[■■||i|tifB8|E HE 1 Hp am wR ^S^^m^^^n^ Sketches Class JE^Cl Book .C_iJfq_ PRESENTED l!Y PASTIME SKETCHES SCENES AND EVENTS "THE MOUTH OF EEL" ON = THE HISTORIC WABASH WITH PAPERS READ BEFORE THE CASS COUNTY, INDIANA, HISTORICAL SOCIETY AT ITS SPRING MEETINGS, 1907 W. SWIFT WRIGHT 1907 Author. rsonl. 24 C ) Yv*-^ oa^^, j^+^s^ t St nz£$ttffi*i. "PASTIME SKETCHES' EXPLANATORY In writing these few sketches of earlier days, I have not been haunted by a desire to be known as an author. Nor have I hoped to amass a fortune, as the sale must necessarily be very limited. During a brief residence in New England my attention was called to the great interest displayed there in matters pertaining to local history, and this caused me to realize that much valuable local his- tory is lost through negligence, not only in New England, but throughout the United States. In our own State, Indiana, the pioneers are rapidly passing away. In ten years few will remain to tell the tales of the clearings in the wilderness and of the trails of the red men. During a few days' sojourn at Lo- gansport, my home and native town, I have talked with early settlers and endeavored to add a little to the historical lore of the community. These sketches are not and do not purport to be complete history. They were written as a pastime, and are published simply in the hope that they may prove entertaining to others. While they are not exhaus- tive, care has been taken to make them accurate. The occasional bits of philosophy are not profound, and are entirely gratuitous, so that this is not a serious drawback. To the Cass County Historical Society this work is dedicated, in the hope that it may incite others to greater and better effort. W. S. W. Logansport, Ind., July 20th, 1907. CONTENTS Page Introduction 6 The Study of History 9 "Lo" The Poor Indian 14 Early Wabash Navigation 19 Three Generals in Indian Wars 23 Ye Olde Inns. 25 Early Methods of Transportation 31 Logansport's First Boom 36 Ye Olde Logansport 41 Ye Early Schools 45 Some Suggestions Historical 51 Early Banking in Logansport 55 Ye Olde Markets 61 Some Thoughts of History 64 Logansport in Retrospect 69 The City of Bridges-An Old Handbill 72 A Letter of the Early Days 77 Early Indian Battles 80 An Early Painter 86 A Trip on the Canal 91 A Story of Progress— Railroads 96 Two Rare Books 101 The " Underground Railway" 103 Military History 107 Local Men of National or State Fame 116 Cass County Company First in Civil War 120 Boyhood Sports in Former Days 124 Suggestion of Historical Society Home 128 In Lighter Vein— About Brass Bands 131 And Base Ball Also 136 Historical Society— Organization 141 Constitution 145 First Public Meeting 148 Paper of Mrs. J. W. Ballard 149 Paper of E. S. Rice 153 Paper of Joseph Patterson 170 Second Public Meeting 174 Paper of Mrs M. Y. Buchanan 176 Paper of W. T. Giffe 180 Volunteer Fire Dep't History-H. W. Bringhurst 184 Newspaper History 195 Organized Labor History 203 Sketch of General Cass 207 Authors, Artists and Actors 213 INTRODUCTION The course of empire has ever swept westward. The little colony of Pilgrim Fathers on the shores of the Atlantic was destined, to be the foundation stone of a great republic. As the pioneers pushed westward new hardships were encountered which only served to develop character and make a vig- orous race. The sound of the axe in the unbroken forest was followed by the cabin in the clearing, then came the village, town, and city, and brain succeeded brawn as a civilizing force. The red man sullenly withdrew toward the setting sun until at length his sun was set forever and he became al- most a tradition. The destinies of races and the philosophy of history are rather the themes of essayists, and hardly come within the province of the local histor- ian whose sole mission is to chronicle local events. However an occasional lapse into revery is permis- sable and if in the main the chronicles of the pio- neers are correct a little philosophy will be par- doned. The valley of the Wabash proved an attractive spot to the pioneers, just as it had to the Potta- wattomie and Miami Indians. They were seeking fertile lands as enthusiastically as the "Forty Nin- ers" sought gold in the far west a decade or two later. They opened trading posts and gave the In- dians articles of merchandise they had gotten along without for generations in return for furs and good 6 Pastime Sketches the Indians needed. And it thus came to pass that in time the superior race occupied the lands in the Wabash valley and the Indians were fighting- their last battles from the rocky crevices of barren moun- tains and the alkali plains of the west. There was one particularly charming spot in the Wabash Valley designated on the charts. of the wilderness as the "Mouth of Eel." Two rivers flowed through forests of magnificent grandeur, met and journeyed onward hand in hand to mingle with the waters of the Ohio and later add to the majesty of the Mississippi. The point of juncture of the Wabash and Eel seemed a fitting site for a great city. There were high hills to the north and south and beautiful hills between the two rivers. Many islands then dotted the rivers, the climate was healthful and wild game abounded. And so at the Mouth of Eel log cabins sprung up, trading posts were established and a home-made sign an- nounced a tavern with "entertainment for man and beast." Logansport for a time was a nameless town, then came a christening and sturdy frontiersmen contended for the honor of naming the new born. There was a test of skill with rifle to decide upon whom should fall the honor and thus Logansport came to have a place on the map — "Logan was the friend of the white man," so the old school readers said, and after Logan, the Indian chief, the town was named. The new city was to be the head of navigation on the Wabash. As a port it never reached the greatness planned for it by its found- ers, though in the palmy days of the canal it be- came a substantial shipping point. In this connec- tion however accuracy compels the statement that Pastime Sketches 7 the Chief Logan of the school reader was not the Chief Logan of the Wabash valley but a Pawnnee chief of the eastern forests. Whatever else of growth, progress, change, or decay marked the town as it grew into a city, and later into a city of no mean proportions is best told in a narrative of events. The "City of Bridges" became the "City of Natural Advantages," and the "Capital of Northern Indiana" at the hands of apt newspaper editors. Perhaps it may acquire a new title later on. But that again is not history. PASTIME SKETCHES CHAPTER I. THE STUDY OF HISTORY. Every community reaches a historical stage sooner or later, a period when less time is given to the present and more to the past. It is an era of contemplation and study, rather than of active in- terest in current events only, of calmer philosophy and deeper thought, a more intellectual age, per- haps. It is then the past is studied for the lessons it contains. The individual reaches a similar stage in his journey through life, when he finds a growing interest in the panorama of the past. And so we read history for the wisdom it gives us, for the romance we find in it and for the philosophy it contains. It was Patrick Henry who said, "There is but one lamp by which my feet are guided, and that is the lamp of experience." History has at all times been the favorite study of statesmen. We know that history repeats, that individuals under similar con- ditions will act in a similar manner. From this, conclusions are drawn and wise legislation enacted. There is not much in local history that has a bearing on national character. Rather in this curi- osity is aroused, the imagination is excited and a greater or less degree of awe is inspired. Man is fond of relics, a chip of wood from Old Ironsides commands as much respect as the revolutionary sword of an ancestor. Nor is the value of this trait 10 Pastime Sketches to be underestimated in the formation of character. Truly, man is a historical animal, and the higher the plane of civilization the greater the interest in his- torical data. The restless characteristic that causes man to make history we do not understand. We do not know why nations spring up, rule the earth for a time and decline, why there should be a rise and a fall in a nation like the Roman Empire. We sim- ply know that nations, like individuals, reach a zenith, then decay; that a new race, or a new na- tion, becomes dominant for a time, and gives place to a rising empire. An address on the "Uses of History" was deliv- ered as long ago as 1831 by Andrew Wylie, D. D., president of Indiana College. It is an almost for- gotten document, but so instructive that extracts from it will be interesting. "History," he says, "gives us an insight into our own nature. In the past ages of the world man has been placed in al- most every possible condition that the nature of earthly things can furnish. The power of all sorts of institutions of all sorts of systems, and forms of government — and of every conceivable religious and philosophical creed, and of every possible com- bination of circumstances has been, at one time or another, tried upon him — and truly he has occa- sionally exhibited strange phases of character, and been seen ranging the scale of qualities from the point where he affronts the brute up to that which shows him to be on the confines of angelic nature. Whatever be his tendencies and capacities, his power and frailties, we shall find them in history; for they have all been developed." In another paragraph he says: Pastime Sketches 11 "There is no road to earthly good, real or imagi- nary, in which some of mankind have not pursued it, with all the ardor and energy of which their na- ture was susceptible. They have heaped up wealth, courted honor, grasped at power, sought for pleas- ure in every way and by all expedients. The scep- ter, the miter, the sword, art, nature, solitude, so- ciety, everything has been tried, and man has come away from them all, dissatisfied. Those things which men, usually, most intensely covet, have been found by experience to be supremely worthless. One seeks to be prime minister of a great nation, obtains the office, and stabs himself. Another, weary of royalty, renounces it, and then goes to war to recover what he had voluntarily resigned. A third aims at universal empire, spends years of relentlessness and sheds oceans of blood to obtain it, and dies, chained to a rock. "What do you in- tend," said Cyneas to Pyrrhus, preparing for an expedition into Italy, "when you have subdued the Romans?" "Pass into Sicily." "What then?" "Conquer the Carthagenians." "And what next?" "Return home and enjoy ourselves." "And why," said the sensible minister, "can we not do the last even now?" In 1848 John B. Dillon, formerly of Logansport, delivered an address on "The National Decline of the Indians." In that discourse he treats of the Indian as a relic of barbarism and rejoices in the dawning of civilization. In this, of course, he is right, but he does not discuss the causes of the rise and fall of that nation. "If we look backward," he says, "through a period of more than one hundred and fifty years, to the dawning of civilization in the west, at every point where a ray of light illuminates 12 Pastime Sketches the condition of the Miami Indians, we shall behold mournful evidences of the downward progress of a great aboriginal nation, and we shall learn, too, something of the slow and sad means by which a vast and beautiful region has been reclaimed from a state of barbarism." In the early part of the eighteenth century, along in 1700, the Miami Indians occupied all of Indiana and a great part of Ohio. They had numerous vil- lages and were a great and powerful nation. How long before this they had been supreme in this ter- ritory is not known, probably for many hundred years. As early as 1670 missionaries visited this tribe about the southern shores of Lake Michigan. Later the Pottawatomies swept down from the north and crowded the Miamis south beyond the Wabash river, the dividing line when the whites drove both tribes west of the Mississippi. Thus we have the facts of history, the rise and fall of this great nation, and a study of the causes can not be but instructive. The pioneers did all in their power to civilize the Indians. They established schools and churches for them, taught them agriculture, sent many of the younger men to colleges, where they were educated in the knowledge of the white people, but with few exceptions they returned to their native haunts and to the customs of their native tribes. It was a new epoch, a new race, and the Indian, as a remnant of the old, adopted only what was vicious in the cus- toms of the white man and stubbornly refused to learn that which was good. It is a lamentable fact, but vice as well as virtue was taught the Indians, and history records that the vice they were taught rapidly hastened their downfall. Pastime Sketches 13 Whatever the cause, a once noble race, which roamed the forests with unerring step, which en- gaged in brave and brilliant warfare, which attacked the wild beasts of the jungle with prowess and courage, became weak, decadent and finally disap- peared while a new race, skilled in art and agricul- ture, cleared away the forests, cultivated the fields, built cities of magnificent architecture, established schools and temples and took up the burden of a more advanced civilization. It was not a progress by a mingling of races nor by assimilation of the old. It was an abrupt transformation, the death of the old race, the birth of the new. By an immutable law of nature we do not un- derstand races arise, exist and disappear. Call it progress if you will, or only change, for there are lost arts and forgotten civilizations. The fact re- mains that we are today occupying the homes of a race of human beings practically extinct. When we go to Rome we do as the Romans do, but we did not at any time adopt the Indian life and customs. It was an epoch in history, a change of civilizations, and we are the pioneers of the new in this part of the world. It seems almost beyond belief that there are men now living who saw this country as an almost impassable wilderness, Logansport as a village in the forest and Indians camping at the "Point," and lounging about the village tavern or the village store. Many men not old in years remember tales of the early days told by their mothers, born farther east, of Indians asking for food or water at their doors when first they came as brides to this village in the wilderness. Here this has become history, a little further west it is still reality, though the end of the Indian race is not far distant. 14 Pastime Sketches CHAPTER II. "LO," THE POOR INDIAN. While Logansport was still young, "Lo, the poor Indian" was invited to go west. The invita- tion is a rare piece of literature in its wording. It is dignified and charitable. The pale face did not want the timbered lands of the red man, he loved the Indian and wanted to make him happy, and so found for him in the west a broader forest filled with bigger game. The invitation is interest- ing in that it shows the dwindled strength of the Miamis and Pottawatomies at the time to have been less than two thousand. It is also interesting to note that notwithstanding the benevolent tone of the invitation, the Indians declined to accept it, and in the transfer which was made the chiefs were taken in chains and the tribes escorted by an armed force. The joint resolution passed by the Indiana legislature in 1830 reads as follows : "The memorial of the general assembly of the State of Indiana respectfully represents that two tribes of Indians, about two thousand in number, reside within the limits of this State, the means of subsisting by the chase being diminished, pos- sessing neither the knowledge nor inclination to change their native customs, the total extinction of these people seems to be as rapid and inevitable as are the approaches and influence of civiliza- tion and improvement upon the forests which they inhabit. To endeavor to avert from the Pottawa- Pastime Sketches 15 tomies and Miamis the fate which has attended many of their kindred tribes is a duty sanctioned by a regard for the national reputation, and by every humane and philanthropic consideration. As the best means of accomplishing so desirable a re- sult, and of securing the happiness of the aboriginal race, your memoralists respectfully and earnestly urge the adoption of measures to induce the Indians within this State to abandon, from choice, those narrow forests, where they can now acquire but a precarious and scanty subsistence, and to emigrate to the country west of the Mississippi which is so much better adapted to their wants and their habits. The benevolent and patriotic views and recommen- dations of the President of the United States, on this subject, of which they tender their cordial ap- probation, render it unnecessary for your memoral- ists to offer arguments in detail. As a preliminary measure to the removal of the Indians, your me- moralists also request that an appropriation may be made in order to extinguish their title to such lands as border on the line of the Wabash and Erie canal, their possession of which greatly impedes the progress of that important work and arrests the settlement and improvement of the most interesting and desirable part of Indiana ; Resolved, by the gen- eral assembly of the State of Indiana, that the gov- ernor be requested to forward a copy of the fore- going memorial to each of our senators and repre- sentatives in congress, to be laid before that body at its present session." Congress acted on the resolution and passed a law appointing a commission of three to carry it out. The history of Indiana and Cass county by Thomas B. Helm contains accurate and interesting 16 Pastime Sketches detail of these early days before Indiana was a State, and, in fact, gives much interesting Indian data. With that wealth of information at hand further detail is not necessary, and it would be mere repetition to cover that period of the country's his^ tory. Some of the Indians went earlier, but the last sad farewells to the haunts of their ancestors was said in the summer of 1838, when Colonel Abel C. Pepper, the Indian agent, and General John Tip- ton escorted, by order of congress, a body of one thousand Pottawatomies to the new reservation west of the Mississippi. Several years later the Miamis were removed to their new home. Perhaps no more graphic description of the farewell can be written than that given in the Helm history. It says : "It was a sad and mournful spectacle to witness these children of the forest slowly retiring from the home of their childhood, that contained not only the graves of their revered ancestors, but also many endearing scenes to which their memories would ever recur as sunny spots along their pathway through the wilderness. They felt that they were bidding farewell to the hills, valleys and streams of their infancy ; the more exciting hunting grounds of their advanced youth, as well as the stern and bloody battlefields where they had contended in riper manhood, on which they had received wounds, and where many of their friends and loved relatives had fallen, covered with gore and with glory. All these they were leaving behind them, to be dese- crated by the plowshare of the white man. As they cast mournful glances back toward these loved scenes that were rapidly fading in the distance, tears fell from the cheek of the downcast warrior, old men trembled, matrons wept, the swarthy maid- Pastime Sketches 17 en's cheek turned pale, and sighs and' half-sup- pressed sobs escaped from the motley groups as they passed along, some on foot, some on horseback, and others in wagons — sad as a funeral procession. Several of the aged warriors were seen to cast glances toward the sky, as if they were imploring aid from the spirits of their departed heroes, who were looking down upon them from the clouds, or from the Great Spirit, who would ultimately redress the wrongs of the red man, whose broken bow had fallen from his hand, and whose sad heart was bleeding within him. Ever and anon one of the party would start out into the brush and break back to their old encampments on Eel river and on the Tippecanoe, declaring that he would rather die than be banished from their country. Thus scores of discontented emigrants returned from different points on their journey ; and it was several years before they could be induced to join their country- men west of the Mississippi." When we recall that the original thirteen States, organizing the Union in 1776, comprised only a small portion of the eastern part of the United States, and that the part of the country east of the Mississippi river as far east as these States was "territory" of which we were part, being from 1776 to 1816 part of the Northwest Territory, we can realize the rapid growth made almost within the memory of men now. living. It was only in 1803 that the "Louisiana Purchase" from France gave us all the territory west of the Mississippi river to the Rocky mountains, and it was not until 1845 that Texas, part of Mexico, was annexed. We ac- quired part of the territory west of the Rocky mountains by treaty with Mexico in 1848, all that 18 Pastime Sketches part of the country south of Idaho and Wyoming. Oregon and the territory to the north of this bound- ary line became ours by discovery a hundred years ago. Washington Irving's description of the found- ing of Astoria in this territory will be found very interesting. The Indians still occupy reservations in the western territory, but the progress of the pale face has been ruthless, and the Indian race will soon disappear. John Elliot came over in the Lyon, the next boat after the Mayflower. He translated the Bible into the Indian language and preached to the In- dians at the colony of Massachusetts. The old El- liot church is still standing in Roxbury, Massachu- setts. We do not know what the Indians thought of us who deprived them of their "happy hunting grounds" here and sent them to the "happy hunt- ing grounds" of the hereafter. However that may be, the writer of history does not philosophize, but narrates. The race occupying the boundless plains and almost impenetrable forests has disappeared, and a new civilization has sprung up, a nobler peo- ple with higher ideals and grander ambitions. Pastime Sketches 19 CHAPTER III. EARLY WABASH NAVIGATION. For years it has been an open question as to whether or not steamboats ever plied on the Wa- bash as far up as this city. The question is settled by Sanford C. Cox in his book, "Recollections of the Early Settlement of the Wabash Valley." It will be seen that steamboats did ply as far as this point — one rather was dragged as far as the point below the Third street bridge and the other plied after many efforts past this city and as far as Peru. In narrating these efforts the book says : "During the June freshet in 1834, a little steamer called the Republican advertised that she would leave the wharf at Lafayette for Logansport on a given day. A few of us concluded to take a pleas- ure trip on the Republican, and be on the pioneer steamboat that would land at Logansport, a thriv- ing town situated at the confluence of the Wabash and Eel rivers, in the heart of a beautiful and fertile region of country. At the hour appointed the Re- publican left the landing at Lafayette, under a good head of steam, and "walked the waters like a thing of life." We soon passed Cedar Bluffs, Davis' Fer- ry, the mouths of Wild Cat and Tippecanoe, and began to anticipate a quick and successful trip. But soon after passing the Delphi landing the boat stuck fast upon a sandbar, which detained us for several hours. Another and another obstruction was met with every few miles, which we overcame with 20 Pastime Sketches much difficulty, labor and delay. At each success- ive sandbar the most of the boat's crew and many of the passengers got out into the water and lifted the boat, or pulled upon a large rope that was ex- tended to the shore — an important auxiliary to steam power to propel the vessel over these ob- structions. Night overtook us stuck fast upon the bottom of the river below Tipton's port. "Several days and nights were spent in fruitless attempts to get over the rapids. All hands, except the women and a few others, were frequently in the water up to their chins, for hours together, endeav- oring to lift the boat off the bar. The water fell rapidly and prevented the boat from either ascend- ing farther up or returning down the river. While at this place we were visited by several companies of well dressed and fine looking Miami and Potta- watomie Indians, of all ages and sexes, who would sit for hours on the bank, admiring the boat, which they greatly desired to see in motion, under a full head of steam. After four days and nights' ineffect- ual efforts to proceed, the boat was abandoned by all except the captain and part of his crew. "Two or three weeks afterwards over a dozen yokes of large oxen were brought down from Lo- gansport, and the Republican was hauled over rip- ples and sandbars to Logansport, and the citizens of that place and the surrounding country had the luxury of a steamboat arrival on the Fourth of July, and Captain Towne had the (doubtful) honor of being the commander of the first steamboat that visited Logansport ; for it cost him his boat, which bilged soon after its arrival in port, and its hull, years afterward, might be seen lying sunk to the Pastime Sketches 21 bottom of the Wabash near its confluence with the waters of Eel river." "During the next summer there was another June freshet in the Wabash, and the steamboat Science was advertised for a trip to Logansport, Peru and Chief Godfrey's Village above the mouth of the Mississinewa. The unusually high stage of the river gave fine promise of a successful trip up the Wabash. At Delphi and other points along the river, considerable accessions were made to our company. The boat reached Logansport without any difficulty. There was a large increase of pas- sengers from this point. The Tiptons, Laselles, Durets, Polks, Johnsons and many others of the old settlers of the town turned out, many of them with their entire families, for a steamboat excursion, to visit the neighboring town of Peru and their abo- riginal neighbors and valuable customers at God- frey's Village. "The boat left the wharf at Logansport under a full head of steam, which was considered necessary to carry her over the rapids a short distance above town. Our gallant boat failed to make the ripple, and after puffing and snorting for about two hours without gaining over forty feet, she dropped back to the foot of the rapids, where several hundred of the passengers went ashore to walk around the rapids. Rosin, tar and sides of bacon were freely cast into the fire, to create more steam, and another longer and stronger effort was made to get over the rapids, but in vain. "After narrowly escaping the destruction of his boat, the captain deemed it prudent to drop down to Logansport again and lighten the boat. Over two hundred barrels of flour and salt were taken off the 22 Pastime Sketches boat, which laid that night at the landing at Lo- gansport and one hundred or more of the citizens of Lafayette and Delphi shared the hospitality of their neighbors at Logansport. After all the hotels and boarding houses were filled to overflowing, private houses were thrown open to accommodate those who could not get lodging on the boat, and next morning scores were willing to bear witness to the kindness and hospitality of the citizens of Logans- port. ''After breakfast the most of the passengers walked around the rapids, and the steamer passed over them the first effort. All joined in congratu- lations for the success of the morning, which was considered a favorable omen for a successful and pleasant trip. We soon reached Miamisburg and Peru, two little rival towns on the west bank of the Wabash." Pastime Sketches 23 CHAPTER IV. THREE GENERALS IN INDIAN WARS. In addition to General Tipton, a hero of Tippe- canoe, and General Crooks, who commanded Penn- sylvania troops at Ft. Meigs, in Ohio, Logansport had another general conspicuous in Indian warfare. General Walter Wilson was born in Kentucky in 1782. His father soon afterwards settled at "old Post Vincennes," in Knox county. In 1811, when 29 years of age he was sent by Gov. Harrison on a mission to Prophets Town on the Wabash. On his return from this, a successful trip, he was sent to meet Tecumseh to express Governor Harrison's dis- approval of the warrior violating his agreement. He met Tecumseh about twenty miles above Post Vincennes. where he had no right to be. An expedi- tion of which he was in command was soon after- wards fitted out to punish the Indians for numerous acts of hostility. They reached Prophets Town No- vember 6th and took part in the battle of Tippecanoe the day following. Wilson was promoted to the posi- tion of colonel for bravery in that fight, and in the attack on the Mississinewa towns, July, 1813, com- manded the left flank. He continued in the suc- ceeding campaigns against the Indians, acquitting himself with credit and earning the title of general. He was a member of the legislative council of the territory in 1810, and continued a member through several sessions. He was also a member of the first legislature after the organization of the State in 24 Pastime Sketches 1816. In 1828 he moved to Cass county and pur- chased the farm on the north bank of Eel river opposite Riverside Park. In 1831 and 1832 he rep- resented Cass and Carroll counties in the legisla- ture. He died in 1838 and was buried with Masonic honors. His grave on his old farm, the Spry Sunny- side farm, is marked by a monument and a small inclosure. His son, William Wilson, was postmas- ter just after the war. and grandsons, W. W. Wil- son and Byron Wilson, were mail carriers for sev- eral years. Mrs. Anna Chandler of this city is a granddaughter and Walter W. Chandler a great- grandson. Pastime Sketches 25 CHAPTER V. YE OLDE INNS. The early taverns of our town could many a tale unfold were some one living to tell them. There were gathered the pioneer and patriot who knew no fear, and often with them the redskin, gradually being driven out by the pale face. The earliest Cass county hostelry had no name. The rude home-made sign bore the words, "Entertain- ment by A. Chamberlain." The hotel was a small log cabin, located on the south bank of the Wabash, opposite the mouth of Eel river. Mr. Chamberlain was the first settler, and, strange to say, at once started a hotel. He came in August. 1826, and began to look around for a business opening. The hotel business caught his fancy. He knew that all great enterprises had small beginnings and as he was sure of at least one guest all the year round, himself, he put his money into this enterprise. He no doubt was a little lonesome at first, playing the part of proprietor, clerk, bellboy, cook, chambermaid and guest, but he became used to it. However, Indian agents, traders and pio- neers were soon on hand as guests, and the hotel prospered. No doubt many blood-curdling tales were told about its fireside. The schedule of rates fixed later by the commissioners read as follows: "For keeping a horse one night, hay and grain, 50 cents: for victualling, per meal, 2? cents; lodging, 1 J ' _. cents: brandy, per half pint, 50 cents: wines. 26 Pastime Sketches per half pint, 50 cents; rum, per half pint, 50 cents; Holland gin, 50 cents; whisky, per half pint, 25 cents." The schedule is rather long on liquors and short on foods. Quail on toast and saddlerocks on the half shell were not available, probably. The mo- tive of the commissioners in making the rates is not disclosed. It will probably never be known whether Mr. Chamberlain was overcharging, and had to be held down, or whether the guests were remonstrat- ing, and had to be held up. Neither does history say whether or not Mr. Chamberlain wore a dia- mond scarf-pin and said "Front" in a stern tone of voice. The second hotel, and the first one in Logans- port proper, was built by Israel Johnson, who came to Logansport in 1826. It was also the first two- story building in the county. It is still standing, on Market street, between second and Third, oppo- site the Catholic church. Mr. Johnson was born in Washington county, Pennsylvania, in 1803, and came to Richmond, Ind., at the age of 17. Four years later he moved to Logansport. He was a member of the town council and later a prominent business man. He died in 1866. The hotel had no particular name, but was the best hotel in town at that time. An old ford crossed the Wabash river at Second street, and, as there were no bridges, expected guests frequently slept in the woods on the south bank of the river when the water was high. Indians often camped at "The Point" just below. There was a wide porch at the back of the house, the roof extending over it, and parties of Indians once in a while asked permission to sleep on the porch. They were allowed to do Pastime Sketches 27 this, as they were friendly and harmless. Mr. John- son soon engaged in commercial business, and made quite a fortune for those days. At the time of his death he was one of Logansport's leading business men. After the building of the Michigan road and the Wabash and Erie canal in the middle "thirties" many taverns sprung up in town and county. The Ashland House, corner Third and Market streets, was probably the next hotel in Logansport. It was a frame and was later the Cullen House. It stood where the Catholic school now stands. In it was the office of the stage coaches, which ran north to South Bend, south to Indianapolis and east and west. Jo- seph Cullen was the proprietor, and about 1852 was appointed an Indian agent and went west. Job Eldridge moved the house across the street for a residence, where it is still standing, when Cullen built the brick Cullen House on the site. It was continued as a hotel for several years. The Leamy House, afterwards the Layton House and Panhan- dle Station, about the site of the Western Union Telegraph office, was built prior to 1838, and was a hotel for many years. The old Barnett was built by Colonel Vigus prior to 1838. It was kept by Mr. Humbert and was called the Washington Hotel. Colonel Vigus had to move in from his farm and run it. Alexander Barnett, "Alec," as he was called, was a famous host of the Wabash Valley. He bought and enlarged the hotel in the early fifties and made it an attractive place for visitors for many years. The block alongside down to Second street was filled with frame business houses and was known as "Commercial Row." He afterwards built and managed the present Barnett Hotel. Of the 28 Pastime Sketches present hotels the Gehring House, now the Johnston Hotel, the New Barnett and the Murdock come within the memory of those now living. Both the New Barnett and the Murdock have had disastrous fires, but with no loss of life. One of the older hotels was the Bliss House on the Southside, but it was built comparatively re- cently. The Panhandle Station was near it, the road not crossing the river then, and it was on the new line of the Michigan road, which originally crossed the Wabash river at a ford below Uhl's mill and came up the north bank of Eel river to a point above Sixth street, where it continued north. The Klopp House was a well known hotel facing Eel river just above Sixth street, on the Northside, and the building, a frame, is still standing. It gained some notoriety in the early days by reason of a murder on the Michigan road near there, the murderer hanging himself in jail. The Keystone House, northwest corner Sixth and Broadway, and the Larimore House, just be- low it, were considered hotels in the earlier days. Along the Michigan road, north of town, taverns sprung up to meet the needs of travelers along that highway. There was a ''Four Mile House," on the McDowell farm, owned by Clay Metzger ; a "Seven Mile House," built before 1837, and managed by James Troutman until 1853; a "Nine Mile House" on the farm owned by Joseph Penrose and which was kept by a man named Demoss, and later, from 1856 to I860, by Wilson Booth. The "Twelve Mile House" was just over the Fulton county line on a farm afterwards owned by Williamson Wright, and there was one at the town of Fulton, and others t»c- Pastime Sketches 29 tween that and Rochester. Those were the thrill- ing days of the stage coach. The canal was also a great thoroughfare and every town had its tavern. There was a hotel at Lewisburg, built in the forties by David Miller and afterwards managed by the father of Samuel Pan- ned. It was used as a boarding house later by a Mr. Smott, killed in a runaway. His widow con- ducted it for several years, and for a time at least part of it was used as a grocery. The hotel at Georgetown, which was to be the head of naviga- tion on the Wabash, was a log building, and stood where the John T. Wiley store stands now. Dr. ]. B. Shultz, whd was born at Lockport, three miles below, remembers as one of his boyhood experi- ences a guest there hastily coming to their house on horseback at 3 o'clock in the morning with the story that he had overheard some men in the next room planning to kill and rob him, and had made his escape. Mr. Strowbridge, a Philadelphia mil- lionaire, of the dry goods firm of Strowbridge & Clothiers, corner Eight and Market streets, Phila- delphia, began his career there, clerking in the coun- try store, and afterwards for Pollard & Wilson in Logansport. Resides these there was a hotel built of brick in 1843 at the corner of Fourth and Market - streets, where the dry goods store now stands. It was painted yellow and was quite pretentious in its day. It was kept by Mr. Guiger, and J. C. Merriam first found there a home when he came to Logansport to make his fortune. The old Nash House, corner Sixth and High streets, was for many years a popu- lar stopping place, and the Larimore House, on North street, between Fifth and Sixth, was fre- 30 Pastime Sketches quented by farmers. Perhaps there were many others, but interest centers more around those of the early days when guests went armed and In- dians dropped in for a chat, looking for a Delmonico in that wilderness. Pastime Sketches 31 CHAPTER VI. EARLY METHODS OF TRANSPORTATION. A few years ago two small books were found in a collection of old relics dating back to the stage coach days. Tha. first was dated in 1838 and the later in 1847, and showed the stage routes. They were copies of "Indiana Delineated and Stage Guide for Travelers to the West." In the stage days Philadelphia was the center of trade, and the guide books carefully told tourists how to get there. In those days a man who had been to New York and back was a seven day wonder. The average charge in Indiana for stage coach transportation was 5 cents a mile and the rate of travel in fair weather about eight miles an hour. Many of the coaches stopped at night after making sixty miles in the daytime, but on the National road, east and west through Indianapolis, the coaches did not stop at night, and made 150 miles every twenty- four hours, the horses being changed often, the tourist sleeping but little. The trip from Evansville to Logansport took a week in good weather. In bad weather all schedules were abandoned, and a speed of over two miles an hour was often impos- sible. An old map of stage coach routes in Indiana in 1838 is remarkable in that it shows with what uni- formity railroads succeeded stage coach routes. Lo- gansport then, as now, was a commercial center and "the capital" of northern Indiana, being situ- 32 Pastime Sketches ated in the center of all that part of the State north of Indianapolis. Stage coaches ran from Logans- port to Indianapolis, to Delphi and Lafayette, to Pern, Wabash and Ft. Wayne, to Marion by way of Pern, to Kokomo and Muncie, to Xorth Man- chester, to Monticello, to Plymouth and South Bend and to other points by changes. There was no di- rect line to Chicago and none to Frankfort and Crawfordsville. The Wabash and Erie canal boat followed the stage coach a few years later. Twenty years after this map was made the rail- roads were destroying the usefulness of the stage coach. The first railroad into Logansport was opened in 1857. It was an extension of the Rich- mond and Newcastle road, and finally became the Cincinnati branch of the Panhandle. It came into Logansport on the Southside, and the station, water tank and turntable were just west of the turnpike, : ew rods south of the Wabash river. The hole dug for the turntable is all that is left to mark the spot. The first engine used on the road was a rather small affair. It was brought on a canal boat from the east and dragged to the track on the Southside. Travel was not very brisk in those days. When the Taber dam was built in the Wabash above Eighteenth street in 1859 the lumber was sawed at a mill owned by Williamson Wright at Lincoln. A car load was brought in at a time, the car being atttached to the passenger train and left standing on the main track, near the dam, until the next day. It was unloaded in the meantime, and the passenger train took the empty car back the next day. The trains were not very rapid nor the road very smooth, but it was quite a step in ad- vance of the old stage coach. The ulterior purpose Pastime Sketches 33 of the projectors was not disclosed, probably- through fear of competition, but it was announced that the road would be extended southward along the line of the present Wabash road to Lafayette, and the line was surveyed and graded for some dis- tance. The probability is that this later line was intended as a branch, both lines uniting at Logans- port, with an extension north to Lake Michigan. The proposition of a railroad coming up one side of the State and going down the other was, how- ever, the one presented to the public. The history of this road is interesting. On the 6th of February, 1848, a charter was issued to the Newcastle and Richmond Railroad Company, and in 1851 the charter was amended to permit the road to extend north to some undetermined point on the Wabash river. The name at that time was changed to the Cincinnati, Logansport & Chicago Railway Company. Actual work was commenced in 1851, but it was not completed until later. The extension to Logansport was completed in the years fol- lowing, and the road was formally opened for busi- ness in 1857. William Lincoln, after whom the town of Lincoln was named, was the constructing engineer, and he afterwards built the Taber dam in the Wabash. In later years he was connected with the Wabash railroad, and lived at Logansport. Williamson Wright was president of the road. Following the Columbus division of the Panhan- dle, the Columbus & Piqua Railway Company was incorporated under the laws of Ohio, and was to be built to the Indiana State line. In 1852 the Marion and Mississinewa Valley Railway Company was incorporated to construct a road from Marion to Union City on the Ohio State line, and in 1853 34 Pastime Sketches the Marion and Logansport Railway Company was incorporated to build from Logansport to Marion to connect at Anoka Junction with the Richmond road and enter Logansport on its tracks. The two were consolidated in 1854, and were afterwards sold to the L T nion & Logansport Railroad Company, which was incorporated in 1863. The road was opened up for business March 15th, 1868. The State Line road, as it is called, was incor- porated in 1853 under the name of the Logansport & Pacific Railway Company. William Chase of Logansport was president, and David M. Dunn of Logansport one of the directors. September 12th, 1854, the name was changed to the Logansport, Peoria & Burlington Railroad Company, and work was commenced, but soon abandoned. The first named company executed a mortgage for one million dollars in 1853 to raise money to build the road, and T. H. Wilson and E. S. Rice signed as witnesses to the same, which was acknowledged before Charles B. Laselle, notary public. The road was changed to the Toledo, Logansport & Burlington Railway Company in 1858, and was formally opened for business July 1st, 1860. September 25th, 1857, the Chicago & Cincinnati Railroad Company was incorporated to build a road from Logansport to Valparaiso. The name was changed to the Chicago & Great Eastern Railway Company in 1863, and the terminus was changed to the eastern boundary of Illinois at Chicago. This consolidated with the Galena & Illinois River Railroad Company the same year, retaining the Great Eastern company name. A similar consolidation was made with the Chicago & Galena Railroad Company in 1867. The Cincin- nati & Chicago Air Line, incorporated in 1860, was Pastime Sketches 35 also absorbed in 1865, and these all went to form the Great Eastern. Work was commenced north of Logansport in 1858 by the Cincinnati & Chicago Railroad Company, and the road to Chicago was formally opened in 1861. The Columbus, Chicago & Indiana Central Rail- road Company in 1868 was formed by a consolida- tion of the Columbus & Indiana Central, the Chi- cago & Great Eastern and the Toledo, Logansport & Burlington. By foreclosure of a mortgage and sale, the Chicago, St. Louis & Pittsburg Railroad Company, just formed, came into possession of this property in 1883. The result of a consolidation of the Jeffersonville, Madison & Indianapolis, this company and the Pittsburg, Cincinnati & St. Louis from Pittsburg to Columbus, in 1892, was the pres- ent great system known as the Pittsburg, Cincin- nati. Chicago & St. Louis Railway Company. The Wabash Valley railroad was the second line into Logansport. In later years the Eel River, the Logansport, Crawfordsville & Southwestern and the Vandalia north were built. 36 Pastime Sketches CHAPTER VII. logansport's first boom. Logansport had its first boom when the Michi- gan road was built. There were no railroads, and the canal was not dug, so that a through wagon road was a great enterprise. One of the great projects of early days was a wagon road from Lake Michigan to the Ohio river, and it received both national and State aid. Governor James B. Ray was an earnest advocate of the road. In 1826 con- gress authorized a treaty with the Miami and Pot- towatomie Indians, which was entered into October 16th. James B. Ray, General John Tipton of this city, and General Lewis Cass of Michigan, after whom Cass county was named, were the commis- sioners for the United States. By this treaty the Indians ceded a tract of land one hundred feet wide for a road and also one section of land for each mile of the road. The treaty also ceded a strip of land on Lake Michigan ten miles wide and several miles long for a suitable terminus for the road. For this concession, amounting to 171,414 acres, the Indians were to receive $2,000 in silver for twenty-two years, annually, a government blacksmith shop, a grist mill and 160 bushels of salt annually. In 1827 congress passed an act authorizing the road, and January 24th, 1828, the State legislature provided for a survey. The first 36 miles were in the Terri- tory of Michigan, admitted as a State ten years later. At the thirty-six mile post, where the road Pastime Sketches 37 entered Indiana, was afterwards located South Bend. Most of the country was dense forest, and trees had to be cut and stumps left not more than one foot above the level ground, grubbed thirty feet wide in the center of the road. In the swamps trees were rolled in to make a corduroy road. Lands were sold at public auction to pay for the road, and at South Bend on the first Monday in June, 1832, a sale of 13,709 acres brought in $18,134. A later sale in October of the same year of 15,113 acres brought in $26,635. At the close of October, 1832, there had been sold 58,432 acres at $90,141. Some of the lands in the central part of the State brought as high as $5.00 per acre. All but 1,840 acres had been sold up to 1836, and the money had gone into the construction. By February, 1832, the road had been opened from the Ohio river through Indianapolis to Logansport. By 1834 the road was completed and opened, though improve- ments continued for two or three years. Work ceased on it in 1837, and it was turned over to local authorities to keep in repair. It was 264 miles long and cut quite a figure in the early development of Indiana. The expenditures were $242,000 and the receipts from the sale of lands $241,331. In Cass county it followed the line of the present Burling- ton turnpike, except that it followed a line west of the Judge Chase residence south of town and crossed the Wabash just below Uhl's Mill. North it followed the line of the present road to Metea and Fulton. The road was not as smooth as as- phalt by any means, and those who traveled over it in the old-fashioned stage coaches never forgot the experience. Still, it was the main road north 38 Pastime Sketches and south through the State, and it made Logans- port quite a business center. This was especially so when the Wabash and Erie canal crossed it in 1838. In 1836 Indiana borrowed $12,000,000 for inter- nal improvements. Besides the Wabash and Erie canal, the State projected the White River canal, the Central canal, the Crosscut canal, the Madison & Lafayette railroad and the New Albany & Vin- cennes railroad. Up to 1838 fifty miles of the canal were in operation, and in that year the State re- ceived $1,398.37 in tolls. From October 1st, 1839, to November 1st, 1840, the State earned $14,561.11 in tolls. Thousands of acres of canal lands were sold, and a great boom was started in the towns along the route. The canal was in operation from Ft. Wayne to Logansport in 1838, and was extended westward in 1839. Logansport at the intersection of the canal and the Michigan road, had the greatest opportunity of any to become a great business cen- ter, but some of the other cities outgrew it. Ground for the canal was first broken at Ft. Wayne on February 22, Washington's birthday, and the event was made the occasion of a great celebration. Canal Commissioner Vigus turned the first spadeful of earth. July 4th, 1843, the first packet, "Indiana," arrived from Ft. Wayne at Huntington, and Hugh McCulloch, twice secretary of the national treasury, delivered an oration. In 1843 the canal was completed to the Wabash at a point below Terre Haute and then was diverted south to the banks of the White river, beside which it ran till it reached the Ohio at Jeffersonville. The canal did not pay, the State was out of funds and the engineers issued interest-bearing notes called Pastime Sketches 39 "red-dog," which would not go. Indiana issued bonds for half the debt, turning over the canal to the creditors for the other half. The canal did not earn enough to discharge its half of the obligation, and the obligations became an object of specu- lation. The canal was sold under a decree of the Federal court in 1876, and the State had the "canal question" off its hands. It was a great day for Logansport when water was turned in the canal. The entire population gathered on the banks to greet -the oncoming tide which was to bring prosperity to Logansport's com- merce. And the first canal boat ! No elephant in any circus was ever a greater attraction. There was no use asking any one if he had seen it, for a roll call would have shown no one missing, not even the infant in arms. It was a muddy, trickling stream that found its way first through the forest which crowned the hills above Fifth street. At length it was whispered around at dusk that the canal was filled. But there was not general re- joicing the next day, for the rock through which the canal was blasted was made up of layers with seams between and the entire population was engaged in bailing out the cellars below Fifth street. The supply of canal water was inexhausti- ble, however, and the effort was a dismal failure. Both the Michigan road and the Wabash and Erie canal were great factors in the development of Northern Indiana, but inside of twenty years the railroads came to Logansport and took possession of much of the traffic. With the canal came a col- lector of the port, warehouses along its banks and a thriving grain business, wheat and corn being hauled from points thirty miles north and south. 40 Pastime Sketches With the canal also came the boatman, who taught the people many new kinds of oaths. The pioneer canal boatman was a rough and ready frontiersman, who addressed people in the same polite way he spoke to his mules. It was part of the early life and development of a great country, which no doubt has been forgotten. Pastime Sketches 41 CHAPTER VIII. YE OLDE LOGANSPORT. The approaching hundredth anniversary of the State has revived interest in Indiana history. Many local celebrations will likely be held by historical societies over the State in commemoration of his- toric events prior thereto. Logansport and Cass county have no centennials to celebrate, as there are not enough Indians left to get up much of a celebration, and there were no white men here one hundred years ago. The organization of Indiana Territory in 1800 might be ground for a 107th an- niversary here, and all over the State. One noted citizen, General John Tipton, came to Indiana Ter- ritory just one hundred years ago, but he did not come to Logansport till later, probably because there was no Logansport to come to. This centen- nial might make a good date for Logansport, as part of Indiana Territory, to celebrate. General John Tipton moved his Indian agency from Ft. Wayne to Logansport, March 28th, 1826, eighty- one years ago. The original plot of Logansport was surveyed April 16th, 1828, and on August 12th, 1829, Logansport was made the county seat and has been the capital of Cass counts' ever since. This was seventy-eight years ago, and August 12th is a good time for a summer meeting of the historical society. Cass county was organized April 13th, 1829, previously. The first session of the county commissioners was held at the old seminary May 42 Pastime Sketches 1st, 1829, and in August Logansport was chosen as the county seat. Alexander Chamberlain was the first white set- tler, August, 1826, and, strange to say, started a hotel. However, Indian agents and pioneers were coming to this locality, and a hotel was needed. The hotel was on the south bank of the Wabash river, opposite the mouth of Eel river. It was a modest log cabin, without elevators or_ electric lights. A modest home-made sign read: "Enter- tainment by A. Chamberlain." Edwin McCartney soon built a trading house, buying furs of the Indians, further down the river, but he did not find trade good and "went out west/' William Newman and wife "moved in" in the spring of 1827 and erected a house on the Wabash, two miles west of the Chamberlain house. The third settler was James Burch, who built still further down the river. He soon sold to Christian Simons, father of Benjamin Simons. On the north bank of the Wabash, Major Daniel Bell, a brother-in-law of General Tipton, settled March 27th, 1827, and built near what is now the corner of Berkley and the Panhandle railroad. Joseph Barron settled in June, 1827. He was the celebrated Indian interpre- ter, and was in the battle of Tippecanoe, where he did valiant service for General Harrison, in com- mand there. Hugh B. McKain also came in June, 1827. He was the first postmaster. Chauncey Car- ter was appointed surveyor of Indian lands after the treaty with the Miamis and Pottawatomies, and surveyed the lands around Logansport, coming from Ft. Wayne to Logansport. March 28th, 1828, General John Tipton moved his family from Ft. Wayne and occupied the Chamberlain tavern, after- Pastime Sketches 43 wards building near the present Panhandle round- house. April 10th, 1828, Chauncey Carter surveyed the original plat of Logansport. Corner lots at that time were held at $75 and inside lots at $50. Lots were sold on condition that the purchaser build at least a one-story house not less than eighteen feet by twenty feet. Thus Logansport had its first building boom. Some authorities say that the honor of nam- ing the town was settled by a rifle contest, Hugh B. McKain winning. At least he has the credit of nam- ing the town, and it was named after Captain Logan, a noted Shawnee chief, who lost his life fighting for the whites in November, 1812. The "port" was added because the town was thought to be the head of navigation on the Wabash. Thomas B. Helm says in his history of Cass county that John B. Duret bought the first lot in Logansport. George W. Ewing the second and Cy- rus Taber the third and fourth. It is true that Duret was promised a lot for his work in making the plat, and later received a deed for lot number one, but this is not the first deed. The deed for one was made on Washington's birthday, February 22, 1830. The lot is at the corner of Canal street and Eel river, what is known as "The Point," and on it was erected the first brick house in Cass county. There were, however, earlier deeds. The honor of purchasing the first lot in the now prosperous city of Logansport belongs to Gillis Mc- Bean, for his deed to lot 30 bears date of August 10th, 1829. This is the Kreuzberger corner, Third and Market, and the consideration was $75. W. G. and G. W. Ewing bought lot 51 on the 5th day of September, 1829. This is the Ward shoe store cor- ner, northeast corner of Market and Third. M. D. 44 Pastime Sketches Grover bought lot 36 the same day. This is on the south side of Market, between Second and Third, and is owned by Father Kroeger. Cyrus Taber bought lot 47 on the 17th day of September, 1829, and on it in 1838 erected the fourth brick house in Cass county, corner Second and Broadway. From best information it seems that the present Broad- way house was the third brick house and the Graf house on Market street the second. Pastime Sketches 45 CHAPTER IX. YE EARLY SCHOOLS. There is much historical matter contained in the various histories of the city and county, and these dates are referred to more as a reminder and not in any attempt to reproduce county history. There are, however, interesting stories of Cass' United States Senators, Tipton, Fitch, Pratt and Turpie. Cass had more than any county in the State except Marion (Indianapolis), and there are names distin- guished in military history also. Perhaps no more interesting book could be written than one giving the early tales of the two market houses and the "taverns in our town." Newspaper life in early days has been portrayed in past years by some of the pioneers, but there is much that is unwritten. The history of Logansport and Cass county schools began as early as 1828. Shortly after the settlement of the town General John Tipton took the lead in the organization of the "Eel River Semi- nary Society." The society was incorporated by a special act of the legislature, which was approved January 1st, 1829. This act is interesting by reason of its being the foundation of the present public school system in Cass county. It reads as follows: Section 1. Be it enacted by the General Assem- bly of the State of Indiana, That John Tipton, Hugh B. McKain, Gillis McBean, William Scott, Alexan- der Chamberlain, Joseph Barron, Hiram Todd, Chauncey Carter and John Smith, Sr., shall be and 46 Pastime Sketches hereby are constituted a body corporate and politic, by the name and style of "the president and trus- tees of the Eel river seminary society ;" and in their corporate name and capacity may sue and be sued, plead and be impleaded, in any court of competent jurisdiction, and by that name shall have perpetual succession. Sec. 2. The trustees shall be elected annually, on the first Friday in October, by the subscribers to said society, under such regulations as a majority of them shall from time to time adopt, and shall elect a president, secretary and treasurer from their own members. The said president and trustees shall be competent, in law and equity, to take to themselves and their successors, in their said cor- porate name, any estate, real or personal, by the gift, grant, bargain, sale or bequest of any person or persons whomsoever, and the same estate, wheth- er real or personal, to grant, bargain, sell or convey, or otherwise dispose of, as shall by them be deemed most beneficial to the interest and prosperity of said seminary. Sec. 3. The said trustees shall cause to be made for their own use one common seal, with such de- vices and inscriptions thereon as they may think proper, by which all deeds and acts of the corpora- tion shall be authenticated. Sec. 4. The said trustees shall meet at the dwelling house of Chauncey Carter, Esq., in Lo- gansport in the county of Cass, on the first Monday of April next, or on any day that a majority of the trustees may agree upon, and, after severally taking an oath or affirmation, faithfully and impartially to discharge the duties by this act enjoined, proceed to Pastime Sketches 47 elect their president, secretary and treasurer, as aforesaid. Sec. 5. The trustees, after being organized in manner aforesaid, shall have power to determine the time of their future meetings, and the manner of notifying the same ; act on their own adjourn- ments ; to employ such instructors as they may think proper, and the same discharge at their pleas- ure ; to regulate and direct the mode of instruction; and to make and ordain such by-laws and regula- tions as may be necessary for the well-being of said society, not repugnant to the laws and constitution of this State. Sec. 6. The trustees shall cause a record of their proceedings to be kept in a book to be procured by them for that purpose, which record shall be open for the inspection of all persons concerned. The treasurer shall receive all monies belonging to said seminary society, and pay them out by the order of the trustees, and not otherwise. Sec. 7. The trustees shall have power to ap- point such agents and attorneys for said corpora- tion as they may think necessary ; which shall be in writing, and all appointments and orders of the trustees, shall be signed by their President, under the seal of said corporation, and attested by their secretary. Sec. 8. This act to take effect, and be in force from and after the first Monday in March, next. By an act of the legislature, approved February 4th, 1831, the name of the corporation was changed to the "Cass County, Eel River Seminary Society." The old seminary was erected in 1828. The first school was opened in February, 1829, with John McKinney, of Detroit, as teacher. He was em- 48 Pastime Sketches ployed at S100 per quarter and the charges for tuition were $3 and $4 per term. McKinney re- mained but one term and at the winter session of six months, beginning Dec. 8th, George Lyon was principal and Mrs. John B. Turner assistant teacher. The building was a one-story brick with two rooms. A hall across the center separated the rooms. It stood on lot 55, original plat, a gift from the owner, Chauncey Carter. It was a low building, 20 by 40 feet, and faced Market street. Lot 55 is the west half of the quarter of the square at the northeast corner of Market and Fourth streets. The building was back in the lot almost to the alley, now Wall street. The building cost about $300. When the pro- ject was agitated by Gen. Tipton, he subscribed $150 and almost $500 was raised. In June, 1830, the year was divided into two sessions of five months each, and summer and winter sessions were held. Rev. Hiram A. Hunter was elected principal at $500 per year and a residence. George Lyon was teacher at the winter session and the summer session of 1831 was in charge of Selby Harney. In April, 1832, this society and the Cass County Sem- inary Society were united under the name of the "Cass County, Eel River Seminary Society" by which it was later known. The "Old Seminary" was an important building n the early history of the city and county. Here the first county commissioners met, the first courts were held and the first courtships took place. Churches were organized here and the elections for the entire county were held within its portals. Marriages were sometimes solemnized and often Pastime Sketches 49 within its walls were gathered almost the entire population, less than three hundred in 1829. As early as 1836 the growing population render- ed the building too small for the purposes for which it was erected and steps were taken toward the construction of a new school house. In November of that year it was determined to sell the property, then more valuable for business purposes, and to erect a building of larger capacity. This resulted in the construction of the new seminary building, a three-story stone on Thirteenth street, between Market and Broadway, where the Central building now stands. The building was not completed until September, 1849, and cost $6,465.11. Rev. M. M. Post, an early Presbyterian minister of 1828, was elected principal and a corps of teachers was em- ployed. Irwin W. Gates was the next principal and Rev. H. W. Shaw succeeded him. This building was torn down in 1874, when the present Central building was erected. One or two of the pupils of the "Old Seminary" are still living in the city and county and recall their early school days in the little brick. Many more are living who attended the stone seminary on Thirteenth street. During the later "thirties" many township schools were organized in Cass county which are fully described in Helm's History of Cass County and need no mention here. The lot on 13th street — It was then Tipton street — appears as "Seminary Square" in the John Tipton's administrator's addition to Logans- port laid out in 1843. The consideration named in the deed is $56. There were several private schools where the present older generation received instruction and these will furnish another chapter. Many of those 50 Pastime Sketches living today learned their alphabet at one of these schools. Mrs. Cowan taught school in the log cabin, afterwards the home of William Davis, cor- ner of Seventh and Broadway streets. There was a school on the southeast corner of Third and Broadway, upstairs in 1857. George Palmer and Walter McCrea are two of the sole survivors of this school. James Jackson was a teacher and he also taught in the Methodist church on Sixth street and on the Westside, where Castle's grocery is. There was a school in the Nash house, corner Sixth and North streets. Mrs. Phebe Egbert taught school for several years in the basement of the Episcopal church, corner of Market and Seventh streets. She taught there as early as 1859 and later in the house where the Johnston Hotel now stands. The Tenth street public school was established in 1857 or 1858, corner Tenth and Market. The Lo- gansport Presbyterian Academy, Smithson College and the Business Colleges were institutions which deserve further notice. All helped to lead up to the present admirable public school system. Schools were also taught where Shideler & Grace's store is and at the corner of of Broadway and Fourth, where the H. Wiler & Co. store is located. Both the Lutherans and the Catholics established excellent schools early in the history of the city and these have increased in numbers and in efficiency as the city grew. The Holy Angels Academy has long been one of the leading educational institu- tions. Pastime Sketches 51 CHAPTER X. ' SOME HISTORY SUGGESTION. A sketch of the early days is hardly complete without mention of the churches, yet most of the organizations have published historical pamphlets, the history written by Thomas B. Helm goes fully into details and there is little new to record. The fraternal orders have gathered together much inter- esting history also. The vigorous early times were productive of some church dissensions. The separation of the Presbyterian church by reason of which there was a "New School" and an "Old School," was not ac- complished without some bitterness. The original Presbyterian building, still standing on the alley running from Fifth to Sixth streets between Market and Broadway, shows that. The doors still bear the marks of the axe with which one faction broke into the church to hold services. The differences, which existed for so many years, were at length happily adjusted and the branches were reunited. The growth of the various church denominations has been steady, and hand- some edifices have taken the place of the modest frame buildings, whose bells pealed out each Sun- day morning to call the pioneers to worship. And so, too, the fraternal organizations have built, or are building homes of their own, of im- posing architecture to add to the city's beauty and permanency. The school buildings, the churches, 52 Pastime Sketches the temples and the homes are all neat and endur- ing and go to make up a city of handsome details. The Library, The post office, the hotels and busi- ness houses add to the general good effect as do some of the railroad stations. There are several interesting sketches of the early newspapers in print. One of the first duties of the Historical Society should be to make a complete bound collection of the early files. The newspapers of the present generation have com- plete files of their own, and as they are available for reference, there is no necessity, perhaps for duplicates, although there is some advantage in owning files. The eastern papers now keep a com- plete index of their files, and this is printed an- nually, so that by a reference to the index of each year it is possible to trace events of news. The pioneer newspapers are full of interesting historical data. In recent years several of these files were destroyed thoughtlessly and the Charles B. Laselle collection, probably more nearly com- plete than any, is neglected in a room in the court house with no one to care for it while he himself is an inmate of the hospital. The Biddle collection is stored in the basement of the high school build- ing, unclassified and inaccessable. There are some odd numbers scattered about but there are no other large collections. The Thomas B. Helm collection was sold for old paper when he died and the Wil- liamson Wright collection was destroyed by fire. Steps should be taken at once to sort and bind the Biddle collection and to prevent the loss of the La- selle collection. There are several other subjects that might be written about, the courts, and the stories of the Pastime Sketches 53 early bar, politics and elections, and so on. It was not until 1840 that precincts were inaugurated. Be- fore that the voters of the entire county voted at the court house, in town, coming many miles over very bad roads, some of them. The early fire de- partment history was compiled by Harry W. Bring- hurst, now chief of the fire department at Seattle, Washington, some years ago. A sketch of Logansport men in the United States Senate, and their public work, involves research which it would take days to make. Such a sketch ought to be written. The Historical Society may take this up at some future time. In any event the ground-work is laid for the work of the Society. The Historical Society should early in its career secure quarters and begin the collection of the valuable data being lost from time to time. Until it has a central home of its own it will not be pos- sible to gather a great deal of material. I sug- gested the Biddle home as the most suitable and available place. A State law authorizes county commissioners to expend not to exceed five thous- and dollars for the purchase of a home for a His- torical Society after such society has been in active existence for five years. A resort to this law would not likely be necessary. In New England the rev- enues derived from the contributions of daily visitors provide a fund sufficient to cover current expenses and to establish a sinking fund with which to pay for the property. Thus these institutions are self-supporting. Could the Biddle home be rented for five years, with an option on it at the end of that time, I have no doubt it would be self-supporting and also pay for itself. The revenues would certainly pay cur- rent expenses which would be nominal. Should 54 Pastime Sketches they not, however, the annual dues of one dollar would be sufficient for the purpose, as there are practically no expenses, the caretaker, as in New England, getting the rent of part of the house as pay for keeping the house open a few hours each day. This is merely a suggestion to the Historical Society as to what is possible in this direction, at no expense, practically. The time is ripe for such a movement, and failure to enter earestly into the work at the present time will result in the loss of much more historical data. The Logansport So- ciety has a good start, and a good organization. There is an abundance of material and no doubt the work will go on smoothly, whatever plan is adopted. The suggestions here made, as a result of of observations in New England, are offered be- cause they are the result of some study of the sub- ject and may be of some value on that account. In the early settlement of this territory money was unknown. The Indians had a medium of ex- change they called wampum which consisted of pieces of bone, metal or stone. Among the whites values were determined by coon skins, muskrat skins and furs of other animals. These furs would purchase so much of this or that from the fur traders and so had a given value. Besides this they were transportable easily and so became the basis of exchange. Naturally, in a new country, sparsely settled, there was little to exchange, each family providing for its own wants as best it could. The farms and the forests supplied the necessities of life and it was only under a more advanced civili- zation that the shop became an important factor in a community. Pastime Sketches 55 CHAPTER XL EARLY BANKING IN LOGANSPORT. The war with Great Britain caused the general government to disburse large sums of money for troops and supplies and thus in 1812 money became more plentiful. In 1814 the territorial legislature chartered two banks, one at Vincennes, with a capital stock of a half million dollars, and one at Madison capitalized at seven hundred and fifty thousand dollars. When the war ended the banks had issued more currency than they could redeem and a crash followed. The members of the first Indiana constitutional convention incorporated a clause providing for a State bank with branches, not exceeding one branch for every three counties. The banks at Madison and Vincennes were also to retain their charters. The bank at Vincennes was adopted by the legislature as a State bank and entered an era of missmanagement. Its notes be- came worthless and steps were taken to cancel its charter. The bank at Madison was more success- ful and its notes were all, after some time, redeem- ed. In 1832 the State entered upon an era of internal improvements, spending several million dollars. Michigan had established a system of banking with no safeguards and this bank money was seized upon by contractors for use in paying for labor. Soon nothing else was in circulation. The merchants 56 Pastime Sketches accepted it at a heavy discount. They could use it in paying their bills by accepting a similar discount. At the same time the merchants and millers issued bills redeemable in merchandise at the store of the merchant or miller issuing the same. Naturally these were of no value far from home. Then the temptation to issue unlimited quantities became irresistible and the banks became bankrupt with thousands of dollars outstanding. In 1834 the State Bank of Indiana was chartered. The State was divided into ten districts for branches and on November 20th, 1834, the bank opened. It became involved in the financial policies of Presi- dent Jackson and the panic of 1837 which followed. Its bills were redeemable in specie and remained good. They were therefore hoarded and depre- ciated currency only found its way into circulation. The people had no money for the needs of com- merce and the State had none and could get none in the east. As a means of relief State script to the amount of a million and a half was authorized, to bear six per cent interest and be receivable in taxes. This script was called "Red Dog" from the color of the paper it was printed on. It did not restore public confidence and fell to forty cents on the dollar. It was however all redeemed by the State. At the session of the Legislature in 1853 a free bank law was passed over the governor's veto and a charter given to the Bank of the State of Indiana. Hon. Hugh McCulloch afterwards secretary of the treasury became president of the bank, and not- withstanding the governor's fears it became a suc- cess. Two years afterward a panic, swept over the country. Every bank in the east except the Chemi- Pastime Sketches 57 cal of New York, supended. And in the west only the Bank of the State of Indiana and the Bank of Kentucky weathered the storm. Every private bank in the State except two at Indianapolis and one at Fort Wayne closed. After the passage of the National banking law most of the banks became national banks and in 1865 the legislature authorized the winding up of the affairs of the State Bank. The constitution of 1851 authorizing a free banking law, and the law passed by the general assembly under that authority caused great dis- aster. Banks were still floundering in financial troubles, local communities were in worse difficul- ties. The merchants issued bills to an unlimited extent, payable in goods, and failed because they could not buy goods without gold. Others were purposely taking advantage of the condition of af- fairs. Bills which would not circulate in a com- munity because of lack of confidence in the persons issuing them were sent to other communities, where they were unknown, in exchange for bills equally unknown thirty miles from their home office. Thus bills from Ohio no one knew anything about were in circulation in Indiana, while the equally obscure Indiana bills circulated in Ohio. A publication known as the Bank Note Detector attempted to keep the public advised as to the value of bills but it was not possible to print reports as rapidly as bills were printed and the publication was always considerably behind the times. The money of the times was called "Wildcat" money, probably because of its wild and uncertain character. Much of it, good or bad, was known by the color of paper, or ink. used and so there was 58 Pastime Sketches •'White Dog," "Blue Pup" and other kinds accord- ing to the name the printing or color suggested to the pioneer. Logansport was an important center of com- merce in the early days. It was a village on the trail of the Indians, a town on the Michigan Road, almost a city in the canal days and considered very much a city when the railroads were begun. It handled in its commerce and construction work all the known kinds of money in circulation in those days and probably no city in the State had more experience with the fluctuating, uncertain, unreli- able currency of the years between the admission of the State to the Union and the Civil war. To the credit of the pioneers of Logansport be it said that while, owing to the limited travel, its money was not known and was therefore discounted a short distance from home, it was in most instances redeemed and the holders lost nothing. The vicis- situdes of travel were great in those days. In ad- dition to undergoing the hardships of almost im- passable roads, dangers from Indians and frontier bandits, the pioneer was liable to find no bill among his varied collection acceptable to the landlord for his lodging and breakfast a few miles from home. As far as can be learned the first Logansport bank was a private bank and was situated on Mar- ket street, on the north side, sixty feet below Fourth street. This was in 1837, or 1838. James Warren was president of it and and the business was conducted in one small room. There was a table in it, and president, cashier and customers sat around it. The second bank was started some years later. It was organized in 1847 or 1848, with George B. Pastime Sketches 59 Walker president, and Col. William Brown, after- wards killed in the Civil war, as cashier. It trans- acted business on Third street, East Side, sixty feet or more from Market street. It was known as the "Logansport Insurance Bank." James E. Cheney started a bank in 1850 on Fourth street, opposite the court house, and John Ingram was cashier. Mr. Cheney was afterward a great finan- cier, a director in the Wabash railroad and a mil- lionaire. Mr. Ingram organized later the State Bank, now the State National, of which John Gray is president. The "Hoosier Bank" was also opposite the court house and Philip Pollard was president in 1848. It was in the stone building occupied by Senator D. D. Pratt as a law office and later by W. T. Wilson. W. E. Haney and John W. Wright had a bank on Sixth street, between Broadway and North, west side of the street, on the south side of the alley, in the early fifties. Of this there is not much information to be had. Mr. Kendrick, who built the home now occupied by Judge D. P. Bald- win, had a bank on Market street along in the fifties, in the room across the alley from Snider's. With the passage of the National banking law and more stringent state bank laws came the first National Bank, still in existence, the Peoples' Bank, and the City State Bank, now the State National. The Peoples' Bank failed, with many law suits, and the City State Bank went through a panic and was reorganized as the State National. The Logansport State Bank sprung into existence under sound state laws and since then two other banks, the Bowen Bank and the Loan & Trust Company 60 Pastime Sketches have added to the banking facilities of Logans- port. The days of wildcat money have gone by, State and national laws have safe-guarded the public against the lack of judgment of bank officials and the era of bank failures has passed. Logansport has sound banking institutions and their bills are good anywhere in the United States, Europe, Asia, Africa, or South America. It is a wonderful con- trast over conditions fifty years ago. Pastime Sketches 61 CHAPTER XII. YE OLDE MARKETS. Logansport in its early days had two markets. The first one stood in the middle of the otherwise vacant square bounded by Fourth and Fifth streets, and Broadway and North streets. It was just a roof, resting on pillars of brick, the pillars ten or twelve feet apart. A cyclone in 1845 carried the roof away and ended the usefulness of the market house. According to best authorities, market days were Tuesdays, Thursdays and Saturdays. There were no stalls of fancy dry goods and the bon bon stand and peanut roaster were conspicious for their ab- sence. Fruits, vegetables, meats, hay, feed, wood, butter, eggs and other farm products were the prin- cipal articles for sale. The money used was prin- cipally foreign coin, and a "fip and a bit" the pre- vailing price for many things. A "fip" was an English 6% cent piece, while a "bit" was 12^ cents. Two bits made a quarter, or the shilling of those days. This Broadway market was just back of the present Wiler & Wise store. The building was 150 feet long and 25 feet wide, with a shingle roof. It fronted on the Wabash and Erie canal, which ran along Fifth street, and which was com- pleted from Fort Wayne as far as Eel river along about 1837. Mr. E. S. Rice, president of the First 62 Pastime Sketches National Bank, came to Logansport on a canal boat in 1838 and remembers the old market well. The aqueduct over Eel river was completed in 1839 and Logansport became only a way station instead of a terminal. The second market was built six or seven years after the old one blew away — about 1851. It was of brick and much more pretentious than the old market. It was 150 feet long and 30 feet wide, with shingled roof, and stood in the middle of Market street between Second and Third streets, where the street was widened to form "Market Square." The street has never been narrowed to conform to the rest of Market street and for many years the spot was known as Market Square. The com- modities on sale were about the same as at the old market and the money was the same, English coin and "Wildcat" bank paper money. This latter money fluctuated a good deal, as no one knew at night whether or not the banks would open the next morning. On this account the money was not good far from home. Many are the tales of sales of farms and horses wherein the receiver of the Wild- cat money arrived in town to find the bank closed and the money worthless. The new market was not used much and gradu- ally fell into decay. The children of the day played "I spy" about its nooks and corners and finally it was torn away. After that the wood and hay wagons stood about the court house and later at Sixth street and Broadway, the vegetables and fruits were sold by grocers and Logansport had no general market. No doubt many interesting stories could have been told by the older residents about these markets if any attempt had been made to Pastime Sketches f>3 gather them. Mr. E. S. Rice tells of having been sent as a boy to the old Broadway market to get some steak. There were several others there on the same errand but the supply was exhausted. In reply to repeated calls for steaks and no other kind of meat, a German farmer vender said testily, "What you tinks, I grow my cows all steaks?'' The old market days were days of gossip, of political argument and exchange of news. Horses were traded and farms swapped. Busy candidates shook hands and sought votes and the fate of the country was decided every market day. The Lightning Express Packet on the old canal brought news of the outside world several weeks late and its arrival, days after a presidential election, brought out a crowd to get the election returns. The man who took a New York Tribune and got it via the Lightning Express on the canal was the most popular man in town until everybody read his paper, and perhaps afterwards. Today the farmer sits in his home with his telephone near him and talks with New York, if he wants to, after reading his morning paper, brought to him by Rural Route or Interurban. Such is the growth of the country and its progress in a little over half a century. 64 Pastime Sketches CHAPTER XIII. SOME THOUGHTS OF HISTORY. In these sketches of early days it was not my purpose to write a history. The complete and ex- haustive history written by Thomas B. Helm in 1878 leaves little for later workers in that field. Nor had I in mind anything more than a few sketches of early conditions within the memory of some still living, for possible use in a historical scrap-book. For this reason I have avoided details, and statistics already collated in other forms and confined myself more to description. There are many subjects that will perhaps not be referred to, owing to the completeness of the historical data already published, and no doubt much that would be interesting will be overlooked. Mr. Helm has given a detail history of church and fraternal or- ganization in the city and county and several- of the churches have published historical sketches. These are interesting and complete and need no repetition. There are other publications of a simi- lar character in the historical field so that it is pos- sible to gather together quite a library, of which these may be an humble part. Be that as it may, they are only sketches, not comprehensive history. And since Mr. Helm has so ably filled the broader field they must of necessity be somewhat limited in scope. There is a vast amount of interesting detail that might be gathered and it is by no means Pastime Sketches 65 my thought to try to exhaust the field not covered by Mr. Helm, but rather to add my small contribu- tion to the general fund of historical knowledge. The story of manufacture is itself an interesting one. beginning with the ginseng factory of 1829 when that root was an extensive article of com- mence and Logansport had a factory for refining the product. A pottery works was another important interest in its day, and a tannery came later. The wealth of splendid timber caused numerous wood- working shops to spring up and there was a distill- ery or two. The subject of manufacture is partic- ularly interesting because of the lessons it teaches of changed conditions of civic growth. The value of history lies in the fact that it is an unerring guide to future welfare and progress, the charm of it is rather in the little details that go to make up the daily life of a community, in an era of the past, or a country so foreign as to possess dis- similar customs and novel characteristics. The philosophy of it is inseparably allied with the ro- mance that makes it attractive. These short sketches are nothing more than they pretend to be and to the reader is left the task of discovering the philosophy, or finding the romance of the history they contain. It is not difficult to imagine the lone log cabin in the forest on the south bank of the Wabash river, opposite the mouth of Eel river, the first tav- ern, nor the two-story log cabin near, later the tavern. Nor does it require much flight of the im- agination to picture the small trading house and the one or two other scattered cabins along the south bank of the river, all of Logansport prior to 1827. Nor will it be so very difficult to see in the 66 Pastime Sketches mind's eye the little log- cabin of Daniel Bell, in the forest near the present Wabash Station, the first, and for a time, the only house between the rivers. There were no roads, no canal, no im- provements. An uneven, wooded hill with steep declines and valleys was Market street hill, after- wards graded, cleared and cut out of all semblance to its original shape by the hand of man. It was virgin soil, unvisited, except by wild beasts, for generations. Not a hundred years ago, it is hard to realize ! Add a log house here and there in a clearing in the forest and a picture is formed of Logansport for the next few years. The canal came in 1838 and the Michigan Road shortly before. Logansport was then a struggling village and its appearance year by year can be followed with lit- tle effort of the imagination. Settlements were miles apart. The cabins of those days were made of round logs. The cracks were chunked and daubed, and there was usually only one door. The one or two windows were cut through the logs, half in an up- per log and the other half in the lower. The fire- place was hewn through the logs and about the hole was built the chimney. It was made of small split sticks packed with clay. The back of the fireplace sides and bottom were made of clay or mud, mois- tened to make them pack readily. The floors were made of heavy hewn timbers and the roofs were covered with clapboards. There was seldom more than one room, with a shed, and a loft for the ac- commodation of visitors. The cooking was done in the fire-place and the smoke did not always find its way up the chimney. The pioneer home had no luxuries and was con- Pastime Sketches 67 siderably deficient in the comforts of life. Blocks of wood, or roughly hewn benches answered for chairs while the dinner table was the family chest, the receptacle for all that was supposed to be val- uable about the house. The bedsteads were built with poles, the logs of the cabins supporting two sides and an upright pole forming the other corner of the square. The same sort of a clapboard used on the roof made the bed slats, and leaves were often used to fill the ticks. Thus with humble home and humbler fare the pioneer began his conquest of the forest. Before the first crop matured supplies were brought in ca- noes, or dug-outs from the most convenient older settlement. After that there was a husbanding of resources and the supply of staples was carefully guarded. The forests were rich in game, the streams abounded in fish and thus the pioneer sat- isfied his hunger and paved the way for greater agriculture and larger commerce. As communities grew the total of food reserve naturally increased, and, without any system of keeping books and with no breach of confidence and rare dishonesty, the pioneers moved forward to a more advanced civili- zation. The use of money brought with it dishonesty, credit brought breach of trust, and while the pio- neer system of exchange was sometimes incon- venient it was remarkably sound. The era of money was the era of "wildcat" money and the whole state floundered through a period of uncer- tain currency for many years. Confidence and mu- tual aid did not dignify the small local community alone for settlers voluntarily came from other vil- lages to aid in houseraising. 68 Pastime Sketches The same flood of progress swept on to the westward, in which direction the course of empire is said to take its way. Then humanity settled down to acquire and enjoy the luxuries of life the pioneers had made possible. Manufacturing natur- ally followed agriculture and New England, the pioneer in the latter, became the work-shop of the west. Mining became a leading industry and the railroads annihilated the barriers of distance and made the nation as it is. Characteristics of communities are less marked, in fact, there is little by which to distinguish a New Englander from his western brother, but the restless spirit of progress still exists with the American people, still pioneers in paths of progress. Pastime Sketches 69 CHAPTER XIV. LOGANSPORT IN RETROSPECT. A stroll through the streets of ancient Logans- port discloses much that is interesting. It does not take a great imagination to see the city in the early thirties, for it was not a great city. There were a few log, or frame buildings below Fifth street and three or four east of it. The postoffice was in a log cabin just east of the new Barnett Hotel. Streets were mere roads and native forest trees were plentiful. Indians mingled with the pale faces at the village store and coon-skins were used as money. The daughters of the pioneers met at the only well to discuss the latest styles from New York via pack-mule. All around were dense forests and the stillness was only broken by the song of the birds, the cry of some wild animal or the dull thud of the wood-choppers' axe, as he hewed out a clearing in the wilderness. But those were days of rapid progress. Lo- gansport acquired the Michigan Road and the Wa- bash and Erie Canal and became a city. It had a town marshal, a newspaper that tried to come out several times a year, and a fire department. Prom- inent citizens began putting "Esq." after their names. Meetings were called "at early candle- light" to discuss the city's future greatness. A poster, still inexistence, called upon the citizens to wake up, as Chicago was almost as large as Lo- 70 Pastime Sketches gansport and would become the great city of the west if Logansport did not show more enterprise. Thus was organized the first Industrial Associa- tion, but somehow Chicago got ahead. The early Fire Department was like most of those of pioneer days. Every citizen kept a bucket at home to take with him to fires. Then came a "Fire House" where the buckets were stored. The first duty of every good and loyal citizen at the cry of "fire" was to rush to the "Fire House" and get a bucket. At the fire two lines were formed to the nearest water supply. One line passed up the full buckets and the other returned them when empty. When the early Barnett House at the corner of Third and Market streets caught fire it took the entire population of Logansport to extin- guish the blaze. A ladder was found somewhere and the line ran up the ladder to the fire. The man in front emptied the buckets judiciously, and as the buildings were small and the material heavy the fire was easily conquered. The old Barnett House afterwards burned to the ground under a better system of fire-fighting but it was not the fault of the fire-fighters. That was in the days of the hand-engines when every able-bodied man took his place at the brakes and pumped till the fire was out, sometimes because there was nothing left to burn. It was an efficient system for the times and the volunteers often took great risks. Not nearly as many as are taken now with high buildings and large compact blocks, but the element of danger was, and is, always pres- ent. What a great man was the Chief in the early days as he rushed about giving orders through a trumpet. "How many men on that roof? Five? Pastime Sketches 71 Half of yez come down." There are probably no relics of the old "bucket brigade." S. B. Boyer has the minutes of the old Tipton volunteer company and George W. Fender the trumpet presented by admiring citizens to the chief of the Tipton com- pany. What a story could be written about the coun- ty fairs ! The old fair ground on the Northside, up on the hill in "Jobtown" was a center of early interest. There prize pumpkins and prize beauties contested for the honors of the day and people gathered for miles around to gaze at the fatted calf and the four-minute trotter. There matches were made and many a marriage had its beginning in a glance of the eye over the exhibits of "the best corn grown in the county." The old fair grounds went into a decline, the high board fence rotted away, and the stalls grad- ually disappeared. A new association had its day at the grounds now known as Spencer Park, but for many years the "county fair" has been un- known in Logansport. The Trotting Association has occupied the grounds, or part of them, but the old-fashioned fair has long been a thing of the past. The English people, perhaps more conserva- tive, cling to their Donnybrook fairs but the pro- gressive American is only content with an "Expo- sition." Progress has been rapid. Town pumps suc- ceeded the early wells, then came water works, railroads dried up the canal, and a paid fire de- partment followed the hand engines and the bucket brigade. Street railways occupy the streets and the toot of the automobile has taken the place of the Indian war-whoop in the once peaceful valley of the Wabash. 72 Pastime Sketches CHAPTER XV. THE "CITY OF BRIDGES." — AN OLD HANDBILL. Logansport was early given trie name "The City of Bridges." Those new to the city hardly realize how appropriate the title was. With the canal passing along what is now Erie avenue and across Fifth street, over Eel river, and along the West-side where the Vandalia station now is, many bridges were needed. The canal bridges were at first high bridges and the boats passed underneath. After that came turn bridges, one at every street. The two rivers made bridges nec- essary and there were five tail-races, some crossed by bridges. There were races on each side of the river at the two Eel river dams and one on the South Side leading from the Wabash dam. The railroads crossed the streams, and on Biddle's Island the Wabash road bridged over the street. Thus there were at one time twenty-eight bridges in the city limits as follows: Four Wabash rail- road bridges, six Panhandle railroad bridges, eight wagon bridges over the rivers and races and ten bridges over the canal. The number was reduced by the abandonment of the canal, and some of the races, but one or two new river wagon bridges have been added and the in- terurbans have increased the number. This list does not include some of the headgates of the races over which teams passed. Pastime Sketches 73 The city is still, however, entitled to the name. There are now twenty-three bridges, eight wagon, five interurban and eight steam railroad, not count- ing any of the bridges over the races. So that the number is not materially reduced. The canal, pass- ing as it did through the heart of the city, made the bridge question a serious one. The high bridges were the first to be adopted. After them came turn bridges, and, at Market street a re- markable bridge that was lifted high in the air by weights and which often refused to come down. It finally broke in two under a heavy load and was cast aside. The frequent passage of canal boats seriously interfered with travel and there was a hurrying to get over when a bridge was about to be' turned. The bridges were popular with April 1st jokers and the citizen who forgot the day and made a dive for a pocketbook only to find it nailed down was greeted with a shout from a crowd gathered nearby, apparently discussing politics. The bridge committee was one of the most im- portant of the city council, second in importance only to that of streets, and Logansport was justly entitled to the name, "The City of Bridges." The river wagon bridges were wooden, as were also the railroad bridges. The wagon bridges were generally covered, without foot walks, and very dark on a dark night. Some of them were built as toll bridges and had massive gates to be closed when the toll collector retired for the night. The cows, which had the freedom of the city, found the covered bridges a safe retreat in stormy weather, at night time, and the late pedestrian returning from lodge at midnight often came in sudden con- tact with a sleeping occupant of the bridge. 74 Pastime Sketches The bridge history of Logansport is but an incident in the development and growth of the city and is hardly worth recording. However, it may find a place in some scrapbook kept to show the progress of the city from its village days up to the time it became a city of iron bridges, of per- manent and graceful construction. It is of little importance how many bridges the city had at any given period, but it is interesting to note the prog- ress from the days of fords, when the rivers were at times impassable, up to the present time. The first bridges, over Biddle's Island, and later to "Browntown," West Side, were made of rough hewn timbers but were quite solid and durable. Only once, or twice did the bridge "go out" with the ice in the February freshets, notwithstanding the fact that with the heavy gorges the streets of down town Logansport were under water and peo- ple paddled about in boats. It was quite custom- ary to gather on the river banks at time of high water, "to see the bridge go out" but, thanks to the substantial masonry, the spectators were usu- ally disappointed. Probably the first bridge of all to be built was the wooden bridge over Eel river at Third street. That is preserved in a picture by Wils Berry of the 46th Ind. crossing it in Civil war times. The development of the country has brought about the construction of numerous ditches, ice and snow do not accumulate in dense forests to be released steadily by a spring thaw, and the days of big freshets have gone by. Bridge building is more of an art also and the scene of a bridge "go- ing out" is not likely to be witnessed by future generations. Pastime Sketches 75 What is claimed to be the oldest handbill in the country was donated to the Historical Society yesterday by Mrs. C. W. Graves. It was among the papers of her father, Williamson Wright, and is faded and discolored with age. It announces the opening of a land agency in 1835 for the handling of newly opened lands. It reads as follows : Land Agency. In Indiana, Illinois and Michigan. The subscriber offers his services to the public as an agent for the purchase and sale of any lands in the states of Indiana, Illinois or the Territory of Michigan. There will be sold by the United States, during the coming summer or autumn upwards of one hundred townships of lands in the state of Indi- ana, and as many townships in Michigan ; all of which have lately been purchased of the Potta- watomie Indians. By an act of the last legislature the territory lying within the state of Indiana was divided into fourteen counties — so that purchasers may easily determine very near at what place the county seats will be situated and govern their pur- chases accordingly. The counties in which the land now to be sold is situated are on and near the Wabash and Erie canal, and on or near the Michigan road. Specu- lators and purchasers in general never had a fairer opportunity for profitable investment than is now presented in the state of Indiana, and I can safely affirm that the inducements west of Lake Michigan are equally attractive. I will at all times purchase military lands in Illinois and Missouri or attend and have them sold on the most favorable terms. The state of Indiana now offers for sale lands 76 Pastime Sketches situated on its canal and on the Michigan road, which I will purchase for those who may desire it on the most reasonable terms. I will also sell improved or other lands for those desirous of selling and do every act which is usu- ally done by land agents. Information will be willingly given to persons at a distance by addressing the subscriber post- paid. Logansport, Indiana. The subscriber being an attorney at law will attend to the collection of claims in any part of the state of Indiana. JOHN W. WRIGHT. Logansport, April 1st, 1835. References : Hon. John Tipton, U. S. Senator ; Gen. N. D. Grover, Hon. David Irven, Green Bay, Michigan Territory; Dr. George Turner, Mackinaw, M. T. ; Hon. T. Ewing, U. S. Senator, Lancaster, Ohio; Hon. W. W. Irven, Lancaster, Ohio; Mr. Jacob Reese, Esq., Philadelphia, Pa.; Mr. Wilkins McNaar, Pittsburg, Pa. Pastime Sketches 77 CHAPTER XVI. A LETTER OF THE EARLY DAYS. There are probably dozens of old letters lying around that give much insight into the early times, before the days of postage stamps. The letters were folded and sealed with sealing wax then and envelopes were unknown. Out of a bunch of old letters, some from Judge Biddle, W. Z. Stuart, U. S. Senator John Tipton and others the following was picked out because of the information it contains, and because it was the oldest in the collection, owned by Mrs. C. W. Graves. It is addressed to "W. W. Wright, Atty. & Counsellor at Law, Lo- gansport, Indiana." The postage is marked "Paid 18 3-4 cents." The writer was not particularly adept at spelling and his capitalization was not of the most approved style, but the letter contains much that is interesting. It reads : Hillsborough, Highland Co., Ohio, September 21, 1836. Dear Sir: I take the privilige of droping a few lines to you respecting som property that I Baught in and near Logansport in July last you will rico- lect an man by the name of tucker whoe left a lot in your care and in case it could be Sold for five houndred dollars to let me know it, the lot was baught of E. Johns and lays on Broadway Joining Lawyer Chas there is Twenty feeat Seven inches 78 Pastime Sketches and a half in front and fifty feeat back. The Land that I baught Lays in Town 28 and Section 21 on the Michigan Road, eight miles from Logansport the 8 mile Post Stands in it. Demos's Tavern is in sight of it. and I am told that there is a little Town a bout to be or is Laydoff close by it, There is one houndred and fifty Seven acres in the Track. Now Sir I wish you To take chardge of this prop- erty and See what it can be Sold for. I wish you to write to me and let me know what the Prospect of Logan is at this time and weather Property has advanced sens July and if so weather I had better hold on a while Longer I ask five houndred for the lot and one thousand for the land. I wish you to let me know weather you think it would bring it at this time or not and weather you think it will be worth more next year if there is any tax accurs on the land you will let me know it, as thay are a bout to pave the Streats I expect the lots will be taxed at what ever trobble you are at I will pay you for it. Pleas let me know when thay expect to let the water in the canal and how thay come on Paveing the Streats, the Bridge the Courthouse &c and when these things are done weather you don't think property will be worth more than it is at this time, if you know eny thing about the little town that is a bout to be laid off seven or eight miles north of Logan on the Michigan Road Pleas let me Know it I remember Seeing the Place where I am told it is laid off theres Tavern on one Side of the Road and a little Store on the other, if Sutch is the case my land will of corse be worth more as it is some where near in Sight of it, Mr. De- moss whoe Joins my Land told me that he had bin ofered 9 dollars per acre for his cash in hand. Pastime Sketches 79 if you can find percheser for mine whoe will give 8 dollars per acre you will let me know it and if i sell it this fall I will give you at least fifty dollars for your Trobble if you can git $9 per acre I of corse will give you more. I think Proberbable that Second handed Land will be more apt to Sell now then before the Treshure order when you write inform me weather Fullweller baught a lot in Lo- gan and weather Johnson has Sold the little corner on Boardway and canal and if so for how mutch, N. B. I have seean your old Skoole mates Wood- row Smith Trimble & galoway thay ware all glad to hear from you and that you was doing well, I told them that you was thay speak in very high terms of you I believe that I will trobble you nomore this time write to me as soon as conven- yent. "Very Respectfully yours, "GEORGE W. TUCKER." 80 Pastime Sketches CHAPTER XVII. EARLY INDIAN BATTLE. Not every county in Indiana is the proud pos- sessor of a battlefield where actual war was waged. Nor can many lay claim to the honor of an invas- ion by an English army. "The mouth of Eel," as the point where Logansport now stands, was first called, is a historic spot. A few miles above the mouth the battle of Oldtown was fought. Sweep- ing past it in narrow dugouts a Britsh army made the trip to Vincennes. In 1778 Lieutenant-Governor Henry Hamilton, the British commander at Detroit, collected an army consisting of thirty regulars, fifty French vol- unteers and four hundred Indians and with this force passed down the Wabash river and took pos- session of Post Vincennes. The trip was made in canoes, over the portage at Ft. Wayne, and through Logansport, which of course, at that time, had no place on the map. The battle referred to was fought by other troops, many years later, on the Eel River, six miles east of the mouth, and relics are still plowed up by the farmers who own the land. On the first of August, 1791, Brigadier-General James Wilkinson at the head of about five hun- dred and twenty-five men moved from Ft. Wash- ington at Cincinnati and directed his march toward the Indian village at Ke-na-pa-com-a-qua on the north bank of Eel river at a point six miles above Pastime Sketches 81 its confluence with the Wabash river. There were no roads of course and the march was through vir- gin forest. Wabash river was crossed four miles above Logansport. After crossing the river the troops found a continued thicket of bramble, jack- oaks and shrubs of different kinds. As the expe- dition approached Eel river the Indians took alarm and fled, six warriors, and in the confusion, two squaws and a child were killed. Thirty-four pris- oners were taken and one captive was released. The attacking troops had two men killed and one wounded. The town was found scattered along Eel river for fully three miles. General Wilkinson destroyed the town and moved westward toward the Tippecanoe river, en- camping the next night six miles west of the Indi- an village, probably a short distance north of the present site of Logansport. The remainder of the trip was through bog after bog, and at the close of the fourth day two hundred and seventy horses were found lame and the men much disheartened. The troops reached the Rapids of the Ohio on the 21st of August much demoralized, after a march of four hundred and fifty-one miles. The scene of this battle is unmarked, very few of those living in the neighborhood know it, yet the facts are interesting. Senator Will W'ood's bill, appropriating $12,- 500 for the erection of a monument on Tippecanoe Battle Ground recently passed the Indiana Senate by a vote of 72 to 5. Ninety-six years ago at Tippecanoe, the senti- nel, Stephen Mars, fired the first shot in the war of 1812. The great chief, Tecumseh, was at that time seeking to form a confederation of the Indi- 82 Pastime Sketches ans with the ostensible purpose of retaining for the Indians their hunting-grounds. The battle of Tippecanoe was the result. Every Indian in the battle of Tippecanoe was armed with a rifle, with a scalping knife, with a tomahawk and most of them with a spear. The battle as is well known was fought largely bv Indianians. General William Henry Harrison was in com- mand of the Americans and his victory made him President of the United States later, in the famous campaign of "Tippecanoe and Tyler, too." In General Harrison's army were 250 regulars, 60 Kentuckians and 600 Indianians. Thirty-seven were killed, 161 wounded, of whom twenty-five died afterward. The gallantry of this body of men was recognized by President Madison, in a message to Congress. It became the "unwritten law" in Indi- ana to name counties organized in the State after heroes of that battle. Had the Indians prevailed the success of the Americans in the war of 1812 might have been jeopardized. Tecumseh is regard- ed by many as the greatest Indian leader that ever lived. Had he succeeded in that battle he would undoubtedly have been a formidable ally of Eng- land in the war that followed with the United States. In the battle Captain Spencer's company occu- pied the point at the south end of the battlefield. When Spencer fell and his first lieutenant fell Tip- ton, who was an ensign, took charge of the com- pany. General Harrison rode down the point and asked of the young ensign: "Where is your captain?" "Dead, sir," replied the young ensign. Pastime Sketches 83 "Where is your lieutenant ?" "He is also dead, sir." "Who is in command of this company?" "I am, sir," replied the young ensign. "Hold your own, my brave boy!" said Gen- eral Harrison, "and I will send you reinforcements." General Tipton, as he afterwards became, lived in Logansport. In 1829 he rode all night on horseback to Craw- fordsville, where the land office was located and bought the Tippecanoe battlefield. In 1831 Tipton became United States Senator. He died in 1839 at the age of 53. On December 28, 1833, a joint resolution was passed by the Indiana legislature requesting the governor to open negotiations for the cession of the land on which the battle of Tippecanoe was fought in order that it might be consecrated to the memory of the men who fell in the fight with the Indians. In compliance with that resolution, on the first day of November, 1834, Abel C. Pepper, of Ohio county, who was then an Indian agent and who was afterward a member of the constitutional con- vention of 1850, carried a letter from Governor No- ble to General Tipton at his home in Logansport. Miss Matilda Tipton, the granddaughter of Gen- eral Tipton, in later years, at Logansport, searched among the general's papers and at the bottom of his box neatly folded and tied with a faded red tape, was the letter of Governor Noble and the answer of General Tipton, by which he agreed to transfer the grounds on which the bat- tle of Tippecanoe was fought, to the state of Indi- ana. 84 Pastime Sketches The letter from Governor Noble to General Tipton follows : Indianapolis, November 1, 1834. The Hon. John Tipton : Sir — The last legislature of our state by a joint resolution made it the duty of the governor to ascertain the terms on which you would surrender the ground on which was fought the memorable battle of Tippecanoe. With the events of that struggle honorable mention has been frequently made of your name, of your fellow officers and sol- diers who survived it, by the brave general who commanded, as well as those who were slain, and knowing your high estimate of the courage and private virtues of your companions who fell and whose remains render that a sacred spot, I need say but little to induce you to appreciate the motive that prompts the measure, that of a just regard for the memory of the lamented dead. Allow me to refer you to the resolution and request an answer as early as your convenience will permit. I am, sir, with great esteem, your obedient servant, N. NOBLE. Resolution to be found in last volume of our laws. Following is the reply of General Tipton to Gov- ernor Noble : Falls of the Wabash, November 7, 1834. His Excellency, N. Noble: Sir — I have the honor to acknowledge the re- ceipt of your favor of the first of this month, in- forming me that, by a resolution of the last legisla- ture, it was made the duty of the governor to as- certain upon what terms I would surrender to the Pastime Sketches 85 state the ground on which was fought the memor- able battle of Tippecanoe, and, in reply, I have to inform you that, in purchasing the battleground, I was actuated by no other motive than that of possessing it, in order to preserve the bones of my companions in arms who fell there, and that it will afford me great pleasure to convey the battle- ground to the state of Indiana, free of any charge, whenever it is signified to me the state wishes it so conveyed for that purpose. JOHN TIPTON. This communication of General Tipton was transmitted to the legislature by Governor Noble, and on February 7, 1835, the legislature passed a joint resolution resolving among other things that "his excellency be, and he is hereby authorized to receive from the Hon. John Tipton a deed of con- veyance, in fee simple, of the Tippecanoe battle- ground, to and in the name of the State of Indiana. That the governor, on receiving the conveyance aforesaid, shall, by himself, or a proper subagQnt to be by him appointed, take charge of the said battleground, and, if he shall deem it expedient, have the same inclosed with a suitable fence, and that he make report of the proceedings in the prem- ises to the next general assembly, as also his views and opinions relative to the erection of a suitable monument or memorial on said battleground/' While the battleground became a State park under the gift of General Tipton many years ago no monument of any magnitude has ever been erected, though at the last session of Congress and the Indiana legislature proper appropriations were made for that purpose. 86 Pastime Sketches CHAPTER XVIII. AN EARLY PAINTER. The banks of the Wabash, made famous in song, produced a painter who deserves a high place in the history of art in Indiana. Unfortunately many of his paintings have been lost, and while the state library may not obtain many of them, some effort should be made to catalogue those remaining. A search of the Wabash valley for works of the early artist, George Winter, discloses the fact that many of his valuable paintings have disappeared. This is notably true of his paintings of the battle of Tippecanoe. This was his greatest work and, strange to say, it was the first to disappear. In a private letter now in possession of the Wisconsin Historical Society, Winter speaks of six different pictures of the Tippecanoe battle ground and of two of these covering 152 square feet each. All, he says, were taken from different points of view and taken together conveyed one idea of the bat- tle ground. These pictures were painted in 1840 while Winter lived at Logansport, and his idea was suggested by the famous Harrison campaign of that year. The largest collection of Winter pictures in existence is owned by his daughter, Mrs. C. G. Ball, of Lafayette. There are nine oil paintings and thirty-eight water colors in the collection. Four of the oil canvasses are covered with heads Pastime Sketches 87 of Indians, representing thirty-three Pottawatomie chiefs and squaws. There is a life-size head of Francis Godfroy, the last of the Miami chiefs, and another of Joseph Barron, the famous interpreter, who served General Harrison for eighteen years and who aided General Tipton and A. C. Pepper in their negotiations with the Indians. There are numerous water colors perhaps one foot square. Most o'f them are portraits with landscape back- grounds. They are color studies of the Indian costumes of the day made up largely of finery bought from the early traders. Two of these are of Frances Slocum, the white captive, whose family lived at Wilkes-Barre, and who was captured and lived many years with the Indians. Besides this collection there are numerous por- traits at Lafayette, as well as other oil and water colors. Among the best portraits are those of God- love S. Orth. John Purdue, founder of the college; WilliaYn Digby, who laid out Lafayette ; Robert S. Stockwell, Judge Cyrus Ball, Lawrence B. Stock- ton, Mrs. George N. Stockton, Mrs. Thomas Under- wood, Mrs. R. M. O'Ferrell, Dr. R. M. O'Farrell, Mrs. John Cofrroth, James Spears, Cornelius Ball, Edward Reynolds, Sr., Dr. Denning, C. H. Rose and Mrs. Rogers. There are many more portraits at Lafayette and besides quite a collection of Indian portraits and landscape scenes owned by those same citizens and others. The landscapes are of scenes on the Wabash, Tippecanoe, Eel and Mis- sissinewa rivers. The early residents of Logansport were liberal patrons of Winter's art. The late Judge Biddle had a collection of thirty water colors and several oil paintings, now owned by Mrs. Eva Peters Reynolds, 88 Pastime Sketches his niece. In the Masonic temple is a copy of a life-size portrait of Gen. George Tipton, a copy of one of Winter's portraits. Judge Maurice Win- field is the owner of two of the oil paintings, scenes on the Wabash, and Miss Tillie Tipton, grand- daughter of General Tipton, also has two. Former United States Senator Graham N. Fitch left five of the oil paintings to his heirs, and three of these are owned by Horace Coleman, a grandson, who occupies the Fitch homestead. Williamson Wright, who was one of the early residents, left six oil paintings, scenes on the Wabash, to his heirs. Mrs. S. B. Boyer has a portrait of her father, Alex. Goodwin, E. S. Rice, president of the First Na- tional Bank, has two of the oil paintings ; Mrs. Paul Taber has one, Henry Tucker has two, and there are several more in Logansport including those owned by Walter Osmer, Alvin Higgins, D. D. Dykeman, Henry Tucker and others. John H. Elam, of Indianapolis, has one, and a number are owned by persons in Peru. George Winter, in 1839, visited Dead Man's vil- lage, the Indian settlement on the Mississinewa river, near Peru, to make a portrait of Frances Slocum, the white girl stolen from her home in Pennsylvania, when she was three years old. He also made sketches of her surroundings from sev- eral points of view, painting the home and the land- scape of the valley. When Frances Slocum thought she was dying she disclosed to Col. G. W. Ewing, of Fort Wayne, her white origin and early his- tory. She, however, lived for several vears, dying in 1847. The Slocum family, after visiting her and trv- ing to persuade her to return to her people, sent Pastime Sketches 89 a request to Mr. Winter to visit her and obtain a portrait for them. Mr. Winter kept a journal of his visit and afterward wrote an article for the Philadelphia Press, describing his visit. His jour- nal is still in existence and is a valuable addition to the Indian history of Indiana, as are also his many paintings. Writing of the paintings after the election, he said : "Although I have been defeated in getting these views before the public eye at the time when po- litical excitement ran high, yet I have often in- dulged the hope that Harrison would be elected, and that an interest would still be felt. I think if I could get these pictures to Cincinnati some time before the general sets out for the White House that it would be a favorable time to exhibit them. I have also thought it would be a propitious time, too, either at the inauguration or during the spring to exhibit them at Washington." Nothing ever came of these plans and the pic- tures seem to have been lost in part. One of them was presented to the state, and when last recalled was stowed away in a corner of the old State House, unframed and with canvas broken and lopping over. This was shortly before the old Capitol was torn down and the picture was then in a closet off the Supreme Court chamber. It was never seen after the contents of the old Capitol were removed. Quite recently one of the views of the Tippecanoe battle ground was discovered and retouched for presentation to the State library. In a history of early Indiana art. Winter would take a prominent place. Jacob Cox, of Indianap- olis, was his contemporary while Charles A. Les- 90 Pastime Sketches neur and others of the New Harmony settlement antedate him. He was born at Portsea, England, in 1810, and after a preliminary course of private instruction went to London, entered the Royal Academy and lived the life of an artist for four years. When twenty years of age he came to New York and seven years later, in 1837, to Logansport. The remainder of his life was spent in the Wa- bash valley. In 1840 he was married to Miss Mary Squier, of New Carlisle, O., and two children sur- vive him — George Winter, Eureka, Cal., and Mrs. C. Gordon Ball, of Lafayette, Ind. Mr. Winter remained in Logansport until 1850, when he moved to Lafayette. He went to California in 1873 and returned to Lafayette in 1876, dying a short time afterward while attending an entertainment at the opera house in that city. During the entire time Mr. Winter supported himself by his brush, a difficult task in a new coun- try having little appreciation of art. When he came to Logansport in 1837, to use his own words, "He was allured to Indiana to be present at the councils held by Col. A. C. Pepper at the village of Kee-waw-nay in regard to the Pottawatomie im- migration west of the Mississippi." He had an ar- tist's interest in the red man .of the west, and many of his paintings are of famous Pottawatomie and Miami chiefs. Pastime Sketches 91 CHAPTER XIX. A TRIP ON THE CANAL. There is a somewhat rare work in the Horace P. Biddle collection at the city library. It is en- titled, "The Wabash, or Adventures of an Eng- lish Gentleman's Family in the Interior of Amer- ica." It was published in London in 1855 by "Hurst and Blackett, Publishers, 13 Great Marl- borough street," and is in two volumes. The au- thor is "J. Richard Beste, Esq., of London." With the progress we have made it is hard to realize that an Englishman came to this part of the country a little over fifty years ago and wrote of us much as Henry M. Stanley and Paul du Chaillu wrote of "Darkest Africa" in more recent years. The frontispiece in this book is a picture of Terre Haute, Indiana, and it is a rather remarkable production in that it shows Terre Haute as con- sisting of five house, six people and two dogs. The artist seems to have ha,d an Englishman's fondness for dogs, as they occupy the foreground of the pic- ture. Two churches or school houses appear in the background. Mr. Beste made his trip to Terre Haute in a spirit of adventure, arriving at New York on a sailing vessel and finding his way westward as best he could. He passed through Indianapolis over the National road, in a stage coach, and stopped at 92 Pastime Sketches the Prairie House in Terre Haute. Death in his family, and other discouragements led him to re- turn soon and he selected the canal route by way of Logansport as better than the one he had fol- lowed in his course westward. This involved a ca- nal boat ride from Terre Haute to Toledo, Ohio, a steamboat trip on Lake Erie from Toledo to Buf- falo, railroad transportation from Buffalo to Al- bany and another steamboat ride down the Hud- son from Albany to New York city. The time consumed on this journey was something less than a month and no better realization of the great prog- ress of the country can be arrived at than by com- parison of this with the present method of getting to New York city. Many can recall the local mer- chants who went to New York to buy goods a few years ago, and thought it something to be proud of. It meant much hardship then, the trip took much time, and was very expensive, and it is not to be wondered at that the merchant advertised his special bargains in New York goods, selected by himself, "in person," for the particular wants of his customers. Mr. Beste's book was interesting to me and might be to others, and so I have called attention to it. There is not much of value in it, in a gen- eral way, but it gives an accurate description of travel on a canal boat in early times. When the Beste party was ready to leave Terre Haute it was delayed by a break in the canal and learned that this was of frequent occurrence. A week of waiting followed. Telegrams were sent to friends and the author goes into raptures, say- ing, "Let Europe and England take shame to itself that the electric telegraph, as yet. exists not every- Pastime Sketches 93 where for the convenience of everybody. In these remote and infant communities, it is in hourly use in every village. The greatest and smallest com- mercial transactions are carried on by its means." Mr. Beste decided "that Indianapolis and Terre Haute are not decaying, but are busy, rising, thriv- ing towns." The population of Indianapolis, he says, was 2,692 in 1840 and in 1850 had risen to 8,034. Terre Haute in the same period rose from 2*000 to 4,051. The journey by canal to Toledo was not par- ticularly exciting. The boat made from four to five miles an hour and stops were frequent. It was an ordinary canal boat, too well remembered to re- quire description. The view, the writer says, "was naught," thick woods with partial clearings. "Af- ter tea," says the writer, "we all began a most murderous ' attack upon the mosquitoes that swarmed our berths in expectation of feasting upon us as soon as we should go to bed. Those upon which we made war were soon replaced by others and the more we killed the more they seemed to come to be killed. We soon resigned ourselves to pass a sleepless night. Tormented by the mosqui- toes, by heat and by thirst our onward course was very wearying." At Lafayette was to be a "change of cars" and the writer says, "We little knew what was in store for us. We spent some time catching mosquitoes which were ten times worse than in the other boat." G. Davis was captain of this boat and W. H. Noble was agent at Lafayette. The captain refused to recognize the rights of Mr. Beste to the quarters he had paid for and a convention of passengers finallv settled the matter in his favor. Mr. Beste 94 Pastime Sketches was evidently not delighted with his trip for he says: "If for some reason I linger yet upon this canal, let it be remembered that those whose prop- erty is here forcibly invested, have, probably, never before heard from a countryman who had traveled with his family from the Ohio river to Lake Erie by this ditch ; and that it is unlikely any one will ever do so again." The morning ablutions had to be performed in turn. "Every third person had to dip the jug into the canal for fresh water." Then came the break- fast which was "very bad indeed," along the route were many villagers and the shops had signs, "York Fixings and Yankee Notions." "The whole party was very much annoyed the next day by a passenger who stood on the roof, or upper deck of the boat with a fowling piece in hand and constantly fired at birds that flew across the canal. The detonation overhead was unpleas- ant, but the man was a friend of the surly animal who commanded the boat, and remonstrance was felt to be useless." Mr. Beste did not find anything enjoyable in his trip. His last entry in his journal is as amus- ing as any paragraph in his book. It was dated Saturday and reads : "At ten o'clock this morn- ing, our hateful boat — for the wretched fare and accommodation on which I had paid about forty- five dollars a head, or about double the charge per day at the Prairie House, Terre Haute — was drawn up beside a crowded wharf at Toledo. My family had found some degree of fellowship in that of Miss Ward and her children ; and had been amused by the manners and the squabbles of the other female passengers. We left the boat, thankful to the Al- Pastime Sketches 95 mighty that we had been able to traverse between three and four hundred miles of an infected dis- trict without further illness, and rejoiced to find ourselves once more in a comparatively civilized region. We went into the hotel at Toledo and saw a bell-rope hanging in the ladies' sitting-room. Was not this evidence of civilization, we had not seen such a luxury since we left Cincinnati. Here indeed it was a novelty ; and the use of it was not known to every one, as was testified by the following notice written, in large letters on a card, and sewn on to the handle of the bell pull : "Pull straight down once, then let go suddenly." 96 Pastime Sketches CHAPTER XX. A STORY OF PROGRESS. Less than seventy years ago, within the mem- ory of many now living, the Indian roamed the forests about the present site of Logansport and camped upon the banks of the Eel and Wabash. Picture in your fancy Logansport in 1838, a little village with a log hotel, log stores, a log postoffice and a log jail. There were perhaps a hundred and forty or fifty log and frame houses, most of them below Fifth street. The log postoffice stood just above the present Barnett hotel, the old Semin- ary faced Market street, it was of brick, and the old jail was on the present site. Scattered about were native forest trees and the streets were paved with mud several inches deep. Workmen are now tearing down the old Hig- gins house on Market between Fifth and Sixth streets to make room for a modern flat. In those days the canal ran along the east side of the town, now Fifth street, and there were few houses east of it. Market street east of the canal was a coun- try road cut through the forest and ancient oaks adorned the hill between Sixth and Eighth streets. The original plat of Logansport ran to below Sixth street and the lots above were in the first addition to the tOAvn, made by John Tipton. The addition was laid out August 3rd, 1832, but was not im- proved rapidly. In 1838 there were few houses east Pastime Sketches 97 of Fifth street, the Higgins house being one of them. The lot is number 46 in the addition. It was on the hill as it now stands and the street in front of it was the country road. John Tipton sold the lot to Cyrus Taber, he sold to Henry Chase. Philo S. Patterson appears as one of the owners, 1837. Captain Alvin W. Higgins appears as own- er of the lot by purchase in 1857. As far as it is possible to learn the house was built in 1833, or 1834. It was constructed by a millwright who was skilled only in that sort of architecture and the foundation is of double strength and the timbers are heavy wrought. There is nothing to show that it was ever intended for a mill, or was used as such but the style of architecture suggests that that may have been intended. William Chase appears as the grantor in the deed to Capt. Higgins in 1857. East of the canal a few houses were scattered in the woods. The lot of the present Broadway Alethodist church was in timber. Back of it was the home of a blacksmith named Hines and near it. toward North street, was the home of a car- penter named Ward, father of Edward Ward. "Jimmy" Rogers had a house a few feet west of the present Broadway Presbyterian church. West of the canal the father of Charles B. Laselle had a home where the gas office is on Pearl street and he afterwards built at the corner of Broadway and Pearl. The old Seminary, of brick, stood facing Market street where Snider's queensware store stands, or a little west of it, perhaps later, and the Methodist church stood on the alley east side of Sixth street, between Broadway and North streets. The Presbyterian church still standing back of the Lewis store on Broadway below Sixth, 98 Pastime Sketches and perhaps one or two other houses composed the town ahove the canal for many years. George C. Walker built at the corner of Ninth and Broadway, where the Sisters school stands later and Col. I. N. Partridge built where now is the residence of J. T. McNary. Thus the town grew. It does not require much flight of the imagination to picture this hill of forest trees with country roads for streets and a log or frame house here and there. William Douglass, still living, brought Captain Higgins to Logansport with an ox team. He found him as a passenger at the "Forks of the Wabash" two miles below Huntington on his return from a trip to Fort Wayne and offered him the best to be had in those days in the way of transportation. Capt. Higgins engaged in business in Logansport. held office and died several years ago. He acquired his military title under General Tipton. When the treaty was made with the Pottawatomie Indians, Chauncey Carter and Dr. Graham N. Fitch were ap- pointed to move some of them west to their new reservation in Kansas. Capt. Higgins went along with a squad of men of which he was made cap- tain. Some of them went in wagons, some on horseback and some on foot. The Indians were brought from an Indian village in Fulton county and were in camp on the North Side, on Horney Creek, where the Custer house now stands. The chiefs were in irons under guard and the undertak- ing was not a particularly safe one. The Cass county contingent returned without loss of life and many of them lived to tell the story to their grand- children. The first engine for the first railroad was unload- ed on the west bank of the canal between Broad- Pastime Sketches 99 way and Market streets just below the Higgins home in the spring of 1855. Mr. Wat Westlake helped to celebrate the opening of the railroad on July 4th of that year. The engine had been un- loaded from the canal boat and hauled by oxen to the track on the Southside, over the wooden bridges crosing Biddle's Island, a feat which would scarcely be attempted with the engines of the pres- ent day. It was ready for its trial trip by July 4th and a few citizens were invited to a picnic two miles east of town where the Taber prairie now is. The trip was made successfully and thus is recorded the first railroad excursion out of Logansport. Mr. Westlake also remembers the opening of the Chi- cago road in 1861. The building of the Wabash, road was com- pleted through Logansport in 1856. The turn- table was at the present junction of the Wabash and Panhandle roads while the western extension was being built. The road has gone through the usual vicissitudes of railroads and has appeared un- der various names from time to time as a result of consolidations and reorganizations. The following corporate history may be of interest for historical purposes : The Lake Erie, Wabash & St. Louis Railroad Co. was incorporated August 31, 1852, and con- structed a line through Indiana. On the 25th day of June, 1855, this company consolidated with the To- ledo & Illinois Railroad Company into the Toledo, Wabash and Western Railroad Company. The lat- ter road was sold on foreclosure on October 8, 1858, and the part in Indiana was sold to the Wa- bash and Western Railroad Co. On October 24, 1858, said Wabash and Western consolidated with 100 Pastime Sketches the Toledo and Wabash Railway Company. On May 29, 1868, the Toledo and Wabash Railway Company consolidated with the Great Western Railway Company of 1859, the Quincy & Toledo Railroad Co., or the Illinois & Southern Iowa Rail- road Company, under the name of the Toledo, Wa- bash & Western Railway Company on foreclosure proceedings had in Toledo, Ohio. Logansport, In- diana, and Danville, Illinois. In 1875 and 1876, the Toledo, Wabash & Western Railway Company was sold and in January, 1877, became the Wabash Rail- way Company by consolidation, there having been organized a Wabash railway in each of the states of Ohio, Indiana and Illinois. In November, 1879, the Wabash railway con- solidated with the St. Louis, Kanas City and North- ern railway and became the Wabash, St. Louis & Pacific Railway Company. This road went into the hands of a receiver in May, 1884, and was sold at receiver's sale in Chicago, May 21, 1889, the part in Indiana to the Wabash Eastern Railway Company of Indiana. On the 23d day of May, 1889, the Wabash Eastern Railway Company of Missouri, the Toledo & Western Railroad Com- pany of Ohio and the Detroit and State Line Wa- bash Railroad Company of Michigan were consoli- dated into the Wabash Railroad ompany, the pres- ent owner and operator of what is known as the "Wabash" line. Pastime Sketches 101 CHAPTER XXL TWO RARE BOOKS. An odd little volume is the property of the Lo- gansport Public Library. It would almost go into an ordinary envelope were the title, which is the biggest part of it, omitted. It is styled "The State of Indiana Delineated ; Geographical, Historical, Statistical and Commercial, and a Brief View of the Internal Improvements, Geology, Education, Traveling Routes, etc." It is "Published by J. H. Colton, New York, 1838." "The State is divided into 88 counties," it says, and their population in 1830 is given, also the num- ber of square miles in each county. Cass county has 415 square miles, and a population of 1,154. Car- roll county had about four hundred more and Allen county a hundred less than Cass county. Marion county, Indianapolis, had only a population of 7 - 181, while South Bend and St. Joseph county com- bined had only 287. This county had the smallest population in the State in 1830. Cass county had 858 voters in 1837, the entire county and city was appraised for taxation at $323,126. The personal property assessed brought this up to $827,567 and the gross amount of rev- enue received from taxation was $1,670.95. How much of this belonged to the State as its share is not stated, but it is evident that the county officers were not living in very princely style. 102 Pastime Sketches Under the caption "Sketches of Each County" appears the following: "Cass County — organized in 1829; contains 415 square miles; bounded north by Pulaski and Fulton, east by Miami, south by Car- roll county and Miami Reserve, west by Carroll and White counties. The face of the country is generally level ; it abounds with springs of excel- lent water, and the streams are sufficiently rapid to furnish great facilities for mills and machinery of every description. The principal streams are the Wabash and Eel rivers, which unite at Logansport, the county seat — a large and flourishing town. The Wabash and Erie canal passes through this coun- ty-" From a table of elevations above the sea it is learned that the surface of the Wabash river at the mouth of Eel river is 562 feet above tide water in the Hudson river. It would thus appear that Logansport is in no danger from a tidal wave. In the list of towns Amsterdam appears as be- ing in Cass county, also Lewisburg, Logansport, New Paris and West Logan. Another interesting book is entitled, "History of Fort Wayne," being an account of the founding of the Indian fort of that name after which the city was named. It was published in 1868 and is one of the Biddle collection. It is probably the most com- plete history of the habits and customs of the Indi- ans of this locality, ever published. Pastime Sketches 103 CHAPTER XXII. THE UNDERGROUND RAILWAY One of the questions seriously disturbing the country in the early days was the question of slav- ery. As is remembered, it ended in a long and bit- ter civil war. Slavery was an institution that had its origin in the greed of man. And the wonder at the present time is that it so long existed. Still, there was an apparently good side to it, the humane administra- tion of it, and sentiment was divided. Naturally, Harriet Beecher Stowe depicted the worst side, in "Uncle Tom's Cabin." Nevertheless, the system was indefensible from any standpoint, but having been established, was difficult to destroy. Besides this, immense sums were invested in slaves and the property rights thus acquired represented millions of dollars. It is quite possible that the slavery question would have been settled amicably but for the Civil war, for that war was not, as is generally supposed, fought over slavery but over states' rights. The emancipation proclamation was an afterthought, a blow at the south, in rebellion. For many years there was a bitter sectional feeling between the north and the south. The north was opposed to slavery, and naturally to "states' rights," which would give each state the power to regulate slavery, as well as all other 104 Pastime Sketches questions of more or less internal concern. It is difficult to understand, however, the spirit of hatred involved. At the present time the government would buy the slaves and free them, and the settle- ment of a serious question in this way would be ap- plauded on both sides. Somehow at that time the spirit of war was in the air. In any event, for years before the war, the north was exciting" the south by insidious attacks on its system of slav- ery. The people of the south were born and raised in an atmosphere of slave-ownership. The child of the south had no other thought than that slaves, ponies, dogs and other animals were property, chat- tels. There was no other thought possible, any more than it would be possible for the child of to- day to be convinced that the ownership of a pony was a crime. So that, when the north for a quarter of a century kept up an attack on the property rights of the south, as the south saw it, there was stirred up a feeling akin to that felt toward an in- cendiary gang, bent on the wilful destruction of property, or toward an organization whose object was the secret carrying off of beasts of burden. It is not, at all times, possible to justify meth- ods. One of the frequent themes of debate in juve- nile debating societies is, "Is it right to do wrong to accomplish right?" However this may be the north irritated the south by an incessant attack on the lawful property of the south, as the law read, and furthermore, the proceedings of the constitu- tional convention of the United States, and the constitution itself, indirectly, gave to slave states property rights in slaves. The north was the aggressor, it spirited away the constitutional property of the south and war Pastime Sketches 105 followed. It is sometimes said that "the end justi- fies the means." With that view of it the north was right. And generally the north accomplished one of the greatest reforms of any age, the abolition of slavery. No one living, north or south, today questions the methods. But it will always remain, as one of the complex problems of humanity, that the north was morally right, and the south legally right, and that, for twenty-five years the north kept up an attack on the constitutional property rights of the south by methods which would be called stealing if brute animals were involved. But this incident is one of the peculiar features of all reforms, and there have even been religious wars to establish universal peace. Whatever the means — and there is a saying "all is fair in war" — the whole country rejoices, north and south, that the blot of slavery was removed by the brave and unselfish patriots who sought to make America "The Land of the Free." Cass county occupied a prominent place in the noble fight against the crime of slavery, long be- fore its Civil war heroes went forth to face bullets. As early as 1835, Jacob Powell, of the present Pow- ell family, was familiar with the "Underground Railway System" known in Pennsylvania where he lived. The system was established in Cass county in 1855 or 1856. Jacob Powell was proprietor of the Seven-Mile House, a tavern on the Michigan road, seven miles north of Logansport. The Four- Mile House was conducted by Benjamin L. Camp- bell, uncle of B. F. Campbell and Lycurgus Powell had a tavern on the north side of Eel river, just west of where George Flanegan now lives. The house is not now standing. All these were stations 106 Pastime Sketches on the Underground railroad. South of the city, there were stations of the Underground Railway in Carroll county, and in Howard county. The first station in Cass county was at the home of Lycurgus Powell, on the northern route, and it is unnecessary to say that none of the passengers on this railway traveled southward. There is not much in the way oi narrative to say of this railroad system, not down on any of the published maps. There was a method of communi- cation between the stations, equal, as far as times were concerned, to the present telegraphing. The slaves came north in groups of two, or three. They were secreted in the daytime, and taken north, to the next station at night. There was a station at Rochester, and at Plymouth, and some between. The slaves eventually reached Canada, where slav- ery was unknown, and became free. This was the beginning of the fight on slavery, the Civil war followed, and the United States began an era of prominence and leadership among the nations of the earth. It must be remembered that this work was a work of patriotism. There was no charge made for board, or transportation. Once the slave crossed the Ohio river he was among friends and was sure of aid. There was danger in it, and great secrecy had to be preserved, since the slave owners were quick to follow the trail of the fugitives. There were large rewards offered tempting to officers in the North, and the officers of the Underground railroad had their share of excitement. Thus for several years the opponents of slavery waged a warfare against it. Pastime Sketches 107 CHAPTER XXIII. SOME MILITARY HISTORY. The advent of Memorial day suggests a com- pilation of the names of residents of the county who figured as officers in the various wars. The names of the enlisted men have been gathered by the G. A. R. under their respective companies and regiments. They will be preserved by the Historical society but the list is too long to reproduce in this brief article. Many veterans were in other than Indiana companies and have moved to the county since the war. Some of these do not belong to the G. A. R. and there is no way to enroll them. Any omission in this list of officers is accidental. Cass county had four generals in the Indian wars. General John Tipton, General Walter Wilson, General Hyacinth Laselle and General Richard Crooks. Besides these other officers were, Col. John B. Duret, Major Daniel Bell, Capt. Spier Spencer and Capt. Cyrus Vigus. In the Mexican war Cass county furnished Capt. Stanislaus Laselle, First Lieut. Wm. L. Brown, Second Lieut. D. M. Dunn, Third Lieut. G. W. Blakemore. T. H. Bringhurst was a corporal. J. T. Bryer, J. B. Grover, W. W. McMillen, S. L. McFadin, W. Obenchain, S. B. Richardson and others well known were members of this company, the full list being given in Kingman's 1878 Atlas of Cass county. The company became part of the 108 Pastime Sketches first regiment, organized at New Albany with James P. Drake colonel, C. C. Nave, lieutenant-colonel and Henry S. Lane, major. The company spent some time in northern Mexico about Monterey, with no engagement and returned on the 15th of June, 1847, by way of the river to Cincinnati and thence to Logansport by canal. The company contained 92 men when mustered in. Three died in Mexico and 31 were discharged on account of ill health. In the Civil war Cass county furnished a com- pany of the original 9th Indiana Volunteers, the first that left the state, for service in West Virginia. On the 15th of April, 1861, the president called for troops. The following day the first commission was issued to Robert H. Milroy, as captain of Com- pany G. Dudley H. Chase was commissioned cap- tain of Company K. The regiment reported for duty and was mustered in ten days after the call. The regiment left Indianapolis on the 29th of May and on the 3rd of June participated in an engage- ment at Philippi. The period of enlistment was ninety days. Capt. Chase at once re-entered serv- ice in the Seventeenth U. S. Infantry and most of the others saw later service. John Banta was first lieutenant of Co. K of this regiment. G. W. Marshall was captain of Co. K, as was also D. B. McConnell. May 3rd, 1861, a call was made for three years men and another com- pany was formed, becoming Company F, of the Twentieth Regiment. William L. Brown was elected colonel of this regiment and Benjamin H. Smith Major, both of Cass county. Thomas H. Logan was first lieutenant of this company and E. C. Sutherland second lieutenant. T. H. Logan be- came captain, Sutherland first lieutenant and Har- Pastime Sketches 109 vey H. Miller, second lieutenant and first lieutenant later. Col. Brown was killed on Manassas Plains, August 29, 1862. Lieut. Sutherland died in the service May 26th, 1864. Following - this company the Forty-sixth regi- ment was organized with a greater part of the mem- bers of companies B, D and I, and a portion of F and H from Cass county. The officers were Gra- ham N. Fitch, colonel, Newton G. Scott, lieuten- ant-colonel, Thomas H. Bringhurst, major, Rich- ard P. DeHart, adjutant, D. D. Dykeman, quarter- master, Robert Irwin, chaplain, and Horace Cole- man, acting surgeon. Major Bringhurst became colonel, Capt. A. M. Flory, lieutenant-colonel, Wil- liam M. DeHart, major, Thomas H. Howes, quar- termaster, William S. Richardson, quartermaster, Dr. Asa Coleman, assistant surgeon, and Dr. I. B. Washburn, principal surgeon. Aaron Flory was captain of Company B, suc- ceeded by Frank Swigart when Flory was promot- ed and later T. B. Forgy became captain. John T. Castle and Matthew Graham were first lieutenants, John Arnout, Loren C. Stevens and M. H. Nash second lieutenants. John Guthrie was captain of Company D, and was succeeded by Wm. M. DeHart, C. A. Brownlee and A. B. Herman, first lieutenants, A. K. Ewing and A. J. Lavenger, second lieutenants. J. W. F. Liston was captain of Company I and was suc- ceeded by Frederick Fitch. N. B. Liston was sec- ond lieutenant. The regiment was mustered in De- cember 11th, 1861, and served till the close of the war. It was in camp before going to war at Camp Logan, where the Vandalia shops are in Logans- port. The county also furnished Companies G and 110 Pastime Sketches H of the Seventy-third regiment mustered in Au- gust 16th, 1862. The officers of Company G were W. L. McConnell, captain, J. A. Westlake, captain, G. A. Vaness, first lieutenant, R. J. Connoly, second lieutenant, and S. B. Pratt, second lieutenant. The officers of Company H were Peter Doyle and D. H. Mull, captains, H. S. Murdock, first lieutenant and A. M. Callahan, second lieutenant. Company K of the Ninety-ninth Regiment, was mainly made up in Cass county. Richard P. DeHart was lieuten- ant-Colonel, G. W. Julian and George C. Walker were captains and Selden P. Stuart first lieuten- ant, John C. McGregor, second lieutenant. In 1863 the One Hundred and Twenty-eighth was organized with Richard P. DeHart colonel and Cass county furnished most of Companies B, H and K. Alex K. Ewing and John C. Barnett were captains, W. C. Mills and Frank E. West, first lieu- tenants and Samuel Tilton second. Company H had for its captain John T. Powell and Wm. A. Harper was first lieutenant. Company K had Frank M. Ilinton as captain, George W. Smith, first lieu- tenant and Wm. H. Crockett, second lieutenant. The One Hundred and Fifty-ninth Regiment had for captain of Company C, John C. Scantling, who was promoted to major and after the war went into the regular army. J. E. Cornwell, Joseph P. McKee and John G. Penrose were lieutenants. Outside of these organzations Logansport has had other officers, some as citizens since that time who were residents of other counties or states dur- ing the war. J. B. Winters was first lieutenant of Co. F, 151st Indiana, and Bruce Davidson was a captain of the same company. Robert Cromer was also a first lieutenant of the same company. J. C. Pastime Sketches 111 Hadley was a captain of Co. K in the 70th Indiana Regiment, General Harrison's. Joseph Craig was captain of Co. G, 130th Ind., and George W. Julian, captain of Co. K, 99th Indiana. James Finegan was captain of Co. C, 53rd Indiana. A. W. Ste- vens was captain of Co. K, 142d Indiana. A. C. Hadlock was colonel of the First Kentucky Cav- alry, W. H. Snider was major of the 94th Ohio. Quartermasters in the Civil war were : George Horn, 46th Indiana, W. S. Richardson, same, George F. West, 9th 111. Cavalry, and M. M. Gor- don, 13th Ind. Volunteers. Some of the other offi- cers were : Captains, Frank Hight, Co. E, 39th Ohio ; John C. Nelson, Co. B, 70th Ohio, Hazen's staff; Samuel Purviance, Co. E, 9th 111. Cavalry ; Alex. Hardy, 24th Battery, Ind. Vol. ; Jesse L. Cornwell, Co. C, 155th Ind. ; James W. Dunn, Co. H, 55th Ind. ; Car- ter L. Vigus, 55th Ind. ; W. C. Mills, Co. E, 128th Ind. ; J. Y. Ballou, Co. K, 12th Ind. Cavalry ; Peter Doyle, Co. H, 73d Ind. (killed at Stone River) ; John G. Kessler, Co. A, 2nd Ind. Cavalry ; J. C. Brophy, Co. H, 22nd Michigan ; Joseph A. West- lake, Co. G, 73d Ind. ; W. L. McConnell, Co. G, 73d Ind.; D. M. Bender, Co. I, 47th Ind.; J. T. Powell, Co. H, 128th Ind.; Abraham Shafer, Co. B, 36th Ind. Lieutenants : S. A. Vaughn was first lieutenant 12th U. S. Heavy Artillery, appointed from the State of New York by the President and assigned to the second army corps under General Hancock; W. H. Crockett, first, Co. K, 128th Ind.; James Parker, first, Co. K, U. S. Heavy Artillery; John Penrose, second, Co. C, 155th Ind. ; Henry Murdock, Co. G, 73d Ind. ; G. A. Vaness, first, Co. G, 73d Ind. ; 112 Pastime Sketches S. B. Pratt, second, Co. G, 73d Ind. ; Frank Smith, first, Co. K, 128 Ind. ; H. C. Cushman, first, Co. A, 94th Ohio; G. F. West, first, 9th 111. Cavalry; A. M. Callahan, second, Co. H, 73d Ind.; Samuel Til- ton, second, Co. D, 128th Ind. ; B. H. Keith, first, Co. G, 128th Ind. ; M. K. Graham, first, Co. B, 46th Ind. ; Leroy J. Anderson, first, Co. D, 46th Ind. ; Frank M. Rust, second, Co. B, 55th Ind.; A. W. Mobley, first, Co. H, 55th Ind.; John G. Meek, second, Co. H, 55th Ind. ; G. W. Smith, Co. K, 128th Ind.; Joseph P. McKee, first, Co. C. 155th Ind.; James A. Wilkinson, second, Co. E, 9th 111. Cav- alry; James Justice, first 118th Ind.; J. H. McMil- len, second, Co. K, 5th Ind. Cavalry; Robert Nick- um, first, 69th Ind.; Austin B. Sargent, first, Co. E, 29th Ind. ; W. H. Wilkinson, second, Co. F 12th Ind. Cavalry; M. M. Gordon, first, Co. E, 13th Ind. The Spanish-American war was fought in the spring and summer of 1898. Logansport furnished Company M. of the 160th Indiana of which D. M. Bender was captain, a captain of the Civil war. The other officers were W. C. Dunn, first lieuten- ant ; Leroy Fitch, 2d lieutenant. Several Cass county men enlisted in the 161st Ind. Company 14, U. S. Signal Corps (staff corps) was recruited from Indiana at Indianapolis by W. S. Wright, first lieutenant. It numbered 54 men, two- thirds of whom, under the law, were skilled elec- tricians or telegraphers. Logansport men were Claude Beebe, James V. C. Nelson, Charles Mas- sena, Willard Keiser, S. E. Keiser, Adelbert Young, Walter C. Hall and Willard Thomas. The corps spent three weeks in drill and pre- paration at Washington barracks and was then as- signed to the staff of the Seventh Army Corps in Pastime Sketches 113 camp at Jacksonville, Fla., Fitzhugh Lee command- ing. Inasmuch as the Signal Corps is a new feature of military operation the following sketch is added. The signal corps constructed and operated tele- graph lines between head quarters within 24 hours after an army went into camp. It also communi- cated messages by what is known as wigwagging and by the heliograph. Wigwagging was the method of communicating without wires, flags were used in the day time and torches at night. On account of the exposed position of the men on eminences they were armed with carbines and re- volvers and were often protected by a squad. They carried also their signal apparatus. Messages were received by the aid of powerful field glasses. The limit of observation and signaling was about four miles. The telegraph code was used as in the Western Union offices and railroad offices. The flag or torch at night was held upright, a quick stroke to the right, or left, made the dots and a slow stroke the dashes, and thus the messages were spelled out as in ordinary telegraphing. When no hill-tops were available the tops of the tallest trees were used as stations. The helio- graph was an instrument made up ot a tripod, a mirror and a shutter. By the quick, or slow use of the shutter dashes and dots were made. The mir- ror was adjustable and caught the sun's rays and reflected them to a certain point where the message was to be taken. By the aid of field-glasses mes- sages have been sent 50 miles but of course the heliograph is only available in the day time and on a clear day. These methods of signalling have been used very successfully in Europe in time of war but the objections are first the difficulty of attract- 114 Pastime Sketches ing the attention of the squad to be communicated with, and secondly, the prominence of the signal- ling squad which make it an object of interest to the sharp-shooters. The signal corps also had charge of the balloon train, the balloon being held by a cable four or five hundred feet long, and be- ing used for a signal station and for observation of the enemy's position and number*. On account of the separation of the corps into small squads for field work there were many non- commissioned officers, Nelson, Beebe, Messena, Young and both Reisers were sergeants, Thomas was a corporal. Logansport was and is well represented in the regular army and navy. Leroy Fitch rose to the rank of Commodore and was retired. He died about 1876 at his home on the Southside where the St. Joseph Hospital stands. Capt. Henry S. Fitch died in 1871 and Fred Fitch was captain in the 46th Indiana. Graham D. Fitch is a major in the en- gineering corps of the regular army and is now sta- tioned at Duluth, Minn., on River and Harbor Im- provements. Captain Wash Coulson, retired, was in the revenue service. E. L. McSheehy is an en- sign and is stationed at Manila. Lieutenant S. M. Landry is in the revenue service. Morris H. Brown was senior lieutenant in the navy and as- signed to League Island Navy Yard, Philadelphia, when he died. Captain Henry McCrea is in com- mand of the battleship Iowa. Many of the officers of the Civil war here named went through the hardships of prison life at Libby, Andersonville, and other prisons. Many have at- tained rank in military organizations since the war. M. M. Gordon raised the Third Indiana State Mili- Pastime Sketches 115 tia, Loyal Legion, and was appointed surgeon with the rank of major. He was afterwards internal revenue collector for Northern Indiana and gave up the practice of medicine. Major William M. DeHart was the first enlisted man in the war of the rebellion though the honor is claimed by another man because the Logansport company was recruited before the President's pro- clamation declaring war. The company was mustered in and the honor rightfully belongs to Major DeHart. The Logansport company also claims the honor of being the first company formed in the Civil war. The Logan Grays, the Cass Blues and perhaps other militia companies have been organized in Lo- gansport but space does not print further mention here. 116 Pastime Sketches CHAPTER XXIV. MEN OF NATIONAL, OR STATE FAME. In the very nature of things greatness is not local. A man is more or less great as his influence, power or fame extends beyond the confines of his immediate environment. And this influence, power or fame must be in the directon of the public wel- fare. The bandit becomes notorious only, the in- ventor, artist, or author famous and to these we add the term great. There are "great" musicians, jur- ists physicians, ministers, explorers, scientists and so on. In our usual vocabulary of terms, however, the "great" man is the product of strife, political, civic or military. He must be a leader of men in contests among men. The element of leadership suffices without other qualification. It is the power to organize men and direct the forces in any given direction that we call greatness, and so every com- munity has its "great" men who may simply excel in organization and leadership. But in truth he is a more or less great man who acquires laudable fame beyond the scenes of hs daily avocation. Logansport produced great men in the early days. The per cent, was much greater than at present. Undoubtedly the hardships of early life developed character. The little village on the Western frontier was the home of a United States Senator, generals in the Indian wars and other offi- cers. There were less men to command and more Pastime Sketches 117 officers to command them, but that detracts naught from the honor. The titles were bravely won. It was an era when men were heroes and danger lurked everywhere. Nor were titles home made. They were official, in recognition of courage and ability. Furthermore history gives to men of Lo- gansport the leadership in public and military af- fairs in the entire north of the territory, and later the northern part of the State. From the time of the organization and admis- sion of the State of Indiana up to the close of the Civil war, less than fifty years, the village, grown to a town of five or six thousand inhabitants in the early sixties, had known United States Senators, Generals, and other military officers as citizens. It had two United States Senators, two citizens elected to Congress, and its people were leaders in affairs of State and Nation. The Indian wars, Mexican war and Civil war produced great men, or rather brought out the greatness in men, as war always does. But Logansport had a remarkable share of them. It has now been thirty-two years since Logansport furnished a United States Senator, D. D. Pratt retiring in 1875. True the growth and development of the State has caused the greater distribution of these honors, there being nine-two populous counties in the State. And comparative peace has reigned over the country, so that there are no new heroes of war. Logansport has had its share of State and National honors since the Civil war but by comparison with the earlier days it does not seem so. And there is an average of strong character, if not the marked individual brilliancy of earlier days. A review of the list down to the present from 118 Pastime Sketches the early days shows that Logansport has fur- nished three. United States Senators, John Tipton, Graham N. Fitch and Daniel D. Pratt. They have able biographers who have told of their lives and public acts, not possible in this brief sketch. David Turpie was for many years a resident of Logans- port before he became United States Senator. Schuyler Colfax represented this district before he became Vice President of the United States, as did also James N. Tyner, who became postmaster- general. Among other prominet men now living Rufus Magee was minister to Sweden and Norway, and Judge D. P. Baldwin was Attorney-general of Indi- ana. Logansport was also the home of Simon P. Sheerin, clerk of the Supreme Court ; Horace P. Biddle and William Z. Stuart, judges of the Su- preme Court of Indiana ; W. D. Owen, secretary of State, congressman and United States commis- sioner of immigration made Logansport his home; R. A. Brown, clerk of the Supreme Court lived in Logansport before his nomination. D. D. Pratt and Graham N. Fitch were elected to congress before they were made United States Senators and Logansport is the home of Frederick Landis. Charles B. Landis was a Logansport boy before he went to congress. George E. Ross served on the Appellate bench of the State and Dr. J. Z. Powell was a presidential elector, as were also Frank Swigart and Q. A. Myers. There is quite a list of senators, representatives, circuit judges and prose- cutors who served in distircts larger than Cass, who have been famed outside of their own local community, residents of Logansport, but their Pastime Sketches 119 names appear fully in the histories of the State and county. Logansport has stood high in the railroad world, as far as the fame of her sons is concerned. George W. Stevens became President of the Chesa- peake & Ohio R. R. and L. F. Loree, President of the Baltimore & Ohio R. R., two great lines of the East and West and active competitors. Frank Hecker became president of the Peninsular Car Works and C. L. Freer, treasurer and both became millionaires and Mr. Hecker a colonel in the Spanish-American war. 120 Pastime Sketches CHAPTER XXV. CASS COUNTY COMPANY FIRST IN CIVIL WAR. Not only is Major Wm. M. DeHart of this city entitled to the honor of being the first enlisted man in the Civil war but company D, the one he re- cruited in Logansport, which became part of the Ninth Indiana, was the first company recruited in that war. The recruiting was begun Saturday night, April 13th, 1861, and was continued all day Sunday and Monday. The recruiting office was on the corner of Fourth and Market streets where the State Bank now stands. DeHart had no official authority. He signed first himself and urged others to do so and within a week one hundred and twenty- five names had been secured. The company went to Indianapolis at the end of the week and the official records show that it was mustered in April 19th, 1861, thus becoming the first company of the Civil war. The records of the adjutant-general of Indi- ana show that Lieutenant-Colonel Love was the mustering officer while the recollection of the sur- vivors is that Lieutenant-Colonel Wood was the mustering officer. Both were regular army officers, and the Logansport company was thus officially the first company of the Civil war. Major DeHart's claim is only disputed by C. F. Rand who enlisted in New York two days later, but who claims to be the first enlisted man "after Lincoln's call for 75.000 men." DeHart volunteered Pastime Sketches 121 within an hour after the news of the fall of Fort Sumter came, his company was mustered in and entitled to the distinction of being the first to enlist in the great army of 2,778,304 men. Honors have been showered on Rand as the first claimant. Eng- land, Russia, Germany, France, Persia, Mexico, Egypt, India, Norway and Japan have recognized his claim. The United States voted him a medal and a pension as the first enlisted man after the call but the honor belongs to Major DeHart, who was later in forty-three battles and some skirmishes and was wounded near Ft. Pillow, Miss., in 1862. Company D has never asked for any recognition of its claim of being the first company organized in the Civil war. It was in action at the battle of Philippi as part of the Ninth regiment and served its three months of enlistment with honor. Most of its members re-enlisted in other companies. Rob- ert H. Milroy was colonel of the Ninth, J. W. Gor- don sergeant major and J. O. Cravens Q. M. ser- geant. Thomas M. Dunn was captain of Co. D. D. C. Weimer was first lieutenant and Like C. Vi- gus second lieutenant and quartermaster. O. W. Miles was a sergeant who became second lieutenant. Other sergeants were M. K. Graham, Ross L. Vigus and J. W. S. Liston. The corporals were W. M. DeHart, Samuel L. Purviance, Perry B. Bowser and T. H. Howes. The musicians were George \Y. Green, A. U. McAllister, and James M. Vigus. E. L. Eph'raim was fife major. One hundred and twenty-five men were taken to Indianapolis but the companies were formed with eighty-five men and part of those enlisting were not accepted and returned home. The complete list of those forming the first company of the Civil 122 Pastime Sketches war in addition to those above named is as fol- lows : Austin Adair. John \Y. Amount, Hampton C. Booth, William H. Booth, Granville N. Black, Amos Barnett, Charles Bell, Samuel N. Black, Isaac Barnett, Allen Boyer, Ambrose Butler, John Castle, Isaac Castle. William H. Crockett, Ebenezer T. Cooke, John W. Chidester, James C. Chidester, James A. Craighead, Robert W. Clary, Allen B. Davidson, John Douglass, Charles A. Dunkle, David A. Ewing, Alex. K. Ewing, Theodore B. Forgy, William R. Greeley, Jacob Hudlow, John L. Hinkle, John Howard, Pollard Herring. David Jam- ison, Joseph Knight, James Linton, John S. Long, William Larimore, Joseph Linzy, Charles Longdorf, Abraham Lucus, Amos W. Mobley, George Myers, Samuel A. Mendenhall, John R. Moore, William Martin, Samuel Martin, William R. Marshall, John Means. Paul B. Miller, Edward Nefr, Graham N. Patton, Frederick J. Patrick, John Rush, David Reprogle, Jacob Storer. Austin Sargent, James A. Troup, John W. Tippet, John A. Woodward, James A. Wilkinson, Joseph Vickory. Cyrus J. Vigus, John W. Vanmeter, George C. Vanmeter, George S. Vanmeter, Richard Patton, William Patton. Captain Dunn, of this company, became a major and later went into the regular army as a captain of the 21st infantry. He died in California some years ago. Mention has been made of Camp Logan on the Westside. A few months ago, in September, a stone was erected to mark this famous camp. The stone is in the yard of the Bates street school building and bears the inscription, "Forty-sixth Indiana Volunteer Infantry organized and camped Pastime Sketches 123 here from October to December, 1861." The stone was ordered at a meeting of the regiment held at Rochester, Indiana, in 1905. A committee was ap- pointed with Frank Swigart of Logansport as chairman to procure a stone and superintend its erection at the proper place. W. H. Duncan and George Clinger, of Cass county, were later added to the committee. George Clinger furnished the stone delivered at Peden's marbel works where it was engraved. The stone stands within twenty feet of the south line of Camp Logan, the guard line pa- trolled by the sentries. It is also near the east line of Camp Logan which extended westward about two thousand feet from this point. On the north the camp took in the ground now covered by the main track of the Vandalia railroad, extending a few feet north of the present main track. 124 Pastime Sketches CHAPTER XXVI. BOYHOOD SPORTS IN FORMER DAYS. Logansport had not one famous "Old Swimmin' Hole" but many of them. With two rivers, several races and a canal in its midst, so to speak, there was no lack of material. And as a result the boy of fifty years ago spent much of his time in the water. Scarcely had the ice disappeared in the spring when the old familiar sign was given in the school room, two fingers held up. The quick res- ponse all around meant that when the school day was over there would be a rush to the river, or race — moist hair, or a shirt put on wrong side out often told the tale at home, and a whipping follow- ed, notwithstanding the protestations of innocence. Swimming was a crime in those 'days, the reason of which was hard to understand, even when the word was passed around that some playmate had gone beyond his depth and would never come to school again. Then there was the vigorous arm of the law in the person of David Middleton, the town marshal. Every boy felt himself a criminal in his presence, and passed him with downcast eyes, for it was against the law to go in swimming in the city limits before the shades of night had fallen. Never did the sun travel so slowly as in the evening hours when the assembled crowd sat upon the race bank and waited for dusk. And after the swim was over Pastime Sketches 125 and dressing was in order came the derisive cry "chaw beef" as teeth were used to loosen the hard knots tied in the clothing by schoolmates on the bank. While there was an abundance of water around Logansport, there was quite a choice in bottoms and locations. "Sandy bottom" was all that its named implied. A gurgling pool in Eel river just below the water works dam was "The Tumbles," and a turn in the race to the Forest Mills near the present water works house was "The Bend." "Flat Rock" was an immense stone in Eel river above Riverside Park and "Little Dam" was on the Southside, an escape for the overflow of the race, near the Seventeenth street bridge. These two later were the "Old Swimmin' Holes" of Saturday after- noons in school days and of the hot, long summer vacation days. There, far from the watchful eye of the law, the rising generation learned to float, and dive, and swim. The canal had its devotees after dark, but there also was epicurean taste dis- played and less than half a dozen spots had the sandy bottoms necessary to meet the requirements of the rising generation. Then the canal was sluggish, and shallow, and commonplace. No danger lurked in its silent waters and its swimming holes were not even honored with a name. The water never sparkled, or bubbled, and the boy who managed to get drowned in the canal was thought to have come to a sad and ignoble end. And while boyish ambition pictured the glorious life and uni- form of a policeman no one ever wanted to grow up to be a canal-boat captain. The canal was very "tame" and even the fish caught in its muddy waters were thrown back. 126 Pastime Sketches The first boy who had been in swimming in the spring time was famous, and his positive assertion that the water was "not a bit cold" carried convic- tion to the more timid. Nor was an oracle more honored than he who solemnly warned against dangers of going in in "dog days" the hot, sultry days of August — why they were "dog days" and what "dog days" were and what the dogs had to do with swimming no boy knew, except in a general way that dogs went" mad in that month and there- fore it was dangerous to go in swimming. The logic of it he could not fathom, but he blindly ac- cepted the fact. And he who was so venturesome as to disregard the superstition was thought to recklessly take his own life in his hands — and if sickness should, by chance, follow such impru- dence it was whispered about that it was the re- sult of going in swimming in "dog days." The earliest frosts of winter made swimming a thing of the past and then the average boy took a bath at home only as a result of compulsion. Instead the attic was searched for last winter's skates, and the toolchest for a file to sharpen them. "The "Frog Pond" was the earliest point of interest as winter approached. It was a marshy pool where Riverside Park now is and it got its name from the nightly concerts held there in the summer time. The water was back water from the dam. It was stagnant and froze quickly. Nor was the pool deep and therefore it was best adapted for early winter tests of ice. The youth who broke in got only muddy feet and a whipping when he got home. Trying the ice on the canal was a much more serious matter and so the ice was tested with rocks, long before there was a chance of it holding Pastime Sketches 127 any one. When the ice became thick enough for skating it was tolerably well paved with rocks that would not come off. Then the snows came and Spear street hill and Market street hill became the centers of interest. And bob-sleigh parties to some distant farm house were gotten up. Great was the disappointment when a southern wind melted the snow and put to an end some plans for a bob-sleigh party. The chilly days of early spring found the future presidents of banks and railroads gathered under the projections of the canal warehouses, where, with red and benumbed fingures, they "knuckled down" on a piece of fur, or sheepskin, and opened up the marble season. The changes have been great since boyhood days. The canal is gone, the races are gone, the "old swimmin' holes" have been filled in, or changed by later improvements. And, saddest of all, some of the voices of old-time playmates are stilled for- ever. 128 Pastime Sketches CHAPTER XXVII. A SUGGESTION OF A HISTORICAL SOCIETY HOME. Logansport was the home of one of the great characters of pioneer Indiana days. Indiana for many years was part of the great Northwest Ter- ritory at a time when it was ungoverned and the Indians held undisputed sway. Indiana Territory was formed in 1800 by an act of Congress, the bill providing for two capitals, one at Vincennes, and one at Chillicothe, now in Ohio. General William Henry Harrison was the first gov- ernor. John Tipton was born in East Tennessee, Aug- ust 14th, 1786. In the fall of 1807, when just of age he moved to Indiana Territory, settling at Brinley's Ferry on the Ohio river. In 1811 at the age of 25, he was an ensign in the battle of Tippecanoe and was made a captain for his bravery, his superior officers being killed. He gradually rose to the po- sition of Brigadier-General. He was elected sheriff of Harrison county, member of the legislature 1819-20 and was on the commission selecting Indi- anapolis as the State capital. He was re-elected at the next election and was a member of the com- mission fixing the boundary line between Indiana md Illinois. In 1823, he was appointed Indian agent by President Monroe and removed to Ft. Wayne, the seat of the agency. This agency was moved to Logansport in 1828 and he took up his residence Pastime Sketches 129 here. In December, 1830, at the age of 45 he was elected United States Senator to Succeed Hon. James Noble and again, in 1832-3 was elected to the full term of six years. He died April 5th, 1839, just after completing his term as Senator, at the age of 53. General Tipton was a natural leader, of vigorous mind. There were no schools in the early wilder- ness and nothing to read so that he had no school education. It is said he learned to read late in life, being taught by his oldest son. He kept a journal of his active public life which is one of the valuable documents of State history, strong in expression and detail accuracy, though on account of the lack of schooling facilities somewhat unique in spelling. No public monument in Logansport attests his greatness, though his name is perputated in the Masonic Temple, Tipton lodge being named after him. The appropriation of $12,500 by the State and $12,500 by Congress to erect a monument at the Tippecanoe battle ground will secure for him a monument there. In this connection the Biddle home would be a suitable home for the Histori- cal Society. It is old, historic and central. It is not otherwise valuable and could be paid for in time out of the annual dues of one dollar of the Historical Society, if the membership were large enough, as there are practically no expenses other- wise. A caretaker could be found for the use of part of it at no expense to the Society and it would form a nucleus for the gathering of interesting his- toric data and relics. The houses in New England pay all the expenses of the society from the volun- tary contributions of dimes and nickles by visitors, but there is in reality only a nominal expense for 130 Pastime Sketches repairs, heating, etc. Judge Biddle was a jurist, poet and author and his home for many years was the mecca of visitors in Logansport. General Tipton first owned the island and some day the State will erect a monument to him there if it is owned by the Society. Whatever may be thought of these sug- gestions the Historical Society now has an ex- istance and will preserve at no expense much of the early history of the county conspicious in which will appear the name of General John Tipton. Pastime Sketches 131 CHAPTER XXVIII. IN LIGHTER VEIN — ABOUT BRASS BANDS. While there is a saying that "music hath charms to sooth the savage breast," there is no record of the early Indians organizing any brass bands. Y\ 'hatever may be said of the early Indian this crime was never laid at his door. This remark ap- plies to the organization and early training, not to the fine music blown out of the horns by a well disciplined body of players. Band music has al- ways been a great inspiration in war and in peace, and the songs written about "Whein the Band Be- gins to Play" and the "Little German Band" are innumerable. In the dark days of the Spanish- American war when many Logansport boys were fighting mosquitoes on the arid plains of Florida the general in command forbade the playing of "On the Banks of the Wabash" because it made the men homesick. Lively airs only were played, and in Cuba "There'll Be a Hot Time in the Old Town Tonight" was played with such frequency that the Cubans mistook it for the National air. History is not complete without band history. The first band was organized some time in the fifties, by Graf and Wiseman, but they did not blow their own horns loud enough to be heard at the present time. Little is known about the or- ganization. 132 Pastime Sketches Logansport had old fashioned singing schools and church choirs but musical talent was not thoroughly awakened until Herr John Wachter, of Germany, came to town. He had learned to play the cornet and probably had to leave Germany on that account. The authorities sometimes act firmly in matters of this sort. America, however, was the land of the free and so Herr Wachter opened Mozart Hall on Third street and organized a brass band. He got air for his cornet from the zephyrs that blew through Mozart Hall and prac- ticed the cornet between meals. When Herb Wagner played "Die Wacht on der Rhine" on the cornet one thought he was in Germany. When the band was organized it practiced at the tan-yard on the canal just north of the aqueduct over Eel river. There was a swamp just north of it, the canal was on the west, and Eel river on the south, so that the only danger of attack by indign- ant citizens was on the east. It was a splendid place for a newly organized band to commence prac- tice. The band progressed rapidly under the tutel- age of Mr. Wachter and soon became quite pro- ficient. Soon after its organization it received its first employment, by the Masons, to play at the funeral of a prominent member and at once learned a dirge which it executed with skill and frequency on the way to the cemetery. It became famous later, however, for its fine music and was soon the best band in Northern Indiana, there being no other. During the exciting days of the Civil war the Wachter band was a powerful factor in stirring up patriotism and its rendition of "Rally Round the Flag, Boys" and "John Brown's Body" never Pastime Sketches 133 failed to bring cheers from the soldiers home on a furlough, and tears from the home folks having loved ones at the front. And when some soldier who had gone forth in the pride of youthful man- hood came home in a roughly hewn wooden box and the band played a dirge at the funeral there was not a dry eye along the line of march to the cemetery. It was a splendid band and many a man whose hair is more than tinged with gray re- members his boyish enthusiasm when the cry went up the street, "The band's out." The Wachter band was organized in the spring of 1860 with John Wachter, leader and cornetist. There is no record of its membership and during the years of its existence there were changes which make it difficult to determine its membership at any one time. George Scharf, of this city, is prob- ably the only living member and he recalls the first organization as composed of James Winemiller, snare drummer; Charles Hillhouse, base drummer; George Tipton, Jacob Hebel, Charles Hebel, "Like" Vigus, Peter Schwartz, Joseph Rebhan and George Kinsley, who owned the tan-yard where the band practiced. Thomas Herring was an early member and Fred Petting and Jacob Rhinehammer were also members, they seceding in 1864 to start another band which did not last long. William Fornoff and Michael Fornoff, afterwards band leaders, belonged at one time. George Scharf, the surviving member, came to Logansport in 1859 and has lived here most of the time since. He was born in Bavaria, June 16th, 1838. W. H. Brown succeeded James Wine- miller as snare drummer and George Dunkle suc- ceeded him. The Cecillian band was organized in the spring 134 Pastime Sketches of 1866 and the Wachter band after that gradually went to pieces. This band made its first public ap- pearance on July 4th with a repertoire of three pieces which it played with pride, if not with har- mony, throughout the day. William Fornoff was leader, and other members were Ed and Jud Tavlor, At Barnett, E. D. Chandler, Al Merritt, George Dunkle, Will H. Brown, Jay Powell, Hecht Powell, Chet Gridley, James Logan, George Scharf and Jim Glines. The band room was on the third floor of the building on Market street below Third, where Geigers Cigar store is. Other players joined at various times and the full list is long. "Bill" For- noff, the leader, was killed on the railroad while the band was going to play in another town and Michael Fornoff afterwards became the band leader of the town. There was also a "City Band" in the sixties but it did not long survive. Along in the early seventies Logansport went wild over band music. There were five bands, practicing every night and some of the members took their horns home with them and practiced Sundays. Many of the citizens moved away from town that year for this, or some other reason. Be- sides the Cecillian there was a band in the Father .Matthew organization known as the Father Mat- they Band. The Forest Mill band was organized at the mill of that name on Sixth street and Eel river but it did not do much but disturb the neigh- bors. It practiced at the mill behind barred and bolted doors and had a sentinel outside to keep some one from firing the building. John Dunkle or- ganized a band that year and the colored people had a band which is handed down to posterity only by the name of the "Coon" band. It was a great Pastime Sketches 135 year for bands. Jay Powell and Michael Fornoff were the band leaders for many years following and Logansport always had good bands. Nineteen bands in all have livened the hearts of the people with their music. Most of them had orchestras for ball and entertainments. H. J. McSheehey was one of enthusiastic band players, being a member of the Concordia and other bands. Of the later bands several sprung up under the name of City band and died again. There were also several "Military Bands," playing for the Lo- gan Grays, or for the Cass Blues, and at public functions. Besides these there were the Mascot band, the K. of P. band, the Big Four band, the St. Joseph band, the Odd Fellows' band, the City Concert band and the present Elks band. It speaks or rather blows for itself. An old time musician, however, makes this criticism, "When we got through with a piece we played it over again but when the Elks band gets through it stops." It is a compliment to the band that the public wants more of its music. It is not thus with all bands. 136 Pastime Sketches CHAPTER XXIX. AND BASE BALL ALSO. The story of Logansport is not complete with- out a history of its early ball days when live balls were used and the scores ran up into the hundreds. Nor in the history of sports should Logansport's only professional club be forgotten. Base ball was introduced to the boys of Lo- gansport by Professors Luther Roberts and J. P. Hughes of the Logansport Presbyterian Academy, which stood at the corner of Market and Seventh streets. This was about 1869 or 1870. Prior to that time town-ball, one-old-cat, two-old-cat and bull-in-the-pen engrossed the youths in their leisure moments, the ball being a piece of car-spring whittled round with a dull knife. Under the careful instructions of these early fans, grounds were laid out in Browntown at the west end of Market street bridge. The first club was naturally like Adam, a little lonesome, having no other clubs to play, but as fast as players were taught to play they were organized into opposition clubs, or picked nines, and "single nine" was soon a possibility. This club was organized at the Academy. Besides the two professors there were Will I. Brown, Will H. Brown, Frank Green and others not now recalled, probably Roswell Post, Charles McCarty and the Taylor brothers. The early instruction thus given at the Academy Pastime Sketches 137 resulted in the organization of the famous Athletics, the pride of Northern Indiana. Many men now grown gray remember with what pride they carried water or chased the ball for the famous Athletics. Charles Jones played first base, Will "H." Brown, second, Charles Stuart and Oscar Goodwin were change pitchers and Joe Kreider and John Barn- hart change catchers. Third base was held down by one of the extra pitchers or catchers and Charles Conrad was short-stop. The fields were filled by Jim Logan, left field, John Talbott, center field, and Seth Pratt, right field. The Athletics played at Lafayette, Peru, Marion, Anderson, Ft. Wayne and other towns, and won every game. They played clubs from these towns at home and were equally successful. There was not a small boy in town who would not take off his hat when an Athletic passed. But there came a downfall and it was great. There was a Sunday School excursion — they were given every summer in those days by the various Sunday schools — and the Athletics went along to play an alleged club at Burnettsville. They called it a "Picked Nine" and it was made up of players who worked in a saw mill. The Athletic bats were turned out by Jim Henderson at the Henderson factory in Logans- port, while the Burnettsville bats were sawed out by a buzz-saw at the saw mill and trimmed down with a jack-knife. The diamond was laid off in a ploughed field near the mill. The Athletics had natty white flannel suits, the Burnettsville boys played in blue flannel shirts, blue overalls and bare feet. The Athletics went to bat first and made a few runs. The highest score they had made before that 138 Pastime Sketches in any game was 127 to 25. Live balls were used then and the ball had to be pitched with the hand below the waist line. The captain passed the word along not to make any more runs as it would scare Burnettsville out, and so the players struck out. The first batter for Burnettsville knocked the ball over the saw-mill and made a home run. Fie could have made several while they were looking for the ball. The second batter did likewise. Pitchers were changed with no better result. The score piled up with no one out until the fielders were exhausted chasing balls and the game was called. The hearts of the Athletics were broken and the club never played again. The Independents were organized shortly be- fore the Athletics went to Burnettsville and played them several losing games. It was composed of other home players and won many hard fought games. Clubs were numerous later, but they played mostly at home. The Rough and Readies was also a strong home club. Logansport entered the professional field in 1886, when the famous Ottos were organized. It was the first salaried club and it was a member of the Northern Indiana League, composed of the clubs at Logansport, South Bend, Elkhart, Fort Wayne, Marion and Frankfort. The League did not last long after the Fourth of July, the expense of maintaining a salaried club being too great. The Logansport club won the pennant, but it was never officially presented, the clubs disbanding before the close of the season. Many of the players won dis- tinction in other leagues. Frank Bowerman is still a catcher for the New York National League Club. Pastime Sketches 139 George Cuppy was a pitcher for the Cleveland Na- tional League club when it won the pennant. Frank Stapleton played in the Texas State League and the California State League. Wallace Taylor was manager and captain of the Toronto, Canada, club, William Niles was third baseman of the Pitts- burg National League club and William Betenus was short stop of the Toledo Club in the Western League. William York played short stop for the Pelicans of New Orleans. Logansport has had many amateur clubs in the last few years but the base ball fever has never attained the height it did in the eighties. Pastime Sketches 141 HISTORICAL SOCIETY ORGANIZATION OF THE CASS COUNTY, INDIANA, HISTORICAL SOCIETY. At a meeting of the Citizens' Club held at Li- brary Hall, February 12, 1907, the subject of or- ganizing a Historical Society in Cass county was discussed. Dr. J. Z. Powell, president of the club, opened the subject by calling attention to the importance of such a society, in view of the approaching centennial of Indiana's admission to the Union. W. T. Wilson stated that he was in thorough accord with the suggestion and that he knew of instances where valuable data had been lost which should have been preserved. He urged that proper steps be taken toward such an organization. The chair on motion, appointed a committee of three to report at a future meeting on organ- ization and constitution as follows : W. S. Wright, W. T. Wilson and James McMillan. The paper of W. S. Wright, suggesting such an organiza- tion as a result of observation in New England, was as follows : "History has been described as the unwritten scroll of the future by some philosopher, as fiction with the truth left in, by another. Whatever the attraction, the fascination, we delve in ancient lore 142 Pastime Sketches and gaze with awe at ancient landmarks. History is more entrancing than any fiction in the hands of a Macaulay and is likewise deep philosophy when discussed by Hume or Gibbon. Every great states- man and every profound philosopher has been a student of history while youth delights in the ro- mance of it. As students we wonder at the west- ward course of empire and try to learn the reason of it all. why Japan, after slumbering a few hundred years whipped the greatest nation on the face of the earth and why China with its immensely greater population still slumbers. And we wonder when China will awake. Fortunately for us, we are to the westward, the extreme westward, as regards these nations, and will probably know more on the subject before we are called to defend our shores against the Mongolian. "History becomes more interesting as the com- munity grows older and so we find the United States reaching an era of historical societies and Daughters of the American Revolution. ''I was impressed with this idea by reason of a recent residence in New England, where organ- izations of that character occupy a prominent place. This led me to suggest to several citizens the wisdom of organizing such a society in Lo- gansport before many records and valuable his- toric documents are forever lost. The State of Indi- ana has a State society, organized in 1830 and re- organized once or twice since. Logansport has had one or two similar societies now defunct. Chicago has the best organization in the West where by subscriptions amounting to $190,000 a suitable building has been erected. The Chicago association has been through two fires and much valuable mat- Pastime Sketches 143 ter was destroyed, but today it is in a prosperous condition. These facts are merely mentioned to show that there is a natural interest in such or- ganizations in every community and it merely needs crystalization. There are only five or six local his- torical societies in Indiana. Many more have been organized but have fallen by the wayside as is usual with a new movement. There is, however, a strong State society, of which local societies should be branches. There is also published an Indiana Magazine of History which is publishing and preserving much valuable matter. The tend- ency in the state at the present time is toward the organization of local societies and the probabilities are that they will be of greater prominence as the time for the State Centennial approaches, an event which will no doubt be celebrated in a fitting man- ner by Indiana. "The history of the growth of the New Eng- land associations may be interesting and sugges- tive. Almost every town and hamlet has them and of course there is a wealth of material of national interest. The societies were organized originally to preserve at nominal expense, matters of local his- tory. Some of them have grown in scope by gifts and donations and many of them are self-support- ing. The necessary expenses are nominal and are met by a small annual due, usually one dollar. All other expenses are created only by reason of volun- tary gifts and donations. To prevent any mis- understanding no assessments are permitted. Such donations are not necessary for the successful or permanent existence of the organizations. Briefly, the Xew England societies began with an effort to record and preserve details of history and grew 144 Pastime Sketches into something greater by reason of gifts and loans of bric-a-brac of historic interest. As they are now- constituted they own property and their halls are centers of inter- - ""Tourists from all over the United States v - I them and the revenues make them self-supporting. The preliminary work dates back may years but at the present time historic houses are occupied and the collections gathered there are interesting and instructive. The typical home of the Xew England Historical Society is an ancient landmark of historic interest. "For instance, the homes of Hawthorne, Paul Revere. Longfellow and others known to fame are thus occupied. The House of the Seven Gables, the scene of Hawthorne's novel, is thus occupied. The houses are repaired and preserved but changed as little as possible. They are filled with historic records, bric-a-brac, loaned or donated, and are open to the public. There are the spinning-wheels of the Mayflower party, the flint-locks of the revo- lutionary war and the Indian bibles of John Eliot. The signatures of John Hancock and George Wash- ington are affixed to ancient documents and the courtship of Priscilla and John Alden is recalled by reminders of their early housekeeping. Many of the articles are tagged, showing their ownership and that they are loaned to the Historical Society. An elderly couple are usually given a wing or an annex for dwelling purposes and are made custodians of the property. Additional guards are sometimes employed at night in the same way. In some of these houses a nominal admission fee of ten cents - iarged to cover expenses, in others a contribu- tion box is placed in a convenient corner. The rev- •:•"::" l. _ : : "In view at the c o miag <■*■ **■ - -■ - :_ r : . -: .— « - : i. i : t : : -~ ir. : .: : . : : :: t :~: r^r. i~-t i: :-z : re^r" :; — e :: lininirj i~i;r-t":i ::r 2 ;r:;«rr :r.i~ evat :v "t rs^g, r _i~ ~ r ~~ :: - A::::ri Ft:: - . : - cie 1. Toe liaise of this society ^haH be the : - - - - . _ - . . - -".. --. i 7:t : :-:.f ::" -Ji± ~ :•: .:r -ri. it - - ._ - - ■ - :.. rr -i ii: p:- \iT.~-\ : - _ -- _ : - n: r in; r_r: _i: - :: - - - ._ : . - : ;-_ Jit pressodon of nsefad knowledge; and the fnendlv -kle 3. There shall be t i : t : - - - ; - i r : : i : 7 i ? — i ; ~-\-\ • : 7 ?*7- itr: izi ::;-:.r :- : 77: -'-.:'- r. ::. :t ?- 1.. :-t r T tz ":j 7 .- --7 ii. ; : ^: -"- :: - : -' -- - :•: -' A :~- v ::: 7-7- it-: - r :-7 : :" Ai:~ :: 1-7' 146 Pastime Sketches ['resident, by an}' officer of the society at the re- quest of any three members, and there shall be the like power to call a public meeting, at any time on the request of five members. At any meeting six members shall constitute a quorum to transact business. Article 4. The officers of the society shall be : First — A President, who shall preside and pre serve order at all meetings of the society- Second — Three Vice Presidents, one of whom, in the order of election, shall preside at all meetings in the absence of the President. Third — A Secretary, who shall be charged with all correspondence required by the affairs of the society and who shall record and preserve the min- utes of the society. Fourth — A Treasurer, who shall receive all monies due the society, and hold the same subject to its order, and make an annual report of all receipts and disbursements. Fifth — An Executive Committee of five mem- bers, any three of whom shall constitute a quorum, whose duty it shall be to meet on the days upon which the society holds its sessions or at such other times as they deem expedient ; to select subjects for public lectures and appoint the individuals by whom the same shall be delivered at the annual meetings of the society; to attend to the publication of such lectures and other documents as they may deem expedient ; to take charge of all books, papers, specimens, models, curiosities, pictures, etc., belong- ing to the society, and to submit reports of their proceedings at the meetings of the society. They shall have power to make by-laws not inconsistent with the constitution : to direct and superintend all Pastime Sketches 147 disbursements ; and generally to carry into effect all measures not otherwise provided for. Sixth — An Advisory Board of one from each township who shall meet with the executive com- mittee for conference and who shall report upon historical matters in their respective townships. Article 5. The President, Vice Presidents, Sec- retary and Treasurer shall have the privilege of sitting with the Executive Committee and voting on all measures that come before it. Article 6. Applications for membership shall be upon written petition, which application shall be referred to a committee of three, and such com- mittee shall report at the next meeting of the so- ciety. A three-fourths vote of the members of the society present shall be necessary to an election to membership. Article 7. Officers shall be elected by ballot at the annual meeting of the society and shall continue in office for one year, and until their successors are elected. Vacancies in any office may be filled by the Executive Committee until the next meeting of the society, at which time the vacant office shall be filled by ballot. Any officer may be removed from office for malfeasance or misconduct injurious to the society, under the regulations prescribed for the expulsion of members. Article 8. Each member shall pay into the hands of the Treasurer one dollar annually as dues. Article 9. Any member of the society shall at any time have the right of withdrawing, upon filing with the Secretary a notice in writing of such in- tention, accompanied by the Treasurer's receipt in full for all dues. 148 Pastime Sketches Article 10. This constitution shall be subject to amendment at any meeting of the society by a vote of three-fourths of the members present; Provided, that an amendment offered at any meet- ing shall lay over to the next meeting before being adopted. The following officers were elected : President, Hon. D. P. Baldwin. Vice-Presidents, Dr. J. Z. Powell, Wils Berry and Mrs. J. W. Ballard." Secretary, W. S. Wright. Treasurer, B. F. Sharts. Executive Committee, Q. A. Myers, B. F. Long, W. T. Wilson, James H. McMillen, James D. Mc- Nitt. Advisory Board, Adams Township, Samuel Mc- Lain ; Bethlehem, Orlando Powell ; Boone, Lewis E. Beckley ; Clay, Chauncey Custer ; Clinton, Wil- lard Fitzer ; Deer Creek, D. W. E. Lybrook ; Eel, A. H. Douglass ; Harrison, John T. Walker ; Jack- son, F. H. Thomas; Jefferson, Caleb Banta; Miami, Cyrus T. Miller; Noble, Lewis McMillen; Tipton, George W. Bishop ; Washington, John P. Martin. FIRST PUBLIC MEETING OF THE CASS COUNTY, INDI- ANA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. The first public program of the Cass County, Indiana, Historical Society was given Friday eve- ning, May 17, 1907, at Library Hall before an audi- ence that filled the room. The meeting was a suc- cess in every way, the papers were interesting and at times spicy and the old time music enjoyable. Judge D. P. Baldwin, president of the society, opened the meeting with an interesting talk on politics and campaigning in early times. He spoke Pastime Sketches 149 of the old time enthusiasm, torch-light campaigns, and joint debates and of the brilliancy of Inger- soll, Turpie, Colfax, Fitch, Tipton, Pratt and other debaters who lived or had spoken in Logansport. He referred to the old time methods of "blocks of five" when votes were purchasable and of the tact and ability of the editorial writers of the war times, S. A. Hall, of the Pharos, and J. T. Bryer and T. H. Bringhurst of The Journal. Judge Baldwin was followed by E. S. Rice on "Early Business Houses and Methods." Dr. J. Z. Powell, Vice President, took the chair after Judge Baldwin's remarks and explained the purpose of the society and its aims and objects. Wils Berry responded to one of the subjects by telling a story he had heard his father, who came to Cass county in 1829, tell of some of the early incidents of canal days. The Grand Army Glee club, com- posed of Messrs. Cushman, Crain, Richardson and Watkins, rendered songs from a singing book of 1838. The society adjourned to meet at some fu- ture date on call of the executive committee. The third address of the evening on "Society and Social Matters, Customs and Habits of the Pioneers of Cass County," was by Mrs. J. W. Bal- lard, daughter of General Milroy of Civil war fame. Mrs. Ballard said: MRS. J. W. BALLARD'S PAPER. At an old settlers' meeting held in my native county some years ago an address was made by a comparatively young man, his subject being the ex- periences of the first settlers of this part of Indi- ana. At the conclusion of his remarks one of the 150 Pastime Sketches few remaining pioneers, who was seated on the platform, arose and said : "My young- friend has told his story well, as far as he knew, but my friends, no one but one who was there can tell that story as it ought to be told." If this society had been organized, say, twenty years ago, what valuable information might have been obtained from some of the early settlers them- selves. However, if it had been organized that long ago I would have only stood about one chance in ten thousand of having been honored with an office, so it is just as well: As my early life was spent in the adjoining county of Carroll, where my grandfather, Gen. Mil- roy, settled in the early part of the year 1826, my father living on the same farm 75 years, my know- ledge of pioneer ways comes mostly from the peo- ple whom I knew in my youth. But in early times the counties of Cass and Carroll were more neigh- borly, perhaps, from their mutual need, than now. The country was so sparsely settled that a man living twenty miles away was a tolerably close neighbor. Then, too, from '27 to '29 Cass county was under the jurisdiction of Carroll, so that the Habits, customs and social diversions of the two counties were practically the same. When Alexander Chamberlain, the first perman- ent white resident of Cass county, built his double log house, all the able-bodied white men of the "Deer Creek settlement," twenty miles away, were hidden to the raising, and they responded to a man. And these friendly offices were not performed for pay. In fact, it was considered an insult to offer a man money for any neighborly service. Quite different a little incident which came Pastime Sketches 151 under my observation one day last winter. I was coming down the street after a slight snow storm. Two little fellows had cleared the sidewalk in front of their own house and were busily working away in front of the house next door, when they spied their father coming, dropping their shovels, they ran to meet him, crying out "Oh papa, see what we have done !" "Yes," said the father, "But what are you getting for it?" Thus early .implanting in those childish minds the idea that no service, how- ever trivial, should be performed without pay. - The pioneers from necessity, as do some moderns from choice, lived the genuine simple life. Log houses, home made furniture and simple fare were the rule. The men cleared, tilled and culti- vated the soil, planted and gathered the crops. The spinning, weaving, knitting, sewing and other innumerable household duties were performed by the women of the family. And this was no light task when you remember that small families were the exception in those days. Then, when a woman married, she hoped and expected to have something infinitely sweeter and dearer to hold in her arms than a poodle dog, or a Teddy bear — and large families were not then an object of curiosity. Brawn and muscle were a valuable asset in the days when bodily strength and vigor were so ne- cessary to transform the pathless forests into fertile fields, and the man who could fell the most trees, split the greatest number of fence rails in a given time, lift the heaviest weight, throw the hammer the fartherest, shoot the truest and come out best in a wrestling bout was a man to be looked up to. 152 Pastime Sketches They didn't rush into law at every slight pro- vocation, but men frequently settled disputes them- selves by using the weapons with which nature had provided them. For recreation the women had their quilting bees, comfort knottings, carpet-rag sewings, wool pickings and when the opportunity came they would take their sewing or knitting along and go out to spend the day. A dear old lady used to come to our house in my early childhood. How I admired her as she walked up through the yard, her work in one hand, the voluminous dress skirt held up in front by the thumb and forefinger of the other, the back of her dress floating out behind her like a small balloon. Oh, I did wish that the time would come when T could wear long dresses and look like that. But alas! as in so many cases, realization fell short of anticipation, for when I did finally attain to the dignity of long dresses the skirts were made so tight one could scarcely step and they held them up in the back. Education and religion were not neglected but received early attention. The first educational or- ganization was effected under Gen. John Tipton and in the year 1829, the first school, known as the Eel River Seminary was opened. Churches were organ- ized in 1828 and '29, and now Logansport might al- most as well be spoken of as the "City of Churches" or the City of Schools" as the "City of Bridges." Letters were a luxury in that time as it cost from six to twenty-five cents to send a letter any dis- tance. And from the specimens of old letters which I have been privileged to read, more care was taken in their writing and composition than now. They Pastime Sketches 153 sound somewhat stilted and formal to those of us more accustomed to the off-hand, careless manner of modern letter writers. For instance a common form of closing a letter was: "Believe me to be Sir with great respect your most obedient and humble servant." I have a letter written in 1832. The writer had started from Delphi to Washington City on some political business, making most of the journey on horseback. At his stopping place he wrote to his wife of nearly a quarter of a century and the mother of his ten children, as follows, after telling her of his safe arrival so far on his journey, and of his continued good health, he says : "I have not forgotten the tear that trembled in your eye when I bade you farewell, nor the effort you made to replace it with a smile. May I never give you cause for a tear, and I shall anxiously await the moment that shall again restore me to your smiles." Can any of you imagine a husband of today tak- ing the time to put all of that on paper? Especially after twenty-five years of married life. Not that their affection is any the less sincere. They simply haven't time to tell it and expect it to be taken for granted. You have doubtless heard of the woman who tried to elicit some expression of regard from her husband who was busy with the evening paper. "Do you love me, dearie," she cooed. "Yes," came from behind the paper. "How much?" No answer. "How much do you love me?" she persisted. "Oh, I love you better than my life. Now shut up and go and sit down." As the hamlets grew into towns and the count rv 154 Pastime Sketches became more thickly settled the forms of entertain- ment grew more elaborate. Parties, balls and boun- tiful spreads were in order. But for many years it remained the custom in serving any number of guests to place the food all on the table at once, let- ting each one help themselves, a most comfortable and informal way. A daughter of one of the prominent old resi- dents of Logansport related to me a little incident which occurred in her father's time. A number of gentlemen were being entertained and as was usual, when it came time to serve refreshments, every- thing was placed on the table. After the guests were seated the host said, "Now boys, just help yourselves.*' which they proceeded to do. One of the party, a judge said: 'AYell, you fellows can have all the knicknacks, I'll take mashed potatoes," and he helped himself liberally to ice cream. One of the most common and pleasant forms of amusement for young people was the good old time country dance. Now there is dancing and dancing. I am not any more in favor of promiscious embrac- ing to slow music than are many of you. But I never could see the harm in the right kind of dancing, in the right way, in good company and to good music. Bringing into play as it does almost every muscle in the human body, induring a cheerful, happy frame of mind, it certainly ought not be condemned. Did any of you ever go to a country dance, the real thing? Well, I have. In many things my father clung to pioneer ways. He would never al- low kissing games or round dancing in his house, but he always dearly loved to see young people dancing the country dances of which he was so fond in his vouth. Besides if his children wanted to Pastime Sketches 155 dance, he believed in allowing them to dance at home. So sometimes in winter evenings the boys and girls from the neighboring farms would come in, the big old farm house kitchen would be cleared, the logs pushed back in the fire-place, the candles put up on the mantle and father would begin to tune up his fiddle. Now he had brought that fiddle from Mex- ico at the close of the Mexican war where he was in the cavalry. At the close of the war he traded his horse, saddle and bridle to a Mexican for the fiddle, and the music he could draw from those strings would send the blood fairly tingling to the tips of your fingers and the ends of your toes. You couldn't sit still if you wanted to and you didn't want to sit still if you could. Some one would say "Partners for a quadrille" the girls would sit around trying to look as if they didn't care whether any one asked them to dance or not, but when some dear, innocent-faced country boy would step up to one of them and say, bashfully, "Will you please assist me in this quadrille," she would answer "With pleasure," and she meant it, too. They would take their places in the set, the music would start and with "Honors to your partners, and balance all" the dance was on. Those old times as they come echoing down to me through all the inter- vening years have lost none of their charm. PAPER OF MR. E. S. RICE READ BEFORE THE HIS- TORICAL SOCIETY, MAY 17, 1907. In 1835 B. O. Spencer, my half brother, came here from Cincinnati, and went into the grocery and commission business. In 1837 he was joined by my brother, G. Jay Rice, and the firm of Spencer & Rice 156 Pastime Sketches was established. They were so well pleased with the city, its location and future prospects, and the profitable business they were doing, that they per- suaded our mother to dispose of her home in Pa- vilian, Genessee county, New York, and move here, which she did in the month of October, 1838. The family at removal consisted of our mother, three sisters, brother R. D. Rice, and myself. The distance to Buffalo was forty miles. What is now the New York Central Railroad was then completed only between Albany and Rochester, and there was no other railroad leading farther west at that time. We procured teams to transport us and our baggage to Buffalo, where we took passage on a steamer on Lake Erie for Toledo. At Toledo we were transferred to a small steamer on the Maumee river which conveyed us about fourteen miles to the town of Maumee which was the head of navigation on that river. At Maumee we procured teams to transport us to Ft. Wayne. On our way up the river we fell in company with other passengers westward bound, and all stopped for the night at a large double log tavern. There were beds enough fortunately for the women, but the men and boys had to sleep on the floor. There was a very large fire place in the office, bar room and sitting room combined, and the morning being quite cold, the landlord had made up a rousing big fire. While the travelers, nearly a score of them, were sitting around waiting breakfast, in came one of the native Buckeyes, thinly clad, and very bilious looking, and walked up in front of the fire, turned his back to it, and gave us the worst specimen of shaking ague I have ever seen. It so happened that not a traveler present had ever seen a case of the Pastime Sketches 157 kind before, and it was very amusing the way they gathered around and plied him with questions. They wondered why he could not stop shaking. The Maumee Valley at that time and for years after- ward was notorious for its ague and bilious dis- eases. The Miami Valley ranked next, and the Wa- bash Valley was a good third. Work in the construction of the Wabash and Erie Canal had been progressing about two years, but the only part completed and in operation was between Ft. Wayne and Logansport. Captain Sam Mahon was running a line of boats between these two points carrying both freight and passengers. At Ft. Wayne we took passage on one of these boats for Logansport. We landed just west of Berkley street, where a basin had been con- structed for boats to turn just south of Parker & Johnson's Planing Mill. At that time the Tipton farm was cultivated down to Berkley street, and a large field of corn was standing. There was a high bridge over the canal at Berkley street, requiring a very long embankment extending over half way to the Wabash river to reach it from the south. Work was progressing on the lock just west of Berkley street, the aqueduct over Eel river, and the first lock west of the city. These were completed and the water was turned in to this acqueduct level in the spring of 1840. The bridges over the canal at Mar- ket, Broadway, North and High streets were all high, necessitating long embankments at each end. The business houses at this time were all located on Market street between Second and Fourth. Com- mencing at Second street, a three-story brick build- ing occupied the corner where the Barnett Hotel now stands. This building contained two store 158 Pastime Sketches rooms. The corner one was occupied by the firm of Taber & Chase, successors of Ewing Walker & Taber, and the other by Philip Pollard, both being dealers in general merchandise. A short distance east on the north side of the street there was a small one-story building occupied by James H. Kintner, a manufacturer of saddles and harness. On the oppo- site side of the street Gen. N. D. Grover was en- gaged in the same business, in a frame building ad- joining his brick residence on the alley now owned by Mrs. Kraut. Gen. Grover was succeeded a few years afterward by Fuller & Clendening, who came from Troy, Ohio. Next to Kintner on the north side of the street there was a one-story building occupied by John M. Ewing as a tailor shop. Then came an- other one-story building, occupied by J. L. Miller, merchant and postmaster. At the southwest cor- ner of Market and Third streets stood Washington Hall, a two-story frame hotel, owned by Cyrus Vi- gus. but conducted at that time by Jacob Humbert. It fronted on Market street, but extended back, oc- cupying the most ground on Third street. From this hotel extending down Market street to the alley was a row of two-story frame buildings all built solidly together, and divided into store rooms about 18 to 20 feet wide, and this was called "Commercial Row." It was a very plain building, weather- boarded, and with doors and windows very much like a dwelling house. In addition to the store rooms, there were doors to the stairways leading to the rooms above which were used for offices and shops of different kinds. The occupants were as follows: Gen. Hyacinth Lasselle, merchant, using the room above for a printing office, from which the Logansport Telegraph was issued weekly, of which Pastime Sketches 159 publication he was proprietor and John B. Dillon editor. Smead Kendall & Co., clothing, boots and shoes, etc. ; Anderson & Atwell, dry goods ; Eldridge & Cummings, general merchandise; Underhill & Co., hardware. The brick buildings opposite this block were erected a year or two afterward. The firm of Ewing & Walker, Indian traders, occupied a two-story frame building, painted yellow, which stood on the northeast corner of Market and Third where Harry N. Ward's shoe store is now located. The Bringhurst store building recently torn down and rebuilt, was occupied by the firm of Hanna, Mc- Clary & Dart, dealers in general merchandise. This building and a hotel on the southwest corner of Mar- ket and Fourth streets called the "Mansion House," where the Golden Rule store now stands, were the only brick buildings on Market street east of Third street. On the southsicle of Market from Third to the alley, the buildings were one story. The only occu- pants I can remember were George Parker, barber, Joe Green, shoemaker, and Mart Gridley, jeweler. On a space between the alley and the Mansion House stood the dwelling and garden of George B. Walker. On the northside of Market between the Hanna, McClary & Dart building and the alley, there were two one-story buildings, saloons. From the alley east to Fourth street, there were three two-story frame store buildings. The first was occupied by S. P. Hopkins, dry goods dealer, the second by Spencer & Rice, groceries and provisions, and the third by Jeroloman & Lytle's drug store. The other build- ings were all one story. The corner one where Por- ter's drug store now stands was occupied by Barton R. Keep as a hardware store. Across the street on 160 Pastime Sketches the northeast corner of Fourth and Market, stood the old brick Seminary. It was a one-story building about 20 by 60, with its side to Market street, en- trance door in the middle to a hallway running straight through the building, dividing it into two rooms of equal size. There were no business houses on Market east of Fourth. The Market street bridge embankment reached nearly to the alley. There were a few cheap two-story dwelling houses on the southside of the street, two of which were occupied by old John Dorsey as a tavern or boarding house. The Philip Leamy house, a brick structure, stood on the corner of Fourth and Canal streets, near the present P. C. C. & St. L. depot. Israel Johnson was the only merchant on Fourth street. He lived in a brick house that stood where the Stewart Dry Goods store is now located. His store was a two- story frame building adjoining his dwelling. He was in the grocery and provision business. In ad- dition to this he kept a cafe in a building adjoin- ing- his store room. On the east side of Third street, near Market, John Dodd had a restaurant in a brick building, which is still standing. Just opposite this was the office of Dr. G. N. Fitch, the bakery of Coul- son & Clem, and the shoe shop of George P. Dagan. At the northwest corner of Third and Broadway, J. P. Berry kept a little store, adjoining which was the tin shop of A. M. Higgins. Next to this came the office and dwelling of Dr. Uriah Farquhar, and then the office of George Weirick, Esq., justice of the peace. Opposite this, on the east side of the street, W. T. S. Manly and Israel Neal had a furniture and undertaking establishment. On the west side of the street between North and High streets near Pastime Sketches 161 Eel river, the McElhaney Brothers had, I think, a blacksmith shop. The firm of Tipton & Vigus, suc- cessors to Tocld & Vigus, was the only business house on Broadway, and was located in a small two-story brick building, standing on the ground now occupied by the Murdock Hotel. The business of our merchants at this time was quite limited. The canal was not yet completed to the junction of the Ohio canal. No shipments of produce could be made without expensive hauling, and it was expensive getting their goods here. The cheapest way to get them was by steamboat to La- fayette, when the rivers were high, and haul from there. Farmers having considerable surplus were obliged to haul it to Michigan City, the nearest shipping point, and return with salt and other ar- ticles which were necessarily higher here, but it took several days to make the trip, especially when the roads were bad, which was usually the case. We had no bank and it was very difficult to pro- cure exchange. The currency in circulation was mostly sent out west by eastern banks to get it as far away from home as possible. Our small silver change and gold was largely foreign. Copper cents were not used at all. Nothing was sold for less than a fip, which was 6% cents, and a bit, 12^ cents. Every merchant was obliged to take a monthly Bank Note Detector and a Coin Chart, and keep them hanging very handy for reference. In addi- tion to this there was in circulation canal scrip, paid out to contractors for work on the canal. There were two kinds of this scrip called White Dog and Blue Pup. It was redeemable in canal lands. Logansport was granted a city charter in 1838 with a population of only about one thousand. Evi- 162 Pastime Sketches dently its citizens had great expectations. The sud- den death of General Tipton, which occurred on the morning of April 5, 1839, after a few hours of unconsciousness, in the meridian of life — his 54th year — cast a gloom of sadness over the city and surrounding country. His funeral on Sunday, April 7, 1839, which I attended, was conducted by his Ma- sonic brethren, and the largest ever before known in this section of country. At this time there were but two church build- ings or meeting houses. The Methodist Episcopal, a one-story brick building on the east side of Sixth street between Broadway and North, and the Pres- byterian, a one-story frame building on the south side of Broadway between Fifth and Sixth streets, set back from Broadway so far that the back end reached the alley. This building is still standing. The pastor of this Presbyterian church was Dr. Martin M. Post. There being no Baptist Sunday school, I attended the Presbyterian Sabbath school, of which Nathan Aldrich was then superintendent. The division of the Presbyterian church into two branches, the old and the new school, did not take place until 1840. The new school, represented by Dr. Post retained the church building and property. The first pastor of the old school division was the Rev. James Buchanan. They worshipped in the second story of a two-story frame building which stood on the northwest corner of Broadway and Fourth, where Henry Wiler & Co. are now located. The courts were first held in the old Seminary building, but that being too small, they were often held in the Presbyterian church. The judges, I remember, were Judge Henry Chase, father of Dud- ley H. Chase, and Associate Judges Solomon Hor- Pastime Sketches 163 ney and H. L. Thomas. The lawyers were W. Z. Stuart, D. D. Pratt. John S. Patterson, John F. Dodds, Horace P. Biddle and A. M. Flory. Justices of the peace were R. F. Groves, George Weirick, George Smith and James W. Dunn. The jail was constructed of hewn logs. The fol- lowing story is connected with this jail. In 1837 a shoemaker by the name of Harrison, whose shop was near Eel river, committeed a murder. He was arrested, tried, convicted and sentenced to be hung at a certain time. A gallows, constructed of hewn logs, was set up on the commons near Eel river be- tween Ninth and Tenth streets, for the purpose. The date for the hanging was pretty well published and people came from all the country round about, on foot and on horseback, and in all kinds of convey- ances to witness the execution. The night before he was to be executed, he hung himself in the jail. It is said that the people who came to witness the sight were very angry when they learned they had been cheated out of it. The gallows stood there for several years until it rotted down. I have seen his grave in the old cemetery, with his sign placed be- side the mound to designate it. The newspapers published at this time were the Logansport Telegraph by Hyacinth Laselle and John B. Dillon, the Logansport Herald by J. C. & David Douglass, and the Wabash Gazette by Moses Scott, with H. P. Biddle as editor in chief. In 1842 when the Wabash and Erie canal was completed down the Maumee river to its junction with the Ohio canal, giving us an outlet to Lake Erie, Lo- gansport took a wonderful start, the nearest it ever came to a boom. The country north to the Tippecanoe river and beyond, and for twenty-five or 164 Pastime Sketches thirty miles south became tributary to this point. Produce of all kinds was hauled here, sold to our merchants, and shipped to eastern markets. Our merchants, manufacturers and mechanics all got busy, money became more plentiful, warehouses and store buildings were constructed, and a remark- able spirit of enterprise and prosperity prevailed among all classes. During 1843, 4 and 5, large stone warehouses were constructed by Pollard & Wilson, near the lock; by Jesse Millason at the northeast corner of Market and Fifth ; by the Rod- gers Brothers between Market and Broadway ; by Peter Anderson at the southeast corner of Broad- way and Fifth streets ; and by Israel Johnson be- tween North and High street. These buildings are all still standing, although the most of them have changed ownership. In 1843, the following new merchants located here, Henry Martin & Co., M. S. Butler, A. J. Field & Co., Stephen Munson, William Brown & Son, and Saulsbury & Baxter. Heretofore, our only way to travel eastward was either to go by canal to Ft. Wayne, and by perogue down the Maumee river, or by stage to Indianapolis, by Madison and Indian- apolis Railroad to Madison, and by steamboat to Cincinnati. Now, we could take a packet boat on the canal, and travel night and day at the rate of six miles an hour. The rule was, three horses to a boat chang- ing horses every ten miles. Every boat had a por- ter, and like present porters on our sleeping cars, a part of his perquisite was what he could get for blacking the passengers shoes. I remember once on a trip to Cincinnati when the passengers began to retire to their very narrow contracted berths, one Pastime Sketches 165 man did not remove his shoes and allowed them to be discernable. The porter came along and notic- ing them, remarked, "Just look ! that man has gone to bed like a horse, with his shoes on." Merchants could now, while navigation was open from six to seven months of the year, get mer- chandise from Cincinnati in three or four days' time, and from New York it took about three weeks, as it came by steamer from New York to Al- bany, by canal from Albany to Buffalo, by steamer from Buffalo to Toledo, and by canal again from Toledo to Logansport. While our merchants duly appreciated the ad- vantages of water transportation, enabling them to obtain large reductions in freight, they still labored under the great disadvantage of having navigation closed for about half the year. In the fall it was necessary to make large purchases to last until the opening of navigation in the spring. Just contrast that condition of things with the present. Now, our merchants are receiving goods every day in the year, except Sunday. It was customary in those days to purchase goods on six months' time. That was the understanding with manufacturers, jobbers and retailers. The customer was allowed the pre- vailing rate of interest on any payments he might make before the bill became due. In 1843, at the age of 16, I commenced clerking for the firm of Henry Martin & Co. It was then I first met Mr. John C. Merriam, with whom I was afterward associated in partnership for thirty-five years. He was eight years older than I, and an ex- perienced dry goods merchant. He was from Bran- don, Vermont, on his way west looking for a loca- tion, when he fell in company with Mr. Henry Mar- 166 Pastime Sketches tin, who in connection with a Mr. Bartlett, of New York, had shipped a stock of goods to Fort Wayne, with the intention of locating there. When they reached Fort Wayne, a vacant store room could not be found, and Mr. Martin concluded to forward the goods to Logansport. Mr. Martin then persuaded Mr. Merriam to accompany him here and assist in opening and preparing his goods for sale. The store room on Market street now occupied by An- drew Welch was leased and occupied by the firm as long as it continued in business here, which was about two years. Mr. Merriam was so well pleased with the city and its people that he decided to re- main. Mr. Martin also employed Mr. E. B. Strong, an old resident well acquainted with the people of the city and country. At the expiration of about a year Mr. Bartlett made arrangements with Mr. Mer- riam to establish a store in Monticello, and he went there to take charge of it. During the year 1844 Mr. Bartlett closed up the business of Henry Martin & Co., here, and sold to Mr. Merriam his interest in the store at Monticello. In the summer of 1845 Mr. Merriam employed mc to take charge of his store at Monticello, while he took a trip east. Yes, he went oast, but he went south first to Kentucky where he married Mrs. Merriam, and together they went to their old home in Vermont to spend their honey- moon. He was gone nearly three months, leaving me entirely alone, in that hamlet, at that time so very uninteresting. It was during my stay there that a tornado swept oxer Logansport, unroofing part of the new court house, Knowlton and Dows Foundry and Machine Shop, destroyed the Market House, damaged sev- eral other buildings, and according to the descrip- Pastime Sketches 167 tion of Enion Kendall, carried away the hat of the County Treasurer Howes, containing a lot of "ver- bal orders." In October following- that summer I accepted the position of clerk and bookkeeper for Pollard & Wilson, which I held for seven years from 1845 to 1852. In addition to dry goods and general mer- chandise, the firm dealt in grain and all kinds of country produce, but they had never tried the pack- ing of pork. The season for pork packing in those days was from about the first of December to the middle of January. There was no good market for it at any other time. Now, there is a good market for it all the time. A Air. Seering from New York used to come our every season and join Israel John- son in packing at his warehouse on the canal, and they found the business profitable. In the year 1847, Pollard & Wilson and Taber & Chase con- cluded to unite and try their luck at the business. Pork was quite low that season, the price running from 1.87 to 2.25 per hundred. The average price of the pork purchased was 2.10. When navigation opened the next spring the price had declined and continued to decline until mid-summer. They fi- nally shipped their mess pork and lard and sold it at a small loss, and to reduce their loss as much as possible, had the hams and shoulders smoked and retailed them out during the summer and fall. By this tedious and troublesome method they reduced their loss to a little less than one thousand dollars. In the summer of 1848 I made a trip on horseback through a part of Howard, Cass and Carroll coun- ties to make the acquaintance of country merchants and persuade them to consign their grain to us. A great many farmers were clearing up their lands 168 Pastime Sketches and raised but little surplus grain, not enough to justify them in hauling it twenty to twenty-five miles. Therefore, they would sell it to their nearby merchants who kept teams to haul it as fast as it ac- cumulated. My business was to induce these mer- chants to send their grain to us. I visited Kokomo, New London, Russiaville, and many small places that have since, no doubt, been converted into corn- fields. Kokomo had at that time, as I remember, four merchants, occupying the public square. There was but one tavern, a two-story frame building, painted white, and located away from the public square. There was but one two-story brick building, owned and occupied by David Foster, quite a prominent fur trader, and one of our regular customers. From 1848 to 1855 some new business firms were organized, and quite a number of new merchants lo- cated here. Some of these were Culbertson & Mc- Carty, dry goods, Culbertson afterward going into the hardware business. They were located on the southeast corner of Broadway and Fourth. John T. Musselman was north side of Market between Second and Third, Tanguy & Barnheisel, south side of Broadway between Fourth and Fifth. Business began moving eastward on Market street, Fourth street and Broadway, brick blocks were be- ing erected on Market, Fourth and both sides of Broadway between Fourth and Fifth. Bachman & Puterbaugh located on the north side of Broadway, in general merchandise business. T. C. Mitchell, boots and shoes, north side of Broadway. A. J. Murdock came in 1852. Henry Murdock in 1854. J. W. McCaughey, dry goods, south side of Broad- way. \Y. P. Thompson, dry goods, south side of Pastime Sketches 169 Broadway. Brick blocks were erected on Broad- way by Dolan & McHale and Patterson & Tomlin- son. In 1848 J. C. Merriam sold out his interest in his store in Monticello to his partner, Mr. Reynolds, returned here, and purchased the interest of Cyrus Taber in the firm of Taber & Chase, and the firm of Chase, Merriam & Smith was organized. M. S. Butler had purchased a few years before, a lot on the north side of Market street between Fourth and Pearl streets, and erected thereon a brick block, con- taining two store rooms one of which he occupied himself. This was the block recently torn down by Dr. Jordan and replaced with one of four stories. Mr. Butler for some reason sold this building and removed his stock of goods west. One of these rooms being vacant at this time, it was leased by the new firm of Chase, Merriam & Smith, and they moved their stock of goods into it. In 1852, four years later, the firm of Wilson, Mer- riam & Co., was organized, the company being Mr. M. H. Thomas and myself. This firm purchased the interest of Colonel Philip Pollard in the firm of Pollard & Wilson, and the interest of Chase and Smith in the firm of Chase, Merriam & Smith, com- bining the two stocks. It also purchased the Butler building, removed the partition wall, converting the two rooms into one, and occupied it, together with the two floors above, and the two wings in the rear. In the years between 1840 and 1850 our mer- chants, while doing a good, safe and flourishing business were greatly handicapped for lack of bank- ing facilities. Exchange was scarce and high. Specie was often at a premium because silver and gold was 170 Pastime Sketches the only money that could be used in entering land. The United States Land Office was located at Win- amac, twenty-five miles away. The roads were in their primitive state, receiving no attention except where bridges and corduroys were absolutely neces- sary to get along at all. The trip was usually made on horseback, the specie being carried in saddle bags. In those days of horseback transportation, a pair of saddle bags was a necessity, and were kept for sale at the saddler shop and some of the stores. The first railroad to reach our city was the New Castle and Richmond in 1855. It had its terminous on the south side of the Wabash river. The To- ledo, Wabash and Western, now the Wabash Val- ley, reached here in 1856. With a little incident that occurred in 1865, for- ty-two years ago, I will close. The merchants of Broadway, of whom there were many, on both sides of the street at that time, in their advertise- ments began to branch out into poetry. This was especially true of the firm of Bachman & Puter- baugh. To match them and keep up the reputation of Market street, in a spirit of fun and rivalry, the firm of which I was a member published a column advertisement in rhyme which I have put into a pamphlet for your entertainment. PAPER OF MR. JOSEPH PATTERSON READ BEFORE THE CASS COUNTY, INDIANA, HISTORICAL SOCIETY, MAY 17, 1907. The subject of roads, travel and transportation of merchandise is one that has interested the world at large perhaps to greater extent than any other. From the time that Adam and Eve began their Pastime Sketches 171 tramp from the Garden of Eden until the citizens of Logansport undertook to pave North street, the cry of better roads and better means of traffic has agitated the public brain until it seems to have ex- hausted itself as to means by land and water and now is making rapid strides to traverse the unlim- ited space above the earth, which the streets of our city and the highways of our county are perfection, compared with the conditions sixty-three years ago when my observation began. About May 1st, A. D. 1844, my father with his family in a wagon drawn by three horses, started near Miflin, Juniatta county, Pennsylvania, for the classic Wabash and Logans- port, and during the six weeks of continuous travel necessary to reach our goal, the only means of con- veyance we saw aside from stage coach wagons and horseback was a steamboat at Wheeling, W. Va., and one at Zaneville, O. The difference in the condition of the roads from our starting point to Indianapolis and from Indianapolis to Logansport was so great that we were eight days coming from the Capital city to this city via the Michigan road. That road at that time was the style of all the roads in Cass county, bridged nearly continuous with poles or rails. Much labor was lost on the road work because of the transient conditions. They were not permanently located and when a settler sought to establish his lines and corners it was no uncommon occurrence to take in a half mile of old road and the public was obliged to open another, and such conditions prevailed to a large extent un- til in the sixties and enough money and labor had been spent on the roads of Cass county had it been honestly and systematically applied to have every road in the county a substantial pike, and the team- 172 Pastime Sketches ster would not have to stop his work or pay a fine for driving on the public highway which he has a perfect right to do. In 1844 and for many years after, the streets of the city were of original earth and during the springtime as the winter was pass- ing away, the streets in many places were impass- able. I saw a team of two yoke of oxen hauling a load of lumber stall, at the intersection of Sixth and North streets as late as 1853. The only means of conveyance previous to 1854 or 55 was by canal boat, stage coach, wagon and horseback. Farmers, unless they had hauling, always came to town on horseback, and it was an every day occurrence to see the wife or daughter of the farmer ride up to the hitching post, dismount, hitch the horse and go off, do her numerous errands and meet the greetings and smiles of all with whom she met; those were happy days, friendship and joy in health, and help and sympathy in sickness and distress. When a young man wanted to take his best girl to a gath- ering of any kind, he saddled up his horse, spread a sheep-skin back of his saddle, rode along a stump, fence or a log and the young lady would jump to her seat at his back and their trip began. These conditions as to roads prevailed up to about the year 1851, or 1852. About this date the subject of plank roads was introduced and the Michigan road, as it was called, was improved by the covering of the road with two-inch boards twelve feet long. This was done by grading the middle of the road to some degree of uniformity ; three pieces of square timber were laid lengthwise and the two-inch plank were spiked on. This made a very fair road for one or two years, then the plank began to split, break, curl up, rot and get loose, and it went to the bad Pastime Sketches 173 much faster than it could be repaired and the traffic was diverted partly because it was a toll road, and also on account of the rough condition. This road reached to Fulton north and to Deer Creek south, and was tolerated until about 1867-1868, when the subject of gravel roads was introduced and a com- pany was organized both north and south of the city and the work was pushed with considerable vigor until the Michigan road was fairly well sanded ten miles to the north and seven to the south, since which time we are all familiar with the gravel roads of Cass county. The first substantial street im- provement was done in 1854, in which year Third street was ballasted with crushed stone and such improvement has spasmodically continued to the present date. About the year 1880-85 the old canal began to disappear, the high bridges had all been removed and the appearance of the city was much better. In the year 1854, the first locomotive appeared in our city. It came from the east on a flat canal boat, and was unloaded at what is now the south- west corner of Fifth and Broadway and hauled on a track of square hewed logs, by three yoke of oxen owned and driven by Sam Berryman, down Broad- way to Third and south on Third across the Wa- bash and placed on the track of the first railway built in Logansport, and when completed reached to Kokomo. The only remnant now visible is the pit for the turn-table, a square west of Burlington pike at the creamery, where the station and freight house was also located. During the summer of 1855 the grading was nearly completed by the Wabash railroad company. Piles were driven by horse power on the island; 174 Pastime Sketches considerable work was done on abutments for the bridge and about the middle of March, 1856. the first locomotive of the Wabash railroad entered our city and was met by the band which escorted the of- ficials to the Cullen House, corner Second and Mar- ket streets, where they were entertained by a dance that night. During the summer of 1856, this road was completed to Lafayette, then ended the days of the stage coach between our city and Lafayette and also to Indianapolis. The next period of especial importance as to traffic was in the year of Dec. 6, 1882, when the street cars propelled by mule power was established by F. G. Jaques, and operated by him until the year 1891, when his barns and car house, located north- east corner Eighteenth and Broadway, together with nearly all of his mules were destroyed by fire. The franchise then changed hands, and the system was changed from mule to electricity, and has ex- tended all over city and hooked on to the interurban and today we can get out of the city at any hour of the clay or night and go north, south, east and west and our brainy men have nearly completed a ship to travel in the yet unoccupied space above the earth, and we need not be surprised some morning to find a bill under our door announcing a cheap excursion next Sunday to the north pole. SECOND PUBLIC MEETING OF THE CASS COUNTY, INDI- ANA HISTORICAL SOCIETY, JUNE 28, 1907. The second public meeting of the Historical so- ciety at the Library June 28th was a success. Every chair was occupied and standing room was in de- mand. Judge D. P. Baldwin, president, called the Pastime Sketches 175 meeting- to order and made a short address. He said that history can only be written one hundred years after the event, biography fifty years after the death of the subject. He thought that the present was productive of greater men than the past but that the fields of usefulness were changed ; that ge- nius was rather developed in finance, not so much in war or politics. He spoke of great men of finance who had startled the world by their genius in or- ganization. Vice President Powell took the chair, and an- nounced the regular program of the evening, also calling attention to the fact that the society would join with the Old Settlers in the picnic at Spencer Park, August 10th. He invited the public generally to become charter members, handing names to B. F. Sharts of the Logansport State Bank. He spoke of the appreciation of the music rendered at pre- vious meetings by the G. A. R. Glee club, and called upon the club for the first number. The first paper was by Mrs. Minnie York Bu- chanan, subject "Old Time Schools." She said she could hardly tell anything of the schools of the early days but would give her observations in 1865 when she came to Logansport as a school teacher after teaching in New York. Wils Berry followed with a chalk talk on the costumes of 1864 illustrating with twenty or more rapidly drawn sketches. Mr. Berry exhibited a ver- satility surprising to many who were not familiar with his talent. There was a rush for his drawings after adjournment and all were carried away to be preserved as souvenirs. After music by the Glee club W. T. Gifre fol- 176 Pastime Sketches lowed with the last paper of the evening, subject "Early Music." PAPER READ BY MRS. MINNIE YORK BUCHANAN BEFORE THE CASS COUNTY, INDIANAHISTORICAL, SOCIETY, JUNE 28, 1907. "The schools of the olden time had the same common branches that we have today, but they had schoolmasters and schoolmarms, and the penknife was very essential to their equipment, not only to make and mend the goose-quill pens with which to write the copy 'Be good if you would be happy,' but also to point up and down the black ladder of the alphabet, as they listened to the prolonged sound of a-b-c and the promise from the pretty pink aproned schoolma-m, 'you may take your knife a little while if you will remember that letter has charmed it,' and many of its neighbors into mem- ory. "They did not remain seated during recitations in the olden times, but came to the class and stood in a line facing the teacher and 'toed the mark.' At 10:30 the teacher would say 'now the girls may go out.' In five minutes she would rap on the window (and those windows rattle) and call them in, then the boys could go out. This was recess. "In the old olden time many of the school houses were built of logs with planks around the sides of the wall for desks and long benches for seats, with- out backs. And those desks and seats were often deeply furrowed with the sharp blade handled by some sharper 'Yankee blade.' "But this olden time was long before 1865. Lo- gansport then was a busy, energetic, enterprising Pastime Sketches 177 place. In my memory are three events that will ever remain vivid, my arrival in Logansport, a drive in the country a day of two after, and in connection with the city schools, the superintendency of T. B. Helms. During the year mentioned I was engaged in teaching in western New York, but anticipated a visit to Logansport in the early fall, as my friends had written me of the excellent wages paid teachers here. I had considered remaining a year at least. I had many discouraging statements from others who thought it a wild idea, and some of the older teachers had been in Indiana and visited the schools and reported them way below par compared with ours, said that they used different words to express things ; that I would have to learn why they call a pail a bucket, a tin pail with handle, a bucket, and they would conclude with 'You'll be home in three weeks.' They failed to tell me, if they knew, that they had the fever and ague. New Yorkers had a dread of that, as I had seen some who had returned from Michigan and was shocked at their ghastly appearance and slow recovery. "I surely would not have come to Indiana had I known it was sub- ject to it. But I arrived one evening in September in a pouring rain. I think I was the only one to leave the train of two coaches. I could see no one, no conveyance. I concluded I must be a way out of the city. Just as I was wondering where the people were, a man came in from somewhere and asked: 'Do you want the bus?' I certainly did. Those were my instructions, to take the bus. When I arrived at my destination they came from the door to the bus with umbrellas, to meet me. I was feeling somewhat depressed. When I retired to my room it was warm and the window was lowered. I 178 Pastime Sketches could hear the oeople passing and it was soon evi- dent I was near a physician's office from the re- peated calls for the doctor and the conversations. This continued so late I thought, is every one sick. In the morning I found I was next door to Drs. Taylor & Shultz's office. I stepped out to look over the city— was not disappointed in anything, but the size, a city, and not as large as our village of Canan- daigua, N. Y., then I remembered that it required 10,000 for a city charter in New York and only I think 3,000 in Indiana, at that time. "I soon began to meet people and I was so pleased with them, and they were all so interested in the schools and the normal that had been hold- ing four weeks, I think this, was the closing week, and they all seemed to regret that if I thought of teaching I had not been able to attend. But I felt confident if I could pass the examination and teach in New York, I surely could here. I was en- joying myself and feeling it would be just the thing to remain, when I got a shock. I said to one of the young ladies, Ts there much sickness?' There was an incessant going and coming from that doctor's office last night.' 'Yes,' she said, 'it has been a very rainy season and many are having the chills." I did know what that was but when she described it I was terrified, why that is the fever and ague, I thought. I would not have that wretched disease for all the schools. I would make my stay short in Logansport. But I did not see any one who was afflicted and it passed my mind, meeting so many more pleasant and intelligent people. "I was told we would take a drive in the country the next morning. Of course I was delighted. It seemed it was on business and the roads would be Pastime Sketches 1 79 bad. but we would go prepared with two horses. I expected mud, but a mile or so from the city we went into the roads. I never dreamed that people ever attempted to drive through such places. We did not see any road, nothing but water and holes, and the horses lunging and plunging. I expected every moment they would break loose from the ve- hicle, and leave us sitting there, and perhaps not in the vehicle. However, we returned without any accident. I shall never forget it. I met more de- lightful people, and said I would like to attend the normal. I had not met any one who was attending and I had not been brave enough to go alone. Some of them called for me in the morning, and I must say I was surprised at the work being done. It was in every way up to the standard I had been accus- tomed to, if not more thorough and systematic. They had fine instructors from other cities, who were advising and testing the applicants. I soon found it was a special drill for teachers and decided that every teacher could not teach school in Lo- gansport. I began to think of the examination to be held the next day and said to one of my friends, 'I wish I knew how it is to be held, written or oral. I feel so strange. I may get nervous and fail.' If that's what you wish to know ask Mr. Helms ; he will tell you.' I thought that would be presuming and expected a cool reception, but if you will permit the expression I was never so pleasantly disap- pointed. I met such an affable, courteous, kind gentleman, willing and frank in telling me how the examination would be conducted. I shall never forget him. But I had not allowed my name to go before the board until I was sure of my license and I was too late. The board was very considerate and 180 Pastime Sketches kind but I did not expect any farther recognition from it. Yet in a day or two they called and told me that Prof. Brophy has been employed as principal in the seminary and they would give him my name as assistant. So I was employed as Prof. Brophy's assistant. The board at that time was D. D. Pratt, Charles Knowlton, Joseph McCaughey. "At the seminary there were three departments — primary, intermediate and the sixth reader grade. Prof. Brophy's room. There was no 7a or 8a, very few manuscript questions were asked and answered and the pupils in the intermediate rooms were just as anxious to get to the sixth reader grade, as I presume they are now to reach the high school. I am sure the schools of Logansport in 1865 were much in advance of many older towns." PAPER READ BY MR. W. T. GIEFE BEEORE THE CASS COUNTY, INDIANA, HISTORICAL SOCIETY JUNE 28, 1907. It seems to me that the task of writing a paper on the old-time singing school of Cass county should have been assigned to an older head, one having a personal knowledge of the local history of this one time popular institution for vocal cultivation and social gatherings. When the pioneer singing school was in flower its scepter was a steel tuning-fork and its preceptor a peripatetic singing master upon whom Polyhym- nia, the Muse of Singing Harmony, was supposed to have bestowed her rarest gift. The pioneer singing school followed closely upon the march of the pioneer citizen and helped to imbue the sparse population with the spirit of both material and spiritual progress. Pastime Sketches 181 In those days nearly every country neighbor- hood, village and small town had, at some time dur- ing the year (generally during the winter), a sing- ing school, at which a series or term of singing les- sons was taught in some local church or district school house. These singings were usually held on Sunday aft- ernoon, or on one or two evenings during the week. If I am correctly informed, the first singing book used in Cass county was the "Missouri harmony." In fact I believe it is a matter of history that this was the first singing book used in Indiana, and that its use was quite general. It was written in what was called "buckwheat" notes, the notes being named by the shape and not the position on the staff as now. The system of notation employed in this book had a tetrachord of four syllables — fa, so, la, mi — which was repeated to form the scale. It was called the system of the "Buckwheat Notes," be- cause, in their different shapes, some of the notes resembled grains of buckwheat. After this book and its system had passed, the scale syllables running from Do to Do, as we now have them, were introduced along with the "round notes," which are now almost in exclusive use. In the days of the pioneer singing school the lo- cal conditions were very primitive and crude, as we view them now. The farms of cultivated lands were as small and scattered as are the timber tracts of the present day in Indiana. Forests and wild game abounded in every direction. Preachers and coon dogs were in about equal demand and commanded about the same price. Such was the environment of the old-time sing- ing school and it is no wonder that strange notions 182 Pastime Sketches should find their way into the minds of the sing- ers. Some of the ladies in that day prided them- selves on their supposed ability to sing tenor, while others with a coarser voice — box would essay the roll of bass. In like manner there were gay Loth- arios who insisted on sitting with the sopranos and singing "air" with might and main. In a recent article in the Indiana Magazine of History, Benjamin S. Parker, the poet sage of New Castle, in speaking of this subject, says: "The singing schools of fifty and sixty years ago, in this state, were not confined to Sundays, as the master, in many cases, found it best to have two or three singing schools on hand at the same time. Several masters were often running schools in the same neighborhood, and between these schools there was considerable emulation, which sometimes led to a joint meeting where the rival classes, under the leadership of their respective teachers, contest- ed for superiority. The singers were chosen very much as the spellers at the spelling matches. Judges were selected who were to listen to all the contests and award the honors. The first class to sing stood and sang two selections, first the notes and then the words. The second class, in like man- ner, sang the same selections, and then two more. The first class then sang the latter airs and two new ones, and so on until the contests closed. "In the midst of every afternoon school there was a recess, which was made good use of by old and young. For pure and wholesome social enjoy- ment few recreations surpassed the old country singing school, and there, at the same time, were trained many sweet singers for the local churches, as well as the homes. Pastime Sketches 183 "In the older books the parts were arranged for treble, or air, answering to the modern soprano, and sung by men as well as women ; tenor, or double air, for both men and women, and bass for men. Baritone and alto were not used. Among the books in use, other than the 'Missouri Har- mony," were the 'Christian Psalmist,' the 'Sacred Melodeon,' two or three of Dr. Lowell Mason's books (which used the Guidonian system), several of A. D. Filmore's books, and a number of others. The usual charges in these schools were fifty to seventy-five cents per pupil for a term of twelve lessons, and at these rates the classes not infre- quently tested the holding capacities of the rooms where they met. "So attractive were these singing school that a large percentage of the young Quakers of fifty years ago persisted in taking part in them, despite all the restraints imposed by their people, and to that fact is largely due the changed attitude of the second generation of Friends toward the study of music." The popular instruments of those days were the violin, flute and melodeon, and in occasional in- stances some one of these was used in- the singing school and glee club by the teacher. However, all these instruments were generally barred from the church buildings, and could only be used at the pri- vate homes and some of the school houses. The limits of this paper preclude any disserta- tion on the great social and educational advantages which the old singing schools, in most instances, brought to the communities where they were taught. The passing of the singing school is to be great- 184 Pastime Sketches ly regretted. Its going has left a void in the musi- cal life of the country places that is not easy to fill. Perhaps the revolving cycle of our institutional life may yet return to the coming generations a modi- fied form of the old-time singing school. Let us hope that it will. PAPER PREPARED BY MR. HARRY BRINGHURST FOR THE CASS COUNTY, INDIANA, HISTORICAL SOCIETY. The following fire department history was com- piled for the Cass County Historical Society by Harry W. Bringhurst, Chief of the Fire Depart- ment, Seattle, Washington, who was born in Lo- gansport, and was for many years a resident of the city. It covers the period of the Volunteers, up to the date of the paid department. Prominent citi- zens risked their lives for the good of the commun- ity and their deeds are worthy of preservation. While the paid department is equally worthy of mention no records are available. Public meeting to organize fire company Jan. 11, 1836, in consequence of excitement over great fire in New York, Dec. 16, 1835. G. T. Bostwick. chair- man ; J. B. Dillon, secretary. Nothing came of it. June 21, 1837, fire blacksmith shop of Hines & McElheny on Fourth, opposite present court house. Oct. 6, 1837, D. Patrick's cabinet shop burned. (North side Broadway between Second and Third.) Feb. 12, 1838, fire in "Logansport Exchange," two-story saloon just south of Washington Hall (Barnett House) ; hard work to save latter. Aug. 10, 1839, Jas. Storms' cabinet shop. Canal street, near Second. Nov. 9. 1844, frame brewery building Curt Fmer- Pastime Sketches 185 son, on Berkley street, north of Canal, partially de- stroyed. Nov. 27, 1846, fire in Washington Hall ; hard work with line of buckets from Wabash river. Dec. 5, 1846, ordinance appointed G. N. Fitch fire warden. Feb. 17, 1849, Saddlery shop, Jas. Kintner, dam- aged dwelling of Chauncey Carter across alley, Market between Second and Third. March 21, 1849, house of Samuel McElheny, Seventh between North and High. June 13, 1853, S. B. Kendrick's slaughter house, $1,000. Jan. 4, 1854, Klein's Brewery; total loss $1,800. First ordinance established fire department passed Feb. 1, 1854. T. H. Bringhurst, mayor. First regular fire company Summit No. 1, or- ganized Feb. 4, 1854. Election of officers above, Feb. 6, president, T. H. Bringhurst ; vice president, Jas. Rodgers ; secre- tary, S. L. McFadin ; treasurer, H. Black. Direc- tors, David Johnson, Dan'l Mull, B. Z. Burch, Ed- gar Parsons, W. T. S. Manly, J. N. Tousley. General Tipton fire company, No. 2, organized Feb. 6, 1854: President, J. B. Eldridge ; vice presi- dent, R. F. Groves; secretary, J. G. Douglas; treas- urer, Ed Fishel. Directors, N. G. Scott, W. D. Ran- dall, T. P. McCrea, Chas. Barrett, Judge Groves, J. B. Eldridge. First engine (hand) came from Hunneman & Co., Boston, June, 1854. First fire on which it worked, June 23, 1854, across Sixth street bridge. This was "Summit." Tipton hand engine arrived Aug. 2?, 1854, on 186 Pastime Sketches canal boat "Silver Bell." Tested Aug. 30, 1854. Sum- mit cost $700; Tipton $805. First large fire Geo. Cecil's cooper shop at aque- duct, loss $3,200, Nov. 8, 1854. Engines worked 10 p. m. to 3 a. m. Summit and Tipton engine houses built by July, 1855. Jan. 5,' 1856, great fire on Market street, from three-story brick at 308 Market street to alley on east. Very cold morning. Engines pumped from Wabash river. Shoe and hardware store and vari- ous buildings. One man (Dale) seriously hurt. Nick Smith's stove store, Dr. McCrea's office dam- aged. Jos. Dale hip dislocated and head injured. July 4, 1856, Logansport engine went to Lai'ay- ette and beat the engine there. July 4, 1857, hand engine "Kossuth" came up from Lafayette to the railroad celebration and beat the Tipton. Dec. 25, 1858, fire burned roof off of Cecil's "Forest Mill" at 3 a. m. ; fine work by engines saved mill; loss $3,028. June, 1859, Summit and Tipton fire bells re- ceived from Cincinnati. Dec. 20, 1859, fire at McElheny's tannery north of aqueduct, 6:30 p. m. Summit company worked six hours, thermometer at zero. Feb. 16, 1860, fire at E. Walker's house on North street (Craig's) ; loss $500. Aug. 6, 1861, fire at J. M. Keeps' lumber yard at 2 :30 a. m., south of canal. Very hot fire. While firemen taking up hose fire broke out in Knowlton & Obenchain's foundry to the west. Catholic church endangered. Loss about $10,000. July 14, 1862, fire on canal north of Broadway, Pastime Sketches 187 burned McElheny carriage shop and Bevan's car- penter shop. March 20, 1864, G. W. Scantling burned in his house on Berkley street. Oct. 24, 1864, sash and door factory burned on canal between Broadway and North. Aug. 8, 1865, fire burned A. M. Goodwin's gro- cery, also stores of Hicks & Connolly and E. T.. Stevens. Dec. 15, 1865. alarm for boiler explosion at Knowlton's foundry ; four boys and a girl killed ; several injured. Dec. 22, 1865, Dr. Farquhar's house burned at North and Ninth. Jan. 16, 1866, fire Fourth between Market and Broadway, burned out Conrad's, Keeps' Rosenthal's and Frank's. March 20, 1867, two fires in night one on "Point," one in "Browntown." June 20, 1868, house burned by owner on what is now Heath street. Oct. 8, 1868, fire burned large double house on Fitch, between George and Canal. Feb. 3, 1869, fire Mrs. Courtney's house, West Logan. Oct. 27, 1869, B. H. Smith building, Hicks, El- liott & Shroyer ; loss several hundred. Building saved. Good work. Jan. 5, 1870, Silsby rotary steamer "Chauncey Carter" bought. Arrived Feb. 3, 1870. Officers fire companies January, 1870: Tipton — President, C. B. KnoAvlton ; vice presi- dent, Geo. Bevan ; secretary, S. B. Boyer ; treasurer, G. J. Groves. Directors, G. W. Brown, J. F. Carney, 18S Pastime Sketches Jas. Foley, H. G. Fetter, M. Schneeberger, Jno. Murphy. Summit — Foreman, S. T. Weirick ; assistant foreman, D. H. Mull; secretary, D. Comingore; treasurer, D. Redd. Feb. 10, 1870, big fire, engine saved town; 11:30 p. m. Fourth, south of Market, back of "round cor- ner" grocery, two saloons, barber shop, doctor's office, stables, etc. ; loss $9,000. March 18, 1870, Krug & Russell's tin store, Guthrie's clothing store Fourth street. July 8, 1870, Messinger & Bevan's dry kiln early morning; loss $1,500. Tipton hand engine turned over to the Cham- pion company in spring. Jan. 1, 1871, John Gallagher's house burned in Browntown ; Reuben Gharis badly injured. Feb. 28, 1871. Three fires in one night, last one 2:30 a. m. Paul Taber's stable, rear of Pennsylvania house. April 10, 1871, Independent Hose organized. J. H. Ivens, foreman ; H. J. Larimer and W. Reed, as- sistants. April 20, 1871, fire at Lock Foundry. (This was night of Slater murder.) May 9, 1871, F. D. paraded laying corner stone Smithson College. May 23, 1871, large fire 1 p. m., back of Judge Stuart's house. Broadway, several stables and houses. Rev. Post distinguished himself saving horses, etc. July 29, 1871, Kahlo Von Behren & Co.. spoke factory, Toledo street ; loss $1,200; factory saved. Pastime Sketches 189 Sept. 13, 1871, first report council favoring water works. Oct. 22, 1871, fire at gas works on Sunday morn- ing ; great excitement over fires all the month. Chicago fire Oct. 9. May 2, 1872, R. S. Miller stone works on Duret & Messinger, Brosius' pump factory burned ; loss $7,000. Jas. Viney and other firemen nearly killed by falling floor. Good work. May 16, 1872, freight cars burned in Panhandle yard, nearly a panic in Forepaugh's show on "Dam fields." Aug. 9, 1872, "Carter" sent to a $15,000 fire at New Waverly. Chiefs -of fire department : 1856-58, Thos. H. Bringhurst. 1859-1868, Geo. Bevan. 1869, Jos. Green. 1870, Zophar Hunt. 1871, Allen Richardson. 1872-73, Jos. Green, 1874, Geo. Bevan. 1875, Geo. Bevan and J. F. Long. Geo. Bevan died in 1875 and T. H. Bringhurst elected to fill vacancy and reor- ganize department, retiring in favor of Carney, 1876, Jas. F. Carney. 1877, Jas. F. Carney. 1878, Jas. F. Carney. 1879, H. J. Larimer. 1880, H. J. Larimer. First mention of H. & L. Company, election of officers Jan. 5, 1869. Geo. Kuns, president ; J. H. Ivens, vice president. Champion Fire Company organized at Seminary Oct. 13, 1869. H. & L. No. 2 (Browntown) organized Jan. 14 and 19, 1871. Dennis Uhl foreman; D. R. Miller, vice foreman. Jan. 31, 1865, "Grand supper" given at court house by the firemen, also "Grand Ball" at Part- ridge Hall. Proceeds $346.75 turned over by fire- 190 Pastime Sketches men to J. C. Merriam, treasurer Relief Society, for the benefit of soldiers' families. The volunteers were at their best 1871 and 1875. The star year was 1873. Oct. 17, 1872, 9 a. m., large fire burned stables of A. J. Murdock. Sisters' Academy, Dr. Mat- thews' and other buildings. Lively fight between Tiptons and Independents for "first water." Many residences endangered. Nov. 17, 1872, 9 p. m., fire at Layton House also Panhandle depot. Very cold. Dec. 11, 1872, Champion company elected Rod- ney Strain foreman. Fifty active members. Feb. 3, 1873, Froster building on Sycamore street. March 2, 1873, Canal street, school house. March 10. 1873, Campbell's livery and other stables, Sixth, between Market and Broadway. April 23, 1873, frame row north side of Broad- way, west of Keystone building, Sixth street. John- ston & Crook's, A. M. Goodwin, T. R. McElheny, Gans & Rosenberg, V. C. Hanawalt ; loss $4,000. Independents got first water. May 18, 1873, Old Cheney saw mill at Point, also R. D. Stevens' planing mill. Mill built in 1845. May 22, 1873, Uhl barns and stables in Brown- town. July 2, 1873, Clapp & Jones' steamer bought. July 5, 1873, stables of J. J. Pucerbaugh, Rev. Sparks, Female College, hard fight to save Merri- am's stable and residence. All engines got water from Methodist church cistern. July 7, 1873. Weyands and other stables, Brown- town. July 15, 1873, Tenth street school house. Pastime Sketches 191 Aug. 22, 1873. stables of Mrs. Farquhar, D. Pat- rick, Chas. Horning, Jas. Wilson (Broadway, North, Second and Third.) Hard work to save dwellings, Jos. Ivens and other firemen injured. Andrew Schaffer, of Summit company, mentioned for brav- ery. Aug. 25, 1873, Jas. L. Baldwin's distillery, north side of Eel river, opposite Eighth street. Aug. 25, 1873, stables of John Sammis, T. C. Mitchell. Geo. Horn, Airs. McElheny, Mrs. S. A. Hall, H. C. Thornton. Two houses badly damaged. Great excitement over incendiaries. Sept. 22, 1873, trial of "Champion" engine. Sept. 24, 1873, Summit company disbanded be- cause new str. given to Champions. Sept. 26, 1873, "Logan Fire company" organized from old members of Summit. Jas. Henderson fore- man ; thirty members. Nov. 16, 1873, stables in rear of St. ELmo hotel and Elliott, P. & Shroyer, incendiary. Dec. 2, 1873, Michaels' millinery store ; loss about $15,000. Supposed incendiary. Adams build- ing on Fourth between Market and Broadway. March 4, 1874, dwelling on North between Four- teenth and Fifteenth, occupied by J. G. Meek and Ed Strong. March 22, 1874, stables of Lewis Diehl, J. B. Eldridge, Hugh Ward, Market between First and Second ; loss $2,000. Incendiary. April 1, 1874, Eureka fire company in Brown- town, recognized; has old Tipton hand engine. April 27, 1874, midnight, stables of J. Kraut, Wm. Dolan, Barnett House, Barnett ice house, Bruggaman's shop, extended to large brick livery stable of Ed Anderson and houses of Dolan, Kraut 192 Pastime Sketches and Bruggaman ; loss $12,000. Incendiary. High wind. Horses on Champion engine ; the first fire at which horses were used. May 5, 1874, celebration fire department twen- tieth anniversary. Parade, picnic, speeches by Judge Chase and Col. Bringhurst. Grand ball at night, Dolan's opera house. June 16, 1874. Grusenmyer's wagon shop, "Ta- bertown." Oct. 30, 1874, stables of David Miller and E. T. Stevens' residences, both damaged ; loss $3,400. Jan. 20, 1875, partial alarm telegraph system provided for connecting Tipton and Champion en- gine houses. Feb. 28, 1875, funeral of Chief Geo. Bevan ; very cold and stormy day. All the fire department out. March 9, 1875, large tenement house near round house ; loss $2,500. March 10, 1875, barn and shop of A. D. Pack- ard, the latter severely burned. March 11, 1875, roof and upper story of large frame boarding house, east side Sixth, between Market and Broadway, Musselman. Firemen had narrow escape. March 23, 1875, Enterprise fire company organ- ized on Southside. March 6, 1875, Twenty-first anniversary cele- bration. Parade, fire companies from Peru, Delphi, Kokomo, Noblesville, Tipton, Frankfort, Muncie. Horse races. Grand ball. May 15, 1875, Independent company elected Robt. R. Bringhurst foreman, H. J. Larimer as- sistant. May 19, 1875, all the stables in center of block North and High, Fourth and the Canal. Damaged Pastime Sketches 193 residences of McTaggart, Wilson and Harwood. A hot and dangerous fire, 11 :30 a. m. June 16, 1875, Silsby horse hose cart bought for Champion Co. July 3, 1875, entertainment by Independent com- pany, Dolan's opera house. July 29, 1875, roof and upper floor of Lincoln foundry, southeast corner High street and Canal. J. H. Tucker plow handle factory, 10 p. m. Large fire ; loss about $12,000. Aug. 20, 1875, Canal water supply so unreliable ; other measures tried. Much discussion on water works. Nov. 17, 1875, contracts concluded for water works. Jan. 1, 1876, Logan company elected Geo. Leroy foreman ; Frank Comingore, secretary. Jan. 1, 1876, Dan Comingore stables, Broadway, between Eighth and Ninth. Feb. 14, 1876, Independent company masquerade ball, Dolan and McHale's hall. April 6, 1876, Jno. Jackson house on High street ; loss $700. June 4, 1876, fire department out at funeral of Councilman Hugh Ward. July 4, 1876, fire department in parade. Aug. 4, 1876, first water pumped into water works' mains. Oct. 3, 1876, first fire at which water works used ; small fire on Fourth, near North. Oct. 5, 1876, midnight, two houses burned on Canal, Twelfth street, near Point ; water works streams used. Oct. 6, 1876, 5 a. m., Keeport's Lime office and Rhoads stable, Market and Sixth. 194 Pastime Sketches Nov. 8, 1876, 2 a. m., election night, livery stable, Ingram Bros., Mrs. Anderson's and other stables. Lively fire, Sixth street. Dec. 5, 1876, test of water works. Much talk of reorganizing fire department. Jan. 17, 1877, council bought Richmond fire alarm system in spite of protests. April 1, 1877, Tipton company went to big fire Converse, Ind. April 3, 1877, final test of water works. April 6, 1877, fire alarm tel. accepted. April 8, 1877, 11:30 p. m.. fire in block Market, Canal, Fourth anl Fifth, burned various stables and other buildings. Fire alarm telegraph did not work ; delay in getting water pressure ; a lively and dangerous fire. May 5, 1877, noon, fire at "Castle," residence of D. P. Baldwin, Mrs. Whiting's boarding house ; good work ; much excitement. May 30, 1877, jury disagreed in case of Jas. Fin- negan for setting big fire of April 8. June 3, 1877, two houses burned New Jerusalem. July 10, 1877, Griner and Ouealy stables and house near Point. July 11, 1877, funeral of Curt Hutson, Indepen- dent company. Jan. 1, 1878, fire in Mrs. McCarty's house on Market, between Sixth and Seventh ; great water loss. Jan. 6, 1878. "Store on Wheels" Clem Kern on canal bed and Broadway. Jan. 6, 1878, Cement pipe works near Peoria. March 30, 1878, fire department out to funeral of Tos. Green, ex-chief. Pastime Sketches 195 May 8, 1878, twenty-fourth anniversary celebra- tion, parade, races, etc. Tune 23, 1878, 5 a. m., several stables between North, High, Sixth and Seventh. Trouble as to pressure. July 4, 1878, fire department paraded. Aug. 18, 1878, Westside engine house struck by lightning, much damage. Aug. 19, 1878, fire department paraded funeral W. Fornoff. Dec. 4, 1878, "City Mills" on Hamilton race, owned by Sol Jones and Robt. Ray ; loss $10,000. Hose laid from Third and Canal ; hot fire. Jan. 21, 1879, Collision and fire Peoria Junction. March 23, 1879, two houses burned on Toledo near Twelfth. May 14, 1879, Stuart residence; loss $500. July 24, 1879, Cronise's feed stable. Sixth street, R. C. Taylor and other stables. Nov. 1, 1879, 8:45 p. m., Spiker & Harrison wagon factory, south side Toledo near Fourteenth. Disastrous fire ; little pressure because rebuilding water works' dam; loss $40,000; insurance $16,000; started paint shop. Nov. 5, 1879, council adopted resolution of Chas. Knight providing for paid fire department. H. J. Larimer, chief. PAPER PREPARED BY MR. W. S. WRIGHT FOR THE CASS COUNTY, INDIANA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. The newspapers of a city always reflect the city's enterprise and intelligence. Logansport has been a prominent newspaper center since the organ- ization of the state and a brief sketch of newspaper history may be interesting. 196 Pastime Sketches There are several complete files of the news- papers of Logansport and they speak for them- selves. The county histories also contain sketches of the earlier publications so that this branch of local history is well covered. Briefly it may be said that Logansport claims the first newspaper printed in northern Indiana. It was issued on Saturday, August 15, 1829, and the office was on the south side of Market street between Fourth and Fifth streets, on the alley. The type and press were brought in on an ox wagon and it took another wagon to bring in the name, which was the Potta- watomie and Miami Times. The paper was founded, edited and published by John Scott. Owing to the difficulties connected with pioneer journalism the paper, which was a weekly, did not appear every week. It is noted that a new volume, commenced on the 10th of November, 1831, the name being changed to The Cass County Times, was not com- pleted until twenty-six months later, it taking that length of time to get out the first fifty-two copies of the supposed weekly. John Scott was a pioneer printer, having commenced the publication of the Inquirer at Brookville, Franklin county, Indiana, in 1815 and of the Weekly Intelligencer at Richmond in 1820. Later he founded the Western Emporium at Centerville, in the same county, which he con- ducted until he moved to Logansport in 1829. James B. Scott, later the editor of the Delphi Journal, set the first type for the new Logansport paper. May 30, 1833, James B. Scott and William J. Burns be- came the owners of the paper and the name was again changed to the Logansport Republican and Indiana Herald. This name proved too heavy and publication ceased December 11th, of the same year. Pastime Sketches 197 The Canal Telegraph made its appearance Jan. 2, 1834, a month after the Herald suspended, hav- ing purchased the type and material used by the Herald. Stanislaus Laselle was its founder and on the 16th of August John B. Dillon became asso- ciate editor and publisher. In November the name was changed to The Logansport Canal Telegraph and in 1836 it became The Logansport Telegraph. This paper suspended publication March 24, 1849, and its good will and fixtures were bought by Thomas H. Bringhurst and Thomas Douglass, who continued the publication under the name of The Logansport Journal, the first issue appearing April 20, 1849. In that year Williamson Wright was nominated for congress by the Whigs against Gra- ham N. Fitch, who had been first elected in 1847. The Whigs had no organ and the fixtures of the Telegraph were bought by Williamson Wright, and T. H. Bringhurst was installed as editor. Mr. Bringhurst was a cabinet maker and had never been inside of a newspaper office. He protested against the selection of himself as editor but final- ly yielded. The wisdom of the selection soon be- came apparent and Mr. Bringhurst continued as ed- itor until 1861, when he enlisted in the Civil war and rose to the rank of colonel, being first appointed major of the Forty-sixth Indiana by Governor Morton. He was mustered out in 1865 and re- turned to The Journal, continuing as editor until 1869. when he was appointed special agent of the postoffice department. Previous to his. connection with The Journal, in May, 1846, he enlisted in the First Regiment, Indiana Volunteers, Mexican war and served under General Taylor, returning to Lo- gan sport in 1847. 198 Pastime Sketches Joseph Dague purchased a half interest in The Journal in 1863 and continued with Air. Bringhurst until January, 1870, when it was sold to Z. and W. C. Hunt, who conducted it for two years, selling a half interest to Joseph Dague in 1873. D. P. Bald- win purchased a third interest in 1874 and another third in 1875. During most of this time, while Mr. Bringhurst was absent during the Civil war, and at other times, James T. Bryer was the editor and he continued in that capacity for many years, until 1888. In 1882 William D. Pratt became sole owner and in 1876, January 1st, started the daily Journal, changing the weekly to a semi-weekly. C. B. Lan- dis, W. K. Landis and R. A. Brown were city edi- tors during this time. The Journal changed ownership again in 1891. The Logansport Journal Co. was incorporated that year by a number of Logansport republicans, J. C. Hadley, A. R. Shroyer, A. Hardv, S. B. Boyer, B. F. Keesling, Bert G. Small, Will R. Small and W. S. Wright were directors, with W. S. Wright president and managing editor, Bert G. Small, city editor and Will R. Small business manager. This organization remained in control seven years, Bert G. Small and Will R. Small retired in 1895 to publish the Saturday Night Review and W. S. Wright be- came an officer in the Spanish-American war in 1898. D. W. Tomlinson and Thomas and Chas. Torr bought The Journal in that year and contin- ued it until 1902, when Keesling & Metzger Bros, (incorporated) purchased it. A. R. Keesling be- came managing editor, E. F. Metzger. business manager, and H. C. Metzger, advertising manager. The Journal was represented in the Mexican and Civil wars by Col. T. H. Bringhurst and in the Pastime Sketches 199 Spanish-American war by W. S. Wright. In the changes in the business centers it had many homes. The first Journal office was on the east side of Fourth street, south of Market. In turn it occu- pied quarters on Broadway, north side of the alley between Fifth and Sixth street ; on the east side of Pearl street, between Market and Broadway ; at northwest corner of Fourth and Court streets and below Fourth at No. 310 Broadway. The advent of the Rural Free Delivery and of the Interurban railroads changed the character of the country cir- culation, the daily becoming popular in the country and the semi-weekly became the weekly once more. Since its foundation The Journal was first Whig, then Republican in politics. By reason of its vari- ous successions The Journal lays claim to the honor of being the oldest newspaper in northern Indiana. In the matter of name the Pharos, a Greek word meaning lighthouse, has the priority as to age. It appeared first on the 24th of July, 1844, with Sam- uel A. Flail owner and editor. It continued under this management until January 6, 1869, when Rufus Magee became owner and editor. August 10, 1874, The Daily Pharos made its appearance. Mr. Magee sold his interest July 1, 1875, to the Pharos com- pany and Jerry Collins became the controlling spir- it. S. P. Sheerin also became a part owner and an editor. In November, 1877, M. Y. Todisman and B. F. Louthain purchased the Pharos. On the 20th of May, 1885, John W. Barnes purchased the inter- est of Mr. Todisman and the Pharos has been con- ducted by the firm of Louthain & Barnes since that time, almost a quarter of a century. Besides the military honors conferred on the newspaper fra- ternity of Logansport, already mentioned, D. P. 200 Pastime Sketches Baldwin was attorney general of Indiana, R. A. Brown, clerk of the supreme court and C. B. Landis and Fred Landis members of congress, all of The Journal. W. K. Landis is also postmaster at San Juan, Porto Rico. Of the Pharos owners or editors, S. P. Sheerin was clerk of the supreme court, Rufus Magee was minister to Sweden and Norway and B. F. Louthain was postmaster. The Pharos has made few changes of location. It was published at the southeast corner of Third and Broadway, then at the southeast corner of Fourth and North, and under the present management at 430 Fourth street. The Daily Star was started in 1873 as an adver- tising sheet by some Logansport printers. The paper was distributed free, the advertising making it profitable. Shortly afterwards it became the property of J. H. Hall, son of Samuel Hall, the founder of the Pharos, and he continued it on the same lines until Aug. 11th, of that year when W. H. Smith became associated with him and the paper was enlarged. On the 20th of September, 1876, the daily list and good will was sold to The Journal but the publication was resumed and was continued until April 9, 1878. The Weekly Star was com- menced January 1 1874, and was discontinued with the daily. The Star under the management of W. H. Smith was quite a metropolitan paper. At one time the full Associated Press telegraph ser- vice was taken and a large force of compositors was employed. The office was on Fourth street in the Closson insurance building. Referring again to the earlier period of the coun- ty's history The Logansport Herald was com- menced August 1, 1837. by Jesse C. and David Douglass, and this paper was continued until July Pastime Sketches 201 20, 1841. The Wabash Gazette followed the Herald on the 10th of November, 1842, with Moses Scott publisher and Horace P. Biddle editor in chief. The Gazette suspended April 27, 1844. In 1872 the Democratic Printing and Publishing Co. began the publishing of the Sun.. It suspended after its forty-ninth number, but revived again No- vember 18, 1873. In 1875 the paper was sold and removed to Illinois. The Logansport Chronicle made its appearance April 7, 1875, and has continued as a weekly ever since, under the management of the founder, H. J. McSheehey. It was first published Sunday morn- ing, but later publication day was changed to Sat- urday. The Daily Advertiser was started by Wil- liams and Longwell in January, 1881. John M. Bur- rows bought the interest of Mr. Williams in 1883 and in January, 1885, the publication was discon- tinued. The Sunday Critic was started May 4, 1884, by Mrs. Sarah Pratt wife of W. D. Pratt, of the Journal. This paper was later sold to W. D. Owen and W. K. Landis, who discontinued it in a year or two. The Bon Ton was started by J. E. Sutton, who afterwards founded the Reporter, it appearing first as a weekly, in 1885. It was soon changed to a monthly ^ and was finally discontinued in 1886. The Times made its first appearance in March, 1886, as a weekly, I. N. Bell being the publisher. It was started as a Democratic paper and was con- tinued as such for a time. Mr. Bell sold the paper to James Hitchens and he in turn sold it to a stock company composed of leading Prohibitionists. T. C. Barnes became the editor at that time. C. O. Fenton shortly afterwards became the owner and 202 Pastime Sketches editor, and has continued as such ever since. \V. S. Rosier became assistant editor in 1905. The Zei- tung was published first on the 7th of October, 1882, by John Day, the present owner and pub- lisher. Prior to that a paper was printed in German at Fort Wayne with a Logansport date line. Later Julius C. Kloenne published a German paper for a time and another was edited by Michael Fornoff. These were short lived. The Sternenbanner was also published by Peter Walroth. The latest daily was established by J. E. Sutton in 1888. It was called the Reporter, and it had an office in Sixth street, between Broadway and North street, east side of the street. Its daily and weekly editions became popular and later it moved into its own building, 525 Broadway. After the death of Mr. Sutton, Mrs. Inez M. Sutton continued the publication of it, and it is still under her manage- ment. Other publications in the city and county were the Galveston News and the Royal Center Record. The Record was established by Dr. J. J. Burton and afterwards became the property of Oliver Hand, who still owns it. The Home Music Jour- nal was started in 1892, by \V. T. Giffe. It was, as its name implies, devoted to music. In 1903 it was consolidated with a similar publication at Dayton. Ohio, and appeared under a different name, Mr. Giffe selling his interest in it. The Saturday Night Review was published by Bert G. and Will R. Small in 1895. It was a weekly literary and society paper of merit but the city was not large enough to justify a publication of that character and it was discontinued. The Logansport publications have at all times Pastime Sketches 203 ranked high in the state and have been influential in public affairs. ORGANIZED LABOR IN LOGANSPORT — PAPER WRITTEN FOR THE CASS COUNTY, INDIANA, HISTORICAL SOCIETY BY W. S. WRIGHT. It is not possible to give the history of every organized movement in Logansport, nor in fact is such history needed to complete the few sketches here thrown together. Most, if not all, of the or- ganizations have their historians, and they have carefully prepared the data and in some instances have published it. There are some of these sketches in print, pamphlet form, at the Public Library and others may be obtained at the various organiza- tions. Other organizations have complete records for historical purposes and the information they contain is always at hand. One of the organizations having a marked influence on the welfare of the city is the Trades and Labor Assembly, devoted to the promoting of the best interests of the wage earners. The Trades and Labor Assembly was organized in Logansport sixteen years ago, in 1891. It was organized by O. P. Smith, State organizer, with Weldon Webster, president and Fred Bismarck, secretary, and was composed of the printers, Cigar- makers and retail clerks. At the close of 1892 al- most every craft in the city was organized and had representatives in the assembly, notably the paint- ers and designers, carpenters, bricklayers, coopers, tailors, barbers, bakers, bartenders, brewers, laun- dry workers, stationary firemen, laborers, teamsters and plasterers. The hall then was on the third floor on Fourth street, where the Turner barber shop 204 Pastime Sketches now is. In 1892 the Assembly started the agitation in favor of an Assembly Park which resulted in the present Riverside Park and Weldon Webster, its president, was nominated for mayor by the Repub- licans, being- defeated by less than 30 votes. The panic of 1893 stopped business generally and labor was not in great demand. This seriously affected the organization and many of them disbanded so that only the printers, cigarmakers and brewers re- mained in the Assembly. In 1904 an attempt was made to revive the Assembly with indifferent suc- cess and it continued with ups and downs until 1901. In that year it was reorganized with most of the crafts again represented and it is still active with only two of the building crafts not represented. It meets every two weeks. E. H. Laing is president, with O. P. Smith corresponding secretary and or- ganizer and Henry Tripps, financial secretary. Mrs. O. P. Smith is vice president, the second woman in the State to hold that position in an assembly. She represents the Woman's Union Label League in the Assembly. The mission of that league is to urge the placing of the LTnion Label on all manufactured goods or products and to increase the sale of Union made goods, education along the lines of labor, especially woman and child labor, to teach children Union principles, tend to the sick and serve as an auxiliary to other labor or- ganizations. Besides promoting the welfare of the members of their organization the Assembly was instrumen- tal in creating the park, now known as Riverside Park, and in giving Cass county a free gravel road system. In 1892 the Assembly took up the gravel road question, secured an election and had men at Pastime Sketches 205 the polls working in every precinct for free gravel roads, carrying the election and abolishing tolls. A request for information on the usbject of Riv- edside Park brought the following letter from Mr. Weldon Webster who suggested the park and did much to establish it : Dear Sir : If you desire any statistics concern- ing the origin and final realization of Riverside Park, (Assembly Park), I can furnish this to you. However, briefly you will find in local records all you desire, I presume. The plan was projected by me before the Trades and Labor Assembly of Logansport September, 1890, at which time I dis- played a full sketch of the design proposed, which was afterwards carefully followed in my contract with the city of Logansport. I brought my matters before the city council that same fall, being accom- panied by a committee from the Trades Assembly. Our project was not kindly received, and Mayor Cullen proposed shortly after this to sell a tier of lots off the alley side of the ground and use the money thus realized to beautify and improve the remainder of the ground: The council thought this wise, but having met with steady and deter- mined opposition from those who had the Webster plans before them, the administration then in power finally abandoned their scheme to sell the ground. I and my committee kept up the agitation through help of the local press, especially the Logansport Journal, and would not allow the sentiment once enkindled to weaken the least until the following fall, viz., 1891. Finally on Dec. 16th, 1891 the con- tract for the building of "Assembly Park" was awarded to me. I completed the work and the park was dedicated in splendor July, 1893, by a 206 Pastime Sketches Fourth of July celebration, boat racing and fire- works and at this time the people turned out and came in great numbers to take possession in due form. 1 have a copy of the old subscription book to- gether with the photo half-tone made from my sketch of the plans at that time. 1 will forward it in the near future to the Cass County Historical Society. The project first rested upon this sub- scription, but the subscription money was never used in any part whatsoever. The city built the park from her own resources, unaided by private funds. This was as it should have been. The plans included the buying of Horney Creek basin to the edge of the corporate limits and conversion of these grounds into a public resort, by placing a dam across Horney Creek and conveying the water to the point once used by the old Cecil Mills, where I proposed to release it over a cascade built in the cliff, from whence it would be directed in winding ways through the meadow to its original course. I am yet of the opinion that this should be done, and will speak to the people about this early plan some day : for I retain a deep love for my old town. Most Sincerely and Respectfully, WELDON WEBSTER. The records are still preserved of the Potta- watomie Club, and other social organizations. The Dramatic Club and Country Club have their his- torians as do also the school and church societies and fraternities. The official reports of the charit- able organizations furnish a complete history of this noble work and the reports will go down in Pastime Sketches 207 history in the anchives of the Historical Society. Among these the St. Joseph Hospital, the Orphans' Home and the Home for the Friendless are noted for the good work accomplished. One of the pur- poses of the Historical Society is to collect and pre- serve the detail history of these organizations and it will be preserved. A BRIEF SKETCH OF GENERAL CASS While it is generally known that Cass county is named after the Michigan General and Governor of that name, many do not know how much he had to do with extinguishing the Indian titles to land in this State and opening the lands to white settlement. Of forty-two treaties by which the Indians at different times made concessions of land in Indiana, General Cass assisted in negotiating nine. These were with several different tribes and covered a period of about ten years, from 1818 to 1828. One of them was negotiated and signed at Maumee Rapids, O.. in 1817; four at St. Mary's, O., in 1818; one at Chicago, in 1821 ; two near the mouth of the Mississinewa in 1826, and one at Mission, on the St. Joseph, in the same year. The process of extinguishing the Indian titles to lands in Indiana occupied nearly fifty years, begin- ning with the treaty at Greenville, negotiated by General Wayne, in 1795, and ending with that of Forks of Wabash, negotiated by Samuel Milroy and Allen Hamilton, in 1840. The policy of making treaties with the Indians as independent tribes for the possession of their lands began immediately after the adoption of the 208 Pastime Sketches constitution and continued till 1871. To this extent therefore, the Government recognized the Indian tribes as foreign nations, making treaties with them which were ratified by the Senate, the same as treaties with foreign governments. No doubt this was better than seizing the lands by force and ap- propriating them without any pretense of negotia- tion, though the whole proceeding was really one of force. As the Indians were practically subjugated from the beginning and destined to extermination or re- moval to reservations, making treaties with them was rather a farcical procedure, yet, no doubt, it was the best method of extinguishing their title to lands. As the tribes, North and South, were numerous, it required a great many treaties to complete the pro- cess of extinguishing title. From the foundation of the Government to 1837 the Government concluded 349 treaties with fifty- four different tribes, and many after that. Of the Indians who originally occupied portions of Indiana eleven different treaties were negotiated at different times with the Kickapoos, eight with the Weas, six- teen with the Delawares, ten with the Miamis and thirty-eight with the Pottawattomies. Most of these treaties included a cession of more or less land, so it will be seen the process of extin- guishing Indian title was a kind of parting off and whittling down process. On the whole, however, it was accomplished, as far as Indiana is concerned, with very little bloodshed, compared with what might have been in a struggle for the possession of so vast and valuable a territory had the Indians been united and determined. The treaties by which they relinquished their Pastime Sketches 209 rights and ceded their lands usually contained pro- visions for the payment of a lump sum of money to the tribe, for the payment of annuities to the chiefs and the promise of various articles, such as rifles, hoes, kettles, blankets and tobacco to each Indian who should move to the new reservation. Provis- ion was also generally made for their transporta- tion. The consideration named in some of the treaties for their cessions of land, what might be called the purchase money, was ridiculously small compared with its real value. The treaties were generally preceded by smooth and specious talks by the white commissioners rep- resenting the urgent needs of the whites, the ad- vantages to the Indians of a change, etc. General Cass' address to the Miami and Pottawatomie Indians at Mississinewa is preserved and is a sam- ple. This treaty was made October 16, 1826, the other two commissioners besides Cass being James B. Ray and John Tipton. General Cass began by thanking the Great Spirit for having granted them good weather and brought them all to the council house in safety. He contin- ued : ''When the Great Spirit placed you upon this island (the Indians called this continent an island) he gave you plenty of game for food and clothing and bows and arrows with which to kill it. After some time it became difficult to kill the game and the Great Spirit sent the white men here, who supplied you with powder and ball and with blank- ets and clothes. We were then a very small people, but we have greatly increased and we are now over the whole face of the country. You have decreased and your numbers are now much reduced. You have but little game, and it is difficult for you to 210 Pastime Sketches support your women and children by hunting-. Your Great Father, whose eyes survey the whole country, sees that you have a large tract of land here which is of no service to you ; you do not cul- tivate it. and there is but little game upon it. The buffalo has long since left it and the deer are going. There are no beaver and there will soon be no other animals worth hunting upon it. "There are a great many of the white children of vour Great Father who would be glad to live on this land. They would build houses and raise corn and cattle and hogs. You know when a family grows up and becomes large, they must leave their father's house and look for a place for themselves. So it is with your white brethern ; their family is in- creasing and they must find some new place to move to. Your Great Father is willing to give for this land much more than it is worth to you. He is willing to give more than all the game upon it would sell for. You know well that all he promises he will perform." The speaker then pointed out how much happier the Indian would be far away from the whites, where there would be no danger of collisions, and especially where it would not be so easy for their young men to obtain whiskey. He continued. "Your Great Father owns a large country west of the Mississippi river. He is anxious that all his red children should remove there and settle down in peace together; then they can hunt and provide well for their women and children and once more become a happy people. We are authorized to offer you a residence there, equal in extent to your lands here, and to pay you an annuity which will make you comfortable, and to provide the means of Pastime Sketches 211 your removal. You will then have a country abounding with game, and you will also have the value of the country you leave, and you will be be- yond the reach of whisky, for it can not reach you there. Your Great Father will not suffer his white children to reside there, for it is reserved, for the red people; it will be yours as long as the sun shines and the rain falls. You must go before long; you can not remain here, you must remove or perish. "Now is the time to make a good bargain for yourselves which will make you rich and comfort- able. Come forward, then, like wise men and ac- cept the terms we offer." The Indians must have been rather disgusted by the pretended anxiety of their Great Father at Washington for their welfare. However, they signed the treaty. Under it they were removed first to a reservation in Kansas which General Cass had assured them "will be yours as long as the sun shines and the rain falls." But their Great Father changed his mind, and later they were removed to the Indian Territory. Between 1817 and 1831 General Cass had assist- ed in concluding treaties with different tribes of In- dians by which cessions of land were acquired in Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan and Wisconsin, to an amount equal to nearly one-fourth of the en- tire area of those states. There is a Cass county in Michigan, Illinois, Minnesoto, Nebraska and North Dakota. His public services as superintendent of Indian affairs, secretary of war and other important offices made him very popular, and in 1844 he came very near being nominated for president by the Democratic national convention. On the first day of the convention he ran up 212 Pastime Sketches from 83 on the first ballot to 114 on the eigth, and if another ballot had been taken on that day he would have been nominated. The next morning James K. Polk was sprung as a "dark horse" candidate and nominated on the first ballot. In 1848 he was nom- inated, but was defeated by General Taylor. The Democracy of Indiana were for him from the begin- ning and in 1848 he received the electoral vote of the state. Pastime Sketches 213 ADDENDA AUTHORS, ARTISTS, ACTORS AND FINANCIERS WHO HAVE CONTRIBUTED TO THE FAME OF THE "MOUTH OF EEL." A brief paper on the authors, artists and actors of a community who attain more than local fame in literature, art, music and drama must of necessity be merely suggestive. It can be neither analytical, not critical. It is only possible to give data, and leave the study of the subject to the student who desires a more extended knowledge. In every com- munity is the minister who writes volumes in his tireless life, the editor who has perhaps written sev- eral thousand columns of editorial, the lawyer with his voluminous briefs and the judge, whose written opinions add to the fund of legal lore. Logansport has contributed to the higher courts of the State Judge Horace P. Biddle, Judge W. Z. Stuart and Judge G. E. Ross and to the United States Court Judge Kenesaw M. Landis. Judge D. P. Baldwin was Attorney General of the State. Their opinions are to be found in the published reports. The State and National reports contain the speeches of Sen- ators and Congressmen, State Senators and Rep- resentatives. Logansport citizens have appeared upon the lecture platform also, and some of them 214 Pastime Sketches have done themselves credit in contributions to newspapers and magazines. All this is part of local history in a way and as such is worthy of study from a local standpoint. But it is not the purpose of this sketch to classify, nor to compile a complete roll of honor, but rather to offer a few suggestions for information and reference. The literature of a community is always interesting regardless of the measure of fame accorded by the world at large. And the humble efforts of the first poet of the Wa- bash, who could neither read nor write, will de- serve mention here. Of the landscape painters George Winter was the pioneer. A sketch of his work appears in an- other chapter. Margaret MacDonald succeeded him. Mary MacDonald, her sister, attained equal fame in caricature. Both were born at Camden, Indiana, a dozen miles away, but made Logansport their home. Margaret MacDonald studied art in New York City and opened a studio in Logansport. Many of her best oil paintings are of Indiana scen- ery. After her marriage to Mr. Pullman of Chicago she made that city her home. She was president of the Palette Club of Chicago and was one of the lead- ing artists of Chicago. In 1889 she published "Days Serene," copies of her best paintings, and in 1891, "Smnmerland," another art book of copies. She died in 1892 at John Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, where she had gone for medical treatment. Mary MacDonald excelled in her chosen work. Her etch- ings appeared in Harper's Monthly, and other mag- azines, but she survived her sister only five years. dying in the same hospital. Max Keppler, a Logansport boy, attained Na- tional fame as a caricaturist in Puck, Harper's, and Pastime Sketches 215 other magazines. Among others whose fame is more than local are Mrs. DeKops-Downey, Wils Berry and Miss Kate White. A sketch from mem- ory has its defects and there may be others. In the world of Science there are men equally famous. Judge H. P. Biddle's treatise on the science of music was translated into German and used as a text-book in German Universities. Dr. Robert Hessler's treatises have had a similar ex- perience in Japan. Dr. John M. Coulter, who colla- borated with Prof. Stanley M. Coulter, now of Pur- due University, both of Logansport, afterwards en- gaged in similar work with President Jordan of Leland Stanford University of California, and is the recognized botanical authority of the world. Dr. Barton W. Everman as a boy hauled grain to Lo- gansport from the farm south of Logansport, near Burlington. He is at the head of the fish culture department of the National government at Wash- ington which is stocking the ponds and streams of the country with suitable spawn and supplying the nation with a considerable part of its food supply. Prof. L. L. Forman is the head professor in lan- guages at Cornell University, Ithica, N. Y. After attaining fame in music he devoted his life to the languages with equal success. Rev. L. A. Alford was a man little known on account of his simple life. He had conferred upon him many degrees, D. D.. L. L. D., and others. He was a Baptist min- ister, a publisher and an author of note. He learned the printer's trade at Adrian, Mich., published the Sunday Visitor at Hillsdale, Mich., and later the Elkhart Herald, at Elkhart, Jnd. While at Elkhart he built a Baptist church building at an expense of five thousand dollars and donated it to the church 216 Pastime Sketches organization. He was elected president of the Eclectical Medical College of St. Louis and was vice-president of the Medical Association of the United States and also of the State Medical Asso- ciation. He was the organizer of the Anthropo- logical University of St. Louis and received many honorary titles also a gold medal and the title of Ph. D. from the Society of Science, Letters and Arts of London, England, of which he was a mem- ber. He wrote his greatest works in Logansport. "The Masonic Gem," ''Great Atonement Illus- trated," "Mystic Numbers of the Word," "Biblical Chart of Man," "The War in Heaven," and "Trip to the Skies." John B. Dillon, as a State historian, is an author- ity, as is also W. W. Thornton, as a writer of law text-books. Thomas B. Helm and P. A. Berry in local history displayed ability worthy of a larger field. Miss Abbie Fitch, and Mrs. Laura Fitch McQuiston wrote entertainingly in the magazines on life in China. In literature, besides these, there are many works of merit. Judge Horace P. Biddle published two or three volumes of poems. Some of his pub- lications are "American Boyhood," "A Few Poems." "Glances at the World." There is a volume of poems by A. Jones and another by Albert Allen. Mrs. S. E. Henderson wrote "Jelard," a novel, and Weldon Webster wrote "The Mystery of Louise Pollard." "Outlaws, a Story of the Building of the Wabash and Erie Canal" was written by Leroy Armstrong and published by D. Appleton & Co., in 1891. "Words of Comfort" was by Wesley E. Walls. J. E. Sutton wrote a book of travels, and T. H. McKee, "The National Platforms of All Po- Pastime Sketches 217 litical Parties," and other reference works. W. D. Owen wrote "A Century of Progress" and E. S. Huntington, under the name of Edwin Stanton, wrote "The Dreams of the Dead." Capt. Hunting- ton was a regular army officer, son-in-law of Sena- tor D. D. Pratt and, in later life, a resident of Bos- ton. "The Riverton Minister," is a novel by Rev. Martin Post, son of Dr. M. M. Post, one of the pio- neer ministers at Logansport. The scene is laid at Logansport which is "Riverton." Charles T. Denby of Evansville, who married the daughter of U. S. Senator Graham N. Fitch and who spent much of his time in Logansport was Minister to China and wrote a volume on China. Perry S. Heath, a com- positor in the Pharos office, was First Assistant Postmaster-General and wrote a number of sketches as a newspaper man. In the world of music there are several pieces of sheet music and a text book on Harmony by W. T. Giffe who also published a journal of music. Thomas D. Goodwin has at- tained fame as the composer of words for music and there are a half dozen or more of his songs. R. J. Powell was a composer of popular band music. David E. Bryer published a pamphlet of campaign songs in the Blaine and Logan campaign of 1884 which attracted more than state notice. It is a notable fact that two of the great historians of the State, John B. Dillon and W. H. Smith, were Lo- gansport citizens. Paul Dresser's song, "On the Banks of the Wabash" has local significance, though he lived at Terre Haute. Nor should be overlooked the magazine poems of Mrs. Sarah S. Pratt, George W. Stout and William M. Elliott and the magazine articles of Ella Higgins and Eva Peters Reynolds. In the histrionic field Walker 218 Pastime Sketches Whiteside, as an interpreter of Shakespeare, and Edna Goodrich, stand first. Enion Kendall will prove entertaining to the readers of his poems. Without education, a wood sawyer by occupation, he showed a remarkable mind, considering his advantages. And though he was compelled to rely upon his friends, to whom he dictated his poetry, and who made him send his "Eliza Allen" to Mexico "in three parts" his poems display a remarkable imagination. He was vol- uminous and succeeded in making his poetry profit- able, which can not be said of all poets. His muse sung in ante-bellum days, and since Judge Biddle has included hisprinted poems in his bound copies of miscellany it is evident that he has found a place in history. His philosophy while not profound was practical. And in his effort to maintain himself by literary effort without being able to read or write he showed a lofty ambition. In truth this curiosity of literature deserves a place in local history. There are two books in the library of local in- terest, besides the histories of the State, which of course cover local history, the State Gazetter pub- lished by J. II. Colton under the title of "Indiana Delineated, Geographical, Historical, Statistical and Commercial ;" also a history of the Indian fort, Fort Wayne, which gives the best description of the habits and customs of the Indians of the Wa- bash valley. There is also a set of bound mis- cellany, one hundred and two volumes, part of the Biddle library, and also pamphlets of church his- tory, as follows: "History of the First Presbyterian Church," '•History of the Market Street M. E. Church," and "History of the Broadway M. E. Church." Mr. E. S. Rice is compiling a history of Pastime Sketches 219 the Baptist Church. In the Biddle miscellany the following numbers are of local interest. Speeches of Graham N. Fitch, volumes 8 and 29; "Retrospect after Thirty Years," volume 68, "Thanksgiving ser- mon," volume 22, Rev. M. M. Post ; "A Lawyer's Readings in the Evidences of Christianity" and "In- diana, Her Growth," volumes 53 and 57, D. P. Bald- win ; "Complete Description of Logansport," C. Col- lins, volume 73; "Logansport, Ind.," volume 97; "Centennial speeches of Williamson Wright and Horace P. Biddle, 1876," volume 75. Another book- let printed by Longwell & Cummings in 1892 is entitled "Fifty Years," edited and published by James T. Bryer. It contains a list of the "Golden Jubilee Residents," citizens who had lived in the county fifty years, a tribute to the pioneers, a his- tory of the city and county, and a sketch of the pioneers by Horace P. Biddle. In these hints should be included "A Century of Gossip," by Willard G. Nash, and two books by Dr. Charles H. McCully, "The Chemistry of Embalm- ing," 1899, and "Sanitation and Disinfection," 1906. Dr. N. W. Cady has written some fiction. Dr. J. Z. Powell falls into rhyme at times. The articles on early clays in the files of the newspapers are interesting, contributed by Senator D. D. Pratt, Judge Horace P. Biddle, Charles B. Laselle, S. L. McFadin and others. There are gov- ernment reports of local interest at least because made by local men, by D. D. Pratt, Commissioner of Internal Revenue, W. D. Owen, Commissioner of Immigration, David M. Dunn, Consul to Prince Ed- wards Island and H. Z. Leonard and W. H. Jacks, Consuls to London, Ontario. Miss Mabel Justice under the nom-de-plume of 220 Pastime Sketches Paul Savage, "The Confessions of a Worldly Wo- man" and other novels, and has contributed to many magazines and Sunday newspapers. Clarence Ben- nett, under the name of Richard Bennett, is one of Frohman's leading men on the stage. Col. T. H. Bringhurst and Capt. Frank Swigart wrote a history of the Forty-sixth Indiana Regiment, pronounced by the War Department at Washington the best of the regimental histories. Of the financiers Logansport has produced many who use seven figures to describe their wealth. There are a half dozen or more millionaires who at one time called Logansport their home. And so it would seem that in war, art, music, literature, statesmanship and finance the "mouth of Eel" is equally celebrated.