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Feb., 1957 


Vol. X, No. 1 

«■■« » - * IIL """m* Jiinr 

777E PASSIONIST is pub- 
lished bimonthly at Immac- 
ulate Conception Retreat , 
5700 N. Harlem Ave., Chicago 
31, Illinois, U.S.A. Issued each 
February, April, June, August, 
October and December. Fi- 
nanced by free-will offerings 
of its readers. There is no 
copyright. The paper is a 
private publication. 

deeper knowledge and closer 
attainment of the purpose of 
our Congregation. Coopera- 
tion is invited. Contributions 
by any member of the Con- 
gregration are welcome; 
whether it be news, past or 
present, of general or pro- 
vincial interest, articles dog- 
matic, ascetic, canonical or 
historical. Photographs of re- 
cent or historical events in 
the Congregation are also 
helpful towards the ideal 
THE PASSIONIST strives to 
reach and are sought. 

Bruce, C.P. 


Bulletin of Holy Cross Province 

Vol. X, No. 1 Feb., 1957 

lie a 11 ri g a ii mmiE anmig ainnu g an me an mug a n 


This issue of The PASSIONST features 
an historical article on "The Passionists in 
Texas." Anxious to preserve in a more last- 
ing form many of the details of the work 
of the Passionists in the Diocese of Corpus 
Christi, the Editor has drawn up this article 
from the material provided by the thorough 
research of Rev. Fr. Emmanuel Sprigler, C.P., 
which is gratefully acknowledged. 

Rev. Fr. Carroll Stuhlmueller, C.P., Pro- 
fessor of Sacred Scripture at Immaculate 
Conception Retreat, Chicago, Illinois, has con- 
tributed a timely article on "Mental Prayer 
in the Life of a Passionist." 

This issue also contains the directives en- 
closed in a recent letter from the General 
Curia, relative to the establishment of a News 
Section in connection with the ACTA CON- 
would refer our readers and correspondents 
to this letter. 

This issue likewise inaugurates two new 
sections, Letters to the Editor, and Books 
Reviewed. These will prove of deep interest 
to the readers of The PASSIONIST, and, it 
is hoped, will provide a forum for very 
profitable discussion in the future. 


"Return into the land of thy fa- 
thers . . . and I will be with thee. (Gen. 
31:3). Happy is the day wherein thou 
didst return to the land of thy fathers." 
(I Mac. 10:55). 

THE happy day that saw the return 
of the Passionists to Texas was 
foreshadowed in the spring of 1946. 
In April, while conducting a mission 
in the city of Beaumont, Father George 
Jungles, C.P., was invited by the pas- 
tor to accompany him to the Chancery 
Office in Galveston. Father asked for 
an audience with the Bishop, Christo- 
pher J. Byrne, and was received most 
cordially. His Excellency extended an 
invitation to the Passionist Fathers to 
take up residence in the diocese, prefer- 
ably in charge of a new parish in Beau- 
mont. Upon being reminded that we 
are primarily a missionary Congrega- 
tion, and also that a more central loca- 
tion would be desirable, the Bishop 
launched into a eulogy upon Houston 
and its advantages. He also added that 
we might come into the diocese on our 
terms. Father George contacted the 
Provincial, Very Rev. Fr. Herman Stier, 
C.P., urging that time was of the es- 
sence, since the Bishop was advanced 
in age. In fact Bishop Byrne had told 
Father George to inform the Superior 

that the Bishop was "a cranky old 
man." His Excellency often said that 
the Bishop of Galveston was a proud 
man, but that Christy Byrne was a very 
humble man — the truth of which was 
borne out many times. 

The Provincial took immediate ac- 
tion. An appointment was made with 
the Bishop, and the Provincial and Fa- 
ther George were cordially welcomed, 
and given much information about the 
diocese. The Provincial asked the Bish- 
op to put his invitation in writing, 
which he did there and then. At this 
time Father George was conducting a 
mission in Houston, for Father Hanks, 
S.S.J., who drove him to Galveston for 
his appointment. He also generously 
offered the hospitality of his large rec- 
tory for the use of our Fathers until 
the foundation was made. 

Father Herman sent his First Con- 
suitor, Very Rev. Fr. Malcolm LaVelle, 
C.P., present General, to take up with 
the Bishop the matter of this founda- 
tion. Bishop Byrne again expressed his 
delight at the prospect of having Pas- 
sionists in his diocese. The prospect 
became a reality on May 15th, when a 
seven-room bungalow at 807 Teetshorn 
Street, in Houston, was purchased from 
Mr. and Mrs. Sam Turner by Father 

Father George Jungles, C.P. 

Malcolm for the Provincial Curia. The 
deal was practically closed on the pre- 
ceding day, the feast of St. Gemma, 
but actual possession was not obtained 
until the 15th. On Friday, May 21st, 
Father Malcolm offered the first Mass 
in the new Retreat, begging God to 
bless the foundation and all who would 
go forth from it to labor for the sal- 
vation of souls. Then were fulfilled 
the words of the Scripture, and we 
were taken back to another day in May, 
thirty-three years previous, when on 
May 20, 1913, Paul Joseph Nussbaum, 
C.P., was consecrated the first Bishop 
of the newly created diocese of Corpus 
Christi and our Fathers first began their 
apostolic labors in that giant of the 
Southwest, Texas. 

GIANT! So it is— this vast land 
which is Texas, comprising 267,339 
square miles, as against 212,339 for 
the whole of France, or 194,945 for 
the whole of Spain, or 181,714 for the 
whole of Germany, or 119,713 for the 
whole of Italy, or 58,324 for England 
and Wales combined. Originally the 
Territory of Texas included also what 
is now New Mexico, Oklahoma, Colo- 
rado and Wyoming, making a grand 
total of 556,838 square miles! Only 
when the immortal Sam Houston coun- 
selled moderation (?) did the lines 
become as they are now. The other 
portions were sold to the United States 
in 1850, for $10,000,000. But Texas 
is still THE GIANT! 

Geologically Speaking 
This is an ancient land. The entire 
geologic series, with a few exceptions, 
is represented in Texas. The peculiar 
features of the American Cretaceous 
(the lowest member of the geologic 
series, unknown elsewhere in the Unit- 
ed States) gives individuality to the 
Central Texas region. The final emer- 
gence of the State began in Middle 
Cretaceous time, and was connected 
with the same movements that brought 
up the Rocky Mountain system. The 
strata of Texas, except the Paleozoic 
group, are soft, and yield readily to 
disintegration, as can be readily veri- 
fied by anyone who has absorbed some 
Texas soil! A few eruptive sheets are 
found in the trans-Pecos region and 
along the lower Rio Grande, being 
remnants of the eastern edge of the 
great eruptive area of the Rocky Moun- 

First Passionist Bishop in United States, Bishop Paul Joseph Nussbaum, CP. 
Bishop of Corpus Christi, Texas. 

tain area. Granitic masses occur, as ex- 
trusions from the pre- Cambrian, in the 
central and trans-Pecos Paleozoic de- 
posits. While the central plateaus some- 
times attain an elevation of as much 
as four thousand feet, the only true 
mountains are west of the Pecos, e.g., 
El Capitan, with an elevation of al- 
most nine thousand feet. 

The white men paid their first visit 
to this up-and-coming part of the world 
in 1580-83, when the Spaniards came 
into the upper Rio Grande Valley, and 
established missions among the Indians 
near El Paso and Santa Fe. The great 
conquistador, Coronado, went far to 
the north; and this is the origin of 
the famous Llano Estacado, "Staked 
Plains," so named because the expedi- 
tion marked its trail with willow stakes, 
in order not to go astray on the return 

The first white settlement, strangely 
enough, was made by the great French 
explorer, La Salle. He had already 
navigated the Father of Waters, and 
now in 1685 he was on his way back 
from France to found a settlement near 
the mouth of the Mississippi, as a pro- 
tective measure against both the Eng- 
lish and the Spaniards. Due to an er- 
ror in his estimate of the latitude of 
the mouth, or perhaps from misjudging 
the currents, he passed the mighty 
stream. Sweeping along the Gulf Coast, 
he made a virtue of necessity and land- 
ed in what is now Matagorda Bay, but 
which he named Bay of St. Bernard. 
The settlement itself was called Fort 
St. Louis. One of his ships, L'AIMA- 

BLE, was wrecked in the landing, and 
shortly after, another, LA BELLE, was 
lost during exploration. Presently there 
was nothing either amiable or beautiful 
about the whole enterprise. On March 
17, 1687, near the bank of the Trinity 
River, La Salle was murdered from 
ambuscade, and several of his friends 
were killed at the same time. The mur- 
derers took charge of everything. How- 
ever, the intrepid explorer was buried 
in the soil of Texas by his faithful 
friend, Father Danay, one of a group 
of four Recollect and three Sulpician 
priests who had accompanied the ex- 
pedition. The death of the leader 
sounded the knell of the colony. The 
Indians fell upon Fort St. Louis, de- 
stroying it and its inhabitants. The 
news of this French attempt at colon- 
ization brought action from the Span- 
iards the Viceroy of Mexico sending 
Don Alonzo de Leon as his emissary. 
The anxious Spaniards were not able 
to locate Fort St. Louis from the sea, 
and it was not until 1689 that an ex- 
pedition by land, guided in part by a 
French deserter, came upon the ruins. 
The only trace of human beings con- 
sisted of bones, some with long hair, 
evidently of women. Not strong at 
best, the settlers had fallen victims to 
the savages and perished almost as 
completely as Raleigh's colony at Roan- 

The advent of de Leon was the be- 
ginning of Mexican colonization as 
such; and it is to this same man that 
some ascribe the origin of the name 
"Texas." But most probably the appel- 

lation came from La Harpe's dating a 
letter from the territory of "Las Tekas." 
This in turn must obviously derive 
from the name of a friendly local In- 
dian tribe, "Tejas," a word meaning 
"friendship." Texas is well named! 
Most of the Spanish-Mexican efforts 
through the years were chiefly with 
regard to the founding of missions 
among the Indians. But when Mexico 
achieved independence in 1821, the 
colonization of Texas began in earnest 
as a protective measure. This was the 
age of the "empresarios," from the 
United States, and from abroad, chiefly 
from Ireland. Great land privileges 
were given to these settlers, but there 
were some restrictions; e.g., profession 
of the Catholic Faith. In practice, how- 
ever, this was sometimes interpreted in 
a very nominal way. (The Baptismal 
record of Sam Houton is still preserved 
at Nacogdoches, and Sam was any- 
thing but a practical Catholic!) 

The Irish made famous and lasting 
ranching establishments in the neigh- 
borhood of Refugio and San Patricio, 
and also farther south. Today this dis- 
trict is known as the Great Coastal 
Bend. Some of these fabulous ranches 
are still in existence, owned by the 
descendants of the "empresarios." 
There was also a great influx of Bo- 
hemians, Alsatians, Moravians, Molda- 
vians, Slovaks, Czechs, and Poles, and 
these settled in central Texas, mostly. 
The towns of Castroville and New 
Braunfels are monuments to this migra- 


The decree of Mexican President 

Bustamente, in 1830, prohibiting fur- 
ther entrance from the United States, 
plus delay in separating Texas from 
the Mexican state of Coahuila, and 
other sources of discontent, brought 
about the successful revolution of 
1835-1836. On March 16, 1836, a 
Constitution was adopted for the Re- 
public of Texas, and signed on the 
17th. This independence lasted until 
1845, when the Republic was annexed 
to the United States, becoming the 
Lone Star State, with the privilege of 
dividing into five states, at will. An- 
other Texas only! It was torn away 
from the Union by the Civil War, and 
furnished a few distinguished generals 
and over ninety thousand soldiers to 
the cause of the Confederacy. The very 
last battle of that War was fought on 
Texas soil — a skirmish at Brownsville, 
on April 13, 1865 — four days after 
Lee surrendered to Grant at Appomat- 

Religious History 
The real religious history of Texas 
may be said to have begun with the 
advent of La Salle, who had with him 
the seven missionaries mentioned above, 
who presumably gave up their lives in 
the Indian attack upon Fort St. Louis. 
The Franciscan friars came with dc 
Leon, and through many years and 
various vicissitudes did great and good 
work among the Indians. The period 
of their endeavors embraced the span 
from 1583, when the first Spaniards 
came into Texas in the neighborhood 
of El Paso, to 1794. These were very 
fruitful years indeed, although one anti- 
pathetic author has stated that the \\a- 

tives "were completely alienated from 
their original language, religion, do- 
mestic habits, and tribal relations." 

Father Margil 

One of the most famous of all the 
Franciscan missionaries, if not the most 
famous was Father Antonio Margil de 
Jesus. He was born at Valencia, in 
Old Spain, on August 18, 1657; joined 
the Friars Minor on April 22, 1673, 
and arrived in Vera Cruz, Mexico, 
June 6, 1683. He gave innumerable 
missions in Yucatan, Costa Rica, Nica- 
ragua and Guatemala: in this latter 
country to such an extent that he was 
called "The Apostle of Guatemala." 

Father Margil died at Mexico City, 
on August 6, 1726, in the famous 
Convento Grandie de San Francisco, 
and was beatified by Pope Gregory 
XVI in 1836. One of the buildings 
at St. John's Seminary, San Antonio, 
bears the illustrious name: "Margil 

First Diocese 

Thus far we have considered the re- 
ligious history of Texas in its broadest 
aspects, from those earliest days. It is 
well that we now give our attention to 
the first diocese of Texas, considering 
its import with reference to the sons of 
St. Paul of the Cross. And so we come 
to that part of Texas known as Treas- 
ure Isle, the island of Galveston, so 
named in honor of Bernardo de Gal- 
vez, the governor of Louisiana, about 
1782. The island is thirty miles long 
and about five in breadth. The present 
city of Galveston encompasses an area 
of eight square miles. The city itself 

is called the Oleander City, from the 
fact that more than one million olean- 
der bushes, of sixty classified varieties, 
grow there; and all stem from one 
shoot brought to the isle in 1841, by a 
ship captain from the West Indies. The 
white man was upon this island long 
ago, since the famous wanderer, Cabe- 
za de Vaca, spent some time in cap- 
tivity there, during the famous seven 
years it took him to travel from ship- 
wreck on the shores of Florida to find 
fellow Spaniards in New Mexico. It 
was the lair of pirates and buccaneers, 
such as Jean La Fitte, later driven out 
by United States authorities, about 
1820. The first United States settle- 
ment was made in 1837, and incorpo- 
rated by the Republic of Texas in 
1839. In December of 1838 there 
landed at Galveston town the famous 
Vincentian priest, Father Timon; and 
on December 28th he celebrated what 
was probably the first Mass ever said 
in the city. On December 31st he pro- 
ceeded to Houston, then the capital of 
the Republic, and preached in the Hall 
of Congress in the presence of many 
legislators. On April 12, 1840, he was 
made Prefect Apostolic of Texas, and 
appointed Father Odin as Vice-Prefect. 
He visited Galveston and Houston 
again, urging the people forward in 
their plans for a church. Pushing on 
to Austin, now the capital, he present- 
ed letters from Cardinal Frasconi of 
Propaganda, addressed to President 
Mirabeau G. Lamar, which letters were 
virtually a recognition by the Papal 
government of the independence of the 

Republic. President Lamar, then ab- 
sent, was represented by Vice-President 
David G. Burnet, who was greatly 
pleased to receive these letters. On 
December 23, 1840, the first Mass was 
said in Austin. Monsignor Timon was 
well received by the legislators, preach- 
ing many times in the capital; and in 
conversation with the Vice-President 
and a few prominent members of the 
Congress created a very favorable esti- 
mate of the Catholic Faith. 

With the diplomatic aid of M. de 
Saligny, minister from France to the 
Republic of Texas, Monsignor Timon's 
bill on the restoration of church prop- 
erty, secularized by the Mexican gov- 
ernment, was spontaneously endorsed 
by the legislators, to whom it was first 
read in private, was then introduced to 
Congress, and passed. By this Act 
were restored to "the Chief Pastor of 
the Catholic Church in the Republic 
of Texas," the churches of San Fernan- 
do (present cathedral of San Antonio), 
the "Alamo," La Purissima Concep- 
tion, San Jose, San Juan Capistrano, 
San Francisco de la Espada, Goliad, 
Victoria and Refugio, together with 
their lots, the latter not to exceed fif- 
teen acres. 

After this master stroke of diplo- 
macy, Monsignor Timon returned to 
Galveston, and administered Confirma- 
tion, January 18, 1841, to Margaret 
De Lacy, whom he had converted and 
baptized on the 15th of the same 
month. The entry in the "Liber Con- 
firmatorum" of Galveston diocese certi- 
fying to this function may be said, to- 
gether with the baptismal record be- 

ginning December 7, 1840, to mark 
the beginning of the history of the 
diocese of Galveston . The state of 
Texas, with the exception of El Paso 
County, which remained subject to the 
Vicariate of Arizona, was erected into 
a diocese in 1847, with Bishop Odin 
as first Ordinary. He had previously 
refused the see of Detroit, just as Mon- 
signor Timon had refused the coad- 
jutorship of St. Louis and ended by 
becoming Bishop of Buffalo. There 
were then thirteen priests, including the 
Bishop, in this vast Galveston diocese; 
of these, at least six were Vincentians. 
In 1849 the Oblates of Mary Im- 
maculate were brought from Canada 
by Bishop Odin. Their zeal has been 
great; today they have flourishing in- 
stitutions in every ecclesiastical division 
of the great state. The very existence 
of religion among the Mexicans along 
the Rio Grande is largely due to the 
mighty labors of this Congregation. 
Corpus Christi Diocese 
Now all these things were a prepara- 
tion for the great day when the sons 
of Saint Paul of the Cross would be 
called to walk in the footsteps of the 
religious pioneers — large footsteps in 
this great land. On March 23, 1913, 
Pope Pius X, through the Congrega- 
tion of the Consistory, elevated the 
Vicariate Apostolic of Brownsville to 
the rank of a diocese, with the City of 
Corpus Christi as the seat of residence. 
On May 9th of the same year, the 
Very Reverend Francis Racine, V.G., 
of New Orleans, arrived in Corpus 
Christi, carrying with him the Bull from 
Rome authorizing the erection of the 

new diocese of Corpus Christi, as well 
as other documents showing that he 
had been sub-delegated by his Grace, 
Most Reverend J. H. Blenck, to erect 
the new diocese. According to the 
tenor of the Bull of Erection, the arch- 
ives were to be removed from Laredo, 
a former seat of the Vicariate, and 
taken to Corpus Christi; and St. Pat- 
rick's church was elevated to the dig- 
nity of a cathedral. To this cathedral 
was to come a great man, the first 
Passionist Bishop in the United States, 
Bishop Paul Joseph Nussbaum, C.P. 

Just how this great honor came to 
be bestowed upon the Congregation 
has always been a moot question. Of 
many conjectures, the following seems 
to carry the most weight. A Christian 
Brother, en route by train from New 
York to Philadelphia, chanced to meet 
a certain priest whom he had taught at 
the Christian Brothers College in Phila- 
delphia, and who was now a secretary 
to the Apostolic Delegate, Archbishop 
Bonzano. The priest mentioned the 
creation of the new diocese of Corpus 
Christi, and the difficulty in securing 
a candidate as Ordinary. It would 
seem that there was a rivalry between 
New Orleans, the metropolitan See at 
the time, and San Antonio. A "dark 
horse" would be the only solution; 
and the bishop-elect must be able to 
speak Spanish. Whereupon the Brother 
mentioned the name of Fr. Joseph 
Nussbaum, C.P., who had spent some 
years in the Argentine. It would also 
seem that this Brother had taught Fa- 
ther Paul Joseph in Philadelphia. With- 
in due time the summons came, and so 

we were blessed with the first Amer- 
ican Passionist Bishop. Another ver- 
sion has it that the Christian Brother 
was told personally by Archbishop 
Bonzano that he was looking for a 
suitable candidate for the new diocese, 
and that the Brother told him of Paul. 
A little later, Father Paul was giving 
a mission in the neighborhood of 
Washington, and the Delegate dropped 
in to see for himself. . . . Evidently he 
was pleased . . . not too long after, 
while Father Paul was giving a mission 
at St. Matthew's, in Brooklyn, the 
news of his appointment appeared in 
the New York papers. However, the 
first version seems more likely. The 
consecration took place on May 20, 
1913, the anniversary of his ordina- 
tion. The Apostolic Delegate was the 
Consecrator, assisted by Bishops O'Con- 
nor of Newark and McDonald of 
Brooklyn. The Hudson Dispatch for 
May 21, 1913, forgot all about dis- 
patch, and went to considerable lengths 
in describing the great occasion. The 
Southern Messenger, Catholic weekly 
of San Antonio, Texas, May 22, 1913, 
was not far behind in its lavish spread. 
The reception accorded the Delegate 
was remarkable, the street of approach 
being simply black with people. No 
less than a platoon of police headed 
the procession, and another force of 
patrolmen and superiors (sic!) cleared 
the street for the clergy and their es- 
corts. Both of these latter were there 
in abundance. There were cadets and 
drum corps galore. And of course a 
goodly number of Passionists, to the 
extent that the Delegate expressed his 

surprise, saying: "I thought that only 
in Rome could I see so many of you." 
According to the scribes "the magnifi- 
cent monastic temple was at its best; 
in the glory of electric illumination 
and decorations, in the variety of mon- 
astic robes, the masterly rendition of 
the Church chants, the superbly rich 
vestments of the clergy and Bishops. 
The imposing procession marched into 
the great Passionist temple." Father 
Stanislaus Grennan, C.P., was the as- 
sistant priest, Father Jerome Reuter- 
mann, C.P., the first deacon of honor, 
and a Paulist priest, Father Hughes, 
the second deacon of honor. Needless 
to say, the musical program was some- 
thing special, and "the altar boys, who 
had practised faithfully, acquitted them- 
selves with much merit." 

Father Isidore Dwyer, C.P., a class- 
mate of the new Bishop, had been se- 
lected as preacher for the solemn occa- 
sion, and his sermon was noted as 
"one of the ablest ever heard in that 
monastery church." The trend of 
thought underlying the discourse was 
that the principles represented by the 
Catholic Episcopate, with the Pope at 
its head, were the only salvation of the 
individual and of the State, from the 
consequences of destructive revolution 
and anarchy rampant everywhere in hu- 
man life. The subject was solidly and 
ably handled, as was evidenced by the 
intense silence of the immense audi- 
ence. Father Isidore also alluded to 
their days together in South America, 
stating that Bishop Paul and he had 
been under fire, and mentioning in 
particular when they were surrounded 

by the "crackling shells of Brazilian 
rebels and whistling bullets of Federal 
riflemen in the Bay of Rio de Janeiro"; 
and this in view of the fact that Mexi- 
can bullets would one day again pierce 
our southern border. He bade the 
Bishop to go forth to the labors, dan- 
gers and hardships of his new charge, 
and adjured him to "forget yourself 
therefore and your infirmities as an 
individual." In the evening, Archbishop 
Bonzano, Bishop Paul and a number 
of his Passionist confreres repaired to 
St. Joseph's Church, for a devotional 
and musical program, the latter being 
notably aided by renditions from the 
Arbeiter Mennenchor, and the Ein- 
tracht Singing Society. 

Bishop Nussbaum 
Bishop Paul Joseph Nussbaum was 
born in Philadelphia, on September 7, 
1870, and in Baptism received the 
name of Henry. His parents dying 
during early childhood, he was cared 
for by relatives, and through them was 
made acquainted with our Congrega- 
tion. He applied for admission, was 
received, and after his novitiate, hav- 
ing taken the name of Paul Joseph of 
the Five Wounds, he was professed on 
July 24, 1887. While still a student he 
volunteered for our missions in Argen- 
tina, which country was, at that time, 
attached to the Province of St. Paul 
of the Cross. After finishing his stud- 
ies he was ordained on May 20, 1894. 
For seven years he was stationed at 
Buenos Aires, where he acted as Lec- 
tor, for which office he was eminently 
qualified, since God had given him 
exceptional talents. 

When Argentina was erected into a 
separate Province, Paul Joseph returned 
to this country where he was employed 
for several years as curate in the par- 
ishes attached to our monasteries in 
Union City, N.J., and Dunkirk, N.Y. 
Later he became Vice-Rector of the 
monastery in the latter place. In 1908 
the Provincial Chapter elected him 
Consultor; to which office he was re- 
elected in 1911. During his five years 
as Provincial Consultor he was much 
occupied in preaching missions and re- 
treats, which he did most successfully. 
As noted above, it was while engaged 
on a mission that he received the, to 
him, astounding news of his elevation 
to the episcopate. 

Entrance into Texas 

Now the triumphal tour began. Bish- 
op Paul was accompanied by Fathers 
Jerome Reutermann and Alfred Cag- 
ney of the Western Province, and 
their journey was made by rail. Fa- 
ther Stanislaus Grennan and Theodore 
Noonan went by boat to Galveston, 
thence to Houston where they finally 
joined the entourage. Fathers Isidore 
Dwyer and Linus Monahan came later. 
On May 25 th, the Bishop confirmed at 
St. Joseph's in Baltimore. On Sunday, 
June 1st, he ordained nine of our 
priests and confirmed a large class at 
St. Ann's, Normandy, Missouri. Thence 
to New Orleans, to Houston, and San 
Antonio. He arrived in the latter city 
at 7:30 a.m. on Saturday, June 7th, 
and was escorted to Santa Rosa In- 
firmary, where he said Mass. Strangely 
enough, at this his first Mass in the 


South, Bishop Paul was assisted by the 
Reverend Mariano Simon Garriga, now 
Bishop of Corpus Christi. Bishop Paul 
continued on to Corpus Christi, and at 
practically every stop the train was 
boarded by members of the clergy 
and laity. Arrival at the See city was 
on Sunday afternoon, at 3:55, and the 
train, in spite of its nickname "The 
Sap" (for Southern Pacific) was "on 
time to the minute." A throng of five 
hundred met the Bishop at the station, 
while a band played "The Holy City." 
The Sisters of Spohn Sanitarium, an- 
ticipating their inability to be present 
at the reception and formal installation 
— had lined up along the railway tracks 
in front of the hospital, to greet the 
Bishop as his train puffed into town. 
There followed a real southern recep- 
tion. The Bishop, together with Mon- 
signor Jaillet, pastor of St. Patrick's, 
and Father Scheid, Chancellor-to-be, 
first repaired to the church to visit the 
Blessed Sacrament. Then they were es- 
corted to the Nueces Hotel for the 
formal reception. Mayor Roy Miller 
delivered the first address of welcome. 
Then Mr. M. T. Gaffney, one of the 
oldest members of St. Patrick's parish 
spoke his piece on behalf of the con- 
gregation. The clerical welcome of 
filial love and devotion was extended 
by Father Schied, and the Oblate Fa- 
thers also promised their all-out effort 
and devotion. The Bishop made a 
stirring response, including such re- 
marks as: "You have a beautiful little 
city and already I am enraptured with 
what I have seen of this gem city by 
the sea." Also his avowed purpose to 

St. Patrick's Cathedral, Corpus Christi, Texas. 


The interior of St. Patrick's Cathedral, Corpus Christi, Texas. 

do his part in seeing that "Texas be in 
the front rank of enlightened civilization 
and material prosperity." Father Isi- 
dore spoke again, saying, in part: 
"Twenty years ago two young students 
sailed from New York for the Argen- 
tine Republic . . . one of the students 
is the present Bishop of Corpus Christi, 
the other is the weather-beaten man 
addressing you. . . . Today, in behalf 
of the Passionist Order, I present you 
with the new Bishop. The Order re- 
linquishes him to you and gives him 
into you care. Today he is wedded 
to this city and he can't get away. 
There is a great deal of work to be 
done in the diocese, and from my 
knowledge of the new Bishop, gained 
from years of association with him on 
the missions of Argentine, I know that 
I can say to you that he is a worker. 
Take him, then, and treat him well; 

and I am sure that he will deliver spir- 
itual goods." Unfortunately, the Bish- 
op could and did get away! 

There was a dinner at six o'clock at 
the Incarnate Word Academy, and then 
at seven-thirty there was the solemn 
installation at the Cathedral. There 
were at least nine hundred people 
jammed into the edifice — a glance at 
the accompanying photograph of St. 
Patrick's will bear out the use of the 
word "jammed" — and many more with- 
out. The Bishop spoke in Spanish as 
well as in English, thus rendering all 
of his hearers attentive and benevolent. 
In this discourse he laid down his spiri- 
tual platform in the following words: 
'And to you, my priests, I say — remem- 
ber that while I may differ from you in 
my livery, I am still a priest; I am not a 
stranger to missionary work." And the 
following years were to bear out the 


truth of these words, showing forth his 
burning and apostolic zeal. The Bish- 
op could turn a neat phrase, and he 
lost no friends when he referred to 
Corpus Christi as "the Naples of the 
Gulf." It was to be said of him more 
than once: "The Bishop is a fine 
speaker, and his words were earnest 
and impressive." 

Since there was no episcopal "pal- 
ace" for the newly installed Ordinary, 
he stayed overnight at the Nueces Ho- 
tel, and then moved into Father Jail- 
let's rectory, which had been remod- 
elled to make room for the Bishop. 
Here he remained, together with some 
of his priests until, through the gener- 
osity of Mr. John G. Kenedy, a cot- 
tage on Broadway was turned over to 
his use. Bishop Paul took possession 
on July 3, 1913, and continued to oc- 
cupy it until adequate funds were avail- 
able to erect a suitable cathedral resi- 
dence. On Monday afternoon there 
was an entertainment at the Convent 
of the Incarnate Word, brief in nature, 
and the Bishop responded "in a few 
well chosen words." Then after all 
the grand excitement of welcoming and 
installing, there came the hard reality 
of the work to be done. 

Organising the Diocese 

When Bishop Nussbaum came to 
Corpus Christi, the population of his 
diocese was H8,000, of whom 82,000 
were Catholics, and of these more than 
70,000 were Mexicans. To minister to 
that immense Catholic population there 
were sixteen secular priests, and nine- 
teen religious priests. There were nine- 
teen churches with resident priests, and 

fifty-four missions with chapels. Some 
of these latter were visited every Sun- 
day, others less frequently. 

Aflame with zeal for the greater 
glory of God, the Bishop's first efforts 
were directed toward the spiritual up- 
building of the Cathedral parish, and 
of the diocese. His conviction that the 
growth of religion is determined by 
the growth of individual piety seems to 
explain every detail of his administra- 
tion. Moreover, he realized that or- 
ganized Catholic action is essential to 
the promotion of personal holiness 
among Catholics generally. Therefore 
the first, and perhaps the outstanding 
result of his labors was the organized 

Bishop Paul arrived on June 8, 
1913. In August he had Father Robert 
McNamara, C.P., conduct a triduum 
for the women of St. Patrick's Cathe- 
dral parish. The press referred to Fa- 
ther Robert as "the oldest active mis- 
sionary in the United States," and gave 
praise to his oratorical ability. At the 
end of the triduum over one hundred 
ladies were received into the Sodality 
of the Blessed Virgin Mary. This was 
the very beginning of the Sodality in 
St. Patrick's parish. 

In the same month of August, 1913, 
the Corpus Christi Catholic Club was 
organized for the purpose of bringing 
together the young men and women 
of the parish, in order to foster a fam- 
ily spirit in the parish, and ultimately 
to bring about Catholic marriages. 

Two years later, Fathers Isidore 
Dwyer and Camillus Hollobough gftve 
a mission in the Cathedral parish. The 


latter missionary had come down in 
1915, together with Brother Bernard, 
who was to be the Bishop's secretary. 
At that time the Dunkirk Evening Ob- 
server, December 29, 1914, announced 
their departure, adding that Father 
Camillus had been appointed auxiliary 
Bishop to Bishop Nussbaum ! The mis- 
sion was a huge success, especially in 
view of the fact that many non-Cath- 
olics were present, and concerning the 
closing the press had this to say: "At- 
tracted by the eloquence of the preach- 
ers and the beauty of the ritualistic 
service, scores of non-Catholics have 
attended the exercises from the very 
beginning, but last night an exception- 
ally large number was present." 

Besides having frequent missions 
and retreats preached in the parish, the 
Bishop introduced several exercises of 
devotion calculated to develop the in- 
terior life of the lay Catholic. For in- 
stance, there was the Holy Hour, which 
was observed every Sunday night from 
7:30 to 8:30, the Bishop himself pre- 
siding whenever he was in town. Later, 
this devotion was transferred to Thurs- 
day nights. He also introduced con- 
gregational singing, and he often 
walked up and down the center aisle, 
directing the singing. 

It is no exaggeration to say that 
Bishop Nussbaum was endowed with 
apostolic fervor in a high degree. He 
said Mass in the Cathedral every morn- 
ing until his private chapel was ready 
in the new episcopal residence. Even 
after that time, until he left the dio- 
cese, he said Mass in the Cathedral 
every Sunday, preached at his Mass, 

and when possible assisted at all func- 
tions in the Cathedral. On each Friday 
night during Lent the Bishop could be 
seen in the sanctuary, following the 
Stations of the Cross with the people; 
and from five to six every evening he 
was found in the Cathedral, praying 
before the Blessed Sacrament. 

Nor did his Excellency neglect the 
children. He often spoke to them at 
their Sunday Mass. Further, when 
classes were resumed at the Academy 
of the Incarnate Word, in the Septem- 
ber after his arrival, he had Father 
Scheid celebrate a Mass of the Holy 
Ghost at which he was present. At 
the end of the Mass the Bishop de- 
livered a practical sermon to the chil- 
dren. And this he did each year there- 
after, when at home for the opening of 
the school. 

The seed sown by the Bishop fell, 
for the most part, on good ground. 
The congregation responded well to all 
this spiritual endeavor to such an ex- 
tent, that during the very first Lent 
of his incumbency, the sanctuary rail- 
ing in the Cathedral had to be altered 
to provide better accommodations for 
the increasing number of daily as well 
as Sunday Communions. The Bishop 
exhorted the people in season and out 
of season to avail themselves of the 
privilege, given them by Pope Pius 
X, of daily receiving our Lord in Holy 

Of all the devotional exercises en- 
couraged by the Bishop, that of the 
Forty Hours seems to have been most 
dear to his heart. Early in 1915 he es- 
tablished this pious practice, arranging 

the schedule in such a way that, begin- 
ning with the Cathedral in January, 
there would be Forty Hours Adoration 
in some parish of the diocese each Sun- 
day of the year. The churches dedi- 
cated to the Sacred Heart were as- 
signed the month of June. In writing 
to Father Ledvina, Secretary for the 
Catholic Church Extension Society, and 
later Bishop Paul's successor, he said: 
"I am trying to get the Forty Hours 
Adoration going in this diocese, biu 
many missions have not the necessary 

Meanwhile the work of parish or- 
ganization was being perfected. Be- 
sides the Sodality of the Blessed Vir- 
gin, the Bishop had his priests organize 
the Sodality of St. Anne for the mar- 
ried women, which later merged with 
the Altar Society, and the union title 
became St. Ann's Altar Society. In 
August of 1914 the first Court of The 
Daughters of America was organized. 
In March, 1916, the senior and junior 
branches of the Holy Name Society 
were organized for the men and boys 
of the parish. 

Apostolic Activity 

Thus far we have dealt with the 
transformation effected in the Cathe- 
dral parish itself, and which the Bishop 
aimed to make the model for the dio- 
cese. Yet by no means was this the 
confine of his activity. In August, the 
year of his arrival, Bishop Paul began 
his Confirmation tour. He went first 
to Brownsville, being met at the sta- 
tion with great fanfare, and the press 
reported that "a large number of auto- 
mobiles were in attendance." On nu- 

merous other occasions emphasis was to 
be placed on the presence of automo- 
biles. During the four and one-half 
days in Brownsville the Bishop con- 
firmed nearly a thousand souls; nine 
hundred and fifty at Immaculate Con- 
ception, and forty at Sacred Heart. 
After these ministrations the Knights 
of Columbus sponsored a dinner at 
Hotel Point Isabel. The Bishop de- 
livered a discourse, and then the entire 
party crossed the bay to Padre Island. 
The press reported that "the Bishop 
did not go in the surf, but the remain- 
der of the party enjoyed a tussle with 
the breakers." At San Benito he was 
met by the local clergy, the Knights of 
Columbus and the Mayor, all in autos, 
together with an escort of Mexican 
horsemen decorated with the Papal 
colors, and a delegation of school chil- 
dren. Five hundred were confirmed in 
this town. At Mercedes, two days were 
required for administering the Sacra- 
ments. On this occasion there was a 
great dinner, and a long list of toasts, 
mostly in praise of the Oblate Fathers. 
Father Robert, C.P., was asked to tell 
some secrets about the Bishop, "which 
he did quite tactfully and humorous- 
ly." From here the Bishop went to 
Mission, and at his departure from said 
town, there was "a long line of horse- 
men, buggies and automobiles, headed 
by a brass band, and there was an im- 
pressive serenade at the depot." From 
Mission to Rio Grande City, and then 
to Roma. Of all the outlying parishes, 
missions and stations, this town of 
Roma was that of the Bishop's pre- 
dilection: not only because of the 


warmth of its welcome, but also be- 
cause of its lovely situation upon seven 
hills, overlooking the Rio Grande. The 
large number of confirmations was due 
to the preponderance of the Latin- 
American element. Confirmation was 
formerly administered in early infancy, 
and occasionally this custom still pre- 
vails. Such a function is enough to 
beget awe in the angels and saints. 

The Latin-American element still 
prevails in the diocese of Corpus Chris- 
ti, with the consequent heavy ministra- 
tions. Only recently a pastor wrote to 
the Chancellor: "We have not had 
confirmation in this parish in the past 
three years. Since then we have bap- 
tized 1,684 children." We can easily 
imagine the zeal and effort displayed 
by Bishop Paul in those early days, es- 
pecially when travel was anything but 

In March of 1915 there was Con- 
firmation in Rockport, Lamar, Aransas 
Pass and Port Aransas. It was on the 
occasion of the visit to Rockport that 
the press made mention of "the power- 
ful address delivered by the Bishop 
Sunday night, to an overflowing crowd 
of all denominations. His topic was 
the necessity of self-sacrifice in order 
to enter eternal life." This particular 
sermon was "long remembered by the 
people." During this same visit, the 
Mexican Catholics thanked God for 
having sent them a Mexican Bishop! 
Obviously this sentiment was the out- 
come of the Bishop speaking in Span- 
ish as well as in English. The bulk of 
the souls committed to his charge un- 
derstood only the Mexican-Spanish lan- 

guage, and although he had acquired 
some familiarity with Spanish while in 
South America, he was not too con- 
versant with the Mexican form; yet 
he did much preaching in this dialect. 
Today it is called the "Tex-Mex" ver- 
sion of Spanish. 

Moving about took up a large part 
of the Bishop's time — an understate- 
ment, if ever there was one! In those 
days practically all distance travel was 
by rail, which in turn meant via the 
Southern Pacific System, a veritable 
maze of tracks in south Texas. But, 
needless to say, there were no stream- 
liners, and the schedules were anything 
but supersonic. Sometimes the greater 
part of a week might be consumed 
in going out from Corpus Christi to 
one town alone, and then the return; 
and this just for Mass on Sunday! 
The spiritual side of these many and 
lengthy trips was of course the most 
important feature, including the para- 
mount effect of the Bishop's preaching. 
At his consecration, the book of the 
Gospels had not been placed upon his 
shoulders in vain. But the external cir- 
cumstances were often of interest. Men- 
tion has been made of several of the 
resounding welcomes and farewells, yet 
not all of the visits were of the parade 
and brass-band variety. At Lamar, it 
was necessary to travel three miles by 
skiff, and then the Bishop was carried 
on the shoulders of the accompanying 
men, walking through the sand to the 
chapel, because there was no convey- 
ance available, and the lone horse had 
wandered off! Again, at Aransas Pass, 
he literally had to "walk the plank," 

a unit measuring 2" x 8", and this 
with a heavy suitcase in each hand. 
But Bishop Paul was dedicated to the 
proposition that the eminence of his 
enterprise was in the saving of souls, 
and all his labors and sufferings can be 
summed up in this one's idea. 

From the above localities the Bishop 
moved on to Tivoli, blessed the new 
church, which he dedicated to Our Lady 
of Guadalupe, and spoke in English 
and Spanish. From thence he was ac- 
companied to the O'Connor Ranch, 
where he offered Mass and confirmed 
a small class. This ranch was and still 
is one of the greatest in Texas, and 
dates back to the days of the Irish 
"empresarios." Today there is a most 
beautiful chapel at the ranch head- 
quarters, with resident priest and all 
parochial privileges. It is primarily for 
the benefit of the Mexican vaqueros 
and their families, thus testifying to the 
concern of the owners for the spiritual 
welfare of their retainers. In this 
connection we mention also the dedi- 
cation on Sunday, June 27, 1915, of 
the chapel at Bluntzer. This was the 
name of another great ranching family, 
staunch Catholics, and very solicitous 
for the faith and morals of their ranch 
hands. It was quite an occasion, and 
the Corpus Christi Caller-Herald for 
July 1st tells us: "An eloquent and 
impressive sermon was delivered by the 
Rt. Rev. Paul Joseph Nussbaum, who 
is a skilled logician and an orator of 
rare ability." And: "The Reverend 
Father Mark, a fluent and able speaker, 
also preached a forcible and affecting 
sermon." And then, by way of per- 

oration, the secular journal continued: 
"It will be a day of dreadful account- 
ing when the Lord will judge the rich 
who had no more regard for their la- 
borers than for mere beasts of burden! 
There are in Texas owners of great 
estates who will not tolerate chapels on 
their property, for fear that the op- 
portunities of practicing their religion 
might make Mexicans less efficient bur- 
den-bearers. . . . What a shameful man- 
ifestation of greed for money this is!" 

Paul Joseph Nussbaum began his 
work as a missionary Bishop, and thus 
he continued it, confirming, blessing 
churches, preaching his eloquent and 
effective sermons, and encouraging all. 
Non-Catholic Missions 

No sooner had he entered upon his 
exalted office as shepherd of souls in 
the diocese of Corpus Christi when he 
discerned impending danger to his flock 
from the existence of non-Catholic 
bigotry and proselytizing activity with- 
in the confines of the diocese. He real- 
ized the imperative necessity of taking 
immediate steps to meet the activities 
of these Protestant agencies. Accord- 
ingly he engaged the services of Father 
Isidore and Father Camillus, who de- 
voted their time exclusively to the giv- 
ing of missions and/or lectures to 
Catholics and non-Catholics alike, but 
especially for the latter. They toured 
the entire eastern section of the dio- 
cese, visiting every town and village. 
In each place an inquiry class was or- 
ganized, to give desiring non-Catholics 
men, walking through the sand to the 
Church. Their impressions and experi- 
ences were varied and interesting. At 


Robstown, for example, Father Camil- 
lus met with more opposition than any- 
where else on the tour. He wrote: 
"There is but one American Catholic 
in the place. The people were startled 
when they learned that a Catholic 
priest dared to come into their town to 
defend the Church. ... I was informed 
that I could not afford to go to and 
return from the lecture hall unguard- 
ed, as a young gentleman had heard 
threats made against me." On the first 
night of the Robstown endeavor only 
eleven persons were present; but the 
number grew each night until on the 
last evening, about four hundred were 
in attendance. Today, there are two 
Catholic churches, and four resident 
priests in the town! Another series of 
lectures was given in Laredo, at San 
Augustin's, for the purpose of counter- 
acting as much as possible the work 
of proselytism carried on among the 
Mexicans by the Laredo Seminary, 
which was controlled by the Methodist 
Missionary Society of Tennessee. 

Concerning the mission for non- 
Catholics at Goliad, the press report 
reads: "These lectures created quite a 
good deal of enthusiasm . . . and the 
church was thronged every night by 
eager listeners who gathered to hear 
the discourses of the scholarly lecturer. 
The first evening the church was taxed 
to its full seating capacity, and on 
Monday a supply of a hundred chairs 
had to be procured for the accommoda- 
tion of the guests. The interest grew 
with each lecture and the audience be- 
came larger and larger each night. The 
most prominent professional and busi- 


ness people in the city attended regu- 
larly and were deeply impressed. They 
called on the Father personally and ex- 
pressed to him their gratification on 
his efforts. Many signalized (sic) their 
intention of investigating further into 
the teaching of the Church. A dele- 
gation of non-Catholics waited on the 
lecturer and requested him to return 
again at his earliest convenience. A 
special musical program was arranged 
for each evening, and the best singers, 
both Catholic and non-Catholic, volun- 
teered their services. On the last eve- 
ning an orchestra was in attendance." 

From another correspondent: "We 
have but one fault to find with this 
mission, and that is, that it closed too 
soon. Father Camillus' splendid lec- 
tures aroused such widespread interest 
and enthusiasm as has never before 
been awakened by a public speaker in 
this vicinity. We Catholics are, figura- 
tively speaking, on our knees thanking 
God for the privilege we have enjoyed 
while our non-Catholic friends are 
deeply interested and wish to hear 
more. All are charmed with Father 
Camillus and very anxious for him to 
come again. . . . More has been done 
to remove prejudice and explain our 
belief than ever before; but the good 
work should not be allowed to rest. 
We are praying that Father Camillus 
will be able to return and carry on the 
work he has so well begun." 

In Kingsville: ". . .his efforts at the 
Lyric fully sustained his reputation; the 
beauty of his language, his grace of ac- 
tion and charming personality held his 
audience spellbound." 

Father Isidore sent in a long com- 
munique concerning his experiences. 
For example, at Riviera: "One minis- 
ter lent me his Bible, and was evident- 
ly pleased when I told him how much 
more correct his 1881 version was than 
the old King James version, and how 
delighted we Catholics would be if all 
Protestants got their religion out of it, 
rather than of the 'Menace,' etc." 

At Falfurrias: "One minister is re- 
ported to have offered to prove me a 
liar; when told by a Protestant where 
he could find me, his zeal lapsed into 

"The whole town has been agitated 
as a result of the lectures and the ques- 
tion box. . . . One resident called the 
mission the best thing that ever hit 
the town." 

At Bishop: "This town was found- 
ed by F. Z. Bishop, an enterprising 
young promoter. One of his attrac- 
tions to draw homeseekers were elabo- 
rate church conveniences. He built two 
churches, one Baptist, one Methodist, 
with the result that the whole com- 
munity is of church folk, thoroughly 
saturated with Southern Methodism and 
Baptistism. One might hear people 
talking religion almost everywhere, in 
hotels, stores, schools, etc. Gideon Bi- 
bles were in one's room. Nobody 
dared remain neutral. Human respect 
cowed and cudgeled every one into 
line. Everybody had to put up a show 
of 'righteousness,' and be zealous for 
the 'moral uplift' of the country, un- 
der penalty of social ostracism, perhaps 
even political or financial ruin. Liber- 
ty there was none. Only one Catholic 

man in town was able to resist the 
odious tyranny, and still maintain him- 
self socially and otherwise. He was 
Mr. Bishop's ablest man, straight as a 
ray, a good fighter, loved by many 
and respected by all." Incidentally, the 
Methodists asked this same Catholic 
man to finance their insolvent church 
through some hard times! He refused, 
naturally. Father Isidore continues: "I 
found this town a stronghold of the 
densest bigotry I ever encountered . . . 
they instinctively dread Catholic truth, 
which would awaken their dormant 
consciences, show them up to them- 
selves, and exact painful sacrifices from 
them. . . . The Catholic Church, there- 
fore, is for them a real menace, which 
threatens to explode their false sys- 
tems and spoil their lucrative spiritual 
traffic. ... To tolerate the Catholic- 
Church would be suicidal." 

Of course life was not all thorns and 
thistles. After a mission in Rockport, 
"a moonlight picnic was given at the 
Nine Mile Point, in honor of Father 

Fr. Isidore Dwyer 

Regarding these two outstanding 
missionaries of the early days in Texas, 
a few words of biography will not be 
out of place. Father Isidore was born, 
January 23, 1867, at Central Mine, 
Michigan. When about seven years of 
age, he migrated with the family to 
O'Neill, Nebraska; a town probably 
more famous for its being the birth- 
place of the famous Notre Dame play- 
er and coach, Frank Leahy, and for 
the great number of female religious 
vocations which have conic from the 

parish. Our sage was professed on No- 
vember 23, 1889, and as was noted 
before, went to the Argentine as a stu- 
dent. He was ordained on September 
20, 1894, subsequently laboring in 
South America, and also far a short 
time in the Canal Zone. Then his field 
of endeavor was back in the States for 
almost forty years, the last portion of 
which was spent among the Mexicans 
in the southwest. Four years before his 
death, March 11, 1949, he was forced 
by ill health and complete exhaustion 
to retire. Much of the ill health 
stemmed from an auto accident which 
he sustained on August 15, 1915. In 
company with Father Scheid, and the 
Bishops of Monterey and Aguascalien- 
tes (the latter weighing about 300 
pounds), the car overturned twice, fin- 
ally pinning Father Isidore beneath the 
wreckage. According to witnesses the 
car was traveling at such a high rate 
of speed that no damage was done on 
the first turnover. Father Scheib had 
received the car, an Overland, as a 
present from an uncle just two weeks 
previously. Father Isidore was not ex- 
pected to live; and after his recovery, 
the accident left him impaired for the 
rest of his life, thus enabling him to 
gain much merit through his many and 
often intense sufferings. If ever there 
was what the French call un original, 
it was Isidore Dwyer, C.P. He cer- 
tainly was not a "standard" type of 
Passionist, as the writer of his obituary 
notes; but his was an indomitable 
determination to devote his whole life 
to the service of God. As a missionary, 
it was war to the death on sin and 

the devil. He could be uncouth, but 
also forceful. There was no disparity 
between his inner and outer life. And 
there was a very soft spot: his love 
for the Blessed Mother. 

Fr. Camillus Hollobough 
Father Camillus was born at Natro- 
na, Pa., February 23, 1877, professed 
July 23, 1893, and ordained May 16, 
1901. Never robust, he was able for 
thirty-four years of priestly ministry to 
maintain a state of health which was a 
sufficient support for his enormous in- 
dustry. His devotion to study was in- 
tense, his activity in missionary labor 
ceaseless. Of a truth he fulfilled the 
advice of St. Paul: "Carefully study to 
present thyself approved unto God, a 
workman that needeth not to be a- 
shamed, rightly handling the word of 
truth" (II Tim.: 2,15). His eager 
mind kept him abreast of the latest 
trends, the newest theories, the most 

Father Camillus Hollobough, C.P. 


recent authors. A question put to him 
received an instant answer, dear, in- 
cisive and complete. But the study to 
which he devoted himself most, the 
one in which he excelled was the Eng- 
lish language. As a result his sermons 
possessed fluency, beauty, vigor, thus 
bringing illumination, conviction and 
soul-stirring resolutions. He was emi- 
nently successful and constantly em- 
ployed in giving missions, and in con- 
ducting retreats for the clergy and re- 
ligious. Nowhere did he fail in giv- 
ing satisfaction in the execution of his 
appointed task. Another proof of Fa- 
ther Camillus' proficiency in his study 
of English was in the fact that from 
time to time he gave lectures on Shake- 
speare. To some this might seem an 
anomaly in a Passionist; but this activ- 
ity was simply a by-product of his in- 
tensive studies in his native tongue, 
and in dramatic expression. His spe- 
cial lecture in this field was the one 
on Henry VII: "The Tragedy of 
Greatness," and which he delivered 
many times during his sojourn in south 
Texas. The press always gave him a 
royal build-up. E. G. "The Reverend 
Camillus has studied under some of the 
best masters, and has lectured in uni- 
versities, colleges and schools, and be- 
fore the most critical and select literary 
audience, and on every occasion has 
been the recipient of unstinted praise 
and commendation. The information 
he imparts is novel and enlightening, 
and the rendering of his selections 
from the plays and his impersonations 
of characters shows his powers of elo- 
cution and dramatic art." When this 

lecture was given in the Lyric Theatre 
at Kingsville, "many present who had 
heard other noted speakers pronounced 
Father Camillus the greatest." On an- 
other occasion the warning was sound- 
ed: "Those who miss the lecture are 
missing an intellectual treat and refined 
entertainment." In 1935 Father Camil- 
lus was called to share the happiness 
of the Master He had served so well, 
death coming as the result of a tragic 

Need for Vocations 

Among the handicaps felt most 
keenly by Bishop Nussbaum in his 
boundless zeal to bring every soul un- 
der his jurisdiction to God, was the 
dearth of priests. He spoke very often 
to the people of the Cathedral parish 
on this subject so dear to his heart. On 
such occasions he would stress the fact 
that there was only one boy from the 
diocese studying for the priesthood. 
Even today, the number of "native" 
priests remains relatively small. But 
there are in this number those who 
attribute their priestly vocation to the 
advice and example of Father Mark 
Moeslein and Father Erasmus Glock- 
ner. They have said that they were 
counselled to become secular priests 
rather than Passionists, "for the day 
would come when the diocese would 
have need of good and many secular 
priests." These men are still in admira- 
tion at the selflessness of the Passion- 
ists, with which they compare the at- 
tempts on the part of other congrega- 
tions to influence likely prospects into 
their own communities. 

However, the Bishop went further 


than merely appealing for the fostering 
of vocations among the boys, and col- 
lecting funds for their education. He 
needed priests, immediately: priests of 
missionary caliber. At the very begin- 
ning, it was the opinion of some that 
the diocese was given to the Passion- 
ists, rather than to Father Paul person- 
ally. That sentiment grew, and there 
is reason to believe that the Bishop 
himself felt that way. Seemingly, he 
expected the Congregation to go all 
the way in helping him staff the dio- 
cese, and he appealed time and again 
to the American Superiors for priests 
to labor in his vast, neglected territory. 
They, in turn, were generous from 
their meagre manpower resources, but 
apparently did not recognize any real 
obligation to staff the diocese. Not 
satisfied with the response, Bishop Paul 
then appealed to the Holy See to inter- 
vene with the Superior General to in- 
fluence the American Superiors. He 
was successful in this attempt; but soon 
after Pope Pius X died, and there was 
no further obligation from that quar- 
ter. This sorely grieved the Bishop, 
and he once said that he was sorry 
that he had not accepted the offer made 
by Fr. Jerome Reutermann, made at 
the very beginning, namely to let the 
Western Province supply his needs. 
Now it was too late. He had been ill 
advised all along the line, it seems, be- 
ing told to resign if the needed help 
was not forthcoming. When he went 
to Rome in 1920, he discussed the mat- 
ter with the General, who explained 
that though the promises might be 
made to render aid, yet when the time 


came to do so, the Congregation might 
not be able. Bishop Paul decided to 
resign. A railway accident in 1918, 
which resulted in a fracture of his right 
leg, was given as justification for pre- 
senting his resignation. There is no 
doubt that this accident, from which 
he never fully recovered, caused him 
great inconvenience. The Bishop did 
not possess an automobile, and travel- 
ing in Texas at that time was difficult 
enough for the well and sound. In an 
audience on March 26, 1920, Pope 
Benedict XV accepted the resignation, 
and for the rest of his days Bishop 
Paul regretted having acted on the ad- 
vice given him. It is reported that the 
Holy Father told the Bishop he could 
retire to the monastery only for such 
time as the Holy See deemed expedi- 
ent, since "he was still too young a 
Bishop to do nothing," Likewise, it 
seems that the Apostolic Delegate was 
somewhat provoked over the resigna- 
tion, and some time elapsed before he 
resumed his former cordiality. 
Catholic Education 
If ever there was a Bishop whose 
mind and heart were set upon Cath- 
olic education, its necessity and bene- 
fits, that man was Paul Joseph Nuss- 
baum. Not only did he make every 
effort to advance the educational work 
of former bishops and priests, but he 
took the means to secure greater ef- 
ficiency for some of the pioneer edu- 
cators under his jurisdiction. Thus, to 
bring a greater number of children un- 
der the influence of the Sisters of the 
Incarnate Word and the Blessed Sacra- 
ment, a cloistered community that had 

pioneered in Texas since 1852, the 
Bishop asked that their communities in 
Corpus Christi and Brownsville apply 
to the Holy See for abrogation of the 
cloister, a petition which was granted 
by Rome as early as 1915. That the 
work done for the cause of Catholic 
education in the diocese of Corpus 
Christi, under Bishop Nussbaum's ad- 
ministration, was a splendid success 
may be gathered from the fact that 
when he came to the diocese there were 
but nine parochial schools, but double 
that number at his departure. Like- 
wise there was an increase in pupils 
from 1,150 to 2,654. 

During the seven years of his incum- 
bency Bishop Paul had accomplished 
wonders, especially when one considers 
all the reverses attending those trying 
years. First, the Mexican persecution 
threw into this border diocese an in- 
flux of refugee priests and nuns. The 
diocese was too poor to support all 
who came; and their inability to speak 
English prevented their being placed in 
those towns where they could have 
been of service. Then occurred the 
hurricane of 1916, devastating fields 
and towns throughout the territory. 
Churches which the Bishop had built, 
as well as many of those built by his 
predecessors, were either badly dam- 
aged or entirely destroyed. Added to 
all this was the calamity of a three- 
year drought, climaxed by the storm 
of 1919, which destroyed the greater 
part of Corpus Christi and razed or 
damaged more churches and rectories. 
To complicate matters still further, 

World War I was in progress, hence 
money for repairing and rebuilding was 
scarce. Finally, the great heart of the 
Bishop seem to break when, in the ter- 
rible influenza epidemic, he lost his 
very capable and promising Chancellor, 
Father John H. Scheid, and the Rector 
of his Cathedral, Father Paulinus Dor- 
an, C.P., both within an hour of each 
other, on January 15, 1919; as well 
as Father Patrick Walsh, C.P., the fol- 
lowing July. 

Ad Limina Visit 

In January, 1920, Bishop Paul left 
for Rome on his ad limina visit to the 
Holy See. Father Timothy Fitzpatrick, 
C.P., was left in charge in the capacity 
of Vicar General. On March 24th, 
Father Timothy received a letter stat- 
ing that the Holy Father had accepted 
the Bishop's resignation of the diocese. 
It was a deep shock to both clergy and 
laity, but having loved their Bishop 
from the beginning, they loved him to 
the end, and accepted in good part 
that which he considered best for him- 
self and for them. 

Bishop Nussbaum, as a religious and 
priest was most edifying both at home 
and abroad. Whilst cherishing the mon- 
astic observance, he was ever ready, 
in obedience to Superiors, to go out 
and labor for souls and to do the work 
assigned to him. He hated display and 
shunned honors; hence the notification 
of his elevation to the episcopacy ut- 
terly confounded him. Only after long 
consultation with the Apostolic Dele- 
gate did he accept the office. As a 
Bishop he ever remained most retiring 
in his habits, very simple in his man- 


ner of life, and, at heart, always the 
religious and the Passionist. He de- 
lighted to visit our monasteries, which 
he frequently did, and where he made 
himself perfectly at home among his 
former confreres, who familiarly called 
him "Bishop Paul." He might be de- 
scribed as a strong character, fearless 
and outspoken, with an utter disregard 
for the esteem of men. This led at 
times to what seemed a repelling lack of 
meekness and gentleness in his methods. 
In fact, his natural disposition was some- 
what cold and undemonstrative; but 
his many sterling qualities compensated 
for this. It could easily be seen that 
he was thoroughly sincere with God, 
straightforward with men, and desirous 
of doing what was just and right. In 
his speech on the day of his arrival in 
Corpus Christi he gave the people a 
side-light into his character when he 
said: "I want to give friendship to 
anyone who will accept it. My two 
cardinal principles are to give every- 
one his due and to remember the 
Golden Rule." That he lived up to 
these principles can be attested by all 
who knew him, by all who worked 
with him. His zeal was unquestioned, 
leaving as he did, forty-six priests, 
thirty-one churches with resident pas- 
tors, eighty-three missions and two hun- 
dred stations. 

One of our Fathers who worked 
for and lived with Bishop Paul during 
his entire tenure in Corpus Christi, 
writes thus: "I judged him very quali- 
fied for the duties of a bishop. Bodily 
he was decidedly presentable. When 
vested for a pontifical function he 


looked every inch a bishop. It was 
a pleasure to watch him at such func- 
tions. His dignity and devotional man- 
ners made up for much that was want- 
ing in better furnished cathedrals. The 
Catholic laity were proud of the way 
their bishop carried himself without be- 
ing pompous. He was equal to the 
mighty difficult task of transforming 
into a standard diocese a loosely run 
Vicariate Apostolic. (Note: one of 
the present-day pastors of the diocese 
has said that "Bishop Nussbaum's chief 
contribution to the diocese of Corpus 
Christi was the imposing of the new 
Code of Canon Law upon a body of 
clergy who had never had any law ex- 
cept their own will!") It did not take 
him long to make all realize that in the 
Catholic system, government is from 
the head down. Under the circum- 
stances his rule simply could not be 
popular. His stay was too short to en- 
able objectors to realize the wisdom 
of his course. His successor realized 
it, and acknowledged that Bishop Nuss- 
baum and his Passionist helpers had 
made the road ever so much easier for 

"Bishop Nussbaum did not shy at 
bodily discomfort. You saw his ac- 
commodations. He put up with these 
for years. The same spirit was always 
in evidence, when there was question 
of traveling about that frontier dio- 
cese. He adapted himself to the primi- 
tive ways of the poor Mexicans, under 
conditions which called for consider- 
able self-denial." 

Another Passionist who lived and 
worked in both the Corpus Christi and 

Marquette dioceses, has this to say: 
"Bishop Paul had his faults, but he 
also had his good qualities, some very 
high and noble. You certainly can say 
that he was a zealous bishop — zealous 
in preaching the Gospel to his people, 
zealous for the spiritual welfare of his 
clergy and his people. He was a man 
of prayer. In all the years I was with 
him, he was most exact in making 
his preparation before and thanksgiv- 
ing after Mass, and every evening he 
was in the cathedral making his medi- 
tation. The Rector of the Cathedral 
told me that for the past two years he 
made very frequent visits to the cathe- 
dral, and that at any time of the day 
you might find him there praying. Since 
the Bishop got his own new home, he 
had the priests and help assemble every 
evening for Rosary, litany and our reg- 
ular Passionist night prayers." 

And still another Father who labored 
for several years in Marquette, de- 
clares: "Bishop Paul was first, last and 
always a Passionist. His heart was in 
the monastery. After the duties of his 
diocese, his greatest interest was in the 
Congregation. He was happiest when 
surrounded by our Fathers, talking 
about the interests of the Order. He 
was very kind to our Fathers who were 
working in Marquette. Whenever he 
was in the vicinity of their parishes he 
always visited them and when unable 
to do this, he would send for them. His 
own home at Marquette was always 
open to us, and when we went there, 
his hospitality exceeded all bounds." 


After his resignation from Corpus 

Christi, Bishop Paul spent two years in 
the monastery at Union City, where he 
acted as Lector of our students, having 
graciously offered his services for this 
purpose. In 1922, he was appointed 
to the vacant See of Marquette, Mich- 
igan: from the humidity of south Tex- 
as to the frigidity of northern Mich- 
igan. Here he ruled till his death, 
which came on June 24, 1935, as the 
result of a fall sustained eleven days 
previously. Ecce sacerdos magnus! 

Helpers in the Vineyard 
At the end of the year 1914, Bishop 
Nussbaum retired Father Claude Jail- 
let, pastor of St. Patrick's, with the 
title of "Pastor Emeritus," and appoint- 
ed him chaplain of Spohn Hospital. 
His successor at St. Patrick's was Fa- 
ther Peter Hanley, C.P. There are two 

Father Peter Hanley, OP. 


outstanding memories of Father Peter 
among the parishioners of St. Patrick's, 
and among people of all faiths. Dur- 
ing his pastorate there occurred the 
storm of 1916, which did a great deal 
of damage to the city and caused great 
loss and suffering among the people. 
Father Peter did much to further or- 
ganized relief, and he himself visited 
the people in need, regardless of their 
creed. Relief was extended to all, with 
no questions asked. Likewise at this 
time World War I was at its height, 
and Father Peter organized the Junior 
Red Cross among the girls of Incar- 
nate Word Academy. 

Each morning he left the rectory on 
the rounds of the parish. He visited 
the school first, giving Catechism in- 
structions there, and then he was off 
for his visits to the sick, the poor, and 
those in any kind of trouble. When he 
found sickness in the family, he would 
do whatever he could to relieve distress 
— even bathing babies, and clothing 
them afresh. He was fond of saying: 
"My religion is in my feet." This 
peripatetic pastorate was the means of 
bringing back the lapsed, rectifying 
marriages, the conversion of many non- 
Catholics, and a general toning up of 
Catholicism in general. Father Peter 
was transferred to Beeville in 1917, 
leaving fond memories of "dear old 
Father Peter who is among the most 
beloved of all pastors that have ever 
been in South Texas." Shortly after 
Bishop Paul's resignation Father Peter 
was recalled by the Superiors for work 
in other fields. 

Father Paulinus Doran, C.P. 

His successor at the Cathedral was 
named on November 7, 1917 — Father 
Paulinus Doran, C.P., whose tenure 
lasted but a year. In January of 1919 
he fell victim to the influenza epidemic, 
as did also his assistant Father Scheib, 
the Chancellor, both dying within thir- 
ty minutes of each other. As mentioned 
before, this seemed to take the heart 
out of Bishop Paul. 

Then came Father Malachy O'Leary, 
C.P., only to be recalled to the mon- 
astery toward the close of 1920. His 
outstanding achievement was his organ- 
ized relief work and the opening of a 
soup kitchen for the victims of the 
1919 hurricane, and which caused so 
many of the citizens to lose home and 
all else that they possessed. Father 


Father Aloysius Boyle, C.P. 

Malachy worked night and day, solicit- 
ing food, clothing and other necessities 
for the destitute. His kindness and 
generosity were unbounded, and Cath- 
olics and non-Catholics sang his praises 
for the untiring labor in their behalf. 
Father Aloysius Boyle, C.P., succeed- 
ed Father Malachy in 1921. The out- 
standing feature in his short term as 
pastor of St. Patrick's Cathedral, was 
his work with the young boys. His 
love for and devoted ness to them was 
particularly noticeable in his encourage- 
ment of them in their studies, as also 
in their games, in which he often 
joined. The response was wholehearted 
and long-lasting. Father Aloysius also 

oragnized a boys' choir which was a 
credit both to him and to the boys. 
He was still pastor at the accession 
of Bishop Ledvina, and sang the sol- 
emn Mass for the installation. But 
due to ill health, Father Aloysius' stay 
in Corpus Christi was very short. In 
1922 he returned to the monastery in 
Union City, and died on October 8, 
1926, a victim of sarcoma, at St. Ag- 
nes' Hospital, Baltimore, Maryland. 

The next in line of succession was 
Father Damian O'Rourke, C.P. He ar- 
rived in Corpus Christi just two months 
before Bishop Nussbaum's resignation, 
and was loaned to Bishop Ledvina for 
four months. However, since there was 
no experienced diocesan priest to as- 
sume the rectorship of the Cathedral, 

Father Damian O'Rourke, C.P. 


Bishop Ledvina petitioned the Superior 
General of the Passionists for permis- 
sion to keep Father Damian until he 
could be replaced. The request was 
granted, and Father Damian remained 
eight years. Although he knew that he 
was merely loaned to the diocese, he 
put his whole heart and soul into his 
work, as though he were to remain al- 
ways. One of the first things he was 
asked to do was to undertake the 
renovation of Holy Cross Cemetery. 
It was full of high weeds, mesquite 
brush, tumbling down trees and fences, 
and in general an eye-sore. Father 
Damian began the work immediately, 
in the face of much opposition on the 
part of the people, who had their own 
ideas regarding the order that should 
exist in cemeteries, and the manner of 
showing their love for their dead. The 
new pastor soon brought order out of 
chaos. Having taken down old fences, 
clearing the weeds and brush, he had 
the cemetery landscaped, and then set 
about beautifying it. Father Malachy 
had attempted this work during his 
pastorate, but the people resented these 
"Yankee priests coming down here up- 
setting everything — even the dead!" 
So strong was their feeling that Father 
Timothy Fitzpatrick advised Father 
Malachy to leave the weeds and snakes 
with the dead, if that was what the 
people wanted. 

To the already-introduced duplex 
Sunday envelope system — one side for 
the Sunday offering, the other for the 
Cathedral Building Fund — Father 
Damian added the annual bazaar, and 
the annual drive for funds. Thus he 


was able to turn over to Bishop Led- 
vina the sum of forty-six thousand dol- 
lars towards the goal of a new Cathe- 

Having given the best that was in 
him for eight years, Father Damian 
was recalled to monastic life, and a suc- 
cessor appointed. He was loved by all 
his parishioners, and by many non- 
Catholics as well. His kind, amiable 
sympathetic disposition won the hearts 
of all with whom he came in contact. 
The day of his departure, April 12, 
1928, was indeed a sad one for all 
concerned. Years later, when Father 
Damian returned for a visit on the oc- 
casion of his golden jubilee of pro- 
fession, he was met at the station by 
a band, and a copious multitude of 
well wishers, who serenaded him to the 
skies! This year, Father celebrated the 
golden jubilee of ordination. Ad mul- 
tos annos! 

Mention has already been made of 
Fathers Isidore and Camillus. We may 
not pass over a few of the other Pas- 
sionists who gave an "assist" in the 
work of the diocese, especially Father 
Mark Moeslein. The story of a sepa- 
rate place of Catholic worship for the 
colored people of the city of Corpus 
Christi dates back to the year 1868, 
and to a priest named Father P. Berth- 
et. He had made plans; but due to 
an accident in which he lost the index 
finger of one hand, and was unable 
to say Mass for some time, he left 
Corpus Christi without seeing the ful- 
fillment of his hopes. Under Bishop 
Nussbaum, accommodations for these 
neglected children of God finally be- 

Father Mark Moeslein, C.P. 

came a reality. On January 31, 1917, 
Father Mark was requested to begin 
this work. He immediately insisted on 
the erection of a school. "With a 
school," he reminded the Bishop, "we 
will build up a congregation of colored 
people, and the church will come in 
due time." So, a combined school and 
church was erected. The chapel occu- 
pied the first floor; two classrooms, 
each with a capacity of thirty-five pu- 
pils, occupied the second floor. A two- 
story frame building was purchased and 
remodelled for the Sisters' residence. 
The priest's house was built with lum- 
ber salvaged from a house which had 
been damaged in the cyclone of 1916. 
Father Mark started his parish with 
only two Catholics; and the school 
children, all non-Catholics numbered 

about thirty. A few years later he was 
able to secure the old Blessed Sacra- 
ment church, which had been used by 
the Mexican congregation on Last 
Street, and was now moved to North 
Staples, remodelled, and blessed under 
the title of Holy Cross. The chapel 
was then converted into classrooms for 
the increasing number of children who 
sought admission. The parish plant is 
still practically the same, a monument 
to his zeal, patience and spirit of sacri- 
fice. Father Mark built up the parish 
by walking from house to house, seek- 
ing souls. He lived very frugally, the 
grocery bill amounting to about eight 
dollars a month. Friends would some- 
times drop by with a few eggs, some 
milk, or some fruit. However, it is 
a proven fact that often his fare con- 
sisted of a cup of Postum and a piece 
of bread for breakfast, an apple or 
other fruit for lunch, and Postum with 
bread or toast for supper. While Fa- 
ther Mark was pastor of Holy Cross 
he also attended the Catholics in Violet 
(formerly known Landsiding), a little 
town about fifteen miles from Corpus 
Christi. He would say his first Mass 
on Sunday at Holy Cross, walk to the 
depot — a distance of at least two miles 
— take the train to Violet, hear con- 
fessions, say Mass, then give catechism 
instructions before breaking his fast. It 
was often noon before he got a cup 
of coffee, and he in his sixties at 
this time! Incidentally, Bishop Nuss- 
baum paid only one visit to this town, 
even though it was so near the See 
City. It was with deep regret that the 
colored people heard the news that 


Father Fidelis Kent Stone, C.P. 

Father Mark was being recalled, and 
this feeling was shared by the white 
people among whom he had labored 
before assuming charge of Holy Cross. 
During this latter pastorate Father 
Mark was assisted by Father Fidelis 
Kent Stone, C.P. It is "a. coincidence 
that Father Fidelis, having fought for 
the emancipation of the negro, should 
spend some of his declining years in 
their spiritual service. 

On September 12, 1915, a new 
church for the Mexican congregation 
in Corpus Christi was dedicated under 
the title of St. Mary. Father Patrick 
Walsh was installed as the first pastor. 
During this time he was also ordinary 
confessor for the Sisters of the Incar- 
nate Word and Blessed Sacrament. But 
he was not long for this world. Hav- 
ing sustained a mysterious bite on one 
of his great toes, he was laid up for 


Holy Cross Church, 

Rectory and School, 

Corpus Christi, Texas, 

as finished by Fr. Mark 

Moeslein, C.P. 

quite some time, and even when able 
to be up and around, the toe never 
completely healed. One day he was 
called to minister to a nurse who was 
dying. Sometime later he remarked: 
"I never again want to see a person 
die of blood poison." Within a few 
months he himself lay dead of blood 
poison, ending his life in Spohn Hos- 
pital, July, 1919. 

Father Timothy Fitzpatrick, C.P., 
spent a very short time in the diocese, 
chiefly as Vicar General to Bishop 
Nussbaum. Father Theodore Noonan, 
C.P., likewise had a short-lived stay in 
Texas. He acted mostly in the capacity 
of the Bishop's secretary, and also 
helped out around the Cathedral in 
all religious functions during his stay. 
It was noted above that the choir had 
made progress under his direction. 

Father David Ferland, C.P., was 
brought on from New Mexico to be 
assistant to Father Peter in Beeville. 
Due to the resignation of Bishop Paul, 

and the subsequent departure of the 
Passionists from the diocese, Father 
David's stay in Texas was of short 
duration; although one would not think 
this from the great number of times his 

Father Patrick Walsh, C.P. 


Left, Father Timothy Fitzpatrick, C.P., 
right, Father Theodore Noonan, C.P. 

was the pastor, but Father Fidelis was a 
real circuit-riding missionary, covering 
many, many miles in the great section 
known as West Texas. 

Emmanuel Boleslaus Ledvina, the 
successor to Bishop Nussbaum, was not 
a stranger to south Texas, having been 
there as secretary of the Extension So- 
ciety. We give him his due in these 
pages because he so cheerfully admitted 
his great debt to Bishop Paul and 
the Passionist Fathers. Under a date 
line of Chicago, June 14, 1921, we 
read the following headline: "Priest's 
Mania For System Leads Him To 
Bishopric." Msgr. Francis C. Kelley 
remarked at the consecration banquet 
that on the occasion of a visit to the 
then Father Ledvina, in Princeton, 
Indiana, he noticed that the sacristy 
and the library-office were so well 

name appears in the various parish 
registers. Later on, he was to spend 
some very fruitful years in assisting 
Bishop Paul in the diocese of Mar- 

In addition to these American Pas- 
sionists who labored in the diocese of 
Corpus Christi, we must also mention 
two Mexican Passionists in particular: 
Fathers Camillus and Fidelis. They 
made their headquarters at San Augus- 
tin's in Laredo, building the church. 
The church has been lengthened since 
the Oblate Fathers took charge in 1927, 
and the parish plant has grown tremen- 
dously. But the memory of the two 
Passionists still lingers. Father Camillus 

t & 

Father David Ferland, C.P. 


catalogued and labeled. Quote: "This 
man had a perfect mania for order and 
neatness. In a corner was a typewriter, 
the files near it indicating not only that 
he answered his letters — a rare clerical 
practice — but that he also kept copies 
of them. There were little drawers and 
big drawers; and one of the little 
ones was labeled: 'Needles, Thread 
and Pins.' Then and there I made up 
my mind that St. Philip had directed 
my steps to the man the Extension 
Society was crying for, the man who 
could put order and system into a 
growing concern." It was only fitting 
that Father Timothy Fitzpatrick, C.P., 
the Vicar General of Corpus Christi, 
should be present at the consecration 
of Bishop Ledvina. So, in the Corpus 
Christi Times, for May 31, 1921, we 
read the following travelogue: "Rev. 
Father Timothy Fitzpatrick, C.P., Chan- 
cellor of the Corpus Christi diocese of 
the Roman Catholic Church, leaves here 
tonight by way of New York, to attend 
the ceremonies consequent to the con- 
secration of Rt. Rev. Emmanuel B. 
Ledvina as bishop of this diocese. The 
ceremonies will take place June 14 at 
Terre Haute, Indiana. . . . Father Fitz- 
patrick will go first to New York, then 
will return to Terre Haute to be pres- 
ent at the consecration of the bishop. 
It is his intention to return with the 
Bishop to New Orleans, from which 
point he will precede Bishop Ledvina 
to Corpus Christi by several days." The 
consecration took place at St. Mary-of- 
the-Woods, Indiana, in the mother- 
house chapel of he Sisters of Provi- 
dence, "one of the finest specimens of 

Italian Renaissance architecture in the 
country." Besides the fulness of the 
priesthood, Bishop Ledvina also ac- 
quired a sizeable purse, amounting to 
almost thirty thousand dollars. The 
solemn Mass for his enthronement as 
Bishop of Corpus Christi was sung by 
Father Aloysius Boyle, C.P., rector of 
the cathedral. According to the Times: 
"The sermon, a particularly eloquent 
and instructive one, was preached by 
Reverend Father Mark Moeslein, pas- 
tor of the Holy Cross Church of this 
city." The Bishop's welcome to Corpus 
Christi was cordial enough, but appar- 
ently there was not the same feeling 
as there was at the advent of Bishop 
Paul. However, the train was once 
more on time, and the crowd at the 
station was reckoned at two thousand. 
Return to Texas 
The good work of the Passionists 
continues in Texas. There were the 
usual founding-troubles when we came 
to Houston: close quarters, distance 
from town, disruption of telephone 
service, all the things that gained merit 
for the first Fathers, and merit our 
praise. Transfer was finally made to 
the location on Bunker Hill Road, and 
with this our work began in earnest. 
The first day of recollection, with ten 
men present, was conducted on Feb- 
ruary 29, 1948. The second one, on 
April 4th, had twelve men attending. 
There were to be many more of these 
days of grace, plus radio program., 
and our missionary work throughout 
the state. On January 18, 1949, there 
was an organization meeting of the 
Laymen's Retreat League; on January 


30th, four inches of snow; on May 
8th, "Mother's Day" there was the 
formal opening of the Rosary Path. 
At this time it was written: "Next 
to God's blessing there can be little 
doubt that the fine development of our 
Retreat House in Houston must be as- 
cribed to the great zeal of its Superior, 
Father Aloysius Dowling, whom God 
has so benignly kept with us, and to 
the generous and efficient activity of 
Father Conleth Overman, the Retreat 
Director." Father Conleth branched out 
into the dramatic field, offering a 
Christmas play entitled "When God 
Was a Little One," and which was 
seen by over two thousand. His Re- 
treat Theatre Group made national 
news in the Catholic press with its pres- 
entation of "Queen of Sorrows," which 
gained the title of "Houston's Own 
Passion Play." As a result of these ef- 
forts, the Theatre Guild of Houston 
was formed, and attracted a great deal 
of much-deserved attention. 

But the retreat work remained of 
paramount importance. On March 5, 
1951, Bishop Nold wrote to Father 
Conleth, "... to express my satisfac- 
tion regarding the fine work being 
done by you in the promotion of the 
Lay Retreat Movement. . . . Anything 
that you can do by word or by writing 
to encourage our lay people to this end 
will redound to God's glory, to growth 
in holiness and to the meriting of 
God's help and favor in these our 
troubled times." 

In the Provincial Chapter of 1953 
the Houston foundation was given 
canonical status, Father Conleth being 

Father Aloysius Dowling, C.P. 

elected the first Rector. Meanwhile, the 
new retreat house had been abuilding, 
and on October 11, 1953, there was 
"open house"; Mass was said in the 
new chapel on October 16th, and that 
night the Charter Retreat Class met for 
dinner, and the beginning of the his- 
toric first retreat. There were twenty 
men in this privileged group. The 
solemn dedication of the new house 
took place on November 29th, amidst 
a flurry of superlatives. And again it 
was written: "It would be unjust and 
ungracious to neglect the Passionist, 
who under God, has been most respon- 
sible for the success of the retreat 
movement in Houston. Our own Very 
Reverend Father Rector, Father Con- 
leth, C.P., certainly merited the public 

tribute paid him by his Excellency, 
Bishop Nold; and to that tribute we, 
the members of his community, add 
our own sincere appreciation of his 
sterling qualities of leadership at home 
and in the retreat work of the dio- 
cese." At this writing, the number of 
retreatants has most probably passed 
the three thousand mark, and this does 
not include the numbers of clergy who 
have found Holy Name Retreat House 
to be a spiritual and physical haven. 

Texas remains a territory, a large 
territory, in the geopraphic as well as 
the political sense, and the Passionists 
continue to plow, plant and reap in this 
fertile field to which they were first 
called so many years ago. We can 
hardly close with a better thought than 
was expressed by a Nueces farmer in 
those early days: "There is no use 
lying about a country that gives so 
many chances! 


Two important changes take place on The PASSIONIST beginning with 
this issue. 

First, The PASSIONIST has been officially designated as the English-News 
SUPPLEMENT to the ACTA CONGREGATIONIS. This recognition by the 
General Curia comes as a distinct joy to The PASSIONIST and Holy Cross 
Province, for it gives the News Section of The PASSIONIST official status 
and serves as an indication that in some way it has succeeded in attaining 
the goal put before itself at its inception almost fifteen years ago by its founder 
and first Editor, Fr. Vincent Mary, C.P.: to be the vehicle of articles and news 
items that would tie the Congregation more closely together in fact as well 
as in spirit. 

Secondly, with this issue, The PASSIONIST has a new Editor. Father 
Bruce Henry, C.P., has been appointed Editor and succeeds Father Vincent 
Mary, C.P., and his interim subsitute, Father Warren Womack, C.P. The whole 
Congregation is grateful to these two Passionists for the excellent work they 
have done in editing The PASSIONIST. May the Editor following them walk 
in their footsteps! 



The famous Pilgrim Statue of Our Lady of Fatima as it left LaGuardia 
Airfield for its journey to Buffalo is the cover design for this issue of The 
PASSIONIST. Rev. Fr. Lambert Missack, C.P., (left) a member of the Jamaica 
community escorted the Statue to the Airfield. Father Montiez, O.M.I., (right) 
was commissioned by the Holy Father to take the statue around the world. 


/Cental |p>ra^er 

life of H lPassioniet 

in tbe 



BOVE the tomb of St. 
Paul of the Cross in the 
basilica of Sts. John and 
Paul in Rome, there hangs 
a well- known painting 
which very well portrays 
the spirit of the Passionist 
vocation. Jesus has freed his hands from 
the clasp of the nails and is leaning 
down from the cross. With his right 
arm He is lifting Paul from the earth 
and drawing him close to Himself, so 
that Paul is leaning upon the wounded 
side and pierced Heart of Christ. With 
his left arm Christ is reaching out to- 
wards the world, in a gesture that seems 
to say: "Tell the world the secrets that 
you learn in my wounded Heart." 

St. Paul of the Cross was the great 
apostle of the Passion. But his work 
was not accomplished by himself alone, 
but by an apostolic band of missionaries 
who would succeed him in each genera- 

tion. In order to assure the Church a 
group of zealous, well-trained apostles 
of the Passion, St. Paul put on paper a 
Rule of life. And he also impressed 
upon the hearts of his first companions 
a "rule of the spirit," an unwritten 
tradition. This was to be a spirit of 
prayer, of solitude, and of poverty as 
well as promoting devotion to the Pas- 
sion (Reg. 94, 4). In this paper we 
will analyze one element of that spirit, 
that of grayer. We will seek to deter- 
mine what way and to what extent the 
spirit of prayer depends upon the 
■practice of mental prayer? Our study 
will follow two general lines, of 

I) Why we have so much time de- 
voted to mental prayer. (This 
will be an historical study.) 
II) Why we need this time of prayer. 
(This latter section comprises 
the theological answer.) 


The answer to this first question 
takes us back into the origins of the 
Congregation. We will step back into 
the ages of St. Paul of the Cross, in 
order to become better acquainted with 
our Holy Founder. This will lead us 

to a fuller knowledge of the Holy Rules 
and a deeper penetration of their spirit. 
Our journey into the past will take us 
along the following paths of investiga- 
tion: 1) the importance of mental 
prayer in the personal life of St. Paul of 


the Cross; 2) the high degree of prayer 
to which he thought his religious were 
called by reason of their vocation; 3) 
the place which St. Paul assigned to 

mental prayer in his rule of life; and 
4) the commission which he laid upon 
the Congregation to teach others how 
to make mental prayer. 


"Prayer," we read in his Life by St. 
Vincent Strambi, "was his constant oc- 
cupation. From his early, years he would 
rise at night with his brother John the 
Baptist and . . . recite the divine office 
and throughout the silence of the night 

deal with God in prayer. In later years, 
prayer was his continual practice and 
to be united with God was the occupa- 
tion of his whole life." 1 St. Paul once 
spoke of the time which he called his 
conversion: "I used to spend at least 

Picture above the Tomb of St. Paul of the Cross showing the Saint embraced 

by Christ. 


seven hours of the day and night in 
prayer and other pious exercises. On 
Sundays and feast days I used to rise 
early in the morning and go to the 
Oratory of the Confraternity in which I 
was enrolled where I recited the divine 
office with the other members. Then in 
the principal church I would kneel for 
five hours without intermission and 
adore the Sacred Eucharist solemnly ex- 
posed. After a light meal, I would go 
again to church for Vespers, and after 
that I would take a solitary walk in the 
country. I would finish my day by 
making an hour's meditation in the 
church of the Capuchins." 2 

On November 22, 1720 St. Paul was 
clothed by his bishop in the black habit 
of mourning in which Mary had ap- 
peared to him. Immediately after re- 
ceiving the Passionist habit, he begun 
a forty-day retreat. The diary which he 
kept during these days reveals a man 
whose breath and heart-beat were men- 
tal prayer. In its pages St. Paul mani- 
fests a long acquaintance with the 
masters of prayer, St. Teresa, St. John 
of the Cross and St. Francis de Sales, 
as well as an ability to describe accurate- 
ly his own state of soul. On Dec. 2nd, 
the tenth day of this retreat, he began 
writing the Holy Rules. He would 

spend, as he says : "three hours in prayer 
before the Blessed Sacrament each time 
that he would take up his pen and 
write a new section." 3 This primitive 
rule devoted four and three-quarters 
hours a day to mental prayer, besides 
the time for chanting the office. Even 
though this was later modified, still it 
declares unequivocally the great import- 
ance which St. Paul attached to mental 

Fr. Caetan has an entire chapter in 
one of his books, devoted to the 
amount of time which St. Paul gave to 
mental prayer during the different 
periods of his life. 4 As we read this 
chapter, we are left with the same im- 
pression as a witness who was long 
acquainted with St. Paul and who stated 
in the processes for beatification: 
"Prayer preceded, accompanied and fol- 
lowed all of Paul's actions." 5 

The life of St. Paul of the Cross, 
which Pius XI tells us is the "supreme 
example to be followed" by us his 
children, 5a shows us a man with an 
overwhelming love and spirit of prayer, 
who manifested this in the practice of 
much mental prayer. To what extent he 
intended his sons to follow this example 
will be studied in the following sections. 


St. Paul believed that his religious 
were called to a high degree of prayer 
by reason of their vocation. It is dis- 
puted whether St. Paul of the Cross 
thought that all men were called to 

infused contemplation. Since he lived 
before the time of this modern contro- 
versy, it is doubly difficult to decide. 
Fr. Caetan, C.P., thinks that St. Paul 
did not consider all souls destined to 


infused contemplation, even if they 
faithfully followed their religious 
duties. ,! Others differ with him in this. 7 
However, Fr. Caetan says unhesitatingly 
that St. Paul was pursuaded that his 
own religious were called to a very 
high and elevated state of prayer. He 
quotes the words of one of the first 
Passionists who testified in the processes 
of beatification: "In order to animate 
us to the holy exercise of prayer, the 
servant of God had the custom of saying 
that all our religious, having professed 
an austere, retired and solitary life, are 
called to a high prayer. I myself have 
heard this many times from his mouth." 8 
St. Teresa 9 and St. Jane Frances de 
Chantal 10 have similar statements, link- 
ing a life of solitude and penance to a 
high degree of prayer. 


That is why St. Paul wanted the 
master of novices to prepare his charges 
for this gift of prayer. In several of 
his letters St. Paul explains in what way 
the Master will dispose his novices for 
this gift. "Affective prayer, made in 
pure faith," he wrote to the Rector of 
the novitiate house on Mt. Argentaro, 
"whether it be a high interior recollec- 
tion or infused prayer, is a gratuitous 
gift of God and we ought not to pre- 
tend to place anyone in it by force of 
one's arms." He then enumerates the 
virtues in which the master should habi- 
tuate the novices: humility, blind obe- 
dience, perfect abnegation, total morti- 
fication. "These," he concluded, "arc 
the fundamental virtues for the spiritual 
edifice and for obtaining the gift of 

holy prayer and union with God" 
{Lettere III, 439). He wanted his own 
little booklet, Mystic Death and Divine 
Birth, given to the novices, but "not 
until the end of the novitiate when it 
can be known that they have made 
notable advance in prayer and holy 
virtue." The reason for this delay rests 
in the fact that within its pages "there 
is presented the highest perfection and 
holiness" {Lettere III, 442). This shows 
what he expected of his religious even 
at such an early period of their religious 

There are still other letters which 
speak of the "high union with God 
through holy contemplation" that he 
expected of all his religious {Lettere 
111,157; IV, 251). To his religious at 
Terracina he wrote: "The important 
point is this: we will never be men of 
great prayer and union with God, if we 
do not have a great love of mortifica- 
tion." He then made an earnest appeal 
that they avoid unnecessary distractions 
and vain curiosity. If they do not fol- 
low his advice, he warns them: "How 
much trouble and interior remorse ! How 
fatigued you will be for recollecting 
yourself" {Lettere IV, 292-295). St. 
Paul felt convinced that the Passionist 
vocation led to a high degree of prayer, 
not automatically, but only when the 
religious take advantage of the many 
opportunities for silence and detach- 

From an early document of this 
period we learn how well St. Paul suc- 
ceeded in forming his first companions 
in a spirit of high prayer: "The exercise 
of mental prayer was performed by 


these religious with such ardor, that it 
seemed to be their sole occupation. To 
this end they kept an inviolable silence, 
living as much as possible retired from 
the world, dividing their time between 
study and prayer. . . . The time assigned 
in the Rule to prayer was to them but 
little time, so that even during external 
employments they were absorbed in 
God. . . . This love of prayer went still 
further, every care being taken that the 
seculars who served as domestics in 
the Retreat should learn this holy ex- 
ercise. 11 

Up till now we have investigated 
the importance of mental prayer in the 
personal life of St. Paul of the Cross 
and the high degree of prayer to which 
he felt his religious were called by rea- 

son of their vocation. This puts us in 
a good position to estimate the place 
of mental prayer in the Holy Rules. 
By personal inclination St. Paul would 
be expected to give a prominent place to 
prayer in the day's horarium. Further- 
more, since Passionists are called to a 
high degree of prayer and are recog- 
nized by the Church as men "devoted to 
prayer," they would be expected to 
follow a program where prayer and si- 
lence occupy a great part of the day 
(cf Rules 10). For Prayer, like base- 
ball, cannot be book-learned. Practice 
alone makes perfect. What others have 
written of it, must be tried and experi- 
enced by each individual religious. The 
Holy Rules would guarantee that, so far 
as external legislation can do so. 


In writing the Passionist Rule, St. 
Paul assigned a special place to mental 
prayer. In what he himself called the 
first and fundamental chapter of the 
Holy Rules {Lettere IV, 250), St. Paul 
wrote: "Since, however, one of the 
chief objects of our Congregation is 
not only to devote ourselves to prayer, 
that we may be united to God by chari- 
ty, but also to lead others to do the 
same, instructing them in the best and 
easiest manner possible; those members 
who may be considered fit for so great 
a work, should, as well during apostolic 
missions as other pious exercises, teach 
the people by word of mouth how to 
meditate devoutly on the Mysteries, 
Sufferings and Death of Our Lord 
Jesus Christ" (Rules 3). 

As we study these words carefully, 
certain ideas catch our attention. First, 
the two chief objects of our Congrega- 
tion are "to devote ourselves to prayer" 
and "to lead others to do the same." 
That is our way of being "united to 
God by charity" and of bringing others 
to the same goal. In evaluating the 
means of perfection prayer is given the 
first place. Secondly, by prayer the 
Rules understand principally what is 
called mental prayer. We are "to devote 
ourselves to prayer" and "to teach the 
people . . . how to meditate." The par- 
allel between the two phrases is signifi- 
cant. The Rule of 1736 even more 
clearly understands the word "prayer" to 
mean "mental prayer." "One of the 
principal ends of this least Congregation 


consists not only in being indefatigable 
in holy prayer in order to seek holy 
union with God, but also in inducing 
our neighbor (to do the same), in- 
structing him on the easiest manner pos- 
sible in so angelic an exercise." 


These words of the Holy Rules re- 
mind us of an entry that St. Paul made 
in a diary, just three days after com- 
pleting the primitive draft of the Rule. 
In the one entry for the 10th- 13th of 
December we read: "... I know that 
God gives me to understand that the 
soul which God wishes to draw to high 
union with Him by the means of prayer 
must pass by this way of suffering dur- 
ing prayer." 

That mental prayer is to be given 
special prominence in the Passionist 
way of life and in fact is to be con- 
sidered the Passionist's chief means for 
union with God is a truth reflected else- 
where in the Rules and Regulations. 
We read that mental prayer is "the 
strongest and most necessary prop" for 
all religious orders, but for a Passionist 
it is something altogether special. He 
belongs to a Congregation "established 
in an especial manner in a spirit of 
prayer and communion with God" 
(Reg. 21). Passionist home-life is to 
give him the leisure to attend to God 
(Rules 190), where he can "willingly 
remain . . . given up to religious quiet 
and pious meditation at the feet of 
Jesus Crucified" (Rules 221). The 
Passionist Congregation is among the 
very few who "spend an entire hour in 
holy meditation" each evening (Rules 

160). Moreover, there are two half- 
hours of solitary walk. These walks 
are granted principally to relieve the 
tension of the mind and to grant physi- 
cal exercise to the body. But there is 
also another reason, that "from the 
beauty of the heavens and the earth, 
(they can) . . . infer the goodness of 
the Creator" (Rules 159, Reg. 67). 
Altogether, the Holy Rules devote two 
complete hours to mental prayer, two 
and one-quarter hours to chanting the 
office, and another 25 minutes to night 

Like the life of St. Paul, the Holy 
Rules blend the practice of formal 
prayer with a continual spirit of prayer. 
There is given to Passionists the high 
ideal of doing everything "as recol- 
lecting that they are in presence of 
God" (Rules 46). "Let each one 
strive to excel in an ardent love of God 
and to cherish a lively, active and con- 
stant faith. In all things let them con- 
sider God as present. In this way we 
shall pray continually." Besides these 
general recommendations to a deep spirit 
of recollection, the Rules and Regula- 
tions alro become very detailed. Before 
recreation they should first "renew a 
strong determination to remember the 
presence of God" (Reg 80). /;/ the 
corridor as they proceed to the refec- 
tory, let them remember "that Our 
Lord Jesus Christ ... in His last agony 
had not even a drop of water to quench 
his thirst" (Reg. 69). At table they 
should be "meditating on divine things" 
(Rules 125). Even /;; bed "let them . . . 
reflect on the presence of God and His 


angels" as they fall asleep (Rules 240). 
"Let them travel with their mind, as 
much as in them lies, fixed on God" 
(Rules 288; cf. 218, 290; Reg. 267). 
We pass over the many references in 
the Rules, Regulations and Letters of 
St. Paul which view the other means of 
perfection as so many helps for pro- 
viding an atmosphere of prayer and 
union with God. 12 But we would like 
to delay a moment upon one element, 
that of solitude, so characteristic of the 
Passionist spirit. 13 St. Thomas teaches 
that an order which emphasizes soli- 
tude is ipso facto "directed to contem- 
plation" (II-II, Q 188, a 8). In the 
early days of his life, St. Paul's inspira- 
tion to found a new institute was ever 
accompanied by an impelling desire for 
solitude. We notice this at once in the 
preface to the first Rule {Lett ere IV, 
217-220). It is true that in his letters 
to others, he would emphasize the fact 
that solitude was essentially of the 
spirit {Letter e II, 477). However, for 

solitude as well, and for the reason, as 
he told the religious at Terracina, that 
we are to be "men of great prayer" 
{Lettere IV, 293). 

This section may have repeated much 
that is obvious to every one of us. But 
the accummulated force of so many 
texts should show the pressing demand 
which is made upon a Passionist for a 
life of prayer. It is his special means for 
union with God. This is not to deny 
that every religious, and in fact every 
Christian, must have a spirit of prayer. 
But in the Passionist way of life, mental 
prayer receives a particular emphasis. 
According to modern authorities, the 
spirituality of any institute is determined 
by the emphasis of one means rather 
than another, by a "proportion amongst 
the means" and by the manner in which 
these are "organized and composed." 14 
Not only is prayer the Passionist 's chief 
means for union with God, but (as we 
shall now see) one of his principal 
objects in the apostolate. 

his own religious he demanded external 


We have come to the fourth reason 
why Passionists have long periods of 
mental prayer. They have been com- 
missioned by St. Paul to teach others 
how to make mental prayer. They are to 
be masters of this art. They must know 
the way well, in order to direct others 
along it. Nemo dat quod non habet. 
From beginning to end, the Holy 
Rules, left by St. Paul of the Cross, 
consider mental prayer as the most 
practical way to insure lasting results to 

missionary labors. The missionary will 
go away from the parish church or reli- 
gious house, but he must leave behind 
his own enduring love for Jesus on the 
Cross. 15 The Rules open with the clear 
and unmistakeable statement of how 
this is to be done: "One of the chief 
objects of the Congregation is not only 
to devote ourselves to prayer . . . but also 
to lead others to do the same, instructing 
them in the best and easiest manner pos- 
sible; (they should therefore) teach the 
people by word of mouth how to medi- 


tate devoutly on the Mysteries, Suf- 
ferings and death of Our Lord Jesus 
Christ ..." (Rules 3). There is a chain 
of references throughout the Rules and 
Regulations which continue this same 
thought. We will quote only one which 
sums up all the others: "Let them not 
only exhort but also instruct the people 
how to meditate piously on the Myster- 
ies of the Life, Passion, and Death of 
our Lord Jesus Christ. Let them teach 
them to accustom themselves to prayer, 
and, at the same time, lay open and 
refute the pernicious error of some who 
imagine that meditation on Divine 
things is an employment proper only 
for Religious, and for the Clergy. Let 
them . . . show that ... by means of 
(prayer) . . .they will understand more 
and more the deceitful arts of the devil 
and of the world, see the deformity of 
vice, and the excellence of virtue. 
This prescription of the Holy Rules 
receives its best commentary in the life 
of St. Paul. Throughout the processes 
for beatification and canonization, one 
witness after another testifies how he 
"was accustomed with great efficacy to 
recommend (mental prayer) not only to 
his own religious, but also to other 
ecclesiastics and secular persons, . . . 
teaching both one and the other the 
way to make it." 1,; A typical example 
of his procedure is given by Fr. John 
Mary of St. Ignatius. St. Paul wanted 
to induce a certain girl to live a less 
frivolous and more fervent life. He 
saw how vain she was in dress. At the 
first meeting he encouraged her to cer- 
tain practices of devotion. In the second 

meeting, "he then proposed that she 
spend some time each day in meditation. 
Seeing afterwards the progress that she 
had made . . . and that she was attended 
much to holy prayer he said clearly 
to her, 'What does all this vanity 
serve?' " 1T Another example is the 
time when he was asked by Clement 
XIV for counsel in the reform of the 
clerics regular. St. Paul replied that the 
essential thing above all was to make 
efficacious the practice of mental prayer, 
and he then proposed a plan for this. 18 

Our Holy Rules, then, do commission 
us to be masters in the art of mental 
prayer. 19 In this way Passionist mis- 
sionaries produce lasting results. It is 
a stable means to insure an abiding love 
for Christ upon the cross. The example 
of St. Paul of the Cross with his ener- 
getic, practical zeal makes these words 
of the Rule come alive before our eyes. 
Since Passionists preach to all classes of 
men, they must be all things to all men 
in this matter of mental prayer. As St. 
Paul expressed it: "The director (of 
souls along the way of mental prayer) 
ought to be a very learned man, a man 
of great prayer, and of much experi- 
ence" {Lett ere I, 177-178). Therefore, 
to fulfill this commission mental prayer 
must have a conspicuous and predomin- 
ant place in their own lives as well as 
in their apostolate. 

We can conclude this historical part 
of the article by stating that mental 
prayer has a very special place in Pas- 
sionist Spirituality. Although it numbers 
among the means of perfection common 
to all religious, it has .1 particularly im- 
portant role in Passionist sanctification 


and in the Passionist apostolate. We 
saw this fact clearly emerge: 1) from 
the example of St. Paul, our father and 
founder, and 2) from his conviction 
that all Passionists by reason of their 

vocation are called to a high degree of 
prayer. It was demanded: 3) by the 
words of the Holy Rules, and 4) by the 
commission to teach others the art of 
mental prayer. 


In the preceding section we gathered 
together certain historical facts that ex- 
plained why we have so much time 
devoted to mental prayer. Passionist 
Spirituality, with its emphasis upon 
prayer, received its formation in the 
hands and heart of a saint. It was re- 
peatedly and solemnly blessed by the 
Church through the person of the 
Sovereign Pontiffs. There must have 
been soild ascetical or dogmatic reasons 
beneath all this. We are now setting 
ourselves to the task of finding those 
reasons. What are the theological rea- 
sons connecting our spirit of prayer with 
our practice of mental prayer? History 
has linked the two together. Does 
Theology also ? Or, to put the question 

in another way, to what extent is mental 
prayer necessary as the normal way for 
arriving at full Passionist perfection? 
First of all, we will seek the opinion of 
those who are authorities in this matter, 
both ancient and modern. Since Theol- 
ogy is the scientific expression of what 
has been believed and taught in the 
Church, this survey can be considered the 
voice of Catholic Tradition. As such, it 
is one of the strongest arguments ad- 
vanced by Theology. After this, we will 
see if anything can be deduced from 
the nature of prayer itself. Lastly, we 
will turn our attention to the soul- 
purifying effects of the prayer of faith 
and the part it plays in Passionist sanc- 


From the authority of others a strong 
argument can be raised that long periods 
of mental prayer are of the utmost 
advantage for maintaining a spirit of 
prayer. Yet, at the very start and evi- 
dent difficulty is encountered. St. Bene- 
dict, the father of western monasticism, 
set aside no definite period for mental 
prayer. But we should remember that 
the modern notion of mental prayer is 
somewhat new in the centuries-old Cath- 
olic Church. Poulain remarks: "Before 
the fifteenth century, or even the six- 
teenth, the usage of methodical mental 

prayer — prayer, that is to say, where the 
subject, method and duration are de- 
termined — is not traceable in the 
Church." 20 In early monasticism lectio 
divina took the place of mental prayer 
as a daily practice. During this sacred 
reading, the monks slowly perused the 
Holy Scriptures with frequent pauses 
for personal consideration. 40 The Rule 
of St. Benedict allowed four hours 
daily for this (Rule ch. 48). The needs 
of an earlier age were met, not with 
less time for prayer, but rather with 
more time for a prayer of a slightly dif- 


ferent kind. 

The objection is often put forth that 
St. Thomas was against long periods of 
mental prayer. 21 In answer to the ques- 
tion "Whether prayer should last a long 
time?" he wrote: "Prayer should last 
long enough to arouse the fervour of the 
interior desire: and when it exceeds 
this measure, so that it cannot be con- 
tinued any longer without causing wear- 
iness, it should be discontinued" (II-II, 
Q 83, a 14). However, we must realize 
that by the word prayer (oratio) St. 
Thomas meant: "petitio decentium a 
Deo cum quadam mentis elevatione." 22 
Even the term oratio mentalis as used 
by St. Thomas 23 means "a petition which 
the soul addresses to God without 
making use of words." 24 The words of 
St. Augustine which St. Thomas im- 
mediately quotes in this context also 
refer to the long vocal prayers of the 
monks of Egypt, 25 and St. Thomas 
himself is here opposing the error of 
the Euchites who taught that the faith- 
ful must give all their time to vocal 
prayers. 26 In another place he repeats 
with favour these words of St. Augus- 
tine: "Absit ab oratione multa locutio, 
sed non desit multa precatio, si fervens 
perseveret intentio. Nam multum loqui 
est in orando rem necessarium superfiuis 
verbis agere. Multum autem precari est 
ad eum quern precamur, diutuma et 
pia cordis exercitatione pulsar e" (4 
Sent, dist 15, Q 4, a 2). St. Thomas 
also admits that contemplation cannot 
"last long at its highest pitch . . . (How- 
ever, he goes on to say) it can be of 
long duration as regards the other con- 
templative acts." 27 


The greatest authority on mental 
prayer is St. Teresa of Jesus. So de- 
voted was she to prayer the she wrote: 
"I cannot conceive, my Creator, why the 
whole world does not strive to draw 
near to Thee in this intimate friend- 
ship." 28 All her defects she attributed 
to the omission of mental prayer and 
all her progress to the practice of it. 29 
For her it was the short-cut to perfec- 
tion, 30 the "door of entry into this (in- 
terior) castle (of union with God)," 31 
and the "royal road to heaven." 32 

St. Teresa introduced two separate 
but complete hours of mental prayer 
into the Carmelite reform. 33 Even for 
beginners she wrote: "They should 
allow Thee to be with them for at least 
two hours each day, even though they 
may not be with Thee, but are per- 
plexed, as I was, with a thousand world- 
ly cares and thoughts." 34 It is evident 
that she realized the difficulties which 
accompanied mental prayer. Yet, despite 
this, she wrote: "My sisters, practice 
mental prayer. . . . Let those who cannot 
do so strive to pray vocally, or even to 
read and converse with God. . . . But 
let no one among you fail to give to 
prayer the hours laid down by the Rule. 
You do not know at what moment the 
bridegroom will call you." 35 

5"/. John of the Cross, the Doctor of 
Prayer, realized that graces of high 
prayer come only from God, and there- 
fore do not of their nature depend upon 
long periods of preparation on man's 
part . But he also held that ordinarily 
preparation is a sine qua non. "Into a 
soul that is prepared the act of love 


enters in a few moments, for the spark 
seizes upon the dry fuel at each con- 
tact; and merely because of its thorough 
preparation, it is wont to remain a long 
time in the act of love or contempla- 
tion." 36 These words of St. Teresa and 
St. John of the Cross are especially 
significant, not only because of the great 
authority of those two saints (one of 
whom is a doctor of the universal church 
and the other probably would be if she 
had not been a woman), but also be- 
cause St. Paul of the Cross was well 
acquainted with their writings. 37 An- 
other, great saint known personally to 
St. Teresa and greatly esteemed by her 
was St. Peter of Alcantara. He main- 
tained that "less than an hour and a 
half is not sufficient; for it often hap- 
pens that a half -hour is spent in the 
effort to become recollected." 38 

Our own St. Paul of the Cross is to be 
classed among the great authorities on 
prayer. He was very discreet and careful 
in regulating the time spent in mental 
prayer. Even though St. Francis de 
Sales wanted an entire hour each day 39 
and Tauler at least an hour 40 — two 
authors whom he knew well — St. Paul 
would ask of persons he directed only 
one-quarter or at most one-half an hour 
in the evening, and would carefully 
allow more time only as the person ad- 
vanced. 41 To a young lady given to 
melancholy, he allowed only one-quarter 
of an hour {Lett ere IV, 27). Thomas 
Fossi may spend one-half an hour, but 
he was to ask only one-quarter of an 
hour of his children. But as the soul 
advanced, he would urge more prayer, 
and that despite the difficulties. He 

once wrote: "Overcome the ennui and 
repugnance which you feel towards 
prayer and remain the fixed time. If 
sleep begins to overtake you, stand up or 
place yourself in a less comfortable 
position. . . . You are never to leave it, 
never, never" (Lettere III, 382-383). 
And to a more advanced soul he wrote: 
"Give to prayer as much time as possi- 
ble. This divine embrace desires a holy 
leisure" (in Bolletmo, vol. 9, p. 148). 
We can conclude from this that when 
St. Paul stipulated an hour (as he did 
for his own religious), he was con- 
vinced that the soul was prepared and 
needed it. 

The great masters of the past did feel 
a need for prolonged prayer. And they 
would usually stipulate at least an hour. 
But what do modern writers say on this 
subject? One of the foremost of these 
is Poulain. In writing about affective 
prayer and the prayer of simple regard 
(both of which he would consider 
acquired rather than infused) he said: 
"Before these two states could really 
constitute separate degrees of prayer, 
they must be capable of being prolonged 
for more than a few minutes at a time; 
they should continue for instance, for 
an hour or more." 42 Fr. Joseph de 
Gu'tbert, another Jesuit authority on the 
spiritual life, wrote: "True mental 
prayer does not seem possible in a 
space of time less than half an hour, 
some brief moments of recollection 
being added throughout the day. ... It 
does not appear possible to achieve in a 
shorter time that profound and intimate 
recollection of soul before God, on 


which the fruits of mental prayer princi- 
pally depend; and frequent brief mo- 
ments of recollection in the course of the 
day will be of great assistance in sup- 
plementing this minimum period. In 
fact, a full hour of mental prayer will 
usually be necessary for those who wish 
to lead a true interior life but who are 
prevented from spending almost the 
whole day in prayer of one kind or 
another as do the contemplative orders. 
Present-day practice in religious and 
ecclesiastical institutes confirms this 
view, since we are here concerned with 
ascertaining the time to be given to 
prayer in the actual modern conditions 
under which we must live the spiritual 
life: other ages had other needs as well 
as other means of supplying those things 
which we today must derive from 
prayer." 43 

A. Saudreau would want a full 
hour. 44 Another recognized expert in 
this matter is Eugene Boylan. He 
emphasizes the necessity of staying at 
prayer despite the difficulties. 45 

Various writers in the Review for 
Religious criticize lengthy periods of 
mental prayer, but only when the person 
is a beginner in the postulancy, novitiate 
or seminary. "Frequently," wrote Fr. 
Le Buffe, S.J., "they are asked to begin 
with a half-hour or even a full hour. It 
would seem that either is far too long. 
Why? Because they know little about 
the principles of religious or seminary 
life, and not much more than generali- 
ties about the life of Our Lord.""'' An 
hour then is not too long when these 
two barriers are removed. R. E. Eiten, 
S.J., wrote: "The important thing is 

that everyone who desires to advance in 
prayer will follow those suggestions that 
help him and then set about to pray, and 
pray, and pray some more. Only thus 
does one normally advance in prayer. . . . 
We remain before God in silence . . .in 
spite of all the distracting tedium and 
weariness which make these attentive 
pauses at times wearisome, tedious and 
distressing." 47 Fr. G. A. Ellard, S.J., 
speaks of mental prayer as "normally 
about an hour," adding that the primary 
source of difficulty in mental prayer is 
none other than lack of interest." 48 
In the three volumes of Acta Et 
Doctumenta of the General Congress on 
States of Perfection (Rome: 1950), 
suggestions are made about mental 
prayer: i.e., discontinuing the reading 
of a common meditation, eliminating 
vocal prayers so as to leave more room 
for mental prayer; but never once (as 
far as we could find) was it suggested 
to shorten mental prayer. 40 Those who 
participated in the Congress were greatly 
aware of the nervous tension and other 
problems of modern religious life. 

The wish of the Holy See is reflected 
in a newly approved Congregation, the 
Little Brothers of Jesus (1936). They 
live in the world and work side by side 
with other men in factories, on fishing 
boats, in stores and offices. Each morn- 
ing they recite "Lauds, meditate on the 
Gospel and hear Mass. On coming back 
from their work at night, they meet for 
Vespers and their hour of adoration be- 
fore the Blessed Sacrament, and before 
going to bed say Compline together. 
One night a week (usually Thursday) 


they also get up for an hour's adora- 
tion." 50 In approving this institute, the 
Sacred Congregation of Religious saw 
no incompatibility between modern life 
and an hour's continuous prayer. Rather, 
it recognized the advantages of such 
prayer for modern man. 

In conclusion it can be said that 
ancient and modern authorities on the 
spiritual life favor prolonged prayer, and 
by that they would mean a continuous 
hour whenever possible. An intense 
life of prayer ordinarily depends upon 
it, or at least is greatly helped by it. 


From the nature of prayer itself 
strong reasons can be deduced why pro- 
longed prayer is of great advantage for 
maintaining a spirit of prayer and recol- 

Meditation is the first step in the 
ways of prayer. In these early stages the 
supernatural nature of prayer is least 
apparent. In contrast to the higher 
forms of prayer where the rain falls 
down from heaven, St. Teresa writes 
that "beginners in prayer ... are those 
who draw the water out of the well." 50a 
There is need of activity and initiative 
on the part of the soul's interior facul- 
ties. The soul turns to God, by putting 
away distracting thoughts and centering 
all her attention on Him. The imagina- 
tion will picture some scene of Our 
Lord's life, the memory recalls what we 
have previously read or heard, the intel- 
lect studies the reasons why and how this 
took place. However, if meditation con- 
sists only of well thought-out considera- 
tions or beautifully phrased sentences, it 
is not prayer but mental exercise or 
sermon writing. These are only the pre- 
liminary acts. The real acts of prayer 
are the combined efforts of will and 
intellect: faith, hope, love, sorrow, 
admiration, etc. Prayer is the reaction of 

a child of God, upon seeing the reflec- 
tion of its Heavenly Father or its Savior 
Jesus Christ, cast upon its imagination 
and intellect. Scripture gives us many 
examples of this, especially in the writ- 
ings of St. John and St. Paul. After 
repeating Our Lord's discourse to Nico- 
demus, St. John cannot restrain his own 
personal reflection of loving admiration : 
"For God so loved the world ..." (Jn. 
3, 16). 

Every Passionist must feel within his 
intellect and will frequent hunger-pangs 
for a prayer of this sort. The more that 
he reads and studies about God, Our 
Lord, Our Blessed Mother and all the 
mysteries of our faith, so much the more 
will he realize how inadequate are all 
the books of the world to contain "the 
breath and length and height and depth 
. . . (of) Christ's love which surpasses 
(all) knowledge" (Eph 3, 18-19). As 
a child of God, the soul wants to know 
God as well as possible, yet realizes the 
inadequacies of Theology, and even of 
the Liturgy, to contain God. God is a 
Person, not a mathematical or Theologi- 
cal formula, and can be truly known 
only by a living, experimental, loving 
contact that introduces us into His in- 


ward life. Meditation, then, is that slow, 
constant, steady pulse of life, whereby 
we begin to live by the "faith of the 
Son of God who loved me and gave 
Himself up for me" (Gal 2, 20). 
Meditation puts the truths of faith into 
the blood-stream of our supernatural 
organism, so that they become a source 
of personal conviction, the stamina for 
energetic works of zeal, the kindling of 
a consuming fire of charity. This is 
what Our Lord meant when he told the 
Apostles: "This is eternal life, that 
they may know thee, the only true God, 
and him whom thou hast sent, Jesus 
Christ" (Jn 17, 3). 

Liturgy makes the same demands as 
Theology and spiritual reading. Liturgy 
leads us to God in the momentum of a 
glorious paean of praise. Joined to the 
ranks of the Church suffering, militant 
and triumphant, we enter the presence 
of God. Our whole soul is drawn to 
"fall down . . . and ...worship him 
who lives forever and ever" (Apoc 4, 
10). St. Benedict realized this and 
granted the monks the liberty of many 
intervals for private prayer. After having 
been led to God by the liturgy, prayer 
is the leisure to remain alone with Him. 

All of this prepares us to realize the 
advantage of prolonged mental prayer. 
At the beginning it takes time to be free 
of distraction and completely alone with 
God. We already quoted the words of 
Fr. de Guibert, S.J., "It does not seem 
possible to achieve in a short time (than 
a half hour) that profound and intimate 
recollection of soul before God, on 
which the fruits of prayer depend. . . . 

In fact, a full hour of mental prayer will 
usually be necessary." 51 Once this deep 
spirit of recollection has been achieved 
through acts of faith in God's presence, 
humility and compunction, the soul can 
proceed to the acts of the imagination 
and intellect. Here there will be a 
leisurely but profound penetration of 
the basic dogmas of Christianity. Inter- 
mingled with this, or else following it, 
are the acts of will. The soul is lost in 
wonder at the glory of God; she humbly 
adores, bending her knees before the 
God and Father of Our Lord Jesus 
Christ. With supreme detachment she 
will "count everything loss, because of 
the excelling knowledge of Jesus Christ" 
(Phil 3, 8). These and many other 
affections of the will follow with the 
unhurried pace of friends walking to- 
gether. To rush them is like the forced 
growing of flowers; there is a quick 
bloom and a quick death. St. Paul of 
the Cross would advise his charges to 
pause and silently adore; if the mind 
wanders, then quietly call it back by 
some aspiration. 

At this point we are reminded of 
what Fr. de Caussade wrote of a higher 
form of prayer. His words are equally 
true of meditation. "There is nothing 
more sublime than contemplation as we 
find it in books; nothing more beautiful 
or grander. . . . But in practice there is 
nothing more humiliating, more cruci- 
fying." 52 The difficulties of meditation 
are undeniable. In fact, there are a few 
persons, who may be incapable of pro- 
longed prayer because of an extremely 
nervous temperament or an extraordin- 
arily high degree of extra version. 53 


However, modern spiritual writers 
would consider these the exception; in 
laying down the norms of conduct — as 
seen in the preceding section — they were 
all in favor of prolonged prayer for the 
average modern religious. The ordinary 
difficulties can be handled — according 
to the teaching of St. Teresa 54 arid St. 
Paul of the Cross {Lett ere I, 791) by 
the formation of good habits of prayer. 

The soul gradually passes from medi- 
tation to a more simplified affective 
prayer. As St. Teresa remarks: "Before 
long you will have the great comfort of 
finding it unnecessary to tire yourself 
with seeking this holy Father to Whom 
you pray, for you will discover Him 
within you." 55 A variety of mental con- 
siderations becomes not only unneces- 
sary, but increasingly impossible. We 
cannot open an already opened door. 
To try to do so would only distract the 
mind and will from the vision of God 
that lay beyond the door. St. Paul of 
the Cross was always careful to note the 
passage to a more simplified prayer 56 
and, in fact, would expect the souls that 
he directed to pass on very soon to 
affective prayer. 57 In this type of prayer, 
the intellect and will are not inactive, 
but the multiplicity of acts will have 
disappeared. The loving attentive pauses 
are of longer duration; the acts of the 
soul are mostly those of love and praise. 
It is the silence that only true love can 
explain, but which true love demands. 

The intellect has brought the soul 
into the presence of God. With a gasp 
of wonder the soul exclaims in the 
words of the Psalmist: "Such knowl- 

edge is too wonderful for me, sublime; 
far beyond me" (Ps 138, 6). So the 
will rushes ahead into the arms of God, 
while the intellect feels its thoughts turn 
to darkness when faced with such radi- 
ant splendor. Love penetrates ever 
further into the mystery of God's divine 
goodness and (as it were) leaves the 
intellect behind in the obscurity of faith 
(cf 1 Cor 13, 12). The pauses become 
ever longer, as the over-mastering, con- 
quering love of God captures the entire 
realm of the soul. Prayer becomes more 
simplified and affective, according to 
its basic laws of growth and develop- 

This kind of affective prayer wants 
a prolonged period. St. Paul wrote: 
"Give to this prayer as much time as you 
can." 59 And this is true, whether it is 
infused or acquired. At the sight of a 
glorious desert sunset, or of a towering 
mountain majestically lifting its snow- 
capped peak into the clouds, a person 
wants to remain quiet, in order to ad- 
mire and wonder. He does not want to 
rush away. All the masters of prayer 
want the soul to remain quietly with 
God. "When you arrive at this pro- 
found recollection which is caused by the 
presence of God," St. Paul wrote, "con- 
tinue thus without making any other 
kind of prayer. Abandon yourself in 
God, repose in God, leave Him the care 
of all" {Lett ere I, 110). 

Prayer of this kind welcomes pro- 
longed periods, despite the accompaning 
difficulties. St. Teresa wrote: "The 
mind . . . does not understand what is 
happening and so wanders hither and 
thither in bewilderment, finding no 


place to rest. . . . Let the spirit ignore 
these distractions and abandon itself in 
the arms of divine love." ,!0 At times, 
these difficulties at meditation and dis- 
cursive reasoning are the very reason 
why the soul should pass on almost 
immediately to simplified prayer. 61 

In conclusion let it be said that prayer 
— like grace of which it is the breath 
and heart-beat — is supernatural. Even 
in its first stages it is not governed 
merely by the laws of human effort and 
ability. Its needs and demands surpass 
the human in each of us, and are sup- 
plied by the Spirit of Christ. The Spirit 
helps us in our weakness, maintaining 
and increasing that filial love by which 
our soul cries out, "Abba, Father!" 
(Rom 8, 16, 26). Prolonged periods 
of meditation enable the soul to search 

out the depths and heights of Christian 


doctrine as learned in Theology and to 
inject these truths into the blood-stream 
of its own supernatural life. Persever- 
ance at prayer brings the soul beyond the 
borders of meditation into the more 
simplified gaze of affective prayer. This 
latter prayer of its nature is a silent re- 
pose in God, and St. Paul of the Cross 
begged his charges to give as much time 
to it as possible. The difficulties which 
are encountered are the price paid for 
any advance. Such was the conviction 
of St. Paul of the Cross when he wrote 
to a penitent: "I have good news to 
announce to you; after this struggle, 
you will enjoy great peace, great light; 
you will have the gift of prayer and of 
union with God. And then, indeed, your 
heart will exult in God our Savior. Ex- 
pecta Dominum, viriliter age." 62 

Lastly, there is need of prolonged 
prayer, because of the special effects of 
the prayer of faith. 

Every moment of suffering, patiently 
and gladly accepted, buries the soul into 
the dark obscurity of the tomb of Christ. 
It is a union with Christ in his sufferings 
and death, freeing the soul of attach- 
ment to worldly objects and at the same 
time granting a share in the thoughts 
and reactions of the suffering Heart of 
Christ. Every Christian is called upon 
to die with Christ and to go down into 
the tomb with Him (Rom ch. 6). He 
must "die daily" (1 Cor 15, 21). But 
each Christian has his own particular 
way of doing this: the missionary in the 
midst of apostolic work, through the 

discouragement of being poorly received 
at times and the purifying hours of the 
confessional; the superior, through the 
criticism and seeming indifference of 
subjects, confinement to a desk, and the 
perpetual demand to be patient; the 
parish-priest, when his minutes are con- 
sumed and he himself almost eaten up 
by the demands of others; the teacher 
and student through the difficulties of 
the class-room; the mother and father, 
through care and worry for their chil- 
dren. Those who are engaged in the 
active life are subjected to external 
trials. Those whose life includes much 
prayer and solitude are usually sub- 
jected to interior sufferings, such us 
aridity, obscurity, and abandonment. 


St. John of the Cross wrote that God 
arranges "to tempt them more interior- 

Passionists are dedicated to a voca- 
tion which by its nature is one of prayer, 
solitude and silence. This is not the 
complete description of it, but is an im- 
portant part of it. Therefore, these must 
be the active agents that form a Passion- 
ist to the likeness of Jesus Crucified. 

Eugene Boylan describes well what 
happens in the soul during the prayer 
of faith. It is a type of simplified, 
affective prayer when the intellect is not 
at rest as in the later degrees of the 
prayer of quiet, but rather is tossing and 
turning beneath a sky of darkness. 
"When the time for prayer comes, the 
mind seems to have lost all its power of 
action. There are no good thoughts, no 
good affections; complete sterility and 
aridity reign, and ordinary effort cannot 
dispel them. This powerlessness of the 
mind is only evident at the time of 
prayer. At other times the mind func- 
tions with normal vigor. At prayer, 
however, it seems dead; the imagina- 
tion may run riot, and the senses may 
clamor for earthly things. But in some 
obscure way, the will wants God. . . . 
It is by no means uncommon." 64 

The first effect of this prayer of faith 
is purity of soul. One of the finest 
description of this is found in the Diary 
written by St. Paul of the Cross during 
his forty day retreat. He writes about 
himself: "I was dry, distracted, tempted; 
I kept myself by sheer force at prayer. 
I was tempted to gluttony; hunger kept 

coming over me; I felt the cold more 
than ordinarily, and my flesh desired to 
be relieved and to that end I kept 
wishing to escape from prayer . . . but 
by the mercy of God I kept saying that 
T wish to remain so, even were it 
necessary to carry me away in small 
pieces.' ... I understand that this sort 
of prayer of suffering is a great gift 
which God grants a soul to make it an 
ermine of purity, a rock amidst suffering 
to such an extent that it no longer takes 
any account of them; and when it shall 
have arrived by the favor of God at 
this state, the Sovereign Good will con- 
sume it with love; it is necessary to be 
careful not to leave prayer at this so 
painful a time, because the suffering 
will not diminish but on the contrary the 
soul would be afflicted more without 
profit, because it would see itself going 
into tepidity: that is why I know that 
God gives me to understand that the 
soul which God wishes to draw to high 
union with Him by means of prayer 
must pass by this way of suffering during 
prayer. . . ." (Dec. 10-13). 

Moreover, St. Paul is careful to point 
out another effect of this interior martyr- 
dom and prayer of suffering. There is 
experienced in the soul, he writes, "a 
keen infused knowledge of the tor- 
ments of my Jesus" {Diary Dec. 5). In 
writing to one of his own religious he 
said that the soul is "plunged wholly in 
the sea of the Savior's suffering. ... It 
becomes a fountain of love and grief, 
for the mind is entirely penetrated with 
it; it is wholly drowned in dolorous 


love and amorous pain" {Lett ere III, 
149). St. Paul was accustomed to call 
this a "mystic death." Each new death- 
inflicting stroke really gives a resurgence 
of life. Each time that a soul is further 
"clothed in its interior with the most 
holy pains of Jesus, crucified and dead 
to every created object," it is really 
"more alive in God" (Lettere II, 292). 
Gradually, the soul becomes — in his 
beautiful expression — "a living portrait 
of the Crucified" (Lettere I, 508). 

From the constant warning of St. 
Paul never to abandon prayer at this so 
painful a time, we can conclude that 
prolonged prayer is most advantageous 
and ordinarily required before this trans- 
formation of soul takes place. He would 
insist: "Never, never leave it (prayer), 
for that will be your ruin" (Lettere I, 
415). And again: "Above all, never 
leave prayer, even though you should 
have to endure the pains of hell" 
(Lettere I, 4 16). 


In the midst of the aridity and dark- 
ness of prayer, a marvelous event takes 
place. The arms of Christ again detach 
themselves from the firm grasp of the 
nails — as they once did for St. Paul of 
the Cross — and reaching down lift the 
Passionist up to the level of the cross. 
"With Christ I am nailed to the cross." 
Through the silence of prayer — and per- 
haps without realizing it — an exchange 
takes place between the wounded Heart 
of Christ and the sorrowing heart of the 
Passionist, an exchange of thoughts and 
desires, of love and sorrow. And so it 
happens that as he studies the picture 
above the tomb of St. Paul of the Cross, 

what once seemed a far-away ideal 
gradually became a reality in his own 

In this article we studied the spirit of 
prayer, one of the principle means of 
achieving this ideal. The first part, an 
historical study, slipped back into the 
pioneering days of the Congregation. 
As the life of St. Paul of the Cross 
flashed before our eyes, we realized that 
"prayer was his constant occupation," as 
St. Vincent Strambi declared. St. Paul 
was convinced that all his religious were 
called to a high degree of prayer, be- 
cause they professed an austere and 
solitary life. Therefore, in proportion- 
ing the means of salvation and so con- 
stituting the basis of a Passionist Spiri- 
tuality, St. Paul gave a prominent place 
to mental prayer. The Holy Rules have 
ample evidence of this. Those who pro- 
fess this Rule would then be prepared to 
carry out the solemn commission of 
teaching others the art of mental prayer 
and so insuring a lasting devotion to 
Christ Crucified. 

What was established by a saint, 
solemnly blessed by Sovereign Pontiffs, 
and proven by long experience in the 
making of other saints, must certainly 
rest on solid Theological reasons. In 
the second part of the article we investi- 
gated these reasons. From the authority 
of ancient and modern writers came a 
consensus of Catholic Tradition that 
prolonged prayer is usually required or 
at least is very advantageous for a deep 
spirit of prayer. The nature of prayer, 
its various stages, and the transition 
from one to another, demand that prayer 
be more and more prolonged. This is 


true not only despite the inherent dif- 
ficulties but even because of them. Since 
prayer occupies such an important place 
in Passionist Spirituality, it must be one 
of the most necessary means for uniting 
each Passionist to Jesus Crucified. This 
is the Passionist's entire purpose in life, 
and St. Paul of the Cross was convinced 
that the "prayer of suffering" helps 
greatly to achieve it. 

One with Jesus Crucified in thought 

and desire, the Passionist is then ready 
to tell the world with words that it will 
never forget: "In this we come to know 
his love, that when as yet we were 
sinners Christ died for us" (Rom 5, 8). 
As the doubting Thomas' of the world 
see and touch the wounds of Christ in 
His ambassador, they will fall down 
on their knees before the cross, exclaim- 
ing: "My Lord, My God, My All!" 

1 This immediate section relies upon 
the Letter of Fr. Titus of St. Paul of 
the Cross "Spirit of Prayer" 1938: 
Selected Letters, 208-9. 

2 Summ. Super Introductione, n. 8, 

3 Caetan, Oraison et Ascension, 221. 

4 Caetan, Oraison et Ascension, 217- 

5 Sum super intro., n. 13, 140. 
5a "Unigenitus Dei Filius" Eng trans 

in Review for Religious 11 (1952) 185. 

6 Caetan, Doctrine de S. Paul de la 
Croix, 52-53. 

7 Mimeograph notes of Ascentical and 
Mystical Theol. by Fr. Roger, C.P., 
Louisville, Ky. 

8 Caetan, Doctrine, 53. 

9 Way of Perfection, ch. 17 (Peers 
ed., II, 71). 

10 Letter to a superior, quoted by A. 
Poulain, Graces of Interior Prayer, trans, 
by L. Smith from 6 ed. (Herder: St. 
Louis) 18-19, n. 31. 

11 Memoirs of the First Companions 
(1913) p.v; cf. Atti del II Convegna di 
Spirit ualita Passionista, 1955, Privincia 
di Maria SS. della Pieta, 36-37. 

12 For obedience, comparative study of 
Rules 271, 32, 372; mortification, Lettere 
I, 94; IV, 293; Rules 145, 33; poverty, 


Lettere II, 555; IV, 220. 

13 Cf. Letter of Most Rev. Fr. Titus of 
St. Paul of the Cross, "On Solitude" 
1940 Selected Letters of Recent Passionist 
Generals, 224-244. 

14 Quoted by Fr. Ward Biddle, C.P., 
"Passionist Spirituality?" in Passionist 8 
(1955) 2, 124-125. 

15 Cf. rules 10 & 191; Lettere I, 229, 
415, 432, 526; II, 388; 2III, 370; Excel- 
lent treatment in Caetan, Apotre et Mis- 
sionnaire, 89-91. 

16 Quoted by C. Brovetto, C.P., lntro- 
duzione alia Spiritualita di S. Paolo della 
Croce (1955) 24. 

17 Cf. Caetan, Doctrine, 46; Lettere 
I, 506; C. Brovetto, op. cit., 93, fn. 3. 

18 C. Brevetto, op. cit., 94. 

19 Have we lost or forgotten this 
special commission of teaching others to 

pray? It does not seem to be emphasized 
today as it was in St. Paul's day. This 
can be explained by the general anti- 
contemplative reaction of the Catholic 
world during the previous century. Only 
with the Thomistic revival has there 
come about a new realization of the 
nature and importance of contemplation. 
Modern Jesuit writers mention how 
Mercurio and Roothaan began a move- 
ment that confined the Ignatian method 


of prayer to use of the three powers and 
excluded other more simplified forms of 
prayer. (G. A. Ellard, S.J., "Contempla- 
tion" in Review for Religious 7 (1948) 
235-241; P. Philippe, Mental Prayer 
and Modern Life, "Mental Prayer in 
Catholic Tradition," 49-50, 70-71) A 
similar false interpretation was given to 
the method of St. Sulpice by M. Tronson 
(P. Philippe, op. cit., 60) and to Car- 
melite Spirituality (according to R. 
Rouquette, S.J., in Mental Prayer and 
Modern Life, 69). For a similar re- 
action among Passionists, see Convento 
III di Spirit ualita Passionista, op. cit., 5. 

20 Graces of Interior Prayer, p. 37, n. 
66. St. Francis Borgia made an hour's 
prayer mandatory for Jesuits (DeGui- 
bert, Theorogy of Spiritual Life (Sheed 
& Ward: 1953 n. 296); Dominicans 
inserted a half-hour only in 1505 & 
Franciscans in 1595 and 1642. In stipu- 
lating a full hour in his own rule, St. 
Paul was not simply riding on the tide 
of current practice, for he was well 
acquainted with both the Dominicans 
and Franciscans. 

21 G. Vann, Of His Fullness, 108-109. 

22 Leonie Manual ed., cura et studio 
Sac. Petri Caramello (Marietti: 1950) 
II, 414, fn. 1. In II-II, Q. 83, a. 17 (esp 
ad 2) St. Thomas seems to find a differ- 
ent meaning to oratio. However, here 
prayer of petition is divided according 
to 1 Tim. 2, 1. 

23 IV Sent, d. 15, Q 4, a 2, sol 1; 
ibid a 7, sol 1, ad 1. 

21 P. Philippe, op. cit.. 4; cf. I. Men- 
nessier, La Religion (Paris 1932) 327. 

25 Cf Review for Religious 8 (1949) 

2,: Leonie Manual ed., op. cit., II, 426. 

27 II-II, Q 180, a 8, ad 2; cf. St. 
Teresa, Life, ch. 18 (Peers ed., I, 108- 

28 St. Teresa, Life, ch. 8 (Peers ed., I, 

29 Ibid. 

30 Ibid, ch. 21; ch. 10; Interior Castle 
III, c. 2, n. 17. 

31 Interior Castle I, ch. 1. 

32 Way of Perfection, ch. 21. 

33 Fr. Alphonsus, Practice of Mental 
Prayer (Desclee 1910) 54. 

34 Life, ch. 8. 

35 Way of Perfection ch. 18, n. 4. 

36 Living Flame, I, n. 33 (Peers ed., 
Ill, 137) order of sentences reversed. 

37 M. Viller, "Contemplation," Dic- 
tionnaire de Spirit ualite V, 2039; P. 
Castante Brevetto, op. cit., 9-12. 

38 Quoted by Fr. Alphonsus, op. cit., 

39 Introduction to Devout Life, P. II, 
c. 1. 

40 Dom post Trin. S. 1. 

41 Caetan, Doctrine, 19-20. 

42 Graces of Interior Prayer, n. 7, p. 
9-10; also n. 52, p. 30. 

43 Op. cit., n. 296; p. 240 in Eng. tr. 
Italics our own. 

44 Degrees of Spiritual Life (London 
1926) 125-126. 

45 This Tremendous Lover (Newman 
Press 1948) 255. 

46 "Beginning Beginners in Mental 
Prayer" in Review for Religious 8 
(1949) 57. 

47 Ibid 4 (1945) 22, 25-26 "Towards 
Simplified Affective Prayer" 

48 "On Difficulties in Meditation" in 
Review for Religious 6 (1947) 5 ff. 
Mention should be made of a very well- 
received article by Joseph F. Gallen, 
"Renovation and Adaptation" in Revieu 
for Religious 14 (1955) 295-6. Under 
the heading of matters to be examined 
for possible adaptation, he lists: "A 
schedule of prayer that gives proper 

(Continued on page 63) 


oaks lllefrteforft 


APOSTOLATO, by Henry Zoffoli, C.P. 

(II Crocifisso,, Rome, 1933. P.404) 

To define the particular spirit of any 
religious congregation is froth with no 
little difficulty on several scores. The 
main spring of the difficulty lies in 
determining its essential, individual, 
constitutive, fixed and peculiar elements 
and in distinguishing them not only 
from the historical elements but also 
from what is transient, variable, tem- 
poral, and accidental. Fr. Zoffoli has 
undertaken this difficult task for the 
Congregation of the Passion. 

The work falls logically into three 
parts. In the first section the author 
considers the general condition of the 
Passionist Religious inasmuch as they are 
both christian and religious men. In 
the next section he treats the principal 
point of his study. He determines the 
constitutive and specific elements proper 
to the Passionist Religious, which dis- 
tinguish their congregation from other 
religious families. Accordingly the au- 
thor asks what is the genuine spirit of 
St. Paul of the Cross, that is, what 
elements, apart from historic conditions 
of space and time, ought to be con- 

sidered essential to the mind of St. Paul 
in founding the Passionist Congregation. 
It is this mind or spirit of their Founder 
that should be held in honor always 
and everywhere and should be faith- 
fully followed and embraced by all sons 
of the Passion. 

In what does this spirit of St. Paul 
of the Cross consist? According to the 
author in Christ Crucified. He proves 
this conclusion from a great many docu- 
ments of St. Paul himself and of his 
companions, in which the proper char- 
acteristic of Passionists is shown to be 
devotion to Christ Crucified. Therefore 
a Passionist religious is another Christ 
Crucified, and the means of sanctifica- 
tion for himself and souls should be 
sought in Christ Crucified. Consequently 
the proper characteristic of Passionist 
spirituality must lie in the goal that is 
sought, that is, in union with God in 
Christ Crucified. 

In the third section Fr. Zoffoli treats 
the question of Passionist adaptation to 
modern conditions of our times. 

Whatever we may think of particular 
conclusions, it is certain that the author 
treats these questions with great modera- 
tion, prudence and with concern for 


truth and sound progress, that he affirms 
and strengthens his arguments with solid 
documentation, and that he accomplishes 
a study that will be a great help to the 
modern apostolate without injuring the 
spirit proper to the Passionists and St. 
Paul of the Cross. For this reason we 
think the work of Fr. Zoffoli will be 
very useful first to the Passionist Reli- 
gious, then to other religious families, 
and finally to all those who with a 
right intention seek and are solicitous 
for sound and perennial spiritualities 
in the Church of Christ. 

Xavier Ochoa, C.M.F. 
(from Commentarium pro Religiosis) 


ther Dominic of the Holy Family, C.P. 
(Cosenza, 1956. P. 160) 

The Preparatory Seminary, or the 
Apostolic School as it is more frequently 
called in Europe, has been part of the 
Congregation's formative program for 
many years now. Nevertheless neither 
our Rules nor our Regulations speak of 
it. Even Father Titus' Jus Particulare 
devotes only two pages to it (209-2 11). 

It is true that our General Chapters 
have dealt with various aspects of the 
Preparatory Seminary since 1890, and 
Provincial Chapters in various provinces 
have enacted legislation concerning it. 
Nevertheless, those who are engaged in 
our educational work, and especially 
those at the Preparatory Seminary itself, 

have long experienced a need for a 
greater recognition of its importance 
and for an official clarification of its 
function in the formation of future 
Passionist Missionaries. 

Several years ago Father Dominic 
Bono of the Italian Province of the 
Sacred Side attempted to analyze the 
problems involved in a Prep School and 
to offer a solution for them. His work 
has been published this past year at 
Cosenza in Italy. It is honored by a 
prefatory letter of the present Bishop 
of Dodma, the Most Reverend Jeremias 
Pesce, C.P., formerly Provincial of the 
Immaculate Heart Province. Unfortu- 
nately Father Dominic wrote prior to 
the publication of the new Statuta 
Generalia of the Holy See on studies 
in clerical religious institutes. 

Father Dominic divides his work into 
three parts. In the first part he treats 
of the structure of the Prep — the semin- 
arians, lectors and superiors that make 
it up. He outlines here just what a 
Preparatory Seminary should be. 

It is the author's opinion that the 
Director of the Prep, should be also the 
canonical superior of the entire institu- 
tion, appointed ad nutum Curiae Pro- 
vincial i 's. Father Dominic rejects the 
earlier forms of the Prep, whereby it 
was simply a minor part of a regular 
house of observance. He maintains that 
it should be an institution entirely de- 
voted to the work of educating the 
seminarians, only those Religious being 
assigned there who are necessary for this 
work. The entire institution, seminarians 
and Religious, should be under the di- 
rection of one sole superior. 


The writer also holds that the semin- 
arians should be divided into three 
groups or "squadrons," each with its 
own Vice- Director and Coadjutor. 
These divisions are not necessarily iden- 
tified with the various classes or "years" 
of the seminarians, but rather are to be 
made according to the varying ages of 
the boys. Such a threefold grouping is 
more necessary in Europe, where boys 
enter the Prep at an early age, due in 
great part to the fact that elementary 
school there ends with our sixth grade. 
It seems to us that our grouping into 
the high-school and college levels is 
more conformable to conditions in this 

In the second part we are told of the 
formation of the seminarians along 
cultural, moral, civic, intellectual and 
spiritual lines. One would like to see 
in this section a greater insistence on 
the scholastic and intellectual needs. 

The third section is concerned with 
the activities of the seminarians. Here 
the author considers such questions as 
the daily schedule of the boys, their 
daily spiritual exercises, vacations, free 
days, and such like. 

The book closes with two appendices : 
the first contains a suggested ordering 
of morning prayers and the requirements 
of the honor roll; the second appendix 
is the author's address to the Congress 
on the Prep School held at Manduria 
in September, 1955. 

In conclusion, we would like to add 
several important remarks concerning 
this book. First of all, from the very 
nature of the work it is obvious that 

many of the suggestions and opinions 
expressed are applicable only to the 
Italian scene and mentality. LA SCUO- 
LA APOSTOLICA does not have that 
world-wide view that would make its 
conclusions appropriate for formulation 
in the universal law of the Congrega- 
tion. It is indeed hoped that our Prep- 
aratory Seminary be regulated by norms 
and regulations emanating from the 
highest authority in the Congregation. 
But at the same time, it should be 
recognized that such regulations must be 
of a very general nature, capable of 
varying applications in the various prov- 

Secondly, the present reviewer would 
have liked to have seen a greater insist- 
ence on the need for the intellectual 
and scholastic training of the religious 
who are assigned to our Preparatory 
Seminaries. Certainly, our Preparatory 
Seminaries should attain to a standard 
equal to, if not higher than, those of 
the public and religious schools on the 
same scholastic level (cf Statu ta Gen- 
eralia, art 43, #1). Our Preps should 
have the same scholastic efficiency as 
the diocesan minor seminary and the 
"middle schools" of the public educa- 
tional systems. This demands that the 
Lectors in the Prep have the intellectual 
and scholastic training necessary for one 
to teach on the high-school or junior 
college level. 

From all that we have said, it is 
obvious that this is a book that should 
be of interest to all who are concerned 
with the improvement of our educa- 
tional program. It should be of especial 
interest to those who are engaged in 


the work of the Preparatory Seminary in 
whatever capacity. The problems in our 
Italian Preps are not after all so greatly 
different from those we experience in 
our own. The reading of Father Dom 
inic's timely work will help us to under- 
stand their problems and conditions 
better, and at the same time frequently 
assist us in improving the standards of 
our American Preps. 

Roger Mercuric, C.P. 
Louisville, Kentucky 



A booklet for married couples 
showing their duties towards each other, 
their children and the Community has 
been rendered into Spanish by Fathers 
Aldredo Castagnet, C.P., and Peter 
Richards, C.P. This is the second edition 
of Fr. Edwin Waugh's pamphlet on 
the same subject. 

All news items, notices and letters to the Editor to be printed in the April 
1st issue of The PASSIONIST must be sent in by February 10th. 


Bound copies of The PASSIONIST for 1956 are now available. Please send 
orders to the office of The PASSIONIST, 5700 N. Harlem Ave., Chicago 31, 111. 


Beginning with the next issue The PASSIONIST will feature a new section 
entitled ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS. The purpose of this new feature is to 
provide our Readers with ready answers to questions that touch closely upon 
our Passionist way of life. Questions on Law, Custom, Theology, Liturgy and 
Sacred Scripture that have a special interest to Passionists will be answered. 
Men throughout the Province who have specialized in these subjects have 
graciously consented to answer these questions. Our Readers are invited to 
send their questions to the Editor who will forward them to those handling 
this special subject. 



ETTERS to the 



Feast of St. Leonard! 
November 26, 1956 
Dear Editor: 

I would like to ask a little space to 
comment on Father Ronald Murray's 
timely article "Toward Simplifying the 
Passionist Proper" in the recent Sept.- 
Oct. issue. 

Little disagreement should be made 
with many of Father Ronald's judg- 
ments on the many saint's feasts in our 
Proper. Such feasts were made a part of 
our Proper at a period of liturgical 
thought when the temporal cycle was 
for all practical purposes being lost 
sight of. The Sunday and ferial offices 
of the old St. Pius V Breviary were so 
long and cumbersome, that many sought 
escape by inserting a saint's feast on 
practically every day of the year. One 
of the great guiding norms of the re- 
forms of St. Pius X and of our present 
Holy Father is to restore the temporal 
cycle to its original role of importance. 
This is seen, for example, in St. Pius 
X's permission to celebrate the Lenten 
ferial Mass on all feasts of double rank, 
and in Pope Pius XII's further permis- 
sion to recite the Lenten ferial Office on 
these same days. Any effort to relieve 
our Proper of its many now obsolete 
saints' feasts will be therefore greatly 

welcome, as in conformity with the 
principles of the recent liturgical reforms. 

However, this does not mean that all 
saint's feasts should be eliminated. Fa- 
ther Ronald wiseldy preserves those 
saints who were members of our Congre- 
gation. But we might ask if the feasts 
of St. Gemma and St. Mary Goretti 
should not also be retained, for these 
two saints, whether we like it or not, are 
historically closely associated with our 
Congregation. They should be honored 
by us with a feast of double minor. St. 
Leonard of Port Maurice also deserves 
special honor in our Proper, not merely 
because of his association with Our Holy 
Founder, but precisely because he is the 
official patron of home missionaries. 
Surely a Congregation that is most 
especially dedicated to the work of home 
missions should secure the aid of and 
properly venerate the special Patron of 
such work. 

My greatest difficulty with Father 
Ronald's article occurs in connection 
with the Passion Offices of Lent. The 
weekly celebration of these Passion 
Offices during the season of Lent seems 
to me to be in little conformity with the 
spirit and even the legislation of the 
recent Decretum Generale. For these 
offices interrupt the observance of the 
ferials, eliminating all Friday ferials 
for us. 


I would suggest, therefore, that the 
Passion Feasts be observed by us in the 
final week of the Septuagesima season, 
preferably during the now-abolished 
octave of the Solemn Commemoration. 
These Passion Feasts should be reduced 
to double minors, all having the same 
short verse at Prime, and the same con- 
clusion to the hymn. The scriptural les- 
sons could be taken from the occuring 
week, thus avoiding repetition of the 
same lessons practically every day. If 
possible, the Creed would be omitted at 
the Mass. 

In regard to the Psalms, these would 
be proper at Matins and Vespers with 
their respective antiphons. If varying 
matin psalms causes inconveniences, as 
Father Ronald maintains, then a special 
"Commune Passionis" could be estab- 
lished for us, consisting of psalms which 
in their literal or typical sense refer to 
the suffering Messias. Certainly, there 
is no liturgical foundation to select just 
any psalms, e.g., from the Sunday or 
some other "commune," as Father Ronald 
surprisingly suggested. 

Such an arrangement as here suggested 
would preserve the Passion Offices for 
us, without infringing on the traditional 
Lenten and Passion-tide offices and 
Masses. The week of Quinquagesima 
would thus become for us a special 
Passion week, disposing us for a deeper 
participation in the Lenten liturgy of the 
Church and for a more fruitful preaching 
of the Passion during Lent. 

I will conclude with a few other 
observations. I fear that I have never 
experienced any difficulty with the Feast 
of the Holy Redeemer, as the result of 
"a strained polysyllogism." Perhaps my 
concept of devotion to the redemptive 
Passion is awry! Several of Father 
Ronald's arguments seem rather weak 

from a liturgical point of view — such as 
his concern for the Passionist who must 
celebrate Mass outside the Monastery on 
October 17; or his argument from the 
physical bulk of our Proper; or the 
chanced inconveniences arising in prov- 
inces that still use the old Psalter. 

I trust that my comments will not 
seem to imply that I disagree with 
Father entirely. Many of his points are 
well made. I am in fact happy to see a 
discussion arise on a matter which should 
deeply concern us all. My final sug- 
gestion is that Father Ronald has not 
said the last word on what our Proper 
should contain. 

Roger Mercurio, C.P. 
Louisville, Kentucky 


Dear Editor: 

The fine letter of Missionarius in your 
September issue encourages me to offer 
the following thoughts in the hope that 
they will provoke written discussion — 
pro and con. 

The weak link in our missions is the 
groundwork — the preparation for them. 
We rely on the pastor for announce- 
ments, public prayers and the hope that 
he will round up the stray sheep. Often 
enough his preparation is extremely hap- 
hazard and just does not work in our 
large impersonal city parishes. As a 
result the missionary faces a cold congre- 
gation Sunday morning. Bishop Sheen 
would wince at this almost impossible 
task — to convince masses of varying 
kinds of Catholics to come to church 16 
times in the following week. A more 
organized, personal approach must be 
implemented. Father Peyton with his 
Rosary Crusade and dozens of commer- 
cial firms like Lawson Associates have 


shown what can be done by organization. 
Practically every diocese and every 
parish in the country has used this ap- 
proach to get people to say the rosary or 
to give money for building programs. 
Missions are as important as saying the 
rosary or raising money. They come once 
in a matter of years. Why cannot we 
then use much of this system? Have 
the pastor preach on preceeding Sundays 
sermons that will prepare tfye people. 
Have the men organized to go out and 
personally contact 250 or 500 families. 
Fifty men can contact 250, one hundred 
can convince 500 of the worthwhile 
meaning of a modern day mission. To 
convince the nucleus of fifty or one hun- 
dred men is the problem — and that is 
where a study of Father Peyton's ap- 
proach might be very rewarding. 

However this is an ideal and at the 
present time it would seem there are few 
pastors who are that sold on a mission. 
It would take time, trouble, effort and 
expense. So it is forced back on us to 
solve our problem. And to sell a mission 
in modern day America it might be 
necessary to shorten it. We ask modern 
day Americans to give up eight evenings 
of pleasure and relaxation — and from 
the response it seems they do not have 
the faith. But, before condemning them 
we might ask ourselves what would be 
our reaction to making a thirty day 
retreat. An eight day mission for the 
average person has about the same 
appeal as a thirty day retreat for the 
average religious. Yet, we can shorten 
our mission and lose nothing as regards 

One solution might be to have the 
mission run from Sunday to Wednesday 
— four nights. The rosary would be left 
out — the sermon would begin at 7:30 
and end at 7:55. The second missionary 

would speak at 8:05 and end at 8:30. 
The ten minutes could be used for the 
rosary or benediction. Then the men's 
mission could begin on Thursday night 
and close Sunday. Eight sermons would 
be given in four days — and it will be 
easier to get 500 for four days than 250 
for eight days. 

Another solution might be to have the 
mission go from Sunday to Thursday, 
Friday and Saturday could be spent 
hearing confessions before the opening 
of the second half. 

The problem of our missions is a vast 
one and will not be solved by letters to 
the PASSIONIST. Authority and the 
experience of others is the ultimate solu- 
tion. However, I feel that the PASSION- 
IST is offering a welcome beginning to 
the solution of why we have zealous, 
well-prepared men facing so many half 
empty churches. 


Dear Editor: 

May I take this occasion to express my 
appreciation for the fine job you have 
done in the September- October issue, of 
The PASSIONIST. The article by Father 
Ignatius McElligott was particularly 
timely and interesting and ought to 
arouse a great deal of important dis- 
cussion here in the U.S. I was pleased 
to read the letter by "Missionarius," for 
some of his suggestions are very close 
to my own thinking on the matter. 
Fortunately, his community does more 
discussing of these vital problems than 
does ours. 

I was pleased to note that you fol- 
lowed up your approach to the mission 
problems with the article by Father 
Edwin Ronan, C.P., in the November- 
December issue. May I suggest that 
Father Edwin give us some of his com- 


ments and reactions to the letter by 

A Passionist Father 

Dear Editor: 

When I read Father Edwin Ronan's 
recent article in The PASSIONIST I 
wanted to stand up and cheer him. So 
I thought I would do it in print, (with 
more of an audience than God and my 
Guardian Angel). I think he did a 
great job of tracing how the ideal Pas- 
sionist Missionary career should run from 
start to finish, rooting it firmly in the 
best of our traditions and introducing 
the finest of what our own age has 
offered. The Passio contemplate aliis 
tradere is indeed a norm of striving well 

Fr. Ward Biddle, C.P. 
Chicago, Illinois 


(Continued from page 55) 

emphasis to mental prayer, is sufficiently 
liturgical, and not excessive in the quanti- 
ty or in the importance on vocal prayer." 
He had already stated in an earlier 
article {ibid 13 (1954) 126 "Pray Rea- 
sonably") what would be a proper bal- 
ance: "five minutes of morning (vocal) 
prayer and forty-five minutes of medita- 
tion." He is writing for institutions 
where there might be a "twelve-hour 
day and perhaps a seven-day week." It 

is true that this 45 minute period would 
suffice for the entire day, but he would 
absolutely favor a long prayer rather 
than shorter periods or many vocal 

49 This sentence was based principally 
upon those parts referred to by General 
Index sub "ortio," vol IV, p. 384. 

50 Rene Voillaume Seeds of Desert 
(Fides 1955) 42-43. 

™*Life, ch. XI (Peers ed., I, 66). 

51 Cf. footnote 43, above. 

52 Insti. spir. dial., dial XII, quoted by 
Poulain, op. cit., 15, fn. 

33 G. A. Ellard, "On Difficulties in 
Meditation" Review for Religious 6 
(1947) 7. 

54 Way of Perfection, ch. XXIX 
(Peers ed., II, 122). 

35 Ibid. 

™Lettere I, 103; also I, 525; III, 
367, 607, 631. 

57 Caetan, Doctrine, 35-37. 

38 Diary, Tues., Nov. 26. St. Paul is 
speaking of passive infused prayer. But 
his words apply here also, though to a 
lesser extent. 

59 Way of Perfection, ch. 17. 

c0 Int. Mansions, 4th Man, ch. Ill, n. 7. 

<"Dark Night, Bk. I, ch. VIII, n. 3; 
also Living Flame III, n. 27-67; Fr. 
Rene Voillaume, op. cit., has a beautiful 
example of this on pp. 192-193; see fn. 
56-57 above. 

^ Bolletino 9 (1948) 44. 

^Living Flame II, 5. 

04 This Tremendous Lover, 251-252. 

Our readers are invited to send in letters to the Editor, giving .their com- 
ments and opinions on articles and letters appearing in The PASSIONIST. 
Letters on other subjects that will be of interest to our Readers will also be 
printed. If requested, the name of the sender will not be printed, but anon- 
ymous letters will not be accepted. 




Old, New, or Both? 

Our readers who are interested in 
finding some remedy for the small 
attendance at some of our missions will 
find the article in VIEW, a Catholic 
Comment on the News, for December 
1956, interesting. The following is 
taken in part from the VIEW. "Within 
the past few decades, . . . the old-time 
mission seems to have lost much of its 
attraction. Despite eloquent persuasion 
from the pulpit a small percentage of 
the parishioners are willing to leave 
the comfort of their homes and come 
to the services. 

The reason? Several have been 

given . . . lukewarmness . . . other diver- 
sions. . . . The principal villain is with- 
out doubt the television set. . . What 
to do? Father James F. Finley, of the 
Paulist Fathers, has been advocating a 
radically new type of parish mission, 
tailored to meet the needs of our chang- 
ing society. Instead of the customary 
week-long series of evening talks Father 
Finley has developed a mission which 
presents the usual topics at all Masses 
on five consecutive Sundays. "Hit them 
where they are, not where they aren't" 
— might sum up the Paulist' s idea. 

Father Finley and his associates have 
already tried out the new technique ex- 
perimentally in several churches and re- 
port noteworthy success. 


The Citrus Heights telephone number has been changed from IVanhoe 
7-0122 to EDgewood 2-1113. 

The PASSIONIST is looking for individual, identified (religious and family 
name) pictures of past and present members of Holy Cross Province for its 



General Curia Letter 

In a letter dated November 25, 1956 
and signed by Very Rev. Fr. Tarcisio, 
Secretary General, notice was given of 
a change in the manner of gathering 
and publishing news of the entire Con- 
gretation. In a past issue of the ACTA 
CONGREGATIONS there appeared 
the resolution of the General Curia to 
revise the ACTA in order to make it 
correspond more precisely to its intended 
scope and purpose, namely, the 'Official 
Organ of the Congregation,' both as 
far as the General Curia is concerned 
and also the individual Provinces. The 
caption 'Varia Notatu Digniora,' a sub- 
title under Chronica Congregation}* 
Nostrae, will in the future appear as a 
separate publication, considered, how- 
ever, as an integration and supplement 
to the ACTA itself. For the time being 
the Supplement will appear in two 
languages: Italian, published in Rome, 

and English, published by the PAS- 
SIONIST, Bulletin of Holy Cross Prov- 
ince, Chicago, Illinois. Thus it is hoped 
to continue in a more appropriate man- 
ner the laudable work begun by the 
PASSIO CHRISTI, and that with time 
and experience this enterprise will en- 
dure and perfect itself. 

The Italian Supplement will be called 
Notiziario Passionista. There is no in- 
tention of making this Notiziario a 
periodical or anything similar to one; 
rather its precise purpose will be to 
keep all the members of the Congrega- 
tion informed on outstanding events in 
the Congregation that are of general 
interest, and to effect this in a simple, 
brief and clear manner. 

The same division of matter adopted 
by the PASSIO CHRISTI will be re- 
tained, namely, notices of the Congre- 
gation in Rome, Europe, in America 
and Austrailia, and in the Missions. 


The letter gave the following list as 
a guide to news correspondents: 

1. Annual statistics of work of the 
Apostolate such as missions and retreats, 
retreats to the Clergy and laity in our 
Monasteries, activities of the Confra- 
ternity of the Sacred Passion and of 
other similar organizations. 

2. Outstanding Missions, in the sense 
of the exceptional number of mission- 
aries conducting it, or the collaboration 
of various Provinces in a mission, or 
an account of any other outstanding 

3. Special Apostolates : social, in fac- 
tories, among the poor, etc., Passionist 
parochial activities, radio, television, 
work among non-Catholics. 

4. Scientific achievements whether 
within the Congregation or together 
with other Catholic organizations of a 
cultural value. 

5. Foundations of new Retreats or 
Residences; new Missions, new con- 
structions of particular interest. 

6. Special celebrations of Retreats, 
Missions or of individual Religious. 

7. Happenings that have a special 
relation of our Congregation with the 
ecclesiastical Hierarchy, civil authorities 
or the scientific and cultural world. 

8. Matters of importance in the 
foreign mission field or home missions 
(negro missions, etc.) not grouped un- 
der missions in our particular sense of 
the word. 

9. Facts of particular significance 
regarding the activities of our residential 
Passionist Bishops. This notice will fall 
back oh the correspondent of the Prov- 
ince to which the respective Bishop 


Correspondents are also asked to send 
photographs relating to items sent, in- 
sofar as this can be done. All this pre- 
supposes a generous and active cooper- 
ation of the various Provinces, especially 
on the part of the correspondents. The 
development and prestige of the 
Notiziario will be dependent upon the 
zeal and efficiency of the correspondents. 

The local correspondent for each 
retreat will send his material to the 
Provincial correspondent. The Provincial 
correspondent in turn will coordinate 
the items sent to him by the local cor- 
respondents, and send the finished 
product to the editor in Rome. All 
news items should be sent to the editor 
in Rome every two months, not later 
than the 10th of the months of January, 
March, May, July, September and No- 
vember. The address is : Redazione del 
' r Notiziario Passionista,' Piazza SS Gio- 
vanni e Paolo 13, Roma 847, Italy. 
Pastoral Ministry of Passion- 


The Editor of the NOTIZIARIO 
PASSIONISTA is planning on making 
a summary of the Pastoral Ministry of 
the Passionists throughout the world. 
To be included in this summary is the 
work done by our Fathers in parishes, 
as pastors or assistants, chaplaincies in 
chapels, hospitals, religious institutes, 
etc. This inquiry is to cover only Prov- 
inces, V i c e-Provinces, Commissariats 
and houses in regions that are not 
geographically united to the Province. 
Houses of the Congregation under the 
jurisdiction of Bishops, Prelates Nullius, 
Prefects and Vicar Apostolic will not 


be included in this summary. 

It is requested therefore by the Editor 
of NOTIZIARIO that the Provincial 
Correspondents and the Missionaries in 
regions not geographically united with 
the Province send in their information 
not later than March 10th so the report 
can be printed in the April number of 
IST. This report is to cover only the 
year 1956. 

The following is a list of the ques- 
tions the -Editor of NOTIZIARIO 
would like answered: 

I. Parishes taken care of by Passion- 

1. Diocese. 2. Locality: city, village, 
or, if in the country, the locality. 3. 
Number of inhabitants of locality : Cath- 
olics, non-Catholics. 4. Number of 
parishes in the Passionist Province. How 
many Fathers occupied in each parish. 
5. Is the parish in connection with a 
Retreat or not. Date of founding of 
parish. Date when Passionists given 
charge. 7. Catechetical instruction given 
to children. To adults. How many 
classes given. How attended. Number 
of those attending. Results. 8. Number 
of baptisms. First Communions. 9. 
Parochial schools. Grade. High. How 
many registered. How many attend. 
Results. 10. Catholic action. How many 
meetings. Number of members. Apos- 
tolate of members. 1 1 . Social and 
charitable activities. Nature and pur- 
pose. Number of organizations. Num- 
ber of members. Of those assisted. 12. 
Statistics about attendance at Mass on 
days of precept. Reception of Sacra- 
ments. Age and social status of per- 

sons. Attendance at certain feasts during 
year. 13. Influence of those not prac- 
ticing. 14. Associations working for 
conversion of non-catholics. 15. Relation 
with diocesan clergy, with Ordinary. 

II. Church of the Passionists not 

1. Diocese. 2. Distance from "neigh- 
bors." From village or city. 3. Seculars 
living near retreat. How far away. 
How many. 4. Is it an agricultural or 
industrial section. Active or dormant. 
5. Catechetical instruction. Children, 
adults. Number registered. How many 
attend. Results. 6. Catholic action as 
in I. 7. Social or recreational activities 
as in number I. 8. Relations with clergy, 
bishop. 9. Attending Mass, frequenting 
of Sacraments as in number I. 

III. Chaplaincies directly confided to 

1. Diocese. 2. Locality. City, village 
or in country. 3. Number of chaplaincies 
confided to each Retreat. How many 
fathers in such work. 4. Distance from 
Retreat, from nearest city. 5. Agricul- 
tural or Industrial section as in Number 
II. 6. Character and development of 
the work. 7. Catechetical Instructions 
as in number II. Level of subjects. 
8. Social and recreational activities as 
in number I. 9. Average attendance at 
preceptive Mass, Sacraments, according 
to age, social condition, times of year, 

IV. Collaboration and Help to Pas- 

1. Diocese. 2. Which Parishes or 
other churches receive help. Number 
per Retreat. How many Fathers thus 
employed. 3. How many inhabitants in 


such parish or church. 4. Character and 
development of such help given. 5. 
Social atmosphere of said parish or 
church. 6. Date of founding of said 

parish or church. Fruits of labor given. 
Clergy in Diocese. 8. Relation with 
clergy and Bishop. 


Deaths in the Province 

A month had hardly run out and Holy 
Cross Province counted in quick suc- 
cession three sudden and completely 
unexpected deaths. Two of these deaths 
occurred within twenty-four hours of 
each other and the third one a month 
later. All three priests were engaged in 
an active apostolate up to the time of 
their death. Two of them, Rev. Fr. 
Arnold Vetter, C.P., and Very Rev. Fr. 
Ronan Dowd, C.P., Rector of Sacred 
Heart Retreat, Louisville, Ky., were 
active missionaries, while the third, Rev. 
Fr. Xavier Praino, C.P., was Navy 
Chaplain at the Veterans' Hospital in 
Northport, L.I. 

Death first came to Father Arnold 
on the morning of November 7 th while 
preaching a mission in Bolivar, Missouri. 
Father had hurried down to Bolivar to 
take the place of Rev. Fr. Cornelius 
McGraw, C.P., who suddenly became 
ill upon completing one week of the 
mission. Father Arnold was preaching 
the second week of the mission at the 
mission church in Buffalo, Missouri. 
While the pastor was arranging the 
altar for the early mission mass, Father 
Arnold was in the sacristy, preparing 
to go to the confessional to hear confes- 
sions during the mass. While the pas- 
tor was in the sanctuary he heard Father 

coughing. He returned to the sacristy 
and there found Father Arnold uncon- 
scious on the floor. He quickly annointed 
Father and within a few minutes he was 

The body of Father Arnold was taken 
to Sierra Madre, California for burial. 
The brother of Father Arnold, Father 
Henry Vetter, C.P., is stationed at Mater 
Dolorosa Retreat, Sierra Madre, while 
another brother, Father Matthew Vetter, 
C.P., is the superior of the mission of 
Holy Cross Province in Japan. 

Father Xavier Praino, C.P. 


Funeral of Fr. Xavier Praino, C.P., in Brighton, Mass. 

Within twenty-four hours after the 
death of Father Arnold, the Province 
was notified of the death of another one 
of its priests. Father Xavier Praino, 
C.P., of the Sorrowful Virgin died in 
Mary Immaculate Hospital, Jamaica, 
Long Island, on November 8, 1956. 
Three days previous to his death, he had 
been in New York, but at this time he 
felt ill, being bothered with severe chest 
pains. Before returning to the Veterans' 
Hospital in Northport, L.I., where he 
was stationed as Chaplain, Father 
stopped off at the Jamaica Monastery. 
The doctor advised removal to the 
hospital and there tried to alleviate Fa- 
ther's pain and discomfiture. But, all 
was to no avail. The illness was diag- 
nosed as a complete coronary occlusion. 

After his death, the body of Father 
Xavier was taken to St. Gabriel's Mon- 
astery in Brighton, not far from Father's 
home in Norwood. Because Father was 
well known in that area, especially since 

he had been stationed at the Veteran's 
Hospital in Chelsea, a great number of 
people came to the monastery. 

The Funeral Mass on November 12th 
was sung by the Very Rev. Fr. Neil 
Parsons, C.P., Provincial of Holy Cross 
Province. A cousin of Father Xavier, 
Father Murphy was the Deacon and 
Father Urban Curran, C.P., of Immac- 
ulate Conception Monastery, Jamaica, 
L.I., was the Subdeacon. Father Cronan 
Regan, C.P., Director of Students, was 
the Master of Ceremonies. The students 
of the monastery formed the choir. The 
eulogy was preached by Father Bona- 
venturc Griffiths, C.P., Provincial 
Chronicler of the Province of St. Paul 
of the Cross. 

His Excellencyy Most Reverend Jere- 
miah Minihan, D.D., Auxiliary Bishop 
of Boston, presided at the Mass and 
gave the solemn obsequies. In addition 
to the community of St. Gabriel's, a 
number of diocesan priests attended as 


well as several Navy Chaplains and VA 
Chaplains. Passionists came from Union 
City, Jamaica, Hartford and Springfield 
for the Funeral. The Very Rev. Fr. 
Ernest Welch, C.P., Provincial of St. 
Paul of the Cross Province, flew up 
from Union City for the funeral, and 
then flew back again to address the 
Jamaica Laymen's Retreat League that 
same evening. 

Father Xayier left his aged father, 
ninety years of age, a sister and two 
brothers. He was born in Roxbury, a 
section of Boston, but in later years 
the family moved to Norwood, Mass. 
Father Xavier was a member of Holy 
Cross Province. 

On the Feast of the Immaculate Con- 
ception, December 8th, the Very Rev. 
Fr. Ronan Dowd, C.P., of the Immacu- 
late Conception, rector of Sacred Heart 
Retreat died while at home in the 
Retreat. Father Ronan had just com- 
pleted a one week mission the previous 
Sunday for Reverend Fred Gettelfinger, 
pastor of St. Catherine's Church, New 
Haven, Kentucky. 

Father Ronan was talking with two 
of the priests of his community, Fathers 
Richard Hughes and Lambert Hickson. 
To all appearances Father Ronan was in 
perfect health and neither of his visitors 
suspected that within a few minutes 
Father would be dead. Father Lambert 
was preparing to leave the room of the 
Rector, when suddenly Father Ronan 
bent forward and fell across the top of 
his desk. Before the doctor could reach 
the monastery, Father was dead. 

Father Ronan was still a very young 
man at the time of his death, being only 

forty-one years of age. He was also 
one of the most active men of the 
Province, preaching both missions and 
retreats to clergy and sisters. 

After the funeral mass at the Retreat 
in Louisville, the body of Father Ronan 
was taken to his home town, St. Paul, 
Kansas, and was buried in the communi- 
ty cemetery of St. Francis de Hieronymo 
Retreat. Father Ronan has an older 
brother Father Conell Dowd, C.P., who 
has succeeded him as Rector of Sacred 
Heart Retreat. 

The month of December was ordina- 
tion month for students of Holy Cross 
Province. Six students from Sacred 
Heart Retreat, Louisville, Kentucky 
were ordained Deacons. The names of 
the new deacons are: Fathers Gerard 
Steckel, Peter Berendt, Michael J. Sten- 
gel, Louis Doherty, and Henry White- 
church. Father Henry Whitechurch is 
from the Immaculate Conception Prov- 
ince, Argentina. 

On the first Sunday of Advent eleven 
students of Immaculate Conception Re- 
treat, Chicago, Illinois were given the 
clerical tonsure. The ceremony was 
held in the small Chapel of Immaculate 
Conception Retreat and was completely 
filled by our own students and twenty- 
seven religious from other religious 
orders — Servites, Viatorians and Scala- 
brini Fathers. They were received into 
the ranks of the clergy by the Most 
Reverend Raymond P. Hillinger, Auxil- 
iary Bishop of Chicago. On December 
8th and 1 5th the same Bishop gave them 
Minor Orders in Quigley Seminary 
Chapel, the minor seminary for the 


* 9 **? *y*^i^ * 

Students of Immaculate Conception Retreat, Chicago, 111., ordained to Minor 
Orders. First row, 1. to. r.: Confrs. Leonard Kosatka, Jerome Brooks, Alfred 
Pooler, Kevin Kenney, Morris Cahill, Martin Thommes. Second row, 1. to. r.: 
Stephen Balog, Joseph M. Connolly, Andrew M. Gardiner, Vincent Giegerich, 

Gerald Appiarius. 

Archdiocese of Chicago. 


The Old Testament as inspiration and 
sourcebook for the Passionist Mission- 
ary: this was the theme of a symposium 
presented by the second-year students of 
Sacred Scripture on the afternoon of 
November 20th. The three papers 
treated : the prophets Amos and Osee as 
models for a Passionist missionary, by 
Confrater Stephen Balog, the Old Test- 
ament concepts of God's Name and 
Glory, as fulfilled on Calvary, by Con- 
frater Andrew M. Gardiner, and the 
Problem of Sin in the Book of Genesis, 
by Confrater Vincent Giegerich. 

Providential Drug 

For the first time in years the Prov- 
ince of Holy Cross has had one of its 
students so near to death as to be 
anointed. On October 14th, Confrater 
Owen Duffield, of Sacred Heart Retreat, 
Louisville, Kentucky, was taken to St. 
Joseph's Infirmary for a check-up after 
complaining of abdominal pains and 
had been running a fever. After some 
time Confrater Owen developed a lung 
condition and it was decided to anoint 
him on October 25th and his family 
was called. After a piece of lung tissue 
was extracted on October 30th, the 
Doctors gave him just twenty-lour hours 


to live. This is when the providential 
hand of God showed itself. Doctor 
Taugher, the lung specialist, returned 
to his office that afternoon and picked 
up a recent issue of a medical journal 
describing a new remedy for a condition 
much like that which Confrater Owen 
had. The new drug was at once rushed 
to the hospital and applied. In two days 
there was a noticeable improvement in 
his breathing. The first crisis was over. 

The Doctors, however, were still 
unable to diagnose the case, and in fact, 
on Sunday, November 11th, they gave 
little hope to his parents who had re- 
turned to Louisville. That week the 
abdominal pains returned with greater 
intensity, and finally on November 19th, 
an operation was deemed imperative, as 
it was certain that there had been a 
perforation of the intestine. Once again 
Confrater Owen was anointed and pre- 
pared for death. Dr. Charles Bisig per- 
formed the emergency operation that 
same afternoon. This proved to be the 
crisis of the case. With several lesser 
set-backs, Confrater Owen is on his way 
— a long, hard way — to eventual re- 
Parish Activities 

St. Agnes Parish attached to Sacred 
Heart Retreat, Louisville, Ky., had a 
very successful mission from Novem- 
ber 4th to 19th preached by Fathers 
Bartholomew Adler, C.P., and John 
Devany, C.P. This mission proved 
not only a spiritual help to the parish, 
but also a real inspiration to the Reli- 
gious Community. For those who are 
detained at the Monastery for one rea- 
son or another, especially the students, 

it was encouraging to be able to see 
our Missionaries in action. 

On Wednesday, November 23rd, the 
week following the mission, Rev. Fr. 
Gail Robinson, Assistant Pastor of St. 
Agnes Parish began an Inquiry Class. 
It has proved very successful and there 
has been an average attendance each 
week of about thirty-five people 

On Sunday afternoon, December 2nd, 
Father Forrest Macken, C.P., lector of 
Canon Law and Moral Theology at 
Sacred Heart Retreat, conducted a Cana 
Conference in St. Agnes School Hall. 
The Cana Conference was sponsored by 
the parish and was very well attended. 

The Parish of St. Francis de Hierony- 
mo, St. Paul Kansas, now has some 
very fine new offices in the basement of 
the church. A moderately large waiting 
room and two adjoining offices make up 
this new and badly-needed addition to 
the parish. Another much-needed im- 
provement is the new floor in the church, 
which was laid during the first week of 
December. At the call for volunteers, 
a crowd of men came to help the pastor, 
Rev. Fr. Nilus Goggin, C.P., and lay 
the felt, plywood, and asphalt tile that 
gives the church a new fresh look. This 
same spirit of cooperation made the 
recent Thanksgiving Drive a success — 
"the best ever." "More financial aid 
was given to the parish then," the pastor 
told the people, "than in any other day 
in the history of the parish." 

In the very near future Holy Cross 
Parish, Cincinnati, Ohio plans to start 
a Catholic Information Class for all on 
the hill. Many interested persons have 
been asking questions about the Faith. 


Laymen's Retreat News 

On Wednesday evening, November 
21st, the annual Mass of Thanksgiving 
for the members of Holy Cross Retreat 
League, Cincinnati, Ohio, was offered 
by Bishop Issenman. The sermon for 
the occasion was preached by Rev. Fr. 
Damian Cragen, C.P. About five hun- 
dred men were present at St. Mary's 
downtown church. Half of the men 
present received Holy Communion. On 
December 2nd, the Monastery at Holy 
Cross had the largest group as yet on 
retreat. Gus Schimpf from St. John's 
Parish in Deer Park brought 65 men 
with him on retreat. 

The first retreat for the laity at our 
new retreat house, Warrenton, Missouri, 
is scheduled for January 25th. Because 
of the delay in the construction of the 
retreat house the retreat, orginally sched- 
uled for January 4th, had to be post- 
poned to this later date. The retreats 
for the laymen will be preached by Rev. 
Fr. John Devany, C.P. February 4th is 
the date scheduled for the first retreat 
to the clergy, and these will be preached 
by Rev. F. Herman J. Stier, C.P. Bishop 
Marlin, of the recently created diocese 
of Jefferson City, Missouri, also re- 
quested that his priests be able to make 
their retreats at the retreat house at 
New Prep Seminary 

Except for some finishing up work, 
the New Preparatory Seminary is com- 
pleted. On November 4th, the members 
of the Passionist Father's Guild had an 
open house for visitors. Two Grey- 
hound busses were chartered for the 
occasion. Over one hundred and fifty 

visitors toured the buildings and 
grounds. A meeting of the active mem- 
bers of the Guild was held, and the 
vocation movie on the Passionist Way 
of Life was shown. The day ended with 
Benediction of the Blessed Sacrament 
and a short address by the Rector, Very 
Rev. Fr. Thomas M. Newbold, C.P. 

On November 11th the beautiful 
statue of our Mother of Good Counsel, 
standing in the Chapel entrance (see 
cover design for Nov. -Dec. 1956 PAS- 
SIOIST) was blessed by Rev. Fr. Camp- 
ion Clifford, in the presence of his 
Parents who donated it to the Seminary. 
The Students, under the direction of 
Rev. Fr. Claude Nevin, sang hymns 
honoring our Blessed Mother, while the 
rest of the Community assisted at the 
brief but impressive ceremony. 

During the year 1956 twelve priests 
of this province celebrated their Silver 
Jubilees of ordination to the priesthood. 
Eleven of them were ordained on De- 
cember 20, 1931, and one, Father 
Declan Egan, was ordained on May 30, 
1931. Father Declan celebrated the 
Silver Jubilee of his ordination to the 
priesthood on May 29th at St. Paul of 
the Cross Monastery, Detroit. At that 
time Father was the Director of the Lay- 
men's Retreats of St. Paul of the Cross 
Monastery. He is now stationed in 
Sierra Madre, California and preaching 
the Laymen's Retreats. 

Both Father Patrick Tully and Father 
Cyprian Leonard, Pastor and Assistant 
Pastors of St. Gemma's Church, Detroit, 
celebrated their Jubilee at the same 
time. Father Cyprian offered his solemn 


Mass of Thanksgiving on Saturday, 
December 15th. Father William West- 
hoven preached the sermon. On January 
6th Father Cpyrian sang a Solemn Mass 
of thanksgiving at his home parish, St. 
Catherine's, Genoa, Illinois. Father 
Patrick celebrated his Solemn Mass on 
Sunday, December 16th. The Very Rev. 
Fr. Walter Kaelin, Rector of St. Paul of 
the Cross Monastery preached the ser- 

Father Aidan McGauran, C.P. 

On December 12 th, the Feast of 
Our Lady of Guadalupe, Father Emman- 
uel Sprigler, sang his Solemn Mass of 
Thanksgiving in St. John's Seminary, 
Little Rock, Arkansas. The sermon was 
preached by the Rector of the Seminary, 
Msgr. James E. O'Connell, Ph.D. On 

Father Cyprian Leonard, C.P. 

Father Emmanuel Sprigler, C.P. 


Father Fidelis Benedik, C.P. 

December 30th, Father Emmanual said 
a Solemn Mass in St. Agnes' Church, 
Louisville, Ky. Father has the honor 
of being the first Passionist alumnus 
of St. Agnes School. 

Father Joyce Hallahan, celebrated his 
solemn Mass of Thanksgiving at St. 
Mary's Church, Taunton, Mass., on the 
Feast of the Immaculate Conception, 

Father Declan Egan, C.P. 

Father Theophane Gescavitz, C.P. 

December 8th. The three other Jubi- 
larians of Sierra Madre, California, 
Father Harold Travers, Father Theo- 
phane Gescavitz and Father Aidan 
McGauren, celebrated their masses of 
Thanksgiving simultaneously in the 
Monastery Chapel. Father Declan Egan, 
Retreat Master at the Laymen's Retreat 


House, preached the sermon. Following 
their masses a banquet was served at 
the Retreat House. 

Father Fidelis Benedik celebrated his 
solemn Jubilee Mass in St. Paul of the 
Cross Retreat, Detroit. On Sunday, 
December 16th, Father Leopold Vaitie- 
kaitis said his Solemn Mass of Thanks- 
giving in Saint Francis de Hieronymo 
Church, St. Paul, Kansas. 


: ;: , .:. : ,:;:, 

On December 20th the Communi- 
ty at Houston assisted at the Solemn 
Mass of Father John A. Torisky. Then 
on the 30th of December, Father John 
sang another Solemn Mass, in St. Mat- 

Father John A. Torisky, C.P. 


thew's Church, Pittsburgh, Pa. The 
preacher for the occasion was Father 
Eugene Kozar from West Springfield, 
Mass. Father Eugene preached at the 
first Solemn Mass of Father John 
twenty-five years ago. 

As noted in the last issue of the 
PASSIONIST, Father Anthony Maher 
celebrated his Jubilee Mass, on Sunday, 
October 7th at Cincinnati. 


Upon the death of Father Arnold 
Vetter, C.P., Father Alvin Wirth, C.P., 
was appointed to take his place as Vicar 
at St. Francis de Hieronymo Retreat, St. 
Paul, Kansas. Father Alvin had been 
assistant pastor at the Colored Mission 
Parish, in Ensley, Alabama. His place 
was taken by Father Bede Doyle, C.P., 
who was transferred from Louisville, 
Ky. Two other members of the Louis- 
ville Community were also transferred 
at this time. Father James Busch was 
transferred to Sacramento, California 
as a member of the community. Father 
John Devany has been assigned to the 
new Laymen's Retreat House, Warren- 
ton, Missouri, as the first Retreat Master 
to conduct the laymen's retreats. 

On November 15th Father Victor 
Salz, C.P., left St. Paul, Kansas for 
Warrenton, Missouri, to replace Father 
Emmet Linden, C.P., as Vice-Director 
of Students. Father Emmet is now a 
member of the community at St. Paul, 
Kansas. Father Herman J. Stier, C.P., 
was transferred from Cincinnati, Ohio, 
to preach the clergy retreats at Warren- 

ton. On October 8th, Brother Raphael 
Coutuier, C.P., left the novitiate and 
joined the Community at Des Moines, 
Iowa. Father Charles Guilfoyle, C.P., 
was transferred from Des Moines, Iowa 
and is now a member of the community 
in Sierra Madre. California. 

First Japanese Candidate 

November 28, 1956 will be a day 
always to be remembered in the Province 
of Holy Cross. On that date Augustine 
Kunii, our first Japanese candidate, 
arrived at our Novitiate, St. Paul, 
Kansas. He was planning on arriving 
at the Novitiate sooner, but an eye 
infection caused the delay. Before he 
could get his visa, it was necessary that 
he wait for sixty days after the treat- 
ments were finished. 

Augustine Kunii, our first Japanese 
candidate who arrived at the Novi- 
tiate, St. Paul, Kansas, on November 
28, 195H. 


Bishop Cuthbert O'Gara with Cardinal James F. Mclntyre upon the occasion 
of his visit to Los Angeles. 

Bp. Cuthbert Visits L.A. 

On Sunday, October 21, Bishop Cuth- 
bert O'Gara, C.P., preached the sermon 
for the Annual Mission Sunday Vespers 
at St. John's Military Academy Stadium, 
Los Angeles, California. The Bishop 
spoke to more than three thousand 
school children of the Archdiocese who 
joined in singing the Solemn Pontifical 
Vespers of the Blessed Virgin. The 
annual Mission Sunday Vespers are 
sponsored by the Holy Childhood Asso- 

Bishop Cuthbert thanked the children 
for their aid to his mission and asked 
them to take to heart the warning of 

Fatima. The Bishop is still shocked at 
American indifference to the Communist 
threat, even in Catholic circles. He 
described the 'it-can't-happen-here' atti- 
tude as sheer stupidity if sincere. "When 
you know that Communism is 100 per 
cent evil, when you have the record 
of what is going on in the world, when 
missionaries and even Cardinals are 
imprisoned and vilified, you would ex- 
pect indignation," he said. Bishop 
Cuthbert concluded by saying: "I say 
to you boys and girls, what Our Lady 
said to the children at Fatima: 'Pray, 
pray much, make sacrifice and repara- 
tion.' " 


Missions and Retreats 

During the year 1956 the Mission- 
aries of Holy Cross Province preached 
approximately 500 Retreats, and 310 
Missions. There are around 60 priests 
of the Province engaged in preaching 
missions and retreats. 

Community Retreats 

The Annual Retreats for the com- 
munities of the Province is as follows: 
Father Elmer Sandman, preached the 
retreat for the Louisville Community, 
December 1 6th to 26th. From January 
6th to 12th Father Finan Storey for 
Sierra Madre, and Father Elmer Sand- 
man for Houston. Father Paulinus 
Hughes, for Ensley January 6th to 12th. 
From January 20th to 26th, Father 
Paulinus for Birmingham and Father 
Roland Maher for Sacramento. From 
January 27th to February 2nd, Father 

Robert Borger for Cincinnati and Father 
Jerome O'Grady (St. Paul of the Cross 
Province) for Warrenton. Father Je- 
rome Stowell, will conduct the Retreat 
for the Prep seminarians, January 29th 
to February 2nd. Father Anselm La- 
comara, (St. Paul of the Cross Prov- 
ince) . will conduct the retreats for 
Chicago from February 3rd to 9th and 
for Des Monies from February 17th to 
23rd. Father Jerome O'Grady, will con- 
duct the retreat at Detroit from Febru- 
ary 10th to 16th. The retreat at St. 
Paul, Kansas will be preached by Father 
John A. Torisky from February 26th 
to March 5 th. 

Retreats in Japan 

Under the capable guidance of Fr. 
Peter Claver, C.P., the retreat movement 
in Japan is making progress. Fr. Peter 
visited all the parishes in Osaka and the 

First Laymen's Retreat preached bv Passionists in Japan at Mefujinja Retreat 

House by Father Peter Claver Kumle, C.P. (2nd from Left). Left. Fr. Paul 

Placek, C.P. Right, Fr. Carl Schmitz, C.P. 


surrounding area in order to make con- 
tacts. The result has been a day of 
recollection each of the Sundays in 
November and the first two Sundays in 
December. There were also a few days 
of recollection during the week. 

Fr. Matthew, C.P., preached a ten 
day retreat in Japanese to the Sisters in 
a near by convent. After finishing this 
retreat, Father preached another retreat 
to some English speaking sisters in 
Southern Japan. At our house at Hibar- 
igaoka Fr. Paul, C.P., gave a retreat to 
a group of priests. During the first part 
of December he was busy preaching a 
retreat to the Black Franciscans from 
the Polish Province in the U.S.A. These 
Franciscans have charge of some small 
islands off the southernmost tip of 
Japan. Many of the people on these 
islands have been Catholics for several 
hundreds of years. The faith was passed 
on from generation to generation by 
the people themselves since there were 
no priests. The result has been that the 
people are greatly in need of instruction. 
The Superior of these Islands has asked 
if our Fathers would conduct a series 
of missions for their people. 

Meditation on Our Lord's Sacred 
Passion seems to have a great appeal to 
the people of Japan. Fr. Clement, C.P., 
found the girls at a High School run 
by the Sisters of Notre Dame very 
interested in his talk: "How to Medi- 
tate on the Passion." Perhaps it is be- 
cause of the great suffering and hard- 
ship in their own lives that the Passion 
has such an appeal. 
Catholicity in Japan 

The most recent figures, just received, 

show that there has been a constant, 
steady growth of the Church in Japan 
during the past year. The overall Catho- 
ilic population is now 199,760, revealing 
very significant gains over 19 5 3 
(185,284) and 1952 (171,785). Dur- 
ing the past year, there were 10,730 
adult converts, while infant baptisms 
numbered 5,802. A total of 24,863 
catechumens were under instruction at 
the time the statistics were compiled. 

The largest single group of Catholics 
is the 71, 660 in the Diocese of Naga- 
saki. Kagoshima Diocese, at the south- 
ernmost tip of the Island reports the 
smallest concentration of Catholics. 
There, five Japanese priests minister to 
1,218 faithful, of whom 125 are con- 
verts of last year. 

The Osaka Diocese, in which our 
Fathers work, reported the largest num- 
ber of converts (2,089), although it 
possesses over a hundred less priests 
than the Archdiocese of Tokyo, which 
reported 1,611 converts. 

Statistics published by the Japanese 
Ministry of Education show that, as of 
December 31, 1952, there were in 
Japan 34,570 Shintoists, 419,764 Chris- 
tians, 42,312,586 Buddhists and 
3,188,890 other believers. The Minis- 
try put the strength of the 32 Protestant 
sects at 214,389 as against 172,202 
Catholics, pointing out that since the 
War the Catholics have increased while 
the Protestants have decreased in num- 
bers. Catholics and Protestants in Japan 
have usually been considered in the ratio 
of about two to three, but it would 
seem that, according to the new statis- 
tics, the proportion. is changing. 




His Excellency, Archbishop Leo Kier- 
kels, C.P., sailed for Holland on Sept- 
tember 4th, after spending two months 
in the United States. He was accom- 
panied by his Secretary, Father Neil 
McBrearty, C.P. The Archbishop sailed 
on the Nieuw Amsterdam from Hobo- 
ken. The Very Rev. Father Provincial, 
his Consultors and Father Brendan 
Boyle, C.P., Provincial Econome, saw 
the Archbishop off for Europe. Father 
Bonaventure Griffiths, C.P., represented 
His Excellency, Bishop Cuthbert. 

On August 22nd, Father Bonaventure 
Moccia, C.P., sailed for Naples on the 
Independence of the American Export 
Lines. He has taken up duties in SS. 
John and Paul, Rome, as guest-master 
for English speaking pilgrims and is 
also engaged in advanced studies in 

Two missionaries of the Province 
destined to assist the Austro-German 
Vice Province for the next ten years, 
Father Anthony Neary, C.P., and Ron- 
ald Hilliard, C.P., sailed September 12th 
for Lisbon on the Conte Bianchimano. 
Before arriving at their destination near 
Munich, they visited Fatima, Lourdes 
and Rome. 

Father Ronald Hilliard is the son of 
the late Captain John Hilliard, U.S.N. 
He was born in New Hampshire and 
spend his boyhood in the Orient where 
his father was in command of a divi lion 
of destroyers. He attended the Punahou 
Academy, Honolulu, Monterey High 

School, Monterey, California, and the 
United States Naval Academy, Ann- 
apolis, Maryland. During the war he 
served with the 20th Armored Division 
in the Rhineland Campaign, engaged 
in the Battles of Munich and Salzburg. 
He will now serve the cause of Christ 
close to the scenes of his World War 
II career. 

Father Anthony Neary is a native of 
Scranton. His war service was on the 
USS Guam, part of the Third and 
Fifth Task Forces in the Pacific. He 
participated in the invasion of Okinawa, 
Easter Sunday, 1945 and later took part 
in the occupation of Korea. 

Both young Passionists were professed 
on August 15, 1948 and ordained by 
His Excellency, Bishop Cuthbert at St. 
Michael's Monastery Church, Union 
City, on April 28, 1954. 

Mission Accomplished 

Father Reginald Arliss, C.P., com- 
pleted his assignment as Master of 
Novices for the Sons of Mary, Framing- 
ham, Mass. This new Institute of Medi- 
cal Missionaries was founded by Father 
Edward Garesche, S.J. Father Reginald 
was loaned by the Congregation to train 
the first novices of the young society. 
He served in this capacity from August 
13, 1952 until August 15, 1956. 

Father Reginald was ordained in 
1934 and left for the Hunan Passionist 
Missions the following year. He was 
appointed Vice Rector of the Yiunling 
Seminary in 1937 and Rector in 193°. 
He held this office until appointed 


Rector of the Hunan Regional Seminary 
by Archbishop Riberi, the Papal Inter- 
nuncio to China. This provincial semin- 
ary was located in Hengyang, Southeast 
Hunan. With the Red invasion the sem- 
inary was closed and the seminarians 
dispersed. Father Reginald then returned 
to the Diocese of Yuanling and was a 
missionary in Yungsui when expelled 
by the Reds from China in 1951. 
Homiletics for Navy Chaplains 

Rev. Father Alfred Duffy, C.P., one 
of the outstanding missionaries of the 
Province and former Lector of Sacred 
Eloquence, conducted a special course 
in Homiletics for the Navy Chaplains at 
New-Port News, Va., from August 12th 
to 24th. Father Alfred expressed him- 
self as well satisfied with the coopera- 
tion received and for the gracious hospi- 
tality of the naval authorities. The 
courtesy, interest and assistance of the 
ranking officers impressed Father Alfred 
Death of Fr. Charles 

Rev. Father Charles Frederick Lang, 
C.P., of the Sacred Hearts of Jesus and 
Mary died in Mercy Hospital, Scranton, 
Pa., on August 10th, just a few days 
prior to his fifty-third birthday. He was 
the grand-nephew of the famous Lang 
twins, Father Frederick and Father 
Charles, the latter being the first Pro- 
vincial of Holy Cross Province. The 
deceased Passionist combined the names 
of his grand-uncles for his own religious 
name when he entered the Congrega- 

Father Charles was born in Pitts- 
burgh and after attending Duquesne 
University High School in that city 

Father Charles Frederick Lang, C.P. 

and Holy Cross Preparatory Seminary, 
Dunkirk, entered the Novitiate where 
he was professed on August 15th, 1922. 
Seven years later, on May 25, 1929, he 
was ordained to the Holy Priesthood in 
the Newark Cathedral by Bishop (later 
Archbishop) Walsh. 

During twenty-seven years of priest- 
hood, Father Charles effectively filled 
several important posts. In succession 
he was Director of Students, Director 
of Retreats in Springfield, Director of 
Retreats at the Passionist Nuns Con- 
vent Retreat House in Dunmore, near 
Scranton, Curate and then Pastor of 
St. Joseph's Monastery Parish, Balti- 
more, and preacher of the Laymen's 
Retreats in Hartford. Between these 
assignments he was engaged in preach- 
ing missions and retreats. 


For the past several years, Father 
Charles suffered from acute hyper- 
tension combined with a cardiac ail- 
ment which necessitated a curtailment 
of his ministerial activities. This sum- 
mer, while visiting the Scranton Mon- 
astery, he became ill and died shortly 
after reaching Mercy Hospital. His 
funeral took place at St. Paul's Mon- 
astery, Pittsburgh, where he had been 
stationed as a member of that com- 
munity. In the absence of Father Pro- 
vincial, the First Consultor, Very Rev. 
Fr. Cuthbert McGreevey, C.P., cele- 
brated the Solemn Funeral Mass. The 
Rector of St. Paul's Monastery, Very 
Rev. Fr. Theodore Foley, C.P., assisted 
as Deacon, and Father Malachy McGill, 
Vicar of St. Ann's Monastery, Scranton, 
and a cousin of the Deceased, was the 
Subdeacon. Rev. Father Paul Ubinger, 
C.P., preached the eulogy. 

Father Berchmans McHugh, C'.I\, 
standing before Mission Chapel dur- 
ing Pitt County Fair at Greenville. 

Greenville, N.(\, Mission 

The Mission of St. Gabriel opened 
a new school this September beginning 
with the first four grades. The Sisters 
of Christian Charity are teaching the 
eighty-six pupils attending the new 
school. Of these eighty-six children 
attending the school, only thirteen are 
Catholics. Next year another class will 
be added. 

The parishioners of St. Gabriel's co- 
operated with those of St. Peter's Parish 
in a new project this year. They bor- 
rowed the mission trailer from the 
Raleigh diocese. During the Pitt County 
Fair at Greenville this chapel was placed 
in a prominent place. About one thou- 
sand people went through the chapel 
and listened to an explanation of the 
Stations of the Cross, as well as to one 
about the altar and vestments. About 
fifteen hundred people attending the 
Fair accepted pamphlets that were given 
to them to read. It is certain that for 
many of these people it was their first 
contact with the Church. Everyone who 
visited the Chapel was also given a copy 
of Fr. Edgar Ryan's postcard offering 
more information about the faith. 
Missions and Retreats 

In the July, 189^ issue of the 'Stu- 
dents Journal,' a printed magazine 
edited and published by the Passionist 
Students of St. Michael's Monastery, 
West Hoboken, N.J., there is this in- 
teresting item. "During the year 189-i 
(the year of the First Missionary Con- 
gress) our missionary Fathers in the 
United States gave a hundred and 
twenty missions and a hundred and ten 
retreats. . . . The total number of priests 


engaged in the work, ranged from 
about twenty-seven to thirty." 

In 1955, the year prior to the Second 
Missionary Congress, missionaries of 
St. Paul of the Cross Province preached 
671 retreats, 500 missions, 207 novenas 
and 59 triduums. The mission band 
numbered approximately 150. 

Retreat Conventions 

The 16th Biennial Retreat Conven- 
tion took place over the week-end of 
August 24th in Hartford, Conn. His 
Excellency, the Most Reverend Henry 
J. O'Brien, D.D., Archbishop of Hart- 
ford, was the host for the occasion, 
assisted by the members of the Holy 
Family Retreat League which is the 
official organization of the Holy Family 
Retreat League House in Farmington. 
Representatives of various retreat organ- 

izations throughout the country together 
with officers and directors of the Na- 
tional Retreat Conference conferred in 
Hartford to further the interests and 
the continued great contribution to the 
Church in America that has materialized 
through the Lay Retreat Movement in 
the United States. 

Archbishop O'Brien pontificated at 
the evening Mass on August 24th. At 
this Mass there was a general Com- 
munion for the members of the Con- 
vention. His Excellency, James H. 
Griffiths, D.D., Auxiliary Bishop of 
New York, preached the sermon. 

Holy Family Monastery and Retreat 
House entertained the delegates the fol- 
lowing day, during which panel meet- 
ings and workshops were conducted. 
Solemn Compline at the open air altar 
closed the visit to the monastery. 

The Passionist display at Vistarama, in the Convention Hall, Philadelphia. 
Fr. Marcellus White, C.P., (right) and Fr. Andrew Ansbro, C.P., (left). 



The country's largest Mission and 
Vocation Exhibit was held in Conven- 
tion Hall, Philadelphia, from October 
7th to 14th. Some three hundred com- 
munities were represented. It is esti- 
mated that half a million people visited 
the Exhibit which aptly had been called 

At the opening Mass on Sunday 
afternoon of October 7th, Archbishop 
Cicognani, the Apostolic Delegate, pon- 
tificated and our exiled Bishop Cuthbert 
preached a stirring sermon, "A Chal- 
lenge in Red." Among the prelates in 
attendance was His Excellency, Arch- 
bishop Pietro Sigismondi, Secretary of 

The Passionists had an extensive and 
informative display, especially on the 
work of the Congregation in Japan and 
the B. W. I. The two Provincial Asso- 
ciate Directors of Vocations, Fathers 
Andrew Ansbro and Ronald Beaton, 
together with the Local Director of 
Union City, Father Bennet Kelly, were 
in charge of the vocational end and 
Fathers Marcellus White and Reginald 
Arliss, former Chinese Missionaries, 
represented the missions . 
Pilgrim Virgin at Jamaica 

The world famous pilgrim statue of 
Our Lady of Fatima arrived at the 
Idlewild Airport on September 15th 
and was taken to Immaculate Concep- 
tion Monastery, Jamaica. Father Mon- 
tiez, O.M.I., was commissioned by the 
Holy Father to take the statue around 
the world with its message of prayer 
and penance. It was to have been kept 
at Fatima during 1956, but it was 

decided to send it to Buffalo for the 
Congress of the Confraternity of Chris- 
tian Doctrine. The solemn enthrone- 
ment with procession took place in the 
Monastery Church on Sunday after- 
noon, September 16th. A triduum was 
then held in honor of Our Lady of 
Fatima and the statue remained at the 
monastery for the veneration of the 
faithful until September 21st, when it 
was taken by air to Buffalo. 

Father Lambert Missack, C.P., a 
member of the Jamaica community es- 
corted the Pilgrim Statue to LaGuardia 
Airfield where an American Air Lines 
Plane was ready to receive the Pilgrim 
Statue for the journey to Buffalo. Im- 
mediately after the Congress in Buffalo, 
the Pilgrim statue was flown back to 
Men of Fatima 

The 8th Annual Candlelight Pro- 
cession sponsored by the Men of Fati- 
ma, a First Saturday Communion group, 
was held on Friday evening, October 
19th, at Immaculate Conception Mon- 
astery, Jamaica. It was a perfect autumn 
night, a full moon riding high in the 
sky, giant searchlights probing the 
heavens while ten thousand Men of 
Fatima marched through the streets of 
Jamaica adjacent to the monastery, all 
carrying lighted candles and praying the 
rosary. Leading the procession was a 
floodlighted float on which Our Lady 
of Fatima stood in a bed ot roses. His 
Excellency, Bishop John Boardman, 
Auxiliary of Booklyn, walked behind 
the float. Thousands o( women dud 
children lined the route o( march with 
lighted candles. Catholics along the 


K. of C. Honor Guard accompanying Statue of Our Lady of Fatima in candle- 
light procession. 

Crowd listening to sermon by V. Rev. Felix Hackett, C.P., Rector of Jamaica 
Monastery after candlelight procession. An estimated 28,000 took part. 


On November 11, 1956, Bishop Cuthbert O'Gara was received in Audience by 
His Holiness, Pope Pius XII. Also present were Mr. and Mrs. Fred Hansen 

of Chicago, 111. 

way lighted up their homes and stood 
with candles on the steps or lawns. 

As the procession reached the altar 
on the monastery grounds, the eight 
huge searchlights converged and threw 
a magnificent canopy over Our Lady of 
Fatima visible for miles in all directions. 
The Rectory of the Monastery, Very 
Rev. Fr. Felix Hackett, C.P., preached 
the sermon for the occasion, very force- 
fully outlining Our Lady's teaching of 
'prayer and penance' to which she had 
given voice on the hill of Fatima. 

The great event closed with Pontifi- 
cal Benediction by Bishop Boardman. 
Perhaps nowhere outside of Fatima it- 
self has there been an event which 

proved as thrilling, devotional and in- 
spiring as the Candlelight Procession. 
In the past eight years it has become 
one of the annual highlights of Catholic 
devotion in the Diocese of Brooklyn. 

Bp. Cuthbert Visits Pope 

His Excellency, Bishop Cuthbert 
O'Gara, C.P., was received in private- 
audience by the Holy Father on No- 
vember 11th. The Bishop left New 
York on November 2nd by TWA plane 
with the primary intention of making 
a pilgrimage to the Holy Land. The 
unsettled conditions of the Near and 
Middle East prevented him from 
reaching Palestine. 

The Bishop was accompanied by Mr. 


and Mrs. Fred Hansen of Chicago. 
Fred Hansen is the head of D. B. Han- 
sen and Sons, well known church goods 
house. They also were granted a private 
audience with the Holy Father. Fred 
Hansen has been a staunch friend of 
the Order and a close personal friend 
of the Bishop for many years. During 
the period of the Bishop's imprison- 
ment in China, Mr. Hansen used every 
means at his disposal to assist in having 
Bishop Cuthbert released. He also was 
of great assistance when THE SIGN 
MAGIZINE was established thirty-six 
years ago. His business acumen and 
contacts were of great help in the 
formative period of the new Passionist 
SIGN Expansion 

Ground was broken at the beginning 
of November for the addition to the 
Sign Building in Union City. Fortun- 
ately, the weather permitted the pouring 
of the entire foundations before the 
real cold set in. It is expected that 
the annex will be completed by the 
summer and it will afford every facility 
needed to expedite the publishing of 
the SIGN, which now carries a print 
order of 400,000 copies. This is a 
gain of one hundred per cent in eight 
years. In December, 1948, the circula- 
tion had reached 200,000. However, 
the growth is nearly triple what it was 
estimated a decade ago and expansion 
of the various departments made a new 
building imparative. 
SIGN Staff Changes 

Father Gerard Rooney ,C.P., Assist- 
ant Director of Retreats at Brighton, has 
been appointed to succeed Father Dam- 

ian Reid, C.P., as Associate Editor of 
the SIGN. Father Damian became a 
member of the Jamaica community. At 
the same time, Father Joseph P. O'Neil 
of Brighton, was appointed Assistant 
to Father Lucian Ducie, C.P., the Di- 
rector of Laymen's Retreats at St. 
Gabriel's, Brighton. 

New Course for Students 

A new Course, Guide to Good 
Writing, has been written by Fathers 
Cyril Schweinberg, C.P., and Roger 
Gannon, C.P., for the use of the Stu- 
dents in Philosophy and Theology. It 
consists of a progressive treatment for 
each year in rhetoric, grammar and 
writing with a view to greater perfec- 
tion of the spoken word in our active 
apostolate. Father Provincial has made 
this course obligatory. Father Cyril and 
Father Roger took post-graduate courses 
in Public Speaking and Oral Expression 
at Northwestern University, Evanston, 

Philippine Survey 

Very Rev. Fr. Carrol Ring, C.P., 
Second Provincial Consultor, left by air 
on November 28th as Father Provin- 
cial's representative to survey the pros- 
pects of a mission in the Philippines 
and to confer with the Apostolic Dele- 
gate to the Philippines on that matter. 
This mission will be in charge of Pas- 
sionists from the Province of St. Paul 
of the Cross. The Most Reverend 
Father General hopes that the Province 
will soon be able to take over this 
new mission venture. 

Very Rev. Fr. Caspar Caulfield, 
Secretary General of the Foreign Mis- 

sions of the Congregation will meet 
Father Carrol in the Orient and assist 
him in gaining the needed information. 
Hour of Crucified Cited 

Rev. Father Fidelis Rice, Director of 
"The Hour of the Crucified," the week- 
ly radio program produced under the 
direction of the Passionist Fathers in 
Springfield, Mass., has been informed 
by the Pentagon that the United States 
Air Force has awarded a "Citation of 
Merit" for making this program avail- 
able on the Armed Forces Radio. Gen- 
eral Twining signed the citation and it 
was presented to Father Fidelis by the 
Commandant at Westover Field, Mass. 
Other Radio Programs 

In addition to "The Hour of the 
Crucified," two other radio programs 
are produced in the Province of St. 
Paul of the Cross. Since 1943, St. 
Ann's Monastery, Scranton, has been 
broadcasting the Weekly Novena in 
honor of St. Ann, over Station WGBI. 
In June, 1955, the facilities of a second 
radio station, WPTS, Pittson were made 
available. With the reorganization of 
the Confraternity of the Passion under 
Father Edmund McMahon, C.P., an 
offer was made by two benefactors of 
the monastery, Mr. and Mrs. Angelo 
Fiorani, to use their radio station as a 
means of preaching Christ Crucified. 

A fifteen minute program under Fa- 
ther Edmund's direction is broadcast 
each Friday at 3:00 P.M. to honor the 
hour of Christ's Death on the Cross. 
The program is called, "Lessons from 
the Life, Passion and Death of Our 
Lord Jesus Christ." 

The TV Mass was inauguarated in 

1954 by Father Kenneth Dolan, Direc- 
tor of the Diocesan Television Bureau 
of the Diocese of Scranton, for the ben- 
efit of shutins. St. Ann's Monastery 
was co-sponsor for the Mass televised 
from WGBI-TV, on the Second Sunday 
of each month. The first year Father 
Norbert Herman celebrated the Mass 
and preached each month a timely 
instruction. In 195 5 Father John J. 
Reardon preached a series of Sermons 
on the general topic of the "Cross and 
the Crisis." With the beginning of 
the third season in 1956, the new 
Rector of the Monastery, Very Rev. Fr. 
Rupert Langenstein, began a course of 
sermons on the "The Church and the 
Christian Life." Instead of the usual 
Low Mass, Father Rupert introduced a 
High 'Mass program with the Students 
of the Monastery providing the choir. 

The Radio Apostolate at Holy Cross 
Seminary, Dunkirk, New York, began 
quite auspiciously on Christmas Eve, 
1949, when Midnight Mass was broad- 
cast from the seminary chapel. The en- 
tire staff of Station WFCB was in 
attendance at the Mass and greeted the 
Fathers and Postulants afterwards. The 
following day the five-a-week broad- 
casts were begun which have continued 
for the ensuing seven years. These 
broadcasts include the High Mass each 
Sunday from 9:30 to 10:30, a morning 
program on Monday, Wednesday And 
Friday, from 7:30 to 7:45, with a short 
instruction and a Friday evening broad- 
cast of fifteen minutes on the Passion 
of Christ. These broadcasts arc in the 
manner of a 'public service,' with the 
exception of the Christmas Eve Mid- 


night Mass and the Three Hours Devo- 
tion on Good Friday. These two pro- 
grams are sponsored but carry no adver- 
tizing. Such 'sponsorship' became neces- 
sary when non-Catholic groups de- 
manded 'equal time' rights from the 
radio station. 

Retreat League Banquet 

Fifteen hundred members of the 
Laymen's Retreat League of the Bishop 
Molloy Retreat House, Jamaica, togeth- 
er with many of the clergy filled the 
ballroom of the St. George Hotel, 
Brooklyn, to pay annual tribute to His 
Excellency, Archbishop Molloy of 
Brooklyn. The gathering was addressed 
by Father Provincial, Father Cosmos 
Shaughnessey, Director of the Ja/naica 
Retreat House, and Msgr. Edward 
Hoar, V.G., representing Bishop Mol- 
loy who was ill. The main speaker was 
Mr. Frank J. Sheed, well known Catho- 
lic lecturer and apologist who is known 
to be the only layman in American in 
possession of a Degree of Sacred Theol- 
ogy. The invocation was given by 
Father John M. Aleckna, Vicar of Im- 
maculate Conception Monastery, Jamai- 

The illness which prevented Arch- 
bishop Molloy from attending the din- 
ner was a fatal one. He had suffered a 
stroke just a few days before the 

Annual Tribute and with the onset of 
pneumonia he lingered in a critical 
condition for some time until death 
took him on November 26th. So ended 
one of the finest careers in the history 
of the Church of America. As Arch- 
bishop-bishop of Brooklyn he was in- 
strumental in having the Passionists 
erect the large monastery and the Bishop 
Molloy Retreat House attached to it. 

Community Retreats 

The Annual Retreats for the various 
communities of the Province are as 
usual divided into two separate lists. 
From February 10th to 16th the fol- 
lowing houses and retreat masters: 
Jamaica, Father Camillus Barth; Spring- 
field, Father Bartholomew Adler, (Holy 
Cross Province) ; Dunkirk, St. Mary's, 
Father Berehmans Lanagan; Baltimore, 
Father Bertrand Weaver; Pittsburgh, 
Father John Devaney, (Holy Cross 
Province) ; Pittsburgh, Novices, Father 
Columba Moore. 

January 27th to February 2nd, Toron- 
to, Father Berehmans Lanagan. Feb- 
ruary 24th to March 2nd: Union City, 
Father Camillus Barth; Scranton, Fa- 
ther Bartholomew Adler; Dunkirk, 
Holy Cross, Father John Devaney; 
Hartford, Father Berehmans Lanagan; 
Brighton, Father Bertrand Weaver; 
Holy Cross, Postulants, Father Bennet 





Papal Audience of Students 

The theological students of Sts. John 
and Paul along with those of St. Gab- 
riel were present at a general audience 
with the Holy Father on June 14th. 
As usual after his address, the Holy 
Father read off a list of different groups 
that were present. When he came to 
the name of the Passionist Students, 
the applause was so prominent that the 
eyes of the whole group turned towards 
the Passionists. In answer to their 
applause the Holy Father said to them: 
"Be worthy sons and imitate your grand, 
renowned and admirable Founder." 
New Mayor of Rome 

On August 3rd, the Very Rev. Fr. 
Ignatius, First General Consultor, the 
Very Rev. Fr. Tarcisius, Secretary Gen- 
eral and the Very Rev. Fr. Paul Mary, 
Rector of Sts. John and Paul were 
received in an official visit by the newly 
elected Mayor of Rome, the Hon. 

Umberto Tupini. The Mayor graciously 
received them and spoke with them for 
fifteen minutes expressing his apprecia- 
tion at their thoughtful ness in paying 
their respects and offering their con- 

Sts. John and Paul on Tele- 

On September 7th the RAI-TV 
showed the archiological parts of the 
Basilica of Sts. John and Paul, as also 
the piazza and the ancient parts of the 
retreat. This formed a part of a regular 
TV program showing the Piazza's and 
Monuments of Italy. This is the first 
time since the restoration that such 
publicity has been given to Sts. John 
and Paul. 
University Students 

During the 19^-^6 academic year 
thirteen Provinces were represented in 
Sts. John and Paul as University Stu- 
dents. There were thirty- five students 


Angelicum: The Obligation of Parents 
to Send their Children to Catholic 
Schools; Fr. Clement Sobrado (Sacred 
Heart Province) at the Angelicum: 
The Mental Word as a Formal Sign in 
the Doctrine of St. Thomas; Fr. Ber- 
nard M. Echeandia (Sacred Heart Prov- 
ince) at the Angelicum: Car act er 
trandscendente del apetecer segun St. 
Tomas; Fr. Fabiano Giorgini (Pieta 
Province) at the Gregorian : The Socio- 
Religious Situation of the Maremma 
in the Eighteenth Century. 
Scientific Activities 

Rev. Fr. Stanislaus Breton, C.P., a 
member of the community at Sts. John 
and Paul, has achieved European, if not 
international recognition for his acumen 
in modern philosophical questions. 
While professor of Contemporary His- 
tory of Philosophy and Rational Psy- 
chology at the Pontifical University of 
the Propaganda Fidei in Rome, he still 
found time to appear with eight highly 
scientific articles in various periodicals. 
Within the past two years, articles and 
lectures of Father Stanislaus have ap- 
peared in four distinct collections of 
philosophical treaties. He is also an 
outstanding member of the Centra 
Intemazionale, an association studying 
modern scientific problems. Its mem- 
bers include university men from the 
principal cities of Italy. 


Theological House of Studies tations to make it the Theological House 

The venerable retreat at Ceccano, of studies for the Province, 
opened by our Founder, St. Paul of the Steps Toward Beatification 

Cross, is undergoing changes and adap- In response to the requests of the 

in all. Nine of these were studying 
theology at the Angelicum; one Sacred 
Scripture at the Biblicum, and one in 
Palestine; eight Philosophy at the 
Angelicum; four Church History at 
the Gregorian; seven Canon Law at 
the Lateran; one Oriental Studies at 
the Oriental Institute; three Missiology 
at the Propagation of the Faith; and 
one Mathematics at the University of 
Rome. Some of these students also 
took courses in other subjects. For 
example, some of the Students in 
Theology took a course in Spirituality 
at the Angelicum, while some of the 
Philosophy students had courses in 
Sociology at the Instituto Omonimo 
and some of the Missiology Students 
took a course in Medicine and surgery. 
Seven of these Students received the 
Doctorate and sixteen the Licentiate. 

The theses submitted for the Doctor- 
ate were as follows: Fr. Alexander 
Lagarreta (Sacred Heart Province) at 
the Lateran: The Right of Property in 
the Congregation of the Passion; Fr. 
Norman Demeck (St. Paul of the Cross 
Province) at the Angelicum: The Mas- 
ter Idea and the Fount of the Aposto- 
late of St. Paul of the Cross; Fr. Barry 
Rankin (Holy Cross Province) at the 
Angelicum: The Soteriology of St. 
Leo the Great; Fr. Aquinas McGurk 
(St. Paul of the Cross Province) at the 


retreats of Ceccano and Falvaterra, the 
Chapter of Our Sorrowful Mother 
Province unanimously voted that steps 
be taken towards the Beatification and 
Canonization of Confrater Grimoaldo, 
a professed Passionist cleric who died 
in 1902, and Father Fortunatus Mary, 

a professed Passionist priest who died 
in 1905. Some of the favors granted 
through the intercession of Confrater 
Grimoaldo took place in the U.S.A. 
The General Curia has entrusted Very 
Rev. Fr. Frederick, Postulator General, 
to initiate the canonical procedures. 


Print Shop at St. Gabriel's 

The printshop inauguarated a few 
years ago by the Very Rev. Fr. Hyacinth 
Ercole, C.P., now second Provincial 
Consultor, has proved to be quite an 
asset to the Pieta Province. Besides 
avoiding the inconveniences necessarily 
connected with having the printing of 
outsiders, it has made it possible to 
improve this magazine and get the 
40,000 copies in circulation much 
faster. It has also made it possible to 
begin a new vocational periodical called 
a circulation of 140,000 copies. Besides 
this, in 1935 it started the scientific 
series called: STUDIE TESTI PAS- 
SIONISTI. The new p e r i o d i c a 1 s 
FONTI VIVE which is edited by Fr. 
Costante Brovetto, and the annual 
Fr. Natale Cavatassi are also put out by 
the new printshop. 
Vocational Work 

A few years ago the recruiting of 
vocations was started in a more positive 
manner. It was initiated in the Prov- 
ince by Fr. Valentine, C.P., in collabor- 
ation with Fr. Paulinus. This year the 
Province began publishing the voca- 
tional pamphlet called I FORI DI S. 

GABRIEL. This pamphlet brings knowl- 
edge of the Passionists into thousands 
of homes and asks for prayers and alms 
for vocations. This method has helped 
greatly in increasing vocations in the 
past year. In fact, the requests for 
entrance into the Preparatory Seminary 
are so numerous that many of them 
must be turned down. This now brings 
up the new question of a new and 
larger Prep for the Province. 
New Center of POA 

Upon the urgent request of Msgr. 
F. Baldelli, President of the POA 
(Pontificia Opera di Assistenza), the 
Provincial, Very Rev. Fr. Remigio, has 
established a center of Pontifical Assist- 
ance in the region of Castelli near the 
Shrine of St. Gabriel. The center has 
been planned because of the great lack 
of religious care of the people in the 
area and of the infiltration of non- 
Catholics. In the mountain section 
several projects have been started by 
protestant groups and flourished undis- 
turbed. Three Passionist Priests from 
the Province have been assigned to 
this work. 
Pilgrimage of Body of St. 


On the afternoon of July 31rt, the 
body of St. Gabriel left his Basilica and 


started its triumphal tour throughout 
the region of the Marche. This tour 
recalls the centenary of the trip Francis 
Possenti took to enter the Passionist 
Novitiate in Morrovalle. The Pilgrimage 
stopped at Gran Sasso, then through 
the valleys of Mavone and Vomano. 
The procession then proceeded through 
Grottammare, Fermo, Porto Civitanova 
(the birthplace of St. Gabriel's mother) . 
On the 8th of August the procession 
reached the Passionist Church at Recan- 
ati, Maria della Pieta. From here the 
body was taken to Morrovalle where 
St. Gabriel had made his novitiate, and 
then on to the Prep Seminary of the 
Province, S. Angelo in Pontano. At 
midnight of August 2 3rd the procession 
made its way back to the Shrine of 
Gran Sasso. 

National Eucharistic Congress 

In his radio address to the National 
Eucharistic Congress at Lecce, the Holy 
Father said "... the great success of 
the Congress is greatly due to the year 
of preparation for the Congress during 
which the devout pilgrimage of "J esus 
passing by' spread treasures of blessing. 

The preparation for the Congress 
was entrusted to the Passionists by the 
Bishop of Lecce, and began on January 
8th and ended on April 29th the day 
the Congress opened. Under the direc- 
tion of the Pastor of each parish where 
the Pilgrimage of the Blessed Sacrament 
was to pass, a parochial committee was 
organized to distribute pamphlets ex- 
plaining the devotion and also a prayer 
composed by the Holy Father. 

Three days before the solemn en- 

This Pilgrimage of St. Gabriel has 
been the first of its kind in the history 
of the Congregation. The relics passed 
through hundreds of villages and cities 
and was a sort of mission for the people 
who took part. Those who followed 
the relics during those twenty-four days 
witnessed an almost continual miracle 
of grace. 
Vestition at Morrovalle 

Exactly one month after the visit 
of the relics of St. Gabriel to the 
Novitiate at Morrovalle, the same cere- 
mony of vestition that St. Gabriel had 
taken part in was repeated on the 
anniversary of his vestition one hundred 
years ago. On September 21st eight 
young men were vested at the same 
altar that St. Gabriel had received the 


trance of the Blessed Sacrament one of 
the Passionist Missionaries would preach 
a triduum in preparation. Then upon 
the arrival of the Blessed Sacrament 
and after having been enthroned on the 
altar in the public square, the opening 
sermon was preached. After Benedic- 
tion, the Blessed Sacrament was carried 
to the church and public adoration be- 
gan which lasted day and night. Two 
more missionaries would then arrive 
and free the first to go to the next town 
or village where the Blessed Sacrament 
was to come in procession. 

The program for the day consisted of 
confessions, Masses, and Holy Com- 
munion. In the afternoon there was a 
Holy Hour and preaching. Rosary, a 
sermon on the Blessed Sacrament and 
Benediction took place in the evening. 


After Benediction there followed a 
dialogue instruction on the Sacraments 
and especially the Holy Eucharist. 
During the rest of the day the mission- 
aries visited the sick and administered 
the sacraments to them. There were 
special days for the children and youth 
of the town. This program was carried 
out in twenty-six cities and villages. 
Golden Jubilee of Marian 


When the Passionists came to Lauri- 
gnano in 1906 they found a small 
church with a popular image of the 
Madonna delta Catena. Beside the 
church was a small dwelling which 
had been inhabited by some hermits 
who were descendants of Fra Bene- 
detto Falcone who found the picture 
of the Blessed Mother in 1833. 

During the past fifty years the Fa- 
thers have instilled in the people a deep 
devotion to our Blessed Mother. They 
have also built a church rich in marble 
and made it the most popular shrine of 
Mary in Calabria. After the work on 
the church was nearly completed, the 
Fathers began the construction of a 
'pilgrim house' containing fifteen private 
rooms and large halls for meetings. 

The Jubilee Celebration began by 
taking the picture of Our Blessed Moth- 
er to the Cathedral of Cosenza on Sep- 
tember 16th where it remained until 
September 23rd. Each evening a ser- 
mon was preached by a visiting Bishop. 
The climax of the Celebration came 
with the arrival of Cardinal Mimmi on 
the evening of September 22nd. After 
the conclusion of the ceremonies in the 
Cathedral in honor of our Blessed 

Mother the picture of Mary was taken 
back to the Shrine. The following 
morning a Solemn high mass was cele- 
brated at the Shrine by the Archbishop 
in the presence of the Cardinal. The 
radio gave national notice to the cele- 
bration by featuring an interview with 
the Cardinal and a talk by the Rector 
of the Retreat at Laurignano. 
Resignation of Bishop 

On September 29th, Bishop Raphael 
Faggiano, C.P., Bishop of Cariati, re- 
signed his post as Bishop of the diocese 
on account of his health. He is now 
living in the Retreat of Manduria. 

Bishop Faggiano was consecrated 
February 19, 1936 in Manduria. At the 
time of his election he was Master of 
Novices at Laurignano. This diocese 
had been without a bishop for twelve 
years. When the Bishop took over the 
diocese was in very poor condition. 
But his amiability and especially his love 
for the poor and neglected soon won 
the hearts of his people. 

His attention was immediately taken 
up in restoring the diocesan seminary 
and increasing the fervor of his clergy 
and laity. Before the end of the first 
year of his Episcopate he acquired a 
large piece of property as a summer 
residence for the seminarians. At his 
appointment the large Cathedral of his 
diocese was in urgent need of repairs. 
During the years that he was Bishop 
of Cariati, he took a great interest in 
the repair of the Cathedral and two 
years ago made improvements upon a 
large scale. He will always be remem- 
bered for his love for the poor and 



A New Retreat 

On July 29, 1956, the cornerstone 
for the new Retreat at Sezano-Verona 
was laid by His Excellency Bishop 
Peuzzo, C.P. The Bishop was assisted 
in the ceremony by the Provincial, Very 
Rev. Fr. Primo, C.P., and the First 
Consultor, Very Rev. Fr. Michael. 

The laying of the cornerstone for 
this new Retreat is the third outstanding 
event in the history of this foundation 
which was begun in 1946. The first 
big event of the foundation was the 
laying of the cornerstone of the Church 
in 1947. This Church was built by the 
generosity of the Barenghi Family of 
Milan. At this time His Excellency 
Jeremiah Pesce, now Bishop of Dodo- 
ma, Africa, was Provincial. The second 
big event was the solemn blessing of 
the Church in 1951 by Bishop Peuzzo, 

Up to the present the small commun- 
ity of the new Retreat lived in a Villa, 
situated on a very scenic hill. In the 
laying of this cornerstone progress is 
being made in the development and 
growth of the Province. One of the 
wings of the new building will take 

care of the Preparatory Students, espe- 
cially from the vicinity of Venice. 

Retreats at Caravate 

In the past year the number of the 
clergy making retreats at the Provincial 
House, S. Maria del Sasso, has con- 
tinued to grow. Frequently Catholic 
Action groups come to the Retreat to 
make days of recollection. A new road 
has made the Retreat more accessible 
to the retreatants. . 

In fulfillment of a vow made to St. 
Gabriel by Count Angelo Cicogna 
when a prisoner of war in 1945 at 
Milan, the Count errected fourteen 
little chapels in the beautiful park sur- 
rounding the retreat for the Stations 
of the Cross. He completed his gift 
this year by having the artist Salvini 
paint the fourteen pictures of the sta- 
tions. Each picture is two feet by three 
feet. The retreatants are now able to 
make the way of the cross in the Mon- 
astery Garden. The corridors of the 
Retreat itself have been adorned with 
paintings by Barbaris representing the 
outstanding incidents in the life of St. 
Paul of the Cross. 





Meeting with Javenese 

On Mission Sunday, October 28th, 
a meeting was held with the Javenese 
University students in Mater Dolorosa 
Retreat, Mook. At the suggestion of 
their Javenese student, Confrater Cani- 
sianus Setiardja, C.P., contact was estab- 
lished with these students. Ten of 
them responded. All of them were 
Catholics and were accompanied by 
their Vice-Moderator, Father Robert 
Baker, S.J., as well as their moderator, 
Fr. Haas. All of them are members 
of the Ikatan Mahatiswa Katolik Indo- 
nesia (IMKI) and will be the future 
Catholic leaders of Indonesia. 

The meeting began with a Solemn 
High Mass, after which they were in- 
troduced to their hosts, the Director of 
Theologians, Fr. Germano, C.P., and 
the students. The students then de- 
livered several interesting papers one 
of which was entitled: "The Aposto- 
late as a Profusion of Faith." None of 
these young Indonesians had ever met 
a Passionist before. But, the cordial 
care the students took of them went 
far to create that congenial spirit which 
prevailed all through the day. By the 
time lunch was served, it became evi- 
dent that the object of this meeting had 
been fully -achieved. As one of the 
Indonesian Students put it in his fare- 
well speech: "This eminently success- 
ful! meeting laid the foundation lor a 
permanent friendly intercourse between 
all the participants; and it is bound to 

remain an agreeable remembrance to 
those of us, who may be assigned to 
the mission in Indonesia. We shall 
remember then, that we are associated 
in the paramount business of propa- 
gating the Kingdom of Christ." 
Help for the Blind 

The R. C. Institution for the blind 
in Grave, not far from Mook, launched 
a campaign to provide the blind with 
books other than the usual Braille type. 
Worthwhile books are read aloud before 
a tape recorder. From these, copies 
are made and these form a library for 
the blind, who can listen to them 
whenever they wish. The theologians 
of the Retreat who have good speaking 
voices joined this charitable movement. 
With the blessing of their superiors 
they now spend their free time in re- 
cording the books the R. C. institute 
sends them for that purpose. By doing 
this they have found a practical way 
to develop their eloquence in view of 
the apostolate. 
First Passion Congress 

Holland was the site chosen for the 
first Passion Congress of the Passionists 
of the Benelux countries (Belgium, 
Netherlands and Luxembourg). The 
Congress was held on August 27 and 
28, L956, at the Seminary of St. Paul 
of the Cross, Mook. 

The Congress was well-drawn up, 
and prepared for in advance. From the 
advance program, we sec that the 
organization behind the congress was 
efficiently handled. Complete direc- 


tions, schedules, and outlines were 
printed in the advance program, and 
forwarded to those who were to par- 
ticipate in the affair. 

The program took occasion to point 
out the necessity and usefulness of such 
meetings, and pointed out that this first 
Passion Congress was not to determine 
whether we should preach the Passion 
but how it might be preached and how 
applied to the lives of men. In ac- 
cordance with such a purpose were the 
various papers planned and delivered. 
Very Rev. Fr. Charles, C.P., 2nd Pro- 
vincial Consultor of the Province of 
Our Lady of Holy Hope, read a paper 
on "The Meaning of the Passion in the 
New Testament." Rev. Fr. Gaston, 
C.P., Lector of Theology in the Theo- 
logicum at Diepenbeek, Belgium, fol- 
lowed with a paper on "The Passion in 
the Teaching of the Church." Very 
Rev. Fr. Valentine, C.P., Rector of the 
student house at Leuven, Belgium, 

spoke on "The Passion in Preaching." 
Father Lambert, Lector of Church 
History in the House of Philosophy at 
Maria-Hoop, Echt, talked on "The 
Sufferings of Christ in the Spirituality 
of Holland." 

Each day of the two day Congress, 
the congress opened with a Solemn 
High Mass (facie ad populum), cele- 
brated by the Provincials of the Prov- 
inces of Mother of Holy Hope and St. 
Gabriel, Very Rev. Frs. Stanislaus and 
Albert, C.P., respectively, assisted by 
the Provincial Consultors, and Very 
Rev. Fr. Eleutherius, C.P., Rector of 
Maria-Hoop Retreat, Echt. 

On Monday evening, August 27th, 
the Students presented a play "Return 
to Gethsemane," written by Gabriel 
Smith. The following evening, there 
was a showing of the film "Green 
Pastures," based on "Ol'man Adam and 
his Chillum," by Mark Connolly. 

Passionist religious in attendance at Passion Congress, at Mook, Holland, 
from August 27 to 28, 1956. The Provincials of St. Gabriel Province, V.R. Fr. 
Albert, and of Mother of Holy Hope Province, V.R. Fr. Stanislaus, were present. 

k <$ ** 

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Feast of St. Gabriel 

When the Province was first erected 
in 1910, a decree of the first Provincial 
Chapter determined that the Feast of 
the Patron of the Province, Saint 
Gabriel, should be observed as a Double 
of the First Class. Under date of July 
6, 1956, the Province received news 
from the Congregation of Rites that 
the feast may be celebrated as a Double 
of the First Class with all the privileges 
of such a feast. By doing this the Con- 
gregation of Rites confirmed by rescript 
what formerly was only a decree of the 
Provincial Chaper. 
For Peace 

In order to obtain peace in the world, 
by order of the Provincial, Very Rev. 
Fr. Albert of the Immaculate Concep- 
tion, the most Blessed Sacrament is to 
be exposed one day each week during 
the evening meditation and the Litany 
of All Saints sung. It is hoped by those 
extra prayers that God will preserve 
Belgium and the world from a III 
World War. 
Congo Mission 

On Wednesday, October 17th, the 
Rev. Fr. Gregory Versweyveld, C.P., 
Mission Procurator of the Province left 
for the Congo Mission. He was ac- 
companied by Brother Gaston Trap- 
peniers, C.P., who has already spent 
twenty-one years in the Mission. Be- 
cause the Very Rev. Fr. Albert, Pro- 
vincial, was preaching a mission at the 
time he was not able to accompany 
them. But, he left Belgium by plane on 

November 19th and joined them in 
the Congo Mission. Father Matthias 
Janssen, C.P., who spent seventeen 
years in the Mission accompained him. 
Father Matthias is the brother of Very 
Rev. Fr. Lambert Janssen, C.P., the 
Provincial Superior of the Congo Mis- 

The Provincial made the canonical 
visitation of the Mission on this trip 
It is hoped that by having the Mission 
Procurator present at the same time 
many practical decisions can be made 
for promoting the welfare of the Mis- 
sion. While there the Provincial and 
Mission Procurator met with his Excel- 
lency Bishop Hagendorens, C.P., in 
order to look for a suitable place for a 
foundation of a Congo-Passionist Mon- 
astery with complete observance for 

During the past year, the Congo 
Mission celebrated its Silver Jubilee 
under the care of the Passionist Fathers. 
It was in 1930 that Fathers Joris Joye, 
C.P., and Benedict Weetjens, C.P., 
sailed for the Congo where they would, 
the following year, begin to take over 
a section of the Scheut Fathers' Mission. 
The beginning was made on July 7, 
1931, at Kamba, where Father Joris 
worked alone for two months, building 
a house, chapel and school, before being 
joined by Father Benedict. Five months 
later, they were joined by Father Ru- 
dolph Pycke and Brother Augustine 
Van Tendeloo, and the Passionist Mis- 
sion in the Congo began the rapid 


growth that has characterized it through- 
out the past twenty-five years. 

Gradually, the Passionists took over 
more and more of the territory original- 
ly tended by the Scheut Fathers. In 
1936 their mission district was raised 
to a Prefecture Apostolic, and Father 
Eusebius Hagendorens, C.P., who en- 
tered the Congo Mission work in 1935, 
was made the first Prefect. On March 
13, 1947, the Prefecture was raised to 
a Vicariate, and His Excellency, Bishop 
Hagendorens was made its first Bishop. 

Outstanding events during the past 
twenty-five years, in addition to those 
mentioned above, were celebrated in 
1945, when the first native priest, 
Wandja Victor, was ordained, and in 
1944, when Bishop Hagendorens 
founded a Congregation of native Pas- 
sionist Brothers. As early as 1934, a 
Congregation of Passionist Missionary 
Sisters was founded to help with the 
work of the Congo Mission, and their 
efforts have been most successful. 

A recent Jubilee issue of Kruis en 
Liefde, the Passionist magazine pub- 
lished at Wesembeek-Oppem, Belgium, 
outlines in statistical form the marvel- 
ous work being done in the Congo by 
the Belgian Passionists. The Vicariate 
possesses only nine churches, but serves 
397 missions. This means unrelenting 
toil for the 38 priests (four native), 
13 Brothers (four native) and 31 
Sisters, and their 375 catechists. Cath- 
olics number somewhat over 36,000, of 
whom 204 are white. There are 1,211 
catechumens under instruction at the 
present time. Protestants number only 

about 8,000, and Mohammedans are a 
weak 107, but there are 146,191 non- 
Christians. Baptisms during the year 
1955 numbered 2380, of whom 935 
were adult and 858 were children. A 
total of 419,023 Communions were 
received. In 459 schools there are 
12,374 boys and 2,693 girls. Four 
vocational schools serve 157 boys, and 
there is one home economic school that 
is attended by 45 girls. 

In its Jubilee number, Kruis en 
Liefde took occasion to mention the 
wonderful work done by the Passionist 
Brothers in the Congo Mission. Singling 
out the record of the work done by two 
in particular, Brother Andrew Vranken, 
C.P., and Brother Baston Trappeniers, 
C.P., the editors appropriately comment 
how amazing it would be if there were 
space to cite all the work done by all 
the brothers. 

Brother Andrew, a bricklayer by 
trade, entered the congregation at the 
age of 27 and spent 24 years in the 
Congo. During those years in the Mis- 
sion, he has built the following: two 
convents and a garage for the Sisters, 
a rectory, storehouse, dispensary, hos- 
pital, maternity home, Brothers' mon- 
astery, two primary schools, lepers' 
hospital, manual training school, normal 
school with extra dormitories and work- 
rooms, eight homes for normal school 
teachers, a meeting hall, offices, store 
rooms, dining and laundry rooms, in 
addition to a number of farm buildings. 
Brother Gaston entered the Congrega- 
tion at the age of 20 and spent 21 
years in the Mission. During that time 
he constructed two rectories, a maternity 


home, a convent, office buildings, many in addition to eleven stone buildings 
classrooms, lecture halls and storerooms, and four schools. 



Growth in Vocations 

Slowly, but with firm steps, the 
Province of Holy Family is making 
progress. Recently their new Church 
and Retreat at the Preparatory Semin- 
ary, at Zuera, near Zaragoza were in- 
aguarated. Although the Seminary at 
Zuera now has only one hundred and 
fifty boys, it is able to accommodate 
two hundred and forty. His Excellency, 
Casimiro Morcillo, Archbishop of Zara- 
goza solemnly blessed the Church and 
Retreat. His Excellency, Ubaldo Ci- 
brian, C.P., Bishop in Bolivia, said the 
Pontifical High Mass. The Provincial 
Curias of the three Spanish Passionist 

Provinces were represented. The Civil 
and Military Authorities of the City of 
Zaragoza honored the occasion by their 

Each year Holy Family Province 
receives more than one hundred applica- 
tions for entrance into their Seminary. 
But, of this one hundred they admit 
only around sixty. On the Feast of 
Our Blessed Mother's Assumption, Au- 
gust 15th, they professed fifteen new 
Clerics. Then on September 7th nine- 
teen boys who had just finished their 
studies at the Preparatory Seminary were 
vested with the holy habit. They also 
have one novice Brother and two 

*- * 

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Clerical Novices of Holy Family Province, Spain, who received the Habit 

September 7, lOSfi. 


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Newly professed students of Holy Family Province, Spain. 

postulant Brothers in their Novitate. 
Away to Mission Fields 

Holy Family Province has a very 
large field for missionary activity. They 
have houses in Cuba, Mexico and 
Venezuela. In September and October 
of this year, eleven Passionists sailed 

for these three countries to help the 
Religious who are already there and 
overburdened with work. The large 
number of Theology and Philosophy 
Students at present gives hope of great 
things for the future! 



Signs of a Better Future? 

Conditions in Poland have changed 
radically during the past few months, 
and, as we go to press, further flare-ups 
are being reported in that sector of the 
world. It can be hoped that the out- 
come will favor the cause of the patri- 
otic, freedom-loving Poles. In view 
of the recent developments, the fol- 
lowing letter, received some time ago, 
is very interesting: 

"In a short time, the number of 
priests has doubled. Two are now 


studying at the Catholic University of 
Lublino, preparing to teach. Outside 
of Father Michael, who has his licenti- 
ate, the Vice-Province has no Lectors 
prepared to teach; hence, we must 
bring in professors from the Diocese, 
at no small expense. The professors are 
appointed by the Bishop of Varsavia. 
"We preach many retreats in the 
parishes, and during Lent there is al- 
most a fight among the pastors as to 
who shall obtain our services, for we 
preach the Passion of Our Lord to the 


people, in obedience to our vow. At 
present there are six novices in the 
Novitiate. Those professed total 14, 
and the Vice- Provincial is contemplating 
opening another retreat, which would 
be the fourth in the Vice-Province. 

"Conditions in this Communist-dom- 
inated land are not too disastrous. Who- 
ever wants to praise God may do so, 
and most of the Communists them- 
selves believe in God. Actually, the 
Catholics today in Poland are better off 
than before the War, in that they are 
more courageous and resolute in their 
fight to retain their faith. There does 
not seem to be that laxity of morals that 
existed before the War. For example, 
one does not see such open scandals in 
public. Public drunkenness or vulgar 
language runs the risk of imprisonment, 
and the Communists have completely 
banned all immorality from the movies, 
the stage and the newspapers. Certainly, 
materialistic propaganda is very strong, 
especially among the young, but the 
Church also teaches her doctrine more 
forcibly than ever." 

Death of Count Szembek 

Count Bogdan Szembek, an out- 
standing benefactor of the Congrega- 

tion in Poland, died on Good Friday, 
March 30, 1956. Exactly eleven years 
before, on Good Friday, Count 
Szembek, a devout Catholic and daily 
communicant, had given 10 hectares 
(approximately 25 acres) of land for 
the new retreat at Sadowie-Golgota, 
asking in return an annual Mass for 
100 years for his son who had been 
killed in a tragic accident. 

The Count died as beautiful a death 
as he had lived. "On the last day of his 
life, Good Friday, he went to work as 
usual. He took part in the evening 
services of Good Friday, and received 
Holy Communion. Upon returning 
home he wrote to a friend, telling him 
of the day's experiences and the thoughts 
that had inspired him on the day of 
Our Lord's death. Among other things, 
he wrote that he had a great desire to 
hear, that very day, the words of Our 
Lord to the Good Thief: 'This day 
thou shalt be with me in paradise.' 
God heard his prayer. Shortly after 
writing this sentence, he died a very 
edifying death." 

The funeral took place at Wysocko. 
Count Szembek was buried near the 
church that forms part of the building 
he donated to the Passionists. 



Centenary Celebrations carried out. The celebrations had a 

The PASSIONIST (Nov.-Dec. 1956) nationwide diameter and significance, 
carried the program for the Centenary which was heightened by the cordial 
Celebrations in St. Patrick's Province. cooperation and participation of the 
Since then, we have received official Hierarchy, the Civil Authorities, the 
reports attesting to the magnificent Clergy and the Laity. It has been said 
manner in which the program was that, since the International Eudhahstk 


Congress in 1932, nothing as liturgically 
splendid has been seen in Dublin. 

The Irish Passionists deserve much 
praise for the enthusiasm with which 
they carried out the preparations and 
details of the Centenary. Their efforts 
were handsomely rewarded in the actual 
unfolding of the celebrations them- 
selves. The program was publicized by 
the national radio and the newspapers 
carried daily accounts of the elaborate 
functions, as well as special features on 
the lives of our Holy Founder, Venera- 
ble Dominic, Father Charles of St. 
Andrew, Father Ignatius Spencer (great- 
uncle of Winston Churchill and the first 
Passionist to set foot on Irish soil), 
the Passionist Generalate at Rome and 
Passionists throughout the world. 

Mt. Argus was decked out in flags 
and bunting during the days of the 
celebration, and the festive mood 
seemed to have pervaded all of Dublin 
itself. Special bus service brought en- 
thusiastic multitudes to the Passionist 
Church for all the functions. The vast 
edifice was overcrowded with people 
from all stations in life, both high and 
low. At night the "Lady of the Lake" 
and the Lourdes Grotto were flood- 
lighted, to add to the solemnity of the 

The official opening of the celebra- 
tions took place on October 21, in the 
Aberdeen Hall of the Gresham Hotel, 
Dublin, with an address by the Hon. 
Lord Pakenham, grand-nephew of Fa- 
ther Paul Mary Pakenham, C.P., 
founder and first Rector of Mt. Argus. 
Lord Pakenham was introduced by Very 
Rev. Alfred Wilson, C.P., Procurator 

General and personal representative of 
Most Rev. Fr. General. A convert to 
the faith as was his illustrious uncle, the 
eminent speaker gave a most interesting 
and entertaining talk, which highlighted 
episodes from the community platea at 
Mt. Argus. Present for the occasion 
were the Hon. Lord Longton, brother 
of the speaker, Mr. Eamon De Valera 
and the Mayor of Dublin, Mr. Briscoe. 

The solemn liturgical functions began 
on Thursday, October 25th, at St. Paul's 
Retreat, where the presence of the 
Bishops of Nara, Meath, Down, Con- 
nor, Anchory and Clogher distinguished 
the beautiful ceremonies, and the noted 
orators stressed the significance and 
importance of the Passionists and their 
apostolate in glowing words. Particu- 
larly impressive and touching was the 
sermon of the Canon J. M. Hayes, of 
Bansha, who spoke on the first day of 
the Triduum. The functions were car- 
ried out perfectly in an atmosphere of 
decorum and piety, heightened by the 
exceptional music provided by the Stu- 
dents of the Congregation of the Holy 
Spirit, the Irish Christian Brothers, the 
Students of the Passionist Sisters' Col- 
lege and the Passionist Students at Mt. 

On the first day, His Excellency 
Archbishop J. C. McQuaid of Dublin, 
Primate of Ireland, assisted at the 
Pontifical High Mass celebrated by his 
Auxiliary, Most Rev. Bishop Dunne. 
The entire Metroplitan Chapter and 
many pastors were present at this Mass. 
Afterwards, His Excellency had high 
words of praise for the Passionists, and 
expressed his deep appreciation for the 


intense apostolate carried on in his 
Archdiocese by the Congregation. 

On Saturday, October 27th, His 
Eminence, John Cardinal D'Alton, 
Archbishop of Armagh and Primate of 
All Ireland, presided at the Solemn 
High Mass. Afterwards, at the luncheon 
at St. Paul's Retreat, His Eminence took 
occasion to express his high regard for 
the religious spirit and work of the 
Passion i r ts. "It is a great pleasure for 
me," said His Eminence, "to be here 
today to join with you in celebrating 
the Centenary of the coming of the 
Passionists to Mt. Argus. Their coming 
was an event of outstanding importance 
in the history of our Catholic people. 
The zeal and self-sacrifice of the Pas- 
sionists were already well known 
through the missions which they had 
conducted in Dublin and other parts of 
Ireland. They preached Christ Crucified 
and their lives were a mirror of their 
preaching. Ireland was under a debt to 
them for the deep interest which they 
took in our exiles, who were forced by 
the Famine to seek a livelihood in 
England. At a time when our people 
were slowly recovering from the dis- 
asters of the Famine years, that founda- 
tion must have inspired them with new 
hope and fresh courage, and helped to 
lift them from the despondency that still 
lay heavy on many an Irish home. . . . 

"I recall with great pleasure my own 
contacts with the Passionists. During 
my student days in Rome there were 
close ties of friendship between the 
Irish College and the community at 
San Giovanni e Paolo. We had reason 

to be greatful to the Fathers there for 
many acts of kindness. It was custom- 
ary for the Irish students to make their 
retreats with them in preparation for 
Major Orders. However, Monsignor 
O'Riordan considered that the delights 
of a monastery garden might prove too 
great a distraction for the rctreatants, so 
other arrangements were made, to our 
great regret. . . . 

"While offering my sincere congratu- 
lations to the Provincial and all the 
members of St. Patrick's Province, it is 
my earnest prayer that during the cen- 
tury that is beginning Mt. Argus may 
play a still more glorious part in Irish 
Catholic life. It has been a centre of 
spiritual guidance and consolation for 
great numbers of our people who cher- 
ish St. Paul's Retreat and its community 
with deep gratitude and affection. They 
know that they will continue to serve 
them generously and faithfully. We 
may be sure that during these days of 
celebration, many prayers are being 
offered up for the continued success of 
Mt. Argus and for an abundant out- 
pouring of God's blessings on its 

On Sunday, October 28th, the climax 
of the Centenary was reached with the 
Pontifical High Mass celebrated by His 
Excellency Eugene O'Callaghan, Bishop 
of Clogher, and presided over by His 
Excellency, Most Rev. Albert Levame, 
Apostolic Nuncio. Present for this cere- 
mony was His Excellency, Mr. Sean T. 
O'Kelly, President of the Republic, the 
Prime Minister, Mr. John A. Costello, 
and Councillor Robert Briscoe, Lord 
Mayor of Dublin. After the Mass. 


President O' Kelly and the other dis- 
tinguished visitors attended the dinner 
at St. Paul's, pleased at the opportunity 
of visiting the Passionists in their own 
home. The after dinner speeches ex- 
pressed deep faith and devotion to the 
Church. This was especially true of the 
talk given by the Prime Minister. In 
his turn, President O'Kelly related how, 
as a small boy, he was cured of an ill- 
ness through the intercession of the 
Servant of God, Father Charles of St. 
Andrew. He noted reverently that, 
without wishing to anticipate the judge- 
ment of the Church, the sanctity of 
Father Charles was an established fact. 

Finally, His Excellency, the Apostolic 
Nuncio, summed up the praise being 
heaped on the Passionists from all sides, 
by emphatically stating that it corres- 
ponded perfectly with the merits and 
the virtue of the Passionists all over the 
world, and especially in Ireland. 

The Centenary Celebrations proved 
not only an historical event of great 
significance in the Province of St. Pat- 
rick, but also a grace and gift from 
the goodness of God and a reward 
from Christ Crucified, which will cer- 
tainly instill a greater consciousness of 
the Passionist vocation throughout 



Visit by Italian Ambassador 

In the late afternoon of March 1st, 
the Prep School at San Angel received 
a visit from the Italian Ambassador to 
Mexico, His Excellency Dr. Justin 
Arpesani, accompanied by his counsel- 
lor, Dr. Charles De Franchis and their 

This visit was of special interest, for 
the Ambassador has spontaneously and 
repeatedly requested to see the Italian 
Passionists and their students at San 
Angel, after having received flattering 
reports about them from His Excellency 
Archbishop Piani, Apostolic Delegate 
to Mexico. While inspecting the exten- 
sive grounds and buildings of the Prep 


National Shrine of the Passion Cross, the National Shrine of the Pas- 

On September 14th, the Patronal sion, in Mexico City, was the scene of 

Feast of the Exaltation of the Holy an impressive ceremony, as the Passion- 

School, His Excellency showed a great 
interest in all the activities of the Pas- 
sionists in Mexico, and expressed his 
admiration at their indefatigable labors. 
Pausing in the Chapel for a visit to the 
Blessed Sacrament, the Ambassador was 
pleased to hear the students render a 
number of Mexican religious songs. 

In bidding farewell to the religious 
and students at San Angel, His Excel- 
lency expressed his great satisfaction 
over his visit. He assured all of his 
sympathy with the work of the Italian 
Passionists, and expressed the hope that 
the world might see many more such 
oases of peace and virtue. 


ists there welcomed with appropriate 
devotion the reception of a "reliquia 
insignis" of the True Cross, which be- 
longs to Mexico. The occasion drew 
great crowds of people to the National 
Shrine, which is already noted for the 
multitudes that frequent the beautiful 
edifice. Fr. Emiliano, C.P., Superior, 
revealed that an ordinary Sunday or 
Feast day attracts at least 14,000 people. 

Not yet completed, the Shrine will 
measure approximately 135 feet in 
width, by 245 feet in length. It has a 
magnificent crypt measuring 42 feet 
wide by 195 feet in length, which has 
been completed. An additional 42 feet 
of crypt will be built into a beautiful 
"Capella-Pantheon," providing room 
for more than 2,000 burials. 




On October 14th more than one 
hundred pupils of the Secondary Col- 
leges, gathered at the Apostolic College 
in Vicente Casares for discussions on 
vocations. The Very Rev. Fr. Albert 
Deane, Provincial of Immaculate Con- 
ception Province, and the staff of St. 
Joseph's Preparatory were present. A- 
mong the number of postulants leaving 
the Preparatory Seminary in order to 
enter the Novitiate, is the first Uru- 
guayan aspirant to the Passionist life. 
He is the son of one of the leaders of 
the Christian Family Movement in 
C.F.M. Growth 

In an effort to counteract the attacks 
made on Catholic Home Life, radio 
talks on preparation for matrimony and 
correct home life were given both in 
Buenos Aires and Montevideo by Father 
Peter Richards, C.P. Father is the Gen- 
eral Moderator for the Christian Family 
Movement in Argentina and Uruguay. 
Delegates from the three Americas 
(including Miss Schaeffer of the N.C. 
W.C.) visited the new Retreat House 

built by the C.M.F. for the Passionist 
Fathers in Montevideo. The rapid 
growth of the movement can be traced 
to the Spiritual Retreats from Friday 
to Sunday which are preached by Pas- 
sionist Missionaries. More than forty- 
six retreats have already been preached 
with an attendance of twelve hundred 
married couples. Provision is also made 
for engaged couples to make week-end 

With the assistance of the Apostolic 
Administrator, the second Annual Con- 
vention of the Christian Family Move- 
ment was held in Buenos Aires on 
November 3rd and 4th. A group dis- 
cussion on the "Married Lay Man's 
Part in the Mystical Body" and the 
"Community Spirit of the Family" was 
lead by Fr. Peter Richards. With the 
aid of modern group techniques (such 
as Panel Forum and "66 Discussion") 
married groups from all over Argentina 
considered The Cause and Solutions of 
the Present Day Matrimonial Crisis. 
The Convention closed with a Socio- 
Guidrama portraying the lack of trust 
of modern youth in their parents. This 


was debated by parents and adolescents 
alike. Simultaneously Engaged Couples 

debated The Economic Pressure on\ 
Home Life. 



"Bible Week" in Curitiba 

A "Bible Week," under the patron- 
age of His Excellency, Most Reverend 
Emmanuele da Silveira D'Elboux, Arch- 
bishop of Curitiba, was held from 
September 23 to 30, 1956. This out- 
standing event was the culmination and 
a fitting crown to the zealous efforts of 
Father Emmanuel Ximenez, C.P., Lec- 
tor of Sacred Scripture at the Retreat 
in Curitiba, who initiated and spear- 
headed the drive which was aimed at 
interesting all classes in the city in the 
reading of Sacred Scripture. 

In the weeks of intense preparation 
for the Bible Week, Father Emmanuel 
visited each of the city's twenty- two 
parishes at least four times, organizing 
all elements in the drive, in an all-out 
effort to verify the slogan: "A thousand 
Bibles in every parish." Father received 
generous cooperation on all sides. The 
State University, the Catholic Faculties 
and the Civil Authorities united in 
backing the drive, which had two dis- 
tinct appeals: a University Course in 
Sacred Scripture, and a Biblical Exhibit. 
The first, naturally, was intended to 
give the educated class a more profound 
knowledge of biblical science and pro- 

vide them with an expert defense a- 
gainst the encroachments of non-Catho- 
lics. The Biblical Exhibit appealed to 
the general public, and featured some 
22 paintings of biblical scenes, painted 
by the Italian painter Barontini. 

The double purpose of the Bible 
Week was fully attained, in that the 
laity were given a renewed conscious- 
ness of the Bible as the Word of God, 
and were also provided with a defense 
against the non-Catholic propaganda 
which has been particularly insidious. 
It was noted that some of the Separated 
Brethren tried to take advantage off 
the Bible Week, by going with their 
bibles from house to house. 

The Passionist Retreat at Alto do 
Cabral (near Curitiba) was the head- 
quarters for the Bible Week. Assisted: 
by his religious brethren, Father Emman- 
uel ably carried out the organizing and: 
directing of the gigantic undertaking,; 
which has left an indelible mark on thei 
religious history of Curitiba and Brazil. 
The Bible Week closed officially on 
September 30th, Feast of St. Jerome, 
which the Hierarchy of Brazil had pro- 
claimed National Bible Day. 



Television 1st in Australia to appear on a TV 

In November Father Aloysius, C.P., program. Father was chosen as one of I 

had the honor of being the first Passion- several priests in Sydney to give the 


short religious talk which opens the 
daily program of the first TV Station 
in Australia. Father Stanislaus, Vice 
President of the Liturgical Group in 
the Archdiocese of Sydney is preparing 
his liturgical choir to broadcast Solemn 

Prime over the ABC (Austrailian 
Broadcasting Commission) network the 
middle of January. Father Aloysius will 
comment on the service and then preach 
a short sermon. 




Malcolm La Velle 1 
Rene Champagne 14 
Vincent M. Oberhauser 

Barnabas M. Ahern 
Paul M. Boyle 
Eugene Peterman 
Myron Gohmann 


Neil Parsons 2 
Kyran OConnor 3 
Clarence Vowels 4 
Cormac Lynch 5 
Miles Bero 7 
Aurelius Hanley 
Augustine Scannell 
Vincent X Ehinger 
Justin Smith 
Alban Hickson 
Thomas Carter 
Matthias Coen 
Gregory McEttrick 
Joseph M. O'Leary 
Pius Leabel 
Malachy Farrell 
Donald Ryan 21 
Colum Haughey 
Brian Mahedy 21 
Benet Kieran 10 
Bartholomew Adler 
Paul F. Ratterman 9 
William Steil 17 
Godfrey Poage 
John Baptist Pechulis 12 
Warren Womack 15 
Carroll Stuhlmueller 12 
Kent Pieper 14 

Ward Biddle 13 
Joachim Gemperline 10 
Barry Rankin 12 
Bruce Henry 1 4 
Kevin Kenney 
Andrew M. Gardiner 
Stephen Balog 
Vincent Giegerich 
Leonard Kosatka 
Gerald Appiarius 
Joseph M. Connolly 
Morris Cahill 
Martin Thommes 
Jerome Brooks 
Alfred Pooler 

Thomas Brummett 
Leonard Paschali 
Matthew Capodice 

Boniface Fielding 5 
Brendan McConnell 7 
Alphonus Kruip 
Raphael Grashoff 
Bernard Brady 
Louis Driscoll 
Nicholas Schneiders 
Cyprian Frank 9 
Bernard M. Coffey 9 
Damian Cragen 18 
Dunstan Branigan 19 
Howard Ralenkotter 20 
Jude Monteith 10 

Columban Gausepohl 
William Lebel 
Bernard Schaefer 


Connel Dowd 5 
Thaddeus Tamm 7 
Adalbert Schesky 
Laurence Bailey 
Alexis Quinlan 
George Jungles 20 
Aloysius Dowling 23 
Richard Hughes 9 
Conrad Amend 
Hubert Bohne 12 
Hilary Katlewski 
Lambert Hickson 
Emmanuel Sprigler 
Quentin Reneau 10 
Mel Schneider 
Brice Zurmuehlen 
Roger Mercurio 1 2 
Forrest Macken 1 2 
Firmian Parenza 13 
Gail Robinson 10 


Gerard Steckel 
Peter Berendt 
Michael J. Stengel 
Louis Doherty 
Henry Whitechurch 
Thomas A. Rogalski 
Raphael Domzall 
Owen Duffield 
Francis Cusack 
Casimir Gralewski 
Sebastian MacDonald 
Philip Schaefer 


Gabriel Redmon 
Gilbert Schoener 


Casimir Skiba 
Leo Arndt 
Joachim Saunders 


Thomas M. Newbold 5 
Michael Brosnahan 7 
Celestine Leonard 
Christopher Link 
Herbert Tillman 12 
Herman J. Stier 20 
Claude Nevin 12 
Edgar Ryan 12 
Ervan Heinz 1 2 
Germain Legere 1 2 
Conleth Overman 18 
Cyprian Towey 1 2 
William J. Hogan 12 
Leo P. Brady 13 
Emil Womack 12 
John Devany 20 
Leon Grantz 1 2 
Campion Clifford 1 2 
Raymond McDonough 1 2 
Simon Herbers 22 
Bernardine Johnson 19 
John F. Kobler 12 
Victor Salz 16 
Albert Schwer 12 
Berchmans Pettit 13 
Carl A. Tenhundfeld 12 
Philip Frank 
Gerald LaPresto 
John Gebaur 
George Stoiber 
Robert Baalman 
Francis Hanis 


Roch Adamek 5 
Faustinus Moran 6 
Alvin Wirth 7 
Hyacinth Clarey 
Julian Montgomery 
Edward O'Sullivan 
Cornelius McGraw 
Kevin Cunningham 
Paulinus Hughes 
Leopold Vaitiekaitis 
Nilus Goggin 9 
Loran Aubuchon 10 
Emmet Linden 
Denis McGowan 1 1 


Louis Hockendoner 

David Williams 

Regis Ryan 

Vincent Haag 


Alan Kasal 

Nicholas Kliora 

Mark Tomasic 

Alphonse Engler 

Blaise Czaja 

Joseph Van Leuwen 

Kenneth O'Malley 

George Paul Lanctot 

Richard M. Sanchez 

Timothy Joseph O'Connor 

Anselm M. Passman 

Bro. Michael Wilson 


Bro. Paul Stewart 

Bro. Damien Linzmaier 

Bro. Michael Wilson 


Ignatius Bechtold 5 
Nathanael Kriscunas 7 
Ignatius Conroy 
Urban O'Rourke 
Sylvester Cichanski 
Philip Gibbons 
Peter Kilgallon 
Anthony Maher 
Terence Powers 
Robert Borger 
Alfred Shalvey 
Frederick Sucher 1 2 
Columban Browning 13 
Randal Joyce 12 
Melvin Glutz 12 
Caspar Watts 
John M. Render 12 
Luke Connolly 
Rian Clancy 
Lawrence Browning 


Francis Martin Keenan 
Bernard Kinney 
Damian McHale 
Benedict Olson 
Gabriel Duffy 
Augustine Wilhelmy 
Mel Joseph Spehn 
Andre Auw 
Terence M. O'Toole 

Aloysius M. Hoolahan 
Christopher M. Sobczak 
Theodore Deshaw 
Fabian M. Hollcraft 
Hugh Pates 
Xavier Albert 
Ambrose M. Devaney 
Bonaventure Timlin 
Patrick E. O'Malley 

Romuald Reuber 
Pius Martel 
Christopher Zeko 
Isidore Bates 
Raphael Couturier 


Walter Kaelin 5 
Ralph Brisk 7 
David Ferland 
Gerald Dooley 
Arthur Stuart 
Linus Burke 
Gerard Barry 
Mark Hoskins 
William Westhoven 18 
Timothy Hurley 
Daniel Maher 
Valentine Leifsch 
Fidelis Benedik 
Patrick Tully 9 
Cyprian Leonard 10 
Gordian Lewis 20 
Cyril M. Jablonovsky 
Flannon Gannon 
Roderick Misey 
Harold M. Leach 

Aloysius Schoeppner 
Charles Archeluta 
Justin Garrity 


James P. White 5 
Joyce Hallahan 7 
Reginald Lummer 
Gabriel Sweeney 19 
Maurice St. Julien 
Norbert McGovern 
Angelo Hamilton 
Basil Killoran 
Ferdinand Madl 
Egbert Nolan 
Marion Durbala 


Roland Maher 
Harold Trovers 
Theophane Gescavitz 
Aidan McGauren 
Kilian Dooley 
Henry Vetter 
Charles Guilfoyle 
Isidore O'Reilly 18 
Wilfred Flahery 
Keith Schlitz 
Declan Egan 20 
Rhicard McCall 
Felix Bauer 
James Keating 
Denis Sevart 
Joseph Stadfeld 


Francis Flaherty 5 
Camillus Kronlage 7 
Alan Prendergast 
Dominic Merriman 
iBro. Henry Zengerle 

Leo Scheible 

Edward Viti 

Finan Storey 20 

James Busch 

Bro. Theodore Lindhorst 

Bro. Patrick Keeney 


Gregory J. Staniszewski 5 
Jerome Stowell 7 
Edwin Ronan 
John Aelred Torisky 
Jeremiah Beineris 20 
Ernest Polette 
Jordan Grimes 18 
Bro. Daniel Smith 


Gilbert Kroger 9 
Eustace Eilers 
Ludger Martin 
Canisius Womack 
Bede Doyle 10 


Anthony Moloney 


Joel Gromowski 32 


Matthew Vetter 8, 30 
Carl Schmitz 9, 31 
Paul Placek 30 
Peter C. Kumle 30 
Clement Paynter 30 

Fergus McGuinness 5 



jte Horack 7 












First Consultor 



Second Consultor 






Master of Novices 










Assistant Pastor 

1 1. 

Vice Master 





Director of Students 





Provincial Econome 



Vice Director 


Chaplain, Chicago State 





Retreat Director 



Asst. Retreat Director 



Retreat Master 


Sign Magazine 


Leonard Barthelemy 
Kenny Lynch 27 
Lucian Hogan 26 
Noel Pechulis 28 
Anselm Secor 35 
Pascal Barry 34 


Reginald James 33 


Vocational Director 

Chaplain, Lady of Peace Hospital 

Chaplain, VA Hospital, Marion, Ind. 

NAS, FPO 955, San Francisco, Calif. 

The Eng. Center (7071 SU), Ft. Belvoir, 


Catholic Chaplains Office, Marine Corps 

Base, Camp Lejeune, N. Car. 

Mission Bulletin, 1 06A Kwok Man 

House, 8A Des Voeux Rd., Hongkong. 

Hibarigaoka Catholic Church, Takara- 

zuka-shi, Hyogo-ken, Japan. 

Catholic Church, 793 Masumi-cho, 

Ikeda-shi, Osaka-fu, Japan. 

Templo del Espiritu Santo, Union y Av. 

Marti 233, Mexico 18, D. F. 

406 N. 17th Avenue, Phoenix, Ariz. 

Mercy Hospital, Independence, Kansas. 

Mt. St. Mary Convent, 3700 E. Lincoln, 

Wichita 1, Kansas. 




Paul F. Nager 1 
Neil McBrearty 45 
Ignatius Formica 47 
Caspar Caulfield 46 
Bonaventure Moccia 


M. Rev. Cuthbert M. 

O'Gara, DD. 
Provincial Staff 
Ernest Welch 2 
Cuthbert McGreevey 3 
Carrol Ring 4 
Frederick J. Harrer 9 
Brendan Boyle 10 
Ferdinand Braun 1 1 
Paul J. Dignam 1 1 
The Sign 

Ralph Gorman 25 
Damian Reid 26 
Gerard Rooney 
Jeremiah Kennedy 26 
Donald Nealis 28 
Harold Poletti 29 
Pius Trevoy 30 
Austin Busby 31 

St. Michael's Monastery 
Clement Buckley 5 
Wilfrid Scanlon 8 
Herbert McDevitt 
Xavier Gonter 
Michael Rausch 1 8 
Hyacinth Sullivan 
Alfred Duffy 
Adelbert Poletti 
Ernest Cunningham 35 
Paulinus Hughes 
Ronald Norris 23 
Bernard Gilleran 
Kenneth Naudin 
Raymond J. Foerster 
Stephen P. Kenny 17 
Michael A. Campbell 
Linus Lombard '50 
Hugh Carroll 
Bonaventure Griffiths 24 
Andrew Ansbro 22 

Hyacinth Malkowiak 
Lawrence Steinhoff 
Agatho Dukin 
Athanasius Drohan 
Richard Kugelman 15 
Bertrand Weaver 
Reginald Arliss 
Wendelin Moore 18 
Thaddeus Purdon 
Dennis Walsh 
Charles A. Oakes 18 
Nicholas Gill 15 
Francis Kuba 
Albinus Leach 18 
Kilian McGowan 13 
Bennet Kelly 
Cyril Schweinberg 15 
Cuthbert Sullivan 
Stanislaus Waseck 
Paul J. Fullam 49 
Neil O'Donnell 
Cormac Kinkead 18 
Benedict Berlo 
Clement Kasinskas 
Leo J. Gorman 
Vincent M. Boney 
Louis J. McCue 
Kiernan Barley 
Augustine Sheehan 
Colman Connolly 
Gerard Griffiths 
Donald Mclnnis 
Gabriel Shields 
Aelred Lacomara 
Francis Boylan 
Jerome Cowan 
Conrad Federspiel 
Arthur Bouchard 

St. Joseph's 
Benjamin Wirtz 17 
Julius Reiner 18 
Hubert Arliss 18 


Theodore Foley 5 
Gregory Flynn 6 

Vincent M. Frahlick 8 
Benedict Huck 
Fulgentius Ventura 
Adrian Lynch 
Paul J. Ubinger 
Norman Kelly 
Ignatius Ryan 21 
Theophane Maguire 
Basil Bauer 
Celestine McGonigal 
Gabriel M. Jaskal 
Cyril McGuire 
Robert O'Hara 
Theophane Kapcar 
Camillus Barth 
Cajetan Sullivan 19 
Daniel Hunt 
Cornelius McArdle 
Raymond M. Houlahen 
Maurice Sullivan 
Paulinus Gepp 
Anselm Lacomara 
Kieran Baker 
Paschal Smith 20 
Sebastian Kolonovsky 
Cajetan Bendernagel 14 
Cornelius Davin 
Julian Morgan 
Damian Carroll 
Xavier Vitacollona 
Louis Mitchell 
Edmund Fletcher 

St. Michael's 

Adolph Schmitt 17 
Wendelin Meis 1 8 
Edward Hennessey 18 
Timothy Stockmeyer 1 8 

St. Mary's 
Walter Wynn 5 
Gerard A. Orlando 8 
Isidore Smith 
Antoine de Groeve 
Mark Seybold 
Eugene Kiernan 17 
Myles Whelan 15 


Julian Connor 
Herman Kollig 18 
John J. Reardon 15 
Alban Lynch 
Ernan Johnston 18 
Leo F. Vanston 
Clement Pavlick 
Basil Stockmyere 18 
Crispin Lynch 
John B. Pesch 
Norman Demeck 15 
Michael J. Brennan 15 
David Roberts 1 3 
Students — 3rd Phil. 
Frederick Bauer 
Mario Gallipoli 
Edwin Moran 
Joel Polasik 
Donatus Santorsa 
Joseph Fiorino 
Gordon Amidon 
Barry Ward 
Isaias Power 
Ignatius McGinley 
Seamus McHugh 


Stanislaus Tansey 
Bernard Pughe 
Paul Morgan 

Holy Cross 

Boniface Buckley 5 
Aquinas Sweeney 8 
Linus Monahan 
Maurice Kansleiter 
Columban Courtman 15 
Luke Hay 

Columban Aston 15 
Silvio De Lucca 
Paschal Drew 15 
Christopher Collins 34 
Leopold Secundo 15 
Ronald A. Beaton 22 
Simon P. Wood 15 
John S. Gresser 15 
Colman Haggerty 15 
Brendan Breen 32 
Linus Rottloff 15 
Victor A. Mazzeo 15 
Stephen Haslach 
Justin Brady 33 
Vincent Cunningham 

Ronan Caulson 
Gabriel Chilbert 
Joseph Holzer 


Owen Lynch 5 
Roderick Hunt 8 
Hilarion ORourke 
Arthur Benson 
Jeremias McNamara 
Justin Mulcahy 15 
Hubert Sweeney 
Columba McCloskey 
Raphael Duffy 
Arthur May 
John F. Poole 18 
Flavian O'Donnell 
Alexis Scott 
Terence Brodie 
Adrian Poletti 17 
Silvan Brennan 38 
Leander Delli Veneri 
Claude Ennis 
Alan McSweeney 
Leo Byrnes 
Leonard Amhrein 18 
Dominic M. Cohee 
Albert Catanzaro 18 
Benedict J. Mawn 
Columkille Regan 13 
Gerald Hynes 1 8 
Cassian Yuhas 15 
Ronan Callahan 15 
Daniel Free 1 8 
Students — 1st Phil. 
Bruce Bucheit 
Conrad Bauer 
Brennan Keevey 
Michael Flinn 
Germain Flack 
Shawn McLaughlin 
Antoine Myrand 
Isidore Dwyer 
Lambert McDonald 
Mark Mulvaney 
Luke Perry 
Colgan Keogh 
Arthur McNally 

Bernardine Carmassi 
Aloysius Blair 


Rupert Langenstein 5 
Malachy McGill 8 
Bernard Hartman 

Henry Brown 
Edward Goggin 
Stephen Sweeney 
Winfrid Guenther 
William Cavanaugh 
Roland Hoffman 
Leonard Gownley 
Brian Murphy 
Paul M. Carroll 
Alban Carroll 
Ambrose Diamond 
Xavier Welch 
Alfred Weaver 17 
Jordan Loiselle 
Godfrey Reilly 
Edgar Vanston 
Edmund McMahon 
Cletus Dawson 51 
Marcellus McFarland 
Neil Sharkey 15 
Peter Hallisy 13 
Kevin McCloskey 15 
Godfrey Kaspar 1 8 
Gregory Durkin 
Christopher Czachor 
Giles Ahrens 18 
Aquinas McGurk 15 
Joyce Spencer 
Students — 1st Theol. 
Keith Blair 
Austin McKenna 
Terence Kelly 
Rex Mansmann 
Myles Scheiner 
Andrew Giondomenica 
Ralph Tufano 
Vernon Kelly 
Carl Thorne 
Kent Rummenie 
Rocco Oliverio 
Bernard O'Brien 
Dominic Papa 
Kenan Peters 
Philip Bebie 
Bede Engle 
Edward Blair 
Alphonsus Coen 


Canisius Hazlett 5 
Hilarion Walters 8 
Damian ORourke 
Claude Leahy 
Francis Shea 


Quentin Olwell 17 
Lucian Ducie 19 
Jordan Black 
Berchmans Lanagan 
Thomas A. Sullivan 
Leo J. Berard 
Finbar O'Meara 
Jerome O'Grady 
Cletus Mulloy 
Bede Cameron 18 
Joseph P. O'Neill 20 
Linus McSheffrey 
Norbert Herman 15 
Louis Maillet 
Jerome Does 1 8 
Con ran Free 
Eugene Fitzpatrick 21 
Angelo lacovone 
Venard Byrne 1 5 
Justinian Gilligan 15 
Luigi Malorzo 
Cronan Regan 13 
Students — 2nd Phil. 
Raphael Amhrein 
Celestine Riccardi 
Denis Mansman 
Hyacinth Welka 
Rupert Neyer 
Eymard Rehill 
Zacharias Statkun 
Basil Trahon 
Alderic Richard 
Rene Luedee 
Alphonsus M. Welling 
Benedict Palese 
Christopher Farrell 
Michael Stomber 


Luke Misset 5 
Martin J. Tooker 8 
Bede Horgan 
Eugene Kozar 
Frederick Corccoran 
Nilus MaAlister 
Hilary Donahue 21 
Hilary McGowan 
Rupert Langenbacher 
Miles McCarthy 
Connel Hopkins 
Dominic Grande 
Gilbert Walser 19 
Winfrid McDermott 

Fidelis Rice 16 
Casimir Horvat 
Ronald Murray 
Sylvester Cannon 
David Bulman 
Lawrence Mullin 
Columba Moore 13 
Lucien Morel 
J. Chrysostom Ryan 20 
George Nolan 
Canisius Lareau 
Quentin Amhrein 
Leo Gerrity 
Sacred Eloquence 
William Davin 
Raymond Pulvino 
Francis Hanlon 
Martin Grey 
Kilian M. McNamara 
Kevin Casey 
Patrick McDonough 
Norbert M. Dorsey 
Nicholas Zitz 
Eugene Leso 
Brian Rogan 
John F. McMillan 
Albert Pellicane 
Damian Towey 
Timothy Fitzgerald 
Aloysius Fahy 
Alan Cavanaugh 

Valentine Rausch 
Patrick Fallon 
Andrew Winkleman 
Timothy Foley 
Valentine Cashman 
Francis Dalton 


Felix Hackett 5 
John M. Aleckna 8 
Bartholomew Mulligan 
John J. Endler 
Cosmos Shaughnessey 19 
Roger Monson 
Owen Doyle 1 7 
Canice Gardner 
Conon O'Brien 
Bertrand McDewell 
Gordian O'Reilly 
Vincent Connors 
Cronan Flynn 18 
Lambert Missack 
Damien Reid 

Malachy Hegarty 
Kevin Conley 
Bernardine Gorman 
Philip Ryan 
Quentin Cerullo 
Benedict McNamara 
Alexander Hoffman 
Urban Curran 
Peter Quinn 
George Sheehy 
Arnold Horner 38 
Kieran Richardson 1 8 
Matthew Nestor 21 
Victor Donovan 1 5 
Gordian Murphy 
Brian Burke 18 
Florian Pekar 
Thomas Berry 
Julius Durkan 
Richard F. Leary 15 
Bernardine Grande 
Silvan Rouse 15 
Berard Tierney 20 
Camillus Gentakes 
Emmanuel Gordon 15 
Brice Ingelsby 53 
James Verity 
Lawrence Bellew 
Harold Reusch 13 
Students — 2nd Theol. 
Earl Keating 
Nelson McLaughlin 
Adrian Christopher 
Xavier M. Hayes 
Christian Kuchenbrod 
Alexander Mulligan 
Victor Hoagland 
Theodore Walsh 
Paulinus Cusack 
Sebastian Colluqy 
Cosmas Dimino 
Emmet Maguire 
Matthew Martin 
Dermot Dobbyn 
Barnabas Wenger 
Owen Lally 
Roderick Mescall 
John Murphy 
Henry Cavanaugh 
George Kowaleski 


Aloysius O'Malley 5 

Basil Cavanaugh 8 


Gilbert Smith 

Cyril Feeley 

Timothy McDermott 21 ■ 

Kenan Carey 

Alphonsus Cooley 

Caspar Conley 

Conran Kane 

Ronan Carroll 

Joseph L. Flynn 19 

Vincent Durkin 

Regis Mulligan 

Gerald Matejune 

Venard Johnson 

Bonaventure Gonella 

Patrick J. McDwyer 20 

Damian Rail 

Augustine Paul Hennessey 

Alphonsus Grande 

Arthur Derrig 

Hilary Sweeney 

Aidan Mahoney 15 

Bertin Farrell 15 

Jude Mead 

Fintan Lombard 15 

Roger Gannon 15 

Declan Maher 13 

Malcolm McGuinn 

Flavian Dougherty 20 

Students — 3rd Theol. 

Jerome McKenna 

James A. Wiley 

Gerald Surette 

Herbert Eberly 

Henry Free 

Roger Elliot 

Boniface Cousins 

Columban Hewitt 

Alban Harmon 

Leonard Murphy 

Campion Cavanaugh 


Simon West 44 

Dominic Critchlow 

Anselm Catalucci 

Philip Maggiulli 

Virgil Pasi 

William Drotar 

Fidelis Cristiano 

Peter Albright 

Raymond Sarrasin 


Connel McKeown 5 
James A. McAghon 8 
Gerard Kenney 
Egbert Gossart 1 7 
Donald Keenan 
Michael Connors 
Boniface Hendricks 
Maurus Schenck 18 
Cyprian Regan 
Regis Eichmiller 
John F. McLaughlin 
Justinian Manning 
Bro. Brian Forrestall 


Urban Manley 7 

Albinus Kane 

Aloysius McDonough 1 2-27 

Constantine Phillips 

Bro. Thomas Aul 

Daniel McDevitt 17 
Joachim Carrigan 

New Bern 
Julian Endler 17 
Gerald Ryan 18 
Howard Chirdon 1 8 
Thomas Carroll 1 8 

Maurice Tew 1 7 
Berchmans McHugh 18 


Emmanuel Trainor 17 
Gabriel Gorman 52 
Edward J. Banks 18 

William Whelan 7 
Cormac Shanahan 
Calistus Connolly 
Anthony Feeherry 
John B. Maye 
Ernest Hotz 
Dunstan Guzinski 

Anthony J. Nealon 17 
Dunstan Stout 18 

Justinian Tobin 


Walter Mickel 3 
Germain Heilmann 
Roland Flaherty 
Ronald Hill iard 
Anthony Neary 


Fabian Flynn 43 


Jogues McQuillan 
Edgar Crowe 
Robert Erne 


Marcellus White 
Justin Garvey 


Sidney Turner 39 
Christopher Berlo 39 
Timothy McGrath 40 
Romuald Walsh 40 
James Follard 40 
Nilus McAndrew 39 
Hugh McKeown 39 
Gabriel Bendernagel 42 
Conor Smith 39 
Eustace McDonald 42 
Robert Mulgrew 39 
Conan Conaboy 39 
Nilus Hubble 40 
Ambrose Maguire 39 
Fidelis Connolly 
Jude Dowling 
Edmund Hanlon 


Raphael Vance 
Terence Connelly 
Cyprian Walsh 
Leander Steinmeyer 



4th Gen'l Consultor 




1st Consultor 


Ind Consultor 




Master of Novices 






Prov. Secy. 


Prov. Econome 


Mission Secy. 


Prov. Dir. Studies 




Vice Master 




Lect. Sac. Eloq. 






Retreat Dir. 


Assist. Ret. Dir. 


Retreat Master 


Vocational Director 


Public Rel. Dir. 




Sign: Editor 


Sign: Assoc. Ed. 



Sign Post 


Sign: Business Mgr. 


Sign: Mission Proc. 


Sign: Field Director 


Sign: Fieldman 


Dir. Prep. Sem. 


Asst. Dir. Prep. 


Dean of Studies Prep. 


Chaplain: Laurel Hill 


Chaplain: Creedmor 


Chaplain: St. Agnes Hosp. 


Chaplain: Bon Secours Hosp 


Chaplain: Army 


Chaplain: Navy 


Chaplain: Marine 


Chaplain: Air Force 


Supervisor Jun. Bros. 


General Econome 


Secy. Gen'l For. Miss. 


Rules Commission 


Higher Studies 


Prov. Archivist 


Bishop's Secy. 


Chaplain: Passionist Nuns 


Building Superintendent 





April 1, 1957 

Vol. X, No. 2 

in- an in in- -an m nr an m nr- 

i i i c a i 1 ; 

lished bimonthly at Immac- 
ulate Conception Retr eat , 
5700 N. Harlem Ave,, Chicago 
31, Illinois, USA. Issued each 
February, April, June, August, 
October and December. Fi- 
nanced by free-will offerings 
of its readers. There is no 
copyright. The paper is a 
private publication. 

deeper knowledge and closer 
attainment of the purpose of 
our Congregation. Coopera- 
tion is invited. Contributions 
by any member of the Con- 
gregration are welcome ; 
whether it be news, past or 
present, of general or pro- 
vincial interest, articles dog- 
matic, ascetic, canonical or 
historical. Photographs of re- 
cent or historical events in 
the Congregation are also 
helpful towards the ideal 
THE PASSIONIST strives to 
reach and are sought. 

Bruce, C.P. 


Bulletin of Holy Cross Province 
Vol. X f No. 2 April 1, 1953 

urn* mi in lit limn* aimi hi -l.iiii, „ r -I,,,, 


Most Rev. Malcolm La Velle, Superior Ge 
eral, gives his impressions of his visit to t 
cradle of our Congregation, Monte Argentat 

In a timely article entitled "The Passion 
Painting Through the Ages," Rev. Fr. Jol 
Mary Render, C.P., Lector of Literature a\ 
History at Des Moines, Iowa, shows the ii 
portant part the Passion has played in fc 
paintings of great artists. 

Rev. Fr. Roland Maker, C.P., experience 
missionary and retreat master of Holy Crc 
Province, offers many insights into the pro\ 
lems of modern-day missions in his excelle 
article entitled: "Modern-Day Mission Pro\ 

"Cana Conferences in the Passionist Apost 
late," by Rev. Fr. Forrest Macken, C.P., Lect 
of Moral Theology and Canon Law in Lorn 
ville, Ky., points out how Cana Conferenc 
can be an excellent way of spreading devotii 
to the Passion. 

"Do we lose the indulgence of the Litany 
our Blessed Mother by adding the invocatio 
'Regina Congregationis Nostrae'?" Rev. Fr. Pa 
Mary Boyle, C.P., gives us an answer to th 

Obituary of Rev. Fr. Arnold Wetter, C.P. 

With this issue, The Passionist offers a ne 
section entitled "Answers to Questions" for tl 
convenience of its readers. 

for our modern-day speed to carry his 
message of the Crucified to the four 
corners of the world. For him the 
automobile, the train, the airplane, radio 
and television would have been a great 
gift from God to be used in drawing 
mankind to the foot of the Cross. The 
words of Pope Pius XII would have 
expressed his own sentiments. "... The 
Believer . . . will find it natural to place 



Are we prepared 

to meet the challenge of 

Modern-Day living? 

As he trudged wearily along the rough 
roads from city to city, from town 
to town, in the cold of winter and the 
heat of summer, barefooted, bare- 
headed, Our Holy Founder, St. Paul 
of the Cross, would have rejoiced to 
see the days that we see. Consumed by 
his desire to make known to the world 
"the glories and the ignominies of the 
Cross,'' St. Paul must have often wished 

technical conquests beside the gold, 
incense and myrrh of the Magi. This 
offering ... is the fulfilment of a divine 
command once placed upon him by 
God: 'Fill the earth and subdue it' 
(Gen. 1 :28) . "... How long and bitter 
has been the climb up to the present 
times, in which man can in some way 
say that he has fulfilled this divine com- 
mand' " (Christmas Message, 1955). 
How St. Paul would have welcomed 
the typewriter as night after night into 
the early hours of the morning his tired 
fingers wrote out his message of the 
Love of the Son of God. How often 
in his numerous letters we come across 
words like the following: "In yester- 
day's evening mail I received your letter, 
to which I respond in haste, since I 


am very occupied and close to departing 
on a mission" (Lettere I, 523). "I 
write with great haste, since I am still 
convalescing and am also loaded with 
letters and business" (Lettere I, 559). 
To have had at hand our modern-day 
newspaper and magazine would have 
rejoiced his heart. 

For St. Paul of the Cross our inven- 
tions would offer no problem. With 
his great spirit of prayer, penance, 
poverty and solitude he would be able 
to use all for God's greater honor and 
glory and for bringing souls to the 
foot of the Cross. But, for most of us 
today, these inventions offer a challenge. 
Use them, we must, if we want to be 
effective in our apostolate for souls. 
But there is a the great danger that we 
will fall into the easy-going ways of the 
world which seeks these things for 
themselves and not for the usefulness 
that can be found in them for bringing 
before the world the knowledge of 
"Christ and Him Crucified." 

The answer is to be found, not in 
condemning the progress of the modern 

world, but in condemning the inordinate 
use of these things that is contrary tc 
our Passionist Spirit. Certainly there isj 
great room for adaptation today, for the 
world of the twentieth century is no! 
the world of St. Paul of the Cross. But.i 
the Spirit that St. Paul of the Cross lefll 
his followers is an abiding spirit ano 
can be practiced in any place and ir 
any age by Passionists who are sincerely 
trying to walk in the footsteps of theiji 

The challenge to the modern-da) 
Passionist is to make effective use oi 
the progress of science, but in the word: 
of St. Paul the Apostle: "To use then 
as if they used them not." It is up tc 
each Psasionist who desires to be 
real follower of St. Paul of the Crosr 
to refound the Congregation with iti 
spirit of poverty, prayer, penance, soli 
hide and devotion to the Passion 03 
Christ in his own heart. If this is done 
then many of the problems of modem 
life will disappear and our apostolate 
for souls will become more effective. 





by Most Rev. MALCOLM, C.P. 

rPoLLOWiNG an ancient custom estab- 
|_| lishcd by my venerable predecessors, 
I was happy to accept the cordial in- 
vitation of M. R. Padre Damaso, Pro- 
vincial, and M. R. Padre Gregorio, 
Rector of the Retreat of the Presenta- 
tion, Monte Argentaro, to visit the 
cradle of our Congregation on the 
titular feast of the first Retreat, the 
more so because it was the first time 
since I had taken office that I was free 
from other duties on November 21st 
to fulfill this sacred tradition. 

You ask my Impressions of that 
historic occasion. 

From the time the invitation was 
extended, and during my journey, I had 
the impression that I was not going on 
an ordinary visit to one of our Houses, 

but that I was In Fact Making a Pil- 

At Orbetello, where our Fathers 
kindly met me and conducted me by 
car to the very doors of the Retreat, my 
impression was that I was arriving there 
by too easy and too convient a means. 
I could not fail to recall my first visit 
there ten years before, just after the 
General Chapter of 1946, when the 
road had not yet been completed, and 
it was necessary to make the last stage 
of the journey on foot. Perhaps that 
was the better way to arrive, if one 
would savor to the full the proper 
atmosphere of this holy place, for it 
was the way Our Holy Founder and his 
companions and many later generations 
of Passionists came and went on the r 


apostolic and questing journeys. 

At the door of the Church I was 
met by the Community with torches, 
because the electric lights had failed, 
and it was now dark. This circumstance 
gave the further impression that it was 
the Monte Argentaro of long ago, not 
the modern one, that I was visiting. 
Seeing the faces of the Religious in- 
distinctly in the uncertain and flickering 
light, and noting their efforts to see 
me under the same difficult circum- 
stances, seemed to obscure my own 
identity and to heighten the impression 
that I was not there in my own right, 
but as the representative or delegate of 
Our Holy Founder, who alone really 
had the right to be received at that 
particular place with such a demonstra- 
tion of welcome. 

Solemn Matins that night somehow 
was more solemn than anywhere else. 
Perhaps there where Passionists first 
sang Matins one felt more intensely the 
reason our Spiritual Father chose that 
particular means of praising God and 
helping mankind. 

The Solemn Mass, with the young 
students singing, assisted by the Novices 
from nearby San Giuseppe, had the 
warming effect St. Paul of the Cross 
must have felt there in the solitude of 
Monte Argentaro when youthful and 
generous disciples began to join him, 
and this impression was increased by the 
presence a meter or two from the sanc- 
tuary of the venerated remains of one 
of the youngest and holiest of Passion- 
ists, Galileo Nicolini. 

The walk to the Novitiate and back 
during the morning, accompanied by 

many from both Communities, with a 
stop en route to pray at the tomb oil 
our Religious, among them the Vener- 
able Padre Nazarreno, gave an oppor- 
tunity to observe the beauty and tran- 
quility of the spot destined by Divine 
Providence to be for all Passionists 
what Bethlehem is for all Christians, 
and to understand why, even from its 
natural attractions it would have drawn 
our Holy Founder as he first beheld it 
from his becalmed ship off the coast 
of Tuscany. Monte Argentaro was 
ideally suited for the supernatural work 
St. Paul of the Cross here accomplished: 
the maturing of his previously conceived 
notions of the spirit with which he 
would endow his new-born Institute, 
the giving of concrete forms to those 
ideals in his own life and those of hisi 
early companions. The impressions one 
gets is that here the "shadow of things- 
to come" (Col. X, 17) that wouldl 
form Passionists everywhere were fore-: 
seen and prayed for and suffered fon 
by the Founder, as Christ in Gethsemane 
suffered and prayed for the future needs 
of His Church, and in atonement fofl 
the failings of its members. As Christ 
had the consolation of foreseeing the 
world-wide ultimate triumph of His 
Church, we know that St. Paul of the 
Cross saw in vision "my sons in far ofl 
England." We do not know if there 
was another, but unrecorded, vision oi 
seeing his sons carrying his message ancj 
accomplishing his mission in thirty-five 
or forty nations in every part of the 
world, but one feels here that he did. 

(Continued on page 187) 




in the 



by FORREST Macken, C.P. 

An excellent way of 

spreading Devotion to the 

Passion of Christ 

PUBLIC attention has been caught 
by accounts in L'Osservatore Ro- 
mano 1 and The Homiletic and 

Pastoral Review,' 1 describing how our 
Passionist Missionaries in Italy have 
reached out to projects having no prec- 
edent. One is struck by certain similari- 
ties between these new works in Europe 
and the Cana Conferences preached by 
Passionists in several countries of South 
America, but particularly in the United 

It does not demand much imagina- 
tion to mark some parallels between 
these two recent applications of Passion- 
ist zeal. In Italy, the Passionists preached 
Christ Crucified to vocational groups, 
such as factory workers, army personnel, 
intellectuals and students, and the sick 
in private homes as well as in hospitals; 
and in America, to audiences of married 
couples gathered in specialized group- 
ings popularly known as Cana Con- 
ferences. Whether in Naples or Nor- 
wood Park, in Ferrara or Farmington, 
the Passionist preachers perform much 
the same work: they explain to partic- 
ularized gatherings, with a view to the 
special needs of each, the way to mo- 
tivate their day-by-day living with 
Christ Crucified. That the needs of 
souls in Italy demanded the particular- 
ized attention given there, was the 
judgment of the Cardinal of Naples 
and the Bishop of Ferrara. And with 
the same logic, all the Bishops of the 
United States have proclaimed that the 
present needs of family life in our 
country call for the specific work oi 
Cana Conferences. 


In November, 1947, the Cana Con- 
ferences (named after the village of 
Cana where Christ manifested his loving 
concern for husbands and wives) were 
only about two years old. Yet the 
American Bishops, convened in their 
Annual Meeting for that year, expressed 
their approval of this apostolate. Their 
prompt decision appears the more 
striking in contrast with their delibera- 
tive delays in approving other proposals 
for present needs, such as the modifica- 
tion of regulations for Fast and Abstin- 
ence, the Collectio Rituum, and the like. 
Not content with the original approval, 
they forcefully declared in the Annual 
Statement of 1949, "Canna Conferences 
. . . should be widely encouraged and 
zealously promoted throughout the 
country." 3 

Our Passionist Superiors, alert to the 
pressing needs of souls redeemed by 
Christ, have heeded the Bishops' call. 
In this they were not assuming the kind 
of work categorized by our Thirty Sixth 
General Chapter, in 1952, as "Foreign 
to our Institute . . . contrary to the spirit 
of our Congregation . . . (which work) 
can be accepted only in exceptional 
cases, 'should some important reason 
require it,' as the Rule, n. 301 pre- 
scribes." 4 It is commonly agreed that 
Cana Conferences are nothing else than 
one-day retreats. For example, H. D. 
Lavell, in his book, The Obligation of 
Holding Sacred Missions in Parishes, 
writes, "In late years one-day retreats, 
or days of recollection, have become 
popular, especially in the United States. 
They are held regularly by some parishes 
and by various lay groups (e.g., Holy 


Name Society, Legion of Mary, Third 
Orders, Cana Conferences). These days 
of recollection have proved popular 
because many who are unable to attend 
a full retreat are still able to take ad- 
vantage of these exercises." 5 

Should it be true that such one-day 
retreats do not fall under the term 
"retreat" as used among us Passionists 
and, accordingly, by the General Chap- 
ter when it designated our "Primary 
Activities," then they clearly fall within 
the "Secondary Activities" designated 
by the same Chapter. Such activity must 
be done "in a manner moving souls to 
detest sin, and to cultivate devotion to 
Our Lord's Sacred Passion." 6 Just as 
Missions and Retreats conducted in 
the Passionist manner are distinguished 
from any others, so a Canna Conference 
conducted by a Passionist is distinctive: 
among others. 

Cana Conferences are directed in 
part to the purpose of eliminating moral, 
disorders. The couples are instructed; 
"to detest sin," especially sins of un-t 
charitableness in quarreling, disobedi-i 
ence towards God's authority in the 
head of the home, injustice regarding! 
the "debitum," unchastity in "birth! 
control." Even more, they are taughtt 
to hate these sins, because of the stress 
laid on the positive attractiveness which 
God has planned in the opposite virtues 
Most of all, they learn how to live witU 
Christ, how to profit by ready opportun 
ities for "cultivating devotion to Christ 
in His Passion." For instance, ir 
Chapter XVI of Our Holy Rule: On 
the Vow to Promote Among the Faith 
jul a Religious Devotion Towards ana 

Grateful Remembrance of the Passion 
and Death of Our Lord Jesus Christ, 
we read, "Let them exhort them to suf- 
fer something each day for Jesus 
Christ." How easy for parents to do 
this, for example, in suffering with 
Christ their discomfort in getting up 
during the night to care for a crying 
child. So much of the drudgery and 
monotony of married couples takes on 
rich meaning in suffering something 
each day to fill up in their flesh the 
things wanting to the sufferings of 
Christ. In fine, our Passionist purpose 
is served by the Church's words in the 
ritual instruction read to couples during 
the Cana Conference, "Rest the security 
of your wedded life upon the great 
principle of self-sacrifice. . . . We are 
willing to give in proportion as we 
love . . . God so loved the world that 
He GAVE His only begotten Son; and 
the Son so loved us that He GAVE 
Himself for our salvation." 

Cana Conferences are commonly held 
on Sunday, as most other days of recol- 
lection. The day commences with Mass. 
Even when family circumstances de- 
mand that the conferences be given only 
after dinner, the couples are instructed 
to make their Mass this Sunday their 
Cana Mass and to receive Holy Com- 
munion together. A homily on Christ's 
attitude toward marriage is preached 
whenever possible. The remainder of 
the day is often compressed into brief 
prayers, four conference periods and 
Benediction of the Blessed Sacrament, 
ending before supper time. Duties of 
their state in life limit the hours they 
have free for retreat, just as during our 

own Community retreats there are neces- 
sities that call for attention during 
parts of the day from Superiors, Direc- 
tors of Students, Brothers in the kitchen 
and in charge of the boiler, and the reli- 
gious watching with the sick brethren. 
As for silence, many Cana conductors 
allow it to be optional during periods 
interlaced among the four conference 
periods, as some of our Fathers do 
during High School and College re- 
treats. Many couples feel they can 
learn much from discussion with the 
other couples in light of the conferences 
of homely ways of living with Christ 
in their family life. Other couples find 
it helpful to walk alone while they 
discuss the application to themselves of 
the conferences, which are couple-cen- 
tered rather than individual-centered. 
Should any clarification from the preach- 
er be desired, they can ask it before the 

Some features of these Cana days of 
recollection can strike one as novel. 
However, if couples were to wait for 
an opportunity to make a retreat to- 
gether as a couple in a traditional for- 
mat, hundred of thousands of them 
would wait in vain. Among other 
things, retreat houses accomodating 
couples are comparatively few. Still 
the couples' hunger for inspiration and 
help to married holiness cries out NOW. 

This does not imply that instruction 
is lacking in their parishes at present, 
whether in sermons or the parish Mis- 
sion. But when is it practicable for 
these to ignore the general congrega- 
tion and concentrate several hours of 
sermons addressed to married COUpleS? 


What equals the time-saving directness 
of addressing married couples exclu- 
sively ? 

Among the hundreds of thousands 
of couples who have participated in 
Cana Conferences, farily widespread 
agreement determines the need of an- 
other Conference after a year or two. 
For Cana does not claim to be a novelty, 
attracting the curious and exhausting its 
worth in one or two experiences. 

Most couples feel the need of some- 
thing like Cana as long as they recognize 
that their love for each other falls 
short of the description by Pope Pius 
XI in His encyclical on Christian Mar- 
riage. His Holiness wrote, "Love con- 
sists in the deep attachment of the heart 
which is expressed in action, since love 
is proved by deeds. This outward ex- 
pression of love in the home demands 
not only mutual help, but must go 
farther; must have as its primary pur- 
pose that man and wife help each other 
day by day in forming and perfecting 
themselves in the interior life, so that 
through their partnership in life they 
may advance ever more and more in 
virtue, and above all that they may 
grow in true love towards God and the 
neighbor, on which indeed 'dependeth 
the whole law and the prophets' " 7 
* * * 

Perhaps the best barometer for 
gauging the worth of Cana Conferences 
is to evaluate them through the testi- 
mony of the people who have made 
them. This testimony is here confined 
to their spoken and written remarks 
following the Cana Conference on the 
Husband-Wife areas of family life, i.e., 


dealing with such topics as, Vocation 
from God to be "one in mind, heart 
and affection" (despite psychological 
differences); Marriage and the Mass; 
the Virtue of Married Chastity; Living 
For and With Christ Crucified Today. 8 

As one Cana Conference ended, a 
man walked up to the priest, shook 
his hand firmly and said, "Father, I've 
been married twenty-four years, but 
I've learned some things about the 
meaning of my marriage I never knew 
before." Similar remarks are not un- 

Some days after another Cana Con- 
ference, a wife was ironing the cuffs 
of her husband's white shirt, exactly as 
she had always done, when her husband 
came in to do something he had never 
done before. He told her how he 
appreciated all the work she did for 
him. Then, a little embarrassed at the 
sound of his own words, he mumbled 
something about the Cana Conference. 
But their hearts beat with gratitude to 
Christ of Cana for being drawn closer 
together by an incident that can seem 
so trivial to us celibates. 

The reason for such incidents can be 
easily traced, by young husbands and 
wives and others not so young, to the 
few hours on a Sunday that they spent I 
side by side, listening together, dis- 
cussing together, praying together. 
These hours did not seem taxing or 
tiring. The reason lay not merely in 
the informal atmosphere of the con- 
ference room — an auditorium, school 
cafeteria, or hall — where they could 
relax while listening to the talks. It 
was rather that the Cana Conference 

directly met a need they somehow felt, 
a vague hunger for something not al- 
ways defined. Not that they were 
having trouble with their marriage. The 
majority of them felt reasonably satis- 
fied with their marriage, but they still 
sensed a need. 

As the Cana Conference progressed, 
part of this need proved to be as old as 
Original Sin. It became plain to them 
that many truths — such as the high 
dignity of marriage in God's plan — had 
slipped back into the darker corners 
of their mind and memory. Such things 
came into focus as the Cana Conference 
played upon homely family life the 
spotlight of divine splendor. They 
found inspiration in the teaching of 
Pope Pius XI: the spousal relationship 
between Christ and His Church re- 
mains mystically present in the marriage 
bond linking them now and for life. 
Further encouragement came from a 
realization that the virtue of chastity 
means control of the sex drive accord- 
ing to the principles of right reason 
and Faith. So, in acting according to 
God's law, as taught by the Church, 
they were not merely tolerating what 
is lawful, but could exercise virtue and 
in fact could grow in the virtue of 

As for other influences of Original 
Sin, their daily experience had some- 
times become a living commentary on 
the words in Galatians, "You do not 
do what you would.'' Their good in- 
tentions had dissolved into petulance. 
And then, amid daily routine, they had 
rationalized their selfishness. But in the 

Cana Conference they learned how 
personal fulfilment could be achieved 
by complementing instead of competing 
with each other. To inspire a GENER- 
OUSLY GIVING LOVE for one an- 
other ,the Crucified Christ was held up 
before them as before the married 
couples at Ephesus in St. Paul's day. 
"Husbands love your wives just as 
Christ also loved the Church and de- 
livered himself up for her." 

One obstacle to sanctification of mar- 
ried life was found by the couples in 
their own attitude towards sanctity. 
Their desire for holiness had often been 
deadened by the doubt: "Holiness for 
the likes of us? . . . between my job 
and meetings bills ? . . . among dishes 
and diapers? ? ?" These persons were 
assured, in the course of the Conference, 
that God has not consigned married 
people to mediocrity. They heard this 
truth addressed to married people di- 
rectly, in the words of Pope Pius XI 
Himself in his encyclical On Christian 
Marriage. "All men, of every condition 
and in whatever honorable walk of life 
they may be, can and ought to imitate 
the most perfect example of holiness 
placed before man by God, namely 
Christ Our Lord, and by God's grace to 
arrive at the summit of perfection, as 
is proved by the example set us by 
many saints. "• Our present Holy Father 
assured them in His encyclical letter, 
The Mystical Body of Christ, that Chris- 
tian Marriage is one way to "the peak 
of holiness; and such holiness Jesus 
Christ has promised will never be 
wanting to the Church." 10 The same 
Pope later emphasized that this way to 


holiness cannot be considered as indi- 
vidualistic. "Marriage, in effect, unites 
two persons in a common destiny, in 
their progress toward the realization of 
an ideal which implies . . . the attain- 
ment of spiritual values of a trans- 
cendent order. . . . This ideal the mar- 
ried couple pursue together by dedi- 
cating themselves to the attainment of 
the primary end of marriage, the gen- 
eration and education of children." 11 

While the effects of Original Sin 
accounted for part of their need, still 
the couples found that other aspects of 
their problem were as new as the 
modern trends detected by vigilant 
sociologists in the rapidly changing 
American family. Couples had come to 
realize, as our society undergoes great 
change, that their home life must differ 
to some extent from their parents' way 
of living. How to make adjustments 
and yet remain true to the wishes of 
Christ had proved bewildering. In 
answer to their perplexity, perhaps the 
Cana speaker paraphrased a statement 
of the renowned Jesuit sociologist, 
Reverend John L. Thomas, who points 
out that the Catholic minority, as every 
minority in our complex and changing 
culture, "must distinguish clearly be- 
tween necessary adaptations and those 
innovations based on premises opposed 
to its own and rendering the realization 
of its own values either improbable or 
impossible. . . . 

"What is required, therefore, is a 
clear understanding of essential family 
values, and a willingness to make what- 
ever adjustments and adaptations are 
required for their realization. If (some) 


traditional means prove ineffective, then 
new means must be devised, since the 
essential purposes of the family remain 
unchanged. Unless means are found to 
realize these purposes in a manner com- 
patible with Catholic standards, other 
practices will be adopted. Family needs 
are immediate, and cannot be readily 
postponed." 12 

Discussion of essential family values 
followed. Adjustments and adaptations 
were suggested by the couples them- 
selves under the priest's guidance. Each 
couple was heartened by the experience 
that all other couples, not only their 
circles of friends, meet the same chal- 
lenges. Many solutions opened out for 

The ceremony concluding every 
Cana Conference usually remains the 
most vivid memory of the day. Going 
to the church, the couples kneel side 
by side. At the priest's direction they 
hold each other's right hand, and renew 
their "marriage vows" — the mutual gift 
of their wedding day, again taking each 
other for better, for worse, for richer, 
for poorer. . . . 

Then from the tabernacle, for Bene- 
diction of the Blessed Sacrament, is 
taken the Christ Who was present at 
the Marriage Feast in Cana in Galilee. 

The enthusiasm that they take home 
is found not in a sentimental reminder 
of their Wedding Day, nor merely in 
a heartening experience amid many 
other couples, but in the fact that, 
instead of "going it alone," they will 
more than ever walk with Christ 

They will do this because of a new 

application of the Passionist Apostolate. 
They will do it because their Cana 
Conference was a one-day retreat during 
which a Passionist preached "in a man- 

ner moving souls to detest sin and to 
cultivate devotion to Our Lord's Sacred 


1 November 4, 1955. 

2 December, 1956. 

8 "The Christian Family," Our Bishops 
Speaks, p. 159. Milwaukee, The Bruce 
Publishing Co., 1952. 

4 Officially printed English translation 
for the Provinces of St. Paul of the 
Cross and Holy Cross, p. 12. 

5 P. 100. Washington, D.C., The 
Catholic University of America Press, 

6 Loc. cit. 

7 Five Great Encyclicals, pp. 83-4. 
New York, The Paulist Press, 1939. 

8 Another series of conferences treats 
of motives and means for fostering 
Christian attitudes in pre-adolescents. 

Still another series does so in regard to 
adolescents. Pre-Cana is devoted to 
couples before marriage, usually already 
engaged; the Sunday conferences by the 
priest are followed, on two evenings 
during the week, by sessions conducted 
by specially trained married couples 
and doctors. 

9 Loc. cit. 

10 Paragraph 17, N.C.W.C. translation. 

11 Address to the Second World 
Congress on Fertility and Sterility, May 
19, 1956, The Pope Speaks. Autumn, 
1956, p. 193. 

12 Social Order. November 1955, p. 



Salvadori Dali, an excellent modern painter who is now devoting his talents 
to Christian themes is the author of our Cover Design, "The Christ of St. John 
of the Cross." He considers this painting his greatest work. The original in- 
spiration came from a sketch of Christ leaning forward from the Cross painted 
by St. John of the Cross after a vision. Dali reproduces the figure projected 
over the bay of Port Lligat, Spain. The cross gives the impression of extending 
forward and backward through all space and time, as though timeless in His 
desire to pour down mercy on men everywhere. The Body of Christ is flawless, 
a symbol of the perfection of Christ as God and man. Dali's early paintings are 
characterized by limp watches, plastic pianos, and other less delectable subjects. 
After an audience with Pope Pius XII, he turned from "surrealism" to what 
he calls "the realistic mysticism of the Catholic Faith." 



Dishop Joseph McGucken, the new 
u ordinary of Sacramento California 
and warm friend of our Congregation, 
in a recent conversation that touched 
upon our specific work in the Church 
remarked flatly that it was his experi- 
ence, "we have lots of missions, but 
very few missionaries." As the more 
timid ones present scurried to the shelter 
of silence before this direct blast, several 
of those present rallied and offered by 
way of defense, something of what is 
contained in the following paper. 

Our people have changed with the 

No one can deny the drastic social 
revolution which has taken over in 
American life in the 57 years of this 
century. In the year 1900 few of our 
average parishes could boast of parish- 
ioners who were university graduates; 
indeed, a very large percentage of our 
adults at that time had never seen the 
inside of a Catholic High School. At 
the turn of the century the forty-hour 
week, paid vacations, the airplane, the 
automobile were unknown factors in 
Catholic life. Movies, television, radio 
were things of the future. There was 
little of the bizarre of modern life to 
attract or distract the adolescent, the 
mature Catholic man or woman. 

One cannot say that theirs was an 
unhappy life. It had been the way of 
living for untold generations of our 
people here and in the various countries 
of Europe from which they had stemmed 
— founded on and almost completely 
taken up with home, work and the 

To such a people missions were a 



combination of Disney Land, Coney 
Island, Ed Sullivan Shows and the 
Brooklyn Dogers combined. Coming as 
they did, once every five or ten or 
twenty years into the midst of such a 
humdrum (to our viewpoint) existence, 
the missionaries, dressed in mantled 
black robes and sandled feet, sparkling 
speakers preaching with poise and force 
and burning ardor, spiced with an 
occasional dash of humor threw delight- 
ful spiritual hysteria into the lackaday 
life of the workingman's parish, and 
'the mission' served as subject matter 
of conversation for months and even 
years after the last strains of the Holy 
God We Praise Thy Name had died in 
the rafters. 

A half century has wrought a gigan- 
tic, physical, moral, intellectual, enter- 
tainment-wise change on the American 
scene. Our advanced economy, from 
the tenement house to suburbia, our vast ; 
expansion in higher education, not to 
mention the greately increased leisure 
time and the wholesale onslaught of 
materialistic philosophy, makes our 
childhood days of the 1900's and the 


1910's seem more like the 17th century 
than a mere fifty years ago. 

One cannot possibly detract from 
the forensic artistry and apostolic zeal 
which made the names of Robert 
McNamara, Xavier Sutton, Alexis Cun- 
neen and Ignatius Conroy the successful 
popular legends of Passionist Mission- 
aries they were in their day. But, their 
day is not our day. The last faint echo 
of their day died and was interred re- 
cently when John Ringling North folded 
up his circus tents and said Finis. 

Surely human nature has not changed. 
But, indisputably we face congregations 
today whose receptivity to missions as 
such has been blunted so tremendously 
by a thousand and one outside influences 
and attractions that I belive a Vincent 
Strambi or our own Holy Founder 
would have difficulty in attracting a 
9V7 or \00 r /r parish attendance in 
a society such as Los Angeles or Miami. 
Yes, cannot one recall in all reverence 
that Our Divine Lord had some advice 
to the Apostles relevant to those places 
and people who would not listen? 

But, we are dealing with our own 


The last faint echo of their 
day died and was interred 
when John Ringling North 
folded up his tents and said 

by ROLAND Maher, C.P. 


beloved people and with our own times, 
and the challenge is being thrown at 
our feet, as one of the outstanding 
specifically missionary congregations in 
the Church of America — 'Have mis- 
sions lost their appeal to American 
Catholics ?' 

Let us not forget in the face of the 
pessimistic hue and cry that has erupted 
recently, that our missions are by no 
means total failures today. No one who 
has had any practical experience as 
prospectors in the gold mine of human 
souls can doubt for a minute that our 
missions, by God's grace, still effect a 
great harvest of good; in encouraging 
the solid care of our finest people and 
in drawing into the net of God's for- 
giveness thousands of wayward and 
harrassed souls — and many of these 
latter may well have plunged down- 
ward into total loss of faith and Eternal 
Damnation were it not for the modern 
generation of Passionist Missionary. 
Nor can one forget, although it is be- 
side the point, the tremendous spiritual 
boost and moral courage which again 
by God's grace the Passionist Missionary 
injects into that grand army of our 
nuns in their annual retreat; nor by 
the same token, in that ideal method 
of spiritual strengthening and rehabili- 
tation accomplished as magnificently for 
our thousands of weekend retreat lay- 
men. We are not by any manner of 
means drooping, sterile branches on the 
tree of Passionist Missionary activity. 

The point of interest and surely none 
with a fourth vow can be uninterested 
is, what is needed to arrest the attention 
of that great number of Mass going 


Catholics who do not turn out for our 
parish missions. 

Actually it is physically impossible 
for a great quota to come, who other- 
wise would. We have the night shift 
problem and consequent baby-sitting 
problem which excludes a growing 
number in our industrial areas. We 
have the heavy homework problem of 
those of High School age who formerly 
had front seats every night when there 
was no opportunity of High School. 
We have, I would hazard, about one- 
fourth of our people who once swelled 
the crowd in the good old days who can- 
not possibly make our missions today. 

Now as to the problem of those who 
could make our missions but indifferent- 
ly pass them by completely, let us look 
for some positive side. 


As Father Cornelius McGraw pointed 
out very well in his letter to the Hotni- 
letic Monthly our mission attendance 
has suffered from a lack of proper and 
sufficient advertising, through no fault 
of our own. A casual glance at our 
newspapers and magazines or a single 
evening of radio or television spells the 
thought of successful business relative 
to the value of advertising. A great 
deal of Billy Graham's success lies in; 
the high pressure public relations experts 
who precede his evangelical invasions. 
Given a similar build up for a name 
missionary and one hundred Madison 
Square Gardens would not hold Metro- 
politan New York's curious Catholic 

What is our build up in most cases 
but a dated 'come to the mission' leaflet 

ill the vestibule of the church, or a dull 
announcement two Sundays in advance 
with the enthusiasm of Steppin Fetchit 
by perhaps a well-meaning but inept 

The best preparation by far for a holy 
mission is a house to house door bell 
ringing parish census by the parish 
priest or better still by nuns trained for 
the work, seconded by rousing enthusi- 
astic sermons by the local clergy. A 
suggestion would be a series of two or 
three outlined or entirely written fifteen 
minute talks sent out in advance to, in 
many cases grateful, assistants and 

Again, all of us have found the 
children who attend the parochial school 
to be veritable dynamos of advertising. 
But, there are besides a sizeable group 
of public school children whose parents 
are frequently in the lax and indifferent 
class, whom we can seldom contact save 
on the Saturday morning before the 
mission closes. Could the missionary 
arrive in time to speak to these often- 
times grand children he could through 
them contact a large element who would 
otherwise never be reached. 

Then there remains that final last 
ditch golden moment of advertising and 
promotion — the first Sunday announce- 
ments and ferverino. I can remember 
the fringes of the old days when the 
mission was opened at the last mass at 
ten or ten thirty. The procession after 
the gospel, the singing of the prayers 
and the long opening discourse (We are 
Ambassadors of Almighty God). Often 
the Mass being a sung Mass lasted from 
an hour and a half to two hours. Such 

an official opening, with the church 
jammed to the doors was the spark 
which united the spiritual bonfire which 

Imagine, if you can, the effect of an 
opening, such as we have read recently 
in Italian cities, taking place in Chicago 
or Atlantic. The Bishop or Cardinal 
Archbishop surrounded by surpliced 
clergy and altar boys awaiting the arrival 
of the missionaries at the depot. The 
TV cameras in action as the mission- 
aries kneel for the asperges — then the 
solemn procession, church bells clanging 
in the various parish churches — we can 
dream ! 

Alas, in many cases we have masses 
on the hour every hour form six through 
twelve noon. We have parking lot 
problems, parish announcements, hun- 
dreds of Communions at the earlier 
masses, so that we have ten to fifteen 
minutes at the most to make our spirit- 
ural sales talk, to sell ourselves and 
our God-given product to a discrimi- 
nating audience. No, our mission is 
not at all a matter of self exploiting; 
but we are God's humble instruments 
and the message we carry, divine as it 
is, comes from human lips to human 
ears. That Sunday morning fifteen 
minutes is our introduction and as any 
salesman will agree that first impression 
is generally decisive. 

We can all learn, even the experi- 
enced missionary, a great deal from the 
one or two minute TV network com- 
mercials. The poise, the fervid manner. 
the friendly touch, the well-chosen 
words are often revelations of sales- 
manship and effective examples of the 


craft of speaking. We are not dealing 
with Fords or Camels or Pabst Blue 
Ribbon but with souls in great need of 
inspiration and help. 

The Missionary 

The head of a big insurance company 
in Los Angeles, an intelligent and 
solidly Catholic man, recently sought 
solution of a difficulty. He commenced 
by describing the veritable rat race 
which big business is today. He en- 
larged upon his standards for his more 
than two hundred men. No master of 
novices could have been more exacting, 
more intolerant of mediocrity. Now, 
then, he continued, if this be the day 
by day, dog eat dog, battle of wits 
and test of efficiency in the business 
world, how is it, he wondered, that a 
priest, engaged in this worlds most sub- 
lime and precious of products, could 
stand before an intelligent audience 
Sunday after Sunday, and hand out the 
pap, the poorly thought out, haltingly 
preached, dull, uninspiring sack of talks 
which, he said, had been his general 
experience in his secular parish for 
years ? 

Would you say he had a point ? 

As missionaries trained in soul and 
mind and preaching potential, in a day 
of expanded education, efficiency meth- 
ods, super jets and super anahist, not to 
mention a day of Life Magazine type of 
superficial thinking millions, we are 
certainly expected to be and rightfully 
so, masters of the public platform. 

(These notes are not intended to 
deal with the spiritual qualities which 
certainly adorn the character of the 
sandled monk who faces the people. 


I speak solely of the physical tools of 
his profession and of the human prob- 
lems and helps confronting the modern 
Passionist Missionary. ) 

Surely, he should possess a great deal 
of the artistry which his profession and 
subject matter demand. He should 
stand head and shoulder above the local 
clergy as a dynamic, an arresting, an 
inspiring public speaker. No means 
should be left unturned, no time spared, 
to embellish his God-given talents, to 
sparkle his sermons with solid well- 
presented spiritual food to attract the 
soul-hungry ones looking to the mis- 
sionary as one sent by God. 

This should be the ideal set forth in 
all its allurement to the Passionist Cleric 
from his first day at the Prep through 
his first critical years as a professed 

Why can we not produce, with such j 
long years of magnificent opportunity 
of preparation, the finest priest orators 
of the United States? Some few per- 
haps have little of the necessary talent 
or aptitude. But, for most, with all 
the years of study under degreed teach- 
ers, with all the public reading in choir 
and refectory, with all the chanting to 
develop voice — to say nothing of count- 
less hours of meditation and prayer — 
there is no reason on earth, why, pos- 
tulating the 'zelus domus tuae comedit 
me' of a forth vowed Passionist, they 
cannot become forceful speakers and 
requested men on our mission band. 

The doleful complaint that the people 
didn't turn out, or that the mission 
fell of, or I never get any requests for 
missions, might well be poorly made by 

the individual so complaining. The 
pastors of large parishes for the most 
are clever, zealous, experienced men. 
Too often in by-gone days were they 
burned by writing to a superior for 
two missionaries, possibly at a late date, 
and got those who remained. They 
want today some guarantee by way of 
previous knowledge or dealing or hear- 
say of at least the principal missionary 
coming to their parish — and can you 
say honestly that you blame them. I 
dare say our own pastors of monastery 
parishes so request missionaries of the 
Provincial 90% of the time. 

By way of an aside, the writer has 
frequently heard the remark: "Such a 
father might not make a missionary, 
but he should be good for sister's 
retreats." By contrast, it is my con- 
sidered opinion that of all groups to 
whom we have the privilege of preach- 
ing, none demand, by reason of their 
intelligence and high dedication, except 
perhaps the secular clergy, more tal- 
ented, more versatile and more naturally 
and supernaturally gifted missionaries. 

Granted then the difference of atti- 
tude and thought and environment of 
modern American Catholic life from 
fifty-seven years ago, missionaries today 
need far more, than our illustrious 
predecessors to attract and to hold their 
present day audience. And, if any 
group in the country should be able to 
keep abreast of the situation, the 
thoroughly trained and almost individ- 
ually tutored Passionist professed priests 
should be the men. 

By way of conclusion to this point, 
I might add that oftentimes I have 

wished we could occasionally work a 
public miracle, such as frequently oc- 
curred in apostolic times and in the 
middle ages — or even that Almighty 
God would send His Immaculate Moth- 
er in a verified apparition somewhere 
in our fair land. How these would help 
us! What a concourse would hasten to 
our missions. But then I hear an echo, 
"Unless you see signs and wonders, 
you will not believe." And, too, is 
Paris much different, morally, as a result 
of Lourdes. 

Subject Matter? 

In the light of what Canon Law has 
to say about the preaching of the eternal 
truths and in the vivid realization of our 
prescribed and long established sequence 
of evening sermons, and with a warm 
salute to dear old Father Linus Mona- 
han for his masterful and moving lecture 
on Passionist tradition of Missions in 
the report of the Eastern Province 
Missionary Congress — which we all will 
cherish — it will likely appear temerar- 
ious to write at variance, in a minor 
degree, to the traditional topics. But if 
some difference of ideas be permitted 
expression, they are offered not as my 
own actually present usage, (we must 
conform) but as possible implementa- 
tions to the attraction of our people to 
our missions. Nor are we in any sense 
eager beaver youths seeking change or 
glamour for their own sakes: nearly 
thirty years of uninterrupted mission 
activity certainly leaves one with an 
intense leisure to see our beloved life's 
work retain its effectiveness. 

Which, I query, is better, to speak 
with the force and fervor of the ancients 


on the accustomed series of earth 
shaking topics to an ever dwindling 
congregation of a thrill sated genera- 
tion, or to hold them and increase their 
numbers and interest by combining the 
solid hard hitting type of mission ser- 
mons on the eternal truths with some- 
thing of instructive sermons more di- 
gestible by our superficial thinking gen- 

I am convinced, perhaps erroneously, 
but nonetheless sincerely, that were one 
of our men of hallowed memory to 
return to life and preach his mission of 
1910 in a parish on Long Beach, Cali- 
fornia some October week when the 
heralded climate of that same tropical 
area is luring people by the tens of 
thousands to the beaches, to the moun- 
tains, to the resorts, to the Coliseum 
and maybe to hell — or even in other 
less worldly distracting areas of our 
land — and were he to pursue as we 
suggested his unswerving sequence of 
Sunday night, The End of Man, Mon- 
day night, Mortal Sin, Tuesday night, 
Death, Wednesday night, General 
Judgment or Hell, by Friday night he 
might well wonder what happened to 
his mission. 

I have heard most of our ancients 
whose glorious service and record well 
deserve niches in our hall of fame, so 
pulverise their audience with the afore 
mentioned block-busters that were they 
alive and active today, many thousands 
of 1957 Catholics, good, bad and in- 
different simply would not make it. 

What then; are we advocating the 
abolishing of strong sermons on the 
Eternal Truths as a compromise to a 

weak and sinful generation? God for- 
bid. But, cannot we somehow temper 
the severity, by a rotation of less severe 
but, nevertheless highly important and 
very necessary, and by the same token, 
more attractive instructive topics? 

It was partially from such a con- 
sideration that our own Missionary 
Congress of 1945 sought and received 
permission to integrate the several in- 
structions on the Sacrament of Penance 
(the missionaries being in accord) into 
one big evening subject. Most of those 
who opposed such an arrangement at 
that time have since become ardent 
advocates of the innovation. What, 
further, is more Passionistic, more neces- 
sary for the rank and file than a striking 
dogmatic-moral sermon on the Holy 

I am not by any manner of means 
holding in suspect any one of the eter- 
nal truths as other than powerfully per- 
suasive means of drawing sinners to 
repentance, lapsed Catholics to the con- 
fessions. No. They are our life's blood 
and bone and marrow. But, I suggest 
a spacing, a staggering of such strong 
sermons, especially at the early stages of 
the mission with lighter but just as 
wholesome bread of the Faith. People 
have changed from the solid sturdy 
workingman of little education but pro- 
found faith of 1910. And, unless we 
bend somewhat to the cultivated if 
synthetic tastes of our former G.I.'s 
and their families we will be preaching 
to empty pews. 

Has there not been a notable recog- 
nition of this restless tension of modern 
life in recent proposals to mitigate the 


severity of our Holy Rule? 

This writer wishes fervently that 
compromise were not feasible. That it 
would be a case of like it or leave it, 
dig or die. And perhaps his thoughts 
expressed concerning our people and 
their reactions have been somewhat 
slanted by four years in Southern Cali- 
fornia's neo-paganism, with its indif- 
ferentism and exaggerated materialism. 
Here we have trouble, talking pastors of 
1500 to 2000 family parishes into a 
two week's mission. They never had 
more than one week and many are 
amazed and highly pleased at turnouts, 
while we who know better are sick 
at heart. I still cherish the memory of 
the packed churches of Chicago, St. 
Paul, Minnesota and Detroit in sub 
zero weather. 

The subject matter of our customary 
morning talks on the combined Pas- 
sion Commandment sequence are per- 
fect for the spirit of the mission and 
the spiritual wants of the people. But, 
alas, how many even of those fine 
people who do come so faithfully at 
nights simply cannot remain after Mass 
for the talks. And pray tell me where 
oh where, apart from strictly rural 
parishes, can you find a mission where 

a late mass is practicable for the men's 
mission ? 

For the patient reader who has per- 
severed thus far, I would like to sum up. 

We are practically the only religious 
congregation in America exclusively 
dedicated to preaching missions. This 
high and exalted work has ever been 
considered one of the most powerful 
means of preserving the faith in the 
lives of any people. 

We are confronted with greater 
hindrances than any generation of mis- 
sionaries before us in the Congregation. 
But, our young aspirants to the platform 
have greater opportunities of training 
and education ever afforded Passionist 

Until a better way be devised, in 
some future technological advance, of 
preaching Christ and Him Crucified, 
parish missions are at the top of the 
hierarchy of the means at our disposal. 

Let us gather our forces by such 
debate as our magazine provides — and 
by suggestions and articles to equal if 
not surpass the glorious record of our 
predecessors, the Passionist Missionaries 
of the past, in holding our people to 
the Faith by means of parish missions. 


Beginning with this issue, The Passionist is featuring a new section entitled 
Answers to Questions. The purpose of this new feature is to provide "our 
Readers with ready answers to questions that touch closely upon our Passionist 
way of life. Questions on Law, Custom, Theology, Liturgy and Sacred Scripture 
that have a special interest to Passionists will be answered. Men throughout 
the Province who have specialized in these subjects have graciously consented 
to answer these questions. Our Readers are invited to send their questions to 
the Editor who will forward them to those handling this special subject. 


Art has its own insight into reality. 
Art has its own way of sharing 
that insight. Pope Pius XII, speaking 
to the First International Congress of 
Catholic Artists, Sept. 5, 1950, com- 
ments : 

"Thanks to its subtlety and refine- 
ment, art — whether heard or seen — 
reaches depths in the mind and heart 
. . . which words, either, spoken or 
written, with their insufficiently shaded 
analytical precision, cannot attain." 1 

Artists great and small have tried for 
centuries to penetrate deeply into the 
reality of Our Lord's Passion and help 
others to see its meaning: men as 
famous as Fra Angelico painting on 
the cell of the Monastery of San Marco, 
men as unknown as the artist who 
painted Christ Crucified on the cell of 
a Police Station. 2 

The Church and the faithful profited 
greatly for centuries from the work of 
great artists. The beauty and apprecia- 
tion of the Faith grew together. St. 
Thomas gives three reasons for the use 
of visual arts in Church: 

"First, for the instruction of the 
uneducated, who are taught by them 
as by books; second, that the mystery 
of the Incarnation and the examples of 
the saints be more firmly impressed on 
our memory by being daily represented 
before our eyes; third, to enkindle 
affective devotion, which is more effica- 
ciously evoked by what is seen than by 
what is heard." 3 

Pope Pius XII gives a historical sum- 
mary and psychological explanation of 
the function of Art through the ages of 

Scenes from the Passion 
have inspired 
Artists to produce 
their greatest works. 

by JOHN M. Render, C.P. 



in painting 

"In this manner, the great masters 
of Christian arts became interpreters, 
not only of the beauty but also of the 
goodness of God, the Revealer and 
Redeemer. Marvelous exchange of 
services between Christianity and art! 
From their Faith they drew sublime 
inspirations. They drew hearts to the 
Faith when for continuous centuries 
they communicated and spread the truths 
contained in the Holy Scriptures, truths 


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"Christ Taken Down from the Cross" by Fra Angelico. Note the group of men 
on one side studying the instruments of Christ's suffering while the group of 
women on the other side all bend in pitying love over the dead body of Christ. 

through the Ages 

inaccessible, at least directly, to the 
humble people. 

"In truth, artistic masterpieces were 
known as the 'Bible of the people,' to 
mention such noted examples as the 
windows of Chartres, the door of 
Ghiberti (by happy expression known 
as the Door of Paradise), the Roman 
and Ravenna mosaics and the facade of 
the Cathedral of Orvieto. These and 
other masterpieces not only translate 

into easy reading and universal language 
the Christian truths, they also com- 
municate the intimate sense and emotion 
of these truths with an effectiveness, 
lyricism and ardor that, perhaps, is not 
contained in even the most fervent 

"Souls ennobled, elevated and pre- 
pared by art, are thus better disposed to 
receive the religious truths and the grace 
of Jesus Christ."' 


Colmar "Crucifixion" painted by Matthias Grunewald. Its awesome and almost 

brutal realism can be understood if we realize that he painted it for a hospital 

of victims of erysipelas, leprosy and other skin diseases. 

Churches became great picture books 
and people came to know Christ and 
Him Crucified; to know the power of 
His Passion. 

The rest of this study is meant to be 
a sketch of the main lines of develop- 
ment in the history of painting the 
Passion, with representative or very 
distinctive exponents of these develop- 
ments chosen as examples. 4a 
Symbolic Art: lst-5th Century 

The earliest drawings in regard to 
Christ's Passion were in the form of 
symbols. A symbol is a representation 
of some fact, dogma, belief, or practice 

by means of a sign. 5 Our Lord Himself 
constantly used symbols in His 
preaching : 

"His discourses are full of the fields, 
the threshing-ground, the mill, the bee- 
hive, the house, the open sheep-fold 
with its watch tower, the fig-tree and 
the olive tree, the vinebranch and the 
grape that is pressed under foot; in 
them we can hear the swallows and the 
pigeons; the dog begging its bread 
like a humble supplicant; the hen 
dreading the eagle and the storm for 
her little ones as He Himself fears for 
humanity. His message is wrapped in 


earthly symbols, and instinctively He 
chooses the most beautiful, which are 
also the most familiar, those whose 
simple grandeur is the basis of human 
poetry." 6 

The early Church likewise used the 
simplest things as symbols of the most 
profound realities. Not only a fish, but 
the very letters spelling the word in 
Greek had profound meaning. Not only 
the word for Christ of Jesus in Greek 
but the very way the X could be placed 
over the I, or the P over the X brought 
a hidden but clear impression of Christ 
on the Cross. And not only figures but 
colors soon took on distinctive symbol- 
ism; still with us today in the vest- 
ments for the Liturgy. 

Especially in regard to Christ's Pas- 
sion there was special concern to use 
symbols. Christ has already given the 
example speaking of "the grain of 
wheat falling to the ground" and "the 
serpent lifted up in the desert." 7 Histor- 
ical as well as theological reasons made 
the early Christians search for symbols. 
The pagans as well as the Jews had a 
horror of the Cross as denoting deepest 
shame along with terrifying suffering. 
Only to Christians prudently instructed 
was the mystery of the Cross revealed 
directly. Again, the Cross shown plainly 
would have identified Christians to their 
persecutors. So symbols were used as a 
means of mutual identification without 
dangerous revelation. The theological 
implications of Christ's sufferings were 
another reason for resorting to symbols. 
The depth of the mystery of Redemp- 
tion, its reach backwards and forwards 
into time and eternity, its range and 

meaning in men's lives: all of these 
were in danger of being obscured if a 
literal picture of Christ on the Cross as 
a complete and completed incident were 
given. 8 

Some common examples of symbols 
used early and often are the following: 

The fish: This was used by pagans as 
a sign of funeral rites and so did not 
arouse suspicion. The Greek word 
"ichthus" for fish, contains the first 
letters of "7esous CAristos Theou Uios 
Soter": "Jesus Christ the Son of God, 
Savior." This figure is found in the 
catacomb of St. Callistus (110 A.D.). 
The Fathers of the Church often refer 
to this figure and St. Augustine gives 
the following patristic explanation: 
"Christ is mystically understood, be- 
cause He was able to live, that is, to 
exist, without sin in the abyss of this 
mortality as in the depths of water." 9 
The fish appears at times with loaves 
and a chalice as a symbol of the Mass. 
It is used with the / X (Iesus Christ), 
the X bisecting the fish as a symbol 
of Christ's sacrifice on the Cross. 10 

The anchor: This is the symbol of 
hope and the Cross. It finds its Scrip- 
tural basis in Heb. 6, 19: "This hope 
we have as a sure and firm anchor of 
the soul, reaching even behind the veil 
where our forerunner Jesus has entered 
for us." It is found often in repre- 
sentations of the 2nd and 3rd century. 
The anchor became shaped more like a 
cross by the addition of a small cross- 
bar near the top. Then a fish was 
added representing Christ. "The broiled 
fish is Christ who suffers," St. Augustine 
tells us. 11 


"The Crucifixion' painted by Salvadori 
Dali in 1954. 

The Lamb: This is a frequent symbol 
used in the 4th and 5th century. It 
reproduced in line and color the great 
truth the Church sings: "Pascha nos- 
trum immolatus est Christus." 12 The 
lamb sits on a book with seven seals 
or stands on a throne from which pour 
streams of water, or stands before a 
rising sun. Almost always the cross is 
in the background, waving red in a 
white field on a banner. 13 

The f crux gemmata': The oldest 
figurative representation of a crucifix 
is found on a cypress door in St. Sabina, 
Rome (432-440). Before this the Cross 
has been more a cryptogram. Here for 
the first time the cross is central and 
clear. The upright beam of the cross 
sends forth twelve flowers, the Apostles, 
first fruits of Christ's death on the 
Cross. Hanging from the crossbeam are 
the Alpha and Omega, symbols of 
Christ's divinity used against the Arians. 
Above the crossbeam are two candles: 
Christ the light of the world. St. John 
Chrysostom added this decoration. 14 
Instead of Christ's Body precious jewels 
adorn the Cross, showing how precious 
Christ's death is. 

Byzantine Art: 
6th-12th Century 

As the centuries of persecution sub- 
side the portrayal of the Passion be- 
comes more manifest. The Cross was 
forbidden to be used as an instrument 
of torture and took on the glory of 
Christ's triumph. A Syriac manuscript 
appears in the 5 th century bearing a 
representation of Christ Crucified. 15 
Christ is clothed in a long purple robe. 
His feet are nailed directly to the 
Cross. The two thieves are pictured 
along with Longinus piercing the side 
of Christ. In the famous mosaics of 
Ravenna the characteristics of the 
Byzantine style are already apparent: 
classical lines, huge eyes to show 
Christ's superior knowledge, gold back- 
ground to symbolize divinity and spiri- 
tuality. The halo or nimbus is around 
Christ's Head, and standing on a lion 
and a serpent, 16 He carries a red cross 


horizontally across His shoulders. It is 
the figure of Christ triumphant through 
the Cross. These mosaics are important 
historically. In the middle of the 6th 
century Theodoric was beseiging Ra- 
venna with Arian forces. Justinian, 
instead of army defence spending, spent 
money to build and adorn churches, 
showing in brilliant artistic form the 
theological and political system he was 
defending. "Strange stratagem for a 
successor of Caesar, but it prevailed." 17 

Plainer representation of Christ's 
Passion received an impetus when the 
Trullan Council (692 A.D.) ordered 
the symbolical and allegorical treatment 
to be laid aside. 18 Then in the 9th 
century the Fourth Council of Con- 
stantinople gave Christian Art Ecclesi- 
astical Sanction by condemning the 
Iconoclast heresy definitively. 

"We decree that the sacred image of 
Our Lord Jesus Christ, Redeemer and 
Savior of all, be venerated with honor 
equal to that given the book of the 
Holy Gospels. For just as all attain 
salvation through the words in the book, 
so all whether learned or illiterate profit 
directly from colored works of art. For 
colored pictures preach and commend 
the same things as the written word." 11 ' 

Giotto (1266-1337) 

Giotto di Bondone broke with the 
stylized conventional manner of the 
past, and portrayed the sufferings of 
Christ in a new and human way. It 
was the great St. Francis of Assisi that 
was his inspiration in this work. In 
painting the life of St. Francis in the 
upper Chruch at Assisi current events 

and the everyday life of the period were 
used. "In painting he invented that 
dolce stil nuovo, that vulgare eloquium 
which Dante created in the realm of 
poetry. He is truly the founder of the 
art of painting in Italy."- For the first 
time depth and volume appear in 
paintings on the Passion and the human 
character of Christ and the circle at 
Calvary appears. Because St. Francis 
was so like Christ and yet so human, 
Christ Himself emerges caught up in the 
flow of human events. In his Lamenta- 

Kembrandt van Rijn'a 
'Decent from the Cross. 




•'V \ 





>^p^%^^^;^x.v^^| ; ^^ 

"The Crucifixion" painted by Jan Styka is the largest religious painting in the 
world, a symbol of the greatest fact in the world: man's Redemption. It 



measures 195 feet long and 45 feet high. This picture reproduces only the 

center section. 


"Dead Christ with Angels," by Manet. 

twn over Christ (c. 1305) every figure 
has weight and life. Even the angels 
have been humanized and re- act with 
grief. A sagging feeling of sorrow 
dominates the picture. The single piece 
of background is a ledge of rock 
dropping down to the left of the center 
to add weight to the picture. Each of 
his other famous paintings on the Pas- 
sion, The Betrayal of ]udas, Christ 
Carrying His Cross, and the Crucifixion 
have the same solidness and simplicity. 
Fra Angelico (1387-1455) 
Fra Angelico' s name in religion was 
Giovanni da Fiesole. In the best 
Dominican tradition the man, the monk, 
and the artist were one in him. He took 

the full-flowering of the Middle Ages 
along with the spring-like surge of the 
early Renaissance into his heart and 
poured it into his art. He combined 
the natural and the supernatural in his 
life and in his work. The evil seeds 
of pride and passion and paganism 
already growing in the world caused 
him only disgust. He strove to realize 
the ideal set before him by Fra Domin- 

"Christ is our only guide to happi- 
ness . . .our father, our leader, our light, 
our food, our redemption, our way, our 
truth, our life." 

"As the years of tender youth flow 
by, the soft wax may take on any form. 
Stamp on it the impress not of Nar- 
cissus, Myrrha, Phaedra or Ganymede, 
but of the crucified Christ and of the 
saints." 21 

Fra Angelico worked consciously and 
logically as well as artistically to finish 
his paintings with the wholeness, har- 
mony, and radiance, that distinguishes 
true beauty. When he was painting for 
the monks at San Marco he gave only 
enough details to add and not distract 
their contemplation. His Mocking of 
Christ (c. 1437) shows a seated Christ 
regal, blindfolded, and with a Crown 
of thorns. The mocking soldiers appear 
only as a group of disembodied hands 
and a cruel face spitting on Christ with 
a cap raised in sarcasm. When he 
painted for the people he is careful to 
add interesting and meaningful back- 
ground. His " Christ taken down from 
the Cross" (c. 1440) (see picture) is 
carefully planned and elaborated. A 
group of men on one side study the 


"Christ in the Garden" by El Greco is a masterpiece of plastic art, combining 

abstract and mobile elements in story and emotion. Everything in his pictures 

on the Passion sweeps upward, natural appearances sometimes distorted to 

produce his flame-like forms. 

instruments of Christ's suffering: the 
"docta p/etas" or learned piety of the 
early Renaissance. A group of women 
on the other side all bend in pitying 
love over the dead body of Christ. A 
Spring landscape in the background 
signifying the new life from Christ's 
death completes the picture. It is, per- 
haps, the first landscape painted in 
the 15th century, bringing in a new 
element which will later dominate many 
masterpieces. 25 

Renaissance Art: 
16th-17th Century 

New influences which affected all of 
the artistic work found their expression 
in the painting on the Passion done 
during this time. The first and dominant 
tendency was to glorify man as man. 
Pagan themes and models served as 
sources of inspiration. The new scienti- 
fic study of anatomy and optics had its 
influence too. Muscle and bone con- 
figurations were reproduced in art. The 


play of light and shadow appeared in 
painting as in life and new depth came 
into the pictures with the application of 
the laws of perspective. 23 Nature came 
from the background to the foreground 
of the picture. Biblical scenes were 
portrayed in the backdrop of sixteenth 
century life. 24 The Mystery Plays, too, 
had their influence upon Painters. 
Though many of them may have been 
poor as drama, yet, as Male points out 25 
"To have suggested groupings, atti- 
tudes, costumes, and even color to 
Roger van der Weyden, Jean Fouquet, 
and Hans Memling is to have had no 
slight effect upon art." Also, the finding 
of the different relics of the Passion 
influenced later pictures. The low 
column with the iron ring brought back 
from Jerusalem in 1223 finally makes 
its appearance in the pictures of Maratta, 
Rubens, and Murillo, replacing the 
earlier use of a high column. 26 Finally 
there is the desire to see Christ suffering 
brought on by the Black Death, the 
plagues, and the wars which ravaged 
Europe. 27 

Some of these influences are apparent 
in the Colmar Crucifixion (see picture) 
painted by Matthias Grunewald (1465- 
1528). Its awesome and almost brutal 
realism is at first sight a shock. Christ's 
arms are elongated, the hands twisted 
upwards nailed to the limb of a cross- 
bar, the bend of which increases the 
tension. Christ's body is covered with 
welts and wounds. Our Lady stands 
leaning back in an agonizing position 
on the arms of St. John. John the 
Baptist stands on the other side pointing 
to Christ while on the ground a lamb 

pours its blood into a chalice. At first 
sight one wonders at the extreme suf- 
fering portrayed but its historical pur- 
pose gives an insight into its meaning. 
It was painted for a hospital tended 
by Antonite Monks for victims of 
erysipelas, leprosy and other skin 
diseases. It hung over the high altar. 
On Easter another panel folded over it, 
showing a picture of Christ's body 
radiant with the glory of the Resurrec- 
tion. "Grunewald's awesome, agonized 
art has prompted others from Durer to 
Picasso to distort form and color for 
greater emotional force." 28 

In 1541 Michaelangelo Buonarroti 
(1475-1564) completed seven years 
work on his masterpiece "The Last 
Judgment" finishing his work in the 
Sistine chapel. This picture, remarkable 
in many ways, 29 shows the powerful 
influence of the Passion at the Last 
Judgment. The forceful, mobile figure 
of Christ appearing in order to pass 
judgment features the wounds of His 
hands, feet and side. 30 Giant angels 
move in on each side of Christ and His 
Mother, bearing the instruments of 
Christ's Passion, the column and the 
Crown of Thorns and the Cross. All 
through the picture the human form is 
used to portray the awe and anguish of 
man. It is the "Dies Irae" caught and 
concretized in color. 

Finally the reflection of light and 
shadow finds its expression in art 
through the work of Rembrant van Rijn 
( 1606-1 669) . He painted many pictures 
of Bible scenes making Christ a partaker 
of common life, working with light and 
shadow to show the deeper mysteries 


involved.'- 1 (sec picture) In his 57. 
Peter denies Christ a candle held in the 
maidservant's hand lights the cynical 
face of the centurion and the suffering 
face of Peter as Christ stands looking 
in the background. 

One more painter can be mentioned 
from this period who really stands out- 
side of every period. Dominikos Theo- 
tocopoulos (154l-l6l4) far better 
known as El Greco, became early in his 
life a master of the Byzantine art of 
the ikon. About 1566 he went to 
Venice and studied under Titian, learn- 
ing dramatic composition in the true 
Renaissance style. He was hailed as an 
Italian master when he left Italy and 
settled in Toledo, Spain. Here he im- 
mortalized the longing of man for 
union with God through self-denial 
and love, putting into pictures what St. 
Teresa and St. John of the Cross put 
into words. 52 Everything in his pictures 
on the Passion sweeps upward, natural 
appearances sometimes distorted to pro- 
duce his flame-like forms. His Christ 
in the Garden (see picture) is a master- 
piece of plastic art, combining abstract 
and mobile elements in story and emo- 
tion. A simple rock is used as backdrop 
for Christ's Body, and it seems to bend 
over Christ. Two masses of clouds 
approach on each side, looming behind 
the rock. The sleeping disciples sus- 
pended in a circle between Christ and 
the angel who holds the chalice, the 
flashing light and shadow on Christ 
Himself and the soldiers in the back- 
ground all become centers of focus and 
express the tension of the scene. 88 His 
other paintings on the Passion are of 

"Christ Mocked by the Soldiers" is 

perhaps his most famous work on the 

Passion by the modern art painter, 

Georges Rouault. 

like intensity: The Spoliation, Christ 
Carrying His Cross, The Crucifixion. 
The dead Christ presented to the Father. 

Decline of Art on the Passion: 
17th-18th Century 

From the last half of the 17th 
Century to the Middle of the 19th 
Century there was no great painting 
on the Passion. Many reasons explain 
this fact. Renaissance artists soon went 
to excess in their accent on nature and 
man. The divine and supernatural dis- 
appeared from Art. Even the halos arc 


dropped from religious pictures. 34 The 
symbolic function of art also disappears 
to the great detriment of theological 
accuracy. 35 The excesses of the Renais- 
sance were condemned by the council of 
Trent. 36 At the same time art was 
frozen by neo-classicism : the demand 
for heroic human themes, 37 and the 
Cartesian demand for clear and distinct 
rules strictly followed. Religious emo- 
tion was frozen by the puritanical spirit 
of Jansenism. The faith of many was 
destroyed by Rationalism. To summarize 
this whole period as far as art goes 
one writer puts it simply: "No one is 
thinking of Jesus." 38 

Romanticism and Realism: 
19th Century 

About the Middle of the 19th Cen- 
tury there was a return of interest in the 
Middle Ages. Religious feeling, if not 
religious faith revived. The grandeur 
of ideals and execution during the 
period when "All Europe wept over the 
wounds of Christ," 39 was looked upon 
with longing by a people immersed in 
Industrial expansion and "rugged Indi- 
vidualism." Some of the greatest 
painters of this period, Goya, Proud'hon, 
Hofmann, and Manet (see his picture 
of Dead Christ with Angels) again 
painted scenes from Christ's sufferings. 

Towards the end of the century the 
great advances and specialization in the 
fields of history and archeology had 
their effect in art on the Passion. Now 
for the first time and the only time an 
effort was made at historically accurate 
reproductions, the "you- are-there" type 
of picture with which we are perhaps 
most familiar. Artists travelled to Pales- 

tine and studied the locale, the customs, 
and the lives of people who lived as 
Christ had lived. The Crucifixion (see 
picture) painted by Jan Styka, is a 
masterpiece that came from such study. 
After a visit to the Holy Land the 
artist stopped in Rome to have his 
palette blessed by Pope Leo XIII. 
Though realistic in its portrayal of 
persons and place it has its own peculiar 
symbolism. The painting is on a canvas 
195 feet long and 45 feet high. 40 Jan 
Styka wanted it to be the largest reli- 
gious painting in the world, a symbol of 
the greatest fact in the world: man's 

Modern Symbolic Art: 
20th Century 
The symbolist movement in modern 
art which began about the turn of the 
century meant new life for painting on 
the Passion. Turning from outward 
appearances to inward reality once again 
men tried to clothe ideas in forms per- 
ceptible to the senses. Man's love and 
hate, hope and fear, joy and sorrow, 
his relation to external and eternal 
reality once more found expression in 
line and form and color. The great 
liberator in regard to painting the Pas- 
sion is Georges Roualt (1870- ). 
"The image of the Crucifixion, the 
'capital sign of Christianity,' has been 
freed by him from that academicism to 
which it seemed condemned for two 
centuries, even in the work of great 
painters." 41 In the midst of the buoyant 
optimism of the early 20th century he 
painted the inner reality of a cruel and 
sinful world. With thick lines and 
somber colors he painted his Cruci- 


fixi on (c. 1918). The truth was told 
once more: Men could be cruel and 
crucify Christ. Perhaps his most famous 
painting on the Passion is Christ Mocked 
by the Soldiers (1932) (see picture). 
The curved figure of Christ sits bent in 
submission to His Father's will. The 
leering upturned faces of two men and 
clashing colors show the hatred there 
was during Christ's Passion. 

Another excellent modern painter 
who is now devoting his talents to 
Christian themes is Salvadori Dali. 4 '- 
He considers his greatest work "The 
Christ of St. John of the Cross (1952) 
(our Cover Picture). The original in- 
spiration came from a sketch of Christ 
leaning forward from the Cross painted 
by St. John of the Cross after a vision. 4 ' 5 
Dali reproduces the figure projected 
over the bay of Port Lligat, Spain. The 
cross gives the impression of extending 
forward and backward through all space 
and time, as though timeless in His 
desire to pour down mercy on men 
everywhere. ll The Body of Christ is 
flawless, a symbol of the perfection of 
Christ as God and man. Since then 
Dali has painted The Crucifixion (see 
picture) (1954) and The Last Supper 
(1956) on the same cosmic scale. 

Finally, there is a modern artist who 
combines naturalism and symbolism in 
a most effective way: Primo Conti.'"' 
Some excellent examples of his work 
are in the Sanctuary of St. Gemma. His 
most recent painting on the Passion, 
Mater Passionis (see picture) won 
First Prize at the Exposition of Sacred 
Art "Pro Civitate Christiana'' at Assisi, 
1956. ,,; Our Lady stands holding the 

instruments of Christ's Passion; the 
Crown and Nails. A serene yet deep 
sorrow fills her face. The lines and 
figures are simple and clear yet steeped 
in symbolic meaning. The pictuer seems 
to say: "Think what you have done, 
and what He has done for you!" 

And so down through the centuries 
Christ's Passion has come to be known 
and loved and appreciated by men. 
From earliest Christian times to the 
present the artists' eye and hand has 
guided men to the meaning of Christ's 
love that through the love and appre- 

"Mater Passionis" by Primo Conti won 

First Prize at the Exposition of Sacred 

Art "Pro Civitate Christians at Assisi. 

in 1956. 


ciation of things visible men might be 
drawn upward to the love of things 
invisible. We who have dedicated our 
lives to searching the unspeakable riches 
of Christ's Passion and sharing them 
with others can gain from great art new 
insight and appreciation and new angles 
for presentation. A symbol may bring 
home the theological depth implied, a 
scene from El Greco, or Fra Angelico 

draw us on to new union with Christ, 
a painting from Rouault or Primo Conti 
may show us its' meaning for the world 
today. For in the words of Pope Pius 
XII, "The function of all art lies in 
breaking through the narrow and 
tortuous enclosure of the finite, in 
which man is immersed while living 
here below, and in providing a window 
to the infinite for his hungry soul." 47 


Scenes of the Passion by famous Painters 


Medieval spirit: Fra Angelico, Giotto 
Renaissance: Francesco Bassano, Pab- 
lo de Cespedes, Bartolomeo Car- 
ducci, Annibale Carracci, Andrea 
del Castagno, Lucas Cranach, da 
Vinci, Ghirlandajo, Holbein (the 
elder), Holbein (the younger), 
Vincente Joanes, Juan de Juanes, 
Justus of Ghent, Murillo, Poussin, 
Giulio Procaccini, Raphael, Ricci, 
Rubens, Andre del Sorto, Tiepolo, 
Tintoretto, Titian, Giorgio Vasari, 
Modern Realism and Symbolism: 
Salvadori Dali, Eduard von Geb- 

FEET: Fra Angelico, Giotto, Tin- 
toetto, Ford Madox Brown 


Medieval spirit: Buoninsegna, Duccio, 

Renaissance: Bellini, Annibale Car- 
racci, Correggio, Cranach, Carlo 
Dolci, El Greco, Hendrik Goltzius, 
Holbein (the younger), Vincente 
de Joanes, Mantegna, Memling, 
Murillo, Perugino, Poussin, Raph- 
ael, Reni, Tintoretto, Titian 

Modern Realism and Symbolism: 
Delacroix, Dore, Hofmann 

* Many of these names are from the detailed manuscript notes of Fr. Emmanuel 
Sprigler, C.P., to whom the author is indebted for his help and encouragement. 


Duccio, Giotto, Holbein (the 
younger), van Leyden 

PRIEST: Giotto, Master of Kappen- 
berg, Holbein, Tintoretto 

Greco, Rembrandt, de la Tour 

CHRIST MOCKED: Fr. Angelico, 
Daumier, Giotto, Holbein (the 
younger), Rembrandt, Rouault 

Mantegna, de la Tour 

(the younger), Munkacsy, Rem- 
brandt, Schongauer, Tintoretto 

CHRIST SCOURGED: Bosch, Carrac- 
ci, Dore, Piero della Francesca, 
Griinewald, Holbein (the elder), 
Holbein (the younger), Murillo, 
Signorelli, Sodoma, Velasquez, Zur- 

THORNS: Bosch, Caravaggio, Car- 
racci, Dore, Holbein, Messina, Manes- 
sier, Titian, Van Dyck 

THE "ECCE HOMO": Bosch, Bouts, 
Caravaggio, Carracci, Ciseri, Correg- 
gio, Holbein (the elder), Vincente 
de Joanes, Murillo, Rembrandt, Reni, 
Sodoma, Tintoreto, Titian 


Bellini, B o s c h, Bcrna da Siena, 
Brueghel (the elder), Brueghel (the 
younger), Caravaggio, C a r r a c c 1. 
Dore, Diirer, Giorgione, Giotto, II 
Greco, Holbein (the younger), 
Vincente de Joanes, Valdes Leal, Le 

Sueur, Martini, Morales, Paolo, 
Palmaggano, Prombo, Raphael, Ru- 
bens, Schongauer, Tiepolo, Tintoret- 
to, Titian, Veronese 


Medieval spirit: Fra Angelico, Ber- 
linghieri, Bernardo Daddi, Duccio, 
Giotto, Guariento, Lochner, Mar- 
tini, Pisano, Andrea Vanni 

Renaissance: Baldung, Bellini, Berna 
da Siena, Bosch Andrea del Cas- 
tagno, Cranach, David, Diirer, El 
Greco, Griinewald, Holbein, Justus 
of Ghent, Filippo Lippi, Mantegna, 
Masaccio, Messina, Masolini, Mas- 
ter of the Bedford Hours, Modena, 
Murillo, Perugino, Raphael, Rem- 
brandt, Reni, Roberti, Rubens, 
Signorelli, Tintoretto, Titian, Van 
der Weyden, Van Dyke, Van 
Eyck, Valasquez, Veronese, Zur- 

Modern Realism and Symbolism: 
Bellows, Chagall, Dali, Delacroix, 
Delvaux, Dore, Gaugin, Goya, 
Lebrun, Munkacsy, Rouault, Ben 
Stahl, Jan Styka 

THE CROSS: Fr Angelico, Pedro 
Campana, Correggio, Cranach, Hol- 
bein, Vincente de Joanes, Jouvenet, 
Lambert Lambard, Lorenzetti, Mar- 
tini, Memling, Modena, Murillo, 
Perugino, Rembrandt, Rubens, An- 
drea del Sarto, Sodoma, Tintoretto. 
Volterra, Van der Weyden, Van 

Fra Angelico. Bellini, Carracci, Cor- 


reggio, Diiurer, El Greco, Giotto, 
Holbein, Manet, Mantegna, Orcagna, 
Perugino, Sebastiano di Piombo, 
Procaccini, Rembrandt, Sodoma, Ti- 
Blake, Bouts, Caravaggio, Carracci, 

Holbein (the younger), Master of 
the Bedford Hours, Raphael, Rem- 
brandt, Tintoretto, Titian 
Giotto, Justus of Ghent, Michael- 
angelo, Van Eyck 


1 Cf. Theological Studies, Sept., 1954, 
p. 458, fn. 45. 

2 Cf. The Passionist, May-June, 1956, 
pp. 231-3. 

3 In III Sent, t. 3, d. 9, q. 1, a. 2, 
ad 3m. 

4 The Function of Art, P. Pius XII, 
Address of April 8, 1952. N.C.W.C 
translation, pp. 4-5. 

4a Cf. Selected Letters of Recent Pas- 
sionist Generals, p. 108. 

5 Fr. E. M. Catich, "The History and 
Critique of 'The Image of Christ in 
Art,' " The Catholic Messenger, Daven- 
port, Iowa; May 17, 1956; pp. 3-4. 
This whole article is very good, espe- 
cially the third part which treats the 
artistic and theological principles neces- 
sary to produce Christian art. Cf. also 
Dorthy Donnelly, The Golden Well: 
An anatomy of Symbols c. 1. 

r > A. D. Sertillanges, O. P., What Jesus 
Saw from the Cross, pp. 163-4. 
7 Cf. Jn. 12, 25; 3, 14. 

8 Cf. Catich, op. cit. Also cf. Conf. 
Raphael, C.P., "Artists and the Cruci- 
fixion," The Passion Review, Vol. 4, 
1952, pp. 36-38. 

9 City of God, Modern Library edition, 
p. 630. 

10 Sr. M. A. Justina Knapp, O.S.B. 
Christian Symbols and How to Use 
Them, p. 54. 

"lb. p. 57. 

12 Easter Mass, Alleluja verse. Cf. 1 
Cor. 5, 1. 

13 In the 7th Century the Truallan 
Synod ordered the human figure to be 
used instead of the Lamb because of 
the danger of heresy. Cf. Knapp, op. 
cit., p. 70. 

14 St. Chrysostom arranged proces- 
sions and had silver crosses with burning 
candles placed on them carried before 
the people as profession of faith. Knapp, 
op. cit., p. 65. 

15 Cath. Encyc. Vol. IV, p. 527. One 
earlier picture of Christ crowned with 
thorns still exists dating from the 2nd 
Century. E. I. Watkin, Catholic Art and 
Culture, p. 11. 

16 Cf. Ps. 90, 13 for the Biblical 
source of inspiration. 

17 Theological Studies, Sept. 1954, p. 
451, fn. 25. 

18 Cath. Encyc. Vol. IV, p. 527. 

19 D. B. 337. Cf. Theol. St. op. cit., 
p. 452. 

20 Cath. Encyc. Vol. VI, p. 567. 

21 Time, Dec. 26, 1955, p. 32. 

22 Giulio Carlo Argan, Era Angelico, 
a biographical and criticial study, Skira 
edition, p. 77. 

23 Se do Cheney ,A World History of 
Art, p. 509. 

24 W. H. Goodyear, Renaissance and 


Modern Art, pp. 114-5. 

28 Emilc Male, Religions Art from the 
Twelfth to the Eighteenth Cent/try. p. 

-'■ Male, op. cit., p. 186. 

27 Male, op. cit., p. 113. 

**Time t July 18, 1955, p. 69. Cf. 
The Sign. Feb. 1956, p. 35. The whole 
current series of Passion articles is ac- 
companied by examples of great art. 

29 In contrast to the Medieval pictures 
there is no halo on any figure, and no 
sign of joy or contentment. Pope Paul 
II, shocked by the nakedness of so many 
figures had one of Michaelangelo's 
pupils Domile da Volterra paint draper- 
ies around some of the bodies. Because 
of this Volterra later became known as 
"il braghettone" or "the breeches-maker." 
Cf. The Vatican: Its History-Its Treas- 
ures, c. 1914. Pp. 97-99. Also cf. 
Michaelangelo, Pocket Library of Great 
Art c. 1954. 

:; " The raising of Christ's right hand 
makes it possible to feature all the 
Wounds and complete the flamelike 
form characteristic of Michaelangelo. 

:il Cheney, World History of Art, p. 
704. It is interesting to note that the 
Protestants for whom he painted re- 
jected his work while Catholics have 
always regarded him highly. For an 
explanation of this fact see P. R. 
Regamey, O.P. "Le protestantisme de 
Rembrandt," La Matson-Dien, n. I 7 . 
pp. 89-93. 

•'-Fr. Bruno De. J. M., O.D.C. three 
Mystics, p. 21. El Greco remains a 
paradox. He painted the esctasies of 
martyrdom and loved luxury, living in 
a 24 room apartment where he even 
maintained a private orchestra. He was 
a true artist, yet painted like a commer- 
cial painter, often doing the same picture 

over and over again with little change, 
and charged huge prices for them. 

88 Modern artists studying this picture 
find all of their efforts realized three 
centuries ago. 

" Cf. Michaelangelo's Last Judgment, 
or Rubens' Crucifixion and Descent from 
the Cross. 

35 Fr. Catich discusses the nature and 
effect of this loss in his article referred 
to above, n. 5. 

5,1 At the same time it renewed the 
traditional teaching on the power of 
painting to instruct and confirm the 
people in their Faith. D. B. 985-6. 

:{7 Christ's life and death were con 
sidered "unheroic" in the classical sense. 
A good example of how a great artist 
fell into obscurity because of this atti- 
tude is the work of Georges de La Tour 
(1593-1652). His "Man of Sorrows" 
was discovered in 1946. It is a picture 
done in light and shadow, using a candle 
as the source of light. Christ sits alone 
through the night hours bearing His 
humiliation and the guilt of the whole 
human race. The painting fell into 
oblivion because it was anti-aristocratic, 
showing a popular person rather than a 
pompous one; anti-classical, ignoring the 
frozen rules; and anti-conventional, ex- 
ploring the secret places of the soul. 
Cf. Rene Huyghe, "Georges da la Tour," 
1955 Art News Annual . pp. 126 ff. 

:;s "Christ' s Image," Fr. Library of 
Fine Arts 1939, p. 28. 

89 Selected Letters of Recent Passiotlist 
Generals, p. 103. 

10 In 1900 Styka exhibited the painting 
at the St. Louis Exposition. Unable to 
pay the customs duty tor exportation 
lie was never to see it again. It was 

(Continued on page 1ST) 




by PAUL M. Boyle, C.P. 

Do we lose the indulgences 

by adding this 

invocation to the 

Litany of our Blessed Mother? 

Anyone who has more than a passing 
acquaintance with current literature on 
matters liturgical knows Father Ronald 
Murray's competence in the field. It 
was, therefore, quite a surprise when I 
finished reading the article "Regina 
Congregationis Nostrae" {The Passion- 
ht, Vol IX, No. 2 March- April 1956. 
Pp. 150-154) to find his name at the 
end of it. Father concludes his study 
by asking, "should the next General 
Chapter consider abrogating Decree # 5 
of the thirty-third General Chapter?" 
This present paper will attempt to 
answer that question. 

The article in question is "a brief, 
critical study of the chapter decree and 
its consequences." The decree referred 
to is the one which stated that we 
should add the invocation "Regina 
Congregationis Nostrae, ora pro nobis" 
in our private recitations of the Litany 
of the Blessed Virgin Mary. 

Before we come to the main point 
at issue, there are two minor statements 
that Father Ronald makes in the course 
of his study, upon which I would like 
to comment. 

1. On page 151, column 1, the 
wording of the chapter decree is cited. 
Then a few inferences are drawn from 
the wording of the decree. Inference 
no. 3 states: "The Capitular Fathers, 
fearing that we would lose the indul- 
gence by the unauthorized addition, 
commissioned the Procurator to ask 
that this new invocation be specially 
indulgenced, to compensate for the 
loss." From the wording of the decree 
this seems to me, at the least, a purely 
gratuitous inference. The Chapter cer- 


tainly docs not explicitly express any 
fear that the indulgence attached to the 
litany would be lost by adding this 
invocation. Rather it seems that they 
implicitly express their confidence that 
this addition would not destroy the 
indulgence, "cum id ex declarations 
oretenus fact a lie eat," as the decree 
itself says. Then why should they com- 
mission the Procurator to ask that this 
new invocation be enriched with an 
indulgence? Only the Chapter itself 
can answer that. But is it not perfect- 
ly understandable that the Capitulars 
would wish to have this invocation 
indulgenced ? That would make it more 
honored in the Congregation, the reli- 
gious would be more inclined to invoke 
Mary under this title, etc. I am not 
trying to explain the precise reason 
why the Capitulars wanted the invoca- 
tion indulgenced. My point is that 
from the record, inference number 
three seems at least gratuitous, if not 
contrary to the implications of the de- 
cree itself. 

2. At the bottom of column 2 on 
page 151, the question and answer of 
Decree 3074 ad 3 of the Sacred Con- 
gregation of Rites is given. As asked, 
the question was not within the power 
of that Congregation to answer. So 
prudently, they did not answer that 
part of the question which was out- 
side their field of jurisdiction — name- 
ly the question regarding the indul- 
gence. How Father Ronald can say 
"the question of indulgences was im- 
plicitly answered" leaves me a bit con- 
fused. Perhaps what follows is his 
explanation: "for, if no additions arc- 

made to the litany, there is no question 
of losing the indulgence." While that 
statement is perfectly true, it leaves 
completely unanswered the question 
asked in the decree — namely, if, by 
adding one or another new invocations, 
the indulgence would be lost. 

So much for the two minor state- 
ments. The article fails to distinguish 
between the competence of the Sacred 
Congregation of Rites and that of the 
Sacred Penitentiary. Canon 253 deals 
with the powers of the S. C. of Rites. 
Canon 258 deals with the powers of 
the Sacred Penitentiary. With a few 
exceptions in fovor of the Holy Office, 
the Tribunal of the Sacred Penitentiary 
has the exclusive right to judge all 
those matters which pertain to the use 
and concession of indulgences. The 
Congregation of Rites has no power, 
has no say concerning indulgences. 
INDULGENCES Canon 934,2 states 
that if a particular prayer has been as- 
signed in order to gain indulgences, the 
indulgences can be gained by reciting 
that prayer in any language, provided 
the correctness of the translation be 
certain from a declaration of the Sacred 
Penitentiary or one of the Ordinaries 
of places where the language used in 
the translation is common; but the 
indulgences cease entirely by reason of 
any addition, subtraction or interpola- 
tion. Within a lew years after the 
promulgation of the code, the Sacred 
Penitentiary gave several official replies 
to questions on this canon. For the 
sake of brevity we will not give them 
here. A u,ooe\ summary oi them may 
be found in English in Bouscaren's 


'Canon Law Digest,' Vol. I, under 
canon 934. The tenor of the replies 
was the same, interpreting the wording 
of the canon strictly ("the indulgences 
cease entirely by reason of any addition, 
subtraction or interpolation"). This 
interpretation, although official and 
hence unquestionable, seem to be 
against the general norms of the code. 
Indulgences are favors. By general 
norms of jurisprudence, and even by 
positive legislation, favors should be 
interpreted broadly. Between the time 
of these early responses of the Sacred 
Penitentiary and 1934, many canonists 
had expressed their opinions to this 
effect. Hence it was not to much of a 
surprise when on November 26, 1934, 
the Sacred Penitentiary softened its 
earlier responses. Not any addition, 
etc., destroys the indulgence, but only 
those which are substantial. This is the 
decree which Fr. Ronald cites on page 
153, column 1. 

Keeping in mind the fundamental 
distinction of jurisdictions, the three 
questions Father raises in connection 
with this decree can be answered quite 
easily : 

(1) The Holy See by no means lifted 
the barriers regarding new invo- 
cations. These barriers will be dis- 
cussed later. What this decree says, 
in effect, is that when and where 
new invocations are added, they 
do not destroy the indulgence un- 
less they are substantial additions, 
subtractions or interpolations. 

(2) One new invocation certainly does 
not change the substance. A math- 
ematical norm is difficult and not 

always applicable. Considering the 
nature of a given prayer, a qualita- 
tive change could be substantial. 
The norm to determine a sub- 
stantial change is a prudent judg- 
ment. A help towards forming 
that judgment would be a study 
of the examples given by authori- 
ties in the field. However, the pur- 
pose of this article is not to form- 
ulate such a norm. It is simply to 
show that adding one invocation 
does not endanger our gaining the 
indulgence. Perhaps authorities 
might help. Regatillo( Jus Sacra- 
mentorum, no. 709) says that 3 
Ave's omitted from five decades of 
the rosary would not destroy the 
indulgence. More to the point, he 
says {Interpretation et Jurispruden- 
ts, pages 375-376) explicitly that 
the indulgence of the litanies is not 
lost by the omission of one or other 
of the invocations. One of the 
greatest authorities on indulgences 
is De Angelis. For many years he 
has worked in the section on in- 
dulgences in the Sacred Peniten- 
tary. The latest edition of his 
monumental work (De Indulgen- 
tiis, 1950, pages 65ss) makes his 
opinion on the matter quite clear. 
The earlier decrees of 1919, 1920, 
1921 (Cfr. Bouscaren, op. cit.) 
have been abrogated by the decree 
of November 26, 1934. The 
alterations mentioned in those 
earlier decrees (and they were all 
more than one invocation) can not 
be considered substantial changes; 
they would not destroy the in- 


(3) The conclusion to this question is 
correct. We do not lose the in- 
dulgence by adding this invocation 
in private recitation, nor would 
we lose it by adding the invocation 
in public recitation of the litany. 
INVOCATIONS So much for the mat- 
ter of the indulgence attached to the 
litany. The question still remains: Is 
it licit for us to add this invocation, 
even though it certainly does not destroy 
the indulgence? The answer to this 
question lies outside the field of com- 
petence of the Sacred Penitentiary. We 
must study the nature, competence and 
decrees of the Sacred Congregation of 
Rites for an answer to this question. 

The words 'public' and 'private' are 
two very tricky ones. They can, and 
do, have several different meanings. A 
proper understanding of their meanings 
would obviate some interesting discus- 
sions. When we say Sext and None in 
our Choirs, it is a public act in one 
sense, it is also public in a second sense, 
yet in still another sense it is private 
recitation of the office. One of our 
priests saying Mass in a parish on Sun- 
day morning is most likely saying a 
private Mass, even though in another 
sense it is public. The fact that people 
are present would make the Mass public 
in still another sense of the word. 

When the recitation of the litany- 
forms part of a service (more correctly: 
when it is an act of cult as defined by 
the code in en. 1256) then it becomes 
public. Even here there are exceptions. 
Authors commonly as well as decrees 
of the Holy See allow certain acts of 

cult to be considered private if they are 
performed within the religious house 
or in a church connected to it, but with 
the doors closed. (Cfr. Heylen, De 
Indulgentiis, page 67) 

Father Ronald's use of the words 
'private' and 'public' is correct. Any 
author would substantiate him. I also 
believe that I would be correct in 
saying that (at least in general) when 
we sing the litany as part of the services 
for the people in our churches or 
chapels, we drop the Regina Congre- 
gations Nostrae. We consider that 
public recitation. In our choirs, or when 
the people are absent from the church, 
we add the invocation. We consider 
that private recitation. In this matter 
the terminology is used correctly. 

Here we are taking the two words in 
that sense; as they are used in speaking 
of our recitation of the litany. The 
statements which follow are true only 
if we understand the words in that 
juridical sense. Now the Sacred Con- 
gregation of Rites has jurisdiction only 
for public cult. It has no jurisdiction 
and no interest in private acts of devo- 
tion. The Sacred Congregation of Rites 
regulates rites, ceremonies and cult of 
the Church. It regulates public cult 
as defined in en. 1256. (This "public"' 
cult is further subdivided into various 
types of public and private, but the 
divisions and meanings have no bearing 
on the present discussion). 

Briefly then we can say that the 
decrees of the Sacred Congregation of 
Rites cited by Father Ronald still hold. 

(Continued on page 1S7) 


Father Arnold Vetter, C. P. 

A truly apostolic priest was lost to 
Holy Cross Province in the death of 
Rev. Fr. Arnold Vetter, C.P., the 
morning of November 7. The manner 
of his going was of a piece with his 
whole life: he died while making his 
preparation for Mass and while giving 
a mission in the little town of Bolivar, 
Mo. The words of his sermon of the 


night before were still echoing in the 
little church: "Watch, for you know 
not the day nor the hour!" Certainly, 
he did not dream that the hour, his 
hour, was at hand, but it found him 
watching with Christ. 

The apostolic spirit was evidenced 
early in Father Arnold's life. Its human 
source was also quite evident: an ex- 

ceptionally solid Catholic home. His 
parents, Peter Vetter and Stella Lang, 
had that deep abiding faith which made 
their home a true Christian tabernacle. 
The children of such a home could not 
help but absorb the teaching and inner 
spirit of their religion. This, plus the 
teaching and example of the Passionist 
Fathers at St. Michael's Monastery in 
Pittsburgh, is responsible under God 
for three of the boys entering the Pas- 
sionist Congregation: Fr. Arnold and 
"The Twins," Fathers Matthew and 

Leo Vetter, as Fr. Arnold was known 
before his entry into religion, was born 
August 18, 1901, at Lindsay, Pa., a 
small mining town northeast of Pitts- 
burgh. He was the fourth of eleven 
children. Though there was a resident 
pastor, there was no church; and for 
over a year, until the church could be 
built, the pastor said daily Mass and 
reserved the Blessed Sacrament in the 
Vetter home. The family moved back 
to Pittsburgh about two years after 
Leo's birth — when the mines had closed 
down and Mr. Vetter's large store was 
left without customers. The family 
settled in the Passionist parish, St. 
Michael's. Leo finished grammar school 
and two years commercial school at St. 
Michael's. The last three years of grade 
school and the two years of commercial 
school were under the tutelage of the 
Brothers of Mary. 

He was one of the older children, 
and while still in grade school worked 
after school and all day Saturday. For 
many years he was a faithful altar boy 
and often said he wanted to be a priest, 

a Passionist. But he was needed at 
home to help supplement the family 
budget, especially after his older brother, 
Charles, was called to the service in 
1917. He took his brother's place as 
a filing clerk at C. A. Turner's Mine 
and Milling Supply Co., in Pittsburgh. 

Meanwhile, his zeal found an outlet 
in the work of the Confraternity of 
Christian Doctrine. For several years, 
he and several other members of the 
Confraternity would go to the little 
mining town of Willock, Pa., where 
they taught regular catechism classes, 
first in a large barn, then in a ware- 
house, and finally in a little chapel. 
Sunday afternoons would be spent 
calling on fallen away Catholics or con- 
tacting children who had missed the 
morning class in catechism. How many 
parishioners in the big parish there to- 
day owe their early catechetical training 
to these heroic catechists is known to 
God alone. 

But all of this was just "marking 
time" so far as Leo's goal in life was 
concerned. The occasional visits of 
Fathers Charles and Frederick Lang, 
uncles of Mrs. Vetter, and her two 
cousins, Fathers Henry and Matthew 
Miller, all Passionists, served further to 
strengthen his resolve to enter the Pas- 
sionist Congregation. 

Finally, in 1921 at the age of 20, he 
applied for admission to the Preparatory 
Seminary at Dunkirk. But, it had filled 
its quota for the year, so Leo applied 
to the western Preparatory Seminary at 
Normandy, Mo., and was accepted. He 
spent one year there and went to the 
novitiate in Louisville in 1922. Hence- 


forth, he would be known as Arnold 
of the Holy Family, Passionist. After 
his profession in 1923, he began the 
rugged routine of a Passionist student 
and was ordained with his class in Des 
Moines, Iowa, December 22, 1929. His 
student life was marked by a mature 
sense of responsibility and a deep ap- 
preciation of his vocation. There was 
no formal course in the Sacred Passion 
at that time and Father Arnold felt the 
need of some such special training since 
he was to be a specialist in preaching the 
sufferings and death of Christ. Possessed 
of a genius for organization, he outlined 
to his companions the possibilities of 
the course and drew up a proposed 
schema of study. Some of his compan- 
ions were enthused by the idea, and 
with the permission of the director 
of students and the lector of Sacred 
Scripture, embarked upon the ambitious 
undertaking. The project had an un- 
timely end, through no fault of those 
engaged in it. 

During his student days, Father 
Arnold often expressed a desire to dedi- 
cate his life to the missions in China. 
But his desire was not to be realized. 
After his ordination, he was made lector 
of Latin for a class of students in Cin- 
cinnati. Then, through the urging of 
his cousin, Father Matthew Miller, C.P., 
he was sent to Germany for five years. 
This was a far cry from the China 
missions he yearned for, but Father 
Arnold did his usual workmanlike job. 
Shortly after his return from Germany, 
in January of 1938, he was sent to 
Birmingham, Alabama, to begin the 
new flourishing mission among the 


negroes. But that is too long a story 
to tell in this short obituary notice. 
Father Ludger Martin, C.P., has written 
something of the labors and trials of 
those days for The Sign. However, the 
full story of the heroism of Father 
Arnold's contribution to the mission at 
Ensley will never be known this side 
of eternity. 

The last twelve years of his life were 
spent giving missions and retreats. And 
he literally gave every ounce of him- 
self in this distinctive work of the 
Congregation. His preparation at home 
was constant and unremitting. In every 
community where he has ever resided 
he will be remembered for his intense 
application to writing and revising his 
sermons. His throat seems to have been 
chronically irritated by a bad sinus con- 
dition, which often resulted in violent 
coughing spells. His voice, as a con- 
sequence, was not exactly pleasant, but 
had an amazing power and carrying 
quality. And his evident sincerity and 
apostolic unction more than supplied 
for these natural defects as any one who 
has ever given a mission with him will 
testify. Again, it is impossible to gauge 
the success of a mission from our nar- 
row human notions of success, but 
knowing something of the genuine zeal 
and holiness of Father Arnold, we can 
reasonably assume that his missions and 
retreats were most fruitful. And I am 
sure the good people of Bolivar, Mo., 
will never forget his last mission ! 

Fr. Arnold was buried in the ceme- 
tery of Our Lady of Sorrows monastery 
in Sierra Madre, Calif., November 10. 
His brother, Father Henry, C.P., sang 

the Mass. Very Rev. Fr. Clarence, C.P., Vetter, a brother who still lives in 

a classmate of the deceased, was deacon, Pittsburgh and is prominent in the 

and Very Rev. Fr. James Patrick, C.P., retreat movement sponsored by the 

Rector of the Monastery, was sub- Passionist Fathers there. 

deacon. Three of Fr. Arnold's sisters, May the Priestly, apostolic soul of 

and a brother, who now live in Cali- Fr. Arnold rest in peace! 

fornia, were present, as also, Charles 



"Each religious order has its own beautiful spirit and characteristic virtues 
which delight the Sacred Heart ... if we have not the peculiar spirit and training 
of the order to which we belong, we are out of joint in the community and can 
never be a good religous, nor truly delight the Heart of Jesus. . . . 

"But, you may ask me, 'how am I to gain that spirit, how am I to know if 
I really have it?' 

"Well, I answer, this is precisely the purpose of the novitiate; the spirit of 
the order ... is handed down . . . through the superiors, and all you have to do 
is to leave yourself absolutely in their hands like wax in the hand of one who 
molds it, and at the end of the novitiate the germs of that spirit will have 
been planted in your heart, to bud forth into perfection later on. This, with 
prayer, is the only means of acquiring the spirit of your state. It is often hard 
to nature, to be thus cut, and pruned, but otherwise we can never hope to 
be pleasing to the Sacred Heart. 

"If I were joining religion tomorrow, I would enter with the determination of 
leaving myself absolutely in the hands of my superiors, to let them cut away, 
mercilessly, all the excrescences of my character so that I might be fit to be 
presented, as a clean oblation, on the altar of God's love, and even though nature 
might repine, I would try to bear all for the love of Jesus crucified, and I feel 
sure that if I were but faithful I would soon acquire the true spirit of my order 
and thus 'reap with joy, what I had sown in tears.' " (Letter to a novice of the 
Sisters of Mercy, Clonliffe, November 27th, 1885. Quoted in The Spiritual 
Doctrine of Dom Marmion by M.M. Philipon, O.P., ps. 34, 35.) 


If any of our Readers would be interested in translating articles for The 
Passionist from foreign languages (French, Spanish, Italian, Dutch, German, 
etc.) the Editor would be only to happy to have this cooperation. If interested 
please send in your name to the Editor, indicating what language you would 







/// k Juno uMlL L i , 


Isaias 1, 5-6 is often applied to 
Christ Crucified. Isn't Isaias 
condemning the sinful Jewish 
people rather than prophesing 
of the future Redeemer? 

It is true that Isaias is condemning 
the spiritual corruption and desolation 
of the Jewish nation during the pros- 
perous reign of Jotham (758-743). 
The passage begins with the denuncia- 
tion: "Ah! sinful, guilt-laden people, 
brood of evil-doers. ..." This leads to 
the words often applied to Our Lord 
in His Passion: "The whole head is 
ailing, the whole heart is sick; from the 
sole of the foot to the head there is no 
health in it — nought but blows and 
bruises and bleeding wounds." Isaias 
is describing the sinful corruption of the 
nation's soul under the metaphor of 
a sick body covered with festering 


wounds. It is only by accommodation 
that these words can be referred to our 
Crucified Savior. Yet, this accommoda- 
tion is based upon a dogmatic reason. 
The Jewish nation at this time as well 
as Our Lord upon the cross are suffering 
the pains of sin. Both the words of 
Isaias and the cross of Christ are, in- 
tended by God to impress upon us the 
sickening and hideous effects of sin 
(II, Q 46, a 4, ad 3; ibid, a 6). This 
is the primary reason why a Christian 
orator can rightly use the words of 
Isaias in speaking of Christ, who has 
appeared "in the likeness of sinful 
flesh as a sin-offering, (so as to con- 
demn) sin in the flesh." (Rom 8,3) 
For God "made him to be sin who 
knew nothing of sin" (2 Cor 5,21). 
There is a secondary reason: the very 
words of Isaias were literally fulfilled 
in Christ, even though only metaphori- 
cally true of the Jews. 

The principle, sometimes called the 
"analogy of faith,'' can explain the 
liturgical use of many Old Testament 
texts. The "analogy of faith'' is the 
harmony that exists between all revealed 
truths, so that many different truths are 
united in the recapitulation of all things 
in Christ (cf Eph 1,10). In Is. 1,3 
"the ox knows its owner and the ass 
its master's crib" we have a figure of 
speech in which the prophet calls upon 
the material universe, always so obedient 
to God's command, to witness against 
an indifferent, disobedient mankind. At 
Bethlehem the animal kingdom silently 
and spontaneously obeyed, while many 
people proudly rejected the Savior. Is. 
65,2 speaks of the love of God (with- 
out distinguishing any Person in the 
Trinity) : "I spread out my hands all 
day long to a rebellious people. ..." 
We Christians know that nowhere does 
God's love surrender itself so uncon- 
ditionally as in the outstretched arms 
of Our Lord — a fulfillment which the 
prophet Isaias never dreamed of. Lastly, 
the words of Is. 63, 1-3 speak of God's 
complete victory over sin. The blood 
on his garments is that of his defeated 
enemy. This passage can be applied to 
the Passion because of a dogmatic rea- 
son: on the cross God crushes the 
forces of evil. It is his own Precious 
Blood upon his garments. Yet, is not 
Christ "sin in the flesh" according to 
the daring words of St. Paul. In each 
of these cases the accommodated sense 
is under the controlling and moderating 
restraint of dogmatic reasons, (cf. Pius 
XII, Divtno AjjUnte Spniln. n. 27) 
Carroll Stuhlmueller, C.P. 


In praying the Divine Office 
privately, is a priest permitted 
to read the words mentally? 

The Divine Office is universally con- 
sidered more than merely mental prayer. 
Pius XII defines it as "the prayer of 
the Mystical Body of Jesus, offered to 
God in the name and on behalf of all 
Christians, when recited by priests and 
other ministers of the Church and by 
religious who are deputed by the 
Church for this." 1 Such recitation re- 
quires formation of the words by the 
tongue and lips. 2 Obviously, "it is 
not merely a question of recitation . . . 
but it is especially a question of the 
ascent of the mind and heart to God 
so that, united with Christ, we may 
completely dedicate ourselves and all 
our actions to Him." 5 

The only foundation for reading the 
psalms mentally must be a privilege 
granted by the Holy See. For while 
the practice of praying the Divine Office 
originated from personal fervor, under 
the guidance of the Holy Spirit it was 
gradually incorporated into the sacred 
liturgy by the laws of the Church. Since 
this prayer is imposed by a law of the 
Holy See, it alone can grant a contrary 
privilege. Only one such privilege is 
mentioned. In regard to it there arise 
two distinct questions: 1) Was the 
privilege truly given; 2) If so, does it 
still exist? 

It is categorically stated that Pope- 
Leo X did grant the privilege by authors 
worthy of confidence, such as St. Al- 
phonsus,' Schaefer citing other authors 


in agreement with him, 5 and Noldin. 6 
Even Traluci, in opposing the present 
use of the privilege, does not seriously 
attack the original grant. 7 The original 
recipients of this privilege were the 
Friars Minor. Later it was communi- 
cated to all regulars, as well be noted 

The second question concerns a possi- 
ble revocation. Pope Leo X gave the 
privilege vivae vocis oraculo. That was 
April 15, 1516. 8 Fifty one years later, 
namely May 16, 1567, Pope Pius V 
issued the Bull Etsi Mendicantium in 
favor of the Mendicant Orders, among 
which was, of course, the Order of 
Friars Minor. In that document Pope 
Pius V decress, "omnia et singula privi- 
legia . . . f acultates . . . indulta, dispensa- 
tions, favores et gratiae . . . etiam vivae 
vocis oraculo, in genere vel in specie, 
tarn per . . . Leonem X . . . auctoritate 
Apostolica tenore paresentium perpetuo 
approbamus et confirmamus, illisque 
perpetuae et inviolabilis firmitatis robur 
adiicimus. . . ." 9 

In view of these words in the Bull 
commentators maintain that the status 
of the privilege undergoes an important 
change. It no longer remanis vivae vocis 
oraculo; it becomes written in the most 
solemn fashion; it becomes privilegium 

Therefore, they reason, when fifty 
five years later Pope Gregory XV re- 
voked vivae vocis oraculo privileges, he 
did not revoke a privilegium Ball at um. 
The instrument of revocation, the Apos- 
tolic Constitution Romanus Pontifex 
explicitly restricts its scope to vivae 
vicis oraculo. 10 

Among the authorities who reason 
in this way can be listed St. Alphonsus 
(who quotes eight other authorities in 
agreement with him and then adds 
etc.), 11 Schaefer, 12 Goyeneche, 13 Cap- 
pello, 14 Coronata. 15 

Nevertheless the revocation can also 
be looked at from another completely 
different viewpoint. Apparently that is 
done by those who are not convinced 
by the change into a privilegium Bulla- 
tum. This viewpoint insists that even 
though Pius V's Bull changed the oral 
to a written privilege, still Gregory XV 
revoked all privileges that had been 
given orally originally. 

If that be so, one must regard in that 
same way any other decree issued after 
Gregory's revocation and concerned 
with a privilege given orally. Such a 
decree must be likewise understood to 
refer to one given orally originally. 
Such a document appeared one hundred 
and seventy years after Gregory XV s 
Apostolic Constitution. It was Pius 
VI 's Bull Inter multiplies dated Decem- 
ber 14, 1792. We find it cited among 
the privileges of certain Religious In- 
stitutes, including us Passionists. It gives 
these religious the privileges of Medi- 
cants even though such have been 
granted vivae vocis oraculo originally. 
"Communicatio privilegiorum, quam 
Congregatio nostra habet cum supradic- 
tis Religionibus (namely, Medic ants 
and certain others) extenditur etiam ad 
vivae vocis oracula, adeo ut quidquid 
alicui eorum hoc modo hactenus conces- 
sion est . . . id omne, motu proprio et ex 
certa scientia, nobis etiam concessum 
censendum est." 16 Moreover, the phrase 


"ex certa scientia" allows for an aware- 
ness of the intervening revocation of 
Gregory XV. 

In 1918 and the following years, the 
Code of Canon Law in no way affected 
this privilege of reading the Divine 
Office mentally. Canon 4 states "privi- 
leges . . . granted by the Holy See -be- 
fore the Code and not revoked but still 
in use at the time of the enactment of 
the Code, remain in effect unless ex- 
pressly revoked by the Code." Two of 
the phrases concern this privilege, "not 
revoked" and "still in use." Even 
granting that the privilege was revoked 
by Gregory XV, such a revocation was 
cancelled out in effect by the grant of 
Pius VI, which in turn had not been 
revoked. Moreover, this privilege was 
"still in use" at the time canon 4 was 
promulgated. 17 


1 On The Sacred Liturgy, America 20, 1631 
Press, paragraph 142. 

2 Summa Theol. Mor., Noldin-Schmitt, 
II (ed. 17), n. 764. 

:i On The Sacred Liturgy, paragraph 

* Theol. Mor., II, 1. IV, n. 63. 

5 De Religiosis, (1947 ed.) n 

G Loc. cit. 

7 Goyeneche, Quaest. Can.. II 
ed.), p. 58. 

*Cf. Theological Studies. 1953, p. 67. 

9 Pontes Juris Canonici. I, pp. 219- 
220. (Emphasis added). The same 
was extended to all regulars by Ex su- 
pernae, August 16 of the same year, loc. 
cit., pp. 220 f. 

10 Bull. Rom., XII ,pp. 7Q6-709. 
Nothing further is found pertinent to 
the present privilege in the revocation 
of Urban VIII, Alias f el ids, December 

Thus far we have concentrated on the 
present existence of the privilege. As 
for its extension, explicit support for 
privately praying the entire Office 
mentally is found in such authorities as 
St. Alphonsus and others cited by him; 18 
in Coronata; 19 and Schaefer.-" 

As for actually using this privilege, 
whether for peace of conscience or to 
avoid being "an annoyance to other," 21 
it must be added that the Most Reverend 
Father General limits the use of privi- 
leges to those printed in the Collectio 
Facultatum et Indulgentiarum or ac- 
knowledged by himself or the General 
Chapter. 22 The privilege to pray the 
Divine Office mentally does not appear 
in the present edition of the Collectio 
"Facultatum et Indulgentiarum. 

Forrest Macken, C.P. 



Bull. Rom., XIV, pp. 258- 
260; nor in Clement XII's Roman us 
Pontifex. March 29, 1732, Bull. Rom., 
XXIII, pp. 323-327. 

11 Loc. cit. 

12 Loc. cit. 

I :i Loc. cit. 

14 De Sac. IV (1947 ed.), n. 636. 
18 Inst., I, nn. 617-619 bis. 
1,5 Collectio Facultatum et Indulgen- 
tiarum. (1956 ed.), n. 119. 

18 Loc. cit. 

19 Loc. cit. 
'-'" Loc cit. 
21 This was one of the reasons (the 

other was to allow some to "say it more 
devoutly") given in the petition for the 
privilege. Theological Studies. 1953, p. 

II Introductory Letter to the 1956 
edition, pp. 5-6. 



Why did the 1957 Ordo require 
the Domine, labia mea aperies 
and the Deus in adjutorium, for 
Matins on the Epiphany? 

A comparison of the 1956 and 1957 
CP Ordo USA will show that the com- 
piler changed his opinion on this rubric. 
In the 1956 Ordo (p. 4 and 54) it is 
stated that Matins for the Epiphany 
begins "immediate ad Ant. 'Ajferte.' " 
In the 1957 Ordo reference to the 
Epiphany is omitted in the notes on 
the General Decree (p. 4) and on p. 
54 we read that 'Domine, labia mea' 
and 'Deus in adjutorium' are to pre- 
cede the 'Afferte' Antiphon. The rea- 
son for this change rests upon a more 
careful reading of Title IV, 1 and 2 of 
the General Decree. In 1) the Decree 
indicates how the Divine Office is to 
begin, and states precisely that Matins 
begins with the verse 'Domine, labia.' 
In 2) exception to the general rule is 
given for the Office of the Last Three 
Days of Holy Week and for the Office 
of the Dead. No mention is made of 
Matins for Epiphany. Therefore, the 
compiler concluded that Epiphany comes 
under the general rule of paragraph 1 ) , 
and so the 'Domine, labia' is to be said 
(so also Bugnini-Bellocchio De Rubric is, 
Rome, 1955, p. 43). Other compilers 
(as of the Universal Ordo) concluded 
otherwise. Hence, a divergence in many 
of the Ordos for this year. Until the 
Sacred Congregation settles the dispute, 
the opinion of the compiler of our 
Ordo seems better. 


Must an Oratio imperata pro re 
gravi be added at a sung Mass? 

It is true that the General Decree 
rules out the oratio simpliciter imperata 
at all sung Masses, but there had been 
no .change in regard to the oratio im- 
perata pro re gravi. Therefore, it must 
be added in all sung Masses on all days 
that are not marked OCg or OCo in our 
Ordo. Cf. Emphemerides Liturgicae 70 
(1956) 248, where a response of the 
Sacred Congregation is given on this 

Roger Mercurio, CP. 


Recently a woman asked me if 
in Heaven she would see the 
baby she lost through miscar- 
riage. I gave her a vague an- 
swer, but now wonder whether 
I could not have given her more 

This is the old question of the lot of 
infants dying without baptism, a prob- 
lem that has ben discussed at least since 
the time of St. Augustine. The Church 
has given no definitive judgment as 
yet, but in view of the new surge of 
interest and controversy stretching over 
the past thirty years, perhaps a decision 
will be forthcoming. 

The problem arises from the conflict 
of conclusions that stem logically from 
two dogmatic truths. On the one hand 
there is the defined proposition that 
baptism of water or baptism of desire 
is the necessary means of salvation, out- 
side of martyrdom of course. On the 


other hand we have the revealed truth 
that God wills all men to be saved. 
This principle of the universality of the 
salvinc will seems to call for a means of 
salvation that is physically and morally 
possible for all men, including infants 
dying without baptism of water. 

Hence two general approaches to a 
"solution" are theoretically open. If 
baptism be stressed as the sole and 
adequate means of salvation, the ex- 
planation for the infants must be sought 
in some kind of baptism of desire, since 
baptism must be possible for them (to 
maintain the reality of the salvinc will) 
and in the case they do not receive 
baptism of water. This line of argu- 
ment leads to the various illumination 
theories which in general suggest that 
these infants are endowed with a special 
divine enlightenment whereby they en- 
joy the use of reason and thus are en- 
abled to elicit an act of love and desire 
baptism. Some, unwilling to invoke a 
constant succession of miracles have 
thought that a desire for baptism ex- 
pressed by the parents would be ade- 
quate, while others have suggested that 
perhaps the faith and desire of the 
Church could supply in case of necessity. 

There is another set of solutions, 
doctrinally more feeble perhaps but 
obviously more realistic. They generalize 
on the apparent fact that baptism in 
either form is not morally possible for 
all, and so to give meaning to the 
universal salvific will they conclude that 
baptism is not the sole and adequate 
means. Hence it was suggested that 
the untimely death of these infants 
could be considered a kind of martyr- 

dom in virtue of which their "sacrifice" 
would be associated with the expiatory 
death of Christ (subsequently branded 
by the Sacred Congregation of the Index 
as a rather bold and rash manner of 
speaking). Recently a new theory has 
been offered which emphasizes the law 
of solidarity: with Adam in whom they 
sinned, with Christ in whom they are 

It is not necessary here to go into 
these attempts at solution in further 
detail since theologians commonly find 
all of them insufficient in one way or 
another. And really the presentation 
of a solution presupposes that it is not 
certain theological teaching that infants 
dying without baptism are excluded 
from heaven. The stricter view is ad- 
mittedly the traditional view, and if it 
may be classed as defined or at least 
as theologically certain doctrine of the 
authentic magisterium of the Church, 
the question is closed. Consequently 
the first step toward a final answer must 
be to prove beyond a doubt that the 
classic view is not certain. 

Fr. Peter Gumpel, S.J., in a pains- 
taking article in The Downside Review 
for the autumn of 1934 cites more than 
sixty publications of recent years in 
which about fifty authors either presume 
or assert that the traditional view is not 
a theologically certain thesis. However, 
he does not himself think that such 
lack of certitude has been established, 
especially since many of the opinions 
are reducible to tentative questioning. 
To this we might add that it would 
naturally be the champions of the 
infants who would appear in current 


literature, since the traditionalists right- 
ly consider that up to now they hold 
the field. 

In conclusion then, given the present 
unsettled state of the question, we are 
not free to discard the traditional view 
and to assert that all the infants are 
saved, choosing some theory adapted to 
our particular theological taste. How- 
ever, that does not mean that we have 
to tell an anxious mother that she will 
never see her baby in heaven — that is 
not certain either! What we can do is 
to stress God's tender mercy as illus- 
trated in both Testaments and remind 
her that her baby is in the hands of this 
loving Father who is both provident 
and prodigal of His care of His chil- 
dren. Then too, Our Lord shed His 
precious blood with her baby in mind — 
surely that means something! 

In ways like this we can perhaps 
afford some comfort to a grieving moth- 
er and still not leave the impression 
that really it doesn't make any differ- 
ence if a dying baby is baptized or not. 
St. Robert Bellarmine cautions against 
following our feelings too hastily in 
this matter. After all, he says, our 
tenderheartedness isn't going to benefit 
those dead infants one bit, but it may 
harm us & great deal if we find our- 
selves defending and propagating a 
teaching that is contrary to the mind of 
the Church. 

Note: For an excellent and balanced 
summary of the question plus related 
bibliography see the article "Infants 
Dying Without Baptism" by William 
Van Roo, S.J., in Theology Digest 3 
(1955) 3-9. 

Barry Rankin, C.P. 

4 , 4••l• , ^? , l , •^'!^4"^4 , 4 ,, i^4••^4 ,, l?•!^•^ , 


Bound copies of The Passionist for 1956 are now available. Please send orders 
to the office of The Passionist, 5700 N. Harlam Ave., Chicago 31, Illinois. 

All news items, notices and letters to the Editor to be printed in the June 
1st issue of The Passionist must be sent in by April 10th. Articles, Book Reviews, 
Questions to be Answered must in by the 1st of April. 

The Passionist is looking for individual, identified (religious and family name) 
pictures of past and present members of Holy Cross Province for its files. 


Sister M. Laurentia Digges, 
C.S.J., Farrar, Straus and Cu- 
dahy, 240 pp., $4.00. 

This book is the prize-winner of the 
literary contest for Sisters sponsored in 
1956 by the Thomas More Association 
and Farrar, Straus and Cudahy. As 
such, it meets our expectations; and we 
earnestly recommend it to all lovers 
of the liturgy and of art and literature. 

The purpose of the work is to lead 
the general Catholic reader to a deeper 
knowledge of the Mass, the sacraments 
and the Church year of grace. This 
general purpose is achieved by an un- 
usual and ingenious approach. Recog- 
nizing in the liturgy "a sublime work 
of art as well as a significant and trans- 
forming reality," the author uses certain 
art principles to illumine the liturgy 
and to lead to a deeper realization of 
its inner meaning. 

As all true art serves as an illumina- 
tion and revelation of truth and beauty, 

the author uses her analysis of art prin- 
ciples to open up new ways of looking 
at the liturgy. The new look will help 
to transfigure our everyday world and 
our spirittual life. "The idea of Chris- 
tian transfiguration is the art-principle 
of the liturgy." 

In the first part of the work Sister 
Mary Laurentia describes four qualities 
of all good art (unity, variety, signifi- 
cance, power) ; and three functional 
principles (structure, theme, symbol- 
ism). These qualities and principles 
are discussed in an engaging and sug- 
gestive way. The reader will not fail 
to catch the inspiration of these pages; 
he will come from the reading with 
clear, perceptive principles that can 
bring deeper appreciation of the liturgy, 
as well as of art and literature. The 
quotations from literature are used with 
masterly pertinence. 

Chapter Five, the central chapter. 
places Christ before the reader as the 
center of unity, "the still point of the 


turning world." Christ is the center of 
all creation, the central reality in all 
our worship of God. Christ is seen 
as reestablishing all things in Himself; 
as radiating all grace to the souls of 
men. Christ is the center of liturgy; 
transfiguration in Christ is its purpose. 

The second part of the work is 
devoted to the application of the art 
principles to the liturgy. "Four majestic 
circles wheel around Christ the center. 
These are the Mass, the sacraments, 
the office in its various forms, and the 
seasons of the liturgical year. 

These chapters are especially rich in 
suggestion and inspiration. Attention 
may be directed especially to the chap- 
ters on the Mass and the sacraments. 
Sacred Scripture, the liturgical texts 
themselves, art principles of structure, 
design and symbolism are brought to- 
gether in admirable unity. Personal 
participation in the sacred mysteries 
will certainly take on deeper meaning 
from these pages. 

At times, it is true, the symbolic 
relations pointed out in the work may 
seem questionable or arbitrary; but very 
ofter an apt passage from Scripture or 
literature suspends the doubt. One may 
question whether the art principles are 
not lost occasionally in detail or illustra- 
tion. Throughout the work, however, 
the artistic and spiritual insights of the 
author remain constant — a constant 
source of delight and inspiration. 

The illustrations and charts are beau- 
tifully done. They admirably illustrate 
the principles of art and the spiritual 
applications insisted on throughout the 
book itself. 

We have here an unusual work, 
wherein art, literature and liturgy are 
contributing factors in our realization 
of the transfigured world as the in- 
strument of God's spiritual, sacramental 
effects. It should contribute much to 
our own transfiguration in Christ 
through the liturgy. 

Joseph M. O'Leary, C.P. 

Chicago, Illinois 
(From Books on Trial) 

by Gerald Ellard, S.J. Bruce 
Publishing Company, Milwau- 
kee, pp. x & 387. $6.00. 

On the dust jacket of Father Ellard's 
latest book are photographs of the four 
last popes: St. Pius X, Benedict XV, 
Pius XI, and Pius XII. Their pontifi- 
cates mark one of the great transitional 
periods in history, and during this era 
of change the Mass too was in transi- 

Fifty years ago Holy Communion was 
rarely received, and only after one had 
reached the age of twelve or thirteen. 
Gregorian chant was confined to monas- 
tic or seminary choirs. People did not 
have missals, and even priests rarely 
recited the entire psalter of the ferial 
offices of the breviary. 

This by no means implies that Cath- 
olics of that period were less Catholic 
or less devout than today. Sunday 
Masses were well attended, and people 
did not avoid the long High Mass and 
sermon, which was hardly ever over 
in less than two hours. Sunday after- 
noon vespers were the usual thing, with 


catechetical instruction before or after. 
Families prayed together at home, which 
was the center of one's recreational life. 

But times were changing. Automo- 
biles were just beginning to replace the 
horse and buggy or public conveyance. 
Electric lights and movies and telephones 
were beginning to attract the public. 
Airplanes, radios, televisions, talkies, 
frozen foods, shopping centers, drive- 
ins, hospital insurance — these were all 
in the future. But these, together with 
two world wars and their aftermath, 
centralized industry, five day week and 
eight hour day, were to change the pat- 
tern of men's lives. 

And the Church had to keep pace 
with these changes. If the faithful took 
to the roads on Sunday afternoons or 
dropped the children at a movie, then 
the spiritual profit of Sunday Vespers 
and catecheism had to be compensated 
for in other ways. If Mass had to be 
every hour on the hour, then this pre- 
cious time had to be utilized as well as 
possible. If sin and vice could be more 
readily propagandized by modern mass 
media, then the Church should give her 
children a fuller share in the divinely 
ordained means of grace. 

The liturgical movement began with 
the ninetenth's century's attraction for 
the romanticism of the middle ages — 
witness the romantic movement in litera- 
ture, art, and music. Pius X was to take 
this incipient liturgical movement away 
from the medievalist, and make it an 
important factor in his restoration of 
all things in Christ. 

Frequent and early Communion were 
to become the norm, so that all could 

live of the Christian life at its indis- 
pensable source. The breviary and missal 
were to be reformed, so that the liturgi- 
cal year could once again proclaim the 
renewal of the mysteries of Christ. 
Church music would be purified, so that 
all — the entire congregation — could par- 
ticipate in the worship of Christ. 

In the war and post-war years Bene- 
dict XV and Pius XI continued the 
work of their saintly predecessor, but 
it was reserved for Pope Pius XII to 
further the initial reforms of St. Pius 
X by his great encyclicals on the Mysti- 
cal Body and the Liturgy, and through 
his mitigation of the Eucharistic fast, 
the permission for evening Mass, the 
promulgation of the New Holy Week, 
and the simplification of the missal and 
breviary rubrics. 

The effects of these great reforms 
upon the Mass are highlighted by Fr. 
Ellard in his The Mass in Transition. 
Beginning with the simplification of 
the rubrics, and treating of such matters 
as the fast, evening Mass, church art 
and architecture, congregational music, 
lay participation, etc., the author helps 
us to see the absorbing story of the Mass 
in transition. 

Father Ellard seems to have read 
everything and anything that concerns 
the liturgical changes of the past fifty 
years. He has enriched his work with 
the inclusion of many of the great 
reform documents: such as; the decree 
on the simplified rubrics, the apostolic 
consitution on the fast, the encyclical 
on Church Music, the Fulda pastoral on 
church building, the French Hierarchy's 
letter on church art, etc. His biblio- 


graphy on each topic is practically 

Without anticipating the future — the 
author essayed this in his earlier The 
Mass of the Future (1948) — Father 
Ellard indicates to the discerning the 
direction the liturgical winds are 

Here then is a book that every Pas- 
sionist can read with interest, for it 
treats of the Mass — the living memorial 
of the Sacred Passion to which we are 
vowed. Our older Religious will find 
in this work a history and explanation 
of many events which they were previ- 
leged to witness during their lifetime. 
Younger Religious will discover in its 
pages the key to the recent liturgical 
past and safe guide to that future in 
which they will live and work. And 
may we add that those, who like 
"Missionarius" are seeking a solution 
to the mission problems of today, may 
find in The Mass in Transition the 
suggestions and insights for the fur- 
thering of our special apostolate in 
the modern world? 

Roger Mercurio, C.P. 
Lector of Sacred Liturgy 
Louisville, Kentucky 

Philipon, O.P., 221 pp.Newman. 

In this slender volume a son of St. 
Dominic distills the essence of the 
spiritual teaching of a son of St. Bene- 
dict — and we warmly recommend the 
reading of it to the sons of St. Paul 
of the Cross. 

It was the providential mission of 
Dom Marmion to re-establish the person 
of Christ as the fountain head of 
modern spirituality. In his novitiate he 
"felt that we are pleasing to God in 
proportion as we are conformable to 
Jesus Christ, especially in His interior 
dispositions." This conviction grew and 
grew until it completely dominated his 
thinking and all the movements of his 
soul. It overflowed into his classroom 
lectures and retreat conferences, and 
now his written work perpetuates his 
influence, carrying his vibrant Christo- 
centrism throughout the Catholic world. 

Father Philipon has made Dom Mar- 
mion's spirit his own. For his study he 
had access to all the original manu- 
scripts, quite considerable in sheer 
volume. More importantly, he tried 
to develop in himself the Benedictine 
spirit so that he might achieve an under- 
standing of the Benedictine ideal from 

There are five parts to the book. 
Under the title Possession of a Soul , by 
Christ the author sketches the formative 
period of Dom Marmion' s life, his 
spiritual development as Prior of Mont- 
Cesar and his final transformation in 
d • - 1 - as /*.bbot of Maredsous. 

Then follows Our Life in Christ, 
which the reader will recognize as 
Christ the Life of the Soul m miniature, 
although Father Philipon has drawn his 
material from unpublished retreat con- 
ferences and private notes. 

Next comes The Perfection of the 
Christian Life with its succinct treatment 
of monastic spirituality along classic 
Benedictine lines. Its themes of con- 


version of life, compunction of heart, 
the Opus Dei, etc., are reminiscent of 
the pattern already familiar to us in 
Christ the Ideal of the Monk. 

A scant twenty- five pages take up 
the consideration of Sacerdos Alter 
Christus. In the concept of Dom Mar- 
mion the priesthood marks the culmina- 
tion of our identification with Christ. 
Father Philipon accordingly treats of 
the eternal priesthood of Christ Himself 
and its participation by the Church. 
Again the concepts are well known to 
us from the posthumous work, Christ 
the Ideal of the Priest. 

Lastly, a few (eighteen) pages con- 
clude the study with a delineation of 
Dom Marmion's approach to Mary, 
The Mother of Christ. He habitually 
saw in her a radiation of the mystery 
of Christ, which the author aptly char- 
acterizes as "Marian Christo-centrism." 

One cannot suppress the wish that 
Father Philipon had written a more 
extended study, especially in view of 
the fact that he had such a wealth of 
unpublished material at hand. How- 
ever, perhaps he thought that further 
elaboration might be interpreted as an 
attempt to rival Dom Marmion's own 
works. And besides, his research «•»* ; 
told him that making more of the 
Abbot's notes j*iid letters available 
would really add nothing substantial 
to what we know of his doctrine at 

Father Philipon's intention was, 
therefore, rather to present a theologi- 
cal synthesis of the master-ideas that 
formed Dom Marmion's spirituality. 
For this reason the book provides an 

accurate and rich summary, for those 
who are thoroughly acquainted with 
Marmion's thought — but the newcomer, 
I am afraid, will be inclined to quote 
to Father Philipon what the nuns at 
Maredret said to Dom Thibaut: "These 
are the ideas of Father Abbot but you 
have not recaptured his living, spon- 
taneous style, direct and overflowing in 
its enthusiasm for Christ." 

The Passionist with his own "Cruci- 
centric" spirituality will find thfcrse 
pages most congenial. Christian, monk, 
priest, son of Mary, he is all of these — 
and to all of them he will bring his 
strong loyalty to Christ, yes, and Him 

Barry Rankin, C.P. 

Chicago, Illinois 

GEL, by Andrew A. Bialas, 
C.S.V., Clerics of St Viator, 
6219 Sheridan Road, Chicago, 
111. 1954 (Vol. 7 of the Aquinas 
Library) Pp. x-163. 

This book (a doctoral dissertation 
presented to the Theological faculty of 
the Angelicum in Rome) should in- 
terest all Passionists. It is written with 
an enthusiastic devotion which stirs a 
kinship of feeling in the soul of a 
Passionist. We are all well aware of 
the role of St. Michael in the early 
history of our Congregation. So notable- 
was his protection in those pioneer days 
that Ven. Fr. John Baptist added to his 
own name that of St. Michael the Arch- 
angel. Fr. Titus writes that St. Michael 


was declared secondary patron of our 
Congregation by the Sixth General 
Chapter (Jus Partkulare, n 8). 

Fr. Bialas summarizes very clearly the 
teaching of Scholastic Theologians on 
the nature of angels (ch. 2) and the 
notion of patronage (ch. 3). His treat- 
ment of angelic knowledge and "move- 
ment" is clear and succinct. Their 
"movement" and their care of the 
material universe are based on the 
scholastic principle that lower beings 
are governed by those which are higher 
(p. 67). Therefore, Divine Wisdom 
has placed different rulers, as angels, 
in charge of different creatures (p. 68). 
He writes that "a celestial patron, theo- 
logically speaking, is one of the blessed 
who is divinely commissioned, in the 
providence and governance of God, to 
assist the faithful in definite places or 
particular works (particular patrons), 
or even the whole Church (universal 
patrons), by their mediating intercession 
alone (saints who are patrons), or also 
by their "movement" (angelic patrons) 
(p. 95). He concludes that angelic 
patronage is superior to that of other 
saints, not so much from a superiority 
of charity, for while living on earth, the 
saints could have merited a degree of 
charity equal to that of the angels. 
Rather, angelic patronage is of a higher 
rank because angels are greater by 
nature (they have a more perfect intel- 
lectual nature) and because angels ad- 
minister human affairs by common law 
while the other saints do so by special 
dispensation or concession of God (p. 
90-91; I, Q 108, a 8, ad 2). 


In its historical sections it gives many 
interesting details about devotion to St. 
Michael (ch. 1 and 5). We read of its 
early 5th-century origin in the east 
(particularly around Constantinople) 
and in the west (at Rome). In the 
Western Church it received great mo- 
mentum by the apparitions at Gargano, 
on the south-east coast of Italy, in the 
later 5th century. Pp. 20-22 list the 
feasts, masses, prayers, offices, blessings, 
rosary, archconfraternities, instituted in 
honor of St. Michael. 

The high standard set by the scholas- 
tic and historical sections drops some- 
what in the Scriptural parts. The author 
would have greatly enriched his study 
if he had further investigated the 
apocalyptic literature of the Jews, both 
canonical and non-canonical. In the 
Bible the name of St. Michael occurs 
only in those books written in an 
apocalyptic literary genre (Daniel, Jude, 
Apoc, and probably in 1 and 2 Thess). 
We would have liked to have seen 
research into Rabbinical literature which 
speaks of St. Michael's guardianship 
over Israel. Finally, we would differ 
with some particulars of Scriptural 

Despite this criticism from a Scrip- 
tural point of view, we do recommend 
the book. So far as we know, it is the 
only full length treatment of St. 
Michael . It deserves a place in all our 
libraries, because Passionists should be 
better acquainted with their heavenly 

Carroll Stuhlmueller, C.P. 
Chicago, Illinois 

AND THE MASS, by St. Thom- 
as Aquinas (Translated, with 
additional notes and appendi- 
ces, by Rev. F. O'Neill.) New- 
man Press, $2.75. 

This small volume is a re-issue of a 
work published in 1933. Certain char- 
acteristics should be pointed out. 

The short introduction to the work; 
the several introductions to certain 
questions; and the appendices will help 
much to a deeper understanding of the 
text of St. Thomas. 

The Questions translated are Ques- 
tions 73-83 of the Pars Tertia of the 
Summa Theologiae. The translation is 
precise and appealing; though often it 
is a condensation rather than a full 
rendering of the text. The material is 
somewhat differently arranged than in 
the work of St. Thomas: the body of 
the articles is set forth before the objec- 
tions and their answers. 

The small volume can be convenient- 
ly carried; and will serve to put the 
doctrine of the Angelic Doctor in a 
most informative and inspiring manner. 
Joseph M. O'Leary, C.P. 
Chicago, Illinois 

THE CROSS— (Le Contempla- 
tif et la Croix) By Fr. Thomas 
Dehau, O.P. Editions du Cerf, 
Paris. 1956. Pp. 40cS. 

This work is a collection of medita- 
tions for retreats to Religious. The 
conferences it contains are well adapted 
to instill the true meaning of the Pas- 

sion and to move souls to total self- 
sacrifice for the sake of the Crucified. 

Those who go on retreat seek to die 
to creatures that they may live to God 
alone. But what will surely lead to 
this — more even than the thought of 
our own death — is the truth, "A God is 
dead!" (pp. 20-38). 

Why, we ask, has God Himself been 
reduced to such a state? The answer 
is — His love. "It is love that demands 
such a terrible death." (pp. 61-77). 
Too successfully has Jansenism, with 
its dubious zeal for divine justice, 
snatched from love its adorable Victim 
to make Him the Victim of justice! 
And so slyly does it do this that it is 
seldom even noticed" (p. 77). 

Yes, it is love that holds first place 
in the Passion. Love existed before 
creation came to be — God in Himself 
is Love. It is only after creation that 
we can speak of justice, and after love 
moved God to create the universe (pp. 
88-89). Besides, justice would have 
been satisfied by a single drop of 
Christ's blood. "Every glance at the 
crucifix should make us realize how 
love caused the divine blood to be 
poured forth to the last drop; justice 
would have been satisfied with but the 
first. Measure, if you can, the distance 
between the first drop of blood and the 
last; such is the distance between 
justice and love" (p. 95). 

This book brings out the theological 
and spiritual aspects of the Passion with 
vigor and forcefulness. It will be most 
useful to souls trying to lead an interior 
life, and will contribute to their solid 


BY LAYMEN— (La Via Crucis 
Commentata Da Laid) Edited 
by Pino Lombardi. Edizioni 
"Pattuglia della fede" Naples, 
1955. Pp. 88. 80^. 

This worthwhile book is but another 
sign of the importance of the Stations 
of the Cross for our own times. Brief 
meditations by the leading men of 
Naples make up the book. They were 
given during the outdoor Stations held 
in that city on Good Friday, 1954. 

Anyone who probes deeply the prob- 
lems and experiences of modern society 
cannot help but recognize the need to 
wean men from a naturalism which 
shuts them up within themselves and 
ties them down to their own misery, 
and to bring them to consider the suf- 
ferings of Christ. Herein they will find 
not only comfort in their own sufferings, 
but instruction on the positive and trans- 
cendant value of every trial borne in 
union with the will of God. 

These statements of qualified catholic 
laymen ring with sincerity and zeal. 
The devotion they inspire and the good 
example they give may well help to 
bring Christ crucified before men of 

CROSS (Chemin de la Croix: 
Via Crucis) By Albert Frank 
Duquesne. Editions Universi- 

taires, Paris-Bruxelles. 1955. Pp. 

This true and stirring story of the 
Cross is rooted in the author's own ex- 
perience. It goes back to that terrible 
12 th of September 1941 which marked 
the high tide of the injustice he suffered 
in the German concentration camp of 

While his torturers worked to destroy 
in him and his fellow prisoniers the 
last vestiges of human dignity, he under- 
went a profound religious experience, a 
spiritual purgatory. This special grace 
opened his eyes to the real purgative, 
illuminative, and unitive power of the 
Cross. Duquesne brings this out in 
the preface of the book and the four 
lengthy meditations which follow. The 
book traces the soul's path through the 
three classical stages of the spiritual life. 

The author believes that no one can 
escape the pressing query and challenge 
that seizes everyman as he comes face 
to face with the Cross — Christ is the 
Unescapable (cfr. p. 28 ff.). For those 
who reduce the "way of the cross" to 
simply a pious exercise, this book will 
be a summons to re-examine the true 
nature of the christian life — even 
though it be given a little harshly at 
times. They will be impelled to disen- 
tangle their lives from every foolish 
compromise, and square them up brave- 
ly with true Passion spirituality. 

(From Fonti Vive) 

Reviewers are wanted to review books to appear in future issues of The 
Passionist. Some of the books to be reviewed are in a foreign language. If any 
of our Readers are interested, please send in your name to the Editor, also 
indicate if you would be interested in reviewing books in another language. 





by J. L. McKenzie, S.J., Bruce, $4.50. 


by B. Vauter, C. M., Sheed and Ward, 



LIC FAITH, (Transl. of Contra Gen- 
tiles of St. Thomas, Books I, II, III ( 1 ) , 
III (2)), each $2.50; Paper, 85£. 
THE MASS, by St. Thomas (Transl. 
with notes) Newman, $2.75. 
DOGMA, (English Transl. of Den- 
zinger) by R. Deferrari, Herder, $8.50. 
ments of the Church in English, with 
topical arrangement). Jesuit Fathers, 
Herder, $5.75. 

OGY (Vol. I is the Sacraments) by 
P. Palmer, S.J., Newman, $4.75. 
THEOLOGY, by B. Leeming, S.J., 
Longmans, $5.50. 

MEDICAL ETHICS, by E. Healy, S.J., 
Loyola, $6.00. 


ST. THOMAS, by E. Gilson, Random 
House, $7.50. 


TIONS, edited by J. Chapin, Farrar, 
Strauss and Cudahy, $8.50. 


Atwater, Kenedy, $6.50. 


HOOD, by J. Bligh, S.J., Sheed and 
Ward, $3.00. 

THE SILENT LIFE, by T. Merton, 
Farrar, Strauss and Cudahy, $3.50. 

by P. Rohrbach, O.C.D., Fides, $3.75. 

MION, by M. Philipon, O.P., Newman, 


Symposium, Macmillan, $6.00. 

IN HIM IS LIFE, by E. Mura, F.S.V., 

Herder, $3.50. 

NESS, by C H. Doyle, Newman, 


Mouroux, Sheed and Ward, $4.50. 

We recommend for our Libraries a 
Subscription to Books on Trial (210 
W. Madison St., Chicago 6, III., $3.00 
per year) which lists recently published 
books and contains many excellent Book 



Dear Editor: 

I wonder how many readers turn to 
the letter's column first when they re- 
ceive their copy of The Passionist? Those 
who do, support by their action the 
proposition that I am going to set forth 

But first, I must congratulate you on 
the new features: this column, the book 
reviews, and the question box. Now that 
The Passionist has an official capacity 
as the news organ of the English 
speaking world, I am glad to see it 
really "coming alive." 

I frankly admit, though, that I would 
like to see it more like a workshop 
where worthwhile themes are forged 
through discussion with a view to even- 
tual correlation and synthesis. No doubt 
our publication serves a very useful 
purpose as a permanent record of passing 
events and enduring thought. But this 
role seems to me much too passive. I 
would like to see it become more active 
— the channel where fresh, vigorous 
streams of thought converge and run 
themselves clear. In this way The Pas- 
sionist would exert a profound, forma- 
tive influence on the life of the Province, 


would provide those in office with an 
accurate index of the mind of the 
brethren on current problems, and would 
incidentally make The Passionist more 
widely read and would win more con- 

A word about these latter effects. As 
a mere record of the past or as a shrine 
for literary gems, it carries no note of 
urgency; we can always find it in the 
library. But as a workbook where con- 
trasting viewpoints could be aired and 
argued, we would feel that ignorance of 
this discussion entails ignorance of the 
influences shaping our Passionist life. 
I am not, of course, advocating that all 
feature articles involving research and 
scholarship be dropped, but I am advo- 
cating that there be short, lively articles 
expressing ideas not yet ready for final 
synthesis, ideas that obviously call for 
further analysis, collaboration and eval- 

I suggest that this will also be a 
successful way to get contributors. How 
many Passionist there are who express 
a willingness to write, and even make 
promises, but whose names never grace 
these pages! I myself have alleged lack 
of time — and rightly so, I think, be- 
cause the composition of a well-written 

thoughtful article requires a lot of work. 
But if we felt that our ideas were wel- 
come even in their half-matured state, 
without polish and finish, I'm sure more 
would respond. We all have ideas and 
convictions, and we like to express them 
— if we don't have to pay too much 
attention to all the niceties of published 

I hope no one will accuse me of 
wishing to pull down the high quality 
of The Passionist. No! Irresponsible 
writing and pointless prattle are out. 
But I think the brethren ought to be 
encouraged to send in their considered 
opinions in the form of short essays. 
Thus gradually there will be created a 
center for enlightened controversy and 
constructive criticism. 

I am aware as I write this that in 
certain quarters in Europe there is a 
strong desire for some official Passionist 
organ on the scientific level. Perhaps 
they are ready for such an undertaking. 
We are not! Finished syntheses that will 
stand the test of time only grow from 
a long tradition of scholarly endeavor, 
from a generous pooling of talent, from 
a free exchange of the fruits of private 
study. I do think that we should have 
such a scholarly review as our aim, and 
grow toward it gradually by taking 
positive steps now. 

Let me illustrate my point. Some 
years ago one of the Fathers of the 
Province wrote a thought-provoking 
article on the spirit of the Congregation. 
He sent copies of it to competent men 
and invited their criticism. They went 
to great pains and into some detail in 
doing this. I had the good fortune to 
read both the article and the ensuing 
correspondence, and I found the experi- 
ence most helpful and enlightening. 
Since then, I have often thought that it 

is a pity that the whole Province doe* 
not have access to those stimulating 
ideas. Now, I suppose, that sheaf of 
papers is at the bottom of the trunk, 
awaiting that future day (which may 
never come) when the author will have 
the leisure to bring his brain-child to 

How much ordered knowledge we 
now possess on the complicated Church 
and State question as a result of the 
frank controversy between John Courtney 
Murray, S.J., and Francis J. Connell, 
C.SS.R.! It was remarked at the recent 
Mariological Convention that this is per- 
haps the only real contribution that 
America has made to Catholic theology. 

I plead therefore for a more active 
attitude towards Passionist ideals and 
problems, both on the level of specula- 
tion and practice. I think we would reap 
untold benefit from such an approach. 
Barry Rankin, C.P. 
Chicago, Illinois 


Dear Editor: 

Your article on Mental Prayer in the 
Life of a Passionist in the February issue 
of The Passionist is a masterpiece. Wish 
I could have read it twenty years ago. 
May God and His Mother reward you 
for making this matter available to us. 
A Passionist Brother 

Dear Editor: 

I just read with interest your article. 
Mental Prayer in the Life of a Passionist. 
It was superb. We should have more 
articles like that which have footnotes to 
show the sources from which the 
teaching was derived. Please give us 
more articles along those lines which 


emphasize the contemplative side of our 


Dear Editor: 

I warmly congratulate you on the 
article "Mental Prayer in the Life of a 
Passionist," which appeared in the 
February 1957 issue of The Passionist. 
It is excellent. 

I liked especially that section of it 
which treats of our commission to teach 
mental prayer. The duty of teaching 
the faithful the manner of making 
mental prayer on the Mysteries, Suf- 
ferings, and Death of Our Lord Jesus 
Christ, is so clearly expressed in the Holy 
Rules and also the Regulations, it is 
surprising that there should be any 
doubt about the meaning of our Holy 

But, the manner of doing this is not 
without difficulty. The Motive of the 
Passion should, as the title suggests, 
furnish motives why they should medi- 
tate on the Passion, and also show them 
how to do it. But, usually these ex- 
planations are rather sketchy and the 
faithful are left pretty much to their 
own devices. It is the mind of St. Paul 
of the Cross (H.R. Pars. 2, 3) that the 
faithful should be instructed to do the 
same thing that the religious does in 
his monastery, due allowance being made 
for the obvious differences. You would 
do the priests who want to promote 
mental prayer among the laity a great 
favor, if you would follow up this 
article with another article outlining a 
method of teaching them the art of 
mental prayer on the Passion of Our 
Lord, so that the prescription of the 
Holy Rule might be more easily and 
effectively carried out in practice. 

A Retreat Master 


Dear Editor: 

Thanks a million for your wonderful 
article on Mental Prayer! So many 
good things were recalled and a few 
convictions found more solid footing. 

I liked the stressing of the idea of our 
commission to teach mental prayer. And 
perhaps, we could begin at home. It 
often struck me that we hear so little 
about prayer in our own Choirs. Though 
we were taught how to meditate in the 
Novitiate, and the training was con- 
tinued on an individual basis throughout 
Student Life, afterwards it is left up to 
each one to continue as best he can. 
I wonder if we sometimes don't need a 
good course on Prayer. Examens or 
articles in The Passionist might help. 
If we knew more about it — what to 
expect along the way — we might not 
get in a rut, and become discouraged. 

I don't believe we can ever hear 
enough on the subject, through I realize, 
too, one learns to pray by praying. But, 
more frequent mention of it, does keep 
one stirred up and eager about some- 
thing so important. So . . . why not 
follow up this excellent article with 
another on: "How to Pray." 

A Grateful Passionist 


Dear Editor: 

I would like to call your attention to 
a statement made in a recent issue of 
The Passionist (Vol. IX, No. 6) under 
the Section entitled Varia (page 622). 
I refer to the interesting bit of informa- 
tion concerning the author of the Litany 
for a Happy Death. 

You mention at the end that these 
"details have been drawn from a book 
by Father Giovanni Marino entitled 

// Sacerdote Sanctificato (1890)." One 
of the details is that "the recitation of 
the Litany carries with it an indulgence 
of 100 days each time, and a Plenary 
Indulgence, if said daily for a month 
(Pius VII and Leo XII)." 

While quite possibly very true, the 
statement could be misleading. If under- 
stood in the sense that any of the 
faithful who recite this Litany today may 
gain those indulgences, the statement is 
incorrect. Because of the fact that we 
frequently say this Litany at public 
functions in our Churches, I think it 
would be worthwhile to clarify the 

The Enchiridion Indulgentiarum is an 
authoritative and complete collection of 
the indulgences still in force for the 
universal Church. ("Hoc volumen preces 
complectitur ac pia opera . . . quae adhuc 
vigent; . . . obrogatis ceteris omnibus 
generalibus indulgentiarum concessioni- 
bus, quae in hoc enchiridion non sunt 
relatae." Decretum S. Paenit. Apost., 
March 3. 1952). The latest edition of 
this enchiridion (Vatican Press, 1952) 
does not contain the Litany for a Happy 
Death. Perhaps it was contained in 
earlier editions, I have not checked. 
But it is not indulgenced today for all 
the faithful or for any general group of 
the faithful. 

It is not true to say that all indul- 
gences are contained in this official col- 
lection. There are three general cate- 
gories of indulgences which are not 
listed in the enchiridion. Not listed are: 

( 1 ) Indulgences which require a blessing 
by a competent priest (secular or reli- 
gious) upon some object of piety; 

(2) Indulgences which require a visit 
to some determined place; (3) Indul- 
gences which require enrollment in some 
sodality or organization. (Cfr. Enchirid- 

ion Indulgentiarum. Praenotanda, No. I, 
pg. rii). 

Hence it is entirely possible that "the 
recitation of the Litany carries with it 
an indulgence" if, for example the 
indulgence was granted to members of 
some sodality — as the Bona Mors Society. 
Whether or not such is the fact, I do 
not know. Certainly the mere recitation 
of the Litany for a Happy Death does 
not carry with it any indulgence for 
the faithful in general or for any partic- 
ular group, such as the sick, the dying, 
priests, etc. 

Paul M. Boyle, C.P. 


INCE 1906-1956 
Dear Editor: 

I wish to call your attention to a 
mistake in the latest issue of The Pas- 
sionist, (Vol. IX, No. 6, page 547). 
The Very Rev. Frs. Jerome Reutermann 
and Casimir Taylor were not elected in 
this consultum. They were elected in 
the Provincial Chapter of St. Paul of 
the Cross Province of 1906. 

In the back of the Register, Superiors 
of the Western Province, page 2, it is 
stated that the First Chapter of the 
Western Province was held in July, 
1906. That was a Consultum and not 
a Chapter. The first Chapter was held 
in 1908. 

Dear Editor: 

I would like to point out the following 
mistakes in the November-December 
issue of The Passionist in the article 
entitled "Holy Cross Province 1906- 
1956." Father Alban Callagee was a 
nephew and not a brother of Father 
Denis. I would also like to mention that 


his twin brother was named Matt instead 
of Martin. I also believe that Father 
Philip Birk was pastor at St. Michael's 
in West Hoboken and not at St. 
Michael's in Pittsburg. 

Edwin Ronan, C.P. 

Houston, Texas 


Dear Editor: 

It would be wonderful if our libraries 
were all fully catalogued. This would 
allow us to get the best use of our 
libraries. But this takes hours of work, 
just to keep it up to date. Where a 
beginning has never been made, the 
situation can look hopeless. For those 
of our libraries that are not yet cata- 
logued, there are some easy steps that 
can be taken to put the library in order. 

1. Arrange the books according to 
subjects — preferably, according to the 
categories of the Dewey Decimal System, 
since this is in widest use in the Province. 
Then label the shelves. 

2. Mark the back of the books with 
the Dewey numbers. This will insure 
a definite place for each book, according 
to its subject. This can be done rather 

3. Only when all the books have been 
marked, begin the time-consuming proc- 
ess of typing cards. Keep the cards 
simple: only one card with complete 
information — the author card — and the 
others as little as necessary to find the 
book. By working a section at a time 
and marking the title page when the 
cards have been made, the danger of 
skipping books can be avoided. 

4. In all our libraries, a "checking 
out" system would help in locating books 
that are out. This could be simple: a 

box with alphabetical index dividers and 
a pad of blank slips. When someone 
takes a book from the library, he writes 
the author, title, and his own name on 
a slip and drops it in the file. Just a few 
seconds to check out a book. 

These suggestions are offered in the 
hope that they may be helpful, and that 
others with library experience may add 
other, perhaps better, ideas. 

Amateur Librarian 


Dear Editor: 

This is written to thank Fr. Costante 
Brovetto, C.P., the Translators, and The 
Passionist for making the "Introduction 
to the Spirituality of St. Paul of the 
Cross" available to English readers. The 
presentation in your pages maintains and 
in one way at least, I believe, surpasses 
any previous critical work which has 
appeared: the reader is not only given 
the critical insight of the original author 
but the added critical appraisal of , the 

Fr. Costante's ability in Theology and 
Sacred and Secular History as well as 
his ability to both handle and balance 
the primary and secondary sources are 
certainly enhanced by his ability to 
make the dead bones of the past arise 
and form a living personality. The effort 
required and made with such success 
to present St. Paul of the Cross as a 
distinct and recognizable person previous 
to presenting his doctrine as a distinct 
and recognizable Spirituality has been 
for me the best presentation yet, with 
no imaginative additions. The following 
personal references from St. Paul's own 
letters confirm the impression: 


". . . the great God of Majesty has 
given me light to arrange sermons, in- 
structions, etc., as also in Morals to hear 
confessions, having studied some sub- 
jects, which I have tried to keep up as 
much as I could. 

"... I must keep myself in fear and 
trembling for the great account I must 
give as a chosen dispenser of the treas- 
ures of the Most High, Who has willed 
to confide to me not only missions in 
many Dioceses, but also Convents of 
Sisters where I have given retreats and 
served as extraordinary Confessor. . . . 
He has also confided to me the holy 
directions of some souls who are en- 
riched with wonderful gifts of God and 
the highest prayer. . . ." (Lettere II, pp. 

This shows us the broad basis of 
personal experience besides his own 
which St. Paul could use in forming a 
proper Spirituality. 

"... I am compassion from my moth- 
er's womb" he writes to Abbot Stephen 
Zucchino Stefani about a youth in whom 
he is interested. (Lettere III, p. 678) 

Another personal reference to the 
same Abbot two years earlier gives an 
interesting sidelight on St. Paul's interest 
in Sacred Scripture: 

"I have just received your letter, and 
I can assure you that I have much at 
heart the spread of your excellent work 
on Genesis for youthful study. For this 
purpose I will not fail in the coming 
little General Chapter of ours to recom- 

mend all to promote its use etc; and 
if God spreads our Congregation into 
Piedmont as seems likely, I will try to 
have it received in the University of 
Turin and in all the schools of the State, 
with the consent of the King etc." 
(Lettere III, p. 677) 

The section of Fr. Constante's work 
on Sacred Scripture as a source for St. 
Paul's doctrine is a valuable contribu- 
tion. The texts used as the work prog- 
resses through the speculative sections 
illustrated his points well. Incidentally, 
in just the first two Volumes of his 
Letters St. Paul has already quoted from 
27 books of the Old Testament and 21 
books of the New Testament. 

The insistence upon the distinction 
between introversion and introspection 
and the way St. Paul worked to further 
the first and oppose the second is espe- 
cially helpful. However for the benefit 
of English readers the translators might 
have added a note further explaining 
introversion in the mind of St. Paul 
since the word carries a somewhat dis- 
agreeable implication for many today. 

Thank you again for making the fruit 
of such labor and love in analyzing St. 
Paul's Spirituality available. 

John M. Render, C.P. 
Des Moines, Iowa 

§ Father Costante's work will be con- 
tinued in the June 1st issue of The 



Our readers are invited to send letters to the Editor, giving their comments 
and opinions on article and letters appearing in The Passionist. Letters on 
other subjects that will be of interest to our Readers will also be printed. If 
requested, the name of the sender will not be printed, but anonymous letters will 
not be accepted. 



Explanation of Mass Recorded 

This is the Mass is a brand new 
12" 33 1/3 LP record containing an 
explanation and description of the 
Mass. It can be obtained from The 
Carmelite Fathers Guild, 55 Demarest 
Avenue, Englewood, NJ. $3.00. 

Language School in Tokyo 

The Franciscan Language School in 
Tokyo, Japan, begun after the war by 
the Very Rev. Alphonse Schnusenberg 
O.F.M., Delegate General of all 
O.F.M. Missions in the Far East, had 
85 students (priests and brothers) 
during 1955-56, coming from 12 dif- 
ferent nations and representing 18 Mis- 
sion Societies. 

Retreats for Young Men 

The following news item will be 
encouraging for those who are trying 
to further closed retreats for young 
men. During the past four years, ten 
thousand young men aged 16 to 24 
made a three-day retreat at Gonzaga 
Retreat House, Monroe, N.Y. Revs. 
John M. Fahey, S.J., and John W. 


Magan, S.J., retreat directors, report 
constant enthusiasm among the young 
men for the experience of prayer and 
silence, and their interest in recruiting 

Holy Week Questionnaire 

Last April we sent out a questionnaire 
on the New Holy Week Services in 
our Monastery and Parish Churches. 
We are grateful for the replies received, 
but we regret being unable to write a 
full article on it. We must be content 
with the following summary. 

1. The attendance at the services and 
the reception of Holy Communion were 
much greater in practically all of our 

2. Participation in the singing and 
in answering the responses was not too 
common. It seems our Colored Missions 
did better in this regard. The partici- 
pation in the Palm Sunday Procession 
fared the worse. 

3. Only two churches had the Tre 
Ore Service, and of these one said it 
would be omitted this coming year. 

From another church we receive word 
that it was felt the Tre Ore should 
have been had. 

4. Quite a few churches had a com- 
mentator or announcer. Others felt 
it would be a good idea to have one 
this year. A few saw no need for one. 

5. Holy Thursday Solemn Mass 
varied from 5:00 p.m. to 8:00 p.m. 
At one church where it was celebrated 
at 7:00 p.m., it was felt it should have 
been at 6:00 p.m. Several hoped for a 
morning Mass also. 

6. Most Churches had the Good 
Friday Liturgy at 3:00 p.m. Three had 
it at 6:00 p.m. Several expressed the 
hope that it would be between noon 
to three. 

7. Two churches that had the 
midnight Easter Vigil in the past, found 
out that the evening hour was better 
attended than midnight. 

8. In some of our churches confes- 
sions were heard beginning on Monday 
or Tuesday. No specified complaints 
were made about Saturday confessional 

9. One pastor felt that children could 
not attend the services at the evening 
hour, due to the overcrowded churches, 
and so feared that they would not be 
brought up to attend these services. 

All in all we can say that Holy Week 
was observed with greater attendance 
in all of our Passionist Churches. Details 
have still to be worked out, but as 
throughout the world, the new Holy 
Week services were greeted with re- 
newed interest and even enthusiasm. 

Chronology of Holy Week 

On the much discussed and still un- 
settled problem of identifying the days 
on which the Last Supper was held, E. 
Vogt has an interesting article in the 
Biblica, entitled "Dies Ultimae Coenae 
Domini" (Vol. 36, 1955, pp. 408- 

Among the many solutions offered to 
solve the question, this author cites and 
explains the one proposed by A. Jaubert 
in the Revue dHistoires des Religions 
(146, 1945. pp. 140-173). 

An old tradition dating from the 
second century refers to the celebration 
of the Last Supper on Tuesday by 
Jesus. The Pasch according to the 
ancient priestly calendar fell on the 
same day every year. Hence, it seems 
that the solution to the difficulty lies 
in the fact that "Jesus ate the paschal 
lamb on the Pasch according to the 
ancient calendar" and died as the 
Paschal Lamb on the Pasch according 
to the official calendar, and that both 
Paschs fell within the same week that 
year, as could easily have happened. 

The chronology would then be: 
Saturday: The anointing at Bethany. 
"Six days before the (official) Passover" 
(Jo. 12:1). 

Sunday: The triumphal entrance. 
"The next day" (Jo. 12:12). The night 
was spent at Bethany (Mk. 11:11). 

Monday: "The next morning" he 
went into the city; curses the fig tree 
(Mk. 11:12). At evening — outside 
the city. 

Tuesday: "The next morning,'" He 
returns to the city; the fig tree is found 
withered up (Mk. 11:20). The Priests 


hold a consultation — "Now it was two 
days before the (official) Passover" 
(Mk. 14:1). Judas goes to the Priests. 
The Last Supper — "The first day of the 
unleavened bread" (of the ancient 
calendar). (The Synoptics). Jesus is 
captured during the night and is led to 
Annas (Jo. 18:13) at the house of the 
High Priest (Lk. 22:24). The ques- 
tioning of Jesus and Peter's three deni- 
als. Jesus is brought before Caiphas, 
the High Priest. The rest of the night 
is spent in the house of Caiphas. 

Wednesday morning: The first ses- 
sion of the Sanhedrin. Jesus is in the 
prison of the Jews. 

Thursday morning: Second session 
of the Sanhedrin. Jesus is taken to 
Pilate — first interview. In the Prison 
of the Romans. 

Friday morning: Second interview 
with Pilate. Barabbas. Scourging, cruci- 

After quoting at length from tradi- 
tion and scripture, the author concludes : 
"This chronology, therefore, does not 
seem to contradict the Gospels, rather 
it appears supported by them. It solves 
many difficulties and throws new light 
on the happenings of the Passion." 

Letter From Garrigou Lagrange 
to C.P. Students 

The following letter of Father Gar- 
rigou Lagrange, O.P., was written to 
the Students of St. Gabriel's Retreat, 
in the Pieta Province, on the occasion 

of the first edition of Gioventu Passion- 
ista (Passionist Youth). 

"My Dear Students at St. Gabriel's, 

I am very happy to learn of your 
initiative, which appears to promise 
much. It is for me a sign of the super- 
natural vitality of your Institute; and 
it shows how enthusiastically all the 
parts of your Order have responded to 
your invitation. 

The collaboration of your teachers 
and Reverend Fathers — they who have 
lived their lives in the shadow of the 
Cross — will make of this publication a 
valuable aid for examining and devel- 
oping your rich spirituality. At the same 
time it will be an outlet for your youth- 
ful energy. 

The division of the sections is well 
ordered. In the third part all the young 
men of your Order are united in the 
drive toward their sublime ideal. This 
publication will make well known the 
loft conception of the Religious Life 
which our Lord gave to your Holy 
Founder and the other Saints and 
Blessed of your Order. It is providential 
that this holy task should be accom- 
plished in the very place where St. 
Gabriel of the Sorrowful Virgin lived. 

I have a lively desire that this work 
bear much fruit in the Church and in 
your dear Congregation, as I forsee will 
be the case for the first number. I 
recommend myself to your prayers, and 
on my part I pray for you." 

Fr. Reginald Garrigou Lagrange,O.P. 

•t^^)(IO<3 9 j^?^?^< tf g)0(@3|H».. 


(Continued from page 120) 

The festive dinner, the taking of 
group photos of the two Communities 
together, the good-byes exchanged — 
these also left with me more than 
superficial impressions; they expressed 
in tangible form the solidarity and 
deeper union that exists between all 
Passionists everywhere. 

And this ended my historic pilgrim- 
age to Monte Argentaro in the foot- 
steps of my nineteen predecessors. 

(Continued from page 157) 

We are forbidden to add this or any 
other invocation in the public recitation 
of the litany. How I say the litany 
privately, or how we say it privately, is 
not the concern of the Sacred Congre- 
gation of Rites. Certainly the Church 
is interested in our private devotions. 
Canon 1930 is meant to safeguard us 
from litanies which are foreign to 
traditional Catholic piety or sound theol- 
ogy, even if they would be used only 
privately. But the decrees of the Sacred 
Congregation of Rites are not intended 
to regulate private acts of devotion. 

In view of all this, Father Ronald's 
statement (page 15 3, col. 2) that "it 
is evident that there is at least a solid 
doubt that we gain the indulgence of 
the litany when we add the invocation 
in question" cannot be sustained. I do 
not think there can be any prudent 

doubt in the matter. Decree #5 of the 
thirty-third General Chapter is in con- 
formity with sound juridic principles. 

(Continued from page 153) 

sold by the Customs office but found to 
be too large to exhibit. It was finally 
purchased by Dr. Eaton for Forest Lawn 
Memorial Park, Glendale, California, 
and hangs today across a stage in The 
Hall of the Crucifixion where thousands 
see it every year. 

41 Jacques Maritain, Georges Rouai/lt, 
Pocket Library of Great Art. For an 
example of Rouault see The Sign, May 
1956, p. 33. 

42 Possibly the greatest "surrealist" 
painter. His early paintings are char- 
acterized by limp watches, plastic pianos, 
and other less delectable subjects. After 
an audience with Pope Pius XII, he 
turned from "surrealism" to what he 
calls "the realistic mysticism of the 
Catholic Faith." Cf. J. A. Breig, "Dali 
Paints Christ," Catholic Digest, Aug. 
1955, pp. 119-121 cf. also Jubilee, Apr. 

4:< Cf. Bruno, Three Mystics, pp. 96 ff. 

41 Cf. Poem of Sr. Miriam of the 
H. Sp., D.C. (Jessica Powers) in Spiri- 
tual Life, Mar. 1955, p. 35. 

'•" , Prof. Primo Conti teaches painting 
today at the Academy of Fine Arts, 
Florence. From the age of 14 his works 
were shown in national and international 

" : Fonti Vive, n. 4. Dicembre 1955, 
pp. 429-430. 

47 "The function of Art" N.C.W.C. 
translation, p. 3. 



International Visitors 

An extraordinary number of Passion- 
ists from other provinces and mission 
territories visited Immaculate Concep- 
tion Monastery, Chicago, Illinois, this 
past January. Prominent among them 
were Bishop Ubaldo Cibrian of Coroco- 
ro, high in the Bolivian Andes, and 
Bishop Cuthbert O'Gara, exiled from 
Hunan, China. Very Rev. Fr. Primo, 
Provincial of Immaculate Heart Prov- 
ince, and Father Germano, Superior of 
Immaculate Heart Province's Mexican 
foundation, brought with them the 
flavor of Our Holy Founder's native 
Northern Italy. Father Justin Garvey 
told of his experiences as one of the 
last Passionist Missioners expelled from 
Hunan by the Chinese Red government. 

And Father Marcellus, C.P., from the 
Belgian Province, after nine years 
teaching theology in Rome and Eng- 
land, was on his way to a new assign- 
ment in Australia! Contact with such 
a wide variety of visitors certainly 
demonstrates the worldwide character 
of our Congregation, and likewise in- 
creases a sense of solidarity with our 
brethren in all nations. 

Mariological Convention 

The Eighth National Convention of 
the Mariological Society of America, 
held in Chicago, January 3-4, drew a 
strong representation of Passionists 
from Immaculate Conception Monastery 
there, as well as Fathers Richard Kugel- 
man, and Bennet Kelly from St. Paul 
of the Cross Province. Of the approxi- 

mately one hundred members present 
eighteen were Passionists. The doctrinal 
subject treated by this year's convention 
was the Death of the Virgin Mary. 
While our Fathers were not among the 
scheduled speakers, they took an active 
and valuable part in the post-lecture 

Japanese Christianity 

Professor Paul M. Tagita of the 
Catholic University of Nagaya, Japan, 
addressed the Chicago community la~t 
December 20th, on what he termed 
"The Secret Christians of Japan." He 
disclosed that at least half the famous 
Nagasaki Christians, who remained 
loyal to Christianity during 300 years 
of persecution, have never returned to 
the true faith. They cling to many 
Catholic practices — as shown by the 
Professor's recording of their Rosary, 
chanted in Latin — but thus far have 
not acknowledged the Church of Rome 
as being the religion they received long 
ago from St. Francis Xavier. Professor 
Tagita, a former Buddhist monk, has 
since his conversion specialized in the 
problem of the Oriental approach to 
Christianity, and has dedicated his life 
to the conversion of Japan. 

Zealous Benefactor 

Mr. Jonas Mayou, brother of Father 
Matthias Mayou, C.P., (deceased 1929) 
of the Eastern Province, underwent a 
serious operation in Resurrection Hos- 
pital, Chicago, Illinois, on January 28th, 
and is now recovering nicely. Mr. 
Mayou has been a benefactor of Holy 

Cross Province in quite an unusual way. 
As a parish choir director in his younger 
days, he was instrumental in sending 
several boys to our Preparatory Semin- 
ary, among them Father Joseph Gart- 
land (deceased 1956) and Fathers Leo 
Scheibel, Cornelius McGraw, and Mat- 
thias Coen. 

Death of Fr. Regis Enright, C.P. 

Death came a second time in one 
month to the Sacred Heart Retreat 
on December 26th, when Rev. Fr. Regis 
Enright, C.P., passed to his eternal re- 
ward. Father Regis had not been well 
for some time. On November 19, while 
conducting a novena in Cleveland, 
Ohio, he was confined to the Charity 
Hospital there. On November 30th, 

Rev. Fr. Regis Enright, CP 


he was able to return to Louisville, 
Kentucky, and at once entered St. 
Joseph's Infirmary. 

As his condition did not improve, it 
was decided to anoint him on December 
9th. He passed into a coma on Decem- 
ber 22 nd, from which he did not re- 
cover. Assisted by Rev. Fr. Emmanuel 
Sprigler, C.P., he died in the early 
hours of St. Stephen's Feast, at the age 
of forty- five. 

The Funeral Mass was sung at St. 
Agnes Church on December 27th by 
the Rev. Father Thaddeus Tamm, C.P., 
Vicar. The Rev. Fr. Roger Mercurio, 
C.P., delivered the discourse on this 
occasion. The Rev. Fr. Mel Schneider, 
C.P., a classmate of Father Regis, ac- 
companied the remains to St. Louis, 
where burial took place on December 
29th at our Preparatory Seminary in 
Warrenton, Missouri. 

The two following letters that were 
written by Father Regis a week before 
his death to the Community at Sacred 
Heart Retreat and to the Students to be 
ordained Deacons, should be of interest 
to all those who knew Father Regis: 
December 19, 1956 
"Dear Fathers and Brothers, 

"My greetings for a Holy Season. 
In those greetings are contained a deep 
appreciation of your charity towards me. 
On some of my rougher days just the 
simple appreciation of your remem- 
brance, your kindness and charity mani- 
fested in so many ways meant the world 
of difference. More and more I realize 
what a grace God has given me to be 
one of you. 

"When once again God gives me the 

grace to celebrate the glorious Sacrifice 
it will be with a deeper fervor and 
unction I assure you, and an awareness 
not only of my duty of gratitude to 
you but also of the right of each one 
of you to the merits of the Sacrifice I 
offer at the altar, and my obligation to 
fulfill my responsibility in a worthy 

I still have a long up-hill climb; con- 
tinue to keep me in your prayers! From 
the depth of my heart I thank you. 

Fraternally, humbly, and gratefully 
in Christ, 
Regis, C.P. 
December 19, 1956 
"Dear Ordinandi, 

"It is with regret that I cannot offer 
my congratulations on the very day of 
your ordination to the Diaconate. With 
pleasure I worked with some of you 
in the Prep, watched your progress un- 
der the holy guidance of others, and 
now with joy congratulate all of you 
upon the occasion of your reception 
of the glorious sacrament of the Diac- 
onate. No need for me to remind you 
of the greater responsibilities that will 
now be yours, but I would like to re- 
call to each of you the sacramental 
graces of the office that will enable you 
to fulfill them worthily. 

"On this glorious day would each of 
you have the charity to pray that I too, 
once again, will be given the grace to 
become a zealous, fruitful, and worthy 
worker in Our Lord's vineyard, or be 
given the grace of gracious resignation 
to Divine Providence to use me as He 
sees fit. 


"I am deeply appreciative of your 
charitable visits to me, and that is one 
reason more why my congratulations to 
you are utterly sincere and no mere 
empty words. 

"With fervent prayers for God's 
blessing upon you and the promise of 
offering a mass for your intention when 
that privilege is mine once again. 
Fraternally in Christ, 
Fr. Regis, C.P." 

New Rector 

Word was received in Louisville on 
Christmas Day of the election of their 
new Rector, the Very Rev. Fr. Conell 
Dowd, C.P., Vicar of Holy Cross Mon- 
astery, Cincinnati, Ohio. Father Conell 
was installed as Rector on January 12th 
by his Vicar, Rev. Fr. Thaddeus Tamm, 

Father Conell is the older brother of 
the late Father Ronan Dowd, C.P., the 
former beloved Rector of Sacred Heart 

Father Conell was born in St. Paul, 
Kansas, in 1909. Professed in 1929, 
he was ordained in 1937. After ordina- 
tion Father Conell continued his theo- 
logical studies in Rome and Washing- 
ton, D.C., receiving the Doctorate of 
Sacred Theology. He taught dogmatic 
theology for several years in our Chi- 
cago House of Studies, later serving as 
Provincial Secretary and Retreat Master 
at our retreat houses in Clayton, Mis- 
souri, and Cincinnati, Ohio. He was 
appointed Vicar of the Cincinnati Com- 
munity last August. 


The chaplain of Our Lady of Peace 
Hospital in Louisville, Kentucky, the 
Rev. Fr. Aloysius Dowling, C.P., turned 
over the first spade of dirt for a new 
wing which is to be added to this psy- 
chiatric hospital. Members of the Louis- 
ville Community assisted in this cere- 
mony which was held on February 2nd, 
the sixth anniversary of the opening of 
the hospital. The hospital is conducted 
by the Sisters of Charity of Nazareth. 

The Sick 

Confrater Owen Duffield, C.P., third 
year theologian at the Sacred Heart Re- 
treat, (cf The Passionht, February, 
1957, pp. 71-72) returned to the mon- 
astery on December 31st, after a two 
and a half month stay in the hospital. 
Unfortunately a week later it was neces- 
sary to take him back to the hospital, 
for further observations. He returned 
a second time to the monastery on 
January 31st, in a much improved con- 
dition. It is hoped that this time he 
is home for good. 

Member of National Advisory 
Committee of Family Life 

The Passionist Fathers of Sacred 
Heart Retreat, Louisville, Kentucky, and 
of Holy Cross Province have been hon- 
ored by the selection of Rev. Fr. For- 
rest Macken, C.P., Lector of Moral and 
Pastoral Theology and of Canon Law, 
as one of the members of the newly 
organized National Advisor)' Commit- 
tee of the Family Life Bureau of the 


Father Theophane Gescavitz, C.P. as 

he celebrated his Jubilee Mass of 


Father Joyce Hallahan, C.P., cele- 
brating his 25th anniversary Mass of 

His Excellency Aldan J. Bell, Auxiliary Bishop of Los Angeles, attended Jubilee 

celebration of (1. to r.) Fathers Aidan McGauran, C.P., Harold Travers, C.P., 

and Theophane Gescavitz, C.P. Community of Sierra Madre and friends of 

the Monastery attended the celebration. 


1 ~~i4k 3f 

Jubilee Mass of Father Aidan 
McGauran, C.P. 

25th anniversary Mass being celebrated 
by Father Harold Travers, C.P. 

Three Jubilarians, 1. to r., Fathers Cyprian Leonard, C.P., Fidelis Benedik ,C.P., 

and Patrick Tully, C.P., with members of the Community of St. Paul of the 

Cross Retreat, Detroit, and guests. 






Commenting on Father Forrest's ap- 
pointment, The Record (Louisville 
Archdiocesan weekly) announced: 

"Father Forrest Macken, C.P., al- 
ready well-known in this diocese for 
his work in the area of family life, took 
on another job last week. He was 
named a member of the newly-formed 
advisory committee of the Family Life 
Bureau. A division of the National 
Catholic Welfare Conference, the bu- 
reau is revising its aims to lay the 
groundwork for greater unity in the 
national family life field. 

"While stationed at Sacred Heart Re- 
treat, the Passionist foundation in Louis- 
ville, Father Forrest has conducted pre- 
marriage courses at Bellarmine College, 
served as Chaplain to the Louisville 
Federation of the Christian Family 
Movement during its formative years; 
re-organized the content of the Pas- 
sionist Seminary curriculum; and pre- 
sented numerous Cana Conferences for 
local parishes. 

"Father Macken is much in demand 
as a speaker on family life. He spoke 
to Louisville Catholic doctors on this 
subject only recently. Last summer, he 
delivered one of the two major ad- 
dresses at an international conference on 
Family Life held in Ontario, Canada. 

"He is one of the 36 American au- 
thorities on marriage and family life 
who will serve on the Family Life Bu- 
reau's new advisory committee." 

Laymen Retreat News 

Warrenton, Mo.: In spite of very 
bad weather and icy highways, fifty- 

eight men, more than were scheduled, 
made the first retreat held in the new 
retreat house, Our Lady's Retreat House, 
Warrenton, Missouri. This first lay- 
men's retreat was held over the week- 
end of January 25 th to 27th, and 
was preached by Rev. Fr. John De- 
vany. Most of the men making this 
first retreat were from Ascension Par- 
ish, Normandy, Missouri, in the same 
area of the old Preparatory Semi- 
nary. It was men from this parish 
who in 1952 had the privilege of 
making the first retreat in the Clayton 
Retreat House. The second group of 
laymen to make their retreat at the new 
retreat house totaled seventy-three men 
and were from the Newman Club of 
Washington University. 

From February 4th to 8th the first 
of a series of retreats for the clergy of 
the St. Louis Archdiocese was con- 
ducted by Rev. Fr. Herman Joseph 
Stier. The Most Reverend Leo C. Byrne, 
Auxiliary Bishop of St. Louis, along 
with thirty-eight priests of the Arch- 
diocese made the retreat. The follow- 
ing note left by Bishop Byrne speaks 
for itself: "Thanks be to God for Our 
Lady's Retreat House. It was a wonder- 
ful experience being here for the first 
Priests' retreat." 

Houston, Texas: Another successful 
year passed in the retreat work in the 
Houston-Galveston area. From January 
1956 to January 1957 inclusively, a 
total of 1283 retreatants took advantage 
of the graces of a retreat at Holy Name 
Retreat House. During this time there 
were held forty week-end retreats, which 
put the average attendance of each re- 


treat at 32.75. Continued organization 
and hard field work plus personal con- 
tact continues to raise the average high- 
er and higher. 

In addition to the retreats held for 
laymen, six clergy retreats were had 
during the past year with one hundred 
priests attending. Most of these priests 
were from Corpus Christi and Dallas. 
The clergy from Corpus Christi are al- 
ready signed up for two retreats in 
September of this year. The Josephite 
Fathers will make their annual retreat in 
June of 1957. Tentative arrangements 
for some retreats this coming summer 
are being made by the Christian Broth- 
ers of the New Orleans Province. 

Sierra Madre, Calif.: Father Isidore 
O'Reilly, C.P., announced that seven 
mid-week retreats were held last year 
attended by 360 men. Of these 222 
were servicemen from nearby camps and 
138 civilians. 48 servicemen also at- 
tended the regular week-end retreats. 

The eight mid-week retreats for sen- 
ior students of Catholic high schools 
were attended by 522 boys. 

A goodly percentage of non-Cath- 
olics attended the retreats, 160 in all. 

Parish Activities 

Ensley, Alabama: The new high 
school of Holy Family Parish was 
blessed on December 16, 1956, by his 
Excellency, Most Reverend T. J. Tool- 
en, D.D., Archbishop-Bishop of Mobile- 
Birmingham Diocese. His Excellency 
was assisted in the blessing by the Very 
Rev. Fr. Boniface Fielding, C.P., pres- 
ent Rector of Holy Cross Monastery, 
Cincinnati, Ohio, and Rev. Fr. Nathan- 

ael Kriscunas, C.P., former Pastor of 
Holy Family Church and now Vicar of 
St. Gabriel's Monastery, Des Moines, 
Iowa. The present Pastor of Holy 
Family Parish, Rev. Fr. Gilbert Kroger, 
C.P., was Master of Ceremonies. 

The following notable guests hon- 
ored the Fathers by their presence: His 
Excellency, Most Reverend Joseph Dur- 
ick, D.D., Auxiliary Bishop of Mobile- 
Birmingham: Right Reverend Father 
Bede Luible, O.S.B., Abbot of St. Bern- 
ard's Abbey, Cullman, Alabama; Very 
Rev. Fr. Neil Parsons, C.P., Provincial 
of Holy Cross Province; Rev. Fr. Ga- 
briel Gorman, C.P., Atlanta, Georgia. 
Besides the above guests, there were 
about thirty priests in attendance. Moth- 
er Mary Bertrand, Superior General of 
the Sisters of Charity of Nazareth, Ken- 
tucky, and Sister Ann Sebastian were 
present for the blessing. Other Sister- 
hoods from the City were well repre- 
sented. Besides the above, the cere- 
mony was attended by two hundred of 
the high school students and a large 

The speaker for the occasion was the 
good friend of the parish, Msgr. Francis 
J. McCormack, Pastor of St. Paul's Co- 
Cathedral, Birmingham. In a beautiful 
and practical outdoor's talk, the Mon- 
signor outlined the importance and ne- 
cessity of a Catholic Education. The 
Monsignor was followed by his Ex- 
cellency, Archbishop Toolen, who re- 
marked in a few words how deeply in- 
debted he was to the Passionist Fathers 
for the work accomplished in his Dio- 
cese and how full of gratitude he was. 
Bishop Durick's words, too, were words 


of appreciation and gratitude for the 
Fathers' efforts in the Diocese. Very 
Rev. Fr. Neil Parsons, C.P., Provincial, 
concluded the talks by reviewing the 
almost unbelievable works accomplished 
within the past twenty years — Church, 
Rectory, Grade and High School, Hos- 
pital. His Paternity closed by assuring 
His Excellency of our gratitude and 
wholehearted cooperation. 

St. Gemma's Parish: The latest ad- 
dition to St. Gemma's School, Detroit, 
Michigan, of seven grades, three of 
which are now in operation, makes the 
school building 320 feet long. The 
school is a one story, ranch type build- 
ing and provides eighteen classrooms. 
At the present time there are only 320 
children distributed through six grades. 

Protestant church recently purchased 

by St. Gemma's Parish, to be used as 

a temporary parish hall. 

St. Gemma's School, Detroit, Michigan, 
with new additions of classrooms. 

But the parish has 700 pre-school chil- 
dren and they have build these extra 
classrooms for their future needs. 

Recently the Protestant Church and 
attached Parsonage which bordered the 
school property were purchased. This 
adds an additional 64,000 square feet 
to the parish property. This latter now 
has a 755 foot frontage on Virgil 
Avenue and 320 foot frontage on 
Schoolcraft, making a total of 240,000 
square feet. This will be adequate for 
building a future Church, gymnasium 
and convent. It also leaves ample space 
for both a parking lot and playground. 

A new house was also purchased next 
to the present convent and will be used 
as an additional temporary convent, 
until the need arises for a permanent 
convent near the school. 


Novitiate of St. Paul, Kansas, with their Master, Very Rev. Fr. 
Faustinus Moran, C.P. 


During the month of January three 
of our young men at the novitiate were 
clothed in the holy habit. Brothers Paul 
and Damien were both vested on Jan- 
uary 11th by Rev. Fr. Alvin Wirth, 
C.P., the Vicar of St. Francis' Retreat. 
Both Brother Paul (Robert Steward) 
and Brother Damien (Richard Linz- 
maier) had been at our Preparatory 
Seminary before entering the novitiate 
to become brothers. Then, on January 
1 5th, Augustine Kunii, our first Japan- 
ese candidate, received the holy habit 
from the Rector of St. Francis Retreat, 
Very Rev. Fr. Roch Adamek, C.P. He 
will be known in religion as Confrater 
Augustine Paul. 

Mission in Japan 

After looking over places in the Phil- 
ippine Islands for a possible Passionist 
Mission Center, the Very Rev. Fr. Cas- 
par Caulfield, C.P., and Secretary Gen- 
eral for the Missions, and Very Rev. 
Fr. Carrol Ring, C.P., Second Consultor 
of St. Paul of the Cross Province, visited 
the Passionist Mission in Hyogo-ken, 
Japan. While there they also visited 
the parish in Ikeda-shi, not far from the 
Monastery, and were able to see the 
wonderful work the pastor of the par- 
ish, Rev. Fr. Carl Schmitz, C.P., is do- 
ing with the people of the area and es- 
pecially the children. 

During the month of March the Fa- 
thers will once again be busy with their 


Very Rev. Caspar Caulfield, C.P., Secre- 
tary General for Missions, visiting the 
Sunday School Children and Teachers, 
at Ikeda Church, Japan. Right, Rev. 
Fr. Paul Placek, C.P. 

various preaching assignments. Rev. Fr. 
Matthew Vetter, C.P., the Superior of 
the Foundation, will preach three Sis- 
ters' Retreats in Japanese. Two of these 
will be ten-day retreats, and one an 
eight-day retreat. Rev. Fr. Peter Kumle, 
C.P., Director of the Laymen's Retreats, 
has an eight-day retreat in Japanese for 
Sisters, from March 21st to 28th. Then 
on the 30th of March he will open a 
Mission in Yokohama. This mission 
will be preached in English because of 
the many English-speaking non-Japan- 
ese in the area. The Fathers also have 
a few triduums to preach in the parish 
churches during Lent. 

Passionist Nuns 

Owensboro: The Louisville retreat- 
ants of the Passionist Nuns Convent in 

Owensboro, Kentucky, conducted a win- 
ter festival and card party for the bene- 
fit of the Passionist Nuns' new chapel 
on January 30th. In spite of snow a 
very good crowd attended this festival, 
which was held in St. Agnes School 
Hall with the generous cooperation of 
St. Agnes Parish and the Pastor, Rev. 
Fr. Richard Hughes, C.P. Over $4,000 
was raised for the Nuns. This success 
is due especially to the guiding spirit 
of Brother Gabriel Redmon, C.P., who 
worked hard and long for this fe~tival. 
It was supported ako by the Louisville 
Branch of the Confraternity of the 


In the past two months the follow- 
ing changes have been made in Holy 
Cross Province. Upon the sudden death 
of Very Rev. Fr. Ronan Dowd, his 
brother Very Rev. Fr. Conell Dowd 
was appointed as Rector of Sacred 
Heart Retreat, Louisville, Kentucky, to 
take his place. Rev. Fr. Brendan 
McConnell was transferred from the 
Community at Chicago to take Father 
Condi's place as Vicar of Holy Cross 
Monastery, Cincinnati, Ohio. Rev. Fr. 
Raphael Grashoff, a long-time member 
of Holy Cross Community has been 
transferred to our new Preparatory 
Seminary at Warrenton, Missouri, where 
he will help out in the Laymen Retreat 
work. Rev. Fr. Timothy Hurley, C.P., 
has been transferred from St. Paul of 
the Cross Monastery, Detroit, Michigan, 
to Mater Dolorosa Retreat, Sierra Ma- 


dre, California. Rev. Fr. Nicholas 
Schneiders, C.P., has been transferred 
from Cincinnati to assistant pastor of 
Holy Family Parish, Ensley, Alabama. 
Rev. Fr. Eustace Eilers, C.P., was trans- 
feered from Ensley, Alabama, to Louis- 
ville, Ky. Brother Vincent Haag, 
C.P., is now stationed in Des Moines, 

News in Brief 

Plans are under way to renovate the 
kitchen of Holy Cross Monastery. The 
old equipment will be replaced by new 
stainless steel material. Much of the 
credit for this must go to the men of 
the retreat movement who are backing 
this project. . . . The tailor shop in St. 
Francis Retreat, St. Paul, Kansas, is in 
the process of being moved to a much 
larger room in the basement. The room 
vacated on the first floor will be used 
for a parlor. . . . The new stations of 
the cross at our New Preparatory Semi- 

nary, Warrenton, Missouri, were erect- 
ed and blessed on January 2 5th by Fa- 
ther Erwin Huntsha, O.F.M., of St. 
Francis Borgia Friary, Washington, Mis- 
souri. All three sets are hand carved 
in wood from an Italian village in the 
Tyrolese Alps, Ortesie. The set in the 
Monastery Choir is an original de- 
sign. . . . Rev. Fr. Ernest Polette, C.P., 
conducted a "first" in the Needville, 
Texas, area when on January 13th he 
preached the first Cana Conference at 
St. Michael's parish. An enthusiastic 
turnout and other indications point to 
a continuation of interest in this re- 
gard. . . . 

Pray For 

Brother of Fr. Fidelis Benedik, C.P. 
Sister of Fr. Alphonsus Kruip, C.P. 
Father of Fr. Peter Claver Kumle, C.P. 
Father of Fr. Dunstan Branigan, C.P. 
Father of Bro. Charles Archuleta, C.P. 
Mother of Fr. Julius Busse, C.P. 



MATER MISSIONARIORUM, St Michael's Monastery, Union City, New Jersey. 

Salve Mater Missionariorum 

St. Michael's Monastery, Union City, 
N.J., Provincial House of the Province 
of St. Paul of the Cross, proudly lays 
claim to this title. Almost from the 
time of her establishment in 1863, Pas- 
sionist Missionaries have gone forth 
from her cloistered walls either to found 
the Congregation in other countries or 
render assistance to struggling founda- 
tions in various parts of the world. 

Father John Dominic Tarlattini, C.P., 
First Provincial of the new American 
Province, led a band of missionaries 
into Mexico in 1865. Fortunately, he 

was able to use the services of the 
renowned Father Peter Magagnotto, 
C.P., and other Passionists who had been 
recalled from the abandoned California- 
Nevada venture. The Province of St. 
Paul of the Cross nurtured the Mexican 
Mission until 1893, when they were 
removed from the jurisdiction of this 
Province and place under the Spanish 
Province of the Sacred Heart. It is in- 
teresting to note at this point that one 
of the first Passionists to enter the Mex- 
ican mission field in 1865 was Father 
Amadeus Garibaldi, C.P., who eventual- 
ly became Master of Novices in this 


Province and then was assigned to open 
the first Passionist Retreat in Spain. 
Father Amadeus left New York in 
1878 to accomplish this commission. 

When problems arose in connection 
with the Passionists attempting to found 
the Order in the Argentine, again mis- 
sionaries from St. Michael's. The cele- 
brated Father Fidelis Kent Stone, C.P., 
took charge of the new foundation and 
after establishing it on a sound footing, 
made a perilous trip around the Horn 
to open a monastery in Chile. He cer- 
tainly can be called the Founder of the 
Passionists in South America. In 1901, 
the Argentine retreats were formed into 
the Province of the Immaculate Con- 
ception, the Eighth Province of the 
Congregation. Yet for some time after- 
wards assistance both in means and per- 
sonnel was forthcoming from the Prov- 
ince of St. Paul of the Cross. It is 
gratifying to know that this daughter 
province has supplied to the Congrega- 
tion one of her sons to rule the Order 
as the successor of St. Paul of the Cross, 
Father Albert Dean, C.P., at present 
Provincial of the Argentine Province. 

When Bishop Paul Nussbaum, C.P., 
Provincial Consultor, was consecrated 
in St. Michael's as the first Ordinary of 
Corpus Christi, missionaries were forth- 
with assigned to assist the new Bishop 
in the evangelization of his extensive 
Texas diocese. 

1921 was the eventful year when the 
first Passionists departed from St. Mi- 
chael's to pioneer the establishment of 

if ^m"- I ' -Ml* 
Ml ^m f. . M M 

Mission Crucifix used by Fr. Anthony 
Calandri, C.P., Founder of the Passion- 
ists in America now preserved in a 
special setting in St. Paul of the Cross 
Monastery, Pittsburgh, Pa., First 
Foundation of the Passionist in the 
United States. 

the Passionist Missions in Hunan, Chi- 
na. From that time until the last of the 
missionaries were expelled by the Red 
regime in 1955, approximately eighty- 
five members of the Province had la- 
bored at various times on the Hunan 
mission front. Also in 1921 an un- 
usual missionary apostolate was con- 
ceived at St. Michael's with the publish- 
ing of The S/gu. At first it was housed 
in a small house on the monastery 
grounds. Now as becomes the premier 
National Catholic Monthly Magazine, 


Community of St. Gabriel's Monastery, 
Toronto, Ontario, Canada, First Cana- 
dian Foundation. 

Monastery and Church of St. Gabriel 
of the Sorrowful Virgin, Toronto, 
Ontario, Canada, First Canadian Foun- 
dation of the Passionists. 

The Sign has its own large building 
across from the main entrance to the 
monastery and from where each month 
a 400,000 print order reaches subscrib- 
ers in all parts of the English-speaking 

In 1922, missionaries were sent from 
St. Michael's to found the Congregation 
in Germany and Austria. The Retreats 
in that section of Europe now constitute 
the Vice-Province of the Five Wounds 
but still rely on the Province of St. Paul 
of the Cross for men and assistance. 

Missions for the Colored in North 
Carolina became the next missionary en- 
deavor. In 1928 several members of the 
Province were commissioned from St. 
Michael's to man mission centers in 
Washington, Greenville and New Bern. 

1948 saw the establishment of St. 
Patrick's in Mexico City, a foundation 
specifically destined to care for the 
needs of the English-speaking Catholics 
of the Capital. 

Another foundation for work among 
the Colored was established in 1954 
with the Pa~sionists taking over a sec- 
tion of Atlanta, Georgia, where a mis- 
sion center and parish for Negroes has 
been opened and where eventually a 
monastery is to be built. 

In 1955, the Provincial Headquarters 
commissioned several members of the 
Province to take over a section of the 
Island of Jamaica, British West Indies, 
under the jurisdiction of Most Rev. 
John J. McEleney, S.J., Bishop of 
Kingston, Jamaica. 


And now, in this year of grace L957, 
the Orient is again calling. Very soon, 
Deo voler.tes m : ~ c :onarie-> from the 
Province will set forth from St. M- 
chael's to staff a proposed m's ion field 
in Mindinao, a large section of the 
Philippine Islands. 

Last but not least, mention must be 
made of the large number who, from 
the Provincial House of the Province, 
have been assigned to the important 
work of Armed Service Chaplains in 
the Army, Navy, Marines and Air Force, 
both in war and peace. 

Surely then, St. Michael's Monastery 
merits the privilege and distinction of 
the title, Mater M/ss/on/aru///. 


5? "^•B 

j4 -* ***** jfMi 

Left to right, Rev. Fr. Anthony 
Maloney, C.P., Very Rev. Fr. Carrol 
Ring, C.P., 2nd Provincial Consultor, 
St. Paul of the Cross Province, and 
Very Rev. Fr. Caspar Caulfield, Secre- 
tary General for the Missions; at 
Kai-Tak Airport, Hongkong, just before 
Frs. Carrol and Caspar left by plane 
for Tokyo. 

Philippine Survey Completed 

Father Carrol Ring, C.P., Second 
Consultor, arrived home on January 28 
from a survey of the proposed mission 
in the Philippines. He was accompanied 
by Father Caspar Caulfield, C.P., a 
member of the Province of St. Paul of 
the Cross and at present resident in 
Rome as Secretary General of the For- 
eign Missions of the Congregation. Fa- 
ther Caspar spent several years in Hunan 
until expelled by the Communists. At 
one time he held the office of Vicar 
General of the Diocese of Yuanling. 

Father Anthony Maloney, C.P., Proc- 
urator of the Passionist Missions, Hong- 
kong, joined Fathers Carrol and Caspar 

The Laying of the Corner Stone for the 
new St. Paul of the Cross Church, 
Mandeville, Jamaica, B.W.I. Left, Rev. 
Fr. William Whelan, C.P., Superior; 
Middle, Most Rev. John J. McEleney, 
S.J., Bishop of Kingston, Jamaica; 
Right, Rev. Fr. Ernest Hotz, (.P.. 
Architect and Builder. 


Attendance of parishoners of Mande- 

ville, Jamaica, B.W.I., at laying of 

corner stone of St. Paul of the Cross 


Missions and Retreats 

During the year 1956, appointments 
sent out to the various missionaries of 
the Province from the Provincial Of- 
fice totalled 1392. This number in- 
cluded: 431 Missions; 728 Retreats; 
189 Novenas; 44 Triduums; 23 Re- 
treats to the Clergy in the United States 
and Canada. 

This list in no way concerns the 'lo- 
cal' missionary work which is in the 
competence of the various Rectors, 
such as Forty Hours, Days of Recollec- 
tion, Lenten Courses, Holy Week 
preaching and Sunday assistance to the 
Diocesan clergy. 

in Manila and accompanied them on the 

Particulars concerning the new Pas- 
sionist Philippine Mission will be con- 
sidered in a subsequent issue of The 

New Church in Jamaica, B.W.L 

On October 29, 1956, His Excel- 
lency, Most Rev. John J. McEleney, 
S.J., Bishop of Kingston Jamaica, laid 
the cornerstone of the church of St. 
Paul of the Cross in Mandeville section 
of the Island. It is expected that the 
dedication will take place on the Feast 
of St. Paul of the Cross, April 28, of 
this year. 

Laymens Retreats 

The five large Retreat Houses at- 
tached to the monasteries at Pittsburgh, 
Jamaica, Hartford, Springfield and 
Brighton, in the past year made it pos- 
sible for approximately 25,000 laymen 
to avail themselves of the Passionist 
"week-end" closed retreats. In addition, 
the Pittsburgh Retreat House was avail- 
able for the Diocesan Clergy Retreats 
where, at intervals, 484 clergy made 
their Annual Retreats, as well as 26 
priests of the Greek Diocese. The 
Springfield Retreat House accommodat- 
ed 270 priests of the Springfield Dio- 
cese during the past year. 

The Passionist Nuns in Pittsburgh 
and Scranton held "closed" retreats for 
women. During 1956, the Pittsburgh 
Retreat House totalled 709 women of 
the Pittsburgh area and Scranton for 
that section of the country. 


Tonsure and Minor Orders 

His Excellency, Most Rev. Jerome 
Hannan, D.D., Bishop of Scranton, con- 
ferred Tonsure and Minor Orders on 
13 Passionist clerics at St. Ann's Mon- 
astery on January 24, 25 and 26. His 
Excellency was assisted in the cere- 
monies by the Reverend Rector, Rup- 
ert Langenstein, C.P., Notary; Rev. 
Malachy McGill, C.P., Vicar, Arch- 
deacon; Rev. Peter Hallisey, C.P., 
Director of Students, Master of Cere- 
monies; Revs. Cletus Dawson, C.P., 
Chaplain to the Passionist Nuns, and 
Kevin McCloskey, C.P., S.T.D., Lector, 
Assistants to the Ordaining Prelate. 

Church Unity Preachers 

Very Rev. Luke Misset, C.P., Rector 
of Our Lady of Sorrows Monastery, 
West Springfield, Mass., preached at 
the Shrine of the Immaculate Concep- 
tion, Catholic University, during the 
Church Unity Octave. Father Luke 
spoke on January 21, on the theme, 
"That Lutherans and other Protestants 
of Continental Europe may return to 
Holy Church." Despite the fact that 
Father Luke spoke on the evening of 
President Eisenhower's Second Inaugu- 
ral, the Shrine was filled to capacity. 

Father Luke is no stranger to the 
Catholic University. Before he was 
elected Rector of the Springfield mon- 
astery, he was on the faculty of the 
Preacher's Institute at the University. 
He is now serving his second term as 
Rector of Our Mother of Sorrows. 

In New York at St. Patrick's Cathe- 

dral, Father Victor Donovan, C.P., Lec- 
tor of Sacred Scripture in Jamaica mon- 
astery, preached during the Church Uni- 
ty Octave on the "Conversion of the 
Jews," January 24. Father Victor has 
long interested himself in this unusual 
apostolate and has been the author of 
many papers on the subject. 

Father Luke and Father Victor have 
preached before, both in St. Patrick's 
and at the Catholic University during 
the Church Unity Octave. And one of 
the most memorable addresses ever giv- 
en in St. Patrick's and at the University 
during this Ocatve was preached by His 
Excellency, Most Rev. Cuthbert O'Gara, 
C.P., exiled Bishop of Yuanling. 

Philadelphia Confraternity 

The Congregation has no house in 
the Philadelphia area. But Father 
Charles P. O'Connor, Pastor of Pres- 
entation Parish, has made his church 
available as a meeting place for mem- 
bers of the Confraternity of the Pas- 
sion. Recently he arranged for Father 
Martin J. Tooker, C.P., Vicar of the 
Springfield Monastery, to preach a three- 
day retreat on the Confraternity for 
the benefit of his parishioners. More- 
over, he purchased the pins, manuals 
and scapulars that would be needed 
for enrolling the parish in the Con- 
fraternity. Zealous beyond measure in 
spreading devotion to the Passion, Fa- 
ther O'Connor merits the congratula- 
tions and the prayers of Passionists 


First Saturday Promoters Meet 

On January 10, 1957, at 7:00 P.M. 
the annual promoters meeting of the 
First Saturday Group of Immaculate 
Conception Monastery, Jamaica, N.Y., 
was held in the retreat house dining 
room. The purpose of this annual meet- 
ing is to renew the spirit of Our Lady 
of Fatima among the men who are 
active in promoting First Saturday Com- 
munion. The meeting was addressed by 
Very Rev. Fr. Felix Hackett, C.P., Rec- 
tor of the Monastery. 

In response to the urging of Our 
Blessed Mother at Fatima, up to five 
hundred men attend Mass and receive 
Holy Communion at nine o'clock on 
the First Saturday of each month. These 
men represent various groups in the 
civil life of New York — firemen, police- 
men, judges, lawyers, city officials and 
civil service employees. Their devotion 
is noteworthy and their zeal efficacious 
in recruiting new members for their 

Each year in October the men partici- 
pate in a candlelight procession along 
the city streets which culminates in a 
rally on the Monastery grounds. Last 
October over two thousand men were 

Pray For 

Mother of Fr. Silvan Rouse, C.P.; 
Mother of Fr. Donald Boyle, C.P., 
(Deceased); Mother of Fr. Alban 
Lynch, C.P.; Mother of Fr. Kenneth 
Walsh, C.P.; Father of Brother Ber- 
nard Pughe, C.P.; Mother of Fr. Hy- 


Presentation of an Air Force citation 
was made to Rev. Fr. Fidelis Rice, C.P., 
on January 5th, for his work as director 
of the "Hour of the Crucified." Seen 
at the presentation are, from left to 
right: Chaplain (Maj.) Neal T. O'Con- 
nor, base Catholic chaplain ; Fr. Fidelis 
Rice, C.P.; Chaplain (Lt. Col.) William 
F. Taylor, chief of chaplains, Eighth 
Air Force; Rev, George Nolan, C.P., 
assistant to Fr. Rice and Maj. Gen. 
Walter C. Sweeney, Cammander of 
Eighth Air Force. 

acinth Malkowiak, C.P.; Father of Fr. 
Peter Hallisey, C.P.; Mother of Fr. 
Francis Kuba, C.P.; Father of Fr. 
Florian Pekar, C.P.; Father of Fr. James 
A. McAghon, C.P.; Mother and Father 
of Frs Basil and Timothy Stockmeyer, 
C.P.; Mother of Fr. Owen Doyle, C.P.; 
Mother of Fr. William Cavanaugh, 
C.P.; Mother of Ronald Beaton, C.P.; 
Mother of Fr. Colman Hagerty, C.P.; 
Mother of Fr. Vincent Durkin, C.P.; 
Two Brothers of Fr. Edward Goggin, 
C.P.; Sister of Fr. Aquinas Sweeney, 
C.P.; Brother of Fr. Bennet Kelly, C.R; 
Brother of Fr. John F. Poole, C.P. 



Passionists Help Father Lom- 
bardi, S.J. 

For some time several Passionist Fa- 
thers took part in the training given by 
Rev. Fr. Lombardi, S.J., in the move- 
ment known as Mondo Migliore, (for 
a Better World). (Father Lombardi's 
projects have been publicized in United 
States papers and magazines.) Father 
Lombardi soon expressed his deep de- 
sire to have the Passionists represented 
in his group of Promoters. In his per- 
severing request to our General Curia 
to have at least one of our religious at 
the complete disposal of his Center, he 
mentioned that this was also the ex- 
plicit wish of the Holy Father. Our 
Major Superiors granted his request and 
appointed Rev. Fr. Pacifico, C.P., of 
the Retreat of Sts. John and Paul, and 

formerly Lector of Dogmatic Theology 
at St. Gabriel's, Gran Sasso, Pieta 

For some time last year, Father Paci- 
fico gave conferences and instructions 
along the lines of the movement to both 
the clergy and laity. The "International 
Center of Pius XII for a Better World" 
has its headquarters near Frascati, and 
lately opened a new building and 

Retaining Wall Crashes to 

On the evening of January 14th, 
about five-forty-five, the community in 
the Retreat of Sts. John and Paul felt 
the ground shake as if there were an 
earthquake. But instead of an earth- 
quake, they soon found out that a good 


section of the wall around their portion 
of the Celian Hill facing the Colosseum 
had suddenly crashed over. Built as a 
retaining wall, it had stood for hun- 
dred of years. Part of a more ancient 
wall was revealed behind the former 

The reverberations of the shock from 
the fall were felt within a radius of 
three blocks. On the day afterwards, 

pictures of the incident were broad- 
cast over TV news programs in the U.S. 
Just what caused the crash is not yet 
clear. Perhaps the severe winter that 
Rome had last year was the cause. But 
what is clear is that the cost of restor- 
ing the eighty-foot stretch of ancient 
wall will probably be more than five 
thousand dollars, and part of a familiar 
landmark will be gone forever. 



Centenary Celebrations at Mount Argus, Dublin. Very Rev. Fr. Provincial with 
distinguished guests after the final Pontifical High Mass. L. to r, (seated): 
Very Rev. Fr. Cyprian, C.P., Provincial; An Taoiseach, Mr. John A. Costello; 
His Excellency Sean T. O'Kelly, President of Ireland ; Mr. Robert Briscoe, T.D., 
Lord Mayor of Dublin; His Honor Conor A. Maguire, Chief Justice of Ireland. 
Standing: Lieut.-Colonel D. O'Sullivan, aide-de-camp to An Taoiseach, and 
Colonel S. O'Sullivan, Aide-de-camp to the President. 


New Assignments 

On January 1st, Rev. Fathers Cor- 
nelius Crowley, C.P., Macartan Daly, 
C.P., and Aquinas McCarthy, C.P., left 
Ireland on the first part of their journey 
to Australia, where they will spend 
some years on loan to the Australian 
Province. The Cross magazine for Feb- 
ruary after mentioning the departure of 
the three Fathers for Australia goes on 
to say: "It is noteworthy that the first 
Catholic Mission to the Australian abo- 
rigines was staffed by Italian Passionists, 
who arrived at Sydney in March, 1843. 
Soon, however, Fathers from these coun- 
tries lent a willing hand to the task 
of evangelizing that vast continent and 
of caring for the then small Catholic- 
population. An Irishman, Rev. Fr. Ber- 
trand Mangan, C.P., was the first Pro- 
vincial of the Australian Province, while 
Very Rev. Fr. Stephen Lafferty, C.P., 
present Rector of St. Gabriel's Retreat, 
The Graan, Enniskillen, was Provincial 
for six years prior to the Second World 

Rev. Fr. Conrad Haller, C.P., left 
Holy Cross Retreat, Ardoyne, Belfast 
for Germany on January 9th. Father 
Conrad who is of German descent, has 
gone to take up temporary work with 
the Fathers of our German Pro-Prov- 


Last September, Rev. Fr. Jerome 
Maguire, C.P., and Rev. Fr. Donald 
Connolly, C.P., left Ireland for Johan- 
nesburg. There they joined Rev. Fr. 
Kieran Mclvor, C.P., Rev. Fr. Augus- 
tine Bermingham, C.P., and Brother 
Isidore Quinn, C.P., who are already 
laboring at Bank near Johannesburg. 

The following appointments were 
made in our Passionist Mission in the 
Protectorate of Bechuanaland : Very 
Rev. Fr. Carthage Power, C.P., has 
been appointed Religious Superior; Very 
Rev. Fr. Leonard Devitt, C.P., is First 
Consultor; Very Rev. Fr. Urban Mur- 
phy, C.P., is Second Consultor. 


From Rome it is announced that Very 
Rev. Fr. Edmund Burke, C.P., Rector 
of St. Mary's Retreat, Drummohr, Mus- 
selburgh, has been named as Vice- 
Postulator for the Cau°e of the Beati- 
fication of the Servant of God, Galileo 
Nicolini, Passsionist Novice. 

Galileo Nicolini, a young Italian nov- 
ice, was born in 1882 and died in 
1897. The keynote of his short life was 
a fixed determination to become a 
saint. Interest in this youngest Confes- 
sor so far presented for Beatification is 
growing remarkably in many countries. 
He was some weeks younger than St. 
Dominic Savio, the boy-saint of the 

Some striking favors have already 
been attributed to the intercession of 
Galileo Nicolini. A biography of the 
Servant of God, entitled "The Boy 
Who Knew What He Wanted," by 
Rev. Neil McBrearty, C.P., has been 

Jubilee of Religious Profession 

Brother Dominic Howard, C.P., of 
Our Lady of Sorrows, who celebrates 
the Silver Jubilee of his religious pro- 
fession in L957, was horn in Glasgow 


in 1912 and was baptized in the Pas- 
sionist Church of St. Mungo in that 
city. He is a brother of Brother 
Kevin Howard of Our Lady of Sor- 
rows and they were both reared in 
the neighborhood of Mount Argus, the 

motherhouse of St. Patrick's Province. 
When he had faithfully served in al- 
most every community of the Province 
he was appointed in 1956 to the post 
of questor at St. Paul's Retreat, Mount 
Argus, Dublin. 

^ 4*4* 4* 4* 4* 4* 4* 4* 4* 4* 4* 4* "I* 4* 4* 'J*'!'' 


Seminarians and Community at San Angel, Mexico. Seminarians comprise 2nd, 
3rd, 4th, 5th years and Philosophy Classes. Fathers seated, 1. to r., Juan Maria, 
Tarcisio, Germano, Very Rev. Fr. Primo, Provincial, Epiphanio, Alfonso, 
Celestino. Standing on right, end of 3rd row, Fr. Casimir, end of 2nd row, 

Bro. Anthony. 


New Seminary Arrangements 

On the 3rd of November, Very Rev. 
Fr. Primo, Provincial of Immaculate 
Heart of Mary Province, in North Italy, 
arrived in Espiritu Santo, Mexico, for 
his visitation. The various groups of 
Catholic Action in Espiritu Santo gave 
him a wonderful reception. Father Pri- 
mo during the visitation gave a great 
deal of attention to the various prob- 
lems in regard to the growing Prepara- 
tory Seminary. The Seminary finished 
the last school year in November with 
fifty-one boys in five classes. (School 
in Mexico begins in February and goes 
till November. Vacation season there 
is during the months of December and 
January.) The Seminarians in the Fifth 
Year have already completed their sec- 
ondary education and are now ready 
for the Novitiate. However, since as 
yet they do not have a Novitiate in 
Mexico, different arrangements had to 
be made for them and they will begin 
their study of Philosophy this school 
year. Because of the increased number 
of boys entering the seminary for the 
next school year, new accommodations 
had to be made for them. 

In order to facilitate matters — in the 
way of studies and also in accommodat- 
ing the large number of boys — the First 
Year Seminarians were sent to their 
House in Apasco. There they will be 
given their preparatory studies to help 
them adjust to their new life and home. 

and also the regular course for the First 
Year boys. At the same time a new 
faculty had to be set up there. Accord- 
ingly, Rev. Fr. Hilarion, C.P., was 
named Superior and Director in Apasco, 
with Rev. Fr. Nazario as Vicar and 
Rev. Fr. Tarcisio as Assistant Director. 
All three of the Fathers also are the 
Lectors for the Seminarians at Apasco. 

In the Seminary in San Angel, Fa- 
ther Epiphanio, C.P., has been appoint- 
ed as Director and Superior, Rev. Fr. 
Casimir, C.P., is Vicar and Rev. Fr. 
Ildephonsus is Moderator of studies. 
Other Fathers who are also stationed in 
San Angel as Lectors are Fathers Celes- 
tino, Juanito and Pio. 

At the residence in Espiritu Santo, 
Rev. Fr. Germano is the Local Superior 
and also the Father Vice-Provincial. 
Rev. Fr. Alphonso is the Vicar. Fa- 
thers Juan Maria, Egidio and Joel are 
also stationed at Espiritu Santo. All the 
Fathers there are also Lectors in the 
Seminary and so have a full-time job 
of taking care of things in the Church 
and commuting back and forth to the 
Seminary for their classes. 

After closing the visitation, Father 
Primo left Mexico for Italy on the 18th 
of January. After a meeting of the 
lectors of the Seminary on the 4th of 
February, the new school year officially 
began on the following day with the 
singing of the Veni Creator in the 
Seminary Chapel., 




Front view of New Preparatory Semi- 
nary, Zaragoza, Spain. 

Main Altar of New Preparatory Semi- 
nary, Zaragoza, Spain. 


New Prep Dedicated 

One of the most important events in 
the Province of Holy Family in the past 
year was the dedication of the Prepara- 
tory Seminary in Zuera, and the bless- 
ing of the new church attached to it. 
The ceremony took place on the Feast 
of Christ the King, October 28th. After 
the church had been blessed by the 
Archbishop of Zaragoza, our own Pas- 
sionist Bishop, Monsignor Ubaldo Ci- 
brian of the Diocese of Corocoro, Bo- 
livia, celebrated the Pontifical Mass and 
delivered the sermon. Besides the many 
faithful who took part in the ceremony, 
His Excellency the Governor of Zara- 
goza was present. 

One of the panels over the Main Altar 
of Seminary, Zaragoza, Spain 




About the middle of December, the 
Province of the Holy Spirit welcomed 
to Australia Rev. Fr. Stephen Horkin, 
C.P. Through the generosity of the 
Provincial of St. Joseph's Province, Eng- 
land, and with the gracious permission 
of Most Rev. Father General, Father 
Stephen has been 'loaned' to the Prov- 
ince for five years. Another new arrival 
at the end of January was Rev. Fr. 
Marcellus Claeys of St. Gabriel's Prov- 
ince, Belgium. Like Father Stephen, 
Father Marcellus has been 'loaned' to 
Holy Spirit Province for five years. 
Father Marcellus is to be attached to 
the staff of Lectors at the House of 
Studies. Rev. Fathers Cornelius Crow- 
ley, C.P., Macartan Daly, C.P., and 
Aquinas McCarthy, C.P., from St. Pat- 
rick's Province, Ireland, have arrived in 
Australia and will spend some years 
there helping out. 

Early in January, Father Jerome 
Crowe, C.P., of Holy Spirit Province, 
arrived in Adelaide. Father Jerome 
had been in Rome and Palestine for 
the past three years studying for his 
Licentiate in Sacred Scripture. 

Death of Very Rev. Fr. Placid, 

On New Year's Day, the Province 
of Holy Spirit suffered a grievous loss 
in the sudden death of the Very Rev. 
Fr. Placid, C.P., of the Mother of 

Sorrows, Second Provincial Consultor. 
Father Placid had gone to the Novi- 
tiate House at Goulburn only the day 
before for a few days rest. Just be- 
fore Mass on January 1st, he had a 
fatal heart seizure and died within 
fifteen minutes. There was just time 
to administer the Last Sacraments be- 
fore the end came. The funeral took 
place from the Goulburn Cathedral, 
after Solemn Requiem Mass sung in 
the presence of Most Rev. Eris M. 
O'Brien, Archbishop of Canberra - 

For some years Father Placid served 
as professor of Philosophy and The- 
ology. Later he was appointed Master 
of Novices. He also filled the posi- 
tion of Rector at the Passionist College, 
St. Ives. On several occasions, Father 
Placid was elected Consultor to the 
Provincial. During his life as a Pas- 
sionist priest he preached many re- 
treats to religious communities in vari- 
ous parts of Australia. 

News in Brief 

The Doyen of Holy Spirit Province, 
Rev. Fr. Francis of the Seven Dolors 
celebrated his 88th birthday recently. 
In spite of his advanced age, Father 
Francis is still hale and hearty and 
well able to give missions and retreats. 
He is a most popular Confessor for 
priests and religious. . . . Three young 


men from New Zealand, across the 
Tasman Sea from Australia, will be 
among the newcomers to enter the 
Juniorate of St. Ives. . . . Four clerical 

novices were professed recently at 
Mary's Mount, and are now at Ade- 
laide, South Australia, studying Phi- 


New Arrivals 

The two missionaries of St. Paul of 
the Cross Province who are destined 
to assist the Austrian-German Vice 
Province for the next few years, Fa- 
thers Anthony Neary, C.P., and Ron- 
ald Hilliard, C.P., are now stationed 
at the beautifully situated Monastery 
of the Holy Trinity, in Schwarzenfeld, 
Bavaria. A certan Doctor Seeger was 
kind enough to volunteer not only to 
teach them the language, but also to 
introduce them to the German men- 
tality, customs and culture. 

On January 23rd, Rev. Fr. Conrad 
Haller, C.P., a member of the Irish 
Province of St. Patrick arrived in Ger- 
many. Thanks to his German father, 
Father Conrad is able to understand 
German. But, because he wishes to per- 
fect himself in the language, Father 
Conrad has joined the two American 
Fathers at Schwarzenfeld for further 
studies of German. 


Towards the end of April, a member 
of the German Vice-Province, Father 

Preparatory Seminary and Monastery 

(lower building) and Church, (upper 

building) at Munich-Pasing. 

Anton Ziereis, C.P., will be ready to 
receive Holy Orders. Father Anton will 
be ordained to the priesthood at the 
Mater Dolorosa Monastery, Mook, Hol- 



Mission Work in the Ketapang 

During the past year the Prefecture 
of Ketapang celebrated the tenth an- 
niversary of the arrival of the first three 
Dutch Passionists who established the 
Mission center in this area. The Keta- 
pang Prefecture is larger in area than 
the entire Netherlands but has only a 
sparse population of 182,000 people 
comprising Malays, Chinese, and Dayas. 
Ketapang city itself has only 20,000 

For a long time this remote corner 
of the world received little attention. 
It was only a few years prior to World 
War II that a minor government post 
was established at Ketapang. The first 
missionary to visit the area was a Dutch 
Capuchin who in 1917 managed to 
penetrate the Ketapang district in spite 
of incredible difficulties. Some twenty 
years slipped by before the first mission 
station was opened. But, before long 
the Japanese invasion drove all the mis- 
sionaries into a concentration camp. 
The Mission work came to a complete 
standstill until the return of peace. 
After the war Ketapang was separated 
from the Capuchin-stafTed Vicariate and 
was entrusted to the Dutch Passionists. 
The three first Passionists of ten years 
ago have now increased to sixteen 
priests and one lay brother. But, the 
number would even be greater were it 
not for the difficulties involved in ob- 
taining a visa. 

Today Ketapang has six mission sta- 
tions and thirty out-stations, with seven- 

teen churches and chapels. There are 
fourteen elementary schools with 1148 
pupils, as also a Trade School and a 
School of Domestic Science, with a total 
of thirty-three students. Eight boarding 
schools care for ninety-three boarders. 
A census of July 1, 1936, saw a Catholic 
population of 3,171 people as against 
less than 300 in 1946. There are 4,751 
catechumens under instruction while 
1,499 children are attending catechism 
classes. During 1955 there were 877 

Missionaries Afoot 

Life in the Ketapang Prefecture is a 
life on foot for the missionary. There 
are six mission stations with church, rec- 
tory and school which serve as residen- 
tial centers for the missionaries. At 
least two priests are assigned to each 
of these centers. One remains at the 
center while the other makes the rounds 
of the surrounding settlements. These 
kampongs or settlements, usually along 
the river, are in small clearings that 
have been hacked out of the jungle. 
The average mission tour requires two 
or three weeks. When covering the 
more distant outposts the tour may take 
up to two months. On returning to the 
center the missionary remains there about 
one week before starting another round 
of the out-stations and settlements. 
In the Kampongs 

The Dayas are divided into small 
tribes with the smaller ones containing 
three or four hundred people and the 
larger ones twelve hundred people. The 
tribal name is that of the river along 


which their settlements are located. 
Each tribe has its own customs, and, 
what is of more concern to the mission- 
ary, each has its own dialect. The men 
visit the surrounding villages and are 
able to learn some Malay. The women, 
however, are only able to understand 
their own dialect. A journey between 
one tribe and another must be made 
through jungle and swamp and the 
traveler must cover the distance in one 
day unless there happens to be a Dayas 
rice field along the way. Warm hos- 
pitality awaits the traveler there. Dayas 
do not have much, his hut is one of the 
crudest, but his welcome is one of the 
finest. The hut is roofed with palm 
leaves, the walls are of tree bark and 
the floor of split bamboo. A mat on 
the floor serves for a bed. Not only the 
comforts, but even the necessities of 
civilization are lacking. But, the gra- 
cious hospitality of the host makes the 
traveler forget the lack of conveniences 
and the fatigue of a jungle journey as- 
sures him of a good sleep. 

The kampongs or settlements which 
have a small school, or at least a resi- 
dent catechist, are visited more often. 
In such places there is always someone 
waiting for the coming of the mission- 
ary. When visiting these kampongs, 
the missionaries live at the home of the 
school teacher or of the catechist. Be- 
fore long the people begin to gather, 
seeking the help of the missionary. The 
medicines they carry are in great de- 
mand and the people pay for them with 
vegetables, eggs or fruit. The mission- 
ary uses these opportunities to become 
acquainted with the people. While 

smoking a straw cigarette similar to 
theirs, he speaks kindly with the peo- 
ple and gradually leads the conversation 
around to religion. Morning Mass is 
celebrated in the school or home of the 
catechist if one is available; otherwise 
the guest house serves as a chapel. 
During the Mass the people recite their 
morning prayers, sing some hymns and 
are given an instruction by the mission- 
ary. If there is a school, the mission- 
ary will visit it and question and in- 
struct the children. Usually the mission- 
ary remains in each kampong three 
days before moving on to the next set- 
The People 

The people are quiet and somewhat 
reserved at the first meeting, but ex- 
tremely hospitable. To a person who 
does not understand their needs and 
their way of life, they would at first 
sight seem to be very lazy. But they 
are far from lazy and are not to be 
judged by our standards. The Dayas 
with their simple needs have far more 
holidays than we do because their needs 
do not call for much work. What cloth- 
ing they have is made from the bark 
of trees and requires neither washing 
or ironing. Their crude homes offer no 
cleaning problems since they have no 
furniture. Even the 'long house,' from 
sixty to ninety feet in length and raised 
about fifteen feet about the ground, dif- 
fers from the usual hut only in size. - 

Their ordinary food of rice, vege- 
tables and meat is provided by the 
jungle and in the rivers they are able 
to find a good supply of fish. So there 
is little ned of constant activity. If it 


is necessary they are able to work hard 
and steadily as is seen between May and 
August when they prepare their fields. 
Once a suitable place in the forest is 
decided upon as a farming spot, often 
quite a distance from the settlement, 
it is first cleared of the bushes and 
smaller trees. Then they clear away the 
larger trees which at times are more 
than five feet in diameter. Their ax is 
very crude — a three-inch wide piece of 
iron attached to a piece of wood — 
and is a home-made affair. While 
standing on a scaffold twelve to fifteen 
feet high, two or three of the men will 
chop away at the tree all day long in 
the burning heat, sweat dripping from 
the copper hued bodies. They continue 
hard work without let-up till they have 
cleared the determined amount of land. 
Once that is finished their vacation is 
resumed as nature will take care of the 
rest. The summer sun will dry out 
what has been cut down and then, a 
few months later, when all is thor- 
oughly dry they set fire to it. The ashes 
of the fire serve as fertilizer. Then 
in the open spaces between the felled 
tree trunks the rice is planted. One 
man uses a pointed stick to make a 
hole in the ground while another fol- 
lowing right behind him places the rice 
in the hole. The planting period calls 
for considerable work, but, once that 
is over, vacation is once more resumed, 
to end only with the harvest when all 
join in harvesting the rice, stalk by 

Medical Care 

The Prefecture of Kctapang with its 

182,000 people, Chinese, Malays and 
Day as, the last scattered among the 
jungles and swamps in kampongs dif- 
ficult of access, has one medical doctor. 
He is Doctor J. Verhey from Didam in 
the Netherlands. Young and energetic 
and inspired by a real apostolic spirit, 
Doctor Verhey and his wife agreed to 
come out to this difficult, tiresome medi- 
cal post. In Ketapang city, on the 
coast, he has charge of an eighty-bed 
hosiptal and a busy clinic, with three 
Augustinian Sisters and a small group 
of Indonesian nurses, both male and 
female, as assistants. Some of the 
nurses are Dayas. 

In the interior town of Tumbang 
Titi there is another small hospital 
staffed by Augustinian Sisters and sever- 
al nurses. The Doctor is able to reach 
these two places by jeep along the 
coastal road. There are a few rudimen- 
tary roads into the interior. On visits 
to the interior the doctor's beat-up 
jeep makes the first part of the journey 
on a barge towned by a motor launch. 
After arriving at Sandai there is a rough 
road extending 150 kilometers. How- 
ever, most of the doctor's travel in the 
interior is on foot, journeys of several 
days, with porters to carry his medical 
supplies. The doctor is able to visit 
these kampongs a few times each year. 
But there are more remote kampongs 
with a resident missionary, which the 
doctor is able to reach only about once 
every three years. One may easily imag- 
ine the value of the work of this self- 
sacrificing doctor to the missionary apos- 
tolate in Ketapang. 





Malcolm La Velle 1 
Rene Champagne 14 
Vincent M. Oberhauser 

Barnabas M. Ahern 
Paul M. Boyle 
Eugene Peterman 
Myron Gohmann 
Neil Parsons 2 
Kyran OConnor 3 
Clarence Vowels 4 
Cormac Lynch 5 
Miles Bero 7 
Aurelius Hanley 
Augustine Scannell 
Vincent X Ehinger 
Justin Smith 
Alban Hickson 
Thomas Carter 
Matthias Coen 
Gregory McEttrick 
Joseph M. O'Leary 
Pius Leabel 
Malachy Farrell 
Donald Ryan 21 
Colum Haughey 
Brian Mahedy 21 
Benet Kieran 10 
Bartholomew Adler 
Paul F. Ratterman 9 
William Steil 17 
Godfrey Poage 
John Baptist Pechulis 12 
Warren Womack 15 
Carroll Stuhlmueller 12 
Kent Pieper 14 
Ward Biddle 13 

Joachim Gemperline 10 
Barry Rankin 12 
Bruce Henry 16 
Kevin Kenney 
Andrew M. Gardiner 
Stephen Balog 
Vincent Giegerich 
Leonard Kosatka 
Gerald Appiarius 
Joseph M. Connolly 
Morris Cahill 
Martin Thommes 
Jerome Brooks 
Alfred Pooler 

Thomas Brummett 
Leonard Paschali 
Matthew Capodice 

Boniface Fielding 5 
Brendan McConnell 7 
Alphonus Kruip 
Bernard Brady 
Louis Driscoll 
Cyprian Frank 9 
Bernard M. Coffey 9 
Damian Cragen 1 8 
Dunstan Branigan 19 
Howard Ralenkotter 20 
Jude Monteith 10 

Columban Gausepohl 
William Lebel 
Bernard Schaefer 
Conell Dowd 5 
Thaddeus Tamm 7 

Adalbert Schesky 
Laurence Bailey 
Alexis Quinlan 
George Jungles 20 
Aloysius Dowling 23 
Richard Hughes 9 
Conrad Amend 
Hubert Bohne 12 
Hilary Katlewski 
Lambert Hickson 
Eustace Eilers 
Emmanuel Sprigler 
Quentin Reneau 10 
Mel Schneider 
Brice Zurmuehlen 
Roger Mercurio 1 2 
Forrest Macken 1 2 
Firmian Parenza 13 
Gail Robinson 10 


Gerard Steckel 
Peter Berendt 
Michael J. Stengel 
Louis Doherty 
Henry Whitechurch 
Thomas A. Rogalski 
Raphael Domzall 
Owen Duffield 
Francis Cusack 
Casimir Gralewski 
Sebastian MacDonald 
Philip Schaefer 


Gabriel Redmon 
Gilbert Schoener 
Casimir Skiba 
Leo Arndt 
Joachim Saunders 



Thomas M. Newbold 5 
Michael Brosnahan 7 
Celestine Leonard 
Raphael Grashoff 
Christopher Link 
Herbert Tillman 12 
Herman J. Stier 20 
Claude Nevin 12 
Edgar Ryan 1 2 
Ervan Heinz 1 2 
Elmer Sandman 
Conleth Overman 18 
Germain Legere 1 2 
Cyprian Towey 1 2 
William J. Hogan 12 
Leo P. Brady 1 3 
Emil Womack 12 
John Devany 20 
Leon Grantz 12 
Campion Clifford 1 2 
Raymond McDonough 1 2 
Simon Herbers 22 
Bernardine Johnson 19 
John F. Kobler 12 
Victor Salz 25 
Albert Schwer 12 
Berchmans Pettit 13 
Carl A. Tenhundfeld 12 
Philip Frank 
Gerald LaPresto 
John Gebaur 
George Stoiber 
Robert Baalman 
Francis Hanis 


Roch Adamek 5 
Faustinus Moran 6 
Alvin Wirth 7 
Hyacinth Clarey 
Julian Montgomery 
Edward O'Sullivan 
Cornelius McGraw 
Kevin Cunningham 
Paulinus Hughes 
Leopold Vaitiekaitis 
Nilus Goggin 9 
Loran Aubuchon 10 
Emmet Linden 
Denis McGowan 1 1 
Louis Hockendoner 

David Williams 

Regis Ryan 


Nicholas Kliora 

Mark Tomasic 

Alphonse Engler 

Blaise Czaja 

Joseph Van Leuwen 

Kenneth O'Malley 

George Paul Lanctot 

Richard M. Sanchez 

Timothy Joseph O'Connor 

Anselm M. Passman 

Augustine P. Kunii 

Bro. Michael Wilson 

Bro. Paul Stewart 

Bro. Damien Linzmaier 


Bro. Michael Wilson 

Bro. Ronald De Caro 


Ignatius Bechtold 5 
Nathanael Kriscunas 7 
Ignatius Conroy 
Urban O'Rourke 
Sylvester Cichanski 
Philip Gibbons 
Peter Kilgallon 
Anthony Maher 
Terence Powers 
Robert Borger 
Alfred Shalvey 
Frederick Sucher 1 2 
Columban Browning 13 
Randal Joyce 12 
Melvin Glutz 12 
Caspar Watts 
John M. Render 12 
Luke Connolly 
Lawrence Browning 
Rian Clancy 


Francis Martin Keenan 
Bernard Kinney 
Damian McHale 
Benedict Olson 
Gabriel Duffy 
Augustine Wilhelmy 
Mel Joseph Spehn 
Andre Auw 
Terence M. O'Toole 
Aloysius M. Hoolahan 
Christopher M. Sobczak 

Theodore Deshaw 
Fabian M. Hollcraft 
Hugh Pates 
Xavier Albert 
Ambrose M. Devaney 
Bonaventure Timlin 
Patrick E. O'Malley 

Romuald Reuber 
Pius Martel 
Christopher Zeko 
Isidore Bates 
Raphael Couturier 
Vincent Haag 


Walter Kaelin 5 
Ralph Brisk 7 
David Ferland 
Gerald Dooley 
Arthur Stuart 
Linus Burke 
Gerard Barry 
Mark Hoskins 
William Westhoven 18 
Daniel Maher 
Valentine Leitsch 
Fidelis Benedik 
Patrick Tully 9 
Cyprian Leonard 10 
Gordian Lewis 20 
Cyril M. Jablonovsky 
Flannon Gannon 
Roderick Misey 
Harold M. Leach 

Aloysius Schoeppner 
Charles Archeluta 
Justin Garrity 

James P. White 5 
Joyce Hallahan 7 
Reginald Lummer 
Gabriel Sweeney 19 
Maurice St. Julien 
Norbert McGovern 
Angelo Hamilton 
Timothy Hurley 
Basil Killoran 
Ferdinand Madl 
Egbert Nolan 
Marion Durbala 
Roland Maher 


Harold Travers 
Theophane Gescavitz 
Aidan McGauren 
Kilian Dooley 
Henry Vetter 
Charles Guilfoyle 
Isidore O'Reilly 18 
Wilfred Flanery 
Keith Schlitz 
Declan Egan 20 
Richard McCall 
Felix Bauer 
James Keating 
Denis Sevart 
Joseph Stadfeld 


Francis Flaherty 5 
Camillus Kronlage 7 
Alan Prendergast 
Dominic Merriman 
Bro. Henry Zengerle 


Fergus McGuinness 5 
Canute Horack 7 

Leo Scheible 

Edward Viti 

Finan Storey 20 

James Busch 

Bro. Theodore Lindhorst 

Bro. Patrick Keeney 


Gregory J. Staniszewski 5 

Jerome Stowell 7 

Edwin Ronan 

John Aelred Torisky 

Jeremiah Beineris 20 

Ernest Polette 

Jordan Grimes 18 

Bro. Daniel Smith 


Gilbert Kroger 9 
Nicholas Schneiders 
Ludger Martin 
Canisius Womack 
Bede Doyle 10 

Edmund Drake 9 

Anthony Moloney 


Joel Gromowski 32 


Matthew Vetter 8, 30 
Carl Schmitz 9, 31 
Paul Placek 30 
Peter C. Kumle 30 
Clement Paynter 30 


Leonard Barthelemy 24 
Kenny Lynch 27 
Lucian Hogan 26 
Noel Pechulis 28 
Anselm Secor 35 
Pascal Barry 34 


Reginald James 33 









First Consultor 



Second Consultor 






Master of Novices 










Assistant Pastor 



Vice Master 





Director of Students 





Provincial Econome 


Editor, The Passionist 



Chaplain, Chicago State 



Retreat Director 



Asst. Retreat Director 



Retreat Master 



Sign Magazine 

Vocational Director 

Chaplain, Lady of Peace Hospital 

Chaplain, VA Hospital, Marion, Ind. 

Vice Director 

NAS, FPO 955, San Francisco, Calif. 

The Eng. Center (7071 SU), Ft. Belvoir, 


Catholic Chaplains Office, Marine Corps 

Base, Camp Lejeune, N. Car. 

Mission Bulletin, 106A Kwok Man 

House, 8A Des Voeux Rd., Hongkong. 

Hibarigaoka Catholic Church, Takara- 

zuka-shi, Hyogo-ken, Japan. 

Catholic Church, 793 Masumi-cho, 

Ikeda-shi, Osaka-fu, Japan. 

Templo del Espiritu Santo, Union y Av. 

Marti 233, Mexico 18, D. F. 

406 N. 1 7th Avenue, Phoenix, Ariz. 

Mercy Hospital, Independence, Kansas. 

Mt. St. Mary Convent, 3700 E. Lincoln, 

Wichita 1, Kansas. 




Paul F. Nager 1 
Neil McBrearty 45 
Ignatius Formica 47 
Caspar Caulfield 46 
Bonaventure Moccia 


M. Rev. Cuthbert M. 

O'Gara, DD. 
Provincial Staff 
Ernest Welch 2 
Cuthbert McGreevey 3 
Carrol Ring 4 
Frederick J. Harrer 9 
Brendan Boyle 10 
Ferdinand Braun 1 1 
Paul J. Dignam 1 1 
The Sign 

Ralph Gorman 25 
Gerard Rooney 
Jeremiah Kennedy 26 
Donald Nealis 28 
Harold Poletti 29 
Pius Trevoy 30 
Austin Busby 31 

St. Michael's Monastery 
Clement Buckley 5 
Wilfrid Scanlon 8 
Herbert McDevitt 
Xavier Gonter 
Michael Rausch 18 
Hyacinth Sullivan 
Alfred Duffy 
Adelbert Poletti 
Ernest Cunningham 35 
Paulinus Hughes 
Ronald Norris 23 
Bernard Gilleran 
Kenneth Naudin 
Raymond J. Foerster 
Stephen P. Kenny 17 
Michael A. Campbell 
Linus Lombard 50 
Justinian McLaughlin 
Hugh Carroll 
Bonaventure Griffiths 24 
Andrew Ansbro 22 

Hyacinth Malkowiak 
Lawrence Steinhoff 
Agatho Dukin 
Athanasius Drohan 
Richard Kugelman 15 
Bertrand Weaver 
Reginald Arliss 
Wendelin Moore 18 
Thaddeus Purdon 
Dennis Walsh 
Charles A. Oakes 18 
Nicholas Gill 15 
Francis Kuba 
Albinus Lesch 18 
Kilian McGowan 13 
Bennet Kelly 
Cyril Schweinberg 15 
Cuthbert Sullivan 
Stanislaus Waseck 
Paul J. Fullam 49 
Neil O'Donnell 
Cormac Kinkead 18 
Benedict Berlo 
Clement Kasinskas 
Leo J. Gorman 
Vincent M. Boney 
Louis J. McCue 
Kiernan Barley 
Augustine Sheehan 
Colman Connolly 
Gerard Griffiths 
Donald Mclnnis 
Gabriel Shields 
Aelred Lacomara 
Francis Boylan 
Jerome Cowan 
Conrad Federspiel 
Arthur Bouchard 

St. Joseph's 
Benjamin Wirtz 17 
Julius Reiner 18 
Hubert Arliss 18 


Theodore Foley 5 
Gregory Flynn 6 

Vincent M. Frahlick 8 
Benedict Huck 
Fulgentius Ventura 
Adrian Lynch 
Paul J. Ubinger 
Norman Kelly 
Ignatius Ryan 21 
Theophane Maguire 
Basil Bauer 
Celestine McGonigal 
Gabriel M. Jaskal 
Cyril McGuire 
Robert- O'Hara 
Theophane Kapcar 
Camillus Barth 
Cajetan Sullivan 19 
Daniel Hunt 
Cornelius McArdle 
Raymond M. Houlahen 
Maurice Sullivan 
Paulinus Gepp 
Anselm Lacomara 
Kieran Baker 
Paschal Smith 20 
Sebastian Kolonovsky 
Cajetan Bendernagel 14 
Cornelius Davin 
Julian Morgan 
Damian Carroll 
Xavier Vitacollona 
Louis Mitchell 
Edmund Fletcher 

St. Michael's 

Adolph Schmitt 17 
Wendelin Meis 18 
Edward Hennessey 18 
Timothy Stockmeyer 1 8 

St. Mary's 

Walter Wynn 5 
Gerard A. Orlando 8 
Isidore Smith 
Antoine de Groeve 
Mark Seybold 
Eugene Kiernan 1 7 
Myles Whelan 15 


Julian Connor 
Herman Kollig 18 
John J. Reardon 15 
Ahban Lynch 
Ernan Johnston 18 
Leo F. Vanston 
Clement Pavlick 
Basil Stockmeyer 18 
Crispin Lynch 
John B. Pesch 
Norman Demeck 15 
Michael J. Brennan 15 
David Roberts 1 3 
Students — 3rd Phil. 
Frederick Bauer 
Mario Gallipoli 
Edwin Moran 
Joel Polasik 
Donatus Santorsa 
Joseph Fiorino 
Gordon Amidon 
Barry Ward 
Isaias Power 
Ignatius McGinley 
Seamus McHugh 
Arthur McNally 


Stanislaus Tansey 
Bernard Pughe 
Paul Morgan 

Holy Cross 
Boniface Buckley 5 
Aquinas Sweeney 8 
Linus Monahan 
Maurice Kansleiter 
Columban Courtman 15 
Luke Hay 

Columban Aston 15 
Silvio De Lucca 
Paschal Drew 15 
Christopher Collins 34 
Leopold Secundo 15 
Ronald A. Beaton 22 
Simon P. Wood 15 
John S. Gresser 15 
Colman Haggerty 15 
Brendan Breen 32 
Linus Rottloff 15 
Victor A. Mazzeo 1 5 
Stephen Haslach 
Justin Brady 33 
Vincent Cunningham 

Ronan Caulson 
Gabriel Chilbert 
Joseph Holzer 

Owen Lynch 5 
Roderick Hunt 8 
Hilarion O'Rourke 
Arthur Benson 
Jeremias McNamara 
Justin Mulcahy 15 
Hubert Sweeney 
Columba McCloskey 
Raphael Duffy 
Arthur May 
John F. Poole 18 
Flavian O'Donnell 
Alexis Scott 
Terence Brodie 
Adrian Poletti 17 
Silvan Brennan 38 
Leander Delli Veneri 
Claude Ennis 
Alan McSweeney 
Leo Byrnes 
Leonard Amhrein 1 8 
Dominic M. Cohee 
Albert Catanzaro 18 
Benedict J. Mawn 
Columkille Regan 13 
Gerald Hynes 1 8 
Cassian Yuhas 15 
Ronan Callahan 15 
Daniel Free 18 

Students — 1st Phil. 

Bruce Bucheit 
Conrad Bauer 
Brennan Keevey 
Michael Flinn 
Germain Flack 
Shawn McLaughlin 
Anfoine Myrand 
Isidore Dwyer 
Lambert McDonald 
Mark Mulvaney 
Luke Perry 
Colgan Keogh 

Bernardine Carmassi 
Aloysius Blair 


Rupert Langenstein 5 
Malachy McGill 8 

Bernard Hartman 
Henry Brown 
Edward Goggin 
Stephen Sweeney 
Winfrid Guenther 
William Cavanaugh 
Roland Hoffman 
Leonard Gownley 
Brian Murphy 
Paul M. Carroll 
Alban Carroll 
Ambrose Diamond 
Xavier Welch 
Alfred Weaver 17 
Jordan Loiselle 
Godfrey Reilly 
Edgar Vanston 
Edmund McMahon 
Cletus Dawson 51 
Marcellus McFarland 
Neil Sharkey 15 
Peter Hallisy 13 
Kevin McCloskey 15 
Godfrey Kaspar 1 8 
Gregory Durkin 
Christopher Czachor 
Giles Ahrens 18 
Aquinas McGurk 15 
Joyce Spencer 

Students — 1st Theol. 
Keith Blair 
Austin McKenna 
Rex Mansmann 
Myles Scheiner 
Ralph Tufano 
Vernon Kelly 
Carl Thome 
Kent Rummenie 
Rocco Oliverio 
Dominic Papa 
Kenan Peters 
Philip Bebie 
Bede Engle 


Edward Blair 
Alphonsus Coen 


Canisius Hazlett 5 
Hilarion Walters 8 
Damian O'Rourke 
Claude Leahy 
Francis Shea 


Quentin Olwell 17 
Lucian Ducie 19 
Jordan Black 
Berchmans Lanagan 
Thomas A. Sullivan 
Leo J. Berard 
Finbar O'Meara 
Jerome O'Grady 
Cletus Mulloy 
Bede Cameron 1 8 
Marcellus White 
Joseph P. O'Neill 20 
Linus McSheffrey 
Norbert Herman 15 
Louis Maillet 
Jerome Does 1 8 
Conran Free 
Eugene Fitzpatrick 21 
Angelo lacovone 
Venard Byrne 15 
Justinian Gilligan 15 
Luigi Malorzo 
Cronan Regan 13 
Students — 2nd Phil. 
Raphael Amhrein 
Celestine Riccardi 
Denis Mansman 
Hyacinth Welka 
Rupert Neyer 
Eymard Rehill 
Zacharias Statkun 
Basil Trahon 
Alderic Richard 
Rene Luedee 
Alphonsus M. Welling 
Benedict Palese 
Michael Stomber 

Luke Misset 5 
Martin J. Tooker 8 
Bede Horgan 
Eugene Kozar 
Frederick Corccoran 
Nilus MaAlister 
Bertin Donahue 21 
Hilary McGowan 
Rupert Langenbacher 
Miles McCarthy 
Connel Hopkins 
Dominic Grande 
Gilbert Walser 19 
Winfrid McDermott 

Fidelis Rice 16 
Casimir Horvat 
Ronald Murray 
Sylvester Cannon 
David Bulman 
Lawrence Mullin 
Columba Moore 13 
J. Chrysostom Ryan 20 
George Nolan 
Canisius Lareau 
Quentin Amhrein 
Leo Gerrity 
Sacred Eloquence 
William Davin 
Raymond Pulvino 
Francis Hanlon 
Martin Grey 
Kilian M. McNamara 
Kevin Casey 
Patrick McDonough 
Norbert M. Dorsey 
Nicholas Zitz 
Eugene Leso 
Brian Rogan 
John F. McMillan 
Albert Pellicane 
Damian Towey 
Timothy Fitzgerald 
Aloysius Fahy 
Alan Cavanaugh 

Valentine Rausch 
Patrick Fallon 
Andrew Winkleman 
Timothy Foley 
Valentine Cashman 
Francis Dalton 


Felix Hackett 5 
John M. Aleckna 8 
Bartholomew Mulligan 
John J. Endler 
Cosmos Shaughnessey 19 
Roger Monson 
Owen Doyle 17 
Canice Gardner 
Conon O'Brien 
Bertrand McDewell 
Gordian O'Reilly 
Vincent Connors 
Cronan Flynn 18 
Lambert Missack 
Damien Reid 

Malachy Hegarty 
Kevin Conley 
Bernardine Gorman 
Philip Ryan 
Quentin Cerullo 
Benedict McNamara 
Alexander Hoffman 
Urban Curran 
Peter Quinn 
George Sheehy 
Arnold Horner 38 
Kieran Richardson 1 8 
Matthew Nestor 21 
Victor Donovan 15 
Gordian Murphy 
Brian Burke 1 8 
Florian Pekar 
Thomas Berry 
Julius Durkan 
Richard F. Leary 15 
Bernardine Grande 
Silvan Rouse 15 
Berard Tierney 20 
Emmanuel Gordon 15 
Brice Ingelsby 53 
James Verity 
Lawrence Bellew 
Harold Reusch 13 
Students — 2nd Theol. 
Earl Keating 
Nelson McLaughlin 
Adrian Christopher 
Xavier M. Hayes 
Christian Kuchenbrod 
Alexander Mulligan 
Victor Hoagland 
Theodore Walsh 
Paulinus Cusack 
Sebastian Colluqy 
Cosmas Dimino 
Emmet Maguire 
Matthew Martin 
Dermot Dobbyn 
Barnabas Wenger 
Owen Lally 
Roderick Mescall 

John Murphy 
Henry Cavanaugh 
George Kowaleski 


Aloysius O'Malley 5 
Basil Cavanaugh 8 


Leopold Snyder 

Gilbert Smith 

Cyril Feeley 

Timothy McDermott 21 

Kenan Carey 

Alphonsus Cooley 

Caspar Conley 

Conran Kane 

Ronan Carroll 

Joseph L. Flynn 19 

Vincent Durkin 

Regis Mulligan 

Gerald Matejune 

Venard Johnson 

Bonaventure Gonella 

Patrick J. McDwyer 20 

Damian Rail 

Augustine Paul Hennessey 

Alphonsus Grande 

Arthur Derrig 

Hilary Sweeney 

Aidan Mahoney 15 

Bertin Farrell 15 

Jude Mead 

Fintan Lombard 15 

Roger Gannon 15 

Declan Maher 13 

Malcolm McGuinn 

Flavian Dougherty 20 

Students — 3rd Theol. 

Jerome McKenna 

James A. Wiley 

Gerald Surette 

Herbert Eberly 

Henry Free 

Roger Elliot 

Boniface Cousins 

Columban Hewitt 

Alban Harmon 

Leonard Murphy 

Campion Cavanaugh 


Simon West 44 

Dominic Critchlow 

Anselm Catalucci 

Philip Maggiulli 

Virgil Pasi 

William Drotar 

Fidelis Cristiano 

Peter Albright 
Raymond Sarrasin 

Connel McKeown 5 
James A. McAghon 8 
Gerard Keeney 
Egbert Gossart 1 7 
Donald Keenan 
Michael Connors 
Boniface Hendricks 
Maurus Schenck 18 
Cyprian Regan 
Regis Eichmiller 
John F. McLaughlin 
Justinian Manning 
Jude Dowling 
Bro. Brian Forrestall 


Urban Manley 7 

William Harding 

Albinus Kane 

Aloysius McDonough 12-27 

Constantine Phillips 

Bro. Thomas Aul 


Daniel McDevitt 17 
Joachim Carrigan 

New Bern 
Julian Endler 17 
Gerald Ryan 1 8 
Howard Chirdon 1 8 
Thomas Carroll 18 

Maurice Tew 1 7 
Berchmans McHugh 18 


Emmanuel Trainor 17 
Gabriel Gorman 52 
Edward J. Banks 18 


William Whelan 7 
Cormac Shanahan 

Calistus Connolly 
Anthony Feeherry 
John B. Maye 
Ernest Hotz 
Dunstan Guzinski 


Anthony J. Nealon 17 
Dunstan Stout 18 

Justinian Tobin 

Walter Mickel 3 
Germain Heilmann 
Roland Flaherty 
Ronald HiMiard 
Anthony Neary 


Fabian Flynn 43 


Jogues McQuillan 
Edgar Crowe 
Robert Erne 


Sidney Turner 39 
Christopher Berlo 39 
Timothy McGrath 40 
Romuald Walsh 40 
James Follard 40 
Nilus McAndrew 39 
Hugh McKeown 39 
Gabriel Bendernagel 42 
Conor Smith 39 
Eustace McDonald 42 
Robert Mulgrew 39 
Conan Conaboy 39 
Nilus Hubble 40 
Ambrose Maguire 39 
Fidelis Connolly 
Edmund Hanlon 

Raphael Vance 
Terence Connelly 
Cyprian Walsh 
Leander Steinmeyer 




4th Gen'l Consultor 


Sign Post 




Sign: Business Mgr. 


1st Consultor 


Sign: Mission Proc. 


2nd Consultor 


Sign: Field Director 




Sign: Fieldman 


Master of Novices 


Dir. Prep. Sem. 




Asst. Dir. Prep. 




Dean of Studies Prep. 


Prov. Secy. 


Chaplain: Laurel Hill 


Prov. Econome 


Chaplain: Creedmor 


Mission Secy. 


Chaplain: St. Agnes Hosp. 


Prov. Dir. Studies 


Chaplain: Bon Secours Hosp 




Chaplain: Army 


Vice Master 


Chaplain: Navy 




Chaplain: Marine 


Lect. Sac. Eloq. 


Chaplain: Air Force 




Supervisor Jun. Bros. 




General Econome 


Retreat Dir. 


Secy. Gen'l For. Miss. 


Assist. Ret. Dir. 


Rules Commission 


Retreat Master 


Higher Studies 


Vocational Director 


Prov. Archivist 


Public Rel. Dir. 


Bishop's Secy. 




Chaplain: Passionist Nuns 


Sign: Editor 


Building Superintendent 


Sign: Assoc. Ed.