Skip to main content

Full text of "The passing of the great race; or, The racial basis of European history"

See other formats


This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 

to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 

to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 

are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other maiginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 

publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing tliis resource, we liave taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 
We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain fivm automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attributionTht GoogXt "watermark" you see on each file is essential for in forming people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liabili^ can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 

at |http: //books .google .com/I 

■■-■■"■' ■ ■ ...■ ■Il •< 

^ IS 

» fc 





* \ 

f" ' 






« • 









Pobliihed October. 1916 



\ • ^ ' M ' • 
, . • . o - % -It 




Ettropean history has been written in terms of 
nationality and of language, but never before in 
terms of race; yet race has played a far larger part 
than either language or nationality in moulding the 
destinies of men; race implies heredity, and hered- 
ity implies all the moral, social, and intellectual 
characteristics and traits which are the springs of 
politics and government. 

Quite independently and unconsciously the au- 
thor, never before a historian, has turned this 
historical sketch into the current of a great bio- 
logical movement, which may be traced back to 
the teachings of Galton and Weismann, beginning 
in the latter third of the nineteenth century. This 
movement has compelled us to recognize the 
superior force and stability of heredity, as being 
more enduring and potent than environment. 
This movement is also a reaction from the teachings 
of Henri Taine among historians and of Herbert 
Spencer among biologists, because it proves that 
environment and, in the case of man, education 
have an immediate, apparent, and temporary in- 
fluence, while heredity has a deep, subtle, and per- 
manent influence on the actions of men. 




Thus the racial history of Europe, which forms 
the author's main outline and subject and which 
is wholly original in treatment, might be para- 
phrased as the heredity history of Europe. It is 
history as influenced by the hereditary impulses, 
prediq>ositions, and tendencies which as highly 
distinctive racial traits date back many thousands 
of years and were originally formed when man 
was still in the tribal state, long before the advent 
of civilization. 

In the author s opening chapters these traits 
and tendencies are commented upon as they are 
observed to-day under the varying influences of 
migration and changes of social and physical en- 
vironment. In the chapters relating to the racial 
history of Europe we enter a new and fascinating 
field of study, which I trust the author himself 
may some day expand into a longer story. There 
is no gainsaying that this is the correct scientific 
method of approaching the problem of the past. 

The moral tendency of the heredity interpreta- , 
tion.of history is for our day and generation, and 
is in strong accord with the true spirit of the 
modem eugenics movement in relation to patriot- ' 
ism, namely, the conservation and multiplication I 
for our coimtry of the best spiritual, moral, Intel- i 
lectual, and physical forces of heredity; thus only 
will the integrity of our institutions be maintained 
in the future. These divine forces are more or 








y^less sporadically distributed in all races, some of 
/ them are found in what we call the lowest races, 
/ some are scattered widely throughout humanity, 
\ but they are certainly more widely and imiformly V 
V._jdistributed in some races than in others. 
/^ Thus conservation of that race, which has givi 

us the true spirit of Americanism, is not a matter 
/ either of racial pride or of racial prejudice; it is a 
/ matter of love of country, of a true sentiment 
I which is baiM>fj| upon knowledge and the lessons of 
L-history, rather than upon the sentimentalism 
\^hich is fostered by ignorance. K I were asked: 
What is the greatest danger which threatens the 
American republic to-day ? I would certainly reply: iT^ 
\ The gradual d3ring out among our people of those^ / 
hereditary traits through which the principles of / 
.our religious, political, and social foundations were / 
laid down, and their insidious replacement bjr / 
\\ traits of less noble character. 

July Z3, Z9z6. 

Hen&y Fairpieid Osbosn. 






I. Race and Democracy 3 

n. The Physical Basis of Race 11 

m. Race and Habitat 33 

IV. The Competition of Races 42 

V. Race, Language, and Nationality ... 52 

VI. Race and Language 63 

Vn. The European Races in Colonies ... 68 

PART 11 

I. EoLiTHic Man 85 

n. Paleolithic Man 92 

ni. The Neolithic and Bronze Ages ... 107 

IV. The Alpine Race 121 

V. The Mediterranean Race 134 

VI. The Nordic Race 150 



Vn. Teutonic Europe i6i 

VIII. The Expansion op the Nordics .... 170 

IX. The Nordic Fatherland 189 

X. Nordic Race Outside op Europe . . . 194 

XI. The Racial Aptitudes 197 

XII. Arya 201 

Xin. The Origin op the Aryan Languages . . 209 

XIV. The Aryan Language in Asia .... 219 

Bibliography 229 

Index 233 





Chronological Table Pages iiSr-iig 

Classification of the Races of Europe 

Facing page 123 

Provisional Outline of Nordic Invasions and 
Metal Cultures Facing page 191 


at the end of volume 

Maxdcum Expansion of Alpines with Bronze Culture, 
3000-1800 B. C. 

Expansion of the Pre-Teutonic Nordics, 1800-100 B. C. 

Expansion of the Teutonic Nordics and Slavic Al- 
pines, 100 B. C -iioo A. D. 

Present Distribution of European Races. 



The following pages are devoted to an attempt 
to elucidate the meaning of history in terms of 
race; that is, by the physical and psychical char- 
acters of the inhabitants of Europe instead of by 
their political grouping, or by their spoken lan- 
guage. Practically all historians, while using the 
word race, have relied on tribal or national names "^ 

as its sole definition. The ancients, like the mod- 
ems, in determining ethnical origin, did not look 
beyond a man's name, language, or country, and 
the actual information furnished by classic lit- 
erature on the subject of physical characters is 
limited to a few ' scattered and often obscure 

Modem anthropology has demonstrated that 
racial lines are not only absolutely independent of 
both national and linguistic groupings, but that in"^ 

Lmany cases these racial lines cut through them at 1 
sharp angles ^d correspond clos <^ly wit^ ^h^ Am^ J 
^ions of social xleavage. The great lesson of the 
science of race is the inunutability of somatological 
or bodily characters, with which is closely asso- 
ciated the immutability of psychical predisposi- 
1 tions knd impulses. This continuity of inheri- 



tajice has a most important bearing on the theory 
of democracy and still more upon that of socialism, 
and those engaged in social uplift and in revolu- 
tionary movements are consequently usually very 

intolerant of the Ug^jj]g^tJ2[]^J^ ^V hered ity. 

I Democratic theories of government in their mod- 
/ em form are based on dogmas of equality formu- 
/jated some hundred and fifty years ago, and rest 
I upon the assimiption that environment and not 
I heredity is the continuing factor in human develop- 
[ ment. Philanthropy and noble purpose dictated 
^Uie doctrine expressed in the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence, the document which to-day constitutes 
the actual basis of American institutions. The men 
who wrote the words, ^^we hold these truths to be 
self-evident, that all men are created equal," were 
] themselves the owners of slaves, and despised 
^Jbidians as something less than human. Equality 

£ their minds meant merely that they were just 
good Englishmen as their brothers across the 
. The words "that aU men are created equal" 
have since been subtly falsified by adding the 
word ^^free," although no such expression is found 
in the original document, and the teachings based 
on these altered words in the American public 
schook of to-day would startle and amaze the men 
who formulated the Declaration. 

The laws of nature operate with the same relent- ^ 
less and unchanging force in human affairs as in , 



the phenomena of inanimate nature, ^ and the basis 
n f^ t>|ft p rnvern piftnt nfrnan is now and always has 
been, and always wiU be^lFofcelinifnoi senTirn <>TH^ 
a trutl^ demonstrated anew by the present world 
conflagration. * 

It will be necessary for the reader to strip his 
mind of all preconceptions as to race, since mod- 
em anthropology, when applied to history, involves 
an entire change of definition. We musty first of 
aU, reali25e that race pure and g^nipl^j thft pliy<;ira.l 
flnH psy^liirgii ^jftjii^*'"^^ oi matty- JS- Something en- 
tirely distinct from either nationality or language, . 
ami Ousi'nct lies to-day at the base of all the 

tenomena"^ modem society, just as it has done 
throughout the imrecorded eons of the past. 

The antiquity of existing European populations, c 
viewed in the light thrown upon their origins by/ 
the discoveries of the last few decades, enables us 
to carry back history and prehistory into periods 
so remote that the classic world is but of yester- 
.day. The living peoples of Europe consist of layer 
after layer of diverse racial elements in varying 
proportions, and historians and anthropologists, 
while studying these populations, have been con- 
cerned chiefly with the recent strata, and have 
/eglected the more ancient and submerged types. 
Aboriginal populations from time immemorial 
have been again and again swamped imder floods 
of newcomers and have disappeared for a time 


from historic view. In the course of centuries, 
however, these primitive elements have slowly re- 
asserted their physical type and have gradually bred 
out their conquerors, so that the racial history of 
Europe has been in the past, and is to-day a story 
of the repression and resurgence of ancient races. 

r^ Invasions of new races have ordinarily arrived in 
successive waves, the earlier ones being quickly 
absorbed by the conquered, while the later arrivals 
usually maintain longer the purity of their t3rpe. 
/ Consequently the more recent elements are found 
i in a less mixed state than the older, and the more 
/ primitive strata of the population alwa3rs contain 
[ physical traits derived from still more andent pred- 

Man has inhabited Europe in some form or 
other for hundreds of thousands of years, and 
during aU this lapse of time the population has 
been as dense as the food supply permitted. Tribes \ 
in the himting stage are necessarily of small size,*^ 
no matter how abundant the game, and in the 
Paleolithic period man probably existed only in 
specially favorable localities, and in relatively 1 
small communities. } 

In the Neolithic and Bronze periods domesti- 
cated animals and the knowledge of agriculture, 
although of primitive character, afforded an en- 
larged food supply, and the population in conse- 
quence greatly increased. The lake dwellers of 


the Neolithic were, for example, relatively numer- 
ous. With the clearing of the forests and the 
draining of the swamps during the Middle Ages 
and, above all, with the industrial expansion of 
the last century, the population multiplied with 
great rapidity. We can, of course, form little or 
no estimate of the niunbers of the Paleolithic^ 
population of Europe, and not much more of those 
of Neolithic times, but even the latter must have 
been very small in comparison with the census of 

Some conception of the growth of population in 
recent times may be based on the increase in Eng- 
land. It has been computed that Saxon England 
at the time of the Conquest contained about 
1,500,000 inhabitants; at the time of Queen Eliz- 
abeth the population was about 4,000,000, while 
in 191 1 the census gave for the same area some 

The immense range of the subject of race in con- 
nection with history from its nebulous dawn, and 
the limitations of space, require that generaliza- 
tions must often be stated without mention of 
exceptions. These sweeping statements may even 
appear to be too bold, but they rest, to the best of 
the writer's belief, upon solid foundations of facts, 
or else are legitimate conclusions from evidence 
now in hand. In a science as recent as modem 
anthropology, new facts are constantly revealed 


and require the modification of existing hypotheses. 
The more the subject is studied the more pro- 
visional even the best-sustained theory appears, 
but modem research opens a vista of vast interest 
and significance to man, now that we have dis- 
carded the shackles of former false view-points and 
are able to discern, even though dimly, the solu- 
tion of many of the problems of race. New data 
will in the future inevitably expand, and perhaps 
change our ideas, but such facts as are now in 
hand, and the conclusions based thereupon, are 
provisionally set forth in the following chapters, 
and necessarily often in a dogmatic form. 

le^'bcatements relating to time have presented 
the greatest difficulty, as the authorities differ 
widely, but the dates have been fixed with ex- 
treme conservatism and the writer believes that 
whatever changes in them are hereafter required 
by fmlher investigation and study, will result in 
pushing them back and not forward in prehistory. 
The dates given in the chapter of '^ Paleolithic 
Man" are frankly taken from the most recent 
authority on this subject, "The Men of the Old 
Stone Age," by Professor Henry Fairfield Osbom, 
and the writer desires to take this opportimity to 
acknowledge his great indebtedness to this source 
of information, as well as to Mr. M. Taylor Pyne 
and to Mr. Charles Stewart Davison for their as- 
sistance and many helpful suggestions. 


[ The author also wishes to acknowledge a debt 

i of gratitude to Professor William Z. Ripley's great 

l' work on "The Races of Europe," which contains 

I a vast array of anthropological data, maps, and 

type portraits, providing a mine of information 
upon which the author has drawn freely, for the 
present distribution of the three primary races of 

The American Geographical Society and its 
staff, particularly Mr. Leon Dominian, have also 
been of great assistance in the preparation of the 
maps contained herein, and this occasion is taken 
by the writer to express his deep appreciation for 
their assistance. 




I '1 












y Failxtse to recognize the clear distinction be- 

'^ tween race and nationality and the still greater 

/ distinction between race and language, the easy 

^ assumption that the one is indicative of the other, 

j has been in the past a serious impediment to an 
y un derstanding of racial values. Historians and 
philologists have approached the subject from the 
view-point of linguistics, and as a result we have 
been burdened with a group o f mythical races^^ 
such as the Latin, the Aryan, the Caucasian, and, 
perhaps, most inconsistent of all, the 'Xeltic" 

Man is an animal differing from his feUow in- 
habitants of the globe, not in kind but only in 
dggree of /^A^Ainpw^fjpt^ ^nH an intelligent study of 
the hmnan species must be preceded by an extended 
knowledge of other mammals^ expeciaUy the pri- 
mates. Instead of such essential training, an- 
thropologists often seek to qualify by research 
in linguistics, religion, or marriage customs, or in 
designs of pottery or blanket weaving, aU of which 
relate to ethnologv alone. 
The question of race has been further com- 




plicated by the e£Fort of old-fashioned theologians 
to cramp all mankind into the scant six thousand 
years of Hebrew chronology, as expounded by Arch- 
bishop Ussher. Religious teachers have also main- 
tained the proposition not only that man is some- 
thing fundamentally distinct from other Uving 
creatures, but that there are no inherited dif- 
ferences in humanity that cannot be obliterated 
by education and environment. 

It is, therefore, necessary at the outset for the 
reader to thoroughly appreciate that race, lan- 
guage, and nationality are three separate and 
distinct things, and tliat in yjimpi* tli^Mgf* j-hrpp^ 

i*1fmRT^tQ gr^ nnly f>(;^gQininal1y foimd persisting 

in combin ation, as in the Scaii3inavian nations. 

To realize tlie transitory nai\ir6 6f political 
boundaries, one has only to consider the changes 
of the past century, to say nothing of those which 
ay occur at the end of the present war. As to 
/^ language, here in America we daily hear the Eng- 
/ Ush language spoken by many men who possess 
( not one drop of English blood, and who, a few 
^ years since, knew npt one word of Saxon speech. 
As a result of certain religious and social 
doctrines, now happily becoming obsolete, race 
consciousness has been greatly impaired among 
civilized nations, but in the beginning all differ- 
ences of class, of caste, and of color, marked actual 
lines of race cleavage. 


In many countries the existing classes rep- / 

resent races that were once distinct. In the city / 

of New York, and elsewhere in the United States, / 

there is a native American aristocracy resting upon ^ 

layer after layer of immigrants of lower races, 
and the native American, while, of course, dis- 
claiming the distinction of a patrician class, never- 
theless has, up to this time, supplied the leaders 
of thought and the control of capital, of educa- 
tion, and of the religious ideals and alt 
bias of the community. 

_ In the democratic forms of government the 
operation of universal suffrage tends toward the / 
selection of the average man for public office rather 
than the man qualified by birth, education, and 
integrity. How this scheme of administration ^ 
will ultimately work out remains to be seen, but / 
from a racial pomt of vi^w^ i^ will im^yih^My jn v 
crease the preponderance of the lower types an d ^af 
^cause a c orresponding loss of efficic^ n^ in ^^^ 
conmiu mty as a whole . 
^ ^^ e tendency in a democracy is toward a stand- ^^ / 
Pardization of type and a diminution of the in- / 
Kfluence of genius. A majority must of necessitv 
be inferio r to a pic ked minority, and it always ^ 
resents specializations in which it cannot share . 
In the French Revolution the majority, calling 
itself "the people," deliberately endeavored to 
destroy the higher type, and something of the 





same sort was, in a measure, done after the Amer- 
ican Revolution by the expulsion of the Loyalists 
and the confiscation of their lands. 
^/"^In America we have nearly succeeded in de- 
1 stroying the privilege of birth; that is, the intellec- 
\ tual and moral advantage a man of good stock 
I b rings into the world with him. We are now en- 
gaged in destroying the privilege of wealth; that 
is, the reward of successful intelligence and in- 
dustry, and in some quarters there is developing 
a tendency to attack the privilege of intellect 
and to deprive a man of the advantages of an 
early and thorough education. Simplified spelling 
is a step in this direction. Ignorance of English 
grammar or classic learning must not be held up 
as a reproach to the political and social aspirant. 

Mankin d emerged from savagery and barbar- 
ism under tne leadership of selected individuals 
whose personal prowess, capacity, or wisdom gave 
them the right to lead and the power to compel 
obedience. Such leaders have always been a mi- 
nute fraction of the whole, but as long as the 
tradition of their predominance persisted they were 
l^ able to use the brute strength of the unthinking 
^ * herd as part of their own force, and were able to 
[^ Cu direct at wiU the blind dynamic impulse of the 
slaves, peasants, or lower classes. Such a despot 
had an enormous power at his disposal which, if 
he were benevolent or even intelligent, could be 





used, and most frequently was used, fl or the genera l 
uplift of the race. Even those rulers who most 
aSused tlus power put down with merciless rigor 
the antisocial elements, such as pirates, brigands, 
or anarchists, which impair the progress of a com- 
munity, as disease or wounds cripple an individual. 
True aristocracy is government by the wisest 
and best, always a small minority in any popul 
tion. Human society is like a serpent dragging its 
long body on the ground, but with the head always 
thrust a little in advance and a little elevated 
above the earth. The serpent's tail, in hiunan 
society represented by the antisocial forces, was 
in the past dragged by sheer force along the path 
of progress. Such has been the organization of j 
4 mankind from the beginning, and such it still is / 
I in older commimities than oiurs. What progress i 
humanity can make imder the control of imi-l 
versal suffrage, or the rule of the average, may! 
find a further analogy in the habits of certain 
snakes which wiggle sideways and disregard the 
head with its brains and eyes. Such serpents, 
however, are not noted for their ability to make 
rapid progress. 

To use another simile, in an aristocratic as 
distinguished from a plutocratic, or democratic 
organization, the intellectual and talented classes 
form the point of the lance, while the massive 
shaft represents the body of the population and 


isest / ^ 

)ula- [ ^^ 



adds by its bulk and weight to the penetrative 
impact of the tip. In a democratic system this 
concentrated force at the top is dispersed through- 
out the mass, supplying, to be sure, a certain 
amount of leaven, but in the long run the force 
and genius of the small minority is dissipated, if 
not wholly lost. Vox popfdi^ so far from being 
Vox Deif thus becomes an imending wail for rights, 
and never a chant of duty. 

Where a conquering race is imposed on another 
race the institution of slavery often arises to com- 
pel the servient race to work, and to introduce 
it forcibly to a higher form of civilization. As 
soon as men can be induced to labor to supply 
their own needs slavery becomes wasteful and 
tends to vanish. Slaves are often more fortunate 
than freemen when treated with reasonable hu- 
manity, and when their elemental wants of food, 
clothing, and shelter are supplied. 

The Indians around the fur posts in northern 
Canada were formerly the virtual bond slaves of 
the Hudson Bay Company, each Indian and his 
squaw and pappoose being adequately suppHed 
with simple food and equipment. He was pro- 
tected as well against the white man's rum as the 
red man's scalping parties, and in return gave the 
Company all his peltries — the whole product of his 
year's work. From an Indian's point of view this 
was nearly an ideal condition, but was to all in- 




I — ■ ■ gin i| fc «> ■! ±_ i ^ 


tents serf dom or slavery. When, through the open- 
ing up of the country, the continuance of such an 
archaic system became an impossibility, the Indian 
sold his furs to the highest bidder, received a large 
price in cash, and then wasted the proceeds in 
trinkets instead of blankets, and in nmi instead of 
flour, with the result that he is now gloriously free, 
but is on the highroad to becoming a diseased out- 
cast. In this case of the Hudson Bay Indian the 
advantages of the upward step from serfdom to 
freedom are not altogether clear. A very similar 
condition of vassalage existed until recently among 
the peons of Mexico, but without the compensa- 
tion of an inteUigent and provident ruling class. 

In the same way serfdom in mediaeval Europe 
apparently was a device through which the land- 
owners overcame the nomadic instincts of their 
tenantry. Years are required to bring land to 
its highest productivity, aLnd agricidture cannot 
be successfully practised even in well- watered and 
fertile districts by farmers who continually drift 
from one locality to another. The serf or villein 
was, therefore, tied by law to the land, and could 
not leave except with his master's consent. As 
soon as these nomadic instincts ceased to exist 
serfdom vanished. One has only to read the 
severe laws against vagrancy in England, just 
before the Reformation, to realize how wide- 
spread and serious was this nomadic instinct. 



Here in America we have not yet forgotten the 
wandering instincts of our Western pioneers, which 
in that case proved to be beneficial to every one 
except the migrants. 




In the modem and scientific study of race we 
have long discarded the Adamic theory that man 
is descended from a single pair, created a few 
thousand years ago in a mythical Garden of Eden 
somewhere in Asia, to spread later over the earth 
in successive waves. 

Many of the races of Europe, both living and 
extinct, did come from the East through Asia 
Minor or by way of the African littoral, but most 
of the direct ancestors of existing populations 
have inhabited Europe for many thousands of 
years. During that time numerous races of men 
have passed over the scene. Some imdoubtedly 
have utterly vanished, and some have left their 
blood behind them in the European? of to-day. 

It is a fact, however, that Asia was the chief 
area of evolution and differentiation of man, and 
that the various groups had their main development 
there, and not on the peninsula we call Europe. 

We now know, since the elaboration of the 

Mendelian Laws of Inheritance, that certain bodily 

characters, the so-called imit characters, such*as 

skull shape, stature, eye color, hair color, and : 





/ nose form, are transmitted in accordance with ] 
Ap fixed mathematical laws, and, further, that vari- / 
/ ous unit characters which are normally correlated; 
V or belong together, may, after prolonged admix- 
ture with another race, pass down separately, and 
form what is known as disharmonic combinations. 
Such disharmonic combinations are, for example, a 
> (tall brunet^or a short blond; blue eyes associated 
o'^^^with brunet hair, or brown eyes with blond hair. 
- In modem science the meaning of the word '^ char- 
acter" is now limited to physical instead of 
mental and spiritual traits as in popular usage. 
The process of intermixture of unit characters' 
^ / has gone far in existing populations, and with the 
^^jease of modem methods of transportation this 
^\ process is going much further in Europe, and in 
America. The immediate results of such 
ture are not blends, or intermediate types, but 
rather mosaics of contrasted characters. Such 
blends, if any, as idtimately occur, are too remote 
to concern us here. The first result of the cross- 
ing of a pure brunet with a pure blond is to 
produce either pure blonds or pure brunets in 
certain known proportions, instead of offspring 
of an intermediate type; or else a third group 
which may be either blond or brunet, but which 
possesses latent characters of the contrasted t3rpe. 
Such latent or recessive characters often reai 

• • 

in remotejifiscendajB[gr" 


In defining race in Europe it is necessary not 
only to consider pure groups or pure types, but 
also the distribution of unit characters belonging 
to each particular subspecies of man found there. 
The interbreeding of these populations has pro- 
gressed to such an extent that in many cases such 
an analysis of physical characters is necessary to 
reconstruct the elements which have entered into 
their ethnic composition. 

Sometimes we find a unit character appearing v 
here and there as the sole remnant of a once nu- | 
merous race, for example, the occasional appear- ] 
ance in European populations of a skull of the | 
Neanderthal type, a race widely spread over I 
Europe 40,000 years ago, or of the Cro-Magnon \ 
type, the predominant race 16,000 years ago. 
Before the fossil remains of the Neanderthal and 
Cro-Magnon races were studied and understood 
such reversional specimens were considered path- 
ological, instead of being recognized as the reap- 
pearance of an ancient and submerged type. 

Unit characters are to all intents and purposes 
immutable, and they do not change during the 
lifetime of a language or an empire. The skull 
shape of the Egyptian fellaheen, in the unchang^ 
ing environment of the Nile Valley, is absolutely 
identical in measurements, proportions and capac- 
ity with skulls found in the predynastic tombs 
dating back more than six thousand years. 




^ There exists to-day a widespread aQd fatuous 
belief in the power of environment, as well as of 
education and opportunity to alter heredity, which! 
arises from the dogma of the brotherhood of manj 
derived in turn from the loose thinkers', of the 
French Revolution and their American mimics. 
Such beliefs have done much damage i n the past, 

uncontradicted, may do much 
urfi^ %[Thus the view 
negro slave was an imfortimate cousin 
of the white man, deeply tanned by the tropic 
sun, and denied the blessings of Christianity and 
civilization, played no small part with the senti- 
mentalists of the Civil War period, and it has 
taken us fifty years to learn that speaking English, 
wearing good clothes, and going to school and to 
church, does not transform a negro into a white > 
man. Nor was a Syrian or Egyptian freedman 
transformed into a Roman by wearing a toga, 
and applauding his favorite gladiator in the amphi- 
_^ theatre. We shall have a similar experience with 
I ^ the Polish Jew, whose dwarf stature, peculiar 
mentality,, and ruthless concentration on self-in- 
terest are being engrafted upon the stock of the 
/ nation^ 

\P^ Recent attempts have been made in the in- ' 
I terest of inffirior races among our immigrants to 
/ show that the shape of the skull does change, not 
/ merely in a century, but in a single generation. 




An 1910, the report of the anthropological expert 

/of the Congressional Immigration Commission, 
gravely declared that a roimd skuU Jew on his way 
across the Atlantic might and did have a round 
skull child, but that a few years later, in response 
to the subtle elixir of American institutions, as ex- 
emplified in an East Side tenement, might and 
did have a child whose skull was appreciably 
longer; and that a long skull south Italian, breed- 
ing freely, would have precisely the same experi- ^ 
ence in the reverse direction. In other words, the "] 
/Melting Pot was acting instantly imder the in- /;v. 
Y fluence of a changed environment. / 

^-"What the Melting Pot actually does in prac- 
tice, can be seen in Mexico, where the absorption 
of the blood of the original Spanish conquerors 
by the native Indian population j ^s produce d 
the racial mixture which we call Mexican, and 

pacity for self-government, f The world has seen 
nnany sucli mixtures of races, and the character 
of a mongrel race is only just beginning to be xm- 
derstood at its true value. 
It must be borne in mind that the specializa- \/ 
fons which characterize the higher races are oi/^ 
relatively recent development, are highly imstable 
and when mixed with generalized or primitive 

^-hflrartPrgj fpj](^ tr) H|<;tf^ppf>a,]' /U^AtliAr we like 

to admit it or not, the result of the mixture of 



tw o races, in the long run, gives us a rac e re- 

verting to th^ jnnre. a-nripntj gi^^yralizinjajTH Tnw^r 

The cross between a white man and an In- 
dian is an Indian; the cross between a white man 
and a negro is a negro; the cross between a white 
man and a Hindu is a Hindu; and the cross be- 
tween any o^ the three European races and a Jew 
is a JewJ ' 

In the crossing of the blond and brunet ele-\ 
ments of a population, the more deeply rooted/ 
and ancient dark traits are prepotent or dominant.^ >^ 
This is matter of everyday observation, and the- 
working of this law of nature is not influg iced or 
affected by di^m^rati? igstitnti^ns or by re&gious 

leasured in terms of centuries, unit char- 
acters are immutable, and t he only benefit to be 
lenvfid from a changed environment and bel^ 
food conditions, is the opp ortunity afforded a 
jace whj rh ha^ Bved under adv erse COlidiGons, 
to a chieve its maximum development^ but th e 
its of that developm ent are fixed f or it by 

heredit y and not by environment. 

In dealing with European populations the best 
method of determining race has been found to lie 
in a comparison of proportions of the skull, the so- 
called cephalic index. This is the ratio of maximum 
length to maTcimum width taken at the widest part 
of the skull above the ears. Skidls with an index 




of 75 or less, that is, when the width is three- 
fourths or less than the length, are considered 
dolichocephalic, or long skulls. Skulls of an index 
of 80 or over are round skulls, or brachycephalic. 
Intermediate indices, between 75 and 80, are con- 
sidered mesocephalic. These are cranial indices. 
To allow for the flesh on living specimens, about 
two per cent is to be added to the index, and the 
result is the cephalic index. In the following 
pages only long and round skulls are considered 
«>d the intennediate forms, or mesocq,hs, are ^ 
assigned to the dolichocephalic group. 

This cephalic index, though an extremely im- 
portant if not the controlling unit character, is, 
nevertheless, but a single character and must 
be checked up with other somatological traits. 
Normally, a long skull is associated with a long 
face, and a round skull with a round face. 

The use of this test, the cephalic index, enables 
us to divide the great bulk of the European pop- 
ulations into three distinct subspecies of man, 
one northern and one southern, both dolicho- 
cephalic or characterized by a long skull, and a 
central subspecies which is brachycephaUc, or char- 
acterized by a roimd skull. 

Thefi^ is th e Nord ic or Baltic subspecies. This 
race is long skulled, very tall, fair skinned, with 
blond or brown hair and light colored eyes. The 
Nordics inhabit the coimtries around the North 


and Baltic Seas^ and include not only the grea t 
Scandinavian and Teutonic groups^ but also other 
early peoples who first appear in southern Europe 
and in Asia as representatives of Aryan language 
and cxilture. 

Thfi fiTond is the dark Mediterranean or Iberian 
subspedeSy occupying the shores of the inland sea, 
and extending along the Atlantic coast until it 
reaches the Nordic species. It also spreads far 
east into southern Asia. It is long skulled like, 
the Nordic race, but the absolute size of the skull 
is less. The eyes and hair are very dark or black, 
and the skin more or less swarthy. The stature is 
stimted in comparison to that of the Nordic race 
and the musculature and bony framework weak. 

The thir d is the Alpine subspecies occupying all 
central and eastern Europe, and extending 
through Asia Minor to the Hindu Kush and the 
Pamirs. The Armenoids,, constitute an Alpine 
subdivision and represent the ancestral type of 
this race which remained in the moimtains and 
high plateaux of Anatolia and western Asia. 
The Alpines are roimd skulled, of medium height 
and sturdy build, both as to skeleton and musdes. 
The coloration of both hair and eyes was originally 
very dark and still tends strongly in that direc- 
tion, but many light colored eyes, espedally gray, 
are now foxmd in the Alpine populations of west- 
em Europe. 



While the inhabitants of Europe betray as a 
whole their mixed origin, nevertheless the three 
main subspecies are each found in large numbers 
and in great purity, as well as sparse remnants of 
still more ancient races represented by small groups 
or by individuals, and. even by unit characters. 

These three main groups have bodily characters 
which constitute them distinct subspecies of Homo 
sapiens. Each has several varieties, but for the 
>^sake of clearness the word race and not the word 
species or subspecies will hereafter be used nearly, 
but not quite, exclusively. In zoology the term 
species implies the existence of a certain definite 
amount of divergence from the most closely re- 
lated type, but race does not require a similar 
amoimt of dijSerence. In man, where all groups 
are more or less fertile when crossed, so many 
intermediate or mixed types occur that the word 
species has too limited a meaning for wide use. 
Related species when grouped together constitute 
subgenera and genera. 

The old idea that fertility or infertility of races 
of animals was the measure of species, is now 
abandoned. One of the greatest difficulties in 
classif3ring man is his perverse predisposition to ^mo - - 1 

mismate. ' This is a matter of daily observation/^^^ , ^ '/3^* 
especially among the women of the better classesA 
probably because of their wider range of choice. I 

The cephalic index is of less value in the classi-' 



fication of Asiatic populations, but the distribu- 
tion of roimd and long skulls is similar to that in 
Europe. The vast central plateau of that con- 
tinent is inhabited by round skulls. In fact, Thibet 
and the western Himalayas were probably the 
centre of radiation of all the roimd skulls of the 
world. In India and Persia south of this central 
area occurs a long skuU race related to Mediter- 
ranean man in Eiurope. 

Both skull types occur, much intermixed, among 
the American Indians, and the cephalic index is 
of Uttle value in classifying the Amerinds. No 
satisfactory explanation of the variability of the 
skull shape of this species has as yet been found, 
but the total range of variation of physical char- 
acters from northern Canada to southern Pata- 
gonia is less than the range of such variation from 
Normandy to Provence in France. 

In Africa the cephalic index is also of small 
classification value because all of the populations 
are characterized by a long skull. 

The distinction between a long skull and a 
roimd skull in mankind probably goes back at 
least to early Paleolithic times, if not to a period 
still more remote. It is of such great antiquity 
that when new species or races appear in Europe 
at the close of the Paleolithic, between 10,000 and 
7,000 years B. C, the skuU characters among 
them are as clearly defined as they are to-day. 


■^^■^T*" - - 



The fact that two distinct species of mankind 
both have long skulls, as have the north European 
and the African negro, is no necessary indication 
of relationship, and in that instance is merely a case 
of parallel specialization. The fact, however, that 
the Swede has a long skull and the Savoyard a 
roimd skull does pro-^^tKpm to be descendants 
of distinct subspecies.*^ 

The claims that the Nordic race is a mere vari- 
ation of the Mediterranean race, and that the lat- 
ter is, in turn, derived from the Ethiopian negro, 
rest upon a mistaken idea that a dolichocephaly in 
common must mean identity of origin, as well as 
upon a failure to take into consideration many so- 
matological characters of almost equal value with 
the cephalic index. In this connection it is well 
to remark that this measurement, being merely a 
ratio, may yield identical figures for skulls diflFer- 
ing in every other proportion and detail, as well 
as in absolute size and capacity. 
• Eye color is of very great importance in race 
determination, because all blue, gray, or green 
eyes in the world to-day came originally from the 
same source, namely, the Nordic race of northern 
Europe. This light colored eye has appeared no- 
where else on earth, and is a specialization of this 
subspecies of man only, and is consequently one 
of extreme value in the classification of European 
races. Dark colored eyes are all but xmiversal 





among wild mammals, and entirely so among the | 
primates, man's nearest relatives. It is, therefore, I 
an absolute certainty that all the original races of / 
man had dark eyes. ^ 

One subspecies of man, and one alone, specialized 
in light colored eyes. This same subspecies also 
evolved light or blond hair, a character far less 
deeply rooted than eye color, as blond children 
tend to grow darker with advancing years, and 
populations largely of Nordic extraction, such as 
those of Lombardy, upon admixture with darker 
races, lose their blond hair more readily than their 
light colored eyes. 

Blond hair also comes everywhere from the 
Nordic species, and from nowhere else. Whenever 
we find blondness among the darker races of the 
I earth we may be sure some Nordic wanderer has, 
passed that way. When individuals of perfect' 
blond type occur, as sometimes in Greek islands, 
we may suspect a recent visit of sailors from a 
passing ship, but when only single characters re- 
main spread thmly, but widely, over considerable 
areas, like the blondness of the Atlas Berbers or 
of the Albanian mountaineers, we must search in 
the dim past for the origin of these blurred traits 
of early invaders. 

The range of blond hair color in pure Nordic 
peoples runs from flaxen and red to shades of chest- 
nut and brown. The darker shades may indicate 

^ — y^». 


crossing in some cases^ but absolutely black hair 
certainly does mean an ancestral cross with a 
dark race — ^in England with the Mediterranean 

In Nordic populations the women are, in gen- 
eral, lighter haired than the men, a fact which 
points to a blond past and a darker future for 
those populations. Women in all human races, 
as the females among all mammals, tend to exhibit 
the older, more generalized and primitive traits of 
the race's past. The male in his individual de- 
velopment indicates the direction in which the 
race is tending under the influence of variation and 
selection. _ 

It is interesting to note in connection with the 
more pri niitive phy sique of the female, that in 
the spiritual sphere also, women retain the an- 
cient and intuitive knowledge that the great mass 
of mankind is not free and equal, but bond and 

The color of the skin is a character of impor- 
tance, but one that is exceedingly hard to measure 
as the range of variation in Europe between skins 
of extreme fairness and those that are exceedingly 
swarthy, is almost complete. In general the 
Nordic race in its purity has an absolutely fair 
skin, and is consequently the Homo allms^ the white 
man par excellence. 

Many members of the Nordic race otherwise 




apparently pure have skins, as well as hair, more 
or less darky so that the determinative value of 
this character is imcertain. There can be no 
doubt that the quality of the skin and the ex- 
treme range of its variation in color from black, 
brown, red, yellow to ivory-white are excellent 
measures of the specific or subgeneric distinctions 
between the larger groups of mankind, but in deal- 
ing with European populations it is sometimes 
difficult to correlate shades of fairness with other 
physical characters. 

It often happens that an individual with all the 
Nordic characters in great piuity, has a skin of 
an oUve or dark tint, and it much more frequently 
happens that we find an individual with absolutely 
pure brunet traits in possession of a skin of al- 
most ivory whiteness and of great clarity. This 
last combination is very frequent among the 
bnmets of the British Isles. That these are, to 
some extent, disharmonic combinations we may 
be certain, but beyond that our knowledge does 
i not lead. Cfayners, however, of a fair skin have 
always been, and still are, the objects of keen envy 
by those whose skins are black, yellow, or red. 

Stature is another unit character of greater 
value than skin color, and perhaps than hair color, 
and is one of much importance in European classi- 
fication because on that continent we have the 
most extreme variations of human height. 



Exceedingly adverse economic conditions may 
inhibit a race from attaining the full measure of 
its growth, and to this extent environment plays its 
part in determining stature, but fundamentally it 
is race, always race, that sets the limit. The tall 
Scot and the dwarfed Sardinian owe their respec- 
tive sizes to race, and not to oatmeal or olive oil. 
It is probable that the fact that the stature of the 
Irish is, on the average, shorter than that of the 
Scotch, is due partly to economic conditions, and 
partly to the depressing effect of a considerable 
population of primitive short stock. 

Mountaineers all over the world tend to be 
tall and vigorous, a fact probably due to the rigid 
elimination of defectives by the imfavorable en- 
vironment. In this case altitude would operate 
like latitude, and produce the severe conditions 
which seem essential to human vigor. The short 
statiure of the Lapps and the Esquimaux may have 
been originally attributable to the trying condi- 
tions of an Arctic habitat, but in any event it has 
long since become a racial character. 

So far as the main species of Europe are con- 
cerned, stature is a very valuable measure of 

To recapitulate as to this character, the Mediter- 
ranean race is everywhere marked by a relatively 
short stature, sometimes greatly depressed, as in 
south Italy and in Sardinia, and also by a com- 


paratively light bony framework and feeble mus- 
cular development. 

The Alpine race is taller than the Mediterranean 
although shorter than the Nordic, and is char- 
acterized by a stocky and sturdy build. 

The Nordic race is nearly ever3rwhere distin- 
guished by great stature. Almost the tallest stature 
in the world is found among the pure Nordic pop- 
ulations of the Scottish and English borders, while 
the native British ^^ Prf^-iMffcrf^ir bnmfit blnnH 

are, for the most part, relatively short; and no 

one can question the race value of stature who 

observes on the streets of London the contrast 

Abetween the Piccadilly gentleman of Nordic race 

^l^iand the cockney costermonger of the old Neolithic 


In many cases where these three European races 
have become mixed, stature seems to be one of 
the first Nordic characters to vanish, but wherever 
in Europe we find great statture in a population 
4 otherwise lacking in Nordic characters, we may 
be certain of Nordic crossing, as in the case of a 
large proportion of the mhabitants of Burgundy, 
of Switzerland, of the Tyrol, and of the Dalma- 
tian Alps south to Albania. 
These four irnit characters, skull shape, eye 
^ > color, hair color, and stature, are sufficient to 
j^ enable us to differentiate clearly between the 
^ three main races of Europe, but if we wish to dis- 


aiss the minor variations and mixtures, we would 
have to go much further and take up other pro- 
portions of the skull than the cephalic index, as 
well as the shape and position of the eyes, and the 
proportions and shape of the jaws and chin. 

The nose also is an exceedingly important char-\ 
acter. The original human nose was, of course, 1 
broad and bridgeless. This trait is shown clearly 
in new-bom infants who recapitulate in their 
development the various stages of the evolution 
of the himian genus. A bridgeless nose with wide 
flaring nostrils is a very primitive character, and 
is still retained by some of the larger divisions of 
mankind throughout the world. It appears oc- 
casionally in white populations of European origin, 
but is everywhere SL-xes y aneiont ^.^^eralized, and 

The high bridge and long, narrow nose, the so- 
called Roman, Norman, or aquiline nose, is char- 
actgrl»lie uf thx; inag t highly specialized races of 
mankind. While an apparently unimport^mi char- 
acter, the nose is one of the very best clews to racial 
origin, and in the details of its form, and especially 
in the lateral shape of the nostrils, is a race deter- 
minant of the greatest value. 

"flCheJigs, whether thin or fleshy or whether clean- 
cut or everted, are race characters. Thick, pro- 
truding, everted lips are very ancient traits and 
are characteristic of primitive races. A high in- 


Step also has long been esteemed an indication of 
patrician type, while the flat foot is often the test 
of lowly origin. 

The absence or abundance of hair and beard 
and the relative absence or abundance of body 
hair are characters of no little value in classifica- 
tion. Abundant body hair is, to a large extent, 
peculiar to populations of the very highest as 
well as the very lowest species, being characteristic 
of the north European as well as of the. Australian 
savages. It merely means the retenti^"lu"botir 

lese groups of a very early and primitive trait 
which has been lost by the Negroes, Mongols, and 
the Amerinds. 

The Nordic and Alpine races are far better 
equipped with head and body hair than the Medi- 
terranean, which is throughout its range a glabrous 
or relatively naked race. 

The so-called red haired branch of the Nordic 
race has special characters in addition to red 
hair, such as a greenish cast of eye, a skin of pecu- 
liar texture tending either to great clarity or to 
freckles, and certain peculiar temperamental traits. 
This was probably a variety closely related to 
the blonds, and it first appears in history in as- 
sociation with them. 

In the structure of the head hair of aU races 
of mankind we find a regular progression from 
extreme kinkiness to lanky straightness, and this 


straightness or curliness depends on the shape of 
the cross section of the hair itself. This cross 
section has three distinct forms^ corresponding 
with the most extreme divergences among human 

While the three main European races are the 
subject of this book, and while it is not the inten- 
tion of the author to deal with the other himian 
types, it is necessary at this point to state that 
these three European subspecies, are subdivisions 
of one of the primary groups or subgenera of the 
genus Homo which, taken together, we must call 
the Caucasian for lack of a better name. 

The great mass of the rest of mankind can be 
roughly divided into the Negroes and Negroids, 
\^ and the Mongols and Mongoloids. 

The former apparently originated in south Asia 
and entered Africa from the northeasterly comer 
of that continent. Africa south of the Sahara is 
now the chief home of this race, though remnants 
of Negroid aborigines are fotmd throughout south 
Asia from India to the Philippines, while the very 
distinct black Melanesians and the Australoids 
lie farther to the east and south. 

A third subgenus of mankind includes the round 
skulled Mongols and their derivatives, the Am- 
erinds, or American Indians. This group is es- 
sentially Asiatic, and occupies the centre and the 
eastern half of that continent. A description of 



these Negroid and Mongoloid subgenera and their 
derivatives, as well as of certain aberrant species 
of man, lies outside of the scope of this work. 

In the consideration of this measurement, the cross 
section of the hair in connection with these main 
subgenera, we find that a permanent relation exists, 
and that each of the three primary divisions of 
mankind is, in the shape of the cross section of its 
hair, differentiated from the others. 

The cross section of the hair of the Negro and 
Negroid races is a flat ellipse with the result that 
all the members of this subgenus have kinky hair. 

The cross section of the hair of the Mongols 
and their derivatives, the Amerinds, i3 a complete 
circle, and the hair of this subgenus is perfectly 
straight and lank. 

The cross section of the hair of the so-called 
Caucasians, mcluding the Mediterranean, Alpine, 
and Nordic subspecies, is an oval ellipse, and con- 
sequently is intermediate between the cross sec- 
tions of the Negroids and Mongoloids. Hair of 
this structure is wavy or curly, never either kinky 
or absolutely straight, and is characteristic of all 
the European populations, almost without ex- 

We have confined our discussion to the most 
important unit characters, but there are many 
other valuable aids to classification to be found 
in the proportions of the body and the relative 



length of the limbs. For an example, it is a mat- 
ter of common knowledge that there occur among 
white women two distinct types in this latter 
respecty the one long legged and short bodied, 
the other long bodied and short legged. All such 
facts have a race value as yet not understood. 

Without going into further physical details, it is 
probable that all relative proportions in the body, 
the features, the skeleton, and the skull which are 
fixed and constant and lie outside of the range of 
individual variation represent dim, inheritances 
from the past. Every himian being unites in himT 
self the blood of thousands of ancestors, stretchA 
ing back through thousands of years, superim-\ 
posed upon a prehuman inheritance of still greater 1 
antiquity, and the face and body of every living 
man offer an intricate mass of hieroglyphs that 
science will some day learn to read and interpret. \ 

We shall use the foregoing main unit characters / 
as the basis of our definition of race, and shall I 
later call attention to such temperamental and j 
spiritual traits as seem to be associated with disp/ 
tinct physical types. / 

We shall only discuss European populations anH^ 
shall not deal with those quarters of the globe 
where the races of man are such that other 
physical characters must be called upon to pro- 
vide clear definitions. 

A fascinating subject would open up if we were 


to dwell upon the effect of racial combinations 
and disharmonies, as, for instance, where the 
mixed Nordic and Alpine populations of Lom- 
bardy retain the skull shape, hair color, and stature 
of the Alpine race, with the light eye color of the 
Nordic race, or where the mountain populations 
along the east coast of the Adriatic from the Tyrol 
to Albania have the stature of the Nordic race and 
an Alpine skull and coloration. 



The laws which govern the distribution of the ^ 
various races of man and their evolution through / 
selection are substantially the same as those con- / 
trolling the evolution and distribution of the/ 
larger mammals. 

Man, however, with his superior mentality, has 
freed himself from many of the elements which 
impose restraint upon the expansion of animals. 
In his case selection through disease and social ^ 
and economic competition has replaced selection J 
through adjustment to the limitations of ioody/ 
supply. ^ 

Man is the most cosmopolitan of animals, and in 
one form or another thrives in the tropics and in 
the arctics, at sea level and on high plateaux, in 
the desert and in the reeking forests of the equa- 
tor. Nevertheless, the various races of Europe 
with which we deal in this book have, each of 
them, a certain natural habitat in which each 
achieves its highest development. 

The Nordic Habitat 

The Nordics appear in their present centre of 
distribution, the basin of the Baltic, at the close 




of the Paleolithic^ as soon as the retreating glaciers 
left habitable land. This race was probably at 
that time in possession of its fundam ental charac- 
t^s^ and its extension in the Teutonic group from 
the plains of Russia to Scandinavia was not in the 
nature of a radical change of environment. The 
race in consequence is now and always has been, 
/probably always will be, adjusted to certain en- 
( vironmental conditions, chief of which is protection 

from a troin ca l sun. The actinic rays of the sun 
at the same latitude are uniform in strength the 
world over, and continuous simlight affects ad- 
versely the delicate nervous organization of ^ the 
Nordics. The fogs and long winter nights of the 

. North serve as a protection from too much sun, 
and from its too direct rays. 

Scarcely less important is the presence of a 
large amoimt of moisture, but above all a constant 
variety of temperature is needed. Sharp contrast 

. between night and day temperature, and between 
summer and winter are necessary to maintain the 
vigor of the blond race at a high pitch. Uniform 
reather, if long continued, lessens its energy. Too 
great extremes, as in midwinter or midsimmier in 
New England, are injurious. Limited but con- 
stant alternations of heat and cold, of moisture 
and dryness, of sun and clouds, of calm and cy- 
clonic storms, offer the ideal surroundings for the 
Nordic race. 


Men of the Nordic race may not enjoy the 
fogs and snows of the North, the endless changes 
of weather, and the violent fluctuations of the 
thermometer, and they may seek the sunny south-, 
em isles, but imder the former conditions they^P 
flourish, do their work, and raise their families. 
In the south they grow listless and cease to 

In the lower classes th e increasing proportion Jj^ 
of poor whites and ^^ crackers ^ ^ are svr nptnms nf / 
lack of climatic adju stment. The whites in Geor- / 
'giapthe Bahamas,"luicl aBove all the Barbadoes 
are excellent examples of t he deleterious effect s 
of residence outside the natural habitat of th e 
Nor dic race . 

The poor whites of the Cumberland Moimtains 
in Kentucky and Tennessee present a more dif- 
ficult problem, because here the altitude, even 
though small, should modify the effects of lati- 
tude, and the climate of these mountains cannot 
be particularly unfavorable to men of Nordic 
breed. There are probably other hereditary forces 
at work here as yet little understood. 

No doubt bad food and economic conditi 

i nbreeding and the^ h^ fhmugh f>migrgi- 

ti ^Ot the best e lftmgntg lia^vp pUyftd fl. largg 

pS it in the r^^eneratioS^ of these poor whites.^ 
They represent to a large extent the offspring of 
bond servants brought over by the rich planters in 




early Colonial times. Thd r names indicate that^ 
many of them are the descendants of the old bor- 
derers along the Scotch and English frontier,«and 
t he per sis tence with which family feuds are m ain- 
tained^certainbL^Ddnts to such aiLJ)D£in. The 

physical type is typically Nordic, for the most 
part pure Saxon or Anglian, and the whole mount^^" 
p/^piiiofigTi «^^^ <^^**whait aVu*rrflTif but 

noun ced ^ysical, moral, and mental characto igtics 
w1lj^rT{'^Qlllr^ rApay^ ^entific investigation. The 
problem is too complex to be disposed of by ref- 
erence to the hookworm, illiteracy, or competition 
with negroes. 

This type played a very large part in the settle- 
ment of the Middle West, by way of Kentucky, 
Tennessee, and Missouri. Thence they passed 
both up the Missouri River and down the Santa-^ 
F£ trail, and contributed rather more than their I 
share of the train robbers, horse thieves, and bacy 
men of the West. ' 

Scotland and the Bahamas are inhabited by 
men of precisely the same race, but th ejqgorof 
^he English in the Bahamas is gone, and theCBeaut 
gt their wo mCTiEas fadedj^Jhe fact that they 
were not in competition with an autocht]iionoi&' 
race better adjusted to climatic conditions has 
enabled them to survive, but the type could not 
have persisted, even during the last two hundred 
years, if they had been compelled to compete on 





terms of equality with a native and acclimated 

Another element entering into racial degenera- 
tion on many other islands, and for that matter 
in many New England villages, is the loss through. ^ 
em igration of the mo rp v^^g^r^tuff nnd ftnft 
individuals, leav ing jhfhind the Iffi n trf fi nVnt to 
con tinue the race at home . 

In subtropical countries, w hen th e energy of 
the Nordics is at a low ebb, it w ould s^ppgar th at 
the racial inheritance of physical strength and 
mentafl"vigor~were suppressed atnd recessive-Xather ^ 
than 'destroyed. Many individuals who were bom 
in iinfavqrable climatic *"surroimdings, but who 

move back to the original habitat of their race jn . 

the Jiorth^ recover their fiifl quota. o£. energy and 
vigon New York and ot her Northern cities hav( 
many Southern ers who are fullv as effin ^^^t m pnrp 
N ortherners, 

environme nt a-Q \^nA owning aristocrats who are 
not required to do manual labor in the fields under 

a blazing sim. ^A&.such_an aristocracy. kcpntinuesLy 
ta.. exist under Italian skies, but as a field laboreipP 
the man Qf Nordic blood could not compete with 
his Alpine or Mediterranean rival. It is not to 
be supposed that the Teutonic armies which for 
a thousand years after the fall of Rome poured 
down from the Alps like the glaciers to melt in 



the southern sun, were composed solely of knights 
and gentlemen who became the landed nobility 
of Italy. The man in the ranks also took up his > 
land and work in Italy, but he had to compete ^ 
directly with the native under climatic conditions 
which were unfavorable to his race. In this com- 
p etition the b lue eyed NorHiV gia^ij^ji^j^5tnH the 

native survived, ffis ..j)fficc t^ ho wever^ lived in 
CEe'castle and directed the labor of HTb^dsmen 

without other preoccupation than the chase and 
I war, und he long maintained his vigon" 

The'saine thing happened in our South before 
the Civil War. There the white men did not 
work in the fields or in the factory. The heavy 
work imder the blazing sun was performed by 
negro slaves, and the planter was spared ex- 
posure to an unfavorable environment. Under 
these conditions he was able to retain much of 
his vigor, yhen slavery was abolished, and th 

white man had to plough his own ne ius or wori 
in the factory, deterioration began. 

The change in the type of men who are now 
sent by the Southern States to represent them in 
the Federal Government from their predecessors 
in ante-bellum times is partly due to these causes, 
but in a greater degree it is to be attributed to 

of the best racial 

were killed oflF dining ^ the 
GivjUSKax. jn addition the war shattered t he 


aristocratic traditions which formerly segiired the 


t^e lection ot tne best men as rulers. /The new 
democratic ideals with tmiversal suffrage in free 
operaaon amo ng the wmtes result m me cnoice^oT 
^resentatives who lack the distinction and ability 
of Ulfe leadei ' s ol the Old South; 

may be UiuiuugUy' adjusted to a cer- 
tain country at one stage of its development and 
be at a disadvantage when an economic change 
occurs, such as was experienced in England a cen- 
tury ago when the nation changed from an agri- 
cultural to a manufacturing community. Teletype 
rf man tha t flourishes in the fields is no t the t)q)e 
of man that thrives in the factory, ju st as tlie 
w t ype of man required forthe crew of a sailin g 
s hip is not the tvpe useful as st okers on a modem 

The Habitat of the Alpines and 

The environment of the Alpine race seems to 
have always been the moimtainous coimtry of 
central and eastern Europe, as well as western 
Asia. This type has never flourished in the deserts 
of Arabia or the Sahara, nor has it succeeded in 
maintaining its colonies in the north of Europe 
within the domain of the Nordic long heads. It 
^is^ however, a s ^^ir^y ^^f^ pfifsifft ent stocky and. 
le much of it may "^^ hfi ov^^^fi^fH ^^ cul- 



turedy xindottbte dly posses ses great p otentialiti es 
lor future development. 

the jBalkans 

/^ The Alpines in the west of Europe, especially 

/ in Switzerland and the districts immediately sur- 

/^oundingy have been so thoroughly Nordidze^l^ 

IJ^kad so satur a,ted with the mlturftj^fjj)*^ adjoin- 

I i qg nati aos, that they stand in sharp co ntrast to 

/r^^k^a^d\Alpinpj; of Slavir sp<><>rh 

and'^atst of El 

le "M^^jjj^rraP^^" ra^e^ ^n the other hand, is 
clearly a southern type with eastern aflin ities. 
It is a type that did not flourish in the north of 
Europe under old agricultural conditions, nor is_ 
wit suitab le to the farming districts and fron tiers 
ot Americ a, ftinj CsLns^n Tt is gi/^jiigti>H tn sub- 
tropical and tropical countries better than any 
other European type, and will flourish in-flur 
Souther n States and aroimd the coasts of the Span- 
ish Ma jug^ In France it is well known that mem- 
bers of the Mediterranean race are better adapted 
for colonization in Algeria than are French Alpines 
or Nordics. This subspecies of man is notoriously 
intolerant of extreme cold, owing to its sensibility 
to diseases of the lungs, and it shrinks from the 
blasts of the northern winter in which the Nor- 
dics revel. 

/%J The brunet Mediterranean element in the native 
/ /^"American seems to be incre asing Mthr cacprmr of 
L^"^ — tlje blond Nordic element ge&ersd^nEEroughout t^e 




Southern States, and probably also in the, large 

•^ . ■• 

cities. This type of man, however, is scarce on 
our frontiers. In the Northwest, and in Alaska in 
the days of the gold rush jLjca^in the mining 
camps a mat ter of com ment jf a man ti 
with dark ey es. sffTiniversal were blue and gray 
eyes among the American pioneers. 



Where two races occupy a country side by side, 
it is not correct to speak of on e type as c hanging 
into the other ^ven if present in equal numb ers "\ 
one of th e two contrasted types will hav e some 
ai^Sm ail ^advantage or capacity which the othe r 
lacks toward a perfect adjustme nt to surround- ^ 
Ttose possessing these fa vorable variati ons 1 

their offspi 

^will flourishanlleesDense of their 

more numerous, 

but will also tend to inherit such variations. In 

this way one type gradually breeds the other out. 

" v A n this sense, and in this sense only, do races 

^^k^s^ -H^- 

Man continuously und ergoes selection through 
social envir onment. _ Among native AmencSTof 
the Colonial period a large family was an asset, 
and social pressure and economic advantage both 
counselled early marriage and numerous chil- 
dren. Two hxmdred years of continuous political 
expansion and material prosperity changed these 
conditions and children, instead of being an asset 
to till the fields and guard the cattie, became an 

expensive liability. They now require support, 




education, and endowment from their parents, and 
a large family is regarded by some as a serious 
handicap in the social struggle. 

These conditions do not obtain at first among 
immigrants, and large families among the newly 
arrived population are stiU the rule, precisely as 
they were in Colonial America, and are to-day in 
Frengh Canada, where backwoods conditions still 

^ prevail. 
. The result is that one class or type in a popula- 

/ tion expands more rapidly than another, and ul- 
timately replaces it. This process of replacement 
of one type by another does not mean that the 
race changes, or is transformed into another. It 
is a r eplacement pure and simple and not a trans- 

The lowering of the birth rate among the most 

C valuable classes, while the birth rate of the lower 
classes remains unaffected, is a frequent phe- 
nomenon of prosperity. Such a change becomes 
extremely mjurious to the race if imchecked, xmless 
nature is aUowed to maintam by her own cruel 
devices the relative numbers of the different classes 
in their due proportions. To attack race suicide 

bv encouraging ^]^f^lc/^f;ln;nQf0 hrffldJTlg IS "^^ ^^^y 
fu tile, but JB d angerous if i t leads to an incro 

the undesirable elen| ents. JMiat is needed in the 

iinity^ost nf ally ir an i ncrease in the desir---T ^ 
able classesTwhicli are of superior tvpe phvsicallv. v / 


mtellectual l y, and mnrally, and not merely an in* 
c rease in the absolute numbers of the population. 

The value and efficienc y of a population ar e not 
numbered by w hat the newspapers caU souls, but 
b y the proportion of men of physical and intd- 
lectuaL-vigor^ The small Colonial population oJ 
America was, man for man, far superior to the 
average of the present inhabitants, although the 
.fatter ajeJjKQMy-five times more numerous. ^The 
2pLdeal i i:(eugeni^ toward which statesman Aip should 


r ather than quantity. This, however, is at present 
a counsel of perfection, and we must face condi- 
tions as they are. 

The small birth rate ir\ the ^pp**r^ jy»^^Js^^ 
some extent, offset by the care received by such 
t EjISren as are bom, and the better chance they. 
p( have to become adult and breed m their tu rn.',JEhc 
f ^ larg e birth rate of th e lower classes is, imder nor- 
mafconditions, oitset by a heavy infant mortality, 

Les (lie weakei tliiMreK 




1 1 1 1 1 1 1 K 

Where altruism, philM ithr ppv^ or sen^im f "^^^^^^ 
i tervene w ith the noblest purpose, and forbid na- 
t ure to pe nalize the unfortuna te victi nis^ofj^eckless 
breeding, the mulriphcaficS^ of inferjn r fypf^_JR 

encour aged and fostere d. JEfforts to indiscrj 
^ly prpgpryy V> abies amoug the loweiLx lasses 

to the race. 
Mistaken regard for what are Deneved to be 



divine laws and a sentime ntal belief in the sanctity 
of hu man life, t end to prevent both the elimination 
of defective infants and the sterilization of such 
adults as are themselves of no value to the com- 
mimity. The laws of nature require the ohlitera.- 
tion of thfe unfit, a nd human life is valuable onlv 
when 11 IS ot use to the community or race. _ 

It is highly imjust that a minute minority should 
be called upon to supply brains for the unthinking 
mass of the community, but it is even worse tobur- 
den the responsible and larger, but still overworked, 
elements in the community with an ever increasing 
Vj number of moral perverts, m enta l defectives, and y 

^hereditary cripples. ' 

The church assumes a serious responsibility 
toward the future of the race whenever it steps in 
and preserves a defective strain. The marriage of 
deaf mutes was hailed a generation ago as a tri- 
umph of hxunanity. Now it is recognized as an 
absolute crime against the race. A great ir JMry ^'"g * 
done to tfie commumty b3r^e perpetuation of ^ 

^ worthless types. These strains are apt tob em^k / 

^ atn d lowIyTlmd as fi"^h m?t ke a strong appeal t o 
the sympathies of the successful. Before eugenics 
were imderstood much could be said from a Chris- 
tian and huimane view-pointja favor of indiscrimi^ 
nate charity for the benefit of the individual _The 

/f societie s for charity, alt ruism, or extension of 
rights, should have, however, in these days, iDftheir 







y have some- ^ 
thejagg thaij^l 

management some small modicum of brains, other- 
wise they may continue to do, as they have some- 
times done in the past, more injury to 

As long as such charitable organizations confine 
themselves to the relief of suffering individuals, 
no matter how criminal or diseased they may be, 
no harm is done except lo our own generation, and 
if modem society recognizes a duty to the humblest 
malefactors or imbeciles, that duty can be harm- 
lessly performed in full, prov ided they be deprived 
of the capacity to procreate their defective strain. 

Those w] 

is little hope for humanity, but the remedy has been 
found, and can be quickly and mercifully applied. 

r K rigid system of selection through the elimina- 
tion of those who are weak or imfit — in other words, 
social f aflures — ^would solve the whole question in 

' one himdred years, as well as enable us to get rid 
of the undesirables who crowd our jails, hospitals, 
and insane asylums. The individual himself can 
be nourished, educated, and protected by the com- 
munity during his lifetim e^ but the st aff thrtyuph 
ftt^riliV^fl on must see to it that his line stops with 
or else future generations wUI De cursea with 

An ^vi*r iT^(;ffia5sinf r load of victims^mj^ 
tinifntmliem Tliis is a practical, merciful an d in- 
^vitahle ^lution of the whole prob lem , and can b e 
applied to an ever widening circle of social dis- 




csxdSj bg gin ning always with the criminal, the dis- 
eased , ^d the insane, and extending gradually to 
types w hich may be called weakl ings rather than 
efectivesT and perhaps ul timately to worthl^ 
race types. -^ — ' 

Efforts to increase the birth rate of th o^enius 
produci ng classes of the community, while most 
desirable, encounter great difficult!^ E such 
efforts we encounter social conditions over which 
*we have as yet n. *^^^oL It was tried two thou- 
sand years ago by Augustus, and his efforts to 
avert race suicide and the extinction of the^d Ro- 
y^-~man^brefid were singularly prophetic of what 
/ f ar seeing men are attempting in order to preserve 
V the race of native Americans of Colonial descent! 
^ Man has the choice of two methods of race im- 
provement Br^ ^^n hr^^ fmT n the best, or he can 
eliminate the worst bv segregati on or., steriliza tion,^jS 7 
l^e first method was adopted by the Spartans, 
who had for their national ideals, military effici- 
ency and the virtues of self control, and along these --* 
Knes the results were completely successful. Under 
modem social conditions it would be extremely 
difficxdt in the first instance to determine which 
were the most desirable t3^pes, except in the most 
general way, and even if a satisfactory selection 
were finally made, it would be, in a democracy, a 
virtual impossibility to limit by law the right to 
breed to a privileged and chosen few. 




Experiments in limiting breeding to the unde- 
sirable classes ^re unconsciously made in medi- 
V aeval Europe imder the guidance of the church. 
V After the fall of Rome, social conditions were such \ 
'X / that all those who loved a studious and qiuet life, / 
X'^ were compelled to seek refuge from the violence of 
the times in monastic institutions, and upon such 
the church imposed the obligation of ceUbacy, and 
thus deprived the world of offspring from these 
desirable classes. W^ 

In the Middle Ages, through persecution result- 
ing in actual death, life imprisonment, and banish- 
ment, the free thinking, progressive, and intellec- 
tual elements were persistently eliminated over 
large areas, leaving the perpetuation of the race to 
be carried on by the brutal, the servile, and the 
stupid. It is now impossible to say to what ex- 
tent the Roman Church by these methods has im- 
paired the brain capacity of Europe, but in Spain 
alone, for a period of over three centuries, from the 
year 147 1 to i78i,Jthe Inquisition condemned to the 
stake or impriscmment an average of 1,000 persons 
annually. During these three centuries no less 
than 32,000 were burned alive, and 291,000 were 
condemned to various terms of imprisonment and 
other penalties, and 7,000 persons were burned in 
effigy, representing men who had died in prison or 
had fled the country. 

No better method of eliminating the genius pro- 




ducing strains of a nation could be devised, and 
if such were its purpose the result was eminently 
/^ ^ satisfactory, as is demonstrated by the superstitious / 
I \9^and unintelligent Spaniard of to-day. A similar 
V^ >~eIunination of brains and ability took place in^^ 
r ^northern Italy and in France, and in the Low^ 
^ Coimtries, where hundreds of thousands of Hugue- 
nots were murdered or driven mto exile. 

Under existing conditions the most practical 

and ho prfiil m n t hn d o f racr im p rovr m r nt i" th i m i (jl i 
the elimination of the least desire ^Ift ^Ipm^nfc m 

e nation b y depriving them of the power to con- 
tribute to future generat jqng It is well known to 
stock breeders that the color of a herd of cattle can 
be modified by continuous elimination of worth- 
less shades, and of course this is true of other char- 
') acters. Black sheep, for instance, have been prac- 
tically destroyed by cutting out generation after 
generation all animals that show this color phase, 
until in carefully maintained flocks a black indi- 
vidual only appears as a rare sport. 

In manki nd it would not be a "ia .t^^^ ^^ fj^reaj 
^ ditticultv to secure a gen eral con<^pngiig ^f jmjjjf: 
^opinion as to the least desi rable, l et us say, t en per 
cent of the community. W bgn ^this unemploy ed 
and unemployable human residuum has been elimi- 
nated, together with the great mass of crime, pov- 
erty, alcoholism, and feeblemindedness associated 
therewith, it would be easy to consider the advis- 



ability of furthgr j'estrictig g ^}^^ p^ippHmtinn n^ 
X ^TE^ ]g^^^'"^"g lg^<^^ va luable typ es. By this 
^ method ma g^ind jT iipht ultimal 
/Si ^entlv intellifi^ent to deliberately choose the most 
[ ^tal and intellectual stra in s to carry on the rac e, 
v^ In addition to selection by climatic environ- 
ment, man is now, and has been for ages, under- 
going selection through disease. He has been deci- 
mated throughout the centuries by pestilences such 
as the black death and bubonic plague. In our 
fathers' days yellow fever and smallpox cursed 
humanity. These plagues are now under control, 
but similar diseases, now r^arded as mere nui- 
sances to childhood, such as measles, mmnps, and 
scarlatina, are terrible scourges to native popula- 
ions without previous experience with them. Add N 
to these smallpox and other white men^sjis^sS ^ J 
and one ha s the great em pire builde rs of yester- 
ty. It was not the swords in the hands of 
Coltmibus and his followers that decimated the 
American Indians, it was the germs that his men 
and their successors brought over, implanting the 
white man's maladies in the red man's world. 
Long before the arrival of the Puritans in New 
England, smallpox had flickered up and down the 
coast until the natives were but a broken remnant 
of their former nimibers. 

At the present time the Nordic race is under- 
going selection through alcoholism, a peculiarly 


Nordic vice, and through consumption, and both 
these dread scourges unfortunately attack those 
members of the race that are otherwise most de- 
sirable, differing in this respect from filth diseases 
like typhus, typhoid, or smallpox. One has only 
to look among the mnrp H^girahlp ^^l^ggpQ for the 
victims of rum and tubercule to realize that 
death or mental and pliygjral iTTipajpTriPnt tVimngli 

most brillian t and attractive members. 



A Nationality is an artificial political grouping ^ 
/j of population, usually centering around a single / 
( language as an expression of traditions and aspira-/ 
\^tions. Nationality can, however, exist indepen- 
dently of language, but states thus formed, such as 
Belgium or Austria, Me far less stable than those 
where a unifora a,^fl^npriia^gff is prevalent , as, for ex- 
ample, France or England. 

States without a single national language are 
constantly exposed to disintegration, especially 
where a substantial minority of the inhabitants 
speak a tongue which is predominant in an ad- 
joining state with, as a consequence, a tendoicy to 
gravitate toward such state. 

The history of the last century in Europe has 
been the record of a long series of struggles to unite 
in one political unit all those speaking the same, 
or closely allied, dialects. With the exception of 
internal and social revolutions, every European 
war since the Napoleonic period has been caused 
by the effort to bring about the unification either 
of Italy or of Germany, or by the desperate at- 
tempts of the Balkan States to struggle out of 



Turkish chaos into modern European nations on a 
basis of community of language. The xmification 
of both Italy and Germany is as yet incomplete, ac- 
cording to the views held by their more advanced 
patriots, and the solution of the Balkan question 
is still in the future. 

Men are keenly aware of their nationality and 
are very sensitive about their language, but only 
in a few cases, n otably in Sweden and Germany, 
^^oes ^ny larg g^ sectiou of ^e population pbss ess 
a nvthing analogous to true race consciousness, al- 
though the term "race*' is everywhere misused to 
de signate linguistic or political groups. 

It sometimes happens that a section of the pop- 
idatlou uf a large uatloii gathers around language, 
relnforcied by religion ^ as an expression of individu- 
aliityir The struggle between the French-speaking 
Alpine Walloons and the Nordic Flemings of Low 
Dutch tongue in Belgium is an example of two 
competing languages in an artificial nation which 
was formed originally around religion. On the 
other hand, the Irish National movement centers 
chiefly around religion, reinforced by myths of 
ancient grandeur. The French Canadians and 
the Poles use both religion and language to hold 
together what they consider a political unit. None 

of these SO-r aJjH y^a^ir>rifl1itiVg arp fniiTiHpfl nn j^t^ . 

During the past century alongside of the ten- 
dency to form imperial or large national groups, 


such as the Pan-Germanic, Pan-Slavic, Pan-Ru- 
manian or Italia Irredenta movements, there has 
appeared a counter movement on the part of small 
disintegrating ^' nationalities" to reassert them- 
selves, such as the Bohemian, Bulgar, Serb, Irish, 
and Egyptian national revivals. The upheaval is 
usually caused, as in the cases of the Irish and the 
Serbians, by delusions of former greatness now be- 
come national obsessions, but sometimes it means 

the resistance of a STja^ll £rfnii]j_nfhighAr riilfiir*> ft\ 

flHnrptirrn b y^ a lower civilization. 

Examples of a high t}^ threatened by a lower 
culture are afforded by the Finlanders, who are try- 
ing to escape the dire fate of their neighbors across 
the Gulf of Finland — ^the Russification of the Ger- 
mans and Swedes of the Baltic Provinces — and by 
the struggle of the Danes of Schleswig to escape 
Germanization. The Armenians, too, have re- 
sisted stoutly the pressure of Islam to force them 
away from their ancient Christian faith. This 
people really represents the last outpost of Eu- 
rope toward the Mohammedaq, East and consti- 
tutes the best remaining medium through which 
Western ideals and culture can be introduced into 

In these as in other cases, the process of absoip- 
tion from the view-point of the world at large is 
good or evil exactly in proportion to the relative 
value of the culture and race of the two groups. 


The world would be no richer in civilization with 
an independent Bohemia or an enlarged Rumania, 
but, on the contrary, an independent Himgarian na- 
tion or an enlarged Greece would add f rre.sLt\ y tn th e 
force s that make for goo d^ proyftmniCTt g^pf] p^^g- 
ress. An independent Ireland worked out on a 
Tanmiany model is not a pleasing prospect. A^ 
; free Poland, apart from its value as a buffer state, I 
V wo uld be actual ly a step back ward. Poland wa s ' 
once great , but the elements that mad e it so are i 
dead and gone, and to-day Poland is a geographi- 
cal expression and nothing more. | 

The prevailing lack oftnie r^e. rnnRrinnRnfiSg 

is probably due to the fact that every importan t 
nation in Europ e, as at prese nt 9rganizftd^ -yy^^h fTie 

sole exception nf tt^e Tbenan and f^^;^^n din avian 

states, possesses in large proportions representa- 
y Sves of at least two of U be fundamental European 
subspecies of man and of all manng f nf rr^iy^ |^fi- - 
twftfin ^hem. In France to-day, as in Caesar's 
Gaul, the three races divide the nation in almost 
equal proportions. 

Tn ti^^ fi?tiii^^ however, with an increased knowl- 
edge of the correct definition of true himian species 
and types, and with a recognition of the immuta- 
bility of fundamental racial characters, and of the 
results of mixed breeding, far more value will b e 
attached to racial in contrast to national or iin - 
gutStic afenities. In marital relations the con- 


sciousness of race will also play a much laiger part 
than at present, although in t he so cial sphere we 
shall have to con tend with a certain^tnSg elrttrac- 

When it becomes 

:ion foT contrasted types, wnen it oecomes tnor- 
oughly understood tha t the rhilHrpn of tj^jtpA m^r- 

jz-pg hplnnor fn fhpt loWCr 

riages between contraste< 

type^ ^&e importance of transmitting in imim ^ 
^ pau-ed purity the blood inheritance of ages wilt b e 
a ppreciated at its full value, and t o bring half - 
breeds into the world will be regarded as a s ocial 
and racial crime of the first magnitud e. The laws A 

/v. against miscegenation must be greatly extended !^ 

/ ^ ij^ the higher races are 

v,—^ The language that a man speaks may be noth- 

ing more than evidence that at some time in the 
past his race has been in contact, either as con- 
queror or as conquered, with the original posses- 
sors of such language. One has only to consider 
the spread of the language of Rome over the vast 
extent of her empire, to realize how few of those 
who to-day speak Romance languages derive any 
portion of their blood from the pure Latin stock, 
and the error of talking about a ''Latin race" be- 
comes evident. 

There is, however, such a thing as a large group 
of nations which have a mutual imderstanding and 
sympathy, based on the possession of a common 
or closely related group of languages and the cul- 
ture of which it is the mediiun. This group mayT>e 


called the ''Latin nations/' but never the ''Latin 


. . "Latin America" is a still greater misnomer 

/ as the great mass of the populations of South 

/ and Central America is not even European, and 

I still less "Latin," being overwhelmingly of Amef^ 

Indian blood. 

n the Teutonic group a large majority of those f 
who speak Teutonic languages, as the English, 
Flemings, Dutch, North Germans, and Scandina* 
vians, are descended from the Nordic race, ^d 
the dominant class in Europe is everywhere of 
bod. ' """"^ ""^ 


As to the so-caUed "Celtic race," the fantastic 
inapplicability of the term is at once apparent 
when we consider that those populations on the bor- 
ders of the Atlantic Ocean, who to-day speak Cel- 
tic dialects, are divided into three groups, each one 
showing in great purity the characters of one of the 
three entirely distinct human subspecies found in 
Europe. To class together the Breton peasant with 
his round Alpine skull; the little, long skull, brunet 
Welshman of the Mediterranean race, and the 
tall, blond, light eyed Scottish Highlander of pure 
Nordic race, in a single group labelled "Celtic," 
is obviously impossible. These peoples have nei- 
ther physical, " ^?n^^l "^^ mltnral rhararferistirs 

in common^ If one be "Celtic" blood the other 
two clearly are not. 


There was a people who were the original users 
of the Celtic language, and they formed the west- 
em vanguard of the Nordic race, which was spread 
all over central and western Europe, prior to the 
irruption of the Teutonic tribes. The descendants 
of these 'Xelts" must be sought to-day among 
those having the characters of the Nordic race and 
not elsewhere. 

In England the little, dark Mediterranean Welsh- 
man talks about being Celtic quite unconscious 
that he is the residuum of Pre-Nordic races of im- 
mense antiquity. If the Celts are Mediterranean 
in race, then they are absent from central Europe, 
and we must regard as 'Xelts'' all the Berbers 
and Egyptians, as well as many Persians and Hin- 

In France some enthusiasts regard the Breton 
of Alpine blood in the same light, and ignore his 
Asiatic origin. If these Alpine Bretons are " Celts '* 
then there is not in the British Isles any substantial 
trace of their blood, as roimd skulls are practically 
absent there, and aU the blond elements in England, 
Scotland, and Ireland must be attributed to the 
historic Teutonic invasions. Furthermore we must 
call all the continental Alpines ^Xelts," and must 
also include all Slavs, Armenians, and othe r brachy- 
cephs^of western Asia within that designation, 
whic h would be obviously grotesque. The fact 
tfiat the original Celts left behind their speech on 
the tongues of Mediterraneans in Wales, and of 


Alpines in Brittany, must not nuslead us, as it in- 
dicates nothing more than that Celtic speech ante- 
dates the Teutons in England and the Romans in 
France. We must once and for all time discard 
the name "Celt" for any existing race whatever, 
and speak only of "Celtic" language and culture. 

In Ireland the big, blond Nordic Danes, claim 
the honor of the name of "Celt," if honor it be, 
but the Irish are fully as Nordic as the EngUsh, 
the great mass of them being of Danish, Norse, and 
Anglo-Norman blood, in addition to earlier and Pre- 
Teutonic elements. We are all familiar with the 
blond and the bnmet type of Irishman. These 
represent precisely the same racial elements as 
those which enter into the composition of the 
English, namely, the tall Nordic blond and the 
little Mediterranean bnmet The Irish are conse- 
quently not entitled to independent national exis- 
tence on the ground of race, but if there is any 
ground for a political separation from England, it 
must rest, like that of Belgiimi, on religion, a 
basis for political combinatio ns now happily obso- 
lete in communities well advanced in culture. 

In the case of the so-called "Slavic race," there 
is much more unity between racial type and lan- 
guage. It is true that in most Slavic-speaking 
countries the predominant race is clearly Alpine, 
except perhaps in Russia where there is a very 
large substratum of Nordic type — ^the so-called Fin- 
nic element, which may be considered as Proto- 


Nordic. The objection which is made to the iden- 
tification of the Slavic race with the Alpine type 
rests chiefly on the fact that a very large portion 
of the Alpine race is German-speaking in Germany, 
Italian-speaking in Italy, and French-speaking in 
central France. Moreover, large portions of Ru- 
mania are of exactly the same racial complexion. 

Many of the Greeks are also Alpines; in fact, 
are little more than Byzantimzed Slavs. It was 
through the Byzantine Empire, that the Slavs first 
came in contact with the Mediterranean world, and 
through this Greek mediimi the Russians, the Ser- 
bians, the Rumanians, and the Bulgars received 
their Christianity. 

Situated on the eastern marches of Europe the 
Slavs were submerged diuiog long periods in the 
Middle Ages by Mongolian hordes, and we re "^ 

cherkfHJ in Hftvftln pment and warped in piltiiw. 

Definite traces r emain^ the blood of thf^ MtrnffoH 
3g^]^3t^ isglated and coi^act f ;rQu ps in sn iifK Pii<igia^ 
and scattered throughout the whole country as far 

west as the Ciennan boundary ._ J3ie high tide of 
the Mongol invasion was during the thirteenth 
century. Tb"ee hundred years later the fjeat Mus- 
covit e expamion began, fi rst over the steppes to 
'^el^^, and then across Siberian timdras and 
forests to the waters of the Pacific, taking up in its 
^cou rse much M ongolian blood, espeoa iiy auri ng 

the i*Ar1v RtAg^ of its fl/lva^nrp 


The term '' Caucasian race'' has ceased to have 
any meanmg except where it is used, in the 
United States, to contrast white populations with 
negroes or Indians, or, in the Old World, with Mon- 
gols. I tis, however, a convenient term to include 
[th e three European su hsperies when mnsidered as 
Thvisions of one of t he primary branches or sub - 
,ggj^g^9f iti?:!^^^ At best it is a ciunbersome 
and archaic designation. The name '^ Caucasian" 
arose a century ago from a false assumption that 
the cradle of the blond Europeans was in the Cau- 
casus, where there are now found no traces of any 
such race, except a small and decreasing minority 
of blond traits among the Ossetes, a tribe whose 
Aryan speech is related to that of the Armenians, 
and who, while mainly brachycephalic, stiU retain 
some blond and dolichocephalic elements which are 
apparently fading fast. The Ossetes have now 
about thirty per cent fair eyes and ten per cent fair 
hair. They are supposed to be, to some extent, a 
remnant of the Alans, a Teutonic tribe closely 
related to the Goths. Both Alans and Goths very 
early in our era occupied southern Russia, and were 
the latest known Nordics in the vicinity of the 
Caucasus Mountains. If these Ossetes are not 
partly of Alan origin they may possibly represent 
the last lingering trace of early Scythian dolicho- 
cephalic blondness. 

The phrase '^ Indo-European race" is also of little 


use. If it has any meaning at all it must include 
all the three European races as well as members 
of the Mediterranean race in Persia and India. 
The use of this name also involves a false assump- 
tion of blood relationship between the main Euro- 
pean populations and the Hindus, because of their 
possession in common of Aryan speech. 

The name "Aryan race" must also be frankly dis- 
carded as a term of racial significance. It is to-day 
purely linguistic, although there was at one time, 
of course, an identity between the original Aryan 
mother tongue and the race that first spoke and 
developed it. In short there is not now, and there 
never was either a Caucasian or an Indo-European 
race, but there was once, thousands of years ago, an 
Aryan race now long since vanished into dim mem- 
ories of the past. If used in a racial sense other 
than as above it should be limited to the Nordic 
invaders of Hindustan now long extinct. The great 
lapse of time since the disappearance of the an- 
cient Aryan race as such, is measured by the ex- 
treme disintegration of the various groups of Aryan 
languages. These linguistic divergences are chiefly 
due to the imposition by conquest of Aryan speech 
upon several imrelated subspecies of man through- 
out western Asia and Europe. 


When a country is invaded and conquered by a 
race speaking a foreign language, one of several 
things may happen, replacement of both popu- 
lation and language, as in the case of eastern 
England when conquered by the Saxons; or adop- 
tion of the language of the victors by the natives, 
as happened in Roman Gaul, where the invaders 
imposed their Latin tongue throughout the land, 
without substantially altering the race. 

In England and Scotland later conquerors, 
Danes and Normans, failed to change the Saxon 
speech of the country, and in Gaul the German 
tongue of the Franks, Burgimdians, and Northmen 
could not displace the language of Rome. 

Autochthonous inhabitants frequently impose 
upon their invaders their own language and cus- 
toms. In Normandy the conquering Norse pi- 
rates accepted the language, religion, and customs 
of the natives, and in a century they vanish from 
history as Scandinavian heathen and appear as the 
foremost representatives of the speech and religion 
of Rome. 

In Hindustan the blond Nordic invaders forced 



their Aryan language on the aborigines, but their ^ 
blood was quickly and utterly absorbed in the 
darker strains of the original owners of the land. 
A record of the desperate efforts of the conquering 
upper classes in India to preserve the purity of 
their blood persists until this very day in their care- 
fully regulated system of castes. In o&r Southern 
States Tim Crow cars and social3iscrmliMti?^s 
ha-^-HacHy'aila^ purposglnd justmcatim . 
' The Hindu to-day speaks a very ancient form of 
Aryan language, but there remains not one recog- 
nizable trace of the blood of the white conquerors 
who poured in through the passes of the North- 
west. The boast of the modem Indian that he is 
of the same race as his English ruler, is entirely 
without basis in fact, and the little dark native 
lives amid the monuments of a departed grandeur, 
professing the religion and speaking the tongue of 
his long forgotten Nordic conquerors, without the 
slightest claim to blood kinship. The dim and un- 
certain traces of Nordic blood in northern India 
only serve to emphasize the utter swamping of the 
white man in the burning South. 

The power of racial resistance of a dense and 
thoroughly acclimated population to an incoming 
army, is very great. No ethnic conquest can be 
complete imless the natives are exterminated and 
the invaders bring their own women with them. 
If the conquerors are obliged to depend upon the 
women of the vanquished to carry on the race, 




the intrusive blood strain jp a^ iihnrt timp h(^(;^|y^f>Q 

^ diluted beyondLr gcognkion: 

It sometimes happens that an infiltration of pop- 
ulation takes place either in the guise of imwilling 
^ . slaves, or of willinpr in^migrantQ^ filling up waste 
^places and taking to the lowly tasks which the 

the land despise, gradually o^ J^^yinpr t]if> 
country and literally breeHi nyy f^nf ths>\r fpiTner 


masters . 

The former catastrophe happened in the declin- 
ing days of Rome, and the south Italians of to-day 
are very largely descendants of nondescript slaves 
of all races, chiefly from the southern and eastern 
coasts of the Mediterranean, who were imported 
by the Romans imder the Empire to work their 
vast estates. The latter is occurring to-day in m; 
arts of America. esperiRlly i" i^^y{ England. ' 
The eastern half of Germany has a Slavic Al- 
pine substratum which now represents the de- 
scendants of the Wends, who by the sixth century 
had filtered in as far west as the Elbe, occup}dng 
the lands left vacant by the Teutonic tribes which 
had migrated southward. These Wends in turn 
were Teutonized by a return wave of military con- 
quest from the tenth century onward, and to-day 
their descendants are considered Germans in good 
standing. Having adopted the German as their 
sole tongue they are now in religious, political, and 
cultural sympathy with the pure Teutons; in fact, 
they are quite unconscious of any racial distinction. 


This historic fact underlies the ferocious contro- 
versy which has been raised over the ethnic origin 
of the Prussians^ the issue being whether the popu- 
lations in Brandenburg, Silesia, Posen, and other 
districts in eastern Germany, are Alpine We nds or 
true N ordic Germans. The truth is that the/dom^J ^ 
jnantyhalf of the population is purel y Teutonic 
nnd thr/lfTTffr halPnf thg P"P"^^^'on ar^ nn^«>iy 

Teutonized Wends and Poles of Alpine a.ffi n]fifH;. 

Of course these territones must also retain some 
of their early Teutonic population, and the blood 
of the Goth, Burgund, Vandal^ and Lombard, who 
were at the commencement of our era located 
there, as well as the later Saxon element, must 
enter largely into the composition of the Prussian 
of to-day. 

The most important conununities in continental 
Eiu-ope of piure German type are to be found in 
old Saxony, the coimtry around Hanover, and this 
element prevails generally in the northwestern part 
of the German Empire among the Low Dutch- 
speaking population, while the I£gh German-speak- 
ing population is largely composed of Teutonized 

All the state s involved in the present world war 
Anvn o nwf »ft fi > ^ f^^j ^ ^ v^^£r fighting Nfl gdiG-^le- 
ment, an H thp, ]n< ^ of life n ow pninpr ^ jn Euro pe 
wjll^fall m^rh r\^r^ \i^^v}]y on the blo nd giant than 
on the little brunet ' 



As in all wars since Roman times, from a breeding , 
point of view, the little dark man is the final win- / 
ner. No one who saw one of our regiments march / 
on its way to the Spanish War could fail to be im- ' 
pressed with the size and blondness of the men in ; 
the ranks as contrasted with the complacent citi- \ 
zen, who from his safe stand on the gutter curb 
gave his applause to the fighting man, and then^«s 
stayed home to perpetuate his own bnmet type. ' 

This same Nordic element, ^yer^where the Jype 
of the sailor, th e sol dier, t he_adventurer, and the 
loneer, was^ye r the t ype to migrate to new coun- 
nes, until th e ease of tra nsportation and tiie de- 
ire to escape military service m thelast forty years 
fevef ^ftd t he immigrant tide! In consequence of 
this change our immigrants now l argely represent 
( jQwP^refugees fr o m '^per secution'' agd ^other social ^ 

In most c ases the bloo d of pi oneers has b een lost^ 
to their race . They did not take their women with 
them. They either died childless or left half- 
breeds behind them. The virile blood of the Span- 
ish conquistadores, who are now little more than a 
memory in Central and South America, died out 
from these causes. 

This was also true in the e arly days of our 
Western frontiersmen, who individually were a far 
finer type than the settlers who followed them. 



For reasons already se t forth there are few com- 
munit ies outside of Exirope of pure European blood. 
The racial destiny of Mexico and of the islands and 
coasts of the Spanish Main is clear. The wh it 
is bei ng rapidly br ed out by n^grn^ on rtip iRlg»|Hg 

rv Indians on the ma inland. It is quite evi- A 
dent that the West Indies, the coast region of our * 
Gulf States, and perhaps the black belt of the lower J 
Mississippi Valley, must be abandoned to negroes. 
This transformation is already complete in Haiti, 
and is going rapidly forward in Cuba and Jamaica. 
Mexico and the northern part of South America^ 
must also be given over to native Indians wit 
an ever thinning veneer of white cultiure of Ae 
"Latin" type. 

In Venezuela the pure whites mmiber about one 
per cent of the whole population, the balance being 
Indians and various crosses between Indians, ne- 
groes, and whites. In Jamaica the whites number 
not more than two per cent, while the remainder are 
negroes or mulattoes. In Mexico the proportion 
is larger, but the immixed whites number not 
niore than twenty per cent of the whole, the others 



being Indians pure or mixed. These latter are the 
'^ greasers" of the American frontiersman. 
Whenev *^r tlift iprpntivA fn imiffltfi {he dom inant 

race is removed, the negro, or for tli^t mp^^^^^j 
t]hgjrn(^iAn^ "^v^rti? ghnrtly to his an cestral jgade^ 
of culture. In other words, it is the individual 
and not the.racetEaf lis affected Dy religion, educa- 
tion, and- e2Eample. Negroes have demonstrated ^ 
throughout recorded timft thj^t thfty ^ ^^ a station- 
ary species^ and that they do no^ possegsthe poten- 

fiMfY n{ prnprri><y; or initiatjy e from w ithin. Prog- 

rress from self-impidse must not be confounded with 
\ mimicry or with progress imposed from without by 
^social pressure, or by the slavers' lash. 

Where two distinct species are located side by side 



istory and biology teach that but one of two thinj 
__ la ppen; either one race drives the 0I 
the Americans exterminated the Indians, or as the 
negroes are now replacing the whites in various 
arts of the South; g^lse they amalgamate and^ 
form a population of race basiards m w hich me 
lower type ultimately prepo nderates. This Is" a 
/ disagreeable alternative with which to confront 
sentimentalists, but nature is only concerned with 
results and neither makes nor takes excuses. The 
;hief failing ofjiifijday with some of our well mean- 
ingphiiantnropists is their a bsolute r efusal to face 
[^table facts , if suc h facts appear cruel. 
In Argentme and south Brazil white Blood of the 


various European races is pouring in so rapidly that 
a community preponderantly white, but of the 
Mediterranean type, may grow up, but such lim- 
ited opportunities as the writer has had to observe 
Argentine types leads him to question the proba- 
bility of such a result even there. 

In Asia, with the sole exception of the Russian 
settlements in Siberia, there can be and will be no 
ethnic conquest, and all the white men in India, 
the East Indies, the Philippines, and China wiU 
leave not the slightest trace behind them in the 
blood of the native population. After several cen- 
turies of contact and settlement the pure Spanish 
in the PhiUppines are about half of one per cent. 
The Dutch in their East Indian islands are even 
less; while the resident whites in Hindustan amount 
to about one-tenth of one per cent. ^ Such ni 
re infinitesimal and of no force in a democracy, 
but in a monarchy, if kept free from contamination^ 

they suffice for a ruling caste or a mi l itary aristoc- 
racy. . 

Australia and New Zealand, where the natives 
have been exterminated by the whites, are develop- 
ing into conmiunities of pure Nordic blood, and 

will for that reason play a large part in the future 
istory of the Pacific>^ The bitter opposition of the 
Australians and Califomians to the admission of 
Chinese roQli^and Japan ge f anng ys is due pri- 
rily to a blin3n5ut nhnnliitrly jufitififid detf^i 


nation to keep those lands as wMtej^Ln^fezfiaiM^X 


In Africa, south of the Sahara, the density of the 

native population will prevent the establishment 

of any purely white communities, except at the 

southern extremity of the continent and possibly 

.^on portions of the plateaux of eastern Africa. 

jAl^ejto^ a p ;. of ff^,n)ines and wars and the abo- 

jY litio n of the. "' — '^ 4.-^^^ -..i.,!^ j:^4-.4.^j v„ 4.u^ 

^^^"SoKIest i mpulses of humanitv. are suicidal to the 

TTpnn f}\^ Jg?"^^Ya^ ^^ t^^^^ Jiatura^ 
checks negroes mu ltiply so rapidly that there will 
BStbe standingjoom on t he continent for white 
men, imless, perchanceTthe lethaJdegpiTig siVlg^r^esj^ 
far more fatal to blacks than to whites, should run 
its course unchecked. 

In South Africa a community of Dutch and Eng- 
lish extraction is developing. Here the only dif- 
ference is one of language. English, being a world 
tongue, will inevitably prevail over the Dutch pa- 
tois called "Taal." This Frisian dialect, as a mat- 
ter of fact, is closer to old Saxon, or rather Kentish, 
than any living continental tongue, an d the blood 
of the North Hollan der is extremely close to tha t, 
of the Anglo-Saxon of England. The English and 
tjie Dutch will merge in a common'''Q^ 

they (^iH fyfQ WnHreH 

^^^ew Yorl^. TheymuS 

years ago in the co lgMLJof 

ler if they are 

to maintain any part of Africa as a white man^s 


country, because they are confronted with the 
menace of a large black Bantu population which 
will drive out the whites unless the problem is 
bravely faced. 

'1]hfi_fm1y posHible OTlutiop is tf > establi sh large 
colonies /pr_the Ji Pcr o e n and to allow th e m outside 
of them only as laborers, and not as settlers. There 
Tnusf be ultimate^ a black Sout h Africa and a 
wfaitg^ 'South Africa, side by o idc y .or "else a pun 
bladt: Africajr om the Cape to the cataracts of the 

In up per Canada, as in the United States up to 
the time of our Civil W a r, the white populati(S 
was purely Nordic. The rinminirfcn iq^ nf rtMin^ 

alg ^'^e prese nce of an indigestible 
ma^ of French-Canadians, largely from Brittany 
ai^ of Alpine origin^ although the habitant p atois 
is a n archai c Norman of the time of Louis XIV. 
These Frenchmen were granted freedom of lan- 
guq ge and religion by their conquerors, and are 
now using these pnvileges totprm-wparatist groups 
m antagonism to the English populauonT JThe 
Qu ebec l* ren cnmen will succeed in seriously im- 
peding theprogress ol Canada and will succeed" 
^ ven better in keepin g themselves a poor and 
i gnorant community of little more importa nce to 
the world at large than are the negrgesjn ^e South. 
■THe selfiflhaess of the Quebec Frenchmen is mea^" 
sured by the fact that in the present war they 


will not fight for the British Empire, or for France, 
or even for clerical Belgium, and they are now 
endeavoring to make use of the m iiitarpcrisis To 
secure a fufl£ef~extension ot their "nationalistic 

Personally the writer beUeves that the finest and 
purest type of a Nordic commimity outside of Eu- , 
rope will develop in northwest Canada. Most 
of the other countries in which the Nordic race is 
now settling lie outside of the special environment 
in which alone it can flourish. 

The negroes of tlif TTnitpH ^^^^.t.fis, vahUt^ station- 7^ 
Sfe'nota serious drag on civilization until]^ / 
i ndie last Centuiy , they were given the ri ghts of cj^ ^ / 
zenship and were incorporated in the body pohtic/^ 

ese negroes brought with them no language or 
religion or customs of their own which persisted, 
but adopted all these elements of environment 
from the dominant race^ takingjjia- n a me s ofj^heir 
masters just as to-day the German and Polish Je ws 
ai::e_assumdng_Anaerican-j^^ They came for 
the most part from the coasts of the Bight of 
Benin, but some of the later ones came from the 
southeast coast of Africa by way of Zanzibar. 
They were of various black tribes, but have been 
from the beginning saturated with white blood. 
/Looking at any group of negroes in America, it is 
easy to., see that while they are all essentially ne- 
groes, whether coal black, brown, or yellow, the 


great majority of them have varying amounts of 
Nordic blood in them, which has modified their 
physical structure without transforming them in 
any way into white men. This miscegenation was, 

of course, a frigjit ful disgrace to the dominan t" 
TBcCj b ut its effect on the Nordics has been negligi- 
ble, for' the simple reason was confined to 
white men crossing with negro women, and not the 
fevBTse^rocess, which would, of course, hav e re- 
-suited i n thelnRisioi rofTIegro blood into the Ameri- 
can stock. 

le United States of America must be regarded 
racially as a European colony, and owing to cur- 
rent ignorance of the physical bases of race, one 
often hears the statement made that native Amer- 
icans of Colonial ancestry are of mixed ethnic 
origin r Tl^s is not true . At the time of the Rev- 
olutionary War the settlers in the thirteen Colonies 
were not only purely N ^rd^i h\it alse r"^\y ^^"- 
t onic, a very larg e majority being Anglo-Saxon 

in the most limited meaning ot that termT The 

ew England settlers in particular came from 

j^ those-^ coimties of Engir d where the blood w 

^ a lmost purely Saxon, Anglian, and Dane. 

/ New England, during Colonial times and lo 

A |\ afterward, was far more Teutonic than old Eng- 

/ vjland; that is, it contained a smaller percentage of 

Y small, Pre-Nordic bnmets. Any one familiar with 

^^ the native New Englander knows the clean cut face, 



the high stature and the prevalence of gray and blue 
eyes and light brown hair, and recognizes that the 
brunet element is less noticeable there than in the 

The Southe rn States were populated also by 
fehglishmen of the purest Nordic type, but there is 
to-day, except among the mountains, an appreci- 
ably larger amount of brunet t ypes than in the 
Nortbr. Virginia is in the same latitude as North 
Africa, and south of this line no blonds have ever 
been able to survive in full vigor,~chiefly t)ecause 
the actinic rays of the sim are the same regardless 
of other climatic conditions. These rays beat 
heavily on the Nordic race ajod-disturb their ner- 
vaus systeiEU wherev e r t he white m an v entures too 
far fro m the cold and foggy North . 

elements*, the Hollai 

wno came over m 
small numbers TxTT^ew York and Pennsylvania, 

^gTf als^ purely Tput^ni^j while the French Hugue- 

♦ — 

nots who escaped to America were drawn much 
more largely, from the NorcHc_thanjroi5rt£e^ A^^ 
or Mediterranean olemento <)£Jjance. Thg^Scotch- 
Irish ^ wliQwgr<> numerous on_the-fcQiitier-of-the 

middle Colonies were, of course, of pure Scotch and^ 

|^^|]]ttood, d[^^^^ t^ie^TiadJresidedJn^ 
land two^oTtEree generatira§r''Tlieywere quite< 
\ free from admixture with the earlier Irish from I 
whom they were cut oflf socially by bitter religious ^ 


j^T^ta^gnnism^ ^d the y are 

be considi 

in any sense. 

) There was no important immigration of other 
^^n^feJements until the middle of the nineteenth cen^ 
: Mtury, when Irish Catholic and Germ an immigrants, 
appear for the first time upon the scene. 

The Nordic blood was kept pure in the Colonies, 

because at that time among Protestanl~peoples 

there was a strong race feeling, as a result of which 

j^ I half-breeds between the white man and any native 


typ e were re ga rded as natives " andnot^ as white 
V jien.~ T 

Ther^, was plenty of mixture with t he negroes as 
the light color of most negroes abundantly testifies, 
but these mulattoes, quadroons, or octoroons y^^xe 
then and arftnnw iiT]iv^rf^^^ll y regarded ^as 

* There was also abundant cross breeding along 
the frontiers between the white frontiersman and 
the Indian squaw, but _^g .haJfj^r eed was eve ry-] 
wherejcegaided as a member of the inferior race. 

In the Catholic colonies, however, of 
and New Spain, if the half-breed w^"" ^ g^^^ 
CathoBc he^was regsuded as a-^Frenchman^^r a 
Spaniard, as the case might Jbe. This fact alone 
giv^ the clew to many of our colonial wars where 
the Indians, other than the Iroquois, were per- 
suaded to join the French against the Americans 
by half-breeds who considered themselves French- 
men. The Church of Rome has everywhere used 


its influence to break down racial distinctions. It 
disregards origins and only requires obedience to 
the mandates of the universal church. In that lies 
the secret of the opposition of Rome to all national 
movements. It is the imperial as contrasted with 
the nationalistic ideal, and .in that respect the in- 
heritance is direct from the Empire. 
Race consciousne ss jn the Colonies and _in _the 
nited States, down to and includinglhe Mexican 
ar, seems^to have been very gtrpngly H^vplnppd 

among native Americans, and it still remains in full 

vig or to-day in the Sou^ w here the presence of a 
large negro population forces this question upon, the 

daily attention of the. whites. 

- « 

In New England, however, whether through the 

ecline o fCaTvinism ui the giovVtE^of^altruismj 

-feh^re appeare^Teaflv in Th e^ a wave of 

si>ntimpntaITsrqJ2yhich at that time took up the 


cause of the negro, ^d In so d oing apparently de- 
stroyed, to a large extent, prid e^^gd ^r^n^irkumt^o. 
of race in the North . The agitation over slav e 
was inimicaLto-^he' N ordic race, bocauDo it thrust 
all national opposition to the .intrusion of 
[rdgg of "immigrants of inferior racial value, and 
prevente f^ ^hfl ^'""ff ^^ ^ /ipfim'to AmArfpftp ^yp^ 
such as lyas ^lea^rl y nppi^flrinc in thr middir nf ^hff 

Civil War was fought almost enti rely by 
unalloyeS" native Americans! The German and 



Irish immigrants were at that time confined to a 
few States, and were chiefly mere day laborers and 
of no social importance. They played no part 
whatever in the development or policies of the na* 
tion, although in the war they contributed a cer- 
tain number of soldiers to the Northern armies. 
These Irish and German elements were of No rdic 
race^ and while the y did not in the least strengtEen 
the nation either morally or intellectually, they d id 

There has been little or no Indian blood taken 
into the veins of the native American, except in 
States like Oklahoma and in some isolated families 
scattered here and there in the Northwest. This 
particular mixture will play no very important r61e 
in future combinations of race on this continent, 
except in the north of Canada. 

The native American has always f oimd, and finds 
now, in the black men, willing followers who ask 
only to obey and to further the ideals and wishes 
of the master race, without trying to inject into the 
body politic their own views, whether racial, re- 
ligious, or social. ^NgQiofs arg nfvpr^sftnalists or 
labor-imioaists, a nd as long as the 4pminj 
posesjts will cai ^e se rvient race^ ^id as long as 
they re main in thesame relation to the whites a s in 
the past, the negroes will be a valuable element m 
the commimity, but once raised to social eq uality^ 
their influence will be destructive to ttiemselv^ 

and to the whites . If the pxirity of the two races 

is to be maintained^ thpy rfl^nnnt rontmiifi fn Hw 

side by side, and this is a proble m from which ther e 

can be no escape. 

' J JChe^native American by the middle of the nine- ^A 
^^Scenth_cg ntury was ra^ dly becoming a distinct/^ 
jype. Derived from the Teutonic part of the Brit - 
ish Isles, and being almost pu rely Nordic, he was 
on the point of developing physical peculiarities 
of his own, slightly variant from those of his Eng- 
lish forefathers, and corresponding rather with the | 
idealistic Elizabethan than with the materialistic "N 
overian Englishman. The Civil War, however J^ ) 
put a severe, perh^ s f ataf, check to thfe develop!^ J 
ment and expan^on^of H ns s plen fliH Tj^i^j by ^^''X'^k 
^strovm g great numbers of the best breeding stock^ J 
on both si des, and by breaking iipthe home ties 
of naany mo re._If the war ^^^ "^^ nmim 

e men with their d esH^f n^^^t s would have po pu- 
lated the Western States instead of the racial non-~ 

escripts who ar e now flockin g there. 

The prosperity that fo Uovged. the war attracted 
hordes of nAwrf^mp^ w^^ i^irfirft. w^rnmpH by the^^Jj^ 
hative^ Soericans to operate factories, biuld_rail- ^^ 
joa^T^djll up the w ast e spa ces— ^^ developing 

t he country" it w as called. 
These new i 

re no longer exclusively 

members of the Nordic race as were the earlier ones 
who came of their own imptilse to improve their 


social conditions. The transportationjines adver- *\ 
tised America as a l^iiT flowing with milk and 
honey, and the Europea n governments took the 
opportimity to iinload upon careles s, wealthy, and 
hospitable America the sweepingsof their jails and 
asylums- The result was that the new unmij 

tion, while it still included many strong elemen ts 
from the n orth of Europe, contained a lary and 
incr^ising number of the weak, the broken, and th 

mentally crippled of all races drawn from the log 
strat um of the Mediterranean basin and 

ith hordes of the wretched. 

merged popiJations of the Po lish Ghettos. 
WiUi a pathetic and fatuous belief in the efficacy 


of American institutions 

[^fonment to re- 

verse Ijrnobhierate Immemorial hereditary tenden-. 

ies, these newro aacrsj gere wel com ed and given a 

are in 01 

land arid prosperity. The American 
t axed himself to s ^tat e and educate these p oor 
fielot s, and as soon as they £ edL Engli sh, 

enroura ggd thern to ^ ntgr into the political Efe, 
St of 

e nat ion. 
'I^^p'y^ilt ^° show^'^ff pH^'^^y in the rapid decline 

in the birth rate of native Americans because the 

poorer classes of Colonial stock, where they still 
exist, will not bring children into the world to com- 
petgjn jhe labor market with the Slovak, t he Ital- 
i an, the S yrian, sij^ t\\^ J?w Th^ niS^^^Y^^ "^ftri^ 
can is too proud to mix socially witluthem* and^is 

gradually withdrawing from the scene, abandon- 



ing to these aliens th e l and which he conquered and ; 

^vel^ ed. The_naM^ of the oW_stock. is being 
crowded out of many country.jdistricts by these 
foreigners^ justas he is to-da y being literally driven 
o ff the streetsQ fJjfiBL-York^X^y by the swarms of 

/polish JewR- These immigrants adopt the lan- 
guage of the native American; they wear his 
clothes; they steal his name; and they are begin- 

/ning to take his women, l^t they seldom adopt 

^s rehfflo n or understand his ideals , and while he 
Is being elbowed out of his own home the American 

^ looks calmly abroad and urgfes on others th e sui* 
^ cidal ethics which_a re exter^na tii^g his_^ 

As to what the f uture mixture will be it is evi- 

dent that 

JYf AmA riran wiJl^ entirely dis appoar? He will no t 
intermarry with^inferior races /q"^ ^^ ^an^^^ mm- 
pete in the sweat shop and in the street tren ch with 
th e ne wcom ers. Large cities from the days of 
Rome, Alexandria, and Byzantium have always 
been gathering points of diverse races, but New 
York is becoming a cloaca zentiu m which will pro- 
duce many afflgztng rad^ h yb nds and some ethnic 
^^gojors that wil l be beyond the powers of future 
anthropologists to unravel. 

Ihin^ IS certam: m any such mixture, the 
^survivinTtSte ^-iSg determined" by com petiti5ii 

(etvyeen the lowest and most primitive element s 
the specialized traits of N ordic man; h is 

ttatu re, his light colored eyes, his fair skin and 


blond hair, his straight nc^ , and his splendidfigbt- 

jng and moral qnalities,j yiirhii^'^ ""'** partin t^^ 
resultant mixture. 


^ The "survival oLthfcJ&tt ^t" n^ n s the s urvival 
of the type b est adap ti*d ^r^ e xisting conditions.^ 
en vironment , to-day the tenement and facto ry, ask<2 

- — — — — ^— — ^ ^1 — — ^-Jc^v 

in Colonial times^Eey^ were_t±ie_d(^^ of for-p^^"^ 
ests, fighting '^'^^j^s^ farming tlio fi#>lHc^ ary^ sailing 

tEe Seven Seas. From the point of v iew of race it 
were better 

as the "survival of the unfit" 

This review of the colonies of Europe would be 
ouraging were it not that thus far littie atten- 
tion has been paid to the suitability of a new coun- 
try for the particular colonists who migrate there. 
The process of sending out colonists is as old as 
mankind itself, and probably in the last analsrsis 
most of the chief races of the world, certainly most 
of the inhabitants of Europe, represent the de- 
scendants of successful colonists. 

Success in colonization depends on the selection 
of new lands and climatic conditions in harmony 
with the inmiemorial requirements of the incoming 
race. The adjustment of each race to its own pecu- 

liar hab itat is based on thousands of years of rigid 

selection'*which raf fP^^ ^ gaMy ifrpgft^ \^r^ 

taj aJsolation and freedom from competition with 
other races, fo r some centuries at least, is adso im- 
portant ^ so that the colo nists may beco me habitu- 
ated to their new surroimdings. 





Before considering the living populations of 
Europei we must give consideration to the extinct 
peoples that preceded them. 

The science of anthropology is very recent — ^in 
its present form less than fifty years old — but it has 
already revolutionized our knowledge of the past 
and extended prehistory so that it is now measured 
not by thousands but by tens of thousands of 

The history of man prior to the period of metals 
has been divided into ten or more subdivisions, 
many of them longer than the time covered by 
written records. Man has struggled up through 
the ages, to revert again and again into sav- 
agery and barbarism, but apparently retaining 
each time something gained by the travail of his 

So long as there is in the world a freely breeding 

stock or race that has in it an inherent capacity for 

development and growth, mankind will continue 

to ascend until, possibly through the selection and 

regulation of breeding as intelligently applied as 

in the case of domestic animals, he will control his 



own destiny and attain moral heights as yet un- 

The impulse upward, however, is supplied by a 
very small number of nations, and by a very small 
portion of the population in such nations. The 
section of any community that produces leaders or 
genius of any sort is only a minute percentage. 
To invent new processes, to establish new princi- 
ples, to elucidate and unravel the laws of nature, 
calls for genius. To imitate or to adopt what 
others have invented is not genius but mimicry. 
. This something which we call '^genius" is not a 
Xj^ matter ^ family, but of stock ot 

prh fftS^^Tbl precfa ftly ^^g ^^^ manni^r 

purdv Dhvsical characters. It ma^ 
t|iroii^]l gAVAffl] generations of 6bscurit 
flare up when the opportimity comes, 
have mady fiMLMples in Am ericaT 
education or opportunity does for a commun ity; it 
_ ^EHniLs in thc&e iafe""cases fair play for de velop- 
ment , but it is race, always race, that produces 

This genius producing type is slow breeding, and 
feere is real danger of its los s to mankind. Some 
idea of the value of these^ small strains can be 
gained from the recent statistics which demonstrate 
that Massachusetts produces more than fifty times 
as much genius per hundred thousand wlfdtes as does 
Georgia, Alabama, or Mississippi, although appar- 



ently the race, religion, and environment, other than 
climatic conditions, are much the same, except for 
the numbing presence in the South of a large sta- 
tionary negro population. 

The more thorough the study of European pre- 
history becomes, the more we realize how many 
advances of culture have been made and then lost. 
Our parents were accustomed to regard the over- 
throw of ancient civilization in the Dark Ages as 
the greatest catastrophe of mankind, but we now 
know that the classic period of Greece was pre- 
ceded by similar dark ages caused by the Dorian 
invasions, which overthrew the Homeric-Myce- 
naean culture, which in its turn had flourished after 
the destruction of its parent, the Minoan culture 
of Crete. Still earlier, some twelve thousand years 
ago, the Azilian period of poverty and retrogres- 
sion succeeded the wonderful achievements of the 
hunter-artists of the Upper Paleolithic. 

The progress of civilization becomes evident only 
when immense periods are studied and compared, 
but the lesson is always the same, namely, that 
race is everything. Without race there can be 
nothing except the slave wearing his master's 
clothes, stealing his master's proud name, adopt- 
ing his master's tongue, and living in the crumbling 
ruins of his master's palace. Everywhere on the 
sites of ancient civilization the Turk, the Kurd, and 
the Bedouin camp; and Americans might well 


pause and consider the fate of this country which 
they, and they alone, founded and nourished with 
their blood. The inunigrant ditch diggers and the 
railroad navvies were to our fathers what their 
slaves were to the Romans, and the same transfer 
of political power from master to servant is taking 
place to-day. 

Man's place of origin was undoubtedly Asia. 
Europe is only a peninsula of the Eurasiatic conti- 
nent, and although the extent of its land area 
during the Pleistocene was much greater than 
at present, it is certain, from the distribution of 
the various species of man, that the main races 
evolved in Asia long before the centre of that 
continent was reduced to deserts by progressive 

Evidence of the location of the early evolution 
of man in Asia and the geologically recent sub- 
merged area toward the southeast is afforded by 
the fossil deposits in the Siwalik hiUs of northern 
India, where have been found the remains of pri- 
mates which were either ancestral or closely re- 
lated to the four genera of living anthropoids; and 
by the discovery in Java, which in Pliocene times 
was connected with the mainland over what is 
now the South China Sea, of the earliest known 
form of erect primate, the Pithecanthropus. This 
apelike man is practically the '^missing link," being 
intermediate between man and the anthropoids. 



Pithecanthropus is generally believed to have been 
contemporary with the Giinz glaciation of some 
500,000 years ago, the first of the four great glacial 
advances in Europe. 

One or two forms of fossil anthropoid apes have 
been discovered in the Miocene of Europe which 
may possibly have been remotely related to the 
ancestors of man, but when the archaeological ex- 
ploration of Asia shall be as complete and inten- 
sive as that of Europe, it is probable that more 
forms of fossil anthropoids and new species of man 
will be found there. 

Man existed in Europe during the second and 
third interglacial periods, if not earlier. We have 
his artifacts in the form of eoliths, at least as early 
as the second interglacial stage, the Mindel-Riss, 
of some 300,000 years ago. A single jaw foimd near 
Heidelberg is referred to this period and is the 
earliest skeletal evidence of man in Europe. From 
certain remarkable characters In this jaw, it has 
been assigned to a new species. Homo heiddber- 

Then follows a long period of scanty industrial 
relics and no known skeletal remains. Man was 
slowly and painfully struggling up from an eolithic 
culture phase, where chance flints served his tem- 
porary purpose. This in turn was succeeded by a 
stage of human development where slight chipping 
and retouching of flints for man's increasing needs 


led, after vast intervals of time, to the deliberate 
manuf actiire of tools. This period is known as the 
Eolithic, and is necessarily extremely hazy and un- 
certain. Whether or not certain chipped or broken 
flints, called eoliths, or dawn stones, were really 
hiunan artifacts or were the products of natural 
forces is really immaterial because man must have 
passed through such an eolithic stage. 

The further back we go toward the conmience- 
ment of such an eolithic cultiure, the more and more 
unrecognizable the flints necessarily become until 
they finally cannot be distinguished from natural 
stone fragments, because at the beginning the earli- 
est man merely picked up a convenient stone, used 
it once and flung it away, precisely as an anthro- 
poid ape wotdd act to-day if he wanted to break in 
the shell of a tortoise or crack an ostrich egg. 

Man must have experienced the following phases 
of development in the transition from the prehu- 
man to the hiunan stage: first, the utilization of 
chance stones and sticks; second, the casual adap- 
tation of flints by a minimum amoimt of chipping; 
third, the deliberate manufacture of the simplest 
implements from flint nodules; and fourth, the in- 
vention of new forms of weapons and tools in ever 
increasing variety. 

Of the last two stages we have an extensive and 
clear record. Of the second stage we have in the 
eoliths intermediate forms ranging from flints that 


are evidently results of natural causes to flints that 
are clearly artifacts. The first and earliest stage, 
of coiurse, could leave behind it no definite record 
and must always rest on hypothesis. 



With the deliberate manufacture of imple^ments 
from flint nodules, we enter the beginning of Paleo- 
lithic time, and from here on our way is relatively 
clear. The successive stages of the Paleolithic were 
of great length, but are each characterized by some 
improvement in the manufactxire of tools. Dur- 
ing long ages man was merely a tool making and 
tool using animal, and, after all is said, that is 
about as good a definition as we can find to-day 
for the primate we call human. 

The Paleolithic Period, or Old Stone Age, lasted 
from the somewhat indefinite termination of the 
Eolithic, some 150,000 years ago, to the Neolithic 
or New Stone Age, which began about 7,000 B. C. 

The Paleolithic falls naturally into three great 
subdivisions. The Lower Paleolithic includes the 
whole of the last interglacial stage with the sub- 
divisions of the Pre-Chellean, Chellean, and Acheu- 
lean; the Middle Paleolithic covers the whole of 
the last glaciation, and is co-extensive with the 
Mousterian Period and the dominance of the Nean- 
derthal species of man. The Upper Paleolithic 
covers all the postglacial stages down to the Neo- 
lithic, and includes the subdivisions of the Aurig- 


!■ J 


nacian, Solutrean, Magdalenian, and Azilian. Dur- 
ing the entire Upper Paleolithic, except the short 
closing phase, the Cro-Magnon race flourished. 

It is not until after the third severe period of 
great cold, known as the Riss glaciation, and until 
we enter, some 150,000 years ago, the third and 
last interglacial stage of temperate climate, known 
as the Riss-Wiirm, that we begin a definite and as- 
cending series of culture. The Pre-Chellean, Chel- 
lean and Acheulean divisions of the Lower Paleo- 
lithic occupied the whole of this warm or rather 
temperate interglacial phase, which lasted nearly 
100,000 years. 

A shattered skull, a jaw, and some teeth have 
been discovered recently in Sussex, England. These 
remains were all attributed to the same individual, 
who was named the PUtdown Man. Owing to the 
extraordinary thickness of the skull and the simian 
character of the jaw, a new genus, Eoanthropus^ 
the "dawn man," was created and assigned to Pre- 
Chellean times. Further study and comparison 
with the jaws of other primates demonstrated that 
the jaw belonged to a chimpanzee, so that the genus 
Eoanthropfis must now be abandoned, and the Pilt- 
down Man must be included in the genus Homo 
as at present constituted. Future discoveries of the 
Piltdown type and for that matter of Heidelberg 
Man may, however, raise either or both of them to 
generic rank. 


Some of the tentative restorations of the frag- 
mentary bones make this skull altogether too mod- 
em and too capacious for a Pre-CheUean or even a 
Chellean. In any event the Piltdown Man is highly 
aberrant and, so far as our present knowledge goes, 
does not appear to be related to any other species 
of man f oimd during the Lower Paleolithic 

In later, Acheulean, times a new spedes of man, 
very likely descended from the early Heidelberg 
Man of Eolithic times, appears on the scene, and is 
known as the Neanderthal race. Many fossil re- 
mains of this type have been found. 

The Neanderthaloids occupied the European 
stage exclusively, with the possible exception of 
the Piltdown Man, so far as our information 
extends, from the first appearance of man in Eu- 
rope to the end of the Middle Paleolithic. The 
Neanderthals flourished throughout the entire dura- 
tion of the last glacial advance known as the Wttrm 
gladation. This period, known as the Mousterian, 
began about 50,000 years ago, and lasted some 
25,000 years. 

The Neanderthal species disappears suddenly 
and completely with the advent of postglacial times, 
when, about 25,000 years ago, he was apparently 
exterminated by a new and far higher race, the 
famous Cro-Magnons. 

There may well have been, and probably were, 
during Mousterian times, races of man in Europe 


other than the Neanderthaloids, but of them we 
have no record. Among the nimierous remains of 
Neanderthals, however, we do find traces of dis- 
tinct t}^es showing that this race in Europe was 
imdergoing evolution and was developing marked 
variations in characters. 

Neanderthal Man was a purely meat eating 
himter, living in caves, or rather in their entrances. 
He was dolichocephalic and not imlike existing 
Australoids, although not necessarily of black skin, 
and was, of course, in no sense a negro. 

The skull was characterized by heavy super- 
orbital ridges, a low, receding forehead, protruding 
and chinless under jaw, and the posture was imper- 
fectly erect. This race was widely spread and 
rather numerous. Some of its blood has trickled 
down to the present time, and occasionally one sees 
a skull of the Neanderthal type. The best skull of 
this type ever seen by the writer belonged to an 
old and very intellectual professor in London, who 
was quite innocent of his value as a musexmi speci- 
men. In the old black breed of Scotland the over- 
hanging brow and deep-set eyes are suggestive of 
this race. 

Along with other ancient and primitive racial 
remnants, ferocious gorilla like living specimens 
of the Neanderthal man are foimd not infrequently 
on the west coast of Ireland, and are easily recog- 
nized by the great upper lip, bridgeless nose, beet- 


ling brow and low growing hair, and wild and 
savage aspect. The proportions of the skull which 
give rise to this large upper lip, the low forehead, 
and the superorbital ridges are clearly Neander- 
thal characters. The other traits of this Irish type 
are common to many primitive races. This is the 
Irishman of caricature, and the type was very fre- 
quent in America when the first Irish immigrants 
came in 1846 and the following years. It seems, 
however, to have almost disappeared in this coun- 

In the Upper Paleolithic, which began after the 
close of the fourth and last glaciation, about 25,000 
years ago, the Neanderthal race was succeeded by 
men of very modem aspect, known as Cro-Mag- 
nons. The date of the beginning of the Upper 
Paleolithic is the first we can fix with accuracy, and 
its correctness can be relied on within narrow limits. 
The Cro-Magnon race first appears in the Aurig- 
nacian subdivision of the Upper Paleolithic. Like 
the Neanderthals, they were dolichocephalic, with 
a cranial capacity superior to the average in exist- 
ing European populations, and a stature of very re- 
markable size. 

It is quite astonishing to find that the predomi- 
nant race in Europe 25,000 years ago, or more, 
was not only much taller, but had an absolute 
cranial capacity in excess of the average of the 
present population. The low cranial average of 


existing populations in Europe can be best ex- 
plained by the presence of large numbers of indi- 
viduals of inferior mentality. These defectives 
have been carefully preserved by modem charity, 
whereas in the savage state of society the back- 
ward members are allowed to perish and the race 
is carried on by the vigorous and not by the weak- 

The high brain capacity of the Cro-Magnons is 
paralleled by that of the ancient Greeks, who in a 
single century gave to the world out of their small 
population very much more genius than all the 
other races of mankind have since succeeded in 
producing in a similar length of time. Athens 
between 530 and 430 B. C. had an average popu- 
lation of about 90,000 freemen, and yet from these 
small nimibers there were bom no less than four- 
teen geniuses of the veiy highest rank. This 
would indicate a general intellectual status as much 
above that of the Anglo-Saxons as the latter are 
above the negroes. The existence at these early 
dates of a very high cranial capacity and its later 
decline shows that there is no upward tendency 
inherent in mankind of sufficient strength to over- 
come obstacles placed in its way by stupid social 
customs. 1 

r All historians are familiar with the phenomenon / 
/ of a rise and decline in dvUizaHon" such as hab u l- /-— - 
/ curred time and again in the history of the worlfl./ 



but we have here in fht^. Hisa ppearanffl p^ ^^^f^ r'mi 
nice the *"^ rlP^^ ^Tamplr tif thp rrplt irr 
ment of a verysuperioi : i in hy nn iiifailor miec^ 

lere is great danger ofusimflar replacement of a >|^ 
higher by a lower type here m America unless the JUT 
native American uses his superior . intelligence to j 
protect himself and his children from competition / yC 
with intrusive peoples drained ^rom «fe lowest Af/^ 
races of eastern Europe and western Asia. ^ 1/ 

le the skull of the Cro-Magnon was long, the 
cheek bones were very broad, and this combina- 
tion of broad face with long skull constitutes a 
peculiar disharmonic type which occurs to-day only 
among the very highly specialized Esquimaux and 
one or two other imimportant groups. 

Skulls of this particular type, however, are found 
in small numbers among existing populations in 
central France, precisely in the district where the 
fossil remains of this race were first discovered. 
These isolated Frenchmen probably represent the 
last lingering remnant of this splendid race of hunt- 
ing savages. 

The Cro-Magnon culture is foimd all aroimd the 
basin of the Mediterranean, and this fact, together 
with the conspicuous absence in eastern Europe of 
its earliest phases, the lower Aurignacian, indicates 
that it entered Europe by way of north Africa, 
precisely as did, in Neolithic times, its successors, 
the Mediterranean race. There is little doubt 


that the Cro-Magnons originally developed in Asia 
and were in their highest stage of phjrsical devel- 
opment at the time of their first appearance in 
Europe. Whatever change took place in their 
stature during their reddence there seems to have 
been in the natxire of a decline rather than of a 
further development 

There is nothing whatever of the negroid in the 
Cro-MagnonSy and they are not in any way related 
to the Neanderthals, who represent a distinct and 
extinct ^ecies of man. 

The Cro-Magnon race persisted through the en- 
tire Upper Paleolithic, during the periods known 
as the Aurignadan, Solutrean, and Magdalenian, 
from 25,000 to 10,000 B. C. While it is possible 
that the blood of this race enters somewhat into 
the composition of the peoples of western Europe, 
its influence cannot be great, and the Cro-Mag- 
nons disappear from view with the advent of the 
warmer climate of recent times. 

It has been suggested that, following the fading 
ice edge north and eastward through Asia into 
North America, they became the ancestors of the 
Esquimaux, but certain anatomical objections are 
fatal to this interesting theory. No one, however, 
who is familiar with the culture of the Esquimaux, 
and especially with their wonderful skill in bone- 
carving, can fail to be struck with the similarity 
of their technique to that of the Cro-Magnons. 


To the Cro-Magnon race the world owes the birth 
of art. Caverns and shelters are yearly uncov- 
ered in France and Spain, where the walls and ceil- 
ings are covered with polychrome paintings or 
with incised bas-reliefs of animals of the chase. A 
few clay models, sometimes of the human form, 
are also foimd together with abundant remains of 
their chipped but unpolished stone weapons and 
tools. Certain facts stand out clearly, namely, 
that they were pure himters and clothed themselves 
in furs and skins. They knew nothing of agricul- 
ture or of domestic animals, even the dog being as 
yet imtamed, and the horse was regarded merely 
as an object of chase. 

The question of their knowledge of the principle 
of the bow and arrow during the Aurignacian and 
Solutrean is an open one, but there are definite in- 
dications of the use of the arrow, or at least the 
barbed dart, in early Magdalenian times, and this 
weapon was well known in the succeeding Azilian 

The presence toward the end of this last period 
of quantities of very small flints, called micro- 
liths, has given rise to much controversy. It is 
[>ossible that these microliths represent the tips of 
small poisoned arrows such as are now in very 
general use among primitive hunting tribes the 
world over. Certain grooves in some of the flint 
Vreapons of the Upper Paleolithic may well have 


been also used for the reception of poison. It is 
highly probable that these skilful savages, the Cro- 
Magnons, perhaps the greatest hunters that ever 
lived, not only used poisoned darts, but were 
adepts in trapping game by means of pitfalls and 
snares, precisely as do some of the himting tribes 
of Africa to-day. Barbed arrowheads of flint or 
bone, such as were commonly used by the North 
American Indians, have not been foimd in Paleo- 
lithic deposits. 

In the next period, the Solutrean, the Cro-Mag- 
nons shared Europe with a new race known as the 
Briinn-Pfedmost, foimd in central Europe. This 
race is characterized by a long face as well as a 
long skull, and was, therefore, harmonic. This 
Briinn-Pfedmost race would appear to have been 
well settled in the Danubian and Hungarian plains, 
and this location indicates an eastern rather than 
a southern origin. 

Good anatomists have seen in this race the last 
lingering traces of the Neanderthaloids, but it is 
more probable that we have here the first advance 
wave of the primitive forerunners of one of the 
modem European dolichocephalic races. 

This new race was not artistic, but had great 
skill in fashioning weapons. It is possibly associ- 
ated with the peculiarities of Solutrean culture and 
the decline of art which characterizes that period. 
The artistic impulse of the Cro-Magnons which 


flourished so vigorously during the Aurignadan, 
seems to be quite suspended during this Solutrean 
period, but reappears in the succeeding Magdale- 
nian times. This Magdalenian art is dearly the 
direct descendant of Aurignacian models, and in 
this dosing age of the Cro-Magnons all forms of 
Paleolithic art, carving, engraving, painting, and 
the manufacture of weapons, reach their highest 
and final culmination. 

Nine thousand or ten thousand years may be 
assigned for the Aurignacian and Solutrean Pe* 
riods, and we may with considerable certainty give 
the minimum date of 16,000 B. C. for the beginning 
of Magdalenian time. Its entire duration can be 
safely set down at 6,000 years, thus bringing the 
final termination of the Magdalenian to 10,000 
B. C. All these dates are extremely conservative, 
and the error, if any, would be in assigning too late 
and not too early a period to the end of Magdale- 
nian times. 

At the dose of the Magdalenian we enter upon 
the last period of Paleolithic times, the Azilian, 
which lasted from about 10,000 to 7,000 B. C, when 
the Upper Paleolithic, the age of chipped flints, 
definitdy and finally ends. This period takes its 
name from the Mas d'Azil or "House of Refuge," 
a huge cavern in the eastern Pyrenees, where the 
local Protestants took shelter during the persecu* 
tions. In this cave the extensive deposits are 


typical of this epoch, and here certain marked 
pebbles show the earliest known traces of the 

With the advent of this closing AziUan Period 
art entirely disappears, and the splendid physia 
specimens of the Cro-Magnons are succeeded by 
what appear to have been degraded savages, whoy 
had lost the force and vigor necessary for 
strenuous chase of large game, and had turned to 
the easier life of fishermen. 

The bow and arrow in the Azilian are in common 
in Spain, and it is well within the possibilities 
that the introduction of this new weapon from the 
south may have played its part in the destruction 
of the Cro-Magnons; otherwise it is hard to accoimt 
for the disappearance of this race of large stature 
and great brain power. 

The Azilian, also called the Tardenoisian in the 
north of France, was evidently a period of racial 
disturbance, and at its close the beginnings of the 
existing races are f oimd. 

From the first appearance of man in Europe, 
and for many tens of thousands of years down to 
some ten or twelve thousand years ago, all known 
human remains are of dolichocephalic type. 

In the Azilian Period there appears the first 
round skull race. It comes clearly from the east. 
Later we shall find that this invasion of the fore* 
nmners of the existing Alpine race came from 


southwestern Asia by way of the Iranian plateaux, 
Asia Minor, the Balkans, and the valley of the 
Danube, and spread over nearly all of Europe. 
The earlier round skull invasions may as well have 
been infiltrations as armed conquests, since appar- 
ently from that day to this the round skulls have 
occupied the poorer mountain districts and have 
seldom ventured down to the rich and fertile 

This new brachycephalic race is known as the 
Furfooz or Crenelle race, so called from the locali- 
ties in Belgium and France where it was first dis- 
covered. Members of this round skull race have 
also been found at Ofnet, in Bavaria, where they 
occur in association with a dolichocephalic race, 
our first historic evidence of the mixture of con- 
trasted races. The descendants of this Furfooz- 
Grenelle race and of the succeeding waves of 
invaders of the same brachycephalic type now 
occupy central Europe as Alpines and form the 
predominant peasant type in central and eastern 
Europe. • 

In this same Azilian Period there appear, com- 
ing this time from the south, the first forenmners 
of the Mediterranean race. The descendants of 
this earliest wave of Mediterraneans and their later 
reinforcements occupy all the coast and islands of 
the Mediterranean, and are spread widely over 
western Europe. They can everywhere be identified 


by their short stature, long skull, and bmnet hair 
and eyes. 

While during this AziUan-Tardenoisian Period 
these ancestors of two of the existing European 
races are appearing in central and southern Europe, 
a new culture phase, also distinctly Pre-Neolithic, 
was developing along the shores of the Baltic. It 
is known as Maglemose from its type locality in 
Denmark. It is probably the work of the first 
wave of the Nordic subspecies, possibly the Proto- 
Teutons, who had followed the retreating glaciers 
north over the old land connections between Den- 
mark and Sweden to occupy the Scandinavian 
Peninsula. In the remains of this cultiure we find 
for the first time definite evidence of the domesti- 
cated dog. As yet, however, no skeletal remains 
have been discovered. 

With the appearance of the Mediterranean race 
the Azilian-Tardenoisian draws to its close, and with 
it the entire Paleolithic Period. It is safe to assign 
for the end of the Paleolithic and the beginning of 
the Neolithic or Polished Stone Age, the date of 
7000 or 8000 B. C. 

The races of the Paleolithic Period arrived suc- 
cessively on the scene with all their characters fully 
developed. The evolution of all these subspecies 
and races took place somewhere in Asia or eastern 
Europe. None of these races appear to be an- 
cestral one to another, although the scanty re- 


mains of the Heidelberg Man would indicate that 
he may have given rise to the later Neanderthals. 
Other than this possible affinity, the various races 
of Paleolithic times are not related one to another. 



About 7cxx> B. C. we enter an entirely new period 
in the history of man, the Neolithic or New Stone 
Age, when the flint implements were polished and 
not merely chipped. Early as is this date in Euro- 
pean culture, we are not far from the beginnings 
of an elaborate civilization in parts of Asia. The 
earliest organized states, so far as our present knowl- 
edge goes, were the Mesopotamian empires of Accad 
and Sumer — ^though they may have been preceded 
by the Chinese civilization, whose origin remains a 
mystery, nor can we trace any connection between 
it and western Asia. Baikh, the ancient Bactra, 
the mother of cities, is located where the trade 
routes between China, India, and Mesopotamia 
converged, and it is in this neighborhood that care- 
ful and thorough excavations will probably find 
their greatest rewards. 

However, we are not dealing with Asia, but with 
Europe only, and our knowledge is confined to the 
fact that the various cultural advances at the end 
of the Paleolithic and the beginning of the Neo- 
lithic correspond with the arrival of new races. 

The transition from the Paleolithic to the Neo- 
lithic was formerly considered as revolutionary, an 



abrupt change of both race and culture, but a 
period more or less transitory, known as the Cam- 
pignian, now appears to bridge over this gap. This 
is but what should be expected, since in human 
archaeology as in geology the more detailed our 
knowledge becomes, the more gradually we find 
one period or horizon merges into its successor. 

For a long time after the opening of the Neo- 
lithic the old fashioned chipped weapons and im- 
plements remain the predominant type, and the 
polished flints so characteristic of the Neolithic 
appear at first only sporadically, then increase in 
number, imtil finally they entirely replace the 
rougher designs of the preceding Old Stone Age. 

So in turn these Neolithic polished stone imple- 
ments which ultimately became both varied and 
effective as weapons and tools, continued in use 
long after metallurgy developed. In the Bronze 
Period, of course, metal armor and weapons were 
for ages of the greatest value. So they were nec- 
essarily in the possession of the military and ruling 
classes only, while the unfortunate serf or com- 
mon soldier who followed his master to war did 
the best he could with leather shield and stone 
weapons. In the ring that clustered around 
Harold for the last stand on Senlac Hill many 
of the English thanes died with their Saxon king, 
armed solely with the stone battle-axes of their 


In Italy also there was a long period known to 
the Italian archaeologists as the Eneolithic Period, 
when good flint tools existed side by side with very 
poor copper and bronze implements; so that, while 
the Neolithic lasted in western Europe four or five 
thousand years, it is, at its commencement, with- 
out clear definition from the preceding Paleolithic, 
and at its end it merged gradually into the suc- 
ceeding ages of metals. 

After the opening Campignian phase there fol- 
lowed a long period typical of the Neolithic, known 
as the Robenhausian, or Age of the Swiss Lake 
Dwellers, which reached its height about 5000 
B. C. The lake dwellings seem to have been the 
work exclusively of the round skull Alpine races 
and are found in numbers throughout the region 
of the Alps and their foothills and along the 
Danube valley. 

These Robenhausian pile built villages were in 
Europe the earliest known form of fixed habita- 
tion, and the culture foimd in association with 
them was a great advance on that of the preceding 
Paleolithic. This type of permanent habitation 
flourished through the entire Upper Neolithic and 
the succeeding Bronze Age. Pile villages end in 
Switzerland with the first appearance of iron, but 
elsewhere, as in the upper Danube, they still ex- 
isted in the days of Herodotus. 

Domesticated animals and agriculture, as well 


as rough pottery, appear during the Robenhausian 
for the first time. The chase, siq)plemented by 
trapping and fishing, was still common, but it prob- 
ably was more for dothing than for food. Of 
course, a permanent site is the baas of an agricul- 
tural conmiunity, and involves at least a partial 
abandonment of the chase, because only nomads 
can follow the game in its seasonal migrations, and 
hunted animals soon leave the neighborhood of 

The Terramara Period of northern Italy was a 
later phase of culture contemporaneous with the 
Upper Robenhausian, and was typical of the Bronze 
Age. During the Terramara Period fortified and 
moated stations in swamps or dose to the banks of 
rivers became the favorite resorts instead of pile 
villages built in lakes. The first traces of copper 
are foimd during this period. The earliest human 
remains in the Terramara dq)Osits are long skulled, 
but roimd skulls soon appear in association with 
bronze implements. This indicates an original 
population of Mediterranean affinities swamped 
later by Alpines. 

NeoUthic culture also flourished in the north of 
Eiurope and particularly in Scandinavia, now free 
from ice. The coasts of the Baltic were appar- 
ently occupied for the first time at the very begin- 
ning of this period, as no trace of Paleolithic indus- 
try has been found there, other than the Maglemose, 


which represents only the very latest phase of the 
Old Stone Age. The kitchen middens, or refuse 
heaps, of Sweden, and more particularly of Den- 
mark, date from the early NeoUthic, and thus are 
somewhat earlier than the lake dwellers. No trace 
of agriculture has been found in them, and the dog 
seems to have been the only domesticated animal. 

From these two centres, the Alps and the North, 
an elaborate and variegated Neolithic culture spread 
through western Europe, and an autochthonous 
development took place little influenced by trade 
intercourse with Asia after the first immigrations 
of the new races. 

We may assimie that the distribution of races 
during the Neolithic was roughly as follows: The 
Mediterranean basin and western Europe, includ- 
ing Spain, Italy, Gaul, Britain, and the western 
portions of Germany, populated by Mediterra- 
nean long heads; the Alps and the territories im- 
mediately surrounding, except the valley of the Po, 
together with much of the Balkans, inhabited by 
Alpine types. These Alpines extended northward 
until they came in touch in eastern Germany and 
Poland with the southernmost Nordics, but as the 
Carpathians at a much later date, namely from the 
fourth to the eighth century A. D., were the centre 
of radiation of the Alpine Slavs, it is very possible 
that during the Neolithic the early Nordics lay 
farther north and east. 


North of the Alpines and occupying the shores 
of the Baltic and Scandinavia, together with east« 
em Germany, Poland, and Russia, were located the 
Nordics. At the very base of the Neolithic, and 
perhaps still earlier, this race occupied Scandinavia, 
and Sweden became the nursery of the Teutonic 
subdivision of the Nordic race. It was in that 
country that the peculiar characters of stature 
and blondness became most accentuated, and it is 
there that we find them to-day in their greatest 
purity. During the Neolithic the remnants of 
early Paleolithic man must have been mmierous, 
but later they were either exterminated or ab- 
sorbed by the existing European races. 

During all this Neolithic Period Mesopotamia 
and Egypt were thousands of years in advance of 
Europe, but only a small amount of culture from 
these sources seems to have trickled westward up 
the valley of the Danube, then and long afterward 
the main route of intercourse between western 
Asia and the heart of Europe. Some trade abo 
passed from the Black Sea up the Russian rivers 
to the. Baltic coasts. Along these latter routes there 
came from the north to the Mediterranean world 
the amber of the Baltic, a fossil resin greatly prized 
by early man for its magic electrical qualities. 

Gold was probably the first metal to attract the 
attention of primitive man, but, of course, could 
only be used for purposes of ornamentation. Cop* 


per, which is often found in a pure state, was also 
one of the earliest metals known, and probably came 
first either from the mines of Cyprus or of the Sinai 
Peninsula. These latter mines are known to have 
been worked before 3800 B. C. by systematic min- 
ing operations, and much earlier the metal must 
have been obtained by primitive methods from 
surface ore. It is, therefore, probable that copper 
was known and used, at first for ornament and 
later for implements, in Egypt before 5000 B. C, 
and probably even earlier in the Mesopotamian 

With the use of copper the Neolithic fades to 
its end and the Bronze Age commences soon there- 
after. This next step in advance was made appar- 
ently about 4000 B. C, when some unknown genius 
discovered that an amalgam of nine parts of copper 
to one part of tin would produce the metal we now 
call bronze, which has a texture and strength suit- 
able for weapons and tools. The discovery revolu- 
tionized the world. The new knowledge was a long 
time spreading and weapons of this material were 
of fabulous value, especially in countries where 
there were no native mines, and where spears and 
swords could only be obtained through trade or 
conquest. The esteem in which these bronze 
weapons, and still more the later weapons of iron, 
were held, is indicated by the innumerable legends 
and myths concerning magic swords and armor, 


the possession of which made the owner well-nigh 
invuhierable and invincible. 

The necessity of obtaining tin for this amalgam 
led to the early voyages of the Phoenicians, who 
from the cities of Tyre and Sidon, and their daiigh- 
ter, Carthage, traversed the entire length of the 
Mediterranean, founded colonies in Spain to work 
the Spanish tin mines, passed the Pillars of Her- 
cules, and finally voyaged through the stormy 
Atlantic to the Cassiterides, the Tin Isles of Ultima 
Thule. There, on the coasts of Cornwall, they 
traded with the native British, of kindred Mediter- 
ranean race, for the precious tin. These dangerous 
and costly voyages become explicable only if the 
value of this metal for the composition of bronze 
be taken into consideration. 

After these bronze weapons were elaborated in 
Egypt, the knowledge of their manufacture and 
use was extended through conquest into Palestine, 
and about 3000 B. C. northward into Asia Minor. 

The effect of the possession of these new weapons 
on the Alpine populations of western Asia was 
magical, and resulted in an intensive and final ex- 
pansion of round skulls into Europe. This inva* 
sion came through Asia Minor, the Balkans, and the 
valley of the Danube, poiured into Italy from the 
north, introduced bronze among the earlier Alpine 
lake dwellers of Switzerland, and among the Medi- 
terraneans of the Terramara stations of the valley 


of the Po, and at a later date readied as far west 
as Britain and as far north as Holland and Nor- 

The simultaneous appearance of bronze about 
3000 or 2800 B. C. in the south as well as in the 
north of Italy can probably be attributed to a 
wave of this same invasion which reached Timis 
and Sicily, passing through Egypt, where it left 
behind the so-called Giza round skulls. With the 
first knowledge of metals begins the Eneolithic 
Period of the Italians. 

The introduction into England and into Scan- 
dinavia of bronze may be safely dated about one 
thousand years later, around 1800 B. C. The fact 
that the Alpines only barely reached Ireland, and 
that the invasion of Britain itseK was not suffi- 
ciently intensive to leave any substantial record of 
its passing in the skulls of the existing population, 
indicates that at this time Ireland was severed 
from England, and that the land connection be- 
tween England and France had been broken. The 
computation of the foregoing dates, of course, is 
somewhat hypothetical, but the fixed fact remains 
that this last expansion of the Alpines brought 
the knowledge of bronze to western and northern 
Europe and to the Mediterranean and Nordic peo- 
ples living there. 

The effect of the introduction of bronze in the 
areas occupied chiefly by the Mediterranean race 


along the Atlantic coast and in Britain, as well as 
in North Africa from Tunis to Morocco, is seen 
in the wide distribution of the megalithic funeral 
monuments, which appear to have been erected, 
not by Alpines, but by the dolichocephs. The 
occurrence of bronze tools and weapons in the 
interments shows clearly that the megaliths date 
from this Bronze Age. But their construction and 
use continued at least until the very earliest trace 
of iron appeared, and in fact mound burials 
among the Vikings were common imtil the intro- 
duction of Christianity. 

The knowledge of iron as well as bronze in Eu- 
rope, centres around the area occupied by the Al- 
pines in the eastern Alps and its earliest phase is 
known as the Hallstatt culture, from a little town 
in the Tyrol where it was first discovered. This 
Hallstatt iron culture flourished about 1500 B. C. 
Whether or not the Alpines introduced from Asia 
or invented in Europe the smelting of iron, it was 
the Nordics who benefited by its use. Bronze 
weapons and the later iron ones proved in the 
hands of these northern barbarians to be of terrible 
effectiveness, and were first of all turned against 
their Alpine teachers. With these metal swords 
in their grasp, the Nordics first conquered the Al- 
pines of central Europe and then suddenly en- 
tered the ancient world as raiders and destroyers 
of cities, and the classic civilizations of the north 


coasts of the Mediterranean Sea fell, one after 
another, before the "Furor Normanomni," just 
as two thousand years later the provmces of Rome 
were devastated by the last wave of the men of 
the north, the Teutonic tribes. 

The first Nordics to appear in European history 
are tribes speaking Aryan tongues, in the form of 
the various Celtic and related dialects in the west, 
of Umbrian in Italy and of Thradan in the Bal- 
kans, and these tribes, pouring down from the 
north, swept with them large numbers of Alpines, 
whom they had already thoroughly Nordicized. 
The process of conquering and assimilating these 
Alpines must have gone on for long centuries be- 
fore our first historic records, and the work was so 
thoroughly done that the very existence of this 
Alpine race as a separate subspecies of man was 
actually forgotten for thousands of years by them- 
selves and by the world at large, xmtil it was re- 
vealed in our own day by the science of skull mea- 

The Hallstatt iron culture did not extend into 
western Europe, and the smelting and extensive 
use of iron in south Britain and northwest Europe 
are of much later date and occur in what is known 
as the La T6ne Period, usually assigned to the fifth 
and fourth century B. C. Iron weapons were 
known in England much earUer, perhaps as far 
back as 800 or 1000 B. C, but were very rare 






8§ 8§ 

lO M to CI 

o u 










wo >o 


o u 

•j s 









o >o 


























• • • 




•k ^ •» •« 

10 O «o O 
«^ O « »o 





























and were probably importations from the Con- 

The spread of this La Tene culture is associated 
with the Cymry, who constituted the last wave 
of Celtic-speaking invaders into western Europe, 
while the earlier Nordic Gauls and Goidels had ar- 
rived in Gaul and Britain equipped with bronze 

In Roman times, which follow the La Tene Pe- 
riod, the three main races of Europe occupied the 
relative positions which they had held during the 
whole Neolithic Period and which they hold to- 
day, with the exception that the Nordic species 
was less extensively represented in western Eu- 
rope than when, a few himdred years later, the 
Teutonic tribes flooded these countries; but on the 
other hand, the Nordics occupied large areas in 
eastern Germany, Himgary, Poland, and Russia 
now occupied by the Slavs of Alpine race, and many 
countries also in central Europe were in Roman 
times inhabited by fair haired, blue eyed barba- 
rians, where now the population is preponderantly 
brunet and becoming yearly more so. 


The Alpine race is clearly of Eastern and Asiatic 
origin. It forms the westernmost extension of a 
widespread subspecies which, outside of Europe, 
occupies Asia Minor, Iran, the Pamirs, and the 
Hindu Kush. In fact the western Himalayas were 
probably its centre of original evolution and radia- 
tion, and its Asiatic members constitute a distinct 
subdivision, the Armenoids. 

The Alpine race is distinguished by a roimd face 
and correspondingly round skull which in the true 
Armenians has a peculiar, sugarloaf shape, a char- 
acter which can be easily recognized. The Alpines 
must not be confoimded with the sliteyed Mongols 
who centre aroimd Thibet and the steppes of north 
Asia. The fact that both these races are roimd 
skulled does not involve identity of origin any more 
than the long skulls of the Nordics and of the Medi- 
terraneans require that they be both considered of 
the same subspecies, although good anthropologists 
have been misled by this parallelism. The Al- 
pines are of stocky build and moderately short 
stature, except where they have been crossed with 



Nordic elements. This race is also characterized by 
dark hair, tending to a dark brown color, and in Eu- 
rope at the present time the eye is usually dark but 
sometimes grayish. The ancestral Proto-Alpines 
from the highlands of western Asia must, of course, 
have had brunet eyes, and very dark, probably 
black, hair. Whether we are justified in consid- 
ering gray eyes peculiar to populations of mixed 
Alpine and Nordic blood is difficult to determine, 
but one thing is certain, the combination of blue 
eyes and flaxen hair is never Alpine. 

The European Alpines retain veiy little of their 
Asiatic origin, except the skull, and have been in 
contact with the Nordic race so long that in cen- 
tral and western Eiuope they are ever3rwhere 
saturated with the blood of that race. Many pop- 
ulations now considered good Germans, such as 
the majority of the Wurtembeigers, Bavarians, 
Austrians, Swiss, and Tyrolese, are merely Teu- 
tonized Alpines. 

The first appearance in Europe of the Alpines, 
dates from the Azilian Period when it is represented 
by the Furfooz-Grenelle race. There were, later, 
several invasions of this race which entered Europe 
during Neolithic times from the Asia Minor pla- 
teaux, by way of the Balkans and the valley of the 
Danube. It appears also to have passed north of 
the Black Sea, as some slight traces have been 
discovered there of roimd skulls which long ante- 

Oair Colcml 

Etx Colok 



.ight brown 
fever black. 


All Aryan except Tchouds, 
Esths, many Finlanders, 
and a few tribes in Siberia. 

)ark brown. 

Blark or 

In Europe all Axyan except 
Magyars and some Basques. 


Often hazel 
or gray, in 

In Asia mostly Aryan, ex- 
cept ITtirromans, Kirghi74!!s, 
and other nomad tribes. 

3ark brown. 

Dark brown. 

In Europe all Aryan, except 
some Basques. In Africa 
aU non- Aryan. In Asia aU 
Aryan, except Dravidians 
and other Indian tribes. 

very daiit. 

very dark. 


very dark. 

very dark. 


very dark. 

very dark. 

Non- Aryan. 


date the existing population, but the Russian 
brachycephaly of to-day is of much later origin. 

This race in its final expansion far to the north- 
west, ultimately reached Norway, Denmark, and 
Holland, and planted among the dolichocephalic 
natives small colonies of round skulls, which still 
exist. When this invasion reached the extreme 
northwest of Europe its energy was spent, and the 
invaders were soon forced back into central Eu- 
rope by the Nordics. The Alpines at this time of 
maximum extension, about 1800 B. C, crossed 
into Britain, and a few reached Ireland and intro- 
duced bronze into both these islands. As the 
metal appears about the same time in Sweden, it 
is safe to assume that it was introduced by this 
same invasion, a record of which persists to this 
day in the existence of a colony of round skulls in 
southwest Norway. 

Bronze culture everywhere antedates the earli- 
est appearance of the Celtic-speaking Nordics in 
western Europe. 

The men of the Round Barrows in England 
were Alpines, but their numbers were so scanty 
that they have not left behind them in the skulls 
of the living population any demonstrable evi- 
dence of their conquest. If we are ever able to 
accurately dissect out the various strains that en- 
ter, in more or less minute quantities, into the blood 
of the British Isles, we shall find traces of these 


Round Barrow men as well as other interesting 
and ancient remnants, especially in the western 
isles and peninsulas. 

In the study of European populations the great 
and fundamental fact about the British Isles is 
the absence there to-day of Alpine round skulls. 
It is the only important state in Europe in which 
P the roimd skulls play no part, and the only nation 
. of any rank composed solely of Nordic and Medi- 
' terranean races in approximately equal numbers. 
To this fact is undoubtedly due many of the in- 
dividualities of the English nation. 

The invasion of central Europe by Alpines, 
which occiirred in the Neolithic, following in the 
wake of the Azilian forerunners of the same type — 
the Furfooz-Grenelle race — represented a very 
great advance in culture. They brought with 
them from Asia the art of domesticating animals 
and the first knowledge of the cereals and of pot- 
tery, and were an agricultural race in sharp con- 
trast to the flesh eating himters who preceded 

The Neolithic populations of the lake dwellings 
in Switzerland and the extreme north of Italy, which 
flourished about 5000 B. C, all belonged to this 
Alpine race. A comparison of the scanty physical 
remains of these lake dwellers with the inhabitants 
of the existing villages on the lake shores demon- 
strates that the skull shape has changed little or 



not at all during the last seven thousand years, 
and affords us another proof of the persistency of 
UQit characters. 

This 1\lpine race in Europe is now so thoroughly 
acclimated that it is no longer Asiatic in any re- 
spect, and has nothing in common with the Mon- 
gols except its roimd skulls. Such Mongolian ele- 
ments as exist to-day in scattered groups through- 
out eastern Europe are remnants of the later 
invasions of Tatar hordes which, beginning with 
Attila in the fifth century, ravaged eastern Europe 
for hundreds of years. 

In western and central Europe the present dis- 
tribution of the Alpine race is a substantial reces- 
A sion from its original extent, and it has been every- 
^^;?rhere conquered a nd completely swamped b y Cel- 
/' tic and Tpntnmr gpi^ylfinpr Nordics. Be 

with 'the first appearance of the Celtic-speaking 
Nordics in western Euro^ )^ th is race has been 
obliged to jja^f grminH^ Knt hai mipgled its blood 
everywhere with the conquerors, and now_ aiter 
cent uries of obscuritv it appears to be increas i 
agam at the expense of the master race. 

The Alpines reached Spain, as they reached 
Britain, in small numbers and with spent force, 
but they still exist along the Cantabrian Alps as 
well as on the northern side of the Pyrenees, among 
the French Basques. There are also dim traces 
all along the north African coast of a round skull 




invasion about 3000 B. C. through S3nia, Egypt, 
Tripoli, and Tunis, and from there through Sicily 
to southern Italy. 

The Alpine race forms to-day, as in Cassar^s ^ 
ti^, the great bulk ot the populatiSh of centn5\^^ 

5ice, with a Nordic aristoc racy resting upon it. 
^'Th ey^ocayVp as the lower classes, the uplands of 
Belgium, where, known as Walloons, they speak an 
archaic French dialect closely related to the an- 
cient langue d^oU. They form a majority of the 
upland population of Alsace, Lorraine, Baden, Wiir- 
temberg, Bavaria, Tyrol, Switzerland, and north 
Italy; Jn 9i\inTf nf fhf ftntirf rfntn*^ maggif nf y.}\^ 
rope. ^In Bavaria and the Tyrol the Alpin ] ^ 
so Hinrnng|i1y Ti^^it^^^nftj^t^nt their true racial 
affinities are betrayed by their round skulls alon 

When we reach Austria we come in contact with 

the^Evic-speaking nations which form a subdi- 
vision of thft Alping rare^ apppArinpr late in history 

and radiating from the Carpathian Mountains. 
In western and central Europe, in relation to the 

Norgcp cp t h . Al p inp ,> rYfnrwhfir t h e in n >nt 

imderlymg, and suh ^ifrff'^^ ^^T^ '^^^ fertile lands, 
river valleys, and the cities are in the hands of the 
Teutons, but in eastern Germsiny and Poland we 
find conditions reversed. Here is an old Nordic 
broodland, with a Nordic substratum imderlying 
the bulk of the peasantry, which now consbts of 
round skull Alpine Slavs. On top of these again we 


have an aristocratic upper class of relatively recent 
introduction. In eastern Germany this upper 
class is Saxon, and in Austria it is Swabian and 

The intro duction of Slavs i n east German 
IrnoTtTrirrlirJvf infiIfriitinP">^T fl not bv^^ques t^ 

In the^tourth century these Wends were called 
Venethi, Antes, and Sclaveni, and were described 
as strong in numbers but despised in war. Through 
the neglect of the Teutons they were allowed to 
range far and wide from their homes near the 
northeastern Carpathians, and to occupy the lands 
formerly belonging to the German nations, whop 
had abandoned their coimtry and flocked into the 
Roman Empire. Goth, Burgund, Lombard, and^ 
Vandal were r eplaced by the lowlv Wend , and his '/a 
descendants to-day f om the privates in the east 
German regiments, while the officers are every- 
where recruited frnm ^h^ TMnrHiV upper c lass. The*^^ 
lAed iaeval relation of th ese Slavic tnbes to the 
do minant Te uton, is well expr essed in the mean- 
ing — slave — ^which has been attached to their name 
injyestem l^guages. 

The occupation of eastern Germany and Poland ^ 
by the Slavs probably occurred from 400 A. D. to / 
700 A. D., but these Alpine elements were rein- / 
forced from the east and south from time to time 1 
during the succeeding centuries. Beginning early 
in the tenth century, under their Emperor, Henry 


the Fowler^ the Saxons turned their attention east- 
ward, and during the next two centuries they re- 
conquered and thoroughly Germanized all this 
section of Europe. 

A similar series of changes in racial predominance 
took place in Russia where, iix-addition t o a nobil - 
jty largely No^c^c^ a section of the p^ulation is of 
ancient Nordic type, although the bulk of the peas- 
antry consists of Alpine Slavs. 

The Alpines m eastern Europe are represented 
by various branches of the Slavic nations. Their 
area of distribution was split into two sections by 
the occupation of the great Dacian plain by the 
Hungarians in about 900 A. D. These Magyars 
came from somewhere in eastern Russia beyond 
the sphere of Aryan speech, and their invasion 
separated the northern Slavs, known as Wends, 
Czechs, Slovaks, and Poles, from the southern Slavs, 
known as Serbs and Croats. These southern Slavs 
entered the Balkan Peninsula in the sixth century 
from the northeast, and to-day form the great mass 
of the population there. 

The center of radiation of all these Slavic-speak- 
ing Alpines was located in the Carpathians, espe- 
cially the Ruthenian districts of Galicia and east- 
ward to the neighborhood of the Pripet swamps 
and the head-waters of the Dnieper in Polesia, 
where the Slavic dialects are believed to have 
developed, and whence they spread throughout 


Russia about the eighth century. These early 
Slavs were probably the Sarmatians of the Greek 
and Roman writers, and their name "Venethi" 
seems to have been a later designation. The orig- 
inal Proto-Slavic language, being Aryan, must have 
been at some distant date imposed by Nordics on 
the Alpines, but its development into the present 
Slavic tongues was chiefly the work of Alpines. 

In other words, thft ftypa^sioTj, ()f % \ie Alpines q£ 
the Slavic-speaking gr oup seems to have occurred 
between 400 and 90 A. P., ^d they have spread 
in the East over areas which were originally Nor- 
dic, very much as the Teutons had previously 
ovemm and submerged the earlier Alpines in the 
West. The Mongol, Tatar, and Turk, who in- 
vaded Eur ope much later, have little in conmion 
mth th e AJmne race, except the roun d ^I^^H- All 
these purely Asiatic types have been thoroughly 
absorbed and Europeanized, except in certain locali- 
ties in Russia, especially in the east and south, 
where Mongoloid tribes have maintained their 
type either in isolated and relatively large groups, 
or side by side with their Slavic neighbors. In both 
cases the isolation is maintained by religious and 
social differences. 

The Avars, also of Asiatic origin, preceded the 
Magyars in Hungary and the Slavs in the Balkans, 
but they have merged with the latter without leav- 
ing traces that can be identified, unless certain 


Mongoloid charax:ters found in Bulgaria are of this 

The original physical type of the Magyars and 
the European Turks has now practically vanished, 
as a result of prolonged intermarriage with the 
original inhabitants of Hungary and the Balkans. 
These tribes have left little behind but their lan- 
guage, and in the case of the Turks, their religion. 
The brachycephalic Hungarians to-day resemble 
the Austrian-Germans much more than they do the 
Slavic-speaking populations surrounding them on 
the north and south, or the Rumanians on the east. 

Following in the wake of the Avars, the Bul- 
garians appeared south of the Danube about the 
end of the seventh century, coming from eastern 
Russia, where the remnants of their kindred still 
persist along the Volga. To-day they conform 
physically in the western half of the country with 
the Alpine Serbs, and in the eastern half with the 
Mediterranean race, as do also the Rumanians of 
the Black Sea coast 

Little or nothing remains of the ancestral Bui- 
gars except their name. Language, religion, and 
nearly, but not quite all, of the physical types have 

The early members of the Nordic race, in order 
to reach the Mediterranean world, had to pass 
through the Alpine populations, and must have 
absorbed a certain amount of Alpine blood. There- 


fore the Umbrians in Italy and the Gauls of west- 
em Europe, while predominantly Nordic, were 
more mixed with Alpine blood than were the Bel- 
gae or Cymry, or their Teutonic successors, who, 
as Goths, Vandals, Burgundians, Helvetians, Ale- 
manni, Saxons, Franks, Lombards, Danes, and 
Northmen, appear in history as pure Nordics of 
the Teutonic group. 

In some portions of their range, notably Savoy 
and central France, the Alpine race is much less 
affected by Nordic influence than elsewhere, but 
on the other hand shows signs of a very ancient 
admixture with Mediterranean and even earlier 
elements. Brachycephalic Alpine populations in 
comparative purity still exist in the interior of 
Brittany, although almost completely surroimded 
by Nordic populations. 

While the Alpines were everywhere swamped 
and driven to the fastnesses of the mountains, the 
warlike and restless nature of the Nordics has en- 
abled the more stable Alpine population to slowly 
reassert itself, and Europe is probably much more 
Alpine to-day than it was fifteen hundred years ago. 

The early Alpines^ m^df* ver y la.rge contribu- 
tions to the civilization of the world, and were the 
medlimi through which nUmy adVMtcs in tulluie 

were^ ^troduced hum AiAa ptn Fiiirfl pff: — TWs 
race at the time of its first appearance in the west 
brought to the nomad himters the knowledge of 



agriculture and of primitive pottery and of the 
domestication of animals, and thus made possible 
a great increase in population and the establish- 
ment of permanent settlements. Still later its 
final expansion was the means through which the 
knowledge of metals reached the Mediterranean 
and Nordic populations of the west and north. 
Up on the api^ ^rtmci^. on ^T]f* ^fflf ^f the Nordics 
the Alpine race lost its identitvamLsank to the 

8Ubor Hipa.ti* and pbscure positiou which i t still 

In western Asia members of this race are en- 
titled to the honor of the earliest civilization of 
which we have knowledge, namely, that of Sumer 
and its northerly neighbor, Accad in Mesopotamia. 
It is also the race of Susa, Elam, and Media. In 
fact, the whole of Mesopotamian civilization 
belongs to this race with the exception of later 
Babylonia and Assyria, which were Arabic and 
Semitic, and of Persia and the empire of the Kas- 
sites, which were Nordic and Aryan. 

In classic, mediaeval, and modem times the Al- 
pines have played an unimportant part in Euro- 
pean cultiure, and in western Europe they have 
been so thoroughly Nordidzed that they exist 
rather as an element in Nordic race development 
than as an independent type. There are, however, 
many indications in current history which point 
to a great development of civilization in the Slavic 


branches of this race, and the world must be pre- 
pared to face, as one of the results of the presents 
war, a great industrial and cultural expansion in 
Russia, perhaps based on military power. 


The Me diterranean subsp ecies^ fonnerly called 
the Ibe rian, is a relatively sma ll, light boned , 
long skulled race, ^^ br unet color becoming even 
jjTarthy in c ertain portions of its range . Through- 
out JNeonthic times and possibly still earlier, it 
seems to have occupied, just as it does to-day, all 
the shores of the Mediterranean, including the coast 
of Africa from Morocco on the west to Egypt on 
the east. The Mediterraneans are the western 
members of a subspecies of man which forms a 
substantial part of the population of Persia, Afghan- 
istan, Baluchistan, and Hindustan, with perhaps a 
southward extension into Ceylon. 

The Aryanized Afghan and Hindu of northern 

India speak languages derived from Old Sanskrit, 

and are distantly related to the Mediterranean race. 

Aside from a common dolichocephaly these peoples 

are entirely distinct from the Dravidians of south 

India whose speech is agglutinative and who show 

strong evidence of profound mixture with the 

ancient negrito substratum of southern Asia. 

Everywhere throughout the Asiatic portion of 



its range the Mediterranean race overlies an even 
more ancient negroid race. These negroids still 
have representatives among the Pre-Dravidians of 
India, the Veddahs of Ceylon, the Sakai of the Ma- 
lay Peninsula, and the natives of the Andaman 

This Mediterranean subspecies at the close of 
the Paleolithic spread from the basin of the Inland 
Sea northward by way of Spain throughout west- 
em Europe, including the British Isles, and, before 
the final expansion of the Alpines, was widely dis- 
tributed up to and touching the domain of the 
Nordic dolichocephs. It did not cross the Alps 
from the south, but spread around the mountains 
across the Rhine into western Germany. 

In all this vast range from the British Isles to 
Hindustan, it is not to be supposed that there is 
identity of race. Certain portions, however, of 
the populations of the countries throughout this 
long stretch do show in their physique clear indi- 
cations of descent from a Neolithic race of a com* 
mon original type, which we may call Proto-Medi- 

Quite apart from inevitable admixture with late 
Nordic and early Paleolithic elements, the little 
brunet Englishman has had perhaps ten thousand 
years of independent evolution during which he 
has undergone selection due to the climatic and 
physical conditions of his northern habitat. The 


result is that he has specialized far away from the 
Proto-Mediterranean race which contributed this 
blood originally to Britain, probably while it was 
still a part of continental Europe. 

On the other end of the range of the Mediter- 
ranean species, this race in India has been crossed 
with Dravidians and with Pre-Dravidian negroids. 
The Mediterraneans in India have also had imposed 
upon them other ethnic elements which came over 
through the Afghan passes from the northwest. 
The resultant racial mixture in India has had its 
own line of specialization. Residence in the fertile 
but unhealthy river bottoms, the direct rays of a 
tropic sun, and competition with the immemorial 
autochthones have unsparingly weeded generation 
after generation, imtil the existing Hindu has little 
in common with the ancestral Proto-Mediterranean. 

:t is to theMediterranean race in 

Isles that t he English, Scotch, and American s 
o we whatever brunet charac tcrs ^they pos s^. In V 
central Europe it _ underlies the Alpine rarcj and, 
iS'Iact, wherever this ra ce is in contact w ith either 
the Alpines or the Nordics, it appears to represent 
t he mor e ancient st ratum of the population. 

So far as we know, this Mediterranean type never 
existed in Scandinavia, and aU bnmet elements 
foimd there are to be attributed to introductions 
in historic times. Nor did the Mediterranean race 
ever enter or cross the high Alps as did the Nor- 



dicSy at a much later date, on their way to the Medi- 
terranean basin from the Baltic coasts. 

The Mediterranean race with its Asiatic exten- 
sions is bordered everywhere on the north of its 
enormous range from Spain to India by round 
skulls, but there does not seem to be as much evi^ 
dence of mixture between these two subspecies of 
man as there is between the Alpines and the Nor- 

Along its southern boundary the Mediterranean 
race is in contact with either the long skull negroes 
of Ethiopia, or the ancient negrito population of 
southern Asia. In Africa this race has drifted 
southward over the Sahara and up the Nile val- 
ley, and has modified the blood of the negroes 
in both the Senegambian and equatorial regions. 

Beyond these mixtures of blood, there is abso- 
lutely no relationship between the Mediterranean 
race and the negroes. The fact that the Mediter- 
ranean race is long skulled as well as the negro, 
does not indicate relationship as has been suggested. 
Overemphasis of the importance of the skull shape 
as a somatological character can easily be mislead- 
ing, and other unit characters than skull propor- 
tions must also be carefully considered in all deter- 
minations of race. 

Africa north of the Sahara, from a zoological 
point of view, is now, and has been since early 
Tertiary times, a part of Europe. This is true 


both of animals and of the races of man. The 
Berbers of north Africa to-day are racially identi- 
cal with the Spaniards and south Italians and the 
ancient Egyptians and their modem descendants, 
the fellaheen, are merely clearly marked varieties 
of this Mediterranean race. 

The Egyptians fade off toward the south into 
the so-called Hamitic people (to use an obsolete 
name), and the infusion of negro blood becomes 
increasingly great, imtil we finally reach the pure 
negro. On the east in Arabia we find an ancient 
and highly specialized subdivision of the Mediter- 
ranean race, which has from time out of mind 
crossed the Red Sea and infused its blood into 
the negroes of east Africa. 

To-day the Mediterranean race forms in Europe 
a substantial part of the population of the British 
Isles, the great bulk of the population of the Ibe- 
rian Peninsula, nearly one-third of the population 
of France, Liguria, Italy south of the Apennines, 
and all the Mediterranean coasts and islands, 
in some of which, like Sardinia, it exists in great 
purity. It forms the substratimi of the popu- 
lation of Greece and of the eastern coasts of the 
Balkan Peninsula. Everywhere in the interior, 
except in eastern Bulgaria and Rumania, it has 
been replaced by the South Slavs and by the Al- 
banians, the latter a mixture of the ancient Illy- 
rians and the Slavs. 


In the British Isles the Mediterrjuiean race rep- 
resents the Pre-Nordic population and exists in 
considerable numbers in Wales and in certain por- 
tions of England, notably in the Fen districts to 
the north of London. In Scotland it is nearly ob- 
literated, leaving behind only its brunetness as an 
indication of its former prevalence, though it is 
now often associated there with tall stature. 

This is the race that gave the world the great 
civilizations of Egypt, of Crete, of Phoenicia in- 
cluding Carthage, of Etruria and of Mycensan 
Greece. It gave us, when mixed and invigorated 
■ with Nordic elements, the most splendid of all 
civilizations, that of ancient Hellas, and the most 
enduring of political organizations, the Roman 

To what extent the Mediterranean race entered I 
into the blood and civilization of Rome, it is now/ 
diflBicult to say, but the traditions of the Eternal I 
City, its love of organization, of law and military \/ 
efficiency, as well as the Roman ideals of family \ 
life, loyalty, and truth, point clearly to a Nordic ( 
rather than to a Mediterranean origin. 

The struggles in early Rome between Latin and 
Etruscan, and the endless quarrels between patri- 
cian and plebeian, arose from the existence in 
Rome, side by side, of two distinct and clashing 
races, probably Nordic and Mediterranean respec- 
tively. The northern qualities of Rome are in 


sharp contrast to the Levantine traits of the 
classic Greeks, whose volatile and anal3rtical 
spirit, lack of cohesion, political incapacity, and 
ready resort to treason, all point clearly to south- 
em and eastern affinities. 

While very ancient, present for probably ten 
thousand years in western and southern Europe, and 
even longer on the south shore of the Mediterranean, 
nevertheless this race cannot be called purely 
European. The route of its migration along the 
north coast of Africa, and up the west coast of 
Europe, can be traced everywhere by its beauti- 
fully polished stone weapons and tools. The Meg- 
alithic monuments also are foimd in association 
with this race, and mark its line of advance in 
western Europe, although they extend beyond the 
range of the Mediterraneans into the domain of the 
Scandinavian Nordics. These huge stone struc- 
tures were chiefly sepulchral memorials and appear 
to have been based on an imitation of the Egyptian 
funeral monimients. They date back to the first 
knowledge of the manufacture and use of bronze 
tools by the Mediterranean race, and they occur 
in great numbers, vast size, and considerable vari- 
ety along the north coast of Africa and up the 
Atlantic seaboard through Spain, Brittany, and 
England to Scandinavia. 

It is admitted that the various groups of the 
Mediterranean race did not speak, in the first in- 


stance, any form of Aryan tongue. These Aryan 
languages we know were introduced into the Medi- 
terranean world from the north. We have in the 
Basque tongue to-day a survival of one of the 
Pre-Aryan languages, which were spoken by the 
Mediterranean population of the Iberian Peninsula 
before the arrival of the Aryan-speaking Gauls of 
Nordic race. 

The language of these invaders was Celtic, and 
replaced over most of the country the ancient 
speech of the natives, only in turn to be superseded, 
along with the Phoenician spoken in some of the 
southern coast towns, by the Latin of the conquer- 
ing Roman, and Latin, mixed with some small ele- 
ments of Gothic -construction and Arabic vocabu- 
lary forms the basis of modem Portuguese, Cas- 
tilian, and Catalan. 

The native Mediterranean race of the Iberian 
Peninsula quickly absorbed the blood of these con- 
quering Gauls, just as it later diluted beyond 
recognition the vigorous physical characters of the 
Teutonic Vandals, Suevi, andx Visigoths. A cer- 
tain amoimt of Nordic blood still persists to-day 
in northwestern Spain, especially in Galicia and 
along the Pyrenees, as well as generally among the 
upper classes. The Romans left no evidence of 
their domination except in their language and re- 
ligion; while the earlier Phoenicians on the coasts^ 
and the later swarms of Moors and Arabs all over 


the peninsula, but chiefly in the southy were closely 
related by race to the native Iberians. 

That portion of the Mediterranean race which 
inhabits southern France oocupies the territory of 
ancient Languedoc and Provence, and it was these 
Provencals who developed and preserved during 
the Middle Ages the romantic civilization of the 
AlbigensianSy a survival of classic cultiu'e, which 
was drowned in blood by a crusade from the north 
in the thirteenth century. 

In North Italy only the coast of Liguria is occu- 
pied by the Mediterranean race. In the valley of 
the Po the Mediterraneans were the predominant 
race during the early Neolithic, but with the in- 
troduction of bronze the Alpines appear, and round 
skulls to this day prevail north of the Apennines. 
About iioo B. C. the Nordic Umbrians and Oscans 
swept over the Alps from the northeast, conquered 
northern Italy and introduced their Aryan speech, 
which gradually spread southward. The Um- 
brian state was afterward overwhelmed by the 
Etruscans, who were of Mediterranean race, and 
who, by 800 B. C. had extended their empire 
northward to the Alps. In the sixth century B. C. 
new swarms of Nordics, coming this time from 
Gaul and speaking Celtic dialects, seized the val- 
ley of the Po, and in 390 B. C. these Gauls, rein- 
forced from the north and under the leadership of 
Brennus, stormed Rome and completely destroyed 



the Etruscan power. From that time onward the 
valley of the Po became known as Cisalpine Gaul. 
Mixed with Nordic elements, chiefly Gothic and 
Lombard, this population persists to this day, and 
is the backbone of modem Italy. 

A similar movement of these same Gauls or 
Galatians, as the Greek world called them, start- 
ing from northern Italy, occurred a century later 
when these Nordics suddenly appeared before Del- 
phi in Greece in 279 B. C, and then swept over 
into Asia Minor and founded the state called Gala- 
tia, which endiured until Christian times. 

South Italy, imtil its conquest by Rome, was 
Magna Graecia, and the population to-day retains 
many Pelasgian Greek elements. It is among these 
Hellenic remnants that artists search for the hand- 
somest types of the Mediterranean race. In Sicily 
also the race is purely Mediterranean in spite of 
the admixtiire of types coming from the neighbor- 
ing coasts of Tunis. These intrusive elementSi 
however, were all of kindred race. Traces of 
Alpine elements in these regions and on the ad- 
joining African coast are very scarce, and are to 
be referred to the great and final wave of round 
skull invasion which introduced bronze into Eu- 

In Greece the Mediterranean Pelasgians, who 
spoke a non- Aryan tongue, were swamped by the 
Nordic Achaeans, who entered from the northeast 


according to tradition prior to 1250 B. C, prob- 
ably between 1400 and 1300 B. C. There were 
also probably still earlier waves of these same Nor- 
dic invaders as far back as 1700 B. C, which was 
a period of migration throughout the ancient world. 
These Achaeans were armed with iron weapons of 
the Hallstatt culture, with which they conquered 
the bronze using natives. The two races, as yet 
unmixed, stand out in clear contrast in the Homeric 
account of the siege of Troy, which is generally 
assigned to the date of 1194 to 1184 B. C. 

The same invasion that brought the Ach^eans 
into Greece brought a related Nordic people to 
the coast of Asia Minor, known as Phrygians. Of 
this race were the Trojan leaders. 

Both the Trojans and the Greeks were com- 
manded by huge blond princes, the heroes of Ho- 
mer, while the bulk of the armies on both sides was 
composed of little bnmet Pelasgians, impei^ectly 
armed and remorselessly butchered by the leaders 
on either side. The only common soldiers men- 
tioned by Homer as of the same race as the heroes, 
were the Myrmidons of Achilles. 

About the time that the Achacans and the Pelas- 
gians began to amalgamate, new hordes of Nordic 
barbarians, collectively called Hellenes, entered 
from the northern moimtains and destroyed this 
'old Homeric-Mycenaean civilization. This Dorian 
invasion took place a little before iioo B. C. and 


brought in the three main Nordic strains of Greece,^ 
the Dorian, the JEoUan and the Ionian groups^ 
which remain more or less distinct and separati 
throughout Greek history. It is more than prob-^ 
able that this invasion or swarming of Nordics 
into Greece was part of the same general racial- 
upheaval that brought the Umbrians and Oscans 
into Italy. 

Long years of intense and bitter conflict follow 
between the old population and the newcomers, 
and when the turmoil of this revolution settled 
down, classic Greece appears. What was left of 
the Achaeans retired to the northern Peloponnesus, 
and the survivors of the early Pelasgian popula- 
tion remained in Messenia serving as helots their 
Spartan masters. The Greek colonies in Asia 
Minor were foimded by refugees fleeing from these 
Dorian invaders. 

The Pelasgian strain seems to have persisted 
best in Attica and the Ionian states. The Dorian 
Spartans appear to have retained more of the char- 
acter of the northern barbarians than the Ionian 
Greeks, but the splendid civilization of Hellas was 
due to a fusion of the two elements, the Achaean 
and Hellene of Nordic, and the Pelasgian of Medi- 
terranean race. 

The contrast between Dorian Sparta and Ionian/ 
Athens, between the military eflSciency, thorough)^ 
organization, and sacrifice of the citizen for the! 


welfare of the state, which constituted the ba^s 
of the Lacedaemonian power, and the Attic bril- 
liancy, instability, and extreme development of 
individualism, is strikingly like the contrast be- 
tween Prussia with its Spartan-like culture and 
France .with its Athenian verssLtSky. 

To this mixture of the two races in classic Greece 
the Mediterranean Pelasgians contributed their 
Mycenasan culture and the Nordic Achaeans and 
Hellenes contributed their Aryan language, fighting 
efficiency, and the European aspect of Greek life. 

The first restdt of a crossing of two such con- 
trasted subspecies as the Nordic and Mediterra- 
nean races, has repeatedly been a new outburst of 
culture. This occurs as soon as the older race has 
imparted to the conquerors its civilization, and 
before the victors have allowed their blood to be 
swamped by mixture. This process seems to have 
happened several times in Greece. 

Later, in 339 B. C, when the original Nordic 
blood had been hopelessly diluted by mixtiu^ with 
the ancient Mediterranean elements, Hellas fell 
an easy prey to Macedon. The troops of Philip 
and Alexander were Nordic and represented the 
uncultured but immixed ancestral type of the 
Achasans and Hellenes. Their unimpaired fighting 
strength was irresistible as soon as it was organ- 
ized into the Macedonian phalanx, whether directed 
against their degenerate brother Greeks, or against 

THE mediterrai«;an race 147 

the Persians, whose original Nordic elements had 
also by this time practically disappeared. When 
in its turn the pure Macedonian blood was im- 
paired by intermixture with Asiatics, they, too, 
vanished, and even the royal Macedonian dynas- 
ties in Asia and Egypt soon ceased to be Nordic 
or Greek except in language and customs. 

It is interesting to note that the Greek states ! 
in which the Nordic element was most predomi- 
nant outlived the other states. Athens fell before 
Sparta, and Thebes outlived them both. Macedon 
in classic times was considered quite the most bar- 
barous state in Hellas, and was scarcely recognized 
as forming part of Greece, but it was through the 
military power of its armies and the genius of Alex- 
ander that the Levant and western Asia became 
Hellenized. Alexander, with his Nordic features, 
aquiline nose, gently curling yellow hair, and mixed 
eyes, the left blue and the right very black, typifies 
this Nordic conquest of the Near East. 

It is not possible to-day to find in purity the 
physical traits of the ancient race in the Greek- 
speaking lands and islands, and it is chiefly among 
the pure Nordics of Anglo-Norman type that there 
occur those smooth and regular classic features, 
especially the brow and nose lines, that were the 
delight of the sculptors of Hellas. 

So far as modem Europe is concerned culture 
came from the south and not from the east, and to 


this Mediterranean subspecies is due the founda- 
tion of our civilization. The ancient Mediterranean 
world was of this race; the long-sustained civiliza- 
tion of Egypt, which endured during thousands of 
years of almost uninterrupted sequence; the bril- 
liant Minoan Empire of Crete, which flourished 
between 4000 and 1200 B. C, and was the ancestor 
of the Mycenasan cultures of Greece, Cyprus, Italy, 
and Sardinia; the mysterious empire of Etniria, 
the predecessor and teacher of Rome; the Hellenic 
states and colonies throughout the Mediterranean 
and Black Seas; the maritime and mercantile 
power of Phoenicia and its mighty colony, imperial 
Carthage; all were the creation of this race. The 
sea empire of Crete, when its royal palace at Cnos- 
sos was burned by the 'sea peoples' of the north, 
passed to Tyre, Sidon, and Carthage, and from them 
to the Greeks, so that the early development of 
the art of navigation is to be attributed to this 
race, and from them the north, centuries later, 
learned its maritime architecture. 

Even though the Mediterranean race has no 
claim to the invention of the synthetic languages, 
and though it played a relatively small part in the 
development of the civilization of the Middle 
Ages or of modem times, nevertheless to it belongs 
> the chief credit of the classic civilization of Europe, 
in the sciences, art, poetry, literatiu-e, and philoso- 
phy, as well as the major part of the civilization of 


Greece, and a very large share in the Empire of / 

In the Eastern Empire the Mediterraneans were 
the predominant factor imder the guise of Byzan- 
tine Greeks. Owing to the fact that our histories 
have been written imder the influence of Roman 
orthodoxy, and because in the eyes of the Prank- 
ish Crusaders the Byzantine Greeks were heretics, 
they have been regarded by us as degenerate cow- 

But throughout the Middle Ages Byzantium 
represented in imbroken sequence the Empire of 
Rome in the East, and as the capital of that em- 
pire it held Mohammedan Asia in check for nearly 
a thousand years. When at last in 1453 the im- 
perial city, deserted by western Christendom, was 
stormed by the Ottoman Turks, and Constantine, 
last of Roman Emperors, fell sword in hand, there 
was enacted one of the greatest tragedies of all 

With the fall of Constantinople the Empire of 
Rome passes finally from the scene of history, and ^ 
the development of civilization is transferred from 
Mediterranean lands and Mediterranean race to 
the North Sea and the Nordic race. 



We have shown that the Mediterranean race 
entered Europe from the south and forms part of 
a great group of peoples extending into southern 
Asia, that the Alpine race came from the east 
through Asia Minor and the valley of the Danube, 
and that its present European distribution is merely 
the westernmost point of an ethnic pyramid, the 
base of which rests solidly on the roimd skulled 
peoples of the great plateaux of central Asia. 
Both of t^^'^^^^fp^T ?i^**. thfig^^T^j westenL-fixten- 

Asiatic s ubspecies, and neither of them can 
be considered as exclusively European. 

^ith the remai ning race^ the Nn rHir^ Tinwe ypr^ 
the case is differen t, " yhis is a pu rely European ♦ 
type, and has d eveloped its physical characte rs 
and its civilization within the confines of that con- 
tinent. It is, thoreforc, the Romo euroPtBus, tb 
yxrh\\pt man par p|T rell^nre. It is everywhere char- 
acterized by certain unique specializations, namely, 
blondness, wavy hair, blue eyes, fair skin, high, 
narrow and straight nose, which are associated with 
great stature, and a long skull, as well as with 

abundant head and body hair. 



This abundance of hair is an ancient and gener- 
alized character which the Nordics share with the 
Alpines of both Europe and Asia, but the light col- 
ored eyes and light colored hair are characters of 
atively re^ ftp^ gpfv-iflliyafmn pnri r nnsequen tly 
hi ghly unsta ble. 

The pure Nordic race is at present clustered 
around the shores of the Baltic and North Seas, 
from which is has spread west and south and east 
in every direction, fading oflf gradually into the two 
preceding races. 
/^ The centre of its greatest purity is now in Swe- 
/ den, and there is no doubt that at ^rst the Scan- 
/ dinavian Peninsula, and later the immediately ad- 
/ joining shores of the Baltic, were the centres of 
y radiation of the , Teutonic or Scandinavi an 
^, of^Jhi^jiace. 

The population of Scandinavia has been composed 
of this Nordic subspecies from the beginning of Neo- \ 
lithic times, and Sweden to-day represents one of • 
the few countries which has never been over- 
whelmed by foreign conquest, and in v^hir.h th ere^ ^ 
has been but a single rac ial t \ ^c from the be^n-^^"^ 
ning. This nation is imique for its unity of race, 
language, religion, and social ideals. 
r" Southern Scandinavia only became fit for hu- 
^ man habitation on the retreat of the glaciers about 
twelve thousand years ago and apparently was im- 
mediately occupied by the Nordic race. This is one 


of the few geological dates which is absolute and 
not relative. It rests on a most interesting series 
of computations made by Baron DeGeer, based on 
an actual count of the laminated deposits of clay 
laid down annually by the retreating glaciers, each 
layer representing the siunmer deposit of the sub- 
glacial stream. 

The Nordics first appear at the close of the 
Paleolithic along the coasts of the Baltic. The 
earliest industry discovered in this region is known 
as the Maglemose, found in Denmark and else- 
where around the Baltic, and is probably the cul- 
ture of the Proto-Teutonic branch of the Nordic 
race. No himian remains have as yet been found. 

The vipor and ppwer of the Nordic race as a 
whole issuch that it could not have been evolved 
in so restricted an area as southern Sweden, al- 
though its Teutonic section did develop there in 
comparative isolation. The Nordics must have had 
a larger field for their specialization, and a longer 
period for their evolution, than is afiForded by 
the limited time which has elapsed since Sweden 
became habitable. For the d evelopment of so 
marked a type there is required a continental ar ea 
"^ isolated a nd protected for long ag^es from the ii 
tffiSbn of otheri^ces. The climatic -conditions 

must have been such as to impose a ri gid elimi- 
nation ot detectives through the ageng 

winters and the necessity of industry and foresight 


d uring the short summer . §uch demands on en - 1^ I 

ergy, if l ong continued, would p rod uce a strong , ^..^ / 

...^^ viril e, and self-contained race which would inevi- / 

>1 tabC 

ly^QYfir whelm in battle nations whose weaker / 
elements had not been purged by the conditions of ^ 
an equall y severe environment. 
' An area conforming to these requirements is 
oflfered by the forests and plains of eastern Ger- 
many, Poland, and Russia. It was here that the 
Proto-Nordic type evolved, and here their remnants 
are foimd. They were protected from Asia on the 
east by the then almost continuous water connec- 
tions across eastern Russia between the White Sea 
and the old Caspian- Aral Sea. 

During the last glacial advance (the Wiirm gla- 
ciation), which, like the preceding glacial advances, 
is believed to have been a period of land depres- 
sion, the White Sea extended far to the south of 
its present Umits, while the enlarged Caspian Sea, 
then and long afterward connected with the Sea 
of Aral, extended northward to the great bend of 
the Volga. The intermediate area was studded 
with large lakes and morasses. Thus an almost 
complete water barrier of shallow sea, located just 
west of the low Ural Mountains, separated Europe 
from Asia during the Wiirm glaciation and long 
afterward. The broken connection was restored 
just before the dawn of history by the slight ele- 


vation of the land and the shrinking of the Cas- 
pian-Aral Sea through increasmg desiccation which 
left its present surface below sea level. 

An important element in the isolation of this 
Nordic cradle on the south is the fact that from the 
earliest times down to this day the pressure of pop- 
ulation has everywhere been from the bleak and 
sterile north southward and eastward into the 
sunny and enervating lands of France, Italy, 
Greece, Persia, and India. 

In these forests aiu steppes of the north, the 
Nordic race gradually evolved in isolation, and at 
a very early date occupied the Scandinavian Pen- 
insula, together with much of the land now sub- 
merged imder the Baltic and North Seas. 

Nordic strains form everywhere a substratum 
of population throughout Russia and underlie the 
roimd skull Slavs who first appear a little over a 
thousand years ago as coming, not from the direc- 
tion of Asia, but from south Poland. Burial mounds 
called kurgans are widely scattered throughout 
Russia from the Carpathians to the Urals, and con- 
tain nimierous remains of a dolichocephalic race; 
in fact, more than three-fourths of the skulls are 
of this type. Round skuUs first become numer- 
ous in ancient Russian graveyards about 900 A. D., 
and soon increase to such an extent that in the 
Slavic period from the ninth to the thirteenth cen- 
turies one-half of the skulls were brachycephalic. 


while in modem cemeteries the proportion of round 
skulls is still greater. This ancient Nordic element, 
however, still forms a very considerable portion of 
the population of northern Russia and contributes } 
the blondness and the red-headedness so charac- ^ 
teristic of the Russian of to-day. As we leave 
the Baltic coasts the Nordic characters fade out 
both toward the south and east. The blond ele- 
ment in the nobility of Russia is of later Scandi- 
navian and Teutonic origin. 

When the seas which separated Russia from Asia 
dried up, and when the isolation and exacting cli- 
mate of the north had done their work and pro- 
duced the vigorous Nordic type, these men burst 
upon the southern races, conquering east, south, 
and west. They brought with them from the 
north the hardihood and vigor acquired imder the 
rigorous selection of a long winter season, and 
vanquished in battle the inhabitants of older and 
feebler civilizations, only in their turn to succimib 
to the softening influences of a life of ease and 
plenty in their new homes. 

The earliest appearance in history of Aryan- 
speaking Nordics is our first dim vision of the Sacae 
introducing the Sanskrit into India, the Cimme- 
rians pouring through the passes of the Caucasus 
from the grasslands of south Russia to invade the 
Empire of the Medes, and the Achaeans and 
Phrygians conquering Greece and the iEgean coast 


of Asia Minor. About iioo B. C. Nordics enter 
Italy as Umbrians and Oscans, and soon after 
cross the Rhine into GauL This western vanguard 
was composed of Cdtic-speaking tribes which had 
long occupied those districts in Germany which lay 
south and west of the Teutonic-speaking Nordics, 
who at this early date were probably confined to 
Scandinavia and the immediate shores of the 
Baltic, and were beginning to press southward. 

This first wave of Nordics seems to have swept 
westward along the sandy plains of northern Eu- 
rope, entering France through the Low Countries. 
From this point as Goidels they spread north into 
Britain, reaching there about 800 B. C. As Gauls 
they conquered all France and pushed on south and 
west into Spain, and over the Maritime Alps into 
northern Italy, where they encountered their kin- 
dred Nordic Umbrians, who at an earlier date had 
crossed the Alps from the northeast Other Celtic- 
speaking Nordics apparently migrated up the Rhine 
and down the Danube, and by the time the Ro- 
mans came on the scene the Alpines of central 
Europe had been thoroughly Celticized. These 
tribes pushed eastward into southern Russia and 
reached the Crimea as early as the fourth century 
B. C. Mixed with the natives, they were called by 
the Greeks the Celto-Scyths. This swarming out 
of Germany of the first Nopdics was during the 
closing phases of the Bronze Period, and was con- 


temporary with, and probably caused by, the first 
great expansion of the Teutons from Scandinavia 
by way both of Denmark and the Baltic coasts. 

These invaders were succeeded by a second wave 
of Celtic-speaking peoples, the Cymry, who drove 
their Goidelic predecessors still farther west and 
exterminated and absorbed them over large areas. 
These Cymric invasions occurred about 300-100 
B.C.J and were probably the result of the growing 
development of the Teutons and their final expul- 
sion of the Celtic-speaking tribes from Germany. 
These Cymry occupied northern France imder the 
name of Belgae and invaded England as Br3rthons, 
and their conquests in both Gaul and Britain were 
only checked by the legions of Caesar. 

These migrations are exceedingly hard to trace 
because of the confusion caused by the fact that 
Celtic speech is now found on the lips of popu- 
lations in nowise related to the Nordics who first 
introduced it. But one fact stands out clearly, 

all the on giTif^l reltiV-sp^king trihes were purely 

What were the special physical characters of 
these tribes, in which they differed from their Teu- 
tonic successors, is now impossible to say, beyond 
the possible suggestion that in the British Isles the 
Scottish and Irish populations in which red hair 
and gray or green eyes are abimdant have rather 
more of this Celtic strain in them than have the 


flaxen haired Teutons, whose china blue eyes are 
clearly not Celtic. 

When the peoples called Gauls or Celts by the 
Romans, and Galatians by the Greeks, first appear 
in history, they are described in exactly the same 
terms as were later the Teutons. They were all 
gigantic barbarians with fair and very often red 
hair, then more frequent than to-day, with gray en: 
fiercely blue eyes, and were thus clearly members 
of the Nordic subspecies. 

The first Celtic-speaking nations with whom the 
Romans came in contact were Gaulish, and had 
probably incorporated much Alpine blood by the 
time they crossed the mountains into the domain 
of classic history. The Nordic element had be- 
come still weaker by absorption from the con- 
quered populations, when at a later date the Ro- 
mans broke through the ring of Celtic nations and 
came into contact with the purely Nordic Cymry 
and Teutons. 

After these early expansions of Gaids and Cymry, 
the Teutons appear upon the scene. Of the pure 
Teutons within the ken of history, it is not neces- 
sary to mention more than the most important of 
the long series of conquering tribes. 

The greatest of them all were perhaps the 
Goths, who came originally from the south of 
Sweden and were long located on the opposite 
German coast, at the mouth of the Vistula. From 


here they crossed Poland to the Crimea, where they 
were known in the first century. Three hundred 
years later they were driven westward by the Huns 
and forced into the Dacian plain and over the 
Danube into the Roman Empire. Here they split 
up; the Ostrogoths after a period of subjection to 
the Huns on the Danube, ravaged the European 
provinces of the Eastern Empire, conquered Italy, 
and founded there a great but shortlived nation. 
The Visigoths occupied much of Gaul and then 
entered Spain, driving the Vandals before them 
into Africa. The Teutons and Cimbri destroyed 
by Marius in southern Gaul about 100 B. C; the 
Gepidae; the Alans; the Suevi; the Vandals; the 
Helvetians; the Alemanni of the upper Rhine; the 
Marcomanni; the Saxons; the Batavians; the Fris- 
ians; the Angles; the Jutes, the Lombards and the 
Heruli of Italy; the Burgundians of the east of 
France; the Franks of the lower Rhine; the Danes; 
and latest of all, the Norse Vikings, swept through 
history. Less well known but of great importance, 
are the Varangians, who, coming from Sweden in 
the ninth and tenth centuries, conquered the coast 
of the Gulf of Finland and much of White Russia, 
and left there a dynasty and aristocracy of Norse 
blood. In the tenth and eleventh centuries they 
were the rulers of Russia. 

The traditions of Goths, Vandals, Lombards, 
and Burgundians all point to Sweden as their 


earliest homeland, and probably all the pure Ger- 
manic tribes came originally from Scandioavia and 
were closely related. 

When these Teutonic tribes poured down from 
the Baltic coasts, their Celtic-speaking Nordic 
predecessors were already much mixed with the 
underlying populations, Mediterranean in the west 
and Alpine in the south. These "Celts" were not 
recognized by the Teutons as kin in any sense, 
and were all called Welsh or foreigners. From this 
word are derived the names "Wales," "Corn- 
wales" or "ComwaU," "Valais," "Walloons," and 
"WaUachian" or "Vlach." 



No proper understanding is possible of the 
meaning of the history of Christendom^ or full ap- 
preciation of the place in it of the Teutonic Nor- 
dics, without a brief review of the events in 
Europe of the last two thousand years. 

When Rome fell and changed trade conditions 
necessitated the transfer of power from its historic 
capital in Italy to a strategic situation on the Bos- 
porus, western Europe was definitely and finally 
abandoned to its Germanic invaders. These same 
barbarians swept up again and again to the Pro- 
pontis, only to recoil before the organized strength 
of the Byzantine Empire, and the walls of Mikkle- 

Until the coming of the Alpine Slavs the East- 
em Empire still held in Europe the Balkan Penin- 
sula and much of the eastern Mediterranean. The 
Western Empire, however, collapsed utterly under 
the impact of hordes of Nordic Teutons at a 
much earlier date. In the fourth and fifth centu- 
ries of our era, north Africa, once the empire of 
Carthage, had become the seat of the kingdom of 



Teutonic Vandals. Spain fell under the control 
of the Visigoths, and Lusitania, now Portugal, 
under that of the Suevi. Gaul was Visigothic in 
the south and Burgundian in the east, while the 
Frankish kingdom dominated the north imtil it 
finally absorbed and incoiporated all the territories 
of ancient Gaul and made it the land of the Franks. 

Italy fell under the control first of the Ostro- 
goths and then of the Lombards. The purely 
Teutonic Saxons, with kindred tribes, conquered the 
British Isles, and meanwhile the Norse and Danish 
Scandinavians contributed large elements to all 
the coast populations as far south as Spain, and 
the Swedes organized in the eastern Baltic what 
is now Russia. 

Thus when Rome passed, all Europe had be- 
come superficially Teutonic. At first these Teutons 
were isolated and independent tribes, bearing some 
shadowy relation to the one organized state they 
knew, the Empire of Rome. Then came the Mo- 
hammedan invasion, which reached western Eu- 
rope from Africa and destroyed the Visigothic 
kingdom. The Moslems swept on unchecked 
until their light horsemen dashed themselves to 
pieces against the heavy armed cavalry of Charles 
Martel and his Franks at Tours in 732 A. D. 

The destruction of the Vandal kingdom by the 
armies of the Byzantine Empire; the conquest of 
Spain by the Moors, and finally the overthrow of 



the Lombards by the Franks were all greatly facil- 
itated by the fact that these barbarians, Vandals, 
Goths, Suevi, and Lombards, with the sole excep- 
tion of the Franks, were originally Christians 
of the Arian or Unitarian confession, and as 
such were regarded as heretics by their Orthodox 
Christian subjects. The Franks alone were con- 
verted from heathenism directly into the Trini- 
tarian faith to which the old populations of the 
Roman Empire adhered. From this orthodoxy 
of the Franks arose the close relation between 
France, "the eldest daughter of the chiu-ch," and 
the papacy, a connection which lasted for more 
than a thousand years — ^in fact nearly to our own 

With the Goths eliminated, western Christen- 
dom became Frankish. In the year 800 A. D. 
Charlemagne was crowned at Rome and re-estab- 
lished the Roman Empire in the west, which in- 
cluded all Christendom outside of the Byzantine 
Empire. In some form or shape this Roman Em- 
pire endured until the beginning of the nineteenth 
century, and during all that time it formed the 
basis of the political concept of European man. 

This same concept lies to-day at the root of the 
imperial idea. The Kaiser, Tsar, and Emperor all 
take their name, and in some way trace their title, 
from Caesar and the Empire. Charlemagne and 
his successors claimed, and often exercised, over- 


lordship as to all the other continental Christian 
nations, and when the Crusades began it was the 
German Emperor who led the Prankish hosts 
against the . Saracens. Charlemagne was a Ger- 
man Emperor, his capital was at Aachen, within the 
present limits of the German Empire, and the lan- 
guage of his court was German. For several cen- 
turies after the conquest of Gaul by the Franks, 
their Teutonic tongue held its own against the 
Latin speech of the Romanized Gauls. 

The history of all Christian Europe is in some 
degree interwoven with this Holy Roman Empire. 
Though the Empire was neither holy nor Roman, 
but altogether secular and Teutonic, it was, never- 
theless, the central core of Europe for ages. Hol- 
land and Flanders, Lorraine and Alsace, Bur- 
gundy and Luxemberg, Lombardy and Venezia, 
Switzerland and Austria, Bohemia and Styria are 
states which were originally component parts of 
the Empire, although many of them have since 
been torn away by rival nations or have become in- 
dependent, while much of northern Italy remained 
imder the sway of Austria within the memory of 
living men. 

The Empire wasted its strength in imperial am- 
bitions and foreign conquests instead of consoli- 
dating, organizing, and unifying its own territories, 
and the fact that the imperial crown was elective 
for many generations before it became hereditary 


in the House of Hapsburg^ checked the unification 
of Germany during the Middle Ages. 

A strong hereditary monarchy such as those 
which arose in England and in France would have 
anticipated the Germany of to-day by a thousand 
years and made it the predominant state in Chris- 
tendom, but disruptive elements^ in the persons 
of great territorial dukes, were successful through- 
out its history in preventing an effective concen- 
tration of power in the hands of the Emperor. 

That the German Emperor was regarded, though 
vaguely, as the overlord of all Christian monarchs 
was clearly indicated when Henry VIII of England 
and Francis I of France appeared as candidates 
for the imperial crown against Charles of Spain, 
afterward the Emperor Charles V. 

Eiu*ope was Germany, and Germany was Eiu-ope^ 
predominantly, until the Thirty Years' War. This\ 
\ war was perhaps the greatest catastrophe of all the j 
' ghastly crimes committed in the name of religion. I 
\ It destroyed an entire generation, taking each year 
U or thirty years the finest manhood of the nations. 

Two-thirds of the population of Germany was 
destroyed, in some states such as Bohemia three- 
fourths of the inhabitants were killed or exiled, 
while out of 500,000 inhabitants in Wiirtem- 
berg there were only 48,000 left at the end of the 
war. Terrible as this loss was, the destruction 
did not fall equally on the various races and classes 


in the community. It bore, of course, most heav- / 
ilyupon the big blond fighting man, and at the end/ 
of the war the German states contained a^4greatly| 
lessened proportion of Nordic blood. In fact 
from that time on the purely Teutonic race in 
rmany has been largely replaced by the Al- 
pine types in the south, and by the Wendish and 
the Polish t)^s in the east. This change of race 
in Germany has gone so far that it has been com- 
puted that out of the 70,000,000 inhabitants of 
the German Empire, only 9,000,000 are purely 
Teutonic in coloration, stature, and skull charac- 
rs. The rarity of pure Teutonic and Nordic 
types among the German immigrants to America in 
ontrast to its almost imiversal prevalence among 
those from Scandinavia is traceable to the sami 

In addition, the Thirty Years' War virtu 
destroyed the land owning yeomanry and lesser 
gentry formerly found m medieval Germany as 
numerously as in France or in England. The re- 
ligious wars of France, while not as devastating to 
the nation as a whole as was the Thirty Years' War 
in Germany, nevertheless greatly weakened the 
French cavalier type, the "petite noblesse de prov- 
A ince." In Germany this class had flourished, and 
/ throughout the Middle Ages contributed great 
I numbers of knights, poets, thinkers, great artists 
x^d artisans who gave charm and variety to Euro- 


pean society. But as said, this section of the pop- 
ulation was practically exterminated in the Thirty 
Years* War, y^d^^e class of gentlemen practically it^ 
^m'sTiy^ frnniflgriTian history from that time on. ^^%^ 
~When the Thirty kfears' War was over lEerTre^ 
mained in Germany nothing except the brutalized 
peasantry, largely of Alpine derivation in the 
south and east, and the high nobility which turned 
from the tolls of endless warfare to mimic on a 
small scale the court of Versailles. It has taken 
Germany two centuries to recover her vigor, her 
wealth, and her aspirations to a place in the sun. 

During these years Germany was a political non- 
entity, a mere congery of petty states bickering and 
fighting with each other, claiming and owning only 
the Empire of the Air as Napoleon happily phrased 
it, and meantime France and England founded 
v^^^ colonial empires beyond the seas. 
; 2^ When, in the last generation, Germany became 
unified and organized, she foimd herself not only 
too late to share in these colonial enterprises, but 
also lacking in much of the racial element, and still 
more lacking in the very classes which were her 
greatest strength and glory before the Thirty Years* 
War. To-day the ghastly rarity in the German 
armies of chivalry and generosity toward women, 
and of knightly protection and courtesy toward the 
prisoners or wounded, can be largely attributed 
\c\ |]iiQ flnniT^ilgiinn pf the gentle classcs . The Ger- 


mans of to-day, whether they live on the farms 
or m the cities, are for the most part, descendants 
of th e peasants^ w ho siiryived, not of the brilliant 
kmghts and s turdy foot soldiers who fell in that 
mighty conflict. Knowledge of this great past 
wEen Europe was Teutonic, and memories of the 
shadowy grandeur of the Hohenstauf en Emperors, 
who, generation after generation, led Teutonic 
armies over the Alps to assert their title to Italian 
provinces, have playg d no small part in modem 
German consciousness. 

These traditions and the knowledge that their 
own religious dissensions swept them from the 
leadership of the European world, Ij g at the b ase 
of the Geraaa iL imperial ideal of to-daVt and it is 
foT ^s ideal tha t the German armies are dying , 
just as did their ancestors for a thousand years 
under their Fredericks, Henrys, Conrads, and Ot- 

But the Empire of Rome and the Empire of 
Charlemagne are no more, and the Jl fcutoaie-type-- 
is divided almost equallv betwe en the contending 
forces i n this world war. Germany is too late, and 
is limited to a destiny fixed and ordained for her 
on the fatal day in 1618 when the Hapsburg Fer- 
dinand forced the Protestants of Bohemia into 

("wVlthough as a result of the Thirty Years' War the 
German Empire is far less Nordic than in the Mid- 


/ die Ages, the north of Germany is still Teutonic 

;:>. y throughout, and in the east and south the Alpines 

")^ have be« .hon>u,hl. Gen^ani^ ^ a. aHstoc- 

V racy and upper class of pure Teutonic blood. 



The men of Nordic blood to-day form all the 
population of Scandinavian countries, as also a ma- 
jority of the population of the British Isles, and 
are almost pure in type in Scotland and eastern 
and northern England. The Nordic realm includes 
all the northern third of France, with extensions 
into the fertile southwest; all the rich lowlands of 
Flanders; aU Holland; the northern half of Ger- 
many, with extensions up the Rhine and down the 
Danube; and the north of Poland, and of Russia. 
Recent calculations show that there are about 
90,000,000 of purely Nordic physical type in 
Europe out of a total population of 420,000,000, 

Throughout southern Europe a Nordic nobility 
of Teutonic type everywhere forms the old aristo- 
cratic and military classes, or what now remains 
of them. These aristocrats, by as much as their 
blood is pure, are taller and blonder than the native 
populations, whether these be Alpine in central 
Europe or Mediterranean in Spain or in the south 
of France and Italy. 

The coimtries speaking Low German dialects 

are almost purely Nordic, but the populations of 



High German speech are very largely Teutonized 
Alpines, and occupy lands once Celtic-speaking. 
The main distinction between the two dialects is 
the presence of a large number of Celtic elements 
in High German. 

In northern Italy there is a large amoimt of Nor- 
dic blood. In Lombardy, Venice, and elsewhere 
throughout the coimtry the aristocracy is blonder 
and taller than the peasantry, but the Nordic ele- 
ment in Italy has declined noticeably since the 
Middle Ages. From Roman times onward for a 
thousand years the Teutons swarmed into north- 
em Italy, through the Alps, chiefly by way of the 
Brenner Pass. With the stoppage of these Nordic 
invasions this strain seems to have grown less all 
through Italy. 

In the Balkan Peninsula there is little to show 
for the floods of Nordic blood that have poured in 
for the last 3,500 years, beginning with the Achae- 
ans of Homer, who first appeared en masse about 
1400 B. C, and were followed successively by the 
Dorians, Cimmerians, and Gauls, down to the 
Goths and the Varangians of Byzantine times. 

The tall stature of the population along the 
lUyrian Alps from the Tyrol to Albania on the 
south, is undoubtedly of Nordic origin, and dates 
from some of these early invasions, but these II- 
lyrians have been so crossed with Slavs that all 
other blond elements have been lost, and the ex- 


isting population is essentially of brachycephalic 
Alpine type. What few remnants of blondness 
occur in this district, more particulariy in Albania, 
are probably to be attributed to later infiltrations, 
as are the so-called Prankish elements in Bosnia. 
In Russia and in Poland the Nordic stature, blond- 
ness, and long skull grow less and less pronoimced 
as one proceeds south and east from the Gulf of 
^ \ It woidd appear that in all those parts of Eu- 
^^ope outside of its natural habitat, the Nordic 
^ blood is on the wane from England to Italy, 
(\ and that the ancient, acclim ated, and primitive 
• popidations of Alpine and Mediterranean race are 
_^ subtly reasserting their long lost political power 
^through a hi p ;h breed^' n g rate and democ ratic m - 

In western Europe the first wave of the Non 
tribes appeared about three thousand years ago, and 
was followed by other invasions with the Nordic 
element becoming stronger imtil after the fall of 
Rome whole tribes moved into its provinces Ger- 
manizing them more or less for varying lengths of 
JXhese incoming Nordics intermarried with th 

<iativ e populations a nd were gradually bred out, 
an3the resurgence of the old native stock has pro- 
ceedeo^leadily since the Frankish Charlemagne 
destroyed the Lombard kingdom, and is proceed- 


-with unabated vig or to-day . This proces s has 
beengr eatly accelerated in western Europe by the 
y crusades and the religio us and Napoleonic wars. ^^ 
^ff ^he world war, now in f u ll swing with its toll of 
millions, will leave Europe much poorer in Nordic 
Jblo^^ One of its most certain results will be the 
irtial destruction of the aristocratic classes ev ery- 
where in northern Europe. In England the nobil- 
ity has already suffered in battle more than in any 
ntury since the Wars of the Roses. T ^lff ^^^ 
tend to realize the standardization of type so deai 

cannot be ob- 

fn Hfi^orratic ideals^ If eauj 

tained by lengthening and uplifting thej tunted of 
body and of mind, it can be at least realized by the 
destruction of the exalted of stature and of soul. 

The beef of Procrustes operates with the same 
fatal exactness when it shortens the long as when it 
stretches the undersized^ 

The first Nordics in Spain were the Gauls who 
crossed the Pyrenees about the seventh century 
before our era, and introduced Aryan speech into 
the Iberian Peninsula. They quickly mixed with 
Mediterranean natives and the composite Span- 
iards were called Celtiberians by the Romans. 

In Portugal and Spain there are in the physical 
structure of the popidation few traces of these 
early Celtic-speaking Nordic invaders, but the 
Suevi, who a thousand years later occupied parts of 
Portugal, and the Vandals and Visigoths who con- 


quered and held Spain for 300 years, have left some 
small evidence of their blood, and in the provinces 
of northwestern Spain a considerable percentage 
of light colored eyes reveals these Nordic elements 
in the population. 
Deep seated Castilian traditions associate aris- ^ 
2 tocracy with blondness, and the sangre aztdj or 
blue blood of Spain, refers to the blue eye of the^ 

Goth, whose traditional claim to lordship is also 
shown in the Spanish name for gentleman, ''hi-> 
dalgo," or son of the Goth. ' 

As long as this Gothic nobility controlled the 
Spanish states during the endless crusades against 
the Moors, Spain belonged with the Nordic king- 
doms, but when their blood became impaired by 
losses in wars waged outside of Spain and in the 
conquest of the Americas, the sceptre feU from this 
noble race into the hands of the little, dark Iberian, 
who had not the physical vi^or or the intellectual^ 
sfrengtn to maintain the world empire bu ilt up by 
the stronger race. 

'^The splendid conquistadores of the New World 
were of Nordic t)^, but their pure stock did not ^y 
long survive their new surroimdings, and to-day / 
>y they have vanished utterly, leaving behind them / 
only their language and their religion. After con-/ 
sidering well these facts we shall not have to search 

further for the causes of the collapse of 
Gaul at the time of Caesar's conquest was 


the rule of the Nordic race, which furnished the 
bulk of the population of the north as well as the 
military classes elsewhere, and the power and 
vigor of the French nation have been based on this 
blood and its later reinforcements. In fact, in U^ e 
e of to-day the amount of T^orf^^^ ^^^^ ^'" 

each nation is a very fair measure of its stren gth 
i n war and standing in civilization. 

When, about 1000 B. C, the first Nordics crossed 
the lower Rhine they foimd the Mediterranean 
race in France everywhere overwhelmed by an 
Alpine population, except in the south, and before 
the time of Caesar the Celtic language of these in- 
vaders, which was related to the Goidelic language 
still spoken in parts of Ireland and in the Scotch 
Highlands, had been imposed upon the entire pop- 
ulation, and the whole country had been saturated 
with Nordic blood. These earliest Nordics in the 
west were known to the ancient world as Gauls. 
These Gauls or ^* Celts,'* as they were called by 
Caesar, occupied in his day the centre of France. 
The actual racial complexion of this part of France 
was overwhelmingly Alpine then and is so now, 
but this population was Celticized thoroughly by 
the Gauls, just as it was Latinized as completely 
at a later date by the Romans. 

The northern third of France, that is, above 
Paris, was inhabited in Caesar's time by the Belgae, 
a Nordic people of the Cymric division of Celtic 


speech. They were largely of Teutonic blood, 
and in fact should be regarded as the immediate 
forerunners of the Germans, and they probably 
represent the early Teutons who had crossed from 
Sweden and adopted the Celtic speech of their 
Nordic kindred whom they found on the mainland. 
These Belgae had followed the earlier GoideLs across 
Germany into Britain and Gaul, and were rapidly 
displacing their Nordic predecessors, who by this 
time were much weakened by mixture with the 
autochthones, when Rome appeared upon the scene 
and set a limit to their conquests by the Pax Ro- 

The Belgae of the north of France and the Low 
Countries were the bravest of the peoples of Gaul, 
according to Caesar's well-known remark, but the 
claim of the Belgians of to-day to descent from this 
race is without basis and rests solely on the fact 
that the present Kingdom of Belgium, which only 
became independent and assumed its proud name 
in 1830, occupies a small and relatively imimpor- 
tant comer of the land of the Belgae. The Flem- 
ings of Belgiimi are Nordic Franks speaking a 
Low German tongue, and the Walloons are Al- 
pines whose language is an archaic French. 

The Belgae and the Goidelic remnants of Nordic 
blood in the centre of Gaul, taken together C9n- 
stituted probably only a minority in blood of the 
population, but were everywhere the military and 


ruling classes. These Nordic elements were later 
reinforced by powerful Teutonic tribes, namely, 
Vandals, Visigoths, Alans, Saxons, Burgundians, 
and most important of all, the Franks of the 
lower Rhine, who founded modem France and 
made it for long centuries the ^^ grand ncUian^^ of 

The Frankish dynasties long after Charlemagne 
were of purely Teutonic blood, and the aristocratic 
land owning and military classes down to the great 
Revolution were everywhere of this type, which 
by the time of the creation of the Frankish king- 
dom had incorporated all the other Nordic elements 
of old Roman Gaul, both Gaulish and Belgic. 

The last invasion of Teutonic-speaking barba- 
rians was that of the Danish Northmen, who were, 
of course, of pure Nordic blood, and who con- 
quered and settled Normandy in 911 A. D. No 
sooner had the barbarian invasions ceased than 
the ancient aboriginal blood strains, Mediterranean 
and Alpine, and elements derived from Paleolithic 
times, began a slow and steady recovery. Step by 
step, with the reappearance of these primitive and 
deep rooted stocks, th e Nordic elemen t I'n Franf^ 
declined. apH with \t th^ vigo^- of fhft nation. 

The chief historic events of the last thousand 

/yj ye ars have hastened this t>f o cess, and the fact that .s^ ^^fK^^j 
/ JOr the Nordic element ev erywhere Jofms the fighlmg x 
sei^ti^n nf thp (-f)mmunity caused the loss m war 



to fall disproportionately as among the thr ee races 

The religions wars greatly weakened 
e Nordic provincial nobility, which was at first 
largely Protestant, and the process of exterminating 
the upper classes was completed bv the Revolution- 
aijT^d Napoleonic wars. T hese last wars are 
said to have shortened the stature of the French by^S 

{.jOioui inches; in other words, the tall Nordic strain 
Xf^was killed off in greater proportions than the little 
' brunet. * 

^ J When by imiversal suffrage the transfer of powep^ 
/ f /was completed from a Nordic aristocracy to lowe^tji 
:lasses predominantly of Alpine and Mediterranean j 
^Aj extraction, the decline of France in international/ 
power set in. 
The surviv ors of the aristocracy, being stripped^^ ^ 
power and to a la rge extent of wealt^^ 
[y lost ^eir caste pride and conmiitted clas^i 
nuxing their blood with i nferior breeds. 
le of the most conspicuous featur^ot m&ny 
the French nobility of to-day is the strength of 
the Levantine and Mediterranean strain in them. 
Being, for political reasons, ardently clerical , the 
nobility welcomes recruits ofany racial origin, as 
long as they bring with them money and devotion 
to the Church. 

The loss in war of the best breeding stock through 
death, wounds, or absence from home has been 
clearly shown in France. The conscripts who 



were examined for military duty in 1890-2 wej:e 
thosedegggnr^ed i n a large measure from th^j iilL 
tary reje cts and other stay-at-homes during th e 
F ranco-Prussian War. In Dordogne this contin- 
gent showed seven per cent more deficient statures 
than the normal rate. In some cantons this unf or- 
timate generation was in height an inch below the 
recruits of preceding years, and in it the exemp- 
tions for defective physique rose from the normal 
m per cent to sixteen per cent. 
When each prfinftration ]> (^f^r nated or destroye d 

■ Lt 

^nbe injured beyond reco^ 

ifaT it more fre quently happens J h at the resu lt is the 
" jlatiop nf an qn tire class^ as in thecas e of tEe 
German e^entry in the. Thirty VftarR^ War. Deso- 
lation of wide districts often resulted from "the 


plagues and famines which followed the armies in 

rJH ^^ayS^ hut rlpathft frn n? these CaUSeS fal l mOSt 

heavily on th^ jg eaker part of the population. The _ 
loss of valuable breeding stock is far more seriou s .^ 
wSm y^xs are fought with volunteer amJeTo f 
picked men than with conscript armies, because 

ipjatt^r ^ag^g ^^^ ^^^ js more evenly spreads 
over the wT^ol^ natift^, 3efore England resorted^ 
m the present war to universal conscription the m- 
j ury to her more desirable and patriotic classes was 
much more pronounced than in Germany, whe re aJl^ 


In the British Isles we find, before the arrival 


of the Nordic race, a Mediterranean population 
and no perceptible element of Alpine blood, so that 
we have to deal with only two of the main races 
instead of all three as in France. In Britain there 
are, as elsewhere, representatives of earlier races, 
but the preponderant strain of blood was Mediter- 
ranean before the first arrival of the Aryan-speak- 
ing Nordics. 

Ireland was connected with Britain and Britain 
with the continent until times very recent in a 
geological sense. The depression of the Channel 
coasts is progressing rapidly to-day, and is known 
to have been substantial during historic times. 
The close parallel in blood and culture between 
England and the opposite coasts of France also in- 
dicates a very recent land connection, probably in 
Neolithic times. Men either walked from the con- 
tinent to England and from England to Ireland, 
or they paddled across in primitive boats or cora- 
cles. The art of ship-building, or even archaic 
navigation, cannot go much further back than late 
Neolithic times. 

The tribes of Celtic speech came to the British 
Isles in two distinct waves. The earlier invasion 
of the Goidels arrived in England with a culture 
of bronze about 800 B. C, and in Ireland two cen- 
turies later, and was part of the same movement 
which brought the Gauls into France. The later 
conquest was by the Cymric-speaking Belgae who 


were equipped with iron weapons. It began in 
the third century B. C, and was still going on in 
Caesar's time. These Cymric Brythons found the 
early Goidels, with the exception of the aristoc- 
racy, much weakened by intermixture . wij 
M edite^nean natives^ and would probably have 
destroyed all trace of Goidelic speech in Ireland 
and Scotland, as they actually did in England, if 
the Romans had not intervened. The Brythons 
reached Ireland in small numbers only in the sec- 
ond century B. C. 

These Nordic elements in Britain, both Goidelic 
and Brythonic, were in a minority during Roman 
times, and the ethnic complexion of the island was 
not much affected by the Roman occupation, as 
the legions stationed there represented the varied 
racial stocks of the Empire. 

After the Romans abandoned Britain, and about 
400 A. D., floods of pure Nordics poured into the 
islands for nearly six centuries, arriving in the north 
as the Norse pirates, who made Scotland Scandi- 
navian, and in the east as Teutonic Saxons and 
Angles, who founded England. 

The Angles came from somewhere in central 
Jutland, and the Saxons came from coast lands 
immediately at the base of the Danish Peninsula. 
All these districts were then, and are now, purely 
Teutonic; in fact, this is part of old Saxony, and is 
to-day the core of Germany. 


These Saxon districts sent out at that time swarms 
of invaders not only into England but into France 
and over the Alps into Italy, just as at a much later 
p>eriod the same land sent swarming colonies into 
Himgary and Russia. 

The same Saxon invaders passed down the Chan- 
nel coasts, and traces of their settlement on the 
mainland remain to this day in the Cotentin dis- 
trict around Cherboxurg. Scandinavian sea peo- 
ples, called Danes or Northmen, swarmed over as 
late as 900 A. D. and conquered all eastern Eng- 
land. This Danish invasion of England was the 
same that brought the Northmen, or Normans, 
into France. In fact the occupation of Normandy 
was probably by Danes, and the conquest of Eng- 
land was largely the work of Norsemen, as Nor- 
way at that time was under Danish kings. 

Both of these invasions, especially the later 
one, swept aroimd the greater island and inun- 
dated Ireland, driving the aborigines and their 
Celtic-speaking masters into the bogs and islands 
of the extreme west. 

The blond Nordic element to-day predominates 
in Ireland as much as in England. It is de- 
rived, to some extent, from the early invaders of 
Celtic speech, but the Goidelic element has been 
in Ireland, as in England and Scotland, very 
largely absorbed by the Iberian substratum of the 
population, and is foimd to-day rather in the form 


of Nordic characters in brunets, than as the pure 
blond individuals who represent later and purer 
Nordic strains. The combination of black Iberian 
hair with blue or gray Nordic eyes is frequently 
found in Ireland and also in Spain, and in both 
these countries is greatly admired for its beauty. 

The tall, blond Irishmen are to-day chiefly Dan- 
ish with the addition of English, Norman, and 
Scotch elements, which have poured into the 
lesser island for a thousand years, and have im- 
posed the English speech upon it. Xbe more prim - 
itive and ancient elements in Ireland have always 

s howed great ability to absorb newcomers. ancT 
during the Middle Ages it was notorious that the 
Nor man and English colonists quickly sank to the 
cultural level of the natives. . Indications of Paleo- 
lithic man appear in Ireland frequently as imit 
characters, as well as individuals. Being, like Brit- 
tany, situated on the extreme western outposts 
of Eurasia, it has more than its share of general- 
ized and low types surviving in the living popula- 
tions, and these types, the Firbolgs. have impa rtp4 
a dist inct and very undesirable aspect to a larg e 
portion of the inhabitants of the west and soum, 
and have greatly lowered the _jntdlectual status 
o f the population as a whole, 

In England much the same ethnic elements are 
present, namely the Nordic and the Mediterranean. 
There is, especially in Wales and in the west cen- 


tral counties of England, a large substratum of an- 
cient Mediterranean blood, but the later con^ afc. 
Norifc>«afejg ^eryvAe^ imf^ «po. it 

Scotland is by race Anglian in the south and 
Norse in the Highlands, with underlying Goidelic 
and Brythonic elements which are exceedingly 
hard to identify. 

The Nordic species of man in his various races, 
but chiefly Teutonic, made Gaul the land of the 
Franks, and made Britain the land of the Angles, 
and the Englishmen who built the British E] 
a nd foimded America w ere of the Nordic and not 

One of the most vigorous Nordic elements in 
France, England, and ^America was contributed by 
the Normans, and its influence on the develop- 
ment of these countries cannot be ignored. The 
descendants of the Danish and Norse Vikings who 
settled in Normandy as Teutonic-speaking heathen, 
and who as Normans crossed over to Saxon Eng- 
land and conquered it in 1066, are among the 

fin^ ff"^ "^M^^ CTamplPQ ^f the TsTnrdir rare. 
Lgir only rivals in these rh ?.rarters were the 

early Goth s. 

This Norman strain, while purely Nordic, seems 
to have been radically different in its mental make- 
up, and to some extent in its physical detail, from 
the Saxons of England, and also from the kindred 
Scandinavians on the continent. 


The Normans seem to have been "jine race^^ to 
use a French idiom, and are often characterized by 
a tall, slender figure, proud bearing and clearly 
marked featiures of classic Greek regularity. The 
type is seldom extremely blond, and is often dark. 
These Latinized Vikings were and are animated by 
a restless and nomadic energy and by a fierce ag- 
gressiveness. They played a brilliant r61e dxuing 
the twelfth and following centuries, but later on 
the continent this strain ran out. The type is still 
very common among the EngUsh of good families, 
and especially among hunters, explorers, navi- 
gators, adventurers, and officers of the lesser ranks 
in the British army. T hgse latt er-day Normans ^ 
/v. are natural rulers and admisustrators, and 11 is 10 'K^ 
.^^t hfertype that England largely o wes her^xtraordi- \^^fr^^ 
nary ability to govern justly and firmly the lower 
races^ This Norman blo od occiurs often among th e 
^^y ^mXxv t Americans , but with the changing soci al ^ 
^ Y^on3itions and the filling up of the waste places of a> 
t he earth, it is doomed to a speedy extinction . 

TTie inyafiioironiie Normans strengthened the 
Nordic and not the Mediterranean elements in ^he 
British Isles, but the connection once established 
with France, especially with Aquitaine, later in- 
troduced from southern France certain brunet 
elements of Mediterranean affinities. 

The Nordics in England are in these days 
apparently recedinp; hernrft rhp. Iirrlft brunei Med^ 



iterra ng^^lype. T^e causes of this Hi>rlin<> s m^ . 
: the s ame as in Frap ^fty ot^ <^^^^ ^l^if f loss ^k ^ 
^ ^ou^ the wastage of blood by war and jmi gra- 
ft An extremely potent influence. how tYfr, n thit^y^^ 
"^. tiri^n-.ffTrmtiti-n -rf thf niti-rn fr-rm m nrriniltunl 
tga manufacturing community, ff gftVYi healthful 

JW work in the fields of northern Europe enables the" ^ '. 

cV Nordic type to thrivey but the cramped factory^ ' 
a nd crowded city quickly weeds him out, wTiilft th^ 
little brunet Mediterranean can work a spindle, 
set type, sell ribbons, or push a clerk's pen far better 
than the big, climisy, and somewhat heavy Nordic. 

fjfW blond, who needs exerc isf^, ir^pat^ anH aiV^ a nd canP^ 

P^ ncA li'vp ^]nHpr CMt^^^^ ropditions. 

Thp inrrpfl,qi> of iifbi^^ r^mTTuin^ties at the ex- 

»ense of the coimtrysid e is also an i mportant de - 
ment in the fading ot the JNordic type, be cause the 
energetic countryman of this blood is more apt to 
improve his fortunes by moving to the city than the 
less ambitious Mediterranean. ' Pie coimtry vil- 
l ages and the farms are th <* ^nrsi^rips of na^finnRj 
while cities a re consumers and seldom producers of 


If F.npr|^nH liaQ deteriorated, and there are those 

^ Who thin lc thfty S^f; inHiVafiATiC nf cnrli Ha/^Iitia it ic 

\ HiiVs tQ \\\i^ lowering proportion nf thn Nnrdir Mnn 

nud thn tran sfer of political power from the vig or- 
ous Nordic aristocracy and middle classes to t 


radical and labor ele ments, both largely recniit ed;^^/^ 

O nly in Scandinavia and nort h Germany does 
th e Nordic ra cg^s eent^ta-m a jn tain its full vig o rJn 
spite oF the enomious wastage of three ^leussmd 
y^pirs^^^f^^ wYvn^^ f^rth of j tfi h^t fighting m^n 

Holland and Flanders are purely Teutonic, the 
Flemings being the descendants of those Franks 
who did not adopt Latin speech as did their Teu- 
tonic kin across the border in Artois and Picardy; 
and Holland is the ancient Batavia with the Frisian 
coast lands eastward to old Saxony. ^ 

' DenmaA^orway, and Swed^we^j^sljuNer^ 
^c and yttail^ Lunliibult nw fy i iiii-rTffaTs plendid typ e w 
of immigrants to America, and are now, a s thejw^ 

ve Deen tor thousands of years, the nursery and 

broodland of the master race. 

In mediaeval times thp Norse and Danish Vi- ^ 
]japgs,j ailed not only the waters of the known At- 
lantic, but ventured westward through the fog s 
and frozen seas to Iceland, Greenland fl.^(1 Amprif-ft^ 

Sweden, after sending forth her Goths and other 
early Teutonic tribes, turned her attention to the 
shores of the eastern Baltic, colonized the coast 
of Finland and the Baltic provinces, and supplied 
as well a strong Scandinavian element to the aris- 
tocracy of Russia. 

The coast of Finland is, as a result, Swedish, and 
the natives of the interior have distinctly Nordic 


characters with the exception of the skull, which 
in its roundness shows traces of an ancient Alpine 

The population of the so-called Baltic provinces 
of Russia is ever3rwhere Nordic, and their afi^ties 
are with Scandinavia and Germany rather than 
with Slavic Moscovy, The most primitive Aryan 
languages, namely, Lettish, Lithuanian, and the re- 
cently extinct Old Prussian, are found in this neigh- 
borhood, and here we are not far from the orig- 
inal Nordic homeland. 


The area in Europe where the Nordic race de- 
veloped, and in which the Aryan languages took 
their origin, probably included the forest region 
of eastern Germany, Poland, and Russia, together 
with the grasslands which stretched from the 
Ukraine eastward into the steppes south of the 
Ural. For reasons already explained this area was 
long isolated from the rest of the world, especially 
from Asia. When the imity of the Aryan race 
and of the Aryan language was broken up during 
the Bronze Age, the early Nordics pushed west 
along the sandy plains of the north and pressed 
against and through the Alpine populations of 
central Europe. They also swept down through 
Thrace into Greece and Asia Minor, while other 
large and important groups entered Asia partly 
through the Caucasus Mountains but in greater 
strength aroimd the north and east sides of the 
Caspian-Aral Sea. 

That portion of the Nordic race which contin- 
ued to inhabit south Russia and grazed their flocks 
of sheep and herds of horses on the grasslands, 
were the Scythians of the Greeks, and from these 

nomad shepherds came the Cimmerians, Persians, 




Sacae, Massagetas, and p>erlLaps the Kassites and 

Mitanni, and other early Aryan-speakmg Nordic 

^invaders of Asia. The descendants of these Nor- 

jdics are scattered everywhere in Russia, but are 

now submerged by the later Slavs. 

^ Well-marked characters of the "^^TorH]^ ran* exi^et 

\ us to distinguish it defin itely wherever it first ap- 

^y pears in histo ry, and we know mat all tfae-Wend- 

^ ne ss in the worldisderived from thif^ sniirr<*- Whe n 

/A. first enters the Mediter n^p<*Ari wn^M rnmi ng from 

, the north, i>^ ^m> 1 ^^ 9^M^Ty^\ ^r^ p^rkpH hy 

a new and higher civilization. _ In most cases thj 
c ontact of the vigo mng hgtr][yfi.rjan<; with t he andent 
crvUizations created a suddenJmDulse of life and 


an outburst of culture as soon as the first destruc- 
tion wrought by the conquest was repaired. 

^ i\df^^'^^^" ^o ,^e Jong conti nued selection ex-i/l 
rcised by the severe climatic conditions''^th^/ 

uent ehmmaiion oi meitec- 

I north^and 

Jpt iveSy all of which affects a race, there is another 
^ force at work which concerns tne individual as 
well. The energy developed in the north is not 
immediately lost when transferred to the softer 
conditions of existence in the Mediterranean and 
Indian countries. T ^iis energy en dures fo r several ^ 
^ generations, and o nly dies slowl y away as the nort h-^ 
eW blood becomescliluied and the impulse to strive 


I The contact of Hellene and Pelasgian caused the 


nt civilization of Hellas, 
xs later, when the Nordic 
absorbed the science, art, 
they produced that splen 

Cinque Cento were of Nor- 
L Lombard, blood, a fact 
lose inspection of busts or 
Dante, Raphael, Titian, 
rdo da Vind were all 


civilization and organiza- 
1 the incxirsion of the Nor- 
d of the roxind skull Medes, 

Sanskrit into India by the 
ered that peninsula. Thes e 
lue to the first contact and 

however , 
1 the last lingering trace 

f these Aryan-speaking in^'^ 
2d by the dark Hindu, and ) 
their s)aithetic speech sur- / 

ization of the Roman stat e ^ ] 
of Nordic mercen aries, and ^ / 

rp fliivp fnr t]irPf^ 

late when the population 

enanes, and ^ / 
ae centurie s^ / 



terranean an d Oriental H^^p dip tn tlif iijIhf 
diirnnn nf ilnirri from thr ront 9nd thr wagtagg ^6 

coincides with the establish- 
ment of the Empire under Augustus, and the last 
Republican patriots represent the final protest of 
the old patrician Nordic strain. For the most 
part they refused to abdicate their right to rule in 
favor of manumitted slaves and imperial favorites, 
and fell in battle and sword in hand. The Romau 
di ed out but t he sla ves survived, and their de- 

endants predominate among the south Italiai 
of t o-da] 

le Byzantine Empire, from much the same ^ 
causes, in its turn gradually became less and less /f 

)uropean and more and more Oriental until it, too, 
withered away. 

When these facts are considered the fall of Rome 
ceas ^joT)e a mystery, an d the only wonder b thai 
the Roman state lived on after the Romans were 
extinct, or that the Eastern Empire struggled on 
so long with an ever fading Greek population. 
Both in R o me and in Greece only the language o: 
t hg^ominant face^urvived. 

So entirely had tne blood of the Romans van-« 
ished in the last days of the Empire that sorry 
bands of barbarians wandered at will through the 
desolated provinces. Caesar and his legions would 
have made short work of these imorganized ban- 






dittiy but Caesar and his legions had become a 
memory, although that memory was great enough 
to inspire in the intruders a certain awe and desire 
to imitate. A gainst invaders, however, blood and 

fi brawn are m ore effective than t radition and 

"^iiQwever-JXQ ble thes e jnay be . 

*^ Early ascetic Christianity played a large part in 
this decline of the Roman Empire, as it was at the 
outset the religion of the slave, the meek, and the 
lowly, while Stoicism was the religion of the strong 
men of the time. This bias in favor of the weaker 
elements greatly interfered with their elimination 
by natural processes, and the fighting force of the 
empire was gradually xmdermined. Christianity 
was in sharp contrast to the worship of tribal 
deities which preceded it, and tended then^ as 
does now, to breakdowiL-dass and race distinc 

tions. Such distincti ons are absolutely essential / 

of race punty m any commu- 
ity w hen two or more races hve side by side. 
Race fe gljnpr ij(^^y 1^^ ra^llfid prejudice by those 
rhose careers are crampeoEy it, but iL is a uaLuial 

kthy whicH serves to m alntainjthe purity of 
tvpe. The unf ortunate fact that nearly all species 
ofmenjiiterhisedf reely leaves usjao .choice m the . . 
matter . Eit her the races must be kept apart by i/y 
artificial devices of t his sort, or else they ultimately xZ^ 
amalgamate, and in the offspring the more geiirr > 
'eralized 6t lower type prevails. 



We find few traces of Nordic characters outside 
of Europe. When Egypt was invaded by the Lib- 
yans from the west in 1230 B. C, they were ac- 
companied by blond "sea people," probably the 
Achasan Greeks, and it is interesting to note that 
a certain amount of reddish blondness exists to- 
day on the northern slopes of the Atlas Moimtains. 
That it is of Nordic origin we may be certain, but 
through what channels it came we have no means 
of knowing. There is no historic invasion of 
north Africa by Nordics except the Vandal con- 
quests, but there does not seem to be any prob- 
ability that this small Teutonic tribe left behind 
it any physical trace in the native population. 

The Philistines and Amorites of Palestine may 
have been of the Nordic race. Certain references 
to the size of the sons of Anak and to the fairness 
of David, whose mother was an Amoritish woman, 
point vaguely in this direction. 

References in Chinese annals to the green ^es 
of the Wu-suns or Hlimg-Nu in central Asia are 
the only sure evidence we have of the Nordic race 
in contact with the peoples of eastern Asia. 



The so-called blondness of the hairy Ainus of the 
northern islands of Japan seems to be due to a trace 
of what might be called Proto-Nordic blood. The 
hairiness of these people is in sharp contrast to their 
Mongoloid neighbors^ but it is a generalized char- 
acter common to the highest and the lowest races 
of man. The primitive Australoids and the highly 
specialized Scandinavians are among the most 
hairy populations in the world. So in the Ainus 
this somatological peculiarity is merely the reten- 
tion of a very primitive trait. The occasional 
brown or greenish eye, and the sometimes fair 
complexion of the Ainus, are, however, suggestive 
of Nordic afl&nities, and of an extreme easterly ex- 
tension of Proto-Nordics at a very early period. 

The skull shape of the Ainus is extremely doli- 
chocephalic, while the broad cheek bones indicate 
a Mongolian cross, as in the Esquimaux. The 
Ainus, like many other small, mysterious people, 
are probably merely the remnants of one of the 
many early races that are fast fading into extinc- 
tion. T ^ division of man into species is ve ry 
(^ ancien t, and the chief races of the earth are mere ly 
4 ^the successful survivors of the long struggle . Many 
s pecies, subspe rf^<^, anH TTuc^e ^ hav e vanished utterl 
except for reversional characters which we find^in 
- Uh fiJarger races. 

The only Nordics in Asia Minor, so far as we 
know, were the Phrygians who came across the 


Hellespont about 1400 B. C. as part of the same 
migration which brought the Achaeans into Greece; 
the Cimmerians who entered by the same route 
and also through the Caucasus about 650 B. C, and 
still later, in 270 B. C, the Gauls who, coming from 
north Italy through Thrace, crossed the Hellespont 
and f oimded Galatia. So far as our present infor- 
mation goes, little or no trace of these invasions 
remains in the existing popidations of AnatoUa. 
The expansions of the Persians and the Aryan- 
ization of their empire, and the conquests of the 
Nordics east and south of the Caspian- Aral Sea, 
will be discussed in connection with the spread of 
Aryan languages. 



Such are the three races, the Alpine, Mediter- ^T 
ranean, and Nordic, which enter into the composi- 
tion of European populations of to-day, 3nd»in 
various combinatio ns i;;nmprisfi \hpt p rreat bulk of 

wlTitfijTifn a1] over the worid, T hf^P rarps vg^yy 

igtdlectuaUy an d morally just as they do physicall y. 
Moral^ intellectusd^ and spiritu al at tributes are 
1^ a^ jiersistent as physical characters, and are trans - , . 
jL mitted imchanged from generation to generation . ^'-^^ 
f Tn considering skull characters we must remem- 
ber that, while indicative of independent descent, 
the size and shape of the head are not closely re- 
lated to brain power. Aristotle was a Mediter- 
ranean and had a small, long skull, while Hum- 
boldt had a large and characteristically Nordic 
skull, but equally dolichocephalic. Socrates and 
Diogenes were apparently quite im-Greek and rep- 
resent remnants of some early race, perhaps of 
Paleolithic man. The history of their lives shows 
clearly that each was recognized as in some degree 
alien by their fellow coimtrymen, just as the Jews 
apparently regarded Christ, as, in some indefinite 
way, un- Jewish. 

Mental, spiritual, and moral traits are closely as- 



sod ated with the physical d is^iictioiig'"amoiig tfie^ 

rgl rhflra^t^np j^^ ^^ spiritual attTJhiif^ hfl^^ ^*" 

:oneas5ay. iiin ougn 'rCTiai n, how- 


races have spedal 
for certain purs uits^ The Alpine race is al- 
ways Sid evet ywherea race of peasants^ an agn- 
cUlItiral and never a maritime race. In fact , they 
oilly^tend to salt water at the head of the Adriatic*^ 

e coastal and sea faring population s of north 
Europe are everywher e Nordic a s far as the coast 
of Spain, a nd among Europeans this race is pre- 

eTWntly fitted to mariti me pursuits. 

d The Nordics are, all over the world, a race 
soldiers, sailors, adventurers, and explorers, bu 
above aU, of rulers, organizers, and aristocrats inf// 
sharp contrast to the essentially peasant character jK 
of the Alpines. Chivalry and knighthood, and |[ ^^ 
their stiU surviving but greatly impaired coimter- 
parts, are peculiarly Nordic traits, and feudalism, 
class distinctions, and race pride among Europeans 
e traceable for the most part to the north. 


racteristics of the M 


rg^rp ari> wft ]] Vp n yn ^ ^d this race, while mferio r 4^ 
i n bodily stamina to both the Nordic and the Al- 
obably the superior of both. 


flip ^IpinPQ, in intpllp^^^]a^l ftttitipmpntp 

fi eld of art its superio ritv to both the 
pean races is xmquestione 



Before leaving this interesting subject of the 
correlation of spiritual and moral traits with phys- 
ical characters, we may note that these influences 
are so deeply rooted in everyday consciousness 
that the average noveUst or playwright would not 
fail to make his hero a tall, blond, honest, and 
somewhat stupid youth, or his villain a small, dark, 
and exceptionally intelligent individual of warped 
moral character. The gods ol Olympus were al- 
most aU described as blond, and it would be diffi- 
cult to imagine a Greek artist painting a bnmette 
Venus. In church pictures to-day all angels are 
blonds, while the denizens of the lower regions 
revel in deep brunetness. Most ancient tapestries 
show a blond earl on horseback and a dark haired 
churl holding the bridle, and in depicting the cruci- 
fixion no artist hesitates to make the two thieves 
brunet in contrast to the blond Saviour. This 
latter is something more than a convention, as such 
quasi-authentic traditions as we have of our Lord 
indicate his Nordic, possibly Greek, physical and 
moral attributes. 

These and other similfly fra/iifi/^||<^ (;]p^r1yjwni- 

.tojtlie" relation of one race^to^anothei: 

Ihey will 

mediaeval, and modem times. How 

JSe modifie d by democratic institutions and the 
of the majority remams to be seen. 

The wars of the last two thousand years in Eu- 
rope have been almost exclusively wars betwi^in^ 



»vaxio us nations of this rax:e, or ^etween rulers 
brcfic blood. 

From a race point of view the present European 
r^^^^'^t "'i rr^^i^^^i^lV « nVil wary and nea rly all the 
cers ancLAJarge proportion of the men on 

sides are mraibe^ of this race. It is the same old 

story of mutual butchery and mutual destruction 
between Nordics, just as the Nordic nobility of 
Renaissance Italy seem to have been possessed with 
a blood mania to kill one another oflf. Tt is ^he. 
modem edition of the old berserker blood ra 

is class suicide on a 

E^scale! It is hard 

to sa y on which side there is a preponderance of 
Jh4orclic blood, as Flanders and northern France are 
more Teutonic than south Germany, and the back- 
bone of the armies that England has put in the 
field, together with those of her colonies, are al- 
most purely Nordic, while a large portion of the 
Russian armies is of the same race. 

The writer has carefully refrained in this article 
from the use of the words "Teutonic" and "Ger- 
manic " except in their most limited sense, because 
the names are currently used in a national and not 
in a racial sense, to denote the inhabitants of the 
central empires. Such broader use would include 

millinnswho ?.rft t nStly nn-Teutonir^ and exclude 
millinng^ifj^Tiirp X^"tnnir MnnH wh^ ^rfi putside 

of the political borders of Austro-Germanv. 


Having shown the existence in Europe of three 
subspecies of distinct origin and a single predomi- 
nant type of language called the Aryan or synthetic 
group, it remains to inquire to which of the three 
races can be assigned the honor of inventing, 
elaborating, and introducing this most highly de- 
veloped form of human speech, and our investiga- 
tions will show that the facts point indubitably 
toward an original imity between the Nordic, or 
rather the Proto-Nordic race and the Proto-Aryan 
language or the generalized, ancestral, Aryan mother 

Of the three claimants to the honor of being the 
original creator of the highest form of synthetic 
speech, known as the Aryan group of languages, 
we can at once dismiss the Mediterranean race. 
The members of this race on the south shores of 
the Mediterranean, the Berbers and the Egyptians, 
speak now, and have always spoken, non-Aryan 
tongues. In Asia, also, many people of this race 
speak non- Aryan tongues. We also know that the 
speech of the original Pelasgians was not Aryan, 
that in Crete remnants of Pre-Aryan speech per- 



sisted until about 500 B. C, and that the Hellenic 
language was introduced into iEgean coimtries 
from the north. In Italy the Ligurian and Etrus- 
can in the north, and the Messapian in the south, 
were non- Aryan languages; and the ancestral form 
of Latin speech in the guise of Umbrian and Oscan 
came through the Alps from the countries beyond. 

Into Spain the Celtiberian language was intro- 
duced from the north about 600 B. C, but with so 
little force behind it that it was unable to entirely 
replace the non- Aryan language of the aborigines, 
which continues to this very day as Basque. 

In Britain Aryan speech was introduced about 
800 B. C, and in France somewhat earlier. In 
central and northern Europe no certain trace of non- 
Aryan languages at one time spoken there per- 
sists, except among the Lapps and in the neighbor- 
hood of the Gulf of Finland, where the non- Aryan 
Finnic dialects are spoken to-day by the Finland- 
ers and the Esthonians. 

We thus know the approximate dates of the intro- 
duction of Aryan speech into western and southern 
Europe, and that it came in through the medium 
of the Nordic race. On the southern coast of the 
inland sea, including Egypt, the population spoke in 
ancient times, and still speaks, non- Aryan tongues; 
and in Spain and in the adjoining parts of France 
nearly half a million people continue to speak an 
agglutinative language, called Basque or Euska- 

ARYA 203 

nan. In skull shape these Basques correspond 
closely with the Aryan-speaking populations around 
them, being dolichocephalic in Spain, and brachy- 
cephalic in France. In the case of both the long 
skuU and the round skull Basques, the lower part 
of the face is long and thin with a peculiar and 
pointed chin. In other words, their faces show cer- 
tain secondary racial characters which have been 
imposed by selection upon a people composed 
originally of two races of independent origin, but 
long isolated by the limitations of language. 

Other than the Basque language there are in 
western Europe but few remnants of Pre-Aryan 
speech, and these are foimd chiefly in place names 
and in a few obscxire words. 

Remnants of non- Aryan speech exist here and 
there throughout European Russia, but many of 
them can be traced to historic invasions. Until 
we reach the main body of Ural-Altaic speech in 
the east of Russia, the Esths, with kindred but 
small tribes of Livonians and Tchouds, and the 
Finns alone can lay claim to the honor of antedat- 
ing the Aryan tongue in Moscovite territories, but 
the physical type of all these tribes is distinctly 
Nordic. In this connection the Lapps and related 
groups in the far north can be disregarded. 

The problem of the Finns is a dij£cult one. The 
coast of Finland, of course, is purely Swedish, but 
the great bulk of the population in the interior is 


brachycephalic, though otherwise thoroughly Nor- 
dic in type. It would seem that here the Alpine 
element were the more ancient. 

The most important non-Aryan language in 
Europe is the Magyar of Himgary, but this we 
know was introduced from the eastward .at the end 
of the ninth centxiry. 

In the Balkans the language of the Turks has 
never been a vernacular as it is in Asia Minor. In 
Europe it was spoken only by the soldiers and the 
civil administrators, and by very sparse colonies 
of Turkish settlers. The mania of the Txirks for 
white women, which is said to have been one of the 
motives that led to the conquest of the Byzantine 
Empire, has imconsdously resulted in the oblitera- 
tion of the Mongoloid type of the original Asiatic 
invaders. Persistent crossing with Circassian and 
Georgian women, as well as with slaves of every 
race in Asia Minor or in Europe with whom they 
came in contact, has made the European Turk of 
to-day indistinguishable in physical characters 
from his Christian neighbors. 

The Turks of Seljukian and OsmanU origin were 
never nxmierous, and the Sultan's armies were and 
are largely composed of Islamized Anatolians and 

In Persia and India, also, the Aryan languages 
were introduced from the north at known periods, 
so in view of all these facts, the Mediterranean 

ARYA 205 

race cannot daim the honor of either the inven- 
tion or dissemination of the S3nithetic languages. 

The chief claim of the Alpine race of central Eu- 
rope and western Asia to the invention and intro- 
duction into Europe of the Proto-Ajyan form of 
speech rests on the fact that nearly all the members 
of this race in Europe speak well developed forms of 
Airyan speech, chiefly in the form of Slavic. This 
fact taken by itself may have no more significance 
than the fact that the Mediterranean race in 
Spain, Italy, and France speaks Romance lan- 
guages, but it is, nevertheless, an argument of some 

Outside of Europe the Armenians and other 
Axmenoid brachycephalic peoples of Asia Minor 
and the Iranian Highlands, all of Alpine race, to- 
gether with a few isolated tribes of the Caucasus, 
speak Aryan languages, and these peoples lie on 
the highroad along which knowledge of the metals 
and other ctiltxiral developments entered Europe. 

If the Aryan language were invented and de- 
veloped by these Armenoid Alpines we should be 
obliged to assume that they introduced it along 
with bronze cultiure into Europe about 3000 B. C. 
and taught the Nordic blonds both their language 
and their metal culture. There are, however, in 
western Asia many Alpine peoples who do not 
speak Aryan languages and yet are Alpine in type, 
such as the Turcomans, and in Asia Minor the so- 


called Turks are also largely Islamized Alpines of 
the Armenoid subspecies who speak Turki. There 
is no trace of Aryan speech south of the Caucasus 
imtil after 1700 B. C, and the Hittite language 
spoken before that date in central and eastern 
Asia Minor, although not yet clearly deciphered, 
was non- Aryan to the best of our present knowl- 
edge. The Hittites themselves were probably 
ancestral to the living Armenians. 

We are thoroughly acquainted with the lan- 
guages of all the Mesopotamian countries, and we 
know that the speech of Accad and Sumer, of Susa 
and Media was agglutinative, and that the lan- 
guages of Ass3rria and of Palestine were Semitic. 
The speech of the Kassites was Aryan, and the 
language of the shortlived empire of the Mitanni 
in the foothills south of Armenia, is the only one 
about the character of which there can be some 
doubt, but in all probability it was Aryan. There 
is, therefore, much n^ative evidence against the 
existence of Aryan speech in this part of the world 
earlier than its known introduction by Nordics. 

If the last great expansion into Europe of the 
Alpine race brought from Asia the Aryan mother 
tongue, as well as the knowledge of metals, we 
must assimie that all the members of the Nordic 
race thereupon adopted S3mthetic speech from the 

We know that these Alpines reached Britain 

ARYA 207 

about 1800 B. C, and probably had previously 
occupied much of Gaul, so that if they are to be 
credited with the introduction of the synthetic 
languages into western Europe, it is difficult to 
understand why we have no known trace of any 
form of Aryan speech in central Europe or west of 
the Rhine prior to 1000 B. C, while we have some, 
though scant, evidence of non-Aryan languages. 

Even assuming, however, that the Alpines did 
introduce this synthetic language to the Baltic 
doKchocephs along with the art of metallurgy, we 
are obliged to believe that the Nordics, equipped 
with this synthetic language and with bronze 
weapons, starting on their marvellous career of 
expansion a full millennium after the Alpine con- 
quest, first attacked and conquered their Alpine 
teachers and. then poured down from the north in 
successive waves into the domain of the Mediter- 
ranean race, passing en route through brachyce- 
phalic countries and taking along with them vary^ 
ing proportions of Alpine blood. 

It may be said in favor of this claim of the Al- 
pine race to be the original inventors of synthetic 
speech, that language is ever a measure of culture, 
and the higher forms of civilization are greatly 
hampered by the limitations of speech imposed 
by the less highly evolved languages, namely, the 
monosyllabic and the agglutinative, which include 
nearly all the non-Aryan languages of the world. 


It does not seem probable that barbarians, how- 
ever fine in physical t}rpe and however well en- 
dowed with the potentiality of intellectual and 
moral development, dwelling as himters in the 
bleak and barren north along the edge of the re- 
treating glaciers and as nomad shepherds in the 
Russian grasslands, could have evolved a more 
complicated and higher form of articulate speech 
than the inhabitants of southwest Asia, who many 
thousand years earlier were highly civilized and 
are known to have invented the arts of agricidture, 
metal working and domestication of animals, as 
well as of writing and pottery. Nevertheless, such 
seems to be the fact. 

To conclude then, a study of .the Mediterranean 
race shows that, so far from being purely Exuro- 
pean, it is equally African and Asiatic, and in 
the narrow coastal fringe of southern Persia, in 
India, and even farther east the last strains of this 
race gradually fade into the negroids through pro- 
longed cross breeding, and a similar inquiry into 
the origin and distribution of the Alpine species 
shows clearly the fundamentally Asiatic origin of 
this type, and that on its easternmost borders in 
central Asia it marches on the roimd skulled Mon- 



By the 

ft f f li m iwnt ^ m <^x ^ orth in the 
JiaptexjEg_arecompelled to consider^ 

^ ti^lt^e strongest claimant for the honor of being 

Ar ya n?^, I'g tlip tall^ hlnnH y^ 


^^^ Jj ordi c. A study of the various languages of the 
Aryan group reveals an extreme diversity which 
can be best explained by the hypothesis that the 
yf^'existing languages are now spoken by people upon 

whom Aryan speech has 

forced from with- 

nS^ This theory corresponds exactly with the 
town historic fact that the Aryan languages, dur- 
ing ^c laot t hrgg_^rfour thousand years at'least,^ 
^^■Yf, Qg^^'n ^and aga in, been imposed by Nordi cs 

u iyn popxJations of Alpine and Mediterranean 


Within the present distributional area of the 
Nordic race, and in the very middle of a typical 
area of isolation, is the most generalized mem- 
ber of the Aryan group, namely, Lettish, or old 
Lithuanian, situated on the Gidf of Riga, and al- 
most Proto-Aryan in character. Close at hand 
was the closely related Old Prussian or Borussian, 

very recently extinct. These archaic languages are 



relatively close to Sanskrit, and are located in 
actual contact with the non-Aryan speech of the 
Esths and Finns. \ 

The non-Aryan languages m eastern Russia are 
Ugrian, a form of speech which extends far into 
Asia, and which alone of aU agglutinative tongues, 
contains elements which tmite it with S3mthetic 
speech, and which is consequently dimly transi- 
tory in character. In other words, in the opinion 
of many philologists, a primitive form of Ugrian 
I might have given birth to the Proto-Aryan ances- 
^ tor of existing synthetic languages. 

is hypothesis, if sustained by further study, . 
will provide additional evidence that the site of ^ 
le development of the Aryan languages, and of / 
'the Nordic species, was in eastern Europe, and in^ 
fifL, region which is close to the place of contact be^ 
Z^tween the most archaic synthetic languages and 
the most nearly related non-Aryan tongue, the 
agglutinative Ugrian. 

The Aryan tongue was introduced into Greece 
by the Achasans about 1400 B. C, and later, 
about 1 100 B. C, by the true Hellenes, who 
brought in the classic dialects of Dorian, Ionian, 
and iEolian. 

These Aryan languages superseded their non- 
Aryan predecessor, the Pelasgian. From the lan- 
guage of these early invaders came the Ulyrian, 
Thradan, Albanian, classic Greek, and the debased 


modem Romaic, a descendant of the Ionian dia- 

Aryan speech was introduced among the non- 
Aryan Etruscans of the Italian Peninsula by the 
Umbrians and Oscans about iioo B. C. These 
languages were ultimately succeeded by Latin, an 
offshoot of these early Aryan tongues of northern 
Italy which later spread to the uttermost confines 
of the Roman Empire. Its descendants to-day are 
the Romance tongues spoken within the ancient 
imperial boimdaries, the Portuguese on the west, 
Castilian, Catalan, Provenjal, French, the langue 
d'oil of the Walloons, Ligiuian, Romansch, Ladin, 
Friulian, Tuscan, Calabrian, and Rumanian. 

The problem of the existence of a language, the 
Rumanian, in the eastern Carpathians, cut off by 
Slavic and Magyar tongues from the nearest Ro- 
mance languages, but nevertheless clearly de- 
scended from Latin, presents great difl&cxilties. The 
Rumanians themselves make two claims; the first, 
which can be safely disregarded, is an imbroken 
Unguistic descent from a group of Aryan languages 
which occupied this whole section of Europe, from 
which Latin was derived, and of which Albanian 
is also a remnant. 

The more serious claim, however, made by the 
Rimianians, is to linguistic and racial descent from 
the military colonists planted by the Emperor 
Trajan in the great Dacian plain. This may be 


possibki so far as the language is concerned, but 
there are some weighty objections to it. 

We have no evidence for, and much against, the 
existence of Rumanian speech north of the Danube 
for nearly a thousand years after Rome abandoned 
this outlying region. Dada was one of the last 
provinces to be occupied by Rome, and was the 
first from which the legions were withdrawn upon 
the dissolution of the empire. The northern Car- 
pathians, furthermore, where the Rumanians daim 
to have taken refuge during the barbarian inva- 
sions, form part of the Slavic homeland, and it was 
in these same moimtains, and in the Ruthenian 
districts of eastern Galicia, that the Slavic lan- 
guages were developed, probably by the Sarmatians 
and Venethi, and from which they spread in all 
directions in the centuries that immediately follow 
the fall of Rome. So it is almost impossible to 
credit the survival of a frontier community of 
Romanized natives situated not only in the path 
of the great invasions of Europe from the east, 
but also in the very spot where Slavic languages 
were at the time evolving. 

Rumanian speech occupies a large area outside 
of the present kingdom of Rumania, in Russian 
Bessarabia, Austrian Bukowina, and above all in 
Hungarian Transylvania, aU of which were parts 
of ancient Dada, and which are now to be '* re- 
deemed'' by the Rumanians. 


This linguistic problem is fiirther complicated 
by the existence in the Pindus Momitains' of Thes- 
saly of another large community of Vlachs of 
Rumanian speech. How this later conmxunity 
also could have survived from Roman times imtil 
to-day y untouched either by the Greek language 
of the Byzantine Empire or by the Turkish con- 
quest, is another difficiilt problem. The solution 
of these questions receives no assistance from an- 
thropology, as these Rumanian-speaking popula- 
tions, both on the Danube and in the Pindus 
Moimtains, in no way differ physically from their 
neighbors on all sides. Through whatever channel 
they acquired their Latin speech, the Rumanians 
to-day can lay no valid claim to blood descent, even 
in a very remote degree, from the true Romans. 

The first Aryan languages known in western 
Europe were the Celtic group which first appears 
west of the Rhine about 1000 B. C. 

There have been foimd only a few dim traces 
of Pre-Aryan speech in the British Isles, these 
chiefly in place names. In Britain Celtic speech 
was introduced in two successive waves, first by 
the Goidels, or "Q Celts," who apparently ap- 
peared about 800 B. C, and this form exists to 
this day as Erse in western Ireland, as Manx of 
the Isle of Man, and as Gaelic in the Scottish 

The Goidels were of bronze ailture. When they 


reached Britain they mxist have found there a 
population preponderantly of Mediterranean type 
with numerous remains of still earlier races of Pa- 
leolithic times, and also some round skuU Alpines 
of the Roimd Barrows, who have since faded from 
the living population. When the next invasion, the 
Cymric, occurred, the Goidels had been very largely 
absorbed by these underlying Mediterranean abo* 
rigines who had accepted the Goidelic form of 
Celtic speech, just as on the continent the Gaids 
had mixed with Alpine and Mediterranean natives 
though imposing upon the conquered theh- own 
tongue. In fact, in Britain, Gaul, and Spain the 
Goidels and Gauls were chiefly a ruling, military 
dass, while the great bulk of the popidation re- 
mained unchanged, although Aryanized in speech. 

The Brythonic or Cymric tribes, or "P Celts," 
followed about five hundred years later, driving 
the Goidels westward through Germany, Gaul, and 
Britain, as is proved by the distribution of place 
names, and this movement of population was still 
going on when Caesar crossed the Channel. The 
Brythonic group gave rise to the modem Cornish, 
extinct within a century, the Cymric of Wales, 
and the Armorican of Brittany. 

In central Europe we find traces of these same 
two forms of Celtic speech, with the Goidelic 
everywhere the older and the Cymric the more 
recent arrival. 


When the two Celtic-speakmg races came into 
conflict in Britain their original relationship had 
been greatly obscured by the crossing of the Goi- 
dels with the underlying dark Mediterranean race 
of Neolithic culture, and by the mixture of the 
Belgae with Teutons. The result of all this was 
that the Brythons did not distinguish between 
the blond Goidels and the brunet, but Celticized 
Mediterraneans, as they all spoke Goidelic dia- 

In the same way when the Teutonic tribes en- 
tered Britain they foxmd there peoples all speaking 
Celtic of some form, either Goidelic or Cymric, 
and promptly called them all Welsh (foreigners). 
These Welsh were preponderantly of Mediterra- 
nean type with some mixture of a blond Goidel 
strain and a much stronger blond strain of Cymric 
origin, and these same elements exist to-day in 
England. The Mediterranean race is easily dis- 
tinguished, but the physical types derived from 
Goidel and Brython alike are merged and lost in 
the later floods of pure Nordic blood. Angle, Saxon, 
Dane, Norse, and Norman. In this primitive, y 
dark population, with successive layers of blond j 
Nordics imposed upon it, each one more purely / 
Nordic, lies the secret and the solution of the ^^r 
thropology of the British Isles. This Iberian sub- 
stratxmi was able to absorb, to a large extent, the 
earlier Celtic-speaking invaders, both Goidels and 


Brythons, but it is only just beginning to seriously 
threaten the Teutonic Nordics, and to reassert its 
ancient brunet characters after three thousand 
years of submergence. 

In northwest Scotland there is a Gaelic-speaking 
area where the place names are all Scandinavian, 
and the physical types purely Nordic. This is 
the only spot in the British Isles where Celtic 
speech has reconquered a district from the Teu- 
tonic languages, and it was the site of one of the 
earliest conquests of the Norse Vikings, probably 
in the early centuries of our era. In Caithness in 
north Scotland, as well as in some isolated spots 
on the Irish coasts, the language of these same 
Norse pirates persisted until within a century. 
In the fifth century of our era and after the break- 
up of Roman domination in Britain there was much 
racial unrest, and a back wave of Goidels crossed 
from Ireland and either introduced or reinforced 
the Gaelic speech in the highlands. Later, Goi- 
delic speech was gradually driven north and west 
by the intrusive English of the lowlands, and was 
ultimately forced over this originally Norse-speak- 
ing area. 

We have elsewhere in £iux>pe evidence of 1 
similar shif tings of speech without corresponding^ 
changes in the blood of the population. 

Except in the Bridsh Isles and in Brittany, Celtic 
languages have left no modem descendants, but 
have everjrwhere been replaced by languages of 


Neo-Latin or Teutonic origin. Outside of Brittany 
one of the last, if not quite the last, references to 
Celtic speech in Gaul is the historic statement 
that "Celtic" tribes, as well as "Armoricans," took 
part at Ch&lons in the great victory in 451 A. D. 
over Attila, the Hun, and his confederacy of sub- 
ject nations. 

On the continent the only existing populations 
of Celtic speech are the primitive inhabitants of 
central Brittany, a population noted for their re- 
Ugious fanaticism and for other characteristics of a 
backward people. This Celtic speech is said to 
have been introduced in the early century of our 
era by Britons fleeing from the Saxons. These 
refugees, if there were such, must have been doli- 
chocephs of either Mediterranean or Nordic race, 
or both. We are asked by this tradition to be- 
lieve that the skull shape of these Britons was 
lost, but that their language was adopted by the 
Alpine population of Armorica. It is much more 
probable that the Cynuic-speaking Alpines of Brit- 
tany have merely retained in this isolated comer 
of France a form of Celtic speech which was prev- 
alent throughout northern Gaul and Britain be- 
fore these provinces were conquered by Rome and 
Latinized. Caesar remarked that there was little 
difference between the speech of the Belgae in 
northern Gaul and in Britain. In both cases the 
speech was Cymric. 

Long after the conquest of Gaul by the Goths 


and Franks, Teutonic speech was predominant 


among the ruling classes, and by the time it suc- 
cumbed to the Latin tongue of the Romanized na- 
tives, the old Celtic languages had been entirely 
forgotten outside of Brittany. 

An example of similar changes of language is 
to be found in Normandy where the country was 
originally inhabited by the Nordic Belgse, who 
spoke a Cymric language before that tongue was 
replaced by Latin. This coast was ravaged about 
300 or 400 A. D. by Saxons who formed settle- 
ments along both sides of the Channel and the coasts 
of Brittany, which were later known as the Litus 
Saxonicmn. Their progress can best be traced by 
place names, as our historic record of these raids 
Is scanty. 

The Normans landed in Normandy in the year 
911 A. D. They were heathen Danish barba\ 
rians, speaking a Teutonic language. The reli^^ 
ion, culture, and language of the old Romanized 
populations worked a miracle in the transforma- 
tion of everything except blood in one short cen- 
tury. So quick was the change that 155 years 
later the descendants of the same Normans landed 
in England as Christian Frenchmen, armed with 
all the cidture of their period. The change was / 
startling, but the blood of the Norman breed re- / 
mained unchanged and entered England as a purelV 
Nordic type, / 


In the iEgean region and south of the Caucasus 
the Nordics appear after 1700 B. C, but there 
were unquestionably invasions and raids from the 
north for many centuries previous to our first 
records. These early migrations probably were 
not in sufficient force to modify the blood of the 
autochthonous races or to substitute Aryan lan- 
guages for the ancient Mediterranean and Asiatic 

These men of the North came from the grass- 
lands of Russia in successive waves, and among 
the first of whom we have fairly clear knowledge 
were the Achaeans and Phrygians. Aryan invaders 
are mentioned in the dim chronicles of the Meso- 
potamian empires about 1700 B. C, as Kassites, 
and later as Mitanni. Aryan names of prisoners 
captured beyond the mountains in the north, and 
of Aryan deities before whom oaths were taken, 
are recorded about 1400 B. C, but one of the first 
definite accounts of Nordics south of the Caucasus 
describes the presence of Nordic Persians at Lake 
Urmia about 900 B. C. There were many incur- 
sions from that time on, the Cimmerians raiding 



across the Caucasus as early as 680 B. C, and 
shortly afterward overrunning all Asia Minor. 

The easterly extension of the Russian steppes 
north of the Caspian- Aral Sea in Turkestan, as far 
as the foothills of the Pamirs, was occupied by 
the Sacs or Massagetas, who were also Nordics 
and akin to the Cimmerians and Persians. For sev- 
eral centuries groups of Nordics drifted as nomad 
shepherds across the Caucasus into the empire of 
the Medes, introducing little by little the Aryan 
tongue, which later developed into Old Persian. 

In 538 B. C. these Persians had become suffi- 
ciently numerous to overthrow their rulers, and 
imder the leadership of the great C}rrus they organ- 
ized the Persian Empire, one of the most enduring of 
Oriental states. The base of the population of the 
Persian Empire rested on the round skull Medes 
who belonged to the Armenoid subdivision of the 
Alpines. Under the leadership of their priestly 
caste of Magi, these Medes rebelled again and again 
against their Nordic masters before the two peoples 
became fused. 

From 525 to 485 B. C, during the reign oi 
Darius, whose sculptured portraits show a man of 
pure Nordic type, the tail, blond Persians had be- 
come almost exclusively a dass of great ruling 
nobles, and had forgotten the simplicity of their 
shepherd ancestors. Their language belonged to 
the Eastern or Iranian division of Aryan speech. 


and was known as Old Persian, which contin- 
ued to be spoken until the fourth century be- 
fore our era. From it were derived Pehlevi, or 
Parthian, and modem Persian. The great book 
of the old Persians, the Avesta, which was writ- 
ten in Zendic, also an Iranian language, does not 
go back to the reign of Darius, and was remodelled 
after our era, but the Old Persian of Darius was 
closely related to the Zendic of Bactria, and to 
the Sanskrit of Hindustan. From Zendic, also 
caUed Medic, are derived Ghalcha, Balochi, Kur- 
dish, and other dialects. 

The rise to imperial power of the dolichocephalic 
Aryan-speaking Persians was largely due to the 
genius of their leaders, but the Aryanization of 
western Asia by them is one of the most amazing 
events in history. The whole region became com- 
pletely transformed so far as the acceptance by the 
conquered of the language and religion of the Per- 
sians was concerned, but the blood of the Nordic 
race quickly became diluted, and a few centuries 
later disappears from history. 

At the time of the great wars with Greece the 

/pure Persian blood was still unimpaired and in 

/ control, and in the literature of the time there 

V is little evidence of race antagonism between the 

Greek and the Persian leaders, although their rival 

cultures were sharply contrasted. In the time of 

Alexander the Great the pure Persian blood was 


obviously confined to the nobles, and it was the 
policy of Alexander to Hellenize the Persians and 
to amalgamate his Greeks with them. The amount 
of pure Macedonian blood was not sufficient to re* 
inf orce the Nordic strain of the Persians, and the 
net result was the entire loss of the Greek stock. 

It is a question whether the Armenians of Asia 
Minor derived their Aryan speech from this inva* 
sion of the Nordic Persians, or whether they received 
it at an earUer date from the Phrygians, and from 
the west. These Phrygians entered Asia Minor 
by way of the Dardanelles and broke up the Hit- 
tite Empire. Their language was Aryan, and prob- 
ably related to Thradan. In favor of the theory 
of the introduction of the Armenian language by 
the Phrygians from the west, rather than by the 
Persians from the east, is the highly significant 
fact that the basic structure of that tongue shows 
its relationship to be with the western rather than 
with the eastern group of Aryan languages, and 
this, too, in spite of a very large Persian vocabu- 

The Armenians themselves, like all the other 
natives of the plateaux and highlands as far east 
as the Hindu Kush Moimtains, while of Aryan 
speech, are of the Armenoid subdivision, in sharp 
contrast to the predominant types south of the 
moimtains in Persia, Afghanistan, and Hindustan, 
all of which are dolichocephalic and of Mediter- 


ranean alBBnity, but generally betraying traces of 
admixture with still more ancient races of negroid 
origin, especially in India. 

We now come to the last and easternmost exten- 
sion of Aryan languages in Asia. As mentioned 
above, the grasslands and steppes of Russia ex- 
tend north of the Caucastis Mountains and the 
Caspian Sea to ancient Bactria, now Turkestan. 
This whole coimtry was occupied by the Nordic 
Sacae and the closely related Massagetae. At a 
very early date, probably about the beginning of 
the second millennium B. C, or perhaps even 
earlier, the first Nordics crossed over the Afghan 
passes, entered the plains of India, and organized 
a state in the Penjab, "the land of the five rivers," 
bringing with them Aryan speech among a popu- 
lation probably of Mediterranean type, and rep- 
resented to-day by the Dravidians. The Nordic 
Saoe arrived later in India and introduced the 
Vedas, religious poems, which were at first trans- 
mitted orally, and which were reduced to written 
form in Old Sanskrit by the Brahmans at the com- 
paratively late date of 300 A. D. From this clas- 
sic Sanskrit are derived all the modem Aryan lan- 
guages of Hindustan, as well as the Singalese of 
Ceylon and the chief dialects of Assam. 

There is great diversity of opinion as to the date 
of the first entry of these Aryan-speaking tribes 
into the Penjab, and the consensus of opinion seems 


to indicate a period between 1600 and 1700 B. C. 
or even somewhat earlier. However, the very 
close affinity of Sanskrit to the Old Persian of 
Darius and to the 2^ndavesta would strongly indi- 
cate that the final introduction of Aryan languages 
in the form of Sanskrit occurred at a much later 

If close relationship between languages indi- 
cates correlation in time, then the entry of the 
Sacae into India would appear to have been neariy 
simidtaneous with the crossing of the Caucasus by 
the Nordic Cimmerians and their Persian succes- 

The relationship between the Zendavesta and 
the Sanskrit Vedas is as near as that between High 
and Low German, and consequently such close 
affinity prevents our thrusting back the date of the 
separation of the Persians and the Sacae more than 
a few centuries. 

A simidtaneous migration southward of nomad 
shepherds on both sides of the Caspian- Aral Sea 
would naturally occiu: in a general movement 
southward, and such migrations may have taken 
place several times. In all probability these Nordic 
invasions occurred one after another for a thousand 
years or more, the later ones obscuring and blur- 
ring the memory of their predecessors. 

When shepherd tribes leave their grasslands 
and attack their agricultural neighbors, the reason 


is nearly always famine due to prolonged drought, 
and causes such as these have again and again in 
history put the nomad tribes in motion over large 
areas. During many centuries fresh tribes com- 
posed of Nordics, or under the leadership of Nor- 
dics, but all Aryan-speaking, poured over the 
Afghan passes from the northwest and pushed be- 
fore them the earlier arrivals. Clear traces of these 
successive floods of conquerors are to be foimd in 
the Vedas themselves. 

The Sacae and Massagetas were, like the Persians, 
blond dolichocephs, and they have left behind 
them dim traces of their blood among the living, 
Mongolized nomads of Turkestan, the Kirghizes. 
_ Ancient Bactria maintained its Nordic and Aryan 
aspect long after Alexander's time, and did not be- 
:ome Mongolized and receive the sinister name of 
Turkestan xmtil the seventh century, when it was 
le first victim of the great series of ferocious in- 
vasions from the north and east, which, under vari- 
ous Mongol leaders, destroyed civilization in Asia 
id threatened its existence in Europe. These tall, 
blue eyed, Aryan-speaking Sacae were the most 
easterly members of the Nordic race of whom we 
have record. The Chinese knew well these "green 
eyed devils," whom they called by their Tatar 
name, the "Wu-sims," the tall ones, and with 
whom they came into contact in about 200 B. C. 
in what is now Chinese Turkestan. 


The Zendic form of the Iranian group of Aiyan 
languages continued to be spoken by these Sacae 
who remained in old Bactria, and from it is derived 
a whole group of closely related dialects still i^ken 
in the Pamirs, of which Ghalcha is the best known. 

The most easterly known Aryan tongue has 
been recently discovered in Turkestan. It is called 
Tokharian, and is undoubtedly a pure Aryan Ian- 
guage, related, ciuiously enough, to the western 
group rather than to the Indo-Iranian. It has 
been deciphered from recently foimd inscriptions, 
and was a living language prior to the ninth cen- 
tury A. D. This constitutes another proof of the 
extent and duration of the Nordic occupation of 

Of all the wonderful conquests of the Sacs there 
remain as evidence of their invasions only these 
Indian and Afghan languages. Dim traces of 
their blood, as stated before, have been foimd in 
the Pamirs and in Afghanistan, but in the south 
their blond traits have vanished, even from the 
Penjab. It may be that the stature of some of the 
hill tribes and of the Sikhs, and some of the facial 
characters of] the latter, are derived from this 
source, but all blondness of skin, hair, or eye of the 
original Sacas have utterly vanished. 

The long skulls all through India are to be at- 
tributed to the Mediterranean race rather than to 
this Nordic invasion, while the Pre-Dravidians and 

jiSti India of \ 
■ - n rffBf MWWW'^ Sanskrit, J 

I t^ 1 . 1= 1 = 



cal and spiritual characters and the persistency 
/ ^vith which they outlive those elements of environ- 
bR>ment termed language, nationality, and forms of// 
^ government, we must consider the relation of these t 
^facts to the development of the race in America. \ 
We may be certain that the progress of evolution aI 

in full operation to-day under those laws of na- (J 
:ure which control it, and that the only sure guide 
to the future lies in the study of the operation of 
these laws in the past. 

We Americans must realize that the altruistic 
ideals which have controlled our social develop-] | 
ment during the past century, and the maudlin senYl> 
timentalism that has made America '^an asylum \ 
for the oppressed," are sweeping the nation toward 
a racial abyss. If the Melting Pot is allowed to 
boil without control, and we continue to follow our 
national motto and deliberately blind ourselves to 
all "distinctions of race, creed, or color," the type 
of native American of Colonial descent wiU be- 
come as extinct as the Athenian of the age of Per- 
icles, and the Viking of the days of RoUo. 


V "^ 


The following list of works will be of assistance to such 
readers as may desire to investigate the aspects of anthro- 
pology treated in this book. 

Avebury, Lord: 

Prehistoric Times. iQij. 
Beddoe, J.: 

Various writings. 
Boule, M,: 

Revue d'Anthropologie. 1888, 1905, and 1908. 
BreuU, VAhh6 H.: 

Various writings. 
Broca, Paul: 

Various writings. 
Cartailhac, £.: 

Various writings. 
Chamberlain, Houston Stewart: 

Foundations of the XlXth Century. 
Collignon, R.: 

Various writings. 
Darwin, Charles: 

Descent of Man. 
Davenport, Charles Benedict: 

Heredity in Relation to Eugenics. 1911. 
Deniker, J.: 

The Races of Man. 1901. 
Duckworth, W. L. H.: 

Morphology and Anthropology. 1904. 

Prehistoric Man. 191 2. 

Flinders-Petrie, W. M.: 

Revolutions of Civilization. 1912. 
Gal ton, Sir Francis: 

Hereditary Genius. 1892. 



Gowland, W.: i 

Metals in Antiquity. Jour. Roy. Anth^ Inst., Xm, 
1912, p. 245 et seq. 

Haddon, A. C: I 

Wanderings of Peoples. 191 2. 
Races of Man. 
The Study of Man. 1898. 

Harle, E.: 

Various writings. 

Hauser, O.: 

Various writings. 

Hrdlicka, Dr. A.: 

The Most Andent Skeletal Remains of Man. 1914. 

Huntington, Ellsworth: 

Pulse of Asia. 1907. 1 

Palestine and Its Transformation. 1911. 
Civilization and Climate. 1915. 

Johnston, Sir Harry H.: 

Views and Reviews. 191 2. 
Colonization of Africa. 1905. 
The Opening Up of Africa. 1911. 

Keane, A. H.: 

Man, Past and Present. 1900. 
Ethnology. 1901. 

Keith, Arthur: 

Antiquity of Man. 1915. 

Klaatsch, H.: 

Homo Aurignadus Hauseri. 1909. ^ 

Klaatsch, H., and Hauser, O.: 

Archiv fiir Anthropoiogie. 1908. 

MacCurdy, G. G.:. 

The Eolithic Problem. 1905. 

The Antiquity of Man in Europe. 19x0. 
Metchnikoff, Elie: 

Nature of Man. 1903. 
Mierow, Chas. C: 

The Gothic History of Jordanes. 


Morgan, Thomas Hunt: 

Heredity and Sex. 1914. 

Heredity and Environment. ipiS* 
Munro, John: 

Story of the British Race. 1907. 

Mmiro, R.: 

Paleolithic Man and the Terramara Settlements. 
Obermaier, H.: 

L'Anthropologie. 1908 and 1909. 

Osbom, Henry Fairfield: 

Age of Manunals. 1910. 

Men of the Old Stone Age. 1915. 
Payne, Edward John: 

History of the New World Called America. 1899. 
Penck, A.: 

2^itschrift fiir Ethnologie. 1908. 
Pe3rrony, M., and Capitan: 

Bulletins de la Soci6t£ d'Anthropologie de Paris. 
Quatrefages, A. de: 

Various writings. 
Rathgen, F.: 

Die Metalle im Alterthum. 1915. 
Reid, G. Archdall: 

Principles of Heredity. 1905. 

Laws of Heredity. 1910. 
Retzius, A. A.: 

Various writings. 
Retzius, M. G.: 

Various writings. 
Ridgeway, Wm.: 

Early Age in Greece. 1907. 

The Thoroughbred Horse. 1905. 
Ripley, W.Z.: 

Races of Europe. 1899. 
Rutot, A.: 

Various writings. 
Salisbury, R. D., and Chamberlain, T. C: 

Geology. 1905. 


Schoetensack, O.: 

Der Unterkiefer des Homo heiddbergensis. 1908. 
Schwalbe, G.: 

Vorgeschichte des Menschen. 2^tschrift fur Mor** 
pholQgie iind Anthropologie. 1906. 
Sergi, G.: 

The Mediterranean Race. 1901. 
Smith, G. Elliot: 

The Ancient Egyptians. 1911. And other writings. 
Sollas, W. J.: 

Ancient Hmiters. 191 z. 
Taylor, Isaac: 

Various writings. 
Villari, Pasquale: 

The Barbarian Invasions of Italy. 1902. 
Woodruff, Charles Edward: 

Effects of Tropical Light on White Men. 1905. 

Expansion of Races. 1909. 
Woods, Frederick Adams: 

Heredity in Royalty. 1906. 
Woodward, A. S.: 

Various writings. 
Zaborowski, S.: 

Paris. Les Aryens en I'Asie et TEurope. 


Accad, 107, 133, 206. 

Adueans, X45~z46> i55» ^7h Z949 
196, 210, 219. 

Acheulean Period, 92. 

Acfaflles, i44« 

Adamic theoiy, ii. 

Adriatic, popidadons along east 
coast of, 32. 

iEolian, 145; dialect, 2x0. 

Afghan languages, 226. 

Afghanistan, 134, 222-226. 

Africa, 98, 159; Alpines in, 125, 
126; Bronze Age in, 1x6; Medi- 
tenanean race in, 134, X37, X38, 
X40; negro population of, 29, 
7x, 72; no Nordic blood in, X94; 
skuU shape in, 20, 21; Teutons 
in, i6x; zoologically a part of 
Europe, 137. 

Agriculture, xoo, 109-zxx, 124, 
X32, 208. 

Ainus, physical characters of the, 

Alabama, 86. 

Alans, 6x, 159, 177. 

Alaska, 4x. 

Albanians, 22, 138, 172; language, 

Albigensians, 142. 

Alcoholism, 50, 51. 

Alemanni, X3X, X59. . 

Alexander the Great, 146, 147, 221, 
222, 225. 

Algeria, 40. 

Alpine race, 135, 150, 170, 172, 
220; in Africa, X25; aptitudes, 
X98; and Aryan ^)eech, 205- 
208; Asiatic branch of, X2x; in 
Austria, X26; in Britain, xx5, 

x8o, 2x4; in Brittany, 57^59; 
in Canada, 72; Cdtidzed, X56, 
158, x6o; in colonial Ameiica, 
75; description of, x8, X2i; 
present distribution of, x8, X2i, 
Z25, X26; invasion of Europe, 
Z14, X22-X24; eye color, 18, 122; 
in France, 40, 60, X26, X7S, X77, 
178; in Germany, 60, 65, 66, x66, 
167, X69, X7x; in Greece, 60; 
habitat, 39, 40; hair, x8, 28, 30, 
Z22, 151; in Italy, 60, no, 
1x4, X24, X26, X42, X43; lake 
dwellings of, 109; and Mediter- 
ranean race, X3X, X36; and met- 
allurgy, xx6; Mongolian ele- 
ments in, X25; location during 
Neolithic, XX x; and Nordic race, 
32, 40, X22, X31; destroyed by 
Nordics, xx6, xx7, 132; origin, 
X03, X04, 121, 208; Proto-Al- 
pines, 122; rise of, in Europe, 
X72; skull of, X 21; Slavic-speak- 
ing, 58, XIX, X20, X26-X29, x6i; 
in Spain, X25; stature, 26, X2i; 
Teutonized, X22, X26. 

Alps, 37, X09, XXI, ix^, iss$ 136, 
X56, x68. 

Alsace, X26, 164. 

Amber, xx2. 

America, in Colonial times, 42-44, 
74-76; result of immigration to, 
65, 7^2, S&\ intermixture of 
unit characters in, X2; Mediter- 
ranean element in, 40; Nordics 
in, X84; race development in, 
228; danger of replacement of 
higher by lower type in, 98; 
Scandinavian element in, X87. 




American axistocncy, 5; democ- 

xacy, 6; Revolution, 6. 
Americans^ decline in Mrth rate 

of, 80; bnmet, 40, 136; of Co* 

kmial ancestry, 74; distinct type 

of native, 79; Nonnan Uood 

among, Z&4, 185. 
Amerinds, 20, 28-3a 
Amorites, 194. 
Anatolia, x8, 196. 
Andaman Islands, 135. 
Angles, 159, 181, 184, 2x5. 
Anglo-Saxons, 71, 147. 
Animals, domesticated, zoo, X059 

X09, XXX, X24, Z32, 2o8. 
Antes, 127. 

Anthropoid apes, 88, 89. 
Anthropology, 3, 85. 
Apes, 88, 89. 
Aquitaine, X85. 
Arabia, 39, X38. 
Arabic race, X32. 
Arabs, 14X. 
Argentine, 69, 70* 
Aristocracy, American^ 5; true, 7. 
Aristocrats, X70, X73, 174, 178. 
Aristotle, X97. 
Armenians, 54, 58, 6z, 205, 906; 

language, 222. 
Armenoids, x8, xai, 205, 2069 aao, 

Armor, xo8. 
Armoricans, 2x4, 2x7. 
Arrows, xoo; poisoned, zoo, zoz. 
Art, Cro-Magnon, zoo; Magda- 

lenian, 102; dedine of, in Solu- 

trean Period, xox, X02. 
Artob, 187. 
Aryan languages, x8,6x,'62,64,zz7, 

Z29, X4X, X46, xsSi i73» 180, X89; 

introduction into Europe, 20X- 

208; origin of, 209-2x8; most 

primitive, x88; Pre-Aryan, 20X, 

203; Proto-Aryan, 20Z, 205, 309, 

Aryan race, 3, 62, 132, X89. 
A^a, x8, 29, 58, 89, 99, X04, zzz, 

Z12, X14, X47, X50, XS3; Aryan 

language in, 219-^27; non- 
Azyan, 20Z, 305, ao6y 208; 
earliest civilization in, Z32; no 
ethnic conquest in, 70; fossil 
deposits, 88; Macedonians in, 
Z47; chief area of man's evolu- 
tion arKi differentiatioo, iz, 8S; 
Mediterranean race in, z8, Z34, 
137, 2oz; Nordic invasion of, 
189, Z90, Z94; races of, z8, 30; 
early dvilization of, Z07; West- 
ern ideals and culture in, 54. 

Asia Minor, zz, z8, Z04, zz4, Z2z, 
Z22, Z43-I4S» ISO, zs6, Z89, Z95, 
320, 222; language, 304-306. 

Assam, 223. 

Assyria, Z32, 206. 

Atteis, 97, Z4S, 147. 

Atlas Mountair^ Z94. 

Attila, 2Z7. 

Augustus, Emperor, 47, Z92. 

Aurignadan Period, 92, 96, 98- 

zoo, Z02. 
Australia, Nordic race in, 70. 
Australoids, 29, Z9$. 
Austria, 52, Z26, Z27, Z64. 
Austrians, Z22. 
Avars, Z29, Z30. 
Avesta, the, 22Z. 
Azilian Period (Aalian-Tazdenoi- 

9an)f S7> 93f ^00, Z02-Z05, Z33, 


Babylonia, Z33. 

Bactra, Z07. 

Bactria, 22 z, 223, 225, 226. 

Bahamas, 35, 36. 

Balkan Peninnila, 128, Z38, z6z, 

Balkan States, 52, 53. 
Balkans, 80, Z04, zzz, zz4, Z22,Z299 

X30; language, 204. 
Balkh, X07. 
Balocfai dialect, 22Z. 
Baltic Provinces, 54, Z87, z88. 
Baltic Sea, 33, Z05, zzo, zz2, zsz, 

ZS2, ZS4, Z56, ZS7, Z62. 
Baluchistan, Z34. 



Baibadoes, 35. 

Basques, 125, 141; ladal charac- 
ters, 203; language, i4x»202,303. 

Bas-relief, loa 

Batavia, 187. 

Batavians, 159. 

Bavaria, 104, 126. 

Bavarians, 122, 127. 

Belgae, 131, 157, 175, 176, z8o, 
21$, 217, 218. 

Bdgians, 176. 

Belgium, 52, 53, 59, 104, 126, 176. 

Berbers, 22, 58, 138, 201. 

Bessarabia, 212. 

Bibliography, 229-232. 

Birth, privilege of , 6; rate in upper 
and lower classes, 43, 44, 47, 48. 

Black Sea, 112, 122, 130, 148. 

Blond type, 22 ; crossed with brunet, 
12, 16; origin of, 190. 

Body, proportions of, 30, 31. 

Bohemia, 55, 164, 165, 168; na- 
tional revival in, 54. 

Bone-carving, 99. 

Bosnia, 172. 

Bow and arrow, 100, 103. 

Bradiycephaly, 17, 103, 104, no, 
114, 115, 123, 124, 129, 131, 137, 
142, 154, 207. 

Brahmans, 223. 

Brazil, 69. 

Brenner Pass, 171. 

Brennus, 142. 

Bretons, 57^59. 

Britain, xii, 115, 117, 120, 176, 
180; Alpine invasion of, 206; 
Aryan speech in, 202; Bronze 
Age in, 123; Celtic speech in, 
213-217; Cymric invasion of, 
157; Nordics in, 156; Roman 
occupation of, i8x. 

British Isles, brunets of, 24, 135, 
136; Celtic speech in, 213-217; 
Mediterranean race in, 135, 136, 
^3^f i39» Nordic invasion, 170, 
1 79-1 84; racial elements in, 2 1 5 ; 
absence of round skulls in, 124, 
214; Saxons in, 162. 

Brittany, 73, 131, 183, 2x4; Celtic 

q;>eech in, 2x6-2x8, 
Bronze, invention of, X13; zro, 

140, 143, 180, 20s, 207. 

Bronze Age, xoS^zzo, ZZ3-ZZ6, 

Z23, Z56, X89. 
Brunet, crossed with Uond, Z2, z6. 
BrOnn-Pfedmost race, zox. 
Brythons, X57, x8x, 2x4, 3x5. 
Bukowina, 2x2. 
Bulgaria, X38; national revival in, 

Bulgarians, X30. 
Burgundians, 63, 66, 127, 131, iS9f 

X62, X77. 
Burgundy, 164. 
Byzantine Emfure, 60, 149, z6z- 

X63, X7X, 192, 204, 2x3. 

Caesar, 157, X63, X74-X76, z8z, Z92, 

193, 214, 217. 
Calabrian language, 3ZZ. 
California, 70. 

Campignian Period, xo8, X09. 
Canada, Nordic population of, 72, 

Canadian, French, 43, 53; Indians, 


Carpathian Mountains, zzx- Z26- 

Z28, 2IX, 2X2. 

Carthage, X39, 148, x6x. 
Ca^ian-Aral Sea, X53, Z54, 196, 

320, 224. 
Cassiterides, X14. 
Castilian language, Z4Z, 3zz. 
Catalan language, Z4X, 3xx. 
Catholic colonies, the half-breed 

in, 76. 
Caucasian race, 3, 39; hair of, 

Caucasus Moxmtains, 6x, 305, 3o6» 

219, 220. 
Cavalier type, x66, X67. 
Celdberians, 173; language, 303. 
Celtic language, S7-S9f i4ii iS7f 

i75i 176, X82; origin, 3x3-3x8. 
Celtic race, 3, 57-59- 




Cdtic-speaking natioiis, 1x7, 120, 
123, 125, 156, is3, 160, 171, 173, 
180; physical characters, 157. 

Celto-Sc3rths, 156. 

Cdts, 158, 160, 17s; "P Cdts, 
214; "Q Celts," 213. 

Cephalic index, i6-2i. 

Central America, 57, 67. 

Cereals, 124. 

Ceylon, 134, 135, 223. 

Ch&lons, 2x7. 

Characters, unit, xi, el seq» 

Charlemagne, 163, 164, 168, 172, 

Charles V, x65. 

Chailes Martd, 162. 

Chase, no. 

Chellean Period, 92-94; Pti&<Ibel- 
lean, 92-94. 

Cherbouig, x82. 

China, 70, X07. 

Chinese, 70, X07, 225. 

Chivalry, 198. 

Christianity, x6x-i64y Z93- 

Chronological table, zx8, xi9. 

Cimbri, 159. 

Cimmerians, X55, 271, 189, 196, 
219, 220. 

Cinque Cento, 191. 

Cisalpine Gaul, X43. 

Civfl War, 14, 38, 77, 79- 

Civilization, foundation of Euro- 
pean, X47, 148. 

Climatic conditions, 25, 34-38, 190. 

Cnossos, X48. 

Colonial America, 42-44, 74-76. 

Colonization, success in, 82. 

Conquistadores, 67, 174. 

Constantine, X49. 

Constantin<^le, X49. 

Consumption, 5X. 

Copper, xxo; implements, 109; 
mines, XX3. 

Cornish, 214. 

Comwales, z6a 

Cornwall, xx4, z6o. 

'Crete, 87, 139, 148, 20Z« 

^Crimea, X59. 

Croats, X28. 

Cro-Magnon race, X3, 93, 94; first 
appearance, 96, 99; art of, loi, 
102; disappearance of, 99, X03; 
distribution of, 98; genius of, 
97; origin Asiatic, 99; skull, 98; 
wespoDS, 100. 

Crusades, 164, X73. 

Cuba, 68. 

Cymric language, 175, 2x4, 2x5, 
217, 218. 

Cymry, 120, X3X, XS7, xs8, 

Cyprus, 113, X48. 

Cyrus, 220. 

Cr/ichs, 128. 

Dadan plain, X28, 159, 2xz, 2x2. 
Danes, 54, 59» 63, X3X, 159, x62, 

X77, x82, 2x5. 
Dante, 191. 
Danube valley, X04, X09, xx2, 1x4^ 

X22, xso, X56, 2x3. 
Darius, 220, 22X, 224. 
Dark Ages, 87. 
Dart, barbed, xoo, loi. 
Dawn man, 93. 
Dawn stones, 90. 
De Geer, Baron, 152. 
Democracy, tendency in a, s-& 
Denmark, xos, xxx, X23, xs2, 157, 

Diogenes, X97. 
Diseases, 50. 
Diaharmonic oombinatioDS, X2, 24, 

Dnieper, X28. 

Dog, xoo, X05, xxx. 

Dolicfaocephaly, X7, 21, 95, 96, 

xox, X03, X04, xxo, xx6, X23, X34, 

135, 137, 154, 207. 
Dordogne, 179. 
Dorian, dialect, 2x0; mvaskn, 

X44; 145- 
Dorians, X7x. 

Dravidians, 134-136, 223. 

Dutch, 57, 71, 7S* 

East Ihifies, 7a 

Eastern Empire, X49, 159, z6x,Z92. 



Egypt, 54, iia-iis, 126, 134, 139, 
147, 148, 194, 202. 

Egyptians, 13, 58, 138, 201. 

Elam, 132. 

Elimination of weak and unfit, 
46, 49. 

Eneolithic Period, 109, 115. 

England, 9, 23, 52, 58, 63, 139, 
166, 167; Angles in, 181; bronze 
introduced into, 115; Danish 
invasion, 182; economic change 
in, 39, 186; ethnic elements in, 
182, 183; iron weapons in, 117; 
land connection with Ireland 
and France, Z15, 180; Mediter- 
ranean race in, 23, 139, 185-187; 
nobility in, 173; Nordic race in, 
170; decline of Nordic element, 
185, 186; Norman element in, 
184, 185, 218; physical types in, 
215; Round Barrow men of, 
123; Saxon invasion of, z8i, 
182; in present war, 173, 179. 
See also Britain and British Isl^ 

English, brunet, 135, 136; lan- 
guage, 57, 71. 

English Channel, 180. 

EoatUhropus, 93. 

Eolithic Period, 89, 90, 94. 

Eoliths, 89, 90. 

Erse, 213. 

Esquimaux, 98, 99, Z95. 

Esthonians, 202. 

Esths, 203, 210. 

Ethiopia, 137. 

Ethiopian negro, 21. 

Etruria, 139, 148. 

Etruscans, 142, 143, 2x1; language, 

Eugenics, ideal in, 44. 

Eye color, 11, 17, 18, 2z, 22, 122, 


Fellaheen, Egyptian, 23, 138. 
Ferdinand, 168. 
Feudalism, 198. 
Finland, 187, 202, 203. 
Finlanders, 54, 202. 

Finns, 59, 203, 210. 

Firbolgs, 183. 

Fishing, no. 

Flanders, 164, 170, 187, 200. 

Flemings, 53, 57, 176, 187. 

Flints, chipped, 89-99, i^ ^^9 
polished, 107, 108. 

Foot shape, 28. 

France, 49, 52, 55, 103, 104, 115, 
Z26, 146, 167, 180, 185, 186, 200, 
203; Alpines in, 60, 131; Aryan 
q)eech in, 202; in Csesar's time, 
175) ly^y Cro-Magnon race in, 
98; Cymryin, 157; loss in war, 
Z77» 17^1 Mediterraneans in, 
138, 142; Nordics in, 156, 170, 
175-177, 184; Normans in, 182; 
and the papacy, 163; religious 
wars in, 166; Saxons in, 182; 
variation of physical characters 
in, 20. 

Francis 1, 165. 

Franco-Prussian War, 179. 

Prankish kingdom, 162, 177. 

Franks, 63, 131, 159, 162-164, 172, 
176, 177, 184, 187, 217. 

French-Canadians, 72, 73. 

French, language, 211; nobility, 
178; Nordic blood, 175; Revo- 
lurion, 5, 14, 177, 178; stature, 

178, 179. 
Frisians, 159. 
Friulian language, 211. 
Frondersman, Western, 67, 76. 
Furioozrace, 104, 122, 124. 
"Furor Normanorum," 117. 

Gaelic, 213, 216. 

Galatia, 143, 196. 

Galatians, 158. 

Galicia, 128, 141, 212. 

Gaul, 63, III, 156, 162, Z76, 184, 
214; Alpines in, 207; Celdc 
speech in, 217; imder Nordic 
race, 175. 

Gauls, 120, 131, 141, 142, 156-158, 

164, 171, 173, 175, i80i 196. 
Genius, 47, 86, 97. 



Georgia, 35* 86. 

Gepids, 159. 

German, Emperor, 164, 165; im- 
migrants, 76, 78, x66; language, 
57, 164, 170, 171. 

Germans, 57; immediate fore- 
runners of, 176; pure type of, 66. 

Germany, 200; Alpines in, 60; Cel- 
tic-quaking tribes in, 156, 157, 
314; imperial ideal in, z68; Medi- 
terraneans in, II r, ZI3, X30, 
126, 13s, 153, 170, 187-189; 
composition of population of, 
65, 66; racial changes in, 126- 
128, 166; race consciousness in, 
53; Slavic occupation of east- 
em, 65, 126, 127; effect of 
Thirty Years' War on, 165-169, 
179; unification of, 52, 53; the 
Wends in, 65, 66. 

Ghalcha dialect, 221, 226, 337. 

Giza round skulls, 115. 

Glacial stages, 89, 94. 

Goidels, 120, 156, 157, 176, 180, 

181, 213-216; dialects of, 175, 

182, 214-216. 
G<4d, 112. 

Goths, 61, 66, 127, 131, 143, 158, 

159, 163, 171, 174, 184, 187, 317. 
Greece, 55, 138, 143, 155, 192, 196, 

321; classic dialects of, 310; 

dark ages of , 87; Nordic nee in, 

143-148, 189. 
Greeks, 60, 140; genius of, 97; 

physical traits of, 147; and Pcr- 

aans, 221, 223. 'iO 
Greenland, 187. 
Grenelle race, 104, 133, 1 24. 
Gflnz gladation, 89. 

Hair, color, 11, 17, 18, 33, 33, X33, 
151; structure of head, 28^30; 
body, 29, 195. 

Haiti, 68. 

Hallstatt iron culture, zx6, XX79 

Hamitic people, 138. 
Hanover, 66. 

Hapsbuxg, Hdose of, x6s. 
Harold, King, 108. 
Hdbrew chrondogy, 4. 
Hdddberg Man, 89, 93, 94, lodu 
Hdlas, 139, I45-X47, X9X. 
Hellenes, 144-146, 190, 2x0. 
Helvetians, 131, 159. 
Henry VHI, 165. 
Henry the Fowler, 138. 
Heredity unalteniile, 14-16. 
Herodotus, 109. 
Heruli, 159. 

Himalayas, we st e r n, 30, Z3i. 
Hindu Kush, 18, i3i, 333. 
Ifindtis, 16, 58, 64, 134, 136, 191. 
ffindnstan, 62-64, 134, 135, 231- 

333; idiite population of, 70. 
Kttite Empire, 333. 
Hittites, 306. 

Hohenstaufcn Empems, x68. 
Holland, 115, 123, 164; popnlation 

Nordic, 170, 187. 
Holy Roman Empire, 164. 
Homer, 144, 171. 
Homo, aibus, 2$; airopmms, 150; 

kaddbergensis, 89, 93, 94, xo6; 

sapiens, 19. 
Horse, 100. 

Hudson Bay Company, 8. 
Huguenots, 49, 75. 
Humboldt, 197. 
Hungarian nation, 55. 
Hungarians, 138, 130. 
Hungary, 120, 139, 130; langnapt, 

304; Sanms in, 182. 
Huns, 159. 
Hunting, xoi, xza 

Iberian Peninsula, 138, X4x, 173; 

states, 55. 
Iberian race, see Mediterranean. 
Icdand, 187. 

niyrians, 138, 171; language, 310. 
Immigrants, 65, 67, 76, 88; in 

America, 78-80; large famiKes 

among, 43; Scandinavian, 187; 

skulls of, X4, 15; Teutonic and 

Nordic types of, 166. 



Immigration, result <rf, in United 
States, 7^r~32. 

Immigration Commission, Con- 
gressional, rq)ort of, 15* 

Imperial idea, 163. 

Implements, flint, 90, 92; bronze, 
Z09, no; copper, 1x3. 

India, 20, 62, 70, Z07, 208; Aryan 
languages in, 204, 223-227; fos- 
sil deposits in, 88; Mediter- 
ranean race in, 134, 136, 226; 
Nordic race in, 63, 64, 155, 191, 
223, 224; populations of, 134- 


Indians, 8, 9, 16, 29, 30, 50, 61; 
and Americans, 78; in colonial 
wars, 76; skull shape of, 20; 
whites replaced by, 68. 

Indo-European race, 6r, 62. 

Inquisition in Spain, 48. 

Intellect, privilege of, 6. 

Interglacial stages, 89, 92, 93. 

Invaded countries, dSect on lan- 
guage and population in, 63, 64. 

lonians, 145; dialect, 210, 2x1. 

Iran, X2i, 227. 

Iranian, language, 220, 221, 226, 
227; plateaux, X04, 205. 

Irdand, 55, 58, 59, 1x5, 123, 175, 
180, i8x, 213, 2x6; ethnic de- 
ments in, X82, X83. 

Irish, immigrants, 76, 78; Nean- 
derthal type of, 95, 96; racial 
dements of, 59, 157, x82, X83; 
stature, 25. 

Irish national movement, 53, 54. 

Iron, X09, XX3, 1x7; discovery, 
xx6; weapons, X44, x8x. 

Italia Irredenta movement, 54. 

Italians, 65, 80. 

Italy, 25, 38, 49, 60, 138, 145, 148, 
159, 164; Alpines in, 60, xz4, 
X24, 126, X42; bronze intro- 
duced into, XX4, X15; Eneo- 
lithic Period in, X09, X15; lan- 
guages in, 202, 2xx; Mediter- 
raneans in, iix, X42, X43; Nor- 
dics in, X42, X56, X7X, X9x; races 

in north, 142;* in south, X43; 
Saxons in, 182; Terxamara 
Period, xxo; Teutons in, 162; 
unification of, 52, 53. 

Jamaica, 68. 

Japan, X95. 

Japanese farmers, 70. 

Java, 88. 

Jews, X4, x6, 80, 8x, X97. 

Jutes, X59. 

Kassites, X32, 190, 206, 2x9. 
Kentucky, 35, 36. 
Kirghizes, 225. 
Kitchen middens, zxx. 
Kurdish dialect, 22 x. 

Ladin language, 2xx. 

Lake Dwellers, Age of the Swiss, 
X09, XXX, XX4, X24. 

Language, 3, 4; changes in, 2x6- 
2x8; a measiu:e of culture, 207, 
208; in invaded countries, 63, 
64; nationalities foimded on, 
52, 53; no indication of race, 

Languedoc, X42. 

Lapps, 202, 203. 

La Ttoe Period, xx7, X20. 

"Latin America," 57. 

Latin language, 63, Z4X, 2xx, 218. 

Latin nations, 57. 

Latin race, 3, 56, 57, 68. 

Leonardo da Vind, igi, 

Lettish language, 188, 209. 

Libyans, X94. 

Liguria, X38, 142. 

Ligurian language, 202, 2xx. 

Lips, 27. 

Lithuanian language, x88, 209. 

litus Saxonicum, 2x8. 

livonians, 203. 

Lombards, 66, X27, 131, X43, 159, 
162, X63, X72. 

Lombardy, 22, 32, 164, 171. 

London, 26, X39. 

Lorraine, 126, x64. 

Luxemburg, X64. 



Macedon, 146, 147. ^ 
MacedoDiana, 146, 147. 
Magdalenian Period, 93, 99, lOO, 

Maglemose, X05; mdostiyy zzo, 

Magna Gneda, 143. 
Magyars, 128-130; language, 904, 

Malay Peninsula, 135. 

Man, ancestry of, 93-106; ascent 
of, 85, 86; de&aidon of, 92; 
eaiiiest skeletal evidence of, in 
Europe, 89; phases of develop- 
ment, 88-91; place of OTgin, 88; 
prediqx)sition to mismate, 19; 
race, language, and nationality 
of, 3, 4; three distinct subspecies 
of, 17-19. 

Manx, 213. 

Marcomanni, 159. 

Maritime architecture, 148. 

Marius, 159. 

Marriages between contrasted 
races, 56. 

Massachusetts, genius produced 
in, 86. 

Maasagetx, 190, 220, 333-325. 

Medes, 155, 191, 220. 

Media, 132, 206. 

Medic language, 221. 

Mediterranean race, 62, 98, X05, 
115, X2I, 130, ISO, 160, 170, 174, 
X7S> 177, 181, 217; In Africa, 
137} 13S; and Alpine race, 131, 
136; ]q>titudes, 198; in Arabia, 
Z38; and Aryan speech, 201- 
205; in Asia, 135, 137, 223; ^ 
Britain, 214, 215; in British 
Isles, 124, 136, 138, 139, i8o, 
182-184,215; and Celtic q)eech, 
217; classic civilization due to, 
139, 148, 149; in Colcmial 
America, 75; description of, 18, 
134; distribution in Neolithic, 
III, 134, 135; present distribu- 
tion, 18, 134, 138; in England, 

124, 185-187; and other ethnic 

dements, i35-X38» i4x> i4Si u6; 
not purdy European, 140; rise 
of in Europe, 172; in western 
Europe, 135; eye color, 18; 
forerunners ol, 104; in France, 
Z42, 178; and Gsuls, 141; in 
Greece, 145, 146; habitat, 40, 
41; hair, 18, 23, 28, 30; in In- 
dia, 134, 136, 226; in Italy, no, 
Z14, 142, 143; and language, 
Z40, 141, 20X, 204; metallurgy, 
knowledge of, 132; route of mi- 
gration, 140; and negroes, 137, 
138; and Nordic race, 136, 146; 
origin, 208; Proto-Mediterra- 
nean, 135, 136; and Scandinavia, 
136; skull of, 20, 21; in South 
America, 70; stature, 25, 36; 
handsomest types of, 143; in 
Wales, 57, 58. 

Mediterranean Sea, 65, 80, 98, 104, 
III, 134, 140, 148, 161. 

Megalithic monuments, 116, 140. 

Melanesians, 29. 

Menddian Laws of Inheritance, 

Mesooephaly, Z7. 

Mesopotamia, Z07, IZ3, 113, 132, 
206, 219. 

Messt^ian language, 202. 

Metallurgy, 108, Z09, ZZ3-ZZ5, 
132, 205-208. 

Medcan War, 77. 

Medco, peons of, 9; race miztuie 
in, 15, 68. 

Michad Angdo, i9Z. 

Microliths, 100. 

Middle A^, 48, 60, 143, 148, 165, 
166, 171, 183. 

Mindd-Rias, 89. 

Minoan Empire, 14& 

Miocene, 89. 

Mississippi, 86. 

Missouri, 36. 

Mitazmi, 190, 206, 219. 

Mohammedan invadon, 162. 

Mongolians. See Mongols. 



MoEigoloid race, 99; hair of, 30; 

129, 130, 204. 
Mongols, 28-30, 60, 61, i2iy Z35, 

129, ao8, 225. 
Moors, 141, 162, X74. 
Morocco, 116, 134. 
Moscovy, j88. 
Mousterian Period, 92, 94. 
Muscovite ezpansionin Europe, 6o, 
Mycecuean culture, 139, 144, 146, 


Napoleon, 167. 

Napoleonic wars, 173, 178. 

National, movements, 53, 54; 
types, absorption of higher by 
lower, 54, 55. 

Nationalities formed around lan- 
guage and religion, 53. 

Nationality, 3, 4, 52, 53. 

Navigation, 148, 180. 

Neanderthal race, 13, 92, 94-96, 
99, loi, 106. 

Negroes, 24, 16, 21, 28^30, 6x; Afri- 
can, 71, 72; and Mediterranean 
I'&ce, 137, 138; Nordic blood in, 
73i 74; replacing whites in South, 
68, 69; a servient race, 78, 79; 
stationary character of, 69; in 
United States, 73, 76, 87. 

Negroid race, 29; hair of, 30; 135, 
136, 208, 223. 

Neolithic (New Stone Age), 26, 
98, 107-120, 122, 124, 134, i3Sf 
142, 251, 280, 2x5; date of be- 
ginning, 92, 205; diiration of, 
209; distribution of races dur- 
ing, 222; Pre-Neolithic, 205; 
Upper Neolithic, 209. 

New England, 34, 37; immigrants 
in, 65; lack of race conscious- 
ness in, 77; Teutonic in Colonial 
times, 74. 

New France, 76. 

New Spain, 76. 

New York, 5,72; immigrants in, 8z. 

New Zealand, Nordic race in, 70. 

Nomads, 9, 20, 224, 225. 

Nordic race, 222, 235, 240; ad- 
venturers and pioneers, 67; 
alcoholism and consumption 
among, 50, 52; and Alpine 
race, 32, 222, 223, 225, 229- 
Z32; conquest of Alpines, 226, 
227; and Aryan languages, 242, 
202-207, 209, 220; aptitudes, 
298; area of development, 289; 
aristocrats, 270; in Asia, 229- 
226; in AiisEalia and New Zea- 
land, 70; in Britain, 224; in 
British Isles, 280-286, 225, 226; 
in Canada, 72, 73; Cdtic- 
«)eaking, 57-59, 223, 225, 227; 
centre of greatest purity of, 252; 
climate, 34-38, 75; in Colonial 
America, 74-76; contact with 
ancient civilization, 290, 292; 
dedine of, 272, 272, 273; de- 
8crq>tion of. 27. 28; present dis- 
tribution of7^28, 270-272; en- 
ergy of, 290; and Englishmen, 
284; outside of Europe, 294-296; 
a purely European q>edes, 250; 
eye color, 27, 22 ; the fighting de- 
ment, 66, 67; first appearance of, 
205, 227,252; among Flemings, 
53; in France, 40, 275, 276; m 
Germany, 66, 226, 266, 268, 287; 
in Greece, 243-248; habitat, 33- 
39; hair, 27, 22, 23, 28, 30; in 
ICndustan, 62; American im- 
migrants, 78; in India, 63, 64, 
255, 292, 223, 224; in Italy, 242, 
156, 272, 292; invasion of 
Western Europe, 272; location 
during Neolithic, 222, 222; 
present location, 252; and 
Mediterranean race, 236, 246; 
metal weapons of, 226; migra- 
tions of, 67, 255, 257; in mixture 
with other races, 82; and ne- 
groes, 74; and Normans, 228; 
origin, 252-254; physical char- 
acters, 250; in Poland, 226; Pre- 
Nordic, 58; Proto-Nordic, 59, 
253, 295, 202; red-haired branch, 



28; in Ronun tfanes, lao; in 
Rome, 139; in Rnaaia, S9» is8, 
I53~i55> i^Tf x88; in Scandi- 
navia, 187; in Scotland, 57; akin 
color, 23, 24; skull, 17; and 
slaveiy, 77; Slavic-speakins, 59, 
60; in Southon United States, 
75; in Spain, 141, 173, X74; 
stature, 26; effect of sun's rays 
oii,34t75; Teutonic branch, 57, 
156-169; traits, 190, 198; in 
United States, 74-79; in present 
war, 66, 200. 

Normandy, 63, 177, 182, 184; 
change in language of, 218. 

Nonnans, 63, 215; characteristics 
of, 185; influence of, 184; tnna- 
foimaticm of, 218. 

Norse VHdn^ 63, 159, 162, z8x, 
215, 216. 

North Sea, 149, 151, 154. 

Northmen, 63, 131, 182. 

Norway, 115, 123, 182, 187. 

Nose fonn, 12, 27. 

Ofnet, Z04. 
(Ndahoma, 78. 

Oscana, 142, 145, 2569 azi; lan- 
guage, 202. 
Ossetes, the, 6z. 
Ostrogoths, Z59, z62. 
Ottonsan Turks, Z49. 

Paintings, polycfazome, zoa 

Palatine Germans, 75. 

Paleolithic (Okl Stone Age), 20, 34, 
92-107, zxo, Z12, Z3S, Z77, Z83, 
197,214; duration of, 92; Lower 
Paleolithic, 92; Ifiddle Paleo- 
lithic, 92, 94; Upper Paleolithic, 

87, 92, 9Sf 96, 99f xoo- 
Palestine, X14, Z94, 206. 

Pamirs, Uie, 18, Z2i, 220, 226. 
Pan-Germanic movement, 54. 
Pan-Rumanian movement, 54. 
Pan-Slavic movement, 54. 
Parthian language, 22Z. 
Pax Romana, X76. 

Peasant, Eniopean, 104. 
Pefalevi language, 22Z. 
Pelaagians, Z43-Z46, Z90, aoi; 

language of, 2x0. 
Pcnjab, the, 226; Noidic nee in, 

Peons, Mexican, 9* 
Persia, 20, 62, Z32, Z34, 204, 208. 
Peiaan, Okl, language, 390, an, 

Persian Empire, 220. 
Penians, 58, X47, 189, i9h 196, 

219-222, 224; Aiyaniiaafinn ol 

w e stern Asia by, 22z. 
Philip of Macedon, X46. 
Philippines, Spanish in, 70. 
Philisdnes, Z94. 
Phoenicia, 139, Z48. 
Phoenicians, Z14; language, Z4Z. 

Phiygians, Z44, iSSt i9Sf aiPi 

Physical characten and spiritual 

and moral tiaits, Z99, 227, 228. 
Picardy, Z87. 
Pile built villages, Z09. 
PQtdown Man, 93, 94. 
Pindus Mountahis, 2Z3. 
Pnneen, 67* 
PUhecatUkropus^ 88, 89. 
Pleistocene, 88. 
Pliocene, 88. 

Po, valley of, zzz, zz5, Z42, Z43. 
Poland, 55, ziz; Noidic race in, 

ZZ2, 120, Z26, Z53, ZS4» iTOt 172, 

Z89; Slavic occupation of, Z27. 
Poles, 53, 66, Z28, z66. 
Polish Jew, Z4, 80, 8z. 
Population, effect of foreign invar 

sion on, 63, 64; infiHtiatioa into, 

of slaves or immigrants, 65; 

value and efficiency of, 44. 
Portugal, Z62, Z73. 
Portuguese language, 2zz. 
Postglarial stage, 92, 94. 
Pottery, zio, Z24, Z32, 208. 
Primates, 3, 22; erect, 88. 
Pripet swamps, Z28. 
Provencal language, 2zz. 



Provence, 142. 
Pruaoa, 146. 

Proasian, Old (BonuBian), lan- 
guage, z88, 209. 
Prussians, ethnic oiigin of, 66. 

Quebec Frenchmen, 73, 73. 

Race, adjustment to habitat, 83; 
consciousness, 4, 53, 55, 77; de- 
generation, 35-38; c^ect of 
democracy on, 5; method of de- 
tennining, 13, 16; diahannonic 
combinations, 12, 24, 32, 98; dis- 
tinguished from language and 
nationality, 3, 4; feeling, 193; 
importance of, 87; improve- 
ment, 46, 47, 49; mixtures, 15, 
i6» SSf 56, 104, 227; physical 
buis of, 11-32; positions in Ro- 
man times, z2o; replacement of 
type, 42-44; resistance to for- 
eign invasbn, 64; 'selection, 42, 

46, 49-Sii iQO- 
Raphael, 191. 
Religion, 59; nationalities founded 

on, S3. 
Renaissance, 191, 200. 
Riss gladadon, 93. 
Ris»-WUrm, 93. 

Robenhausian Period, 109, zxo. 
Roman Church, 48, 76, 77. 
Roman Empire, 65, 127, 149, 159, 

161-163, i^^i 19^1 193* 

Roman State, 139, 191, Z92. 

Romance languages, 56, 205, 211. 

Romans, 141, 156, 158, 175, 313; 
in Britain, z8i. 

Romansch language, 21 z. 

Rome, 56, 63, 6s, zz7, Z39, Z42, 
Z43, Z48, 161, 162, Z72, Z76, Z9Z, 
Z92, 2Z2, 217; Nordics and Med- 
iterraneans in, Z39. 

Round Banow men, Z23, Z24, 2Z4. 

Rumania, ss, 60, Z38. 

Rumanians, Z30; language of, 


Russia, ZX3, z2o, Z29, Z30, zs3> 

Z62, 30o; Alans and Goths in, 
6z; A^pbes in, Z23, Z33; Bal- 
tic provinces of, z88; burial 
mounds in, Z54; changes in 
zadal predominance in, Z28; 
grasslands and steppes of, 208, 
2Z9, 220, 223; language in, 203, 
2zo; Mongols in, 60; Muscovite 
expansion in, 60; Nordic type in, 
S9» XS4, 156, Z70, Z72, Z87-Z90; 
races in, ZS4, zss; round skulls 
in, ZS4; Saxons in, Z82; Varan- 
gians in, ZS9; water connections 
across, zs3- 

Sace, zsSf 190, Z9Z, 220, 323-226. 

Sahara, the, 39, Z37. 

Sakai, 13s. 

Sanskrit, Z34, zss* I9Z> 2ZO, 22Z, 
223, 224. 

Sardinia, 2s, Z38, Z48. 

Sardinian stature, 25. 

Saimatians, Z29, 2Z2. 

Savoy, Z3Z. 

Savoyard, skull of, 2Z. 

Saxons, 63, 127, Z28, Z3Z, ZS9, Z62, 
Z77, Z84, 2ZS, 217, 2z8; inva- 
sions of, z8i, Z82. 

Saxony, 66, 181, Z87. 

Scandinavia, 4, sSt ^oS» zzo» n^* 
Z40, 151, IS4, IS6, IS7, 160, z66, 
Z87; bronze introduced into, 
zzs; brunets in, 136; first habi- 
tation of, zsz; Nordic race in, 

Scandinavians, z8, 57, 162, Z84, 


Scfaleswig, S4* 

Sdaveni, Z27. 

Scotch, ZS7; brunet, Z36; High- 
lander, 57; stature, 25, 26. 

Scotch-Irish, 7S. 

Scotland, 36, s8, 63, Z39, Z70, Z7S, 
z8z, Z82, 2Z3; ethnic dements 
in, Z84; language, 2z6; Nean- 
derthal type in, 9s. 

Scythians, 6x, Z89. 

Selection, 33; through alcoholism, 



50, 51; by dimatic conditioiis, 
2S> 34-381 190; tluougji con- 
sumption, 51; disease, 50; elim- 
ination of unfit, 46, 49; social 
environment, 42. 

Semitic, language, 206; ncc^ 132. 

Senlac mil, xo8. 

Seibian national revival, 54. 

Serbs, 128, 130. 

Serfdom, European, 9. 

Serfs, Roman, 88. 

Ship-building, i8o» 

Siberia, 70. 

Sidly, IIS, 126, 143. 

Sidon, 148. 

Sikhs, 226. 

Sinai Peninsula, mines of, 113. 

Singalese, 223. 

Siwalik hills, S&. 

Skin color, 23, 24. 

Skull shape, 11, 13, 124, 125, 137, 
197; African, 20; American In- 
dian, 20; Asiatic, 20; Cro- 
Ma^ion, 98; European, 17^19; 
Neanderthal, 95; among immi- 
grants, 14, 15; best method of 
detennining race, 16-21; an- 
tiquity of distinction between 
long and round, 20; see also 
Brachycephaly and Dolicho- 

Slave-trade, 71. 

Slavery, 8, 9, 38, 77. 

Slaves, Roman, 65, 192. 

Slavic languages, 126, 129, 205, 
211, 212; Proto-Slavic, 129. 

Slavic race, 59, 60, 65. 

Slavs, 58-60, III, 120, 129, 138, 
154, 161, 171; in eastern Ger- 
many and Poland, 126, 127; 
northern and southern, 128; in 
Rusoa, 128. 

Slovak, 80. 

Social environment, 42. 

Socrates, 197. 

Solutrean Period, 93, 99-102. 

South Africa, Dutch and F-ngl**^ 
in, 71, 72. 

South America, 57, 67, 68. 

Southena United States, 40, 41, 
64, 87; Nordic type in, 75; race 
consciousness in, 7; poor whites 

of, 35, 36. 
Southerners, effect of dimate on, 

Spain, 103, 135, 159, 183; Alpines 

in, 125; aristocracy of, 174; 
cause of colU^tse of, 174; dimi- 
nation of genius producing 
classes in, 48, 49; language of, 
202, 203, 214; Mediterraneans 
in, in; Nordics in, 141, 156, 
i73> 174; ndal change in, 174; 
Teutons in, 162. 

Spanish Main, 40, 68. 

Spanish War, 67. 

Sparta, 145, 147- 

Spartans, 145. 

Species, sjgnifirance of the torn, 19. 

Stature, 11, 18, 24-26. 

SUHcism, 193. 

Styiia, 164. 

Suevi, 141, 159, 162, 163, 173. 

Sumer, 107, 132, 206. 

Susa, 132, 206. 

Swabians, 127. 

Sweden, 105, in, 112, 158, 159, 
176; bronze introduced into, 
123; Nordic race in, 187; race 
consciousness in, 53; unity of 
race in, 151. 

Swedes, 21, 162. 

Swiss, 122. 

Switzerland, 40, 109, Z14, 124, 126, 

Syria, 126. 
Syrians, 80. 

Tatars, 125, 129. 
Tchouds, 203. 
Te n nessee, 35, 36. 
Tenamaia Period, no, 114. 
Teutonic branch of the Nordic 

race, 18, 34, 37, 38, 57, 58, "2f 
117, 120, 131, 151, 152, 184, 187, 
aoo; Proto-Teutoiuc, 152. 



Teutonic invasioiis, 58, 161-169. 
Teutonic languages, 57, 125, 216- 

Teutons, 126, 127, 129, 156-160, 

171, 176, 177, 215; physical 

characters, 157, 158; Proto- 

Teutons, Z05. 
Thebes, 147. 
Thessaly, 2x3. 
Thibet, 20, 121. 

Thirty Years' War, 165-169, 179. 
Thradan language, 210, 222. 
Tin, 113, 114. 

Tin Isl«s of Ultima Thule, 114. 
Titian, 191. 

Tokhaxian language, 226. 
Tools, 90, 92, 100, Z08, Z09, 113, 

Tnde routes, 112. 
Trajan, Emperor, 21Z. 
Trusylvania, 212. 
Trapping, zzo. 
Tripoli, 126. 
Trojans, 144. 
Troy, acge o£, Z44. 
Tunis, ZZ5, zx6, 126, Z43. 
Turconan, 205. 
Turkestan, 220, 223, 225, 226. 
Turks, 129, 130, 149; language of, 

204, 206; racial elements, 204. 
Tuscan language, 2zx. 
Tyre, 148. 

TynAf iz6, Z36, Z7Z. 
Tyralese, 122. 

XTgzian language, 2x0. 
XTmbrians, X3Z, Z42, Z45, Z56, 2zx; 

language, 202. 
Unit dbaracten, ix, d seq.; 26; in- 

tennixture of, z2; unchanging, 

Z3-16, Z24. 
United States of America, Gennan 

and Irish immigrants in, 76, 78; 

Indian element in, 78; negroes 

of, 73; Nocdic blood in the Col- 

onies, 74-76; race consciousness 
in, 77; racially a European col- 
ony, 74-76. See also America. 
Ussher, Archbishop, 4. 

Valais, 160. 

Vandals, 66, X27, 13X, Z4Z, Z59, 

162, 163, 173, 177, X94. 
Varangians, X59, X7x. 
Vedas, the, 223-225. 
Veddahs, 135. 
Venethi, 127, Z29, 2Z2. 
Venezia, 164. 
Venezuela, 68. 
Venice, 171. 
Vikings, 63, zz6, Z59, z8z, Z84, 

Z85, 187, 215, 2X6. 
Vurguiia, 75. 

Visigoths, X41, X59, X62, X73, X77. 
Vlachs, 160, 213. 

Wales, X39, x6o, X83, 2x4. 

Wallachian, x6o. 

Walloons, 53, X26, x6o, X76, 2xx. 

Wars, European, 52, X73, X79, X99, 
200; losses from, 179; Nordic 
element in, 66, 67; of the Roses, 

Wealth, privilege of, 6. 

Weapons, 90, xoo, xox, X03, xo8, 
ZZ3, ZZ4, zz6, ZZ7, Z40, Z44, z8z, 

Welsh, 57, 58, z6o, 2Z5. 

Wends, 65, 66, Z27, Z28. 

West Indies, 68. 

Western Empire, z6z, igz. 

White Sea, Z53. 

Women, 23, 3Z. 

Writing, 208. 

Warm gladation, 94, Z53. 

WUrtemberg, Z26, z65« 

Wttrtembergers, Z22. 

Wu-suns, Z94, 225. 

Zendavesta, 224. 
2^endic, 22Z, 226* 

>^AR 5 - 1917