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Full text of "Passport security (testimony of Harry R. Bridges) Hearings"

O 5 Onr^. '/9/ 



HARVARD COLLEGE 
LIBRARY 




GIFT OF THE 

GOVERNMENT 
OF THE UNITED STATES 



f ■■- - ■■ ■:■ - . ' 

PASSPORT SECURITY— PART 1 

(TESTIMONY OF HARRY R. BRIDGES) 



HEARINGS 



BEFORE THE 



COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 
HOUSE OE REPRESENTATIVES 

EIGHTY-SIXTH CONGRESS 



FIRST SESSION 



APRIL 21, 1959 
INCLUDING INDEX 



Printed for the use of the Committee on Un-American Activities 




UNITED STATES 
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
39742 WASHINGTON : lOriO 



COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 
United States House of Representatives 
FRANCIS E. WALTER, Pennsylvania, Chairman 
MORGAN M. MOULDER, Missouri DONALD L. JACKSON, California 

CLYDE DOYLE, California GORDON 11. SCHERER, Ohio 

EDWIN E. WILLIS, Louisiana WILLIAM E. MILLER, New York 

WILLIAM M. TUCK, Virginia AUGUST E. JOHANSEN, Michigan 

Richard Arens, Staff Director 



CONTENTS 



Page 

Synopsis 659 

April 21, 1959 : Testimony of— 

Harry R. Bridges 666 

Index I 

HI 



Public Law 601, 79th Congress 

The legislation under which the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities operates is PubUc Law 601, 79th Congress [1946], chapter 
753, 2d session, which provides: 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States 
of America in Congress assevibled, * * * 

PART 2— RULES OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

Rule X 

SEC. 121. STANDING COMMITTEES 

18. Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine Members. 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 
******* 

(q) (1) Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(A) Un-American activities. 

(2) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommit- 
tee, is authorized to make from time to time investigations of (i) the extent, 
character, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(ii) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American propa- 
ganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and attacks 
the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitution, and 
(iii) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress in any necessary 
remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such 
times and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, 
has recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 

******* 

Rule XII 

LEGISLATIVE OVERSIGHT BY STANDING COMMITTEES 

Sec. 136. To assist the Congress in appraising the administration of the laws 
and in developing such amendments or related legislation as it may deem neces- 
sary, each standing committee of the Senate and the House of Representatives 
shall exercise continuous watchfulness of the execution by the administrative 
agencies concerned of any laws, the subject matter of which is within the jurisdic- 
tion of such committee; and, for that purpose, shall study all pertinent reports 
and data submitted to the Congress by the agencies in the executive branch of 
the Government. 



RULES ADOPTED BY THE 86TH CONGRESS 
House Resolution 7, January 7, 1959 

* * 4i 3|: * * !(: 

Rule X 

STANDING COMMITTEES 

1. There shall be elected by the House, at the commencement of each Con- 
tii-ess, 

9K ^ ^ Nt % 4< 4< 

(q) Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine Members. 

H< :): sic 9): 4: % =<: 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 
4: If: 4c * 4: 4: 3|: 

18. Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(a) Un-American activities. 

(b) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommittee, 
is authorized to make from time to time investigations of (1) the extent, char- 
acter, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(2) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American prop- 
aganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and 
attacks the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitu- 
tion, and (3) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress 
in any necessary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such times 
and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, has 
recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessarj'. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 

******* 

26. To assist the House in appraising the administration of the laws and in 
developing such amendments or related legislation as it may deem necessary, 
each standing committee of the House shall exercise continuous watchfulness 
of the execution by the administrative agencies concerned of any laws, the subject 
matter of which is within the jurisdiction of such committee; and, for that 
purpose, shall study all pertinent reports and data submitted to the House by 
the agencies in the executive branch of the Government. 



SYNOPSIS 



The instant hearings on passport security are a continuation of 
liearings held on this subject beginning May 23, 1956.^ 

In opening the hearings, the chairman of the committee stated : 

Since the last hearings on this subject matter by this com- 
mitteCj the Supreme Court of the United States on June 16, 
1958, m the case of Rockwell Kent and Walter Briehl v. 
The Secretary of State^ has rendered a decision the effect of 
which is to completely nullify any control on a security basis 
in the issuance of passports. 

Today, now, the bars are down. Communist agents, propa- 
gandists, and Communist sympathizers have a blanket invita- 
tion to come and go as they will. I hardly need add a state- 
ment, w^hich is obvious, namely that this situation is of direct 
beneht to the international Communist movement, and of 
direct detriment to security interests of our Nation. 

The first witness whose testimony is hereby published, Mr. Harry 
Bridges, appeared in response to a subpena and identified himself 
as president of the International Longshoremen's and Warehouse- 
men's Union.- At the outset of the interrogation, Mr. Bridges in- 
voked the fifth amendment in refusing to answer a question as to 
whether or not he had ever used the name Harry Dorgan which, 
according to Agnes Bridges, former wife of Harry Bridges, was 
the name inscribed in Bridges' Communist Party membership book. 
Mr, Bridges stated that the testimony which was given under oath 
before a legislative committee in the State of Washington by Agnes 
Bridges "was later on repudiated" by her, but he persisted in his 
refusal to answer the question as to whether he had used the name 
Harry Dorgan in a Communist Party book. 

Mr. Bridges testified further that on July 16, 1958, he filed an 
application for a passport; that in filling out the application he 
omitted answers to two questions: "Are you now a member of the 
Communist Party?" and "Have you ever been a member of the Com- 
munist Party?" — because of recent decisions of the Supreme Court. 
In response to the query as to whether on the date of filing his applica- 
tion he was "a person who had ever been a member of the Communist 
Party," Mr. Bridges replied: "I must decline to answer, and I seek 
the protection of the fifth amendment." 

The testimony discloses that INIr. Bridges, accompanied by William 
Glazier, executive assistant to the officers of the International Long- 
shoremen's and Warehousemen's Union, at the expense of IL'\^TJ, 
traveled to Europe for the purpose of "travel, recreation, and study 



^ See hearings entitled "Investigation of the Unauthorized Use of United States Pass- 
ports — Parts 1-4." 

' Expelled from the CIO in 1950 on the ground of "Communist domination." 

659 



660 PASSPORT SECURITY 

of longslioring methods and collective bargaining." Although the 
passport application listed the countries to be visited as England, 
France, Italy, Holland, Israel, Egypt, U.S.S.R., and India, the itiner- 
ary included certain Iron Curtain countries not listed on the applica- 
tion. During the trip abroad, Mr. Bridges participated in a number 
of conferences with leading European Communists and gave inter- 
views and issued statements to various Communist publications, com- 
mending the Communist controlled labor organizations in the Iron 
Curtain countries. He also sent to the United States a series of arti- 
cles in similar vein which were published in The Dispatcher, official 
publication of the ILWU. 

Mr. Bridges testified that he expected shortly after the instant hear- 
ings to go to Tokyo, Japan, on a U.S. passport to participate in the 
Pacific- Asia Dock Conference which, the committee is informed, con- 
sists principally of representatives of certain Communist-led labor 
organizations. In this connection, the following excerpt from the 
testimony is significant : 

Mr. Aeens. In the event of war in Asia would you ad- 
vocate a strike for the purpose of impeding the shipment of 
arms to our allies in Asia ? 

Mr. Bridges. Now, this is all mixed up here. We start off 
by talking about a fight between Chiang Kai-shek, who I 
think is a bum, and the mainland of China. That is something 
between the Chinese, and you asked me my i)osition on that. 

Mr, Arens. Would you advocate a strike in order to cur- 
tail the shipment of supplies in the event the U.S. Govern- 
ment would ship arms to Formosa ? 

(The witness conferred witli his counsel.) 

Mr. Bridges. Are we still talking about a war between 
Formosa and mainland China and you asked me what my 
position was ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes. 

Mr. Bridges. I would object in every possible way I could. 
You are asking me. Then you asked me 

Mr. Arens. No, let's just stay with the question, Mr. 
Bridges. Would you, as president of IL^YU, advocate a 
strike in order to impede the shipments of supplies to For- 
mosa if the U.S. Government were shipping supplies to 
Formosa and Formosa and Eed China were at war? 

Mr. Bridges. I don't know what this has got to do with 
passports. But I want to relate to you the position 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly answer the question ? 

Mr. Bridges. I will answer it in my way, Mr. Counsel, if 
you want an answer and if you will give me a chance. 

The Chairman. Answer the question. 

Mr. Bridges. All right. We are still dealing with a pos- 
sible attempt, as I imderstand it, of Chiang Kai-shek to in- 
vade the mainland of China. I am trying to tell you that my 
attitude toward that, I would strenuously object and do what 
I could to oppose the United States engaging in such a suicide 
enterprise. 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly answer the question? 
Would you exercise your prerogatives as president of ILWU 



PASSPORT SECURITY 661 

in the direction of using a strike of longshoremen so as to im- 
pede the slupments of these armaments which we have been 
discussing ? 

Mr. Bridges. I have no such prerogative. You are all 
mixed up. 

Mr. Arens. Would you advocate a strike ? 

Mr. Bridges. I would prefer to wait and see what would 
happen at that time. I don't know. At this stage of the 
game I don't know what I might do. 

If I felt doing that would keep the United States from 
going into such a suicidal enterprise and meaning the loss of 
life in the United States my position at the moment would be, 
I think I would. 

Finally, attention is drawn to the following testimony : 

Mr. Arens. You have a U.S. passport, however ? 

Mr. Bridges. I do. 

Mr Arens. Had you ever applied for a U.S. passport prior 
to the Kent-Briehl decision ? 

Mr. Bridges. No, Mr. Arens. There was too many people 
in this country trying to get me out without a pass- 
port — * * * 



39742— 69— pt. 1- 



PASSPORT SECURITY— PART 1 
(Testimony of Harry R. Bridges) 



TUESDAY, APRIL 21, 1959 

U.S. House of Representatives, 

Subcommittee of the 
Committee on Un-American Activities, 

Washington^ D.G. 
public hearing 

The subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities 
met, pursuant to call, at 10 a.m., in the caucus room. Old House Office 
Building, Hon. Francis E. Walter (committee chairman) presiding. 

Subcommittee members : Representatives Francis E. Walter, Penn- 
sylvania; Morgan M. Moulder, Missouri; Clyde Doyle, California; 
Donald L. Jackson, California ; and Gordon H. Scherer, Ohio. 

Committee members also present: Representatives William M. 
Tuck, Virginia; and August E. Johansen, Michigan. (Appearance 
as noted.) 

Staff members present: Richard Arens, staff director; and Donald 
T. Appell, investigator. 

The Chairman, The committee will come to order. 

The hearings which begin today are in furtherance of the powers 
and duties of the Committee on Un-American Activities, pursuant to 
Public Law 601 of the T9th Congress, which not only establishes the 
basic jurisdiction of the committee, but also mandates this committee, 
along with other standing committees of the Congress, to exercise 
continuous watchfulness of the execution of any laws, the subject 
matter of which is within the jurisdiction of the committee. 

(Representative Scherer entered the room.) 

The Chairman. In response to this power and duty, the Committee 
on Un-American Activities is continuously in the process of accumu- 
lating factual information respecting Communists, the Communist 
Party, and Communist activities which will enable the committee and 
the Congress to appraise the administration and operation of the 
Smith Act, the Internal Security Act of 1950, the Communist Con- 
trol Act of 1954, and numerous provisions of the Criminal Code re- 
lating to espionage, sabotage, and subversion. In addition, the com- 
mittee has before it numerous proposals and recommendations to 
strengthen our legislative weapons designed to protect the internal 
security of this Nation. 

i shall now read the resolution of the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, authorizing and directing the holding of tlie instant hear- 
ings adopted January 23, 1959 : 

Be it resolved, That hearings by the Committee on Un-American Activities 
or a subcommittee thereof, to be held in Washington, D.C., and at such other 
place or places as the chairman may indicate, on such date or dates as the chair- 

(J63 



664 PASSPORT SECURITY 

man may determine, be authorized and approved, including the conduct of 
investigations deemed reasonably necessary by the staff in preparation therefor, 
relating to the following : 

1. The advisability of reporting favorably to the House for enactment, amend- 
ments to section 215 of the Immigration and Nationality Act as contained in 
Title IV — Immigation and Passport Security, of H.R. 2232, introduced on Janu- 
ai*y 12, 1959, and referred by the House of Representatives to the Committee 
on Un-American Activities for its consideration, 

2. The advisability of recommending legislation expressing the will and 
intent of Congress spelled out in direct and positive form, granting authority 
to the Secretary of State to issue, withhold, or limit passports for international 
travel of adherents to the Communist Party, and the granting of specific statu- 
tory authority to the Secretary of State to issue substantive regulations in the 
passport field, as set forth in the Annual Report of the Committee on Un-Ameri- 
can Activities for the year 1956. 

3. The development of factual information which may be of assistance to 
the committee and to Congress for use in their consideration of the legislative 
proposals enumerated, or amendments thereto. 

4. The execution by the administrative agencies concerned of all laws and 
regulations, within the jurisdiction of this committee, relating to the granting 
of passports. 

Be it further resolved, That the hearings may include any other matter within 
the jurisdiction of the committee which it, or any subcommittee thereof ap- 
pointed to conduct this hearing may designate. 

I shall now read the order of appointment of the subcommittee to 
conduct these hearings: 

To Mr. Richard Aeens, 

Sta-ff Director, 

House Committee on Un-American Activities: 

Pursuant to the provisions of the law and the rules of this committee, I hereby 
appoint a subcominittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities, consisting 
of Representatives Morgan M. Moulder, Clyde Doyle. Donald L. Jackson, and 
Gordon H. Scherer as associate members, and myself, Francis E. Walter, as 
chairman, to conduct hearings in Washington, D.C., Tuesday, April 21, 1959, 
at 10 a.m., on subjects under investigation by the committee and take such 
testimony on said day or succeeding days, as it may deem necessary. 

Please make this action a matter of committee record. 

If any member indicates his inability to serve, please notify me. 

Given under my hand this 24th day of March 1959. 

Feancis E. Walter, 
Chairmwn, Committee on Un-American Activities. 

Under date of May 23, 1956, this committee conducted a series of 
hearings here in Washington with respect to procurement and use of 
American passports by persons in the service of the Communist 
conspiracy. 

Those hearings in 1956 developed valuable information relating 
to passport security and travel control which has been the subject 
of recommendations for legislation by the Committee on Un-Ameri- 
can Activities, and which has been, in part, the basis of the provisions 
of a bill on this subject, H.E. 2232, which I introduced and which is 
currently pending before the Committee on Un-American Activities. 

Since the last hearings on this subject matter by this committee, 
the Supreme Court of the United States on June 16, 1958, in the 
case of Rockwell Kent and Walter Bnehl v. The Secretary of State, 
has rendered a decision the effect of which is to completely nullify 
any control on a security basis in the issuance of passports. 

Today, now, the bars are down. Communist agents, propagandists, 
and Communist sympathizers have a blanket invitation to come_ and 
go as they will. I hardly need add a statement, which is obvious, 
namely that this situation is of direct benefit to the international 



PASSPORT SECURITY 665 

Communist movement, and of direct detriment to security interests 
of our Nation. 

It is more than a coincidence that these very hearings beginning 
today are the subject of vigorous attack by the Moscow Radio in its 
international broadcasts, and that just last evening at the Willard 
Hotel here in Washington, the Commmiist front, the Emergency 
Civil Liberties Committee, held a rally to attempt to whip up enthus- 
iasm against these instant hearings. I have often said that the ef- 
fectiveness of this committee is in direct ratio to the intensity of the 
attack against the committee by the Communist apparatus. 

It is, of course, not sufficient for us to view with alarm, lament, and 
bewail. Effective action must be taken promptly to protect the se- 
curity of this Nation. In the course of these hearings we shall be 
interrogating a number of people who have in the recent past been 
issued U.S. passports for travel abroad. Notwithstanding charges 
to the contrary, these people have not been summoned before this 
committee capriciously, for the sake of exposure or for any purpose 
other than to enable this committee to develop factual information for 
its legislative purposes. 

Because of the vast scope of the subject matter and the great num- 
ber of witnesses who could be subpenaed, we expect in these hearings 
over the course of the next few days, only to sample types and pat- 
terns of cases. Should we attempt to interrogate in these hearmgs 
even a significant percentage of possible witnesses on whom we have 
compiled information we would be engaged in this one project for 
months to the detriment of other equally important projects on which 
the committee is working in other areas. 

It is the policy of the committee to accord any witness the privilege 
of being represented by counsel; but within the provisions of the 
rules of this committee, counsel's sole and exclusive prerogative is to 
advise his client. 

Mr. Arens, will you call your first witness ? 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Chairman, may I make a request at this time? 

The Chairman. Mr. Jackson. 

Mr. Jackson. The chairman made reference to the meeting held, 
I believe, last night at the Willard Hotel, and I would like to request, 
Mr. Chaimian, that this call to the meeting be duplicated, attached 
to a copy of the committee's publication "Operation Abolition" and 
sent to all Members of the House in order that they may be kept 
abreast of what is going on. 

The Chairman. I am sure that the Members of the House would 
recognize the names of the speakers. They are quite familiar. 

Mr. Jackson. Those are being documented, and I will ask at a 
proper time to have the names of the speakers incorporated in the 
record. 

Mr. Arens. May the record show that more than a quorum of the 
subcommittee is present. 

The Chairman. Yes. Let the record show present Messrs. Doyle, 
Scherer, Jackson, and myself. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, if you please, the first witness will be 
Mr. Harry Bridges. 

Kindly come forward and remain standing while the chairman ad- 
ministers an oath. 



()66 PASSPORT SECURITY 

The Chairman. Raise your right hand, please. 
Do you swear the testimony you are about to give will be the truth, 
the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 
Mr. Bridges. I do. 
The Chairman. Be seated. 

TESTIMONY OF HARRY R. BRIDGES, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
GEORGE R. ANDERSEN 

Mr. Arens. Kindly identify yourself by name, residence, and occu- 
pation. 

Mr. Bridges. My name is Harry Bridges. I am the president of the 
International Longshoremen's and Warehousemen's Union, independ- 
ent and unaffiliated. 

Mr. Arens. And your residence, please, sir ? 

Mr. Bridges. San Francisco. My business residence, 150 Golden 
Gate Avenue. San Francisco. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing today pursuant to a subpena which 
was served upon you by the House Committee on Un-American Activi- 
ties? 

Mr. Bridges. Eight, 

Mr. Arens. And you are represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Bridges. I am. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, kindly identify yourself. 

Mr. Andersen. George R. Andersen, 240 Montgomery Street, San 
Francisco. 

Mr. Arens. Counsel, would you kindly tell us the law firm with 
which you are associated ? 

Mr. Andersen. Gladstein, Andersen, Leonard & Sibbett. 

Mr. Arens. Is Mr. Richard (xladstein the senior member of that 
firm ? 

Mr. Andersen. Two of us are. 

Mr. Arens. The reason I asked, we had correspondence with ref- 
erence to this particular witness. 

Mr. Andersen. Mr. Gladstein and I are senior members of the firm. 

jMr. Arens. All right, sir. 

Mr. Bridges, were you present a few moments ago when the chair- 
man of this committee read the statement announcing the holding of 
these hearings ? You were here in the hearing chamber, were you not ? 

Mr. BRrooEs. I heard a statement, yes. 

Mr. Arens. Have you used any name other tlian the name of Harry 
Bridges ? 

Mr. Bridges. Have I ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Bridges. Never. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever used the name Harry Dorgan, D-o-r- 
g-a-n ? 

Mr. Bridges. Just a minute. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Bridges. I would like to ask a (question, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Bridges. My understanding, and we tried to find the informa- 
tion before we came here, is that my appearance here is in connection 



PASSPORT SECURITY 667 

with passport legislation, and I am just wondering, and I. have reasons 
to inquire what the relevancy of that question is toward passport 
legislation? 

Mr. Arens. The relevancy of this particular question, sir, is to 
establish your identity. For the purposes of identification have 
you ever used the name Harry Dorgan, D-o-r-g-a-n ? 

Mr, Bridges. I have given you my name. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that the witness 
be ordered and directed to answer the question as to whether or not 
he has ever used the name Harry Dorgan. 

The Chairman. You are directed to answer the question, Mr. 
Bridges. 

Mr. Bridges. Excuse me. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel. ) 

Mr. Bridges. Mr. Counsel, the reason for my discussions with the 
lawyer, the name Dorgan came up — I am asking you a question with- 
out answering at the moment bet ause the purpose of my question — ^has 
crept up a couple times in more than 20 years of litigation against me, 
5 or more court hearings, and 2 trips to the U.S. Supreme Court. 

Now, if answering this question opens up again over 20 years of 
1 itigation that has been settled by the courts and waives my immmiity 
to my constitutional rights, I am just wondering if that is the case? 

Mr. Arens. No. 

( Kepresentati ve Johansen entered the room.) 

Mr. Bridges. Otherwise 

Mr. Arens. The purpose of this question is not to open up anything 
that has been decided at all. The purpose of this question is to 
ascertain your identity. 

Would 5^ou Irindly answer the question now whether or not you 
have ever used the name Harry Dorgan, D-o-r-g-a-n ? 

Mr. Bridges. No, I am trying to inquire, Mr. Counsel, from you 
that if I answer this question then do you take the position that I 
have waived my right to use the fifth amendment on similar questions. 
Of course, this is only one question of thousands that can be answered 
or asked along the same line. 

Mr. Arens. We would have to wait and see how the record de- 
veloped. We could not commit ourselves on any succeeding 
questions. 

Would you kindly answer the question : Have you ever used the 
name Harry Dorgan, D-o-r-g-a-n ? 

Mr. Bridges. In view of that question I want to confer. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Bridges. No, I refuse to answer on the basis of my right under 
the Constitution. 

Mr. Arens. Which constitutional provision are you invoking? 

Mr. Bridges. Primarily the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Do you honestly apprehend, sir, if you told this com- 
mittee now truthfully, while you are under oath whether or not you 
have ever used the name Harry Dorgan, D-o-r-g-a-n, you would be 
supplying information which might be used against you in a criminal 
proceeding ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 



668 PASSPORT SECURITY 

Mr. Bridges. It seems to me that is a legal question. I really believe 
that one of the purposes of the question could lead to a series of other 
questions and open up a lot of litigation against me which could possi- 
bly endanger me. 

Mr. Arens. So the record may now be clear, I shall read to you, 
sir, testimony given under oath before the Joint Legislative L act- 
Finding Committee on Un-American Activities in the State of Wash- 
ington by a lady by the name of Agnes Bridges. 

Q. I will ask you, Mrs. Bridges, did you ever see a Communist Party member- 
ship book of Harry Bridges? — A. Yes, many a time. 

Q. You have seen his membership book many times? — A. Yes. 

Q. Have you ever had this membership book in your hands? — A. Quite often. 

Q. Quite often. Will you describe this membership book for us? — A. Well. I 
would say it was just large enough to put in a good-sized envelope. 

Q. Large enough to put in an envelope? — A. Yes. 

Q. And does it open up? — A. Yes. 

Q. Well, supposing you go on and describe it for us? — A. Well, I would say 
it was about that long (illustrating), and quite narrow, and about that wide. 

Q. Did it have any stamps in it? — ^A. It did, yes. It had a design 

Q. It had stamps. What's that? — A. Kind of a little design on the stamp. 

Q. A little design in the center of each stamp? — A. Yes. 

Q. Was that design the hammer and the sickle? — A. Yes. 

Q. It was the — and this membership book had stamps in it, and each stamp 
had the sign of the hammer and the sickle? — A. Yes. 

Q. Now what name was inscribed on this membership book? — A. Harry Dorgan. 
That was his mother's maiden name. 

Q. Harry Dorgan? — A. Yes. 

Q. And Dorgan was his mother's maiden name? — A. Yes. 

Q. Is that correct? — A. That's what he told me. 

Q. Did you ever have a conversation about him using this name "Dorgan"? — 
A. Yes. I did. I told him he ought to be ashamed of himself for putting his 
mother's maiden — maiden name on the Party book. 

Q. You told him he ought to be ashamed of himself for putting his mother's 
maiden name on a Communist Party book? — A. Yes. 

Q. Is that right? And what did he reply? — A. He said, "What difference does 
it make, they will never find out." 

Q. "What difference does it make, they will never find out"? — A. Yes. 

Q. Now, I will ask you, did Harry Bridges carry this Communist Party book 
with him? — A. Oh, no. 

Q. He wouldn't carry it? — A. No. 

Q. Where in the house did he keep it? — A. Well, sometimes we hid it under- 
neath the linoleum in the bathroom. 

Was the testimony which I have just read to you a recitation of the 
facts with respect to your use of the name Harry Dorgan or is that 
testimony in error ? 

Mr. Bridges. I don't know. That testimony was before a legislative 
committee. The same questions were asked before a court of justice 
where you could face your accuser and cross-examine, and that was 
one of my ex- wives. She was never produced in a court of justice. 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly answer the question, was that testi- 
mony true or was it in error ? 

Mr. Bridges. And eventually later on she repudiated that testimony. 

Mr. Arens. Was that testimony true or was it in error ? 

Mr. Bridges. Excuse me just a moment. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Bridges. The testimony was later on repudiated by the woman 
that made it. Now that 

Mr. Arens. Was tliat testimony true or was that testimony in error 
that you used the name Harry Dorgan in a Communist Party book ? 



PASSPORT SECURITY 669 

Mr. Bridges. I am telling you that the woman eventually repudiated 
the testimony and said it wasn't true. 

The Chairman. That is not the question, Mr. Bridges. The ques- 
tion is, was this testimony correct ? 

Mr. Bridges. I am giving you an answer. 

The Chairman. Wliether she repudiated it or not is immaterial. 
The question is. Was it true ? 

Mr. Bridges. It was found to be untrue later on by the courts. 

The Chairman. All right. 

Mr. Arens. Do you here and now deny that you used the name 
Harry Dorgan in a Communist Party book ? 

Mr. Bridges. I would sooner stand on the court record and the 
court decisions. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest the witness now 
be ordered and directed to answer the last outstanding principal 
question. 

The Chairman. You are directed to answer the question. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Bridges. I have already answered that on the fifth — if I have 
used the name. I think I have already answered that and took the 
fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. When and where were you born ? 

Mr. Bridges. Melbourne, Australia, July 28, 1901. 

Mr. Arens. Wliat was your occupation before coming to the United 
States ? 

Mr. Bridges. Seaman ; merchant seaman. 

Mr. Arens. When did you come to the United States ? 

Mr. Bridges. April 1920. 

Mr. Arens. Did you come on an immigration visa ? 

Mr. Bridges. No. I came as a seaman. 

Mr. Arens. Were you admitted at that time in 1920 for lawful 
permanent residence ? 

Mr. Bridges. Yes ; as far as I know. 

IMr. Arens. Are you a citizen of the United States ? 

Mr. Bridges. I am. 

Mr. Arens. When and where were you naturalized ? 

Mr. Bridges. San Francisco in 1945. 

Mr. Arens. Give us, if you please, sir, just the principal employ- 
ments you have had since you came to the United States. 

Mr. Bridges. In 1922 I was a merchant seaman. From 1922 to 
1934 I was a longshoreman on the docks of San Francisco. Since the 
latter part of 1934 I have been a trade union official and still am. 

Mr. Arens. During what period of time were you employed by the 
U.S. Government? 

Mr. Bridges. That was a short period during 1922. I was a quar- 
termaster in the Coast and Geodetic Survey. 

Mr. Arens. How long have you been president of the IL"VYU? 

Mr. Bridges. Since it was formed in 1937. 

Mr. Arens. I lay before you now a photostatic reproduction of a 
passport application filed with the Secretary of State bearing the 
signature of Harry Renton Bridges. 

Would you kindly look at that passport application and tell this 
committee while you are unfler oath whether or not that is a true and 

39742— 59— pt. 1 3 



570 PASSPORT SECURITY 

correct reproduction of a passport application filed by yourself with 
the Secretary of State? 

(A document was handed to the witness.) 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Bridges. It is. 

(Document marked "Bridges Exhibit No. 1", and retained m com- 
mittee files. ) 

Mr. Arens. First of all, you will observe on the first page under 
the listing, "mother's name, Julia Dorgan Bridges," is that correct? 

Mr. Bridges. Eight. 

Mr. Arens. Was that your mother's name ? 

Mr. Bridges. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Now you will observe on the second page of the pass- 
port application under your picture there are two questions : Ques- 
tion 1 is: "Are you now a member of the Communist Party?" And 
in parentheses, answer "yes" or "no." Question 2 is: "Have you 
ever been a member of the Communist Party ?" And in parentheses, 
answer "yes" or "no." And thereafter appears this, "If ever a mem- 
ber, state period of membership from to ." 

In this passport application which I displayed to you the answers 
are omitted to those two questions. Is that not correct ? 

Mr. Bridges. Eight. 

Mr. Arens. What was the date of the filing of this passport? 
Could you tell us that please, sir? That was in July 1958, was it 
not, July 16? 

Mr. Bridges. I think it was. 

Mr. Arens. On July 16, 1958, the day that you filed this passport 
application were you a person who had ever been a member of the 
Communist Party ? 

(The witness conferred wdth his counsel.) 

Mr. Bridges. It was my understanding at the time in view of the 
court decisions I did not have to answer the questions for two or 
three reasons: One, the matter of principle; one, because I didn't 
again want to afi'ord any opportunities for the record, what has been 
happening, of another 20 or more years of litigation, and because the 
issue had been settled personally and officially as far as I was con- 
cerned by the courts. So I did not answer the question. 

Mr. Arens. Now would you kindly answer the question outstand- 
ing on this record ? 

Mr. Bridges. And I don't intend to answer them now. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest the witness now 
be ordered and directed to answer the last outstanding principle ques- 
tion on this record ; namely, as of the date of his filmg the passport 
application, July 16, 1958, was he a person who had ever been a mem- 
ber of the Conununist Party. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Bridges. Mr. Chairman, before 

The Chairman. Just a moment. First I would like to ask you this 
question : Did you refrain or decline to answer that question because 
of what you felt the law was as enunciated by recent decisions of the 
court? 

Mr. Bridges. One reason, yes. 

The Chairman. Yes. 



PASSPORT SECURITY 671 

Mr. Bridges. One reason meaning that I was within my rights spe- 
oifically in this case to decline to answer the question. In other words, 
it wasn't a condition of getting a passport as — well, as I had over 20 
years of litigation Avhere the courts had found despite many, many 
charges and accusations, you see, to the contrary, and I had never 
taken the lifth amendment. I took the fifth amendment here today 
for the first time in my life. If I had taken it over 20 years ago, I 
Avould have saved my union a lot of money and expense, and I would 
have saved myself a lot of trouble. And I know why, because there 
has been more than one attempt to frame me on the same issue, and 
now I am getting older I am getting wiser. 

The Chairman. I assure you there will be no attempt to frame 
you here. Actually we are interested in the advisability of reporting 
legislation. I think your statement a moment ago that you declined 
to answer the question because of the court decisions would indicate 
of itself the need for legislation. 

But you are directed to answer this question, Mr. Bridges. 

Mr. Bridges. Well, for the second time I must decline to answer, 
and I seek the protection of the fifth amendment. 

The Chairman. You are not under any compulsion. You say, "I 
must decline." You are not under any compulsion whatsoever. If 
you want to help the Congress and the country, you will not decline 
to answer. 

Mr. Bridges. I would like to help the Congress, and I would like 
to help the country. I just think there might be better ways of doing 
it than this, in my opinion, Mr. Chainnan. 

I am declining to answer, because I have been through over 20 years 
of litigation, two trips to the U.S. Supreme Court, hve or six other 
hearings where these charges, these same questions were asked. Wit- 
nesses were introduced. In most cases they were found to be liars, 
perjurers, and stool pigeons. If I answer the question here now, I 
think the committee will get busy and start a new round of litigation. 

Mr. Arens. Do you honestly apprehend, sir, if you answered the 
last outstanding principal question, you would be supplying infor- 
mation which might be used against you in a criminal proceeding ? 

Mr. Bridges. And I think the committee could go to work to start 
seeking some ways of bringing criminal procedures, yes. 

Mr. Arens. Now, Mr. Bridges, according to the passport appli- 
cation 

Mr. Bridges. I think the issue has been settled, Mr. Counsel. I 
don't know how many times I have to go before the Supreme Court to 
have the charges of communism allegedly past or present determined. 
It has been determined as far as I am concerned twice by the U.S. 
Supreme Court decisions and two or three times by other hearings. 

How many times do I have to go through with it? 

I think the committee is trying to start another question. 

The Chairman. May I assure you for what it is worth that is not 
the case at all, Mr. Bridges. 

Mr. Bridges. Mr. Chairman, may I ask you something? 

Presently there is a claim pending against me by the U.S. Govern- 
ment for a quarter of a million dollars, an income tax claim, stating 
that the money that was collected by friends, donated voluntarily by 
my union membership, was personal income, even though I never got 



672 PASSPORT SECURITY 

a penny of that money. Counsel did and other counsel did. But the 
U.S. Government has filed a claim against me asking me to pay a 
quarter of a million dollars in income taxes on this so-called personal 
income. That is still in the cards. 

Now the idea is that if I am forced to defend myself further in 
some costly litigation I have to come up with the money, and I have 
no money. 

The Chairman. Mr. Bridges, I have great confidence in our courts 
and in our laws, and if you do not owe the $250,000 I am sure you 
will not be required to pay it. 

Mr. Bridges. I have confidence in the courts and law, Mr. Chair- 
man, too. I am sorry to say I have more confidence there than here. 
In the courts of law you can force the witnesses to come in and their 
statements are not just accepted as thoy are here. There they can 
be cross-examined and exposed as liars and if they are liars ^ 

The Chairman. If they do not answer questions they are committed 
for contempt. That is something we cannot do, you see. 

Mr. Arens. Was a passport issued pursuant to the application which 
you filed ? 

Mr. Bridges. Yes. 

Mr. Scherer. May I ask Mr. Arens a question? 

Do you mean the passport was issued without the applicant answer- 
ing the two questions you have just read ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. 

Now, on the passport application you list among other things, the 
countries which you expect or hope to visit : "England, France, Italy, 
Holland, Israel, Egypt, U.S.S.R., and India." 

May I inquire at this point, please, sir, when did you start making 
your plans for this proposed trip, which you announced to the State 
Department when you filed your application in July of 1958 ? 

Mr. Bridges. A couple of years before that. 

Mr. Arens. Had you had correspondence with people in the coun- 
tries to be visited respecting your itinerary and your conferences and 
the like that you proposed to have ? 

Mr. Bridges. Yes, to some extent at least. 

Mr. Arens. And did you have with you when you left on the trip 
any letter of introduction ? 

Mr. Bridges. I did. 

Mr. Arens. Did you have any letter of introduction from Mr. 
Hoffa? 

Mr. Bridges. No ; if I wanted one, I would have asked for one. If 
I would have asked, I would have got it. 

Mr. Arens. Now the original plan according to the application was 
to leave on Augiist 15. The actual date of departure, however, was a 
little later, was it not? 

Mr. Bridges. It was. 

Mr. Arens. What occasioned the delay ? Could you tell us in pass- 
ing? 

Mr. Bridges. I got married. I had a little trouble getting married. 
I went to the State of Nevada, and I iound there were laws up there 
preventing me from marrying anybody but a white person. So we 
finally got married and took care of tliat and the law has since been 
repealed. 



PASSPORT SECURITY 673 



Mr. Akens. Who- 



Mr. Bridges. I married an American girl. 

Mr. Ari^ns. Who accompanied you on this trip ? 

Mr. Bridges. To Nevada ? My wife. 

Mr. Arens. No; the trip to Europe. 

Mr. Bridges. Mr. William Glazier. 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly identify him for us ? 

Mr. Bridges. He is executive assistant to the officers of the ILWU. 

Mr. Arens. Was your travel abroad approved by the ILWU ? 

Mr. Bridges. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Did you go upon resolution passed by the ILWU, au- 
thorizing and directing you to go ? 

Mr. Bridges. I don't know. 

Mr. Arens. Did ILWU agree to reimburse you for your expenses ? 

Mr. Bridges. Yes. Let me tell you. I went there after making — it 
was a part of a whole plan of ours. The purposes of the trip and the 
fact that I was going had been reported to most of our union meetings, 
to membership meetings, and in that sense it was approved by the 
membership directly. As to the technical aspect of what motions were 
made and what resolutions were passed, they would be in the record 
somewhere. I don't know. 

Mr. Arens. On the purpose of your trip on your passport applica- 
tion you recite travel, recreation, and study of longshoring methods 
and collective bargaining ? 

Mr. Bridges. Eight. 

Mr. Arens. Were there any other purposes which you had for the 
trip? 

Mr. Bridges. No. 

Mr. Arens. Did you have any purposes before you left to engage in 
conferences for stated objectives ? 

Mr. Bridges. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. You did not recite those conferences or any stated ob- 
jectives in your passport application, however, is that correct? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Bridges. I recited enough to get a passport. But if I had been 
asked I would have had no objection. 

Mr. Arens. In December of 1958, did the ILWU propose a confer- 
ence of longshore unions in the Pacific area and in Asia, a conference 
to be described as the "Pacific- Asia Dock Conference"? 

Mr. Bridges. It did in conjunction with some other unions in other 
countries; yes. 

Mr. Arens. "Wliere was that conference to be held ? 

Mr. Bridges. Tokyo. 

Mr. Arens. When? 

Mr. Bridges. I think it begins May 11. 

Mr. Arens. Did you discuss this conference with any individuals 
or groups or entities not affiliated with American trade unions? 

Mr. Bpjdges. What would that question mean ? You tell me what 
you mean by American trade union ? I think I know what you mean. 
But before I can answer that one give me an idea of what you mean ? 

Mr, Arens. To whom did you extend the invitations to participate 
in this Pacific- Asia Dock Conference ? 

Mr. Bridges. To whom in what? 



674 PASSPORT SECURITY 

]Mr. Arens. Yes. What groups. 

Mr. Bridges. In other countries? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Bridges. Our union was a part of a sponsoring committee of 
four or five unions in various (countries. One was Indonesia. One 
was Japan. There was ours representing the Pacific coast of tlie 
Americas and a couple of others. I am a member of the sponsoring 
committee. I think one was India, Bombay Dock Workers. T]\at 
is four. 

Mr. Arens. Did you extend an invitation to the All-Japan Dock 
Workers ? 

Mr. Bridges. They were part of the sponsoring group. 

Mr. Arens. Was part of the sponsoring group the Waterside Work- 
ers Federation of Australia? 

Mr. Bridges. That is right. That is the other one. 

Mr. Arens. Is Madras Harbour Workers Union of India part of 
(his group? 

Mr. Bridges. Yes, it is. 

Mr. Arens. Is the Waterside Workers and Seafarers Union of In- 
donesia part of this group ? 

Mr. Bridges. It is. 

Mr. Arens. Did you extend any invitations to unions located in the 
Philippines for this Pacific- Asia Dock Conference? 

Mr. Bridges. Yes. 

Mr. Akens. What group there? 

Mr. Bridges. I forget the exact title, the dockworkers group there. 

Ml'. Arens. Did they accept? 

Mr. Bridges. I don't know as yet. 

Mr. AnENS. Did you extend any invitation to dockworkers in 
Formosa ? 

Mr. Bridges. I don't know. Let me explain why. Out of the five 
sponsoring miions, each sponsoring union was responsible for extend- 
ing invitations to unions in certain areas. For example, tlie ILWU, 
we took the responsibility of commmiicating w'ith dockworkers unions 
in Central and South America and Canada. Those communications 
were sent out. Now whether the Fonnosa union was invited or 
other imions in that area that would be, for example, the responsibility 
of the Japanese dockworkers. So as to whom they communicated 
u'itli at this stage of the game, I can't say for sure. I would assume 
that they had extended an invitation to the dockers of Formosa. But 
I can't say for sure. 

To put it another way, there wasn't supposed to be any discrimi- 
nation. All unions of all kinds were to be invited if they were dock- 
workers' unions from all countries. 

Mr. Arens. Were any of the unions invited afl&liated with Inter- 
national Confederation of Free Trade Unions? 

Mr. Bridges. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Have any of them accepted an invitation? 

Mr. Bridges. The Indonesian union is one that is a sponsoring 
union. 

Mr. Arens. Has it accepted an invitation or is it going to sponsor 
the all-Japanese 

Mr. Bridges. It has sponsored, yes. 



PASSPORT SECURITY 675 

Mr. Arens. Conference. 

Mr. BRrooKs. I think one of the Australian nnions — I can't say for 
sure. 

Mr. Arens. Kindly tell us what press coverage did you arranjre 
prior to the time of your departure? 

Mr. Bridges. Press coverage where? 

Mr. Arens. What press coverage did you arrange for your trip ? 

Mr. Bridges. None. 

Mr. Arens. Do you write a column called "On the Beam" in the 
paper published by ILWU ? 

Mr. Bridges. I do. 

Mr. Arens. Did you contemplate that as you made your trip from 
country to country you would be sending back for publication ILWU 
press reports respecting your trip ? 

Mr. Bridges. No. 

Mr. Arens. Did you do so ? 

Mr. Bridges. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. What was the first country that you visited? 

Mr. Bridges. Great Britain, the United Kingdom. 

Mr. Arens. And did you write or dispatch an article from Great 
Britain? 

Mr. Bridges. We wrote an article on Great Britain. Whether we 
wrote it there or later on in one of the other countries — I think we 
might have written it originally from Hamburg or Paris. 

Mr. Arens. Did you personally write these columns that you sent 
back or were they written by a colleague and perhaps submitted for 
your approval ? 

Mr. Bridges. Let us say they were a joint effort. 

Mr. Arens. A joint effort between you and whom? 

Mr. Bridges. Mr. Glazier. He writes much better than I do. 

Mr. Arens. Did anj^one else accompany you on the trip besides 
Mr. Glazier? 

Mr. Bridges. No. 

Mr. Arens. Did you discuss the Pacific- Asia Dock Conference with 
certain persons in Great Britain ? 

Mr. Bridges. I think we did. 

Mr. Arens. And with whom did you discuss it? 

Mr. Bridges. I don't know. I couldn't say. You asked me specifi- 
cally what. We might have discussed it with this one. We had hours 
and houis of discussions; as to whether that particular point came 
up, this, that, or the other one, I don't know. But the general ques- 
tion, did we discuss it with some people? We were askecl about it. 

Mr. Arens. With what groups did you have your discussions in 
Great Britain? 

Mr. Bridges. Primarily with the officers of the Transport and Gen- 
eral Workers Union of Great Britain. 

Mr. Arens. Did you have any conference with the International 
Transport Workers' Federation ? 

Mr. Bridges. Yes, that is officers of that federation. 

Mr. Arens. Wliere were those conferences ? 

Mr. Bridges. Great Britain, Hamburg, Denmark, Belgium, Israel. 
And you said officers of the federation ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir; within Great Britain. 



676 PASSPORT SECURITY 

Mr. Bridges. Oh, within Great Britain. What was the question? 
T lost it. 

Mr. Arens. Wliere did you have your conferences ? 

Mr. Bridoes. I am saying. I liad some in Great Britain and some 
other 

Mr. Arens. Within the offices of the receptive countries or were they 
in some other offices ? 

Mr. Bridges. What does that mean, "receptive" ? 

Mr. Arens. Were they in the offices of the labor groups with which 
you Avero consulting or were they within the offices of some affiliate of 
an international labor organization ? 

Mr. Bridges. They were in trade union offices. They were in the 
offices of the union we happened to be talking with. 

Mr. Arens. Did the International Transport Workers' Federation 
accept an invitation to participate in the Tokyo meeting? 

Mr. Bridges. I don't know. 

Mr. Arens. Did they express to you that they were not going to 
accept the invitation to the Tokyo meeting ? 

Mr. Bridges. I think you are mixed up. Now I am talking to people 
who are affiliated with the ITF and officers of the ITF. And tliey 
might be or they w^ould be invited as dockworker unions, let us say, 
if they were in the Pacific to the conference, as against the ITF itself 
being invited. 

Mr. Arens. Now let's get the record clear. Did you extend a formal 
invitation, without equivocation, to the International Transport 
Workers' Federation in Great Britain to participate in the Pacific 
dock conference ? 

Mr. Bridges. But it is not in Great Britain. 

Mr. Arens. Did you extend an invitation to the International 
Transport Workers' Federation to participate in the dock conference 
in the Pacific ? 

Mr. Bridges. I don't know. That would be on the part of the 
sponsoring conferences. As far as I know an invitation was probably 
extended but specifically at the moment I don't know. 

Mr. Arens. While you were in Great Britain did you have any 
conferences with representatives of the World Federation of Trade 
Unions ? 

Mr. Bridges. I don't know about that either. Some of those people 
might have been. There was one man, I forget his name, who could 
have been a representative of the WFTU. I don't know. 

Mr. Arens. Did you have any conferences with Jock Hastings of 
the British dockworkers ? 

Mr. Bridges. No. Not that I recall. Now, we met quite a few 
people and I can't recall their names. 

Mr. Arens. How long were you in Great Britain ? 

Mr. Bridges. About a week. 

Mr. Arens. Then your next stop was in France, is that correct ? 

Mr. Bridges. No, 

Mr. Arens. Where was your next stop. 

Mr. Bridges. Hamburg. 

Mr. Arens. I would like to discuss with you Hamburg in connec- 
tion with other areas of your trip. 

Mr. Bridges. That is quite all right. 



PASSPORT SECURITY 677 

Mr. Arens. How long were you in Hamburg ? 

Mr. Bridges. About 3 or 4 days. 

Mr. Arens. Then you went to France? 

Mr. Bridges. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. How long were you in France, roughly speaking? 

Mr. Bridges. I have a copy of my itinerai'y instead of me depend- 
ing on memory. 

Mr. Arens. Were you there as much as a week? 

Mr. Bridges. In France? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Bridges. We weren't there that long. 

Mr. Arens. Did you have a letter of introduction ? 

Mr. Bridges. We asked the officers of the Transport and General 
Workers Union in Britain to make arrangements for the trade union 
officers in the other countries where they could, and they very kindly 
did so. Whether that included France or not — we had correspond- 
ence with France already. I think it was with the transport union 
there, the dockworkers' union there. 

Mr. Arens. Do you recall the name of the individual with wliom 
you had your correspondence in France ? 

Mr. Bridges. At the moment I don't know. I think it was either 
Mr. 

Mr. Arens. Was it Frachon ? 

Mr. Bridges. I think it was. At least that was one of them. 

Mr. Arens. Did you, when you got to France, confer with Frachon ? 

Mr. Bridges. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Is his first name Benoit, B-e-n-6-i-t ? 

Mr. Bridges. Right. I think the way you say it. 

Mr. Arens. Last name, F-r-a-c-h-o-n ? 

Mr. Bridges. I think that is the way you say it. 

Mr. Arens. What is his position ? 

Mr. Bridges. He is either the secretary general of the CGT or the 
secretary general of the Transport Workers Union of France, which 
would include the dockworkers. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know that Benoit Frachon was a high-ranking 
member of the Communist Party of France ? 

Mr. Bridges. No. Well, let me see. I had heard something to that 
effect. Specifically, no. It wouldn't make any difference to me if I 
did. 

Mr. Arens. Are you acquainted with the fact that Frachon was 
arrested within France on charges of fomenting sabotage and conduct- 
ting subversive propaganda in the French Army ? 

Mr. Bridges. Did I Imow that ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Bridges. No. 

Mr. Arens. Would it have made any difference to you if you had 
known it ? 

Mr. Bridges. It all depends. I have been arrested myself. 

Mr. Arens. The CGT in France is the Communist controlled labor 
organization, is it not ? 

Mr. Bridges. I wouldn't know that. Do I understand, Mr. 

Mr. Arens. Did Frachon explain to you the economic conditions 
in France and the political conditions in France? 

39742— 59— pt, 1 4 



578 PASSPORT SECURITY 

Mr Bridges. He certainly did his best. We pinned his ears down 
enough day and night to try and get that information. 

Mr Arens. Did you get the information from Frachon^ 

Mr. Bridges. We got quite a bit of information from Mr. Frachon. 

Mr. Arens. Do you speak French ? 

Mr. Bridges. No. 

Mr. Arens. Did you have an interpreter ? 

Mr. Bridges. We did. 

Mr. Arens. Do you recall the interpreter's name { 

Mr. Bridges. I have it somewhere, a very delightful lady. 

Mr. Arens. Was her name Lisa K-o-t-o-m-k-i-n-a ? 

Mr. Bridges. No. . 

Mr. Arens. Was the lady who was assigned to you one ot the asso- 
ciates of Frachon? .,^ .-.1 T ^1 • 1 1 

Mr. Bridges. I think so. I forget her specihc title. 1 thinlv slic 
was a part of the international department of the CGT. 

Mr Arens. Did you have conferences with Louis SaiUant ^ 

Mr Bridges. I had a conference with Louis Saillant, a brief one m 
France or Paris. He happened to be there. He resides elsewhere. 
But I know 

Mr. Arens. Where does he reside ? 

Mr. Bridges. I don't know. 

Mr. Arens. Wlio is Louis Saillant? 

Mr. Bridges. I think he is the secretary of the WFTU. 1 have 
known Saillant for years. So if he was in Paris 

Mr. Arens. Do you Imo^v that Louis Saillant is a Soviet espionage 
agent ? 

Mr. Bridges. No. 

Mr. Arens. Would it have made any difference to you had you 

known it ? 

Mr. Bridges. It depends on the evidence. 

Mr. Arens. Did you meet up w^ith a lady in France, during your 
sojourn there, by the name of Lisa Kotomkina, K-o-t-o-m-k-i-n-a? 

Mr. Bridges. I don't know. I might have. I can't recall the name 
at the moment, but it is entirely— we met quite a few womeii. 

Mr. Arens. Did you meet up with the secretary to Louis Saillant, 
a lady by the name of Lisa Kotomkina ? 

Mr. Bridges. I don't know. 

Mr. Arens. Do you recall, irrespective of her name, whether or not 
you were in conference with the secretary to Louis Saillant ? 

Mr. Bridges. I was in conference with a woman, who w^as also, as I 
understand it, the ranking officer of the Transport Workers Union. 

Mr. Arens. Was she secretary to Louis Saillant ? 

Mr. Bridges. I don't know what her exact title was. She could have 
been. I don't know. 

Mr. Arens. From wdience did Louis Saillant come m order to con- 
fer with you in Paris ? 

Mr. Bridges. Just a minute. What was that quest] on ? 

Mr. Akens. From whence did Mr. Saillant come for the purpose of 
conferring with you in Paris? 

Afr. Bridges. As far as T know he didn't come to confer with mo in 

Paris. . • • 9 

Mr. Arens. From whence did he come in order to be in Paiis? 



PASSPORT SECURITY 679 

Mr. Bridges. I don't know. 

Mr. Akens. Had he recently arrived in Paris prior to the time that 
yon conferred Avith him ? 

Mr. liRiDGES. That is my understanding. He had s^otten in that day 
and left the same day. 

Mr. Arens. From whence did he come ? 

Mr. Bridges. I don't know. I asked to see Saillant. They said he 
wasn't around. Later on they said, by golly, he Avas. He was in Paris 
for that day. And I asked if they could arrange at least a brief ses- 
sion. I wanted to see him and renew old acquaintances. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know Saillant from the past ? 

Mr. Bridges. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. What was the nature of your past acquaintanceship 
with him ? 

IN'Ir. Bridges. Was a delegate. That is wrong. Yes. Yes, he in 1945 
at the time of the founding of WFTU and the United Nations NSF. 
He was an official delegate to the founding committee. 

Mr. Arens. Did Saillant, during your stay in Paris, invite you to 
come to Prague ? 

Mr. Bridges. No. We already had Prague on the itinerary. 

Mr. Arens. Wliile you were in France did you meet Andre Fres- 
sinet, F-r-e-s-s-i-n-e-t ? 

Mr. Bridges. I think we did. I am not sure. We intended to be- 
cause Fressinet. I think Fressinet now is — we had a lot corre- 
spondence with Fressinet. 

Mr. Arens. When you say "we" who are we? 

Mr. Bridges. The International Longshoremen's and Warehouse- 
men's LTnion and myself as one of its ofiicers. 

Mr. Arens. Am I clear that you did have a conference with Fres- 
sinet ? 

Mr. Bridges. I am not sure if we did or not. 

Mr. Arens. Did you solicit a conference with Fressinet ? 

Mr. Bridges. I think we did. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know that Fressinet was a top-ranking Com- 
munist in France ? 

Mr. Bridges. No; you understand the distinctions here. If you 
asked me had I heard that, I will say "yes." If you ask me did I know, 
specifically, I don't. 

Mr. Arens. You were onetime president of the Seamen and Dock- 
ers section of WFTU, were you not ? 

Mr. Bridges. Right. 

Mr. Arens. TFas Fressinet a leading light of WFTU ? 

Mr. Bridges. At that time ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Bridges. Yes ; I think he was. 

Mr. Arens. Was Saillant a leading light of WFTU at that time? 

Mr. Bridges. Either president or secretary. I think he has the 
same position now, whichever it is. 

Mr. Arens. Wlio contacted you respecting your ascendency to the 
presidency of the Seamen and Dockers section of WFTU? 

Mr. Bridges. Contacted? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Bridges. I don't remember that. 



680 PASSPORT SECURITY 

Mr. Arens. You were not present in Europe when you were elected 
president of the Seamen and Dockers section of WFTU, were you? 

Mr. BnroGES. No ; I think I was in jail. 

Mr. Arens. Who notified you that you had been elected president 
of the WFTU Seamen and Dockers section ? 

Mr. Bridges. I think the secretary of our local of our international 
union. I can't recall specifically. 

Mr. Arens. With whom had you had correspondence or with whom 
had you been in communication respecting your ascendency to the 
])rosidency of the Seamen and Dockers section of WFTU? 

Mr. Bridges. I don't think there was any correspondence on it. 

Mr. Arens. Did it just strike you as a bolt out of the blue that you 
were notified that you were the new president of the Seamen and 
Dockers section of WFTU ? 

Mr. Bridges. I don't know if I would put it that way. There was 
a conference, and I was elected. I wasn't present, but I was elected. 

Mr. Arens. Was ILWU ever affiliated with WFTU ? 

Mr. Bridges. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Did it withdraw ? 

Mr. Bridges. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Wlien did it withdraw ? 

Mr. Bridges. Shortly after the outbreak of the Korean war. 

Mr. Arens. Did you resign as president of the Seamen and Dockers 
section ? 

Mr. Bridges. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. And did you do that at the instigation of the local 
of ILWU? 

Mr. Bridges. I did it at the instigation of our membership. 

Mr. Arens. When did you resign as president of the Seamen and 
Dockers International ? 

Mr. Bridges. I forget. I don't know. 

Mr. Arens. Was it prior to 1952 ? 

Mr. Bridges. It could be. I am not sure. I think it was. 

Mr. Arens. Did you, after you resigned as president of the Sea- 
men and Dockers International of WFTU, continue your affiliation 
as an individual with WFTU? 

Mr. Bridges. No. 

Mr. Arens. Did you write articles for WFTU publications after 
you were obliged to resign as president of the Seamen and Dockers 
section of WFTU? 

Mr. Bridges. I think I did, one or two. 

Mr. Arens. I display to you now, if you please, sir, a photostatic 
reproduction of the November 16-30, 1952, issue of the "Fortnightly 
Review," a publication of WFTU, in which appears among other 
things an article by Harry Bridges, entitled, the 'Voice of America 
and the Forked Tongue." 

Mr. Bridges. I wrote that, a little long but 

Mr, A RENS. Who solicited you to write this ? 

Mr. Bridges. Nobody. My own idea. All by myself. 

Mr. A rens. You sent it in to WFTU ? 

Mr. Bridges. I sent it everywhere I could get it printed. I had a 
purpose in mind. 

(Document marked "Bridges Exhibit No. 2," and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 



PASSPORT SECURITY 681 

Mr. Arens. Were you cognizant of the fact that WFTU was con- 
trolled by the international Communist conspiracy ? 

Mr. Bridges. They are your words. I was cognizant of the fact 
that they "were organizations of workers all over the world and I was 
looking for workers' help, wasn't getting much anywhere else. 

Mr. Arens. Did you in court admit that the WFTU is controlled 
and dominated by Communists ? 

Mr. Bridges. Not that I remember. 

Mr. Arens. I should like to read to you an excerpt from an 
opinion given by District Judge Harris in the case of United States 
V. Bridges, decided in the District Court, the Northern District of 
California, August 7, 1950. 

Mr. Bridges. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. In the course of the opinion District Judge Harris, the 
Federal judge, recites the following : 

Of equal significance was his — 

and I interpolate "Bridges" — 

refusal to disavow affiliation in and with the World Federation of Trade Unions, 
an international organization which he admits — and yesterday admitted in conse- 
quence of my questions — is controlled and dominated by Communists. 

Did you in the course of the proceedings recited here by Judge 
Harris admit that the World Federation of Trade Unions is con- 
trolled and dominated by Communists ? 

Mr. Bridges. Isn't there a record of those proceedings, Mr. Counsel ? 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest the witness now 
be ordered to answer that question. 

Mr. Bridges. I am not going to depend on my memory against the 
court record. If it is in the court record I said it. I am not going to 
try to remember it now. It is not in that record. You are quoting 
from what the judge said. I am not going to go by the judge's con- 
clusions which were eventually dumped by the High Court. I would 
sooner go by what is in the record. 

The Chairman. Did the judge correctly state the facts ? 

Mr. Bridges. I can't recall specifically. I wouldn't trust that judge 
to state any facts. Your Honor. I am sorry but that is my opinion 
about that judge. All I am saying is I w^as under oath in that court 
of law. When the judge asked me questions I wasn't backward about 
answering them. And my answers at that time wliich were many, 
many years ago taken down by a court reporter, are better than my 
memory now. Never mind the judge's conclusion. They were 
dumped. 

The Chairman. Of course the record shows you admitted just ex- 
actly what the judge said. 

Mr. Bridges. Suppose the record said it ? 

The Chairman. All right. 

Mr. Bridges. Then I said it. Your Honor. I said it. 

Mr. Arens. What was the next country you visited ? 

Mr. Bridges. After what ? 

Mr. Arens. After France. 

Mr. Bridges. After France ? 

Mr. Arens. Will you excuse me while I ask one more question 
with reference to France ? 



682 PASSPORT SECURITY 

Wliile you were in France did you extend any invitations to any of 
tlie groups or organizations there to attend the Pacific- Asia Dock Con- 
ference which is scheduled next month in Tolcyo ? 

Mr. Bkiix4Es. I don't think we did. 

Mr. Arens. Did you discuss that subject matter with them? 

Mr. Bridges. Yes. Understand, again, let me remind you, invita- 
tions were being extended by the official sponsoring conunittee. There 
was no need for me to extend invitations in addition. But I extended 
invitations to every single trade union leader we spoke to in France, 
Great Britain, elsewhere, to come to the United States and attend our 
recent convention. Some of them said they would try to make it. It 
was a matter of money with them. Time was short, et cetera, et cet- 
era, et cetera, and thanks, T guess in part to this committee every one 
of them were well aware that trying to visit trade unions in America 
is a very difficult thing. 

Mr. Arens. Wlio met you at the airport when you arrived in Rome 
from France ? 

Mr. Bridges. Before we left France, Mr. Counsel, to get the record 
straight here. Now, in addition to visiting the CGT leaders in France, 
we visited the leaders of the ICFTU. And we visited the leaders of 
the Catholic trade unions there. We just didn't confine — we tried to 
do the same in every country Ave were in. We talked to everybody. I 
don't want you to try to give the impression here we just talked to 
certain ones. We talked to them all. 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly tell us who met you at the airport 
when you arrived in Rome ? 

Mr. Bridges. Let me see. Mr. Santi was one. 

Mr. Arens. Is that Fernando Santi ? 

Mr. Bridges. That is right. 

Mr, Arens. Who is he, please, sir ? 

Mr. Bridges. He was cochairman, I think, of the CGIL (Italian 
General Confederation of Labor) of France. I mean of Italy. Par- 
don me. 

Mr. Arens. Who else met you ? 

Mr. Bridges. There was a couple of other people. One was an 
interpreter. 

Mr. Arens. Was Agostino Novella there? 

Mr. Bridges. I met him later. He didn't meet us at the airport. 
There was two other officers there, and I have their names in the record 
we mentioned them. 

Mr. Arens. Did you have a conference with Agostino Novella ? 

Mr. Bridges, Later on, yes. 

Mr. Arens. Wliere and when did you have your conference with 
Agostino Novella ? 

Mr. Bridges. I think it was in the headquarters of either the CGIL 
or the Transport Workers Union. 

Mr. Arens. The CGIL is the Communist controlled trade union in 
Italy ; is it not ? 

Mr. Bridges. I don't know. I want more proof than your word. 

Mr. Arens. Is Agostino Novella a Communist ? 

Mr. Bridges. I don't know that either. I think ho is now. Let me 
explain my answers. You know it is one thing in this country where 
it is kind of the thing you don't do, going around asking people, 



PASSPORT SECURITY G83 

are you a Socialist, Communist, or Eepiiblican either. It is different 
over tliere. You don't get a chance to ask. Generally the first thmg 
people tell you, "I am a Socialist, I am a Socialist Democrat." "T 
am a Communist." And that is the way it works. ^xr-r-mT 

Mr. Arens. Was Agostino Novella elected chairman of the WFIU 
while you were in Europe ? 

Mr.'BRiDGES. I don't remember that if he was. 

Mr. Arens. Is he now chairman of the WFTU ? 

Mr. Bridges. I think he is or he is one of them, at least. 

Mr. Arens. Did you discuss with Agostino Novella the forthcoming 
Pacihc-Asia Dock Conference to be held in Tokyo ? 

Mr. Bridges. I am not sure. I could have and I couldn't have. 
Discussions in this case could be around the fact that there was a con- 
ference going to be held, conferences already scheduled way, way a 
long time before we went to Europe. And it is confined to unions 
on the Pacific base. In other words, it is not the idea of inviting 
unions on the Atlantic side to the Tokyo conference. 

Mr. Arens. Did you have a conference while you were in Italy 
with Luigi Longo, L-u-i-g-i L-o-n-g-o ? 

Mr. Brtoges. I think so. I think he was one of the officers we met. 

Mr. Arens. He is one of the leaders of the Italian Communist 
Party; is he not? 

Mr. Bridges. I don't know. 

Mr. Arens. Was he former political commissar of the International 

Brigades in Spain ? • -r i i /• 

Mr. Bridges. I don't know. I am not even saying I had a confer- 
ence with him. I said the name seems familiar. I might have and 
I might not. We met many, many people. I don't want to say I 
didn't. I might have met him. 

Mr. ArensT While in Italy did you give any press interviews to 
the general press stationed in Italy ? 

Mr. Bridges. We never gave a press interview all the time we wei'e 
overseas; none. 

Mr. Arens. Did you give an intendew while you were in Italy to 
the press, to a paper Lavoro ? 

Mr. Bridges. What doas it mean ? 

Mr. Arens. L-a-v-o-r-o. 

Mr. Bridges. What does it mean ? 

Mr. Arens. Lavoro. 

Mr. ScHERER. It is the name of a weekly newspaper. 

Mr. Bridges. Here is the reason I am asking the question. 

Mr. Arens. Did you give an interview to the editor involved? 

Mr. Bridges. You used the word "interview." There was a couple 
of gentlemen there. I think they were public-relations men or press 
men connected with the Transport Workers Union. In that sense 
we had, I guess you could call it an interview. I am drawing the 
distinction now. We didn't talk to the public press anywhere; no 
press statements at all ; no public statements. 

Mr. Arens. But you did give an interview or did you have press 
conferences with representatives of Lavoro ? That paper is the organ 
of the CGIL, is it not? 

Mr. Bridges. That is different now. In Eome we had a conference 
or we gave an interview to the representatives of the trade union 
paper there. If that is Lavoro, I guess that is the paper. 



684 PASSPORT SECURITY 

Mr. Arens. Did you in your interview with the editors of Lavoro 
tell them that your union, ILWU was expelled from the CIO on an 
accusation that it was Communist controlled but tliat the accusation 
was without foundation ? 

May I read you a translation of one excerpt from this interview 
which you gave to the editors of Lavoro, the paper of the CGIL in 
Eome with reference to the ousting of ILWU from the CIO ? 

Mr. Bridges. Read it. Let's see how it sounds. 

Mr. Arens. AVith respect to ILWU ex])ulsion from CIO were you 
quoted correctly by this Communist organ ? 

Mr. Bridges. Wliat was that again? 

Mr. Arens, Were you quoted correctly ? I am going to read it to 
you. 

It is not a matter of motives but of pretexts. We of the East Coast were 
ousted because of "Communism." It is an accusation wliicli has no foundation, 
unless the fight for the peace and international unity of the workers is a "Com- 
munist" fight. 

Did you make those statements to the editors of Lavoro for publi- 
cation in Rome ? 

Mr. Bridges. I can't specifically recall the words but it sure sounds 
like me. 

(Document marked "Bridges Exhibit No. 3," and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Now, Mr. Bridges, I have in my hand the official reports 
of the CIO, 1950, on the expulsion of Communist-dominated organ- 
izations. 

Mr. Bridges. You mean the frameup because we wouldn't line up 
support for Truman, don't you ? 

Mr. Arens. I should like to invite your attention, first of all to this 
finding of the CIO. 

Mr. Bridges. CIO what? 

Mr. Arens. Official CIO. 

Mr. Bridges. Thanks. 

Mr. Arens. Beginning on page 106 of the findings of the executive 
board of the CIO, established to look into Communist-dominated 
organizations, we find the following with reference to ILWU : 

At no time during that 12-year period has there been one single instance of 
ILWU's deviating in any appreciable degree from the line of the Communist 
Party. 

At the time you told the editors of Lavoro that the accusation of 
Communist domination of ILWU by the Communist Party was with- 
out foundation were you aware of this finding by the CIO ? 

Mr. Bridges. Can I see it? 

Mr, Arens. Yes, sir. 

f Document handed. ) 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Bridges. I see the statement, at least those two or three lines. 
Just one statement in many pages. 

Mr. Arens. At the time that you made the statement in Rome to 
the editors of Lavoro for publication, were you aware of the findings 



PASSPORT SECURITY 685 

of the CIO after their investigation appearing on page 111 of this 
report as follows : 

The documentary evidence of subservience of ILWU, through its top leader- 
ship, to the Communist Party was corroborated by the oral testimony of 
Mr. Quill and Mr. Stone, both of whom gave testimony showing direct Com- 
munist control of ILWU. Both testified that Harry Bridges had, over a 
period of years, participated in numerous secret meetings between Communist 
Party functionaries and ofl[icers of Communist-controlled unions in the CIO, 
at which the party functionaries instructed the union oflScers as to the party 
line and as to the positions that they were to take in the CIO and in their unions, 

(Document marked "Bridges Exhibit No. 4," and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Bridges. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Were you aware of that ? 

Mr. Bruges. That was very funny, Stone and Quill testifying they 
had been in such secret Communist meetings and they weren't Com- 
munists, the meetings that I was supposed to be at. I was there — 
and I wasn't there, and they testified 

Mr. Arens. Did you participate in meetings with Eugene Dennis 
while you were head of the ILWU ? 

Mr. Bridges. As far as I can recall, no. 

Mr. Arens. Did you participate in meetings with William Z. 
Foster? 

Mr. Bridges. Just a minute. Excuse me. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Bridges. A little entrapment, I am afraid. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Bridges. What was the question? With Mr. Foster? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir, 

Mr. Bridges. What was it ? What was the question ? 

Mr. Arens. Did you participate in meetings with William Z. Foster 
while you were head of ILWU ? 

Mr. Bridges. I have had meetings with Mr. Foster. 

Mr. Arens. Where? 

Mr. Bridges. In New York somewhere. I forget, 

Mr. Arens. Were you ever in meetings with William Z. Foster 
at the Communist Party headquarters? 

Mr. Bridges. No. 

Mr. Arens. Have you met with Roy Hudson ? 

Mr. Bridges. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Who is Roy Hudson ? 

Mr. Bridges. I forget. 

Mr. Arens. Is he a top functionary of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Bridges. I have known Hudson since he was a seaman. I have 
known him back on the west coast years ago. 

Mr. Scherer. Wait a minute. He didn't answer the question. 

Mr. Bridges. "Wliat? 

Mr. Scherer. Wiether he knew Hudson was a high functionary 
of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Bridges. Yes. The answer is "Yes." 

Mr. Arens. Jack Stachel ? 



S9742 — 59— pt. 1- 



686 PASSPORT SECURITY 

Mr. Bridges. Stachel. I know Stachel. I can't exactly recall the 
circumstances. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know him as being a high functionary of the 
Communist Party ? 

Mr. Bridges. Yes. May I — look, let me tell you something. 

Mr. Arens. Just a moment, please. 

Mr. Bridges. Just a moment. 

Mr. Arens. Did you conceal these meetings from the membership 
ofthelLWU? 

Mr. Bridges. Any time I met with anyone I never concealed it 
from my membership, if I met Stachel or Foster or Hudson, my point, 
I was just going to make. All these questions have been asked of 
me and answered dozens of times under oath before court proceed- 
ings. I have answered them dozens and dozens of times going back 
25 years. 

The Chairman. Mr. Bridges, you probably do not realize that this 
committee may feel unanimously that there ought to be legislation 
in the field of passports, but without a record to support our con- 
clusions it would be difficult to convince the majority of the Members 
of the House. 

Mr. Bridges. AVliat has this got to do with me, Mr. Chairman? 

The Chairman. You are assisting us in making the kind of a rec- 
ord that will cause us to either recommend the enactment or not recom- 
mend enactment of legislation. 

Mr. Bridges. That is what I am afraid of. I am assisting you 
very much against my will covering a lot of ground that has been 
covered over a period of months and months in courts where I had 
a fighting chance. Here I haven't got a 

The Chaii?man. I don't know why you say tliat, "Here I haven't 
got a chance," We are not doing anything at all except developing 
facts for the purpose of legislating. That is all. 

Mr. Bridges. And that is just my point, Mr. Chairman. You 
want facts. Now, what are you doing here? 

The Chairman. All you have to do is answer the questions. 

Mr. Bridges. And I am answering the questions. 

The Chairman. Then the facts are adduced. 

Mr. Bridges. I am answering the questions by telling you the court 
records have all these questions answered many, many years ago that 
is better evidence or you get better answers than my answers here. 

The Chairman. The court records cannot be made a part of the 
record that we submit. 

Mr. Bridges. You have investigators. Instead of depending on 
my memory where you will come along at sometime and I might 
make a mistake just out of memory. 

The Chaieman. No, we are only asking you. 

]\Ir. Bridges. You claim that I was lying. 

The Chairman. Only asking you the best of your recollection, 
that is all. 

Mr. Bridges. I don't want to get into going in that business of best 
of my recollection. I didn't even want to take the fifth amendment. 
For the first time in over 25 years of these kind of proceedings I 
took the fiftli amendment today. I would have been better off if T 
Ivept my yap shut then. 



PASSPORT SECURITY 687 

Mr. Jackson. May I make an observation to put this thing in 
proper context ? 

I don't believe the cases having to do with the witness in which he 
refers to 20 years of litigation had as their objective recommendations 
to the House of Representatives on passport use and misuse which is 
the function of this committee. 

I think we can delineate the purpose in this fashion. 

(1) Is a given witness a member of the Communist Party? 

(2) If he is, did the witness obtain under recent decisions of the 
Supreme Court a passport for travel abroad ? 

(3) If he did obtain a passport in that manner what countries 
did he visit ? 

(4) Did the itineraiy followed by the witness deviate in any re- 
spect from the itinerary as furnished on the passport application ? 

(5) If it did so vary, in what instances did it so vary and for what 
purposes if it is possible to obtain that information from the witness? 

(6) With what Communist organizations, groups, and individuals 
did the witness confer during his travel abroad ? And 

(7) Were the statements of the witness as reported from abroad 
detrimental to tlie national interest of the United States or intended 
to weaken the international position of the United States and its allies? 

Now, it would seem to me that succinctly that is the purpose of the 
hepa'ing. It has no other purpose. I think that in the chairman's 
opening statement that was made perfectly clear. 

All the committee is attempting to determine in this instance is, 
whether or not the witness is or was at the time of making application 
for his passport, a member of the Communist Party, and 1 should like 
to direct that because that is fundamental to this inquiry if we are to 
determine whether or not there has been misuse of the passport. I 
should like to direct a question to the witness at this time veiy 
specifically. 

Mr. BRmoES. May I ask a question first ? 

Mr. Jackson. Just a moment, Mr. Witness. 

Mr. Bridges. I am not objecting if you ask me questions on my 
trip. I am merely saying did you ask me "Did you see Jack Stachel ?" 
Let me think about 25 years ago or 20 years ago and that depends 
on my memory. And I am telling you you have got court reports 
where I answered the question 20 years ago under oath and that is 
a better answer than I can think of now. 

Mr. Jackson. I am not going to ask you a question that isn't simple 
for you to answer. It doesn't require any great amount of recollec- 
tion on your part. 

Have you ever been, Mr. Bridges, a member of the Communist 
Party ? 

Mr. Bridges. Do you understand — Is it Mr. Jackson ? 

Mr. Jackson. Jackson. 

Mr. Bridges. Do you understand that I have been through the 
courts over 20 years ? 

Mr. Jackson. Yes ; I understand that. 

Mr. Bridges. You understand I have had five decisions in my favor 
on that question, don't you? You undei-stand that I just for the 
first time have taken, refused to answer that question under the priv- 
ilege of the fifth amendment, not because I am guilty, but because 1 



688 PASSPORT SECURITY 

am in a better position probably than anybody else to answer that 
question and say no. I am in a better position because I have got 
court decisions saying that I am not. But so many people get dragged 
in here and smeared and slandered and the courts have said that about 
this committee, who are not in the same position to fight as I am, 
innocent people that have been destroyed. I am not going to help this 
committee in that sense. 

This committee has done such a job saying that tlie people ipso 
facto that take the hfth amendment are guilty people. And it is not 
true. I can answer that. I have answered that question dozens of 
times under oath before a court of law. Here I take the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. Jackson. In other words, you decline to answer that question, 
the question I have just posed? 

Mr. Bridges. Under the fifth amendment and for the reasons I 
stated; yes. 

Mr. Jackson. As of the time 

Mr. Bridges. I am not going to start another 20 years of litigation. 

Mr. Jackson. Let it be clearly on the record that this is a legislative 
purpose and, fii*st of all, we should like to determine with your help, 
and you say you can say no, you have never been a member of the 
Communist Party. If that is the case, then it would be quite unlikely 
that we would have any great reason to inquire further. However, 
failing to do that, it still, it seems to me, is the duty of the committee 
to pursue it in light of your declination to answer that question. This 
has a legislative purpose, not a court purpose. It does not go to 
the point of the charges wliich are leveled against you which were 
decided in the lower courts and subsequently reversed in the Supreme 
Court. 

Mr. Bridges. You explain to me the difference. 

Mr. Jackson. Yes, indeed. 

Mr. Bridges. Wliat is it? 

Mr. Jackson. We are trying to determine whether or not there has 
been misuse of passports issued by the Department of State to mem- 
bers of the Communist Party, This is what we are attempting to 
determine. The sole purpose of this series of hearings is to make 
that determination and to make such recommendations as may flow 
from the testimony to the House of Representatives. 

Mr. Bridges. I thought, Mr. Jackson, that in the correspondence 
we had with the committee, by my appearance here, you wanted to 
ask me questions about the people I saw, the trip, what we discussed, 
so that you could make a determination as to whetlier my trip over- 
seas was detrimental to the United States. I thought that was the 
purpose. 

Mr. Jackson. I don't know about your exchange of correspond- 
ence. I haven't read it. 

Mr. Bridges. With this committee I am talking about, with this 
committee. 

Mr. Jackson. My purpose as an individual member of this com- 
mittee is to determine whether or not members of tlie Communist 
Party have gone abroad and have damaged the United States. 

Mr. Bridges. There can be two separate things. When I get a 
passport it is my understanding it didn't mean — I was entitled to a 
passport even if I was a Communist. 



PASSPORT SECURITY 689 

Mr. Jackson. That is what the committee is now investigating and 
a matter upon which the Congress will probably take action during 
this session. 

Mr. BRrooES. What are you talking to me for? 

Mr. Jackson, Obviously we are not making much headway in 
talking to you, but 

Mr. ScHERER. May I just ask one or two questions? 

The application, Mr. Bridges, for your passport was made on July 
16, 1958? 

Mr. Bridges. I think so ; yes. 

Mr. ScHERER. You were not involved in the types of litigation you 
have been talking about at that time, were you, all the litigation took 
place prior to July 16, 1958. 

Mr. BRmoEs. In the main, but I was still involved in litigation. 

Mr. ScHERER. That was for the claim of taxes, income taxes 

Mr. BRnxjEs. Yes. 

Mr. ScHERER. That you told us about. 

Mr. Bridges. Right ; but it is all the same thing. 

Mr. ScHERER. Eight. The Supreme Court decision in the case 
of 

Mr. Bridges. Bridges v. Robertson and SchTnidt 

Mr. Scherer. Case of Kent and BHehl v. The Secretary of State 
was decided on June 16, 1958, just a month before you made this 
application for a passport on which you refused to answer questions 
as to whether you were now or ever had been a member of the Com- 
munist Party. 

Mr. Bridges. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. As of the time that you gave this interview — — 

Mr. Bridges. What is the point? May I ask. Wliat is the point, 
Mr. Scherer ? In other words, you wanted to know why I didn't ap- 
ply for a 

The Chairman. Go ahead, Mr. Arens. 

Mr. Bridges. Am I entitled to some understanding as to why I was 
asked the question so I can answer it ? 

The Chairman. I don't think you are concerned with what Mr. 
Scherer has in mind. He is merely straightening the record. 

Mr. Bridges. But the record is not straightened out, Mr. Chair- 
man. Will you give me a chance to straighten out the record. 

The Chairman. Go ahead. 

Mr. Arens. As of the time you gave an interview to editors of 
Lavoro for publication which you denied 

Mr. Bridges. What is that again? Wliat did I deny? 

Mr. Arens. The interview in Lavoro which you denied 

Mr. Bridges. I didn't. 

Mr. Arens. The charges of CIO respecting Communist domination. 

Mr. Bridges. Oh. 

Mr. Arens. Of ILWU. 

Mr. Bridges. I will deny them here. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know of any current officers of ILWU who to 
your certain knowledge were members of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Bridges. How was that again ? Give me that one again. 

Mr. Arens. As of the time of your interview with Lavoro 

Mr. Bridges. That was a dilly. 



690 PASSPORT SECURITY 

Mr. Arens. Lavoio — did you know of officers of ILWU who were 
Communists ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Bridges. Did you say were, or am, or is? 

Mr. Arens. Were. 

Mr. Bridges. Were. That could be any time in their lives, in the 
past, either. 

Mr. Arens. We will start with that; yes, sir. 

Mr. Bridges. At any time. 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Bridges. Yes. The answer is "Yes." 

Mr. Arens. And who were they, please ? 

Mr. Bridges. I forget. 

Mr. Arens. Did you know at the time you gave this interview to 
Lavoro that Irving Charles Velson of ILWU was a Communist? 

Mr. Bridges. Did you say — didn't you say officer of the ILWU? 

Mr. Arens. Official; yes, sir. Is Charles Velson employed or en- 
gaged in any capacity with ILWU? 

Mr. Bridges. No. 

Mr. Arens. Has he been ? 

Mr. Bridges. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Over what period of time ? 

Mr. Bridges. Four or five years. 

Mr. Arens. When ? 

Mr. Bridges, Up until a few months ago. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know whether or not he is a Communist or has 
been a Communist in the recent past ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Bridges. I take it — I am not going to answer that. 

Mr. Arens. Wliy? 

Mr. Bridges. I can say — under the — the way this committee operates 
and the way have seen in the courts — I can say yes, I know he is a 
Communist, and I can be in trouble, and I can say he is not and I can 
be in trouble. So I am going to be safe, 

Mr. Arens. Do you know whether or not J. R. Robertson of ILWU 
is or in the recent past has been a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Bridges. Here we go down the line for every 60,000, 70,000 
members of the ILWU. Same answer. 

Mr. Jackson. On what grounds ? 

Mr. Bridges. Same grounds. 

Mr. Scherer. I don't know what grounds. 

Mr. Bridges. The grounds of the fifth amendment. That is right. 
Let's run up the record four or five hundred times. The 60,000 mem- 
bers in the ILWU and you will get the same answer wit h al l of them. 

Mr. Arens. Wliat position does Robertson hold in ILWU. 

Mr. Bridges, He is the first vice president. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know whether or not Louis Goldblatt 

Mr. Bridges. Same answer. 

Mr. Arens. Of ILWU is or in the recent past has been a member of 
the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Bridges. Same answer with the same explanations. 

Mr. Arens. Would you hire individuals or representatives of 
ILWU whom you knew to be Communists? 



PASSPORT SECURITY 691 

Mr. Bridges. Would I ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Bridges. Did you say would I, or did I ? 

Mr. Arens. Would you ? 

Mr. Bridges. I would go by the person's ability to do the job for 
which he was hired. 

Mr. ScHERER. Irrespective of the fact of his current membership in 
the party ? 

Mr. Bridges. The union that I represent has in the constitution that 
forbids discrimination for reasons of race, creed, religion, or political 
belief. I am its president sworn to uphold the constitution and I do 
my best to see that it is carried on. I intend to keep on doing it. 

Mr. Arens. What office does Louis Goldblatt hold, please, sir ? 

Mr. Bridges. He is our international secretary-treasurer and holds 
it very well. 

Mr. Arens. Henry Schmidt, what office or position has he held in 
thelLWU? 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Chairman, I think sometliing more than the 
names in question should go into the record, rather than the mere 
recitation of the names. I would suggest that counsel indicate and 
not leave the matter in abeyance as to whether or not these people 
are known to be members of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Arens. I expect to do so just as I finish one more name, Mr. 
Chairman. I have the list here before me. 

What position does Henry Schmidt hold with the ILWU ? 

Mr. Bridges. None. 

Mr. Arens. What position has he held ? 

Mr. Bridges. Pardon me. That is a mistake. I was wrong on 
that. He is an executive board member. We are just ending one 
period and going into a new period and so he is 

Mr. Arens. Do you know whether or not a Henry Schmidt is or 
in the recent past has been a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Bridges. Same answer, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. Arens. Jeff Kibre, what position has he held or does he hold 
with ILWU? 

Mr. Bridges. Mr. Kibre is our Washington representative. Legis- 
lative representative. 

Mr. Arens. Can you tell us while under oath, whether or not 
to your certain knowledge he is now, or in the recent past, has been 
a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Bridges. To my certain knowledge? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Bridges. Same answer for the same reasons. 

Mr. Arens. Now I will call your attention to sworn testimony by 
i-esponsible witnesses under oath before this committee. 

Mr. Bridges. Who would that be ? You name them. 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. Robert Gladnick, G-1-a-d-n-i-c-k. 

Mr. Bridges. Never heard of him. Who is that ? 

Mr. Arens. On May 6, 1953, he took an oath before this committee 
and identified to his certainty Irving Velson as a person known by 
him to be a member of the Communist Party. 

Would you tell us whether or not that would make any difference 
to you in your relationship with Velson in ILWU ? 



692 PASSPORT SECURITY 

Mr. Bridges. I have answered that question, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. JoHANSEN, Mr. Chainnan, at that point, I am not clear from 
the record as I heard it as to whether the witness answered cate- 
gorically that it would not make any difference or would make any 
difference. I think, Mr. Chairman, his answer was tluit he would 
judge on the abilities and so on of the individual. Does the record 
show a categorical answer that it would not make any difference? Is 
that your answer? 

Mr. Bridges. That is your words, Mr. Congressman. You are 
asking me how I would suggest it. 

Mr. Jackson. I would suggest — 

Mr. Bridges. If I had authority to liire a person to do a certain 
job I would hire the person based on his ability and integrity and 
honesty and his guts to do the job. I put the question of his po- 
litical affiliations second. 

The Chairman. The fact of the matter is you would prefer a Com- 
munist over a non-Conmiunist, would you not? 

Mr. Bridges. That is your statement, Mr. Chairman. It is not 
mine. 

The Chairman. I am merely asking you a question. 

Mr. Bridges. No need to put words in my mouth. 

The Chairman. I am asking you the question. Do you prefer a 
Communist over a non-Communist ? 

Mr. Bridges. Are you asking me a question now ? Are you asking 
me a question ? 

The Chairman. Are you not listening to me ? 

Mr. Bridges. I might be mistaken. I don't want to be mistaken, 
Mr. Chainnan. 

The Chairman. Yes. That is a question. I am asking a question. 

Mr. Bridges. I thought you said "Now, the fact of the matter is 
you would prefer." Now, that is one way. Now, if you are asking 
me a question "Would you prefer" that is a different thing entirely. 
Is that the question, Mr. Chairman? 

The Chairman. Yes, that is the question. 

Mr. Bridges. Would I prefer? The answer is "No." 

The Chairman. All right. 

Mr. Johansen. Mr. Chairman, I have no desire to put any words 
in the witness' mouth. But my question is: Would your certain 
knowledge that an individual was a member of the Commmiist Party 
prevent you from hiring him or from his appointment ? 

Mr. Bridges. It might or it might not. Let me explain my answer 
to you, Mr. Johansen. With all the furor and hysteria, and one 
thing and another that has grown up at least in recent years the ques- 
tion of hiring an official, a Communist to do a job for our union, might 
or would have to be considered even though I might think he was 
the best man for the job. But the general idea that has been placed 
in the public mind of all the terrible things that communism is or is 
supposed to represent. Communists supposed to do 

The Chairman. You are talking about Tibet now, aren't you ? 

Mr. Bridges. What is that? 

The Chairman. You are talking about Tibet, now, are you not ? 

Mr. Bridges. Tibet. Where does Tibet get into this, Mr. Chair- 
man ? I am talking about America. 



PASSPORT SECURITY 693 

The Chairman. Oh, I see. 

Mr. Bridges. If you want to talk about Tibet, I will do my best. 

The Chairman. Go ahead. 

Mr. Bridges. If this committee will let me go to Tibet, I might 
go there, too, if I get a chance. 

The Chairman. This committee has nothing to do for the moment 
with where you go. 

Mr. Bridges. It seems to me the committee is working hard to see 
that I don't go any other place again. 

The Chairman. The committee has nothing to do with that. That 
is entirely up to the State Department. 

Mr. Bridges. To try to answer your question, Mr. Johansen, my 
point is that although I might believe the man is the best man for 
the job, if at the same time he is an official Communist, that might 
hamper his work or the kind of work we would want him to do so 
much that he would be discarded for that reason. It is sometliing 
that we would give consideration to as practical people. 

On the other hand, I might say the same thing about a Republican. 
I would have lots of work were the very fact that the poor guy was 
an honest, decent Republican would render him — well, I could get 
someone better. 

JNIr. Arens. Were you cognizant of the fact that J. R. Robertson 
of ILWU has been identified by responsible witnesses under oath, 
a responsible witness under oath, too, as a member of the Commu- 
nist Party? 

Mr. Bridges. Oh, I sat for days in a courtroom and heard wit- 
nesses testify. I w^ouldn't call them responsible and the courts didn't 
find them that way. That is a fact. 

Mr. Arens. Are you cognizant of the fact that Louis Goldblatt, 
one of the officers of ILWU, has been identified by responsible wit- 
nesses under oath as a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Bridges. I have heard witnesses testify to that effect under 
oath and I would again not call them responsible and the court so 
found. 

Mr. Arens. Are you cognizant of the fact that Henry Schmidt 
has been 

Mr. Bridges. Same answer. 

Mr. Arens. Identified by responsible witnesses under oath as a 
member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Bridges. I heard my codefendant, Henry Schmidt, character- 
ized as such by witnesses under oath. I wouldn't call them responsi- 
ble. I would call them liars and perjurers. 

Mr. Scherer. Pardon me just a minute. 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Scherer. You just said you called the witness a liar and per- 
jurer? 

Mr. Bridges. ' Exactly. 

Mr. Scherer. When they identified Schmidt as a Communist were 
they in error? 

Mr. Bridges. I say the court, three of them 

Mr. Scherer. I am not asking about the courts. I am asking you. 
When they 

Mr. Bridges. Wliat'sthat? 

39742— 59— pt 1 6 



694 PASSPORT SECURITY 

Mr. ScHERER. When they identified Sclimidt as a member of the 
Communist apparatus, were they in error ? 

Mr. BRmcEs. As far as I was concerned they were not only in error, 
they were cockeyed liars. 

Mr. ScHEiiER. Did you know Schmidt as a member of the Com- 
munist Party ? 

Mr. Bridges. Did I know ? 

Mr. ScHERER. Did you know Schmidt as a member of the Com- 
munist Party ? 

Mr. Bridges. I already answered that question. The same answer. 

Mr. ScHERER. Wait a minute. Did you know Schmidt as a mem- 
ber of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Bridges. I already answered that question. 

Mr. Sciierer. Do I understand that answer to be that you refuse to 
answer that question ? 

Mr. Bridges. That is right, for the same reason under the constitu- 
tional privilege of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Arens. Are you cognizant of the fact that Jeff Kibre has been 
identified by several responsible witnesses under oath as a member of 
the Commmiist Party ? 

Mr. BRrocEs. No, I don't know that. I think I have heard it 
but 

Mr. Arens. Would it make any difference to you in your relation- 
ship with him in ILWU ? 

Mr. Bridges. What do you mean? What do you mean by that? 
Would I hire him ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Bridges. I already answered that question as best I could, 
whether it goes to Kibre or anyone else. 

Mr. Arens. Did you have conferences with leaders of labor groups 
with reference to the situation laborwise in Florence, Italy ? 

Mr. BRmGES. Did I have conferences in Florence ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Bridges. No. 

Mr. Arens. Did you have conferences with respect to the situation 
in Florence ? 

Mr. Bridges. Well, in the discussions Mr. Santi couldn't spend much 
time with us because he had to go to Florence. ^ I think the city was 
tied up or about to be tied up in a general strike. So in that sense 
we had a conference where I inquired or he told us about the situation 
in Florence and I discussed that situation for my own information 
with trade union officials there, yes. 

Mr. Arens. Did you have conferences with trade union officials in 
Belgium ? 

Mr. Bridges. Yes ; very fine people. 

Mr. Arens. Did you invite any of the people in Italy or in Belgium 
to participate in the Pacific-Asia Dock Conference ? 

Mr. Bridges. I don't recall that. I invited them to participate in 
our convention, our international convention. 

Mr. Arens. That is the one held on the coast recently ? 

Mr. Bridges. In Seattle, commencing April 6. A very success- 
ful convention. 

Mr. Arens. Didany of them come? 



PASSPORT SECURITY 695 

Mr. Bridges. We had communications from some of them saying 
that they couldn't afford it, we had an offer from others to come but 
they couldn't make proper passport arrangements. 

Mr. Arens. Now, what was the next country you visited after you 
left Italy? 

Mr. Bridges. Greece — Athens. 

Mr. Arens. Did you have any letters of introduction ? 

Mr. Bridges. One. 

Mr. Arens. To whom ? 

Mr. Bridges. Not to the the trade union people. 

Mr. Arens. Beg pardon ? 

Mr. Bridges. Not to the trade union people. 

Mr. Arens. To whom was that letter of introduction ? 

Mr. Bridges. The Surgeon General of the Royal Greek Navy. 

Mr. Arens. From whom was the letter? 

Mr. Bridges. Mr. George Christopher, the mayor of San Fran- 
cisco. 

Mr. Arens. Did you invite the labor leaders in Greece to the Pacific- 
Asia Dock Workers Conference ? 

Mr. Bridges. No. We got our contact with the labor movement in 
Greece through the U.S. Embassy in Athens, where we got very, 
very shabby treatment at the U.S. Embassy, the only Embassy that 
gave us nasty, shabby treatment. 

Mr. Arens. Did you have any discussions within the Embassy 
there ? 

Mr. Scherer. Beg pardon. Just a minute. You said the U.S. Em- 
bassy in Greece gave you shabby treatment. 

Mr. Bridges. That is right. 

Mr. Scherer. Who was it in particular? 

Mr. Bridges. To answer it I will tell you the story. We had no^ 
contact with the Greek labor movement and we had made no prior 
arrangements so our first call in Athens was to the American Em- 
bassy where we tried to see the labor attache. I was at the reception 
desk and the gentleman at the desk, who was very courteous called 
the office of the labor attache and said that he is not in. I inquired as 
to whether he would be back and there was further conversation. 
They didn't know that. We only had 2 or 3 days in Greece. So after 
a few minutes of this it was pretty apparent to me that I was being 
given the brush off or lied to, would be a way of putting it. So we 
went out. 

Mr. Scherer. They knew it was Harry Bridges, did they not, who 
wanted to see the labor attache ? 

Mr. Bridges. I was told by the gentleman at the reception desk 
with a U.S. Marine standing by and certainly they knew it was me. 
I turned over my card and told the labor attache who I was. 

So on the way out a young gentleman, who was an economist at- 
tached to the Embassy, who spoke English, came out and met me out- 
side. He was very nice and courteous and took me upstairs to his 
office and asked what we wanted to know. He phoned at that time, 
he phoned the Greek Federation of Labor and gave us the informa- 
tion and then we said that we tried to meet the labor attache. He 
said, "I will arrange that." He grabbed the phone, and asked for 
the name of the labor attache and starts to talk to him and then right 



696 PASSPORT SECURITY 

in front of ns he said over the phone "oh, oh, you are not in." That 
was the end of contact. 

Mr. ScHERER. You don't know who that was? 

Mr. BRroGEs. Who the gentleman was in the Embassy we were 
talking to ? 

Mr. ScHERER. That you were trying to contact, what his name was? 

Mr. Bridges. Yes; I have his name somewhere. I think it was 
either Mr. Bamberger was attached — I think Mr. Bamberger^ was 
Charge d'Affairs because we tried to see him too. I have the name 
of the labor attache somewhere. 

Mr. ScHERER. You received a little different treatment from Am- 
bassador Zellerbach in Italy ; did you not ? 

Mr. Bridges. Very courteous and decent treatment from Mr. Zeller- 
bach. 

Mr. ScHERER. Did you have lunch with him ? 

Mr. Bridges. That was true of every American Embassy we con- 
tacted elsewhere. We did not have lunch with Mr. Zellerbach. He 
was busy. 

Mr. Arens. What forces were contending in the Greek civil war? 
Do you recall ? 

Mr. Bridges. What is that ? 

Mr. Arens. What forces were opposing one another in the Greek 
civil war ? 

Mr. Bridges. I don't know. 

Mr. Arens. Wliat was the position of ILWU on the aid to the 
anti-Communist forces in Greece ? 

Mr. Bridges. Before I answer that, which forces in Greece in the 
Greece civil war represented the workers ? With that understanding, 
if they had such forces, we were supporting them. 

Mr. Arens. Was ILWU officially opposed to aid to Greece in the 
Greek civil war period ? 

Mr. Bridges. Would that be what you call the Truman Doctrine ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Bridges. Yes, sir ; we were. And, boy, when we went to Greece 
we sure found we were right. 

Mr. Arens. Wliat was the next country that you visited after 
Greece ? 

Mr. Bridges. Egypt^ — Cairo, and Alexandria. 

Mr. Arens. While in Cairo did you attend the Afro- Asian Youth 
Conference ? 

Mr. Bridges. I did. 

Mr. Arens. Did you meet any American delegates there ? 

Mr. Bridges. No. 

Mr. Arens. How did you happen to meet the American delegates ? 
Did you know their names prior to the time you went to Egypt? 

Mr. Bridges. What American delegates are you talking about? 

Mr. Arens. Did you meet any Ajtnerican delegates to the Afro- 
Asian Youth Conference? 

Mr. Bridges. Not that I recall. We met quite a few. I don't re- 
call any delegates as such. 

Mr. Arens. Were you directly invited to attend the Afro- Asian; 
Youth Conference in Egypt ? 



' James W. Riddleberger, Ambassador. 



PASSPORT SECURITY 697 

Mr. Bridges. By whom or when ? 

Mr. Arens. Were you at any time ? 

Mr. BRroGES. While in Cairo ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Bridges. Yes, sir. Wlien right there ; yes. 

Mr. Arens. Had you been invited prior to the time that you arrived 
in Cairo ? 

Mr. Bridges. Not that I recall. Might have. Look, you are read- 
ing from all the reports we made. I will submit a full set of those 
reports. They are better than my memory. 

Mr. Arens. Did you discuss with the labor leaders in Egypt the 
question of strikes ? 

Mr. Bridges. Sure. 

Mr. Arens. What did they tell you about strikes in Egypt ? 

Mr. Bridges. Said they couldn't afford them for the time being. 

Mr. Arens. Did they tell you that their strikes, in many ways 
parallel those of American unions during World War II, namely, the 
strikes were a luxury they couldn't afford? Is that the essence of 
what they told you ? 

Mr. Bridges. Is that the essence of what they told me ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Bridges. That is our conclusion. In other words — let me ex- 
plain that — the leaders of the Arab Federation of Labor, which is a 
new federation only 2 years of age, and we had many discussions with 
them, pointed out that a No. 1 problem was to build up industry in 
their country, consolidate their revolution, enforce the new laws, and 
they had many, many problems and although they had a legal and 
technical right to strike, that had been written into the constitution 
since the revolution, it was the official policy of the labor movement 
to refrain from striking and to prevent the local unions fi*om striking 
because they had more important things to do, namely. No. 1, build 
up their economy, and defend themselves against such invasions as 
took place by Britain, France, and Israel a couple of years ago. 

Mr. Arens. Is that the attitude you described in your article, the 
same attitude of the American unions during World War II, namely, 
the strikes are a luxury that we can't afford ? 

Mr. BRmoES. Under the circumstances. The article speaks for it- 
self, Mr. Counsel. Instead of me wracking my memory they were 
written at the time from on the scenes. I had a portable recorder with 
me, that I used to record. So the article is much better as to what I 
said and meant than my trying to remember now. We covered a 
dozen countries in 7 weeks, goin^ day and night. 

Mr. Arens. During the period of the Hitler- Stalin Pact, which 
lasted until June of 1941 

Mr. Bridges. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Did you support the policy of the Federal Government 
of the United States, at that time, with respect to "no strikes," a policy 
of organized labor overall of no strikes ? 

Mr. Bridges. We were affiliated with the CIO and I was an officer 
of the CIO and we supported the policy of the CIO. 

Mr. Arens. Did your union have any change of attitude toward 
the war in Europe after the breaching of the Hitler-Stalin Pact? 

Mr. Bridges. Not that I recall. 



698 PASSPORT SECURITY 

Mr. Arens, Did your union support or did you as an individual 
support policies of this Government with respect to the war in 
Korea ? 

Mr. Bridges. No. Just a minute. The union or did I, did you say ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. 

Mr. BRmoES. You mean both? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Bridges. The union supported the Government. I objected. 
And I got thrown into jail for it. I was jailed for it. And I still 
think I was more ri<^lit than the union was. 

Mr. Arens. Suppose the U.S. Government decided to send arms 
or troops from our west coast to Nationalist China in the event of 
an armed conflict with Red China. Would you think it would be all 
right for IL^VTJ to strike and sabotage the plans of this Government 
in that respect ? 

Mr. Bridges. I think that that is only something that could be 
determined by the membership of the union. 

Mr. Arens. Would you advocate a strike and sabotage of the plans 
of your Government in that event ? 

Mr. Bridges. There is no way I can answer that question. 

Mr. Arens. Did you answer that question when you were inter- 
viewed on that particular subject by Mike Wallace on August 18, 
1957? 

Mr. Bridges. Have you the answer there ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. "Well, it could be." 

Mr. Bridges. Go ahead and read it. 

Mr. Arens. That is the answer, "Well, it could be." 

Mr. Bridges. All right. That is the answer. I think I said what 
I am saying now. That would be a matter that the union would meet 
at that time. You see we think 

Mr. Arens. Here is the answer. "As an individual I would." 

Mr. Bridges. All right. That is still the answer. Haven't I got 
that right ? 

(Document marked "Bridges Exhibit No. 5," and retained in com- 
mittee files. ) 

Mr. Arens. In the event of war in Asia would you advocate a 
strike for the purpose of impeding the shipment of arms to our allies 
in Asia ? 

Mr. Bridc;es. Now, this is all mixed up here. We start off by talk- 
ing about a fight between Chiang Kai-shek, who I think is a bum, 
and the mainland of China. That is something between the Chinese, 
and you asked me my position on that. 

Mr. Arens. Would you advocate a strike in order to curtail the 
shipment of supplies in the event the U.S. Govennnent would ship 
arms to Formosa? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Bridges. Are we still talking about a war between Formosa 
and mainland China and you asked me what my position was? 

Mr. Arens. Yes. 

Mr. Bridges. I would object in every possible way I could. You 
are asking me. Then you asked me 

Mr. Arens. No, let's just stay with the question, Mr. Bridges. 
Would you, as president of ILWU, advocate a strike in order to im- 



PASSPORT SECURITY 699 

pede the shipments of supplies to Formosa if the U.S. Government 
were shipping supplies to Formosa and Formosa and Red China 
were at war? 

Mr. Bridcjes. I don't, know wliat this has got to do with passports. 
But I want to relate to you the position — 

Mr. Arexs. Would you kindly answer the question ? 

Mr. Bridges. I will answer it in my way, Mr. Counsel, if you want 
an answer and if you will give me a chance. 

The Chairman. Answer the question. 

Mr. Bridges. All right. We are still dealing with a possible at- 
tempt, as I understand it, of Chiang Kai-shek to invade the main- 
land of China,. I am trying to tell you that my attitude toward that, 
I would strenuously object and do what I could to oppose the United 
States engaging in such a suicide enterprise. 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly answer the question? Would you 
exercise your prerogatives as president of ILWU in the direction of 
using a strike of longshoremen so as to impede the shipments of these 
armaments which we have been discussing? 

Mr. Bridges. I have no such prerogative. You are all mixed up. 

Mr. Arens. Would you advocate a strike? 

Mr. Bridges. I would prefer to wait and see what woidd happen 
at that time. I don't laiow. At this stage of the game I don't know 
what I might do. 

If I felt doing that would keep the United States from going into 
such a vSuicidal enterprise and meaning the loss of life in the United 
States my position at the moment would be, I think I would. 

Mr. Scherer. You would? 

Mr. Bridges. I think a single life lost trying to help Chiang Kai- 
shek get back to the mainland, even one single American penny spent 
is ontrao:eous. 

Mr. Scherer. Even though the President of the United States 
adopted such a policy in the interest of the security of the United 
States? 

Mr. Bridges. The President could be wrong. A different thing. 
We are talking about these things. When you are talking about Con- 
gress declaring war, which Congress doesn't seem to do any more these 
days, somebody else does it for us. If Congress declared war on a 
particular country I don't think I would have much to say about it 
at all. I w^ould go along or else. That is the way it works. When 
the country is at war you lose certain rights. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Bridges, what was the next coimtry you visited 
after Egypt ? 

Mr. Bridges. Czechoslovakia. 

Mr. Arens. When you filed your passport application 

Mr. Bridges. Let me interpose to save you a little time 

Mr. Arens. Just a moment. 

Mr. Bridges. Mr. Arens. 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Bridges. You know we would like to go to Hungary, to dig 
out a few, at least, facts we hoped, but of course we were forbidden. 
We couldn't even travel through Hungary to go from Cairo to Israel. 
We weren't even allowed to fly through the airport, let alone visit 
the country. 



700 PASSPORT SECURITY 

Mr. Arens. Now, Mr. Bridges, when you filed your original pass- 
port application you did not list Czechoslovakia as one of the coun- 
tries which you intended to visit, is that correct? 

Mr. Bridges. No, it is not correct. 

(Document handed.) 

Mr. Bridges. I am sorry. It is. One mistake. 

Mr. Arens. When did you decide you wanted to ? 

Mr. Bridges. Get it right now. In order to explain that, you see. 
I am not saying that when we left we didn't have in mind we might 
have time to do it. But we was in Egypt. The Egyptian people, 
because quite a bit of discussion was over the matter of relations 
between Israel and Egypt, so we were trying to go from Cairo in the 
Middle East to Israel, which is also in the Middle East and the only 
way we could get there was to go up around Prague, Vienna, or some 
place. We couldn't go directly. So we decided we would change our 
itinerary and we went to Prague and Moscow and then Copenhagen, 
then back through Germany, back to Israel, all that way, all the way 
around back to New York. 

Mr. Arens. Did you contemplate going to Czechoslovakia when you 
left the shores of the United States ? 

Mr. Bridges. I don't know. I forget. 

Mr. Scherer. I didn't hear the the answer. 

Mr. Bridges. I forget, Mr. Scherer. If you ask did we have any 
specific plans, I can't recall at this time. 

Mr. Jackson. You were very much surprised to find out Czechoslo- 
vakia was not listed on your passport application. You were quite 
certain it was. 

Mr. Bridges. The reasons for that was we planned a trip a couple 
years before. We originally planned a 4 months trip, and I tried to 
decide against going but I was ruled out by the rest of my officers 
because there was too tough a trip to try to cover in 6 weeks and 
originally I know I think we had in mind going to not only Czechoslo- 
vakia, but some other places like Yugoslavia and so forth. 

Mr. Arens. Did the fact that Prague is the headquarters of the 
World Federation of Trade Unions enter into your determination to 
go there? 

Mr. Bridges. I don't think so. We know that Prague was head- 
quarters of the WFTU and we knew that before we talked to the 
people in Prague. 

Mr. Arens. Now, while you were in Prague, did you visit the head- 
quarters of WFTU ? 

Mr. Bridges. We visited two or three very huge buildings. Now, 
I think that the trade unions there have these huge establishments 
and at least in one of them was the headquarters of the WFTU. It 
was completely devoted to WFTU. I am not sure. I think our 
records would reveal that. 

Mr. Arens. While in Prague did you give any press interviews? 

Mr. Bridges. No. 

Mr. Arens. I have here an article (Feb. 8, 1959) from "Prace", a 
daily newspaper of Prague which we have had translated, quoting 
Harry Bridges, and I should like to read you certain excerpts from 
that press interview. 

Mr. Bridges. Let's get it straight first. When you say a press inter- 
view it brings to my mind talking to the public press. 



PASSPORT SECURITY 701 

Mr. Arens. You didn't talk to the public press, is that correct? 

Mr. Bridges. Well, yes, once in Athens, where I said — the AP man 
cornered me so I interviewed him or he interviewed me, when we 
landed in Athens, how long we would be there, and when we left 
there, 

Mr. Arens. Did you give an interview then to Pr6ce, P-r-a-c-e? 

Mr. Bridges. Was that the trade union paper ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Bridges. Oh, yes, we talked to those people. 

Mr. Arens. Did you say as follows : 

Since American worljers are constantly under the influence of press and 
radio, which are hostile toward you, we will have to explain many ideas of 
our union members so that they may have a correct picture of life in Czecho- 
slovakia. For example, our visit at the TOV plant at Celakovice convinced us 
of the absurdity of the propaganda concerning working conditions in your 
factories, social care of workers, life of your youth, and the work and position 
of your union organization. After our visit to England, France, Belgium, 
Greece and Egypt, we got the impression that you are on the best way toward 
the achievement of even better results than you hitherto achieved. 

Is that what you told them in this press interview ? 

Mr. Bridges. Generally speaking, I think. That is only a part of it. 

(Document marked "Bridges Exhibit No. 6," and retained in com- 
mittees files. ) 

Mr. Arens. Is that the essence ? I haven't omitted anything cru- 
cial, have I ? 

Mr. Bridges. I think I am referring there to a visit, to certain 
visits we made in one plant in particular where we talked to the work- 
ers in that plant, surveyed the plant and compared conditions of such 
matters of unemployment, because Czechoslovakia, and I understand 
you go to a country like that where you can't speak the language, we 
were less than 4 days, mainly depending on what people told you, in 
this case trade unions. As far as we understand, it was the first 
country we had ever even been in where there was no unemployment. 
We were very much interested in how come they had no unemploy- 
ment and had abolished unemployment. 

Mr. Arens. Did it occur to you the abolition of unemployment bore 
any connection with forced labor in Czechoslovakia ? 

Mr. Bridges. That is what we were loking for, forced labor and 
couldn't find any. 

I went to the American Embassy and asked where we could find 
forced labor. They couldn't. We checked with the Embassy. 

(Mr. Jackson left the room.) 

Mr. Arens. Are the trade unions in Czechoslovakia free or under 
the influence of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Bridges. Oh, I say they were under the influence of the Com- 
munist Party. 

Mr. Scherer. The same as some of them in America? 

Mr. Bridges. I think there is a statement to that effect. I think 
we had a constitution of the trade unions, and I think there is a state- 
ment to that effect there within their constitution. They don't use 
the term "influence." But they say in collaboration or cooperation 
or something like that. 

Mr. Scherer. That happens in the United States with certain trade 
unions, does it not ? 



702 PASSPORT SECURITY 

Mr. Bridges. What is that? 

Mr. SciiERER. Collaboration with the Communist apparatus. It is 
not unique in Czechoslovakia, is it ? 

Mr. Bridges. Oh, I think it is much different. 

Mr. SciiERER. Much different? 

Mr. Bridges. IVIuch different, the way I am thinking of it. 

Mr. SciiERER. Some unions here in the United States are Com- 
munist-dominated, are they not? 

Mr. Bridges. No. The way I am referring to there, Mr. Scherer, 
in Czechoslovakia we w^as out at the plant and we sat down with 
the plant management and the trade union leadership in that plant 
and we spent many, many hours, and I asked them what the collective 
bargaining processes were ; and then they spelled out that in the bar- 
gaining to cover that plant because of social activities, recreation, 
housing, and other things, the bargaining goes on, where there is not 
only the plant management, there is youth re}n-eseiitatives, there is 
trade union representatives and there is Communist Party representa- 
tives, that is, the Communist Party group in tlie plant. They kind of 
sit in in collective bargaining in certain aspects of collective bargain- 
ing, and that is what I was trying to find out, just what part they 
played. 

Mr. Arens. Did you make an ascertainment of how the people are 
faring under the Communist regime as compared prior to the time 
the Communists took over the country ? 

Mr. Bridges. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Wliat was your conclusion on that ? 

Mr. Bridges. Never mind my conclusions. Let's go by what the 
workers told me. 

Mr, Arens. All right, sir. 

Mr. Bridges. Now, where I could, like in this plant we visited, for 
example, I talked — when we went into the plant, it was a big plant 
making machine tools, there was a balcony all around, so I spent the 
first 15 or 20 minutes walking around to see what they were working 
on, men and women working, just sizing up the pace at which they 
were working. They weren't working hard. 

Then I noticed drifting down the alleyw^ays, the aisles between the 
various machines, first of all I saw one woman walking down, a man 
with a couple pint pots of beer in his hands, and then over on the 
other side I saw a man walking down with a couple pint pots of beer 
and a couple of hot dogs in his hands. 

The general pace of the whole plant was pretty leisurely, I would 
say, with quite a few of the workers sitting at the machines and most 
everyone of them reading a book, 

Mr. Scherer. Workers' paradise ? 

Mr. Bridges. What is that ? 

Mr. Scherer. Workers' paradise. 

Mr, Bridges. Workers' what ? 

Mr, Scherer. Paradise. 

Mr. Bridges, I wouldn't say that, Mr, Scherer, That is your term, 
I don't think it is any use going to a country and just going in with 
a closed mind or prejudiced mind. What I was trying to do was to 
find out the good things and bad things. That is what I was trying 
to find out. 



PASSPORT SECURITY 703 

Mr. Arens. That was one of the bad things you found out, Mr. 
Bridges? 

Mr. Bridges. You asked me to explain and I am trymg to explain. 
I don't have to talk the language to try to go to a country and see if 
workers work hard. And I am a worker, used to be a working stiff 
myself, and I can tell those things._ 

I went to talk to workers on the job. 

And I said, "All right. Look. This was since the revolution. How 
was it before the revolution." And I asked them and quite a few of 
them talked English, and I am going primarily by what they told me, 
added to what I saw. 

This is the conclusions and that is what I based my conclusions on. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Bridges, we have here for display for your atten- 
tion a chart developed by competent authority, the AFL-CIO based 
on extensive research 

Mr. Bridges. That is enough for me. I don't want to see the chart. 

Mr. Arens. On the workers' purchasing power in Czechoslovakia 
before the Communists took over and after the Communists took over. 
You have told about your experience in seeing the workers drink beer 
and relax in the plant. 

Mr. Bridges. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. I invite your attention to this chart, for the period be- 
tween 1938, before the Communists took over, and 1957, after they 
took over, which shows a tremendous disparity in the actual amount 
of working time required for purchasing power. 

Mr. Bridges. Who says so ? 

Mr. Arens. That the worker must engage in in order to earn food, 
clothing, and the necessities of life. 

Mr. Bridges. I would sooner go by what I found out myself. 

(Document marked "Bridges Exhibit No. 7," and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Did you have supplied to you in the course of your 
study of conditions in Czechoslovakia, which you reported to the 
Commonwealth Club in San Francisco, and which you have reported 
in your press interview, the statistics from the Communist govern- 
ment as to the cost in actual hours' work committed by the workers in 
Czechoslovakia prior to the time the Commimists took over and after 
they took over ? 

Mr. Bridges. I can only tell you what the workers told me along 
the same line. 

Mr. Arens. Did you discuss with the workers there the monetary 
reform in Czechoslovakia of Jmie 1, 1953, which wiped out all of the 
savings of the workers in Czechoslovakia ? 

Mr. Bridges. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. And did they tell you likewise of their right to strike in 
the labor organizations or did they tell you that they didn't have a 
right to strike ? 

Mr. Bridges. Let's back up a little. You said the monetary reforms 
which wiped out the workers' savings, did I discuss them ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Bridges. I discussed that particular thing at that time, and I 
found out that no worker's savings were wiped out. 

Mr. Arens. Who told you that ? 



704 PASSPORT SECURITY 

Mr. BraDGES. The workers and tlie trade unionists. 

Mr. Arens. In whose presence did they tell you that ? 

Mr. BRmoES. In whose presence ? What do you mean ? 

Mr. Arens. What worker told you that ? 

Mr. Bridges. Various workers I talked to where I could talk to 
them. 

Mr. Arens. Do you speak the Czechoslovakian language ? 

Mr. Bridges. No. 

Mr. Arens. Did you have an interpreter ? 

Mr. Bridges. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Who supplied the inter[)reter ? 

Mr. Bridges. The trade union. 

Mr. Arens. Who accompanied you when you went around and 
talked to these workers? 

Mr. Bridges. Trade unionists. 

Mr. Arens. And were these trade unionists Communists ? 

Mr. Bridges. In some cases. 

Mr. Arens. You have no doubt in your mind, did you but that 

Mr. Bridges. Just a minute. Back up again. Now, wait a while. 
So we were talking to workers through the interpreters, but they 
are also talking, quite a few Czechoslovakian workers that would talk 
English. Somehow or other, I guess they may be smarter than we. 
They teach in addition to their own language other language in 
school. It is compulsory. I have never been more sorry in all my 
life that all I could speak was English. 

Mr. Arens. Did you discuss with them the right to strike ? 

Mr. Bridges. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Did they tell you they had a right to strike ? 

Mr. Bridges. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Did they tell you about any strikes they had called 
off? 

Mr. Brtoges. Yes. 

They also told me much more than that when I got through 
questioning them on that. It was their opinion they could gain a 
darn sight more by not striking, and I kind of agreed with them the 
way I saw it, than by striking. They have a different setup and wages 
are set based on productivity, and there is a production plan in every 
plant and unless the production plan is acceptable to the trade unions 
there is no plan, therefore there is no work in the plant. 

Mr. Arens. Did you discuss with the workers the administration of 
the vacation program ? 

Mr. Bridges. Yes. All under the control of the trade unions guar- 
anteed by laws, as well as free and comprehensive medical care, et 
cetera, et cetera, including the rates. 

Mr. Arens. I am going to ask you about that in detail in just a 
minute. 

Mr. Bridges. You sure spend a lot of time. 

Mr. Arens. You say the vacation program is under control of the 
trade unions. Are the trade unions in turn mider control of the 
Communist Party? 

Mr. Bridges. According to what they said, nope. 

Mr. Arens. I call your attention, Mr. Bridges, to certain of the 
official documents and statements on this very issue. 



PASSPORT SECURITY 705 

Mr. Bridges. From the AFI^CIO, huh ? 

Mr. Arens. No. We have the constitution of the Soviet trade 
unions, 

Mr. Bridges. I have that ; yes. 

Mr. Arens. We have tlie constitutions of the various Communist 
organizations, indicating beyond peradventure of a doubt, the control 
of the trade unions by the Communist Party. Are you cognizant of 
the fact, Mr. Bridges, that in the administration of this vacation pro- 
gram which you have just lauded, that the recreation facilities of the 
vacation program are accorded on the basis of the fulfillment of quotas 
established by the trade unions ? 

Mr. Bridges. Leaving the last part out and taking one step at the 
time, I think it is generally true that the recreation facilities either 
are tied in directly with the production quotas, which are in turn 
set in conjunction with the unions. That is the way collective bar- 
gaining proceeds over there and by and large the way wages are set. 
That is true. 

Mr. Arens. Are you cognizant of the fact that the Premier of 
Czechoslovakia called for a reorganization of the health program, 
asserting that, "Insurance matters are administered without regard 
to the interests of socialist production, * * * the doctors also lack 
proper understanding of our productive needs * * *. "Very often," 
and he is critical here, "Very often, (they, the doctors) take the er- 
roneous philanthropic and liberal view that the main objective is to 
provide relief for the individual * * *." Did they tell you about that 
while you were in Czechoslovakia ? 

Mr. Bridges. That is nothing new. We have that trouble every 
day right here at home. The same reasons. So that is true. Wliat 
that refers to is that a lot of the production norms that we set in 1946 
they told us and with new machinery in the plants what was happening 
there was some severe inequities between plants. Some plants that 
had new machinery and more skilled or highly skilled workers over 
the years and therefore they were producing or meeting the plan with 
a great deal of leisure time and therefore this made them, or this al- 
lowed them to have more benefits. Because of these norms that had 
been set in 1946 they were struggling hard, both management and 
labor, to meet the same norms and being discriminated against as it 
were. That is what that refers to. 

Mr. Arens. Did the individual workers there tell you of their right 
to quit their job ? 

Mr. Bridges. Sure did. 

Mr. Arens. Any time they want to ? 

Mr. Bridges. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Go from job to job? 

Mr. Bridges. No, they can't do that. But they still have cases. 
They have a technical right. I guess it is something like the Negroes 
in the South here. They have a right to vote but it is kind of danger- 
ous to do it. 

Mr. ScHERER. Just a minute, Mr. Arens. 

Mr. Bridges, you are going to fall backward. You are just about 
a quarter of an inch from the end of the stand. 

Mr. Bridges. I will fall somewhere before I am through. 

Mr. Arens. In Czechoslovakia, did you talk to George Shaw 
Wheeler? 



706 PASSPORT SECURITY 

Mr. Bridges. George who ? 

Mr. Arens. George Shaw Wheeler. 

Mr. Bridges. Yes, I saw him. 

Mr. Arens. Who is George Shaw Wheeler ? 

Mr. Bridges. I knew Wheeler here in the city many years ago, him 
and his wife. 

Mr. Arens. In what capacity did you know him? 

Mr. Bridges. I was a member of the Cooperative Bookshop in the 
city of Washington many, many years ago and a very fine institution 
and he was active in that, both him and his wife. 

Mr. Arens. What was George Shaw Wheeler doing in Czecho- 
slovakia when you were there? 

Mr. Bridges. Teaching at the university. 

Mr. Arens. Was he a citizen of the United States at the time? 

Mr. Bridges. I don't know. 

Mr. Arens. He renounced his citizenship, did he not? 

Mr. Bridges. I don't know. 

Mr. Arens. Did you make a prior arrangement to confer with 
George Shaw Wheeler before you went into Czechoslovakia ? 

Mr. BRroGES. No. 

Mr. Arens. How did you happen to know that he was there? 

Mr. Bridges. He came down to the hotel to see us. He knew Gla- 
zier who is also someone he knew, somehow or other. I guess he 
heard we were there. He came down to the hotel. We had a few 
drinks together and talked and found it interesting and I wanted to 
check a few things with him. I arranged to see him later and I saw 
him later again for a short time. 

Mr. Arens. Did you in the course of your interview with these 
Embassy officials in Prague advise them that the trade union offi- 
cials had up to that point given you a run around ? 

Mr. Bridges. No. 

Mr. Arens. When did you leave Czechoslovakia ? 

Mr. Bridges. What do you mean, what date ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. Approximately when ? How long were you 
in Czechoslovakia ? That will be sufficient. 

Mr. Bridges. About 314 days. 

Mr. Arens. What was your next stop ? 

Mr. Bridges. Moscow. 

The Chairman. The committee will stand in recess until 2 o'clock. 

(Whereupon, at 12:20 p.m., the hearing recessed to reconvene at 
2 p.m. of the same day.) 

AFTERNOON SESSION, TUESDAY, APRIL 21, 1959 

(The hearing was resumed at 2 p.m.) 

(At the expiration of the recess the following members of the com- 
mittee were present: Representatives Walter (presiding), Doyle, 
Willis, Scherer, and Johansen.) 

The Chairman. The committee will be in order. 

Mr. Bridges, will you please resume the witness stand ? 



PASSPORT SECURITY 707 

TESTIMONY OF HARRY BRIDGES, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
GEORGE R. ANDERSEN— Resumed 

Mr. Bridges. Are we is session, Mr. Chairman ? 

The Chairman. Yes. 

Mr. Bridges. What is this gentleman doing here ? 

Do I have to submit to photographs? 

The Chairman. No. 

Mr. Bridges. I am sorry for the working members of the press but 
there is a principle involved. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Bridges, prior to your arrival in the Soviet Union, 
did the ILWU or did you as an individual maintain contacts with 
persons in the Soviet Union ? 

Mr. Bridges. Yes, I think so. You are talking about correspond- 
ence? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Bridges. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. With whom did you correspond ? 

Mr. Bridges. The trade union people. 

Mr. Arens. Who were they, do you recall ? 

Mr. Bridges. Offhand, no. 

Mr. Arens. With what trade unions were they connected in the 
Soviet Union ? 

Mr. Bridges. The transport union. 

Mr. Arens. Do you recall t]ie name of the transport union ? 

Mr. Bridges. One would be a gentleman named Yarosh, Y-a-r-o-s-h. 

Mr. Arens. May I, without being rude to you, ask if you are read- 
ing from a prepared itinerary that you have? 

Mr. Bridges. I am reading from a few notes of that, yes. It is a 
prepared itinerary. Do you want it ? 

Mr. Arens. I just wondered if that is in such condition that you 
would present it to the committee if that is your itinerary on the peo- 
ple with whom you conferred. 

Mr. Bridges. In part. It is rough. It would need me to interpret 
it. 

Mr. Arens. All right, sir. 

Mr. Bridges. Unless you take it along with me it is not much good. 

Mr. Arens. Wien you arrived at the Soviet Union, with what 
groups or persons did you confer? 

(At this point, Mr. Moulder entered the hearing room.) 

Mr. Bridges. Officers of the Soviet Sea and River Transport Work- 
ers Union and officers of the All Union Central Council of Soviet 
Trade Unions. 

Mr. Arens. Do you speak Russian ? 

Mr. Bridges. No. 

Mr. Arens. Did you have a Russian interpreter? 

Mr. Bridges. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Did you in the course of your conferences in Moscow 
confer with any Government officials other than officials of the trade 
unions ? 

Mr. Bridges. I do not know. 

Mr. Arens. I am not quibbling with you. You spoke of your con- 
ferences with officials of two trade unions. 



708 PASSPORT SECURITY 

Did you, in addition to that, confer with Soviet leaders in the Gov- 
ernment ? 

Mr. Bridges. I am just trying to figure because in practically every 
country we went to we found that the trade union leaders were the 
members of the government; in Britain, for example, members of the 
Labor Party and Mr. Santi and others. I don't know which one of 
these leaders were members of the Soviet, Supreme Soviet or not. 

Mr. Arens. Did you in the course of your conversations with these 
officials in Moscow discuss with them the findings that you had ar- 
rived at as a result of your experiences in England, France, Italy, and 
Czechoslovakia ? 

Mr. Brdxjes. Oh, yes. 

Mr. Arens. Did you confer with American personnel at our Em- 
bassy in Moscow? 

Mr. Bridges. We certainly did. We were treated very courteously 
and very well. I want to make it clear because of something I said 
here earlier today about the treatment we received at the Greek Em- 
bassy ; I would not want it to appear that the young man that made 
the arrangements for us with the Greek Federation of Labor went 
out of his way to do it. I don't want to cause anybody the loss of 
their jobs. 

Mr. Scherer. I did not have that in mind. I was going to compli- 
ment him on his conduct. 

Mr. Bridges. I am glad to hear it, Mr. Scherer. 

I am saying that we received very courteous and fine treatment 
with the personnel of every embassy we went to, including Moscow 
and Prague with this one exception. 

Mr. Arens. Did you discuss with our Embassy personnel the loca- 
tion of slave labor camps in Soviet Russia ? 

Mr. Bridges. I sure did. 

Mr. Arens. Were you advised by them respecting the maximum 
security prison labor camps and the existence of slave labor camps 
in certain areas ? 

Mr. Bridges. Do you want me to tell the stoiy ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Bridges. All right. 

We went up, I think the second day we were there we went up to 
the Soviet Embassy, met two gentlemen. They were economists at- 
tached — I said Soviet Embassy. I meant the American Embassy. 
One was a Mr. Winters, economic officer of the U.S. Embassy and I 
think the other was a man named Hunter.^ We explained that we 
wanted to fuid out all we could while we were in the Soviet Union, 
we were only due to be there 4 days, we had not intended to come. 
We did plan to go to the port of Leningrad, which was frozen over. 
That was more or less part of our itinerary going to and coming back 
from Sweden and Denmark. 

So we discussed general things like the new 7-year plan. 

These were two economists. We expressed a certain amount of 
skepticism as to whether such things could be done in the span of time, 
it required a huge jump in industrial overall production, and they 
likewise expressed their skepticism. 



* Richard C. Harmstone, Vice Consul, U.S. Embassy, Moscow. 



PASSPORT SECURITY 709" 

They had all the Soviet papers there. They had been analyzing 
it. Both of them spoke Russian. 

Then we finally got around to the issue of slave labor camps. I 
told them that we had made arrangements as far as we were able 
to with these trade union officers we were speaking to and the officers 
of the All Union Central Council of Soviet Trade Unions to be taken 
anywhere we wanted to go and to take anybody with us that we 
wanted to take and to see anything we wanted to see. 

I said to these two gentlemen in the Embassy, " I want to see some 
slave camps. Where are they ? What is their address ? You people 
live here." 

I noticed that on the table they had some documents of the ICFTU 
dealing with slave labor, the ones that say that Russia is full of slave- 
labor camps. 

Well, the gentleman said, "Well, listen. Since the change from the- 
Stalin era and certain other changes, why, there have been quite a 
few changes and people have been released, et cetera, and now they 
are called prison camps." 

Well, "let's settle for them. Where are they?" I says, "W^hile- 
we are at it, of course we can go visit these camps. Both of yoir 
gentlemen speak Russian. I would like to have one or both of you 
accompany us to one of these camps so that we won't be homswog- 
gled and necessarily have to depend upon the Soviet interpreters." 

"Well," they said, "you had better ask the trade union people what 
is the location of these places." 

I said, "I am asking you. You are the American Embassy here- 
and I am asking you the location of some of these slave labor camps. 
Do you loiow of any ?" 

And they said, "No." 

Mr. Arens. Now, Mr. Bridges, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities solicited via the State Department a report on the essence- 
of that conversation and was advised, in essence, that the American- 
Embassy officers simply told you, sir, to request tlie Communist 
Soviet officials to conduct you to any maximum security prison labor 
camps, the existence of which is common knowledge in the Soviet 
I'l^nion, and more specifically that you specify the areas of Norilsk,. 
N-o-r-i-l-s-k, or Magadan, M-a-g-a-d-a-n. 

Wliile you are under oath, would you kindly tell us wliether or not 
the information which I am now imparting to you is a substantially- 
correct summary of the information given to you by the Embas^ 
officials? 

Mr. Bridges. Back up a minute. That is quite a statement. 

Let's start all over again, piece by piece. I will tell you. The age- 
of McCarthy isn't dead yet. I don't want to cause any poor fellows 
overseas to lose their job. 

Mr. Arens. Wliile you are under oath 

Mr. Bridges. Don't remind me I am under oath, I have been under 
oath lots of times. 

Mr. Arens. Whether or not the American Embassy officials in Mos- 
cow told you that if you wanted to see slave labor camps you should 
request the officials there to direct you to any maximum security^ 
prison labor camps, the existence of which are acknowledged by the- 
Soviets. 



710 PASSPORT SECURITY 

Mr. Bridges. No. Just a minute now. Wait a minute. 

The way you put it is he gets it all twisted up. 

I related what happened. They said, "On slave labor camps they 
have more or less been changed, et cetera, and they call them prison 
camps now and if you want to see one of them, well, you had better ask 
the people you are dealing with." 

Mr. Arens. Did you ask the people you were dealing with about 
seeing these prison camps ? 

Mr. Bridges. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Did you see any of them ? 

Mr. Bridges. No. 

Just a minute. Understand, I went back and I said, "I'll let jou. 
know later on," because I wanted to take these two Russian speaking 
gentlemen from the Embassy to go along with us and, when they 
couldn't go, I thought "what the hell is the use ?" 

Mr. Arens. Did you make any specific request to see prison labor 
camps in the Norilsk or Magadan area? 

Mr. Bridges. I don't even know what those names mean. 

Mr. Arens. Did you make any request to see prison camps in any 
specific area ? 

Mr. Bridges. Furthermore, the gentlemen in the Embassy did not 
mention those names to me. 

Mr. Arens. Did the gentlemen in the Embassy direct your attention 
to the problem of prison labor in the Russian crab industry ? 

Mr. Bridges. Sure did. I have got it all written down. 

That is right. 

Mr. Arens. Did that just slip your memory a few mJnutes ago? 

Mr. Bridges. No, that's a special point. If you had not mentioned 
it, I would have. Let me tell you about that. Want to hear it ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes ; please, sir. 

Mr. Bridges. All right. In effect, as I recall it, I said, "Look, there 
is one place we have heard of." 

I asked them "Wait a while." Hearing and knowing is two differ- 
ent things. 

"Well, this is our information." 

Mr. SciiERER. Mr. Chairman, may I clarify something? I may be 
wrong and correct me if I am wrong, but I remember that you said 
a few minutes ago that these men in the U.S. Embassy said that they 
had no knowledge as to the location of anj' slave labor camps or 
prison camps. 

Mr. Bridges. That is right, Mr. Scherer. I pressed the point. Un- 
derstand, I want to be fair about this. They said that the nature of 
the camps had been changed, that with the end of the Stalin era they 
call them prison camps now, 

Mr. Sciierer. You said that they told you they had no knowledge 
of the location of any of these camps, whether you call them prison 
camps, slave labor camps, or whatever you call them. That is not 
what they say they said. 

Mr. Bridges. Well, I am trying to get it right here. When they 
said that they had been changed to prison camps, I said "All right. 
Where are they ? We will go and see them. Will you come with us ?" 

They said, "Go and ask your friends for those locations." 

That is what I don't want to disagree with them. I know what I 
know and I know what my notes show. 



PASSPORT SECURITY 711 

Mr. Arens. Did they discuss with you what they call closed areas 
in the Soviet Union ? 

Mr. Bridges. How about getting back to the crab ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. I thought you concluded on that. 

Mr. BRmcES. Oh, I hadn't 

Mr. Arens. Did they point out 

Mr. Bridges. I hadn't even gotten started. 

Mr. Arens. Excuse me, then. 

Let me pose a question, if you please, sir. Did they call your at- 
tention to slave labor used in the crab industry ? 

Mr. Bridges. They said, according to their information these were 
the circumstances and that we had a law or a regulation in America 
here where, because of the nature of labor used in these crab can- 
neries, that that crab was barred from importation into the United 
States. I was very interested because amongst some of the members 
of the union I represent fisliermen and I said, "Well, I have to admit 
that a lot of our members would be for that particular law, maybe for 
different reasons." But I said, "let's have this information. This is 
interesting. This is something I didn't even know about." 

So we copied down or he copied down in his handwriting the loca- 
tion of this cannery. 

Well, inasmuch as we only had 2 or 3 days there and inasmuch as it 
was in Vladivostok, that was a little too far away for us to attempt 
to visit so we had to exclude it. 

Mr. Arens. May we get this record clear of this instance. Did the 
American Embassy officials make known to you their kiiowledge of 
the existence of slave labor or prison labor camps in Soviet Russia? 

Mr. Bridges. Only in the sense that I told you. 

Mr. Arens. Did you, after your return from your trip, make a 
speech out in San Francisco before the Commonwealth Club? 

Mr. Bridges. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. After you made your speech, was there a question and 
answer period ? 

Mr. Bridges. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. I should like to read you what we have as an excerpt 
of part of your answer to certain questions. 

Mr. Brtoges. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. (reading) : 

We went up to the American Embassy, two economists there speaking Rus- 
sian, and said, "Now look, we are here, we're in like Flynn, as it were. We can 
go any place and see anything we want to see. You people both speak Russian, 
come along with us so that we don't get hornswoggled." Well, they didn't 
exactly say no, but they didn't say yes either, and we asked these questions 
about strikes, slave labor camps, how free the labor movement was, come along 
and help us ask the workers questions, so that we don't have to believe our 
translators. Well, they said they would have to give 48 hours' notice to the 
Soviet Government and it would look like we suspected them of not telling the 
truth. And I said, "That is just what I am saying. That is the purpose of this." 
Well, it didn't develop. I go to the same Embassy and I say, "Listen. We 
want to know about these slave labor camps. Now, we have been promised 
by these people, all big people in the Soviet trade union movement, they will 
take us anywhere and let us see anything we want to see. I want the address 
of a couple of slave labor camps. And I want you people to come along because 
you speak Russian." 

They said, "SotTi/, tve ion't knmc of any." 



712 PASSPORT SECURITY 

Now, is what I have just read you a true and correct reproduction 
of the statements you made before the Commonwealth Chib on March 
20,1959? 

(Document marked "Bridges Exhibit No. 8," and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Bridges. What's the difference between those statements and 
what I am saying here? 

(For purpose of comparison, the Memorandum of Con- 
versation prepared in Moscow on February 9, 1959, by Messrs. 
Winters and Harmstone of the United States Embassy 
follows:) 

Memor^vndum of Conversation 

Date: February 9, 1959. 
Participants : 

Mr. Harry R. Bridges, President — International Long- 
shoremen's Union 

Mr. William H. Glazier, Mr. Bridges' assistant 

FSR George P. Winters 

FSO Richard C. Harmstone 
Messrs. Bridges and Glazier came to the Embassy about 
noon on February 9, and asked to see the Embassy's economic 
officers. They had arrived in Moscow the previous day, they 
said. 

Mr. Bridges went somewhat out of his way to stress the 
fact that this was his fii-st visit to the Soviet Union, also that 
neither he nor Mr. Glazier spoke the language; hence their 
desire to benefit from the economic knowledge of the report- 
ing officers and their hope that either or both of the latter 
might accompany them on some of their meetings or tours 
with the Soviets, assuming this could be arranged. Bridges 
was promised all possible cooperation. Interestingly enough, 
Bridges telephoned back about two hours after leaving the 
Embassy to report that arrangements had been made to visit 
the port of Odessa the following day. They were departing 
by air at 3 a.m., returning from Odessa about 6 p.m. following 
a day in the port. He had, he said, raised with the Soviet 
trade union officials the question of inviting an Embassy 
officer to accompany them and these officials had promptly 
acceded to the request. They had, however, indicated that 
certain problems concerning "closed areas" might require' 
resolution between the Embassy and Soviet Foreign Ministry. 
Bridges was told that the matter would be looked into and 
we would call him back at the hotel. Following a discussion 
of this matter with the Minister-Counselor, a phone call was 
put through to Bridges, who was informed that the Embassy 
deemed it advisable to adhere to the Soviet rule requiring 
forty-eight houi-s' advance notice for trips outside the Mos- 
cow perimeter. This, for example, we had previously done on- 
the occasion of the recent visit of the U.S. Electric Power 
Delegation to the U.S.S.R., despite the fact that an Embassy- 
officer was specifically invited by the Minister of Electric- 
Stations. Bridges expressed disappointment, but seemed to. 
accept the logic of the situation. 



PASSPORT SECURITY 713 

A second matter stressed by Bridges was his concern with 
the problem of "slave" or prison labor camps in the U.S.S.R. 
"Could the Embassy," he asked, provide him "Avith the spe- 
cific location of a known labor camp," which he in turn could 
present to the Soviet authorities with his request to investi- 
gate conditions in said camp. This question was fielded with 
the generalization that much less is known about such camps 
today since the post-Beria "reforms". He could, however, 
we suggested, simply request a visit to any "maximum secur- 
ity" prison labor camp, the general existence of which is 
acknowledged by the Soviets. Moreover, he might further 
specify a camp in some such well-known area as Norilsk 
or Magadan, although the time required for any serious in- 
vestigation in such distant areas might take them consider- 
ably beyond their indicated departure date, only two days 
hence. 

Finally, it was pointed out by the reporting officers that 
the problem of prison labor in the crab industry marks an 
area in which the U.S. Government had taken action to pro- 
hibit imports of crabmeat. The efforts of a previous eco- 
nomic officer of the Embassy were related, who had expressed 
to the Soviet authorities his preparedness to travel to any 
crabbing industry installation at any time; thereafter to 
report to his government the labor conditions observed there. 
As no response had been received by the Embassy to this 
offer, here it seemed was a specific question which Bridges 
might fruitfully bring up in his conversations with the So- 
viets along this line. Bridges expressed great interest in 
this possibility, pointing out that some of his union members 
were employed in this branch of industry, and that he and 
Glazier would not hesitate to extend their stay in the Soviet 
Union if provided the opportimity to really look into this 
"slave labor" business. 

Bridges alluded to the poor treatment accorded him and 
Glazier by our Embassy in Athens, although we were unable 
to elicit the specifics of the charges. In Prague, apparently, 
the pair was received more cordially, presumably as they 
were then being received in Moscow. The most important 
information turned up by these "investigators" in Prague 
(presumedly not from an Embassy source) concerned the 
problem experienced by the Czech Government in getting 
people to settle in its border areas with Germany. The rea- 
son for the difficulty, it turned out, was a series of open and 
illicit radio transmissions from Germany which counseled 
the Czechs not to return to these areas as the West Germans 
were soon coming back to take them over. 

Turning to the question of the present role and status of 
Soviet trade unions, the reporting officers stated their strong 
impression that the average Soviet worker neither thinks 
much of, or expects much from his trade union today ; also, 
that the present regime was experiencing no little difficulty 
in its efforts to regenerate some enthusiasm. 



714 PASSPORT SECURITY 

In order to give Bridges and Glazier some idea of this 
attitude of Soviet citizens towards their trade unions, one 
officer read out loud some of the exchanges between members 
of a Soviet audience and the sj^eaker at a public lecture on 
Soviet trade unions in Moscow last year. The exchanges are 
reproduced below. 

"Q. All you said about widening union rights was said 
years ago by Lenin. Why weren't his views carried out? 

"A. There were many conditions that interfered; chielly, 
there were not enough members in the unions until the pres- 
ent time. 

"Q. "V\niy do we have wages of 230 rubles a month and 
12,030 a month? 

"A. N. S. Khrushchev already has spoken about this. In 
addition, I have mentioned the 500 ruble minimum wage to 
be introduced under the new plan. 

"Q. Tell us about unions abroad, particularly about the 
Yugoslav workers' councils. 

"A. There is not time to discuss foreign unions. Regard- 
ing Yugoslav workers' councils, we have objectively studied 
them and decided that they were unnecessary and besides, 
would only serve to weaken the existing factory union com- 
mittee. 

"Q. If the unions are democratic bodies, why are there 
many high union officials who have not been elected to their 
positions by union congresses? (Here a voice from the audi- 
ence called out, 'Thev are recommended by the Centrn] Com- 
mittee of the CPSU.') 

"A. That is true. These people are recommended by the 
CC of the CPSU, and there is no reason why they should not 
serve as union officials." 

Bridges said these questions were a "healthy sign". They 
were the same type of questions members of his union put 
to their leaders. As for other unions, and the character of 
the democratic process prevailing in them, "nobody has any 
questions about the way Meany gets elected", said Bridges. 

Glazier was handed an article to read on Soviet trade 
unions, which appeared in the December 1958 issue of the 
ICFTU publication Spotlight. Glazier read the article, 
which is quite hostile in tone, finding it "very interesting". 

In discussing the possibilities for increasing the Soviet 
labor force, one of the reporting officers observed that a re- 
duction in the size of the Soviet militia would release many 
able-bodied men for employment in industry. Bridges said 
he would not raise the question of the size of the Soviet police 
force in his talks with Soviet officials as they might inquire 
about the U.S. police force wliich, in his opinion, is enormous. 

Other more theoretical topics were touched upon briefly in 
the course of the conversation; these included the Soviet 
method of calculating labor productivity, possible elimina- 
tion of supplements to wages of non-native personnel in the 
Soviet East, the problem of reducing the work week with- 
out reducing production, etc. 



PASSPORT SECURITY 715 

Mr, Arens. Would you kindly answer the question? 

Mr. Bridges. I have answered the best I could. I have told you. 

Mr. Arens. Just a moment, sir. Is what I have read you a true 
and correct statement of what you said before the Commonwealth 
Club on March 20, 1959? (Referring to quotation appearing on 
p. Yll.) 

Mr. Bridges. Let's read it. 

(The document was handed to the witness.) 

Mr. Bridges. Is this title correct, "Taken From Tape of Questions 
and Answers"? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Bridges. I see. I would say generally this is true. 

Mr. Arens. Is this part particularly true that I read you ? 

Mr. Bridges. Don't lift anything out of context now. 

Mr. Arens. If I lift it out of context you correct me. 

Mr. Bridges. I sure will. 

Mr. Arens. Did the American Embassy officials, when you asked 
them about slave labor camps, say, and I quote specifically, "T'Aey said 
''Sorry ^ ive donH hnow^ of any'' ".^ 

Mr. Bridges. That is what I said there. Now, understand, in this 
exchange that was — I was speaking there. I was trying to make the 
questions brief and this compresses it into just that answer and all 
I have clone here is elaborate it ; but when you get down to the essence 
of it when I compressed and said, "I want to see a slave labor camp," 
they said, "TFe donH know of amf ; that is right. 

Mr. Arens. Didn't the Anierican Embassy officials tell you par- 
ticularly about prison labor camps in the crab industry ? 

Mr. Bridges. They told me about the crab industry based on their 
information, yes. 

Mr. Arens. Did they tell you about prison labor camps in the crab 
industry? 

Mr. Bridges. They did in a sense. 

Mr. Arens. Did they tell you ? 

Mr. Bridges. I think there is a big distinction here, Mr. Counsel. 
My miderstanding and my recollection of what they said, they said, 
"Look. There is another place you might go and visit because we 
have a law against importing the crab canned in that place because it 
employs slave labor," meaning here is a place where at least we have 
gone so far as to pass a law because it has got slave labor. There is 
a place, maybe the kind you are looking for, and you ought to go and 
see it. 

That sets that crab cannery apart from the other things. 

Mr. Arens. Did the American Embassy officials tell you to ask 
to see any maximum security prison labor camp, the existence of which 
is acknowledged by the Soviets ? 

Mr. Bridges. Maybe they didn't use the words "maximum secu- 
rity," but they certainly used the words "prison camp" and said, "This 
is what has happened to the slave labor camps. They liave turned 
tliem into prison camps." 

We asked, "All right. Where are they? We will go and see 
them." 

Mr. Soherer. You mean they have changed the name, since 
Ivhrush(5hev took over, from slave labor camps to prison camps ? 



716 PASSPORT SECURITY 

Mr. Bridges. This is my impression of what they are saying. The 
way they describe it there have been quite a few changes which we 
know about since the Stalin era and all the rest of it that a lot of 
rules have changed and, from what I understood, too, the Embassy 
people to say, a lot of people had been released. There was much 
more. 

Mr. ScHERER. My specific question was, they now call the slave 
labor camps, since this change you are telling us about, prison camps ? 

Mr. Bridges. That is not what they told us. With the explanations 
that I have given here that is what they said. I am trying to quote 
these gentlemen correctly because obviously, they seemed to me to be 
trying to cooperate. 

Mr. Arens. You did not tell the Commonwealth Club, however, 
about their announcements to you about the prison labor camp in 
the crab industry, did you ? 

Mr. BRmoES. No. I didn't say it not because I was trying to con- 
ceal anything. I only had a certain amount of time and I was trying 
to cooperate with the people in the Commonwealth Club and answer 
questions as quickly as I could. 

Mr. Arens. You did not tell the members of the Commonwealth 
Club about the American Embassy personnel telling you that if you 
want to find slave labor camps just ask to see the maximum security 
prison labor camps, the general existence of which is acknowledged 
by the Soviets, did you ? 

JSIr. Bridges. To accommodate you, as soon as I return to San Fran- 
cisco, I will ask the officers of the Commonwealth Club to have another 
whirl at it and I will tell them next time. 

Mr. Arens. When you see the officers of the Commonwealth Club, 
will you display to them a copy of this map you saw on the table of 
the American Embassy officials when you were there, which points 
out dozens of slave labor camps and with a notation at the bottom 
"A reward of $1,000 will be paid by the Free Trade Union Com- 
mittee for evidence disproving the authenticity of the Soviet docu- 
ments here reproduced." 

Did you see on the table at the American Embassy in Moscow a 
map or a chart similar to the one which I now display to you show- 
ing the existence of numerous slave labor camps in Soviet Russia? 

Mr. Bridges. No. 

Mr. Arens. I beg your pardon ? 

Mr. Bridges. No ; not that I can recall. 

Mr. Arens. What was the map that you saw there ? 

Mr. Bridges. I wish I had have. 

Mr. Arens. What was the map you saw ? 

Mr. Bridges. I didn't say I saw a map. 

Mr. Arens. Did you see a chart there ? 

Mr. Bridges. No. 

Mr. Arens. What did you see in the nature of documentary evi- 
dence displayed to you or available to you there in the American Em- 
bassy in Soviet Russia with respect to slave-labor camps? 

JNIr. Bridges. There was some literature and papers in English. I 
didn't pick them up and read them. I just saw "The figures tell." 
Tlie wliole desk was covered with English and Russian papers. 

Mr. Arens. Did these papers relate to slave labor camps ? 



PASSPORT SECURITY 717 

Mr. Bridges. I saw one of tliem. It was an ICFTU publication 
with some reference to it. 

Mr. Arens. Did you read that publication ? 

Mr. Bridges. No. 

Mr. Arens, You went there for the purpose of inquiring about the 
existence of slave-labor camps, did you not ? 

Mr. Bridges. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. And you saw a publication there by the ICFTU, telling 
about slave-labor camps ; did you not ? 

Mr. Bridges. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. But you did not pick it up and read it ; is that correct ? 

Mr. Bridges. Wliy should I? I have read so much junk from that 
outfit that why should I waste my time on a trip where I was short 
of time reading it there and, for my money, that is probably junk, too. 

My information doesn't check with what they say. 

Now, I might be wrong but I am entitled to an opinion based on 
what I saw. And if that is the case, listen, what are the reasons we 
were in the Soviet Union ? Mr. Chairman 

The Chairman. Yes. 

Mr. Bridges. In view of passport legislation, we saw all kinds of 
people traipsing around Moscow and the Soviet Union from this coun- 
try and every other coimtry. 

The AFLi-CIO forbids any trade-union delegations to go to the 
Soviet Union. We observed a rule in our trip overseas that when we 
couldn't go somewhere and see anything we had the right to assume the 
worst. 

Now, belly dancers, musicians, now soon the Vice President, I hope 
is going to be visiting the Soviet Union. The labor movement of 
this country forbids unions to send official delegations to the Soviet 
Union. I think it is because they are afraid that the unions will find 
out some of the truth. 

I am not trying to conceal any of the bad things, including slave- 
labor camps, their existence or nonexistence. 

Mr. Arens. May I read to you, sir, now, in view of your observa- 
tion, a "Statement by the AFL-CIO Executive Council on Contacts 
with 'Trade Unions' in Totalitarian Countries," issued in San Juan, 
P.E., February 20, 1959 : 

The myth that the Soviet Union is a workers' state is the constantly repeated 
claim of Communist propaganda. It is on the basis of this deception that the 
Soviet leaders address their appeals for fraternity and support to the trade 
unions, the organizations of workers in other countries. 

The Soviet leaders openly proclaim the domination of their own so-called 
trade unions by the Communist Party. They rarely trouble to disguise the sub- 
servience of these so-called trade unions to the Soviet Government. In fact, 
they often claim that this "privileged" position is something which trade unions 
in other countries should envy. Short of using military force, the major weapon 
of the Communists in their campaign against the Free West is the subversion 
of trade unions and other organizations of workers. 

Under the false front of peaceful coexistence and alleged departures from 
the harshness of the Stalinist regime, the present leaders of the Soviet Union 
are renewing their efforts to win moral respectability for their regime and to 
mislead the workers of the free world into accepting these state company unions 
as bona fide organizations of the workers. 

The Executive Council of the AFL-CIO, therefore, reiterates its opposition to 
the idea of free labor sending delegations to any country which prohibits free 
trade unions, outlaws all free trade union activities and penalizes workers for 
advocating free trade unionism — whether such country be Communist or Fascist 
or any other totalitarian hue. 



7] 8 PASSPORT SECURITY 

Mr. Bridges. What's the question with respect to that document? 

Mr. AuENS. In view of your observation respecting the position of 
certain hibor organizations on this question of observing slave labor 
camps, I was calling your attention to the statement of the AFL-CIO. 

Mr. Bridges. I am glad to see a congressional committee— that is 
what the lawyers call a self-serving statement. 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly tell us, sir, did you inquire of the 
Communist officials in 'Moscow as to the conditions upon which per- 
sonnel of the U.S. Embassy could accompany you on the trips to the 
slave labor camps ? 

Mr. Bridges. Give me it again. 

Mr. Arens. Did you inquire of the Communist officials in INIoscow 
as to the conditions under which American officials could accompany 
you on your proposed tour of the slave labor camps ? 

Mr. Bridges. I was talking to trade unionists. 

Mr. Arens. Did you make a solicitation of the Communist officials, 
whether they be trade unionists or officials of the Government, for per- 
mission for American Embassy officials to accompnay you ? 

Mr. Bridges. I asked the trade union officials that we were meeting 
with would it be all right, and they said "yes." 

Mr. Arens. Did they tell you that it was, under their policy, neces- 
sary for an official notice to be given 48 hours in advance ? 

]SIr. Bridges. I had already been told. I was told that by the gentle- 
men in the Embassy. 

Mr. Arens. Did the gentlemen in the Embassy, to your knowledge, 
make any solicitation at your behest in order to accompany you on the 
proposed tour of the slave labor camps ? 

Mr. Bridges. According to what they told me, yes, sir. We were 
going to Odessa that evening and when we didn't make any headway 
on the slave labor camps, I asked would they accompany us to Odessa 
where we were going to talk to the workers, the longshoremen of 
Odessa. They said they would let me know. 

So we had all the arrangements made. We were going by plane, 
leaving around midnight, and I talked to the gentlemen at the Em- 
bassy around 6 o'clock and they explained, and it made sense to me, 
that by the regulations in the Soviet Union they had to give 48 hours' 
notice before they moved out, that is under Soviet regulation, before 
they moved away from the Embassy over a certain distance, and that 
they apparently had discussed this matter with their superior — I 
don't think it was the Ambassador — and that, the way they explained 
it to me, they didn't want to ask this favor of the Soviet Govern- 
ment under these circumstances. 

The Chairman. May I get this straight? From what I under- 
stand you to say, the officials of this Government must obtain per- 
mission, 48 hours in advance, before they move out of our Embassy ? 

Mr. Bridges. My understanding, Mr. Chairman, was that to travel 
as far as Odessa, Avhich was quite a ways, although they could move 
to certain distances, but a trip of that kind required 48 hours' notice 
to the Soviet Government and official permission of the Soviet Gov- 
ernment to make a trip of that distance and that they apparently had 
conferred with some of their superior officers in the Embassy and 
a decision had been reached that under the circumstances now, I can 
draw my own conclusions. I am relating a conversation that, under 



PASSPORT SECURITY 719 

the cii-cuiiistances, they did not wisli to ask an exception to tlie rules 
to make this trip. Therefore they couldn't go vv-ith us. 

Mr. Arens. Now, sir, when you ^^■ere concerned about finding in- 
formation respecting slave labor camps in the Soviet Union, w^ere you 
aware of the fact that a survey was conducted in 1953 under the aus- 
pices of a United Nations committee (Ad Hoc Committee on Forced 
Labour, UN and ILO) by three eminent jurists, one from India, one 
from Norway, and one from Peru, and they published a study under 
the asupices of the United Nations on forced labor and in that study 
the report found that the Soviet Union and its satellites used forced 
labor as a means of political coercion and that it existed "in its fullest 
form'' and on a scale of "considerable economic importance.'' Were 
you cognizant of that study and that report when you walked into the 
American Embassy and asked about the existence of slave labor 
camps? 

Mr. Bridges. I was trying to conduct my own survey m conjuction 
with the American Embassy. 

Mr. Arexs. Were you aware of the existence of this report by tlic 
United Nations ? 

Mr. Bridges. I don't know if I was or not. It wouldn't make any 
dijfference to me if I was. 

I was trying to conduct my own survey and I put mucli more 
faith in a trade union survey, so all I Avas trying to do to get it 
straight, I tried to explain, is that I went to the U.S. Embassy and 
tried to join with them to conduct our own survey of slave labor 
camps, and I have related the story here of what success we had. 

ISIr. Arens. Did they say, '•^Sorry^ we donH know of any.'''' 

Mr. Bridges. That has been answered. 

(Document, marked "Bridges Exhibit No. 11," and retained in 
committee files.) . . 

Mr. Arens. Now, sir, did you, while you were in the Soviet Union 
give any press interviews ? 

Mr. Bridges. That is right. Once again a press interview? AVe 
had a discussion, with a trade union bulletin, I think it was. 

Mr. Arens. Did you have any general press interviews or was 
it only with the publications of Communist labor organizations ? 

Mr. Bridges. What does that mean ? 

Mr. Arens. AATiat publication did you have an interview with? 

Mr, Bridges. I don't know. 

Mr. Arens. Was it Trud ? 

Mr. BpvIdges. If that is the publication of the Transport AYorkers 
Union, then that is probably the one. 

Mr. Arens. Now, during the course of your interview with this pul> 
lication of the Communist trade union organization 

Mr. Bridges. Just a minute, Mr. Counsel. You keep on making 
these descriptions and I hope this record is clear and I want to make 
it clear that these are your designations. 

Mr. Arens. We will make it clear in a, few minutes because I am 
going to get into a question about the control. 

Mr. Bridges. What was the last time you were in Moscow ? 

Mr. Arens. Now, sir, did you in your interview with Trud make 
the observation that the Soviet trade unions are more democratic 
than many American trade unions? 



720 PASSPORT SECURITY 

Mr. Bridges. I did. Well, maybe that is not the exact words. I 
am not going to go by your translations, et cetera, but I made a state- 
ment along those lines. 

The answer is "Yes." Do you want me to explain it or is this 
committee suddenly boosting the democracy of American trade unions ? 

I have got a lot to say on that if you want me to open up. 

The Chaikman. We are not going to spend the afternoon talking 
about the democracy of trade unions or the lack of it. 

Go ahead, Mr. Arens. 

Mr. Arens. In the course of your study of the trade unions in the 
Soviet Union, was your attention directed to the trade union statutes 
and by-laws of the Soviet Union which read as follows : 

Soviet trade unions carry on all their work under the leadership of the Com- 
munist Party, the organizing and directing force of Soviet society. The trade 
unions of the U.S.S.R. rally the working masses around the party of Lenin and 
Stalin. 

Did you have your attention directed to that statute? 

Mr. Bridges. I had my attention directed to a copy of the constitu- 
tion of the unions printed in English. I don't know what you have 
there but if you get a copy of the constitution itself, an official docu- 
ment of the trade union, I was talking to at least the transport union 
and there is some language, not exactly the same as that, but some- 
thing along the lines where it says that "this union works in connec- 
tion with Communist policy," or something like that. 

I think the best document would be the official copy of the consti- 
tution itself. 

(Document marked "Bridges Exhibit No. 12," and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Did you have your attention directed while you were in 
the Soviet Union and while you were in the process of issuing this 
statement about the democracy of the Soviet trade unions, to the 
Soviet trade union bylaws 

Mr. Bridges. Just a minute. Let me stop you. 

You asked me a part of a question a while ago where my answer 
in effect was "Look. In some respects after studying this question, 
the framework of the trade unions, the way they function, their elec- 
tions, et cetera," I said, "I find them more democratic in this way than 
many American unions I know." 

Now, that was my statement. You are chopf)ing it up and lifting it 
out of its general context. 

I have already told you if you want me to explain further why I 
said that, I am willing to go. 

Mr. Arens. Were the trade unions in the Soviet Union free public 
organizations ? 

Mr. Bridges. They are guaranteed. That is the way they are 
described under the law as far as I know. 

Mr. Arens. And did you describe to the Commonwealth Club in 
San Francisco your discovery that the labor unions in Eussia are free 
public organizations ? 

Mr. Bridges. I think I did because that is the way the law reads 
governing trade unions. 

Mr. Arens. They are free public organizations ? 

Mr. Brtik^.es. That is the language of the law, Mr. Arens. 



PASSPORT SECURITY 721 

Mr. AiiENS. Did they also call your attention to that part of the 
statutes and bylaws requiring every trade union member — 

a. To strictly observe State and labor discipline ; 

b. To guard and strengthen public Socialist property as the sacred inviolable 
basis of the Soviet system, as the source of wealth and power of the Motherland, 
as the source of all the workers' well being and cultured life. 

Did they call your attention to that statute ? 

Mr. Bridges. I think the language, not the same words but gen- 
erally, is in their constitution. 

Are you asking me if it is there or are you asking me what I think 
of it? 

Mr. Aeens. You were making a study there and later reported to 
the Commonwealth Club your findings and you alluded to some statute. 
I was only inquiring whether or not they directed your attention 
to these other statutes. 

Mr. Bridges. Yes ; I got a copy of the laws and I got a copy of the 
constitution of the unions and I studied it. 

Mr. ArejSts. Did you meet George Morris while you were in Mos- 
cow? 

Mr. Bridges. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Wlio is George Morris ? 

Mr. Bridges. George IMorris. If he is not now or wasn't at that 
time he used to be the correspondent for the New York Daily Worker. 
That is the Communist Party paper. 

Mr. Arens. What was he doing in Moscow ? 

Mr. Bridges. I don't know. I think he was covering the congress 
over there. 

Mr. Arens. Did you confer with him respecting the trade unions in 
the Soviet Union ? 

Mr. Bridges. No. 

Mr. Scherer. May I ask if you referred to George Morris? 

Mr. Arens. M-o-r-r-i-s. 

Mr. Scherer. Correspondent for the Daily Worker ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Scherer. Does your investigation show whether Morris ob- 
tained a passport since the Supreme Court decision of June 16, 1958 ? 

Mr. Arens. It does ; yes, sir. He has one. 

Are you cognizant of the articles which George Morris has been 
writing in the Worker respecting the Soviet trade unions ? 

Mr. Bridges. No. 

Mr. Arens. Are you aware of the statements he has been making 
showing the intimate connection between the trade unions in the 
Soviet Union and the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Bridges. No. 

Look. I have known George Morris, I guess, since 1934. Now, I 
am not going to ask George Morris about trade unions. I am a trade 
unionist. If I want to know something about trade unions I just 
figure I will go to the trade unionists. 

I met George Morris and we hoisted a couple of drinks and that 
was that. I even thought that was allowed. 

Mr. Arens. Did you, while you were in Moscow, give an interview 
which was carried in a Canadian paper. The Canadian Tribune, re- 
specting the trade union movement ? 



722 PASSPORT SECURITY 

Mr. Bridges. Did I give a which ? 

Mr. A KENS. Did you give an interview ? 

]\Ir. Hridges. To save you time, the only interview is tlie one you 
just referred to. There wasn't any other. 

You can call it an interview if you like, talking about discussion 
with the trade unionists and these members of their trade union staff, 
that is, their newspaper statF. There was no other interview. 

Mr. Arens. Did you make a public statement of attribution to 
yourself while you were in Moscow to the effect that it would be good 
if American trade unionists and the AFD-CIO would visit the Soviet 
Union — they would find out that everything told the working people 
in the United States about the U.S.S.R. is pure lying and slanderous 
propaganda. 

Did you make that statement ? 

Mr. Bridges. I don't recall making the statement in those words. 
I said this, if you want me to repeat from memory : that with all the 
other people visiting over there I thought that the trade unions should 
send som,e trade unionists over and help to correct what I thought is 
a lot of misleading information that has been poured out about the 
people and workers of that countr}^ 

(Document marked ''Bridges Exhibit No. 13," and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Arens. How about the slave labor camps ? Is that all lying, 
slanderous propaganda ? 

Mr. Bridges. Including that, too. Instead of depending upon any- 
thing, anybody else, send a trade union delegation over to see if they 
can have any better luck than we did. 

I said that, that is right, and I am still saying it now. Maybe the 
committee will join with me and let us jointly suggest to the Ajnerican 
Federation of Labor to send some trade union delegations over to fuid 
those slave labor camps. 

Isn't that a good suggestion ? 

The Chairman. Just a moment, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. Bridges. How about the committee going over? I don't like 
congressional junkets, but I think that would be a good one. 

The Chairman. It is not necessary for the A. F. of L. to make such 
a survey. They have already made it. 

Mr. Bridges. They have ? 

The Chairman. Here it is. 

Mr. Bridges. After all, Mr. Chairman, with all the nice things that 
congressional committees say about what happens in the labor move- 
ment, I am a little surprised to find so much championing of the 
A. F. of L. here. 

The Chairman. Of course, when j^ou are saying "championing, you 
are speaking of me because I happen to have a very good labor record. 

Mr. BRrooES. I am not questioning that. Maybe I myself might 
disagree, Mr. Cliainnan, but I am not questioning that at the moment. 

My whole purpose in what I was saying there, and I said it there 
and I am saying it here, is that instead of boycotting a coimtrj' and 
forbidding trade unionists to go over, the AFI^CIO ought to send 
some people over and I hope you give them passports. I went to my 
own membership. 



PASSPORT SECURITY 723 

The CiiAiRMAN. If you got a passport, certainly anyone in the 
A. F. of L. ought to be getting one. 

Mr. BRroGES. That is why I wonder what I am doing here, Mr. 
Chairman. You are proposing to pass legislation to prevent tainted 
people from going overseas. It seems to me I am about your worst 
subject. If I can't get a passport after two trips to the Supreme Court 
and a half a dozen hearings giving me a clean bill of health, what 
chance is there for the average citizen? What am I doing here? 

Mr. Aeens. Mr. Bridges, did you in your conversation with the 
officials in the American Embassy in Moscow ask them about the 
attitude of Soviet citizens toward their trade unions ? 

Mr. Bridges. Yes. 

No ; I asked the Soviet citizens 

Mr. Arens. I said did you ask at the American Embassy about the 
attitude of Soviet citizens toward their trade unions ? 

Mr. Bridges. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. While you were at the American Embassy in Moscow, 
did they read you a portion of certain exchanges at a public lecture 
on Soviet trade unions which was held in Moscoav in 1958 ? 

Mr. Bridges. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Did you tell the Commonwealth Club about this? 

Mr. Bridges. No. 

Mr. Arens. Let me read this to you and see if this is a true and cor- 
rect account of some of the exchanges which the U.S. Embassy officer 
read to you while you were in Moscow, which took place between 
members of a Soviet audience and a speaker at a public lecture on 
Soviet trade unions in 1958 : 

Questiou. All you said about wicleniiig union rights was said years ago by 
Lenin. Why weren't his views carried out? 

Answer. There were many conditions that intei'fered ; chiefly, there were not 
enough members in the unions until the present time. 

Question. Why do we have wages of 230 rubles a month? 

Answer. N. S. Khrushchev already has spoken about this. In addition, I have 
mentioned the 500 ruble minimum wage to be introduced under the new plan. 

Question. Tell us about unions abroad, particularly about the Yugoslav Work- 
ers' Coiincils. 

Answer. There is not time to discuss foreign unions. Regarding Yugoslav 
Workers' Councils, we have objectively studied them and decided they were 
unnecessary and besides, would only serve to weaken the existing factory union 
committee. 

Question. If the unions are democratic bodies, why are there many high union 
officials who have not been elected to their positions by union congresses? 

(Here a voice from the audience called out, "They are recommended by the 
Central Committee of the CPSU.") 

Answer. That is true. These people are recommended by the CC of the CPSU, 
and there is no reason why they should not serve as union ofiicials. 

Now, Mr. Bridges, did the American Embassy officials in Moscow 
read you Avord for word the language which I just read to you ? 

Mr. Bridges. It might not have been word for word, but, as far as 
I can recall, it is almost word for word and they read it. 

(Document marked "Bridges Exhibit No. 14," and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Did you make any report of this either in your article, 
"()n the Beam," carried in the Dispatcher, or in your interview with 
the Communist papers, or in your speech before the Commonwealth 
Club in San Francisco ? 



724 PASSPORT SECURITY 

Mr. Bridges. I didn't before the Commonwealth Club, as far as I 
can recall, but I will certainly tell you that I didn't say anywhere 
what I wanted to say. I didn't have the time there but I will certainly 
be willing for a return appearance. 

Mr. Arens. Now, would you kindly answer the question : Did you 
make any reference 

Mr. Bridges. No, I told you I didn't. 

Mr. Arens. In either your interview with the Communist 

paper, your article "On the Beam" in the Dispatcher of the ILWU, 
or before the Commonwealth Club ? 

Mr. Bridges. I don't know. I have answered on the Commonwealth 
Club. The answer is "No". 

Second, the article "On the Beam," I don't know. I can't recall. 
We wrote a lot of stuff; and third, I don't recall whether I mentioned 
it in the interview. 

My recollection is that I did. 

Now, why don't you explain just what that is all about, Mr. Coun- 
sel, because that is not a point to illustrate what you are saying. 

Mr. Arens. The quei*y outstanding is: Why did you not explain 
what it was all about when the Embassy officials called your attention 
to the colloquy existing in a Soviet people's organization, their pro- 
testing the fact that the union officials are not elected, but they are 
designated by the Central Committee of the Communist Party? 

Now, ]Mr. Bridges, in connection with that, did you inquire or dis- 
cuss with the trade union leaders in the Soviet Union, the new drive 
which is now in vo^-ue in the Soviet trade unions for the establishment 
of workers' courts m the thousands of factories throughout the Soviet 
Union ? 

Mr. Bridges. Don't move so fast. Back up to where we were. I 
will answer this one in a minute, the one you just asked me, but stay 
on the other one first. 

Look. One of the reasons w^e didn't mention this is that they were 
the two gentlemen in the Embassy who attended this lecture. This 
was a lecture, a meeting, a public meeting and in the course of this 
lecture that w^as taking place. This is in Moscow, mind you, where 
there is no free speech and there Avere these trade unionists getting 
together and they were nailing this government official with these 
questions and the questions were being asked and answered and the 
Embassy people were putting this forward as some indication that 
the lid was coming off, there was more freedom for the people, in 
other w^ords. So this is the meeting of this here. 

Mr. Arens. To your mind, does it indicate that there is additional 
freedom wJien the leader of the trade union movement answers a ques- 
tion protesting the lack of democracy in the union groups by saying 
that the officials of the union are designated and recommended by the 
Communist hierarchy, and therefore they are properly installed as 
leaders of the union ? 

Mr. Bridges. All I know about that is that this was told to us by 
the representative of the Embassy. That is all 1 know about it. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Bridges, did you discuss this with the trade union 
leaders ? 

Mr. Bridges. Is it important, Mr. Counsel, that they were tellmg us 
this as a part of our inquiries on slave labor camps where they said 



PASSPORT SECURITY 725 

there had been changes made as well as to illustrate that some of the 
workers were complaining about how the trade unions were run. 
That was their point. 

Mr. Arens. Did you regard this as an important conversation ? 

Mr. Bridges. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Then why did you not relate it to your Commonwealth 
Club audience, and why did you not use it in your articles in the Dis- 
patcher, and why did you not allude to it in your interviews with the 
Communist papers in Europe if it is an important element ? 

Mr. Bridges. Because ever since I have been back I have been speak- 
ing and writing reams. I am not a writer. I am a longshoreman. 
I am a trade unionist. Give me time. I have only been back a few 
weeks. Now, that is the answer. 

]\Ir. Arens. All right. 

Mr. Bridges. Is it settled? That is the answer. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Bridges, did you discuss with the trade union 
leaders in the Soviet Union the drive which is now in vogue to estab- 
lish the workers' courts in the thousands of factories throughout the 
Soviet Union ? 

Mr. Bridges. No. 

Mr. Arens. Did you make any inquiiy about that ? 

Mr. Bridges. The Embassy people didn't call them that. 

Mr. Arens. Did you make any inquiry respecting the workers' 
courts which are being established now in the thousands of factories 
throughout the Soviet Union ? 

Mr. Bridges. What are the courts for? 

Mr. Arens. For the purpose of stamping out the last vestiges of 
capitalism according to your colleague, George Morris, labor writer 
for the Coimnunist weekly, The Worker. 

Mr. Bridges. Well, I am mixed up. I thought you were referring 
to something else. 

No ; we didn't discuss that. . 

Mr. Arens. Now, did you learn while you were in the Soviet 

Union . • ^ tt • 

Mr. Bridges. Understand, Mr. Arens, we were m the Soviet Union 
4 days. You are trying to make me out an expert on a country as 
complex as that country on a 4-day visit. 

Mr. ScHERER. I thought you were when I read your speech before 
the Commonwealth Club. 

Mr. Bridges. What was that ? 

Mr. ScHERER. I thought you were an expert when I read your 
SDeech. 

Mr. Bridges. The first statement calls attention to the fact that 
I am not so stupid as to pose as any kind of an expert on the basis 
of a visit to any country for 4 days. 

If you will read my speech, you will find I start out that way. 

Mr. Arens. Your friend, George Morris, wrote an article under 
date of March 29, 1959. 

Mr. Bridge.^. What has that to do with me ? 

Wait a while. He has been over there about 6 months. 

Mr. Arens. You went over to make a study of the conditions m 
the Soviet Union and you have written a series of articles, one appear- 
ing every few days. 



726 PASSPORT SECURITY 

Mr. Bridges. Read my articles. Never mind George Morris. Read 
my articles. That is what I found out. 

Mr. Arens. The basis of my question is why is it we do not see 
in your articles, why is it we did not hear in the Commonwealth 
speech, why is it \xe did not see in the interviews you gave over in 
Europe expecting a paradise in the Soviet Union any reference to peo- 
ple's courts which even George Morris in the Communist Worker of 
March 21), 1959, describes in this language : 

* * * the current fast-spreading drive for "friendly courts" and "friendly teams'' 
already organized in thousands of factories and communities to wipe out the 
"last vestiges of capitalism" * * *. This responsibility, jointly undertaken with 
the Communist Youth League, takes the form of vigilant teams for the main- 
tenance of order, and "trials" of offenders before factory or youth collectives. 

Mr. Bridges. Who is calling it a paradise, you? You are getting 
me mixed up. I try to stay on the beam. Who is calling it a para- 
dise? I am not. It is not m.y idea of a paradise but you seem to 
be pounding away trying to get me to say it is a paradise. I haven't 
said it. I won't say it now. Do you want to get into a few things that 
I think is wrong with the place? 

(Document marked "Bridges Exhibit No. 15," and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

The Chairman. Ask a question, Mr. Arens. 

Mr. Bridges. If you read my articles you will see that when I went 
to Moscow I thought that the people were more tense and far less 
relaxed and were in one hell of a hurry. 

I made the point that you would never get the workers I represent 
to work as hard as those people. 

Mr. AuENS. Wlien you were in Moscow, did you meet with James 
Jackson ? 

Mr. Bridges. No, who is that? 

Mr. Arnes. Member of the National Committee of the Communist 
Party of the United States. 

Mr. Bridges. No. 

Mr. Arnes. While you were there, did you meet with Morris 
Childs? 

Mr. BRmcES. No. 

INIr, Arens. Did you meet with any other of the top Communists 
from the United States other than with George Morris ? 

Mr. Bridges. The only people that I remember seeing there in addi- 
tion to Morris, Morris is the only one. Morris was a reporter for the 
Daily Worker. I have known Morris since 1934. He came around 
to the hotel. I came back to the hotel. He was waiting there and said 
"Come in. I need a beer," and we went and had a drink. 

Mr. Arens. Did you inquire while you were in the Soviet Union 
respecting when the last Soviet trade union had a strike ? 

Mr. Bridges. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Wliat did you learn ? 

Mr. Bridges. Outside of a few small disputes that were called local 
walk-ofFs, there hadn't been any. 

Mr. Arens. Were you quoted correctly in the Daily People's World 
of March 7, 1959, with reference to strikes by trade unions in the 
Soviet Union as follows : 

"The unions are so powerful there, they have so much to say in the 
economy of the country that they don't have to strike." 



PASSPORT SECURITY 727 

Is that a correct quotation ? 

Mr. Bridges. I would suggest jou. read my own articles, signed by 
me, on that subject instead ol" quoting some newspaper. 

Mr. Arens. Is that a correct quotation of you, however ? 

Mr. Bridges. I don't know. Read the article. 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly tell us whether or not in your judg- 
ment you were truly quoted in the Daily People's World of March 
7th with respect to strikes in the Soviet Union, as follows : that "Un- 
ions are so powerful there, they have so much to say in the economy 
of the country that they don't have to strike." 

(Document marked "Bridges Exhibit No. 16," and retained in com- 
mittee files. ) 

Mr. Bridges. I will say, read the official report that I presented to 
our convention, to my membership. Do you want the copy of it ? 

Instead of quoting to me what I have said about that subject from 
some newspaper, quote the official report I made to my union whom 
I am responsible for, signed by me. It has been presented to them 
and passed by them. 

Mr. Arens. We would be very happy to have that. 

Mr. Bridges. You would? Let's dig it out right now and save you 
a lot of trouble and save me a lot of thinking. How about it? All 
right? 

Mr. Arens. Do you have it with you ? 

Mr. Bridges. I sure have. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, could we take about a 2-minute recess? 

The Chairman. The coimnittee v/ill take a recess of 5 minutes. 

(Short recess.) 

(Members of the committee present at the time of recess: Messrs. 
Walter, Moulder, Doyle, Willis, Scherer, and Johansen.) 

(Members of the committee present at the expiration of the recess : 
Messrs. Walter, Moulder, Doyle, Scherer, and Johansen.) 

The Chairman. The committee will be in order. 

Go ahead, Mr. Arens. 

Mr. Arens. Did you discuss with the Soviet Union people the 
forthcoming "Pacific- Asia Dock Conference" to be held in Tolr^o ? 

Mr. Bridges. I don't specifically remember. We had 3 or 4 days 
and notes of constant discussions about trade union matters of all 
kinds. I am sure it came up. I have no specific recollection. 

Mr. Arens. And where did you go after you left the Soviet Union ? 

Mr. Bridges. Copenhagen, Denmark. 

Mr. Arens. How long were you tliere ? 

Mr. Bridges. Two or three days. 

Mr. Arens. And did you discuss with the trade union people there 
the Pacific- Asia conference ? 

Mr. Bridges. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Did you invite any of them to send delegates ? 

Mr. BRmoES. Once again I say the invitations were up to the spon- 
soring committee. That wasn't my job. The reason I tell you about 
that is that one of the trade union officials we were discussing things 
with was also the International Transport Federation representative 
for the Scandinavian countries. 

The Chairman. May I interrupt at this point, Mr. Bridges ? 

Mr. Bridges. Yes. 



728 PASSPORT SECTJRITT 

The Chairman. I notice that most of these conferences were with 
transport unions. 

Mr. Bridges. Yes. 

The CuArRMAN. Did this have anything to do with any plans that 
you and Mr. Hoffa might have for putting together all of the trans- 
port workers in the world ? 

Mr. Bridges. Not specifically. I will tell you what it has some- 
thing to do with. 

The Chairman. You say "not specifically." To what extent was 
there a plan or is there a plan to organize all the transport workers 
of the world ? 

Mr. Bridges. None. Do you mean with respect to Mr. Hoffa ? 

The Chairman. Yes. 

Mr. Bridges. I do not Imow of any plans of that kind with Mr. 
Hoffa. I thought you were dealing with the trade miionists in Den- 
mark. One of the reasons for our trip, Mr. Chairman, is very simple. 
It appears that they are trying to make something else out of it, but 
let me put it this way. Longshoremen are peculiar in the sense that 
in every comitiy of the world, whatever language, whatever union 
affiliation or political affiliation, we all work for the same employers. 

Now, our factories are ships that move around the world, and I 
have found out that they generally have the same ideas and talk more 
or less a common language and have the same approach to their 
problems. 

We have a contract coming up very soon. At least our contracts 
on the west coast end June 15. We might get into trouble. 

The Chairman. You might what ? 

Mr. Bridges. We might get into trouble in the sense that the men 
might decide to walk out which they will only do after they vote and 
we have always followed a policy, and it is a two-way street, that 
when we get into trouble if we think we need a helping hand from 
other countries, we ask them not to work the ships. 

We send out the word and ask the people in other countries to shut 
them down, and when they send out word to us in the event of a strike 
and they ask us, "Don't work those scab sliips," we try to return the 
favor. 

Mr. Scherer. That would be a worldwide economic boycott, would 
it not? 

Mr. Bridges. In that sense. We have never been able to do it. 

Mr. Scherer. That is what you are trying to do ? 

Mr. Bridges. No. 

Mr. Scherer. That was the purpose of your visit primarily, was it 
not ? You are not fooling anybody. 

Mr. Bridges. Now, how can you say I am fooling anybody when I 
just 

Mr. Scherer. I said you are not. 

Mr. Bridges. You mean you ? 

Mr. Scherer. That is right. 

JVIr. Bridges. You are not fooling me either. I am not pretending 
to fool anyone. I am trying to answer questions here. I asked the 
chairman, "Do you want me to explain the real purpose of the visit?" 

I explained it, and then you try to accuse me of fooling people. I 
am not trying to fool anyone. 



PASSPORT SECURITY 729 

Mr. JoHANSEN. If a request not to work ships came from a Com- 
munist country, would it be honored as if it came from any other 
country ? 

Mr. BRrooES. Yes. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. Would it be honored if you had reasons to believe 
that it was for purposes directly to the detriment of the United 
States ? Would you still honor it ? 

Mr. Bridges. What kind of a request would that be? 

Mr. JoiiANSEN. I am asking you if there were such a case in which 
you had reason to believe that it was to the detriment of the United 
States, would you honor that request ? 

Mr. Bridges. Let me put it this way. I represent a union. The 
people that determine the actions in a case like this are the union 
membership. Unless they have reason to believe that the cause is 
worthy we couldn't move them. 

Now, they have very definite ideas of what is a scab ship or hot ship. 
I don't conclude from this discussion, these questions, that this com- 
mittee doesn't know, especially the chairman, who has a good union 
record, he knows the meaning of scab work or scab ships. Our mem- 
bership wouldn't do it even if I asked them. 

Did I answer the question ? 

Mr. JoHANSEN. Proceed. 

Mr. Arens. Did you receive a bulletin from the World Federation 
of Trade Unions, dated July 12, 1950, which called upon all affiliated 
organizations to "take all immediate and indispensable action to 
defeat the diabolical plans of the American warmongers and to support 
their brother unionists in Korea who are fighting alongside the whole 
Korean people for liberation of their country" ? 

Mr. Bridges. Yes. As far as I recall we did. 

Mr. Arens. And did you, as an individual and as head of ILWU, 
take a position to try to defeat the plans of the American Government 
to support the South Koreans ? 

Mr. Bridges. No ; I had a position, if you want me to give it to you. 

I proposed at the time, and I was thrown into jail for it, that the 
fighting should stop, people should cease fire, return to their respec- 
tive positions and refer the matter to the United Nations. About 
100,000 casualties later that was done. That is what I proposed. 
It's a matter of official record in the minutes of my own union meeting. 

Mr. ScHERER. That was the Communist Party line at that time, 
too, was it not ? 

Mr. Bridges. I am sorry. I didn't ask anybody. I know what I 
said at the time but I thought eventually the armistice was settled on 
that basis. 

Mr. Arens. In June of 1952, did you join in a statement that 
"U.S. denials of using bacteriological warfare in Korea are less than 
convincing" ? 

Mr. Bridges. Wlien? 

Mr. Arens. On June 9, 1952. 

Mr. Bridges. Join with whom ? 

Mr. Arens. Other persons. 

Mr. Bridges. I don't know. 

(At this point, Mr. Tuck entered the hearing room.) 



730 PASSPORT SECURITY 

Mr. Arens. I display to you now, if you please, sir, a photostatic 
reprocluctiou of an article appearing in the Communist Daily Peo- 
ple's World of June 9, 1952, in which a number of persons joined in 
sending a letter to President Truman, declaring that the U.S. denials 
of using bacteriological warfare in Korea are less than convincing, 
bearing a number of signatures, including the signature of Harry 
Bridges, president, International Longshoremen's and Warehouse- 
men's Union. Kindly look at that article as I display it to you and 
tell this committee while you are under oath whether or not you 
joined in that statement. 

(Document handed to witness.) 

Mr, Bridges. I am in a mighty lot of good company here. Look. 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly answer the question, sir? Did you 
join in issuing that statement which I have just recited? 

Mr. BRmcES. I am trying to find what relevance this has to me get- 
ting a passport. 

Mr. Arens. It certainly should be clear on this record that this 
committee is trying to develop factual information for the purpose of 
precluding passports to individuals whose presence abroad would be 
detrimental to the security and interest of this country. 

Mr. BRrocES. I am not going to go by memory. I am not going to 
go by newspaper statements. 

Mr. Arens. Did you or did you not join in that statement ? 

Mr. Bridges. My answer is : "Produce the official statement. I don't 
know about that." 

Mr. Arens. Do you have any recollection of joining in tliat state- 
ment ? 

Mr. Bridges. No. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Bridges 

Mr. Bridges. Now, listen. I can see what is going on here. When 
I say I have no recollection that doesn't necessarily mean that I did or 
I didn't. You hand me a newspaper here. 

The Chairman. That is right. You do not remember whether you 
did or not ? 

Mr. Bridges. I could have. I don't remember. It's years ago and 
I get a lousy newspaper statement here and you ask me to go accord- 
ing to memory. I merely say, produce the document. It must be 
around somewhere. 

(Document marked "Bridges Exhibit No. 17," and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Bridges, were you on the sponsoring committee 
for a Vienna peace meet in 1952 ? 

For the purpose of refreshing your recollection, I direct your at- 
tention now to the Communist Daily Worker, November 11, 1952, in 
which an article appears as follows : 

West Coast longshore leader Harry Bridges has joined the U.S. Sponsoring 
Committee for Representation at the Congress of the Peoples for Peace, it was 
announced today by Dr. Willard Uphaus, the committee's executive director. 

_ Kindly look at that article and see if that refreshes your recollec- 
tion with reference to your sponsorship of that meeting in Vienna. 
(The document was handed to the witness.) 



PASSPORT SECURITY 731 

Mr. Bridges. I have no recollection but, reading this, if I was asked, 
I probably did. I am ^Yilling to sponsor any convening of any meet- 
ing for world peace. 

(Document marked "Bridges Exhibit No. 18," and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Arens. Did you know that meeting held in Vienna in Decem- 
ber 1952 had as one of its principal pronouncements a condemnation 
of the United States of America for allegedly engaging in bacterio- 
logical warfare in Korea ? 

Mr. Bridges. Did I know ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Bridges. You are asking me did I sign a proposal or join in 
sponsoring. Then you are asking me something about what happened 
there. 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir. Did you laiow that organization which you 
sponsored issued a proclamation condemning the United States for 
engaging in bacteriological warfare in Korea ? 

Mr. Bridges. I don't ren:iember but I possibly couldn't figure out 
what was going to happen exactly at that conference. 

Mr. Arens. Did you learn that the organization which you spon- 
sored condemned your Government, the Government of the United 
States, for engaging in bacteriological warfare in Korea ? 

Mr. Bridges. I don't know. I am sure if I signed to sponsor that 
conference, it appeared in more papers than just the one that you, with 
your fine degree of selectivity, picked out. Maybe it appeared in some 
capitalist papers. 

Mr. JoHNANSEN. May I ask, with respect to this matter of the 
denials of germ warfare and participation in it by the United States 
being less convincing, do you now adhere to that view ? 

Mr. Bridges. I don't think the evidence is convincing. It's a prettj^ 
mild statement, "less than convincing," and there is a trial going on. 
There has just been one trial in San Francisco where the question of 
bacteriological warfare played a big part in that trial with a couple 
of people being tried. 

Another case is coming on and some of the evidence developed there, 
I think, will support the statement "saying that we don't indulge in 
bacteriological warfare is less than convincing." I dont want to con- 
ceal anything, ]\Ir. Johansen. I think our War Department has a 
department that is set up for that express purpose and it has not been 
outlaAved as yet, and I hear enough statements and war cries of generals 
saying "if and when war starts anything goes," if you want to, ask 
me the direct question. 

Mr. Johansen. My question related directly to whether you believe, 
with respect to the allegation specifically regarding the Korean war, 
that the claims that it vf as not true were less than convincing. 

Mr. Bridges. Yes. It seems to me that that was the nature of the 
question that there was a blanket denial that we wouldn't do such a 
tiling and hadn't done such a thing, and I would say they weren't too 
convincing, in my mind. 

To get back to the othei- thing, let's refer to what is going on here, 
Mr. Johansen, you see. There is a lot of things I do that usually, 
much to my disgust, many times appear in all kinds of papers, but 
what has been singled out here is the Communist Dail}^ Worker, the 



732 PASSPORT SECURITY 

Communist People's World. In other words, the way the committee 
is operating, the only time these things appear, there is the Communist 
this or that. That is dirty pool. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. Is the Commonwealth Club of San Francisco a Com- 
munist organization ? 

Mr. Bridges. It is a very conservative organization. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. That is what I thought. 

Your statements before them were quoted. 

Mr. Bridges. They certainly were and I haven't denied a single one 
of them. 

Mr. Johansen. No ; but you are trying to create the impression that 
the only sources of quotations are from Communist papers. 

Mr. Bridges. They seem to be mighty frequent here and it is em- 
phasized time after time, did I say this in this Communist publication, 
et cetera, et cetera. 

The answer is probably yes, and I also said it through many, many 
other newspapers. That is my point. 

Dig out a few more. 

(Mr. Moulder left the room.) 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Bridges, do you expect next month to go to Tokyo 
to participate in the Pacific- Asia Dock Conference? 

Mr. Bridges. Yes. 

Mr. Arens Do you have a visa to go to Tokyo ? 

Mr. Bridges. Not yet. 

Mr. Arens. You have a U.S. passport, however ? 

Mr. Bridges. I do. 

Mr. Arens. Had you ever applied for a U.S. passport prior to the 
Kent-Briehl decision ? 

Mr. Bridges. No, Mr. Arens. There was too many people in this 
country trying to get me out without a passport — including the U.S. 
Government, for a long, long time. 

Mr. Arens. Had you ever traveled abroad prior to the time of the 
Kent-Briehl decision ? 

Mr. Bridges. I get the pomt. I tried to explain that today. The 
reason I didn't apply for a passport 

Mr. Arens. No ; just answer that first question. 

Mr. Bridges. Was because I — certainly, I traveled all over. I used 
to be a seaman. 

Mr. Arens. After you arrived in the United States for permanent 
residence, did you ever travel abroad prior to the time that the Su- 
preme Court announced the Kent-Brielil decision ? 

Mr. Bridges. No; I told you the story on that. Nearly 25 years 
the Government was trying to run me out. 

Mr. Arens. With the U.S. passport you are going to go to the Pa- 
cific-Asia Dock Conference, too ? 

Mr. Bridges. I hope so. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully suggest that will con- 
clude the staff interrogation of this witness. 

The Chairman. Any questions, Mr. Doyle ? 

Mr. Doyle. Yes. 

The Chairman. Go ahead. 

Mr. Doyle. May I inquire, please, and ask your cooperation in re- 
verting back to your statement about the common interest that your 



PASSPORT SECURITY 733 

union, in fact the dockworkers all over the world have? Because 
you have a common employer in that even though it is under different 
flags. 

Mr. Brddges. Right. 

Mr. Doyle. You work for ships that travel the high seas to dif- 
ferent countries. 

Mr. Bruges. Every port we went to, Congressman, I saw ships 
there being worked in the various ports that our same men had worked 
on the Pacific coast. 

Mr. Doyle. Yes ; I can understand that. 

May I ask you this. When you went to France and to England 
or to the Netherlands, wherever you went, and they were seacoast 
nations, in your conference with fellow trade unionists of other lan- 
guages, nationalities, did you discuss directly or indirectly the matter 
of what the uniform policy should be between your union and the 
other unions with reference to strikes? In other words, you stated 
a few minutes ago in substance, as I understand you, if the union in 
another nation asked your union to strike because they were on strike, 
of course you would do it in reciprocity. 

Mr. BRmoES. Right. 

Mr. Doyle. That is true ; didn't you say that ? 

Mr. Brdxjes. Right. 

Mr. Doyle. Then I presume from that answer that if your union 
asked a union dealing as dockworkers, handling freight, on the high 
seas, for England or France, or any other nation if you asked them 
to strike because you struck, even though they didn't know anything 
about the merits of it, simply the fact that your union struck, they 
would strike, in reciprocity ? 

Mr. BRnx3ES. Oh, no. No. You are off the beam, Congressman. 

Mr. Doyle. Put me on the beam, please. 

Mr. BRrooES. I will be glad to. 

Mr. _ Doyle. To what extent is my question based on sound 
reasoning ? 

Mr. Brtoges. Well, you see the way it works, if we, let us say, have 
a strike on the Pacific coast, now if the ships are not worked, that is 
if strikebreakers are not used to load the ships, then of course that 
cuts down the possibility of trouble. 

Mr. Doyle. That is right. 

Mr. Brtoges. Our reference is within that framework, that if we 
go on strike and if our employers use strikebreakers to get the ships 
away, we merely ask ports everywhere we can reach and we don't 
play any favorites, don't work that ship, she is hot as a firecracker. 
So it is not a strike, it is not that they all walk out on strike. 

Let me give you a better example. I think it makes it clearer. We 
were in London, England. The biggest union in England is the 
Transport and General Workers Union. Most of our discussions 
were with Mr. Frank Cousins and Mr. Tim O'Leary. Mr. Tim 
O'Leary is head of the dockers section of the Transport and General 
Workers and Mr. Cousins is the president of the International Trans- 
port Federation. 

One of the No. 1 demands of the British longshoreman is a pension 
plan like we have. We have $100 a month in addition to social 
security. 



734 PASSPORT SECURITY 

So we were speaking of men working on the British docks, working 
very hard, too, 70 as high as 83 years of age, and I merely pointed out 
that the British shipowners, and we work their ships on the Pacific 
coast — we tax them 231/^ cents a ton for every ton of cargo handled 
for a pension for our workers here in America. Charity begins at 
home. If those British shipowners, and I never yet ran into any 
bankrupt shipowners, if they can pay a tax to pension off our long- 
shoremen here in America, they ought to be able to afford it in Britain. 
If and when the British union says the word, "Don't work British 
ships until they pay us a pension," I will recommend the union I 
represent not to work British ships. 

Mr. Doyle. Thank you for that statement. 

Mr. Bridges. Is that clear ? 

Mr. Doyle. Yes. That is clear as crystal to me. 

Mr. Bridges. A good union program, too, isn't it ? 

Mr. Doyle. I conclude from that statement and that explanation 
that you made, that right now there is a reciprocity between the trade 
unions of many of the nations of the world with your union, that if the 
British trade union dockworkers or any other shipping union, any 
place in the world, perhaps, if they decided to strike for any reason, 
and ask you to cooperate, your union would cooperate in a manner 
of reciprocity and vice versa ? 

Mr. Bridges. I think again you are off the beam. You are talking 
about something cut and dried. Here is as far as it went. As a mat- 
ter of fact, in our discussions with the officers of the British trade 
union they, in effect, said, "Well, we think we will make it without 
anything like that." So they made no request. 

I merely said "but if you reach the point where you think we can 
give you a hand along those lines, let me Imow and we will take it up 
with the union." I was in no position to guarantee it, you see. I say 
generally that was the case, whether it be in France, Germany, or any 
other place. Then we had another problem, you see, that is 

Mr. Doyle. I think you explained my question. 

But I wish to say to you, sir, that my impression is from your prior 
statement and even now that there is enough reciprocity from what 
you say between the dockworker unions in the world to result, if you 

say so, as far as the American union is concerned in a ship workers 

dockworkers strike, if it is of common interest and concern in your 
judgment between the dockworkers of the world, whether it is on 
fringe benefits or whether they hire nonunion workers or whatever 
the cause. Am I wrong ? 

Mr. Bridges. Well, if I understand the question, I ttiink you are 
right, Congressman. In other words, that if we wanted to get an 
increase in wages, for example, I can only talk to the union I represent. 
That is, in this case, the dockworkers on the west coast 

Mr. Doyle. That is right. 

Mr. Bridges. And that we thought the situation was urgent enough 
to send out a request for help to dockworkers in other countries, 
you would say there has already been enough understanding es- 
tablished that we would get a response, maybe not a complete re- 
sponse but a partial response. 

Mr. Doyle. That is right. 

Mr. Bridges. I think that is true. 



PASSPORT SECURITY 735 

Mi\ DoYL,E. Would you yield for one more question ? 

Mr. Bridges. That is exactly what we are ait«r. 

Mr. Doyle. Of course it is. 

Mr. Bridges. What is the matter with it ? 

Mr. Doyle. As I see it, to be frank with you. the danofer of it is 
that the whole shipping program of the United States of America, 
conmiercial ships at least, is controlled by unions who have an under- 
standing at this time, so far as the dockworking is concerned. 

Mr. Bridges. Gee, I wish — the union sure wishes that was true, 
Mr. Congressman. But it is not true. 

Mr. Doyle. And there is great danger in your wish. 

Mr. Bridges. The unions control the shipping situation. 

Mr. Doyle. Of the world, yes. 

Mr. Bridges. Never mind the world. I am talking about America. 
I am talking about the United States. 

Mr, Doyle. All riglit. I think there is great danger to our na- 
tional interests in that one union, your union, as I take it, controls 
the dockworkers of America. 

Mr. Bridges. We don't. 

Mr. Doyle. How near do you come to doing it ? 

Mr. Bridges, "Wliat do you mean ? We don't control a thing. The 
workers in the union control the union. 

Mr. Doyle. But you are employed by the workers in the union 
which controls the dockworkers of our country. 

Mr. Bridges. And they control me and you know that is true. Con- 
gressman Doyle. You are from California and you know our rules, 
probably better than any member of your committee. You know we 
have a rule in our imion that 15 percent of the members in good stand- 
ing can sign a petition in my union and remove me from office like 
that, because my nose is too long. You know that, don't you ? 

Mr. Doyle. Now, may I be permitted to close ? 

In view of your statement that you think I am more or less well 
informed on the shipping problems on the Pacific coast, because I 
am proud of the fact that I was born in California and have lived 
there all my life 

Mr. Bridges. I am a resident by choice. 

Mr. Doyle. I wish to say, Mr. Bridges, I think it is common knowl- 
edge among we citizens of California at least that on account of your 
leadership ability, your tact, your organizational ability, you, your- 
self, are more than just the elected employee of the dockworkers of 
the comitry. 

Mr. Bridges. I am the president. 

Mr. Doyle. In other words, you compliment your union members 
by saying they elect you. I compliment you by saying that they elect 
you because of your leadership abilities, very clearly proven. The 
thing I am getting across to you, that when you answered my ques- 
tions as you have today, I want you to realize that you are in a 
position of very unusual, very great, not only of leadership but of 
worldwide responsibility. And what you do in 7/our union, generally 
speaking, your union does. 

Thank you very much for answering my questions. 

The Chairman. Any questions, Governor ? 

Mr, Tuck. I have no questions. 



736 PASSPORT SECTJRITT 

The Chairman. Mr. Scherer. 

Mr. Scherer. Mr. Bridges, I believe in the early part of your testi- 
mony you referred to Chiang Kai-shek as a bum and said that you 
wouldn't hesitate to call a strike if it meant the tying up of shipping 
of materials that were to be sent to him by the Government of the 
United States, even though the President of the United States had 
concluded that was the thing to do. 

Mr. Bridges. I never said that. 

Mr. Scherer. You didn't say that ? 

Mr. Bridges. That was your saying. I never said it. You asked 
me a question along those lines. I said we have to cross that bridge 
when we come to it and then counsel here dug up an interview with 
Mike Wallace and asked me had I been asked a question and answered 
certain lines at that time. I think I said that was the answer I made 
at that time, yes. 

Mr. Scherer. Yes, I think that jou 

Mr. Bridges. I said Chiang Kai-shek was a bum. I said that, too. 
I will say it again. 

Mr. Scherer. Did you not say that you would not hesitate to call 
a strike if you felt that the sending of arms to Chiang Kai-shek was 
improper ? Didn't you testify to that ? 

Mr. Bridges. No, I didn't. I think I said 

Mr. Scherer. Then your recollection of the testimony is different 
from mine. 

Mr. Bridges. I think it is. It is surprising how testimony here 
seems to get mixed up between myself and the members. But I think 
the record is the best evidence, your memory or mine, Mr. Congress- 
man. 

Mr. Scherer. Mr. Chairman, I don't have any more questions but 
I do have an observation. It seems to me that it is almost inconceiv- 
able that a man like Harry Bridges, head of the Communist-domi- 
nated longshoremen's union, has so much power that he can tie up 
the sliipping on the west coast and Hawaii, almost at will, either in 
time of war or otherwise. There is no question that on his recent trip 
he contacted Commmiist labor leaders throughout the world, so that 
a worldwide shipping boycott can be set up sometime in the near 
future. To me this demonstrates beyond a doubt, beyond the per- 
adventure of a doubt, the need for labor legislation which will de- 
prive men like Bridges and Hoffa of the unconscionable monopolistic 
power they have over the economy of the United States. 

Mr. Bridges. That is not a true statement, Mr. Chairman. 

And there are no facts to support it. I can understand Mr. 
Scherer's attitude if he feels that way. It is the same as his attitude 
of trying to deny statehood for Hawaii. 

Mr. Scherer. That is ri^ht. And since you raised the question, 
after listening to your testimony my vote against Hawaiian state- 
hood looks much, much better. 

]Mr. Bridges. That is the difference between you and I, Congress- 
man. I believe in democracy and practice it. 

The Chairman. Mr. Johansen, do you have any questions? 

IVIr. Johansen. Just one very brief question, Mr. Chairman. 

For the purpose of understanding your position, Mr. Bridges, and 
clarifying the record, is it my imderstanding that you believe that there 



PASSPORT SECURITY 737 

is a basic right, shall we say, as a jpart of this belief in democracy, that 
the unions, by a majority vote or by power delegated to their president 
on the basis of their sentiments and views with regard to national 
issues, may take steps which interfere with national policy in the field 
of national defense and, particularly in case of war, through the inter- 
ference with shipping or the handling of shipments called for in the 
prosecution of national defense or war ? 

Mr. Bridges. The best way I can answer that, Mr. Johansen, is to 
refer you to the record of our union. It is something that has never 
taken place. The questions that I was asked and the discussion took 
place in a certain area where I made it clear. Now you are asking 
me about a war to put Chiang Kai-shek back on the mainland of China. 
These were the questions I was asked and I said that by golly, I 
thought 

Mr. Johansen. I wonder if the witness would direct his answer not 
to the questions that he is referring to that others asked, but the specific 
question wliich I asked. 

Mr. Bridges. I am trying to, Mr. Congressman, believe me, and 
breaking it down, first to deal with the general question instead of 
taking what I say is an answer, I referred you to the record of the 
union I represent in wartime. It is as good or better than any single 
union in this country. Isn't that true, instead of asking me hypo- 
thetical questions ? I won't give a hypothetical answer. 

Mr. Johansen. Pursuing that very statement, am I to understand 
that there has been no instance in which the type of thing that I de- 
scribed, which you referred to as hypothetical, has occurred in war ? 

Mr. Bridges. Eight. Exactly ; you are right on the nose, Congress- 
man. 

Mr. Johansen. Does that mean that there has never been any in- 
stance, in which the handling of shipping for defense purposes, for 
the purpose of the prosecution of war or for the purpose of providing 
medical supplies for men engaged in war, has never been interferred 
with ? 

Mr. Bridges. Absolutely none to my recollection. 

Mr. Johansen. Is that true — understand, we are not quibbling 
over the question of whether the Korean war involved a declaration 
of war or not — is that answer true with respect to the Korean war ? 

Mr. Bridges. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Johansen. And is that true with respect to every instance, to 
your knowledge, in the handling of medical supplies or any other type 
of supplies for troops of the United States engaged in war ? 

Mr. Bridges. To the best — there might be some occasion. That is a 
pretty broad statement. Congressman. By and large it is true when 
you say any other type of supplies. Our experience in strikes, I am 
talking about strikes against private shipping operators, suddenly, 
everything on the damn ship is something that is needed by the troops 
or the Army or something like that. It suddenly becomes that kind 
of cargo as an excuse or as just a public argument. By and large, the 
answer to your question is, it has never happened. 

Mr. Johansen. I have just one other miestion. 

Mr. Bridges. Have I made it clear, Mr. Congressman ? 

Mr. Johansen. I am not pursuing that question further at this 
point. 



738 PASSPORT SECURITY 

Mr. Bridges. All right. 

Mr, JoHANSEN. In some way or other, the reference to Chiang Kai- 
shek as a bimi, has crept into this testimony. Would you characterize 
Mr. Stalin, or Mr. Khrushchev, or any of the world leaders of com- 
munism, by that same term ? 

Mr. Bridges. I think there is quite a difference. 

Mr. Doyle. May I have that answer again, please ? 

The Chairman. He said there is quite a difference. 

Mr. Bridges. I said I think there is quite a difference. 

Mr. Congressman, you are asking me— I assume that the purpose of 
asking these questions — why counsel is getting all agitated here — 'the 
purpose of asking these questions is not to get me out on tlie limb so 
you start some perjury indictments. I am speakmg here pretty 
loosely. I am not consulting with counsel. 

Mr. Doyle. I agree with that on the last answer. 

The Chairman. Some of the answers fall in the same category. 

Mr. Bridges. I agree I have a right. 

Tlie Chairman. Anything further, Mr. Arens ? 

Mr. Arens. No further questions. 

The Chairman. The committee will stand adjourned to meet 
tomorrow morning at 10 o'clock. 

Mr. Bridges. Am I excused, Mr. Chairman ? 

The ChiVirman. You are excused with the thanks of the committee. 

Mr. Bridges. Thank you. 

(Witness excused.) 

(Present: Representatives Walter, Doyle, Tuck, Scherer, and 
Johansen.) 

(Whereupon, at 3 : 50 p.m., Tuesday, April 21, tlie committer 
adjourned to reconvene at 10 a.m., Wednesday, April 22, 1959.) 



(The following is inserted in the record at the dii'ection of Con- 
gressman Gordon H. Scherer, see Part 2, Passport Security Hearings, 
April 22, 1959.) 

INSIDE LABOR 

Why Did Bridges Get Red Carpet? 

By VICTOR RIESEL 

During Harry Bridges' receut visit to Rome, the U.S. Embassy tliere rolled 
out a carpet for him as red as the politics and philosophies of the Soviet lands 
he loves so much. 

Machine-gun-tongued Brother Bridges, whose union was ousted from the old 
CIO on charges of Communist domination, got very, very VIP treatment. 
Embassy officials not only rolled out the carpet, they rolled out one of the 
big U.S. cars so he wouldn't get footsore slogging over the ancient city. 

Bridges, who says most of us lie aboiit the great experiment behind the Bolshoi 
border was taken to lunch by his old neighbor, Ambassador J. D. Zellerbach. 
Because the Ambassador has been gracious to me with his hospitality and hors 
d'oeuvres exhortations against Italian Communists who have several times 
stormed his Embassy, I report quite gently that he has disturbed the State De- 
partment back home. 

THE STATE DEPARTMENT'S AGITATION and investigation does not sur- 
prise me. I recall that during my recent visit to Rome I ran into one of the 
new American diplomats. He wasn't ugly at all. Not even in the striped shirt 
which now has replaced those imperialistic striped pants. He was no cookie 
pusher — he was a Harry Bridges pusher. Every man is entitled to choose his 



PASSPORT SECURITY 739 

own political sauce for his spaghetti. I prefer the white to the red clammy 
variety served up by this expert. 

What the State Department now wants to know of its experts in Italy is why 
they made it so gay for Bridges during the days the head of the Pacific Coast 
Longshoremen's Union was visiting the very same Communist chief who had 
helped organize and whose followers have howled in anti-U.S. and anti-NATO 
riots. 

HARRY BRIDGES' COMRADE-IN-ARMS during the Rome stay was Com- 
munist Party labor chief Agostino Novella. This comrade has done every- 
thing he can to weaken America's defense alliance with Italy and to dislodge 
us from our military bases, waterfront and naval stations there. By our I 
mean, of course, the NATO defense network, too. 

Now, lest you think that Comrade Novella is just another Communist mem- 
ber of the Italian Parliament and leader of powerful pro-Soviet labor cadres, 
I rush to report that the brother has just been promoted. Harry Bridges' 
friend and host was appointed the head of Moscow's global labor network last 
week in Warsaw. 

TOVARISCH NOVELLA NOW IS chairman of the Soviet-controlled labor ap- 
paratus known as the World Federation of Trade Unions. He was "unani- 
mously" named the boss at the 19th session of the WFTU executive board — 
all appointed by Moscow. They gathered in Warsaw four days starting 
April 2. 

This is the world network which has been running almost daily riots in 
Italy, disrupting railroads in Mexico, ripping up oil lines in the Near Bast 
and making plans for new "mass" riots. 

WHEN BRIDGES RETURNED to the San Francisco- Anchorage (Alaska )- 
Hawaii triangle in which he is truly all powerful, he praised the East, knocked 
the West and invited two leading Russian unionists to address his Longshore- 
men's Union convention. 

For this he deserves a red carpet? ? ? ? ? ? 



INDEX 

Individuals 

Pago 

Andersen, George R 660 

Bridges, Agnes (formerly Mrs. Harry Bridges) 659,668 

Bridges, Harry Benton (also known as Harry Dorgan) 659-661, 

666-738 (testimony), 739 

Bridges, Julia Dorgan 670 

Chiang Kai-shek 660, 698, 699, 736-738 

Childs, Morris 726 

Christopher, George 695 

Cousins, Frank 733 

Dennis, Eugene 685 

Dorgan, Harry. (See Bridges, Harry.) 

Foster, William Z 685, 686 

Frachon, Benoit 677, 678 

Fressinet, Andre 679 

Gladnick, Robert 691 

Gladstein, Richard 666 

Glazier, William 659, 673, 675, 706, 712-714 

Goldblatt, Louis 690, 691, 693 

Harmstone, Richard C 708, 712 

Harris (George B.) 681 

Hastings, Jock 676 

Hoffa (James R.) 672, 728, 736 

Hudson, Roy 685, 686 

Jackson, James 726 

Khrushchev, N. S 714. 715, 723. 738 

Kibre, Jeff 691, 694 

Kotomkiua, Lisa 678 

Lenin (V. I.) 714, 720, 723 

Longo, Luigi 683 

Meany (George) 714 

Morris, George 721, 725, 726 

Novella, Agostino 682, 683, 739 

O'Leary, Timothy (J.) 733 

Quill (Michael J.) 685 

Riddleberger, James W 696 

Riesel, Victor 738 

Robertson, J. R 690, 693 

Saillant, Louis 678, 679 

Santi, Fernando 682, 694, 708 

Schmidt, Henry 691, 693, 694 

Stachel, Jack 685-687 

Stalin 720, 738 

Stone (M. Hedley) 685 

Truman (Harry S) 684,730 

Uphaus, Willard 730 

Velson, Irving Charles 690, 691 

Wallace, Mike 698, 736 

Wheeler, George Shaw 705, 706 

Winters (George P.) 708, 712 

Yarosh (O. A.) 707 

Zellerbach (James D.) 696,738 

1 



a INDEX 

Organizations 

Page 

AFI^CIO, executive council ^^^'^^^'Iqr 

Mro-Asian Youth Conference, Cairo, Egypt oyo 

All-Japan Dockworkers TTro^v: tat 700 

All Union Central Council of Trade Unions (U.S.S.R.) 'jlq? 

Arab Federation of Labor ^z[ 

Bombay Dockworkers :::::::::::::::::"iB9,"i84, 685 

Commonw7aTth-cTub-(San Francisco) ;:U:7^^7^^'l^25'?l2 

Communist Party : „„„ 

France ^o-j 

j.-j <>oo 

Soviet Union, Central Committee ^^"^'^^^'l^i 

U.S.A., National Committee i^ 

Communist Youth League _ T-~~~ifZZ.V 

Cooperative Bookshop, Washington. {See Washington Cooperative Book- 
shop.) (>(^!r 

Emergency Civil Liberties Committee «o^ 

Free Trade Union Committee (U.S.S.R.)---- rtt'cts rio 

French General Confederation of Labor (CGT) 677,6<8,b«^ 

Harbour Workers Union of India (Madras) J;<^ 

International Brigades (Spain) — ^^^ 

International Confederation of Free Trade Unions (ICFTU)__---------^^674^ 

International Transport Workers' Federation, ITF ^'^^'flt'lSl'lll 

Transport and General Workers Union of Great Britain ^^^'rlolU 

Italian General Confederation of Labor (CGIL)_- fiSf 

Longhsoremen's and Warehousem^en's^Uni^^^^^^ 

Madras Harbour Workers Union of India. (See Harbour Workers Union 

Pa°iSa*^'irCo>nUoe. Ma, U-IS. 1059, T„..o, .T^apan___^...„-.^^«, 

Sea and River Transport Workers Union (U.S.S.R.)—- 707 

Transport and General Workers Union of Great Britain. (See entry un- 
der International Transport Workers' Federation.) 

United Nations, Ad Hoc Committee on Forced Labour, U.N. and ILO a.) 

U.S. Government: «^q 

Coast and Geodetic Survey RQK~7r\fi 7iq 

r.SZ™:L°ll"!;::::::::::;::™i:nTn5:-^^^^^ 

Embassy, Rome, Italy '^ 

Supreme Court ^---— " ;";>,^ ' 

U S Sponsoring Committee for Representation at the Congress of the 
Peoples for Peace. ( See entry under World Peace Council. ) 

Washington Cooperative Bookshop (District of Columbia) TUb 

Waterside Workers and Seafarers Union of Indonesia o74 

Waterside Workers Federation of Australia oTf 

world Federation of Trade Unions (WFTU) __„_______- -.---^^^^^^^^^^ 

Seamen and Dockers Section (International) -— - 679,680 

World Peace Council, U.S. Sponsoring Committee for Representation at 

the Congress of the Peoples for Peace 730 

Yugoslav Workers' Councils 1 1^,1^6 

Publications 

Dispatcher, The 660, 723-725 

Fortnightly Review ~aR-^~aM~^m 690 

Lavoro (newspaper) oo^- ^84, bsy, byu 

PrAce (newspaper) JiV 

Spotlight 714 



Trud. 



719 



O 



BiiliiiiiB 

3 9999 05706 oi^^i 



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