- 
entia, they are forced to folloΛV the example of 
those people who try to give unity to their prose by a 
free use of conjunctions : there is as little con- 
tinuity about their division. Here is an example 
to show Λvhat happens. Suppose they make the 
division into " wingless " and " winged," and then 
divide " winged " into " tame " and " wild " or into 

• And this will never completely represent any actual 
group or species. See below, 644( a 6 flF. 



643 b , , V , •. V ■? J V - 

XevKov TO 8e μζλαν ου γαρ διάφορα τοΰ πτ€ρωτοΰ 

το ημ€ρον ovSe το λζνκόν, αλλ' irepag αρχή δια- 
φορας• €Κ€Ϊ δε κατά συμβ^β-ηκός. διό ττολλαΓ? το 
ev Ευθέως διαιρετεον, ωσπ€ρ ΧΙγομ^ν. και γαρ 

25 οϋτως μβν αϊ στ€ρησ€ΐς ποιήσουσι Βιαφοράν, Ιν δε 
TTj Βυχοτομία ου ττοιήσουσιν. 

"Οτι δ' ουκ ivhexeTat των καθ^ ζκαστον ειδών 
λαμβάνειν ovhev διαιρουσι ^ίχο. το γένος, ωσπβρ 
τίν€ς ωηθησαν, καΐ έκ τώνδε φανβρόν. 

'Αδύνατον γαρ μίαν ύπάρχβυν 8υαφοράν των 

80 καθ' έκαστον διαιρετών, εάν θ' άπλα Χαμβάντ] τις^ 
εάν τε συ/Λττεττλεγ/χε'να• [λε'γω δε άττ-λά μέν, ε'άν /litj 
^Χϋ ^ΐΌ,φοράν, οϊον την σχιζοπο^ίαν, συμττ€ττΧ€γ- 
μένα δε', εάν έχΎ], οίον το ποΧυσχώζς προς τό^ 
σχίζόπουνΥ τοϋτο γάρ η συνέχζία βούΧζται των 
από τοΰ γένους κατά την διαιρεσιν Βιαφορών ως εν 

35 τι το τταν ον, αλλά παρά την Χέζιν συμβαίνει 8οκ€Ϊν 
την τελευταιαν μόνην είναι Βίαφοράν [οΓον το ποΧυ- 

644 a σ;^ιδε5' "^ το διττουν, το δ' υπόπουν και ττολυπουν 

περίεργα'].'^ οτι δ' αδύνατον ττλειου? είναι τοιαύτας, 
ΖηΧον άει yap βαδίζων έπΙ την έσχάτην Βιαφοράν 
αφικν€Ϊται [αλλ' ουκ ε'ττι την τελευταιαν και το 
ειδο?]"^ αϋτη δ' εστίν τ) το σχιζόπουν μόνον, η 
5 πάσα η σύμπΧεζις , ε'άν διαιρηται άνθρωπος,^ οίον 
€1 τι? συνθείη υπόπουν, Βίπουν, σχιζόπουν. ει δ' 
^ν ο άνθρωπος σχιζόπουν μόνον, οϋτως έγίγνετ' αν 
αυτί] {τ^)' /Lii'a Βιαφορά. νυν δ' επειδή ουκ εστίν, 

^ TIS Υ : om. vulg. ^ ττροί τω Piatt. 

' seclusi. codices varia, ut videtur ; sic Bekker. 

* oiol•' . . . πΐρύργα seclusi. 

^ αλλ' . . . elBos seclusi. 
^ άνθρωπον vulg. ' (ij) Ogle. 



" pale " and " dark " : neither " tame " nor " pale " 
is a differentiation of " winged," but the beginning 
of another line of differentiation, and can come in 
here only hy accide?it. Therefore, as I say, in dividing 
we must distinguish the one original group forthwith 
by numerous differentiae ; and then too the privative 
terms will make valid differentiae, which they Λνϊΐΐ 
never do in the system of dichotomy. 

Here are further considerations to show that it is 
impossible to come at any of the particular species by 
the method of dividing the group into two, as some 
people have imagined. 

Obviously it is impossible that one single differentia 
is adequate for each of the particular species covered 
by the division, whether you adopt as your differentia 
the isolated term or the combination of terms " (for 
this is intended by the continuity of the series of 
differentiae throughout the division from the original 
group, to indicate that the Avhole is a unity ; but, in 
consequence of the form of the expression, the last 
one comes to be considered as the sole differentia). 
And it is evident that there cannot be more than one 
such differentia ; for the division proceeds steadily until 
it reaches the ultimate differentia, and — supposing the 
division is aiming at " Man " — this is either " cloven- 
footed " alone, or else the whole combination, e.g. 
if one combined " footed," " two-footed," " cloven- 
footed." ^ If Man Λvere merely a cloven-footed 
animal, then this Avould be the one differentia, arrived 
at by the right method. But as he is not merely 

" i.e. the last term of any series, or all its terms together, 
as he goes on to sav• Cf. 643 b 15 f. 

" This definition 'appears also in Met. 1037-1038. 

D 91 


644 a , ^ , V , , / / > -ν \ X 

ανάγκη πολλάς eivai μη ύπο μίαν hiaipeaiv. άλλα 

μην ττΧζίους ye του αύτοΰ ουκ έ'στιν ύπο μιαν 

10 ^ιχοτομίαν elvai, άλλα μίαν κατά μίαν reXevrav. 
ωστ€ αδύνατον ότίοΰν λαβ€Ϊν των καθ' €καστον 
ζωών Βίχα δί,αφου /xeVous". 

IV. Άπορήσείζ δ' αν τι? δια τι ουκ άνωθβν evt 
ονόματι €μπ€ρίλαβόντ€ς άμα iv γένος άμφω προσ- 
ηγόρβυσαν οΐ άνθρωποι, ο 7Τ€ρί€χ€ί τά τβ 'ένυορα 

15 /cat τά πτηνά των ζώων έ'στι γάρ eVta πάθη 
κοινά και τούτοις [και τοις άλλοις ζωοις άπασιν].^ 
αλλ' όμως ορθώς Βιώρισται τούτον τον' τρόπον, 
δσα μ€ν γάρ διαφέρει των γενών καθ ύπεροχην και 
τω μάλλον και ήττον, ^ ταΰτα ύπέζευκται evi yerei, 
οσα δ' έχβι το άνάλογον, χωρίς• λέγω δ' οίον όρνις 

20 όρνιθος διαφέρει τω μάλλον η καθ' ύπεροχην {το 
μέν γάρ μακρόπτερον το δε βραχύπτερον), ίχθύβς 
δ' όρνιθος τω άνάλογον (ο γάρ έκείνω πτερόν, θα- 
τέρω λεπίς). τοΰτο δε ποιεΐν έπι πάσιν ου paSiov 
τά γάρ πολλά ζώα άνάλογον ταύτό πέπονθεν. 

Έττει δ' ούσίαι μέν eiai τά έσχατα είδη, κατά 

25 δε ταΰτα τά' το είδος αδιάφορα [οίον Έωκράτης, 
Κορισκο?), άναγκαΐον η τά καθόλου υπάρχοντα 

^ seclusi Ogle docente. 

^ sic Rackham : τ6 μάλλον καί τ6 (το οηι. Υ) iJTTov vulg. 

^ κατά. δβ ταΰτα τα Peck : ταΰτα 8e κατά vulg. 

" This paragraph has been corrupted by confusing inter- 
polations, which I have bracketed in the Greek text and 
omitted in the translation. With this passage cf. Met. 
1037 b 27—1038 a 30. 

* On this point see D'Arcy W. Thompson, Growth and 
Form, esp. ch. 17, and the same author's paper Excess 
and Defect ; or The Little More and the Little Less, in 
Mind, xxxviii. (N.S.) 149, pp. 43-55. See also infra, 
661 b 28 ff., 692 b 3 ff. ; and Introduction, p. 39. 


PARTS OF ANIMALS, I. iii.-iv. 

that, it is necessary that there should be many 
differentiae, not under one hne of division. And yet 
there cannot be more than one differentia for the same 
thing under one Hne of dichotomy : one hne must end 
in one differentia. So it is impossible for those who 
follow the method of twofold division to arrive at any 
of the particular animals.'* 

IV. Some may find it puzzling that general usage 
has not combined the water-animals and the feathered 
animals into one higher group, and adopted one name 
to cover both, seeing that in fact these two groups 
have certain features in common. The answer is that 
in spite of this the present grouping is the right one ; 
because while groups that differ only " by excess " 
(that is, " by the more and less " *) are placed 
together in one group, those which differ so much 
that their characteristics can merely be called ana- 
logous are placed in separate groups. As an illus- 
tration : {a) one bird differs from another bird " by 
the more," or " by excess " : one bird's feathers 
are long, another's are short ; whereas (6) the 
difference betΛveen a Bird and a Fish is greater, 
and their correspondence is only by analogy : a fish 
has no feathers at all, but scales, Avhich correspond 
to them. It is not easy to do this in all cases, for 
the corresponding analogous parts of most groups of 
animals are identical. 

Now since the ultimate species are " real things," ^ Method. 
while within them are individuals which do not differ 
in species (as e.g. Socrates and Coriscus),'* we shall 
have to choose (as I have pointed out) * between 

' Lit. " substances." 

' i.e. within the species " man." 

• Above, at 639 a, b, etc. 



644 8 ^ 

ττρότβρον €ΐπ€Ϊν η ττυλλάκις ταύτον Xeyeiv, καθαπ€ρ 

€ίρτ]ται. (τα δε καθόλου κοινά• τα γαρ ττλξίοσιν 
υπάρχοντα καθόλου λεγομ^ν.) άποριαν δ €χ€ΐ περί 
πότερα Βεΐ πραγματεύεσθαι. fj μεν γαρ ούσια το 

80 τω εί'δβι ατομον, κράτιστον, εΐ τις δυναιτο, περί των 
καθ' εκαστον και άτο/^ων τω ε'ί8ει θεωρεΐν χωρίς, 
ωσπερ περί άνθρωπου, οϋτω καΐ^ περί όρνιθος, ^/cat 
μη περί ότουοΰν όρνιθος^ (έχει yap εϊΒη το γένος 
τοΰτο) , αλλά περί των ατόμων* οίον τη στρουθός η 
γερανός η τι τοιούτον, η δε συμβήσεται λέγειν 

35 πολλάκις περί του αύτοΰ πάθους δια το κοινή 
πλείοσιν ύπάρχειν, ταύτγι δ' εστίν υπάτοπον και 
Bi4h μακρόν το περί εκάστου λέγειν χωρίς. Ισως μεν 
ούν ορθώς έχει τα μεν κατά γένη κοινή λέγειν, 
δσα λέγεται καλώς ώρισμενων τών ανθρώπων, και 
έχει τε μίαν φύσιν κοινην και εϊΒη εν αύτοΐς^ μη 
5 πολύ διεστώτα, όρνις καΐ ιχθύς, και ε'ί τι άλλο 
εστίν άνώνυμον μεν, τω γένει δ' όμοια* περιέχει 
τα εν αύτώ^ είδη' δσα Βέ μη τοιαύτα, καθ' 
εκαστον, οίον περί ανθρώπου και ε'ί τι τοιούτον 
ετερόν εστίν. 

Ίίχεδόν δε τοις σ;)^7ίμασι τών μορίων και του 
σώματος όλου, εάν ομοιότητα εχωσιν, όψισται τά 
γένη, οίον το τών ορνίθων γένος προς αυτό* πε- 

^ καΐ] μη IJonitz. 

* hunc locum correxi, Σ seciitiis ; exei γαρ €Ϊ8η το ytvos 
τοΰτο- άλλα πίρΐ ότονονν όρνιθος τών ατόμων, οίον κτλ. vulg. 

^ αντοΐς viilg. : correxi. * ομοίως vulg. : correxi. 

* αύτω viilg. : correxi. 

^ αυτό Piatt, fortasse Z^ : αυτό Υ : αυτά Ζ*, vulg. 



describing first of all the general attributes of many 
species, and repeating the same thing many times 
over. (By " general " attributes 1 intend the 
" common " ones. That Λvhich belongs to many wa 
call " general.") One may well hesitate whether of 
the two courses to follow. For, in so far as it is the 
specifically indivisible which is the " real thing," it 
would be best, if one could do it, to study separ- 
ately the particular and specifically indivisible sorts, 
in the same way as one studies " Man," to do this 
with " Bird " too, that is, to study not just " Bird " 
in the mass, but — since " Bird " is a group which 
contains species — the indivisible species of it, e.g. 
Ostrich, Crane, and so on. Yet, on the other hand, 
this course is somewhat unreasonable and long- 
winded, because it makes us describe the same attri- 
butes time and again, as they happen to be common 
attributes of many species. So perhaps after all the 
right procedure is this : (a) So far as concerns the 
attributes of those groups which have been correctly 
marked off by popular usage — groups which possess 
one common nature apiece and contain in themselves 
species not far removed from one another, I mean 
Birds and Fishes and any other such group Λvhich 
though it may lack a popular name yet contains 
species generically similar — to describe the common 
attributes of each group all together ; and (b) Λvith 
regard to those animals which are not covered by 
this, to describe the attributes of each of these by 
itself — e.g. those of Man, and of any other such species 
there may be. 

Now it is practically by resemblance of the shapes 
of their parts, or of their Avhole body, that the groups 
are marked off from each other : as e.g. the groups 




10 TTOvde καΐ το των ίχθνων καΐ τά μαλάκια re καΐ 

τά οστρβια. τά γάρ μόρια ^ιαφίρουσι τούτων ου 
Tfj άνάΧογον όμοιότητι, οίον ev άνθρώπω καΐ 1)(θνι 
7r€7Tov9ev όστοΰν ττρός άκανθαν, άλλα μάλλον τοΐς 
σωματίκοΐς ττάθ€σιν, οίον jueye^ei μικρότητι, μαλα- 

15 κότητί σκληρότητί, λείότητί τραχντητί καΐ τοΐς 
TOLOVTOLS, δλως 8e τω μάλλον καΐ ήττον. 

ΙΙώς μβν ούν άποΒβχεσθαί δβΓ την π&ρΐ φύσεως 
μέθο^ον, καΐ τίνα τρόπον γίνοίτ' άν ή θεωρία ττερί 
αυτών ο^ω καΐ ραστα, eVt he ττζρΐ διαιρέσεως , τίνα 
τρόπον ενδέχεται μετιοϋσι λαμβάνειν χρησίμ,ως, και 

20 διότι το διχοτομεΐν Trj μεν αδύνατον τύ] 8ε κενόν, 
εΐρηται. διωρισμενων δε τούτων περί των εφεζής 
λεγωμεν, αρχήν τήνδε ποιησάμενοι. 

V. Ύών ουσιών οσαι φύσει συνεστασι, τάς μεν 
(^εγομενΥ^ άγενήτους και άφθαρτους είναι τον 
άπαντα αιώνα, τάς δε μετεχειν γενέσεως και 

25 φθοράς. σνμβεβηκε δε περί μεν εκείνας τίμιας 
ούσας και θείας ελάττους ήμΐν ύπάρχειν θεωρίας 
{και γάρ εζ ων άν τις σκεφαιτο περί αυτών, και 
περί ών εΐδέναι ποθοΰμεν, παντελώς εστίν ολίγα τά 
φανερά κατά τήν α'ίσθησιν), περί δε τών φθαρτών 
φυτών τε και ζώων εύποροΰμεν μάλλον προς τήν 

80 γνώσιν δια το σύντροφον πολλά γάρ περί εκαστον 
γένος λάβοι τις άν τών υπαρχόντων βουλόμενος 
διαπονεΐν ικανώς. έχει δ εκάτερα χάριν, τών μεν 
γάρ ει και κατά μικρόν έφαπτόμεθα, όμως διά τήν 

^ {λίγομΐν) Peck. 

" Lit., " softies." The group includes, roughly, the 
cephalopod mollusca. 

' Lit., " oysters " (bivalves). 



Birds, Fishes, Cephalopods," Testacea.^ Within each 
of these groups, the parts do not differ so far that they 
correspond only by analogy (as a man's bone and a 
fish's spine) ; that is, they differ not structurally, but 
only in respect of bodily quahties, e.g. by being 
larger or smaller, softer or harder, smoother or 
rougher, and so forth, or, to put it generally, they 
differ " by the more and less." 
We have ηοΛν shown : 

(1) how to test a method of Natural science ; 

(2) what is the most systematic and easiest way of 
studying Natural science ; 

(3) Λvhat is the most useful mode of Division for 
our present purpose ; 

(4) why dichotomy is in one respect impossible and in 
another futile. 

Now that we have made this beginning, and clearly 
distinguished these points, we may proceed. 

V. Of the works of Nature there are, we hold, two Aprotreptic 
kinds : those which are brought into being and perish, of anhnalsf^ 
and those which are free from these processes through- 
out all ages. The latter are of the highest worth and 
are divine, but our opportunities for the study of 
them are someΛvhat scanty, since there is but little 
evidence available to our senses to enable us to con- 
sider them and all the things that we long to knoΛv 
about. We have bettermeans of information, however, 
concerning the things that perish, that is to say, plants 
and animals, because Λve live among them ; and any- 
one who will but take enough trouble can learn 
much concerning every one of their kinds. Yet 
each of the two groups has its attractiveness. For 
although our grasp of the eternal things is but 
slight, nevertheless the joy which it brings is, by 



τιμιότητα του γνωριί^ζΐν ηοιον η τα παρ ημιν 
άπαντα, ώσπερ καΐ των €ρωμ€νων το τυγον και 

35 μικρόν μόριον KaTiheiv τβιόν iuTiv η πολλά eVepa 
645 a Kf^i- μεγάλα δι' aKpiBeiag ISeiv τά Se δια το μάλλον 
και πλίίω γνωρίζζΐν αυτών λα /x^ayet την της επι- 
στήμης ύπεροχ^ην, €τι he δια το πλησιαίτερα ημών 
elvai και της φύσεως οίκειότερα άντικαταλλάτ- 
τζταί τι προς την περί τά θεία φιλοσοφίαν. Ιπει 

6 δβ περί εκείνων ^ιηλθομεν λέγοντες το φαινόμενον 
ημΐν, λοιπόν περί της ζωικής φύσεως ειπείν, μηΒεν 
παραλιπόντας εις δυΐ'αιαιν μήτε ατιμότερον μήτε 
τιμιώτερον. και γάρ εν τοΐς μη κεχαρισμενοις 
αυτών προς την αί'σ^τ^σιν κατά την θεωρίαν ομως^ 
η Βημιουργησασα φύσις αμήχανους η8ονάς παρέχει 

10 τοΐς 8υναμενοις τάς αιτίας γνωρίζειν και φύσει 
φιλοσόφοις . και γάρ άν εΐη παράλογον και άτοπον, 
ει τάς μεν εικόνας ο.ύτών θεωροΰντες χαίρομεν δτι 
την δημιουργησασαν τεχνην συνθεωροΰμεν, οίον την 
γραφικην η την πλαστικήν, αυτών Βε τών φύσει 
συνεστώτων μη μάλλον άγαπώμεν την θεωρίαν, 

15 Βννάμενοι γε τάς αίτιας καθοράν. διό δβΓ μη 
8υσχεραίνειν παι8ικώς την περί τών ατιμότερων 
ζωών επίσκεφιν εν πάσι γάρ τοΐς φυσικοΐς ενεστί 

^ δμως Bekker : ομοίωί codd. 

" This passage, 6i5 a 6-15, is quoted by R. Boj-le {Of the 
Usefulnesse of Naturall Philosophy, 1663) both in Gaza's 
Latin version and in an English translation, and he intro- 
duces it thus: "And, methinks, Aristotle discourses very 
Philosophically in that place, where passing from the con- 
sideration of the sublimist productions of Nature, to justifie 
his diligence in recording the more homely Circumstances of 
the History of Animals, he thus discourses." He also quotes 


reason of their excellence and worth, greater than 
that of knowing all things that are here below ; just 
as the joy of a fleeting and partial glimpse of those 
whom we love is greater than that of an accurate 
view of other things, no matter hoAv numerous or how 
great they are. But inasmuch as it is possible for us 
to obtain more and better information about things 
here on the earth, our knowledge of them has the 
advantage over the other ; and moreover, because 
they are nearer to us and more akin to our Nature, 
they are able to make up some of their leeway as 
against the philosophy which contemplates the things 
that are divine. Of " things divine " we have al- 
ready treated and have set doAvn our views concerning 
them ; so it now remains to speak of animals and 
their Nature. " So far as in us lies, we λ\ή11 not leave 
out any one of them, be it never so mean ; for though 
there are animals which have no attractiveness for 
the senses, yet for the eye of science, for the student 
who is naturally of a philosophic spirit and can dis- 
cern the causes of things, Nature which fashioned 
them pro\'ides joys Λvhich cannot be measured. If we 
study mere likenesses of these things and take pleasure 
in so doing, because then we are contemplating the 
painter's or the carver's Art Avhich fashioned them, and 
yet fail to delight much more in studying the works 
of Nature themselves, though we have the ability to 
discern the actual causes — that Mould be a strange 
absurdity indeed. Wherefore we must not betake 
ourselves to the consideration of the meaner animals 
with a bad grace, as though we were children ; since 
in all natural things there is somcAvhat of the mar- 

the following passage, a 15-23, describing it as " that Judicious 
reasoning of Aristotle." 

Ώ2 99 


645 Λ 

Tt θανμαστόν καΐ καθάπβρ Ήράκλζίτος Aeyerat 

20 προς τους ξένους ζίττξ,ΐν τους βουΧομΙνους €ντυχ€Ϊν 
αύτω, οΐ εττβιδτ] 7τροσιόντ€ς elhov αύτον θβρόμ^νον 
■προς τω Ιπνω εστ-ησαν (e/ce'Aeue yap αυτούς etaUvai 
θαρροΰντας• βΐναι γαρ καΐ €νταΰθα θίους), ούτω και 
προς την ζητησιν π€ρΙ ίκάστου των ζωών προσι^ναι 
δβΓ μη 8υσωπούμ€νον, ως iv αττασιν οντος τίνος 
φυσικού καΐ καλοΰ. 

Το γαρ μη τυχόντως αλλ' eVe/ca τίνος ev τοις της 

25 φυσ€ως €ργοις βστί καΐ μάλιστα' ου δ' eVe/ca 
συν€στηκ€ν η γέγονβ τάΧους, την του καλοΰ -χ^ώραν 
ί'ίληφίν. el δε τι? την π€ρΙ των άλλων ζώων 
θβωρίαν άτιμον etvat νβνόμίκβ, τον αύτον τρόπον 
οΐζσθαι χρη και π€ρΙ αύτοϋ• ούκ έ'στι yap avev 
πολλής Βυσχ€ρ€ίας IBelv Ιζ ων συνίστηκζ το των 

80 ανθρώπων γένος, οίον αίμα, σαρκβς, οστά, φλέββς 
και τα τοιαύτα μόρια, ομοίως τ€ δει νομίζζΐν τον 
ττερι ούτινοσοΰν των μορίων η των σκβυών δια- 
λ€γόμ€νον μη ττερι της ύλης ποΐ€Ϊσθαι την μνήμην, 
μη^ζ ταύτης χάριν, άλλα της δλης μορφής, οίον και 
π€ρΙ οικίας, άλλα μη πλίνθων και πηλού και ξύλων 

85 και τον π€ρι φύσεως ττερΐ της συνθέσζως και της 
δλης ουσίας, αλλά μη π€ρι τούτων α μη συμβαίνω 
χωριζόμενα ποτ€ της ούσιας αυτών. 

" Or, with reference to another use of ουσία, " which gives 
them their being." Independent approaches to the position 
that components are non-significant in isolation had been 
made, e.g. by Anaxagoras, as a physical philosopher (see 
my article in C.Q. xxv. 27 ff., 112 ff.), Λvho held that " the 
things (i.e. the constituent elements) in this world are not 
separate one from another" (frag. 8, Diels, Fragmented, 



vellous. There is a story which tells how some 
visitors once wished to meet Heracleitus, and when 
they entered and saw him in the kitchen, warming 
himself at the stove, they hesitated ; but Heracleitus 
said, " Come in ; don't be afraid ; there are gods 
even here." In like manner, Λve ought not to hesi- 
tate nor to be abashed, but boldly to enter upon our 
researches concerning animals of every sort and Idnd, 
knoAving that in not one of them is Nature or Beauty 

I add " Beauty," because in the works of Nature 
purpose and not accident is predominant ; and the 
purpose or end for the sake of which those works have 
been constructed or formed has its place among what 
is beautiful. If, however, there is anyone who holds 
that the study of the animals is an unworthy pursuit, 
he ought to go further and hold the same opinion 
about the study of himself, for it is not possible 
without considerable disgust to look upon the blood, 
flesh, bones, blood-vessels, and suchlike parts of 
which the human body is constructed. In the same 
way, when the discussion turns upon any one of the 
parts or structures, we must not suppose that the 
lecturer is speaking of the material of them in itself 
and for its ΟΛνη sake ; he is speaking of the whole 
conformation. Just as in discussing a house, it is the 
Λvhole figure and form of the house Avhich concerns us, 
not merely the bricks and mortar and timber ; so in 
Natural science, it is the composite thing, the thing 
as a whole, which primarily concerns us, not the 
materials of it, which are not found apart from the 
thing itself whose materials they are." 

59 Β 8) ; also from the logical point of view, as seen in 
Plato, Theaetetus, 201 ε ff. 



645 b Άναγκαΐον 8e πρώτον τα σνμβββηκότα διελειν 
ττζρΐ €καστον γύνος, δσα καθ' αντα ττασιν ύττάρχα 
τοις ζώοις, μ€τά 8e ταΰτα τάς αίτιας αυτών ττβιρα- 
σθαι διελβιν. ζ'ίρηται μ€ν οΰν καΐ πρότ^ρον οτι 
ττοΧλα κοινά ττοΧλοΐς ΰπάρχ€ΐ τών ζωών, τα μβν 
απλώς {οΐον ττόδε?, πτβρά, λζπί^ξς, καΐ πάθη δή 
τον αντον τρόπον τούτοις), τα δ' άνάλογον (Aeyoj δ 
άνάλογον, οτι τοΐς μ€ν ύπάρχβι πλ^υμων, τοις δε 
πλζύμων μ€ν ου, ο δέ τοΐς €χουσί πλζΰμονα, e/cet- 
νοίς €Τ€ρον αντί τούτου- καΐ τοΐς μεν αίμα, τοΐς oe 

10 το άνάλογον την αύτην 'έχον Βύναμιν ηνπερ τοΐς 
€ναίμοις το αΓ/χα) • το δε Aeyetv χωρίς π€ρΙ εκάστων 
τών καθ' έκαστα, καΐ έμπροσθεν ε'ίπομεν οτι 
πολλάκις συμβήσεται ταύτα λέγειν, επειΒάν λέ- 
γω μεν περί πάντων τών υπαρχόντων υπάρχει δε 
πολλοίς ταύτα, ταΰτα μεν ούν ταύτη Βιωρίσθω. 

15 Έττει δε το μεν όργανον παν ενεκά του, τών δε 
τοΰ σώματος μορίυ^ν εκαστον ενεκά του, το ο ού 
ένεκα πραζίς τι?, φανερον οτι και το σύνολον σώμα 
σννεστηκε πράξεως τίνος ένεκα πολυμερούς} ού 
γαρ η πρίσις τοΰ πρίονος χάριν γεγονεν, αλλ' ο 
πρίων της πρίσεως• χρησις γάρ τις η πρισις εστίν. 
ώστε και το σώμα πως της φυχης ένεκεν, και τα 

20 μόρια τών έργων προς ά πεφυκεν εκαστον. 

Αεκτεον άρα πρώτον τάς πράζεις τάς τε κοινάς' 

^ πολνμ€ροϋ5 Ρ : πλήρους vulg. : fortasse πολυμόρφου, cf. 
646 b 15. 

* πάντων post κοινάς vulg. ; delevi. 

" Almost always used in the singular by Aristotle. 

* By " blood " Aristotle means red blood only. " Blooded " 
and " bloodless " animals do not quite coincide with verte- 
brates and invertebrates ; for there are some invertebrates 
which have red blood, e.g. molluscs {Planorbis), insect 



First of all, our business must be to describe the Final 
attributes found in each group ; I mean those of th^^"^^ 
" essential " attributes Λvhich belong to all the ^lethod. 
animals, and after that to endeavour to describe the 
causes of them. It will be remembered that I have 
said already that there are many attributes which 
are common to many animals, either identically the 
same (e.g. organs like feet, feathers, and scales, and 
affections similarly), or else common by analogy 
only (i.e. some animals have a lung," others have no 
lung but something else to correspond instead of 
it ; again, some animals have blood, Avhile others have 
its counterpart,^ Avhich in them has the same value 
as blood in the former). And I have pointed out 
above that to treat separately of all the particular 
species would mean continual repetition of the 
same things, if we are going to deal with all their 
attributes, as the same attributes are common to 
many animals. Such, then, are my views on this 

ΝοΛν, as each of the parts of the body, like every 
other instrument, is for the sake of some purpose, 
viz. some action, it is evident that the body as a 
whole must exist for the sake of some complex 
action. Just as the saΛV is there for the sake of 
sawing and not sawing for the sake of the saw, 
because sawing is the using of the instrument, so in 
some way the body exists for the sake of the soul, 
and the parts of the body for the sake of those 
functions to which they are naturally adapted. 

So first of all we must describe the actions (a) 

larvae {Chiro7W)nus), worms (Arenicola). In other in- 
vertebrates the blood may be blue (Crustacea) or green 
(Sabellid worms), or there may be no respiratory pigment 
at all (most insects). 



645b ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ , ^ / ίΛ 

και τάς κατά γένος και τάς κατ' €ΐδο?. ΧΙγω oe 
κοινάς μεν αι ττασιν νττάρχουσι τοις ζωοις, κατά 
γένος he όσων Trap" άλληλα τάς διαφοράς όρώμεν 

25 καθ^ ύττεροχην οϋσας, οίον όρνιθα λέγω κατά γένος, 
ανθρωπον δε κατ^ etSo?, καΐ ττάν ο κατά τον 
καθόλου λόγον μη^βμίαν έχ€ΐ Βιαφοράν. τά μέν 
γάρ έχονσι το kolvov κατ' άναλογίαν, τά δέ κατά 
γένος, τά δε κατ' βΐδος. 

"Οσαι μέν ουν ττράζζΐς άΧλων ένεκα, Βηλον οτί 
και ών αΐ ττράζεις τον αυτόν τρόπον διεστασιν 

30 ονττερ at πράζεις. ομοίως δε καν et τινξς ττρότεραι 
και τέλος έτερων ττράζεων τυγχάνουσιν ουσαι, τον 
αυτόν έζει τρόπον και των μορίων έκαστον ών αΐ 
πράζίίς αϊ τοιαΰται• και τρίτον, ά τα'ών^ Οντων 
αναγκαΐον ύπάρχειν. {λέγω δε πάθη και πράξεις 
γένεσιν, αυ^τ^σιν, όχείαν, έγρηγορσιν, ϋπνον, πο- 

35 peiav, και όπόσ' άλλα τοιαύτα τοις ζωοις υπάρχει' 
μόρια δε λέγω ρΐνα, όφθαλμόν και το σύνολον 
Μ6& πρόσωπον, ών έκαστον καλείται μέλος. ομοίως 
δε και περί των άλλων.) 

Και περί μεν του τρόπου της μεθόΒου τοσαΰθ' 
ημΐν ειρήσθω• τάς δ' αιτίας πειραθώμεν ειπείν περί 
τε των κοινών και των ιΒίων, άρζάμενοι, καθάπερ 
Βιωρίσαμεν, πρώτον από τών πρώτων, 

^ ά τινών Peck, cf. 677 a 18: ων vulg. : ά τούτων Ogle. 

" See above, note on 644 a 17. 
* Examples will occur during the course of the treatise. 



which are common, and those which belong (b) to a 
group, or (c) to a species. By " common " I mean 
those that are present in all animals ; by " those 
which belong to a group " I mean those of animals 
whose differences we see to be differences " of 
excess " " in relation to one another : an example of 
this is the group Birds. Man is an example of a 
species ; so is every class which admits no differ- 
entiation of its general definition. These three sorts 
of common attributes are, respectively, (1) analogous, 
(2) generic, (3) specific. 

Now it is evident that when one action is for the 
sake of another action, then the instruments which 
perform the two actions differ exactly as the two 
actions differ : and if one action is " prior " to another 
and is the " end " of that other action, then the part 
of the body to which it belongs \nll be " prior " to 
the part to which the other action belongs. There 
is also a third possibility, viz. that the action and its 
organ are there simply because the presence of others 
necessarily involves them.'' (By affections and actions 
I mean Generation, GroΛvth, Copulation, Waking, 
Sleep, Locomotion, and the other similar ones that 
are found in animals. Examples of parts are : Nose, 
Eye, Face ; each of these is named a " limb " or 
" member." And the same holds for the rest too.) 

Let this suffice concerning the method of our 
inquiry, and let us now endeavour to describe • the 
causes of all these things, particular as well as 
common ; and, according to the principles laid down, 
we Λνϋΐ begin with the first ones first. 



646 a 

E/c τίνων μ€ν ονν μορίων καΐ πόσων συν- 

€στηκ€ν έ'καστον των ζώων, ev ταΐς ιστοριαις ταΖς 

10 TTepl αυτών δεδτ^λωται σαφέστερον δι' ας δ' αίτια? 

€καστον τοΰτον €χζί τον τρόπον, €πισκζπτ€ον νυν, 

χωρίσαντας καθ' αυτά, τών iv ταΓ$• ίστορίαι,ς etpry- 


Ύριών δ' ούσών τών συνθβσ€ων πρώτην μ€ν αν 

TIS θβίη την €Κ τών καλουμένων υπό τίνων στοί- 

■χ^είων, οίον γης, aepog, ύ'δατο?, πυρός. €τι δβ 

15 βίΧτιον \σως βκ τών 8υνάμ€ων Xeyetv, καΐ τούτων 

ουκ βζ άπασών, αλλ' ώσπ^ρ iv έτέροις ζ'ίρηταί καΐ 

πρότ€ρον' ύγρόν γαρ /cat ζηρόν και θ^ρμον καΐ 

φυχρόν ύλη τών συνθέτων σωμάτων εστίν, αί δ' 

αλλαι 8ίαφοραΙ ταυται? άκολουθοΰσίν, οΐον βάρος 

και κουφότης και πυκνότης και jLiavor^? και τρα- 

20 χύτης και λ€ΐοτης και τάλλα τα τοιαύτα πάθη τών 

σωμάτων, δευτβρα δε σύστασης βκ τών πρώτων η 

τών όμοιομερών φύσις iv τοις ζωοις ioTiv, οίον 

οστόΰ και σαρκός και τών άλλων τών τοιούτων. 

" For the threefold series cf. Be gen. an. 714 a 9 if. This 
first " composition " seems to be intended to cover nan- 
organic compounds. 

* " Dynamis " here is clearly the pre- Aristotelian technical 
term. See Introduction, p. 30. ' SeeDegen.etcorr.chh.2,S. 

'' In some contexts, " fluid " and " solid " seem more 


I HAVE already described with considerable detail Purpose and 
in my Researches upon Ayiimals what and how many the treatise, 
are the parts of Λvhich the various animals are 
composed. We must now leave on one side Λvhat 
Avas said there, as our present task is to consider 
Avhat are the causes through Λvhich each animal is as 
I there described it. 

Three sorts of composition can be distinguished. 
(1) First of all "■ we may put composition out of the 
Elements (as some call them), viz. Earth, Air, Water, 
Fire ; or perhaps it is better to say dynameis ^ instead 
of Elements — some of the dynameis, that is, not all, 
as I have stated previously elsewhere. '^ It is just 
these four, the fluid substance, the solid,'' the hot, and 
the cold, which are the matter of composite bodies ; 
and the other differences and qualities — such as 
heaviness lightness, firmness looseness, roughness 
smoothness, etc. — which composite bodies present 
are subsequent upon these. (2) The second sort of 
contposition is the composition of the "uniform"* 
substances found in animals (such as bone, flesh, 
etc.). These also are composed out of the primary 

appropriate : in others, " moist " and " dry " (the traditional 
renderings). Aristotle defines them at De gen. and corr. 
329 b 30. See also below, 649 b 9. I have normally trans- 
lated them " fluid " and " solid " throughout. 

* " Uniform," " non-uniform " ; see Introduction, p. 28. 



646 a 

τρίτη 8e καΐ τβλευταια κατ' αριθμόν -η των αν- 

ομοίομ€ρών, οίον ττροσώττου και ^eipos και των 

τοιούτων μορίων. 

25 Έττει δ' €ναντίως €πΙ της γβνβσβως βχ€ΐ και της 
ουσίας — τα γαρ νστβρα τη yeveaei προτβρα την 
φνσιν €στί, και πρώτον το τη yeviaei τβλβυταΐον 
{ου γαρ οικία πλίνθων eveKev ioTL καΐ λίθων, άλλα 
ταΰτα της οΙκίας• ομοίως δε τοΰτ^ βχει καΐ π€ρΙ την 
αλλην ϋλην ου μόνον δε φανβρον οτι τούτον €χ€ί τον 

80 τρόπον €Κ της επαγωγής, άλλα και κατά τον λόγον 
πάν γαρ το γινόμενον €κ τίνος καΐ ε'ίς τι ποιείται 
την γένεσιν, και απ* ο,ρχης επ αρχήν, απο της 
πρώτης κινουσης και εχονσης η^η τινά φυσιν επί 
Ttva μορφην η τοιούτον άλλο τέλος' άνθρωπος γάρ 
άνθρωπον και φυτόν γέννα φυτόν εκ της περί 

35 εκαστον υποκείμενης ΰλης) — τω μεν ουν χρόνω 
646 b προτεραν την ϋλην άναγκαΐον etvat και την γενεσιν, 
τω λόγω δε την ούσίαν και την εκάστου μορφην. 
^ηλον δ' άν λεγη τις τον λόγον της γενέσεως' ο μεν 
γάρ της οικο8ομήσεως λόγος έχει τον της οικίας, 
6 δε της οικίας ουκ έχει τον της οικο^ομήσεως. 
5 ομοίως δε τοΰτο συμβεβηκε και επι των άλλων, 
ώστε την μεν των στοιχείων ϋλην άναγκαΐον είναι 
των όμοιομερών ένεκεν υστέρα γάρ εκείνων ταΰτα 

" Or, " efficient." 

* Or, " in thought," " in conception." 

* Almost represented here by " definition." 



substances. (3) The third and last is the composition 
of the " non-uniform " parts of the body, such as 
face, hand, and the hke. 

Now the order of things in the process of formation 
is the reverse of their real and essential order ; I 
mean that the later a thing comes in the formative 
process the earlier it comes in the order of Nature, 
and that which comes at the end of the process is at 
the beginning in the order of Nature. Just so bricks 
and stone come chron ologically before the house, 
although the house is tiie purpose which they sub - 
serve, and not vice vers^. And the same applies to 
materials of every kind. Thus the truth of my state- 
ment can be shown by induction ; but it can also 
be demonstrated logically, as ίοΙΙοΛνβ. Everything 
which is in process of formation is in passage from 
one thing towards another thing, i.e. from one Cause 
towards another Cause ; in other words7Tt proceeds 
from a primary motive ** Cause which to begin with 
possesses a definite nature, towards a Form or an- 
other such End. For example, a man begets a man 
and a plant begets a plant. These new indi- 
viduals are made out of the substrate matter appro- 
priate in each case. Thus, matter and the process 
of formation must come first in time, but logically* 
the real essence and the Form of the thing comes 
first. This is clear if we state the logos <^ of such a 
process. For example, the logos of the process of 
building includes the logos of a house, but that of a 
house does not include that of the process of building. 
And this holds good in all such cases. Hence we 
see that the matter, viz. the Elements, must exist 
for the sake of the uniform substances, because 
these come later in the process of formation than 



ΤΎ] yeveaei, τούτων be τα ανομοιομ€ρ'η. ταύτα γαρ 
rjhrj το τέλος βχβί καΐ το ττέρας, errl του τράτου 
Χαβόντα τ'ην σύστασιν άριθμοΰ, καθάττζρ €7τΙ πολλών 

10 συμβαίνβί τβλβιοΰσθαί τάς yeveaeis. 

'Ef αμφοτέρων μεν ονν τα ζωα συν€στηκ€ των 
μορίων τούτων, άλλα τα όμοίομβρη των ανομοίο- 
μζρών €V€Kev έστιν εκείνων γαρ έργα καΐ ττράζεις 
είσίν, οίον οφθαλμού καΐ μυκτηρος καΐ του προσ- 
ώττου τταντος καΐ δάκτυλου καΐ χειρός καΐ παντός 

15 τοΰ βραχίονος . πολυμόρφων δε των πράξεων και 
των κινήσεων ύπαρχουσών τοΐς ζωοις ολοις τε καΧ 
τοις μοριοις τοΐς τοιούτοις, άναγκαΐον εζ ών συγ- 
κεινται τας Βυνάμεις ανόμοιας έχειν προς μεν γάρ 
τίνα μαλακότης χρήσιμος προς S4 τίνα σκληρότης, 
και τα μεν τάσιν εχειν δει τά δε κάμφιν. 

20 Τα μεν οΰν όμοιομερή κατά μέρος 8ιείληφε τάς 
8υνάμεις τάς τοιαύτας (το μεν γάρ αυτών εστί 
μαλακον το δε σκληρόν, και το μεν ύγρον το δε 
ξ-ηρόν, και το μέν^ γλίσχρον το δε κραΰρον), τά 
δ' άνομοιομερή κατά ττολλά? και συγκειμένας 
άλληλαις• ετέρα γάρ προς το πιέσαι ττ] χειρί χρη- 

25 σιμός Βύναμις και προς το λαβείν. Βιόπερ έζ 
οστών και νεύρων καΐ σαρκός και τών άλλων τών 
τοιούτων συνεστηκασι τά οργανικά τών μορίων, 
αλλ' ουκ εκείνα εκ τούτων. 

'Ω,ς μεν οΰν ενεκά τίνος δια ταυττ^ι^ την αίτίαν 
έχει περί τούτων τον ειρημένον τρόπον, έπει δε 
ζητείται και πώς άναγκαΐον εχειν ούτω, φανερόν οτι 

80 προϋπηρχεν ούτω προς άλληλα έχοντα εξ άνάγκτις 

* το μίν ΡΖ : cm. vulg. 


the Elements ; just so the non-uniform parts come 
later than the uniform. The non-uniform parts, 
indeed, Avhose manner of composition is that of the 
third sort, have reached the goal and End of the 
whole process ; and we often find that processes of 
formation reach their completion at this point. 

Now animals are composed out of both of these two 
sorts of parts, uniform and non-uniform ; the former, 
hoAvever, are for the sake of the latter, as it is to the 
latter that actions and operations belong (e.g. eye, 
nose, the face as a Λvhole, finger, hand, the arm as a 
Λvhole). And inasmuch as the actions and movements 
both of an animal as a whole and of its parts are mani- 
fold, the substances out of Λvhich these are composed 
must of necessity possess divers dynameis. Softness is 
is useful for some purposes, hardness for others ; 
some parts must be able to stretch, some to bend. 

In the uniform parts, then, such dynameis are 
found apportioned out separately : one of the parts, 
for instance, Λνϋΐ be soft, another hard, while one is 
fluid, another solid ; one viscous, another brittle. 
In the non-uniform parts, on the other hand, these 
dynameis are found in combination, not singly. For 
example, the hand needs one dynamis for the action 
of compressing and another for that of grasping. 
Hence it is that the instrumental parts of the body 
are composed of bones, sinews, flesh, and the rest of 
them, and not the other Avay round. 

The Cause Avhich I have just stated as controlling 
the relation bet>veen them is, of course, a Final 
Cause ; but when we go on to inquire in \vhat sense 
it is necessary that they should be related as they are, 
it becomes clear that they must of necessity have 
been thus related to each other from the beginning. 



646b ^ ^ ^ , , „ ί " ■> 

τά μ€ν γαρ άνομοωμερή εκ των ομοιομ^ρων €V- 

Sexerat ovveoravai, καΙ €Κ ττλειονων και evos, olov 

eVta των σπλάγχνων πολύμορφα γαρ τοις οχη- 

μασιν, €ξ ομοιομΐρονς οντά σώματος ως €ΐπ€Ϊν 

απλώς, τά δ' όμοίομερη €Κ τούτων αδύνατον το 

85 γαρ ομοιομ^ρζς ττόλλ' αν €ίη ανομοιομ€ρ'η. 

647 a Δια μ€ν ουν ταύτας τάς αίτιας τά μ€ν απλά και 

6μοιομ€ρή, τά δέ σύνθετα καΐ άνομοι.ομ€ρη των 

μορίων iv τοΐς ζωοις εστίν. 

"Οντων δέ των μεν οργανικών /χερών των δ 

αισθητηρίων iv τοΐς ζωοις, των /χεν οργανικών 

5 €καστον άνομοιομ€ρ4ς εστίν, ώσττερ ειπον προτ€ρον, 

η δ' αΐσθησις Ιγγίνίται πάσιν εν τοΓ? ομοιομ^ρ^σιν 

δια το των αίσθήσβων όποιανονν ενός τίνος είναι 

yε'voι;s', και το αίσθητηριον ίκάστου Ββκτικον είναι 

των αισθητών, πάσχβι δε το 8υναμ€ΐ ον ύπο του 

ενέργεια οντος, ωστ έ'στι το αύτο τω γένει, και 

10 {ει)^ €Κ€ΐνο εν, και τούτο εν, και δια τοΰτο χείρα 

μβν η πρόσωπον η των τοιούτων τι μορίων ουδει? 

€γχ€ίρ€Ϊ λε'γειν των φυσιολόγων το μεν είναι yijv, 

το δ' ύδωρ, το δε ττΰρ• των δ' αισθητηρίων εκαστον 

1 <eO Ogle. 

" The translation " sense-organ " must not be taken to 
imply that the part through which the sense functions is an 



It is possible for the non-uniform parts to be con- 
structed out of the uniform substances, either out of 
many of them, or out of one only. (Examples of the 
latter are furnished by certain of the viscera, which, 
although they are of manifold shapes and forms, 
yet for all practical purposes may be said to consist 
of one only of the uniform substances.) But it is 
impossible for the uniform substances to be con- 
structed out of the non-uniform parts : for then 
we should have an uniform substance consisting of 
several non-unifoi-m parts, which is absurd. 

These, then, are the Causes owing to Λvhich some of 
the parts of animals are simple and uniform ; while 
others are composite and non-uniform. 

Now the parts can also be divided up into (a) 
instrumental parts and (b) sense-organs." And we 
may say that each of the instrumental parts of the 
body, as I have stated earlier, is ahvays non-uniform, 
while sensation in all cases takes place in parts that 
are uniform. The reasons why this is so are the 
folloΛving : The function of each of the senses is 
concerned with a single kind of sensible objects ; and 
the sense-organ in each case must be such as can 
apprehend those objects. ΝοΛν when one thing 
affects another, the thing which is affected must be 
potentially what the other is actually ; so both are the 
same in kind, and therefore if the affecting thing is 
single, the affected one is single too. Hence we 
find that while A\1th regard to the parts of the 
body such as hand, or face, none of the physiologers 
attempts to say that one of them is earth, and 
another water, and another fire ; yet they do conjoin 

" organ " in the stricter meaning of the word. " Organs " 
are normally " non-uniform," sense-organs are " uniform." 



647a ^ ^ , / ^ / ^ V 

προς €καστον βπίζζυγνυουσί των στοιχβιων, το μεν 

aepa φάσκοντ€ς eivat, το Be ττΰρ. 

Ονσης δε της αίσθησ€ως iv τοις άπλοΐς ^epeacv 

15 eύ\όγως μάλιστα συμβαίνει την άφην ev ομοιομερεΐ 
μ€ν ηκιστα δ' άπλω των αισθητηρίων βγγίνεσθαΐ' 
μάλιστα γαρ αϋτη SoKei πλειόνων eivai γενών, και 
τΓολλά? εχειν εναντιώσεις το νπο ταύτην αισθητον, 
θερμον φυχρόν, ζηρον ύγρον και ε'ί τι άλλο τοιούτον 

20 καΐ το τούτων αίσθητηριον, η σάρζ και το ταύτη 
άνάλογον , σωματωΒεστατόν εστί των αισθητήριων, 
επεί δ' άΒυνατον eiv'at ζωον άνευ αισθησεως, και 
δια τοΰτο αν εϊη άναγκαΐον εχειν τοις ζώοις kvia 
μόρια ομοιομερη• ή μεν γαρ αί'σ^ησι? εν τούτοις, 
αϊ 8ε πράξεις δια, των άνομοιομερών ύπαρχουσιν 

25 Ύης δ' αισθητικής δυνάμεως και της κινούσης 
το ζωον και της θρεπτικής εν ταντω μοριω τοΰ 
σώματος οϋσης, καθάπερ εν ετεροις ε'ιρηται προ- 
τερον, άναγκαΐον το έχον πρώτον μόριον τας 
τοιαύτας αρχάς, η μεν εστί Βεκτικον πάντων τών 
αισθητών, τών απλών eivat μορίων, fj δε κινητικον 

30 και πρακτικόν, τών άνομοιομερών. Βιόπερ εν μεν 
τοις άναίμοις ζώοις το άνάλογον , εν δε τοις εναίμοις 
η κάρδια τοιούτον εστίν διαιρείται μεν γαρ εις 
ομοιομερη καθάπερ τών άλλων σπλάγχνων εκαστον, 
δια δε την τοΰ σχήματος μορφην άνομοιομερες 
εστίν, ταύτη δ' ηκολούθηκε καΐ τών άλλων τών 

" See De somno, 455 b 34 ff. 


each of the se?ise-organs with one of the elementary 
substances, and they assert that this sense-organ is 
air, this one fire. 

Sensation thus takes place in the simple parts of 
the body. The organ in which touch takes place is, 
hoAvever, as Λνε should expect, the least simple of all 
the sense-organs, though of course like the others it 
is uniform. This is evidently because the sense of 
touch deals with more kinds of sense-objects than 
one : and these objects may have several sorts of 
oppositions in them, e.g. hot and cold, solid and fluid, 
and the like. So the sense-organ which deals A\dth 
these — viz. the flesh, or its counterpart — is the most 
corporeal of all the sense-organs. Another reason 
we might adduce why animals must of necessity 
possess some uniform parts at any rate, is that there 
cannot be such a thing as an animal with no power 
of sensation, and the seat of sensation is the uniform 
parts. (The non-uniform parts supply the means for 
the various activities, not for sensation.) 

Further, since the faculties of sensation and of 
motion and of nutrition are situated in one and the 
same part of the body, as I stated in an earlier work,"^ 
that part, which is the primary seat of these principles, 
must of necessity be included not only among the 
simple parts but also among the non-uniform parts — 
the former in virtue of receiving all that is perceived 
through the senses, the latter because it has to do 
with motion and action. In blooded animals this 
part is the heart, in bloodless animals the counterpart 
of the heart, for the heart, like every one of the other 
viscera, can be divided up into uniform pieces ; but 
on the other hand it is non-uniform oAving to its 
shape and formation. Every one of the other so- 



647 a 

35 καλουμένων σπλάγχνων ίκαστον e/c της αύτης 

647 b γαρ νλης συνεστασιν αίμαηκη γαρ η φΰσις τταντων 
αυτών δια το την θεσιν e^etr eVt ττόροις φλεβίκόΐς 
και Βίαληφζσίν. καθάπερ ονν ρέοντος ϋ8ατος ίλΰς, 
τάλλα σπλάγχνα της δια των φλεβών ρύσεως του 
αίματος οΐυν προχεύματά εστίν η δέ κάρδια, δια 
5 το των φλεβών άρχη ett'at καΐ εχειν εν αύτη την 
Βυναμιν την δημιουργούσαν το atjua πρώτην, €υ- 
λογον εζ οίας άρχεται^ τροφής εκ τοιαύτης συν- 
εστάναι και αύτην. 

Διότι μεν ουν αιματικά την μορφην τά σπλάγχνα 
εστίν εϊρηται, και διότι τη μεν όμοιομερη τη δ' 

10 II. Των δ' ομοιομερών μορίων εν τοις ζωοις εστί 
τά μεν μαλακά και υγρά, τά δε σκληρά και στερεά, 
υγρά μεν η όλως η εως αν η εν τη φύσει, οίον 
αίμα, ιχώρ, πιμελη, στέαρ, μυελός, γονή, χολή, 
γάλα εν τοις εχουσι, σάρζ, και τά τούτοις άνάλογον 

15 ου γάρ άπαντα τά ζώα τούτων τών μορίων τε- 
τευχεν, αλλ' evia τών άνάλογον τούτων τισίν. τά 
hk ζηρά και στερεά τών ομοιομερών εστίν, οΐον 
οστοΰν, άκανθα, νεΰρον, φλέφ. και γάρ τών ομοιο- 
μερών η Βιαιρεσις έχει Βιαφοράν εστί γάρ ως ενίων 
το μέρος όμώνυμον τω δλω, οίον φλεβός φλέφ, εστί 

•20 δ' ώς ούχ όμώνυμον, αλλά προσώπου πρόσωπον 

^ οίας corr. in loco plurium litterarum Υ : ot α? Ζ (α? Ζ* in 
rasura). άρχεται (vel αρχή eWi) Peck, cf. 666 a 7, b 1, etc. : 
hexerai vulg•. 



called viscera follows suit. They are all composed 
of the same material, as they all have a sanguineous 
character, and this is because they are situated 
upon the channels of the blood-vessels and on the 
points of ramification. All these viscera (excluding 
the heart) may be compared to the mud which 
a running stream deposits ; they are as it Λvere 
deposits left by the current of blood in the blood- 
vessels. As for the heart itself, since it is the starting- 
point of the blood-vessels and contains the substance 
\dynamis) by which the blood is first fashioned, 
it is only to be expected that it will itself be com- 
posed out of that form of nutriment which it 

We have ηολν stated why the viscera are san- 
guineous in formation, and why in one aspect they are 
uniform and in another non-uniform. 

II. Of the uniform parts in animals, some are The uniform 
soft and fluid, some hard and firm. Some are ^^'^ ^' 
permanently fluid, some are fluid only so long as they 
are in the living organism — e.g. blood, serum, lard, 
suet, marrow, semen, bile, milk (in the lactiferous 
species), flesh. (As these parts are of course not to 
be found in all animals, add to this list their counter- 
parts.) Other of the uniform parts are solid and 
firm : examples are bone, fish-spine, sinew, blood- 
vessel. This division of the uniform parts admits a 
further distinction : There are some of them of which 
a portion has, in one sense, the same name as the 
whole (e.g. a portion of a blood-vessel has the name 
blood-vessel), and in another sense has not the 
same name. (In no sense is this the case with a 
non-uniform part ; for instance, a portion of a face 
cannot be called face at all.) 



647 b , ^ , , „ , , . ' 

Πρώτον μ€ν ούν και τοις υγροΐς μοριοις και, τοι? 
ζηροις ττολλοί τρόποί της αίτια? elaiv. τα μεν γαρ 
ώς νλη των μερών των άνομοίομερών εστίν {εκ 
τούτων γαρ συνεστηκεν εκαστον των οργανικών 
μερών, εζ οστών και νεύρων και σαρκών και άλλων 

25 τοιούτων συμβαλλομένων τά μεν εις την ούσιαν τα 
δ' εις την έργασίαν), τά δε τροφή τούτοις τών 
υγρών εστί {πάντα γαρ εζ ύγροΰ λαμβάνει την 
αϋξησιν), τά δε περιττώματα συμβεβηκεν etvat 
τούτων, οϊον την τε της ζ'^ράς τροφής ύποστασιν 
καΐ την της νγράς τοις εχουσι κυστιν. 

Αυτών δε τούτων at 8ιαφοραι προς άλληλα τοΰ 

30 βελτίονος ένεκεν είσιν, οίον τών τε άλλων και 
αίματος προς αίμα• το μεν γαρ λεπτότερον το δε 
παγύτερον καΐ το μεν καθαρώτερόν εστί το δε 
θολερώτερον, ετι δε το μει φυχρότερον το δε θερ- 
μότερον, εν τε τοις μορίοις τοΰ ενός ζώου {το γαρ 

35 iv τοις άνω μερεσι προς τά κάτω μόρια Βιαφερει 
ταύταις ταΓ? 8ιαφοραΐς) και ετερω προς έτερον. 

648 a και δλως τά μεν evai/ia τών ζώων εστί, τά δ' άντι 

τοΰ αίματος έχει ετερόν τι μόριον τοιούτον. 

"Εστί δ' ισχύος μεν ποιητικώτερον το παγύτερον 
αι/χα καΐ θερμότερον, αίσθητικώτερον δε και νοερώ- 
τερον το λεπτότερον και φυχρότερον. την αύτην δ 
5 έχει 8ιαφοράν και το άνάλογον υπάρχον^ προς το 

^ τό . . . υπάρχον Ρ : τών . . . υπαρχόντων vulg. 

° Or, " reason." 

"" See Introduction, pp. 32 ff. 

' See Introduction, pp. 28 ff. 

•* With this passage compare Hippocrates, Ilepi διαι'τι^ί, 
i. 35. See also below, 650 b 24 ff., and Introduction, pp. 


Now first of all there are many sorts of Cause " to 
which the existence of these uniform parts, both the 
fluid and the solid ones, is to be ascribed. Some of 
them act as the material for the non-uniform parts 
(e.g. each of the instrumental parts is composed of 
these uniform parts — bones, sincAvs, fleshes, and the 
like, which contribute either to its essence, or else 
towards the discharge of its proper function). An- 
other group of the uniform parts — fluid ones — act as 
nutriment for the ones just mentioned, since every- 
thing that grows gets the material for its groΛ\i:h 
from Λvhat is fluid ; and yet a third group are residues^ 
produced from the second group : examples, the 
excrement deposited from the solid nutriment and 
(in those animals Avhich have a bladder) from the fluid 

Further, variations are found among different 
specimens of these uniform parts, and this is to sub- 
serve a good purpose. Blood is an excellent illustra- 
tion. Blood can be thin or thick, clear or muddy, 
cold or warm ; and it can be different in different 
parts of the same animal : instances are known of 
animals in which the blood in the upper parts differs 
from that in the lower parts in respect of the char- 
acteristics just enumerated. And of course the 
blood of one animal differs from that of another. 
And there is the general division betAveen the 
animals that have blood and those which instead of it 
have a part*^ which is similar to it though not actually 

The thicker and warmer the blood is, the more it 
makes for strength ; if it tends to be thin and cold, 
it is conducive to sensation and intelligence.** The 
same difference holds good with the counterpart of 



648 a ^ 

αίμα• διό και μΙΧηται καΐ άλλα τοιαύτα ζωα φρο- 

νίμώτ€ρα την φύσιν €στΙν Ιναίμων ττολλών, και των 
€ναίμων τα φυχρόν βχοντα και λβπτόν αίμ.α φρονι- 
μώτ€ρα των εναντίων €στίν. άριστα 8e τα θ^ρμον 

10 βχοντα και XerrTOV και καθαρόν αμα γαρ ττρός τ' 
avSpeiav τα τοιαύτα και ττρός φρόνησιν €χ€ΐ καλώς. 
διό και τά άνω μόρια προς τα κάτω ταυτην €χ€ΐ 
την Βιαφοράν, και προς το θήλυ αν το appev, και 
τά δε^ιά προς τά αριστερά του σώματος. 

'Ομοίως δε και περί τών άλλων και των τοιούτων 

15 μορίων και τών άνομοιομερών ύποληπτ€ον eyeiv 
την Βιαφοράν, τά μεν προς τά βργα και την ούσίαν 
€κάστω τών ζώων, τά δε προς το βελτιον η χείρον, 
οίον εχόντων οφθαλμούς αμφοτέρων τά μεν εστί 
σκληρόφθαλμα τά δ' ύγρόψθαλμα, και τά μεν ονκ 
έχει βλέφαρα τά δ έχει, προς το την οφιν άκρι- 
βεστεραν eirai . 

20 "Οτι δ' άναγκαΐον εχειν η αίμα η το τούτω την 
αύτην έχον φυσιν, και τίς εστίν η του αίματος 
φύσις, πρώτον 8ιελομενοις περί θερμοΰ και φυχροΰ, 
ούτω και περί τούτου θεωρητεον τάς αιτίας, ττολλών 
γάρ ή φύσις ανάγεται προς ταύτας τάς αρχάς, καΐ 

25 ττολλοι διαμφισβητοΰσι ποια θερμά και ποία φυχρά 
τών ζώων η τών μορίων, ενιοι γαρ τα ένυδρα τών 
πεζών θερμότερα φασιν etvai, λέγοντες ώς επανισοΐ 
την φυχρότητα του τόπου η της φύσεως αυτών 

" This sentiment, which at first sight appears to go against 
the Aristotelian teleology, is supported by actual instances, 
e.g. the horns of the backward -grazing oxen (659 a 19) and 
of the deer (663 all) and the talons of certain birds (694 a 20). 



blood in other creatures : and thus we can explain 
Avhy bees and other sinailar creatures are of a more 
intelligent nature than many animals that have 
blood in them ; and among the latter class, why 
some (viz. those whose blood is cold and thin) are 
more intelligent than others. Best of all are those 
animals Λvhose blood is hot and also thin and clear ; 
they stand well both for courage and for intelligence. 
Consequently, too, the upper parts of the body have 
this pre-eminence over the lower parts ; the male over 
the female ; and the right side of the body over the 

What applies to the blood applies as well to the 
other uniform parts and also to the non-uniform 
parts ; similar variations occur. And it must be 
supposed that these variations either have some re- 
ference to the activities of the creatures and to their 
essential nature, or else bring them some advantage 
or disadvantage." For example, the eyes of some 
creatures are hard in substance, of others, fluid ; 
some have eyelids, others have not. In both cases 
the difference is for the sake of greater accuracy of 

Before we can go on to consider the reasons why all 
animals must of necessity have blood in them or some- 
thing which possesses the same nature, and also what 
the nature of blood itself is, we must first come to 
some decision about hot and cold. The nature of many 
things is to be referred back to these two principles, 
and there is much dispute about Avhich animals and 
which parts of animals are hot and which are cold. 
Some assert that water-animals are hotter than land- 
animals, and they allege that the creatures' natural 
heat makes up for the coldness of their habitat. 



648 a ^ ^ y „ ^ , / ^ > fl α 

θ€ρμότης, και τά αναι/ζα των Ιναιμων και τα θηλΐα 

των αρρένων, οίον ΙΙαρμενίΒης τάς γυναίκας των 
30 ανδρών θζρμοτίρας elvai φησι καΐ 'έτεροι τίνες ως 
δια την θερμότητα καΐ πολναιμονσαίς γινομένων 
των γυναικείων, ^ΚμπεΒοκλης Βε τουναντίον έτι δ 
αίμα και χολην οΐ μεν θερμον οττοτερονοΰν eirai 
φασιν αυτών, οι δε φυχρόν. ει δ' έχει τοσαυτην 
το θερμον και το φυχρον άμφισβητησιν, τι χρη 
35 περί των άλλων ύπολαβεΐν ; ταΰτα γαρ ημΐν εν- 
αργέστατα των ττερι την αΐσθησιν. 
"Έιοικε δε δια το πολλαχώς λεγεσ^αι το θερμο- 
648bTepov ταύτα συμβαίνειν έκαστος γαρ Βοκεΐ τι 
λέγειν τάναντία λέγων, διό δει μη λαν^ανειν πώς 
δει τών φύσει συνεστώτων τά μεν θερμά λέγειν τα 
δε φυχρά και τά μεν ζηρά τά δ ύγρα, επει οτι γ 
αίτια ταΰτα σχε8ον και θανάτου και ζωής eoiKev 
5 ειι^αι φανερόν, έτι δ' ϋπνου και εγρηγόρσεως και 
άκμης και γηρως και νόσου και ΰ}/ιεια5•, αλλ ου 
τραχύτητες και λειότητες ούδε βαρύτητες και κου- 
φότητες ουδ' άλλο τών τοιούτων ουδέν ως ειπείν, 
και τοϋτ ευλόγως συμβεβηκεν καθάπερ γάρ εν 
ετεροις εΐρηται πρότερον, άρχαι τών φυσικών 
10 στοιχείων αύται εισι, θερμον και φυχρόν και 
ζηρόν και ύγρον. 

Πότεροι^ ουν απλώς λέγεται το θερμον η πλεο- 
ναχώς; δει δτ) λαβείν τί έργον του θερμότερου, η 

" See above, 646 a 15, and note. 


Further, it is asserted that bloodless animals are 
hotter than those that have blood ; and that females 
are hotter than males. Parmenides and others, for 
instance, assert that women are hotter than men on 
the ground of the menstrual flow, which they say is 
due to their heat and the abundance of their blood. 
Empedocles, hoAvever, maintains the opposite 
opinion. Again, some say that blood is hot and bile 
cold, others that bile is hot and blood cold. And if 
there is so much dispute about the hot and the cold, 
\vhich after all are the most distinct of the things 
which affect our senses, Λvhat line are we to take 
about the rest of them ? 

Now it looks as if the difficulty is due to the term Tho primary 
" hotter " being used in more senses than one, as there ^^^ f.'hoV'^ 
seems to be something in what each of these writers and "cold," 
says, though their statements are contradictory. 
Hence we must permit no ambiguity in our application 
of the descriptions " hot " and " cold," " solid " and 
" fluid " to the substances that are found produced by 
nature. It is surely sufficiently established that these 
four principles (and not to any appreciable extent 
roughness, smoothness, heaviness, lightness, or any 
such things) are practically the causes controlling life 
and death, not to mention sleep and Λvaking, prime 
and age, disease and health. And this, after all, is 
but reasonable, because (as I have said previously in 
another work) these four — hot, cold, solid, fluid — are 
the principles of the physical Elements." 

Let us consider, then, whether the term " hot " 
has one sense or several. To decide this point, we 
must find out Avhat is the particular effect which a 
body has in virtue of being hotter than another, or, 
if there are several such effects, hoAv many there are. 

Ε 123 


648 b ^ ^ 

πόσα, el ττλείω. eVa μ€ν Brj τρόπον Aeyerai ^αάλλον 
θξρμον ύφ^ ου μάλλον θερμαίνεται ro άπτόμενον, 

15 άλλως 8e το μάλλον αϊσθησιν εμποιοΰν iv τω 
θιγγάνειν, και τοΰτ^ , eav μετά λύπης, εστί δ' δτε 
Βοκεΐ tout' είναι φεΰΒος• ενίοτε γαρ η εζις αιτία 
τον άλγεΐν αισθανομενοις. ετι το τηκτικώτερον τον 
τηκτοΰ και τον κανστοΰ κανστικώτερον . ετι εαν 
fj το μεν πλέον το δ' ελαττον το αυτό, το πλέον τον 

20 ελαττονος θερμότερον. προς δε τούτοις δυοΓν το 
μτ) ταχέως φνχόμενον αλλά βραΒεως θερμότερον, 
και το θάττον θερμαινόμενον τον θερμαινομενον 
βραδέως θερμότερον etvai την φνσιν φαμεν, ως το 
μεν εναντίον δτι πόρρω, το δ' ομοιον ότι εγγύς, 
λέγεται μεν ουν ει μη πλεοναχώς , αλλά τοσαυταχώς 

25 έτερον έτερου θερμότερον τούτονς δε τους τρόπους 
αδύνατον ύπάρχειν τω αυτω πάντας• θερμαίνει μεν 
γάρ μάλλον το ζεον ύδωρ της φλογός, καίει δε και 
τήκει το καυστόν και τηκτόν ή φλόζ, το δ' ύδωρ 
ονδεν. ετι θερμότερον μεν το ζεον ύδωρ η πΰρ 
ολίγον, φύχεται δε και θάττον και μάλλον το θερμόν 

30 ύδωρ μικρού πυρός• ου γάρ γίνεται φυχρόν πΰρ, 
ύδωρ δε γίνεται πάν. €Tt θερμότερον μεν κατά την 
αφην το ζεον ύδωρ, φύχεται δε θάττον και πηγννται 
τον ελαίον. eVt το atjU.a κατά μεν την αφην θερμό- 
τερον ύδατος και ελαίον, πηγννται δε θάττον. €τι 
λίθοι και σίδηρος και τα τοιαύτα θερμαίνεται μεν 

35 βραδύτερον ύδατος, καίει δε θερμανθεντα μάλλον, 
προς δε τούτοις των λεγομένων θερμών τα μεν 

" Alluding, perhaps, to the expansion due to heat. 


A is said to be " hotter " than Β (1) if that which 
comes into contact with it is heated more by it than 
by B. (2) If it produces a more violent sensation 
when touched, and especially if the sensation is 
accompanied by pain. (The latter is not always a 
true indication, since sometimes the pain is due to the 
condition of the percipient.) (3) If it is a better 
melting or burning agent. (4) If it is of the same 
composition as B, but greater in bulk," it is said to be 
"hotter" than B, and in addition (5) if it cools 
more sloAvly than B, or Avarms up more quickly : in 
both these cases Ave call the thing " hotter " in its 
nature — as we call one thing " contrary " to another 
Avhen it is far removed from it, and " like " it when 
it is near it. But although the senses in which 
one thing is said to be " hotter " than another 
are certainly as many as this, if not more, yet 
no one thing can be " hotter " in all of these 
Avays at once. For instance, boiling water can im- 
part heat more eifectiv^eh^ than flame ; but flame 
is able to cause burning and melting, whereas 
Avater is not. Again, boiling \A^ater is hotter than 
a small fire, but the hot water will cool off more 
quickly and more thoroughly than the small fire, 
since fire does not become cold, but all water 
does. Again, boiling water is hotter to the touch 
than oil, yet it cools and solidifies more quickly. And 
again, blood is Avarmer to the touch than either water 
or oil, yet it congeals more quickly. Again, stone 
and iron and such substances get hot more sloAvly 
than water, but once they are hot they burn other 
things more than water can. In adchtion to all this 
there is another distinction to be made among the 
things that are called " hot " : in some of them the 



649 Β άλλοτρ ιαν €•)(€ΐ την θζρμότητα τά δ' oiKeiav, δια- 
φ€ρ€ΐ δε το θ€ρμ6ν elvai όντως η βκβίνως ττΧζΐστον, 
€γγύς γαρ του κατά συμβΐβ-ηκος elvai θζρμόν άλλα 
μη καθ^ αύτο θάτ€ρον αυτών ώσπ€ρ αν e'i τις ΧΙγοι, 

6 el συμβζβηκος €ίη τω πυρβττοντί eivai μουσικω, 
τον μουσικον elvai θ€ρμότ€ρον η τον μβθ uyteia? 
θ€ρμόν. inel δ' €στΙ το μέν καθ^ αύτο θβρμον το 
δε κατά συμβεβηκός, φύχ€ται μεν βραΒντερον το 
καθ' αυτό, θερμαίνει δε μάλλον πολλάκις την αΐ- 
σθησιν το κατά συμβεβηκός' και ττάλιν καίει μεν 

10 μάλλον το καθ' αυτό θερμόν, οίον η φλοζ τοΰ 
νΒατος τοΰ ζεοντος, θερμαίνει δε κατά την άφην το 
ζεον μάλλον, το κατά σνμβεβηκός θερμόν. ώστε 
φανερόν ΟΤΙ τό κρΐναι Svoiv ττότερον θερμότερον ονχ 
άπλοΰν ώδι μεν γάρ τόδε εσται θερμότερον, ώδι δε 

15 θάτερον. ενια δε των τοιούτων ουδ' εστίν απλώς 
ειπείν ότι θερμόν η μη θερμόν ο μεν γάρ ποτέ 
τυ7;(ανει ον τό νποκείμενον ου θερμόν, συνδυαζό- 
μενον δε θερμόν, οίον ε'ί τις θεΐτο όνομα ύ'δατι η 
σιΒηρω θερμώ' τοΰτον γάρ τον τρόπον τό at/>ta 
θερμόν εστίν, και ποιεί δε φανερόν εν τοις τοίού- 

20 τοις ότι το φυχρόν φύσις τις αλλ' ου στερησίς εστίν, 
εν όσοις τό ύποκείμενον κατά πάθος θερμόν εστίν. 
τάχα δε και η τοΰ πυρός φύσις, εΐ έτυχε, τοιαύτη 
τις εστίν 'ίσως γάρ τό ύποκείμενον εστίν η καπνός 
η άνθραζ, ών τό μεν άει θερμόν (άνα^υ/χιασι? γάρ ό 
καπνός), ό δ' άνθραζ αποσβεσθείς φνχρός. ελαιον 
δε και πεύκη γενοιτ αν φυχρά. έχει δε θερμότητα 

" That is, " blood " is really " hot x," and the " χ " is no 
more hot of its own nature than the " water " in " hot water." 
Cf. 649 b 21 ff., and Torstrik, Bh. Mus. xii. 161 ff. 

"" Perhaps a reference to the resin which is in firwood or is 
obtained from it. 


heat is their own ; in others it has been derived from 
without. And there is a very great difference be- 
tween these two ways of being hot, because one of 
them conies near to being hot " by accident " and 
not hot " of itself" ; as is obvious, supposing anyone 
Avere to assert, if a fever-patient were " by accident " 
a man of culture, that the man of culture is hotter 
than a man whose heat is due to his perfect health. 
Thus some things are hot " of themselves " and 
some hot " by accident," and though the former cool 
more slowly, the latter are in many cases hotter in 
their effect upon the senses. Again, the former have 
a greater power of burning : e.g. a flame burns you 
more than boiling water, yet the boiling water, 
which is hot only " by accident," causes a stronger 
sensation of heat if you touch it. From this it is 
plain that it is no simple matter to decide which of 
two things is the hotter. The first will be hotter in 
one way, and the second in another. In some cases 
of this sort it is actually impossible to say simply that 
a thing is hot or is not hot. I mean cases in Λvhich 
the substratum in its permanent nature is not hot, 
but when coupled <Mith heat) is hot ; as if we were 
to give a special name to hot water or hot iron : that 
is the mode in which blood is hot." These cases, in 
which the substratum is hot merely through some 
external influence, make it clear that cold is not just a 
privation but a real thing in itself. Perhaps even fire 
may be an instance of this kind. It may be that its 
substratum is smoke or charcoal : and, though smoke 
is ahvays hot because it is an exhalation, charcoal 
when it goes out is cold. In the same way oil 
and firwood ^ become cold. Further, practically all 



649a ^ ^ , , , , \ 

25 και τά ττυρωθέντα ττάντα σχ^Βόν, οίον κονυα και 

τέφρα, και τα ύποστηματα των ζωών, και των 
περιττωμάτων -η χολή, τω έμττζττυρεΰσθαι και 
εγκαταλζλζΐφθαί tl iv αύτοΐς θβρμόν. άλλον δε 
τρόπον θερμά} πβύκη καΐ τά πΐονα, τω τα;^υ μετα- 
βάλλων εις ενεργειαν πυρός. 

30 Ao/cet δε το θερμόν καΐ πηγνύναι καΐ τηκειν. οσα 
μεν ονν υδατο? μόνον, ταΰτα πήγνυσι το φυχρόν, 
οσα δε γηζ, το πΰρ• καΐ των θερμών πηγννταυ υπό 
φνχροΰ ταχύ μεν οσα γης μάλλον και άλντως, 
λυτώς δ' οσα νΒατος. αλλά περί μεν τούτων εν 
4τεροίς Βιώρισται σαφεστερον, ποία τα πηκτά, και 
πηγνυται δια τ ίνας αίτιας. 

35 Το δε τί θερμυν και ποιον θερμότερον επειΒη 
649 b λε'•}/εται 77λεονα;!(;ώ$•, ου τον αύτον τρόπον υπάρξει 
πάσιν, άλλα προσΒιοριστεον οτι καθ' αυτό μεν τόδε, 
κατά συμβεβηκός δε πολλάκις θάτερον,^ ετι δε 
Βυνάμει μεν το8ί, τοΒι δε κατ' ενεργειαν, καΐ τόνΒε 
μεν τον τρόπον τοΒί, τω μάλλον την άφην θερ- 

5 /LtaiVeiv, Tohl δε τω φλόγα ποιεΐν και πυροΰν. 

λεγομένου δε τοϋ θερμού πολλαχώς, ακολουθήσει 

Βηλον ΟΤΙ και το φυχρόν κατά τον αυτόν λόγον. 

Και περί μεν θερμού καΐ φνχροΰ και της 

υπέροχης αυτών Βιωρίσθω τον τρόπον τούτον. 

III. 'Κχόμενον δε και περί ζηροΰ και ύγροΰ διελ- 

10 θεΐν ακολούθως τοις είρημενοις . λέγεται δε ταΰτα 

^ θΐρμα Peck : θΐρμον viilg. 
* -ποΧλίκΐζ βάτβρον] num τάλλο θίρμότΐρον? 

• See Meteor. 382 b 31 ff., 388 b 10 fF. 

" Probably the text should be altered to read : " Β hotter 
by accident." 

' See note on 64•6 a 16, and Introd. p. 32. 


things that have passed through a process of com- 
bustion have heat in them, such as cinder, ash, the 
excrement of animals, and bile (an instance of a 
residue). These have passed through fire and some 
heat is left behind in them. FirAvood and fatty 
substances are hot in another way : they can quickly 
change into the actuality of fire. 

We must recognize that " the hot " can cause both 
congealing and melting. Things that consist of 
water only are solidified by the cold, those that con- 
sist of earth, by fire. Again, hot things are solidified 
by cold : those that consist chiefly of earth solidify 
quickly, and the product cannot be dissolved again ; 
those that consist chiefly of water can be dissolved 
after solidification. I have dealt more particularly 
with these matters in another work," where I have 
stated what things can be solidified, and the causes 
that are responsible for it. 

So, in view of the fact that there are numerous 
senses in which a thing is said to be "hot" or "hotter," 
the same meaning will not apply to all instances, but 
we must specify further, and say that A is hotter 
" of itself," Β perhaps " by accident "** ; and again 
that C is hotter potentially, D actually ; and we 
must also say in what way the thing's heat manifests 
itself: e.g. Ε causes a greater sensation of heat when 
touched ; F causes flame and sets things on fire. 
And of course, if " the hot " is used in all these 
senses, there will be an equal variety of senses 
attaching to " the cold." 

This will suffice for our examination of the terms 
" hot " and " cold," " hotter " and " colder." 

III. It follows on naturally after this to discuss (bi "_soiid ' 
"the solid" and "the fluid"" on similar hnes. *" 



649 b 

ττλζοναχώς, otov τά μβν Βυνάμ€ΐ τά δ' ivepyeia. 

κρύσταλλος γαρ καΐ παν το 7Τ€7τηγ6ς ύγρον XeyeTaL 

ζηρά} μ€ν evepyeia καΙ κατά, συμβ^βηκός, οντά 

8υνάμ€ΐ καΐ καθ^ αυτά υγρά, γη δε και τέφρα και 

15 τά τοίαΰτα μιχθεντα ΰγρω ενεργεία μεν υγρά και 
κατά συμβεβηκός, καθ^ αυτά δε καΐ δυνάμει ζηρά• 
διακριθέντα δε ταύτα τά μεν ύδατος άναπληστικά 
και ενεργεία και δυνάμει υγρά, τά δε γης άπαντα 
ζηρά, και το κυρίως και απλώς ζηρον τούτον 
μάλιστα AeyeTai τον τρόπον, ομοίως δε και θατερα 

20 τά υγρά κατά τον αύτον λόγον έχει το κυρίως και 
απλώς, και επι θερμών και φυχρών. τούτων δε 
διωρισμενων φανερον οτι το αί/χα ώδΐ μεν εστί 
θερμόν [οίον τί^ ήν αύτώ το αΐματι etvat;]• καθάπερ 
γάρ^ ει ονόματί τινι* σημαίνοιμεν το ζεον ϋδωρ, 
ούτω λέγεται• το δ' ύποκείμενον καΐ ο ποτέ 6ν 

25 αί/χά εστίν, ου θερμόν και καθ^ αυτό έ'στι μεν ώς 
θερμον εστίν, εστί δ' ώς οϋ• εν μεν γάρ τώ 
λόγω ύπάρζει αύτοΰ η θερμότης, ώσπερ εν τώ 
του λευκού ανθρώπου τό λευκόν ή δε κατά πάθος, 
το αί^α ου καθ^ αυτό θερμόν.^ 

Ομοίως δε και περί ^ηροΰ και ύγροΰ. διό και 

^ ξηρα Peck : ξηρον vulg. 

* οΐόν Tt Bekker. haec, signo interrog. adscr., seclusi. 

* γάρ Ζ : om. vulg. 

* ονόματι Tivi PSUZ^ : ονόματι τι ΕΥ : ονόματι Vulg. 

* 11. 22-29 interpunctionem correxi. 

" i.e. they assume the shape of the receptacle into which 
they are put. 



These terms are used in several senses. E.g. 
" solid " and " fluid " may mean either potentially 
solid and fluid or actually solid and fluid. Ice 
and other congealed fluids are said to be solid 
actually and by accident, though in themselves and 
potentially they are fluid. On the other hand, earth 
and ash and the like, when they have been mixed 
with a fluid, are fluid actually and by accident, but 
potentially and in themselves they are solid. When 
these mixtures have been resolved again into their 
components, we have on the one hand the watery 
constituents, which are anaplastic," and fluid actually 
as well as potentially, and on the other hand the 
earthy components which are all solid : and these 
are the cases where the term " solid " is applicable 
most properly and absolutely. In the same way, 
only those things which are actually as Λvell as poten- 
tially fluid, or hot, or cold, are such in the proper 
and absolute sense of the terms. Bearing this dis- 
tinction in mind, we see it is plain that in one way 
blood is hot [e.g. what is the essential definition of 
blood ?], for the term " blood " is used just as the 
term for " boiling water " would be, if we had a 
special name to denote that ; but in another way, 
i.e. in respect of its permanent substratum, blood is 
not hot. This means that in one respect blood is 
essentially hot, and in another respect is not. Heat 
mil be included in the logos of blood, just as fair- 
ness is included in the logos of a fair man, and in 
this Λvay blood is essentially hot ; but in so far as 
it is hot owing to external influence, blood is not 
essentially hot. 

A similar argument would hold with regard to the 
solid and the fluid. And that is why some of these 

Ε 2 131 


ev Tj] φυσζΐ των τοιούτων τα μ€ν ϋ€ρμα και νγρα, 

30 χωριζόμ€να δέ πηγνυται και φνχρά φαυνβταί, οίον 

το αίμα, τα δε θζρμα καΐ πάχος έχοντα καθάττερ η 

χολή, χωριζόμενα δ' e/c της φύσεως των εχόντων 

τουναντίον πάσχει- φνχεται γαρ καΐ υγραίνεται- το 

μεν γαρ αΓ/ζα ξηραίνεται μάλλον, υγραίνεται ο η 

ξανθή χολή. το Βε μάλλον και ήττον μετεχειν των 

35 αντικείμενων ως υπάρχον^ δεΓ rt^eVai τούτοις. 

650 a Υ\.ώς μεν ουν θερμόν και πώς ύγρόν, και πώς 

των εναντίων ή φύσις του αίματος κεκοινώνηκεν, 

εΐρηται σχεΒόν. 

ΈτΓβι δ' ανάγκη πάν το αύξανόμενον λαμβάνειν 
τροφήν, ή hk τροφή πάσιν εξ ύγροΰ και ξηροΰ, και 
δ τούτων ή πεφις γίνεται και ή μεταβολή δια της του 
θερμού δυνάμεως, και τα ζώα ττάντα και τα φυτά, 
καν εΐ μή δι' άλλην αΐτίαν, αλλά δια ταύτην άναγ- 
καΐον εχειν αρχήν θερμού φυσικήν. [και ταυτην 
ώσπερ^ at {δ')^ εργασίαι της τροφής πλειόνων εισι 
μορίων- ή μεν γαρ πρώτη φανερά τοις ζωοις 
10 λειτουργία δια τοΰ στόματος ούσα και τών εν 
τούτω μορίων, όσων ή τροφή δεΓται διαιρέσεως. 
αλλ' αϋτη μεν ουδεμιάς αιτία πεφεως, αλλ' εύ- 
πεφίας μάλλον ή γάρ εις μικρά διαίρεσις της 
τροφής ράω ποιεί τω θερμώ τήν εργασίαν η δε της 
άνω και της κάτω κοιλίας ήδη μετά θερμότητος 

^ υπάρχον Peck : υπάρχοντα vulg. 

' και ταντην ώσπΐρ seclusi, (δ') supplevi : καΐ ταύτην 
(πλΐίοσι μορίοις ΐνυπάρχουσαν) Camus. 

" See above, note on 644 a 17. 

* See Introduction, p. 34. 

" Lit. " the chjnamh of the hot substance," perhaps here 
something more than a mere periphrasis for " the hot sub- 


substances ΛνΗϊΙβ in the living organism are hot and 
fluid, but when separated from it congeal and are 
observed to be cold, as blood does ; others, like 
yellow bile, are hot and of a thick consistency while 
in the organism, but when separated from it undergo 
a change in the opposite direction and become cool 
and fluid. Blood becomes more solid, yelloAV bile 
becomes fluid. And we must assume that " more 
and less " " participation in opposite characteristics 
is a piOperty of these substances. 

We have now pretty well explained in Λvhat \vay 
blood is hot, in what way it is fluid, and in Avhat 
Avay it participates in opposite characteristics. 

Everything that grows must of necessity take food. 
This food is always supplied by fluid and solid matter, 
and the concoction ^ and transformation of these is 
effected by the agency of heat.'' Hence, apart from 
other reasons, this would be a sufficient one for 
holding that of necessity all animals and plants 
must have in them a natural source of heat ; though 
there are several parts which exert action upon the 
food. In the case of those animals whose food needs 
to be broken up, the first duty clearly belongs to 
the mouth and the parts in the mouth. But this 
operation does nothing whatever towards causing 
concoction : it merely enables the concoction to 
turn out successfully ; because when the food has 
been broken up into small pieces the action of the 
heat upon it is rendered easier. The natural heat 
comes into play in the upper and in the loAver gut, 

stance," as emphasizing its proper and specific natural 
character, which makes it a particularly good agent for 
effecting concoction. See Introduction, pp. 30-32. 



650 a 

15 φνσικης ποΐ€Ϊται την ττέφιν, ώσπβρ 8e και το 

στόμα της ακατέργαστου τροφής πόρος €στί, και 
το συν€χ€ς αύτω μόριον ο καλοΰσιν οίσοφάγον, 
οσα των ζωών εχβι τοΰτο το μόριον, €ως et? 
την κοιΧίαν, οντω και άλλους δβΓ πόρους^ etvai, Si* 
ών άπαν λήφβται το σώμα την τροφην, ώσττερ 

20 €Κ φάτνης, €Κ της κοιλίας και της των €ντ4ρων 
φύσεως, τα μεν γαρ φυτά λα /x^ai'et την τροφην 
κατειργασμενην εκ της γης ταΓ? ρίζαις (διό και 
περίττωμα ου γίνεται τοις φυτοΐς• τή γαρ γη και 
τή εν auTTj θερμότητι χρήται ώσπερ κοιλία), τα 8e 
ζώα ττάντα μεν σχεδόν, τα δβ πορευτικά φανερώς, 

25 οίον γήν εν αύτοΐς έχει το της κοιλίας κύτος, εζ 
ης, ωσπερ εκείνα ταΐς ρίζαις, ταΰτα 8εΐ τινι την 
τροφην λαμβάνειν, εως το της εχομενης πεφεως 
λάβη τέλος, η μεν γαρ του στόματος εργασία παρα- 
διδωσι τή κοιλία, παρά δε ταύτης έτερον άναγκαΐον 
λαμβάνειν, όπερ συμβεβηκεν αϊ γαρ φλέβες κατα- 

30 τείνονται δια τοΰ μεσεντερίου παράπαν, κάτωθεν 
άρζάμεναι μέχρι της κοιλίας. 8εΐ δέ ταΰτα θεωρεΐν 
εκ τε τών ανατομών και της φυσικής ιστορίας. 

Έ,πει δε πάσης τροφής εστί τι Βεκτικον και τών 
γινομένων περιττωμάτων , αι 8ε φλέβες οίον άγγεΐον 
αίματος εισι, φανερόν οτι το αίμα ή τελευταία 

35 τροφή τοις ζωοις τοις εναίμοις εστί, τοις δ άναίμοις 

^ άλλονζ 8ΐΐ πόρονζ Peck : aXXas άρχάζ Βεΐ πλε/ου? vulg. 

" Cf. Shakespeare, Coriolanus ι. i. 133-152. 

* The membrane to which the intestines are attached. 

" Dissections (or Anatomy) is a treatise which has not 


which effect the concoction of the food by its aid. 
And, just as the mouth (and in some animals the 
so-called oesophagus too Λvhich is continuous with 
it) is the passage for the as yet untreated food, and 
conveys it to the stomach ; so there must be other 
passages through which as from a manger the body 
as a whole may receive its food from the stomach and 
from the system of the intestines." Plants get their 
food from the earth by their roots ; and since it 
is already treated and prepared no residue is pro- 
duced by plants — they use the earth and the heat 
in it instead of a stomach, whereas practically all 
animals, and unmistakably those that move about 
from place to place, have a stomach, or bag, — as it 
were an earth inside them — and in order to get the 
food out of this, so that finally after the successive 
stages of concoction it may reach its completion, they 
must have some instrument corresponding to the 
roots of a plant. The mouth, then, having done its 
duty by the food, passes it on to the stomach, and 
there must of necessity be another part to receive it 
in its turn from the stomach. This duty is under- 
taken by the blood-vessels, Avhich begin at the bottom 
of the mesentery,'' and extend throughout the length 
of it right up to the stomach. These matters should 
be studied in the Dissections'' and my treatise on 
Natural History.^ 

We see then that there is a receptacle for the food 
at each of its stages, and also for the residues that 
are produced ; and as the blood-vessels are a sort of 
container for the blood, it is plain that the blood (or 
its counterpart) is the final form of that food in Uving 

<* The Natural History, otherwise History of Animals or 
Researches upon Animals. See 495 b 19 ff., 514 b 10 ff. 



650 a ^ ^ , , 

TO άνάλογον. καΐ δια τοΰτο μ-η λαμβάνουσι re 

650 b τροφην ΰπολ€ΐ7Γ€ΐ τοΰτο καΐ λαμβάνουσιν ανζάν€ται, 

καΐ χρ'ηστης μ€ν ονσης ύγίΕΐνόν, φαύλης oe φανλον. 

ΟΤΙ μεν ονν το αίμα τροφής evcKev υπάρχει τοις 

εναίμοις, φανερον €Κ τούτων καΐ των τοιούτων, και 

γαρ δια τοΰτο θιγγανόμενον αΐσθησιν ου ττοιεΐ 

5 {ωσττερ ουδ' άλλο των περιττωμάτων ovSev, ουδ η 

τροφή) καθάπερ σάρξ•^ αυττ^ γαρ θιγγανομενη ποιεί 

α'ίσθησιν. ου γαρ συνεχές εστί το αίμα ταυττ] ούΒε 

συμπεφυκός, αλλ' οΐον εν άγγείω ruyp^ai^et κειμενον 

εν τε TTJ κάρδια και ταΓ? φλεφίν. ον δε τρόπον 

λαιυ,^άΐ'ει εξ αυτοΰ τα μόρια την αύ'Ι-τ^σιν', ετι δε 

10 περί τροφής όλως, εν τοις περί γενέσεως και εν 

ετεροις οίκειότερόν εστί Βιελθεΐν. νΰν δ επΙ 

τοσοΰτον ειρήσθω [τοσοΰτον γαρ χρήσιμον) , δτι το 

αΓ/χα τροφής ένεκα και τροφής των μορίων εστίν. 

IV. Τα? δέ καλουμενας ΐνας το μεν έχει αι/χα 

15 το δ' ουκ έχει, οίον το των ελάφων και προκών. 
8ιόπερ ου πήγνυται το τοιοΰτον αιμ.α• τοΰ γαρ 
αίματος το μεν ύ^ατώΒες μάλλον^ εστί, διό και ου 
TT^yi^UTai, το 8ε γεώΒες 777iyvuTai συνεζατμίζοντος 
τοΰ ύγροΰ• αϊ δ' ίνες γης είσιν. 

Ίΐυμβαίνει δ' eVia γε και γλαφυρωτεραν εχειν 

•20 την Βιάνοιαν των τοιούτων, ου δια την φυχρότητα 
τοΰ αίματος, άλλα δια την λεπτότητα μάλλον και 

^ 11. 4 f., interpiinctionem correxit Cornford. 
* /ιάλλον Ζ : μάλλον φυχρόν vulg. 

" In the Second Book. Also in De gen. et corr. 

* With the sentiments of the following passage and its 
terminology (" more intelligent," " soul," " blend," etc.) 
compare the very interesting passage in Hippocrates, Ilepi 
διαιττ;?, i. 35. Cf. 648 a 3. 


creatures. This explains why the blood diminishes 
in quantity when no food is taken and increases 
when it is ; and why, when the food is good, the 
blood is healthy, when bad, poor. These and 
similar considerations make it clear that the purpose 
of the blood in living creatures is to provide them 
with nourishment ; and also Λvhy it is that Avhen the 
blood is touched it yields no sensation, as flesh does 
when it is touched. Indeed, none of the residues 
yields any sensation either, nor does the nourishment. 
This difference of behaviour is because the blood is 
not continuous with the flesh nor conjoined to it 
organically : it just stands in the heart and in the 
blood-vessels like water in a jar. A desci-iption of 
the way in Avhich the parts of the body derive their 
growth from the blood, and the discussion of nourish- 
ment in general, comes more appropriately in the 
treatise on Generation " and elsewhere. For the 
present it is enough to have said that the purpose 
of the blood is to provide nourishment, that is to 
say, nourishment for the parts of the body. So 
much and no more is pertinent to our present 

IV. The blood of some animals contains Λvhat are The uniform 
called fibres ; the blood of others (e.g. the deer and B^ood*. 
the gazelle) does not. Blood which lacks fibres does 
not congeal, for the foUoAving reason. Part of the 
blood is of a more watery nature, and therefore 
does not congeal ; Λvhile the other part, which is 
earthy, congeals as the fluid part evaporates off. 
The fibres are this earthy part. 

Now some of the animals whose blood is watery 
have a specially subtle intelligence.'' This is due not 
to the coldness of their blood, but to its greater thin- 



660 b 

δια το καθ άρον elvai,• το γαρ yeajSe? ού^ίτ^ρον €χ€ΐ 

τούτων, ^νκινητοτίραν γαρ ζχουσι, την αί,'σθτ^σιν τα 
λβτΓτοτεραν €χοντα την ύγρότητα και καθαρωτεραν. 
δια γαρ τοΰτο και τώνάναίμων kvia συνετωτβραν e^et 

25 την φυχην Ινίων €ναίμων, καθάττβρ ΐίρηται προτερον, 
οίον η jueAtTTa και το γένος το των μνρμηκων καν 
e'l τι έτερον τοιούτον εστίν, δειλότερα δβ τα λίαν 
ύδατώδτ^. ό γαρ φόβος καταφύγει• ττροωδοποιηται 
ονν τω ττάθει τα τοιαντην έχοντα την εν τη κάρδια 

so κρασιν το γαρ ν8ωρ τω φυχρω ττηκτόν εστίν, διό 
και ταλλα τα aVai^ua δειλότερα των εναίμων εστίν 
ως απλώς ειπείν, και άκινητίζει τε φοβούμενα και 
προΐεται περιττώματα και μεταβάλλει evia τα? 
χρόας αυτών, τα δε πολλας έχοντα λίαν ίνας και 
τται^εια? γεωΒεστερα την φύσιν εστί και θνμώοη το 

85 ήθος και εκστατικά δια τον θυμόν. θερμοτητος 
γαρ ποιητικον 6 θυμός, τα δε στέρεα θερμανθεντα 
651 a μάλλον θερμαίνει τών υγρών αί δ' ΐνες στερεον και 
γεώΒες, ώστε γίνονται οίον πυριαι εν τω αιρ,ατι 
και ζεσιν ποιοΰσιν εν τοις θυμοΐς. διο οι ταύροι και 
οι κάπροι θυμώνεις και εκστατικοί' το γαρ αίμα 
τούτων ινωδε'στατον, και τό γε του ταύρου τα;^ιστα 
β TTT^yvuTai πάντων, εξαιρουμένων δε τοιίτων τών 
Ινών ου TrrjyvuTai το αΓ/χα• καθάπερ γαρ εκ πηλοΰ 
€ί τις εζελοι το yεώδεs' ου ττητνυται τό ύ'δωρ, ούτω 
και το αίρ,α• αι γαρ ΐνες γης. μη εξαιρουμένων 

« At 648 a 2 if. 

* For the connexion between fear and cold cf. 667 a 16, 
692 a 22 if., and Rhetoric, 1389 b 30. 


ness and clarity, neither of which characteristics 
belongs to the earthy substance ; and an animal 
which has the thinner and clearer sort of fluid in it 
has also a more mobile faculty of sensation. This 
is Avhy, as I said before,*^ some of the bloodless 
creatures have a more intelligent Soul than some 
of the blooded ones ; e.g. the bee and the ants 
and such insects. Those, however, that have ex- 
cessively Avatery blood are somewhat timorous. 
This is because water is congealed by cold ; and 
coldness also accompanies fear ; therefore in those 
creatures whose heart contains a predominantly 
Avatery blend, the Avay is already prepared for 
a timorous disposition.'' This, too, is Avhy, gener- 
ally speaking, the bloodless creatures are more 
timorous than the blooded ones and why they 
stand motionless Avhen they are frightened and 
discharge their residues and (in some cases) change 
their colour. On the other side, there are the 
animals that have specially plentiful and thick 
fibres in their blood ; these are of an earthier 
nature, and are of a passionate temperament and 
liable to outbursts of passion. Passion produces heat ; 
and solids, Avhen they have been heated, give oflf 
more heat than fluids. So the fibres, Avhich are solid 
and earthy, become as it Avere embers inside the 
blood and cause it to boil up Avhen the fits of passion 
come on. That is why bulls and boars are so hable 
to these fits of passion. Their blood is very fibrous ; 
indeed, that of the bull is the quickest of all to congeal. 
But just as when the earthy matter is taken out 
of mud, the Avater which remains does not congeal ; 
so when the fibres, which consist of earth, are taken 
out of the blood, it no longer congeals. If they are 



651 a ^ ^ 

δε πηγνυταυ, οϊον υγρά γη νττό φΰχους• του γαρ 

θζρμοΰ νπο του φυχροΰ ζκθλιβομένου συνβζατμίζζΐ 

10 το ύγρόν, καθάττβρ €Ϊρηταί ττρότερον, και ττηγνυταί 
ούχ ύπο θβρμοΰ αλλ' ύττο φυχροΰ ζηραινόμβνον. iv 
δε τοις σώ^ιιασιν ύγρόν ioTi δια την θζρμότητα την 
iv τοις ζωοις. 

Πολλώ;^ δ' €στΙν αιτία η του αίματος φύσις καΐ 
κατά το ήθος τοις ζώοις καΐ κατά την α'ίσθησιν, 
ζύΧόγως' νλη γάρ eoTi παντός του σώματος' η γάρ 

15 τροφή ΰλη, το δ' αι/χα η ξσχάτη τροφή, πολλην 
οΰν ποΐ€Ϊ διαφοράν θζρμον ον καΐ φυχρον και λβτττον 
και τταγυ και OoXepov και καθαρόν. ιχώρ δ' εστί 
το ύδατώδε? τοΰ αίματος δια το μήττω 7Τ€π4φθαι η 
8ΐζφθάρθαι, ωστ6 6 μεν βζ ανάγκης Ιχώρ, ο δ' 
αίματος χάριν εστίν. 

20 V. Πι/χελί] δε και στεαρ Βιαφερουσι μεν άλλτ^λωι^ 
κατά την του αίματος Βιαφοράν. εστί γάρ 4κά- 
τερον αυτών αί/ζα ττεττεμμενον δι' εύτροφίαν, και το 
μη κατανάλισκα μενον εΙς το σαρκώΒες μόριον τών 
ζώων, εϋττετττον δε και ευτραφές. Βηλοΐ δε το 

25 Χιτταρον αυτών τών γάρ υγρών το λιτταρον κοινόν 
άερος και πυρός εστίν, δια τοΰτο ού^εν έχει τών 
άναίμων οϋτε πιμελην ούτε στεαρ, οτι ούδ' αι/χα, 
τών δ' εναίμων τά μεν σωματώΒες έχοντα το αι/χα 
στεαρ έχει μάλλον, το γάρ στεαρ γεώ8ες εστί, διό 

" As it were, the " raw " material. 

■" I have used the terms " lard " and " suet " rather than 
" soft fat " and " hard fat " because they represent more 
closely the distinction made by Aristotle. The difference 
between them is now known to be less fundamental, and is 



not taken out, it does congeal, as moist earth does 
under the influence of cold : the cold expels the heat 
and makes the fluid evaporate, as has been said 
before ; so it is due to the solidifying effect of 
the cold, and not of the hot, that Avhat remains 
becomes congealed. And while it is in the body the 
blood is fluid on account of the heat Λvhich is there. 

There are many points both in regard to the tem- 
perament of animals and their power of sensation 
which are controlled by the character of the blood. 
This is what Λve should expect : for the blood is the 
material " of Λvhich the whole body consists — material 
in the case of living creatures being nourishment, and 
blood is the final form Λvhich the nourishment assumes. 
For this reason a great deal depends upon Λvhether 
the blood be hot, cold, thin, thick, muddy, or clear. 
Serum is the watery part of blood ; and it is watery 
either because it has not yet undergone concoction or 
because it has been already corrupted ; consequently 
some of the serum is the result of a necessary process, 
and some is there for the purpose of producing blood. 

V. The difference between lard and suet^ is parallel Lard and 
to a difference in the blood. They both consist of 
blood that has been concocted as the result of plentiful 
nourishment ; that is, the surplus blood that is not 
used up to nourish the fleshy parts of the animal, but 
is well concocted and well nourished. (This point 
is proved by their greasiness, for grease in fluids is 
a combination of Air and Fire.) This explains 
why there is no lard or suet in any of the bloodless 
animals. And among the others, those Λvhose blood 
is denser tend to contain suet rather than lard. Suet 

due to varying proportions of unsaturated triglycerides and 
the lengths of the carbon chains. 



*51 •/ Λ' ^^ί■ \ϊ-»0 <5» 

ττηγί'νται καυαττ^ρ και το αίμα το ινωοζς και αυτό 
και οί ζωμοί οι toloutol• ολίγον γαρ €χ€ί υοατος, 

30 το Se 77θλύ γηζ. διό τα μη άμφώδοντα άλλα 
Κ€ρατώόη στέαρ €χ€ΐ. φανςρά δ' η φύσις αυτών 
τοΰ τοιούτου στοιχείου ττληρης ούσα τω κερατωοης 
elvai και αστραγάλους €χ€ΐν• άτταντα γαρ ζηρα και 
γβηρά την φύσιν εστίν. τά δ' άμφώδοντα και 

35 ακερατα και ττολυσχώή ττιμελην έχει αντί στεατος, 
η ου πηγνυται ουδέ θρΰτιτεται ξηραινομενη δια το 
μη €α•αι γεώδη την φύσιν αύτης. 

Μέτρια μεν οΰν ταΰτα οντά εν τοις μοριοις τών 
651 b ζώων ωφελεί {προς μεν γαρ αϊσθησιν ουκ εμττοδιζει, 
προς δ' uyieiav «rat δύναμιν έχει βοηθειαν), υπερ- 
βάλλοντα δε τω πλήθει φθείρει και βλάπτει, ει 
γαρ παν γένοιτο το σώμα πιμελη και στεαρ, άπό- 
λοιτ' αν. ζωον μεν γάρ εστί κατά. το αίσθητικον 
5 μόριον, η δε σάρζ και το άνάλογον αισθητικόν το 
δ' αί/χα, ώσπερ εΐρηται και πρότερον, ουκ έχει 
αϊσθησιν, διό ουδέ πιμελη ουδέ στεαρ' atjua γάρ 
πεπεμμένον εστίν, ώστ' ει παν γένοιτο το σώμα 
τοιούτον, ουκ αν εχοι ούδεμίαν αϊσθησιν. διό και 
γηράσκει τα;\;ε'ω5' τά λι'α^ πίονα• ολίγαιμα γάρ ατε εις 

10 την πιότητα άναλισκομενου τοΰ αίματος, τά δ' ολίγ- 
αιμα ηδη προωδοποίηται προς την φθοραν ή γάρ 
φθορά ολιγαιμία τις εστί, και το ολίγαιμον^ παθη- 
τικόν και ύπο φυχροΰ τοΰ τυχόντος και ύπο θερμού. 

^ sic Th. : animal paitci sanguinis Σ: ολίγον vulg. 


is of an earthy character ; it contains but little 
water against a large proportion of earth ; so it 
congeals just as fibrous blood and broths do. So 
too the animals which have horns but have teeth 
in one jaw only contain suet. And it is clear that 
their natural constitution is full of this element 
(earth) from the fact that they have horns and huckle- 
bones, for they are all of them solid and earthy in 
constitution. On the other hand, the animals which 
have incisor teeth in both jaws and have toes (not 
uncloven hoofs), but no horns, contain lard instead 
of suet. Lard neither congeals nor sphts up into 
small pieces when it dries, omng to the fact that 
it is not earthy. 

Lard and suet when present in the parts of animals 
in moderate quantities are beneficial : they do not 
hinder the action of the senses, and they contribute 
towards the health and strength of the body. But 
when the amount of them is excessive they are 
destructive and injurious. This is shoΛvn by the 
consideration that if the Λvhole body were to become 
lard and suet, it Avould perish. The sine qua no?i of a 
Uving creature is its sensory part, Avhich is flesh or its 
counterpart ; and since, as I have said before, blood 
is not sensitive, neither lard nor suet, Λvhich are just 
concocted blood, is sensitive. Therefore, if the whole 
bodA* were to become either of these, it would have 
no sensation whatever. For this reason, too, unduly 
fat animals age quickly : their blood gets used up to 
produce fat, so there is very little of it left ; and 
anything that has but httle blood is well on the road 
to decaA'. In fact, decay is just a form of blood- 
deficiency ; and an animal deficient in blood is 
easily susceptible to the effects of accidental cold and 



6Slb ^ ^ 

/cat άγονώτ€ρα hr) τα ττίονά iarc δια την αΰτην 

αΐτιαν ο γαρ e8et e/c του αίματος ζΐς την γονην 

15 leVat και το σπέρμα, τοΰτ^ els την ττιμζλην άνα- 
Χίσκ€ται καΐ το στέαρ• 7Τ€ττόμ€νον γαρ το atjua 
γίνεται ταΰτα, ωστβ η δλως ον γίνεται περίττωμα 
αύτοΐς ovhev η ολίγον. 

Και περί μεν αίματος καΐ ιχώρος καΐ πιμελης 
και στεατος, τι τε εστίν εκαστον αυτών καΐ δια 
τινας αίτια?, ε'ιρηται. 

20 VI. "Εστί Βέ καΐ ο μυελός αίματος τις φύσις, και 
ούχ ωσπερ ο'ίονταί τίνες, της γονής σπερματική 
8ύναμις. δηλοΓ δ' εν τοις νεοις ττάμπαν άτε γαρ 
εζ αίματος συνεστώτων των μορίων και της τροφής 
οϋσης τοις εμβρύοις αίματος, και εν τοις όστοΐς 6 

25 μυελός αΙματώΒης εστίν αυξανομένων δβ καΐ πετ- 
τομένων, καθάπερ καΐ τα μόρια μεταβάλλει και τα 
σπλάγχνα τάς χρόας {ύπερβολ,ή γαρ αίματώ8ες και 
των σπλάγχνων εκαστόν εστίν ετι νέων όντων), 
οΰτω και 6 μυελός. 

Και των μεν πιμελω8ών λιπαρός και πιμελή 
όμοιος, δσοις δε μη πιμελή ομοιον^ άλλα στεαρ 

30 γίνεται το αίμα πεττόμενον, τούτοις 8ε στεάτωσης . 
διό τοις μεν κερατοφόροις και μή άμφώ8ουσι 
στεατώΒης, τοις δ' άμφώ8ουσι και πολυσχώεσι 
πιμελωδης. [ηκιστα δε τοιούτος 6 ραχίτης εστι 
μυελός δια το δεΐν αυτόν είναι συνεχή και διεχειι^ 
δια πάσης τής ράχεως Βιηρημενης κατά τους 

35 σφονόύλους• λιπαρός δ' ων ή στεατώδης ουκ άν 
ομοίως ην συνεχής, αλλ' ή θρανστός ή υγρός.) 

^ δμοιον Τ?- : δμοΐ05 alii. 

" e.g. secretion of semen. See above, on 647 b 27. 
" Plato, Timaeus, 73 c. 


heat. The same cause is responsible for the com- 
parative sterility of fat animals : that part of the 
blood which ought to go to form semen and seed gets 
used up in forming lard and suet, which are formed 
by the concoction of blood. Hence in fat animals 
there is either no residue " at all, or else very little. 

I have ηοΛν spoken of blood, serum, lard and suet, 
describing the nature and the Causes of each of them. 

VI. MarroΛv, again, is really a form of blood, and not, Marrow. 
as some* think, the same as the seminal substance" 
of the seed. This is proved by the case of very voung 
animals. In the emi)ryo, the parts are composed out 
of blood and its nourishment is blood ; so it is not 
surprising that the marrow in the bones has a blood- 
like appearance. As they grow and become mature,•* 
the marroAV changes its colour just like the other parts* 
of the body and the viscera, which Avhile the creature 
is young all have a blood-like appearance owing to the 
large quantity of blood in them. 

Animals which contain lard have greasy marrow, 
like lard ; those whose concocted blood produces not 
a substance like lard but suet have suety marrow. 
Hence, in the horned animals which have teeth in 
one jaw only the marrow is suety, and in the animals 
that have teeth in both ja\vs and are polydactylous it 
is like lard. (The spinal marroΛv cannot possibly be 
of this nature because it has to be continuous and 
to pass Avithout a break right through the whole 
spine Avhich is divided into separate vertebrae ; and if 
it were fatty or suety it could not hold together as 
well as it does, but it Avould be either brittle or fluid.) 

' Dynamis. See Introduction, pp. 30 ff. and note on 6\6 a 14. 

■* Lit. " are concocted." 

• A good instance of Aristotle's usage of the term " part." 



651b ^ , , « ^ / » .Λ' » ~ 

Έι^ια δ' ουκ €χ€ΐ των ζώων ώς αξίως €ΐπ€Ϊν 

μυ€λόν, όσων τα οστά Ισχυρά καΐ πυκνά, οίον τα 
652 a του AeovTos" τούτου γαρ τά οστά, δια το παμτταν 
άσημον exetv, 8οκ€Ϊ ουκ €χ€ίν δλως μυβλόν. εττει 
δε την μ€ν των οστών ανάγκη φύσιν ύπαρχαν τοις 
ζωοις η το άνάλογον τοις όστοΐς, οίον τοις ένυδροι? 
6 τήν άκανθαν, άναγκαΐον ^νίοις ύπάρχβι,ν καΐ μυξΑον, 
€μ7Τ€ριλαμβανομ€νης της τροφής βζ ης γίνεται τα 
οστά. ΟΤΙ δ' η τροφή πασιν αίμα, ζ'ιρηται ττρο- 
Τ€ρον. βύλόγως δε και στεατώδει? οΐ μυελοί και 
ττι/χελώδει? εισιν δια yap την άλεαν την γινομενην 
νπο του ττεριεχεσ^αι τοΓ? οστοΓ? 77εττεται το αΐ/>ια, 

10 η δε καθ^ αυτό ττέφις αίματος στε'α/3 και ττιμελη 
εστίν, και εν τοις 8η τά οστά ττυκνα έχουσι και 
ισχυρά ευλόγως εν τοΓ? μεν ουκ ενεστι, τοΓ? δ' 
oAi'yos^ eveoTiv εις γάρ τά οστά αναλίσκεται η 

Έν δε τοΓ? μη εχουσιν οστά αλλ' άκανθαν 6 
ραχίτης μόνος εστί μυελός• όλίγαιμά τε γάρ φύσει 

15 ύττάρχει οντά, και κοίλη άκανθα μόνον η της ρά- 

χεώς εστίν, διό εν ταύτη εγγίνεταν μόνη τε γάρ 

έχει χώραν, καΐ μόνη δεΐται συνδέσμου δια τάς 

8ιαληφεις. διό και 6 ενταύθα μυελός, ωσττερ 

εΐρηται, άλλοιότερός εστίν δια το άντι περόνης 

1 oXiyois per errorem Bekker. 


Some animals have no marrow worth mentioning i 
these are they whose bones are strong and close- 
textured : for instance, the Lion, whose bones con- 
tain so insignificant an amount of marroΛV that they 
look as if they contained none at all. Now in view of 
the fact that the bodies of animals must have in them 
either bones or the counterpart of bones {e.g. the 
spines in Λvater-animals), it follows of necessity that 
some of them must contain marrow as well, due to the 
enclosing of the nourishment out of which the bones 
are formed. Now we have stated already that the 
nourishment of all the parts of the body is blood. 
And it is quite reasonable that the various sorts of 
marrow should be suety and lardy ; because the 
blood undergoes concoction owing to the heat pro- 
duced by its being surrounded by bone, and the 
product of blood when it undergoes concoction by 
itself is suet and lard. And also, of the animals that 
have strong, close-textured bones, some have no 
marrow, others have but little, and this is reasonable 
too, because the nourishment gets used up to supply 
the substance of the bones themselves. 

In those animals that have no bones but spine 
instead, the backbone contains the only marro\v they 
possess. It is the nature of these creatures to have 
but a small amount of blood, and their only holloΛV 
spine is that of the backbone. Therefore the marrow 
is formed in it — indeed, it is the only bone where 
there is room for the marrow, and the only one 
which requires something to connect it together, 
owing to its being divided up into segments. 
This also explains Avhy the marrow here is (as 
I have already said) somewhat different from the 
marrow elsewhere. It has to serve as a fastening, 



652 a 

γαρ yivea^ai γλίσχρος, καΐ νενρωΒης ΙστΙν Ιν 
βχγι τάσιν. 

20 Δια Tt μ€ν ουν μυελόν €χ€ί τα ζώα τα βχοντα 
pveXov, €Ϊρηταί• καΐ τι ίστιν ο μυελός, €Κ τούτων 
φαν€ρόν, ΟΤΙ TTJg αίματικης τροφής της et? όστα 
και άκανθαν μεριζομένης εστί το €μπ€ρίλαμβανό- 
μ€νον περίττωμα ττεφθβν. 

VII. Yiepl δ' εγκεφάλου σχεδόν εστίν εχόμενον 

25 ειπείν πολλοίς γαρ καΐ 6 εγκέφαλος Βοκεΐ μυελός 
είναι /cat άρχη του μυελού δια το συνεχή τον 
ραχιτην αύτω οραν μυελόν. εστί δβ παν τουναντίον 
αύτω την φνσιν ώς ειπείν 6 μεν γαρ εγκεφσ.λος 
φυχρότατον των εν τω σώματι μορίων, ο 8ε μυελός 
θερμός την φύσιν 8ηλοΐ δ' η λιπαρότης αύτοΰ και 

30 το πΐον. διό και συνεχής 6 ραχίτης τω εγκεφαλω 
εστίν αεΙ γαρ ή φύσις μηχαναται προς τήν εκάστου 
ύπερβολήν βοήθειαν τήν του εναντίου παρεΒριαν, ινα 
άνισάζη τήν θατερου ύπερβολήν θάτερον. ότι μεν 
ουν 6 μυελός θερμός^ εστί, Βήλον εκ πολλών, ή δε 

35 τοΰ εγκεφάλου φυχρότης φανερά μεν και κατά την 
θίζιν, έτι δ' άναιμότατον τών υγρών τών εν τω 
σώματι πάντων (οτίδ' oTtow γαρ αίματος έχει εν 
652 b αύτω) και αύχμηρότατον . εστί δ' ούτε περίττωμα 
ούτε τών συνεχών μορίων, άλλα ίδιο? ή φύσις, και 
ευλόγως τοιαύτη, δτι μεν ουν ουκ έχει συνεχειαν 
ού^εμίαν προς τά αισθητικά μόρια, 8ήλον μεν και 

5 δια της οφεως, ετι 8έ μάλλον τω μηΒεμίαν ποιεΐν 
αίσ^τ^σιν θιγγανόμενος, ωσπερ ούΒε τό αί^αα ουδβ το 
περίττωμα τών ζοίων. 

^ θίρμός Ρ Ζ : θΐρμόν vulg. 



and so it is sticky ; and it is sinewy too so that it 
can stretch. 

We have now explained why marrow is present in 
certain animals. We have also made clear what 
marroΛV is. The surplus of the blood-like nourishment 
which is distributed to the bones and spine gets 
enclosed within them, and after it has undergone 
concoction then it is marro\v. 

^ II. The brain is the next subject on our list. It Brain, 
comes appropriately after the marroAv, as many think 
that the brain is really marroΛV " and is the source of 
the marrow, because, as observation shows, the spinal 
marrow is continuous with the brain. As a matter 
of fact, however, the two are quite opposite in nature. 
The brain is the coldest of all the parts in the body, 
whereas the marrow is hot, as is sho>vn by the fact 
that it is greasy and fat. And that is the real reason 
why the spinal marroAv is continuous with the brain. 
Nature is always contriving to set next to anything 
that is excessive a reinforcement of the opposite sub- 
stance, so that the one may level out the excess of 
the other. Now there are many indications that the 
marrow is hot ; and the coldness of the brain is 
shown not only by its being cold to the touch, but 
also by its being the driest of all the fluid parts of the 
body and the one that has the least blood in it — in 
fact, it has none at all. It is, however, not a residue, 
nor is it to be classed among the parts that are con- 
tinuous. It is peculiar in its nature, and this after all 
is but reasonable. Inspection shoAvs that the brain 
has no continuity with the sensory parts, but this is 
shown still more unmistakably by the fact that like 
the blood and the residue of animals it produces no 
sensation when it is touched. 

« Cf. Plato, Timaeus 75 c, d. 



652 b 

Ύττάρχζί Be τοΐς ζωοις προς την της φύσεως 
όλης σωτηρίαν. οΐ jxev γαρ του ζώου την φυχην 
τιθίασι πΰρ η τοιαύτην τινά Βυναμιν, φορτικώς 
τιθίντίς• βέΧτιον δ ίσως• φάναι ev τοιουτω τινί 

10 σώματι συνβστάναι. τούτου δ' αΐτίον οτι τοΐς της 
φυχης βργοίς ύπηρςτικώτατον των σωμάτων το 
θζρμόν iaTiv το τρέφζΐν γαρ και KiveZv φνχης 
€ργον εστί, ταΰτα Se δια ταύτης μάλιστα γίνεται 
της δυνάμεως. δμοιον οΰν το την φυχην eivai 
φάναι πΰρ και το πρίονα η τρΰπανον τον τβκτονα 

15 ή '^η'^ τεκτονικην, ότι το έργον περαινεται εγγύς 
αλλήλων ουσιν. οτι μεν ονν θερμότητος τα ζωα 
μετεχειν άναγκαΐον, 8ήλον εκ τούτων επει δ' 
άπαντα Βεΐται της εναντίας ροπής, Γνα τυγχάνη του 
μετρίου και του μέσου {την γαρ ούσίαν έχει τοΰτο 
και τον λόγον, των δ' άκρων εκάτερον ουκ έχει 

20 χωρίς), δια ταύτην την αιτίαν προς τον της καρδίας 
τόπον και την εν αυττ^ θερμότητα μεμηχάνηται τον 
εγκεφαλον ή φύσις, και τούτου χάριν υπάρχει τοΰτο 
το μόριον τοΐς ζωοις, την φύσιν έχον κοινην ύδατος 
και γης, καΐ δια τοΰτο τα (^μevy^ eVat/za έχει πάντα 
εγκεφαλον, των δ' αλλω^ ούδεν ώς ειπείν, πλην οτι 

25 κατά το άνάλογον , οίον 6 πολυπους• όλιγόθερμα γαρ 
πάντα δια την άναιμιαν. 

Ό μεν ουν εγκέφαλος εϋκρατον ποιεί την εν τη 
καρδία θερμότητα και ζεσιν ίνα δε και τοΰτο το 
μόριον τυγχάνη μετρίας θερμότητος, άφ^ εκατερας 
της φλεβός, της τε μεγάλης και της καλούμενης 

80 αορτής, τελευτώσιν αί φλέβες εις την jUT^vtyya την 

^ (μεν) Rackham. 

" e.g. Democritus ; see Aristotle, De anima, 403 b 31. 
* Or, " proportion." 



The brain is present in order to preserve the animal 
organism as a whole. Some * maintain that the Soul 
of an animal is Fire or some such substance. This is 
a crude way of putting it ; and might be improved 
upon by saying that the Soul subsists in some body 
of a fiery nature. The reason for this is that the 
hot substance is the most serviceable of all for the 
activities of the Soul, since one of the activities of 
the Soul is to nourish ; another is to cause motion ; 
and these are most readily effected by means of 
this substance (viz. the hot). So to say that the 
Soul is fire is like saying that the craftsman, or his 
craft, is the saw or the auger which he uses, on 
the ground that the activity is performed ΛνΜΙε the 
two are near together. From Avhat we have said this 
at any rate is clear : animals must of necessity have in 
them a certain amount of heat. Νολν, everything needs 
something to counterbalance it, so that it may achieve 
moderation and the mean ; for it is the mean, and 
not either of the extremes apart, Λvhich has re- 
ality and rationality.'' For this cause nature has 
contrived the brain to counterbalance the region of 
the heart and the heat in it ; and that is Λvhy animals 
have a brain, the composition of which is a combina- 
tion of Water and Earth. Hence, although all 
blooded animals have a brain, practically none of 
the others has (unless it be just a counterpart, as 
in the case of the Octopus), for since they lack blood 
they have but little heat. 

The brain, then, makes the heat and the boihng in 
the heart well blent and tempered ; yet in order that 
the brain may still have a moderate heat, blood- 
vessels run from the great Blood-vessel and what is 
known as the Aorta, till they reach the membrane 



TTcpl τον €γκ€φαλον . ττρος δε το rfj θζρμοττητί μτ] 
βλάτττειν, άντΙ μβν μζγάλων (^καϊ)^ ολίγων πυκναι 
καΐ λζπταΐ φλββζς ττ^ριΐ-χονσίν αυτόν, αντί δέ doXe- 
ροΰ^ καΐ 7ταχ€ος αίματος λ^τττον καΐ καθαρον. διο 
και τα ρεύματα τοις σώμασιν €κ της κβφαλης εστί 

35 την άρχην, οσοις αν τ) τα ττβρί τον €γκ€φαλον 
φυχρότ€ρα της συμμέτρου κράσβως• άναθυμιω- 
653 a μ4νης γαρ δια των φΧββών ανω της τροφής το 
ττβρίττωμα φυχόμβνον δια την του τόττου τούτου 
Βύναμιν ρβύματα ττοιεΓ φλέγματος και ίχώρος. 
δει δε λαβείν, ως μβγαλο) τταρεικάζοντα μικρόν, 
ομοίως συμβαίν€ΐν ωσπβρ την των ύβτών γ4ν€σιν• 
5 αναθυμιωμίνης γαρ εκ της γης της άτμίδος και 
φερομένης υπο τοΰ θερμού προς τον άνω τόπον, 
όταν Ιν τω ύπερ της γης ^εν^^ται άε'ρι οντι φυχρω, 
συνίσταται πάλιν εις ϋ8ωρ δια την φύζιν και ρεΖ 
κάτω προς την γήν. άλλα περί μεν τούτων εν ταΐς 
των νόσων άρχαΐς άρμόττει λέγειν, εφ' όσον της φυ- 

10 σικης φιλοσοφίας εστίν ειπείν περί αυτών. 

Ποιεί δε και τον ϋπνον τοις ζωοις τοΰτο το 
μόριον τοις έχουσιν εγκέφαλον, τοις δε μη εχουσι 
το άνάλογον καταφΰχον γαρ την άπό της τροφής 
τοΰ αίματος επίρρυσιν (tj και δια τιι^α? όμοιας 
αιτίας άλλα?), βαρύνει τε τον τόπον φιό την κεφαλήν 

15 καρηβαροΰσιν οι ύπνώσσοντες) και κάτω ποιεί το 
θερμόν ύποφεύγειν μετά τοΰ αίματος, διό ττλεΓο;' 
αθροιζόμενον επι τον κάτω τόπον απεργάζεται τον 
ϋπνον, και το δυΐ'ασ^αι έστάναι ορθά αφαιρείται 
δσα των ζωών ορθά την φύσιν εστί, των δ' άλλα>ν 

^ (/cat) Rackham. 
^ θολεροϋ colli. Buss, (turbidi Σ) : πολλοΰ vulg. 



which surrounds the brain. And in order to prevent 
injury being done through heat, the blood-vessels 
surrounding it are not few and large but small and 
multitudinous ; and the blood is not muddy and 
thick but thin and clear. This also explains why 
fluxes begin in the head ; they occur when the 
parts around the brain are colder than the rightly- 
proportioned blend." What happens is that, as the 
nourishment exhales upwards through the blood- 
vessels, the residue from it becomes cooled owing 
to the specific nature of the brain, and produces 
fluxes of phlegm and serum. And we should be justi- 
fied in maintaining that this process resembles, on 
a small scale, the one which produces rain-showers. 
Damp vapour exhales up from the earth and is carried 
into the upper regions by the heat ; and Avhen it 
reaches the cold air up aloft, it condenses back again 
into water OΛV^ng to the cold, and pours doΛvn to- 
wards the earth. However, so far as Natural Philo- 
sophy is concerned with these matters, the proper 
place to speak of them is in the Origins of Diseases. 6 
Furthermore, it is the brain (or, if there is no brain, 
its counterpart) which produces sleep in animals. 
It cools the οηΑοΛν of blood which comes from the 
food (or else is due to other causes of the same sort), 
and Λveighs down the part where it is (that is why 
when a person is sleepy his head is weighed down), 
and causes the hot substance to escape below to- 
gether with the blood. Hence, the blood accumu- 
lates iniduly in the lower region of the body and 
produces sleep ; at the same time it takes away 
from those animals whose nature is to stand upright 
the power to do so, and the others it prevents from 

* See p. 38. '' No such treatise exists. 



e53a ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ τ » 

TTjv ορθότητα της κξφαλης• περί ων €ίρηταί καθ' 

20 αυτά eV τ€ τοις vepl αίσθησεως και nepi νττνου 

"Οτι δ' €στΙν 6 βγκβφαλος κοινός ϋΒατος και 
γης, ^ηλοΐ το συμβαίνον πβρί αυτόν ίφόμενος γαρ 
γίνεται ζηρός καΐ σκληρός, καΐ λβίττεται το γβώΒες 
εζατμισθεντος του ύ'δατο? ΰττο της θερμότητας, 
ώσπερ τα. των γεΒρόττων ίφηματα καΐ των άλλων 

25 καρπών, δια το γης etvai τό πλείστον μέρος, €ζ- 
ίόντος του μιχθεντος ύγροΰ• καΐ γαρ ταύτα γίνεται 
σκληρά και γεηρα πάμπαν. 

"^χει δε των ζώων εγκεφαλον πλείστον άνθρωπος 
ώς κατά μέγεθος, και τών ανθρώπων οι άρρενες των 
θηλειών και γαρ τόν περί την καρ^ίαν και τον 

80 πλεύμονα τόπον θερμότατον και εναιμότατον. διό 
και μόνον εστί τών ζώων ορθόν η γαρ του θερμού 
φύσις ενισχυουσα ποιεί την au'^rjaii' από του μέσου 
κατά την αυτής φοράν, προς ούν πο?ίλην θερμότητα 
αντίκειται πλείων ύγρότης και φυχρότης, και δια τό 
πλήθος όφιαίτατα πήγνυται τό περί την κεφαλήν 

85 οστοΰν, ο καλοΰσι βρεγμα τίνες, δια τό πολύν 
χρόνον το θερμόν άπατμίζειν τών δ' άλλων ού^ενι 
τοΰτο συμβαίνει τών εναίμων ζώων. και ραφάς δε 
653 b πλειστας έχει περί την κεφαλήν, και τό άρρεν 
πλείους τών θηλειών, δια τήν α?3τήν αΐτίαν, όπως 6 
τόπος εϋπνους ή, και μάλλον ό πλείων εγκέφαλος• 
ύγ μαινόμενος γάρ ή ξηραινόμενος μάλλον ου ποιήσει 
τό αύτοΰ έργον, αλλ' ή ου φύζει ή πήζει, ώστε 

' See De somno, 455 b 28 ff., especially 456 b 17 if. 
* The cranial bone, which covers the anterior fontanelle. 


holding their heads upright. These matters have 
been spoken of separately in the treatises on Sensation 
and on Sleep.'* 

I said the brain is compounded of Water and 
Earth. This is sho^v■n by Avhat happens when it is 
boiled. Then it becomes solid and hard : the earthy 
substance is left behind after the Water has evapor- 
ated oAving to the heat. It is just Avhat happens 
when pulse and other forms of fruit are boiled ; they 
also get hard and earthy altogether, because the 
greater part of them is earth, and the fluid mixed 
Avith it departs when they are boiled. 

Of all the animals, man has the largest brain for 
his size ; and men have a larger brain than \vomen. ^ 
In both cases the largeness is due to there being a 
great deal of heat and blood in the region around the 
heart and the lung. This too explains why man is 
the only animal that stands upright. As the hot sub- 
stance prevails in the body it induces growth, begin- 
ning from the centre along its ολ^τι line of travel. 
It is against great heat, then, that a large supply of 
fluid and cold is provided. This bulk of moisture 
is also the reason why the bone that surrounds the 
brain (called by some the bregma) ^ is the last of all 
to solidify ; the hot substance takes a long time to 
evaporate it off. This phenomenon does not occur 
in any other of the blooded animals. Again, man 
has more sutures in the skull than any other animal, 
and males have more than females. The size of the 
brain is the reason for this also ; it is to secure 
ventilation, and the larger the brain, the more 
ventilation it requires. If the brain becomes unduly 
fluid or unduly solid, it \vill not perform its proper 
function, but will either fail to cool the blood or else 

Γ 155 


653 b ^ , , „ , / ί X 

5 νόσους καΐ παράνοιας ποί€Ϊν καΐ θανάτους' το γαρ 

iv Tjj Kaphia θζρμον καΙ η άρχη συμπαθ€στατον 

ioTL καΐ ταχ€Ϊαν ττοιέχται την α'ίσθησίν μβταβαλ- 

λοντός τι και πάσχοντος του π€ρΙ τον βγκεφαλον 


Yiepl μίν ουν των σύμφυτων τοις ζωοις υγρών 

10 σχεδόν €Ϊρηται π€ρΙ πάντων των δ' ύστ€ρογ€νών 
τά τ€ π€ριττώματα της τροφής- εστί, το τ€ της 
κυστ€ως υ77οστϊ]|αα καΐ το της κοιλίας, και πάρα 
ταΰτα γονή και γάλα τοις π^φυκόσιν ^χειν βκαστα 
τούτων, τά μβν ουν της τροφής περιττώματα περί 
την της τροφής σκέφιν και θβωρίαν οικείους έχει 

15 τους λόγους, τίσι τε των ζωών υπάρχει και δια 
τίνα? αιτίας, τά δε ττερι σπέρματος καΐ γάλακτος εν 
τοις περί γενέσεως' το μεν γάρ αρχή γενέσεως 
αυτών εστί, το δε χάριν γενέσεως. 

VIII. Περί δε τών άλλων μορίων τών όμοιο- 

so μερών σκεπτεον, και πρώτον περί σαρκός εν τοΐς 
εχουσι σάρκας, εν δε τοΐς άλλοις το άνάλογον τοΰτο 
γάρ αρχή και σώμα καθ^ αυτό τών ζώων εστίν. 
8ήλον δε και κατά τον λόγον το γάρ ζώον όρι- 
" ζόμεθα τω εχειν αΐσθησιν, πρώτον δε την πρώτην 
αΰτη δ' εστίν άφή, ταύτης δ' αίσθητήριον το τοιοΰ- 

25 τον μόριόν εστίν, ήτοι το πρώτον, ώσπερ ή κόρη 

" At Be gen. an. 722 a, 776 a 15 ff. 

PARTS OF ANIMALS, II. vii.-viii. 

will make it set fast, thus producing various forms of 
disease, madness, and death. Indeed, the heat that 
is in the heart, being the source, is extremely re- 
sponsive to any influence upon it ; and if the blood 
Λvhich surrounds the brain undergoes any change or 
any other affection, then this heat at once becomes 
sensitive of it. 

We may now claim to have considered all the fluids 
which are present in animal bodies from their very 
earliest stages. There are others which are first 
produced only at some later stage, and among these 
we must reckon the residues of the nourishment — 
that is to say, the deposits from the bladder and 
from the gut ; and also semen, and milk ; these 
make their appearance according to the species and 
sex of the animal concerned. Discussion of the resi- 
dues of the nourishment Λvill come in appropriately 
during our general consideration and examination 
of nourishment ; we shall then show in what animals 
they occur, and why they do so. Semen, which 
gives rise to generation, and milk, Avhich exists on 
account of generation, we shall deal with in the 
treatise on Generation."• 

VIII. We must now go on to consider the rest of Flesh and 
the uniform parts. Let us take first of all Flesh (and, '^°°®• 
where Flesh is absent, its counterpart), for this is to 
animals both a principle and a body in itself. Its 
primacy can also be logically shown, as follows. We 
define an animal as something that has the power of 
sensation, and chiefly the primary sensation, which 
is touch ; and the organ through which this sensation 
is effected is the flesh (or its counterpart). And 
flesh is either its primary organ (comparable to the 
pupil in the case of sight), or else it is the organ and 



653b ^ ^ ,, , , - , » 

της 6φ€ως, η το δί.' ου συν€ίλημμ€νον , ωσπ€ρ αν et 

τις προσΧάβοι τη κόρη το διάφανες παν. im μβν 
οΰν των άλλων αίσθησβων αδύνατον re καΐ ovhev 
ττροϋργου τοϋτ* ην ποιησαί τη φνσ€ί, το δ' άτττικον 
ef ανάγκης• μόνον γαρ η μάλιστα τοντ €στι σωμα- 
80 τώδε? των αισθητηρίων, κατά δε την α'ισθησιν 
φανβρον πάντα τάλλα τούτου χάριν οντά, Χξ,γω δ' 
οίον οστά και Βίρμα και veupa και φΧί,β^ς, ert δε 
τρίχες και το των ονύχων γένος, και ει τι τοιούτον 
ετερόν εστίν, η μεν γαρ των οστών φύσις σωτη- 
ρίας ένεκεν jU.ejU7];)^avi7Tat (τοΰγ μαλακού, σκληρά 
85 την φύσιν ούσα, εν τοις εχουσιν οστά' εν δέ τοις 
μη εχουσι, τό άνάλογον, οίον εν τοις ίχθύσι τοις 
μεν άκανθα τοις 8ε χόν8ρος. 

Τά μεν οΰν έχει των ζώων εντός την τοιαύτην 
654 3 βοηθειαν, eVta δε τών άναίμων εκτός, ώσπερ τών τ( 
μαλακοστράκων εκαστον, οίον καρκίνοι και το τών 
καράβων γένος, και το τών οστρακόδερμων ωσ- 
αύτως, οίον τά καλούμενα οστρεα• πάσι γάρ τούτοις 
το μεν σαρκώδες εντός, το 8έ συνεχον και φυλάττον 
6 εκτός τό γεώδες εστίν προς γάρ τη φυλακή της 
συνέχειας, τω εχειν ολίγον αυτών ττ^ν φύσιν θερμόν 
άναίμων όντων, οίον πνιγεύς τις περικείμενον τό 
οστρακον φυλάττει τό εμπεπυρευμενον θερμόν. η 
δε χελώνη και τό τών εμύδων γένος ομοίως εχειν 
1 {τοΰ) Ogle. 

" Apparently because the objects with which it deals are 
more " corporeal " than those of the other senses — it has 
to be in bodily contact with them. 

* As apart from a priori reasoning. 

" Sometimes, as here, " counterpart " could be represented 
by the modern term " analogue." 

•* Lit., " the soft-shelled creatures." 


the medium of the sensation combined in one (com- 
parable to the pupil plus the Avhole of the transparent 
medium in the case of siwht). Now not only Avas it 
pointless, it Avas impossible for Nature to make such 
a combination in the case of the other senses ; with 
touch, hoAvever, it Avas due to necessity, since its 
sense-organ is the only one Avhich is corporeal — 
or at least it is definitely the most corporeal one." 
It is also clear from our actual experience in sensation'' 
that all the other parts exist for the sake of the organ 
of touch (the flesh). In these I include the bones, the 
skin, the sinews, the blood-vessels ; also the hair, nails 
of every sort and kind, and the like. The bones, 
for instance, Avhich are hard in substance, have been 
devised for the preservation of the soft parts. The 
same is true of the counterpart '^ of the bones in other 
creatures : two examples in species of fish are spine 
and cartilage. 

Now with some animals this hard supporting 
substance is situated inside the body, Avith others 
(some of the bloodless ones) it is outside. It is out- 
side in the case of all the Crustacea '^ (e.g. the Crabs 
and the group of Crayfish), and the group of Testacea* 
too, e.g. those that are knoAvn as Oysters. All these 
have their fleshy part inside, and the earthy part 
which holds it together and protects it is out- 
side — outside, because it performs an additional 
function as well : since these creatures are bloodless, 
they possess but little heat, and the shell acts like 
a couvre-feu ; it encloses the faintly burning heat 
and protects it. Another quite different group of 
creatures, the Turtles and the group of freshAvater 

' Lit., " the shell-skinned creatures." " Testacea " is the 
nearest modern term. See Introduction, p. 23. 



ooK€L τούτοις, eTcpov ov γβνος τούτων, τα ο 

10 έντομα των ζωών και τα μαλάκια τούτοις τ 
ζναντίως και αύτοΐς αντικ^ιμίνως συν€στηκ€ν' ov8ev 
γαρ οστώΒζς e^etr eoiKev ov8e yerjpov αποκζκρι- 
μίνον, 6 τι καΐ άζιον eiTTeiv, άλλα τα μ^ν μαλάκια 
σχζ^όν δλα σαρκώΒη καΐ μαλακά, ττρος δβ το μη 
ΐΰφθαρτον elvai το σώμα αυτών, καθαττερ τά 

15 σαρκώΒη, μβταζν σαρκός και νεύρου την φύσιν έχει. 
μαλακον μεν γαρ ώσπερ σάρζ εστίν, έχει δέ τάσιν 
ωσπερ νεΰρον την δε σρ^ισιν έχει της σαρκός ου 
κατ* εύθυωρίαν άλλα κατά κύκλους Βιαιρετην 
ούτως γαρ [άν]^ έχον χρησιμώτατον αν εϊη^ προς την 

20 ισχύν. υπάρχει δ' εν αύτοΐς και το αναλογον ταΐς 
των Ιχθύων άκάνΟαις, οίον εν μεν ταΐς οη^ττιαι? το 
καλούμενον σηπίον, εν δε ταΓ? τευ^ισι το καλοιί- 
μενον ζίφος. το' δ' αυ τών πολυπόδων ζγενος^* 
τοιούτον ούΒεν έχει δια το μικρόν εχειν το κύτος 
την καλουμενην κεφαλήν, θάτερα δ εύμηκη. διο 
προς την ορθότητα αυτών και την ακαμφίαν ύπ- 

25 έγραφε ταύτα η φύσις, ωσπερ τών εναίμων τοις 
μεν όστοΰν τοις δ' άκανθαν. τά δ' έντομα τούτοις 
τ εναντίως έχει και τοις εναίμοις, καθάπερ εϊπομεν 
ούΒεν γαρ άφωρισμενον έχει σκληρόν, το δε μαλα- 
κον, αλλ' δλον το σώμα σκληρόν, σκληρότητα δε 
τοιαύτην, όστοΰ μεν σαρκωΒεστεραν, σαρκός δ' 

^ [αν] seclusi. * χρησίμώτατα ΐ'η SU. 

' το Piatt : το vulg. * iyivos) Piatt. 



Tortoises, are apparently in like case. On the other 
hand, the Insects and the Cephalopods are differ- 
ently constructed from these, as well as beino• 
different from each other. Not only, as it appears, 
have they no bony part, but they have practically 
no earthy part at all distinct from the rest of the 
body. The Cephalopods are almost wholly soft 
and fleshy, yet in order to prevent their bodies 
from being easily destructible as fleshy struc- 
tures are, the substance of Avhich they are formed 
is intermediate between flesh and sinew, having the 
softness of flesh and the elasticity of sinew. When 
it is split up, it breaks as flesh does, that is, not 
longitudinally but into circular portions. The reason 
for this seems to be that such a structure secures 
the greatest strength. There is found also in these 
creatures the counterpart of the spinous bones of 
fishes ; examples are : the " pounce " (o$ sepiae) of 
the cuttlefish, and the " pen " (gladius) of the 
calamaries. Nothing of this sort, however, appears 
in the Octopuses : this is because in them what is 
called the " head " forms but a small sac, whereas 
in the cuttlefish and calamaries the " head " is of 
considerable length. So we see that, in order to 
secure that they should be straight and inflexible, 
nature prescribed for them this hard support, just 
as she gave to the blooded creatures bones or spines. 
Quite a different contrivance obtains in the Insects — ■ 
different both from the Cephalopods and from the 
blooded creatures, as has already been stated. In 
the Insects we do not find the clear-cut distinction 
of hard parts and soft ; here, the whole body is hard, 
yet its hardness is such that it is more fleshlike than 



654 a ^ 

30 οστω8€στ€ραν καΐ yewSeorepav, ττρος το μη eu- 

hiaiperov eXvai το σώμα αυτών. 

IX. "E;^ei δ' ομοίως η re τών οστών καΐ η 

των φΧφών φύσις, ίκατερα γαρ αυτών άφ^ βνος 

ηργμένη συνεχής βστι, καΐ ούτ όστοΰν εστίν αυτό 

85 καθ" αυτό ούδεν, αλλ' η μόριον ως συνεχούς η 
ατττόμενον καΐ ττροσΒεΒεμενον, ίνα χρήταί η φύσις 
654 b καΐ ως ενί καΐ συνέχει καΐ ώς 8υσΙ καΐ Βιγιρημενοις 
προς την κάμφιν. ομοίως Se και φλεφ ούΒεμία 
αντΎ) καθ" αυτήν εστίν, άλλα ττασαι μόριον /uias" 
είσιν. οστοΰν τε γαρ ε'ί τι κεχωρισμενον rjv, τό τ' 
6 έργον ουκ άν εττοίει ου χάριν ή τών οστών εστί 
φύσις [ούτε γαρ αν κάμφεως ήν αίτιον ούτ όρθό- 
τητος ούΒεμιας μη συνεχές ον άλλα Βιαλεΐττον) , ετι 
τ' εβλαπτεν αν ώσπερ άκανθα τι? η βέλος ενόν ταΐς 
σαρζίν. εϊτε φλεφ ην τις κεχωρισμενη και μη 
συνεχής προς τήν αρχήν, ουκ άν έσωζε το εν αύτη 

10 αί/^α• ή γαρ απ" εκείνης θερμότης κωλύει πήγνυ- 
σθαι, φαίνεται 8ε και σηπόμενον το χωριζόμενον. 
αρχή 8ε τών μεν φλεβών ή κάρδια, τών δ' οστών ή 
καλούμενη ράχις τοις εχουσιν οστά πάσιν, αφ" ης 
συνεχής ή τών άλλων οστών εστι φύσις• ή γαρ το 
μήκος και τήν ορθότητα συνεχουσα τών ζωών ή 

16 ράχις εστίν, επει δ' ανάγκη κινουμένου τοΰ ζώου 

PARTS OF ANIMALS, II. viii.-ix. 

bone is and more bony and earthy than flesh. The 
purpose of this is to ensure that the body shall not 
easily break up. 

IX. The system of the bones is similar to that of Bones, 
the blood-vessels : each is a connected system begin- 
ning from one point. There is no such thing as a 
bone by itself in isolation ; every bone is either 
actually part of the connected scheme, or else is 
attached to it and so is in contact with it. This 
enables Nature to use any couple of bones either 
as a single connected piece, or, when flexion is 
required, as two distinct pieces. In like manner, 
there is no such thing as a blood-vessel by itself in 
isolation : they are all of them parts of one blood- 
vessel. An isolated bone could never discharge the 
function for which all bones exist ; for, being dis- 
continuous and disconnected from the rest, it could 
never sei've as the means either for bending or for 
straightening a limb ; but Avorse than that, it would 
be a source of harm, like a thorn or an arrow sticking 
in the flesh. Similarly, if we imagine a blood-vessel 
isolated and not connected with the source of them 
all, it could never keep the blood within it in a proper 
condition, since it is the heat Λvhich comes from that 
source which prevents the blood from congeahng, as 
is shoAvn by the putrefaction of blood when separ- 
ated from it. This source of the blood-vessels 
is of course the heart, and the corresponding source 
of the bones in all bony species is what is called the 
backbone. The system of the bones is a connected 
whole, starting from the backbone, since the back- 
bone connects together the length of the animal's 
body and holds it straight. Now although this back- 
bone is a unity because it is connected together, it 

f2 163 


654 b 

κάμτττ€σθαι το σώμα, μία. μεν δια, την σννέχζΐάν 

€στι, 7Γθλνμ€ρ'ης δε ττ] διαιρέσει των σπονδύλων. 
€κ δε ταύτης τοις βχονσι κώλα συνεχή [77^65• αντην] 
τά τούτων οστά [των αρμονίων] εστίν τα} μεν [έχει 
τά κώλα κάμφίν συνδεδεμένα τοΐς'^ νεΰροις, και] τών 

20 εσχάτων συναρμοττόντων , του μεν οντος κοίλου 
του δε ττεριφεροϋς, τ) και αμφοτέρων κοίλων, εν 
μέσω δε περιειληφότων, οίον γόμφον, άστράγαλον, 
ίνα γίνηταί κάμφις καΐ εκτασις [αλΧως γαρ η όλως 
αδύνατον, -η ου καλώς αν εττοίουν την τοιαΰτην κι- 
νησιν)• ενια δ' αυτών ομοίαν έχοντα την αρχήν την 

25 θατερου τ^ τελευτη θατερου [συν-δε'δεται νεύροις]•^ 
καί χονδρώδη δε μόρια μεταξύ τών κάμφεών 
icmv,* οΧον στοφη, ττρος το άλληλα μη τριβειν. 

ΐίερί δε τά οστά αϊ σάρκες περιπεφύκασι, 
ττροσειλημμεναι λεπτοΐς καΐ Ινώδεσι δεσμοΐς' ων 
ένεκεν το τών οστών εστί γένος, ώσττερ γαρ οι 

80 πλάττοντες εκ ττηλοΰ ζώον η τίνος άλλης ύγράς 
συστάσεως ύφιστάσι τών στερεών τι σωμάτων, εΐθ* 
ούτω ττεριπλάττουσι, τον αύτον τρόπον η φύσις 
δεδημιούργηκεν εκ τών σαρκών το ζώον. τοις 
μεν οΰν άλλοις ύπεστιν οστά τοις σαρκώδεσι μο- 
ριοις, τοις μεν κινουμενοις δια κάμφιν τούτου 

35 χάριν, τοις δ' άκινητοις φυλακής ένεκεν, οίον αΐ 

655 a συγκλείουσαι πλευραι το στήθος σωτηρίας χάριν 

^ τά Peck : ras Ζ : fj vnlg. : οστά τών μορίων earnv τά? μ€ΐ' 
(rj /icv vulg.) ϊχα τά κώλα και κάμφιν Ζ. 

^ τοΐί SU : τε Λ -ulg. : ye ΕΥ. 

' 11. 16-25: hunc locum correxi, partim Σ et Albertum 
secutus. vid. p. 46. fortasse et eVel δ' ανάγκη . . . σπον- 
δύλων (11. 14-16) secludenda. 

* elaiv vulg. 



is also a thing of many parts because of its division 
into vertebrae, since the body must be able to bend 
while the animal is in motion. And the bones of the 
various limbs (in those animals which have them) 
are connected Λvith this backbone, from which they 
originate. Some of them have extremities which fit 
on to each other : either (a) one is hollow and the 
other rounded, or (6) both are hollow and hold a 
huckle-bone betAveen them (as it might be a bolt), 
to admit of bending and extension, since these 
movements would be quite impossible or at any rate 
unsatisfactory ΛΛ -ithout such an arrangement, (c) 
There are some joints in which the adjacent ends of 
the tAvo bones are similar in shape ; [these are bound 
together by sinews,] and there are pieces of cartilage 
inserted in between them, like a pad, to prevent 
them from rubbing against each other." 

Now the whole system of the bones exists to sub- 
serve the fleshy parts of the body, Avhich have their 
place around the bones and are attached to them by 
thin fibrous threads. Modellers who set out to mould 
an animal out of clay or some other plastic substance 
begin first of all with a hard and solid core and mould 
their figure round it. Nature's method has been the 
same in fashioning animals out of flesh. With one 
exception, all the fleshy parts have a core of bone : 
for the parts that move and bend, this is present as 
a means for enabling the limb to bend ; for those 
that do not move, it serves as a protection : an 
example of this are the ribs, enclosing the chest, 
which are a means of protection for the viscera in 

" The text of this paragraph has been confused by a 
number of interpolations, most of which I have omitted in 



των π€ρΙ την Kaphiav σπλάγχνων τα oe Trept την 
κοιΧίαν άνόστβα ττασιν, δπως μη κωλυη την αν- 
οίΒησιν την άπο της τροφής γινομίνην τοις ζωοις 
ΐ,ξ ανάγκης καΐ τοις θηλβσι την iv αντοΐς των εμ- 
βρύων αϋζησιν. 

6 Τα μβν ονν ζωοτόκα των ζώων καΐ ev αύτοΐς και 
€κτ6ς παραπλησίαν €χ€ί την των οστών Βνναμιν και 
ισγυραν. ττολύ γαρ μβίζω πάντα τα τοιαύτα των 
μη ζωοτόκων ώς κατά Χόγον βΐπβΐν τών σωμάτων 
ενυαχοΰ γάρ πολλά γίν€ται μεγάλα τών ζωοτόκων, 

10 οίον iv Αφύη και τοις τόποις τοις θερμοΐς και τοις 
ζηροΐς. τοις Sk μεγάλοις ισχυρότερων δεΓ τών 
νπερεισμάτων και μειζόνων και σκληρότερων, και 
τούτων αυτών τοις βιαστικωτεροις. διο τα τών 
αρρένων σκληρότερα ή τα τών θηλειών, και τα τών 
σαρκοφάγων {η τροφή γάρ δια μάχης τούτοις), 
ώσπερ τα του λέοντος• οϋτω γάρ έχει ταύτα 

15 σκληράν την φύσιν ώστ εζάπτεσθαι τυπτομενων 
καθάπερ εκ λίθων πΰρ. έχει δε και 6 ΒελφΙς ουκ 
άκανθας αλλ' οστά• ζωοτόκος γαρ εστίν. 

Ύοΐς δ' εναίμοις μεν μη ζωοτόκοις 8ε παρ- 
αλλάττει κατά μικρόν η φύσις, οίον τοις όρνισιν 
οστά μεν, ασθενέστερα δε. τών δ' Ιχθύων τοις μεν 

20 ωοτόκοις άκανθα, και τοις όφεσιν ακανθώδης εστίν 
η τών οστών φύσις, πλην τοις λκΧν μεγάλοις• τού- 
τοις Βε, Si' άπερ και τοις ζωοτόκοις, προς την 
ισχύν ισχυρότερων Βεΐ τών στερεωμάτων, τά δε 
καλούμενα σελάχη χον8ράκανθα την φύσιν εστίν 
νγροτεραν τ ε γάρ άναγκαιον αυτών εΓναι την κί- 

» Cartilaginous fishes, including the sharks. 


the region of the heart. The exception is the parts 
near the belly, which in all animals are boneless. 
The purpose of this is that the SΛvelling which takes 
place of necessity after the receipt of nourishment 
may not be hampered, and (in females) to prevent 
any interference Avith the groAvth of the fetus. 

The nature of the bones is similar in all viviparous 
animals (that is, internally viviparous as well as 
externally) ; and as the \^vipara are much larger 
proportionately in bodily size than other animals, 
their bones are strong. In some places many of these 
animals grow to a great size, as for example in Libya 
and other hot dry countries. These large animals 
need stronger and bigger and harder supports, 
especially those of them that are particularly violent 
in their habits. Hence, the bones of males are harder 
than the bones of females, and those of carnivorous 
animals than those of herbivorous, because the car- 
nivorous have to fight for their food. An example 
is the Lion : it has such hard bones that when they 
are struck fire is kindled as it is from stones. Note 
that the Dolphin, being viviparous, has bones like the 
other viviparous creatures, and not fish-spines. 

In the creatures which though blooded are not 
viviparous Nature has made a series of graduated 
changes : for example, birds have bones, but they 
are weaker than the bones of the Vivipara. The 
oviparous fishes have fish-spine, not bone ; and the 
serpents have bone whose nature is that of fish-spine ; 
except the very large species, and they have bones, 
because (just like the Vivipara) if their bodies are 
to be strong the solid framcAvork of them must be 
stronger. The creatures called Selachia " have spines 
made of cartilage. This is because their movement 



655 a ^ 

25 νησιν, ώστ€ Bel καΐ την των ζρεισμάτων μη κραΰ- 

ρον etvai άλλα μαλακωτεραν, καΐ το yecoSeg et? 

το Βερμα ττάν άνηλωκεν η φύσις• άμα δε την αντην 

ντΓ€ροχΎ]ν €1? τΓολλού? τόπους ά8υνατ€Ϊ διανε/χειν η 

φύσις. eVeCTTt δε καΐ iv τοΐς ζωοτόκοις πολλά των 

οστών χον8ρω8η , iv οσοις συμφ€ρ€ί μαλακον βΐναι 

80 καΐ μυζώΒζς^ το στξρζον διά την σάρκα την ττ€ρι- 
Κ€ΐμένην, οίον συμβΙβηκ€ ττερί Τ€ τα ώτα και 
τους μυκτήρας• θραύβται γαρ τά κραΰρα ταχεω? 
€V τοΐς άττέγουσιν. η δε φύσις η αύτη ^ονορου 
και όστοΰ εστί, διαφέρει δε τω μάλλον και ήττον 
διο καΐ ού^ζτζρον αυξάνεται άττοκοπέν . 

85 Οι /χεν ουν iv τοΐς πβζοΐς άμύελοι χόνδροι κεγω- 
ρισμίνω μυ^λω• το γαρ χωριζ6μ€νον €ΐς άπαν 
μεμιγμενον μαλακην ττοιεΓ και μυζώ^η^ την του 
χόνδρου σύστασιν. iv δε τοΓ? σελάχεσιν η ραχις 
655 h χον8ρώ8η ς μ€ν iστιv, €χ€ΐ δε /χυελόν άντ* όστοΰ 
γαρ αύτοΐς υπάρχει τοϋτο το μόριον. 

ϋύνβγγυς δε κατά την άφην iστι τοΐς οστοΐς και 
τά τοιάδε των μορίων, οίον όνυχες τε και οπλαι και 
XTjXai και κέρατα και ρύγχη τά των ορνίθων, ττα^τα 

δ δε ταΰτα βοηθείας εχουσι χάριν [τά ζωα]*• τά γαρ ζζ 
αυτών συνεστηκότα δλα καΐ συνώνυμα τοΐς μοριοις, 
οίον όπλη τε δλη καΐ κέρας δλον, μεμηχάνηται προς 
την σωτηρίαν εκάστοις. iv τούτω δε τω γένει και 

1 ζνμω8€ς Ζ. ^ " ζνμώΒη EPSZ. 

^ [τά ζφα] secludit Rackham. 

" Cf. the " law of organic equivalents." 
* See note on 644 a 17. 



has to be somewhat supple, and accordingly the 
supporting framcAvork of their bodies must be some- 
what pliable, not brittle. In addition. Nature cannot 
allot the same plentiful supply of any one substance 
to many different parts of the body ; <» and in the case 
of the Selachia she has used up all the available earthy 
substance in constructing their skin. In the Vivipara 
too there are many instances of cartilaginous bones : 
they are found where it is an advantage that the 
solid framework should be pliable and glutinous for 
the benefit of the flesh that surrounds them. This 
applies to the ears and the nostrils. Such projecting 
parts quickly get broken if they are brittle. Car- 
tilage and bone are the same in kind and differ 
only by " the more and less " ^ ; so neither of them 
continues to grow when it has been cut out of the 
hving organism. 

The cartilages of land-animals contain no marrow — 
that is, no marrow existing as a separate thing. 
What in ordinary bones is separable is here mixed 
in with the body of the cartilage and gives it its 
pliable and glutinous character. In the Selachia, 
however, although the backbone is cartilaginous it 
contains marrow, because it stands to these creatures 
in place of a bone. 

The following substances or " parts " resemble 
bones very closely as regards their feel : the various 
sorts of nail ; hoof and talon ; horn, and beak. 
All these substances are present for the sake of self- 
defence. This is shown by the fact that the complete 
structures which are made out of them and bear the 
same names — e.g. the complete hoof, or horn — have 
been contrived in each case by Nature for the creature's 
self-preservation. We must reckon the teeth in this 



655b ^ ^ ^ ^ 

η των οζόντων €στΙ φνσίς, τοις μεν υπάρχουσα 

10 προς ev €ργον την της τροφής €ργασίαν, τοΐς 8e 
προς Τ€ τοΰτο καΐ προς άλκην, οΐον τοΐς καρχαρ- 
όδουσί και χαυλιόδουσι πάσιν. €.ζ ανάγκης δε 
πάντα ταΰτα γεώδη /cat OTepeav €χ€ί την φυσιν 
όπλου γαρ αϋτη δνναμίς. διό και πάντα τα τοιαύτα 
μάλλον iv τοΐς τετράποσιν υπάρχει ζωοις των 

15 ζωοτόκων, δια το yeωδeστe/^α^' εχειν πάντα την 
συστασιν η το των ανθρώπων γένος, αλλά και 
περί τούτων και των εχομενων, οΐον 8ερματος και 
κυστεως^ και ύμενος καΐ τριχών και πτερών και 
TOtv άναλογον τούτοις και ει τι τοιούτον εστί μέρος, 
ύστερον άμα τοΐς άνομοιομερεσι θεωρητεον την 

20 αίτίαν αυτών, και τίνος ένεκεν υπάρχει τοΐς ζώοις 
εκαστον εκ τών έργων γαρ γνωρίζειν, ώσπερ 
κάκεΐνα, και ταΰτα άναγκαΐον άν είη. αλλ' οτι 
συνώνυμα τοΐς δλοις τά μέρη, την τάζιν άπελαβεν 
ev τοΐς όμοιομερεσι νΰν. είσΐ δ' άρχαι πάντων 
τούτων τό τε όστοϋν και η σαρξ. ετι δε περί 
γονής και γάλακτος άπελίπομεν εν τη περί τών 

25 υγρών και ομοιομερών θεωρία• τοΐς γαρ περί 
γενέσεως λόγοις άρμόττουσαν έχει την σκεφιν το 
μεν γαρ αυτών άρχη τό δε τροφή τών γινομένων 

Χ. Νυν δε λεγωμεν οΐον άπ* αρχής πάλιν, άρζά- 
μενοι πρώτον από τών πρώτων, πάσι γαρ τοΐς 

* σκΰτΐος Buss, (σκυτεω? ΕΥ). 


class too. In some creatures teeth are present to 
discharge one function only — viz. mastication ; in 
others they are a means of force as well (e.g. 
sawhke teeth and tusks). All these parts are 
of necessity earthy and solid in character ; that 
is the proper sort of substance for a weapon. 
So there is a tendency for all parts of this sort to 
appear in the four-footed \^ivipara more extensively 
than in man, because the former all have more earthy 
matter in their constitution. We shall, hoΛvever, con- 
sider these substances, and the other kindred ones 
such as slvin, bladder, membrane, hair, feather, and 
the counterparts of them, and all such parts, when 
we come to deal with the non-uniform parts. Then 
also we shall consider the Causes of them and for 
what purpose each of them is present in animal bodies; 
since it is true to say, of both sets of things, that our 
knowledge of them must be derived from a study of 
the functions which they discharge. The reason why 
we have just been taking them Avith the uniform 
substances and out of their proper order is that in 
them the name of the complete structure is the same 
as that of a portion of it, and also because the sources 
and principles of them all are bone and flesh. We 
also left out all mention of semen and milk Avhen we 
were considering the fluid uniform substances. As 
semen is the source of the things that are generated 
and milk is the food that feeds them, the proper place 
to discuss these is in the treatise dealing with 

X. We may now make Avhat is practically a fresh The non- 
beginning. We Avill begin first of all with the things ^^^j^^"» 
that come first in importance. 



655 b ^ . , , X , , / / 
30 ζωοις τοις reXeiois^ δυο τά αναγκαιότατα μόρια 

ioTiv, fi re δέχονται την τροφην καΐ fj το περίττωμα 

άφίάσιν^• οντ€ γαρ eii^at οϋτ€ αύζάνεσθαι ενδέχεται 

avev τροφής, (τά μεν οΰν φυτά—καΙ γαρ ταντα ζην 

φαμεν—^Γοΰ μεν άχρηστου περιττώματος ουκ έχει 

35 τόπον εκ της γης γαρ λαμβάνει πεπεμμένην την 

τροφην, άντι δε τούτου προΐεται τα σπέρματα και 

τους καρπούς.) τρίτον δε μέρος εν πάσιν εστί το 

τούτων μέσον, εν ω η άρχη ε'στιν η της ζωής. η 

656 a μεν οΰν των φυτών φύσις ούσα μόνιμος ου πολυ- 

ειδής εστί τών άνομοιομερών προς γαρ ολίγας 
πράζεις ολίγων οργάνων ή χρήσις' διό θεωρητεον 
καθ^ αυτά περί τής ιδέα? αυτών, τά δε προς τω 
ζήν α'ίσθησιν έχοντα πολυμορφοτεραν έχει την 
5 ιδε'αν, και τούτων έτερα προ έτερων μάλλον, και 
πολυχουστεραν όσων μη μόνον του ζήν αλλά και 
του ευ ζήν ή φύσις μετείληφεν. τοιούτο δ εστί το 
τών ανθρώπων γένος' ή γάρ μόνον ;αετ€';^ει του 
θείου τών ήμΐν γνωρίμων ζώων, ή μάλιστα πάντων, 
ώστε δια τε τούτο, και διά το γνώριμον ειι^αι 
10 /Αοίλιστ' αυτού την τών εζωθεν μορίων μορφήν, 
περί τούτου λεκτεον πρώτον, ευθύς γάρ και τά 
φύσει μόρια κατά φύσιν έχει τούτω μόνω, και το 

^ τοις TeXeiois Peck : rots yc τ. Ogle : και reAeiou/xeVots και 
τελείου Piatt : και τέλειοι? vulg. 
^ άφιασιν SUY : άφησουσιν alii. 

" These three parts of the " perfect " animals are again 
referred to at De juv. et sen. 468 a 13 if. At De gen. an. 



An animal can neither exist nor grow without food. 
Therefore in all living creatures of perfect formation " 
there are two parts most necessary above all : one by 
which food is taken in and the other by which residues 
are eliminated. (Plants — which also we include 
under the head of living things — have, it is true, no 
place for the useless residue, but this is because their 
food, which they get out of the earth, is already con- 
cocted before it enters them, and instead of this 
residue they yield their fruit and seeds.) And in all 
creatures there is a third part intermediate between 
these indispensable tAvo, and this is the seat of the 
source and principle of life. Plants, again, are so made 
as to remain in one place, and thus they do not exhibit 
a great variety of non-uniform substances ; they have 
few actions to perform, and therefore but few organs 
are needed to perform them. For this reason we must 
consider plants and their formations separately. But 
with creatures that not only live but also have the 
power of sensation, the formations are more varied, 
and there is more diversity in some than in others, the 
greatest variety being found in those creatures which 
in addition to living have the capability of Uving the 
good life, as man has. Man is the only one of the 
animals known to us who has something of the divine 
in him, or if there are others, he has most. This is 
one reason why we ought to speak about man first, 
and another is that the shape of his external parts is 
better knovvTithan that of other animals. Another and 
obvious reason is that in man and in man alone do the 
natural parts appear in their natural situation : the 

733 b 1 and 737 b 16, 26, the " perfect " animals are the 
viviparous ones. For the " most highly finished " animals 
see 666 a 28. 



656a ^ ^ , , « ,/ V / ^ 

τούτου ανω προς το του δλου βχξΐ ανω' μόνον γαρ 

ορθόν ioTL των ζώων άνθρωπος. 

Το μ€ν οΰν ex€LV την κζφαλην άσαρκον €κ των 

15 π€ρΙ τον €γκ4φαλον ζίρημβνων άναγκαΐον συμ- 
βφηκζν. ου γαρ ώσπ€ρ τίνες Χεγουσιν, οτι et 
σαρκώδης ην, μακροβιώτερον αν ην το γένος, 
αλλ' ευαισθησίας ένεκεν άσαρκον είναι φασιν 
αίσθάνεσθαι μεν γαρ τω εγκεφάλω, την δ α'ισθησιν 
ου προσίεσθαι τα μόρια τά σαρκώδη λίαν. τούτων 

20 δ' ού^ετερόν εστίν αληθές, αλλά πολύσαρκος μεν 
6 τόπος ών 6 περί τον εγκεφαλον τουναντίον αν 
άπειργάζετο ου ένεκα υπάρχει τοις ζφοις ο εγ- 
κέφαλος {ου γαρ αν εΒυνατο καταφΰχειν άλεαινων 
αυτός λίαν), των τ αισθήσεων ουκ αίτιος ουδεμιάς, 
δς γε αναίσθητος και αυτός εστίν ωσπερ οτιοΰν 

25 των περιττωμάτων . αλλ' ούχ εύρίσκοντες δια 
τίνα αιτιαΐ' eVtat των αισθήσεων εν τη κεφαλή 
τοις ζωοις εισί, τοΰτο δ' όρώντες ι8ιαιτερον ον 
των άλλων μορίων, εκ συλλογισμού προς άλληλα 
συνΒυάζουσιν. οτι μεν ουν άρχη των αισθήσεων 
εστίν 6 περί την καρΒίαν τόπος, 8ιώρισται προ- 
τερον εν τοις περί αίσθήσεως, και διότι αι μεν δυο 

80 φανερώς ηρτημεναι προς την καρ8ίαν εισίν, η τε 
των απτών και η τών χυμών, τών 8ε τριών η μεν 
της οσφρήσεως μέση, ακοή 8ε και όφις μάλιστ εν 
τη κεφαλή δια τήν τών αισθητηρίων φυσιν εισί, και 

" See the identical phrase in De resp. 477 a 22. 
*" Cf. Plato, Timaeus 75 a-c. 



upper part of man is placed towards the upper part 
of the universe." In other words, man is the only 
animal that stands upright. 

In man, the head is lacking in flesh, and this follows of the 
of necessity from what we have said about the brain. 5®*•*^ • *^* 

ο h/ ι\ι•/•ιιιι τη Brain *πα 

borne " say (erroneously) that it the head abounded Sense- 
with flesh mankind's lifespan would be longer than °^s^^^• 
it is, and they explain the absence of flesh as on pur- 
pose to facilitate sensation, their view being that the 
brain is the organ of sensation, and that sensation 
cannot penetrate parts that are too fleshy. Neither 
of these assertions is true. The truth is that if 
the part surrounding the brain were fleshy, the 
effect of the brain would be the very reverse 
of that for which it is intended : it would be 
unable to cool the rest of the body because it would 
be too hot itself. And, of course, the brain is not 
responsible for any of the sensations at all ; it has no 
more power of sensation than any of the residues. 
People adopt these erroneous views because they are 
unable to discover the reason why some of the senses 
are placed in the head ; but they see that the head 
is a somewhat unusual part, compared Avith the rest, 
so they put tAvo and two together and argue that 
the brain is the seat of sensation. The correct view, 
that the seat and source of sensation is the region 
of the heart, has already been set forth in the treatise 
Of Sensation,'^ where also I show why it is that two of 
the senses, touch and taste, are evidently connected 
to the heart ; of the remaining three, smell is placed 
between the other two, hearing and sight, and these 
are practically always located in the head : this is 
owing to the nature of the organs through which 

• Be sensu, 438 b 25 ff. 



656 a 

τούτων η όφις πασιν inel η y' άκοη καΐ η οσφρησις 

35 βπΐ των ίχθνων καΐ των τοιούτων ποΐ€Ϊ το Xeyo- 
μ€νον φαν€ρ6ν• άκούονσι μεν γαρ και όσφραίνονται, 
αίσθητηριον δ' ov^ev βχονσι φανερον ev ttj κεφαλτ] 
τούτων των αισθητών.^ η δ' όφις ττασι τοις βχουσιν 
656 b ζύλόγως earl π€ρι τον ΙγκέφαΧον 6 μεν γαρ νγρος 
και φυχρός, η δ' ν8ωρ την φνσιν εστίν τούτο γαρ 
των διαφανών εύφυλακτότατόν εστίν, ετι δέ τας 
ακριβεστέρας των αισθήσεων δια των καθαρώτερον 
εχόντων το αιμ^α μορίων άναγκαΐον ακριβεστέρας 
δ γίνεσθαι• εκκόπτει γαρ η της εν τω αϊματι θερ- 
μοτητος κινησις την αίσθητικην ενεργειαν δια 
ταύτας τάς αιτίας εν τη κεφαλή τούτων τα αισθη- 
τήρια εστίν. 

Ον μόνον δ' εστί το έμπροσθεν ασαρκον, άλλα το 
όπισθεν της κεφαλής, δια το ττασι τοΓ? εχουσιν 
αντην όρθότατον 8εΐν eivat τοΰτο το μόριον ούδεν 

10 γαρ όρθοΰσθαι δύναται φορτίον €χον, ην δ' αν 
τοιούτον, ει σεσαρκωμενην εϊχε την κεφαλήν, fj και 
^ηλον ΟΤΙ ου της του εγκεφάλου αίσθησεως χάριν 
άσαρκος η κεφαλή εστίν το γαρ όπισθεν ουκ έχει 
βγκεφαλον, ασαρκον δ' ομοίως, 
"ΐ^χ^ΐ- δε και την άκοην ευλόγως eVta των ζωών 

15 εν τω τόπω τω περί την κεφαλήν το γαρ κενόν 
καλούμενον άερος πλήρες εστί, το δε της άκοης 
αίσθητηριον άερος εϊναί φαμεν. 

^ (ε'ττβί . . . αισθητών) Cook Wilson, qui et (ου) post 
λ€γόμζνον, 1, 35. 



they operate. Sight is always located there. The 
case of hearing and smell in fishes and the Hke 
shows that the opinion I maintain is patently correct. 
These creatures hear and smell, although they have 
no obvious and visible organs for these senses in the 
head. As for sight, it is reasonable enough that 
when present it should ahvays be located near the 
brain, for the brain is fluid and cold, and the sense- 
organ of sight is identical in its nature with water, 
Λvhich of all transparent substances is the easiest to 
keep confined. Again, those senses which are in- 
tended for more precise Λvork than the others must 
necessarily receive greater precision by being situ- 
ated in parts where the blood is specially pure, since 
the movement of the heat in the blood ousts the 
activity appropriate to sensation. These are the 
reasons why the organs of these senses are placed in 
the head. 

Now the back of the head is free from fleshiness as 
well as the front. This is because the head is the 
part which all animals that possess one have to hold 
as upright as possible. Nothing that carries a burden 
can raise itself upright, and the head would be 
burdened if it were well covered ^\^th flesh. And 
this is another reason to show that the lack of flesh 
on the head is not for the purpose of enabling the 
brain to function in sensation. There is no brain in 
the back of the head, although the back has no more 
flesh on it than the front. 

Some animals have their organ of hearing as Λνεΐΐ 
as of sight located in the region of the head. This is 
well explained on our view, which is that the organ 
of hearing is of air. The space in the head called the 
vacuum is full of air. 



656 b 

'E«r ju-ev οΰν των οφθαλμών ol πόροι φέρουσιν etg 

τάς Trepl τον εγκβφαλον φλέβας• πάλιν δ' €Κ των 

ωτων ωσαύτως πόρος et? τοϋπισθεν συναπτ€ΐ. 

[Έστι δ' οντ^ άναιμον ovhev αίσθητικον οντ€ το 

20 αίμα, άλλα των €κ τούτου τι. διόπ€ρ ov8ev ev 
τοις €ναίμοις άναιμον αισθητικόν, ούδ' αυτό το 
αίμα}• ovhkv γαρ των ζώων μόριον.γ 

"Εχει δ' €V τω €μπροσθ€ν τον έγκέφαλον πάντα 
τά €χοντα τοΰτο το μόριον, δια το 'έμπροσθεν 
elvai €(^' ο αισ^άΐ'εται, τ•))ν δ' α'ίσθησιν άπο της 

25 καρΒίας, ταύτην δ' efvat iv τοις βμπροσθβν, και 
το αισ^άνεσ^αι δια των βναίμων yiVea^ai μορίων, 
φλββών δ' eivai kcvov to οπισθβν κύτος, τβτακται 
δε τον τρόπον τούτον τά αισθητήρια τη φύσει 
καλώς, τά μεν της άκοης επί μέσης της περιφέρειας 
{ακούει γάρ ου μόνον κατ* εύθυωρίαν άλλα παν- 

80 τοθεν), η δ' όφις εις το 'έμπροσθεν {όρα γαρ κατ 
eύθυoJpιav, η δε κίνησις εις το έμπροσθεν, προοράν 
δε δει ε^' ο η κίνησις). η δε της οσφρήσεως 
μεταζύ τών ομμάτων ευλόγως. Βιπλοΰν μεν γαρ 
eoTiv έκαστον τών αισθητηρίων δια το διπλούν 
ειι^αι το σώμα, το μεν Βεζιόν το δ' άριστερον. επι 

35 μεν οΰν της άφης τουτ' άΒηλον τούτου δ αίτιον 
ΟΤΙ ουκ έστι το πρώτον αισθητηριον η σάρζ και το 
τοιούτον μόριον, άλλ' εντός, επι δε της γλώττης 
ήττον μέν, μάλλον δ' η επι της αφής' εστί γαρ οίον 

* ούδ' αυτό το αίμα om. Ε. 

• 11. 19-23 seclusi (20-22 Ogle) : partim ex 666 a 16 trans- 

" This passage seems to be a note on a remark which comes 
a few lines below, and should probably be omitted from the 
text. Part of it is taken from 666 a 16. 


Passages (or channels) run from the eyes to the 
blood-vessels that are round the brain. And, again, 
a passage runs from the ears and connects to the 
back of the brain. 

[No bloodless part is capable of sensation, nor 
indeed is the blood itself. It is the parts which are 
made out of blood that have this faculty. Hence, 
in the blooded animals, no bloodless pai*t is capable 
of sensation, nor indeed is the blood itself, for it is 
no part of animals.] '^ 

The brain, whenever there is one, is in the forepart 
of the head. This is (a) because all acts of sensation 
take place in a forward direction ; (b) because the 
heart, from which sensation has its origin, is in the 
forepart of the body ; and (c) because the process 
of sensation depends upon parts that have blood 
in them, Avhereas the sac at the back of the head 
contains no blood-vessels at all. In fact. Nature 
has located the sense-organs in a very satisfactory 
manner. The ears are half-Avay round the circum- 
ference of the head, because they are to hear sounds 
from all directions alike and not only from straight 
before them. The eyes face front : this is because 
sight is along one straight line, and we must be able 
to see along the line in Avhich we are moving, which 
is directly forward. The nostrils are between the 
eyes, and this is quite reasonable. Each of the 
sense-organs is double, because the body itself is 
double : it has a right side and a left side. It must 
be admitted that this duality is not at all clear in the 
case of touch : this is because the primary sense- 
organ of touch is not the flesh or a corresponding part, 
but something internal. With the tongue the duahty 
is not very clear, but more so than with touch. 



657 a άφη τις καΐ αϋτη η αϊσθησις. όμως δε ^ηλον και 
irrl ταύτης• φαίνεται γαρ εσχισμένη. βπΐ he των 
άλλων αισθητηρίων φανβρωτερως ΙστΙν η αΐσθησις 
Βίμ€ρης' ώτά τε γαρ hvo καΐ όμματα και η των 
μνκτηρων Βνναμις αίφνης Ιστιν. άΧλον ούν αν 

6 τρόπον κειμένη καΐ ^ιεσττασμένη, καθάπερ η της 
άκοης, ουκ αν IttoUi το αύτης 'έργον, ovhk το 
μόριον iv ω εστίν δια γαρ της αναπνοής η αϊσθησις 
τοις εχουσι μυκτηρας, τοντο δε το μοριον κατά 
μέσον καΐ εν τοΖς έμπροσθεν εστίν. 8ωπερ εις 
μέσον των τριών αισθητηρίων συνήγαγεν ή φύσις 

10 του? μνκτηρας, οίον έπι στάθμην θεΐσα μίαν επι την 
της αναπνοής κίνησιν. 

Καλώ? δε και τοις άλλοις έχει ταΰτα τα αισθη- 
τήρια ζωοις προς την ιδι'αν φνσιν εκαστω. XI. 
τα μεν γαρ τετράποδα άπηρτημένα έχει τα ίυτα καΐ 
άνωθεν των ομμάτων, ως Βόζειεν άν, ουκ έχει δε', 

15 άλλα. φαίνεται δια το μη ορθά είναι τα ζωα άλλα 
κνπτειν. οντω δε το πλείστον κινουμένων χρήσιμα 
μετεωρότερά τ οντά καΐ κινούμενα' δέχεται γαρ 
στρεφόμενα πάντοθεν τους φόφους μάλλον. 

XII. Ot δ' όρνιθες τους πόρους μόνον έχουσι δια 
την του δέρματος σκληρότητα και το έχειν μη 

20 τρίχας άλλα πτερωτά είναι• ουκ οΰν έχει τοιαύτην 
ϋλην εζ ης άν έπλασε τά ώτα. ομοίως δε και των 

° Aristotle seems to refer here to the forked tongues of 
certain animals. See 660 b 7 £F. 


(Taste, in fact, is itself, as it were, a sort of touch.) 
The duality is plain, however, even with this sense, 
for it is seen to be divided." With the other senses, 
the organ is more evidently parted into two : there 
are two ears and tΛvo eyes, and two passages for the 
nostrils in the nose. The sense of smell, if it had 
been other^vise placed — separated into two, that is, 
like the sense of hearing — would not have been 
able to perform its proper function ; nor would 
that part of the body in which it is situated, since 
in animals which have nostrils, the sensation of 
smell is effected by means of inspiration, and this 
part is at the front and in the middle. This is 
why Nature has brought the nostrils together in a 
straight line and made them the central of the three 
sense-organs in the head, located where the motion 
of in-breathing takes place. 

In the other animals as Avell as in man these sense- : 
organs are very satisfactorily arranged as required 
by the peculiar nature of each animal. XI. For 
instance, the quadrupeds have ears that stand out free 
from the head, and they are higher than the eyes — 
or appear to be, although this is not really so : it is 
an illusion due to the fact that these animals are not 
upright but stand on all fours. And as they are 
usually in this posture when in motion, it is useful for 
them to have their ears well up in the air, and also 
movable : this enables them to be turned round and 
oick up sounds better from all directions. 

XII. Birds have the auditory passages only, 
o\nng to the hardness of their skin, and because 
they have feathers instead of hair, Λvhich means that 
they have not got the right material for forming 
ears. The same argument apphes to those oviparous 



τετραπόδων τά ωοτόκα καΐ φολίΒωτα' ο γαρ αυτός 
αρμόσει και Ιπ €Κ&ίνων Χόγος. €χ€ί δε και η 
φώκη των ζωοτόκων ουκ ώτα άλλα ττόρους ακοής, 
δια το τΓ€7τηρωμ€νον etvat τ€τραπουν. 

25 XIII. Και οΐ μίν άνθρωποι και οι όρνιθας και τα 
ζωοτόκα και τά ωοτόκα των τετραττόδων φυλακην 
€χουσι της 6φ€ως, τά μ€ν ζωοτόκα βλέφαρα ουο, 
οΐς και σκαρΒαμνττουσι, των δ' ορνίθων άλλοι τε 
και οι βαρ€Ϊς και τά ωοτόκα των τετραπόδων ttj 

30 κάτω βλίφαρί^ι μυουσιν σκαρ^αμυττουσι δ' οι 
όρνιθας εκ των κανθών ύμίνι. του μ^ν ουν φυλακην 
εχειν αίτιον το υγρά τά όμματα είναι ινα όζύ 
βλέπωσι [τούτον τον τρόπον υπό της φυσ€ωςΥ' 
σκληρόδερμα γάρ οντά άβλαβέστερα μεν αν ην 
υπό των εζωθεν προσπιπτόντων , ουκ οζυωπά δε. 
τούτου μεν οΰν* 'ένεκα λεπτόν το δε'ρ/χα το περί 

35 την κόρην εστί, της δε σωτήριας χάριν τά βλέφαρα• 
και δια τοΰτο σκαρΒαμυττει τε πάντα και μάλιστ 
άνθρωπος, πάντα μεν όπως τά προσπίπτοντα τοις 
657 b βλεφάροις κωλυωσι {και τοΰτο ουκ εκ προαιρέσεως, 
αλλ' η φύσις εποίησε), πλειστάκις δ' ο άνθρωπος 
δια το λεπτο8ερμότατος είναι. 

Ή δε βλεφαρίς εστί δε'ρ/χατι περιειλημμένη• διό 

και ου συμφυεται οϋτε βλεφαρίς ουτ άκροποσθία, 

ότι άνευ σαρκός δέρματα εστίν. 

5 Των δ' ορνίθων όσοι τη κάτω βλεφαρί8ι μυουσι, 

και τά ωοτόκα των τετραπόδων, δια την σκληρό- 

Om. Ζ . 2 t-qjJtqi) μ^ρ ojj^j ^q{j μ^ ^^ζρ ^ζ ΕΡΖ. 

" Or, " imperfectly developed," Cf. Bk. ΠΙ. ch. viii. 


PARTS OF ANIMALS, II. xn.-xiii. 

quadrupeds which have horny scales. One vivi- 
parous animal, the Seal, has no ears but only auditory 
passages ; but this is because, though a quadruped, 
it is deformed." 

XIII. Man, the Birds, and the Quadrupeds (both Eyes. 
viviparous and oviparous) have a protective covering 
for their eyes. The viviparous quadrupeds have 
t\vo eyelids to each eye (which also enable them 
to blink) ; some of the birds, especially the heavily 
built ones, and the oviparous quadrupeds, when 
they close their eyes, do so with the lower eyelid ; 
birds, however, can blink, Λvith the aid of a mem- 
brane that comes out of the corner of the eye. The 
reason for the existence of these protective cover- 
ings is that the eye is fluid in order to ensure 
keenness of Aision. If the eye had been con- 
structed with a hard skin it would of course have 
been less liable to injury by impact from without, 
but its vision would have been duller. For this 
cause the skin round the pupil is left thin and fine, 
and the safety of the eye is ensured by the addition 
of the eyelids. The movement of the eyelids known 
as blinking is a natural and instinctive one, not 
dependent on the Λνϊΐΐ, and its object is to prevent 
things from getting into the eyes. All animals 
that have eyehds do it, but human beings bhnk 
most of all, because they have the thinnest and 
finest skin. 

ΝοΛν the eyelid is encased with skin ; and that is 
why, like the tip of the foreskin, it will not unite 
again once it has been cut, because both of them 
are skin and contain no flesh. 

We said just now that some birds and the ovi- 
parous quadrupeds close the eye with the lower 



657 b ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ / \ ^ « 

τητα του δερματο? του π€ρι την κεφαλήν ούτω 

μύουσίν. οΐ μέν γαρ βαρ€Ϊς των πτερωτών δια το 

μη πτητικοί euvai την των τττβρών αϋζησιν els την 

του δέρματος παχυτητα τζτραμμένην εχουσιν. διο 

10 και οΰτοι μ€ν τω κάτω βλβφαρω μυουσι, nepi- 
στ€ραΙ δβ καΐ τά τοιαύτα άμφοΐν. τά δέ τετράποδα 
των ωοτόκων φολιΒωτά ioTiv ταΰτα δε σκληρό- 
Tepa πάντα τριχός, ώστε και τά Βερματα του 
δέρματος, το μέν ουν π€ρι την κ€φαλην σκληρόν 
εστίν αύτοΐς, διοττερ ουκ εχζΐ βλβφαρον εκείθεν, 

15 το δε κάτωθζν σαρκώΒες, ωστ €χ€ΐν το βλβφαρον 
λβπτότητα και τάσιν. 

ΈκαρΒαμύττουσι δ' οΐ βαρείς opviOes τούτω μεν 
ου, τω δ' ύμενι, δια το βραΒεΐαν είναι την τούτου 
κίνησιν, Seiv δε ταχεΐαν γίνεσθαι, 6 δ' ύμην τοιού- 
τον. €Κ δε του κανθοΰ του παρά τους μυκτηρας 

20 σκαρΒαμύττουσιν, δτι βελτιον άττ' άρχης /x.tas την 
φύσιν elvai αυτών, ούτοι δ' εχουσιν άρχην την προς 
τον μυκτηρα πρόσφυσιν και το πρόσθιον άρχη του 
πλαγίου μάλλον. 

Τά δε τετράποδα και ωοτόκα ου σκαρΒαμύττει 
ομοίως, οτι ουδ ΰγράν αύτοΐς άναγκαΐον εχειν και 
ακριβή την οφιν επιγείοις ούσιν τοις δ' ορνισιν 

25 άναγκαΐον, πόρρωθεν γάρ η χρησις της οφεως. διό 
και τα γαμφώνυχα μεν οζυωπά [άνωθεν γάρ αύτοΐς 
η θεωρία της τροφής, διό και άναπετονται ταύτα 
μάλιστα των όρνεων εις ύφος), τά δ' εττι^εια και 
μη πτητικά, οίον άλεκτρυόνες καΐ τά τοιαύτα, 


eyelid only. This is due to the hardness of the 
skin which surrounds the head, (a) The heavily 
built birds are not great fliers, and so the material 
which Avould have supplied growth for the Avings has 
been diverted, resulting in thickness of the skin. 
These creatures, then, use only the bottom eyelid to 
cover the eye ; Avhereas pigeons and such use both 
eyelids, (b) With regard to the oviparous quad- 
rupeds : As the horny scales with which they are 
covered are in every case harder than hair, so their 
skin also is harder than ordinary skin. And as the 
skin on their heads is hard, they can have no upper 
eyelid ; but ΙοΛνεΓ down the skin has some flesh with 
it, and so they have a loΛver eyehd that is thin and 

Now the heavily built birds blink not with this 
lower eyelid, because its motion is slow, but %vith 
the membrane above mentioned, whose motion is 
swift, as is requisite. This blinking or nictitating 
begins at the corner of the eye nearest the nostrils, 
because it is better that the membranes should have 
one place of origin rather than two, and in these birds 
this is where the eye and nostril are conjoined ; also, 
the front is more a place of origin than the side. 

The oviparous quadrupeds do not blink in this 
way, because, unlike birds, Λvhich have to use their 
eyes over great distances, they go upon the ground, 
and therefore there is no need for them to have 
fluid eyes or great accuracy of sight. The crook- 
taloned birds are sharp-sighted, for they view their 
prey from above, and that also explains why they 
fly to a greater height than other birds. The 
birds that remain on the ground, however, and do 
not fly much (e.g. barn-door foAvls and the like) are 



657b ^ ^ 

ουκ οζνωττά• ovhev γαρ αυτά KareTreiyet προζ 

τον βίον. 

30 Οι δ' Ιχθύος καΐ τά έντομα και τα σκληρόΒ^ρμα 
διαφέροντα μεν εχουσι τά όμματα, βλεφαρον δ 
ούΒεν αυτών έχει. τά μεν γαρ σκληρό8ερμ.α δλως 
ουκ έχει- -η δε του βλεφάρου χρησις ταχεΐαν την^ 
Βερματίκην έχει εργασίαν αλλ' άι^τι ταύτης της 

35 φυλακής ττάντα σκληρόφβαλμά εστίν, οίον βλέποντα 
δια τοΰ βλεφάρου ττροσττεφυκότος . επεί δ' άναγ- 
καΐον διά την σκληρότητα άμβλυτερον βλεπειν^ 
κινούμενους έποίησεν η φύσις τους οφθαλμούς τοΐς 
658 a εντόμοις, καΐ μάλλον ετι τοΐς σκληροΒερμοις, ωσπερ 
ενια των τετραττόΒων τά ώτα, όπως όζύτερον βλεπη 
στρέφοντα προς το φως καΐ Βεχόμενα την αύγην. 
οι δ' Ιχθύες ύγρόφθαλμοι μεν είσιν αναγκαία γαρ 
5 τοΐς πολλην ποιουμενοις κίνησιν η της οφεως εκ 
πολλού χρήσις. τοΐς μεν ούν πεζοΐς ο άηρ εύ- 
Βίοπτος• εκείνοις δ' επεΙ το ύΒωρ προς μεν το όζύ 
βλεπειν εναντίον, ούκ έχει Βε πολλά τά προσκρουσ- 
ματα προς την οφιν ωσπερ 6 αήρ, διά μεν τοΰτ 
ούκ έχει βλεφαρον {ούΒεν γάρ ή φύσις ποιεί μάτην), 

10 προς Βέ την παχύτητα τοΰ ύοατος ύγρόφθαλμοι 

XIV. ΈλεφαρίΒας δ' επι των βλεφάρων εχουσιν 
δσα τρίχας εχουσιν, όρνιθες Βε και των φολιΒωτών 
ούΒεν ού γάρ εχουσι τρίχας, περί γαρ τοΰ στρου- 
θοΰ τοΰ Αιβυκοΰ την αιτίαν ύστερον εροΰμεν τούτο 

^ TTjv Ogle: και viilg. : την ante ίργασίαν vulg., om. SU. 


not sharp-sighted, since there is no urgent necessity 
for it in their kind of hfe. 

Many differences in the eye itself are found among 
the Fishes, the Insects and the hard-skinned Crus- 
tacea, thougli not one of them has eyehds. In the 
hard-skinned Crustacea there cannot be an eyelid at 
all, for the action of an eyelid depends upon s-wdft 
working of the skin. To compensate for the lack 
of this protection, all these creatures have hard 
eyes : it is as though the eyelid were all of a piece 
with the eyeball, and the creature looked through 
the lid as well. But since the vision is bound to be 
dimmed by this hardness of the eye, Nature has 
given the Insects (and even more noticeably the 
Crustacea) movable eyes, just as she has given some 
quadrupeds movable ears ; this is to enable them 
to turn toAvards the light and catch its rays and so 
to quicken their vision. Fish have fluid eyes for the 
following reason. They move about a good deal and 
have to use their sight over long distances. Now 
when land-animals do this, they are looking through 
air, which is highly transparent ; but fish move about 
in water, which is inimical to sharpness of vision ; so 
to counteract its opacity their eyes are fluid in 
composition. At the same time, water contains far 
fewer objects to strike against the eyes than the air 
does ; hence fish need no eyelids, and because 
Nature never makes anything without a purpose, 
they have none. 

XIV. Those animals that have hair on their body Eyelashes 
have eyelashes on their eyelids : the others (birds ^" 
and the creatures with horny scales) have none. 
There is one exception to this rule : the Libyan 
ostrich, which has eyelashes. The cause of this 

G 187 


658 a 

15 γαρ €χ€ΐ βλ€φαρί8ας το ζωον. καΐ των εχόντων 
τρίχας err άμφότ€ρα οΐ άνθρωποι μόνον βχονσιν. 
τά γαρ τ€τράπο8α των ζώων iv τοις ύτττίοις ουκ 
ex€L τρίχας, αλλ' iv τοΐς ττρανίσι μάλλον ol δ 
άνθρωποι τουναντίον iv τοΐς ύπτίοις μάλλον η ev 
τοΐς πρανέσιν. σκέπης γαρ χάριν αϊ τρίχας ύπ- 
αρχουσι τοΐς €χουσιν• τοΐς μβν ουν τ€τράποσι τα 

20 πρανή δβιται μάλλον της σκέπης, τά δε πρόσθια 
τιμιώτζρα μέν, άλλα λβάζ^ι δια την κάμφιν τοΐς 
δ' άνθρώποις iπ€l i^ ϊσου δια την ορθότητα τα 
πρόσθια τοΐς οπισθίοις, τοΐς τιμιωτέροις ύπβγραφβν 
η φύσις την βοηθ€ΐαν' aei γάρ €Κ των ενδεχο- 
μ€νων αιτία του βελτίονός εστίν, και δια τοΰτο 

25 των Τ€τραπό8ων ούθέν οϋτβ βλ€φαρί8α €χ€ΐ την 
κατωθβν, αλλ' υπό τοΰτο το βλέφαρον ενίοις παρα- 
φύονται μαναι τρίχβς, οϋτ* iv ταΓ? /ίΐασχάλαι? οΰτ 
€7Γΐ της ήβης, ώσπερ τοΐς άνθρώποις' αλλ' άντι 
τούτων τά μέν καθ" όλον το σώμα πρανξ,ς^ δεδά- 
σννται ταΐς θριζίν, οίον το των κυνών γ^νος, τά δε 

80 λοφιάν βχ€ΐ, καθάπβρ ίπποι και τά τοιαύτα των 
ζώων, τά δε ;;^αιττ^ν, ώσπ€ρ ο άρρην λέων. ετι δ' 
δσα κέρκους εχβι μήκος έχουσας, και ταύτας εττι- 
Κ€κόσμηκ€ν η φύσις θριξί, τοΐς μέν μικρόν έχουσι 
τον στόλον μακραΐς, ώσπερ τοΐς ιπποις, τοΐς δε 

35 μακρόν βραχείαις, και κατά την του άλλου σώματος 

φύσιν πανταχού γάρ άποΒί^ωσι λαβοΰσα έτέρωθβν 

προς άλλο μόριον. όσοις δε το σώμα δασύ λίαν 

$58 b π€ποίηκ€, τούτοις ενδεώ? έχει τά π€ρΙ την κέρκον, 

οίον €πΙ των άρκτων συμβέβηκβν. 

^ TTpaves delet Piatt. 


will be explained later.'* Man is the only animal 
which has eyelashes on both lids. Why is this ? 
The quadrupeds tend to have more hair on their 
backs than on the underside of the body ; but in 
man the reverse is true. The purpose of hair is to 
give protection ; and as the quadrupeds go on all 
fours, they need more protection on their backs ; so 
they have no hair on their front, although the front 
is the nobler of the two sides. Man goes upright, 
and so there is nothing to choose as regards his need 
of protection between front and back. Therefore 
Nature has prescribed the protection for the nobler 
side, the front — an example of how, out of given 
conditions, she is ahvays the cause of that which is 
the better. This, then, is why none of the quad- 
rupeds has lower eyelashes (though some have a 
few scattered hairs growing on the lower eyelid), 
or hair in the axillae or on the pubes, as man has. 
Instead of this, some of them have thick hair all 
over the back part of* their body {e.g. dogs), some 
of them have a mane {e.g. horses and such), others 
a flowing mane, like the male lion. Again, if an 
animal has a tail of any length, Nature decks that 
with hair too ; long hair for tails Avith a short stem 
(e.g. horses), short hair for tails with a long stem. 
This, however, is not independent of the general 
condition of the whole animal, for Nature gives 
something to one part of the body only after she 
has taken it from another part. So when she has 
made an animal's body extremely hairy, we find 
that there is not much hair about the tail. An 
example of this is the Bears. 

» See 697 b 13 ff. 
* Piatt deletes " the back part of," 



esSb ^ ^ V „ , , « / / 

Ύην δε κζφαλην άνθρωπος βστι των ζώων δασυ- 

τατον, Ιζ ανάγκης μβν δια την ύγρότητα τον 

€γκ€φάλου καΐ δια τα? ραφάς [οττου γαρ ύγρόν και 

6 θερμόν ττλζΐστον, ενταΰθ' άναγκαΐον ττλβίστην elvaL 
την €κφυσιν), eveKev 8e βοηθβίας, δττως σκεπάζωσι 
φυΧάττουσαι τάς υττ^ρβοΧάς του re φυχους καΐ της 
άλβας. πλβΐστος δ' ων καΐ ύγρότατος ό των 
ανθρώπων ΙγκζφαΧος πλείστης καΐ της φυλακής 
δεΐται• το γαρ ύγρότατον καΐ ζβΐ καΐ φυχβται 

10 μάλιστα, το δ' βναντίως ^χον άπαθέστ€ρόν βστίν. 
Άλλα περί μβν τούτων παρβκβηναι συμβββηκβν 
€χομ€νοις της π€ρΙ τάς βλεφαρίδας αίτιας, δια την 
συγγίνειαν αυτών, ώστε περί των λοιπών iv τοις 
οίκείοις καιροΐς άττοδοτεον την μνβίαν. 

XV. Αι δ' οφρύες και at βλεφαρίδες άμφότεραι 

15 βοηθείας χάριν εισίν, at μεν οφρύες τών κατα- 
βαινόντων υγρών, όπως άποστεγωσιν οίον άπογεί- 
σωμα τών άπο της κεφαλής υγρών, at δε βλεφαρίδες 
τών προς τα όμματα προσπιπτόντων ένεκεν, οίον 
τα χαρακώματα ποιοΰσί τίνες προ τών εργμάτων} 
είσι δ' at μεν οφρύες επΙ συνθέσει οστών, διό και 

20 δασύνονται ττΌλλοΓ? άπογηράσκουσιν ούτως ώστε 
δεισ^αι κούρας• at δε βλεφαρίδες επί ττερατι 
φλεβίων, η γαρ το δέρμα περαίνει, και τα φλεβια 

* €ργμάτων scripsi : εργμάτων Bekker : ερυμάτων ed'itores. 

" This is one of the passages fastened upon by Bacon in 
his tirade against the importation of final causes into physics. 
Adv. of Learning (publ. 1605), ii. pp. 29, 30 : " This I finde 
done not onely by Plato, who euer ancreth vppon that shoare, 
but by Aristotle, Galen, and others, who do vsually Ukewise 
fall vppon these flatts of discoursing causes ; For to say that 
the haires of the Eye-liddes are for a quic-sette and fence about 



Man has the hairiest head of all the animals. This 
is (a) due to necessity, because the brain is fluid, and 
the skull has many sutures ; and a large outgrowth 
necessarily occurs where there is a large amount of 
fluid and hot substance. But also (h) it is on purpose 
to give protection ; that is, the hair affords shelter 
both from excessive cold and from excessive heat. 
The human brain is the biggest and the most fluid 
of all brains ; therefore it needs the greatest amount 
of protection. A very fluid thing is very liable both 
to violent heating and violent cooling, while sub- 
stances of an opposite nature are less hable to such 

This, however, is a digression. We were led into it 
because the subject was connected with our investi- 
gation of the cause of eyelashes. Anything further 
that there is to be said about it will be said in its 
proper place. 

XV. Both eyebrows and eyelashes exist to afford 
protection to the eyes : the eyebrows, like the eaves 
of a house, are to protect the eyes from the fluids 
that run down from the head ; the eyelashes are hke 
the palisades which are sometimes put up in front of 
an enclosure ; their purpose is to keep out things that 
try to get in." However, the eyebrows are placed 
Λvhere two bones join (which is why they often get so 
thick in old age that they have to be cut) ; and the eye- 
lashes are placed at the ends of small blood-vessels, 
which have to stop where the skin itself comes to 

the Sight . . . and the like, is well inquired & collected in 
Metaphisicke, but in Phisicke they are impertinent." But 
there is no incompatibility, p. 33, " For the cause rendred 
that the haires about the Eye-liddes are for the safeguard of the 
sight, doth not impugne the cause rendred, that Pilositie is 
incident to Orifices of Moisture." See also Xen. 3Iem. i. 4. 6. 



658 b ^ 

π€ρας €χ€ΐ τοΰ μήκους• ώστ' άναγκαΐον δια την 
άπίοΰσαν ίκμάΒα σωματίκην ονσαν, αν μη τι της 
φύσεως epyov €μποΒίσΎ] προς άλλην χρησιν, και 

25 δια την τοιαντην αΐτίαν ef ανάγκης iv τοις τόποίς 
τούτοις γίνβσθαι τρίχας. 

XVI. Ύοΐς μ€ν οΰν άλλοις ζωοις τοις τβτράττοσι 
και ζωοτόκοις ου πόρρω τρόπον τινά 8ΐ€στηκ€ν 
αλλτ^λων το της 6σφρήσ€ως αίσθητηριον, αλλ' οσα 

30 jLtev €χ€ΐ προμήκεις €ΐς στβνον άπηγμένας τα? 
aiayovas", ev τω καλουμ€νω ρύγχ€ΐ καΐ το των 
μνκτήρων €νυπάρχ€ΐ μόριον κατά τον €ν^€χόμ€νον 
τρόπον, τοις δ' άλλοι? μάλλον 8ιηρθρωμ€νον εστί 
προς τάς σιαγόνας, ο δ' ζλβφας ιδιαιτατον e^ei 
τοντο το μόριον των άλλων ζωών τό τ€ γάρ 

35 μ4γ€θος και την 8υναμιν ep^ei π€ριττην. μνκτηρ 
γάρ εστίν ω την τροφην προσάγεται, καθάπερ χειρι 

659 a χρώμενος, προς τό στόμα, την τ€ ζηράν και την 

νγράν, και τά δένδρα περιελίττων ανασπά, καΙ 
χρηται καθάπερ αν €ΐ χ^ιρί• την γάρ φνσιν ελώδε? 
ajua το ζωόν βστι και πζζόν, ωστ eVet την τροφην 
4ζ νγροΰ συνζβαινεν ^χειν, άναττνειν δ' άναγκαΐον 
6 πεζόν ον καΐ evaipov, και μη ταχεΐαν ποιεΐσθαι την 
μζταβολην €κ τοΰ νγροΰ προς το ζηρόν, καθάπερ 
ενια των ζωοτόκων και εναίμων και άναπνεόντων, 
το γαρ μέγεθος ον υπερβάλλον, άναγκαΐον ομοίως 
ην χρησθαι τω ύγρω ώσπερ και τη γη. οίον ουν 
τοις κολυμβηταΐς evioi προς την άναπνοην όργανα 
10 πορίζονται, ΐνα πολύν χρόνον iv τη θαλάττη μέ- 
νοντες ελκωσιν εζωθεν τοΰ ύγροΰ διά τοΰ οργάνου 
τον άερα, τοιοΰτον η φύσις τό τοΰ μυκτηρος μέ- 
γεθος εποιησε τοις ελεφασιν. 8ιόπερ άναπνεουσιν 

" Or " strength." 


an end. Thus, owing to the fact that the moisture 
which comes off is corporeal in composition, hair must 
be formed at these places even on account of a neces- 
sary cause such as this, unless some function of Nature 
impedes by diverting the moisture to another use. 

XVI. The general run of viviparous quadrupeds Nostriia. 
differ very little among themselves as regards the 
organ of smell. The folloΛving variations occur, how- 
ever. Those animals whose jaws project forward and 
become gradually narroAver, forming what is called 
a snout, have the organ of smell in their snout — this 
being the only possibility ; in the others, the jaws 
and nostrils are more definitely separated. The 
elephant's nose is unique owing to its enormous size 
and its extraordinary character.** By means of his 
nose, as if it were a hand, the elephant conveys 
his food, both solid and fluid, to his mouth ; by 
means of it he tears up trees, by winding it round 
them. In fact, he uses it for all purposes as if it 
Avere a hand. This is because the elephant has a 
double character : he is a land-animal, but he also 
Hves in swamps. He has to get his food from the 
water ; yet he has to breathe, because he is a land- 
animal and has blood ; owing to his enormous size, 
however, he cannot transfer himself quickly from the 
Avater on to the land, as do quite a number of blooded 
viviparous animals that breathe ; hence he has to be 
equally at home on land and in the water. Some 
divers, when they go down into the sea, provide 
themselves Avith a breathing-machine, by means of 
which they can inhale the air from above the surface 
while they remain for a long time in the water. 
Nature has provided the elephant Avith something of 
this sort by giving him a long nose. If ever the 



659 a ^ 

άραντ€ς ανω δια τον ύ'δατο? τον μυκτηρα, αν ττοτζ 

ττοιώνται δι' νγροΰ την TTopeLav καθάττ^ρ γαρ 

15 €Ϊπομ€ν, μυκτηρ ioTLV η ττροβοσκίς τοΐς ^λέφασιν. 
inel δ' αδύνατον -ην etrat τον μυκτηρα τοιούτον μη 
μαλακον οντά μη^β κάμπτβσθαι 8νναμβνον {βνβπο- 
διζβ γαρ αν τω μηκβι προς το λαββΐν την θύραθεν 
τροφήν, καθάττβρ φασί τα κέρατα τοΐς οτησθονόμοις 

20 βουσίν καΐ γαρ βκζίνονς νέμζσθαί φασιν ύττο- 
)(ωροΰντας τταλίμπυγηΒόν) — νπάρζαντος ουν τοιού- 
του του μυκτήρος, η φνσις τταρακαταχρηται, καθ- 
aTTep ε'ίωθ€ν, evrt πλείονα τοΐς αύτοΐς μορίοις, αντί 
της των ττροσθίων ττοδών -χρείας. τούτους γαρ τα 
τΓολυΒάκτυλα των τετραπόδων άντΙ veipaJv εχουσιν, 

25 αλλ' ου μόνον 'όνεχ υποστάσεως του βάρους• οι δ' 
βλεφαντες των πολυΒακτυλων εισί, και οϋτε Βιχά- 
λους εχουσιν οϋτε μώνυχας τους πό8ας• επει 8ε το 
μέγεθος πολύ και το βάρος το του σώματος, δια 
τοΰτο μόνον ερείσματος είσι χάριν, και δια την 
βραδύτητα και την άφυΐαν της κάμφεως ου χρή- 
σιμοι^ προς άλλο ούθεν. 

30 Δια μεν ουν την άναπνοην έχει μυκτηρα, καθάπερ 
και των άλλων εκαστον των εχόντων πλεύμονα 
ζώων, δια δε την εν τω ύγρω Βιατριβην και την 
βραδύτητα της εκείθεν μεταβολής δυνάμενον ελίτ- 
τεσ^αι και μακρόν αφηρημένης δε της των ποδών 

35 χρήσεως, και η φύσις, ώσπερ εϊπομεν, καταχρηται 
και προς την απο των ποδών γινομενην αν βοηθειαν 
τούτω τω μορίω. 
659 b Οί δ' όρνιθες και οι οφεις και δσα αλλ' eVai/xa 

* χρήσιμοι Rackham : χρήσιμον vulg. 



elephant has to make his way through deep water, 
he will put his trunk up to the surface and breathe 
through it. This is possible, because, as I have said 
already, the trunk is really a nostril. Now it would 
have been impossible for the nostril to be put to all 
these uses if it had not been soft and able to bend ; 
for then by its very length it ΛνοηΗ have prevented 
the animal from getting its food, just as they say the 
horns of the " backΛvard-grazing " oxen do, forcing 
them to walk backwards as they feed." So the trunk 
is soft and pliable ; and in consequence Nature, as 
usual, takes advantage of this to make it discharge 
an extra function beside its original one : it has to 
serve instead of forefeet. Now in polydactylous 
quadrupeds the forefeet are there to serve as hands, 
not merely in order to support the weight of the 
animal ; but elephants (which must be included under 
this class of animals, because they have neither a 
solid hoof nor a cloven one) are so large and so heavy 
that their forefeet can serve only as supports ; and 
indeed they are no good for anything else because 
they move so slowly and are quite unsuited for 

So the elephant's nostril is there, in the first place, 
to enable him to breathe (as in all animals that have 
a lung) ; and also it is lengthened and able to coil 
itself round things because the elephant spends 
much of his time in the water and cannot quickly 
emerge upon land. And as his forefeet are not 
available for the normal function. Nature, as Ave 
said, presses the trunk into service to supply what 
should have been forthcoming from the feet. 

The Birds and Serpents and the quadrupeds which 

» See above, on 648 a 16. This is from Herodotus, iv. 183. 
g2 195 


659 b 

/cat ωοτόκα^ των Τ€τραπό8ων, τους ju.ev ττορουζ 
€χονσι των μνκτηρων προ τον στόματος, ώστε δ* 
ΐΙττζΖν μνκτηρας, el μη δια το epyov, ουκ €χουσι 
φαν€ρώς Βιηρθρωμ^νους' αλλ' η y' opvLS ωστ€ 
5 μηθβν αν elrreZv €χ€ί^ ρίνας, τοΰτο δβ συμβ^βηκβν, 
ΟΤΙ άντΙ σιαγόνων εχ€ΐ το καλουμβνον ρύγχος, αίτια 
δε τούτων η φύσις η των ορνίθων συν€στηκυΐα 
τούτον τον τρόπον. Βίπονν γάρ εστί καΐ πτςρυ- 
γωτόν, ωστ ανάγκη μικρόν το βάρος €χ€ΐν το του 
αύχβνος και το της κεφαλής, ωσττβρ και το στήθος 

10 στενόν όπως μεν ουν fj -χρησιμον προς τβ την 
άλκην καΐ δια την τροφην, οστώδβ? εχουσι το 
ρύγχος, στενόν δε δια την μικρότητα της κεφαλής, 
iv δε τω ρύγχει τους πόρους εχουσι της οσφρήσεως, 
μυκτηρας δ' ε;^ειν αδύνατον. 

Περί δε των άλλων ζωών των μη άναπνεόντων 

15 εϊρηται πρότερον δι' ην αίτίαν ουκ εχουσι μυ- 
κτηρας, αλλά τα μεν δια των βραγχίων, τα δε δια 
τοΰ ανλοΰ, τα δ' έντομα δια του ύποζώματος 
αισθάνονται των οσμών, και ττάντα τω συμφύτω 
πνεύματι τοΰ σώματος ωπερ^ {και)* κινείται• τοΰτο 
δ' υπάρχει φύσει πάσι καΐ ου θύραθεν επείσακτόν 

20 'ΤτΓΟ δε τους μυκτηρας ή τών χειλών εστί φύσις 
τοις εχουσι τών εναίμων οδόντα?. τοΓ? γάρ ορνισι, 
καθάπερ εΐπομεν, δια την τροφην και την άλκην το 
ρύγχος οστώΒες εστίν συνήκται γάρ εις εν άντ' 
οΒόντων και χειλών, ώσπερ αν ει τις αφελών 

25 άνθρωπου τα χ^ίλη και συμφύσας τους άνωθεν 

^ ωοτόκα Ζ, vulg. : ζφοτόκα EPSUY. 
* ϊχ€ί S : ίχΐΐν vulg. 



like them are blooded and oviparous, have their 
nostril-passages in front of the mouth : but they have 
nothing which except for its function can be called 
nostrils — nothing distinctly articulated. A bird, at 
any rate, one might say has no nose at all. The 
reason for this is that its beak really replaces jaws. 
And this is because of the natural structure of birds. 
A bird is a Λvinged biped ; hence its head and its neck 
must be hght in Λveight, and its breast must be 
narrow ; and it has a beak, which (a) is made out of 
bony material, so that it \vill serve as a weapon as 
well as for the uptake of food, and (6) is narrow, owing 
to the small size of the head. It has the passages for 
smell in this beak, but it is impossible for it to have 
nostrils there. 

We have spoken already about the animals that do 
not breathe, and shoΛvn why they have no nostrils : 
some of them smell by means of the gills, some 
through a blow-hole ; Λvhile the insects smell through 
the middle part of the body. All of them smell, as 
all of them move, by means of the connate pneuma <* 
of their bodies, Λvhich is not introduced from without, 
but is present in all of them by nature. 

In all blooded animals that have teeth, the hps have Lip•, 
their place below the nostrils. (As stated already, 
birds have a bony beak for getting food and for de- 
fence ; and this is as it were teeth and lips run into 
one. The nature of the beak can be illustrated thus. 
Supposing, in a human being, that the lips were 
removed, and all the upper teeth were welded to- 

" Cf. De somno et vig. 455 b 34 ff. For a full account of 
Έΰμφυτον Πνβΰ/χα See G.A. (Loeb edn.), pp. 576 fF. 

» wnep SUZ" : ωσπ€ρ vulg. * <καΙ> Peek. 



659b ^ ^ X , V , / 

οΒόντας χωρίς καΐ τους κάτωθ€ν ττροαγαγοι μήκος 

ποιησας αμφοτέρωθ^ν els arevov €Ϊη γαρ αν τοΰτο 

■ηΒη ρύγχος όρνιθώζζς. τοις μίν ουν άλλοις ζφοις 

προς σωτηρίαν των οΒόντων η των χειλών φύσις 

€στι και ττρος φυλακήν, διοττερ ως βκβίνων μ€Τ- 

30 έχονσι τον ακριβώς και καλώς η τουναντίον, ούτω 
καΐ του Βιηρθρώσθαι τοΰτο το μόριον εχουσιν οι δ 
άνθρωποι μαλακά και σαρκώΒη και δυνα/ίίενα χωρι- 
ζεσ^αι, φυλακής θ^ eVe/ca τών οδόντων ωσπ€ρ και 
τά άλλα, και μάλλον ert δια το eu* προς γαρ το 
χρησθαι τω λόγω και ταΰτα. ωσπ€ρ γαρ την 

35 γλώτταν ούχ όμοίαν τοις άλλοις εποίησαν η φύσις, 
προς εργασίας δϋο καταχρησαμ€νη, καθάπ^ρ 
660 a ζϊπομ€ν ποΐ€Ϊν αυτήν €πι πολλών, την μ€ν γλώτταν 
τών Τ6 χυμών eveKev καΐ του λόγου, τά δε χ^ιλη 
τούτου θ^ evcKev και της τών οδόντων φυλακής, ο 
μ€ν γάρ λόγος ό δια της φωνής €κ τών γραμμάτων 
σύγκειται, της δέ γλώττης μη τοιαύτης ούσης μηδβ 
5 τών χ€ΐλών υγρών ουκ αν ην φθβγγ€σθαι τα πλβΐστα 
τών γραμμάτων τά μβν γάρ της γλώττης eiat 
προσβολαί, τά δε σνμβολαι τών χβιλών. ποίας δε 
ταΰτα και πόσας και τίνας €χ€ΐ διαφοράς, δεΓ 
πυνθάν€σθαι παρά τών μετρικών. 

* Ανάγκη δ' ην ζύθύς άκολονθήσαι τούτων τών 

10 μορίων ίκάτ^ρον προς την βΙρημ€νην χρησιν €υ€ργα 
και τοιαύτην 'έχοντα την φύσιν διό σάρκινα, μα- 
λακωτάτη δ' η σάρζ η τών ανθρώπων υπήρχαν, 
τοΰτο δε δια το αισθητικώτατον elvai τών ζωών 
την διά της άφης αϊσθησιν. 



gether, and similarly all the bottom teeth, and then 
each set were extended in a forward direction, and 
made to taper : this Avould result in a beak such as 
birds have.) In all animals except man the lips are 
intended to preserve and to protect the teeth ; hence 
Λve find that the distinctness of formation in the lips 
is directly proportionate to the nicety and exactitude 
of formation in the teeth. In man the lips are soft 
and fleshy and can be separated. Their purpose is 
(as in other animals) to protect the teeth ; but — 
still more important — ^they subserve a good pur- 
pose, inasmuch as they are among the parts that 
make speech possible. This double function of the 
human lips, to facilitate speech as Avell as to protect 
the teeth, may be compared with that of the human 
tongue, which is unlike that of any other animal, and 
is used by Nature for two functions (a device of hers 
which we have often noted), (a) to perceive the 
various tastes, and (h) to be the means of speech. 
Now vocal speech consists of combinations of the 
various letters or sounds, some of which are produced 
by an impact of the tongue, others by closing the lips ; 
and if the lips Avere not supple, or if the tongue were 
other than it is, the greater part of these could not 
possibly be pronounced. For further particulars 
about the various diiferences between these sounds 
you must consult the authorities on Metre. 

Itv.'as weceiiari/, however, from the start that each of 
these two parts should be adapted and well-fitted for 
their function as stated above ; therefore their nature 
had to be suitable thereto, and that is why they are 
made of flesh. Human flesh is the softest kind of flesh 
there is ; and this is because man's sense of touch is 
much more delicate than that of any other creature. 



660 a 

XVII. Ύ770 δε τον ovpavov iv τω στόματι "η 

15 γΧώττα τοΖς ζώοις eart, τοΖς μεν ττζζοΖς σχ€^6ν 
ομοίως πασι, τοις δ' άλλοι? ανομοίως καΧ αύτοΖς 
προς αι5τα. καΐ ττρος τα ττεζα των ζώων. 6 μεν ουν 
άνθρωπος άπολελνμενην τ€ μάλιστα την γλώτταν 
καΐ πλατεΐαν καΐ μαλακωτάτην εχβι/ δπως προς 
άμφοτίρας rj τας εργασίας χρΎισιμος, προς τ€ την 

20 των χυμών αΐσθησιν (ο γαρ άνθρωπος εναίσθητο- 
τατος τών άλλων ζώων, καΐ η μαλακή γλώττα 
(αΙσθ-ητικωτάτΎΐΥ' άπτίκωτάτη γαρ, -η δε γεΰσις άφη 
τις εστίν), καΐ προς την τών γραμμάτων Βιάρθρωσιν 
καΐ προς τον λόγον η μαλακή καΐ ττλατεια χρή- 
σιμος• συστε'λλειν γαρ καΐ προβάλλειν παντο^απη 

25 τοιαύτη ούσα καΐ άπολελνμίνη μάλιστ αν Βύναιτο. 
8ηλοΐ δ' δσοις μη λίαν άπολελυται• φελλίζονται 
γαρ και τραυλίζουσι, τοΰτο δ' εστίν ένδεια τών 

"Εν τε τω ττλατεΓαν είναι και το στενήν εστίν 
εν γαρ τω μεγάλω και το μικρόν, εν δε τω μικρώ 
το μέγα ουκ εστίν, διό και τών ορνίθων οι μάλιστα 

so φθεγγόμενοι γράμματα πλατυγλωττότεροι τών άλ- 
λων εισίν. τα δ' εναι^Μα και ζωοτόκα τών τετρα- 
πόδων βραχεΐαν της φωνής έχει Βιάρθρωσιν 
σκληράν τε γαρ και ουκ άπολελυμενην εχουσι 
και ττα^^ειαν την γλώτταν. τών δ' ορνίθων ενιοι 
πολυφωνοι, και πλατυτεραν οι γαμφώνυχοι εχουσιν. 

35 πολυφωνοι δ' οι μικρότεροι. και χρώνται τη 

γλώττη και προς ερμηνείαν άλλτ^λοι? πάντες μεν, 

660 b έτεροι δε τών έτερων μάλλον, ώστ επ' ενίων και 

^ και μαλ. (χΐΐ, post re vulg. ; transposui. 
^ αίσθητικωτάτη Supplevi. 



XVII. Under the vaulted roof of the mouth is Tongue, 
placed the tongue, and it is practically the same in 
all land-animals ; but there are variations in the other 
groups, whose tongues are as a Λvhole different from 
those of land-animals and also different among them- 
selves. The human tongue is the freest, the broadest, 
and the softest of all : this is to enable it to fulfil 
both its functions. On the one hand, it has to per- 
ceive all the various tastes, for man has the most 
delicate senses of all the animals, and a soft tongue 
is the most sensitive, because it is the most re- 
sponsive to touch, and taste is a sort of touch. It 
has, also, to articulate the various sounds and to 
produce speech, and for this a tongue which is soft 
and broad is admirably suited, because it can roll 
back and dart forward in all directions ; and herein 
too its freedom and looseness assists it. This is 
shown by the case of those whose tongues are shghtly 
tied : their speech is indistinct and lisping, which 
is due to the fact that they cannot produce all the 

A tongue which is broad can also become narrow, 
on the principle that the great includes the small, 
but not vice versa. That is why the clearest 
talkers, even among birds, are those Avhich have 
the broadest tongues. On the other hand, the 
blooded viviparous quadrupeds have a limited vocal 
articulation ; it is because their tongues are hard 
and thick and not sufficiently loose. Some birds — 
the smaller sorts — have a large variety of notes. 
The crook-taloned birds have fairly broad tongues. 
All birds use their tongues as a means of communica- 
tion with other birds, and some to a very consider- 
able extent, so much so that it is probable that in 



660 b ^ 

μάθησιν elvai Βοκ€Ϊν τταρ' άλλι^λω^• εΐρηται δε π€ρΙ 

αυτών iv ταΐς Ιστορίαις ταΐς ττερί των ζωών. 

Ύών δε π^ζών καΐ ωοτόκων καΐ εναίμων προς 

μ€ν την της φωνής εργασίαν άχρηστον τά ττολλά 

δ την γλώτταν €χ€ί καΐ ττροσ^ζ^^μίνην καΐ σκληράν, 

ττρος δε την των χυμών yeuoLV οϊ τ' οφζΐς καΐ οΐ 

σαΰροι, μακράν καΐ 8ίκρόαν βχουσι,ν, οι μβν οφεις 

οϋτω μακράν ωστ εκτεινεσ^αι εκ μικρού εττι πολύ, 

SiKpoav δε καΐ το άκρον λεπτόν καΐ τριχώ^βς δια 

την Χιγνβίαν της φύσεως- ^ιπΧην γάρ την ηΒονην 

10 κτάται, τών χυμών, ωσπζρ 8ίπλην ζχοντα την της 
γεύσεως αίσθησιν. 

Έ;;^ει δε καΐ τά μη 4Vat^a τών ζώων το αίσθη- 
τικον τών χυμών μόριον καΐ τά εναιμα πάντα• καΐ 
γάρ οσα μη Boksl τοις πολλοίς εχζΐν, οΐον evioi τών 
Ιχθύων, καΐ ούτοι τρόπον τινά γλίσχρον 'ύχουσι, και 

15 σχεδόν παραπλησίως τοις ποταμίοις κροκο^είλοις. 
ου φαίνονται δ' οι πλείστοι αυτών εχειν δια τιν' 
αιτίαν εΰλογον ακανθώδης τε γάρ εστίν 6 τόπος 
του στόματος πάσι τοις τοιουτοις, και Βιά το 
μικρόν χρόνον είναι την αισ^7]σιν τοις ενυΖροις τών 
χυμών, ώσπερ και η χρησις αύτης βραχεία, οϋτω 

20 βραχεΐαν εχουσιν αυτής και την Βιάρθρωσιν. ταχεία 
η οιοοος εις την κοιΛιαν οια το μη οίον τ είναι 
8ιατρίβειν εκχυμίζοντας• παρεμπίπτοι γάρ αν το 
ύδωρ. ωστ εάν μη τις το στόμα επικλινή, μη 
φαίνεσθαι άφεστηκός τοΰτο το μόριον. ακανθώδης 
δ' εστίν ούτος ό τόπος• σύγκειται γάρ εκ της 

2δ συμφαύσεως τών βραγχίων, ων η φύσις άκανθώΒης 

« See Hist. An. 504 b 1, 536 a 20 ff., 597 b 26, 608 a 17. 


some cases information is actually conveyed from one 
bird to another. I have spoken of these in the 
Researches upon Anwials.^• 

The tongue is useless for the purpose of speech in 
most of the oviparous and blooded land-animals be- 
cause it is fastened doA\Ti and is hard ; but it is very 
useful for the purpose of taste, e.g. in the serpents and 
lizards, which have long, forked tongues. Serpents' 
tongues are very long, but can be rolled into a small 
compass and then extended to a great distance ; they 
are also forked, and the tips of them are fine and hairy, 
owing to their having such inordinate appetites ; by 
this means the serpents get a double pleasure out 
of what they taste, owing to their possessing as it 
were a double organ for this sense. 

Even some of the bloodless animals have an organ 
for perceiving tastes ; and of course all the blooded 
animals have one, including those which most people 
would say had not, e.g., certain of the fishes, Avhich 
have a paltry sort of tongue, very like what the river- 
crocodiles have. Most of these creatures look as if 
they had no tongue, and there is good reason for this. 

(1) All animals of this sort have spinous mouths ; 

(2) the time Avhich Λvater-animals have for perceiv- 
ing tastes is short ; hence, since the use of this 
sense is short, so is the articulation of its organ. 
The reason why their food passes very quickly into 
the stomach is because they cannot spend much time 
sucking out its juices, otherwise the water would get 
in as Λν^Ι. So unless you pull the mouth well open, 
you will not be able to see that the tongue is a sepa- 
rate projection. The inside of the mouth is spinous, 
because it is formed by the juxtaposition of the gills 
which are of a spinous nature. 



esob , , , 

Τοις he κροκοΒζίλοις σνμβάλλζταί τι προς την 

τον μορίου τούτον άναπηρίαν και το την σιαγόνα 
την κάτω άκίνητον €χζΐν. eWt μ€ν γαρ η γλώττα 
τη κάτω συμφυής, οι δ' βχουσιν ώσπβρ άνατταλιν 
την ανω κάτω' τοις γαρ άλλοις η άνω ακίνητος. 

30 προς μεν οΰν ttj άνω ουκ ίχουσι την γλώτταν, οτι 
ΐναντίως αν εχοι προς την της τροφής εΐ'σοδον, προς 
δε τη κάτω, οτι ωσπερ μ€τακ€ΐμ€νη η άνω εστίν. 
€τι he και συμβφηκεν αύτω πζζω οντι ζην ιχθύων 
βίον, ώστε και δια τοντο άναγκαΐον άδιάρθρωτον 
αυτόν εχειν τοντο το μοριον. 

35 Ύον δ' ονρανον σαρκώδη πολλοί και των ιχθνων 
ζχονσι, καΐ των ποταμίων evioi σφόδρα σαρκώδη 
και μαλακόν, οΐον οι καλούμενοι κυπρίνοι, ώστε 
661 a 8οκεΐν τοΐς μη σκοποΰσιν ακριβώς γλώτταν εχειν 
ταύτην. οι δ' ίχθύες δια την είρημενην αιτίαν 
εχονσι μεν ου σαφή δ' εχουσι την Βιάρθρωσιν της 
γλώττης. επει 8ε [της τροφής χάριν^ και των 
5 χυμών α'ίσθησις ενεστι μεν τώ γλωττοει^ει μοριω, 
ου παντι^ δ' ομοίως άλλα τώ άκρω μάλιστα, δια 
τοϋτο τοις Ιχθύσι τοΰτ άφώρισται μόνον. 

'Έ^πιθυμίαν δ' έχει τροφής τα ζώα ττάντα ώς 
έχοντα α'ίσθησιν της ηΒονης της γινομένης εκ της 
τροφής' η γαρ €77ΐ^υ/χια του ηδεος εστίν, αλλά το 
μόριον ούχ ομοιον τούτο πάσιν, ω την α'ίσθησιν 

10 ποιούνται της τροφής, αλλά τοΐς μεν άπολελυμενον 
τοΐς δε προσπεφυκός, δσοις μη^εν έργον υπάρχει 

^ [τψ τροφηί χάρίν] praecedentium interpretationem seclusi, 
cetera correxi : της iv τοΐί χυμοΐς earlv ή α'σθησις {els αίσθησιν 
Ζ) το μεν {μεν το ΕΥΖ) yAwTToetSej Ιχει (Ιχει om. Ζ) μόριον 
vulg. * παντί Ζ : ττάνττ] vulg. 



Among the factors which contribute to the de- 
formity of the crocodile's tongue is the immobihty 
of its lower jaw, to which the tongue is naturally 
joined. We must remember, hoAvever, that the 
crocodile's jaΛvs are topsy-turvy ; the bottom one is 
on top and the top one below ; this is clearly so, 
because in other animals the top jaw is the immovable 
one. The tongue is not fixed to the upper jaΛv (as 
one might expect it to be) because it would get in 
the way of the food as it entered the mouth, but to 
the lower one, which is really the upper one in the 
wrong place. Furthermore, although the crocodile 
is a land-animal, his manner of life is that of a fish, 
and this is another reason Avhy he must have a tongue 
that is not distinctly articulated. 

Many fish, however, have a fleshy roof to their 
mouths. In some of the fresh-\vater fish — e.g. 
those 1αΐ0Λ\τι as Cyprinoi — it is very fleshy and soft, 
so that casual observers think it is a tongue. In 
fish, however, for the reason already given, the 
tongue, though articulated, is not distinctly so ; yet, 
inasmuch as the power also of perceiving tastes 
resides in the tongue-like organ, though not in the 
whole of it equally but chiefly in the tip, therefore on 
this account in fish the tip only is separate from the 

ΝοΛν all animals are able to perceive the pleasant 
taste Λvhich is derived from food, and so they have a 
desire for food, because desire aims at getting that 
which is pleasant. The part, however, by which this 
perception or sensation of the food takes place, is 
not identical in all of them, for some have a tongue 
which moves freely and loosely, others (Λvhich have no 
vocal functions) have a tongue that is fastened down. 



661a ^ X ^ X * , - c>> \ » 

φωνής, και τοΐς μβν σκληρον τοις oe μαλακον 

η σαρκώδες . διό και τοΙς μαΧακοστρακοις , οίον 

καράβοίς καΐ τοΐς τοιούτοις , €ντ6ς νπάρχβι tl τον 

15 στόματος toloutov, καΐ τοΐς μαλακιοις, οίον σητηαις 
και ΤΓολύποσιν. των δ' εντόμων ζωών kvia μεν 
€ντ6ς έ'χβί. το τοιοΰτον μοριον, οίον το των μνρ- 
μηκων γ€νος, ωσαύτως δε και των οστρακόδερμων 
πολλά• τα δ' €κτός, οίον κεντρον, σομφόν δέ την 
φύσιν και κοίλον, ωσθ^ άμα τούτω και yeuea^ai καΐ 

20 την τροφην άναστταν. Ζηλον δε τοΰτο εττι τ€ μυιών 
και jtxeAtTTCui^ και ττάντων των τοιούτων , έτι δ 
€7γ' €νίων των όστρακοΒβρμων ταΐς γαρ ττορφνραις 
τοσαντην €χ€ΐ Βύναμιν τοΰτο το μόριον ωστ& καϊ 
των κογχυλίων Βιατρνπώσι το οστρακον, οίον των 
στρόμβων οΐς Βελβάζουσιν αντάς. €τι δ' οι τ' 
οίστροι και οι μυωπβς οι μ&ν τα των ανθρώπων 

25 οι δε καΐ τα των άλλων ζώων Ββρματα Βιαιροΰσιν. 
εν /χεί' οΰν τούτοις τοΐς ζώοις ή γλώττα τοιαύτη 
την φύσιν εστίν, ώσττερ αντιστρόφως έχουσα τω 
μυκτηρι τω των ελεφάντων και γαρ εκείνοις προς 
βοηθειαν 6 μνκτηρ, και τούτοις η γλώττα άντι 
κέντρου εστίν, επι δε των άλλων ζώων η γλώττα 

80 ττάντων εστίν οΐανπερ εϊπομεν. 

" Under this name Aristotle probably includes several 
species of Purpura and Murex. Tyrian purple (6, 6' dibrom- 



Some again have a hard tongue ; others a soft or 
fleshy one. So we find that even the Crustacea — e.g. 
the Crayfish and such — have a tongue-like object 
inside the mouth, and so have the Cephalopods — e.g. 
the Sepias and the Octopuses. Of the Insects, some 
have this organ inside the mouth (e.g. the Ants), 
and so have many of the Testacea. Others have it 
outside, as though it Avere a sting, in which case it is 
spongy and hollow, and so they can use it both for 
tasting and for drawing up their food. Clear ex- 
amples of this are flies and bees and all such creatures, 
and also some of the Testacea. In the Purpurae," for 
instance, this " tongue " has such strength that they 
can actually bore through the shells of shellfish with 
it, including those of the spiral snails which are used 
as baits for them. Also, there are among the gad- 
flies and cattle-flies creatures that can pierce through 
the skin of the human body, and some can actually 
puncture animal hides as well. Tongues of this sort, 
we may say, are on a par with the elephant's nose ; 
in their tongue these creatures have a useful sting 
just as the elephant has a handy implement in his 

In all other animals the tongue conforms to the 
description we have given. 

indigo) is obtained from Murex hrandaris. For the boring 
powers of these creatures' tongues see the reference for 
Purpura lapillus given by Ogle (Forbes and Hanley, Brit. 
Mollusca, iii. 385). 


661 a 

'Έιχόμενον he των ζίριημένων η των οΒόντων 

35 €στΙ φύσις τοις ζωοις, και το στόμα το Trepi- 
εχόμ€νον υττο τούτων και σννβστηκος €Κ τούτων. 
661 b Ύοΐς μ€ν οΰν άλλοις η των 68όντων φύσις κοιντ] 
μξ,ν €7τΙ την της τροφής βργασίαν ύπάρχξΐ, χωρίς 
δε κατά γβνη τοις μ^ν άλκης χάριν, και ταύτης δι- 
ηρημένης, irri re το ποΐ€Ϊν και το μη ττάσχβιν 
τά μβν γαρ άμφοΐν eveKev €χ€ΐ, και του μη παθζΐν 
5 και τον 7τοΐ€Ϊν, οίον δσα σαρκοφάγα των αγρίων 
την φύσιν εστίν, τά δε βοηθείας χάριν, ώσττερ 
πολλά των αγρίων και των ήμερων. 

Ό δ' άνθρωπος προς τε την κοινην χρήσιν καλώς 
Ιχει πεφυκότας• τους μεν προσθίους οξείς, ίνα 
Βιαιρώσι, τους δε γομφίους πλατεΐς, ίνα λεαίνωσιν 
10 όρίζουσι δ' εκατερους οι κυνόΒοντες, μέσοι την 
φύσιν αμφοτέρων οντες' τό τε γαρ μέσον αμφοτέρων 
μετέχει των άκρων, οι τε κυνόδοντες τη μεν 
όζεις τη δε πλατεΐς είσιν ομοίως δε και επι 
των άλλων ζώων, όσα μη Trcii^Tas• εχουσιν όζεις 
— μάλιστα δε και τούτους τοιούτους και τοσού- 
τους προς την Βιάλεκτον πολλά γάρ προς την 


The subject which follows naturally after our previous Teeth, 
remarks is that of the Teeth. We shall also speak 
about the Mouth, for this is bounded by the teeth 
and is really formed by them. 

In the lower animals teeth have one common 
function, namely, mastication ; but they have addi- 
tional functions in different groups of animals. In 
some they are present to serve as Aveapons, offensive 
and defensive, for there are animals which have 
them both for offence and defence (e.g. the Avild 
carnivora) ; others (including many animals both 
Avild and domesticated) have them for purposes of 

Human teeth too are admirably adapted for the 
common purpose that all teeth subserve : the front 
ones are sharp, to bite up the food; the molars 
are broad and flat, to grind it small ; and on the 
border between the two are the dog-teeth whose 
nature is intermediate between the two : and just as 
a mean shares the nature of both its extremes, so 
the dog-teeth are broad in one part and sharp in 
another. Thus the provision is similar to that of 
the other animals, except those Avhose teeth are 
all sharp ; but in man even these sharp teeth, in 
respect of character and number, are adapted 
chiefly for the purposes of speech, since the 



631 b ^ 

15 yiveaiv των γραμμάτων ol πρόσθιοι των οΒόντων 

σνμβάλλο νται. 

"Ενια δε των ζωών, ωσττ^ρ etTro/xer, τροφής χάριν 
€χ€ΐ μόνον, οσα δε καΐ προς βοηθ€ΐάν τε και προς 
άλκην, τά μ€ν χαυλιόΒοντας εχβι, καθάπερ ΰς, τα 
δ' όζεις και επαλλάττοντας , οθβν καρχαρό^οντα 

20 καλείται, εττεί γαρ iv τοις οΒοΰσιν ή ισχύς αυτών, 
τοΰτο δε γίνοιτ* αν δια Trfv οξύτητα, οι χρήσιμοι 
προς την άλκην εναλλάξ εμπίπτουσιν, όπως μη 
άμβλύνωνται τριβόμενοι προς αλλήλους. ούΒεν δε 
των ζώων εστίν α^α καρχαρόΒουν και χανλιόΒουν, 
δια το μηδέν μάτην ποιεΐν την φύσιν μηδέ περί- 

25 έργον εστί δε των μεν δια πληγής η βοήθεια, 
των δε δια δήγματος. 8ιόπερ αϊ θηλειαι των ύών 
δάκνουσιν ου γαρ εχουσι χαυλιό8οντας , 

(Καρόλου δε χρεών τι λα^εΐν, ο και επΙ τούτων 
και επί πολλών τών ύστερον λεχθησομενων εσται 
χρήσιμον. τών τε γαρ προς άλκήν τε και βοηθειαν 

30 οργανικών μορίων έκαστα άποδιΒωσιν η φύσις τοις 
δυναμενοις χρησθαι μόνοις η μάλλον, /μάλιστα δε 
τω μάλιστα, οίον κεντρον, πληκτρον, κέρατα, 
χαυλιόΒοντας καΐ ει τι τοιούτον έτερον, επει δε το 
άρρεν ισχυροτερον και θυμικώτερον, τά μεν μόνα 
τα δε μάλλον έχει τά τοιαύτα τών μορίων, δσα 

85 μεν γαρ άναγκαΐον και τοις θηλεσιν εχειν, οίον τά 
προς την τροφην, εχουσι μεν ήττον δ' εχουσιν, δσα 
δε προς μηδέν τών αναγκαίων, ουκ εχουσιν. καΐ 

" See note on 644 a 17. 


front teeth contribute a great deal to the formation 
of the sounds. 

As we have said, the teeth of some of the animals 
have one function only, to break up the food. Of 
those animals whose teeth serve also as a defence 
and as weapons, some (like the Swine) have tusks, 
some have sharp interlocking teeth, and are called 
" saw-toothed " as a result. The strength of these 
latter animals lies in their teeth, and sharpness is 
the means of secui-ing this ; so the teeth Avhich are 
serviceable as weapons are arranged to fit in side by- 
side Avhen the jaAvs are closed to prevent them from 
rubbing against each other and becoming blunt. No 
animal has saw-teeth as >vell as tusks ; for Nature 
never does anything without purpose or makes any- 
thing superfluously. These teeth are used in self- 
defence by biting ; tusks by striking. This explains 
Avhy sows bite : they have no tusks. 

(At this point we should make a generalization, "The more 
which will help us both in our study of the foregoing J^^ ί^^ 
cases and of many that are to follow. Nature allots 
defensive and offensive organs only to those creatures 
which can make use of them, or allots them " in a 
greater degree," '^ and " in the greatest degree " to 
the animal which can use them to the greatest ex- 
tent. This applies to stings, spurs, horns, tusks, and 
the rest. Example : Males are stronger than females 
and more spirited ; hence sometimes the male of a 
species has one of these parts and the female has 
none, sometimes the male has it"in a greater degree." 
Parts which are necessary for the female as well as 
for the male, as for instance those needed for feed- 
ing, are of course present though " in a less degree " ; 
but those which serve no necessary end are not 



662 a δια τούτο των Ιλάψων οΐ μ€ν dppeves βχονσι 
κίρατα, at 8e d-qXeLai ουκ €χονσίν. διαφέρει δε 
και τα κέρατα των θηλαίων βοών και των ταύρων 
ομοίως δε και iv τοις ττροβάτοις. και πλήκτρα 
5 των αρρένων €χόντων αί ττολλαι των θηλβιών ουκ 
€χουσίν. ως δ' αΰτως έχει τοΰτο και επι των 
άλλων των τουουτων.) 

Οι δ' Ιχθύος πάντ€ς εισι καργαρο^οντ^ς , ττλην 
τον ένος τον καΧονμΙνον σκάρον ττολλοι δ' εχουσι 
και €v ταΐς γλώτταις οΒόντας και iv τοις ονρανοΐς. 
τοντον δ' αίτιον οτι dvayKaiov εν νγροΐς οΰσι 

10 παρ€ΐσΒ€χ€σθαί το νγρον α/χα Trj τροφτ], και τοΰτο 
ταχβως ε'κττε'ρ,ττειν. ον γαρ ενδε';)^εται λεαινοντα? 
διατρί)3ειν• elapeoi γαρ αν το νγρον ει? τα? κοιλίας. 
δια τοΰτο ττάντζς εισιν ο^εΓ? ττ-ρο? την διαίρεσιν 
μόνον, KaV ττολλοι και ττολλαχτι, ίνα αντί τοΰ 
λεαινειν ει? ττολλά κ€ρματίζωσι τω πληθίΐ. γαμφοί 

15 δε δια το την άλκήν σχεδόν άπασαν αντοΐς δια 
τούτων είναι. 

"Εχει δε και τήν τοΰ στόματος φνσιν τα ζωα 
τούτων τε των βργων ένεκα και έτι τν^? αναπνοής, 
δσα άναττνεΓ των ζώων και καταφνχβται dvpadev. 
7] γαρ φνσις αύτη καθ^ αύτην, ώσπβρ ειττορ,εν, τοΓ? 

20 κοινοΓ? πάντων μορίοις ει? ττολλά των ίδιων κατα- 

χρηται, οίον και εττι του στόματος η μεν τροφή 

πάντων κοίνόν, η δ' άλκι^ τινών ίδιον και ο λόγο? 

έτερων, έ'τι δε το άναττνεΓν ου πάντων κοινον. η δε 

^ sic Ρ : Siaipeciv. πάλιν καϊ vulg. 

ο Probably the parrot-fish. Cf. 675 a 3. 


present. Thus, stags have horns, does have not. 
Thus, too, cows' horns are different from bulls' horns, 
and eΛves' from rams'. In many species the males 
have spurs while the females have not. And so with 
the other such parts.) 

All fishes are saw-toothed except one species, 
the Scarus." Many of them have teeth on their 
tongues and in the roof of the mouth. This is 
because as they live in the Λvater they cannot help 
letting some of it in as they take in their food, and 
they have to get it out again as quickly as possible. 
If they failed to do so, and spent time grinding the 
food small, the Λvater would run down into their gut. 
So all their teeth are sharp and intended only for cut- 
ting up the food. Further, they are numerous and 
placed all over the mouth ; so by reason of their 
multitude they can reduce the food into tiny pieces, 
and this takes the place of the grinding process. 
They are also curved ; this is because practically the 
whole of a fish's offensive force is concentrated in 
its teeth. 

The mouth, too, is present in animals on purpose Mouth, 
to fulfil these same offices, but it has also a further 
pui-pose, at any rate in those animals which breathe 
and are cooled from without — namely, to effect re- 
spiration. As Λνε said earlier. Nature Λνάΐΐ often quite 
spontaneously take some part that is common to all 
animals and press it into service for some specialized 
purpose. Thus, the mouth is common to all animals, 
and its normal and universal function has to do with 
food : but sometimes it has an extra function, peculiar 
to some species only : in some it is a weapon, in others 
a means of speech ; or more generally, though not 
universally, it serves for respiration. Nature has 



6528 „ , , „ - S JL » 

φνσΐζ άπαντα συνηγαγ€ν eig ev, ποιούσα οιαψοραν 

αύτον τον μορίου προς τάς της ipyaotas διαφοράς, 

25 διό τα μ€ν ioTL σνστομώτβρα, τα δε μεγαλόστομα, 
οσα jtxev γαρ τροφής καΐ αναπνοής καΐ λογού χάριν, 
σνστομώτ€ρα, των δε βοηθείας χάριν τα μεν 
καρχαρόΒοντα ττάι-τα άνερρωγότα• ούσης γαρ 
αντοΐς της άλκης εν τοις δτ^γμασι χρησιμον το 
μεγάλην είναι την άνάπτνζιν του στόματος• πλειοσι 

80 γαρ και κατά μείζον δη^εται, οσονπερ αν επι το 
πλέον άνερρώγτ] το στόμα. εχουσι δε και των 
Ιχθύων οι Βηκτικοι και σαρκοφάγοι τοιούτον στόμα, 
οι δε μη σαρκοφάγοι μυουρον τοιούτον γαρ αύτοΐς 
χρησιμον, εκείνο δε άχρηστον. 

Ύοΐς δ' ορνισίν εστί το καλούμενον ρύγχος στόμα' 

85 τοΰτο γαρ άντι χειλών και οδόντων εχουσιν. δια- 
662 b φέρει δε τοΰτο κατά τάς χρήσεις και τάς βοήθειας. 
τα μεν γάρ γαμφώνυχα καλούμενα δια το σαρκο- 
φαγειν και μηΒενι τρεφεσθαι καρπω γαμφόν έχει το 
ρύγχος άπαντα• χρησιμον γάρ προς το κρατεΐν και 
βιαστικωτερον τοιούτο πεφνκός. rj δ' άλκη ev 
5 τούτω Τ€ και τοις οννζι• διό καΐ τους όνυχας 
γαμφοτερους εχουσιν. των δ' άλλων εκάστω προς 
τον βίον χρησιμον εστί το ρύγχος, οίον τοις μεν 
Βρυοκόποις ισχυρον και σκληρόν, και κόραζι καΐ 
κορακώΒεσι, τοις δε μικροΐς γλαφυρον προς τάς 
συΧλογάς των καρπών και τάς λήφεις τών ζω- 

10 Βαρίων, δσα δε ποηφάγα και οσα παρ" ελη ζτ], 


brought all these functions together under one part, 
whose formation she varies in the different species to 
suit its various duties. That is Λvhy the animals 
which use their mouths for feeding, respiration and 
speaking have rather narroΛv mouths, Λvhile those 
that use them for self-defence ha\^e wide and gaping 
mouths. All the saw-toothed creatures have these 
wide mouths, for their method of attack is biting, and 
therefore they find it an advantage to have a mouth 
that will open Avide ; and the vider it opens the 
greater the space the bite will enclose, and the 
greater the number of teeth brought into action. 
Biting and carnivorous fishes have mouths of this 
sort ; in the non-carnivorous ones it is on a tapering 
snout, and this suits their habits, whereas a gaping 
mouth would be useless. 

In birds, the mouth appears in the form of a beak, Beak, 
which serves them instead of lips and teeth. Various 
sorts of beak are found, to suit the various uses in- 
cluding defensive purposes to which it is put. All 
of the birds known as crook-taloned have a curv'ed 
beak, because they feed on flesh and take no vegetable 
food : a beak of this form is useful to them in master- 
ing their prey, as being more adapted for the exertion 
of force. Their beak, then, is one ΛΛ -eapon of offence, 
and their claws are another ; that is why their claws 
are exceptionally curved. Every bird has a beak 
Avhich is ser\aceable for its particular mode of life. 
The woodpeckers, for instance, have a strong, hard 
beak ; so have crows, and other birds closely related 
to them ; small birds, on the other hand, have 
a finely constructed beak, for picking up seeds and 
catching minute animals. Birds that feed on herb- 
age and that live by marshes (e.g. swimmers and 



καθάττζρ τα ττλωτά και στ€γανοποοα, τα μ€ν άλλον 
τρόπον χρησίμον e^ei το ρνγχος, τα δε ττλατνρνγχα 
αυτών εστίν τοίουτω γαρ οντι ραδιω? δύναται 
ορνσσβιν, ωσττζρ καΐ των τβτραπόΒων το της νος• 
καΐ γαρ αϋτη ριζοφάγος. eVt δ' έχουσι και τα 

15 βίζοφάγα των όρνιων καΐ των ομοιοβιων kvia τα 
άκρα του ρύγχους κ€χαραγμζνα• ποηφάγοις γαρ 
τούτοις ούσι ττοιβΐ ραΒίως. 

Hepl μζ,ν ουν των άλλων μορίων των ev ttj 
κεφαλή σχ€^6ν €Ϊρηταί, των δ' ανθρώπων καλείται 
το /χετα^ι) της κ€φαλης καΐ τοΰ ανχενος πρόσωπον, 

20 άπο της πράξεως αύτης ονομασθέν, ως eotKev δια 
γαρ το μόνον ορθόν είναι των ζώων μόνον προσ- 
ωθ^ν οπωπζ και την φωνην ίίς το πρόσω δια- 

II. Περί δε κεράτων λζκτβον και, γαρ ταύτα 
π€φυκ€ τοις €χουσι,ν εν τη κεφαλή, βχα δ' ουδέν 

25 μη ζωοτόκον. καθ* ομοιότητα δε καΐ μζταφοραν 
λε'•)/εται και ε'τε'ρων τινών κέρατα• αλλ' ούδενι 
αυτών το €ργον τοΰ κέρατος υπάρχει, βοηθείας 
γαρ καΐ άλκης χάριν εχουσι τά ζωοτόκα, ο των 
άλλων των λεγομένων ε;γειν κέρας ούδενι συ^ιι- 
βεβηκεν ουδέν γαρ χρηται τοις κερασιν οϋτ 

30 άμυνόμενον οϋτε προς το κρατεΐν, άπερ ισχύος 
εστίν έργα. δσα μεν ουν ττολυσρ^ιδτ} των ζώων, 
ουδέν έχει κέρας, τούτον δ αίτιον οτι το ρ,έν 
κέρας βοηθείας αίτιον ε'στι, τοΓ? δέ 7Γθλυσ;)^ιδε'σιν 
νπάρχουσιν έ'τεραι βοήθειαι• δε'δωκε yap η φύσις 
τοις μεν όνυχας τοις δ' οδόντα? μαχητικούς, τοις 

" Under this heading all the Mammalia known to Aristotle 


web-footed birds) have a beak adapted for their 
mode of life, a special instance of which is the broad 
beak, which enables them to dig for roots easily, just 
as the broad snout of the pig enables it to dig — an 
example of a root-eating quadruped. These root- 
eating birds and other birds of similar habits some- 
times have sharp points at the end of the beak. This 
enables them to deal easily with the herbaceous food 
which they take. 

We have now, I think, spoken of practically all 
the parts that have their place in the head ; but 
in man, the portion of the body betAveen the head 
and the neck is called the Prosopon (Face), a name 
derived, no doubt, from the function it performs. 
Man, the only animal that stands upright, is the 
only one that looks straight before him (prosotken 
opope) or sends forth his voice straight before him 
(proso, opd). 

II. We still have to speak of Horns : these also, Homs. 
when present, grow out of the head. Horns are 
found only in the Vivipara ; though some other 
creatures have Avhat are called horns, owing to their 
resemblance to real horns. None of these so-called 
horns, however, performs the function proper to horns. 
The reason why the Vivipara have horns is for the 
sake of self-defence and attack, and this is not true 
of any of these other creatures, since none of them 
uses its " horns " for such feats of strength either 
defensively or offensively. The polydactylous ani- 
mals,** moreover, have no horns, because they possess 
other means of defence. Nature has given them claws 
or teeth to fight mth, or some other part capable of 

are included, except ruminants, solid-hoofed animals, and 



662 b 

35 δ' αλλο TL μόριον ίκανον αμύνβιν. των δε διχάλων 

663 a τα μίν ττολλά κίρατα €χ€ΐ προς άλκην, και των 

μωνυχων eVta, τα δε καΐ ττρός βοηθααν, δσοίς^ μη 
Β^Βωκζν η φύσις αλλτ^ν άλκην ττρος σωτηρίαν, οίον 
τα;)^υτ7}τα σώματος, καθάττξρ τοις ιπττοις βββοηθη- 
K€v, η μίγεθος, ωσπβρ ταΐς καμηλοις• και γαρ 
6 μζγξ,θους νττ€ρβο\•η την από των άλλων ζωών 
φθοραν ίκανη KOjXveiv, oTtep συμβββηκζ ταΐς καμη- 
λοις, eVt δε μάλλον τοις βλβφασιν. τα δε ;;^αυλι- 
όδοντα, ώσττ€ρ καΐ το των νών γβνος, 8ίχαλον {ον^.* 
"Οσοι? δ' άχρηστος π4φυκ€ν η των κεράτων 
έζοχη, τούτοις ττροστ€θζΐκ€ν €Τ€ραν βοηθβιαν η 

10 φύσις, οΐον ταΓ? μ^ν βλάφοις τάχος {το γαρ μέ- 
γεθος αυτών και το πολυσχώες μάλλον βλάπτει η 
ωφελεί), και βονβάλοις δε και Βορκάσι {προς ενια 
μεν γαρ άνθιστάμενα τοις κερασιν αμύνονται, τα δε 
θηριώΒη και /χά;;^ι/χα άποφεύγουσι) , τοις δε βονάσοις 
{καΐ γαρ τούτοις γαμφά τα κέρατα πεφυκε προς 

15 αλλτ^λα) την τοΰ περιττώματος άφεσιν τούτω γαρ 
αμύνεται φοβηθεντα• και ταύτη δε τη προεσει δια- 
σώζεται έτερα, άμα δ' ικανά? και πλείους βοηθείας 
ου δε'δα>κεν η φύσις τοις αύτοΐς. 

"Εστί δε τα ττλεΓστα των κερατοφόρων δίχαλα, 
λέγεται δε και μώνυχον, ον καλοΰσιν Ίνδικόν ονον. 

20 Τα μεν οΰν πλείστα, καθάπερ και το σώμα 
Βιηρηται των ζώων οΐς ποιείται την κίνησιν, δε^ιόν 
και άριστερόν, και κέρατα δυο πέφυκεν εχειν δια 

^ Se post όσοίζ vulg. : del. Piatt, Thurot. 
2 <5v> Ogle. 

• Cf. above, on 648 a 16. 

* The European bison. 

" This is probably the Indian Rhinoceros. This account 


rendering adequate defence. Most of the cloven- 
hoofed animals, and some of the solid-hoofed, have 
horns, as weapons of offence ; some have horns for 
self-defence, as those animals which have not been 
given means of safety and self-defence of a different 
order — the speed, for instance, which Nature has 
given to horses, or the enormous size which camels 
have (and elephants even more), which is sufficient 
to prevent them from being destroyed by other 
animals. Some, hoAvever, have tusks, for instance 
swine, although they are cloven-hoofed. 

In some animals the horns are a useless appendage," 
and to these Nature has given an additional means 
of defence. Deer have been given speed (because 
the size of their horns and the numerous branches 
are more of a nuisance to them than a help). So 
have the antelopes and the gazelles, which, although 
they Avdthstand some attackers and defend them- 
selves with their horns, run away from really fierce 
fighters. The Bonasus,*" whose horns curve inwards 
to meet each other, protects itself Avhen frightened 
by the discharge of its excrement. There are other 
animals that protect themselves in the same way. 
Nature, however, has not given more than one 
adequate means of protection to any one animal. 

Most of the horned animals are cloven-hoofed, 
though there is said to be one that is solid-hoofed, 
the Indian Ass,*' as it is called. 

The great majority of horned animals have two 
horns, just as, in respect of the parts by which 
its movement is effected, the body is divided 
into two — the right and the left. And the 

of it comes from the Indica of Ktesias of Knidos, quoted in 
Photius's Bibliotheca, Ixxii. pp. 48 b 19 (Bekker) foil. 

Η 219 


663a ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ „ V , / f » 

την αύτην αΐτίαν^• έ'στι 8e και μονοκ€ρατα, olov ο 

τ' ορνζ καΐ ό 'Ινδικό? καλούμενος όνος. Ιση ο ο 

/xev ορυ^ δι;)^αλον, ό δ' όνος μώνυχον. e^et δε τα 

25 μονοκ€ρατα το κέρας iv τω μέσω της κεφαλής' 
οϋτω γαρ ίκάτερον των μερών μάλιστ' αν εχοι 
κέρας εν το γαρ μέσον ομοίως κοινον αμφοτέρων 
των εσχάτων, ευλόγως δ' αν Βόζείε μονοκερων 
είναι το μώνυχον του δίχαλου μάλλον όπλη γαρ 
καΐ χηλή την αύτην έχει κέρατι φΰσιν, ώσθ άμα 

30 και τοις αύτοΐς η σχίσις γίνεται τών οττλών και 
των κεράτων, ετι δ' η σχίσις και το ^ίχαλον κατ 
ελλειφιν της φύσεως εστίν, ώστ ευλόγως τοις 
μωνύχοις εν ταΐς οπλαΐς δοΰσα την ύττεροχην 
η φύσις άνωθεν άφεΐλε και μονοκερων εποίησεν. 
^ Ορθώς δε και το επι της κεφαλής ποιησαι την 

35 τών κεράτων φύσιν, άλλα μη καθάπερ ο Αίσωπου 
Μ,ώμος 8ιαμεμφεται τον ταΰρον οτι ουκ επι τοις 
663 b ώμοις έχει τά κέρατα, όθεν τάς πληγας εποιεΐτ 
άν ισχυροτάτας, αλλ' επΙ τοΰ ασθενέστατου μέρους 
της κεφαλής. ου γαρ οζύ βλέπων 6 Μώ/,ίο? ταυτ 
επετίμησεν. ωσπερ γαρ και ει ετερωθι που τοΰ 
5 σώματος κέρατα επεφύκει, βάρος άν παρεΐχεν άλ- 
λως ού^εν οντά χρήσιμα καν ε^ιιττόδια τών έργων 
πολλοίς ην, οϋτω και επι τών ώμων πεφυκότα. ού 
γαρ μόνον χρη σκοπεΐν πόθεν ίσχυρότεραι αϊ πλη- 
γαί, άλλα και πόθεν πορρώτεραι• ώστ επει χείρας 
μεν ουκ εχουσιν, επί δε τών ποΒών αδύνατον, εν δε 

^ αντψ' αΐτίαν Peck : αΐτίαν ταντην vulg. 
" See Babrius, Myth. Aesop, lix. 8-10, 


reason in both cases is the same. There are, how- 
ever, some animals that have one horn only, e.g. 
the Oryx (Avhose hoof is cloven) and the " Indian 
Ass " (whose hoof is solid). These creatures have 
their horn in the middle of the head : this is the 
nearest approximation to letting each side have its 
own horn, because the middle is common equally to 
both extremes. Now it is quite reasonable that the 
one horn should go with the solid hoof rather than 
\nth the cloven hoof, because hoof is identical in 
nature Avith horn, and we should expect to find 
divided hoofs and divided horns together in the same 
animal. Again, division of the hoof is really due to 
deficiency of material, so it is reasonable that as 
Nature has used more material in the hoofs of the 
solid-hoofed animals, she has taken something away 
from the upper parts and made one horn only. 

Again, Nature acted aright in placing the horns 
on the head. Momus in Aesop's fable" is quite 
wTong Λvhen he finds fault with the bull for having 
his horns on the head, which is the Aveakest part of 
all, instead of on the shoulders, which, he says, 
Avould have enabled them to deliver the strongest 
possible blow. Such a criticism shows Momus 's 
lack of perspicacity. If the horns had been placed 
on the shoulders, as indeed on any other part of the 
body, they would have been a dead Λveight, and 
would have been no assistance but rather a hindrance 
to many of the animal's activities. And besides, 
strength of stroke is not the only point to be con- 
sidered : width of range is equally important. 
Where could the horns have been placed to secure 
this .'' It would have been impossible to have them 
on the feet ; knees with horns on them would have 



663b ^ ^ 

τοις γόνασιν οντά την κάμφιν βκώλυεν αν, avay- 

10 καΐον ωσπ€ρ νυν €χουσίν, eVt της κ€φαλης €χ€ΐν, 
άμα δε καΐ ττρος τάς άλλα? κινήσ€ίς τον σώματος 
άν€μπό8ίστα ττέφνκ^ν ούτω μάλιστα. 

"Εστί 8e τα κέρατα δι' ό'λου στέρεα τοις ελάφοίς 
μόνοίς, καΐ αποβάλλει μόνον, eveKev μβν ωφελείας 
κουφίζόμενον, εζ ανάγκης δε δια το βάρος, των δ' 

15 άλλων τα κέρατα μέχρι τινό? κοΓλα, τά δ άκρα 
στερεά δια το προς τάς πληγάς τοντ είναι χρη- 
σιμον. όπως δε μη8ε το κοίλον ασθενές fj ο^ 
πεφυκεν εκ του Βερματος, εν τούτα/ ενηρμοσται 
(τοΥ στερεόν εκ των οστών ούτω γάρ και τά 
κέρατα έχοντα προς άλκην τε χρησιμώτατ εστί* 

20 και προς τον άλλον βίον άνοχλότατα. 

TiVo? μεν ουν ένεκεν η των κεράτων φύσις, 
εϊρηται, και δια tiV αιτίαν τά μεν εχουσι τοιαύτα 
τά δ' ουκ εχουσιν 

\\ώς δε της αναγκαίας φύσεως εχουσης τοις 
ύπάρχουσιν εζ ανάγκης η κατά τον λόγον φύσις 
ενεκά του κατακεχρηται, λεγωμεν. 

*6 ΐΐρώτον μεν ουν το σωματώδες και γεώδες πλεΐον 
υπάρχει τοις μείζοσι τών ζώων, κερατοφόρον δε 
μικρόν πάμπαν ούδεν ισμεν ελάχιστον γάρ εστί τών 
γνωριζομενων 8ορκάς. δει δε την φύσιν θεωρειν 
εις τά πολλά βλέποντα• η γάρ εν τω παντι η ως επΙ 
το πολύ το κατά φύσιν εστίν, το δ' 6στώ8ες εν 

1 5 Peck, cf. Hist. An. 500 a 8: ov vulg., om. EPY: oi 
suprascr. Ζ (v. p. 46). ^ τούτω Peck : τούτω S" vulg. 

3 <To> Peck : cf. Hist. An. 500 a 9. 
* ecrri Piatt : elvai vulg. : ΐ'η αν Thurot. 

■ For the contrast between " necessary nature " and 


been unable to bend ; and the bull has no hands ; so 
they had to be where they are — on the head. And 
being there, they offer the least possible hindrance 
to the movements of the body in general. 

Deer alone have horns that are solid throughout ; 
and deer alone shed their horns : this is done (a) on 
purpose to get the advantage of the extra lightness, 
(b) of necessity, owdng to the weight of the horns. 
In other animals the horns are hollow up to a certain 
distance, but the tips are solid because solid tips are 
an advantage when striking. And to prevent undue 
weakness even in the hollow part, which grows out 
from the skin, the solid piece which is fitted into it 
comes up from the bones. In this way the horns 
are rendered most serviceable for offensive pur- 
poses and least hampering during the rest of the 

This completes our statement of the purpose for 
which horns exist and the reason why some animals 
have them and some have not. 

We must now describe the character of that 
" necessary nature," owing to which certain things 
are present of necessity, things which have been 
used by " rational nature " to subserve a " purpose." * 

To begin with, then : the larger the animal, the 
greater the quantity of corporeal or earthy matter 
there is in it. We know no really small horned 
animal — the smallest known one is the gazelle. (To 
study Nature we have to consider the majority of 
cases, for it is either in what is universal or what 
happens in the majority of cases that Nature's 
ways are to be found. Now all the bone in animals' 

" rational nature" see above 640 b 8-29, 64•! a 25 ff., 642 a 
1 flF., and cf. G.A. (Loeb edn.), Introd. § 14. 



663 b ^ « , ^ , / c. , t 

30 τοις σώ/λασι των ζώων yeihhes ντταρχζΐ' oto και 
ττλξΐστον iv τοις μβγίστοις ώς irrl το ττολύ βλ4- 
φαντας elnelv. την γοΰν ταουτον σώματος ττεριτ- 
τωματικην ΰπ^ρβολην iv τοις μειζοσι των ζώων 
νπάρχουσαν βπΐ βοήθζίαν και το συμφέρον κατα- 
χρηται η φύσις, καΐ την ρ€ουσαν e| ανάγκης €ίς τον 

35 άνω τόπον τοΐς μβν ίίς οΒόντας καΐ χαυλιό8οντας 
άπ€ν€ΐμ€, τοΐς δ' et? κίρατα. διό των κ€ρατο- 
φόρων ovSev εστίν άμφωΒον άνω γαρ ουκ €χ€ί τους 

664 2 προσθίους οδόντα?" άφζλοΰσα γαρ ivTeuOev η φύσις 

τοΐς Κ€ρασι προσβθηκζ, και η ^ώομένη τροφή βις 
τους οδόντα? τούτου? et? την των κ€ράτων αϋζησιν 
αναλίσκεται, του δε τα? θηλείας βλάφους κέρατα 
μβν μη €χ€ΐν, περί δε του? οδόντα? ομοίως τοΐς 

5 άρρεσιν, αίτιον το την αύτην είναι φύσιν άμφοΐν 
και κβρατοφόρον, άφηρηται δε τά κέρατα ταΐς 
βηλειαι? δια το χρήσιμα μέν μη είναι μηΒβ τοΐς 
appeoiv, ^λάπτεσ^αι δ' ησσον δια τι^ν ισχύν. 

Των δ' άλλων ζώων δσοις μη ει? κέρατα απο- 
κρίνεται το τοιούτον μόριον του σώματος, ενιΌι? 

10 /Μεν των οδόντων αυτών έπηύζησβ το μέγεθος κοινή 
πάντων, ενιοι? δε χαυλιόδοντα? ώσπερ κέρατα εκ 
των γνάθων εποίησεν. 

Περί μεν ουν των εν τη κεφαλή μορίων ταύτη 

III. 'Τττό δε ττ^ν κεφαλήν ο αύχην πεφυκώς εστί 
τοΐς εχουσιν αυ;:^ε'να των ζώων. ου γαρ ττάντα 

15 τοΰτο το μοριον έχει, άλλα μόνα τά έχοντα ών 

" i.e. constituent substance. See on 64.8 a 2. 


bodies consists of earthy matter ; so if we consider 
the majority of cases, we can say that there is most 
earthy matter in the biggest animals.) At any rate, 
in the larger animals there is present a sm-plus of 
this corporeal or earthy matter, produced as a 
residue, and this Nature makes use of and turns to 
advantage to provide them Mith means of defence. 
That portion of it Λvhich by necessity courses upwards 
she allots to form teeth and tusks in some animals, 
and to form horns in others. And we can see from 
this Λvhy no horned animal has incisor teeth in both 
jaws, but only in the bottom jaw. Nature has 
taken away from the teeth to add to the horns ; 
so that the nourishment Λvhich would normally be 
supplied to the upper teeth is here used to grow the 
horns. Why is it, then, that female deer, although 
they have no horns, are no better off for teeth than 
the male deer ? The ansΛver is : Both of them are, 
by nature, horned animals ; but the females have 
lost their horns because they Avould be not only 
useless but dangerous. The horns are indeed of no 
more use to the males, but they are less dangerous 
because the males are stronger. 

Thus in some animals this " part " " of the body 
is secreted for the formation of horns ; in others, 
however, it causes a general increase in the size of 
the teeth, and in others again it produces tusks, 
which are like horns springing out of the jaws 
instead of the head. 

We have now dealt with the " parts " that apper- 
tain to the head. 

III. The place of the neck, when there is one, is of the 
beloΛV the head. I say " when there is one," because oesophl^s. 
only those animals have this part which also have 



664 a 

χάρίν 6 ανχην ττέφυκ^ν ταύτα δ' εστίν ο τ€ φάρνγς 

καΐ 6 καλουμ€νος οΙσοφάγος. 

Ό μ€ν ουν φάρυγ^ τοΰ 7τν€υματος ev€K€v ττεφυκζν 

δια τούτου yap eLaayerat το ττνεΰμα τα ζώα και 

€κπ€μπ€ί αναττνίοντα καΐ €Κττν€οντα. διό τα μη 

20 €χοντα ττλευμονα ουκ βγουσιν ουδ' au;i(;eira, οίον 
το των Ιχθύων γίνος. 6 δ' οισοφάγος €στΙ δι' ου 
7) τροφή τΓορευεται els τ-ην κοίλίαν ωσθ^ δσα μη 
€χ€ί au;;^€Va, ουδ' οίσοφάγον επώηλως €χουσ(,ν. 
ουκ άναγκαΐον δ' ^χβιν τον οίσοφάγον της τροφής 
€veK€v• ούθεν γαρ τταρασκ€υάζ€ΐ προς αύτην. €τι 

25 he μ€τά την τοΰ στόματος ΘΙσιν ivheycTai κβΐσθαι 
την κοίλίαν ευθέως, τον he πλβύμονα ουκ evhexeTai. 
δει γαρ elvai τίνα κοινον οίον αύλώι^α, δι' ού μe- 
pieiTai το πν€ϋμα κατά τάς αρτηρίας eίς τάς 
σύριγγας, hιμepη οντα^• και κάΧΚιστ αν ούτως 
άτΓοτελοΓ την άναπνοην καΐ Ικττνοην. τοΰ δ' όρ- 

30 γάνου τοΰ irepl την άναπνοην ef ανάγκης ζ,χοντος 
μήκος, άναγκαΐον τον οίσοφάγον elvai μ€ταξύ τοΰ 
στόματος και της κοιλίας. eoTi δ' 6 μev οισοφάγος 
σapκώhης, €χων V€υpώhη τάσιν, veυpώhης μ4ν, 
όπως €χη hιάτaσιv €ίσιούσης της τροφής, σapκώhης 

35 δε, όπως μαλακός η και ενδίδω καΐ μη βλάπτηται 
τpa^χυv6μevoς ύπο των κατιόντων. 

Ή δε καλουμ€νη φάρυγζ και αρτηρία συν4στηκ€ν 
66ib ^κ χovhpώhoυς σώματος• ού γαρ μόνον αναπνοής 
eveKev eoTiv αλλά καΐ φωνής, δει δε το φοφησ^ιν 
μάλλον λεΓον είναι καΐ στepeότητa eyeiv. κείται δ 
eμπpoσθev η αρτηρία τοΰ οισοφάγου, καιττερ ε^α- 
πohίζoυσa αυτόν πepl την ύπohoχηv της τροφής' 
6 εάν γάρ τι παρζίσρυή ζηρόν η ύγρον €ΐς την άρτη- 
^ διμΐρή όντα Peck : 8ίμ€ρη5 ων vulg. : Βιμ€ροΰ5 Svtos Th. 


those parts that the neck subserves — viz. the larynx 
and the oesophagus, as it is called. 

The larynx is present for the sake of the breath : 
when animals breathe in and out, the breath passes 
through the larynx. Thus creatures which have no 
lung {e.g. fish) have no neck either. The oesophagus 
is the passage by which the food makes its way to 
the stomach ; so those that have no neck have no 
distinct oesophagus. So far as food is concerned, 
however, an oesophagus is not necessary, since it 
exerts no action upon the food ; and there is really 
no reason why the stomach should not be placed 
immediately next the mouth. The lung, however, 
could not be so placed, because some sort of tube 
must be present, common to both lungs, and divided 
into two, by Avhich the breath is divided along the 
bronchial tubes into the air-tubes : this is the best 
method for securing good breathing, both in and out. 
This respiratory organ, then, of necessity, is of some 
length ; and this necessitates the presence of an 
oesophagus, to connect the mouth to the stomach. 
Now the oesophagus is fleshy, and it can also be 
extended like a sinew. It is sinewy so that it can 
stretch as the food enters in ; and it is fleshy so that 
it may be soft and yielding and not be damaged by 
the food grating on it as it goes down. 

What are called the larynx and windpipe are Larynx and 
constructed of cartilaginous substance, since the pur- ""° ^'P^" 
pose they serve includes speech as well as respira- 
tion ; and an instrument that is to produce sound 
must be smooth and firm. The windpipe is situated in 
front of the oesophagus, although it causes it some 
hindrance Λvhen food is being admitted — as when a 
piece of food, no matter whether solid or fluid, gets 

Η 2 227 


664 b ^ 

ρίαν, πνιγμούς καΐ πόνους καΐ βήχας χαλ^πάς 

€μποί€Ϊ. ο Srj καΐ θανμάσ€ΐ€ν αν τι? των λξγόντων 

ώς ravTTj το ποτόν Several το ζωον συμβαίνει γαρ 

φανερώς τα λβχθβντα πασιν οίς αν παραρρυτ] τι της 

10 τροφής, πολλαχη δε yeAotov φαίνεται το λξ,γζΐν ώς 
ταυτΎ) το ποτον εισ^βχεται τα ζωα. πόρος γαρ 
ούδει? ioTiv et? την κοιλιαν από του πλ€νμονος, 
ώσπ€ρ C/C του στόματος όρώμ^ν τον οίσοφάγον, 
€τι δ' iv τοις ^μίτοις και ναυτίαις ουκ αζηλον πόθ^ν 
το ύγρόν φαίνεται πορ^υόμενον. ^ηΧον he και ότι 

15 ουκ ζύθεως €ΐς την κύστιν CTi»AAeyeTat το ύγρόν, 
αλλ' €ΐς την κοιλίαν πρότ€ρον• τά γαρ της κοιλίας 
περιττώματα φαίνεται χρωματίζειν η ιλύς του μέ- 
λανος οϊνον συμβεβηκβ δε τοΰτο πολλάκις φανερόν 
καΐ επι των εις την κοιλιαν τραυμάτων, άλλα γαρ 
Ισως εύηθες το τους εύηθεις των λόγων λίαν 

20 *Η δ' αρτηρία τω 8ιακεΐσθαι, καθάπερ εϊπομεν, 
εν τω πρόσθεν υπό της τροφής ενοχλείται' αλλ' η 
φύσις προς τοΰτο μεμηχάνηται την επιγλωττίΒα. 
ταύτην δ' ουκ εχουσιν άπαντα τά ζωοτοκοΰντα,^ 
αλλ' όσα πλεύμονα έχει και το Βέρμα τριχωτόν, καΐ 

25 μη φολώωτά μηΒέ πτερωτά πέφνκεν. τούτοις δ' 
άντΙ της επιγλωττίδος συνάγεται και 8ιοίγεται ό 
φάρυγζ ονπερ τρόπον εκείνοις• επιβάλλει τε και 
αναπτύσσεται, τοΰ (^μεν^ πνεύματος τη εισό8ω τε 
και εζό8ω αναπτυσσόμενος, της 8ε τροφής εισ- 

^ ζωοτοκονντα] ζωα τα Ιναι/χα Ogle. 
* (jiev) supplevi et interpunctionem hie correxi. 



into the windpipe by mistake, and causes a great deal 
of choking and distress and violent coughing. This 
sort of thing occurs and can be observed whenever a 
piece of food goes the wrong way ; yet they must be 
mysteries to those who hold that animals take in their 
drink by Λvay of the \vindpipe. " And there are many 
counts on which we can shoΛV that this is a ridiculous 
opinion to hold, (a) There is no passage leading from 
the lung into the stomach, such as the oesophagus, 
which, as Λve can see, leads thither from the mouth. 
And again, (6) there is no doubt where the fluid dis- 
charge comes from in cases of vomiting and sea-sick- 
ness, (c) It is plain, too, that the fluid matter which 
we take does not collect immediately in the bladder, 
but goes first into the stomach. This is shown by 
the fact that the dregs of dark wine affect the co- 
lour of the residual discharge from the stomach ; and 
this colouring has often been observed in cases where 
the stomach has been wounded. Still, perhaps it is 
silly to be too minute in discussing these silly theories. 

The windpipe, as we have said, is situated in front, Epiglottis. 
and therefore is interfered vrith by the food. To deal 
with this difficulty. Nature has contrived the epi- 
glottis. Not all Vivipara ^ have this, but only those 
which have a lung, and a hairy skin, and are not 
covered Λvith horny scales or feathers. Those that 
are so covered have, to serve instead of the epiglottis, 
a larynx Λvhich closes and opens, just as the epiglottis 
does in the others ; it comes down and lifts up again : 
it Hfts up during the entrance and exit of the breath, 
and subsides while food is being taken, to prevent 

" See e.g. Plato, Timaeus 70 c 7, and Taylor ad loc. ^^ 
» Ogle changes the text here to read " blooded animals, 
which brings the statement nearer the truth. 



ιονσης €τηπτυσσομ€νος, tva μησβν τταραρρυ-η προς 

30 την άρτηρίαν. eav δε τι πλημμΐληθη παρά την 
τοιαντην κίνησιν καΐ προσφερόμενης της τροφής 
άναπνβύση τις, βήχας καΐ πνιγμούς ποίβΐ, καθάπ^ρ 
€ΐρηται. οντω δε καλώς μεμηχάνηταί καΐ ή ταύτης 
καΐ ή της γλώττης κίνησις, ωστ€ της τροφής ev μεν 
τω στόματι ΧβαινομΙνης, παρ' αυτήν δε huoυσης, 

35 την μζν ολιγάκις ύπο τους οδόντας πίπταν, ει? δε 
την άρτηρίαν σπάνιόν τι παραρρζΐν. 
665 a Ουκ βχα δε τα λεχθέντα ζώα την επιγλωττιΒα 
δια το ζηράς εΐναί τάς σάρκας αυτών καΐ το Βερμα 
σκληρόν, ώστ ουκ αν εύκίνητον ην το τοιούτον 
μόριον αύτοΐς εκ τοιαύτης σαρκός και εκ τοιούτου 
Βερματος συνεστηκός , αλλ' αυτής τής αρτηρίας 

5 των εσχάτων θάσσον εγίνετ άν ή συναγωγή τής εκ 
τής οικείας σαρκός επιγλωττίΒος, ην εχουσι τα 

Δι' ην μεν ουν αιτιαΐ' τα μεν έχει τών ζώων τά δ' 
ουκ έχει, ταϋτ ειρήσθω, και διότι τής αρτηρίας την 
φαυλότητα τής θέσεως Ιάτρευκεν η φύσις, μηχανη- 
σαμενη την καλουμενην επιγλωττίδα. κείται ο 

10 έμπροσθεν ή φάρυγζ του οισοφάγου εζ ανάγκης, η 
μεν γάρ κάρδια εν τοις έμπροσθεν και εν μέσω 
κείται, εν η την αρχήν φαμεν τής ζωής και πάσης 
κινήσεως τε και αίσθήσεως {επΙ το καλούμενον γαρ 
έμπροσθεν ή αΐσθησις και ή κίνησις• αύτώ γαρ τω 

15 λόγω τούτω διώρισται το έμπροσθεν και όπισθεν), 
6 δε πλεύμων κείται ου ή καρδία και περί ταυττ^ν, 
ή δ' αναπνοή δια τε τούτον^ και δια την αρχήν την 
εν τή κάρδια ενυπάρχουσαν . ή δ αναπνοή γίνεται 
τοις ζώοις δια τής αρτηρίας• ώστ* επει την καρΒιαν 

^ npos ΡΖ : παρά vulg. 



anything coming in by mistake into the windpipe. If 
there is any error in this movement, or if you breathe 
in while you are taking food, coughing and choking 
results, as I have said. But the movement of the 
epiglottis and of the tongue has been so neatly 
contrived that while the food is being masticated in 
the mouth and is passing over the epiglottis, the 
tongue seldom gets in the way of the teeth, and 
hardly ever does any food slip into the windpipe. 

I mentioned some animals that have no epiglottis. 
This is because their flesh is dry and their skin hard ; 
and thus if they had one, it would not move easily, 
because it would have to be made out of constituents 
of this sort. It is quicker to contract the edges of the 
windpipe itself than it would be to close an epiglottis, 
if, as in the hairy creatures, it were made out of the 
same sort of flesh as the rest of their bodies. 

This will suffice to show why some animals have an 
epiglottis and some not ; how Nature has contrived 
it so as 'to remedy the unsatisfactory position of 
the windpipe in front of the oesophagus. Still, the 
windpipe is bound by necessity to be in this position 
for the following reason. The heart is situated in the 
middle of the body and in the fore part of it ; and in 
the heart, we hold, is the principle of life and of all 
movement and sensation. Both of these activities 
take place in the direction we call forwards : that is 
the very principle which constitutes the distinction 
between before and behind. The lung is situated in 
the region of the heart, and surrounding it. Now 
breathing takes place for the sake of the lung and 
the principle which is situated in the heart : and the 
breath passes through the windpipe. So, since the 

* τοΰτον SUY : τοΰτο vulg. 



665 a ^ V ,5 ^ ^ a \ 

€v τοις €μπροσθ€ν πρώτην άναγκαΐον κ€Ϊσθαί, και 

20 τον φάρυγγα καΐ την άρτηρίαν προτ€ρον άναγκαΐον 
Κ€Ϊσθαι του οισοφάγου• τα μ€ν γαρ προς τον 
ττΧεύμονα retVet καΐ την καρΒίαν, ό ο ei? την 
κοιλίαν. όλως δ' ael το βάλτιον καΐ τιμιώτ^ρον, 
οπού μηΒςν μ^ΐζον €Τ€ρον €μποΒίζ€ΐ, του μ€ν 
άνω καΐ κάτω iv τοις μάλλον εστίν άνω, του ο 

25 'έμπροσθεν καΐ όπισθεν iv τοις έμπροσθεν, τοΰ 
Βεξιοΰ 8ε και αριστερού εν τοις Βεξιοΐς. 

Και περί μεν αύχενος τε και οΙσοφάγου και 
αρτηρίας εϊρηται, επόμενον δ' εστί περί σπλάγχνων 

IV. Ταύτα δ' εστίν ί,'δια των εναίμων, και τοις 

30 μεν άπανθ^ υπάρχει, τοις δ' ούχ υπάρχει, των δ' 
άναίμων ούΒεν έχει σπλάγχνον. Δημόκριτος δ' 
εοικεν ου καλώς 8ιαλαβεΙν περί αυτών, ε'ίπερ ωηθη 
δια μικρότητα τών άναίμων ζώων ά^ηλα etvat 
ταΰτα. συνιστάμενων γαρ ευθέως τών εναίμων και 
πάμπαν όντων μικρών ενΒηλα γίνεται καρ8ία τε και 

35 ήπαρ• φαίνεται γαρ εν μεν τοις ωοΐς ενίοτε τριταίοις 
665 b οΰσι στιγμής έχοντα μέγεθος, πάμμικρα Βε και εν 
τοις εκβολίμοις τών εμβρύων, ετι δ' ώσπερ τών έκ- 
τος μορίων ου πάσι τών αυτών χρησις, άλλ' εκά- 
στοις ιδι'α πεπόρισται προς τε τους βίους και τάς 

β κινήσεις, ούτω και τα εντός άλλα πεφυκεν άλλοις. 

Τα δε σπλάγχνα τών αιματικών εστίν ί,'δια, διό 

και συνεστηκεν αυτών εκαστον εζ αιματικής ύλης. 

Βηλον δ' εν τοΐς νεογνοΐς τούτων αΙματωΒεστερα 

γαρ και μέγιστα κατά λόγον δια το eit-ai το εΐ8ος 

" Limited by Aristotle to blood-like viscera only. 


heart must of necessity be situated in the front place 
of all, both the larynx and the Λvindpipe, which lead 
to the lung and the heart, must of necessity be 
situated in front of the oesophagus which leads merely 
to the stomach. Speaking generally, unless some 
greater object interferes, that which is better and 
more honourable tends to be above rather than below, 
in front rather than at the back, and on the right side 
rather than on the left. 

We have ηολν spoken of the neck, the oeso- 
phagus, and the winc^pipe, and our next topic is the 

IV. Only blooded atiimals have viscera. " Some, but internal 
not all, have a complete set of them. As no blood- blooded 
less animals have them, Democritus must have been animaia 
wrong in his ideas on this point, if he really supposed 
that the viscera in bloodless creatures are invisible 
owing to the smallness of the creatures themselves. 
Against this we can put the fact that the heart and 
the liver are visible in blooded animals as soon as they 
are formed at all, that is, when they are quite small : 
in eggs they are visible, just about the size of a point, 
sometimes as early as the third day, and very small 
ones are visible in aborted embryos. Further, just 
as each animal is equipped Λvith those external parts 
which are necessary to it for its manner of life and its 
motion, and no tΛvo animals require exactly the same 
ones, so it is with the internal parts : they vary in the 
various animals. 

Viscera, then, are peculiar to the blooded animals, Heart, 
and that is why each one of the viscera is formed of 
blood-like material. This is clearly to be seen in the 
new-born offspring of blooded animals ; in them the 
viscera are more blood-like, and at their largest in 




της ύλης και το πλήθος βμφανβστατον κατά την 

10 πρώτην σΰστασιν. κάρδια μ^ν ουν άττασιν υπάρχει 
τοις €ναίμοις• δι' ην δ' αΐτίαν, εϊρηταί και προτ€ρον. 
αίμα μεν γαρ εχειν τοις εναίμοις ^ηλον ώς avay- 
καΐον, ύγροΰ δ' οντος του αίματος αναγκαΐον αγ~ 
γ€Ϊον υπάρχειν, e0' ο Βη καΐ φαίνεται μεμηχανησθαι 
τάς φλέβας η φύσις• αρχήν δε τούτων αναγκαΐον 

15 eivai μίαν [οπού γαρ ενΒεχεται, μίαν βελτιον η 
πολλάς), Ύ] 8έ κάρδια των φλεβών αρχή- φαίνονται 
γαρ εκ ταύτης οΰσαι^ και ου δια ταύτης, και η 
φύσις αυτή? φλεβώΒης ώς ομογενούς οϋσης. έχει 
δε και η θεσις αύτης άρχικην χώραν περί μέσον 
γάρ, μάλλον δ' εν τω άνω η κάτω και έμπροσθεν η 

20 όπισθεν εν τοις γάρ τιμιωτεροις το τιμιώτερον 
καθίΒρνκεν η φύσις, ου μη τι κωλύει μείζον, εμ- 
φανεστατον δε το λεχθεν εστίν επι τών άνθρώ- 
ττων, βονλεται δε και εν τοις άλλοις όμολόγως εν 
μέσω κεΐσθαι τον αναγκαίου σώματος, τούτου δε 
πέρας fj τα περιττώματα αποκρίνεται• τα δε κώλα 

25 πεφυκεν άλλοι? άλλως•, και ουκ εστί τών προς 
το ζην αναγκαίων, διο και αφαιρουμένων ζώσιν 
hηλov δ' ώς ουδέ προστιθέμενα φθείρει. 

Ot δ εν τη κεφαλή λέγοντες την άρχην τών 
φλεβών ουκ ορθώς ύπελαβον. πρώτον μεν γάρ 
πολλάς αρχάς και Βιεσπασμενας^ ποιοϋσιν, είτ' εν 

^ ίονσαι Ζ. - Βκσπαρμίναζ ESUYZ. 

" The first observer after Aristotle to realize the disparitj' 
in the relative sizes of the parts with time was Leonardo da 
Vinci (a.d. 1452-1518). 


proportion <» : this is because the nature of the material 
and its bulk are especially obvious at the first stage 
of a creature's formation. The heart is present in 
all blooded animals, and the reason for this has been 
already stated ; It is obviously necessary for all 
blooded creatures to have blood, and as blood is a 
fluid, there must of necessity be a vessel to hold 
it, and it is evidently for this purpose that Nature 
has contrived the blood-vessels. And these blood- 
vessels must have a source — one source (one is 
always better than many where it is possible), and 
this source is the heart. This is certain, because the 
blood-vessels come out of the heart and do not pass 
through it ; and again, the heart is homogeneous and 
in character identical with the blood-vessels. Further- 
more, the place in which it is set is the place of 
primacy and governance. It is in a central position, 
and rather in the upper part of the body than the 
lower, and in front rather than at the back ; Nature 
always gives the more honourable place to the more 
honourable part, unless something more important 
prevents it. Wliat I have just said is seen most 
clearly in the case of man, yet in other animals the 
heart tends in a similar \vay to be in the centre of 
the " necessary body," i.e. the portion of it which 
is terminated by the vent \vhere the residues are 
discharged. The limbs vary in the various animals, 
and cannot be reckoned among the parts that are 
" necessary " for life, which is why animals can lose 
them and still remain alive ; and obviously they could 
have limbs added to them Avithout being killed. 

Those who suppose that the source of the blood- 
vessels is in the head are wrong, because : (1) this 
involves holding that there are many sources, 



665 b ^ 

30 τοττω φυχρω. δτ^λοΓ 8e Βνσρίγος ών, ο δβ πβρί την 

Kaphiav τουναντίον . ωσττζ,ρ V €λ4χθη, Slcl. μεν των 
άλλων σπλάγχνων Βΐ-εχουσι,ν at φλέβες, δια δε της 
καρδίας ου Βίατείνεί φλεφ• όθεν και hηλov οτι 
μόριον καΐ άρχη των φλεβών εστίν η καρΒία. καΐ 
τοΰτ' ευλόγως• μΙσον γαρ το της καρδίας εστί 
35 σώμα ττυκνον καΐ κοίλον ττεφυκός, ετι δε πλήρες 

666 a αίματος ως τών φλεβών εντεύθεν ήργμενων, κοίλον 

μεν προς την ύποΒοχήν του αίματος, πυκνον δε 
ττρος το φυλάσσειν τϊ]ν άρχην της θερμότητας, εν 
ταιίτΐ7 γαρ μόνη τών σπλάγχνων και του σώματος 

6 αί/χα άνευ φλεβο^ν εστί, τών δ' άλλων μορίων 
€καστον εν ταΐς φλεφίν έχει το αΓ/χα. καΐ τοΰτ ευ- 
λόγως• εκ της καρδίας γαρ εποχετεύεται [και]^ εΙς 
τας φλέβας, εις δε την καρΒίαν ουκ άλΧοθεν αϋτη 
γάρ εστίν άρχη καΐ ττηγη του αίματος η ύποΒοχτ] 
πρώτη. εκ τών ανατομών δε κατάδηλα μάλλον 

10 ταΰτα, καΐ εκ τών γενέσεων ευθέως γάρ εστίν 
εναιμος πρώτη γινομένη τών μορίων απάντων, ετι 
δ' at κίνησείς τών ηδέων καΐ τών λυπηρών καΐ 
δλως πάσης αίσθησεως εντεύθεν άρχόμεναι φαί- 
νονταί καί προς ταύτην περαίνουσαι. ούτω δ' έχει 
καΐ κατά τον λόγον, άρχΎ]ν γάρ είναι δει μίαν, οπού 

15 ενδέχεται' ευφυέστατος δε τών τόπων ο μέσος, εν 
γάρ το μέσον και έπι πάν έφικτόν ομοίως η παρα- 
ττλησίως. ετι δ' έπεί οϋτε τών άναίμων ούθεν 
^ και om. Ζ. 

" Or "traverse." The connotation of this term seems to vary. 


scattered about ; and (2) it involves placing them 
in a cold region (its intolerance of cold proves this). 
The region round the heart, on the other hand, is 
warm. And (3) as has been said already, the blood- 
vessels run all through" the other Λ -iscera, whereas 
none passes through the heart ; Avhich clearly shows 
that the heart forms part of the blood-vessels and 
is their source. ^Miich is reasonable enough : since 
the centre of the heart is a body of dense and hollow 
structure, and this is full of blood : it is holloAv to 
form a receptacle for the blood ; dense to guard the 
source of heat ; and the store of blood is obviously 
there because that is the starting-point of the blood- 
vessels. In none other of the \iscera and in no other 
part of the body is there blood and vet no blood- 
vessels ; in each of the other parts the blood is con- 
tained in blood-vessels. And this too is reasonable, 
as the blood is conveved and conducted away from 
the heart into the blood-vessels, whereas none is 
thus conveyed into the heart from elsewhere, for the 
heart is itself the source and spring of the blood, or 
the first receptacle of it. All this, however, is more 
clearly brought out in Dissections and Formative 
Processes, Λvhere it is shown that the heart is the 
first of all the parts to be formed and has blood in it 
straightΛvay. Further, all motions of sensation, in- 
cluding those produced by what is pleasant and pain- 
ful, undoubtedly begin in the heart and have their 
final ending there. This is in accord with reason ; 
since, Λvherever possible, there must be one source 
only ; and the best situation for that is the centre, 
because there is only one centre, and the centre is 
equally (or nearly equally) accessible from every 
direction. Again, as every bloodless part, and the 



666 a ^ , ., , r - , , -s V 

αίσθηηκον οντ€ το αίμα, δηλον ως το ττρωτον €χον 

ws iv άγγζίω δ' €χον άναγκαΐον etvat τημ αρχήν. 

Ου μόνον δέ κατά τον λόγον όντως €χ€ΐν φαίνβται, 

20 άλλα καΐ κατά. την αϊσθησίν. iv γαρ τοις βμβρυοις 
€νθ4ως ή κάρδια φαίνεται κινούμενη των μορίων 
καθάττ€ρ el ζωον, ώς άρχη της φύσεως τοις εναίμοις 
ούσα. μαρτνριον δε των €ΐρημΙνων και το ττασι 
τοις €ΐαίμοις ύπάρχαν αυττ^ν άναγκαΐον γαρ avTOis 
e^eiv την άρχην του αίματος. ύπάρχ€ΐ δε και το 

S5 ήπαρ ττασι τοις €ναΙμοις• άλλ' ούθζΐς αν ά^ιώσειεν 
αύτο άρχην είναι οΰτ€ του όλου σώματος ουτ€ του 
αίματος• κεΓται γαρ ουδαμώς προς άρχοβώη ^εσιν, 
€χ€ΐ δ' ωσπ€ρ άντίζνγον εν τοΓ? μάΧιστ άπηκρφω- 
μένοις τον σπλήνα. €TL δ' ύποΒοχην αίματος ουκ 

30 έχει εν εαυτω καθάπβρ η κάρδια, άλλ' ωσπβρ τα 
λοιπά iv φλφί. ετι δε τείνει δι* αυτοΟ φλέφ, δι'* 
€Κ€ίνης δ' οΰδερ,ια• ττασών yap των φλ€βών εκ τη? 
κάρδια? αί άρχαί. εττεΐ ουν ανάγκη /χέν θατ€ρον 
τούτων άρχην είναι, ρ,τ; εστί δε το ήπαρ, ανάγκη 
την καρδιαν είναι και του αίματος άρχην. το μεν 

85 yap ζωον αΙσθησ€ΐ ώρισται, αίσθητικον δε πρώτον 

το πρώτον εναι/ζον, τοιούτον δ' ι^ καρδία' και γαρ 

666 b αρ;^η του αίματος και έ'ναι/χον πρώτον. 

"Εστί δ' αΰτη? το άκρον όζύ και στερεώτερον, 
^ δι' Th. : e^ vulg. ; mox ίκ^ίνου EUYZ. 

" Cor prinmm vivens uUimum moriens : cf. De gen. an. 
741 b 15 if., and Ebstein & al., 3Iitt. z. Gesch. der Medizin u. 
Naturw., 1920, 19, 102, 219, 305. » See 655 b 29, n. 



blood itself as well, is without sensation, it is clear 
that the part where the blood is present first, and 
Avhich holds it as in a receptacle, must of necessity be 
the source. 

This reasoning is supported by the evidence of 
the senses. In embryos, as soon as they are formed, 
the heart can be seen moving before any of the 
other parts, just like a living creature " ; which 
shows that it is the source of their nature in all 
blooded animals. Another piece of evidence to 
support this is that all blooded creatures have a 
heart : why } because they are bound to have a 
source for their blood. All blooded creatures, it is 
true, have a liver too ; but no one would care to 
maintain that the liver is the source either of the 
blood or of the whole body, because it is nowhere near 
the place of primacy and governance, and, also, in 
the most highly finished * animals it has something 
to counterbalance it, as it Avere, viz. the spleen. 
Again, the liver has no receptacle for blood in itself 
as the heart has : like the rest of the viscera, it keeps 
its blood in a blood-vessel. Again, a blood-vessel 
runs all through it, Avhereas no blood-vessel runs 
through the heart : all blood-vessels have their source 
from the heart and begin there. Since, therefore, of 
necessity the source must be one of these two, the 
heart or the liver, and as it is not the liver, it must of 
necessity be the heart which is the source of the blood 
just as it is of the rest. An animal is defined by the 
fact that it possesses sensation : and the part of the 
body to have sensation first is the part that has blood 
in it first — in other words, the heart, which is the 
source of the blood and the first part to have it. 

The apex of the heart is sharp and more soUd than 



666 b 

Kelrai δε ττρος τω στήθβί καΐ δλως ev τοις ττρόσθ^ν 
του σώματος ττρος το μη καταφνχ€σθαί αυτό* ττασι 
5 γαρ άσαρκ6τ€ρον το στήθος, τα δε ττρανη σαρκω- 
SeoTepa, διο ττολλην €χ€ΐ σκ€πην το θ^ρμον κατά 
τον νώτον. έ'στι δ' ύ] Kaphia τοις μ€ν άλλοις ζώοις 
κατά. μέσον του στηθικοΰ τόττον, τοΐς δ' ανθρώττοις 
μικρόν et? τά ευώνυμα παρεκκλίνουσα ττρος το 
άνισοΰν την κατάφυξιν των αριστερών μάλιστα γαρ 

10 τών άλλων ζώων άνθρωπος έχει κατεφυγμενα τα 
αριστερά, οτι δε και εν τοΐς ίχθυσιν ομοίως η 
καρΒία κείται, ττρότερον εϊρηται, και διότι φαίνεται 
άνομοίως. έχει δε ττρος την κεφαλήν το όζύ• εστί 
δ' αΰτη το ττρόσθεν, εττι ταυτην γαρ η κινησις. 
"Έ,χει δε και νεύρων πλήθος η καρδία, και τοΰτ 

15 ευλόγως• άπο ταυττ]? γαρ αϊ κινήσεις, περαίνονται 
δε δια του ελκειν και άνιεναι* δει ουν τοιαύτη? 
υπηρεσίας και ισχύος. η δε καρδία, καθάπερ 
εΐπομεν και πρότερον, οΐον ζωόν τι πεφυκεν εν 
τοΐς εχουσιν. 

"Εστί δ' άνόστεος πάντων δσα και ημείς τεθεά- 
μεθα, πλην τών ΐππων και γένους τίνος βοών 

20 τούτοις δε δια το μέγεθος οΐον ερείσματος χάριν 
όστοΰν νπεστι, καθάπερ και τοΐς ολοις σώ^ιιασιν. 

Κοιλία? δ' εχουσιν αί μεν τών μεγάλων ζώων 
τρεις, αι δε τών ελασσόνων δύο, μίαν δε ττασαι* δι' 
ην δ' αΐτίαν, εϊρηται. δει γαρ είναι τόπον τινά της 

" At De respir. 478 b 3. And see the next note. 

^ Instead of towards the breast. The meaning of this 
passage is made clear by Hist. An. 507 a 2 flf. In all animals, 
says Aristotle, the " apex " of the heart points forwards, and 
in most animals " forwards " is towards the breast. Fishes 


the rest, and it lies towards the breast, and altogether 
in the fore part of the body so as to prevent it from 
getting cooled : for in all animals the breast has com- 
paratively little flesh on it, Avhile the back is well 
supplied and so gives the heat of the body ample 
protection on that side. In animals other than man 
the heart is in the centre of the region of the breast ; 
in man it inclines slightly to the left side so as to 
counteract the cooling there, for in man the left side 
is much colder than in other creatures. I have 
said already that the placing of the heart is the 
same in fishes as in other animals, though it appears 
to be different, together \Wth the reasons " for the 
apparent difference. In fishes its apex is turned to- 
wards the head * ; but in them the head is " forwards," 
because the head is in the line of direction in which 
they move. 

The heart has in it an abundance of sinews, Avhich 
is reasonable enough, as the motions of the body have 
their origin there ; and as these are performed by 
contraction and relaxation, the heart needs the sineΛvs 
to serve it and to give it strength. We have said 
already that the heart is like a living creature inside 
the body that contains it. 

In all cases that we have examined the heart is 
boneless, except in horses and a certain kind of ox. 
In these, oA\-ing to its great size, the heart has a bone 
for a support, just as the whole body is supported 
by bones. 

In the large animals, the heart has three cavities, in 
the smaller ones, two only ; and in no species has it less 
than one. The reason for this has been given : there 

appear to be an exception to this rule, but only because in 
them " forwards " is towards the head. 



666 b ^ ^ ^ , ^ , • 

καρδίας και ύποΒοχην τοΰ πρώτον αίματος, [ort 

25 δε πρώτον iv ttj κάρδια ytVerat το αίμα, πολλάκις 
είρήκαμζν.) δια δε^ το τα? αρχηγούς φλέβας δυο 
eti^at, την τ€ μεγάλην καλονμβνην και την άορτην, 
€κατ€ρας δ'^ οϋσης άρχης τών φλεβών, και δια- 
φοράς €χονσών, περί ών ύστερον ερονμεν, βελτιον 
καΐ τάς αρχάς αυτών κεχωρίσθ αΐ' τοΰτο δ' αν €ΐη 

30 Βιφνοΰς οντος τοΰ αίματος και κεχωρισμενον. 
8ιόπ€ρ iv οΐς ενΒεχεται, δυ' είσιν ύπο8οχαι, ev- 
Βεχεται δ' iv τοις μεγάλοις- τούτων γάρ εχουσι και 
at καρΒίαι μέγεθος, ετι δε βελτιον τρεις etvat τας 
κοιλίας, όπως ^ μία άρχη κοινή' το δε μέσον και 
περιττον αρχή' ώστε μεγέθους δει μείζονος αυταΓ? 

35 αεί, διοττερ at /^ε'γισται τρεις εχονσι μοναι. 

667 a Τούτων δε ττλειστον μεν ai/na και θερμοτατον 

εχουσιν at δε^ιαι (διό «rat τών μερών θερμότερα τα 
Βεζιά), ελάχιστον δε και φυχροτερον at αριστεραι, 
μέσον δ' at /χε'σαι τω πλήθει και θερμοτητι, καθα' 
ρώτατον δε'• δει γάρ την αρχήν οτι /ιιάλιστ' ήρεμεΐν, 
5 τοιαύτη δ' αν εί,'τ^ καθαρού τοΰ αίματος οντος, τώ 
πλήθει δε και θερμοτητι μέσου. 

"Έιχονσι δε και 8ιάρθρωσίν τίνα at καρΒίαι παρα- 

πλησίαν ταΓ? ραφαΐς. ουκ είσι δε συναφείς ως 

τίνος εκ πλειόνων συνθέτου, αλλά καθάπερ εΐπομεν, 

διαρθρώσει μάλλον, εισι δε τών μεν αισθητικών 

10 άρθρωΒεστεραι, τών δε νωθρότερων άναρθρότεραι, 

1 δια δέ ESUYZ : δια vulg. 
' δ' Peck : γάρ vulg., om. Ogle. 


must be some place in the heart Avhich will be a 
receptacle for the blood when first formed. (As we 
have stated several times, blood is first formed in 
the heart.) Now there are tΛvo chief blood-vessels, 
the so-called Great Blood-vessel, and the Aorta ; each 
of these is the source of other blood-vessels ; and 
the two diifer from each other (this Avill be discussed 
later) ; hence it is better for them to have separate 
sources. This result can be obtained by ha\^ng two 
separate supplies of blood, and thus we find two 
receptacles wherever this is possible, as in the larger 
animals which of course have large hearts. But it is 
better still to have three cavities, and then there is 
an odd one in the middle which can be a common 
source for the other two ; since, hoAvever, this requires 
the heart to be particularly large, only the very 
largest hearts have three cavities. 

Of these cavities it is the right-hand one which 
contains the most blood and the hottest (that is why 
the right side of the body is hotter than the left) ; 
the left-hand cavity contains least blood, and it is 
colder. The blood in the middle cavity is inter- 
mediate both in amount and heat, although it is the 
purest of them all ; this is because the source must 
remain as calm as possible, and this is secured Λvhen 
the blood is pure, and intermediate in its amount and 

The heart has also a sort of articulation, which 
resembles the sutures of the skull. By this I do not 
mean to say that the heart is a composite thing, 
consisting of several parts joined together, but an 
articulated Avhole, as I said. This articulation is more 
distinct in animals whose sensation is keen, and less 
distinct in the duller ones, such as swine. There are 



καθάττ€ρ al των νών. αϊ Be ΒιαφοραΙ της κάρδια? 
κατά μ^γ^θός re και μικρότητα και σκληρότητα τ€ 
και μαλακότητα τβίνονσί πη καΐ προς τα ηθη' τα 
μεν γαρ αναίσθητα σκληράν €χ€ί την καρδιαν καυ 

15 ττνκνην, τα δ' αΙσθητικα μαΧακωτΙραν , και τα μεν 
μεγάλας έχοντα τάς κάρδια? δειλά, τα δ' βλασσους 
και μεσας θαρραλεώτερα (το yap συμβαίνον πάθος 
νπο του φοβεΐσθαί προϋπάρχει τούτοις δια το μη 
άνάλογον εχειν το θερμον τη καρδία, μικρόν δ όν 
εν μεγάλοις άμαυροΰσθαι, και το αί/.ια φυχροτερον 

20 eii^ai) . μεγάλας 8έ τάς καρδία? εχονσι λαγώς, 
ελαφος, μυς, ναινα, όνος, πάρΒαλις,^ γαλή, και 
ταλλα σχεΒον πάνθ^ δσα φανερώς δειλά η διά 
φόβον κακοΰργα. 

ΐίαραπλησίως δε και επΙ των φλεβών και επι 
των κοιλιών έχει• φυχραΐ γαρ αί ρ,β'/άλαι φλέβες 

25 και κοιλίαι. ώσπερ γαρ εν μικρώ και εν μεγάλ(ρ 
οίκηματι το 'ίσον πυρ ήσσον εν τοις μείζοσι θερ- 
μαίνει, οϋτω καν τούτοις το θερμον αγγεία γαρ 
και η φλεφ και η κοιλία, ετι δ' αί άλλότριαι κινή- 
σεις εκαστον τών θερμών καταφυχουσιν, εν δε ταΓ? 
εύρυχωρεστεραις το πνεύμα πλεΐον και ενισχύει 

30 μάΧλον διο τών μεγαλοκοιλίων ούΒεν ουδέ τών 
μεγαλοφλεβων πΐόν εστί κατά σάρκα, αλλά πάντα 
η τά πλείστα τών τοιούτων άΒηλόφλεβα και μικρο- 
κο ίλια φαίνεται. 

Μόνον δε τών σπλάγχνων και δλως τών εν τω 

' ττάρδαλι?] δορΛταλι? Piatt. 


other differences in the heart ; some hearts are large, 
some small, some are hard, some soft ; and these 
tend by some means to influence the creature's 
temperament. Illustrations of this are : animals 
whose powers of sensation are small have hearts that 
are hard and dense, those Avhose sensation is keen 
have softer ones ; and those with large hearts are 
cowardly, those with small or moderate-sized ones, 
courageous (this is because in the former class the 
affection which is normally produced by fear is 
present to begin with," as their heat is not proportion- 
ate to the size of their heart, but is small and there- 
fore hardly noticeable in the enormous space that it 
occupies ; so that their blood is comparatively cold). 
The following creatures have large hearts : the hare, 
the deer, the mouse, the hyena, the ass, the leopard, 
the marten, and practically all other animals whose 
cowardice is either outright or else betrayed by their 
mischievous behaviour. 

Similar conditions obtain in the blood-vessels and 
the cavities of the heart : if they are large, they are 
cold. The effect of the same-sized fire is less in a 
large room than in a small one ; and the same applies 
to the heat in these receptacles, the blood-vessels and 
the cavities. Further, extraneous motions have a 
cooling effect upon hot things ; and the more roomy 
a receptacle is, the greater the amount of air (or 
pneinna) in it and the stronger its effect. Thus we 
find that no animal which has large cavities or large 
blood-vessels has fat flesh, and conversely, that all (or 
most) fat animals have indistinguishable blood-vessels 
and small cavities. 

The heart is the only one of the viscera — indeed 

» Cf. 650 b 27. See also 692 a 20. 



667 8 

σώματι μορίων η καρΒία χαλίπον νάθος ovSev 

υττοφέρζί, και tout' ζύΧόγως• φθ€ίρομ€νης γαρ της 

35 αρχής ουκ εστίν e^• ου γίνοιτ αν βοηθβια τοΙς 
667 b άλλοι? €Κ ταύτης ηρτημενοις. σημ€Ϊον δε του 
μηθεν €πώ€χ€σθαι ττάθος την καρΒίαν το iv μη^ξνΐ 
των θυομίνων ιερειών ωφθαι τοιούτον ττάθος π€ρΙ 
αύτην ωσττ€ρ εττι των άλλων σπλάγχνων, οι τε 
γαρ νζφροί ττολλάκις φαίνονται λίθων μαστοί και 

5 φυμάτων και Βοθιηνων και το ήπαρ, ωσαύτως δε 
#cat ό ττλ^ύμων, μάλιστα δ' ο σπλην. πολλά δε και 
έτερα παθήματα συμβαίνοντα ττερι αυτά φαίνεται, 
ηκιστα δε του μβν πλζύμονος ττερι την άρτηρίαν, 
του δ' ήπατος περί την συναφιν τη μεγάλη φλφί, 

10 καΐ τοΰτ €ύλ6γως• ταύτη γάρ μάλιστα κοινωνοΰσι 
τη καρδία, οσα δε δια νόσον και τοιαύτα πάθη 
φαίνεται τελευτώντα των ζώων, τούτοις άνατβμνο- 
μένοις φαίνεται ττερι την καρΒίαν νοσώ^η πάθη. 

Και ττερι μεν της καρδίας, ποία τις, και τίνος 
ev€K€v και δια tiV αΐτίαν υπάρχει τοις εχουσιν, 
τοσαϋτ ειρήσθω. 

^5 V. 'Έ^πόμενον δ' αν εΐη περί των φλεβών ειπείν, 
της τε μεγάλης και της αορτής• αύται γάρ εκ τής 
καρδίας πρώται Βεχονται το αίμα, αϊ δε λοιπαι 
τούτων αποφυαΒες είσίν. δτι μεν ουν του αίματος 
χάριν εισι, πρότερον εΐρηται- τό τε γάρ ύγρον άπαν 

20 αγγείου δειται, και το φλεβών γένος άγγεΐον, το δ' 


the only part in the whole body — which cannot 
withstand any serious affection. This is readily 
understood : the other parts depend upon the heart, 
and when this source itself is ailing, there is no place 
Λvhence they can obtain succour. A proof that the 
heart cannot put up with any affection is this : Never 
has the heart in a sacrificial victim been observed 
to be affected in the way that the other viscera 
sometimes are. Very often the kidneys are found 
to be full of stones, growths, and small abscesses ; 
so is the liver, and the lung, and especially the 
spleen. Many other affections are observed in 
these organs ; but in the lung they occur least 
often in that portion which is nearest the windpipe, 
and in the liver in that portion Λvhich is nearest its 
junction Avith the Great Blood-vessel. This is readily 
understood : those are the places Avhere they are 
most closely in communication with the heart. 
Those animals, however, which die as the result 
of disease, and affections such as I have mentioned, 
when cut open are seen to have diseased affections 
of the heart. 

We have now spoken of the heart : we have said 
Avhat its nature is, what purpose it serves, and why it 
is present ; and that will suffice. 

V. I suppose that the next subject for us to discuss Blood- 
is the Blood-vessels, that is, the Great Blood-vessel ^^^^^ ^' 
and the Aorta. It is these into which the blood 
goes first after it leaves the heart, and the other 
blood-vessels are merely branches from these. We 
have already said that these blood-vessels are present 
for the sake of the blood : fluid substances always 
need a receptacle, and the blood-vessels generally 
are the receptacles which hold the blood. We may 




αίμα €V τανταις' Stort 8e δυο καΐ άττό μιας αρχής 
καθ^ άπαν το σώμα Βιατζίνονσι, Aeyot/xev. 

Του /X€V ονν et's• μίαν άρχην avvreXeiv καΐ από 
μιας αϊηον το μίαν €χ€ίν πάντα την αισθητικην 
φυγτιν ivepyeia, ώστ€ καΐ το μόριον ev το ταντην 
€χον πρώτως (eV μβν τοις βναίμοις κατά Βνναμιν 

25 καΐ κατ' €ν€ργ€ίαν, των δ' άναίμων €νιοις κατ 
ivepyeLav μόνον), διό καΐ την τον θβρμοϋ άρχιην 
άναγκαΐον iv τω αυτω τόπω elvai• αΰτη δ βστίν 
αίτια και τω αίματί της ύγρότητος καΐ της θζρ- 
μότητος. δια μ^ν ουν το iv ivi eivai μοριω την 
αίσθητίκην άρχην καΐ την της θ€ρμότητος καΐ η 

30 του αίματος άττό μιας εστίν άρχης, δια he. την τον 
αίματος ίνότητα καΐ η των φΧΐβών άπο μίας. 

Δυο δ' €ΐσι δια το τα σώματα eivai 8ίμ€ρη τών 
βναιμων και πορ€υτικών ev ττασι γαρ τούτοις 
διώρισται το ίμπροσθβν καΐ το όπισθεν και το 
he^Lov καΐ το άριστζρον καΐ το άνω καΐ το κάτω, 

35 οσω δε τιμιώτ€ρον καΐ ηγ€μονικώτ€ρον το βμ- 
ββ8 a προσθ€ν του οπισθβν, τοσούτω καΐ η μ^γάΧη φλβφ 
της αορτής• η μβν γαρ ev τοις €μπροσθ€ν, η δ' ev 
τοις 6πι,σθev κείται, και την μ€.ν ατταντ' eχeL• τα. 
evaijMa φανερώς, την δ' eVia μέν άμνΒρώς evia δ' 
άφανώς . 

Του δ ei? το πάν διαδεδοσ^αι το σώμα τάς 

6 φλέβας αίτιον το παντός είναι του σώματος ϋλην 

το αίμα, τοις δ άναίμοις το άνάλογον, ταΰτα δ' εν 

" And potentially many ; cf. 682 a 4 ff. 


now go on to explain why there are two of these blood- 
vessels, why they begin from a single source, and why 
they extend all over the body. 

The reason \vhy finally they both coincide in one 
source and also begin from one source is this. The 
sensory Soul is, in all animals, one actually ; there- 
fore the part which primarily contains this Soul is 
also one (one potentially as well as actually in the 
blooded animals, but in some of the bloodless animals 
it is only actually one "), and for this reason the source 
of heat also must of necessity be in the selfsame 
place. But this concerns the blood, for this source 
is the cause of the blood's heat and fluidity. Thus 
we see that because the source of sensation and the 
source of heat are in one and the same part, the blood 
must originate from one source too ; and because 
there is this one origin of the blood, the blood-vessels 
also must originate from one source. 

The blood-vessels are, however, two in number, be- 
cause the bodies of the blooded creatures that move 
about are bilateral : we can distinguish in all of 
them front and back, right and left, upper and lower. 
And just as the fore part is more honourable and 
more suited to rule than the back part, so is the Great 
Blood-vessel pre-eminent over the Aorta. The Great 
Blood-vessel lies in front, Avhile the Aorta is at the 
back. All blooded creatures have a Great Blood- 
vessel, plainly visible ; but in some of them the Aorta 
is indistinct and in others it cannot be detected. 

The reason Avhy the blood-vessels are distributed 
all over the body is that blood (and in bloodless 
creatures, its counterpart) is the material out of 
Avhich the whole body is constructed, and blood- 
vessels (and their counterparts) are the channels in 



668 a 

φ\φΙ καΐ τω άνάλογον κΐΐσθαι. πώς μεν οΰν 

τρέφζταί τά ζώα καΐ βκ τίνος και ηνα τρόπον 

άναλαμβάνουσιν εκ της κοιλίας ev τοΐς ττβρι yeve- 

σ€ως λόγοις μάλλον αρμόζει, σκοπβΐν καΐ λέγειν. 

10 [Σιννισταμενων δέ τών μορίων εκ του αίματος, 
καθάπερ ε'ίπομεν, ευλόγως •η τών φλεβών ρυσις 
δια παντός του σώματος πεφυκεν 8εΐ γαρ και το 
αψ,α δια παντός και πάρα πάν είναι, εϊπερ τών μο- 
ρίων εκαστον εκ τούτου σννεστηκεν.]^ 

"Έιοικε δ' ώσπερ εν τε τοΐς κηποις αϊ ύ^ραγωγιαι 

15 κατασκευάζονται από μιας άρχης και πηγής εις 
πολλούς οχετούς και άλλους άει προς το πάνττ) 
μεταΒιΒόναι, και εν ταΐς οικο8ομίαις παρά πάσαν 
την τών θεμελίων ύπογραφην λίθοι παραβεβληνται, 
δια τό τά μεν κηπευόμενα φύεσθαι εκ του ύδατος, 
τους δε θεμέλιους εκ τών λίθων οίκοΒομεΐσθαι, τόν 

20 αυτόν τρόπον και η φύσις τό αι/^,α δια παντός 
ώχετευκε τοΰ σώματος, επειδή παντός ύλη πεφυκε 
τοΰτο. γίνεται 8ε κατάόηλον εν τοΐς /^.άλιστα κατα- 
λελεπτυσμενοις• ούθεν γάρ άλλο φαίνεται παρά τάς 
φλέβας, καθάπερ επι τών άμπελίνων τε και σύκινων 

26 φύλλων και οσ' άλλα τοιαύτα• και γάρ τούτων 
αύαινομενων^ φλέβες λείπονται μόνον. τούτων δ' 
αίτιον ότι τό αίμα και τό άνάλογον τούτω δυνάμει 
σώμα και σαρξ η τό άνάλογον εστίν καθάπερ ουν 

* 11. 10-13, quae praecedentia 11. 4-7 repetunt, secludenda. 
^ αυαινομίνων attice Bekker. 

" This seems to be an unnecessary repetition of the last 
sentence but one. 



which this material is carried. As regards the 
manner in which animals are nourished, the source 
of the nourishment, and the processes by which 
they take it up from the stomach, it is more appro- 
priate to consider these subjects and to discuss them 
in the treatise on Generation. 

[But since the parts of the body are composed 
out of blood, as has been said, it is easy to see why 
the course of the blood-vessels passes throughout 
the whole body. The blood must be everywhere 
in the body and everywhere at hand if every one of 
the parts is constructed out of it.] <» 

The system of blood-vessels in the body may be 
compared to those Avater-courses which are con- 
structed in gardens : they start from one source, 
or spring, and branch off into numerous channels, 
and then into still more, and so on progressively, so 
as to carry a supply to every part of the garden. 
And again, when a house is being built, supplies of 
stones are placed all alongside the lines of the 
foundations. These things are done because (a) 
water is the material out of which the plants in the 
garden groΛv, and (6) stones are the material out of 
which the foundations are built. In the same way, 
Nature has provided for the irrigation of the whole 
body with blood, because blood is the material out 
of which it is all made. This becomes evident in 
cases of severe emaciation, when nothing is to be 
seen but the blood-vessels : just as the leaves of vines 
and fig-trees and similar plants, when they Λvither, 
leave behind nothing but the veins. The explana- 
tion of this is that the blood (or its counterpart) is, 
potentially, the body (that is, flesh — or its counter- 
part). Thus, just as in the irrigation system the 

I 251 


668a ^ ^ ^ ^ 

€V ταΐς οχΐτζίαίς αϊ μ€γίσται των τάφρων δια- 

μ^νουσιν, αι δ' βλάχισταί ττρώταί και ταχέως νττο 

της Ιλύος αφανίζονται, πάλιν δ' 4κλ€ητονσης 

30 φαν€ραι γίνονται, τον αύτον τρόπον και των φλ€βών 
at μζν μίγισται 8ιαμ€νουσιν, αί δ' Ιλάγ^ισται γί- 
νονται σάρκ€ς βνεργζία, 8υνάμ€ΐ δ' etatv ovSev 
ησσον φλ4ββς. διό και σωζομίνων των σαρκών 
καθ^ ότιοΰν αΓ|ίΐα pei Βιαιρουμ4νων• καίτοι avev jtxev 
φλζβος ουκ ξ,στιν αίμα, φλέβιον^ δ' ovhkv δηλον, 

35 ωσπ€ρ ουδ ev τοις όχετοΐς at τάφροι πριν η την 
668 b ίλύν βξαιρζθήναι. 

ΈιΚ μειζόνων δ' εις 4λάσσους αι φλεβζς aet 
προέρχονται έ'ω? του yevea^at τους πόρους ελάσ- 
σους της του αίματος παχύτητος' δι ών τω μεν 
αΐματι δίοδο? ουκ εστί, τω Βε περιττώματι της 
νγράς ικμάΒος, ον καλοΰμεν ιδρώτα, και τοΰτο 
5 Βιαθερμανθεντος του σώματος καΐ των φλεβίων 
άναστομωθεντων. ηΒη δε τισιν ιδρώσαι συνέβη 
αιματώΒει περιττώματι δια καχεζίαν, του μεν 
σώματος ρυά8ος και μανοΰ γενομένου, του δ αί- 
ματος εζυγρανθεντος δι' άπεφίαν, αδυνατούσης της 
ev τοις φλεβίοις θερμότητος πεσσειν δι' dAtyoTi^ra. 

10 {εϊρηται γαρ δτι πάν το κοινόν γης και υδατο? 
παχυνεται πεσσόμενον, η δε τροφή και το αίμα 
μικτόν εζ άμφοΐν.) αδυνατεί δε πεσσειν η θερμότης 
ου μόνον δια την αύτης ολιγότητα αλλά καΧ δια 
πλήθος και ύπερβολην της εισφερομένης τροφής' 
^ φλΐβίον Bekker. 

" Could Aristotle have seen a case of haematoporphyria ? 


biggest channels persist whereas the smallest ones 
quickly get obliterated by the mud, though when 
the mud abates they reappear ; so in the body the 
largest blood-vessels persist, while the smallest ones 
become flesh in actuality, though potentially they 
are blood-vessels as much as ever before. Accordingly 
we find that, as long as the flesh is in a sound con- 
dition, wherever it is cut, blood λυΊΙΙ floAv ; and 
although no blood-vessels are visible, they must be 
there (because we cannot have blood without blood- 
vessels) — just as the irrigating channels are there 
right enough, but are not visible until they are 
cleared of mud. 

The blood-vessels get progressively smaller as they 
go on until their channel is too small for the blood 
to pass through. But, although the blood cannot 
get through them, the residue of the fluid moisture, 
which Ave call sweat, can do so, and this happens when 
the body is thoroughly heated and the blood-vessels 
open wider at their mouths. In some cases, the sweat 
consists of a blood-hke residue ** : this is due to a bad 
general condition, in which the body has become loose 
and flabby, and the blood watery owing to insufficient 
concoction, which in its turn is due to the weakness 
and scantiness of the heat in the small blood-vessels. 
(We have already said that all compounds of earth 
and water are thickened by concoction, and this cate- 
gory includes food and blood.) The heat may, as 
I say, be in itself too scanty to be able to cause 
concoction, or it may be that it is scanty in comparison 
with the amount of food that enters the body, if 

See A. E. Garrod, Inborn Errors of Metabolism, Oxford, 1923, 
pp. 136 ff. Also H. Giinther, Deutsches Archiv f. klin. 
Medizin, 1920, 1S4, pp. 257 S. 



668 b 

yiverat Se προς ταντην όλίγη. η δ ύπβρβολη 

15 δισστ^' και γαρ τω ποσω και τω ποιώ• ον γαρ παν 
ομοίως ^νπ^πτον. [pel 8e /χάλιστα το αί/χα κατά 
τους ζύρυχωρβστάτονς των πόρων διόττερ e/c των 
μνκτήρων και των οϋλων και της έ'δρα?, ivioTe δε 
και €κ του στόματος αιμορροΐδες άπονοι γίνονται, 
και ούχ ωσπ€ρ €Κ της αρτηρίας μετά βίας.) 

20 Αιεστώσαι δ' άνωθεν η re μεγάλη φλεφ και η 
άορτη, κάτω δ' εναΧλάσσουσαι συνεχουσι το σώμα. 
προϊοΰσαι γάρ σχίζονται κατά την Βιφυιαν των 
κώλων, και η μεν εκ τοΰ έμπροσθεν εις τοΰπισθεν 
προέρχεται, η δ' εκ του όπισθεν εις τοϋμπροσθεν, 

25 και συμβάλλουσιν εις εν ώσπερ γάρ εν τοις πλεκο- 
μενοις εγγίνεται το συνεχές μΛλλον, οϋτω και δια 
της των φλεβών εναλλάζεως συνδεΐται τών σωμά- 
των τά πρόσθια τοις όπισθεν, ομοίως δε και άπο 
της καρδίας εν τοις άνω τόποις συμβαίνει, το δε 
μετ ακριβείας ώς εχουσιν αϊ φλέβες προς άλλήλας, 

30 εκ τε τών ανατομών δει θεωρεΐν και εκ της ζωικής 

Και περί μεν φλεβών και καρδίας ειρήσθω, 
περί δε τών άλλων σπλάγχνων σκεπτεον κατά την 
αυτήν μεθοδον. 

VI. ΐΐλευμονα μεν ουν έχει δια το πεζόν εΐναί τι 
γένος τών ζωών. άναγκαΐον μεν γάρ •)/ινεσ0αι τω 

85 θερμώ κατάφυζιν, ταύτης δε δεΐται θύραθεν τά 

669 a εναιμα τών ζώων θερμότερα γάρ. τά δε μή eVat/xa 

" The posterior vena cava. 
* Hist. An., especially 511 b 11 — 515 a 26, 


this is excessive ; and this excess may be due either 
to the quantity of it or (since some substances are 
less patient of concoction than others) to its quahty. 
(Haemorrhage occurs most Λvhere the passages are 
widest, as from the nostrils, the gums and the 
fundament, and occasionally from the mouth. At 
these places it is not painful ; when, however, it 
occurs from the windpipe, it is violent.) 

The Great Blood-vessel " and the Aorta, which in 
the upper part are some distance from each other, 
lower doAvn change sides, and thus hold the body 
compact. That is to say, Avhen they reach the place 
where the legs diverge, they divide into tΛvo, and 
the Great Blood-vessel goes over to the back from 
the front, and the Aorta to the front from the back ; 
and thus they unite the body together, for this 
changing over of the blood-vessels binds together 
the front and the back of the body just as the cross- 
ing of the strands in plaiting or twining makes the 
material hold together more stoutly. A similar 
thing occurs in the upper part of the body, where 
the blood-vessels that lead from the heart are inter- 
changed. For an exact description of the relative 
disposition of the blood-vessels, the treatises on 
Anatomy and the Researches upon Animals ^ should be 

We have now finished our discussion of the heart 
and the blood-vessels, and we must go on to consider 
the remaining viscera on the same hnes. 

VI. First the Lung. The reason why any group of Lung, 
animals possesses a lung is because they are land- 
creatures. It is necessary to have some means for 
cooling the heat of the body ; and blooded animals 
are so hot that this cooling must come from outside 



669 a , ^ / / c. / , / 

καΐ τω συμφντω Ίτν^υματι δύναται καταψυχειν. 

ανάγκη δε καταφυχ€ΐν βζωθβν η ύ'δατι η aipi. 

hiOTTep των μίν Ιχθύων ovhelg €χ€ί ττλ^ύμονα, αλλ* 

άντΙ τούτον βράγχια, καθάπ€ρ etpTjrat iv τοΐς Trepl 

5 αναπνοής• ύ'δατι γαρ ττοιεΓται την κατάφυζιν τά 

δ' άναττνίοντα τω aipi, διοττερ πάντα τά ανα- 

πνίοντα e^ei πΧ^ύμονα. άναπνζΖ δε τά jixev ττεζά 

πάντα, eVia δε και των ένυδρων, οίον φάλαινα και 

δελ^ι? και τά άναφνσώντα κήτη πάντα- πολλά γάρ 

10 των ζώων €παμφοτ€ρίζ€ΐ την φύσιν, και των τε 
πεζών και τον άε'ρα δεχο/χε'νων διά τήν του σώματος 
κράσιν εν ύγρω διατελεί τον ττλεΓστον χρόνον, και 
των εν τω ύγρω /χετε'χει τοσούτον ενια ttj? ττεζη? 
φύσεως ώστ εν τω ττνευ/ζατι αυτών είναι το τβλος 
του ζην. 

Ύοΰ δ' άναττνεΓν ο πλ^ύμων όργανον εστί, την μεν 

15 άρχην της κινήσεως €χων άπο της κάργιας, ποιών 
δ' ΐύρνχωρίαν τη εισοδω του πνΐύματος διά την 
αύτου σομφότητα και το μέγεθος- αίρομένου μεν 
yap €ΐσρ€Ϊ το πνβνμα, συνιόντος δ' ^ζέρχεται πάλιν. 
το δε 77ρό? την άλσιν είναι τον πλβύμονα της καρ- 
δίας ούκ ειρηται καλώ?" εν άνθρώπω τε yap συμ- 

80 βαίνει μόνον ως ειπείν το τη? πηδησεω? διά το 
μόνον εν ελπι'δι yιvεσ0αι και προσδοκία του μέλ- 
λοντος, άπ€χ€ΐ τ' εν τοΓ? πλείστοι? πολύν τόπον και 
Κ€Ϊται την θέσιν ανωτέρω του πλεύμονος, ώστε 
/χηδέν συμβάλλεσθαι τον πλεύμονα προς την άλσιν 
της καρδίας. 

Αιαφερει δ' ο πλεύμων πολύ τοΐς ζώοις. τά μεν 

• See above, on 659 b 17. " 476 a 6. 

" See above, on 650 b 19 ff. 

^ This view is expressed by Timaeus in Plato's Timaeus, 70 c. 



them, though the bloodless ones can do their own 
cooling by means of the connate pneuma."• Now 
external cooling must be effected either by water or 
by air. This explains why none of the fishes has 
a lung. They are water-cooled, and instead of a 
lung they have gills (see the treatise on Respiration).^ 
Animals that breathe, on the other hand, are air- 
cooled, and so they all have a lung. All land-animals 
breathe ; so do some of the Avater-animals (e.g. the 
whale, the dolphin, and all the spouting cetacea). 
This is not surprising, for many animals are inter- 
mediate between the two : some that are land- 
animals and breathe spend most of their time in the 
water owing to the blend " in their bodies ; and 
some of the water-animals partake of the nature of 
land-animals to such an extent that the hmiting 
condition of life for them Ues in their breath. 

Now the organ of breathing is the lung. It has 
its source of motion in the heart, and it affords a 
wide space for the breath to come into because it is 
large and spongy : >vhen the lung rises up, the 
breath rushes in, and when it contracts the breath 
goes out again. The theory '^ that the lung is pro- 
vided as a cushion for the throbbings of the heart is 
not correct. This leaping of the heart is practically 
not found except in man, and that is because man is 
the only animal that has hope and expectation of 
the future. Besides, in most animals the heart is 
a long way off from the lung and lies well above 
it, and so the lung cannot be of any assistance in 
absorbing the throbbings of the heart. ^ 

There are many differences in the lung. Some 

' In quadrupeds the lung is above the heart, but not in 
man, owing to the difference of posture. 



669 a 

25 γαρ €ναιμον e^et καΐ μέγαν, τα δ' ελάττω και 

σομφόν, τά /xev ζωοτόκα δια την θβρμοτητα της 
φύσεως μβίζω καΐ ττοΧύαιμον , τα δ' ωοτόκα ζηρον 
καΐ μικρόν, 8υνάμ€νον δε μεγάλα Βιίστασθαί ev τω 
εμφνσάσθαί, ώσπερ τά τετράποΒα μεν ωοτόκα δε 

30 των πεζών, οίον οι τε σαΰροι καΐ at χελώναι και 
πάν το τοιούτον γένος, ετι δε προς τούτοις η των 
πτηνών φύσις και καλουμένων ορνίθων, πάντων 
γάρ τούτων σομφός ο πλευμων και όμοιος άφρώ' 
και γάρ ο αφρός εκ πολλού μικρός γίνεται συγχεο- 
μενος, και ό τούτων πλευμων μικρός και ύμενώ^ης. 

35 διο και άΒιφα και όλιγόποτα ταΰτα πάντα, και 
δύναται πολύν εν τω ύγρω άνεχεσθαι χρόνον άτ€ 
γάρ ολίγον έχοντα θερμόν ικανώς επΙ πολύν χρόνον 
669 b καταφύχεται υπ* αύτης της του πλεύμονος κινή- 
σεως, οντος άερά)8ονς και κενοΰ} 

{Σιυμβεβηκε δε και τά μεγέθη τούτων ελάττω των 
ζωών ως επίπαν ειπείν το γάρ θερμόν αύξητικόν, 
η δε πολυαιμία θερμότητος σημεΐον. ετι δ' ορθοί 
δ τα σώματα μάλλον, 8ιόπερ άνθρωπος μεν των 
άλλων όρθότατον, τά δε ζωοτόκα των άλλων τετρα- 
ποοων ούοεν γάρ ομοίως τρωγλοΒυτεΐ τών ζωο- 
τόκων, ούτ άπουν ούτε πεζεύον.) 

Ολως μεν οΰν ο πλευμων εστίν αναπνοής χάριν, 
αναιμος δε καΐ τοιούτος γένους τινό? ένεκεν ζώων 

10 αλλ άνώνυμον τό κοινόν εττ' αυτών, καΐ ούχ ώσπερ 

^ ovros . . . κ€νοΰ Thurot : ούσης • • . Κζνήζ vulg, 

" C/. 653 a 30 ff. 


animals have a large lung, which contains blood ; 
others a small one and spongy. In the Vivipara it is 
large and has much blood in it because these creatures 
have a hot nature : in the Ovipara it is dry and small, 
but it can expand to a great size when inflated : 
examples of these are : among land -animals, the 
oviparous quadrupeds like the lizards, tortoises, and 
all such creatures, and in addition to these the 
tribe of winged things, the birds. All these have a 
spongy lung, which, like froth, runs together and 
contracts from a large volume into a small one. So 
it counts as small ; and also it is membranous. As a 
result, all these creatures are not much subject to 
thirst, and di'ink but little ; and also they can bear to 
remain a long time under the water : this is because 
their heat is scanty and can therefore be sufficiently 
cooled over a long period by the mere motion of the 
lung, which is void and air-like. 

(Consequently, one may add, in general these 
creatures are smaller in size than the majority of 
animals, as gro\\i:h is promoted by heat, and a plenti- 
ful supply of blood is a sign that heat is present. 
Furthermore, heat tends to make the body upright," 
which explains Λvhy man is the most upright among 
the animals and the Vivipara the most upright among 
the quadrupeds. And there are no viviparous 
creatures, either with or without feet, so fond of 
creeping into holes as the 0\'ipara are.) 

The lung, then, is present for the sake of the 
breathing : this is its function ahvays. Sometimes, 
to serve the purpose of a particular group, it is blood- 
less, and such as has been described above. There 
is no common name which is applied to all animals 
that have lungs. But there ought to be : because 

i2 259 


669 b ^ ^^ 

Ο όρνις ώνόμασται ctti tlvos γένους, διό ωσ7Τ€ρ το 
ορνιθι etvai €κ ηνός iaxL, καΐ βκβίνων ev ttj ονσια 
νττάργζΐ το ττλζνμονα €χ€ΐν. 

VII. Αοκ€Ϊ δε των σπλάγχνων τά μβν euvai 
μονοφυη, καθάπ^ρ κάρδια /cat πλζύμων, τά δε 

16 Βιφυη, καθάπ€ρ νζφροί, τά δ' άττορειται ποτ€ρως 
£χ€ΐ. φανβίη γαρ αν €παμφοτ€ρίζζΐν τούτοις το 
■ήπαρ και ό σπλην και γαρ ως μονοφυες εκατβρον, 
και ώς άνθ' €ν6ς 8νο παραπλησίαν βχοντα την 
φνσιν. €στι δε πάντα Βιφυα. το δ' α'ίτιον η τον 
σώματος Βιάστασις Βιφνης μεν ούσα, προς μίαν δε 

20 σνντελοΰσα άρχην το μεν γαρ άνω και κάτω, το δ' 
έμπροσθεν και όπισθεν, το δε δε^ιόν καΐ άριστερον 
εστιΐ'. 8ιόπερ και 6 εγκέφαλος βονλεται Βιμερης 
είναι ττάσι και των αισθητηρίων εκαστον. κατά 
τον αύτον δε λόγον η κάρδια ταΓ? κοιλίαις. ό δε 
πλενμων ev γε^ τοις ωοτόκοις τοσούτον Βιεστηκεν 

25 ώστε δοκειν δυ εχειν αυτά πλευμονας. οΐ δε 
νεφροί και παντι δτ^λοι* κατά δε το ήπαρ και τον 
σπλήνα 8ικαίως αν τις άπορησειεν. τούτον δ' 
αίτιον ΟΤΙ εν μεν τοις εζ ανάγκης εχονσι σπλήνα 
δό^ειεν αν οίον νόθον είναι ήπαρ 6 σπλην, εν δε τοΓ? 
μη εζ ανάγκης εχονσιν, άλλα πάμμικρον ωσπερ 

30 σημείον χάριν, εναργώς διμερές το ηπάρ εστίν, και 

το μεν (^μεΐζον^)^ εις τά Βεζιά, το δ' ελαττον εις τά- 

ριστερά βονλεται την θεσιν εχειν. ον μην αλλά και 

€V τοις ωοτόκοις ήττον μεν η επι τούτων φανερόν, 

ενίοις δε [κάκεΐ ώσπερ εν τισι]^ ζωοτόκοι? εττιδ-ϊ^λω? 

Βιεστηκεν, οίον κατά τινας τόπονς οι δασυττοδε? δυο 

^ ye Peck : τ€ vulg. ^ μ€Ϊζον conieceram ; maior pars 11. 

' seclusi : ώσπερ ev τισι cm. ΕΥ : κακζίνων coni. Th. 



the possession of a lung is one of their essential 
characteristics, just as there are certain char- 
acteristics which are included in the essence of 
a " bird," the narae which is apphed to another such 

VII. Some of the viscera appear to be single why the 
(e.g. the heart and the lung) ; others double ΙγΠμΜθ. 
(e.g. the kidneys) ; and some it is difficult to place 
under either heading. The liver and the spleen ap- 
parently are intermediate ; they can be considered 
either as each being a single organ, or else as two 
organs taking the place of one and having a similar 
character. In fact, however, all of them are double. 
And the reason for this is that the structure of the 
body is double, though its halves are combined under 
one source. We have upper and lower halves, front 
and back halves, right and left halves. Thus even the 
brain as well as each of the sense-organs tends in all 
animals to be double ; so does the heart — it has 
cavities. In the Ovipara the lung is so much divided 
that they appear to have two lungs. The kidneys 
are obviously double ; but there is fair room for 
hesitation about the liver and spleen. This is be- Liver and 
cause in those animals which of necessity have a ^P'®®°• 
spleen, the spleen looks rather like a bastard liver, 
while in those which have a spleen though not of 
necessity — i.e. a very small one, as it were by way 
of a token — the liver is patently double, and the 
larger part of it tends to lie towards the right, the 
smaller towards the left. Still, there are cases even 
among the Ovipara where this division is less distinct 
than in those just described, while in some Vivipara 
the division is unmistakable — e.g. in some districts 



669 b 

35 SoKOvaiv ηπατ^ '^X^'-'^t καθάττ€ρ των Ιχθύων erepoi, 
Τ€ Tive? και οι σζλαχώ^ξίς. 

670 a Δια δβ το την ΘΙσιν €χ€ΐν το ητταρ iv τοις Βζζιοΐς 

μάλλον η του σπληνος yeyove φύσις, ώστ' άναγ- 
καΐον μίν πως, μη λίαν δ' eivai ττασι τοις ζωοις. 

Ύοΰ μ€ν ούν 8ιφυη την φνσιν eivai των σπλαγ- 
χνων α'ίτιον, ωσττ^ρ ζίττομ^ν, το δυ' elvai το he^iov 
5 και το άριστ€ρόν• €κάτ€ρον γαρ ζητεί το όμοιον, 
ώσπερ και αυτά βούλβται παραπλησίαν καΐ ΒιΒυμην 
€χ€ΐν την φυσιν, και καθάττερ^ €Κ€Ϊνα ΒίΒυμα μεν, 
σννήρτηται δ' εις ev, και των σπλάγχνων ομοίως 

Εστί δε σ7τλα)/;)(ν'α τα κάτω του ύποζώματος 
KOivrj μεν πάντα των φλεβών χάριν, όπως οΰσαι 

10 μετέωροι μενωσι τω τούτων συν8εσμω προς το 
σώμα. καθάπερ άγκυραι γαρ jSejSAr^vrat προς το 
σώμα δια τών άποτεταμένων μορίων άπο μεν της 
μεγάλης φλεβός προς το ήπαρ και τον σπλήνα, 
τούτων γαρ τών σπλάγχνων ή φύσις οίον ήλοι προς 
το σώμα προσλαμβάνονσιν αυτήν, εις μεν τα 

15 TrAciyta του σώματος τό θ' ήπαρ και 6 σπλήν τήν 
φλέβα τήν μεγάλην [άπο ταύτης γαρ εις αυτά μόνον 
οιατείνουσι φλέβες), εις δε τα όπισθεν οΐ νεφροί, 
προς δ' εκείνους ου μόνον άπο της μεγάλης 
φλεβός άλλα και άπό της αορτής τείνει φλεφ εις 

Ταΰτα δτ) συμβαίνει δια τούτων τη σνστάσει 

20 τών ζώων και τό μεν ήπαρ και ό σπλήν βοηθεΐ 
προς την πεφιν της τροφής (eVatjLta γαρ οντά θερ- 

^ καΐ καθάπΐρ ΡΖ : καΐ om. VTilg. 



hares appear to have a couple of livers ; so do certain 
fishes, especially the cartilaginous ones." 

The spleen owes its existence to the liver being 
placed somewhat over to the right-hand side of the 
body : this makes the spleen a necessity in a way, 
though not an urgent one, for all animals. 

Thus, the reason why the viscera are double in 
their formation is, as we have said, that the body 
is two-sided, having right and left. Each of the two 
aims at similarity, just as the sides themselves strive 
to have a similar nature, and to be as like as ίΛν^ηβ ; 
and just as the sides, though dual, are conjoined 
together into a unity, so also it is with the several 

The viscera which are below the diaphragm are 
all of them present for the sake of the blood-vessels, 
in order that the latter may have freedom of carriage 
and at the same time be attached to the body by 
means of the viscera, Avhich act as a bond. Indeed, 
there are, as it were, anchor-lines thro\vTi out to 
the body through the extended parts : e.g. from the 
Great Blood-vessel to the liver and to the spleen, for 
these viscera act, as it were, like rivets and fasten it 
to the body ; that is to say, the liver and the spleen 
fasten the Great Blood-vessel to the sides of the body 
(since blood-vessels pass to them from it alone), while 
the kidneys fasten it to the rear parts. And to the 
kidneys — to each of them — there is a blood-vessel 
passing not only from the Great Blood-vessel but 
also from the Aorta. 

These advantages, then, accrue to the animal organ- 
ism from the loΛver viscera. Liver and spleen also 
assist in the concoction of the food, since they both 

'" Sharks, etc. 



μην €χει την φΰσιν), οΐ he ν€φροι προς το περίτ- 
τωμα το els την κύστιν αποκρινομενον . 

Καρδία μ€ν ουν και ήπαρ πάίσιν avayicata τοΐζ 
ζφοις, η μβν δια την της θερμότητας αρχήν (δεΐ γαρ 

25 ζΐναί τίνα οϊον ίστίαν, iv fj κεισεται της φύσεως το 
ζωπνροΰν, καΐ τοντο εύφύλακτον, ώσπερ ακρόπολις 
ούσα του σώματος), το δ' ήπαρ της πεφεως χάριν, 
πάντα δε δεΓται τα eVat/xa Svoiv τούτοιν, διόττερ 
€χ€ΐ πάντα τα eVat/xa Svo τά σπλάγχνα ταντα} • οσα 

30 δ' άναπνεΐ, και πλεύμονα τρίτον. 

Ό δε σπλην κατά συμβεβηκος e| ανάγκης υπ- 
άρχει τοις εχουσιν, ώσπερ και τα περιττώματα, 
τ6 τ' iv τη κοιλία και το περί την κύστιν. Βιοπερ 
εν τισιν εκλείπει κατά το μέγεθος, ώσπερ των τε 
πτερωτών ενίοις, οσα θερμην έχει την κοιλιαν, οίον 
670 b περιστερά, ιεραζ, Ικτίνος, και επί τών ώοτοκων 
δε και τετραπόδων ομοίως {μικρόν γάρ πάμπαν 
εχουσιν), και ποΧλοΐς τών λεπώωτών άπερ και 
κύστιν ουκ έχει δια το τρεπεσθαι το περίττωμα δια 
μανών τών σαρκών ει? πτερά και λεπίδας, ό γαρ 
δ σ7Γλτ7ΐ' άντισπα εκ της κοιλίας τάς ικμάΒας τάς 
περιττευούσας , και δύναται συμπεττειν αίματώδης 
ων. αν δε το περίττωμα πλεΐον η η ολιγόθερμος ο 
σπλην, νοσακερά γίνεται πλήρης^ {ούσα)' τροφής• 
και δια την ενταύθα παλίρροιαν της ύγρότητος πολ- 
λοίς αϊ κοιλίαι σκληραι γίνονται σπληνιώσιν, ωσ- 

10 ττερ τοις λίαν ούρητικοΐς, δια το άντιπερισπασθαι 

^ ταΰτα Ρ : ταντα μόνον vulg. 

* ττλήρηζ ΕΥΖ : πλήρη vulg. 

3 <ο5σα> Peck. 



have blood in them and so are hot. The kidneys 
assist in connexion with the residue which is excreted 
into the bladder. 

Now the heart and the liver are necessary to all 
animals. The heart is necessary because there must 
be a source of heat : there must be, as it were, a 
hearth, where that which kindles the whole organism 
shall reside ; and this part must be well guarded, 
being as it were the citadel of the body. The liver is 
necessary for the sake of effecting concoction. All 
blooded creatures must have these two viscera, and 
that is why these two are always present in them. 
A third, the lung, is present in those animals that 

But the spleen, where present, is present of necessity spieen. 
in the sense of being an incidental concomitant, as 
are the residues in the stomach and in the bladder. 
So in some animals the spleen is deficient in size, 
as in certain birds Avhich have a hot stomach, e.g. 
the pigeon, the hawk, and the kite ; the same applies 
to the oviparous quadrupeds (all of these have an 
extremely small spleen) and to many of the scaly 
creatures. These animals just mentioned also lack 
a bladder, because their flesh is porous enough to 
enable the residues formed to pass through it and 
produce feathers and scales. For the spleen draws 
off the residual humours from the stomach and in 
virtue of its blood-like nature can assist in the con- 
coction of them. If, however, the residue is too 
bulky or the spleen has too little heat, the stomach 
gets full of nourishment and becomes diseased. 
And in many cases, when the spleen is ailing, 
the stomach becomes hardened owing to the 
fluid which runs back into it. This happens with 



670 b 

τάς ύγρότητας. οΐς δε όλίγη 7Τ€ριττωσις γίνεται, 
καθάττ€ρ τοις opveois και τοις ίχθυσι, τα μεν ου 
μέγαν €χ€ΐ, τα δέ σημείου χάριν. και iv τοις 
τζτράττοσι δβ τοις ωοτόκοις μικρός και στιφρος και 
νεφρώΒης ο σπλην εστί δια το τον πλεύμονα σομφον 

15 etvat και όλιγοποτβΐν και το ττεριγινόμενον περίτ- 
τωμα τρέττεσθαι εις το σώμα και τας φολίδας, 
ωσττερ εις τα πτερά τοις ορνισιν. 

Έν δέ τοΓ? κνστιν εχουσι και τον ττλεΰμονα 
εναιμον υγρός €στι δια τε την ειρημενην αιτιαν και 
δια το την φύσιν την των αριστερών όλως ύγρο- 

20 τεραν είναι και φυχροτεραν. Βιηρηται γαρ τών 
εναντίων εκαστον προς την συγγενή συστοιχιαν, 
οίον Βεζιον εναντίον άριστερω και θερμον εναντίον 
ιφυχρώ' και σύστοιχα γαρ ά}\ληλοις είσι τον ειρη- 
μενον τρόπον. 

Οι δέ νεφροί τοΐς εχουσιν ουκ εζ ανάγκης άλλα 
του εΰ και καλώς ένεκεν ύπάρχουσιν της γαρ 

25 περιττώσεως χάριν της εις την κύστιν αθροιζόμενης 
εΙσι κατά την ί8ίαν φύσιν, εν δσοις πλεΐον ύπό- 
στημα γίνεται το τοιούτον, όπως βελτιον αποΒιΒώ 
η κύστις το αύτης έργον. 

'ΈπεΙ δέ της αΰττ^? ένεκα χρείας τους τε νεφρούς 
συμβεβηκεν εχειν τα ζώα και την κύστιν, λεκτεον 

80 περί κύστεως νυν, ύπερβάντας τον εφεζης τών 
μορίων αριθμόν περί γαρ φρενών ούΒεν πω δι- 

" The reference to the " columns " or " double list " is 
not clear. There was a Pythagorean συστοιχία ; this and 
other συστοιχίαι are mentioned in Ross's note on his trans- 
lation of Met. 986 a 23. 

* i.e. left and cold are both in the same column ; right and 
hot are both in the other column. _i-. . 



those who make water excessively : the fluids are 
drawn back again into the stomach. But in animals 
where the amount of residue produced is small, as in 
birds and fishes, the spleen is either small or present 
simply by Λvay of a token. In the oviparous quadru- 
peds, too, the spleen is small and compact, and 
hke a kidney, because the lung is spongy and the 
animals drink little, and also because the residue 
which is produced is applied for the benefit of the 
body itself and of the scaly plates which cover it, 
just as in birds it is applied for the benefit of the 

In those animals, however, which possess a bladder, 
and whose lung contains blood, the spleen is watery. 
The reason already given partly explains this. An- 
other is that the left side of the body is generally 
more watery and colder than the right. As we know, 
the opposites are di\aded up into two columns," so 
that each is classed with those that are akin to it, e.g. 
right is in the opposite column to left, and hot to 
cold ; and thus some of them stand together in the 
same column, as I have just indicated.^ 

Kidneys are present in some animals, but not 
of necessity ; they are present to serve a good pur- 
pose ; that is to say, their particular nature enables 
them to cope with the residue Λvhich collects in the 
bladder, in those cases where this deposit is somewhat 
abundant, and to help the bladder to perform its 
function better. 

Since the bladder is present in animals to serve 
precisely the same purpose as the kidneys, we must 
now say something about it. This will involve a 
departure from the serial order in which the parts 
actually come, for we have said nothing so far about 



670 b 

ώρισται, τοντο 8e τι των Trepl τα σπλάγχνα μορίων 


VIII. Κυστιν δ' ον πάντ €χ€ί τα ζωα, αλλ' 
€θίΚ€ν Tj φύσις βουλομ^νγ) άποδιδόναι τοις ζχονσί 

671 a τον ττλ^νμονα Ίναιμον μόνον, τούτοις δ' βύλόγως. 

δια γαρ την ύπ€ροχτ]ν της φύσεως, ην ζχονσιν ev 
τω μορίω τούτω, Βιφητικά re ταντ eoTL μάλιστα 
των ζώων, καΐ SeiTai τροφής ου μόνον της ζηρας 
άλλα και της νγρας πλείονος, ώστ' βζ ανάγκης και 

1 5 περίττωμα ytVea^at πλεΐον και μη τοσούτον μόνον 
όσον νπο της κοιλίας πεττεσθαι και εκκρίνεσθαι 
μετά τοΰ ταύτης περιττώματος. ανάγκη τοινυν 
etvai τι Βεκτικόν καΐ τούτου τοΰ περιττώματος. 
Βιόπερ δσα πλεύμονα έχει τοιούτον, απαντ έχει 
κύστιν δσα Βε μη τοιούτον, αλλ' η όλιγοποτά εστί 

10 δια το πλεύμονα εχειν σομφόν, η δλως το ύγρον 
προσφέρεται ου ποτού χάριν αλλά τροφής, οίον τά 
έντομα και οι ίχθύες, έτι δε πτερωτά εστίν η 
λετΓίδωτά η φολώωτά, ταύτα δι' όλιγότητά τε της 
τοΰ υγρού προσφοράς και δια το τρεπεσθαι εις 
ταύτα το περιγινόμενον τοΰ περιττώματος ουδέν 

15 έχει τούτων κύστιν, πλην αϊ χελώναι των φολιδω- 
τών, και ενταύθ' η φύσις κεκολόβωται μόνον αίτιον 
δ' ΟΤΙ αι μεν θαλάττιαι σαρκώδη και εναιμον εχουσι 
τον πλεύμονα και δμοιον τω βοείω, αί δέ χερσαΐαι 
μείζω η κατά λόγον. ετι δέ δια το οστρακώΒες 

20 και πυκνον είναι το περιέχον ου Βιαπνεοντος τοΰ 
υγρού δια μανών των σαρκών, οίον τοΐς δρνισι και 
τοις δφεσι και τοΐς άλλοις τοΖς φολώωτοΐς, ύπό- 


the diaphragm, though this is one of the parts that 
are near the viscera. 

VIII. The bladder is not present in all animals : Bladder. 
Nature seems to have intended only those animals 
which have blood in their lung to have a bladder. 
And this is quite reasonable, when we remember that 
such animals have an excess of the natural substance 
which constitutes the lung, and are therefore more 
subject to thirst than any others ; i.e. they need a 
larger amount of fluid food as well as of the ordinary 
solid food, and the necessary result of this is that a 
larger amount of residue also is produced, too large 
in fact for all of it to be concocted by the stomach 
and excreted with its own proper residue ; hence it 
is necessary to have some part that will receive this 
additional residue. This shows us why all animals 
which have blood in their lung possess a bladder 
too. As for those whose lung is spongy and which 
therefore drink Httle, or which take fluids not as 
something to drink but as food (e.g. insects and 
fishes), or which are covered with feathers or scales 
or scaly plates, not one of these has a bladder, owing 
to the small amount of fluid which they take and 
owing to the fact that the surplus residue goes 
to form feathers or scales or scaly plates, as the 
particular case may be. Exceptions to this are the 
Tortoises : though scaly-plated they have a bladder. 
In them the natural formation has simply been 
stunted. The cause of this is that in the sea-varieties 
the lung is fleshy and contains blood, and is similar to 
the lung of the ox ; while in the land-varieties it is 
disproportionately large. And whereas in birds and 
snakes and the other scaly-plated creatures the 
moisture exhales through the porous flesh, in these it 



671 a 

στασι? yu'erat τοσαύτη ώστε hetadat, ttjv φνσιν 
αυτών €χ€ίν τι μόριον BeKTLKOv καΐ ayyettDSes". 
κυστιν μέν ονν ταύτα μόνον των τοιούτων €χ€ΐ δια 

25 ταύτην την αΐτίαν, η μ^ν θαλαττία μ€γάλην, αι δε 
χ^ρσαΐαί μικράν ττάμτταν. 

IX. 'Ομοίως δ' €.χζΐ και 7Τ€ρι ν€φρών. ovhe γαρ 
νβφρούς ovTC των πτβρωτών και λεττιδωτώΐ' ουδέν 
^χ€ΐ οϋτ€ των φολώωτών, πλην αί ^αλαττιαι 
χελώναι και αί χ€ρσαΐαι• αλλ' ώς της €ΐς τους 

so νεφρούς τεταγμένης σαρκός ουκ εγουσης χωράν 
άλλα Βιεσπαρμενης εις ττολλά, πλατέα νεφροειΒη εν 
ενίοις των ορνίθων εστίν, η δ' εμύς ούτε κυστιν 
ούτε νεφρούς έχει• δια την μαλακότητα γαρ του 
χελωνίου εύ8ιάπνουν γίνεται το ύγρον. η μεν ούν 
εμύς δια ταύτην την αιτίαν ούκ έχει των μορίων 
ού^ετερον τοις δ' άλλοι? ζωοις τοις εχονσιν εν- 

35 αιμον, ωσπερ εϊρηται, τον πλεύμονα ττασι συμ- 

67ih βφηκεν εχειν νεφρούς, καταχρηται γαρ η φύσις 

άμα των τε φλεβών χάριν και προς την του 

υγρού περιττώματος εκ κρίσιν φέρει γαρ εις 

αυτούς πόρος εκ της μεγάλης φλεβός. 

"Έχουσι δ' οι νεφροί πάντες κοίλον, η πλεΐον η 

5 ελαττον, πλην οΐ της φώκης• οΰτοι δ' όμοιοι τοις 

βοείοις οντες στερεώτατοι πάντων είσίν. όμοιοι οε 

και οι του άνθρωπου τοις βοειοις• εισι γαρ ωσπερ 

συγκείμενοι εκ πολλών νεφρών μικρών και ούχ 

όμαλεΐς, ωσπερ οι τών προβάτων και τών άλλων 

τών τετραττόδων. διό και το άρρώστημα τοις 

ο Greek, " hemys." This description, which does not fit 


cannot do so, because the integument which surrounds 
them is dense, Hke a shell ; and so the excretion is 
produced in such quantities that the Tortoises need 
some part which shall act as a vessel to receive it. 
That, then, is why they are the only animals of the 
kind which have a bladder. In the sea-tortoise it is 
large, in the land-tortoise quite small. 

IX. Much the same may be said of the kidneys as Kidneys. 
of the bladder. Kidneys are not present in any of 
the animals that have feathers or scales or scaly plates, 
except the two sorts of tortoises just mentioned. In 
some birds, however, there are flat kidney-shaped 
objects, as if the flesh that was allotted to form the 
kidneys had found no room for its proper function 
and had been scattered to form several organs. The 
Emys " has neither bladder nor kidneys : this is be- 
cause it has a soft shell which allows the moisture to 
transpire freely through it. But, as I said before, all 
the other animals whose lung contains blood have 
kidneys, since Nature makes use of them for two pur- 
poses : (1) to subserve the blood-vessels ; and (2) to 
excrete the fluid residue. (A channel leads into them 
from the Great Blood-vessel.) 

There is always a hollow (lumen), varying in si/e, 
in the kidneys, except in the seal, Λvhose kidneys are 
more solid than any others and in shape resemble 
those of the ox. Human kidneys too resemble those 
of the ox : they are, as it were, made up out of a 
number of small kidneys,* and have not an even 
surface like those of the sheep and other quadrupeds. 
Thus, when once an ailment attacks the human 

any animal now known as Emys, seems to be that of some 
freshwater tortoise. 

" This is not true of the normal adult, but it is true of 
the foetus. 



10 άνθρώποίς Βυσαπάλλακτον αυτών βστιν, αν αττας 
νοσησωσιν συμβαίνει, γαρ ωσττερ ττοΧΚους νεφρούς 
νοσονντων χαλβττωτεραν elvat την ιασιν η των eva 

Ό δ' άπο της φλεβός τείνων πόρος ουκ εις το 
κοίλον των νεφρών κατατελευτα, αλλ εις το σώμα 
καταναλίσκεται τών νεφρών Βιόπερ εν τοις κοίλοις 

15 αυτών ουκ εγγίνεται αίμα, ου^ε πήγνυταί τελευ- 
τώντων. εκ δε του κοίλου τών νεφρών φερουσι 
•πόροι avatjuoi εις την κύστιν δυο νεανικοί, εξ 
εκατερου εις, και άλλοι εκ της αορτής ισχυροί και 
συνεχείς, ταύτα δ' έχει τον τρόπον τούτον όπως 
εκ μεν της φλεβός το περίττωμα της ύγροτητος 

20 βα8ίζη εΙς τους νεφρούς, εκ δε τών νεφρών η 
γινομένη υπόστασις Βιηθουμενων τών υγρών δια 
του σώματος τών νεφρών εις το μέσον συρρεη, ού 
το κοίλον οι πλείστοι εχουσιν αυτών (διο και δυσ- 
ω8εστατον τοΰτο τών σπλάγχνων εστίν)' εκ δε τοΰ 
μέσου δια τούτων τών πόρων εις την κυστιν ηΒη 

25 μάλλον ώς περίττωμα αποκρίνεται, καθώρμισται 
δ' η κυστις εκ τών νεφρών τείνουσι γάρ, ώσπερ 
ειρηται, πόροι ισχυροί προς αύτην. 

Οι μεν οΰν νεφροί δια ταιίτα? τάς αίτια? εισι, και 
τάς δυνάμεις εχουσι τάς ειρημενας. 

'Έιν πάσι δε τοις εχουσι νεφρούς 6 Βεζιος ανωτέρω 
του αριστερού εστίν δια γάρ το την κίνησιν είναι 

80 εκ τών δεξιών και ίσχυροτεραν δια ταΰτ' ειΐ'αι την 

' The ureters. 


kidneys, the trouble is not easily removed, because 
it is as though the patient had many kidneys diseased 
and not one only ; and so the cure is more difficult to 

The channel which runs from the Great Blood- 
vessel to the kidneys does not debouch into the 
hollow part of the kidneys, but the whole of what 
it supplies is spent upon the body of the kidneys ; 
thus no blood goes into the hollows, and at death 
none congeals there. From the holloAv part of the 
kidneys two sturdy channels " lead into the bladder, 
one from each ; these contain no blood. Other 
channels come from the Aorta to the kidneys ; 
these are strong, continuous ones. This arrange- 
ment is on purpose to enable the residue from the 
moisture to pass out of the blood-vessel into the 
kidneys, and so that when the fluid percolates 
through the body of the kidneys the excretion that 
results may collect into the middle of the kidneys, 
where the holloAV is in most cases. (This explains, 
incidentally, why the kidney is the most ill-scented 
of all the viscera.) From the middle of the kidney 
the fluid is passed off through the aforesaid channels 
into the bladder ; by which time it has practically 
taken on the character of excremental residue. The 
bladder is actually moored to the kidneys : as has 
been stated, there are strong channels extending 
from them to it. 

We have now given the causes for Avhich the 
kidneys exist, as well as their character and functions. 

The right kidney is always higher up than the left. 
The reason for this is that as motion always begins on 
the right-hand side, the parts that are on that side are 
stronger than those on the other ; and owing to this 



671b ^ ^ ^ 

φυσιν Tr]v των Βυζιών, Set ττροοΒοποιησασθαι δια 

την κίνησιν προς το ανω ταΰτα} τα μόρια μάλλον, 
€ττ€ΐ και την οφρνν την Ββζίάν αίρουσι μάλλον καΐ 
€7ηκ&καμμ€νην βχουσι της άριστ€ρ3.ς μάλλον, καΐ 

35 δια το άνβσπάσθαυ άνώτβρον τον Se^Lov νβφρον το 
ήπαρ άπτεται του δεξιού νβφροΰ ev πάσιν ev τοις 
672 a δε^ιοΓ? γαρ το ήπαρ. 

"Εχονσί δ' οι νεφροί μάλιστα των σπλάγχνων 
πιμζλην, e^ ανάγκης μεν δια το διτ^^εΐσ^αι το 
περίττωμα δια των νεφρών το γαρ λζίπομβνον 
αίμα καθαρόν ον ζΰπβπτόν εστί, τέλος δ' εύπεφιας 
δ αιματικής πιμελη και στέαρ εστίν, [ωσπερ γαρ ev 
τοις πεπυρωμενοις ζηροΖς, οίον τη τέφρα, εγκατα- 
λείπεται τι πυρ, οϋτω και εν τοις πεπεμμενοις 
ύγροΐς• εγκαταλείπεται γάρ τι της ειργασμενης 
θερμότητος μόριον. 8ιόπερ το λιπαρον κοΰφόν εστί 
και επιπολάζει εν τοις νγροΐς.) εν αύτοΐς μεν ούν 

10 ου γίνεται τοις νεφροΐς δια το πυκνον είναι το 
σπλάγχνον, εζω δε περιίσταται πιμελη μεν εν τοΐς 
πιμελώ8εσι, στεαρ δ' εν τοΐς στεατώΒεσιν η Βε 
Βιαφορά τούτων εΐρηται πρότερον εν ετεροις. 

Έ^ ανάγκης μεν οΰν πιμελώΒεις γίνονται δια 
ταύτην την αίτίαν εκ των συμβαινόντων εζ ανάγκης 

15 τοΓ? εχονσι νεφρούς, ένεκα δε σωτηρίας και του 
θερμην ειΐ'αι την φυσιν την των νεφρών, έσχατοι 
τε γάρ όντες άλεας δέονται πλείονος• το μεν γάρ 
νώτον σαρκώδες εστίν, όπως η προβολή τοΐς περί 

^ ταΰτα Peck : πάντα vulg. 

» See Book II. ch. v. 


motion they are bound to make their way upwards 
before the ones on the left. Thus people raise the 
right eyebrow more than the left, and it is more 
arched. A result of this drawing up of the right 
kidney is that in all animals the liver, which is on the 
right side of the body, is in contact with it. 

The kidneys contain more fat than any other of the Fat in 
viscera. This is partly a necessary consequence upon '^^*^"''y* 
the percolation of the residue through the kidneys : 
in other words, the blood which gets left behind there 
is easy of concoction because it is pure, and when 
blood undergoes complete concoction the final pro- 
ducts are lard and suet. (A parallel is to be found in 
the case of solid substances which have undergone 
combustion : e.g. a certain amount of fire gets left 
behind in ash. So, in fluid substances which have 
undergone concoction : some portion of the heat 
which has been generated remains behind. That is 
Λvhy oily substances are light and come to the top of 
fluids.) This fat is not formed actually in the kidneys 
themselves, because they are so dense : it collects 
outside them. In some it has the form of lard, in 
others the form of suet, according to the character of 
the animal. (The difference between the two has 
been explained already in another connexion.) " 

This formation of lard, then, about the kidneys is 
the necessary consequence upon the conditions which 
necessarily obtain in animals that possess kidneys. 
But there is another reason for its formation, and that 
is, on purpose to safeguard the kidneys themselves 
and to preserve their natural heat. The kidneys are 
the outermost of all the viscera, and therefore they 
need more warmth. Whereas the back is liberally 
supphed with flesh, which enables it to act as a 



672 a 

την /ίαρδιαν σπλάγχνοις , η δ' οσφύς άσαρκος 

{άσαρκοι γαρ at καμτταΐ πάντων)• αντί σαρκός ονν 

20 η τημελη πρόβλημα γίνεται τοις νεφροΖς. eVi he 
^ιακρίνονσι και ττίττονσι την νγρότητα μάλλον 
ττίονες δντες' το γαρ λιτταρον θβρμόν, TreVret δ η 

Δια ταύτας μ€ν οΰν τάς αιτίας οι νεφροί πιμελω- 
δει? ζίσίν, iv ττάσι δβ τοις ζώοις ό Βεζιος άττιμελώ- 
τ€ρός βστιν. αίτιον δε το την φύσιν ζηράν είναι 

2δ την των Βεζιών και κινητικωτεραν η δε κινησις 
εναντία• τήκει γαρ το ττΐον μάλλον. 

Ύοΐς μεν οΰν άλλοις ζωοις συμφέρει τε τους 
νεφρούς εχειν ττίονας, και πολλάκις εχουσιν δλους 
ττερίπλεως• το δε πρόβατον όταν τοΰτο παθτ] 
αποθνήσκει, αλλ' αν και πάνυ πίονες ώσιν, όμως 

so ελλείπει τι, αν μη κατ' αμφότερους, άλλα κατά τον 
^εζιόν.^ αίτιον δε τοΰ μόνον η μάλιστα τοΰτο 
συμβαίνειν επι των προβάτων, οτι τοις μεν πιμε- 
λώδεσιν ύγρον το πΐον, ωστ ούχ ομοίως εγκατα- 
κλειόμενα τά πνεύματα ποιεί τον πόνον. τοΰ δε 
σφακελισμοΰ τοΰτ' αίτιον εστίν διο Αταί των αν- 

35 θρώπων τοΐς πονοΰσι τους νεφρούς, καιπερ τοΰ ττιαι- 
νεσ^αι συμφέροντος, δμως άν λίαν yiVojvTai 77ΐονε5•, 
όδυναι θανατηφόροι συμβαίνουσιν. των δ' άλλων 
672 b TOiS" στεατώδεσιν ήττον πυκνόν το στεαρ η τοΐς 
προβάτοις. και τω πληθει πολύ τά πρόβατα υπερ- 
βάλλει• γίνεται γάρ περίνεφρα τάχιστα των ζώων 
τά πρόβατα πάντων, εγκατακλειομενης οΰν της 
νγρότητος και των πνευμάτων δια τον σφακελισμον 

^ αλλ' αν . . . 8ΐξιόν post ΐΐσίν 1. 23 transponit Thurot. 


protection for the viscera about the heart, the loin, 
in common with all parts that bend, is not so supplied ; 
and this fat we have been speaking of serves as a 
safeguard to the kidneys in place of flesh. Further, 
the kidneys are better able to secrete and to concoct 
the fluid if they are fat, because fat is hot and heat 
causes concoction. 

These are the reasons why the kidneys are fat. In 
all animals, however, the right kidney has less fat 
than the left. This is because the right-hand side 
is dry and solid and more adapted for motion than 
the left ; and motion is an enemy to fat, because it 
tends to melt it. 

Now it is an advantage to all animals to have fat 
kidneys, and often they are completely filled with fat. 
The sheep is an exception : if this happens to a sheep 
it dies. But even if the kidneys are as fat as can be, 
there is always some portion which is clear of fat, if 
not in both kidneys, at any rate in the right one. The 
reason why this happens solely (or more especially) 
to sheep is as follows. Some animals have their fat 
in the form of lard, which is fluid, and thus the wind 
cannot so easily get shut up within and cause trouble. 
When this happens, however, it causes rot. Thus, too, 
in the case of human beings who suffer from their 
kidneys, although it is an advantage for them to be 
fat, yet if they become unduly fat, pains result which 
prove fatal. As for the animals whose fat is in the 
form of suet, none has such dense suet as the sheep 
has ; and moreover, in the sheep the amount of it is 
much greater ; the fact that they get fat about the 
kidneys much more quickly than any other animal 
shows this. So when the moisture and the wind get 
shut up within, rot is produced, which rapidly kills 



672 b ^ ^ , X V ^ , ^ ^ ^ 

5 avaipovvrai ταχέως' δια γαρ της αορτής και της 
φλεβός ευθύς άπαντα το πάθος ττρός την καρ^ίαν 
οι δβ ττόροι συνεχείς άττο τούτων των φλεβών είσι 
ττρος τους νεφρούς. 

ΐίερί μεν οΰν της καρδίας καί ττλεύ μονός εΧρηται, 
καΐ ττερί ήπατος καΐ σπληνος καΐ νεφρών. Χ. τυγ- 

10 χάνει δέ ταύτα κεχωρίσμενα αλλήλων τω Βιαζώ- 
ματι. τούτο δε το διάζω/χα καλούσί τίνες φρενας• 
ο Βιορίζεί τον τε πλεύμονα καΐ την καρΒίαν. καλείται 
δε τούτο το Βίάζωμα εν τοις εναίμοις, ωσπερ καΐ 
είρηται, φρένες, e^et δε πάντα τά εναιμα αυτό, 
καθάπερ Kaphiav καΐ ήπαρ. τούτου δ' αϊτιον otl 

15 τού διορισμού χάριν εστί του τε περί την κοιλίαν 
τόπου και τού περί την καρΒίαν, όπως η της 
αισθητικής φυχής άρχη άττα^ή? η και μή ταχύ 
καταλαμβάνηται δια την άπο τής τροφής γινομενην 
άνα0ι;μ.ιασιν και το πλήθος τής επεισάκτου θερ- 
μότητος. επΙ γαρ τούτο διε'λα^δεν ή φύσις, οίον 

20 παροικοΒόμημα ποιήσασα και φραγμον τάς φρενας, 
και διεΓλε τό τε τιμιώτερον και το άτιμότερον εν 
δσοις ενΒεχεται διελεΓν το άνω και κάτω• το μεν 
γαρ άνω εστίν ου ένεκεν και βελτιον, το δε κάτω 
το τούτου ένεκεν και άναγκαΐον, τό τής τροφής 
"Εστί δε τό δια ζω/χα προς μεν τάς πλευράς 

25 σαρκω^εστερον και Ισχυρότερον, κατά μέσον δ' 
νμενωζεστερον ούτω γάρ προς την ίσχύν και την 
τάσιν χρησιμώτερον . διότι δε προς την θερμότητα 
την κάτωθεν οίον παραφυάδες εΙσί, σημεΐον εκ τών 


the sheep off. The disease makes its way directly to 
the heart through the Aorta and the Great Blood- 
vessel, since there are continuous passages leading 
from these to the kidneys. 

We have now spoken of the heart and the lung ; 
and also of the Uver, the spleen and the kidneys. 
X. These two sets of viscera are separated from Diaphragm. 
each other by the diazoma, which some call the 
phrenes (diaphragm). This divides off the heart and 
the lung. In blooded animals it is called phrenes, as 
I have said. All blooded creatures have one, just as 
they all have heart and liver. The reason for this 
is that the diaphragm serves to divide the part 
round the stomach from the part round the heart, 
to ensure that the source of the sensory Soul may be 
unaiFected, and not be quickly overwhelmed by the 
exhalation that comes up from the food when it is 
eaten and by the amount of heat introduced into the 
system. For this purpose, then. Nature made the 
division, and constructed the phrenes to be, as it were, 
a partition-Avall and a fence ; and thus, in those 
creatures where it is possible to divide the upper 
from the lower, she divided off the nobler parts 
from the less noble ones ; for it is the upper which 
is " better," that ybr the sake of which the lower ex- 
ists, while the lower is " necessary," existing ybr the 
sake of the upper, by acting as a receptacle for the 

Towards the ribs the diaphragm is fleshier and 
stronger, while in the middle it is more like a mem- 
brane : this makes it more serviceable as regards 
strength and extensibility. An indication to show 
why there are, as it Avere, " suckers," to keep off the 
heat which comes up from below, is provided by 



672 b 

συμβαινόντων όταν γαρ δια την γ^ιτνίασιν ίΧκΰ- 

σωσιν ύγρότητα θ^ρμην καΐ πζριττωματικην, €ύθύς 
80 €πί8ήλως ταράττζΐ την Siavoiav καΐ την αΐσθησιν, 
διό καΐ καλούνται φρένες ώς μβτβχουσαί τι του 
φρονζΐν. at δε μ€Τ€χουσι μ€ν ουδέν, €γγύς δ' 
οΰσαι των μβτζχόντων €πί8ηλον ποιοΰσι την μ€τα- 
βολην της Βιανοίας. διό και λεττται κατά μ^σον 
€ΐσίν, ου μόνον €ζ ανάγκης, οτι σαρκώδει? ούσας τά 
35 ττρος τά? πλξυράς άναγκαΐον είναι σαρκτωδεστερα?, 
αλλ' Γν' ΟΤΙ όλιγίστης μ€τ4χωσιν ικμάΒος• σαρκώ- 

673 a δει? γαρ αν οΰσαι και βιχον και βΐλκον μάλλον 

ικμά8α ττολλήν. οτι δε θβρμαινόμ^ναι ταχέως 
€πί8ηλον ποιοΰσι την αϊσθησιν, στ^/Μαινει και το 
77ερι τοϋ? γβλωτας συμβαίνον γαργαλιζόμζνοί Τ€ 
γαρ ταχύ -^ελώσι, δια. το την κινησιν άφικνβΐσθαι 
6 ταχύ ττρος τον τόπον τούτον, θζρμαινόμ^νον^ δ 
ηρςμα ττοιεΓν όμως βπίΒηλον και Kivelv την διά- 
νοιαν παρά. την προαίρ^σιν. του δε γαργαλίζεσθαι 
μόνον άνθρωπον αίτιον η τε λβπτότης του Βέρματος 
και το μόνον γελάν των ζωών άνθρωπον. 6 δε 
γαργαλισμός γέλως εστί δια κιντ^σεω?^ τοιαύτης 
10 τού μορίου τού ττερι την μασχαλην. 

Συ/χ^βαινειν δε' ^ασι και π€ρι τάς εν τοι? πολέμοις 
πληγάς €ΐς τον τόπον τον π€ρΙ τας φρβνας γέλωτα 
δια την εκ της πληγής γινομένην θερμότητα, τούτο 

^ θΐρμαι,νόμίνον Peck : θερμαίνουσί vulg. : -ούσα SZ : -ονσαν 
PUY. ^ κνησΐως Langkavel. 

" The Risus Sardonicus : see Allbutt and Rolleston, A 
System of Medicine^ (1910), viii. 642. 



what actually happens : whenever, o\ving to their 
proximity, they draw up the hot residual fluid, this 
at once causes a recognizable disturbance of the 
intelligence and of sensation. And that is why they 
are called phrenes : as if they took a part in the act 
of thinking (pkronein). This of course they do not 
do ; but their proximity to those organs which do 
so take part makes the change of condition in the 
intelligence recognizable. That, too, is why the 
phrenes are thin in the middle ; this is not due 
entirely to necessity (though as they are fleshy to 
begin with, the parts of them nearest the ribs must 
of necessity be more fleshy still) ; there is another 
reason, which is, to enable them to have as little 
moisture in them as possible, since if they had been 
wholly of flesh they would have tended to draw 
to themselves and to retain a large quantity of 
moisture. Another indication that it is when heated 
that they quickly make the sensation recognizable is 
afforded by what happens when we laugh. When 
people are tickled, they quickly burst into laughter, 
and this is because the motion quickly penetrates to 
this part, and even though it is only gently warmed, 
still it produces a movement (independently of the 
will) in the intelligence which is recognizable. The 
fact that human beings only are susceptible to 
tickling is due (1) to the fineness of their skin and 
(2) to their being the only creatures that laugh. Tick- 
ling means, simply, laughter produced in the way I 
have described by a movement applied to the part 
around the armpit. 

It is said that when in Λvar men are struck in the 
part around the diaphragm, they laugh « on ac- 
count of the heat which arises owing to the bloAv. 



γαρ μάλλον eoTLV αξίοττιστων ακονσαι λβγοντων η 
το TTepl την κεφαλήν, ώς άποκοττζΐσα φθ€γγ€ταί 

15 των ανθρώπων, λίγουσι yap τίνες Ιτταγόμενοι και 
τον "Ομηρον, ώς δια τοΰτο ττοιησαντος 

φθεγγομενη δ' αρα τοΰ γβ κάρη κονί-ησιν 


αλλ' ου φθεγγομενου. irepl he Άρκαδι'αι^^ ούτω 

το τοιούτον Βίβπίστβνσαν ώστ€ και κρίσιν βττοιη- 

σαντο TTepi τίνος των εγχωρίων, του γαρ ιερέως 

20 τοΰ όπλοσμίου Διο? αποθανόντος , ύφ' ότου οε άδη- 
λου οντο;,^ εφασάν τίνες άκοΰσαι της κεφαλής 
άποκεκομμενης λεγούσης πολλάκις 

επ' άνδρο? άνδρα Κβρκιδα? απεκτεινεν 
διό και Ζ,ητησαντες ω όνομα ην ev τω τοπω 
Κερ/ίΐδα?, έκριναν, αδύνατον δε φθεγγεσθαι κεχω- 
ρισμενης της αρτηρίας και άνευ της εκ τοΰ πλευ- 

25 μονός κινήσεως. παρά τε τοις βαρβάροις, παρ 
οΐς άποτεμνουσι ταχέως τάς κεφάλας, ούοεν πω 
τοιοΰτον συμβεβηκεν. ετι δ' επι των άλλων ζωών 
δια TiV αίτιαν ου γίνεται; [το μεν γαρ τοΰ γελω- 
τος πληγεισών των φρενών εικότως, ούΒεν γαρ γέλα 
των άλλων προϊέναι 8ε ποι το σώμα της κεφαλής 

80 αφηρημένης ού8εν άλογον, επει τά y' αΐ'αιμ.α και 

^ άρκαΒίαν Ζ, probat J. Schaefer de Jove apud Cares culto, 
pp. 370 sq . : Καρίαν vulg. : καρ . . ανΈ: καρ P. 

^ δε άΒηλου όντος Peek : δέ δη άΒήλως vuIg. : codd. varia. 

" Iliad, χ. 457 and Od. xxii. 329. In both places the 
text of Homer has φθΐγγομΐνου (" As he spake . . ."). 

^ The Berlin text here reads " Caria," but the Oxford ms. 
Ζ reads " Arcadia." A cult of Zeus hoplosmios is attested 
only for Methydrion, a town in Arcadia, and the name 
Kerkidas is found in Arcadia, not in Caria. (See A. B• 


This may be so ; and those Avho assert it are more 
credible than those who tell the tale of how a man's 
head speaks after it is cut off. Sometimes they cite 
Homer in support, who (so they say) was referring to 
this Λvhen he WTote 

As it spake, his head was mingkd with the dust 

As he spake, his head was mingkd with the dust.) " 
In Arcadia '' this kind of thing was at one time so 
firmly believed that one of the inhabitants Avas 
actually brought into court on the strength of it. 
The priest of Zeus hoplosmios had been killed, but 
no one knew Avho had done it. Certain persons, 
hoΛvever, affirmed that they had heard the man's 
head, after it had been cut off, repeating the follow- 
ing line several times 

'Twas Kerkidas did slaughter man on man. 
So they set to work and found someone in the 
district who bore this name and brought him to trial. 
Of course, speech is impossible once the windpipe 
has been severed and no motion is forthcoming from 
the lung. And among the barbarians, Avhere they 
cut heads off Math expedition, nothing of this sort 
has taken place so far. Besides, why does it not 
occur Λvith the other animals ? [For (a) the story 
about the laughter when the diaphragm has been 
struck is plausible, for none of the others laughs ; 
and (b) that the body should go forΛvard some distance 
after the head has been cut off, is not at all absurd, 
since bloodless animals at any rate actually go on 

Cook, Zeus, ii. 290, who gives the evidence, and J. Schaefer, 
De Jove apud Cares culto, 1912, pp. 370 f.) 

κ 283 


673 a ^ V , , , , . , / 

ζγΙ -πολύν χρόνον δβδτ^λωται δε Trept της αίτιας 

αυτών iv €Τ€ροις.γ 

Ύίνος μβν ουν eVe/ceV βστιν €καστον των σπλάγ- 
χνων, ξίρηται- γβγονε δ' ef ανάγκης εττΐ τοις €ντος 
ττίρασι. των φλεβών, ΙζιΙναι τ€ γαρ ΙκμάΒα avay- 
673 b καΐον, καΐ ταντην αίματικην, εξ ης συνιστάμενης 
καΐ ττηγννμίνης γίνεσθαι το σώμα τών σπλάγχνων 
Βιόπερ αιματικά, και αύτοΐς μεν ομοιαν εχουσι την 
του σώματος φύσιν, τοις δ' άλλοις ανομοιαν. 

XI. Πάντα δε τα σπλάγχνα εν ύμενι εστίν 
6 ττροβολης τε γαρ δεΓ προς το άπαθη είναι, και 

ταύτης ελαφράς, ο δ' ΰμην την φύσιν τοιούτος' 
πυκνός μεν γαρ ώστ άποστεγειν, άσαρκος δε ώστε 
μη ελκειν μη^ εχειν ΙκμάΒα, λεπτός δ' δπως κου- 
φός η και μηΒεν ποιη βάρος, μέγιστοι δε και 
ισχυρότατοι τών υμένων είσΐν 6ΐ τε περί την 
10 Kaphiav και περί τόν εγκεφαλον, ευλόγως• ταΰτα 
γαρ δεΓται πλείστης φυλακής' η μεν γαρ φυλακή 
περί τα κύρια, ταΰτα δε κύρια μάλιστα της ζωής. 

XII. 'Έχουσι δ' έ'νια μεν τών ζώων πάντα τόν 
αριθμόν αυτών, έΥ-ια δ' ου πάντα• ποια δε ταΰτα και 
δια τίν* αίτίαν, ε'ίρηται πρότερον. και τών εχόντων 

15 δε ταΰτα 8ιαφερουσιν• ου γαρ όμοιας ούτε τάς 

καρδίας εχουσι πάντα τα έχοντα καρδίαν, ούτε τών 

άλλων ώς ειπείν ού8εν. τό τε γαρ ήπαρ τοις μεν 

πολυσχώες εστί τοις δε μονοφυεστερον, πρώτον 

^ codd. edd. varia ; corrupta et inepta seclusi. 



living for a long time. The reason for these pheno- 
mena has been explained elsewhere.] 

We have now said what is the purpose for which 
each of the viscera is present ; but also they have 
been formed of necessity at the inner ends of the blood- 
vessels, because moisture, i.e. moisture of a blood- 
like nature, must of necessity make its way out there, 
and, as it sets and solidifies, form the substance of 
the viscera. That, too, is why they are blood-like in 
character, and why the substance of all of them is 
similar, though different from that of the other 

XI. All the viscera are enclosed in membranes. Membranes. 
Some covering is needed to ensure their safety, and 

it must be a light one. These conditions are fulfilled 
by a membrane, Avhich is close-textured, thus making 
a good protection ; does not consist of flesh, and 
therefore does not draw in moisture or retain it ; is 
thin, therefore light, and causes no burden. The 
biggest and strongest membranes are those round 
the heart and the brain, which is natural enough, as 
it is always the controlling power Avhich has to be 
protected ; therefore the heart and the brain, Avhich 
have the supreme controlling poΛver over the life of 
the body, need the most pi-otection. 

XII. Some animals possess a full complement of Variations 
viscera, some do not. We have already stated what \?ig^l^ 
animals have less than the full number, and the 
reason. But also, the same viscera are different in 

the various animals that have them. For instance, 
the heart is not identical in all the animals which have 
a heart ; nor is any other of the viscera. The liver 
illustrates this : in some it is split into several parts, 
in some almost undivided. This variation of form is 



673 b 

αυτών των €ναίμων και ζωοτόκων ert δε μάλλον 

καΐ προς ταΰτα καΐ προς άλληλα ^ιαφίρζΐ τα re των 
20 Ιχ^θνων καΐ {τώνΥ τετραπόδων καΐ ωοτοκων. το ok 
των ορνίθων μάλιστα προσεμφερες τω των ζωο- 
τόκων €στΙν ηπατί' καθαρον γαρ και βναιμον το 
χρώμα αυτών €στι καθάπβρ κάκεινων. αίτιον he 
το τά σώματα τούτων βύπνουστατα etrat και μη 
πολλην €χ€ΐν φαύλην περίττωσιν. Βιόπερ evia και 
25 ουκ €χ€ΐ γολην τών ζωοτόκων το γαρ ήπαρ συμ- 
βάλλεται πολύ μέρος προς εύκρασιαν του σώματος 
και uytetay ev μεν γαρ τω α'ίματι μάλιστα το 
τούτων τέλος, το δ' ήπαρ αιματικώτατον μετά την 
καρΒίαν τών σπλάγχνων, τά 8ε τών τετραπόδων καΐ 
ώοτόκων καΐ τών ιχθύων ενωχρα τών πλείστων, 
30 ενίων δέ και φαΰλα παντελώς, ώσπερ και τά σώ- 
/χατα φαύλης τετνχηκε κράσεως, οίον φρυνης και 
χελώνης και τών άλλων τών τοιούτων. 

Σιπλήνα δ' έχει τά μεν κερατοφόρα και δΓ)^αλα 
στρογγύλον, καθάπερ αΐζ και πρόβατον και τών 
αλλω^ εκαστον, ει μη τι, δια μέγεθος εύαυζεστερον 

674 a έχει κατά μήκος, οίον ό του βοός πεπονθεν τά δβ 

πολυσχιδή πάντα μακρόν, οίον υς και άνθρωπος και 
κύων, τά δε μώνυχα μεταζύ τούτων και μικτόν τή 
μεν γάρ TrAarut' έχει τή δε στενόν, οίον Ιππος και 
όρεύς και όνος. 
5 XIII. Ου μόνον δε διαφέρει τά σπλάγχνα τής 
σαρκός τω όγκω του σώματος , αλλά και τω την^ 
μεν εζω τά δ' έσω τήν θεσιν ^χειν. αίτιον δ' ότι 

^ <τώμ> Peck. * την ESUYZ : τά vulg. 

» See above, on 650 b 24. Cf. 677 a 19 £F. 

PARTS OF ANIMALS, III. xii.-xiii. 

found first of all even among the viviparous blooded 
animals ; but it is more noticeable among the fishes 
and oviparous quadrupeds, whose livers differ not 
only from those of the Vivipara, but also from each 
other's. In birds, the liver very closely resembles 
that of the Vivipara : in both, its colour is pure and 
blood-like. The reason for Avhich is, that their bodies 
give a very free passage to the breath, which means 
that they retain very httle foul residue ; hence, indeed, 
some of the Vivipara have no gall-bladder, and this is 
largely due to the very considerable assistance given 
by the liver in maintaining a good blend" and healthi- 
ness in the body. This is because the purpose which 
these viscera serve lies chiefly in the blood, and after 
the heart the liver contains more blood than any 
other of the viscera. In most of the oviparous 
quadrupeds and the fishes the liver is yellowish, and 
in some of them it is altogether bad-looking, on a 
par Avith the bad blend of the rest of their bodies. 
This happens in the toad, the tortoise, and the like. 

As for the spleen : In horned animals that have 
cloven hoofs it is rounded : e.g. in the goat, the sheep, 
and similar animals ; unless greatness of size has 
made it groΛv out at some point lengthways, as in the 
case of the ox. In all the polydactylous animab the 
spleen is long, as in the pig, in man, and in the dog. 
In animals with solid hoofs the spleen is intermediate 
between the two and has the characteristics of both : 
in one place it is broad, in another narrow, as exempli- 
fied in the horse, the mule, and the ass. 

XIII. Now the viscera differ from the flesh not only 
in the bulkiness of their mass, but also in their 
situation, for the flesh is on the outside of the body, 
while they are inside. The reason for this is that 



6748 ^ ^ ^ 

TTjv φυσιν €χ€ί κοινωνούσαν ταΐς φλζφί, /cat τα μ^ν 

των φλ€βών χάριν, τά δ' ουκ avev φλεβών iartv. 

XIV. 'ΤτΓΟ δε το ύπόζωμα κβΐται η κοιλία τοις 

10 ζώοις, τοις μ€ν βχουσιν οίσοφάγον fj ταλέντα τοΰτο 
το μόρίον, τοις δε μη €χουσιν €ύθύς ττρος τω 
στόματι• της δε κοιλία? €χόμ€νον το καλόν μ€νον 

Δί' ην δ' αΐτίαν €χ€ί ταΰτα τά μόρια των ζωών 
€καστον, φανερον ττασιν. καΐ γαρ Ββζασθαι την 
€ίσ€λθοΰσαν τροφην και την €ζικμασμΙνην άναγ- 

15 καιον €κπ€μφαι, και μη τον αύτον τόττον elvai της 
τ' άττβτττου και του ττβριττωματος, eivai τέ τίνα 
δει τόττον iv ω μεταβάλλα. το μεν γαρ την €ΐσ- 
ίλθοΰσαν e^ei μόριον, το δε το περίττωμα το αχρη- 
στον ώσπερ δε χρόνος έτερος εκατερον τούτων, 
άναγκαΐον ^ιειληφθαι και τοΐς τόποις. άλλα περί 

20 μεν τούτων εν τοΐς περί την γενεσιν και την τροφην 
οίκειότερός ε'στιν 6 διορισμός• περί δε της Βιαφορας 
της κοιλίας και των συντελών μορίων νυν επι- 

Οΰ'τε γαρ τοΐς μεγεθεσιν ούτε τοΐς εϊ8εσιν όμοιας 
€χουσιν άλληλοις τά ζωα' αλλ' όσα μεν εστίν αυτών 
άμφώΒοντα των εναίμων και των ζωοτόκων, μίαν 

25 έχει κοιλίαν, οίον άνθρωπος καΐ κύων καΐ λέων καΐ 
ταλλα όσα πολυδάκτνλα, και δσα μώνυχα, οίον 
ίππος, όρεύς, όνος, καΐ όσα δίχαλα μεν άμφώδοντα 
δε', οίον ΰς, πλην ε'ί^ τι δια μέγεθος του σώματος 

* ύσπληξ η el ESUY {η om. Ε) : ύσπληξ πλην e' Ρ et corr. 
υ : ΰσπληγξ in ras. et supra και χοίρος Ζ^, turn πλην et Ζ^ : υς, 
€1 μη Bekker : is, πλην el μη Buss. 

' See Be gen. an. Bk. II. chh. 6 and 7. 

PARTS OF ANIMALS, III. xiii.-xiv. 

their nature shares that of the blood-vessels : some 
of them exist for the sake of the blood-vessels, 
others do not exist apart from the blood-vessels. 

XIV. Below the diaphragm is the Stomach, which stomach 
is placed where the oesophagus ends (if there is an intestines 
oesophagus ; if not, immediately next to the mouth). 
Next after the stomach and continuous with it is what 
is called the Gut. 

It must be obvious to everyone why all animals 
have these parts. It is a necessity for them to have 
some receptacle for the food they take in, and to 
expel it again when its moisture has been extracted 
from it ; and there must be two different places for 
these two things — the unconcocted food and the 
residue ; there must also be another place in which 
the change from one to the other is effected. Two 
receptacles, then, one for the incoming food, one for 
the residue which is no more use— as there is a 
separate time for these so there must be a separate 
place. However, it will be more appropriate to go 
into these matters in our treatise on Generation and 
Nutrition.'^ At the present we must consider the 
variations that are to be found in the stomach and its 
subsidiary parts. 

The stomach differs both in size and appearance in 
different animals. Those of the blooded Vivipara 
which have front teeth in both jaws have one 
stomach ; e.g. man, the dog, the lion, and the other 
polydactyls ; so also those that have solid hoofs, 
e.g. the horse, the mule, the ass ; and those which 
although they are cloven-hoofed have front teeth 
in both jaws, e.g. the pig. These rules apply unless 
the size of the frame and the character of the food 



674a ^ ^ ^ 

/cat TTjV της τροφής Βυναμιν, ονσαν ουκ €vtt€tttov 

30 αλλ' άκανθώΒη καΐ ζυλι,κήν, €χβί ττλβιου?, οΐον 
κάμηλος, ώσπ€ρ καΐ τά κερατοφόρα• τά γαρ 
Κ€ρατοφόρα ουκ έ'στιν άμφώδοντα. δια τοΰτο δε καΐ 
η κάμηλος ου των άμφω^όντων €στίν, άκίρατος 
ούσα, δια το άναγκαιότ€ρον elvat αύτη την κοι,λίαν 
€χ€ίν τοιαύτην η τους προσθίους οδόντας, ωστ 
674 b €77€ΐ ταυτην ομοίαν €χ€ΐ τοις μη άμφώΒονσί, καΐ τά 
π€ρΙ τους οδόντα? ομοίως e^ei αύτη, ως ού^ζν οντάς 
ττροέργου. άμα δε καΐ εττει η τροφή ακανθώδης, 
την δε γλώτταν ανάγκη σαρκώδη είναι, ττρος 
σκληρότητα του ουρανού κατακβχρηταί τω εκ των 
6 οδόντων γβώδβι η φύσις. καΐ μηρυκάζζΐ δ' η 
κάμηλος ώσττζρ τά κ€ρατοφόρα, δια το τάς κοιλίας 
όμοιας έ'χειν τοΓ? κβρατοφόροις. τούτων δ' βκαστον 
πλζίους ^χβι κοιλίας, οίον ττρόβατον, βοΰς, α'ίζ, 
€λαφος, και τάλλα τά τοιαύτα των ζώων, όπως 
βπειδη της Ιργασίας ελλειττει π€ρΙ την τροφην η 

10 λειτουργία η του στόματος δια την ενδειαν των 
οδόντων, η των κοιλιών έτερα προς έτερα? δεχηται^ 
την τροφην, ή μεν άκατέργαστον , η δε κατειργα- 
σμένην μάλλον, η δε πάμπαν, η δε λείαν. διό τά 
τοιαύτα των ζώων πλείους βχει τόπους και μόρια. 

15 καλούνται δε ταύτα κοιλία και κεκρύφαλος και 
€χΐνος και ηνυστρον. ον δ' ε;^ει τρόπον ταύτα προς 

^ Ββχηται Peck : 8€χομίντ] vulg. 



modify them : for instance, if the food is thorny and 
woody and therefore not easy to concoct, in which 
case the animal has several stomachs, e.g. the camel ; 
so also have the horned animals, as they have not front 
teeth in both jaws. Thus also the camel has not the 
two roΛvs of front teeth either, although it has no 
horns ; this is because it is more necessary for the 
camel to have several stomachs than to have all these 
front teeth. So, as it resembles the animals which 
lack the upper front teeth in that it has several 
stomachs, therefore the arrangement of its teeth 
is that which normally accompanies the multiple 
stomachs : in other words, it lacks these front teeth, 
as they would be no use to it. And also, as its food 
is thorny, and as the tongue has of necessity to be 
of a fleshy character, Nature has made use of the 
earthy matter saved from the missing teeth to make 
the roof of the mouth hard. Again, the camel 
ruminates as the horned animals do, because it has 
stomachs that resemble theirs. Every one of the 
horned animals (such as the sheep, the ox, the goat, 
the deer, and the like) has several stomachs ; and the 
purpose of them is this : Since the mouth is deficient 
in teeth, the service Λvhich it performs upon the food 
is deficient ; and so one stomach after another 
receives the food, Avhich is quite untreated when it 
enters the first stomach, more treated in the next, 
completely treated in the next, and a smooth pulp 
in the next. And that is ^v\^y these animals have 
sevei'al such places or parts, the names of which are 
(1) the paunch (rumen), (2) the net or honeycomb-bag 
{reticulum), (3) the manyplies (oviasum), (4) the reed" 
{abomasum). For the relation of these to each other 

<• Or, true stomach. 

κ 2 291 


674 b 

αλλτ^λα TTJ θεσ€ΐ καΐ τοις etSeaiv, εκ re της Ιστορίας 
της 7Τ€ρΙ τα ζωα Sei θεωρεΐν και €κ των ανατομών. 
Δια την αυτήν δ' αΐτίαν καΐ το των ορνίθων 
γένος έχει ^ιαφοραν περί το της τροφής Scktikov 

20 μόριον. εττβΐ γαρ ovSe ταύτα δλως την του στό- 
ματος αττοδιδωσι Χειτουργίαν [ανοίοντα γάρ) καϊ 
'-ονθ^ ω Βίαιρησει οϋθ^ ω Xeavet την τροφην βχουσι, 
δια τούτο τα μεν προ της κοιλίας εχονσι τον 
καλούμενον ττρόλοβον αντί της του στόματος εργα- 
σίας, οΐ δέ τοι^ οίσοφάγον ττλατύν, η ττρό της κοιλίας 

25 αυτοί; μέρος τι όγκώ8ες εν ω προθησαυρίζουσι την 
άκατέργαστον τροφην, η της κοιλίας αύτης tl 
€πανεστηκός, οΐ δ' αύτην την κοιλίαν ισχυράν και 
σαρκώδη ττρος το δυνασ^αι πολύν χρόνον θησαυρί- 
ζειν καΐ πεττειν άλείαντον ουσαν την τροφην τη 
δυνάμει γάρ και τη θερμότητι της κοιλίας η φύσις 

80 αναλαμβάνει την τοΰ στόματος ένδβιαν. είσί 8ε 
τίνες οι τούτων ούδεν εχουσιν, άλλα τον πρόλοβον^ 
μακρόν, οσα μακροσκελή και έ'λεια, δια την της 
τροφής ύγρότητα. αίτιον δ' οτ6 η τροφή πάσι 
τούτοις εύλεαντος , ώστε au/x^au'etv δια ταΰτα τών 
τοιούτων τάς κοιλίας είναι νγράς [δια την άπεφίαν 
και την τροφην^.^ 
675 a Το 8έ τών ιχθύων γένος έχει μεν οδόντας, τού- 
τους δε καρχαρόδοντας σχεδόν ως ειπείν πάντες^• 
ολίγον γάρ τί εστί γένος το μη τοιούτον, οίον ό 
καλούμενος σκάρος, ος δη και δοκεΐ μηρυκάζειν 

^ Ίτρόλοβον] στόμαχον Ogle, coUato Hist. An. 509 a 9. 

^ secludenda. 

' ndvres Ogle : πάντας vulg. 

" At 507 a 36 ff. " The gizzard. 

* Ogle reads " oesophagus." 



as regards position and appearance, the Researches 
upon Animals " and the treatises on Anatomy should be 

The same reason as has just been described accounts 
for the difference which presents itself in birds in the 
part which receives the food. Birds, like the other 
animals, do not get the full service from the mouth in 
dealing with the food — since they have no teeth at 
all, and they have nothing with which to bite up or 
grind down the food ; and so some of them have, 
before the stomach, what is called the crop, to per- 
form the work instead of the mouth. Others have 
a broad oesophagus ; or their oesophagus has a 
bulge in it, just before it reaches the stomach, in 
which they keep a preliminary store of untreated 
food ; or some part of the stomach itself sticks out. 
Others have a strong and fleshy stomach * which 
is thus able to store the food up for a long period 
and to concoct it although it has not been ground 
down ; thus Nature makes up for the deficiency of 
the mouth by means not only of the heat of the 
stomach but also by its special character. Other 
birds have none of these devices, but a long crop," 
because their food is moist : these are the long-legged 
marsh birds. The reason for this is that the food 
which all of these take is easily ground doAvn, and 
the result is that the stomachs of birds of this sort 
are moist [owing to the unconcocted and moist state 
of the food]. 

The tribe of fishes have teeth : practically all have 
saw-teeth. There is one small group to which this 
does not apply, e.g. the Scarus,** as it is called, and 
it seems reasonable to suppose that this is why 

<* The parrot-fish ; see above, 662 a 7. 



675 β 

5 βύλόγως δια ταύτα μόνος' καΐ γαρ τα μη άμφώ- 

8οντα κ€ρατοφόρα δε μηρυκάζει, όζβΐς δε ττάντας^ 
€χονσίν, ωστ€ διελεΓν μβν δύνανται, φαύλως δέ δι- 
eXetv βνΒίατρίβζΐν γαρ ούχ οΐόν re χρονίζοντας' διο- 
776/3 ovSe πλατ€Ϊς €χονσίν οδόντας, ού8^ ενδέχε- 
ται λεαινειν μάτην αν οΰν ζΐχον. έ'τι δε στομαχον 

10 οί μεν όλως ουκ ζχουσίν, οΐ δε βραχυν. αλλά προς 
την βοηθααν της ττεΊ/τεω? οΐ μεν ορνιθώδει? €χουσι 
τάς κοιλίας καΐ σαρκώδεις•, οίον κεστρευ?, οι δε 
πολλοί παρά την κοιλίαν άποφυά8ας πυκνας, ιν 
εν τανταις ωσπ€ρ εν προλακκίοις θησαυρίζοντας 
συσσηπωσι καΐ ττεττωσι την τροφην. βχουσί ο 

15 ενάντια)? οι Ιχθύας τοις ορνισι τα? άποφυάδας• οι 
μίν γάρ Ιχθύζς άνω προς τη κοιλία, των δ' ορνίθων 
οί 'άχοντζς άποφυάΒας κάτω προς τω τέλει του 
Εντέρου. €χονσι δ' άποφυάδας ενια και των ζωο- 
τόκων εντερικά? κάτω δια την αυτήν αιτιαν. 
Το δε των ιχθύων γίνος άπαν, δια το ενδεεστερω? 

20 εχειν τα ττερι τήν της τροφής €ργασιαν, αΛΛ 
άττετΓτα δια;)^ωρεΓν, λαίμαργον προς την τροφην 
εστί, και των άλλων δε ττάντων οσα ευ^υεντερα* 
ταχεία? yap γινομένης της διαχωρησβως, και δια 
ταύτα βραχείας ούσης της άπολαύσαως , ταχεΐαν 
άναγκαιον γινεσ^αι ττάλιν και ττ^ν έπιθνμίαν. 

26 Τά δ' άμφώδοντα οτι μεν μικράν έχει κοιλίαν 
ζϊρηται ττρότερον ει? διαφοράς δε πίπτουσι δυο 
ττάσαι σχεδόν τά μεν yap ττ^ τη? κυνο? όμοιαν 

^ ττάνταί S : πάντί? vulg. 

" Probably some kind of mullet. 

* *' Caecal appendages " (Ogle), or " alimentary sacs." 

' The vermiform appendix. 


it alone ruminates, for horned animals which have no 
teeth in the upper jaΛv also ruminate. All teeth in fish 
are sharp ; this enables them to bite up their food, 
though somewhat unsatisfactorily ; this is because 
they cannot spend long over mastication ; hence 
they neither have flat teeth nor may they grind 
the food down ; therefore it would be idle to have 
the teeth. Furthermore, some fishes have no gullet 
at all, others have a short one ; but, in order to as- 
sist the process of concoction, some of them, like the 
Kestreus," have fleshy stomachs, similar to those of 
birds ; the majority, however, have a large number 
of appendages ** by the side of the stomach, in which 
to store up the food as it might be in additional cellars 
and there putrefy it up and concoct it. The ap- 
pendages of fishes are, hoAvever, quite different from 
those of birds. In fishes they are fairly high up 
beside the stomach, whereas Λvhen present in birds 
they are doAvn below at the end of the gut. Some 
of the Vivipara also have appendages ** of this latter 
kind, and their purpose is the same. 

The whole race of fishes is gluttonous for food, 
because their equipment for reducing it is defective, 
as a result of which most of it passes through un- 
concocted. Of all, those which have a straight intes- 
tine are especially gluttonous, since the food passes 
through quickly, which means that their enjoyment 
of it is brief, and therefore in its turn the desire for 
food must come on again very quickly. 

I have already said that in animals with front 
teeth in both jaws the stomach is small. These 
stomachs fall into two main classes. Some have a 
stomach resembling that of the dog, some that of 


675 a ^ 

€χουσι κοιΛιαν, τα 8e rfj της νός• eWt δ' η μεν της 

ύός μβίζων και τίνα? έχουσα μετρίας ττλάκας ττρος 

το χρονιωτεραν γίνεσθαι την ττεφιν, η he της κυνος 

30 μικρά, το μέγεθος καΐ ου ττολύ τον έντερου ύττερ- 
βάλλουσα καΐ λεία τα εντός, μετά γαρ την κοιλίαν 
η των εντέρων έγκειται φύσις ττάσι τοις ζωοις. έχει 
δε Βιαφοράς πολλάς, καθάπερ η κοιλία, καΐ τοΰτο 
το μόριον. τοις μεν γαρ άττλοΰν εστί και δμοιον 
άναλυόμενον, τοις δ' άνόμοιον ενίοις μεν γαρ εύρν- 

35 τερον το ττρος τη κοιλία, το 8ε ττρος τω Te'Aei 
στενότερον^ {8ιόπερ at κύνες μετά ττόνον προιενται 
675 b την τοιαύτην ττερίττωσιν), τοΖς δε ττλείοσιν άνωθεν 
στενότερον,^ ττρος τω τέλει δ' εύρύτερον. 

Μ,είζω δε και άνα^ιττλώσεις έχοντα ττολλας τα 
των κερατοφόρων εστί, καΐ οι όγκοι της κοιλίας 
τούτοις μείζους και των εντέρων δια το μέγεθος• 
5 ττάντα γαρ ως ειπείν μεγάλα τα κερατοφόρα δια 
την κατεργασίαν την της τροφής, ττάσι δε τοις μη 
εύθυεντέροις ττροΐόν' εύρύτερον γίνεται το μόριον 
τοΰτο, και το καλούμενον κόλον εχουσι, και του 
εντέρου τυφλόν τι και ογκώΒες, ειτ' εκ τούτου 
ττάλιν στενότερον^ και ειλιγμένον. το δε μετά 

10 τοΰτο ευθύ ττρος την εζοΒον Βιατείνει τοΰ ττεριτ- 
τώματος, και τοις μεν τοΰτο το μόριον, 6 καλού- 
μενος άρχος, κνισωΒης εστί, τοις δ' άπίμελος. 
ττάντα δε ταΰτα μεμηχάνηται τη φύσει ττρός τάς 
άρμοττούσας εργασίας ττερΧ την τροφην καΐ τοΰ 
γινομένου ττεριττώματος. ττροΐόντι γαρ καΐ κατά- 
βαίνοντι τω ττεριττώματι ευρυχωρία γίνεται, και 

15 ττρος το μεταβάλΧειν ίσταμένω τοις εύχιλοτέροις 

* στενώτΐρον bis vulg. * προϊόν Peck : ηροϊοΰσιν Viilg, 

* στ€νότίρον SU : στενώτίρον vulg. 


the pig. The pig's stomach is larger than the dog's, 
and it has some folds of medium size, so as to prolong 
the time of concoction. The dog's is small in size — 
not much bigger indeed than the gut, and its inner 
surface is smooth. The gut has its place next after 
the stomach in all animals. Like the stomach, this 
part too presents many various forms. In some 
animals it is simple and similar throughout its 
length, when uncoiled ; in others it is not similar 
throughout. Thus, in some it is wider near the 
stomach, and narrower towards the end (that is why- 
dogs find difficulty in discharging their excrement) ; 
in the majority, however, it is narrower at the tojj, 
and wider at the end. 

In the horned animals, the intestines are longer and 
have many convolutions ; and their bulk (as well as 
the bulk of the stomach) is greater, owing to the size 
of the animal : horned animals being, on the whole, 
large in size because of the ample treatment which 
their food receives. Except in those animals where 
it is straight the intestine gets wider as it proceeds, 
and they have what is called the colon and the 
blind and swollen part of the gut '^ ; and then after 
that point it gets narrower again and convoluted. 
After this, it goes on in a straight line to the place 
where the residue is discharged ; and in some this 
part (which is called the anus) is supplied Λvith fat, in 
others it is devoid of fat. All these parts have been 
devised by Nature to suit their appropriate functions 
in treating the food and in dealing with the residue 
produced. As the residue proceeds on its way and goes 
downwards, it finds a wider space where it remains 
in order to undergo transformation ; this is what 

" The caecal dilatation. 



675 b ^ 

των ζώων /cat πλίίονος Β€ομ€νοις τροφής, δια το 

μβγβθος η την θερμότητα των τόττων. eir ev- 
Tevdev ττάλιν, ώσπερ από της ανω κοίλιας ^4χ€ται 
στ€νότ€ρον^ evTepov, ούτως €Κ του κώλου καΐ της 
€νρυχωρίας iv τή κάτω κοιλία ττάλιν ζΐς στενό- 

20 Tepov^ €ρχβταί καΐ et? την έλικα το περίττωμα 
έζικμασμενον ττάμπαν, όπως ταμιευηται η φύσις 
καΐ μη αθρόος fj η εξοΒος του περιττώματος . 

"Οσα μεν ονν eivai hεΐ των ζώων σωφρονέστερα 
Ίτρος την της τροφής ποίησιν ευρυχωρίας μεν ουκ 
βχει μεγάλας κατά την κάτω κοιλίαν, έλικας δ' 

25 ^χ^ΐ' πλείους και ουκ εύθυεντερά εστίν, η μεν γαρ 
ευρυχωρία ποιεί πλήθους επιθυμίαν, η δ' εύθύτης 
ταχύτητα επιθυμίας• 8ιόπερ δσα των ζώων ή άπλας 
έχει η ευρύχωρους τάς ύποΒοχάς, τα μεν εΙς πλήθος 
γαστρίμαργα τά δ' εις τάχος εστίν. 

'Έπει δ' εν τή άνω μεν κοιλία κατά την πρώτην 

80 εϊσοΒον τής τροφής νεαράν άναγκαΖον εΐναι την 
τροφην, κάτω δε προΐοΰσαν κοπρώΒη καΐ εζ- 
ικμασμενην, άναγκαΐον εΐναί τι και το μεταζυ, 
εν ω μεταβάλλει και οΰτ* ετι πρόσφατος οϋτ' ή8η 
κόπρος. δια τοΰτο πάντα τά τοιαύτα ζωα την 
καλουμενην έχει νηστιν και εν τω μετά την κοιλίαν 

85 εντερω τω λεπτω• τούτο γάρ μεταζύ τής τ' άνω, εν 
fj το άπεπτον, και τής κάτω, εν η το άχρηστον ή8η 
περίττωμα, γίνεται δ' εν πάσι μεν, 8ήλη δ' εν τοις 

^ στΐνώτΐρον bis Langkavel. 

" i.e. the " stomach." 
'' i.e. the " large intestine." 


happens in the animals which need and take more 
food oΛving either to their size or to the heat of these 
parts of the body. After this, just as it goes into a 
narrower part of the intestine after it leaves the upper 
gut," so also it goes into a narroΛver channel after 
the colon or wide part of the ΙοΛνβΓ gut,^ and into 
the spiral coil ; into these the residue passes when 
its juices have been completely exhausted. In this 
Λvay Nature is enabled to keep the material in store, 
and the residue is prevented from passing out all at 
the same moment. 

In those animals, hoΛvever, which have to be more 
controlled in their feeding, there are no great wide 
spaces in the loΛver gut, but their intestine is not 
straight, as it contains many convolutions. Spacious- 
ness in the gut causes a desire for bulk of food, and 
straightness in the intestine makes the desire come 
on again quickly. Hence, animals of this sort are 
gluttonous : those with simple receptacles eat at very 
short intervals of time, those with spacious ones eat 
very large quantities. 

Since the food in the upper gut, when it has just Jejunum, 
entered, must of necessity be fresh, and when it 
has proceeded further downAvards must have lost its 
juices and be practically dung, the organ Avhich lies 
betΛveen the two must of necessity be something 
definite, in which the change is effected, where food 
is no longer fresh and not yet dung. Therefore all 
animals of this sort have what is called the jejunum, 
which forms part of the small intestine, which is next 
to the stomach. That is to say, it has its place 
between the upper gut, where the unconcocted 
food is, and the lower gut, Avhere the now useless 
residue is. All these animals have the jejunum, but 



676 a //,βίζοσι καΐ νηστζυσασιν αλλ' ουκ iSrjSoKoaLV τοτ€ 
γαρ 8η^ οΐον^ μ^ταίχμιον yiverai των τόπων αμφο- 
τέρων, βΒη^οκότων δε μυκρός ο καιρός της /χετα- 
βολης. τοις μ€ν οΰν θήλεσι.^ ytVerat οπού αν τύχη 
5 του άνω ίντ^ρου ή νηστις• οΐ δ' appeves* εχουσί προ 
του τυφλού καΐ της κάτω κοιλίας. 

XV. "Έιχουσι δε την καλουμένην πυ€τιαν τα μεν 
πολυκοίλία πάντα, των δε μονοκοιλίων ^ασυπους. 
€χ€ί δε τα έχοντα των ποΧυκοίλίων την πνετιαν ουτ 
iv τη μεγάλη κοιλία οΰτ' εν τω κεκρυφάλω ουτ εν 

10 τω τελευταία) τω ηνύστρω, αλλ' εν τω /χεταςυ του 
τελευταίου και [δυο]* των πρώτων, εν τω καλού- 
μενα) εχίνω. έχει δε ταΰτα πάντα ττυετι'αν δια την 
παχυτητα του γάλακτος• τα δε μονοκοίλια ουκ 
έχει, λεπτον γαρ το γάλα των μονοκοιλίων. διο 
των μεν κερατοφόρων πηγνυται, των δ ακερατων 

15 ού πηγνυται το ycίλα. τω δε δασυττοδι γίνεται 
πυετία δια το ι^ε'/χεσ^αι 6πώ8η ποαν ο γαρ τοιού- 
τος χυμός συνίστησιν εν τη κοιλία το yαλα τοΓ? 
εμβρύοις. διότι δε των πολυκοιλίων εν τω εχινω 
γίνεται η πυετία, ε'ίρηται εν τοις προβλημασιν. 

^ hr]7j•. ηδη vulg. 

* οίον ΡΖ, om. viilg. 

^ θηλεσί] reAeiots Ζ : πλειΌσι Piatt. 

* appeves] Kvves Piatt. 

* [δυο] secludendum. 

" This seems to mean that when the animal is fasting the 
two receptacles do not bulge, and so the jejunum is visible ; 
and though after the animal has fed you might expect to see 
the jejunum, because it should be full of food which is being 



it is apparent only in the larger ones, and in them 
only when they are fasting, not when they have 
recently been eating, for Avhen they are fasting, there 
is an interspace between the two receptacles, whereas 
Λvhen they have been eating, the time taken by the 
change is short.** In females the jejunu7)i can have its 
place in any part of the upper intestine ; in males 
it is placed immediately before the caecum and the 
lower gut. 

XV. What goes by the name of Rennet is present Rennet 
in all animals which have a multiple stomach ; the 
hare is the only animal with a single stomach which 
has it. In the former class the rennet is not in the 
paunch ^ nor in the reticulum, nor in the abomasum (the 
last of the stomachs) ; but in the stomach between 
the last one and the first ones, i.e. the so-called 
omasum (manyplies)." All these animals have rennet 
because their milk is so thick ; similarly, the single- 
bellied animals have no rennet, because their milk 
is thin. This also explains why the milk of horned 
animals coagulates, while that of the hornless does 
not. As for the hare, it has rennet because it feeds 
on herbs with fig-like juice ; and this juice can 
coagulate the milk in the stomach of sucklings. I 
have stated in the Problems^ why, in the animals 
that have many stomachs, the rennet is formed in 
the manypUes. 

transmuted inside it (see above, 675 b 32), it is not visible, 
because the change is eifected so rapidly. 

'' Lit. " the great stomach." 

•^ See above, 674 b 14 if. 

■* No such reference can be found. 



676 a 

Ύόν αυτόν δε τρόπον έχζΐ τα. ττ^ρϊ τα aTrAay^va 
καΐ την κοιλίαν καΐ των ^Ιρημενων μορίων ζκαστον 
τοις τ€τραπόσί μεν ωοτόκοις 8e των ζώων και τοις 

2δ αττοσιν, οίον τοις όφ^σιν. και γαρ η των όφεων 
φύσις εστί συγγενής τούτοις' όμοια γαρ εστί σαυρω 
μακρω^ καΙ αττοδι. τούτοις δε και τοις Ιχθύσι 
πάντα παραπλήσια, πλην τα μεν έχει πλεύμονα δια 
το πεζεύειν, οι δ' ουκ εχουσιν, άλλα βραγχια αντί 
του πλεύμονος. κύστιν δ' ούθ' οι ιχθύες εχουσιν 

30 οΰτε τούτων ού^εν πλην χελώνης• τρέπεται γαρ εις 
τας φολίΒας τό ύγρόν όλιγοπότων όντων δια την 
άναιμότητα του πλεύμονος, καθάπερ τοις όρνισιν 
εΙς τα. πτερά, και επιλευκαίνει δε το περίττωμα 
πασι και τούτοις, ωσπερ και τοις Ορνισιν, διότι^ εν 
τοις εχουσι κύστιν εξελθόντος του περιττώματος 

35 υφίσταται άλμυρις γεώΒης εν τοις άγγείοις• τό γαρ 
γλυκύ και πότιμον αναλίσκεται δια κουφότητα εις 
τάς σάρκας. 
676 b Των δ' όφεων οι έχεις προς τους άλλους εχουσι 
την αυτιών Βιαφοράν ην και εν τοις ι;^^υσι τα 
σελάχη προς τους άλλους• ζωοτοκοΰσι γαρ εζω και 
τα σελάχη και οι €χεις, εν αύτοΐς ωοτοκησαντα 
πρώτον, μονοκοίλια δε πάντα τα τοιαύτα εστί, 

^ μακρύ) Υ : μακρω η vulg. ^ διότι Ogle : διόπίρ vulg, 



What has been said already on the subject of the 
viscera, the stomach, and each of the other parts 
mentioned, apphes to the footless creatures (such as 
the Serpents) as well as to the oviparous quadrupeds. 
Indeed, the Serpents are akin to these : for a serpent 
is like a long and footless lizard. A third class in 
Λvhich all these parts are similar is the Fishes : the 
only difference is that the first two classes are land- 
creatures and therefore have a lung, Λvhereas fishes 
have no lung but gills instead. Fishes have no 
bladder, nor has any of these creatures (except the 
tortoise) ; the reason is that they drink little (because 
their lung is bloodless), and the moisture in them 
is diverted to the horny scales, just as in birds it is 
diverted to the feathers. And in all these creatures, 
as in birds, the residue " is Avhite on the surface, 
since in those animals that have a bladder, Avhen the 
residue has been voided an earthy salt deposit 
settles in the vessels, the sweet and non-briny por- 
tion, oΛving to its lightness, being used up upon the 

The Vipers have the same peculiarity among the 
Serpents as the Selachia have among the Fishes. 
Both of them are externally viviparous, though 
they first produce their ova internally. All these 

" See Introduction, pp. 32 ff. 



676 b ^ - y , , y , i% 

5 καθα7Τ€ρ τάλλα τά άμφώΒοντα' και σπλάγχνα 0€ 

ττάμπαν μικρά e^ei, ωσττβρ ταλλα τά μη έχοντα 

κύστιν. οΐ δ' οφβις δια την τον σώματος μορφην^ 

οΰσαν μακράν καΐ στ^νην, καΐ τά σχτί/^ατα των 

σπλάγχνων βχουσι δια ταΰτα μακρά καΐ τοις των 

άλλων ζωών ανόμοια, δια το καθάπερ ev τνπω τα 

10 σ;^τ7/χατ' αυτών πλασθηναι δια τον τόπον. 

Έτη'ττλοον δε καΐ μ€σ€ντ€ριον καΐ τά π€ρι την 
των εντέρων φνσιν, 'έτι he το διάζω/χα «rat την 
καρΒίαν πάντ* €χ€ΐ τά eVai/xa των ζωών, πλευμονα 
δε και άρτηρίαν πάντα πλην των Ιχθύων, και την 
θέσιν δε της αρτηρίας και του οισοφάγου πάντα 

16 τά έχοντα ομοίως 'έχει διά τάς ειρημένας αίτια? 

II. Έχει δε και χολην τά πολλά των εναιμων 
ζώων, τά μεν εττι τω ηπατι, τά δ' άπηρτημένην έπι 
τοις εντέροις, ως οΰσαν ονχ ήττον εκ της κάτω 
κοιλίας την φύσιν αυτής. Βήλον δε μάλιστ επι των 

20 ιχθύων ούτοι γάρ εχονσί τε πάντες, και οι πολλοί 
προς τοΐς^ εντέροις, ενιοι δε παρ' όλον το εντερον 
παρυφασμενην, οίον ή ά/χια• καΐ των οφεων οι 
πλείστοι τον αύτον τρόπον. Βιόπερ οΐ λέγοντες την 
φύσιν τής χολής αισθήσεώς τίνος είναι χάριν ου 
καλώς λέγουσιν φασι γάρ εΐναι διά τοΰτο, όπως 

28 τής φυχής το περί το ήπαρ μόριον Βάκνουσα μεν 
συνιστή, λυομένη δ' ιλέων ποιή• τά μεν γάρ όλως 

^ τοΐ? ΡΥΖ et corr. U : om. vtilg. 

" See 665 a 10 ff. " See 650 a 14. 

" This seems to refer to the views expressed in Plato, 
Timaeus, 71 d. 


creatures have one stomach only, as do the other 
animals that have front teeth in both jaws. And 
their viscera are quite small, as are those of the 
other creatures which have no bladder. However, 
on account of the shape of the serpents' bodies, 
which is long and narrow, the shape of their viscera 
too is consequently long, thus differing from those 
of other animals. This is because the shape of them 
is fashioned, as though in a mould, on account of the 
space available for them. 

All blooded animals have an omentum, a mesen- 
tery, and the Avhole intestinal equipment ; also a dia- 
phragm and a heart ; and all but the fishes have a 
lung and a Λvindpipe too. The relative positions of 
the windpipe and the oesophagus are the same in all 
of them. The reasons for this have been given 

II. The majority of the blooded animals have a Gaii-biadder 
gall-bladder in addition. In some it is placed up '"^ 
against the liver ; in others it is separate from the 
liver and placed against the intestines, indicating 
that equally in these its derivation is from the lower 
gut.'' This is clearest in the fishes, all of which have 
one, and in most of them it is placed against the 
intestines, though in some it runs along the whole 
length of the intestine, like a Avoven border, as in 
the Amia ; a similar arrangement is found in most of 
the serpents. Hence, those Λvho assert that the gall- 
bladder is present for the sake of some act of sensation 
are wTong. They say its purpose is as follows : — 
on the one hand (a) to irritate that part of the Soul 
which is around the liver, and so to congeal it " ; and 
on the other hand (b) by running free to make that 
part cheerful. This cannot be true ; because some 



ουκ €χ€ί χολην, οίον Ιττπος καΐ όρενς και όνος και 
€λαφος καΐ ττρόζ' ουκ €χ€ΐ δ' ούδ' -η κάμηλος 
άτΓοκ^κριμένην, άλλα φλέβι,α χολώδη μάλλον ουκ 
€χ€ί δ' ούΒ' η φώκη χολήν, ουδέ των θαλαττιων 

30 Βζλφίς. iv he τοις yeVeat τοις αύτοΐς τα /xev €χ€ίν 
φαίνεται τά δ' ουκ εχαν, οΐον iv τω των μυών 
τούτων δ' €στΙ καΐ 6 άνθρωπος, evLOL μεν γαρ 
φαίνονται έχοντες χολην εττΐ του ηττατος, ενιοι δ' 
ουκ έχοντες• διό και γίνεται άμφισβητησις ττερι 
όλου τοΰ γένους' οι γαρ εντυχόντες οττοτερωσοΰν 

35 εχουσι ττερι πάντων ύπολαμβάνουσιν ώς απάντων 
εχόντων, συμβαίνει Βε τοιούτον καΐ περί τα πρό- 
βατα και τάς atyas" τα μεν γαρ πλείστα τούτων 
677 a ^χ€ΐ χολην, αλλ' ενιαχοΰ μεν τοσαύτην ώστε 8οκεΐν 
τέρας efvat την ύπερβολην, οΐον εν Νά^ω, ενιαχοΰ 
δ' ουκ εχουσιν, οΐον εν Χαλκιδι της Ευβοίας κατά 
τίνα τόπον της χώρας αυτών, ετι δε, ώσπερ ε'ιρη- 

6 ται, η τών ιχθύων άπηρτηται πολύ τοΰ ήπατος, 
ουκ ορθώς δ' εοίκασιν οι περί ^Αναζαγόραν ύπο- 
λαμβάνειν ώς αΐτίαν οΰσαν τών οζεων νοσημάτων 
ύπερβάλλουσαν γαρ άπορραίνειν προς τε τον πλευ- 
μονα και τάς φλέβας και τά πλευρά. σχεΒον γαρ 
ο'ις ταΰτα συμβαίνει τά πάθη τών νόσων, ουκ 

10 εχουσι χολ7^ν, εν τε ταΓ? άνατομαΐς αν εγίνετο τοΰτο 
φανερόν ετι he το πλήθος τό τ' εν τοις άρρωστη- 
/χασιν υπάρχον και το άπορραινόμενον άσύμβλητον. 
αλλ' εοικεν η χολή, καθάπερ και η κατά τό άλλο 

" This is true of quite a number of species, and as Aristotle 
says, the gall-bladder is specially variable in mice. In man, 
its absence is rare ; and Aristotle's statement may well be 
derived from his observation of aborted embryos, in which 
the gall-bladder develops someΛvhat late. 



animals have no gall-bladder at all, such as the horse, 
the mule, the ass, the deer, and the roe ; and the 
camel has no distinct gall-bladder, but what would 
better be described as consisting of small biliary 
vessels. There is no gall-bladder in the seal, nor 
(among sea-animals) in the dolphin. Sometimes in 
the same group there are some animals Λvhich look as 
if they have one, and some as if they have none" : 
This is true of the Mice ; and also of the human 
species, as in some individuals the gall-bladder is 
placed against the liver and is obvious ; while in some 
it is missing. The result of this has been a dispute 
concerning the group as a whole. Whatever an 
observer has found to be the condition of the indi- 
viduals he happens to have seen, that he holds is true 
of every individual throughout the group. The same 
has occurred Λvith regard to sheep and goats, most of 
which have a gall-bladder ; but, whereas in some 
Individuals it is so large that its excessive size is 
portentous (e.g. in Naxos), in others it is entirely 
absent (e.g. in a particular district of Chalcis, Euboea). 
A further point, already mentioned, is that in fishes 
the gall-bladder is separated from the liver by a good 
distance. Moreover, it is safe to say that Anaxa- 
goras's school is wTong in holding that the gall-bladder 
is the cause of acute diseases : they say that when it 
gets too full it spurts its liquid out into the lung and 
blood-vessels and sides. This must be vvTong, because 
nearly everyone who suffers from these affections 
actually has no gall-bladder, and this would be proved 
if they were dissected. Besides, there is no com- 
parison between the amount of bile which is present 
in these ailments and that which is emitted from the 
gall-bladder. No ; it seems probable that, just as the 



677 a ^ , , , , , « / 

σώμα γινομένη ττ€ρίττωμά τι ianv η σνντηζις, 

οϋτω καΐ η βπΐ τω ηπατί χολή περίττωμα etvai και 

15 ούχ eveKa τίνος, ώσττερ καΐ η iv Tfj κοιλία καΐ 
iv τοις €ντ€ροις νπόστασις. καταχρηται μεν οΰν 
ivLOTe Ύ] φύσις εΙς το ώφελιμον και τοις ττεριττώ- 
μασιν, ου μην δια τοΰτο Ββΐ ζητεΐν πάντα evcKa 
τίνος' άλλα τινών όντων τοιούτων 'έτερα εζ ανάγκης 
συμβαίνει δια ταΰτα πολλά. 
"Οσοις μεν ουν η του ήπατος συστασι? i5yteiv^ 

20 εστί καΐ η του αίματος φύσις γλυκεία η εις τοϋτ 
άποκρινομενη, ταΰτα μεν η πάμπαν ουκ ϊσχει χολην 
επΙ του ήπατος, η εν τισι φλεβίοις, η τα μεν τα δ 
ου. διό και τά ήπατα τα τών άχόλων εϋχρω και 
γλυκερά εστίν ως επίπαν ειπείν, και τών εχόντων 

25 χολην το ύπο τη χολή του ήπατος γλυκύτατόν 
εστίν. τών δε συνιστάμενων εζ ήττον καθαρού 
αίματος τούτου^ εστίν η χολ-η το γινόμενον περίτ- 
τωμα• εναντίον τε γαρ τη τροφή το περίττωμα 
βούλεται etvat και τω γλυκεΐ το πικρόν, καΐ το 
α?/χα γλυκύ το ύγιαΐνον. φανερον ούν δτι ου τίνος 

30 ένεκα, αλλ' άποκάθαρμά €στιν η χολή. διό καΐ 
χαριεστατα λεγουσι τών αρχαίων οι φάσκοντες 
αίτιον eivat τού πλείω ζην χρόνον το μη εχειν 
χολην, βλεφαντες επι τά μώνυχα και τάς ελάφους• 
ταΰτα γαρ άχολά τε και ζη πολύν χρόνον. έτι δε 
και τά μη εωραμενα ύττ' εκείνων οτι ουκ έχει 

35 χολην, οίον ^ελφις και κάμηλος, και ταΰτα τυγ- 
χάνει μακρόβια οντά. εϋλογον γαρ την τοΰ ήπατος 

^ τούτου Peck : tout' vulg. 


bile elsewhere in the body is a residue or colliques- 
cence, so this bile around the liver is a residue 
and serves no purpose — like the sediment pro- 
duced in the stomach and the intestines. I agree 
that occasionally Nature turns even residues to 
use and advantage, but that is no reason for trying 
to discover a purpose in all of them. The truth is 
that some constituents are present for a definite 
purpose, and then many others are present of 
?iecessitij in consequence of these. 

We may say, then, that in animals Λvhose liver is 
healthy in its composition, and in which the blood 
that supplies the liver is sweet, there is either no 
gall-bladder at all by the liver, or else the bile is in 
tiny vessels, or else in some these are present and in 
some not. This is \vhy the livers of gall-bladderless 
animals are, generally, of a good colour and sweet ; 
and in those that have a gall-bladder the part of the 
liver immediately below it is verv sweet. But in those 
animals which are formed out of blood which is less 
pure, the bile is the residue of this ; since " residue " 
means that which is the opposite of " food," and 
" bitter " the opposite of " sweet "; and healthy blood 
is SAveet. So it is evident that bile exists for no de- 
finite purpose, but is merely an offscouring. So that 
Avas an extremely neat remark which Λνε find made 
by some of the old authors, when they say that if you 
have no gall in you your life will be longer. This 
was a reference to animals with uncloven hoofs and 
to deer, which have no gall-bladder, and are long- 
lived. And also, certain other animals are long-hved, 
such as the dolphin and camel, which, though un- 
observed by them, have no gall-bladder. After all, 
the liver is vital and indispensable for all blooded 



677 a ^ 

φύσίν, €ττίκαιρον οΰσαν καΐ άναγκαίαν ττασι τοΓ? 

677 b βναίμοις ζωοις, αΐτίαν βίναι, ττοίάν τιν οΰσαν, του 

ζην βλάττω η ττλει'ω χρόνον. καΐ το τούτου μ^ν του 

σπλάγχνου βΐναι ττζρίττωμα τοιούτον, των δ' άλλων 

μιφζνός, κατά Χόγον €στίν. ttj μεν γαρ κάρδια 

τοιούτον ούδβνα πλησιάζειν οΐόν τ€ χυμόν (ουδέν 

δ γαρ δ€;)(€ται βίαιον πάθος), των δ' άλλων ovSev 
σπλάγχνων άναγκαΐόν €στι τοις ζωοις, το δ' ήπαρ 
μόνον 8ιόπ€ρ και τοΰτο συμβαίνει περί αυτό μόνον, 
άτοπον τ€ το μη πανταχού νομίζειν, οπού αν τις Ϊ8η 
φλέγμα η το 73τΓοστΐ7μα της κοιλίας, περίττωμα 
etvai, ομοίως δε Βηλον οτι και χολην, και μη 

10 8ιαφερεσθαι τοις τόποις. 

Και περί μεν χολής, δια τιν' αιτίαν τά μεν έχει 
τα δ ουκ έχει των ζώων, ε'ίρηται, III. περί δε 
μεσεντερίου και επιπλόου λοιπόν ειπείν ταΰτα γαρ 
εν τω τόπω τούτω και μετά των μορίων εστί 

15 'Έ,στι δε το μεν επιπλοον ύμην τοις μεν στέαρ 
εχουσι στεάτωσης, τοις δε πιμελην πιμελώΒης• 
ποία δ εστίν εκάτερα τούτων, ε'ίρηται πρότερον. 
ηρτηται^ δε το επίπλοον ομοίως τοις τε μονοκοιλίοις 
και τοις πολυκοιλίοις από μέσης της κοιλίας κατά 
την ύπογεγραμμενην οίον ραφήν επέχει δε τό τε 

20 λοΐ77ον της κοιλίας και τό των εντέρων πλήθος 
ομοίως τοις εναιμοις, εν τε τοις πεζοΐς και τοις 
ένυδροι? ζωοις. 

Ή μεν ονν γενεσις εξ ανάγκης συμβαίνει τοιαύτη 
του μορίου τούτου• ζηροΰ γάρ και ύγροΰ μίγματος 
θερμαινόμενου τό εσχατον άει ΒερματώΒες γίνεται 

' ^ρκται SUYZ. 



animals, and so it is quite reasonable to hold that the 
condition of it controls the length of its owner's life. 
And it is equally reasonable to hold that the liver 
produces a residue such as the bile although none of 
the other viscera does so. Take the heart : no such 
humour as bile could possibly come near the heart, 
because the heart cannot withstand any violent 
affection. Of the other viscera none is indispensable 
to an animal, except the liver only, and that is why 
this phenomenon occurs in connexion Avith the liver 
exclusively. And it would be absurd to say that 
phlegm and the sediment produced by the stomach 
are residues when found in some places but not in 
others ; and clearly the same applies to bile : its 
locality makes no difference. 

We have now spoken of the gall-bladder, and we 
have shoΛvn why some animals have it and why some 
have not. III. It remains to speak of the Mesentery 
and of the Omentum. These are in the same region 
and close to the parts we have just described. 

The Omentum is a membrane, formed of suet Omentum, 
or lard according to the animal in Avhich it is. (We 
have already stated Λvhich animals contain suet and 
which lard.) " Whether the animal has one stomach 
or many, the Omentum is always fastened to the 
middle of the stomach, on the line marked on it like a 
seam ; and it covers the rest of the stomach and most 
of the intestines. This is so in all blooded creatures, 
land- and water-animals alike. 

As for the necessary * formation of this part, it 

occurs as follows. When a mixture containing solid 

substance and fluid is warmed up, the surface of 

it always becomes skin-hke and membranous ; and 

• At 651 a 26 ff. * See Introd. p. 22. 



καΐ νμζνώΒβς, 6 8e τόπος ούτος τοιαύτης πλήρης 
25 εστί τροφής. €tl δε δια πυκνότητα του ύμ^νος το 
8ίηθούμ€νον της αίματώΒους τροφής άναγκαΐον 
Χιπαρόν etvat {τοΰτο γαρ λ^πτότατον) καΐ δια την 
θ€ρμότητα την περί τον τόπον συμπ€ττομ€νον αντί 
σαρκώδους καΐ αίματώΒους συστάσεως στίαρ γι- 
νεσθαι καΐ πιμελην. η μεν ουν γενεσις του €πι- 
30 ττλοου συμβαίνει κατά, τον λόγον τούτον, κατα- 
χ^ρήται δ' η φύσις αύτω προς την εύπεφιαν της 
τροφής, όπως ραον πίττη και θαττον τά ζωα την 
τροφήν το μεν γαρ θερμόν πεπτικόν, το hk πΐον 
θερμόν, το δ' επίπλοον πΐον. καΐ δια τοΰτ απο 
μέσης ήρτηται^ τής κοιλίας, οτι το επεκεινα^ μέρος 
35 συμπεττει το παρακειμενον ήπαρ. και περί μεν 
του επιπλόου ε'ίρηται. 

IV. Το Βε καλού μενον μεσεντεριον έ'στι μεν νμήν, 
Βιατείνει 8ε συνεχές άπο τής των εντέρων παρα- 
678 a τάσεως εις την φλέβα την μεγάλην και την άορτήν, 
πλήρες ον φλεβών πολλών και πυκνών, αΐ τείνουσιν 
από τών εντέρων εις τε την μεγάλην φλέβα και την 
άορτήν. την μεν ουν γενεσιν εζ ανάγκης ουσαν 
5 εύρήσομεν ομοίως τοις άλλοις μορίοις^' δια τίνα δ 
αΐτίαν υπάρχει τοις εναιμοις, φανερόν εστίν επι- 
σκοποΰσιν. επεί γαρ άναγκαΐον τά ζώα τροφην 
λαμβάνειν θύραθεν, καΐ πάλιν εκ ταύτης ytVea^ai 
την εσχάτην τροφήν, εζ ης ήΒη διαδιδοται εις τά 
μόρια {τοΰτο Βε τοις μεν άναίμοις άνώνυμον, τοις Β 

1 ^pKrm EPSUYZ. 
^ €ττ4κΐινα Peck : eV εκείνο vulg. 
^ Κ,τοιούτοίξ^ μορίοις Ogle : [μορίου] νμεσι Piatt. 


the place where the Omentum is is full of nutriment 
of this very sort. Furthermore, OΛving to the thick- 
ness of the membrane, that portion of the blood-like 
nutriment which percolates through it must of neces- 
sity be fatty, because that is the finest in texture ; 
and then owing to the heat in that part it will be 
concocted and so become suet or lard instead of some 
fleshv or blood-like substance. This, then, is the way 
in which the formation of the Omentum occurs. 
Nature, however, turns the Omentum to advantage in 
the concoction of the food, so as to enable the animal 
to concoct its food more easily and more quickly ; 
for the Omentum is fat ; fat things are hot, and hot 
things aid concoction. For this reason, too, the 
Omentum is fastened to the middle of the stomach ; 
since as regards that part of the stomach which is 
beyond, the liver which is close by it assists it in 
concoction. So much for the Omentum. 

IV. What is called the Mesentery is also a mem- Mesentery. 
brane ; and it extends continuously from the line of 
extension of the intestines as far as the Great Blood- 
vessel and the Aorta. It is full of blood-vessels, 
which are many in number and closely packed 
together ; and they extend from the intestines as 
far as the Great Blood-vessel and the Aorta. We 
shall find, as with the other parts, that the develop- 
ment and formation of the Mesentery is the result 
of necessity. As for its purpose in the blooded animals, 
that is clear enough to those who consider. Animals 
must of necessity take in nutriment from without ; 
and, again, out of this the " ultimate nutriment " 
has to be made ; and from this store the supply is 
distributed directly to the parts of the body. (In 
blooded animals this is called blood ; there is no 



e78a ^ ^ 

10 €ναίμοΐ5 αίμα /caAetrat), δβΓ τι etvat δι' ου et? τα? 
φλέβας €Κ της κοιλίας οΐον δια ριζών TTopevaerai η 
τροφή, τα juel•" ονν φυτά τάς ρίζας €χ€ί et? τψ' γην 
{eKetOev γαρ Aa/x/Sai^et την τροφήν), τοις he ζώοις η 
κοιλία και ή των εντέρων δυι^α/χι? γη εστίν, έζ ης 
oet λαμβάνειν την τροφήν Βιόπερ η του μεσεν- 

ΐδ τερίου φύσις εστίν, οΐον ρίζας έχουσα τάς δι' αύτης^ 
φλέβας, ου μεν οΰν ένεκα το μεσεντέριόν εστίν, 
εϊρηταΐ' τίνα δε τρόπον λα|υ,/3άν6ΐ την τροφήν, και 
πώς εισέρχεται δια τών φλεβών άπο της έσχατης^ 
τροφής εις τα μόρια πάντα^ το διαδιδο /xevov εΙς τάς 
φλέβας, εν τοΐς περί την γένεσιν τών ζώων λεχθή- 

20 σεται καΐ την τροφήν. 

Τα μεν οΰν έναιμα τών ζώων πώς έχει μέχρι τών 
Βιωρισμένων μορίων, και δια τίνα? αιτίας, εΐρηταΐ' 
περί δε τών εις την γένεσιν συντελούντων, οΐς δοκεί 
^ιαφέρειν το θήλυ του άρρενος, εχόμενον μέν εστί 

2δ και λοιπόν τών ειρη μένων αλλ' επειΒή περί γενέ- 
σεως λεκτέον, άρμόττον εστί και περί τούτων εν τη 
περί εκείνων θεωρία Βιελθεΐν. 

V. Τα δε καλούμενα μαλάκια και μαλακόστρακα 
ΤΓολλήν έχει προς ταΰτα 8ιαφοραν ευθύς γάρ την 
τών σπλάγχνων αττασαν ουκ έχει φύσιν. ομοίως δ 
80 ούΒέ τών άλλων άναίμων ούΒέν. εστί δε 8ύο γένη 
λοιπά τών άναι^α;ν, τά τ οστρακόδερμα και το τών 
εντόμων γένος. έζ ου γάρ συνέστηκεν ή τών 
σπλάγχνων φύσις, ούΒέν τούτων έχει αιδοία, δια το 

^ αΰτης Peck : αύτης vulg. 

* εσχάτης Peck : είσιοΰσηί VuIg. 

πάντα Ogle : ταΰτα vulg. : om. ί 




special name for it in the others.) Now there must 
be some passage or passages (as it might be roots) 
through which this nutriment shall pass from the 
stomach to the blood-vessels. The roots of plants 
are of course in the ground, because that is the 
source from which plants get their nutriment. For 
an animal, the stomach and the intestines correspond 
to the ground, the place from which the nutriment 
has to be derived. And the Mesentery exists to 
contain these vessels, corresponding to roots ; they 
pass through the inside of it. This completes my 
account of its Final Cause. As for the means by 
which the nutriment is taken up, and the way in 
which that portion of the ultimate nutriment which 
is distributed into the blood-vessels reaches all the 
parts of the body through them, these points will 
be dealt with in the treatises on the Generation of 
Animals and on Nutrition. 

I have now described the blooded animals as far 
as concerns the parts that have been dealt Λvith, and 
also the causes that are responsible. It remains, 
and would follow after this, to speak of the organs 
of generation, by Avhich male and female are dis- 
tinguished. But as we shall have to deal Avith 
generation itself, it is more appropriate to speak of 
these organs in our consideration of that subject. 

V. The animals called Cephalopods and Crustacea ^^^*'*p'• 
are very different from the blooded ones. First of all, bloodless 
they have no visceral structure at all. This is true animals. 
of all the bloodless creatures, in Avhich are included 
beside Cephalopods and Crustacea two other groups, 
the Testacea and the Insects. This is because none 
of them has blood, which is the material out of which 



678 a 

TTJs ουσίας αυτών ζΐναί τι τοιούτον ττάθος [αυτη?]^' 

ΟΤΙ γάρ ioTL τα μ€ν eVai/xa τά δ αναι/ζα, ev τω 
85 Aoyoj Ινυττάρζ^ι τω ορίζοντι την ούσίαν αυτών, ctl 
δ' ων €V€K€V βχουσι τά σπλάγχνα τά ei'aijUa τών 
ζωών, ouhev ύπάρζα τοΐς τοιουτοις• ούτ£ γαρ 
678 b φλφας Ίχουσιν οϋτ€ κύστιν οϋτ' άναττνύουσιν , άλλα 
μόνον άναγκαΐον €χ€ΐν αύτοΐς το άνάλογον Tjj καρ- 
Βία' το γάρ αίσθητυκον φυχης καΐ το της ζωής αί- 
τιον (βνΥ' άρχη τινι τών μορίων και του σώματος 
ύττάρχζΐ ττάσι τοΐς ζωοις. τά δε προς την τροφην 
5 μόρια €χ€ΐ και ταΰτα i^ ανάγκης πάντα• οι δε 
τρόποι Βιαφζρουσι δια. του? τόπους iv οίς λαμ- 
βάνουσι την τροφην. 

"Έιχουσι δε τά μβν μαλάκια ττερι το καλουμ€νον 
στόμα δυο οδον'τας', και iv τω στόματι άντι γλώτ- 
της σαρκώδες τι, ω κρίνουσι την iv τοΐς εδεστοΓ? 
ηΒονην. ομοίως δε και τά μαλακόστρακα τούτοις 
10 τους πρώτους οΒόντας €χ€ΐ και το άνάλογον τη 
γλώττη σαρκώδες, έ'τι δε και τά 6στρακό^€ρμα 
ττάντα το τοιούτον €χ€ΐ μόριον δια την αύτην αιτιαν 
τοΓ? ivaLμoις, προς την της τροφής αί,σ^7]σ6Γ. 
ομοίως δε και τά έντομα τά μεν την iζιoΰσav βπι- 
βοσκί8α του στόματος, οίον τό τε τών μελιττών 
15 yεVos' και το τών μυιών, ώσπερ ε'ίρηται και προ- 
τερον δσα δε μη ioTiv iμπpoσθόκεvτpa, εν τώ 
στοματι έχει το τοιούτον μόριον, οίον το τών 
μυρμηκων γένος και ε'ί τι τοιούτον έτερον, οδόντας 
δε τά μεν έχει τούτων, άλλοιοτερους δε', καθάπερ 

^ avrijs seclusi. ' iv supplevit Th. 

" See Introduction, pp. 26 ff. 

* These teeth are the two halves of what might be com• 
pared to a beak. 


viscera are made ; and the reason for this is that a 
condition of this sort is part of their being : the fact 
that some animals are blooded and some bloodless 
will be found to be included in the logos " which 
defines their being. Further, we shall see that none 
of those purposes for whose sake blooded animals 
have viscera operate in these other creatures : they 
have no blood-vessels and no bladder, they do not 
breathe : the only organ they must necessarily have 
is the counterpart of the heart, since the sensitive 
part of the Soul and the original cause of life is always 
situated in some place which rules the body and its 
parts. Also, they all have of necessity the parts 
adapted for dealing with food and nuti-ition ; but the 
manner of these varies according to the places where 
they take their food. 

The Cephalopods have two teeth around what is 
called their mouth ^ ; and inside the mouth, instead of 
a tongue, they have a fleshy object, by means of 
Avhich they discriminate the savour of things to eat. 
Likewise, the Crustacea have these front teeth and 
the fleshy counterpart of the tongue. The Testacea 
all have this latter part, too, for the same reason that 
blooded animals have a tongue, viz. to perceive the 
taste of the food they eat. Similarly, too, the Insects 
have, some of them, a proboscis which comes out 
from the mouth, as ^vith the Bees and Flies (this has 
been mentioned earlier <=) ; and the ones Avhich have no 
sharp protrusion in front have a part such as this 
inside the mouth, as Ants, and the like. Some of 
these creatures have teeth, though somewhat differ- 
ent from ordinary teeth (as the Flies,** and Bees) ; 

« At 661 a 21 ; cf. Hist. An. 528 b 28. 
** Or " Ants " (translating Meyer's emendation). 



678 b ^ ^ « , ^ ^ ^ , X » 

TO re των μνιών^ καΐ το των /χβλιττών γένος, τα δ 

20 ούκ: €χ€ΐ, δσα νγρα χρηταί rrj τροφτ^' ττοΧλα γαρ 
των εντόμων ου τροφής εχβί χό-ρ^-ν τους οΒόντας 
αλλ' αλκής. 

Ύών δ' οστρακόδερμων τα μεν, ώσττερ ελέχθη καΐ 
€V τοις κατ' αρχάς λόγοις, την καλονμενην έχει 
γλωτταν Ισχνράν, οι δε κόχλοι καΐ οδόντα? hvo, 

25 καθάπερ τα μαλακόστρακα, μετά δε το στόμα τοις 
μαλακίοις εστί στόμαχος μακρός, τούτου δ εχό- 
μενος πρόλοβος οΐός ττερ τοις ορνισιν, είτα συνεχής 
κοιλία, και ταύτης εχόμενον εντερον άττλοϋν μέχρι 
της εζόΒου. ται? μεν ουν στ^ττιαι? και τοις πολύ- 
ττοσιν όμοια και τοις σ;)^')ί]ίχασι και τή αφή τά περί 

30 την κοιλίαν ταΐς δε κάλου μέναις τευθίσι δυο μεν 
ομοίως αϊ κοιλιώδεις etaiv ύποΒοχαί, ήττον δε 
ττρολοβώΒης ή ετέρα, και τοις σρ^η^αασιν εκείνων 
Βιαφέρουσι δια το και το σώμα πάν εκ μαλακω- 
τέρας συνεστάναι σαρκός. 

Ταύτα δ' έχει τά μόρια τούτον τον τρόπον δια, 
την αυτήν αιτι'αν ώσπερ και οι όρνιθες• ουδέ γάρ 

35 τούτων ουδέν ε'νδε'ρ^εται λεαινειν ττ^ν τροφήν, Βιόπερ 
ό πρόλοβός εστί προ τής κοιλίας. 

Προ? βοήθειαν δέ και σωτηρίαν έχει ταΰτα τον 

679 a καλούμενον θολον εν χιτώνι ύμενώ8ει προσπεφυ- 

κότι^ την έζο^ον εχοντι και το πέρας ήπερ άφιάσι 
το περίττωμα τής κοιλίας κατά τον καλούμενον 
αύλόν ούτος δ' εστίν εν τοις ύπτίοις. έχει μεν ουν 
δ ττάντα τά μαλάκια τοΰτο το μόριον 'ίδιον, /υ,άλιστα 
δ' ή σηπία και πλείστον όταν γάρ φοβηθώσι και 

^ μνιών] μνιων ζωον ΕΥ : μυρμηκων Mej'er. 
^ ττροσπΐφυκότι Ogle : προσπζφυκότα vugl. 



others have no teeth at all : these are the creatures 
whose food is fluid. Indeed, in many of the insects 
the purpose of the teeth is not mastication of food at 
all, but for use as weapons. 

Of the Testacea, as we stated in the opening treat- 
ise,° some have a very strong tongue (so-called) ; and 
the Sea-snails actually have two teeth as well, like the 
Crustacea. In the Cephalopods there is a long gullet 
next after the mouth, and contiguous to that is a 
crop like a bird's. Continuous with this is the 
stomach, then immediately the intestine, which is 
simple and reaches to the vent. In the Sepias and 
Octopuses these parts round the stomach are similar 
both in shape and in consistency. The creatures called 
Calamaries, like the others, have the two gastric 
receptacles,'' but the first of them is less like a crop ; 
and they differ in shape from the organs of the 
previous classes, and that is because their bodies are 
composed of softer flesh throughout. 

These creatures have these parts arranged in this 
way for the same reason that birds have them : they, 
like birds, are unable to grind doΛvn their food ; hence 
the crop is placed before the stomach. 

The Cephalopods, for the sake of self-defence and 
self-preservation, have Avhat is called their Ink. This 
is contained in a membranous bag which is attached 
to the body, and comes to an end in an outlet where 
the residue from the stomach is discharged by the so- 
called funnel. This is on the under side of the body. 
All the Cephalopods have this pecuHar part, but it is 
most remarkable in the Sepia, as well as the largest 
in size. When the Sepia is frightened and in terror, 

« At Hist. An. 528 b 30 if. 
* Viz. the crop and the stomach. 



679 a ^ 

δεισωσιν, οίον φράγμα προ του σώματος ττοιοΰνται 

την του νγροΰ ^eAavtW καΐ θόλωσιν. at /xev ούν 

revdiSes /cat TToXvTToheg βχονσιν άΐ'ωθβν τον θολον 

€πι TTJ μύτιΒι μάλλον, η δε σηπία προς Tjj κοιλία 

10 κάτω• ττλει'ω γαρ €χ€ί δια το χρήσθαι μάλλον, 
τοΰτο δ' avTrj συμβαίνβι δια το πρόσγ€ΐον μβν eivat 
τον βίον αύτης, μη €χ€ΐν δ' άλλην βοηθ€ίαν, ωσπ€ρ 
6 πολύπονς τάς πλξκτάνας ζχ€ί χρησίμους κοί την 
του χρώματος μ^ταβολ.ην, η συμβαίνβι αύτω, 
ώσπ€ρ και η του θολοΰ πρόβσις, δια δειλι'αν. η δε 

16 Τ€υθ1ς πίλάγιόν εστί τούτων μόνον, πλζίω μεν οΰν 
€χ€ΐ η σηπία παρά τοΰτο τον θολόν, κάτωθεν δε δια 
το πλείω' pahiov γαρ προΐεσθαι καΐ πόρρωθβν από 
του πλείονος, γίνεται δε [ο ^ολό?]/ καθάπερ τοις 
ορνισιν ύπόστημα το λευκον επι του περιττώματος 
γεώΒες, οϋτω και τούτοις ο θολός δια τό μηΒε ταΰτ* 

20 €χειν κύστιν αποκρίνεται γαρ τό γεωΒεστατον εις 
αυτόν, και τη σηπία πλείστον δια τό πλείστον ^χειν 
γεώδες, ση μείον δε τό σηπιον τοιούτον όν τοΰτο 
γαρ 6 μεν πολύπους ουκ έχει, at δε τευθι8ες χον- 
ορωοες και Λεπτον. [οι ην ο αιτιαν τα μεν ουκ 
έχει τά δ' ε%ει, και ποιόν τι τούτων έχει εκάτερον, 

25 Άναι/χων δ' όντων και δια τοΰτο κατεφυγμενων 
και φοβητικών, ώσπερ ενίοις όταν δείσωσιν η 
κοιλία ταράττεται, τοις δ' εκ της κύστεως ρεΐ 
ττερίττωσις, και τούτοις τοΰτο συμβαίνει μεν έζ 

^ [6 θολός] seclusi : 6 om. P. 
^ ίΐρηται προτ€ρον Ρ. 

" The mytis, which is the same as the mecon, is an excretory 
organ, and corresponds to the liver. See below, 679 b 11. 

* Cf. above, 676 a 32. 


it produces this blackness and muddiness in the 
water, as it were a shield held in front of the body. 
Now the Calamaries and Octopuses have this ink-bag 
in the upper region of the body, quite near the mytis°", 
whereas in the Sepia it is lower down, against the 
stomach, since it has a larger supply because it uses 
it more. This circumstance is due (1) to its living 
near the land and (2) to its having no other means of 
defence — nothing like the Octopus, for instance, which 
has its tAvining feet, Avhich are useful for this purpose ; 
it can also change its colour, and it does so (just as 
the Sepia emits its ink) when put in fear. Of all 
these, only the Calamary lives well out at sea and gets 
protection thereby. Hence, compared with it, the 
Sepia has a larger supply of ink ; and because this is 
larger, it is lower in the body, as it is easy for it to be 
emitted even to a considerable distance when the 
supply is great. The ink is earthy in its nature, like 
the white deposit on the excrement of birds, and it is 
produced by these creatures for the same reason — 
they, like birds, have no urinary bladder ^ ; so the 
earthiest matter is excreted into this ink, especially 
in the Sepia, for the Sepia contains an exceptionally 
large amount of earthy matter. An indication of 
this is its bone, which is earthy. The Octopuses do 
not have this bone, and in the Calamary it is cartila- 
ginous and slight. (VVe have said why some of these 
animals have this part and why some have not, and 
what in each case its character is.) 

These animals, as they have no blood, are cold and 
hable to take fright. While in some other animals 
fear causes a disturbance of the stomach, and in some 
the discharge of residue from the bladder, in these 
creatures its effect is to make them discharge their 



679a ^ ^ 

άναγκτης άφιβναι δια δίίλιαν, ωσπ€ρ e/c κυστ€ως 
τοις €ττουροΰσιν, η 8e φύσις άμα τω τοιουτω ττεριτ- 
80 τώματι καταχρηταί προς βοηθ€ΐαν και σωτηρυαν 

"Έχουσί δε και τα μαλακόστρακα, τά τ€ καρα- 
βοβώή καΐ οι καρκίνοι, δυο μ€ν οδόντας τους 
πρώτους, και μβταζύ την σάρκα την γλωσσθ€ίδή , 
ωσπερ ξ,Ιρηται καΐ πρότβρον, βύθύς δ' βχόμενον τοΰ 
στόματος στόμαχον μικρόν κατά μέγεθος των 
35 σωμάτων [τά μείζω προς τά ελάττω]^• τούτου δε 
κοιλίαν εχομενην, εφ' ης οι τε κάραβοι και ενιοι 
των καρκίνων οδόντας εχουσιν έτερους δια το τους 

679 b άνω μη διαιρεΐν ικανώς, από δε της κοιλίας εντερον 
άπλοΰν κατ' ευθύ μ^χρί- προς την εζοδον τοΰ 
περιττώματος . 

"Εχει δε και των οστρακόδερμων εκαστον ταΰτα 
τά μόρια, τά μεν διηρθρωμενα μάλλον τά δ' ήττον 
εν δε τοις μείζοσι διαδηλότερά εστίν έκαστα του- 
5 των. οι μεν ούν κόχλοι και οδόντας εχουσι σκλη- 
ρούς και οξείς, ώσπερ ε'ίρηται πρότερον, και το 
μεταζύ σαρκώδες ομοίως τοις μαλακίοις και μαλα- 
κόστρακοι?, και την προβοσκίδα, καθάπερ ε'ίρηται, 
μεταξύ κέντρου και γλώττης, τοΰ δε στόματος 
εχόμενον οίον όρνιθώδη τινά πρόλοβον, τούτου δ' 
10 εχόμενον στόμαχον τούτου δ' εχεται η κοιλία, εν ■^ 
η καλούμενη μήκων, αφ' ης συνεχές εστίν εντερον 
άπλην την άρχην έχον από της μήκωνος• εστί γάρ 
εν πάσι τοις όστρακηροις περίττωμα τοΰτο το 
μάλιστα δοκούν είναι εδώδιμον. έχει δ' ομοίως τω 

^ seclusit Rackham. 


ink ; and though this is an effect due to necessity, 
like the discharge of urine in the others, yet Nature 
makes good use of this residue at the same time 
for the animal's defence and preservation. 

The Crustacea as well, that is, both the Crabs and 
the Caraboids, have the two front teeth, and between 
the teeth they have the tongue-like flesh, as has 
already been stated ^ ; and immediately next to the 
mouth they have a gullet which is quite small com- 
pared with the animal's size ; and immediately after 
that the stoniach ; and on this the Carabi and some 
of the Crabs have another set of teeth, since the 
upper ones do not masticate the food sufficiently. 
From the stomach a simply formed intestine runs 
straight to the vent where residues are discharged. 

These parts are present in every one of the Testacea 
as well, more distinct in some, less in others. They 
are more clearly marked in the larger animals. 
Take the Sea-snails. These have (1) as stated al- 
ready, the teeth, which are hard and sharp, (2) the 
fleshy object in between them, similarly to the 
Crustacea and Cephalopods ; (3) the proboscis, as 
already mentioned,'' something between a sting and 
a tongue ; (4) immediately after the mouth is a sort 
of bird's crop, and (5) after that the gullet ; (6) con- 
tinuous with that is the stomach, and (7) in the 
stomach is what is kno\vn as the mecon"; and (8) at- 
taching to this is an intestine : this intestine begins 
directly from the mecon. This residue (the mecon) 
appears to be the most tasty piece in all the Testacea. 
The other creatures that have spiral shells (e.g. the 

« At 678 b 10. 

" At 661 a 15 ff. 

* The hepatopancreas or liver ; see above, 679 a 9. 

l2 323 


679 b ^ 

15 κόχλω /cat ταλλα τά στρομβω8η, οϊον πορφυραι 

/cat κηρυκζς. 

"Εστί δε γβνη /cat ει'δτ^ πολλά, των όστρακο- 
Ββρμων τά μεν γαρ στρομβώΒη eanv, ωσπερ τά 
νυν €ίρημ€να, τά δε δίθυρα, τά δε μονόθνρα. τρόπον 
δε Ttva /cat τά στρομβώΒη hidvpoLS eoiKev €χ€ί γάρ 
επιπτύγματ' επΙ τω φανερω της σαρκός πάντα τά 

20 τοιαύτα εκ γενετής, οΐον αϊ re πορφυραι και 
κήρυκες και οΐ νηρεΐται και παν το τοιούτον γένος, 
προς βοήθειαν f] γάρ μη προβεβληται το οστρακον, 
paSiov ταύτη βλάπτεσθαι ύπο των θύραθεν προσ- 
πιπτόντων, τά μεν ούν μονόθυρα δια το προσ- 
πεφυκεναι σώζεται τω πρανές εχειν το οστρακον, 

25 και γίνεται άλλοτρίω φράγματι τρόπον τινά 8ί- 
θυρον, οΐον at καλούμεναι λεπάΒες• τά δε 8ίθυρα, 
οΐον κτένες και μύες, τω συνάγειν, τά δε στρομβώΒη 
τούτω τω επικαλύμματι, ωσπερ δίθυρα ytvo/xeva εκ 
μονοθύρων. 6 δ' εχΐνος μάλιστα πάντων άλεωράν 
εχεί' κύκλω γάρ το οστρακον συνηρεφες και κε- 

80 χαρακωμενον ταΐς άκάνθαις. 'iSiov δ' ε;γεt των 
οστρακόδερμων τοΰτο, καθαπερ ε'Ιρηται πρότερον. 

Ύών δε μαλακοστράκων και των 6στpaκo8εpμoJV 
συνεστηκεν η φύσις τοις μαλακίοις άντικειμενως• 
τοις μεν γάρ εζω το σαρκώδες, τοις δ' εντός, εκτός 
δε το γεώδες, ό δ' εχΐνος ούδεν έχει σαρκώδες. 

35 Πάντα μεν ούν έχει, καθάπερ εϊρηται, και ταλλα 
τά οστρακόδερμα στόμα τε και το γλωττοειδες και 
κοιλίαν /cat του περιττώματος την εζοδον, διαφέρει 

" The operculum. 


Purpuras and the Whelks) are similar to the Sea- 
snails in structure. 

There are very many genera and species of Tes- 
tacea. Some have spiral shells, like the ones just 
mentioned ; some are bivalves, some univalves. In 
a way, the spiral shells resemble the bivalves, as they 
have, all of them, from birth, a covering" over the 
exposed part of their flesh, e.g. the Purpuras, the 
Whelks, the Nerites, and the whole tribe of them. 
This covering serves as a protection ; for in any place 
where the animal has no shell to protect it, it could 
quite easily be injured by the impact of external 
objects. The univalves' means of preservation is this : 
they cling to some object, and have their shell on the 
upper side ; so they become in a way bivalves in 
vii-tue of the borrowed protection afforded by the 
object to Avhich they cling. Example, the Limpets. 
The bivalves proper (e.g. Scallops and ^lussels) get 
their protection by closing themselves up ; the spiral- 
shelled creatures by the covering I mentioned, which, 
as it were, turns them from univalves into bivalves. 
The Sea-urchin has a better defence system than any 
of them : he has a good thick shell all round him, 
fortified Λvith a palisade of spines. As I stated pre- 
viously, the Sea-urchin is the only one of the Testacea 
which possesses this peculiarity. 

The natural structure of the Crustacea and of the 
Testacea is the reverse of that of the Cephalopods. 
The latter have their fleshy part outside, the former 
have the earthy part outside and the fleshy inside. 
The Sea-urchin, however, has no fleshy part at all. 

All these parts, as described — mouth, tongue-like 
object, stomach, vent for the residue — are present 
in the rest of the Testacea too, but they differ in 



680 a Se τύ\ Oeaei καΐ τοις μζγ^θξ,σιν. ov δβ τροττον e^et 
τούτων €καστον, €κ re των Ιστοριών των vepi τα 
ζώα θ€ωρ€ίσθω καΐ etc τών ανατομών τα μβν γαρ 
τω λόγω τα δε προς την οφιν αυτών σαφηνίζζΐν δει 

Ίδι'ω? δ' βχονσι τών οστρακόδερμων οι τ €•)(ΐνοι 

6 και το τών καλουμένων τηθύων γένος, βχονσι δ' οι 
έχΐνοι οδόντας μέν TreWe και μ€ταζύ το σαρκώΒβς, 
OTTep €πι πάντων βστι τών ζίρημένων, έχόμζνον δβ 
τούτον στόμαχον, άπο δε τούτον την κοιλίαν €ΐς 
ΤΓολλά διηρημένην, ώσπερανβΐ πολλάς του ζώου 
κοιλίας έχοντος, κβχωρισμέναι μέν γαρ etat και 

10 πληρ€ΐς π€ριττώματος, έζ ένος δ' ηρτηνται τον 
στομάχου και τελευτώσι προς μίαν έζοΒον την του 
πβριττώματος. παρά δε την κοιλίαν σαρκώδες• μέν 
ουδέν έχουσιν, ώσττερ ζ'ίρηται, τά δε καλουμβνα ωά 
ττλει'ω τον αριθμόν iv νμένι χωρίς έκαστον, και 
κύκλω άπό του στόματος μέλαν" άττα διεσπαρμένα 

15 χύ^ην, ανώνυμα, όντων δε ττλειόνων γενών [ον γάρ 
€v ειδο? τών έχίνων πάντων εστί) πάντες μεν εχονσι 
ταύτα τά μόρια, αλλ' ουκ εδώδι/^α πάντες τά 
καλούμενα ωά, και μικρά πάμπαν έζω τών επι- 
πολαζόντων. δλως δε τοΰτο καΐ περί τάλλα σνμ- 

•20 βέβηκε τά οστρακόδερμα• και γάρ at σάρκες ονχ 
ομοίως ε'δώδι/χοι πάντων, και το περίττωμα, ή 
καλούμενη μήκων, ένίων μεν εδώδιμο? ένίων δ' ουκ 
εδώδιμος, έστι δε τοΐς στρομβώδεσιν εν τη ελίκη 

« Hist. An. 528 b 10 ff, 

' This seems to imply that diagrams or illustrations accom- 
panied the treatises. 

' These form what is compared to a lantern at Hist. An. 
531 a 5, hence the name, " lantern of Aristotle." 


their position and size. For the details of these, con- 
sult the Researches upon Animals'^ and the Dissections. 
Some points are better explained by inspection ** than 
in Avords. 

The Sea-urchin and the genus of Ascidians are 
peculiar among the Testacea. The Sea-urchin has 
five teeth,'' and between them it has the fleshy sub- 
stance (the same as in all the above-mentioned 
creatures) ; after that, the gullet, after that, the 
stomach, which is divided into several compartments, 
so that the animal seems to have several stomachs. 
But although they are separated from each other and 
are full of residue, they all spring from the gullet and 
they all terminate in the residual vent. Apart from 
the stomach, these creatures contain no fleshy sub- 
stance, as I have said. They have, however, what 
are called ova '^ ; there are several of them and each 
is in a separate membrane ; and scattered at random 
round the body, beginning from the mouth, are 
certain black objects," which have no name. There 
are several kinds of Sea-urchin, and in all of them 
these parts are present. Not all, however, have 
edible•'^ ova, and, except in the common «' varieties, 
they are quite small. There is a similar distinction 
among the other Testacea : the flesh is not equally 
edible in all of them, and in some of them the residue 
(the so-called mecon) is edible, in others not. In the 
spiral shells, the mecon is in the spiral, in univalves 

^ These are really ovaries (or testes) : gonads. 

' These may be the ambulacral vesicles, but the identifica- 
tion is not certain. 

^ See the story of the Spartan in Athenaeus iii. 41. 

" The word translated " common " may mean " living near 
the surface." 



680 a ^ 

τοΰτο, τοις δε μονοθύροίς iv τω πυθμβνι, οΐον ταί? 
λβπάσι, τοις δε Βιθύροις ττρος ttj συναφ-η• το δ* ωόν 

25 καλούμβνον iv τοις δε^ιοΓ?, iv δε τοις εττι θάτ€ρα η 
€ζο8ος του ττ^ριττώματος τοις Βίθνροίς. καλζΐται 
δ' ωόν ουκ ορθώς ύπό των καλούντων τοΰτο yap 
iaTLV οίον τοις ivaίμoLς, όταν €ύθηνώσίν, η πιότης. 
διό και γίν€ται κατά τούτους τους καιρούς τοΰ 
ivLaυτoΰ iv οΐς €ύθηνοΰσιν, εν τε τω eapt καΐ 
μζτοττώρω' €v γαρ τω φύχει και ταΓ? άλεαι? ττο- 

30 νοΰσι πάντα τα οστρακόδερμα, καΐ φξρβιν ού 
δύνανται τάς ύπβρβολάς. (τημβΐον δε το συμβαίνον 
επι των €χίνων• €νθνς τε yap γινόμβνοι, €χουσι καΐ 
€V τάΐς πανσζληνοίς μάλλον, ού δια το ν^μεσθαι 
καθάπ€ρ τινές οΐονται μάλλον, άλλα δια το άλεεινο- 
τερα? είναι τα? νύκτας δια το φως της σβληνης. 

35 8ύσριγα γάρ οντά δια τό αναι/^α είναι δε'ονται άλε'α?. 
διό λίαι ε'ν τω Oipei μάλλον πανταχού ΐύθηνοΰσιν, 
680b πλην οι εν τω Πυρραι'ω ζύρίπω' iKctvoi δ' ουχ 
ήττον τοΰ χ€ΐμώνος• αίτιον δε τό νομής ευττορειν 
τότε μάλλον, άπολ€ΐπόντων των ιχθύων τους τό- 
πους κατά ταύτην την ωραν. 
"Έιχουσι δ' οι €χΐνοι πάντ€ς 'ίσα τε τω αριθμώ τά 
5 ωά και περιττά• ττε'ντε yap βχουσιν, τοσούτους δε 
και τους 68όντας και τάς κοιλίας, αίτιον δ' δτι τό 
ωόν εστί, καθάπβρ ξ'ίρηται πρότβρον, ούκ ωόν άλλα 
τοΰ ζώου ζύτροφία. γίνεται δε τοΰτο iπι θάτερα 

" This is true of the sea-urchins in the Red Sea, though not 
of the Mediterranean ones. The former have a cycle corre- 
sponding exactly to that of the moon. The five roes, ovaries, or 
testes are large and swollen during the week preceding each 
of the summer full moons, and the spawning of the eggs 
takes place during the few days before and after full moon. 
For a most interesting discussion of this and kindred matters 


(like limpets) it is in the tip ; in bivalves it is near 
the hinge. In the bivalves the so-called ovum is on 
the right-hand side, and the residual vent on the left. 
" Ovum " is a misnomer ; actually it corresponds to 
fat in blooded creatures when they are in good con- 
dition ; and that is why it appears only in spring and 
autumn, which are the seasons when they are in good 
condition. In great cold and great heat all the 
Testacea are hard put to it ; they cannot endure in- 
ordinate temperatures. The behaviour of the Sea- 
urchins is a good illustration of this : they have ova 
in them as soon as they are born, and at the time of 
full moon these increase in size ** ; and this is not, as 
some think, because the creatures eat more then, but 
because the nights are Avarmer OAving to the moon- 
light. These creatures have need of the heat because 
they are bloodless and therefore adversely affected 
by cold. That is why they are in better condition 
during the summer, and this is true of them in all 
localities except the strait of Pyrrha,^ where they 
flourish equally well in winter, and the reason for this 
is that in winter they have a more plentiful supply of 
foodstuff, due to the fish leaving the district at that 

The Sea-urchins all have the same number of ova — 
an odd number, five, identical with the number of 
teeth and stomachs Λvhich they have. This is ac- 
counted for by the " ovum " not being really an ovum 
(as I said before) but simply a result of good nourish- 
ment. The " ovum " is found in Oysters too, though 

see H. M. Fox, Selene, especially pp. 35 ff., and id. Proc. 
Roy. Soc. B., 1923, 95, 523. 

" In Lesbos, leading to the lagoon, one of Aristotle's 
favourite hunting-grounds : see Hist. An. 544 a 21 (sea- 
urchin), 548 a 9, 603 a 21, 621 b 12. Cf. Gen. An. 763 b 2. 



eSOb ^ , ^ ^ ^ , / , / 

μόνον iv τοις oarpiois, το καλουμ€νον ώον. ταύτο 
δε τοΰτό ioTL /cat το iv τοΐς €χίνοι,ς. εττει τοίννν 

10 €στι σφαίροα^ης 6 εχΐνος, και ούχ ώσττερ επί των 
άλλων όστριων του σώματος κύκλος €Ϊς, ό δ' €χΐνος 
ου Tjj μέν τοίοΰτος τύ\ δ' ου, άλλα ττάντΎ^ όμοιος 
{σφαιρο^ώης γάρ), ανάγκη καΐ το ωόν ομοίως €χ€ΐν' 
ου γάρ euTiv, ώσπβρ τοΐς άλλοις, το κύκλω άν- 
όμοίον iv μέσω γάρ η κεφαλή ττάσιν αύτοΐς, τω δ' 

15 άνω το τοιούτον μόριον. άλλα μην ουδέ συνεχές 
οΐόν τ' είναι το ωόν — ούδε γάρ τοΐς άλλοις — αλλ' eVt 
θάτ€ρα του κύκλου μόνον. ανάγκη τοίνυν, inel 
τούτο μ€ν απάντων κοινόν, ΐ8ιον δ' iKeivov ειι/αι 
το σώμα σφαιροζώές, μη είναι άρτια τά ωά. κατά 
διά/χετρον γάρ αν ην, δια το ομοίως δειν €χ€ΐν το 

20 evdev και evOev, ει ην άρτια [και κατά διά/χετρον]*• 
ούτως δ' i)(όvτωv βπ αμφότερα αν του κύκλου 
ζΐχον το ωόν. τοΰτο δ' ουκ ην ουδ' εττί τών άλλων 
οστρε'α»ν• εττί θάτ^ρα γάρ της π€ριφ€ρείας €χουσί τά 
6στρ€α και οι κτένες το τοιούτον μόριον. ανάγκη 
τοίνυν τρία η πέντε είναι η άλλον τι ν' αριθμόν 

2δ irepiTTOV. ει μεν ουν τρία είχε, πόρρω λίαν (αν)* 
•ην, ει δε πλείω τών πέντε, συνεχές άν τούτων δε 
το μεν ου βέλτιον, το δ' ουκ ένδεχόμενον. ανάγκη 
άρα ττε'ντ' αυτούς εχειν τά ωά. 

Δια την αύτην δ' αΐτίαν και η κοιλία τοιαυττ^ 
€σγισται και το τών όhόvτωv τοσούτον εστί πλήθος, 
εκαστον γάρ τών ωών, οίον σώμα τι του ζώου 6ν, 

80 77^05• τον τρόπον τον της κοιλίας^ δμοιον εχειν 

* secludenda. * <ον> Ogle. 

^ κοιλία? Ogle : ζωής vulg. 



on one side of the body only ; it is the same as that of 
tlie Sea-urchin. Now the Sea-urchin is spherical, 
and is not just one flat disk hke the Oysters ; thus, 
being spherical, it is not different shapes in different 
directions, but equiform in all directions ; hence of 
necessity its " ovum " is correspondingly arranged, 
since this creature's perimeter is not, as in the others, 
non-equiform " : they all have their head in the 
centre, whereas the Sea-urchin's is at the top. 
Yet even so the " ovum " cannot be continuous, 
since no other of the Testacea has it thus ; it 
is always on one side of the disk only. Hence, 
since this is a common property of all species 
of Testacea, and the Sea-urchin is peculiar in having 
a spherical shape, the result follows of necessity that 
the Sea-urchins cannot have an even number of ova. 
If they were even, they would have to be arranged in 
diametrically opposite positions, because both sides 
would have to be alike, and then there would be ova 
on both sides of the circumference ; but this arrange- 
ment is not found in any of the other Ostreae ; both 
Oysters and Scallops have ova on one side only of 
their circumference. Therefore there must be three, 
or five, or some other odd number of ova in the Sea- 
urchin. If there were three, they would be too far 
apart ; if more than five, they would be quite con- 
tinuous ; the former would not subserve a good 
purpose, the latter is impossible. Therefore the 
Sea-urchin must of necessity have five ova. 

For the same cause the creature's stomach is cloven 
into five and it has five teeth. Each of the ova, being, 
as it were, a body belonging to the creature, must 
conform to the general character of the stomach, 

• That is, it is circular in all planes, not in one only. 



680 b „ « < X 

άναγκαΐον evrevdev γαρ η αϋζησίς. /χια? μ^ν γαρ 

ονσης η πόρρω αν ήσαν, η ττάν αν κατ€Ϊχ€ το κντος, 
ώστ€ καΐ 8υσκίνητον etvat τον €χΐνον καΐ μη πλη- 
ροϋσθαι της τροφής το άγγζΐον vevTe δ' όντων 
των διαλβι/χ/χάτων ανάγκη προς ίκαστω ούσαν 
35 πενταχη ^ιηρησθαι. δια την auT')7l•' δ' αιτιαν /cat 
το των οδόντων εστί τοσούτον πλήθος''-• το γαρ 

681 a ομοίον όντως αν η φνσις €Ϊη άττοδεδωκυια τοις 

ζίρημβνοίς μορι,οις. 

Διότι μβν ονν περιττά καΐ τοσαΰτα τον αριθμόν 
Ιχει ό €χΐνος τά ωά, είρηται• διότι δ οι μεν τταιίιτται/ 
μικρά οι he μεγάλα, αίτιον το θερμότερους eivai 
την φυσιν τούτους' πεττειν γαρ το θερμον δύναται 

5 την τροφην μάλλον, Βιόπερ περιττώματος πλήρεις 
οί άβρωτοι μάλλον, και παρασκευάζει κινητικω- 
τερους η της φύσεως θερμότης, ώστε ve/xea^ai και 
μη μενειν εβραίους, σημεΐον δε τούτου το εχειν 
τους τοιούτους αεί τι επι των ακανθών ως κινού- 
μενους πυκνά' χρώνται γαρ ποσι ταΐς άκάνθαις. 

10 Τά Βε TTj^ua μικρόν τών φυτών Βιαφερει την 
φύσιν, όμως δε ζωτικώτερα τών σπόγγων ούτοι 
γαρ πάμπαν εχουσι φυτοΰ Βύναμιν. η γαρ φύσις 
μεταβαίνει συνεχώς άπο τών άφύχων εις τά ζώα 
δια τών ζώντων μεν ουκ όντων δε ζώων, ούτως 
ώστε Βοκεΐν πάμπαν μικρόν Βιαφερειν θατερου 

15 θάτερον τω σύνεγγυς άλλτ^λοι?. 6 μεν ουν σπόγγος, 

1 hinc manus recentior Ε ( =Ε). 

" This is true ; but motion is effected mainly by the tube- 
feet, not noticed by Aristotle {vide Ogle). 
* The " sea-squirts." 



because growth has its origin from the stomach. 
Now if there were only one stomach, either the ova 
would be too far a>vay from it, or the stomach would 
entirely fill up the cavity, which would make it 
difficult for the Sea-urchin to move about and to find 
sufficient food to replenish itself. But, as it is, there 
are five ova separated by five intervals, and so there 
must be five departments of the stomach, one for 
each interval. For the same reason there are five 
teeth, since this enables Nature to assign one tooth 
alike to each ovum and each department of the 

I have now stated why the Sea-urchin has an odd 
number of ova, and why it has five of them. Now 
some Sea-urchins have quite small ones, and some 
large : the reason for this is that the latter have a 
hotter constitution, and the heat enables them to 
concoct their food better. This explains \vhy the 
uneatable ones tend to be full of residue. This 
natural heat also induces the creatures to move about, 
and so instead of remaining settled in one place they 
keep on the move as they feed. An indication of 
this is that Sea-urchins of this sort always have some- 
thing sticking on to their spines (which they use 
as feet),* which suggests that they are continually 
moving about. 

The Ascidians ^ differ very little in their nature from 
plants, but they are more akin to animals than the 
Sponges are, which are completely plants. Nature 
passes in a continuous gradation from lifeless things 
to animals, and on the way there are Hving things 
which are not actually animals, with the result that one 
class is so close to the next that the difference seems 
infinitesimal. Now a sponge, as I said just now, is in 



681a ^ 

ωστΓβρ eipTjTaL, kcll τω ζην ττροσπζφνκώς μόνον, 
απολυθείς he μη ζην, ομοίως €χ€ί τοΐς φυτοΐς 
TTavreXcbs' τα δε καλούμενα ολοθονρια καΐ οΐ πνβυ- 
μονβς, 6τι δε καΐ erepa τοιαντ* iv rrj θαλάτττ) 
μικρόν Βιαφερεί τούτων τω άπολ^λυσθαι• αίσθησιν 

20 μ^ν γαρ ού^ζμίαν €χ€ί, ζη δ' ωσπ€ρ οντά φυτά 
αττολζΧυμΙνα. έ'στι δε και ev τοΐς Ιτηγ^ίοι,ς φυτοΐς 
€VLa τοιαύτα, α και ζη και ytVeTat τα μβν iv έτεροι? 
φντοΐς, τά δε και άπολβλυμβνα, οίον και το €κ του 
ΐίαρνασσοΰ καλούμβνον υπό τίνων επίπβτρον τοΰτο 
γαρ ζη πολύν γ^ρόνον κρζμάμενον ανω €πι των 

25 παττάλων. €.στι δ' 6τ€ και τά τηθυα, και ει τι 
τοιούτον €τ€ρον γί,νος, τω μβν προσπβφυκός ζην 
μόνον φυτω παραπλησιον, τω δ' €χ€ΐν τι σαρκώ^ζς 
So^eiev αν €χ€ΐν τιν' α'ίσθησιν ά^ηλον δε τοΰτο 
7Γοτ4ρως θ€τ€ον. 

Εχει δε τοΰτο το ζωον δυο πόρους και μίαν 

80 Siaipeaiv, η τε δε';)^εται την ύγρότητα την €ΐς 
τροφην, και η πάλιν διαττε'/χττει την ύπολβιπομβνην 
ΙκμάΒα' πβρίττωμα γάρ ουδε'ν εστί δτ^λοι^ ^Χ^^> 
ωσττερ ταλλα τά οστρακόδερμα, διό ^υ,άλιστα καΐ 
τοΰτο, καν ει τι άλλο τοιοΰτον των ζώων, φυτικόν 
δίκαιον καλειν ουδέ yap των φυτών ουδέι^ ε;^ει 

85 περίττωμα, δια μέσου δε λετττοΓ διάζωμα, iv ω 

το κύριον ύπαρχε IV εϋλογον της ζωής. ας δε 

καλουσιν οι μεν κνίδας οι δ' άκαληφας, εστί μεν ουκ 

681 b οστρακόδερμα, αλλ' ε^α> πίπτει τών διηρημενων 

γενών, επαμφοτερίζει δε τοΰτο και φυτω και ζώω 

" Or " sea-cucumbers." 

* The precise reference of this term is not known. 

* Sea-anemones, called by the Greeks " sea-nettles." 


all respects like a plant : it lives only while it is 
growing on to something, and when it is pulled off it 
dies. What are called Holothuria and the Sea-lungs" 
and other similar sea-animals differ only slightly 
from the sponges in being unattached. They have 
no power of sensation, but they live just as if they 
were plants unattached to the soil. Even among 
land-plants such instances exist : hving and groΛving 
either on other plants or quite unattached : for 
example, the plant found on Parnassus, sometimes 
called the Epipetron (Rockplant). If you hang this 
up on the pegs^ it Λvill keep alive for a consider- 
able time. Sometimes it is doubtful Avhether these 
Ascidians and any other such group of creatures 
ought to be classed as plants or as animals : In so far 
as they live only by growing on to some other object 
they approach the status of a plant ; but yet they 
have some fleshy substance and therefore probably 
are capable of sensation of a kind. 

This particular creature (the Ascidian) has two 
orifices and one septum ; by one orifice it takes in fluid 
matter for food, by the other it discharges the surplus 
moisture ; so far as can be seen it has no residue like 
the other Testacea. And as no plant ever has any 
residue this is a strong justification for classing it 
(and any other such animal) as a plant. Through its 
middle there runs a thin partition, and it is reason- 
able to suppose that the governing and vital part of 
the creature is situated here. As for what are called 
Knides or Acalephae,'' they are not Testacea, it is 
true, but fall outside the defined groups. In their 
nature they inchne t0Λvards the plants on one side 

Those common to the Mediterranean are more virulent in 
their stinging powers than those of the north. 



681b ^ ^ « , V , / ^ 

την φυσιν. τω μβν γαρ άπολυ€σθαι και ττροσ- 

7τίπτ€ΐν προς την τροφην ivtas αυτών ζωικον eari, 

5 καΐ τω αΙσθάν€σθαι των προσπιπτόντων έτι he τη 

του σώματος τραχύτητί χρηται προς την σωτηριαν 

τω δ' άτβΧ^ς elvaL καΐ προσφύβσθαι ταγ€ως τάΐς 

πβτραις τω yivei τών φυτών παραπλησιον, και τω 

περίττωμα μη^βν ^χζΐν φανβρόν, στόμα δ €χ€ΐν. 

ομοίον δέ τούτω καΐ το τών αστέρων εστί γένος — 

10 και γαρ τοΰτο προσπΐπτον €κχυμίζ€ΐ πολλά τών 
όστριων — τοις τ' άπολελυμενοι,ς τών ειρημενων 
ζώων, οίον τοις τ€ μαλακίοι.ς καΐ τοις μαλακο- 
στράκοις. ό δ' αύτος λόγος καΐ πβρί τών όστρακο- 

Τα μβν ουν μόρια τα περί την τροφην, άπ€ρ 
άναγκαΐον πασιν ύπάρχειν, €χ€ΐ τον προ€ίρημ€νον 

15 τρόπον, hel 8e Βηλονότι καΐ τών τοις εναιμοις 
υπαρχόντων κατά το κυριον τών αισθήσεων έχειν 
άνάλογόν TL μόριον τοΰτο γαρ δβΓ πάσιν υπαρχειν 
τοις ζωοις. έστί. δβ τοΰτο τοις μβν μαλακίοις ev 
ύμενι κείμενον ύγρόν, δι' οΰπερ 6 στόμαχος τεταται 
προς την κοιλίαν, προσπίφυκε δε προς τά πρανή 

20 μάλλον, καΐ καλείται μύτις υπό τίνων, τοιούτον δ' 
έτερον και τοις μαλακοστράκοις εστί, και καλείται 
κακεΐνο μύτις. εστί δ' ύγρόν και σωματώδες α/χα 
τοΰτο το μόριον, τείνει δε δι' αυτοΰ, καθάπερ 
ειρηται, δια μέσου μεν 6 στόμαχος' εΐ γαρ ην 
μεταζύ τούτου και του πρανοΰς, ουκ αν ηδύνατο 

25 λαμβάνειν ομοίως Βιάστασιν εισιούσης της τροφής 
δια την τοΰ νώτου σκληρότητα, επι δε της μύτώος 
το εντερον εζωθεν, και 6 θολός προς τω εντερω, 

" That is, dorsal. 


and the animals on the other. Towards the animals, 
because some of them detach themselves and fasten 
upon their food, and are sensible of objects that come 
up against them ; and also because they make use 
of the roughness of their body for self-preservation. 
Towards the plants, because they are incomplete, 
and quickly attach themselves to rocks ; and further, 
because they have no residue that can be seen, 
though they have a mouth. The group of Starfish 
resembles these creatures ; Starfish too fasten on to 
their food, and by doing this to oysters suck large 
numbers of them dry. But Starfish also resemble 
those unattached creatures of which we spoke, the 
Cephalopods and the Crustacea. The same may be 
said of the Testacea. 

The parts connected with nutrition are such as I 
have now described. These must of necessity be 
present in all animals. But there is yet another part 
which every animal must have. These creatures must 
have some part which is analogous to the parts 
which in blooded animals are connected with the 
control of sensation. In the Cephalopods this con- 
sists of a fluid contained in a membrane, through 
which the gullet extends towards the stomach. It is 
attached to the body rather towards the upper " side. 
Some call it the myt'is. An organ just like this, also 
called the mytis, is present in the Crustacea. This 
part is fluid and corporeal at the same time. The 
gullet, as I said, extends through the middle of it. 
If the gullet had been placed between the mytis and 
the dorsal side, the gullet ΛνοηΗ not have been able 
to distend sufficiently when the food enters, owing to 
the hardness of the back. The intestine is placed up 
against the outer surface of the mytis, and the ink-bag 



681 b ^^ « , , , / Λ ^ 

δττως otl πλβΐστον άπεχτ] της elaoSov και το 

Svaxepeg άποθςν fj του βελτίονος και της άρχης. 

ΟΤΙ δ' ίστί το αναλογον τύ\ καρδία τοντο το μοριον, 
80 δτ^λοϊ 6 τόπος {ούτος γάρ εστίν 6 αντος) και "η 

γλυκυτης της ύγρότητος ώς ούσα ττβττζμμενη και 

αιματώ^ης . 

Έιν δε τοις οστρακο^Ιρμοις ^χ€ΐ μεν τον αυτόν 

τόπον^ το κύριον της αισθησεως , ήττον δ' βπίΒηλον. 

πλην Sei ζητ€Ϊν aet περί μεσότητα ταντην την 

αρχήν, οσα μεν /χονιμα, τοϋ δεχόμενου μορίου την 
35 τροφήν, και δι' ου ποιείται την απόκρισιν η 

την σπερματικην η την περιττωματικην, οσα Βε 

682 a και πορευτικά των ζώων, άεΐ ev^ τω μέσω των 

8εζιών και των αριστερών. 

Ύοΐς δ' εντόμοις το μεν της τοιαύτης αρχής 
μόριον, ώσπερ εν τοις πρώτοις ελέχθη λόγοις, 
μεταζύ κεφαλής και του περί την κοιλιαν εστί 
κύτους, τοΰτο δε rot? μεν πολλοίς εστίν εν, τοις 
5 δε πλείω, καθάπερ τοις Ιουλώ^εσι και μακροΐς• 
8ιόπερ Βιατεμνόμενα ζη. βούλεται μεν γάρ ή φύσις 
εν πάίσι μόνον εν ποιεΐν το τοιούτον, και Βυναμενη 
μεν ποιεί μόνον εν, ου 8υναμενη δε πλείω. ^ 8ηλον 
δ' εν ετεροις έτερων μάλλον. 

Τά δε προς την τροφην μόρια ου ττασιν ομοίως, 
10 άλλα Βιαφοράν έχει πολλην. εντός γάρ του στό- 
ματος ενίοις μεν εστί το καλούμενον κεντρον, 
ώσπερανει σύνθετον και έχον γλώττης και χειλών 

^ τόπον Rackham : τρόνον vnlg. ^ ev Ρ : om. vulg. 

* sic SUY (δυνάμενα bis S) : και δυναμίνην μεν, ev ποιεΐ μόνον 
ου Βιτναμίνη δέ ττλει'ω Ζ : ου 8υναμ€ΐη] δ evepyeia Troiet μόνον ev, 
8ννάμ€ΐ 8e ττλΐίω• vnlg. (cf. 667 b 25). 



up against the intestine ; this is to ensure that it and 
its unpleasantness are kept as far as possible from the 
body's entrance and from the sovereign and most 
noble part. The mytis occupies a place Λvhich corre- 
sponds exactly with that of the heart in blooded 
creatures : which shows that it is the counterpart of 
it." Another proof of this is that the fluid in it is 
sweet — that is, it has undergone concoction and is of 
the nature of blood. 

In the Testacea the part which rules sensation 
occupies the same place but is not so easy to pick out. 
But this source of control should always be looked for 
around some middle position in these creatures : in 
stationary ones, in the midst between the part which 
receives the food and the part where the seed or the 
residue is emitted ; and in those which move about, 
always midway between the right side and the left. 

In insects the part where this control is placed, as 
was said in the first treatise,^ is situated between the 
head and the cavity where the stomach is. In the 
majority there is one such part, but in creatures like 
the Centipede, that is, which are long in the body, 
there are more than one : so if the creatures are cut 
up they go on living. Now Nature's desire is to make 
this part a unity in all creatures, and when she can, 
she makes it a unity, when she cannot, a plurahty." 
This is clearer in some cases than in others. 

The parts connected with nutrition are by no means 
alike in all insects ; indeed they exhibit great 
differences. For instance : Some have what is 
knoΛvn as a sting inside the mouth — a sort of com- 
bination of tongue and lips, — which possesses the 

" The heart of invertebrates escaped the notice of Aristotle. 
» At Hist. An. 531 b 34. ' Cf. 667 b 22 ff. 



682 a 

α/Αα ^νναμιν τοις δε μη εγουσιν ζμττροσθζ,ν το 

KevTpov ioTLV ivTos των οΒόντων τοιούτον αίσθτη- 

τηριον. τούτον δ' €χόμ€νον ττασιν evTepov evdu καΐ 

15 απλούν μ^χρι της i^oSov του ττβριττώματος• €νιοι,ς 
δε τοΰτο ίΧίκην €χ€ΐ. τά δε κοιλίαν μβτά το στόμα, 
από δε της κοιλίας το evTepov αλιγμβνον, όπως 
δσα βρωτικώτ€ρα καΐ μζίζω την φνσιν ύποΒοχην 
εχη πλείονος τροφής, το δε των τζττίγων γένος 
ώίαν €χ€ί μάλιστα τούτων φύσιν το γαρ αντο 

20 μόριον €χ€ΐ στόμα και γλώτταν συμπζφυκός, δι 
ου καθαπβρξΐ δια ρίζης ^εχβται την τροφην από 
των υγρών, πάντα μβν ουν ioTiv όλιγότροφα τά 
€ντομα των ζωών, ονχ ούτω δια μικρότητα ως 
δια φυχρότητα [τό γαρ θερμόν και δειται τροφής 
και ττε'ττει την τροφην τα^^ε'ω?, το δε φυχρόν ά- 

25 τροφον), μάλιστα δε τό των τεττίγων γένος• ικανή 
γαρ τροφή τω σώματι η €Κ του πνεύματος υπο- 
μένουσα νγρότης, καθάπερ τοΐς εφήμερο ις ζώοις 
(■γίνεται δε ταϋτα περί τόν ΧΙόντον), πλην εκείνα 
μεν ζη /Ltta? ημέρας χρόνον, ταΰτα δε πλειόνων 
μεν ημερών, ολίγων δε τούτων. 

30 Έττει δε περί τών εντός υπαρχόντων μορίων τοΐς 
ζωοις εΐρηται, πάλιν περί τών λοιπών τών εκτός 
επανιτεον. άρκτεον δ από τών νυν είρημενων, 
αλλ' ουκ ά(/)' ων άπελίπομεν, όπως από τούτων 
Βιατριβην ελάττω εχόντων επι τών τελείων και 
εναίμων ζώων ό λόγος σχολάζη μάλλον. 

35 VI. Τά μεν οΰν έντομα τών ζώων ου πολυμερή 
μεν τόν αριθμόν εστίν, όμως δ' ε;^ει προς άλληλα 


character of both. Those that have no sting in front 
have a sense-organ of that sort behind the teeth. 
After the mouth, in all insects comes the intestine, 
which is straight and simple right up to the residual 
vent. (Sometimes, however, it has a spiral in it.) 
And some there are Avhich have the stomach next 
after the mouth, while from the stomach runs a 
twisted intestine ; this gives the bigger and more 
gluttonous insects room for a larger amount of food. 
Of all these creatures the grasshoppers are the most 
peculiar. In them the mouth and tongue are united 
so as to make one single part, and through this they 
draw up their nourishment from fluid substances as 
through a root. All insects take but little nourish- 
ment ; and this is not so much because they are 
small as because they are cold. (Heat needs nourish- 
ment and quickly concocts it ; cold needs none.) 
This is most marked in the grasshoppers. They find 
sufficient nourishment in the moisture which the air 
deposits ; so do the one-day creatures Avhich occur 
around the Black Sea. Still, they live only for the 
space of a day ; whereas the grasshoppers live for 
several, though not many, days. 

Now that we have spoken of the internal parts of 
animals, we must go back and deal with the remainder 
of the external parts. We had better begin with the 
creatures of which we have just been speaking, and 
not go back to the point Avhere we left the external 
parts. This will mean that we take first those which 
need less discussion, and that will give more time for 
speaking of the " perfect " animals, i.e. the blooded 

VI. Insects first, then. Though their parts are not external 
numerous, insects differ from one another. They all ^^οοο^Γβϊ 

34-1 *^'"^^• 



Βιαφοράς. ιτολίΛτοδα μέι- γάρ iari ττάντα δ*ά το 

a fc TT^pos "rrpf βρα^ντητα καΐ κατάψνξιν τη? όνσ^ω^ την 
ΊΓθλιτττο8ίαν awTtKarrepai' αν^οΐς ττοιεΐν τηΐ' κίι-ψην 
και μάλιστα ΤΓολιτττοδα τά μάλιστα κατ€φνγμενα δια 
το μήκος οίον το τών Ιονλων γέιης. eri δ€ δίά το 
S άρίχα£ ζ^^'*' ~λ€ΐοι•α5 at τ' ειτομαι εισι καΐ ίτολιί- 
ποδα κατά ταιτά} ioTiv. 

*Οσα δ' €λάττονας e^et ^(ίδα?, imyra ταί?τ «στι 
epos τήν eXXetii^ty τήΐ' τών t7oS<ov. αυτών δέ τών 
■ϊτηρών ών /χό- ecrrtv ό βίος ιχ>μα^ικ6ς και Βιά την 
τροφηιν άναγκαΐον ίκτοττίζαν, τ^τράτττζρά τε «στχ 
jcot τον τοί> σίόματος ^^ι κοΰφον ογκον, οίον αί Τ6 

1Q μ€λιτται καΐ τα σνμφυλα ζώα. τανταΐζ• hvo γαρ ίφ' 
€κάτ€ρα τΓτερα* β;(θΐΝπν. οσα he μucpa τών τοιού- 
των, htTTTepa, καθά —ep το τών μιπών γ4νος. τα 8e 
βαρ^α* και τοις βίοις εδραία iroArnTepa fi€v ομοΐίος 
τοις μξλίτταις* εστό', ej^ei δ ξλντρα τοις τττΐροΐς, 

15 οίον αϊ τε μτιλοΧόνθαι καΐ τά τοίαιίτα τών εντόμων^ 
ο—ος σώζτ^ τήν τών ιττε/κίΕΪν δτι•αμί»'• ίΒραίίοτ' γαρ 
όντωΐ' €υ8ιάφθορα μάλλον εστί τών εύκκ-ψ-ων^ 
διόττερ ^^εί φραγμον ιτρο αΓτών. και ασχιστον δε 
τοιίτωι- εστί το Trrepov καΐ άκαυλον ου γάρ «m 
■arepov αλλ νμ•ην θ€ρματυ(ος, ος οια ξηρότητα ές 

30 ανάγκης άώιστατΌΛ τον σώματος αυτών φνχομενου 
τον σαρκώδους. 

"Έΐντομα δ' εστί δίά τε τά? ζίρημέιας αίτιας, και 
οτΓίος σώζηται δ«' άττάί^είον σνγκαμ•:ΓΤομ€ΐ'α• σνν- 
ελ/ττεταί γαρ τά μήκος εχοιτ αιτών, τοί^το ο ουκ 
αν €γίν€τ* αντόΐς μη οΰσιν €ΐτόμοις. τα δε μη 

1 imrnt Peck : ταιπτι Υ : ταΰτ' tuI^. : raxras Ogle. 
* Trepa τσβ σάματν^ vulg. : tow σ. delen. 
* βαμ4α Ogfe : βράχια, vulg. * μβλήτββ (α«κ> uatL 



have numerous feet ; this is in order to make their («) insects. 
motion quicker, and to counteract their natural slow- 
ness and coldness. Those which are most subject to 
coldness owing to their length (e.g. the Centipedes) 
have the greatest number of feet. Furthermore, 
these creatures have several sources of control ; and 
on that account they have the " insections " in their 
bodies, and the numerous feet which are placed in 
precise correspondence. 

Those that have fewer feet are winged by way of 
compensation. Some of these flying insects live a 
wandering life and have to go abroad in search of 
food ; so they have a light body and four wings, two 
on either side ; such are the bees and the kindred 
tribes. The small ones have only two wings all told 
— like the flies. Those that are heavy and sedentary 
in their habits have the larger number of wings like 
the bees, but they have shards round their wings 
(e.g. the Melolonthae" and similar insects) to preserve 
them in their proper condition ; for, as these creatures 
are sedentary, their Avings are more liable to be 
destroyed than those of the nimbler insects ; and 
that is why there is this protection round them. 
An insect's wing is not divided, and it has no shaft. 
In fact, it is not a wing at all, but a membrane of skin, 
which being dry detaches itself of necessity from the 
creature's body as the fleshy part cools off. 

I have already stated some reasons Λvhy these 
creatures have " insected " bodies : there is another, 
viz. it is so that they may curl up and thus escape 
injury and remain safe. It is the long ones that roll 
themselves up, and this would be impossible for them 
if they were not insected. Those that do not roll up 

« Perhaps cockchafers (Ogle). 



682b ^ ^ ^ ^ 

iXiKTa αυτών σκληρύνεται μάλλον συνιόντα els τάς 

25 τομας. Βηλον δε τοΰτο γίνεται θιγγανόντων, οΐον 
€πι των καλουμένων κανθάρων φοβηθεντα γαρ 
άκινητίζει, και το σώμα ytVerai σκληρον αυτών, 
άναγκαΐον δ' εντόμοις αύτοΐς etvaf τοΰτο γαρ εν 
TTJ ουσία αυτών υπάρχει το πολλάς εχειν αρχάς, και 

80 ταιίττ^ προσεοικε τοις φυτοΐς. ώσπερ γαρ τα φυτά, 
και ταΰτα διαιρούμενα δύναται ζην, πλην ταΰτα μεν 
μέχρι τινός, εκείνα δε και τέλεια γιν-εται την φύσιν 
και 8ύο εζ ενός και πλείω τον αριθμόν. 

"Έ^χ^ι δ' ενια τών εντόμων και κέντρα προς 
βοηθειαν τών βλαπτοντων. το μεν οΰν κεντρον 

S5 τοις μεν έμπροσθεν εστί τοις δ' όπισθεν, τοις μεν 
έμπροσθεν κατά την γλώτταν, τοις δ' όπισθεν κατά 
το ούραΐον. ωσπερ γάρ τοις ελεφασι το τών 
οσμών αίσθητήριον γεγενηται χρησιμον προς τε 
683 a την άλκην και την της τροφής χρησιν, οΰτως τών 
εντόμων ενίοις το κατά την γλώτταν τεταγμενον 
αισθάνονται τε γάρ τούτω της τροφής και άναλα/χ- 
βάνουσι και προσάγονται αύτην. οσα δε μη εστίν 
αυτών εμπροσθό κέντρα, οδόντας ^χ^ι τα μεν 
6 εδωδης χάριν τά δε του λαμβάνειν και προσάγεσθαι 
την τροφην, οίον οι τε μύρμηκες και το τών μελιτ- 
τών πασών γένος, όσα δ όπισθόκεντρά εστι, διά 
το θυμόν εχειν όπλον έχει το κεντρον. εχουσι δε 
τά μεν εν εαυτοΐς τά κέντρα, καθάπερ at μελιτται 
και οι σφήκες, διά τό πτηνά είναι* λεπτά μεν γάρ 

10 όντα και εζω εύφθαρτα (ανΥ' ην ει δε 7τα;)^ε'α ην^ 
ώσπερ τοις σκορπίοις, βάρος αν παρεΐχεν. τοις δε 

* <αν> Ogle, * δε παχ4α ην Piatt : δ' άπΰχΐν vulg. 



increase their hardness by closing up the insections. 
This is obvious if you touch them — e.g. the insects 
called Canthari (dung-beetles) are frightened when 
touched and become motionless, and their bodies 
become hard. But also it is necessary for them to 
be insected, for it is of their essential being to have 
numerous sources of control ; and herein they re- 
semble plants. Plants can live when they are cut 
up ; so can insects. There is a difference, however, 
for whereas the period of survival of a divided insect 
is limited, a plant can attain the perfection of its 
nature when divided, and so two plants or more come 
out of one. 

Some of the insects have a sting as well, for defence 
against attackers. In some the sting is in front, by 
the tongue ; in others it is behind at the tail-end. 
Consider the elephant's trunk : this is its organ of 
smell ; but the elephant uses it as a means of exert- 
ing force as well as for the purposes of nutrition. 
Compare with this the sting of insects : when, as in 
some of them, it is ranged alongside the tongue, not 
only do they get their sensation of the food by means 
of it, but they also pick up the food with it and convey 
it to the mouth. Those which have no sting in front 
have teeth ; which some of them use for eating, 
others for picking up the food and conveying it to the 
mouth, as do the ants and the whole tribe of bees. 
Those that have a sting at the back are fierce crea- 
tures and the sting serves them as a weapon. Some- 
times the sting is well inside the body, as in bees and 
wasps. This is because they are Avinged, and a deli- 
cate sting on the outside of the body would be easily 
destroyed ; on the other hand, a thick one such as 
scorpions have would weigh them down. Scorpions 



683 a 

σκορπιοις 7Γ€ζοΐς ονσι καΐ κέρκον^ εχουσιν άναγ- 
καΐον €7Γΐ ravTjf e^eiv το κέντρον, τ) μ-ηθ^ν χρησιμον 
€ivaL ττρος την άλκην. Βίπτβρον δ' ovOev iariv 
οτησθόκ^ντρον δια το άσθξνη γαρ καΐ μικρά ζΐναι 

15 Βίπτ€ρά εστίν Ικανά γάρ τά μικρά αϊρεσθαι νττο 
των εΧαττόνων τον αριθμόν, δια ταυτό δε τοΰτο 
και έμπροσθεν έχει το κεντρον ασθενή γάρ οντά 
μόλις Βνναται τοις όπισθεν^ τυπτειν. τά δε 
ττολντττερα, δια το μείζω την φυσιν ea'at, πλειόνων 
τετνχηκε πτερών και ίσχνει τοις όπισθεν μορίοις. 

20 βελτιον δ' ενδεχομένου μη ταντό όργανον επι 
ανόμοιας εχειν χρήσεις, αλλά το μεν άμνντικον 
οζύτατον, το δε γλωττικον σομφόν και σπαστικόν 
της τροφής. οπον γάρ ενδέχεται χρησθαι 8υσιν 
επι διί' έργα και μη εμποδίζειν προς έτερον, 
ουδέν η φύσις εΐωθε ποιεΐν ωσπερ η χαλκευτικη 

25 προς εΰτε'λειαΐ' 6βελισκολΐ)χνιον• αλλ' οπού μη 
εΓδε';\;εται, καταχρηται τω αύτω επι πλείω έργα. 

Ύούς δε πόδας τους προσθίους μείζους ενια τού- 
των έχει, όπως επειδή δια το σκληρόφθαλμα είναι 
ουκ ακριβή την οφιν εχουσι, τά προσπίπτοντα τοις 
προσθίοις άποκαθαίρωσι σκελεσιν όπερ και φαί- 

80 νονται ποιοΰσαι αϊ τε μυΐαι και τά μελιττώδη των 
ζωών άει γάρ χαρακίζουσι τοις προσθίοις σκελεσιν. 
τά δ' οπίσθια μείζω των μέσων διά τε την ^βάδισιι^ 
καΐ προς το α'ίρεσθαι ραον από της γης άναπετ- 

* κίρκον ζ (coniecerat Ogle) : κ4ντρον vulg. 

^ TavTTj Ogle : ταΰτ \nilg. 

^ όπισθεν Ogle, Thurot : ΐμπροσθΐν VuIg. 

" The principle of" division of labour " in a living organism, 
not stated again until 1827 (by Milne Ed\vards). See Ogle's 


themselves, being land-creatures and having a tail, 
are bound to have their sting on their tail ; otherwise 
it would be no use for exerting foixe. No two- 
winged insect has a sting at the rear ; these are small 
weak creatures, and can be supported by a smaller 
number of wings : that is why they have only two. 
The same reason explains why they have their sting 
in the front : owing to their weakness they cannot 
well deliver a blow with their hind parts. Many- 
winged creatures, on the other hand, owe their 
greater number of wings to their own greater size, 
and so too their hind parts are stronger and bear the 
sting. It is better, when it is possible, that one and the 
same organ should not be put to dissimilar uses ; that 
is, there should be an organ of defence Λvhich is very 
sharp, and another organ to act as a tongue, Λvhich 
should be spongy and able to draw up nourishment. 
And thus, whenever it is possible to employ two 
organs for tAvo pieces of Λvork without their getting in 
each other's way. Nature provides and employs two." 
Her habits are not those of the coppersmith who for 
cheapness' sake makes you a spit-and-lampstand 
combination. Still, where two are impossible, Nature 
employs the same organ to perform several pieces 
of Avork. 

Some insects, whose eyesight is not distinct owing 
to their eyes being made of some hard substance, have 
specially long forefeet, which enable them to clear 
away anything that comes down on to the eyes. 
Flies and bees and the like are obvious examples : 
they are always crossing their front legs. These 
creatures' hind legs are longer than their middle ones 
for two reasons ; (1) to assist them in walking, and 
(2) to lift them more easily off the ground when they 

Μ 34,7 


683 a ^ 

όμ€να. οσα δε ττηΒητικά αυτών eVt μάλλον τούτο 

φανβρόν, οίον αϊ τ' aKpiSeg καΐ το των φύλλων 

35 γβνος' όταν γαρ κάμφαντ eKTeivr) πάλιν, αναγκαΐον 

άπο της γης ηρθαι. ουκ €μπροσθ€ν δ' αλλ 

683 h 6ma0€v μόνον ζχονσί τα τη^δαλιώδη at άκρίΒβς' 

την γαρ καμττην αναγκαΐον ει'σω κβκλάσθαι, των 

Se προσθίων κώλων ovhev βστι τοιούτον, ίζάποοα 

he τα τοιαύτα πάντ' €στΙ συν τοις άλτικοΐς μοριοις. 

VII. Ύών δ' οστρακόδερμων ουκ €στί το σώμα 

6 7Τθλυμ€ρ€ς. τούτου δ' αίτιον το μονιμον αυτών 

efrai την φύσιν πολυμ€ρ€στ€ρα γαρ αναγκαΐον 

etvat τών ζώων τα κινητικά δια το (πλeιoυςy^ eivai 

αυτών πράζ^ις• οργάνων γάρ δεΓται πλειόνων τα 

πλειόνων μετέχοντα κινησβων. τούτων δε τα μ€ν 

ακίνητα πάμπαν εστί, τά δε μικράς μΐτεχει κι- 

10 νησ€ως' αλλ' η φύσις προς σωτηρίαν αύτοΐς την 
τών οστράκων σκληρότητα περιέθηκ^ν. εστί δε 
τά μξ,ν μονόθυρα τά δε Βίθυρα αυτών, τά δε στρομ- 
βώΒη, καθάπ€ρ ζ'ίρηται πρότ€ρον' και τούτων τα 
μ€ν ίλίκην €χοντα, οίον κήρυκες, τά δε σφαιροζώή 
μόνον, καθάπζρ το τών εχίνων γένος. και τών 

15 Ψιθύρων τά μβν Ιστιν άναπτυκτά, οίον κτένες και 
μύες {επι θάτερα γάρ συγκεκλεισται, ώστε αν- 
οίγεσθαι επι θάτερα και συγκλείεσθαι), τά δ' επ 
άμφω συμπεφυκεν, οϊον το tow σωλήνων γένος, 
άπαντα δε τά οστρακόδερμα, καθάπερ τά φυτά, 

20 κάτω την κεφαλήν έχει. τούτου δ' αίτιον ότι 
κάτωθεν λα/ζ^άνει την τροφην, ώσπερ τά φυτά 
ταΐς ρίζαις. συμβαίνει οΰν αύτοΐς τά μεν κάτω 
άνω εχειν, τά δ' άνω κάτω. εν ύμένι δ' εστί, hi 

^ (ττλειΌυϊ) Peck : (ττολλάί) Piatt, 


rise in flight. This peculiarity is even more notice- 
able in the leaping insects, such as locusts and the 
various sorts of fleas, which first bend their hind legs 
and then stretch them out again, and this forces them 
to rise up from the ground. The rudder-shaped legs 
which locusts have are at the rear only and not in 
front ; this is because the joint must bend inwards,* 
and no front limb satisfies this condition. All 
these creatures have six feet, inclusive of the parts 
used for leaping. 

VII. In Testacea the body is not divided into (/>) Testacea. 
several parts, owing to their being of stationary 
habits, as opposed to creatures which move about : 
the latter are bound to have more parts to their body 
because their activities are more numerous, and the 
more motions of Λvhich a species is capable, the more 
organs it requires. Now some of the Testacea are 
altogether stationary : others move about but little ; 
and so, to keep them safe, Nature has compassed 
them about Avith hard shells. Some of them are (as I 
said earlier **) one-valved, some two-valved ; and some 
conical, either spiral like the Whelks, or spherical 
like the Sea-urchins. The two-valved shells are 
divided into (a) those which open — i.e. w^hich have a 
joint on one side and can open and shut on the other ; 
e.g. the scallops and mussels ; (6) those which are 
joined together on both sides, e.g. the group of razor- 
fishes. In all Testacea, just as in plants, the head is 
dowTi below. The reason for this is that they take up 
their food from below, as plants take it up by their 
roots ; so they have their nether parts above and their 
upper parts below. These creatures are enveloped 
in a membrane, and through this they strain fresh- 

» See note on 693 b 3, p. 433. • At 679 b 16. 



ου 8ιηθ€Ϊ το ττότιμον καΙ Aa/xjSai^ei τ-ην τροφην. 
6χ€ΐ 8e Κ€φαλ'ην μζν ττάντα, τά δε του σώματος 
μόρια τταρά το της τροφής ^ζκτικόν άνώνυ/χα 

25 VIII. Τά Se μαλακόστρακα ττάντα και πορ€ντίκα, 
διό ττοδών e^et ttAt^^os". έ'στι δε γβνη μβν τβτταρα 
τά /xeytar' αυτών ot τε καλούμενου κάραβοι καΐ 
αστακοί καΐ καρίνες καί καρκίνοι' τούτων δ' 
€κάστου ττλείω elhr] εστί διαφέροντα ου μόνον κατά 

30 τήν μορφην άλλα και κατά το μέγεθος πολύ' τά 
μεν γάρ μεγάλα τά δε μΛκρά πάμπαν αυτών εστίν, 
τά μεν ουν καρκινώδη και καραβώδη τταρόμοι 
εστί τώ χηλάς εχειν αμφότερα. ταύτας δ' ου 
πορείας εχουσι χάριν, άλλα προς το λαβείν και 
κατασχεΐν άντι χειρών, διο και καμπτουσιν εναν- 

35 τίως ταύτα? τοΓ? ποσίν τους μεν γάρ επί το κοίλον 
τάς δ' επί το περιφερές κάμπτουσι και ελίσσουσιν 
οϋτω γάρ χρήσιμαι προς το λαβοΰσαι προσφερεσθαι 
684 a τήν τροφην. 

Δίΐαφερουσι δ' η οΐ μεν κάραβοι εχουσιν ούράν, 
οΐ δε καρκίνοι ουκ εχουσιν ούράν τοις μεν γάρ διά 
το νευστικοΐς είναι χρήσιμος η ουρά {νεουσι γάρ 
άπερεώόμενοι οίον 77λάταΐ5" αυταΐ?), τοΓ? δε καρ- 
5 κίνοις ού^εν χρησιμον διά το πρόσγειον είναι τον 
βίον^ αυτών και είναι τρωγλοΒυτας. όσοι δ' αυτών 
Ίτελάγιοί εισι, διά τοΰτο πολύ αργότερους εχουσι 
τους πόhaς^ προς την πορειαν, οίον αι τε ^ίΐαΐαι 
και οι Ήρακλεωτικοι καλούμενοι καρκίνοι, οτι 
όλίγη κινήσει χρώνται, αλλ' η σωτηρία αυτοί? 

1C τώ 6στρειώ8εις είναι γίνεται' διό αι μεν ^αιαι 

^ τό /Sior Bekker per typothetae errorem. 
* αντών post πόδαί vulg. : om. Y. 

PARTS OF ANIMALS, IV. vii.-viii. 

water to drink, which is their way of taking nourish- 
ment. All of them possess a head, but except for 
the part Λvhich takes in the food none of the other 
parts has a special name. 

VIII. All the Crustacea can walk on land as well as (c) Cru> 
swim ; and hence they all have numerous feet. There "*"*" 
are four main groups of Crustacea, called (l) Carabi ; 
(2) Astaci; (3) Carides; and (4) Carcini." Each of 
these contains several species which differ not only 
in shape, but also in size, and that considerably, for 
some species are large, others extremely small. The 
Carcinoid and the Caraboid Crustacea resemble each 
other, in both having claAvs. These claws are not for 
the sake of locomotion, but serve instead of hands, 
for catching and holding ; and that is why they bend 
in an opposite direction to the feet, which bend and 
tAvist toward the concave side, while the claws bend 
toward the convex side. This makes the claws 
serviceable for catching hold of the food and convey- 
ing it to the mouth. 

The tΛvo groups, Carabi and Carcini, differ in that 
the former have a tail and the latter have not. The 
Carabi find a tail useful because they are swimmers : 
they propel themselves with it as though with oars, 
A tail A\Ould be useless to the Carcini, which spend 
their lives near the land and creep into holes and 
crannies. Those that live out at sea and move about 
but little, and OΛve their safety to their shelly exterior, i 
have for these reasons feet which are considerably less 
effective for locomotion : examples of this are the 

» Roughly, these four divisions may be represented by our 
own groups, thus : (1) lobsters ; (2) crajrfish ; (3) prawns and 
shrimps ; (4) crabs. 



684 a 

AeTTToaKeAetS", ol δ' ΉρακλΐωτικοΙ μικροσκ^Χ^ΐζ 


01 δε ττάμπαν μικροί καρκίνοι, οΐ άλισκονται ev 

τοις μικροΐς Ιχθυ^ίοις, βχονσι τους τελευταίου? 

ττλατεΓ? ττοδας-, ίνα ττρος το velv αύτοΐς χρήσιμοι 

ώσιν, ώσπ€ρ τττβρνγια τ) ττΧάτας βχοντες τους ττόδα?. 

At δε κταριδε? των μέν καρκινοειδών ^ιαφερονσί 

15 τω exeiv Κ€ρκον, των δε καραβθ€ΐ8ών δια το μη 
εχειν χηλάς• ας ουκ εχουσι δια το ττλειου? έ';^;ειν 
ττόδα?, ζντανθα γαρ η ζκεΐθβν άνήλωται αϋζΎ]σις. 
πλείους δ' εχουσι ττόδα?, οτι νευστικώτερά εστίν 
η τΓορευτικτώτερα. 

Τά δ' εν τοΓ? ντττίοις μόρια και περί την κε- 
φαλήν τα μεν εις το δε'^ασ^αι το ϋ8ωρ και άφεΐναι 

20 εχουσι βραγγοει^η' ττλακωδε'στερα δε τά κάτω αι 
^τ^λειαι των αρρένων καράβων εχουσι, κολ τά εν 
τω επιπτυγματι δασύτερα αί ^τ^λειαι καρκίνοι 
των αρρένων, δια το εκτείνειν τα ωα ττρο? αυτά, 
άλλα /χή άποθεν, ωσπερ οΐ Ιχθύες και ταλλα τά 
^ωά)^ τίκτοντα• εύρυχωρεστερα γαρ οντά και μειζω 

25 χωράν έχει τοις ωοΐς μαΛλον. οι μεν οΰν κάραβοι 
και οι καρκίνοι πάντες την δε^ιάν εχουσι χηλην 
μειζω και Ισχυροτεραν τοις γαρ Βεζιοΐς ττάντα 
ττεφυκε τά ζωα Spdv μάλλον, η δε φύσις άττοδιδω- 
σιν αεί τοΐς χρησθαι Βυναμενοις εκαστον η μόνως 
η μάλλον, οίον χαυλιό8οντας και οΒοντας και 

80 κέρατα και πλήκτρα και πάντα τά τοιαύτα μόρια, 
δσα προς βοήθειαν και άλκην εστίν. ^ 

Οί δ' αστακοί μόνοι, οποτεραν άν τυχωσιν 
€χουσι μείζω των χηλών, και αί ^τ^λειαι και οι 

^ {ωά) Peck : τήκοντα S : κυΐσκοντα ΡΥ : φοτοκοΰντα Ogle. 
^ eoTiv Peck : είσιν vulg. 



Maiae ** (whose legs are thin) and the crabs called 
Heracleotic (Avhose legs are short). 

The little tiny crabs, which are found among the 
catch Avith small fishes, have their hindmost feet flat, 
like fins or oars, to make them useful for SAvimming. 

The Carides diifer from the Carcinoids in having a 
tail, and from the Caraboids just mentioned in not 
having claws. Claws are absent because they have 
more feet : the material for their growth has gone 
into the feet. And they have more feet because they 
swim about more or move about more. 

As for the parts on the under '' surface around the 
head, in some animals these are formed like gills so as 
to let in the water and to discharge it ; the lower 
parts, however, of female crabs are flatter in formation 
than those of male ones, and also the appendages on 
the flap are hairier. This is because they deposit 
their eggs there instead of getting rid of them, as the 
fishes and the other oviparous animals do. These 
appendages are wider and larger and so can provide 
more space for the eggs. In all the Carabi and in 
all the Carcini the right claw is bigger and stronger 
than the left. This is because all animals in their 
activities naturally use the right side more ; and 
Nature ahvays assigns an instrument, either ex- 
clusively or in a better form, to those that can use it. 
This holds good for tusks, teeth, horns, spurs and all 
such parts which serve animals for assistance and 

In Lobsters only, whether male or female, it is 
a matter of chance which claw is the bigger. The 

" Probably the spiny spider-crab. 
' That is, ventral. 



684 a ^ „ ^ ^ ^ ,, Ν X « , ^ 

appeves. αίτιον δέ του /xev έ'χβιν χτ^λά? on ev τω 

35 yeVet eiat τω εχοντι ■χηλάς• τοΰτο δ άτακτω? 
684 b βχονσίν δτι 7Τ€7τήρωνταί καΐ ου χρώνταί βφ* ο 
ττεφύκασιν, άλλα ττορξίας χάριν. 

Κα^' ζκαστον δε των μορίων, τις rj θβσίς αυτών 

καΐ τίν€ς ΒιαφοραΙ ττρός άλληλα, των τ' άλλων καΐ 

τίνι ^ιαφζρζΐ τα appeva των θηλαών, 'έκ τ€ των 

5 ανατομών θ^ωρ^ίσθω καΐ €Κ των ιστοριών των 

7Γ€ρι τα ζώα. 

IX. Των δέ μαλακίων ττ^ρΐ μβν των €ντ6ς 
eiprjTai ττρότζρον, ώσττ€ρ και rrepi των άλλων 
ζωών €κτός δ' €χ€ΐ τό τ€ του σώματος κύτος, 
άΒιόριστον 6ν, και τούτου πό8ας εμπροσθβν rrepi 
την κζφαλην, €ντός μέν τών οφθαλμών, rrepi δε 

10 τό στόμα και τους οδόντα?, τά μβν οΰν άλλα ζώα 
τα βχοντα ττόΒας τά μβν βμττροσθζν βχ€ΐ και 
όπισθεν, τά δ' €κ του πλαγίου, ώσττβρ τά ττολιίτΓοδα 
και άναιμα τών ζώων τοΰτο δε το γίνος ί^ίως 
τούτων ττάντας γαρ βχουσι τους πόδα? €πΙ το 
καλού μ^νον €μτΓροσθ€ν. τούτου δ' αίτιον οτι 

Ιό συνηκται αυτών το οπισθβν ττρος το ^μττροσθβν, 
ώσττξ,ρ τών οστρακόδερμων τοις στρομβώΒζσιν. 
δλως γαρ τά οστρακόδερμα βχβι τη /χεν ομοίως 
τοις μαλακοστράκοις , tjj δε τοΓ? μαλακίοις. fj 
jLtev γάρ ε^ω^εν τό -^εώδε? εντός δε τό σαρκώδες, 
τοις μαλακοστράκοις , τό δε σχήμα του σώματος 

20 δν τρόπον συνβστηκε, τοις μαλακίοις, τρόπον μέν 

« See Hist. An. 525 a 30—527 b 34, 541 b 19 ff. 

" At 678 b 24 ff. 

" The theory that the cuttle-fish is comparable to a verte- 
brate bent double was put forward in a paper read before the 
Academy of Sciences in 1830, and was the origin of the famous 


reason why they have claws is because they belong 
to a group which has claws ; and they have them 
in this irregular way because they themselves are 
deformed and use the claws not for their natural 
purpose but for locomotion. 

For an account of every one of the parts, of 
their position, and of the differences between them, 
including the differences between the male and the 
female, consult the Anatomical treatises and the 
Inquiries upon Animals.'^ 

IX. With regard to the Cephalopods, their internal (S) Cepha- 
parts have already been described, as have those ^"P"•^*• 
of the other animals.'' The external parts include 

(1) the trunk of the body, which is undefined, and 

(2) in front of this, the head, with the feet round it : 
the feet are not beyond the eyes, but are outside the 
mouth and the teeth. Other footed animals either 
have some of their feet in front and some at the 
back ; or else arranged along the sides — as with the 
bloodless animals that have numerous feet. The 
Cephalopods, however, have an arrangement of 
their ΟΛνη. All their feet are on what may be 
called the front. The reason for this is that their 
back half is drawn up on to the front half,'' just as 
in the conical-shelled Testacea. And generally, 
though in some respects the Testacea resemble the 
Crustacea, in others they resemble the Cephalopods. 
In having their earthy material outside and their 
fleshy material inside, they resemble the Crustacea ; 
but as resrardinsr the formation and construction of 
their body they resemble the Cephalopods — all of 

controversy between G. St-Hilaire and Cuvier about unity of 
type. This controversy excited Goethe more than the revolu- 
tion of the same year. (Ogle.) 

Μ 2 355 


684 b 

TLva πάντα, μάλιστα δε των στρομβω^ών τα 

έχοντα την ξλίκην αμφοτέρων γαρ τούτον €χζΐ 

τον τρόπον η φύσις^' et propter hoc ambulant uni- 

formiter <αλλ' ovf καθάπβρ σνμβεβηκεν €πΙ των 

Τ€τραπό8ων ζωών καΐ των ανθρώπων, homo vero 

25 habet os in capite, sciUcet in parte superior! corporis. 
€7Γ€ΐτα τον στόμαχον, έπειτα δε ttjv κοίλίαν, άπο δε 
ταύτης το εντερον μέχρι της 8ιεζό8ου του περιτ- 
τώματος, τούτον μεν οΰν τον τρόπον έχει τοις 
εναίμοις ζώοις, και μετά την κεφαλήν εστίν ο καλού- 
μενος Θώραζ, και τά περί τοΰτον τα δε λοιπά μόρια 

30 τούτων τε χάριν και ένεκα της κινήσεως προσεθηκεν 
η φύσις, οίον τά τε πρόσθια κώλα και τά όπισθεν, 
βούλεται δε καΐ τοις μαλακοστράκοις και τοις 
εντόμοις η y' εύθυωρία των εντοσθώίων τον αντον 
€χειν τρόπον, κατά δε τάς νττηρεσίας τάς εζωθεν 
κινητικάς διαφέρει των εναίμων. τά δε μαλάκια 
τε και (jay^ στρομβώδη των οστρακόδερμων έχει 

^ sequitur locus corniptus. quae corrigi possunt sec. vers. 
arabicam correxi, suppositicia eieci, amLssa e versione latina 
Mich. Scot supplevi. text. vulg. habet η φνσις ώοττερ el tis 
νοήσ€ΐ€ν en' evdeias, καθάπΐρ σνμβΐβ-ηκΐν eiri των τίτραποοων 
ζωών Koi των ανθρώπων, πρώτον μ€ν ίπι ακρω τώ ανω στοματί 
της evOeias κατά το Α, ίπΐΐτα Κ,κατά addunt ΡΥ> το Β τον 
στόμαχον, [το 8e om. ΡΥ] Γ την κοιλίαν άπο δε τοΰ έντίρου 
μίχρι TTJs δΐ€ξόδον τοΰ ττεριττώματοζ, ^ το Α. τοΰτον μίν οΰν 
τον τρόπον ϊχΐΐ τοις ίναίμοιζ ζώοις, και περί τοΰτο eoTif tj 
κίφαλη καΙ ό θώραξ καλουμένου (καλ. θώραζ SU)• τά δέ λοιττα, 
etc. vide et quae p. 432 scripsi. 

2 <άλλ' οΰ> Peck. ^ <τά> Peck. 



them do so to some extent, but most markedly 
those conical Testacea which have a spiral shell, 
since both these classes have this natural struc- 
ture " ; and therefore they tvalk nith an even gait, 
and not as is the case with quadrupeds and man.'' 
Now man has his mouth placed in his head, vis. in the 
upper part of the body, and after that the gullet, then 
the stomach, and after that the intestine which 
reaches as far as the vent where the residue is dis- 
charged. This is the arrangement in the blooded 
animals, i.e., after the head comes what is known as 
the trunk, and the parts adjoining. The remaining 
parts (e.g. the limbs at front and back) have been 
added by Nature for the sake of those which I have 
just mentioned and also to make movement possible. 
Now in the Crustacea too and in the Insects the 
internal parts tend to be in a straight alignment of 
this kind ; though with regard to the external parts 
Avhich subserve locomotion their arrangement differs 
from that of the blooded animals. The Cephalopods 
and the conical-shelled Testacea have the same 

" The passage which follows has been badly corrupted by 
references to a diagram which have ousted the text. The 
words in italics have been translated from the Arabic version, 
of which Michael Scot's Latin translation is given opposite, in 
default of the original Greek. See supplementary note on 
p. 432. 

* This refers to their uneven progression by moving first 
one side of the body and then the other. The Testacea, how- 
ever, " have no right and left" (De incessu an. 714 b 9), and 
their movement was evidently an awkward problem for 
Aristotle. He reserves them until the very end of the De 
incessu, and he has to admit that they move, although they 
ought not to do so ! They move -παρά φνσιν. The mechan- 
ism of their motion can be detected by the microscope, and is 
known as ciliary. See also De incessu, 706 a 13, 33, Hist, 
An. 528 b 9. 



eS5&avT0LS μ€ν τταραττ\Ύ]σίως , τούτοις δ αντ€στραμ- 
μίνως' κέκαμπται γαρ η TeXevrrj ττρος την άρχην, 
ώσττβρ αν el' τις την βύθζΐαν [βφ^ ης το Ε]^ κάμφας 
ττροσαγάγοι το Δ ττρός το Α. οϋτως γαρ καμβνων 
νυν των εντοσθίων περίκβιται τοις μβν μαλακίοις το 
s κύτος, ο καλζΐται μόνον €πΙ των πολυπόδων κζφαλη • 
τοις δ οστρακο^έρμοις το τοιούτον εστίν 6 στρόμ- 
βος. Βιαφζρει δ' ovSev άλλο πλην δτι τοις μεν 
μαλακον το περιζ, τοις δε σκληρον ττερί το σαρκώδες 
7Τ€ρΐ€θηκ€ν ή φνσις, δττως σώζηται δια την 8υσκινη- 
σιαν και δια τοΰτο το ττβρίττωμα τοις τε μαλακίοις 

10 εζβρχζται ττερί το στόμα και τοις στρομβώ^εσι, 
■πλην τοις μεν μαλακίοις κάτωθεν, τοις δε στρομ- 
βώ^εσιν εκ του πλαγίου. 

Δια ταυτην μεν οΰν την αίτίαν τοις μαλακίοις οι 
πό8ες τούτον εχονσι τον τρόπον, και ύπεναντίως 
η τοις άλλοις. εχουσι δ' άνομοίως αί στ^ττιαι και 

15 αι τευθί^ες τοις πολυποσι δια το νευστικαι μόνον 
είναι, τους δε και πορευτικούς. αϊ μεν γαρ τους 
άνωθεν των ό8όντων <[εζ μικρούς^^ εχονσι, κολ 
τούτων τους έσχατους δυο μείζους, τους δε λοιπούς 
των οκτώ δυο κάτωθεν μέγιστους πάντων.^ ωσπερ 
γαρ τοις τετράποσι τα οπίσθια ισχυρότερα κώλα, 
και ταύταις μέγιστοι οι κάτωθεν (ττοδε?)*• το γαρ 

20 φορτίον ούτοι εχουσι και κινοΟσι ^ιιάλιστα. και οι 
έσχατοι δυο μείζους των μέσων, δτι τούτοις συν- 

^ seclusi ; post ^s add. Ζ τό δλον φησί. vid. ρ. 432. 

* Schneider ex Gazae Λ'εΓβ. {senos ex'tgnos) ; sex Σ ; μικρούς 
Ζ (sed ποδών pro οδόντων), idem Ε teste Buss. 

^ ττάντων Ogle : τούτων vulg. * <πόδ€ί> Rackham. 



arrangement as one another, but it differs completely 
from that of the others, as the tail-end of these 
creatures is bent right over to meet the front, 
just as if I were to bend the straight line over 
until the point D met the point A. Such 

A Β C D 

then, is the disposition of their internal parts. 
Round them, in Cephalopods, is situated the sac (in 
the Octopuses and in them only it is called the head) : 
in the Testacea the corresponding thing is the conical 
shell. The only difference is that in the one case 
the surrounding substance is soft, and in the other 
Nature has surrounded the flesh with something 
hard, to give them the preservation they need ovdng 
to their bad locomotion. As a result of the above- 
mentioned arrangement, in both sets the residue 
leaves at a point near the mouth : in the Cephalopods 
under the mouth, in the conical Testacea at the side 
of it. 

So what we have said explains why the feet of 
Cephalopods are where they are, quite differently 
placed from all other animals' feet. Sepias and 
Calamaries, however, being swimmers merely, differ 
from the Octopuses, Avhich are walkers as well ; they 
have six small feet above the teeth, and of these the 
ones at each end are larger ; the remaining two out 
of the total eight are doΛvn below and largest of 
all. These creatures have their strongest feet down 
below, just as quadrupeds have their strongest limbs 
at the back ; and the reason is that they carry the 
weight of the body and they chiefly are responsible 
for locomotion. The two outer feet are larger than 
the inner ones because they have to help the others 




υπηρετοΰσίν. 6 δε πολύττονς τους iv μέσω τίτταρας 

Πόδα? μ€ν οΰν ττάντα €χονσί ταύτα οκτώ, άλλ' 
at μ€ν σηπίαι καΐ at TevOiSes βραχείς, τα δε 
ττολυποΒώΒτη μεγάλους, το γαρ κύτος του σώματος 

25 at μεν μέγα εχουσιν τά^ δε μακρόν, ώστε τοις μεν 
άφεΐλεν άπο του σώματος, προς δε το μήκος των 
ποΒών προσεθηκεν η φύσις, ταΐς δ' από των 
7Γθ8ών λαβοΰσα το σώμα ηϋζησεν. Βιόπερ τοΐς 
μεν ου μόνον προς το νεΐν χρήσιμοι ol πό8ες άλλα 
και προς το βα^ίζειν, ταΐς δ' άχρηστοι• μικροί γάρ, 

80 το δε κύτος μέγα εχουσιν. επεί δε βραχείς εχουσι 
τους πό8ας και αχρήστους προς το άντιλαμβάνεσθαι 
και μη άποσπάσθαι' άπό των πετρών, όταν κλύΒων 
•η καΐ χειμών, και προς το τα άποθεν προσάγεσθαι, 
δια ταΰτα προβοσκίδας εχουσι 8ύο μακράς, αΐς 

35 ορμοΰσί τε και άποσαΧεύουσιν ώσπερ πΧοΙον όταν 
685 b χειμών η, και τα άποθεν θηρεύουσι και προσάγονται 
ταύταις αϊ τε σηπίαι και αϊ τευθίδες. οι δε πολύ- 
ποδες ουκ εχουσι τάς προβοσκίδας δια το τους 
πόδας αύτοΐς εΐναι προς ταΰτα χρησίμους, ενίοις^ 
δε κοτυληδόνες προς τοΐς ποσι και πλεκτάναι 
δ προσεισι, δνναμιν εχουσαι* και σύνθεσιν τοιαύτην 
οΐανπερ τα πλεγμάτια οΐς οι ιατροί οι αρχαίοι τους 
δακτύλους ενεβαλλον ούτω και εκ των Ινών 

^ τα Peck : οί vulg. 

* άποσπάσθαι Bekker : άντισπάσθαι codd. 

' ivlois Peck : Saois vulg. 

* ίχουσαι Ρ : ίχουσι vulg. 

' The use of these σαΰραι or aeipai is described by Hippo- 
crates, Ilept άρθρων (Littre iv. 318-320 ; L.C.L. iii. 390 : " The 
tubes woven out of palm-tissue are satisfactory means of 


in performing their duty. In the Octopuses, however, 
the four middle feet are the biggest. 

And although all these creatures have eight feet, 
the Sepia's and the Calamary's are short ones, since 
their bodies are large in the trunk, and the Octopus's 
feet are long, because his body is small. Thus in 
one case the substance which she took from the body 
Nature has given towards lengthening the feet, and 
in the other she has taken away from the feet and 
made the body itself bigger. Hence it results that 
the Octopuses have feet Λvhich will serve them for 
walking as weW as for swimming, whereas the other 
creatures' feet λλΊΙΙ not do so, being small, while the 
body itself is big. And inasmuch as these creatures' 
feet are short, and useless for holding on tightly to 
the rock in a storm when there is a strong sea running, 
or for bringing to the mouth objects that are at a 
distance, by way of compensation they have two long 
probosces, with which during a storm they moor 
themselves up and ride at anchor hke a ship ; there- 
with also they hunt distant prey and bring it to their 
mouths. These things the Sepias and Calamaries 
do. The Octopuses have no probosces because their 
feet serve these purposes. Some creatures have 
suckers and tΛvining tentacles as Avell as feet : these 
have the same character and function as Λvell as the 
same structure as those plaited tubes which the early 
physicians used for reducing dislocated fingers." They 
are similarly made out of plaited fibres, and their 

reduction, if you make extension of the finger both ways, 
grasping the tube at one end and the wrist at the other." 
The σαύρα was thus a tube open at both ends. A similar 
passage in Diodes ap. Apollonius of Kitium, no doubt taken 
from Hippocrates, refers to " the aeipai which children plait " 
(L.C.L. iii. 453). 



685 b 

π€7τλ€γμ4ναι eiatV, καΐ^ βλκονσι τα σαρκία /cat 
τά €ν8ώόντα. τΐβριλαμβάν^ί μ^ν γαρ χαλαρά οντά' 
όταν δε avvreLvrj, vrte^et και €χ€ται του βντος 
θιγγανοντος τταντός. 

10 "Ωστ' €77€ΐ άλλο ουκ '4στιν ω προσάζονται, αλλ 
7) τά μβν τοις ποσΐ τά δε ταΐς ττροβοσκίσι, ταύτας 
€γονσι ττρός άλκην καΐ την άλλην βοηθ€(,αν^ άντΙ 

Τά μ€ν ουν άλλα Βικότυλά εστί, γβνος δε' τι ττολυ- 
ΤΓοδων μονοκότυλον. αίτιον δε το μήκος καΐ η λεττ- 
τότι^? τη? φυσζως αυτών μονοκότυλον γάρ ai^ay- 

15 καΐον είναι το στ€νόν. ουκ ουν ώς βίλτιστον βχουσιν, 
αλλ' ώς άναγκαΐον δια τον 'iStov λόγον της ουσίας. 

ΙΙτ€ρύγιον δ' ζχουσι, ταύτα ττάντα κύκλω ττερι το 
κύτος, τοΰτο δ' εττι μεν των άλλων συναπτόμβνον 
και συνεχές εστί, και ε'ττι των μεγάλων τευθών 
αϊ δ' ελάττους καΐ καλούμεναι τευθίδες πλατύτερόν 

20 τ€ τοΰτο εχουσι και ου στενόν, ώσπερ αι σηττίαι 
και οι πολύποδες, και τοΰτ' από μέσον ήργμενον, 
και ου κύκλω δια τταντό?. τοΰτο δ' εχουσιν 
όπως νεωσι και ττρό? το Βιορθοΰν, ώσπερ τοΐς μεν 
πτηνοΐς το όρροπΰγίον, τοΐς δ' ίχθυσι το ούραΐον. 
ελάχιστον δε τοΰτο και ηκιστα επί8ηλον τοΐς 

25 πολύποσίν εστί δια το μικρόν εχειν το κύτος και 
Βιορθοΰσθαι τοΐς ποσιν Ικανώς. 

ΐίερι μεν ουν των εντόμων και μαλακοστράκων 
και οστρακόδερμων και μαλακίων εΐρηται, και 
περί των εντός μορίων και των εκτός. 

80 Χ. Πάλιν δ' εζ νπαρχής περί των εναίμων και 

^ καΐ Ogle : als vulg. 
* αλλην xpeiav καΐ βοηθίίαν Υ, Ogle. 



action is to draw flesh and yielding substances, as 
follows. First they encircle the object while they 
are still relaxed ; then they contract, and by so doing 
compress and hold fast the whole of whatever is in 
contact Avith their inner surface. 

So, as these creatures have nothing else with which 
to convey objects to the mouth except the feet (in 
some species) and the probosces (in others), they 
possess these organs in lieu of hands to serve them 
as weapons and generally to assist them otherwise. 

All these creatures have two rows of suckers, except 
a certain kind of Octopus, and these have only one, 
because owing to their length and slimness they are 
so narrow that they cannot possibly have another. 
Thus they have the one row only, not because this 
arrangement is the best, but because it is necessitated 
by the particular and specific character of their being. 

All these animals have a fin which forms a circle 
round the sac. In most of them it is a closed and con- 
tinuous circle, as it is in the large Calamaries (ieutki), 
while in the smaller ones called teuthides it is quite 
wide (not narrow as in the Sepias and Octopuses), 
and furthermore it begins at the middle and does not 
go round the whole \vay. They have this fin to 
enable them to swim and to steer their course, and 
it answers to a bird's tail-feathers and a fish's tail- 
fin. In the Octopuses this fin is extremely small and 
insignificant because their body is small and can 
be steered well enough by means of the feet. 

This brings to an end our description of the internal 
and external parts of the Insects, the Crustacea, the 
Testacea, and the Cephalopods. 

X. ΝοΛν we must go back and begin again with 



685 b 

ζωοτόκων €7ησκ€7ττ€ον, άρζαμ€νοις άπο των νττο- 

λοίπων καΐ ττρότΐρον €ΐρημ€νων μορίων τούτων Se 
Βιορισθβντων Trepl των €ναίμων και ωοτόκων τον 
αντον τρόττον €ρονμ€ν. 

Τα μ€ν ονν μόρια τά π€ρΙ την κζφαλην των ζωών 

35 €Ϊρηταί 7τρότ€ρον, καΐ τά Trepl τον καλουμ€νον 

αυχένα και τράχηλον. έ'χβι δέ κΐφαλην πάντα τά 

686 a eVat/xa ζωα• των δ' άναίμων Ινίοις άδιόριστον 

τοΰτο το μόριον, οίον τοις καρκίνους, αυχένα ούν 
τά μέν ζωοτόκα ττάντ e^ei, των δ ωοτόκων τά 
μβν €χ€ί τά δ' ουκ e^et* δσα μεν γάρ πνεύμονα 
5 €.χ€ΐ, και αυχί'να e'^et, τά he μη άναπνίοντα θύραθεν 
ουκ έχει τοΰτο το μόριον. 

"Εστί δ' η μεν κεφαλή μάλιστα τοΰ εγκεφάλου 
χάριν ανάγκη γάρ τοΰτο το μόριον εχειν τοις εν- 
αίμοις, και εν αντικείμενος τόπω της καρδίας, 
δια τάς είρημενας πρότερον αιτίας, εζέθετο δ' η 

10 φύσις εν αύτη και των αισθήσεων ενίας δια το 
σύμμετρον είναι την τοΰ αίματος κράσιν και επι- 
τηΒείαν προς τε την τοΰ εγκεφάλου άλεαν και 
προς την των αισθήσεων ήσυχίαν και άκρίβειαν. 
€τι δε τρίτον μόριον ύπεθηκε το την της τροφής 
e'iooSov δημιουργούν ενταύθα γάρ ύπεκειτο συμ- 
μετρως |α,άλιστα• ούτε γάρ άνωθεν κεΐσθαι της 

15 καρδίας και της αρχής ενε^εχετο την κοιλίαν, ούτε 
κάτωθεν ούσης δν τρόπον έχει νΰν ενε^εχετο την 
εισοδον ετι κάτω eivat τής καρΒίας' πολύ γάρ αν^ 
το μήκος ην τοΰ σώματος, και πόρρω λίαν τής 
κινούσης αρχής και πεττούσης. ή μεν οΰν κεφαλή 
τούτων χάριν εστίν, ό δ' αύχήν τής αρτηρίας χάριν 

^ αν Ρ, om. vulg. 


the blooded viviparous animals. Some of the parts 
which we have already enumerated still remain to 
be described, and we will take these first. This 
done, we will describe similarly the blooded Ovipara. 

We have already " spoken of the parts around the external 
head, and what is called the neck, and the throat, bloomd 
All blooded animals have a head, but in some of the animals. 
bloodless ones the head is indistinct {e.g. in crabs). '^Φ'ιγ»• 
All Vivipara have a neck, but not all Ovipara : to 
be precise, only those which breathe in air from with- 
out and have a lung. 

The presence of the head is mainly for the sake of Head and 
the brain. Blooded creatures must have a brain, 
which (for reasons aforeshov^τ^) ^ must be set in some 
place opposite to the heart. But in addition. Nature 
has put some of the senses up in the head, apart from 
the rest, because the blend of its blood is well pro- 
portioned and suitable for securing not only warmth 
for the brain but also quiet and accuracy for the senses. 
There is yet a third part which Nature has disposed of 
in the head, viz. the part which manages the intake 
of food ; it was put here because this gave the best- 
ordered arrangement. It would have been impossible 
to put the stomach above the source and sovereign 
part, the heart ; and it would have been impossible 
to make the entrance for the food below the heart, 
even with the stomach below the heart as it actually 
is, because then the length of the body would be 
very great, and the stomach would be too far away 
from the source which provides motion and concoc- 
tion. These then are the three parts for whose sake 
the head exists. The neck exists for the sake of the 

« At 655 b 27—665 a 25. " At 652 b 17 if. 



686 a ^ 

20 πρόβλημα γάρ iari, καΐ σώζει ταυτην καΐ τον οισο- 

φάγον κύκλω 7Γ€ρΐ€χων. τοις μβν ονν άλλοις ecTL 
καμπτος καΐ σφονΒνλους €χων, οΐ Se λύκα και 
Aeovre? μονόστουν τον ανγ^Ινα εχονσιν. ββλβφζ 
γάρ η φύσις δττως προς την ίσχνν χρησιμον αντον 
€χωσι μάλλον η προς τάς άλλας βοηθείας. 

^Έχόμβνα 8e τον ανχίνος καΐ της κβφαλης τα τε 

25 πρόσθια κώλα τοις ζώοις εστί καΐ θώραζ. 6 μ€ν 
ονν άνθρωπος άντϊ σκελών καΐ πο8ών των προσθίων 
βραχίονας καΐ τάς καλονμένας εχβί χεΐρας. ορθόν 
μεν γάρ εστί μόνον των ζωών δια το την φνσίν 
αντον καΐ την ονσίαν etvai θζίαν έργον δε τον 
θείοτάτον το νοεΐν καΐ φρονεΐν τοΰτο δ' ον ράδιον 

80 πολλον τον άνωθεν επικειμενον σώματος• το γαρ 
βάρος Βνσκίνητον ποιεΐ την Βιάνοίαν και την 
κοινην α'ίσθησιν. διό πλείονος γυνομενον τον 
βάρονς και τοΰ σωματώΒονς ανάγκη ρεπειν τα 
σώματα προς την γην, ώστε προς την ασψαΛειαν 
άντϊ βραχιόνων και χειρών τονς προσθίονς πόδας 

35 νπεθηκεν η φύσις τοις τετραποσιν. τονς μεν 
686 b γάρ όπισθίονς δυο πάσιν άναγκαΐον τοις πορεν- 
τικοΐς εχειν, τά δε τοιαύτα τετράποδα εγενετο ον 
δνναμενης φερειν το βάρος της φνχης. πάντα γαρ 
εστί τά ζώα νανώΒη τάλλα παρά τον άνθρωπον 
νανώδες γάρ εστιι^ ον το μεν άνω μέγα, το οε 

6 φερον το βάρος και πεζενον μικρόν άνω δ εστίν 
ό καλούμενο? θώραξ, από της κεφαλής μέχρι της 

" For the " general " or " common " sense see De mem. 
450 a 10, etc. ; and cf. De part. an. 656 a 28, 665 a 12. The 
" general " sense is not another sense over and above the 
ordinary five, but rather the common nature inherent in 


windpipe : it acts as a shield and keeps the windpipe 
and the oesophagus safe by completely encircling 
them. The neck is flexible and has a number of 
Vertebrae in all animals except the wolf and the lion 
whose neck consists of one bone only, for Nature's ob- 
ject was to provide these with a neck that should be 
useful for its strength rather than for other purposes. 

The anterior limbs and the trunk are continuous Limbs, and 
with the head and neck. Man, instead of forelegs relative 
and forefeet, has arms and hands. Man is the only ^^^^^• 
animal that stands upright, and this is because his 
nature and essence is divine. Now the business of 
that which is most divine is to think and to be intelli- 
gent ; and this would not be easy if there were a great 
deal of the body at the top weighing it do^vn, for 
weight hampers the motion of the intellect and of the 
general sense." Thus, when the bodily part and the 
weight of it become excessive, the body itself must 
lurch forΛvard towards the ground ; and then, for 
safety's sake, Nature provided forefeet instead of 
arms and hands — as has happened in quadrupeds. 
All animals which walk must have two hind feet, and 
those I have just mentioned became quadrupeds be- 
cause their soul could not sustain the weight bearing 
it dowTi. Compared with man, all the other animals 
are dAvarf-like. By " dwarf-like " I mean to denote 
that which is big at the top (i.e. big in the " trunk," 
or the portion from the head to the residual vent), 
and small where the weight is supported and where 

them all ; thus Aristotle {De somno) argues that their simul- 
taneous inactivity during sleep is not a mere coincidence but 
is due to the inactivity of the central perceptive faculty of 
which they are differentiations. Among the functions of the 
" general " sense are : discrimination between the objects of 
two senses, and the perceiving that we perceive. 



eseb ^ ^ 

i^oSov του 7Τ€ρ(,ττώμα7ος. τοις μβν oSv ανθρώποις 
τοΰτο ττρος το κάτω σνμμ€τρον, καΐ ττολλω 
eXaTTOv gotl τβλειουμενοις' reot? δ' οΰσι του- 
ναντίον τα μ€ν ανω μεγάλα, το δε κάτω μικρόν 

10 (διό καΐ epTTovGL, βαΒίζξΐν δ' ου Βΰνανταί, το δε 
πρώτον ουδ' ^ρττονσιν, αλλ' άκινητίζουσιν)' νάνοι 
γάρ elai τά παίδια ττάντα. ττροϊοΰσι δε τοΙς μ^ν 
άνθρώττοις αΰ'^εται τά κάτωθεν τοις δε τζτράποσι 
τουναντίον τα κάτω μέγιστα το πρώτον, προϊόντα 
δ' αϋζ€ται εττΐ το ανω, τοΰτο δ' εστί το άπο της 
έδρα? ε'ττι την κεφαλήν κύτος, διό και τω ϋφβι οι 

15 ττώλοι τών ίππων ovSev ?) μικρόν ελαττους εισι, 
και νε'οι μ€ν 6ντ€ς θιγγάνουσι τω όπισθεν σκε'λει 
τηζ κξφαλης, πρ€σβύτ€ροι δ' 6ντ€ς ου δύνανται. 
τά μεν οΰν μώνυχα καΐ 8ίχηλα τούτον έχει τον 
τρόπον, τά δε ττολυδάκτυλα και άκερατα νανώΒη 
μεν εστίν, ήττον δε τούτων διό και την αύ'^τ^σιν 

20 προς τά άνω τά κάτω κατά λόγον ποιείται της 
εΧλείφεως . 

"Εστί δε καΐ το τών ορνίθων και το τών Ιχθύων 
γένος και παν το εναιμον, ώσπερ εΐρηται, νανώ^ες. 
διό και άφρονεστερα πάντα τά ζώα τών ανθρώπων 
εστίν, και γάρ τών ανθρώπων, οίον τά τε τταιδια 
προς τους άνΒρας και αυτών τών εν ηλικία οι 

25 ναι^ώδει? την φύσιν, εάν και τιν* άλλην 8ύναμιν 
εχωσι περιττην, αλλά τω τον νουν έ;!^ειν ελ- 
λείπουσιν. αίτιον δ', ώσπερ ε'ίρηται προτερον, οτι 
η της φυχης άρχη πολλοίς 8η^ δυσκίνητος εστί 
και σωματώδης, έ'τι δ' ελάττονο? γινομένης της 

^ πολλοίς δη Peck : ττολλω 8η vu\g. : add. και Υ, Piatt, qui 
et insuper addit {βαρ€ΐ σώματι καταφ€ρομ4νη}. 



locomotion is effected. In man, the size of the trunk 
is proportionate to the lo\ver portions, and as a man 
grows up it becomes much smaller in proportion. 
In infancy the reverse is found : the upper portion is 
large and the lower is small (and that is why infants 
cannot walk but crawl about, and at the very be- 
ginning cannot even crawl, but remain where they 
are). In other words, all children are dΛvarfs. Now, 
in man, as time proceeds, the lower portion grows : 
Not so with the quadruped animals : their lower 
portion is biggest at the beginning, and as time 
proceeds the top portion grows (i.e. the trunk, the 
portion between the head and the seat). Thus foals 
are quite or almost as high as horses, and at that age a 
foal can touch its head with its hind leg, but not when 
it is older."^ What has been said holds good of the 
animals that have solid hoofs or cloven. The poly- 
dactylous, hornless animals are indeed dwarf-like 
too, but not so markedly, and so the growth of their 
lower portions compared Avith the upper is propor- 
tionate to the smaller deficiency. 

The whole groups of birds and fishes are dwarf-like ; 
indeed, so is every animal with blood in it, as I have 
said. This is why all animals are less intelligent than 
man. Even among human beings, children, when 
compared with adults, and dwarf adults when com- 
pared with others, may have some characteristics in 
which they are superior, but in intelligence, at any 
rate, they are inferior. And the reason, as afore- 
said, is that in very many of them the principle of the 
soul is sluggish and corporeal. And if the heat which 

« These observations are entirely correct. Cf. Ogle's 
quotation ad loc. from T. H. Huxley. See also Hist. an. 
500 b 26 ff. 



686b ^ ^ 

αίρουσ-ης θερμότητας και του γζώΒους πλείονος, τα 

30 Τ€ σώματα ελάττονα των ζώων εστί και ττολυττοδα, 
τέλος δ' α77θδα γίνεται και τεταμένα προς την γην. 
μικρόν δ' ούτω προβαίνοντα καΐ την άρχην εχονσι 
κάτω, και το κατά. την κεφαλήν μόριον τέλος 
άκίνητόν εστί καΐ άναίσθητον, και γίνεται φυτόν, 

35 έχον τα μεν άνω κάτω, τα Βε κάτω άνω• at γαρ 
ρίζαι τοις φυτοΐς στόματος και κεφαλής εχονσι 
687Ά8νναμιν, το δε σπέρμα τουναντίον άνω γαρ και 
€7γ' άκροις γίνεται τοις πτόρθοις. 

Δι' ην μεν οΰν αίτίαν τά μεν δίποδα τα δε πολύ- 
ποδα τα δ' αττοδα των ζώων εστί, και δια τιν 
αίτίαν τά μεν φυτά τά δε ζωα γεγονεν, ε'ιρηται, 
δ και hioTi μόνον ορθόν εστί των ζώων ό άνθρωπος' 
όρθω δ' οντι την φνσιν ούΒεμία χρεία σκελών των 
εμπρόσθιων, αλλ' άντι τούτων βραχίονας και χείρας 
άπο8ε8ωκεν η φύσις. 'Αναξαγόρας μεν οΰν φησι 
δια το χείρας εχειν φρονιμώτατον είναι των ζώων 
άνθρωπον ενλογον δε δια το φρονιμώτατον είναι 

10 χείρας λαμβάνειν. αϊ μεν γάρ χείρες όργανον 
εισιν, η δε φύσις αεί διανε/>ιει, καθάπερ άνθρωπος 
φρόνιμος, εκαστον τω Βυναμενω χρησθαι {προσ- 
ήκει γάρ τω οντι αυλητή Sovvai μάλλον αυλούς 
η τω αυλούς εχοντι προσθεΐναι αύλητικην)• τω γαρ 
μείζονι και κυριωτερω προσεθηκε τοϋλαττον, αλλ 

15 ου τω ελάττονι το τιμιώτερον και μείζον, ει ούν 
ούτως βελτιον, η δε φύσις εκ των ενδεχομένων 

" With the terminology used in 11. 28-29 cf. Hippocrates, 
Tlepl Βιαίτης, i, 35. 

'' That is, it answers to residue in animals ; cf. 655 b 35. 


raises the organism up wanes still further while the 
earthy matter waxes," then the animals' bodies Λvane, 
and they will be many-footed ; and finally they lose 
their feet altogether and lie full length on the ground. 
Proceeding a little further in this Avay, they actually 
have their principal part doΛvn belo\v, and finally the 
part which answers to a head comes to have neither 
motion nor sensation ; at this stage the creature 
becomes a plant, and has its upper parts beloΛV and its 
nether parts aloft ; for in plants the roots have the 
character and value of mouth and head, whereas the 
seed counts as the opposite,^ being produced in the 
upper part of the plant on the ends of the twigs. 

We have now stated why it is that some animals 
have two feet, some many, some none at all ; why 
some creatures are plants and some animals ; and 
why man is the only one of the animals that stands 
upright. And since man stands upright, he has no 
need of legs in front ; instead of them Nature has 
given him arms and hands. Anaxagoras indeed 
asserts that it is his possession of hands that makes 
man the most intelligent of the animals ; but surely 
the reasonable point of vicAv is that it is because he 
is the most intelligent animal that he has got hands. 
Hands are an instrument ; and Nature, like a sen- 
sible human being, always assigns an oi'gan to the 
animal that can use it (as it is more in keeping to 
give flutes to a man who is already a flute-player 
than to provide a man who possesses flutes with the 
skill to play them) ; thus Nature has provided that 
which is less as an addition to that which is greater 
and superior ; not vice versa. We may conclude, then, 
that, if this is the better way, and if Nature always does 
the best she can in the circumstances, it is not true 



687 a ^ , , , V X « / , 

TTOiet TO βέΧηστον, ου δια τα? χ€Ϊράς eartv 6 

άνθρωπος φρονιμώτατος , αλλά δια το φρονιμώ- 
τατον etvai των ζώων €χ€ΐ χ€Ϊρας. 6 γαρ φρονι- 
μώτατος πλβίστοίς αν οργάνοις βχρησατο καλώς, 

20 Ύ] δε χ^Ιρ eoiKev eiVat ούχ ev όργανον άλλα 77θλλα• 
έ'στι γαρ ώσπβρβί όργανον -προ οργάνων, τω ούν 
πλβίστας Βυναμβνω δε^ασ^αι τβχνας το εττι 
πλβΐστον των 6ργάι>ων χρήσιμον την χ^Ζρα αττο- 
δεδω/οεν •η φύσις. 

'Αλλ' οΐ λ€γοντ€ς ώς σννβστηκβν ου καλώς ο 
άνθρωπος άλλα, χωριστά τών ζώων {άνυπόδητον 

25 τ€ γαρ αύτον etvat φασι και γυμνον και ουκ 
€χοντα δπλον προς την άλκην) ουκ ορθώς λβγουσιν. 
τα μ€ν γαρ άλλα μίαν €χ€ΐ βοήθίίαν, και )Κ,€τα- 
βάλλζσθαι άντι ταύτης ίτίραν ουκ έ'στιν, άλλ' 
άναγκαΐον ώσπςρ νποΒζ^€μ4νον aet καθ€ύ8ςιν και 
πάντα πράττ€ΐν, και την π^ρι το σώμα άλεώραν 
μη^€ποτ€ καταθίσθαι, μηΒε μβταβάλΧ^σθαι 6 8η 

30 €τυγ)(αν€ν^ δπλον e -χον^' τω δε άνθρώπω τάς τε 
687 b βοηθζίας πολλάς ^χ€ΐν και ταύτας άει ζ,ζζστι 
μεταβάλλζΐν, βτι δ' δπλον οΐον αν βούληται καΐ 
δπου άν^ βούληται €χ€ΐν. η γαρ χεΧρ και δνυζ και 
χηλή και κέρας γίνεται και 8όρν και ζίφος 
και άλλο οτΓοιο^'οΰρ' οττλον και όργανον πάντα γαρ 

6 βσται ταϋτα δια το πάντα Βύνασθαι λαμβάνειν καΐ 

εχειν αύτην εύ^ δε συμμεμηχάνηται^ και το εΐ8ος^ 

τη φύσει της χειρός, Βιαιρετη γαρ και πολυσχώης• 

^ €τύγχανΐν h> U^ : τνγχάνΐΐ ev Th. ; hie alia omnino Σ. 

^ ίχον ζ, et corr. U : €χων vulg. 

^ δπου αν] οπόταν Ogle. 

* ίχΐίν αύτην ev Ρ : execv ταΰττ] Vulg. 

'^ iπJμμeμηχάvητa^ Ogle : σνμμεμηχανησθαι Vulg. 

« elSos καΐ vulg. : εΓδο? PSUYZ. 



to say that man is the most inteUigent animal because 
he possesses hands, but he has hands because he is the 
most intelbgent animal. We should expect the most 
intelligent to be able to employ the greatest number 
of organs or instruments to good purpose ; now the 
hand would appear to be not one single instrument 
but many, as it were an instrument that represents 
many instruments. Thus it is to that animal (viz. 
man) which has the capability for acquiring the 
greatest number of crafts that Nature has given that 
instrument (viz. the hand) whose range of uses is the 
most extensive. 

Now it must be wrong to say, as some do, that 
the structure of man is not good, in fact, that it is 
worse than that of any other animal. Their grounds 
are : that man is barefoot, unclothed, and void of 
any weapon of force. Against this we may say 
that all the other animals have just one method of 
defence and cannot change it for another : they are 
forced to sleep and perform all their actions with 
their shoes on the Λνΐιοίε time, as one might say ; 
they can never take off this defensive equipment of 
theirs, nor can they change their weapon, Avhatever 
it may be. For man, on the other hand, many 
means of defence are available, and he can change 
them at any time, and above all he can choose what 
weapon he will have and where. Take the hand : 
this is as good as a talon, or a claw, or a horn, or again, 
a spear or a SΛvord, or any other weapon or tool : 
it can be all of these, because it can seize and hold 
them all. And Nature has admirably contrived the 
actual shape of the hand so as to fit in with this 
arrangement. It is not all of one piece, but it 
branches into several pieces ; which gives the possi- 



687 b ^^ ^ ^ X -. , XT 

eVt γαρ ev τω διαιρετών etvat και συνθζτην etvai, 

ev τούτω δ' €Κ€Ϊνο ουκ €στιν. καΐ χρησθαι ivi^ 

10 και δυοΓν και 7τολλα;)/ώ? eoTiv. και at καμτται των 
δακτύλων καλώς εχουσι προς τάς ληφίΐς και 
7Τί€σ€ΐς. καΐ €κ πλαγίου βΐς, καΐ ούτος βραχύς 
καΐ παχύς αλλ' ού μακρός• ωσπβρ γαρ et μη rjv 
Xelp όλως, ούκ αν rjv ληφις, ούτω καν €ΐ μη €Κ 
πλαγίου ούτος ην. ούτος γαρ κάτωθβν άνω 77ΐεζ€ΐ, 

15 οπβρ οΐ €T€poL άνωθεν κάτω• heZ δε τούτο συμβαι,- 
veiv, el /χελλει Ισχυρώς ώσπερ συνα/Α/χα ισχυρον 
avvhetv. Ινα ίσάζη €Ϊς ών πολλοίς, καυ βραχύς 
δια τ€ την Ισχύν καΐ hioTL ού^βν όφελος ei μάκρος, 
{καΐ 6 έσχατος δε μικρός ορθώς, καΐ 6 μέσος 
μακρός, ώσπερ κώπη μεσόνεως^• μάλιστα γαρ το 

20 λαμβανόμενον ανάγκη περιλαμβάνεσθαι κύκλω 
κατά το μέσον προς τάς εργασίας.) και δια τούτο 
καλείται μέγας μικρός ών, ότι άχρηστοι ώς 
ειπείν οι άλλοι άνευ τούτον, ευ δε και το τών 
ονύχων μεμηχάνηται• τα μεν γαρ άλλα ζώα εχει 
καΐ προς χρησιν αυτούς, τοΐς δ' άνθρώποις επι- 

25 καλυπτηρια- σκέπασμα γαρ τών ακρωτηρίων είσίν 
Αί δε καμπαι τών βραχιόνων εχουσι προς τε 
την της τροφής προσαγωγην και προς τάς άλλας 
χρήσεις εναντίως τοις τετράποσιν. εκείνοις μεν 
γαρ άναγκαΖον ε'ίσω κάμπτειν τά εμπρόσθια κώλα 
[χρώνται γάρ ώς^ ποσίν) Γν' η χρήσιμα προς την 

^ evl] μια Ogle. 

* μεσόνεως Schneider : μέσον νέω5 vulg. 

^ ώς Ρ, om. vulg. 

•• That is, the pieces. Ogle's suggested emendation 
would be translated " use the hands singly." The two 
transpositions suggested for this passage by Ogle seem un- 


bility of its coining together into one solid piece, 
whereas the reverse order of events would be im- 
possible. Also, it is possible to use them " singly, or 
two at a time, or in various ways. Again, the joints 
of the fingers are well constructed for taking hold 
of things and for exerting pressure. One finger is 
placed sidcAvays : this is short and thick, not long 
like the others. It would be as impossible to get 
a hold if this were not placed sideways as if no hand 
were there at all. It exerts its pressure upwards 
from below, whereas the others act downwards from 
above ; and this is essential for a strong tight grip 
(hke that of a strong clamp), so that it may exert 
a pressure equivalent to that of the other four. It 
is short, then, first, for strength, but also because it 
would be no good if it were long. (The end finger 
also is small — this is as it should be — and the middle 
one is long like an oar amidships, because any object 
which is being grasped for active use has to be 
grasped right around the middle.) And on this 
account it is called " big " although it is small, be- 
cause the other fingers are practically useless Λvithout 
it. The nails, too, are a good piece of planning. In 
man they serve as coverings : a guard, in fact, for the 
tip of the fingers. In animals they serve for practical 
use as well.'' 

The joints of the arms in man bend in the opposite 
direction to those of quadrupeds : this is to facilitate 
the bringing of food to the mouth, and other uses to 
which they are put. Quadrupeds must be able to 
bend their fore limbs inwards ^ so that they may be 
serviceable in locomotion, since they use them as 

'> That is, as tools. 
See note on 693 b 3, p. 433. 



687b ^ ^ ^ ^ 

30 TTopeiav, eTrel OeXei ye κάκβίνων τοις ττολυδακτυλοι? 

ου μόνον ττρός την Tropeiav χρησιμ etvai τα €/χ- 

ττροσθεν σκβλη, άλλα καΐ άντΙ χαρών, ώσττ€ρ και 

φαίνεται χρώμενα• και γαρ λαμβάνουσι και άμύ- 

688 a νονται τοις ττροσθίοις. τα δε μώννχα τοΐς όπισθίοις' 

ου γαρ €χ€ΐ αύτοΐς τα πρόσθια σκέλη άνάλογον τοΐς 

άγκώσι καΐ ταις χερσίν. των 8e ττολυΒακτυλων 

eVta και δια τοΰτο και πενταδάκτυλους έχει τους 

5 προσθίους πό8ας, τους δ' όπισθεν τετρα^ακτύλους, 

οίον λέοντες και λύκοι, ετι δε κύνες και παρΒάλεις• 

6 γαρ πέμπτος ώσπερ ο της χειρός γίνεται μέγας 

{πέμπτος^} τα δε μικρά των πολυδακτύλων καΐ 

τους όπισθίους έχει πενταΒακτύλους δια το 

ερπυστικά etvat, όπως τοΐς ονυζι πλείοσιν οΰσιν 

10 αντιλαμβανόμενα ραον ανερπη προς το μετεωρό- 
τερον και ύπερ κεφαλής. 

λίετα^ύ δε των αγκώνων τοΐς άνθρώποις, τοΐς 
δ' άλλοι? τών εμπροσθίων σκελών, το καλούμενον 
στηθός εστί, τοΐς μεν άνθρώποις έχον πλάτος ευ- 
λόγως {ου γαρ κωλυουσιν οι αγκώνες εκ πλαγίου 
προσκείμενοι τούτον είναι τον τόπον ττλατιίΐ'), τοΓ? 

15 δε τετράποσι δια την επι το πρόσθιον τών κώλων 
εκτασιν εν τω πορευεσθαι και μεταβάλλειν τον 
τόπον στενόν τοϋτ εστί το μόριον. και δια τοΰτο 
τά μεν τετράποδα τών ζώων ουκ έχει μαστούς εν 
τώ τόπω τούτω• τοΐς δ' άνθρώποις δια την εύρυ- 
χωρίαν και το σκεπάζεσθαι Βεΐν τά περί την 

20 Kaphiav, δια τούτο υπάρχοντος του τόπου σαρ- 
κώδους οι μαστοί 8ιηρθρωνται, σαρκώδεις οντες 
τοΐς μεν άρρεσι δια την είρημενην αΐτίαν, επΙ δε 

^ ττίμιττος seclusi. 


feet ; though even among quadrupeds the poly- 
dactylous ones tend to use the fore Hmbs not only for 
locomotion but also instead of hands ; and this can 
actually be seen happening : they take hold of things 
and defend themselves with their fore limbs. (Solid- 
hoofed animals, on the other hand, do this with their 
hind limbs, as their forelegs have nothing that corre- 
sponds to elbows and hands.) This explains why 
some polydactylous quadrupeds actually have five 
toes on their forefeet (lions, wolves, dogs and leo- 
pards, for instance), although there are only four on 
their hind feet : the fifth one, like the fifth " digit 
on the hand, is a " big " one.'' However, the small 
polydactylous quadrupeds have five toes on their 
hind feet too, because they are creepers ; and this 
gives them more nails, and so enables them to get a 
better hold and creep up more easily to greater 
heights and above your head. 

Between the arms in man (in other animals be- Br&ast 
tween the forelegs) is what is known as the breast. In 
man the breast is broad, and reasonably so, for the 
arms are placed at the side and so do not in any way 
prevent this part from being wide. In the quadru- 
peds, hoAvever, it is narrow, because as they walk 
about and change their position the limbs have to be 
extended forwards. And on this account, in quadru- 
peds, the mammae are not on the breast. In man, 
on the other hand, as the space here is wide, and the 
parts around the heart need some covering, the 
breast is fleshy in substance and the mammae 
are placed on it and are distinct. In the male they 
are themselves fleshy for the reason just given. In 

" Now generally called the " first." 
^ And needed when the foot is used as a hand. 



688 3 

των θΎ]λ€ΐών τταρακέ-χρ-ηται καΐ προς erepov epyov 
Tj φύσις, oirep φαμεν αντην πολλάκις ποιβΐν άπο- 

25 τίθεται γαρ ενταύθα τοις γ^ννωμίνοις τροφην. Svo 
ο eiaiv οι μαστοί δια το Svo τα μόρια e'lvai, το τ 
αριστ€ρ6ν και το Ββζιόν. και σκληρότ€ροι μεν, 
Βιωρισμενοι δε δια το και τάς πλευράς συνάπτεσθαι 
μεν άλληλαις^ κατά τον τόπον τούτον, μη επιπονον 
δ' eivat τ'ην φνσιν αυτών, τοις δ' άλλοις ζφοις εν 

80 μεν τω στηθεί μεταξύ των σκελών αδύνατον εστίν 
εχειν η χαλεπον^ τους μαστούς {εμποΒίζοιεν μεν 
γάρ άν προς την πορείαν), εχουσι δ' ηΒη πολλούς 
τρόπους.^ τά μεν γάρ όλιγοτόκα και μώνυχα και 
κερατοφόρα εν τοις μηροΐς εχουσι τους μαστούς, 
και τούτους δυο, τά δβ πολύτοκα η πολυσχιδή τά 

35 μεν περί την γαστέρα πλάγιους και πολλούς, οίον 
688 b νς και κύων, τά δε δυο μόνους, περί μεσην μεντοι 
γαστέρα, οίον λέων. τούτον δ' α'ίτιον ούχ οτι 
όλιγοτόκον, επεί τίκτει ποτέ πλείω δυοΓν, αλλ' δτι 
ου πολυγάλακτον αναλίσκει γάρ εις το σώμα την 
λαμβανομενην τροφην, λα^Μ^δάΐ'ει δε σπάνιον δια το 
δ σαρκοφάγον είναι. 

Ό δ' ελεφας δυο μόνον έχει, τούτους δ' υπό ταΐς 
μασχάλαι? των εμπροσθίων σκελών, α'ίτιον δε τοΰ 
μεν Βύο εχειν οτι μονοτόκον εστί, τοΰ δε μη εν τοις 
μηροΐς οτι πολυσχώες {ούΒεν γάρ έχει πολυσχι8ες 
εν τοις μηροΐς), άνω δε 77pos" ταΐ? μασχάλαις, 

^ άλληλας Bekker per typothetae errorem. 

' η χαλεπον Ρ : viilg. non habet. 

^ fort, τόπου? Rackham (sic etiam Ε teste Buss, et Z), 



the female, Nature employs them for an additional 
function (a regular practice of hers, as I maintain), 
by storing away in them nourishment for the off- 
spring. There are two mammae because the body 
has two parts, the right and the left. The fact that 
they are somewhat hard and at the same time two in 
number is accounted for by the ribs being joined to- 
gether at this place and by the nature of the mammae 
not being at all burdensome. In other animals it is 
either impossible or difficult for the mammae to be 
situated upon the breast, i.e. in between the legs, 
since they ΛνοηΗ be a hindrance to walking ; but, ex- 
cluding that particular position, there are numerous 
Avays in Avhich they are placed. Animals Avhich have 
small litters, both those that have solid hoofs and those 
that carry horns, have their mammae by the thighs ; 
and there are two of them. Animals that have large 
litters or are polydactylous, either have numerous 
mammae placed at the sides upon the abdomen — 
e.g. swine and dogs ; or have only two, set in the middle 
of the abdomen — e.g. the lion." The reason for this is 
not that the lion has fcAV cubs at a birth, because 
sometimes the number exceeds two, but that it is 
deficient in milk. It uses up all the food it gets upon 
the upkeep of the body, and as it is a flesh-eater it 
gets food but rarely. 

The elephant has only two mammae (this is because 
it has its young one at a time), and they are under the 
axillae of the forelegs and not by the thighs because 
the elephant is polydactylous and no polydactylous 
animal has them there. They are high up, near the 
axillae, because that is the place of the foremost 

<» This, like many of Aristotle's statements about the lion, 
is incorrect. 

Ν 379 


688 b ^ « - ^ - . y ,, 

10 OTt ττρώτοι ovTOL των μαστών τοις πολλούς ζχονσι 

μαστούς, και Ιμώνται γάλα πλβΐστον. σημ€Ϊον 

δε το eVt των ύών συμβαίνον τοις γαρ πρώτοις 

γβνομβνοις των χοίρων τους πρώτους παρβχουσι 

μαστούς• ω οΰν το πρώτον γινόμ&νον ev μόνον 

εστί, τούτω τους μαστούς άναγκαΐον e^etv του? 

πρώτους• πρώτοι δ' etatv οΐ ύπο ταΐς μασχάλαις. 

15 ό μζν ουν eAet^a? δια ταύτην την αΐτίαν δυο 6;^et 
και ev τούτω τω τόπω, τα δέ ττολυτοκα Trepi την 
γαστέρα, τούτου δ' αίτιον οτι πλίΐόνων δει jU-a- 
στώι^ τοΓ? πλβίω μέλλουσιν εκτρεφβιν εττει ουν em 
πλάτος ούχ οΐόν τε αλλ' η δυο μόνους ^χ€ΐν δια το 
δυο είναι τό τ' άριστβρον και το δε^ιόν, εττι μήκος 

20 avay/caiov €χ€ΐν• 6 δε μβταζύ τόπος τών 'έμπροσθζν 
σκελών και τών οπισθβν ζχει μήκος μόνον, τα 
δε jUT] 7Γθλυσ;^ιδ7^ αλλ' ολΐ}/οτοκα η κερατοφόρα εν^ 
τοΓ? μηροΐς €χ€ΐ τους μαστούς, οίον ίππος, όνος, 
κάμηλος {ταύτα γαρ μονοτόκα, και τά /χεν μώνυχα, 

25 τό δε δι^τ^λον), έτι δ' βλαφος και βοΰς και αΐζ καΐ 
τάλλα πάντα τά τοιαύτα, αίτιον δ' οτι τούτοις 
η αυ^τ^σι? εττι τό ανω του σώματος εστίν, ώσθ' 
όπου συλλογή και περιουσία γίνεται του περιτ- 
τώματος και αίματος [ούτος δ' ό τοττο? εστίν 6 
κάτω και περί τάς εκροάς), ενταύθα εποίησεν η 
φύσις τους μαστούς• οπού γαρ κίνησις "/ινεται της 

30 τροφής, εντεύθεν και λαβείν εστίν αύτοΐς δυνατόν, 
άνθρωπος μεν ουν και ό θήλυς και ό άρρην έχει 
μαστούς, εν δε τοις άλλοις ενια τών αρρένων ουκ 
έχει, οίον ίπποι οι μεν ουκ εχουσιν οι δ' εχονσιν, 
όσοι εοίκασι τή μητρί. 

^ και ev \Tilg. : και del. Ogle. 



mammae in those that have many, and these are the 
ones that yield the most milk. An illustration of 
this is the case of the sow : a sow will offer the 
first of its mammae to the first ones of the litter. 
Thus, where the first of an animal's litter amounts 
to one and no more, such an animal must possess 
these first mammae, and " the first mammae " means 
those under the axillae. This explains, then, the 
number and position of the elephant's mammae. 
The animals that have large litters have their mammae 
upon the abdomen. Why is this ? They have 
numerous young to feed, and so they need numerous 
mammae. Now as the body has two sides, right and 
left, the mammae cannot be more than two deep 
across the body, and so they have to be disposed 
lengthwise, and the only place where there is suffi- 
cient length for this is between the front and hind 
legs. Non-polydactylous animals which yet produce 
few at a birth, or carry horns, have their mammae by 
the thighs, as the horse and the ass (both solid- 
hoofed) and the camel (cloven-hoofed), all of Avhich 
bear their young singly ; also the deer, the ox, the 
goat, and all such animals. The reason for which is, 
that in them the growth of the body proceeds in an 
upward direction ; so the place where the superfluous 
residue and blood collects is down below, near the 
places of efflux, and there Nature has made the 
mammae ; for where the food is set in motion, there 
is the very place where they can get it. In man, both 
male and female have mammae, but some males of 
other animals have none, as e.g. stallions, some of 
which have none, while others, which resemble their 
dams, have them. 



Kat TTepL μβν μαστών ειρηται, μβτα be το στησος 

35 ό Trepl την κοίλίαν ΙστΙ τόπος, άσύγκλζίστος ταΐς 

689 a πλξυραΐς διά την &1ρημ€νην βμττροσθζν αΐτιαν, 

δπως μη Ιμττο^ίζωσι μήτε την άνοβησιν της 

τροφής, ην άναγκαΐον συμβαίνβιν θζρμαινομίνης 

αύτης, μήτ€ τάς υστέρας τάς rrepl την κύησιν. 

Te'Aos" δβ του καλουμένου θώρακος εστί τα μόρία 

β τα. ττερί την της ττεριττώσεως e^oSov, της τ€ ζηρας 
καΙ της ύγρας. καταχρηται δ η φύσις τω αύτω 
μορίω επί τε την της ύγρας εζο8ον περιττώσεως 
καΐ περί την οχειαν, ομοίως εν τε τοις θήλεσι καΐ 
τοις άρρεσιν^ εζω τινών ολίγων πασι τοις εναίμοις, 
εν δε τοΙς ζωοτόκοις ττασιΐ'. α'ίτιον δ' δτι η γονή 

10 ύγρόν εστί τι και περίττωμα, {τοΰτο 8ε νυν μεν 
ύποκείσθω, ύστερον 8ε δ€ΐ;γ^7ίσ€ται περί αύτοΰ.) 
τον αύτον 8ε τρόπον και εν τοις θήλεσι τά re 
κατα/χηνια, και fj προΐενται την γονήν'• 8ιορισθή- 
σεται 8ε και περί τούτων ύστερον, νυν δ' ύποκεί- 
σθω μόνον ΟΤΙ περίττωμα και τα καταμήνια τοις 

15 θήλεσιν υγρά 8ε τήν φύσιν τά καταμήνια και ή 
γονή, ωστε^ τών όμοιων εις τά αυτά* μόρια τήν 
€κκρισιν etrat κτατά λόγον εστίν. εντός 8ε πώς 
έχει, και πτ] 8ιαφερουσι τά τε περί το σπέρμα και 
τά περί την κύησιν, εκ τε της ιστορίας της περί 
τά ζώα φανερον και τών ανατομών, και ύστερον 

20 Ae;)^^5JaeTat εν τοις περί γενέσεως, οτι δ' έχει και 

^ Tois appeoiv Ogle : τών αρρένων vulg. 

" Koi et npoievral τίνα yoinjv Piatt. 

* post ώστε vulg. habet τών αυτών και : Ogle del. 

* τά αντά Peck : ταΰτα τά vulg. 



This concludes our remarks on the mammae. 

After the breast comes the region around the 
stomach, which is not enclosed hv the ribs for 
the reason stated earlier,* viz. to avoid interference 
(a) with the food when it swells, as it must do when 
it is heated, and (b) with the womb during pregnancy. 

At the end of Avhat is called the trunk are the parts Excretory 
that have to do Avith the discharge of the residue, °''8^°^• 
both solid and fluid. Nature employs one and the 
same part for the discharge of the fluid residue and 
for copulation in all blooded animals (with a few 
exceptions), male and female ahke, and in all Vivipara 
without exception. The reason is that the semen is a 
fluid, and a residue. (This statement may stand for 
the present : the proof of it will be given later on.*) 
The same applies to the catamenia in females, and 
the part Λvhere they emit the semen." This also will be 
dealt with particularly later on. For the present, let 
the statement stand simply that the catamenia in 
females (like the semen in males) are a residue. Now 
both semen and catamenia are fluids, so it is reason- 
able that things which are alike should be discharged 
through the same parts. A clear account of the 
internal structure of these parts, showing the differ- 
ences between the parts connected with semen and 
those connected with conception, is given in the 
Researches upon Animals ^ and the Dissections, and 
there will be a discussion of them in the book on 

α j\j- g55 a 2. 

" In De gen.' an. 724 b 21 ff. 

« This seems to agree with what Aristotle says on the 
subject in the Hist. An., but contradicts what he says in De 
gen. an. Piatt's suggested emendation would make the 
translation read : " and to the semen, if so be they emit any." 

" At 493 a 24-b 6, 497 a 24 ff., book iii, oh. 1. 



τα σχι^/^ατα των μορίων τούτων ττρος την €ργασιαν 
άναγκαίως, ουκ άδηλον. €χ€ί he διαφοράς το των 
αρρένων όργανον κατά τάς του σώματος διαφοράς, 
ου γάρ ομοίως ατταντα ν€υρώδη την φυσιν eoTiv. 
€TL 8e μόνον τοΰτο tow μορίων άνευ νοσερας μ€τα- 

25 βολής αϋζησιν €χ€ί και ταττείνωσιν τούτων γάρ το 
μ€ν χρήσιμον ττρος τον συνδυασμόν, το 8e προς την 
του άΧλου σώματος χρβίαν ael γάρ ομοίως έχον 
ταλλα^ €ν€πόδιζ€ν αν. συνβστηκε δε την φύσιν 
€Κ τοιούτων το μόριον τοΰτο ώστ€ 8waa^ai ταΰτ' 
αμφότερα συμβαίνβιν το μέν γάρ έχβι νευρώδες 

30 το δε χονδρώδες, διόπερ ayrteVat τε δύναται και 
έκτασιν έχειν και πνεύματος εστί δεκτικόν. τα 
μεν ούν θήλεα των τετραπόδων πάντ^ εστίν όπι- 
σθουρητικά διά το προς την όχείαν ούτως etvai 
αύτοΐς χρησίμην την θέσιν, των δ αρρένων ολίγα 
εστίν όπισθουρητικά, οίον λύγζ, λέων, κάμηλος, 
689 b δασυπου? • μώνυχον δ' ουδέν εστίν όπισθουρητικόν. 
Τά δ' όπισθεν και τά περί τά σκέλη τοις άνθρώ- 
ποις ιδίως έχει προς τά τετράποδα, κέρκον δ' έχει 
πάντα σχεδόν, ου μόνον τά ζωοτόκα αλλά καΐ τά 
ωοτόκα• καΐ γάρ αν μη μέγεθος αύτοΐς έχον τύχη^ 

5 τοΰτο το μόριον, αλλά σημείου^ y' ένεκεν εχουσί 
τίνα στόλον. 6 δ' άνθρωπος άκερκον μέν εστίν, 
ισχία δ' έχει, των δε τετραπόδων ουδέν, έτι δε και 
τά σκέλη 6 μέν άνθρωπος σαρκώδη και μηρούς και 
κνήμας,^ τά δ' άλλα πάντ' άσαρκα έχει, ου μόνον τά 
ζωοτόκα αλλ' ολα»? όσα σκέλη έχει τών ζώων 

10 νευρώδη γάρ έχει και όστώδη και ακανθώδη. 
τούτων δ' αίτια μία τίς έστιν ως ειπείν απάντων, 

^ ίχον ταλλα Peck : έχοντα vulg. 
* τ«ίχ77 Rackham : 3 vulg. 



Generation.'^ Still, it is clear that the actual forms of 
these parts is determined of necessity by the function 
they have to perform. The male organ, however, 
exhibits differences corresponding to those of the 
body as a whole, for some animals are more sine^vy, 
some less. Further, this organ is the only one which 
increases and subsides apart from any change due 
to disease. Its increasing in size is useful for copula- 
tion, its contraction for the employment of the rest 
of the body, since it would be a nuisance to the 
other parts if it were always extended. And so it 
is composed of substances Avhich make both con- 
ditions possible : it contains both sinew and cartilage ; 
and so it can contract and expand and admits air 
into itself. All female quadrupeds discharge the 
urine backwards, as this arrangement is useful to 
them for copulation. A few males do this (among 
them are the lynx, the lion, the camel, and the 
hare), but no solid-hoofed animal does so. 

The rear parts and the parts around the legs are Rear parts. 
peculiar in man compared with the quadi'upeds, nearly 
all of which (Ovipara as well as Vivipara) have a tail, 
Λvhich even if it is not of any great size, still is present 
for a token as a sort of stump. Man has no tail, but 
he has buttocks, which no quadruped possesses.^ In 
man, the legs, both in thighs and calves, are fleshy : 
in all other animals that have them (not only Vivi- 
para) the legs are fleshless, being sineΛvy, bony and 
spinous. One might say that there is a single ex- 
planation which covers them all, which is, that man is 

« At 716 a 2—721 a 29. 

'' There seems to be something wrong ΛνΙΐΗ this statement, 
but perhaps when taken in conjunction Λvith the whole of the 
argument which foll ows, it may appear less unjustifiable. 

* ση μείον Buss.: σμικρού vulg. * κνημαζ] πό8αί Υ. 



689 b 

διότι μόνον iarlv ορθόν των ζώων άνθρωπος. Γν' 

ονν φ^ΡΊ] ραδιω? τανω κοΰφα οντά, άφβλονσα το 

σω/χατώδε? απο των ανω προς τα κάτω το βάρος 

■η φύσις προσ€θηκ€ν• διόττβρ τα ισχία σαρκώΒη 

15 €ποίησ€ και μηρούς καΐ γαστροκνημίας. άμα Se 
την τ€ των Ισχίων φύσιν καΐ προς τάς άι^ατταυσει? 
άπβ'δωκε χρησιμον τοΐς μ€ν γαρ τ€τράποσιν άκοπον 
το εστάναι, και ου κάμνουσι τοΰτο ποίοΰντα συν- 
€χώς {ωσπ€ρ γαρ κατακείμβνα διατελεί ύπο- 
κ€ΐμ€νων τεττάρων €ρ€ίσμάτων) , τοΐς δ' άνθρώποις 

20 ον ράΒίον ορθώς εστώσι Βιαμ€ν€ΐν, αλλά δεΐται το 
σώμα άναπανσ€ως και καθβ8ρας. ο μεν οΰν άν- 
θρωπος ισχία τ €χ€ΐ και τα σκέλη σαρκώδη δια 
την ζίρημίνην αΐτίαν, και δια ταΰτα άκερκον [η 
τ€ γαρ €Κ€Ϊσ€^ τροφή πορβνομενη εις ταΰτα ανα- 
λίσκεται, και δια το εχείν ισχία άφηρηται η της 

25 ουράς άι^α)/καια χρησις), τα δε τετράποδα και 
ταλλα ζώα εζ εναντίας• νανώδεσι γαρ ουσι προς το 
άνω το βάρος και το σωματώδες επίκειται πάν, 
άφηρημενον άπο τών κάτωθεν διόπερ άι^ισ;^ια και 
σκληρά τά σκέλη εχουσιν. όπως δ εν φυλακή καΐ 
σκέπη η το λειτουργούν μοριον την εζοδον του 

30 περιττώματος , την καλουμενην ούράν και κερκον 
αύτοΐς άπεδωκεν η φύσις, άφελομενη της εις τά 
σκέλη γιγνομενης τροφής. 

(Ό δε πίθηκος δια το την μορφην επαμφοτερίζειν 

και μηδετερων τ ειΐ'αι και αμφοτέρων , δια τοΰτ^ 

οϋτ^ ούράν έχει οϋτ^ Ισχία, ως μεν δίπους ων ούράν, 

ώς δε τετράπους ισ;^ια.) 

690 a Τών δε καλουμένων κέρκων διαφοραί τ είσΐ 

^ sKdae Peck : e'/cei vulg. 


the only animal that stands upright. Hence, Nature, 
so as to make the upper parts light and easy to carry, 
took oiF the corporeal matter from the top and trans- 
ferred the weight doAvn below ; and that is how she 
came to make the buttocks and the thighs and the 
calves of the legs fleshy. At the same time, in 
making the buttocks fleshy, Nature made them useful 
for resting the body. Quadrupeds find it no trouble 
to remain standing, and do not get tired if they 
remain continually on their feet — the time is as good 
as spent lying down, because they have four supports 
underneath them. But human beings cannot remain 
standing upright continually with ease ; the body 
needs rest ; it must be seated. That, then, is why 
man has buttocks and fleshy legs, and for the same 
reason he has no tail : the nourishment gets used up 
for the benefit of the buttocks and legs before it can 
get as far as the place for the tail. Besides, the 
possession of buttocks takes aAvay the need and 
necessity of a tail. But in quadrupeds and other 
animals it is the opposite : they are dwarf -like, which 
means that their heavy corporeal substance is in the 
upper part of them and does not come into the lower 
parts ; and as a result they have no buttocks and their 
legs are hard. Yet to ensure that the part Avhich 
serves them for the discharge of the residue shall be 
guarded and covered over. Nature has assigned to 
them tails or scuts by taking off somewhat of the 
nourishment which would otherwise go into the legs. 

(The Ape is, in form, intermediate between the 
two, man and quadruped, and belongs to neither, or 
to both, and consequently he has no tail, qua biped, 
and no buttocks, qua quadruped.) 

There are numerous differences in the various tails, 

Ν 2 387 


690 a , , , ^ , , Λ , 

ττλαους καΐ rj φυσυς τταρακαταχρηταί καΐ €πΙ τού- 
των, ου μόνον προς φυλακ-ην καΐ σκ€πην της έδρα?, 
άλλα /cat ττρος ώφζλζίαν καΐ χρησίν τοΐς €χονσίν. 
5 Οι δβ τΓοδβ? τοΐς μ€ν τ€τράτίοσι δια^ερουσιν τα 
μζν γαρ μώννχα αυτών iuTi τα he Βίχηλα τά δε 
ΤΓολυσχώη , μώνυχα μ€ν οσοις δια μίγ^θος καΐ το 
ττολύ γεώΒζς €χ€ΐν άντΙ κβράτων καΐ οΒόντων etV 
την του ονυχος φΰσιν το τοιούτον μόρων έλαβαν 
αττόκρισιν , καΐ δια ττληθος άι^τι πλειόνων ονύχων 

10 βΐς ονυζ η όπλη ioTiv. καΐ άστράγαλον δε δια. 
τοΰτο ουκ €χουσίν ώς βπΐ το πολύ βίπβΐν, καΐ διά^ 
το 8υσκίνητοτ€ραν etvat την καμπην τοΰ όπισθεν 
σκέλους αστραγάλου ενόντος• θαττον γαρ ανοίγεται 
καΐ κλείεται τα μίαν έχοντα γωνιαν η πλείους, ό 
δ' αστράγαλος γόμφος ών ωσπερ άλλότριον κώλον 

15 εμβεβληται τοΐς δυσι, βάρος μεν παρέχον, ποιούν 
δ' άσφαλεστεραν την βάσιν. δια γαρ τοΰτο και εν 
τοΐς εμπροσθίοις ούκ εχουσιν άστράγαλον τά έχοντα 
άστράγαλον, αλλ εν τοΐς όπισθεν, ότι 8εΐ ελαφρά 
eii'ai τά ηγούμενα και εύκαμπτα, το δ' ασφαλές και 
την τάσιν εν τοΐς όπισθεν, ετι δε προς το άμύνε- 

20 σ^αι εμβριθεστέραν ποιεί την πληγην τά δε τοιαύτα 

τοΐς όπισθεν χρηται κώλοις, λακτιζοντα το λυπούν. 

Τά δε ^ίχηλα έχει άστράγαλον {κουφότερα γάρ 

τά όπισθεν), καΐ διά το εχειν άστράγαλον καΐ ου 

μώνυχά εστίν, ώς το εκλεΐπον όστώδες εκ τοΰ 

1 και διά SUZ Ogle : δια vulg. 

" The word used in the Greek is " part." See Introd. p. 28. 
* See Introduction, pp. 38-39. 



which provide another example of Nature's habit of 
using an organ for secondary purposes, for she 
employs the tail not only as a guard and covering for 
the fundament but also in other serviceable \vays. 

There are differences too in the feet of quadrupeds. Hoofs, etc 
Some have a solid hoof, some a cloven hoof ; others 
have a foot that is divided into several parts. Sohd 
hoofs are present in those animals which are large 
and contain much earthy substance," which instead of 
making horns and teeth forms an abscession'' so as 
to produce nail, and o\\-ing to the abundance of it, it 
produces not several separate nails but a single one, 
in other words, a hoof. Because of this, these 
animals in general have no hucklebone ; and also 
because the presence of a hucklebone makes it 
rather difficult to bend the hind leg freely, since a 
limb that has one angle can be bent to and fro more 
quickly than one that has several. It is a sort of 
connecting-rod, and therefore practically interpolates 
another bit of a limb betAveen the tΛvo, thereby in- 
creasing the weight ; but it makes the animal's footing 
more reliable. This explains why, when hucklebones 
are present, they are present in the hind limbs 
only, never in the front : the front limbs have to be 
light and flexible because they go first, while the 
hind limbs must be reliable and able to stretch. 
Further, a hucklebone puts more force into a Ηολυ — a 
useful point in self-defence — and animals >vhich have 
one use their hind limbs in this way : if anything 
hurts them they kick out at it. 

Cloven-hoofed animals have a hucklebone, as their 
hind limbs are on the light side ; and that is the very 
reason why they are cloven-hoofed : the bony sub- 
stance stays in the joint and therefore is deficient in 



690a ^ ^ ^ ^ 

ΤΓοδό? iv TTJ κάμφ^ί μίνον. τα 8e ττολυδάκττυλα 
25 ουκ e^et αστράγαλον ου γαρ άν ην πολυ^άκτυλα, 
αλλά τοσούτον €σχίζ€το το πλάτος όσον eVe'^ei 
ό αστράγαλο?. διο και των Ιγόντων αύτον τά 
ττλζίω ^ίχηλα. 

Ό δ' άνθρωπος ποΒας μέγιστους βχα των ζφων 
ώς κατά μέγεθος, ευλόγως• μόνον γάρ εστηκβν 
ορθόν, ώστε τους μέλλοντας δυ' οντάς εζειν πάν το 
30 του σώματος βάρος 8εΐ μήκος εχειν και πλάτος. 
και το των Βακτυλων δή μέγεθος εναντιως έχει επί 
Τ€ των ΤΓοδών και των χειρών κατά λόγον τών 
μεν γάρ το λαμβάνειν έργον και Trte^etv, ώστε δει 
690 b μακρούς εχειν {τω γάρ καμπτομενω μέρει περι- 
λαμβάνει η χειρ), τών δε το βεβηκεναι ασφαλώς, 
προς 8ε^ τοΰτο δει το μόριον et^at μείζον^ το 
άσχιστον τον ττοδο? τών Βακτυλων. εσ;^ισ0αι δε 
βελτιον η άσχιστον είναι το εσχατον άπαν γάρ άν 
5 συμπαθές ην ενός μορίου πονησαντος, εσχισμενω^ 
δ' ets" δάκτυλου? τοΰτ' ου συμβαίνει ομοίως, ετι 
δε και βραχείς οντες ήττον {άν) βλάπτοιντο.* διο 
ΤΓολυσχιδεΐ? οι πό8ες τών ανθρώπων, ου μακρο- 
Βάκτυλοι δ' είσίν. το δε τών ονύχων γένος διά 
την αυτήν αιτι'αν καΐ επι τών χειρών εχουσιν δει 
10 γάρ σκεπεσθαι τά ακρωτήρια μάλιστα διά την 

Περί μεν ουν τών εναίμων ζωών και ζωοτόκων 
και πεζών εΐρηται σχεδόν περί πάντων ΧΙ. τών 
δ' εναίμων ζώων ωοτόκων δε τά μεν εστί τετρά- 

^ TTpos Se Ogle : ώστε vulg. 

* μΐΐζον Piatt, Th. : νομίζΐΐν vulg. 

* €σχίσμΐνω Peck : -ov PY : -ων vulg. : -ου Ogle. 

* <.av> Piatt, Th. : βλάπτοιντο Υ : συμβΧάτττοιντο Vulg. 



the foot. The polydactylous animals have no huckle- 
bone, otherwise they would not be polydactylous, 
and the divisions of the foot would cover only so 
much width as the hucklebone itself. So most of 
the animals which have a hucklebone are cloven- 

Man of all the animals has the largest feet for his 
size, and reasonably so, since he is the only one of 
them that stands upright, and as the feet have to bear 
the whole weight of the body and there are only 
two of them, they must be both long and broad. 
Also the toes are short compared with the fingers, 
and this too is reasonable. The business of the hands 
is to take hold and to keep hold of things, and this is 
done by means of that part of the hands which bends ; 
therefore the fingers must be long. The business of 
the feet is to get a firm and reliable footing ; and to 
secure this the undivided part of the foot must be 
greater than the toes. And it is better to have the 
tip of the foot divided than not, for otherwise, if one 
part Avere affected the whole foot Avould suffer as well, 
whereas this is to some degree avoided by the divi- 
sion of the tip of the foot into toes. Again, short 
toes are less liable to injury than long ones would be. 
All this indicates Avhy the human foot has toes and 
why they are short. There are nails on the toes for 
the same reason that there are nails on the fingers : 
the extremities have but little strength and there- 
fore specially need to be protected. 

We have now dealt with practically all the blooded 
animals that are viviparous and live on the land. 

XI. We now pass on to another class of blooded ('■) Ovipara: 
animals, the oviparous, some of Avhich have four feet, and^^'^^^"'^" 

QQi quadrupeds. 


690 b V , V ^ ο.» « / / 

τΓοδα τα δ' α77θδα. τοίοΰτον ο ev μόνον yevos 

15 €στΙν αττουν, το των οφ^ων η δ' αίτια της αττοοιας 
αυτών €Ϊρηται, Ιν τοις ττβρΧ της πορβίας των ζωών 
Βιωρίσμ€νοίς. τα δ' άλλα παραττλησίαν €χ€ΐ την 
μορφην τοις τβτράττοσι καΐ ωοτόκοις} 

*Έ;^€ΐ δε τα ζωα ταύτα κεφαλήν μ^ν και τα ev 
αύτη μόρια δια τα? αυτά? αίτιας τοις άλλοις τοις 

20 €ναίμοίς ζωοις, καΐ γλώτταν iv τω στο/ζατι ττλην 
του ποταμίου κροκοδείλου• ούτος δ' ουκ αν oogeiev 
e^etv, άλλα την χώραν μόνον, αϊτιον δ ότι τρόπον 
μέν τίνα άμα χερσαίος καΐ ενυΒρός εστίν δια μεν 
ουν το χερσαίος είναι έχει χώραν γλώττης, δια δε 
το ενυΒρος αγλωττος . οΐ γαρ ίχθυες, καθαπερ €ΐρη~ 

25 ται πρότερον, οι μεν ου Βοκοΰσιν €χειν, αν μη σφο- 
δρά άνακλίνη τις, οι δ' άδιάρθρωτον εχουσιν. αίτιον 
δ' οτι ολίγη τούτοις χρεία^ της γλώττης δια το μη 
€ν8εχεσθαι /χασασ^αι μηδέ προγεύεσθαι, αλλ' iv τη 
καταπόσει ytVea^at την αισ^ι^^^*^ '^^'' "^^ η8ονην 
ττασι τούτοις της τροφής, η μεν γαρ yλώττα των 

80 χυμών ποιεί την αϊσθησιν, τών δε εδεστών εν τη 
καθόΒω η ηδονή• καταπινομενων γαρ αισθάνονται 
τών λιπαρών και θερμών και τών άλλων τών 
τοιούτων. €χει μεν οΰν και τα ζωοτόκα ταυτην 
την αϊσθησιν {και σχεδόν τών πλείστων όφων και 

691 a εδεστών εν τη καταπόσει τη τάσει του οισοφάγου 

ytVeTat η χάρις• διό ούχ οί αυτοί περί τα ποματα 
και τους χυμούς ακρατείς είσι και τα όφα και την 

^ ωοτόκ -ois PUY2 : ζωοτόκοΐ5 vulg. 
* ^ν TOVTOIS xpeia S : ijv xpeia τούτοις vulg, : ■^ν delevi. 

" At De inc. an. 708 a 9 ff ; see also infra, 696 a 10. 
" At 660 b 13-25. 



and some no feet at all. Actually there is only one 
group that has no feet, the Serpents ; and the reason 
why they have none has been stated in my treatise on 
the Locomotion of Animals."• In other respects their 
conformation is similar to that of the oviparous 

These animals have a head, and the parts that com- 
pose it, for the same reasons that other blooded 
creatures have one, and they have a tongue inside the 
mouth — all except the river crocodile, Λvhich appar- 
ently has none, but only a space for it ; and the reason 
is that in a Λvay he is both a land-animal and a water- 
animal. In virtue of being a land-animal, he has a 
space for a tongue ; as a water-animal, he is tongue- 
less. This agrees with our previous statement,'' that 
some fishes appear to have no tongue unless you pull 
the mouth very well open, others have one which is 
not distinctly articulated. The reason for this is that 
these creatures have not much need for a tongue 
because they cannot chew their food or even taste 
it before they eat it : they can perceive the pleasant- 
ness of it only while they are swallowing it. This 
is because the perception of juices is effected by the 
tongue ; whereas the pleasantness of solid food is 
perceived Avhile it is passing down the gullet, and 
thus oily food and hot food and the like are per- 
ceived while they are being swallowed. Of course 
the Vivipara as well as these creatures have this 
power of perception (indeed, the enjoyment derived 
from practically all edible dainties takes place while 
they are being sAvallowed and is due to the distension 
of the oesophagus — Avhich is why intemperate ap- 
petite for edible dainties is not found in the same 
animals as intemperate appetite for drink and juices) ; 



691 a ^ 

βδίο^ην), αλλά τοις μβν άλλοις ζωοις καΐ η κατά. 

5 την γεΰσιν νπάρχ€ί αΐσθησις, βκβίνοίς δ' avev 
ταύτη? μόνη^ η eVepa. των δε τετραπόδων και 
ωοτόκων οι σαΰροι, ωσττερ και oV' οφζΐς, 8ίκρόαν 
εχουσί την γλώτταν και εττ' άκρου τριχώΒη ττάμτταν, 
καθαπ€ρ (.'ίρηται. ττρότ€ρον. βχουσυ δε καΐ at φώκαι 
hiKpoav την γλώτταν διο και λι;)^ΐ'α^ ττάντα τα ζωά 
εστί ταύτα. 

10 "Εστί δε καΐ καρχαρό8οντα τά τετράττοδα των 
ωοτόκων, ωσττερ ot ίχθυβς. τά δ' αΙσθητηρια 
ττάντα ομοίως €χονσί τοις άλλοις ζωοις, οίον της 
οσφρήσεως μυκτηρας καΐ οφβως οφθαλμούς καΐ 
άκοης ώτα, ττλην ουκ €παν€στηκότα, καθάττβρ οΰδ' 
ot όρνιθες, άλλα τον ττόρον μόνον αίτιον δ' άμφο- 

15 τβροις ή του Βερματος σκληρότης• τά μεν γάρ 
τττερωτά αυτών €στί, ταύτα δε πάντα φολώωτά, 
εστί δ' ή φολίς ομοιον χώρα λεττιδο?, φύσει δε 
σκληρότερον. 8ηλοΐ δ' επι τών χελωνών τοΰτο 
και ετΓΐ τών μεγάλων οφεων και τών ποταμίων 
κροκοδείλων ίσχυρότεραι γάρ γίνονται τών οστών 
ώς οΰσαι τοιαΰται την φύσιν. 

20 Ουκ εχουσι δε τά ζώα ταΰτα την άνω βλεφαρίδα, 
ώσπερ ουδ' ot όρνιθες, αλλά τη κάτω μύουσι διά 
την atTtav την ειρημενην ε'ττ' εκείνων, τών μεν ουν 
ορνίθων ενιοι και σκαρΒαμύττουσιν ύμενι εκ τών 
κανθών, ταΰτα δε τά ζώα ου σκαρ8αμύττ€ΐ• σκληρ- 

25 οφθαλμότερα γάρ εστί τών ορνίθων, αίτιον δ' δτι 
εκείνο ις χρησιμωτερα ή οζυωπία* πτηνό ις οΰσι προς 

^ δ' avev ταύτηί μόνη Peck : h^ αν η ώσπερ μόνη Υ : δ' 
ώσττΐρανά viilg. ; plurima hie transposuit Ogle. 

* καΐ ol Υ : ol vulg. 


but whereas the rest of the animals have the poΛver of 
perception by taste as Avell, these are ^vithout it 
and possess the other one only. Among oviparous 
quadrupeds, lizards (and serpents too) have a two- 
forked tongue, the tips of which are as fine as hairs. 
(This has been stated earlier.") Seals also have a 
forked tongue. This forked tongue explains why all 
these animals are so dainty in their food. 

The four-footed Ovipara also have sharp interfitting 
teeth, as Fishes have. Their sense-organs are all 
similar to those of other animals : nostrils for smell, 
eyes for sight, and ears for hearing — though their ears 
do not stand out : they are merely a duct, as in 
birds ; and in both groups the cause is the same, viz. 
the hardness of their integument. Birds are covered 
with feathers, and these creatures are all covered 
with horny scales which correspond in position to the 
scales of fishes, but are harder in substance. This 
is clearly illustrated by the tortoises, the great snakes, 
and the river crocodiles, where the scales are made of 
the same material as the bones and actually grow 
stronger than the bones. 

These animals, like birds, have no upper eyehd ; 
they close their eyes ^\ith the lower lid. The reason 
which was given ** for birds applies to them too. Some 
birds can also bhnk by means of a membrane which 
comes out of the corner of the eye ; but these 
animals do not do this, since their eyes are harder 
than birds' eyes. The reason for this is that keen 
sio-ht is of considerable use to birds in their daily 

• At 660 b 9. "At 657 b 6 ff. 

^ λίχνα Karsch : Ισχνά. vulg. 
* όίυοιπία καί το πόρρω ττροϊΒΐΐν UY. 



691a ^ ^ 

τον βίον, TOVTOLs δ' rJTTOV τρωγλό8υτα γαρ πάντα 

τα τοιαύτα βστίν. 

Έιίς δυο δε ^ίτιρ-ημένης της κβφαλής, του re ανω 

μορίου καΐ της σιαγόνος της κάτω, άνθρωπος μ€ν^ 

καΐ τα ζωοτόκα των τετραπόδων και άνω και κάτω 

80 κινουσι τας σιαγόνας και ei? το πλαγιον, οι ο 
ίχθύζς καΐ όρνιθες και τα ωοτόκα των τετραπόδων 
εις το άνω και κάτω μόνον, α'ίτιον δ' οτι η μεν 
691 b τοιαύτη κίνησις χρήσιμος εις το Βακεΐν και Βιελεΐν, 
η δ' €1? το πλάγιον επι το λεαίνειν. τοις μεν ούν 
€χουσι γομφίους χρήσιμος η εις το πλαγιον κινησις, 
τοις 8ε μη εχουσιν ονδεν χρήσιμος , Βιόπερ άφΎ]ρηται 
τταντων των τοιούτων ουοεν γαρ ποιεί περιεργον η 
6 φύσις, τα μεν ουν άλλα πάντα κινεί την σιαγόνα 
την κάτω, 6 δε ποτάμιος κροκόδειλος μονός την άνω. 
τούτου δ' αίτιον οτι προς το λα^δειν και κατασχειν 
άχρηστους έχει τους πό8ας• μικροί γαρ εισι ττα/ιιτταν. 
προς ουν ταύτας τάς χρείας άντι ποδών το στόμα 
η φύσις χρησιμον αύτω εποίησεν. προς δε το 

10 κατασχειν η λαβείν, όποτε ρωθ εν αν η η πληγή 
ισχυρότερα, ταύτη χρησιμωτερα κινούμενη εστίν 
η δε πληγή ισχυρότερα άεΐ άνωθεν η κάτωθεν επει 
ουν αμφοτέρων μεν δια τοΰ στόματος η χρησις, και 
του λαβείν και τοΰ δακεΐν, αναγκαιότερα δ η τοΰ 

15 κατασχειν μήτε χείρας εχοντι μήτε πό8ας ευφυείς, 
χρησιμώτερον την άνωθεν κινειν σιαγόνα η την 
κάτωθεν αύτόΐς. δια το αυτό δε και οι καρκίνοι 
το άνωθεν της χηλής κινοΰσι μόριον, αλλ' ου το 
κάτωθεν άντι χειρός γαρ εχουσι τάς χηλάς, ώστε 
προς το λαβείν αλλ' ου προς το διελεΓν χρησιμον 

^ /lev ουν vulg. : μεν ΥΖ. 


life, because they fly about ; but it would be very 
little good to these creatures, because they all spend 
their time in holes and corners. 

Their head has tΛvo divisions : the upper part, and 
the lower jaw. In man and in the viviparous 
quadrupeds the lower jaw moves from side to side as 
well as up and down ; in fishes, however, and birds 
and these oviparous quadrupeds it moves up and 
down only. The reason is that this vertical motion is 
useful for biting and cutting up food, Λvhile the 
sideways motion is useful for grinding the food down. 
Of course this sideways motion is useful to animals 
which possess grinder-teeth ; but it is of no use to 
those which lack grinders, and so not one of them 
has it. Nature never makes or does anything that is 
superfluous. All these animals, then, move the lower 
jaAv — with one exception, the river crocodile, which 
moves the upper jaw, and the reason for this is that 
his feet are no use for seizing and holding things : 
they are too small altogether. So Nature has given 
him a mouth Avhich he can use for these purposes 
instead of his feet. And when it comes to seizing 
things and holding them, the most useful direction 
for a blow to take is that which gives it the greatest 
strength. Now a blow from above is ahvays stronger 
than one from below. And to an animal Avho has no 
hands and no proper feet, who has to use his mouth 
for seizing his food as well as for biting it, the power 
to seize it is the more necessary ; and therefore it is 
more useful to him to be able to move his upper jaw 
than his loAver one. For the same reason crabs move 
the upper part of their claws and not the lower : 
claws are their substitute for hands, so the claws have 
to be useful for seizing things (not for cutting them 



691 b ^ ^ , , , V ^ , 

20 Set eti'ai την χηλην το he SteAetv και Βακβΐν οδόν- 
των epyov εστίν, τοις μβν ούν καρκίνοις και τοις 
άλλοις οσοίς ev8e;^eTat σχολαίως ττοίξΖσθαι την 
ληφίν δια το μη iv νγρω etvat την χρησιν του 
στόματος, Βίηρηται, καΐ λαμβάνουσι μ€ν xepalv η 
ττοσί, hiaipovGL δε τω στόματι καΐ δάκνουσιν τοις 

25 δε κροκοΒζίλοίς εττ' αμφότερα χρησιμον το στο/χα 

7Τ€7τοι,ηκ€ν η φύσις, κινουμένων ούτω των σιαγόνων . 

Έ,-χουσι δε και a!3;^e'ra πάντα τα τοιαύτα δια το 

ττλευμονα βχειν Βεχονται γαρ το πνεΰμα δια της 

αρτηρίας μήκος εχούσης. 

^Έττει δε το μεταξύ κεφαλής και ώμων κεκληται 
αύγιην, ηκιστα των τοιούτων ο όφις Βόζειεν αν 

30 εχειν αυχένα, άλλα το άνάλογον τω αύχενι, ε'ί γε 
Βεΐ τοις είρημενοις εσχάτοις Βιοριζειν τό μόριον 
τοΰτο. 'iSiov δε προς τα συγγενή των ζώων 

692 a υπάρχει τοις οφεσι το στρεφειν την κεφαλήν εις 

τοΰπισθεν ηρεμοϋντος του λοιποΰ σώματος, α'ίτιον 
δ' ΟΤΙ καθάπερ τα έντομα ελικτόν εστίν, ώστε 
εύκαμπτους εχειν και χον8ρώ8εις τους σπονδύλους . 
εξ ανάγκης μεν ούν δια ταύτην την αίτίαν τοΰτο 

5 συμβεβηκεν αύτοΐς, του δε βελτίονος ένεκεν προς 
φυλακην τών όπισθεν βλαπτόντων μακρόν γαρ ον 
καΐ άπουν άφυες εστί προς τε την στροφην και προς 
την τών όπισθεν τηρησιν ουδεν yap όφελος αΐρειν 
μεν, στρεφειν δε μη δυνασθαι την κεφαλήν, εχουσι 
δε τα τοιαύτα καΐ τω στηθεί άνάλογον μόριον. 

10 μαστούς δ' ούκ εχουσιν οϋτ' ενταύθα οΰτ^ εν τω 
άλλω σώ/χατι, ομοίως δ οΰδ' όρνις, ουδ' Ιχθύς 
ουδείς. α'ίτιον δε τό μη8ε γάλα εχειν τούτων 

^ hinc usque ad 695 a 22 varia codd. ; text. vulg. exhibui. 


up : this, and biting, is the business of the teeth). 
In crabs, then, and in other creatures M'hich, because 
their mouth does not come into action while under 
water, can take their time about seizing their food, 
the labour is divided : they seize their food \vith 
their hands or feet, and cut it up and bite it Λvith 
the mouth. For the crocodile, hoAvever, by making 
the jaws move as I have described. Nature has 
constructed a mouth which can be used for both 
these purposes. 

All these animals have also a neck ; this is because 
they have a lung and there is a long windpipe through 
which they admit the breath to it. 

Since the neck is the name given to the part of 
the body betΛveen the head and the shoulders, the 
serpent would appear to be the very last of these 
creatures to possess one : at any rate, if the neck is 
to be defined by the limits mentioned above, he has 
merely something analogous to a neck. Compared 
with kindred animals, serpents have this peculiarity : 
they can turn their heads backAvards Avhile the rest of 
the body remains still. The reason is that their body 
(like an insect's) can roll up ; the vertebrae are cartila- 
ginous and flexible. This, then, is the necessary cause 
why they have this ability; but it serves a gooc? purpose 
too, for it enables them to guard against attacks from 
the rear, and with their long bodies devoid of feet 
they are ill adapted for turning themselves round to 
keep watch over the rear. To be able to raise the 
head and yet unable to turn it round would be useless. 
These animals have also a part which is a counter- 
part to the breast. But they have no mammae either 
here or elsewhere ; nor have any of the birds or fishes. 
This is because the mammae are receptacles, vessels, 



692 a 

μηθεν 6 δβ μαστοζ ύττοΒοχη καΐ ώσττ^ρ dyyetdr 
εστί γάλακτος . γάλα δ' ουκ €χ€ί ovre ταντα οΰτ^ 
άλλο ουδεί' των μη ζωοτοκονντωι• ei• αντοΐς, διότι 
ωοτοκοΰσίΐ•, ev δε τω α»ω η τροφή €γγίΐ'ζται ei• 
τοις ζωοτόκοις γαλακτώ^ης νττάρχουσα. σαφξ.- 

15 στ€ρον δε ττερί αυτών λξχθιίσβται iv τοις rrepl 
yε^■ε'σεωs■. ττερι δε ττ^? τώΐ' σκελώ^^ κάμφ€ως iv 
τοις rrepl ττορζίας ττρότ^ρον €7Τ€σκ€7τται kolvtj ττζρΐ 

"Έχονσι δε καΐ κέρκον τα τοίαΰτα, τα μ€ν μ^ίζω 
τα δ ελαττω^ ύττ^ρ ού ττην αιτιαν καθόλου ττρότζρον 
ζίρηκαμζν . 

20 \σγ\•οτατος ο ο γ^αμαιΧέων των ωοτόκων καΐ 
ττεζώι• εστίν όλίγαιμότατον γάρ €otl πάντων, ταύτο 
δ' αίτιον τοΰ της φνχης ήθους €στΙ τοΰ ζωου•^ πολύ- 
μορφον γάρ γίνεται δίά τον φόβον, 6 δε φόβος 
κατάφυζις δι' ολιγαιμότητά εστί καΐ εΐ'δειαι• θερμό- 
τητας . 
692 b Περί μεν ούν των εναίμων ζωών των τε άττόΒων 
και τετραττόΒων, όσα μόρια τα εκτός έχει καΐ δια 
τίνας αιτίας, εΐρηται σχεδόν. 

XII. Έν δε τοις όρνισιν η ττρός άλληλα Βιαφορά 
ev τη των μορίων εστίν ύττεροχη καΐ ελλείφει και 
5 κατά το μάλλον καΐ ήττον, είσΐ γάρ αυτών οΐ μεν 
μακροσκελείς οι δε βραχυσκελεΐς, και την γλώτταν 
οί μεν ττλατεΐαν εχουσιν οι δε στενψ•• ομοίως δε 
καΐ ετΓΐ τών αλλωΐ' μορίων. ι8ία δε μόρια ολίγα 

^ σκελών ΡΖ, Ogle : καμπύλων σκελών \ : καμττνλων vulg. 

' irepl δε . . . ττάιτων fortasse secludenda. 

* correxit Peck, cf. 667 all seqq. ; -οντου δ' αίτιον -6 ^Bos 
τοΰ ζώου το της ι!η:χη5 vulg. : αίτιον δε το της ιίτνχης ^θός iariv 
αΐτοϋ PSUZ : sed fortasse haec verba secludenda. 



as it were, for the milk, and none of these creatures 
has any milk. Neither has any of the other animals 
that are not internally viviparous ; the reason is that 
as they produce eggs the milky nutriment which they 
contain goes into these eggs. A more detailed 
account of these matters will be given in the treatise 
on Generation.^• With regard to the way in which they 
bend their legs, a general account, including all 
animals, has already been given in the treatise on 
the Locomoiion of Animals. ^ 

These creatures have a tail, some a large one, some 
a small one. We have already given the reason for 
this as generally applicable." 

Among the oviparous land-animals, the chameleon 
has the least flesh on him ; this is because he has 
least blood, and the same reason is at the root of the 
animal's habit of soul — he is subject to fear (to Λvhίch 
his many changes in appearance are due), and fear is 
a process of cooling produced through scantiness of 
blood and insufficiency of heat.** 

This fairly concludes our account of the external 
parts of the blooded animals both footless and four- 
footed, and of the reasons thereof. 

XII. We now pass on to Birds. As among them- (u.) Birds, 
selves, they differ in their parts in respect of the 
more and less, and excess and defect ^ — e.g., some of 
them have long legs, some short ones ; some have 
a broad tongue, some a narrow one ; and similarly 
with the other parts. Thus, as among themselves 

<• At 752 b 16 ff. 

" At 712 a 1 ff. See also below, 693 b 3, and additional 
note on that passage, p. 433. 
" At 689 b 1 ff. 

« Compare the passages at 650 b 27 and 667 a 1 1 ff. 
« See 644 a 19, and introductory note on p. 19. 



692 b 

διαφέροντα έχουσιν άλλτ^λωι^• προς 8e τα άλλα ζώα 

καΐ TTJ μορφγι των μορίων Βιαφέρουσιν, 7ττ€ρωτοΙ 
10 μ€ν ονν ατταντές elatv, καΐ τοΰτ^ ϊΒίον €χονσι των 
άλλων, τά γαρ μόρια των ζωών τα μ^ν τριχωτά 
€στι τά δβ φολώωτά τά Se λετηδωτά, οΐ δ' όρνιθας 
πτ€ρωτοί. και το πτ€ρόν σχιστον και ούχ όμοιον 
τω ε'ι'δει τοις ολοπτέροις• των μβν γαρ ασχιστον 
των δε σχιστόν εστί, και το μεν άκαυλον, το δ' 
15 €χ€ΐ κανλόν. εχουσι δε και ev ττ] κεφαλτ] περιττην 
και ίδιον την του ρύγχους φυσιν προς ταλλα* τοις 
μεν γάρ ελεφασιν 6 μυκτηρ άντι χειρών, των δ 
εντόμων ενίοις η γλώττα άντι στόματος, τούτοις 
δ' άντι ό8όντων και χειλών το ρύγχος οστινον ον.^ 
ττερι δε τών αισθητηρίων εϊρηται πρότερον. 
20 Αυχένα δ' έχει τεταμένον τη φύσει, και δια την 
αύτην αιτιαι» ηνπερ και ταλλα• και τούτον τά μεν 
βραχύν τά δε μακρόν, και σχεΒον άκόλουθον τοις 
σκέλεσι τά πλείστα. τά μεν γάρ μακροσκελή 
μακρόν τά δε βραχυσκελη βραχύν έχει τον αυχένα, 
χωρίς τών στεγανοπό8ων• τά μεν γάρ ει είχε βρα- 

693 a χύν έπι σκέλεσι μακροΐς, ουκ αν υπηρετεί αύτοΐς ο 

ανχην προς την από της γης νομην, τοις δ' et 
μακρός ην επι βραχέσιν. έτι δε^ τοΐς κρεωφάγοις 
αυτών ύπεναντίον άν ην^ το μήκος προς τον βίον 
6 ό γάρ μακρός αύχην ασθενής, τοΐς δ' ό βίος εκ 
τον κρατεΐν εστίν. Βιόπερ ούόέν τών γαμφωνύχων 
μακρόν έχει τόν αυρ^ε'να. τά δε στε)/αν'07Γθδα και 
{τά)* Βιηρημένους μεν έχοντα τους πό^ας σεσιμω- 

^ όν Υ, Ogle : om. vulg. 


they have few parts which differ from one to another. 
But as compared with other animals, they differ in 
respect of the form of their parts. One pecuHarity 
of the birds is that they all have feathers, Λvhereas 
in other animals the parts are covered wdth hair, or 
scales, or horny plates. A bird's feather is split, and 
therefore different in form from the wing of certain 
insects, Λvhich is undivided ; as well as having a shaft, 
Avhereas the insects have none. Another peculiarity 
of birds is the beak, an extraordinary appendage to 
the head. It is made of bone, and serves them 
instead of teeth and lips, just as the elephant's trunk 
takes the place of hands, and the tongue of certain 
insects replaces a mouth. We have spoken already 
of the sense-organs.'' 

Birds have a neck which sticks up, and for the same 
reason that other creatures have one. Some have a 
long neck, some a short one : in most of them it corre- 
sponds in length fairly closely to the legs, so that the 
long-legged birds have a long neck and the short- 
legged birds a short neck (web-footed birds excepted.) 
What assistance in getting food out of the ground 
would a short neck be to a bird on long legs, or a long 
neck to a bird on short legs ? Furthermore, the 
carnivorous birds would find a long neck a real dis- 
advantage in their daily life. These birds depend 
for their livelihood on superior strength, and length 
of neck means lack of strength ; so no crook-taloned 
bird has a long neck. Web-footed birds, how- 
ever, together with others in the same class whose 
« In Book II. chh. 12 S. 

* 8e Langkavel : ye Y6 : om. vulg. 

^ av ην ΡΥό, Ogle : om. vulg. 

* <τά> Ogle. 



693 3 

fjLevovs 8e και^ ev τω αύτω yeVei οντά tols στ€γανό- 
ποσι, τον μ^ν au;)^eVa μακρόν βχουσιν {χρήσιμος 
γαρ τοιούτος ών προς την τροφην ttjv €Κ του 

10 νγροΰ), τα he σκέλη προς την ν€ΰσιν βραχέα. 

Αιαφοραν δ' βχει και τά ρνγχη κατά τους βίους, 
τα μεν γαρ ευθύ έχει τά δε γαμφόν, ευθύ μεν οσα 
τροφής ένεκεν, γαμφον δε τά ώμοφάγα• χρησιμον 
γαρ προς το κρατεΐν το τοιούτον , την δε τροφην 
άναγκαΐον από ζώων πορίζεσθαι, καΐ τά πολλά 

15 βιαζομενοις. όσων δ' ελειος 6 βίος και ποοφάγος , 
ττλατύ το ρύγχος εχουσιν προς τε γάρ την ορυζιν 
χρησιμον το τοιούτον και προς την της τροφής 
σπάσιν και κουράν. eVia δε και μακρόν έχει τό 
ρύγχος των τοιούτων , ωσπερ και τόν αι;;\;ε'να, δια 
τό λαμβάνειν την τροφην εκ του βάθους, και τά 
πολλά των τοιούτων και των στεγανοπόΒων η 

20 απλώς η κατά^ μόριον^ θηρεύοντα ζη τών εν τω 
ύγρώ IVta ζω^αρίων και γίνεται τοις τοιούτοις 6 
μεν αύχην καθάπερ άλιευταΐς ό* κάλαμος, τό δε 
ρύγχος οΐον rf όρμιά και τό άγκιστρον. 

Τά δε πρανή τοΰ σώματος καΐ τά ύπτια, και τά 
του καλουμένου θώρακος επΙ τών τετραπόδων, 

25 όλοφυης ο τόπος επί τών ορνίθων εστίν και εχουσιν 

άπηρτημενας άντι τών βραχιόνων και τών σκελών 

693 h τών προσθίων^ τάς πτέρυγας, ΐόιόν τι μόριον, 

διόπερ άντΙ ωμοπλάτης τά τελευταία επι του νώτου 

τών πτερύγων εχουσιν. 

Έικελη δε καθάπερ άνθρωπος όύο, κεκαμμενα 

^ και Yb, Ogle : ώ? vulg. 
^ κατά Υ, Ogle : κατά τό vulg. 

^ post μόριον habet ταύτό vulg. : ταυτά S : ταΰτα Ρ : tovtois 
coni. Ogle. 



feet though divided into toes yet are fashioned hke 
a snub-nose ° — these have long necks, because a long 
neck is useful to them for getting food out of the 
water. Their feet, on the contrary, are short so that 
they can swim. 

Birds' beaks also differ according to their different 
habits of life. Some beaks are straight, some curved ; 
straight if they are used simply for feeding, curved if 
the bird eats raw meat, because a curved beak is 
useful for overpoAvering their prey, and such birds 
have to get their food from animals, most often by 
force. Those whose life is spent in swamps and are 
herbivorous have broad beaks, which are useful for 
digging and pulling up their food and for cropping 
plants. Some of them, hoΛvever, have a long beak and 
a long neck as well, because they get their food from 
some depth. Practically all these birds and the com- 
pletely or partially Λveb-footed ones live by preying 
upon certain of the tiny water-animals, and their 
neck is to these birds what his fishing-rod is to an 
angler, while their beak is like a line and hook. 

The under and the upper sides of the body (i.e. of 
what is called the trunk in quadrupeds) are in birds 
one uninterrupted whole. Instead of arms and fore- 
legs they have mngs attached to this part (wings are 
another peculiarity), and hence, instead of having the 
shoulder-blade on their back they have the ends of 
the wings there. 

Birds, like men, have two legs, which are bent in- 

" According to Ogle, this means that the main stem of the 
toe corresponds to the ridge of the nose, and the lobes on 
either side of it to the flattened nostrils. 

* aXievTOLS ό PQSU : aXievTiKos ο Υό : άλκυτικό; Ζ, vulg. 
^ ηΥΙ : om. vulg. 

• sic Υό, Ogle : άττηρτ. γαρ άντΙ et mox 'έχουσι post προσθίων 



693 b 

καθάτΓζρ τα τετράττοδα εί'σω, καΐ ονχ ωσπ€ρ άνθρω- 
5 7705• €ζω• τάς Be πτέρυγας , ώς τα πρόσθια σκέλη 
των τβτραπό8ων, ΙπΙ το περιφερές. Βίπουν δ' Ιζ 
ανάγκης εστίν των γαρ βναίμων η του όρνιθος 
ουσία, άμα Be καΐ πτ€ρυγωτός, τα δ' eVai/xa ου 
KLveiTai ττλβιοσιν -η τίτταρσι σ-ημίίοις. τα μίν οΰν 
άπηρτημένα μόρια τέτταρα, ωσπep τοις άλλοις 
τοις π€ζοΐς καΐ τοις πopeυτικoΐς, εστί καΐ τοις 

10 ορνισιν αλλά τοΙς μέν βραχίονες καΐ σκέλη, τοις Be 
τ€τράποσι^ σκέλη τέτταρα υπάρχει, τοις δ' ορνισιν 
άντι των προσθίων σκελών η βραχιόνων πτέρυγες 
το 'ίΒιόν εστίν κατά ταύτας γάρ τονικοί^ είσι, τω 
δ' ορνιθι εν τη ουσία το πτητικόν εστίν, ώστε 
λβιττβται αύτοΐς εζ ανάγκης Βίποσιν eti^at• οΰτω γάρ 

15 τέτταρσι σημείοις κινησονται μετά τών πτερύγων. 

Ίΐτηθος δ' έχουσιν άπαντες οξύ και σαρκώΒες, 

όζύ μεν προς την 77Τ7]σιν (τα γάρ πλατέα πολύν 

αέρα ώθοΰντα Βυσκίνητά έστι), σαρκώΒες Βέ, Βιότι 

το όζύ ασθενές μη πολλην έχον σκέπην. 

ΎτΓο Βέ το στήθος κοιλία μέχρι προς την έζοΒον 

20 του περιττώματος και την τών σκελών καμπην, 
καθάπερ τοις τετράποσι και τοις άνθρώποις. με- 
ταξύ μεν ούν τών πτερύγων και τών σκελών ταύτα 
τά μ.όριά εστίν. 

^Ομφαλόν δ' εν μεν τη γενέσει ατταν-τα έχει 

^ sic ΡΥό, Ogle : σκ4λη, τοις Be τετρ. om. vulg. 
* πτητικοί conieci ; idem Th. {volafiles Gaza). 

" For an explanation of Aristotle's terminology on this 
subject see additional note on p. 433. 

* The chief difficulty in translating this passage is due to 
the word τονικοί, a jargon-adjective in -ikOs, which seems to 
have been suggested to Aristotle's mind by the similar adjec- 



wards as in the quadrupeds, not outwards as in man." 
The wings are bent with the convex side outwards, 
hke the forelegs of quadrupeds. It is inevitable that 
a bird should have two feet, for (a) it belongs essenti- 
ally to the blooded creatures and (6) it is winged, 
and (c) four is the greatest number of motion- 
points which a blooded creature can have. So there 
are four parts (or limbs) attached to a bird's body, 
and this corresponds exactly with the other blooded 
creatures, viz. those that live and move upon the 
ground. The only difference is that whereas the 
latter have two arms and tΛvo legs (or, if they are 
quadrupeds, four legs), the peculiarity of birds is 
that they have wings instead of arms (or forelegs). 
As its very essence includes the power to fly, a 
bird must have something which it can stretch out, 
and vdngs provide this.^ So it remains that of ne- 
cessity a bird shall have tAvo feet : these with the two 
^vings bring up the number of its motion-points 
to four. 

All birds have a sharp-edged, fleshy breast : 
sharp-edged, for flying (a wide surface displaces so 
much air that it impedes its ΟΛνη motion) ; fleshy, 
because a sharp-edged thing is Aveak unless it has 
a good covering. 

Below the breast is the stomach, which extends (as 
in the quadrupeds and in man) as far as the residual 
vent and the point where the legs join the body. 

Those are the parts, then, which have their situation 
between the wings and the legs. 

Birds, in common with all animals which are pro- 

tive πτητικόν in the next line. Literally, the passage reads : 
" for it is at these [viz. the wings] that birds are stretchable ; 
and flight-ability is included in the essence of a bird." 



693 b 

οσατΓβρ ζωοτοκ€Ϊται η ωοτοκ^Ιται, των δ' ορνίθων 
ανζηθ^ντων αδτ^λο?. rj δ' αίτια δτ^λτ^ €V τοΐζ wept 
25 yeveaiv• eh γαρ το evrepov η σνμφνσίς γίνεται, καΐ 
ούχ ώσπβρ τοΐς ζωοτόκοις των φλεβών τι μοριόν 
"Ετι των ορνίθων οι μεν πτητικοί καΐ τα? πτέρυγας 

694 a μ€γάλας eyovai καΐ ίσχυράς, οίον οι γαμφώνυχες 

και ώμοφάγοι• ανάγκη γαρ πτητικούς^ elvai δίά τον 
βίον, ώσθ^ eveKa τούτου καΐ πλήθος εχουσι πτερών 
και τάς πτέρυγας μεγάλας. εστί δ' ου μόνον τά 

5 γαμφώνυχα άλλα και άλλα γένη ορνίθων πτητικά, 
δσοις η σωτηρία iv τη ταχυτητι της πτήσεως η 
€Κτοπιστικός ό βίος. eVta δ' ου πτητικά των 
ορνίθων εστίν αλλά βαρέα, οΐς 6 βίος επίγειος και 
εστί καρποφάγα η πλωτά και περί ύ'δωρ βιοτευου- 
σιν. εστί δε τά μεν των γαμφωνύχων σώματα 
μικρά άνευ" των πτερύγων δια το εις ταύτας^ άνα- 
λίσκεσθαι την τροφην {και)* εις τά όπλα και την 

10 βοηθειαν τοΐς Βέ μη πτητικοΐς τουναντίον τά σώ- 
ματα ογκώΒη, διό βαρέα εστίν, εχουσι δ' eVioi 
των βαρέων βοηθειαν άντι των πτερύγων τά καλού- 
μενα^ πλήκτρα επι τοΐς σκελεσιν. άμα δ' οΐ αυτοί 
ου γίνονται πλήκτρα έχοντες και γαμφώνυχες• 

15 αίτιον δ' δτι ού8εν ή φύσις ποιεί περίεργον. εστί 
8έ τοΐς μεν γαμφωνύχοις και πτητικοΐς άχρηστα τά 

^ τττητικονς Ρ, Rackham : πτητικά Υδ : τττητίκοΐε Ζ, vulg. 

^ post avev habent τών πτερών και Υό. 

^ els ταύτας QSU^ : ίνταΰθα vulg. 

* <κ:αϊ> Ogle. * desiiiit Ζ. 

" This passage must be supplemented by reference to others 
(such as Oegen. an. 753 b 20 if., and Hist. An. 561 b), in which 
Aristotle speaks of tico umbilici or umbilical cords — i.e. he 
recognized the allantois as well as the umbilical vesicle. He 



duced alive or out of eggs, have an umbilicus while 
they are developing, but when they are more fully 
grown it ceases to be visible. The reason for this is 
clear from what happens during their development : 
the umbilical cord grows on to the intestine and 
unites with it, and does not form a part of the system 
of blood-vessels, as it does in the Vivipara." 

The good fliers have big strong wings, e.g. the 
birds which have crooked talons and feed on raw 
meat : these must be good fliers owing to their habits 
of life, and so they have an abundance of feathers and 
big wings. But there are other sorts of birds which are 
good fliers beside these : birds Avhose safety lies in 
their speed of flight ; and migrants. Some birds are 
poor fliers : heavy birds, which spend their time on 
the ground and feed on fruits ; or birds that live on 
and around the water. The crook-taloned birds, leav- 
ing out of account their wings, have small bodies, be- 
cause the nutriment is used up to produce the wings 
and weapons of offence and defensive armour. The 
poor fliers, on the contrary, have bulky, and therefore 
heavy, bodies. Some of these instead of wings have 
as a means of defence " spurs " on their legs. The 
same bird never possesses both spurs and talons, and 
the reason is that Nature never makes anything that 
is superfluous or needless. Spurs are of no use to a 

states that in the bird's egg, as the embryo grows, the allantois 
(the " second umbilicus ") collapses first and then the " first 
umbilicus" {Be gen. an. 754 a 9). Actually the reverse 
order is the correct one, but the interval is comparatively 
short. The umbilical vesicle in mammals, which shrivels 
very early in the process of development, escaped the notice 
of Aristotle, who supposed their allantois to be comparable to 
the umbilical vesicle of reptiles and birds. The umbilical 
vesicle of mammals was discovered by Needham in 1667. 
(See Ogle's note ad loc.) 



694 a 

ττληκτρα• χρήσιμα γάρ Ισην ev ταΓ? πεζαΐς )ίχα;)^αΐ9, 
διο ύπάρχ€ί Ινίοις των βαρέων τούτοις δ ού 
μόνον άχρηστοι αλλά και βλαβ€ροΙ οι γαμφΆ όνυχες 
τω βμττηγνυσθαι ύττεναντίοι ττρός την ττορείαν οντες. 

20 διό και τα γαμφώνυχα πάντα φανλως πορεύεται 
και επΙ πέτραις ού καθιζανονσιν ύττίναι^τια γαρ 
αντοΐς προς αμφότερα η των ονύχων φνσις. 

Έ^ ανάγκης δβ τοΰτο περί την γενεσιν συμβεβη- 
κεν. το γάρ γεώΒες εν τω σώ/χατι έζορμώμε- 
νον'^ χρήσιμα μόρια ytVerai προς την άΧκην άνω 
μεν ρυέν ρύγχους εποίησε σκληρότητα η μέγεθος, 

25 αν δε κάτω ρνη, πλήκτρα εν τοις σκελεσιν η επι 
των ποδών ονύχων μέγεθος καΐ ισχυν. άμα δ 
αλλο^ί και άλλοθι έκαστα τούτων ού ποιεί- δια- 
σπωμενη γάρ ασθενής yiVerai ή φύσις τούτου του 
περιττώματος, τοις δε σκελών κατασκευάζει μη- 
694 b κος. ενίοις δ' ο.ντΙ τούτων συμπληροΐ το μεταξύ 
των ποΒών και δια τοΰτο άναγκαίως οι πλωτοί 
των ορνίθων οί μεν απλώς εισι στεγανόποΒες , οι δε 
8ιηρημενην μεν εχουσι την καθ^ έκαστα τών Βακτυ- 
5 λων φύσιν, προς εκάστω δ' αυτών προσπέφυκεν 
οίον πλάτη καθ^ όλον συνεχής. 

'Έιζ ανάγκης μεν ούν ταύτα συμβαίνει δια ταύτα? 
τα? αιτίας• ως δε δια το βελτιον εχουσι τοιούτους 
τους ττόδα? τοϋ βίου χάριν, Ινα ζώντες εν ύγρώ και 
τών πτερύγων^ αχρείων όντων τους πο8ας χρήσι- 
μους εχωσι προς την νεΰσιν. γίνονται γαρ ωσπερ 

^ (ζορμώμΐΐ'ον Peck : καΐ (ζορμον ίκ τούτου τα \ 6 : ϊζω pvkv 
Langkavel ; fortasse έξορμάται και ίκ τούτου τα, 
^ -πτερύγων Υ6, Ogle : ντερών vulg. 



bird that has talons and can fly well : spurs are useful 
for fights on the ground, and that is why certain of 
the heavy birds possess them, while talons would not 
be merely useless to them but a real disadvantage " : 
they would stick in the ground and impede the birds 
when walking. And in fact all crook-taloned birds 
do walk badly, and they never perch upon rocks ; 
in both instances the nature of their claws is the 

This state of affairs is the necessary result of the 
process of their development. There is earthy sub- 
stance in the bird's body which courses along and 
issues out and turns into parts that are useful for 
weapons of offence. When it courses upwards it 
produces a good hard beak, or a large one ; if it 
courses downwards it produces spurs on the legs or 
makes the claws on the feet large and strong. But 
it does not produce spurs and large claws simul- 
taneously, for this residual substance would be 
weakened if it were scattered about. Again, some- 
times this substance makes the legs long ; and in 
some birds, instead of that, it fills in the spaces be- 
tAveen the toes. Thus it is of necessity that water- 
birds either are web-footed, simply, or (if they have 
separate toes) they have a continuous fan or blade, 
as it were, running the whole length of each toe and 
of a piece with it. 

From the reasons just stated it is clear that feet 
of this sort are the result of necessity, it is true ; but 
they conduce to a good end and are meant to assist 
the birds in their daily life, for these birds hve in the 
water, and Avhile their wings are useless to them, 
these feet are useful and help them to swim. They 

" See above, note on 648 a 16. 

ο 411 


694 b 

10 αι κώπαι τοις πλέουσι KaV τα. πτ€ρνγια τοΐς Ιχθν- 
σιν δί.6 καί €αν των μ^ν τά τττζρνγια σφαλτ], των 
Se το μ€ταζύ των ττοΒών, ονκβτι νβουσιν. 

Ένιοι Se μακροσκ€λ€Ϊς των ορνίθων elatv. αίτιον 
δ' δτι ο βίος των τοιούτων e'Aeios" τά δ' όργανα 
προς το kpyov ή φύσις ττο lei, αλλ' ου το epyov προς 

15 τα όργανα, δια μβν οΰν το μη πλωτά eivai ου 
στ€γαν6ποΒά €στι, δια δε το iv ύπ^ίκοντι &1ναι τον 
βιον μακροσκβλη και μακροΒάκτυλα, και τάς καμ- 
πάς €χουσι πΧζίους iv τοις Βακτνλοις οι πολλοί 
αυτών. €π£ΐ δ' ου πτητικά μ4ν, εκ της δ' αΰτη? 
ϋλης ioTi πάντα, η εις το ούροπύγιον αύτοΐς τροφή 

20 €1? τά σκέλη καταναλισκομένη ταΰτα ηΰζησεν. διο 
και εν τη πτησει άντ' ούροπυγίου χρώνται αύτοΐς• 
πετονται γάρ άποτείνοντες εις το όπισθεν ούτω γάρ 
αύτοΐς χρήσιμα τα σκέλη, άλλως δ εμποδίζοιεν άν. 
Τά 8έ βραχυσκελη {τά) σκελη^ προς τη γαστρι 
έχοντα πετονται• τοις μεν γάρ αυτών ούκ εμποΒί- 

25 ζουσιν οι πόΒες ούτω, τοις δε γαμφώνυξι καΐ προ 
έργου εισι προς την αρπαγην. 

Των δ' εχόντων ορνίθων τον ai5;^eva μακρόν οι 
μεν παχυτερον έχοντες πετονται εκτεταμένα) τω 
αύχενι, οι δε λετττοτερον^ συγκεκαμμενω• επιπετο- 
μενοις γαρ δια την σκεπην ήττον ενθρυπτον εστίν. 

695 a Ισχίον δ' εχουσι μεν οι όρνιθες πάντες η ούκ άν 

δό^αιεν εχειν, αλλά hvo μηρούς διά το του Ισχίου 
μήκος• ύποτεταται γάρ μέχρι μέσης της γαστρός. 
αίτιον δ' ΟΤΙ Βίπουν εστι τούτο το ζώον ούκ ορθόν 

^ καΙ Υ6, Ogle : om. vulg. 

* τά δε βραχνσκΐλη ΡΥό ; correxi : evia hk βραχέα <τά Lang- 
kavel> σκέλη vulg. 

* Xeirrorepov Peck : λΐπτον καϊ μακρόν vulg. : [και μακρόν] 
seel. Rackham. 



are like oars to a sailor or fins to a fish. A fish that 
has lost its fins can no longer swim ; nor can a bird 
whose webs have been destroyed. 

Some birds have long legs, owing to their living in 
marshes ; for Nature makes the organs to suit the 
work they have to do, not the work to suit the organ. 
And these birds have no webs in their feet because 
they are not water birds, but because they live on 
ground that gives under them they have long legs 
and long toes, and most of them have additional joints 
in their toes. Furthermore, though these birds are 
not great fliers, they are composed of the same ma- 
terials as the rest, and thus the nutriment which in the 
others goes to produce the tail feathers, in these is 
used up on the legs and makes them grow longer, and 
Avhen in flight these birds stretch them out behind 
and use them in place of the missing tail feathers : 
placed thus, the legs are useful to them ; otherwise 
they would get in the way. 

Short-legged birds keep their legs up against the 
belly while they are flying, because if the feet are 
there they are out of the way ; the crook-taloned 
birds do it for an additional reason : the feet are 
convenient for seizing prey. 

When a bird has a long neck, this is either thick and 
is held stretched out during flight ; or it is slender 
and is bent up during flight, because being protected 
in this way it is less easily broken if the bird flies into 
anything. All birds have an ischium, but in such 
a way that they ΛνοηΜ not appear to have one ; it is 
so long that it reaches to the middle of the belly and 
looks more like a second thigh-bone. The reason for 
this is that a bird, although a biped, does not stand 



695 a 

{ov)/ ώς e'i ye €Ϊχ€, καθάπζρ ev τοΐς ανθρώττοις "η 
b τοΐζ τ€τράποσίν, άττο της e8pas βραχν το Ισχιον 
/cat το σκέλος ^ύθύς €χόμ€νον, ηΒυνάτβι άν δλως^ 
εστάναι. ο μ^ν γαρ άνθρωπος ορθόν, τοΐς Be re- 
τράττοσι προς το βάρος σκέλη εμπρόσθια νπ€ρηρ€ΐ- 
σται. οΐ δ' ορνιθβς ουκ ορθοί μέν δια το νανώΒ^ις 
etvat την φνσιν, σκέλη δ' εμπρόσθια ουκ βχου- 

10 σιν δια το πτέρυγας έχβιν^ άντ' αυτών, άντι 8e 
τούτον μακρόν η φύσις το ίσχίον ποιήσασα €ΐς 
μέσον προσηρξίσεν εντεύθεν δ' νπέθηκε τα σκέλη, 
όπως ισόρροπου όντος τοΰ βάρους ένθεν και ένθεν 
πορενεσθαι δυΐ'τ^ται και μέΐ'ειν.* δι' ην μεν οΰν 
αίτιαν Βίπουν έστιν ουκ ορθόν 6ν, ε'ίρηται• του δ 
άσαρκα τα σκέλη eti/ai ή αυτή αιτία και επι των 
τετραπόδων, νπερ ής και προσθεν ε'ίρηται. 

15 Ύετρα8άκτυλοι δ' είσι πάντες οί όρνιθες ομοίως οι 
στεγανόπο8ες τοΐς σχιζόποσιν {περί γαρ τοΰ στρον- 
θοΰ τοΰ Αιβυκοΰ ύστερον Βιοριοΰμεν, ότι Βιχτηλός, 
άμα τοΐς λοιποΐς έναντιώμασιν οίς έχει προς το των 
ορνίθων γένος). τούτων δ οι μεν τρεις έμπρο- 
σθεν, ο δ' εις όπισθεν προς άσφάλειαν άντι πτέρνης' 

20 και των μακροσκελών λείπει τοΰτο κατά μέγεθος, 
οίον συμβέβηκεν έπι της κρεκός• πλείους δ ουκ 
€χονσι δακτύλους. ^ έπι μεν ουν τών άλλων ούτως 
η τών Βακτύλων έχει θέσις, η δ' ΐυγζ 8νο μόνον 
έχει τους έμπροσθεν και δυο του? όπισθεν^• αίτιον 

^ <όν> Rackham, cf. 1. 14 infra. 

* δλως PQU, Ogle : όρθον vulg. 

^ Correxi ; ΐχουσιν δια τοΰτο -πτίρυγαζ ίχουσιν Vulg. {πτέρν- 
yas, 8e altero ίχουσιν omisso, Υ, Ogle, qui post δια τοΰτο 



upright ; and if it had an ischium which extended 
only a short way from the fundament and was fol- 
lowed immediately by the leg (as in man and the 
quadrupeds), it would be unable to stand up at all. 
Man can stand upright, and quadrupeds have fore- 
legs to support their forward weight ; birds, how- 
ever, neither stand upright (because they are dwarf- 
like), nor have forelegs (because they have wings in- 
stead).* By way of compensation, Nature has made 
the ischium long, reaching to the middle of the 
body, and has fixed it fast, while beneath it she has 
placed the legs, so that the weight may be equally 
distributed on either side and the bird enabled to 
walk and to stand still. This shows why birds are bi- 
peds although they are unable to stand upright. The 
reason why their legs are lacking in flesh is the same 
as for all quadrupeds and has been stated already.'' 

All birds, web-footed or not, have four toes on each 
foot. (The Libyan ostrich will be dealt with later,*' 
and its cloven hoof and other inconsistencies with the 
tribe of birds will be discussed.) Of these four toes, 
three are in front, and the fourth is at the back in- 
stead of a heel, for stability. In the long-legged 
birds this toe is deficient in length, as for instance in 
the Crex. Still, the number of toes does not exceed 
four. This arrangement of the toes holds good gener- 
ally, but the wi-yneck is an exception, for it has only 
two toes in front and two at the back. This is because 

" See above, 693 b 3 ff. 

* See 689 b 10 ff. 
« At the end of the book. 

* μίνΐΐν Y6 : μέντι vulg. 

' δια την στενότητα τοΰ σκέλους add. ΡΥ6. 

• ίμπροσθΐν . . . όπισθεν Karsch : όπισθεν . . . έμπροσθεν vulg. 



2ό δ' OTt ηττόν €στιν αντης το σώμα 7τροπ€τβς «τη το 
ττρόσθζν Ύ] το των άλλων. 

"Ορχ€ίς δ' €χονσι. μ€ν πάντ€ς οι ορνιθίς, ivTos 
δ' €-χουσιν' η δ' αιτία iv τοις π€ρΙ τάς γενβσας 
λεχθησζται των ζώων. 
695 b Τα μβν οΰν των ορνίθων μόρια τον τρόπον €χ€ΐ 

XIII. Το δβ τών ιχθύων γένος e'rt μαΧλον κβκολό- 
βωται τών έκτος μορίων, οϋτβ γαρ σκ4λη οϋτ€ 
χείρας οϋτ€ πτέρυγας έχουσίν {β'ίρηταί δέ πβρί τού- 
5 των Ύ] αίτια ττρότερον), αλλ' όλον από Tijs κεφαλής 
το κύτος συνεχές έστι μέχρι της ούρας. ταντην δ' 
ούχ όμοίαν έχουσι πάντες, αλλά τά μεν παραπλη- 
σίαν^ τών δβ πΧατέων ένια ακανθώδη καΐ μακράν 
Tj εκείθεν γαρ αϋζησις γίνεται εις το πλάτος, οίον 
έστι νάρκαις και τρυγοσι και ει τι τοιούτον άλ/\ο 
10 σέλαχός έστιν. τών μεν ονν τοιούτων ακανθώδες 
καΐ μακρόν το ούραΐόν εστίν, ενίων δέ σapκώhες μεν 
βραχύ δε διά την αυτήν αΐτίαν δι' ηνπερ ταΐς 
νάρκαις• Βιαφέρει γαρ ούΒέν, ή βραχύ μεν σαρκω- 
Βέστερον δε, η μακρόν μεν άσαρκότερον δ' etvai. 

ΈτΓΐ δε τών βατράχων τό εναντίον συμβέβηκεν 
16 διά γαρ τό μη σαρκώΒες etvat τό ττλάτο? αυτών 
το έμπρόσθίον, όσον άφηρηται σαρκώδες, προς τό 
όπισθεν αντών^ έθηκεν η φύσις και την ούράν. 

Ουκ έχουσι δ' άπηρτημένα κώλα οι ίχθύες διά τό 
νευστικην είναι την φύσιν αυτών κατά. τον της 
ουσίας λόγον, έπεί ούτε περίεργον ού8έν ούτε μάτην 

*• μΐν άλλα π. Ρ : μ€ν άμτ] -π. Piatt : μh> παραπλήσια ζ,τοΐς 
ντΐρυγίοΐζ) Ogle, similia voluit Thurot. 
* α!}τώΐ' υ : αύτο vulg. 

» See De gen. an. 714 b 4 ff., 719 b 11. 

PARTS OF ANIMALS, IV. xii.-xin. 

the weight of its body tends forward less than that of 
other birds. 

All birds have testicles, but they are inside the 
body. The reason for this will be stated in the 
treatise on the different methods of generation 
among animals." 

This concludes our description of the parts of Birds, (iu.) Fishes ; 

XIII. In the tribe of Fishes the external parts 
are still further stunted. Fishes have neither legs, 
hands, nor %\ings (the reason has been stated earlier), 
but the whole trunk has an uninterrupted line from 
head to tail. Not all fishes' tails are alike ; but the Taiu 
general run of them have similar tails, though some 
of the flat-fish have a long, spiny one, because the 
material for the tail's groA\'th goes into the width 
of the flat body : this happens in the torpedo-fishes, 
in the Trygons, and any other Selachians of the same 
sort. These have long, spiny tails. Others have 
short, fleshy ones, and for the selfsame reason : it 
comes to the same thing M^hether the tail is short 
and has a good deal of flesh or long \\-ith little flesh. 

In the fishing-frog ^ the opposite has taken place. 
Here, the Avide, flat part of the body in front is not 
fleshy ; Nature has taken the fleshy material aΛvay 
from the front and added an equivalent amount at 
the back — in the tail. 

Fishes have no separate limbs attached to the body, 
(a) This is because Nature never makes anything that 
is superfluous or needless, and by their essence and 
constitution^ fishes are natm-ally swimmers and so 

* Lophius piscaforius, known as the " goosefish " in 
U.S.A., erroneously included by Aristotle {De gen. an, 
754 a 25) with the Selachia, though he observed that it 
differed in many important points. 

• Logos : see Introduction, pp. 26 f. 



695b ^ ^ 

20 Ύ] φνσις TTOiei. errei δ' βναιμά €στί κατά την 
ούσίαν, δια μβν το νευστικτά ea-at πτ€ρυγία €χ€ΐ, δια 
δε το μη ττεζεναν ουκ εχζί πό8ας• η γαρ των ποΒών 
ττρόσθ^σις προς την iirl τω ττβΒίω κίνησίν γ^ρησιμός 
iaTLV. άμα δε πτερύγια τβτταρα καΐ πό8ας ούχ 
οΐόν τ έχειν, ουδ' άλλο κώλον τοιοΰτον ovBev 

25 eVai/i.a γάρ. οΐ δε κορ8ύλοί βράγχια έχοντες πόδα? 
εχουσιν πτερύγια γάρ ουκ εχουσιν, αλλά την ούράν 
μανωΒη καΐ ττλατεΓαν. 

"Έιχουσι δε των Ιχθύων όσοι μη πλατεΐς, καθάπερ 
βάτος καΐ τρύγων, τετταρα πτερύγια, δυο μεν εν 
696 a τοις πρανεσι, διίο δ' εν τοις νπτίοις' πλείω δε 
τούτων ονΒείς, άναιμοι γάρ άν ήσαν. τούτων δε τα 
μεν εν τω πρανεΐ σχεΒόν πάντες εχουσι, τά δ' εν 
τοΓ? νπτίοις ενιοι των μακρών καΐ πάχος εχόντων 

6 ουκ εχονσιν, οίον εγχελυς και γόγγρος και κεστρεων 
Tt γένος το εν τη λίμνη τη εν Ίΐιφαΐς. δσα δ' εστί 
μακροφυεστερα και όφιώ8η μάλλον, οϊον σμύραινα, 
ουδέν εχουσι πτερύγιον απλώς, αλλά ταΐς καμπαΐς 
κινούνται, χρώμεναι τω ύγρώ ωσπερ οι οφεις τη 
γη' τον αύτον^ γάρ οι οφεις τρόπον^ νεουσιν δνπερ 

10 επι της γης ερπουσιν. αιτία δε του μη εχειν τους 
οφιώΒεις τών ιχθύων πτερύγια, ηπερ και των 
οφεων του άπο8ας είναι, το δ' αίτιον εν τοΓ? ττερι 
πορείας και κινήσεως τών ζώων εΐρηται. η γάρ 
κακώς αν εκινοΰντο, τετταρσι σημείοις κινούμενα 

^ rov αύτον Peck : τοΰτον vulg. 

^ οι όφζΐί τον τρόπον Υό: τον delevi: τον τρόπον οί 6φΐΐ5 


*» The Cordylus was probably the hirval form of some 
triton or newt, such as Triton alpestris or Salamandra atra, 
which retains its gills till it is well grown (D'Arcy Thompson). 

* i.e. pectoral. • i.e. ventral. 



need no such limbs. But also (6) they are essentially 
blooded creatures, which means that if they have four 
fins they cannot have any legs or any other limbs of 
the sort ; so they have the fins because they are 
swimmers and do not have the feet because they are 
not walkers (when an animal has feet it has them 
because they are useful for moving about on land). 
The Cordylus," however, has feet in addition to its 
gills, since it has no fins, but only a scraggy flattened- 
out tail. 

Excluding flat-fish (like the Batos and Trygon), fish Fins, 
have four fins : two on their under and two on their 
upper surface, never more, for then they would be 
bloodless animals. Almost all fishes have the two 
upper ^ fins, but some of the large, thick-bodied fishes 
lack the under " two — as for instance the eel and the 
conger, and a sort of Cestreus that is found in the lake 
at Siphae.•* Fishes that have even longer bodies than 
these, and are really more like serpents (as the 
Smyraena*), have no fins at all, and move along by 
bending themselves about : that is, they use the 
water just as serpents use the ground. And in fact 
serpents swim in exactly the same way as they creep 
on the ground. The reason why these serpent-like 
fishes have no fins and the reason why serpents 
have no feet are the same, and this has been stated 
in the treatises on the Locomotion and Movement of 
Animals/ (a) If they had four motion-points, their 
movement would be poor, because the fins would 

^ In Boeotia, on the south coast near Thespiae ; now 
Tipha. Aristotle refers to this Cestreus of Siphae again, 
De incessu an. 708 a 5. Cf. also Hist. An. 504 b 33. 

* Probably Muraena Helena. 

f See De incessu an. 709 b 7 ; perhaps the other passage 
which Aristotle has in mind is 690 b 16, in this book. 

ο 2 419 


[eire γαρ σννβγγυς βιγον τα πτβρνγια, μογις αν 

15 eKLVovvTO, etre πόρρω, δια το 77θλυ μβταζν)' ei 
he ττλζίω τα κίνητίκά σημ€Ϊα €Ϊχον, aVat/Lta αν ην. 
•η δ' αντη αίτια καΐ ivl των δυο μόνον εχόν- 
των 7ΓΤ€ρνγια ιχθύων όφίώ^η γάρ βστι καΐ ev- 
μηκέστ^ρα, και χρηται rfj κάμφει άντΙ των δυο 
πτερυγίων, διό και iv τω ζηρω ερπουσι και ζώσι 

20 πολύν χρόνον, και τα μεν ουκ evOv, τα δ' οικεία 
TTys" πεζής οντά φύσεως ήττον άσπαρίζα. 

Αυτών δε των πτερυγίων τα εν τοις πρανεσιν έχει 
τα διίο έχοντα πτερύγια μόνον, οσα μη κωλύεται 
δια το πλάτος• τα δ έχοντα προς τη κεφαλή έχει 
δια το μη εχειν μήκος εν τω τόπω, ω άντι τούτων 

25 κιντ^σεται- επΙ γαρ την ούράν πρόμηκες το των 
τοιούτων εστίν ιχθύων σώμα. οι δε βάτοι και τα 
τοιαύτα άντι των πτερυγίων τω εσχάτω πλάτει 
νεουσιν. τα δ' ήττον έχοντα πλάτος πτερύγια 
εχουσιν, οίον ή^ νάρκη και 6 βάτραχος, τα (^μεν^)^ εν 
τω πρανεΐ κάτω δια το πλάτος των άνω, τα δ' ev 
τοΓ? ύπτίοις προς τή κεφαλή {ου γάρ κωλύει κινεΐ- 

80 σ^αι το πλάτος) • αλλ' άντι του άνω ελάττω ταΰτα 
των εν τω πρανεΐ έχει. ή δε νάρκη προς τη ούρα 
έχει τά δυο πτερύγια• άντι δε των δυο τω πλάτει 
χρήται ώς δυσι πτερνγίοις εκατερω τω ήμικυκλίω. 
Περί δε των ε'ν τή κεφαλή μορίων και αισθητη- 
ρίων εΐρηται πρότερον. 

^ τά δ' ^ττον . . . οίον ly Ρ : -η he tantum vulg. 
^ <μεν> Langkavel. 



either be very close together, or else a long way apart, 
and in either ease would not move easily, (b) On the 
other hand, if they had more than four motion-points 
they would be bloodless creatures. The same reason 
holds good for those fishes that have only two fins. 
These also are serpent-like and fairly long, and they 
use their poΛver of bending instead of the two missing 
fins. And this enables them besides to crawl about 
and to live a good length of time on dry land ; and 
it is some while before they begin to gasp ; indeed, 
those which are akin to the land-animals are affected 
even less than the others. 

Except for those Λvhose width and flatness prevents 
it, all fishes that have only two fins have the upper * 
ones ; and these fins are by the head, because there 
is no length of body just there which they could use 
instead of fins for propulsion — length such as fish 
of this sort have towards their tail-end. The Batoi 
and such fishes swim by means of the edge of their 
flat surface which they use instead of fins. Fish 
which are not so flat, such as the torpedo-fish and the 
fishing-frog, possess fins, but they have their upper 
fins toward their tail-end oAving to the flatness of 
the forepart, and their under fins near the head (since 
the flatness of the fish does not prevent its motion) ; 
but the under ones are smaller than the upper ones, 
to make up for being placed forward. The torpedo- 
fish has two of his fins by his tail ; and instead of 
these two he uses the wide piece on each of his semi- 
circles ^ as though it were a fin. 

We have already spoken of the parts in the head 
and of the sense-organs. 

" i.e. pectoral. 
* C/. De incessu an. 709 b 17. 



696 a 

"Ιδιοί' δ' €χ€ΐ TO των ιχθύων γίνος προς ταλλα τα 

696b€vatjUa ζωα την των βραγχίων φνσιν δι' ην δ 
αΐτίαν, β'ίρηταί iv τοΐς Trepl άναττνοης. καΐ €χ€ΐ oe 
τα €χοντα βράγχια τά μβν βπικαλνμματα τοΐς 
βραγχίοίς, τά δε σβλάχη πάντα'' ακάλυπτα, αίτιον 
5 δ' ΟΤΙ οΐ μ€ν άκανθώΒβις elai, το δ' επικάλυμμα 
άκανθώ8€ς, τά δε σελάχη πάντα χονΒράκανθα. ert 
δ' Ύ] κίνησις των μζν νωθρά^ δια το μη ακανθώδη 
eivai μη^ΐζ ν€υρώ8η, των δ' ακανθωδών ταχεΓα* του 
δ' επικαλύμματος ταχ€Ϊαν δεΓ ytVea^at την κινησιν 
ώσπ€ρ yap προς εκπνοην η των βραγχιων εστί 

10 φύσις, δια τοΰτο τοΐς σελαχώΒζσι και αυτών των 
πόρων η συναγωγή γίνεται των βραγχιων, και ου 
δει επικαλύμματος , όπως γίνηται τα;)^εΓα. 

Οι μεν οΰν αυτών εχουσι πολλά βράγχια οι δ 
ολίγα, και οΐ μεν διττλά οι δ' άπλα* το δ' εσχατον 
άπλοϋν οι πλείστοι. {την δ' άκρίβειαν εκ τών 

15 ανατομών περί τούτων και εν ταΐς ιστοριαις ταΐς 
περί τά ζώα δει θεωρεΐν.) αίτιον δε του πλήθους 
και της όλιγότητος το του εν τη καρδία θερμού 
πλήθος και όλιγότης• θάττω γάρ και ισχυροτεραν 
την κίνησιν δει είναι τοΐς πλείω εχουσι θερμότητα, 
τά δε πλείω και Βιπλά βράγχια τοιαύτην έχει την 

20 φύσιν μάλλον τών απλών και ελαττόνων. διό και 
evia αυτών εζω ζην δύναται πολύν χρόνον, τών 
εχόντων ελάττω και ήττον εγκρατή τά βράγχια, 
οίον εγχελυς και δσα 6φιώ3η' ου γάρ πολλής 
δέονται καταφύξεως. 
"ΐ^χ€ΐ δε /<αι περί το στόμα Βιαφοράς. τά μεν 

25 γάρ κατ* αντικρύ έχει το στόμα και εις το πρόσθεν, 

■'■ {χοιΒράκανθα γάρ) post πάντα vulg., om. P. 
* ή κίνησίζ . . . νωθρά Υ : ot Kivqaeis . . . νωθροί vulg. 



The peculiarity which marks off fishes from the GiUa. 
other blooded animals is the possession of gills. It 
has been explained in the treatise on Respiration ° why 
they have them. All fishes have coverings over their 
gills, except the Selachia, none of which have them. 
This is because their bones are cartilaginous, whereas 
other fishes' bones are of fish-spine, and this is the 
substance out of which the coverings are made. And 
again, the Selachia move sluggishly OAving to their 
lack of fish-spine — and of sinews — while the spinous 
fishes move quickly, and the movement of the cover- 
ing must be a quick one, for gills are a medium for 
expiration of a sort. On this account in the selachian 
group of fishes the passages of the gills can close up 
by themselves, and no covering is needed to make sure 
they close quickly. 

Now some fish have many gills, some have few ; 
some have double ones, some single. The last one 
is nearly ahvays a single one. (For precise details 
consult the Anatomical treatises and the Researches 
upon Animals^) The number of gills depends upon 
the amount of heat in the heart. The more heat an 
animal has, the quicker and stronger must be the 
movement of its gills ; and if the gills are numerous 
and double they are better adapted for this than if 
they are few and single. And on this account, some 
fishes (e.g. the eels and the serpentine fishes) which 
need but little cooling, as is shown by their having 
only a few weakish gills, can live a long time out of 

Fish differ also with regard to the mouth. Some Mouth, 
have their mouth right at the tip, straight in front ; 

• At 476 a 1 flf., 480 b 13 ff. 
» At 504 b 28 ff. 



τά δ' iv τοις νπτίοις, οΐον οΐ re δελφίνε?* και τα 
σ€λαχώ^η• διό καΐ ϋτττια στρεφόμενα λαμβάνει την 
τροφην. φαίνεται δ' η φύσις ου μόνον σωτήριας 
ένεκεν ποι-ήσαι τοντο των άλλων ζώων {εν γαρ τη 
στρέφει σώζεται τάλλα βραΒυνόντων πάντα γαρ 
80 τα τοιαύτα ζωοφάγα εστίν), άλλα και προς το μτη 
άκολονθεΐν rfj λαιμαργία ττ^ περί την τροφην ραον 
γαρ λαμβάνοντα Βιεφθείρετ^ άν δια την πληρωσιν 
ταχέως, προς δε τούτοις περιφερή και λεπτην 
έχοντα την του ρύγχους φύσιν ούχ οίον τ eu- 
Βιαίρετον εχειν. 

Έτι 8ε και των άνω το στόμα εχόντων τα μεν 

697 a άνερρωγός έχει το στόμα τά δε μύουρον, οσα μεν 

σαρκοφάγα, άνερρωγός, ώσπερ τά καρχαρόΒοντα, 

δια το εν τω στό^αατι eivai τοις τοιούτοις την ίσχύν, 

οσα δε μη σαρκοφάγα, μύουρον. 

Το δε Βερμα οι μεν λεπιΒωτόν εχουσιν αυτών {η 
6 δε λεπις δια λαμπρότητα και λεπτότητα του σώ- 
ματος αφίσταται) , οΐ δε τραχύ, οΐον ρίνη και βάτος 
και τά τοιαύτα' ελά;ι^ιστα δε τά λεία. τά δε σελάχη 
άλεπίΒωτα μεν τραχέα δ' εστί διά το χον^ράκανθα 
είναι• το γάρ γεώΒες εκείθεν η φύσις εΙς το Βερμα 
10 Όρχεις ο ουοεις έχει ιχυυς ουτ έκτος ουτ εντός 

^ δελφίνε? ηοη probant Frantzius, Ogle ; similia Hist. An. 
59 1 b 26 secludunt Aubert et Wiinmer. 

" This statement about dolphins, though repeated at Hist, 
an. 591 b 26, is incorrect, and as Aristotle was familiar with 


others have it underneath {e.g. the dolphin "■ and the 
selachians) and that is why they turn on to their backs 
to get their food. It looks as if Nature made them 
do this partly to preserve other animals from them, 
for they all prey on living things, and while they are 
losing time turning on to their backs the other things 
get away safely ; but she did it also to prevent them 
from giving way too much to their gluttonous craving 
for food, since if they could get it more easily they 
would presently be destroyed through repletion. 
Another reason is that their snout is round and small 
and therefore cannot have much of an opening in it. 

There are differences too among those that have 
their mouth above. With some it is a great wide 
opening (these are the flesh-eaters, as e.g. those with 
sharp interfitting teeth, whose strength is in their 
mouth) ; with others (the non-flesh-eaters) it is on 
a tapering snout. 

As for the skin : some have a scaly skin (these Skin, 
scales are shiny and thin and therefore easily come 
loose from the body) ; others have a rough skin, e.g. 
the Rhine and the Batos and such. Those with 
smooth skins are the fewest. Selachia have skins 
which are scaleless but rough, owing to their bones 
being cartilaginous : instead of using the earthy 
matter on the bones Nature has used it for the skin. 

No fish has testicles * either without or within. Nor Testicles. 

the creature, some editors consider this reference to be an 

'' By this Aristotle does not mean that fish have no organ 
for the secretion of sperm, but that they have no organ similar 
in shape and consistency to those of mammaha, etc. He calls 
the corresponding organs in fish not testes, but tubes, or roe. 
Aristotle's statement does not, of course, .include the Selachia, 
which have compact, oval testes. 



697 a ^ , , , , c V 

(ουδ' άλλο Tt των άπόδων ou8eV, διό ουδ' ot οφας), 

πόρον δε του 7Τ€ρίττώματος καΐ των π€ρΙ την 

yeveaiv τον αυτόν, καθάττβρ καΐ τάλλα ωοτόκα} 

ττάντα καΐ^ τετράποδα, δια το μη €χ€ΐν κύστιν 

μτβ^ γίνβσθαι ττερίττωμ' αύτοΐς νγρόν. 

15 Το μεν οδν των Ιχθύων γένος ττρος τάλλα ζωα 
ταύτας e^et τα? Βίαφοράς, οΐ δε Ββλφΐνβς καΐ at 
φάλαιναι καΐ ττάντα τά τοιαύτα των κητών βράγχια 
μ€ν ουκ βχουσίν, αύλόν δε δια το ττνβνμονα βχζίν 
Ββχόμζνα γαρ κατά το στόμα την θάλατταν άφιασί 
κατά τον αύλόν. ανάγκη μ^ν γάρ δε'^ασ^αι το 

20 νγρόν δια το λαμβάνειν την τροφην ev τω νγρω• 
δε^ά/ίίενα δ' άφιβναι άναγκαΐον. τά μ^ν οΰν βράγ- 
χιά εστί χρήσιμα τοις μη άναττνβουσιν δι' ην δ' 
αΐτίαν, ζ'ίρηται ev τοις Trepi αναπνοής' αδύνατον γάρ 
άμα το αυτό άναττνεΐν και βραγχια €χ€ΐν• αλλά ττρός 
την άφζσιν του ύ'δατο? βχουσι τόν αύλον. κείται δ' 

25 αΰτοΓ? ούτος ττρό του εγκεφάλου' διελάμβανε γάρ 
αν από της ράχεως αυτόν, αίτιον δε του πνεύμονα 
ταυτ' €χειν και άναπνεϊν, ότί τά μεγάλα των ζώων 
τιλε'ιονος δεΓται θερμότητας ινα κινηται• διό 6 
ττνεύμων έγκειται αύτοΐς θερμότητας ων πλήρης 
αιματικής . εστί δε ταΰτα τρόπον τινά (καϊ)^ πεζά 

80 καΐ ένυδρα• τόν μεν γάρ αέρα δέχεται ως πεζά, 
ατΓοδα δ' εστί και λα/χ^άνει εκ του ύγροϋ την 
^yjb τροφην ώσπερ τά ένυδρα, και αι φώκαι δε και 
αϊ νυκτερίδες δια το έπαμφοτεριζειν αι μεν τοις 
ένύδροις και πεζοΐς, αϊ δε τοις πτηνοΐς και πεζοΐς, 
δια τοΰτο αμφοτέρων τε μετέχονσι και ουδετέρων. 

1 ζωοτόκα PSU Υ. 

• και (δίτΓοδα και) Ogle. 

* {και) Rackham. 



have any other footless animals, and this includes the 
serpents. In fish the passage for the residue and for 
the generative secretion is one and the same ; and 
this is so in all other oviparous animals, four-footed 
ones included. This is because they have no bladder 
and produce no liquid residue. 

Thus we have seen what are the diiferences to be inter- 
noticed in fish as a group as compared with other CTeatures : 
animals. Dolphins and whales and all such Cetacea, (') Cetacea. 
however, have no gills, but they have a blowhole 
because they have a lung. They cannot help letting 
the sea-water enter the mouth because they feed in 
the water, and once it has got in they must get it out 
again, and they do so through the blowhole. Gills, 
of course, are of service herein to those creatures that 
do not breathe. The reason for this has been given 
in my book on Respiration'^ : no creature can breathe 
and at the same time have gills ; instead, these 
Cetacea have a blowhole for getting rid of the water. 
It is placed in front of the brain, otherwise it would 
separate the brain from the spine. The reason why 
these creatures have a lung and breathe is that large 
animals need more heat than others to enable them to 
move ; consequently they have a lung inside them 
full of heat derived from the blood. They are, in a 
way, land-animals as well as water-animals : they 
inhale the air, like land-animals, but they have no 
feet and they get their food from the water as water- 
animals do. Similarly, seals and bats are in an inter- (u.) Seals 
mediate position. Seals are between land-animals ''*** 
and water-animals, bats between land-animals and 
fliers : thus they belong to both classes or to neither. 
■ References given above, see on 696 b 2. 



697 b 

5 at re γαρ φώκαι ώς μβν evvhpoL ττόδα? εχουσιν, ως 

δε ττζζαΐ τττ^ρνγια} {τους γαρ οτησθεν πόδα? ιχθυ- 

ώδει? €χουσί πάμπαν, eVt δε τους οδόντα? τταντα? 

καρχαρόΒοντας καί όζ€Ϊς) • καΐ at νυκτ€ρίΒ€ς ώς μεν 

τττηνά ξχονσι, ττόδα?, ώς δε τετράττοδα ουκ βχουσι, 

καί οΰτζ κέρκον ^χουσιν οΰτ' ούροττύγιον, δtά μkv 

10 το πτηνά είναι κίρκον, δια δε το ττεζά ούροττύγιον. 
σνμβζβ-ηκζ δ' αύταΖς τοΰτ ε^ avayKT^s" etat γαρ 
δερ/χόπτεροι, ουδέν δ' €χζΐ ούροττύγιον μη σχιζό- 
πτβρον εκ τοιούτου γαρ τττερου ytvεταt το ούρο- 
ττύγιον. η δε κέρκος και βμπόΒιος αν ήν υπάρχουσα 
€v τοις πτζροΐς. 

Τον αυτόν δε τρόπον και 6 στρουθος 6 Αιβυκος' 

15 τα μ€ν γαρ όρνιθος ^χ€ΐ, τα δε ζώου τ€τραποΒος. 
ώς μβν γαρ ούκ ών τβτράπους πτ€ρά €χ€ΐ, ώς δ' 
ουκ ών όρνις οϋτ€ ττεταται μβτβωριζόμξνος, και τα 
πτ€ρά ού χρήσιμα προς πτησιν άλλα τρίχωση' ετι 
δε ώς μβν τζτράπους ών βλβφαρίδας ^χ€ΐ τάς 
άνωθεν και φιλάς Ιστι τα ττερι την κεφαλήν και τα 

20 ανω του αύχενος, ώστε τριχωΒεστβρας εχειν τα? 
βλζφαρίΒας, ώς δ' όρνις ών τα κάτωθεν ετττερωται* 
και διττού? μεν εστίν ώς όρνις, 8ίχαλος δ' ώ? 
τετράπους' ού γαρ δάκτυλου? έχει άλλα χηλάς. 
τούτου δ' αίτιον ότι το μέγεθος ούκ όρνιθος έχει 
αλλά τετράποΒος' ελάχιστον γαρ άναγκαΐον είναι το 

25 μέγεθος ώς καθόλου ειπείν το των ορνίθων ού γαρ 
paSiov πολύν ογκον κινεΐσθαι σώματος μετεωρον. 
^ πτερύγια Ogle : TZTepvyas vulg. 



Seals, if regarded as water-animals, are anomalous in 
having feet ; if regarded as land-animals, in having 
fins (their hind feet are altogether like those of 
fishes— I.e. fins ; and all their teeth too are sharp and 
interlocking). Bats, too, if regarded as birds, are 
anomalous in having feef* ; if regarded as quadrupeds, 
in not having feet * ; furthermore, they have neither a 
quadruped's tail (because they are fliers) nor a bird's 
tail (because they are land-animals). This their lack 
of a tail like a bird's is a necessary consequence, 
since they have membranous wings, and no creature 
has a tail of this sort unless it has barbed feathers : 
such tails are always made out of barbed feathers. 
And a tail of the other sort gro\ving among feathers 
would be a definite impediment. 

After the same style is the Libyan ostrich: in (m.) The 
some points it resembles a bird, in others a quadruped. 
As not being a quadruped, it has feathers ; as not 
being a bird, it cannot rise up and fly, and it has 
feathers that are like hairs and useless for flight. 
Again, as being a quadruped, it has upper eye- 
lashes, and it is bald in the head and the upper part 
of the neck, as a result of which its eyelashes are 
hairier than they would otherwise be ; as being a 
bird, it is feathered on its lower parts. Also, as 
a bird, it has two feet ; but, as a quadruped, it has 
cloven hoofs (it has hoofs and not toes). The reason 
is that it has the size not of a bird but of a 
quadruped. Speaking generally, a bird has to be 
very small in size, because it is difficult for a body of 
large bulk to move off the ground. 

" That is, of the sort that birds ought not to have, viz. on 
their wings. 

* That is, of the sort that quadrupeds ought to have. 



llepi μ€ν ουν των μορίων, οια 
€στιν iv τοις ζωοις, €Ϊρηται rrepl πάντων των ζώων 
καθ* ζκαστον τούτων δε ^ιωρισμένων €φ€ζ'ης εστί 
30 τα 7Γ€ρΙ τάς γ^νέσας αυτών 8ΐ€λθζΐν} 

^ τούτων . . . SieXBeiv om. Yb, et statim incipiunt librum 
de incessu. 



We have now spoken severally of all the animals : conclusion. 
we have described their parts, and stated the reason 
why each is present in them. Now that this is 
concluded, the next thing is to describe the various 
ways in which animals are generated. 



Additional Note on 684 b 21-29 

Commentators agree that no satisfactory sense can be 
obtained from the first three lines of this passage as it stands 
in Bekker's edition. None has so far produced a remedy ; 
but an examination of the Arabic translation (or of Michael 
Scot's Latin translation made from the Arabic) shows plainly 
what has happened. In neither of these two translations is 
there any reference v:hatever to a diagram until 685 a 2. 
Thus the MS. from which our present Greek text is derived 
had been corrupted through the efforts of someone who tried 
to improve the text of 684 b 22-27 by inserting references to 
a diagram here also ; and the result is that these references 
have caused the complete loss of one important phrase (b 22) 
and serious corruption of another (b 24-25). Some disloca- 
tion has also been caused in the lines following, up to line 29. 

The two diagrams given in the sis. Ζ are obviously con- 
structed to suit the interpolated text. One of the mss. (Mer- 
ton 278) of Michael Scot's version has an entirely different 
diagram ; the three mss. of Scot at Cambridge have no 
diagram at all, nor has the Arabic ms. B.M. Add. 7511. 

I give below the passage as it appears in Michael Scot's 

Natura ergo istorum duorum modorum est sicut diximus ; 
et propter hoc ambulant imiformiter^ sicut accidit animalibus 
quadrupedibus et hominibus etiam. homo vero habet os in 
capite, scilicet in parte superiori corporis ; delude habet 
stomachum, deinde ventrem, et post ventrem intestinum per- 
veniens ad locum exitus superfluitatis. iste ergo res in 
animalibus habentibus sanguinem sunt secundum hanc dis- 
positionem, et post caput est clibanus, scilicet pectus, et quod 
vicinatur ei. alia vero membra sunt propter ista, etc. 

I am much indebted to Dr. R. Levy for his kindness in 
reading this passage for me in the Arabic in Brit. Mas. ms. 
Add. 7511. 

" inuniformiter Caius 109 & Camb. U.L. li. 3. 16; fortasse igitoi 
scribendum uniformiter et non inuniformiter. 



Additional Note on 693 b 3 

Explanation of Aristotle's terminology for describing the 
bending of limbs. 
When Aristotle is speaking about the bending of limbs, 
backwards and forwards are relative to the direction in 

which the whole animal moves ; 
inwards and outwards are relative to the bulk of the body 
Thus, backwards means that the angle of the bent joint 
points backwards ; inwards means that the extremity of the 
li7nb is brought inwards towards the body, that is, the angle 
of the bent _/θίηί points away from the main bulk of the body. 
(" Inward " and "outward " bending thus have no connotation 
of " bandy-legs " and " knock-knees.") 

All four legs bend inwards ; 
Example (1) y^~~~\\ The forelegs bend forwards : 
The hindlegs bend backwards. 

Example (2) 

The leg bends inwards, and 

(See Be incess. an. 711 a 8 ff., Hist. An. 498 a 3 IF.) 



Additional Note on the ms. Z 

The following portions of the text of De partibus are con- 
tained in the Oxford ms. Z (see p. 50) : 

fol. 60», 60'. I. 639 b 29 to 640 b 24. μίχρι to μάλλον αν 

fol. 61', 61'. I. 644 a 25 to 645 a 17. κ^όλον to to'is φυ in- 

Between these two folios it has apparently lost four folios, 
as well as one at the beginning of Book I and another at the 

fol. I'-IQ'. Book II. 

fol. 19'-36'. Book III, but the MOrds ov πολύ to evpvxwpovs 
inclusive (675 a 30-b 27) are omitted, 
with no indication by the original scribe 
that anj^hing has been omitted : this 
passage has been supplied by a later hand 
in the margins of fol. 35' and 36' and 
on 36'. 

Book IV is written by j-et another (later) hand, and this 
Book occupies fol. 37'-59', at the end of which folio it breaks 
off at the words τά καλονμΐνα (694 a 13). The rest of Book 
IV is lost. 

In the apparatus I have used the following abbreviations 
in quoting this ms. : 

Ζ Books I, II and most of III (first hand, c. a.d. 1000). 
Z^ indicates the reading of the first hand where this has 

been altered by another. 
Z* indicates later correctors of Z^. 
Ζ indicates the readings of the ms. in Book IV. 

I have collated from photostats the whole of the portion 
written by the first hand, and the readings of Ζ quoted have 
been confirmed by reference to the photostats. 

I have used the symbol Ε when quoting the readings of 
Ε from 680 b 36 onwards, as this part of the ms. is written 
in a later hand. 




That the De incessu animalium is a genuine work of 
Aristotle himself has never been disputed. The De 
viotu animalium has been regarded by many critics as 
a spurious work, though recent opinion has favoured 
its genuineness. Brandis, Rose and Zeller all con- 
denon it, but its Aristotelian authorship has been up- 
held by Werner Jaeger {Hermes, xMii. pp. 31 if.), who 
makes out a very strong case in its favour, and by the 
Oxford translator, Mr. A. S. L. Farquharson. Those 
who deny its authenticity rely mainly on the supposi- 
tion that there is a reference in 703 a 10-1 1 to the De 
spiritu. This treatise is generally admitted to be im- 
Aristotelian, but the reference, as Mr. Farquharson 
has pointed out, might relate equally well to numerous 
other passages in the Aristotelian corpus ; Michael 
Ephesius refers it to a treatise Hepl τροφψ, not 
otherwise knoΛ^^l. In style, vocabulary and syntax 
the De viotu animalitim is entirely Aristotelian, and its 
doctrine corresponds with that set forth in Aristotle's 
genuine works. 

Each treatise has its proper place in the scheme of 
Aristotle's biological Λvorks. Both are theoretical, 
the De incessu animalium, like the De partibus ani- 
malium, dealing with the material side of living things, 
and the De motu animalium, hke the De generatione 
animalium, dealing with their consequential pro- 



The chief mss. of the De motu aiiimalhim are E, Y, 
Ρ and S." Of these E, one of the most famous of 
AristoteHan mss., is the oldest ; Υ is closely related 
to E. Ρ and S are similarly related and form a second 

Of the De incessu animalium the principal mss. are 
Z, Y, U, S and P.° Of these Ζ is the oldest, and Υ is 
closely related to it, Avhile the other three mss. form 
another group. 

A full account of these mss. and their relations to 
one another Mill be found in the Introduction (pp. 
iv. if.) of W. W. Jaeger's text (Teubner, 1913). 

The text used for the present translation is based 
on that of I. Bekker, all divergences from which are 
noted and the authority given for the reading adopted. 
Jaeger's text and apparatus criiicus have been con- 
sulted throughout. 

The Commentary of λIichael Ephesius (Com- 
mentaria in Ar'istotelem Graeca, xxii. 2, Hayduck, 1904) 
has been of some assistance both for the text and for 
the interpretation, and the Latin version of Nicholaus 
Leonicus (died 1599)) printed in the Berlin Aristotle, 
Vol. Ill, has been constantly consulted. 

The two treatises have been translated into French 
by J. Barthelemy-Saint-Hilaire, and into English by 
Mr. A. S. L. Farquharson in the Oxford translation 
(1912). This translation -with its ample explanatory 
notes constitutes much the most serious attempt that 
has been made to interpret these two treatises, and 
anyone who follows in Mr. Farquharson 's footsteps 
must necessarily be heavily indebted to him. 

E. S. F, 

" For the meanings of these symbols see pp. 439 and 483. 



Chap. I. The origin of all movement must itself be un- 
moved. So if there is to be animal movement, something 
in the animal must be at rest. Hence joints are necessary. 

II. There must also be a resisting medium external to the 
moving animal. Illustration from the rowing of a boat. 

III. The nature of the " prime mover." The fable of 

IV. The " prime mover " is of necessity outside the 
universe. The movement of inanimate things must 
originate from animate things. 

V. Alteration, growth, generation and corruption as 
forms of motion. 

VI. How does the soul move the body .'' Animal move- 
ment lies in the sphere of action. Its limitation in com- 
parison with eternal movement. 

VII. Animal movement the result of the syllogism of 
action, not of the speculative syllogism. Animal move- 
ment compared with that of automatic toys. 

VIII. TTie psychology of animal movement and the 
organic changes which accompany it. The cause of move- 
ment must be situated in a definite origin. 

IX. The two sides of the body are similar and can move 
simultaneously : both are moved by the soul. 

X. The motive power is " innate spirit." Comparison 
between the animal organism and a well-ordered civic 

XI. Involuntary and non-voluntary movements. Con- 



Ε = Codex Parisinus Regius 1853. 

Υ = Codex Vaticanus 261. 

Ρ = Codex Vaticanus 1339. 

S = Codex Laurentianus 81. 1. 
Leon. = Latin translation of Nicolaus Leonicus. 
Mich. = Greek commentary of Michael Ephesiug. 


698a Ι. ITept δε κινησ€ως της των ζώων, οσα μεν 
αυτών 7Τ€ρΙ €καστον υπάρχει γένος, και τίνες 
Βιαφοραί, καΐ τίνες αΐτίαι τών καθ' εκαστον συμ- 
βεβηκότων αύτοΐς, επεσκεπται ττερι απάντων εν 
ετεροις• όλως δε περί της κοινής αιτίας του κι- 

6 i^eta^at κίνησιν όποιανοΰν (τα μεν γαρ πτησει κι- 
νείται τά δε νεύσει τά δε πορεία τών ζώων, τα δε 
κατ άλλους τρόπους τοιούτους) επισκεπτεον νυν. 

"Οτι μεν οΰν άρχη τών άλλων κινήσεων το 
αυτό εαυτό κινούν, τούτου^ δε το άκινητον, 
και ΟΤΙ το πρώτον κινοΰν άναγκαΐον άκίνητον 

10 ειι^αι, διώρισται πρότερον, οτεπερ και περί κι- 
νήσεως άϊδι'ου, πότερον εστίν η ουκ εστί, και ει 
εστί, τις εστίν, δει δε τοΰτο μή μόνον τω λόγω 
καθόλου λαβείν, αλλά και επί τών καθ' έκαστα 
και τών αισθητών, δι' άπερ και τους καθόλου 
ζητοΰμεν λόγους, και εφ' ών εφαρμόττειν οιόμεθα 

15 8ειν αυτούς. φανερόν γάρ και επι τούτων οτι 
αδύνατον κινεΐσθαι μηδενός ήρεμοΰντος, πρώτον 
μεν εν αύτοΐς τοις ζωοις. δεΓ γάρ, αν κινήταί τι 
τών μορίων, ήρεμεΐν τι• και δια τοΰτο ai καμπαΐ 

^ τούτου ΕΡΥ : τούτο S. 



I. We have inquired elscAvhere " into the details of 
the movement of the various kinds of animals, the 
differences between these movements, and the causes 
of the characteristics which each exhibit ; we must 
now inquire generally into the common cause of 
animal movement of whatever kind — for some animals 
move by flight, some by sAvimming, some by walking, 
and others by other such methods. 

Now that the origin of all the other movements is 
that Λvhich moves itself, and that the origin of this is 
the immovable, and that the prime mover must neces- 
sarily be immovable, has already been determined 
when we were investigating ^ whether or not eternal 
movement exists, and if it does exist what it is. And 
this we must apprehend not merely in theory as a 
general principle but also in its individual manifesta- 
tions and in the objects of sense-perception, on the 
basis of which we search for general theories and 
with which we hold that these theories ought to 
agree. For it is clear also in the objects of sense- 
perception that movement is impossible if there 
is nothing in a state of rest, and above all in the 
animals themselves. For if any one of their parts 
moves, another part must necessarily be at rest ; and 

" In the Oe partibus animalium. 

" Physics vlii. 258 b 4-9. ' 



898 a ^ , , „ 

rots' ί,ωοις eiaiv. ωσττερ γαρ κβντρω γ^ρωνται 

ταΐς καμτταΐς, και γίνεται το όλον μ^ρος, ev ώ η 

20 καμπή, καΐ ev καΐ δυο, καΐ €νθύ και κ€καμμ€νον, 

μεταβάλλον Βννάμζί καΐ evepyeia δια τ'ην καμττήν. 

καμτττομ4νου δε καΐ κινουμένου το μ^ν κινείται 

σημζΐον το δε μένει των εν ταΖς καμτταΐς, ωσπβρ 

άν €1 της διαμέτρου η μεν Α και η Δ μενοι, η δε 

Β κινοΐτο, και γίνοιτο η ΑΓ. αλλ' ενταύθα μεν 

25 Βοκεΐ πάντα τρόπον άΒιαίρετον είναι το κεντρον 

(και γαρ το κινεΐσθαι, ώς φασί, πλαττουσιν επ 

αυτών ου γαρ κινεΐσθαι^ των μαθηματικών 

ούδεν), τα δ' εν ταΐς καμπαΐς δυνάμει και ενέργεια 

698b γίνεται ότε μεν εν ότε δε Βιαιρετά. αλλ' ούν 

άεΙ Ύ} άρχη η προς ο, -fj^ ο.ρχη, ηρεμεί κινουμένου 

του μορίου του κάτωθεν, οΐον του μεν βραχιονος 

κινουμένου το ώλέκρανον, δλου δε του κώλου ο 

ώμος, και της μεν κνήμης το γόνυ, όλου δε του 

6 σκέλους το ίσχίον. οτι μεν ο5ν και εν αυτώ 

εκαστόν τι δει έχειν ηρεμούν, όθεν η ο-ρχη 

του κινουμένου εσται, και προς δ άπερει^ομενον 

* Kivetff^ai ESY: κινείται Ϋ. 

• ή TTpbs δ, Ύ) Jaeger : ή irpbs δ ή ΕΥ : ή πρώτη ij S: tj ττρόσω 
(cm. altero αρχή) P. 

" e.g. the arm as an arm is one, but is divided into two at 
the elbow, 

* The term αρχή, which occurs frequently in this treatise, 
is difficult to render in English by a single word. It is some- 
times used generally of the " origin " of movement {e.g. 
701 b33), but more often of a localized "origin " of movement, 



it is on this account that animals have joints. For 
they use their joints as a centre, and the whole part 
in which the joint is situated is both one and two," 
both straight and bent, changing potentially and 
actually because of the joint. And when the part 
is being bent and moved, one of the points in the 
joint moves and one remains at rest, just as would 
happen if A and D in the diameter of a circle were 
to remain still while Β moved, and the radius AC 
were formed. (In geometrical figures, however, the 
centre is considered to be 
in every respect indivisible — 
for movement, too, in such 
figures is a figment, so they 
say, since in mathematics 
nothing actually moves, — 
\vhereas the centres in the 
joints are, potentially and 
actually, sometimes one and 
sometimes divided.) Be that as it may, the origin ^ 
to which the movement can be traced, qua origin, 
is always at rest v/hile the part below it is in motion 
— the elbow-joint, for instance, when the forearm 
is in motion, the shoulder when the whole arm is 
moved, the knee when the shin is moved, and the 
hip Λvhen the whole leg is moved. It is obvious, then, 
that every animal too must have in itself something 
that is at rest, in order to provide that which is 
moved with the origin of its movement, supported 

whether, as here, in a single member, or at the centre of the 
body, viz. the heart (701 b 25, 29), where a further idea of 
" ruling " seems to be implied {e.g. 703 a 37). It is also used 
sometimes in the literal sense of " beginning," and this and 
the meaning of " origin " of motion may occur in the same 
passage and cause confusion {e.g. 702 a 36-b 2). 

Ρ 443 


698b , , , , 

/cat oAov aupoov κινηοήσβταί και, κατά μ€ρος, 


II. Άλλα πάσα η iv αύτω ηρεμία δμως άκυρος, 

αν μη τι e^wOev η απλώς ηρεμούν καΐ ακινητον. 

10 αζιον δ' €πιστησαντας επισκεφασθαι περί του 
λεχθέντος' έχει γαρ την θεωρίαν ου μόνον όσον 
επί τα ζώα συντείνουσαν , άλλα καΐ προς την του 
παντός κίνησιν καΐ φοράν, ώσπερ γαρ καΐ εν 
αυτω 8εΐ τι άκινητον etvat, ει μέλλει κινεΐσθαι, 
οϋτως ετι μάλλον εζω 8εΐ τι ett'at τοΰ ζώου 

15 άκινητον, προς δ άπερειΒόμενον κινείται το κινου- 
μενον. ει γαρ ύποΒώσει αεί, οίον τοις μυσι^ τοις 
εν τη γτ^ η τοις εν τη αμμω πορενομένοις , ου 
πρόεισιν, ο?3δ' εσται οϋτε πορεία, ει μη ή γη μενοι, 
οϋτε πτησις η νεΰσις, ει μη 6 άηρ η η θάλαττα 
άντερείΒοι. ανάγκη 8ε τοΰτο έτερον eti'at του 
κινουμένου, και όλον δλου, και μόριον μηΒεν etvat 

20 τοΰ κινουμένου το οϋτως άκινητον ει 8ε μη, ου 
κινηθησεται. μαρτϋριον 8ε τούτου το άπορου- 
μενον, δια τι ποτέ το πλοΐον εζωθεν μεν, αν τις 
ώθη τω κοντώ τον ιστον η τι άλλο προσβάλλων 
μόριον, κινεί ραΒίως, εάν δ' εν αύτώ τι? ώι^ τω 
πλοιω τοΰτο πειράται πράττειν, ουκ αν κινησειεν 

25 οϋτ* αν 6 Ύιτυος οϋθ^ ο Ήορεας πνέων εσωθεν εκ 
τοΰ πλοίου, ει τυχοι πνέων τον τρόπον τοΰτον δν- 

^ μνσΐν libri : ΐμύσι coni. Diels. 
* yrj libri : fei$ coni. Farquharson. 

" It is doubtful whether the ms. reading will bear this 
interpretation, and iv rrj yrj is probably corrupt. It is more 


upon which it will move both as an integral whole 
and in its several parts. 

II. Any quality of rest, however, in an animal is of 
no effect unless there is something outside it which is 
absolutely at rest and immovable. And it is worth 
while to stop and consider this dictum ; for the re- 
flection which it involves applies not merely to animals, 
but also to the motion and progression of the universe. 
For just as in the animal there must be something 
which is immovable if it is to have any motion, so 
a fortiori there must be something which is immov- 
able outside the animal, supported upon which that 
which is moved moves. For if that which supports 
the animal is to be ahvays giving way (as it does when 
mice walk upon loose soil " and when persons walk on 
sand), there Avill be no progress, that is, no walking, 
unless the ground were to remain still, and no flying 
or SAvimming unless the air or sea were to offer resist- 
ance. And that which offers resistance must be other 
than -that which is moved, the whole other than the 
whole, and that which is thus immovable must form 
no part of that \vhich is moved ; otherwise the latter 
\\i\\ not move. This contention is supported by the 
problem : Why can a man easily move a boat from 
outside if he thrusts it along Λvith a pole by pushing 
against the mast or some other part of the boat, 
but if he tries to do this when he is in the boat 
itself, Tityus could not move it nor Boreas by blow- 
ing from inside it, if he really blew as the artists 

than likely that the comparison is with a mouse trying to 
walk upon a heap of corn. Farquharson emends έν ry y-g to 
eV TTJ ^€ΐφ, which would bear this meaning•. (The form ^βτ;, 
cp. Petrie Pap. ii. p. 69 (3rd cent, b.c), would be nearer to the 
MS. reading.) Diels' suggestion of (μνσιν for μύσιν is in- 
genious, but does not give the required sense. 



698b , ^ ,>,.,, 

776/3 OL γραφ€ΐς ποιουσιν εξ αυτού γαρ το πνεύμα 

699 a άφιεντα γράφουσιν. εάν re γαρ •ήρεμα βίπτΎ] το 

ττνεΰμά τι? εάν τ' ισχυρώς οΰτως ώστ' άνεμον 

ττοιεΐν τον μεγιστον, εάν τε άλλο τι ■^ το ρηττού- 

μενον Ύΐ ώθουμενον, ανάγκη πρώτον μεν προς 

ηρεμούν τι τών αύτοΰ μορίων απερειΒόμενον ωθεΐν, 

6 είτα πάλιν τοΰτο το μόριον, η αύτο η ου τυγχάνει 

μόριον 6ν, προς τών εζωθεν τι άποστηριζόμενον 

μενειν. 6 δε το πλοΐον ώθών εν τώ πλοίω αύτος 

ών καΐ άποστηριζό μένος προς το πλοΐον ευλόγως 

ού κινεί το πλοΐον δια το αναγκαΐον eii'at προς ο 

αποστηρίζεται μενειν συμβαίνει δ αύτώ το αύτο 

10 ο τε κινεί και προς ο αποστηρίζεται. εζωθεν δ' 
ώθών η ελκών κινεί• ούθεν γαρ μέρος η γη του 

III. Άπορησειε δ' αν τις, άρ ε'ί τι κινεί τον 
δλον ούρανόν, είναι τε δεΓ άκινητον τοΰτο και^ 
μηθεν είναι του ουρανού μόριον μη8 εν τώ 
ούρανώ. εϊτε γαρ αυτό κινούμενον κινεί αυτόν, 

15 ανάγκη τινός ακινήτου θιγγάνον κινεΐν, και τοΰτο 
μη8 εν είναι μόριον τοΰ κινοΰντος• εΐτ' ευθύς άκίνητόν 
εστί τό κινούν, ομοίως ούΒεν εσται" τοΰ κινου- 
μένου μόριον. και τούτο γ' ορθώς λεγουσιν οι 
λέγοντες δτι κύκλω φερομένης της σφαίρας ο?5δ' 
οτιοΰν μένει μόριον η γαρ αν δλην αναγκαΐον ην 

20 μενειν, η διασπάσθαι τό συνεχές αύτης. αλλ' 
ΟΤΙ τους πόλους οΐονται τίνα δυν'α/ΑΐΓ εχειν, ούθεν 

^ τοΰτο και scripsi : καΐ τούτο libri. 
* ίσται Jaeger (cum Leon.): ίσεσθαι libri. 

" Just as Odysseus' companions while seated in the ship 
open the bags containing the winds, and the ship is blown 
out of its course (Homer, Od. x. 46 ff.). 


paint him " ; for they make him emit the breath 
from his own hps. For whether one emits the 
breath gently or so strongly as to create the greatest 
gale (and the same is true if that Avhich is thrown 
or pushed is something other than breath), it is 
necessary, first, that one should be supported upon 
one of one's own members, which is at rest, when one 
pushes, and secondly, that either this member itself 
or that of which it forms part, should remain still, 
resting upon something which is external to it. Now 
the man Λvho tries to push the boat while he himself 
is in it and leaning upon it, naturally does not move 
the boat, because it is essential that that against 
which he is leaning should remain still ; but in 
this case that which he is trying to move and that 
against \vhich he is leaning, is identical. If, on 
the other hand, he pushes or drags the boat from 
outside, he can move it ; for the ground is no part of 
the boat. 

III. The difficulty may be raised, whether, if some- 
thing moves the Avhole heaven, this motive power 
must be urmioved and be no part of the heaven nor 
in the heaven. For if it is moved itself and moves the 
heaven, it can only move it by being itself in contact 
Λvith something that is immovable, and this can be no 
part of that which causes the movement ; or else, if 
that which causes the movement is from the first im- 
movable, it will be equally no part of that which is 
moved. And on this point at any rate they are quite 
right who say that, when the sphere is moved in a 
circle, no part of it whatsoever remains still ; for 
either the whole of it must remain still, or its continu- 
ity must be rent asunder. They are not right, how- 
ever, in holding that the poles possess a kind of force, 



έχοντας μ€γ€ϋος αλλ οντάς ζσχατα και στιγμας, 
ου καλώς, προς γαρ τω μηΒ^μίαν ούσίαν elvai 
των τοιούτων μηΒβνός, καΐ KLveloOaL την μίαν 
Κίνησιν νπο δυοΐν αδύνατον τους δε πόλους Sua 

25 ποιοΰσιν. ότι μ€ν οΰν €χ€ΐ τι καΐ προς την ολην 
φύσιν οϋτως ωσπ^ρ η γη προς τα ζωα καΐ τά 
κινούμενα δι αυτών, e/c τών τοιούτων αν τις 
8ιαπορήσ€ΐ£ν. οι 8e μυθικώς τον "Ατλαΐ'τα 
ποιοΰντ€ς €πι της γης βχοντα τους πόΒας δο^αιεν 
αν από διανοίας ζίρηκέναι τον μΰθον, ως τούτον 
ώσπ€ρ 8ιάμ€τρον οντά και στρέφοντα τον ούρανον 

so π€ρΙ τους πόλους• τοΰτο δ αν συμβαίνοι κατά 
λόγον δια το την γήν μβνβιν. αλλά τοις ταΰτα 
λβγονσιν αναγκαΐον φάναι μηδέν eivat μόριον 
αύτην του παντός, προς δε τούτοις δεΓ την ίσχνν 
Ισάζβιν τοΰ κινοΰντος και την του μένοντος, έ'στι 
γάρ τι πλήθος ισχύος και δυνάμεως καθ* ην μένει 

85 το μένον, ώσπερ και καθ' ην κινεί το κινούν και 
έστι τις αναλογία έζ ανάγκης, ώσπερ τών εναντίων 
κινήσεων, ούτω και τών ηρεμιών. και αϊ μεν 
699 b i'o-at άπα^εΓ? υπ άλλτ^λωι^, κρατούνται δε κατά 
την ύπεροχην. διόπερ εϊτ' "Ατλα? εϊτε τι τοιούτον 
εστίν έτερον το κινούν τών εντός, ουδέν μάλλον 
άντερείδειν δει της μονής ην ή γή τυγχάνει μένουσα• 
ή κινηθησεται ή γή άπό τού μέσου και εκ τού 
5 αυτής τόπου, ως γαρ το ωθούν ωθεί, ούτω το 
ώθούμενον ωθείται, και ομοίως κατ' ισχύν. κινεί 

" i.e. their limbs. We should, however, perhaps read δι 
αύτων "the things which move of themselves": Leon, 
renders "ea quae per se moventur." 


since they have no magnitude and are only ex- 
tremities and points. For besides the fact that 
nothing of this kind has any substance, it is also im- 
possible for a single movement to be started by a dual 
agency ; and they represent the poles as two. From 
these considerations one may hazard the suggestion 
that there is something which stands in the same 
relation to Nature as a whole as the earth stands to 
the animals and the things Avhich are moved through 

Now those who in the fable represent Atlas as hav- 
ing his feet planted upon the earth ΛνοηΜ seem to 
have shown sense in the story Avhich they tell, since 
they make him as it Avere a radius, twisting the 
heaven about the poles ; it would be a logical account, 
since the earth remains still. But those who hold 
this view must declare that the earth is no part of the 
universe ; and, fm-ther, the force of that which causes 
the motion and the force of that which remains still 
must be equal. For there must be a certain amount 
of force and strength in virtue of which that which 
remains still remains still, just as there is a force in 
virtue of which that which causes motion causes 
motion ; and there is of necessity a similar proportion 
betΛveen absences of motion as there is between 
opposite motions, and equal forces are unaffected by 
one another, but are overmastered by a superiority. 
Therefore Atlas, or whatever else it is of like kind 
within that causes motion, must not exert any pressure 
which is too strong for the equihbrium of the earth ; 
or else the earth will be moved away from the centre 
and her proper place. For as that which pushes 
pushes, so that which is pushed is pushed, and in 
exact proportion to the force exerted ; but it creates 



o€ TO ηρεμούν ττρωτον, ωστ6 μαΑΑον και ττΑζίων 
η Ισχύς η όμοια καΐ ΐση της ηρεμίας, ώσαυτω? 
δε καΐ τής^ τον κινουμένου μεν, μη κινονντος Be. 
τοσαύτην οΰν Βεήσει την 8ύναμιν είναι της γης 
εν τω ηρεμεΐν δσην ο τε πάς ουρανός έχει και 

10 το κινούν αυτόν, ει δε τοΰτο αδύνατον, αδύνατον 
και το κινεΐσθαι τον ούρανόν υπό τίνος τοιούτου 
των εντός. 

IV. "Εστί δε τι? απορία περί τάς κινήσεις των 
τοΰ ουρανού μορίων, ην ως ούσαν οικειαν τοις 
είρημένοις επισκέφαιτ αν τι?, έαν γάρ τις ύπερ- 
βάλλη τη δυνάμει της κινήσεως την της γης 

ι^,ήρεμίαν, δηλον Οτι κινήσει αύτην απο τοΰ μέσου, 
και ή ισχύς δ' άφ^ ης αύτη ή διίΐ'α/χις•, οτι ουκ 
άπειρος, φανερόν ούδε γάρ ή γη άπειρος, ωστ 
ούδε το βάρος αυτής, επει δε το αδύνατον λέγεται 
πλεοναχώς {ου γάρ ωσαύτως τήν τε φωνην άδυι^ατόΐ' 
φαμεν eii^at όραθήναι και τους επι της σελήνης 

20 ΰφ^ ημών το μεν γάρ εζ ανάγκης, το δε πεφυκό^ 
όρασθαι ουκ όφθήσεται), τον δ' ούρανόν άφθαρτον 
είναι και άδιάλυτον οιόμεθα μεν εξ ανάγκης εΐναι, 
συμβαίνει δε κατά τούτον τον λόγον ουκ εζ ανάγκης• 
πέφυκε γάρ και ενδέχεται etvat κίνησιν μείζω 
και άφ' ης ηρεμεί ή γη και ά</>' ης κινούνται το 

25 ττΰρ και το άνω σώμα. ει μεν ούν etatl•" αι ύπερ- 
έχουσαι κινήσεις, διαλυθήσεται ταύτα υπ άλλτ^λωι^. 

1 T^s PS: ή Υ: αίΕ. 

" i.e. its central position in the universe. 

* i.e. the region between the air and the moon {Meteor. 
340 b 6 ff.). 


motion in that which is first at rest, so that the force 
exerted is greater than the immobiUty rather than 
similar and equal to it, and like\vise greater than the 
force of that which is moved but does not create 
movement. Therefore the poΛver of the earth in its 
immobility will necessarily be as great as that pos- 
sessed by the whole heaven and that which sets it in 
motion. If, however, this is impossible, the move- 
ment of the heaven by any such force within it is also 

IV. A problem also arises about the movements 
of the parts of the heaven, which might well be dis- 
cussed, since it is closely connected with what has 
been said above. If one were to overmaster the im- 
mobihty of the earth by the power of motion, one will 
obviously move it away from the centre.*^ Moreover 
it is clear that the force from which this power is de- 
rived is not infinite ; for the earth is not infinite, and 
so its weight is not infinite either. ΝοΛν the word 
" impossible " is used in several senses (we are using 
it in different senses when we say that it is impossible 
to see a sound, and when we say that it is impossible 
for us to see the men in the moon ; for the former is 
of necessity invisible, the latter are of such a nature 
as to be seen but will never be seen by us), but we 
hold that the heaven is of necessity impossible to 
destroy and dissolve, whereas according to our present 
argument it is not necessarily so ; for it is within the 
nature of things and the bounds of possibility that a 
motive force should exist greater both than that 
which causes the earth to be at rest and than that 
which causes the fire and upper body ^ to move. 
If, therefore, the overpowering motive forces exist, 
these will be dissolved by one another ; but if they 

Ρ 2 451 


699b , ^ ^ , , , , , , f. „ 

€1 Be μη elal μέν, evhexerai, δ' eivai [άπειρον γαρ 

ουκ €ν8€χ€ται δια το μηΒβν σώμα €ν8€χ€σθαι 

άπ€ΐρον etvat), evSexoLT^ αν Βοαλνθήναί τον ούρανόν. 

τι γαρ κωλυ€ί τοΰτο συμβ-ηναι, eiTrep μη αδύνατον ; 
^^ ουκ αδύνατον δε, el μη τάντίΚ€ίμ€νον άναγκαΐον. 

άλλα TTepl μ€ν της απορίας ταύτης €Τ€ρος έ'στω 


*Αρα δε δει άκίνητόν τι είναι καΐ ηρ€μοΰν eζω 

του κινουμένου, μηδβν ον έκ€ίνου μόριον, η ου; 

καΐ τοΰτο TTOTepov καΐ εττι του τταντος οϋτως 

ύπάρχ€ΐν άναγκαΐον; 'ίσως γαρ αν δό^ειεν άτοπον 
35 ειν-αι, ει ή άρχη της κιvήσeως εντός, διο δό^ειεν 

αν τοις οϋτως ύπολαμβάνουσιν ευ είρησθ αι Όμηρω' 

αλλ' ουκ άν ερυσαιτ' ε'^ ούρανόθεν ττεδιονδε 

700a Ζί^ν' ϋπατον πάντων, ού8' el μάλα πολλά κάμοιτε• 

πάντες δ' εζάπτεσθε deol πάσαί τε ^ε'αιναι. 

το γαρ δλως άκίνητόν υττ' ούδενος ενδέχεται 
κινηθηναι. όθεν λύεται και η ττάλαι λεχθεΐσα 
απορία, πότερον ενδέχεται η ουκ ενδέχεται δια- 
5 λυ^^^ΐ'αι την του ουρανού σύστασιν, εΐ εζ ακίνητου 
ηρτηται αρχής. 

Εττι δε των ζώων ου μόνον το οϋτως άκίνητόν 
δει ύπάρχειν , άλλα και εν αύτοΐς τοις κινουμενοις 

" &π€ΐρον] SC. κίνησιν. The argument is as follows: these 
overpowering motive forces might exist and be dissolved by 
one another, because if they can be dissolved, they are not 
infinite, and the reason why they are not infinite is that they 
act upon what is finite, and the infinite cannot act on the 
finite {De caelo, 274 b 23 flp.). 

^ It is discussed in the Physics and De ca^lo. 


do not really exist, but there is a possibility of 
their existing (for an infinite motive force " is impos- 
sible because an infinite body is also impossible), 
it would be possible for the heaven to be dissolved. 
For what is there to prevent this happening if it 
is not impossible ? And it is not impossible, unless 
the opposite proposition is inevitable. But let us 
leave the discussion of this question for another 

Must there, then, or must there not, be something 
immovable and at rest outside that which is moved 
and forming no part of it ? And must this be true 
also of the universe ? For it would perhaps seem 
strange if the origin of motion were inside. And so 
to those who hold this view Homer's words would 
seem appropriate : 

Nay, ye could never pull down to the earth from the 

summit of heaven, 
Zeus, the highest of all, no, not if ye toiled to the utmost. 
Come, ye gods and ye goddesses all, set your hands to 

the hawsers." 

For that which is entirely immovable cannot be 
moved by anything. And it is here that we must 
look for the solution of the problem stated some time 
ago, namely, whether it is possible or impossible for 
the composition of the heaven to be dissolved, seeing 
that it depends upon an origin which is immovable. 

Now in the animals there must exist not only that 
which is immovable in this sense,•^ but there must 
also be something immovable in the actual things 
wiiich move from place to place and which themselves 

•^ Iliad viii. 20-22. The lines are quoted in the wrong 
order and the textus receptus reads μήστωρ' for πάντων. 

■* i.e. something immovable and at rest which is outside 
that which is moved and forms no part of it (c/. 699 b 32). 



κατα τόπον οσα KLvet αυτά αυτά. oet γαρ αντον 
το μ€ν ηρ€μ€Ϊν το δε κινζϊσθαι, ττρος δ άττβρβιΒό- 

-0 μ€νον το κινούμ^νον κιντησζται, οίον αν τι klvtj 
των μορίων άττβρβιδεται γαρ θάτ€ρον ως ττρος 
μ€νον θάτ€ρον. π€ρΙ δε το)ν αψύχων οσα κινείται 
άπορησαβν αν τίς, ττότ€ρον απαντ €χ€ί ev €αντοΐς 
και το ηρ€μοΰν καί το klvovv, καί προς των 
€ζω τι Ύΐρβμουντων άττερειδεσ^αι ανάγκη και 
ταΰτα, η άΒυνατον, οίον πυρ tj γήν η των αφνχων 

15 TL, αλλ'^ νφ^ ών ταΰτα κίνβΐται πρώτων, πάντα 
γαρ ύπ* άλλον κινείται τα αφυχα, άρχη δε πάντων 
των οΰτως κινουμένων τα αύτα αυτά κινοΰντα. 
των δε τοιούτων περί μεν των ζώων ε'ιρηται• τα 
γαρ τοιαύτα πάντα ανάγκη και εν αντοΐς εχειν 
το ηρεμούν, και εζω προς ο άπερείσεται. ει δε 

20 τι εστίν ανωτέρω και πρώτως κινούν, άΒηλον, 
και άλλος λόγος περί της τοιαύτης αρχής, τα 
δε ζωα οσα κινείται, πάντα προς τα εζω απερ- 
ειδο/χει^α κινείται, και άναπνεοντα και εκπνεοντα. 
ούΒεν γαρ Βιαφερει μέγα ριφαι βάρος η μικρόν, 
όπερ ποιονσιν οι πτύοντες και βήττοντες και οι 

25 εισπνεοντες και εκπνεοντες. 

V. Πότεροι' δ' εν τω αυτό κινοΰντι κατα τόπον 

μόνω δει τι μενειν, η και εν τω άλλοιουμενω αύτω 

ύφ αύτοΰ και αύζανομενω; περί δε γενέσεως 

της εζ αρχής και φθοράς άλλο? λόγος' ει γάρ εστίν 

1 άλλ' Jaeger : άλλα Ρ : άλλ' ESY. 


move themselves. For while one part of the animal 
must be in motion, another part must be at rest, 
supported upon which that will be moved which 
is moved, if, for example, it moves one of its parts ; 
for one part rests on another part in virtue of the 
fact that the latter is at rest. 

But regarding inanimate things which are moved, 
one might raise the question whether they all possess 
in themselves both that which is at rest and that which 
creates movement, and whether they too must be 
supported by something external which is at rest. 
Or is this impossible — for example, in the case of 
fire or earth or any inanimate thing — but motion is 
due to the primary causes by which these are moved ? 
For all inanimate things are moved by something else, 
and the origin of all the things that are thus moved is 
the things that move themselves. Among things of 
this class we have already dealt with animals ; for all 
such things must necessarily have within themselves 
that Avhich is at rest and something outside them on 
which they are to support themselves. But whether 
there is something higher and primary which moves 
them is uncertain, and the question of such an origin 
of movement is a matter for separate discussion. But 
animals which move all do so supported upon things 
outside themselves, as also Avhen they draw their 
breath in and out. For it makes no difference whether 
they propel a great or a small weight, as those do who 
spit and cough, and breathe in and out. 

V. But is it only in that which moves itself in 
respect of place that something must remain at rest, 
or is this also true of that in which alteration is 
caused by its own agency and in that which grows ? 
The question of original coming into being and 




ηνπβρ φαμεν πρώτη κίνησις, yeveaeoj? καΐ φθοράς 

30 αϋτη αίτια αν €Ϊη, καΐ των άλλων 8e κυνησ^ων 'ίσως 
ττασών. ώσπβρ δ' iv τω ολω, καΐ iv τω ζωω 
κινησις ττρώτΎ) αϋτη, όταν τ€Χζωθη• ώστε καΐ 
αυξήσεως, e'i ttotc γίνεται, αυτό αύτώ αίτιον και 
αλλοιώσεως, ει 8ε μη, ουκ ανάγκη, αϊ 8ε ττρώται 
au^Tyaei? και αλλοιώσεις ύττ' άλλου γίνονται και 

35 δι' έτερων γενέσεως δέ και φθοράς ουδαμώς οΐόν 

700 b τ€ αύτο αίτιον etv'at αύτω ού8εν. ττροϋπάρχειν 

γαρ δει το κινούν του κινουμένου και το γεννών 

του γεννωμένου• αύτο δ' αυτοΰ πρότερον ού8εν 


VI. ΐίερι μεν ουν φυχης, είτε κινείται η μη, 
5 κα\ ει κινείται, πώς κινείται, πρότερον είρηται iv 
τοις Βιωρισμενοις περί αύτης. επει 8έ τα άφυχα 
πάντα κινείται ύφ' έτερου, περί δε^ του πρώτου 
κινουμένου και aei κινουμένου, τίνα τρόπον κινείται, 
και πώς κινεί το πρώτον κινούν, Βιώρισται πρότερον 
εν τοις περί της πρώτης φιλοσοφίας, λοιπόν δ 

10 εστί θεωρησαι πώς η φυχη κινεί τό σώμα, και 
τις άρχη της του ζώου κινήσεως, τών γαρ άλλων 
πάρα την του όλου κίνησιν τά εμφυχα αίτια της 
κινήσεως, όσα μη κινείται υπ* αλλήλων δια τό 
προσκόπτειν άλλτ^λοι?• διό και πέρας εχουσιν 
αυτών ττάσαι αϊ κινήσεις• και γαρ /cat αϊ τών 

15 εμφυχων. πάντα γαρ τά ζώα και κινεί και 
κινείται ενεκά τίνος, ώστε τοϋτ* εστίν αύτοΐς 
πάσης της κινήσεως πέρας, τό οΰ ένεκα, όρώμεν 

1 δέ ES : μ^ν Υ. 

" τουτέστιν . . . οΰκ ανάγκη εΐναί τι των άλλοιουμένων καΐ 
ού^αΓομ^νων ΰφ' αύτων -ήρΐμοΰν (Mich.). 

* i.e. the Metaphysics. 


corruption is a different one ; for if there is, as we 
assert, a primary movement, this would be the cause 
of coming into being and wasting away, and per- 
haps of all the other movements as well. And as in 
the universe, so in the animal, this is primary motion, 
when the animal comes to perfection ; so that it is 
itself the cause of its own growth, if this ever takes 
place, and of any alteration which occurs ; otherwise 
it is not necessary that something should remain at 
rest.® But the first growth and alteration occur 
through another's agency and by other means, and 
nothing can in any way be itself the cause of its own 
coming into being and wasting away ; for that which 
moves must be prior to that which is moved, and that 
which begets to that which is begotten, and nothing 
is prior to itself. 

VI. Now whether soul is moved or not, and if 
it is moved, how it is moved, has already been 
discussed in our treatise On Sotd. But since all 
inanimate things are moved by something else — and 
how that which is primarily and eternally moved is 
moved, and how the prime mover moves it, has been 
already set forth in our work on First Philosophy ^ — 
it remains to inquire how the soul moves the body 
and what is the origin of movement in an animal. 
For, if we exclude the movement of the universe, 
animate things are the cause of movement in every- 
thing else, except in things which are moved by one 
another through coming into collision with one 
another. Therefore all their movements have a 
Umit ; for the movements of animate things have a 
hmit. For all animals move and are moved with 
some object, and so this, namely their object, is the 
limit of all their movement. Now we see that the 



he τα κινουντα το ζωον οιανοιαν και φαντασιαν 
καΐ προαίρ^σιν και βούλησιν και εττι^υ/χιαΐ'. ταύτα 
he πάντα ανάγεται els νουν και ope^iv. και γαρ 

20 η φαντασία και η α'ίσθησις την αύτην τω νω χωράν 
exovaiv κριτικά γαρ τταντα, οιαφ€ρουσι oe κατά 
τάς €ΐρημ4νας ev άλλοις διαφοράς, βούλησις δε 
και θυμός και ^.ττιθνμία πάντα 6peξις, η oe προ- 
aίpeσις κοινόν 8ιανοίας και ope^eojs" ωστ€ Kivei 
πρώτον το opeKTOv και το 8ιανοητον. ου παν 

25 δβ το διαν-οτ^τόΐ', άλλα το των πρακτών τέλος. 
διό το τοιούτον eoTi των aya^cDv το κινούν, αλλ 
ου παν το καλόν rj γαρ eveKa τούτου άλλο, και 
^ τέλος εστί των άλλου τίνος eveKa όντων, ταυτ-η 
Kivei. Sei δε Tt^eVai και το φαινόμενον αγαθόν 
άγαθοΰ χώραν έ'χειν, και το ηΒύ• φαινόμενον γαρ 

80 eoTiv aya^ov. ώστε δτ^λοί' οτι εστί μεν fj ομοίως 
κινείται το άει κινούμενον υπό του αει κινοΰντος 
και των ζωών εκαστον, εστι δ' fj άλλως, διό και 
τα μεν άει κινείται, η δε των ζωών κίνησις έχει 
πέρας, το δε άΐδιον καλόν, και το αληθώς και 
πρώτως αγαθόν και μη ποτέ μεν ποτέ δε μη, 

86 θειότερον και τιμιώτερον η ώστ είναι πρότερόν^ τι*. 

Το μέν ουν πρώτον ου κινούμενον κινεί, η δ' 

701 a ορεξις και το όρεκτικον κινούμενον κινεί, το δε 

τελευταίοι τών κινουμένων ουκ ανάγκη κινεΐν 

ούΒέν. φανερον δ' εκ τούτων και δτι εύλόγωζ 

^ TTpbrepov ESY : νρο% 'έτερον Ρ, 
* τι add. Jaeger. 

" De anima, iii. 427 b 14 if. 


things which move the animal are intellect, imagina- 
tion, purpose, wish and appetite. Now all these can 
be referred to mind and desire. For imagination 
and sensation cover the same ground as the mind 
(since they all exercise judgement) though they 
differ in certain aspects as has been defined else- 
where." But will, temper, and appetite are all 
forms of desire, while purpose partakes both of 
intellect and of desire. So the objects of desire and 
intellect first set up movement — not, however, every 
object of intellect, but only the end in the sphere of 
action. So amongst good things it is the good in the 
sphere of action that sets up movement, and not any 
and every good ; for it sets up movement only in so 
far as it is the motive of something else or the end 
of something which has something else as its object. 
And we must lay down the principle that the apparent 
good can take the place of a real good, and so can the 
pleasant, for it is an apparent good. So that it is 
clear that in one respect that which is eternally 
moved by the eternal mover, and the individual 
animal, are moved in a similar manner, but that in 
another respect they are moved differently ; and so, 
while other things move eternally, animal movement 
has a limit. ΝοΛν the eternally beautiful and that 
which is truly and primarily good, and not at one 
moment good and at another not good, is too divine 
and precious to have anything prior to it. 

The prime mover, then, moves without itself being 
moved, but desire and the desiderative faculty set 
up movement while being themselves moved. But 
it is not necessary that the last of a series of things 
Avhich are moved should move anything ; and from 
this it is clear that it is only reasonable that pro- 



η φορά reAeuraia των γινομένων €V τοις klvov- 
μβνοις^ • KLveirai γαρ καΐ TTopeverai το ζώον ope^ei 

5 η TTpoaipeaei, αΧλοιωθέντος τίνος κατά την αί- 
σθησίν η την φαντασίαν . 

VII. Πώ? δέ νοών 6τ€ μ€ν πράττβι 6τ€ δ' ου 
7τράττ€ί, καΐ KLvelTai, ore δ ου κινείται; koLKe 
τταραπλησίως σνμβαίνβίν καΐ 7Τ€ρΙ των ακίνητων 
^ιανοουμίνοις καΐ συλλογίζομ€νοις . αλλ' e/cet μζν 

10 θβώρημα το τ€λος {όταν γαρ τάς δυο προτάσεις 
νόηση, το συμπέρασμα ενόησβ και συνίθηκεν), 
Ινταΰθα δ' εκ των δυο προτάσεων το συμπέρασμα 
γίνεται η πραζις, οίον όταν νόηση οτι παντι βα- 
Βιστεον άνθρώπω, αύτος δ άνθρωπος, /3αδιζ^ι 
ευθέως, άν δ' οτι ούΒενι βαΒιστεον νυν άνθρώπω, 

16 αυτο? δ' άνθρωπος, ευθύς ηρεμεί• και ταΰτα άμφω 
πράττει, άν μη τι κωλυη η άναγκάζη. ποιητεον 
μοι αγαθόν, οικία δ' αγαθόν ποιεί οΐκίαν ευθύς. 
σκεπάσματος Βεομαι, ίμάτιον δε σκέπασμα' ιματίου 
Βεομαι. ον 8εομαι, ποιητεον ιματίου 8εομαΐ' 

20 ίμάτιον ποιητεον. και το συμπέρασμα, το ίμάτιον 
ποιητεον, πράζις εστίν, πράττει δ' απ' άρχης. 
€1 ίμάτιον εσται, ανάγκη τό8ε πρώτον, ει 8ε τό8ε, 
τό8ε• και τοΰτο πράττει ευθύς, οτι μεν οΰν η 
πραζις το συμπέρασμα, φανερόν αϊ δε προτάσεις 
αϊ ποιητικαΐ δια Βύο ει8ών γίνονται, Sia τε του 

25 άγαθοΰ και δια του Βυνατοΰ. 

"Ο,σπερ hk τών ερωτά)ντων ενιοι, ούτω την έτερον 

1 κινούμενοι^ Jaeger: yiyvo^evois libri. 

" i.e. the objects of science ; cf. An. Post. 71 b 18 ff. 


gression should be the last thing to happen in things 
that are moved, since the animal is moved and walks 
from desire or purpose, when some alteration has been 
caused as the result of sensation or imagination. 

VII, But why is it that thought sometimes results 
in action and sometimes does not, sometimes in 
movement and sometimes not ? Apparently the 
same kind of thing happens as when one thinks and 
forms an inference about immovable objects." But 
in the latter case, the end is speculation (for when you 
have conceived the tΛvo premisses, you immediately 
conceive and infer the conclusion) ; but in the former 
case the conclusion drawTi from the two premisses 
becomes the action. For example, when you conceive 
that every man ought to walk and you yourself are a 
man, you immediately walk ; or if you conceive that 
on a particular occasion no man ought to walk, and 
you yourself are a man, you immediately remain at 
rest. In both instances action follows unless there is 
some hindrance or compulsion. Again, I ought to 
create a good, and a house is a good, I immediately 
create a house. Again, I need a covering, and a 
cloak is a covering, I need a cloak. What I need I 
ought to make ; I need a cloak, I ought to make 
a cloak. And the conclusion " I ought to make a 
cloak " is an action. The action results from the 
beginning of the train of thought. If there is to be 
a cloak, such and such a thing is necessary, if this 
thing then something else ; and one immediately 
acts accordingly. That the action is the conclusion is 
quite clear ; but the premisses which lead to the doing 
of something are of two kinds, through the good and 
through the possible. 

And as those sometimes do who are eliciting con- 



ττρότασιν την Βηλην ουδ' η Βιάνοια βφιστάσα σκοπεί 
ovSev οίον el το βαΒΙζζίν αγαθόν άνθρώττω, οτι 
αύτος άνθρωπος, ουκ ζν^ιατρίβζΐ. διό καΐ οσα μη 
λογισάμενοί πράττομ€ν, ταχύ ττράττομ^ν. όταν γαρ 
βν^ργηστ] η τη αίσθησει προς το ού kveKa η τη 

30 φαντασία η τω νω, ου dpeyerat, €ύθύς ποιεί• αντ 
€ρωτησ€ως γαρ η νοησβως η της ορέζζως γίνεται εν- 
έργεια, ποτεον μοι, η επιθυμία λεγεί' το81 8ε ποτον, 
η α'ίσθησις είπεν η η φαντασία η 6 νους' εύθυς TTtvei. 
οΰτως μεν οΰν επι το κινεΐσθαι και πράττειν τα 
ζωα όρμώσι, της μεν εσχάτης αιτίας του κινεΐσθαι 

85 ορέξεως οϋσης, ταύτης 8ε γινομένης η δι' αίσθησεως 

η δια φαντασίας και νοήσεως, των δ ορεγομενων 

πράττειν τα μεν δι επιθυμίαν η θυμον τα δε hi 

701 b ορεζιν η βούλησιν τα μεν ποιοΰσι, τα 8ε πράττουσιν. 

"Ο,σπερ 8ε τα αυτόματα κινείται μικράς κινήσεως 

γινομένης , λυομένων των στρεβλών και κρουουσών^ 

άλλΎ'ιλας [τάς στρεβλας],' και το άμάζιον, όπερ 

5 (^Toy όχούμενον αυτό κινεί εις ευθύ, και πάλιν 

κύκλω κινείται τω άνισους εχειν τους τροχούς 

{6 γαρ ελάττων ωσπερ κεντρον γίνεται, καθάπερ 

iv τοις κυλίν8ροις), ούτω και τα ζωα κινείται. 

έχει γαρ όργανα τοιαύτα την τε των νεύρων 

φύσιν και την των οστών, τα μεν ώς εκεί τα 

^ κρονουσων scripsi (Leon, renders laxatis seque mutuo im- 
pellentibus vertebris) : κρονόντων libri. 

' ras στρέβλαί seclusi. ^ τό addidi. 

" For this technical use of έρωταν cf. An. Prior. 24 a 24. 

' By the removal of the pegs {ξύλα), cf. below, 701 b 9, 10. 

* The context seems to show that the toj^-carriage was 
on an axle which coupled two wheels of unequal diameter. 
There is, however, no evidence for the existence of such toy- 
carriages in antiquity. 



elusions by questioning," so here the mind does not 
stop and consider at all one of the two premisses, 
namely, the obvious one ; for example, if walking is 
good for a man, one does not waste time over the pre- 
miss " I am myself a man." Hence such things as we 
do without calculation, we do quickly. For when a 
man acts for the object which he has in view from 
either perception or imagination or thought, he 
immediately does what he desires ; the carrying out 
of his desire takes the place of inquiry or thought. 
My appetite says, I must drink ; this is drink, says 
sensation or imagination or thought, and one 
immediately drinks. It is in this manner that animals 
are impelled to move and act, the final cause of their 
movement being desire ; and this comes into being 
through either sensation or imagination and thought. 
And things which desire to act, at one time create 
something, and at another act, by reason either of 
appetite or of passion, or else through desire or wish. 
The movement of animals resembles that of 
marionettes which move as the result of a small 
movement, when the strings are released * and strike 
one another ; or a toy-carriage Λvhich the child that 
is riding upon it himself sets in motion in a straight 
direction, and which afterwards moves in a circle 
because its Λvheels are unequal, for the smaller Avheel 
acts as a centre," as happens also in the cylinders.'' 
Animals have similar parts in their organs, namely, 
the growth of their sinews and bones, the latter cor- 
responding to the pegs in the marionettes and the 

^ The marionettes seem to have been worked by means of 
cylinders round which weighted strings were wound, the 
cylinders being set in motion by the removal of pegs. 



^νλα καΐ ό σίδηρος, τά δε veOpa ώς αϊ στρ4βλαΐ' 

10 ών λυομένων καΐ άνΐ€μ€νων κινούνται. €v μεν 
οΰν τοις αύτομάτοις και τοις άμαζιοις ουκ βστιν 
άλλοίωσις, iirei ei εγίνοντο Ιλάττους οι βντος 
τροχοί και πάλιν μΐίζους, καν κύκλω το αντο 
€Κΐν€Ϊτο• iv δε τω ζωω δύναται το αντο και 
μ€Ϊζον και βλαττον ytVea^at καΐ τά σχήματα μζτα- 

15 βάλλζΐν, αύζανομςνων των μορίων δια θ€ρμότητα 
καΐ πάλιν συστβλλομξνων δια φνζιν και άλΧοιου- 
μ4νων. αλΧοιοΰσι δ' αι ^αντασιαι και αι αισθήσεις 
και αϊ evvoiai. αί μ€ν γαρ αισθήσεις €νθνς νπ- 
άρχουσιν αλλοιώσεις τινές οΰσαι, "η δε φαντασία και 
■ή νόησις την των πραγμάτων βχονσι δυΐ'α^ιν τρο- 

20 ττον γάρ τίνα το ξ'ιΒος το νοονμενον το του θβρμοΰ 
η φυχροΰ η ηδβος τη φοβζροΰ τοιούτον τυγχάνει 
ον οΐόν π€ρ και των πραγμάτων €καστον, διό και 
φρίττονσι και φοβούνται νοήσαντες μόνον, ταΰτα 
δε πάντα πάθη και αλλοιώσει? €ΐσίν. άλλοιου- 
μ€νων δ' iv τω σώματι τά μεν μείζω τά δ' ελάττω 

25 γίνεται, δτι δε μικρά μεταβολή γινομένη iv άρχη 
μεγάλας και πολλάς ποιεί διαφοράς άποθεν, ουκ 
άδηλον οίον του ο'ίακος άκαριαΐόν τι μεθ ιστάμενου 
πολλή ή της πρώρας γίνεται μετάστασις. ετι δε 
κατά θερμότητα η φνζιν ή κατ άλλο τι τοιούτον 
πάθος όταν γενηται άλλοίωσις περί την καρ8ίαν, 

30 και εν ταύτη κατά μέγεθος iv άναισθήτω μορίω, 
πολλήν ποιεί του σώματος διαφοράν ερνθήμασι 
και ώχρότησι και φρίκαις καΐ τρόμοις και τοις 
τούτων εναντιοις. 

VIII. 'Αρχή μεν οΰν, ώσπερ εΐρηται, της 

" The reference is probably to some part of the toy- 



iron," while the sinews correspond to the strings, the 
setting free and loosening of which causes the move- 
ment. In the marionettes and the toy-carriages no 
alteration takes place, though, if the inner wheels 
were to become smaller and then again larger, the 
same circular movement would take place. In the 
animal, however, the same part can become both 
greater and smaller and change its form, the mem- 
bers increasing through heat and contracting again 
through cold and thus altering. Alteration is 
caused by imagination and sensations and thoughts. 
For sensations are from the first a kind of altera- 
tion, and imagination and thought have the effect 
of the objects which they present ; for in a Avay the 
idea conceived — of hot or cold or pleasant or terrible — 
is really of the same kind as an object possessing one 
of these qualities, and so we shudder and feel fear 
simply by conceiving an idea ; and all these affec- 
tions are alterations, and when an alteration takes 
place in the body some parts become larger, others 
smaller. Now it is clear that a small change taking 
place in an origin of movement ^ causes great and 
numerous changes at a distance ; just as, if the rudder 
of a boat is moved to an infinitesimal extent, the 
change resulting in the position of the boAvs is con- 
siderable. Furthermore, when, owing to heat or 
cold or a similar affection, an alteration is caused 
in the region of the heart — and even in an imper- 
ceptibly small part of it — it gives rise to a consider- 
able change in the body, causing blushing or pallor 
or shuddering or trembling or the opposites of these. 
VIII. The origin, then, of movement, as has already 

* i.e. here, the heart, cf. below, 701 b 30 ; see also note on 
698 bl. 



701b , , , ^ ^2 , V , / 

κινήσεως το ev τω πρακτω οίωκτον και cpevKTov 

i^ ανάγκης δ' άκολονθίΐ ττ] νο•ήσ€ΐ /cat ttj φαντασία 

35 αυτών θζρμότης καΐ φύξις. το μ€ν γαρ λυπηρον 
φζνκτόν, το δ' TjBv SlwktOv (άλλα λανθάν€ί περί 
τά μικρά τοντο συμβαίνον), έ'στι δε τα λυπηρά 
702a καΐ rjSea ττάντα σχεΒον μβτά φύζζώς τίνος και 
θερμότητας, τοΰτο δέ hrjXov e/c των παθημάτων, 
θάρρη γαρ καΐ φόβοι και άφροΒισιασμοι και τάλλα 
τά σωματικά λυπηρά και ηδέα τά μεν κατά μοριον 
μετά θερμότητος η φύζβώς €στι, τά δε καθ' δλον 

5 το σώμα• /χν'τ^μ^αι δε και ελττιδε?, οίον είδώλοις 
χρώμζναι τοις τοιουτοις, 6τ€ μεν ήττον ότβ δε 
μάλλον αΐτίαι τών αυτών είσίν. ώστ ευλόγως 
ηΒη δημιουργείται τά εντός και τά περί τα? αρχάς 
τών οργανικών μορίων μεταβάλλοντα εκ πεπηγότων 

^0 υγρά και εζ υγρών πεπηγότα και μαλάκα και 
σκληρά εζ άλλτ^λωι^. τούτων δε συμβαινόντων 
τον τρόπον τούτον, και έ'τι του παθητικού και 
ποιητικού τοιαύτην εχόντων την φύσιν οιαν πολ- 
λαχοΰ είρηκαμεν , οπόταν συμβη ώστ είναι το 
μεν ποιητικόν το δε παθητικόν, και μηΒεν άπολιπη 

15 αυτών εκάτερον tojv εν τω λόγω, ευθύς το μεν 
ττοιεΐ το δε πάσχει, δια τοΰτο δ άμα ως ειπείν 
νοεί ΟΤΙ πορευτεον και πορεύεται, άν μη τι εμ- 
πο8ίζη έτερον, τά μεν γάρ οργανικά μέρη παρα- 
σκευάζει επιτη8είως τά πάθη, ή δ' ορεζις τα 
πάθη, την δ' ορεζιν η φαντασία' αύτη δε ^ιΐ'εται 
η δια νοήσεως η hi αισθησεως. άμα δε και ταχύ 

20 δια το (τόγ ποιητικόν και παθητικόν τών προς 
άλληλα είναι την φύσιν. 

^ το add. Bonitz. 



been said, is the object of pursuit or avoidance in the 
sphere of action, and heat and cold necessarily follow 
the thought and imagination of these objects. For 
Λvhat is painful is avoided, and what is pleasant is 
pursued. We do not, it is true, notice the effect of 
this in the minute parts of the body ; but practically 
anything painful or pleasant is accompanied by some 
degree of chilling or heating. This is clear from the 
effects produced. Reckless daring, terrors, sexual 
emotions and the other bodily affections, both pain- 
ful and pleasant, are accompanied by heating or 
chilling, either local or throughout the body. Re- 
collections too and anticipations, employing, as it 
were, the images of such feelings, are to a greater or 
less degree the cause of the same effects. So it is 
with good reason that the inner portions of the body 
and those Λvhich are situated near the origins of the 
motion of the organic parts are created as they are, 
changing as they do from solid to liquid and from 
liquid to solid and from soft to hard and vice versa. 
Since, then, these processes occur in this way, and since, 
moreover, the passive and the active principles have 
the nature Avhich we have frequently ascribed to them, 
Λvhenever it so happens that the one is active and the 
other passive and neither fails to fulfil its definition, 
immediately the one acts and the other is acted upon. 
So a man thinks he ought to go, and goes, practically 
at the same time, unless something else hinders him. 
For the affections fittingly prepare the organic parts, 
the desire prepares the affections, and the imagina- 
tion prepares the desire, while the imagination is due 
to thought or sensation. The process is simultaneous 
and quick, because the active and the passive are by 
nature closely interrelated. 



1 oe Ktvovv πρώτον το ί,ωον ανάγκη eivai ev tlvl 
OLpxfj. η δε καμπή otl μέν eart του μ^ν άρχη του 
δβ τελ^υτη, ζΐρηταυ. διο και έ'στι μεν ώς ivi, εστί 
δ' ώς hval χρηται η φύσις αύτη. όταν γαρ κινηται 

25 evTevdev, ανάγκη το μέν ηρεμεΐν των σημείων των 
εσχάτων, το δε κινεΐσθαι• δτι γαρ προς ηρεμούν 8εΐ 
άπερεί8εσθαι το κινούν, εΐρηται πρότερον. κινείται 
μεν οΰν και ού κινεί το εσχατον τού βραχιονος, της δ 
εν τω ώλεκράνω κάμφεως το μεν κινείται το εν αύτω 
τω δλω κινούμενα), ανάγκη δ' eirai τι και ακινητον, 

30 ο δτ^ φαμεν 8υνάμει μεν εν eirat σημεΐον, ενέργεια 
δε ^/ΐΓεσ^αι δυο• ωστ' ει το ζωον ην βραχίων, εν- 
ταύθ^ αν που ην η άρχη της φυχης η κινούσα, 
επει δ' ενδέχεται και προς την χεΐρα εχειν τι 
όντως των άφύχων, οΐον ει κινοίη την βακτηριαν 
εν τη χειρί, φανερόν δτι ουκ αν εϊη εν ούδετερω 

35 η φνχ^ τ^ν εσχάτων, οντ^ εν τω εσχάτω τού 
κινουμένου ούτ^ εν τη έτερα άρχη. και γαρ το 
702 b ζύλον εχει και άρχην και τέλος προς την χεΐρα. 
ώστε 8ιά γε τούτο, ει μη εν τη βακτήρια η κινούσα 
άπο της φυχης άρχη ενεστιν, ovh^ εν τη χειρί' 
ομοίως γαρ εχει και το άκρον της χειρός προς τον 
καρπόν, και τούτο το μέρος προς το ώλεκρανον. 
5 ούδει^ γαρ διαφέρει τα προσπεφυκότα των μη 

" i.e. the same relation as the forearm has to the elbow. 

* i.e. the end of the stick where it meets the hand. 

' i.e. the origin of the movement of the hand which is 
situated in the wrist. 

** It is impossible to find a word in English which covers 
the double meaning given to ά,ρχή here and in the previous line 
(see note on 698 b 1). The sentence και 7άρ to |t/Xov . . , χεΐρα 
explains why the άρχη κινήσεων of the hand is called ή έτερα 
άρχν, viz. that there is another ά-ρχή (in the sense of " be- 
ginning ") in the stick, namely, the point nearest the hand. 


Now that which first causes movement in the 
animal must be situated in a definite beginning. 
Now it has already been stated that the joint is the 
beginning of one thing and the end of another ; Avhere- 
fore nature employs it sometimes as one and some- 
times as two. For \vhen movement is being origin- 
ated from it, one of its extreme points must be at 
rest, while the other must move ; for we have already 
said that what causes movement must be supported 
on something Avhich is at rest. The extremity, there- 
fore, of the forearm is moved and does not cause 
movement, but in the elboΛV-joint one part, namely 
that Λvhich is situated in the actual Avhole which is in 
motion, is moved, but there must also be something 
which is unmoved ; and this is what we mean when 
we say that a point is potentially one but becomes 
actually two. So if the forearm were a living creature, 
it is somewhere near this point that the origin of move- 
ment set in motion by the soul would be situated. 
Since, however, it is possible for an inanimate object 
to bear this same relation to the hand," for instance 
if one moves a stick in one's hand, it is clear that the 
soul could not be situated in either of the extremities, 
neither in the extremity of that which is moved ^ nor 
in the other origin of movement (ά-ρχη) '' ', for the stick 
has an end and a beginning (αρχ?)) ^ in relation to the 
hand. So, for this reason, if the origin of movement 
set up by the soul is not situated in the stick, it is not 
situated in the hand either ; for the extremity of the 
hand * bears the same relation to the wrist as the 
latter does to the elbow. For there is no difference 
between what is attached by growth and what is not 

• i.e. the point where the hand joins the stick. 



702b , , „ , , , , ο 

ytverat γαρ ωσττζρ αφαιρ&τον μ€ρος η βακτηρία. 

ανάγκη άρα iv μηΒ€μία βΐναι άρχη, η iartv άλλου 

TeXevTij, /χτ^δε et rt iarlv erepov βκζίνου ζξωτίρω, 

οίον του pev της βακτηρίας εσχάτου ev τη χειρι 

η άρχη, τούτου δ' iv καρπώ. el Be μηΒ ev τη 

10 χειρ ι, otl ανωτέρω €τι, η άρχη ούδ' ενταύθα• en 
γαρ του wXeKpavou μένοντος κίν€Ϊταί άπαν το 
κάτω συveχiς. 

IX. Έττει δ' ομοίως €χ€ί άπο των αριστερών 
καΐ άττό των Βεζίών, καΐ άμα ταναντία κινείται, 
ώστε μη eii^at τω ηρεμεΐν το 8εζι6ν κινεΐσθαι το 
άριστερόν μηΒ^ αύ τω τοΰτο εκείνο, άεΐ δ εν τω 

15 ανωτέρω αμφοτέρων η άρχη, ανάγκη εν τω μέσω 
είναι την άρχην της φυχής της κινούσης• αμφοτέρων 
γαρ των άκρων το μέσον εσχατον. ομοίως δ' έχει 
ττρος τάς κινήσεις τοΰτο και τάς απο του άνω και 
κάτω, οίον τάς άττό της κεφαλής και^ τας απο της 

20 ράχεως τοις εχουσι ράχιν. και ευλόγως he τοΰτο 
συμβεβηκεν και γαρ τό αίσθητικόν ενταΰθα είναι 
φαμεν, ώστ' άλλοιουμενου δια την atV^T^atv' τοΰ 
τόπου τοΰ περί την άρχην και μεταβάλλοντος τα 
εχόμενα συμμεταβάλλει εκτεινόμενά τε και συναγό- 
μενα τά μόρια, ώστ' εζ ανάγκης δια ταΰτα γίνεσθαι 

25 την κίνησιν τοις ζωοις. τό 8ε μέσον τοΰ σώματος 

^ καΐ scripsi : προς libri. 

" This is simply a restatement of the doctrine of 702 b 1-4. 
The true αρχή is not situated in the extremitj^ of the stick 
nearest to the hand (which is an αρχή as being the place 
where the stick begins in relation to the hand), nor yet in any 
other member, such as the wrist, Λvhich is still farther away 
from the stick and is an αρχή as being the origin of motion 
in the hand. The wrist, elbow, and shoulder are all of them 


so attached ; for the stick becomes a kind of detached 
member. The origin of movement, therefore, cannot 
be situated in any origin which is the termination of 
something else, nor in any other part which is farther 
from it ; for example, the origin of movement of the 
extremity of the stick is in the hand, but the origin 
of the movement of the hand is in the wrist." And 
so if the origin of movement is not in the hand, be- 
cause it is still higher up,* neither is it in this higher 
position ; for, again, if the elbow is at rest, the con- 
tinuous part below it can be set in motion as a whole. 
IX. Now since there is similarity in the left and the 
right sides of the body, and the opposite parts can be 
moved simultaneously, so that it is impossible for the 
right side to move just because the left is at rest or vice 
versa, and the origin of movement must be in that 
which lies above both sides, it necessarily follows that 
the origin of movement in the moving soul must be 
betΛveen them ; for the middle is the limit of both 
extremes. And it stands in the same relation to the 
movements above as to those below, to those, for 
example, which proceed from the head and to those 
which proceed from the spine in animals which have 
a spine. And there is good reason for this ; for we 
say that the organ of sensation is also situated in 
the centre of the body ; and so if the region round 
about the origin of movement is altered by sense- 
perception and undergoes change, the parts which 
are attached to it change with it by extension or con- 
traction, so that in this way movement necessarily 
takes place in animals. And the central part of the 

άρχαί in relation to the parts below them, but the true αρχή 
is situated in the soul, which lies in the centre of the body. 
" i.e. the wrist. 



702 b ^ / ^ « , / , , / 

μέρος 8um/xei μ^ν ev, et'epyeia δ ανάγκη yiveadai 

ττλζίω' και γαρ άμα κινείται τα κώλα από της 

αρχής, καΐ θατβρου ήρζμοΰντος θάτερον κινείται. 

λέγω δ' οΐον επί της ΑΒΓ το Β κινείται, κινεί 

8ε το Α. άλλα μην δει γε τι ηρεμεΐν, ει μέλλει 

80 το μεν κινεΐσθαι το δε κινεΐν. εν άρα 8υνάμει ον 
το Α ενεργεία δυο εσται, ώστ ανάγκη μη στιγμήν 
άλλα μέγεθος τι είναι, άλλα μην ενδέχεται το Γ 
άμα τω Β κινεΐσθαι, ώστ' ανάγκη άμφοτερας τάς 
αρχάς τάς εν τω Α κινουμενας κινεΐν. 8εΐ τι άρα 
eii^at πάρα ταύτας έτερον το κινοΰν και μη κινον- 

85 μενον. άπερείδοιντο μεν γάρ άν τά άκρα και αϊ 
άρχαι αϊ εν τω Α προς άλλτ^λα? κινουμένων, ώσπερ 
703a άν ε'ί τίνες τά νώτα άντερεί8οντες κινοΐεν τά σκέλη, 
άλλα το κινοΰν άμφω άναγκαΐον ett'ai. τοΰτο δ' 
εστίν η φυχη, έτερον μεν οΰσα του μεγέθους του 
τοιούτου, εν τούτω δ' ούσα. 

Χ. Κατά μεν ουν τον λόγον τον λέγοντα την 
6 αΐτίαν της κινήσεως εστίν ή ορεζις το μέσον, ο 
κινεί κινούμενον εν δε τοις εμφύχοις σώ/χασι δει 
τι ett-at σώμα τοιούτον. το μεν οΰν κινούμενον 
μεν μη πεφυκος δε κινεΐν δύναται πάσχειν κατ 
άλλοτρίαν δυνα^υ,ιν το δε κινοΰν άναγκαΐον εχειν 
τινά δυΐ'α/χιΐ' και ίσχύν. πάντα δε φαίνεται τά 

10 ζώα και έχοντα πνεύμα σύμφυτον και ισχύοντα 
τούτω, {τίς μεν οΰν ή σωτηρία τοΰ σύμφυτου 
πνεύματος, εϊρηται εν άλλοις.) τοΰτο δε προς 
την αρχήν τήν φυχικην εοικεν ομοίως εχειν ώσπερ 

ο See Introd. p. 436. 



body is potentially one, but actually must necessarily 
become more than one ; for the limbs are set in 
motion simultaneously from the origin of movement, 
and when one is at rest the other is in motion. For 
example, in ABC, Β is moved and A moves it ; there 
must, however, be something at rest ^ 

if one thing is to be moved and 
another is to move it. So A, though 
potentially one, Λνίΐΐ be actually two, 
so that it must be not a point but a 
magnitude. Again, C may be moved 
simultaneously with B, so that both ^ ^ 

the origins in A must cause movement by being 
moved ; there must, therefore, be something other 
than these origins which causes movement without 
being itself moved. Otherwise, when movement took 
place, the extremities, or origins, in A would rest 
upon one another, like men standing back to back and 
moving their limbs. There must be something which 
moves them both, namely the soul, other than such 
a magnitude as we have described but situated in it. 
X. In accordance Avith the definition which defines 
the cause of motion, desire is the central origin, which 
moves by being itself moved ; but in animate bodies 
there must be some bodily substance which has these 
characteristics. That, then, which is moved but does 
not possess the natural quality of setting up move- 
ment may be affected by a power external to it, and 
that which causes movement must possess some 
power and strength. Now all animals clearly both 
possess an innate spirit and exercise their strength 
in virtue of it. (What it is that conserves the innate 
spirit has been explained elsewhere.") This spirit 
seems to bear the same relation to the origin in the 



TO ev ται? καμπαις σημζίον, το κινούν και κινου- 
μ€νον, προς το άκίνητον. ίττβΐ δ' "η άρχη τοις 
μέν iv Tjj κάρδια τοις δ' iv τω ανάλογον , δια τοΰτο 
καΐ το πνζΰμα το σνμφυτον Ινταΰθα φαίνεται ον. 

15 ττότβρον μεν οΰν ταύτόν Ιστι το πνεύμα aet η 
γίνεται del έτερον, έστω άλλος λόγος (ο αντος 
γάρ εστί και περί των άλλων μορίων)• φαίνεται δ' 
ενφυώς έχον προς το κινητικον ei^ai και παρεχειν 
ίσχνν. τα δ' έργα της κινήσεως ώσις και ελζις, 

20 ώστε 8εΐ το όργανον αύζάνεσθαί τε Βυνασθαι και 
συστελΧεσθαι. τοιαύτη δ' εστίν η του πνεύματος 
φύσις• και γάρ αβίαστος συστελλομενη, και 
βιαστική και ώστικη δια την αύτην αιτίαν, και 
έχει και βάρος προς τα πυρώΒη και κουφότητα 
προς τά e^'α^'τtα. δε? 8ε το μέλλον κινεΐν μη 

2ό αλλοιώσει τοιοΰτον eirat* κρατεί γάρ κατά την 
ύπεροχην τά φυσικά σώματα άλλτ^λωι^, το μεν 
κονφον κάτω υπό του βαρύτερου άπονικώμενον, 
το δε βαρύ άνω υπό του κουφότερου. 

Ώι μεν οΰν κινεί κινουμενω μορίω η φυχη,εϊρηται, 
και δι' ην αιτίαν ύποληπτεον δε σ^ι^εσταΓαι τό 

30 ζωον ώσπερ πόλιν εύνομουμενην. εν τε γάρ τη πόλει 
όταν άπαζ συστη^ ή τάζις, ούΒεν δει κεχωρισμενου 
μοναρχου, ον δει παρεΐναι παρ' εκαστον των 
γινομένων, αλλ' αυτό? έκαστος ποιεί τά αύτοΰ 
ως τετακται, και γίνεται τόΒε μετά τό8ε δια 

^ σνστγι Ρ : στ^ ESY. 

" For this meaning of άβίaστos cf. Plato, 7V?)?. 61 a. The 
action of the πνίϋμα is represented as resembling that of the 
breath in the lungs ; when the breath contracts it lacks force 
and the lungs collapse, when it expands it thrusts outwards 
and exercises force. 

*■ Namely, expansion. 


soul as the point in the joints, Λvhich moves and is 
moved, bears to that which is unmoved. Now since 
the origin is in some animals situated in the heart, in 
others in what corresponds to the heart, it is therefore 
clear that the innate spirit also is situated there. 
Whether the spirit is always the same or is always 
changing must be discussed elsewhere (for the same 
question arises about the other parts of the body) ; 
at any rate it is clearly well adapted by nature to be 
a motive power and to exercise strength. Now the 
functions of movement are thrusting and pulling, so 
that the organ of movement must be able to increase 
and contract. And the nature of spirit has these 
qualities ; for when it contracts it is vidthout force," 
and one and the same cause '' gives it force and en- 
ables it to thrust, and it possesses weight as compared 
with the fiery element, and lightness as compared 
with the contrary elements." Now that which is to 
create movement without causing alteration must be 
of this kind ; for the natural bodies ** overcome one 
another according as one of them prevails, the light 
being conquered and borne down by the heavier and 
the heavy borne up by the lighter. 

We have now stated what is the part by the move- 
ment of which the soul creates movement and for 
what reason. The constitution of an animal must be 
regarded as resembling that of a well-governed city- 
state. For when order is once established in a city 
there is no need of a special ruler with arbitrary 
powers to be present at every activity, but each indi- 
vidual performs his own task as he is ordered, and one 
act succeeds another because of custom. And in the 

• The contrary of fire is water, cf. De gen, et corrupt. 331 a 1 . 
"* i.e. the elements. 

Q 475 


TO eOos' €V T€ TOLS ί,ωοις το αυτό τούτο ota την 

35 φνσιν ytVerai icat τω ττ^φυκέναι €καστον οντω 

συστάντων ττοΐ€Ϊν το αντοϋ €ργον, ώστε μηΒεν 

helv €v βκάστο) elvaL φυχην, αλλ' eV τινι αρχή τον 

703h σώματος οϋσης ταλλα ζην μβν τω ττροσττζφνκίναι, 

TTOLetv he το epyov το αυτών δια την φύσιν. 

XI. Πώς• μ€ν οΰν κιν€Ϊταί τάς ακουσίας κινήσεις 
τα ζώα, καΐ δια τίνας αίτια?, €Ϊρηταΐ' κινύται δε 
5 τιι^α? καΐ ακουσίους eVia τών μερών, τάς δε 
ττλειστα? ούχ εκουσίους, λέγω δ' ακουσίους μεν 
οίον την της καρδίας τε και την του αιδοίου {πολλάκις 
γαρ φανεντος τινός, ου μεντοι κελενσαντος του 
νου κινούνται), ούχ εκουσίους δ' οίον υττνον και 
εγρηγορσιν και άναπνοην, και οσαι αλλαι τοιαΰται 

10 είσιν, ούθενος γαρ τούτων κυρία απλώς εστίν 
οϋθ' η φαντασία οϋθ^ η ορεξις, αλλ' επεώη ανάγκη 
άλλοιοΰσθαι τά ζώα φυσικην άλλοίωσιν, άλλοιον- 
μενων δε τών μορίων τά μεν αύ'^εσ^αι τά δε φθίνειν, 
ωστ' η8η κινεΐσθαι καΐ μεταβάλλειν τάς πεφυκυίας 
εχεσθαι μεταβολάς άλλτ^λωι^ (αιτιαι δε τών 

15 κινήσεων θερμότητες τε και φύγεις, αι τε θύραθεν 
και αϊ εντός ύπάρχουσαι φυσικαί), και αι παρά 
τον λόγον 8η yii'o /χεναι κινήσεις τών ρηθεντων 
μορίων αλλοιώσεως συμπεσούσης γίνονται, ή γάρ 
νοησις και η φαντασία, ώσπερ εϊρηται πρότερον, τά 
ποιητικά τών παθημάτων προσφερονσιν τά γάρ εϊ8η 

20 τών ποιητικών προσφερουσιν. μάλιστα δε τών 
μορίων ταύτα ποιεί επώήλως δια τό ώσπερ ζώον 
κεχωρισμενον εκάτερον είναι τών μορίων [• τούτου 

" See note on 698 b 1. 
* Viz. the heart and the privy member. 
" 701 b 18 S. 


animals the same process goes on because of nature, 
and because each part of them, since they are so 
constituted, is naturally suited to perform its own 
function ; so that there is no need of soul in each 
part, but since it is situated in a central origin of 
authority over the body,** the other parts live by 
their structural attachment to it and perform their 
own functions in the course of nature. 

XI. We have now discussed the manner of the 
voluntary movements of animals, and the cause of 
them. Some of their parts, hoAvever, undergo certain 
involuntary movements, though most of these are 
really non- voluntary. By involuntary I mean such 
movements as those of the heart and of the privy 
member, which are often moved by the presentation 
of some image and not at the bidding of reason. By 
non- voluntary I mean sleeping and waking and respira- 
tion and the like. For neither imagination nor desire 
is strictly speaking responsible for any of these move- 
ments ; but, since animals must necessarily undergo 
physical alteration, and, when their parts undergo 
alteration, some increase and others decrease, and so 
their bodies immediately move and undergo the 
natural sequence of changes (the causes of their 
movements being the natural heatings and chillings, 
both external and internal), the movements too of 
the above-mentioned parts ^ which occur contrary to 
reason are due to the occurrence of a change. For 
thought and imagination, as has already been said," 
induce the states which cause the affections ; for 
they present the images of the things which cause 
them. Now these parts act in this way much more 
conspicuously than any others, because each is as it 
were a separate vital organism[, the reason being that 



δ' αίτιον OTL €χουσιν ύγρότητα ζωτικην].^ η μ€ν ουν 
κάρδια φαν€ρ6ν δι' ήν αΐτίαν τάς γαρ^ αρχάς €χ€ΐ 
των αίσθησζων το δε μόριον το γβννητικον οτι 

25 τοιούτον €στι, σημζίον και γαρ εξβρχβται i^ 
αντοΰ ωσπζρ ζωόν τι η του σπέρματος Βυναμις. 
αϊ δε κινησζΐς tjj re άρχγ] απο των μορίων και 
τοις μορίοις αττο της αρχής βνλόγως συμβαινονσι, 
και προς άλλήλας ούτως αφικνοΰνται. δβι γαρ 
νοήσαι το Α αρχήν, αϊ ουν κινήσζΐς καθ €καστον 

30 στοιχζΐον των έπιγ^γ ραμμένων επί την αρχήν αφικ- 
νοΰνται, και από της αρχής κινούμενης και μβτα- 
βαλλούσης, έπβώή ττ-ολλά Βυνάμβι εστίν, ή μεν του 
Β αρχή Ιπι το Β, τ] δε του Γ έπΙ το V , ή δ' άμφοϊν 
€7τ' άμφω. απο δε του Β εττι το Γ τω^ από μεν του 

3J Β ετΓΐ τό Α eXdeiv ως εττ αρχήν, από δε του Α εττι 

το Γ ως απ αρχής, οτι δε 6τ€ μεν ταύτα} νοησάν- 

των γίνεται ή κίνησις ή πάρα τόν λόγον εν τοις 

704 a μορίοις, οτε δ' ου, 'αίτιον τό 6τε μεν ύπάρχειν την 

παθητικήν ϋλην 6τε δε μή τοσαύτην ή τοιαυτην. 

Π ε/36 μεν ούν των μορίων εκάστου των ζωών, 

704 b και περί φυχής, έτι δε περί αίσθήσεως και ϋπνου 

καΐ μνήμης και τής κοιί'ής κινήσεως, είρήκαμεν 

τας αιτίας' λοιπόν δε περί γενέσεως ειπείν. 

* τούτου . . . ξωτικήν ut interpolamentum del. Jaeger. 

^ yap om. EY. 

8 TijJ EP : τφ U Υ : τό 5k S. 

* ταύτα Jaeger : τά αι'τά Ρ : ταντα ESY. 

• These words are probably an interpolated gloss ; they 



each contains vital moisture]." The reason for this as 
regards the heart is plain, for it contains the origins 
of the senses. That the generative organ is of the 
same nature is shown by the fact that the seminal 
force comes forth from it, being as it were a hving 
thing. ΝοΛν it is only in accordance with reason that 
movements are set up both in the central origin by 
the parts and in the parts by the central origin, 
and thus reach one another. Let A be the central 
origin ; the movements at each letter in the diagram 
drawn above ^ reach the central origin, and from the 
central origin, Avhen it is moved or undergoes change 
(for it is potentially many), the origin of movement 
in Β goes to B, and the origin of movement is C to C, 
and of both to both ; but from Β to C it travels by 
going from Β to A as to a central origin, and from 
A to C as from a central origin. Movement, hoAvever, 
contrary to reason, sometimes takes place and some- 
times does not take place in the organs as the result 
of the same thoughts, the reason being that the 
matter which is liable to be affected is sometimes 
present and sometimes not present in the proper 
quantity and quality. 

We have now dealt with the reasons for the parts 
of each animal, the soul, and also sense-perception, 
sleep, memory, and general movement. It remains 
to deal ■with the generation of animals. 

are unnecessarj' in view of the following sentences and con- 
tradictory in doctrine to them. 
"" See figure on p. 473. 




Chap. I. Introduction. Problems which arise about 
animal locomotion. Diiferent number of limbs and 
different modes of bending them found in different animals. 

II. Assumption of generally-accepted principles and 

III. Animal movement requires (1) a resisting surface 
against which the limbs can press, (2) a distinction of 
active and passive parts in the animal. 

IV. The dimensions of living bodies. Superior and 
inferior determined by function and not by position. 
Plants and animals compared. Distinction of front and 
back, right and left. The right, as the source of move- 
ment, superior to the left. Man the most highly differen- 
tiated of the animals. 

V. Bipeds, quadrupeds, polypods and footless animals 
distinguished. Quadrupeds inferior to bipeds. Man the 
highest form of biped, being the most " natural." 

VI. All movement in the animal must originate in a 
common centre, equidistant from the centres of movement 
in the limbs. 

VII. Red-blooded animals move at four points : such 
animals are a continuous whole, while bloodless animals 
and polypods are composed of a number of separate 
entities. Even limbless red-blooded animals move at 
four points. 

VIII. Reason for the absence of limbs in snakes. Limbs 
necessarily even in number. 

IX. Flexion necessary to movement, even in limbless 
animals. Its mechanism explained. Illustrations from 
leaping, flying, and swimming animals. 

X. Movement of birds. Use of the tail to guide flight. 


XI. Man, the only erect animal, compared with the 
birds. Winged human beings an impossible invention of 
the artists. 

XII. Differences of flexion in the limbs of man and of 
the quadrupeds explained. 

XIII. The diff'erent modes of flexion enumerated and 
illustrated by diagrams. 

XIV. " Diagonal " movement of the legs of quadrupeds. 
Movement of crabs. 

XV. Birds and quadrupeds compared. The structure 
of the legs of birds. Oblique attachment of wings and 
fins. The structure of oviparous quadrupeds. 

XVI. Movement of bloodless animals. The peculiar 
movement of the crab. 

XVII. Crabs, lobsters, flat-fish, and web-footed birds. 

XVIII. \^Tiy birds have feet, while fishes have not. 
Fins and wings compared. 

XIX. The movement of testaceans. Conclusion. 


Ζ = Codex Oxoniensis Collegii Corporis Ghristi W.A. 


U = Codex Vaticanus 260. 

S = Codex Laurentianus 81. 1. 

Ρ = Codex Vaticanus 1339. 

Υ = Codex Vaticanus 261. 
Leon. = Latin translation of Nicholas Leonicus. 
Mich. = Greek commentary of Michael Ephesius. 

Q 2 483 

704 a 


I. Uepl δε των χρησίμων μορίων τοις ζωοις 

5 προς την κίνησιν την κατά τόπον €πίσκ€πτ€ον δια 
TtV αΐτίαν τοίοΰτόν €στιν ζκαστον αυτώΐ' και τίνος 
eveK€V ύπάρχ€ί αντοΐς, έτι Be π€ρΙ των Βιαφορών 
των re προς ά?<ληλα τοις του αύτοΰ και €νος ζώου 
μορίοις, καΐ προς τα των άλλων των τω γένει δια- 
φόρων, πρώτον δε λάβωμεν π€ρι όσων εττι- 

10 "Εστ6 δε πρώτον μεν πόσοις ελαχίστοις τα ζώα 
κινείται σημείοις, έπειτα δια τι τά μεν εναι/χα 
τετταρσι τά δ' α,ναιμα πλείοσι, και καθόλου δε δια 
TtV αΐτίαν τά μεν αττοδα τά δε διττοδα τά δε 
τετράποδα τά δε πολυποΒα τών ζώων εστί, και 
δια τί πάντ αρτίους έχει τους πόΒας, οσαπερ έχει 

16 πόΒας αυτών όλως δ οΐς κινείται σημειοις, άρτια 
ταΰτ εστίν. 

"Ετι δε δια tiV αίτίαν άνθρωπος μεν και όρνις 
Βίπους, οι δ' ιχθυες άποΒες είσιν και τας κάμφεις 
δ τε άνθρωπος και 6 όρνις ΒίποΒες οντες εναντίας 
εχουσι τών σκελών, ό μεν γάρ άνθρωπος επι 

20 την περιφερειαν κάμπτει το σκέλος, 6 Β όρνις 
επι το κοίλον, και 6 άνθρωπος αύτος αύτώ 



I. We must next discuss the parts which are useful 
to animals for their movement from place to place, 
and consider why each part is of the nature which 
it is, and Avhy they possess them, and further the 
differences in the various parts of one and the same 
animal and in those of animals of different species 
compared with one another. We must first decide 
what questions we have to discuss. 

One question is, what is the smallest number of 
points at which animals move ; the next is, why red- 
blooded animals move at four points, while bloodless 
animals move at more than four ; and, in general, 
why some animals are vdthout feet, others biped, 
others quadrupeds, and others polypods, and why all 
that have feet at all have an even number of feet ; 
and, in general, why the points at which movement 
is made are even in number. 

We must further consider why a man and a bird are 
bipeds, while fishes are without feet ; and why a man 
and a bird, being both bipeds, have opposite bend- 
ings of the legs. For a man bends his legs in a convex 
direction, a bird in a concave direction ; and a man 



704 a 

βναντίως τα σκίλη και τους βραχίονας• τους μεν 

γαρ €7τΙ το κοίλον, τά δε yoj^aTa εττι την Trept- 
φερειαν κάμπτ€ί. καΐ τά τζτράττοΒα τά ζωοτόκα 
τοις τ' Λνθρωποις εναντίως κάμπτει και αντα 
αύτοΐς' τά μεν γάρ πρόσθια σκέλη επι το κυρτον 
704 b τη? περιφερείας κάμπτει, τα δ οπίσθια επι το 
6 κοίλον, έτι δέ των τετραπόδων όσα μη ζωοτοκε'ι 
αλλ' ωοτοκεΐ, ι8ίως και εις το πλάγιον κάμπτει, 
προς δε τούτοις Βιά TtV αιτίαν τά τετράποοα 
κινείται κατά ^ιάμετρον. περί Βη πάντων τούτων, 
και όσα άλλα συγγενή τούτοις, τάς αίτια? θεωρη- 
τεον. ότι μεν γάρ οΰτω ταΰτα συμβαίνει, Βηλον εκ 

10 της ιστορίας της φυσικής, διότι δε', νυν σκεπτεον. 

II. ^Αρχη δε της σκεφεως ύποθεμενοις οΐς 

είώθαμεν χρησθαι πολλάκις προς την μεθοΒον 

την φυσικην, λαJ8ό^'τεs■ τά τούτον έχοντα τον 

τρόπον εν πάσι τοις της φύσεως εργοις. τούτων 

15 δ' εν μεν εστίν ότι η φύσις ούθεν ποιεί μάτην, 
αλλ' άει εκ των ενΒεχομενων τη ουσία περί εκαστον 
γένος ζώου το άριστον Βιόπερ ει βελτιον ώδι, 
ούτως και έχει κατά φύσιν. έτι τας διαστάσεις 
του μεγέθους, ττόσαι και ποιαι ποιοις ύπαρχουσι, 
δει λαβείν, ει'σι γάρ διαστάσεις μεν εζ, συζυ)/ιαι 

20 δε τρεις, μία μεν το άνω και το κάτω, δευτέρα δε 
το έμπροσθεν και το όπισθεν, τρίτη δε το δεζιον 
και το άριστε ρόν. προς δε τούτοις ότι των κινήσεων 
των κατά τόπον άρχαι ώσις και ελζις. καθ 
αύτάς μεν οΰν αύται, κατά συμβεβηκός δε κινεΐ- 

' i.e. the front right foot with the left back foot, and the left 
front with the right back. * The Historia Animalium. 

* Leon, renders eodem . . . modo which seems to im- 
ply that he was translating τον αυτόν ίχοντα τρόττον. 



himself bends his legs and his amis in opposite 
directions, the arms concavely and the knees con- 
vexly. And viviparous quadrupeds bend their limbs 
in the opposite Avay to a man's and in opposite 
ways to one another ; for they bend their front legs 
convexly and their back legs concavely. Further, 
quadrupeds which are not viviparous but oviparous 
have the peculiarity of bending their legs sideways. 
A further question is Avhy do quadrupeds move their 
legs diagonally." 

We must examine the reasons of all these and 
similar facts ; that they are facts is clear from our 
Natural History,^ and we have now to examine their 

II. We must begin our inquiry by assuming the 
principles which Ave are frequently accustomed to 
employ in natural investigation, namely, by accept- 
ing as true what occurs in accordance with these 
principles " in all the works of nature. One of these 
principles is that nature never creates anything 
without a purpose, but always what is best in view 
of the possibilities allowed by the essence of each 
kind of animal ; therefore, if it is better to do a thing 
in a particular manner, it is also in accordance with 
nature. Further, we must accept the dimensions of 
magnitude in the size and quality in which they are 
present in various objects. For there are six dimen- 
sions grouped in three pairs, the first being the 
superior and the inferior, the second the front and 
the back, and the third the right and the left. We 
must further postulate that the origins of movement 
from place to place are thrusting and pulling. These 
are movements per se ; that which is carried by 



ται TO φ€ρομ€νον w αΛΛον ov γαρ αυτό oo/cei 
705 a Kiveiv avTo αλλ' ύττ' άλλου κινζΐσθαι το ύττό τίνος 
φβρόμ€νον . 

III. Τούτων» 8e ^ιωρισμένων Χ4γωμζν τα τούτων 
βφζζης. των 8ύ) ζώων οσα μ€ταβάλλ€ί κατά 
τόπον, τα μ^ν άθρόω παντί τω σώματι μεταβάλλει, 
5 καθάπερ τα ά?^όμ€να, τα δε κατά μερος,^ καθαπερ 
των πορευομενων εκαστον. iv άμφοτβραις δε ταΓ? 
μεταβολαΐς τανταις ael μεταβάλλει το κινούμενον 
άποστηριζόμενον προς το νποκείμενον αύτω. 
^ιόπερ εάν τε νποφερηται τοΰτο θάττον η ωστ 

10 εχειν άπερείσασθαι το ττοιουμενον εττ αντοΰ την 
κίνησιν, εάν θ' όλως μ-φεμίαν εχτ] τοις κινονμενοις 
άντερεισιν, ούθεν επ' αύτοΰ δύναται κινεΐν εαυτό, 
και γαρ το άλλόμενον και προς αυτό* απερεώόμε- 
νον το άνω και προς το ύπο τους πό8ας ττοιεΓται 
την άλσιν έχει γάρ τίνα άντερεισιν προς άλληλα 

15 τα μόρια εν ταΐς καμπαΐς, καΐ δλως το πιεζον 
προς το πιεζόμενον. διό και οι πενταθλοι άλλονται 
πλεΐον έχοντες τους αλτήρας η μη έχοντες, και 
οι θεοντες θάττον θεουσι παρασείοντες τάς χείρας' 
γίνεται γάρ τις άπερεισις εν τη διατάσει προς τάς 
χείρας και τους καρπούς, άει δε το κινούμενον 

20 δυσιΐ' ελαχίστοις χρώμενον όργανικοΐς μερεσι 
ποιείται την μεταβολην, τω μεν ώσπερανει θλίβοντι, 
τω δε θλιβομενω. το μεν γάρ μενον θλίβεται δια 

^ κατά, μ4ρο$ Ζ : μέρει S : rots μορίοι^ cet. 
^ αυτό PUY : αυτό S : εαυτό Ζ. 

" Special weights {άλτηρε!) or sometimes stones were held 
in the hands and thrown backwards by jumpers while in the 
air to add to their impetus ; cf. Norman Gardiner, Greek 


something else is only moved accidentally, for what 
is carried by something else is regarded not as mov- 
ing itself but as being moved by something else. 

III. These points having been decided, let us 
proceed to the considerations which follow from 
them. Of the animals, then, which change their local 
position, some do so with their whole body at the 
same time, for instance those which jump ; others 
move pai-t by part, for example those that walk. 
In both these changes the animal that moves makes 
its change of position by pressing against that which 
is beneath it ; and so, if the latter slips away too 
quickly to allow that which is setting itself in motion 
upon it to press against it, or if it offers no resistance 
at all to that which is moving, the animal cannot move 
itself at all upon it. For that which jumps performs 
that movement by pressing both on its own upper 
part and on that which is beneath its feet ; for the 
parts in a way lean upon one another at their joints, 
and, in general, that which presses leans on that 
which is pressed. Hence athletes jump farther if 
they have the weights in their hands than if they 
have not," and runners run faster if they swing their 
arms ^ ; for in the extension of the arms there is a 
kind of leaning upon the hands and wrists. Now that 
which moves always makes its change of place by the 
employment of at least two organic parts, one as it 
were compressing and the other being compressed. 
For the part which remains still is compressed by 

Athletic Sports and Festivals, pp. 298 fF., who proves by 
experiment the truth of the statement made in the present 

>> On the importance attached by the Greeks to arm- 
action in running, especially in short races, cf. N. Gardiner, 
op. cit, p. 282. 



705 a , , 5, , , , - J' 

ΤΟ (pepeiv, το ο αιρομ€νον retverat τω (pepovri 
το φορτίον. 8ίόπ€ρ άμ€ρ€ς ovSev ούτω κινηθηναι 
Βννατόν ον γαρ €χ€ί την του ττεισο/χβΐ'ου /cat του 

2δ ποιησοντος iv αύτω^ 8ίάληφιν. 

IV. Έττβι δ' etatl•- at Staarciaets• τον αριθμόν 
ζζ, αΐς όρίζβσθαι πβφυκβ τα ζωα/ το τε άνω και 
κάτω καΐ το εμττροσθζν καΐ οτησθβν, eVt 8e he^Lov 
καΐ άριστ€ρόν, το μεν άνω καΐ κάτω μόριον πάντ 
€χ€ί τά ζώντα. ου μόνον γαρ iv τοις ζωοις βστί 
το άνω καΐ κάτω, άλλα καΐ iv τοις φυτοΐς. δι- 

80 €ΐληπταί δ' βργω, καΐ ου BiaeL μόνον τη ττρός τ€ 
την γην και τον ούρανόν. οθβν μεν γαρ η της τροφής 
8ιά8οσις και ή αύ'^τ^σι? ίκάστοις, άνω τοΰτ' εστίν 
705b προς 6 δ' εσχατον αϋτη ττεραίνει, τοΰτο κάτω. 
το μεν γαρ άρχη τις, το δε ττερας' άρχη δε το άνω. 
καίτοι δόζειεν αν τοις φυτοΐς οίκεΐον eti^at το κάτω 
μάλλον ούχ ομοίως γαρ έχει τη θέσει το άνω και 
κάτο) τούτοις και τοις ζωοις. €χει δε ττρος μεν 

6 το δλον ούχ ομοίως, κατά δε το έργον ομοίως. 
at γαρ ρίζαι είσι το άνω τοις φυτοΐς• εκείθεν γαρ 
7) τροφή δtαδtδoταt τοΓ? φυομενοις, και λα/χ^άι^ει 
TauTatg• αυττ^ν, καθάττερ τά ζωα τοις στόμασιν. 

"Οσα δε μη μόνον ζη άλλα και ζωά εστt, τοις 
τοιουτοις υπάρχει τό τε έμπροσθεν καΐ το όπισθεν. 

10 ato^Tjotv γαρ έχει ταΰτα πάντα, ορίζεται δε κατά 
ταυττ^ν τό τε έμπροσθεν και τό όπισθεν εφ' δ 
μεν γαρ η αϊσθησις πεφυκε και όθεν ioTiv εκάστοις, 

^ αύτψ Jaeger: αύτφ libri. * ^φα Υ: ^ωντα ceteri. 

• C/. above, 704 b 19 ίΤ. " Cf. De caelo, 294 b 17. 

" More literally "personal." 
' Cf. De vit. long, et brev. 467 b 2 ; Phys. 199 a 28. 


having to carry the weight, and the part which is 
raised is extended by that which carries the weight. 
And so nothing that is Λvithout parts can move in 
this manner ; for it does not contain in itself the 
distinction between what is to be passive and what 
is to be active. 

IV. Now the dimensions by which animals are 
naturally bounded are six in number, namely, 
superior and inferior, front and back, and also right 
and left." Now all living things have a superior and 
an inferior part ; for the superior and the inferior is 
found not only in the animals but also in plants.'' 
The distinction is one of function and not merely of 
position in relation to the earth and heavens. For 
the part from which is derived the distribution of 
nutriment and the growth in any particular thing is 
the superior ; the part to Λvhich the growth extends 
and in which it finally ends is the inferior. The one 
is a kind of origin, the other a termination ; and it is 
the superior which is an origin. It might, however, 
seem that in plants the inferior is the more essential " 
part ; for the superior and the inferior are not in the 
same position in them as in the animals. Though in 
relation to the universe they have not the same posi- 
tion, they are similarly situated as regards function. 
For in plants the roots are the superior part "* ; for it 
is from them that the nutriment is distributed to the 
parts that grow, and it is from their roots that plants 
receive it, as do animals from their mouths. 

Things which not only live but are also animals have 
both a front and a back. For all animals have sense- 
perception, and it is on account of sense-perception 
that the front and the back are distinguished ; for 
the parts in which the sense-perception is implanted 



€μπροσθ€ν ταΰτ' iari, τά δ' airt/cei/xeva τουτοίζ 

"Οσα δε τών ζωών μη μόνον αίσθησεως κοινωνεί, 

15 αλλά δυι^αται ττοιεΐσθαι την κατά τόπον /xera- 
βολην αυτά δι' αυτών, eV τούτοις 8η^ Βιώρισται 
προς τοις λβχθεΐσι τό τ άριστερον και το Se^iov, 
ομοίως τοις πρότερον είρημενοις έργω τινι και ου 
θέσει 8ιωρισμενον εκατερον αυτών όθεν μεν yap 
εστί του σώματος η της κατά τόπον μεταβολής άρχγ} 

20 φύσει, τοΰτο μεν 8εζιόν εκάστω, το δ' άντικείμενον 
και τούτω πεφυκος άκολουθεΐν άριστερόν. τοΰτο 
8ε Βιηρθρωται μάλλον ετεροις έτερων. οσα μεν 
yap όργανικοΐς μερεσι χρώμενα (λέγω δ' οίον 
ττοσίν η πτερυζιν η τινι άλλω τοιούτω) την είρη- 
μενην μεταβολην ποιείται, περί μεν τά τοιαύτα 

25 μάλλον Βιηρθρωται τό λεχθεν οσα 8ε μη τοιούτοις 
μορίοις, αύτώ 8ε τω σώματι 8ιαληφεις ποιούμενα 
προέρχεται, καθάπερ eVta των άπό8ων, οΐον οι 
τε όφεις και τό των καμπών γένος, και προς τούτοις 
ά καλοΰσι γης έντερα, υπάρχει μεν και εν τούτοις 
τό λεχθεν, ου μην 8ιασεσάφηταί γ' ομοίως. 

80 "Οτι δ' εκ τών 8ε^ιών η άρχη της κινήσεως εστί, 
σημεΐον και τό φερειν τά φορτία πάντας επι τοις 
άριστεροΐς• ούτως γάρ εν8εχεται κινεΐσθαι τό φερον, 
λελυ μενού τοΰ κινήσοντος. (διό και άσκωλιάζουσι 
ράον επι τοις αριστεροΐς' κινεΐν γάρ πεφυκε τό 
706 a 8εξιόν, κινεΐσθαι 8έ τό άριστερόν.) ώστε και τό 
φορτίον ουκ επι τω κινησοντι αλλ' επι τω κινησο- 

^ δη Jaeger : δέ libri. 

" Viz. superior and inferior. 
' i.e. from place to place. 



and whence every kind of creature derives it are at 
the front, and the opposite parts to these are at the 

Those animals which not only partake of sense- 
perception but can also of themselves make the 
change from place to place, in addition to the dis- 
tinctions already mentioned," have a further distinc- 
tion of left and right, these being each, like the above, 
distinctions of function and not of position. For the 
part of the body where the origin of change from 
place to place naturally arises is the right in each 
kind of animal, while the part which is opposed to 
this and naturally ΐοΙΙοΛνβ its lead is the left. 

There is a greater differentiation between right 
and left in some animals than in others. All animals 
which make the above-mentioned change ^ by the use 
of instrumental parts — for example, feet or wings 
or the like — shoΛv a greater differentiation between 
right and left in such parts ; those, on the other hand, 
that progress not by means of such parts but by 
moving the body itself in sections — like some of the 
footless animals, such as snakes and the caterpillars, 
and also earthworms — possess, it is true, this differ- 
entiation, but it is not nearly so clearly defined. 

That the origin of movement is from the right side 
is showTi by the fact that men always carry burdens 
on the left shoulder ; for then it is possible for that 
which bears the weight to be set in motion, that 
which is to initiate the movement being free. (For 
this reason, too, it is easier to hop on the left leg ; for 
it is natural to the right leg to initiate movement, 
and to the left to be set in motion.) The burden, 
therefore, must rest not on the part Avhich is to 
initiate movement, but on that Λvhich is to be set in 



μ€Ρω oei βπίΚ€ΐσσαι• eav ο €7Γ6 τω klvovvti και rrj 
apxfj της κίνήσβως βτητζθη, tJtol όλως ου κινησ^ται 
δ Tj χαλβπώτβρον. σημ€Ϊον δ' δτι άπο των δεζιων 
η αρχή της κινήσεως καΐ αϊ ττροβολαί• πάντες 
γαρ τα αριστερά προβάλλονται, καΐ ίστώτβς ττρο- 
β€βληκασι^ τα άρίστ€ρά μάλλον, αν μη από τύχης 
σνμβη. ου γαρ τω προβζβηκότι κινούνται, αλλά 
τω άποβ€βηκότί' καΐ αμύνονται τοις Βεζιοΐς. 

10 δια ταυτην δε την αΐτίαν καΐ τα δε^ιά ταύτα εστί 
τταντων. δθβν μ€ν γαρ η άρχη της κινησζως, το 
αυτό πάσι καΐ iv τω αύτω την θέσιν €χ€ΐ κατά φνσιν 
Se^LOV δ' βστίν odev η άρχη της κινήσεως €στιν. 
και δια τοΰτο τα στρομβώδη των οστρακόδερμων 
8e^ia πάντ' εστίν, ου γαρ επι την ίλίκην κινείται, 

ΐδ αλλ' επΙ το καταντικρύ πάντα προέρχεται, οίον 
πορφύραι και κήρυκες. κινουμένων ουν πάντων 
ατΓΟ των 8εζιών, κάκείνων επί ταύτα κινουμένων 
εαντοΐς, ανάγκη πάντα Βεζιά eti^at ομοίως, άπο- 
λελυμενα δ' εχουσι τα αριστερά των ζώων μά- 
λιστα άνθρωποι δια το κατά φύσιν εχειν μάλιστα 

20 των ζώων φύσει δε βέλτιόν τε το 8εζι6ν του 
αριστερού και κεχωρισμενον . διό και τα δε^ιά 
εν τοις άνθρώποις μάλιστα 8εζιά εστίν. Βιωρισμε- 
νων 8ε των 8εξιών ευλόγως τά αριστερά άκινη- 
τοτερα εστί, και άπολελυμενα μάλιστα εν τούτοις, 
και at αλλαι δ' άρχαι μάλιστα κατά φύσιν 8ι- 

25 ωρισμεναι εν τω ανθρώπω ύπάρχουσι, τό τ' άνω 
και το έμπροσθεν. 

* προβίβλήκασι PSU : ττροβββήκασι ΥΖ. 

" i.e. in the sense that man is right-handed. 


motion ; and if it be placed on that which causes 
and is the origin of movement, it will either not be 
moved at all or with greater difficulty. The manner 
in which we step out also shoΛVS that the origin of 
movement is in the right side ; for all men put the 
left foot foremost, and, when standing, preferably 
place the left foot in front, unless they do otherwise 
accidentally. For they are moved, not by the foot 
which they put in front, but by that with which they 
step off; also they defend themselves with their 
right limbs. Therefore the right is the same in all ; 
for that from which the origin of movement is derived 
is the same in all and has its position by nature in the 
same place, and it is from the right that the origin 
of movement is derived. For this reason, too, the 
stromboid testaceans all have their shells on the 
right ; for they all move not in the direction of the 
spiral but in the opposite direction, the purple-fish, 
for example, and the trumpet-shell. Since, then, 
movement in all animals starts from the right, and 
the right moves in the same direction as the animal 
itself, they must all alike be right-sided." Now man 
more than any other animal has his left limbs de- 
tached, because of all animals he is most in accord- 
ance with nature, and the right is naturally better 
than the left and separated from it. Therefore the 
right is most right-sided in man. And since the right 
is differentiated, it is only reasonable that the left is 
less easily set in motion and most detached in man. 
Moreover the other principles,'' the superior and the 
front, are in man most in accord with nature and most 

" The άρχαί here are the δίαστάσβυ of 704 b 19, 705 a 26, 
from the point of view of function rather than position. 



V. (jLS jJ-^v ovv TO ανω και το €μπροσϋ€ν Οί- 
ώρισται, καθάττ^ρ τοις άνθρώττοις καΐ τοις ορνισι, 
ταντα μ^ν 8ίπο8α {των δε τ€ττάρων τά Βΰο σημ€Ϊα 
τοις μ€ν τττβρυγβς τοις δε χβΐρζς καΐ βραχιονβς 

soelaw). δσα δ' βπΐ το αύτο το ττρόσθβν €χ€ΐ και 
το άνω, τ€τράποΒα καΐ πολύποΒα καΐ άποΒα. 
καλώ γαρ πό8α μέρος €τη σημβίω ττζζω κινητικω 
κατά τόπον καΐ γαρ το όνομα €θίκασίν βΙΧηφέναι 
άτΓΟ του ττεδου οι ττόΒες. eVia δ €7τι το αύτο 
€χ€ί το ττρόσθίον και το οπισθιον, οίον τά re 
706 b /χαλάκια καΐ τά στρομβωΒη των οστρακόδερμων 
€Ϊρηταί he περί αυτών πρότερον iv Ιτέροις. 

Τριών δ' όντων τόπων, του άνω καΐ μέσου 
καΐ κάτω, τά μεν διττοδα το άνω προς το του 
οΧου άνω έχει, τα 8e πολύποδα η άποΒα προς 
6 το μέσον, τά δε φυτά προς το κάτω. αίτιον δ' 
ΟΤΙ τά μεν άκίλ^ητα, προς την τροφην 8ε το άνω, 
η δε τροφή εκ της γης. τά δε τετράποδα επΙ 
το μέσον, καΐ τά πολυποΒα καΐ άποΒα, δια το 
μη ορθά είναι. τά δε διττοδα προς το άνω διά 

10 το ορθά είναι, /χάλιστα δ ό άνθρωπος• μάλιστα 
γάρ κατά φύσιν εστί Βίπους. ευλόγως δε και αϊ 
άρχαί είσιν από τούτων τών μορίων ή μεν γάρ 
άρχη τίμιον, το δ' ά'νω του κάτω και το πρόσθεν 
του όπισθεν και το Βεζιόν του αριστερού τιμιώτερον. 
καλώς δ' ε;!^ει και τό άνάτταλιν λέγειν περί αυτών, 

" The whole of man is " front," and his " front " is divided 
into superior and inferior ; in a quadruped only that part 
is " front " which is superior in man. 

* P.A. 684 b 14 ff. : H.A. 523 b 21 ff. 

" 'Αρχή has here the double meaning of "starting-point" 
and "centre of authority"; see note on Oe mot. anim. 
698 b 1. 


V. Animals in which the superior and the fi-ont are 
differentiated, man, for example, and the birds, are 
bipeds (two of the four points being wings in birds, 
and hands and arms in man). But the animals in 
which the superior and the front are in the same 
position " are four-footed (quadrupeds), many -footed 
(polypods), and footless. By " foot " I mean the part 
that is at a point which has connexion with the ground 
and gives movement from place to place ; for the 
feet (?roSes) seem to have derived their name from 
the ground (ττεδον). Some animals have their front 
and their back in the same position, for example the 
molluscs and the stromboid testaceans ; with these 
we have already dealt elsewhere.'' 

Now since there are three regions, the superior, 
the middle, and the inferior, bipeds have their 
superior part in a position corresponding to the 
superior region of the universe, polypods and footless 
animals in a position corresponding to the middle 
region, and plants in a position corresponding to the 
inferior region. The reason is that plants lack 
movement, and the superior part is situated Avith a 
view to nutriment, and their nutriment comes from 
the earth. Quadrupeds, polypods, and footless 
animals have their superior part in a position corre- 
sponding to the middle region because they are not 
erect ; bipeds have it in a position corresponding to 
the superior region because they are erect, especially 
man, the biped most in accordance with nature. And 
it is only reasonable that the origins " should come 
from these parts ; for the origin is honourable, and 
the superior is more honourable than the inferior, and 
the front than the back, and the right than the left. 
It is also true if Ave reverse the proposition and assert 



15 ω? Ota το τας αρχάς ev τούτοις eti'at ταύτα 
τιμιώτβρα των άντικ€ΐμ€νων μορίων εστίν. 

VI. "Οτι μ€ν οΰν €κ των δεξιών η της κινήσεως 
eoTLV αρχή, φαν^ρον €Κ των €ΐρημ€νων. εττει δ 
ανάγκη παντός συνεχούς, ου το μέν κινείται 
το δ' ηρ€μ€Ϊ, όλον δυνάμενου κινεΐσθαι €στώτος 

20 θατ4ρου, fj αμφω κινείται εναντία? κινήσεις, etvat 
τι κοινον καθ' δ συνεχή ταϋτ* εστίν άΧληΧοις, 
κάνταΰθ' ύπάρχειν την άρχην της εκατερον των 
μερών κινήσεως {ομοίως δε και της στάσεως), 
8ηλον δτι,^ καθ' όσας των λεχθεισών αντιθέσεων 
ιδία κίνησις υπάρχει των αντικείμενων μερών 

25 εκατερω, πάντα ταύτα κοινην άρχην έχει κατά? 
την τών είρημενων μερών σύμφυσιν, λέγω δε των 
τε δεξιών και αριστερών και τών άνω και κάτω 
και τών έμπροσθεν και τών όπισθεν, κατά μεν ούν 
το έμπροσθεν και το όπισθεν 8ιάληφις ουκ εστί 
τοιαύτη περί το κινούν εαυτό, δια το μηθενΐ 

30 φυσικην ύπάρχειν κίνησιν εις το όπισθεν, μηδέ 
Βιορισμον εχειν το κινούμενον καθ' δν την εφ 
εκάτερα τούτων μεταβολην ποιείται- κατά δε το 
Βεζιόν γε και άριστερον και το άνω και το κάτω 
εστίν. διο τών ζωών δσα μερεσιν οργανικοΐς 
707 a χρώμενα προέρχεται, τη μεν τοΰ έμπροσθεν και 
όπισθεν 8ιαφορα ουκ έχει Βιωρισμενα ταύτα, ταΐς 
δε λοιπαΐς, άμφοτέραις μεν, πρότερα δε τη κατά 
το Βεζιον και άριστερον Βιοριζούση, δια το την 

^ δηλον δτί (Leon, manifestum est quod, etc.) : δηλονότι libri. 
* κατά Ρ Leon. : cm, ceteri. 

" i.e. the three pairs of " dimensions " (704 b 19). 


that, because the origins are situated in these parts, 
they are therefore more honourable than the opposite 

VI. It is clear, then, from what has been said that 
the origin of movement is on the right. Now in 
anything continuous of which part is in motion and 
part at rest (the Avhole being able to move while one 
part stands still), there must be, at the point where 
both parts move in opposite movements, something 
common to both which makes these parts continuous 
with one another (and at this point must be situated 
the origin of the movement of each of these parts, 
and likewise also of their immobility) : it is evident, 
therefore, that in respect of whichever of the above- 
mentioned contraries " the individual movement of 
each of the opposite parts takes place, there is in 
all these cases a common origin of movement by 
reason of the interconnexion of the said parts, namely, 
of the right and the left, the superior and the inferior, 
the front and the back. The differentiation accord- 
ing to front and back is not one which apphes to 
that which moves itself, because nothing possesses a 
natural movement backAvards nor has the moving 
animal any distinction in accordance with which it 
can make a change from place to place in each of 
these two directions * ; but there is a differentiation 
of right and left, superior and inferior. All animals, 
therefore, which progress by the employment of in- 
strumental parts have these parts diiferentiated, not 
by the distinction between front and back, but by the 
other two pairs, iirst, by the distinction of right and 
left (for this must immediately exist where there are 

' In other words an animal cannot divide itself into two 
parts, one of wliich goes forwards and the other backwards. 



μ€ν ev TOLS ονσιν €υυ€ως αναγκαιον eivai υττ- 
5 άρχ€ΐν, την δ' iv τοις τίτταρσι πρώτοις. 

Έττει ουν τό τε άνω καΐ κάτω καΐ το Se^Lov και 
άριστ€ρ6ν Tjj avTjj apxfj καΐ KOLvfj συνήρτηται προς 
αυτά (λέγω δβ ταυτην την της κινήσεως κνριαν), δβι 
δ' iv άπαντι τω μβλλοντι κατά τρόπον ποιεΐσθαι 
την άφ' βκάστου κίνησιν ώρίσθαι πως και τβτα- 

10 χθαι ταΐς άποστάσβσι ταΐς προς τάς ρηθείσας 
αρχάς, τάς τ€ αντίστοιχους και τας σύστοιχους 
των iv τοις μβρεσι τούτοις, το των Χζχθεισων 
κινήσεων άπασών αίτιον {αϋτη δ iστιv αφ ης 
άρχης κοινής των iv τω ζωω η re του Se^iou και 
αριστερού κίνησίς iστιv, ομοίως δε και ή του άνω 

15 και κάτω), ταυτην δ'^ ^Χ^''^ εκάστω η παραπλησίως 
έχει' προς εκάστην των εν τοις ρηθεΐσι μερεσιν 
άρχων, VII. SrjXov ουν ως η μόνοις η μάλιστα 
τούτοις υπάρχει των ζώων η κατά τόπον κίνησις, 
α ^υσΐν η τετταρσι ποιείται σημείοις την κατά 
τόπον μεταβολην . ώστ iπει σχε^ίόν τοΐς ivaίμoις 

20 τοΰτο μάλιστα συμβεβηκε, φανερόν δτι πλείοσι 
τ€ σημείοις τεττάρων ούθεν οΐόν τε κινεΐσθαι των 
εναίμων ζώων, και ει τι τετταρσι σημείοις κινεΐσθαι 
πεφυκε μόνον, άναγκαΐον τοΰτ^ eit'at εναιμον. 

'Ομολογεί δε τοΐς λεχθεΐσι και τα συμβαίνοντα 
περί τα ζώα. των μεν γαρ ivaίμωv ούΒέν εις 

25 πλείω Βιαιρούμενον Βύναται ζην ούθενα χρόνον 

1 δ' PUZ : om. SY. 2 ξ^^^ 1 . om. cet. 

" i.e. the distinction of superior and inferior. 

* Nameh% the soul situated in the heart (Mich.). 

* The legs move in pairs, either the front and back legs 
on the same side together, or the front leg on one side with 
the back leg on the other (c/. 704 b 7). 



two things), and, secondly, by the distinction which 
must arise as soon as there are four things." 

Since, then, the superior and the inferior, and the 
right and the left are connected with one another by 
the same common origin (and by this I mean that 
which controls their movement ^), and since in any- 
thing which is to carry out the movement of each 
part properly the cause of all the said movements 
must be somehow defined and arranged at the right 
distance in relation to the said origins, namely, 
those in the limbs, which are in pairs opposite or 
diagonal to one another,*' (and the cause of their 
movement is the common origin from which the 
movement of left and right and likewise of superior 
and inferior in the animal's limbs is derived), and 
since this origin must in each animal be at a point 
where it is in more or less the same relation to each 
of the origins in the said parts,'* (VII•) it is, therefore, 
clear that movement from place to place belongs 
either solely or chiefly to those animals which make 
their change of place by means of two or four points. 
And so, since this condition occurs almost exclusively 
in red-blooded animals, it is clear that no red-blooded 
animal can move by means of more than four points, 
and if an animal is so constituted by nature as to 
move by means of four points only, it must neces- 
sarily be red-blooded. 

What actually occurs in animals is also in agree- 
ment with the above statement. For no red-blooded 
animal can live for any time worth mentioning if it be 

•* There are two kinds of άρχαί in, e.ff., a quadruped, (a) 
those in each of the four legs and (b) the central αρχή in the 
heart ; the former must each be approximately equidistant 
from the latter. 



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" Centipedes. 


divided into several parts, and can no longer partake 
of the motion from place to place whereby it moved 
while it was still continuous and undivided. On the 
other hand, some of the bloodless animals and poly- 
pods can, when they are divide