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Full text of "The Passaic valley, New Jersey, in three centuries.."

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in tl|p Pass air Halbii 



1916 



tn t\^t J^asaatr Haling 

The first meeting of this Society will be held in the Assembly Room of 
the New Jersey Historical Society, 16 W. Park Street, 

Newark, N. J., 

Saturday, November 18, 1916, 

at 10 A.M. 

The morning will be devoted to registering members, organizing the 
Society and outlining its future policy. 

At 1.30 p. m. a limcheon will be served. 

The afternoon will be given up to family reunions, sociability, and the 
business of getting acquainted. 

The basis of membership will be an ancestor named in Littell's "Gene- 
alogies of the First Settlers in the Passaic Valley." 

The objects of this Society are: 

1. To make the organization a center of information on all matters 
of descent by gathering and completing family records and histories and 
preserving them in a place of safety. 

2. To search for and identify places and objects associated with the 
early settlers and mark those of importance with fitting memorials, and to 
secure and preserve photographs or pictures of persons, houses, and places 
connected with the early history of this section. 

3. To promote social intercourse and friendship among families of the 
members. 

To assist in the promotion of these objects, will you donate to the Society 
any old records, deeds, wills, or other valuable docimients in your possession; 
or, if you do not wish to part with them will you make exact copies or photo- 



graphic reproductions of them and forward them? Such documents, when 
assembled from various sources and compared, are often very serviceable 
in clearing up obscure points of family history. 

The Society contemplates a search for old deeds and a survey of the 
Valley and vicinity to identify and mark with suitable memorials as many 
places connected with the history of the settlers as possible. This will be 
expensive and will require more than the income from the regular dues. There- 
fore, the Society will be pleased to receive from those who can afford it gifts 
of money, which will be gratefully acknowledged and appropriated to this 
purpose alone. 

Will you carefully write out your family tree in the Application Blank 
that will be sent you as soon as you signify your intention of joining the 
Society? 

Membership from the following famih'es is already promised: 

Allen, Badgley, Baker, Brown, Clark, Coddington, Craig, Crane, Day, 
Drake, Frazee, Kirkpatrick, Little, Littell, Lambert, Martin, Moore, Mulford, 
Parrot, Roll, Randolph, Smith, Stites, Titus, Townley, Vail, Wilcox,— and 
more to be heard from. 

The success of the Society is assured. The meeting promises to be an 
historic event. 

It will be an All American Society. 

Wives or husbands who may not be eligible to membership will be 
welcome at the meeting. Bring as many members of your family as you 
wish. 

Will you join the Society? Communicating Membership is designed for 
those who cannot be present in person. 

Will you attend this meeting? 

How many will you bring with you? 

Do you know of any others to whom we can send circulars? 

An early response is requested that we may know how many to pro- 
vide for. 

The books, records, and relics of the N. J. Historical Society will well 
repay a visit. 



Expenses: 

Initiation (for every one) . . . . $1.00 

Membership — Life, $25.00 

Active $2.00 yearly. 

Communicating .... $1.00 " 

Limcheon, . . . . . . . $1.50 

Society Button (optional), .... $2.00 

Hotels: 

Continental, 452 Broad Street. 

Rooms, $2.50 to $3.00 per day. 
Table, $1.50. 

Robert Treat, near Trolley Terminal. 
Rooms, $2.00 to $6.00 per day. 
Table, a la Carte. 

There are several good restaurants convenient to Park Street. 

Newark can be reached by the D., L. & W., Erie, N. J. Central, and 
Pennsylvania R. R.'s, and by trolley lines from all directions. The trolley 
lines now run into a new temainal just across Military Park from West Park 
Street. The cars on Broad Street pass within two hundred feet of the Histori- 
cal Society Building on W. Park Street. 

The change from Plainiield, as first announced, to Newark, has been 
made for the convenience of the greatest number. 

/ Theodore J. Badgley, Newark, 
Committee \ Mrs. Mary K. Thurston, Newark Ev'g News, 
on \ Richard T. Wilson, Ridgewood, 
Organization, I Q^j^^^^ H. Moore, Chairman, 

\ R. F. D. I, Ridgewood, N. J. 



^n 



AN APPEAL 



FOR 

THE SOCIETY OF DESCENDANTS OF 

THE FIRST SETTLERS IN THE 

PASSAIC VALLEY. 

Dear Member: 

You know with what bright prospects 
our Society began in 1916, and how, be- 
fore a year* passed, the superior claims of 
our Country caused us to suspend our 
activities. 

Now, that day for the Fourth Annual 
Meeting approaches, it is time to revive 
our Society and to take up the work we 
laid aside' temporarily. Therefore I am 
sending you this appeal to rally to the sup- 
port of the Passaic Valley Society and 
place it upon the footing whereon it de- 
serves to stand. Let me urge you to show 
by your presence that your interest in the 
men and women who gave you an honored 
ancestry is undiminished. 

Will you come to the Annual Meeting 
in the rooms of the New Jersey Historical 
Society on Park Street, Newark, at 2 P. M., 
Saturday, September 27, 1919. 

If you cannot attend, will you write me 
a letter assuring me of your continued 
interest and that you will keep up your 
membership? 

We need many new members, will you 
propose at least one? 

At the meeting I shall propose for your 
consideration a plan for the enlargement 
of the scope of the Society. 

For the good of S. D. F. S. P. V., 

SIDNEY H. MOORE, Gov., 

706 W. ISOth St., New York. 



YORK 



The Passaic Valley 



NEW JERSEY 

f^" ^?^ ^^r^ 

IN THREE CENTURIES 



Historical and Descriptive Records of the Valley and the 
Vicinity of the Passaic ^ Past and Present J- Illustrated 

By JOHN WHITEHEAD, LL.D. 



c V- ij 




The New Jersey Genealogical Company 
136 Liberty Street y New York ^ 1901 



THE NEW YORK 

PUBLIC LIBRARY 

255995 

TILOEN FOUNHATlCiNS 
R I 902 " L 




THE WINTHROP PRESS 
NEW YORK 



C C i C CI 



T (. C - 

: c c ' 

' c c 



DEDICATED 

TO THE 

Memnrfi of the CDiirageaun men and women who, 
for principle anil conscience, abandoned home 
atui country, and founded an empire devoted to 
htiman liherfif in this IVestern World ; and to 
their descendants, who have preserved the virtues 
and emulated the heroism of their ancestors. 

JOHN WHITEHEAD. 

Morristoirn, X. J., 
Octoher, 1!>01. 




" 1 see the white sails on the main; I see, on all the strands, 

Old Europe's exiled households crowd, and toil's unnumbered hands — 

From Hessenland and Frankenland, from Danube, Drave, and Rhine, 

From Netherland, my sea-born land, and the Norseman's hills of pine, 

From Thames, and Shamion, and their isles — and never, sure, before, 

Invading hosts such greeting found upon a stranger shore. 

The Generous Genius of the West his welcome proffers free ; 

'T is a good land to fall in with, men, and a pleasant land to see ! 



" They learn to speak one language ; and they raise one flag adored 
Over one people evermore, and guard it with the sword; 
In gay hours gazing on its four and fourty stars above, 
And hail it with a thousand songs of glory and of love. 
Old airs of many a fatherland still mingle with the cheer, 
To make the love more glowing still, the glory still more dear — 
Drink up-seas out ! join hands about ! bear chorus all," chants he; 
" 'T is a good land to fall in with, men, and a pleasant land to see ! " 

— Ancient Chronicles. 




rOXTENTS 



CHAPTEli I. 

The Passaic Kivek — Geological Formations. 



1-14 



General Description — The Seven Counties — Tributary Streams — 
Dead River, the Whippany, the Koekaway, the Pequannock, the Pomp- 
ton, and Others — LittU' Falls — Its Si-enery — Nature's Changes — The 
Great Falls — (iorge Formations — From Passaic to Newark — The 
Haekensack River — The Salt Meadows. / 



CHAPTER II. 

Paterson — Its Inception and (Growth. 



15-28 



Alexander Hamilton and his Great Project — The Society for Fstali- 
lishiug Useful Manufactures — Legislation — Governor William Paterson 
— Incorporation of the City — Courts and Civil (Jovernment — Major 
L'Enfant — A Ship Canal — Krection of Factories — Character of the 
Inhabitants — Modern Paterson. 



C'llAPTEK III. 
Bernard Townshii' and Its Noted Men. 



29-51 



(;eneral Features — Madisonville — The "Cott'ee House" — Heruard.s- 
ville — Railroad Facilities — Vealtown — Basking Ridge — Churches — 
Revolutionary Incidents — Charles Lee and \\ashington — Capture of 
Lee — " White's Tavern " — William Alexander, Lord Stirling — His 
Parents and Sisters — Wedding of William Duer and Lady Kitty — 
Andrew Kirkjiatrick — Samuel L. Southard — The Missouri Compromise 
Resolutions — William Lewis Dayton — luilicial Changes — Organization 
of the Repnl)lican Party — The Fremont and Dayton Campaign — Lin- 
coln aiul Davtou — Dayton's Work and Death in Paris. 

7 



VI CONTENTS 

CHAPTEE IV. 
Somerset County — Continued. ..... 53-69 

The First Settlers of Bernard Township — James Pitney — The Alex- 
ander Family — frovernor Francis Bernard — Millington — Long Hill — 
Some (ieologiual Theories — Frederick Nisliwish — Organization of 
Somerset County — Courts — Division of the State into Four Counties — 
Middlesex Count}' — Noted Families of Somerset — The Campbells, 
Governor William Piuhorne, and the Uuchess of Gordon — The Fre- 
linghuysens — Tlie Smith Family — Peter Sonmans — The Stocktons — 
Garveu Lawrie — The '-Fundamental Constitution" — The Van Nestiif 
Family — Revolutionary Memories — The Encampment at Somerville — 
The Wallace House. 

CHAPTER V. 

Mendham and Other Towns 71-82 

Physical Characteristics — Early Settlement — The Pitney Family — 
Other Pioneers — Stirling and Gillette — The Lindslej' Family — Long 
Hill — Rev. James Caldwell, the " Fightiug Parson " — Battle of 
Springfield — The Ludlows — Myersville-VPassaic Township in the 
Revolution — The W'lck House and Tempe Wick. 

CHAPTER VI. 

The Great Swamp — Passaic Lake. . . ' . . 83-89 

Geological Formation — Professor George H. Cook's Theory — 
General Features — State Geologists' Reports — Ice Movements. 

CHAPTER VII. 
Passaic and Chatham Townships. .... 91-106 

General Features — W^illiam Pitt, Earl of Chatham — The Great 
Swamp — Railroads — Stanley — George Shepard Page — Churches and 
Schools — Chatham — The Lum and Other Families — Aftou — John 
Hancock — Florham Park — Leslie D. Ward, M.D. — The Convent of 
Saint Elizabeth — Union Hill, Green Village, and Other Places. 

CHAPTER VIII. 
The Borough of Madison. ..... 107-115 

Hanover — Origin of " Bottle Hill " — General Characteristics of 
Madison — Churches — D. Willis James — The Library — Jeremiah Baker 
— Uaiiiel Drew and Drew Seminary — Viueeut Boisaubin — An Historic 
Funeral. fc' 



CONTENTS Vll 

CHAPTER IX. 

MORKIS TOWNSIIII' AND MoHRIf* TOWN. . . . 117-132 

Early Settifrs ami hand ('oiiveyaiu'es — ^\'illia^l Pcnii — Hew TIhio- 
tliv .loluics^l'iiiitaii Ininiifjratioii — Discovery of Iron Ore — Cliiirclit's 
— New and West Hanover — An Keclesiastieal Qnarrel — Presl)yterian- 
isni — Chnrch Records — Tlie C'ondiet and Mills Families — Colonel 
.Jacob Ford — The Ford Mansion, Wasliington's IIeadi|narters — The 
I'iersons, .Johnsons, Whiteheads, and Others — Major .Jacob Aiiiold — 
The New Klenieiit in Morristown. 

CHAPTER X. 
Morristown — Continued. ..... 133-143 

Chnrches — The First and Second Presbyterian Societies — The Bap- 
tist Denomination — The Methodists — Protestant Episcopal Chnrches — 
The Roman Catholics — Colored Congregations. 



CHAPTER XI. 

The Morhistown Library — Revolutionary His- 

I'oRv. ....... 145-155 

Chartered by the Legislature — William L. King — Morristown in 
the Revolntion — The First Winter — The Arnold Tavern — Colonel 
.Jacob Ford, .Jr., and his Powder Mill — All .Sonls Hospital — The 
Second F^ncanipment — Continental Currency — Patriotic Citizens — The 
Ford Mansion — Patriotism of the Women — The First Telegraph l>ine 
— Speedwell and its Iron Manufactures. 



CHAPTER Xn. 
Hanover Townshu'. ...... 157-174 

Local Characteristics — Villages and llandets — Whippany — 'I'he 
Wliipancing Hall and Library Association — H. C. Reynolds — An Elec- 
tric Railway i'roject — Iron Manufacture — Morris Plains — The State 
Asylum for the Insane — Mount Tabor and Methodism — Churcli Or- 
ganizations — Rev. .Jacob (irecn — Parsipjiany^The Kitchells — Khoda 
Farrand Andrew H. Cobb — General .J. Condit Smith — Heaverwyck 
and till' Itoudinot Family — Old Hoonton in the Revolution — A ('anni>n 
P'oundrv — Hanover and Hanover Neck — David Voung, the Almanac 
Maker.' 



Vlll CONTENTS 

CHAPTER Xiri. 

MONTVILLE AND ViCINITY. ..... 175-185 

The Hook Mountain Range — Meadow or Swamp Lauds — Mont- 
ville and the Uyle Kill — Churclies — Holland Imraig-rations — The 
Morris Canal — Distilleries and Other Manufactures — Stone Quarrying 
— Taylortowu and Whitehall — Beavertowu, now Liueoln Park — Pine 
Brook — Dutch Families. 

CHAPTER XIV. 
BooNTON Township and Borough 187-197 

The Iron Industry — Mine Ridge — William and John Scott — The 
New Jersey Iron Company — Decline of Iron Manufacturing — Dudley 
B. Fuller — Au Era of Prosperity — In Revolutionary Times — Sheep 
Hill — ^\'illiam Girard Lathrop and the Iron Interests — Modern Boon- 
ton — Churches and Other Institutions — A Romantic Spot — John .Jacob 
Faesch. 

CHAPTER XV. 

The Toavnship of Pequannock. . . . . 199-209 

Descriptive Notes — Bntler-^Pomptou Plains — Lincoln Park — Jack- 
sonville and Stony Brook — Railroads — Riverdale — Holland Settlers 
and the Iiulians — English Laud Claims — Grant of the Duke of York 
— Berkeley and Carteret — Governor Richard Nicolls — Indian Laud 
Titles — Arent Schuyler and Anthony Brockholst — Dutch Character- 
istics. 

CHAPTER XVI. 
Morris County — Concluded 211-225 

Organization of Hunterdon County and of the County of Morris — 
Local and Civil Affairs — First Court and Township Officers — Pioneer 
Settlements — Tlie Hollanders — English Immigration — The Germans 
— Settlemeu^ the Residt of an Accident — Morris County in the Revo- 
lution — First Demonstrations — Stamp Act Troubles — Patriotism of the 
People — Tile Army Welcomed with Open Arms — Women in tlie 
Struggle -^Lewis Morris. 

CHAPTER XVII. 

Passaic County 227-237 

Irregularity of Formation — Mountains and Streams — Greenwood 
Lake — The Bearfoot Mountains — Lake Maeopin — Railroads — Dutch 
Settlers — Incor])oration of tlie- County — Paterson — Townships and 
Boroughs — Little Falls, Passaic, and Acquackanonk. 



CONTENTS IX 

(ilAl'TEK XVIll. 
West iMiLFOiii), I'o.mi'ton, and Wavnk. . . . 2;i9-248 

The Wanaqua Valley — Iioii Maniifattuii's — CiTinaii l[iiriiij;iati<)n — 
Till' Kaiumse l-"aiiiil.v — Soliools ami C'liuiclies^ Af;iifiiltnral and Mill- 
ing Interests -Kaolin Deposits — The Kingwood Mines — Dnteli .Settlers 
^The Rveison Faniily^ronipton Lakes— Wayne and its Villages — 
Arent Sehnvler an<l Antlmny Hiuekliulst — Mannl'aetm-ing — Anthony 



Way 



ne. 



CHAPTER XIX. 

Little Falls and Manchester 249-257 

The Eight Aecpiackanonk I'wrehasers — Duteh Families — Singac — 
Iron, Carpet, and Other Mannfaetnres — Stone (jnarries — Organization 
of Little Falls — Schools and Churehes — Manehester — Moronglis an<I 
Schools — Mannfaeturing — Karly Burial (iroumls. 

CHAPTER XX. 
Acquackanonk Townshii' 259-268 

Description and Orthography — Indian Names — First Settlement in 
the County — The Aecpiackanonk Purchasers — Grant to Christopher 
Iloagland^The " Landing " — In the Revolntionai-y I'eriod^The 
Famous Van Winkle Deed. 

CHAPTER XXI. 
Passaic County — Concluded. .... 209-278 

Dutch Settlers — The Reformed Diiteh Denomination — Methodism — 
Other Religious Societies — Schools — Impressions of the People — 
Development of Water Power^Tlie City of Passaic — Paterson — Us 
Churches, Schools, Newspapers, and Inhabitants — Cosmopolitan Fea- 
tures — Cliftou, Athenia, Haledoii, and Other Villages. 

CHAPTER XXII. 
Bergen County 279-292 

Earlv Settlers — Townships — Original Boundaries of the County — 
Injjian Traders — lersey City — Bergen iu the Revolution — Raids and 
In^'asions — Washington and Lafayette — War Taxes — llohokus — Rod- 
man M. Price — Ramsey's — Colonel Provost, Madam .lumel, and Aaro:i 
Burr— AUcndah', Mali'wah. and Darlington. ^ ^ 



X CONTENTS 

CHAPTER XXIII. 

Bergen County — Concluded. .... 293-312 

Franklin Township — The Worteudyke Family — Oakland, Crystal 
Lake, Midland Park, and Wyckoff — ^V■illiam Franklin — Ridgewood — 
Churches — Godwinville — Saddle River — The Doremns Family — Mid- 
land and its Revolutionary Interests — The Demarest Family — River 
Edge — Lodi — Carlstadt — Woodridge — Union Township — ThePenniug- 
tons and Sandfords — Rutherford — Kingsland and Lyndlmrst — The 
Schuyler Copper Mines. 

CHAPTER XXIV. 

Essex County and Elizabethtowt^. . . . 313-329 

Organization of Courts and Comities — Old and Modern Essex — 
Elizabethtown — Inducements to Settlers — Berkeley and Carteret — - 
Local Characteristics — Distinguished Citizens — Boudinot, Livingston, 
and Others — Revolutionary Incidents — Elizabethport. 

CHAPTER XXV. 
The Puritan Settlers 331-346 

Formation of Essex County — The Connecticut Immigrants — Their 
Principles and Characteristics — A God-fearing People — Berkele}- and 
Carteret's " Grants and Concessions " — Robert Treat — Arrival of the 
Colony at Newark — The Fundamental Agreement and its Signers — 
Troubles with the Indians — Robert Treat's Story — The Two Indian 
Deeds — The Founding of Newark. \ 

CHAPTER XXVI. 

The Founding of Newark. ..... 347-357 

Laying out the Town — Bounds Described by the Queen Anne Charter 
— The First Settlers — Their Characteristics — Goveruiuent of the 
Colony — The Plotting of " Home " Lots — The Plume and Other Fam- 
ilies — Religious Matters — Streets,^Parks, and Water Courses — Schools. 

CHAPTER XXVII. 

Newark — In the Revolution and the Rebellion. 359-372 

Churches and Schools — Growth of the City — Manufacturing — Trade 
with the South — Revolutionary History — Prompt Response of the Citi- 
zens — Raids and Outrages — The Minutemen — Names on the Rolls — 
The Civil War — Patriotic Responses — Regimental Organizations — 
General Philip Kearney. 



CONTENTS XI 

CHAPTER XXVllI. 
Irvington, Montclair, and tub Oranges. . . 373-388 

t'aniptdwn. iiiiw Irviugtoii-^E,^rly Settlers — Tory Corner — Belle- 
ville, Hldoiiiticlil, Orange, and Spi'ingfielfl — Moiitclaii' — West Orange — 
lylewellyn S. Haskell and Llewellyn Park — Tlmnias A. Kilison — Saint 
Cloud and (ieorge B.AIfClellan — Soiitli Orange — Tlie Old Stone Honse 
— Kast Orange. 

CHAPTER XXIX. 
Clinton, Franklin, Belleville, Verona, Caldwell. 389-406 

The Townslii]) of Clinton — Canijitown and its " Navy Yard " — State 
Fair (irounds — Irvington — Franklin and Belleville — Ancient Dwell- 
ings — Niitley — Verona — Its Lake and Park — Caldwell. 

CHAPTER XXX. 
Essex County— Concluded 407-417 

Livingston Township — The Teed Family — Millmrn — Wyoming and 
.Sliort Hills — Stewart Hartshorne — Orange and the Mountain Society 
— Development of the Town — Interesting Remini.scences. 

CHAPTER XXXT. 

TiiK County- of Hudson. 419-433 

The Village of Bergen — Grants of Stiiyvesant and Carteret — Bergen 
County as Originally Formed — Creation of Townshijis, Cities, and 
Towns — Railroads — Holioken Hacking and Ahasimns — Michael Pauw 
and the Pavonia Colony — Planck's and Van Vorst's Plantations — Gov- 
ernor Kieft — The Massacre of Pavonia^vFarly Settler.s — The Queen 
.\nne Cliarti-r — Common Lands — Hudson County Families. 

CHAPTER XXXII. 
Hudson County — Concluded. .... 435-444 

Captain William Sandford's Purchase — Nathaniel Kingsland — New 
Barliadoes Neck — Colonel Peter .Sehnyler — •' New Town" — Roads — 
Kearney Township — The .State Soldiers' Home — Harrison and East 
Newark — Revolutionary Incidents — Lee's Attack on Paulus Hook — 
Bergen Neck Evacuated. 

CHAPTER XXXIII. 
The County of Union. 445-454 

.Scenery and Natural Features — Kli/.alieth — New Providence — Mur- 
ray Hall, lierkeley Heights, and other Towns — Summit — Jonathan C. 
Bound — The Beacon and '-Old .Sow" — Finis. 



INDEX TO ILLUSTRATIONS 



A patriotic barber 354 

A Song for tbe Union 368 

After a blizzard . 240 

Alexander, James . 34 

Alexander, Mrs. James 35 

Alexander, William 33 

American Peace Commissioners. . 146 

Amsterdam, Holland 64 

Amsterdam, Holland, Street in . . 397 
Amsterdam City Hall, Holland, 

before 1615 215 

An old house 411 

Arms and autograph of Robert 

Hunter 431 

Arnold Tavern, Morristown 151 

Arrival of Lafayette in 1824 364 

At a comity fair 246 

Autograph and arms of Robert 

Hunter 431 

Autograph of Lord Berkeley .... 05 

Autograph of Philip Carteret . , 65 

Autograph of Richard Nieolls . . 323 

Autograph of William Bradford . 336 

Baldvtdn homestead 383 

Bellin's, S., map 72 

Belt of wampum 266 

Bergen and Buyteu Tuyn in 1660 . 422 

Bergen Coimty, maps of . . . 280, 289 

Berkeley, Lord, autograph of . . . 65 

Bible, ancient 272 

Block's " Figurative Map " 7 

Boston massacre 134 



Boudinot arms 326 

Bondinot, Elias 326 

Boudinot house, Elizabeth . 446 

Bows and arrows 23 

Bradford house at Plymouth . . . 335 

Bradford, William, autograph of . 336 

Breukelen in Holland 244 

British officers, uniforms of 153 

British troops, departure of 159 

British troops, entry of 140 

Campaign medals , . 48 

Carteret arms. ... 206 

Cateret, Philip, autograph of. . 65 

Castle Point, Hoboken 432 

Central Part of Rah way 453 

Charles 1 420 

Chaves, Alonzo, map of 2 

Church 257 

Church at Bergen, 1680 143 

Church, the first, in Newark. . . . 355 
City Hall, Amsterdam, Holland, 

before 1615 215 

City Hall at The Hague 294 

Clinton arms . 391 

Clinton, De Witt 390 

Cockloft Hall and snmmer house 351 

Colonial chatelaine 409 

Colonial coin 349, 372, 388 

Colonial currency, 

202, 237, 254, 350, 361 

Colonial gentleman 20 

Colonial Jack 82 



it^TDEX TO ILLUSTRATIONS 



('iilorilal jiistol 

('(ili>nial silver 

Colonial tea set of gold 

Coloiiiiil vase 

Cult's Hill, I'litersoii 

CoiiHiut with the Indians 

Congress, medal of 

Continental currency 

Continental soldier 

Country ('Iul» Inmsr, lluttt)n 

Park 

Country home, a 

Conntry tavern, a 

Crane Tavern, the 

" Crazy " iiuilt 

Crown of (ieorge II 

Dayton, William L 

" Deep a Voll " homestead, Mid- 
land Park 

Departure of the British troops 
Dorenius house at Hloomtield. . , . 

Dragoon officer , . 

Duke of York's seal 

Dutch Chiu'ch 

Dutch country people 

Dutch coiirtslnp 

Dutch house 

Dutch patroon 

Dutch town, showing crow-stepped 
gahlcs 

Dutch windmill 

K Plurihus Unum 

East Jersey, seal of 

Eastside Park, Paterson 

Edison, Tliomas A 

Kdison, Thomas A., residence of. 

Elizahethtown in 1840 

" Figurative Map," Block's 

First church in Newark 

First State House at Trenton . . 

First telegraph line 

First \'iew of New Amsterdam. . . 



90 

30 

306 

235 

6 

28 
2(iS 

70 

387 
408 
410 
328 
230 
59 
43 

2!l(> 
15!) 
37() 
148 
207 
200 
180 
219 
19 
247 

299 

100 

357 

58 

20 

380 

375 

310 

7 

355 

212 

154 

178 



Flag of llidiau.l 27 ■ 

Flag of the Thirteen Colonies . . . 329 
Flag of the West India Cmupany 2G5 

Ford Mansion, Morristown 130 

Fort Lafayette ; . •. 371 

Fort Lee in 1770 263 

Fort Wadswortli and the Nar- 
rows .... 430 
Fort Washington and vicinity in 

1779 284 

Frelinghuysen, Frederick T 63 

Frelinghnysen, Theodore, facing. 61 

Frelinghuysen, Theodore 62 

F^'cmont, John C, medallion .... 45 
Gate-house and dam at Ursino 

Lake 318 

fieorge I, (Jreat Seal of 55 

George II 109 

(ieorge II, crown of 59 

George II, (ireat Seal of 60 

(xeorge II, shilling of . . 114, 433 

George III 112 

" Glenmont," residence of Thomas 

A. Edison 375 

Great Falls at Paterson 8,9, 18 

G reat Seal of George I . . 55 

Great Seal of George II 56 

Great Seal of James II 205 

Greenwood Lake, views at 228 

(Jrenadier officer 80 

" Half Moon," tlie. 209 

" Half Moon " leaving Am.ster- 

dam. 183 

Hall of the Knights, Binnenhof, 

Holland 393 

Hamiltou, Alexander, facing... 10 
Hamilton-Bmr duelling ground . 424 
Hamilton Grange, New York. ... 16 
Hamilton's tomb in Trinity 

churchyard 17 

Hanging a Tory 223 

Ilasbrouck Institute, Jersey City 441 



XIV 



INDEX TO ILLUSTRATIONS 



Haskell, Llewellyn S., bust of . . . 379 

Hessian hut . 292 

Highlander, a 442 

Hoboken in 1770 423 

Home for Aged Women, Eliza- 
beth 446 

Homestead of John Mills 128 

Homestead, tlie Baldwin 383 

Horseneck Bridge, views near ... 25 
House in Amsterdam, Holland . . 267 

Hudson Comity, map of 429 

Hudson iu the Highlands 204 

Hudson River, scenes on. . . 281, 297 
Hunter, Robert, arms and auto- 
graph 431 

Indian ceremonial stone 262 

Indian chieftains, 

74, 196, 213, 260, 309 
Indian group in Lincoln Park, 

Newark 315 

Indian king 341 

Indian mortar and pestle 96 

Indian Primer, title page of 343 

Indian specimens 86 

Indian totemic signatures 87 

Indian totems . . 342 

Indian vase 344 

Indian vessel 102 

Indians, conflict with 6 

Irving, Washington 352 

Irving, Wasliington, home of . 392 

James 1 334 

James II, Great Seal of 205 

Jersey prison ship 118 

Kearney, General Philip, facing . . 370 

Kief t's mode of punishment 426 

King's statue, tearing down 81 

Kirkpatriek, Andrew 36 

Lafayette, General 287 

Lafayette, arrival of, in 1824 . . . 364 

Lexington, news of. 136 

Liberty enlightening the world . . 274 



Liberty Hall, Elizabethtown . 324, 451 

Liberty placard 221 

Lincoln, Abraham 50 

Little Falls, view at 4, 252 

Livingston arms 35 

Livingston sugar house. New York 303 
Llewellyn Park, entrance to ... . 378 

Log cabin 14 

Lower Green at Newark 333 

Madison, James 110 

Manhattan Island in the sixteenth 

century 270 

Map of Adriaen Van der Donck 11 

Map of Alonzo Chaves 2 

Map of Bergen and Buyten Tuyu 422 

Map of Bergen County 280, 289 

Map of Hudson County 429 

Map of New Amsterdam 169 

Map of New Jersey in 168t 84 

Map of New York City, the earliest 282 

Map, Popple's 12 

Map of S. Bellin 72 

" Mayflower," the 51 

McClellan, George B 381 

Medal of the Revolution 225 

Mill on the Saddle River 300 

Mills, John, homestead 128 

Monument at Springfield 78 

Morris arms 132 

Morris, Lewis 224 

Morristown in 1828 123 

New Amsterdam, first view of. . . 178 

New Amsterdam in 1656 189 

New Amsterdam, map of 169 

New Amsterdam, seal of . . . . 182 
New Jersey, map of, in 1680 .... 84 

"New Netherland," the 217 

New Netherlands, seal of 66 

New York City, earliest map of . 282 
New York City in the Revolution- 
ary period 438 

New York in 1673 305 



INDEX TO ILLUSTRATIONS 



XV 



Ni-w York ill 17:i2 192 

New York, part of, in KJGO 3IV,> 

New York, seal of, in 1()8(>. . . . 345 

Newark in I.s:i2 348 

Newark, Lower Oreen 333 

Newark, view of old 321 

News of Lexington 13('> 

Nicolls, Kicliard, autograph of. . 323 

North Park, Elizabeth 450 

Ogden, Aaron 39 

Ogden, Col. Josiah, saving lii.s hay 

on Sunday 338 

Old farm hou.sc . 398 

Old hou.se 250 

Old print 1()3 

Old residence 194 

Ou the march 173 

Orange orphan house 41.5 

I'ali.saded village 88 

vl^assaic River L 8. li. 1 ■>, 25 

Paterson, Colt's Hill 235 

Paterson, Great Falls ^■. 9, 18 

Paterson, William 22 

Peace Commissioners, American . 14C 

Penn, William 120 

Pennington, \Villiam 47 

Pitt, William 92 

Pompton, old Revolutionary house 

at 242 

Popple's plan of 1733 12 

Presbyterian Church in Newark . 360 

Rahway, central part of 453 

Re|nihlieaii campaign medals. ... 48 

Revolution, medal of 22.5 

Revolutionary house at Pompton . 242 
Revolutionary monument at Sum- 
mit . . . 452 

Rhinelamlcr sugar hnusc, New 

York 302 

Rosa Americana coin 454 

Royal troops entering New Y'^ork. 140 

Rimyon, Theodore 309 



.Siddle Kiver, mill on 300 

Saint .lames's Church, Klizabeth. 448 

Selmoering, John, pro])erty of. . . 296 

Schuyler arms. 208 

Schuyler, Peter 437 

Seal of Kast Jersey ... 58 

Seal of New Amsterdam 182 

Seal of New Netherlands 06 

Seal of New Y'ork in 1686 345 

Seal of the Duke of Y'ork 207 

Second I'reslivtcinn Church, Kliz- 
abeth 447 

Sliilling of (ieorge II Ill, 433 

Ship 406 

Silver dollar of 1794 125 

Snuit' boxes 185 

Southard, Samuel L 38 

Springfield, monument at 78 

Stage coach, an early 94 

Stam])-act stamp 222 

State House, first, at Trenton.. . . 212 
Statue of Washington in Wall 

Street 152 

Stirling, Lord 33 

Stone house at South Orange . . . 384 

Street in Amsterdam, Holland . . 397 

Stuyvesaut, Petrus, grave oT 283 

Stuyvesant's Bowery house ... . 43ff 

Stuyvesant's pear tree 322 

Suburban house 261 

Summit, Revolutionary monument 

at 452 

" Siumyside," Washington Irv- 

ing's home 392 

Tankard, ancient 89 

Tearing down the King's statue 

in New York. ... 81 

Telegraph line, the first 154 

Thirteen colonies, flag of 329 

Uniforms of British officers 153 

Valley of the Rocks at Paterson. 18 

.Van Cortlandt Arms 395 



INDEX TO iLLtlSfRATIONS 



Van Der Douck, Adriaeu, map . . 11 
Van Wagoner homestead at Pas- 
saic 276 

Verona Lake and Park 401 

View 417 

View of old Newark . 321 

" Vyyer " at Tlie Hague 232 

Wallace House, near Sonierville . 67 

Wampnm, belt of 266 

Washington chair, a 311 

Wasliington, General, recounoiter- 

ing 440 

Washington, George, facing 150 

Washington, George (Peale's 150 

portrait) 68 

Washington, Martha 149 

Washington, President, writmg 
desk of 443 



Washington, statue of, in Wall 

Street 152 

Washington taking the oath as 

President 365 

Washington's bookplate 444 

Washington's chair 363 

W ashington's headquarters, 

67, 130, 151 

Washington's writing table 304 

Wayne, Anthony, note to Wash- 
ington 248 

West India Company, flag of ... . 265 
Whitehead, John, LL.D. .Frontispiece 

Windmill 106 

Winthrop, John, of Connecticut. 332 
Winthrop, John, of Massachusetts 337 










CHAPTER I 



TIIK PASSAIC I!IVi:it (JEi )!,()( ilCA I> KOKMATIONS 



\\<: J'ASSAK" I;1\I:K in all rcsix'cts is a New 
.Tcrsoy stream. 1 1 lias its lisr in this State; 
ils w liulc (■(Mn-><(' is wiiliiii iis Imi-dci-s; and its 
jnin-ii(',\- is cmlcd liy its waters bciiit; iioiired 
into Newark iiay a slun't distaiiee south of the City of 
Newark. It is tlie longest and most imjiortant liver in 
New Jersey; it turns more mills, operates more laetories, 
and I'linii^lics moic water ]Ki>\-ei- tor the uses n{' man than 
any otlier stri'am of its size. Niuety miles only in Icnjitii 
from its souree to its final deposit, it drains eijiht hundred 
and more square^ miles of seven counties and forms the nat- 
ural lioiiiidary lines hi'iwccn parts of those seven counties: 
Morris, Somerset, Union, Essex, Passaic, Herij'en, and Hud- 
son. Its value to the State, and es]iecially to these seven 
counties, is lii'yend calcnlatiou, lutr can it he estimated. 

It rises in .Morris County, ni'ar Mendhaiu. in swampy 
iii'oiiiid, thoiiiih in a mount ainous region, at an ele\ation of 
nearly nine hundred feel, and bei^ins its race to the ocean, 
runniuii' i" ;i nemial coiiise east id' south for about ten 
miles, i-eceivinii' s( \eral small brooks, and diaiuini;' a lar<»e 
swani]!. thei-i b\ imreasiut;- the volume of water sutticieutly 
to o|)erate se\'eral mills. For this distance it courses o\'er 
a very picturesipu' country, in some places jjresentino- bold 
and rather romantic lamlscapes, but foiiuini;- no immediate 



A THE PASSAIC VALLEY 

appreciable valley. It is for a part of this ten miles the 
natural boundary line between Morris and [Somerset Coun- 
ties. When it reaches a point almost directly south of Mil- 
lington, and whei-e it receives Dead Eiver, it turns abruptly, 
northeasterly, with a horseshoe-like curve, still dividing the 
two counties. It then, however, and almost immediately, 
changes its swift movement and becomes exceedingly' slow 








^ 



A SKCTION OF THK 
MAP OF 

ALONZO CHAVES. 

Showing tlie 

Enstern Coast of the 

United States. 



BecoDBtructed from the deseriptioD of Oviedo 
in hia " Historic General," &c. 1537. 

By B. F. De Costa. 
To which is added an extract from the 
Map of Ribcro. , . 



— w 



and sluggish, in which characteristic it is excelled by no 
other stream. This lazy movement is retained until it ap- 
proaches Little Falls in Passaic County. The descent for 
nearly the whol(» distance is ouly about four feet to the 
mile. 

After receiving the waters of Dead Eiver, a Somerset 
stream, near Millington, Union County is soon found be- 
tween Warrenville and New Providence, and then the river 



THE passah; i;ivj:u 3 

runs between rninn iiinl Aluiris a sliorl distauco I)ey()n(l (he 
bridge of (lie Delaware, J.ackawiiuua and Wesieni Kail- 
road, just west of Siumiiit, to Cliatliam Towusliip, iu tlie 
last named county. Thence it tlows, still slowly, in a north- 
ward direction to the extreme northwest corner of Cahhvell 
'rowuslii]( in Kssex, near Montville, in Morris, dividing- the 
last two named counties. In this course from Somerset to 
the end of Essex the river follows everj' direction of the com- 
pass. When it reaches Passaic County, which it does al- 
most immediately after leaving Caldwell, it makes another 
turn, this time eastward, and liien it changes and becomes 
an imjietuous, turbulent, swift-moving body of water. 

Between Sonu'rset and Passaic its waters are largely aug- 
mented by many considerable streams which have joined it. 
It also receives sevt-ral biooks and creeks, some from Somer- 
set, others from Morris, Union, and Essex. The Whippany, 
an important mill stream, and the Kockaway, still more 
important, and both from Morris, unite in Hanover Town- 
ship, a short distance from where their combined waters 
are added to the I'assaic. The re(|nanock, the Wanaque, 
or Wynockie, as it is sometimes called, and the Kamapo, 
uniting near Pompton in Passaic, form a large sti'eam after 
that called the Pompton, and malce great additions near 
the boundary line between Essex and Passaic, and only a 
few miles from Little Falls. 

Wlien the river was in a state of nature the scene around 
it at Little Falls was grand and reallj' sublime. The 
stream broadened and deeiteiied, and, gathering its waves 
into one immense mass, as if pre|)aiing loi' the task before 
it, plunged down two almost perpendicular descents with 
a loud roar, dashing its foam up to the clouds. The fall 
here was tifty-oue feet in a half nule; the river was three 
hundred feet wide and ten feet deep. The first descent was 




? 



CIIANCJKS OF NATURE 5 

ill ;i iiic;isiu-c more liciillc ;is (•(Hiiii;irc(l willi I he (itluT, 
wliicli w.is si\l('(?n feet (l(c[i ami iniicli iiioi-c ^i-aiid iiml im- 
pressive. 

Tlie liiiiid of man lias been iiidiislviously at woi'k licve, 
and lias mateviallv eluuiiicd I lie ( liaractcr and iiiovcmcnt of 
the I'iNcr: it has marred, Iml not cntiicly destroyed, tin* 
naliiiai beauty of the scene. IJejnre man made his appear- 
ance on the s]Kit and interfere(i \\iiii Nature's work great 
changes tii(>l< ]dai-e. It is snjiposed liy ge(dogists that aii 
immense lake existed at one lime on what are noAv both 
banks of the ri\'ei-, exiending from and iiniilving the west- 
( in part of Somerset Connly, northward to Little Falls, and 
eastward and westward, imdnding ^forris County and i)arts 
of the adjacent country. At some time in the history of the 
Avorld a mighty convulsion in the ice covering tlie land teok 
])lace, and the lake bi(d<e o]pen tlie barriers which coutined 
it and changed the wlndi' character of the land and water. 
The surface of the flood receded, the river cut through the 
mountain, t>ii!iied a channel for its flow, drained the waters 
of the lake, and created i,ittie kails. I'.ut llieir i.ositioii 
was ultimately changed and receded, perhajis, a distance of 
seven hnndred feet from the wall front, where the falls were 
three hundred feet broad and jn-obably tifty feet deei). The 
falls have been blasted away and entirely obliterated. 

The stream lias been cribbed, confined, and made to ]day 
an iiii|nHtani i)art as an appliance in ministei-ing to thi- 
wants and ilemands of modern civilization. Large facto- 
ries have been ere (•t((l on the banks of the river, and have 
been supplied witli a never failing and always sullicient mo- 
tive power and an iiniietiis given to inaniifaciui-es. The 
masterful mind of man has harnessed liie waters, made 
them subservient to his will, and utilized i iieni for his pur- 
poses. This motive power has moved many vast jdauts of 



6 



THE PASSAIC VALLEY 



macliinerj', driven enormous wheels, and the buiklers of 
these factories have been enabled to make them hives of 
industry, employing hundreds of active, busy, intelligent 
Avorkmen. Grreat channels of trade and commerce have 
been opened, the community has been blessed, and thou- 
sands have been benelited by the change from the rougli, 
wild scenes of nature to the peaceful evidences of man's in- 
genuity, enterprise, and perseverance. 

Just beyond 
the falls the 
river passes un- 
der the aque- 
duct of the Mor- 
ris Canal, Avilb a 
noble arch made 
of cut stone 
of very beauti- 
ful construc- 
tion. Thence it 
makes its placid 
way, occasional- 
ly agitated by a 
few ripples, but 
never disturbed 
by any considerable rapids, until after a travel of about 
five miles the Great Falls at Paterson are reached. The 
descent, however, between the two localities is sufficient 
at places to drive a few mills. 

The general direction of the river is now northeast- 
erly, but as it reaches a point nearly, if not quite, 
midway between Little Falls and West Paterson, it makes 
a sharp turn to the southeast, and then about half a mile 
beyond this point it again resumes the northeasterly course. 




CONFLICT WITH THE INDIANS (dE BRY). 



ClIAXOES OF NATURE 7 

At West I'iilci'soii I lie Passaic crosses First Mountain 
tliriniiih a j^aji I wo miles wide. In tlie bottom of tliis ixn]> 
the river lias cut a deep gorge, at tlie upper end of which if 




block's " FIGURATIVE MAP," 1614. 

pluuges over a narrow canon seventy feet dec]!, and this is 
tlie " Great Falls." 

The ice. when it moved and disai>iicaifd, undoubtedly 
created great cliaiiges in this locality, as it did at Little 
Falls; the bed (tf the river was lowei-ed. the heiglil of the 



8 



THE PASSAIC VALLEY 



water flowing in the river was materially lessened, the 
breadth, elevation, and location of the falls ^\■er(' changed, 
and the whole appearance of the laud greatly altered. 
The original height of the descent of the water here was 
probably from one hnndred and twenty-five to one hundred 
and fifty feet, and the ledge over Avhich the descent was 
made must have been at least three hundred feet wide. The 
location of the falls, before this action of the icemovement, 
was several hundred feet away from its present position. 




GREAT FALLS AT PATKKSON. 



Had all these remained as they were before the ice moved 
such obstacles would have existed as would have obstructed 
man in his utilization of tlie appliances which nature in her 
benevolence presented to him in this improved condition, 
fitted for his use, in serving his needs. 

How long a time was employed in accomplishing all these 
stupendous results is left entirely to conjecture. It is sim- 
ply impossible to form any estimate whatever whether it 
was millions of years or less, No data have been afforded 




s) 



10 THE PASSAIC VALLEY 

by ^^'llioll any pro])er judgment can be formed; no hand- 
writing of the Deity lias been traced on tlie roclvS. The ice 
lias disapi^eared; it has left indubitable evidences of its 
former presence and of its mighty works; the waters have 
tunnelled the mountains, have cut great gaps in the earth, 
have forced the stubborn rock to yield to their irresistible 
power; the floods have receded from the earth, the di'y land 
has appeared, the peaceful river now flows in its appointed 
coui'se, and the heart of man has been gladdened by its 
beneficent influence. 

It is estimated that 1,493,100 cubic yards of trap rock 
alone have been removed from the gorges opened by the ice 
and watei". Some idea may be formed of the amount of 
this material thus lemoved by a reduction of the mass to 
feet. It will form a column three hundred feet long and 
four hundred and forty-seven feet high. Even this calcula- 
tion will not enable us to estimate the time it took to remove 
the rock. It must be remembered that this statement only 
involves one kind of material which was removed. No esti- 
mate can possibly be made of other substances carried 
away, such as shale, sand, gravel, and earth. 

As the stream approaches its last descent it again widens 
as if preparing for its final and greatest effort, and then 
Avith an impetuous force is driven over a chasm sixty feet 
in depth, in an unbroken sheet, into a narrow channel below 
sixty feet wide, where it foams and dashes between high 
perpendicular, rocky walls on either side, until it reaches 
a calm and broad basin, whicli it has carved for itself by 
its own inherent powei' out of the rock. From this reser- 
voir it again assumes a swift moving motion, caused by a 
descent of twenty feet, and below the level of the plain 
around Paterson. Beyond that city it makes another sud- 
den turn, this time southAvard, and then, pursuing a more 




ADRIAKN VAN DER DO.NCK's MAI", KJjG. 















"Tf^ii: 




lutton, 

'« »« o^ 
















\ 

'; S 6 S ej / '^ 

.6 3'i ■* * 




;i' ^ ^ S^caleofMJes 

^ ^1 ^ ' f ^1 w uTthwyi 



•POrPI.E's PLAN OF 1733. 



NEWARK BAY AND VICIMTV 13 

pcilccrill lil(»\('llli'll( tor si'Ncnil luilrs, I-Cilclics I lie IllO(lcni 
('il\' of I'assjiic, w licic il inccis I idrwalcr IVniii I he >si'a. 
Here, iissmuiiii;' iiun'c and iihiit ilic cliaractcvisl ics nl' a Ivnc 
rivcf, il iiKixcs onward willi w idi'iiiiiLi si i-caiii and dii;nilicd 
How nnlil il iinilcs lis arcnnMilalcd walcrs wilii lliosc of 
llic IhuJicnsacU and I'oi-nis New ail; ISay. I)nri]i,n- lliis 
i-oiirsc it receives several si reams Iroin Bergen ('onnlj, of 
wliich Preal<ness and Saddle Itivcrs are the principal. 

I'liini I'assaic to Newark liie lianl^s of the sireaiii and ils 
iimniMJiale \ailev i>resenl iiiosi (iiarniing iialiirai scenery. 
There are no high Idnffs, i.o palisaih-s, no monnlain heights 
frowning down npon liie IIoikI helow; genlle (h'(di\ities, eii- 
li\('iu'd liy \ale and Naijey, and occasional acres of woodland 
hriglilen llie scene. .Mail's ingeiinily and ai-l ha\'e added 
their charms lo lln' work of nature; ri(lily cnllivale<l lields 
and frnitfnl farms are found on eillier side; well bnilt 
villages, showing thrift and eiieigy, elegant residences, 
where weallli and tasle ha\(' emhidlislied llieir surroniid- 
ings, arc •-;( en at every lurn; occasional fadories snhstan- 
tially hnill, wilh iieal cottages surrounding them for their 
many <'inployees and llieir families, evince by their api)ear- 
ance industry and |)ios|)erily, and jdease the eye and glad- 
d( II llic h";irl of Ihe iilililariaii and ecoiiomisl. .Many 
hridges, in some instances of e.xcellent aud artistic striict- 
uie. span the stream, affording facilities for travel by ordi- 
iiaiw carriauc and for several railroads. Nnmerotis vessels, 
holh sleaiii aii<l sail, ply uji ami down, carrying mendian 
disc l(p differciil p(dnls. and ri'joicing Ihe lie;irls of lliose 
wlio didiglil ill sn(di e\idences of enteri)rise. 

.\fl( r having Newark and Icfore its enlrance into the 
hay Ihe liver jtasses throngh a llai country exiending east- 
ward for several miles belwceii Ihe I'assaic and llacken- 
sack Ki\('r<, and east of (he lasi nameii slream and iiorlh- 



14 



THE PASSAIC VALLEY 



ward to the to^^-ll of Ilackeusaek in Bergen County. This 
section of country, containing many thousand acres of land, 
and called, generally, the " Salt Meadows," was once cov- 
ered by a growth of scrub pines and cedars, which have now 
nearly all been cut off. It is intersected by numerous small 
creeks and ditches affected by the tides of the ocean, and is 
now covered by a growth of sedge, rushes, and salt grass. In 
the summer season large patches of marshmallows and other 
flowering aquatic plants are scattered over these low 
grounds and add greatly to the beauty of the landscape. 
The sea undoubtedly at one time flowed over these acres. 
Several railroads traverse tliese meadows on their way to 
the great metropolis of the republic, and near Newark many 
factories have been erected upon them. It is possible that 
in the near future they may be utilized for manufacturing 
purposes. 

Just before the Passaic makes its great plunge at the 
" Great P^'alls " an immense dam has been built across the 
stream and its waters have been utilized for the pui'poses 
of manv large manufactories at Paterson. 





^^f^ 



y32:>^ 




C 11 A 1' T E i; 1 1 



PATERSON ITS INCEPTION AND GROWTH 




I.IOXANDEK IIA.MILTOX, the liisl Si-eTi-larv of the 
Troasiirv of tl;c riiitcil Stales under Presideiit 

\\'asliini;toii, has not in one i-espcL-t receiNcd the 
awaiil (if ]ivaisc lie deserves. His efforts to raise 
tlie standard of American industry were unwearied and 
were of the most ])ractical eliaracter. lie is remembered as 
a tinancier, as a statesman, and as a soldiei', but is seldom 
if ever recoL;niy,e(l as I'cally the founder of ])rolection to 
Amei-ican manufactures. 

I. ate in tlie eijiliteeuth c<'ntur.v. at a time wIlcu tlie mauu- 
facl iiiiiiL: interests of t he i-e](ublic were in a formative stale 
and the allenlion of slalesmen was tui-ned to thai impor- 
tant sul>ject, Colonel Hamilton concei\(id the idea of the 
creation of an association whicli should ])ractically demon- 
strate that the Amei-ican |)eo)i]e need no ]oiijj;er be depend- 
ent ii]ioii foici^n count ries |'(,i- iiianiiract ured products neces- 
sai-y for ordinary use. Ills capacious, far-i-eachinj;- mind 
(Mubraced two |)ur])oses in his sclicme: I'irst, that the citi- 
zens of the then struiiiiliuii' re]inblic should be tauj;lit the 
lesson of scll-deiiendencc and freeclom from the thraldom 
of foiciiiu ]iio(li leers; and, second, I he iiil I'oduclion of a jirin- 
ciple of action into the policy of the country Mliich would 
insure for the future the application of .Xmei'ican industry 



16 



THE PASSAIC VALLEY 



to tlie manufacture of various kiiuls of goods wliirli were 
in common demand, and malve tlie people of tlie United 
States able not only to produce wliat Ti as needed for home 
consumption, but in time to compete with foreign countries 
as exporters and cease alone to be importers. America, 
through its varied climate and by its manifold appliances, 
could produce the raw material necessary for the manufac- 
ture of CA'ery article needed for tlie ordinary demands of all 
classes in the community. 




HAMILTON GRANGE, NEW YORK. 



The i^lan was a grand one, patriotic in all its aspects, and 
worthy of the great man who conceived it. But to carrj' it 
out to a practical result co-operation was needed. So Col- 
onel Hamilton sought aid in his great project. He submit- 
ted it to many leading capitalists and patriotic citizens of 
llie time, and finally, after mucli toil and great exertion and 
many discussions, a company' was formed in the early Y>iivt 
of 1791, by the active efforts of this distinguished states- 
man, foi' establishing useful manufactures. Five thousand 
shares of stock, at one hundred dollars per share, were sub- 
scribed, but only 2,267 shares Avere fully paid for. The ex- 



l^<xr.^^''■ 



i^^^^^\ 



iiA.\iii/i(i.\"s i;i;kat I'lto.iKCT 



17 



pressed purpose of tile ;iss()ci;il ion \\;is llie iiKUUifaclnre of 
";ill iirlicles not proliil)il((l by law." At lirst, liowever, it 
w as (leieriiiined tliat oiil\ cottdii clolli siioiild he made. At 
llial lime the ap]diaiices lor the mal<iii^ id' this material 
were verv crude and imperferl as eom]iare(l wilh (hose of 
modern times. Sir IJii iiai'il Arkwrijiht's process had been 
invented, hut it had not been submitted to any practical 
lest, sultlcient at least to insure success. In fact it was 
enly partially known in iOniiland. No cotton yarn even had 
been spuu in Amer- 
ica e.xcept by hand. 
The jirice at which 
cotton fabrics were 
then s(dd abundant- 
ly showed the difti 
culty in its ])roduc- 
tion. That [)rice was 
lifty cents a yard. 

The purposes of 
the originator of the 
siheme and of the 
tirst " contributors " 
were grand and far- 
reaidiinii'. Thos(' plans embraced not only the manufacture 
in time (d' manv ami varied itroducts, but also the foundin"- 
(d' a \ast eni]ioiium where innunu'i-able factories shoiild be 
erected; where immense plants of machini'ry in all its vari- 
ous forms introtluced; where thousands of workmen should 
ite employed; and fi'om whence the wlude wctrld should 
be suii])lied with whatever it mijiht need in the way of 
manufactures, \erily no oilier ucnins than that of a Ham- 
ilton could have conceived so wonderful a s(diem(% and it 
is ureal ly to be reiiretled that his masterful int(dlect had 




Hamilton's tomb in trinity churchyard. 



r.i:(ii.\NiX(;s ok taterson 



19 



uuL Ik'cu eiuplDVC'd iu pevl'cH^tiiig Uic phiu and iu securing 
its perfect success. 

New Jcrsev was sclcdcd as I lie State in wlncli a site 
slioiild be clioscii r(!i- this maguiliccnt i'iiti'rj)i'is(', but tlie 
exact ]ihice was not designated. Tliat was postijoued until 
soiiie |ii-i(ir ananj^cuients were carried out. 

In tlie inenutiiue an e\iiausli\'e exainiMal ion was being 
made of various localities where it was deemed that the 
coutenipiated factory should be erected, and at last the 
"(Jreal Falls," as they Avere 

liieii called, on the I'assaic, ~ ' - --^-- 

weic selected. 

I'alerson at tliat time had 
nil existi'iue. nol even in 
name. 'I'here was a small 
handet on the op])osite bank 
of the i-i\'er iiUdwn then as 
Otlowa. from I lie Indian 
name of die falls, after- 
wards called .Manchester. 
A few small dwelling 
houses were Scattered ~^ 

around the present site of Paterson. This very important 
point, the selection of a locality for the practical operation 
of tlie society, being settled, the next step was the forma- 
tion of an incorporation. I'^or this imrpose the pi-omolei-s of 
the enterprise liiiiied tow.irds the Legislature. 

On the 22<1 of November, 171II, the Legislature of New 
Jersey passed an act iTicorporaling the new society. The 
title of the law was lliis : 

"An act to incoiporare the contributoi's to the Society 
for establishing ustd'ul manufactures, for Die encourase- 
ment of the said Societ\-." 




A LiLlcU IIUISK. 



20 



TME PASSAIC VALLEY 



This title does not give any corporate name, but one of 
the clauses of tlie act declared that the new corporation 
should be known as " The Society for Establishing Useful 
Manufactures." By this name its legal existence has been 
recognized throughout the State and by the courts, where 
it has been many times a suitor, either as plaintiff or defend- 
ant. In that name it has received its title to land pur- 
chased and by it it has made conveyance of real estate. But 

in the City of I'aterson, where 
its affairs have been conducted 
since its organization, and in 
the surrounding country, it is 
called " The Society." 

The statute by which the Legis- 
lature granted corjjorate powers 
to the " contributors " was the 
mosr liberal ever enacted, and 
abundantly manifested the esti- 
mation in which the company 
was held by the law-making body 
and the community, and the 
great hopes tliat were enter- 
tained of the immense advan- 
tages to be gained from the 
presence of such an organization. The act was most 
elaborately drawn, and was, evidently, the work of an 
intellect of the highest order. Alexander Hamilton 
undoubtedly prepared it, or dictated its several clauses; he 
certainly revised it; it bears the impress of his clear, 
thoughtful mind, the caution and wisdom of his judgment, 
and the expression of his comprehensive, far-reaching fore- 
thought. 

The preamble gives the history, in the main, of the So- 




A COLONIAL GENTLEMAN. 



INrdlM'OKA'I'IOX OF A ('(IMI'ANY 21 

I'ioty, and also cxliihils I he iiiotiNcs \Aliicli indiiciMl t lie F.o^is- 
latiire to pass so i^cnci'ons an ad of incoi'poration : 

Whereas, It is ri'invsfiitril to this Legislature tluit a siibseriptiiii] lias been 
made for tbe purpose of introducing and establishing useful Manufactures, to an 
amount which alreadj' exceeds Two hundred Thousand Dollars. And 

Wherkas, the State of New Jersey having been deemed by the Cimtributors 
the most suitable for carrying the same into Effect, tlie aid of this Legislature 
has been requested in Promotion of the Views of the said Contributors. And 

Whereas, it appears to this Legislature that the granting sueli Act will be 
conducive to the Public Interest. Therefore, etc. 

Then follow I he s(\ii-;il cliiuscs defining; llic i)OA\ei'.s and 
the restrictions and coiidiijons inijiosed, and tlie I'ij^lits cou- 
fcrriMl njioii I lie i-oipoialion. 'I'lic cliararici- (d' tins statnte 
is so extraordinary, so cvcccdiiiiily fa\(iraldc lo tlic cnter- 
jn'isc and its results to the locality when' iLc linsiness of 
the company was established, and so important, that it 
seems proper that ^()ml■ of its salient featnri's should be 
noticed. 

Till' capital of (he com|iaiiy was fixed at oin' million dol- 
lais, divided into ten llionsand shares eai h of the ])ar value 
(d' one hundred dollars. 'I'lic powers and ])rivile,ii('S of the 
Society wei'e sjtecitied by the (barter, amoiio whi(di were 
the foljowini; : 

To hold real and ])ei'sonal estate, not exceedinii four mil- 
lions (d' dollars in value, with ])ower of sale. 

To mannfaiture and srjl any ai-licji', md forbidden by 
law, ImiI with this resliiclion -that ihe "said ('oi'i»oi-at ion 
sliaii not deal, nor trade, excejit in such artiiies as itstdf 
siiall manufacture and the materials thereof, and in such 
arti( les as shall be really and truly received in payment 
or ex(dianiie thercdoi'." 

"And the more elT'clnally to encoui-aiic so us(d'ul and 
beneficial an eslablishuH ni."" no "taxes, cjuiriics, and im- 
pusitiuus ■' were to be levieil on the real and personal prop- 



22 



THE PASSAIC VALLEY 



erty of the company for ten years. Artificers and manufac- 
turers in the immediate service of tlie corporation were 
exempted from all poll and capitation taxes and from taxes 
and assessments on their " respective faculties and occu- 
pations." 

The company was authorized to dig canals and to clear 
and improve the channels of rivers, " the advantages of 

which will not be confined 
to the members of the said 
Society, who ought there- 
fore to be authorized to re- 
ceive a reasonable toll to 
defray the expenses of im- 
provements ultimately so 
valuable to the State." 

Tlie fullest power possi- 
ble was granted to enter 
lands for the purpose of s\ir- 
veying the same and locat- 
ing the lines of the proposed 
canal. The company was 
authorized to treat with the 
owners of such lands for the 
purchase thereof, and if nec- 
essary to take measures to 
condemn the property. The 
canal might be located 
from river to river, to tide water, or on such lines as might 
be deemed advisable by the corporation; toll might be col- 
lected on the canals, when constructed. The minutest de- 
tails of the proceedings for condemning the land necessary 
to be taken for tlie proposed canals are given in the charter 
with the greatest care and precision, and while the rights of 




Forxnrxo of tiik city 



23 



ilic InniNiw iirr w ci-l- pnilcclcd ilic coiiioi-;!! inn \\;is aH'ordfd 
every ;Hl\aiil;ige in seciiriui; t!ie land cniisisleiil with those 
i-i,i;iils. 

Tlie I'liiled States, or any Slate, was autliorized to he- 
conie a siihsci-iborto the capital stock, aud the conijiauy was 
aiitlidiized to raise money to the anioinit of ten thonsand 
ddliars hy the means of a h)tterv. Unt the most important 
]ir(ivisinn nl i his charter was tlie one which led lot he fonml- 
insi' of tlie ("ity of Patersoii, which at 
thai lime had no existence whatever. i ""^^U , ,^^^rr 

•'After till' Itirectors had made 
choice of the ]nincipal seal of their 
maniilact nre," then the inhabitants 
within a space of " six miles s(piare " 
were incoriiorated into a municijial- 
ity with tlie most extraordinary ]iow- 
ers. it was lo he called " I'alerson," 
in honor of (Sovernor I'alerson, who 
signed the charter after it had lieen 
passed In- the Legislature. Tlie offi- 
cers were to be a mayor, n^corder, 
twelve aldermen, twehc assistant 
aldermen, and a town clerk, who were 
lo be a]i]iointed by the j(dnt meetiii};- 
of the l,ei;islalnre; the other oflicei's 
Were lo be elected by the |ieo|ple at 
their annual town iiieeiiims. The '"-'■ — ~ 

nniyor, reconler, aldermen, and assistant aldermen were 
" se\'erallv and respecli\('ly '" made justices of tlie peace, 
• iiid any se\eii of them were empowered to h(dd a Court of 
<Jiiai-ler Sessions, with jiiiisdiciion o\cr all crimi's cogniza- 
ble bv the several Coiii-ts of (^)iiarler Sessions of Ihe State, 
with full ]tower to try criminals and punish such as were 




liOWS AND ARROWS. 



24 THE PASSAIC A' ALLEY 

convicted with fine and imprisonment. Tlie same officers 
were also empowered to act as a Court of Common Pleas, 
" Avitli power to hold pleas of all such civil actions, suits, 
and controversies as are cognizable in the several County 
Courts within the State; to summon and impanel juries, to 
give judgment therein, and to carry such judgments into 
execution in as full and ample a manner and by all such 
ways and means as any Court of Common Pleas within 
this State may or can do." This court should be a court 
of record, having a seal and possessing all the powers of 
other Courts of Common Pleas in the State. An amend- 
ment to this charter-, passed in 1792, conlined the poAver of 
acting as Court of Quarter Sessions and ("ommon Pleas to 
the twelve aldermen; the twelve assistant aldermen were 
to act simply as members of the Common Council and were 
to be elected by the people. Non-use of the charter was 
not to work forfeiture, and the act of incorporation was to 
be construed in the most liberal manner in all courts iu 
the State. 

The district selected by the corporation was then situate 
iu the Counties of Essex and Bergen, and was thus de- 
scribed: ■ 

Beginning- at the moutli of Third River, formerly called Yontecaw, where it 
empties into Passaic River, thence North 51 degrees 11 minutes, West 570 
links, tlieuce along marked trees, marked with a blaze, and the lettei's P. A., to 
a stake and stones, thence North 50 degrees, Kast across the Passaic River, 
above the upper reef to the Little Falls, 50 chains to a large chestnut tree 
marked as before, thence North 49 degrees East 135 chains and 21 links, thence 
due East 144 chains, thence South 10 degrees East 450 chains to near Saddle 
River Bridge, thence South 19 degrees West 266 chains, thence North 51 degrees 
and 15 minutes West 28 chains to the place of Beginning and containing thirty- 
six square miles equal to six miles square. 

This was the foundation of the City of Paterson, then 
really unknown, now recognized as one of the most impor- 
tant manufacturing centers in New Jersey. 



26 



THE PASSAIC VALLEY 



Tlie plan, however, as developed in the charter of the 
Society for the government of Paterson as a, municipality 
and for the establishment of courts, was never carried out. 
The present town once formed a part of the old township 
of Acquackanonk, and was governed in the same manner 
as most of the other municipalities of the same character 
in the State. In 1831 the Legislature of New Jersey set 
off Paterson from its old neighbor, under whose rule the in- 
habitants of the new town had been restive for many years. 



— 












^ 


m^ 


^ 


^ "^^ 






i 


mi 


i 




fe 


M 


' 


jo 


1 


L^^P 




^ i 




^M 


■ 


j^^^^^^ 


StP««T~ 


1 




^S— " 


5 


^^^^ "■ -^Ss™- ^ 


^ 


^ % 


'-'^^,r,rm'..~--=- *^ 


■«-«?!-* 


W 1 ' 


-«.».. 




••^ 




W^^MK 


^g- 


W» 








f^^ 


m 









VIEW IN EASTSIDK PARK, PATERSON. 
Photo by Vernon Royle, Paterson. 

The Society, unfortunately as it seemed at the time, be- 
came, notwithstanding its magnificent prospects, embar- 
rassed and was obliged to abandon the enterprise of manu- 
facturing, to wliich its great projector had given so much 
thought and had made such elaborate preparations. 
Most unfortunately it fell into the hands of a reck- 
less adventurer, a Frenchman, Major L'Enfant, who' 
launched out into the most extravagant undertakings, 
among them the laying out and digging of a ship canal 
from Paterson to tidewater on the Passaic Kiver, below 



M()!)i:i;\ I'ATEKSON 



27 



w'linl is now llic ('ilv nl l';iss;iic. 'I'liis :iihI uIIici- ;iIiiii)s( 
('(|Unlly iis cliiiiici-ic;! I phiiis ii iHlcrt ;i ken Itv .Major l/lMilanl 
involved the Socictv in iMionnous cxiiciiscs, iiiHl liiially 
obliged its stoi-kholdci-s to aliaiidon tlic main IValiirc of llir 
ciiterpriso foi' estabiishiiitj iniiiiifactui-cs. Tlic plan, lio\v- 
I'ver, had taken dee]) root in the iiiiuds of some of its sn])- 
porters, and it was destined to develojt into a substanlial 
and well-grounded system. The t^ociety had erected a 
small factory and had |inr«liased a laT',<;e amount of real 
estate, nnndi more in extent than was needed for their pur- 
poses. The immense water jx-wer and the nearness of ac- 
cess to the lireal marlcel of New Yoi-k invited manufactur 
ei-s of dift'erent kinds id' jiroducts, at first mosti\ of cotton 
fabrics, but latterly of other yoods, an<l l'at(rson was soon 
filled with a iio])nlaiion of busy 
workmen and tlnnr families, 
who have added by tiieir industi'y 
and thrift to the material |iros- 
jterily of this jii-eat mannfactur- 
inj; town. ^Fany of these were of 
foreign birth who left their native 
countries to seek emi)loymeut in 
this Manchester of New Jei'sey. 
Tlie various patronymics to be found in li.e directorv- <d' 
I'alerson indicate the different nationalities gathered with- 
in its bordeis, but t lie recurrence of many other nanu'S is 
a sure e\idence that the main element of the population is 
of llolland origin. 

The ])resent ])i(>s])ei-ons condition of this tlourishin;^ town 
is undoubte(lly due to the existence of tlii' Society for the 
l']stablishiuL: of I'seful .Manufactures. It has now one hun- 
dred and twenty silk factories, producing as excidlent fab- 
rics of that character as can be manufactured in any other 




FI.AC OF I1()LL.\NU. 



28 THE PASSAIC VALLEY 

coiintn^ These factories employ twenty thousand oper- 
atives. Besides these, many products of other liinds are 
manufactured, such as machinery, locomotives, and other 
appliances into which iron largely enters. The population 
of this important manufacturing city, according to the last 
census, is over 105,000. Among its most prominent and in- 
fluential citizens of to-day are many descendants of skilled 
workmen who were invited from Europe at the close of the 
eighteenth century to come to Paterson to aid in the de- 
velopment of tlie plan of the Society. They came from Eng- 
land, Scotland, Fi'ance. and Germany, and a few from 
Switzerland. They remained, and they and tlieir children, 
by their worth and industry, have materially aided the 
manufacturing interests of the whole country and to make 
Paterson what it is to-dav. 




(' II A I'T K K 



BERNARD TOWNSHIP AND ITS NOTED MEN 

HE PASSAIC KIVKK, in ils ((Uirse southwiinl from 
ils rise ill ^lovris Comity, lU'iU' Mciidliam, strikes 
williin II very few miles tlic northwest ern roriicr of 
I'.ciiianl Townsliiii, in Somerset ("onnty. The 
^■ronn(l <iiant;es materially from llial in wiiieii the river 
rises. There il is marshy, alllmniih in an clevaled I'e-^ioii. 
Here it heconies exceedingly ]>i(l nres(|ne and beanlitiil. 
.Manv hills, several of almost snlticient elevation to be 
(dassed anion;^; monntains. are srattcred in i itdi itrofnsion, 
with narrow \ales and ,i few liroadei- valliys. .Motintaiu 
brooks, some mere streamlets, shine and shimmi'r in the 
sunlight, and add iirace and (diarm lo the lamlsiajte. Most 
of them ninie with the I'assaii-, lint some How into a brancli 
of the Karitan. 

Madisonville, a small hamlet, known to the immediate 
residents as the "Coffee ITonse." is the first nanuMl locality 
reached in Somersi t. Just bi yond this hamlet, a short dis- 
tance to tile son! lieasl ward, I'l rna i(ls\iile, one of the most 
invitiiiii localities fonnd in New Jersey, lies nestled among 
the hills, beautiful for situation, ami present iiiii many at- 
tractions to families se(d<inii rest and recreation durini;- the 
summer. .Many sm h have located here and nn)re are sure 
to fidlow. The recent excellent facilities for tra\'el afforded 
bv the Delaware. Lackawanna and Western Kailroad 
tliroujih its I'assaic and jirlaware hramh ha\'e eTicoura<;e(l 
(his immi};rati(ui, and now scattered among the valleys 



30 



THE PASSAIC VALLEY 



aud ou the hillsides of this romantic region are to be seen 
nnmerous dwellings, where wealth and taste have revelled 
in adding appliances for comfort and ornament. 

Bernardsville once rejoiced in the enphonions name of 
Vealtown. By this name it was known dnring the Kevoln- 
tion. In Bryant's History of the United States it is so 
called in the recital of the movements of General Lee dur- 
ing Washington's retreat through New Jersey. Old resi- 
dents in its vicinity still know it only by its ancient title, 

and with 
s o m e d i ifi- 
culty recog- 
nize its mod- 
(^•n appella- 
tion; they still 
call it by the 
name given to 
it in the long 
a g o. O f 

c o u r s e, the 
new element 
of poijulation, 

now controlling the interests of the locality, could not toler- 
ate the old name and hence the change. 

Nearer to the river and a short distance from Bernards- 
ville is Basking Eidge, another charming village spreading 
itself along the broad top of an elevated ridge rising sev- 
eral feet above the surrounding country. Baskinc Xvidce 
differs greatly from Bernardsville, mostly in this respect : 
it is so situated that it may be compactly built, Avith regu- 
lar streets, while Bernardsville is so broken up by hills and 
narrow vales that it is impossible to preserve any regularity 
in the erection of dwellings or location of streets. 




A COLONIAL TEA SET OF GOLD. 



BASKJMi KllxnO AND CHAKLKS I.KK 31 

There ai'c luiii- cliurclics ;it Baskini; lvi(l<;e: a. Presbyte- 
riaii, a Methodist, an Episcopalian, and imc IJuman Caflio- 
lic. Tlie tii-st two ciinnvciiulions (i((Up\- vny icspcitat)h' 
cdilircs, ("^]M'cially I lie I'rcsbvlciian, w Inch is laruc and coni- 
imidioiis; tlic otiicr I w') ciiniLiri'tiaiinns arc small and slriii;- 
lilini;. -V nollccahlc fad cnnncclcd willi I lie I'l-cshylci-ian 
organization is thai, in ils liistory, it has been hoin)rcd by 
tin' ministrations of snnir nf the ni->s1 distiniinishcd divines 
(if that denoniinatidii, many nf wlium have spent lonij,- i)as- 
torates in that pailiculai- lield. Trees nn eiudi side of the 
main street add grace and ornainent to the village. It is 
a busy, thriving small lewn, with pn^sibilities of greater 
jirosperity in ilie fnlnre. A railroad — that inijielling force 
in securing success — now jtasses i!ir(Migli the \illage, and 
it probably will pni\i an appliante I'nr llie growlli nf popu- 
lation and of material benefit. 

Like ]>ernardsville, Hasidng Ifidge is a Wfdbknown local- 
ity s])ok(Mi of in the history of the Revolutionary War. It 
was here that Charles Lee, (ine of (b'ueral Washington's 
corps oftic(^rs, was cajiiured during the liuie of the com- 
nnmder-in-chii'fs retreat through New .Jersey bi'fore the vic- 
torious Ibitish army after the loss of the battles on Long 
Island and the ca])lni-e of Lorts Lee and \\ ashinglon. Lee 
was in command id' a large force at North Castle, lU'ar the 
llmlson. While on his retreat Washington's position be- 
came exceedingly dangerous, and he sent four positive 
orders within ten days lo Lee to biing u]i his lroo|)s and 
nnite them with I he relrtaliiig Americans. I'.ul Ih.il ofli- 
cer disrei;arde(l thesi' orders, lingered, (bdayed. and leis- 
urely niai-( lie(l at his o\\ n pleasui-e. 

Lee was vainghuious, conc( ited, disliked Washinglon, and 
was insaiu'ly and)ilious of displacing him, or at least of se- 
curing for himself an indejieudeul conniiaud. Sixleen days 



32 . THE PASSAIC VAIjLEY 

after receiving these direct commands he crossed tlie Hudson 
and moved southward with his corps, ostensibly for the pur- 
j)nse of uniting with tlie commander-in-cliief. Nine days aft- 
er he began his march he was no farther than Vealtown, or 
BernardsviUe, as it is now called. Leaving liis main army 
there, he ])ushe<l on with Ids staff and about a dozen guards 
to Basking Ridge, where he spent the night at a tavern Icept 
by a Mrs. White and known as " White's Tavern," still 
standing, somewhat altered, but not materially. A Tory liv- 
ing in the neighborhood, learning of his presence and rest- 
ing place, rode twenty miles the same night that Lee arrived 
to a British scouting party, whose commander, with a small 
squad of men, hurried to Basking Bidge, reaching that place 
at ten o'clock the next morning. Lee was still dawdling 
away his precious time and was captured. Placed on horse- 
back, his arms pinioned, his legs tied under the animal, he 
was conducted in this ignominious manner to the British 
headquarters and detained as a prisoner of war. He was aft- 
erward exchanged and returned to the army to renew his 
ambitious designs against Washington and repeat his 
treason, committed in March, 1777, when he furnished a plan 
of campaign to the British officers, pledging his life that it 
would so isolate Washington from his other commands that 
he could easily be captured and thus end the war in the en- 
tire subjugation of the colonies. Lee was at the battle of 
Monmouth, where he was reprimanded by the commander- 
in-chief. Lie was afterward retired from the army and died 
in obscurity. 

William Alexander, who claiuied to !»;» the rightful heir 
to the title and estates of the Earldom of Stirling in Scot- 
land, and who is called Lord Stirling in the history of the 
day, was a resident at one time in the Township of Bernard, 
near Basking Ridge. His father had purchased a large 



LUKD S'l'lUI.IN'C 



33 



trait ot liiiiil ill Soiiicis 'I ('oiiiilv. 'I'lic son liad ufilizi'd 
part of tliis ])\ircliasc tor a residence, and had formed 
oiil of il one of I lie iiiosi ele^aiil coiiiiliv Seats in New Jer- 
sey, tittinj;- it n\> with ail liie apiiiiaiices of tiie times for 
comfort and convenience, lie bnilt on it a large and com- 
modious mansion, witli mavden and grounds attached, filled 
with fruit I rees, s!n-iil)hery, and tlowcrs, and had adili'd a 
park stockeil with deer, and 
stables with blooded juu-ses 
aud cattle of apiiroved 
breeds. The edifice used as a 
dwelling was standing until 
sometime in the second cjuar- 
ter of the Tuneteenth century, 
but the gioiinds, garden, and 
\\(dl appointed stables Inne 
disapi)eared. 

\\'illiaiii Alexander always 
wrote liis name " Stirling," 
disregarding his first nanu', 
AN'illiam, and his patrouymic, 
Alexander, after the style of 
English n<d)lemen. His signa- 
ture, '-Stirling Maj"r (ieiil.," in hold characters, is still 
preserved at ^^'asluugton among the records of the great 
struggle. lie was the son of dames Alexander, a lawyer of 
great distinction ])racticing at New York, and a Scot(dinian 
who came to this country earl_\ in the eiglileenth c<Mitui-y, 
fleeing from his nati\i' land lo escajie ]niiiisliment for his 
active exertions in the cause of the rretendei-. This James 
Alexander was (»ne of the counsel iu the celebrated l<]liza- 
bethtown I'.ill in ("liamiry and i)re)»ar(^d the bill in that 
cause. 




3i 



THE PASSAIC VALI,EY 



William Alexander, Lord Stirling, was born in New York, 
where his father was practicing. He espoused the patriotic 
canse soon after the strnggle began between the mother 
country and the colonies. He was very niucli attached to 
Washington, became distinguished as an officer in the army, 
and rose to the rank of major-general. He was present and 
took a prominent part in the battles of Long Island and 
other contests, especially at Monmouth, where he com- 
_ manded one of the 

wings of the army and 
aided greatly in the 
success of tliat decisive 
conflict. 

Lord Stirling's sister 
had married William 
Livingston, first Gov- 
ernor of the State of 
Xew Jersey, and his 
daughter, " Lady Kit- 
ty," as she was called, 
was married July 27, 
1779, with great festivi- 
ties at the Stirling man- 
sion, to William Duer, 
a colonel in the Revolu- 
tionary ami}', and was the ancentress of the Duer family 
whicli afterward became so conspicuous in the social and 
political circles of New York. The elder daughter, known 
at the time as " Lady " Mary, had married Kobert Watts, a 
proniiueut citizen of New York. 

The wedding of Lady Kitty and Colonel Duer was cele- 
brated with unusual pomp and ceremony. A large number 
of army officers were present. The actual ceremony took 




JAMES ALEXANDER. 



ANDREW KTUKPATKICK 



35 



place on the lawn iiiidci' ;i mlar tree in the presence of a 



large concourse of peoph 
host, and on this occa- 
sion he spared no ex- 
pense in providing for 
the euterlaiiiiiiciil uf Ids 
numerous guests. Wine 
flowed in abimdanc(\ a 
\\iiol(' ox wjis roasted, 
and tlic (ithci- refi'csh- 
inciits wcrr ('(iiially l.i\- 
ish. 

B e r n a r d Tnwnslii]! 
has been prcdific in its 
great men, wIh. Imve 
added lustre to liic lus- 
tory of the State, and 
S(jme of whom became 
conspicuous in the ii.iliona 



Ldi'd Stirling was a bounteous 




S,?EnOWEf43^ 



MRS. JAMES ALEXANUKK. 

councils of the republic. 
A n d r e w K i r k p a t r ick, wlio 
adorned the bench of the Supreme 
( 'ourt as one of its associate justices 
and as its chief justice for so many 
years, was born near Basking Eidge. 
His faudly claimed descent from 
Scottish nobility. A representative 
of it came to New Jersey in 1730, 
Irom Belfast, Ireland. He Avas, 
however, a Scoldimnn liy birth, and 
i'enio\'ed in 1725 from ins native 
country to Ireland. He and his 
family wandered from Xi'w Castle in Delaware, where they 
first landed in this country, through Pennsylvania to Mine 




LIVINGSTON ARMS. 



36 



THE PASSAIC VALLEY 



Brook, about two miles west from Basking Bidge. Tlie 
site for a dwelling was well chosen. It was picturesque, 
romantic, and beautiful, but also well calculated for the 
support of a family. Xear the chosen spot a spring of pure 
water gushed out of the ground bj' the side of the stream, 
affording an abundant and never failing supply of that nec- 
essary element. Enough water flowed in Mine Brook and 
the lay of the ground was such that a mill could easily and 
well be supplied with i^ower. Before them and around 

them, on every side, spread out a 
nleadow of virgin soil, rich and 
fertile and luxuriant in its native 
growth. The hills in the imme- 
diate neighborhood were covered 
with choice timber. 

The sturdy Scotch family grew 
in numbers and prospered. An- 
drew, a lineal descendant of 
Alexander, the original settler 
in New Jersey, was born Febru- 
ary 17, 175<i. His father was a 
strong-willed Scotch Presbyte- 
rian who believed in implicit 
obedience by son to father. An 
older brother of Andrew, the future chief justice, Avas a 
clergyman, and the father destined his younger son to the 
same holy calling. So the young man early in life entered 
upon an educational career prejiaratory to his assuming the 
dignity of a clergynia)i. lie was graduated from Priuee- 
tou College, and then spent six months in tlie study of di- 
vinity with the Rev. Dr. Kennedy, a Presbyterian clergy- 
man. But the young man did not believe that he was fitted 
for a minister of the gospel, and he refused to proceed any 




ANDREW KIRKPATRICK. 



AM>Ki:\\' KIKKI'AIKICK 37 

liirllicr witli Ills sl\i(lifs in iliiil dircctinii, IVaiiklv iiif'driu- 
int; his fat lid- dial lie luirposcd ahandoiiiiiii liic profession 
selected for iiim and turiiiii,n his attention In the hiw. Tlic 
elder Kirkpalii.k was bitterly disap])<iinlcd, and resented 
the disobedience ol' his son to sueh an extent that he with- 
drew his support and turned the rebel fioni his home. His 
mother, as he left the house, slipped into his hand a single 
gold piece, a half " .loe," the savings of many years. The 
son never parted with this testimony of a mother's devotion, 
and this gold ])iece, still preserved with jdous rare by the 
family, is now in possession of the Hon. Andrew Kirkpat- 
riek, the grandson of the .hief justice and now judge of the 
United States District Court of New Jersey. 

Andrew Kirkpatrick, the elder, became associate justice 
of the Supreme Court in January, 1798, and after serving 
in that cai)acity for six yeai-s became (duef justice, acting 
in both caiiacilics Cor twenty-one years, lie was a most 
accomplished jurist, not brilliant nor extraordinarily alert 
in his mental perceptions, but of untiring industry, (d' pro- 
found learning, of keen discrimination, and of that charac- 
tei- of intellect wliicli enalded him to arrive at a result 
which more brilliant men could not successfully attack. 
His decisions were rarely if ever reversed. He has left be- 
hind him a most enviable re]nitation as an honest man, an 
uprii:ht judge, and as one of the most acconi]dislied jurists 
who ever adorned a New Jersey court. One of his lineal 
descendants is now a ]uact icing lawyer in New Jersey. An- 
other descendant has already been mentioned as now a 
judge of the District Court of the United States for New 
Jersey. 

Samuel 1.. Soulliaid was a lawyei- ni' great distinction in 
his native State, and a statesman known all over the re- 
public. He Avas born iu Basking Kidge, June 9, 1787, was 



38 



THE PASSAIC VALLEY 



graduated at a very early age from the College of New Jer- 
sey, and very soon afterward went to Virginia, where he 
began the study of the law, paying his own expenses by em- 
ploying his leisure time as a private tutor. After being 
licensed to practice by the Virginia courts he returned to 
New Jersey, and in 1811 began practice at Flemington, in 
Hunterdon County. From that time his promotion was the 
most rapid ever known in the State. 

In 1813 the Legislature of New Jersey passed a statute 
providing that Aaron Ogden and Daniel Dod, both Jersey- 
men, should be vested with the ex- 
clusive right of navigating the wa- 
ters of New Jersey between this 
State and New York with steam 
vessels. Prior to that time New 
York had, by direct law, granted 
the monopoly of steam navigation 
over its waters to the first inventor 
of a steam boat of a certain re- 
quired speed. The New Jersey 
statute was undoubtedly intended 
as retaliatory for the passage of the 
New York act, certainly as a check 
to its operation. Serious doubts were entertained at the 
time by lawyers whether the New Jersey legislation was 
constitutional. Its legality, certainly, was questionable. 
Fulton and Livingston had succeeded in acquiring the 
monopoly granted by the New York Legislature, and they 
sought to have the New Jersey statute repealed. This was 
as early as 1815, when Southard had been licensed only 
four years. He was employed, in connection with Joseph 
Hopki]ison, to appear at the hearing before the Noav Jersey 
Legislature for Ogden and Dod. 




If 



Thomas Addis Emmet 



SAMUEL L. SOUTHARD 



39 



'/ "A 



ropreseiitcd Fulton and Livinji'Siton. Mr. Southard failed 
in conviiiciii^H the l.ci^islature that the act, should not be 
icpcalcd, hut he succeeded in establishint;' a reputation for 
clcai-iii'ss of nllcrancc, for I^cimiucss in debate, for brea<lth 
of intellecl. for piofouud ;iri;uiiii'nt, fiU' Iciial acumen, ■\vhich 
placed him in llie front rank of the lawyers of the country, 
and lie found it unnecessary thereafter to seek clients; they 
sought him. In 181G he was elected a, member of the As- 
sembly, and dnrinu his lerm of office ^\as chosen an asso- 
ciate justice of the Supreme Court, bein<i' one of the younu,- 
est men who ever held that position 
in New Jersey. He Avas five years 
on the bench, and in 1S21 was 
elected United States senator. Now 
^Mr. Soutliard had reached the 
sphere in \\hi( h he was most fitted 
to act, and whi( h lie was eminently 
capable of adonnni;. 

He was made senator at a most 
critical period in the political his- 
tory of the re])ublic. The country 
was in a fei-nieni ; tlie Missouri 
question had been ai;itatinfi' the 
three years, and was still unsettled. That State 
had applied foi- .idmission into the Union, but the ap])lica- 
tion had been I'cjected by a very large majority. The 
Soulhei'U mend)ers of (Nmiiress were loud in llieii- denunci- 
atiims of this action of the majority. The wlnde Soulli was 
in a tumult and was stirred to the jioint of secession; 
acrimonious del)ate followed; tlie I'nion was in ]iei-il; black 
clouds loA\'ered on llie iioliiical lioiizon, and llie liearts of 
true patriots trendile(l al (lie IniiiiiTienl danger of disi-np- 
tiou and civil war. It is inipossible fully to descril)e the 







])ublii- mind I'oi- 



40 THE PASSAIC VALLEY 

situatiou. Conservative men were seeking some means by 
wliicli the tumnlt might be stilled, and the terrible disaster 
averted which so many deemed inevitable. 

Henry Clay was then a member of the lower house from 
Kentucky. He had moved that a joint committee should be 
appointed from both houses of Congress. His motion was 
adopted and a committee from the house was elected, of 
which he was the chairman. He was a veteran politician, 
liad been a member of the Senate, was then speaker of the 
l)opular branch of Congress, and had the benefit of a long 
experience in political life and the prestige of a past bril- 
liant career. He was a Southern man, born in a slave State, 
was then a resident in and representative of another slave 
.State, and was a slaveholder himself. ^Ir. Southard was 
a new member. He had had no experience in national 
political affairs as they were conducted in Congress. He 
lacked the influence gained by long service in the legisla- 
ture of the nation and the advantage of an acquaintance 
with the manner and form of congressional procedure. He 
was, however, a member of the committee appointed by the 
Senate as a part of the joint committee, and Avas intensely 
moved by the alarming exigencies of the occasion. New 
Jersey, the State he represented, occupied a position in the 
country with her territory near to both sections, and this 
rendered her neutral between the North and South. While 
the majority of its citizens were opposed to slavery, still 
that institution existed within her borders in full force. 

Mr. Southard, therefore, was ready to support such 
measures as would be conciliatory and would meet the ap- 
proval of the leaders of the contending parties. He had 
prepared some resolutions and submitted them to Mr. Clay, 
who at once approved of them. It Avas agreed then that 
Mr. Southard should present them in tlie Senate. But on 



SA.Mi i:i. I.. S(_)r'riiAi;i> 41 

tlic inoniiiiii nf tlic vcr V il;iv lliat tlii-y were io lie (ilTci'cd 
ill llial lindy .Mr. Cl.iy iir^cd tluil rlicy slioiild be presented 
by him in I lie ilniise. The New Jersey seiiiitor yielded, iiiid 
1he Kentu(i<y r(](i-esen(ali\'e brmmlii tlieni wilheiit allera- 
t inn bel'ere (he hiwer braiicii nf CoiiLiress, wliere, alter a 
severe strnjiiile, they were passed, and then sent to the 
Senate, wliii li a]i])i'oved tliem, and they became a ])art of 
the hnv of the land. They answered the purpose for wliich 
tliey \\-ere pi'e]iared and jiassed. Tlie danji'er, a]i])arently 
so imminiMit. was averteil; the jiassions of men were 
soothed, and tlie conntry was (piieted for a time. 

Tliese were the eeh'brated ^lissoni-i Comjn'omise Iveso- 
Intions foi' which Mr. (May has b<'en so mm ii landed, lint 
tiiey A\ere I'caljy the pi-odml of the i^reat intellect of rlie 
New Jersey senator, who is entitled to the nloiy, wliatever 
it may be, resultinji' from tiieir creation and elTects. 

A ]deasing incident connected with this transaction arosi' 
from till- fact that the father of Senator Bonthai'd was a 
congressman from New Jersex' at the time, and was also a 
menibei' of the joint committee. 

While a tntor and stndent in Virijinia 'Mv. Sontliai'd had 
met James ^lonroe, and liad l)econie liis warm friend and 
ardent admirei'. The friemlshi]) was i'eci]H'o(ated, and 
when .Monroe becami' I'resident he remembered his \outli- 
fiil associate and made him Secretary- of the Xa\y. This 
was in 182:?. On tlu' accession of John (^nincy Adams to 
the presidency he continued Mr. Southard in the position, 
thus iii\in^' testimony of the aii|ii<'ciation in which the 
Jerseynian was held by the ilassachnsetts statesman and 
adding' a hiiih and merited comi)liment to the secretaiy for 
his ability in tlie performance of duty. 

In 1S21» .Mr. Southard was made attorney-nciieral ; in 1S32 
he was aj;ain returned to the Senate, and was re-elected in 



42 THE PASSAIC VALLEY 

1836. lu 1811 William H. Harrisou died, soon after being 
iuaugurated President. This event created a vacancy in 
the Senate hj the withdrawal of John Tyler from that 
body as its presiding officer to assume the presidency. Sena- 
tor Southard, j)rior to the decease of Harrisou. had been 
elected president of the Senate, and this virtually made him 
Vice-President. He died in 1812, in Virginia, beloved by 
his friends and associates and respected by all who came 
within the circle of his influence. Among the eulogies de- 
livered in the Senate chambers when his death was an- 
nounced to that body none was more feeling, warmer, or 
moi'e sympathetic than that delivered by Senator King, 
from Alabama, one of his former political opponents. 

William Lewis Dayton was another distinguished Jersey- 
man who obtained honor in two widely different spheres 
of action: as a jurist and as a statesman. He was born 
at Basking Eidge in 1807, and was descended from a family 
which has given several prominent men to the service of 
their country. One of these was a general in the Eevolu- 
tionary Army; another was a member of the convention 
which framed the Federal Constitution, afterward a repre- 
sentative and speaker of the House of Eepresentatives, and 
subsequently senator from New Jersey. 

Young Dayton had excellent opportunities for obtain- 
ing academic instruction. Basking Eidge Avas remarkable 
at that time for its schools, and some of the very best talent 
was employed in conducting them. He was educated in his 
preparation for college at these schools, and after the 
proper time entered Princeton University and was grad- 
uated, with no particular honor, in 1825. In fact neither 
his academic nor collegiate life gave much promise of his 
future greatness. He seemed dull, slow in comprehension, 
and not at all alert in his studies. 



WII.IJAM L. DAYTON 



43 



111' cillcrrd llir (iHirr ol' IN'Icr I ). N'roMin. line of Xrw .Tcr- 
scy's iiinsi .■iccuiii|ilislic(l lawyers, as a siiiili'Hi al-law, and 
Avas licensed in IS'.'A), as an ailuiney. and as ruunsejjnf in 
1S;}.'5. lie removed (e. i'lcehiild. in .MnpiniMilli ('(lunty. and 
I'Oniained there \nilil lie was appninled jnsiire of llie Su- 
])i'enie Coui-i. Ills liealiJi was nni r(d)nst, ami at one time 
he was (piite sh'iHJer in person. It is alloi;i'ther [)ossil)le 
that tins ]diysical defect had sonn- intinence on his mental 
activity, lie re(|iiired stronii impulse to arouse him into 
action, lie was noi what 
conid t inl lifnily he called an 
indolent man. llis mind 
certainly was alert enongh, 
bnt he did not, by any 
means, assert his full ]pow- 
ers ou every occasion, and 
might be described as an 
uueqiml man, sometimes e\- 
hibiting great powers of in- 
tellect, espeoially when 
obliged to act, think, and 
speak independently, at 
other times disappointing 
his friends, lint he had 

within himself the elements of greatness, and Avhen fnlly 
aronsed was eqnal to any emergency and competent to 
grapide with the nmst absfrnse ])i incipli's. 

A fort\inate circnmstance Inoiight him into notice as a 
lawyer while |iracticing at Freehold. .Vn indict nieni was 
fonnd against a client for assault and battery. After ex- 
amining into the case he feari'd that the defendant could 
not be aiMjuitted on the merits of his case, and therefore 
strove to lind some technicality upon wiiich he might base 




WILLIAM L. DAYTON. 



4:4 THE TASSAIC VALLBY 

a motion to quash the indictmeut. His examination re- 
vealed the fact that tlie grand jury which returned tlie in- 
dictment had not been legally summoned, and he chal- 
lenged the validity of its findings. His motion was suc- 
cessful and the indictmeut Avas quashed. Of course every 
other criminal proceeding based on the action of the grand 
jury at that term was dismissed. 

This brought him speedily into public notice. Clients 
flocked to his offtce and his practice was largely increased. 
He was naturally an ambitious man, and, not satisfied with 
the acquisition of legal lionor, he longed for a more enlarged 
sphere and sought political preferment. This was soon ac- 
corded to him. That was the rlay when voters were di- 
vided into two great parties. Whig and Democrat. Mr. 
Dayton was a decided Whig in politics. Monmouth was 
overwhelmingly Democratic, and it seemed hopeless for him 
to expect an election to any political office which was in 
the gift of the people. But he was a born politician, and, 
rising to the situation, entered into the contest with a de- 
termination to succeed. His j^arty nominated him as a 
candidate for the Council, as the higher branch of the Legis- 
lature was then called. He was at the head of his ticket, 
and succeeded not only in seciiring his own election, but 
also carried witli liim liis felloAV candidates. 

He had now found his proper sphere of action. His am- 
bition was for a public life, and rightfully so. Such natiires 
as his must find their true position, and whatever trammels 
might obstruct or obstacles oppose, the end was sure and 
certain. A new field of ( ndeavor was opened to his aspira- 
tions, and in this arena he was destined to gain his greatest 
glory and win his greenest laurels. He was a young man, 
just thirty, untried in politics as a legislator, for he had 
never been in offtce. He at once became the leader of his 



WII.TJA.M T.. DAYTON 



45 



nai-I\- in (ln' l.c.iiisliUurc, :iiiil ]ir(>iiiiiii'iil in csfrv inii\cnicnt 

ill tlic (Nmncil. Il sonn hcianic palrnl to every tliouf^htful 

obsei'Ncr liial tlie i)i'()per place Inr a man of Mr. Dayton's 

consnnnnate abilities was in lli.' domain ot politics, and 

here there hejiaii for him a career of almost uiiexampled 

activity and brilliant success. 

.Mr. Dayton's ambition was not that of the dema^oiiiie; 

he was a broad minded patriot of hiuh resolves and noble 

aims. Ue never descended to tlie low arts which too often 

characterize those 

who seek ])olitical 

preferment ; hi' never 

(lid a mean act ; he 

iie\-er sullied his life 

by bareness. lie 

loved (dlHce, not so 

mucli for the honor 

j;ained by its ]kis- 

sessioii as for the 

op]poi-| ninty it af- 
forded him of ac- 

i-omjdishinn i;()od 

f(/r the re]Miblic. 

nis mei'its com- 
manded ijiat respect width (d)liii('d his party to offer him 
(dlice thai he had not sou.;;ht. 

^^'hile lie was a membrr of the ("ouncil a ladical (dian<i,e 
was made in the juris|)rudem-e id' tlie State. The ("otirts 
(d' ('ommon I'leas of the several counties had, as they still 
have, jurisdiction o\er all civil actions. Issues made nj) 
in causes instituted in the Su]ireme Court ^\■ere sent for 
trial to the circuits of that court in the seNcial couidies. 
These circuits were presided over by one of the justices of 




46 THE PASSAIC VALLEY 

the Supreme Court. But if the amouut recovered diil not 
exceed two hundred dollars plaintiffs were obliged to pay 
their own costs. The judges of the Common Pleas Courts 
were generally laymen, uneducated and unfitted for their 
position. A vicious system had obtained in their appoint- 
ment, Avhich was given as reward for political activity. The 
evils arising from this condition of affairs became unbear- 
able, and lawyers and litigants were anxiously seeking for 
some relief. An acute minded lawj'er from Essex County, 
^Alexander C. M. Pennington, introduced a law which pro- 
vided for the establishment of Circuit Courts in the several 
counties of the State, with statutory jurisdiction over civil 
actions, giving costs in cases where one hundred dollars 
were recovered. These courts took the place of the Com- 
mon Pleas and relieved litigants from the burdens incident 
to the old system. The justices of the Supreme Court pre- 
sided over these new tribunals, as well as in the old circuits, 
so that lawyers took the place of uneducated laymen as 
judges. 

Mr. Dayton was chairman of the committee on the judi- 
ciary and aided greatly in the passage of the new laAv. It 
is very doubtful whether it would have passed but for his 
intelligent and effective assistance, as it met with consider- 
able opposition. 

On the 2Sth of February, 1838, while still a member of the 
Council, he was made an associate justice of the Supreme 
Court. He was then hardly thirty-one years old, but soon 
manifested, notwithstanding his youth, his entire fitness 
for the position. He remained on the bench nearly three 
years, resigning on the 18th of February, 1841, and returned 
to the practice of his profession. The reason assigned for 
this step was that the salary of the office Avas not sufficient 
to support his family. 



WILLIAM L. DAYTON 



47 



At this lime .Mr. Sdiilluinl was senator Iroiii New .Irrscy, 
hut lie <lii-i! I lie next \i-.\v. iwu] lliis (ipciu'd I he wav tor Mr. 
Dayton to roach that position for wliich he scmKMl best 
fitted, hotli by his inclination and \>\ tlie lieiit of liis intel- 
lectual nature, (ioveriior Wiiliain reiiniiiLiton coniinis- 
sioned him. in tiie interini id' the Lcgislal nre, to till the va- 
cancy occasioned by .Mr. Sonthar<rs deatli. Ills entry into 
so important a body as the United States Senate was made 
at a time when men of talent and wisdom were needed iu 
the national councils. The AVhij; iiarty liad succeeded at 
liie previous election in carryini; tlieii' _ 

candidate, (ieneral William Ibury 
Harrison, into the I'resident's chair. 
Jlis death, \cry soon after liis iu- 
augurafion, had elevated John Tyler 
as his successor, but it was soon evi- 
dent that he was inteudiug to prove 
a traitor to the ]iarty which had 
idaced him in that position. The sit- 
ualiou ]iresented eiubarrassiiients 
which othei- men iiiiL;ht ha\i' found 
overwhelming. Tyler's defection cre- 
ated a condition of affairs in conni'c- 
lion with other circumstances which plainly indicated that 
the Whig party was fast losing its grij) on ilie people, and 
that tlie power which seemed assured by the election of 
Harrison was slipping away from that organization. The 
new senator liail no i-asy task before him, but his cool head, 
his <'(|uable leiiiperaiiient, his calm loresight. and his great 
:ibilit\ enal)led him to a\oid ihe dangers which a more in- 
ferior man could not lin\'e avoided. lb' s]ioke seldom, 
and only when ociasioii demanded, but he then deiuou- 
strated that, ihougli so silent, he was ei|ual to any emer- 




BWOUCuryi 



48 



THE PASSAIC VALLEY 



gency. He soon impressed himself upon his fellow senators 
and was placed upon several of the most important com- 
mittees. 

At the formation of tlie llepublican party he took an act- 
ive and prominent part in shaping and moulding its policy, 
and soon became influential in that organization. In 1856 
John C. Fremont was nominated for President, with Will- 
iam L. Dayton as Vice-President. These nominations were 
not received with entire satisfaction by thoughtful Kepub- 
licans, many of whom believed that it would have been 
much better if the names on the ticket had been reversed. 





CAMPAIGN MBDALS. 

No one whose judgment was of any value imagined tlial 
the candidates could be elected. They were not, but 
through no fault of the candidate for Vice-President. 

His term of office as senator expired in 1851, and, the 
Democratic party being then in power, Commodore Eobert 
F. Stockton was appointed his successor. While in the 
Senate Mr. Dayton measured swords with some of the great- 
est men in that body and did not hesitate to try his strength 
with Daniel Webster himself. He lost nothing by the com- 
parison, which, of course, was made between his efforts and 
those of his antagonists. 



WILLIAM L. DAYTON 49 

Lu l.S.JT -Mi. DiiNlnii was appuiuLcd altorucy-geniTal of 
New Jersey h.v William A. Newell, tbeu governor. Ills 
ri\ai (aiididalcs \'uv the ]p((sili(iii were Fi-ederick T. Fre- 
linghuyseu, afterwards Secretary of State uuder President 
Arthur, aud Cortiaudt I'arke r, oue of the most distiugiiished 
liiw^-ers the State ever produced. 

lu ISGO Lincoln was elected President, and the eyes of all 
Jerseymen were turned to Senator Dayton as a proper mem- 
ber of his Cabinet. Lincoln desired to appoint him, and 
would have done so, but it was thought that, under the cir- 
cumstances, other States had more powerful claims than 
New Jersey in (he selection of the members of his political 
family. But he determined to show his appreciation of his 
nun-its and ability by placing him in such a prominent posi- 
tion that there could be no (pu'stiou as to the opinion in 
wliiiii ho hold hiin. To use his own words: " 1 then thought 
of tile French iuissi(m and woudeicd if thai would not suit 
him. 1 have })Ut my foor down and will uol be moved. I 
shall offer that place to Mr. Dayton." 

Me (lid make the offer to the senator ami it was accepted. 
The position, honoiable as it was, was no siueciife; it was 
at that time the most imiiortaiit and iiiosi (Mubarrassiug 
(Mubassy in the gift (d' the I'resideiil. Civil war broke out 
between the North and the South, tlie emissaries of the Con- 
federacy swarmed in Paris, and the Emperor of the Frencli 
was more Ihaii half inclined lo ihi-ow his influence in faxor 
of the Southern cause and to i-ecogin/.e (lie indei)endeuce 
of its goverunienl. lie had actually accoi-ded Ixdligereut 
rights lo it. With consniniiiate tad. and with fai'-reaidi- 
iiig foresight, (he .\niei-icaii iniiiistei- ihwai-led I he plans of 
the Southerners, and linally succeeded in indncini; the 
French go\-ernmeni to adojit a policy matei-ially crippling 
the Confederacy and greatly aiding in the result. Mr. Dav- 







ABRAHAM LINCOLN. 



WILLIAM L. DAYTON 



51 



tou lived loiiy euouj^h in l';iiis tu sfciirc the coiilidfuce of 
the French Emperor aiid of his court, and to render the 
most inestimabk- service to his country. lie died very sud- 
denly, at Paris, on the first day of December, 1864, before 
the war closed, but wlicu it required very little sa{>acity to 
understand that the end <.r I he great struggle was near. 




THE " MAYFLOWER." 




CHAPTER IV 



SOMERSET COUNTY — CONTINUED 



HE first selllci-s in Bernard Towiisliip were Scotch 
Presbyterians, which ch'tiicnt, in sumc iiicasun-. is 
still represented in the present inhabitants. The 
first actual settler, so far as can be learned by 
any records now in existence, was James Pitney. He was 
an Enjilishman, a button nialccn-, wlui liad iiis sho]) on Lon- 
don Bridge. He came li-oni l^ngland with James Alex- 
ander, the father of Lord Stirling, to whom he was in sonn^ 
way related, either by blood or marriage. He went from 
New Brunswick in New Jersey to Somerset County and 
took possession of some land there. He is menti<uied in a 
deed executed in 1720 as being in jiossession of some land 
on the east side of the north branch of Dead Piver. A re- 
cent author, Ludwig S(diuniacher, in his dtdightful book. 
"The Somerset Hills," speaks of him as a squatter. This 
can not be true, as his connection with the Alexander fam- 
ily would have enabled him to secure all the land he needed, 
and ills after history showed that it was not necessary that 

he should adojit siuli incisures f(U' a livelil d. He was a 

Presbyterian and connected willi thecliurcli of ilial denomi- 
nation at Basking Uidge, and became a grantee, with other 
persons, in a deed to the trustees of that cliundi for a lot 
for the erection of a building for worship and for a ceme- 
tery lot. 



54 THE PASSAIC VALLEY 

Bernard Township was named in honor of Francis Ber- 
nard, colonial governor of New York and New Jersey in 
1756. He held office for about two years, and was then 
transferred to Massachusetts to become the chief magistrate 
of that colony. He was very popular in New Jersey as gov- 
ernor, but was very obnoxious in New England. Some 
doggerel of the time will give an idea of the poetry of the 
day and of the estimation in which he was held in the dif- 
ferent parts of the country-. Some student of Princeton Col- 
lege thus sang about him : 

We sing great George upon the throne, 

And Amherst, great in arms ; 
While Bernard, in their mikler forms. 

Makes the royal virtues known. 

A New England poet uses a different note : 

And if such men are by God appointed, 
The Devil might be the Lord's anointed. 

Not many representatives of the old families who origin- 
ally settled in Bernard remain, but some are still to be 
found. Several of these original families are represented 
by residents now in the township, not of the original name, 
but descended from daughters who have married husbands 
of different patronymics than their own. 

Just below Basking Ridge the Passaic reaches Milling- 
ton, a small village stretching on both sides of the stream 
with its larger part on the Morris County side. Here the 
river assumes a character not found anywhere else in its 
whole course. It has forced its way through Long Hill, at 
Millington, forming a gorge of various depths and extend- 
ing for abou.t a quarter of a mile. Through this gorge the 
stream rushes with some velocity. The ravine is steep- 
sided, about seventy-five feet wide at the top, lessening quite 
graduallv in width befoi*e reaching the bottom. Although 



THE (JORGE AT MILIJNC'I'ON 



55 



111!' sides an' so st«H']i yd llicy :irc cdvcrcd lidiii llif Inp jo 
(lie sti-caiii below will: a lliick tirowili i<\' Iimcs and iiiider- 
brusli. 

Some tlu'orics liavc been advaiieed by geologists as to 
when and liow liie river acconiplislied tlie feat of creating 
tin's gorge, bill th'ar exaniinalion and researeli have not 
enablcfl iheiii lo delenniiie definitely the vexed question. 
It was ])robal)ly done daring the lime when this part of 
New Jersey was covered with a heavy mass of ice. The 
waters of the upper river were dammed by lis immense ac- 




(IREAT SEAL OF GEORGE I. 

cumulation, and in i heir efforts to escape they broke through 
the hill and tlius foiined llu' ravine for the ])assage of the 
water. 

A bridge of some arlislic taste, used by the I'assaic and 
Delaware Eailroad, sjiaiis ihe river near Millington. 

The pure air and beautiful scenery of this region have in- 
vited several summer visitors to locate their country resi- 
dences here, and more will surely f(dlow. One of the most 
notable of these residences is (hat built by I'redericdv Nish- 



56 



THE PASSAIC VALLEY 



wish, now deceased. Mr. Nisliwisli was a man of prom- 
inence and inflnence. His power was manifested in public 
affairs and in political circles. His energy was felt in all 
matters relating to public interests. His honesty com- 
manded universal respect and inspired confidence. He was 
the inventor of an improved harrow, which he called the 
" Acme," and a manufactory of this useful agricultural im- 
plement was established by him at this village some years 
before his death which is still in profitable operation, its 




GREAT SEAL OF GEORGE II. 



products being in great demand for their usefulness in all 
parts of the country. 

There is a Baptist Church of some antiquitj' at Milling- 
ton, but on the Somerset side, which is an influential factor 
in controlling the religious sentiment of this part of the 
State. 

After leaving Millington, and before reaching Union 
County, there are some named localities in Somerset : 
Mount Bethel, Warrenville, Ooontown, Smalleytown, Mount 



FOK^rATTONr OF COTINTIES 57 

'rnliiii-. ami I'liioM \'ill:ii;(', 'riicsc arr small viiiiijucs, or 
liaiiili'is, of iiiconsidi'i-alilc size ami in faniiiiij;' districts. 
At ;Moiiiit Hctlicl is auotlicr Bajdist ("liunli and a( Mount 
Tabor a Methodist, witii a luiincrous coiijiri-^atioii and very 
conimodioiis bu i 1 1 li n i; . 

Somerset County was named probably from Somerset- 
shire in Enf;iand. This is conjecture, based somewhat on 
tradition and on one or two si^niticant facts contirmatory 
of tliis tradition. Tliere were undoubtedly some early 
settlers in the county wiio imniiuraled froiu Somersetsliii-e. 
An iuui,i;inali\'e I'esemldancc between the scenery of llieir 
former home and that found in their new abode, or ]>er- 
haps a desire to perpetuate in New Jersey a name left in 
En<j,land, led them to call that new home Somerset. It can 
not be ascertaini'd when that name was rtrst a]»i)lied to any 
locality in New Jersey. It was not i)robably known until 
tile ci'eation by statute of the county. The tii'st mention by 
the colonial Leiiislature of any division of the colony into 
counties is to be fonnd in an ad passed Xoxcmber l.'>, Ki"-"), 
by the Assembly of the whole province held in Elizabeth- 
town; but that mention is exceediui^ly indertnite. It a])- 
pears in this numner in the i)reamble of an act: 

Having taken into si'rious consideration the great Change, that liatli been oc- 
casioned by a Necessity of keeping Conrts within the Province as also the Ne- 
cessity tliat Conrts of Justice be maintained and nplicUl amongst us, which said 
Courts may go under the denominations of County Courts. 

Therefore it was enacted: 

That there be two of the aforesaid Courts kept in the year, in each respective 
County, viz.: Bergen and tlie adjacent plantations about them, to be a County 
and to liave two Courts in a Year, wliose Sessions .shall be the first Tuesday in 
Septendicr; Elizabethtown and Newark to make a County and have two Conrts 
in a Year, whose Sessions shall be the first Tuesday in March and tliird Tiiesday 
in Septendicr ; Woodbridge and Piscata(|ua to be a County and to have two 
Courts, the first of them the third Tuesday in March and the second Tuesday in 



58 



THE PASSAIC VALLEY 



September. The two towns of Nevysink to make a County, the Sessions to be 
the last Tuesday in March and first Tuesday in September. 

There was no legislation prior to this time relative to 
the creation of counties. It is not probable that the Legis- 
lature by this act intended to set apart any particular sec- 
tion of the colony for the purposes of a county. It would 
have been exceedingly difficult at that time, in the then un- 
settled state of the country, with so much uninhabited land, 
with no knowledge of what might be taken for boundary 
lines, to have defined with any exactness any region of 
country for the creation of a county. But at a session of 
the Legislature of East Jersey held in March, 1682. at Eliza- 
bethtown, four counties were created, their boundaries 

very imperfectly described, and 
their powers somewhat de- 
fined. These four counties were 
Bergen, Essex, Middlesex, and 
Monmouth. Middlesex County 
was thus described in that act: 

Middlesex County to begin from the part- 
ing line between Essex County and Wood- 
bridge line, containing Woodbridge and Pis- 
cat.away and all the Plantations on both sides 
the Raritan River as far as Chesequake Har- 
bor Eastward, extending South West to the utmost bounds of the Province. 

This description is most indefinite, but a glance at it re- 
veals the fact that, indefinite as it is, it contains much more 
territory than is now found in the modern county. It is 
quoted here because Somerset County, when erected, was 
taken from Middlesex. " CJiesequake" Harbor is now known 
as Cheesequake, a small stream flowing from near Jackson- 
ville, in Middlesex County, into Earitan Bay, a few miles 
south of Amboy. 

On the 11th day of May, 1688, the Legislature for East 




SEAL OF EAST JERSEY. 



ERECTION OF SOMl-^RSET COUNTY 



59 



Jers«\yiUft ;il rn-lli Anilmv. Tlir IliiT-d ;irl jiasscd :it tliiit S(>s- 
sioii was oiii' wliicli i-i-rcicd Sunicrscl ("(Miiitv, and \\"as llius 
cutillcd: "All act lor dividiii;^ tlic ("(imitv of Midillcsox 
iuto two Couiitios.'' Tin' prcaiiible wbieli recited the reasons 
for passing tlie staliilc is too ciirions to be omitted: 

Forasmuch as the uiipermost Part of l{arit;in Kiver is settled by persons tcAom 
(sic) in tlii'ir nMsl)anclry and manuring their hind, forced upon (juite different 
ways and methods from other Farmers and Inhabitants of the County of Middle- 
sex because of the frecjuent Floods that earrj- away their Fences on their 
Meadows tlie only arable land they have and so by conse(|uence their interest is 
divided from the other Inhabitants of said County. 

It was therct'orc cnacl cd that the 

Said uppermost Part of the Raritan beginning at the mouth of the Bound 
Brook, where it empties itself into the Raritan River and to run up the said 




CKOWN OF GEORGE II. 

Brook, to the meeting of the said Bound Brook with the Green Brook and from 
the said meeting, to run upon a North West line into the Hills, and u]K)n the 
South West side of the Raritan to begin at a small Brook, where it empties 
itself into the Raritan, about .seventy chains below the Bound Brook and from 
thenee to run upon a South West line to the uttermost line of the Province, he 
divided from the said County of Middlesex and liereafter to be deemed, taken 
and be a County of this Province; and that the same County be called the County 
of Somerset. 

It Avould have been very ditticult at the time this act was 
passed to have located llic boundaries of the new comity; 
it would be inipossil)le to do so now. Very soon it became 
necessary to secure further laws to remedy the many evils 



60 THE PASSAIC VALLEY 

caused by such a crude method of legislation. There is no 
county in tJie State which has been the object of so many 
statutes of the Legislature passed for the purpose of alter- 
ing, changing, defining, and settling its boundaries as 
Somerset. It was not until 1870 that the county's bounda- 
ries were defined and it became finally established in its 
present tei'i'itory with certain defined division lines be- 
tween it and the adjoining counties. 

For twenty-five years after its creation Somerset had no 
independent courts; in fact it had no entirely independent 
existence as a municipality. For courts it was dependent 
upon Middlesex, and it would seem also that it had no 
county oftices of its own. Certainly up to ]710 it had no 
township. In 1693 an act was passed providing for the di- 
vision of the several counties into townships, but by the 
same act it was enacted that " the County of Somerset, as 
it is already bounded by a former act of Assembly," shall 
be a township. There are now nine townships in the coun- 
ty: Bridgewater, Bedniinster, Bernard, Branchburg, Hills- 
borough, Franklin, Montgomery, Warren, and North Plain- 
field. Of these Bernard and Warren are directly connected 
with the Passaic, which forms the boundary line between 
them and Meudham and Passaic Townships in Morris. 

Somerset County has always been remarkable for its cul- 
tured and educated people. Early in its history, even be- 
fore the Eevolution, many families of this class were num- 
bered among its inhabitants. The residence of Lord Stir- 
ling, his bounteous hospitality, and his charming and beau- 
tiful daughters attracted many visitors. Several pur- 
chases of land in difPerent parts of the county had been made 
by wealthy individuals, and some of the nobility of Scot- 
land had been induced to become proprietors. Among these 
was Lord Neil Campbell, brother of the Duke of Argyle, 








:j=ER Si BROTHERS 



THE FRELINGHUYSEN FAMILY 61 

who bouiilit ail extensive tract of several hundred acres on 
theRarilaii and settled there with ninety-five servants. Two 
sous of Arj;yle, Joliu and t'luiries Cani])bell, and a cousin, 
Archibald ('anipbell, all of whcmi had participated in the 
attempt to seat the Pretender, Charles Edward, on the 
throne of Eujihnid, IKmI Ironi tlieir naii\i' land to escape 
deatli, and settled also on or near the Ifaritan. Each was 
accompanied by a relinue of followers more or less in nnni- 
bei". William rinhorue, at one time governor of the colony, 
was also a purchaser, but he never resided in the county. 
The Duchess of Gordon was led, probably by the presence 
of so many of her countrynKii in Somerset, to invest in the 
purchase of land in that county. Her title of " duchess " is 
still attached to this day, by the old inhabitants in its 
ueiji'hborhnod, to the land she bought. 

The Frelinghuysen family has been and is now prominent 
in social and religious circles. The l\ev. Tlie(tdorus Jacobus 
Frelinghuysen, the first of the name known in New Jersey, 
came to this country in 1720. He was a Kutch Keformed 
niinisler, edncaled at Amsterdam in llolland, and jireaclied 
the gospel in Somerset, Middlesex, and Hunterdon Counties. 
Uis wife was the daughter of an ennnent and wealthy mer- 
chant in Holland, and was a marked character of pro- 
nounced piety and great intellectual aliility. One of their 
grandsons, Frederick Frelinghuysen, became a represent- 
ative in the rrovincial and Continental Congresses and a 
senator in the United States Senate from New Jersey. He 
was a captain of artillery early in the War for Independ- 
ence and rose to the rank of general before its (lose. He 
was present at the battles of Trenton, I'riuceton, and Mon- 
mouth, and other gi-eal confiicts. Another grandson, Theo- 
dore Frelinghuysen, was endneiit in church and State. He 
was licensed as a lawyer early in life, was appointed attor- 



62 



THE PASSAIC VALLEY 



uey-general of the State, and was offered a seat on the Su- 
preme Court bench, which he declined. He became United 
States senator and was the candidate of the Whig party for 
Vice-President with Henry Clay as President. Later in life 
he accepted the chancellorship of the University of New 
York and subsequently was president of Rutgers College. 
He was also president of the American Bible Society, and 
held the same executive office in the Board of Foreign 
Missions, the Tract Society, and the Temperance Union. 

Frederick T. Frelinghuysen 
was the grandson of General 
Frederick Frelinghuj'sen and 
the nephew of the senator, by 
whom he was adopted when 
only three years old. He also 
was licensed as a lawyer, and 
practiced his profession at 
Newark. He was appointed 
attorney-general of the State, 
became a member of the Peace 
Congress, as it was called, then 
United States senator, and 
finally Secretary of State under 
President Arthur. Represent- 
atives of this family are still to be found in Somerset and 
elsewhere. Three sons of the late Secretary of State are 
living, two of whom are lawyers : Frederick, now president 
of the Howard Savings Institution at Newark, one of the 
largest and most prosperous institutions of the character in 
the State; George, a successful lawyer practicing his pro- 
fession in New York City; and Theodore, treasurer of the 
Coates Si Co.'s thread business in New Y^ork City. 

Other families also prominent in social life, in ecclesias- 




^/Tl'i'ir^yT'L'C^-n^/y-^-t-y/,,,!.^^. 



OTHER OI.l) FAMIIJKS 



63 



tical imd political circles, are still represented iu Somerset 
CouuLy. Amouy them may be mentioned those bearing the 
names of Dnmont, Elmendorf, Vanderveer, Ve,nhte, SlcUe, 
Gaston, Bergen, Nevius, Vroom, Voorhees, Stdieuek, and 
WyckolT. 

In lS7t> I wo iiH'iiibers <d' vlie Smitli fiiniily, Abraliam 
Smitli and Peter Z. Sniitli, resi(h'nt in Itcniard Townsliii), 
in connection with some other members of tliat largely scat- 
tered and very numerons family known by the name of 
Smith, formed an association called " The Sniilli I';iniily 
and Friends Keunion." Since 
that time these " rennions " have 
been regnhirly ludd on the Smith 
farm in Itcrnard Tow iisiiip, near 
l*(a|>ack. This association has 
provcil to be one of the most 
popnhir of the kind iu the coun- 
try. It is estimated that ten 
tliousand Smiths have attended 



at one of tliese meetings. 

Somerset County at one time 
incorporated within its bounds 
New Brunswick and Princeton 

and a large part of Middlesex County. Tiien the Stockton 
family were resident at I'rinceton, so that Bichard Stock- 
ton, the signer, can be said to have belonged to Somerset. 

Several men distinguished in the colonial history of New 
Jersey were either residents in Somerset or largely inter- 
ested in its affairs. Among these was Peter Sonmans, a 
riollander, who went to England umh'r ^Villiani and Mary, 
and came from there to this country, settling in New Jersey. 
He was for many years surveyor-general of I be piovince, 
became .i niend)er of the Governor's Council, and was one 




Cj.rty. Z72''1-ot--*-c^^^-^-«,-«^ ci*!- 



64 



THE PASSAIC VAJOLEY 



of a committee to i^repare an ordinance for a " High " 
Court of Chancery. He purchased land in Somerset Coun- 
ty, and, although a member of the Church of England, do- 
nated valuable tracts to aid in erecting both a Presbyte- 
rian and a Eeformed Dutch Church. 

Garven Lawrie was also prominent in Colonial history. 
He was a merchant in London before he became interested 
in the new world. He was appointed one of the trustees of 
Edward Byllinge, an original proprietor of West Jersey. 




AMSTERDAM, HOLLAND 



William Penn and Nicholas Lucas were associated with 
him in this trust. He succeeded Thomas Kudyard as gov- 
ernor of New Jersey. He brought with him a new code of 
laws called the '' Fundamental Constitution." Tliis code 
was considered at the time as superior to the far famed 
" Concessions " of Berkeley and Carteret, but they do not 
seem to have been put into oijeration. It is quite doiibtful 
Avhether Lawrie was its author, as he was not supposed to 
have possessed the ability to have prepared so excellent a 



'rill-: VAN NEST J''a:\iilv 



65 



sysleiii. lie wiis one of llic ('omuil of Lord Neil Campbell, 
who sm-eeedi'd liini as novcriior. Lilcc his successor, he 
owned laud in Somerset. 

'I'iie \'aii Nest family at one time exercised considerable 
inllnence in the connl.v. It had been exceedinijily nseful In 
pnblic affairs in Holland, es|>ecially <lnrin,n' the time of Will- 
iam the Silenl. (»ne of ilie name became allaclied lo the 

Court of I'hili]) II as his private 
secretary Avhile the great stadt- 
h(dder \\as carrvina,' on his 



jmmn:^^ 



--^^^ leirible strnygle for freedom 

and relijiions toleratiou with 
the Sjiaiiisli tyrant, lie llieu became acipiainted with all 
llie ]i];mis ami purposes of I lie uuiuai-ch. riiilip was a most 
volumineus writer, scratching in his miserable chiro;Lii'a])hy, 
on tlie luariiins of every state paper or other document com- 
ing- into his hands, notes aud auuotatioiis, generally of the 
most frivolous cliai-acter. 

\'au Xest coiueil at night every thing Avhich came \mder 
his notice during the daytime, and transmitted his Avork to 
William, who in this manner was enabled to thwart many 
of the plans of liis 



antagonist. 



^. 



Strange to say, afiei- luany years of ^ p^ / y 

I Ids wonderful activity on his ])art (^ \jfo3^C/)^/C'^Jl^' 
N'au Nest escaped fi-om Spain aiul O (^ 

returned to Holland. Another of 

the family was in command as vice-admiral wiili Admiral 
de Rnvter in one of (hose leiritic sea eiigaiienu'Uts belwcen 



the English \\w\ Hiilch which added so much renown to the 
sea "beggars" of il(dland. 

The first ^"an Xest in .Vmerica came here in 1()47, and 
settled in New Amsterdam, as New York was then called. 



66 



THE rASSATO VALLEY 



His name was Peter, and he was the ancestor of all of his 
patronymic in this country. About thirty years afterward 
an immigrant of the same name, probably his son, came to 
Somerset and settled on the Earitan River. 

The presence of so many names in the records of the coun- 
ty denote that its population has been derived from many 
sources; Dutch, Scotch, aud English patronymics are most 
luimerous, but other names are found, evincing that there is 
a strain of otlier blood from other sources. 

The Rev. Mr. McCrea, the father of the unfortunate 

Jane McCrea, was at one time 
pastor of a church at Lamiugton. 
The house in which he resided 
was still standing a few years 
ago. 

Somerset is not without its 
Revolutionary memories. It gave 
many distinguished men to the 
Councils and to the army of the 
country in that time when men 
were needed. Besides General 
Frelinghuj'sen and Lord Stirling, 
already noticed, Hendrick Fisher, John Mehelm, John Bay- 
ard, Peter D. Vroom, and others were among the of&cers 
fi'om Somerset who were honorably mentioned from time 
to time during the war. 

A very large majority of the people of Somerset County 
were true to the cause of American Independence, and did 
not fail in showing tlieir patriotism by their services in the 
field, by their sufferings from the presence of the patriot 
army, and from the inroads made by the enemj^ while they 
were near and at New Brunswick. In the winter of 1778 
and 1779 the Revolutionary Army was encamped near 




SEAL OF NEW NETHERLANDS. 



THR WAI.LACIE HOUSE 



G7 



Soiiici-villc aud \Vasliiuj;(tia oceupieil tlie Wiilhu't; house 
at that phice as his hea(l(iuai'ters. This house is still stand- 
iiiji', iu most excellent coiiditiou, having been bought b.y 
" The lievolutiouai'v Memorial Society of New Jersey," a 
Itatriotic association of ladies and gentlemen formed in 
IS'.IT under the leaderslii]) of (ieneral Kicliard 1'. Stevens, 
who is still its presidi'iil. 'I'lic W'allarc house is so caMcd 
becaiise il was built by William Wallace, a uiercliaut, of 







"" I / •-■■J '*i4tV^'' ■ ' ' - '--'MiJib 









-.Jfeu-- 



THE WALLACE HOUSE, NEAR SOMERVILLE. 



New York, who inherited the laud upon which it was built 
from ins father, Jolm Wallace, who bonglit the property in 
177") from the liev. Dr. Jacob M. llardenburgh. Peter Van 
Nest, already mentioned, had ])ur(diased, in !()!):_?, a larger 
tract of which llie land sold to John Wallace I'onned part. 
The house at the tinu- of its erecliou was deemed to be the 
most (degant edifice in Somerset. It certaiidy was erected 
iu the most substantial manner, as its present condition 




GEORGE WASHINGTON (PEALE's PORTRAIT). 



THE WALLACE-: HOUSE 69 

fully |ir()\('S. It is ii Iwo-sldry ri-;iiiic (]\\clliiiL;, willi :i wide 
liiiii piissiiiiLi lliroiinh i(s ccnli'i-, willi I wo tnoms on cMcii 
side. One of these, in the front, was oeeupicd 1).\ Wasiiina.- 
ton as a ])avh)r, and tliat in its rear for a hod (dianiher, the 
front rouiM on tlic ntliiT side of tlio liall hcini; used ns a re- 
el ■] it ion room. '{"Ill' house is I in lit on a niassi\ •■ si oiu' (minda- 
tion, with tliielc oak hewn linilnas and lar^c idiiiiinrvs. The 
hall is entered tliron^h a wide donliio (hxir, on which is tlie 
old fashioned brass kiioi l<ei-. Se\cral small huildiniis near 
the mansion Avere once tlie sia\e (piarters. but t hey ha\c now 
disaiijieared. 

On the lawn in front of tlie dwidlinii' stood a sniierb live 
oak tree, ei<>lit feet in diameter, the lar^'est of its kiinl and, 
]ierha])s. the oldest in America. Beneath it, in its shade, 
whenever t he weat her piMinit ted, " Lady " ^^'asllin;Liton was 
fond of sitting with liei- boitk and work. P'rom this house 
wei'e issued all the licneral ordei's of the ( "onimander-in- 
Chief in the winter of ITTS-Tit and sprinii of ITTlt and dated 
"Head (,>uarters, Middlebi-ook." Here, too, Waslnnyton 
planued niH' or two imiiortant camiiaii>ns. 

IJoonis in the bnihliiiii' ha\-e been surremlered to several 
local loyal sm-ieties Avhiidi ha\e ornamented tliem \\ith 
])atriotic desijiiis and many mementoes ot Kevulution- 
ai-y times. The iirouiids have been |iiii in excellent order, 
and with the Iieaiitiful trees found there, and the many 
nuunories clustering' around the house, in\ile all lo\irs of 
their country to become ])ilnrims to this reminder of the 
virtues and services of the jjreat leader in the strunj^le for 
American independence. 



-' ■■ .■----.■, ■- ■' ■•;:vr.'Ly^^ 




■aai 



CHAPTER V 



X 



MENDHAM AND OTHER TOWNS 




ICNDHAlVr, near wliich locality llic Passaic River 
I'iscs, is a licaiifiriil, llii-iviiii;' villafic situated in 
tlie sontlicni i)ai-t of ^Morris County, iinmecliately 
adjoiiiiiij;- Somerset. It is placed on a comniand- 
inn' position, some six hundred feet above mean tide. The 
townsliii>, also called .Mcndliani. is on(> of the snmllest in the 
county, containinji' 14r,7(U acres. Its land is mostly hilly, 
some of it beinj>' almost mountainous. A small extent of 
its surface near the source of the Passaic is marshy, but all 
the rest of it is free from swamv). iMany streams drain the 
whole couTity, aTid s])tin.iis of pure, fresh water are found in 
almost any direction. The brooks which flow over the west- 
ern part of the townshi]) a<ld their waters to the Raritan; 
those from the eastern side empty into the Passaic. The 
soil, as a L^cneral rule, is fertile, and almost any pi-oduci of 
I he temperate zone can be raised at any point within its 
borders. It was established as a townshi]) in IT-tO, beinji' 
auu)nfi- the earliest to be formed. The nortli branch of the 
Raritan rises only a sluut distance from the source of the 
Passaic, but the two rivers diver.<;c immediately after leav- 
iufi' their natal s]trin,<is. 

When and by whom IMeudlian: was tirsi settled cannot be 
definitely ascertained. It is (piite diHicult for those who live 
at the present lime, enjoying the couiforts and often the 



72 



THE PASSAIC VALLEY 



luxuries of luoderu life, to understand or appreciate the in- 
ducements whicb led the first white man to select an un- 
broken wilderness as a dwellinji' place for himself and his 
family. Even the impulse Avlii<]i drove those who sought 







S BELLIN'S RAJtE S'^P OP HM. 



refuge from religious persecution is not always nor ever, 
jjerhaps, properly estimated. This impulse did not send the 
first settlers to Mendham, and it is a matter really of con- 
jecture as to what was the impelling force which sent the 



FIRST SETTLERS OF MEXDIIAM 73 

first iiniiiiiii'iiiils lliilhcr. Tliiil p.-ii-l nl' llic rdinili-y wlicri' 
Mcndlunii issiliialcd is iciiKirkiihly well watcri'il. Xiiiiicr- 
ons sircams niii onct il into Ixith tlic I'nssaic ami Karilaii. 
Tli(> ti'a]i])('i' and Innilci' may base toiiml |ii'lliy and i;am(' 
in alinmlani-r in llic fovcsls and wali'i's uf ilns r('L;i(in wiicn 
there were no scldcmcnis In distnih llic s(dilndi' nr to 
fri.nlitcii away the (d)j('(ts of liicii- iMirsuil. 'i'lic alert and 
qiiitdv-eved Auiilo-Saxoii, e\'er siui-e he lias been known to 
liistory. lias been fond of adventure, eauer to explore other 
lands than his own, sonielime> not oNcr honest nor cand'nl 
to rej;'ard tlie riiihts of others in the i)ossession of <'onntry 
and home, and never has he more manifested his restless 
ener^^y than in his migrations in this western continent. 
Perha|)s tiie fertile soil, the pnrc air, the licaltlifni climale 
may lia\'e induced innui^Tation to llic beautiful uiounlain 
land. The trapper and the hunter never kept written rec- 
oi'ds of their genoalojiy, of their race, or lineajic nor noted 
u]ion the written ]iaiie tlie births of their tdiildren, tlie mar- 
riages n( their maidens, tlie death of their ancestoi-s. They 
did not trouble themsel\-es about \ital statistics; tlie 
stei'u realities of their rmh^ life, <d' their jiresent wants, 
simple thouiih they mij;ht be, were the objects of their con- 
sideration. The warlilve Ano'lo-Saxou carved liis record with 
his sword, so the brave nicTi \\iio went out into the wilder- 
ness and helped found an empire of freemen have j^iveu no 
information of who tliey were, what was the place of their 
nativity, or what was tlu'ir race or lineage. 

The earliest date which can be established by any record 
is al)oiit 1 7;!S. an<l the tirst settler known by name was 
.Tanu'S \\'ills, who bought land at Tvalstonville from the I'ro- 
]irietors. lie was succeeded by some Scot(h and Irish 
Protestants, who erected a log- church near Indian Rrook, 
which flows into the Raritan, west of the village. In 1740 



74 



THE PASSAIC VALLEY 



the populatiou liad largely increased, among whom were 
found families najned Cook, Beach, Baldwin, Thompson, 
Oondict, Cooper, Wick, Loree, Cary, i^mith, Dod, Clark, and 
HoAvell. 

James? Pitney's name appears there in 1740. He was a 
son of the James Pitney who is spoken of as being in pos- 
session of some land in K*omerset County on the east side 

of the north branch of 
Dead Eiver. He became 
a lai-gc landowner in 
and near Mendham. A 
farm once owned by him, 
between Mendham and 
Brookside, is still in the 
family, being now the 
l^roperty of the Hon. 
Henry C. Pitney, one of 
the vice-chancellors of 
New Jersey and now re- 
siding at Morristown. 
James Pitney's brother, 
Jonathan, also settled 
at Mendham. From these 
two brothers are de- 
scended the large and re- 
spectable Pitney families 
in Morris. The vice-chancellor has three sous, lawyers, 
one of whom has recently been appointed an associate 
justice of the Supreme Court of New Jersey; another is a 
civil engineer. 

The names of Axtell and Losee appear among the early 
settlers or soon after thej^ came. If the names of the first 
recorded inhabitants are any indication of the locality from 




AN INDIAN CHIEFTAIN. 



MKMUIAM l'AMI],Ii;S 75 

\\lii'iic(' tlirv caiiic, llidsc who jiic Ciiniiliiir willi llic iiuiiicn- 
clatui'c (if I he f.iinilics in I'^sscx Cuiiiily wniild cnnclmlc lh:i( 
they uiidouhtcdly inii;i;il('(l from that county. They were, 
howevor, all of English origin. At the present time the 
niinics in'oniiuciii in Meudham are Losee, Phoenix, Oara- 
l)rant, (^Miimby, Sniton, Bockoven, Oliver, Drake, Menagh, 
Tlioni])son, Stigor, Nesbitt, ami Cooi)er. The names of Ax- 
tell, McTlriiith, Dod, Sanders, Pitney, Stevens, Riggs, and 
Marsh, once prominent here, have now few, if any, repre- 
scn(;iti\('s. 'I'lie Axidl Inniily were once (piitc nnmerous, 
ImiI lliey have disappeared from Ihis loeality. A member 
of i(, the lion. Charles F. Axtell, a lawyer and formerly a 
member of the State Legislatnre from ^Morris Connty, re- 
sides at Morrislown, and others arc found scattered over 
the conntry. 

Stephen Dod, a remarkable mechanic and mathematician, 
was the ancestor of several distinguished clergymen, one 
of whom was a professor in Princeton College. He himself 
was a descendant of Daniel Dod, one of llie lirst immigi'anls 
from Connecticnt to Xewaik. 

After leaving Mendham, and before reaching Union Conn- 
ty, several small villages in IMorris ('ounty are included 
within the range of the Passaic Valley: Brooksi<le, once 
called Water Street, and Washington Corners in Mmdliam 
Townshiit; Logansville, Green Village, White Bridge, Pleas- 
ant Plains, Pleasantville, Green Village, Long Hill, Meyers- 
ville, Stirling, and Gillette in Passaic Township. Stirling 
and Gillette are new localities; the others are of some an- 
tiquity. The Passaic and Delaware Eailroad i)asses 
through or very near Gillette and Stirling. This fact and 
the beauty of the surrounding country have induced specu- 
lators to purchase many tracts of land on the line of this 
railroad iii the hope of securing immigration of summer 



76 



THE PASSAIC VALLEY 



residents and permanent settlers. At Stirling the land has 
been mapped and laid out into city bnihling lots. Silk 
mills have been established and a, population of about 900 
have been gathered here. A large proi)ortiou of these are 
foreigners of different nationalities : numv Italians, some 
Armenians, and a few Swedes. The other localities are 
small villages, hamlets, insignificant centers of agricul- 
tural interests, with no manufactures. 

With some very few exceptions there 
are no representatives of old families 
in this region. A very distinguished 
Morris County family Avas found at New 
A'ernon before and during the Eevolu- 
tion, one of whom, perhaps more, served 
in the patriot armj^ This family was of 
the Lindsley race, descended from Fran- 
cis Linle, one of the first settlers of New- 
ark in 1666, and whose descendants are 
scattered in different parts of the coun- 
try. Eleazar Lindsley, one of this fam- 
ily, became a colonel in the Eevolution- 
ary Anny. He is represented to-day by 
many descendants in Morris County and 
elsewhere. Philip Lindsley is anotlier 
of the same blood, who made himself 
distinguished, early in the nineteenth 
century, as a theologian and college and seminary professor. 
He was born at New Vernon in 1780, was graduated from 
Princeton in 1804, was licensed to preach in 1810, became 
a tutor and ]n'ofessor in his alma mater, Avas its vice-presi- 
dent, refused the position of president, and finally ac- 
cepted the chancellorship of the LTniversity of Nashville, 
Ten a., after three times refusing the proffered honor. His 




A CONTINENTAL 
-^ SOLDIER. 



LON<; llll.L AND VUnMTY 77 

SOU, Jolm r.riricii Liiidslcy. lias secured (lisliiictioii as a 
physician, and hccauic the siuci'ssor id' liis lallici- as clian- 
(•(dlor. ill' licid I 111' |>osiii()n from 1X55 to IMO, with great 
credit tor his adnnrabh' ix'rfovniancc of its dniics. TTc and 
his falliiT were liotli voluminous aulhois. In- wriiin- upon 
nu'dical and ^I'liiiane s\ibj('cts and liis faliicr on t iicoioLiical 
theuH'S. A grandson of l'iiiii]i IJiidslcv hcarini; tlir same 
name is now a distiuiiuished lawyer at Dallas, Tex. Oscar 
Jjndsley, who recently (lie<l at I'leasantville. was a mem- 
ber (d' the sann- fannly, as is also J. i'^rauk Lindsley, editor 
and iH(i|iri('tor of the .\htrris Coinilii < 'lir<iiiii-l(\ an able and 
successful uews|inpiM- ]i\ildislicd at .Mmiislow n. 

(lijjriic is a small liainlcl wlicic ai-e several siinuner resi- 
dences. The name of Lony Hill can hardly be given to any 
certain locality, although there is a |)ostofitice called by that 
name, near .Meyersville, atfording postal facilities for the 
i-egion adjacent. But what is knowu as Long Hill is an ele- 
vation, in some jioints nearly 500 feet above the tide, ex- 
tending from ("hat ham for ten miles and ending in Somer- 
set County. Altliougli no village nor hamlet exists wlnih 
can be i-alled Long Hill, yi't there has be( n (|uite a numer- 
ous population, mostly agricultural in its t haracter, living 
for the last century and more on farms in and about this 
elevation. Among this population were several families of 
liisiorical fame. A reference to only one or two (d' these 
can be made. Lev. -lanu's Cahlwell, the well known chap- 
lain and (inartermaster in tin- Kevidutionary Aiaiiy, be- 
longed to one <d' these, lie took a Very iirominent jiart iti the 
Kevcdntioii and was a particijtant in many battles, not only 
as chaplain, but as an actual couibataiit. 1 lis courage gave 
him the name of the " Lighting Larson." At Springtiehl 
he showed the greatest inti-ei)idily, mingling in the thickest 
of the contest, and euc(uiragiug the soldiers by voice and 



78 



THE PASSAIC VALLEY 



example. At a critical moment when the cartridges were 
exhausted he rushed into the church, near at hand, gathered 
up the hymn books, and gave them to the men with the ex- 
clamation " Give them Watts, boys! " Many amusing anec- 
dotes are related of him and of his ready answers. It was 




MONUJtfENT ERECTED BY THE SONS OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION AND 

DEDICATED TO THE MEMORY OF THE PATRIOTS WHO 

FELL AT SPRINGFIELD, JUNE 23, 1780. 



at the time of the battle of Springfield tliat his wife, while 
standing in a house at Connecticut Farms, with a babe in 
her arms watching the British Army as it passed by, was 
shot and killed by a soldier in the invading ranks. He 
himself was murdered, in 1781, by a drunken soldier near 
Elizabethtown. He was greatly respected by the officers in 



i;i:\-. .i.\.Mi:s galdweli. and tiik i.nn.ows 7'.> 

llic palrinl ;iriii_\- niid Ix'loNcd by ilir nicn. His iiiuT-dcrcr 
was ]H'(iiii[i(ly tried and as |ii-(iiii|il ly cxcciilcil. Ills \ii-tii('S 
and iiati'iotisin liiive been llu' tlienic ol' many jxicls and ora- 
loi's since his time, and liis name will ever be spoken with 
reverence \>\ all .lerseymen. His own immediate descend- 
ants were numeroMS, nine sons and daughters havini;- been 
born to him belore his brutal murder. These children were 
all provided for immediati'ly after his death. Afterward 
Ihev bi'came leaders in society in one direction t>v another. 
Tlie daughters were well married, one son was carried to 
France by Lafayette, two became employes in governmental 
departments, and one was a judge of the county courts in 
Ciloncesler (Nunity. A lineal descendant, a great-grandson, 
Noel {{obertson I'ark, is now a nn^mber of the New Jersey 
Society (d' the Sons of the .\nn'rican Kevcdntion, (daiming 
eligibility for membership by liis descent from this distin- 
guished ancestor. In the graveyard of the I'Mrst Presby- 
terian Chundi at Elizabeth is a monunu-nt with this in- 
scrii)tion : 

Tills MKiiniiiiciit is pri'cted to tlic iiwiiuuv nf tlir Hov. Jiuiu'S t'iiUUvcU, the 
Iiious ami fervent Christian, the zealous and faithful minister, the elo(|uent 
preaeher, and a prominent leader amongst the worthies who seeured the independ- 
ence of his eountry. His name will be cherished in the Church and in the State 
as long as virtue is esteemed and ])atriotisni is honored. 

The Ludlow fanuly was once prominent in this section 
of Morris Couuty. Cornelius and Benjamin were conspicu- 
ous during the Revolutionary times, and foremost \n the 

ililics of their day. liiMijamin b(>came a major-general 
le pati'iot army. One of their descendants, (ieorge LI. 
l.ndlow, was at one time ( lerk <d' the County of Morris, and 
liien liecanu' its sheriff. Another, (ieorge ('. Ludlow, was 
governor of the State for one term and afterward an asso- 
ciate justice of the Supreme Court. 



i 



80 



THE PASSAIC VALLEY 



Other families of note were settled along Long Hill, 
bearing the names of Eunj'on, Carle, Little (Littell), Con- 
net, Moore, Badgley, Baker, Elmer, and others. Very few 
of these are to-day represented by actual residents. 

Mej'ersville was originally settled by Germans, who es- 
tablished here a Lutheran Church. These sturdy men have 
become entirely Americanized, although retaining many 
customs of their forefathers and clinging to their beloved 
church. The Campfield family origin- 
ated, so far as Morris County is con- 
cernedj at NeAV Vernon, once called 
South Hanover. The first of the name 
was Abraham, who settled here in the 
eighteenth century. He was an active, 
intelligent citizen, conducting an iron 
manufactory in connection with a coun- 
try store, sending jjack-horses to the 
mines near Dover, and thus bringing the 
needed material to his blacksmith shop. 
His descendants removed to Morristown 
and added their influence to the progress 
and prosperity of that locality. 

The people of Passaic Township early 
provided religious appliances for their 
own benefit and for their families and 
neighbors. Besides those at Millington, Stirling, and 
Meyersville, INIethodist Churches have been established at 
Pleasant Plains and Green Village and a Presbyterian at 
New ^^ernon. 

Passaic Township has some Revolutionary reminiscences. 
In 1780-81 tlie patriot army was encamped in Morris Coun- 
ty, a large part of it being located in the northern and north- 
western pai"ts of the township, where the soldiers built huts 




A Gl.E^AUIER 
^ OFFICER. 



82 



THE PASSAIC VALLEY 



for their accommodation. An abundance of chestnut trees 
grew in the locality and these were used for the erection of 
these huts, which were made as comfortable as possible. 
The winter, however, was one of the severest ever known in 
the county and the men suffered severely. In addition to 
the cold there was a lack of clothing and food, and the pa- 
triotism of the sufferers was severely tried. They were 
true, however, to themselves and to their country, and did 
not murmur. 

The Wick house, celebrated in Eevohitionary history, is 
situated in this township. It is still standing, in good 
preservation, on the road from Mendham to what was 
known a few years ago as Hoyt's Corners. Its architecture 
is of a style well known at the time of its erection — long, 
low, one story and a half in height, with a narrow hall pass- 
ing through the center of the dwelling and two rooms on 
each side. It was in one of these rooms that Tempe Wick 
secreted her pet horse to save it from being taken for the 
use of the army. 




COLONIAL JACK. 




CHAPTER VI 



THE GREAT SWAMP — PASSAIC LAKE 



X THE sonthcasteru part of Passaic Towuship is a 
lar^i" extent of country called the Great Swamp, 
riinipiisiiiii ninny ilioiisands of acres. It borders 
(lirecilv n|(nn I he river and extends (piite a distance 
into tlie connliy. A very large part of it is as level as a 
parlor lloor and not a stone of any considerable size can be 
found anywhere on its surface. Undoubtedly au extensive 
swamp once existed at this spot, havini; all (he characteris- 
tics of a marsh. But the gi'ound has now become hard(med, 
houses are built upon it, roads run across it, every acre of it 
can be cultivated, and all the products of the temperate 
zone can be grown in ils fruitful soil. This (Jreat Swamp 
was jirobably at one time part of the bed of the innneuse 
lake to which some reference has already been nmde. This 
imaginary body of water has received from New Jersey 
geologists the name of the " Passaic Lake." Several theories 
have been advanced by scientific men as to its origin, nature, 
and final obliteration. ^Vhether such a body of water did 
ever actually exist has not been definitely si'tthnl. Pro- 
fessor (ieorge II. Cook, for many years State geologist of 
New Jersey, first nolici'd. in ISSd, the .iiiiiarenl former ex- 
istence of a large body of fi-esh water. He fixed its date 
during the latter ice age, when, as was sni»iKised, the whole 
or nearly the whole of the State Avas covered with ice. He 




o 

00 



PASSAIC LAKE 85 

(lid lint sccni Avilliiii;' In pLicc liiriisrlf on ici-ni'd iis rcrliiin- 
\y Jissiiiiiini;' (lial il l;lkc \\;is mice jncjilcd wlicri' he lic- 
licvcd lli;il il iui<;lit Imvc cxisti'd. Siiu'c liis IIiik' lliere lias 
hccii iiiiK 11 s])(HiiIati()ii about " Lake Passaic," as it Avas 
TiaiiK'd hy liiiii, and scvoral Slate ii'('nlnj;ists liave referred to 
it in 1 lieii- animal re])orts. But nn mie lias hei-n Ixdd eiKmj^li 
to assert definitely that the lake was ever an established 
faet. A careful examination, however, of the evidences 
which have been i;iven from time to time by neoloijists •nMll 
demonstrate almost to a certainty that such a lake, or sub- 
stantially one like it, did once actually exist. Its possible 
boiindaries, its wave-beaten banks, otiier shore features, and 
some ])resent visible aiid I'ecoi^Jiized facts have been col- 
lected which have induced yeol ovists to ]ir(>nounce favor- 
ably foi- Professor ('ook"s theory. The evidences ^ivt'n by 
him of that theory can be best explained in his own words. 
After statiiiii the ]ii-((habl(' extent of this glacial lake lie 
says : 

Tlie upper portion of tlie tfriniiial moraine from Morris Plains to Summit has 
been modified hy tlie action of water and lias assumed tlie form of a long and 
broad level-topped bank, dividing the valley on a northwest and southeast line. 
The upper level, correspondino- to that of the moraine in the Morris Plains, and 
the level from Morristown to Madison, have a mean elevation above tide of three 
hundred and eijjbty-five feet. It is recognized in the Hat-to]iped hills nortlieast 
of Roouton and south of Montville, in the beautiful terrace cut by the Hoonton 
branch railroad, north of Montville, and on the eastern side of the highlands at 
the west border of Pom|)ton Plains. It has been traced around the mountain to 
Hloomingdalc; the sand hills near the rul)l>er works are near the same height, 
and they are, probabU', part of the same formation. The high terrace near the 
Pond Reformed Church and Oakland, in Bergen County, is also nearly as high 
and may belong to it. On the Second Mountain, two miles southeast of Pom])toii 
Furnace, and at Upper Preakness it has a mean elevation of ,^40 to ri()() feet . 
There are indistinctly defined levels at the same elevation ,at Cedar (irove, at 
Caldwell, and at Centreville, in Essex County. These latter are also on the 
western slope of the Second Mountain. Terraces have been observed at the 



86 



THE PASSAIC VALLEY 



same heiglit on the Hook Mountain from ten to fifty feet below the crest line. 
No attempt has been made to trace out fully this high terrace. 

Professor Cook then refers to some other terraces of less 
heiglit and continues : 

In explanation of their origin we may consider these lower levels or terraces 
as marking the successive heights at which the water stood in this great valley 





Polished Fleshcr. 



Semi-Lunar Kni/e. 



INDIAN SPECIMENS. 



after the retreat of the glacier had begun, during the Chaniplain epoch, and con- 
tinued through the Terrace epoch. The meltings of the ice in the "valley and 




Horjiblend A xe. 




r.tal Pottery. 



INDIAN SPECIMENS. 



on the highlands north and west produced an enormous volume of water which 
tilled the great basin, foi'ming a lake thirty miles long and eight miles wide. 



PASSAIC LAKE 



87 



Tlie top of the terminal moraine was levelled off, ami a pait of its material was 
carried southward and silted on the bottom of the lake wliere are now the 
Great Swani]i and tlie Dead River tlats. The f^aps tlirongli the trap-rock range 
at I'aterson and Little Falls were filled with drift 1)V the <;laeier. The excava- 
tion of these drift-tilled ^■ai>s began as it disapjieared, and the outlet again fol- 
lowed tlie line of the old channel into the red sandstone country on the east. 
The upper terrace is most plainly marked on the surrounding hill and mountain 
sides. It was on the broad, pel>bly shore of a liike, into which i)oured torrents 
of water from the neighboring liills, carrying cobble stones and bowlders into it 
and depositing them so confusedly together as in places to resemble a glacial 
deposit. The accnmulations of drift at Bernardsville and Basking Ridge may 
have come in that way. The lower level-topped hills mark the more ijuiet 
waters as they s\d)sided and shrunk into narrower limits. Pompton Plains and 
the flats along the Passaic and Whipiiany Rivers mark their further contraction 
into irregular-shaped ponds within tlie bounds of the old lake basin. The erosion 
throngh the drift at Little Falls was probably the gradual wear of the Terrace 




INDIAN TOTF.MIC SIGNATURES. 

epocli until the hard trap-iiick reef was reached. At that level the drainage 
stopped. The stone work of excavation tliroiigh this barrier and the recession of 
the falls have been in progress siiu-e tliat tiiuc, and a gorge tliree hundred feet 
wide at the east, narrowing westward to tlie falls, and between tliirty and 
forty feet deep, has been cut back about six himdred feet in the rock. 



Aocordinii' to Profossor Cook's theory " Passaic Lake " 
iiiehided within its Iiouiids n hiroe part of Somerset County 
and extended northward 1o llic boundary lin(> of New Yorlv, 
involving portions of Essex, Union, Morris, and Passaic 



88 



THE PASSAIC VALLEY 



Counties and some of Bergen. In 1892 the subject was 
again taken up by Mr. Eollin D. Salisbury, assistant geolo- 
gist, in the State geologist's annual report. It was, howT 
ever, more fully examined and explained by Mr. Henry B. 
Kuemmel (Kiimel) in tlie report of 1893. His statements of 
the various evidences of the former existence of this glacial 
lake are exhaustive and very convincing. In connection 
with the last named report a map was piiblished which rep- 
resented the area supposed to be covered by this body of 
Avater. This map exhibits the various shore lines, with in- 
dentations, bays, deltas, and many islands Avhich it is be- 
lieved were located within the bounds of the lake. 

The presence of the lowlands along Dead River, the Great 

Swamp in Passaic Town- 
ship, the Black, Troy, and 
Lee Meadows, the Hatfield 
Swamp, the Great Piece, 
and the low-lying grounds 
contiguous to these lo- 
calities, and all of which 
are found within the 
banks of the supposed 
lake, is certainly compat- 
ible with and are, perhaps, 
indirect if not direct 
proofs of the theory that 
such a body of water as the " Passaic Lake " once existed. 
The theory that an immense body of water did once occupy 
this supposed area can not be successfully controverted, nor 
has it been satisfactorily proved . 

At some time in the history of this part of the world the 
immense body of ice began to melt and poured its rushing 
waters into the valley, but the flow of the great body of 




A PALISADED VILLAGE. 



PASSAIC LAKE 



89 



water w:is closed ii])oii every side iiiid letjiiiied in (lie eiior- 
iiioiis basin nnlil, sjireadin^- uver the land, it rornied the 
j;i'oat la]<e. I''iiiall\' it hurst some i)art of the haTiier lian-inu 
its procToss, the Avatcrs spread over llie conntiv and were 
dispersed, or perhaps some grpfit revulsion ol natni-e liioke 
down the obstacles siiri-omidinii the yreal de]iosit of water. 
and so they left their restinj;- place and the dry land ap- 
peared and the river floA\('d peacefully on from its source 
to its end. What effect, if any, this convulsion had n])on 
the formation of the channel of the Passaic has not as yet 
been ascertained. 

The result of this most interestiuii- subject is disappoint- 
injj': nothino- definite is settled, no certain facts ascertained. 
It can not be determined beyond doubt that the " Passaic 
Lake" ever existed; if it ever did exist the time when it 
jrathered its waters, wlien it burst its bounds and scattei-ed 
its waves over the land, can no! be told. The UH>st thai can 
be said is that the ])i'e]i(inderance of evidence favoT's the 
comltision that the "Passaic Lake" once had a local habi- 
tation, and that if it did its bounds can be defined with some 
pi'ecision. 




AX AXCIKXT TANKARD. 



C H A 1? T E K \' 1 1 



PASSATC AND CHATHAM TOWNSHIPS 



Air^SAIC TOWNS! Ill' was rniiiicd in ISC.C. from the 
sdiil liciii |iarl of ]\Ioi-ris 'rowiisliii). II runs A\itli 
a sliarji poinl lidweeu Morris and Chatham, and is 
I lie most sontlicastcrly toAvnsliip in ^Nforris County. 
Its interests are mainly aiiricnltnral, at first entirely so, 
but of late years some nianufacttires, especially at Stirling 
and ^rilliniiton. liave been introduced. The country is 
mostly level and suitable for farming' pur]ioses. Lone ITill, 
however, presents elevated ridijcs, with l)eautiful scenery 
and extensive outlooks, invitin_t>' those seekinii' rest and 
freedom from the heat and discomforts of tlie city. TIs 
population is made up mostly, outside of Stirlin*;:, of a per- 
manent class, attached to the soil, livin^f simple lives, of 
great integrity, patriotic in their sentiments, God-fearing in 
th(>ir linbits, and free from most of the vices which too often 
(lisgi-ace modern life. The saloon does not tlourish, but 
churches are sustained witli mncli self-sacrifice, and the 
schoollHUise is considei'cd l)y the )K»ople a necessity to be 
cheerfully supported, and by every sacrifice. 

The Great Swamp, now thoroughly utilized for agricul- 
tural piiri)oses, covers nearly one-half of the surface of the 
township. The Delaware and Passaic Railroad crosses the 
south corner of the township, coming from Union County, 
north of Gillette, and entering Somerset County at ifilling- 
ton. The township is named from the river, which nearly 



92 



THE PASSAIC VALLEY 



encompasses its smitheru and eastern boundaries. Passaic is 
an Indian name meaning "valley." 

Passing northward from Passaic, Chatham Township is 
next reached by the river, which forms its entire southern 
boundaries, dividing it from Union and Essex Counties. 
Chatham is named for the Earl of Chatham, better known as 
William Pitt, the elder, whose eloquent voice was raised in 

Parliament in defence of 
the Colonies in their 
struggle with England. 
It was created in 1806, 
formed from Morris and 
Hanover, and contains 
three boroughs, Chat- 
ham, Madison, and Flor- 
ham Park. Its princi- 
pal villages are Cliat- 
liam, Stanley, Afton 
(once called Columbia), 
Union Hill, and Green 
Village. 

The surface of the 
land is quite diversified. 
A considerable portion 
of the Great Bwamp, 
more than 2,500 acres, 
extends into the western part of the township from Passaic. 
Reference has already been made to this peculiar phj'sical 
phenomena, forming, as is supposed, a part of the bed of 
" Passaic Lake." It was once covered by a heavy growth of 
timber, which has been gradually cut off, and the ground 
tlius uncovered has been utilized for farming purposes. A 
small stream called Black Brook aids in draining that per- 




CHATHAM TOWNSHIP 93 

tioii of the swaiiiii which lies in Chathiun. Tlio rivor just be- 
low Stanley runs for a short distance through a narrow pass- 
age between cliffs of considerable licight; this continues 
only for a few miles, but by a very tortuous course, us low 
grounds are soon found around the entrance of Black and 
Spring Garden Brooks into the I'assaic. In the northeastern 
part of this township are some other low grounds called the 
Black Meadows, which pass over into Hanover, and just be- 
low is a smaller extent of what undoubteill}' was once a 
swamp, now called the Beach Meadows, also passing into 
Hanover. In the northern part the ground becomes ele- 
vated. I^etween Morristown and jMadison there is a table- 
laud, where no water is found, and where wells sunk over a 
iiundred feet deep can not find that precious fluid. The 
hirger part of this tabiehind is found in Madison Boroui;h. 

The Morris and Essex IJailroad, built about 1S3T, at first 
e.xtending only from Newark to .Morristown, afterward car- 
ried to ICaslon, in Pennsylvania, traverses Clialham nearly 
directly tiirough its center. This road luis been leased noni- 
iually for a term of years. i)ul i-eally on a perpetuity, to the 
Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad, which has 
controlled it lately for several years. The facilities att'orded 
by the excellent management of this road lun-e induced 
many business men of New York and Newark to seek for 
suuiuier residences in Madison and othei ])arts of Chatham. 
The ap])liances afforded by this road for tiavel to and from 
the metropolis and other large centers and for local pur- 
poses are unequalled. 

Stanley is a small village situated on liie west side of llie 
river on some high ground near where the raili-oad bridge 
crosses the Passaic. It is of reciMit history, but at one time 
had a ])rosi)e(t of becounng imi)ortant through scuue fac- 
tories built near it on the stream. It owes its existence 



94 



THE PASSAIC VALLEY 



mainly to the energy of George Shepard Page, now dead, 
who once lived on the high western bank of the river near 
Stanley. He was a public spirited man and rejoiced in good 
deeds, especially in Sunday school and church work. 
Through his exertions a small church, dedicated to the Con- 
gregational denomination, was built at Stanley, and a pas- 
tor employed. The untimely death of Mr. Page has retarded 
somewhat the growth of this locality, but there are appli- 




AN EARLT STAGE COACH. 



ances existing which may eventually aid in establishing 
here a strong and vigorous community. 

Chatham is comparatively an okl settlement, one of the 
oldest in the county. It extends for a mile from Black Brook 
to the Passaic, compactly built on both sides of the main 
road to Morristown. The population originally was an agri- 
cultural one, with no manufactures of any extent, and their 
dwellings were of rather primitive architecture, mostly of 
the English cottage style, one and a half stories high; but 
recently the houses have changed in their mode of erection 



F.ELKilOUS 0R(!ANIZAT10N'S 95 

;iii(l luivc clush'ix'd togetlier, some ol' greatly iiiipiovrd style 
uf airhiteeture and indiiatiiiy lliaL those wlm dwell in 
them were tlie possessors of wealth and taste. 

There are three chnrehes in this locality: a Presbyterian, 
a Methodist, and a Koman ("atlndic A xci-y lari;c part of 
the popnlatioii was derived from Turitau ancestry, emigrat- 
ing from New England to Newark and Elizabelhtown, aucl 
coming from those two places into Morris Connty. They 
were mostly Presbyterians, and almost immcdjatidy after 
their settlement here took measures to provide a place for 
religions worsliip. Their nnmbers and pecuniary means did 
not warrant the erection of an cditice to be nsed only for 
that pnr|iosc. A bnihling was creeled for a schixd, and 
tills was ntili/.cd for i-eligions meetings. I'rior to this tlic 
settlers attended divine services at Madison, or Jiottle Hill 
as it was then called, and at New Providence, now in Union 
County. A church edifice was erected in 1823, but it lias 
been rnmid necessary to enlarge it since that time, and it 
can now seat about ."")(l(l persons. This congregation' lias 
had a very successful history and has been fortunate in the 
choice of its pastors, one of whom, the Kev. Joseph M. Og- 
den, D.D., ministered to it for forty-five years. About the 
time of the erection of tliis i'resbyterian ('liiircli a few citi- 
zens who professed the Alethodist faith attempted to form 
a church of that denomination. They were materially aided 
in their efforts by the energy and liberality of the Kev. John 
IIauco(dv, and in 1832 were able to tinish and dedicate a 
modest building, and to secure the services of a regular pas- 
tor. Wince tliat dale additions lia\-e been made to the edi- 
fice and a strong congregation is now gathered within its 

, Tills rnnpregatioa was materially aide<l, at century, and up to the time of his death eoii- 

tlie time of the erection of this edifice, and since, st.iiitly worshipped in this ciuirch during the 

by Mr. William C. Wallace, a wealthy and benev- summer. One of his daughters occupies her 

olent gentleman of Newark, who built a country father's former residence and another lives 

residence at Chatham early in the nineteenth near. 



96 



THE PASSAIC VALLEY 



walls. But even this building, so enlarged, proving insuffi- 
cient for their wants, has been torn down and a new and 
more commodious one erected in its stead. Later a brick 
edifice was built for the purpose of Eoman Catholic worship, 
but used at first for a school, and afterward devoted en- 
tirely to religious services, a smaller house having been 
provided for a parochial school. 

Particular care was given by the new settlers to the edu- 




INDIAN MOETAR AND PESTLE. 



cation of their children. The very first public building put 
up in the early settlement was one designed for school pur- 
poses, and now a large and commodious academy stands in 
the center of the town, giving evidence that the views of the 
citizens as to the importance of securing an education for 
their children have not changed. 

The improvements in Chatham were so marked in their 
character and the number of its inhabitants so increased 



CHATHAM \ii.i,ai;k 97 

lli;it tlic roiuiininilj was obliged Lo seek legislative aid to 
assist thciu in a cliange of government in their ninnicipality. 
Tliey soiiiilii lliis cliaugt" by adoptiug a village form of au- 
thority. !:5ome years later this mode was found inadeijuate 
(o their wants and they selected, witii the assistance of the 
Legishiture, the form of a borough with the otttcers usual 
in that kind of municipality, such as mayor and common 
(•ouucil. Frederick H. Lum was elected the first mayor and 
lias been re-elected to that position from the beginning of 
llieir Ixu-ough history until the i)resent. The population of 
Chatham now numbers about fifteen hundred. 
^The names of most of tlie jirominent families among the 
earlier settlers in Cliathaiii indicate tiiat they are of Eng- 
lisli origin. Pronunent aiiioug the.se names are the follow- 
ing: l.um, .Minfon,T»ay, Ward, ^lunn, Woodruff, Ferris, Og- 
den?lMerson"^'I^•ll(l. UiMieii, Muchmore, t?ayre, Johnson, and 
some otiiers who iiiigiit be mentioned. The name Genung, 
frecinently found iieic, is l''rench, held by an ancestor, a 
Frencdi Huguenot, wlio tied to this country to escape perse- 
cution; it is still ]ii-oininent here and is also found at Morris- 
town, N'ewaik, and elscwlicrc. 'flic original name has been 
changed somewhat into its present form. 

The Lum family occupy a very prominent position: two 
of them are siu-cessful lawyers in Newark, one of whom is 
now the mayor of ilic borough; another has been a 
member toi- many years of the Uoard of Freeholders of the 
county and was at one time its director; another is a real 
estate broker in Newark. .\ll id' the name are of very great 
respectability. The name is nndoul)ledly of English origin. 
Sir Charles l.uni was a liritisli officer, a major, during the 
Revolution, lie made a successful raiil on Newark, but 
the AuH'rican braui li of the family were true to the cause 
of freedom. 



9 8 THE PASSAIC VALLEY 

Dr. Jephtha B. Munn, at the beginning of this century, 
was an eminent physician and an influential citizen of 
Chatham. His great interest in Masonic affairs made him 
well known all over the State, and his name still lingers 
among the older members of the fraternity, who ever men- 
tion it with respectful memory. A member of the Budd 
family was in years gone by a well known physician. Both 
the Munn and Budd names are still represented here by ex- 
cellent and highly respected citizens. The Condit race, 
which is so ubiquitous, being found in every State in the 
Union, also had one of its name here early in the nineteenth 
century. William Spencer and Pa]*lrurs.t & Muir con- 
ducted larg(? manufacturing establishments during the sec- 
ond quarter of the last century with machinery driven by 
water power from the river. Josiah P. Muir, of the last 
named firm, is still living in Morristown at a very advanced 
age, hale and hearty and in the full possession of his facul- 
ties. 

Many neAV names have been interjected into the popula- 
tion during the last few years and their possession have 
broken up somewhat the rather slow manner of the old citi- 
zens. They have introduced new ideas, stimulated action 
on the line of improvements, new streets have been laid out, 
the character of the roads has been greatly improved, the 
architecture of dwellings has been changed, elegance and 
comfort have been added, proving that taste and wealtli 
have prompted the new departure. A water power for fur- 
nishing the inhabitants with pure water is now owned by 
the municipality, and ar the very mouu^nt of this writing 
(June, 1901) tlie people are voiing for or against the intro- 
duction of electricity for lighting the streets. Among the 
newcomers whose good judgment and wisdom have thus 
stimulated the community may be mentioned James M. Gif- 



CllA'lllAM \ 11. LACK 



99 



ford, iMlwiinl L. IMiillips, Thoiiuis W. Djiwsou, Chark-s L. 
Kelley, and others. Two descendants of Robert Treat, the 
leader aiuonu the iiuinii;iants from New Haven and olher 
towns to Newark, in KilK), and afterward iiovernor of ('on- 
necticnt, Frederick and J. i^^ortinler Treat, ari' now residents 
of Chatiiaiii. A beanlifnl and most commanding' si)()t south 
of Stanh'V, from which is obtained an niu ommon jirospect 
in all directions iiiie(|\ialle(l in all il:e characteristics of 
charming scenery, has been selecled by William A. Martin, 




(;'i4«^|i|iTiiMiiiti"ii 



ji|ji;pii;!i"fi'!imifff«iiw 



COLONIAL SILVER. 

another newconu'r, and nlilized for dwelling [inrposes. ^Ir. 
Martin has erected here an elegant resiih^-nce with all the 
appliances for comfort and ease. 

Chatham has not escaiied the fexci- of real estate sjiecula- 
tion. Some tracts of its land have been plotted into city 
bnilding lots and olTcied for sale. Frank L. Kelley & Co. 
condiicled for many years a brick nmnnfacinring establish- 
ment nearly opposite the railroad depot. Like many other 
communities tlie ])eoi)le are opposed lo I he sale of intoxi- 



OF^-^ 



55995 



100 THE PASSAIC VALLEY 

cants and strive to banish the saloon from their borders. 
Religion and education are respected and receive the cheer- 
ful and active support of the inhabitants. 

Afton, the name recently given to a locality knoAvn for 
many years as Columbia, is an important village situated on 
the river in the easterly corner of Chatham and adjoining 
Hanover Township. The dwellings, built mostly along the 
main road running from Madison, are occupied in many 
cases by a farming population. This locality, however, has 
felt the influence of the impulse which sends the residents 
of the cities out fruiu their heated streets into the rural dis- 
tricts to hud pure air and recreation. It is a quiet, peace- 
ful neighborhood, where are lived contented lives, and where 
the saloon is not permitted to open its doors and invite the 
unwary to scenes of vice and dissipation. The people are 
moral, industrious, churchgoing, God fearing, and law abid- 
ing. It is very seldom that an inliabitant of Afton is 
charged with crime in the county courts, and differences, 
if any, which occur among its citizens are generally settled 
without recourse to a court and jury. There is no part of 
the county where the people are more permanent in their 
residences; there are few changes in tlie population, except 
as the young men seek employment elsewhere and the 
maidens accept other homes. There is, however, quite an 
influx of new families impelled hither by the quiet jjeace of 
the neigiiborhood and the healthfulness of the climate. 

The tirst immigrants to this part of the country are well 
rei^resented to-day. Among tlie names prominent in the 
early history of Afton are Meeker, ^Var(l, Sayre, Hopping, 
Elj^, Richards, Woodruff, and others. Jolm Hancock was 
a notable character in this section during the early part of 
the nineteenth century. He was a surve.yor of large expe- 
rience, a Methodist clergyman, greatly attached to his re- 



AFTdX AM> I'l.OKlIAM PAIM-C 



101 



li^ions (Icnniiiiiiat ion, i>( iii-r;i( pniriiiin'iicc in all imhlie iif- 
r;iii-s, well luiowii nil llirniiiili ilic cnmiiv, jin'l lii.t,'lily vv- 
spi'clcd. lie \\;is [ii-oniincnt nnmnii llic I'dnndcrs of lln- 
Mctlioilist Clmrch at Cliiilliani and aidcil lai\';(dy by liis in- 
llnrntr and means in llic cfcctidn of the rlinrdi edifice. His 
faniilv is represented 1o-day. in Alton, by William V. Ilan- 
coi-k, as are also the l.aiminiLi and Vounii families by (Jeorii(> 
M. Laniiin,i>- and S1e])lien T.ymaii Vonni;, both of whom are 
iiiHneiitial citizens. 

I )escendanl s of llie (b-nniiL; f.amily an- also I'esideiil in 
Afton. .V i-ein-esentative of the Jfeekers, Carnot Ji. Meeker, 
is one of the first men in this vicinity. He lias been a mem- 
ber of the Le^iiislatnre from ^forris Connty, has been a comity 
official in several otiices, and has wil hlield his name as a can- 
didate f(U' other functions. He and his brother, ^^'illiam 
J., live tot^'c^tlier on a farm near the ii\er. 

.\fton is now iindnded within the bounds of I'lorham 
I'ark, a new i)oron.iL:h creeled by sjieeial ae| of ihe l,e;i;isla- 
lure ill JS'.tit. The title IMorhani is made u|i of the first two 
syllables of Flor-ence and Ham-ilton, the names of .Mr. and 
^Irs. Twombley. Avliose eleijant siimiiKn' residence and 
fironnds attached thereto are within the bounds of the new 
boroniili. I'^lorham I'ark eovers the <'astern ])art of 
Chatliani Township, lyin^ between the railroad and .Madi- 
son and ("hatliam IJoroniilis on the west, llie I'as^aic on the 
south, Ilanoxcr Township on the east, and .Mollis Town- 
ship on the north. The land in the iioithern part, near 
.\birristown, is liiL;h and 'niiinia ndiiii;, but there .are sonu^ 
low ijronnds in (he eastern iioition. snch as the Itlack iind 
Ileacli ^[eadows. .\flon jiroper is also low and le\-el, par- 
ticularly that pari of it lyinii' aloiiii' the river, bnl there are 
no swamjis fonnd in that locality. The residenre i>{ .Mr. 
Twombley is placed on an ele\atioii from w hicii a most ex- 



102 



THE PASSAIC A'ALLEY 



tensive prospect is gained, looking off toward Boonton and 
up tlie valley toward Caldwell. The estate lying around 
the dwelling bouse is the most extensive connected with 
any summer residence in Northern New Jersey. The resi- 
dence itself is large and commodious and stands out in bold 
relief. The grounds immediately attached to the house 
are in a transition state, but the present improvements give 
indication that if apparent plans be carried out the result 
will be one of the best embellished and most tasteful parks 

and grounds in New Jer- 
sey. Already within the 
short time since the im- 
provements began the sur- 
roundings have become so 
changed that imagination 
will utterly fail in attempt- 
ing to describe what may 
be the condition of things 
when art shall have ex- 
hausted itself and taste 
shall have had full scope 
to display its powers of em- 
bellishment. 

Florham Park has about 
six hundred inhabitants; at its last election one hundred 
and sixty-five votes were recorded. It is governed by a mayor 
and board of six aldermen. Jesse S. Keyes is now and has 
been the mayor since its formation. The present (1901) al- 
dermen are Aaron P. Condit, James L. White, Carnot B. 
Meeker, Lyman J. Fish, George E. Fetch, and Clinton C. 
Hopping, representatives of the old settlers and of new 
comers. The mayor and aldermen have been unanimously 
elected without regard to party politics. 




AN INDIAN VESSEL. 



CONVENT OF SAINT ELIZABETH 103 

Ticslic I). \\'iir(l, .M.I)., owns mIxmiI ;i tlinnsiiiid iicrcs witli- 
iii tlic hniiiids oT I'ldiliiiin l';ii-l^. .1 laiuc iMUlimi of wliicli lie 
li;is (lr\i)tc(l In (lie jniipusc nl' ;i gallic | ii-cs('i-\(', liaviiijj, al- 
ready sl()ck('(l it willi hirds and oilier ^aiiie, and iiiii']t<)sin,i; 
ill the nenv future still more lari^clv (o iiicrease the quautily 
and (Hiality of a])pliances for the use (>( sportsmen. An ele- 
liant dwtdlin.u has recently been erected by Hr. ^Vard near 
ills ]n-eserve, and he is now construcliuL; a i-oad throufih liis 
e.\tensi\'e grounds for access to his residence. His enter- 
ju'i.se is novel in this ]iai't of the county, and is, at present, 
in a formative state, but with his well known energy it will 
undoubtedly prove successful. 

The Convent of Saint Elizabeth and its extensive lirounds 
ai-e iH'ariy all imlnded in the itorouu'li of Florham I'ark, 
but a ])ortioii of the buildinus and sexcral aci-es of land lie 
M'ithin the bounds of Aloiris Towuship. Tliis institution 
has gradually grown from small beginnings to its present 
inagniticent iirojiortions. Its histoi'y is one t<\' those mar- 
vels which give evidence, I'niin time to time, of tjie grand 
work that can be accomplished by the eni'rgy of one zealous, 
inilefatigable soul, whose indomitable sjiirit of ]ierse- 
verance coiM|uers a]»parent ini]>ossiliilil ies. The nio\'enient 
for the establishment of this eiiter]prise began in IS.")!), when 
the Kt. Jiev. -James itoosevell T.ayley, then Hisho]) of the 
Diocese of Newark, secured from among the Sisters of Char- 
ity of New York City Mother ^lary Xavier and live co- 
workers as the inudeus of tliis part of the order, w liich now 
numbers hundreds. ]\Iot]ier M. Xavier was the first su- 
perior of the little band wliit h began this great work, and 
she is still ha])])ily govei-ning it and actively ( ngaged in the 
furthering of its objects and jdans. 

The building first occupied by the sisters was the old 
Chegary Mansion, then used by Seton Hall College, which 



104 THE PASSAIC VALLEY 

stands at the foot of the hill, on whose crown now rests the 
new buildings. This Chegary property was purcliased 
from the diocese through the trustees of the college. The 
" mansion," as Madame Chegary's residence Avas called, was 
opened in 1859 as a boarding school for young ladies, and 
the forty and more years that have elapsed since that first 
foundation have witnessed a marvellous growth in the 
buildings, in the number of the sisters admitted to the 
order, and in the number of scholars. Great wisdom and 
wonderful executive ability have been shown in the comple- 
tion of this pile of buildings, the most prominent educa- 
tional feature in the whole of the Passaic Valley. 

The facade of the buildings is over six hundred and fifty 
feet, and the depth of portions of them over one hundred 
and seventy-six feet. A large and beautiful chapel ex- 
tends to the rear, while the structure to tlie east is devoted 
exclusively to the use of the sisters; to the west are the acad- 
emj^ and collegiate portions, given up entirely to the pupils. 
The architecture of tlie main erection is Gothic, that of the 
new college, called Xavier Hall, in honor of the venerable 
mother superior and foundress, being modelled on the 
Renaissance style. The corner stone of the present main 
building was laid in 1877; the whole was completed in 1901. 

There are several hundred acres of ground about the col- 
lege, for the most part used for the culti^'ation of fruit, 
vegetables, and other products of the soil. A large park 
surrounds the buildings, and broad and beaxitiful walks 
stretch through the picturesque Avoods, offering every facil- 
ity to the pupils for healthful outdoor amusement. EA^ery 
detail in the arrangement of buildings has received the 
most scrupulous care and attention, and the result gives 
evidence that a master mind has controlled the work from 
its inception and zealously AA^atched its progress. 



CONVRNT OF SAINT Kl.l/A I'.iri'II UK) 

The site (if the cnllcm' is one (if (III' iiiosi iiiiposiiii; ill tlic 
stale; III!' \ii'W rrom ii IcKiidiiL; wcsi w :ini :iiiil imii liw,-inl 
is blocked by tlic blue luoimtiiiii i-aiiucs wliicii sccin |u 
be Wiitclifnl ;4ii;ir(li;iiis of lli(> stcnc. l-ool^iiii; soul liwiird .iii'l 
casl \\;ir<l llic liroad and idianniiiti' \a]l<'y id' llir i'assaic-, 
witli its variety of laiidscajie, lies at the beholder's feet. A 
smaller buildiii}; has been erected on the grounds, about 
fifteen niinutes' walk from the ('(dlege, for a ]ire]iaratory 
school for boys between six and tw(dve years (dd. 

The sisters of I he conx'enl de\oie I heir time mainly to i he 
work of education, but they are also trained diirim; tiieir 
novitiate to the self-sacriticiiifi labors (d' carinii f<>i' the sick, 
the jMior, the orphan, and the foundling. Daily do these 
women, Mho have sacrificed the delights of home and (d' 
social attractions in their zeal to benefit mankind, brave 
storm ami wind, heat and cold, to lend help and comfort to 
those in need. The principle that seems to animate these 
good sisters and slimiilates them to heroic deeds is 7,r:i\ f(U- 
tile honor and ghu-y of God and idiarity toward liiiiii;inily. 

The college is duly incoritorated under the laws of the 
Stat(^ of New Jersey, with full jiower to gran!^ dijilomas and 
cotifer degrees. The number of iui]m1s is large, and students 
fidiii all parts of the world are registered on tlie annual 
list. The cni-iicnlnin of stii<ly is Ihnrough and com|ii-elien- 
sive, and es]iecial advantages are offered to students (d' 
\\liatever course of study tln-v may ( hoose to |uirsne. De- 
j)artments of domestic art and science form a feature in the 
institution, as wcU as ediic-ition in jdiysics and chemistry, 
A\ith ]iractical operations in laiioraloiies and in I lie hiier 
arts, such as music and painting. 

Union Ilill, a hamlet of a few scatlereil houses, is situated 
on both sides <d the pi-inci]>al a\eiiue for iraxel between 
Chatham and Madison, and about niidwav between the two 



106 



THE PASSAIC VALLEY 



towns. It lies on higher gronnd tlian the greater part of 
Chatham Borough, but is not so elevated as Madison. It 
is an old settled hamlet and has experienced less change 
than any other locality in the county. It is the birthplace 
of many of the names of Bruen and Carter, who once 
abounded here, and of whom some representatives are still 
found at Union Hill. The Hon. Nathaniel Niles, formerly 
senator in the State Legislature from Morris County and 
president of the Senate, erected here some years ago a very 
handsome stone dwelling with all the appliances necessary 
for a commodious residence, where he has since resided. 

Green Village extends from Passaic into the western side 
of Chatham, with the larger part of the village in Passaic 
Township. There are postoffices at Green Village, Stanley, 
and Aftou. 




CU A I' TEE \- I 1 I 



Tin; T.(H!or(;n of mathson 




ADISON IK )i;( tl( ill i^ out' ol the iimsl iiilcrcsl- 
ii!L; iimiiicipalilics in New .Iciscy, not onlv fur its 
licaulv of local ion and ils iiiaiiy a]ii>]iaiici's for a 
ilcsiralilc liouu', bal from I he rharadcr of its iii- 
haliilaiiis and ils jiislory. It has rejoiced in llirce names, 
heim: lirsi loiow n as I'.asi Hanover, llien as I'.ollle Hill, and 
now as Madison. II deii\cd ils tir-t name from this cliain 
of circumstances: The whole of the jiresent ("onnty of Mor- 
ris, before lT;!i». was a townshi]) caUed Hanover, and incor- 
porated within Ihi^ liorth'is of iliinlerdon County, as then 
eslaldislieil. When .Morris Counly was created its inhabit- 
anls cIuul; to I he name Hanover, and retained it in con- 
nection with several localities. What is now Wliii)i)any 
was then calle(l llano\cr, .Mori-islown was known as New 
Hanover, and Wesi llanovi'i- and .Madison as East Han- 
over. They were then all mere hamlets, witli very few in- 
habitants. ^^■hil>l)any beiny the most ini])()rtant of the three. 
The name Hanover was nndonbtedly held in oreat esteem 
by till' early seiilers in .Mori'is Counly. who were zeuhnis 
Protestants. (Tcoriic 1, a descendant of a dauiihter of 
James I, was Kinii' of liauo\er in (iermaiiy at flie tinu' of 
liis accession to the throne of ICn^liind. He was not the 
lineal heir, for between him and the crown, if the usual line 



108 THE PASSAIC VALLEY 

of descent were regarded, were children of an older son of 
James, who. liowever, conformed to the Eoman Catholic 
faith. But by the celebrated Act of Succession, passed by 
the English Parliament in the time of AVilliam and Alary, 
it was enacted that " every person who should be i-econ- 
ciled to, or hold communion with, the see of Rome, should 
profess the Eoman Catholic religion, or should marry a 
Roman Catholic, should be excluded from succession to, and 
be forever incapable to inherit, possess, or enjoy the crown; 
and that in such case the people should be absolved from 
their allegiance, and the crown should descend to such per- 
sons, being Protestants, as would have inherited the same, 
as if the person so reconciled, holding communion, profess- 
ing, or marrying, were naturally dead." 

By virtue of this act George I became King of I Great 
Britain. He represented Protestant faith and Protestant 
principles to these immigrants in New Jersey, who, or 
whose ancestors, had fled from religious persecution to find 
freedom in this Western World, and it was natural that 
they should reverence a name so intimately connected with 
that A\'hic]i they held so dear and which had cost them so 
much to secure. 

The origin of the name " Bottle Hill " has occasioned 
some grave dispute among historians, by whom three 
theories are held as to its origin. It is not, however, of 
sufficient importance to warrant a discussion in these pages 
of the vexafa qucMio. Besides, it seems now to be well set- 
tled that the name originated in this trivial circumstance: 
On the hill just west of 1he railroad depot at Madison, in 
the olden time, a tavern was conducted in a rather rude, 
uncomfortable building, in front of which an empty 
bottle swung on the sign post, notifying thirsty travellers 
that their thirst could be assuaged by application within. 



MAIMSOX I'.OIMM (Ml 



!()<) 



Till' cil i/.ciis ti\' llii' n(_-ijj,lili(ii'linn(l Iiitiiiih' i-i'sli\i' uiidci- llie 
use 111' this railici- vnlsiar ;i|iim'II;ii inn :iii(l cliiiii'^cil it In 
3Ia(lisi>ii, ill liiiiiiii' i>\ .hiiiics .Miniisnii, ri-csidmi uT liic 
Fuited States. By Hint iiaiiic it has siiR-e been Uiiowii and 
it will ]H'ol)al>ly licr( af'tci- In- retained. The town deserves 
a UMiid name lor its lieanly el' situaiioii, its imic air, tiie 
inihjic spiriled rharaciei- <>( its citizens, and its JioiKiralde 
liistni-v. 



1 3.1 













Tile surface of the 
i;i-(iiind within its 
bounds is i-oliinji. 
willi (de\'alioiis scat- 
t( i-ed aboiil from 
which lieaiililnl pros 
peels are vlsiide an<l 
where drsirable bnild- 
inii sites are fonml, 
suri'onndei] by pic- 
t nn sipie la mlsca pes. 
'I he SI il is generally 
liiilil and wai 111, capa- 
ble of a liiiili slate of 
cnlli\atioii, with sand 
and iiraveliy fornia- 
tion. -Madison is a 

la\'oritc place of resoi't for snniniei- visitors, who tind anijile 
and del ii; lit fill homes for I heir accoinmodat ion. It is eai;ci'- 
ly soimlit liy ilie wealihy for snninie)' resid<Mices. ISiisiness 
men slill eiiiiaiied in active life in Newark and New York, 
and some who have nMired from business, have selecteil 
^ladison for permaneiil homes, and have bnilt beantifnl 
mansions where tlu-y spend the entire veai*. Ele^anr 
structures for dwelling' lujuses are seen on every side wiiere 






'i \ % 1 



GEORGE II. 






110 



THE PASSAIC VALLEY 



taste has embellished the dwelling places of the Avealthy 
and art has been lavished in adding appliances for every 
comfort known to civilized life. 

The borough has not had many years of existence, but 
they have been years marked by progress, vigor, and great 
public si)irit. Pure water has been introduced and made 
accessible to all, the streets are well lighted, police for the 
preservation of peace provided, and the general interest of 
the municipality protected. The best men in the commu- 
nity are selected without 



distinction as to party poli- 
tics for offlcers. The bor- 
ough has had but one 
mayor, James P. Albright, 
Esq., a lawyer i^racticing 
in New York, but long a 
resident in Madison, who 
has conducted the affairs 
(if his responsible office so 
wisely and so well that he 
has been re-elected from 
time to time with very 
great unanimity. 

There are four churches 
in Madison, all strong and vigorous : Roman Oatholie, Epis- 
copalian, Methodist, and Presbyterian. A costly chapel, 
of a high order of architecture and connected with the 
Presbyterian Church, has been erected by Mr. James A. 
Webb, a wealthy and public spirited citizen, as a memorial 
of liis son, who died several years ago. Mr. Webb lives in 
a stately residence at Madison, surrounded by beautiful 
grounds, where he spends the whole year enjoying the re- 
sults of a life not yet beyond its prime, and enabled by 




<7/<^KH^ 



MADISON I'.OKOllill 



in 



wcmIiIi i;;iini'il liv hiisincss (jilciUs jiikI cncrnv lo ciUT.v out 
iiiiiii y lii'iic\(ilciii('s. 

1 ). Willis .laiiics, aiintiicr New ^'ol•k incrcliant, wim lias 
st'h'ctcd .Madison Coi' his suiiiiiicr residciicc and lives in a 
spurious dwcUiui; erected on oiii' of rlie niosl conspicuous 
points in tiie borou^li, has added nialei-ially lo llie a]»pli- 
ances for tjood in two ilirections, one in I he jiur(diase t)f 
many acres, almost in Ih" iieart of tlie town, wiii(di lie has 
laid out as a public park and made it one of the greatest 
attractions in this beautiful borouj^h, the other the fouud- 
inft' of a imblic library, built of stone, admirably adapted 
for Ilie purposes of a library, consliucted in the most artis- 
tic manner, and addinj; an ornament of the hiuhesi order 
to the locality. Mr. James has provided it with all the 
apparatus tor successfully conductinji sm h an institution, 
and has tilled the buildin;; with choice V(dumes sidected ex- 
pressly for the use of readers. Besides all this he has 
crowned his benefaction by providini;- an endowment fund 
for the fului-e needs of the library, and settling this fund 
on such a substantial basis that there need be no failure 
hereafter of money U>v its maintenance. 

Amonj; the many citizens of Ahulison who are foremost in 
pnblic affairs may be mentioned Jeremiah Baker, who sev- 
eral years aj;() became a jternianent resident of the borough 
wit h ample means i^ained by many years ol iiidust ry. lie is 
one of the pillars in the I'lesbyterian ( 'hurc h, and e\'er i-eady 
with advice, action, and, if necessary, money to aid in carry- 
iuii' forward every ^ood enter]irise. 

In \s:',:\ William (iibbons, then livinii in lOli/.abetlitown, 
bought a large tract of laml situate on the west sidi' of the 
road from .Madison to .Mon-istow n. The tract was a large 
one, containing several hundred acres, and was called " The 
Forest." The property occupied a vciy commanding posi- 



112 



THE PASSAIC VALLEY 



tion, one of the highest in tliat vicinity. Mr. Gibbous was 
a man of great wealth, and soon began the erection of a 
very large and stately edifice intended for a dwelling. It 
was linished in 1836, and then occupied by Mr. Gibbous and 
his family for several years. At his death in 1852 the prop- 
erty came into the possession of his sou, who bore his fath- 
er's name, by whom 
it was sold to 
Daniel Drew, a 
broker in New 
York, Avho bought 
it ^\•ith The inten- 
tion of founding 
there a seminary 
for the education of 
young men for the 
ministry of the 
Methodist Episco- 
pal Church, of 
which he was an 
enthusiastic mem- 
ber. The noble edi- 
fice called " Mead 
Hall," built by the 
former owner, was 
utilized for the use 
of the seminary, 
and in it Avere located the chapel, library, reading room, 
otHces, and lecture rooms of the professors. Other buildings 
required for the institution were erected on the grounds, 
such as dormitories for the students, dwellings for the pro- 
fessors, rooms for the societies, and a dining hall. Mr. 
Drew devoted |500,000 to his benevolent project, of which 




GEORGE HI. 



DltinV SEMINAUY 113 

one-half was to be used for buildinu: purposes and the bal- 
ance was to be invested as an endowment fund. Mr. Drew, 
however, retained this fund in his own hands, paying over 
the interest annually to the seminary until 1870, when he 
failc(l, ;iii<l iIk iiisiit\iii<)!i was willuMil an income. An ap- 
peal was made In I lie rliuich universal, winch nobly re- 
sponded and siihsdilicd so generously in aid of the semi- 
nary tlial over $;jUU,U(H) was raised and the institution re- 
lieved. The school was formally opened in November, 
1807, and has been eminently successful. Tlie views of the 
great church which it represents have materially changed 
as to the education of its ministers. Drew Seminary, as 
the Instilutiun is called in honor of its founder, is the ablest 
scliool of its kind in llic Mcliiodisl Ciiurch, and has estab- 
lished a ciuriculum of the highest character. It has been 
enuneutly successful in answering the demands upon it for 
the highest order of education. The seminary is at present 
under the leadership of the Rev. Henry A. Buttz, D.D., an 
eminent ( h^i-gynian of his church, of great executive ability, 
and of c\iltui-e and learning, lie is assisted by a very able 
c()ri)s of jirofessors, and it may be predicted, with 
great certainty, that there lies before this noble ap- 
pliance f(U- edncalion a fnlnre finilfnl in successful useful- 
ness. 

In the latter part of the eighteenth century Madison re- 
ceived an addition to its population of a very desirable ele- 
ment. The revolution in I'rance drove from that country 
many of its besi ciiizens, who songlil lel'nge in otlier climes 
from the violence and bloodshed so disgracing to this move- 
ment, originally inlended io(d)tain freedom from o])pression 
for the citizen. .\nu)ng (he first to reach .Madison was a 
noble Frenchman known as ^■incenl lioisanliiii, but who 
in his native land and in Belgium was known by several 



114 



THE PASSAIC VALLEY 



titles of nobility. He was a man of wealth and of distinc- 
tion in France and a member of the bodyguard of Louis 
XVI. He had obtained leave of absence from the court 
and had retired to his ancestral possessions in Guadaloupe, 
where he married. His influence in the court of the king 
was so great and his condemnation of the revolutionary 
measures so outspolcen that measures were taken to arrest 
him and try him for what was then called treason against 
the new republic. He received notice of his intended arrest 
in time to escape to a British man-of-war, A^hich lay some 
four or five miles ofl: the shores of the island. His escape, 
made in an ordinary row boat, was so precipitate that he 
was unable to make any preparation for his future. Before 
he reached the friendly vessel which was to carry him away 

from Guadaloupe he 
rM"iiiS!r^^?3^ noticed an object on 
the surface of the 
water apparently fol- 
lowing in the wake of 
the boat. Directing 
the rowers to lay on 
their oars, he soon discovered that his body servant, a faith- 
ful slave, who had been given to him when he was a boy, 
had taken this desperate method of following his mas- 
ter. The nobleman and his devoted servant made their 
way to the United States, and finally to jMadison, where 
Mr. Boisaubin made his residence. He and his black 
friend earned their living by carting goods from New York 
to Madison and vicinity. Mr. Boisaubin was afterward 
joined by his wife and family, and permanently settled at 
Madison, remaining there until Ids death. At the Kestora- 
tion Louis XVIII wrote an autograph letter to the French 
nobleman requesting him to return to France, promising 




SHILLING OF GEORGE II. 



VINCION'P I'.dlSAlJBIN llo 

to I'cstorc liis titlrs :iiiil oriici's In liiiii. Ills fnrluiic ainT 
IHdiK-rlv wvvr i-cl iinicil in liim, hiu lie (Icclincd tlir offer, 
prct'cninLi tlu' life lif li;i'l rniiiid in I lie Ainciicaii i-i'inihlii-.. 
Nine sous aud daiii;lilcis wci-c horn to liim, and li<' has left 
Miaiiy (k'sceudaiits, many of whom arc fonnd in Madison, 
ncauplain aud Thebatnl beside lioisaubiu are the names of 
some of his (U'scen(hints. 

Mr. Boisanbin was a niau of unbounded benevolence. 
After his death, wlien an inventory of liis estate was made, 
betweeu |3(),0()() and |40,(»0(l of small evidences of indebted- 
ness, made mostly by jioor persons who liad liorrowed 
money from liim, were round aiiiouii his assets, lie lies 
buiicd in the graveyard of the old rresbylerian ("hunh at 
.Morristown. As his funeral cortege reai hed the outskirts 
of Morristown on its way from his home it was nn^-t by 
rciu-esentatives of the best citizens of ihe town, who took 
I he horses from the hearse and drayiied the vehicle in which 
was deposited the colTin containing his body to th(> grave- 
\ar(l, where the interment was made with imposing cere- 
monies and amid the sorrowing multitude which lilled the 
cenu'tery to overtlowiug. As the procession made its way 
Ihe streets were lined by the peo])le with uncovered and 
boW(d heads, the bells of the churches were tolled, places 
of business were closed, and erne universal feeling of sor- 
row [lervaded the entire ciuumuulty. These circumstances 
attending his burial give undoubted evidence of the pro- 
found respect felt for this estimable man. The grace of 
manlier, llii- gay, joyous lempera meiit, Ihe buiilioiiiiiiie ol 
ihis f'reiich elemeiil thus interjected into Ihe community 
al .Madison, had a pipwciriil inlliieuce for good upon Ihe 
people. 



OHAPTEK IX 



MOKKTS TOWNSHIP AND MORRISTOWN 




OK'IUS TOWNSHIP wns fonncd in 1740, a year 
.illcr llic crcitioii (if llic ((niiily, and nii( nf it, 
and entirely surrounded Ity it, lias been carved 
(lie City of ^[orristown. This townshij) is a 
small one, Ix-iiif^- one of the smallest but the most impoi'tant 
in (lie connly, not oidy liom its size and from tlie fact that 
it is t he county seat, but also from its history. Its situation 
is beautiful beyond coin])ai-ison. I'our distinct rauji'es of 
mountains can be traced within its borders, and resting 
among these the inhabitants have made their homes, some 
in elegant villas crowning tlu' hill tops and staTidiiig out 
iu beauty from the mountain sides. Whipjiany IJiver 
winds through the northern portion on its way to the Pas- 
saic. Along the baidcs of this stream, in a narrow valley, 
the first settlers built tlieii- liomcs, but soon they climbed 
n]» to the tableland on an ele\alioii some fifty feet above 
the bed of the rivei- and clustered around the " (Ireen," and 
eventually scattered in all directions, until now there is a 
compact city of nearly twelve thousajid ])eo])l(> gathered 
withiTi the bounds of Morristown. Outside of it in the 
township is a population of two or three thousand more. 

In the time when the Lords Proprietors were seeking for 
immigration into the Pro\ ince of New .lersey all knowledge 
of the interior of the new colony must have been of the 
most meager character possible. As late as 1GS4 some of 



118 



THE PASSAIC VALLEY 



these proprietors wrote thus about what is now supposed 
to have been Morris County or its vicinity : " There are 
also hills up in the country, but how much ground tliey 
take we know not; they are said to be stony and covered 
with wood, and beyond them is said to be excellent ground." 
Thiis description, so far as it goes, is quite accurate, but not 
at all definite. 

The first record which gives anv reliable evidence on the 




THK JEKSEV I'KISUN SHIP. 



subject of the first settlers is in the form of a deed, based 
upon a survey made in 1715. This conveyance was for 
967 37-100 acres within the bounds of the township, dated 
June 1, 1769, by the Earl and Countess of Stirling to Staats 
L. Morris for £2,902. In the same year the land on which 
Mon'istown is now built was sold to Joseph Helby, Thomas 
Stephenson, and John Keys or Kay, in these ])roportions : 
to Helby and Stephenson each 1,250 acres, and to Kay 



MORRIS TOWNSHIP 119 

2,(100 iiciTs; tlic )H'cs('nl ]iai'l< in ll:c licnrt of Ihc town ;iii<l 
the liioniid on which an' crcclcil I lie I'irsi J'rcsbyterian, 
Mctliddisl, and r>ii|)<isl rimrclics l)t'in,ii' iiu liuh'd in flic cdn- 
vcvauce to Kay. The hiud couvcyed to llt'lby laii from 
Mount Airy, near Collinsville, and the Evergreen Cemetery, 
in I lie eastern i)art of tlie town, toward Speedwell, and 
soutliwest in the direction of General Doughty's former 
residence on the road to Basking Kidge, or jNIount Kimball 
road. Stcphcnscn's portion was in the direction of Wash- 
ington \'alh'y. The decils ai'c all curiosities. The orig- 
inal survey on wliicli lliat to Kay is founded is copied to 
give some idea of the nu'thod used for conveying real estate 
at that early time in tlie history of New Jersey: 

By virtue of a warrant from ye Council of Proprietors bearing date ye tenth 
day of March last past I have surveyed this Tract or Lott of land unto John 
Kay within ye Western Division of ye Province of New Jersey, in ye last Indian 
purchases made of ye Indians by ye said Proprietors. Situate upon and near a 
Branch of Passauiisk Itiver called Wlii]icnc, liooinninij at a small hickory corner 
standing near a Black oak markc<l K. ten cha : distance from a corner of Win. 
Pen's Lands, thence North West one hundred sixty and five cha : crossing ye said 
Whipene to a corner white oak, marked also K.: thence South West one hundred 
twenty and seven cha: and twenty-five link to a poast for a corner under ye side 
of a hill called Mine Mountain, from thence South East one hundred sixty and 
five cha: to a poast, tlien North East one hundred twenty seven cha: and twenty- 
five links and by ye bounds of Govn. Pen's land to ye place of beginning contain- 
ing Two Thousand acres of Laud besides one hundred acres allowance for High- 
ways. Surveyed April ye 2Stli ITl.'J per me K. Bull, Survey. 

Ye 22 of April 171.^ Inspected and approved of by ye Council of Proprs: and 
ordered to be entered upon Record 

Tcs'ts, John WrLi.s, Clerk. 

A slight examination of this desci-iiition reveals au inter- 
esting fact: tliat William Penn's name is nnrntioned as the 
ownei' of land at AforristowiL Tie was at one time a pro- 
prietor of ^\'est Jersey, and owned, personally, large tracts 
in that Province and also in Pennsylvania, but no local his- 
tory has meutioued the fact that he Avas the possessor of 



120 



THE PASSAIC A^VLI.EY 



land in Morris County. The three grantees, Helbj^, Stephen- 
son, and Keys or Kay, do not seem ever to have settled in 
Morris County or at Morristown. It is impossible, w^ith any 
certainty, to state when the first settlement was made here, 
or who were the first settlers. No records were kept by the 
town authorities. There were probably no township oifi- 
cers until long' after the original immigrants came here. 

There was no 
church estab- 
lished until 1742, 
when the Rev. 
Timothy Johnes 
became the pas- 
tor of the Presby- 
terian Church 
and began the 
records of that 
congregation, and 
careful ly and re- 
ligiously kept 
them during the 
fifty j^ears and 
more of his pas- 
torate. To them 
reference can 
safely be made to 
learn who were residents of Moi'ris Township at the time 
they began. Prior to that period tradition alone affords any 
knowledge of the names of settlers. Even these records do 
not, nor does tradition, tell from whence the first immi- 
grants came. Familiar names, however, are found among 
them which give some intimation of the places of their 
former abode. There are also some well known and well 






SKTTI.KMKXT OF :\rni!KISTOWN 121 

settled liistoricjil Carls wliidi jiiil in iletenniiiiii^ tliis 
question. 

Tlie tirst inhabitants in Newark, who came there in ICM], 
soon dispersed, as liieir uiiniliers increased, into tlio sur- 
I'oniidinii eonntrv. Orange, i'.loonilield, and Caniptown 
lor lr\ini;lon as it is now called) were eaidv settled Itv the 
descendants of the men ()f Connecticut who had come 
to Newark froiri their New Euiiland liomes. Siune adven- 
turous s])irit climbed to the summit t>( the mountain west 
of ()i-an,L;e and sni-\cyed I he land on the east side of the 
I'assaic which lay at his feet, lie returned to Newark and 
rejioi'ted to the town meeting;- what he had seen, described 
the beautiful laud, and dilated on the apparent fertility' of 
the soil. The honest Puritans jiad mit yet learned how to 
defraud the Indians. All the lands occupied by the new- 
comers had been honestly boui;ht from their dark browed 
owners. After pro]ier examination and favorable I'eport 
ne;L;()tiations were ()])ened and successfully conducted with 
the aborigines for the ])iirchase of the newly discovered 
(•(Uintry. Some fancied resemblance between a horse's 
arched neck and the land ]uirpose<l to be bouiiht j^ave it 
the name of Horse Neck, but that mime has been sijice lost 
and other names have been liiven to different localities 
within the bounds of the trad thus bonj^ht. 

News came tiiat iron ore in abundance was to be found 
on the other side of the river, and many coura^<'ous meti 
crossed the stream and settled in Moi-ris ("ounty. Amoni^ 
these were some citizens from i'',li/,abelhtowii, and ])erhaps 
from other adjacent localities. In all probability, althoutj'h 
the first settlement, whicii was made at \Vhii>](any, or Han- 
over as it was then calh'il, \\as \-ery small, some stra<^j;'lers 
found their way to llie valley of the Whi])pany, or 
" Whipeue " as it is called in t he survey of the lot conveyed 



122 THE PASSAIC VALLEY 

to John Kay, which has already been copied in these pages. 
Probably a log hut or two was erected for the temporary 
and immediate Avants of the colonists and their families. 
Then came another, and accretions were made from time to 
time until the hamlet grew large enough, and then a black- 
smith shop was added; all, however, crowding into the nar- 
row valley of the small river. This was in the beginning of 
the eigliteenth century, the earliest date which can possibly 
be fixed being 1710. So soon as the settlement from its 
importance deserved a name it received that of West 
or New Hanover.^ The character of these people can be 
determined by the results of their action. A Presbyterian 
Church had been formed at Whippany, to which, for re- 
ligious worship, went the people of New Hanover and of 
the few settlements formed within a circle of eight or ten 
miles. When this church was first instituted can not be 
told, but it was certainly in existence as early as 1718. It 
was a rude structure, capable of containing perhaps a hun- 
dred people, standing on the bank of the Whippany. It 
answered the simple wants of the people, and thither they 
resorted over the rude paths of the day, for there were no 
roads. Carriages were almost unknown; the only vehicles 
approaching them were the uncouth carts used for farming 
operations. So the husband and father, if he owned a 
horse, mounted him, with his wife on the pillion behind the 
saddle, with perhaps an infant in her arms. 

But New Hanover grew and its inhabitants became rest- 
ive under the enforced travel from Sunday to Sunday to 
Hanover Church, and they began to discuss the question 
of an independent church of their own. About this time, 
in 1733 as near as can be ascertained, the church edifice at 
Hanover became dilapidated and it was necessary to erect 

> There is some confusion in these names. Jlegords vary. In some of tliem they appear as New, and 
then as West, Hanover, 



PRESBYTJOHIAN CHURCHES 



123 



a new one. Tlicn bcjiiiii a sti'Ufi<i;le which rcsnllcd in a 
tedious and troublesome (luarrei. Tliere were three com- 
munities whicli insisted lliat tlie new hnildiuir sliould be 
phiced wilhiii their bonnds. ^Madison, tlicn known as ]<]ast 
Hanover, desired tiiat it shmild lie built nearer to tlicm. 
Morristown or New Hanover claiiiKMl tliat it should be 
placed at their orowinn' ^illa^e, while ITanover or Whip- 
pany protested a<;ainst any removal. The fight waxed 
sharj) and hot, and when it was ascertained that the diffi- 




MORRISTOWN IN 1828. 



(•iilt_\ could not be amicably settled it was detennined to 
leave it to the " casting of the lot." The lot was cast with 
great solemnity, after prayer to Almiinhty God, and the 
New Hanover people lost. They were not satisfied with the 
result, refused to submit, and a new church organization 
was formed. 

An appeal was taken to the Synod at I'hiladelphia, and 



124 



THE PASSAIC VALLEY 



after several meetings of that body and a committee from 
it had been sent to Whippany it was finally decided that the 
Morristown people be left to themselves to form a new con- 
gregation. This certainly was in 1733, a date established 
by the minntes of the Synod. But the new congregation 
was an unrecognized body and stood alone without any 
ecclesiastical connection. When it is recollected that this 
sturdy people could not have numbered more than two 
hundred, or perhaps two hundred and fifty at the outside, 
it is a matter of astonishment that they imdertook the es- 
tablishment of a new church organization with its attend- 
ant burdens. But they were God fearing, church loving 
people; they desired to bring tlie privileges of the sanctuaiy 
nearer to their families and neighbors, and they were equal 
to the task they thus imposed iipon themselves. They took 
instant measures to obtain a pastor and invited Mr. John 
Cleverly to assume that position, but he had not been or- 
dained, and the Hanover people objected so strongly to the 
new enterprise that he Avas neither ordained nor installed. 
Ordination and installation, in his case, would have been 
simultaneous, so the end was not yet. 

The pastor and people at Hanover were not idle. The 
Synod was again called and the subject was discussed at 
six different sessions of that body. It was a vexed, trouble- 
some question. On one side was an impecunious pastor, 
with a congregation unable, in consequence of the with- 
drawal of so large a part of their members, to support him; 
on the other a young congregation determined to sever the 
connection, and destined to become a strong and vigorous 
body, far outstripping the mother church, needing the 
ministrations of the gospel, and determined to have them at 
their own doors. 

In the end pluck and energy won the victory and Morris- 



ruESKYTi'; 1! I A \ ( ; I in itcii Ks 



125 



town was triumphant. A committee of six clergymen, the 
ablest then ciiiiiiiH'tcd willi the Hynod, ti-ivt'lled on horse- 
back to \Vhi])iiauy, one coniiuj;- from I'hiladelpliia, one from 
NeAV Brunswick, one from Neshamiuy, one from Basking 
Kidge, one Irmii 'rrculon. and one frmii Abingdon; and afl<'r 
a caivful examination of tiic wliole subject, and patiently 
hearing both i)arties, deciih'd that it was best for 
all parties tliat there should be two cinirches. But tlie 
Presbytery had alicady declined to (ir(hiin .Mr. ( 'h-vcrly 
and the new congregation was still withovit a pastor, and 
here was another obstacle in tlie path of tiie Morristown 
people. They were, however, not to be moved from their 





SILVER DOLLAR OF 1794. 



dctci iiiinatio7i, and their unordained nuuister continued to 
preath to Iheni until about the year 1740. Tlie date, how- 
ever, notwithstanding this irregularity of the ecclesiastical 
organization of this First Presbyterian Church ,at Morris- 
town, was July 2t'i, 17.">S, the time when the committee of 
si.x clergymen already nieiiiioned declared it regularly con- 
stituted. This they wcie authorized by the Synod to do. 
The first regularly ordained and stated ])astor of this con- 
gregation was the Rev. Timothy .Jolincs, who was recom- 
mended to the congregation by the authorities of Yale Col- 



126 THE PASSAIC VALLEY 

lege, to whom application had been made some time before 
for some competent minister to be sent to them. Dr. 
Johnes was Welsh by descent, was born on Long Island, 
and had preached for some short time before he was called 
to Morristown. He came to his new field of labor on horse- 
back from Connecticut, and was installed February 9, 1743, 
but had preached for some time before that date to the 
people. 

From the beginning of his pastorate until the end of his 
long ministration, in fact until his death, regular and ac- 
cui'ate records were kept by him of all statistics connected 
with his congregation, such as births, baptisms, marriages, 
deaths, membership, and removals; his hrst entry, a bai>tism 
of a child, was made ten days after his installation, 
February 19, 1743; llie name of this child's father was Bai- 
ley. It is only by reference to these records that any di- 
rect information can be found as to the names of the orig- 
inal inhabitants of Morristown. If the presumed date of 
its first settlement be correct, that is about 1710, then there 
is a hiatus of at least thirty years, during which time nearly 
a whole generation could have passed away when no records 
existed of any kind whatever. S.There were no county rec- 
ords up to 1743, although the county had been created 
nearly five years before that date. In the first entries made 
,by Dr. Johnes the following names appear: Bailey, Park- 
hurst, Conger, Pruden, Lindley, Ford, Tichenor, Stiles, John- 
son, Allen, Clark, Easton, Haiues, Fairchild, Losey, Hatha- 
way, Holloway, Frost, Coe,^Day, TPierson, Tompkins, Peck, 
Condit, Howard, Mills, Freeman, Cutler, Wheeler, Moore, 
Mahurin, Wood, Beach, Davis, Arnold, Dickersou, Goble, 
and Halsey. All these names are entered between Febru- 
ary 19, 1743, and June 16, 1745, a period of a little over two 
years. Many of these names represent old and prominent 



EAItIA' SIOTTLEUS Ul' .M( lUKI.S'l'OWN 127 

ramilios, some of wliom iinddiihlcdly were ainoiifj; the first 
(II- very early settlers in .Morrislowu, and representatives of 
whom are still resident here. The names, however, of some 
wlio were very intlnential have (lisn|i|icai(Ml. The Hatha- 
way name in (lie seventeenth and eij;lileenth ci'iiliiries was 
very nnmerons in Morristowii, ami nnmbered several well 
known ami distingnished citizens, two of whom were offi- 
cers in the Kevolntiouary Army. Benoni Uathaway was 
inlhu'iiiial in cliiitcli ami State. It is not known that a 
sini^le (ii'scendanl of tliis once very large family, even of 
llie hiooti, thoniiJi not of the name, is resident in Morris- 
town. 

Till' ('(indict I'aniily was also large and of great intiueuce, 
lint the name has gone, although representatives of the 
blood are here. Silas Condict was a citizeu known all over 
the State during the IJevolution as a member of the Com- 
mittee of Safety and as a (bdegate to the Trovincial and 
Continental Congresses. lie was an ai'dent ]iatriot and 
took a keen interest in all ]iublic affairs, both in t Inirtdi aiid 
State. Lewis Condict, M.L)., of the same blood, but of later 
limes, was for several years a member of Congress and a 
leading [iliysician of the town. lie had several children, 
three of whom were also physicians. His daughters have 
married and found homes elsewhere. Silas Condict has 
several descendants in Morristown, among whom are Fred- 
erick (t. Burnliani and Gordon Sherman, Esqs., both success- 
ful lawyers. Uesides this inheritance they can claim 
anidiig their ancestors John .\lden and the beautiful maid- 
en, I'riscilla. 

Tinudhy Mills was one of the ancestors of the .Mills fam- 
ily, another liiglily i-espectable i-ace. His descendants have 
gone all over the United States, many of them becoming 
lawyers, ministers, missionaries, professors in educational 




<i PS 
be ® 



THE FOKD FAMILY 121* 

institutions, and leaders in other directions. Tliree of tliem 
who liave embraced tlie legal profession are living in Mor- 
ristown : Alfred Mills and his sons, Alfred Elmer and Ed- 
ward K. Mills. The elder of these stands in the front rank 
of lawyers in the State, recognized as one of the ablest iu 
the profession, a man respected for his great probity and 
public spirit, who has, perhaps, acted oftener in fiduciary 
capacities than any other in the State. His son Alfred is 
now (1901) perfornung the duties of prosecutor of the pleas 
of the county with great acceid ability. 

Colonel Jacob Ford and his son, Jacob Ford, Jr., before 
and during the Revolution, look a very active part iu iiub- 
lic matters, giving tone and character to the community. 
They were both residents in Morristown before and at the 
time the Revolutionary War began, and botli toidv an active 
part in the struggle. The elder Ford was one of the first 
judges of the County Court of ilorris after its creation, and 
was also an elder, probably among the first, in the new 
church, being in office in 1747. His sou, Avho was elevated to 
the rank of colonel in the patriot arm3% died in January, 
1777, and was buried with military honors by the especial 
order of Washington. His father died a very few days after 
the son. The l'\u'd mansion, now known as the " Head- 
quarters," was erected by the youuger Ford in 1775. It 
was in this elegant edifice that :Mrs. Theodosia Ford, the 
widow of the colonel and a dangliter of the Rev. Dr. Tim- 
othy Johues, in 178(1, \velcome<l the commander-in-chief 
when tlie army were encamped at Morristown for the sec- 
(iiiil time during the war. :\rany of the descendants of this 
distinguished family have sought other homes, and very 
few of the name remain. Cabriel H. Ford, a son of the 
colonel, was for many years a justice of the Supreme Court 
of New Jersey, and his son, Henry A. Ford, Avas one of the 



130 



THE PASSAIC VALLEY 



leaders in the Morris County courts and at his time ac- 
liuowledged to be one of the ablest in the State. The fam- 
ily name to-day is represented by Henry W. Ford, a son of 
Henry A., who resides on a portion of the ancestral acres 
near the Headquarters. He was at one time a banker in 
New York, being president of the Bank of the Eepublic of 
that city, but is now retired from business. 

Up to the year 1880 the name Pierson occurs one hun- 




THE FORD MANSION, WASHINGTON'S HEADQUARTERS, AT MOREISTOWN. 

dred times as members on the First Presbyterian Church 
records, and oftener than any other. Families of that name 
in considerable numbers are still found in Morristown and 
its vicinity, all of the highest respectability. Stephen Pier- 
son, M.D., a leading physician resident there, is a descendant 
of the original Pierson. 

Next in point of numbers on the church records is the 
name Johnson, which can be traced through several genera- 



MORRISTOWN FAMILIES 131 

tions to tlic tirst known inbabitani. Tbcro aro some of 
tbis clan, ouce so uumerous, still foiiiid iu Ibe vicinUy of 
Slon'istowu. Tbe same can be said of Prudeu, Lindsley, 
Stiles, Losey, Coo, Day, Freeman, Arnold, and Ilalsey. Cnt- 
ler is an old name, a descendant of it being- tbe Hon^ Will- 
iam ^^^ Culler, formerly judge of tbe county courts and 
now practicing- law wilb very great success. 

Tbe Wbitebead race lias been known in and near Morris- 
town for five generations. Tbey claim descent from Jobu 
Wbitebead, a " freeman," wbo was in New Haven, Conn., 
iu 1C30. Tbey bave been a pi-oiilic people, and llicir de- 
scendants are scattered all over tbe United States. Ira C. 
Wbitebead, one of tbe name, was an associate justice of tbe 
Supreme Court. Anotber, Asa Wiiilcbead, Avas a leading 
lawyer in Newark. His son, Aaion P., is a member of the 
bar in tbe City of New York. Isaac N. Wbitebead, a suc- 
cessful farmer, and bis nephew, Charles 1\. Whitehead, a 
recent member of tbe New Jersey Legislature, represent tbe 
family at Morristown. John Whitehead is of the same • 
kindred and resides also at ^lorristown. 

Major Jacob Arnold was of the Morris County Light Horse 
in the TJcwolution. He was tbe proprietor of the Arnold 
Tavern in 1777, when Washington made it his headquar- 
ters. He is represented to-day by a grandson and the fam- 
ily of another grandson, now deceased. 

A new element has been lately introduced into Morris- 
town which has added much wealth to tbe community, and 
has given many men of pulilie sj^irit and lK'n(V( deuce to aid 
in conducting tbe affairs of the city and of the various 
churches. While this new element has no connection by 
blood with the older inhabitants or their descendants, many 
of them have thrown themselves into the discbai'ge of their 
duties as citizens and members of the eomuxuuity with a 



132 



THE PASSAIC VALLEY 



most commendable zeal, with great wisdom and active 
benevolence, and have manifested the same pride in the past 
history of the town as though they were of the manner born. 
They are merchants, manufacturers, and business men of 
New York and Newark and other cities, who have been at- 
tracted thither by the many advantages attending life in 
this beautiful and healthy town. Many of them have made 
Morristown their permanent residence, dwelling here with 
their families during the whole year. 




MORRIS ARMS. 



CHAPTEll X 



MOURTSTOWN — CONTINUED 




IlKUE aiv now in Morristowu two Tresbyterian 
('hurclu's (one of which has been mentioned), two 
l'4)isco|i;ilian, two Roman Catholic, two Metho- 
dist, and two Baptist; one of each of the last 
named denominations is used by colored people. When the 
First Presbyterian Churcli was organized, in 1738, as al- 
ready mentioned, one hundred and two persons were en- 
rolled as members. At least oue-fotirth of these were of 
mature aye, many were wives whose husbands were not 
members, some few were widows, but quite a large number 
were young people. They all bore names which are familiar 
in the history of the church and of the town. This church 
grew and prospered under the leadership of Dr. Johnes and 
his successors until in 1790, when it was resolved to build 
a new edifice. During the War of the Revolution, while 
the army was encamped here, the smallpox broke out with 
great virulfuce among the soldiers, and the church was 
utilized for hospital purposes. There was, of course, some 
dilapidation caused by this use, and so soon as the cii'cum- 
stances of the congregation would permit this step of build- 
ing a new edifice was taken. The eiiteriu-ise was eminently 
successful, and a beautiful and commodious house was 
erected at a cost of twenty thousand dollars — an immense 
sum when the financial condition and small number of the 



-134 



THE PASSAIC VALLEY 



inhabitants are taken into consideration, in connection with 
the short time which had elapsed since the town and county 
had been subjected to the great burdens consequent upon 
the presence of the arm^- during two winters. This new 
building, thus erected, underwent some changes, and the 
people worshipping in it came and went according to the 

exigencies of this 
changing life, but 
still increased in 
numbers and in 
strength under the 
preaching of a long 
line of godly and able 
ministers until the 
congregation again 
deemed it advisable 
that another new- 
house should take 
the place of that in 
which God had been 
worshipped for a 
century. So ten 
years ago prepara- 
tions were made for 
erecting the present 
stately edifice, in 
^ which the congrega- 

tion now worship. The cost of this building was one hun- 
dred and forty thousand dollars. A chapel and a manse 
had previously been built, one at the cost of twenty-one 
thousand dollars and the other of eighteen thousand dol- 
lars. These buildings are on the north side of the public 
square, a noble site worthy of their magnificence. 




THE BOSTON MASSACRE. 



THE) SECOND PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH 135 

The Second Presbyterian Church is an offshoot of the 
First Church. It was iul'ormally organized in January, 
1841, when one hundred and I'orty-six members withdrew 
Irom the parent church. The Mrst meeting was held in the 
upper room of the old academy, which then stood where 
now the library and lyceum is located, and where services 
continued lo be held uuLil October of the same year, when 
the new house of worship was finished and the lii'st min- 
ister, Kev. Urlando C. Kirtlaud, installed. The first board 
of trustees was elected May 17, ISil, and the congregation 
was formally organized by a committee of the Presbytery 
of Elizabethtown, June 1, 1841. The first church building 
was built ou iSouth JStreet, on the same site where now 
stands their present magnificent structure. The first was 
very modest and unassuming, costing a little over nine 
thousand dollars. Uu January 10, 1877, this building was 
burned to the ground, and instant measures were taken to 
rebuild. The congregation was called upon to subscribe 
for the work. llesj)onses to this call were made nobly and 
generously, plans were at once adopted, and the building 
pushetl forward so energetically that on July 12, 1878, it 
was dedicated with apprt)priate ceremonies. The name 
was afterward changed to " The South Street Presbyterian 
Church "; its first title was that of the Second Presbytei-ian 
Church of Morristowu. Its present pastor is the Rev. Albert 
Erdiuan, D.D., whose pastorate has continued from May, 
1SG9, to this date. The edifice in which the congregation 
now worships is very beautiful, and is, perhaps, the most 
commodious and best arranged of auy of its kind and pur- 
pose in the State, having almost every appliance which can 
be desired for church purposes. The congregation is very 
strong and vigorous, and has far outstripijed its mother in 
number and annual beneficences. 



136 



THE PASSAIC VALLEY 



The Baptist Churcli is next, chronologically, to the First 
Presbyterian, and, like that, was used while the army was 
at Morristown for hospital purposes. Its beginnings were 
verj' small. When first organized, August 11, 1732, it had 
only eleven members. Meetings were held and the ordi- 
nances observed in a small building about a mile from town, 
on the road to New Vernon, from August 19, 1732, until 




NgiVS OF LEXINGTON. 

May, 1771, when a church edifice was built on the corner 
of Speedwell Avenue and Park Place, and dedicated soon 
after. After seventy years of worship in this building an 
effort was successfully made to build a new meeting house 
and that was dedicated October 8, 1845. A favorable op- 
portunity came to the congregation a few years ago to sell 
their property advantageously. They disijosed of it and 



METHODIST CUUKCUES 137 

immediately made arrangements to rebuild, but on a differ- 
ent location. Tiie.v bought a most desirable lot on tlie 
forner of AN'asliinnlun and High Streets, opposite the court 
house, and have there built a beautiful chunii, of the 
medieval style of architecture, wliicli tlicv aic now occnpy- 
inji'. The liev. Haniuel Z. Eattin, zealous and most active in 
his work, is the present pastor. The congregation from 
its small beginning has increased, and has become a flour- 
ishing institution and a jMiwer in (he community. 

The Methodist Episcopal Church, one of the strongest in 
the State, is an e.\ami)le of what can be done by a deter- 
mined people under good leadership and wise management. 
This community is now worshipping in the third structure 
erected, from time to time, for their jiurposes. Tlie lirst 
was built on Market Street, nearly opposite the Farmers' 
Hotel. It was a brick structure, forty by sixty feet, two 
stories in lieighl, \\ith galleries on three sides, an<l a choir 
gallery opposite the pulpit, which was in the nortli end of 
the audience room. After a few months spent in its erec- 
tion the building was <ledicated October 14, 1S27. In 1S27- 
28 a great revival of religion occurred Iti Morristown, in- 
tense excitement pervaded all classes on the subject of re- 
ligion, and jilaces of business were closed for several days 
so all might attend religious services. Large additions 
were made to all the evangelical churches, and two hundred 
persons were received on i)robation into tlie Methodist 
Church. From this time the history of tliis organization 
was that of success and prosperity. Their numbers so in- 
creased that their building became too small, and a new 
one was erected on the same site as that now occupied by 
the congrejiation in their third meetiu" house. This see- 



s' 



o 



)nd building was frame, painted \\hite; its coi-nerstone 



was laid in 1840. It was dedicated in 1S4I. After the erec- 



138 THE PASSAIC VALLEY 

tion of the third structure the second was generously do- 
nated to the African Methodist Episcopal congregation, by 
which it was removed to Spring Street, where it is now used 
by them. The cornerstone of the stately edifice now util- 
ized by the Methodists was laid in 1866 and the building 
was finished and dedicated in 1870. It is one of the most 
complete in finish, elegant in architecture, and commodious 
in appliances for all the wants of a church in the country, 
and will ever, so long as it stands, be a monument of the 
munificent generosity of the Hon. George T. Cobb, who gave 
out of his own means the princely sum of one hundred thou- 
sand dollars for its completion. 

The present edifice used by Saint Peter's congregation of 
the Protestant Episcopalians of Morristown is of the most 
correct style of medieval architecture. It was erected under 
the direct supervision of the rector, Eev. Eobert N. Merritt, 
D.D., and every detail, even to the minutest, was scrupu- 
lously guarded by him. Unfortunately Dr. Merritt died be- 
fore its completion, only the tower being needed, however, 
the main part, including the audience room and all parts 
necessary for divine worship, being fully finished and in 
use by the congregation for several years. Through the 
generous liberality of one member of the congregation an 
elegant rectory, almost immediately adjoining the church, 
has been erected. The Rev. Charles H. Hibbard, D.D., is 
now the rector, and the Rev. William P. Taylor is curate. 
This congregation is one of the strongest and most liberally 
disposed among this denomination in the State, certainly 
in the valley. 

The other Episcopalian Church is called the Church of 
the Redeemer. It is situated in the heart of the town, 
on a beautiful site on the north side of South Street. It is 
a structure of wood, of the Gothic style of architecture, 



PROTESTANT EPISCOPAL CHURCHES 139 

originally stamliiiii' on tlic i-onicr of I'iiic and Morris 
Streets, near the railroad depot, tnmi wlieiice it was re- 
mov<'d a few years ago lo its ])i'eseut jxisition. This congre- 
gatiiiii has growa liuiii rather small beginnings, and has 
now become large and jtrosperous. Its cliiirrli liuilding lias 
been enlarged, a commodious rectory purchased, and a fu- 
ture of great success lies before it. It is ministered to by 
the Kev. William M. Uughes, S.T.D. 

Prior to the beginning of I he nineteenth t-entui'y thei'e 
had been no service of this denomimition of Christians in 
.Moi'iistown. The tendency of religious faith since the set- 
tlement of the town had been overwhelmingly in the direc- 
tion of the Presbyterian doctrine and form of worship. The 
Baptists had early interjected a snuill struggling organiza- 
tion into the community, but it did not at first assume any 
lai'ge pro])ortions. It is to be honoivd for its pertinacious 
eontest against so many obstaeles in its way, for what its 
members honestly' thcnight to be right, and all true believers 
in religious toleration must rejoice in its final success. The 
first observance of any religions worship in the forms of the 
Episcopal Church, so far as can now be established, was in 
1812, when Uishop Ilobart ofTiciated, by express invitation, 
in the Presbyterian Church, jireaching the sermon and using 
the Episcopal liturgy and form of service. (Jcorge P. Mc- 
Cullougli, in 1821, and for some years prior to that date, had 
been successfully conducting a boarding school for boys in 
a large dwelling still standing on McCullough Avenue. He 
was a churclnnan. hut with his ])U])ils liad i-cguhn-ly at- 
tended worship in the I'resbyterian Chnrch. One of his 
assistant teachers, the Ivcv. Mr. ('ummins, was an ordained 
Episco])al ]»riest, and about the year 1S20 service had been 
conducted by him on Sundays at Mr. .McCulloiigh's house. 
I'rom 1S2.") until 1827, when the first Episcopal parish was 




o 

o 
a 

H 



o 



TIIR RO^rAN CATIIOT.ICS 141 

ffii'iiicd, the Uev. John Croes, ;i son of the bishoj* of that, 
name, liad been oomUiclinf;- siTvicc as a niissionary in the 
oUl Baptist meeting house at Morristown. On the UTth of 
December, 1826, a call a])])eare(l for a meeting of the mem- 
bers of tile new Episcopal congregation to take measures 
for an incorporation. After this was accomplished a 
church edifice was erected, the cornerstone of which was 
laid November 14, 1S2S. Previously, however, to this date, 
on the 30th of May, 1827, the congregation had been formal- 
ly admitted into the Diocese of New Jersey, and was there- 
after known as Saint Peter's Cliurch of Morristown. 

The Roman Catholics have now two houses for WM)rship, 
one, the Church of the Assumption, a large and costly edi- 
fice on the south side of Maple Avenue, with the priests' 
house and buildings for school purposes adjoining. Until 
1847 there was only one Roman Catholic Church in the 
county, and that was at iladison. The presence of so many 
French people in that locality demanded facilities for their 
w^orship according to the forms of the denomination of their 
fathers, and a small house of worship had been built. To 
this church those whose inclination led them to seek divine 
services conducted after the ceremonies of the Catholic 
Church resorted, sometimes afoot and frequently from a 
distance of twenty miles. It became manifest about this 
date that the adherents of tlie Catholic Chiirch resident in 
Morristown were of suflicient numbers to warrant the 
erection of a building for their accommodation. A small 
frame structure was accordingly built, with a capacity of 
seating about three hundred people. That building, when 
the present church edifice was erected, was used for a paro- 
chial school. The congregation, however, was too poor to 
support a pastor, and was supplied fi'om Madison until 
they were able to provide for an independent minister. 



142 THE PASSAIC VALLEY 

Other churches, in the meantime, had been established at 
Mendliam and at Baslving Ridge. When, therefore, a stated 
Ijriest was i^laced over the parish at Morristown these two 
congregations were put under his charge. It was not long 
before the congregation at Morristown became so increased 
that it needed the undivided services of their own priest, 
and in 1871 the tv/o other chiirches mentioned were other- 
wise i)rovided for. In 1872 the present edifice was erected, 
of the best red brick, one hundred and twenty-two feet deep 
and fifty-two feet wide, and is capable of seating a thousand 
people, which number is frequently gathered within its 
walls on Sundays and feast days. The edifice is of admi- 
rable i^roportions, highly decorated within by memorial win- 
dows, paintings, and statues. The pulpit is in the south- 
ern end with a choir gallery and organ fronting to the 
south, and handsomely carved pillars support the roof. At 
the northeastern corner of the building, on Madison Street, 
is a beautiful campanile fourteen feet square at the base 
and one hundred and twenty-five feet high, in the top of 
which swings a bell whose rich, ringing tones can be heard 
at a great distance. Behind the church on Madison Street, 
near McCiillough Avenue, is a large school house with ac- 
commodations for several hundred scholars, devoted to a 
parochial school. This school is divided into three depart- 
ments, besides a kindergarten, and is under the charge of 
twelve sisters of charity, who live in a house of their own 
on the grounds and devote their entire time to its care. 

The congregation now numbers more than a thousand, 
and became so large a few years ago that another church 
was built at " Wiggerville," so named after the late Bishop 
Wigger, and which is part of Morristown. This new erec- 
tion is of wood, on the corner of Columbia Street and Speed- 
well Avenue, and is called Saint Margaret's Church. From 



COLORRT) CONGUEGATIONS 



143 



present appearances this new edifice will snon lie, if udt 
noAV, too small for the people. The two congregations re- 
quire the services of four ordained priests, one of Avhoni 
has charge entirely of the Italian members, from whom 
large accessions have recently been made from the numer- 
ous immigrants of that nationality into Morristown. 

The colored people liave two congregations worship]iing 
in two houses of their own : one connected with the African 
Methodist Episcopal Church and the other of the Baptist 
denomination. Each are independent of all connection 
with any ecclesiastical organization controlled by the white 
race. The Methodists worship in the building generously 
donated to them by the family of the Hon. George F. Cobb 
and once occupied by the white Methodists. It is a very 
neat frame building, situate on the bank of the Whipi)any 
Iviver on S]iring Street. Connected with it is a commodious 
parsonage and about an acre of ground. The other con- 
gregation has a small edifice, recently ei*ected, which is 
mostly supported by negro immigrants who have lately 
come to Morristown from Southern States. Both congre- 
gations are active, energetic, and exhibit a commendable 
generosity in their support of their church organizations. 




CHURCH AT BERGEN, 1680. 







CHAPTER XI 



THE MOrtrjSTOWN IJBRARY — REVOIJJTIONARY ITISTOUV 




X THE north si.lo of So-atli Stroot, near tlic lioart of 
tlio oitv, stands a larije strnctnre ninety feet front 
hv one Inindi'cd feet deep. On its broad front is in- 
scribed in couspicnous letters this legend: ''The 
MouiusTOwx Ltrrary and Lyc'et-.m." These few words de- 
note to wliaf iMirjioses this strnetnre is devoted — lliosc of a 
public library. It owes its inceijfion to the exertions mainly 
of two citizens of Morristown, one of whom many years since 
passed to his final reward; the oilier is still livinii' and is 
now the president of the institution. T5ut had it not been for 
tlie j^enerons uninificence and ]icrsc\ciini; activity f>f one 
other citizen it would ]n"obably never liave assumed its 
present proportions. 

It was chartered on tlu^ tHli of .Maicli, ISCid, and o]tened 
to the public Auiiust 14, 1S7S. The chartei' of Ihe library 
is a sjiecial one ^i-anted by the Legislature, with peculiar 
y)7-ivilei:es. The cost of the buildiuii was about sixty thou- 
sand dollars, raised by subscri])tions in the form of stock. 
The material used in the erection of (he edifice was a form 
of liard coniilomei'ate granite found on llie lii-ounds of (he 
Morristown Aqueduct Company, a slioil distance from the 
town, a sufficient quantity of which was donated by the 
company, ^ir. William L. Kiui;, a na(ive bin-ii ci(i/,en of ^for- 
ristown, was a resident of the citv when the commissioners 





Note — The full title 
of this illustration is " The 
United States Commis- 
sioners in 1782 to sign 
the Treaty of Independ- 
ence." It is taken from 
an mifinished picture by 
Benjamin West. Besides 
the portraits of John Jay, 
John Adams, and Benja- 
min Franklin there appear 
those of William Temple 
Franklin, the son of the lat- 
ter, and Henry Laurens, 
both of whom were present 
at the signing. 



THE AMERICAN PEACE COMMISSIONERS. 



THE MOKRISTOWN LIBRARY 147 

appointed by the charter were about ready to receive sub- 
scriptions to the stock. He hud aciiuiiuhited a lari;(> for- 
tune, and had retired to his birtlii>hice to enjoy the re- 
sults of his industry. He was a libcT'al giver to every good 
work, and it was hoped by the founders of tlie library that 
he would become interested in it. He soon became a very 
large stockholder, and enthusiastically supported the insti- 
tution with his advice, his active exertions, and large do- 
nations of money, throwing his whole heart into the work. 
Before his death his contribution in money was over thirty 
thousand dollars, and by his will he endowed the library 
with thirty-five thousand more. No one contributed as 
much to the final success as did this generous, liberal 
minded man. 

Mr. King was of Eevolutionary descent; his grandfather, 
Frederick King, was a trusted messenger during the War 
of the Revolution, carrying despatches, money to pay the 
troops, and other messages, and filling a position requiring 
a cautious, faithful, and wise person. He became the first 
postmaster of Morristown. William L. King survived his 
children and left no immediate descendant, but his place 
in the direction of the library lias been worthily taken by 
his nephew, Vincent B. King. 

Twenty thousand and moi*e volumes are now on the 
shelves of the library, besides several thousand more of con- 
gressional publica.tions, which are placed in a room spe- 
cially appropriated for them. The library is the depository 
for the congressional district in which Morristown is sit- 
uated. Connected wilh the institution is a light and airy 
school room, used for the jirepaiat ion of youth for college, 
and capable of seating some sixty scholars. A large hall 
for lectures, concerts, and other entertainments is located 
in the second story, which is wholly used for these purposes. 



148 



THE PASSAIC VALLEY 



Beading and reference rooms are opened for the use of all 
who desire to read the leading magazines of the day or to 
refer to books. These rooms are opened free to all without 
any charge. Mr. William L. King was the first president, 
and was continued in that position until his death. Since 
that time he has been succeeded by John Whitehead. 

Morristown is rich in Eevolutionary memories, and in 
this it is excelled by no other locality in the republic. 
Washington and the patriot army were 
encamped here during two winters. The 
first encampment was that of 1777, after 
the first and second battles of Trenton 
and that of Princeton. Washington and 
his victorious soldiers left the battlefield 
of Princeton, January 3, 1777, and 
marched direct to Morristown, arriving 
there on the fith of the same month. The 
commander-in-chief selected the Arnold 
Tavern for his headquarters. This cele- 
brated house was then situated on the 
west side of the " Green," and Avas in the 
occiipancy of Major Jacob Arnold, a dis- 
tinguished officer in the Morris County 
Light Horse Dragoons. The position of 
innkee])er then was a respectable one in 
the community, and Major Arnold stood high in the confi- 
dence and esteem of his fellow citizens. Before his time 
a tavern had been kept by Jacob Ford, who, when he re- 
ceived a license, was one of the first judges of the county 
and generally gave the charges to the grand juries. The 
Arnold Tavern was a three-story frame structure, with a 
hall running through its center and two rooms on each side. 
The office and reception rooms of the genei"al were on the 




DRAGOON OFFICER. 



WASHINGTON AND THE ARNOLD TAVERN 



149 



south side of this hall; on the other side were the bar and 
dining rooms, with the kitchen in the rear. 

Wasliiugton spent the winter here, remaining until the 
early summer. Many of the soldiers were distributed 
among the loyal inhabitants, who opened their hospitable 
homes for their reception. Many built huts on Mount Kem- 
ble, as the elevation was called, extending southward for 
several miles toward Bask- 
ing Ridge, and on the adja- 
cent hills. The winter was 
exceedingly inclement and 
the soldiers suffered great 
hardships. This was a crit- 
ical period in the war. De- 
cisive events were transpir- 
ing in the history of the new 
republic which were des- 
tined to decide its future. 
The battles of Trenton and 
Princeton had determined 
the action of the French gov- 
ernment, and brighter pros- 
pects opened to the view of 
the patriots who were strug- ^y^ PpC^'^^yi/^ /^'^ 
gling for freedom. Washing- 
ton and his faithful corps of 

officers were not idle while in this first winter's stay at 
Morristown. His correspondence with Congress and the 
sovernors of different States was very voluminous. He 
knew that cabals were attempting to wrest the chief com- 
mand of the army from his grasp; he fully appreciated the 
exigency of the situation; but his tenacious mind and his 
indomitable will preserved the natural serenity of his tem- 




'V'iX 



150 THE PASSAIC VALLEY 

perament and freed liim from those discouragements which 
would have overwhelmed a man of different mould. 

A powder mill had been built at Morristown, where 
Colonel Jacob Ford, Jr., was busily engaged in manufactur- 
ing gunpowder under a contract with Congress, by which 
he agreed to manufacture a certain number of pounds of 
that material in return for a loan made to him by the gov- 
ernment. This mill and the presence of the commander-in- 
chief at Morristown were great incentives to the enemy to 
destroy the one and capture the other, and frequent at- 
tempts were made in those directions, but they always 
failed. The soil of Morris County was never pressed by 
the fort of a British or Hessian soldier except after his 
capture. Colonel Ford, while on parade very soon after 
Washington's arrival, was seized with a sudden illness from 
which he never recovered, but died on the 17th of January, 
1777. 

^yfhe Arnold Tavern is called in modern histories by other 
names. In Bryant's " Popular History of the United 
States " it is called the " Freeman " Tavern. De Chastel- 
lue, a French traveller, who was in Morristown at the time 
of Washington's residence there, spealcs of this hostelry, 
calls it by its right name, and praises a meal which was 
served to him there. This historic building is still exist- 
ent, saved from destruction by the patriotic efforts of a lady 
now living here, and utilized for the purposes of All Souls 
Hospital, having, however, been removed nearly a mile 
from its former position. It has been much altered and 
additions made, and has lost most of its former appear- 
ance. 

Washington again visited Morristown with his army in 
the winter of 1779-80. On this occasion he was welcomed 
by Mrs. Theodosia Ford, the widow of Colonel Jacob Ford, 



Ith"e 



PUBLIC LIBRARY 



, OR, LENOX ANO 

,£K foouoaTions 



WASHINGTON AND THE FORD MANSION 



151 



Jr., to the elegant mansion M'hich her husband had 
built a few years before the War of the Revolution 
broke out. It was situated on a commanding site east 
of the town, overlooking a charming landscape in what- 
ever direction the view might be taken, and was beyond 
question the most desirable residence in the vicinity. Wash- 
ington reached it on December 1, 1779. This second win- 
ter was more sevei'e even than the first, and the soldiers 



'^/k^:^J\. 




THK ARNOLD TAVKRX. 

(First Iieadquarters of Wasliingtou at Morristow^i in 1777.) 



suffered iuteuse hardships. Washington strove to the ut- 
most to alleviate the distress of the troops, and was un- 
wearied in his attempts to afford tlic men all jiossible relief. 
The dwelling he occupied, though so capacious, was not 
capable of accommodating the great number of his military 
family and of his own servants and those of his hostess. 

Great inconvenience was felt in the financial condition. 
The Continental currency, consisting simply of the prom- 



152 



THE PASSAIC VALLEY 



ises of the Congress to pay with no security to the holder, 
depreciated enormously, so that a month's pay of a soldier 
would hardly provide a day's provision for his family. At- 
tempts were made by the local authorities to establish a 
regular price for provisions and the common ordinary neces- 
saries of life, but the efforts were fruitless, as all such ex- 
periments have always proved to be. The citizens, espe- 
cially the women, of Morristown and of the county bravely 

bore the burden imposed upon them 
by the presence of the army. Fuel, 
provisions, forage, clothing, and 
stores of various kinds were fur- 
nished without murmuring to the 
great discomfor-t of the families of 
the inhabitants, for Morris County 
was patriotic to the core and did 
not hesitate when the demand 
came to aid in succoring the 
distressed men Avho were peril- 
ling all for the cause of freedom. 
Good Parson Johnes's wife and 
Silas Condict's wife set the exam- 
ple of laboring for the relief of the 
troops. Mrs. Condict kept an old 
fashioned kettle of huge dimen- 
sions filled with a savory stew, steaming hot, hanging from 
the crane in her capacious fireplace, and by its side a bar- 
rel of cider with a pewter mug, to meet the wants of the 
hungry and thirsty soldiers. The parson's wife knit stock- 
ings for the barefooted men and encouraged others to do 
the same. 

The Ford mansion is still standing, in excellent repair, 
unchanged from what it was Avhen occupied by Washing- 




STATDE OF WASHINGTON IN 
WALL STREET, NEW YORK. 



THE FORD MANSION 153 

toil, hut tillod to overflowing with mementos of the great 
inaii wlio oiuc slept within its walls, and of the great war 
whii'h he conducted to a successful termination. The edi- 
ticc and the grounds around it have been purchased by a 
number of patriotic gentlemen for the purpose of preserv- 




UNIFORMS OF BRITISH OFFICERS, 1776-79. 

/ 

ing them as memorials of the presence of Washington at 
Morristown. They have gathered an iinmcnse number of 
articles connected Avith and commemorative of those times 
when the new born republic was in such peril. The pTir- 
ohasers became incorjiorated by a special act of the Legisla- 



154 



THE PASSAIC VALLEY 



ture of New Jersey, in addition to which an annual appro- 
priation of twelve hundred dollars is made by the State for 
the purpose of aiding the association. 

Morristown is remarkable in other directions. It was 

the scene of tlie first ex- 
periments made with the 
telegTai^h. It is claimed by 
many that a Morristown 
citizen, Alfred Vail, is 
equally entitled with Pro- 
fessor Morse to the credit of 
inventing this 
.^^^ - ^ ' appliance to 
>s= man's c o m- 
fort. It is un- 
doubtedly cer- 
tain that Mr. 
Vail and the 
professor first 
e s t a blished, 
by actual ex- 
po ri m e nts, 
that the tele- 
graph was 
p r a c t icable. 
Mr. Vail, in 
1837, was a 
student in col- 
lege when 
)dV[orse brought the invention to his notice. His inclina- 
tions were strongly in the direction of electrical studies, 
and he soon became vei"y much interested in its operations 
and aided the inventor in various ways, pecuniarly and by 




THE FIRST TELEGRAPH LINE. 



NOTABLE ACHIKVEMENTS AT SPEEDWELL 155 

some very important and necessary improvements of liis 
own. His fatliei', Steplien Vail, at tliat time was a large 
ii'oii maiiiifacturcr at Speedwell, near Morristown, where 
ample opportunity could be given tor exi)erimeuls. 
>*Olorse was invited to put up his poles and string his wires 
at Speedwell. Three miles of poles were erected and the 
necessary wires strung. On January G, 1838, messages were 
sent over these wires by electricity, and the practicability of 
transmitting messages by that motive power for indetinite 
distances was demonstrated beyond doubt. The inventor 
and Mr. Vail were little awaie of what possibilities there 
were in the future for their invention. But Alfred Vail has 
not received the honor he deserved for his part in the enter- 
prise. He is now dead, but he went to his grave with the 
full consciousness that injustice had been done to him. He 
was, however, a modest man, and chose rather to suffer 
Avrong than to resort to courts to be righted. 

Speedwell at one time was notable for other aciiieve- 
ments in the iron manufacture. Here, in 181lt, was made 
the boiler used in the machinery which propelhMl the first 
steam vessel across the Atlantic. The Knglisli news])apers, 
especially the Loudon Times, noticed in glowing terms the 
arrival of this boat, the " Savannah," in one of their ports, 
and described its beautiful proportions, the elegant and com- 
fortable provision made for the passengers in their state- 
rooms, the wonderful speed of the vessel, and its ability to 
move in any direction without the aid of sails. 




CHAPTER XII 



HANOVER TOWNSHIP 



ANOVER TOWNSHIP Avas established by the order 
of the ronnty Court in March, 1740, the year after 
-Morris County was formed. It is bounded on the 
north by the Pe(|uanno(k River, whk-li divides It 
fi'om Boonton and IMontville, east by the Passaic River and 
^lontville, south by ^lorristown and Cliatliani, and west by 
Rockaway. It is one of the largest in the eounty, eontain- 
Ing 29,747 acres. The ground in the eastern part is general- 
ly level, slightly inclining towards tlie river, with some occa- 
sional low grounds, but all easily cultivated. In the west 
are found some considerable elevations. Extending north- 
erly, nearly througli the center of tlie township, are very 
extensive tracts of meadow land, some of which pass over 
from Morris Township, such as the Rlack and Beach ^lead- 
ows. The Troy and Lee Meadows, however, ar<' confined ex- 
clusively to Hanover. A pcu'tion of Hatfield Swamp crosses 
the river, extending from Caldwell in Essex County. There 
are about three thousand acres of this character of land. 
They are valuable possessions for the fariner, affording 
crops of excellent grass, and are easily drained an<l culti- 
vated. 

Hanover was at one time connected with Hunterdon Coun- 
ty, forming part of wliat is now Morris when that was one 
township and called Hanover, and retained at its formation 



158 THE PASSAIC VALLEY 

as a township in 1740 tlie name Hanover, then ineludintj a 
much larger extent of country than is now within its bounds. 
It is well watered by several streams, some of which come 
from other parts of the county; others have their entire 
course in Hanover. The Pequannock skirts its whole 
northern boundary and is a most important stream. It 
and its greatest tributary, Whippauy, rise in Morris; Black 
Brook comes in from Chatham and joins its waters with the 
Whippauy. Troy, Stony, and Parsippany Brooks are Han- 
over streams, as are several other streamlets, which all, in 
one way or another, finally end their course in the Passaic. 

The population of this to^^nship is mostly agricultural 
and generally permanent in their residence. Lving 
outside of all railroad facilities for travel, it has not in- 
creased either in population or in manufactures, or in the 
valuation of its real estate in the same proportions as other 
municipalities. Before railroads were laid it had, com- 
paratively speaking, more appliances for freighting goods 
and produce and for ordinary travel than now. Two great 
turnpikes ran through the township, over which any kind 
of freight could be transported to markets, but at the pres- 
ent the course of travel and transportation has been 
changed. Efforts are now being made by which, in the near 
future, the railroad may be brought to the doors of the 
people, when a change will come and greater prosperity 
awaken them to their possibilities. 

The villages in Hanover are Whippauy, Malapardis, Mor- 
ris Plains, Monroe, Littleton, Mount Tabor, Old Boonton, 
Parsippany, Troy or Troy Hills, Hanover, and Hanover 
Creek, all within the bounds of the Passaic Valley. Whip- 
pany, or Hanover as it was once called, is the most impor- 
tant of these. Its present title, derived from the river, was 
spelled Whipanong, the Indian name given to the stream, 



WIUrPANY VILLAGE 



159 



upon botli sides of which tlio vilhige is siliiattMl. It is esscn- 
(i;illy a inanufacturiug locality of uearly if not quite oue 
thousnnd people, sustained by ilie factories and mills fiud- 
iiii;- a(l\:nitaii'eous sites for uliliziiiii iirdfilaliiy the water 
|(()\v('r of the river. There are three churches here: Presby- 
terian, .Methodist, and Catholic. Factories for manufactur- 
ing paper and bricks have been established for several years, 
and some other mills find profitable eniployiucut. A rail- 
road now running from MoiTistown to Whippany, used ex- 




DEPARTURE OF THE BRITISH TROOPS. 



tensively for carrying' freight, has been lately built, and is 
allording excellent facilities for this growing and interest- 
ing town. In the near future this road may become an im- 
portant viaduct for travel and transportation to the great 
emporiums in the vicinity. 

The possibilities of Whippany cannot be estimated or 
forecasted, but it is certainly within the bounds of proba- 
bility that greater success may reward the efforts of its lead- 
ing men. 



160 THE PASSAIC VALLEY 

One of the most interesting features of New England life 
is the introduction of the library system of education into 
their manufacturing towns and even their small villages. 
This method of instructing the masses, whose advantage 
in that direction in early life were meagre, and who are 
eager In maturer days to acquire knowledge, is one of the 
most practical of public blessings of this time, and has 
been fully appreciated by some far reaching benevolent 
minds. One of these institutions has been introduced into 
Whippany, through the exertions of Mr. H. C. Reynolds, one 
of the leading citizens of that town. It belongs to the Pas- 
saic Valley and to its people as well as to the town where it 
is located, and rleserves all honor. In 1893 a large corner lot 
was purchased for the purpose of " The Whipanong Hall 
and Library Association," as this institution is called, and 
under which name it has been incorporated. The design 
of its founders is to promote the intellectual, social, and 
recreative interests of the community, with especial and 
primary reference to the intellectual pai't of the plan. The 
lot bought for that purpose was properly graded, and on it 
has been erected a commodious one-story building, thirty- 
five by fifty-two feet, with basement designed for general 
public uses. Here the elections of the precinct are held; 
the town officers and the Board of Registration meet here 
for the transaction of public business. A library room of 
good dimensions, with hvo thousand volumes of well se- 
lected books on its shelves, known as " The Mrs. J. W. Rob- 
erts ^Memorial," occupies a large part of the main room or 
hall, with a stage at one end. The postoffice of the town is 
located in the basement, the postmaster acting as librarian 
and general caretaker of the whole building. A large part 
of the funds necessary for the purchase of the lot, its prepa- 
ration for the building, and the erection of the building 



THE WHII'ANONG LIBRARY 161 

itself has been provided by the generosity of the citizens of 
tlie town and of some sicntlcincn avIio were horn in Wliip- 
pany, hut lia\e i-cmoved clsewliere — especially Edward F. 
('. ^'^unJi, of Jersey City, A. K. Ely, of New York City, and 
Silas Tnttli', of Brooklyn. Mr. Jonathan W. Roberts, of 
Morris IMains, George E. Voorhees, of .Morristown. and 
abont sixty others, citizens of Hanover, have contribnted 
also in money and materials. The whole amonnt thus 
raised is three thousand dollars. At the front angle of the 
lot, on the street, a flag pole one hundred feet high has been 
planted, from which floats the national onblem of I he re- 
public. 

The founders hope soon to extend their ])lan, add to the 
building, increase the library room and the number of vol- 
umes, and make further provision for the W'ants of the com- 
munity, making intellectual improvement always the fore- 
most object of their attention. There are nuiny other locali- 
ties in the valley where this good example might well be 
followed. 

The utilization of that subtle element, electricity, has 
lately received much attention from scientists. There are 
some who do not hesitate to assei-t that, in the very near 
future, it is to be the motive jxiwer of the world. Man has 
already laid his Jiaud on this hitherto elusive andmarvellous 
force, made it subser^ient to his w\\\, and obliged it to do 
his bidding. What are to be its possibilities, what may it be 
made to perform, wdio can foresee or prophesy? The ])lan 
has lately been formed of utilizing electricity in an enter- 
prise which, if carried out, will have its main operations in 
the Valley of the Passaic. It is the construction of a " high 
speed, standard gauge electric railway " practically through 
the lengtli and breadth of the valley. Unlike other electric 
roads, its projectors do not propose to occupy any high- 



162 THE PASSAIC VALLEY 

ways and will have but few, if any, grade crossings, and in 
no way interfere with the free use for vehicles of all kinds 
over newly laid macadamized roads, for the construction 
of which so much money has been expended. 

The plan as now outlined is extensive and far reaching. 
It is proposed to make, for the present, Newark the be- 
ginning point, thence pass over a private right of way, pro- 
cured by purchase, or condemnation if necessary, through 
such towns as Connecticut Farms, Springfield, Short Hills, 
Summit, Hanover, Whippany, Parsippany, Boonton, Rocka- 
way, and Dover, and terminate at Lake Hopatcong and Den- 
mark, with connecting lines on the west to Morristown and 
Mendham and on the east to Caldwell and Montclair. A 
further part of the plan is to make connections with exist- 
ing traction systems of three hundred miles in Essex, Hud- 
son, and Union Counties, and wherever practicable with 
established lines of ordinary railroads. It is claimed by 
the promoters of this road that means of forwarding freight 
and transporting passengers from their doors to the great 
emporiums can be afforded at cheap rates and by rapid 
transit by this new system of electric road, and also that 
through this mode of travel and transportation, by reason 
of its facilities, the price of coal and other necessaries of life 
will be cheapened, and the expense of travel for ordinary 
passengers lessened. 

The greatest claim made on the citizens of the valley for 
support, however, is this : that those portions, which do not 
now have the benefits of i*ailroads, by this plan will enjoy 
more advantages than though they could hear the scream 
of the steam whistle in their residences, as the introduction 
of this electric road, bringing it to the very doors of the in- 
habitants, will be tlie means of increasing the prosperity 
of all communities near or on its track, of appreciating the 



SETTLEMKNT OF WIIIl'l'ANY 



163 



\;iluc of property, and sliiii\ilatiii.ii ucuerally all avenues of 
trade. The plan enumates from the hnsy brain of .Mr. II. C. 
Keyuolds, the founder of the '• Whipanonj; " Hall an<l Li- 
brary Assoeiation, who has liiveu the snbjeet the jureatest at- 
tention, and lias taken praetical steps in developing the sys- 
tem, such as obtaining a charter, securing rights of way, 
and making surveys. 

The history of ^\ lii])pany is interesting for many I'easons, 
especially for the character of its early settlers and the influ- 
ence they had in directing the subsequent events Avhich oc- 
curred in the 
county, in 
church, and 
atate. Its set- 
tlement was 
undoubtedly 
the result of 
the investiga- 
tion of the 
first discover- 
ers of Horse 

Neck, or Caldwell, and who suggested llic ininliase of that 
locality to The town meeting of Newark. Iron ore Avas to be 
foiiiid on the other side of the I'assaic, and emigrants sought 
t(t reach the promised land. They came from Newark, from 
Klizabethtown, and the settlements adjoining. \Vhii)i)any 
was reached; the beauty of its location and I he aihantages 
of the stream were seen and appreciated, and there these 
new comers pitched their tents. The ore was I'oiind at or near 
Succasunna, some fifteen or twenty miles distant. From 
there it was trans])orte(l on the backs of horses to the forge 
at AVhippauy, and mauuiactured into iron, which was car- 




FROM AN OLD PRINT. 



164 THE PASSAIC VALLEY 

ried in the same primitive manner to market. This was 
in the beginning of the eighteenth century. 

Here the first Presbyterian Church in the county was 
built. The storj of that organization has already been part- 
ly related in these pages. The descendants of a few of 
these first settlers, if names are any indication, still linger 
in Whippany, such as Tuttle, Cook, Bates, Young, Shipman, 
and Freeman, and possibly Mills and Howell; but the 
larger part of the poi^ulation bear names not carried there 
by any of the original immigrants. 

Morris Plains is situated on a tableland elevated many 
feet above Morris Green, and embraces a large extent of 
country several miles square. The village proper is gath- 
ered in the central part of this tableland and south of the 
depot of the railroad, but the locality called Morris Plains 
stretches out from this central point in every direction. It 
is really situated in two townships, Morris and Hanover, 
but the larger part of it, especially that most thickly settled, 
including the State Asylum for the Insane, lies within the 
bounds of Hanover. Many wealthy persons have selected 
grounds in and near this locality for country and permanent 
residences, and lavished taste and money in their embellish- 
ment. A few of these may be mentioned : Richard A. Mc- 
Curdeg, Mrs. Stephen Whitney, Byron Sherman, Jonathan 
W. Roberts, George B. Raymond, Charles M. Marsh, and 
R. A. Granniss. 

On the west side of Morris Plains and in the southwest 
corner of Hanover stands the stately pile of buildings 
erected by the commonwealth as a hospital for the insane, 
at an original cost of $2,500,000, of sufficient size to accom- 
modate eight hundred patients. Additions have since been 
made at a cost of about ijfiOO.OOO for six hundred patients 
more. Some peculiar advantages aided in the erection, as 



THE STATE HOSPITAL 165 

the stone used was quarried on the j^Tounds. This institu- 
tion was incorporated under the title of tlie Htate Hospital 
at Morris Plains, and was opened foriaally for the recep- 
tion of patients on the 17th of August, 187G. Prior to that 
time an asylum had been located at or near Trenton, the 
capital of the State, but it had not been able for many years 
to accommodate the increasing number of applicants for 
admission, and it became an imperative necessity to make 
arrangements with asylums of neighboring States for the 
reception of these wards of the State. 

A new institution was then incorporated and Morris 
Plains selected as the spot where its practical operation 
should be conducted. This selection was eminently proper, 
for no healthier locality could have been chosen, and it had 
other advantages which were not overlooked. Several 
years were employed in the erection of the necessary build- 
ings, and when they were completed the citizens of New 
Jersey were justly proud of the success of the undertaking. 
The most scrupulous care was exercised in every detail con- 
nected with the structures, the most distinguished architects 
to be found in the country being employed, and the whole 
work was placed under the supervision of a body of citizens 
whose experience and knowledge peculiarly titted them for 
the performance of their duties. Among these were Hon. 
Francis S. Lathrop, lion. George A. Halsey, and Hon. 
George Vail, now dead. All took the deepest interest in the 
work. 

It is confidently asserted that there is no structure of 
the kind whose appliances are better adapted to the purpose 
for which they were erected, and it would seem as if the 
ingenuity of man was exhausted in providing everything 
necessary for the comfort and happiness of the unfortunate 
beings who are the recipients of this munificent bounty. 



166 THE PASSAIC VALLEY 

The Eev. James M. Buckley, D.D., who for several years has 
been one of the managers, and who has been in almost 
every part of the globe, unequivocally declared, in a late 
general report prepared by himself, that there is nowhere 
so large and complete an institution of the kind. 

The circumference of the whole erection is one mile and 
a quarter. Six hundred acres of land are attached to the 
hospital, affording ample means for the growth of fruits 
and vegetables sufficient for the needs of the inmates. Pure 
cool water is collected into reservoirs formed by two moun- 
tain .streams issuing from natural springs, and distributed 
iQto the buihlings. Besides these appliances other means 
are employed to secure at all times an abundance of the 
precious ffuid. Tlie sanitary arrangements are as perfect 
as c(nild possibly be devised. The whole institution is 
under the supervision of the Hon. Moses K. Everitt; the 
medical department is in charge of B. D. Evans, M.D., as 
director. The general affairs of the institution are placed 
by the State in the control of a very competent board of 
managers, of whom Patrick Farreliy, of Morristown, is presi- 
dent, and Charles H. Green, nlso of Morristown, secretary. 
The present number of patients is 1,400. The annual ex- 
penses, according to the report of 1900, was about |250,000, 
which is met by appropriations from the State. 

Tills noble institution so far has met the wants of the 
State, but it is feai'ed that soon its accommodations, ample 
as it was supposed at first to meet every exigency, will fail. 
The indigent i>atient first receives the fostering care of the 
management; then, if there be room, those who, or whose 
relatives, are able to pay are received; but no one is ad- 
mitted who is not an actual resident of New Jersey. 

Mount Tabor, on the western edge of Hanover Township, 
is a small town of summer residences where the dwellings 



HANOVER AXn OTHER VH.LAGES 167 

climb up several elevations, some of them crowning the 
hill tops. Its residents are mostly conlined to those of the 
-Methodist fairh, and very few remain during- the winter. 
It is an incorporated town, with borough privileges, and 
is under the coiiinil of a board of trustees, the majority of 
whom are clergymen of that denomination. During the 
summer season the number of visitors swells into the thou- 
saiuls, for whose ])l('asure and comfort ample provision is 
mado. A laigc liall oi' audience room is used for meetings, 
which, during the season, are lield evei-y day and evening. 
Almost every variety of structure for the abode of man can 
be fouuil heri^, from the liappiug tent to the costly and ele- 
gant residence. Strict rules are enforced providing for the 
proper behavior of all residents and visitors. No saloon 
can be opened within its boiinds, and no ardent spirits of 
any kind can be sold. It is largely patronized by others 
than the f(dlowers of Jolin Wesley, and during the heated 
season it is one of the busiest of busy places. 

Malapardis, Hanover, Troy Hills, and Hanover Neck are 
liaiulets, each a small collection of dwelling houses denot- 
ing thrift and comfort. ^Monroe is also a hamlet stretching 
over from Morris Township into the southern edge of Han- 
over. Most of these localities are provided with school 
houses. At Hanover is a Presbyterian (Mnucli remarkable 
for the number of distinguished clergymen who have minis- 
tered to the diiferent congregations worshijtping in this his- 
toi-ic edifice. At first this ecclesiastical organization was 
established at Whippany, but in 175.5 the congregation was 
divided and two church structures were built, one at Han- 
over and one at Parsippauy. At that time the Kev. Jacob 
Green was pastor of the \\'liippauy church, and after the 
division he became the minister of both congregations, re- 
siding, however, at Hanover. In 17(!0 his labors were con- 



168 THE PASSAIC VALLEY 

fined to the last named place, and the congregation at Par- 
sippany selected another clergyman. Dr. Green was an 
e.x:traordinary man — a man of affairs as well as a preacher. 
He drew the wills of his parishioners, their deeds and their 
contracts, settled their estates, acted as their legal adviser, 
and arbitrated their differences. To eke out his small 
salary he became the physician of the country and teacher 
of his neighbors' children. He also engaged in the business 
of milling and distilling. Some wag addressed a letter to 
him in this manner: 

To the Rev. Jacob Green, Preacher, 
And the Rev. Jacob Green, Teacher ; 

To the Rev. Jacob Green, Doctor, 
And the Rev. Jacob Green, Proctor ; 

To the Rev. Jacob Green, Miller, 
And the Rev. Jacob Green, Distiller. 

In 1776 he was a representative with Silas Condict from 
Morris County in the Provincial Congress of New Jersey 
and became chairman of the committee charged with the 
duty of preparing a constitution for the infant State. The 
other members of the committee were John Cleves Symmes, 
afterward an associate justice of the Supreme Court, and 
Jonathan D. Sergeant, both able lawyers. The committee 
was appointed June 24, 1776, and reported a draft of a con- 
stitution July 2, 1776. It has always been admitted by his- 
torians that Dr. Green was the author of this remarkable 
document, which was adopted almost unanimously by the 
Congress. Under this organic law the State of New Jersey 
acted for more than sixty years and prospered. 

Dr. Green was the father of Ashbel Green, once president 
of the College of New Jersey, and the grandfather of Rob- 
ert Stockton Green, at one time governor of the State. 

The Eev. Aaron Condit was also pastor of this Hanover 
church for thirty-sis years, succeeding Dr. Green. He was 









I < ^ i,!6 

f- z S ^T 
■uj I S r =2- 1 ^^.'-oi 



170 THE PASSAIC VALLEY 

the father of four distinguished clergymen, one of them a 
professor in the Tlieologieal Seminary at Auburn. The 
Rev. John Mills Johnson, a Morris County man, for twenty- 
one years ministered to this people, and now the Eev. J. A. 
Ferguson, D.D., since 1869 has been the beloved and hon- 
ored minister of this church. 

Parsippany is a village of rather rambling proportions, 
stretching along the road once the main route of travel in 
this section. It contains a population of about three hun- 
dred, mostly farmers and permanent residents. There are 
two churches at this town : a Presbyterian, an offshoot of 
that first formed at Whippany, and a Methodist, and also 
a large two-story jDublic school house. The names once 
prominent here were Kitchell, Fairchild, Tuttle, Baldwin, 
Bowlsby, Cooper, Cobb, Farrand, Eighter, Smith, Condict, 
and Howell, some of whose descendants are now living here. 
The Kitchells, Abraham and Aaron, were prominent in the 
early settlement of this part of ]\Iorris during the Revo- 
lution and also during the early times of the State. Sev- 
eral of the name took an earnest part in the war. Aaron 
was foremost in his opposition to British oppression, a mem- 
ber of the committee of safety, a congressman, and after- 
ward a United States senator. 

Rhoda Farrand, the wife of a soldier in the army, 
one of the shivering, suffering mass of humanity en- 
camped at Morristown, has been immortalized in song for 
her patriotic deeds. News came to her from her husband 
that the men of his company, wlio were mostly " neigh- 
bors' sons '' from Parsippany and its vicinity, Avere shoeless 
and stockingless. She had been left at home with her three 
children, two daughters and a son, to care for the farm. 
Their horses had been taken for the use of the army and a 
pair of young steers was the only means at her hand which 



ItllOOA FARIJANB 171 

she could n«o to visit licv neighbors, 'i'lic letter from lioi* 
hiisbaud ctiine on Tlnn-sday. Slie inuuediatelv oi'dei-ed 
her son to yoke up the steers, and, seatini;' lierselt on a cliair 
in a two-wlieeled cart, her only vehitde, witli lier needles in 
hand and a ball of yarn, she passed round to iier neit^hbors 
at Hanover, old l?oonton, and other places, iiivinij, them the 
letter to read. Tlia.t \\as enoiii;li. The women nil o\er 

the neighborli 1 set to work and nauiiht was heard but 

the click of the needle. When she returned home at night 
one pair of stockings was done. The next day she went 
in another direction and roused the sympathy and patriot- 
ism (d' llie women there, and on the second night when she 
reached her home another pair of stockings was done. In 
the meantime the two girls left behind had been at work 
busily doing their share of the merciful deed. The yarn 
gave out, and a cosset was killed and its fleece carded and 
spun and the stockings grew ajtace. On Sunday good I'ar- 
son CJreen preaclied T<i eni])ty seats, the pious women (d' his 
parish being too busy doing (iod's work in another diiec- 
tion to give him the devout attention he always received. 
On Monday morning the stockings came pouring in upon 
^Mistress Khoda, and in her cart, with her son Nat driving 
the steers, she went tot he camp wit h one hundred and t hir- 
ty-eight pairs of woollen stockings "knit uji to the knee," 
and her husband's com]>any, every man of them, that day 
blessed this i)lucky, jiatriotic little woman, whose name 
should ever be remembered. "Vreneral Washington, hearing 
the shout raised in Khoda"s honoi-. rode up to learn t he cause 
of the commotion, and, when told, r.iised his hat and 
thaidced Mrs. Farrand for himself and his men. But, says 
the song, the SAveetesI reward she received was what her 
husband said to her, with glistening, tear-stained eyes 



172 THE PASSAIC VALLEY 

raised to his wife enthroned in her ox cart : " Rhoda, I knew 
you would do it." 

Andrew B. Cobb was a fair representative of the citizens 
of Hanover of more modern times. He was the son of 
Colonel Lemuel Cobb, a civil engineer and a self-made man, 
and was born in 1804. He died in 1873, in the house 
built by his father, in which he was born and where 
he lived all his life, situated on the corner of the two 
main roads crossing each other at Parsippany. Early in 
life he took an active interest in public affairs, and, being 
a man of fortune, perhaps the largest landowner in the 
county, was enabled to follow the bent of his inclination 
without sacrificing his own interest. He was twice elected 
to the lower house of the Legislature, and was once a State 
senator, representing Morris County. He was also ap- 
pointed a judge of the county courts for a term of five years. 
In all these positions he evinced a capacity to grasp the 
questions submitted to him for action. He was a man of 
tenacious convictions, of resolute will, of some peculiarities, 
of strong prejudices, a firm, lasting friend, of excellent 
judgment and good sound common sense. His patriotism 
was unquestioned, and in all his dealings with his fellow- 
men he was just and honorable. A son, Andrew Lemuel, 
represents him in the community' where he lived so long. 

General J. Condit Smith, born in this vicinity and a resi- 
dent here for many years, was a man of distinction in his 
time. He was connected with the Union Army during the 
War of the Rebellion and rose to the rank of general. After 
the war he became largely interested in different railroads 
in the country. His daughter, an intrepid traveller, was in 
China and a guest in the family of Minister Conger at 
Peking during the recent terrible experiences of the lega- 



BOONTON AND THE REVOLUTION 



173 



tions at that city. She survived the imvations of the siege 
aud is now living' in tliis country. 

The liistoric niansion and sjTounds called IJcaviTwyck, 
once occupied by a nicndicr of tlie l?<nidin()t family, ])roin- 
inent in New Jersey during the K'('^■()lution, arc now owned 
by Benjamin S. Condit, one of the Condit family still so 
numerous in ^lorris. who has resicU'd tliere for many years. 

Old Boonton is i<lentified somewlmt with the Bevolution- 
ary AVar ;ind with the jiresence of Waslnnjiton at Morris- 
tOAvn. A (Jerman family of the name of Faesth, then resi- 
dent of this locality, were earnest patriots. A foiindry un- 
der their care was established here for castins' cannon and 
cannon balls. It is common tradition that the commander- 




ON THE MARCH. 



in-chief freciuently extended his rides to this romantic spot 
to inspect the important operations there c(tnducted. The 
locality was then an important one on account of its rela- 
tions with nulilary affairs, and it was then a busy ])lace. 
It is situated in a deep ravine, through which the Kockaway 
Elver dashes in an anj^ry torrent, foaminj; over its rocky 
bed. The descent was made on both sides by a road passing 
steeply down into the narrow vale, but now a substantial 
bridge spans the abyss, rendering tli(» s])ot, if jxissible, more 
romantic than ever. This portion of the townslnj) is very 
sparsely settled, but a large manufacturing establishment, 
lately located there, may lead to more progressive activity. 



174 THE PASSAIC VALLEY 

-•-Hanover Neck and Hanover are both situated directly on 
the river a few miles apart. Hanover is a thickly settled 
village, the dwelling houses clustering on both sides of the 
road, which crosses the river at this point by what is known 
as Cook's Bridge. Hanover Neck is more sparsely settled, 
the dwellings being farther apart. Both communities are 
agricultural in their interests, with no manufactures. The 
old names most common at Hanover and Hanover Neck are 
Cook,^Ely, Hopping, Kitchell, Tuttle, Young, and Condit, 
all of which still survive there. The Passaic at Hanover 
Neck is spanned by the Swinefield Bridge, which for nearly 
a century has obtained a prominence as a landmark recog- 
nized by all travellers in this part of the country. 

David Young, the almanac maker, was born near Hanover 
Neck in 1781. He early showed his inclination for mathe- 
matical studies, and at one time solved a pi'oblem which 
had defied the efforts at solution of many eminent mathe- 
maticians. The " Farmer's Almanac," in the beginning of 
the nineteenth century considered a household necessity, 
was compiled hj him for many years. 

The very great majority of the inhabitants of Hanover 
Township are descendants of the first settlers, and there is 
perhaps less interjection of foreign element in that locality 
than in any part of Morris County. The first settlers repre- 
sented the best qualities of Christian manhood, and these 
characteristics have descended to the present inhabitants of 
Hanover in a peculiar degree. They are a church-attend- 
ing. God-fearing people, and in their intercourse and deal- 
ings with their fellowmen are governed by the principles 
of strict integrity. While providing for their moral and 
religious wants they have not been unmindful of the mental 
culture of their youth, and school houses and academies 
abound in their communities. 




CHAPTER XIII 



MONTVILLE AND ATiCINITY 




oXTVILLK, ill ^Nfori'is roiiiitv, Wiis foniKMl in ISC.T, 
and is bounded on the north by recjuannoelc, east 
by Peqnannofl^ and the Passaic Piver, soiitli by 
PooiiToii and tile Poil^away Piver, wliic li se|)a- 
rates it fi'om Hanover, and west by Boonton and i'e'|uan- 
iiock. It contains 11,302 acres of lolling' land, some of ex- 
cellent soil, but in its eastern boundary, near the Passaic, 
it assumes a rou^h and mountainous character, bein;; tliere 
almost entirely, except in the immediate vicinily of the 
river, covered by tlie Towaklmw or Hook .Mountain laiitie. 
This range extends tlirouL:li Ihe whole of the towiisliiii on its 
east, and is a remarkable feature in the <;e(dojiy of the State, 
reference being often made to it as a ])oint of observation 
by the State geologists in their annual rejiorts. 

In the southern ]iart th(> Tialtield Swaiii]! extends from 
Taldwell, in Essex, to Pine Prook, and enxelops a consider- 
able tract of land bordering dii-ectly on tlie Passaic. In the 
central eastern part and still on the river a portion of th(^ 
" Oreat Piece" ^feadows, from Caldwell, iinades the town- 
slii]), and in the northern ]iait tlie P.og and Vly Meadows, 
from Pequannotdv, pass down in very iii-egular sections as 
far as Whitehall. 



176 THE PASSAIC VALLF.Y 

Like Hanover, Moutville is an agricnltural township, and 
its population is also mostly permanent, but it does not in- 
crease in the same ratio as other municipalities in the coun- 
ty. It has four villages beside Montville: Pine Brook, 
Whitehall, Taj^lortown, and Beavertown or Lincoln Park. 

Montville is the largest settlement in the township and is 
situated in the central western part near the Boonton line. 
It is rather a compactly built and very pleasant town of 
several hundred inhabitants. Through it runs a small 
creek, called by the strange name of Uyle Kill, the name 
originating, as is supposed, from the fact that on the banks 
of this stream in early times were several large trees to 
which owls in great numbers resorted. The first settlers 
were Holland Dutch, whose pronunciation of the word owl 
sounded like uyle, hence the name of the brook. 

This stream affords some water power, which has always 
been utilized since the earliest settlement of Montville. It 
is an exceedingly tortuous stream, and adds greatly to the 
fertility of its valley. Besides the Passaic and Rockaway, 
which skirt portions of the boundary lines of Montville, 
other streams, some mere streamlets, run over the laud, 
all seeking their way either to the Passaic or Rockaway. 

There are four churches in the township : two Reformed 
and two Methodist. The two Reformed congregations are 
located at Montville, one Methodist at Pine Brook, and the 
other at Whitehall. The older church at Montville has a 
very peculiar history. It was first organized at old Boonton 
about the year 1756, and there it remained in a feeble, strug- 
gling condition until 1818, when the edifice was torn down 
and a new one erected at Montville. This in turn has since 
been demolished, and has given place to the present new 
and substantial structure. In 1824 doctrinal dissensions 
arose, and a number of the members broke off from their 



FIRST SETTLERS 177 

ecclesiastifiil coiincction and formed a new ebnreb, Avhich 
they called " Tlii' Trne Reformed Dntch Cbureli/' by which 
name it was incorporated. A plot of <jround for the site 
of an edifice was donated by one of the seccders upon con- 
dition that the strictest Calvinistic dncl lines should be 
maintained in the creed and worship of the neAV congrega- 
tion. In 185() a new edifice was erected 1o meet the require- 
ments of this society. 

The frequent recurrences of names of resident families, 
giving undoubted evidence of their origin, is the only means 
by which any information can be gained of the race and 
prior dwelling places of the original settlers. They were 
certainly Hollanders, and came from the Dutch settlements 
in New York. But it cannot be determined when these first 
immigrants came to Montville. Like most of these early 
settlements no records were kept, and it is only occasionally, 
and often in the most peculiar manner, that glimpses of in- 
formation may be gained, scraps of knowledge gathered 
here and there, which, pieced to one another, may enable 
the historian to make some shrewd guesses of what may 
have been the true state of affairs when the first immi- 
grants crossed the Passaic and mad(- lodgment in its west- 
ern valley. They never came in numbers, bringing with 
them their minister and their cliurcli records, as in the case 
of Newark. 

Some adventurous spirit with a wife as energetic and 
courageous as himself braved the wilderness and its dan- 
gers, found a spot suited to his tastes, perhaps by a brawling 
stream, or clear, pellucid spring, or fertile vale, or a shel- 
tered nook, and there reared his log cabin. ( )tliers soon fol- 
lowed, profiting by the bravery and sagacity of the first 
settler, and discovcM'iug the beauty or advantages of the lo- 
cation. It w^s in this maiinef t^at this Ibroad western con- 



178 



THE PASSAIC VALLEY 



tinent has been peopled, and it is tlirougli the daring and 
enterprise of the Anglo-Saxon that this republic has been 
made what it is. 

The names most often found in Montville are Van Duyne, 
Van Ness, Van Riper, Vanderhoof, Vreeland, Zeliff, Duryea, 
and Doremus, all of Dutch origin. 

The Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad passes 
almost directly through the center of Montville, as does also 



i' .Tart iiicuw tAtn/terJam' e/jTZe^M/r-^haSjis. fffKS.fr^i^'O-^iSii^ ^ 00.=^ 




FIRST VIEW OF NEW AMSTERDAM. 



the Morris Canal. This great canal project Avas one of the 
enterprises of the beginning of the nineteenth century. It 
had its origin in the fertile brain of George P. MacOuUough, 
a native of Hindostan, but born of Scotch parents. He was 
a citizen of Morris County, dwelling at Morristown, where 
his descendants, not in name, but in blood, are to be found 
at this time in the Miller and Keasbey families. The canal 
was begun about seventy-five years ago, and gave at first 



EARLY MANUFACTURES 179 

quite an impetus to industries of Morris County. It entered 
Montville ToAvnship at Beavertown, now Ivuow ii ;is l.imoln 
Tark, and passed into what is now Boojitdu Towiisliiit 
tlirouiuli tlie villages of Beavertown, Whitehall, and Alout- 
villc. 

In the beginninji- of the nineteenth century there were 
very few, if any, manufactures in the ToAvuship of Peijuan- 
nock, which then included the whole of Montville and Bocm- 
t(»n. There was, however, one kind of aianufacturc then 
pursued, and quite industriously, and that Wiis distilling. 
Apples were abundant, the temperance reform movement 
had not then swept over tlie land and opened the eyes of 
the people to the evils of intemperance, and the use of apple 
whiskey was universal and distilleries abounded. But 
when the prospect of this new and cheap method of trans- 
port inj; <>oods to market materialized, and it was settled 
that it was about to be brought to their very doors, the farm- 
ers of this part of the county in a measui-e awoke to the 
]»ossibilities of their future and to the advantages of their 
location. There had been some few sawmills and grist- 
mills, sufficient, perhaps, to meet the demands of the sparse 
population. In fact those necessary appliances for the 
needs of the first immigrants were among the first struct- 
ures. They were rude affairs, using the incomplete machin- 
ery of the time. But the early settlers required lumber and 
timber for their dwellings, and when they had grown their 
grain and their corn it must be gmuud into tlour and meal 
for their own consumption. 

There is no certainty as to the date when Montville vil- 
lage was first settled, but there are records which makes it 
an established fact that it must have been early in the 
eighteenth century. LIumphrey Davenport came to Mont- 
ville, or to its vicinity, as early as 1714. A granddaughter 



180 



THE PASSAIC VALLEY 



of his was married January 1, 1754, to Jacob Bovie, and it is 
recorded in the church records at Acquaclvanonk that she 
was born at " Uyle Kill." The records of Pequannock show 
that on October 2, 1745, a road Avas laid out " from the cor- 
ner at Cornelius Doremus's to the corner at Nicholas Hyl- 
er's, and thence along the line between Hyler and Peter 
Fredericks to a white oak tree, and thence across the brook, 
and thence as the path goeth to Michael Cook's mill." 

It will be noticed that these records establish indubitably 
three certain facts: one, the origin of the first settlers of 
Montville, their names found in these records, with one ex- 





DUTCH COUNTRY PEOPLE. 



ception, being all Holland; second, this section of country 
was settled sometime early in the eighteenth century, prob- 
ably as early as 1710; and, third, there Avas a mill of some 
kind, doubtless a grist mill, as early as 1745, probably much 
earlier, possibly in 1720. 

Late in the eighteenth century distilleries and cider mills 
had been in use in Montville, and for several years an ex- 
tensive business was carried on in the manufacture of cider 
and distilling of cider brandy or apple whiskey, as it was 
called. In 1812 a tannery and bark mill were erected at 
Montville village, which at that time was a hamlet with 



MONTVILLE FAMILIES 181 

about sixteen dwelling houses, two bark mills and tanner- 
ies, three saw mills, one grist mill, a cider mill and distil- 
lery, a, blacksmitli sliop, and a carpenter and wheelwright 
shop. These ap2)liauces for industrial employments denote 
that the village must then have been a center of trade for 
the surrounding country. It has not lost any of its activity, 
but is still a thriving and busy place. 

The names of the present inhabitants give proof that the 
old Dutch element of population has in a great measure 
given way to another, which now takes the lead in public 
affairs. The names of Pierson, Baldwin, Cook, and Miller 
abound. It is a well settled fact that the Piersons, Bald- 
wins, and Cooks came from Caldwell, in Essex County, in 
the eighteenth century, and established themselves here. 
With them came representatives of the Dod and Condit fam- 
ilies. There are, however, some descendants of old Dutch 
families still resident here who trace their lineage back to 
Holland ancestors, such as Kanouse, Zabriskie, Doremus, 
Van Duyre, and Jacobus. 

The hopes which were at first entertained of the great 
benefit to be gained by the inhabitants from the construc- 
tion of the canal M'eve never realized, and the few manufac- 
tories which sprung up languished and died. The canal, in 
fact, was not int(»nded by its projectors to be used for the 
carriage of manufactured commodities. They expected to 
realize remuneration for their outlay in its construction in 
the freightage of iron and coal from the mines in Pennsyl- 
vania. The demand for both of those articles had become 
an established fact, and the acute mind of Mr. MacOullough, 
its real founder, had forecasted the future when the City of 
New York and its vicinity would almost entirely depend 
upon this mode of transportation to bring these two neces- 
sary products within their reach. 



182 



THE PASSAIC VALLEY 



The people of Montville, when they ascertained the failure 
of their expectations, wisely turned their attention to their 
farms and utilized what was at their hand. There were 
some natural products of the earth stored away by nature 
for the use of man, ready for him when the time came to 
meet his needs. Limestone of excellent quality and very 
white has been quarried in the northern part of the town- 
ship in large quantities, and used at Boonton to supply the 
furnaces there, and also for agricultural and other pur- 
poses. A quarry of red sandstone, belonging at one time 
to John H. Vreeland, a lineal descendant of Hai-tman Vree- 

land, one of the first settlers, was 
found near the Pequannock line, 
and considerable quantities of 
stone taken from it. Eocks were 
quarried here of great size with 
the apparent tracks of a bird as 
large as an ostrich on them. 
Si^ecimens of these rocks are de- 
posited in the geological museum 
at Trenton. Some asbestos and 
some good specimens of serpen- 
tine have also been found in portions of the township. 

But the greatest source of gain to the population has been 
their farms of excellent soil, upon which they have been 
enabled to raise good crops, more than sufficient for their 
own wants, and also to increase their stock of cattle. In 
this manner they have been able to send large quantities of 
milk and other farm products to Newark. 

Taylortown is a very small hamlet named after one of its 
principal inhabitants. Several roads come together here, 
and pass out into different parts of the township. The dis- 
trict school house is situated at this locality, affording facili- 




SEAL OF NEW AMSTERDAM. 



WniTEHALTi AND BRAVRRTOWN 



183 



with a school 



ties for a common school education to the children of a very 
sparse population, almost entirely agricultural in their pur- 
suits and scattered over a large district. 

Whitehall is a village of larger size, 
house and a 
postoffice, in 
the northeast- 
ern part of 
Mon tville, 
and a station 
of the Dela- 
ware, Lacka- 
wanna and 
Western Kail- 
road. It also 
has one of 
the Methodist 
Churches of 
the county. 

There is a 
larger ele- 
ment of the de- 
scendants of 
Holland set- 
tlers here in 
p r o p o r tion 
than in any 
other part of 
the county, as 

is shown by the prevalence of the names of Van Duyne, Ja- 
cobus, Vreeland, Zelitt', and Mandeville. 

Beavertowu, now called Lincoln Park, is in the extreme 
northeastern corner of the township and on the line of Pe- 




THE "HALF MOON " LEAVING AMSTERDAM. 



184 THE PASSAIC VALLEY 

quannock. It is a hamlet of considerable antiquity, but it 
is impossible to fix any date for its first settlement. It has 
undoubtedly shared in the impulse which sent Hollanders 
from Manhattan into the valleys of the Hackensack and its 
tributaries, and at first was one of the outposts of advancing 
civilization. Holland names, those of old families, abound 
in this locality, especially that of Zeliff. It has a large por- 
tion of the Great Piece Meadows on its southern borders 
and the Bog and Vly Meadows on its northern. A station of 
the Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Eailroad, which 
passes through the village, and a postoffice are established 
near. The public school house of the district, called the 
Beavertown, is also buil^ here. The Reformed Church of 
Pompton Plains has erected one of its three chapels at this 
village and is successfully sustaining this appliance for 
Christian worship. The village has possibilities of growth 
in the near future, and is feeling the impulse which is awak- 
ening such localites to the advantages of their situations. 
In the extreme southern part of Montville Township, and 
in a portion of it almost entirely surrounded by the Passaic 
River, which here foi*ms a horseshoe-like bend, is to be 
found a village for many years called Pine Brook, situate in 
a level and fertile extent of country, surrounded on all sides 
except on the west by the Hatfield Swamp, and lying be- 
tween it and the river. One of the Methodist Churches of 
the township has long been established here. The locality 
at one time was of much importance, as it was on the direct 
line of travel to Newark, and here a bridge crossed the river. 
Within the last few years the inhabitants of Morris and Es- 
sex Counties have awakened to the importance of good 
roads, which are the modes of travel from the country dis- 
tricts to great centers of trade and business, and this high- 
way has felt the impulse of this march of improvement. An 



MODERN CHABACTERISTICS 185 

excellent road formed accordiug to modern ideas of road- 
making now passes through Pine Brook, and is extensively 
used by the farmers of Montville as they seek a market for 
their milk and farm products at Newark and other large 
towns. 

Early Dutch settlers have left their impress here in the 
survival of many old family names, undoubtedly Holland 
in their origin, such as A'an Ness, ^'an Duyne, Xan Worth, 
Vreeland, Spier, and others. Near the center of the village 
the Kockaway pours its volume of water into the Passaic, 
which at this point assumes a course more winding than in 
any other part of the progress of this most tortuous nf all 
streams. 



OLI> SNUFF BOXES. 



■f 








CHAPTER XIV 



BOONTON TOWNSHIP AND BOROUGH 




( )ONTON is the smallest township in Morris Connty, 
contiiiuiug only 3,490 acres, mostly of a mountain- 
ous character. There is some good arable hind on 
the Rockaway River, upon both sides of wliicli the 
town of Boonton is situaled. The township is bounded on 
the north by Pequannock and Montville, on the east by 
Montville, on the south by Hanover and the Rockaway 
River, and on the west by Rockaway and Hanover. It con- 
tains the BoroniLili of Boonton and the small village of Pow- 
erville, both situated on the Rockaway. 

The northern and western parts of the township are hilly, 
rocky, wild, and fitted only for timberland and pasturage. 
The eastern part and that just north of the town of Boon- 
ton are of the same character. 

Some years ago excavations were made in a rough eleva- 
tion in the eastern part with the hope of finding iron ore. 
Veins of it were discovered and some quantities mined, but 
the expectation of obtiiining iron in sufficient quantities 
and of proper quality to make it profitable was blasted and 
the enterprise abandoned. More than a hundred years ago 
it was known that ore did exist there, and the elevation 
therefore was known by the name of Mine Ifidge. A pecul- 
iar species of fossil fish, admirably preserved witii fins, 
tails, and even scales, was discovered on the southern edge 



188 THE PASSAIC VALLEY 

of the township, on the bank of a small stream running into 
the Rockaway, in the crevices or seams of a soft, grey sand- 
stone. Many years ago several fine specimens of this fos- 
sil rewarded the efforts of some enthusiastic explorers, espe- 
cially those of a professor of Columbia College, who spent 
considerable time and money in digging and excavating. 
The fossils were found imbedded in a hard black substance 
somewhat resembling coal, which, when placed on a blazing 
fire, would burn with a smoke and odor like bituminous 
coal. 

Boonton was formed in 1867 from the territory of Pequan- 
nock. The township itself, outside of the borough, is insig- 
nificant in importance as to population and resources. The 
number of inhabitants in the whole township, outside of the 
town of Boonton, does not exceed three or four hundred. 
There were some years ago evidences of iron mines in the 
northeastern part, but they have never been worked to any 
great advantage. 

The land is well watered. The Eockaway Eiver washes a 
large part of the boundary line between Boonton and Han- 
over and Rockaway. Many smaller streams flow across the 
toAvnship into this important river, of which Stony Brook is 
the largest. The Rockaway has an immense water power 
at the town of Boonton, which has been utilized for the use 
of large manufacturing plants, and has aided in making 
that locality what it is. The falls at and near Poweiwille 
and Boonton and the descent in the river of about thirty 
feet have created this extensive water power. 

In 1823 William Scott, who a short time before that date 
had purchased the old Boonton tract, opened a new road 
on the east side of the I'iver towards Powerville. At that 
time the Erie Canal in New York was appi'oaching comple- 
tion. Its supposed great benefits turned the attention of 



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190 THE PASSAIC VALLEY 

thoughtful minds to the desirability of connecting the an- 
thracite coal beds of Pennsylvania, which had then been 
opened for a suflScient lengih of time for business men to 
learn the value of this new combustible, with the great 
emporiums of trade. This could best be done by means of 
a canal from Easton to tidewater at Jersey City. It was 
for those times an enterprise which staggered the judgment 
and challenged the energy of capitalists. It was, however, 
undertaken, and successfully completed. A charter was 
granted by the Legislature, December 21, 1824, work was be- 
gun in July, 1825, and in 1830 the canal reached Newark 
and Jersey City in 1836. 

Colonel John Scott, a brother of William Scott, then lived 
at PoAverville, and he became largely interested in the 
canal. He owned land there on the river which covered 
large milling interests. He was a shrewd business man, 
fully alive to the advantages of this new method of trans- 
l^orting goods and of the location of his real estate on the 
river. In August, 1829, he conveyed to the canal company 
so much land as it required for its purposes and also the 
right of damming the river above the falls, so that the canal 
might be fed from the water thus accumulated, as well as 
from the other sources of its supply. In consideration for 
this conveyance he received a large sum of money and also, 
what was really more valuable, the right of using the 
water above the dam and the canal as a raceway to convey 
this motive power to any mills which he or his heirs or 
assigns might erect below the dam. By this arrangement 
he could utilize all the headwater of the river gathei'ed by 
the dam and that which passed through the canal, and all 
at the expense of the canal company, who built the dam and 
constructed the canal. The only condition annexed to this 
arrangement to be performed by Scott was that the water 



BOONTON AND ITS IKON INTERESTS 11)1 

used by <lio mills should be returned to the canal below the 
planes after it had served the purposes of the mills. 

It is quite certain that neither party to this scheme fully 
anticipated its ultimate results, or appreciated the immense 
advantages it finally secured for both. There was no mill 
then erected at Boonton, and no estimate could possibly be 
made of what the water thus obtained would be worth. 
Not a pound of coal nor a ton of iron ore had been deliv- 
ered at Boonton, and the originators of the canal in their 
wildest dreams never estimated the vast profit eventually 
to be derived from the trade in iron and coal lauded at that 
village. But the arrangement thus made was really the 
foundation of the subsequent prosperity of Boonton. 

At about the time of the completion of the canal the at- 
tention of some capitalists in New York was turned towards 
Boonton. An examination was made of the location and 
of the superb water power thus gained by Scott. A cor- 
poration was formed, called the New Jersey Iron Company, 
land was bought from William Scott and others, and a mill 
was begun in 1829. This mill was completed and the first 
iron rolled in 1831. There was a lack of skilled workmen in 
this country to meet the demand of this new euterprise. 
Puddlers and rollers were imported from England, some 
coming as early as 1830 and others later on. This organiza- 
tion was not a success. The expenses were great. No ma- 
chinery of the kind necessary could at that time be manu- 
factured in this country, and that, like skilled workmen, 
must be brought from England. Other causes intervened, 
leading finally to failure, and to a failure which, at the 
time, seemed to be of such a character as to i^aralyze all 
future efforts in that direction. 

The property of the company was sold by the sheriff of 
Morris County to Dudley B. Fuller, of New York City, for 



192 



THE PASSAIC VALLEY 



$160,000. Mr. Fuller had been the commission merchant of 
the company in New York, and was largely its creditor. He 
had previously purchased the personal property for |125,- 
000. This was about the year 1851. The company had 
built extensive works, mills, furnaces, and other erections, 
and had branched out into different kinds of the iron trade. 
Their plant was exceedingly valuable, but the demand for 
cut nails, the principal part of their manufacture, was so 
divided with other establishments of a like character, and 




NEW YORK IN 1732. 



the prices obtainable were so ruinous to the producer, that 
the company was obliged to suspend their business, and 
Mr. Fuller became purchaser in self-defence. 

Fortunately the price of nails went up, and Mr. Fuller, 
who had offered to sell the property at a sacrifice of |20,000, 
was enabled to recuperate his losses and to enter upon a 
career of unexampled prosperity. He soon associated Mr. 
James Couper Lord, his partner, with him in the business, 
and the iron works of Fuller and Lord became the one great 



GROWTH OF THE VILLAGE 193 

industry of Boonton and almost the sole dependence of the 
town. Mr. Fuller died in 1868 and Mr. Lord in 18(59, but by 
the provisions of their wills the business was conducted un- 
til 1876. 

Boonton was known in Revolutionary times, but it was 
then a mere hamlet hardly deserving even that name. A 
few straggling farms, nestling in the valley of the Rocka- 
way, with one or two dwellings at the foot of Sheep Hill, 
served to demand a name for the locality. At the begin- 
ning of the nineteenth century a few houses had been added, 
but no importance was as yet attached to the place. 

In 1850 the town had assumed larger proportions. Sheep 
Hill was a rough, rocky eminence, lifting its head almost 
perpendicularly from the edge of the Rockaway. It was of 
no use for any farming purposes except, perhaps, as a poor 
pasturage for sheep, but as the manufacturing interests 
grew at Boonton it began to be utilized for dwellings for 
the workmen and for erections connected with the mills. 
A few dwellings were clustered in any available spot at the 
foot of the hill for boarding houses and for residences for 
the workmen. These workmen, mostly English and Welsh, 
were of a very superior class, both as operatives and as 
citizens. They desired their own homes; they needed 
churches for religioiis worship and schools for their chil- 
dren; they and their families must be clothed and fed. 
Many of them were readers and loved the companionship 
of books. 

About 1850 a young man was requested by a kinsman, 
who owned an interest in this maniifacturing establishment, 
to accept, temporarily, a subordinate position in its office. 
He not only filled the place for a time, but remained and 
soon became the chief manager of the whole enterprise. 
This young man was William Gerard Lathrop, and from 



194 



THE PASSAIC VALLEY 



the moment he assumed the important position to which 
he had been elevated he became the head and front of the 
establishment. He made himself acquainted with every 
detail; nothinc;, however trivial, escaped his eye, and under 
his wise and energetic management the business assumed 
enormous proportions. Its products were of the very best 
quality, and were soon recognized as such all over the 
world. 

Many branches of iron manufacture were introduced, and 
the products sold in Europe and Asia as well as in North 

and South America. The 
company went into com- 
petition with the produ- 
cers of England in the 
manufacture of rails for 
railroads. 

While Mr. Lathrop was 
thus energetically provid- 
ing for the interests of his 
emploj'ers he was not un- 
mindful of the workmen. 
He became their best 
friend, and was acknowl- 
edged to be such by all of them. He established a library 
filled with choice books for their use; he secured lecturers 
for their entertainment in the winter evenings; he looked 
after the education of their children, and secured the erec- 
tion of school houses and the selection of the best teachers 
obtainable. 

Fostered by such influences, with such appliances, and 
based upon such substantial foundations, Boonton grew and 
prospered; the inequalities, the roughness of Sheep Hill, its 
rocky sides, its wild elevations were conquered. The will 




AN OLD RESIDENCE. 



MODERN BOONTON 195 

of man was masterful and triumphed, and now the town has 
cliiiilicd to its topmost height, and what a few years ago was 
a wilderness is intersected by streets lined on each side with 
dwellings tilled with a busy, industrious population. Stores, 
factories, churches, and school houses meet ail the varied 
wants of the people. 

Tlie stoppage of the iron works, which was total, created 
for a short period great distress among the workmen, who 
had increased to several hundred. They and their fam- 
ilies felt the loss of wages very acutely. Many of them had 
acquired little homesteads, in which they had lived happily 
and contentedly. The cessation of this important industry 
paralyzed all other occupations, and for a period it seemed 
as if Boonton Avould never regain its former prosperity. 
But its important water power could not be overlooked, and 
soon other manufactures became established there and the 
town has again revived and assumed its former prosperity. 
The location of Boonton is very beautiful, and the town 
itself occupies a commaudiug situation and is seen from 
all the surrounding country. Some years ago, before 
Sheep Hill was crowned with buildings, some persons 
climbed a large chestnut tree then standing on its topmost 
point and declared that with a good glass the Atlantic 
Ocean could be seen. The view from this point is exten- 
sive in every direction up and down the Valley of the Pas- 
saic — southward, eastward, northward, and westward it 
reaches to the Blue Ridge of the Alleghanies. Boonton 
Borough has passed across the Eockaway and occupied its 
western bank and some part of Hanover Townshi]), making 
its way nearly to old Boonton and covering the land with 
comfortable dwellings for workmen and oth<TS. 

Boonton has now a popiilatiou of four tiiousaiul people 
of various races invited hither by the very great number of 



196 



TECE PASSAIO VALLEY 



manufactures carried on there. It has five churches : Metho- 
dist Episcopal, Protestant Episcopal, Presbyterian, Ee- 
formed (Dutch), and Roman Catholic, all well supported 
with excellent and substantial edifices. It has two schools, 
one public and the other private, the public school house 
being a modern structure well provided with appliances 
for its purposes. Its manufactures are of various kinds : 

numerous iron fab- 
-^ rics, silk, hard rub- 

ber, agricultural 
implements, and 
paints. It is an in- 
corporated bor- 
ough, governed by 
a mayor and com- 
mon council. There 
are two newspa- 
pers here ; the Bul- 
letin, established 
in 1870, of Eepub- 
lican politics, and 
the Boonton Times, 
neutral, and estab- 
lished in 1895. 

Old Boonton was 
well known in the 
Revolution. It is one of the most romantic of spots, situated 
in a deep ravine through which the Rockaway brawls and 
dashes in swift course down a very steep descent. The ham- 
let — ^it can hardly be called even that — is found in the nar- 
row valley of the river at the foot of steep, almost precipi- 
tous, hills, which here bound the stream. The access to it on 
either side of this valley was down winding roads, ascending 




INDIAN CHIEF. 



JOHN JACOB FAESCH 197 

and (lesceuding elevations of perhaps a hundred feet high. 
Recently a bridge of excellent structure and of some artistic 
beauty spans the gorge and lessens materially the labor and 
danger of the passage from the top of one hill to the other. 
The bridge has not detracted from the wild grandeur of 
the scene, but the art displayed in its erection has added a 
feature which enhances its beauty. 

John Jacob Faesch, a Swiss, who came to New Jersey 
several years before the Revolution, retired to this romantic 
spot after peace was declared and died there in 1799. He 
was an ardent patriot and a member of the convention 
called to pass on the Federal constitution. He controlled 
several furnaces, especially the Mount Hope furnace, and 
made a contract to furnish Congress with iron cannon and 
cannon balls and supplied the army with the munitions of 
war in great quantities. Many unsuccessful efforts were 
made by the Tories to capture the works, and also to plun- 
der Mr. Faesch's dwelling at Mount Hope. Mr. Faesch left 
children surviving him, but none of his descendants now 
known are in New Jersey. He was a noted man in his day, 
much respected for his private character and for his enthu- 
siastic and active patriotism. His recognized ability in the 
manufacture of iron had secured for him a place in this 
country of great influence and a contract never before made 
with any other artisan. He was induced to leave his native 
country and come to America by the offer of a very large 
salary and perquisites. He came here several years before 
the Revolution and had effected material changes in the 
methods of manufacturing iron. 



CHAPTEK XV 

THE TOWNSHIP OF PEQUANNOOK 




EQUANNOCK was originally the largest township 

iu Morris County, but by the formation of Mont- 

vilie, Boouton, and llockaway, whose territoi-y have 

all been taken from it, it has been reduced to its 

present dimensions. A small part of Jefferson was also 

taken from Pequanuock. 

It once contained more than 70,000 acres, but now has 
only 20,1)42, an acreage less than some of the townships 
taken fi-om it. It was at first formed by the action of the 
County Court of Quarter Sessions on the 25th of March, 
1740, almost immediately after the county was created. It 
is bounded on the north by the Pequanuock Itiver, which 
separates it from Passaic County, on the east by the Pequan- 
nock and Pompton Rivers, on the south by the Passaic 
River, Montville, and Boonton, and on the west by Rocka- 
way. 

The eastern part of the township is almost entirely level 
ground called by the general name of Pompton Plains. In 
the southeastern corner, where the Pompton River empties 
into the Passaic, the two rivers form a horseshoe-like loop, 
inclosing an extensive tract of land, into which the Hook 
iMountaius pass, extending from Montville. For some dis- 
tance the Great Piece Meadow extends over from Essex 
County, bordering on what is there the north bank of the 
Passaic. North of this part of the township, and almost 



200 



THE PASSAIC VALLEY 



iui Died lately adjoining, the Bog and Vly Meadows are 
found coming over also from Montville. In the northwest- 
ern part the land Is more mountainous. A large portion of 
the township Is fertile, especially that on the Pequannock, 
Pompton, and Passaic. There are between one and two 
thousand acres of good arable land in Pompton Plains. It 
Is quite certain that this part of the township was once 
covered by a body of water. 

Pequannock has one borough, that of Butler, and several 
villages and hamlets within Its borders. 

Butler Is a very 
active, thriving, pros- 
perous town in the ex- 
treme central northern 
part, on the Pequan- 
nock. It has about 
three thousand people 
of very mixed nation- 
alities, invited thither 
by the variety of 
manufactures which 
have been established 
at this locality. But- 
ler has had a very 
~" rapid growth. A quar- 

ter of a century ago it was a hamlet opposite the village of 
Bloomingdale, in Passaic County, and situated on the Mor- 
ris County side of tlie Pequannock. The Eubber Comb and 
Jewelry Company, established in 1876, succeeding two other 
companies, was the real nucleus around which the present 
town has assumed such proportions. This company manu- 
factures hard rubber and gives employment to nearly one 
thousand workmen. 




ANCIENT DUTCH CHURCH. 



BUTLER AND POMPTON PLAINS 201 

The lonely mountain valley began to resonTid with the 
echo of the dashing waterwhcels and the bii/,/, and whirr 
of machinery. Crowds of busy workmen came ti-ooping into 
the village; land was bought, streets were laid out, and 
dwellings erected for the accommodation of the employees 
and their families. One, named in honor of tlie artist, San- 
ford B. Clifford, who died the day the last house was fin- 
ished, is devoted exclusively to this ]»uri)Ose. and is lined 
on both sides by neat and substantial edifices, all occu- 
pied by the workmen. Each house has a small yard in front 
for ornamental purposes and a lot in the rear for a garden. 
A race two miles in length supplies the extensive factories 
with all needed power. A public hall for meeting purposes, 
churches, and school houses attest the intelligence and 
thrift of the workmen. 

The town was named Butler some years ago in honor of 
Mr. Butler, president of the rubber factory, when postal 
facilities were granted by the lion. Thomas L. James, then 
Postmaster-General. Trior to that all mail matter was re- 
ceived at the postoffice in Bloomingdale. Butler is a center 
for the manufacture of hard rubber and has been of immense 
benefit to the surrounding country, affording a near and 
sure market for the products of the farms in the vicinity. 

On Pompton Plains there is one continuous village ex- 
tending from its southern extremity northward, along the 
Pompton and Pequannock Rivers, to where the last named 
stream changes its course to a westerly direction. Just at 
this point the country is more I iiickly settled. At the south- 
ern end is found the hamlet of Pequannock, where there is 
a postoffice. A little less tluin midway between this ham- 
let and Pompton another locality, called Pomi)(on Plains, 
is reached, and here, too, is a postoflice and a llefurmed 
Church, one of the oldest in the State, held in great rever- 



202 



THE PASSAIC VALLEY 



ence by the representatives of the old Holland families, and 
which in times past has wielded, and still wields, great in- 
fluence over the surrounding country. It has established 
three chapels and now substantially supports them : one at 
Lincoln Park, one in Wayne Township in Passaic County, 
and the other at Stony Brook. The population still con- 
tains representatives of many of the old Dutch families, as 
is evidenced by the recurrence of such names as Van Saun, 




TEN POUNDS. Numb.^i^T'i^ 

BY A lata' of the Colony of Btb' 
Sotft, this Bill ftiall be received 
in all Payments in the Treasory, 
for. 0<tt l^oiwltS. New-York, February 

7~> ■ 'Tis Death, to counierfeit. 

COLONIAL CUBRENCY. 




Van Ness, Roome, Eyerson, De Bow, Mandeville, Berry, 
Beam, Post, and others. 

A short distance south of Pequannock village Lincoln 
Park extends over from Montville. The postoffice for this 
village is located in that part of it found in Pequannock 
Township. 

There are two other hamlets of undefined proportions, one 
on the borders of Montville, called Jacksonville, and the 



PEQUANNOCK AND RIVERDALE 203 

other known as Stony Brook, whose farm houses are scat- 
tered along- a small stream of the same name, with a post- 
office. Near the southern extremity of 8tuuy Brook is an- 
other insignilicant hamlet called Brook Valley, also with a 
postoffice. 

The names of the families now resident at these small lo- 
calities and most numerous then undoubtedly indicate their 
Dutch origin. 

Pequaunock is well supplied with facilities for travel and 
transportation. Three railroads traverse it in as many dif- 
ferent directions. The New York, Susquehanna and West- 
ern follows the Pequaunock Kiver on its uorthoru border; 
the New York and Greenwood Lake enters it just south of 
Pequaunock village and follows the river as far as Pompton 
village, where it again crosses that stream and passes over 
into Passaic County; the Delaware, Lackawanna and West- 
ern enters the township at Lincoln Park from Moutville, 
and crosses the Pompton Kiver at Mountain View station. 
The presence of these roads and the facilities they offer for 
quick and cheap travel have induced the locations of several 
stations at places convenient for the surrounding country, 
and in this way many villages in this part of the State are 
springing up and gathering around these stations. 

Riverdale is one of these localities situated on the Eocka- 
way a short distance west of Pompton. Before the rail- 
roads invaded this part of the cotmtry it was considered a 
part of Pompton, and was inhabited by a permanent agri- 
cultural population. It is now increasing, several elegant 
residences having been erected. Here is a long established 
woolen mill, formerly conducted by Joseph Slater, now by 
his son Robert. Connected with this mill is a large mill 
pond now called a lake, and in the immediate vicinity a 
quarry has been opened where many workmen are employed. 



204 



THE PASSAIC VALLEY 



A postoffice has recently been placed here for the accommo- 
dation of the people at Eiverdale and their neighbors. There 
are one hundred and fifty residents at this locality and 
sure evidences are given of future growth. 

The original settlers of Pequannock were Hollanders, who 
came from Bergen County, which had been peopled by immi- 
grants from the Dutch settlements at New York and from 




HUDSON IN THE HIGHLANDS. 



other localities on the Hudson River. These people were 
attracted to the country in Bergen and at Pequannock by 
its similarity to that of Holland; the many streams with 
their low lying valleys, the level lay of the land and their 
surroundings, all reminded them of their native land. As 
near as can now be ascertained the first purchase was made 
by Arent Schuyler from the Indians; the deed was dated 
June 6, 1695, and signed by " Onageponck," " Hielawith of 



EAKLY LAND TITLES 



205 



Peqiiannock," and " Sajapojih of Minisink." These were 
three tribes of Indians (hen occnpyiny the northern part 
of New Jersey — the Pequannoeks, the I'oniptons, and (he 
Mini sinks. Another small tribe, called the Eockawacks, had 
their fishing and hunting grounds farther soulli. These 
names will all be recognized in the nomenclature of rivers 
and localities still retained. 

The English government claimed the title to the land 
within the bounds of New Jersey by virtue of the right of 
discovery. Sir Henry Hudson, sailing in the " Half Moon " 
under a Dutch flag and in the employment of the Dutch East 
India Company, in 1(>09, 
landed on the coast of New 
Jersey, probably at or near 
the present town of Elizn- 
beth. He was, so far as can 
be definitely ascertained, 
the first European to put his 
foot on the land of New Jer- 
sey. But although this was 
done by a Dutch vessel and 
under the Holland flag, 
England contended and sus- 
tained by force of arms its 
contention that the whole of the northeastern part of North 
Ameiica belonged to that government by right of discovery, 
and uu (he 12th of March, 1633-34, Charles II granted to his 
brodicr. Ilie Duke of York, afterward James II, an indefi- 
nitely described country in the continent of North America 
but sufficiently explicit to determine that the whole of the 
Province of New Jersey was included within its bounds. 
This grant is the foundation of the title to all lands in New 
Jersey, so far as any such title could be given by the crown 




GREAT SEAL OF JAMES II. 



206 



THE PASSAIC VALLEY 



of England. According to international law as it then ex- 
isted and was understood the right of the English King to 
make this grant was undisputed, if it could be substantiated 
that England was the first discoverer of the granted land; 
and according to the law governing such grants existing at 
that time the King held such lands as " Crown " lands. The 
claim made by Holland, a weaker power, was thrust aside. 
However this may be, quite a complication arose. The 
aborigines were in peaceable and quiet possession and had 
held that possession for centuries, and it would seem that 
their title was paramount. . In the meantime the Duke of 
York had conveyed to Lord John Berkeley and Sir George 
Carteret that part of the land he had received from his royal 
brother, Charles, included within the bounds of the present 

State of New Jersey. The conveyance 
to Berkeley and Carteret was absolute 
and unconditional, and vested them 
not only with the title to the land, but 
with all governmental powers. 

The two Provinces of New York 
and New Jersey were under the rule 
of the same royal governors, and the 
Duke of York, by virtue of the grant 
to him by Chai-les, had the i-ight of 
appointment. The duke's grant to Berkeley and Carteret 
was made on the 12th of March, 1664. On the 2d of April 
of the same year York commissioned Colonel Eichard 
Mcholls governor of the whole country granted to him, and 
in the commission he authorized Nicholls " to perform and 
execute all and every the Powers which are by the said 
Letters Patents [that is the grant made to York by Charles] 
granted unto me to be executed by my Deputy agent or as- 




CARTERET ARMS. 



SCITITYLER AND BROCKHOLST 



207 



Under the power thus granted to him Nicholls claimed 
the right to sell and convey all lands within the borders of 
that granted by James to Berkeley and Carteret, and did 
actually attempt to make conveyance of some lands near or 
at Elizabethtown. He made proclamation to intended set- 
tlers of liberal offers to convey lands west of the Hudson 
Eiver. This state of affairs created complications not easily 
settled. There were four titles to land in New Jersey: 
First, the Indian title; second, the Dutch claim; third, the 
claim of Colonel Kichard Nicholls as governor; and, fourth, 
tlint of the Lord Proprietors as Lord Berkeley and Sir 
George Carteret were called. 

It was, however, agreed by 
all parties that there was suf- 
ficient basis for the Indian 
title tomake it important that 
that should be secured. When, 
therefore, Schuyler made his 
purchase he was wise enough 
to secure its extinguishment. 
The purchase was a large one. 
covering five thousand five 
hundred acres. In the same 
year Schuyler and six others, 
all Hollanders, entered into an 
agreement to buy from Berke- 
ley and Carteret five thousan<l five hundred acres of land, 
and for the purpose of fortifying the Indian title Schuyler 
and Brockholst, two of the six, secured a patent, as it was 
called, to cover the same land as bought from the Indians. 
Other purchases were soon afterward made by Schuyler and 
Brockholst, especially in December, 1696, until nearly ten 
thousand acres were held by those two men, all in the neigh- 




DI'KK OF YORK S SEAL. 



208 



THE PASSAIC VALLEY 



borhood of or bordering on the Pequannock and Passaic. 
About 1712 William Penn bought a large tract near Pine 
Brook and covering almost the whole of the southern part of 
Montville and some of Hanover. These large tracts of 
Schuyler and Brockholst were afterward sold out in parcels 
to actual settlers. 

The most prominent names of the first immigrants were 
Schuyler, Brockholst, Vanderbeck, Van Ness^yerson, Bay- 
ard, Berry, Mandeville, Kycker, Mead. Eoome, Slingerland, 
Vangelder, De Bow, De Mott, and Jones, all well known 
Holland patronymics except perhaps that of Jones. These 

first settlers must have located 
in Pequannock about 1700. 
There are no certain records 
which determine that date, but 
that is a reasonable conclusion, 
taking into consideration such 
facts as are known to have 
really existed. They were as a 
general rule all farmers, and 
their descendants have almost 
all universally followed the 
same peaceful occupation. 
These people possessed some of 
the very best characteristics 
found in any race. They were 
peaceful, law-abiding citizens, fearing God, and loving their 
neighbors. They were phlegmatic, not fond of change, with 
very little of the dash and energy of their fellows of the 
Anglo-Saxon blood. They have, however, impressed them- 
selves and their habits of thought upon all the communities 
where they have been found, and have dominated those 
communities by the sheer force of their silent but persistent 





<FII-y COMMISSARIS -'^'•fl 



^f!^^^ 



-■•./■..i:^^^^ ^.,, 



SCHUYLER ARMS. 



DUTCH CHARACTERISTICS 20*.) 

actidu. TlK'ir iuiluonce in many directions for good lias 
been masterful and never will be effaced. 

All over the northern part of Morris County Dutcii names, 
Dutcli peculiarities of thought, of character, of manners, 
picvail; even liic Dutch language is still spoken in many of 
the representative families, and until within a half century 
it has been used in religious service in their churches. They 
and their descendants have been content to reuiain quietly 
in their comfortable homes, satisfied with tlie sure results 
of tlicir agricultural labors and freed fi-om the anxious, 
carking perplexities of a feverish existence. They have not 
originated great schemes nor established great enterprises, 
but they have been most excellent citizens, true as steel to 
the best interests of the republic and ever ready to defend 
its honor and its integrity with fortune and with life if 
necessary. Though they have not inaugurated courts nor 
published codes of law nor formulated systems of jurispru- 
dence, yet they have been a law-abiding people, governed by 
pi-inciples of justice, acknowledging at all tiiues the claims 
of the government. The very best blood in New Jersey is 
derivwl from this immigration from the land of William the 
Silent. 



■^^:.'^ 




THE "HALF JIOON, 




CHAPTER XVI 



MORRIS COUNTY — CONCLUDED 




ORRIS COUNTY in many respects is one of the 
Tiiost interestinfj in the State, certainly in its 
ReA'olntionary history. It was formed by a spe- 
cial act of the Leoislntnre in 1T3S-30, from ITnn- 
tei'don. That county had been created by another special 
act of the Legislature March 11, 1713-14, with this descrip- 
tion: 

All and siiioular the Lands and upper Parts of the said Western Division of 
the Province of Xew Jersey lying Northwards of, or sitnate above the Brook or 
Rivnlet commonly called Assanpinek be erected into a Connty ... to be 
lallcd the County of Hunterdon; and the said Brook or Rivulet . shall 

be till' Boundary Line between the County of Burlington and the said County of 
Hunterdon. 

This description is made intelligible by its very generali- 
ties. It is confined to the lands and upper parts of the 
Province of West Jersey. What West Jersey contained 
was iniciidcd to be settled by the boundary line between 
East and West Jersey, but the exact courses of that line 
have never yet been ascertained and perhaps n(^ver will be. 
Si'vcral attempts have been made by competent surveyors 
to run tlic line according to its original descriptions, l»ut 
sucli attciii|)ts have failed. The various courts of the State 
have grappled hopelessly with (he ^iroblcm and it still re- 
mains really unsolved. 

The description of Morris Count)' appearing in the act of 



212 



THE PASSAIC VALLEY 



incorporation is made apparently with great particularity, 
and undoubtedly was understood at the time, but it men- 
tions so many localities unknown at the present, and whose 
names give no definite iuformatiou of their position, that 




FIRST STATE HOUSE AT TRENTON. 

it may, perhaps, bewilder the reader. Still it is so quaint, 
so peculiar, and withal so interesting to the historian that 
it is deemed advisable to copy it and give it to the reader 
for what it is worth. It reads thus : 

All and singular the Land and upper parts of the said Hunterdon County 
lying to the Northward and Eastward, situate and lying to the Eastward of a 
well known place in the County of Hunterdon, being a Fall of Water, a Part in 
the North Branch of Rariton River, called in the Indian Language or known by 
the name of Altomatouck to the North Eastward of the Northeast End or Part 
of the Lands called the New Jersey Society Lauds, along the line thereof cross- 



ORGANIZATION OF MORRIS COUNTY 



213 



ing the Soutli Branch of the aforesaid Rariton River and extending Westerly to 
a certain Tree marked with the Letters L. M. standing on the North side of a 
Brook enijjtying itself into the said .South Hranili, hy an old Indian Path to the 
Northward of a Line to be run Northwest from the said Tree to a Bniiieh of 
Delaware River called Muskeuetcong River and so down the said Branch to 
Delaware River; all which said Lands being to the Eastward, Northward and 
Northwestward of the above said Boundaries to be erected into a County to 
be called Morris County. 

However iudefinitc iliis description may be and uniu- 
Iclli^ible to modern readers it is very certain that it in- 
cluded tlie modern Counties of Warren and Snssex. 

Wlien Morris Coimt}^ was first establislied, and for several 
years after, its citi- 
zens were obliged to 
go to Trenton, as be- 
fore, to vote at all 
elections. 11 e p r e- 
sentatives to the Leg- 
islature were chosen 
from Hunterdon and 
represented both 
counties. Deeds and 
mortgages were still 
recorded at Trenton, 
and wills were sent 
also to the county 
seat of Hunterdon ; 
in fact the new coun- 
ty had no independ- 
ence of its own ex- 
cept in the name. 

This state of affairs was soon changed. The new county 
elected its own citizens for members of the law-making 
body and virtually' assumed an independent existence. But 
it was not until 1785 that the record of deeds and mortgages 




AN INDIAN CHIKFTAIN. 



214 THE PASSAIC VALLEY 

began in Morris County, and wills were not recorded until 
as late as 1804. Prior to that they were sent to Trenton 
and there retained, originals as well as the recorded copies. 
The records of deeds began on the 19th of Febniary, 1785, 
and the deed first recorded was one executed by Elijah 
Pierson and others, heirs of Benjamin Pierson, deceased, 
given to Mary Spinuage and others for land in Hanover, 
and the will first probated was one made by Nathaniel 
Horton, of Chester, dated August 27, 1800, and proved Feb- 
ruary 1, 1804. 

The first meeting of any county court was that of the Gen- 
eral Quarter Sessions, composed of John Budd, Jacob Ford, 
^-Abraham Kitchell, John Lindsley, Timothy Tuttle, and 
Samuel Swesy as judges. It met at Morristowu, March 25, 
1740, and its first judicial act was the division of the county 
into tliree townships : Pequannock, Hanover, and Morris- 
towu. The court not only apportioned the land of the new 
county iuto these municipalities, but it also appointed the 
officers, and this was done until 1756, when the inhabitants 
of the county were permitted to elect their own officers. 
The officers then appointed by the court for Pequannock 
were Eobert Gold, " dark " and bookkeeper; Garret de 
Bough, assessor; Isaac Van Dine, collector; Eobert Gold 
and Frederick Demout, freeholders; Matthew Van Dine 
and Brant Jacobus, surveyors of the highways; Peter Fred- 
ericks and Nicholas Hoyle, overseers of the poor; Hendrick 
Maurisson and Giles Mandeville, overseers of the highways; 
John Davenport, constable. 

For Morristowu : — Zachariali Fairchild, town " dark " 
and town bookkeeper; Matthew Lum, assessor; Jacob Ford, 
collector; Abraham Hathaway and Joseph Coe, Jr., free- 
holders; Benjamin Hathaway and Jonas Osborn, overseers 
of the poor; Joseph Briddin and Daniel Lindsly, Esq., sur- 




•^SKKi 










CITY HALL, AMSTEUIIAM, II(1L[.ANI>, BEFORK 1()15. 



216 THE PASSAIC VALLEY 

veyors of the highways; Stephen Freeman and John Linds- 
ly, Esq., overseers of the highways; Isaac Whitehead, 
Alexander Ackerman, and William Dayless, constables. 

For Hanover: — Timothy Tuttle, Esq., town clerk and 
town bookkeeper; David Wheeler, assessor; Caleb Ball, col- 
lector; Joseph Tuttle and Caleb Ball, fi-eeholders; John 
Kinney and Samuel Ford, surveyors of the highways; Paul 
Leonard, Eobert Young, Benjamin Shipman, and Edward 
Crane, overseers of the highways; Joseph Herriman and 
Stephen Ward, constables. 

The orthography as it appears in the records is faithfully 
given, but although some of the names are undoubtedly 
spelled incorrectly they will all be recognized, with perhaps 
one or two exceptions, as fandliar and borne by many in- 
habitants of the localities from whe'uce they were ap- 
pointed. Some present residents may be able to trace their 
lineal genealogies back to many of the very persons named 
in these lists of officers. 

It will be noticed that Jacob Ford, one of the judges who 
sat at this session of the court, was appointed collector of 
Morristown. He was also licensed at the same time to 
keep an inn or tavern, and it is tradition that the court was 
held at his house in Morristown. 

It is impossible to fix definitely any date when the first 
settler came to Morris County, or anything about his race 
or former residence. There were three distinct streams 
of immigration into this part of New Jersey: one reaching 
the northern portion of the county, one coming into the cen- 
tral part, and the other settling in the southern end of the 
county. Eeference has already been made to the two immi- 
grations in the central and northern parts. 

Very early in the seventeenth century the Hollanders 
made a lodgment upon the Island of Manhattan, built forts, 



DUTCH IMMIGRATION 



217 



aud louiidt'd a lowii witli llic aip[pai('iit iiilciilinii of becom- 
ing periiiaiiciil icsidciils. I'ut tliey were incrclianls and 
traders, and did unl conic for I lie imiiiosc of occnji.vinii- I lie 
land as agriculturists. Tliev very soon ascertained that 
tbey could establish a profitable trade Avith tlie aborigines 
by bartering such coninn)dities as were valued by the In- 
dians for peltry and fiws. They extended I his trade up 
the Hudson and soon came over into New .lersey to meet 
their customers on their own gronnd. In couisc of lime a 
trading post, or rath- 
er a stockade, rud(dy 
fortified, bnl sufti- 
ciently so to reju'l any 
attacks of the wily 
savages, was built 
on the west si<le of 
the Hudson River 
near enough to the 
fort at iManhattan to 
obtain succor from 
thence if necessary, 
and at the same time 
convenient to receive 
the visits of the In- 
dians and exchange 
commodities. 

This led the Dutch 
into Bergen County, 
where they found a 
land very similar to 

tlial Ictt behind Ihem in Holland a land of ferlility tit for 
the jtiirposes adai)ted to the tastes aud habits of these Dutcli 
settl(>rs. So they came into New Jersey, brought their fam- 




THE " NEW NETHERLAND. 



218 THE PASSAIC VALLEY 

ilies with them, and reared their substantial quaint dwell- 
ings in the valleys of the streams and there their descend- 
ants have remained to this present. The Dutch authorities 
at New Amsterdam claimed the right to grant lands on the 
west side of the Hudson as well as on the other bank, and 
actually did make such grants. These settlers increased in 
numbers, their land grew valuable; but beyond the Passaic 
were other fields unoccupied save by some scattered tribes 
of Indians, and the Hollandei's came over the river into Mor- 
ris County, and there their descendants have also remained. 
Their great characteristic was permanence. A single case 
out of many tJiat could be named will give an idea of the 
grip which the posterity of these early settlers retain on 
their land. 

Harrison Van Duyne, a prominent citizen of Newark, is 
i^iow occupying as a summer residence the same identical 
farm which his ancestor of the same name bought in 1730, 
an^l wluch has since been occupied hj his descendants. 

The first immigrants into the central part of Morris Coun- 
ty were of a different mould and possessed other character- 
istics than those of the Dutch. They were of the same race 
and blood, belonging to the great Teutonic family, but 
they had been environed by other circumstances than those 
which had surrounded the Dutcli. Like the Hollanders, 
they clung with the tenacity of death to their cherished 
i-eligious faith, and would rather relinquish life and all that 
man holds dear than give up the right to worship God in 
the way their consciences taught them was right. They 
did not possess in so great a degree as did the Dutch that 
dogged, persistent, and masterful I'esistance to wrong and 
oppression which crowned the character of the Hollanders, 
but they were alert, active, and keenly alive to any en- 
croachment upon their political or religious rights. Wher- 



ENGLISH IMMIGKAXION 



219 



ever they fl'ont they carried with them courage, energy, per- 
severance, iuiil ;in abiding purpose to conquer all obstacles 
Avliich stood between them and true liberty. 'I'lic wilder- 
ness did not daunt them, the wild savage did not alTriglit 
them, no danger could stop them in tlieir i)rogress. They 
were masterful in Iheir attempts to touiid a home in tins 
new world, wlicre they and their descendants would be 
freed from oppression and persecution. Tliey came Iron: 
England, wliere they had been tauglit to love lib- 
erty and religious 
tolerance by Tyni 
and C r m w e 1 1 
and the worthies 
who battled for 
the right. They 
tirst settled in the 
valley of the Con- 
u e c t i c u t, but 
tliere were fairer 
tields and bright- 
er prospects 
which beckoned 
them to New Jer- 
sey, and thither 
they came; and in 
tlie unbroken wil- 
derness on the 
I'assaic at New- 
ark, with an abid- 
ing faith in the 
(iod who thus far had led them on, they reared their log 
homes, patiently awaited developments, anil began a career 
of prosperity unequalled in this world's great history. 




DUTCH COURTSIIIl'. 



220 THE PASSAIC VALLEY 

But there was another element in the population of Mor- 
ris County which must not be overlooked, although not so 
important so far as its numbers are concerned as the others 
already mentioned. Early in the eighteenth century a 
small band of immigrants founded a settlement at German 
Valley, in the southwestern corner of the county. This 
Avas onli' a small part of a large volume of immigration 
which left Germany early in the eighteenth century for this 
western world and spread from the Mohawk and Hudson 
Valleys in New York as far south as Savannah in Georgia, 
leaving large numbers, however, in Pennsylvania. 

The settlement in Morris County was the result of an acci- 
dent. The design of this particular band was to reach the 
Mohawk Valley, but the vessel which brought them across 
the Atlantic was driven by stress of weather into Delaware 
Bay, and, landing at Philadelphia, the colonists, strangers 
in the country, unacquainted with the routes of travel, 
resolved to make their way overland to their original place 
of destination. When they reached the locality afterward, 
and by them, called German Valley, attracted by its 
goodly situation, its fertile soil, and its delightful climate, 
they determined there to fix their habitation. The land 
was before them; there were no inhabitants there except, 
perhaps, a few whites and some straggling, wandering In- 
dians. A beautiful stream making its way to the Raritan 
passed through the valley. The hillsides were covered with 
timber suitable for the erection of their dwellings. There 
they remained, and there are their descendants to this day. 
They reared their church, in which they worshipped accord- 
ing to the faitli of their fathers. The log edifice has given 
place to a substantial and commodious structure, where 
godly men have ministered to them from generation to gen- 
eration. 



MORIUS COUNTY IN THE RKVOLUTION 



221 



Such are the elements which have peopUnl Mfn-ris Coun- 
ty, and such are the men whu hiid the foundations of its 
prosperity and made it what it is to-day. They little knew 
and in tlicir wildest imagination never dreamed what wei'e 
to he Ihc mighty results ()f their labors. They builded 
deeper and stroniicr and reared a structure moT'c colossal 
in its pro])ortions than their fancy even conceived. 

The part which the citizens of Morris County imtk in the 
Kevolutiouary War is deserving of the highest commenda- 
tion, 'i'lie wiiole iio])ulation with exceedingly few excep- 
tions were loyal to the cause of freedom. Their women and 
children manifested this loyalty in the strongest manner 
jHJSsihle. Prior to the actual beginning- of hostilities be- 
tween the colonies and the mother country, as early as 
1772, full evidence was 
given ol tiie restive spirit o'' 
the people under the op- 
pressive acts of the King 
and Parliament of Eng- 
land. Morris County was 
too far removed from the 
actual scenes of op])ression, 
and its situation was such 
that its people could be lit- 
tle affected by the laws 

which were intended by the English authorities to strike 
at the seaboard towns and commercial and navigating in- 
terests. But beneath all the events which were agitating 
the colonists there were involved certain principles which 
their intelligent minds and consciences could and did ap- 
preciate. These principles were attacked by the action of 
the mother country, and that affected the patriots of Mor- 






A LIBKRTY PLACARD. 



222 



THE PASSAIC VALLEY 



ris County to such an extent that they were ready to make 
common cause with their fellow citizens in other colonies. 
The first public demonstration of the patriotic feeling of 
the community was made on the 27th day of June, 1774, 
when a public meeting of the freeholders and inhabitants 
of the county was held, pursuant to prior call, at the court 
house in Morristown, Jacob Ford acting as chairman. Reso- 
lutions were passed expressing the sentiments of the meet- 
ing. These avowed loyalty to King George, but at the same 
time gave vent in the strongest terms to the indignation of 
the people and at the attempted invasion by the English 
Parliament of the rights of the colonists. They repudiated 
the action of the authorities in shutting up the port of Bos- 
ton, in raising a revenue by taxing the 
colonies; they protested against the Bos- 
ton port bill, and all other acts at all sub- 
versive of the riglits of the people. They 
promised unqualified assistance to their 
oppressed fellow citizens of other colonies, 
declared that no purchase should be made 
of any articles imported from Great Bri- 
tain or the East Indies, and provided for 
the appointment of committees of corre- 
spondence in different parts of the country. 
From the time when this meeting was 
STAMP-ACT STAMP. ^^^^ ^^^ pgopjg ^f ^j^g couuty Were ablaze 

with patriotism; the very best men in the county came to 
the front, and by the appointment of the people assumed 
the control of public affairs, and the communities in all 
parts of the county followed these leaders. Committees of 
correspondence and safety were appointed. It was unsafe 
for a known and recognized Tory to remain in the county. 
A most excellent man, respected and beloved by his neigh- 




MOKKIS COUNTY IN THE REVOLUTION 



223 



boi'S and wlio had been elected to the office of sherilT, was 
an outspoken adherent of King George. He was at once 
notified (hat lie must change his principles or leave tiie 
county. He was conscientious in his convictions and re- 
fused to submit to the dictation of his fellow citizens, and 
was obliged to leave. 

The patriotism of the inhabitants of Morristown was so 
well assured that political prisoners who had been arrested 
for refusing to take the oath of allegiance to the new gov- 
ernment were sent to be confined in that town. A single in- 
cident will show the universality of the patriotism which 
actuated all classes. In July, 1776, in a remote part of Ihc 
county at a small lianilet, a Mr. Gaston conducted a 
country store, where could be found all tlic arlii-les neces- 
sary for the simple wants of his 
customers. His book of accounts 
kept at that time is in existence 
and in the possession of one of his 
descendants, preserved with filial 
reverence. On the Fourth of July, 
1776, page after page records the 
sales made of the ordinary articles 
required for household purposes. 
But on the day succeeding that, 
on which the news of the Declara- 
tion (if Independence W'as received, tlie entries in llils old 
day book are all made up of charges for ixtwder and hall 
and shot, and the persons so charged covered nearly all the 
inhabitants of the hamlet. 

When the army visited Morristown in 1777 and again 
in 1780 and 1781 the people met them with open arms, wel- 
comed them to their homes, gave them gratuitously of their 
substance, and unmurmuringly bore all the burdens conse- 




HANGING A TORY. 



224 



THE PASSAIC VALLEY 



queut upon the presence of so many additions to their num- 
bers. 

The women of the county were not behind the men in 
their patriotism. They sustained and encouraoed their 
husbands, brothers, and sons in their devotion to the public 
cause: they tilled the farms while the men were away with 
the army; they ministered to the wants of the sick and 
wounded, manufactured clothing for the soldiers, opened 
their doors to them as they passed, fed the hungry, and suf- 
fered privations and sacrificed much for their country. Said 

^.-?Anna Kitchell, wife 
of Uzal Kitchell and 
sister of Captain 
T i m t h y Tuttle, 
when by a timid 
friend urged to ac- 
cept British pro- 
tection : " I have a 
husband and five 
brothers in the 
American Army; if 
the God of battles 
does not care for us 

'^^^^^T^^'^^'V S^'^^'^A^^S ^ ^'«^ ^ill ^^^^ ^^^^ *^^ 

rest. 

Morris County is 
named after Lewis 
Morris, the first inde- 
pendent colonial 
governor of New Jersey, and who was instrumental in se- 
curing the creation of the county. 

More space has been given to this history of Morris Coun- 
ty and its subdivisions than perhaps may be deemed by 




,:^^^j&^VU. 



MORRIS COtnSfTY IN THE RE^'OLtJTION 



225 



some it desorved, but it is liopcd ihal il will he n'liiciiihcrcd 
thai thai coiiiily is one ol' the hishn'ii- (■duiitics of the N'allcv 
ol'lhc Tassaic, coiiiiei-tcd with Ihc war which secured for 
ihis nical rei)ul)li<- its independence and its jn-eseiit |iniud 
pusitiou iu the world; that aruuud it and its history cluster 
memories dear to every American heart; and that it was 
natural for a citizen of the connty and a descendani nf 
heroes who perilled all for independence, and were resident 
in this memorable locality at the time, to believe that all 
w)io are now the recipients <>i' the privileges of freedom 
ji'ained by the struggles and sacrifices of patriots of the 
olden time would rejoice iu the recital of some of the events 
which transpired iu that day of the country's peril. 




MEDAL OP THE REVOLUTION. 



CHAPTER XVII 



PASS.4JC COUNTY 



I, 



ASSAir rOTTNTY is the most irre.iinlarly shaped of 
all the counties in New Jersey, and in tliis respect 
it almost defies description. It is difrtcult to un- 
derstand iiow it Mas possible lliat in the division 
of the State into counties one so irrei»ular, so ill shaped, 
as is Passaic could possibly haye been formed. It has its 
noi'lhern boundary on Oranj^e County in New York; its 
Avesterly line impinjies on Sussex and is drawn southward 
nearly to Stoi-kliolm in that county, at riyht angles with 
the division line between New Jersey and New York; its 
eastern boundary is also at rij^ht anjiles, or very nearly so, 
Avith the same division, so far as it extends southward be- 
tween Passaic and Bergen to Pomptou. At this ])oint the di- 
mensions of the county are so com])ressed that the northern 
and southern sides approach each other with hardly a mile 
distance between them. 

This sinfiiilar formation divides tlie county into two un- 
e(|ual i>aits. Tln' iiorllierly ]iart is considei'ably hiriier than 
the other, three sides of it beinji' square — the side next to 
New York and those borderinjr on Sussex on the 
west and Bergen on the east. The other division 
broadens as it passes southeasterly from this compressed 
jiart, but again lesscMis until it I'caclies a sharji jxiint at the 
end of Acquackauonk, between Essex and Bergen. As laid 



PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS 229 

(iiii nil the iiiaps tiic cduiity has tbe appearance somewhat 
of an ohl fashioned li()ur-<;hiss, very unsymraetriral, how- 
cvci-, and A\ith ill shapeu sides. 

A hiiiic part of I'assaie is mountainous, especialh' at the 
noitli and west. A range of mountains of small height 
come up from tlie south below Paterson and seem to stoj) 
abruptly at the Passaic River. In and around Pompton 
are several hundre<l aci-es of very level land, composing part 
of what is called Pomptou Plains, the larger portion of 
which, liowever, is located in Morris County. 

Passaic is well Avatered. Besides the river from which it 
takes its name, and which has already been described, the 
Pequannock, its noble tributary, skirts the southern boun- 
dary of the county while making its way to its final resting 
l)laco. The WaiuKjua, or \\'ynockie as it is called by the in- 
habitants in its vicinity, has the Avhole of its course in the 
county. The Kaniapo comes from Bergen and crosses Pas- 
saic at its narrow part, near Pompton, and a considerable 
stream from Green^Aood Lake ma Ices its entire way in Pas- 
saic until il linds I lie WaiKOiua N'alley near P.oardville. 
A stream called the t>ingac is of some imijortance in drain- 
ing the surrounding country. 

There are numerous other small streams and streamlets, 
tributaries of the Pequannock and other rivers, and some 
that run into (Jrccnwood kake. That beautiful sheet of 
water, called also Long Pond and better known by that 
name to those who live near it, extends from New York 
into the northern ])ai't of A^'est Milford. nearly one-half 
lying south of the diviiling line l>ctwi'en the two States. It 
is well stocked with fish of various kinds, and for genera- 
tions has been the resort of fishermen. But of late years 
it has been mtich sotight by stimmer visitors, both in New 
Jersey and in New York. The Greenwood Lake liailroad 



230 



THE PASSAIC VALLEY 



has made its banks easy of access. Its location is charm- 
ing, and all lovers of wild scenery must delight in the laud- 
scapes around it which meet their eyes. 

The Bearfoot Mountains, the roughest, wildest, and most 
I'ocky in the State and tlie dread of explorers who seek to 




A " CKAZY yi'ILT. 



mount their rugged sides, enter New Jersey from New York 
at the nortlieru extremity of West Milford and i^ass south- 
ward. They are covered with a thick growth of laurel and 
other gnarled bushes, of scrub oaks, and some chestnut. 
They lie on the west side of Greenwood Lake and cover its 
western banks with a thick shade in the brightest of sum- 
mer days. 

Some twelve or more ponds and larger bodies of water 



RAILROADS AND AGRICULTURAL INTERESTS 231 

wliiiii may be callcil lakes are found iu the couiily, mostly 
in West Millord, the larj^est of wliieh is Macopiu, au exceed- 
ingly bcaulit'iil JKxIy of water coNcrini; 1 wo liiuidn'd and 
niiu'ly-niiie acres, w iiicii seems to have hilJieilo escaped the 
attention of summer visitors.""M,jreen\v(MMi Lake has one 
thousand nine hundred and twenty acres of land lying be- 
neath its waters. 

Numerous railroads intersect the county iu almost every 
direction, iiiviiiu easy access to travellers into other parts 
of the country. The Delaware, Lackawanna and ^yestern 
runs frctm lloboken northward, enters the county near the 
City of Passaic, then passes to Faterscjn, and from thence 
to Mori'is County, crossing the Pi'(iuanuofk at what was 
once called Mead's Basin, but is now known as Mountain 
View, ami where there is a station on the railroad. The 
New York and Krie also starts from lloboken, goes direct 
to Paterson and then into Bergen County, and after travers- 
ing a portion of that county makes its way into New York. 
The New Y'ork, Susquehanna and Western also reaches 
Paterson, finds its way from that city with a rather cir- 
cuitous route to the Peijuannock, which it crosses at Pomp- 
ton, and then follows the last named river along the south- 
ern boundary of the county. The New York and Greeu- 

w 1 leaves the New York, Sns(|nelianna and Western 

ab(Uit nudway belween Pomptou and Bloounngdale and 
finishes its course at (Ireenwood Lake, traversing Pompton 
and West .Mllf(u<l Townships. 

The agri(ull\iral interests of Passaic are considerable. 
There are some excellent farms williin its boundarj', espe- 
cially in the vi<inity of Pompton, sonu' (d' which are culti- 
vated with proht. West iMilford, although so wild and 
forbidding, has some good arable laud near JIacopin Pond, 



232 



THE PASSAIC VALLEY 



and the Dutch farmers on the Pequannock, for two centuries 
and more, have cultivated most excellent farms. 

Passaic County has 128,100 acres v^athin its bounds : 126,- 
454 of laud and 1,646 water; 1,346 acres of the land covered 
with water lie within West Milford. Of the land 50,284 




THE " VYVER " AT THE HAGUE. 



acres are cleared; the balance is still covered with forests. 
Some idea of the growth of the population may be gained 
from these facts : in 1840, three years after the county was 
formed, its population was 16,734; in 1880 the combined 
population of the cities of Paterson and Passaic was 59,900; 
the whole population then of the county was 60,805. By 



KAULY SETTLUMEXTS 233 

the census of liMKI (lie in'i)|ilc in I'jilcrsoii iiloin' iiiiiuhcnMl 
sdinewliat over l(ir),50(l. 

Ill the I'lii'iil (lis! ricfs outside (>r liic I wo lariic rii ics, \\iici-(» 
tlu; peoph' aic ''limited in ai^i icull unil pursuils, liicy aix' 
licruKiueut iu Ihcir residences. This is esiieciaily a|>|)ii(ahie 
to the localities where Dutch iunuij;rauts setth-d iu tlu; 
early history of the couuty, aud wliere uiauy of tlieir de- 
sceudauts are still found livini; on llie same lai-nis occu- 
jiied by their ancestors, 'fhis, lioweNcr, does not ap]il\ to 
all wlio have Holland Idood iu their veius. ^lauy of theui 
of the present day have been impelled l)y the eueriiy of their 
neighbors of other Iviu, have caujilit iheir sjiirit aud jiroi;- 
ress, aud have uiiugled with the ijeojile aud rivalled them iu 
their ap]ilication to other imrsuits than ai;ricnllnre aud iu 
their efforts to serve the community as citizeus. 

In the early records t>( the county, iu the lists of civil 
ollicers, uauH's of undoubie(l Dutch ori.niu so often occur 
that it may be asserted \\ithout fear of contradiction that 
UKU'e than t hree-fonia lis (if ihose otticers \\'ere of llidlaud 
descent. 'I'liis state of affairs coutin\U'(l foi- many yearsNl)ut 
of late the influx of men of foreijiu blood has turned the 
scale, and now these Holland names, so often once recorded, 
seldom appear. 

At one time the very iiireat umjority of the people of the 
county were devoted to ajiricultuic; now nearly all j;ive 
their attention to uu'chanical aud mauufacturiu.n- ]uirsuits, 
and in this respect it is not e.xcidled l)y any otlur county in 
the State. 

V Passaic had no iudei)endent liistoi-,\- of its own ]irior to 
the time of its iucor])oratiou as a county. ['\> to I hat jieriod 
it liad been so intiuuitely connected with lOssex and l^eriicn 
tiiat it could have had no separate hisloiical record. The 
Ittitch had come o\-er lirst from .ManhatlaTi to I'.eiiicn Conn- 



234 THE PASSAIC VALLEY 

ty, and then gTadually they pushed their way in their slow, 
systematic manner into Acquackanonli and Pompton, 
occupying the lowlands found in those localities. There 
they built their substantial stone dwellings of one story, 
with outreaching eaves, cultivated their farms with perse- 
vering industrj', living quiet lives, rearing their children, 
and teaching them the virtues which have so adorned the 
character of these phlegmatic men. Suddenly- they were 
I'onfronted by a new order of things. They were awakened 
by the splash of water wheels, by the clatter and swing of 
machinery, by the rush of a new, busy life. Their young 
men began to appreciate this great change going on around 
them, they awakened from their apathy, and soon learned 
that this new, busy life was before them, that it was for 
them, and that it meant something better, nobler than the 
dreary monotony of a. farm. So they began to keep step 
with ihe push of this new existence and soon found that 
they had possibilities within them of whirh they had never 
dreamed, and took their proper place in the great battle 
around them. 

Passaic County was incorporated by an act of the New 
Jersey Legislature approved on the 7th of February, 1837. 
In this act the county is thus described: 

All those parts of the Counties of Essex and Bergen contained within the 
following boundaries and lines : Beginning at the mouth of Yantakaw or 
Third River, at its entrance into Passaic River, being the present boundary of 
the township of Acquaehanuek ; running thence northwesterly along the course of 
the line of said Township to the corner of said line, at or near the Newark and 
Pompton Turnpike ; thence in a straight line to the bend of the road below the 
house now occupied by John Freeman, in the township of Caldwell, being about 
one and a half miles in length ; thence to the middle of Passaic River; thence 
along the middle of said River to the middle of the mouth of the Pompton River 
by the two Bridges ; thence up said River along the line between Bergen and 
Morris Counties to Sussex County; thence along the line between Sussex and 
Bergen Counties to the State of New York; thence Easterly along the line be- 



236 THE PASSAIC VALLEY 

tween the two States to the division line between the townships of Pompton and 
Franklin; thence along said line dividing said townships and the townships of 
Franklin and Saddle River to where it intersects the road commonly called 
Goetohius' lane; thence down the center of said road or lane to the Passaic Kiver; 
thence down the middle of Passaic River to the place of Beginning. 

When Passaic was first organized it had five townships : 
Aequaclcanonlc, Manchester, Paterson, Pompton, and West 
Mi] ford. Of these Acquackauonii was the oldest, having 
been made a township as early as 1693, when it formed a 
part of Essex, to which it continued to belong until the 
creation of Passaic, when it was added to the new county. 
Manchester was included in Saddle River, one of the town- 
ships of Bergen, but was transferred to Passaic in 1837. 

Some reference has already been made to the early his- 
tory of Paterson in connection with the Society for the Es- 
tablishment of Useful Manufactures. A large part of it 
was originally severed from Acquackanonk in 1831, when it 
became an independent township, and was afterward, in 
1851, incorporated as a city, but since that time has re- 
ceived large additions to its territory in its first and second 
wards by some part of Little Falls and a further i)ortion 
from Acciuackanouk. Pompton was also an ancient munici- 
pality, founded in 1797 from part of Bergen, from which 
county it was transferred to Passaic in 1837. West Milfoi'd 
belonged to Pompton until 1834, when it was made a town- 
ship, and three years afterward added to Passaic County. 
Since the formation of Passaic three new townshiiJS have 
been erected within its bounds: Little Falls, Passaic, and 
Wayne. Little Falls was once within the bounds of 
Acquackanonk, but iu 1868 was made an independent town- 
ship. Passaic was taken from Acquackanonk iu 1866 and 
made a township; three years later it became a village; and 
it was incorporated as a city iu 1873. In 1817 Wayne was 
set off from Manchester. 



BOROUCill OUCAMZATIONS 237 

Fivo boroiiL^'lis have hocn crciilcd in Tassaic; tliroo, Potiip- 
lon Lakes, 'rolowa, and Hawthorn, were incoritoratcd jirior 
Id IIXII. In 1!»01 two otliers avcic ((iinicd by llu' Lenisla- 
ini-c: l'i()s|)c(t rarl<, 1(\ ad a|i|tn(\c(l .Maicli 1.'!, and Ilalc- 
dt)n, on Maiudi I'd. l!<itli wci-c lal<cii lioni I lie Tkw nslii]( nf 
JIauchester. 



^;o M F P E N N r.*J 





CHAPTEK XVIII 



WEST Mn.FORD, POAIPTON, AND WAYNE 




EST MILFOKD TOWNSHIP is situated in the 
northwestern part of the county and is its largest 
municipality. There are few townships in the 
State that have so laree an acreaije and not 
many tiiat have so few inhabitants. It is bounded on the 
north by Orange County in New York, on the east by 
Pompton Townshi]), on the soutli by Morris County, from 
wliicli it is separated by the Pecpiannock River, and on the 
west by Sussex County. Almost tlie whole of the township 
is covered by mountains, whose summits are bare of vegeta- 
tion and i-ovci'ed by scraggy rocks. The valleys of the Ring- 
wood and Wanaqua Rivers, which extend through the whole 
length of West ililford from north to south, aiul occasional 
valleys on the tributaries of these and other rivers, are 
filled with fertile farms, which in a measure compensate 
for the sterility found in other portions of the township. 
\ The Wanaqua Valley, which begins at Pompton Plains, is 
beautiful and picturesque. More beautiful landscapes can 
not be found elsewhere. Iron ore of the very best cpiality 
has been mined in various parts of the township. The 
ricli deposits of this metal, found in Morris County and at 
Kingwood and other ]iarts of what is now Passaic, invited 
early in the eighteenth century immigration and capital 
frora England and Europe. Large tracts of land wei-e pur- 
chased, mines opened, and iron ore mined in great quanti- 



240 



THE PASSAIC VALLEY 



ties and of excellent qnality; forges and furnaces were 
erected and iron manufactured. Germans came over from 
Hesse-Cassel and other parts of the Fatherland. Of course 
all these facts led to exiilorations for the precious metal 
in parts of the country adjacent to the mines already 
opened. This led explorers into West Milford, and there 
iron was found of a superior character and in quantity. 
vWest Jlilford was settled as early as 1720 by immi- 
granis from Germany and other parts of Europe, some 

coming from 
Holland. A 
few of the 
names of 
these early 
settlers still 
survive in 
the township, 
such as Stru- 
bel, Schuls- 
t e r, Y r e e- 
1 a n d, and 
Kanouse. The 

Kanouse family is of Holhmd descent, the ancestor, John 
George Kanouse, coming here about 1720. He was unable 
to pay his passage, and, like many others, was sold on his 
arrival here to pay the amount due. His descendants have 
ramified into many of the most respectable families in the 
county. One of them was the mother of John P. Brown, 
whose fatlier, Peter P. Brown, and himself kept the famous 
hotel at New Founclland for more than seventy years. This 
lady survived until a few years ago. 

There are several school districts in the township, but 
the sparsity of the population necessarily obliges the extent 




AFTER A BLIZZARD. 



RELIGIOUS AND A(4RICULTURAL INTERESTS 241 

(if tlu'se districts to be large; tlie children as a geiicriil i\ile 
atlcini mid much interest is manifested in the care and sup- 
]ini't (if the schools. 

There are live churches in the toAvnship: a Roman Catho- 
lic an<l a Baptist at Echo Lake, two Presbyterian — one at 
New Fouudland and one at the villaije of West Milford, — 
and a Methodist at New Fouudland. Of these the IJomau 
Catholic at Echo Lake is the oldest. It was established 
to meet the wants of the German population, who were 
K'oman Catholics in their religious views. It has not, how- 
ever, been well supported, as the number of its attendants 
has not warranted the settlement of a regular pri(^st. The 
other churches are well attended and well sui)i)orted. 

Agriculture is the principal pursuit of the inhabitants. 
The iron interests have not been sustained of late years, 
as formerly. In 1840 the town had ten forges, two tan- 
neries, two gristmills, five sawmills, and a population of 
2, KIN. In 1880 it had as many mills and as many forges, 
hilt these last were not in active nor continual operation, 
and its population was about 2, .100. In lOOO it cast less 
than five hundred and eighty votes. The introduction into 
the township of railroad facilities has added greatly to the 
couveui<nce of its citizens in the quick transportation of 
I lie pro<lu(ts of the soil lo good markets. Great quanti- 
ties of milk are daily sent to the City of New York. 

Near iMaco])in, at the foot of a hill, is quite a large deposit 
of kaolin of excellent quality. The depth of this dei)osit 
has not been ascertained, but the earth in wells dug in the 
vicinity, fifteen or twenty feet in depth, is discolored by the 
kaolin. The deposit seemed caught up between the roots 
of till- hill and a ledge of rocks running parallel with the 
elevation from which this material seems to proceed. 

There Jire some small ?Lnd \inimportaut hamlets iu West 



242 



THE PASSAIC VALLBY 



Milford: Uttertown, Postville, Clinton, Cooper, Upper Ma- 
eopin, and Hewitt. New Foundland and West Milford are 
more important villages. West Milford has 51,326 acres, 
of which 1,346 are covered by water and 37,363 by forests. 
Pompton Township contains 34,172 acres, of which two 
hundred and four are under water and 26,433 uncleared. 
Like West Milford, its territory extends from the northern 



., =^. ^„ K' IWvS'?! ,#>•■■ 



F-"1 ..'Tu. 




OLD . REVOLUTIONARY HOUSE AT POMPTON. 



to the southern lines of the county. It is bounded on the 
north by New York, on the east by Bergen, on the south by 
Morris County with the Pequannock River as a dividing 
line, and on the west by West Milford. In its western por- 
tion it is quite hilly, but the valley of the Wanaqua, where 
is foimd some excellent cultivable land, fills up almost its 
entire western part. Large quantities of iron ore have 
been mined in different parts of Pompton in years gone by. 
The celebrated Ringwood mines are situated very near to 
the New York line.X'These mines at one time were very 



EARLY SETTI,RRS 243 

successfully conducted iiudcr llic inanagemenf. of luenibcrs 
of tlie l{yers(in f;iinily, who were influential and successful 
ill fins lowMsinp. TIk'V belonged after lliey went out of 
(lie cKHlrcd of the Ryersons to the Trenton Iron Couipnny, 
owned i>y (he pliilani lii-<i|)ist, Peier Cooiicr, ami his son-in- 
law, Abrani S. Hewitt, formerly mayor of New York City, 
who is still livino- at a very advanced ngp. Many years 
ago I\Ir. Hewitt, who was an accomplished expert in all mat- 
ters relating to iron from the ore to the finest steel fabric, 
declared that more than five hundred thousand tons of first 
rate ore had been taken from this Ringwood mine. 
\ Pompton was one of the localities which early attracted 
Dutch immigration, and many descendants of these Holland 
immigrants abound here and in its vicinity. F>uch names 
as Van Ness, De Bow, MandevilleT^yerson, Roome, Van 
Saun, De Paun, Doremus, Pertholf, Van Wagenen, Ro- 
maine, Jlead, Berdan, and others, all undoubtedly of Hol- 
land origin, still are found here. Those who bear these 
names who are past middle life are all abb to speak the 
Dutch language, and in many old dw^ellings, some built by 
the original ancestors, that vernacular is the only mode of 
conversation in their households. 

V The Ryerson name was borne by some of the most noted 
men in the State. Martin J. Ryei'son. who for many years 
conducted and was the owner of the Ringwood mines, was 
State senator from Passaic for three successive years. 
^Martin J. Ryerson. his uncle, w^as the owner of a large 
furnace at what is now called Pompton Lakes, was a very 
successful iron manufacturer, and a judge of the Court of 
Common Pleas of Bergen County. His son, Peter M. Ryer- 
son, succeeded him in the business, and was for many years 
the largest iron manufacturer in the United States. At the 
age of fifty-seven he entered the Union Army us captain in 



244 



THE PASSAIC VALLEY 



a New Jersey regiment of infantry, was afterward promoted 
to major, and was Idlled at tlie battle of Williamsburg, May 
5, 1862. On the day he left for the front he expressed to an 
intimate friend his conviction that he would be killed, 
and expressed the hope that he would be in the command 
of his regiment. His hope was realized, for on the day of 
the battle both his colonel and lieutenant-colonel were ab- 
sent, and he necessarily 
took the command. His 
son, David A. Eyerson, now 
a successful lawyer in 
Newark, after his father's 
death raised a company 
from the hardy mountain- 
eers of West Milford and 
Pompton, and entered the 
service as captain witlTliis 
brother, Peter M., Jr., 
then a cadet at West 
Point, as one of his lieu- 
tenants. ■ Peter M., Jr., 
was killed in Tennessee, 
and --David A. was 
wounded at Gettysburg. 
Another son, Richard W., 
physically unable to enter 
the ranks, went into the quartermaster's department and re- 
turned safely to his family. 

-^rhere are several villages and hamlets in Pompton. The 
villages are all important, and are Bloomingdale on its 
southern border, where there are several churches and a 
postofftce; Pompton in the southeastern corner with an old 
Reformed (Dutch) Church and a postofftce; and Ringwood 




BREUKELEN IN HOLLAND. 



WAYNE TOWNSHIP 245 

in the extreme north, where are situate the Ringwood mines 
and a postoffice. The Immlets are Boardville, Stonetovvn, 
Midvale, and AV'anaqua. 

FomiJtou Lakes, one of the five borouglis of Passaic, is 
situate in Pomptou Township, near and around the spot 
\\'here omte i^tood Judge Martin J. Kyevson's furuaee, and in- 
cludes the ponds used b}' him in connection with his iron 
manufactures. These collections of water give name to the 
borough. Pompton derives its title from the Pomptou In- 
dians, who frequented this region. 

Wayne Towuship is situate in the central part of the 
couuty, is of irregular shape, and extends southerly from 
the locality where the county is compressed into narrow di- 
mensions, as already described, uutil it reaches Little Falls. 
Its boundaries can not be very accurately defined in conse- 
quence of this irregularity of formation. It is narrow at 
each end and broadens out iu its center, and is bounded 
north by Bergen, east by Bergen, Paterson, and Little Falls, 
south by Essex and Little Falls, and west by Morris and 
Essex. It is mostly level, and excellent and well culti- 
vated farms abound within its territory. Several small 
streams fiow over its southern part into the Pequaunock, 
which passes along the western boundary, dividing the 
township from Morris. It contains 17,107 acres, ninety-six 
of which are covered by water, 9,188 are cleared, and 7,523 
are still forest laud. It has a few hamlets and villages — 
Preakness, Wayne, aud Mouutain View or Mead's Basin, 
where there is a station on the Delaware, Lackawanna and 
Western Railroad, which traverses the southwestern part 
of the township on its way from Paterson to Boontou. The 
New York, Sus(ivu'hauua and Western also passes over a 
small portion of ^Vayne with a station at the village of 
Wayne. The lowiishiii is divided into two undefined dis- 



246 



THE PASSAIC VALLEY 



tricts called Preakness and Pacquanack. These divisions 
are arbitrary and denote no particular peculiarity either of 
locality or of interest. 

This township has an exceedingly interesting history. Its 
earliest settlement was the second oldest in the county. It 
had then no municipal organization, but afterward it 
formed a part of Manchester, from which it was taken Feb- 
ruary 17, 1847, and created an independent township by an 
act of the Legislature. It was settled more than two cen- 




AT A COUNTY FAIR. 



turies and a half before that date, when Arent Schuyler and 
Major Anthony Brockholst, the original grantees of the title 
for five tliousand five hundred acres in Passaic, covering a 
large part of Wayne Township, immigrated to Wayne and 
lived on a part of their purchase. The settlement prior to 
this was in Acquackanonk. These first two settlers, who 
were Hollanders, although Schuyler was born in Albany 
in New York, were soon followed by numerous permanent 
immigrants of the same race, whose descendants to-day com- 



WATNE TOWNSHIP 



247 



jiosc llic majority of the citizens of Wayne. This Arent 
Sclniylci' was iiininiilitcdly ilie ancestor of the numerous 
anil iiiriuential family of Schuylers scattered all over New 
Vork and New Jersey. An examination of tiie list of offi- 
cers of the township shows that much more than one-half 
are of Holland descent. The names most prominent are 
Schuyler,^^yerson, Berdan, Doremus, Mandeville, Van 
Riper^Kip, and Demarest. 

The manufactiiriHii' interests of Wayne are inconsider- 
able, the people being mostly engaged 
in agriculture. Some years ago a 
large powder mill was established at 
the village of Wayne under the man- 
agement of tlio Latlin and Kand 
Powder Company. Several brick 
yards have been very successfully con- 
diiiicd at Mountain View and other 
])oints. 

Tiie first school in Wayne, accord- 
ing to tradition, was opened as late as 
177(>, ill a " (lug out " at the bottom of 
a liill near Mead's l>asin or Mountain 
View. This dug out had a substan- 
tial roof, and was used by General 
Anthony Wayne as a stable during the llevolutionary War 
and whih' he was stationed in tlie vicinity. There are now 
live school districts, each with a comfortable house. 

The old Keformed Church at Preakness was established 
in 17!)S, when a small church edifice was built. The con- 
gregation was poor, and for years struggled against great 
disailvantages, unable to secure the services of an independ- 
ent minister of their own and depending for such religious 
instruction as they could obtain from the pastors of the 




DUTCH I'ATKOrtN. 



24:8 THE PASSAIC VALLEY 

neighboring churches. But in 1843 they were able to call 
to their aid the^Eev. John A. Staats, who ministered to them 
for nearly twenty years. In 1852 they were enabled to re- 
build, and are now an active, progressive congregation, with 
Sunday school and other organizations. 

During the Kevolutionary War portions of both contend- 
ing armies at times visited the township, but no particular 
incidents connected with their presence are of any interest. 
The township is named in honor of Major-General Anthony 
Wayne. 








ANTHONY WAYNES NOTE TO WASHINGTON ON THE 
CAPTURE OF STONY POINT. 




I&"-*^S^^^ 



CHAPTER XIX 



LITTLE FALLS AM > MANCHESTER 




ITTLE FALLS is the smallest township in Passaic 

("iiuntv, iiavinj^' only 3,175 acres, none of which are 

under water; 2,589 are cleared and the balance is 

still covered by the forest. The importance of this 

township is centered in its iiijinMiacluriHii iiiti'rcsts at the 

town of Little Falls. 

The land is of good quality in certain portions, but at 
the southern end of the township there is a small extent of 
swampy ground and some mountains, through one of which 
an extensive gap or notch has been cut by some convulsion 
of nature, affording a passage for the (Jreenwood Lake Rail- 
road. The township is well watered. The Passaic runs 
through the western portion of Little Falls and Peckman's 
River traverses the central part. Both these streams afford 
excellent water power, especially the Passaic. 

By no possibility can any information be given as to the 
first settlement of this part of the county. It seemed to 
have had no iron mines to be explored, its great advantages 
in (lie possession of immense water power on the Passaic 
were overlooked, and it was not until 1711 that any records 
can be found giving any definite knowledge as to the immi- 
gration into this section of Passaic. It is altogether ju'ob- 
able, however, that its contiguity to Acquackanonk must 
have induced some of the popu hit ion of that locality to have 



250 



THE PASSAIC YALLEY 



turned their attention to the advantages of the country so 
near their own residence. In 1711 a purchase was made 
by eight Acquackanonk farmers of two thousand eight 
hundred acres. These eight farmers all bore Holland 
names; they were Francis Post, John Sip, Harmanus Gar- 
retse (now written Garretson), Thomas Jurianee (now 
called Van Eiper), Christopher Stynmets or Steinmetts, 
Cornelius Doremus, Peter Poulesse, and Hessel Pieterse, 
now modernized into Peterson. The land thus purchased 
extended from the " Great Falls " at Paterson, up the Pas- 
saic to Peckman's 
River, and over to 
the summit of Gar- 
ret Mountain, and 
included a large 
part of Little Falls, 
and was afterward 
divided into tracts 
ten chains wide 
passing from river 
to mountain. From 
this time onward 
immigrations were 
frequent, and at first generally of those bearing Dutch 
names and undoubtedly of that race. Those names were 
Board, Van Ness, Brower, Riker, Jacobus, Dey, and 
Messeke, now written Masker, but a very uncommon name 
and not found elsewhere. Most of these names have now 
disappeared and have given place to new comers. In the 
list of officers of the township for the year 1881 only one 
Holland name appears, while in 1868, the first year of the 
independent history of Little Falls as a township, nearly 
one-half of these offices were filled by men of Dutch origin, 




AN OLD HOUSE. 



LITTLE F.AXLS AND ITS INTERESTS 251 

but they gradually disaftpear, their places being taken by 
new settlers. 

Tlie township is bounded on (he noiMli by I'alcrson, on 
the east by Acquackauonk, on the south by Caldwell in 
Essex, from which it is separated by the Passaic, and on 
the west by Wayne. 

Besides the town ol Little Falls there is a small hamlet in 
the toAvnship named Singac, taking its title from the stream 
of that name situated in the extreme northwest of the town- 
ship. This locality was settled by a Hollander called John 
Kiker, but at 'viiat date can not be easily ascertained; prob- 
ably, howevei', in the eai'jy i^art of the eighteenth century. 
He owned most of the land in the immediate vicinity, and 
his descendants are still in this locality, some of them very 
recently living on a part of the land purchased by their an- 
cestor. This is a village of some importance. Singac gate, 
for the collection of toU on the Newark and Tompton Turn- 
pike, was a IniHliiiaik in lliis ])ail (if the country early in 
and until the middle of the nineteenth century. A post- 
ollice is i)laced at Singac. 

Mention has already been made of J^itlle Falls and its 
great advantages for the establishment of factories arising 
from the great water power found there. These advantages 
seemed to have remained unnoticed until 1772, when 
Thomas Gray erected a foundry and a mill on the ground 
afterward occujiied by Beattie"s carpet factory. Mr. Gray 
built a dam across the stream which excited some oppo- 
sition from the Legislature, but not serious enough to pre- 
vent the completion of the dam. The title to this property 
of Gray passed through other owners, one of whom was a 
cl.M'gymau named John Duryea, until it became the prop- 
erty of Kobert Beattie, who in 1S4G established an exten- 
sive carpet and woolen factory. The lirsl building used 



252 THE PASSAIC VALLEY 

for his purposes was of wood, but owing to the increased 
demand for the products of the factory the appliances have 
been largely increased by the erection of brick buildings. 
The enterprise has been very successful, and several hun- 
dred employees have daily crowded within the walls of the 
buildings. In 1850 George Jackson established the Little 
Falls mills for the manufacture of hair and wool felt and 
carpeting. Other factories for the manufacture of manv 




VIEW AT LITTLE FALLS. 



articles in demand all over the country have been estab- 
lished here from time to time until Little Falls has become 
a hive of industry. 

As long ago as when Ti-inity Church of New York re- 
built their church edifice search was made by the architect 
employed to conduct the erection for the proper kind of 
stone, and after considerable search he found it at Little 
Falls. A quarry of brown stone was developed there and 
leased by that wealthy organization for five years. At the 



TOWNSHIP ORGANIZATION 253 

('X])iriiti(>ii <>r tlieso five years it was leased to ^\'illiam LI. 
Harris, of Monfelair, and afterward bought by Kobert Beat- 
tie, i'rofessor George H. Coolc, State p;eolo<iist of \ew 
Jers(!y, speaks tlius of Hie stone quarried at Lit He I'alls at 
page no." of liis annual rcjiort for ISGS: 

Tlie color of tliis stone is from a liglit gi'ay to red. It conies in tliiclc Ix'ds, 
and stones seventeen l)y twelve by four feet are sometimes got out. Most of it 
is very fine grained, and is styled by tlie workmen " liver rock." Tlie quarry 
has furnished stone for several of the finest brown stone structures of New York 
and the adjacent cities. For any architectural purposes it is certainly a very 
sui)crior material. It lias been successfully used for sculjiture. 

Little L"'alLs was organized as a township by act of Hie 
Legislature approved April 2, IStlS. In the act of incor- 
poration its territory is thus described: 

All that part of the township of Acquackanonk, in tlie County of Passaic, lying 
westerly of the line running from the line of the City of Paterson along the 
steep rocks and iiiouiitains southerly to tlie line of the County of Essex, being 
the same line known as part of the westerly line of tlie old Accjuackanonk patent, 
as described in an indenture made liy the Proprietors of East New Jersey to 
Hans Diederick and others, dated March fifteenth sixteen hundred and eighty- 
four, and recorded in the office of tlie Secretary of State of New Jersey in 
Liber A of Deeds page one hundred and sixty-four. 

The earliest school in the locality now known as the 
Township of TJttle Falls was conducted under an apple 
tree, so says tradition. The tree was large, its branches 
outs])reading, and its hollow Trunk, five feet in diameter, 
was used as a cloak and hat room. The ajqiliances after- 
ward used for some time were no very great improvement 
on the first. The apple tree gave way to the ravages of 
time, and then the school met in an old distillery and there 
a room seven by twelve was utilized. In L,s.50 there was 
only one school district in the township. Now there are 
several, and excellent school facilities are provided fm' the 
young. 



254 



THE PASSAIC VALLEY 



In 1825 services after the form of the Methodist Episco- 
pal Church were first hekl in a school house at Little Falls. 
The congregation then gathered was very smoJi. It 
struggled, however, against many disadvantages, and after 
a season, receiving in the mean time, in connection with 
three other parishes, the ministrations of a pastor until 
1860, it was able to secure the services of a regular minister 
of its own. In 1839 an edifice was erected for the purposes 




TWO POUNDS. No. ^/^/ 

D r 4 1L ato of the Colony of 
■" NiuiTork, tl)itf Bui. fl^ftU fe 

recei'ved in. all Payments tn the Trea/uiy^ 

for TWO POUNDS. 
Nzrr-roRK, tt t 

February 16, lyyi, ^:^!^ li.Li. 

■i.m»M?^ii^^i^Ai.^^ ^^^^—^ T>* Dearii to coutindvit. 

COLONIAL CURRENCY. 




of the congregation. On the 17th of October, 1837, a Re- 
formed (Dutch) Church was organized at Little Falls by a 
committee of the Classis of Bergen. The congregation was 
obliged to share with the church at Fairfield, in Essex 
County, in the care of a minister. But in 1844 the Eev. 
Edwin Vedder was installed as pastor and devoted his 
whole time to the pastorate. This organization is now a 
strong and vigorous body. 



MANCHESTER TOWNSHIP 255 

^lanclif'stor Township was once a part of Berjicn, but on 
till' fonnatiou of Passaic on February 7,1837,it was annexed 
to that county. In the act of incorporation Manchester is de- 
scribed in these few words: "Tliat i)art of Saddle J\iver 
lyiiii; eas( of tlic niiildli' of Gaetcliiu's roa<l or laiir." It 
contains 0,998 acres, none of which is u'Khr wati'r; 4,5.j(i 
are cleared, and the balance is still forest land. It is 
bounded north by Bergen County, south by Little Falls, east 
by Little Falls and Paterson, and west by Wayne. 

As it was originally incorporated in the bounds of Saddle 
Eiver it has no independent history jH-ior to the time of its 
annexation to Passaic, when it became a township. It Avas 
settled as early as 1706 by immigrants of Holland descent. 
The names of the first pioneers, who were also the owners 
of the land on which they settled, determine that fact. 
Those names were Ryerson, Westervelt, and "S'an Ilonten. 
From tlie time that Manchester became an independent 
township up to 1881 one or more of these three names ap- 
l)ear nearly every year among tin- township officers, but 
after that date they are seldom found. Other Dutch fam- 
ilies settled in that part of Saddle River now Manchester 
soon after the advent of the persons bearing the three names 
just mentioned. Prominent among these were Van Winkle, 
RrocUholst, Roclofse, Van Saun, Van Allen, .Alerselis, and 
the strange one of Helmeghee, undoubtedly now modern- 
ized into Halmagh. 

The surface of the land is various : in the center and to- 
wards the south it is rolling, with valleys of fertile and 
level land; to the north and northwest some ranges of hills 
are found called Deer Hills. 

Two of the new boroughs of Passaic, Haledon and Pros- 
pect Park, were taken from Manchester. Totowa and 



256 THE PASSAIC VALLEY 

Hawthorn Boroughs, created some years ago, were also 
carved out of this township. 

The first record of schools appears as late as 1822. A 
man named John W. House, who taught this first school 
for four j^ears, was succeeded by his son, then a youth of 
only seventeen, who successfully taught in Passaic and 
Bergen for many years. His term of service in these schools 
was so long that in the last years of his life he not only 
met those who had been his pupils, but had also taught 
their cliJldren and even their grandchildren. The township 
is now divided into several districts. 

The manufacturing interests of Manchester are over- 
shadowed by those of its greater neighbor, but it has many 
'.mportaut and interesting manufactures carried on within 
its territory. A large factory for the manufacture of toys 
was established in 1875 by G. W. Knight. Two Italians 
named Gannetti and Gazzara, in the same year, began the 
business of making silk throwsters on commission. In 1879 
the jute print works were removed from Paterson and car- 
ried to Manchester. Carpets were manufactured from this 
product, which was imported mostly from Dundee, Scotland, 
although the plant from which it was stripped was grown 
in India,^ A wax bleaching factory was removed from 
Westchester in New York to Haledon as early as 1850. 
Other industries have been introduced and successfully con- 
ducted, so that Manchester can be ranked as a manufactur- 
ing center of some importance. 

A survival of an ancient custom in many of the old set- 
tled localities, especially where the first settlers were of 
Dutch origin, is still in existence at Manchester. In the 
times of the early settlements, when cemeteries and even 
graveyards had not come into existence, it was customary 
for some part of the ancestral fai'm to be selected where 



EAKLV r.l'IMAL ri,()TS 



257 



I lie (lead were deposited willi pious care. When sales were 
made of the farms where aiiv (d' these sacred spots existed 
they were excepted from the operation of the deed and spe- 
cial conditions inserted iiermittinji' burials to be made by de- 
scenilants of the original owners in these family burial lots. 
An in(dosure of this kind is to be found on the farm formerly 
owned by John Kyerson a1 .Manchestn-, where there are sev- 
eral lii'aves with headstones, some niarUed only by dates and 
initials, others by (piaint poetical inscriptions. 







.,^.--^m^ 



"T ^ "'ir.'.'.i^ 



M.<:uS^i^i^^ 






^-f'V. >■< 



U'iiA-l'y't^'Ai'H'r^. 



C H A I* T E R X X 



ACQITACKANONK TOWNSIITl' 




< '( >T'A('KANOXK is tlic inosl soiitlicrii towiislii]) in 
Passaic County and tlic one earliest settled. It 
lias been very lariirly diminished by much of its 
(cnitory heinii' tnlcen from time to time and added 
to nihcr (iiwii^liips or 1o create new nninici]>alities. It l)e- 
lonucd to I'jsscx County wlnMi it was first created in 1003, 
and continued to form part of tliat county until 1837, when 
Passaic was created and Ac(|ua(dcanonk annexed to the new 
county. At the time when it was an integral part of Essex 
its territory extended to tlie Passaic an<l cml)raccd all that 
lay southwest of that stream noAV contained in the County 
of Passaic. In 1831 P.-ilerson was dissevered from it; in 
1S.")4 and lsr>.") tli(^ territory now known as the first and sec- 
ond wards of I'atcrson was taken from it: in ISdC. Passaic 
'fow^nship Avas carded almost from its very cent<'r; and auain 
in 18f.8 the wiude of Little Falls was made up of ]>ai't of 
Ac(iua(dvanonk. In ISC!) Paterson was atiain enriilied by 
anotlun' p(U-tion of this ancient municipality. In its slia])e 
it assumes some of llic ]ii'culia.riii('s of the county to which 
it now belonii'.s, having' been cut and carved without mncli 
regard to symmetry of sides or of formation. It is bt)unded 
north by Paterson and iattlc I'alls, east by Paterson and 
Rertien County, and south liy ICssex. It runs southwai'd to 
almost a sharp point between Essex and Berjien. 



260 



THE PASSAIC VALLEY 



It has 7,256 acres, none of wliicli is under water, and 
nearly all of which is cleared. The land is largely a 
sandy plain, Avith some hills of no great elevation in its 
western part and near the Passaic River. Nearly the whole 
of this land is in actual cultivation, being susceptible of a 
very high degree of culture. 

Its singular name is undoubtedly derived from the title 
formerly bestowed upon it by the Indians. Some theories 
have been advanced as to its meaning, but they are 
all so fanciful that nothing would be gained by an ex- 
amination. The name is spelled 
in the ancient records in varioiis 
modes. As the aborigines could 
not write the word the only way 
in Avhich it could be recorded was 
by adopting the phonetic system. 
It is found in these different 
modes : Hockquackanong, Ha- 
quequenimck, Achquackununk, 
Hockquackanimg, A c h q u e g e- 
nouch, Acquequenoung, Aquiko- 
noug, and Aqueyquinunke. 
The first settlement made in 
what is now Passaic County was in this township, probably 
in 1078. In that year an Indian chief sold Dundee Island 
to Hartman Michielsen, who came from Bergentown. 
INIichielsen secured a title to his purchase from the pro- 
prietors in 1686 for the consideration of the yearly payment 
of one " fatt henn." From this time onward immigrations 
of Holland stock gradually came. The nature of the coun- 
try, so like that left by ihem in their native land, invited 
them, and they came and settled on their farms. A large 
extent of countrv in the deed convevino' it was said to con- 




AN INDIAN CHIEFTAIN. 



TlllO ACQTIACKANONK nUiCIIASEUS 



261 



tain 5,520 acres, but rcallj In- the description twice lli;ii 
unniber was bouglit Iroui tlie Indians. That description 
in tlie deed was as follows: " I'roni the Third Hiver np the 
I'assaic to tlie falls, thence lo Garret Rock, thence alonj;- the 
face of the steep rock sont hwesterly to the present connt y 
line, and thence to lln- nmnth of Third River." Tliis was 
called bj the Indians at the time of this conveyance, as 
their pi'ouunciation of the Avord was un<lerstood liy their 
while lirantees, Haquequennunck, and the bounds ;is de- 
scribed in the 
deed corre- 
spond almost 
exactly with 
those of the 
township of 
A c q u a cka- 
uouk as es- 
tablished iu 
1093. 




^k&. 



rm^mm 




A sunuunAX huusk. 



The names 
of these pur- 
chasers were 
Hans Uied- 
ricks, Hart- 
man Michielsen, Johannes Michielsen, Adriun I'ost, Uriah 
Tomasseu, Cornelius Roelofsen, t^ynum Jacobs, John Hend- 
rick Speare, Cornelius Lublicrs, Aluuham Bookey, Garret 
Garretsou, Walling Jacobs, Elias Michielsen, and Cornelius 
Michielsen — fourteen iu all and every one a Dutchman. 
This property along the line of the river was divided by 
mutual agreement into fourteen farms of one hundred acres 
each, and the other jiorlion, as the demand oi new immigra- 
tions and the growth of Hie jiopulation made necessary, was 



262 THE PASSAIC VALLEY 

allotted to various persons, all of Holland stock, until 1714, 
when the last division was made. 

Among- these fourteen purcliasers were representatives 
of some of the very best blood in Holland, and with very few 
exceptions they are represented among the present inhabi- 
tants of Acqnackanonk. Some of the names have been ma- 
terially changed, but those living can trace their genealogies 
back to the original settlers, though the present holders 
bear different surnames from those ancestors. The Van 
Wagenens descended from Garret Garretson, who was 
sometimes called Van ("from") Wageningen, the locality 
in Holland from where he emigrated. His descendants 
gradually became Van Wagenens or Van Wagoner, as the 

name is often writ- 
ten in Passaic. 
The Van Winkles 
come from Walling 
and Symon Jacobs. 
The V r e e 1 a u d s 
trace their geneal- 
ogy back to the Michielsens. The Van Eipers find their 
ancestor in Uriah Tomassen, while the Van Houtens claim 
descent from Eoelofsen. 

In 1680 Sir George Carteret granted a patent to Christo- 
pher Hoagland for two hundred and seventy acres now cov- 
ered by the City of Passaic. The name " Stoffel " is obtained 
from the Dutch, being used by them as the diminutive for 
Christopher. The patent from Sir George Carteret for tliis 
two hundred and seventy acres is sometimes called Hoag- 
land's and is also known as Stoffel's Patent. 

Acqnackanonk was located at the head of tidewater in 
the Passaic River, and sloops and schooners of considerable 
burthen were able to pass up that stream for tlie purposes 




INDIAN CEREMONIAL STONE. 



MERCAN'l' 1 1 . 1 ; I XTEKESTSS 



263 



ol' (■(iiiiiiicn-r. Tlicrc wciT no rnilronds hi ilisi m-l> I lie scene 
iinl il nc;ii- I he iiiiilille III' I li(> nineiceni li cent ur\ . Mei-elianls 
in I lie nofl lieiTi |);ii-l nf New .lersex and even as lar as 
Oranjic ( 'oniil y rnnnil ii conNciiieiit lo li-ans|Hii-i tlieii- yuods 
pnrcliased in New \'i)i-k City by vesseLs sailing fnini liial 
ein|i(>i-iniu to -Vequacdcanonk, and from that poini liansiiort- 
inL', I hem by waii'ons. In Ihis maniiei- a lariic Iraiie sinam^ 
\\\> al the •' Landinii," as the wharf at Ac(|naekannnlv was 
calh'il. In ll:e nieanlinu' many of tlie old l)u1ch desi'cndaiils 
remaineil on theii' farms, toiling on in llieir ipiiet, indns- 
trions manner, 
seeminiiiy sa( 
i S ti e d with 
t li e iirodncts 1 
of their \i\- 
b o r s. 1! n ( 
jii-adnally a 
t o w n \v a s 
gathered on 
the wesl bank 
of tlie river 
aud in th«.' 
neighborhood 

(d'the" l.anlinu."" Tiie shi-iek (d' the car wiiisih' liad not yel 
aroused liiem from tiieir apathy. But at last il came; 
I he iron horse (iasheii throiii;!! I heir sleejiy town, by (lieir 
farms, and jiast tlieir scrn|)uh)usi\ (lean farmliouses, orna- 
mented by their aniicpie, cnnibro\is furniture of tlie fashion 
of a century and more -.Xixo. In lSo2 the I'aterson and Hud- 
son Kailroad wasbuili, and this loiifi' established trade was 
li'one. (ioods could be (arried longer distances and more 
(piickly than by the old fashioned, dilatory sailin_n' vessel. 
The I'assaic was crossed b\- <!eneral Washiuiiton at 




FORT LEE IN 1776. 



264 THE PASSAIC VALLEY 

Acquackanonk when he made his wonderful retreat before 
the victorious veteran army of England after the disastrous 
battles on Long Island and the loss of Forts Lee and Wash- 
ington, and the exact place where he crossed is pointed out 
by patriotic citizens of the town of Passaic, who have made 
a full examination of the subject. In 1778 an officer of the 
Continental Army who passed through Acquackanonk and 
Paramus thus writes about these two localities: 

These towns are chiefly inhabited by Dutch people. Their churches and dwell- 
ing houses are built of rough stone, one story high. There is a peculiar neatness 
in the appearance of their dwellings, having an airy piazza supported by pillars 
in front, and their kitchens connected at the ends in the form of wings. The 
land is remarkably level and the soil fertile, and being generally advantageously 
cultivated the people appear to enjoy ease and happy competency. The furni- 
ture in their houses is of the most ordinary kind, and such as might be supposed 
to accord with the fashion of the days of Queen Anne. They despise the super- 
fluities of life, and are ambitious to appear always neat and clean and never to 
complain of an empty purse. 

Mr. Abraham Van Winkle, of Newark, a lineal deiscendant 
of the Jacobse Van Winkle who came into Acquackanonk 
from Holland, has in his possession the original deed from 
Symon Jacobs Van Winkle, son of Symon Jacobs, one of 
the fourteen grantees already mentioned, to Jacob Van 
Winkle and others. Mr. Van Winkle has very kindly per- 
mitted a copy to be made of this ancient and interesting 
deed for this work, as follows : 

THIS INDENTURE made on the twenty ninth day of July in the seventh 
year of the Reign of Our Sovereign Lord George the second by the Grace of God 
King of Great Rrittain, France and Ireland, Defend''^ of the Faith &c An- 
noque Dom 1728, Between Symon Jacobs van Winckle of Aghquachanunck in 
tlie County of Essex in the Eastern Division of the Province of New Jersey, 
husbandman, of the One Part, and Jacob van Winkel, Simeon van Winkel, 
Marinus van Winkel and Abraham van Winkel of the County and Province 
aforesaid. Husbandmen of the other Part. WHEREAS the Lords Proprietors 
of the Province of East New Jersey (now called the Eastern Division of the 
Province of New Jersey) by Certain Indentures under the Common Seal of the 



ACQUAClvAXO.NK UlCKD 



265 



Siiid PrDvinee aiirl sifjned liy the Di'imty Governor and thu major Part of the 
CoiiiK'ill of the same hearing Date tlie sixteenth day of March in the year of Onr 
Lord One Tliousand six Hnndred and Eiglity Four an<l in the Seven and 
Thirtieth year of tlie Reign of the Late King Charles tlie second for and in the 
Consideraion tlierein mentioned and Exprest did grant, bargain and sell iiuto 
Hans Diderik, (Jarrit (Jarritsen, Waling Jacobs, Klias Miehielsen, Ilartnian 
Michielsen, .(oannis Miehielsen, Cornells Mieliielsen, Adrian Post, Jurian 
Thomas, Cornells Roelofsen, Symon Jacobse (being the abovenamed Symon 
Jacobse van Winkel), Jan Hendricks Spier, Cornelis Liibbertse and Abraham 
Booke their heires and assignes forever A Certain Tract of Land Situate lying 
and being upon IVsaick River in tlie County of Essex and Called and known by 
the name of AglKiuachaiiunck. Hegiiiuing at the Xortliernmost bounds of the 
Town of Newark and so running from the Lowermost part to the uppermost 
part thi'reof as farr as the Steep Rocks or 
niouiitaiiis And from the said Lowermost 
Part along Pesaick River to the great falls 
thereof and so along the Steep Rocks and 
mountaius to the uppermost part of Newark , 
bounds aforesaid As it is more Particularly ' 
or Plainly demonstrated by a Chart or Draft 
thereof made by the Late Surveyor Geiierall 
Together with all the Rivers Ponds Creeks 
Isles Islands (Hartmans Island which Particu- 
larly belongs to Hartman Miehielsen and a 
Neck of Land within the bounds aforesaid 
Conteining Two Hundred Seventy Eight i 
acres Called and known by the name of 
Stotfells Point formerly Patented to One 

Christopher Hoogland and Siiise sold to the within named Hartman Miehielsen 
and Company always Excepted) and allso all Inletts Rays Swamps Marshes 
Pastures fields fences woods underwoods fishing Hawking fowling hunting and 
all other appurtenances whatsoever thereunto belonging and appurteining (half 
Part of tlie Gold and Silver Mines and the Royalty of tlie Lords Projirietors 
allso Excepted). To Have and to Hold the said Tract of Land and jiremissea 
and every part and pareell of the same to them the said Hans Diderik, Garrit 
(iarritsen, Waling Jacobs, Elias Michielsen, Hartman Miehielsen, Johannes 
Michielsen, Cornelis Miehielsen, Adrian Post, Jurian Thomas, Cornelis Roelof- 
sen, Symon Jacobse (the before named Symon Jacobse van Winkel), .Ian Heii- 
drikse Spier, Cornelis Lubbertse and Abraham Booke their heires aud assignes 
forever and to the use of them their heires and assignes forever as in and by the 
said Deed Recorded in the Records of the said Province in the year One Thou- 
sand Six Hundred and Eighty Four Lib A. T. Relaion thereunto being 




OF THE WEST INDIA 
COMPANY. 



266 



THE PASSAIC VALLEY 



had may more fully and at Large appear. And Whereas the abovenamed Hans 
Diderik, Garrit Garritse, Waling- Jacobs, Elias Michielsen, Hartman Micliiel- 
sen, Joaunis Michielsen, Cornelis Michielsen, Adrian Post, Jurian Thomase, 
Cornells Roelofse, Jan Hendriksse Spier, Cornelis Lubbertse and Abraham 
Booke Thirteen of the grantees in the said Deed named are long sinse deceased 
whereby all the Right and Title to the said Lands in tlie said Deed mentioned 
are become the Right and Title of him the said Symon Jacobse van Winkel by 
the name of Symon Jacobse aforesaid. Now this Indenture Witnesseth That he 
the said Symon Jacobse van Winkel for and in Consideraion of the naturallLove 
and affection which he hath and beareth 

unto his Sonns the abovenamed Jacob i, , , 11 j| 

van Winkel, Simeon van Winkel, Marinus » llll! 1 1 I ( 

van Winkel and Abraham van Winkel ~=^ - 

Hath given granted Released Enfeoffed 
and Confirmed and by these presents doth 
fully and assolutely give grant Release 
Enfeoff and Confirm unto the said Jacob 
van Winkel, Simeon van Winkel, Marinus 
van Winkel and Abraham van Winkel 
their heires and assignes for Ever All that 
the beforementioned Tract and Pareell of 
Land and Premisses with the hereditaments and 
appurtenances Scituate lying and being and but- 
ted and bounded as in the before in part Pi nit 
ed Deed is Exprest (always Excepting out of 
this present Deed the Island Called Hartmans 
Island thereby granted to Hartman Michielse And the Neck 
of Land Contcining Two hundred Seventy Eight Acres Called 
and known by the name of Stosstells Point formerly Patented 
to Christopher Hoogland and siuse sold to Hartman Michielse 
and Company as allso all the Royalties in and by the said 
Reserved to the Lords Proprietors of the said Province and 
allso Excepted out of this present grant all other the Lands 
and premisses which as Part and Pareell of the abovemenioned Tract of Land 
were at any Time or Times heretofore granted Conveyed or Released by the 
said Simon Jacobse van Winkle by himself sold under his hand and Seal or 
Joyntly with the other or any of the grantees in the said Deed from the said 
Lords Proprietors named under his and their hands and Seales to all or any of 
the said grantees their Respective heires and assignes or any of them or to any 
other Person or Persons whatsoever anything herein conteined to the Contrary 
hereof in any wayes notwithstanding) and all the Estate Right Title Interest 
Possession Property claim and demand of him tlie said Simon Jacobse van 




A BELT OF 

WAMPUM. 



ACQIACKANONK DKKD 



267 



Winkel of in or to the same or any l)art and Parcell thereof And the Reversion 
and Reversions Remainder and Remainders Rents Issues and Profitts tliereof 
and of every Part and Pareell thereof To Have and to Hold the above- 
mentioned and liereby granted or meant mentioned or Intended to be hereby 
granted Lands and Premisses with the hereditaments and appurtenances unto 
them the said Jacob van Winkel Simeon van Winkel Marinns van Winkel and 
Abraham van Winkel their heires and assignes forever (always Excepted as be- 
fore Excepted) unto the sole and only j>roper use benefit and behoof of them tlie 
said Jacob van Winkel Simeon van Winkel Marinus van Winkel and Abraham 
van Winkel their heires and assignes for ever and to no other use and Pur- 
pose whatsoever the Interest due and yearly to become due to the Lords Pro- 
prietors of the said Province their heires and assignes aeording to the First in Part 
PrentedDeed alwayes Excepted and Reserved. In witness whereof the Parties 
to these present Indentures have Interchangeably set their hands and seales the 

Day and year First abovewritten. 

Symon Jacobs van Winkkl. 

On the bat'k 
tif tliis (lofinnont 
arc tlie follow- 
iug' otlicial en- 
(loi'semeuts : 

Be it Remembered 
that on ye 21 st day of 
September Anno Doni., 
1732, there personally 
appeared before me 
John Coo])er, one of 
his Majesties Judges of 
the Inferiour Court of 
Common pleas for the County of Essex in New Jersey, the within Named Jacob 
Vanwinkle, and acknowledged the Within Written Instrument to be his free and 
Voluntary Act and Deed. 

Jno Cooper. 
Data 29 July, 1728. 

Received in the Office June 22"'l, 1802, and recorded in Book (t. . . . of 
Deeds for Essex County pages 16 and 17 and 18. 

J. Pakkiiurst, Clk. 
Recording paid. 

The (Iced rniiii wiiicli lliis copy is talccii is a genuine iIdcii- 
niciit, and il coiiliriiis llic liislnry already iiiv<'ii (d' A((|ua( !•;- 







HOUSE IN AMSTERDAM, HOLLAND. 



268 



THE PASSAIC VALLEY 



anonk. The land described and intended to be conveyed 
by it relates beyond a question to that contained within 
the bounds of Acquackanonk when forming part of Essex 
County. The method used in it of identifying the grantor, 
formerly Symon Jacobse, but Avho when the deed Avas exe- 
cuted was known as and called Van Winkle, gives informa- 
tion of the manner in wliich the Holland immigrants were 
the ancestors of descendants who were known by other 
names than those once held by the original settlers from 
whom they claim descent. The syllable se simijly means 
son, and its addition to Jacob or Garrit or Michiel meant 
the son of Jacob, Gari'it, or Michiel. 




^^^ 



CHAPTER XXI 



PASSATC COUNTY — CONCLUDED 




\\K tii-sl Dutch settlers at Acquackanonk were firm 
believers in the Christian reli^iou, as its doctrines 
were taught by the IkCfoniicd Church of IlollaiHl. 
The first church organization of any character in 
Passaic County was of that denomination, and was estab- 
lished at that locality as early, certainly, as KiSO. The Hol- 
landers in Acquackanonk undoubtedly followed the ex- 
ample of their co-religionists elsewhere, and their first ef- 
fort after their settlement was to make ju'ovision for the 
religious interests of tlieir community. This date of 1(>S(; 
is stated in this connection because in the records of the old 
Ileformed Church at Hackensack, in Bergen County, an 
entry appears in the Dutch language, "Anno KiSt)," to th<' 
effect that Dominie Petrus Tassemaker had foun<l tJicrc 
at Hackensack, or " Ackensack " as the name is written, 
certain members of the church whose names are given in 
the minutes. 

In 1(579-80 some Labardist missionaries visited Ac- 
quackanonk and the Great Falls. They met Tassemaker 
at New York in September, IGTO, and then ha<l a conversa- 
tion with him relative to his antecedents and present pros- 
pects. In the same year (1079) he preached at Bergen. He 
labored among his people, the Dutch, at various points until 
1682, Avhen he accepted a call at Schenectady in New York, 
and whih' there visited Hackensack and in-eached there 



270 



THE PASSAIC VALLEY 



and at Acqnackauouk. In the bloody attack by the In- 
dians on the whites at Bclienectadj^ he and his wife and two 
colored servants fell victims to the rage of the savages. 

It is doubtful whether a church edifice was erected at 
Acquackanonk as early as 1686. It is not altogether prob- 
able that these enthusiastic supporters of their national 




MANHATTAN ISLAND IN THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY. 



church — and all Dutchmen in the early history of this 
county were — would have lived in their new home for eight 
years without some recognition of the claims of their com- 
munity to the comfort and solace of religious worship in a 
sanctuary dedicated to Almighty God. But after all that 
can be said, and all conjecture exhausted, it must be ad- 



UHLICIorS INTERESTS 271 

iiiitlcd tlmt thovc is no cxiict (Into of tiic first orii'nnization 
(if ii (Inii.li til- I'lrciinii (if a L-liurcli building whicii is relia- 
hlc. NO rccinds arc in existence prior to 172(!. There is, 
iin\\-c\i'r, (ii- was a I'rw years ajjo, a \(>liiiiie el' iiieiiKiiaTida 
y'oiiiL;- l)a-,k lo as eaily a ilat(> as June, HV.VA, in wiiicli was 
Ivept a leenrd of the \\cel<l\ collections in the Sunday serv- 
ice; and in a lease made liy \\'allin<i- Jacobse to his son-in- 
law, Hermanns Caiiil^e, daied April 10, 1(>98, a reference 
is made in llie desrriplinn of Ihe leased land Id the " |iub- 
lick Clinrch ^'al•d.■" It is supposed that the expression 
*' chun h yai-d " must refei' to a jiraveyard, but as the expres- 
sion " chun h "' is used the inference is jilain tliat there must 
I lien have l)eeu some sort of a (diunh buildinii. However 
llial may be. there was nn rciiulai-ly ordained miiuster of 
either the cliur( h at Acquackauouk or at Ilackensack, for 
in l(i!K'> (inillaiime T>ertholf was sent to TTolland to receive 
ordimUion. Tliei-e could be no valid cerenn)ny of that char- 
acter outside of the ecclesiastical authority in the li'ather- 
land. Itcrlliuir returned in 1()04, and then became the pas- 
tor of both clinrclies. This (dnir(di ori^anizat ion is still in 
force, a strons; and vi.norous society, and durini;' its history 
lias received the ministrations of some of the most talented 
and fjddly clerjiymen of the denomination. 

Tn 1S22 dissensions arose in the llefernu'd Church of 
America on the docirims id' Ihe atonement and natural 
ability. The moditied <'al\inism on the i^reat doctrine of 
election and kimlred dogmas whi(di Ix'can to be ju'eached in 
lU'arl.v all Protestant den.ominations alxiut that time, ex- 
cept the Methodist EpiscO])al, did not meet the views of 
the consei'vative members of tlie Keformed ("liiirch, and 
those wiu) lield to the strictest r'alviinsm of iheir fathers in 
many cases separated friun existiuL; churches and foiniiMl 



272 



THE PASSAIC VALLEY 



other orgauizations. In 1825 the True Keformed Church 
of Acquackanonk was constituted and is still existing. 

A Methodist Church was established at Acquackanonk 
in 1840. Other denominations since the creation of the 
City of Passaic have established churches under the care 
of their different ecclesiastical organizations, and other 




AN ANCIENT BIBLE. 



societies of the Eeformed Church have also been formed. 
As Passaic is really a part of Acquackanonk these churches 
may be mentioned in this connection. They are the Bap- 
tist, Episcopalian, Presbyterian, Roman Catholic, German 
Presbyterian, First Holland, Washington Place Holland, 
and First Reformed Churches of Passaic. All of these have 
church edifices and are well supported. 



KJ)UCATIU.\ AND TIIADE 273 

The educjitioii of tlieii- cliilcli-cii w;is not iipfjlected by the 
early Dutch setlhM-s at A((|U;i(kan()iik. A sclinol seems Id 
have been established tliere very early in I lie history of the 
town, (iuilhniine Bertholf, who was sciil lo Ilollaiid to 
be ordained as a minister, was a sehool tcaclicr :it Ac- 
i|iia(kanoidc. The school system of that locality was not 
very ajui^ressive until I'assaic came into existence. TIk- 
Dutch appreciated good instruction, but they were not pro- 
gressive in their ideas on that subject and did not keep up 
with the progress of the times. Tliev desired the substan- 
tial results, however, of what they considered necessary 
educational facilities and gave particular attention to their 
schools, established a fund for their support, and set apart 
land for the sites of the scho(d liotises. There was a disposi- 
lion to connect school and churcli. The school house and 
ilini-cli were erected side by side, and it was often the case 
that the good dominie was obliged lo teach as well as 

pl-eacli. 

Th(^se ini]iassive peojile of Ac(|naclcanonk, when they saAV 
the river trade, the source of so much i)r(dit, slip])iiig from 
their ufas]), overlooked a natural aii]iliance for gri'ater re- 
Miunei-alion than the ri\'ei trade tor any laiioi' they nugiit 
Iti'sldW upon it, and whicli was lying before their ver\' eyes 
ready at hainl to be utili/.ed. l''or two hundred years the 
pi'opie had lived oi) their farms on the banks of the I'assaic, 
and had not discovered the ininiense water power there 
gatheri'd in the rapids oi the ri\er tlowing bei'oi-e iheni. 
An occasional saw or gristmill had been iiuilt by some one 
inoi'e enterprising than any of his neighbors, but it was not 
until ISiiS tliat Die idea seems to have been entertained that 
the i-i\('r might be dammed and then utilized for manufac- 
turing. In that yeai- two iniiabitanls of Acquackanonk, de- 
scendants of the original settlers, .bdin S. \'an ^A■iId<le and 




LIBERTY ENLIGHTENING THE WORH>. 



UEVIOLOPiMKNT OF WATIOK POWER 275 

Brant Vnn Blarcom, obtained a jjrant by act of flic Lefjis- 
laturc (if Ihc liiilii lo ilani I lie river above lidewater. Tlie 
(lani was lo be erected eight feet liij>li at the site of an old 
dam, or between that point and the island above. The 
rights of owners of other land than Ihat lu'longiug to Van 
Winkle and \'iin IJhirconi were guarded by the act, and the 
State was protected in any endeavor which it might make 
to open navigation to Paterson. 

Little effort was made, however, by the beneficiaries nn- 
der the act to secure the great advantages afforded tlieni. 
An inefficient dam was constrncte<l, bnt tlie ]iroject lan- 
guished and finally was abandoned, and other i)arties sev- 
eral years afterward secured another act from the Legis- 
lature which resulted in the establishment of the Dundee 
J[anufacturing Company. This was in 1832. This last 
named enterprise seemed still to languish. Additional and 
sui)]ilementary acts were passed from time to time granting 
fuller powers to the company until 1870, when the name 
was changed to the Dundee Water Power and Land Com- 
pany. I'^roni this time success f(dlowed and the cor])oialion 
seemed founded upon a sure basis. Its works consist of a 
substantial dam across the river, with a canal used to con- 
vey Avater to the various mills on the banks by an ingenious 
system of locks. This canal is a mile and a half in length. 
Tlie dam is tour liuudred aud tifty feet in length, forty- 
five feet wide at the bottom, and six feet at the top. The 
expansion of water above the dam is called Dundee Lake, 
and by a system of most admirable engineering a head of 
water of twenty-five and a half feet is obtained for the 
mills. 

This is the foundation for the wonderful success and en- 
during growth of Passaic Citj'. It has taken only a quarter 
of a century to change this quiet, sleepy locality into an 



276 



THE PASSAIC VALLEY 



active, stirring, bustling city of several thousand inhabi- 
tants, where enterprise and energy have been masterful, 
where manufactures of many varieties are successfully con- 
ducted, and where intelligent workmen and their families 
find happy and comfortable homes. The population of 
Passaic, according to the census of 1900, is over 27,000. 
Patersou in its inception and rise has already been 




THE VAN WAGONER HOMESTEAD AT PASSAIC. 
(Erected in 1778.) 

noticed, but it deserves some further mention, certainly as 
to its appliances for the religious and educational inter- 
ests of its inhabitants. It has fifty established churches: 
Ten Presbyterian — seven English, one German, and one col- 
ored; four Baptist, one of which is colored; nine Metlio- 
dist — two African Methodist, one Zion Methodist Episco- 
pal, and one non-Episcopal; five Episcopalian; two Lu- 
theran — one German and one Swedish; one Swedenborgian; 



CITY OK I'ATKKSON 



277 



oiHMlliristiaii ScicTici'; six llcfoniu'd ; nine IJoiikmi Ciitholic 
— six lOiiglisli, (Hie (icniijiii, one I'rciicli, iiiul one ll:ili:iii; 
;in(l llir<'(» syiinun^iics — I wo Enjjiisli or (Tcriiinii niid one 
ll;i]i;iii. 'i'licic ;n-c I wciitv-tlii'c'c (■(iihiniMJiiiMs iMiildiiiiiS in 
the cily il('\<itc(l lo (lie pin'pose of ('(liu-alioii in wliicii tiic 
(•jiildrcii (if the town are gatliorcd. There ai'c ten iicws- 
])apers — Iliice issued iu the afternoon for Eni;lisli icmh'rs, 
two in Ihi' Miornin^ (one JMiLtlisli ami oiw (icniiaiU, lliree 
weelclies (one ( Icrmaii. one Holland, and one Ilalianl, and 
one Enji'lish Suiidav pajxr. 

TJie news- 
paper issues 
will iii\'e some 
idea of the 
l)roportion of 
the native 
born and for- 
eign i)(ipnhi- 
tion. It is es- 
l i ni a t e d by 
H o o d jndyt's 

that these are very nearly e(|ualiy (li\i<l('d, with i he ]ire- 
pouderauee iu favor of the uative born. The foreigners are 
divided among Irisli, (ionnan, Freneli, II(dlond. Italian, 
Swedisli, linssian, I'olisli, and English nationalities. For 
the most part these people are intelligent, peaceable, and 
law aliiding. There is, however, a sprinkling of agitators, 
social reformers, and a few auandiists, who are all of for- 
eign birth. The Dutch blood descending from the first set- 
tlers is largely representinl in the city, and they are to be 
found among the very best memliei-s of society. The names 
of many of the business men and otiicers of i he coviuiy found 
in the civil list whi(di were boiue bv the Dutch .settlers of 




A COLONIAL PISTOL. 



278 THE PASSAIC VALLEY 

the county full}' attest this, such as Quackenbush, Hopper, 
Garrison, Van Winkle, Van Blarcom, Post, Van lliper, Van 
Houten, and many others which might be mentioned. 
There are three hospitals: one for orphans under Protes- 
tant management with one hundred and twenty-six beds; 
Saint Joseph's, under the care of the Sisters of Charity; and 
the Isolation Hospital for Contagious Diseases. There are 
four asylums: the Paterson Orphan's, under Protestant 
management; Saint Joseph's, under the Roman Catholics; 
the Fisher Home, a private institution for homeless waifs; 
and the Florence Crittenton Home for fallen women. 
There is also a Women's Christian Home for the immediate 
aid of needy women, a children's day nursery, and a mission 
for fallen women. 

There are several villages in Passaic County, most of 
which are the result of the great facilities afforded by the 
several railroads crossing the county, and which are se- 
lected in many instances tor residences as well as for manu- 
facturing purposes. Five of these have been incorporated 
into boroughs, as already mentioned. Clifton is a small 
village on the line of the railroad between Passaic and Pat- 
erson. It has some important mills and several elegant 
residences. Athenia is on the line of the Paterson and New- 
ark Kailroad near Clifton. It is a locality of some im- 
portant manufactures and has several handsome dwellings. 
Richfiekl is the center of a large agricultural district. These 
three — Clifton, Athenia, and Richfield — lie in Acquack- 
anonk Township. Haledon is a suburb of Paterson, of large 
interests, mostly in silk manufacture. North Paterson, or 
Hawthorne, is a residential suburb of Paterson. Delawan- 
na is a small station on the Delaware, Lackawanna and 
Western Railroad. 



CnAPTER XXII 



BERGEN COUNTY 




J-:n(iEN COUNTY was the first settled by Euro- 
peans in Xew Jei'sey. Very soon after the lodj:,- 
ment made by the Dutch at Manhattan, or New- 
York, and as early as liilS, some Hollanders with 
a few Danes and Norwegians crossed the Hudson and set- 
tled in the lowlands on the Hackensack and its tributaries. 
The Dutcli element remained and became dominant in all 
this iiart of Northern NeAv Jersey. Those of other nation- 
alities who came with them were absorbed or returned; not 
a trace of them can be recognized at the present. 

A small i^art only of this county can, with propriety, be 
claimed as belonging to the Valley of the Passaic. Its rela- 
tive position to the two rivers, the Hudson and the Passaic, 
necessarily divides it into two valleys, that of the Hudson 
and that of the Passaic, the Hudson being much the larger 
and important of the t^^'o. A range of hills occu])ies the 
northern part of the county, and the picturesque Palisades, 
wliicli ad<l so much beauty and grandeur to the scene, 
tower up on the eastern boundary from the west bank of 
the Hudson. Thousands of acres of low, level, marshy 
ground called the Salt Meadows extend northward fi-om 
Newark Bay through almost tlie whole length of the center 
of tlie county, and were once undoubtedly the bed of an in- 
let from the ocean. 



280 



THE PASSAIC VALLEY 



The county is well watered with the Hudson on its east- 

e r n bounds 




the Pas- 
, Pequan- 



and 
saic 

nock, an d 
Pompton on 
its west. The 
II ac ken sack 
flows from 
its northern 
b u n d a r y 
south through 
the county, 
emptying into 
Newark Bay. 
Saddle Eiver 
is an impor- 
tant stream 
in its north- 
western part, 
draining sev- 
eral square 
miles and 
flowing into 
the Passaic. 

Bergen 
C o u n t y has 
several town- 
ships, of 
which the fol- 
lowing only 
have any con- 
nection with the Passaic Valley: Hohokus, Franklin, Ridge- 
wood, Saddle River, Union, and Lodi. 



MAP OF BERGEN COUNTY IN 1693. 



UUCAXIZA'I'ION (»K 1:KR(;KN COtlNTY 



281 



Tlic tcrrilorv of I!('ri;ri! wns (hkc imicli larger lli;iii it is 
at ]>i'('StMit. It \\;is one ol I'diir ciiniitics (H-i;aiiiy,(Ml in 1()S2 
by I III' Loii'islal ui-c of I In- wliulc l*i-((\iri(r w liicli met at 
l''-li/,alK'l lilnw 11 ill Mnicii ol (hat yvav. 'J'lic (ithci' tlii'ce 
i-diiiitii's wt'i'e Essex, xMiddlcsfx, and iMoiiiinMiiJi. The terri- 
lor.v (tf Beijien, as tlicu described by the acl id' iucorpora- 
lioii, was iiicdiided wiliiiii these bounds: "All llie settle- 
men Is bel w ecu 1 1 iidson's i;i\('i- anil 1 lackeiisacl^ Ifiscr bei;iii- 
iiini; at Con- _ ,. 

slal)le"s Hook 
and so to ex- 
tend to the 
11 p p e r lu ost 
bounds of the 
p 1" o V i u c e." 
C o 11 s t able's 
Hook is now 
t h e extreme 
southern end 
,0 f Hudson 
County. Con- 
stable is an 
English tra- 
vesty of the 
Dutch word 

" Konstapel,"" used to designate the locality, which means 
gunner or hunter, so tliat the translation really should have 
been gunner or hunter. Additions were afterward made 
to this territory so that the county embraced all the land 
between the Hackensack and the Passaic and the township 
of Manchestei', which was taken Iroiii Bergen and added 
to Passaic in 18;>7. The couniy h.is also been reduced by 
the creation of Hudson, all of which was taken from Bergen. 







SCF.NK ON TIIK HUDSON. 



282 



THE PASSAIC VALLEY 



Prior to the exodus of tlie first settlers from Manhattan 
into New Jersey a trading post protected by a stoeliade 
had been established near Jersey City, at what was called 
Bergen. This was simply for the purpose of trade with the 
aborigines by the way of bartering such commodities as 
had been ascertained were prized by these simple hearted 
men for peltry and furs. The stockade was not far from the 
settlement on the island of Manhattan. These merchants 

found it more con- 
venient, or perhaps 
more prudent, to 
meet their custom- 
ers at this place 
and in this manner 
than to invite them 
to visit the village 
occujiied by the 
Dutch on the is- 
land. The stockade 
was a rude fortifica- 
tion, not intended 
for residential pur- 
poses. The build- 
ings, whatever they were, were built closely together, their 
roofs touching each other. 

When this event took place it is impossible to ascertain. 
In process of time, however, a change came and the stock- 
a.de assumed the appearance of dwellings. The traders car- 
ried their families there, and a town sprang up and in- 
creased so greatly that in 1661 it was deemed necessary to 
provide it with a municipal government, and on the 4th of 
August of that year a request was forwarded to the au- 
thorities at New Amsterdam for the appointment of aschout 




EARLIEST MAP OF NEW YORK CITY. 



TRURITORIAL CHANGES 



283 



for the town. The oltice represented by this name is eqniva- 
leut to that of the sherilT of the shires in Scothind. It com- 
bined the duties somewhat of an ordinary sheritf of modern 
times as well as those of judge and prosecuting attorney. 
The appointment was made, and the commission to Tillman 
Van Vleck as schout was signed by the redoubtable Petrus 
Stuyvesant as director-general. 

The first provincial Legislature met at Elizabethtown on 
the 26th of May, 1668. Two out of its ten members were Gas- 
l)er Steenmetts and Raltazar Bayard, representing Bergen. 
But this town 

0-> .^ -•>^"C>-^r?^5^£L. 




s;5eK5 



Bergen, impor- 
tant as it was in 
those early days, 
is no longer a 
distinctive lo- 
cality; its name 
even is gone ex- 
cept as it lingers 
in that of the 
county which 
does not now 
contain a foot of 

the ground once included ^\•itllin the bounds of the village 
formerly known as liergen, or in Bergen l^)inl, or in Bergen 
Pour Corners, now fast disappearing as the names of well 
known localities. 

Bergen has a IJevolutionary history most creditable to its 
citizens of those times. When demand was made by Con- 
gross for men to fill the ranks of the patriot army the de- 
scendants of the libertj'-loving Dutch, who had witnessed 
to their hatred of oppression on many a battlefield with their 
old enemy, Spain, promptly responded and sent some of 






itured bj 
Spuytei 
ey shore 
H, lowei 
s bridge 
nt of the 
or barri- 
Hessian 








STco g . -a 2 *" N 




lad been c 

Nos. 1, 2, 

e New Je 

idt house 

M, Quee 

encampii 

cut down 

English; 






" ■£ ui --m „ -t? 














1*1 ^11 II 








to^-S ?°":s -;.--s . 


-K 




ai 


Wa 
expl 
)t; B 
ses; 
lent, 
liuts 
regi 
orty- 

in 1 


-1 


Fort 

key 

edoul 

relioi 

aiiipi 

; R, 

body 
by F 
eeted 


a 


o 


.g _2 » 0. -§ ^ -S ^^ 





•= ^Z^'-f%Z.'^ 


'^1 




<! 

a 


of the vie 
n. The fo 
ox Hill ai 
e of boats 
h's chasse 
Vmerieaii i 
eampment 
rry; Y, hu 

Clinton, n 



S<CKd2g ..OS'S - 

" >! o - .- 2J S |V - 

:S 0-5 .. =;= s-l,-° 

3 " " > r^ '<D ^ 

-^ T- r^ "^ ^-^r^ O M 

'^ ii •* J ^ !<:='"-§ 

H X 'S -^ JS •- "- V" 2 



OJ 






^ "w rr-i 



U Eh 



r.HliClON IN TIJK KlOVOLU'l'ION 285 

llicir inosi |n-<)iiiiii('iil cilizcns lo uniccr llic troops raised iu 
llii' cniiiily. As cirly ;is 1771, ;il a iiicci iiii;- of the inliabi- 
tailis and ri-cclinlilr'-s of llic comily lirld ai I lacla'iisack. 
rcsolulions lull uT iiiiinislakahlc palriniic lidclity In llic 
caiisi' of llic ndniiics were passed. Tiicsc I'csoluliniis were 
sillied by ilirco liuudrcd aud twciity-ciiLilil cili/ciis present, 
aud a committee of safety Avas formed. Joliu Demarest, 
Peter Zabrislvie, Cornelius Van Vorst, and John Zabriskie, 
Jr., wci-c ai>pointed a committee of correspondence. These 
are all Holland names and are still represented in the coun- 
ty by some of its very best citizens. 

Tlie county in a measure Avas outside of the actual scenes 
of the Avar. But in 1770, after the British evacuated Bos- 
ton, diivcu (o tliat step by the consummate stratetiy of 
Washinjiton, fears Avere entertained that they would move 
on Nev.' York, and that possibly the inhabitants of Bergen 
mii;lit be visited by llic ei\emy. Fort Lee on the west bank 
(d' the Hudson and in Beriicn, and I'ort Wasbin2,ton on 
the o|i]M(site side of the river, had been erected to prevent 
the iiassage of tlie En-ilish n]^ the Hudson. The disastrous 
battles on Lonji' Island were fouuhl and lost. I'ort AVasli- 
ington Avas captured and I'ort Lee was cvacuatiMl, and late 
ill November (d' that yeai- \Vashiniiion took uji his nia^teidy 
ret Tea I from New York throu<;h New .lerse.\'. Tlie lii'st 
line of this retreat Avas through BerpMi. Prior to this 
Washington Avas in dilTerent parts of the county walcliini;' 
I lie enemy. Taiilus jiuok, as Jersey City was then called, 
was still in the possession of llie |ialriol army, bill lale in 
Se])t(uubei-. 17711, il was seized by ilie enemy. I'di't Lee 
was evacuated Xoveniber 20, 177(1, and I hen \\ashin<;ton 
bci^an collect iTiii his army with the view ol iiiakinii' Ids way 
to Pennsylvania. Mis lirsl sloji was made at Ihu keusacdc 
\\'illi aliout tliii-e thousand men. He was followed the next 



286 THE PASSAIC VAXiLEY 

day by some Hessians, many of whom were very soon after 
taken prisoners at Trenton. 

Several raids were made by the British upon parts of 
Bergen, one in 1777 in the neighborhood of Hackensack, 
when Aaron, Burr first signally displayed his military abil- 
ity. A party of the enemy had come up and encamped 
about three miles from Hackensack with the intention of 
despoiling the inhabitants. Colonel Burr was informed of 
this. He was then stationed with his regiment near Suf- 
fern's, about thirty miles away. Making a forced march 
with a few of his soldiers, he reached a point about a mile 
from the enemy. His men had marched all day and were 
very much fatigued and sleepy. He ordered them to lie 
down and sleep. He then made his way toward the British 
camp so quietly that he was enabled to get so near that he 
could hear the pickets give the watchword. Eemaining 
long enough to make cautious examination, he returned to 
his exhausted men, whom he found still asleep. Explain- 
ing the circumstances, he ordered an advance to be made in 
the quietest manner possible, that no man should speak 
nor fire a gun until orders were given. 

The enemy were completely surprised and their plan of 
devastating the country frustrated. Thirty prisoners were 
taken and the rest driven off. 

Other raids were made from time to time and consider- 
able damage done to the inhabitants. In September, 1777, 
one was made by General Clinton himself. Detachments 
of his army were ordered to concentrate at New Bridge 
above Hackensack. One of these detachments entered New 
Jersey at Elizabethtown, one came by the way of Schuyler's 
Ferry, one from Fort Lee, and another by Tappan. The 
force when assembled was a formidable one, and swept 



BERGEN IN ■rilE KE VOLUTION 



287 



r^^ 



the country over wliicli it passed. They collected four 
hniidred caUle, three Iniiidi-cd sheep, and a few horses. 
Washiniitou and Lafayette visited the county at diitereut 
points dnrin.u- the war. General Enoch W. Poor, a brave 
soldier from New l[aMii)shirc, died ai i'arannis on the Sth 
of S.'])tcniber, 17.^(1, and was Imricd witii military honors 
in the i>Taveyard of the First Kctonncd Chunh at Ihudvcn- 
sack. Washinfjton and La- 
fayette ami several snperior 
oflBcers of the army attended 
his funeral. A nmnument 
was placi'd over his sjrave 
and is still standing' in good 
preservation. When Lafay- 
ette came to this country 
in 1824 he visited his -ii-ive 
and ex(daiined, with consid- 
erable emi)liasis, that (Jcn- 
eral I'noi' was one of liis otti- 
cers. Tlie unfortunate ^la- 
jor Andre was executed at 
Tap])an, only a few hundred 
yards beyond the Bergen 
County line. 

The war taxes levied in 
this county were £424.222, 
17s. (id., an aggregate of over 

S2,000,(IOO — an eiioi iiinus aiununt when it is ((insidcrrd tliat 
the great majority of the ])eopl(' were agricultural. But 
they were borne by the jieople without a murmur ami every 
demand for troops made by Congress was ctn-dially met. 
^^ome of the very best otticers in the army were of Holland 
stork and from Bergen County. 





288 THE PASSAIC VALLEY 

Holiokus is the largest township in Bergen County. It 
contains 19,376 acres, of which a little more than one-half 
is still covered by forest. It lies in the extreme northwest- 
ern part of the county and is bounded on the north by New 
York, on the east by Washington, on the south by Frank- 
lin and Eidgewood, and on the west by Passaic. It is well 
watered, three imi^ortant streams in its different parts 
draining the whole township and affording considerable 
water power. Saddle Elver is found in the eastern border, 
the Eamapo in the west, and Hohokus Brook, from which 
the township is named, in the south. The Erie Eailroad 
traverses Hohokus in the eastern portion from north to 
south, adding greatly to the facilities for travel. 

The original settlers were all of Holland origin, and near- 
ly all of them are represented to-day by their descendants, 
some of whom are still living on the farms once occupied 
by their ancestors. Among the names of these early set- 
tlers represented to-day by actual residents are Hopper, 
Voorhis, Bogert, Zabriskie, De Baun, Wanamaker, Van 
(lelder, Ackerman, Garrison, Goetchius, Vanderbeck, and 
<2uakenbush. The township was organized by an act of 
the Legislature approved February 5, 1849, and an examina- 
tion of the list of officers of the municipality from the time 
of its creation reveals the fact that the scions of the old 
stock first forming their homes in this part of New Jersey 
are still dominant. 

Among the most prominent citizens of Hohokus was Eod- 
man M. Price, who had, perhaps, one of the most chequered 
lives of any man born on the soil of New Jersey. He was a 
native of Sussex County, born November 5, 1814, and en- 
tered Princeton University at a very early age, but ill health 
prevented him from graduating. He then turned his at- 
tention to the study of law, but, marrying early into the 




MAP OK BKRciKN COUNTY IN 1709-10, 



290 THE PASSAIC VALLEY 

family of Captain Edward Trencliard of the United States 
Navy, he became much interested in naval affairs, and in 
1S40 was appointed a purser by President Van Buren. He 
was in the navy when the war between Mexico and the 
United States broke out, but before that time Mr. Price had 
been ordered to duty on board the "Missouri," then the larg- 
est war steamer in the world, which, after cruising in the 
West Indies, was directed to take the Hon. Caleb Gushing, 
ambassador to China, to Alexandria in Egypt. Before reach- 
ing tliat place, and on the same night the ship entered the 
port at Gibraltar, it was destroyed by lire. This detained 
Jlr. Price in Europe for several mouths. In 1845 he was or- 
dered to join the " Cyane " and to cruise in the Pacific. In 
July, 1846, the '' Cyane " was found at Mazatlan, and on the 
Gth of July of that year formal possession was taken of 
California on behalf of the United States by Mr. Price and 
other officers, Mr. Price himself actually handling the hal- 
liards that ran up the stars and stripes over tlie land. 

From this time Mr. Price, for several years, was connected 
prominently with the history of the newly acquired terri- 
tory. The excitement created by the discovery of gold in 
California roiised the public mind in the United States to 
fever heat, and immigrants poured by thousands into this 
new acquisition. It became necessary to appoint an offi- 
cer at San Francisco to represent the government and pro- 
tect its interests, and to provide for the necessities of the 
immigrants. Mr. Price was selected for this position. Its 
duties were exceedingly important and onerous, requiring 
the utmost caution and the strictest integrity; but they 
were met in a manner which proved that the right man had 
been chosen. By the prudent expenditure of a few hundred 
dollars in real estate in the growing city made the year 
before his appointment he became, as he supposed and his 



KOHAIW M. I'KK'K — IIOIIOKIJS 291 

friends believed, very \ve;ilthy. Fortunes were made and 
lost inlli.il nmnl IV in a sini;le da V. I>\il I Ids pnrrliase and 
its imnu'use results identilied Mr. I'ricc slill inoiv willi llie 
rity and territory. He was elected a ineinl)er of the euii- 
stitutional eouvention Avhlch framed the eoustitution of 
( 'alitornia. In IS."i(l lie leinrned Ki his home in llie East, 
and in Sepieiidter of the same year he was noniiuated and 
elected a member of Congress. In .Januai-y, 1854, he was 
iuaui;nrated noveruor of New Jersey for three years. His 
administration was marked by great industry and by many 
I'eforms. He Avas a friend of the eduralicmal interests of 
the State, and to him is due the establisliment of the normal 
school and of teachers' institutes. He was also lireatly in- 
strumental in placinc; the geological survey of the State on 
a substantial basis. In 1862 he removed to his estate, 
" Hasolewood," en the KamaiM) Kiver, in Hohokus, where he 
resided until his <leath. ( iovernor Price was not of Dutch de- 
scent, but he was a loyal .lerseyman, and identified himself 
closely with tlie interests of the community in which he 
s)>enl tlie last years of his life. 

Hohokus is now mn.i h resorted to by business men who 
<dioose its beautiful valleys and ridges for elegant places 
of a.bode. Its main interist is agricultural, but it has 
souH- manufactures of imiHU'tance. It has sonn' hamlets and 
tillages. Ramsey's, named after the oi-iginal owner of the 
land occupied by the present iidiabitants, is situated in the 
southeastern part of the township on the Erie Itailroad, and 
has a station and a postoflice, three churches, a large school, 
some carriage factories, and oilier enterprises. Hohokus, 
formerly known as Hojipertown, is in the extreme south- 
eastern end of the towiishi]> and is situate on the Hohokus 
iJiver. Some interest atta(dies to this spot for the reason 
that it was tli(> i-esidenre of ('nionel rroxosi, ilie lii-si bus- 



292 THE PASSAIC VALLEY 

band of Madam Jumel,'wlio, late iu life, after her second 
husband's death, married Aaron Bnrr. Allendale is situate 
near the center of the township on the Ei'ieHailroad, and lias 
a station, two churches, and a school. MahAvah is a small, 
unimportant hamlet near the New York line, with a station. 
Darlington is also a small hamlet on the Eamapo River in 
the western part of the township. The removal some years 
ago of a large manufacture to another more convenient spot 
has reduced the importance of this localitj^ It is, however, 
in the midst of an agricultural population and may revive. 




A HKSSIAN HUT. 



oooooooooo 00000006 




o^ 



(11 A I'T KK X X T T 1 



KI:K( iK\ T'drNTY — rONCLT^DED 



KAXKIJX is (iiic of tlic oldest t()wnsliii»s in Ber- 
'^rn (\mniy ;ni<l also one of the laviicst and most 
iiii])OTtant. :\l onr lime containiiiii' within its 
lioiinilv ihr w !inlr oT lloliokus, uow larijer than is 
its ]):irci\t iiiiiiiiciiialii.v. I1 is situated in the Avesterly part 
of tli<' county, a7ui is hcantifnlly divei'sified bv hill and val- 
h'j, with a very fci-tilc soil. Tn the sonthcrn ])art the land 
is hilly, in the iioillicni luonnlaiiioiis. It is hnuiidcd on 
the north liy Passaic County ami lloliokus, east by Wash- 
in.titon and Kidiicwood, soulii by I'assaic and Rid^cnvood, 
and west by Passa.ic. It has some lakes within its bounds, 
some small streams, and the Kamapo Kivei' — sutlicieut to 
well wali'i- the whole country. 

It is souu'whal slraui;e lo notice am(ni.u' the names of the 
early settlers in dii'ferent localities in that i)art of the State 
where lToll:>.nd imnnsirants lirst came that in each commu- 
nitv there are a few n.imes nol found in others. This is 
the case in franklin Towuslii]!. Here are found the same 
|)a.ii-on\mics as are conuecied with lloliokus, but there are 
otlnu-s, such as Schuyler. <!arretson, Rerdan, Y-.m Allen, 
Stek inow modernized into Slain<>), and a few more. 

Franklin Towiisliip was ori;anized in ITTl', as is suiijtosed, 



294 



THE PASSAIC VALLEY 



and was separated from Saddle Elver. This date Is not, 
however, well established. There was a period in Its his- 
tory when it and Saddle Elver both belonged to New Barba- 
does, then a flourishing town. Immigrations from Holland 
of considerable numbers have been made within the last 
twenty or thirty years. These people possess elements of 
character which have made them welcome residents. They 

V 

- ^ 




ti 111 



i-*t 



1 1' M?^&| 1 'I 






THE CITY HALL AT THE HAGUE. 



have been ti'ue to their religious instincts and made pro- 
vision for divine worship by the erection of a church dedi- 
cated to the use of the Eeformed congregation, for whose 
use services have been conducted in the vernacvilar of their 
native land. 

The Wortendyke family has been very largely influential 
in the growth of this flourishing town. When it was called 
Newtown Cornelius Wortendyke, in 1812, built the first mill 



1MIANKI>1N TOWNSIllI' 295 

licrc. nis iir;i 11(1 son. ( "()iiirli\is A., and his ui(';il-i;r;in(1snii, 
Abram ('. W'ortciKlvkc, followed in I lie stc])s of their eiier- 
ii(>tic aiiceslor. Some of the work coiiiiected with the rail- 
road w hicli passes this low ii is done in t he shops of I hat ror- 
]>oralion located here. 

Oakland and Crystal Lake are two hamlets near eaih 
otlier in the westiM-n ])arl of the townshiji, on the line of the 
railroad. At each there is a station. Oakland is ilie more 
iin]iortanl of the two. Crystal Lake is near a heauiifn! 
lake of the same name, remarkable for the isuritj and ( lear- 
ness of its Avater. Its name is a survival of that used bv the 
Indians, who called it the " Crystal Drop." 

Midland Park is situated in the southeastern part near 
Kidgewood. Just below this village the railroad enters 
Franklin from RidgeAvood and passes westward toward the 
Kamapo Mountains, along whose feet it .goes in search of the 
re(inannock Kixcr, through A\hose valley, and on its south- 
ern bank, it makes its way westward. 

Wyckoff, written ^\'ikhoof in some ancient deeds, is in the 
northeastern part, a shoi-t distance above Wortendyke. 
Here on August 17. 1720, .lohii and NVilliam Van Voors 
Haze bought five hundred and fifty acres of land from some 
French merchants of New York, and settled. It is on the 
line of the same railroad as is a smaller hamlet bearing the 
singular name oi' Camp Gaw. 

Franklin Mas named after the last colonial governor of 
Xew Jersey, William Franklin, a son of Renjamin Frank- 
lin, who, to his father's great (Iisap]iointnn'iit, became an 
adherent of the king of Great Britain in the Revolution. 

Ridgewood is a very small municipality — the smallest in 
the county, — having only 4,420 acres, of which about one 
thousand ave still nndeared. It is vt'yy irregularly sha](ed, 
and runs norlhwaid lo a short point between Franklin ami 




THE "DEEP A VOLL "HOMESTEAD: MIDLAND PARK. 

(Property of John Sclmoeriug.) 



lUFM ;kwooi ( TowxsrTir 



297 



Orvill. II is hoiiiidcd norlli li.v (Mvill, casl by ()i-\ill ami 
Midland, soutii by Sacblic Itivcr, and west by Fninidiii. 1 1 
lias lii'cal divcvsity of scenery, cliaraclerized by beauly of 
laiulsraiie ciiai-iiiiiii; lo the eye, and jiresentinii many beanti- 
fnl sites foi- tlie dwellinfi's of summer \isil(H-s. Its ceiilral 
|)nsiiion ami occasional ele\alions secure salubi'ilN of aii'. 
Two railroads jiive easy access and certainty of trav(dlin.u 
facilities to those w iio may seek hoTnes in its valleys and 
upon its ridj^es. 
The Erie, with a 
station at Kidgo- 
wood, I'uns near- 
ly thronji'h the 
center of the 
township; the 
New York, iSns- 
qnehanna and 
Western passes 
t h r n fj h t h e 
southeast corner, 
with a station at 
Midland Park. 
The Saddle River 
drains its eastern 
bonndai'y, t h e 

llohokus runs tliroUi;ii its central part, and several small 
stri-ams, tributaries of these two, sufficiently water tlu' 
country. The iiiauufaclui-iuii interests of I lie municipality 
ai'e not lai'iic the |)eo])h' bein.i;' nnjstlj eufiaiicd in at;i'icul- 
tnre. Larjic qnaniities of berries and oilier small fruits 
are raised for the New York market. 

New names again api)ear among the first settlers, such 
as \'an Dieii, Zabrisl<ie, Terliiuie, and l.aula, but all liie 




SCENE ON THE HunSON. 



298 THE PASSAIC VALLEY 

lii'fit immigrants were of Holland stock, and most of them 
are represented to-day among the present residents, sev- 
eral of whom will be found occupying the ground where 
Urst resided their ancestors. It can not be stated with 
certainty when the first settlement was made in Kidgewood. 
It can only be approximated by reference to the history of 
the church at Paramus, a village situated on the eastern 
boundary of Eidgewood on Saddle Kiver. The main part 
of this village is in an adjoining township, but a portion of 
the localitj^ called Paramus extends oyer into Kidgewood. 
Undoubtedly, Avhile unsupplied with aj)pliances of their 
own for religious worship, if there were a church so near 
as one at Paramus would be the religious dwellers in Eidge- 
wood Avould have gone thither. 

I'here was a Eeformed Church at Paramus early in the 
eighteenth century and some sort of church organization 
there as early as 1725. A minister, named Eeinhart Erick- 
sen, wrote in that year that he " was then minister at Hack- 
ensack, Schraalenburgh, and Peremus." In 1735 the first 
church edifice was erected at the last named place. This 
fact is authenticated in the flyleaf of the " Doop " book — 
that is, the baptismal record, — on which appears a state- 
ment in the Dutch language which, when translated into 
English, reads : " On the 21st day of April, 1735, was the 
firs^t stone of the church laid." This, however, does not 
settle definitely the exaxt date. 

This chxirch at Paramus was historical, one of the oldest 
in this part of the country, and has wielded a dominating 
influence in religious affairs. Prior to this date found on 
this baptismal record, on January 15, 1734, a meeting of the 
congregation at Paramus was held, when Cornelius Vander- 
beck and Johannes Wynkoop were selected to superintend 
the buildiTig of the church. There were settlers in Eidge- 



RiTxnnvooi) Towxsinr 



299 



wood jtrior lo this d.iti' wiio iillciidcil clmrcli at Hacken- 
sack, Acquiickiinoidc, or 'rappaii. 

Tlioro is only one villaine in tlic low nsliiii and that bears 



1 



% P. 








A.NCIINI l>l nil l(H\N, SHOWINt; CROW-STKl 11 1' i.vlJl.ES. 

the same name, but was once known as Godwinvillc. It is 
situated on tlie Krie Kailroad in tlae extreme western ])art 
of the county. At first it seemed as if it Avould remain a 
mere liamlet, but it attracted the attention of some New 



300 



THE PASSAIC VALLEY 



York business men, v,!io were invited by the beauty of its 
location and tlie easy access afforded by the railroad to 
take up ilieir residences there. It is now a thriving, busy 
town, with some commercial and manufacturing enterprises 
and many elegant r(;sid(;nces. 

Kidgewood was incorporated by act of the Legislature 
approved March 30, 1876, by which act it was set oft' from 
Franklin. Although a masterful new element has been in- 




HISTORIC MILL ON THE SADDLE RIVER AT RED MILLS. 

(PHOTO. BY VERNON KOYLE, PATERSON.) 

troduced into the population the old Holland race still hold 
their grip on the offices of the township. 

Baddle Kiver is the only township of Bergen County al- 
ready mentioned which is situated on the Passaic. It is 
one of the oldest municipalities in the county, and at one 
time comprised much more territory than is contained with- 
in its ])resent bounds. There is much difficulty in estab- 
lishing the exact date of its organization. It once formed 
a part of New Rarbadoes, which at one time included all of 
Bergen County between the Hackensack and Passaic Kiv- 
ers up to the New York line. When the township was ere- 



SAUDI, 10 1!1\I;K ■roW.NSllll' 301 

;i(c(l il (((vi'fcd ;i1I (here was of New Ttni-bniloi's liclwccii 
Ihc llackciisack ami llic I'assaic as I'ai- imrl hw aid as llic 
boimdary between New ^'ovk and New .leise\. I!ui llie 
ereaiiou ef I'l-ankliii, v.iiicli al lirsl indinled Ibdmkiis, 
Ifidf^ev (vi.d, and wlial is nnw l^'ranklin, reduced -Saddle 
Jviver to its i)r<'senr dimensions. It ceilainiy liad an inde- 
I>en(b'nt oriianization as early as 1784, lor in that yeai' John 
Iterdan and Man in 1,'yerson are recorded as the freehuldei'S 
oi' Saddle llivei'. Il lakes its name from its fancied resem- 
bhmce wheu first ori^anized to a saddle. From that year 
until the present the names of its otlicers are so nnniis- 
takably Holland that Ihen^ is no donbt of the preponderat- 
inti' influence still felt of the descendants of first settlers. 

The township is bounded on the north by Xiidijcwood and 
Franklin, east by Ridt^ewood, ^lidland, and Lodi, south by 
T.odi, and west by the Passaic Kiv( r. It contains *^'i'2~) 
acres, all upland, of which about two thousand acres are 
woodland. TIk^ Passaic on its west and Saddle lliver on its 
east and several small streams, tribntaries of the two just 
mentioned, afford sutticient means of drainaiie. The inter- 
ests of the people are mainly ai;ricultural, and there is not 
much attention niven to manufactures. Near its sonthern 
extremity Dundee hake, (o \\hi(di reference has already been 
made, forms part of its western boundary. 

The influence of the manufactures established in connec- 
tion with the power afl'orded by this collection of water has 
extended over into Saddle Ifiver, and some of the ojieratives 
in the mills at Passaic have sou,ii'ht homes on the east bank 
of the river. It is (|nite certain that in the near future I his 
influence will be extended and a lariio town sjtriie^ wp 
filled with homes for the worlKiiien of the busy, pojiulous 
city (Ml the wesi bank of the Passaic. 

The same diriicnlly as to the time of the lii-st immiiira- 



302 



THE PASSAIC VALLEY 



tion of other localities in Bergen is found in Saddle River. 
The original immigrants were few in nnmber; they kept no 
records; but they remained, living quiet, peaceful lives, in- 
tent on the cultivation of their farms, having few wants and 
fewer aspirations. 

The Doremus family was prominent among the early resi- 
dents in Saddle River. 
John Doremus, the an- 
cestor, a well known 
Whig in the Revolu- 
tion, was captured by 
the British and con- 
fined in the old sugar 
house in New York 
City. One of his de- 
scendants still occu- 
pies the homestead on 
which lived his ances- 
tor John. 

There is only one 
church, a Reformed, in 
the township. The congregation began worship in a small 
edifice built in 1S73 and dedicated in December. This build- 
ing was burned May 20,1880, and exactly one year afterward 
a new one was dedicated which is still standing. About 
seventy-five years ago, when the township had its full di- 
iiK'nsions, Gofle and the village of Manchester, now parts 
of Paterson, lay within the boundaries of Saddle River. 

:\ridland comes properly within the Valley of tne Passaic, 
although removed from the actual infiuence of that river 
and bordering on the Hackensack. Still its nearness to the 
Passaic entitles it to a mention, at least, in a history of its 
valley. It formerly formed part of New Barbadoes, and 




RHINELANDER SUGAR HOUSE: NEW YORK. 



MiliI.AM> 'iO\\N!<UJl' 



303 



was set off from that (o\viislii]i in 1S7I .iihI (Icclin-cd nii in- 
dependent nuiniciiiality by an act a]i|)i(»V('(l Marcii 7. lis 
liistorv, of conrsr, prior lo ilial date, is identified willi llial 
of its pai-iMil low iisiii|i, linl lli" lorrilory now coiniiriscd in 
Midland has an intci'est ai'isiiiji,' from its Kevohitionary cn- 
viroumenls. It was oil en visitc<l hy ^Vashin!i■ton during 
the Tvevolutionary 
War, and the memo- 
ries of the visits 
made by him to some 
of the families tln'ii 
resident there aiv 
rherisiicd by t he now 
1 i V i u j; re]irescnta- 
tives Avith reverential 
pride. 

Here again a])- 
pear new Holland 
names among tlie 
e a r 1 y immigrants, 
su(di as Kipp, ('ooper 

(originall\' Kny]»'r), Oldis, ami I, ul kins —many of them be- 
ing found loday among the ])res('nt residents. It is 
bni'.ndcd on I he north by Franklin, Oivill, and \Yashing- 
ton, on the east by Harrington, Washington, Palisades, 
Engiewood, and Ividgehcdd, south by Lodi, and west by twad- 
dle IJiver and IJidgcwood. 

The Demarest family, so well ami so favorably known all 
o\cr the State, is desccndccl, ]n'obably in all ils branches, 
from Uavid des Glares!, a Fremdi Hugnenot, who, with 
many co-religionisis, tied from I'^rance to escape persecn- 
lion. lie made his way lo New Amsterdam on .Manhailan 
l.-'land, and it is said boiighl all I he land now covered by 




LIVINGSTON SUGAR HOUSE: NKW YORK. 



304 



THE PASSAIC VALLEY 



Harlem; but in 1677 he made his way to Bergen and 
bought two thousand acres of land in what is now Midland. 
He had difficulty with the title, however, and Avas obliged, 
so says tradition, to buy part of the whole tract four times 
over to quiet his possession. The name is now written 
Demarest by all who are entitled to bear it. 

The same preponderating influence of Holland stock is 

shown in this 
township by 
the lists of its 
officers, as is 
aire a d y 
demonstrated 
in the several 
m u nicipali- 
t i e s before 
noticed. 

Several in- 
teresting and 
beautiful vil- 
lages and liamlots are located in Midland. Spring Valley, 
name<l fi-om the number of its springs, one of which is 
called Washington in memory of the fact that the great 
(■oiiimander drank of its water during the war when a part 
of bis army was encamped at this place. Paramus is the 
name applied to a portion of the township near the village 
of that name in Bidgewood. 

Cherry Hill has the only Reformed Church in the town- 
ship. River Pvdge is of historic interest. Here in the Revo- 
lution the troops, after evacuating Fort Lee, crossed the 
Hackensack River over a bridge Avhich was burned by them 
to prevent pursuit by the British. Areola and Oradell are 
other hamlets sitnated in Midland. 




WASHINGTON'S WRITING TABLE. 



I,OT>I TOAA'XSITTr 



305 



Lodi is ill till' suni licjisicrii piiiM of ilic ((iiiiilv. Il con- 
liiiiis !t,(>49 iUTi's, nearly Iwo liioiisaiKl of wliirh are salt 
iiiaisli covered by the tide from tlic sea, and about the same 
iiiiiiibei- of acres of nnideared land. Its territory runs to a 
sliaiii |ioint at its nortlierii extreniity between Saddle Ixiver 
and Midland, and its surface is iiiarl<ed by two j^reat di- 
versities (d' a]i|M'araiice. its eastern and southern jiortions 
beinj; enveloped by the tide marsh, an extension of coiin- 







NKW YORK IN 1673. 



iryonce covered liy valuable cedar growth, but now denuded 
of any forest w hatever, and liiven up to salt grass, swamp 
flowers, aud coarse wee(N. This grass is of some value to 
farmers, being cut in the suiiinier, then suiT(re(l to remain 
on the ground wliere it is cut until the wiiilei' frost hardens 
tlie soil so that teams may travel over it. In the western 
part the grr)und is nearly all upland, capable (d' high culti- 
vation and of growing vegetables ami other garden products 
for till' New ^'(U•k niarki't. 

I.odi is bounded iiortli by .Midland and Saddle itiver, east 
by Midland, Englewoiid, and the llackeiisack Kiver, south 
by the same river and rnion, and west by Saddle iJiver, 
Union, and Accinackanonk. It belongs to both the Passaic 
and Uackeii'^ack N'allevs, but its usefulness is almost entire- 



306 



THE PASSAIC VALLEY 



ly (It^pendeut upon the former stream, as its eastern portion, 
bordering on tlie latter, is whollj composed of marsh. 

Its territory when formed into a township was much 
larger than it is at present, as Union was afterward severed 
from, it and some of it added to Hudson County when that 
. , county was created. In its 

western part, near Saddle 
River, it has some manu- 
facturing interests, where 
were established some 
years ago grist and saw- 
mills, bleaching and dye- 
ing factory, and the Lodi 
Chemical Works. 

Berry's Creek is the only 
stream of any importance 
in the township besides 
the two large rivers, the 
Passaic and Hackensack, 
which form its western and 
eastern boundaries. 
, . Some new Dutch names appear among the pioneer settlers 
jiiLjhe territory now called Lodi. They are Berry, Brincker- 
_f\<f9i, Van Schanck, Romaine. Schoonmachers, and Terhune. 
f^Wie the immigrations into other townships the same diffi- 
culty obtains here in the ascertainment of any date of its 
first settlement. Some came, as near as can be learned, 
as early as the latter part of the seventeenth century. 

The township was taken from New Barbadoes in 1825, by 

act of incorporation passed by the Legislature, and since 

that time the names of Holland descent are largely in the 

majority in the record of the township officers. 

The township has two important towns : Lodi and Carl- 




A COLONIAL VASE. 



I.ODI AM) r\I()\ 'I'OWXSHIPS 307 

stiidl, 111' wliicli l.dili is I lie olilci-, its (iriiiiii hciiiy almost 
siinnllaiicdus wiiii llial nC liic Inw iislii)). It is situated in 
Tlic iKirfhcni pail mi Saihllc K'ixci-, which stroain at this 
point fnrnishcs a \ci y Aaliiahic water power, not, however, 
utilized nntil a little more than half a century ajjo. The 
village has lai'iic manufactni'iny- interests, but, unlike most 
factory towns, it has especial charms in the ornamentation 
of its streets, in manv elegant residences, and in many public 
buildiiiji's, es]>ecia]ly the railroad dcjxit. There an- five 
church editiccs in the town and school bnlldinf>s for the 
accommodation of the children of its iidiabitants. Much 
of the beauty of the town and its ])ros])erity in its early his- 
tory were due to the liberality and ])ublic spirit of Robert 
Rennie and Richard Terhune, two of the principal manufac- 
turers of the place. 

In the opposite end of the township, and extendinj; over 
into Union, is the larger town of Tarlstadt, built on (]uite 
an elevation and overlooking;' both valleys. This locality 
was the result of the operations of a company of two hun- 
dred and forty (icriiians, wlio organized an association com- 
posed of themselves, and bou<;ht one hundred and forty acres 
for sixteen thousand dollars, which they plotted into city 
buildinu lots, a])])ortionin,<;' seven to each member. A com- 
pact town was the result, which was incorporated and is 
.governed by a board of tinistees who are elected by the real 
estate owners who are voters. It is a thrivinji town, ]io]iu- 
lated almost entirely by German operatives, whose object 
in establishing!, Carlstadt was to furnish comfortable homes 
at moderate prices to the members. The success which at- 
tended iliis enter])rise induced the formation of other asso- 
ciations and the pur(diase of land in other localiries in the 
townsliiji wiili a \iew of estabiishini;' villages or towns, 
^^uccess hiis not always attende(l tlu'se attempts. 



308 THE PASSAIC VALLEY 

Cai'lwTadt was named in honor of Carl Klein, the projector 
of the town, Avho became the first president of its board of 
trustees. 

Woodridge is situated a sliort distance north of Carlstadt, 
and is a small hamlet, as is also Corona, still farther north. 
Little I'\'rry, in the eastern x)ortion of Lodi near the junction 
of English Creek with the Hackensack, is somewhat innxu'- 
tant for its connection with the extensive brick works on 
the last named river. 

Union is situated in tlie extreme southern end of Bergen 
CouutT. and is one of its small municipalities. It has 8,957 
acres, of which 4,093 are tide marsh, 467 are covered with 
water, and about 1,0UU are still forest land. Almost the 
whole eastern portion is composed of salt meadows. A nar- 
row strip on the Passaic is elevated above the marsh and 
river, and can be utilized for agricultural purposes or for 
the location of villages. Union formed part of Xew Barba- 
does until 1825, when Lodi was incorporated; then it was 
made ])art of tliiit townshi]). It remained under its juris- 
diction until Hudson (bounty was created in 1840, when it 
■was added to rlie new county and placed within the bountls 
of IJarrison Township. The inhabitants of the territory 
were not pleased with their new associations, and in 1852 
Union was made an independent municipality aud reunited 
To Bergen. It was well known to the Hackensack Indians, 
Avho frequented this part of the country and claimed owner- 
ship of the land iu the eastern and northeastern portions of 
the State on and around the Passaic, Hackensack, aud Hud- 
son Elvers. They called this part of their possessions by the 
euplionious name of " Mighectlick." 

The territory of Union Township Mas purchased by Cap- 
tain William Sandford from the proprietors in 1668. Cap- 
tahi Sand ford was a maternal ancestor of one branch of 



■rill-; SAMnoi;! V l•A^Ml.^ 



309 






'"■'^'^w^^f^x?' 



tlic rcuniuiiiiui fainily, ni' ICsscx ('iniiilv. sn ilisi iii^iiislicd 

ill tlic liistorv of New •Inscy. W'illinni Siiinlloid I'riiiiinL;- 

1(Ui, line of llial i-acc ami one of tlir iiiosi iiroiiiinini iiii'ii of 

his liiMc ill liic Stale, liciii^ .i"<li;i' "' 'I"' Sii|n-riiio Court, 

j^overiior and (liaiiccilov of 

tilt' Slate, and jndiic id' tlic 

riiiled States District 

( "oiirt, was a ne|diew of aii- 

ollier \\iiliaiii Sandford, a 

descendant of tiie captain. 

and was named for iiini. 

Tile nejdiew was an aiijeiii 

Wliij>' aud the niu le was as 

ardent a hiyalist. lie liad 

annonnced his deteriiiina- 

tioll of Ilia Id 111; ills lli'ldiew 

and iianiesalce the heir of 

his iji-eat possessions, a 

lar^e i)art of which were 

situated in rnion, and 

tlireatelied his l'ehni\-e 

with disinheritance if he 

c-outinned in his opposition 

to the kinii'. Voniii; I'enniiiiiton preferred Ins coiinlr.x and 

its liherty to tiie temiiliiiL; hrilie, entered tie' paliiol army, 

and of course was disinherited. 

Tnion is bonndetl on tlie north by Lodi, on the east by 
Lodi aud the Ilackensach, and on the west by the T'assaic. 
Besides these two ii\crs rnion lias two smaih'i- streams of 
some iinporlam-e: i>erry"s ('reel< and S.i w .Mill ('reek, 
and several small brooks, tributaries to the larjicr stream. 

The disadvantages arisinu from the marshy character of 
a larii'e i>ortion of this townshiii did uot make it a desirable 




AN INDIAN KING. 



310 THE PASSAIC VALLEY 

place of residence, or perhaps deterred settlers seeking conn- 
try abodes from examining the land, and thus caused them 
to overlook many desirable localities. The Holland immi- 
gration did not flow in so great a vokime into this part of 
Bergen County as it did elsewhere, but several prominent 
families of that race were found there quite early. Schuyler, 
Holsman, Vreeland, Joralemon, Outwater, Van Winkle, 
Kip, Van Kiper, Brinkerhoof, and Ackerman are some of 
their names. A few names of English extraction were ex- 
ceedingly prominent in the early history of Union, such as 
Rutherford, Kiugsland, and Sandford. 

A purchase of several thousand acres in Union made by 
Captain William Sandford, already mentioned, was in the 
interest of Stephen Kingsland, who came from Barba- 
does in the seventeenth century and settled on the land 
then bought. He had enough influence to give the name 
New Barbadoes to the township, in which Hackensack, the 
capital of the county, is situated. 

The Rutherford family owned a large estate here, on 
which was built a large mansion, occupied for several gen- 
erations by the descendants of the first owner, but the race 
has now disappeared from this section of the State. One 
or two descendants are living in the City of New York, one 
of whom has become distinguished for his astronomical 
studies and discoveries. 

The list of officers of the township proves that the Dutch 
element of its inhabitants is appreciated by the voters, but 
there also appears a large sprinkling of other names. 

The Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad 
aroused the interest of those desiring to escape the dis- 
advantages of city life to the fact that there were several 
suitable locations for summer residences in Union, access 
to which was easily obtained over the new road. The re- 



LYXlUirKS'r AND KlTIlKKIDKIi 



311 



suit WHS I he villn^cs ol' KinusliiiKl and LyinlliiiT-sl. 'I'lic 
Kini;slaii(l l:uiiil,\ dW ikmI and ii((ii|iiril a lai-iic cxtcnl of 
land un I lie line of the raiiniad. The lailroad cuiniiaii.y 
b<mi;lil sonic land in 
this locality, util- 
ized it for the erec- 
tion of workshops, 
built a station here, 
and uanicd it Kin}<s- 
laud in honor of the 
owners of the prop- 
erty. Tlie workmen 
neech'd dwellings. 
These were ereetcd 
and the hamlet be- 
eanic (luite a 'liriv- 
iiiii village. 

Lyndhurst is also 
on the line of tlie 
railroad. Here are 
some handsome resi- 
dences and some 
factories emi)loyin_i;' 
m a n y o])eratives 
and iiiviii-;- imix'tus and slrciii;lli t(( a llouiisiiini; village. 

Rutherford is in the northern part of the township, and 
is the result of tlie efforts of several fjentlomen from New 
York who were attracted to the spot by its beauty and de- 
sirability for residences. A never failinii' sprinj; of i)ure, 
coo] water, of sulticient tlow to send from its mar<;in (piitc a 
stream, was found here, and near it a small, inconvenient 
station was erected by tlie railroad com])any, now controlled 
by the New York and Erie. The existence of this spring 







A WASHINGTON CHAIR. 



.312 THE PASSAIC VALLEY 

gave the name at first of Boiling Spring to tlie U)cality. 
Very soon several land associations were formed and laml 
was bonght from the reluctant Dutch owners, who were 
averse to selling the land upon which their families for 
many generations had dug and delved in quiet. But the 
purchases were finally made, the land thus bought was 
plotted into building lots, streets and avenues were laid 
out, and some private residences were built with taste and 
with appliances for comfort; and now a thriving and im- 
portant town is the result. The first land was purchased 
in 1858 and the town is still improving. It is now called 
Rutherford after the fami].y of that name formerly resident 
in Union. 

There is a small settlement bearing the same name as 
that of the township, situated on the Passaic Eiver. 

Nearly opposite Belleville, in Essex, is the Schuyler cop- 
per mine, formerly belonging to Arent Schuyler, for whom 
the mine was named. It was operated as early as ITl'J, 
when it was discovered by one of the slaves of the original 
owner. He, however, did not give much attention to its 
development. His son, John Schuyler, after his father's 
death, worked it with considerable profit. As early as 
1738 the mine was credited with 13,086 tons of ore which 
had been taken from it and shipped to England. In 1753 
John Schuyler introduced, at a cost of three thousand 
))ounds sterling (JSlo.OOO), the first steam engine ever used in 
America. The mine was in operation in 1868, being then 
mentioned and described by Professor Cook in his annual 
geological report for that year. It has been spasmodically 
worked since that time, but often virtually abandoned. 



c n A r T E K X X i V 



KSSF.X rOTXTY A\l> KI.I/.ARETIITOWN 



SSEX COrXT'S' \\;is (iiic n{' I lie four ((iiinncs etc- 
atcd by tln' Lc,uisl;iliu-c in 1682. Tint tlicrc was 
iiicniioii made nl' cDiiiiiics in Xew Jersey jiiior to 
llial (late — iudertiiite luentioii most certainly, hut 
inlei'eslin^ Iroiii one or two points of view: one to learn 
what sort of leiiislalion iiovcrin^d the Province in the early 
times wlicii tiiis mention is made, the other lo watch for 
I he he,i;inni]iii' of the law -malvini; jirovided fui- tin- di\ision 
of the Province into these political divisions. At the first 
session of the ]»ro\incial l.eiiisla.tnre heL'nn on the oth day 
of Xo\(^mber, l(i75, at I'^lizabethtown, diirinii the admin- 
istration of I'hilip Carteret, the first colonial tjdvernor n( 
New Jersey, apjjoiuted by Berkeley and Carteret, lords pro- 
prietors, and on the 18th of that month, the following pre- 
amble and act were passed : 

Having taken into serions consideration tlie ijreat eliarge tliat hatli l)een 
occasioned l)v tlie necessity of Iceepinij eonrts witliin tliis Province, as also the 
necessity tliat eonrts of justice be maintained and npheld anioufist us, wliieli said 
courts may go under denomination of County Courts, it is therefore enacted by 
this Assembly that there be t\v) of the aforesaid courts kept in tlie year in each 
respective county, viz.: Bergen and the adjoining plantations about them to be a 
county and to have two Courts in a year, whose sessions shall be the first Tues- 
day in March next and the last Tuesday in September. Elizabeth Town and 
Newark to make a county and have two cmnts in a year, whose sessions .shall 
be the second Tuesday in March an<l third Tuesday in Septciiilier. Woodbridge 
and Piseata(jna to be a county and to have two courts, the first Tuesday in Marcli 



314 THE PASSAIC VALLEY 

and the second Tuesday in September. The two towns of Nevysink to make a 
county, their sessions to be the last Tuesday in March and first Tuesday in Sep- 
tember. 

No naines arc given to these counties, no description of 
any bounds, but in each section of tlie act wherever refer- 
ence is made to courts, they are called county courts. It 
would have been extremely difficult at that time to have 
made any division into any well defined bounds by intelli- 
gible description of the territory of the Province into coun- 
ties. 

At a later meeting of the Legislature, held at Elizabeth- 
town, March 28, 1GS2, Essex County was created by name 
with somewhat definite bounds. The preamble of the act 
creating the four counties is indicative of the fact that the 
Legislature did not deem the statute of 1675 as sufficient 
to form a county, although no reference is made to it. This 
is the preamble : 

Having taken into consideration the necessity of dividing the Province into 
respective Counties for the better governing and settling Courts in the same, 
Be it enacted by this General Assembly and the authority thereof that this 
Province be divided into four counties as foUoweth. 

The bounds of Essex County are thus described in this 
act : " Essex and the county thereof to contain all the 
settlements between the west side of Hackensack River and 
the parting line between Woodbridge and Elizabeth Town, 
and so to extend westward and northward to the utmost 
bounds of the Province." A name is given to the new coun- 
ty, and its bounds are so described and settled that there 
can be no mistaking them. They included the whole north- 
ern part of the Province of East New Jersey from the di- 
vision between Woodbridge and Elizabeth west to the 
boundary between the two provinces of East and West Jer- 
sey, east to the Hackensack Eiver, and north to the Province 
of New York. 




INDIAN GROUP IN LINCOLN PARK : NKWABK. 
(C. B. IVBS, acULPTOE. J. ACKKKMiN C0LB3, M.n., UONDR.) 



316 



THE PASSAIC VALLEY 



The division line between the two provinces of East and 
West New Jersey was uncertain and ill defined. It may 
liave been nnderstood at the time it was first attempted to 
be described, but that is donbtful. It has been the origin 
of conti-oversy for nearly two hundred years and has never 
yet been determined. The various courts of the State have 
endeavored to settle the vexed question, and, as yet, have 
failed. The determination of the direction and exact course 
of this line was at one time quite important, and there are 




BLIZABETHTOWK IN 1840. 
(From the Broad Street Bridge.) 

occasions at the present when titles to real estate are some- 
what dependent upon its proper adjustment, but in tlie 
county lines, the boundaries between them, there is, per- 
haps, now no real necessity that the true course of this line 
should be established. Those boundaries have now been 
too long ac(iuiesced in to admit of any possible question. 

The present territory of Essex has been greatly reduced 
since the time it was made an independent county. Somer- 
set has taken some part from its southern borders, Union 



KSSKX CorXTY 317 

('oiiiilv li;is been ruriiiril ciilii-rly I'loiii il, llir |i;n-l hclwccii 
I he I'iissaic mill I l;icl.;ciis;icl< li:is hccn ;h1(Ii'(I Id Hci-tii'ii. iiik! 
I'ass;iic CoiiiUN lias iai'iidy cncroailicd n|(on ils iiui-tlicni 
]ini-linii. It has an area of S:',(t2.'') acres, uC wiiicli (i.4."'>l aii' 
lidc iiiai-sli, l,(i4fi arc cuNci-cd by water, and about i,(IO(l are 
still forest. 

It has thirteen towiish'ps and cities: Rfdleville. IJlooiii- 
field, Caldwell, ("liiiloii. East Oraiijic, Fvaidclin, I.ivinnstou, 
.Milbiirn, Moiitclair, Newark, OraiiiLiC South Oraiijic, and 
\\'est ()raTii;e, and the boroiiLilis or \iliai;cs of Irviuii'ton, 
Soutli and \\'est (>iani;(', Xutiey, N'eiona, <ilen Kidjic, Cald- 
well, anil North Caldwell. 

Ahnosl the w1i(de of the county is within what may lie 
pr()])erly calleil the N'alley of the Passaic. That river in its 
tortuons coni'se washes both ils western and its eastern 
borders, and is materially connected with its history and 
usefniness. The surface o( the connty is diversified. In 
tlie eastern ])art, (ni the ri\er, the land is undnlatinii', bnt 
witliin a few miles a raiiui' <d' hills, di^nitied by the iieoplc 
with the nann^ of mountains, jiasses norili and south 
throniih the connly. I'.eyond this ran<i(' and westward is an- 
other raniic runnini; ])arallel witli tlie first n.anieil. but not 
so extensive. ISelweeii these two i-an^cs lie charmini;- 
valleys, \vhere nestle many farm houses and fei-iile tields. 
Fn Caldwell on the I'assaic are lariic tracts of mai-shy lan<l, 
called the (Jreat and Lillle Piece .Meadows and Hatfield 
Swani]!, containing: two thonsaiul tliree hundred acres, and 
within the bounds of the City of Newark there are over four 
hundred acres of tide marsh. 

I'eckman's Ki\cr runs lhroni;li the eastern ])art of Cald- 
W(dl into llie I'assaic. Pine, l»ee|i, ami (ii-een l'.ro(dcs also 
water the country in tliis townslii]i. Second .-ind Third 
Kivers are found in I'.lMomlield and r>elle\ille ami em|ity 
into the I'assaic. The niain branch of the Uahwav Kiver 



(tpjfs- 




ELIZAIUOTIITOWX 319 

rises hclwccM S{((iii(l mid 'I'liifd .Mduiiljiiiis in ( M;;iii;i', ;iihI 
riiiis lliniiiiili .Milhiirii and S]iiiiiL;lifld In i;ali\v;i_v and 
I hence into Slateii Island Sniind. 'I'liis sli-eani a( one lime 
was exceedingly xaluahle hecanse of its exceileiit walcr 
power, and loni; ayo, and for inan_\- years, il was ntilized hy 
niunerons mills and lactoi'les, es])ecially for llie manufac- 
liire of ]ia|ier. The olliei- ])arls of I lie county are traversed 
hy several small streams, some of lliem Irilintai'ies of the 
IJaliway, Imt neail> all fiowiiifi' into the I'assaic. 

The whide of the c(donial and a lariic part ni' the State 
historv of Klizabethtown is connected with Essex County, 
of whit h dnrin;;' colonial limes, and foi' nearly ei<ihty years 
aftei' New Jersey became an ind<'])endent State, it formed 
an iiii]iortanl i)ai't. li can nol well he (laimed that that 
municipality is within the honiids of the Passaic \'alley, as 
it lies directly on Staten Island Sound and Newark Bay and 
has no direct connection with the river, but its relations 
with Essex County were so intimate, beyinniui;' almost witli 
the very first settlement of IClizabeth and continiiim; fei' 
nearly two hundred years, and its ])ositi()n in the rroviuce 
was so leadinji', that it is im])ossible to do justice to th(» scope 
of this liisl()r\ without L;i\inn it some mention. 

ll can not be ascertained with exactness when the tirsi 
settlement in lOlizabet blown was made. Kecords were kept 
by the first settlers, but unfortunately those records have 
mysteriously disa])peai-ed. If they had been preserved sev- 
eral vexed (|uestions arisiuti' about the early history of this 
locality would be solved. ll may be safely assniiieil, how- 
ever, that the settlement tixdc jdace as early as l(i(')4. 

In l(!o:5-:U Charles TI granted his letters patent to his 
brother James, then Duke of York, afterward James II, foi' 
an ill deliiKMl extent of country in this Western ('ontinent, 
but certainly including; New .b'rsey. The immigrants in 



320 THE PASSAIC VALLEY 

New England were told that fairer lands and more genial 
skies lay to their southward. Seductive proclamations Avere 
made by Berkeley and Carteret and their agents, and scat- 
tered broadcast among the settlements in New England, 
))romising uncommon privileges and unexpected religious 
toleration to all who would settle in the new province. 
Glowing descriptions were given of the fertilitj' of the soil, 
the beauty of the land, the wonderful varieties of its prod- 
ucts, the salubrity of its climate. 

All these inducements attracted the attention of the im- 
migrants in New England to New Jersey. Their country 
was sterile, its climate was harsh, its natural products lim- 
ited, and au element of its population had become prom- 
inent. They purposed to abrogate some of the laws which 
provided for a contimumce of the strict enactments that 
established Puritan rule. So the attention of many settlers, 
es])ecia]ly in Connecticut, was turned Avitli longing eyes 
toward this new country, which, if accounts of it were to 
be trusted, was a paradise for the agxiculturist and a haven 
of rest for tliosc avIio sought a country where they might 
live under their own laws. So they came from the settle- 
ments on tlie Connecticut River and Long Island, all, how- 
ever. New Englauders, into New Jersey, and settled at 
Elizabeth. 

Prior to this negotiations had taken place between the 
colonists of Connecticut and Peter Stuyvesaut, the redoubt- 
able aovernor-geueral of the New Netherlands, looking to- 
ward a lodgment in what was afterward New York, but a 
refusal on the ]iart of the Dutch governor to grant to the 
pi'oposed immigrants independent civil courts without aji- 
peal from them to other tribunals put an end to the nego- 
tiations. 

Philip Carteret, the first governor of the Province of New 






\1K\V (II- OLD KKWAKK. 



322 



THE PASSAIC VALLEY 



Jersey vmcTer Berkeley and Carteret, reached Elizabethtown 
in the month of August, 1665, with about thirty persons — 
men and women. These immijirants who accompanied 
Carteret were not of tlie character which fitted theni to 
brave the environments which surround the first settlers in 
a new country. Eighteen of them were laborers, called 
" servants " by Carteret. With very few exceptions they 

were all of French blood or 
bore French names. Two of 
them were what in those 
days were called gentlemen 
— James BoUen and Robert 
Vanquellin. The last named 
was a Frenchman, a sur- 
veyor, and became surveyor- 
general of the Province, a 
member of the governor's 
council, and attended the 
sessions of the Legislature 
(luring the time he remained 
in Elizabethtown. Bollen 
was a mere tool of the gov- 
ernor, cunning, entirely ob- 
sequious to Carteret, and al- 
ways acting in his interest. 
Carteret and his thirty followers found quite a settlement 
at Elizabethtown scattered in rude dwellings along the 
stream, then and since called Elizabeth Eiver. Many of 
these settlers met him at the landing and escorted him to 
the village, he marching at their head with a hoe on his 
shoulder, denoting thereby, as is supposed, that he meant 
that agriculture was to be the chief occupation of the people. 
It has been claimed by some historians that Philip Car- 







STOYVESANT S PEAR TREE. 



CARTERET AND NTCOLLS 323 

tcrct iind his iimllcx' Iciiid of lullowers, willi four fniiiilies 
found tli<n-(', wfiv tlic iT'iii founders of Elizabelhtown. 

Hut this is u niishikc I'^our men heforo ( 'Mrtcrot's arrival 
had bouiiiit the hind limn I he Indians and liad s(M-ured a 
i;rant of il from Governor Kicdiard Nieolls, of New Yorlv, 
wild clainii'd I he rii^ht to issue tlie j>rant. The purchase 
made h\ ilicsc four men was, by tlie exjiress woi'ds of tlie 
deed, for themselves and their "associates." Carteret dis- 
puted the rii;ht of Nicolls to make the ji'ranl, and his con- 
tention, judiiiini (d' it bv modern rules, was correct, but in- 
esto])i)ed himself from actually refusiuij' to acknowledge the 
grant made by Nicolls, as he purchased from John Bayless, 
one of the four grantees, his 

interest in the land conveyed, ^^ / ^i ^// 

and made otlu-r purchases ^^J^CA a^^ A C^z^y^^ 

from tliose who could oidy 

claim title under the Indian deed and the grant made by 

Nicolls. 

'I'licrc is, however, a wcdl atithenticated fact of history 
which antagonizes the statement that Elizabethtown o^es 
its settlement to IMiilip Carteret and his thirty followers 
anil the four families. f<ix months before the governor 
made his appearance in New Jersey, and on the 10th day of 
l''('])ruary, 1665, a town meeting Avas hidd in Elizabethtown, 
at which all of the male inhabitants were obliged to be pres- 
ent, and on that day eighty-hve residents in that town took 
the oath of allegiance. The names of those who subscribed 
to tlie o;itli ari' i-econlcd, ;iud many of tiieni will be recog- 
nized as represented among the woi-ihiesl and most re- 
sjjectable citiz(Mis of Elizabeth of the jiresent day. Among 
them were Woodruil' Ogden, Crane, Carter, Moon, Marsh, 
Oliver, Tucker, Prict^^^ond. Whitehead/^Ieeker, Bonnell, 
Hatfield, Ueadley, liarber, Parker, and others. 



324 



THE PASSAIC VALLEY 



On the day Avhen this oath was taken the land of the col- 
ony was allotted among the colonists according to pro- 
Adsions made before that time. The real fonnders of Eliza- 
bethtowu, the pi-omoters of its best interests and most per- 
manent advantages, were to be found among these eighty- 




LIBERTY HALL: ELIZABETHTOWN. 



five citizens, who thus avowed their allegiance to the crown 
of England — all of them sturdy, self-denying, self-reliant, 
God-fearing Puritans. 

Elizabethtown became really the capital of the Province, 
the residence of the colonial governors, and the place of 



THE SKTTLEKS OF KLl/.AKimiTOWN 825 

meeting for several years of the J.egislatiu'e. Its political 
importance in the early history of the colony was asserted 
by the lords proijrietors and thcii' agents and acknowledged 
by tlie colonists. It is today a growing, populous city, the 
county town of Union, and the abode of many representa- 
tives of these tirst settlers who laid its foundations so broad 
and deep upon the basis of justice, liberty, and religious 
principle. 

Elizabeth, as at first established, was of very large dimen- 
sions. It extended from north to south over seventeen 
miles of coiintry, running fnmi the mouth of the IJaritau to 
the mouth of the I'assaic, aud twice that distance westward 
into a then unknown country, and included the whole of 
Avhat is to-day Union, a large part of Somerset, and a small 
portion of Morris county. Toward the north it took in Clin- 
ton Townshij) in Essex County and considerable of the City 
of Newark. 

The first settlers of Elizabethtown were of English stock, 
coming from the colonies in New England, mostly from Con- 
necticut. Some came from Long Island, but there were im- 
migrants there from New England. A year or two after the 
first settlement at Elizabethtown Robert Treat and liis col- 
leagues appointed by the towns from whence were to come 
the expected colonists in New Jersey, and who were in 
search of a home for their constituents, visited Elizabeth- 
town and there found friends and former intimate asso- 
ciates, whom they had known in Branford, Guilford, Mil- 
ford, or in New Haven; aud it is un(U)ubted that they Avere 
largely intluenced by these old companions in making 
choice of Newark as their desired haven of rest. 

The small French element introduced into Elizabeth in 
16(i5, by Pliilip Carteret, had no appreciable influence in 
moulding and shaping the course of the colony. After- 



326 



THE PASSAIC VALLEY 



ward, under the iufluenee of the colonial governors who long 
made Elizabethtown their place of residence and really for 
a few years the capital of the province, another element 
soon crept in — English, it is true, but not possessing the 
same characteristics as were the i)eculiar property of th(; 
first comers; and they began to exert a controlling power 
in shaping affairs. The two elements worked side by side 
in harmony, as it seemed, without strife or attrition until 
the two became blended into one homogeneous whole, and 
now the dissimilar and distinguishiug attributes of each are 

lost. The strictest scrutiny 
would fail in an attempt to de- 
tect any difference in the pres- 
ent population, whether they 
represent the first settlers or 
those who came after. 

The people of this municipal- 
ity for generations have been re- 
markable for their courtly man- 
ners and for their old-fashioned 
grace of deportment. It is pos- 
sible that in this respect the im- 
press of the French immigrants 
who came with Carteret has not been lost. 

The inliuence of the colonial governors, of course, in any 
controversy between the mother country and the colonists 
was cast in behalf of England, and it was natural that the 
element attracted to New Jersey by the real or supposed 
advantages to be gained by the presence of the representa- 
tives of the English crown should also remain true to the 
king. Up to a certain period in the colonial history this 
was the case, but at the time when the encroachments of 
the home government oppressed the other colonies the great 







=-^-' 



ELIAS P.OUUINOT AND OTHER FAMILIES 



327 



iiiajdrilv (if I lie pi'nple of Elizabeth embraced tlie patinor 
cause witli eiitlnisiasiii, and became its firm adherents, out- 
spolcen and active in their resistance ti) the oppression of 
the English government. Many distinguished citizens en- 
tered the service of the Congress in the army as privates 
and officers. 

Among the distinguished men in the Continental Army 
from Elizabeth were 
Elias Dayton, Francis 
Barber, Oliver Spencer, 
Matthias Williamson, 
Aaron Ogden, Elias 
B u d i n o t, William 
Clarke, Jonathan Day 
ton, Philemon Dick<'isi)ii, 
Matthias Ogden, Jona- 
than Condit, William Di' 
Hart, and hundreds of 
others. Many of these 
rose to eminence in the 
State as members of the 
Continental Congress 
and of the State Legis- 
1 a t u r e s. A b r a h a m 
Clark, a signer of !li<' 
Declaration, was an ex- 
press rider for the gov- 
ernment during the war. He and Elias Boudinni biH-ame 
members of Congress. IJev. James Caldwell, tiie " Fight- 
ing Parson," was also quartermaster. He resided at Eliza- 
bethtown. Aaron ]5urr resided there in eai'ly youth with 
some members of his father's family. 

William Livingston, the first governor of New Jersey 




328 



THE PASSAIC VALLEY 



after the passage of the State constitution of July 2, 177G, 
was connected with the Continental Army at the time of 
his election. He resigned from his command to accept the 
appointment and was then a resident of Elizabethtown. He 
made himself the object of the peculiar hatred of the few 
Tories of tlie town by his unwearied and effective exertions 
on behalf of the colonists. They vented their rage by burn- 
ing his residence, an elegant mansion with a large library, 
much valuable furniture, and other property. 
While the British were at New York and Staten 

Island many raids were 
made from those points 
on the inhabitants of 
the town and of the ad- 
joining country, and an im- 
mense amount of damage 
was done. General Clin- 
ton at one time occupied 
the place with a portion of 
his army. But these efforts 
of the enemy to work in- 
jury to the stubborn and 
unterrified patriots only intensified them in their loyalty to 
the country. 

Elizabethtown, during its history both as connected with 
the colony and the State, has given many distinguished 
men to the seiwice of the country as ministei's of the gospel, 
lawyers, judges, jurists, and representatives in the State 
Legislatures and in Congress. General Winfleld Scott had 
been a resident for many years prior to his nomination as a 




THE CRANE TAVERN. 



' From this tavern of Colonel Will- his inangnration. The site is now occu- 
iam Crane, at Elizabethtown Point, pied by the Singer sewing machine 
Washington embarked on his way to factory. 



ELIZABETH AND ELIZAUETIII'OUT 



329 



candidate for tlic Presidency and :iliii(ist lo the time of his 
deadi was a citizen of Elizabeth. 

Elizai)eth is now a i-esich'ulial lowii willi no larjuc nsinn- 
factnring interests. At Elizabetliport, wliicli is last 
becoming a part of the city, is situated the large plant of 
the Singer sewing machine works, where many hundred 
workmen are employed. The municipality was named in 
honor of Elizabeth, the wife of Sir George Carteret. It is 
now called Elizabeth, taking that title by virtue of an act 
of the Legislature. 




FLAG OF TTtK THIRTEEN 
COLONIES. 







^fi' IfPFnTn iTFnlte 



e:sss;5 



(k.^^ 



-ilAvvvii>\r 



CHAPTER XXV 



THE PURITAN SETTLERS 



SSEX COUXTY has a history wbicli, iu interest aud 
iinportanoe, is surpassed by no other in the Stfite. 
It has 83,023 acres, of which 4,1)31 are tide marsh, 
1,()4:(> are covered with water, and about 20,000 arc- 
still forests. It has thirteen townships, three cities, aud sev- 
eral boroughs and villages. 

The territory of Essex, as at first formed, was much larger 
thau it is at present. It was created by act of Legislature 
in March, 1682, and, according to that act, comprised all the 
land wilhin these bounds: 

All the settlements between tlie west side of the Haokensaek River and the 
parting line between Woodbi-idge ami Elizabeth Town, and so to extend west- 
ward and northward to the utmost bounds of the Province. 

This included all of the present Counties of Essex, Union, 
and Passaii-, a large part of Bergen, and some of Somerset. 
If there had been no division of the Province into East and 
West Jersey at that time it would have taken iu the whole 
of Morris and Sussex, most of Somerset, and a large portion 
of Hunterdon. 

A great amount of the territory of Essex as it was orig- 
inally formed has been taken in the creation of other coun- 
ties. When the boundary lines of Somerset were finally 
determined Essex was obliged to surrender some of its land. 
The large and important Township of Acquackanonk, iu 



332 



THE PASSAIC VALLEY 



1837, which since 1682 had been incorporated within Essex, 
was added to Passaic. The whole of Union, in 1857, was 
separated from Essex. Notwithstanding these changes it 
is now the second most populous and influential county in 
the State. 

At the time when the Duke of York made his grant of 
New Jersey to Berkeley and Carteret the English colonies in 
Connecticut began to assume great importance and exer- 
cised a dominating in- 
fluence in the public 
affairs of that Prov- 
ince. Several towns 
had been settled, scat- 
tered in the Valley of 
the Connecticut Kiver. 
New Haven, Guilford, 
Milford, and Brand- 
ford were some of 
these localities. Their 
inhabitants were all of 
the same religious be- 
lief, all enthusiasts, 
and tenacious of their 
riohts whether civil or 

JOHN WINTHROP, OF CONNECTICUT. ±i(,iiL(D, viiiCLjjci v,±yj± v^x 

religious. These peo- 
ple were bigoted and intolerant according to modern notions 
of tolerance. They were strict in the performance of every 
duty incumbent upon them, but they demanded the right 
to judge of their own liability as to duty, claiming that their 
conduct was to be governed by one infallible guide, and that 
was the revealed Word of God. In construing that Word 
they strangely mingled the severity of the Old Testament 
with the requirements of that divine love which Christ, 




334 



THE PASSAIC VALLEY 



their only acknowledged leader and guide, proclaimed to 
be the sole foundation of His church upon earth. Implicit 
obedience Avas demanded from all who were within their 
jurisdiction. They loved their families, and guarded and 
cherished them with never failing tenderness, but within 
the family circle and in the household the head of the house 
was supreme, and he must be obeyed with instant and 
reverential submission. They were merciless to the unie- 

pentant sinner, in- 
flicted the harshest 
punishments for 
crime and contu- 
macy, and never for- 
gave those who con- 
t e m n e d authority. 
They were the Saints 
of the Lord, and as- 
sumed the right to 
dominate over the 
lives and opinions of 
those who dwelt 
amfmg them, and 
who sought shelter 
j^jj^g J in their homes or in 

their community. 
They required the strictest conformity Avith the opinions 
they cherished and commanded all to abstain from any 
transgression of the rules they establisrhed or the laAvs they 
enacted. Tliey were superstitious, and hung poor girls and 
women for alleged witchcraft. 

But they were honest in all their dealings with their 
neighbors and lived unblemished lives. They feared God, 
had faith in His promises, and worshipped Him lovingly 




THIO rUKITAN SETTLBKS 



335 



mid fjiithCully. Tliey orcctcnl cliurclics for His Ikiiioi- and 
^loi-y nnd lillcd (licm Mitli His ])rais( . I!y the si<lo of tlic 
(•iiiii'ch cditicc tlicv hiiili I lie sclinni lioiisc and rullc^c, and 
made sacrifices to siippoiM llicii- inslitulions of learninj;'. 
Wliilo they refnsed liberty of lliouii'lit or 1(derance of opin- 
ion to others they clainied tiie riij;ht of exereisinj;' their own 
liberty of thons'ht, of opinion, and action, and they laid 

broad and i\rf\i in ilicir new I ic, and for all time, the 

foundations of freedom. 

When jndiiin.si- of thes(^ men it must be remembered that 
they lived in an 
age when intoler- 
ance was unixcrsal 
and t 1 e r a ii c c 
the exception lo 
the general rule. 
This, too, must be 
said in their be- 
half: they had 
braved the <!an- 
gers of the ocean; 
tlicy had front (■<! 
t lie privations and 
hardships of a new life in a sterile hind, under an unfriendly 
sun, Avhere savage beasts and more savage men surrounded 
them; they had surrendered the delights of ci\ili/.cd life, the 
comfort and solace of home, the associations of conntry, the 
l)rotection and guardianship of organized government, so 
that they might isolate themselves and enjoy in their own 
Avay their peculiar notions of religious liberty. Having 

braveil all this with a com ii jiurpose, with uuilcd iicarts 

and minds, tlicy claimed tiic right to select from those wli) 
sought admission to tle-ir c(tmmunities such as would com- 




TllK liRADFORIl HOUSE AT PLYMOUTH. 



336 THE PASSAIC VALLEY 

ply with the rules and ordinances they had established for 
their own si'overnment. In making this claim they asserted 
nothing more than the head of any family who had estab- 
lished a home and rules for its guidance might properly de- 
mand from any stranger who should seek a permanent shel- 
ter under his roof. 

lujpressed with the idea that all things must be made sub- 
servient to religion, pure and undeflled, and to the glory of 
Almighty God, they deemed it a sacred duty to bring 
family, community, and State into conformity with this 
ruling ])rinciple dominating their whole lives, public and 
private : tliat the Creator must be made the first object of 
their influence. So they enacted a law in their colonies 
along the Connecticut that no one in those colonies should 

hold office or own land or \ote 
unless he were a member of som<: 
WL "^ICaJfotti, Congregational C h u r c h, nor 
should any be admitted as set- 
tlers unless they could pass the 
scrutiny of the town meetings. These laws v/ere annulled, 
and the sterner souls, who believed in such legislation, re- 
solved to seek another home where they could enforce this 
rule to its fullest extent. 

About this time the " Grants and Concessions " of Berke- 
ley and Carteret were scattered abroad in New England, and 
the attention of the Connecticut people was directed to the 
glowing accounts they contained of New Jersey and the 
promises of toleration made by them. But these men wei-e 
prudent, and undertook no hasty, impulsive action. A dele- 
gation of some of their very best men, with Robert Treat at 
its head, was sent to New Jersey to view the land, to m.ake 
negotiations with Governor Philip Carteret, the agent of 
the lords proprietors, and if expedient to make the neces- 



AIlItlVAL OF THE PIUJITANS 



337 



sary aiTuniiciuciits for a iMii-cliasc. Kobert Trcal resided 

at Milford, and was at that time one of the si iiroiniiiciit 

meu iu Coniicc-ticut. lie aftenvard hccainc ,i;<.\criini' of 
that colonv and died while in office. 

Tiic dclc^aliiiii canic (o New Jersey, saw Governor Car- 
teret, exjiloreil I lie eonntry as far as I'.urlington and tlie 
Delaware IJivei-, and finally tixed upon the land on the 
Passaic where soon afterward were laid the i)i-iniifive f(inn- 
dations of the goodly City 
of Newark. 

These were the men 
who settled in Newark, 
and these are the circnnt- 
stances nnder wiiich tjiat 
settlement w a s ni a d e. 
These iinniii;rauts ciune 
from jMilford, Brauford, 
and Guilford, and some 
lioiii New Haven. The 
hrst movement for the 
contemplated e x o d u s 
seems to have c(tme from 
.Milford. It is evident 
fi-nni all (lie records Uiat 
llie people of (hat locality were prominent iu the enterprise. 

Before the initiatory step was taken the blessing of God 
was invoked. No important action, indeed no action Avhat- 
ever, n( any character, could have been taken by those i)i<ius 
men without first seeking counsel with their leather in 
Heaven and fervently praying for ITis blessing. 

Before starting on their hazardous journey it was agreed 
that certain fundamental agreements should be made. 
These wei'e signed on the i;!ili day of Ocudter, Kitit;. by 




.JOHN WIMTHROr, OK MASS.\CIIUSKTTS. 



338 



THE PASSAIC VALLEY 



twenty-three heads of families, and on the 24th of June fol- 
lowing by fovty-one more, aggregatino- sixty-four signers — 
all, as is supposed, heads of families. Iso record of the 
number of these immigrants can be found, but, taking the 
usual average number of persons in families, it is probable 
that very nearly three hiindred people, men, women, and 




COLONEL JOSIAH OGDEN SAVING HIS HAY ON SUNDAY. 



children, ^^'ere gathered together in " our Town on the Pas- 
saick " A\ithin a year after the first settler landed. 

The fuudaiuental agreement is so peculiar that it is given 
in full for the benefit of the reader: 

October 30'\ 1666. 

At a meeting Touching the Intended design of many of the inhabitants of 

Branford the following was subscribed: 

_ ^ . „, 1^'. That none shall be admitted as freemen or free Burgesses 

Deut 1 . 23 _ ^ "^ 

Exod IS. 31 within our Town upon Passaic River in the Province of New 
Deut ir 1.5. ., , Ti, 

Jersey but such Planters as are members of some or other of the 

Congregational Churches, nor shall any but such be chosen to Magistracy, or to 



THE FTTXI)AMIONTAL AGREEMENT 



339 



carry on any part of Civil Jii<lioatui( 



lp|)iitics or assistants, to liave power 



Jerem. i'lJ. '2\. 



to Vote in estabhsliinj;- Laws, and taking- or Koi)ealing tliem, or to 
any Chief Military Trust or Ol'lict'. Nor shall any hnt sneh Chnrcli 
Meniliers have any Voto in any such ch'itions; Tho' all others admitted to He 
planters have riglit to their proper Inheritance, and do and shall enjoy all other 
Civil Liberties and Privileges, According to all Laws, Orders, (Jrants which are 
or shall hereafter be made for this Town. 




'Jnil. We shall with Care and Diligence jirovide for the maintenance of the 
purity of Religion professed in the Congregational Churches. Wherennto sub- 
scrilied the inhabitants From I'lraul'ord. 

This is sji^iicd by tlic r(illo\\iii;ii': 

Jasper (U'ane, Abnv^Peirson, Sanil Swaiue, Laurance Ward, Thomas Blatchly, 
Ebenezer Camfield, John Waid, Senior, Kd. Bull, ,lohn Harrison, John Crane, 
Samuel I'lum, .losiah Ward, Samuel Rose, Thomas Peirson, John Warde, John 
Catling, Kichard Harrison, Thomas Huntington, Delivered Crane, Aaron i51atehly, 
Richard Laurance, John Joliuson, Thomas L. Lyon. 

On il:c L'4tli 111' .Iiiiii', KiliT. llic same iiiinlaiiiciilal aiii-ee- 
iiiciil was siiiiu'd by llic fonowiiiji : 

Robert Treatt, Ob.adiah Bruen, Matthew Camtield, Samuel Kitchell, Jeremiah 
Peoke, Michael Tompkins, Stephen Freeman, Henry Lyon, John Browne, John 



340 



THE PASSAIC VALLEY 



Rogers, Stephen Davis, Edward Rigs, R,obert Kitcliell, J. B. Brooke, Robert 
Lymens, Francis F. Linle, Daniel Tichenor, John Banldwiu, Senior, John Bauld- 
win, Jnnior, Jona Tomkins, Geo. Day, Thomas Johnson, John Curtis, Ephram 
Burwell, Robert R. Denison, Nathaniel Wheeler, Zaehariali Burwell, William 
Campe, Joseph Walters, Robert Daglish, Hamis Albers, Thom: Morris, Hugh 
Roberts, Eph'm. Pennington, Martin Tichenor, John Browne, Jr., John Sear- 
geant, A^ariah Crane, Samuel Lyon, Joseph Riggs, Stephen Bond. 

Most of these names are represented in the present resi- 
dents of Newark, and many citizens of the State of New Jer- 
sey can trace their 
genealogies back to 
one or more of 
these original set- 
tlers. 

The lords i5ro- 
p r i e t o r s, w h o 
claimed to own the 
land where the im- 
migrants iiurposed 
to locate their new 
colony, had fully 
agreed that the 
landing might be 
made and a certain 
extent of country 
used for the new 
settlement. The coh)nists, tlierefore, supposed they would 
have no difficulty in landing. But as they came to the bank 
of the river and went on shore they were met by some of the 
Hackeusack Indians, who hunted over the lands in the north- 
ernpartof New Jersey and fished in its rivers. These Indians 
refnsed to allow the immigrants to remain, and demanded 
that the goods which had been brought upon the land should 
be returned to their vessels. Governor Treat was armed 




51 



^'^G)' 



AN INDIAN CHIP:FTAIN. 



ARRIVAL OK THE PURITANS 



341 



Willi ;i li'Hci' Iroin ( IdNcnidf ("artcrcl 1o llic fliiefs of t\ni 
d-ihi', liul llicy insisicd ili;il i he hind \v:is llicirs, that it 
Il;u1 lint hiHMi boii.nlil Iroiii Hkmii, and disclaimed any autl.or- 
ity (if IScrkek'Y and Cartcri't lo soil, and slill warnod the 
iic\\((Mn(>rs to r(>tnrn. A few years afterward Kobert Treat 
liiiis told llie sl(ir_\- in iiis dwn (|iiaint way: 

But no sooner was the ComiKiiiy present got on tlie I'laee anfl landed some of 
tlieir goods tlian I, with some others, 
were by some of the Haekensaelv In- 
dians warned oft" the (irounds, and 
(they) seemed troidded and annry 
that we lauded any of our goixls 
there, tho' first we told them we 
had the (iovernor's order, but they 
r('])lied the land was theirs and was 
unpurehased, and then we pnt our 
goods on board the vessels again, 
and aeijuainted the CJovernor witli 
tlie matter. 

(Subsequently \> e a r e 
\\as made with the llack- 
ensacUs, their claim wa^- 
houestly met by the cnh)- 
uists, and the land deed- 
ed from the river to the 
fool of the UraniJi'e Moun- 
tains, and extendiiii;- 
southward to tlie boundary Hue of Elizabetlifown and 
northward in an indehnite manner, but sul'licieiitly 
described so as to inciudi- the modern cities of Newark, 
Orange, and East ()ian.ue, the boroughs of (ilen Kidge, 
Irvinfitou, and A'ailsburgh, the towns of Bloomfield, Mont- 
elair, and West Orange, and the townships of Belleville, 
Clintou, Frankliu, Livingston, and KSouth Orange. Other 
purchases were subse(|nenl]y made from the Indians which 




AN INDIAN KIXIl 



342 



THE PASSAIC VALLEY 



iiieluded the rest of the present County of Essex. The con- 
siderations paid to the aborisi'ines for these purchases were 
ridiculously insignificant according to modern ideas of 
values, but at the time, taking into consideration all the 
circumstances surrounding the transactions, they were 
abundant and the sellers were entirely satisfied. 

The second purchase was confirmed by a deed so quaint 
and so interesting, and giving a sijecimen of the mode of 
conveying iu those days, that it is copied into these pages 
and given verbatim et literatim, et pnneteratim: 

Know all men by these presents that Wee, Wapamuek the Sakamaker, and 
Wamesane, Peter, Captamin, Wreaprokikan, Nasseam, Perawac, Seasom, Mamvis- 







INMAN TOTEMS. 



tome, Cacanakqne, and Hairish, Indians belonging now to Hackinsack, the known 
acknowledged proprietors of a certain tract of Land Lying on the west of 
Pesayak River, being parties on the one side, and Mr. Obadiah Bruen, Mr. 
^Samuel Kiteliell, Michael Tomkins, John Browne and Kobert Denison, with the 
consent and advice of Capt'n Philip Carteret, Governor of the Province of New 
Jersey, and in behalf of ye Inhabitants now being or to be, ye possessors of the 
tract of Land Inserted in this Deed of Sale the other parties, Doe make this In- 
denture the Eleventh day of July, in the year of our Lord 1667 (being the en- 
larging and perfecting of a deed of Sale made With the Indians, the year before 
the present) in manner and form following, viz.: 

That Wee, the said Wapamuek the Sakamaker, and Wamesane, Peter, 
Captamin, Wreaprokikan, Nasseam, Perewac, Sessom, Mamustome, Cacanakque, 
and Harish, doe for ourselves and with consent of the Indians, Bargain, Sell and 
Deliver, a certain tract of land. Upland and meadows of all sorts, Wether 
Swamps, Rivers, Brooks, Springs, fishings. Trees of all sorts, Quaries and Mines 
or Metals of what sort soever, With f nil ' liberty of hunting and fouling upon the 



THE INDIAN DEED 



343 



^> 



Cempofedij J. E. 









'«)'.>»■ <^' ^ »<» ^f- ^^ y V 'r V -i^ 






same Excoi)tinf; l^iberty of hiintiifj for tlic above said proiirietors, that were upon 
the upper coimiKms ami of tisliiiig in the ul)ove said Pesayak Kiver, which said 
tract of Land is bounded and Limited with the bay Eastward and the great 
River Pesayak Northward, tlie great C'reke or River in the Meadow running to 
the head of the Cove and from thenee bareing a West Line for the South bound 
wh. said (ireat Creek 

is commonly oaUed and _. ^ 

known by the name 
Wecquachick, on tlie 
West Iviiie backwards 
in the Country to tlu- 
foot of the great moun- 
taiue called Watehung, 
being as is Jiulged 
about seven or Eight 
miles from Pesayak 
towue; the said Moun- 
taine as Wee are in- 
formed hath one liraneh 
of Elizabeth Towne 
River running near the 
above said foot of the 
mountaine; the bounds 
northerly, viz, Pesayak 
River reaches to the 
Third River along- 
above the towne, ye 
River is called Yan- 
takah, and from thence 
upon a northwest line 
to the aforesaid moun- 
tahie; all which before 
mentioned Lands for 
the several kinds of 
them, and all the sin- 
gular benefits and Privileges belonging to tlieni, with ye several liounds affixed 
and expressed herein, as also free liberty and range for Cattle, horses, hoggs, 
and that though they Range beyond any of the bounds in this deed Expressed, to 
feed and pasture Without Molestation of or damage to the owners of the cattle 
&c aforesaid. Wee the above said Indians, Wapamuk &c. doe sell, Alienate 
and Confirm all our Right, Title and Interest of us, our heirs and Successors for- 
ever Unto the said Lands &c as above mentioned to Mr. Obadiah Brueu, Mr. 



<m THE 

f^ The way M mining op ofotir ^ 

Sf ''"^'•■''' ''''"'^ '"' '''^ B"""' ^> 
"f^ kno.vlcage ofG.iiJ, in ihc ^>>i> 

*>§l !<nnvvle(lgcofilieScii}):iinc< ^j. 

j^5j and ill an nh'liiy trv BmiIc. ^y-j, 

m 



^ I till*. 3 14, i?. <^it «if,; /;.!;.;. ^T 

.^ w.iti(o:.lh I't'h naUtuntjjiar.i'h ^* 

^^ lebjuikiihfaxoiadt ^i 

^ tantrfmlJ'xh^rrhoijh^^&C. S 



. ^ - . ,, ..-■..i-.f^ifc-.i^.., 

FAC-SIMILE OF THE TITLE-PAGE DF TH E. PRiMERXIF-1669^ 



34:4 THE PASSAIC VALLEY 

Samuel Kitchell, Michael Tomkiiis, John Browne, and Robert Denison, townsmen 
and agents for ye English Inhabitants of Pesayak, to them their heirs and associates 
for Ever, to have, hold and dispose of, Witliout Claim, let or Molestation, from 
ourselves or any other Whatsoever. These Lands &e are thus solde and deliv- 
ered for and in consideration of fifty donble hands of powder, one hvmdred barrs of 
lead, twenty Axes, twenty Coates, ten Guns, twenty pistoUs, ten kettles, ten swords, 
four blankets, four barrells of beere, ten paire of breeches, iifty knives, twenty 
howes, eight hundred and fifty f athem of wanipem, two Ankors of Liquers or some- 
thing Equivalent and three troopers Coates; these things are received, only a small 
remainder Engaged by them by bill. To the true and just performance accord- 
ing to ye true intent of our bargain, Wee ye said Obadiah Bruen and the rest above 
said doe for ourselves and our heires, Ex'tors, Adm'n'tors, or Assigns, to the said 
Wapamuk &c the true proprietors of the said Lands doe bind and Covenant. 
Wee the said Wapamvik and the rest of the Indians above said doe fully sur- 
render, pas over and Yield up all our Right, privilege and 
power in the same, and to free the above said Lands from 
Claim, Incumbrances of What kind soever, all the above 
mentioned purchase Wee doe grant and deliver to Oba- 
diah Bruen and ye rest above said to them, their associ- 
ates, heires and all the lawful possessors. And for the 
full Ratification and testification of the above said bargain 
and agreements about the aforesaid tract and parcells of 
Land so bomided, Wee the said parties above mentioned 
have hereunto Enterehangeably, sett our hands and scales, 
the day and year above said in the presence of Us Wit- 
nessing. Moreover Wee doe grant them free liberty to take what timber and 
stones they please in any of our Lands where Wee the above said Indians have 
propriety. 

Obadiah Bruen, Michael Tomkins, ~^muel Kitchell, Jolui Browne, Robert 
Denison, Wapauuik, his marke, Harish, his marke, Captamin, his marke, Mamus- 
tome, his marke, Peter, his marke, Wamesame, his marke, Wekaprorikan, his 
marke, Caecanakrus, his marke, Sessom, his marke, Perawae, his mark. 

Signed, Sealed and Delivered in presence of Samuel Edsall, Pierwim Sachem 
of Pan, his marke, Edward Burrowes, mark of Richard Fletcher, Classe, his 
marke. 

In 1677-8 another deed was made by the Indians which ex- 
plains itself, as will appear by the following copy: 

Whereas by the original deed of sale made by the Indians to the inhabitants 
of the town of Newark, bearing date the Eleventh day of July, 1667, it is said to 
the foot of the Great Momitaine, called Watchung, alias Atchunck, Wee Win- 
ocksop and Shenocktos, Indians, and owners of the said Great Moimtaine, for and 




THE SECOND INDIAN DEED 



345 



in consideration of two Gnns, three Coiites, and thirteen kans of mm to us in 
hand paid, the reeeipe U'ereof \V<'e doe liereby aeknoudedfje, doe Covenant and 
declare to and with Mi-. ,)oIim Ward and Mi-. Tlionias Jolmson, Jnstices of the 
peace of the said towiie of Newark, before the Kiglit llon'ble Philip Carteret, 
Esq., (Jovernenr of the I'rovinee of New Jersey and the other witnesses here 
under written, that it is meant, agreed and intended that tlieir bounds shall 
reach or go to the top of the said Great Mouutaine and that Wee the said In- 
dians will marke out the same to remaiiie to them the said inhabitants of New- 
ark tlu'ir heires or assignes forever. In \\'itness Wliereof Wee the s'd Indians 
have hereto set our liands and seales the 18th of March, 1(577-8. 

Winocksop, his marke, IShenocktos, his marke, Signed, Sealed and Delivered 
in the presence of James Boiler, Secretary, Hendrik Drogestadt, Samuel Har- 
rison. 

This acknowledge before me tlie day and yeare above written. 

PlI. C^ART.^RETT. 

By these two deeds it is apparent that llie setth-iuent ou 
the Passaic liad no name at tlie time of the execution of *^he 
first deed, and that it liad received the name of Newark be- 
tween the time of tlie date of the first deed and that of tlie 
second. It is _<>eueraily supposed that tlie town was named 
after tlic city of that nani(> in Yorkshire, England, where 
the Key. .Mr. riersoii, I lie first i)astor of tlic clnn-cli at New- 
arlc, once lived. 




SEAL OF NEW YORK IN 168C. 



CHAPTEE XX Y I 



THE FOUNDING OF NEWARK 



X THE 13th of October, 1676, a warrant was issued 
by the proprietors " to lay out for the use aucl bene- 
fit of the Town of Newarke so much Land as shall 
he eouveuient for Landing places within the said 
Towue, Land for a School Uouse, for a Town house, Meetinj; 
House, a Market Place or Market Places, and t\vo hundred 
Acivs of Upland and ^leadow in proportion for a Parson- 
aye." Tliis warrant was ((tntiiiiR'd l)y a (!(■('(] (lat('<l Defeni- 
hcr l(t, l(;!)(i, wliich conveyed several other tracts besides 
the several parcels of land mentioned in the warrant, and 
also made this other conveyance: "the streets of the sayd 
towue of Newarke as they are now layed out, viz : the high 
street to remainc about two chaiiie uiorc or less in breadth 
and in length from Hugh Roberts brooke to the mill brooke 
thorow the Middle of the Towno; and the rest of the streets 
to be as they are now in breadth." 

This street described as running from Hugh Koberts's 
brook north to Mill Brook or First River is undoubtedly 
Broad Street. Hugh Koberts's allotment was at the end 
of what is now Lincoln Avenue at the bifurcation of the 
I'oad, where one highway goes to Elizabethtown and the 
ot her to Irvington. A small brook once ran across the street 
at his lot and made its wav to the Salt Meadow. 



348 



THE PASSAIC VALLEY 



On the 7th day of " Apreill," 1713, a charter was granted 
by Qneen Anne to Newark. In that charter the bounds of 
Newark are thus described : 

All that Tract of Land now known by }'e name of Newarke, Bonnded Easterly 
by a Great Creek that Runs from Haekinsaek Bay through ye Salt Meadow 
called by the Indians VVequahick and now known by ye name of bound Creek, 
and Coutinuing from ye head of Said Creek to the head of a Cove to a Markt 
Tree, from thence it Extended Westerly upon a Straight line by computation 
seven miles be the same more or Less to the End or foot of the Great Mountain 
and with Ridge thereof Called by the Indians Waechung, Near where runs a 
branch of Raway River, from thence extending on a Northerly course along the 




NEWAUK IN 1S32. 



Ridge of the said Mountain to a heap of Stones Erected to Asertain the Bound- 
ary between the s'd Town of Newark and the Town of Aequiekatnunek, from 
theuee Running a South East Course by Aequiekatnunek Bound to where the 
brook or Rivolet Called by the Indians Yantokah, but now known bj' the name 
of Third River, Emptieth itself into Pasayack River, and from thence Continu- 
ing Down along by the said Pasaiaek and Hackingsack Bay to the mouth of said 
Bound Creek. 

This Bound Creek was at one time navigable for small 
vessels, sloops, and periaguas of light burthen. A dock 
had been built on the east side of the road to Elizabethtown, 



THE FOUNDING OF NKWARK 



349 



rniiii wliirli, in I lie cjirly i):n-t nl' I he Tiiiictcciit li ecu I iirv, con- 
sidcialilc inulc \\ilh New \i>\U \\:is (•(nidiictcd in \\()(kI, liay, 
and lanii ])r()diicls. It also then abctunded with tisli of sev- 
I'l-al \ai-ir(ii'si. hiil il is now sluMinkcMi in its pro})oi'tions and 
its waters arc so polinl(Ml tiial all lisli liave been driven 
away. 

Wlien tlie first settlers in Newarlc left tlieir Connecticut 
iioiiics and <anie to their neAV habitation they broufiht with 
llnMii llii'ii- be!o\-ed pastor, the oflicers, records, and com- 
niniiion service of their church, their wives and little ones, 
their old men and Avhite-haired women. These they com- 
mitted with prayer 
to some rude vessels 
of the day, sailed 
clown the Connecti- 
cut Kiver to Lous;' Is- 
land Sound, then out 
into East Kiver and 
to X<'W York Ray. 

then throniih the Kills into Newark l'>ay, and thence up the 
Tassaii' IJiver to their destination. 

A romantic incident is connected with I lie debarkation. 
A yniiii^ maiden, the daut;hter of Lieutenant Swaine, one 
of the prominent num of the company, and who afterward 
was hontu'ed by the colony with appointments to posts of 
honor, had promised to become the wife of Josiah Ward, 
one of the ])assengers. The younii' lover had deteniiined 
(liat his jironiised bride sliould be the first to jinl fool on 
the land of tlii'ir new home. ITe so arranged matters that 
she was the first to land. She became the ancestress of the 
numerous and hi^lily res](e(lable family of Wards who are 
scattereil all oxci- the I'nited States. 

These first settlei's in Xewai-k wei-e all men of substance, 







350 



THE PASSAIC VALLEY 



according to the notions of those days, and brought consid- 
erable wealth with them into their new home. Strange to 
say their minister, the Eev. Abraham Pierson, was the 
wealthiest man among them. 

The site of the new town was soon settled, and then the 
colonists were confronted with the question as to what mode 
should be adopted for making a proper and honest division 
of the land among themselves. This problem seemed to 
have been solved without any great difficulty. 

The method of governing the colony by the system of 
town meetings was introduced at once. These meetings 

were considered of the 
greatest importance. 
Every citizen wa s 
obliged to attend. If 
there were any ab- 
s e n t e e s they were 
sought out by a com- 
mittee expressly ap- 
pointed for the pur- 
pose, and if no suffi- 
cient excuse could be 
given by the absentee he was promptly fined. Ta\'o persons 
were employed, one at the north and the other at the south 
end of the settlement, whose especial duty it was the day be- 
fore each meeting to give notice to all the inhabitants. At 
these assemblages all business relating to the colony and its 
interests, of every nature, was transacted, their ministers 
were called, their salaries settled, the schoolmasters were 
employed and their compensation fixed, plans for the erec- 
tion of school houses and church edifices were discussed 
and determined, courts of justice established, their judges 
and officers appointed and tlieir fees limited, township offi- 




WAKl) DIVISIONS 



351 



cers otiM't<'il inid tlioir diilics incsciihcd. This imidc of jiov- 
ci-niiicnf \v;\s n'taiued in New aik until is:'.tl, w lien tiic Lcjiis- 
lalni-c lifantcd a ciiartci- wliicli pfovidrd fm- ilir clpclioii 
of a niavoi- and coniiudn rem mil. in IS.",:; ilic t()\vnslii|i liad 




COCKLOFT HALL AND 
SUMMKR HOUSE. > 

l)(cn dixidcd into four 

wards, w lii( li were caidi 

i-cin-csciilcd by four alder- 

nu'n. 'Plus avranjicnnMit of 

wards was n'taincd in tlic cliartcr; 

hilt now I r.lOl I I licic arc liftccn wards in tlic city, 

and many of liicsc contain more ])o|iulalion tiian tiiiM-c was 

in tlic wliolc city in is:',l!. 

1 During- till' first decade i)f the nine- tlie ancient mansion gay with their fun 
teenth century tliis property was owned and frolic. It was christened " t'ock- 
hy Gouverneur Kenibh'. It was a fav- h>ft Hall" by Wasliinfjton Irvinu, and 
orite resort of its young owner, tlu' called Mount Pleasant. The house was 
Irvings — Washinot(Ui, Dr. Peter, and Ijciilt liy Nicholas (iouverneur, grand- 
Williani, — James Kirkc I'auldiiif;', Cap- son of Abraham (Iouverneur, who mar- 
tain Porter (father of Admiral P(Uler), ried the daughter of (iovernor Jacob 
Henry Brevoort, and others, who made Leisler. 



352 



THE PASSAIC VALLEY 



At the first regular town meeting held October 30, 1666, 
partial arrangements as to the future government of the 
colony were made and the mode of dividing the land among 
the colonists discussed and settled. Streets were laid out, 
of which there were four principal ones : the broad street, 
running nearly north and south and as near the center 
of the iirospective town as could be, with two parallel 

streets, one on 
the east and 
the other on the 
west. The broad 
street is now 
called Broad, 
that on the east, 
first known as 
the east back 
lane, was named 
Mulberry, and 
that on the 
west, first desig- 
nated the west 
back lane, was 
named Wash- 
ington. There 
was also a road 
running to the 
river, crossing the other three highways, which was 
then called the road to the ferry, but now known 
as Market Street. The land on these X3rincipal streets Avas 
then plotted into " Home " lots of about six or seven acres 
each. The land outside the town, that is the Salt Meadow 
and that on the hill, was thereafter to be partitioned 
into what were called " out " lots and divided. It was so ar- 




WASHIKGTON IRVING. 



DISTRIBUTION OP HOME LOTS 353 

rniisod by a roto of tlio lown nicctinii; that the inliabitants 
(»f tlie several luwiis in ('(ninccticut from whence tliev came 
should have their " home " lots together, iu the same ueigh- 
horhood, and adjacent to each other. 

On a certain day fixed hy the town meeting the inhabit- 
ants came together, and after a devout prayer to Ood for a 
blessing on the undertaking it was determined by lot to 
whom the home lots should be awarded. Every one inter- 
ested was obliged to subniil lo this plan, the one exception 
being l\(d>eT-t Treat, ^\•ho, by a unanimous vote, was pei'- 
mitted to make his selection without being subjected to the 
uncei'tainty of chance. With becoming attention to his own 
iui( rest lie chose the southeast corner of Broad and Mar- 
ket Streets, the most valuable ]U'operty in the whole town. 

There is only one (h-scendant of an original settler now 
residing on any part of the land thus gained by the ances- 
tor. William Tani]) received the lot on the east side of 
liroad Street, adjoining Chestnut and Camp Streets, and 
iMuiiiing to Mulberry Street. One of his descendants in a 
direct line, a lady, now lives in a house built <>n a ]iortion 
of the property on Broad Street, between Chestnut and 
Camp. Her father, John J. Camp, who died several years 
ago, formerly owned nearly the whole of the original lot. 

y\v. William Plume, a descendant of Samuel Plum, one 
of liie (uiginal settlers, occupied a part of his ancestor's 
allotted land on T>ridge Street until about ten years ago, and 
prior to h's time an unbroken line of lineal descendants from 
the original settler live.l on the same lot. Mr. William 
Plume was born about eighty years ago in Die house still 
standing, and died in the same room in which he was born. 

The Plumes, as the name is now written by some of the 
familv, are still abundant in Xewark. The Camps have al- 



354 



THE PASSAIC VALLEY 



most entirely disappeared from Newark, although some are 
to be found in other parts of the State. 




A PATRIOTIC BARBKR. 



The first settlers in Newark were no rommon men despite 
their intolerance and bigotry. They were mindful of the 
future in ])roviding for the wants of their descendants. 



THE FIRST MEETING HOUSE 



355 



They laid o\i( hi-diid stre(>ts for tlicii' li-jivd, hiil lliat was 
not their first care, 'i'licir clmi-cli atnl its blessinjis were 
1he first objects of their prnU'clioii. Tiny iiad hi-oujiht with 
liiem llieir pastor, so IJiat jirinie uecessity, as they properly 
deemed il, wa^ sup|dicd. Tlieir next care was to erect a 
iiu'olinu' house foi' di\ine woi'slup. At a tnw n luccliiiji ]i<dd 
Scpi('nd)cr 10, KJdS, it " was ordered and Agreed lo Hiiihl a 
Jleetint"' Honse as soon as May he; of i'diir or Six and 
Twenty Fool 
wide, and tiiirty- 
fonr Foot Lont;' 
and Ten Foot Be- 
tween Joints." At 
the same t o w n 
meeting- it was 
ajireed tliat tlieir ' 
minister sliouhl be I 
freed from ail 
" common rates " 
during the time 
lie ministered to 
t h e m, that he 
should r e c e i v e 
eight.N' jxuinds for 

the first year of his ministry, to be paid "yearly at two sev- 
eral tiuK"^," in < )itober and March, and " they " | the inhabit- 
ants) "do agree to i>ay him Yearly a pound of Butter for 
every milk's cow in tlie town in part of his l>ay." When it 
is I'emembered how cheaply a minister or any one could live 
in those days this salary was certainly munificent. 

In the laying out of rhe town a site for tjie erection of a 
church edifice was not forgotten, nor were the future wants 
of the church overlooked. A lot on the broad street was 




THK FIRST CHURCH. 



356 THE PASSAIC VALLEY 

set apart for the erection of a meeting house and extensive 
grounds excepted 1'roni the general division and devoted to 
the support of the sanctuary. T^^o parks, as they would 
be called to-day, were laid out : one in the center of the 
town for military evolutions, then called the " Training 
Place," now linown as Military Common, the other in the 
more northerly part of the town for a market place, now 
called ^A'ashington Park. 

The dead must be cared for and reverently buried, so a 
portion of land opposite the present First Presbyterian 
Cliurch was devoted to the purposes of a city of the dead. 

There were then two streams running through the town, 
one issuing out of a beautiful large spring on the hill back 
of the town, called First Kiver or ~Sli\\ Brook, which was 
utilized in the early history of the colony for mill purposes, 
another sm.aller stream, rising in the western part of the 
town near the head of Market Street, where at one time 
there were two small ponds caused by this last named 
brook, from which it ran down the center of the town, form- 
ing on the south side of Market Street a marsh, called " the 
Swamp," where in early times the tanners and curriers con- 
gregated, and where many of them are still to be found. 
This stream, leaving the " swamp " and a small pond on 
Market Street, continued its way southward, sometimes on 
the line of the streets, but most of the way between Broad 
and Washington Streets, forming another portion of marshy 
groiind between what is now Halsey Street and Washing- 
ton, extending almost to Spruce, where it made an abrupt 
turn eastward and crossed Broad Street a short distance be- 
low where Halsey joins Clinton Avenue. Thence it made its 
way across the ground where Lincoln Park is located to tlie 
Salt Meadows. Both of these streams have disappeared, the 
two marshes are gone, and the pond called the " Watering 



TUK FIRST SCHOOL HOUSES 



357 



Place "■ by I lie carl.v settlers, and sot aparl lor IIh' purposes 
of supplyiiii; water lo the calllc, is also noue. Tlicir places 
are covered by dwelliiiLis and shops aud factories. 

School houses were built, one in llie north end, one in the 
center, and oiie in the snniU end id' the town. When the 
first bnihling for sidiool ])urposes was erected can not be 
ascertained. Two small edifices of this character were 
standing- until recently — one on Market Street and one on 
Orange Street — small, modest buildings of stone, evidently 
ancient in llii'ir liisioi'y. 'riiciriic on Orange Street was de- 
stroyecl some leu or lirieeii years ago, the olhei- was de- 
molished 1,1 1<»00. 




^m-F e. 




CHAPTEK XXVII 



NEWARK — IN THE REVOLUTION AND THE KEI'.KLLION 



HE fii'st riiristiaii assemblaj;(* in Newark was Con- 
grefjatidiial in its creed, sjovernmeut, and ecclesias- 
tical al'tinities, but in I lie cinhteentli century it 
transferred its relations to the Presbyterian de- 
nomination and is now recognized as the oldest organization 
of that sect in New Jersey. 

In 1845 there was only one public school house in New- 
ark, costing less than 14,000 to build — a very plain edifice 
situated Avithin the square bounded by Washington, Hill, 
Ilalsey, aud Court Streets. Now there are fifty-one scattered 
ail over the city, elegant in their architecture, commodious 
in all appliances for the purposes of such erections, supplied 
with the very best teachers, and filled with thousands of 
scholars who can receive a substantial training in all the 
ordinary and even higher branches of an English education. 
There are also (wo normal or high schools meeting in two 
large edifices, where education in the languages, modern 
and classic, and in the very highest mathematical studies, 
can be obtained and studeuts i)repared for college or pro- 
fessional life. There are to-day no better schools with more 
complete arrangements for the education of youth, with 
more accomplisluHl teachers and better equipi)ed for their 
duties, than those which the noble liberality of the citizens 
of Newark has provided for the educational interests of the 



360 



THE PASSAIC VALLEY 



"Our town on the Pesaiack," thus begun with such en- 
vironments, lias now become a city of 250,000 inhabitants, 
and the descendants of those courageous men and women 
wlio found a home in the unbrolien wilder- 
ness have gone all over the republic and, 
discarding the harsh, illiberal principles 
of their ancestors, have perpetuated their 
virtues. Wherever they have gone their 
influence has always been masterful for 
the right. Their sturdy independence, 
their integrity, and their consistent lives 
have won for them the respect and confi- 
dence of the communities where they have 
lived. Several of the names of the Connec- 
ticut immigrants have disappeared from 
~" Newark, but the 

"^ \ ^)|> ^ y\?;^ -v J very best strain in 

this growing city is 
to be found among 
the representatives 
of those who first 
laid its foundations 
iqK)u the eternal 
principles of free- 
dom and the im- 
perishable laws of 
justice and right. 

The colonists 
from New England 
were a busy people. "^ No drones were allowed a lodgment 
in the new settlement. Industry was the rule. While the 
town remained in a formative state the preservation of life 
made it a necessity for all to work. The habits of industry 




THE PKKSBYTERIAK CHURCH. 



MANUFACTURING INTERESTS 



361 



thus formed were never relaxed, but routiiint'd all ihrou^li 
the history of the villai;c, the town, and tlic city, aud New- 
arlv has always been I he foivniosl locality iu the nation in 
its manufaetiu-iug interests. Its prosperity has arisen al- 
most wholly from the attention its inhabitants have be- 
stowed upon the varied objects of its many industries. A 
significant fact in the very early histoi'y of the town ex- 
hibits the estimation then held by the citizens of the value 
of manufactures. Samuel Whitehead applied for admis- 
sion into the town as an inhabitant. At the town meeting- 
held June 80, lOSO, it was resolved " that the town is will- 
ing S a m u e 1 Whitehead 



KEV1R D£SP.\IR 




T i W :Mpivcui Pnnt >»3 (iol.lSt 



should come and Inhabit 
among us, providetl he 
will supply the town with 
shoes." 

The great manufactur- 
ing prosperity of Newark 
began in the eighteenth 
century, and continued 
with increasing and un- 
varying success until the 

terrible disasters of lS3(i-37, when, with one single excep- 
tion, every important establishment iu the then city failed 
in meeting its financial engagements. The banks sus- 
pended specie payment, an(i trade and business were com- 
pletely paralyzed, fcfkilled workmen, mechanics, and ar- 
tisans walked the streets day after day seeking in vain for 
employment. The distress among all classes was inde- 
scribable. For many years prior to that time the exporta- 
tion of goods of various kinds into the Southern States 
had steadily increased until the v(dume had swollen annual- 
ly into many millions of dollars. The principal products 



362 THE PASSAIC VALLEY 

furnished for this Southern trade were boots, shoes, cloth- 
ing, carriages, and saddles and harness. This trade in a 
measure was renewed many years after the catastrophes 
of 1836, but it never rose to the same magnitude it had be- 
fore assumed. Large fortunes were made and lost in these 
Southern transactions, but the Civil War finally broke up 
the traffic and it has never regained its hold on the South- 
ern people. 

Other channels for the sale of the ever increasing prod- 
ucts of the industry of the manufacturers of Newark have 
been successfully utilized by them, and the producers of 
the almost endless variety of goods sent out from the work- 
shops of Newark are reaping large rewards for their energy 
and enterprise. The growth of the city has been marvel- 
lous. At the time of the Kevolution the population was 
only a few hundred people scattered over a large extent of 
land. Between 1890 and 1900, only a decade, the increase 
in the population has been more than sixty thousand, and 
it is still increasing. Tlie people are the most cosmopoli- 
tan in the State, representatives from almost every country 
in the Avorld being found here. 

The record of Newark and Essex County in the Eevolu- 
tion is one to be held in the greatest honor and remembered 
with pride by every citizen. When the oppressive acts of 
king and parliament attacked the liberties of some of the 
other colonies the sympathies of the people were at once 
aroused, and those sympathies given practical utterance. 
Meetings were held at which the best and most prominent 
men were present and added their voices and influence to 
swell the popular sentiment. Committees of safety and 
correspondence were aj)pointed, offers of aid were made, 
and the whole body of the people aroused to instant action. 
There were a few who still held to their allegiance to the 



DTJEING THE REVOLUTION 



363 



Englisli kiiiii', Iml I lie overwlielmiui^' majority of the com- 
munity placed ( licmselves iu uumistaliable opi)osition to 
the parliament. ^Vheu the demand came from Congress 
for troojis volunteers from all classes in society sprang at 
once to fill the ranks of the Continental Army. New Jer- 
sey was the theater of the contest. The British, soon after 
war began, occupied New York and Staten Island, and in- 
cessant raids were 
made from those two 
localities upon the in- 
habitants of the adja- 
cent parts of New Jer- 
sey. Newark, Eliza- 
bethtown, and the in- 
habitants of Essex 
County were the espe- 
cial objects of attack. 
Dwelling houses were 
burned, the furniture 
and other property 
found in them de- 
stroyed or carried 
away, cattle, sheep, 
and other domestic 
animals were driven 
off to provide food for the assailants. The outrages and 
insults inllicted upon non-combatants were disgraceful to 
humanity. Instances of brutal treatment of prisoners who 
were captured in battle or taken from their peaceful homes 
were too frequent to be repeated in these pages. 

Amid all the loss and privation occasioned by these out- 
rages the patriots stood firm and only increased their ef- 
forts to rid themselves and their country from the rule of 




WASHINGTON S CHAIR. 

(Used by him on the occasion of his iiiaugunitiou 
as President.) 



364 



THE PASSAIC VALLEY 



a government which countenanced, or at least permitted, 
such deeds of infamy to be committed by its soldiers and 
hirelings. A few honest men, sincerely believing that the 
future prosperity of their country depended upon its contin- 
ued connection with the home government, deserted the pa- 
triot cause. Some of these joined the British army and 
fought against their old friends and neighbors; some seized 







ARRIVAL OF LAFAYETTE IN 1824. 



the opportunity afforded them by the constant raids, which 
they more than willingly joined, to despoil former asso- 
ciates, and committed such fiendish deeds as have handed 
their names down to posterity with never to be forgotten 
infamy. 

Throughout the county bands of minutemen were banded 
together, formed into regularly organized companies, well 
officered, who were bound by solemn agreement to be ready 



VOLUNTEERS IN THE REVOLUTION 



?S5 



to move at a moment's notice, given by sound of signal can- 
non or by blaze or sinnl<o of beacon fir(>s. These minute- 
men did exceileut work :if Sjiringtield and in defense of 
homes and families when Hessian and Piriton invaded 
Newarlv and thi' ((miily. They \\er(^ organized early in 
177.") by an act of the Provincial Congress and AA'ere author- 
ized to choose their own officers, but by an amendatory act 
passed in August, 177."), these officers thus chosen must be 
c m mis- 
sioned b y 
the Congress. 
In the list 
of volunteers 
into the ranks 
o f privates 
and among 
the officers (if 
the patriotic 
army are in 
be found hun- 
dreds bearing 
the names of 
the oriuinal 
settlers. 

Scores of Wards. Cranes, .Tohnsons, Dodds, Piersons, Harri- 
sons, (!amtields. Wlieelers. Tichenors, and otliei'.s, lineal <le- 
scendants of tlie patriots wlio sii^ned the " liiiidaniental 
agreement," appear of record. William S. Pennington, al- 
ready mentioned in connection with his uncle, William 
Sandford, served when a nu're youth in the artillery and was 
found by a general oilicer at one of the battles of the war 
abme, tiring his ^un with cocduess and ]u-ecision, and was 
brevetted tirsi lieutenant on tlx- s]»ot. ^lany of these niin- 




WASHINGTON TAKINCi THE OATH AS riiKSlIlKNT. 



366 



THE PASSAIC VALLEY 



utemen, at times when men were called for to fill up the 
regular army, volunteered and proved their patriotism on 
many a battlefield. 

Several of these privates, after peace was declared, rose 
to eminence in the history of the State. The character of 
these volunteers eminently fitted them for the performance 
of their duties. They were intelligent, thoughtful, judi- 
cious, and wise. They knew how to command and how 
to obey. They were privates in the ranks because duty de- 
manded their presence there. Such men could not but suc- 
ceed, and the independence of the country is due to their 
intelligence and wisdom. Many of them sleep in unhonored 
graves. When the war closed the survivors returned to their 
families and their humble homes, to their farms and work- 
shops, seeking no reward for their privations except the 
consciousness of -nell-pei-foi'med <luty, and that the country 
they loved so well and for which they had braved so much 
was free. 

The peculiar and intimate relations between the citizens 
of Essex County and most of the Southern States, involving 
not only ties of fi-iendship, but also business interests ex- 
isting between them during the years just before the break- 
ing out of the Civil War, rendered the situation most embar- 
rassing. The feverish sentiment so prominent in all the 
Southern communities, the threats of secession which meant 
civil war if the threats Avere carried into execution, were 
viewed with the greatest alarm in all commercial and manu- 
facturing circles in Newark. The South was many millions 
in debt to the people of Newark alone. Civil war meant 
ruin to the manufacturer and consequent distress and loss 
to the whole people. The universal sentiment was that 
peace, if possible to be obtained without the loss of honor, 
must be reslored. All just claims of tlie misguided people 



WAR OP TIIK REBELLION 367 

of tlie Soiitli TTiiisI be recoiiiiizod if lluit could l)o accom- 
plislied Avilliout (lis.nTaco. lu tliLs bi'uliiiu'uL llie whole com- 
iniinitv iiuited. 

Rut wliou llic crasli ( ainc wlicu Fort. Siiniter was fired 
upon, wlien the lawful j«'oveniment of the country was put 
at defiance and secession became a materialized fact, then 
all was foriiotten. loss accepted, and the whole i)eople, with 
some very fi'w and most extraordinary exceptions, rose in 
one acclaiminii body and jn-oclaimed allegiance to the gen- 
eral government and opposition to the demon of rebellion. 

The uprising of the North in one solid, united mass was 
tlie grandest event in the history of any country. Political 
(litTereuces were linowu a-;ide. Some of the most decided 
opponents of the governing party, and who, before actual 
secession took place, had antagonized the Republican party 
and had striven to defeat it in the election, now were equally 
as ])ronounceil in I heir all(^giance to the general government 
as were any who had aided in elevating a Republican candi- 
date to the presidency. From the hills of Sussex to the 
seashore of Cape May there was one burst of heroic patriot- 
ism. In this acclaim Essex County and Newark, whose citi- 
/.cH'^, if \\ar should really- coiuc, would be the greatest losers 
(if property and income of all concerned, joined with almost 
nu:inimous accord. When the President made his demand 
for volunteers tliey were furnished with astonishing 
alacrity, and from the beginning of the terrible contest until 
its close Newark and Essex County steadily and persistently 
followed the fortunes of the Union cause, and gallantly and 
unselfishly sui)]>orted the government. The descendants 
of the heroes of I he IJevolution emulated their sires in de- 
\'oti()n to country. 

The fii'st call for troops was made by President Lincoln 
on the intli of .\pril, ISdl. ( tn ilic tllii of May following 



C^^L^ /^,iy)^l^^--cyi<. /^ ^i^t-^te^ ^/-iJ-x^- ,^yy^a^y, S-^-<-''-e-X- 

c^-^Lq. lOi^^i^i-L.'on^. 6>-^ S'^^i^^^^ ^yi'i.-c^^'t-e- ^^p->-i-.!^i-^ ^^.^e-^-^M^ — 
fiy^ .?%x Z^^^ «■ ey^ .^>A^ /l^-i^-iA-t^-j^ f^^^ 




'.inbpti^i^ '9^&Jn^ ^y. /P's^- 






GENERAL THEODORE RUNYON 



369 



the First, Sceuiid, 'riiinl, iind I'uunli llci^iiiic'uts ol' New 
.Icrscy I loops, except four e-oiiipaiiies of the Second Kegi- 
lueut, wliiili had lieiii delaiiicd at Baltimore for si)eeial 
sei-vice by (reueral Scott, reached Washington ready for 
duty. Tlie First Keginieut had in tliat short time been 
clotiied at tlie expense of the State. General Theodore Kuu- 
you was ill command of these troops, and tliroiigli liim New 
Jersey and Newark had the lionor of liaving one of its citi- 
zens in the field as the first commissioned f^i'iieial ollicer of 
the volunteer force. General l\uuyon was tlieii in full prac- 
tice of the law at Newark. He was 
one of the most brilliant lawyers of 
the State, afterward chancellor for 
three terms, and died at Berlin 
Avhile there representing the United 
States as ambassador. Charles S. 
Olden, of Princeton, was goveiuor, 
and was called the " Avar governor." 
He aided greatly in this prompt 
compliance with the orders of the 
President, and was indefatigable in 
the performance of his duties as 
governor, relaxing during the 

whole of the term of his office no effort whatever to se- 
cure tlie success of the Union Army. 

This wonderful achievement in tlie enlisting of four thou- 
sand trooi)s, clothing and arming them, and titling them 
for actual and immediate service in the field is une(|ualled in 
the history of all military affairs, and is an examiile of the 
action of Essex County and Newark during the whole con- 
tinuance of the war. Hundreds of these citizens lie in un- 
known graves in the Southern land; hundreds more came 
home, scarred and wounded, with empty sleeves, and hob- 




370 THE PASSAIC VALLEY 

bling on crutches, giving certain evidence of their undying 
patriotism. 

Among the brilliant men identified most closely with 
Newark v/ho sacriliced their lives during this terrific strug- 
gle was General Philip Kearney, whose bronze statue, in 
life size, adorns the Military Common at Newark. He was 
a Jerseyman of four generations, a great-grandson of Mich- 
ael Kearney, the first of the family to come to America, and 
who settled in Shrewsbury in the early part of the seven- 
teenth century. This Michael Kearney was of noble line- 
age, a descendant of the Earl of Thomond, and became dis- 
tinguished in colonial history, being at one time secretary 
of state of the colony. 

General PhilixD Kearney on his mother's side is descended 
from HugTienot stock, and was born in New York City 
June 2, 1815. He was educated at Columbia College and 
then studied law. His inclination always Avas for a mili- 
tary life. It is related of him that, as a boy, he delighted 
in fighting battles with wooden soldiei's, which were ar- 
ranged under his command against each other in mimic 
warfare. He sought for and obtained a commission as lieu- 
tenant in a company of dragoons in the United States army, 
under Jefferson Davis as captain. In 1839 he was sent by 
the government to France to study the science of war in 
the French Military School. While there engaged in this 
occupation the war between France and Algiers broke out, 
and he became attached to a branch of the French army in 
Africa and won distinction by his gallant behavior in some 
battles. Five years afterward he returned to his native 
land and became a member of the staff of General Scott in 
the Mexican War. He exhibited great skill and courage 
in this service, and at Cherubusco he lost his left arm. 

After the close of the war with Mexico he fought in the 




^■«'« brJC 3.i-.ue.w.i>al'>"'^'f'' 




MAJ. GEN. PHILIP KEARNY 



MEW YORK! 



CJBNEEAL I'lllLlP KEAENEY 



371 



T('i;nl;ii' aniiv nuaiiisl I lie Indians, liiii lliis scrNicc was dis- 
lasli'lul to him, auu lir i-<'sitiiic(i. In IS.")!!, while he was at 
Paris, the Austro-Italian wai- was in inniii-css. lni|ii||c(l hy 
his h)ve for arms, he bccanic aitlc-dc-caini) to (it'iicial Mur 
ris and foui;ht at SoltVnuo. Xapoleou III adorned him 
with the Cross of the Lejiion of Honor. In 1S()1 the (Mvil 
W'ai- broke (inl, and (ieneial Keai-ney offci-ed his services to 
the f^'overuor of New York, but for some unexplainable rea- 
son was reptilsed. Thronjih the inflnence of some New 
Jersey friends he was commissioned brigadier-general of 
the P^irst New Jersey Regiment of Volunteers. This was 




^D^MlW 



' ''-'""Kit \'\A^ ,««™_ 

•';';i^rTiiiiiim^!iiiiiuiii'i.^'^'^- • - '■ ■ ■ 




KORT LAFAYKTTE. 



on the 2ulh of July, 1801. He instantly went to the front 
and remained with his New Jersey troops, who became in- 
tensely attached to him, uniil March 25, 1862, when he was 
offered the command of a division vacated by General Sum- 
ner's promotion. lie declined the promotion because he 
could not take his Jersey troops with him. This act of self- 
denial still more strongly intrenched him in the hearts of 
his command. He soon afterward, however, accepted the 
command of a division in TIeintzelman's cor])s. 

Now came the opjiortnnity for which he had longed with 
an intensity whicli could hardly be understood by a civilian, 



372 THE PASSAIC VALLEY 

and that was the presence of actual fighting. He partici- 
pated in all the battles of the Peninsula. At Williamsburg 
he saved his old New Jersey command and Hooker from 
ruin. On September 1, 1862, just at the close of the day, at 
Chantilly, after having saved Pope's army from destruction 
and after driving Lee's army back from its forward move- 
ment on Washington, he rode out to reconnoiter the enemy's 
position. Unexpectedly he came upon the enemy's lines 
and was ordered to surrender. He turned his horse and 
leaned forward to save himself from the bullets of the 
Confederates. He was too late, and was killed by a ball 
entering his thigh or hip Jind passing out at the breast. He 
had acquired among the Union forces from his great cour- 
age the name of " Fighting Phil.," the Confederates hon- 
oring him by naming him the " One-armed Devil." 





COLONIAL COIN. 






r: 



ii»y% . 







jj 



«i'/ 



c n A P T E K X X ^M 1 1 



IRVTNfJTON, MONTCLATR. AND THE GUANOES 



ETJY suon iiftcv tin' date of the settlement of New- 
ark Ihe colonists heyan to immioTate into the ad- 
jacent conntvy. One of the descendants of Will- 
iam Camp, an orJLiinal scKlcr, wcnl two or three 
miles sontlnvesterly from Newark and fonnded what from 
his time nntil fifty years since was called Camptown, l)ut 
is now known as Trviniitoii. Land at the foot of the Oranjie 
Monntain was ])l()iied and (li\ided to some of the ori<>'inal 
settlers. As early as KitiT widow Hannah Freeman had a 
farm of forty acres allolled to her. By the description of 
^frs. Freeman's h)t it is learned that other lands had been 
ap]>ortioned to Richard Harrison, one of the original set- 
tiers. In Ans^nst, 1675, Robert Symon, as tlie name ap- 
pears, received a lot of forty-four acres bounded by the 
mountain and by the lands of Jolin Baldwin, i^amnel 
Swaine, and Richard Harrison. I'aldwin and Swaine were 
also of the original immi^ranls. Tiiis name Symon is nn- 
donI)tedly an error. No smdi name a])]iears amonjj' the 
si<;ners of the fnndamenlal agreement, bnl Ihe name Rob- 
ert Lymens does. 

In the same niontli of .\ujinst, K!"."), .lolm Baldwin ob- 
tained foi-ty acres " near Ihe mountain,"' bonnded by lands 
of John Ward, Captain Samnel Swaiue, John Catlin, and 



374 THE PASSAIO VALLEY 

Richard Harrison. These undoubtedly were divisions 
made subsequently to the first allotment, as all of these 
men appear as settlers who had received lots within the 
bounds of Newark proper. It is quite certain that before 
the beginning- of the eighteenth centui*y dwelling houses 
had been built at what was known during the Eevolution 
as Tory Corner, now within the bounds of West Orange. 
Among these later divisions were some which are described 
as being on the upper branch of Rahway River. The set- 
tlers on these and other lots in the vicinity of the mountain 
were some of those who founded the localities now known 
as Orange and West Orange. The Harrisons, Dodds, and 
Williams have always abounded in all the Oranges. 

These outside settlements gradually increased until Belle- 
ville, Bloomfield, Orange, and Springfield became well 
known and recognized localities. But when they were first 
settled can not be accurately ascertained. They were all 
of gradual growth — first, a solitary settler reared his log- 
cabin, a beginner, perhaps, in his manhood career and plan- 
ning for the future; then came another until at last the set- 
tlement assumed such proportions that it required a name. 
One of these had its origin in the erection of a dwell lug- 
near the east side of the mountain, between Bloomfield and 
Caldwell, by a descendant of Azariah Crane, a prominent 
first settler in Newark. Others of the same patronymic 
gathered around him, and the name Cranetown adhered to 
the locality for more than a century. It has now spread, 
and a beautiful town has climbed up the east side of the 
mountain and occiipied the valley beneath. Newcomers of 
taste and wealth appreciated the desirable sites for resi- 
dences and utilized them for their permanent homes. It is 
now called Montclair, and has grown from the insignificant 
hamlet to a town numbering, as will appear by the last 



376 



THE PASSAIC VALLEY 



national census, 13,962 people, living iu four wards. It is 
a town of residences mostly, with no great manufacturing 
interests. The facilities of travel afforded by the two rail- 
roads which reach it from New York, its beautiful situation 
and healthful air, make it a desirable place of residence, 




^ »-',^ w't, ~ 






THE DOREMUS HOUSE AT BLOOMFIELD. 



and many have availed themselves of the opportunity thus 
given. 

Between Montclair and Newark, in an extensive valley 
spreading over nearly its whole surface, more than a hun- 
dred years ago was a small village peopled largely by Dodds 
and Baldwins, all descended from the Baldwins and Daniel 
Dod, who came to Newark in 1666. The name Bloonifleld 
was giveji to this village in 1796 in honor of Uovernor 



MONTCLAIR AND BLOOMFIELD 377 

Joseph Bloomfielil, (uic n\' ilic nmsi distinfjiiished luon of 
liis liiiit' in New Jersey. 

(ioveruor Bloonifleld was an officer in the Revolutionary 
Anuy, a hiwyer of excellent reputation, the (•»)ni]>iler of 
a volume of the statutes of New Jersey, ami liovernor and 
chancellor of the Stale for several years. lUoDinlield is 
still strongly contrnlli'd hy tlic clement representing its 
first settlers, who ])oss('ss the u]irightness aTid adherence 
to principle and right of their ancestors. 

Montclair has received so large a volume of immigration 
of other blood than that Idiind in its early settlers that the 
influence of the ancestors li.is in a great measure given 
place to that of the ncwrnmcrs. Hut this has occasioned 
no loss of benefit to the interests of the municipality or of 
its citizens. Bloomfield in lltOO had a ]»)]iulati(iii of 0,()(i8, 
and is divided into four wards. 

The representatives of the first immigrants iuld Itldom- 
hehl are jjermanent in their habits and residences, and iicdd 
fast to the sturdy characteristics of their progenitors. They 
are steady supporters of their church oi-ganizations and 
gladly maintain their institutions of learning. The Pres- 
byterian denomination has sustained successfully foi' nuiny 
years a seminary at this i)lace foi" tlie education i>f (icinian 
young men for the ministry. There are some manufactures 
in the town which have interjected an tdement ]tossessing 
several qualities of mind and action somewhat foreign tu 
those of the majority of the ])eople, but there has been nn 
serious clashing of the I wo classes. lUoomtield was, until 
the year 1812, a ]>arl of Newark, and was known as Hioom- 
field Ward. 

In ISdC) its southern line was establislied, hut it was not 
until ISlli that it became an independent township. In all 



378 



THE PASSAIC VALLEY 



its histoi-y, especially prior to 1812, it was closely identified 
with Newark. 

West Orange was incorporated in 1862, and was formed 
by adding together portions of Orange, Caldwell, and Liv- 
ingston. In the act of incorporation it was first called Fair- 




-^.m 
t^^ 




ENTRANCE TO LLEWELLYN PARK. 



mount. In 1863 its boundary lines were altered and its 
name changed to West Orange. It is situated very nearly 
in the center of the county, and has within its bounds the 
beautiful residential locality known all over the country as 
Llewellyn Park, established many years ago by Llewellyn 
S. Haskell, now dead, whose first name was adopted as its 
title. 

Llewellyn Park is beautiful for situation, and is embel- 



LLEWELLYN PAKK 



379 



lished by iiiiiii.v (l\vclliii,i;s of a vci'v liiuti order of archi- 
tecture, both US to erection and as (o details. The park 
contains over (dulit luindred acres, and is sitnaied in the 
eastern part of the township near llie line of Orange. ^Mr. 




BUST OK LLKWKI.LYN S. HASKKI.L. 



Haskell came lo New -lersex in IS.")."), and sur\c_ved ihe 
jiTouud now covered li\ I lie ]>ark. He ap])recialed at once 
tlu^ ^reat natural beauties of the localitv, and understood 
how it niiji'lit be utilized l)\- art coiubined with its natural 
aspects into one of the most desirable situations for the 



380 



THE PASSAIC VALLEY 



erection of residences. Every possible detail of an inviting 
landscape was there — mountain, brook, vale, copse, forest, 
ground rising from the valley up the side of the mountain, 
rock, and springing grass. 

Mr. Haskell mapped out in his artistic fancy the future 
of the scene, the creation of lake, winding roads, laby- 
rinthine paths, vine-clad rocks, sheltered nooks, and the 

necessary adjuncts to homes of 
taste and elegance. He first 
bought five hundred acres and 
afterward three hundred more, 
and at once began his oper- 
ations. The result has been the 
creation of one of the most won- 
derfully complete and romantic 
grounds, fitted exclusively for 
the residences of those who de- 
light in such scenes as there 
surround them. 

Mr. Haskell died in 1872, but 
he lived long enough to see his 
^ dream fully realized in the lo- 
*^ cation he had so beautified by 
his artistic taste. It is now 
filled with the happy homes of those who have profited by 
the forethought and wisdom of the founder of Llewellyn 
Park. The dwellers in this fairylike scene have mani- 
fested their gratitude to Mr. Haskell by placing his life- 
size bust on a granite pedestal at its entrance. 

Thomas A. Edison, the famous inventor, has a residence 
here, and many wealthy business men of New York have 
reared their permanent homes and adorned them with all 
that wealth could procure or taste invent. 




J'yvovru^A (Jj Ccljia 



SAINT CLOUD AND WEST ORANGE 



381 



Saiut Cloud. a small hamlet situated on a Iiiiili elevation of 
First Moiintaiu, was tiie residenee of (i('nei;il (lc<>r(>c ]{. Mf- 
Clellau for several years aud at tlic liinc of Ids death. 
Through his exertions ;i handsome ohiirch edUice devoted 
to the worship of Clod aceording- to the forms of the Presby- 
terian denonunation was erected at this place and a con- 
gregation gatliereil within its walls. The general contribu 
ted largely to the erection of this building and to the su]>- 
port of the services 
of the sanctuary, 
and Avas one of the 
ruling elders of the 
organization. 

The population 
of West Orange is 
somewhat scat- 
t e r e d o V e r its 
northern part, but 
at its southern end 
there is a compact- 
ness of buildings, 
once part of Orange 
proper, but taken 
fi'om that city 
when West Orange 
was incorporated. 

At this southern extremity is the Episcopal Church of Saint 
Mark's, M'hose congregation have exjierienced many vicissi- 
tudes in their history. Beginning with a very small member- 
ship, they have now become one of the strongest and most 
prosperous organizations of their denomination in New Jer- 
sey. The Rt. Rev. William K. Whittingham, for many years 
Bishop of Maryland, was in his early manhood the rector 




GEORGE B. MXI-ELLAN. 



382 THE PASSAIC VAX,LEY 

of Saint Mark's, receiving a salary of four liundred dollars. 
The Williams and Harrison families, many of whom resided 
in this vicinity, were its liberal supporters and really its 
founders. One of the Williams family, the Eev. James A. 
Williams, D.D., for many years, from the time he was or- 
dained deacon and up to his death, was its rector. 

There are some manufacturing interests in West Orange, 
but outside of the vicinity of Saint Mark's Church the peo- 
ple are agricultural and residential. A branch of the Eah- 
way River rises in its northern part and runs through the 
valley between the two ranges of mountains in the township 
of Milburn, affording at one time, when water power was 
more desirable than at present, large facilities for mills. 

West Orange is divided into four wards, and in 1900, ac- 
cording to the census, had a population of 6,889. It was 
the home of Anthony Thompson, the last slave in Essex 
County. He was born in Karitan, Somerset County, in 1798, 
and was sold when an infant with his mother to Samuel 
M. Ward, of Montclair, who freed him by his will. He 
bought his mother's freedom for one hundred dollars when 
he was twenty-six years old. He lived with the Williams 
family at Tory Corner, and died in 1884, near Eagle Rock. 
At nineteen years of age he united with the Presbyterian 
Church and continued his membership until his death. He 
lived and died respected and beloved. 

South Orange was identified with Newark, forming part 
of that town, its inhabitants voting with the other inhabit- 
ants of that very large township, until 1806, when Orange 
Ward was created, but the ground covered by that ward 
was still a part of Newark. The elections during many 
years prior to 1806 were held at different places in the 
township — one day at Orange or at some other locality out- 
side of Newark, and the other day at Newark, generally 



DIVISION OF NEWARK INTO WAKUS 



383 



at some tavern, but lu later times oue day at the court- 
house. 

It will probably be interestiiiii' to readers to know the 
division of Newark into these wards. ^Vt the town meet- 
ing held April 14, 1806, it was resolved that the " Township 
Committee, togethci- with llie Assessors, be authorized to 
divide the Townsliiji into tliree districts, for llie ](ur|>oses 




THE BALDWIN HOMESTEAD. 



of Assessment and colleetion, and that each person be taxed 
in the Destrict where he resides for all his taxable property 
in the Township." On May 9, 1806, this report appears in 
the town records : 

Agreeable to the fifth Resolve passed at the last annual Town meeting, a 
meeting of the Township Committee and Assessors was held at the house of 
Samuel Munn in Orange on the ninth day of May 180(> — wlien it was agreed 
that the following should be the division lines., Beginning at tlie (ireen Island 
in Pasaik River; and running frimi thenee to the Boiling Spring on liinds of 
Phiuehas Baldwin, Dec'd and fnmi tlienoe to the Bridge of the Slougli l)etween 



384 



THE PASSAIC VALLEY 



the houses of Jouathan Baldwin and Elihu Piersou and from thence to the Bridge 
near Silas Bodd's, and from thence to the Bridge near Martin Richards, and 
from thence to Turkey Eagle Rock on the top of the first Mountain, which we 
agree shall be the division line between the Bloomfield Ward and the Wards of 
Newark and Orange. And also that the line between Newark Ward and 
Orange Ward shall begin at the af'd Boiling Spring; and from thence run- 
ning to Pecks Bridge on Green Meadow Brook ; and from thence to the 
Bridge called Coleman's Bridge, and from thence following the River called 
Elizabeth or Elizabeth River to the line of the Township of Elizabeth. Wit- 
ness our hands this ninth day of May 1806. 

D. D. Crane, Thos. Baldwin, Stephen Hays, Stephen D. Day, Township Com- 
mittee. Elias A. Baldwin, John Dodd, Nathan Sqider, Assessors. 




STONE HOUSE AT SOUTH ORANGE. 






South Orange was undoubtedly settled by immigrants 
from Newark. In 1680, September 27, the town meeting 
made this resolve : 

Item : Nathaniel Wheeler, Edward Riggs and Joseph Riggs have a Grant to 
take up Land upon the upper Chestnut hill by Raway River near the Stone 
House, provided they exceed not above fifty Acres a piece. 

This certainly was within the bounds of what is now 
Milburn, or near there in South Orange. A very ancient 
stone house is still standing on the line of the Delaware, 
Lackawanna and Western Eailroad, near Maplewood, at 
which sixty years ago there was a stopping place. It seemed 



.SOUTH AM> KAST ()UA.\(il': 385 

no older llirii ihaii il is iiDW. Wlid lici- lliis is liir I'dilii'C 
I'eferred lo in llic dcsi ripi inn jnsi i|Uiiic(l cnii ikiI he asrcr- 
taiiK'd. TIk;' cxistciuc, Ikiwcnc!-, oI ;\ stoiu^ Imhisc in that 
I)art of the township of Newark so cjiily as KiSO. only four- 
teen years after the settlement :il \('\v;irl<, jn'oves satis- 
faetorilj that the niijirations troni I he pan-nl ccdonv had 
alread_\' rcin-hrd a point distanl scNcraJ miles from New- 
ark, and i;ives some eviilenee of the lime when South 
Oraniic befjau to be jteoided. Thai dale inn be reaehed in 
no other way. This old stone house in om- ])oint answers 
the description of (he one mentioned in the record of the 
tow n meeting of September 27, l(i8(l. It is situated near 
a brook, and a stream called the Stone Hou.se Brook is 
mentioned in an old description of some land in that vicin- 
ity. Tlie names most prominent in the early settlement 
of Souili Orani^e are liall, Brown, Baldwin, I'ierson, Tilloii, 
Moore, Freeman, Kigiis, Tichenor. ;ind Tompkins, nil .New- 
ark names. 

South ()ranne \illaiic is a jxtrlion cnrNed out of the town- 
shijt immediately surronndin.n' the town, and \\:is incor- 
jjorated with village powers. The township in 1!M)(» had a 
populati»>n of 1,'):'>0, ;ind the town niniibered 4.<'>(ts in the 
same year. 

East Orange is only a coutinuntion of the City of ( )i ange, 
ilie two cities being so intiiiialely connected and idenlihed 
in their history and ju-ogress that it is dihicnlt to sei)arate 
them historically. East Orange is not a suburb of (trange; 
it is really ])hysically a part of it. The streets of each are 
common to both, nnd run from I lie territory of one into that 
of the other with the same nnnu's. continuing ihi'ir 
course in the same directions until they end. Fifty j'ears 
ago the country of this municii)ality Avas ])astoral in its 
appearance, being occupied mostly by farmers. The ground 



386 THE PASSAIC VALLEY 

was undulating, well adapted for agriculture. The dwell- 
ings were comfortable, but of ordinary architecture, and 
farmlike. In 1863 the bounds of the township as defined 
by its act of incorporation were these : 

Begiuuiiig at a line between the town of Orange and the Township of South 
Orange, where the centre of Centre Street in said town of Orange would inter- 
sect said line, thence in a Northerly oi' Northeasterly direction to a point in the 
north side of Jlain Street in the said town of Orange where the line between the 
laud of Caleb G. Harrison and Nathan W. Piersen near the corner of Baldwin 
and said Main Street would intersect the north side of said Main Street, 
thence in a North or Northwesterly direction to a large oak tree, on 
the lands and near the residence of William Patterson, thence in a North- 
erly or Northwesterly direction to a point on the East side of Park Street in said 
town of Orange, where the angle in said street near the residence of Aaron Will- 
iams would intersect said point, thence on in the du'ection of the last mentioned 
line to the west side of said Park Street, thence in a Northerly or Northeasterly 
direction to a point in the centre of the bridge over the Nishayne brook, where 
the south side of Dodd Street (or the street running from David Riker's store 
to the Orange Cemetery) would intersect the said point; thence in a Northerly 
or north Easterly direction to a point in the centre of the North side of the 
bridge near the residence of Henry Stickuey and thence to the Ime of the last 
mentioned line to the line between the town of Orange and the township of 
Bloomfield, thence along the line between the said town of Orange and the town- 
ship of Bloomiield to the line between the town of Orange and the City of New- 
ark, thence along the line between the said town of Orange and the said City of 
Newark to the line between the town of Orange and the township of Soutli 
Orange, thence along the line between the said town of Orange and the said 
township of South Orange to the place of Beginning. 

The population formerly resident here is now represented, 
and the influence of these- representatives is still felt and 
felt for the right. 

For some time after the incorporation of East Orange as 
a township a large majority of its olScers bore names which 
were unmistakably those of the first settlers in this part 
of Essex County, such as Munu, Harrison, Crane, Williams, 
Condit, Peck, Hedden, Ward, Doremus, and others. It is 
however, very doubtful whether these descendants of the 
old stock would have awakened to the beauty of situation 



KAST ORANGE 



387 



of East Orange, m- in iis ilcsii-aliilii v ;is ;i jilacc ol' i-i-si<l<'rici', 
li:i(l il iini liccii fdi- llic iin|icliis yixcii In a new i)i-(li'i- of a f- 
t'airs and lor I lie wisdom and forclliou.nht of tlic new ele- 
iiieut iuti'i'jectcd inio llir lown dtiriiii^ llic last years uf the 
nineteeuth centiirv. Thai clciiii'iil was progressive, wisely 




COUNTRY CLUB HOUSK : Hi. llo.N lAKh. 



SO, and under their jiuiilancc an uiiiiaralli-lcd stride in ini- 
]iroveiiients has been made. lOast (>range has become one 
of the most beautiful and best regulated mnnieiiialities in 
the State, and it may be safely said in the whole eountry. 
The improvemeuts introduced have been maile in the most 



388 



THE PASSAIC VALLEY 



judicious manner, with no mad, impulsive rush, but with 
forethought and judgment. Streets have been laid out and 
bettered for the benefit of the public; school houses and 
churches have been erected which are ornamental to the 
city, and at the same time have served the purposes of their 
erection; pure water has been introduced and placed with- 
in the reach of all; private dwellings have been built with 
taste and with all appliances for household purposes. Some 
of these have been noble, stately structures, equalled by 
very few in the State. It is apparent that the aim in all 
these improvements for city and public purposes has been 
made by practical and sagacious men. 

East Orange is remarkable for the elegance of its church 
ediiices, many of which are models in architecture and ap- 
pliances for the uses to which they are devoted. The city 
is unsurpassed in the facilities provided by the generosity 
of its people for the education of its youth and for the re- 
ligious needs of its citizens. 

From a few farm bouses it has stretched its mass of com- 
pact buildings, public and larivate, over almost the entire 
surface of the city. It is divided into five wards and has 
a population, as indicated by the census of 1900, of 21,506, 
showing an increase in ten years of nearly forty per cent., 
the people in 1890 numbering 13,282. 




COLONIAL COIN. 









V^ 



C IT A P T E K XXIX 



CLINTUX, FUAXKI.IX, liKI.I.KX ILLK, VHKOXA, CALDWELL 




tla 



I.IXTOX TOWNSHIP was so identified Avith New- 
ark until is;?.") tlinl it is ditticull to write of it liis- 
tdrically ]irinr lo its rreation. All the interests of 
I he smaller ciuiKirat ion were lucrji'ed in those of 
Uiicr. Tlir Icrritorv now belon^inji to Clinton was 



controlled and iiancllcd nnl by the town nuM^tin^' of New- 
ark precisely as that nf any other part of the colony, and 
the otticers of Newark iio\cined I he ])eo]ile of Clinton pre- 
\-ioiis to 1S35. 

Tile iiaine Clinton was bestowed on the new township in 
honor of De \\'itt Clinton, the progressive j;overnor of New 
York and the ])rojector of the Erie Canal. But i)rior to the 
incorporation and tor sonu' tinu- after that event the name 
Cani])town had been a])propriate(I by the small settlement 
made by imniiiiranis from Newark in its early history. It 
was easy for any who ilesired to go out from amonji- the 
first colonists in " onr town on the Pesaiack "" to reach the 
lieanlitiil rcdlini; lironnds and the fertile valleys found only 
two miles southward. 

There has been an attempt made to derive the name 
Camptown from some ima<;inary fact connected with the 
presence of ^^'aslli ni;t on in Essex County dnrini; the Revo- 
lution. But the attemi)t is not sustained by evidem-e. Will- 
iam Cam)), one of the sii^ners of the fundamental ajjreement, 
and who becanu' prominent in the new colony, was granted 



390 



THE PASSAIC VALLEY 



land now lying- Avithin tlie bounds of Irvington, and many 
members of his family were born in this vicinity and became 
influential in i^ublic affairs. The name undoubtedly is de- 
rived from these circumstances. But it became unsavory. 
Some Vi^ags who delighted in mischief invented jokes and, 
perhaps, some alleged facts which rendered the name odious. 
Young bloods did visit the tavern at Camptown for a frolic 

or a dance, and might 
have indulged in some 
scenes worse than frolics 
or dances; but the inhabit- 
ants of the village and 
the adjacent country were 
sober, sedate, and Chris- 
tian men and women, and 
ought not to have suffered 
from the misdeeds of oth- 
ers. 

" C a m p t w n Navy 
Yard" was burlesqued 
and laughed about and 
flouted and jeered until 
discreet men, who really 
knew nothing about the 
facts, began to believe that 
no locality deserving the name really existed. In fact there 
was no real navy yard, but there was a veritable manufac- 
tory where sloops and periaguas were certainly built for 
a trade of some magnitude between New York and New- 
ark and the surrounding country. These vessels were 
manufactured at A^inegar Hill, near Bound Brook, carried 
from there to that stream, and launched on its waters to 
freight wood, hay, and farm produce to New York and bring 




CLINTOX TOWNSHIP 391 

from there goods in cxchniii^r. 'I'liis Irmlc lias long since 
been destroyed by the water iu lioiiiid Ili'ook bfcoiiiing too 
sluillow to lloat the vessels. 

The first settlers in Cliiilmi cainc iiiidoiihtiMlly rnmi New- 
ark, their names being Canii>, lii-own, Pierson, Ilarrison, 
Kiggs, Toni))kins, Lyon, Koberls, and Johnson. Many of 
these first settlers were men who aided in establishing New- 
ark and actually signed the fnndaniciiial agrcMMucnt. One 
of these had granted to him a lot of land lying on Elizabeth 
Eiver, which runs through the 
township from north to south and 
in the immediate vicinity of Ir- 
vington. This stream fifty years 
ago was larg(dy utilizeil Utv walin- 
power. Three large ponds were 
dammed \i\y on its course and 
quite extensive factories and mills 
established. 

The eastern end of the l((wnslii|i 
runs into the Salt Meadows and 
envelops 028 acres of tide uiai-sli. 
From this extent of country 
Bound Brook flows into the up- 

' CLINTON AKMS. 

land. This stream is historical. 

It forms the boundary between Newark and Elizabeth- 
town. Just south (d' its entrance into Clinton upland is 
found, where the State fair grounds are established. On 
the west of these grounds it has been itroiM.scd to gatlier the 
waters of the brook into a lake, which has already been 
named Weequahick. A few houses and one or two hotels 
have gathered around the fair grounds and the title Waver- 
ley has been given to it. 

In November, 1852, the name Camptown was obliterated 




392 



THE PASSAIC VALLEY 



and Ii'vinoton took its place in honor of Washington Irving, 
the accomplished American author, who has done so much 
to raise the standard of American literature in England and 
elsewhere. Irvington is uoav incorporated with town pow- 
ers, and is governed by trustees elected by the people. It 
has three churches : the Eeformed, Christian, and Methodist 
— all well organized and flourishing. A school house of 
excellent proportions and well supplied with teachers and 




"SUNNYSIDE": WASHINGTON IRVING's HOME. 



other appliances for educational purposes was erected in 
1870, at a cost of fourteen thousand dollars. Irvington has 
a population of 5,255 and Clinton 1,325. 

Franklin and Belleville are the two northeastern town- 
ships of Essex, and are botli washed on the whole length of 
their eastern boundaries by the Passaic River. Franklin is 
situated in the extreme northeast, and is bounded north by 
Passaic County, east by Passaic River, south by Belleville, 
and west by Bloomfield. The landscapes presented in this 
township are delightful to one sailing up or down the river. 
A rolling country is presented to the view, with two or 
three ranges of slightly elevated eminences. It is a resi- 



FKANKIJN TOWNSHIP 



393 



dential localily, ;ill linu^li al one iiniod in its history its 
luanufacturiiiii iiilcrcsis wciv iarjiX', but tiiosi' arc uow iu a 
<;reat measuri' ahniidoiUMl from firciiiiistaiifcs wliifh (.'uuid 
not be con- 
trolled. ai)p;n- 
ently, by tin ■ 
owners. 

The chaniics 
vv li i c li meet 
the eye from 
farm and cnni 
fortable faini 
iiouse. witli its 
s 11 r r o u n d- 
i 11 y s, to llic 
beautiful 
country seat, 
ado r n e d b.\ 
taste, nestlin- ^^^ 
amid trees au-l 
foliaii'e. froni- 
ing- on the riv 
er, from tlic 
benutiful \il 
hiy-e witli its 
sniin, conven- 
ient dwelliujLis 
for workmen 
and their fani 
ilies, to the oc- 
casional forest, all deiijilil and diarm llic beholder. 

The history of l'rani<liii is so recent in date that ver\ 
little can be said about it . It once, in tin- ver\' earl \' hist or v 




MALI. OK THE KNIGHTS, BINNENHOF, HOLLAND. 



394 THE PASSAIC VALLEY 

of Newark, was attached to that colony. In 1812 Bloom- 
field was separated from Newark, and then incorporated 
within its bounds both Belleville and Franklin. In 1839 
Belleville was created, being then separated from Bloom- 
field, and included Franklin, which was taken by an act of 
the Legislature passed February 18, 1874, from Belleville, 
and made an independent township. It was then that its 
separate history began. 

There does not seem to have been an immigration from 
Newark, certainly not from the first settlers, into this part 
of the territory of that colony. But immigrants came from 
Acquackanouk and perhaps from Bergen. This supposition 
is supported by the quaint character of manj^ old residences 
still standing and some of which were in existence fifty 
years ago. The^^ were of the character usually adopted by 
the early Holland immigrants — structures of massive stone 
walls, one story, in some instances a storA' and a half, high, 
with a j)iazza or porch across the whole front of the build- 
ing. Several of these dwellings had the date of their erec- 
tion carved into a stone tablet over the front door. One 
of these is dated 1702, another 1738, and one of these tab- 
lets, on a house which took the place of a very old edifice, 
bears the date 1788. The presence of Dutch names borne 
by residents many years ago in the territory of Franklin 
also testifies to the truth of the assertion that this part of 
the country was settled by former citizens of Acquackanouk 
and Bergen. Occasionally, after the time that Franklin be- 
came a township, some of these names appear in the list of 
township officers, such as Van Winkle, Van Biper, Post, 
Grarrabrant, Kierstead, and Hopper. 

There are three villages or hamlets in the township: 
Avondale, Nutley, and Franklin. Avondale was once called 
North Belleville, and is situated a short distance above 



AVONDALE, FRANKLIN, AND NUTLEY 



395 



l?('ll('ville and on a declivit.v near I lie river. IForo there are 
extensive quarries of red sandstone ol the vei-y best quality, 
larnc quantities of wliicli liav;^ been excavated and sent in 
many different directions. Avondale is a new locality, and 
with Nutley and Franklin is indebtc^d for its growth to the 
Erie Railroad, whicli jiasses tlinnmh the (»ntire length of 
Franklin. Stations have been established at each of these 
localities, affording siidi easy and ]»ronipt facilities of travel 
that many citizens of New York and other business centers 
have been induced to build dwellings in this section of New 
Jersey. 

Franklin lies more to the west and 
farther north in the county, and in the 
valley of Third Kiver, sometimes 
called Yanticaw. which at this jxiint 
has quite a descent and was om-c 
largely used for water power for mills. 
Here many years ago were I lie 1 tun- 
can woolen mills, coiiductcd by the 
Duncan brothers, Sc»)t(dimen, — excel- 
lent, worthy citizens, who desired to 
make more of their em])loyees than 
mere workmen. They provided schools 

for tlieir thildren, erected a cliincii, ami in the winicr sea- 
sons they asked men of talent and learning to come and 
lecture for their benefit. They are all now dead, their 
works are abandoned, bui I'ranklin still thrives. 

Nutley is nearer to the I'assaic River, and is a thriving 
residential locality. It owes its existence to Thomas \V. 
Satterthwaite, a wealthy gentleman, who many years ago 
erected a stately residence on the banks of the river now in- 
corporated within the bounds of Nutley. Tie owned many 
lMindi'c(l arri's liei'e, and he and his faniilc dicidi'd the 




VAN CORTLANDT ARMS. 



396 THE PASSAIC VALLEY 

property into building sites, and, offering inducements to 
those disposed to settle liere, in this manner formed the 
nucleus for a thriving, populous town. ISfutley was the name 
given by Mr. Satterthwaite to his country seat, and it was 
adopted by the citizens as the title to the new town thus 
reared. It has a population of over three thousand. Some 
idea may be gained of the progressive spirit and libei-ality of 
its citizens from the fact that a school house costing thirty 
thousand dollars has been erected in the village. 

Belleville is an old town, being in existence long before 
the township bearing its name was incorporated. It has a 
large infusion of Holland stock, as is witnessed by the pres- 
ence for so many years of a strong and flourishing Eeformed 
congregation and also by the presence now and for several 
generations of so ma.ny Dutch names, such as Jerolamon, 
Schuyler, Eutgers, Spier (or Speer as it is now written), Van 
Cortlandt, Coeyman, and Ackerman. The town was a bust- 
ling, active community more than fifty years ago, and it 
has retained those characteristics to the present. Docks 
were built on the river and craft of quite large draft were 
coming and going, passing to and fro up and down the 
stream, carrying the manufactured products of the mills 
and factories in the town and in the surrounding country 
to market and goods of different kinds for lunne consump- 
tion. But the steam whistle of the locomotive was heard, 
the river trade gradually died out, and the freight was 
brought in and carried away by the railroad. The town, 
however, has steadilv increased and is still increasing. The 
population of the whole township in 1890 was 3,487; in 1900 
it had grov/n to 5,907, an increase of forty and more pei* 
cent. The people outside of the town number very few, and 
this increase is due almost entirely to the town. A pecul- 
iarity not often found in a locality where tlie increase in 



398 



THE PASSAIC VALLEY 



population is due to immigration more tlian to natural 
causes exists here in the permanence of the inhabitants. The 
people, especially the representatives of the old element, 
rarely change. The town is mostly situated between the 
river, and quite an extensive range of eminences lying west- 
ward and running north and south nearly parallel with the 
stream. The houses were chiefly confined a few years ago 
to one single street, running along the west bank of the 
river and not far from it, spreading north and south for 

more than a 
mile. But now 
they have 
climbed the 
eminences and 
nearly covered 



their heights. 
A very large 
part of the 
population of 
ISelleville is 
e n g a g e d in 
m a n u f a c- 
t u r i n g. The 




AN OLD FARM HOUSE. 



Hendricks 
copper works are situated near the west side of the town 
on Second Kiver. These works are very extensive, have 
been established for more than seventy-five years, and are 
still in successful opei-ation. John Eastwood and others 
are engaged in large manufactures in the town. For a cen- 
tury and more an important industry in Belleville has been 
connected with the quarries of red sandstone. This has 
been extensively and i^rofitably followed. 

The Reformed Church at Belleville is one of the oldest 



BELLEVILLE AND VERONA 39*J 

iu the State. It was oi'gauized eei-taiuly prior to 1725, as 
is proved by the fact that iu the records oi the church iu 
that year it is recorded that measures are beiug talveu to 
secure the buildiug of a " uew church " for worship. From 
that date uutil uow this orgauizatiou lias beeu iu opeiatiou 
with uuvaryiug success. About tifty years ago the church 
was rebuilt, ami iu this substuutial stoue buildiug the cou- 
gregatiou gathers from time lo time. A commodious par- 
sonage has also beeu erected. These two buiidiugs are 
situated on the main street iu the ceuter of the town, aud 
add much by their presence to the beauty of the locality. 
The Kev. T. Ue Witt Talmadge was at one time a pastor of 
this church. There are three other churches at Belleville: 
a Methodist, au Episcopalian, and a Koiuan Catholic. 

Belleville is situated ou the Second Kiver, and iu its early 
history was called after the name of that stream. Its pres- 
ent title is truly descriptive of the town and its situation. 

Nestled in the valley of Peckmau's Biver, between the 
First and Second xMouutains, lies the towuship of Verona, 
the last inuuicipality created in Essex. It was taken from 
Caldwell iu 1S92 and made an independent township. Its 
population in lUOO was 2,137. It has two villages within 
its borders: Verona and Cedar Grove, in the vicinity of 
Verona village during the eighteenth and niueteeuth cen- 
turies there were several families of the Condit stock, who 
were mostly agriculturists. Some of the race still remain 
here. Jonathan Condit, a captain in the Kevolutionary 
Army, resided here on a farm at the breaking out of the war. 
Near him were other families of the same name, all of whom 
were intlueutial members of the community. A small in- 
fusion of Dutch blood found its way here about a hundred 
years ago, the most prominent name being that of Jacobus. 

Verona village was until a few years ago a (piiet hamlet 



400 THE PASSAIC VALLEY 

of a few dwellings, inhabited by a staid and steady popula- 
tion, mostly farmers. A large factory for brushes of all 
varieties, conducted by a member of the Jacobus family, 
gave some life to the place. Some enterprising citizens of 
other localities aAvoke to the desirability of the village for 
residences, and a few built dwellings here, among whom 
may be mentioned the Hon. John L. Johnson, formerly a 
judge of the Court of Common Pleas of Essex and now a 
prominent lawyer with his office in Newark. Others have 
followed his example and have become permanent residents 
of this community. 

Cedar Grove is a small hamlet in the northern part of the 
township. Peckman's Elver, a tributary of the Passaic, 
emptying its waters into that river at Little Palls, runs 
through the entire length of the township and forms the 
valley. At the southern end of the township this stream 
has formed a lake covering many acres. In the beginning 
of the nineteenth century this sheet of water, called Verona 
Lake, was utilized for milling purposes, and was nuich re- 
sorted to by the farmers of the vicinity. But now it is a i^lace 
of resort for pleasure seekers, who find there every appli- 
ance for their delight and recreation. The water is of pure 
spring origin, unpolluted as are so many of the streams of 
the State for sewage purposes. It lies sheltered by the sur- 
rounding hills from storm and destructive winds, so that 
tourists who seek its quiet waters are safe. It is nearly 
a mile in length, and eveiy drop of its pellucid waves comes 
from mountain springs issuing from the eminences which 
surround it and seem to be the guardians of the spot. The 
park and lake are under the most excellent management, 
while every possible ai)pliance is furnished for the pleas- 
ure of those who come there for rest. The most fastidious 
may be assured that nothing will be found to offend or 



402 THE PASSAIC VALLEY 

molest. It is under the charge of an association of gentle- 
men, residents of the village and its vicinity, who, them- 
selves fully alive to the importance of the preservation of 
good morals and purity in the community, have adopted 
such rules for the regulation of the conduct of visitors and 
for the preservation of the quiet of the place that no offence 
can possibly be given to any one. The lake is easily reached 
by trolley cars from all parts of the adjoining country. Art 
has aided nature and, combining the natural scenery of the 
lake and its surroundings with other environments, has 
made this beautiful sheet of water most desirable. It is 
fitted up with boat houses, a lawn decorated with shrub- 
bery, tables for picnics, and settees tor the weary. Con- 
venient boats, safely arranged so as to prevent accident, 
ai-e always at command. For Sundaj^ schools and other 
like associations this is a most desirable resort. The names 
of its managers, David H. and John W. Slayback, Charles 
A. Williams, and Anson A. Voorhees, are guarantees that 
every promise made will be faithfully performed. 

There are three churches at Verona : a Presbyterian, Con- 
gregational, and Methodist. 

Caldwell is the largest township in the county, and in 
some respects it is one of the most interesting. It was the 
gateway for immigration from Essex into Morris County 
at the beginning of the eighteenth century. An adven- 
turous man climbed to the top of Second Mountain, looked 
down upon the scene spread out before his feet, and took 
in some of its beauty. But the men of his time were more 
realistic and utilitarian in their views than those of this 
age, and this particular adventurer partook of the char- 
acteristics of his time. He returned to Newark, informed 
the town meeting of what he had seen, and advised that 
an instant purchase should be made of the land. This was. 



CALDWKLI. TOWNSHIP 403 

SO near as can be ascertained, about the year 1700. The 
purchase was uiaile, and into llorseueck, as the kjcality 
was at lirst called from its fancied resemblance to a horse's 
arched neck, flowed, slowly at first, but in larger volume 
jilliTward, ail immigration which laliT appropriated the 
whole valley. Soon it was intimated that iron was to be 
found over the river beyond its western banks, and before 
the first quarter of the eighteenth century Morris County 
began to be peopled by hardy settlers from Essex. Prior to 
this time, in KJTO. an Indian deed was made to some Hol- 
landers of land, a portion of which by its description was 
clearly within the bounds of the present townslii]) of Cald- 
well : 

Lying west and north of a straiylit line drawn from the mouth of Pine Brook 
a little to the north of Cedar Grove e.\teuding to the village of Acijiiackanonk. 

This includes only a snmll portion of the northern ex- 
tremity of Caldwell. The deed was signed by Captahem, 
whose name often appears in deeds of that time, and was 
confirmed by the lords proprietors. Within its bounds is 
now to be found the hamlet of Faii-field, where is an old 
established Reformed Church. Several Dutch families set- 
tled at this locality soon after the making of this deed, and 
quite a large number of the descendants of these Hollanders 
are to-day to be found among the residents of Caldwell. 

In 1699 two citizens of Newark were appointe<l a com- 
mittee by the town meeting to negotiate the purchase of 
the " tract lying westward of our bounds to the Tassaic 
River." The purchase, however, was not then made. In 
1701, June l(VV>ir Thomas Lane and others, representing 
the West Jersey Society, obtained letters patent for '' land 
lying at Horseneck." How definite was the description 
of the land intended to be granted by these letters patent is 
not known, but as indefinite as that just given may be 



404 THE PASSAIC VALLEY 

it is evident that it refers to land west of First Mountain 
and extending to the river. Nothing, however, seems to 
have come out of this conveyance, and it also appears by 
subsequent events that all parties acquiesced in the title 
acquired by Newark except the proprietors. 

In 1702 the lords proprietors surrendered the right of 
sovereignty over New Jersey, secured to them by the orig- 
inal grant to Berkeley and Carteret by the Duke of York, 
but retained the title to the land. The independent colo- 
nists of Newark freqiiently disregarded the claim set up by 
the proprietors to the exclusive control over the land within 
the Province, who insisted that any Indian titles acquired 
by any purchase should be confirmed by them. The set- 
tlers in Newark claimed that the Indians were the sole own- 
ers of the country. Accordingly in 1702, setting at naught 
the proprietors, they bought from the Indians this laud 
" westward or northward of Newark within the compass 
of the Passaick river and so southward unto Minisink path, 
viz : all lands as yet unpurchased of the heathen." 

The deed was executed by several chiefs of the tribes resi- 
dent within New Jersey, was dated March, 1701-02, and was 
afterward, on the 14th day of March, 1741-42, confirmed by 
some Indians calling themselves kings, and others as chiefs, 
of the tribes, heirs and successors of the grantors of the deed 
executed in 1702. Tlie proprietors claimed that the settlers 
should pay them for the lands they occupied. This Avas 
sturdily disputed and the demand denied except by one in- 
dividual. This led the proprietors to take legal measures to 
secure what they considered were their just dues and lawful 
rights. Defendants in these suits were committed to prison 
and the jails were stormed by the citizens headed by some 
of the most respectable inhabitants. In the end the pro- 
prietors were successful. Manj^ purchasers who had paid 



CALDWELL TOWNSIIII' 405 

for tlirir pni|>ci't y were dispossessed, scvci-:il were reduced 
to poverty, aud great distress and loss wcic sustained. The 
controversy lasted several years, and was founJit with great 
pertinacity by both i)arti('s. This statement of facts (h)es not 
api)ly alone to Caldwe]!. but to otiier parts of the county. 

Cahlweli Townshiji is situated in ijir norlliwestei'n part 
of Essex, and is bounded north and west by the Passaic 
River, which separates it from I'assaic and Morris, east by 
Verona and West Orange, and south by Livingston Town- 
ship. It contains 1S,1!I4 acres, of wiiich about 7,()(l() 
are still forest. The whole western portion bordering on 
the river is enveloped by swampy land. That in the north- 
west of the township, at the loop of the river as it turns to 
How towards Little Falls, is called the Great Piece; the oth- 
ers are known as Little Piece and Hatfield Meadows. These 
meadows cover many hundred acres. They are useful, 
liowevei-, to their owners, and are being gradually drained. 
Tliey ai-e sometimes entirely submerged by the overflow of 
ilii' river, but I hey rarely fail to render to their owners some 
reiuuneratiou in their crops of hay and in the pasturage 
tliey fu]-nish for cattle. Some timber is grown u])on them 
and of good (|uality. The tlow of the i-iver at this point is 
(xcecMlingly sluggish, the descent in some instances being- 
only one inch to the mil(>. 

The township was incorjioi-ated on the IGtli of l'\>bruary, 
1798, and the following bounds defined : 

Beg:iniiing at Cook's bridge on Passaic Kiver tlieii niuniiig down the old Canoe 
broolv road along the .Springfield line until it come to where said line tnrns off to 
Keen's Mills, from thence on a straight line to within five chains to the west of 
Joel Condit's quarry on the Springfield road near the top of Second Mountain, 
thence north fifteen degrees east twenty chains along said mountain, thence on a 
straight line to the top of First Mountain to where a certain road laid out along 
tlie line of lands of Stei)hen Crane, deceased, intersects the top of said nu)untain, 
thence along the same until it comes to the Paterson line, tliencc along the said 



406 



THE PASSAIC VALLEY 



line to the Passaick River, thence up the middle of the stream to the place of 
Beginning. 

This territory since tlie formation of the township has 
been depleted by the creation of other municipalities. The 
township was named in Jionor of the Eev. James Caldwell, 
the " fighting parson " of the Revolutionary Army. Two 
boroughs, Caldwell and North Caldwell, have been carved 
from the township, both of small extent. The population 
of the township proper in 1900 was 1,619, of Caldwell bor- 
ough 1,367, and North Caldwell 297. 

The village of Caldwell is beautiful for situation. It has 
three churches : a Presbyterian, a Baptist, and a Methodist. 
There are four hamlets in the township : Fairfield, Clinton, 
Franklin, and Westville, of which Fairfield is the oldest. 
The Reformed Church at Fairfield was organized nearly one 
hundred and fifty years ago, and has aided many struggling 
churches of the same denomination in its vicinity. It was, 
of course, supported by the Holland immigrants who early 
in the eighteenth century made their way across the Pas- 
saic into Caldwell. 





CHAPTER XXX 



ESSEX COTTNTY — CONCLUDED 




IN'INGSTON TOWNSHIP has no peculiarly strikiuo 
liistiir.v. It was a ]»arl of Newark until 1797, wheu 
il was separated from that town. Its population 
lias been and is now almost entirely devoted to 
auriciillurc. There are, however, a few hat factories of 
liniilcd tacililirs situated (tu the river. The permanency 
(>( I lie inhabitants is quite remai-kahlc. They generally live 
on, ticueration after generation, in the same locality, t're- 
(juently in tlie same house. A single case is ]icrha])s one of 
many. T. IJuwland Teed, a lad of fourteen years of age, 
was l)(ini ill I he same liouse in wlii( h his great-great-grand- 
father was born, and in A\hicli every successive generation 
down lo this youth was also born, many of them in the 
same room. The Teed family for many decades have been 
]iromiueul and intluenlial in p\d)lif affairs, many of them 
tilling townshi]) oltices, several acting as c(*unty officials, 
and some as members of tln^ L(\gislature. 

The township is bounded on the north by Caldwell, on 
the east by West Orange and IMilburn, on the south bv 
^lilburn and the Passaic, and on the west by the Passaic. 
The low grounds which euA'idop so large a pai-t of Caldwell 
l)ass over into the territory of Livingston on I lie bank of the 
river. 

The names which have always been pi'omincnl in the his- 



408 THE PASSAIC VALLEY 

tory of this township denote quite conclusively their origin. 
The most of them came from Newark and settled in the 
fertile fields of this municipality. They are Ward, Tomp- 
kins, Harrison, Williams, Uodd, Condit, Teed, Force, and 
others. A few influential names can not be traced to the 
parent colony. Sonie undoubtedly came from Elizabeth- 
town. 

There are five villao-es and hamlets in the township: Liv- 
ingston, West Livingston, Northfield, Squiertown, and IJose- 
land, formerly called Centerville. Of these Roseland is the 

largest and 
^ most prosper- 

ous. It is near 
^'#^f-$^l, ":^ ,^ I' a railroad with 

'' tjt*^ tj5n'^^ a station, and 

bids fair to be- 



■^"^ c o m e m o r o 



' '/ 



,f IL f ' ^ , p"i)ulous i n 

^ '^ 'kr ^ ^^^'-'^Li f li'^ f 11 1 u r e. 

" '*^).Vt'^'"**SS?4% *l "-^- Hoseland has 

two churches: 

A COUNTRY HOME. 

^^^ I' 1' e s b y t e - 

rian and Methodist. ^Vest Uviug^tou also has a Methodist 
Church, and there are two Baptist Churches, one at North- 
field and one at Livingston. 

Livingston was named in honor of William Livingston, 
governor of New Jersey during the Revolution. It has 
11,148 acres, of which about 5,000 are still forest land. Its 
population in 1900 was 1,412. 

Milburn is situated in the southern part of the county on 
the line of LTnion. It formed at one time part of Spring- 
field when that township was united with Essex County, 
but Avhen LTnion was created Milburn was separated from 



MILBURN TOWNSHIP AND VILLAGE 



409 



Spniii>'fic-l(l and i-ciiiaincil uiiil(Ml lo Essex. This was in 
1852. It is bouudcil noiili hv Liviunston and West Orange, 
east by Sjirinjiticdd and South (»i-an;;(', soiitli by Union Coun- 
ty, aud west by the I'assaic Kiver, w lii( li separates it from 
Morris County. It is nuicli I)roken by dilTerent ranges of 
liills — tlie Wliite Oak i;idi;i' in its ceniral jtarl, a higher 
elevation in lis nortiieru part near i.ivingsion, and Short 
Hills in its southern portion. On 
the Passaic there are some lowlands, 
and toward Springfield there is (|uite 
an extent of le\'el jilain. 'the Passaic 
Kivei- AAiishes its western -<lde, Canoe 
Itrook comes into the townshi]) from 
Livingston, and the east bram h of 
the Railway lliver lases in West 
Orange and tiows llii-ongh .Milbinn 
into Springfield. 

Sixty-five years ago Milbinn vil 
lage was a mere hamlei, and was 
known b\' various names, such as 
Knm Hroolc, lvi\'eriiead, X'auxhall. 
and Crotou. There was an attempt 
made at one time to call it !Millville, 
lull wlieu ii was iuforporateil and a 
postoltice established there the name 
was definitely settled as Milburn, 

and very ap]tro]iriately, a^ it was situated on a stivam fully 
entill(-d to that name foi- its facility in alVording mill sites. 
It became at one time a large manufacturing center, de- 
voted particularly to ]>apermills and hat factories. Shortly 
after the Jievolution Samu(d Campludl, a Scol(diman, estab- 
lished a jiaitermill a slmri distan«-e abo\-e the village of 
^lilbuni on the Kali\\a\ Ki\'er. which continued lo be oper- 




A COLONIAL CHATELAINK. 



410 



THE PASSAIC VALLEY 



ated by him and, after his death, by his son John. It has 
been claimed that this was the first papermill of its kind 
in the United States. Several other papermills have been 
established since that time below the Campbell plant. Hat 
factories of varions kinds were scattered along the Rah- 
way Eiver. Fifty years and more ago Israel D. Condit, 
who lived at Milburn, when it was just emerging from its 
hamlet state, until his death a few years ago, at the age of 
ninety-two, was largely engaged in the hat manufacture at 
Milburn. He was a public benefactor in his day and fore- 
most in all efforts to 
aid the community 
in which he lived. 
He largely assisted 
in the erection of the 
Episcopal Church at 
Milburn and was 
prominent in the es- 
tablishment of a 
cemetery at this 
place. 

There are thi'ee 
villages and ham- 
lets in Milburn Township: Milburn, Short Hills, and Wyo- 
ming. The village of Milburn extends on both sides of the 
Eahway River from the railroad to Springfield. It has two 
churches, an Episcopalian and a Baptist. The manufac- 
turing interests of this locality have almost wholly disap- 
peared. It is still a village of enterprise and progress. 

Wyoming is a thriving hamlet with large possibilities. 
It is of very recent date, and is fed by immigrations from 
the cities of families of moderate means who have sought 
country homes. 




A COUNTRY TAVERN. 



SHORT HILLS 



411 



Short Hills is a very remarkable lucalilv, eiilirely resi- 
dential in its character. It is the result ol' I he fertile brain 
of Stewart Hartshorne, the proprietor of the famous Harts- 
horne roll(>rs. lie appreciated the location of the broken 
terraces, the ending' of the First ^lonntain, and determined 
to utilize the land for the formation of a most unique set- 
tlement. It was to consist entirely of n^sidences — no 
stores, nor factoi-ies, nor any ei'ection of any kind were to 
be permitted to mar the symmetry of his plan, lie accord- 
inffly purchased a plot of several hundred acres, admirably 

located for his ]Mn- 

pose, in one mass, of 
the proportions ex- 
actly needed to ac- 
complish his plan. 
This was iiiotted 
and laid out in 
buildinii' sites. Ten- 
ants and purchasers 
were invited to set- 
tle there. Their 
wishes as to the 
kind of erection they 

desired were res])ected and (lie (piantity of land needed 
was sold or rented on the most advantai^cons terms, but 
scrutiny of an exhaustive character was used in the selec- 
tion of proposing;' residents. The conse(iuence of the sys- 
tem ri»>idly carried out by Mr. Hartshorne has been the 
t^atherinji to.uctlier in this beautiful sjyot of the completest 
and most eleiiant residences ever brouj;ht into one locality 
of such an extent, and the fjroupinii- of inhabitants rarely, 
if ever, found in a villaj;e of this kind. It is an ideal project, 
never before so fully accomplished nor carried out lo sncli a 




AN OLI> IIOIISK. 



& 



412 THE PASSAIC VALLEY 

satisfactory result. Homes so commodious, with every ap 
pliance for all demands for securing health and obtaining 
ease, so elegant in their architectiire, so practically orna- 
mental, can not be found elsewhere. No community with 
higher, better characteristics was ever gathered together 
in the same locality. Several similar attempts have 
been made in this country, but they have proved unsuccess- 
ful. It is due to the good judgment of its founder that this 
has been so eminently successful. 

Short Hills is historically connected with the Revolution. 
It was near here that the battle of Springfield was fought. 
The results of that conflict were far reaching in their in- 
fluence in the futui-e of the struggling colonists. It was 
during a memorable crisis of the war, when all hearts were 
filled with sad forebodings. Washington and his famished, 
ragged army were encamped at Morristown, and a powder 
mill was established there. It Avas of the utmost impor- 
tance to the British, if possible, to secure the capture of the 
one and the destruction of the other. Several attempts 
had been made by the enemy to secure both of these objects, 
but they had signally failed. A full force was sent out 
from New York under the command of experienced veteran 
officers with high hopes of success. 

Alarm was given by beacon and signal cannon from an 
eminence to the west of the present village of Short Hills. 
The minutemen swarmed to the rescue from their homes. 
General Maxwell, a Jerseyman, was in the command of 
the regular troops, the invaders were driven back with loss, 
and the attempt was never renewed. Brutal outrage and 
unnecessary devastation marked every step of the advance 
of the British; farm houses were burned, farms pillaged, 
women insulted, and a scene of outrage spreading all along 
their course. Mrs. Caldwell, tlie wife of the Rev. James 



ORANGE AND THE MOUNTAIN SOCIETY 413 

Caldwell, Ihuii (|uai-tci-master as well as eliaplaiu iu the 
patriot army, was shot wiiilc standiiiji at an upj)er win- 
dow with au inlaiii in her anus. The i'l-csljyteriau ('IuiitIi 
at iSpriugtield was destroyed. 

It was at tliis battle tliat oecurred tlie incident, so often 
related, of liow Caldwell, wiieu the soldiers ran short of wad- 
ding, rushed into the ehiirch, came out with his arms full of 
the old-fashioned liyniu itooks, then in universal use iu the 
Presbyterian Churches, and, distributing the leaves among 
the troops, cried out: "Give 'em Watts, boys!" 

Orange can not, properly, be claimed to be Avithin the 
bounds of the Passaic Valley, but it is too important a local- 
ity not to receive some mention. Like all the rest of Essex 
County it formed in the early history of the colony a part 
of Newark, and was settled by immigrants from that town. 
The exact time when these first settlers came there can not 
be definitely determined, but it may be readily approxi- 
mated by the time of ilic formation of the "Mountain So- 
ciety." 

The first care (d' these couscientions Puritans, after seeur- 
ing a resting place for their families, was to rear the church 
and by its side the srliixd house, wherever they went. 
If the date of the establishujent of the church can be ascer- 
tained it is eutii'ely safe to record the beginning of the set- 
tlement. But undoubtedly the immigration into Orauge 
was a gradual one, not involving at liisi ;iny great number 
of settlers. The restless activities of the Anglo-Saxons im- 
pelled them to migrations from place to place. New fields 
invited, more fertile land encouraged, and fairer skies beck- 
oned them on from their residences. Adventurous souls 
were found among these men from Connecticut. So they 
left, perhaps, comfortable homes and braved the untried 
dangers of an unbroken wilderness. The young men who 



414 THE PASSAIC VALLEY 

had assumed the responsibilities of wife and children 
sought a lodgment where there was a broader field for their 
families, where more acres could be granted, to be divided 
among the sons and daughters to be born to them; and so 
they went out into the broad, beautiful Valley of Orange, 
and with characteristic energy and industry they reared 
their humble homes and cleared the land and prepared for 
the future. The Wards, the Piersons, the Harrisons, the 
Williamses, and the Condits came and spread themselves all 
through this portion of the country and honestly bought 
from the aborigines. 

The Mountain Society was established probably about 
1719. In that year a deed for twenty acres was made by 
Thomas Gardner to Samuel Freeman, Samuel Pierson, 
Matthew Williams, and Samuel Wheeler, and the Society 
at the Mountain was associated with them. A meeting house 
was erected by the settlers at the mountain, and a separate 
and distinct community was gathered together. In 1702 the 
proprietors surrendered the right of government to Queen 
Anne, but reserved the title to all land within the Prov- 
ince, and the crown disclaimed " all right to the province of 
New Jersey other than the government and owns the soil 
and quit-rents, &c., to belong to the general proprie- 
tors." A few years later the proprietors made demands on 
these settlers for payment for the lands they held, with the 
results described elsewhere. 

This Mountain Society was comijosed of one hundred and 
one persons from NeAvark, and around their dwellings and 
the church they erected greAV a larger settlement where 
clustered the high hopes of the founders. The church was 
their tabernacle in the wilderness. It is represented to-day 
by the First Presbyterian Church of Orange, the parent of 
the many religious organizations of the Presbyterian de- 



ORANGE WARD AND TOWNSHIP 



415 



noiuiuatiou of Christians in and arnnnd ()ran,n<'. Tlie old 
deed made by Tliomas (Janluci- is in-cscrvcd willi pious 
care auionji' tiic archives of llic |»arcnl clinicli. 

Orange was one of the tliree original wards into which 
Newark was divided, as has already been nientioncd, and 
once contained a much larger extent of country than is uoav 
within its borders. East, West, and South Orange have 




THE ORANGE ORPHAN HOME. 



been taken from it. It was created an inde])endent town- 
ship on the 2Tth of November, 1806. This is the descrip- 
tion of the territory included within the bounds of the new 
township as established by the act: 

Begimiiiiff at a spring called thr Bi>iliiifrS|)riiii;, on the land of Steidieu 1). Day, 
nuining tlience in a straight line sontliwardly to the bridge in the highway neai' 
David Peck's; thence running southwardly in a straight line to a bridge in the 
highway near Sayrps Roberts in Cani]itown; thence sontliwardly in a straight 
line to Elizalieth township in the line of Springfield township; tlience along the 
line of the same to Caldwell townshi]); thence along the line of said township to 
a point in the first mountain, (tailed .Stephen Cr.ane's notch ; thence Southwardly 



416 ' THE PASSAIC VALLEY 

to Turkey Eagle rock ; thenee Eastwardly to a bridge on the highway near Phineas 
Crane's; thence Eastwardlj' to a bridge on the highway between the house of 
Silas Dod and Nathaniel Dod; thence in a straight line to the Boiling Spring, the 
place of Beginning. 

Different localities within the bounds of this territoi'j'- 
were called at first by the names of the families who were 
resident there. Thus the vicinity of Saint Mark's Church 
was called Williamstown, afterward Tory Corner. Part of 
the eastern side of East Orange was known as Pecktown. A 
settlement between East Orange and Bloomfield received 
the name of Dodtown. The Freemans gave the title of 
Freemantown to South Orange. 

The name Orange is traced to a joke. At a meeting of 
the people it was suggested that the locality should be 
named Orangedale. The suggestion, though made as a 
jest, was accepted, but for several years the word Orange 
was coupled with another until at last the matter was set- 
tled in the act of incorporation, which styled the township 
by its present name. It is now a city, being incorporated 
as such on the 3d of April, 1872, by the name of the City of 
Orange. 

Its surface is almost one unbroken level plain, inter- 
sected by some small rivulets, but by no important stream. 

Sixty years ago it was a long, straggling town of about 
five hundred inhabitants, its dwellings mostly small and in- 
significant in their architecture, the abodes of sturdy, in- 
dependent people, who spoke and thought for themselves, 
conscientious in their lives, tenacious of their rights, and 
religious in their modes of action. The village then extended 
nearly from the western boundary of Newark westward for 
about three miles. The inhabitants were an industrious, fru- 
gal race, a large majority of them being small shoemakers, 
who had learned that trade and manufactured boots and 



THK CITY OF ORANGE 



417 



shoes in a small way for the larger luanufaclurers of New- 
ark. This mode, however, (.eased long since, and the atten- 
tion of the citizens of Orange has been turned in other di- 
rections. The manufacture of hats has been a very impor- 
tant industi-y in this thriving city. 

The whole character of the town has been practically 
changed during the last half century. A new element has 
made its way into this region. While it has in a very great 
measure dominated by the sheer force of its push and en- 
terprise the public affairs of the commuuitj' it has not an- 
tagonized the representatives of the old settlers, who have 
been properly recognized. 

Orange is a progressive town. The new comers have in- 
terjected a spirit of enterprise and awakened the staid 
representatives of the old element of population into an ap- 
preciation of the possibilities of the locality. Elegant 
churches, school houses, a public library, and a music hall 
now adorn the streets. It had a population in 1900 of 
21,741. 





CUAi'TEli XXXI 



THE COUNTY (IF HUDSON 




UDSOX COUNTY lies dii-cctly soiilli (.f Hcrgen, 
wliicli loniis its iiorllici'iv boundary. The Passaic 
Kiver ;iiiil Xcwark l?ay sc])ai-at(' it from Essex and 
I'liidii ((11 the west, Avliile its sontliern point lies 
ojiposite Stateu Island and is washed by the waters of New 
Yoi-k harbor. It is the most populous county in the State, 
liaviui; about llircc huiidicd and eighty-six thousand inhab- 
itants. It contains the townships of Harrison, North Bergen, 
Weehawken, and Guttenberg, the towns of West Hoboken, 
Union, Kearney, West New York, and East Newark, the 
borough of Secaucus, and the cities of Jersey City, Hoboken, 
and Bayonne. 

The first municipality within the limits of New Jersey 
was erected by order of Director-General Stuyvesaut and 
his council on September 5, 1661, and christened " The Vil- 
lage of Bergen." The origin of the name "Bergen" rests 
in some doubt. Some writers confidently claim it to have 
been derived from "Bergen," the capital of Norway, while 
others as confidently assert it to have been derived from 
Herqen uji Zniiiii, an im]>ortant town on the Kiver Scheldt, 
ill Holland. Tiic cxidciicc, however, seems to favor lliose 
who ciaiiu liic naiiic to haxc been derived from tlie Ilolhind 

tOAVll. 



Durliii. 



[he seven ^ears following the christening new set- 



420 



THE PASSAIC VALLEY 



tiers rapidly purchased and located on lands outside of the 
" Village " limits. These, with a view to more effectually 
l)rotecting themselves from the savages, asked that tliey 
might be annexed to the main settlement. Accordingly, 
on April 7, 166S, Governor Philip Carteret and his council, 
of East New Jersey, granted to the settlers of Bergen (then 
comprising some forty families) a charter under the cor- 
porate name of " The Towne and Corporation of Bergen.'' 
This new " Towne " comprised the present County of Hud- 
son as far west as the 
Hackensack River. 
The line on the north, 
as described in the 
charter, started " at 
Mordavis meadow, ly- 
ing upon the west side 
of Hudson's Kiver; 
from thence to run 
upon a N. W. lyne by 
a Three rail fence that 
is now standing to a 
place called Espatin 
[The Hill] and from 
thence to a little creek 
[Bellman's Creek] sur- 
rounding N. N. W. till 
it comes unto the river Hackensack [Indian name for ' Low- 
land '], containing in breadth, from the top of the Hill, 1-^ 
miles or 120 chains." During the next sixteen years new 
settlements sprang up north of Bergen, but in matters of 
government these were termed " out lands " or " precincts," 
without any corporate power whatever, and subject to the 
jurisdiction of the authorities of the " Towne." 




CHARLES I. 



FORMATION OF COUNTIES 4:21 

As ])0))nlal ion increased miiris iMcaiiie necessary; and 
as all tlie colonial ollicials were l']ni;lislMiien, and many Enij,'- 
lish iinniii^i'ants had settled in llie colony, it was natural 
that the.\- should desire tli(» adoptiou of the lOuylisli system 
of county fioveriunent. On the Ttli of March, KiSli, the 
provincial Legislature passed, and Deputy Governor Rud- 
yard apiiro\cd. an act under w liicli New Jersey was divided 
into tour counties: Bergen, Essex, IVIiddlesex, and ilon- 
moutli. lierii'en County, as tjien defined, contained ''all the 
settlenuMits between Hudson's l\iver and the llackensack 
l>i\"(M', hcL;inninii- at Conslahle's ITook and so to extend to 
the n](pei'mosi hounds of the Province, northward between 
the said rivers with the seat of li'overnment at the town of 
Berjien.'" Essex County comprised " all the settlements be- 
tween the west side of the Hackensack River and the part- 
iuii line liel ween Woodhridne and l']lizabethlown, and north- 
ward 1o the utmost bounds of the Province." By this di- 
vision the lireater part of the jiresent County of Berj^en as 
w(dl as a ])art of Hudson fell within the limits of Essex. 

On the 2d of January, 1709-10, an act was passed and a])- 
]no\ed directing a redivisiou. By the terms of this act tlie 
lionndarie^ of Iterucn ('onnty were fixed as follows: 

Bi>;;ii\nino' at C()iistal>lt''s Hoolf, so ii]! along the bay to Hudson's River, to the 
partition ])oint between New .fer.sey and the Province of New York; thence 
along the line and the line between East and West New Jersey to the Pequan- 
noek and Passaie Rivers; tlienco down the Pequannock and Passaic Rivers to the 
sound; and so following the sound to Constable's Hook where it begins. 

In llie noI•tl^^'esIel•n pari of the county, as above de- 
scribed, was included t he ( "onniy of Passaic, and on the 22d 
of I'ebrnary, ISKI, :ill that part of it lyini;- south of the 
ori.c'inal tioi'th bounds of the " 'I'own and Cor])oration of Ber- 
gen," toj^ether with a considerable area of territory west of 
the llackensack River kuowu as New Barbadoes Neck, were, 



422 



THE PASSAIC VALLEY 



by legislative euactment, erected into the County of Hudson. 
A part of this was annexed to Bergen County in 1852, leav- 
ing the boundaries of Bergen and Hudson Counties as they 
are to-day. 

The first division of the counties of the State into town- 
ships was made pursuant to two acts of the colonial asseio- 





1^1- 


/SS. 


'Si, 




IS6. 


/SS. 




isz 


/J 


3. 







Jf.l/^. 


i66. 


3i 


m. 




Ji°.iiS-. 


l63. 


Jf.zz^. 


Itz. 


i6% 




/6o. 








BERGEN AND BUYTEN TUYN IN 1660. 



bly, one approved in September, 1692, and the other in Octo- 
ber, 1693. The reasons for this division were set forth in 
the preamble to the second of the above mentioned acts, as 
follows ; 

Whereas several things is to be done by the inhabitants of towns, hamlets 
tribes, or divisions within each county, as chusing- of deputies, constables &c., tax- 
ing and collecting of several rates for publick uses and the making orders 
amongst themselves respectively about swine, fences &e. 

Whereas, a great many settlements are not reckoned witliin any such town 



OLD BERGEN COUNTY 



423 



or division, nor the liiinnils nt tin' ri'|mte(l towns asccrtninpd, liy means tliereof 
the respective constiililes know not tlieir districts, and uiiiny other inconveniences 
arising from them, imd forasmnch as tlie act niaih- in Sejit lt)92, for dividing 
the several counties and townships, the time for tlie returns of the said divisions, 
heing too short and the metlio<l of dividiny liy county nuetings inconvenient. 
Tlierefore be it enacted, etc. 

l^iidci- llicsc ii( Is l?('i'oeii C(>iiiilv ( I licii iiicliidiiiji' tlic pres- 
ent Counties of Ber<>en and Hud- 
son) was divided into three town- 
sliii)s: Haelcensaclv, New Barba- 




does, and I>ci-;l;cii. Of tlicse 
Ilac kensaclv (■oiiiiu-ised '• all 
the land betwixt the llackcn- 
sack Kiver and Hudson's 
Elver, that extends from tln' 
corporation toAvn bounds of 
Ber<;en to the partition line 
'~ of the Province." New Bar- 

badoes (■(Hii]iriscd " all I he land on Passaic Biver, above the 
third river, and from the month of the said 1 liird river north- 
west to the i);irfifion line of the Province, in( Inding also all 
the hind in New Barbadoes neck, betwixt Hackensack and 
Pa.ssaic river.s, and thence to the partition line of the Prov- 



HOBOKEN IN 1770. 



424 



THE PASSAIC VALLEY 



ince." Bergen comprised that part of Hudson County now 
lying east of the Hackensaclv River. 

Out of Bergen Township were carved Jersey City, January 
28, 1820; Van Vorst Township. March 11, 1841; North Ber- 
gen Township, February 10, 1843; Hudson Township, March 
4, ]852; Bayonne Township, February 16, 1861; Union Town- 
ship, February 28, 1861; the Town of West Hobolcen, Febru- 
ary 28, 1861 ; and Greenville Township, March 18, 3863. Har- 
rison Township 
was taken from 
L o d i, Bergen 
County, Febru- 
ary 22, 1840, 
a n (1 u t of 
North Bergen 
w ere created 
Hoboken Town- 
ship, March 1, 
1841, and the 
City of Hobo- 
ken, March 28, 
18 5 5. W e e- 
hawkeu Town- 
"^-' ship, famous as 

a duelling ground in times gone by, was organized from 
Hoboken, IMarch 15, 1859; the Town of Union was created 
from Union, ilarch 21), 1864; Kearney was formed from Har- 
rison, March 14, 1867, and made a " town " March 23, 1898; 
and the City of Bayonne was incorporated March 10, 1869. 
Guttenberg Township was formed from Union, April 1, 1878, 
and on March 21, 1898, the remainder of Union was ab- 
sorbed by the Township of West New York. The Town of 
East Newark was created in 1898, and the Borough of 




IIAMILTON-BURR DUKLI,I^•G GUOl'ND: \\ EEll AW KEN. 



SETTLEMENT OF HUDSON COUNTY 425 

Sccancus \v,is ni-^jniizcd ri'diii \orlh Bergen, March 12, WOO. 
X'iiii N'orsi Mini (ircciivi He have both been absorbed by other 
imiiiicipaliHes. Ihonjih the hitter hicality retains its name. 

Tlic coiiiitv is watered chiefly by the Ilackensack Kiver, 
wiiicii IIdws aldiii;' the northwestern border of North Rer- 
ucii 'r()wiislii|i and tiicncc southward into Newark Bay. 
Aloii!^ (his river are extensive meadows, which, between 
.Ici-sey City and Newark, liave been partially imjiroved and 
utilized for manufacturiuy, railroad, and lvindre<l purposes. 
To the northward lies the " Island " of Secanous, a stri]i of 
upland suiiouuded by marsh and devoted to agriculture 
and truck <;ardeuin,i:. 

The Central Kailroad of New Jersey, the I'eiinsylvania 
Kailroad, the Lelii^h ^'alley, and the Delaware, Lacka wanim 
and ^Ves(ern all traverse the county frcuu east to west, Avhile 
the Brie and West Shore lines run noil h ward and north- 
westerly. 

The ]iioneers of Hudson (juinty were larycly iinmi;;rai!ts 
from [Tolland or descendants of the early settlers of .Man- 
hattan and Lonu Islands. The rest were Enj^lisli, I'reiK h. 
Ceriiians, and Scamlinavians. Under the stimulus of ihe 
bill of •■ l-'reeiloms and Exemptions" Michael Pauw, Then 
buriiomaster of Amsterdam, was impelled, for speculative 
]uiiposes no doubt, to obiiiin from the director-oeneral of 
New Netherland, in l(i:?0, liiauts of two laroe tracts, one 
called " Troboken TIackinji " ( Land of the tobacco ])ipe) ami 
the other " Ahasimus.'' Both of these tracts were ])arts of 
what is now Jersey City. These grants bore date, respect- 
ively. July I."! and November 22, HV.M). The grantee o-ave 
one place the name of " Pavonia." 

Pauw failed to couiiily witli the conditions set forth in 
his deeds and was obliged, after three years of controversy 
with the West India Company, to convey his "plantations" 



426 



THE PASSAIC VALLEY 



back to that company. Michael Paulesen, an official of the 
company, was placed in charge of them as superintendent. 
It is said he built and occupied a hut at Paulus Hook early 
in 1633. If so, it was the first building of any kind erected 
in either Bergen or Hudson County. Later in the same 

year the com- 
]}any built two 
more houses : one 
at Communipaw, 
afterward p u r- 
chased by Jan 
Evertse Bout, the 
other at Ahasi- 
mus (now Jersey 
City, east of the 
Hill), later pur- 
chased by Cor- 
nelius Van Vorst. 
Jan Evertse Bout 
succeeded Mich- 
ael Paulesen as 
superintendent of 
the Paiiw planta- 
t i o n June 17, 
1634, with head- 
1 quarters at Com- 
munipaw, then 
the capital of the Pavonia colony. He was suc- 
ceeded in June, 1636, by Cornelius Van Vorst, with head- 
quarters at Ahasimus, where he kept " open house " and en- 
tertained the New Amsterdam oiiicials in style. 

In 1641 jMyndert Myndertse, of Amsterdam, (bearing the 
ponderous title of " Van Der Heer Nedderhorst,") obtained 




KIEFT S MODE OF PUNISHMENT. 



rUK BERGEN PLANTATIONS 427 

a grant of all (he ((.unlrv lichind (west of) Aclitcr KiiU 
(Newark Bay), and fi-nni I liciioe North to Tappaii, iiicliKling- 
part of what is now Ber-ifii ami IIihIsom Counties. Acconi- 
paniod by a number of soldiers, Myndertse occupied his pur- 
chase, established a camp, and proceeded to civilize the In- 
dians by military methods. It is needless to say that he 
failed. He soon abandoned (he perilous undertakini;' of 
foundiim' i» colony, retnnicd to Holland, and the title to this 
iit'ajit was forfeited. 

VKarly in 1(538 William Kieft became director-general of 
NeAv Netherland, and on the first day of May f(.llo\\in]H' 
Liranted lo Abraham Isaacsen i'ianck (\"er]danck) a patent 
foi' I'anlns Hook (now lower Jersey <'ity). 

There were now two ''plantations" at Bergen, (hns' •>( 
Planck and Van Vorst. Parts of these, however, had been 
leasi'd ((I, and were then occupied by, Claes Jaiisen ^';;n 
Purnici-end, Dirck Straatmaker, Barent Jansen. -Jan ("or- 
nelissen Buys, Jan Evertsen Carsbon, .Micliai-j -lauscn, Jacob 
Stolt'ejseu, Aert Tennisen Van Pntten, Egbert Woureis'Mi. 
Garret Dirckse Blauw, and Cornelius Ariessen. Van Putt(>n 
had also leased and located on a farm at Hobcdcen. All 
these, with their families and servants, constituted a thriv- 
ing settlement. The existence of the settlement of I'.cigeu 
was now imjieriled by the acts of Governor Kieft, whose idea 
of government was based mainly u])ou the principle tliat 
the governor should get all he could out of the governed. 
His treatment of the Indians soon incited their distrust and 
hatred of the wliites. The savages, foi- liic tirst time, began 
to shoAv symptoms of oi)en hostility?*^ "apt ain Jan Petersen 
de Vries, a distinguished navigator, who was tluMi engaged 
in the dilliciilt task- of trying to found a colony at Ta])j)an, 
sought e\'er.\- means in liis power to conciliate the Indians, 



428 THE PASSAIC VALLEY 

and to persuade Kieft that Ms treatment of them would re- 
sult in bloodshed. 

Governor Kieft turned a deaf ear to all warnings and a,d- 
vice and continued to goad the Indians by cruel treatment 
and harsh methods of taxation. In 1643 an Indian — no 
doubt under stress of great provocation — shot and killed a 
member of the Van Vorst family. This first act of murder 
furnished a pretext for the whites and precipitated what is 
called " The Massacre of Pavonia,"' on the night of February 
25, 1.643, when Kieft, with a sergeant and eighty soldiers, 
armed and equipped for slaughter, crossed the Hudson, 
landed at Communipaw, attacked the Indians while they 
were asleep in their camp, and, without regard to age or 
sex, delibei'ately, and in the most horrible manner, butch- 
ered nearly a hundred of them. 

Stung by this outrage upon their neighbors and kinsmen, 
the northern tribes at once took the warpath, attacked the 
settlement, burned the buildings, murdered the settlers, 
wiped the villages out of existence, and laid waste the coun- 
try round about. Those of the settlers who were not killed 
outright fled across the river to New Amsterdam. Nor was 
peace restored between the savages and the whites until 
August, 1645, when the remaining owners and tenants of 
farms returned To the site of the old village, rebuilt their 
homes, and started anew. 

— Petrus Stujwesant was made director-general July 28, 
1646. Under his administration the settlement at Bergen 
was revived, grew rapidly, and prosjjered. Between his ar- 
rival and the year 1669 the following named persons pur- 
chased or leased lands, though all of them did not become 
actual residents: 

Michael Paiiw, Michael Pauleseu, Jau Evertse Bout, Cornelius Van Vorst, 
Myndert Myndertse, Van Der Heer Nedderhorst, Abraham Isasicseu Plauck 



MAP 
or 



HUDSON COUNTY 
/900 




430 



THE PASSAIC VALLEY 



(Verplanck), Claes Jansen Van Piirmerend (Cooper), Dirk Straatmaker, Barent 
Jauseu, Jan Cornelissen Buys, John Evertsen Carsbon, Michael Jansen (Vree- 
land), Jacob Stoifelsen, Aert Teunisen Van Putten, Egbert Woutersen, Garret 
Dircksen Blauw, Cornelius Ariesen, Jacob Jacobseu Roy, Francisco Van Angola 
(negro), Guilliaem Corneliesen, Dirk Sycan, Claes Carsteu Norman, Jacob Wal- 
lengen (Van Winkle), James Luby, Lubbert Gerritsen, Gysbert I/iibbertsen, John 
Garretsen Van Immen, Thomas Davison, Garret Pietersen, Jan Cornelissen 
Schoeumaker, Jan Cornelissen Crynneu, Casper Stimets, Peter Jansen, Hendriek 
Jans Van Schalckwyck, Nicholas Bayard, Nicholas Varlet, Herman Smeeman, 
Tielman Van Vleeck, Douwe Harmansen (Tallman), Claes Jansen Backer, Egbert 
Steenhuysen, Harmen Edwards, Paulus Pietersen, AUerd Anthony, John Vigne, 

P a ul[u s Leendert- 
seu, John Verbrug- 
geu, Balthazar Bay- 
ard, Samuel Edsall, 
and Aerent Lau- 



All these 
persons re- 
ceived their 
deeds, or such 
titles as they 
had, from 
the Dutch, 
through the 
different direc- 
tor - generals. 
The titles of the settlers were confirmed by Governor Philip 
Carteret and his council in 1668. In 1669 Carteret also 
granted other portions of the lands in Hudson County to 
the following persons: 

Maryn Adrianse, Peter Stuyvesant, Claes Petersen Cors, Severn Laurens, 
Hendriek Jansen Spier, Peter Jansen Slott, Barent Christianse, Mark Noble, 
Samuel Moore, Adrian Post, (inert Coerten, Frederick Phillipse, Thomas Fred- 
erick de Kuyder, Guert Geretsen (Van Wagenen), Peter Jacobsen, John Berry, 
Ide Cornelius Van Vorst, Hans Diedrick, Hendriek Van Ostum, Cornelius Ruy- 




STUYVBSANT S BOWERY HOUSE, 



TUB QUIOEN ANNE CHAKTER 



431 



"The ToMu and Coipniai ion of Kei'j;eu,'' as appears by 
Carteret's charter, hail an area of 11,500 acres. Up to the 
end of 1669 scarce oue-iliird of this area had been patented 
to settlers. TJie bahiuce, more thau 8,000 acres, was used 
iu common by tlie patentees, their heirs, devisees, and 
grantees, for nearly a century before it was tinally divided 
and set off to those entitled to it. Many of the patentees and 
their descendants and grantees encroached upon these com- 
mon lands. A number caused surveys to be made, pre- 
sumed to " take up," and used divers parts of the public 
domain " without any warrant, power, or authority for so 
doing-, without the consent of the 
majority of the other patent own- 
ers," so that in the course of time 



it could, not be known how much of 
these common lands had been taken 
up and appropriated. 

This state of things caused, great 
confusion and numerous violent dis- 
putes between the settlers, who, in 
January, 1714, petitioned Governor 
Hunter for a new charter empower- 
ing them, in their corporate capacity, to convey or lease 
their common lands, in fee, for one, two, or three lives or 
for years. (lovernor Hunter accordingly procured a new 
charter for the town and corporation, known as " The 
Queen Anne Charter." The power given by this charter 
had little or no effect in putting a stop to encroachments 
upon, and disputes between, the settlers. Thus matters con- 
tinued until 1043, when another effort was made by the set- 
tlers to protect their rights iu the common lauds. An agree- 
ment was made, dated June 16th, of that year, providing for 
a survey of the common lands and a determination of how 




432 



THE PASSAIC VALLEY 



much of the same had been lawfully taken up, used, or 
claimed, and by whom. 

For some reason this agreement was not carried out, and 
matters continued to grow worse until December 7, 1763, 
when the settlers appealed to the Legislature for relief. 
That body passed a bill, which was approved by Governor 
Franklin, appointing commissioners to survey, map, and 




CASTLE POINT. 



divide the common lands of Bergen among the persons en- 
titled thereto. These commissioners, seven in number, 
made the survey and division and filed their repori, and 
maps on the 2d of March, 1765, in the secretary's office at 
Perth Am boy, copies of which report and maps are also 
filed in the offices of the clerks of both Hudson and Bergen 
Counties. 

In the division thus made by the commissioners the com- 



EARLY SETTLERS 



433 



luiin lands were a |i|miiI iniii'il aiiiiniL; lln- palciilrcs, In-i-cin- 
licf'ore named, and their dcsccndanls. as well as aiiinin; llic 
t'ollowino' persons : 

Mieliael de Mott, Geoijje de Mott, (ierebraiid Cliu'seii, Josepli W aldroii, Dirk 
Van Vechtea, James Collerd, Thomas Hrowii, Andries Seagaerd, Dirk Cadiims, 
Zackariah Siikels, ,Iob Smitli, Daniel Smith, .losepli Hawkins, Jiilni Hahnejjlis. 
Philip FrtMuli, Idi' Cornolins Sip, Herman Heeilei-, Xieliolas I'reyer, Sir Peter 
Warreu, Anthony White, Michael Abraham \'an 'I'lnl, Walter Clendenny, John 
Ciimmings, David Latonrette, John \'an Dolseii. 

Other familips, llmsr nC Day, De (iraiiw, ! »c (inmt, lles- 
sels, Hoi)per, Haiila, llnysinan. Van Giesen, I'.ailc. Frauzen, 
.Mdi-ris, and Swacn, liad hccdnic icsidcnts ol' I lie lonntv with- 
out having lauds granlrd ilicm. It niav tlicrclorc be safely 
said that the families al)o\(' named constiluted nearly all 
of the original settlers of Hudson County east of the Hack- 
ensack River. 




t^niLLING OF GEOKGi II. 




""^^""^^mEtfrnitj^^ 




(11 A I'T i: IJ X X X 1 I 



TUIiSO.N CorX'l'Y- ('UN('Llll>i:i) 




111'' wcslcilv |i(ii-linii III' lliidsoii ("ouiily \\;is iiitlmlcd 
in tlic |nirrli;isc l>_v ('ii|)l;iin William Saiiill'oi-d, w Im 
Ciimc rrnm the I'avisli i>f SI. .Mary's in the Island of 
Barbadocs. ( inNcinor ( 'artcid and cninicil ;:,i-ant('d 
I liis I lacl to Sand lord cm -Inly 4, KKIS. ll conlainiMl w illiin its 
Ixmnilarirs an area uf 1. "■>,:!( IS acres, c.xlcndiiii;- from llic ]ioint 
of uiiidii of the llackcnsai 1< and Passaic Kivcrs alioiil seven 
miles iiorlliward aloni; said rivers lo a sprinij,' now known 
as the r.oilimi Sprin;Li, oi' Sandford Spi-in^, near l>nt lierfni'd. 
This pnrchase was made liy Samlford for himscdf and .Mi'.jor 
Xalluuiiel Kinnisland, also from the Island of liarhadoes, 
and tln^ same was snl)se(|nently divided between Sandford 
and Kin^sland. Kintisland, who became the ownei' of the 
northern ]>art, imlndinu a poi-tion of the in-esent Connty of 
Beri>en, resided al what is now known as " Kiniisland 
Manor," sonlli of Kiitherford, in Heri;cn County, while Sand- 
ford, who became the owm-r of the sontherly jtart, resided al 
what is now East Xewark, in llmlson ( "onTily. .Mnch of this 
larn'e section (d' tei-i-itor_\ remained \-esled in the respective 
desceudants of Sandford and Kiniislaml for many yeai-s 
after their deaths. 

This western i)ortion of the connty was originally orj^an- 
ized nnder the name of llaia-ison by the act crealinii Ihe 
Conntv of Ifndson, beiiiii- set oil' from l-odi Townshij). II 



436 



THE PASSAIC VALLEY 



embraced the land between the Huckensack and Passaic 
Elvers, Including the Township of Union In Bergen County. 
Kearney Township was set oft' In 1867. 

This neck of land, extending from the junction of the 
Passaic and The Hackensack northward to the Boiling 
Spring (Rutherford Park) was known among the Indians 
by the name of " Mlghgectlllck." It was estimated to con- 




FORT WADSWORTH AND THE NARROWS. 

tain 5,308 acres of upland and 10,000 acres of meadow, and 
was sold by the proprietors to Captain William Sandford, 
July 4, 1668, for twenty pounds sterling yearly in lieu of 
the halfpenny per acre quit-rent, and on condition that he 
should settle on the track six or eight families within three 
years. On the 20th of the same month, with the consent 
of the lords proprietors, he bought of Tantaqua, Tamak, 
Anaren, Hanyaham, H. Gosque, and Ws. Kenarenawack, 
representatives of the Indians, all their right and titk> in 



PETEU SCHUYLER S FARM 



437 



the tract, ]ia viim I lien i " 17(1 I'm lioiiis nl' It lack \\aiii]Miiu, liOd 
faihoius While \vani|)iiiii, I'.i hlark ('nates, Ui (jiins, (iO 
(Iduide hainls nf pdwiler. 1(( pair nf I '.reel rhes, (Id kuives, G7 
Harrs of Lead, (Jiie Anker of liraiidy, t liree lialT I'ats of Beer, 
Eleveu P>lank('ts, :>0 ,Vxes, 20 l[o\\('s, aii<l two (•ooke^ of 
dozens." 

New Itai-liadnes Neck, as this sertion was lalled. was un- 
der the jiirisdin ion of Newark froui this lin:e until the di- 
vision of the I'rovince. Afterward it was within the Coun- 
ty of Essex until 
January 21, 1710. 
Shortly after this 
Arent S c h u y ] e r 
purchased a plan- 
tation o p p o s i t e 
Belleville a no 
opened his coiti.er 
mine, as <lesfril)e(l 
in a jirevions cliaii- 
ter. The faiin .i|i 
posite N e w a r k 
owned by Colonel 
Peter Schuyler was 
known as Peters- 
borough, and von- P^TER SCHUVI.EK. 

taiued nine hundred and six acres, of which two hundred 
and si.xty-five were coNcred with tind)er, three hundred and 
ninety-three were under cultivation, and the remainder was 
salt meadow. It was later owned by Archibald Kennedy, 
who married ('olou(d Sclinvler's only child. This farm con- 
tained a two-story brick dw(dlinji', a large greenhouse, coach 
house, stables, barn, overseer's house, ciderhouse, icehouse, 
etc., an excellent garden, and a large orchard, which iu 




438 



THE PASSAIC VALLEY 



1800 produced three hundred barrels of cider. It also had 
a deer park. 

In 1802 the land was laid out into ninety building lots of 
about one acre each and advertised as " New Town " ; and 
on July 4, 1815, the people of the place resolved that they 
" would henceforth distinguish the small district of country 
formerly known as Kennedy's Farm, and to the extent of 
one mile north of the northerly bounds thereof, by the name 
of ' The Village of Lodi.' '" 

The first road in Hudson Countj' was one leading from 




NEW YORK CITY IN THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD. 

Communi])aA\' to Bergen (Jersey City), and was laid out as 
early as KifiO. In 1682, by act of tlie general assembly, the 
first " street commission " in the province was organized, 
consisting of Joliu TSerry, Lawrence Andries (Van Bos- 
kerck), Enoch Micliielsen (Vreeland), Hans Diedricks, Mich- 
ael Sniitii, Ilendrick Van Ostrum, and Claes Jansen A^an 
Purmerend. What is known as the Bergen plank road 
Avas laid out in 179(5. The Newark plank road was (u-iginal- 
ly constructed about 1765 and the Hackensack turnpike in 
1804. During the last French war Colonel John Schuyler 



KI'.AKXHY ANI» IIAKUISON 



4:}<) 



built tlio canscway Ci-om Ihc uplaiKl near r.cllr\ illc lo the 
Ilackcnsai-U llivui- al Douw's I'ci-r.v "at a very j^ri-at cx- 

])('11SC." 

Tlic 'I'nw iislii|i (if Krai-iicy cniiiaiiis t lie tlii'iCtv, attractive 
villajic nC Ailiiinlnii. wliidi lias Ijccoiiic iidI imly an iiii|M)r- 
taiit hiisincss ci'iitci- for Jliat \>;\v{ of tiic coiiiity, hut a iilacc 
of ])('i'iuan('ut residence of luany nu-u of means and intlueiice 
in \(M\' ^'ork, .leise\ <'il\. and Xewark. It lias a pojjula- ' 
tion of ahout t\vel\c liundreil. It conlains excel- 
lent churches ami schools, several liiiivinii husiness es- 
tablishmeTits, a few manufactnres, ami many handsome an<l 
well kept <hvellin}>s. ]I is a station on the New York ami 
Greenwood Lakedi\ision of ilie lOrie Kailroad. 

The townshiji also contains the New -Jersey State Sol- 
diers' Home, which was renio\'ed thither from Newark in 
ISSI). This institution was oriianized uiuler a legislative 
act ai(pi'o\-ed Apiil ll', ISIiL', and opened in Xewai'k on the 
Fonrth of .fuly. IStlC. The Legislatures of ISSt! and ISST 
ap!)roprialed '^ITo.OlM) for tlie erection of the new home, 
which now contains over three Inindied inmates. The pi-es- 
ent site consists of seventeen and a half aci-es, with a front- 
aii'eof six liuudicd feel on the I'assaic IJivei', u](on which six 
new and commodions l)uildin.tis lia\c been erected. 

Harrison is a lariie business and manufacturing; munici- 
pality \\ifh a population of about ten thonsand. It is sii- 
nated on the east bank of the I'assaic, direct I \ o|)]>(»site 
Xewark. Its interests ai-e \aried, embraciuij,' some of the 
larj^esl manufactui'es in the Stati, which furnish emplox- 
ment to humlreds of skilled workmen. It has several 
ehnrches and excellent schools. The locality known as 
East Newark adjoins llai-iison on the north, and is also a 
mannfacturiuii centei' i>( importance. It was created as a 
town in 1S98, 



440 



THE PASSAIC VALLEY 



In the Revolutionary War the present County of Hudson 
was important territory. It early became a recognized 
gateway to Jersey City and New York, and Lord Stirling 
took measures to place it in a condition of defence. He de- 

vised the 
works on 
Paulus Hook 
and Bergen 
Nee k, which 
were ordered 
constructed by 
Washing- 
ton, and which 
were a f t e r- 
w a r d under 
the command 
of General 
Hugh Mercer 
and later of 
Colonel Dur- 
kie. Washing- 
ton frequently 
visited the 
region during 
this period. In 
October, 1776, 
the Americans 

evacuated the defences and they remained in possession of 
the British until the end of the war, who held them with 
great tenacity. 

On the afternoon of the 12th of July — eight days 
after the Declaration of Independence — the " Phoenix," 
forty guns, and the " Rose," twenty guns, came sweeping 




GENERAL WASHINGTON RECONNOITERING. 



PAULUS HOOK 



441 



ii]) ihc Iciv, iiinl fni- llic lii-sl liiiic llii' llniiiilci-s of civili/AM] 
wnrl'arc Imrsl ri-mn llic sand-liills uf I'milns Hunk, i i s hat- 
tci-ics hciiiL;' trained iipon i lir ciiciii y. I>ut llic I'hi^nlisli ves- 
sels suH'ei-ed Utile dainaiic, as their decks were protected by 




HASBROUCK INSTITUTE. 



saiid-baiis. On the same e\enin;; Lord Howe saih'd iij) the 
harbor. On September l.")tli tlie i(ost a^ain had a skirmish 
witli llie I'.ritisli vessels " K'oebuck," " I'liii'iiix,'" and "Tar- 
tar." TTn(b'r the l">niilish, in 1777, it was nnder the com- 
mand of ('(done) Abialiani \'an T.nskirli. of Saddle TJiver, 
who had (leserte(l tlie ]ialriot cause and i^one over to the 
enemv. The works on Bercen Neck wei'e named Fort de 



4i2 



THE PASSAIC VALLEY 



Lancey in honor of Oliver de Lancey, the great Tory of 
Westchester County, New Yorlc. 

The inhabited territory now comprised within the limits 
of Hudson (bounty was subject to numerous raids during 
the war, Whig and T(u-y, friend and foe, both participating 
in tliese predatory excursions. Early in January, 1777, 
Captain Kennedy's house opposite Newark was plundered 

by soldiers returning from Morris- 
town to New England. In April of 
the same year a body of Americans 
from S(>caucus ''carried away all the 
grain, horses, cows, and sheep they 
could get together." Other raids oc- 
curred from time to time, that of Sir 
Henry Clinton, in September, 1777, 
being especially noteworthy. Sir 
Henry divided his forces into four col- 
umns, whicli entered the present 
County of Hudson from the general 
rendezvous at New Bridge, above 
iJackensack. On the 12th the expedi- 
tion set out. Clinton himself fol- 
lowed, passing uj) Newark Bay to 
Schuyler's Landing on the Hackensack (Douw's ferrj'), 
whence he marched over the Belleville turnpike to Schuy- 
ler's house, Avhere he found Captain Drummond with two 
hundred and lifty men. During the night General Camp- 
bell arrived with his detachment and the cattle he had col- 
lected en route. The dilferent columns met as designed on 
the 15th. On the Kith General Campbell marched his force 
from English Neighborhood to Bergen Point, Avhence he 
loassed over to Staten Island. The result of this raid was 
the capture of four hundred cattle, four hundred horses, and 




A HIGHLANDER. 



KVACfATIOX OK nEIJ(;KN NECK 



443 



ii U'W slic'cp, l;ilu-ii niosilv l'i-i)iii I III' |ir(i|ilc iil' llcr^cii and 
Essex ( '(Miiilics. Tlu'v liad ciulii iiicii Idllid, citiiilccii 
womiilcd, 1(11 iiiissiiiu', and lixc lakcn inisoiicrs. 

On .lul.v I'S. 177S, llic Americans retalialeil. cuniinu; dnwn 
as far as I!er\ucn I'oini, \isilinu lloehui-k nn llieir way. and 
(■ai-i-.\ ini: idT •' a i;i-eal nnniher n\' Caltle IVoni ilie Iiiliah- 
ilanls." 




I'illSHiKN I W ASIIINCTON S l>KSK. 



Itiil llie niiisi lirilliaiil episode ill ((innecl idii wiili Taiilus 
Ilooli ((cciiri-ed in iIh aiiiiiinii t,\' ITT'.I, w lien .Majiir lleni'v 
Lee (" Li^lit Horse I Ian y "l, slal iniied al New I'.rid:;(\ made 
a spiriled allaek mi ilie posi, rapturiiii;- one Inindred an(] 
fifty-nine of ilie L;arrison, including ofrirers. Tliis was early 
in file moniiim of A iil^iisI i '.I, The affair w as \-ery liallinn- lo 
tlie ISrilisli and Tories, hiil llie Americans were overjoyed, 
and .Major Lee re(i'i\ed llie ilianks of lioili ( 'oimress and 
AN'asliin^lon. Hie former jdaciiiL; in I.ee's hands .'«;ir>,0(l(l to 
he distriluiled anniiiii Hie soldiers eii^ayed in the attack 
and also awardiiiii liini a s]iecial iiu'dal comniemoraiiiiL; llie 
event. 



444: 



THE PASSAIC VALLEY 



Early in September, 1782, Fort de Lancey on Bergen Neck 
was evacuated and burned, and on October 5 Major Ward 
embarked for Nova Scotia with his despised and motley 
crew of refugees. From this time until the close of the war 
Paulus Hook was the only foothold which the British had in 
New Jersey, and fi'om here they continued to forage and 
raid over the county. But this, too, was evacuated by the 
enemy on the 22d of November, 1783, and a few days later 
General Washington passed through the Hook on the way 
to his home at Mount Vernon. 




Washington's bookplate. 



CHAPTER XXXIII 



THE COfXTY OF UNION 



XION COUNTY was taken lioiii Essex and incor- 
]»i>ralc(l by an act (tf tlu' l.cfiislaturc dated Maicli 
I'.i, IN.jT. V\> to tliat time it was au integral pari 
of the motlier conutv, allied to it by the close con- 
nection extending oxer a long series of years, by the com- 
mon bond of the hardship and struggles incident to a new 
life in the 'wihieniess. and by the brotherhood arising from 
a union of hearts and hands in the vicissitudes of the strug- 
gle for independence. What has been said historically of 
Essex can be said, therefore, for Union. The one is the 
child of the other, Avhich has gone out from the lionie to take 
up au independent life for itself. 

Union County is a locality of residences. The capital, 
Elizabeth, has a special history of its own, different fronj 
that of any other town in the State. That history has, in 
part, been written on these pages. IMaintield is one of the 
most sightly and beautiful cities in the Stale, anil deserves 
better mention of it than can be given in tiiis volume, but 
it is entirely outside of the ^'allev of the Passaic. There 
are really only two municipalities in tlie connty which are 
connected in sncli a manner with the ri\-er that tliey ought 
to be noticed. ( >f one of l li<-m very lilt le can he said. 

The small township of New Providence is intimately con- 
nected with the Passaic. Its wlude western boundary is 



446 



THE PASSAIC VALLEY 



waslied by that stream. It was a locality of quiet neigh- 
borhoods, made up maiu].y of descendants of the original 
settlers who are still fouiid there. But the introduction of 
the Delaware and Passaic Kailroad, now a branch of the 




TIIK l!(H'I)l\(IT UOUSK: K.l.lZAHKTll. 
(Now tlie Home for Aged Wonieu.) 

Lackawanna, has introduced a new order of affairs. Vil- 
lages for residences have sprung up along the line of this 
road, such as Murray Hill and Berkeley TIeiglits. Feltville, 
on the border of Westfiehi, was at one time a scene of great 
activity. 

New Providence, the most ancient hamlet in the town- 



N'KW I'lfi (XIDKXCT'; 



447 



slliji, is siln;ilc(l on I lie rjisl siilc nf l lir r:iss;iir illlil ll;lS I \\n 
cliiiiclics, ii I'rcsltv I('i-i;iii :in<l ;i .Md limlisl . 'I'lic iiilialtil 




SECOND riil'SllV IHUIAN I'lll Kl II; 1. 1.1 /.A HI' I 1 1 . 



;miIs ;irc iiioslly ;iL:ri(ii 1 1 iii;i 1 in llicir pursuils .ind iiiiikc 
\ci-\ lew cliMiii^cs. 




K 
D 



XKAv ruovinEvcF Axn ST'^nriT 



441) 



I( (iiicc Wiis cniiiiiTicd Willi Kli/„ilici liliiw II iiiiiil I'i'lini 
ai'j I. I Till, w Ih-ii it was iiiiiH'Ncd lo S|iriiiL;lii'l<l, hiii in ISOl 
was iiiadc nii iiiilc|iciHlciil ln\\iislii|i. Al diic lime il liinl 
Some iiidiisl rics of iiii|i(ii-l:iiiri-. ji owes its sett Iciiinil 
iiiainlv 1(1 llic l^iizahcl liliiw II assucialrs, a r(iiii|iaiiy nf lili- 
zciis wliu i(i<dv ii|i a iaiLii' iwlrril id' land Ihtc and iiidiici'd 
ollici-s Id jiiiii ilii-iii in iiiiiabil iiii; il. licsidcs lln' I wo 
clmn lies al New l'rn\ idciicc (lie Ituinaii ( "atlioliis lia\c cs- 
tablislicd a cnnm'ci^alinii al Slmiy Hill. 

Tlic iiaiiics iiinst |)rniiiiiiriii ainoiii; I lie caidy sciilcrs were 
Boiiiirl. I.iiitdl, Day, Slilcs, Wilcox, l.vciii, l^liiici-, N'ali'ii- 
tine, Ikoll, Itaiicy. and < 'aril. .Many di'scmdaiils ni' I lie <'arly 
settlers have Si'one oiil Irniii llicir iialixi' seals, iinile(l tlieiii- 
seh'i'S Willi (illier taiiiilies, and llic ijidiislr\ and lliiill of 
those early coiiiers iiilo lliis heanlil'iil coiinlry liaxc heeii 
preserNcd. 

While New I'roxideiice w as conncci ('(I willi l'"sse\ il ^ave 
many of lis citizens to the ^ood of the |nildic, in coiiiity of- 
fices and as ineiiihers of I he Slate l.e,L;islal lire, and all of 

tlieni ]iert'orilied the ilnties of their res])ect i\r oj'lices with 

fidelity. 

Siiiiiiiiil is so <alleil from the fad ihal when the .Morris 
and l']sse.\" Kaili-oad was consi nicied, and heforc its con- 
iii'ction with the Lackawanna road, this locality was the 
hi.uliesi ;;i-oiind reached. Il was the siimmil of the road, 
hence the name. In ISIIT, when the .Morris and l']sse\ ( "om 
pauy bei;aii riinnini; I rains, Snminil could hardly he called 
even a hamlet. It had very few dwclliiiLis situated within 
aiiv near distance ol the staticrii there estaldished. 

.loiiathaii ('. r.onnel, known heller as ('rane ]ioiiii(d, was 
a larue j.-indowner at this {loiiii and in its iniiiiediate \icin- 
it v. He li\i'd (111 ilie wcsi hank of the I'assaic, in a lai-L;e. 
commodioiis, (d(l-fasliione(| dwclliim, like iiiain of the fai'iu 



.luNAIIIAN ('. HoNXICri 



451 



lioiiscs nf his ihiy. llcwiisn iii;i n of l;i-i';i I ciirrLiy ;i ml Jierse- 
vcniiicc, mill kcciil\ ;ili\i' lo ilic liciidils III III' ilrri\rii from 
the existi'iKT nf a railniail ruiiiiiiii:' unit his hir^c cslato. 
If is assiM-tci] h_v many riiiiiiiiMMs ihal (In- i.nii>rr niulc for 
till- mad was In \<-,\\c .Milhiini al llir niad niniiiiii;- west- 
ward from llii sialioii, in fnllnw Ihr raviiii' rxli'mliiii; almi^- 
the nnrlhi'iii side nf Shnrl Hills, and sn In maili .Mnri'is 
County at the ciiiiiicmr known as lloharl Hill. Thai idaii 
■would have saved 
t wo or three miles ,.. ,..^,< 

the comiianv, hut it •.Mw'"'^^^^~^^^^^^'''''~~^'^^^ 
(lid not suit file far ^MMW^r"?^^^ -^'^^^ 

m 



reaehiuii views ot 

Mr. r.onnel. So he 

bent all I he streu-lh 

of his delennilied 

\\ ill III the layini; of 

(he road over the 't,: . I^r 

hill lyiuii- east of his liberty hai.l: elizabkth. 

land. In I he end he 

succeeded, and ihe jireseni tlonrishim;- town of Snmmil is 

the result. 

T,il<e inanv oiher Im-aliiies of its kind il is a town of resi- 
(h'uces, with liroad a\ennes lined with dwellings of the 
verv best andiilerl nre and elegant and romniodions in all 
Iheir apiilianres. In IIKIO il had a iiii|inlal ion of 7>:.W1, 
a lai-ue jiroiiorl inn of w Imni ar" business men of New "N ork, 
who have added mmal slren^lh ami llie sinews of weallh 
to this city on a hill, li has six i hnndies: IM-esbyteriau, 
l'',oisio|ialian, .Mel Imdisl, j.nlhi'ian, r>a|ilisl. and Knman 
("alholir. lis ]ien|di' are ali\i In all mndern demands fni- 
iin|irn\einent, sanilary and nlherwise. They June built: 



■it' 



'I'lIH r.KACON A.N!> SKINAL GUN 



453 



scliodi Ikmiscs, rlinirlics, II luwii liiill, ;i |iiil»lic lihriirv, iiia- 
radaiuizcil i lirir sii-rcis, swwk sc\\ci-s in ilicir i liui-n\iL;lir:iics, 
adorucd tlicir inwn wiili shade iiccs, and placc^d siil)slaii- 
lial sid('\vall<s Im- i he coinroi-i of pcdcwlriaiis. 

AN'ithiii t he Im)iiiii1s oT I liis iiiinn(i|ialily, on its caslcni Ikh-- 
dcf and oil an rinini'iici' (i\rrlniikiiiy i lie \all('\ spi-rad out 
fi-oiii tlic fool of Mil' coiiiiiiaiidin^ clcxalioii on wliicli Siiiii- 




CENTRAI. PAUT OK HAllWAY. 
(Fn.i.i au Ol.l rriiit.) 

mil is siliiaicd, is tlic spot wlicic, dnrinfi' the Kevolntion, a 
beacon and a siL;iiai i;nii l<iio\\ii \\y llie pleasant name of 
" Old Sow '■ were piacetl lo warn llie ininnleineii of ilie \i- 
cinity ot appioaihinu daiiiicr from inclusions (d' tlie enemy. 
'rii(> New .lersey Society of the Sons (d' llie Ainei'icau Revo- 
lulion liave phiced an appi'opiiale moniiiiieiii on 1lie identi- 
cal spot once occupied by lliese inleresl ini; iminoiials of the 
times wlieii the minds id' ihe peoph' wei-e at tension heat. 



Leave is now lal<en of ilie I'assaic N'aHey witli \ery jireat 
i'^.o-vet. 'I'iie task nndei-iakeii with L;i-eat i-i'lmi a iice. bnt 
with tlu' liopi' ihal some jnsiice miniit bi' cbme lo liie siili- 



454 



THE PASSAIC VALLEY 



ject, has been imperfectly accomjjlislied. It has grown in 
interest as it progressed. Mines of historical wealth have 
been discovered; traits of characters of the former and pres- 
ent inhabitants developed which have increased the high 
respect before entertained for them; the memory of the 
heroic people who went ont from their liomes and con- 
fronted the dangers and hardshiijs of a new habitation in 
the wilderness, and laid broad and deep foundations of 
human liberty, will be held more dear and more endni'ing 
hj the revelations evolved out of the inquiries into their 
lives and history. 

While such men and such women exist the Republic will 
ever be safe. 





GENERAL INDEX 



Abingdon 125 

Aohquackunmik 260 

AchqueijenolK'h 260 

Achler KiiU 427 

" Ackensack " 269 

Ackerman, Alexander 216 

family 288, 310, 3'J6 

Acquackanonk. ISO. 227. 234. 236, 240, 

24!l. 2S(I. 251. 2.t3. 262-264, 269-275. 394 

depd (if 264 

pui'dins'TS. tile 261, 262 

Townshiii 26. 259-268, 278. 305. 331 

AcqiR-qiH'iHUingr 260 

Acquickatrninck 348 

Act of SiuH-i-ssion 108 

Adams, John 146 

John Qiiincy 41 

Adrianse. Maryn 430 

African Methodist Episcopal 

Church at Morristowo 1.38, 143 

Afton 92, 101-102. 106 

.As:hquachanunck 264. 265 

Ahasimus 425. 426 

Albers. Hanns 340 

Albright. James P 110 

Alden. John 127 

Prisoilla 127 

Alexander. .Tames .33. 53 

William 32-.35 

All SoLds Hospital 1.50 

Allen family 126 

Allendale 292 

Altomatonck River 212 

Ambo\^ 58 

Ami lira n Bible Society 62 

I'.naid of l'"oreiKn Missions 62 

'l\-niitt-rance I'nion.- 62 

Tract Society 62 

Amsterdam 61 

Andre. Major 287 

Andries. Lawrence 43S 

Anthony. Alleni 430 

Aqu'duct. the Morris Canal 6 

Aqueyquinunke 260 

Aqtiikonoug 260 

Areola 304 

Argyle. Duke of 60. 61 

Ariessen. Cornelius 427. 4.30 

.\rkwriKht, Sir Richard.... 17 

.XrlinRton 439 

Armenian immigrations 76 

Arnold family 126. 131 

Major Jacob : 1.31. 148 

Tavc-rn 131. 148. 150 

.\rthur. President 49. 62 

Assanpinck Brook 211 

Asylum for the Insane 164-166 

Athenia 278 

Attack on P;uiUis Hook 443 

Avondale 394, 395 



.V.Nl.'ll. Charles F., 
famil.v 



... 75 
.74, 75 



Backer, Claes Jansen 430 

BadEley family 80 

Bailey family 126. 449 

Baker family "0 

Jeremiah Ill 

Haldwiii. l-;iias A 384 

r.imilv 74. 170.181,376.3.85 

.l.ihn 373 

.Ii'iiathan 384 

IMiinchas 383 

Th.imas 384 

Ball, Caleb 216 

tamilv 385 

Banla family 297. 433 

Baptist Church at Caldwell 406 

at Echo l^ake 241 

at Livingston 408 

at Milburn 410 

at Millington 56 

at Morristown 133. 136, 139. 143 

at Mount Bethel 57 

at Northtield 408 

at Passaic 272 

at Paterson 276 

at Summit 4.53 

Barbadoes, Island of 435 

Barber. Francis 327 

family 323 

Basking Ridge. .. .30-32. 35. 36. 37, 42. 

53, 54, 87. 119. 125. 142. 149 

Bates family 164 

Battin. Rev. Samuel Z 137 

Battle of Chantilly 372 

of l-ong Island 264. 285 

of Monmouth 32. 34. 61 

of Princeton 61. 148. 149 

of Springfield 412 

of Tr.-nton 61. 148. 149 

of Williamsburg 244. 372 

Bauldwin. John. Jr 340 

John. Sr 340 

Bayard. Balthazar 283, 430 

family 208 

John 66 

Nicholas 430 

Bavless. John 323 

Bavlev, Rt. Rev. James Roosevelt. 103 

Bayonne 419. 424 

Township 424 

Beach family 74. 126 

Meadows 93. 101. 157 

Beacon and signal gun at Summit. 453 

Beam family 202 

Bearfoot Mountains 230 

Beatlic. Robert 251. 253 

Beaiiplain family 115 

Beavertown 176, 179. 183. 181 



456 



GENERAL INDEX 



Beaverwyck 173 

Bedminster Township 60 

Beecler, Herman 433 

Beginnings of Patterson 15-28 

Bellman's Creek 420 

Belleville.... 312, .374. 305, 39G-399, 437, 439 

Township 317. 341, 392, 394 

turnpike 442 

Berdan family 243, 247, 293 

John 301 

Bergen 282, 2S3, 438 

County....!, 13. 14, 24, 57, 58, 85, 
88, 204, 217, 227. 229, 231, 233. 234. 
236, 242, 245, 255, 256, 259 269, 279- 
292, 293-313, 317, 331, 394. 419-433, 

435, 436, 443 

family 63 

Four Corners 283 

Neck 440, 441, 144 

op Zoom 419 

plank road 438 

Point 283, 442, 413 

town of 431 

Township 423 

village of 419, 420. 421 

Bergentown 260 

Berkeley. Lord John. 64. 206. 207. 313, 

320, 322, 332. 336, 341, 404 

Heights 446 

Bernard. Francis 54 

Township 29-51, 53-57. 60. 63 

Bernardsville ..29-30, 31. 32, 87 

Berry family 202, 208, 306 

John 430. 438 

Berry's Creek 306, 309 

Bertiiolf family 243 

Guillaume 271, 273 

Black Brook 92, 93, 94. 158 

Meadows 88. 93, 101, 157 

Blatchlv, Aaron 339 

Thomas 339 

Blauw, Garret Dircksen 427, 430 

Bloomfield 121, 341, 374, 376-377. 416 

Gov. Joseph 377 

Township 317, 386, 392, 394 

Ward 377, 384 

Bloomingdale 85, 231, 244 

Board family 250 

Boardville 229, 245 

Bockoven family 75 

Bog Meadows 175, 184, 200 

Bogert family 288 

Boiling Spring... 311-312, 383, 384, 415, 

416. 435, 436 

Boisaubin. Vincent 113-115 

Bollen, James 322, 345 

•"^Sond family 97, 323 

Stephen 340 

Bonnel, Crane 449 

Jonathan C 449. 451 

Bonnell family 323. 449 

Booke, Abraham 265, 266 

Bookey. Abraham 261 

Boonton..85, 102, 157, 158, 162. 171. 173. 

176. 182, 187-197, 245 

niillctili 106 

Timea 196 

Township.... 175, 176, 179. 187-197. 199 

Boston port bill 222 

Bottle Hill 95, 107, 108 

Boudinot, Ellas 327 

family 173 

Bound Brook 59, 390, 391 

Creek 348 

Boundary between East and West 

Jersey 31G 



Bounds of Bergen County 421-427 

of Newark 348 

Bout. Jan Evertse 426, 428 

Bovie, Jacob 180 

Bowlsby family 170 

Branchburg Township 60 

Brevoort, Henry 351 

Brick manufacture 99 

Briddin, Joseph 214 

Bridgewater Township 60 

Brinckerhoof family 306, 310 

Brockholst, Anthony 207, 208, 246 

f amib' 255 

Brook Valley 203 

Brooke, J. B 340 

Brookside 74, 75 

Brower family 250 

Brown family 385, 391 

John P 240 

Peter P 240 

Thomas 433 

Browne. John 339, 342, 344 

John. Jr 340 

Bruen family 97, 106 

Obadiah 339, 342, 343, 344 

Bryant 150 

Buckley, James M., D.D 166 

Budd family 98 

John 214 

Bull. Ed 339. 

Burlington 337 

County 211 

Burnham, Frederick G 127 

Burr, Aaron 286. 292, 327 

Burrowes. Edward 344 

Burwell. Ephraim 340 

Za chariah 340 

Butler 200-201 

Buttz, Henry A., D.D 113 

Buys, Jan Cornelissen 427,430 

Byilinge, Edward 64 

Cadmus. Dirk 433 

Caldwell.. 85, 102, 157, 162, 163, 175, 181, 

234, 251, 317, 374, 378, 406 

Mrs. James 412-413 

Rev. James 77-78, 327, 406, 412-413 

Township. ..3. 317. 399. 402-406. 407, 415 

Camfleld, Ebenezer 339 

family 365 

Matthew 339 

Camp family 391 

Gaw 295 

John J 353 

William 353, 373, 340, 389 

Campbell, Archibald 61 

Charles 61 

General 442 

John 61. 410 

Lord Neil 60, 65 

Samuel 409 

Campfield, Abraham 80 

family 80 

Camptown 121, 373, 389, 390, 391, 415 

"Camptown Navy Yard" 390 

Canal projects 22, 26. 190-191 

Canoe Brook 409 

Cape May County 367 

Capital at Elizabethtown, the. .. ..324-325 

Captahem : . . . 403 

Capture of General Charles Lee. ...31-32 

Carle family SO 

Carll family 449 

Carlstadt 306. 307, 308 

Carpet manufacturing 251-252, 256 

Carsbon, Jan Evertsen 427, 430 



(;i;ni;i;\i. ixdk.x 



i57 



i:'.". 

4U4 

4 

37:! 
333 
400 
257 
350 
408 
425 
10 
372 
3i;i 
42il 
431 



Tarter family 106, 323 

I'tirti'i-et. Elizabeth 32!l 

Philip.... 313, 320, 322, 323, 325, 321!, 
33i;-337, 341, 342, 345, 420, 430, 431. 

Sir George 04. 200. 207. 202, 

313, 320, 322, 32:i, 332. 330. 341. 

Car.v family 

i'lifliolic ('httrcli — see Roman Catholic. 

Catliii. John 

('atling. John 

Cedar Grove S5. 3S9, 

Cemeteries, early 250- 

Cemeterv in Newark 

Centerville S5, 

Central Railroad of New Jersey 

t/hanK*es of nature 3, 5. 7, S, 

Chaiitilly, battle of 

Charles II 205, 206, 265, 

t'harter of Bergen 

of Queen Anne 34,S, 

Chatham 77. 02. 03, ni-ini. 105. 100. 

1,''>7. 

Township 3. til. ii2- 

( 'hi'seiiuake 

» 'lii,i;arv mansion 103- 

Ch. rry Hill 

( 'ht-st-cinake Harbor 

Chestnut Hill 

Christian Chureh at Irvinglon 

Science C'luireh at Paterson 

Christianse. liarent 

Chureh of the Assumption at 

Morristown 

of the Redeemer at Morristown. 
Churches. ...31. 56. 57. 04. SO. !)4. !l5-!)6. 
no, 120, 122-120. 133-143. 164. 167, 
16S, 170. 176-177. 1S4. 100. 201. 
241, 244, 247, 254, 20!l-2;2. 276- 
277, 291, 292, 294, 29S, 302, 304, 
307, 355, 377, .3S1, 392, 395, 396, 
39S, 399, 402. 403. 406. 40S. 410. 
413, 414, 417. 447. 449. 

Circuit Courts 

Civil War. the 49, 366- 

Claesen. Gerebrand 

( Ma rk .\braham 

fa 111 11 V 74, 

Clarke, William 

Clay. Henry 40. 41 

Clendenny. Walter 

( 'Icverlv. John 124. 

Clifton 

Clinton 

De Witt 

General 286, 

Sir Henry 

Township 317, 325, 341, 389- 

C.ihh. .\ndrew B 

.\iidi-ew I^emuei 

familv 

George T 138, 

("•ol. Lemuel 

Cockloft Hall 

Coe family 126, 

Joseph, Jr 

Coerten. Guert 

Coeyman family 

"Coffee House." the 

Coleman's Bridge 

Coles, J. Aekerm,an. M.D 

College of New Jersey .3.8. 

Co Herd. James 

Colli ns\alle 

t'oloniai governors, inliuence of.. 325 
Columbia 92, 

College 



158 
106 

58 
101 
30 1 

5,S 
3S4 
392 
277 
430 

141 

138 



451 
46 
,372 
433 
327 
126 
327 
. 62 
433 
125 
278 
242 
3S9 
32S 
442 
392 
172 
172 
170 
143 
172 
351 
131 
214 
430 
396 
29 
384 
315 
lOS 
43:'. 
119 
■327 
100 
370 



Committees of safety and corre- 
spondence 302 

Common lands 431 

CiUUUHMUpaw 426, 428, 438 

"Cousessions of Berkeley and Car- 
teret" 64 

Condict family 74, 127, 170 

Lewis, M.D 127 

Silas 127, 108 

iMrs. Silas 152 

Condit. Aaron 168 

Aaron P 102 

Benjamin S 173 

family 98. 120, 137, 174. 181, 

380, 399, 408, 414 

Israel D 410 

Joel 405 

Jonathan 327, .399 

Conger family 126 

Congrcgati(jnal Chui'ch 

at Newark 336, 338-339, 359 

at Stanley 94 

at Verona 402 

Connecticut Farms 78, 102 

immigrants, the 332-345 

Connet familv SO 

Constable's Hook 281. 421 

Constitution. State 168 

Controversy over division lines 316 

Convent of Saint Elizabeth 103-105 

Cook familv 74. 164. 174. 181 

George H S3. S5. 86. 87. 253. 312 

Michael 180 

Cook's Bridge 171 

Coontown 56 

Cooper family 74. 75. 170. 212. 303, 430 

John 267 

Peter 243 

Copper mines 312, 398, 437 

Corneliesen, Guiiiiaem 430 

t.^orona 308 

Cors. Claes Petersen 430 

C<jtton manufacture 17, 27 

Course of the Passaic 1-lt 

Countess of Stirling 118 

Counties formed into townships 60 

County Courts ,57-58, 313-314 

organizations.... 57-60. 313-314. 421-422 

Courts, creation of 313-314 

of Chancery 64 

of t^^ommrui Pleas 24, 45-46 

of Quarter Sessions 23, 24, 214 

Crane. Azariah 340. 374 

D. D 384 

Delivered 339 

Edward 216 

familv 323, 365 

Jasper 339 

Jr>hn 339 

I'hiucas 416 

Sl.-phen 405, 415 

William 328 

Craneto wn 374 

Creation of Little Falls 5 

Croes, Rev. John 141 

Cross of the Legion of Honor ,371 

Crolon 409 

Crown lands 206 

Crvnnen. Jan Cornelissen 430 

Crystal Drop 295 

Lake 295 

Cummings. John 433 

Cummins, Rev. Mr 139 

Currenc.v. condition of 151-152 

Curtis. John 340 

Cushing. Caleb 290 



458 



GENERAL INDEX 



^.Cutler family 126, 131 

William W 131 

Daglish. Robert 340 

Danish immigration 279 

Darlington 292 

Davenport, Humphrey 179 

John •. 214 

Davis family 126 

Jefferson 370 

Stephen 340 

Davison, Thomas 430 

Dawson, Thomas W 99 

Day family 97, 126, 131, 433, 449 

George 340 

Stephen D 384, 415 

Dayless, William 210 

Dayton. Elias 327 

Jonathan 327 

William Lewis 42-51 

_ De Baun family 243, 2SS 

■fDe Bough, Garret 214 

'--De Bow family 202. 208, 243 

De Chastellue 150 

De Grauw family 433 

De Groot family 433 

—De Hart, William 327 

De Kuyder, Thomas Frederick 430 

De Danoey, Oliver 442 

De Mott family 208 

George 433 

Michael 433 

De Rtiyter, Admiral 65 

-=Oe Vries, .Tan Petersen 427 

Dead River 2, 53, 74, 87, 88 

flats 87 

Declaration of Independence 223 

Deeds from the Indians 341-345 

Deed of Acquackanonk 264 

of John Kay 119 

Deep Brook 317 

Deer Hill 255 

Dela wanna 278 

Delaware, Lackawanna and 

Western Railroad.. ..29, 55, 75, 
91, 93, 178, 1S3, 1S4, 203, 231, 245, 
278, 310, 384, 425, 446, 449, 451 
Delaware and Passaic Jlailroad 

29, 55, 75, 91, 446 

Demarest family 247, 30:) 

John 285 

Democratic party, the 44, 48 

Demont, Frederick 214 

Denison, Robert 342, 344 

Robert R 340 

Denmark 162 

Des Marest, David 303 

Description of the Passaic 1-14 

Dey family 259 

Dickerson family 126 

Philemon 327 

Diederick, Hans 253, 261. 265. 

266, 430, 438 

Discovery and exploration 205 

Dissensions in the Reformed 

Church 271 

Distilleries 179, ISO 

Distribution of home lots 353 

Division of Newark into wards.. 383. 415 
of the colony into counties 

57-60, 313-3U 

Dod. Daniel 38. 75. 376 

family 74. 75, 181 

Nathaniel 416 

Silas 416 

Stephen 75 



Dodd family 365, 374, 376, 408 

John 381 

Silas 384 

Dodtown 416 

Doremus, Cornelius ISO, 250^ 

family 178, ISl, 243, 247, 302, 3S6 ' 

John 302 

Doughty, General 119 ' 

Douw's Ferry 439, 442 

Dover SO, 162 

Drake family 75 

Drew, Daniel 112, 113 

Seminary 111-113 

Drogestadt, Hendrik 345 

Drummond, Captain 442 

Duchess of Gordon 61 

Duelling ground 424 

Duer, William 34 

Duke of Argyle 60. 61 

of York 205, 206, 319, 332, 404 

Duraont family 03 

Duncan brothers, the 395 

Woolen Mills .395 

Dundee Island 260 

Lake 275, 301 

Manufacturing Company.. 275 

Water Power and Land Com- 
pany 275 

"Duryea family 178 

John 251 

Dutch characteristics 264 

East India Company 205 

immigrations 27, 66, 176, 177, 

ISO. 181, 183, 184, 185, 202, 203, 204, 
208, 209, 216-218, 233, 240, 243, 246- 
247, 250, 255, 261, 262, 264, 269. 277, 
279, 288, 293, 294, 301, 303, 306, 310, 
394, 396, 399, 403, 406, 420, 425-433 
land claims 205 

-Eagle Rock 382, 384, 416 

Earl of Chatham 92 

of Stirling 118 

of Thomond 370 

Earle family 433 

East Hanover 107, 123 

Jersey 58, 59, 211, 253, 264, 313- 

316. 331, 420, 

Newark 419, 424, 435, 

Orange 341, 385-388, 415, 

Orange Township 

Easton family 

Eastwood, John 

Echo Lake 

Educational interests 31, 95, 96, 

103-105, 111-113, 184, 194, 196, 240- 
241, 247, 253, 256, 273, 291, 292, 307, 
357, 359, 392, 395, 413, 417, 

Edison, Thomas A 

Edsall, Samuel 344, 

Edwards, Harmen 

Electrical enterprises 161' 

Elizabeth 79, 205, 314, 319-329, 

River 322, 384, 

Township 384, 

Elizabethport 

Elizabethtown 33, 57, 58, 78, 95, 

111, 121. 135. 163. 207, 281, 2S3, 286, 
313, 314, 319-329, 331, 341, 343, 
347, 348, 363, 391, 408, 421, 

Point 

- Elmendorf family , 

Elmer family SO, 

Ely, A. K 

Ely family Wf, 

Emmet, Thomas Addis 



421 
439 
416 
317 
126 
398 
241 



451 
3S0 
430 
430 
■162 
445 
391 
415 
329 



449 
328 

63 
449 
16\ 
174 

3S 



CI'.NKKAl. INDKX 



459 



Encampmpnt at Morristown.US. 170-172 

at SomiTvllle ()6-(» 

Englewood 303. 303 

Kngiish Creek 30.S 

immigrations 2S, CI. ( 

liC. 75. 97. 108. 191. 193. 218- 

219. 32.5-321!, :B2-345. 421. 423 

land claims 205 

NeigborhiMKl 442 

JCitisfn/iitt t'hitrch—see Protestant 
Kpisi-opal. 

Rrdman. Kev. Albert, U.D 135 

Kricksen. Reinhart 29S 

Erie Canal 380 

Railroad 231. 2SS. 291. 292. 297. 

299. 311. 395. 425. V.V 

Kspatin 42U 

Essex County 1. 3. 24. 4tj. 58. 

75. 85, 87. 92, 157, 162, 175. 181. 
184, 199. 227, 233. 234, 245. 251. 253. 
254. 259. 264, 265, 267. 2(iS, 2S1. 309. 
312. 313-329, 331-345, 347-357. :i59- 
372, 373-388, 389-406, 407-418, 419, 

421, 437, 443, 445, 449 

Evacuation of Bergen Neck 444 

Evans. B. D., M.D 166 

Evergreen Cemetery 119 

Everitt, Moses K 166 

Faesch family 173 

John Jacob 197 

Pair grounds. State 391 

-Fairchild family 126, 170 

Zachariah 214 

Fairfield 254, 403 

Fairmount 378 

Farm of Peter Schuyler 437. 438 

"Farmer's Almanac," the 174 

Farrand family 170 

Nat 171 

Rhoda 170-172 

Farrelly. Patrick 166 

Felch. George E 102 

Feltville 44'i 

Ferguson. Rev. J. A.. D.D 170 

Ferris family 97 

"Fighting Parson." the 77-79. 327 

"Fighting Phil." 372 

Financial conditions 151-152 

First call for troops 367 

First church in Newark 353 

in Passaic County 269 

First county organizations 57-60 

court at Morristown 211 

Holland Church in Passaic 272 

Mountain 7. 381. ,399, 404, 405, 411 

First Presbyterian Church at 

Morristown 125-126, 130, 133-134 

in Newark 356 

at Orange 411 

First Reformed Church at Hacken- 

sack 287 

at Passaic 272 

First Regiment, the 369, 371 

Hi\-er 347, 3.56 

First settlers of Elizabethtown. ..319-323 
of Morris Township. .118. 120-122. 126 

of Newark 121 

First steam engine 312 

telegraph, the 154-155 

winter at Morristown 14S, 170-172 

Fish, layman J 10: 

Fisher. Ilendrick 66 

Home in Paterson 278 

Flemlngton 38 

Fletcher, Richard 341 



Florence Crittenton Home in Pater- 
son 278 

Kliirliam Park, borough of. ...92. 101-103 

I'-.ir.l f:inlilv 126 

C,.il,ri,l II 129 

Ibiirv A 129, 130 

llenrv W : 130 

.Jacob 129. 148, 214, 216. 222 

.lac. lb. Jr 129. 150 

.Mansion 129. 150-154 

Mis. Theodosla 129, 150 

Sanuiel 216 

Porce family 408 

Port Clinton 284 

de hancey 441-442, 444 

Knyphausen 284 

l^ee 31, 264, 285. 286. 304 

Sumter .367 

Washington 31, 264, 284, 285 

Fossil lish 187 

Founding of Newark.. 325, 331-345, 347-357 

of Paterson 15-28 

Eourth Regiment, the 36') 

Franklin 236, 394, 395, 4a5 

Heiijamin 146, 295 

Township 60, 280, 288, 293- 

295, 297, 300, 301, 303, 317, 341, 392-396 

William 295. 432 

William Temple 146 

Franzen family 43:{ 

Fredericks. Pi'ter ISO. 214 

"I'^'ivedoms and Exemptions." bill 

of 425 

Freehold 43 

Freeman family 126. 131. 164, 385. 416 

H.mnah 37:j 

Ji'liii 234 

Samuel 411 

Stephen 216, .339 

'I'.ivern 150 

Fre.-mantown 4]c 

Frelinghuysen. Frederick 61, 62, 66 

Frederick T 49, 62 

(leorge c,2 

Theodore 61-62 

Theodorus Jacobus 61 

Fremont, John C 4-j 

French immigrations .82, 97, 113 

322, 325, 326, 425 

Philip 433 

Frost family 126 

Fuller. Dudley B ...191, 192, 193 

Fulton, Robert 38, 39 

Fundamental agreement, the 337- 

340, 389, 391 

Constitution, the 64 

Funeral of Vincent Boisaubin 115 

Game preserve at Florham Park... 103 

Gnrdnei'. Thomas 414, 415 

Garr^ibranl family 75, 394 

Garret Mountain 250 

Rock 261 

Garretse. Harmanus 250, 271 

Garretson family 250, 293 

Garret 261, 262 

Garrison family 278, 2,SS 

Garritsen. (Jarrlt 265. 266 

„ I.nbbert 430 

Gaston family 63, 223 

Genung family 97, 101 

Geographical description .1-14 

Geological formations 5, 55, 83-89 

George I 107-108 

George 11 264 

Geretsen, Guert 430 



460 



GENERAL INDEX 



German immigrations 2S, SO, 220, 

307, 340, 425 
Presbyterian Churcli at Passaic. 272 

Valley -220 

Gibbons, William HI. 112 

Gifford, James M 9S-99 

Sanford B 201 

Gillette 75. 77, 01 

Glen Ridge 317, 341 

Gloucester 79 

Goble family 126 

Godwinville 299 

Goetohins family 2SS 

lane 236 

Gofle 302 

Gold, Robert 214 

Gordon, Duchess of 61 

Gorges, formation of 3, 5. 7, S, 10 

Gouverneur, Abraham 351 

Nicholas 351 

Granniss, R. A 16t 

Grant of Duke of York 333 

' of Richard Nicolls 323 

"Grants and Concessions," the 336 

in Hudson County 425-427 

Graveyards, early 2d6-2G7 

Gray. Thomas 251 

Great Falls 6, 7, 14. 19, 250, 269 

Mountain 343. 344, 345, 31S 

Piece Meadows... 175, 1S4, 199, 317, 105 

Piece Swamp S8 

Swamp, the 83-S9, 91, 92 

Green. Ashbel 16S 

Brook 59. 317 

Charles H 16S 

Island 3S3 

Jacob 167. 16S, 171 

Mountain Brook 3S4 

Robert Stockton 16,S 

Village 75, SO, 92, 106 

Greenville Township 424, 425 

Greenwood Lake 229, 230, 231 

Lake Railroad 223 

Guttenberg Township 419, 424 

Hackensack 14. 269 

271, 285, 286, 287, 298, 310, 442 

Indians 308, 341. 342-345 

River 13. 279, 2S0, 

281, 300, 302, 304, 305, 306, 308, 
309, 314, 317, 331, 348, 420, 421, 
423, 424, 425, 433, 435, 436, 439, 442 

Township 423 

turnpike Jj° 

Valley IS* 

Hackingsack Bay 348 

Haines family • ■•■• 1™ 

Haledon 236, 237, 255, 256, 2iS 

•■Half Moon," the 205 

Halmagh family 25o 

Halmeghs, John ■•■• '»? 

Halsey family 126, lol 

George A ■ Im 

Hamilton, Alexander ;;l",iS 

Hancock, John 95, 100 

William P 191 

Hanover 107, 121, 158. 161. 162, 167, 

171, 172, 174 

Creek ■■■ 158 

Neck 167, 174 

Township.... 3. 92. 93. 100, 101, 157- 
174, 175, 176, 187, 188, 195, 208, 214 

Haquequenunck 260, 261 

Hardenburgh, Rev. Dr. Jacob R.... 66 

Harlem 304 

Harmansen, Douwe 4.j0 



Harrington Township 303, 308, 424 

Harris, William H 253 

Harrison 439 

family.... 365, 374. 382, 386, 391, 408, 414 

Caleb G 386 

John 339 

Richard 339, 373, 374 

Samuel 345 

William Henry 42, 47 

Hartley, D 146 

Hartman's Island 265, 26C 

Hartshorne, Stewart 411 

Haskell, Llewellyn S 37S-380 

Hat manufacturing 407, 409, 410, 417 

.JIatfield family 323- 

Meadows 40d - 

Swamp 88, 157, 175, 184, 317 _ 

Hathaway, Abraham 214 

Benjamin 214 

Benoni 127 

family 126, 127 

Hawkins, Joseph 433 

Hawthorne 237, 256, 278 

Hays. Stephen 384 

Haze, John 295 

William Van Voors 295 

"Hazelwood" estate 291 

Headley family 323 

Headquarters of Washington at 

Morristown 129, 130, 148-154 

at Somerville 66-69 

Hedden family 3S6 

Heintzelman, General 371 

Helby, Joseph..: , 118, 119 

Helmeghee family 255 

Hendricks copper works 398 

Herriman, Joseph 216 

Hessels family 433 

.-iiewitt 242 

Abram S 243 

Hibbard, Rev. Charles H., D.D 138 

"Hielawith of Pequannock" 204 

Hillsborough Township 60 

Hoagland, Christopher 262, 265, 266 

Hobart, Bishop 139 



Hill. 



451 



Hoboken 231, 419, 424, 427 

Hacking 425 

Township 424 

Hockquackanong 260 

Hockquackanung 260 

Hohokus Brook 2S8 

River 291, 29? 

Township 280, 288-292, 293, 301 

Holland immigrations 27, 61, 65- 

66, 176, 177, ISO, 181, 183, 184, 185, 
202, 203, 204, 208, 209, 216-21S, 233, 
240, 243, 246-247, 250, 255, 260, 261, 
262, 264, 269, 277, 279, 288, 293, 294, 
301, 303, 306, 310, 394, 396, 399, 403, 

406, 420, 425-433 

HoUoway- family 126 

Holsman family 310 

Home lots, distribution of 353 

Hook Mountain 85, 175, 199 

Hooker, General 372 

Hopkinson, Joseph 38 

Hopper family 278, 288, 394, 433 

Hoppertown 291 

Hopping, Clinton C 102 

family 100, 174 

Horse Neck 121, 16.3 

Horseneck River 403 

Horton, Nathaniel 214 

Hospitals in Paterson 278 

House, John W 256 



OENKKAT. IN'nF.X 



461 



How ;i Tcl family 

Savlnes Institution 

Howe. hor<l 

Howpll family 74. 164. 

Hoy le. Nicholas 

-Hoyt's Corners 

Hudson County 1. 1112. 2S1. 3011. 

308. 419-433. 435 

River 31. 32. 

204. 207. 217. 21S, 220. 279. 2.S0. 
2S1. 2S5. SOS. 420. 421. 423. 

Sir Henry 

Township 

Hughes. Rev. William M.. S.T.D... 

Huffuenot Immiprrations 97. 

Hunter. Hubert 

Hunlercion County 38. Bl. 107. 

157. 211. 212. 213. 

Huntington. Tlnunas 

Hu>'sman family 

Hyler. Nicholas 



la; 

1)2 
441 
170 
214 

s2 



42.S 
20& 
421 
139 
113 
431 

331 
339 
433 
ISO 



Tee formations 5. 7. S. 10. 55. S3 

Ineorporation of the City of Pater- 
son 23 

of Passaie Count.v 234 

of the Society of Establish- 
ing I'seful Manufactures 19. 21 

I nilian affairs 427-42S 

Krook 73 

claims 341. 342-345 

(leells 403. 404. 430-437 

land titles 204-2O.T 

names 200 

Indians 341-345 

Itidnstrial development of Pater- 
son 1.5-2S 

Infliu'uee of colonial governors. . 325-327 

Inhabitants of Paterson 277 

Insane, care of 104-100 

Invention of the telegraph 154-155 

Irish immigrali(»ns 73 

Iron interests 155. 1G3 

1S7. 191, 194. 195. 239. 240. 241, 242 

Irving, Dr. Peter 3.51 

Washington .351. .392 

William 351 ■ 

Irvinglon 121. .317. 341. 347. 390. 391. 392 

Island of Secaueus 425 

Italian immigrations 70 

Ives. C. H 315 



.Johns. in family 97, 120. 130, 3(i5, 391 

,I..hn 339 

J. dm U 400 

Kev. John Mills 170 

Thomas 340, 345 

.Tones family 20S 

.lora lemon family 310 

.1 udicial changes 45-46 

iJumel. Madam 292 

Jurlanee. Thomas 250 

Kanouse family 181. 240 

.lohn George 240 

Kaolin deposits 241 

Kay. John IIS. 119, 122 

K earney 419, 424 

Michael 370 

Gen. Phlll]) 370-372 

Township 436, 4.'.;) 

Keasbev I'amilies 178 

Keen's Mills 405 

Kelley. Charles h 99 

Frank T.,. & (^o D9 

Kemble. Gouvernenr 351 

Kennedy. .Archibald 437. 442 

Rev. Dr 3G 

Kennedy's farm 43S 

Keyes. Jesse S 102 

Kevs. John US 

— Kief t. William 427-42S 

Klerstcad fainilj'. 



Klerstead family 394 

King. Frederick 147 

147 
147 



Jackson. George 252 

Jacksonville 58. ■i!02 

Jacobs. Svmon 201. 202. 204 

W.illiiig 201. 202. 265. 260 

Jaiobse. Svmon 261). 266, 20,S 

Walling 271 

Jacidisen. Peter 430 

Jacobus. Brant 214 

family 181. 183, 250. 399. 400 

James. D. Willis Ill 

James 1 107. lOS 

James II 205. 207. 319 

Thomas I- 201 

Jansen. Barent 427. 430 

.M ichael 427, 430 

Peter 430 

Jay. John 140 

Jefferson Township 199 

Jerolamon family 396 

Jersey Citv 161. 190. 2S2. 28.5. 

419. 424. 425. 426. 427. 438. 439. 440 

Jewish Synagogues at Paterson 277 

Johnes. Mrs 152 

Rev. Timothy 120, 125-126, 129, 133 



\'incent H. 

William T^ 145. 

Kingsland 311 

fa mily 310, 311 

Manor 435 

Nathaniel 435 

Stephen 310 

Ivinney. John 210 

__Kip family 247. 310 

Kipi) family 303 

Kirkland. Rev. Orlando C 135 

Kirkpatrick. Alexander 36 

.Andrew 35-.37 

■Kitchell. Aaron ni) 

.\braham 170. 214 

.\nna 221 

fa MMly 170, 174 

Robert 310 

Samuel 339, 342, 344 



I'zal 

Klein. Carl 

Knight. G. W 

Kncmmel, Henry B. 
Knyper family 



I.abardlst missionaries 

I.;if.a>'ette. General 79. 

hatlin and Rand Powder Company. 

Lake Hopatcong 

l.amington 

hand controversies 431- 

grants 205- 

titles 204- 

"Ijandlng." the 

_ljane. Sir Thomas 

T, aiming. George M 

l.aUiiop. Francis S 

William Gerard 193. 

l..atouretle. David 

T«aurenoe. Richard 

Ijaurens. Aerent 

Henry 

Severn 



224 

308 
256 
SS 
303 

269 
287 
247 
162 
66 
433 
■207 
■20S 
263 
403 
101 
165 
194 
433 
339 
430 
146 
430 



462 



GENERAL INDEX 



Lawrie, Garven 64 

Lee, Charles 31-32 

General 30, 372 

Henry 44o 

Meadows •_ 88, 157 

Leendertsen, Paulus 430 

L'Bnfant. Major 26-27 

Legion of Honor 371 

Lehigh Valley Railroad 425 

Leisler, Gov. Jacob 351 

Leonard, Paul 216 

Library at Boonton 194 

at Madison Ill 

at Morristown 145-148 

at Orange 417 

at Summit 453 

at ^'hippany 160-161 

"Light Horse Harry" 443 

Lincoln, Abraham 49, 367 

Park 176, 179, 183, 202, 203, 315, 356 

Lindley family 126 

Lindslev, Eleazar 76 

family 76, 131 

J. Frank 77 

John 214, 216 

John Berrien 77 

Philip 76, 77 

Daniel 214 

Linle, Francis 76 

Francis F 340 

Littell family 449 

Little Falls 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 24, 87, 

236, 245, 249, 250, 251. 232, 253, 

254, 259. 400, 405 

Township 249-254, 255 

Little family. ...~i SO 

Ferry 3ns 

Piece Meadows 317. 405 

Littleton 158 

Livingston. 38, 39 

Livingston 341, 378, 408, 409 

Township 317, 405, 407-408, 409 

William 34, 327-32S. 408 

Llewellyn Park 378-380 

Locomotive industry, the 2S 

Lodi 306. 307, 438 

Chemical Works 306 

Township 280. 301, 303, 305- 

308. 309, 424, 435 

Logansville 75 

Long Hill 54-55, 75, 77, 80, 91 

Long Island, battle of 264, 285 

Long Pond 229 

Lord, James Couper 192, 193 

Loree family 74 

Losee family 74, 75 

Losev family 126, 131 

Louis XVI IW 

Louis XVIII IW 

Lubbers, Cornelius 261 

Lubbertse, Cornells 265, 266 

Lubbertsen. Gysbert 430 

Luby. James 430 

/ Lucas." Nicholas 64 

Ludlow, Benjamin 79 

Cornelius 79 

family 79 

George C 79 

George H 79 

Lum family 97 

Frederick H 97 

Mattliew 214 

Sir Charles 9i 

Lutheran Churches at Paterson — 276 

at Summit 453 

Lutkins family 303 



Lymens, Robert ' ..340. 373 

Lyndhurst 311 

Lyon family 391. 449 

Henry 339 

Samuel 349 ' 

Thomas L 339 

MacCullough, George P 178, 181 

Macopin 241 

Lake 231 

Madison 85, 93, 95, 100, 105, 106, 141 

borough of 92, 93, 101, 107-115 

James 109 

Madisonville 29 

Mahurin family 126 

Mahwah 292 

Malapardis 15S, 167 

McClellan, Gen. George B 381 

McCrea, Jane 66 

Rev. Mr 66 

McCuUough, George P 139 

McCurdeg, Richard A 104 

Mcllraith family 75 

Manchester 19, 236, 237, 246, 257. 302 

Township 237, 255. 281 

Mandeville family... 1S3, 202, 20S, 243, 247 

Giles 214 

Manhattan Island 184, 216, 217, 

233, 279, 282, 303 
Manufactures, development of — 5, 

14-28, 56 
Manufacturing.... 76, 98, 99, 155, 159, 
163, 179, ISO, 188, 191, 192, 194, 196, 
200, 201, 247, 251, . 252, 256, 275, 
306, 307. 319. 361-362, 377, 382, 391, 
395, 398, 407, 409, 410, 416, 417, 439 

in Paterson , 15-28 

Maple wood 384 

Marsh, Charles M 164 

family 75, 323 

Martin, William A 99 

Masker family 250 

Massacre of Pavonia 428 

Maurisson, Hendrick 214 

Maxwell. General 412 

Mead family 208, 243 

Hall 112 

Mead's Basin 231. 245, 217 

Meeker, Carnot B 101. 102 

family 100. 323 

William J Ml 

Mehelm. John 66 

Menagh family 75 

Mendham 1. 82. 142. 16i 

Township 60, 71-75 

Mercer, Hugh 440 

Merritt, Bev. Robert N., D.D 13S 

Merselis family 255 

Messeke family 250 

Methodist Episcopal Churches — 31, 
57, SO, 95, 101, 110, 112, 113, 133, 137. 
159, 167, 170, 176, 183, 196, 241, 254, 
272, 276, 392, 399, 402, 406, 408. 446. 451 

Meyersville 75. 77, SO 

Mexican War, the 370 

Michielsen, Cornelius 261. 265, 26t; 

Ellas 261. 265, 266 

family 262 

Joannis 26;» 

Johannes 261, 265 

Hartman 260, 261, 265, 261. 

Michielsen, Enoch 438 

Middlesex County.. . .58, 59, 60, 61, 

63, 281, 421 

Midla;nd Park 295. 297 

Township 297, 301, 302-304 



GENERAL INDEX 



4()3 



Midv.ilc 245 

MiKlu-i'Uiik SOS. 431! 

Milbuni 3S4, 10!l. 410. 451 

Township 317, 31i). 3S2. 407. 40S-413 

MiliUirv ("cimmon 354. .370 

Mill lii-Diik 347. 350 

Mill.r ramily 17S. 181 

.MilliiiSton 2. 54-56. 80. SI 

-Mills. Alfred 120 

Alfn-il Klmer 120 

K(Uv;irfl K 120 

fiimilv 12fi. 127-129. 104 

J.ilin' 128 • 

Timothv 127 

MlUvillc 400 

Mine Brook 30 

Mimiilain 110 

rtirlse 187 

Minisiiis 404 

Indians 205 

Minton familv 97 

Miniilcnicn. the 3154-365. 412. 453 

Missouri Compromise, the 30-11 

Mohawk Valley 220 

Monmouth, battle of 32. 34. 01 

Crnnitv 43, 44. 5S, 2S1. 421 

Monroe 15S. 107 

James 41 

Montelrtir....l62, 253, 341. 374. 376. 377. 382 

Township 317 

Monlsomerv Township 60 

Montvillo 3. 85. 157. 17fi, 170. 203 

Township 175-185. 187. 

190. 200. 202. 20S 

Moon family 323 

Moore familv SO. 126, 383 

Samuel 430 

Morda vis Meadow 420 

Morris and Essex Railroad. ..93. 449. 451 

Canal 6. 178. 181 

Countv 1. 2. 3. 5. 29. 60. 

71. 74. 75. 70. 70. SO. .S7. 01. 95. 101. 
100. 107. lis. 120. 121. 120. 129. 130. 
14,5-155. 157-174. 175-IS5. 187-197. 
100-200. 211-225. 22!i. 231. 234. 230. 
242. 245. 325. 331. 402. 403. 405. 409. 451 

i'Dtliltll Chrtmirl'^ 77 

Countv lashl Horse Dragoons.. 118 

familv 433 

' Oi.neral 371 

C^nrtie P 3GS 

Ci II 164 

Lewis 221 

riains 85. 158. 161. 164. 103 

Slaals Ij lis 

Thum 340 

Township 01. 92. 101, 103. 

117 132. 157. li;4,_ 167. 213 

Mcn'ristown 74. 75. 77. .SO. 

S5. 03. 04. 07. OS. ini. 107. 111. 115. 
117-143. 145-1.53. 157. 139. 161. 162. 
166. 170. 173. 178. 214. 216. 222. 223. 112 

Aqueduct Company 145 

first postmaster of 147 

i.it>rar\' and hvoeum 145-148 

,5_Morse. Professor 154. 1.55 

■^^Moiml Airy 110 

Relhel 56. 37 

Hope 107 

Kemble 140 

Kimball 110 

I'l.'risant 3!")1 

T.ibor 57. 158. 166 

Moiinlain Society, the 413. 414 

\i.-w 203. 231. 245. 217 

~^->.Muehniore family 97 



Muir. .Josiah F 9S 

Mniui family '•*'. 38b 

Dr. Jephtha B 98 

Samuel 383 

Murray Hill 446 

MuskeneteouK River 213 

Mynderts-. Mynd.^rt 426. 427. 428 

Napoleon III 371 

Nationalities in Paterson 27 

NaviKalion in New Jersey 38-39 

Ni'sbitt family 75 

Nesliamiuy 123 

Ni'vins family 63 

Nevvsink 58. 314 

New Amsterdam.. 65. 218. 2S2. 303. 426. 428 

Barbadoes 294. 300. 301. 302, 

.306, 308, 310 

New Harbacloes Neck 421, 423, 437 

Township 423 

New Bridge 286, 442, 443 

New lirvniswick 53, 63, 66 

New Kngland immigrations 95, 

121. 319-324. 325. 332-345. 349, 360, 413 

New Finindland 240, 241 

New Hanover 107, 122, 123 

New Jersey Iron Company 191 

Society lands 212, 

Slate Asvlum for the Insane. 164-166 

State Soldiers' Home 439 

New Netherland 320, 425. 427 

Providence 2, 95 

Township 445-440 

New Vernon 76, -SO, 136 

New York 27, 33. 34. 3.S. 54. 62. 

6.5. 67. 87. 100. 110. 111. 112. 114. 
131. 132. 161. LSI. ISS. 191. 192. 204. 
206. 220. 227. 229. 239. 241. 243. 247. 
252. 256, 263, 269, 285, 295. 207. 300. 
301, 302, 310, 311, 320, 323, 328, 349, 
363, 370, 371, 376, 380, 380, 300. 395. 

412. 421. 439. 440 

and Krie Railroad 231. 311 

and Greenw'c)od l^ake Railroad. 

203, 229. 231. 430 

harbor 410 

Susquehanna and Western Rail- 
road 203. 231. 245. 297 

Newark 1. 13. 14. 57, 62. 75. 76. 93. 

95. 07. 99. 121. 132. 162, 163, 182, 
184, 1S5, 190, 218, 244, 264, 265, 313. 
315. 317. 325. 359-372. 373. 374. 376. 
377. 378. 382. 383. 384. 3S5. 386. 389. 
300. 391. 394. 4011. 402. 403. 404. 407. 
40S, 413. 414. 416. 417. 425. 437. 439. 442 

and Pompton Turnpike 234 

Bav 1. 13. 279. 280, 319, 

349. 419. 425. 427. 442 

division into wards 415 

fomiding: of 331-345. 347-357 

plank road 4'j.S 

Ward 3.S4 

Newell. William A 49 

Newspapers in Paterson 277 

Newtown 294. 43S 

Nirolls, Gov. Richard 206. 207. 323 

Niles, Nathaniel 106 

Nisli wish. Frederick 55-.56 

Noble. Mark 430 

Norman. Claes Carsten 430 

North Belleville 301 

Bergen Township 419. 424. 425 

Caldwell 317. 406 

Castle 31 

Paterson 27S 

Plalnneld Township CO 



464 



GENERAL INDEX 



Northfleld 40S 

Xorweglan immigration 279 

Nutley 317, 394, 395-396 

Oalvland S5, 295 

Ogden, Aaron 3S, 327 

family 97, 323 

Rev. Josepli M., D.D 95 

Mattliias 327 

Old Boonton 15S, 171, 173, 176, 

ISS, 195, 196 

"Old Sow," tlie 453 

Olden, Charles S 369 

Oldis family 303 

Oliver family 75, 323 

"Onageponek" 204 

Oradell 304 

Orange 121, 341, 374, 37S, 

379, 381. 3S2, 3S3, 3S4, 3S5, 3S6 

Mountains 341, 373 

Townsllip 317, 319, 413-417 

Ward 3S2, 3S4 

Orangedale 416 

Organization of Acquackanonk 259 

of counties 57-60 

of courts 24, 26, 45-46, 57, 60 

Orphan asylums in Paterson 27S 

Orvill 297, 303 

Osborn, Jonas 214 

Ottowa 19 

Outwater family 310 

Pacquanack 246 

Page, George Shepard 94 

Palisades, the 279 

Township 303 

Panic of 1S36-37 361 

Paper maufacturing 409-410 

Paramus 264, 287, 298, 304 

Park, Noel Robertson 79 

~ Parker, Cortlandt -^.-^„ „. 49 

family 323, 

Parkhurst family 126' 

J 267 

& Muir 98 

Parks in Newark 354 

Parsippany 158, 162. 167, 168, 170, 172 

Brook 158 

Passaic 13, 27, 231, 232,- - 

236, 255, 262, 272, 275, 276, 2JS 
and Delaware Railroad.. .29, 55, 

75, 91, 446 

County 1. 2, 3, 

87, 199, 200, 202, 203, 227-237. 
239-248, 249-257, 259-268, 269-278, 
281, 288, 293, 317, 331, 332, 392, 405, 421 

Lake, the 83-89, 92 

River, description of 1-14 

Township... 60, 75, SO, S3, 88, 91-92, 259 

Passamisk River 119 

Paterson 6, 10, 14, 15-28, 87, 

229, 231, 232, 233, 236, 245, 250, 251, 
253, 255, 256. 259. 275. 276-27S, 302, 403 

and Hudson Railroad 263 

and Newark Railroad 27? 

Orphan Asylum 278 

William 23, .386 

Patriotism of women 152 

Paulding, James Kirke 351 

Paulesen, Michael 426, 42S 

Paulus Hook.2S5, 426, 427, 440, 441, 443, 444 

Pauw, Michael 425, 426, 428 

Pavonia 425, 426 

Massacre of 428 

Peace Congress, tlie 62 

Peapack 03 



Peck, David 

family 126, 

Pecke, Jeremiah 

Peckman's River. .. .249, 250, 317, 399, 

Peck's Bridge 

Pecktown 

Peirson, Abra 

Tliomas 

Penn, William 64, 119, 

Pennington, Alexander C. M 

Ephraim 

family 

William 

William S 309, 

Pennsylvania Railroad 

Pequannock 175, ISO, 1S2, 183, 

201, 202, 

Indians 

River 3, 157, 158, 175, 199, 

200. 201, 203, 208, 221, 229, 231, 232, 
239, 242, 245, 280, 

Township 179, 187, 188, 199-209. 

Perth Amboy 59. 

Petersborough 

Peterson family 

Philip II 

Phillips, Edward L 



415 
386 
339 
400 
384 
416 
339 
339 
20S 

46 
340 
309 

47 
365 
425 

203 
205 



295 
214 
432 
437 
250 
65 
99 



Phillipse, Frederick 430 

Phoenix family 75 

"Phoenix," the 440, 441 

Piersen. Natlian W 386 

Pierson, Rev. Abraham 345, 350 

Benjamin 214 

Blihu 384 

Elijah 214 

family 97, 126, 130, ISl, 365, 

385, 391, 414 

Samuel 414 

Stephen, M.D 130 

Pieterse, Hessel 250 

Pietersen, Garret 430 

Paulus : 430 

Pine Brook 175, 176, 184, 1S5, 208, 317 

Pinhorne, William 61 

Piscataqua ' 57, 313 

Piscataway 58 

Pitney family 74, 75 

Henry C 74 

James 53. 7! 

Jonathan 74 

Pitt. William 92 

Plainfield 4*5 

Planck, Abraham Isaacsen 427. 428 

Plantations in Bergen, the 425-433 

Pleasant Plains 75, 80 

Pleasantville 75, 76 

Plum, Samuel 339, 353 

Plume, William 353 

Political incidents 44, 47, 48 

Pompton 201, 203, 227, 229, 231, 236, 244 

Furnace 85 

Indians 205, 245 

Lakes 237, 243, 245 

Plains.. 85, 87. 184. 199, 200, 201, 229, 239 

River 3, 199, 200, 201, 203, 234, 280 

Township 3. 231, 234, 239, 242-245 

Poor, Gen. Enoch W 287 

Pope. General 372 

Population of Newark 360. 362 

of Paterson 27-28 

Porter. Admiral 351 

Captain 351 

Post. Adrian 261, 265, 266, 430 

family 202, 27S, 394 

Francis , 250 



GENERAL INDEX 



465 



Postvllle 242 

Pcnilesse. Peter 250 

PciwdiT manufacturing 247 

PDWiler mills 150,412 

Powcrville 1S7. ISS. 190 

Preakness 245. 24(!. 247 

Presbvterlan Churches 31. 53. 

sri. 95. 110. 111. 120, 122. 12;!. 124- 
I2(i. 130. 133-134. 135. 139. 159, I«4, 
1«7, lliS, 170. 190, 241, 272, 271;, 359, 
377, 3S1. 402. 406, 40S, 413, 414, 440, 451 

I'ri-y.r. Nicholas 433 

Pric- family 323 

Rcuiman M 2SS-291 

Princeton 63, 148, 149, 369 

battle of 61 

t'ollege 36, 38, 42, 54, 75, 76, 2SS 

Prospect Park 236, 237. 255 

Protestant Episcopal Churches... 31. 
110, 133, 13S, 139, 141, 196, 272, 

276. 381, 399, 410, 451 

Provost, Colonel 291 

Pruden family 126, 131 

Purchases from the Indians 200. 2lil 

Puritan immigration 95. iW. 121. 

319-324. 325, 349, 360. 413 
settlers, the 3.31-345 

Quackenbush family 278. 288 

Quarries 252-253, 395, 398 

Queen Anne 414 

charter 348, 431 

Quimby family 75 

Rahwav 319 

River 317, 319, 34S, 374, 

382. 3S4, 409. 410 
Raids of the British.... 286. 363. 412. 442 
Railroads.... 29, 31. 55. 75. 91. 93. 159. 

162. 178, 183. 184. 203. 229, 231, 245. 

263. 27S. 2.SS. 291. 292, 295, 297, 299. 

310. 311, 384, 394. 396, 408, 425, 446, 449 

Ralstonville 73 

Ramapo Mountains 295 

River 3, 229. 28S, 291, 292, 293 

Ramsey's 2!>1 

Rarltan 3S2 

Bav 3S 

River 29, 58, 59, 61. 66. 71. 73. 

212, 213, 220. 325 

Raymond. George B 164 

Rebellion, the 49. 366-372 

Recapitulation 453-451 

Red Mills 300 

Riformert Churches 176. 1S4. 

196. 201. 202. 244. 247. 254. 

269, 271. 272. 277. 294. 298. 

302. 304. 392. ,396, 398-399, 403. 405 
Religious interests 31. 53. 56. 

57. 64, SO, 94. 95-96. 10S. 110, 120, 

122-126, 133-143. 164. 167. 168. 170. 

176-177. 1S4. 196. 201. 241. 244, 247. 

254, 269-272. 27i;-277. 291. 292. 294, 

29S, 302, 304, 307. 332-338, .355, 359. 

377. 3S1. 392. 395, 396, 39S, 399, 402, 

403, 406, 408, 410, 413, 414, 417, 

447. 449. 451 

Rennie. Robert 307 

Republiean party, the 48. 307, 

Rctn-at of Washington 2.S5 

Revohilionarv incidents 30. .31-32. 

34. 61. 66-69. 77-79, .*;0-S2, 92. 97. 

127. 129. 131. 133. 147-154, 170-172, 

173. 193. 196-197. 211, 221-225. 247. 

24S. 263. 283-287. 302. 303. 304. 326- 

328, 362-366, 389, 453, 412, 413, 440-444 



Society 

;.'!!.'.'i66,' 



Revolutionar.v Memorial 

of New Jersey 

R.vnolds. II. C 

Riihards family 

Xl.irtln 

Richliild 

Ridg.-wood 297, 298 

Township 280, 288, 

295-.300. 301, 
Rlggs, I'M ward 

family 75, 385, 

Joseph 340, 

Righter family 

Rigs, Kd ward 

Riker, David 

family 

John 

Ringwood 239, 

mines, the 242-243, 

Rl\er 

Rise of the Passaic 

Ri\-er lOdge 

Riverdale 203, 

Ri\'erhead 

Roads in Hudson County 

Roberts family 

Hugh 340, 

Mrs. J. W., Memorial, the 

Jonathan W 161, 

Say res 

Rockawack Indians 

Rockaway 157, 

River 3, 173, 175, 176, 185, 

1S7, 188, 196, 193, 195, 

Township 187, 188, 

Roclofse family 

Roebuck 

" Roebu ck. " the 

Roelofsen, Cornelius 261. 262, 265, 

Rogers. John 339 

Roll family 

Romaine family 243, 

Roman Catholic Churches 31, 95, 

96, 110. 133. 141. 142. 143, 159, 196, 
241, 272, 277. 399, 449. 

Roome family 202, 208, 

Rose. Samuel 

"Rose," the 

Roseland 

Roy. Jacob Jacobsen 

Royal governors, the 

Roy le, Vernon 26. 

Rubber Comb and Jewelry Com- 
pany 

Rudyard. Thomas 

Der)Uty Governor 

Rum Brook 

Runyon family 

Gen. Theodore 

Rutger.-i College 

famil>' 

Rutherford 311-312, 

family 

Park 

Ruyven. Cornelius 

Rycker family 

pRverson. David A 

family 202. 208. 243, 247, 

John 

Martin 

.Martin J 243, 

i'l'ler M 

Pi-ter M.. Jr 

Richard W 



66 
163 
100 
384 
278 
299 
293. 
303 
384 
391 
384 
170 
340 
38G 
250 
251 
244 
245 
239 
1 
304 
204 
409 
438 
391 
347 
160 
164 
415 
205 
162 

203 
199 
255 
443 
441 
266 
340 
449 
308 



451 
243 
339 
440 
408 
430 
206 
300 



200 
64 
421 
409 
SO 
369 
62 
396 
435 
310 
436 
430 
20S 
244 
255 
2.57 
301 
245 
243 
244 
244 



466 



GENERAL INDEX 



Saddle River :...24, 236, 255, 

280, 2SS, 297, 298, 307, 441 
Township. 280, 294, 297, 300-302, 303, 300 

Saint Cloud 381 

Saint Elizabeth, Convent of 103-105 

Saint Joseph's Hospital in Pater- 
son 27S 

Orphan Asylum in Paterson 27S 

Saint Margaret's Roman Catholic 

Church at Morrlstown 142 

Saint Mark's Church, Orang-e 416 

West Orange 3S1-3S2 

Saint Peter's Church at Morris- 
town 138, 141 

"Sajapogh of Minisink" 204 

Salisbury. RoUin D SS 

Salt Meadows, the 14, 279, 

305, 308, 347, 348, 352, 356, 391, 425 

Sanders family 75 

Sandtord family 310 

Spring 435 

William 308, 309, 310, 365, 435, 436 

Satterthwaite, Thomas W 395-396 

"Savannah," the 155 

Saw Mill Creek 309 

Sayre family 97, 100 

Scandinavian immigration 425 

Scenery at Little Palls 3 

at Long Hill 54-55 

Schenck family 63 

Schnoering-. John 296 

Schools 95, 96, 139, 167, 

170. 184, 193, 240, 241, 253, 256, 273, 
291, 292, 307, 357, 359, 392. 395, 417, 451 

Schoenmaker, Jan Cornelissen 430 

Schoonmacher family 306 

Schraalenburgh 29S 

Schulster family 240 

Schumacher, Ludwig 53 

Schuvler, Arent 204. 207, 208, 246, 

247, 312, 437 

copper mine 312 

family 247, 293, 310, 396 

John 312, 438 

Col. Peter 437 

Schuyler's Ferry 286 

Landing 442 

Scotch Immigrations 28, 60, 66, 73 

Scott. Col. John 190, 191 

"William 188, 190, 191 

Winfield 328, 369, 370 

Seagaerd. Andries 433 

Seargeant, John 340 

Secaucus 419. 425 

Second Mountain 85, 319, 399, 402, 405 

Presbyterian Church at Morris- 
town 135 

Regiment, the 369 

River 317, 398, 399 

Seminary at Bloomfield 377 

Sergeant, Jonathan D 168 

Seton Hall College 103 

Settlement of Bergen 420-4.3-3 

of Chatham 97-99 

of Elizabeth 319-323, 325 

of Essex County 331-345 

of Hudson County 425-433 

of Morris County 118, 120-122, 

126, 216-221 

of Newark 331-345 

of Somerset County 61 

Sheep Hill 193, 194, 195 

Sherman. Byron 164 

Gordon 127 

Shipbuilding 390 

Ship canal projected 26 



Shipman, Benjamin 216 

family 164 

Short Hills 162, 409, 410, 411-413, 451 

Shrewsbury 370 

Sickels, Zackariah 433 

Signal gun and beacon at Sum- 
mit 453 

Signers of the fundamental agree- 
ment 337-340 

Silk manufacture 27, 76, 256 

Singac 251 

River 229 

Singer Sewing Machine factory. 328, 329 

Sip, Ide Cornelius 433 

John 250 

Sisters of Charity 103-105, 278 

Slater, Joseph 203 

Robert 203 

Slaybaok, David H 402 

John W 402 

Slingerland familv 208 

Slott, Peter Jansen 430 

Smalleytown 56 

Smeeman, Herman 430 

Smith. Abraham 63 

Daniel 433 

family 63. 74, 170 

Family and Friends Reunion, 

the 63 

Gen. J. Condlt 172 

Job 433 

Michael 438 

Peter Z 63 

Society for Establishing Useful 

Manufactures, the 15-28, 236 

of the Mountain 414 

Somerset County 1, 2, 3, 5, 29- 

69, 71, 74. 77, 87, 91, 316, 325, 331, 382 

Sonmans, Peter 63 

Sons of the American Revolution, 

79, 453 

Source of the Passaic River 1 

Southard, Samuel L 37-42, 47 

Southern trade 361-362, 366 

South Hanover SO 

Orange 317, 341, 382, 384, 385, 

386, 409, 415, 416 

Orange Township 317 

Street Presbyterian Church at 

Morrlstown 135 

Speare, John Hendrick 261 

Speedwell 199, 155 

Speer family 396 

Spencer, 01i%'er 327 

William 98 

Spier family 185, 396 

Hendrick Jansen 430 

Jan Hendricks 265, 266 

Splnnage, Mary 214 

Spring Garden Brook 93 

Valley 304 

Springfield 77, 78, 162, 

319, 365. 374, 405, 408, 409, 410, 413, 449 

battle of 412 

Township 415 

Squier, Nathan 384 

Squlertown 408 

Staats, Rev. John A 248 

Stagg family — 

Stamp act, the 222 

Stanley 92, 93-94, 99, 106 

State Asylum for the Insane 164-166 

constitution, the 168 

fair grounds 391 

Soldiers' Home 439 



GKNKKAL, INUEX 



467 



Staten Ishind Mi. iVJ. 442 

Sound 311) 

Steam navigation 3!>-31>, 155 

Stec-ntuiysen, ICgbert 130 

Steenni»'tts, Gasper 2f>3 

Stflnmetts family 250 

Stek family 213 

SIl-IU- family. G3 

Sli-i>lii>nson, Thomas US, IIU 

Sti-vi'ns family 75 

<-ien. Kiuhard F W 

Stltkni-y, Honry 3SG 

Stigor family 75 

Stiles family 12(i, 131. 44'J 

Stimets, Casper 43U 

Stirling 75. 7C, SO, SI 

Countess of US 

Lord 32-35, 53, 60, IX, US, 44U 

Stockade at Bergen 2S2 

Stockholm 227 

Stockton, Richard r,3 

Hobert F 4S 

Stoftells Point 265, 2li« 

Stoffel's patent 2G2 

Stoffelsen, Jacob 427, 43il 

Stone quarries 182, 252-253. 395, 39S 

house at South Orange 3S4-3.S5 

House Brook 3S5 

Stonctown 24."> 

Stony Brook loS. ISS, 202, 203 

Hill 4411 

Stiaatmakcr, Dirck 427, 430 

Slrci'ls in Newark 352 

.Strnbfl family 240 

Stuyvi-sant. Peter.... 2S3, 320, 419, 42S, 430 

Stynmets, Christopher 250 

Succasunna I(i3 

Suffcrn's 2.SG 

Summit 3, 85, 162, 449-453 

Sumner, General 371 

Supreme Court 45-46 

Sussex County 213, 227, 231, 234, 

239, 2S8, 367 

Sutton family 75 

Swaeii family 433 

Swaiiie, Samuel 3:19. 349, 373 

Swamp, the Great S3-S9, 91, 92 

Swell'- inmiigrations 76 

Swcdenborgian Church at Pater- 
sun 276 

Swesy. Samuel 214 

Swinetield Bridge 174 

Swiss immigrations 2S 

Sycan. Uirk 430 

S.\"inmes. John Cleves 16S 

S\'ni(}n. Robert 373 

Synod of Philadelphia 123-125 



Tallman family 

Talmadge, Rev. T. De Witt 

Tappan 286, 2S7, 

"Tartar," the 

Tassemaker, Petrus 

Taylor. Rev. William P 

Taylor town 176, 

Teed family 407, 

T. Rowland 

Telegraph, first experiments of.. 154 
Terhune family 297. 

Richard 

Thebaud family 

"The Forest"' 

Third Mountain 

Regiment, the 

River.. 24, 234, 2(!1, 317, 343. 348, 395, 
Thomas, Jm-ian 265. 



340 
399 
427 
141 



Ills 
1S2 
40S 
407 
155 
306 
307 
115 
111 
319 
36!l 
42:! 
266 



Thompson, Anthony 

family "4, 

TIchenor, Daniel 

family 365, 

Martin 

Tillou family 

Tomassen, Uriah 261, 

Tomkins, Jona 

Micllael 342, 

Tomiikins family 126, 385, 391, 

Michael 

Tories, the 

Tory Corner 374, 382, 

Tolowa 237, 

'I'owakhow Mountain 

Town and Corporation of Bergen, 
420. 421, 

meetings in Newark 350, 

of Newark laid out 

Township organizations 

Toy manu tact uring 

Trade with the South 361-362, 

Trading post at Bergen 

Transportation, early 

Treat. Frederick 

J. Mortimer 

Robert 99. 325, 336, 337. 

339, 340. 341, 

Trenchard, Capt. Kdward 

Trenton 125. 14S, 149, 165, 1S2, 213, 

battle of 

Iron Company 

Trinity Church corporation 

Troy 

Brook 

Hills 158. 

Meadows S8. 

True Reformed Dutch Church. ..177, 

Tucker family 

Turkey Eagle Rock 384, 

Tuttle family 164, 170, 

Joseph 

Silas 

Timothy 214, 216, 

Twombley, Florence 

Hamilton 

Tyler, John ; 42, 

Union 312. 419, 

County 1, 2, 3, 56, 

75. 87, 91, 92, 95, 162, 316-317. 319- 
329, 331, 332, 408, 409, 419. 445- 

Hill 92. 105- 

Township.. 280. 305, 306, ;i07-312, 424. 
Village 

University of New York 

Upper Macopin 

Preakness 

Ursino I.,ake 

Uttertown 

Uyle Kill 176. 

Vail. Alfred 154, 

George 

Stephen 

Vailsburgh 

Valentine family 

Van Allen family 255, 

Van Angola. Fi'ancisco 

Van Blarcom, Brant 

family 

Van Boskerck family 

Van Buren, I*resident 

Van Buskii'k. .Miraham 

^'aii Cortlandt family 

^'an Uer Heer Nedderhorst 426, 



382 
75 
340 
385 
340 
385 
262 
340 
341 
408 
339 
222 
416 
255 
175 

431 

352 

347 

60 

256 

366 

282 

263 

99 

99 

353 
290 

214 
61 
243 
252 
15S 
158 
167 
157 
272 
323 
416 
174 
210 
161 
224 
101 
101 
47 



451 
■106 
4:16 

57 
62 
242 
85 
31S 
242 
180 

155 

165 
155 
341 
449 
293 
430 
275 
278 
438 
290 
441 
396 
428 



468 



GENERAL INDEX 



Van Dien family ■■■■ 297 

Van Dine, Isaac 214 

Matthew 214 

Van Dolsen, John 433 

Van Duyne family 178, 183, 185 

Harrison 21S 

Van Duyre family ISl 

Van Gelder family 208, 2SS 

Van Giesen family 433 

Van Houten family 255, 262, 278 

Van Immen, John Garretsen 430 

Van Ness family 17S, 185, 202, 

208, 243, 250 
Van Nest family 85 

Peter 66, 67 

Van Ostrum, Hendrick 430, 438 

Van Purmerend. Claes Jansen. . .427, 

430, 43S 

Van Putten, Aert Teunisen 427, 430 

—Van Riper family 178, 247, 

250, 262, 278, 310, 3fl4 
Van Schalckwyck, Hendrick Jans.. 430 

Van Schanck family 30G 

Van Saun family .202, 243, 255 

Van Tuyl, Michael Abraham 433 

Van Vechten, Dirk 433 

Van Vleeck, Tielman 430 

Van Vleck, Tillman 283 

Van Vorst, Cornelius. .. .285, 426, 427, 428 

Ide Cornelius 430 

Township 424, 425 

Van Wag-enen family ;.243, 262, 430 

Van Wagoner family 262 



^Van Winckle, Symon Jacobs. 
'Van Winkel, Abraham. .... .264, 266, 



264 
267 



Jacob 264, 266, 267 

Marinus 264, 266, 267 

Simeon 264, 266, 267 

Svmon Jaoobse 265, 266, 267, 26S 

Van Winkle family 255, 262, 278, 

310,' 394, 430 

Jacob 264 

Jacobse ; 264 

John S 273, 275 

Van Worth family 185 

Vanderbeck, Cornelius 298 

family 208, 2SS 

Vanderhoof family 178 

Vanderveer family 63 

Vanquellin, Bobert 322 

Varlet, Nicholas 430 

Vauxhall 40!) 

Vealtown 30, 32 

Vedder, Rev. Edwin 254 

Veghte family 63 

Verbruggen, John 430 

Verona 317, 399-400. 402 

Lake 400-402 

Park 400-402 

Township 399-402, 405 

Verplanck, Abraham Isaacsen...427, 

428-429 

Vigne, John 430 

Village of Bergen 419 

Vinegar Hill 390 

Vly Meadows 175. 184, 200 

Voorhees. Anson A 402 

family 63 

George E 161 

Voorhis family ;■•■■, /..-■(■ 288 

Vreeland family ../:.. .r. ../.. .178, 1S8,, 

185, 240. 262. 310? 430,^ 438 

Hartman 182 

John H 182 

Vroom family 63 

Peter D 43, 66 



Waechung Mountain 34^ 

Wagenen family 262 

Waldron, Joseph 433 

Wallace house, the 66-69 

John 66 

William 66 

William C 95 

Wallengen, Jacob 430 

Walters, Joseph 340 

Wanamaker family ; — 288 

Wanaqua River 3, 229, 239, 242, 245 

"Wa,r governor," the 369 

War taxes 287 

Ward family 97, 100, 365, 386, 408, 414 

John .345, 373 

John, Sr 339 

Josiah 339, 349 

Laurence 339 

Leslie D., M.D 103 

Major 444 

Samuel M 382 

Stephen 216 

Warde, John 339 

Wards, creation of 351, 389, 415 

Warrant to lay out the town of 

Newark 347 

Warren County 213 

Sir Peter 433 

Township 60 

Warrenville 2, 56 

Washington Corners 75 

Washington, George. .. .15, 30, 31, 32, 
66-69, 129, 131, 148-154, 171, 173, 263, 
285, 287, 303. 304, 328, 3S9, 412, 440, 443 

Mrs. George 69 

Park 356 

Place Holland Church at Pas- 
saic 272 

Township 288, 293, 303 

Valley 119 

Watchung- Mountain 343, 344 

Water power, development of 5, 

6, 15-28, 273-275 

"Watering Place," the 357 

Watts, Robert 34 

Waverley 391 

Wayne 245 

Gen. Anthony 247, 248 

Township 202, 236, 245-248, 251, 255 

Webster. Daniel 48 

Webb. James A 110 

Weehawken Township 419, 424 

Weequahick Lake 391 

Welsh immigration 193 

Wequahick River 348 

West, Benjamin 146 

Hanover 107, 122 

Hoboken 419, 424 

India Company 425 

Jersey 64. 119, 211, 313-316, 331, 421 

Jersey Society 403 

Livingston 408 

Milford 229, 230, 231, 

232, 236, 241, 242, 244 

Milford Township 239-242 

New York 419, 424 

Orange.... 317, 341, 374, 378, 381, 382, 415 

Orange Township 317. 405, 407, 409 

Paterson 6, 7 

Shore Railroad 425 

Westervelt family 255 

Westfleld 446 

Westville 405 

Wheeler, David 216 

family 126, 365 

Nathaniel 340, 384 

Samuel '. 414 



GENKKAI, INDKX 



iG9 



Wliig puny, the M 

VVhii»;inong; 

U:ill and Library Association, 

>.,>,• 1™- 

Wliil>|)any....l07, 121, 122. 123, 124, 125, 
15S, 15!l, 150, 161, 162, 163. 161, 167, 

Kiver 3, 87, 122, 117, Ua, 

Whil I-. Antliony 

]i ridge 

.Intni's 1^ 

o.ik Hidge 

Wliit I'.s Ta vern 

Willi, -liall 175, 176. 179, 

\Vhit<head, Aaron P 

Asa 

Cliarlos R 

family 131, 

Ira C 

Isaac 

Isaac N 

John 131, 

Samuel 

Whitiu-y. Mrs. Stephen 

WhittinKham. Rt. Rev. William R.. 
Wick family 

hiiuse. the 

Tempe 

Wissir. Bishop 

WisK. iville 

Wikli.M.f 

Wi li-i >x f .unily 

William and Mary 63, 

the Sili'tit 65, 

Williams, .\aron 

Charles A 

family 374, 3S2, 386, 408, 

Rev. James A., D.D 

Matthew 



47 

Ids 



170 
15S 
■133 

75 
102 
40!l 

32 
1.S3 
131 
131 



323 
131 
216 
131 
14S 
361 
164 
3S1 
74 
S2 
.S2 
142 
142 
295 
449 
10.S 
209 
3S6 
402 
414 
3S2 
414 



WilllamsburK, battle ot 244, 

Williamson. Matthias 

Williamstuwn 

Wills, James 

John 

Womi*n, patriotism of 152, 

Wood family 

Woodbridge....57, 58, 308, 313, 314, 331, 

Woodruff family 97, 100, 

Worlendyke 

Abram C 

t'ornelius 

Co melius A 

familv 

Woutersen, Kgberl 427, 



ISl^siAVyekoff 



family 

Wy nkoop, Johannes 

Wy nockie River 3, 

Wyoming 

Xavler, Mother Mary 



372 
327 
416 

73 
119 
224 
126 
421 
323 
295 
295 
294 
295 
294 
4.30 
295 

63 
29S 
229 
410 



Yantaka w River 

Ya n 1 i<Mw River 

Yantokah River 

Yontecaw River 

-Young, David 

Kdward F. C 

family 164, 

Robert 

Stephen Lyman 

Zabriskle family LSI, 288, 

John, Jr 

Peter 

Zeliff family 178, 1S3, 



103 

234 
39.J 
34S 
24 
174 
161 
174 
216 
101 

297 
285 
285 
184 



"^yr% 



iiL]fl[ mm 



v^