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Harrison, who had bought it from its first holder, Richard 
Field, three years befbre. Leake retained his property in 
Shakespeare's earliest printed book for nearly twenty-one 
years. His first edition of llenus and Idonis appeared in 
 Y99, in the same year as the first edition of The Passionate 
Pilgrim, and on the title-pages of both volumes figured his 
address---' the Greyhound in Paules Churchyard. 'x Thus in, 1-99, 
a year after Leake was clothed with the livery of his Company, 
two newly printed volumes, which were identified with Shake- 
speare's name and fme, adorned for the first time the sheh'es 
of his shop in St. Paul's Churchyard. 
The unnamed printer of The Passionate Pilgrim was doubt- 
less Peter Short, who had printed for Jaggard the only volume 
of verse which he is known to have undertaken previously, 
viz. I-lunnies lecreations, in  1-9Y- Short also printed for 
Jaggurd his first book, Dove's Sermon, in , 1"94. Short's print- 
ing office was at ' the Star on Bread Street Hill, near to the 
end of Old Fish St.' ; his business was a large one and many 
volumes of verse came from his press. Not only had he 
printed recently the work of the poets Spenser and Daniel, but 
he had produced for Leake the two editions of lZenus and 
Idonis which appeared respectively in , 1-99 and , 602, as well 
as Harrison's edition of Shakespeare's Lucrece in  1-98. More 
than one song-book, with the literary contents of which The 
Passionate Pilgrim had close affinity, also came from his press 
one in the same year as Jagg'ard's miscellany, viz.' Ayres for four 
loyces composed by Michael Cavendish '? 
The typographical quality of the first edition ot Jaggard's 
 These premises enjoyed a traditional fame. They had been long in 
John Harrison's occupation, until at the close of x 596 Leake took them over ; 
he remained there till i6oz. 
= Cf. Peter Short, Printer, ad his 2tlarks by $ilvanus P. Thompson F.R.S. 
(Bibliograph. Soc.), 898. 

Peter Shorr 


importance which the publishers attached to' private', or Publishers" 
thirst for 
unpublished pieces, above 'extant ', or pieces which were 'private 
already in print. The compiler of Belvedere claims credit poems'. 
for having derived his material not merely from printed 
books, but from 'jprivate jpoeras, sonnets, ditties and other witty 
conceits.., accerding as they could be obtained by sight or favour 
of copyi,g '. In the case of Spenser, Daniel, Drayton,Shakespeare, 
Marlowe, Barnfield,and many other living authors whom he 
named, he had drawn not merely, fi'om many of their extant 
(i.e. published) workes', but from 'some pt in private'. 
Of five recently dead authors he stated he had 'perused' 
not only their 'divers extant labours' but ' many more held 
baclfrom publishing' 
In christening his volmne, Jaggard illustrated the habit xhe name 
which George Wither had in mind when he wrote of the of Jggara' 
stationer that 'he oftentymes giues bookes such names as in 
his opinion will make them saleable, when there is little or 
nothing in the whole volume sutable to such a tytle'.' The 
title which Jaggard devised has no precise parallel, but it 
does not travel very far from the beaten track. The ordinary 
names which were bestowed on poetic miscellanies of the day 
were variants of a somewhat dirent formula, as may be 
deduced from the examples 'Bower of Delights', 'Handful 
of Pleasant Delights ', and ' Arbor of Amorous Devices '. 
The Iffectionate Sbepheard, a collection of poems by Richard 
Barnfield, which appeared in x)'94, approaches Jagg:ard's 
designation more nearly than that of any preceding extant 
volume of verse.'- 

 Scholars Purgatory (c. x69.5) , p, xzz, 
 The similitude is not quite complete, Although Barnfield's book 
includes many detached pieces the title of the whole applies particularly to the 
opening and longest poem of the volume, Jaggard's general title does not apply 
to any individual item of the book's contents. 

that of I6o9, and his version is on the whole the better 
of the two :- 
line 8.-- 
['1y99 ] Wooing his purity with her faire pride. 
I-i6o9] Wooing his purity with her fowle pride. 
line  -- 
[t Y99-] For being both to me: both to each friend, 
Ix 609] But being both t}om 111c both to cach friend, 
line r -- 
i -r '99] The truth I shall not know, but liue in doubt. 
1-69] Yet this shal I ncrc know but liue in doubt, 
Finally Jaggard's text knows nothing of the I 6(3) n'lis- 
print of ' sight ' Ibr ' sidc ' in the important line 6 :- 
Tcmpteth my better angel from nay side. 
Nos. ItI, V, The three remaining poems which can be confidently 
a xvI-- assigned to Shakespeare are all to be found in his play of 
fi'omShake- Love's Labour's Lost, which was published in I J')8. Other 
pere'o, plays of his had been published earlier, but this piece was 
0.' thc first to bear on the title-page Shakespeare's name as 
author (By W. Shakespere). The variations from the text of 
the play are in all three pieces unimportant and touch singlc 
words or inflexions. But such as they are, they suggest that 
Jaggard again printed stray copies which were circulating 
'privately', and did not find the lines in the printed quarto 
o the play. The distribution of the three excerpts through 
the miscellany suggests that .laggard did not know that they 
o. Ii. all came from the same source. The first excerpt from Love's 
Labour's Lost No. IlIimmediately follows Shakespeare's 
two sonnets. It is Longaville's sonnet to Maria, from Act iv, 
Sc. , 11. '8-7 r. The variations are as follow : 


he sent it to press. "/'he three other sonnets on the theme of 
Venus and Adonis in The Passionate Pilgrim have a strong 
f)mily resemblance to that attributable to Griffin, and may 
well have been similar experiments of his Muse, which 
were withheld foln the printer and circulated only in 
Griffin is one of three contemporary poets whom o. vlL 
XVII, and 
Jagg{F-d may be safely convicted of robbing. He was wise xx.- 
in laying somewhat heavier hands on the work of Richard tributionsof 
Barnfield, whose lyric gift was more pleasing than Griffin's. .,-na,. 
There is no question that two of Jaggard's piecesNo. VIII, 
the sonnet beginning  If ,lusicke and sweet Poetrie agree , 
and No. XX, the seven-syllable riming couplets at the 
extreme end of the volume, beginning  As it fell upon 
a day'wcre from Barnfield's Fen. Both were published 
in t )-98 in a poetical tract entitled Poems: in diuers humours, 
which formed the iburth section of a volume bearing the 
preliminary title, The Encomion of Lady Pecunia, or the Praise 
of 3Ione),, by Richard Barnfield, Graduate in Oxford.' The 
whole book was published by William Jaggard's brother John, 
at the Hand and Star in Fleet Street, and there is ground for 
believing that Jaggard, with his brother's connivance, borrowed 
in this instance from a printed text. 
* Poems in diuers humours' was the last of the fbur Barnfield's 
Poems in 
parts of the  Encomion' and had, like each of the three 
preceding parts, a separate title-page. It was prefaced by mo,,,-s, 
a dedication in three couplets to the author's friend 
' Maister Nicholas Blackleech of Grayes Inne'. There the 
writer described the poems which followed as fruits of 
unriper years'. Barnfield's claim to authorship of the :Poems 
in diuers humours' cannot be justly questioned. 
The opening piece in Barnfield's tract is headed ' Sonnet I. 


followed in that anthology by the first half (twenty-six lines out 
of fifty-six of Barnfield's fully accredited ' Ode'--'As it fell 
upon a day'), which bore the heading'Another of the same 
shepherds '. Though the editor of England's Helicon appended 
to the fragment of Barnficld's 'Ode' the siglaature 'Ignoto', 
the authorship of those verses is not in doubt. ' The same 
shepherd' is Barnfield, and there is no valid ground for rejecting 
the attribution to his pen of the preceding poem, ' My flocks 
feed not.' 
It seems unlikely that Jaggard drew the ' copy ' of 
flocks fcd not  directly from Wcclkcs' volume. Apart fom 
three misprints and minor differences in spelling tbr which 59r. 
Jaggard's printer may be held responsible (c. g. nenying' tbr 
,renying ', I. 4 ; ' wowen ' for ' women ', I. I 2 ;  blackc ' for 
, backe', I. 28), there are textual discrepancies between his 
and Weelkes' versions which suggest that Jaggard employed 
'copy' other than that which Weelkes tbllowed. In neither 
volume are the words carefiflly printed, and the sense is in 
both texts difficult to follow. At the end of the first stanza 
(11. I - 2), Weelkes reads : 
For now I see inconstancie 
More in women then in maff men to be" 

Jaggard reads : 
For now I see, inconstancy, 
lXtore in wowen [i.e. women] then in mtn remaine. 

Here the rime with ' dame', though not good, is improved by 
In the second stanza, 11. Io-I  appear in Weelkes thus : 
With howling noyse to see my dolfilll plight; 
How sighes resound through harcklesse gound. 



The text of 
Harl. MS. 

Jaggard reads :- 
In howling 7vise, to see my dolefi, ll plight, 
How sighes resound through battles ground. 
In the third stanza Jaggard's text dittirs from that of 
Weelkes in nearly every line. For example :- 
line ,_ Weelkes- Lowde bells ring not chercfi.lly; 
Jaggard: Greene plants bring not lbrth their die. 
line 4, Wcelkcs. Nimphcs backcrcping 
Jaggard. Nimphcs blacke [i.e. backe] peeping. 
line 9, Wcelkes- Farewell, sweet lasso, the like here was. 
Jaggard: Farewell sweet louc thy like here was. 
line z, Wcclkcs- Other help for him I know thor's none. 
Jaggard : Other hclpe I-br him I see that there is none. 
The text of this poem in Egland's Helico, bllows 
closely that of The Passionate Pilgrim, and was doubtless taken 
from the latter volume direct or from the same manuscript. 
Misprints are corrected. The only textual change of importance 
is in the last stanza, line i o} where 'woe' is replaced by 
moane ' lbr the sake of the rime with nonc ' in the concluding 
The poem was clearly very popular, and was constantly 
copied in  private  commonplace books. A transcript of it in 
a contemporary script in the British Museum Harleian MS. 
69  % fol.  -6 b, without author's nanc, supplies lnany readings 
which dirtier from the printed versions. These variations are 
often improvements and probably present the verse in the 
tbrm that it left the writer's hand. For exampl% in Stanza x 
1.6, the four lines read in the manuscript : 
All my merry jiggs are cleane forgot 
All my layes, of Love are lost God wot 
Where my ]oyes were firmly iinl(t by love 
There annoyes are placst without remove. 

Heywood Bright's library in 1884, the MS. passed to Halliwell, 
who gave in his Folio Shakespeare, vol. xvi, p. 466, a facsimile 
of the 'very early MS. copy of this poem with many varia- 
tions'. Halliwell dated the compilation of the poetical 
miscellany 'some years before the appearance of The Passionate 
Pilgrim'. In the MS., stanzas 3 and 4 change places with 
stanzas r and 6. 
For Jaggard's unintelligible 1. 4, 
As well as fancy (ioarall might), 
the MS. reads: As well as fancy, partial lilze. 
In line 12 of the hiS., 
And set thy person forth to sell 
is an improvement on JagFard's 
And set her person forth to sale. 
In 1. I4 the hiS. reads :- 
Her cloudy lookes will clear ere night 
for Jaggard's 
Her cloudy lookes will calme yer night. 
In 11. 43-6 the MS. gives : 
Think, wonen love to match with nen, 
tnd not to live so lie a saint: 
Here is no heaven; y . 
the holy then 
Begin, rohen age doth ttieln attaint. 
Jaggard's less satisfitctory version runs : 
Thinke Wonen still to striue with nen, 
To sinne and neuer .for to saint, 
There is no heauen (by holy then) 
When time with age shall thegn attaint. 
Finally, in line -i the MS. reads : 
She will not stick to ringe my eare 


that much of it was entrusted to William Jaggard's brother 
John, who printed an ample but by no means exhaustive 
selection from it in x y98. Barnfield's imitative habit of mind 
rendered the six-lined stanza, which Shakespeare had glorified 
in his Ienus and 4donis a favourite instrument and the internal 
quality of the many six-line stanzas in The Passionate Pilgrim 
justifies the theory that Barnfield was their author at any rate 
of those of them that are in a serious vein. 


I-r may be assumed although the indications are obscure, 
that despite its equivocal claims to respectihl notice Jaggar&s 
venture met with success. There is small doubt that the 
compiler of the popular anthology called England's Helicon, 
which appeared next year was influenced by the example of 
the publisher of The Passionate Pilgrim. The former printed four 
of Jaggards  Sonnets To sundry notes of lusicke , viz. XVI, 
 On a day, alack the day ' t?om Lov?s Labour's Lost; XVII 
Barnfields My flocks feed not'; XIX Marlowe's lyric with the 
reply ; XX, Barnfield's  As it fell upon a day . Although the 
editor of England's Helicon depended in nost cases on different 
transcripts the coincidence of his choice and the order which 
he followed in introducing these Ibur pieces to his reader can 
hardly be regarded as tbrtuitous. 
No copy of a second edition of The Passionate Pilgrim is 
etant , and there is no clue to the date of its issue.  The 
poet Drummond of Hawthornden noted that he read the 
book in  o possibly in a second edition. A third edition 
source, a Latin quotation from Ovid's Fasti, ii. 7 7 -%which describes Tarquin's 
admiration of Lucrece's beauty. Shakespeare's poem of Lucrece no doubt 
suggested to Barnfield the transcription of these lines. 
* See p. 4 8, infra. 

of Jaggard 

The lost 

The third 

additions to 
the text. 

Britan ica 

4 6 


was undertaken by the unabashed Jaggard in x 6,2, when his 
prosperity was secure and he had become his own printer. 
Exceptional interest attaches to the issue of the third 
edition of The Passionate Pilgrim. in 6 2. The volulne was 
n0wprinted at William Jaggard's own press, which he had 
controlled only since  6o)-. Jaggard in this reissue bettered 
his carlier instruction. He enlarged the text to more than 
twice its original lengxh by the addition of two Solnewhat 
long narrative poclnS in which Shakespeare had no hand. 
The third edition, ill fhCt, ga'ossly exaggerated the offence of 
the first in assigning to Shakcspcarc work by other hands. 
The additions to the third edition were from T_.Lroia Eritanica, 
a collcction of" poetry by a well-known wntcr, Thomas 
Heywood. That volume Jaggard had himself published in 
6o9, contrary, as would appear, to the wish of the author. 
Heywood proved less COlnplaisant than those whose name and 
rights were ignored in the first edition of The Passionate Pilgrim. 
Jaggard obtained the licence for the publication of 
Heywood's Troia Britanica on December -, x 608, on somewhat 
peculiar conditions. The entry ill the Stationers' Company's 
Register described the work, without mention of Heywood's 
name, as A booke called B[ytans Troye', and the exceptional 
provision was added  that yf any question or trouble growe 
hereof. Then he [i. e. Jaggard] shall answere and discharge yt 
at his owne losse and costes '.' When the book duly appeared, 
Heywood did not question Jaggard's right to publish it, and 
no strictly legal  question or trouble' seems to have  grown 
thereof'. But Heywood bitterly complained of Jaggard's typo- 
graphical carelessness. He requested Jaggard to insert a list 
of' the infinite faults escaped '. But Jaggard was obdurate and 
insolently retorted (according to Heywood's statement) that 
" Arber iii, 397" 


' hee would not publish his owne disworkemanship, but rather 
let his owne tault lye upon the neck ot the author '. 
Three years later, in x 6  2, Jaggard inflicted on Heywood 
the further indignity of filching tom Troia Britanica transla- 
tions in verse of two of Ovid's Epistles, which were first 
published in that volmne. He added them to the third edition 
of The Passionate Pilff, rim, all the contents of which Jaggard 
continued to assign on the title-page to Shakespeare's pen. 
Heywood was in no temper to suffer this new injury at Jag- 
gard's hands in silence. In an address to another printer, 
Nicholas Okes, who published for him his prose Atpology for 
.4ctors, in  6 r z (soon after the appcarance of the third edition 
of Jaggard's ' Passionate Pilgrim '), Heywood not only exposed 
Jaggard's misconduct, but claimed to have interested Shake- 
speare in the matter. His protest was issued (he declared) in 
the great dramatist's name as well as in his own. Heywood's 
words run : 'Here, likewise, I must necessarily insert a manifest 
injury done me in that worke [i. e. Troia Britanica] by taking 
the two epistles of Paris to Helen, and Helen to Paris, and 
printing them in a lesse volume (i. e. The Passionate Pilgrim 
of  , 2) under the name of another, [i. e. Shakespeare], which 
may put the world in opinion I might steale them from him, 
and hee, to doe himselfe right, hath since published them in 
his owne name: but, as I must acknowledge my lines not 
worth his [i. e. Shakespeare's] patronage under whom he [i. e. 
Jaggard] hath publisht them, so the author, I know, much 
offended with M. Jaggard that altogether unknowne to him 
presumed to make so bold with his name.' 
Jaggard was not, as we have seen , the only publisher Shae- 
who had made ' so bold with' Shakespeare's name as to put it veae' 
alleged pro- 
 Heywood's Ipologyfor Ictors 6I Sh. Soc. ,8+x p. 6z. 
 See p. zx note I. 

reprint of 

Sundry Notes' were each introduced by a separate title-page, 
of which the imprint ran:  London, Printed in the year 
x '99-' In the preliminary  Advertisement' Lintott wrote : 
'The Remains of lIr. William Shakespeare call'd The 
Passionate Pilgrime & Sonnets to Sundry Notes of Musick 
(at the end of this collection) came into my hands in a 
little stitch'd Book, printed at London br IV. aggard in the 
year J'99.' Lintott's Collection' was reissued next year, 
with the addition of a second volume supplying a reprint 
of the original 16o 9 edition of Shakespeare's Sonnets and 
I Lover's oraplaint. The nev title-page was curiously in- 
accurate as to the date of the first edition of Shakespeare's 
narrative poems and of "l-be Passiotmte Pilgrim. The words 
ran :  A Collection of Poems in Two Volumes : being all The 
miscellanies of llr. William Shakespeare, which were Publish'd 
by himself in the year x 609, and now correctly Printed from 
these Editions.' There were at least two impressions of this 
Collection in Two Volumes'. In one of these impressions 
The Passionate Pilgrim and 'Sonnets to Sundry Notes' bore 
the correct date of  99. In another impression, the title- 
pages were reprinted with the date changed to x6o 9. "Ihere 
is no ground for assuming that Lintott knew of an edition, 
belonging to that year, of The Passionate Pilgrim, or of the 
appended  Sonnets to Sundry Notes '. The date was invented 
to agree with that of the first edition of the Sonnets. 
Another collection of Shakespeare's poems followed 
independently in  7 x o. This edition formed an un- 
authorized ' Seventh' or supplementary volume to Rowe's 
more or less critical edition of Shakespeare's Plays of 17o 9 . 
This supplement was undertaken by Edmund Curll, the 
notorious printer-publisher, with the editorial assistance 
of Charles Gildon. Rowe's publisher, Jacob Tonson, had 




No. III. 
copy) , 6, z. 

No. IV. 
The Love- 
day copy 

and there was no pagination. The reprint of The Passionate 
Pilgrim, followed the example of the original edition in leaving 
the verso of the leaves blank through the first three sheets 
A-C. Sheet I) was differently treated. The type was set on 
both sides of the page, with the result that the text ended on 
the verso of D-, and did not reach as in the first edition the 
verso of D T. The second title reappears on C3, with the 
altered date x 6 2, thus : 
Sonnets. To sundry Notes of Musickc [scroll device] 
At London Printed by W. laggard  6  2. 
'" is in the 
The Bodlcian cop)', which measures 4}"x 3 , 
Malone collection. It is numbered Malone 328, and bears a 
lnanuscript note sigaacd E. 1I.' and dated October 22, x78y. 
2Xlalonc there points out that Heywood's translations from 
Ovid were generally assumed to bc by Shakespeare until 
Dr. Farmer noted their truc authorship in 766. The copy 
is peculiar in having two title-pages, of which one has the 
words By HC Shakespere, in the central space, and the other is 
without thcln. There is no question that Shakespeare's name 
was removed by the publisher Jaggard, at the request either 
of Shakcspeare or of Heywood, and that the title-page 
bearing Shakespeare's nalne was cancelled and another sub- 
stituted to accompany late impressions of the book. By a 
happy accident the two titles survive together in Malone's 
copy. The title which lacks Shakespeare's name is not known 
to be extant anywhere else. 
The second cop),, which measures 4-"x 3,'6 , belongs 
to Mr. John E.T. Lovcday of Williamscotc, near Banbury. 
The title-page has in the centre the words By I. Sbakespere. 
The existence of this copy was only made known in 88z. 
It was originally bound m rough calf with five other rare 
tracts o contemporary date. The Passionate Pilgrim occupied 
the second place. The volume bore on the fly-leaf the words : 
 e libris Jac : Merrick 
e. coll. Tr- Oxon 
1738 ' 
The inscription is in the handwriting of the former owner, 




Printed i\,r W. laggard, and ar. 
tobc ,1, bv'V. Leake, at thc Gre}'- 
} ,, m Pauls Churd) ard,